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Full text of "The numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society"

1 



THE 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 



JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 






/TEST) 

NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 

'" / 

I AND 

^JOURNAL 

OF THE 

(NUMISMATIC SOCIETY.) 

EDITED BY 

SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., F.B.S., V.P.S.A., 

CORRBSPONDANT DB I/INSTITUT DF FRANCE, 

BARCLAY V. HEAD, D.C.L., PH.D., 

KKBPKK OF COINS, BRITISH MUSEUM, 

MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL (HERMAN AROH.KOLOGICAL INSTITnTK, 
HON. MEMBKIt OP THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF VIENNA, 

HERBERT A. GRUEBER, F.S.A., 

ASSISTANT-KEEPER OF COINS, BRITISH HC8KUH, 
AND 

EDWARD J. RAPSON, M.A., M.R.A.S. 



FOURTH SERIES. VOL. II. 




Factuui abiit monumenta maneiit. Ov. Favt. 

LONDON : 
BERNARD QUARITCH, 15, PICCADILLY. 

PARIS : MM. ROLLIN ET FEU ARDENT, PLACE LOUVOIS, No. 4. 

1902. 



v. 2, 



LONDON : 

PRI.NTKD BY H. VIRTUP AND COMFANY, LIMIT1B, 
CITY ROAD. 



CONTEXTS. 



ANCIENT NUMISMATICS. 

Page 
Some Pontic Eras. By Theodore Eeinach .... 1 

Note on a Gold Coin of Addedomaros. By Sir John Evans, 

K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., V.P.S.A 11 

A Note on Some Coins generally attributed to Mazaios, the 
Satrap of Cilicia and Syria. By Sir Henry Howorth, 
KC.I.E.,F.E.S.,F.S.A 81 

The Burning of Bonds under Hadrian. By Sir John Evans, 

K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., V.P.S.A 88 

Classification Chronologique des Emissions Monetaires de 
1'Atelier d'Alexandrie pendant la Periode Constantin- 
ienne. By Jules Maurice . 92 

The Coinage of Tigranes I. By George Macdonald, M.A. . 193 

Greek Coins acquired by the British Museum in 1901. By 

Warwick Wroth 313 

On Some Rare or Unpublished Roman Coins. By Sir John 

Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., V.P.S.A. . .... 345 



VI CONTENTS. 

MEDIEVAL AND MODERN NUMISMATICS. 

Page 
Bedwin and Marlborough and the Moneyer Cilda. By P. 

Carlyon-Britton, F.S.A 20 

On a Rare Sterling of Henry, Earl of Northumberland. By 

P. Carlyon-Britton, F.S.A 26 

A Find of Silver Coins of Edward IV Henry VIH. By L. 

A. Lawrence 34 

Tiinotheus Refatus of Mantua and the Medallist " T. R." By 

G. F. Hill, M.A 55 

Treasure-Trove, its Ancient and Modern Laws. By A. 

Blanchet and H. A. Grueber, F.S.A 148 

Some Remarks on the Last Silver Coinage of Edward III. 

By Fredk. A. Walters, F.S.A. 176 

The Cross and Pall on the Coins of JElfred the Great. By 

Sir John Evans, KC.B., D.O.L., F.R.S., V.P.S.A. . . 202 

On the Coins of William I and II, and the Sequence of the 

Types. By P. Carlyon-Britton, F.S.A. . . . .208 

The Silver Coinage of the Reign of Henry VI. By Fredk. A. 

Walters, F.S.A 224 

Some Coins of Eadgar and Henry VI. By H. A. Grueber, 

F.S.A 364 

Notes on " A Numismatic History of the Reign of Henry I " 

by W. J. Andrew. By C. G. Crump and C. Johnson . 372 

Some Unpublished Seventeenth- Century Tokens. By Rev. 

W. G. Searle, M.A 378 



ORIENTAL NUMISMATICS. 

Some Notes on the Coins struck at Omdurman by the Mahdi 

and the Khalifa. By Samuel Smith, Jun. ... 62 

Some Rare Oriental Coins. By Oliver Codrington, M.D., 

F.S.A 267 

Some Coins of the Mughal Emperors. By M. Longworth 

Dames, M.R.A.S 275 



CONTENTS. VU 

MISCELLANEA. 

Page 

Three Lead Tickets of the Eighteenth Century . . .74 

Gold Coins of the Muwahhids 77 

Some Pontic Eras. Correction 184 

Two Hoards of Koman Coins (Beachy Head and Easton, 

Norfolk) 185 

Find of Roman Coins near Caistor, Norfolk . . . .186 
Unpublished Stycas of Aelfwald I and Aethelred I . .310 
A Unique Naval Reward, "The Breton Medal" . . .311 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 

Catalogue of Greek Coins in the Hunterian Collection, 
University of Glasgow. Vol. ii. By George Macdonald, 
M.A 188 

Traite des Monnaies grecques et romaines. Part i, vol. i. By 

Ernest Babelon 189 

Greek Coins and their Parent Cities. By John Ward, F.S.A., 

and G. F. Hill, M.A. . 191 



Vlll PLATES. 



LIST OF PLATES CONTAINED IN VOL. II. 

Plates. 

I. Medals by Eefatus of Mantua. 

II. Medals by " T. R." 
III., IV. Coins struck at Omdurman. 
V., VI. Monnaies d'Alexandrie. 

VII. Later Silver Coins of Edward III. 
VIII. XI. Silver Coinage of Henry VI. 

XII. Coins of the Khalifs. 
Xin., XIV. Coins of the Mughal Emperors. 
XV. XVII. Greek Coins acquired by the British Museum in 

1901. 
XVIII., XIX. Rare or Unpublished Roman Coins. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUMISMATIC 
SOCIETY. 



SESSION 19011902. 

OCTOBER 17, 1901. 

SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., F.R.S., V.P.S. A., 
F.G.S., President, in the Chair. 

Charles A. Waiters, Esq., was elected, and Horace Lambert, 
Esq., was proposed a Member of the Society. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. La Gazette Numismatique. Nos. 8-9, 1901. 

2. Bulletin de Numismatique, Avril Juillet, 1901. 

3. Aarboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historic. Bind 
xv. Heft 4. 

4. American Journal of Archaeology. Vol. v. Nos. 1-2. 

5. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
Nos. 214218. 

6. Le Nimbe et les Signes de 1'Apotheose sur les Monnaies 
des Bois Indo-Scythes. By E. Drouin. From the Author. 

7. Bulletin de la Societe des Antiquaires de 1'Ouest. l re et 
2 me trim., 1901. 

8. Revue Numismatique. 2 m *et 3 me trim., 1901. 



;; PROCEEDINGS or THE 

9. Revile Beige de Nnmismatique. 8 me et 4 m * trim., 1901. 

10. Bulletin Ilistorique de la Societe des Antiquaires de la 
Morinie. Livr. 198. 

11. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Vol. xxxi. Pts. 2-8. 

12. Deux Monnaies Luxembourgeoises inedites. By 
"Vicomte B. de Jonghe. From the Author. 

18. Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. Vol. xxxi. 
Pts. 811. 

14. Rivista Italiana di Numismatica. Fasc. 2-3, 1901. 

15. Appunti di Numismatica Alessandrina. By G. Dattari. 
From the Author. 

16. Archaeologia Aeliana. Vol. xxiii. Pt 1. 

17. Zeitschrift filr Numismatik. Band xxiii. Heft 1-2. 
IS. Report of the Government Museum, Madras. 1900-1901. 

19. Smithsonian Institution. Annual Beports for 1898, 
1899 ; and Museum Report, 1897 (Pt. 2) and 1899. 

20. Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal. Vol. iii. 

21. Catalogue of the Chateau Ramezay Museum and Portrait 
Gallery. By T. O'Leary. From the Author. 

Mr. William Ransom exhibited two ancient British copper 
coins found near Sandy, Bedfordshire. One piece was of 
Verulamium and the other of Cunobelinus. 

Mr. H. Hancox showed an Irish silver coin imitated from the 
"canopy" type of William the Conqueror, but having on the 
reverse three human hands and arms instead of a cross fleury. 
It is of an unpublished type. 

Mr. L. A. Lawrence also showed some Irish pieces imitated 
from coins of Harold II, William I, and Henry I, and a series 
of nobles of Henry IV, V, and VI, and Edward IV, all the 
coins being from his collection. 

Mr. Stewart A. McDowall exhibited a Durham penny of 
Edward III, struck between A.D. 1851 and 1860, and having 
on the obverse the mint-mark, a crown, and on the reverse one 
limb of the cross in the form of a crozier. The mint-mark 






NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. O 

crown being also found on London groats, half-groats, and 
pennies of the same time, it is possible that a London obverse 
die had been used with a Durham reverse. 

Mr. Thomas Bliss showed a series of crowns of Charles I 
struck at the Tower Mint and at Exeter, and also a pattern 
crown by Briot having on the obverse the shields of England, 
Scotland, Ireland, and France arranged crosswise, and on the 
reverse the king on horseback. 

Sir John Evans read a paper on a gold coin of the British 
chief Addedomaros, which was recently found near a footpath 
leading from Tring to Drayton Beauchamp, on the boundary of 
the counties of Herts and Bucks. The coin is of the usual type, 
having crescents, pellets, and other ornaments on one side, and 
on the other a prancing horse and the legend ADDEDOM 
(AEOS). The paper is printed in Vol. ii., p. 11. 

Dr. Philip Nelson communicated a paper on William Wood 
and his coinages. After giving a somewhat detailed account of 
Wood, his patents for coinages, and his transactions with the 
Government, Dr. Nelson described the various specimens of his 
money for Ireland, and those for America, which latter are 
known as the " Rosa Americana pieces." Both series extended 
from 1722 to 1724. 



NOVEMBER 21, 1901. 

SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., President, in the Chair. 
Horace Lambert, Esq., was elected a Member of the Society. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Numi Augg. Alexandrini. By Gr. Dattari. From the 
Author, to whom special thank* were ordered to be returned. 

2. Proceedings and Papers of the American Numismatic and 
Archaeological Society of New York, 1901. 



4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

8. American Journal of Archaeology. Vol. v. No. 3. 

4. Les Portraits de Sappho sur les Mounaica. By L. 
Forrer. From the Author. 

6. A Swiss Medallist : Hans Frei. By L. Forrer. From 
the Author. 

6. Journal of Hellenic Studies. Part II., 1901. 

7. Academic Royale de Belgique. Bulletin, 1899-1900; and 
Annuaire, 1900-1901. 

8. Du Dcchiffrement des Monnaies Sindo-Ephthalites. By 
Edouard Specht. From the Author. 

9. Bulletin de la Societc des Antiquaires de Normandie. 
June 21. 

10. Kong. Vitterhets Historic och Antiquitets Academiens 
Manadsblad. 1899. 

11. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 219. 

12. The Medals of British Freemasonry. By G. L. Shackles. 
From the Author. 

13. Medal struck to commemorate the raising and equip- 
ment of the City of London Imperial Volunteers. From the 
Corporation of the City of London. 

The President exhibited six aurei of Faustina senior, the 
wife of Antoninus Pius, which were remarkable for their excel- 
lence of work and preservation. 

Mr. W. C. Boyd showed a penny of Eadgar with the 
moneyer's name WERSTAN having a rosette of dots on each 
side, as B. M. Cat., vol. ii., type iv. Mr. Boyd had previously 
shown another coin of the same king and moneyer on another 
occasion, but of type i. var. d. (see Num. Chron., 1900, 
p. 269). 

Mr. L. A. Lawrence exhibited some pennies of Stephen and 
Matilda, Eustace and Robert of Gloucester, together with four 
forgeries of the same. 

Mr. A. B. Caldecott showed a pattern gold crown of Edward 
VI of doubtful authenticity. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. O 

Mr. F. A. Walters exhibited a York penny of Henry VI of 
the annulet coinage. 

Mr. L. Forrer showed specimens of the latest work of the 
artist Hans Frei, of Basle. 

Mr. P. Carlyon-Britton read a paper on "A rare sterling of 
Henry, Earl of Northumberland" found about twenty years 
ago at Brough-under-Stainmore (the Roman Veterae), in West- 
moreland. The obverse bears a profile bust to right and 
sceptre and the legend 4-HENRICVS COM, and the reverse a 
cross fleury and around -frWILELM ON CARD (i.e. Carlisle). 
This paper is printed in vol. ii., p. 26. 

Mr. M. Longworth Dames read a paper on " Some Coins of 
the Mughal Emperors," in which he sketched the progress that 
has been made in this branch of Indian Numismatics since the 
appearance of the B. M. Cat. in 1893, and described a number 
of new mints and dates afforded by specimens in his own 
collection. 



DECEMBER 19, 1901. 
SIB JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., President, in the Chair. 

Horace Lambert, Esq., was admitted a Member of the 
Society. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Les Monnaies d'or de Tarente : Suite et Fin. ByP.Vlasto. 
From the Author. 

2. Kong. Vitterhets Historic och Antiquitets Academiens 
Manadsblad. 1900. 

3. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 220. 

4. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Vol. vi. NOB. 
2 and 3. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

6. Bonner Jahrliicher. Heft 107. 

6. Atene. By Solone Ambrosoli. From the Author. 

7. La Labyrinthe de Knossos. By L. Forrer. From the 
Author. 

8. Ancient Greek Coins. Parts I IV. By F. S. Benson. 
From the Author. 

9. Revue Suisse de Numismatiqne. Tome x. 2 nd livr. 

10. Greek Coins in the Hunterian Collection. Part 2. 
By G. Macdonald, M.A. From the Trustees. 

11. La Gazette Numismatique. Nov. 1901. 

12. Bulletin de Numismatique. Sept. Nov., 1901. 

13. Bulletin Historique de la Societe des Antiquaires de la 
Morinie. Livr. 199. 

14. Eevue Numismatique. 4 me trim., 1901. 

Mr. R. A. Hoblyn exhibited an unpublished copper pattern 
farthing of William and Mary of the usual type, but having a 
ring of brass let into the reverse, upon which the inscription and 
date, 1692, are struck. 

Capt. R. J. H. Douglas exhibited a cast of a small British 
gold coin, apparently the quarter of the piece reading VO-CORI 
(Evans, PL I. 6.). 

Mr. N. E. Barnsley showed a gold coin of Boduoc (Evans, 
PL I. 2) recently found at Sapperton, in Gloucestershire, and 
an aureus of Antonia with reverse legend SACERDOS DIVI 
AVGVSTI (Cohen, 4), found at Pinbury, near Cirencester. 

Mr. F. W. Yeates exhibited three lead admission tickets of 
the Glasgow Assembly, 1732 ; the Pantheon Gardens, Spa 
Fields, Clerkenwell, May 3rd, 1772 ; and Mr. Cox's Museum, 
1778. See Miscellanea, vol. ii. p. 74. . 

Mr. Augustus Prevost showed eight medalets of the Royal 
Family, evidently issued about 1850. 

Mr. L. A. Lawrence exhibited the dies of the reverse of a 
short-cross penny of London and of the reverse of a shilling of 
James I respectively. These dies were found in the South wark 
Bridge Road. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. ( 

The President read a paper on "The Cross and Pall on the 
Coins of Alfred the Great." On two types of Alfred, the obverse 
inscription is so divided as to leave a vacant space, in the one 
case cruciform, in the other of the shape of a tribrach. It is 
suggested that these vacant spaces indicate a cross and a pall 
respectively. The pall would seem to be connected with the 
Canterbury mint. Sir John Evans suggested that this cryptic 
use of cross and pall may have been due to the fact that Alfred 
had to make large payments of money to the heathen Danes. 

Mr. W. J. Andrew communicated a paper on " Some Eccle- 
siastical Mints in the Reign of Henry I." The mints chosen 
for consideration were those of Peterborough and Beading, and 
Mr. Andrew gave an account of the history of these from their 
foundation (the former in the reign of Eadgar, and the latter 
in the reign of Aethelred II) down to the time of Henry I. This 
paper is printed in vol. i. 



JANUAKY 16, 1902. 

SIR HENRY H. HOWORTH, K.C.I.E., F.B.S., Vice-President, 
in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Catalogue of Scottish coins in the National Museum, 
Edinburgh. By A. B. Bichardson. From the Author. 

2. Note on a Medal struck in steel. By B. H. Brough. 
From the President, Sir John Evans, K.C.B. 

3. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 221. 

4. Bevue Beige de Numismatique. l re livr., 1902. 

5. Foreningen til Norske Fortidsmindesmerkers Bevaring. 
Aarsberetning for 1901. From the Society. 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

6. The Numismatic Circular for 1901. From Messrs. Spink 
and Son. 

7. Transactions of the Japan Society. Vol. v., 1900. 

8. A Skeleton Catalogue of Australian copper Tokens. By 
M. H. Long. From the Author. 

9. American Journal of Archaeology. Vol. v., No. 4 and 
Supplement. 

10. Bulletin de la Socie'te' des Antiquaires de 1' Quest. 8 m * 
trim., 1901. 

11. Sceau-Matrice d'Ernest de Merode. By the Vicomte 
B. de Jonghe. From the Author. 

12. Bulletin de Numismatique. December, 1901. 

Mr. W. J. Hocking exhibited specimens of the new 
coinage, the sovereign and penny, with the portrait of King 
Edward VII. 

Mr. T. Bliss exhibited some half-crowns of Charles I struck 
at Chester, York, and Weymouth ; also an Irish " Black- 
smith's " half-crown and a pewter crown of Charles II, dated 
1673, the last being a proof. 

Dr. Codrington showed a dinar of the Abbaside Khalif El- 
Radi, dated A.M. 825, and struck at Mecca, only two other 
specimens (both imperfect) being known of the coins of this 
mint. 

Mr. F. A. Walters showed a hammered groat and half-groat 
of Elizabeth with the mint-mark a lis, which, on account of their 
similarity of work to the groats of Mary, he attributed to 
Elizabeth's first year, 1558, and not, as hitherto, to her third 
year, 1560. 

Mr. A. E. Copp exhibited a Gaulish stater, with human head 
on the obverse and an androcephalous horse on the reverse, 
recently found in Wiltshire ; this coin was struck in North- 
East France. 

Mr. W. Webster exhibited on behalf of Major H. W. Morrie- 
son a specimen of Chinese " boat-money," perhaps the largest 
specimen known. It weighs 59 oz. troy, and represents in 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 9 

value 50 taels, or 8 8s. English. It bears the date 1890, and 
was cast in the city of Jang-yang-hsien. 

Sir H. Ho worth read a paper on " Some coins generally 
attributed to Mazaios, Satrap of Cilicia and Syria." Of the 
coins recently attributed to Mazaios there are two series : one 
with his name in Aramaic characters, the other without his 
name, but bearing in Greek letters the initials of the cities in 
which they were struck. Sir H. Howorth suggested that the 
latter series was struck by Alexander the Great after the death 
of Mazaios, and that it thus forms the connecting link between 
the coinage of Mazaios and his own bearing the head of young 
Heracles on the obverse, and Zeus Aetophorus on the reverse. 
The writer also noted the change in the obverse type from the 
head of Baaltars, &c., to that of Athena, which showed a direct 
Greek influence as distinct from Persian. In a discussion 
which ensued Mr. Hill approved the new classification, but at 
the same time pointed out that the change in type was no proof 
whatever of its correctness, as the type of Athena is found on 
coins of certain Cilician cities struck before the time of Alex- 
ander, and her worship must have already existed in Cilicia, as 
Arrian relates that after the battle of Issus Alexander offered 
up sacrifices to Athena Magarsia. This paper is printed in vol. 
ii., p. 81. 

Mr. G. F. Hill communicated " Some Notes on a New Medal 
of Timotheus Refatus," an obscure medallist of Mantua, giving 
his full name for the first time, and showed how his works are 
to be distinguished from those of another Italian artist who 
signs himself T. E. only. This paper is printed in vol. ii., 
p. 55. 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



FEBRUARY 20, 1902. 

SIR HENRY H. HOWORTH, K.C.I.E., Vice-President, in the 
Chair. 

The following Presents were announced and laid npon the 
table : 

1. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum 
Lydia. By B. V. Head. From the Trustees of the British 
Museum. 

2. Bulletin de Numismatique. Dec., 1901. 

0. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
NOB. 222, 228. 

4. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Vol. xxxi. Pt. 4. 

6. La Gazette Numismatique. Dec. 1901 and Jan. 1902. 

6. Rivista Italiana di Numismatica. Fasc. 4, 1901. 

7. Bulletin historique de la Societe* des Antiquaires de la 
Morinie. 200 mfl livr. 

8. L'Institut Grand-Ducal de Luxembourg. Publications 
de la Section historique. Vols. xlviii., xlix. and 1. 

9. The Evolution of Modern Money. By W. W. Carlile. 
From the Author. 

10. The Postulates of the Monetary Standard. By W. W. 
Carlile. From the Author. 

11. The Relation of Economics to Numismatics. By W. W. 
Carlile. From the Author. 

12. Di una nuova Zecca Lombardo-Piedmontese. By Solone 
Ambrosoli. From the Author. 

13. Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institute, 1901. 

14. Priced sale catalogues of the Clarkson and Moore col- 
lections. From Major H. W. Morrieson. 

Sir H. H. Howorth exhibited a memorial medal of William 
Pitt, dated 1806, and struck in three metals : gold, platinum, 
and copper. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 11 

Dr. Codrington showed dirhems of the Persian Mongul 
rulers Abu Said and Sati Beg, on which the Hijra era is ex- 
pressed by the word halaliya, i.e., lunar, in distinction from 
the dates (also given on the coins) in the Khanian era, which 
was a solar one. 

Mr. W. C. Boyd exhibited a copper coin of Licinius I, struck 
at Siscia, and having on the reverse the legend VOT. XX within 
a wreath, and around CAESARVM NOSTROR. ; an unpub- 
lished legend of this reign. 

Mr. W. J. Hocking showed a shilling and a sixpence of the 
new coinage, the former having on the reverse the lion 
standing on the crown, the type of the so-called "lion shilling " 
of 1826. 

Mr. F. A. Walters exhibited a specimen of the rare Aqui- 
taine groat of Edward the Black Prince. 

Mr. A. E. Copp read a paper on medals, by Simon Passe, of 
James I, Queen Anne, and their son Charles, and of Charles 
alone as Prince of Wales ; and he also gave an account of an 
engraved plaque bearing the portrait and arms of Johann 
Wilhelm Dilichi, a native of Frankfort, which he attributed to 
Michel le Blond. 

Mr. L. A. Lawrence communicated a paper on some so-called 
sede vacante coins struck at Canterbury. These coins are 
generally believed to have been struck during the interval 
between the death of one archbishop and the investment of his 
successor, and the date usually given to them is the interval 
between Wulfred and Ceolnoth, A.D. 832-8. From evidence 
supplied by one of the moneyers (Oba), Mr. Lawrence is of 
opinion that these coins are of a somewhat earlier date, 
and in consequence not sede vacante coins. He places their 
date about A.D. 825, and it was in that year that Ecgbert of 
Wessex deposed Baldred and annexed Kent to Wessex. 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

MARCH 20, 1902. 

SIB HENRY H. HOWORTH, K.C.I.E., Vice-President, in the 
Chair. 

Charles Lewis Stainer was proposed as a member of the 
Society. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Archaeologia Aeliana. Vol. iii. Pt. II. 

2. Bulletin de Numismatique. Jan. Fev. 1902. 
8. La Gazette Numismatique. Fev. 1902. 

4. Biographical Dictionary of Medallists. By L. Forrer. 
From Messrs. Spink and Son. 

Mr. F. A. Walters exhibited a shilling and sixpence of Philip 
and Mary, the latter piece being rare as having the date 
beneath the busts on the obverse. 

Mr. L. A. Lawrence exhibited a Wolsey groat without the 
initials T. W. 

Mr. W. P. Carlyon-Britton showed two St. Peter pennies 
struck at York, of somewhat smaller size than usual. 

Mr. Percy H. Webb exhibited a Roman " second brass " of 
Julia Aquilia Severa. 

Sir Henry Howorth read a paper on " The History and 
Coinage of Artaxerxes III, his Satraps and Dependents." 
After an account of the history of this period, founded to a 
great extent on the recently discovered inscriptions, he showed 
the bearing of the new light thus obtained on the numerous and 
intricate questions relating to the coinage. He maintained that 
throughout the Achsemenid period the precious metals circulated 
simply by weight in the purely Persian provinces of the empire. 
The actual coins the gold darics and the silver sigloi which 
we possess of this dynasty were struck solely for those districts 
in which the Greek element prevailed, and they were issued, 
moreover, to a very considerable extent for the payment of 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 13 

Greek mercenaries. With regard to these darics and sigloi Sir 
H. Howorth contended that, although they could undoubt- 
edly be arranged roughly into an earlier class and a later class, 
yet there was no sufficient evidence to justify the attribution of 
different specimens to each particular member of the Achsemenid 
dynasty, as proposed by M. Babelon in his great work " Les 
Perses Achemenides." In conclusion, he stated that his 
investigations into the history and numismatics of this period 
had led him also to make several new attributions of coins to 
the various satraps and dependents of Artaxerxes III. 



APKIL 17, 1902. 
Sm JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., President, in the Chair. 

Charles Lewis Stainer, Esq., was elected and Thomas 
Wakley, Esq., Junior, L.B.C.P.L., was nominated a member of 
the Society. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 224. 

2. Notice of a find of coins at Closeburn, Dumfriesshire. By 
A. B. Richardson. From the Author. 

8. Bulletin Internationale de Numismatique. Fasc. 1. 

4. American Journal of Numismatics for 1900, 1901, and 
No. 1, 1902. From F. Sherman Benson, Esq. 

5. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London. 
1901-1902. 

6. Revue Beige de Numismatique. 2 me livr., 1902. 
7- Revue Numismatique. l er trim., 1902. 

8. Numismatische Verkehr. April, 1902. 

9. Congres International de Numismatique, Paris, 1900. 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Comptes Rendus et Sommaire. From the Royal Commission, 
Paris Exhibition. 

10. American Journal of Archaeology. Vol. vi. No. 1. 

11. Canadian Antiquarian. Vol. iv. No. 1. 

12. Two Canadian Golden Wedding Medals. By R. W. 
McLachlan. From the Author. 

The President exhibited some aurei (recently found in Egypt 
and in the finest state of preservation) of the Roman Emperors 
Commodus, Diadumenianus, Balbinus, Numerianus, Carious, 
Diocletianus, and Maximianus Herculeus. The aureus of 
Balbinus appears to be the only gold coin known of that 
emperor. It has on the obverse the bust of the emperor, and 
on the reverse Victory standing, facing, head to left, and 
holding a wreath and a palm-branch with the inscription 
VICTORIA AVGG. 

Mr. Augustus Prevost, the Governor of the Bank of England, 
exhibited a silver medal, by 0. Roty, commemorating the cen- 
tenary of the Bank of France, 1800-1900, and having on the 
obverse the helmeted bust of France, and on the reverse two 
female figures, representing Confidence and Labour, in a land- 
scape, with a view of a city in the distance. 

Mr. A. E. Copp showed a set of the silver coinage of the 
South African Republic, including the rare five-shilling piece 
with the double shaft to the waggon, and also the Coronation 
medal, by Mr. G. Frampton, recently issued by the Birmingham 
mint. 

Mr. H. Goodacre exhibited a denarius of Gallienus with 
head of Gallia, the cousin of Gallienus, on the reverse. 

Mr. F. Spicer showed a plated silver coin of the Iceni. 

Mr. F. A. Walters read the first portion of a paper on the 
silver coinage of Henry VI. After a mention of the article by 
Mr. Neck written more than thirty years since, which, in view 
of more recent discoveries, is now incomplete, reference was 
made to the great importance attained by the Calais mint 
during the early part of this reign. The first or annulet coin- 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 15 

age was fully dealt with, and, admitting that some of the coins 
of this issue were probably struck both in London and Calais 
during the last six months of the reign of Henry V, Mr. Wal- 
ters is of the opinion that the point of separation is to be found 
in a slight change of the form of the mint-mark, which is a 
pierced cross. This view was supported by similar coins of the 
York mint which were first struck under Henry VI. 



MAY 15, 1902. 
SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., President, in the Chair. 

Thomas Wakley, Esq., Junr., L.R.C.P.L., was elected a 
Member of the Society. 

The President announced that the Council had unanimously 
awarded the Society's medal to Arthur John Evans, Esq., 
F.R.S., for his services to Greek numismatics, more especially 
in connection with the coinages of Magna Graecia and Sicily. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Syracusan Medallions. By Arthur J. Evans. From H. 
A. _Grueber, Esq. 

2. Deux Thalers de Charles de Croy. By Vicomte B. de 
Jonghe. From the Author. 

3. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Vol. xxxii. Pt. 1. 

4. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 225. 

5. Numismatische Zeitschrift. Band xxxiii, 1901, and Atlas 
der Miinzen. 

6. Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. Vol. xxxi., 
Pts 12-14, and Vol. xxxii., Pts. 1-2. 

7. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 
Vol. xxxv. 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

8. Bulletin de la Societe des Antiquaires de 1'Oucst. 4 me 
trim., 1901. 

9. La Gazette Numismatique. Nos. 6, 7, 1902. 

10. Aarboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historic, 1901. 

11. Memoires de la Societe" royale des Antiquaires du Nord, 
1900-1901. 

12. Rivista Italiana di Numismatica. Fasc. 1-2, 1902. 
18. Archroologia Aeliana. Vol. xxiv. Pt. 1. 

14. The Queen Anne's Farthing. By G. F. Hill. From the 
Author. 

15. Annual of the British School at Athens. No. vii. 

16. Greek Coins and their Parent Cities. By John Ward 
and G. F. Hill. From John Ward, Esq., F.S.A. 

Mr. T. Bliss exhibited a Nottingham penny of William II, 
which combined the types 243 (obverse) and 247 (reverse) as 
shown in Hawkins's "Silver Coinage." 

Mr. W. E. Marsh showed a shilling of Charles II with the 
date altered from 1667 to 1668. 

Mr. A. E. Copp exhibited a Rosa Americana twopence and 
penny of George I. dated 1728. 

Mr. F. A. Walters read the second portion of his paper on 
the silver coinage of Henry VI. After a reference to the 
"Galley halfpennies," against the currency of which so many 
enactments were made in this and previous reigns, he proceeded 
to deal fully with the various issues subsequent to the pine- 
cone coinage. Whilst confirming Hawkins's classification the 
writer showed that a more minute subdivision of the coinage 
was possible, and by recently discovered specimens he was able 
to prove that the Calais mint was in operation to a much later 
date than is usually imagined. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 17 

JUNK 19, 1902. 
ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., F.R.S., 
V.P.S.A., F.G.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Annual General Meeting were read 
and confirmed. 

A. H. Baldwin, Esq., and Edward Charles Davey, Esq. 
were proposed as members of the Society. 

The Report of the Council was then read to the Society as 
follows : 

GENTLEMEN, The Council again have the honour to lay 
before you their Annual Report as to the state of the Numis- 
matic Society. 

With much regret they have to announce the death of the 
following five Ordinary Members : 

Joseph Brown, Esq., K.C., C.B. 
Col. Tobin Bush. 
George Lambert, Esq., F.S.A, 
E. Emmerson Oliver, Esq. 
Frederick Spicer, Esq. 

And the resignation of the following two Ordinary Mem- 
bers : 

The Rev. G. F. Crowther. 
J. Mewburn Levien, Esq. 

On the other hand, the Council have much pleasure in 
recording the election of the following four Ordinary 
Members : 

c 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

Horace Lambert, Esq. 

Charles Lewis Stainer, Esq. 

Thomas Wakley, Esq., Junr., L.R.C.P.L. 

Charles A. Walters, Esq. 

According to the Report of the Hon. Secretaries, the numbers 
of the Members are as follows : 

Ordinary. Honorary. Total. 

June, 1901 278 23 298 









Deceased .... 


277 28 
.... 5 


800 
5 


Resigned .... 


.... 2 


2 









June, 1902 270 28 293 



The Council have further to announce that thej have 
awarded the Medal of the Society to Arthur J. Evans, Esq., 
M.A., F.R.S., LL.D., Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, 
Oxford, in recognition of his services to Greek numismatics, 
more especially in connection with the coinages of Magna 
Graecia and Sicily. 

The Hon. Treasurer's Report, which follows, was submitted 
to the Meeting. 



Statement of Receipts and Disbursements of th 
Dr. THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF LONDON IN 



B. d. 


t. 


d. 


To Messrs. H. Virtue & Co., Limited, for printing 






Chronickt 






Part IV, 1900 . . . . 70 14 9 






Parta III and IV, 1901, and Part 






I, 1902 . . . . 172 8 6 








243 3 


3 


The Autotype Company, for Platei . . . 18 8 






... 6 13 6 






... 18 8 









42 9 


6 


,, The Royal Asiatic Society, one year's rent due June 24, 1902 . 


30 





,, Mrs. Harper, for Attendance, Tea, Coffee, &c. . . 


10 18 


7 


,, Messrs. Abram & Sons, for writing up List of Members in 








16 


6 




2 14 


2 




4 10 





,, Messrs. Spink & Son, for Lockhart's Guide .... 


8 





,, Messrs. Hachette, for "Dictionnaire des Antiquits " 


7 


6 


,, Messrs. Walker & Cockerell, for Photographing, &c. 


2 


6 


C.S.S.A. for Stationery, &c 


1 4 


9 




8 





,, Mr. B. Quaritch, for Books 


3 2 


6 


,, Mr. J. Pinches, for Engraving 


4 


6 


,, Mr. E. J. Rapson, for Telegram to Russia .... 


12 


6 


,, M. Adrien Blanchet, for "Bulletin International de Numis- 






matique" 


4 


6 




15 


o 


,, Secretaries, for Postages 


5 





,, Treasurer, for Postages, Receipts, and Cheque Book 


7 13 


7 


,, Collector (Mr. C. G. Colman), Commission and Postages. 


7 16 


8 


By Balance in hand . . . . . 


154 19 


1 










519 9 






Examined and found correct, 



TH08. BLISS 



18M Jtttu, 1902. LIONEL M. HEWLETT 



Numismatic Society from June, 1901, to June, 1902. 

ACCOUNT WITH ALFRED EVELYN COPP, HON. TREASURER. Cr. 



s. d. 
By Balance from last Statement 172 11 9 

,, Entrance Fees 550 

,, Compositions 31 10 

,, Subscriptions 234 3 

Amount received for Chroniclet, viz. 

Mr. B. Quaritch 46 11 3 

Mr. C. J. P. Cave . . . * - , 036 

Mr. Reuben Cull 14 

Mr. E. M. Barrojo 14 

Mr. Thos. Bliss 180 

49 10 9 

,, August Dividend on 700 London and North- 
Western Railway 4 % Consolidated Preference 

Stock (less 15s. 2d. tax) 13 4 10 

February ditto ditto (less 16s. 4d. tax) . 13 3 8 

26 8 6 



519 9 



ALFRED E. COPP, 

HONOBABT TBEASTTBEB. 

l&th June, 1902. 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

After the Report of the Council and the Hon. Treasurer's 
Report had been read and adopted, the President presented the 
Society's Medal to Mr. Arthur J. Evans, and addressed him as 
follows : 

My dear Arthur, The Council of this Society, by awarding 
their Medal in recognition of your services to Greek numis- 
matics, more especially in connexion with the coinages of 
Magna Graecia and Sicily, have placed me in what I believe is 
an entirely novel position, that of a father, as President of a 
Society, presenting the Medal of that Society, the highest 
mark of appreciation that it can show, to his son. The 
position is of course extremely gratifying, but well as you in 
my opinion deserve the honour, I think that it will be advisable 
that my address to yon on this occasion should assume the 
historical rather than the eulogistic form. 

You became a Member of the Society in 1872, just thirty 
years ago, having already at the close of 1871 communicated 
an account of a Hoard of Coins found at Oxford, with some 
remarks on the coinage of the first three Edwards. Your 
suggestions as to the attribution of several of the Edwardian 
coins were at the time regarded as novel, and perhaps hazard- 
ous, but of late years I have seen them quoted with approba- 
tion by students of English numismatics. 

By 1880 you were changing the direction of your studies 
and entering the field of Greek numismatics, your first paper 
being on some recent discoveries of Illyrian coins. 

Passing by your interesting Paper on a coin of a second 
Carausius (1887), I come to the first of those memorable 
Papers on the Coinage of Magna Graecia and Sicily in recog- 
nition of which this medal has in the main been awarded to 
yon. This was " The Horsemen of Tarentum," which 
appeared in 1889, which at once took that foremost place 
as a monograph on the coinage of a Greek city which I believe 
I am justified in saying that it still retains. In 1889 began 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 23 

that series of Papers on Sicilian numismatics with which your 
name will ever be associated. It relates to various new 
artists' signatures on Sicilian coins and bears testimony to the 
futility of the poet's question : " Why has not Man a micro- 
scopic eye ? " 

An even more important Paper on " Syracusan Medallions 
and their Engravers" followed in 1891, to be supplemented in 
1894 and 1896 by further noteworthy " Contributions to 
Sicilian Numismatics." 

It was this intimate acquaintance with the coinage of Sicily 
that enabled you, when, by the lamented death of Professor 
Freeman, you were called upon to complete the last volume of 
his History of that island, to add so much to the value and 
interest of the work by invoking Numismatics as the hand- 
maid of History. 

Although your researches in Crete lie somewhat outside the 
domain of this Society, I can assure you that the members take 
a warm interest in them, and I seize this opportunity of 
offering to you their hearty congratulations on your remark- 
able discoveries, which throw an entirely new light on 
Mycenaean civilisation. May your work go on aud prosper, 
but in the meantime the medal which I now place in your 
hands may serve to remind you of your old love, numismatics, 
which will no doubt, when occasion arises, again flourish and 
bear fruit. 

Mr. Arthur Evans, having received the medal, replied as 
follows : 

I cannot help feeling, gentlemen, in view of the great 
honour that you have conferred upon me, that if from early days 
I have imbibed aught of the true Science of Numismatics, the 
fact must be largely due to the circumstance that your President 
ie also my father. I must confess, however, that the announce- 
ment that the medal of the Society had been conferred by your 
Council on myself came upon me as a kind of shock. A medal 



24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

seems to be a fitting badge for one who has fought a good 
fight, and fought it to a finish. But my own merits fall far too 
short of any such a standard. Some of you have been good 
enough to accompany me through Sicilian and Magna Grecian 
fields, and even to bid me good-speed across Ionian waves 
and how did I show my gratitude for so much encouragement ? 
Why, gentlemen, by effecting a precipitate retreat beyond the 
very pale of numismatics I Is it possible to describe in other 
terms a prolonged sojourn in the halls of Minos ? I leave you 
to imagine the coward satisfaction of one who so far as mumis- 
matics were concerned, seemed to have taken a comfortable 
seat among the lotus eaters, and could look down with philo- 
sophic eye on all those vexed questions of moneyers and 
mints, of types and legends, and metric systems that continue 
to distract your minds. 

Well, gentlemen, I appear before you to-day as one who 
has been greatly disillusioned. Even in that serene atmosphere 
the alphabet nay, half a dozen alphabets pursued me. If 
actual coins were not struck, there were weights and ingots and 
elaborate calculations. I do not know whether there were 
banking accounts in those days, but at any rate a large number 
of clay documents have quite recently come to light dealing 
entirely with percentages. If Minos had no actual dies to 
tempt the forger's skill, there is evidence that the royal seal itself 
was counterfeited. The signets themselves, the clay impressions 
countermarked and countersigned the balances or talents de- 
lineated amongst the accounts, the character of the official badges, 
a hundred minutiae of an elaborate organisation, sufficiently show 
that there was little to choose between the civilisation of the Court 
of Minos and that of the historic ages marked by the use of 
coins. Nay, we can now advance beyond this, and say without 
fear of contradiction, that like so many other features of what 
was formerly known as the archaic civilisation of Greece, but 
which we now see to have been only a renaissance of earlier 
art the coin-types and metric systems of classical antiquity can 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 25 

never henceforth be treated without reference to that great 
early civilisation which is now being revealed to us from the 
soil of Crete. As an illustration of this I have placed on 
the table two of the coins of Knossos itself, with the well- 
known types of the Labyrinth and Minotaur, and side by side 
with them, not only seals and seal-impressions belonging to the 
Minoan age, representing both these types, but the tracing of a 
wall decoration found only the other day in a corridor of the 
Palace of Knossos, showing a decorative design consisting of a 
series of mazes. 

So the exploration of those earlier remains but leads us 
back to the types of the early coinages of Greece, and although 
somewhat of a prodigal son, I return to you not wholly empty- 
handed, to receive in all humility the numismatic medal. 



The President then delivered the following Address : 

It again falls to my lot to offer to this Society a few words 
by way of Address at this their Anniversary Meeting, and at 
the same time to congratulate them on their continued pros- 
perity. 

It is true that our numbers have somewhat diminished, and 
that the balance in the hands of our Treasurer has been re- 
duced by an amount of about 17. 

But any one attending our meetings, or examining the papers 
published in the Numismatic Chronicle, must at once perceive 
that there is no want of vitality in our body, and that our 
publications still maintain the high level of former years, 
even if they do not rise above it. 

The unusual amount of matter in the twentieth and last 
volume of the third series of the Chronicle, and of the first 
volume of the fourth series, has caused a corresponding in- 
crease in our printing expenses, and has thus made our 
expenditure somewhat exceed our income. 

The Council, as you have heard, have this year awarded 

<t 



26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

the Medal of the Society to my son, Arthur John Evans, in 
recognition of his services to Greek numismatics. With this 
award it is not for me to cavil, and I trust that it will 
meet with the warm approval of the Society. 

It is now a year and five months since the death of our 
beloved Queen Victoria, and we are all wound to a high 
pitch of expectation of the Coronation of His Most Gracious 
Majesty King Edward VII on this day week. And yet, if 
a hoard of say 500 gold and silver coins were deposited in 
the earth to-morrow, and it came into the hands of a col- 
lector 500 years hence, I doubt whether his cabinet would 
be enriched by a single coin of Edward VII. It will be in- 
teresting to know, in illustration of what must have taken 
place at the beginning of many other reigns, how many coins 
bearing the image and superscription of his predecessor were 
struck in the first year, and possibly the second, of Edward VII. 

The Proclamation authorising the currency of the silver 
coinage bears date the 18th January, 1902, or nearly a year 
after the late Queen's decease. I do not for a moment say 
that the delay in the " change of the money " was otherwise 
than reasonable, but it brings into prominence the wonderful 
readiness of the Roman Imperial mints to adapt themselves to 
new circumstances and a new emperor. Take, for instance, 
the case of the joint Emperors Balbinus and Pupienus, whose 
reign lasted but three months, and yet of whose coins no less 
than eighty-two varieties are described by Cohen, besides 
numerous Greek Imperial pieces. 

As to the coins themselves, we shall all welcome the resusci- 
tation of the " lion shillings " with " Our Royal Crest." and 
earnestly hope that " Britannia, standing upon the prow of a 
vessel, her right hand grasping a trident," may long be sym- 
bolical of her continuing to " rule the waves." One regrets 
that the long-expected termination of our war in South Africa 
cannot be recorded on our coinage, and that the blessings of 
Peace, " terra marique parta," will remain unacknowledged 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 27 

upon them. It may be the result of our having no temple of 
Janus to close. 

Our losses by death have, I am sorry to say, been five in 
number. 

Colonel Tobin Bush had been a member of our body since 
1858, and was much interested in Greek, Roman, English, 
Anglo-Gallic, and Oriental coins. 1 For many years he resided at 
le Havre, on the other side of the Channel, so that he was 
hardly ever able to attend our meetings. 

Mr., or, as he was proud to be called, Major George Lam- 
bert, was better known at the Society of Antiquaries, of which 
for many years he was a Fellow, than at our meetings. His 
opportunities as one of the foremost silversmiths in London 
enabled him to become one of the best judges of old English 
plate, and the Goldsmiths' Company was enriched by a mag- 
nificent collection of silver spoons and other objects, which he 
gradually built up, and then in the most liberal manner presented 
to the Company. He died on the 12th September, 1901, in his 
seventy-eighth year. Neither he nor Colonel Bush contributed 
to our Chronicle. 

In Mr. Frederick Spicer we have lost an old and valued 
member of the Society. He joined our body in 1867, and at 
that tune, though resident at Godalming, was a constant 
attendant and exhibitor at our meetings. His removal about 
the year 1880 to the neighbourhood of Manchester necessarily 
diminished his power of attendance, but his face was by no 
means infrequently seen at our meetings. He was especially 
interested in early English numismatics, and Mr. Andrew, in 
his great paper on the coins of Henry I, cites him as having 
contributed many readings of the William I and II coins and of 
Norman charters. He had indeed for some time been pre- 
paring for this Society a paper on the coins of these two 
monarchs, which his study of the French chronicles of the time 

1 He formed a large collection in each^ of these series, which is being 
dispersed by public auction. 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

enabled him to illustrate. A fair copy of the portion relating 
to the coins of the Conqueror is in the hands of Mr. Andrew, 
and the second part, describing the coinage of Rufus, is in a 
forward state, so that we may hope to see the whole paper at 
no very distant date in the pages of the Chronicle. He had for 
some years suffered from a weak heart, and on May 27th, after 
calling in his usual health on Mr. Andrew, drove home, and 
peacefully passed away within less than an hour of his 
arrival. 

Mr. Joseph Brown, C.B., K.C., joined our Society in 1885, 
and at one time was a regular attendant at our meetings, 
though of late, owing to his advanced age, his genial face was 
but seldom seen. He was more distinguished as a Queen's 
Counsel than as a numismatist, but his tastes and acquire- 
ments were wide. Born on April 4th, 1809, he had entered 
his ninety-fourth year at the time of his decease, which took 
place on the 9th of the present month. 

Mr. Emmerson Oliver, who died in December, 1901, was 
elected a member of this Society in 1885. Although he made 
no communication to the Chronicle, he was much interested in 
Oriental numismatics, and several papers from his pen are 
printed in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 
Among them are essays " on the Safwi Dynasty of Persia " 
and "on a copper coin of Akbar." 

Although the late Mr. Edmund Oldficld resigned his member- 
ship of this Society so long ago as 1874, he was so well known 
to many of us that I feel it incumbent upon me to say a few 
words in his memory. Mr. Oldfield was educated at Wor- 
cester College, Oxford, and at the time of his election a member 
of this Society, June, 1850, he held the post of Assistant- 
Keeper of Antiquities at the British Museum. He was an 
acknowledged authority on architecture and classical archae- 
ology ; and he contributed many papers on these and kindred 
subjects to the Society of Antiquaries, the last and moot 
important one being on the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 29 

To our journal he appears to have made only one contribution, 
which was " On the Orthographical Form of the names inscribed 
on certain Gaulish and British Coins." It was published in 
the journal for 1855. Mr. Oldfield died on the llth April last, 
at the advanced age of eighty-five ; and it was only during the 
last year of his life that his services to archseology were recog- 
nised by his University in his election to an honorary fellowship 
of Worcester College. 

I must now direct your attention to the principal communi- 
cations that have been made to the Society during the past 
year, either at our meetings or in the pages of the Xumwnatic 
Chronicle. As usual, they cover a wide field. 

Our honorary member Mr. Theodore Reinach has been so 
good as to send us notes on some Pontic eras, relating to the 
coinage of Queen Pythodoris and of Antonia Tryphsena, as 
well as to the eras of Amasia, Sebasteia and Sebastopolis 
Heracleopolis. In each case he makes suggestions somewhat 
in disaccordance with prevailing views, but apparently supported 
by sound historical reasoning and trustworthy numismatic 
evidence. 

Our Vice-President, Sir Henry Howorth, has favoured us with 
two papers, both in the domain of Greek numismatics. The 
first of these relates to some coins generally attributed to 
Mazaios, Satrap of Cilicia and Syria. Of these there are two 
series, one bearing the name of the Satrap in Aramaic 
characters, the other without his name but with indications in 
Greek letters of the cities in which they were struck. The 
obverse type with the head of Baaltars is changed for that of 
Athena, thus showing direct Greek influence. The author 
suggests that this second series was struck under Alexander the 
Great after the death of Mazaios, and that it thus forms a con- 
necting link between the coins of the Persian Satrap and those 
of the Macedonian conqueror. 

The second paper by Sir Henry Howorth relates to "The 
History and Coinage of Artaxerxes III, his Satraps and De- 



30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

pendents." In it he shows what new light may be and has been 
thrown on the history of the period by recently discovered 
inscriptions, and propounds the view that in the purely Persian 
provinces of the Achaemenid dynasty the precious metals 
circulated by weight only, and that the actual coins the gold 
darics and the silver sigloi were struck only for those districts 
in which the Greek element prevailed. In some respects his 
views differ from those of M. Babelon, and the paper will be 
of great value if it leads to a reconsideration of the attribution 
of existing coins and to a re-discussion of the whole question 
of the Achaemenid coinage. 

In Roman numismatics there has been a great dearth of 
Papers, but many interesting Imperial coins have been 
exhibited at our meetings. So far as the coinage of the 
Ancient Britons is concerned, we have had, in addition to 
some noteworthy exhibitions, a Paper on a Gold Coin of 
Addedomaros. In it I have tried to bring together all that 
is at present known with regard to the coins of that prince and 
the localities where they were found. Beyond making it 
highly probable that the territory of Addedomaros lay in the 
Eastern Counties, with its centre most likely in Essex, I was 
able to establish little as to the chronology of the coins or the 
sequence of their three principal types. 

In relation to the Anglo-Saxon series, Mr. L. A. Lawrence 
has offered a new view as to the coins reading DOROBEKNIA 
CIVITAS on the reverse and giving the name of a moneyer 
on the obverse, which have usually been regarded as struck at 
Canterbury sede vacante. He suggests that instead of belong- 
ing to the period between Archbishops Wulfred and Ceolnoth, 
A.D. 882-8, they were struck about A.D. 825, the year in 
which Ecgberht of Wessex deposed Baldred and annexed 
Kent to Wessex. I did not have the advantage of hearing 
the Paper, nor has it as yet been published. I must therefore 
reserve my opinion upon it. I may, however, remark that the 
so-called sede vacante coins belong, in my opinion, to more 
than one period. 



NtMISMATIC SOCIETY. 31 

For the only other Paper on the Anglo-Saxon coinage that 
we have had brought before us I am myself responsible. In it 
I have attempted to account for the obverse legend of many 
coins of Aelfred the Great being divided into either three 
or four groups of letters, and have suggested that the blank 
spaces between the groups typify in a cryptic manner, in the 
one case the Christian Cross and in the other the Archiepisco- 
pal Pall. The suggestion is supported by the fact that the 
moneyers who struck the latter class were almost all connected 
with the Canterbury mint. The possibility of my suggestion 
as to the cause of adopting this method of placing Christian 
symbols in such a concealed manner on the coinage, I leave to 
others to determine. 

Our principal topic during the past as well as the preceding 
year has been mediaeval English numismatics. In testimony 
of this I have only to mention the remarkable Paper, or rather 
volume, of Mr. W. J. Andrew, entitled " A Numismatic History 
of the Reign of Henry I." Not only is it the longest Paper that 
has ever been communicated to the Society, but it may be re- 
garded as the most important, at all events so far as the period 
to which it relates is concerned. As a monograph on the coinage 
and mints of Henry I it is complete, almost every known coin 
of that monarch being cited and described, but its merits rank 
much higher, inasmuch as now for the first time Mr. Andrew 
has been able to show the intimate connexion which exists 
between the coins of each mint and the absence or presence of 
ertain types and the political history of the localities in which 
the mints were situate. 

The Royal mints existed at a comparatively small number 
of cities and towns, while at a far larger number the right 
of coinage had been granted to archbishops, bishops, and 
principal noblemen ; and what the author points out is that 
in the case of this latter class of mints the right of coinage 
could not be exercised during the absence of the grantee 
abroad, but remained dormant until his return. As a con- 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

sequence, though all the consecutive types might be, and 
probably were, struck at the Royal mints, there would, at a 
period when so many of the English nobility and ecclesiastical 
dignitaries had perforce to pass much of their time in France or 
in the latter case at Rome, be at almost all the mints granted 
to them intervals of greater or less duration when their privi- 
lege to coin would be suspended. 

The change in the dies, which took place about every two 
years and which was compulsory on the moneyers, who were 
thus made to contribute considerable sums to the Exchequer, 
affords an important element in the case. If the grantee 
of the mint were absent from England the new dies could 
not be claimed, and the absence of coins of any particular 
types from the series of coins issued from any particular 
mint is thus to be accounted for. In some cases, as for 
instance where the mints were farmed by the inhabitants of 
a town, these privileges seem to have been suspended if 
offence were given to the Crown. 

By historical as well as numismatic research Mr. Andrew 
has been able to establish a new succession of the types of 
the corns of Henry I on what seems likely to prove a secure 
foundation. In an Address of this kind it is, of course, impos- 
sible to follow him into details ; but any one studying his paper 
will be struck with the manner in which the history of each 
mint and the presence or absence of particular types dovetail 
into each other and corroborate the extremely ingenious 
suggestions of Mr. Andrew. His is an epoch-making paper 
in more senses than one. 

Mr. Carlyon-Britton has provided us with an interesting 
essay " On a rare Sterling of Henry, Earl of Northumberland." 
In it he discusses the question whether the Henry of these rare 
coins is Henry, the son of David I, King of Scotland, or Henry, 
son of Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, by Matilda, widow of the 
Emperor Henry V, and daughter of Henry I of England. 
Both appear to have had opportunities of striking coins at 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 33 

Carlisle, and the author, after weighing the evidence on behalf 
of each claimant, is in favour of assigning the coins with the 
cross-crosslet and cross-fleury types, struck at Carlisle, to 
Henry " Fitz-David," Earl of Northumberland and Lord of 
Carlisle; while he attributes the coins of the type of Haw- 
kins, 259, to " Henry Fitz-Empress." Possibly the last word 
has not as yet been said upon the subject. 

Mr. F. A. Walters has given us an exhaustive Paper on 
the Silver Coinage of Henry VI, dealing with the successive 
issues from the mints, their mint-marks and subsidiary 
symbols. One of the points of interest brought out is the 
great importance of the Calais mint during the early part 
of Henry's reign, when a large proportion of the currency 
of England was struck on the other side of the Channel. 
The Paper will be found to throw much light on the proper 
chronological arrangement of the coins of Henry VI. 

It is a fortunate event that a find of silver coins of Edward 
IV to Henry VIII came into the hands of Mr. L. A. Lawrence 
for description. Not only has he carefully catalogued them, 
giving a detailed account of each variety of the 322 pieces 
comprised in the hoard ; but he has extracted all the numis- 
matic information such a deposit of coins is calculated to afford. 
The most abundant pieces are groats and half-groats of Henry 
VIII, and they involve the consideration of the sequence of 
mint-marks, both of his first and second issues, and of the 
duration of the periods in which each was struck. I must 
leave the author's conclusions for the attentive consideration of 
the readers of his Paper. 

Our Treasurer, Mr. A. E. Copp, has called our attention to 
some of the beautiful medals or plaques by Simon Passe. I 
am not aware that any suggestions have been published as to 
the manner in which these plaques and a number of counters 
were produced, but I believe that the process was as follows. 
First a copper-plate was engraved or etched after the manner 
of line engraving, but the required design not being reversed. An 



34 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

impression from this plate was taken on paper with strong 
printers' ink, and this impression was transferred to the 
polished surface of a hardened steel die. This face was then 
etched with acid, so that the parts protected by the ink would 
be left in low relief, and with the dies thus formad the soft 
silver plaques and counters were struck. It would be interest- 
ing if some competent die-engraver would try this process and 
ascertain whether my theory could be carried into practice. A 
silver plaque reproducing a finely engraved book-plate would 
be an acceptable offering to one's friends. 

Dr. Philip Nelson has given us a detailed account of William 
Wood and his coinage both for Ireland and America. What- 
ever Dean Swift may have thought fit to say in his Drapier 
Letters, all unprejudiced judges will, I think, agree that the 
halfpence of George I are the finest examples of medallic art in 
the whole of the copper series of Ireland. 

Mr. F. Willson Yeates has given us a note on three leaden 
tickets of the eighteenth century, all of them admissions to an 
assembly, public gardens or a museum ; while Mr. G. F. Hill 
has communicated a Paper on Timotheus Refatns and the 
medallist T. R. In it he has given an account of a portrait- 
medal of himself by this little-known Mantuan artist, dated 
1566 ; and it is not a little remarkable that several of the 
medals signed T. R. bear date within a very few years of the 
same epoch, though Mr. Hill regards them as the work of a 
totally distinct artist. 

In Oriental numismatics we have had papers by Mr. Long- 
worth Dames on some coins of the Moghul Emperors, including 
many unpublished specimens, on coins of the Muwahhids of 
Marocco, by Mr. J. M. C. Johnston ; and an exhaustive account 
of the coins struck at Omdurman by the Mahdi and the Khalifa 
from the pen of Mr. Samuel Smith, junr. The power of debase- 
ment could no further go than in the coinage of these two 
fanatic zealots. Such in brief has been our work for the 
Session. I must now turn to another subject. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 



35 



The contributions to numismatic literature during the last 
twelve months have neither been few nor unimportant. 

The first that I must mention is the Catalogue of the Greek 
coins of Lydia, which has been compiled by Dr. B. V. Head, 
and which forms the twenty-second volume of the British 
Museum Catalogue of Greek coins. It is illustrated by a map 
and forty-five plates, and has an excellent and interesting in- 
troduction of over 130 pages. After treating of the origin and 
principal features of the Lydian coinage, the issues of some 
fifty Lydian towns are discussed in alphabetical order. 

There can be but little doubt that Lydia was one of the first 
countries to issue coins, if, indeed, it may not claim precedence 
over other countries. The coinage may have been instituted 
under Gyges, B.C. 716-652, and continued down to the age of 
Croesus, B.C. 561-546, the Lydian capital having in the mean- 
time been captured by the Cimmerians, to whom Dr. Head 
assigns some barbarously executed coins. It must be confessed 
that, as a whole, the purely Greek series of Lydian coins is dis- 
appointing. They are represented by only a few issues, in- 
cluding cistophori and nearly all of the second and first 
centuries B.C. The Imperial coinage is, on the contrary, abun- 
dant and varied, and many of the reverse-types, especially 
those relating to local myths such as that of Tylos and Masnes, 
are interesting in a high degree. 

In Greek numismatics, also, thanks to the liberality of Mr. 
James Stevenson of Hailie, Mr. George Macdonald has been 
able to bring out the second volume of his catalogue of 
Greek coins in the Hunterian Collection. 2 It comprises the 
issues of North-Western, Central and Southern Greece, as well 
as those of Asia Minor, and is illustrated by thirty-two autotype 
plates, and furnished with eleven indices, some of them sub- 
divided into sections. The work shows all the care and minute 
attention exhibited in the former volume. Each coin has been 
carefully weighed and its size noted. Coins of doubtful authen- 
2 4to. James MacLehose and Sons, Glasgow. 



36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

tieity have been excluded, so that we have in Mr. Macdonald'a 
volumes a trustworthy record of the magnificent collection 
brought together in the eighteenth century by Dr. William 
Hunter. The history of the collection formed by the busiest 
medical man in London who was without much practical or 
scientific knowledge of coins is given in Mr. Macdonald's first 
volume, and it is remarkable that in a period when the forger's 
art was rampant, a larger number of spurious pieces were not 
admitted. A third and final volume may shortly be expected, 
but in the meantime we may well express our gratitude to the 
author for his long-continued labours. 

Another book on Greek numismatics which presents some 
novel and pleasing features has been produced by Mr. John 
Ward. It is entitled " Greek Coins and their Parent Cities," 3 
and consists of three principal parts, an Introduction, Part I, a 
catalogue of Coins, and Part II, Imaginary Rambles in Hellenic 
Lands. The Introduction is short and mainly relates to the 
awakening of general interest in Greece and Hellenic studies 
and to the objects of the author in collecting. Among other 
illustrations it appropriately has a portrait of the author of the 
" Historia Numorum," Dr. B. V. Head, to whom this Society 
owes so large a debt of gratitude. 

The descriptive Catalogue of the Ancient Greek Coins in the 
collection of John Ward, F.S.A., has been compiled by Mr. G. 
F. Hill, and as might be expected, leaves little to be desired. 
The chronological notes prefixed to the description of each coin 
or group of coins add much to the value of the work, and the 
collection is illustrated by twenty -two beautiful autotype plates. 
The series comprises nearly a thousand coins, for the most part 
in silver, extending over the whole of Ancient Hellenic or 
Hellenized countries, and the selection of specimens has been 
formed with great judgment. The collection has been made 
from the artistic and not from the historical point of view, and 
the coins of Roman Imperial times, often so valuable as aids to 
* John Murray, 1902. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 37 

geography and chronology, are practically ignored. Mr. Ward 
is essentially an artist, and any one desirous of studying the 
masterpieces of Greek medallic art during its most palmy 
period cannot do better than examine the plates in this book, 
unless by some happy chance he is allowed to see the originals 
there represented. 

Part II, the imaginary rambles in Hellenic lands, is from the 
pen of Mr. Ward, and the term imaginary is, I believe, more 
applicable to the arrangement adopted than to the travels them- 
selves. For the author seems in fact to have visited most of 
the localities that he describes, and in the majority of cases the 
photographic views given were produced from his own camera. 
Busts, statues, temples, landscapes and even a few scenes of 
modern Greek life are given in profusion all more or less 
illustrative of the coins themselves or of the cities and countries 
in which they were struck. In all there cannot be less than 
300 illustrations in the text, four of the last of which give 
views of parts of the excavations carried on by our medallist 
of to-day at Knossos in Crete. 

Mr. Dattari, of Cairo, has published in Italian a magnificent 
Catalogue of his unrivalled collection of Numi Alexandrini. 4 
Some idea of its extent may be formed when it is known that, 
while the British Museum collection numbers 2,750 specimens, 
that of Mr. Dattari comprises at least 6,500. The catalogue is 
illustrated by thirty-seven photographic plates, arranged in a 
novel and convenient manner. The first six give figures of the 
obverses of coins with Imperial portraits. Then come two plates 
of those showing emperors and empresses, either alone or in 
groups, on the reverses of the coins. The next seventeen plates 
are devoted to the various gods, goddesses, personified rivers, 
seasons, &c., which appear on reverses, these being arranged 
in alphabetical order. Subsequently there are plates showing 
monuments, temples, and other objects, agatho-daemons, &c., 

4 Numi Augg. Alexandrini. Catalogo della collezione G. Dattari 
compilato dal proprietaries Cairo, 1901, royal 4to. 



38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

while one plate is devoted to animals and birds, the camel 
being absent. The coins of the Nomes occupy four plates, and 
some tesserae and pieces in lead and glass complete the series. 
A study of the catalogue and plates will, I think, lead to the 
conclusion that there is a greater amount of artistic merit and 
more interesting phases of mythology attaching to the Alexan- 
drine series than casual observers are in the habit of assigning 
to it. 

The most important work on ancient numismatics which has 
been issued during the period in review is the first volume of 
M. E. Babelon's Traite des Monnaies grecques et romaines. Of the 
numerous numismatic works which M. Babelon has undertaken, 
this is undoubtedly the greatest one both in bulk and importance, 
as he promises to treat of these two principal branches of numis- 
matic science from every point of view. In his preface M. 
Babelon gives a sketch of his proposed work, which will be 
divided into two parts ; the first relating to theory and doc- 
trine, the second to history and description. The first portion 
alone will occupy three volumes, the first of which is now 
published ; but how many the second portion will comprise we 
are not told. After referring to the scientific utility of ancient 
numismatics, the author proceeds to give an historical account 
of its progress from earliest times to the present day, passing 
in review all the more important works of each period and 
their authors. He then discusses the anatomy of the coinage, 
i.e. , the nature of the metals of which coins were struck and 
their provenance, the various denominations, and the origin of 
the nummi serrati, bigati, quadrigati, medallions, contorniati, 
tesserae, &c. The last two chapters are devoted to Greek and 
Roman numeration and to the mints, in the last dealing more 
especially with the various mint-marks and signs found on 
coins of the later Roman Empire, a difficult subject which M. 
Babelon most successfully unravels, and on which M. Maurice 
has so diligently laboured. The production of this vast work 
will probably occupy M. Babelon many years, and we wish him 
every success in the task he has undertaken. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 39 

Our versatile, accomplished and distinguished member, Lord 
Avebury, has contributed to Murray's Home and School 
Library a handy and cheap " Short History of Coins and 
Currency." In it he traces the origin of coinage and its gradual 
development among the Greeks, Romans and other civilised 
nations of antiquity, but the greater part of the book is not 
unnaturally devoted to the history of the coinage of the British 
Isles, from the time of the ancient Britons downwards. The 
work is amply illustrated by photographic blocks and the 
coins selected are not, as is too often the case, those of excessive 
rarity, but such as a collector may hope to obtain with time 
and opportunity, a moderately well-filled purse being of course 
in the background. Part II consists of essays on the weight 
of coins and on bank notes and banking, both of interest in 
their way. It is certainly most remarkable how barbarous 
were the proceedings at the Exchequer even so late as 1826, 
and also how primitive those of the Bank of England down to 
the end of the eighteenth century. The first 5 note was dated 
in April 1793 only ! The minutes of the first meeting of the 
Governors of the Bank of England on the day that they 
received their Charter, 27th July, 1694, are now printed for 
the first time and will be read with interest. 

I congratulate our member, Mr. L. Forrer, on the first 
volume of his Biographical Dictionary of Medallists and En- 
gravers 5 having been issued to the public. The volume extends 
as far as the end of the letter D, and comprises a supplement 
extending to the end of B. The work has been coming out in 
instalments in Spink's Numismatic Circular, in which the letter 
G has now been reached. Most of those present will have 
seen these detached portions of the book, and will therefore be 
able to judge of the thoroughness, scope and nature of the 
work. The amount of labour bestowed upon it must have 
been enormous, and the mere list of the principal books consulted 
extends over no less than eight pages. To those interested in 
medals and in the medallic art, such a repertory as Mr. Forrer 
6 Spink and Son, 1902. Royal 8vo., xlyii. and 574 pp. 



40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

is producing will be simply invaluable, and we must all wish 
him health and strength to complete his self-imposed herculean 
task. Those who wish to obtain the Dictionary in its concrete 
form instead of in detached portions, spread over successive 
volumes of the Numismatic Circular, should make speedy 
arrangements with regard to obtaining their copies, as the 
edition of which the first volume has now been published is 
limited to one hundred copies. 

Dr. P. Hauberg, of Copenhagen, has published in the Tram- 
actions of the Royal Academy of Sciences and Letters of 
Denmark for the year 1900, a most important essay on the 
monetary history of Denmark 6 down to A.D. 1146. It is 
accompanied by thirteen excellent plates and a resume of the 
memoir in French. The portion of the work most interesting 
to English numismatists is of course that relating to the coins 
of Cnut the Great and Harthacnut, many of the types in each 
case being identical in the two countries of Denmark and 
England even in cases when Cnut takes the title of REX 
D^ENORVM. The difficulty in distinguishing between the 
Danish and the English series is enhanced in the case of coins 
struck at Lund in Scania, the name of which town often 
assumes the form of Lunde, Lunduni, Lunden, &c., so as to 
be indistinguishable from that of London. Not improbably 
Anglo-Saxon moneyers were employed and the similitude 
between the two series was intentional. Besides Lund there 
were some fifteen other Scandinavian cities where mints were 
in more or less active employment. To the student of the 
Anglo-Saxon coinage of the eleventh century this work will be 
indispensable. 

In conclusion I have an announcement to make which will 
be of interest to the collectors of Greek coins. It will be re- 
membered that the entire magnificent Imhoof-Blumer collection 
was some little time ago acquired by the Berlin Museum. 
The natural consequence is that on examination a large number 

Myntforhold og Udmyntiiinger i Danmark indtil 1146, sm. 4to. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 41 

of duplicates of coins already in the Museum have proved to 
exist. These have been placed in the hands of the successors 
of Adolph Hess for disposal, and the first portion Hispania, 
Gallia, Italia and Sicilia will be sold by auction at Frankfurt- 
on-the- Maine in October next. 

I have now only to thank the meeting for having so patiently 
listened to this somewhat lengthy address, and to express a 
hope that the Session on which we enter in October next may 
be as fruitful and profitable as that which we now close, if, 
indeed, it does not go beyond it. 

A vote of thanks to the President for his Address was moved 
by Mr. John Ward, F.S.A., seconded by Mr. W. C. Boyd and 
carried unanimously. 

The President then announced to the meeting the result of 
the ballot for the Council and the Officers for the ensuing year, 
which was : 



President. 

SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., 
F.R.S., V.P.S.A., F.G.S. 



Vice- Pfttiden ts . 
W. C. BOYD, ESQ. 
SIR HENRY H. HOWORTH, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Hon. Ti-i-ati-urci: 
ALFRED E. COPP, ESQ. 



42 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

Hon. Secretaries. 

HERBERT A. GRUEBER, ESQ., F.S.A. 
EDWARD J. RAPSON, ESQ., M.A., M.R.A.S. 

Foreign Secretary. 
GEORGE FRANCIS HILL, ESQ., M.A. 

Hon. Librarian. 
OLIVER CODRINGTON, ESQ., M.D., F.S.A. 



Members of the Council. 

W. J. ANDREW, ESQ., F.S.A. 

THOMAS BLISS, ESQ. 

P. W. P. CARLYON-BRITTON, ESQ., D.L., J.P., F.S.A. 

LADY EVANS. 

BARCLAY VINCENT HEAD, ESQ., D.C.L., PH.D. 

L. A. LAWRENCE, ESQ. 

HORACE W. MONCKTON, ESQ., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

AUGUSTUS PREVOST, ESQ., B.A., F.S.A. 

FREDERICK A. WALTERS, ESQ., F.S.A. 

SIR HERMANN WEBER, M.D. 



LIST OF MBMBERS 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 



OF LONDON, 



1902. 



LIST OF MEMBEES 

OP THE 

NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 

OF LONDON, 
1902. 



An Asterisk prefixed to a name indicates that the Member has compounded 
for his annual contribution. 



ELECTS O 

1873 *ALEXIEFF, M. GEORGES D', Maitre de la Cour de S.M. 
1'Empereur de Eussie, 40, Sergnewskaje, St. Petersburg. 

1892 AMEDROZ, HENRY F., ESQ., 7, New Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.O. 

1882 ANDREW, W. J., ESQ., F.S.A., Cadster House, near Whaley 
Bridge, Derbyshire. 

1884 ANDREWS, E. THORNTON, ESQ., 25, Castle Street, Hertford. 

1888 ARNOLD, G. M., ESQ., D.L., F.S.A., Milton Hall, Gravesend, 
Kent. 

1900 AVEBURY, ET. HON. LORD, P.C., F.E.S., High Elms, Down, 
Kent. 

1882 BACKHOUSE, SIR JONATHAN E., BART., The Eookery, Mid- 

dleton Tyas, E.S.O., Yorks. 

1892 BAKER, F. BRAYNE, ESQ., The College, Malvern. 

1902 BALDWIN, A. H., ESQ., 212, Eglinton Eoad, Plumstead, 
Woolwich. 

1898 BANES, ARTHUR ALEXANDER, ESQ., The Eed House, Upton, 
Essex. 

1887 BASCOM, G. J., ESQ., 109, Lexington Avenue, New York, 

U.S.A. 

1896 BEARMAN, THOS., ESQ., Melbourne House, 8, Tudor Eoad, 
Hackney. 

1898 *BENSON, FRANK SHERMAN, ESQ., 214, Columbia Heights, 
Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 

1880 *BIEBER, G. W. EGMONT, ESQ., 4, Fenchurch Avenue, E.C. 

1883 BIGGE, FRANCIS E., ESQ., Hennapyn, Torquay. 



4 LIST OF MEMBERS, 

BLCCTBD 

1882 BIRD, W. S., ESQ., 74, New Oxford Street, W.C. 

1885 BLACKETT, JOHN STEPHENS, ESQ., C.E., Inverard, Aberfoyle, 
N.B. 

1882 BLACKMORE, H. P., ESQ., M.D., Blackmore Museum, Salis- 
bury. 

1896 BLEAZBY, GEO. BERNARD, ESQ., Assist. Accountant- General, 
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, Allahabad, India. 

1882 *BLISS, THOMAS, ESQ., Coningsburgh, Montpelier Eoad, 
Baling, W. 

1879 BLUNDELL, J. H., ESQ., 157, Oheapside, E.G. 

1896 BOULTON, S. B., ESQ., J.P., D.L., F.E.G.S., Copped Hall, 

Totteridge, Herts. 

1897 BOWCHER, FRANK, ESQ., 35, Fairfax Eoad, Bedford Park, W. 

1899 BOWLES, HAROLD BOLLES, ESQ., Oakside, 35, Oakfield Eoad, 
Clifton, Bristol. 

1892 BOYD, WILLIAM C., ESQ., 7, Friday Street, E.G., Vice- 
President and Hon. Treasurer. 

1899 BOYLE, COLONEL GERALD, 48, Queen's Gate Terrace, S.W. 

1877 BROWN, G. D., ESQ., 77, Mexfield Eoad, East Putney, S.W. 

1885 BROWN, JOSEPH, ESQ., C.B.,K.C., 54, Avenue Eoad, Eegent's 

Park, N.W. 

1896 BRUUN, HKRRL. E., 101, Gothersgade, Copenhagen. 

1878 BUCHAN, J. S., ESQ., 17, Barrack Street, Dundee. 

1889 BUCKLEY, LADY, Bathafarn Hall, Euthin, Denbighshire. 

1884 BUICK, DAVID, ESQ., LL.D., Sandy Bay, Larne Harbour, 

Ireland. 
1881 BULL, EEV. HERBERT A., Wellington House, Westgate-on- 

Sea. 

1897 BURN, EICHARD, ESQ., Allahabad, India. 

1881 BURSTAL, EDWARD K., ESQ., M.Inst.C.E., 38, Parliament 
Street, Westminster. 

1858 BUSH, COLONEL J. TOBIN, 41, Rue de POrangerie, le Havre, 
France. 

1900 BUSHELL, STEPHEN W., ESQ., M.D., C.M.G., Shirley, Harold 

Eoad, Upper Norwood, S.E. 

1878 *BuTTERY, W., ESQ. (address not known). 

1886 CALDECOTT, J. B., ESQ., Wallfields, Hertford. 

1894 CARLYON-BRITTON, CAPT. P. W. P., D.L., J.P., F.S.A., 14, 
Oakwood Court, Kensington, W. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. O 

ELECTED 

1898 CARNEGIE, MAJOR D. LINDSAY, 6, Playfair Terrace, St. 

Andrews, N.B. 

1899 CAVE, CHARLES J. P., ESQ., Binsted, Cambridge. 

1886 CHURCHILL, Wm. S., ESQ., 102, Birch Lane, Manchester. 
1884 *CLARK, JOSEPH, ESQ., 5, Grosvenor Gardens, Muswell Hill, 
N.W. 

1890 CLARKE, CAPT. J. E. PLOMER, Welton Place, near Daventry, 

Northamptonshire. 

1891 *CLAUSON, ALBERT CHARLES, ESQ., 12, Park Place Villas, 

Maida Hill West, W. 

1890 CLERK, MAJOR-GEN. M. G., Bengal Army, c/o Messrs. H. S. 

King & Co., 45, Pall MaU, S.W. 

1886 CODRINQTON, OLIVER, ESQ., M.D., F.S.A., M.E.A.S., 12, 
Victoria Eoad, Clapham Common, Librarian. 

1895 COOPER, JOHN, ESQ., Beckfoot, Longsight, Manchester. 

1877 *Copp, ALFRED E., ESQ., Dampiet Lodge, 103, Worple Eoad, 

West Wimbledon, and 36, Essex Street, Strand, W.C. 

1902 COVERNTON, J. G., ESQ., M.A., 22, Granville Park, Black- 
heath, S.E. 

1874 CKEEKE, MAJOR ANTHONY BUCK, Westwood, Burnley. 

1886 *CROMPTON-EOBERTS, CHAS. M., ESQ., 16, Belgrave Square, 
S.W. 

1900 CRONIN, ALFRED C., ESQ., F.S.A., 25, Kensington Palace 

Mansions, De Vere Gardens, W. 

1882 CROWTHER, EEV. G. F., M.A., 2, Sidney Villas, Lower Eoad, 
Sutton, Surrey. 

1899 CULL, EEUBEN, ESQ., Tarradale, Glebe Avenue, Enfield, 

Middlesex. 

1875 CUMING, H. SYER, ESQ., F.S.A.Scot., 63, Kennington Park Road, 

S.E. 

1884 DAMES, M. LONGWORTH, ESQ., M.E.A.S., Alegria, Enfield, 
Middlesex. 

1900 DATTARI, SIGNOR GIOVANNI, Cairo, Egypt. 

1891 DAUGLISH, A. W., ESQ., 33, Colville Square, W. 

1902 DAVEY, EDWARD CHARLES, ESQ., 1, Somerset Cottages, Prior 
Park Road, Bath. 

1878 DAVIDSON, J. L. STRACHAN, ESQ., M.A., Balliol College, 

Oxford. 

1884 DAVIS, WALTER, ESQ., 23, Suffolk Street, Birmingham. 



6 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

LBOMB 

1898 DAVIS, WILLIAM JOHN, ESQ., Erceldeane, Wake Green Eoad, 
Moseley, Birmingham. 

1888 DAWSON, G. J. CROSBIE, ESQ., M.Inst.C.E., F.G.S., F.S.S., 
May Place, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 

1897 DAY, EGBERT, ESQ., F.S.A., M.E.I.A., Myrtle Hill House, 
Cork. 

1886 'DEWICK, EEV. E. S., M.A., F.S.A., 26, Oxford Square, Hyde 
Park, W. 

1888 DICKINSON, EEV. F. BINLEY, M.A., Manor House, Ottery St. 

Mary. 

1889 DIMSDALE, JOHN, ESQ., c/o 0. J. Mercer, Esq., Northwick 

Lodge, Harrow-on-the-Hill. 

1868 DOUGLAS, CAPTAIN R. J. H., Junior United Service Club, 
Charles Street, St. James's, S.W. 

1893 DUDMAN, JOHN, ESQ., JTJN., EosslynHill, Hampstead, N.W. 

1893 ELLIOTT, E. A., ESQ., 41, Holland Park, W. 

1895 ELY, TALFOURD, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., 13, Well Eoad, Hamp- 
etead, N.W. 

1888 ENGEL, M. ARTHUR, 66, Eue de I'Assomption, Paris. 
1879 ERHARDT, H., ESQ., 9, Bond Court, Walbrook, E.G. 

1872 EVANS, ARTHUR J., ESQ., M.A., F.E.S., V.P.S.A., Ashmolean 
Museum, Oxford. 

1849 EVANS, SIR JOHN, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.S.A., 
Corr. de 1'Inst., Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead, President. 

1892 *EVANS, LADY, Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead. 

1861 EVANS, SEBASTIAN, ESQ., LL.D., Abbots Barton, Canterbury. 

1886 FAY, DUDLEY B., ESQ., 53, State Street, Boston, Mass., 
U.S.A. 

1902 FENTIMAN, HARRY, ESQ., 3, Aylesbury Villas, Hounslow. 
1902 FITCH, OSWALD, ESQ., Woodhouse Eaves, Crouch End. 

1901 FLETCHER, LIONEL LAWTORD, ESQ., Norwood Lodge, Tup- 
wood, Caterham. 

1898 FORRER, L., ESQ., Edelweiss, Grove Park, Kent. 

1894 'FOSTER, JOHN ARMSTRONG, ESQ., F.Z.S., Chestwood, near 

Barnstaple. 

1891 Fox, H. B. EARLE, ESQ., 38, Markham Square, S.W. 

1868 FRENTZEL, RUDOLPH, ESQ., 96, Upper Osbaldeston Eoad, Stoke 
Newington, N. 

1882 *FBESHFIELD, EDWIN, ESQ., LL.D., F.S.A., New Bank 
Buildings, 31, Old Jewry, E.C. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. / 

ELECTRO 

1896 TRY, CLAUDE BASIL, ESQ., Howcroft, Stoke Bishop, 

Bristol. 

1897 GANS, LEOPOLD, ESQ., 207, Madison Street, Chicago, U.S.A. 

1871 GARDNER, PROF. PEKCJT, Litt.D., F.S.A., 12, Canterbury Eoad, 
Oxford. 

1889 GARSIDE, HENRY, ESQ., Burnley Eoad, Accrington. 

1894 GOODACRE, H., ESQ., 78, Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park, W. 

1885 GOSSET, MAJOR-GEN. MATTHEW W. E., C.B., Westgate 

House, Dedham, Essex. 

1899 GOWLAND, WILLIAM, PROF., F.I.C., M.C.S., F.S.A., 13, 
Eussell Eoad, Kensington, W. 

1891 *GRANTLEY, LORD, F.S.A., 2, Buckingham Palace Gardens, 

S.W. 
1865 GREENWELL, REV. CANON W., M.A., F.E.S., F.S.A., Durham. 

1894 GRISSELL, HARTWELL D., ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., 60, High 
Street, Oxford. 

1871 GRTJEBER, HERBERT A., ESQ., F.S.A., Assistant-Keeper of 
Coins, British Museum, Hon. Secretary. 

1899 HALL, HENRY PLATT, ESQ., Toravon, Werneth, Oldham. 

1898 HANDS, EEV. ALFRED "W., Wanstead, Essex. 

1902 HAVERFIELD, FRANCIS J., M.A., F.S.A., Christ Church, 
Oxford. 

1864 HEAD, BARCLAY VINCENT, ESQ., D.C.L., Ph.D., Keeper of 
Coins, British Museum. 

1886 *HENDERSON, JAMES STEWART, ESQ., F.E.G.S., M.E.S.L., 

M.C.P. (address not known). 

1901 * HENDERSON, EEV. COOPER K., M.A., Members' Mansions, 
Victoria Street, S.W. 

1892 HEWITT, EICHARD, ESQ., 28, Westbourne Gardens, W. 

1900 HEWLETT, LIONEL M., ESQ., Parkside, Harrow-on-the-Hill, 

Middlesex. 

1880 HEYWOOD, NATHAN, ESQ., 3, Mount Street, Manchester. 

1893 HILBERS, THE VEN. G. C., St. Thomas's Eectory, Haverford- 

west. 

1898 HILL, CHARLES WILSON, ESQ. (address not known). 

1893 HILL, GEORGE FRANCIS, ESQ., M.A., British Museum, 

Foreign Secretary. 

1873 HOBLYN, EICHARD A., ESQ., F.S.A., 30, Abbey Eoad, St. 
John's Wood, N.W. 



O LIST OF MEMBERS. 

XLECTKD 

1898 HOCKING, WILLIAM JOHN, ESQ., 1, Royal Mint, E. 

1895 HODGE, EDWARD G., ESQ., F.S.A., 13, Wellington Street, 
Strand, W.C. 

1895 HODGE, THOMAS, ESQ., 13, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 
1889 HODGES, GEORGE, ESQ., Thornbury, Gloucestershire. 

1877 HODGKIN,T., ESQ., D.C.L., F.S.A., Benwelldene, Newcastle. 

1878 HOWORTH, SIR HENRY H., K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A., 

30, Collingham Place, Earl's Court, S.W., Vice- 
President. 

1883 HUBBARD, WALTER E., ESQ., 6, Broomhill Avenue, Partick, 

Glasgow. 

1885 HUGEL, BARON F. VON, 4, Holford Road, Hampstead, N.W. 

1897 HUTH, REGINALD, ESQ., 32, Phillimore Gardens, Ken- 

sington, W. 

1892 INDERWICK, F. A., ESQ., K.C., F.S.A., 8, Warwick Square, 
S.W. 

1872 JAMES, J. HENRY, Esq., Kingswood, Watford. 

1879 MEX-BLAKE, THE VERY REV. T. W., D.D., F.S.A., Deanery, 

Wells. 

1880 JOHNSTON, J. M. C., ESQ., The Yews, Grove Park, Camber- 

well, S.E. 

1898 JONAS, MAURICE, ESQ., 9, Drapers' Gardens, E.G. 

1902 JONES, E. ALFRED, ESQ., Hampden House, Phoenix Street, 
N.W. 

1843 JONES, JAMES COVE, ESQ., F.S.A., Loxley, Wellesbourne, War- 
wick. 

1873 KAY, HENRY CASSELS, ESQ., 11, Durham Villas, Kensington, W. 

1873 KEARY, CHARLES FRANCIS, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., Savile Club, 

Piccadilly, W. 

1874 *KENYON, R. LLOYD, ESQ., M.A., Pradoe, WestFelton, Salop. 

1884 KING, L. WHITE, ESQ., C.S.I., F.S.A., Deputy Commissioner, 

c/o Messrs. King & Co., Bombay, India. 

1891 KIRKALDY, JAMES, ESQ., 68, East India Road, E, 

1876 KITCHENER, GENERAL VISCOUNT, OF KHARTOUM, G.C.B., 
K.C.M.G., c/o Messrs. Cox & Co., Charing Cross, S.W. 

1884 *KiiT, THOS.W.,EsQ.,Snowdon,WoodbridgeRoad,Guildford. 

1901 KOZMINSKY, ISIDORE, ESQ., Langport Villa, 43, Robe Street, 
St. Kilda, Victoria, Australia. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 9 

ELECTED 

1879 KRUMBHOLZ, E. C., ESQ., Alceater House, Wallington, Surrey. 

1883 *LAGERBERG, M. ADAM MAGNUS EMANUEL, Chamberlain of 
H.M. the King of Sweden and Norway, Director of the 
Numismatic Department, Museum, Gottenburg, and 
K8da, Sweden. 

1901 LAMBERT, HORACE, Esq., Norgrave Buildings, 59A, Bishops- 
gate Street Within, E.G. 

1888 *LAMBROS, M. J. P., Athens, Greece. 

1871 *LANG, SIR ROBERT HAMILTON, The Grove, Dedham, Essex. 

1900 LANGTON, H. NEVILLK S., ESQ., 62, Harley Street, W. 

1898 LAYER, PHILIP G., ESQ., M.E.C.S., Head Street, Colchester. 

1899 LAWES, SIR CHARLES BENNET, BART., The Studio, Chelsea 

Gardens, S.W. 

1877 LAWRENCE, F. G., ESQ., Birchfield, Mulgi-ave Eoad, Sutton, 
Surrey. 

1897 LAWRENCE, H. W., ESQ., 37, Belsize Avenue, N.W. 

1885 *LAWRENCE, L. A., ESQ., 51, Belsize Park, N.W. 

1883 *LAWRENCE, EICHARD HOE, ESQ., 15, Wall Street, New York. 

1871 *LAWSON, ALFRED J., ESQ., Smyrna. 

1893 LESLIE-ELLIS, LiEUT.-CoL. HENRY, D.L., F.S.A., F.E.G.S., 
Magherymore, Wicklow. 

1892 LEWIS, PROF. BUNNELL, M.A.,F.S.A., Queen's College, Cork. 
1862 LINCOLN, FREDERICK W., ESQ., 69, New Oxford Street, W.C. 

1900 LINCOLN, FREDERICK W., ESQ., JUN., 69, New Oxford Street, 

W.C. 

1887 Low, LYMAN H., ESQ., 36, West 126th Street, New York, 
U.S.A. 

1893 LUND, H. M., ESQ., Makotuku. New Zealand. 

1885 *LYELL, A. H., ESQ., F.S.A., 9, Cranley Gardens, S.W. 

1895 MACDONALD, GEO., ESQ., M.A., The University, Glasgow. 

1901 MACFADYEN, FRANK E., ESQ., 50, Larkspur Terrace, Jes- 

mond, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1887 MACKERELL, C. E., ESQ., Dunningley, Balham Hill, S.W. 

1895 MARSH, WM. E., ESQ., Marston, Bromley, Kent. 

1897 MARTIN, A. TRICE, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., The School House, 
Bath College, Bath. 

1896 MASSEY, COL. W. J., 96, Oakley Street, Chelsea, S.W. 



10 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

KLKCTKD 

1880 * MAUDE, REV. S., The Vicarage, Hockley, Essex. 

1901 McDowALL, STEWART A., ESQ., 166, Holland Road, Kensing- 
ton, W. 

1868 McLACHT.AN, R. W., ESQ., 55, St. Monique Street, Montreal, 
Canada. 

1897 MILNE, J. GRAFTON, ESQ., M.A., Holly House, Plaistow, E. 

1887 MITCHELL, E. C., ESQ., c/o Messrs. H. S. King & Co., 65, 

Cornhill. 

1898 MONCKTON, HORACE W., ESQ., F.L.S., F.G.S., 3, Harcourt 

Buildings, Temple, E.G. 

1888 MONTAGUE, L. A. D., ESQ., Penton, near Crediton, Devon. 

1879 MORRIESON, MAJOR H. WALTERS, R.A., R.A. Barracks, 

Pembroke Dock, S. Wales. 

1885 MURDOCH, JOHN GLOAO, ESQ., Huntingtower, The Terrace, 
Camden Square, N.W. 

1894 MURPHY, WAITER ELLIOT, ESQ., 93, St. George's Road, 
Pimlico, S.W. 

1900 MYLNE, REV. ROBERT SCOTT, M.A., B C.L., F.S.A., Great 
Amwell, Herts. 

1893 NAPIER, PROF. A. S., M.A., Ph.D., Hedington Hill, Oxford. 

1864 NECK, J. F., Esq., c/o Mr. F. W. Lincoln, 69, New Oxford 
Street, W.C. 

1893 NELSON, PHILIP, ESQ., M.B., Ch.B., 73, Rodney Street, 
Liverpool. 

1880 NELSON, RAXPH, ESQ., 55, North Bondgate, Bishop Auck- 

land. 

1891 NERVEGNA, M. G., Brindisi, Italy. 

1898 OGDEN, W. SHARP, ESQ., Hill View, Danes Road, Rus- 
holme, Manchester. 

1897 *O'HAGAN, HENRY OSBORNE, ESQ., Al4, The Albany, 
Piccadilly, W. 

1882 OMAN, C. W. C., ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., All Souls College, 
Oxford. 



1890 PAGE, SAMUEL, ESQ., Hanway House, Nottingham. 
1890 PATON, W. R., ESQ., Calymna, Turkey in Asia. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



11 



BLBCTBD 

1882 *PECKOVER, ALEXANDER, ESQ., LL.D., F.S.A., F.L.S., 
F.E.G.S., Lord Lieut. Cambridgeshire, Bank House, 
Wisbech. 

1898 PEDLEE, G. H., ESQ., L.E.C.P., 6, Trevor Terrace, Eutland 

Gate, S.W. 

1896 PEERS, 0. E., ESQ., M.A.,107, Grosvenor Eoad, S.W. 

1894 PERRY, HENRY, ESQ., Middleton, Plaistow Lane, Bromley, 

Kent. 
1862 *PJERRY, MARTEN, ESQ., M.D., Spalding, Lincolnshire. 

1888 PINCHES, JOHN HARVEY, ESQ., 27, Oxenden Street, Hay- 

market. 

1889 POWELL- COTTON, PERCY H. GORDON, ESQ., Quex Park, 

Birchington, Thanet. 

1887 PREVOST, SIR AUGUSTUS, BART., B.A., F.S.A., 79, West- 
bourne Terrace, W. 

1897 PRICE, F. G. HILTON, ESQ., F.S.A., F.G.S., 17, Collingham 

Gardens, S.W. 

1878 PRIDEAUX, COL. W. F., C.S.I., F.E.G.S., M.E.A.S., 
1, West Cliff Terrace, Eamsgate. 

1899 PRITCHARD, JOHN E., ESQ., F.S.A., 8, Cold Harbour Eoad, 

Eedland, Bristol. 

1902 EAMSDEN, HENRY A., ESQ., Consulado General de la Eepub- 
lica de Cuba, Barcelona, Spain. 

1887 EANSOM, W., ESQ., F.S.A., F.L.S., Fairfield, Hitchin, Herts. 
1893 EAPHAEL, OSCAR C., ESQ., 37, Portland Place, W. 

1890 EAPSON, E. J., ESQ., M.A., M.E.A.S., British Museum, 

W.C., Hon. Secretary. 

1848 EASHLEIGH. JONATHAN, ESQ., M.A., D.L., J.P., Menabilly, 
Par Station, Cornwall. 

1887 EEADY, W. TALBOT, ESQ., 55, Eathbone Place, W. 

1882 EICHARDSON, A. B., ESQ., F.S. A.Scot., 4, Hallam Eoad, 
Clevedon, Somerset. 

1895 EIDGEWAY, PROFESSOR W., M.A., Fen Ditton, Cambridge. 

1876 *EOBERTSON, J. D., ESQ., M.A., 21, Park Eoad, Eichmond 
Hill, Surrey. 

1889 EOME, WILLIAM, ESQ., C.C., F.S.A., F.L.S., Creeksea Place, 
Burnham-on-Crouch. 

1900 EOSKELL, EGBERT N., ESQ., 2, Warwick Gardens, Ken- 

sington, W. 



12 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

ELECTED 

1862 ROSTRON, SIMPSON, Esq., 1, Hare Court, Temple, E.G. 

1896 *RoTH, BERNARD, ESQ., J.P., Wayside, Preston Park, 
Brighton. 

1872 *SALAS, MIGUEL T., ESQ., 247, Florida Street, Buenos Ayres. 

1877 *SANDEMAN, LIEUT.- COL. JOHN GLAS, F.S.A., Whin-Hurst, 
Hayling Island, Havant, Hants. 

1875 SCHINDLER, GENERAL A. H., c/o Messrs. W. Dawson and 
Son, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

1895 SELBY, HENRY JOHN, ESQ., The Vale, Shortlands, Kent. 
1890 SELTMAN,E. J.,EsQ., Kinghoe, Great Berkhamsted, Herts. 
1900 SHACKLES, GEORGE L., ESQ., Southfield, Hessle, near Hull. 
1889 SIDEBOTHAM, E. J., ESQ., M.B.,Erlesdene, Bowdon, Cheshire. 

1896 SIMPSON, C. E., ESQ., Huntriss Row, Scarborough. 
1893 *SiMS, E. F. M., ESQ., 12, Hertford Street, Mayiair, W. 

1896 SINHA, KUMVAR KUSHAL PAL RAJS OFKoTLA, Kotla, Agra, 
India. 

1887 SMITH, H. P., ESQ., 256, West 52nd Street, New York. 

1883 SMITH, R. HOBART, ESQ., 542, West 150th Street, New 
York. 

1866 SMITU, SAMUEL, ESQ., Jun.,25, Croxteth Road, Prince's Park, 

Liverpool. 

1890 SMITH, W. BERESFORD, ESQ., Kenmore, Vanbrugh Park 
Road West, Blackheath. 

1892 SMITH, VINCENT A., ESQ., Gwynfa, Cheltenham. 

1881 SMITHE, J.DOYLE, ESQ., F.G.S., Ecclesdin, Upper Norwood. 
1890 *SPENCE, C. J., ESQ., South Preston Lodge, North Shields. 

1867 SPICER, FREDERICK, ESQ., Woodbank, Prestwich Park, near 

Manchester. 

1887 SPINK, C. F., ESQ., 17, Piccadilly, W. 
1894 SPINK, SAMUEL M., ESQ., 17, Piccadilly, W. 

1902 STAINER, CHARLES LEWIS, ESQ., 10, South Parks Road, 

Oxford. 
1890 STANFORD, CHARLES G. THOMAS-, ESQ., 3, Ennismore 

Gardens, S.W. 

1893 STOBART, J. M., ESQ., Glenelg, 18, Routh Road, Wandsworth 

Common, S.W. 

1889 STORY, MAJOR-GEN. VALENTINE FREDERICK, The Forest, 
Nottingham. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 13 

ELKCTED 

1869 *STREATFETLD, REV. GEORGE SIDNEY, Fenny Comptori Rectory, 

Leamington. 

1896 STRIDE, ARTHUR LEWIS, ESQ., J.P., Bush Hall, Hatfield. 

1894 STROEHLIN, M. P. C., 86, Eoute de Chene, Geneva, Switzer- 

land. 

1864 *STUBBS, MAJOR-GEN. F. W., E.A., M.E.A.S., 2, Clarence 
Terrace, St. Luke's, Cork, Ireland. 

1875 STUDD, E. FAIRFAX, ESQ., Oxton, Exeter. 

1893 STURT, LiEUT.-CoL. E. N. (address not known). 

1870 SUGDEN, JOHN, ESQ., Dockroyd, iiear Keighley. 

1896 *TAFFS, H. W., ESQ., 35, Greenholm Eoad, Eltham, S.E. 

1879 TALBOT, LIEUT.-COL. THE HON. MILO GEORGE, E.E., 2, 

Paper Buildings, Temple, E.C. 

1897 TALBOT, W. S., ESQ., C. S. Settlement Officer, Jhelum, 

Pan jab, India. 

1888 TATTON, THOS. E., ESQ., Wythenshawe, Northenden.Cheshire. 

1892 TAYLOR, E. WRIGHT, ESQ., F.S.A., 8, Stone Buildings, 

Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 

1887 TAYLOR, W. H., ESQ., The Croft, Wheelwright Eoad, 
Erdington, near Birmingham. 

1887 THAIRLWALL, T. J., ESQ., 12, Upper Park Eoad, Haverstock 

Hill, N.W. 

1880 *THEOBALD, W., ESQ., North Brow, 9, Croftsea Park, Ilfra- 

combe. 

1896 THOMPSON, HERBERT, ESQ., 35, Wimpole Street, W. 

1896 THORBURN, HENRY W., ESQ., Cradock Villa, Bishop Auck- 
land. 

1888 THURSTON, E., EBQ., Central Government Museum, Madras. 

1895 TILLSTONE, F. J., ESQ., The Librarian, Brighton Public 

Library, Church Street, Brighton. 

1894 TRIGGS. A. B., ESQ., Bank of New South Wales, Yass, New 

South Wales. 

1880 TRIST, J. W., ESQ., F.S.A., F.S.I., 3, Great St. Helens, E.C. 
1887 TROTTER, LIEUT.-COL. HENRY, C.B., United Service Club. 

1874 VERITY, JAMES, ESQ., The Headlands, Earls Heaton, Dewsbury, 

1893 VIRTUE, HERBERT, ESQ., 294, City Eoad, E.C. 



14 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

ELECTED 

1874 VIZE, GEORGE HENRY, ESQ., 15, Spencer Eoad, Putney, 
S.W. 

1899 VLASTO, MICHEL P., ESQ., 12, A116e des Capucines, Mar- 
seilles, France. 

1892 YOST, DR. W., Jaunpur, North- West Provinces, India. 

1902 WAKLEY, THOMAS, ESQ., JUN., L.E.C.P., 5, Queen's Gate, 

S.W. 
1883 WALKER, E. K, ESQ., M.A., Trin. CoU. Dub., Watergate, 

Meath Eoad, Bray, Ireland. 

1897 WALTERS, FRED. A., ESQ., F.S.A., 37, Old Queen Street, 
Westminster, S.W. 

1894 WARD, JOHN, ESQ., J.P., F.S.A., Lenoxvale, Belfast, 
Ireland. 

1889 WARREN, COL. FALKLAND, C.M.G., 911, Nicola Street, Van- 
couver, British Columbia. 

1901 * WAITERS, CHARLES A., ESQ., Highfield, Woolton Eoad, 
Wavertree, Liverpool. 

1901 WEBB, PERCY H., ESQ., Walton-on-Thames. 

1887 *WEBER, EDWARD F., ESQ., 58, Alster, Hamburg, Germany. 

1885 *WEBER, FREDERIC P., ESQ., M.D., F.S.A., 19, Harley 
Street, W. 

1883 *WEBER, SIR HERMANN, M.D., 10, Grosyenor Street, GroB- 

venor Square, W. 

1884 WEBSTER, W. J., ESQ., 109, Streatham Hill, S.W. 

1899 WELCH, FRANCIS BERTRAM, ESQ., B.A., 8, York View, 
Pocklington, East Yorks. 

1883 WHELAN, F. E., ESQ., 6, Bloomsbury Street, W.C. 
1869 *WiGRAM, MRS. LEWIS (address not known). 

1881 WILLIAMSON, GEO. C., ESQ., F.E.S.L., The Mount, Guild- 
ford, Surrey. 

1869 WINSEK, THOMAS B., Esq., 81, Shooter's Hill Eoad, Blackheath, 
S.E. 

1868 WOOD, HUMPHREY, ESQ., F.S.A., Chatham. 

1860 WORMS, BARON G. DE, F.E.G.S., F.S.A., V.P.E.S.L., F.G.S., 
D.L., J.P., 17, Park Crescent, Portland Place, W. 

1880 WROTH, W. W., ESQ., British Museum. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 15 

ELECTED 

1885 WYON, ALLAN, ESQ., F.S.A., F.S.A.Scot., 2, Langham 
Chambers, Portland Place, W. 



1889 YEATES, F. WILLSON, ESQ., 7, Leinster Gardens, Hyde 
Park, W. 

1880 YOUNG, ARTHUR W., ESQ., 12, Hyde Park Terrace, W. 

1898 YOUNG, JAMES, ESQ., 11, Porchester Terrace, Lancaster 
Gate, W. 



1900 ZIMMERMAN, REV. JEREMIAH, M.A., D.D., 109, South 
Avenue, Syracuse, New York, U.S. A 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

ELECTED 

1898 His MAJESTY THE KING OF ITALY, Palazzo Quirinale, 
Eome. 

1891 BABELON, M. ERNEST, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 
1862 BARTHELEMY, M. A. DE, 9, Eue d'Anjou, Paris. 

1898 BLANCHET, M. J. A., 40, Avenue Bosquet, Paris. 

1881 DANNENBERG, HERE H., N.W., Lessingstrasse, Berlin. 

1899 DROUIN, M. EDMOND, 47, Avenue Kleber, Paris. 

1898 DRESSEL, DR. H., Miinz Kabinet, K. Museen, Berlin. 

1899 GABRICI, PROF. DR., Ettore, Salita Stella, 21, Naples. 

1893 GNECCHI, SIGR. FRANCESCO, 10, Via Filodrammatici, Milan. 

1886 HERBST, HERR C. F., Director of the Museum of Northern 
Antiquities and Inspector of the Coin Cabinet, Copenhagen. 

1886 HILDEBRAND, DR. HANS, Eiksantiquarien, Stockholm. 

1873 IMHOOF-BLUMER, DR. F., Wiuterthur, Switzerland. 

1893 JONGHE, M. le Vicomte B. de, Eue du Trone, 60, Brussels. 

1878 KENNER, DR. F., K. K. Museen, Vienna. 

1893 LOEBBECKE, HERR A., Cellerstrasse, 1, Brunswick. 

1898 MADDEN, F. W., ESQ., Holt Lodge, 86, London Eoad, 
Brighton. 

1898 MILANI, PROF. Luigi Adriano, Florence. 



16 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

KLVCTED ,, , 

1878 MOMMSEN, PROFESSOR DR. THEODOR, Charlottenburg, Berlin. 
1899 PICK, DR. BEHRENDT, Herzogliche Bibliothek, Gotha. 
1895 REINACH, M. THEODORE, 26, Rue Murillo. Pans. 
1891 SVORONOS, M. J. N., Conservateur du Cabinet des MMailles, 

Athens. 

1881 TIESENHAUSEN, S. E. BARON WLADIMIR VON, Commission 
Arch^ologique au Palais d'Hiver, St. Petersburg. 

1886 WEIL, DR. RUDOLF, Konigliche Museen, Berlin. 



MEDALLISTS 

OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

1883 CHARLES ROACH SMITH, ESQ., F.S.A. 

1884 AQTJILLA SMITH, ESQ., M.D., M.R.I. A. 

1885 EDWARD THOMAS, ESQ., F.R.S. 

1886 MAJOR-GENERAL ALEXANDER CUNNINGHAM, C.S.I., C.I.E. 

1887 JOHN EVANS, ESQ., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.S.A. 

1888 DR. F. IMHOOF-BLUMER, of Winterthur. 

1889 PROFESSOR PERCY GARDNER, Litt.D., F.S.A. 

1890 MONSIEUR J. P. Six, of Amsterdam. 

1891 DR. C. LUDWIG MULLER, of Copenhagen. 

1892 PROFESSOR R. STUART POOLE, LL.D. 

1893 MONSIEUR W. H. WADDINGTON, Senateur, Membre de 1'In- 

stitut, Paris. 

1894 CHARLES FRANCIS KEARY, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A. 

1895 PROFESSOR DR. THEODOR MOMMSEN, of Berlin. 

1896 FREDERIC W. MADDEN, ESQ., M.R.A.S. 

1897 DR. ALFRED VON SALLET, of Berlin. 

1898 THE REV. CANON W. GREENWELL, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

1899 MONSIEUR ERNEST BABELON, Membre de 1'Institut, Con- 

servateur des Medailles, Paris. 

1900 PROFESSOR STANLEY LANE-POOLE, M.A., Litt.D. 

1901 S. E. BARON WLADIMIR VON TIESENHAUSEN. 

1902 ARTHUR J. EVANS, ESQ., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., Keeper of the 

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



i. 

SOME PONTIG ERAS. 

HAVING recently had the opportunity of going carefully 
through the whole series of Pontic coins, I have collected 
some new facts and observations concerning the eras used 
in that region, which may be of some interest even to the 
not strictly numismatical reader. 

I. COINS OF PYTHODORIS. 

The drachms of Queen Pythodoris, as is well known, 
are of two types : one with the laureate head of Augustus, 
the other with the head of Tiberius, recognisable, notwith- 
standing the absence of any legend, by features of much 
greater breadth. On both types the inscription of the 
reverse reads BAZIAIZZA TTYeOAHPIZ ETOYZ E 
(year 60). It has been argued that as both coins date from 
the same year, though bearing different heads, they must 
have been struck in the very year when Tiberius succeeded 
Augustus, i.e. A.D. 14. The origin of the era would be 
therefore (60+1) 14=47 B.C., in other words the battle 
of Zela. 

This reasoning is not quite correct. Pontic years begin, 
of course, towards the equinox of autumn, say October 1. 
On the other hand, as Professor W. M. Ramsay has well 
observed, eras connected with an historical event always 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. B 



2 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 

start from the first day of the local year in which the event 
took place, even if it happened towards the end of the 
year. E.g., " the era of liberty " on the coins of Amisus, 
though related, as we know by Strabo, to the fall of the 
tyrant Straton subsequent to the battle of Actium (Septem- 
ber 2, 31 B.C.), begins in October, 32 B.C., and not, as 
Imhoof writes, in 31 B.C. Now Julius Caesar won the 
battle of Zela, as we learn from a Roman calendar, on 
August 2, 47 B.C. Therefore, an era connected with thia 
battle ought to begin in October, 48 (not 47) B.C., and 
year 60 Pythodor. would be October, 12 A.D.,to October, 13 
A.D. But as Tiberius succeeded on August 19, 14 A.D., a 
coin of year 12-13 A.D. with his head is clearly impossible. 

The conclusion is, that as the Pythodoric era really 
starts from October, 47, it has nothing to do with the 
battle of Zela ; indeed this battle had no effect either on 
the fundamental organization of Pontus, or on the fate of 
the Polemons, a family not mentioned in Pontus before 
36 B.C. (Dio, xlix. 25). We have here simply a " Caesarian 
era," with the same starting point as that of Gabala in 
Syria. 

To return to our coins, it is commonly assumed that the 
Augustus drachm was struck before the death of that 
emperor, and the Tiberius drachm after. But this 
supposition is highly improbable. Why should Pytho- 
doris have chosen to strike coins with the head of 
Augustus just the very last months of his life ? Far 
more likely is it that both drachms were struck 
simultaneously, immediately after the accession of 
Tiberius, say in September, 14 A.D. On the Augustan 
coin, the emperor is represented as deified; father 
and adopted son are thus associated in a common 
homage. 



SOME PONTIC ERAS. o 

That both coins are contemporary is also confirmed by 
the analogy of their reverse types, the Capricorn for 
Augustus, the Balance (or, on a Paris specimen, Sun in 
Balance) for Tiberius. The astrological meaning of these 
types needs no demonstration, but their exact attribution 
is a matter of doubt, and deserves to be stated more 
precisely. The Capricorn is surely the genethliac sign of 
Augustus, as expressly stated by several authors. 1 But, 
as Augustus was born on September 23, 63 B.C., at day- 
break, the Capricorn cannot be the sign under which the 
sun rose at this period (this was the Balance), nor, what 
in this case is identical, the sign that rose above the 
horizon at the moment of his birth. Perhaps, as M. 
Bouche Leclercq has conjectured, the Capricorn was the 
horoscopic sign of Augustus' conception (December 23, 
nine months before his birth). 

As to the Balance, M. Bouche Leclercq, in his excellent 
work on Greek astrology (p. 369, note 1), contends that it 
belongs also to Augustus, as being the sign under which 
he was born. But there is no evidence whatever that the 
Balance was ever connected with Augustus. The only 
text 2 quoted by M. Bouche Leclercq (Manilius, iv. 548 sq. 
" felix aequato genitus sub pondere Librae ilium 
urbes et regna trement," etc.) clearly refers to Tiberius, 
for it is an old mistake, unfortunately repeated by that able 



1 Germanicus, Aratea, 558 sq. ; Suetonius, August. 94 ad fin., 
Manilius, Astron., ii. 507 sq. Moreover, many coins of the type 
mentioned by Suetonius. 

2 He also quotes, but hardly to the point, Virgil, Georg. i., 
33, and Manilius, iv: 776 : " qua (i.e. libra) genitus Caesarque 
rue us nunc condidit orbem," an undoubtedly spurious line, which 
the older editors corrected (?) into " qua genitus cum fratre 
Remus (!) hanc condidit urbem," but which was justly rejected 
by Bentley. 



4 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

scholar, to suppose that the four first books of the Astro- 
nomica were written under Augustus, and only the fifth 
under his successor. Lachmann, and more recently Freier 
and Schanz, have convincingly proved that the whole poem 
was written or at least published under Tiberius, to whom 
it is dedicated. So Sallet was quite right to attribute the 
Libra to Tiberius. But how would the Libra be his 
genethliac sign, either of birth or of conception, he having 
been born on November 16, 42 B.C. (Sueton. Tib. 5), and 
consequently conceived about February 16? 

The answer is that in many systems the genethliac sign 
was not the sign in which the sun rose, but the sign that 
rose above the horizon at the precise moment of the con- 
ception or birth (see Bouche Leclercq, p. 384). If the 
theme is one of birth, as on November 16 the sun rises 
about 7 o'clock A.M. in the Scorpion, we may presume that 
Tiberius was born about 9 o'clock A.M., the Libra being 
the sign immediately to the east of the Scorpion. I will 
not conclude without mentioning that I have had in my 
hands a paper impression of a drachm of Pythodoris with 
the same inscription and date as the known specimens, 
but with quite different types (obverse, head of queen with 
hair twisted ; reverse, cornucopiae). I am not, however, 
ready to vouch for the genuineness of this coin. 



II. ANTONIA TRYPHAENA. 

The coins struck under the reign of Polemon II may 
be roughly divided into three classes : 

I. Coins with or without the King's portrait. Legend, 
BAZIAEJ1Z nOAEMUNOZ. Reverse, head of an 
emperor, prince, or empress (Claudius, Agrippina, Nero, 



SOME PONTIC ERAS. 



Britanriicus 3 ), with the regnal year of JPolemon (from 
IB = 12 to Kf = 23). 

II. With names of King Polemon and Queen Try- 
phaena ; always the King's portrait, sometimes the 
Queen's. No dates. 

III. With portrait and name of Queen Tryphaena, 
portrait of King Polemon (but not his name), and the 
regnal years 17 = 17 (Berlin), and IH = 18 (British 
Museum) . 

These last coins, of extreme scarcity, have sometimes 
been chronologically mixed with those of Class I. ; they 
would fall, therefore, in the beginning of the reign of 
Nero. But it seems quite incredible that Polemon should 
have inscribed his own regnal years on coins from which 
his name is absent, and no less improbable, that having 
once begun to strike coins with the Emperor's effigy, he 
should have suppressed it, especially under a prince as 
jealous of his prerogative as Nero. This is also the 
reason why I cannot accept Imhoof's proposal (Zeitschrift, 
xx. 267) to substitute Tryphaena for Agrippina on the 
drachms with a female portrait, dated years IB (12) to 
IE (15). Neither the shape of the diadem, nor the 
iconographic considerations of very slight weight in 
this series can prevail against historical reasons. 

I am therefore inclined to think that the coins of 
Class III. must be placed quite at the beginning of the 
series, and that the regnal years they bear are those of 
Tryphaena, not of her son Polemon. If we admit that 
they were struck in the very first years of the joint 



3 The pretended drachm with Caligula's head (Paris Col- 
lection) is very doubtful. The coin is of a barbarous style ; the 
Emperor may be Nero and the date f>l (23) instead of F (3). 



6 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

reign of Poleraon and his mother, they will enable us to 
determine the as yet unknown date of the death of 
Pythodoris. 

We know from Strabo (xii. 3, 29) that Pythodoris had 
three children by her husband Polemon I. Of these, the 
eldest, named like his father, was associated with his 
mother in the government of the kingdom, but without 
the regal title ; he seems to have been dead when Strabo 
published his Geography (19 or 20 A.D.), for this author 
speaks of him in the imperfect tense : truySipMi 
(not avvtioiKti) TJ; /jitjrpl rrjv ap^{jv. The second son, 
Zeno-Artaxias, was King of Armenia from 18 A.D. So 
there remained only the daughter, Antonia Tryphaena, 
widow of Cotys the Sapaean, King of the Thracian. 
Odrysae. Consequently, when Pythodoris died, Try- 
phaena succeeded legally to her title, although Tiberius 
did not allow her to take possession of the kingdom of 
Pontus, which seems to have been put under sequestra- 
tion, whilst Tryphaena took up her abode at Cyzicus. 

An interesting document of this first abortive reign of 
Tryphaena is the leaden counter of the Margarites 
Collection (Rev. num. 1886, p. 26): "ANTHNIAZ 
TPY<I>AINHZ. Sceptre. Rev. A in an incuse circle." Itake 
A for a regnal year (year 1). Later on Caligula restored 
the children of Tryphaena respectively to the thrones of 
Thrace, Pontus and Lesser Armenia. This happened, 
according to Dio 4 ' (lix. 12) in the year 38 A.D. ; we can add 
that it was towards the end of that year, for the coins of 
Polemon II, with date 12 (17), bear sometimes the head of 
Claudius, who died October 13, 54 A.D. (specimen in the 

4 Dio calls young Polemon, by mistake, son of Polemon ; he 
ought to have said yrandson. 






SOME POXTIC ERAS. I 

Milan Collection), more often the head of Nero ; therefore 
year 17 Polem.r= October 54-55 A.D., and the starting-point 
of the era is October 38 not 37. 5 Tryphaena, as we know 
by the coins, reigned at first jointly with Polemon II in 
Poritus ; like Louis XVIII at his restoration, she reckoned 
her years from the beginning of her legitimate reign, i.e.> 
from the death of her mother Pythodoris. If, therefore, 
the Berlin coin of Class III, with year IZ (17) of 
Tryphaena, was struck, as is very probable, A.D. 38-9, the 
consequence is that year 1 of Tryphaena coincides with 
22-3 A.D., and that Pythodoris died between October, 22 
A.D. and 23 A.D. 

III. AMASIA. 

Dr. Imh oof's note on the era of Amasia {Griechischc 
Munzen, p. 556) is not as thorough as this excellent 
scholar's arguments are wont to be. His list of dated 
coins is fairly complete, but he fails in the conclusion 
" that the known dates admit of any origin for the era 
between 3 B.C. and 1 A.D." This is not the case, and 
moreover, the origin he chooses at random 2 B.C., era of 
Sebastopolis although approved by Kubitschek (art. Aera 
in Pauly-Wissowa, col. 645), is surely wrong. To solve 
the problem the following assured dates must be kept in 
mind: 



* In consequence, the famous decree of Cyzicus (Ditten- 
berger, 2nd ed. No. 365), dated Thargelion (May), under the 
hipparchate of Caligula, which mentions the restoration of the 
three kings as a recent event, does not belong to year 37 A.D. 
as Dittenberger contends, but to year 39. This date has already 
been proposed by Millingen on the very apt grounds that 
Drusilla (+ 38) is already mentioned as a goddess, in whose 
honour games are to be given in presence of Tryphaena and 
her sons. 



MM ISM ATM < IIKONK I,K. 



Hiimrofir, 200 aU named 

Fobruary, 211 HujiliiniiiN Huvuruu die*. CAfftcalla iueeaodi. 

' 212 'lulu ilinH. 
Murh, 2H5 -Alexander Hovoriw die. 

Almontall larger eoUwtiorw POHHOHN coin* of ArnaHia 
with the legend T6TAC CEBA(<rn*v), dated year 
CM = 208 (revenue typos : 1'allan, Tyoho, Nike, AnklepioH). 
Thne coin* oiinnot Imve boon xtruck before Oct'.li-r, 
J40H-0 A.I). (tt (Jettt wan not croatod Au^iiNtiiM before that 
year) nor Inter than Oetober, 20D-JO. For nuppoM 208 
AIIIUN. = 210-11, then 200 Arnan. = ()(jtobor, 211-12 ; but 
wn hiivn eoiiiH of the year C0 = 200 (typoi ; flaming 
altar; 1'ai'U, Vionna, linhoof, Loiibhor.ko) with tho ^fH^y 
and naino of HuptiiniiiN H^VIMMIM, wlio did in Kubruary, 
211 ; il.< M-I..I, it in uf.tm-ly iniito^Hihlo that 20',) Ainu*. = 
Ootohur, 211-12. Thimfarwe have iitill the ohoioa between 
iin equation! 

20H A man. =208-1) A.I>. 
and 20HAmai, =200-10 A. D. 

Itut dm " . "iini alternative i rendered in it** turn 
i in 1. 1. vii Kir l.y a K 1 '""!' ' l- "i" N ( >f HovoniH Alexander 
(I\|M , altar, Tycdio, HadeH, HerapiN, Muropa) with the 
dato CAA (2.'M). For if 208 AIIIUN. = 200-10 A.U., then 
2'J4 AinwN, = 2Ufl-rt A.n. ; but Alexander died in March, 
211ft ! Mm . ..i all poiiibilitiei only ono remaiiiH, vi/.., 
208 AinaN, = 208-0 A.U., and consequently (lie em of 
AiniiMia hegiiiN ctn'tuiti/i/ in Oetober, 1 A.D., and had notliin^ 
to do with tliH em of StbaitopoliN, What uirouniNtanuuH 
I- I to the .inn. -\, iii. MI of Ainania, whieh had lull., ii.. 

' Not 211, UN Hill KIVON it in IIJH //,..//..../,, p. usi-l : n vary 
rare iiiiHtalui in tin t)Xflttllnt. liltlo work, \\ln.-li lum IKK- 

lUjtiilly Mini (liiNai'Vinlly the r,i,/r m,, nm ul all niiiiii-diiallMlH. 



M'MI I'l'N I h IK U 9 

" belonged to kings " (Strabo, xii. 3, 30) remains \nikuo\\ n. 
oi'i-ourse they are quite independent of the annexation 
>t' I'aphlagonia, which, MS we nowjuiow quite- positively by 
tlu- inscription of N'eoclamliopolis (Ouraont, Rev. M. yr. 
l!HH, p. 'Jo ,v,/. v , took place in 6'-5 B.C. 7 

1 V . Sri. vsrn v AND SKHA8TOPOLlS-HKRACLKOrOLI8 

An inscription of Sobastopolis-Horaoleopolia (Soulou 
Serai), :il>ly c-omwontt'd on by L6on Renier (Hwu0 
i . 6f : o/,) ( //,/m', 1877, i. p. 199), identitiea year 0AP (139) 
ofthisi-iiy with the 21st potestas tril>ttHt'ti<t of Hadrian 
(l>tv>iuber, 137-8), Aolius Coiuiuodua (died January 1, 
I t^ In-iuor Caesar. The consequence is that the era 
hojjius October, 2 H.I\, and this a^rotvs with the evidence 
i>C coins. In the neighbouring town of Sebasteia (Sivas), 
as liulittof has rooently pointed out (Zeitsckrift, xx. 264 ; 
Ktt'inttsnitiwht 1 ' MuHseH t p. t5), the coins of Verus with year 
ItiS, and of Valerian with year 2 a-t, lead to an era begin- 
niu* lu'tween October, 2 H.U. and 1 A,I>. There can bo no 
doubt, however, that the real origin is 2 B.C. as at Sebas- 
toj>olis, tor both towns belonged to tlu> sunn- district, 
(Pliny, vi. 8), and formed the nucleus of the 
ot Pontius Ualaticus, established at the death of 
Ai'|>on\ v Strabo, xii. 3, 37). 

1 must. ho\\t'v T, protest against the common opinion 
that identities S>b;istei:i with the town of Megalopolis, 
founded l>y l'oiupe\ . Strabosaya expressly (xii. 3,37) 
that the townships of 'Mi\ and Megalopolis (the latter 
Colopene and (\unisone) were pieeed out by 



1 I omit to discuss the era of (\nuaiw, because Eubitsobek 

l ('. i:'.\ rorrootiug huboof, bus rightly howu that its startiug 
point v-un euly l>o Ootolu-r, , v.i>. 

\iu.. u. KOVKMI shun v C 



10 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

subsequent generals (i.e. Anthony and Augustus) between 
the high priests of Zela and Comana and Ateporix ; that 
later on the lot of Ateporix was reduced to a province, 
the remainder being divided between Dyteutos (the priest 
of Comana) and Pythodoris. The part of Pythodoris 
included now Zelitis and Mcgalopolitis ; this is also stated 
xii. 3, 31. If therefore Megalopolis belonged still to 
Pythodoris about 19 A.D., how can it be the same place as 
Sebasteia, whose era (i.e. annexation to Rome) starts from 
2 B.C. ? Sebasteia may be Carana named by Strabo as 
the chief town of the new province unless Carana be 
rather Sebastopolis. As to the exact site and ulterior 
name of Megalopolis, we have not as yet the slightest 
clue. But it is better to own our ignorance than to shelter 
it under false knowledge. 

THEODORE REINACH. 



II. 



NOTE ON A GOLD COIN OF ADDEDOMAROS. 




Fig. 2. 



Fig. 3. 



IN January, 1856, rather more than forty-five years ago, 
I communicated to this Society a paper on the attribution 
of certain ancient British coins to Addedomaros, a prince 
whose name was then for the first time enrolled on the 
list of British rulers. I now lay before the Society 
another specimen of his coinage, not as exhibiting a new 
type, but as adding a new locality to the list of places 
where coins of Addedomaros have been found. 

The type of the coin is that of my Plate XIV. I. 1 
(Fig. 1.) 

Obv. Ornament consisting of two narrow solid crescents 
back to back, the cusps retorted and terminating 

1 Ancient British Coins. 



12 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

in pellets ; in the interior of each crescent a 
chevron-shaped compartment enclosing five pel- 
lets ; a pellet in each angle between the crescents. 

Rev. ADDEDOMAROS (the upper portions of the letters 
ADDEDOM . . only visible). Horse prancing 
to the right, his tail branched ; above, a rosette 
and two ring-ornaments ; beneath, a ring-orna- 
ment and a branch ; in front, two ring-ornaments 
connected in the form of an 8. 

N. 86 grs. 

This coin was found about two years ago in a field near 
a footpath leading from Tring to Drayton Beauchamp ; 
close to the boundary between the counties of Herts and 
Bucks, but I am led to believe within the former county. 

It is not a little remarkable that I have seen another 
coin of Addedomaros which was also found within a short 
distance of Drayton Beauchamp, in a field called Stockwell 
Piece, close to the Lower Icknield Way. This was dug up 
about 1897, and is of the type of my Plate XIV, 5 and 6 
(Fig. 2). 

Obv. Starlike ornament consisting of six curved wreaths 
with three ribbed crescents in the centre. 

Rev. No traces of legend. Horse to the right ; above, 
an ornament formed of three horses' noses ; 
below, the usual cornucopite-like figure : in the 
exergue, a series of pellets. 

N. 8oi grs. 

I have an uninscribed gold coin found in the same field 
in 1878. It is engraved in my Plate K, No. 14, and has a 
cruciform ornament on the obverse filling the field, and on 
the reverse a horse to the right; above it two solid 
crescents, back to back ; weight 85 grains. The horse is 
much like that on the coin last described, so that possibly 



NOTE ON A GOLD COIN OF ADDEDOMAROS. 13 

tliis piece may be an uninscribed coin struck under 
Addedomaros. 

As is well known there are three distinct types of the 
inscribed coinage of Addedomaros, which differ mainly in 
the device on the obverse, though there are also salient 
differences in the horse and its adjuncts on the reverses. 
Regarding merely the obverse, the first type is that of 
the coin that we have first been considering, which for 
the sake of brevity I may term the double-mitre type ; 
the second is that with three ribbed crescents in the centre 
from which proceed six curved wreaths, separated by 
pellets and ring-ornaments ; and the third presents a 
cruciform ornament, consisting of two wreaths at right 
angles to each other, with two ribbed crescents in the 
centre. 

As I pointed out many years ago, it is impossible to 
arrange the chronological sequence of these types with 
any degree of certainty, the representatives of which are 
all of much the same weight, but there are some reasons 
for supposing that the order in which I have mentioned 
them is that in which they originally appeared. An argu- 
ment to the contrary might perhaps be found in the fact 
that the first type is the only one of which quarter-staters 
are known. The introduction of a smaller denomination 
into the currency seems to denote an advance in civilisation, 
and therefore also probably in time, but on the other hand 
it must be borne in mind that the quarter-staters belong- 
ing to the earliest type of the ancient British coinage are 
of by no means uncommon occurrence. 

What is more remarkable is the fact that in the case of 
all three types the intermediate links in the chain of 
evolution that connect them with earlier ancient British 
coins are exceedingly difficult to find, if indeed they have 



14 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

not still to be discovered. There can be no doubt that 
each type is legitimately descended from the Macedonian 
Philippus, but some links in the pedigree are, it appears, 
still wanting. 

The first type (Fig. 1), that of the double-mitre, is more 
or less intimately connected with that of the coins of the 
Iceni, both in gold and silver, having two crescents back to 
back in the centre of the device. The connection with some 
of the gold coins of Dubnovellaunus is less evident, though 
the two crescents back to back and the branch on the 
reverse recall his coinage. The branched tail of the 
horse has an analogy with the tails of the horses on the 
coins of the Iceni, though in their case the branching is, 
as a rule, outwards and not inwards. 

The second type (Fig. 2), with the six curved wreaths and 
the three crescents in the centre, is also anomalous. Though 
three crescents form the centre of the device on a unique 
gold coin of Antedrigus (Evans, PI. XVIII. 21), and on 
an Icenian silver coin (Evans, p. 588), the curved wreaths 
are wanting upon them, and the general device is entirely 
different. The direction in which this type of Addedo- 
maros points is, however, Icenian. 

Analogies with the third type (Fig. 3), that of the two 
ribbed crescents in the centre of a cruciform ornament, are 
more readily found, but in all other cases the angles between 
the limbs of the cross are filled with minor decorations, 
and the spaces are not left blank as on the coins of Ad- 
dedomaros. The nearest analogy is exhibited by a gold 
coin of the Iceni (Evans, PI. XIV. 11), but this appears 
to be rather a derivative than a prototype. 

Taken together the three types seem to show a rela- 
tionship, more or less intimate, with those found on the 
coins of the Eastern Counties that are usually attributed to 



NOTE ON A GOLD COIN OF ADDEDOMAROS. 15 

the Iceni ; but, as I have already remarked, there seem to 
be a certain number of types still to be discovered to 
complete the morphological sequence. Let us hope that 
future researches may still bring some of them to 
light. 

There is, however, another point of view from which 
to consider the coinage of Addedomaros. The existence 
of these three widely differing types, struck by the same 
prince and found practically in the same district, points to 
a reign that must in all probability have extended over a 
considerable number of years ; and this conclusion is cor- 
roborated by the fact that there is evidence of a large 
number of dies having been engraved for each separate 
type. 

In my own collection are six specimens of type No. 1, 
and of no two can it be affirmed that they were undoubt- 
edly struck from the same dies. The same is the case 
with three coins of type No. 2, and four of type No. 3, 
also in my own cabinet. It may be mentioned that one 
of these latter is an ancient forgery of bronze plated 
with gold, found at Chalfont Park, near Slough, Bucks. 
An ancient gold-plated forgery of type No. 1 was also 
found near Oxford. 

Our only evidence as to the district over which Adde- 
domaros reigned is to be derived from the " find-spots" 
of his coins, and it will be well here to recapitulate them 
under the heads of existing counties. They are as 
follows : 

Norfolk . Norwich. 

Suffolk . . Cavendish, Long Melford, Ipswich. 

Essex . . Brundon, Colchester, Halstead, Marks Tey. 

Cambridge. Barrington, Newmarket. 

Northants . Great Houghton. 

Beds Luton. 



16 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Bucks . . Drayton Beauchamp, Slough. 
Oxon . . Wood Eaton. 
Kent . . Reculver. 

The evidence is therefore overwhelmingly in favour of 
fixing his territory in the Eastern Counties, with its centre 
probably in Essex. 

As to the date of the reign of Addedoraaros our only 
guides are the types, style of workmanship and the weight 
of his coins. As I have elsewhere pointed out, the in- 
ference to be drawn from all these sources is in favour of 
his belonging to a somewhat earlier date than that of 
Cunobeline. Although, as already stated, some links in 
the chain of evolution are wanted, the types and style of 
workmanship bear considerable analogies with those of 
the gold coins of both Tasciovanus and Dubnovellaunus, 
while the weight corresponds with that of the earliest 
issue of the former of these two princes, and not with 
that of the gold coins of Cunobeline. 

The usual weight of these latter does not exceed 84 
grains, while the average weight of thirteen coins of 
Addedomaros in my own collection is 85 J grains, which is 
also the weight of some of the early coins of Tasciovanus 
bearing his name. It is possible that at an earlier date 
still he may have struck uninscribed coins, but placing 
those that I have cited at say 20 to 10 years B.C., we 
have a more or less trustworthy guide for assigning a 
date to Addedomaros. What his relations as a ruler in 
Essex and the Eastern Counties may have been with 
Dubnovellaunus and Cunobelinus, both of whom seem 
successively to have occupied much the same district of 
country, is a question into which I cannot now enter. It 
affords tempting matter for speculation, but more facts are 
necessary in order to lay a firm foundation on which to 



NOTE ON A GOLD COIN OF ADDEDOMAROS. 17 

build. "We must for the present be content to know that 
at a period not very remote from the Christian era a 
British prince, Added omaros, reigned in what are now 
our Eastern Counties, and that he has left imperishable 
monuments of his power and civilisation in the coins which 
have now, not for the first time, been brought under your 
consideration. 

Before quitting the subject it may not be unprofitable 
to add a few words with regard to one of the principal 
localities in Essex where coins of this class have been 
found. 

It is unfortunate that we have no properly detailed 
account of the hoard of ancient British coins found at 
Marks Tey, which has already been frequently cited. 
Were such an account forthcoming it would do much to 
show what were the coins current with those of Adde- 
domaros and to assist us in fixing his chronological 
position. 

It is, however, to my mind doubtful whether there 
were not two distinct hoards of British coins found at 
Marks Tey, one in 1807 and the other about 1843. In 
the third edition of Ruding's Annals of the Coinage? in 
the description of Plate II, No. 40, a coin of Addedomaros 
of the type of that now exhibited, it is stated, " A large 
parcel of this type was found within five miles of 
Colchester in the year 1807. The metal was so base that 
their intrinsic value was only about five shillings and 
sixpence each." There can, I think, be but little doubt 
that the hoard referred to was found at Marks Tey, 
which place is just five miles from Colchester. I have in 
my collection a coin with a plain convex obverse of the 

? Vol. ii. p. 272. 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. D 



18 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

type Plate D, No. I, 3 stated to hare been found at 
Marks Tey, of very base metal and weighing only 74 
grains, which appears to come within this category as to 
value. The type belongs to a late date in the British 
coinage, as two or three specimens, one in my collection 
weighing 69 grains only, were present in the Savernake 
Forest hoard in company with silver coins of Epaticcus 4 
and Tiberius. 

The coin of Addedoraaros that is under consideration 
has been submitted to an experienced goldsmith and 
is reported to be about eleven carats fine, or worth 
1 18s. lid. per ounce. For a coin weighing 86 grains 
this would give an intrinsic Value of nearly 7s., instead 
of the 5s. 6d. mentioned in Ruding. The more distinct 
notice of coins found at Marks Tey is in the Proceedings 
of the Numismatic Society for May 23rd, 1843. It is 
there stated the Rev. Henry Jenkins exhibited three gold 
British coins found at Marks Tey in the county of Essex, 
no date of discovery being mentioned. Two of these 
resemble No. 36, Plate II, of Ruding, the other is a 
variety of No. 38 in the same plate. In other words 
two of the Marks Tey coins there described are of the 
second type of Addedomaros, while the third closely 
resembles the uninscribed gold coin already mentioned as 
having been found near Dray ton Beauchamp. A coin of 
the third type of Addedomaros, also found at Marks Tey, 
is in the Colchester Museum, 5 so that all three of his types 
have been found at that place, whether all at the same 
time or at intervals it seems impossible to determine. A 



3 Ancient British Coins, p. 80. 

4 Ancient British Coins, p. 488. 

5 Ancient British Coins, p. 578. 



NOTE ON A GOLD COIN OF ADDEDOMAROS. 19 

coin of Dubnovellaunus with the two crescents in the 
centre is stated to have been found at Marks Tey 6 in 
1850, but it possibly belongs to a find of an earlier period. 
Whether two hoards were found at Marks Tey or only 
one, I fear that not much more information is to be 
gathered from them, and I only hope that what 1 have 
said on the subject will not be regarded as needlessly 
speculative or unjustifiably tedious. 

JOHN EVANS. 

' Ancient British Coins, p. 208. 



III. 

BEDWIN AND MARLBOROUGH AND THE MONEYER 

CILDA. 

BEDWIN is situate in the Kinwardston Hundred of Wilt- 
shire, on the borders of Berkshire, six miles S.E. from 
Marlborough and the same distance S.W. from Hunger- 
ford. In Domesday it is called BEDEVINDE, and that 
record shows that it was a Royal burgh held by King 
Edward the Confessor and by his Norman successor, 
"William the Conqueror. As a natural consequence it was 
" never gelded or hided," that is measured and assessed 
to the geld or tax. Domesday also shows that to this manor 
of BEDVINDE there belonged twenty-five " burgesses " 
and that the town rendered a " firma unius noctis " with 
all customs, and further that Bristoard the priest then 
held the church, as his father had done in the time of King 
Edward, when, as at the time of Domesday, it was worth 
sixty shillings. 

In early times this place was doubtless a centre of im- 
portance, a fact evidenced by the extensive earthworks 
known as Castle Hill (on Wilton Common) and Chisbury 
Castle (having an area of about fifteen acres), both in the 
immediate neighbourhood. A Roman road passes near 
by. I have not found any instance of coins having been 
minted here prior to the reign of Edward the Confessor, 



BEDWIN AND MARLBOROUGH AND THE MONEYER CILDA. 21 

but during that reign and subsequently it appears to have 
been an established place of mintage. 

The following coins (those marked with an asterisk 
being in my cabinet) prove this proposition ; the descrip- 
tions are as under, the types being placed in the order 
observed in vol. ii. of the British Museum Catalogue. 

*TYPB III. 

Obv. +EDPE ED EEX . Bust to left, diademed ; in 
front, sceptre (pommee). Around, inscription 
divided by bust ; outer circle. 

Rev. +EILD7V ON BEDEPIN. Over short cross 
voided quadrilateral ornament with three pel- 
lets at each angle and one in centre. Around, 
inscription between two circles. 

* TYPE IX (SOVEREIGN TYPE). 
Obv. EADPAED EEX ANGLO. 
Rev, EILDA ON BEDEPIN. 

* TYPE XI. 

Obv. +EADPAE ED EE. Bust to right, bearded ; 
wearing crown of two arches surmounted by 
three balls ; in front, sceptre (pommee). Around, 
inscription divided by bust ; outer circle. 

Rev. +EILD : ON BEDEPINVE. Short cross voided, 
each limb terminating in an incurved segment of 
a circle ; in centre, pellet. Around, inscription ; 
outer circle. 

* TYPE XIII. 

Obv. + ' EfiDPAED EE Bust facing, bearded ; wearing 
crown of two arches. Around, inscription 
between two circles divided above by the King's 
crown. 

Rev. +EILDA ON BEDEPI. Small cross pattee. 
Around, inscription between two circles. 



22 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

* TYPE XV. 

Obv. EAPAED HEX A. Bust to right, bearded, wearing 
pointed crown, from which depends a fillet, 
terminating in three pellets ; in front, sceptre 
(pommee). Around, inscription divided by bust ; 
plain and beaded outer circles. 

Kev. EILDA ON BEDEPIN. Short cross voided ; in 
centre, annulet ; in each angle, pyramid springing 
from inner circle and terminating in pellet. 
Around, inscription between two plain circles 
and an outermost beaded circle. 

The late Mr. Montagu had a coin of Edward the 
Confessor of type ii. (bust to left, diademed ; rev. short 
cross voided), reading +EILD ON BEDEP. 

The three coins described in the Brit. Mus. Cat. are all 
of type xi. Two of these read the same as mine of that 
type and the third reads +EILD ON BEDEPIN) : 

I have not been able to find any specimens of the coinage 
of Harold II minted here, but as the Bedwin moneyer, 
Cilda, struck coins for William I at this place, I think it 
is likely that Bedwin coins of Harold II may be in exist- 
ence. As regards William I, I recently acquired a coin 
of the type Hawkins 233, which is, as far as I can ascer- 
tain, the only specimen known. It may be described 

Obv . +J7ILLEMVS EEX. Bust to left, crowned ; in 
front, sceptre (pommee). 

Rev. +EILD ON BEDEJ7IND. Cross fleury; annulet 
in centre. 

This coin more nearly resembles those of Harold II than 
any specimens of type 233 that I have seen : the legend 
begins immediately above the King's crown, instead of 
opposite the hand holding the sceptre. The Saxon cha- 
racter for the initial letter of the King's name is a square- 



BEDWIN AND MARLBOROUGH AND THE MONEYER CILDA. 23 

headed \ instead of being like a Roman P, and this form is 
again repeated on the reverse, and finally the drawing of 
the head of the King is evidently copied from the head as 
portrayed on the coins of Harold II, the bust below the 
neck being added or drawn by way of supplement to the 
head of Harold. 

As regards Marlborough, Domesday tells us that King 
William had from the third penny of " MERLEBERGKE " 
4, and that William de Belfou had one hide with one 
church in Marlborough worth thirty shillings. In the 
National Collection there are coins of types 236, 237, 238, 
241 and 243, reading on the reverse as follows : 

236. EILD ON MIERLBEL 

237. EILD ON MIEELEBEE. 

238. EILD ON MIEELI, MIEELEBH. 
241. EILD ON MIEELEB. 

243. EILD ON MIEELBI. 

There is in my cabinet also a coin of type 238, reading, 

Obv. +PILLEMYS EEX ANI. 
Rev. +EID OIN MIEELEBH. 

(This formerly belonged to the late Mr. Montagu.) 

In the sale catalogue of the Hon. Robert Marsham 
(November, 1888), lot 234, a coin of type 244 is described 
reading on the reverse +EILD ON MIEELEBI. 

From Mr. Hawkins's account of the Beaworth hoard in 
vol. i. of Ruding, it appears that there were five 
Marlborough coins of the Pax type, Hawkins, 241, seen 
by him, all struck by Cilda. I have one of these which 
reads 



24 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Obv. PILLELM EEX. 

7to>. EILD ON MIERLEB, similar to the British 
Museum specimen. 

From the above-mentioned account it appears that there 
was in the same hoard a coin of Hawkins, type 243, reading 

Rev. EILD ON MIERLBI 

(the coin mentioned above as now being in the British 
Museum). 

Having regard to the close proximity of Bed win and 
Marlborough, and the identity of the name EILD or 
EILD A, appearing first on Edward the Confessor's coins of 
Bedwin, and subsequently on the Bedwin coin, type 233, 
of William I, and the coins of types, Hawkins, 236, 237, 
238, 241, 243, and 244 of Marlborough, there can be 
little doubt that the EILD or EILDA of all these coins 
was the same person. It is to be noted that 234 and 239 
are the only substantive types missing from type 233 (the 
first of William I) to type 244 (the first of William II) of 
Hawkins, as 235 and 240 are " mules " (or combination 
types), and 242 a common variety only of 241. 

There is no difficulty in concluding that this was the 
case, as Edward the Confessor succeeded to the throne in 
1042, and William I died in 1087, thus giving an inter- 
vening period of forty-five years, with say three years 
added for type i. of William II (viz. 244), for Cilda's 
work. 

I have not discovered the name of any moneyer in 
addition to Cilda for the reign of Edward the Confessor or 
for those of William I and II for Bedwin or Marlborough, 
and I am therefore inclined to think that the mint and 



BEDWIN AND MARLBOROUGH AND THE MONEYER CILDA. 25 

Cilda were transferred to Marlborough early in the reign 
of William I, as the last coin of Bedwin is of the type 
233 of Hawkins (undoubtedly the first type of that 
reign), and the next coin, the first of Marlborough, is 
of Hawkins 236 type (the third substantive type of 
William I). 

I trust that the addition of Bedwin to the mint towns 
of the Conqueror, and the evidence afforded by the 
coins bearing the name of the moneyer EILDA at Bed- 
win, from the early part of the reign of Edward the 
Confessor to the early part of the reign of William I, 
the subsequent transfer of the mint and its only 
moneyer to Marlborough, and his continued work there 
as sole moneyer until the time when the coins of type 
244 of Hawkins were struck, will prove of interest to the 
Society, and that the facts disclosed may in some degree 
help to fix the sequence of the types of the coins of 
William I and William II. 

P. CARLYON-BRITTON. 



VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. 



IV. 

ON A RARE STERLING OF HENRY, EARL OF 
NORTHUMBERLAND. 





THE following is a short description of the coin of which 
an illustration is given above : 

Obv. +heCNRiaVS COM. Profile bast to right, crown 
fleury, in right hand sceptre fleury ; inner circle. 



ON : C7TRD = Carduil (one of the 
many renderings of the name of the city now 
called Carlisle). A cross fleury ; inner circle. 

On the obverse, taken in order, the letters ff, I, CC and V 
of the name are distinct, while there are traces of the 
remaining letters in the intervening spaces, and the COM, 
for Comes, is quite clear. 

On the reverse, there are traces of all the letters 
forming the moneyer's name WILSLM, and of these the 
W, ff and M appear less indistinctly, the ON between 
colons is sufficiently clear, and of the mint name CfiRD, 
the first two and last letters are quite distinct. 



STERLING OF HENRY, EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 27 

The portrait and work resemble closely those of the best- 
made coins of King Stephen of the Hawkins 270 type and 
those of the sterlings of the cross-crosslet type attributed 
by the late Mr. Burns to Henry, Earl of Northumberland. 

The type of the reverse is similar to the cross-fleury 
type of Henry's father, David I. of Scotland, except 
that the pellet in each angle of the cross is here omitted, 
and the obverse to some extent also resembles David's 
coins, which were in like manner copied from the coins 
of Stephen (Hawkins 270). 

We have therefore disclosed by this specimen the name 
Henry, the title Comes for Earl or Count, the moneyer 
William, and the mint Carlisle, together with a reverse of 
a distinctly Scottish type. 

The name and title alone do not, however, determine the 
personage for whom the coin was minted, and it is there- 
fore proposed to shortly state the known facts in reference 
to the mint and moneyer, and then to examine some facts 
in the histories of the two personages having the most 
feasible claims of ownership. 

Henry I struck the two last types ( Eawkins 262 and 
255) of his reign at Carlisle, thus fixing the commence- 
ment of his coinage in 1129 or thereabouts (a date 
confirmed by the Pipe Roll of the year 1130). The name 
DVRANT occurs on a 262 coin in my collection, and on a 
precisely similar coin, lot 292 in the late Mr. Montagu's 
catalogue (1896), now Mr. J. G. Murdoch's. EREBALD 
follows on 255 (Mr. L. A. Lawrence's collection), and 
afterwards William (son of Erebald or Erembald). Mr. 
W. J. Andrew states that the moneyer Erembald continues 
until about the middle of Stephen's reign and that William 
follows him and continues until 1179 (see Num. Chron., 
1901, pp. 140-142). 



28 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Taking the date 1144 as " about the middle of 
Stephen's reign," the coin under consideration cannot 
well be placed earlier than that date. So far as the name 
of the moneyer is concerned, as he continued to work at 
Carlisle until 1179, no help is afforded in fixing the 
latest limit of date. 

Now as to the two claimants, Henry Fitz-David and 
Henry Fitz-Empress. 

First as to Henry Fitz-David. He was son of David I, 
King of Scotland (who was also Earl of Huntingdon and 
Northampton in right of his wife Maud), born in 1110, 
knighted in 1130, created Earl of Huntingdon about 
March, 1136. and Earl of Northumberland 9th April, 
1139, after the Battle of the Standard, 1138, in which he 
had fought against King Stephen. This creation was, it 
may be supposed, a politic act on the part of Stephen to 
try to settle amicably the questions between him and 
David of Scotland as to the disputed territories of 
Cumberland and Northumberland. Henry Fitz-David 
was also Lord of Carlisle and Doncaster. Stephen, who 
was of a chivalrous and generous disposition, may well 
also have had a personal liking for his kinsman Henry, 
who is described by Ethelred, Abbot of Rievaux, " De 
Bello Standardi," as follows : " Erat . . . adolescens 
pulchra facie, et decor us aspectu . . . tarn dulcis, tarn 
amabilis, tarn affabilis, ut ab omnibus diligeretur. Erat 
prseterea tantee probitatis, ut in illo exercitu nullus fuit 
similis ei." This prince married, in 1 139, Adeline de 
Warenne, daughter of William (2nd), Earl of Surrey 
and Warenne, and died, in his father's lifetime, 12th 
June, 1152, leaving sons, Malcolm and William, who 
successively became Kings of Scotland. 

Secondly, as to Henry Fitz-Empress. He was son of 



STERLING OF HENRY, EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 29 

Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, by Matilda, widow of the Em- 
peror Henry V, and daughter of Henry I, King of 
England. He was born in 1133, and seems, as early as 
1142, to have put forth his claim as rightful heir of 
England and Normandy. Matilda came to England to 
assert her right to the throne in September, 1139, and 
towards the end of 1142 her son Henry came to Eng- 
land with Robert, Earl of Gloucester (the natural brother 
of Matilda). According to Gervase (i. 131) Henry now 
spent four years in England, remaining at Bristol under 
the care of his uncle Robert, Earl of Gloucester. He left 
England late in 1146, and returned in April, 1149, and 
was knighted by David of Scotland at Carlisle at Whit- 
suntide, 22nd May, 1149 (Gervase, i. 140, note). On this 
occasion he was supported by, amongst others, the Earls 
of Hereford and Chester, the latter being present with 
him at Carlisle. The writer, Henry of Huntingdon, 
states that at Carlisle he appeared " cum occidentalibus 
Angliso proceribus," and that King Stephen, fearing an 
attack by Henry Fitz-Empress, aided by David of Scot- 
land, marched to York, and remained there, on the watch, 
during all the month of August, 1149. Henry again 
departed from England in January, 1150 (Gervase, i. 142). 
In 1153 Henry made his third visit to England, and 
after some fighting, and when a decisive action was daily 
expected, the chief leaders on either side arranged an 
amicable treaty, and Henry retired to Normandy until 
the death of Stephen, 25th October, 1154. 

From the above accounts it will be seen that both 
Henry Fitz-David and Henry Fitz-Empress had the oppor- 
tunity of striking coins at Carlisle, and it is now there- 
fore proposed to shortly state the evidence afforded by 
certain other coins of the period bearing the name Henry. 



30 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

In The Coinage of Scotland, vol. i., p. 31, Mr. Burns 
refers to a curious sterling in the S. S. A. Collection which 
forms Fig. 26 A in the plates contained in vol. iii. of 
the same work. This coin appears to have OTC at the 
end of the obverse legend and WL - - M ON CAE retro- 
grade on the reverse. 

On the same page reference is made to a broken coin 
found in 1865 in the disused workings of the silver mine 
of Carlisle exactly corresponding with Fig. 26A. 

The style of the bust differs from that on my coin, and 
although the type of the reverse is the same, the legend 
ditfers from that on mine in being retrograde. The coins 
most nearly resembling my sterling and the two somewhat 
similar coins above referred to, are those of the cross- 
crosslet type of reverse (Burns, Figs. 23 and 23A). 
Having examined the two illustrations in Burns, the six 
specimens of this type in the British Museum, and one in the 
cabinet of Mr. J. G. Murdoch, I have come to the conclusion 
that all were struck by William (the money er) of Carlisle. 

The third class of coins attributed sometimes to Henry 
Fitz-David are those of the type Hawkins 259, which 
resemble those of Stephen (Hawkins 270), except that the 
obverse bears the name " Henricus " (without any title). 
I have examined a specimen of this type in the British 
Museum, and the reading of the reverse is + PICEEIE : 
ON : hER for Hereford, where a moneyer of the same 
name coined for Stephen. 

There are also coins of this type of David I, the Empress 
Matilda and PEREEIE as well as of Stephen. It is 
specially to be noted that both Erebald and William struck 
coins of this type, Hawkins 259 and 270, at Carlisle, 
bearing the name of Stephen. 

There remains the cross- crosslet type penny of Stephen, 



STERLING OF HENRY, EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 31 

illustrated and considered by Mr. L. A. Lawrence (Num. 
Chron. 1895, p. 110), and the coin of David, (Burns, 
PI. III., 27) reading : 

Obv. DAVIT- EEX. 
Rev.+ - - CARD : - - : CA'R : 

As regards the striking of coins by persons other than 
the sovereign de facto of the realm, some have argued that 
such a custom may have arisen from great friendship with 
the sovereign, whilst others have laid equal stress on the 
fact of such pieces having been minted by opponents of the 
sovereign. The coins of Matilda, Eustace Fitz-John, 
Henry Bishop of Winchester, Robert Earl of Gloucester, 
and PERERIC seem to be in favour of opposition to the 
sovereign de facto. 

Mr. Lawrence, in his paper above referred to, seems to 
assume that Henry Fitz-David remained until his death 
an adherent of Stephen, but I do not find that historical 
facts and probabilities warrant this view. 

Henry Fitz-David was a near relative of Matilda and 
her son Henry, as well as a kinsman of Stephen. David, 
who died at Carlisle 24th May, 1153, espoused the cause 
of Matilda and her son Henry, and Henry Fitz-David, as 
heir to the throne of Scotland, could not well have re- 
mained on terms of alliance with* Stephen. Henry Fitz- 
David may well have struck money at Carlisle, as 
chief of a feudal earldom, in conformity with the custom 
of feudal dukes and counts on the Continent at the same 
period. A coinage by him may have been in opposition 
to Stephen, as must have been the coins struck at Carlisle 
by his father David. 

Incidentally it may be noticed that Mr. Lawrence . 



32 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

attributes the Hawkins 259 coins to King Henry I, while 
Mr. Andrew omits them from his types of that king. 
Hawkins suggests that they belong to Henry Fitz-Empress, 
and Burns claims them for Henry Fitz- David. Having 
regard to the historical facts above alluded to, and to the 
British Museum Hereford coin, and another of Gloucester, 
there can, I think, remain little doubt as to Henry 
Fitz-Empress being the owner of the Hawkins 259 
coins. 

Although the matter is not free from doubt, the weight 
of evidence and argument appears to be in favour of 
assigning to Henry Fitz-David, Earl of Northumberland 
and Lord of Carlisle, the coins of the cross-crosslet type 
and the Henry coins, resembling the cross-fleury coins of 
David I, all struck at Carlisle, which form the main 
subject of this paper. 

It is recorded that Henry Fitz-Empress, in order to 
secure David's support, solemnly swore that if he attained 
the throne of England, he would permit David and his 
successors to hold Cumberland and Northumberland as 
part of the realm of Scotland. This seems an almost 
conclusive argument against Henry Fitz-Empress having, 
before attaining the throne, taken the unfriendly course 
of coining money in one of the chief cities of the debate- 
able land in opposition to his host and supporter. 

It may be of interest to add the following particulars 
as to the finding and record of my coin. It was discovered 
about twenty years ago at Brough-under-Stainmore, co. 
Westmorland (the Roman Veterae), where on the site of 
the Roman station a Norman castle was built, vast remains 
of which still exist. At the base of the eminence on 
which the Norman ruins stand runs a small mountain 
stream, often flooded. During these floods portions of the 



STERLING OF HENRY, EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 33 

shelving bank are often washed away and, when the 
stream subsides, objects (mostly Roman) are found some 
distance down stream. The coin in question was pur- 
chased, with other articles, from one of several men who 
were in the habit of searching for the objects thus brought 
to light by my friend, Mr. T. Carrick, J.P. for Cumber- 
land, in whose collection it remained until it passed into 
my possession in August of last year. 

P. CARLYON-BRITTON. 



VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. 



V. 

A FIND OF SILVER COINS OF EDWARD IV 
HENRY VIII. 

THE hoard of coins, of which a complete list accompanies 
these remarks, was lent to me for the purposes of ab- 
stracting therefrom what small amount of history they 
might contain. 

That the hoard was a find at some time or another the 
condition of the coins themselves shows. Whether all 
the coins which were originally found together were kept 
together I cannot say, but those which came to me seemed 
quite worth paying a little attention to. 

The hoard as described in the list contained the fol- 
lowing varieties and numbers : 

EDWARD IV. 

Light groats . . . . .12 
Light half-groata .... 2 

HENRY VI. 

Light groats ..... 2 
HENRY VII. 

Open crown groat .... 1 



Arched crown groats 
Arched crown half-groats 
Profile groat . 
Profile half-groats . 
Sovereign type penny . 



23 
15 

1 
5 

1 



Carried forward . 62 



A FIND OF SILVER COINS OF EDWARD IV - HENRY VIII. 35 

Brought forward . . 62 
HENBY VIII. 

First coinage groats ... 4 

Fiist coinage half-groats . . 2 

Second coinage groats . . .212 

Second coinage half-groats . . 30 

Foreign coins, Charles the Bold . . 11 

Alphonso V of Portugal . 1 

Total . 822 

Of this total 255 were groats, 54 half-groats, 1 penny, 
and 12 foreign pieces. I give the following description 
of them : 

EDWARD IV. LIGHT COINAGE. 

Groats. 
1. Obv. M.M. crown. SDWTCRD DI GRfi RffX x 



id? FRTTRd. Arch on breast fleured, 
quatrefoils at sides of neck. 

Rev. M.M. crown. POSVI DffVSft TTDIVTORff 
mavm : dlVlTTfS LOnDOn. Crosses as 
stops ........ 

2. M.M. on rev., sun; quatrefoil on breast ; otherwise as 

No. 1 ....... 

3. Obv. M.M. cross fitchee ; trefoils at sides of neck and 

as fleurs. 

Rev. M.M. sun. ; otherwise as No. 1 ... 

4. M.M. annulet both sides ; small trefoils as fleurs, 

nothing at sides of neck ; otherwise as No. 1 . 

5. M.M. Cross pierced, both sides ; still trefoil fleurs, but 

rather larger ...... 

6. M.M. cross pierced ; lettering larger ; barred A in 

SRGL and TSS ; arch on breast not fleured ; 
arches fleured with the ordinary trefoils . 

7. M.M. heraldic cinquefoil ; rose on breast and after 

POSVI and ADIVTORff, in other respects as 
No. 6 . 



36 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

8. Qlv. M.M. lis. Same legend as No. 1 ; C on breast ; 
small trefoils as fleurs and at sides of neck, 
and as stops. 

Rev. M.M. sun. Legend as No. 1, except eCBOETTOCI 

instead of LOnDOR . , v . 1 

Half -Groats. 

1. M.M., both sides, pall. Bourchier knot on breast; 

trefoil fleurs. Legend, as on groats where 
yisible, GUVITfiS dTkRTOE ; no stops . 1 

2. Much double struck ; CC on breast ; crosses as stops . 1 



HENRY VI. LIGHT COINAGE. 
Groats. 

1. O&v.M.M. cross slightly pattee. J]ffnRia DI 6E7T 

EffX fiRGL Z FETYnd. Arches fleured 
with small trefoils ; crosses as stops. 

Rev. M.M. and legend as Edward IV, No. 5 .1 

2. M.M., both sides, lis. ^SHEICC ; otherwise as York 

groat of Edward IV, No. 8 . . . .1 

HENRY VII. 
Open-Crown Groat. 

1. Obv. M.M. rose. Legend nearly obliterated. Trefoils 
as stops. 

Rev. No M.M. Usual POSVI, &c., legend ; lis after 

POSVI and TTDIVTOEff .... 1 

Arched-Crown Groats. 

1. Obv. M.M. heraldic cinquefoil. Legend ends FE7TR ; 
trefoils as stops. 

Rev. M.M. escallop. Usual legend, with for GC, M 

for Jft, rosettes as stops .... 1 



A FIND OF SILVER COINS OF EDWARD IV HENRY VI11. 37 

2. M.M., both sides, escallop. Usual legends both, sides ; 

rosettes both sides as stops ; ordinary C's, 
peculiar M's ...... 1 

3. M.M. regular cinquefoil both sides. Olv. legend ends 

FE. DffV for DQTStt; 7TDIVTO8: lor 
7VDIVTOE6C ; JftffV for fflQTfll ; crosses as 
stops .... .... 3 

4. M.M. leopard's head. 7VSL Z FE ; otherwise as last . 1 

5. Obv. M.M. lis issuing from half rose. No stops. 

Rev. M.M. leopard's head. Crosses as stops; abbrevia- 
tions as before ...... 1 

6. M.M., both sides, lis issuing from half rose. Crosses as 
stops ......... 1' 

7. M.M. anchor both sides. 7V6LI Z F ; other words as 

before; crosses as stops . . . 1 

8. M.M. anchor, sometimes reversed. 7TSL Z FE; other 

characters as before ..... 4 

9. MM. anchor reversed. 7T6L Z FE7V ; otherwise as 

preceding ....... 1 

10. M.M. greyhound's head. Obv. legend ending 7VSL 

Z FE. Coins of anchor type with double- 
arched crown ; one only ornamented . . 2 

11. Obv. M.M. greyhound's head. As last. 

Rev. As cross crosslet coinage. Cross pattee and short 

stumpy letters ...... 1 

12. Olv. M.M. greyhound's head. Same legend, but cross 

crosslet style of work 

Rev. Same work. T^DIVTOEGC 1 

13. M.M. cross crosslet. fi6L Z FE, 7TDIVTOE6C. Crosses 

as stops. The treatment of the crown like 
that on the earlier greyhound coins . . 1 



38 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

14. M.M. cross crosslet of the typical form. 7YR6L Z F. 

Crosses as stops ...... 1 

15. M.M. cross crosslet of same form. 7T6LI6C Z FR; 

otherwise as last . . . . . . 1 

16. M.M. cross crosslet. 7VR6L Z FR7Y ; as before . I 

17. M.M. cross crosslet. TlPGLIff Z FR ; as before . 1 

Arched-Crown Half -Or oats. 

1. M.M. tun both sides. Obv. legend ending Z ; rosettes 

as stops ....... 1 

2. M.M. tun both sides. Legends ending from Z to Z FR ; 

no stops . . . . . . .12 

3. M.M. tun both sides. Legend ending Z ; cross as stop. 1 

All these read CtlVITTVS dTVnTOR and have 
the usual legends where not described specially. 

4. M.M. martlet. A key at each side of the neck. Obv. 

legend ends FR ; crosses as stops. CCIVIT7TS 
SBORTKII 1 



Profile Coinage. Groat. 

1. Obv. M.M. cross crosslet. ^PRId VII DI 
R6CX 7^6L Z F. Crosses as stops. 

Rev. M.M. cross crosslet. POSVI DSV T^DlVTORff 
JHffV. Crosses as stops. .... 



Half-Groats. London. 

1. Obv. M.M. rose. t^RRId VII DI 6R7T RffX 7V6L. 

Crosses as stops. 

Rev.~M.M. rose. POSVI (DGCV) TTDIVTOff JfiffV. 

Crosses as stops ...... 1 

2. Obv. M.M., both sides, martlet. As preceding but 

ending Z. 

.Rev. As before, but TYDIVTORff . 1 



A FIND OF SILVER COINS OF EDWARD IV HENRY VIII. 39 

York. 

1. M.M. martlet. Obv. legend ending 7TL Z; rev., 

TYDlVTOd. Keys under shield ; crosses as 
stops ........ 1 

2. As before, but 7Y6L Z and TYDIVTOEd ... 1 

3. As 2, but TVDIVTOd . ' . . . . 1 

Penny. Durham. Sovereign Type. 

1. Obv. No M.M. l?6mEId DI 6E7T EdX. No stops 
visible. 

Rtv. No M.M. dIVITTVS DIEf}7VSIl. D. E. at sides 

of shield, crown and mitre over it . . .1 

HENRY VIII. 
First Coinage with his Father's Bust. Or oats. 

1. Obv. M.M. portcullis crowned. tydREId VIII DI 
GETt EdX 7V6L Z FB. Crosses as stops. 

Rev. M.M. portcullis crowned. POSVI DffV 

TTDIVTOES mtCV. Crosses as stops . . 4 

Half -Groat. York. 

1. Obv. M.M. cross voided ? ^REId DI GEft EffX 
7VL. Crosses as stops. 

Rev. M.M. cross voided. dlVITTYS ffBOETVdl. 

Keys at sides of shield, cardinal's hat below . 1 

Half -Groat. Canterbury. 

1. Obv. M.M. pomegranate. l^dREId VIII DI GETt 
EdX 7T6L Z. Crosses as stops both sides. 

Rev. M.M. pomegranate. dIVITTVS dTTRTOE. 

W TV at sides of shield .... 1 



40 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



Second Coinage, his own Portrait. London ; crosses as stops. 
M.M. Us both sides. 



i. obv. 



D 6 R TVGL z 



POSVI Dav 

forks of cross 



mecv. Crosses in 



1 

57 
33 
2 
2 



2. As No. 1, but FRTYRd 

3. As No. 1, but FRfinda . 

4. As No. 1, but FRTTRd and 7TD1VT06C 

5. As No. 1, but FRTTRdd and TTDIVTOi 

6. As No. 1, but M.M. rose on rev., FRfindff, fiDIVTOff 3 

7. As No. 1, but M.M. rose on rev., FRTfRd, TUHVTOa . 3 

8. As No. 1, but M.M. rose on rev., FRTTHd . 

9. As No. 1, but M.M. rose on obv., FRTTRd . 

10. As No. 1, but M.M. pheon on rev., FRftRd* 

11. As No. 1, but M.M. pheon on obv., FRTCRd 

M.M. arrow both sides, crosses as stops and in forks of cross. 

1. Obv. J]ffnRId D. 6. R. 7V6L Z FRfiHd. 

Rev. POSVI DdV TVDIVTORff fllff V . . .11 

2. As No. 1, but TVGLiet 13 

3. As No. 1, but TVGLlff and FRTindff . . .11 

M.M. pheon both sides, crosses as before. 

1. Obv. tjffnRId VIII D. 6. R. 7V6L Z FRTYRdff. 

Rev. POSVI DffV TVDIVTORff mffV ... 1 

M.M. rose both sides, crosse* as stops and in forks of cross. 
1. Obv. l^ffnRId VIII D. 6. R. 7T6L Z FR7Y. 
Rev. POSVI DffV TTDIVTORd 



A FIND OF SILVER COINS OF EDWARD IV - HENRY VIII. 41 

2. obv. hjetnEia vm DI. GETV. E. TCGL. z FETV. 
Rev. POSVI DOT TtDivTOEd mecv . i 



3. Obv.ty&nRia VIII DI. 6. E. 7SGL Z FETVd. 
.Rev. POSVI D6CV TUnVTOEGC flldV ... 

4. Oiv. ^GCREia VIII D. 6. E. 7V6L Z FETVd. 

ev. POSVI DOT TtDivTOEet mdv . 

5. o&v. r^ecREia vm DI S 6. E. TVGL z FETva. 

Rev. POSVI DEV ADITOEB SttEV ; cross ends in 
florets . . . . . . - . 



6. Obv. f]6CnRia VIII D. 6. E. 7VGL Z 

Rev. POSVI DffV 7YDIVTOE6C SRffV ... 16 



7. o&v. j^ecnEia vm D. G. E. TVGL z 
jzev. POSVI DEC v ADivroec ma v . . .10 

8. Obv. f]6[RRia VIII DI. 6. E. 7T6L Z FET^Rd. 
^ev. POSVI DffV TTDIVTOEff 



9. Oiv.^ecnEia vm DI. G. E. T^GL z 

Rev. POSVI DffV 7TDIVT06C 



10. 06v. tjGmEia VIII D. 6. E. 7T6L Z 
^ey. POSVI DffV 7VDIVTOE6C HISV 

11. Obv. l?ffnEI(I VIII D. 6. E. 7V6L Z 
.Rev. POSVI DffV TTDIVTOff JfiffV . 

12. Ofet;. l]ffREia Till DI. 6. E. 7T6L Z 

R^ POSVI Dav ADivTOEa mecv 

13. Obv. hdREId VIII DI. 6. E. TtGL Z 

Rev. POSVI Dav TTDivToet mecv 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. 



42 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

M.M. tun and cloud both tides, crosses as ttopt and in 
forks of cross. 

1. Obv. JjffHRId VIII D. 6. R. 7V6L Z FR7L 

jiev. POSVI Dffv TSDivroRff mffv . 



ForA; <?ratfc struck by Wolsey. T. W. at sidts of shield, 
cardinal's hat below, and crosses in forks of cross. 

1. Obv. M.M. cross voided. l^ffRRTd VIII x D x G x 

R x 7T6L x Z FRTVHd x. 

Rev. M.M. cross voided. dlVI T7VS x x ffBO RTYdl 1 

2. 0&v. M.M. cross voided. l?ff PRId x VIII x D x 6 x 

R x TtGL x Z x FRTVRd. 

Rev. M.M. cross voided. dlVI T7TS x ffBO 

RT^dl . . 1 

3. 05v. M.M. cross voided, tyff nRId x VIII x D x 6 x 

R x fiGL x Z x FRTCRd. 

Rev. M.M. cross voided. dlVI TflS x x ffBO Rfidl x 1 

4. Qbv. M.M. cross voided, tyff nRId x VIII x D x 6 * 

R 7T6L x Z x FRTtRd. 

Rev. M.M. cross voided. dlVI T7TS x x ffBO RTTdl 1 

5. Obv. M.M. cross voided. f]ff RRId x VIII x D x 6 x 

7T6L x Z x FRT^ndff x. 

Rev. M.M. cross voided. dlVI T7VS x x ffBO 

RfidI x 1 



6. Oiv. M.M. acorn. ^fffiRId x VIH x D x 6 x R x 

7V6L x Z x FRTVRd. 

Rev. M.M. acorn. dlVI T7VS x x ffBO RT^dl J . 

7. O&v. M.M. acorn. l?ffnRId x VIII x D x 6 x R x 

7T6L x Z x FRfiRd. 

^w. M.M. acorn. fflVI T7YS x x ffBO RTTdl x . 

The obverses of the last two coins are from the same die. 



A FIND OF SILVER COINS OF EDWARD IV. - HENRY VIII. 43 

Second Coinage, his own portrait. Half Groats, 
London. 

1. Obv. M.M. Us. IjeCREId VIII D. 6. E. 7VGL Z FE. 

Rev. M.M. lis. POSVI DffV fiDIVTOGC SHOT. 

Crosses as stops ...... 1 

2. Obv. M.M. rose. ^GtREId VIII D. 6. E. 7V6L Z 

FE7V. 

Sev.No M.M. POSVI DOT ADIVTOff mdV. 

Crosses as stops and in forks of cross . . 1 

Canterbury. All with W7V at sides of shield and crosses 
as stops. M.M. so-called escallop both sides. 



i. o&v.jidRKid vni DI G. E. TSGL z FE. 

Rev. ttlVITTVS (ITVnTOE ..... 1 
2. As No. 1, but D for DI .... .2 

M.M. cross fleury both sides. 

i. obv. j^anEia vni D. 6. E. TYGL z FE. 

Rev. aiVITTTS a^RTOE ... . 3 

2. O&v. neCHEia VIII DI 6. E. 7V6L Z F. 

Sev. dlVITTCS a^RTOE . . 1 

3. Obv. M.M. cross fleury. I^FlEId VIII D. 6. E. 

716L Z FE. 

Mev.M.M. T. CCIVITfiS a^RTOE ... 4 



4. M.M. T both sides, otherwise as last .... 1 
All with T OC at sides of shield and crosses as stops. 

M.M. Catherine wheel both sides. 

i. obv. netREia vni D. 6. E. TSGL z F. 

Rev. dlVITfiS dTCRTOE .-.... l 
2. Same, but FE . . * ' ' ' 2 



44 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

M.M. on obverse only. 

3. As No. 1 . 

4. As No. 2. 

York, with TW at sides of shield, cardinal's hat below sun ; 
crosses as stops. M.M. cross voided both sides. 

1. obv. necnRia vin D. 6. R. KGL z F. 

jfo,. dlVITTtS ffBORftdl . 2 

2. As No. 1, but FR . 

3. As No. 1, but FRfi . 

With E L at sides of shield, crosses as stops. 
M.M. key on both sides. 

i. oiv. rjarmia vin D. 6. R. KGL z FR. 

Eev. aiVlTTVS ffBORfidl . * 

2. As No. 1, but initials L E instead of E L . .1 

CHARLES THE BOLD, DTTKE OF BURGUNDY AND COUNT OF 

FLANDERS. A.D. 1467-1477. 

Oros. 

1. Obv. +K7VROLVS 8 DGCI 8 CRTS 8 DVX 8 BVR6 

8 dO 8 FLft. Shield 1 and 4, arms, modern, 
of Burgundy; 2 and 3, arms, ancient, of 
Burgundy and Limburg ; in escutcheon, shield 
of Brabant. 

Eev. +SIT 8 ROmeCN 8 DOmiNI 8 BGCNffDId- 
TVJU. M.M. Briquet. Cross floury ; centre 
voided, containing Us . . . . 't 

These coins were struck for Flanders. 

2. Obv. 4-K7VROLVS 8 DffI 8 6R7T 8 DVX 8 B6 8 

BRftB 8 Z 8 LIM. Shield as before. 



x*v. SIT 8 nomecN s DOMINI 8 

8 7VM. Cross fleury ; centre voided, contain- 
ing lion of Brabant . . ' . . 4 
These were struck for Brabant. 



A FIND OF SILVER COINS OF EDWARD IV HENRY VIII. 45 

ALPHONSO V OF PORTUGAL. A.D. 1438-1481. 
Meio Orosso. 

1. Obv. *7VLFONSVS : QY1NTI : EGCSIS : PV. The 
letter "R crowned between two annulets ; 
between limbs L (Lisbon). 

Rev. +7VpIVTORIVm : NOSTRVJH : N. Five 

shields arranged in form of cross ... 1 

The earliest coins ID the hoard are the groats of 
Edward IV. The mint-marks on the London pieces 
are sun, crown, cross fi tehee, annulet, cross pierced, and 
heraldic cinquefoil ; lis and sun on the York groat, and 
pall on the Canterbury half-groat. The only two mint- 
marks absent are the rose and the trefoil. The absence 
of the former is easily accounted for by the fact of its 
being the earliest mark on the series of light groats. 
The trefoil, though in use during the period represented 
by the hoard, is now of such extreme rarity that its ab- 
sence is not to be wondered at. The mint-marks present 
in the hoard show nothing new to chronicle, and they all 
bear out former conclusions as regards classification. 
The sun and crown mint-marks were issued shortly after 
1465. The two examples of the light groats of Henry YI 
do not call for any special attention beyond remarking 
their extreme resemblance to Edward lY's coinage among 
which they were found, a resemblance which is carried 
out even down to the small trefoil-shaped stops between 
the words. 

After Edward IV's coinage a gap appears, due to the 
absence of any coins of Edward Y and Richard III. 
Whether rarity or previous removal would account for these 
absentees must be left to individual judgment, though 
probably, looking to the coins left in the hoard, there 



46 NUMISMATIC CHRONICL^E. 

were none of the pieces of the last two Plantagenets in 
it when the collection disappeared. 

With the advent of Henry Tudor a poor specimen of 
his first issue appropriately heads the list of his coinage. 
There are some new features about this coin, in the fact 
that the mint-mark is on one side only, and that a 
fleur-de-lis figured after POSVI and TTDIVTORGC. 

The series of arched-crown groats is quite complete 
as regards the mint-marks and stops. It will be remem- 
bered that the classification of these coins was greatly 
assisted by the combination of the two sets of marks. 
The first coin mentioned in the list of these arched-crown 
groats is interesting, as bearing on the obverse the heraldic 
cinquefoil mark with trefoil stops, while the correspond- 
ing mark on the reverse is the escallop attended with 
rosettes as punctuations. The other mint-marks present 
are, regular cinquefoil, leopard's head, lis issuing from 
half rose, anchor, greyhound's head, and cross-crosslet. 
A glance at the list will reveal the presence of all the 
varieties of the groat with the greyhound's head, both 
of coarse work and fine work. 

The profile coinage of Henry VII is represented by 
one groat only, but this one is interesting as bearing 
the same head as the shilling and the Septim groat. 
The mint-mark is the same as the last of the full-faced 
coins, viz., a cross-crosslet. It is curious that the only 
representatives of the earliest and latest coinage of 
Henry YII should be very scarce varieties presenting 
in some ways new characteristics. The smaller coins 
of this issue were represented by five profile half-groats, 
two of London and three of York. No two are quite 
alike. 

The only penny was one of Durham, struck about the 






A FIMD OF SILVER COINS OF EDWARD IV HENRY VIII. 47 

middle of Henry VII's reign. The D R at the sides of 
the shield give a date of a sort to the coin, as it was 
struck by Richard Fox, Bishop from 1494 till 1502. 

The great majority of the hoard consisted of coins of 
Henry VIII. Those bearing the portrait of Henry VII 
were probably struck from dies or puncheons made during 
the last years of the late king, and simply had the extra 
I added to the VII, and the mint-marks, portcullis and 
castle, placed in the position of older marks previously 
present. The groats in the hoard were four only, all 
marked with a crowned portcullis. There were two half- 
groats. One was of Canterbury, mint-mark pomegranate, 
with W/71 at the sides of the shield for Archbishop Ware- 
ham. The other was struck at York, with a cardinal's 
hat and two keys below the shield, but with no initial ; 
mint-mark, cross voided. The appropriation is doubtful, 
as either Bainbrigge or Wolsey might have struck it, 
both being cardinals. The cross-voided mint-mark would 
probably be indicative of Wolsey, who used it on his 
other York coins. 

The rest of the English part of the hoard numbered 
212 groats and 30 half-groats, all of Henry VIII's second 
coinage, with his own portrait. The difficulty of coming 
to any conclusion as regards classification and date of 
issue of these pieces renders this series probably the most 
interesting and useful portion of the collection. All the 
mint-marks are present on the groats both of London 
and York. Those of the latter city may be taken first, 
as there were only seven. A glance at the list, where 
they are put out in full, will show some interesting par- 
ticulars. Both mint-marks are chronicled. Five groats 
bear the cross voided. Four of them read FETVnCC, and 
one reads FRT^nCCGC. With this exception, the legends are 



48 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the same, the work is the same, and the only difference 
is in the position and number of the small crosses used 
as stops ; these vary in all five. The groats with the 
rare mint-mark acorn are two in number, and only 
vary in respect of stops. 

The London groats have been subdivided firstly by 
their mint-marks. 95 bear the lis both sides, 8 the lis 
on one side and rose on the other, 2 the lis on one side 
and pheon on the other, 1 the pheon both sides, 35 the 
arrow both sides, 1 the sun and cloud both sides, and 
finally 63 bear the rose both sides. When each mint- 
mark is taken separately, some curious variations in the 
legends will be observed. The English title is almost 
entirely represented by 7TGL, but on the arrow-marked 
groats 7T6LI6C is found. The French title is FR7V, FRTVd, 
FRTTRCC, FRTYnOtff on those bearing the rose mint-mark. 
The first variety is absent on lis-marked coins, and the 
two latter only are shown on those bearing the arrow and 
pheon. Curiously enough the first only is apparent on 
the single groat mint-mark sun and cloud. The list 
further notes in some places a variation of the word 
TTDIVTORff, by the omission of the R. Groats with the 
mint-marks rose and lis, either on the same coin or sepa- 
rately, show both variations. Besides these, the legends 
show further alteration, though only on coins bearing the 
rose mint-mark. 1)1. 6R7T. will be noted on No. 2, and 
DI. 6. on several. No. 5 is peculiar, in having some 
Roman letters in conjunction with the Lombardic ones of 
the reverse legend, and in having some difference of the 
treatment of the cross ends, which are filled in with a 
floriated design. This coin is of the greatest rarity. 
Besides all these differences, the die engravers have 
added an enormous variation in the position and number 



A FIND OF SILVER COINS OF EDWARD IV HENRY VIII. 49 

of the small crosses used as stops. If these had been 
taken account of, and if the London coins had been 
treated as the York pieces were, probably the list would 
have contained no two coins precisely alike. The con- 
clusions which could have been drawn from such an 
exhaustive list were not considered worthy of the expen- 
diture of time and trouble necessary for its production. 

The 30 half-groats of London, Canterbury, and York 
present the same similarities to each other as has been 
noticed in the groats, and likewise the same sort of 
divergences. A glance at the list will at once show these 
differences. Before considering this second coinage as a 
whole in its relation to Henry's reign in general, it 
may be as well to attempt some classification of the 
various mint-marks. It has been usual in the English 
coinage to find some character which will, while 
settling the earliest member of a new issue, show some 
relationship with the latest member of the coinage which 
preceded it. This character has generally been the 
mint-mark, and coins bearing two marks have been 
most useful in this respect. This hoard shows coins 
which bear on one side the lis, and on the other the rose 
or pheon, so that the lis must be considered as having 
been used between the rose and pheon marks. Now, as 
there does not appear to be the slightest difference in 
style or workmanship in any of the coins bearing the lis 
mark, it may be concluded that all the lis coins come 
together, and therefore the order of the mint-marks must 
be rose, lis, pheon in point of time, or pheon, lis, rose. 
There is much to be said in favour of both these views. 
A consideration, however, of some coins of the series 
not represented in the list will probably help the correct 
decision of the order of these marks. The coins with rose 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. H 



50 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

mint-mark show considerably more variation in the 
legend than those with other marks. This is more 
particularly noticeable in reference to the two words 
DI 6K7T. The list itself shows three forms, DI 6E7V, 
DI 6, and D. 6. All groats of the second coinage with 
the other mint-marks appear to read D. 6., and this 
abbreviation is the one used on the full-faced coins. 

The half-groats correspond with the groats as far as it 
is possible to determine. Some of the Canterbury coins 
bearing the initials W ft for Archbishop Wareham, 1504- 
1532, also read DI. This reading also is strictly in accord 
with the coins struck when Henry came to the throne, 
and probably when the second coinage was determined, 
or there was some little variation tried before the stereo- 
typed D. 6. came into use. This legend continued to 
hold its own right down to the time of Charles II, when 
it was again lengthened out in his early milled coinage of 
1662. Besides the legend, another point must be touched 
upon in connection with these rose-marked coins, viz., 
the lettering. In the vast majority of cases this conforms to 
the ordinary Lombardic type, and the whole alphabet used 
belongs to this type, but on a few rare coins some Roman 
letters are introduced. This is the case with almost all the 
letters forming the legend, but in nearly every such coin 
the alphabet has been mixed. Thus a few Roman letters 
are inserted among those of Lombardic type on either 
obverse or reverse. The consideration of the full-faced 
coins of Henry VIII would lead to the supposition that 
any coins of the profile type bearing Roman letters were 
of late date in that issue, and probably led up to the 
Roman alphabet of the full-faced types, and that there- 
fore these unusual coins with the rose mint-mark were 
the immediate predecessors of the full-faced coinage- 






A FIND OF SILVER COINS OF EDWARD IV HENRY VIII. 51 

That this view, however plausible, is probably not cor- 
rect, will be shown by a consideration of coins bearing 
the pheon mint-mark. These Roman letters must be 
looked upon as indicating an instability of purpose, and 
must be taken, with the unstable legends on these coins, to 
indicate earliness of issue. The mixture of alphabets 
does not occur here for the first time in the history of 
our English coins. Roman N's and M's were mixed in 
the legends of Edward Ill's coins, and the tremendous 
import of the Roman 1ST in London on the coins of 
Henry IV is never forgotten by some treasure seekers. 
The curious 's and M's on the early arched-crown 
groats of Henry VII must also be remembered here. 
In all these cases this mixed alphabet comes at a change 
of type, and therefore at the beginning of a new type, 
when designs were more or less unsettled. The proba- 
bility of the rose being the first mark on this second 
coinage on account of the legends and alphabets exhibited 
on the coins, is further strengthened by what is to be 
found on three or four pheon-marked pieces. These occur 
with a legend which it is quite impossible to place any- 
where else than at the end of the second issue. The 
legend is IxGCREia 8 D 6 fiGL FRA Z hIB RaX note the 
Arabic 8. Until quite lately this legend was not known 
on any coins earlier than those of the third issue in the 
King's thirty-fourth year, and indeed this Irish title has 
given the date to the first full-faced coinage, 1543, as no 
indenture for or proclamation of these coins is known. 
The supposition has always been that the coins were 
issued immediately after Henry became King rather than 
Lord of Ireland. The pheon-marked profile coins must 
therefore end the series of the second issue, and it is thus 
impossible to place the rose-marked coins anywhere else 



52 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

than on the other side of the lis mint-mark, or at the be- 
ginning of the second issue. This arrangement of marks 
leaves no place for the sun and cloud. Unfortunately the 
few coins bearing the mark show nothing to connect it 
with any other mark in the series. It cannot be the last, 
and if it is the first, there are not examples enough known 
to trace its priority of issue. The arrow mint-mark is 
probably only a variety of the pheon. 

A consideration of the gold coins of this second issue 
confirms the sequence of mint-marks on the silver ones. 
Angels arid their parts do not appear to have been issued 
up to 1543, together with crowns and their smaller frac- 
tions. The angels appear to have the pheon mint-mark 
and that of the sun and cloud. 

One other question requires some consideration, and that 
is, the date of issue of these second coinage profile pieces. 
The indenture has been dated 1526, and gives directions 
for the making of Greorge nobles and half George nobles, 
and also for the issue of crowns and half-crowns in gold. 
The silver coins were only to be reduced in weight. Un- 
fortunately the weight of these groats is of little or no 
use in coming to a conclusion, and whatever it is, it is not 
the weight given in the indenture, but lighter. As 
against this the first coinage groats are also much lighter 
than they should be, and for that matter so are the later 
coins of Henry VII. None of them, as a rule, reach in- 
denture weights, not even when they are in fine condition. 
The relative weights of the first as regards the second 
coinage are again not in accord with what the indenture 
would lead us to expect. Although the later coins may 
be slightly lighter than those which come before them, 
there is no such difference as between 48 grains and 43, 
or, to be accurate, 42 grains. 



A FIND OF SILVER COINS OF EDWARD IV HENRY VIII. 53 

Another feature in these second issue coins is the bust. 
It is always called Henry's own bust, and doubtless it is, 
but it represents a man who, though not in extreme 
youth, is still not an old man. Now Henry was born in 
1491, and thus he would be thirty-five in 1526. The 
change from this portrait to that represented on the 
earliest full-faced coin is again very marked, and would 
lead to the supposition that the earlier bust had been 
used for a very long time before it changed for a, full- 
faced portrait. At present the duration of the second 
issue is limited to seventeen years, which would hardly 
seem long enough to account for the great difference in 
portraiture exhibited. It may be here remarked that the 
relationship between the numbers of first and second 
issue coins which have come down to us would also war- 
rant us in the belief that the coins with Henry's own bust 
replaced those of his father at no very long time after he 
came to the throne. Yet at present we have to believe 
that the first issue was an equally long one with the 
second, 1509 to 1526. The first issue coins, in compari- 
son with those which followed, are of extreme rarity. 

The same sort of story is told by the provincial mints 
at this time. The coins of Christopher Bainbrigge, Arch- 
bishop of York from 1508 to 1515, are very rare ; they 
are all of the first issue. Of Wolsey, who followed him, 
and who died in 1531, hardly any are known of the first 
issue, and no groats at all. Those of the second issue, 
groats and half-groats, are among our commonest coins at 
this time ; yet a bare five years is given for this large 
issue. Lee, who had ten years at York after Wolsey's 
death, is represented relatively by very few half- 
groats. 

At Canterbury Archbishop Wareham ruled from 1504 



54 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

to 1532, but the proportion of his early coins to the later 
ones is extremely small. 

If the only other mint, that of Durham, be consulted, 
it will be found that there are no T. W. marked pence of 
the first issue, and that all those with T. "W. must be 
referred to the issue which bears the " Rosa " legend, i.e., 
the second coinage. A few coins with D. W. may perhaps 
be referred to Wolsey, more especially as there is a 
cardinal's hat below the shield. 

All these facts point to one of two alternatives. Either 
the date of the indenture is wrong, or what comes to the 
same thing, the second coinage, anyhow of silver, was 
started long before 1526, which seems borne out by the 
coins themselves, or there must have been an enormous 
coinage of silver between 1526 and 1543, and again 
between this year and that of the King's death in 1547. 

L. A. LAWRENCE. 



VI. 



TIMOTHEUS KEFATUS OF MANTUA AND THE 
MEDALLIST " T. R." 

(See Plates I., II.) 

THE obscure artist who signs himself TIM. REF. MANT. 
is represented by a very small number of medals. The 
only pieces hitherto assigned to him with any degree of 
certainty are the two described by Armand. 1 For com- 
pleteness' sake, I describe them again. 



1. Olv. THEODORVS. QVALLA AVRELIVS. PIOSNA. 
Half-figures superposed to r. of Qualla and 
Piosna, both tonsured and bearded, in monkish 
dress ; on the truncation of Qualla's r. arm, 156Z. 

E* V ._AVGVST. GREG. PASTORIB. VIGIL. Victory 
holding two wreaths flying to 1. over a wooded 
landscape, in which is a shepherd with his 
flock ; a mountain in the background ; below, 
TIM. REF. MANT. F. ; small branches before 
and after the signature. 

Diameter 80'5 mm. Bronze. In the collection of Mr. 
T. Whitcomb Greene. 2 [PI. I. 1.] 



1 Les Medailleurs italiens, i., pp. 236, 237. 
8 I have to thank the owner for kindly permitting me to 
publish this medal. 



56 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

2. Obv. THEODORVS QVALLA MANT AET SVvE AN 
L. Half-figure r. of Qualla, dressed as on No. 1 ; 
on the truncation of his r. arm, 156Z, and on a 
scroll below, TIM. R. M. F. 

Rev. AD VBERIORA HINC EVOCATI. A shepherd 
carrying a staff over his 1. shoulder, walking to 
r. , driving his flock before him ; in the back- 
ground trees and buildings. 

Diameter 68'5 mm. Lead ; gilt on obv. British Museum. 
[PL I. 2.] 

This medal was only known to Armand from the 
engraving in Mazzuchelli, 3 in which the artist's signature 
is entirely omitted, and the date wrongly given as 1561. 
The last numeral is, it must be admitted, half obliterated, 
but there can be little doubt of its being a 2, shaped like 
a Z. In spite of the omission of the signature, Armand 
rightly identified the medal as the work of the same 
artist as No. 1. 

Who that artist was, or at least his name, a third medal 
tells us. Once in the collection of King George III and 
now in the British Museum, it has hitherto escaped 
observation in the recesses of the " King's Cabinet." Its 
description is as follows : 

8. Obv.- TIMOT REFATVS SVI IPS EFFIGIATOR 
Bust r. of the artist, tonsured and boarded, in 
monkish dress ; on the truncation, 1566. 

Rev. NON VLTRA VIRES Arabian camel lying 
down to 1. ; beside it, two corded packages ; in 
the background, trees. Signature, before the 
beginning of the inscription, T- R- 

Diameter 23 mm. Lead. British Museum (Geo. Ill 
Collection). [PL I. 3.] 

3 L, tab. Ixvii. 1. 



TIMOTHEUS REFATUS AND THE MEDALLIST " T. R." 57 

M. G. Milanesi* has expressed the opinion that our 
artist is Tiraoteo degli Aliprandi, refereridarius of the 
Duke of Mantua, apparently basing his suggestion on the 
idea that REF is the abbreviation of " referendarius." 
This explanation now falls to the ground ; but a further 
suggestion of the same authority, that TIM. REF. is 
identical with the artist who signs himself T. R. on a 
number of medals, 5 seems to receive some support from the 
signature T. R. on the reverse of Refatus' portrait medal 
of himself. Nevertheless I am bound to admit that 
Armand is right in hesitating to admit this identification, 
chiefly on account of a difference of style, but also on 
chronological grounds. Refatus' style is very distinctive, 
although it may not be of the best ; he seems to have 
been under German influence, and has certain mannerisms, 
such as the introduction of trees bent by the wind in an 
otherwise still landscape. The very different style of 
T. R. can easily be appreciated by an examination of the 
following medals, which I have chosen for illustration 
as being at once very characteristic of his style, and 
enabling us, in three out of the five pieces, to add some 
information to that already given by Armand. Although 
some of the originals are rather poor specimens, they 
are the best at my disposal, and serve my present 
purpose. 6 



1. Obv. DIDACVS DE SOLIS EQVES HIEROSOLIM. 
Bust to r. of Diego de Solis, cuirassed. 



4 Quoted by Armand, torn, iii., p. 118. 

5 Armand, i., pp. 82, 286 ; iii., pp. 137, 138. 

6 1 have to thank Dr. Menadier for kindly sending me casts of 
all the specimens of T. R..'s medals in the Berlin Cabinet. 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. I 



58 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Rev. NIL DESPERANDVM T R Right arm hold- 
ing a wand, pointing towards the sun ; below, a 
landscape. 

Diameter 45 mm. Berlin Museum. [PI. II. 1.] 

Not described by Armand. Diego de Solis was sent 
as envoy of the Grand Master to Don John of Austria, 
in 1573, and to the Pope in 1576. 7 

2. Obi: BENEDICTVS CARD. LOMELLINVS T. R. 
Bust of the Cardinal to r., bare-headed, bearded, 
Wearing camail. 

Rev. MANSVETVDO. Figure of Gentleness standing 
to left, a veil attached to the back of her head, 
trampling on a serpent ; she extends her r. 
hand over a dove which she holds in her left. 
In the left lower margin T R (retrograde). 

Diameter 84-5 X 28-5 mm. British Museum. Lead. 
[PI. II. 2.] Another specimen (bronze, 84 X 28 
mm.) in the Bibliotheque Nationale (Armand, i. 
p. 287, 4). 

The same type and legend occur on another medal of 
Benedetto Loraellini described by Armand, with the 
artist's signature IN. It is dated on the obverse 1569, 
and Lomellini's age is described as fifty-two. 8 

8. Obv CAMILLVS VRSINVS MAX. BELLOR DVX' 
T'R- Bust of Camillo Orsini to r., bare-headed, 
with long beard, wearing cuirass. 

Rev. None. 
Diameter 46 mm. Berlin Museum. [PI. II. 3.] 



7 Bart, dal Pozzo, Hist, della sacra Reliff. milit. di S. Giovanni 
gerosolim., Pt. I, Verona, 1703, pp. 68, 121. 

8 Armand, i. p. 253. A cast, which I owe to the kindness of 
M. de la Tour, shows that the style of H. N. is far superior to 
that of T. R., and irf indeed worthy to rank beside Pastorino's. 



TTMOTHEUS REFATUS AND THE MEDALLIST " T. R." 59 

This medal is described by Armand (i. 233, 29) under 
the artist Graleotti, with the signature PPR, and a 
reference to Litta. 9 Litta's engraving gives merely PR, 
which, in the light of the Berlin specimen, must be 
amended to TR. 

4. flto.VLYSSES ALDROVAND? PHI AC MED- T-R- 
Bust to right of Ulisse di Teseo Aldrovandi, bare- 
headed, with short beard, draped. 

Jfcw. SENSIBVS HAEC IMIS RES EST NON PARVA 
REPONIT. T-R- A cock standing to left on 
its left leg, head reverted, holding in its beak a 
finger-ring, in its right leg an olive branch with 
berries. 

Diameter 42 mm. British Museum. Bronze. [PL II. 4.] 
Cp. Armand, iii. p. 188 B. (Royal Museum of 
Parma and City Museum of Bologna.) Another 
specimen is in the Berlin Museum. 

The inscription is an adaptation of the line of Vergil, 
Eel. iii., 54 : " Sensibus haec imis, res est non parva, 
reponas." The specimens described by Armand must be 
poor, as he was unable to read the whole of the inscrip- 
tion, and did not notice the ring in the cock's beak. But 
in Giov. Fantuzzi's Memorie della Vita di Ulisse Aldro- 
vandi (Bologna, 1774), there is an illustration (facing 
page 1) of what must be a fairly good specimen, com- 
bining the reverse of our medal with the obverse of the 
variety given by Armand, iii. p. 138 C, with the date 
1570 on the truncation of the right arm. 

In explanation of the type, Mr. A. S. Murray suggests 
that it must have some reference to the fable of the cock 
which found a gem on its dunghill. That this is the 

9 Fam. Cel., Orsini, 88. 



60 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

case, and that at the same time the type is emblematic of 
the enormous industry and reputation for learning of 
the celebrated naturalist, there can be little doubt, in 
view of the following passage (relating to the use of the 
cock as an emblem) from his Ornithologia. 

Aesopicus Gallus, qui gemmam inventam spernit, et viliorem 
cibnm quaerit, cum verbis, PAR IGNORANZE, si^nificat 
hominem, qui inscius virtutis dulcissimos fructus spernit, vitiis 
sese immergens, et nutriens. Huius emblematis idem (scil. lo. 
Baptista Pittonus, in insigni Frid. Sigis. Fuccari) author eat. 
Eadem denique ales cum lauri ramo in rostro, et cum verbo 
VIGILANDO, hominem denotat, qui in vigiliis : non autem in 
somno, et otio vitam degat, ut bene operando aeternam adipis- 
catur gloriam. 

The branch on the medal is, it is true, not of laurel, but 
of olive ; nevertheless, as the olive is the tree of Minerva it 
is equally significant of the dulcissimi fructus and the 
aeterna gloria to be won by devotion to learning. 

5. Obv DIANA MANTV ANA' T'R- Bust of Diana Ghisi 
(Scultori) to r., drapery on back of head. 

Rev. AES INCIDIMVS (-n'c). Right hand engraving 
with burin on an oval copper plate a Madonna 
and Child. In right lower margin, T'R' 

Diameter 40 mm. British Museum (obv.) and Berlin 
Museum (rev.). [PL II. 5.] 

The British Museum specimen is in bronze (C. F. 
Keary, Guide to the Exhibition of Italian Medals, p. 76, 
No. 288). Other specimens are in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale (bronze : Armand, i. p. 287, 3) and in the Flor- 
ence Museum (bronze : I. B. Supino, il Medagliere Mediceo, 
p. 164, No. 511). 

10 Bologna, 1684, torn. II, lib. xiv, p. 271 










TIMOTHEUS REFATUS AND THE MEDALLIST " T. R." 61 

It is doubtful whether the composition which Diana is 
engraving is meant for any particular picture. It bears 
a general resemblance to more than one of her extant 
engravings, but where the outline is so faint and the 
subject so common it would be absurd to attempt any 
identification. 

In the light of these medals it will, I think, be 
generally agreed that the identification of T. R. with 
Refatus must, as Armand has seen, be rejected. 

The proper elucidation of the types of the medals of 
Refatus must be left to someone who has the opportunity 
of searching the records of the Mantuan religious houses. 
The legend and type of the large medal of Qualla seem to 
point to a removal of his monastery " to more fertile pas- 
tures," the shepherd being Qualla himself, 11 just as in 
Mr. Whitcomb Greene's little medal the " watchful 
shepherds " are presumably Qualla and Piosna. The 
legend and the camel on the portrait -medal of Refatus 
allude to the idea that the camel would not carry more 
than its just weight, or travel more than its just 
distance. 12 

G. F. HILL. 



11 Cp. Mazzuchelli, i., p. 811. 

12 Soliims, Polyhist., 52 : " Sunt alii oneri ferendo accom- 
modati, alii leves ad pernicitatem. sed nee illi ultra iustum 
pondera recipiunt, nee isti amplius quam solita spatia volunt 
egredi." Pliny, N. H. viii. 18, 68: " Sua cuique mensma 
sicuti vires, nee ultra adsuetum procedit spatium, nee plus 
institute onere recipit." These passages are given by 
Aldrovandi, Quadrupedum own. bisukorum historia (Bologna, 
1621), Tom. I. lib. i. p. 81)8, together with a quotation to the 
Bame eflect from Samuel Purchas 



VII. 

SOME NOTES ON THE COINS STRUCK AT 
OMDURMAN BY THE MAHDI AND THE KHALIFA. 

(See Plates in. and IV.) 

THE defeat and death of the Khalifa Abdullah put an end 
to a coinage which adds another curious illustration to the 
numismatic history of Mohammedan Africa. My attention 
was drawn to the coins by having a bag of sixty or seventy 
of the copper dollars, issued by the Khalifa during the 
last seven years of his rule, placed in my hands for exam- 
ination. The coins were found, when the Sirdar's troops 
entered Omdurman, in an empty house by the servant 
of a young relative of mine, Captain Lyle Cummins, of 
the R.A.M.C., who sent them home. And as the gold 
and silver coins first issued appear to be already very rare, 
and even these copper dollars are disappearing it is said, 
though I do not know on what authority, that they are 
now being shipped to England in considerable quantity 
for the purpose of extracting the silver contained in them 
it may be useful to record all that I have been able to learn 
about them so far. Captain Cummins writes to me : 

" I do not think that they are legal tender in the Sudan 
now; in fact I am perfectly sure that they are not, as in places 
like Kassala and Gedaref one often finds two or three in a 
day lying about on the ground. That would not be the 






COINS STRUCK BY THE MAHDI AXD THE KHALIFA. 63 

case if they were of any value ; besides, I have never seen 
one in circulation. The silver dollars must be very rare, 
as I have not been able to get any." 

The following notes are taken from papers by Yacoub 
Artin Pasha, published in Cairo in 1888, and by Dr. H. 
Niitzel, published in Berlin in 1894, and from the notices 
on the coins contained in the narratives of Father 
Ohrwalder, Slatin Pasha, and C. Neufeld. 

Mohammed Ahmed, the Mahdi, belonged to the race of 
people known as the Danagla, i.e. inhabitants of Dongola, 
and was born about 1840 ; his father came into the Sudan 
when quite a young man, and at Kererri Mohammed 
Ahmed's early youth was spent in learning the Kuran. 
Later on he led the life of a Dervish, moving about from 
place to place and striving to rouse the Moslems to religious 
fanaticism, preaching everywhere against the oppression 
of the Turk and the decadence of the true Moslem faith, 
and gaining by his ascetic life a reputation for sanctity 
which brought to him a number of influential adherents. 
With these he retired to the island of Abba, on the White 
Nile, where he openly declared himself to be the Mahdi, 
Khalifa er Rasul, or successor of the Prophet. Rumours 
reached Khartum that he intended to raise a revolt, and 
E/auf Pasha, the Governor, sent a force to arrest him. 
The Mahdi's first overt act of rebellion was the attack on, 
and the destruction of, this force. This was in July, 1881 
(1298 A.H.). Immediately afterwards, leaving his island 
retreat, he commenced his career of conquest ; but though 
he appears to have dated the beginning of his reign from 
early in 1881, he did not issue any coins until after the 
fall of Khartum in January, 1885 (1302 A.H.). He had 
then accumulated considerable quantities of the precious 
metals, and the Emir of the Beit-ul-Mal, or Treasurv, 



64 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Ahmad Wad Suleiman, utilised this treasure for the 
coinage. At this time, according to Father Ohrwalder, 
besides gold coins of Egypt and English sovereigns, the 
principal currency in the Sudan was the Medjidie dollar. 
The Maria Theresa dollar, French five-franc pieces and 
Spanish dollars were also current, and Egyptian piastres 
and half-piastres were occasionally seen, as well as copper 
coins of all descriptions. 

The Mahdi's issues consisted of a gold piece of 100 
piastres, a servile copy of the Egyptian pound, bearing 
the date 1255 and the name of the Sultan, Abd-al-Majid, 
and a silver piece of 20 piastres, imitating the Turkish 
Medjidie dollar, but with the Sultan's name replaced by 
the words ^J^l^b " By order of the Mahdi," and with 
the correct date 1302 A.H., but without any indication of 
the mint. Both of these coins, which were of good 
standard, had almost disappeared from circulation before 
the escape of Father Ohrwalder in 1309 A.M., and the 
quantity struck cannot have been large, as Slatin Pasha 
states that the Mahdi before his death had stopped their 
issue. 

The Mahdi died in 1302, within six months after the 
fall of Khartum, after having named as his successor the 
Khalifa Abdulla, a member of the Taisha section of the 
Baggara tribe. Abdulla did not strike any coins until 
1304. At that date " an immense stock of silver trinkets, 
captured in the various campaigns, lay stored up in the 
Treasury, and quantities of these had been sold for much 
below their value and had been secretly taken by dealers 
to Egypt. In order to put a stop to this the Khalifa now 
decided to make his own coinage." (Fire and Sword in the 
Sudan, p. 407.) The Treasurer, Ibrahim Wad Adlan, 
who was appointed on the fall of Suleiman, in April or 



COINS STRUCK BY THE MAHDI AND THE KHALIFA. 65 

May, 1886 (1303), began the issue of 20, 10, and 5 piastre 
pieces of a new type, bearing the name of the mint 
"Orndurman" and the word "Makbul" (accepted). 
These coins were of lower standard than the Madhi dollar, 
but still presented the appearance of silver. 

Father Ohrwalder arrived at Omdurman in April, 
1886, and at that time, he states, " there was a great 
scarcity of small coins, and in consequence pieces of damur 
(a twilled cotton fabric, manufactured in the Sudan) were 
made currency valued at 10, 5, and 2^ piastres ; but these 
rags soon became so dirty that people refused to accept 
them. The Khalifa threatened those who refused with 
confiscation of property and imprisonment " ; but after a 
short time he found that this could not be enforced, and 
the dirty rags were withdrawn from circulation. 

The new coins were not more favourably received. 
According to Slatin Pasha the Mahdi dollar contained 7 
parts of silver and 1 of copper ; Adlan's first coinage 6 
silver and 2 copper, and his second coinage 5 silver and 
3 copper. The merchants refused to accept these latter 
coins for twenty piastres ; as a punishment their goods 
were confiscated and their shops closed. This had its 
intended effect, and on their agreeing to accept the new 
coinage at its nominal value their property was restored to 
them. The natural result of these measures was an 
immediate rise of prices ; but all the Khalifa knew was 
that his dollars were accepted, and with that he was 
satisfied. 

Ohrwalder escaped in November, 1891 (1309), and prior 
to that date Adlan had also fallen, and Nur-el-Gereifawi 
had been made Treasurer. Under him the debasement of 
the coinage made rapid strides. Slatin writes that the 
" Omla Gedida" or " new currency " dollar contained 2 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. K 



66 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

parts silver and 6 parts copper, and that when he escaped 
a Medjidie dollar was worth eight " Omla Gedida " dollars. 
Neufeld states that Nur " came to the conclusion evidently 
that a coin was but a token, and that it was immaterial 
what it was made of, provided it carried some impression 
on it. The quantity of silver in his dollars grew less and 
less and then was only represented by a light plating, which 
wore off in a few weeks' time. "When people grumbled 
he unblushingly issued copper coins pure and simple," and 
farther that "as the silver dollars disappeared the few 
remaining went up enormously in value, until in the end 
they were valued at fifty or sixty of the Beit-el-Mal 
coins." 

The quantity of these base coins issued (both authorised 
and unauthorised, for the die-cutters made dies for them- 
selves and their friends as well as for the government), 
must have been very large. When Neufeld was sent to the 
arsenal at Khartum, shortly before Slatin's escape (1312), 
he says that " two men were kept continuously engaged 
casting square steel blocks for the Omdurman mint ; these 
blocks were polished and cut in Omdurman and twenty- 
five sets were generally in use at the same time. Possibly 
two hundred men were employed in the melting of the 
copper and casting it into moulds the size and thickness 
of the dollars. The discs were next passed on to the 
people who gave them the impression ; this was obtained 
by placing the disc on the lower block and then hammer- 
ing the upper block upon it." This account of the 
process appears to explain a question raised in Artin 
Pasha's paper as to whether the Mahdi's coins were struck 
or cast. The coins I examined, of which about fifty bear 
the date 1312, mostly show signs of casting on their 
surfaces and confirm the statement as to the number of 



COINS STRUCK BY THE MAHDI AND THE KHALIFA. 67 

dies employed, as at least twenty-one different dies were 
used in striking them. 

Besides the 20, 10, and 5 piastre pieces, Ohrwalder 
states that a few 1 piastre pieces were issued, " on 
one side of which was stamped the Tughra and on the 
other side the word Omdurman." Of these I have only 
seen two very worn specimens ; on neither of them is the 
date legible ; they are not noticed by Dr. Niitzel in his 
paper on the early coinages of 1302 and 1304, but must 
have been struck between 1304 and the beginning of 1309, 
when Father Ohrwalder escaped. None of the works 
quoted mention any issue of copper coins, but Dr. Codring- 
ton has a pretty, well-executed little coin in copper, 
possibly a pattern for a 10 para piece, which value is 
indicated on it. 

In Slatin Pasha's narrative the following table is given, 
showing the various descriptions of dollars coined during 
the ten years preceding his escape, viz., from 1302 to 
1311 A.H. 

Weight in Dirhems. 
Copper. Silver. 

1. The Mahdi dollar 7 1 

2. The first dollar made by Ibrahim Adlan . 6 % 
8. The second dollar ,, ,, ..53 
4. The first dollar of Nur-el-Gereifawi. (This is 

known as the Makbul dollar) . . . 4 4 

6. The second dollar of Nur-el-Gereifawi. (This 

is known as the Abu Sidr or Makbul) . 3 4 

6. The dollar of Suleiman Abdullah. (This is 

known as the Abu Kibs or crossed-spears 

dollar) . . . ."'.'"'. . 2J- 4J 

7. The first dollar of Abd-el-Majid. (Also called 

the Makbul) 2 4* 

8. The dollar of Weki Alia . 2* 4* 

9. The dollar of " Omla Gedida " (new money) . 2 5 

The dirhem, according to Noback's Muuz-Maass- und 
Geu'ichtsbucA, is equal to 3*0884 grammes, therefore 



68 NUMISMATIC CHKOMCLE, 

Nos. 1 to 4 should weigh 247 grammes, and Nos. 5 to 9 
21*62 grammes. 

The actual weights, as might be expected from the 
process of making the coins, as already described, vary 
greatly ; the legal weight of the Medjidie 20 piastres is 
24-055 grammes, the fineness '830. According to Slatin's 
table, the Mahdi dollar should weigh 24'7 grammes and 
be -875 fine ; practically none of the weights recorded by 
Artin Pasha and Dr. Niitzel exceed 24-06 grammes, and 
one coin weighed only 23*05 grammes. The British 
Museum coin, a fine specimen, weighs 370 grains 
23-97 grammes. The variation in the case of the other 
types is quite as great. Very few of those I have ex- 
amined come up to Slatin's figures ; many, even when in 
fine condition, are considerably lighter. 

The Mahdi coin appears to be of good silver, the three 
specimens of 1304 that I have seen also silver but base, 
and so are the coins of 1309 and 1310 in the British 
Museum Collection. Coins of the later types occasionally 
show traces of the plating that Neufeld describes, but 
most of the "crossed spears" coins appear to be simply 
copper without a trace of silver about them. 

The figures on these coins, which occupy the place 
where on Turkish and Egyptian coins the regnal year of 
the Sultan is indicated, are puzzling. On the Mahdi dollar 
of 1302 (PI. Ill, No. 1) the figure 5 appears. As this 
coin was struck between the fall of Khartum in January, 
1885, and the death of the Mahdi in June of the same 
year, he appears, Dr. Niitzel points out, to have dated the 
beginning of his reign from the spring of 1881, or before 
he defeated Rauf Pasha's forces. The coins of the Khalifa 
do not follow an} 7 settled system ; on some the figures 
agree with his own regnal years, most of his dollars dated 



COINS STRUCK BY THE MAHDI AND THE KHALIFA. 69 

1311, 1312, and the smaller coins of 1304 have figures 
which coincide with the years of the new century of the 
Hijrah. This Dr. Niitzel explains by the belief, prevalent 
amongst Mohammedans, that one of the principal signs 
for the recognition of the true Mahdi would be his ap- 
pearing at the close of a century, and for this reason he 
suggests that Abdulla adopted the year 1300 A.H. as the 
date of beginning of the new dynasty ; the figures, there- 
fore, on these coins would indicate the dynastic and not 
the regnal year. Coins of 1304 have 1, and the three 
types of 1315 have each a different numeral, none of them 
corresponding with either the regnal or the dynastic year, 
and their explanation has still to be found. Perhaps for 
the coins of 1315 it was simply that all the more educated 
workmen were dead or disabled, like Elias el Kurdi (one 
of the best workmen of the Khalifa's earlier years), who, 
Father Ohrwalder relates, had one hand and one foot cut 
off in 1889 for issuing counterfeit money. 

As already mentioned, the two coins issued in the life- 
time of the Mahdi imitated the types of the Egyptian 
pound and of the Turkish Medjidie dollar, or 20-piastre 
piece. 

Under the Khalifa dollars were coined of five different 
types. 

Type 1. Introduced in 1304 ; has outer circles of twelve- 
double crescents, forming a chain-like pattern. The type 
may be taken from the coinage for Egypt under the 
Sultan Mahmud II. I have not found any closer proto- 
type. 

Type 2. Introduced in 1310 ; appears to be an imi- 
tation of the new Egyptian coinage of 1303 or 1304. 
It has crossed branches on both sides, crossed spears on 
the reverse, and a branch with seven leaves before the 



70 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Tughra. Roses take the place of the stars which are on 
the Eg}^ptian coins. 

Type 3. Introduced in 1312, is a modification of 
type 2 ; the crossed spears are on the obverse, the branch 
with seven leaves is replaced by small flower sprays 
before and behind the Tughra, and stars take the places 
of most of the roses. 

Type 4. Introduced in 1311, is the "new money," 
and reverts for type to the Turkish Medjidie silver. 
These coins are of better workmanship than any of the 
other issues of the Khalifa. 

Type 5. Introduced in 1311, is a modification of 
type 4, the stars and ornaments accompanying the 
crescents being omitted. 

The figures on the accompanying plates fully illustrate 
all these types excepting the gold pound issued by the 
Mahdi, of which I have not seen a specimen ; it is figured 
and described in the papers by Yacoub Artin Pasha and 
Dr. H. Niitzel already referred to. The illustrations are : 



No. 1. The Mahdi dollar. Obv. The Tughra with 

\s = "by order of the Mahdi." Rev. IT-T 

<=$- '-rir* = " struck in the Hijra (year 
understood) 1302." This coin is of good silver. 
[PI. III. 1.] 

No. 2. The first 20 piastres of the Khalifa issued by Ibrahim 
Adlan. Obv. In Tughra JjJU = " accepted " 
(i.e. as legal coin), and Rev. <~ ; c-^J 
l *< (j\sjJ+\ = "struck at Omdurman, 
1304." [PI. HI. 2]. The British Museum 

has a 20 piastres of same type, date 11**^ ; both 
are of base silver. 

No. 3. 20 piastres of type 2, legends as on last ; date 
IT!- (1810). This coin is in the Brit. Mus. 



COINS STRUCK BY THE MAHDI AND THE KHALIFA. 71 

Collection and is also of base silver. [PL III. 3.] 
Another of same date in the writer's collection 
appears to be of copper only : both have speara 
on obv. as well as on rev. and they probably re- 
present the first issues of Nur-el-Grereifawi. 

No. 4. 20 piastres of type 2, but without spears on obv. ; 
date (TIT [PI. III. 4.] This type also occurs 

with the dates I f I I and I f* 1 ; it belongs 
to the silver-washed series. Mr. Howorth's <:oin 
of 1311, apparently in mint state, has a complete 
silver coating ; on the 1312 coin the silver 
coating has entirely disappeared, and the 1315 is 
of simple red copper. 

No. 5. 20 piastres of type 8, legends as last. Spears 
on ohv. only [PI. III. 5]. The bulk of the base 
20 piastres that I have examined are of this type 

and are dated lr I f ; it also occurs with dates 
| r I r and I ri 6 > an< * there are many slight 
varieties ; all are very base. 



No. 6. 20 piastres of the JJuJc*- <^ or new money, 
type 4. Obv., in Tughra the above words take the 

place of J^-JL*, and Rev. legend <J_ <r>j<*> s j^ 3 j - 
HI I. ^U.t>,i, the whole being an even 
closer copy of the Medjidie coin than the Mahdi 
dollar [PI. III. 6]. It also occurs with the date 

If" 1 1 (Brit. Mus. and Dr. Codrington's coll.); 
and all that I have seen are very base, though 
with some traces of silver. On these coins there 
is a small label with incuse inscription in field on 
obv. 

No. 7. 20 piastres of type 5, as last, but the stars and 
ornaments accompanying the crescents are 
omitted. Legends as No. 6, date 1312 [PL IV. 1.]; 
also of 1311 in Brit. Mus. coll., very base. 

Nos. 8 and 9. 20 piastres of type 5, but with the legends of 

type 2, JjJU, &c. ; date 1312 [PI IV. 2]. The 
place of this coin may be before type 4. A curious 
variety in the writer's collection has the label 



72 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

as on No. 6 and rev. the date IT-T. This 
must be an error ; the Khalifa did not strike any 
coins until IT'S.. Dr. Codrington suggests 
that it should be IT-1. This would agree with 
the dynastic year 9 which appears on it. This piece 
is of base silver and was sent by Captain 
Cummins from Khartum. [PI. IV. 3.] 

No. 10. 20 piastres of 1315, a rude modification of type 
3, copper with no sign of silver [PI. IV. 4] ; in 
D. F. Howorth's coll. On this coin the engraver 
has omitted the figures denoting the number of 
piastres it has been struck over an earlier 
" crossed-spears " dollar ; it may be one of the 
false coins already alluded to. 

No. 11, 5 piastres of type 1, date 1311 [PI. HI. 7]. Mr. 
Howorth's coll. Dr. Niitzel describes three 
varieties of this type all dated 1804. This speci- 
men of 1311 is of base silver. 



No. 12. 5 piastres of type 4, date 1811, the 

but omits the label found on the 20 piastres. Mr. 
Howorth's coll. [PI. IV. 5], where there is also 
a 2 piastre piece of this type, with date 181 2, 
both base. The only mention of pieces of 2 piastres 
that I have seen is in Captain Cummins' letter 
quoted on next page. Their value is denoted 
in an unusual manner, an being placed over the 

LJ~ I_LJ"*J an( ^ t'kis a PP ears on some specimens 
to be joined to the r, making it like a r. 
Though of the same size as the 5 piastres, No. 
12, they are thinner and lighter. 

No. 13. 2 piastres of type 5; I TIT ; base silver [PI. 
IV 7] 



No. 14, 2 piastres, 1312, type 4, but the word 

replaces the JJoA?- <d^c in the Tughra; a 
curious rude coin very base. D. F. H. coll. 
[PI. IV 6.] 

No. 15. 10 paras of 1808 from Dr. Codrington 's coll., the 
only specimen I have seen, of good workman- 

ship. J^r^ in ^e Tughra ; below ^-^ or 10 
p(aras). Rev. date and mint. [PL IV. 8-] Dr. 



COINS STRUCK BY THE MAHDI AND THE KHALIFA. 73 

Codrington informs me that this pretty coin was 
sent to him from Suakim by a friend. 

Besides these coins Dr. Niitzel describes and figures 
a 10 piastres of type 1 and dated 1304; this coin 
I have not yet seen. All the coins described have milled 
edges. On the Mahdi's dollar and Dr. Codrington's copper 
coin this is fairly well done, on the other coins it is rude 
and irregular, as if done by hand. 

P.S. Since writing the foregoing notes I have received 
a letter from Captain Cummins from Khartum, in which 
he says, " Are these dollar pieces of 20 piastres ? I 
gather so from your letter, which speaks of J dollars as 
* 5 piastres.' The Egyptian dollar is of course 20 
piastres, but in the Sudan the natives speak of the 
Egyptian 10 p. as a ' rial,' i.e., dollar, and the 
Abyssinian rial is valued at 10 p. The Egyptian 10 
p. is about the size of the Khalifa rial. I cannot help 
thinking that the Khalifa's dollar was a 10 p. piece. I 
have just taken one way to find out, having asked some 
of the Jehedeyah who are working on the barracks 
here, who had used the coins themselves. They all 
agree that the rial was 10 p. They tell me that the 
small coins I am sending you (illustrations 11 and 12) 
are half-dollars (5 p.) and that the only other coin 
was a still smaller one, value 2 piastres." This may 
mean that on the disappearance of the silver coins the 
base dollar passed at half its nominal value, and this- 
would account for no pieces with indicated value 10 p. 
of the later dates having turned up. There can be 
no doubt as to the value they were originally intended 
to pass for, almost all having the (J^/~, 20 grusch, or 
piastres, indicated on them. 

SAMUEL SMITH, Jun. 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. L 



MISCELLANEA. 



THREE LEAD TICKETS OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 
(1) GLASGOW ASSEMBLY 



Olrv. ". Glasgow . Assembly . 1732 ." on a sunk rim. 
The arms of Glasgow in a small sunk circle in 
the centre countermarked " No. 20." 

Rev. Blank. 




Lead. Size 1-85 in. 



This ticket, dated as early as 1782, no doubt relates to the 
public dances, known as the " Glasgow Assemblies," held for 
many years in the winter season in Glasgow. 

Until the Assembly Rooms were opened in 1740, the Glasgow 
Assemblies were held in the Merchants' Hall, Bridegate, and 
were usually well attended, the Duchess of Douglas for several 
years patronising them. The management of the business part 
of the assemblies was vested in directors and a secretary, who 
framed an elaborate (and amusing) set of rules. The arrange- 
ment of the dancing and the other business of each night was 
superintended by a lady of fashion. The tickets for the first 



MISCELLANEA. 75 

assembly of the year were sold at 5s., and for the others at 4s. 
each. 

It is interesting to note that no theatrical representation was 
allowed in Glasgow until 1750, four years after the opening of 
the first regular theatre in Scotland, which was situate in 
Cannongate, Edinburgh. 

(See New Statistical Account of Scotland, Blackwood, 1845, 
vol. vi. pp. 119 and 210; and Denholme's History of Glasgow, 
1804, p. 348.) 

(2) PANTHEON GARDENS, SPA FIELDS, CLERKENWELL 

Obv. Inscription in seven lines: "PANTHEON BY 
DELIVERING THIS TICKET TO THE 
WAITER Y B INTITLED TO THE VALUE OF 

6 D - " ; outside, a circle and an ornamental border 
of leaves. 

Rev. " 3" " Ma y " " 1772 " in three ornamented circles. 
Below, "FOR THIS DAY ONLY" and two 
roses and a scallop shell ; all in a circle of dots. 

Lead. Size 1-25 in. 

This ticket relates to the Pantheon Gardens in Spa Fields. 
There, a building with four acres of grounds, was opened in 1770, 
and noted for the tea and punch sold there. The gardens 
flourished until 1776, when they were sold and the building 
was converted into the Northampton Chapel, and subsequently 
the Spa Fields Chapel. 

In Pink's History of Clerkenwell, 1881, p. 143, is set out 
a letter to the St. Jamas' Chronicle, from " Speculator," dated 
5th May, 1772, describing his visit with a friend to these 
gardens on the previous Sunday on his way from the City to 
Cold Bath Fields. After describing the scene of disorder and 
riot, the writer states that he and his friend procured seats, and 
producing their tickets, were served with twelve pennyworth of 
punch. The company seemed to consist of City apprentices 
and the lower class of tradesmen. He concludes : " Of all the 
tea-houses in the environs of London, the most, exceptionable 
that I have had occasion to be in is the Pantheon." 

It should be noted that Wheatley, in London, Past and 
Present, vol. hi., p. 24, in describing the Pantheon which was 
opened in Oxford Street on the 12th January, 1772 (and after 
being an opera house and a bazaar is now occupied by Messrs. 
W. and A. Gilbey), quotes a letter, dated 4th May, 1774, from 



76 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Gibbon, the historian, to Holroyd, describing "Boodle's mas- 
querade last night, costing 2,000 guineas," and concluding, 
" I left the Pantheon about five this morning." This fete 
would have been exactly two years after the fete of 1772. 

Mr. Walters, of Leamington, informs me that he knows of a 
specimen of this ticket, dated before the opening of the Pan- 
theon in Oxford Street, showing that it belongs to Clerkenwell. 

8. MB. Cox's MUSEUM 

Obv. Inscription in three lines : M K - COX'S MUSEUM, 
1773. 

Rev. A head in the centre, with lines radiating from it 
to the edge, possibly taken from a mechanical 
figure in the museum, representing the sun. 

Lead. Size 1*4 in. 

Mr. James Cox, who worked at 103, Shoe Lane, Fleet Street, 
found himself, in 1778, in financial difficulties. He applied to 
Parliament, and obtained an Act (13 Geo. III. c. XLI). This 
Act states that Mr. Cox had invented several mechanical pieces 
of uncommon and expensive workmanship, in the construction 
of which employment had been afforded to near one thousand 
ingenious and industrious artists and workmen, and that these 
mechanical pieces had been sold in the East Indies and abroad 
for near 600,000 ; but, on account of the distress and scarcity 
of money in the East Indies and Europe, he could not dispose 
of the pieces on hand, composing the museum known as Cox's 
Museum, and he was in debt. It was therefore enacted that, 
in order that the useful branch of trade brought to so much per- 
fection by the said James Cox might still be carried on with 
success, he was empowered, at any time before the 1st 
January, 1780, to sell and dispose of the said Museum in 
such manner as he thought proper, without being liable to any 
penalty imposed by statute against any sale by way of lottery, 
or by lots, tickets, numbers, or figures. 

In the schedule to the Act is set out a list of fifty items, 
comprising the Museum, nearly all fitted with chimes and 
mechanism, many being ten to twenty feet high. For instance, 
No. 48 is "a swan, large as life, of silver, fitted with mecha- 
nism, beating time with its beak to musical chimes, seated on 
artificial water, within reflecting mirrors ; under the swan are 
waterworks terminating at the top with a rising sun upwards 
of three feet in diameter ; the whole eighteen feet high." The 



MISCELLANEA. 77 

Museum, valued at 197,500, was exhibited in 1773 and 1774 
in Spring Gardens, Charing Cross. Only a few persons were 
admitted at a time, twice in the day, at half-a-guinea each. 
This ticket is evidently one of the admission tickets. 

In the meantime Mr. Cox was making arrangements for the 
lottery, which was known as the " Museum Lottery." It was 
drawn at the Guildhall on the 1st May, 1775. A man was 
afterwards tried for bribing one of the Bluecoat Boys to conceal 
a forged ticket in his hand at the drawing. The first prize was 
a pair of diamond earrings, made for the Empress of Russia, 
valued at 10,000. Mr. James Cox and his son continued to 
carry on business at 103, Shoe Lane, until 1792. 

Some of the pieces appear to have been acquired by Mr. 
Thomas Weeks, who opened a mechanical museum at 4, Tich- 
borne Street, in 1820 ; and in a sale of the effects of Mr. Charles 
Weeks, at Christie's, in May, 1864, several pieces corresponding 
with those in Mr. Cox's Museum were included, particularly 
the silver swan, before referred to, but they appear to have 
been in a dirty and dilapidated condition. 

F. WILLSON YEATES. 



GOLD COINS OF THE MUWAHHIDS. I have had an opportunity 
of examining a parcel of gold coins of the Muwahhid Khalifehs 
of Marocco evidently forming the whole, or the larger part, of 
a find from North Africa. These coins consist of 294 half -dinars 
(average weight 35-4 grains) and 2 dinars (both 71 grains), all 
struck between 524 and 611 A.H. 

The hoard mainly consists of half-dinars of two types, the 
one struck by Abu Yaakub Yusuf I (558-580 A.H.), and the 
other by Abu Abd-allah Mohammed (595-611 A.H.), the latter 
type not being represented in the British Museum Catalogue. 

The chief interest in the find is due to the unusual number 
of mint names which appear on the coins. This will be seen at 
once from the following list, viz. : 

MINTS. 

'Abd el-Mumin. Tunis. 

Fas. 

Abu Yaakub Yusuf I. Ishbillyeh. 

Medinet Bcjayeh. 



78 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Abu Yaakub Yusuf I. Medmet Tilimsan. 

Tunis. 
Sijilmaseh. 
Marrakush. 
Hadr Marrakush. 
Medinet Marrakush 
(Uncertain mint) 

Abu Abd-allah Mohammed. Bejayeh. 

Medmet Fas. 
Marrakush. 
Medinet Marrakush. 



I think it is important to note that during the period covered 
by the reigns of the first four Khallfehs of this Dynasty, mint 
names, so far as the gold coinage is concerned, appear only on 
the smaller issues, the dinars being without any indication of 
the mint from which they were issued. It is possible the 
dinars were all struck at one mint, presumably Marrakush, 
but other mints were allowed to participate in the coinage of 
the half and quarter dinars. 

From the fact that the mints above referred to largely 
coincide with those appearing on the square silver coinage of 
the Muwahhids (issued without date and without name of 
prince), it may, I think, be assumed these silver dirliems were 
struck at the same time, that is to say in the latter half of the 
sixth century of the Hegirah. This is rendered the more 
probable from the fact that later dirhems of the same Dynasty 
are round instead of square, and bear the name of the prince 
under whom they were struck, as well as the name of the mint. 
(Cf. Numis. Chron. Vol. XII, New Series, f. 169.) 

A description of the coins is annexed : 



EL-MuMiN (524-558), all half-dinars. 

No. 

1. No mint or date, same as B.M.C. 5, No. 86 2 

2. Same type, but mint (j**J*J' (Tunis) appears in lower 

part of square of both obverse and reverse . . 1 

3. Same type, but with mint ~jli (Fas) on upper side 

of square on obverse and on lower on reverse . . 1 



MISCELLANEA. 79 

ABU YAAKUB YUSUF I (558-580), all half-dinars. 
Obverse in double squares, i*^*- T^ * a ^^ * 



Marin, 



Reverse in double squares. 



-^ *j_ 



Margin. 



4. No mint or date .... 

5. With *-L-A\ (Ishbiliyeh) 

6. ,, ilsT ^A^ (Med. Bejayeh) . 

7. ,, jjU*l3 <LjJ^ (Med. Tilimsan) 

8. ^y (Tunis) . 

9. ,, a^ULsr 5 (Sijilmaseh) 

10 ,, (j*U aiiJA^ (Med. Fas) . 

11. ,, (Jl^\^ (Marrakush) 

12. Jl\jj&. (Hadr Marrakush) 

13. ,, ^j^\^t Lj >t \* (Med. Marrakush) 

14. <Ux1 (uncertain mint) 



. 231 
9 
1 

. 1 

. 2 

1 

5 

. 15 

. 8 

4 

5 



80 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

ABU YUSITF YAAKUB I (580-595), both dinars. 
15. No mint or date, same as B.M.C. 5, No. 100 . . 

ABU ABB-ALLAH MOHAMMAD (595-611), all half-dinars. 
Like No. 4, but reverse margin reads : 



16. With 

17. 

18. ,, 
19. 



; (Bejayeh) . . -. 
(Med. Fas) . . 
(Marrakush) . . 
(Med. Marrakush) 



296 
J. M. C. JOHNSTON. 



Mum, 





MEDALS BY REFATUS OF MANTUA. 




MEDALS BY T. R 



Cfavn. Ser. WVol. ff.Pl, ///. 



- //) 

fj&b 

.'> i. \ > i i ^f / 



^s 

%, 



^r |\(HW(-| 

a- ^^ i'4vrjiyi 

%,5 



'; < 



A3* *-"^ *^- x 

\ V r-'-r-'^ t 
^* -^ -1 ^ 

# yv. i A \*"* 

'''/T'//ml/\U\/' 




COINS STRUCK ATOMDURMAN. 




COINS STRUCK ATOMDURMAN. 



VIII. 

A NOTE ON SOME COINS GENERALLY 

ATTRIBUTED TO MAZAIOS, THE SATRAP OF 

CILICIA AND SYRIA. 

I AM aware of the temerity of differing in opinion from 
such accomplished numismatists as M. Babelon, Mr. Hill, 
and M. Six, on the subject of the Satrapal coinage of 
Persia ; but perversity is my habit, and there are one or 
two points on which I feel disposed to break a lance with 
them, great men though they be. These points involve 
the attribution of certain coins which they have assigned 
to Mazaios, the Satrap of Cilicia. 

With the great mass of the coins of this ruler I have 
nothing to do to-day. Those, I mean, which bear the 
name of Mazaios and which are inscribed with Aramaic 
characters. There is another class, however, which do 
not bear his name and which instead of Aramaic letters 
are inscribed with Greek ones, and which have been 
attributed to him by two of the great authorities above 
named. My remarks are confined to this latter class. 

I cannot see myself how it is possible for Mazaios, 
or his companion Belesys, the Satrap of Syria (to whom 
Mr. Hill tentatively assigns some of these coins), who both 
of them ceased to have anything to do with Cilicia or Syria 
some time before the battle of Issus, to have issued coins 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. M 



82 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

with Greek letters on them. They ruled an Aramaio- 
speaking people who used an Aramaic alphabet, and, 
unlike the Western Satraps, had not to provide a coinage 
for a Greek community, and who naturally issued coins 
with Greek letters on them. Of Belesys we do not read 
again after the Phoenician war or the reign of Artaxerxes 
III, while Mazaios was presently transferred from Cilicia 
and appointed Satrap of Babylon. He was Satrap of 
Babylon at the time of Alexander's conquest and was 
confirmed in that position by the great conqueror. 

As Satrap of Babylon he issued tetradrachms, some of 
them of Attic weight, which must therefore have been 
struck under the Macedonian rule and during the reign of 
Alexander. These are inscribed with his name and 
invariably with Aramaic and not with Greek letters. 

We have not to do here with a coinage struck to pay 
Greek mercenaries, as so many Satrapal issues were. 
The coins are not Greek but Cilician. They bear on them 
the initials of Cilician towns and the image of the 
Cilician god, and in weight and fabric are purely Cilician. 
The use of Greek letters on such coins in a country 
where the language and the script was entirely Aramaic 
might be possible on autonomous coins struck by Greek 
towns in Cilicia, but it seems to me very improbable that 
a Satrapal issue by a Cilician Satrap for home consump- 
tion should have had Greek letters on them. This use, 
it seems to me, makes it exceedingly probable they were 
struck after Cilicia became a Greek province by the 
conquest of Alexander. 

On this ground alone, therefore, I would venture very 
respectfully to contend that the coins numbered 242- 
255 in Babelon's catalogue of the Dynasts and Satraps of 
Persia, and the coins 65-78 in Hill's catalogue of the 



NOTE ON COINS GENERALLY ATTRIBUTED TO MAZAIOS. 83 

coins of Cilicia, p. 173, were neither struck by Mazaios 
nor do they belong to his time. 

The coinage of Soli to which Mr. Hill has directed my 
attention is not really an exception. Soli was not really 
a Cilician town but a Greek colony, and the great bulk of 
its inhabitants were Greeks. It is natural that its 
autonomous coinage should have Greek types. Mr. Hill's 
learned note on page Ixxi of his preface very conclusively 
shows this. 

In my opinion they were struck by the Greek governors 
of Cilicia appointed by Alexander and his successors, and 
followed the old type with the god and the name 
Baaltars, just as Seleucus followed the same types in his 
first coinage at Babylon. The Greek letters T, I, Z, and 
M on these coins seem to represent clearly, as others have 
long ago pointed out, the towns and perhaps mints of 
Tarsus, Issus, Soli and Mallus. The letter B, which 
occurs on some of them in conjunction with one or other 
of these other letters, it has been suggested by Mr. Hill 
may be the initial letter of BAZIAEYZ. This seems 
to me very improbable. I would rather suggest that it 
is the initial of Balacros, who was appointed Satrap of 
Cilicia by Alexander. 

It will be noted that a large proportion, of the 
tetradrachms in question which have Greek letters on 
them have on their obverse an entirely new type, so 
far as the Satrapal coinage of Cilicia is concerned. They 
not only bear Greek letters, but the head of a Greek 
goddess quite foreign, it seems to me, to the religion 
of the Cilicians, namely, Athene. On these coins she 
is represented with a three-quarter face and wearing 
a winged helmet. Similar coins Mr. Hill points out to 
me were struck at an earlier time at Syracuse, and 



84 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

it is possible that they were copied from Sicilian proto- 
types. There is, however, another explanation of the 
type to which I shall presently turn. "We must re- 
member that while it seems impossible to understand the 
introduction of Athene on the Satrapal coins struck for 
the four great cities of Cilicia in the time of Mazaios, 
where she must have been a foreign importation, for she 
was a very typical Greek goddess and not a Cilician 
or Aramaic one, it was exceedingly natural that after 
the Macedonian conquest Alexander, who especially fos- 
tered the cult of this goddess, should have put her bust 
on one side of the local coins and that of the native god 
on the other. 

In addition to the head of Athene occurring on many 
of these coins with Greek letters, we get other symbols 
which seem to point to Greek rather than Aramaic influ- 
ence, as the club (Hill, Tarsus, No. 65, Babelon, 242), 
representing the Heraklean cult of Alexander, and the 
crested Corinthian helmet (Hill, Tarsus, Nos. 68, 72, 75, 
and 78, Babelon, 251), which occur on some of them, 
which are very essentially Greek symbols and not Semitic 
ones. 

Certain other coins with Greek letters I attribute to the 
same provenance, and they seem to me to have nothing to 
do with Mazaios, ex. gr. Babelon, Nos. 242, 243, and 244. 
These have the Cilician god on one side, with his name 
Baaltars, and on the other side two parallel and crenellated 
walls one over the other, surmounted by a lion devouring 
a bull. No. 242 has the Greek letter T for Tarsus under 
the throne, with a club in the field, while 244 has the 
letter B in the field. 

In Hill's Catalogue of the Coins of Cilicia are two 
similar coins, Tarsus, 65 and 66, one with I for Issus 



NOTE ON COINS GENERALLY ATTRIBUTED TO MAZAIOS. 85 

under the throne, and the other with M for Mallos, and 
bearing a club in the field. All these coins are directly 
copied from, those bearing the name of Mazaios. 

Here I may condense what we know about the history 
of Cilicia in these times, for which I will recur to Droy- 
sen's admirable work. When Alexander had defeated 
Darius at the battle of Issus, he in 332, deeming the 
strategical importance of Cilicia very great, united in one 
person the positions of Satrap and Strategos, and gave 
the position to Balacros, the son of Nicanor, one of his 
bodyguard. He was shortly afterwards killed in a fight 
with the mountaineers of the Taurus, whereupon the posi- 
tion was given to the Taxiarch Philotas (Arrian, iii. 6, 
id., 29, iv. 25). He continued in this position until the 
year 321, when he was superseded by Perdiccas, and the 
appointment was given to Philoxenus, who had appa- 
rently formerly been Satrap of Susiana, and who was 
afterwards confirmed in his position by Antipater. "We 
do not hear of him again by name, but a Satrap of Cilicia, 
apparently himself, is named in 318 B.C. After this 
Cilicia fell into the hands of Antigonus and his son 
Demetrios. In 301 Cassander's brother Pleistarchos ob- 
tained Cilicia, probably, says Droysen, with the title of 
King, and the rest of the treasures of Cyinda (op. cit., ii., 
514, Fr. ed.). He only kept it a year, when he was 
obliged to abandon it and to take refuge with his brother. 
Thereupon Demetrios Poliorcetes occupied it and kept it 
till 294, when Seleucus Nicator took possession of it. 
It was taken from his son Antiochus by Ptolemy II of 
Egypt (B.C. 262-258). It apparently again fell into the 
power of the Seleucidae about 248 B.C., in whose possession 
it afterwards remained. 

I would suggest as most probable that the coins with 



86 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the head of the fronting Athene were struck in Cilicia, 
those with B by Balacros, and the others by the above- 
named Philotas and Philoxenus, between the death of 
Alexander and the year 318 B.C. It was possibly from 
these coins that Audoleon, King of Pseonia, copied the 
same type. He began to reign in 315 B.C. One coin 
given by Babelori, PI. VI., No. 5, is evidently a tran- 
sition one, for it has the head of Athene on the obverse, 
and the figure of the Cilician god with the inscription 
Baaltars in Aramaic characters, and the initial of Mallus 
under the throne. The barbarous character of this coin 
points, it seems to me, to its having been struck in times 
of disturbance. 

Let us now turn to some other coins. 

In his description of the coins of Mazaios in the 
Numismatic Chronicle for 1884, pp. 146, 147, the late 
M. Six discusses the coins of that Satrap struck at Sidon. 
I cannot quite follow him. In arranging these coins, 
which are themselves dated, he takes the numbers 
of the years as representing the regnal years of the 
Persian king. Artaxerxes Ochus began to reign in 
the year 359 B.C., and on page 148, M. Six says 
that there are a large number of coins containing no 
Satrap's name, and bearing dates from 1 to 10 and 13 of 
Ochus, i.e. 359-350 and 347, and he says these coins were 
struck under the predecessor of Mazaios, which seems 
quite right. On pages 146 and 147, however, he cites 
several coins which he attributes to the years 10, 11, and 
12 of the same king, i.e. Artaxerxes Ochus, which he 
says have the name Mazaios upon them. This is quite 
inconsistent with the former statement. There cannot 
have been two Satraps striking coins in Cilicia at the 
same time, i.e. in the year 10 and subsequently. Three 



NOTE ON COINS GENERALLY ATTRIBUTED TO MAZA.IOS. 87 

out of the five coins lie refers to he says are in the 
British Museum, of which two are staters. I have 
seen the staters, and have been assisted with the better 
eyes and experience of Mr. Hill, and it is perfectly 
plain that nothing of the kind can be read on them. 
The dates themselves, if there are any, are mere ghosts, 
which cannot be identified. Of a fourth specimen at 
Berlin M. Six says himself date efface. 

In confirmation of this I may mention that there is a 
complete hiatus in Six's list of the coins of Mazaios struck 
at Sidon, between his coins of the years 11 and 12 and 
those of the years 19 and 20. 

I take it, therefore, that the first coin of Sidon which 
bears the name of Mazaios is really dated in the 19th or 
20th year of Artaxerxes Ochus, when the series of coins 
struck at Sidon by Mazaios really begins, and that the 
octadrachms of which Mr. Hill reminds me there are 
specimens in the British Museum struck in the first and 
eleventh year, were struck not in the first and eleventh 
year of Ochus, but of his successor, and that we 
have no authority from the coins for attributing, as M. 
Six did, the beginning of the satrapy of Mazaios in 
Phoenicia in the year 349 B.C. ; and this again takes 
away the only prop which M. Six had for dating the 
Phoenician revolt in 351 instead of 344, as Noldeke much 
more probably puts it. 

H. H. HOWORTH. 



IX. 

THE BURNING OF BONDS UNDER HADRIAN. 




Sestertius of Hadrian (British Museum). 

AMONG Roman sestertii, or " large brass " coins, perhaps 
none has attracted more attention from numismatists than 
that of Hadrian with the reverse legend RELIQVA 
VETERA HS. NO VIES MILL. ABOLITA, of which 
four varieties are described by Cohen (Nos. 1210-1213). 
On the first of these the device is a lictor to the left burning 
a heap of papers, and holding what has been described as a 
fascis and axe, though on some examples it looks more like 
a spear (see illustration above) . That which I exhibit is in 
poor condition, but possesses some interest from its 
having been found in 1859 at Boxmoor, Herts. The 
other varieties show two and in one case three citizens in 
front of the lictor, holding up their hands in applause. 
The remission of the balance of the debts of the last 



THE BURNING OF HOXDS UNDER HADRIAN. 



89 



sixteen years due from municipalities and private in- 
dividuals, amounting in the whole to upwards of seven 
million pounds sterling, was one of the most striking 
events of the beginning of the reign of Hadrian. It is 
recorded by Spartian, Dio, Cassiodorus and others, and 
the former relates that the " syngrapha " or deeds, which 
were known by the name of rXt/pta, 1 were collected and 
publicly burnt in the Forum Trajani. Spanheim in his 
chapter on the remission of taxes and the abolition of 
debts (De usu et prwstantia Numm., vol. ii., p. 552) ; 
Eckhel (vol. vi., p. 478) ; Admiral Smyth (Descriptive 




Catalogue, p. 98) ; Hobler (Records of Roman History, 
vol. i., p. 308), and others have all treated of these coins 
and there is no need of my doing so. My object in 
calling attention to them is mainly to account for my 
offering to the Society a photograph of a large rilievo 
that is now in the Forum at Rome (not Trajan's 
Forum), on which a similar scene to that presented with 
fewer details on the coins is given on a much larger scale. 
We have here a procession of six or eight citizens each 

1 Doric, K\apla, ra, bonds, notes for debt. Plut., Agis, 13. 
(Liddell and Scott.) 



VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. 



N 



90 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



bearing a bundle of documents, made up in the form of a 
folio volume with one or more straps around it, which 
they are depositing on a kind of altar to be burnt. What 
seem to be the Emperor and several officials are looking 
on, but the figures have been too much injured for the 
identification of the Emperor to be certain. There is a 
facade of temples in the background. This and a corres- 
ponding group have been figured in the Monumenti Inediti* 
and have been discussed by Signor Brizio 3 and Professor 
Henzen. 4 Their views have been well summed up by 
Mr. F. N. Nichols in his Roman Forum, 5 who gives wood- 




cuts of the two groups, which by his kindness are here 
reproduced. The first of these has already been described ; 
the second represents the Emperor addressing from the 
rostra a number of persons, including some women and 
children, the general effect in many respects corres- 
ponding with that of the smaller group on sestertii 
of Trajan with the legend ALIM. ITAL. S. P. Q. R. 
OPTIMO PRINCIPI. The group in the photograph 

2 Vol. viiii., tav. xlvii., xlviii. 

s Ann. dell' Institute di Correspondenza Archeologica, vol. xliv., 
1872, p. 309. 
4 Bullettino delV Inst., 1872, p. 273. 5 1877, p. 64. 



THE BURNING OF BONDS UNDER HADRIAN. 91 

is sculptured on the other face of the same block of 
marble, and if the one scene refer to the work of Trajan, 
it is in the highest degree probable that the other does 
likewise, and that the burning of the tax records here 
celebrated took place under him and not under Hadrian. 
There seem to be therefore two distinct holocausts of 
documents of indebtedness, the one commemorated by 
the marble of Trajan and the other by the coin of 
Hadrian. The background of the marble groups seems 
conclusive on this point, as it is in each case the Forum 
Romanum that is represented and not the Forum Trajani, 
in which it is expressly stated that the burning of the 
documents took place under Hadrian. Even the locality 
of the burning of the registers in the Forum has been 
identified by Mr. Nichols. 

The first to attempt the conciliation of the wealthy 
classes by cancelling their debts appears to have been 
Agis IV of Lacedaernon, under whose advice all the state 
bonds, registers and securities were piled up in the 
market-place and burnt. It is related by Suetonius 6 that 
Augustus adopted a similar course at Rome, and Auso- 
nius 7 ascribes another burning of bonds and registers to 
Trajan, which is in all probability that which is comme- 
morated on the rilievo. But even if the scene represented 
belong to the days of Trajan and not to those of Hadrian, 
the connection with the type on the coins of the latter 
remains evident, and I trust that the Society will find 
room in its library for the photograph, as being to all 
intents and purposes a " numismatic illustration." 

JOHN EVANS. 



6 Suetonius, Aug., 32. 

1 Gratiarum actio ad Gratianum, 21. 



X. 



CLASSIFICATION CHRONOLOGIQUE DES ^MIS- 
SIONS MONE"TAIRES DE L'ATELIER D'ALEX- 

ANDEIE PENDANT LA P&RIODE CONSTAN- 
TINIENNE. 

(Voir Planches V, VI.) 

LA description des emissions mone"taires de 1'atelier 
d' Alexandria pendant la periode Constantinienne doit 
comprendre non seulement celle des monnaies frappees 
depuis la mort de Constance Chlore et 1'avenement de 
Constantin Cesar (25 Juillet 306), mais encore celle des 
pieces parues depuis le l er Mars 305, date de 1'organisation 
de la seconde tetrarchie impe*riale suivant le systeme de 
Diode* tien. L 'atelier d'Alexandrie passa en effet alors 
dans les etats de Maximin Daza e"lu Cesar, 1 et la premiere 
Emission qui sortit de cet atelier lorsqu'il se trouva sous 
la dependance de ce nouvel empereur dura depuis le 
l er Mars 305 jusqu'au 11 Novembre 308. 2 Galere et 
Maximin Daza resterent 1'un Auguste et 1'autre Ce*sar 
pendant toute cette periode. II ne se produisit qu'un 

1 Lenain de Tillemont, Histoire des empereurs, tome iv.,p. 88 ; 
Eusebe, Histoire eccles., lib. ix., cap. 6. 

* Date de 1' elevation de Licinius Auguste, dont les monnaies 
paraieseut dans remission suivante. 



I/ ATELIER MONETA1RE D'ALEXAKDRIE. 93 

changement partiel dans le quadruple gouvernement 
imperial le 25 Juillet 306 ; ce fut 1'avenement de Con- 
stantin Cesar et 1'elevation de Severe du rang de Cesar & 
celui d'Auguste. Mais les memes monnaies de Galere et 
de Maximin Daza furent frappees du commencement a la 
fin de remission qui va etre decrite. 

PREMIERE EMISSION. 

Fmppee depuis le \ er Mars 305Jusqu'd I' elevation de Licinius 
Auguste le 11 Novembre 308. 

Cette emission comprend d'abord seulement les mon- 
naies des quatre empereurs regnant ensemble a partir 
du l er Mars 305, c'est a dire Constance Chlore et Galere 
Augustes, Severe II et Maximin Daza Cesars ; ainsi que 
les pieces 'd'abdication de Diocletien et de Maximien 
Hercule, qui apres avoir depose la pourpre a la merae date 
du l er Mars 305, prirent le titre de Seniores Augusti qui 
leur est attribue sur ces monnaies. 3 Lorsqu'apres la mort 
de Constance Chlore a York en Bretagne, Severe II lui 
succeda en qualite" d'Auguste et que Constantin remplaca 
Severe comme Cesar, les monnaies du nouvel Auguste et 
du nouveau Cesar parurent a leur tour. Mais cette emission 
ne comprend aucune piece de Licinius. C'est done 
ant^rieurement a la reconnaissance de cet empereur 

s Lenain de Tillemont, loc. cit. tome iv., p. 52. La designation 
de Maximien Hercule comme Senior Augustus, SEN. AVGK, 
oblige a attribuer a Galere les monnaies qui portent la legende 
du droit, IMP. C. MAXIMIANVS P. F. AVG. Ainsi se 
trouve tranchee une difficulte que Cohen considerait comme 
insurmon table ; je veux parler de 1' attribution des pieces qui 
leur appartiennent en propre a chacun des deux empereurs 
Maximien Hercule et Galere. Cf. Cohen, Monnaies frapptea t. 
V Empire remain, 2 me edition, tome vi., p. 490-1. 



94 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

comrae Auguste par Galere, le 11 Novetnbre 308, qu'elle 
fut frappee toute entiere. Les monnaies de bronze qui 
la composent sont de deux especes monetaires. L'une 
est represented par des folks* de 25 a 26 millimetres de 
diametre, qui pesent en moyenne 10 grammes, et sont les 
memes que les grands bronzes de Diocletien. Ces folles 
presentent fre'quemment dans le champ du revers le 
chiffre grec K. 5 

La plus petite espece est celle du denier de Diocletien 
telle que l'a determined M. Babelon. 6 Les pieces 
qui la representent offrent au droit les memes effigies 
d'empereurs a tetes radices que Ton trouve sur les deniers 
pendant le regne de Diocletien. Elles ont des poids 
oscillant entre 3 grammes 60 c. et 2 grammes 40 c. ; en 
realite sensiblement inferieurs a ceux des deniers sous 
Diocletien ; mais c'est une loi ge"nerale de la frappe des 
monnaies <! cette epoque, que les especes qui ont ete emises 
quelque temps diminuent de poids jusqu'a ce qu'inter- 
vienne une nouvelle re"forme mon^taire ; cette regie 
tant la consequence des besoins du tr^sor. Ainsi les 
deux especes monetaires qui existaient ecus Diocletien se 

4 Ce sont ces pieces qui seront designees dans les textes 
legislatifs du iv me siecle sous le nom de Pecunia Majorina. 
Cf. Babelon, Traite des Monnaies grecques et romaines, premiere 
partie, tome l er , 608-610. Je recourrerai souvent a 1'autorite 
de M. Babelon, dont le grand ouvrage a apporte une lumi^re 
decisive sur les points les plus discutes de la classification des 
especes monetaires de cette epoque. 

8 Ce chiffre parait avoir la meme signification que les 
chiffres K I et XX I qui se trouvent constamment sur les 
grandes pieces de Diocletien et que 1'on a traduit par : 20 
sesterces egalent une unite. Cf. E. Babelon, loc. cit., p. 610; 
A. Missong, Zeit.f. Numismatik, vii., 1880, p. 260 ; 0. Seeck, 
meme revue, xvii., 1890, p. 117; Kubitschek, Monatsb. der 
Num. Gesellsch., Wien, 1892, p. 139. 

Babelon, loc. cit., 611, 612. 



L'ATELIER MONETAIRE D'ALEXANDRIE. 95 

frappaient encore sous la seconde tetrarchie. Elles 
cesserent de paraitre toutes deux dans les e"tats de Con- 
stantin en 314. 

PREMIERE P ARTIE DE L'EMISSION. 

Frappee depuis V abdication de DiocUtien et de Maximien 
Hercule et I'elevation de Constance Chlore et de Galere 
Augmtes, de Maximin Daza ct de Severe II Cesars, le \^Mars 
305,jusqu'd la mort de Constance Chlore (25 Juillet 306). 

On trouve couramment dans le champ du revers des 
monnaies qui vont etre decrites Tune des lettres grecques 
nume'rales d'officine A B F A. On y trouve aussi 
les lettres suivantes, S F ou S P ; ou le chiffre K et la 
lettre P. J'ai deja propose de voirdans la lettre F 1'initiale 
d'un adjectif derive du gentilice Flavius 7 de la dynastie 
Flavienne. Cette lettre F apparut en effet d'une fa9on 
courante sur les monnaies lorsque Constance Chlore 
devint le chef de la tetrarchie imperiale ; elle suivit les con- 
quetes de Constantin et fut inscrite sur les pieces des ateliers 
ou son autorite fut reconnue ; elle se trouve en outre 
alterner sur les monnaies de Lyon avec la lettre H qui 
indique la dynastie Hercul^enne ; enfin on la rencontre 
sur celles des fils de Constantin et de plusieurs princes 
Flaviens. Cohen releve les lettres F L sur celles de Con- 



7 Constance Chlore avait eu personnellement la prevention 
de se rattacher a Claude le Gothique et meme a la dynastie 
des premiers Flaviens ; en effet Trebellius Pollio, 1'un des 
auteurs de 1'Histoire Augustequi ecrivait ^ la fin du regne de 
Diocletien, celebre pour natter Constance Chlore dej& empereur 
son origine, cf. Vita Claudii, c. 3: " Ille (Claudius Q-othicus) 
velut futurorum memor, gentes Flavias quae Vespasiani et 
Titi, nolo autem dicere Domitiani, fuerant, propagavit." 
Constance Chlore descendait d'ailleurs de Claude le Gothique, 
par sa mere. 



96 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

stantin II. Mon hypothese se confirme a raesure que des 
fails nouveaux viennent la controler. Quant a la lettre 
P, elle peut etre la premiere d'un adjectif comme Publi- 
cum ou Perpetuuvn, et la lettre S doit etre 1'initiale d'un 
mot qui s'accorde avec les deux adjectifs dont il vient 
d'etre question, Elle peut etre en consequence 1'initiale 
d'un mot employe sur les monnaies a, cette epoque. 8 
D'autre part, le verbe signare est employe dans la sig- 
nature des monetaires, et le terme signum pourrait etre 
indiqu^ par la lettre S. 

MOXNAIES DE BRONZE ou FOLLES DE LA GRANDE ESPECE.' 

S F S F 

Avec A et A 

ALE ALE 

On trouve 

I. Au reverx. PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES 
AVGGr. Figure feminine debout a droite. levant 
la main droite ; en face d'elle une femme, la Pro- 
vidence, tenant un rameau baisse et s'appuyant 
sur un sceptre. 

8 Cf. J. Maurice, IS Atelier monetaire de Londres, Num. 
Chron., 1900, p. 130. 

* Je garde le nom de folles pour les diverses varietes de 
monnaies de bronze emises jusqu'a 317 ; epoque a laquelle 
parut dans tout 1' empire une espece monetaire nouvelle, 
que j'ai designee comme denier de Constantin ainsi que 0. 
Seeck, " Die Miinzpolitik Diocletians und seiner Nachfolger," 
Zeitschrift f. Numismatik, xvii., p. 127, d'apres les auteurs 
metrologues grecs. Cf. Pollux dans Hultsch, Metrologicorum 
scriptorum reliquiee, i., p. 231, 20 ; prolegomena, p. 98. 

M. Babelon, dans le l er volume de son Traite des Monnaies 
grecques et romaines, t. i., 612, 613, a reconnu dans cette piece 
le Nummus Centenionalis des textes du code Theodosien (Cod. 
Theod., ix., 23, 1 et 2). Je designerai done la meme espece 
monetaire sous ces deux noms. 



L'ATELIER MONETAIRE D'ALEXANDRIE. 97 

Au droit. 1. D. N. DIOCLETIANO BAEATISSIMO 
SEN. AYQ-. Son buste laure a droite, avec le 
manteau imperial, tenant une branche de laurier 
et le foudre. Cohen, 422 ; BE. MVS. ; off. A. 

2. D. N. DIOCLETIANO FELICISSIMO SEN. AVG. 
Meme buste; off. A; FB. 8018; Cohen, 423. 
[Pl.V.,No. 1.] 

II. Meme revers, sauf que la Providence tient le rameau 
leve. 10 

Au droit. 1. D. N. MAXIMIANO BAEATISSIMO 
SEN. AVG. Son buste laure a droite a mi- 
corps avec le manteau imperial, tenant une 
branche de laurier et le foudre. Cohen, 490; 
BE. MVS. ; off. A. 

2. D. N. MAXIMIANO FELICISSIMO SEN. AVG. 
Cohen, 489 ; BE. MVS. ; off. A. 

Avec les lettres dans le champ et exergue suivants 



S p 



A B r A 



ALE 

On trouve 

I. Au revere. HEECVLI VICTOEI. Hercule nu debout 
de face regardant a gauche, appuye sur sa 

10 Cette piece est de Galere. La plus part des monnaies de 
cet empereur ont ete attribuees par CohenaMaximien Hercule, 
parce que ces deux empereurs portait les memes noms. On 
s'aper^oit de cette confusion lors qu'on considere la liste des 
monnaies de Galere dans Cohen (tome vii., pp. 103-127) et 
celles de Maximien Hercule (tome vi., pp. 492-565); car 
Ton remarque que bien que Galere ait ete Auguste de 305 & 
311 pendant une periode ou 1'on emettait beaucoup de mon- 
naies dans tous les ateliers de 1' empire, Cohen n'indique que 
tres peu de pieces de Galere Auguste et beaucoup au contraire 
de Galere Cesar. Cela tient a ce que Galere porta plus 
generalement comme Cesar ses noms de Galerius Valerius. 
J'ai restitue a cet empereur dans mes descriptions des ateliers 
monetaires les pieces qui lui appartiennent. 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. O 



98 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

massue et tenant une pomme de la main gauche, 
la peau de lion est suspendue a son bras gauche. 

Au droit. 1. IMP. 0. MAXIMIANVS P.F. AVG. Sa 

tfite lauree a droite. Cohen, 295, de Hercule, 
attribuable a Galore ; FE. 8219-8221 ; off. B ; 
10 gr. 15 ; 26 m.m., 8 gr. 90. 

Cette piece pr^sente egalement les dispositions de lettres 
suivantes 

B 
B 



ALE ALE 

2. IMP. C. CONSTANTIVS P.F. AVG. T6te ana- 
logue ; piece inedite ; BE. MVS. ; 25 m.m. 
[PI. V., No. 2.] 

H. Au revera. PEEPETVITA8 AVGG. Rome assise ;l 
gauche, tenant de la droite un globe surmonte 
d'une Victoire et de la gauche un sceptre, a cot6 
d'elle un bouclier. 

Au droit.FL. VAL. SEYEEVS NOB. CAE8. TSte 
analogue. Cohen, 57 ; FE. 8757-58 ; 27 m.m. ; 
9 gr. 90 ; BE. MVS. ; off. B T. 

III. Au revers. CONCOED. IMPEEIL La Concorde 
debout a gauche, coiffee du modius, s'appuyant 
sur un sceptre et soutenant son vetement de la 
main gauche. 

Au trait. GAL. VAL. MAXIMINVS NOB. CAES. 
Tete analogue. Cohen, 6 ; FE. 8777-78-79-80 ; 
off. A B r A ; 9 gr. 90 ; 27 m.m. 

PETITS BRONZES DE L'ESPECE DU DENIER DB DiocLtxiEN. 
Avec les lettres dans le champ et les exergues suivants 

A B r A 

ALE 
On trouve 

I. Au revers. CONCOEDIA MILITVM. L'empereur 
debout a droite en habit militaire et tenant un 
sceptre court, re^oit un globe surmonte d'une 



L* ATELIER MONETAIRE D J ALEXANDRIE. 99 

Victoire qui porte une couronne des mains de 
Jupiter nu debout, le manteau sur 1'epaule et 
tenant un sceptre. 

Au droit. 1. IMP. C. MAXIMIANVS P.F. AVG. 11 

Son buste radie et drape, ou drape et cuirasse, 
a droite. Cohen, 51, de Maximien Hercule, 
attribuable a Galore; FE. 13482-83; BE. MVS.; 
coU. Voetter ; off. A B T A. 

Ce buste ainsi que les suivants pre"sente la tete radiee 
caracteristique des deniers de Diocle'tien. 

2. IMP. 0. CONSTANTIVS P.F. AVG. Buste 

analogue. Cohen, 22; FE. 7583, 13800; BE. 
MVS. ; 3 gr. 45 et 2 gr. 95; 19 a 21 m.m. ; 
off. A B. 

3. FL. VAL. SEVEEVS NOB. CAES. Buste analogue. 

Cohen, 8 ; BE. MVS. ; FE. 13983 ; off. A B ; 
3 gr. 50 ; 21 m.m. 

4. GAL. VAL. MAXIMINVS NOB. CAES. Cohen, 

9; FE. 13990-91-92-93; 3 gr. 30; 21 m.m.; 
off. A B r A. [PI. V., No. 3.] 

Avec la lettre d'officine, la lettre P et le chiffre K 12 et 
parfois un croissant dans le champ du revers, soit 



B 



ou 



K P " u K P 



ALE ALE 
On trouve 

Au revers. PEOVIDENTIA DEOEVM, et comme 

n 0. Voetter a deji donne un tableau de ces monnaies 
dans "Erste Christliche Zeichen auf Eomischen Miinzen," 
dans la Numismatische Zeitschrift, Wien, 1892, p. 67. 

12 Le chiffre K, comme le chiffre X que 1'on verra plus loin, 
doit indiquer des especes monetaires, mais j 'ignore si ces 
chiffres indiquent une valeur de la monnaie au moment ou elle 
fut frappee, ou s'ils sont une continuation par tradition de la 
marque des chiffres inscrits sur les grands bronzes de Dio- 
cletien et sur les deniers. Cette derniere explication semble 
toutefois la plus probable. 



100 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

type : Une femme debout & droite, levant la 
main droite ; en face d'elle la Providence debout 
tenant un rameau eleve et s'appuyant sur un 
sceptre. 

Au droit. 1. D. N. DIOCLETIANO BEAT. SEN. 
AVG. Son buste lauree a droite avec le man- 
teau imperial, tenant une branche de laurier et 
le foudre. Cohen, 417 ; BE. MVS. ; 23 m.m. ; 
off. B. 

2. D. N. MAXIMIANO FELICISS. SEN. AVG. 
Buste analogue. Cohen, 488 ; coll. Rollin. 



DEUXIEME PARTIE DE L' 

FrappSe deptm la mort de Constance Chlore le 25 Juillet 
306 et ravenement de Severe Auguste et de Constantin Cdsar. 

Je ne de*crirai dans ce chapitre que les pieces qui font 
part de la premiere partie de remission et non celles de 
Maximin Cesar et Galere Auguste, qui ont e"t frappe"es 
pendant toute remission. 

GRANDS BRONZES SEMBLABLES AUX 
Avec les lettres et exergue suivants 



S p 



A B r A 



ALE 
On trouve 

I. Au revers. HEECVLI VICTOEI. Avec le type d6ja 
decrit avec cette legende. 

Au droit. IMP. C. SEVEEVS P.F. AVG. Sa tete 
lauree a droite. Cohen, 51 ; FE. 8756; 10 gr. 
80 ; 28 m.m. ; coll. Voetter ; off. A B F A. 

II. Au revers. FELICITAS AVGG. La Felicite" assise d 
gauche tenant une Victoire sur un globe et un 
sceptre. 

Au droit. FL. VAL. CONSTANTINVS NOB. CAES. 



L'ATELIER MONETAIRE D'ALEXANDRIE. 101 

Sa tte lauree d droite. Piece inedite; coll. 
Voetter ; off. A. 

III. Au revers PEEPETVITAS AVGG. Avec le revere 

deja decrit avec cette legende. 

Au droit. Meme legende et meme tete. Cohen, 389 ; 
FE. 9139 ; 8 gr. 73 ; 27 m.m. ; off. A. [PI. V., 
No. 4.] 

IV. Au revers. IOVI CONS. CAES. Jupiter mi debout 

a gauche, avec le manteau sur 1'epaule gauche, 
tenant un globe surmonte d'une Victoire et 
s'appuyant sur un sceptre. 

Au droit.FI*. VAL. CONSTANTINVS NOB. CAES. 
Sa tete lauree a droite. Piece inedite; coll. 
Voetter ; off. A. 

PETITS BRONZES SEMBLABLES i CETTX DE LA PREMIERE PARTIK 
DE L' EMISSION. 

Avec les lettres dans le champ et exergue suivants 

A B r A 
ALE 
On trouve 

Au revers. CONCOEDIA M1LITVM. Avec le type 
deja decrit avec cette legende. 

Audroit. 1. IMP. C. SEVEEVS P.F. AVGK Son 
buste radie et drape a droite. Cohen, 9 ; FE. 
13984-85; 3 gr. 20; 20 m.m.; BE. MVS. ; 
coll. Voetter ; off. A B r A. 

2. FL. VAL. CONSTANTINVS NOB. CAES. Buste 
analogue. Cohen, 68 ; BE. MVS. ; coll. Voetter ; 
off. A B r A. 

On doit classer egalement dans cette partie remission 
de la piece d'or suivante 

Au raw*. CONCOED. AVG. ET CAES. La Con- 



102 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

corde, voilee et coiffee du modius, debout a 
gauche, tenant une patere et une corne d'abon- 
dance. 

Au droit. SEVEEVS AVGVST. Sa tete lauree d droite. 
BE. MVS. ; 19 m.m. 

T I 

Cette piece pre"sente au revers -r= ; la presence d'une 



lettre d'officine dans le champ du revers est exception- 
nelle pour les pieces d'or. 

DEUXIKME EMISSION. 

Frappte depuis V&Uvation de Licinius au rang d'Auguste 
d Carnuntum, par Galere, le 11 Novembre 308, jusqu'd la 
mort de Galere survenue le 5 Mai 311. 

En effet cette Emission comprend pendant toute sa 
duree des pieces de Licinius et de Galere Auguste. 

PREMIERE PARTIE DE L'^MISSION. 

Frappee depuis ftlevation de Licinius Auguste jusqu'd 
la reconnaissance de Constantin et de Maximin Augustes par 
Galere en Mai 309. 

Cette partie de remission coraprend les pieces de 
Maximin Daza C^sar et celles de Constantin design^ 
comme Filius Augusti i= FIL. AVG. Cette difference 
de leurs titres tient a ce que Maximin Daza ref usa pour 
lui cette appellation honorifique de Fils d'Auguste ou des 
Augustes que Galere lui avait offerte ainsi qu'a Constan- 
tin apres avoir ^lev^ Licinius au rang d'Auguste. Galere 
esp^rait ainsi satisfaire 1' ambition de Maximin Daza, mais 
celui-ci ne cessa ses reclamations que lors qu'il eut pris 
de lui-meme le titre d'Auguste en Mai 309 et se fut ainsi 



I/ ATELIER MONETAIRE D*ALEXANDRIE. 103 

e*gal ail nouvel einpereur Licinius ; faits que j'ai explique*s 
dans mon e*tude sur Patelier d'Antioche. 

Les monnaies de bronze ou folles de cette partie de 
remission pesent au moyenne 6 grammes 50 c. et ont 23 
a 24 millimetres de diametre. L'atelier fonctionne d 
partir de cette emission avec six officines. 

PREMIERE SERIE. 

Avec la lettre d'officine et le chiffre K et la lettre P dans le 
champ du revers, soit 



K 



A B r A e S 



ALE 
On trouve 

I. Au revers. GENIO CAESAEIS. Avec le genie coiffe 
du modius, a demi-nu, debout d gauche, le 
manteau sur 1'epaule gauche, tenant une patere 
d'oft la liqueur se repand et une corne d'abon- 
dance. 

Au droit. 1. GAL. VAL. MAXIMINVS NOB. CAES. 
Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 40 ; FK. 8798- 
8799-8800 ; 7 gr. 40 d 6 gr. 75 ; 23 m.m. ; BE. 
MVS. ; off. A B r A e S. 

2. FL. VAL. CONSTANTINVS FIL. AVG. Tete 
analogue. Cohen, 185; FE. 9087; 6 gr. 50; 
25 m.m. ; coll. Voetter ; off. A settlement. [PI. 
V., No. 5.] 

II. Au revers. GENIO IMPEEATOEIS. Avec le meme 
type du revers. 

Au droit. 1. IMP. C. GAL. VAL. MAXEMIANVS 
P.F. AVG. Sa tete lauree & droite. Cohen, 
48 ; FE. 8506-7-8-9 ; 6 gr. 80 ; 25 m.m. ; BE. 
MVS. ; off. A B r A 6 S. 

2. IMP. 0. VAL. LIC. LICINIVS P.F. AVG. Tete 



104 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

analogue. Cohen, 43 ; FR. 9027-8-9-30 ; 6 gr. 
25 ; 25 m.m. ; BE. MVS. Memes officines. 
[PL V., No. 6.J 

III. Au revert. VIRTVS EXERCITVS. Mars casque et 
en habit militaire marchant a droite, portant un 
trophee et un bouclier et tenant de la droite une 
haste dirigee en avant. 

Au droit. 1. IMP. C. GAL. VAL. MAXIMIANVS 
P.F. AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Variete 
de Cohen, 214 ; FR. 8679 et 8687 ; BE. MVS. ; 
off. A B-r A 6 S- 

2. GAL. VAL. MAXIMINVS NOB. CAES. Tete 

analogue. Cohen, 202 ; FE. 8908-9 ; 6 gr. 55 ; 
24 m.m. 

3. FL. VAL. CONSTANTINVS FIL. AVG. Tete 

analogue. Cohen, 701 ; coll. Voetter; off. A 
seulement. 



SERIE. 

Avec les chiffres X et K et une lettre d'officine dans le 
champ du revers, 13 soit 



X 



A B r A e S X 

K et 



K 

A B r-A e 



ALE ALE 



13 Les chiffres X et K doivent etre comptes separement 
puisqu'ils se trouvent ailleurs isoles sur differents folles de la 
meme espece. Le Professeur 0. Seeck a vu dans le chiffre X 
le signe du denier, et en effet dans les ateliers de Constantin 
ce signe n'apparait que sur les deniers de Constantin. Mais 
il n'en est pas de meme a Alexandrie dans les etats de Maxi- 
min Daza, ou il se montre des 1'annee 308 sur des pieces plus 
lourdes que le denier Constantinien. Toutefois il faut re- 
marquer qu'a cette epoque le denier de Diocletien et la piece 
plus lourde qui portait couramment le eigne K I ont cesse 
d'etre emises et que c'est sur 1' unique espece de monnaies de 
bronze encore emise et qui remplace les deux precedentes que 
ces deux chiffres sont inscrits en meme temps. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE D'ALEXANDRIE. 105 

On trouve 

I. Au revers. GENIO CAESAEIS. Type deja decrit. 

Audrott. GAL. VAL. MAXIMINVS NOB. CAES. 
Cohen, 40. Toutes les officines. Parfois la 
lettre d'officine est a gauche dans le champ. 

II. Au revers. GENIO IMPEEATORIS. Type deja decrit. 

Au droit.IMP. C. GAL. VAL. MAXIMIANVS P.F. 
AVG. Cohen, 48; FE. 8510-11; off. A B 
F A. Avec la lettre d'officine dans la partie 
gauche du champ egalement. 

III. Au revers, VIETVS EXEECITVS avec le type deja 
decrit. 

Au droit. 1. IMP. C. GAL. VAL. MAXIMIANVS 
P.F. AYG. Cohen, 214; off. A B T A ; 
piece deja decrite. 

2. GAL. VAL. MAXIMINVS NOB. CAES. Cohen, 
202 ; FE. 8809 ; BE. MVS. ; off. A B F A 

e. 

IV. La piece suivante reunit deux legendes du revers 
et represents une erreur de 1'ouvrier qui a grave le 
moule. On trouve 

Au revers. GENIO IMP. . ESAEIS. Eevers decrit 
avec les legendes " Genio Caesaris et Impera- 
toris." [PI. V., No. 7.] 

Au droit. GAL. VAL. MAXIMINVS NOB. CAES. 

Meme tete ; BE. MVS. ; off. B. 

TROISJEME SERIE. 

Toutes les pieces qui viennent d'etre decrites pre- 
sentent egalement au revers les lettres P B. avec une 
des lettres d'officines representees dans les tableaux ci- 
dessous 

VOL. 11. FOURTH SERIES. P 



106 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

A B r A e s P 



E 



A B r A e 



ALE ALE 

On trouve exceptionnellement les lettres d'officines 
dans le champ a gauche. C'est le cas de la piece 
suivante. 

Au revert. VENERI VICTEICI. Venus debout a 
gauche tenant une pomme de la main droite et 
soutenant sa robe. 

Au droit.GKL. VALERIA AVG. Son buste drape a 
droite avec un diademe dans les cheveux. 
Cohen, 2 ; FR. 8694 ; 5 gr. 95 ; BR. MVS. ; 
22 m.m. ; off. A B T A. [PI. V., No. 8.] 



avec r 



ALE 



J'ai montre dans mon etude sur 1'atelier d'Antioche 16 
que les monnaies de Gale"rie Valerie, fille de Diocletien et 
femme de Galere, commencerent a etre emises en meme 
temps que celles de Licinius Auguste, eleve a cette 
dignite* a Carnuntum le 11 Novembre 308. L'e"tude des 
emissions monetaires de 1'atelier d'Alexandrie qui etait 
compris dans les etats de Maximin Daza, et celle des 
Emissions de Siscia, atelier de Licinius, 16 demontrent le 



14 Les lettres P R peuvent etre les premieres des adjectifs 
Publicus et Romanus (Pecunia Publica Romana). Toutes 
ces lettres dans les champs du revers des diverses series mone- 
taires f orment des sigles et combinaisons secretes de lettres dans 
le genre de celles que M. Mowat a mis en liimiere (Revue 
Numi&matique, 1897). 

15 J. Maurice, V Atelier monetaire d'Antioche, Numismatic 
Chronicle, 1899, p. 215. 

16 Id., IS Atelier monetaire de Siscia, Numismatic Chronicle, 
1900, pp. 306-7. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE n'ALEXANDRIB. 107 

meme fait. Ce fut done a la conference de Carnuntum 
ou Licinius recut le titre d'Auguste que fut decidee 
la frappe des monnaies de Galerie Valerie. Ce fait 
s'explique d'autant mieux que Diocletien, pere de 
cette imperatrice, etait sorti de sa retraite de Dalmatie 
pour presider cette reunion ou les interets de 1'empire 
furent discutes entre Diocletien, Galere et Licinius. L'on 
peut voir dans la decision prise de la frappe des monnaies 
de Galerie Valerie le resultat d'une entente entre ces 
empereurs, puisque Diocletien etait le pere de cette im- 
peratrice et qu'elle etait femme de Galere; on peut y 
reconnaitre egalement un hommage rendu a Diocletien. 

La piece d'or suivante, qui presente le meme type du 
revers que les monnaies d'or qui seront frappees dans la 
seconde partie de 1'emission, fait partie de la premiere 
partie, car elle est a 1'effigie de Maximin Cesar. 

Avec ' 
ALE 

On trouve 

Au revers. SOLE INVICTO. Le Soleil radie en robe 
longue, debout & gauche, levant la main droite 
et tenant la tete de Serapis. 

Au droit. MAXIMINVS NOB. CAES. Sa tete laurel 
a droite. Cohen, 155; BR MVS. ; 19 m.m. ; 
piece de 1'espece du 60 me a la livre d'or. 

DEUXTEME PARTIE DE L'EMISSION. 

Frappee depuis la reconnaissance de Maximin et Constantin 
Augustes en Mai 3Q9jusqu J d la mort de Galere le 5 Mai 311. 

En effet Galere ayant accede aux reclamations de 
Maximin Daza lui donna le titre d'Auguste, mais accorda 
le meme titre a Constantin, en Mai 309. A partir de ce 
moment on frappa les monnaies des quatre Augustes, 



108 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Galere, Constantin, Maximin, et Licinius, dans leurs etats 
respectifs; tandis que 1'empereur de Rome, Maxence, 
restait a 1'ecart. 

Avec les chiffres et lettres dans le champ et 1'exergue 
suivants 



K 



A B r A e s 



ou 



A B r A e s 

K 



ALE ALE 

On trouve 

I. Au revers. GENIO IMPEEATOEIS. Avec le type 
deja decrit. 

Au droit. 1. IMP. C. GAL. VAL. MAXIMINVS P.F. 
AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 52 ; FE. 
8834-36-37-38 : BE. MVS. ; 23 m.m. ; off. A 

X 
B F A 6 S ; egalement A 



K 



ALE 

2. FL. VAL. CONSTANTINVS P.F. AVG. Tete 

analogue. Cohen, 192 ; BE. MVS. ; off. A 

seulement. 

3. IMP. C. VAL. LIC. LICINIV8 P.F. AVG. Tete 

analogue ; off. A B F A 6 S > pieces 
dejd indiquees ; Cohen, 43. 

4. IMP. C. GAL. VAL. MAXIMIANVS P.F. AVG. 

Cohen, 48, de Galere. Toutes les officines ; 
pieces deja indiquees. 

II. Au refers. VENEEI VICTRICI. Avec le type dejd 
decrit. 

Au droit. GAL. VALEEIA AVG. Son buste a droite, 
drape et avec un diademe dans les cheveux. 
Cohen, 2 ; FE. 8692 et 8695 ; BE. MVS. ; 23 
m.m. ; off. F A 6 S. 



X 



Egalement avec la lettre d'officine a gauche A 

TALE 



K 



I/ ATELIER MONETAIRE D*ALEXANDRIE. 109 



Avec 



A B r A 6 S 
E 



ALE 
On trouve 

Au revers. VIBTVS EXEBCITVS. Avec le type deja 
decrit. 

Audroit. IMP. C. GAL. VAL. MAXIMINVS P.F. 
AVG. Cohen, 204 ; BE. MVS. ; off. A. [PL V., 
No. 9.] 



Les pieces d'or suivantes font partie de cette seconde 
partie de 1'emission ; en effet elles furent frappees apres 
1'elevation de Maximin Auguste et elles ne peuvent pas 
faire partie de 1'emission de 311, qui ne sortit que de 
trois officines. Elles n'ont pas non plus les diffe'rents 
des monetaires qu'on trouve sur les pieces de remission 
qui parut avant la mort de Daza en 312 et 313. 



Avec 



ALE 



Au revers. SOLE INVICTO. Le Soleil radie, en robe 
longue, debout a gauche, levant la main droite 
et tenant une Victoire. 

Au droit. MAXIMINVS P.F. AVG. Sa tete lauree a 
droite. Cohen, 154; FB. ; espece de 60 me a la 
livre d'or. 



Avec 

ALE 

On trouve 

Au rwera.BQLL INVICTO. Le Soleil radie en robe 
longue, le manteau rejete, levant la droite et 
tenant la tete de Serapis dans la main gauche. 

Au droit. MAXIMINVS P.F. AVG. Sa tete lauree a 
droite. Piece decrite pour la premiere fois par 



110 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

M. Gnecchi. 17 Coll. Gnecchi et H. MVS. V. ; 
5 gr. 20 ; 20 m.m. 

TROISIEME EMISSION. 

Cette Emission parut depuis la mort de Galere, survenue It 
5 Mai 311, ptndant tout le cours de I'annde 311. 

En effet elle ne contient plus de mommies de Galere 
Auguste, mais elle comprend les pieces commemoratives 
de cet empereur designe comme Divus et elle fut suivie, 
ainsi que je 1'expliquerai plus loin, par une autre emission 
qui commenya a etre frappee au plus tard au debut de 
312. 

L'Atelier ne fonctionne au cours de remission pre"sente 
qu'avec trois officines. II en comprenait auparavant six et 
en eut huit ensuite. La cause probable de cette diminution 
momentane'e de 1'activite" de 1'atelier d'Alexandrie peut 
etre cherche'e dans la prise de possession par Maximin 
Daza de la Bithynie apres la mort de Galere. Cette pro- 
vince comprenait 1'atelier de Nicome"die qui appartenait 
a Galere aussi probablement que celui de Cyzique. 
Maximin Daza en s'emparant de ces ateliers put diminuer 
momentanement 1'importance de celui d'Alexandrie, du 
moins il arrivait souvent a cette epoque que la f ermeture 
d'une partie des officines d'un atelier coincidait avec 
Touverture d'un nouvel atelier dans les e"tat8 du meme 
empereur. 

PREMIERE ET DEUXI^ME SERIES. 
La l* re serie presente une lettre numerale grecque 



17 F. Gnecchi, Appunti di Nwnismatica JRomana, 1896, ex- 
trait de Rivista Ital. di Numismatica, 1896, fasc. ii. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE D'ALEXANDRIE. Ill 

d'officine avec le chiffre K = 20 et la lettre P = (Pecunia) 
et un different monetaire, croissant ou etoile dans le 
champ. La 2 me serie presente le chiffre X au lieu de la 
lettre P. 

u A B-r 

PREMIERE SERIE K P 



ALE 



u 



DEUXIEME SERIE K 



A B r 

X 



ALE 
On trouve 

I. Au revere. GENIO IMPEEATOEIS. Genie coiffe du 
modius, a demi-nu, debout d gauche, le manteau 
sur 1'epaule gauche, tenant une patere d'oa la 
liqueur se repand et une corne d'abondance. 

Au droit. 1. IMP. C. GAL. VAL. MAXIMINVS P.F. 
AVG. Cohen, 52 ; FE. 8831-32-35, I 6re eerie ; 
off. A B-F; FE. 8834; BE. MVS. avec 

r 

I'etoile K 



ALE 

2. FL. VAL. CONSTANTINVS P.F. AVG. Cohen, 

192 ; FE. 9088 ; 6 gr. 76 ; 26 m.m. ; BE. MVS. ; 
coll. Voetter ; I 6re serie ; off. A. 

3. IMP. C. VAL. LIC. LICINIVS P.F. AVG. Cohen, 

43 ; BE. MVS. ; 23 m.m. ; l* re serie ; off. B. 

II. Au revers. BONO GENIO PII IMPEEATOEIS. 
Genie coiffe du modius, a demi-nu, debout d 
gauche, tenant une patere d'ou la liqueur se 
repand et une corne d'abondance. 

Au droit. 1. FL. VALEE. CONSTANTINVS P.F. 
AVG. Sa tete lauree & droite; piece inedite. 
coll. Voetter ; l ere serie ; off. A r. 

2. FL. VALEEIVS CONSTANTINVS P.F. AVG. 
Meme tete. Cohen, 31, mais dans la legende du 



112 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

revers Cohen a oublie le mot PII ; FE. 9067 ; 
off. A B ; I 6re serie. 18 [PL V., No. 10.] 

Cette Emission est la premiere au cours de laquelle les 
pieces de Constantin ne sont plus frappees dans une seule 
officine, A, ma is dans trois. 

3. IMP. 0. VALEE. LICIN. LICINIVS P.F. AVG. Sa 
tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 1 ; FE. 9016 ; off. A; 

A 
exceptionnellement K 



ALE 

4. IMP. C. VAL. UC. LICINNIVS P.F. AVG. Meme 

tete. Cohen, 2; FE. 9017 ; 6 gr. 30 ; 24 m.m. ; 
l ere serie ; off. B. 

5. IMP. C. GALEE. VAL. MAXIM1NVS P.F. AVG. 

Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 2 ; FE. 8773-74- 
75-76-77; 8 gr. 05 ; 24 m.m.; 2 me serie; off. 

A B r. 

in. Au revere. BONO GENIO IMPEEATOE1S. Meme 
type du revers. 

Au droit. 1. FL. VALEEIVS CONST ANTINVS P.F. 
AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 31 ; coll. 
Voetter ; 2 me serie ; off. A F. 

2. IMP. C. GALEE. VAL. MAXIMINVS P.F. AVG. 
Cohen, 1 ; indiquee dans Banduri. 

IV. Au revers. AETEENAE MEMORIAE GAL. MAXI- 
MIANI. Autel allume orne d'un bas-relief 
representant une branche de laurier sur laquelle 
se tient un aigle portant une couronne en son 
bee. 

Au droit. DIVO MAXIMIANO MAXIMINVS AVG. 
FIL. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 7 ; FE. 
8470 ; BE. MVS. ; 6 gr. 40; 26m.m. et23 m.m. ; 
l eie serie ; off. J\ 

18 F. Gnecchi, Appunti di Numismatica Romana, 1901, p. 27, 
a decrit cette piece ; extrait de la Rivista Ital. di Numismatica, 
xiv., fasc. ii. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE D'ALEXANDRIE. 113 

II f aut remarquer que la traduction de cette legende est 
celle-ci : Au Divin Maximien (Galere) Maximin Auguste 
(son) fils. Cette formule indique simplement que Maximin 
Daza a etc* adopte* par Galere et non qu'il a re9u de lui 
le titre de FIL. AVG. ; que nous savons au contraire 
avoir ete rejete par Daza. 

V. Au revere. VTETVS EXEECITVS. Avec le type deja 
decrit avec cette legende. 

Au droit. L IMP. C. GAL. VAL. MAXIMINVS P.F. 
AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 204 ; 
BE. MVS. ; I 6re serie ; off. A B r ; excep- 

^ TT1 

tionnellement avec 1'etoile K 



ALE 

2. IMP. C. GALEE. VAL. MAXIMINVS P.F. AVG. 

Meme tete. Cohen, 205 ; BE. MVS. avec 
B 



K 



X 



ALE 

VI. Au revers. VENEEI VICTEICI. Avec le type deja 
decrit avec cette legende. Cohen, 2. 

Au droit GAL. VALEEIA AVG. Son buste a droite, 
drape et avec un diademe dans les cheveux. 
BE. MVS. ; I 6re serie ; off. T ; egalement avec 



r 

P [PI. V., No. 11.] 



ALE 

Les pieces de Valerie continuerent, ainsi que le proiive 
cette emission, a etre frappees apres la mort de Galere, 
mais pendant peu de temps, car on ne les trouve plus dans 
remission qui suivit celle-ci. Elles cesserent probable- 
ment d'etre emises au courant de I'anne'e 311, ce qui con- 
firme le recit de Lactance, d'apres lequel ce fut apres 
avoir fait, dans Tannee de son deuil, une tentative pour 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. Q 



114 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 

I'e"pou8er, que Maximin rele"gua cette impe'ratrice dans les 
deserts de Syrie. 

u iA 

TROISIEME SiRiE X 



QtTATRlfeME SfcRIE 



ALE 

X I A B r 



ALE 

On trouve 

I. J.u revers. GENIO AVGVSTI. Genie coiffe du modius, 
a demi-nu, debout a gauche, tenant la t^te de 
Serapis dans la main droite et une corne d'abon- 
dance BUT le bras gauche. 

Au droit. 1. IMP. C. GAL. VAL. MAXIMINVS P.F. 
AVG. 8a tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 17 ; FE. 
8785, 5 gr. 40, 21 m.m. ; 13996, 3* me eerie, 
off. B r ; FE. 13995 ; BE. MVS., 4* me serie, 
off. B r. [PL V., No. 12.] 

2. IMP. C.LIC.LICINNIV8P.F.AVG. Tete analogue. 

Cohen, 32 ; BE. MVS. ; 4* me serie ; off. A. 

3. FL. VALEE. CONSTANTINVS P.F. AVG. Tete 

analogue. Cohen, 172 ; BE. MVS. ; coll. 
Voetter ; 4* m serie ; off. A. 

QUATRI^ME EMISSION. 

Frappte depuis le commencement de I'anne'e 312 etjusqu'd 
la mort de Maximin Dam en Juin ou Juillet 313. 

En effet cette emission comprend encore des monnaies 
comm^moratives de Galere et des pieces de GaleVie Valerie. 
Les unes et les autres durent etre emises tout au debut de 
312, carl 'on frappait gen^ralement les pieces comm^mora- 
tives des empereurs pendant 1'ann^e qui suivait leur mort ; 
et le rcit de Lactance, qui affirme que Gale"rie Valerie f ut 
persecutee par Maximin Daza dans le temps meme de son 
deuil apres la mort de Galere (5 Mai 311), est confirms" 
par les f rappes des divers ateliers d'Orient ou les monnaies 



* ATELIER MONETAIRE D*ALEXANDRIE. 



115 



de Valerie cesserent de paraitre dans 1'annee me'me qui 
suivit cette mort. D'autre part remission presente cessa 
de paraitre avant la mort de Maxiinin Daza, puisque 
toutes ses series comprennent des monnaies de Daza. 
Lea monnaies de bronze ou folles dont elle se compose ont 
un poids moyen de 5 grammes 50 centigrammes ; leurs 
diametres sont de 20 d 22 millimetres. Ces monnaies 
presentent au revers comme diffdrents des monetaires : 
d'abord 1'^toile d^ja parue dana remission ant^rieure, puis 
la palme et la couronne qui sont nouveaux, parfois un point 
a 1'exergue avec la designation de 1'atelier ALE, dans 
le champ la lettre N et une lettre numerale grecque 
d'officine. 

PREMIERE SERIE. 
Avec lea lettres et signes suivants 



A-B r A e s z H 



ALE 



N 



DEITXIEME SERIE. 

A B r A- es z H 



ALE 



TROISIEME SERIE. 



A B r A G S Z H 



ALE 



N 



QUATRIEME SERIE. 

A B r A e s z H 



ALE. 



116 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

On trouve 

I. Au revers. -GENTO AVGVSTL Avec le type dejd decrit 
avec cette legende. 

Au droit. 1. IMP. C. GAL. VAL. MAXIMINVS P.F. 
AVG. Satetelaureeadroite. Cohen, 20 ; BR. 
MV8., I 6re serie avec toutes les officines; BR. 
MVS. et FR. 14004-5-6-7-8, 2 me serie, toutes 
les officines, poids 5 gr. 30, diam. 22 m.m. ; 
FR. 14009, 4 me serie, off. 6- 

N 
On trouve egalement ^ 



ALE 

2. IMP. C. LIC. LICINNIV8 P.F. AVG. Tete ana- 

logue. Cohen, 35; FR. 14112; 5 gr. 50 ; 20 
m.m. ; BR. MVS., I 6re serie avec toutes les 
officines; BR. MVS., FR. 14113, 2 me serie, 
off. A B A G; FR. 14114, 3 me serie, off. 
A 6 ; H. MVS. V., 4 me serie, off. A. 

3. FL. VALER. CONSTANTINVS P.F. AVG. T6te 

analogue. Cohen, 172; BR. MVS. ; coll. Voetter 
et Mowat, l* ra serie, toutes les officines ; BR. 
MVS.; coll. Voetter, 2 me serie, toutes les officines ; 
BR. MVS., 4 me serie, off. A B IT A G. 

N I A 

On trouve egalement dans la collec- 

ALE 
tion du British Museum. 

II. Au revert. AETERNAE MEMORIAE GAL. 
MAXIMIANI. Avec le revers deja decrit avec 
cette legende. 

Au droit.DIVO MAXIMIANO MAXIMINVS AVG. 
FIL. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 7 ; 
FR. 8470 bis. 

Cette piece presente au revers 



N 



# 

B [PL V., No. 13.] 



ALE 

Get ensemble de signes ne rentre dans aucune des 



L' ATELIER MON&TAIRE D'ALEXANDRIE. 117 

quatre series. C'est pourquoi j'ai decrit cette piece a la 
fin de remission, bien qu'elle ait du etre frappee au com- 
mencement, car elle fut probablement suivant la regie la 
plus courante dans 1'annee qui suivit la mort de Galere, 
qui est du 5 Mai, 311. 

CINQUI^ME EMISSION. 

Frappte depuis la mort de Maximin Daza en Juin ou Juillet 
313, jusqu'au moment ou les nouvettes de la guerre entre Con- 
stantin et Licinim parvinrent a Alexandrie avec celles de 
Pelevation de Valem Auguste, en Octobre 314. 

En effet cette emission ne contient plus de monnaies de 
Maximin Daza, 19 et elle dut commencer a etre frappee 
lorsqu'apres la mort de ce prince, 1'atelier passa dans les 
etats de Licinius. D'autre part, les monnaies de Valena 
Auguste parurent au debut de remission suivante. 

Constantin n'intervint pas dans la guerre entre Liciniua 
et Maximin Daza qui devait le debarrasser d'un rival 
present Maximin, secretement allie de Maxence ; au profit 
d'un rival futur Licinius, dont s'accroissait la puissance. 

Mais les ambitions de Constantin et de Licinius ne 
purent rester longtemps en presence sans que la guerre 



19 Maximin Daza mit fin a ses jours par le poison en Juin, 
ou Juillet 313 (cf. Euseb., Histor. eccles., x. 5 ; Lactant, De 
Morte Persecutorum, c. xlvii, xlviii., xlix.). Maximin, apres 
ea defaite de Tzirallum du 30 Avril 313 tra versa ses etats et 
se rendit 4 Tarse en Cilicie, ou a 1'abri derriere les defiles du 
Taurus il se preparait de nouveau a la guerre tandis que 
Licinius s'etait arrete a Nicomedie, ou il publia le 13 Juin r 
313, son edit de tolerance a 1'egard des Chretiens, sans doute 
pour se concilier les populations. 

Ce fut, d'apres le recit de Lactance, en se voyant aban- 
dons de tous que Maximin mit fin a ses jours. 



118 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

<k'lata. Constantin s'^tant aper9u pendant l^te* de 314, 
que Licinius excitait d le trahir son propre beau-frere 
Bassianus, en 1'attirant a lui par la promesse d'etre cree* 
Cesar, 20 saisit ce pretexte pour declarer la guerre et envahit 
la Pannonie a la fin du mois de Septembre ou au debut 
d'Octobre 314. 21 

Cette Emission ne comprend plus que les monnaies de 
Constantin et de Licinius. Elle se compose de pieces de 
bronze ou folles re*duits a des poids oscillants entre 4 
grammes 80 c. et 3 grammes 50 et a diametres de 20 a 
21 millimetres. 



N 



PREMlfcHE 



A-B r A 6 S Z H 



ALE 

DEUXIEME SRIE. 



N 



A B-r A e s z -H 

Q 



ALE. 
On trouve 



I. Au raw. GENIO POPVLI KOMANI. Le genie coiffe 
du modius, a demi-nu debout a gauche, tenant 
une teto de Serapis de la main droite et une come 
d'abondance sur le bras gauche. 

Audroit. 1. IMP. C. LIO. LICINNIVS P.P. AVG. 

Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 56 ; BE. MVS. ; 
FE. 14130 ; 4 gr. 35 ; 21 m.m. ; H. MVS. V. ; 
4 gr. 75 ; 20 m.m. ; I 6re serie, toutes les officinee. 

M Anonymus Falesii, 5, 14 (edition Teubner). 

11 La bataille importante de Cibales en Pannonie inferieure 
est du 8 Octobre 314 (cf. Idace : in Fastis}, mais les deux 
armees avaient eu deja des engagements d' avant-garde en 
Pannonie, cf. Eutrope : Breviarium Hist, rom., lib. x., cap. 5. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE D'ALEXANDRIE. 119 

2. FL. VALEE. CONSTANTINVS P.F. AVG. Sa tete 
lauree 4 droite ; piece inedite, voisine de Cohen, 
235 ; BE. MVS. ; coll. Voetter, I 6re et 2 me serie; 
toutes les officines. [PI. VI., No. 1.] 

TBOISIEME SERIE. 

Avec 

ALE 

On trouve 

I. Au revere. IOVI CONSEEVATOEI. Jupiter mt, de- 
bout 4 gauche, tenant une Victoire BUT un globe 
et appuye sur un sceptre ; & ses pieds a gauche 
un aigle tenant une couronne en son bee. 

Au droit. 1. IMP. C. LIC. LICINNIVS P.F. AVG. 
Sa t6te lauree a droite. Cohen, 72 ; BE. MVS. ; 
FE. 14147; 4 gr. 10 ; 21 m.m. Toutes les 
officines. [PL VI., No. 2.] 

2. FL. VALEE. CONSTANTINVS P.F. AVG. Te~te 
analogue. On ne peut pas retrouver cette piece 
dans Cohen, dont le tableau n'est que confusion. 
BE. MVS. ; H. MVS. V. ; coll. Voetter ; toutes 
les officines. 

QUATRIEME SERIE. 



Avec 



Q 

A B r A e s z H 

N 



ALE 

I. Au revers.IOYL CONSEEVATOEI AVGG. Avec 

le type du revers qui vient d'etre decrit. 

Au droit. 1. IMP. C. VAL. LICIN. LICINIVS P.F. 
AVG. Sa tte lauree a droite. Cohen, 109; 
BE. MVS.; FE. 14210-11-12-13-14-15-16; 3gr. 
70; 19 m.m.; H. MVS. V.; avec toutes les 
officines. [PI. VI,, No. 3.] 



120 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

2. IMP. C. FL. VAL. CONSTANTINV8 P.F. AVG. 
Tete analogue. Cohen, 297 ; BE. MVS. ; H. 
MVS. V. ; avec toutes les officines. 

La piece suivante du Musee imperial de Vienne est 
un exemple frappant de ce que les folles qui e"taient les 
seules monnaies de bronze frappe"es depais l'anne 308, 
ayant et reduits de poids plusieurs fois, se trouvaient eu 
313-314 avoir le poids et le diametre de 1'ancien denier 
de Diocletien. En effet c'est sur 1'une de ces pieces qui 
porte encore le nom de Diocletien que se trouve inscrit 
galement le nom de Licinius. 

On trouve 

Aurtvers. 10 VI CONSEEYATORI AVGG. Avec le 
type du revers qui vient d'etre decrit. 

Au droit.On lit : IMP. C. V. DIOCLETIANVS et en 
dessous LICINIVS P.F. AVG. Tete lauree it 
droite. Les deux legendes sont en partie 
superposees. H. MVS. V., No. 25568. 

SIXI^ME EMISSION. 

Frappte depuis le moment ou les nourelles de la guerre entre 
Constantin et Licinius et celles de VtUvation de Valens par- 
vinrent d Alexandrie en Octobre 314, jusgu'd la reconnaissance 
des Cdsars Crispm, Constantin II et Licinius II, le l er Mart 
317. 

Cette emission se divise en deux parties. La premiere 
est caractrise par les pieces de Valens Auguste et la 
seconde par celles de Constantin. Les monnaies de 
Licinius, au contraire, sont frappees sans interruption 
pendant toute la dure"e de remission. Yoici comment 
s'expliquent oes faits et les raisons qui permettent de 



L'ATELIER MONETAIRE D'ALEXANDRIE. 121 

determiner a peu pres le temps pendant lequel parut 
chaque partie de 1'emission. 

L'atelier d'Alexandrie appartenait a Licinius a 1'epoque 
qui nous occupe. En consequence les monnaies de Con- 
stantin n'y furent pas emises pendant la guerre de 314 
entre ces deux empereurs, et 1'on f rappa au contraire celles 
de Valens cree Auguste par Licinius pendant cette guerre. 22 
Apres que la paix f ut conclue entre Licinius et Constantin, 
au contraire les monnaies de ce dernier empereur rem- 
placerent celles de Yalens, qui fut vers cette e*poque 
degrade 23 et plus tard mis d mort. 

Voici maintenant comment se classent chronologique- 
ment les evenements. 

La premiere defaite de Licinius au cours de la guerre 
de 314 eut lieu a Cibales en Pannonie le 8 Octobre. Ce 
fut, d'apres le recit des auteurs les plus complets sur ce 
sujet, aussitot apres cette defaite que Licinius crea Cesar 
Valens qui e"tait Dux Limitis, mais les monnaies nous 
prouvent que ce fut re'ellement le titre d' Auguste qui lui 
fut attribue" ; puis les deux empereurs gagnerent le plus 
rapid ement possible la Thrace pour y reunir une arme*e. 
Ce fut done a ce moment, vers le milieu d' Octobre, que la 



22 JjAnonymm Valesii, v, 17, dit que Licinius apres la 
bataille de Cibales s'enfuit d Sirmium et que : " Sublata inde 
uxore ac filio et thesauria tetendit ad Daciam. Valentem 
ducem limitis Csesarem fecit." Valens devait etre dux limitis 
en Moesie. 

23 ~L?Anonymus Valesu, id., " Mandatum est Valens privatua 
fieret." Petrus Patricius legat. 13, et Victor, Epitome, 40, 9, 
" Valens a Licinio morte multatur." 0. Seeck, Geschichte des 
Untergangs der antiken Welt, vpl. i., p. 163, explique par la 
suite des evenements que ce fut bien Licinius qui condamna 
Valens & mort apres la conclusion de la paix, ainsi que le dit 
I 1 'Epitome. Le Professeur 0. Seeck a renouvele toute 1'histoire 
de ces guerres. 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. R 



122 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

nouvelle de releVation de Valens au rang d'Auguste dut 
parvenir & Constantinople, d'oA elle pouvait arriver par 
mer a Cyzique, puis a Alexandrie, dont les ateliers frap- 
perent des monnaies de cet empereur ^ph^mere. Mais 
d'apres les auteurs anciens la mer etait ferme'e a la naviga- 
tion a partir du milieu de Novembre. 24 On a des 
exemples de flottes retenues dans des ports pendant la 
pe>iode hivernale et ce qui est plus probant plusieurs 
lois du Code Th^odosien 28 datees de Tautomne aux 
lieux de leurs expeditions en Europe et en Asie ne 
furent recues en Afrique qu'au printemps de Tann^e 
suivante. Ce fut done avant la p^riode hivernale, e'est a 
dire vers la fin d'Octobre, que la nouvelle de Tele" vation de 
Valens dut parvenir a Alexandrie, ensuite, les mers n'etant 
plus navigables, on n'y dut apprendre la paix conclue entre 
Constantin et Licinius qu'au printemps de 315 ; bien que 
ces empereurs aient pris le consulat ensemble le l er Janvier 
315. En consequence nous aurons la division suivante de 
remission. 

PREMIERE PARTIE. 

Frappte depuis le mois d'Octobre 314 jusqu'au printemps 
tie 315. 

Avec le chiffre X, le different mone"taire Q, les lettres 
d'officines et 1'exergue suivants 

Q 
X 

A B 



ALE 



* Vegece, v, 9, Maria clauduntur. 

n Code Theodosien, xi., 21, 2 ; xv., 3, 2. Yoir pour ces dates, 
0. Seeck, Die Zeitfolge d. Gesette Constantint : Zeitschrift f. 
RechttgetchichU, tome x., p. 39. 



I/ ATELIER MONETAIRE D*ALEXANDRIB. 123 

On trouve 

Au revers. IOVI CONSEEVATOEI AVGG. Avec le 
type deji indique avec cette legende. 

Au droit. 1. IMP. C. AVE. VAL. VALENS P.F. 
AVG. Te-te lauree a droite. Cohen, 2 ; BE. 
MVS. ; coll. Gnecchi ; off. A ; 20 m.m. Cette 
tete, ainsi que 1'a remarque M. Gnecchi, eat celle 
de Licinius. 28 [PL VI., No. 4.] 

2. IMP. 0. VAL. LICIN. LICINIVS P.F. AVG. Meme 
tete. Cohen, 109;FE. 19217-18-19; BE. MVS.; 
off. A B. 

Les pieces de Valens pre*sentent la meme effigie que 
celles de Licinius. M. Gnecchi, qui en a fait le premier la 
remarque, a e'mis l'ide*e, dans son interessante discussion 
des raisons de cette frappe d'apparence anormale, 27 que 
1'effigie de Valens n'avait pas eu le temps d'etre envoyee 
a Alexandrie. Mais Ton peut ajouter que meme si la 
chancellerie imperiale de Licinius avait eu le moyen de 
faire parvenir a Alexandrie et a Cyzique 1'effigie vraie de 
Valens, elle ne 1'eut pas fait. En effet 1'^tude des ateliers 
monetaires de cette ^poque prouve que la frappe des 
monnaies d'un empereur avec 1'effigie d'un de ses coregents 
n'est pas un cas isole. II y a meme un ordre dans ce 
de*sordre apparent des frappes d'effigies imperiales. Voici 
des faits qui le prouvent. 

Dans 1'atelier de Rome, la tete de Maxence fut attribute 
a Constantin sur les pieces qui portent le nom de cet 

M F. Gnecchi, Appuntidi Numismatica Romana, 1893, pp. 5, 6, 
7 ; extrait de la Rivista Hal. d. Numismatica, 1893, fasc. ii., 
pi. iv. 

27 Cf. F. Gnecchi, Appunti di Numism. Romana, 1893, p. 4. 
Piccolo Bronw di Valente Tyranno ; extrait de Rivista Ital. di 
Num., 1893, t. vi., fasc. ii. 



124 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

empereur. 28 A Siscia, ce fut celle de Licinius qui lui fut 
prete"e, notamment lorsque Constantin fut designe" comme 
Films Augustorum en 309 29 et d'une 39011 g^nerale, 
Licinius fit f rapper son effigie sur les pieces de Maximin 
et de Constantin ; Maximin Daza fit emettre avec son 
eflBgie a Antioche et a Alexandrie les monnaies de 
Licinius ^ et de Constantin. 

Ce dernier empereur n'a sa veritable effigie, qui est 
imberbe, que sur celles de ses monnaies qui sont frapp^es 
dans ses propres ateliers, 31 tandis que Maxence et Maxi- 
min Daza ont emis dans leurs e*tats des tetes de Constantin 
barbues qui sont les leurs. 

Depuis la premiere te"trarchie impe'riale organised en 
293 par Diocletien, Tunite legislative et fictive de 1'empire 
avait ete maintenue ; aussi chacun des empereurs re"gnants 
frappait-il des monnaies aux noms de ses core*gents lors- 
qu'il etait en paix avec eux ; mais 1' unite administrative de 
1'empire n'existait plus et il n'y avait pas de chancellerie 
qui expe"dia P effigie d'un empereur dans les e"tats de ses 
coregents. Chaque atelier attribuait le plus gene"rale- 
ment I'effigie de son propre souverain a tous les empereurs 
aux noms desquels il e'mettait des monnaies. Si Valens 
avait regn apres la guerre de 314, il aurait fait frapper 
son efligie sur ses monnaies dans ses ateliers, mais il fut 



28 J. Maurice, IS Atelier monetaire de Rome, Revue Numit- 
matique, 1899, pi. ix., No. 2. 

29 Id., IS Atelier monetaire de Siscia, Numismatic Chronicle, 
1900, pi. xv., No. 5. 

80 Id., IS Atelier monetaire d'Antioche, Numismatic Chronicle, 

1899, pi. xiii., Nos. 4 et 5, dont les ejfigies sont pareilles. 

31 Id., IS Atelier monetaire de Londres, Numismatic Chronicle, 

1900, pi. iv., No. 2, frappe des 1'annee 306 et seq. Id., 
IS Atelier monetaire de Constantinople, Revue Numismatique, 1901, 
pi. v., No. 9. 



I/ ATELIER MONETAIRE D*ALEXANDR1E. 125 

abandonne* par Licinius et mourut avant d'avoir regne* 
personnellement sur une partie de 1'empire, aussi n'eut-il 
jamais son effigie personnelle sur ses monnaies. 



DEUXIEME PARTIE. 

Frappee depuis le printemps de I'annee 3l5jmqu'au l er 
Mars 317, date de V elevation des trois Cesars, Crispus, Con- 
stantin II, et Licinius II. 

On trouve egalement au revers avec 



K 



Q 
X 

A B 



ALE 

I. Au revers. IOYI CONSEEYATOEI AYGG. Avec le 
type du revers deja decrit. 

Au droit. 1. IMP. C. PL. VAL. CONSTANTINYS 
P.P. AVG-. Sa tete lauree d droite. Cohen, 
297; FE. 14719; 3 gr. 12; 20 m.m. ; BE. 
MVS. ; oflf. A B. [PI. VI., No. 5.] 

2. IMP. C. VAL. LICIN. LICINIVS P.P. AVG. Meme 
tgte. Cohen, 109 ; PE. 14217 a 19 ; BE. MVS. ; 
off. A B. 

Avec les memes lettres, chiffres et signe du revers 

K 



ALE 

On trouve e*galement 

^ w revers. IQVL CONSEEVATOEI CAESS. Avec le 
meme type du revers que la legende precedente. 



126 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Au droit.D. N. CONSTANTINVS LICINIVS N. 
CAES. Sa t6te lauree a droite. Cohen, 29 ; 
FE. 14399; 3 gr. 30; 21 m.m. ; Musee Brera. 
[PL VI., No. 6.] 

Le classement de cette piece dans cette Emission est 
confirme par celui de trois autres monnaies de bronze 
dans des Emissions contemporaines des ateliers de 
Nicome'die et de Cyzique. Ce sont des monnaies frappe'es 
aux noms des deux Licinius Auguste et Cesar de'signe's 
comme princes Joviens. Ces pieces font partie, ainsi que 
celles d'Alexandrie qui viennent d'etre de"crites, d'^mis- 
sions qui precedent celle ou paraissent les monnaies des 
trois Cesars. On distingue f acilement ces Emissions par ce 
qu'elles ne pre'sentent dans le champ du revers 32 ni 
chiffres ni diffe'rents mone'taires. Ces monnaies portent 
au revers trois legendes analogues 

1. I. 0. M. ET FOKT. CONSEE. DD. NN. AVG. ET 

CAES. 

2. I. 0. M. ET VICT. CONSEE. DD. NN. AVG. ET 

CAES. 

3. I. 0. M. ET VIETYTI DD. NN. AVG. ET CAES. 



n A Nicomedie 1' exergue ' avec une lettre d'officine 

dans le champ du revers distingue la l* r * emission de celle ou 
paraissent les monnaies des Cesars qui presentent un different 

X 



^ I A 
monetaire n *,^- ou des chiffres 



nr 



SMN SMNA 



; a Cyzique 1'on 



a pour la premiere emission 1* exergue et pour celle 

Mvl K A 

X 

*JA 



des trois Cesars __ et 



SMK SMKA 



127 



Dont il suffira de traduire la premiere : Jovi Optimo 
Maximo et Fortunae Conservatoribus Dominorum Nos- 
trorum Augusti et Caesaris ; et au droit la meme legende 



DD. NN. IOVII LICINII INVICT. AVG. ET CAES. 
Avec lea bustes des deux Licinius. 33 

Ces trois pieces parurent done avant celles de Crispus et 
de Constantin II Cdsar, c'est & dire avant le l er Mars 317. 

C'est dans la meme Emission que Ton doit ranger 
egalement une monnaie de'crite par M. Gnecchi 34 et qui 
presente au droit une le'gende analogue a celle de la piece 
d'Alexandrie. On y lit en effet les memes noms de Con- 
stantinus Licinius 

Au droit. VA. CO. LICINIVS N. OS. 

Au revers.IOVl CONSEEYATOEI AVGG. 

Cette piece dut tre frappe'e en 315 apres la re'concilia- 
tion des deux Augustes ; de meme que celle d'Alexandrie. 

La frappe de ces deux monnaies en 315 ainsi que la 
presence des trois pieces des Licinius Auguste et Cesar 
pennet de resoudre un delicat probleme historique et de 
mettre d' accord les textes des auteurs anciens. En efdet 
Zosime et Aurelius Victor placent aussitot apres la guerre 
de 314 et la paix qui la suivit, 35 1'elevation des Cesars 
Crispus, Constantin II et Licinius II. li'Anonyme de 



33 Cohen, 2 me edition, 1888, vol. vii., pp. 210-211. 

34 F. Gnecchi, Appunti di Numismatica Romana, 1899, pp. 
1-6, extrait de la Rivitta Ital. di Numismatica, vii., fasc. iii. 

36 Zosime dans son histoire, liv. ii., c. 21, a evidemment 
confondu deux elevations successives des Cesars, ainsi qu'on le 
verra plus loin. Les autres auteurs qui placent comme lui 
1'elevation des Cesars en 315 ont fait de meme, cf. Aurelius 
Victor, Epitome, 58; de Caesaribus, 41. 



128 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Valois, 36 auteur generalement bien informe", fait de meme 
et place apres cette eleVation des Ce"sars la prise en 
commun du consulat par Constantin et Licinius, qui 
semble etre celle de 1'annee 315. Les chroniqueurs au 
contraire, Idace dans ses Pastes, Pauteur du Chronicon 
Paschale, donnent comme date de cet evenement le l er Mars 
317. Leur affirmation est confirme'e par un te*inoignage 
presque officiel. L'auteur du Pangyriqu(F prononce* 
Rome dans la quinzieme annee de Constantin, c'est & dire 
en 321, ce*lebre le quinquennalia des Ce"sars dont la 
nomination est ainsi fixe"e en 317. 

Des temoignages presque contemporains sont done 
nettement contradictoires. Ce sont ceux de Zosime, 
d'Aurelius Victor et de VAnonyme de Yalois d'une part, 
dee chroniqueurs et de 1'auteur du Pan6gyrique d'autre 
part. Pour les premiers, les Cesars ont & cree's en 315 ; 
pour les seconds en 317. L'on peut encore aj outer que 
pour Zosime et Victor 38 le jeune Licinius avait 20 mois 
lorsqu'il fut fait Ce"sar. Or le prof esseur 0. Seeck, ^ dans 
un travail plein de de"couvertes inte*ressantes, a demontre 1 
que cet enfant devait etre le meme que celui dont 
VAnonyme de Valois dit que Licinius se sauva en 1'emme- 
nant avec lui ainsi que sa femme apres la bataille de 
Cibales, qui eut lieu le 8 Octobre 314. Cet enfant aurait 
eu beaucoup plus de vingt mois le l er Mars 317, mais il 



86 Anonymm Valesu, v., 19. II n'est pas certain toutefois 
que cet auteur n'ait pas voulu indiquer le consulat de Constan- 
tin Augusts avec Licinius Cesar en 319, sous lequel commenqa 
la persecution des Chretiens en orient dont il parle en suite. 

37 Nazarii Panegirycus, Eumenii x., cap. 2. 

38 Voir les passages indiques. 

39 0. Seeck, Die Verwandtenmorde Constantins d. Grossen, 
Zeitschrift f. Wmenschaft. Theologie, 1890, pp. 74 et 75. 



L' ATELIER MON&TAIRE D'ALEXANDRIE. 129 

est an contraire tres vraisemblable qu'il les avait en 315, 
et ce raisonnement prouve que sans aucun doute ces 
auteurs ont bien voulu placer en 315, comme 1'indiquent 
les textes, F elevation des Cesars. La numismatique 
peut seule concilier ces opinions diffe'rentes et apporter la 
lumiere dans ce chaos. L'etude des emissions monetaires 
d'Alexandrie, de Nicomedie et de Cyzique, ateliers de 
Licinius, nous apprend en effet, ainsi qu'on vient de le 
voir, que 1'empereur d'Orient Licinius tenta une premiere 
fois d' clever son fils au rang de Cesar aussitot apres la 
guerre de 314 et qu'il invita peut-etre Constantin a en 
faire autant pour Crispus, comme porte a le croire la 
legende " lovi Conservatori Caess." ou il est question 
des Cesars. Mais Constantin refusa de suivre Licinius 
dans cette voie ; c'est ce qui ressort de ce fait que les 
monnaies des trois Cesars ne parurent que dans des emis- 
sions ulterieures des ateliers d'Orient et d'Occident. Ces 
emissions ont du debuter au printemps de 1'annee 317. 

Ainsi les trois Cesars furent reconnus dans tout 1'empire 
le l er Mars 317 ; ce f ut alors que parurent leurs monnaies. 
C'est ce qui explique la certitude avec laquelle Idace et 
1'auteur du Panfyyrique fixent cette date comme celle de 
leur elevation. D'autre part il n'y a rien d'etonnant a ce 
que Zosime, dont 1'histoire est en general tres complete sur 
les evenements du regne de Licinius, VAnonyme de Yalois 
et Aurelius Victor, aient considere comme 1'epoque de 
1'^levation des Cesars celle ou Licinius proclama son fils 
comme tel et tenta sans doute de decider Constantin a en 
faire autant pour Crispus, c'est dire 1'annee 315. 40 Bien 



40 J'ai demontre dans mon travail sur L' Atelier monttaire de 
Londres, Num. Chron., 1900, p. 135, la necessite de reporter au 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. S 



130 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

qu'il soit impossible d'entrer ici dans de grands details 
BUT ce sujet, je puis dire que Ton devine les mobiles de 
la conduite des empereurs, des que 1'on admet ce fait rvel4 
par les Emissions monetaires ; de deux le*vations succes- 
sives des Cesars, une premiere fois de Licinius jeune parson 
pere, une seconde fois des trois Cesars par les deux empereurs 
Constantin et Licinius. Une loi du Code Theodosien de 
1'annee 336 41 nous apprend, ainsi que Pa remarque 0. 
Seeck, que le fils de Licinius etait n6 d'une esclave et 
cette loi decide qu'il retournera a 1'etat de sa mere, 
bien qu'il ait obtenu par d^cret imperial la plus haute 
dignite, c'est a dire le rang de fils d'empereur, de 
Cesar. Cette loi modifie le droit alors existant, en 
faisant retourner tout fils d'esclave la condition de sa 
mere. Mais cette disposition n'existait pas lorsque 
Licinius cre"a son fils Cesar et il devait bien esp^rer le 
faire echapper ainsi pour to u jours aux consequences de 
sa naissance servile. D'autre part, pour Constantin le 
jeune Licinius etait presque un usurpateur, puisque 
Licinius avait pous Constantia, soaur de Constantin, dont 
il n'avait pas eu d'enfant. Mais en 317 Constantin avait 
des raisons particulieres de reconnaitre l'elvation de 
Licinius. Le jeune Constantin II venait de voir le jour 
a Aries dans la seconde moitie de 1'annee 316, ainsi que 



l er Mars, 317, la frappe des monnaies des trois Cesars dans 
les etats de Constantin, et j'ai indique la confusion etablie 
par I* Anonym* de Valois. 

41 Code Theodosien, edition Haenel, liv. 4, tit. 6, de Natwali- 
lusfiliis, lois 2 et 3. " Itaque Liciniani etiam filio qui per 
rescriptum sanctissimum dignitatis culmen ascendit, omnis 
substantia auferatur et secundum hanc legem fisco adjudicetur, 
ipso verberando, compedibus vinciendo, ad suse originis prim- 
ordia redigendo." Lecta III EaL Maii Carthagine Nepotiano 
tt Facundo Cots. (336). 



L* ATELIER MONETAIRE D*ALEXANDRIE. 131 

1'a e*tabli M. Ferrero. 42 Constantin, heureux d'elever au 
rang de Cesar ses deux fils Crispus et Constantin II qu'il 
avait eu de Minervina, et de Fauata dont il devait ainsi 
satisfaire I'ambition, dut cette fois accepter les proposi- 
tions de Licinius et f aire ainsi reconnaitre les trois Cesars 
dans les empires d'Orient et d'Occident. 

SEPTIEME EMISSION. 

Frappee depuis le l er Mars 317, date de Vettvation des 
Cesars Licinius II, Crispus et Constantin II, jusqu'd Veleva- 
tion de Constantius Cesar le 8 Novembre S24.* 3 

En effet on trouve dans cette emission des monnaies 
frappees aux noms des trois premiers Cesars, mais on n'y 
rencontre pas celles de Constantius II. 

Cette emission comprend deux series. La premiere est 
caracterisee par la presence dans le champ du revers des 

2 

chiffres TTT , et par la legende Jovi Conservators, qui fut 

frappee en meme temps dans tous les ateliers d'Orient ; la 
secondepar la legende Jovi Conservatori Augg. et Caess. au 
sujet de laquelle on peut faire la meme remarque. Ces 
deux series monetaires sont contemporaines et furent 
frappees toutes deux simultanement de 317 d 324. En 
effet la premiere fut emise jusqu'en 324, puisqu'elle 



42 E. Ferrero, Mogli et Figli di Constantino, Atti della R. 
Academia delle Scienze di Torino, vol. xxxiii., 1898 ; seance du 
13 fevrier, extrait p. 7. 

43 Cette date est celle des Pastes d'Idace. Voir pour plus de 
details : Dizionare Epigrafico di Rugiero, vol. ii., p. 668 ; 
article Constantius II, par 0. Seeck. Constantius II fut consul 
eponyme le l er Janvier 326, il devait avoir ete cree Cesar un 
an avant d'etre consul d'apres la regie en usage et avait ete 
probablement consul suffectus avant d'etre eponyme. 



132 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

presente parmi les pieces de Nicomedie les monnaies de 
Martinianus Auguste, qui ne fut cre"e empereur que 
pendant la guerre de 324 ; la seconde fut e'mise aussi 
longtemps, puisqu'elle presente parmi les pieces d'Antioche 
les monnaies de Helena dont la frappe eut probablement 
lieu aussitot apres la guerre de 324. La derniere bataille, 
celle de Chalcedonie, est du 18 Septembre 324 44 etl'ele'va- 
tion de Constantius u'e"tant que du 8 Novembre, 45 des 
monnaies ont du etre emises pendant ce laps de temps et 
de ce nombre sont sans doute celles de Helena 46 a 
Antioche. 

Les monnaies de bronze de cette emission pesent en 
moyenne 3 gr. 50 c. ; avec des poids exceptionnellement 
plus eleves. Elles devaient pouvoir s'echanger centre 
le Nummus Centenionalis ou Denier de Constantin alors 
en usage dans les etats de Constantin le Grand. 



44 Le jour est determine par le Calendrier de Philocalus, 
C. 1. 1,., tome i., p. 350. L'annee par la suite des evenements 
et 1' abolition des lois et Constitution de Licinius, le 18 
Decembre 324, Cod. Theod., lib. xv., tit. xiv., lex i. 

45 0. Seeck trouve une confirmation de 1'annee de son 
elevation dans 1'inscription du C. I. L., tome iii., No. 3705, 
qui fait coincider avec le consulat VII de Constantius sa 30 me 
acclamation imperatoriale. L'empereur etait, d'apres 1'usage 
etabli par Constantin, proclame imperator a son elevation au 
trone et 1'on repetait chaque annee 1'acclamatiou imperatoriale. 
Constantius avait done 30 ans de regne en 354, ce qui met son 
elevation en 324. Cf. 0. Seeck, Die Imperatorische Acclama- 
tionenim vierten Jahrhundert, Rheinisches Museum, 1893, p. 196 
et 204. 

46 II est probable en effet que ces monnaies ne furent 
frappees que lorsque 1' atelier d'Antioche passa dans les mains 
de Constantin. II faut en consequence faire durer 1'emission 
d'Antioche ou elles se trouvent deux mois plus tard que je 
n'avais ose 1'amrmer dans mon travail sur cet atelier, Numis- 
matic Chronicle, 1899, p. 231. Cette septieme emission 
d'Alexandrie correspond a la huiticme d'Autioche, 



I/ ATELIER MONETAIRE D*ALEXANDR1E. 133 

PREMIERE SERIE. 
Avec les chiffres 47 et exergue suivants 

X 

IIT 



SMALA B 
On trouve 

I. Au revers. IOVI CONSEEVATOEI. Jupiter a demi- 
nu debout a gauche, le manteau sur 1'epaule 
gauche, tenant une Victoire sur un globe et un 
sceptre surmonte d'un aigle ; ei ses pieds a 
gauche un aigle tenant une couronne en son bee ; 
a droite un captif assis. 

Au droit. 1. IMP. C. VAL. LICIN. LICINIVS P.P. 
AVG. Son buste radie, drape et cuirasse a 
droite. Cohen, 74 ; BE. MVS. ; off. A B. 

2. IMP. C. PL. VAL. CONSTANTINVS P.P. AVG. 

Buste analogue. Cohen, 292 ; BE. MVS. ; off. 
A. 

3. D. N. VAL. LICIN. LICINIVS NOB. C. Son buste 

casque et cuirasse & gauche, tenant un bouclier 
a gauche et une haste sur 1'epaule droite. Cohen, 
21 j BE. MVS. ; off. A B. [PI. VI., No. 7.] 

X 

47 Le chiffre a ete interprete comme 12. Voir la 

bibliographic de cette question dans Babelon, Traite des Mon- 
naies grecques et romaines, tome l er , pp. 611 et 745. M. Mowat 
1'interprete : " decima pars sestertii" ; cf. E. Mowat, C. R. de 
VAcad. des Inscr. et B.-Lettres, Octobre, 1886. Cf. 0. Seeck, 
Die Munzpolitik Diocletians und seiner Nachfolger, Zeitschrift 
f. JVumu., xvii., p. 127. Je pense comme 0. Seeck que les 
chiffres X et I1F doivent etre consideres separement, cf. 
J. Maurice, ISatelier monetaire de Thessalonica, note 36, Numis- 
matische Zeitschrift, Wien, 1901. 

L' exergue SMALA veut dire S(acra) M(oneta) AL(exan- 
driae), officine A. 



134 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

4. D. N. FL. IVL. CEISPVS NOB. CAES. Son buste 

laure et drape a droite. Cohen, 77 ; BE. MVS. ; 
off. B. 

5. D. N. FL. CL. CONSTANTINVS NOB. C. Buste 

analogue. Cohen, 133; FR. 15744-45; 3 gr. 
10; 20m.m. ; off. A B. 



La legende Jovi Conservator} qui se rencontre sur lea 
monnaies de cette srie dans les Emissions des ateliers 
d'Orient, alteme avec Soli Invicto Comiti dans les series 
mone"taires correspondantes des ateliers d'Occident, 
frappees egalement depuis Pelevation des trois Cesars en 
317. 

DEUXIEME SERIE. 

Frappee en meme temps que la pre'ce'dente, elle est 
caracterise'e par le croissant comme different monetaire 
et porte la lettre d'officine dans le champ a droite. 



o|A B 
Avec 



SMAL 
On trouve 

I. Au revere 10 VI CONSEEVATOEI AVGG. Jupiter 
nu debout a gauche, la maiiteau flottant, tenant 
un globe de la droite et appuye sur un sceptre. 

Au droiL 1. IMP. LICINIVS AVG. Son buste laure 
a gauche, avec le manteau imperial, tenant le 
foudre de la main droite et un sceptre avec un 
globe de la gauche. Cohen, 119; FE. 14193- 
94 ; BE. MVS. ; off. A B. [PI. VI., No. 8.] 

2. IMP. CONSTANTINVS AVG. Buste analogue. 
Cohen, 302, complete off. A B ; FE. 14728 ; 
3 gr. 30 ; 19 m.m. ; 14729, H. MVS. V. 



L* ATELIER MONETAIRE D'ALEXANDRIB. 135 

H. Au revers. 10 VI CONSEEVATOEI GAESS. Memo 
type du revers. 

Au droit. 1. D. N. VAL. LICIN. LICINIVS NOB. 0. 

Buste analogue. Piece decrite par M. Gnecchi, 
Appunti di Numismatica Romana ; BE. MYS. ; 
coll. Gnecchi ; L. Thery a Lille ; off. A B. 

2. D. N. FL. IYL. CEISPVS NOB. CAES. Buste 

analogue. Cohen, 79 ; BE. MVS. ; FE. 15443 ; 
18 m.m. ; off. A B. 

3. D. N. FL. CL. CONSTANT1NVS NOB. C. Buste 

analogue. Cohen, 135 ; BE. MVS. ; FE. 15749 ; 
off. A. 

HUITIEME EMISSION. 

Frappee depuis I'avenement de Constantius Cdsar le 8 
Novembre 324 jusqu'd la mort de Crispus et celle de Fausta 
en Septembre 326. 48 

En effet cette Emission est la premiere qui contienne les 
monnaies de Constantius Ce*sar et d'autre part celles de 
Crispus et de Fausta, dont Constantin ne fit cesser la frappe 
qu'aux moments de leurs morts, y sont abondantes.* 9 

48 Cf. J. Maurice, I? Atelier monetaire d'Antioche, Num. 
Chron., 1899, p. 237. 

49 Cf. J. Maurice, IS Atelier monetaire de Siscia, Num. Chron., 
1900, p. 346. 0. Seeck, Die Verwandtenmorde Constantins 
d. Grossen, Zeitschrift f. Wissenschaft. Theologie, 1890, pp. 67-68. 

II n'y avait aucune raison de cesser la frappe des monnaies 
de ces personnages avant leurs morts, car ces morts suivirent 
de pres leurs condamnations dans la pensee de Constantin. 
Ce fut pour Crispus des que Constantin eut admis contre lui 
les accusations d'adultere elevees par Fausta, et pour cette 
derniere lorsque Helena eut demontre a Constantin peu de 
temps apres la mort de Crispus qu'il avait ete induit en erreur 
par Fausta. J'ai demontre dans mon etude sur 1'atelier 
d'Antioche (Num. Chron., 1899, p. 237) que les dates de la 
cessation de la frappe de leurs monnaies coincident pour 
Crispus et Fausta avec celles de leurs morts, telles qu'on peut 
les supposer d'apres les recits des auteurs. 



136 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Ces monnaies sont de 1'espece du Nummus Centenionalis 
(Babelon). 50 

Avecles exergues gMALA SMALB 

On trouve 

I. Au revers. PROVIDENTIAE AVGG. Porte de camp 
ouverte au milieu sans battants, surmontee de 
deux tours ; au-dessus une etoile. 

Au drott. CONSTANTINVS AVO. 8a tete lauree 
a droite. Cohen, 454 ; FR. 14816-17 ; 2 gr. 36 ; 
18 m.m. ; H. MVS. V. ; off. A B. 

La le*gende Providentiae Augg. continue & etre frappee 
alors qu'il n'y a plus qu'un seul Auguste. 

II. Au revers. PROVIDENTIAE CAESS. MSme type du 
revers. 

Au drott. 1. FL. IYL. CRISPVS NOB. CAES. Son 
buste laure, drape et cuirasse a gauche. Cohen, 
125 ; FR. 15487, 15494 ; 2 gr. 70 ; 18 m.m. ; 
BR. MVS. ; off. A B ? [PI. VI., No. 9.] 

2. CONSTANTINVS IVN. NOB. C. Buste analogue. 

Cohen, 165 ; FR. 15788 ; BR. MVS. ; off. A B. 

Q I 

On trouve egalement - - au British Museum et 

SMALA B 

au Cabinet de France, 15787; 3 gr. 35; 20 m.m. 

3. FL. IVL. CONSTANTIVSNOB. C. Buste analogue. 

Cohen, 167; off. A B? BR. MVS. 

Q | 

On trouve egalement au British Museum 



SMALA 



* Designe aussi comme denier Constantinien. 0. Seeck, 
Die Miinzpolitik Diocletiam und s. Nachfolger, Zeit. f. Numis. 
xvii. p. 127. 



I/ ATELIER MONETAIRE o'ALEXANDRIE. 137 

III. Aurevers. SALVS EEIPVBLICAE. Fausta debout 

a gauche sous la figure de la maternite tenant 
ses enfants dans ses bras. 

Au droit. FLAV. MAX. FAVSTA AVG. Son buste 
avec cheveux ondules, et drape, a droite. Cohen, 
6 ; FE. 15335 ; 4 gr. 90 ; 20 m.m. ; BE. MVS. ; 
off. A B. 

IV. Au revers. SPES EEIPVBLICAE. Meme type du 

revers qu'avec " Salus Eeipublicae." 

Au drott.FLA.'V. MAX. FAVSTA AVG. Son buste 
en cheveux ondules, et drape, a droite. Cohen, 
15; FE. 15334; 3 gr. 50 ; H. MVS. V.; off. 
A B. 

V. Au revers. SECVEITAS EEIPVBLICE. La Securit6 

voilee debout a gauche, tenant un rameau baisse 
et soutenant sa robe. 

Au droit. FL. HELENA AVGVSTA. Son buste drape 
a droite avec un diademe dans les cheveux et un 
collier de deux rangs de perles au cou. Cohen, 
12 et 13; FE. 13883-84; BE. MVS.; coll. 
Gnecchi ; off. A B. [PL VI., No. 10.] 



NEUVIEME EMISSION. 

Frappte depuis la fin de Septembre 326, posterieurement d 
la mort de Fausta, jusqu'aux fetes de I' inauguration soknnelle 
de Constantinople le 11 Mai 330. 

En effet cette Emission ne comprend plus de monnaies 
de Fausta et elle ne contient pas encore celles de Rome et 
de Constantinople, qui furent emises a partir du 11 Mai 

81 Se reporter a la collection tres complete des bustes de 
Helena et de Fausta qui a ete publie par M. Gnecchi dans la 
ttivista Italiana di Numismatica, 1890, t. xxi., pi. iv. 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. T 



138 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

330. 52 Elle pre"sente des pieces de Helena qui ont etc" 
frappe"es jusqu'en 328 ou 329. 53 Elle correspond a des 
Emissions de Constantinople, 54 de Treves, 55 d' Aries, 56 de 
Rome. 57 Les principaux ateliers de 1'empire resterent 
seuls ouverts pendant cette periode, ou ne parurent que les 
pieces de Constantin le Grand, des deux Cesars survivants 
et reconnus 58 Constantin II et Constance II et de Helena. 
Les monnaies de bronze de cette emission sont de 1'espece 
du denier de Constantin ou Nummus Oentenionalis ; elles 
ont un poids moyen un peu inferieur a 3 grammes 50 c. 
Avec les signes, lettres, num^rales A B ou chiffres 
d'officines I II ; et exergues suivants 

Q|A B Q|I H 



SMAL SMAL 

On trouve 

I. Au revers. PROVIDENTIAE AVGG. Avec le type 
du revers dejd decrit. 

Au droit. CONSTANTINYS AVG. Cohen, 454 ; FE. 
14813-14814 ; 3 gr. 10 ; 19 m.m. ; H. MVS. V. ; 
off. A B et I II. 

62 J. Maurice, IS Atelier monetaire de Constantinople, Revue 
Numismatique, 1901, pp. 192-194, 

M Idem, pp. 186-187. 

64 Idem, p. 183 et seq. 

58 Hettner, Romische Miinzchatzfunde in den Rheinlanden, 
Westdeutsche Zeitschrift, 1887, p. 148. 

56 0. Voetter, Erste christliche Zeichen A.R. M., Numismatische 
Zeitschrift, "Wien, 1892. Tableau des emissions d' Aries. 

57 Jules Maurice, L J Atelier monetaire de Rome, Revue Nu- 
mismatique, 1899, p. 490. Je conservais encore, lorsque j'ai 
fait ce travail sur Rome, des doutes sur la duree de 1'emission. 

58 Le jeune Licinius vivait encore, mais il avait ete degrade. 
O. Seeck, Die Verwandtenmorde Constantim d. Grossen, Zeit- 
schrift f. JFiswnschaft. Theologie, 1889, p. 75. 



L'ATELIER MONETAIRE D'ALEXANDRIE. 139 

H. Au revert. PEOVIDENTIAE CAESS. Avec le meme 
type du revers. 

Au droti. 1. CONSTANTINVS IVN. NOB. C. Son 
buste laure, drape et cuirasse a gauche. Cohen, 
165; FE. 15786; BE. MVS.; coU. Voetter; off. 
A B et I II. 

2. FL. IVL. CONSTANTIV8 NOB. 0. Buste ana- 
logue. Cohen, 167; FR. 16246; BE. MYS. ; 
off. A B et I II. [PI. VI., No. 11.] 

III. Au revers. SECVEITAS EEIPVBLICE. Avec le type 
du revers deja decrit. 

Au droit.'F'L. HELENA AVGVSTA. Cohen, Nos. 12 
et 13, deja decrits ; BE. MVS. ; off. A B. 



De 326 & 330 1'atelier d'Alexandrie ne fonctionna 
qu'avec 2 officines, ainsi qu'on vient de le voir; celui 
de Rome en eut 4 ouvertes pendant cette pe"riode ; 
celui de Treves 2 ; celui d' Aries, Constantina, 4 ; celui de 
Constantinople, qui etait le plus important de 1'empire, 
7. 59 Ce fut done une periode de peu d'activite pour lea 
ateliers monetaires dans tout 1'empire. A partir de 333, 
au contraire, plusieurs ateliers fermes depuis 326 s'ouvri- 
rent au moment de 1' elevation de Constans ; ce sont ceux 
de Cyzique, de Nicomedie, d'Aquilee, de Siscia 60 ; 1'atelier 
d'Alexandrie ne fut au contraire reouvert que lors de 
1'elevation de Delmatius Cesar (18 Septembre 335) dont 
les monnaies font partie de la premiere emission qui pre- 
sente la legende Gloria Exercitus. 

69 Je renvoie aux citations faites plus haut pour la demon- 
stration de ces faits. 

60 J. Maurice, V Atelier monetaire de Siscia, Num. Chron., 
1900, p. 353, et IS Atelier monetaire d'Aquilee, Rivista Ital. di 
Numismatica, 1901, p. 313. 



140 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

DIXI^ME EMISSION. 

Frappte depuis I* Elevation de Delmatius, neveu de Constan- 
tin, au rang de Cesar, le 18 Septembre 335 61 /ws<7w'd la mort 
de Comtantin en Mai 337 , 62 

En effet les pieces de Delmatius paraissent dans cette 
Emission, ou se rencontrent les dernieres de Constantin 
Auguste. 

Les monnaies de bronze de cette Emission sont de deux 
sortes. Les plus grandes sont de 1'espece du Numraus 
Centenionalis ou denier de Constantin ; les plus petites 
sont des demi-Centenionales, 63 je decrirai d'abord les 
pieces les plus grandes. 

i i 

Avec les exergues 



SMALA JSMALB 

On trouve 

I. Au rovers. GLORIA EXERCITVS. Et comme type, 
deux soldats debout, casques, en habit militaire, 



61 Idat. in Fastis ; Sti. Athanasii, contra Arianos, torn. I, 
KatVapa avrjy6pfv<rev irpo r/ KaXai/Soiv oKrwjSptW. 

M Eusebe indique le jour de la Pentecote, 22 Mai ; Euseb., 
Vita Constantini, iv., 64. 

63 J'avais, dans mes precedentes etudes, designe cette 
espece comme Centenionalis Communis, mais M. Babelon, 
dans le tome premier de son Traite des Monnaies grecques 
et romaines, pp. 612, 613, 614, ayant identifie la piece designee 
par 0. Seeck comme denier de Constantin (Die Milnzpolitik 
Diocletians und seiner Nachfolger, Zeitschrift fur Numismatik, 
xvii., p. 277 et seq.) avec le Nummus Centenionalis des textes 
juridiques, a reconnu dans la plus petite piece en question le 
demi-Centenionalis. Comme corollaire de ces dernieres 
decouvertes j'ajouterai que le Nummus Centenionalis a du 
porter plusieurs noms et etre designe plus tard dans certains 
textes comme Denarius Communis (E. Babelon, loc. cit., pp. 
611 et612). 



L' ATELIER MONET AIRE D'ALEXANDRIE. 141 

tenant chacun une haste, et appuyes BUT leurs 
boucliers ; entre eux deux enseignes militaires. 6 * 

Audroit. 1. CONSTANTINVS MAX. AVG. Son 

buste diademe et drape et cuirasse a droite. 
Cohen, 254; FE. 14638-39; BE. MYS ; off. 
A B. 

Toutes les pieces de Constantin le Grand et des Cesars 
qui presentent la legende Gloria Exercitus avec deux 
e"tendards au revers et sont du plus grand module (17 a 18 
millimetres de diametre), n'ont etc" f rappees que dans 
deux officines, A B ; tandis que les demi-Centenionales 
de"crits plus loin ont commence" a etre e'mis dans les 
meme conditions, mais ont continue a Fetre dans quatre 
officines apres la mort de Constantin le Grand. 

2. CONSTANTINVS IVN. NOB. C. Son buste laure 

et cuirasse a droite. Cohen, 122 ; FE. 15704- 
15705; 2 gr. 30; 17 a 18 m.m. ; BE. MVS. ; 
off. A B. 

3. FL. IVL. CONSTANTIVS NOB. C. Son buste laure 

et cuirasse a droite. Cohen, 104; FE. 16195- 
96; 3 gr. ; 18 m.m.; BE. MVS.; off. A B. 
fPl. VI., No. 12.] 

4. FL. IVL. CONSTANS NOB. C. Son buste laure 

et cuirasse a droite. Cohen, 75 ; BE. MVS. ; 
off. A. [PI. VI., No. 14,] 

64 Les pieces de cette emission qui presentent deux enseignes 
militaires au revers sont toutes de la plus grande des deux 
varietes monetaires, c'est d dire de 1'espece du Centenionalis 
que j'aidesigne aussi comme denier Constantinien, mais il est 
impossible de ne pas remarquer que la meme espece avait un 
poids moyen superieur dans les emissions precedentes a celui 
qu'elle presente au cours de cette emission. L'on peut dire 
que c'etait une regie presque constante a cette epoque que 
lorsqu'une espece monetaire avait ete emise un certain temps 
elle etait reduite de poids, sans doute pour satisfaire aux 
besoins du tresor. 



142 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

5. FL. DELMATIVS NOB. C. Son buste laure et 
cuirasse a droite. Cohen, 12; FR. 15570; 
2 gr. 75; 18 m.m.; BE. MVS. ; off. A B. 

Des pieces de la meme espece monetaire presentant de 
17 a 18 millimetres de diametre furent frappees en meme 
temps que lea prece"dentes aux effigies de Rome et de 
Constantinople, tandis que Ton emettait e"galement, ainsi 
qu'on le verra plus loin, des pieces semblables comme 
types, mais environ de moiti plus legeres. Ces deux sortes 
de monnaies continuerent a paraitre apres la mort de 
Constantin. 65 

On trouve 

II. Au revers. Sans legende, la Louve a gauche, allaitant 
Eomulus et Remus et les regardant ; en haut 
deux etoiles. 

Au droit. VRBS ROMA. Buste de Rome a gauche, 
.avec une aigrette sur le casque et le manteau 
imperial. Cohen, 17; BR. MVS.; 17 a 18 
m.m. ; off. A B ; coll. Gnecchi. [PI. VI., 
No. 13.] 

III. Au revers. Sans legende. Victoire debout a gauche, 
posant le pied sur uneproue de vaisseau, tenant 
un sceptre transversal et appuye sur un bouclier. 

Au droit. CONSTANTINOPOLIS. Son buste a gauche 
portant le casque laure et le manteau imperial 
et tenant un sceptre. Cohen, 21; BR. MVS.; 
off. A B. 

65 L'on trouve dans les Appunti di Numismatica Romano, de 
M. Gnecchi (Milano, 1901) la description d' ensemble la plus 
complete de toutes les varietes de ces pieces de Rome. On y 
remarque les differents monetaires usites dans les divers 
ateliers. (Rivista Ital. d. Numisma., xiv., fasc. ii., pi. iii.). 
L'on y constate que la piece decrite a dessus continua a etre 
frappee dans quatre officines apres la mort de Constantin le 
Grand. 



I/ ATELIER MONETA1RE D'ALEXANDRIE. 143 

Les pieces plus petites qui vont etre decrites presentent 
des poids oscillant de 1 gramme 30 c. a 1 gramme 75 c. 
et des diametres variant de 14 a 16 millimetres. Elles 
ont ete determinees par M. Babelon comme des demi- 
Centenionales, c'est a dire representant la moitie' du 
Centenionalis Communis. 66 

IV. Avec la legende du revers GLOEIA EXEECITVS 
on trouve le type suivant : Deux soldats debout, 
casques, en habit militaire, tenant chacun une 
haste et appuyes sur leurs boucliers ; entre eux 
une seule enseigne militaire surmontee d'un 
drapeau. 

Audroit. 1 . CONSTANTINVS MAX. AVG. Sonbuste 
diademe et drape a droite. Cohen, 250 ; BE. 
MVS. ; FE. 14604 ; off. A B. 

Les pieces pareilles qui portent les officines F A sont 
posterieures a la mort de Constantin. La meme reflexion 
s'applique aux pieces suivantes des Cesars. 

2. CONSTANTINVS IVN. NOB. C. Son buste laure 

et cuirasse a droite. Cohen, 714 ; BE. MVS. ; 
15 m.m. ; off. A. 

3. FL. IVL. CONSTANTIVS NOB. C. Buste analogue. 

Cohen, 92; FE. 16142; BE. MVS.; off. B. 
[PI. VI., No. 15.] 

4. FL. IVL. CONSTANS NOB. C. Buste analogue. 

Je n'ai pas rencontre cette piece, qui correspond au 
No. 50 de Cohen, et ne peut pas manquer dans cette serie. 

5. FL. DELMATIVS NOB. C. Buste analogue. Cohen, 

4 ; FE. 15556-57 ; 1 gr. 20 ; BE. MVS. ; off. A 
B. [PI. VI., No. 16.] 

66 E. Babelon, loc. cit., p. 613. 



144 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



V. Au revers. Sans legende avec le groupe deja decrit de 
la Louve a gauche avec les deux jumeaux sur- 
monte de deux etoiles, mais parfois 1'on trouve 
les deux lettres S et R placees a droite et a gauche 
des etoilee, de plus comme different monetaire un 
point a droite de 1' exergue de sorte que 1'on a 



SMALA . B 

Au droit. VEBS EOMA. Buste de Rome 4 gauche, 
casque, avec une aigrette sur le casque et le 
manteau imperial. 67 BE. MVS. ; coll. Gnecchi ; 
14 m.m. [PL VI., No. 17.J 



VI. Au revers. Sans legende, avec le type de Victoire dejtl 
decrit pour le No. 21 de Cohen, mais en outre 
avec les lettres S R dans le champ du revers, 

SIR 
c'est a dire avec - _ B 



Au droit. CONSTANTINOPOLIS. Son buete a gauche 
portant le casque laure et le manteau imperial 
et tenant un sceptre. Cohen, 22; BE. MVS.; 
coll. Gnecchi ; 14 m.m. [PL VI., No. 18.] 



II est difficile de lire sur un grand nombre de pieces 
les petites lettres S et R, aussi n'est-il pas sur que Ton ne 
trouve pas quelquefois une autre lettre que R, notamment 
la lettre A. La lettre R s'expliquerait assez facilement 
comme la premiere de 1'adjectif Romanus-a-um, la lettre 
S pour etre la premiere d'un substantif tel que Signum ou 
1'adjectif Signata (en sous-entendant Pecunia). 



67 M. Gnecchi dans ses Appunti di Num. Romana, 1891, pp. 
9 et 13, aattribue avec raison ces petites pieces lorsqu'elles 
sont frappees dans quatre officines aux regnes des fils de 
Constantin. 



L'ATELIER MONETAIRB D'ALEXANDRIE. 145 

ONZIEME EMISSION. 

Postdrieure a la mart de Constantin le Grand en Mai 337. 

J'ai indique dans mon etude sur 1'atelier de Constanti- 
nople ^ la continuation de la f rappe des monnaies des fils 
de Constantin designes comme Cesars, ainsi que de celles 
de Delmatius et d'Hannibalien pendant une periode 
plus ou moins longue apres la mort de Constantin le 
Grand ; pour les fils de Constantin jusqu'au 9 Septembre 
337, date a laquelle les Fastes d'Idaceplacent la nomina- 
tion des nouveaux Augustes. 69 II y eut une periode 
d'interregne qui suivit la mort de Constantin si bien qu' 
Eusebe 70 put dire que cet empereur avait regne apres sa 
mort, et cette pe'riode fut marquee par les assassinats 
successif s de plusieurs personnages imperiaux : Constance, 
oncle des Cesars, Delmatius, Hannibalien. 71 A Alex- 
andrie 1'on trouve une emission de pieces des Cesars 
frappe'es dans quatre officines, tandis qu'il n'y en avait eu 
que deux ouvertes a la fin du regne de Constantin. Cette 
Emission comprend les pieces des trois Cesars, Constantin 
II, Constance II et Constant I, jusqu'a ce qu'ils se fussent 
proclames Auguste en Septembre 337 et a partir de cette 
date Ton trouve au contraire avec les monnaies des memes 
princes Augustes celles de Constantin le Grand de'signe' 
comme Divus Pater Augustorum tandis que de nouvelles 



68 J. Maurice, L* Atelier monetaire de Constantinople, Revut 
Numismatique, 1901, pp. 208, 209. 

69 Idatii Fast. " Ipso anno (id est Feliciano et Titiano conss.) 
nuncupati sunt tres Augusti Constantinus et Constantius et 
Constans v Idus Sept." 

7n Euseb., Vita Const, iv., 17. 

" Zosim., Hist., ii., 40 ; Eutrop:, rev., x., 9 ; Hieronymi 
Chron., a, 2354. 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. U 



146 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

petites pieces (demi-Centenionales) de Constantinus Max. 
Aug., pareilles a celles de 1'emission mais portant 4 lettres 
d'officincs, sont f rappees au nom de Constaiitin II. 

L'on trouve done avec 



SMALA SMALB SMALF SMALA 



Au revert. GLORIA EXERCITY8. Avec le type decrit 
et un seul etendard entre les soldats. 

Au droit. 1. FL. IYL. CONSTANTIVS NOB. 0." 
Cohen, 92, deja decrit ; FE. 16162 ; BE. MVS. ; 
1 gr. 60; 17 m.m. 



2. CONSTANTINVS IVN. NOB. C. Cohen, 114, d6j 
decrit. 



3. FL. IVL. CONSTANS NOB. C. Cohen, 50, deja 
decrit. 



4. FL. IVL. DELMATIVS NOB. C. Cohen, 4, deja 
decrit ; coll. Voetter ; piece frappee probable- 
ment pendant une partie de 1'interregne seulo- 
ment jusqu'a la mort de Delmatius. 

A partir du mois de Septembre 337, Tatelier ^mit dans 
ses quatre officines les pieces suivantes. 

I. Au revert. VN ^ME. (Veneranda Memoria) dans le 
champ, et comme type une figure feminine, la 
Piete?, debout a droite, voilee et les mains 
enveloppees dans sa robe. 



L' Atelier d'Alexandrie se trouvait dans 1'etat de Con- 
stance II, cf . Lenain de Tillemont, Histoire dt JEmperturt, 
tome iy., p. 317. 



L'ATELIER MONETAIRE D'ALEXANDRIE. 147 

Au droit.D.V. CONSTANTINVSPT. AVGG. (Divus 
Constantinus Pater Augustorum.) Buste de 
Constantin le Grand voile a droite. Cohen, 716; 
FK. 15134-35-36; 1 gr. 65 ; 15 m.m. ; BE. 
MVS. ; off. A B-r A. [PI. VI., No. 19.] 



II. Au revers. Sans legende. Constantin dans un quadrige 
au galop a droite, tendant la main a une main 
celeste. 

Au droit.D. V. CONSTANTINYS PT. AVGG. Meme 
buste. Cohen, 760 ; FE. 15152-54-55-56 ; 1 gr. 
65 ; 15 m.m. ; BE. MVS. ; off. A B F A. 



JULES MAURICE. 



XL 

TREASURE-TROVE, ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN 
LAWS. 1 

THE Ancient Greeks have not left us any records relating 
to treasure-trove. 

The old Roman right leaves us to understand that a 
citizen who unearthed a treasure, even on ground which 
belonged to him, should hand it over to the fiscus? This 
usage prevailed in the early centuries of the Empire ; but 
the Emperors exercised their right in a more or less liberal 
manner. 

When the Carthaginian Csesellius Bassus acquainted the 
Emperor Nero of the existence of a supposed treasure of 
bars of gold, the latter ordered that ships should be 
provided to transport these riches to Rome, which accord- 
ing to report, then in circulation, had been amassed by 
Dido herself. 3 

1 The first portion of this paper was published by M. Adrien 
Blanchet in the Proces- Verbaux et Memoires du Congres Inter- 
national de Numismatique reuni d Paris en 1900, under the title 
of Les Lois Anciennes relatives d I'Invention des Tresors. M. 
Blanchet has permitted me to give a translation of his very 
interesting article in the pages of the Chronicle, and I have 
supplemented it with an account of treasure-trove in England 
from the Anglo-Saxon period. 

2 On the subject of the bona vacantia which belong to the 
city, see J. Marquardt, De V organ, financier e chez les Remains, 
trad. Vigie, 1888, p. 808. 

3 Tacitus, Ann., xvi., 1-3. 



TREASURE-TROVE, ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN LAWS. 149 

Nerva, with his accustomed liberal spirit, surrendered 
his rights to a treasure found by Atticus, the father of the 
Sophist Herod, on his own lands. 4 

Hadrian evidently realised the necessity of establishing 
some legislation on the subject of treasure-trove ; and by 
the precision with which it is stamped, the text of Spartian 
seems to give the actual wording of the law, which 
was to the effect that at the beginning of the second 
century of our era, the private individual became the 
full proprietor of treasure discovered on his own land ; if, 
however, the treasure was found on the land of another 
person, the half of it went to the proprietor of the land, 
the finder retaining the other half. The same division 
held good, if the find was made on lands belonging to the 
State. 5 

Severus Alexander was somewhat less generous ; for 
whilst generally confirming to the finder the property of 
the treasure, an exception was made in the case of treasures 
of importance, which were to become the property of the 
State. 6 

An Eclogue of Calpurnius, who wrote under Carus and 
Carinus, leads us to infer that these Emperors abolished 
the vexatious rights claimed by their predecessors. 7 

Under Constantine the Great, the public treasury in- 
sisted on its rights ; and a law of A.D. 315 granted to the 
finder one-half of the treasure, when duly announced to 
the fiscus. The same text provides that no enquiry shall 
follow, if such declaration be made in proper form. 8 



4 Zonaras, Epit.,1. xi., c. xx. ; ed. Dindorf (Teubner), t. iii., 
p. 63. 

6 Spartian, Vita Hadriani, 18. 6 Lampridius, Alex. Sev., 46. 

7 T. Calpurnius Siculus, Eclogaiv., v. 117. 
Cod. Theod., 1. x., t. xviii., 1. i. 



150 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Gratian and Theodosius established in A.D. 380 a more 
liberal law, which was very similar to that of Hadrian. 
Under this law the finder became the owner of treasure 
when discovered on his own land ; if, however, the treasure 
was found on the land of another person, the proprietor of 
such land received a quarter of the treasure discovered. 
The same law made it illegal to dig on the land of another 
person, if the discovery of treasure was the only object in 
view. 9 

We may also call attention to the term non metulli quali- 
tas, mentioned in the Theodosian code, which is important 
since we know that gold mines were the property of the 
Emperor. It was not until A.D. 365 that Valentinian 
granted to private individuals the right of working 
such mines ; but such right was subject to a heavy fine 
or royalty. 10 We shall see later on that the nature of the 
metal affected the laws relating to the ownership of 
treasures. 

In A.D. 390, Valentinian deemed it politic to confirm 
the free right to treasure-trove; 11 but under Theodoric 
in the sixth century the fiscus laid a firm hand on all 
property of which the rightful owner could not be found. 12 

We will now pass on to the twelfth and thirteenth cen- 
turies to ascertain the state of the law as to the proprie- 
torship of treasure-trove. 

In Normandy a statute, which arose out of an in- 
quisition held about A.D. 1154, gives to the Duke all 

9 Cod. Theod., 1. x., t. xviii., 1. ii. 

10 J. Marquardt, De I'organ. financiere chez les Romaint, trad. 
Vigie, 1888, pp. 826, 327 ; con/. J. Maurice, Bull. Soc. Antiqu. 
France, 1898, p. 151. 

11 Cod. Theod., 1. x., t. xviii., 1. iii. 

" Cassiodorus, Variar., 1. vi. 8, ed. Mommsen, 1894, p. 182 
(Men. Germ. hitt.}. 



TREASURE-TROVE, ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN LAWS. 151 

treasure of whatsoever kind. 13 Later, by another statute 
of about A.D. 1260, the Duke is authorised to make an 
inquisition about treasure, the discovery of which had 
been fraudulently concealed. 14 

The Decrees of St. Louis assign treasure -trove of gold 
to the King ; but the Baron is to receive that of silver. 15 
We see, however, from various statutes that even under 
St. Louis this question of right is still obscure; for in 
A.D. 1224 the King claimed the right to the treasures 
of gold and silver, coined and uncoined, which had been 
found by monks of the Abbey of Cercanceau, on the 
Loire, near Chateau-Landon, in the diocese of Sens. 16 
On the other hand in the same diocese, in 1259, after a 
long dispute the position was clearly defined as to the 
right of the King to treasure-trove of gold and to that 
of silver; for in this instance the court decided that 
treasures of gold belonged to the King, but those of silver 
by ancient right were the property of the finder. 17 

In a mandate of Philip IY, dated 27th August, 1306, 
it is ordered that treasures without any distinction found on 
lands or in dwellings belonging to Jews shall be surren- 
dered to the King. 18 

However the distinction between gold and silver is 



18 Statuta et Consuetudines Normannie, c. Ixix. (Coutumiers 
de Normandie, ed. J. Tardif, Rouen, 1881, t. i., l re partie, p. 
64). 

14 Summa de legibus in curia laicali, c. xvii. (Coutumiers de 
Normandie, Rouen, 1896, t. ii., p. 49). 

15 Les Etablissements de Saint Louis, ed. P. Viollet (Soc. 
Hist, de France), t. ii., pp. 152-154, 1. i., c. xciv. 

u Le Nain de Tillemont, Vie de Saint Louis, ed. Soc. Hist, 
de France, t. i., p. 826. 

17 Olim, ed. Beugnot, t. i., p. 452, xv. 

18 Ordonn., t. i., p. 448. 



152 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

confirmed by various customs of the fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries, 19 although some customary regulations 
of the fifteenth century, which in their nature are very 
similar to the customs of Touraine and Anjou, enact that 
the proprietary right of treasures is closely allied to jus- 
ticiary rights. In other words that finds of gold and silver 
belong to barons and other nobles when discovered on 
lands over which they have legal jurisdiction. In Anjou 
the rights of the King do not appear ever to have been 
established ; for in the eleventh century no mention is 
made as to the ownership of a statue of gold weighing 
100 livres, which had been found in a river. 20 

In the duchy of Berry the rights of the King were 
subject to some restrictions, as they were not recognised in 
the case of isolated pieces, but only in cases of genuine 
treasure. It is a compromise which reminds us of the 
law of the Emperor Severus Alexander. 

In the statutes which have been cited the rights of the 
finder appear to have been overlooked. But in the 
Middle Ages these also received some consideration ; for a 
statute of the twelfth century divides in equal shares 
treasure-trove between the lord and the finder. 21 In 
certain cases in the sixteenth century the treasure is 
divided into halves or thirds, the finder receiving his due 
share. 22 

This custom is confirmed by an order of the Court of 
the 28th July, 1570, under the following terms : " The 

19 Beautemps-Beaupre, Cout. et Instit. de V Anjou et du Maine, 
l re part, t. i., pp. 389, 890. 

20 Historia Sancti Florentii Samulrensis, see Marchegay et 
Mabille, Chronique des figlises d' Anjou, 1869, pp. 287, 288. 

21 Th. Grasilier, Cartul. inedits de la Saintonge, Niort, 1871, 
t. ii., Cartulaire de VAbbaye royale de N.-D. de Saintes, p. 52. 

22 Coutume de 1508, art. 61. 



TREASURE-TROVE, ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN LAWS. 153 

treasure is to be divided into three parts, of which one 
shall be awarded to the finder, another to the proprietor 
of the land, and the third to the lord of the manor (haut- 
justicier), be he the King or anyone else ; but if the pro- 
prietor of the land be himself the finder, the treasure shall 
then be divided into two parts, one of which shall be 
awarded to the proprietor, the other to the lord of the 
manor, in accordance with another order given by the 
Court of Appeal at Amiens." 23 This law was still further 
modified, and in the seventeenth century the rights of the 
finder and those of the proprietor of the land only were 
considered. For in the month of February, 1631, the 
Chambre de 1'Edit of Grenoble gave judgment between 
the Prince of Orange, who was chief justiciary of the 
Seigriory of Orpiere, a mason named Damian, and the pro- 
prietor of an old building, in one of the walls of which 
Damian had found a pot full of gold coins. The order of 
the Court was to the effect that the mason should have 
half the treasure and the proprietor the other half ; but 
no order was made to the demand formulated on behalf 
of the Prince of Orange. 24 

Not less remarkable is the order delivered on the 31st 
January, 1641, by the Chambre de 1'Edit for the Lan- 
guedoc held at Castres. This order overruled the re- 
quest of the King, made in his name by the agents of the 
Jisciis, for a third of a treasure found in a wall under de- 
molition, and gave one-half of it to the finder, and the 



25 A. Thomas- Latour, Rev. de legisl. et de jurisprudence, 
19 e ann6e, 1853, t. i., pp. 278, 279. Of. Papon, Rectieil d'arrests, 
Lyon, 1556 ; du thresor trouve, 1. xiii., t. 7. 

M A. Thomas-Latour, De Vinvention des tresors caches et du 
droit aux tresors trouves, see Rev. de legisl. et de jurisprudence, 
18" annee, 1852, t. ii., p. 50. 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. X 



154 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

other half to the proprietor of the wall. The order 
further added that this decision was arrived at under the 
Roman right established in the district of Castres, as also 
in the province of Languedoc. 25 

In spite of these judgments, an attempt was made in 
the eighteenth century to restore the right of the Crown as 
laid down in the order of 1570, cited above. In 1725 the 
subject in question was a bronze vase filled with Roman 
coins of the third century A.D., which had been found at 
Gommegnies, near Le Quesnoy. 26 A precis of this case 
informs us that the comptroller general, in supporting the 
right claimed by the King, asked that " the common usage 
should be enforced, which divided treasure- trove into three 
parts, of which one should be awarded to the King, 
another to the finder, and the third to the proprietor of 
the estate on which the treasure was found." 

But M. de Yastan, commissary of Hainault, was opposed 
to this view and cited Chapter 129 of the Custom of Hainault 
as follows : " If any artisan working for wages on the lands 
of another by chance finds a treasure, one-half of it belongs 
to him and the other half to the proprietor of the estate." 
It was therefore in the end arranged to pay for the 600 
coins selected for the Cabinet of the King. 27 

By Article 716 of the Civil Code, still in force, it is 
decreed " That the ownership of a treasure belongs to the 
finder, if discovered on his own land : if the treasure is 
found on the land of another person, one-half belongs to 
the finder, the other half to the proprietor of the land. 

15 A. Thomas-Latour, ib. p. 51. 

M Arr. d'Avesnes > see Adrien Blanchet, Les tresors de mon- 
naifs romaines et les invasions germaniques en Gaule, 1900, 
p. 110, No. 14. 

27 Archives du cabinet des Medailles, Sept., 1726. 



TREASURE-TROVE, ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN LAWS. 155 

Treasure-trove includes anything hidden or buried, of 
which the owner is not known, and which has been 
discovered by pure chance." 

The last paragraph of this article is wanting in precision 
and exactness, for one cannot pretend to say that in the 
case of excavations on a selected spot, and with an express 
purpose, the finding of a treasure or antiquities is a matter 
of "pure chance." 28 

Practically the right of workmen employed in inten- 
tional excavations is not recognised; yet if one takes 
the text of Article 716 literally, "he who finds a 
treasure" can only mean he whose work leads to the 
discovery. In short, the law is not borrowed from the Code 
of Theodosius ; but it is based on that of the Emperor 
Hadrian, the text of which has been preserved to us by 
Spartian. "We have already seen that the decisions of 
1631 and 1641 were delivered in the same spirit of 
equity. 

A law of the 30th March, 1887, modifies to the advan- 
tage of the State the rights of the finder ; for under it 
the State becomes full proprietor of every object found in 
its domain, minus an indemnity representing half its 
value, which goes to the finder. Another clause of the 
same Act empowers the minister to expropriate the whole 
or part of the land on which discoveries of treasure may 
have been made, in accordance with the provisions of the 
law of the 3rd May, 1841. 

Such, in brief, has been the legislation in France 
relating to treasure-trove. 

The sovereign right to treasure- trove appears to prevail 



18 Adrien Blanchet et Fr. de Villenoisy, Guide pratique de 
I'Antiquaire, 1899, p. 6. 



156 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

in most of the other States of Europe. Grotius (De Jure 
Belli et Pads, ch. viii. 7) says " the people of Germany gave 
treasure- trove, like other ownerless things, to the prince ; 
and it is now the common law as a sort of jus gentium, 
for it is observed in Germany, France, England, Spain 
and Denmark ; and that there is no wrong done has been 
sufficiently explained." 

Without going into detail, we may mention that in 
Denmark, according to the law of Valdemar I, 29 it is 
enacted that if anyone should find gold or silver in a 
field or on a hill or under his plough, it belongs to the 
King ; and if he denies that he has found it, let him 
defend himself on oath before his kinsmen. 

In Hungary the National Museum has the right of 
pre-emption, and every find, when it exceeds the value 
of 600 francs, is divided in equal parts between the 
finder or finders, the proprietor of the land, and the 
State. 

In the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, as well as in 
Greece, the discovery of all finds must be immediately 
notified to the State. In the latter country all finds of 
antiquities belong to the State, but when found on private 
property half the value is awarded to the owner of the 
property. Informants of finds not of archseological 
interest receive one-third their value whether claimed by 
the State or not. Of objects found in the sea half belongs 
to the finder, the other half goes to the Caisse des Invalides 
de la Mer. 

In Italy the State possesses also the right of pre- 
emption, the application of which has greatly fostered 
the concealment of treasure-trove, as the proprietors are 

19 L. ii., c. 113, ed. Kolderup-Rosenvinge, 1837, p. 290. 



TREASURE-TROVE, ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN LAWS. 157 

wary of the small indemnity offered by the State. In 
mediaeval times the law appears to have been different, at 
least at Padua ; for in 1274 we learn " that a treasure of 
pure gold of the supposed value of more than 30,000 
livres was found in the garden of the Hospice of the 
Domus Dei at Padua, which was unfairly divided be- 
tween the finders, the Bishop, and the State and its 
officials ; a fourth part being, however, reserved for the 
Hospital, but subject to the conditions that it should be 
devoted towards its repair." 30 

Before proceeding to give a slight sketch of treasure- 
trove in England, it may be well to define the meaning 
of the term as understood at common law. 

In a paper read before the Royal Archaeological Insti- 
tute at its meeting at Chester in August, 1886, 31 Judge 
Baylis gave the following definition of treasure-trove : 

1. The word " treasure," in connection with treasure- 
trove, is confined to gold or silver money, coins, plate, or 
bullion, not copper, lead, bronze, or other metals or 
things. 

2. It must be found hidden in the earth or in the 
walls, beams, chimneys, or other secret places above the 
earth, but affixed to the soil. If found on the earth 
or in the sea, or not hidden, it is not treasure-trove. 

3. When the owner thereof or his representatives can- 
not be ascertained. 

4. Then, and then only, it belongs to the Crown or the 
grantees of the Crown. 

Blackstone 32 defines treasure- trove as follows : " Trea- 
sure is where any money, coin, gold, silver, plate, or 

30 Chron. Patav., S. A., 1274, ed. Muratori, t. iv., col. 1146. 

31 Journal of the Arch. Inst., 1886, vol. xliii., p. 342. 
82 Ed. Stephen, 1899, vol. ii., p. 476. 



158 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

bullion, is found hidden in the earth, or other private 
place, the owner thereof being unknown. And in such 
a case, the treasure found belongs to the Crown ; but 
if he that hid it be known or afterwards found out, the 
owner, and not the Sovereign, is entitled to it. It is 
the hiding, and not the abandonment, that gives the 
King a property; for if a man scatters his treasure 
into the sea or upon the surface of the earth, it belongs 
not to the Sovereign, but to the first finder. Formerly, 
indeed, treasure- trove, whether hidden, lost, or aban- 
doned, belonged to the finder; but afterwards it was 
judged expedient, for the purposes of the State, and par- 
ticularly for the coinage, to allow part of what was so 
found to the King which part was assigned to be all 
hidden treasure, as distinguished from such as was either 
casually lost or designedly abandoned by the former 
owner." 

"We have here a pretty clear definition of the word 
treasure-trove and its application at law. Blackstone is 
specially emphatic in laying down the principle, that there 
must have been a manifest intention on the part of the owner 
to hide his treasure. It was not a mere burial ; it was a 
hiding with the intention of returning at some future time 
to recover the treasure. This hiding of treasure must not 
be confused with the burial of objects in the case of ancient 
interments of human remains. In such cases the owner 
deposited his treasure with quite other motives. He never 
intended to return and unearth it ; but it was to remain 
with the body for all times, either for use in the other 
world or for payment to the shades for the transport of the 
spirit of the departed one. Such cases do not, therefore, 
come within the term treasure-trove as understood by law. 

Likewise the discovery of a single object such as a coin 



TREASURE-TROVE, ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN LAWS. 159 

or a ring, which must in all probability have been lost or 
casually dropped and not hidden, cannot properly be 
regarded as treasure-trove. An instance of this nature 
occurred in 1891, when a labourer, whilst hoeing in a field 
in Hertfordshire, struck his hoe into a lump of clay which 
revealed a gold ring. 33 Though there was nothing else 
except the gold ring there, and no other object of 
antiquity in the neighbourhood, the Treasury claimed the 
ring as treasure-trove and retained it ; but the Society of 
Antiquaries, not coinciding in this view, submitted the 
case for counsel's opinion, asking to be advised whether a 
ring found in such circumstances could be considered 
treasure-trove. The case was submitted to Mr. R. B. 
Finlay (now Sir Robert B. Finlay, the Attorney-General) 
and Mr. George H. Blakesly, who held " that the ring 
could not under the circumstances be rightly called 
treasure-trove ; because it did not appear to have been 
placed where it was found by any person desirous of 
hiding it ; that according to the authorities there must 
be presumptive evidence of hiding in order to bring an 
object under the claim of the Crown as treasure- trove ; 
that as there was nothing of this kind in the present case, 
the Crown has no claim under the doctrine of treasure- 
trove." 

In discussing the question of the origin of the English 
Common Law of Treasure-Trove, Professor E. C. Clark 34 
is of opinion that there is little or no direct trace of a 
Roman original. The claim for the Crown would seem 
rather to be derived from some such feudal doctrine as 
that of ultimate ownership of land being vested in the 

33 See Proceedings, Society of Antiquaries, Second Series, 
vol. xiv., 1891-1893, pp. 220-222. 

34 Journal of the Arch. Inst., 1886, vol. xliii., p. 352. 



160 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Lord Paramount. Such a doctrine is not of Italian growth, 
but much more Teutonic in character. In Anglo-Saxon 
times the right of the Crown or Lord Paramount appears 
never to have been questioned, and unless specially 
granted by charter the King has always been held to be 
entitled to treasure from under the earth ; and no so-called 
customary rights have ever interfered with the royal pre- 
rogative in this respect in England. 

Kemble 35 represents the Anglo-Saxon Sovereigns as 
claiming to themselves all treasure-trove, and supports 
his statement by charters, in which the right to " hoards 
whether above or within the earth" are occasionally 
granted away. 

From the Laws and Institutions of England under 
Edward the Confessor, ch. xiv. (ed. Thorpe), we learn 
" Treasures from the earth belong to the King unless they 
are found in a church or place of burial. And if they are 
found there then the gold belongs to the King ; but if 
of silver, then half goes to the King and the other half to 
the Church, where it was found, whether it be rich or 
poor." 

In ch. xxiv. of the same laws we have another one 
relating to "findings," De Invencionibus. This law enacts 
"that if any man should lead or bring into the town 
(villa) an animal or any money, which he says he has 
found, before he shall take it to his own house or to 
that of another he shall go to the church and shall 
make the priest come from the church and the prefect 
and the chief men of the town, and when they are 
assembled he shall show them what he has found. The 
prefect shall then send round to the four neighbouring 

35 Saxons in England, b. 2, ch. 2. 



TREASURE-TROVE, ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN LAWS. 161 

towns and shall acquaint the priests and chief men of the 
find. After this the prefect in whose district the finder is 
shall guard the treasure till the morrow, and on the next 
day with his neighbours who have seen the treasure he 
shall go to the prefect of the hundred and shall show it to 
him. And if the lord of the manor on whose land it 
was found has not his customs, forsooth soc and sac, he shall 
surrender it up to the prefect of the hundred, if he should 
desire to have it. But if he has bis customs then let him 
hold to his rights." 

In these two laws there is a distinct difference drawn 
between what is found in the earth, and what is found on 
the earth. In the former case the property or treasure 
belongs to the Crown : but no question of such a right is 
made in the latter case, but in the place of the Crown 
the lord of the manor appears to be the rightful owner. 

Under Henry I, ch. x, it is laid down that one of the 
rights of the King is thesaurus inventus. 

A most interesting instance of the King having 
surrendered his right to treasure-trove is to be found in 
the Charter of Henry II to the Monastery of Ramsey, by 
which the latter was "to receive sac and soc (the 'right 
of holding a court), thol and theam (market and the issue 
of the bondsmen), forstal (the intercepting on the 
highway), blodwith (a fine paid as a compensation for 
bloodshed), and the finding of treasure ; and likewise all 
other privileges which belong to the King." 

The right of the Crown to treasure-trove is enforced 
by the Statute of 4th Edward I (1275-6), which enacts 
that " a coroner being certified by the King's bailiffs or 
other honest men of the county shaU'go to the place where 
treasure is said to be found ; that he shall enquire, who were 
the finders and likewise who is suspected thereof, and 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. Y 



162 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

that they be well perceived when one liveth riotously, 
haunting taverns, and hath done so of long time ; here- 
upon he may be attached for this suspicion by four, five or 
six more pledges if he can be found ; and how many 
soever be found culpable by inquisition in manner 
aforesaid, they shall be taken and delivered to the sheriff 
and shall be committed to gaol." 

We have in this law a curious method as to how justice 
is to be arrived at. The law evidently supposes that 
anyone, who may have discovered a treasure, has not the 
force of mind to use discretion and to conceal his good 
fortune, but must of necessity act as a witness against 
himself by haunting taverns and by giving way to intem- 
perance. 

This Act of Edward I has been recently confirmed by 
the Coroner's Act of 1887 (sec. 36), which provides that 
" a coroner shall continue as heretofore to have jurisdiction 
to enquire of treasure that is found, who were the finders 
and who is suspected thereof." 

In the well-known recent case (16th October, 1891) of 
the Attorney General v. Moore, respecting some gold 
cups, a chalice, two pyxes and a paten found at Stoke 
Prior in Herefordshire, it was ruled that " the jurisdiction 
of the coroner with reference to treasure-trove is limited 
to an inquiry, who were the finders and who is suspected 
thereof. He has no jurisdiction to inquire into any 
question of title to the treasure as between the Crown and 
any other claimants, the title to all treasure- trove being 
independent of any finding of the coroner's jury." 

In his judgment, Mr. Justice Stirling said, " Primd 
facie the title of treasure- trove is in the Crown ; but no 
doubt that title may be displaced by producing a grant to 
a subject of the franchise of treasure-trove, but the 



TREASURE-TROVE, ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN LAWS. 163 

question between the Crown and the subject must be 
decided by an interpretation of the grant, and I cannot 
conceive that it is possible that this title can be decided 
either by the coroner or by the verdict of the coroner's 
jury ; the coroner's jurisdiction is limited to an inquiry 
who were the finders, and who were suspected thereof." 

The law has thus clearly defined the duties of the 
coroner in respect of treasure-trove, and thus one of the 
initial difficulties connected with a preliminary inquiry has 
been removed. 

There is abundant evidence to show that unless by 
special grant the Crown has never surrendered or 
abandoned its right to treasure- trove. In proof of this 
we find in the State Papers published by the Rolls Office 
many instances of permission granted by the Crown during 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to dig for treasure 
under certain conditions. Of these we may mention the 
following. 

In 1595 licence was given to Sir William Russell 
and three others to dig and search for hidden treasure 
in the counties of Somerset, Wilts, and Gloucester, 
for two years and to enjoy all they found, provided they 
gave notice to two justices of the peace before digging 
anywhere. 

In 1621 a special commission was granted to Richard 
Ryves and others to dig for treasure supposed to be in 
certain parts of a down in the parish of Upway, co. Dorset. 

In 1624, David Ramsay received a grant of the benefit 
of the King's interest in any treasure- trove discovered by 
him in two places in Essex. 

In 1625, on the petition of Thomas Eliot, Matthew 
Cawlthrop and Abraham Campion, permission was granted 
to dig in the churchyard and lands belonging to the 



164 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

ancient monastery of St. Alvans for treasure ; on the under- 
standing that one- third has to go to the King, one- third for 
repairing the church and the remainder to the petitioners. 

These are but a few isolated instances of the Crown 
exercising its right to treasure-trove, which have been 
gathered from a cursory glance at the State Papers. A 
closer and more minute search would no doubt furnish us 
with a continuous chain of evidence to much more recent 
times. 

One other instance of an apparent surrender of its right 
by the Crown has recently come before the public and is 
still sub judice. It is the case of the gold ornaments lately 
found in Ireland ; the circumstances connected with 
which appear to be as follows : 

About four years ago some ancient gold Celtic ornaments 
were found in the North-west of Ireland in the neighbour- 
hood of Limavady. These shortly after their discovery 
came into the possession of a jeweller at Belfast, who 
disposed of them to a private individual, who in his turn 
sold them to the British Museum. Some time after the 
purchase was completed by the British Museum, the Irish 
authorities, who all along appear to have known of the 
find, claimed the objects as treasure-trove and demanded 
them for the Dublin Museum ; the matter came before the 
House of Commons and a Committee was appointed to 
inquire into the circumstances of the case. As the Trustees 
of the British Museum still retained the ornaments their 
right to do so was questioned in the House of Commons, 
15th June, 1900, and the First Lord of the Treasury 
replied that the Law Officers both of England and 
Ireland had decided that these ornaments were treasure- 
trove and belonged to the Crown, and that the Trustees 
were wrong in retaining them. Shortly afterwards it 



TREASURE-TROVE, ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN LAWS. 165 

was elicited that the land on which the objects were dis- 
covered was granted to the Irish Society, which was 
incorporated by Charter of James I., for colonising and 
establishing a settlement on lands which had been for- 
feited to the Crown towards the end of the reign of 
Elizabeth. This Charter was regranted by Charles II, 
and Mr. Gerald Balfour, in reply to a question in the 
House of Commons, 6th August, 1900, stated that it had 
been ascertained that the words of the patent granted by 
Charles II to the Irish Society are large enough to vest 
in the Society the right to treasure-trove. If Mr. Gerald 
Balfour's opinion holds good, then we have here another 
instance of the King surrendering his prerogative to 
treasure-trove. But the case is not settled, as the First 
Lord of the Treasury again, on the 30th July, 1901, 
asserted the right of the Crown to the ornaments as 
treasure- trove. So it will be left to the judges to decide 
what interpretation is to be put on the clauses of the 
Charter which affect the question. 

The law which gives a right usually provides the means 
of enforcing it. The punishment, therefore, of such 
persons as concealed from the King the finding of hidden 
treasure was formerly no less than death ; but now its 
concealment is misprision of felony ; and those guilty are 
liable to fine and imprisonment. This applies not only 
to the actual finder, bat also to those who aid and abet in 
the concealment. This last point was decided in the 
case of Heg. v. Siles Thomas and Stephen Willett, 38 in 
which it was shown that the defendants had " unlawfully, 
willingly and knowingly," concealed treasure-trove con- 
sisting of gold ornaments, which had been ploughed up 

38 See Leigh and Cave, Crown Cases Reserved, vol. i., p. 318. 



166 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 

by a labourer in a field in the parish of Mountfield, 
Sussex. In a subsequent case tried in Dublin in 1867, 
Reg. v. Toole, the prisoner was found guilty of concealing 
some silver coins, which he had discovered near Booters- 
town, in the county of Dublin ; and in this case the court 
further decided that in an indictment for concealing 
treasure-trove it is not necessary to state any inquisition 
before the coroner as to the title of the Crown. 

Such, then, is an outline of the custom and law of 
treasure-trove in England; but the enforcement of the 
right of the Crown has always been fraught with much 
difficulty, chiefly owing to the fact that till recent years 
no reward or fixed remuneration was held out to the 
finder. He had therefore no encouragement to be honest, 
and in consequence very few objects in the precious 
metals escaped the melting-pot. In the case of objects 
other than coins, some of which could have been returned to 
the finder, the remuneration given could only be in money ; 
and so far as it can be ascertained no official payment 
of such a nature had ever occurred. With coins the 
case was somewhat different : when they were secured 
by the Treasury they were sent to the British Museum 
for examination and selection. Those required were paid 
for at the market value, but those not required were 
returned to the Treasury, which made some sort of distri- 
bution to various societies, &c. ; but it is pretty certain 
that the finder fared rather badly and only occasionally 
may have received by way of grant a part of the find. 
The effect was that only in the instance of large finds, 
that got bruited abroad, did the Treasury have any 
cognizance of their discovery ; the smaller ones passing 
into private hands unrecorded or into the melting-pot. 

In 1860 Lord Talbot de Malahide drew the attention 



TREASURE-TROVE, ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN LAWS. 167 

of the Treasury to the constant loss of treasure-trove 
owing to the fact of the uncertainty of the finder obtain- 
ing any payment or reward, and as a slight step in the 
right direction the Treasury ordered that in future the 
metal value should be paid for all treasure-trove ; but as 
this order did not become generally known, the Home 
Office, in 1871, issued the following notice to the police. 37 

WHITEHALL, llth July, 1871. 

SIR, The Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's 
Treasury being desirous of giving greater publicity to 
their practice of paying on behalf of the Crown to the 
finder of coins and antiquities coming under the descrip- 
tion of " Treasure-Trove " the full bullion value thereof, 
I am directed by Mr. Secretary Bruce to request that 
you will take such measures as you may think best 
calculated to make the same generally known within your 
jurisdiction and more especially to pawnbrokers and other 
similar dealers. Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) A. F. 0. LIDDELL. 

It need scarcely be said that such a notice had little if 
any good effect ; for by it the finder reaped no substantial 
advantage. By melting down his treasure he obtained 
just as much as if he surrendered it to the public officers ; 
but if he could meet with a purchaser, he would ask more 
than the metal value and could easily get it : and in most 
cases he took the risk and was rarely found out. The 
result of this order was therefore practically nil : and it 
was only when a find got generally known that the police 
were able to put their hands on it. 

37 This notice is given in full, as I believe it has never been 
published, but only issued privately. 






168 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

In 1886 the discovery of a hoard of gold coins of 
Henry VI- VIII at Park Street, St. Albans, was the means 
of bringing about a further improvement in the conditions 
of recompense to finders of treasure-trove, and this 
improvement was mainly due to the strenuous efforts made 
by our President, Sir John Evans. On that occasion our 
President pointed out to the Treasury that the system 
hitherto adopted of giving the finders merely the intrinsic 
value of coins retained, whilst the Treasury received from 
the Trustees of the British Museum and other public 
institutions the archaeological or numismatic value of the 
coins, was a very injurious and unfair one ; and he 
strongly urged that more liberal terms should be offered. 
His efforts were successful, for the Treasury within a few 
weeks passed a minute, which was embodied in a letter 
circulated by the Secretary of State for the Home Depart- 
ment in the usual manner to the Police. 

The substance of this circular is as follows : " Tho 
Lords Commissioners of the Treasury being desirous to 
render as effective as possible the assistance which is 
given to the efforts of antiquarian societies for the pre- 
servation of objects of general interest, by the assertion of 
the claim of the Crown to coins and antiquities coming 
under the description of treasure-trove, have reconsidered 
that practice, as intimated to you in the circular of July 
11, 1871, of paying to the finder of articles of treasure- 
trove on behalf of the Crown the full bullion- value of such 
articles. 

" Their Lordships, with a view to encourage the finders 
of coins and ornaments to notify the fact of their discovery 
to the Government, are ready to modify their existing 
regulations, and to return to the finders, who fully and 
promptly report their discoveries and hand over the same 



TREASURE-TROVE, ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN LAWS. 169 

to the authorities, the coins and objects which are not 
actually required for National Institutions, and the sums 
received from such Institutions as the antiquarian value of 
such of the coins or objects as are retained and sold to 
them, subject to the deduction of a percentage at the rate, 
either : 

"1. Of 20 percent, from the antiquarian value of the 
coins or objects returned ; or 

" 2. A sum of 10 per cent, from the value of all the 
objects discovered, as may hereafter be determined. 

" This arrangement is tentative in character, and the 
complete right of the Crown, as established by law, to all 
articles of treasure-trove is preserved." 

If one takes into consideration the long-established 
absolute right of the Crown to treasure- trove, this last 
order is on the whole a fairly liberal one ; but it would no 
doubt have been still more satisfactory if no deduction at 
all on the value were made, so as to allow the finder 
to receive the full antiquarian value straight away. But 
even with this deduction of percentage the finder is much 
better off if he declares his discovery than if he attempts 
to dispose of his treasure privately ; for in the instance of 
treasure-trove in coins the procedure is as follows. 

As soon as the coins are received at the Treasury they 
are forwarded to the British Museum, where they are 
carefully classified. A selection is then made of such 
specimens as are required for the National Collection, 
and their market value noted and paid. The remainder 
are separately valued on the same principle, and returned 
to the Treasury, which deals with them in accordance 
with their order. The finder alone gets any money pay- 
ment ; but in cases where a large number of ordinary coins 
have been found, presents are made not only to the owner 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. Z 



170 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

of the land on which the discovery has been made, if he is 
forward in helping to report the find, but also to other 
persons interested, and to local museums. This last 
arrangement seems a fair one ; for it is only right that 
the proprietor of the land on which the coins have been 
discovered, though not actually the finder, should have 
some share of them. It is also strictly in accordance 
with ancient custom, as we have seen. 

It must be borne in mind that the principal object 
which the authorities of the British Museum have in view 
is not entirely the acquisition of the coins for the National 
Collection, but the numismatic information which can 
be gleaned from the hoards themselves; and there is 
scarcely any find, however small, that does not add some- 
thing to our numismatic knowledge. It is mainly from 
the evidence of finds that we have been able to classify 
the English coinage chronologically within the reigns; 
and besides that, they often supply historical information 
outside that of the coinage. It would have been impos- 
sible for our President to have classified the ancient 
British coins in such a satisfactory and successful manner 
if he had not been able to note the find-spot of nearly 
every coin that came within his knowledge. Not only 
has he thus been able to show the extent of the dominions 
of the various British chiefs, and also their apparent 
dates, but he has often been able to foretell that such and 
such coins, though not then known to him, may have 
been issued, and in many instances his prophecy has 
proved perfectly correct. 

A recent find of Anglo-Saxon coins, 38 which was obtained 
by the British Museum in its entirety, has not only re- 

38 Num. Chron., 1894, p. 18. 



TREASURE-TROVE, ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN LAWS. 171 

vealed to us the monetary, but also the precise political 
position of Kent, Mercia, Wessex, and East Anglia, from 
the reign of Offa of Mercia to that of Aethelwulf of 
"Wessex, a most important period of our history, as it 
marked the beginning of the extension of the power of 
Wessex, which was soon destined to overlord all the other 
states. 

Again, as recently as 1897, the discovery of the Bal- 
combe hoard 39 has enabled us in a great measure to settle 
the long much- vexed question of the classification of the 
pennies of Edward I, II, and III. And it may be added 
that the chronological sequence of the Republican coinage 
of Rome is almost entirely based on the evidence of finds. 

Coins are also of the highest importance in determining 
the age of other objects found with them. The recent find 
of coins of Cartimandua 40 gave a date to certain ornaments, 
fibula, box, &c., discovered with them ; and the sameoccurred 
with rings found last year with gold coins of Diocletian 
and Maximian at Sully Moor, near Cardiff. 41 Without this 
evidence it would have been difficult to decide whether 
in the latter case the rings were of the second or third 
century ; but the coins enabled us to put their manufac- 
ture within the space of a very few years. 

These are some of the advantages which accrue from 
the law, as at present administered, of treasure-trove : 
and it is very evident that the right of the Crown 
should never be surrendered. A great deal has been 
said and written about the claims of the owners of the 
soil in whose lands valuable and interesting objects 
have been unearthed, but experience has taught us that 

39 Num. Chron., 1898, p. 8. 

40 Num. Chron., 1897, p. 293. 

41 Num. Chron., 1900, p. 27 



172 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

in most cases where the law of treasure-trove does 
not operate i.e. with objects not of precious metal 
no record of finds has been made, and in consequence 
much history and archaeological information has been lost. 
Objects which thus pass direct into private hands are seldom 
available for scientific study. We doubt much, too, if 
under such circumstances the finders would obtain from 
the landlord anything like the favourable terms which are 
now offered by the Treasury. With local museums the 
case is very different ; but a difficulty would always arise 
in procuring funds to meet the requirements of the 
Treasury. The central position of our National Museums, 
and the fact that objects placed there are always accessible 
for reference and study, render their claims to treasure- 
trove paramount to those of any other similar institutions. 

The inducement held out by the Treasury has, however, 
not proved so effectual as might have been expected, and in 
reply to a question asked by Judge Baylis on the point 
of the working of the recent order Sir Francis Mowat 
replied, " The circular of the Treasury of 1886 does not 
seem to have had very good effects, as many hoards are 
discovered without being reported, and that means that 
coins and objects of interest are thus lost to the National 
Collection. This would be avoided if finds were reported 
to the Treasury by individual members of Archaeological 
Associations." 

This is a very good suggestion and one which we, as 
members of the Numismatic Society, should bear in mind ; 
not, however, with the sole idea, as Sir Francis Mowat puts 
it, of enriching the National Collection, but also with a 
view of advancing the science of numismatics and 
archaeology in general. 

A few words may be added about treasure-trove in 



TREASURE-TROVE, ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN LAWS. 173 

Scotland and Ireland. From a private memorandum of the 
Council of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1892-3, 
it appears that in Scotland, down to year 1859, the Crown 
exercised its claims to treasure-trove without recom- 
pensing the finders except in an uncertain way, such 
finders as were " in circumstances to require " rewards. 
The result was that very few objects in the precious metals 
escaped the melting-pot. But in that year the Crown 
proclaimed that in future the " actual value " or " intrinsic 
value " of treasure-trove should be given to the finders. 
Much difference of opinion existed as to the interpretation 
of the term " intrinsic value " ; but the Queen's and Lord 
Treasurer's Remembrancer, to whom is entrusted the en- 
forcement of the law of treasure-trove, decided in 1859 
that " actual value " and " intrinsic value " are used as 
synonymous terms, and it is the fact that in recompensing 
finders the Crown authorities have adopted a wider 
signification and have awarded a fair value, which is 
generally determined by the Keeper of the National 
Museum. 

As in England, this arrangement in Scotland does not 
seem to have worked satisfactorily, first because the 
Queen's Remembrancers, in the absence of guidance from 
legal decisions, held different views as to the rights of 
the Crown ; secondly because finders and landed pro- 
prietors are ignorant of the law ; thirdly because of local 
objections to the removal of finds away from localities to 
the National Museum ; and lastly on account of dishonesty 
in concealing finds. 

The disposal of treasure-trove in Ireland is in the 
absolute discretion of the Treasury, acting on behalf of 
the Crown ; but for many years it has delegated the whole 
responsibility in connection therewith to the Royal Irish 



174 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Academy. One hundred pounds is annually provided by 
Parliament for rewards to discoverers of treasure-trove ; 
and this sum can be accumulated from year to year. The 
Academy posts notices in the Constabulary barracks and 
other places throughout Ireland, informing the public that 
payments for such articles higher than those which could 
be obtained from dealers, will be awarded to finders of 
them if delivered up to the police. The Royal Irish Academy 
has thus the refusal of all treasure-trove. 

The law in France of 1887, mentioned above, has been 
fraught with similar results to the regulations in England 
and Scotland, the effects of which Mr. Blanchet thus sums 
up at the end of his paper : "It was the aim of the legisla- 
ture that these new regulations should be the means of 
saving interesting monuments ; but it seems that this law 
will restrict the rights of private individuals. Already 
in the country districts the cultivator of the soil is inclined 
to resent the interference of the State with his personal 
affairs ; and I do not fear contradiction when I state that 
numerous finds of coins, jewellery, or other small objects of 
antiquity have been dispersed and even melted down before 
being studied, and that because the finder imagines that 
the State has an absolute right over all finds. This feeling 
is probably the result of the influence of the various 
customs in France which have been enumerated above. 

" For numismatics in particular it is of the highest im- 
portance that the treasures should be preserved in their 
entirety and also that their provenance should be known." 

A. BLANCHET. 
H. A. GRUEBER. 



NOTE. Since this Article has been in print Sig. Francesco 
Gnecchi, of Milan, has kindly sent me a copy of the Act of 



TREASURE-TROVE, ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN LAWS. 175 

21 March, 1902, relating to the "Preservation of Monuments 
and Objects of Antiquity and Art " in Italy. Articles 14 and 
16 of this Act provide (1) that any foreign institution or 
foreigners carrying out excavations with the consent of the 
Government shall surrender gratuitously to some public collec- 
tion within the kingdom all objects discovered ; (2) that in all 
other cases the Government shall have aright to one-fourth part 
of the objects found or their equivalent in value ; and (3) that 
in the case of excavations carried out by the Government on 
private property, the proprietor of the land shall receive one- 
fourth part of the objects found or their equivalent in value, 
and the Government shall take all the remainder. H. A. G. 



XII. 

SOME EEMARKS ON THE LAST SILVER COINAGE 
OF EDWARD III. 

(See Plate VII.) 

THE several coinages of Edward III have already been so 
fully and ably dealt with that it is with diffidence that I 
offer any further remarks upon the subject. I venture, 
however, to think that as the latest coinage of this reign 
had, until comparatively recently, been almost unnoticed, 
there may still remain something further to be said about 
it, and I hope to be able to add a few varieties to the 
specimens which have been already described. 

In the treaty of peace with King John of France which 
was ratified in October, 1360, Edward renounced all 
claim to the Crown of that kingdom, and the title of 
King of France was omitted upon his coins until the year 
1369, when he resumed his claim owing to the alleged 
breaking of the treaty by Charles, the then reigning 
monarch. According to Ruding, the seals on which the 
title had been omitted were now called in, and others 
ordered to be made on which it should be re- inserted. The 
same alteration was no doubt ordered to be made upon the 
coins, although apparently no records exist to that effect. 
There appears, however, to have been a short period of 
transition during which the makers of the dies perhaps 



THE LAST SILVER COINAGE OF EDWARD III. 177 

for want of definite instructions seem to have been in a 
state of some uncertainty as to the correct style of the 
King, which on the coins of this period passes through 
several phases, until it finally settles down to the ordinary 
legend (for the groats) of EffX . AI76L . Z . FEARd . 
or FEAnCCIff, which, with certain other characteristics, is 
now generally recognised as marking the period 1369-77. 
It is to this transitional period that I shall mainly devote 
my remarks, as the principal coins I have to describe 
belong to it, and with one exception have not, I believe, 
been previously referred to. 

Although the very rare groat and half-groat with 
annulets terminating two points of the tressure on either 
side of the King's head have characteristics which clearly 
place them quite at the end of the period preceding the 
rupture of the treaty of Bretigny, still they appear to be 
quite within that period. They are, however, closely 
connected with some groats of the earliest part of the last 
period in the spelling of MB with an I instead of a Y, 1 as 
is the case on all the previous varieties of the groats and 
half-groats of this reign, and in this respect they lead up 
to the coins to which I have alluded, and which comprise 
a small group of three groats, each of which, although 
apparently unique and differing from the others in 
important details, is united to them by characteristics and 
details which all have in common. 

The first to be mentioned is the one in the National 
Collection, and described by Hawkins as being the only 
one known to him of the period 1369-77. As it bears so 

1 Although the Irish title was discontinued on the silver coins 
at this period, it was retained upon the gold ones, and tylB is 
spelled with an I instead of Y until the reign of Henry V, when 
the latter form was again reverted to. 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. A A 



178 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

closely on the other two of my list I will describe it 
here : 

OZ>v. .frQDWfiRD x DI x 6 x ESX x TTOGL' x Z x F x 
DRS x ty[B x Z x fi 



Rev. -I.POSVI Decvm x TpivTORffsii x 

x CIVIT7VS x LOTCDOTC 

The stops throughout on both sides are saltires. It is 
shown on PL VII., 2. 

The King's head on this and the two following coins is 
of quite a different character from that of the previous 
periods. The face is longer and the neck more slender, 
giving the bust a taller appearance, while generally the 
work is neater and superior in character to most of the 
previous coins. In addition I would specially draw 
attention to what I believe to be a hitherto unnoticed 
feature, and one which adds another proof to the conten- 
tion that the bust of Edward III on most of his coins 
was intended to be represented as clothed. In all three 
of the coins now described the lower part of the King's 
bust is encircled by the border of a tight-fitting garment 
with rings or annulets around it I suggest that this most 
probably indicates the hauberk or tunic of chain mail 
worn in battle under the surcoat at this period. 

The second coin to which I would draw attention is in 
my own cabinet. On the obverse it reads ^ffDWTYRD' x 
DI x 6 x RffX x TtnGL' x Z x F' x DRS x f}IB' x Z x TV. On 
the reverse .J.POSVI 8 DGCVm 8 fiDIVTORffSn 8 meCVm. 
x CCIVITfiS x LOTCDOH. It will be noticed that this 
groat differs from the preceding one in having double 
annulets as stops in lieu of saltires in the outer reverse 
inscription, otherwise it is the same see PL VII., 1. 



THE LAST SILVER COINAGE OF EDWARD III. 179 

The third coin is in the British Museum collection. It 
has all the special characteristics of the last two described, 
but with the exception that f]IB is spelt with an I, and that 
it has English R's in obverse legend, it reads similarly to the 
groats of the 1351-60 period, -i-eCDWT^RD' x DI * 6 * RffX 
* 7YQGL * Z * FRTmCT x D * hlB. The reverse inscription 
is the same as that of the last coin, and the stops on both 
sides are double saltires (see PI. VII., 3). It is also 
to be noted that all three coins have the final Stt in 
$H(VSH, which is very uncommon, although it occurs 
occasionally on the groats of the last period (see PI. VII., 
4). This final HI is also found on a very few of the 
first groats of the earliest period, and on one of the treaty 
period, but in this instance the D in TVDIVTORffJtt has been 
omitted probably by accident and the last Sft has been 
put to fill up the space. I have only seen two specimens of 
this coin. 

These coins appear to indicate in several ways that they 
belong to a very early issue subsequent to the treaty 
period, and one which, from the great rarity of these types 
(each variety of which appears, so far, to be unique), must 
have been in use only for a very short time. It will be 
remarked that all three of the groats described have what 
I suggest to be the hauberk showing round the neck, and 
are of the same style of work, but while the two first have 
the Aquitaine title in addition to the French and Irish 
ones, the third omits the first, while retaining the last. The 
groat from the Balcombe find, PL VII., 4, while being 
of the same character of work, omits the Irish title, but 
like the three previous groats retains the final fll in the 
reverse legend, which does not subsequently appear in this 
reign. The other known groats of this period have been 
already described in the Numismatic Chronicle, ser. iii., 



180 NTMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

vol. xiii and vol. xviii, and I have no further varieties to 
bring forward. 

Of the half-groats of this period I have little to add to 
what has been written by Mr. Grueber and Mr. Lawrence. 
I can, however, give one variety not mentioned by them 
which reads ffDWTSRD' x BGCX 7VP6L' x Z * FRfind (see 
PI. VII., 7) instead of ffDWTVRDVS, the usual reading. 
There is a specimen of this variety in the British Museum 
and I myself have another. 

The half-groat which reads ffDWTTRD DI CRTS 7VR6L 
Z FR, believed to be unique up to the time the paper on 
the Balcombe find was written, is now known not to be so, 
several others having since been noticed, one of which, a 
very poor specimen, is in my own cabinet. 

In connection with the very rare half-groat having 
annulets at sides of crown and the Lombardic n in 
London, I think it interesting to note that all the 
known specimens appear to be from the same dies. All 
that I have seen, including three in the British Museum, 
one in the Lawrence collection, and one in my own, show 
a curious blurred defect across the nose which appears 
to be identical in every case. These half-groats, like the 
corresponding groats, are presumably of the period just 
preceding the rupture of the treaty of Bretigny, although 
on the principle that all silver coins with saltire stops 
on both sides belong to the last period, these should be 
included in it. I would, however, suggest that the 
character of the stops is a very uncertain means of divid- 
ing the last two periods of the silver coinage of this reign. 
I have myself a groat and half- groat of Edward III with 
saltire stops on both the obverse and reverse, but which 
otherwise have all the characteristics of the 1360-69 
period, particularly the peculiar letter X specially iden- 



THE LAST SILVER COINAGE OF EDWARD III. 181 

tified with this period. Mr. Lawrence has a groat with 
the same peculiarities. These coins are, however, the only 
ones that I have seen of the type of the 1360-69 period 
with saltire stops on hoth sides, and they must be very 
rare. They are probably but shortly removed from the last 
period. The half-groats have also the mark of contrac- 
tion over the final N in London, which is, I believe, always 
found on the last silver coinage. Having touched upon 
the question of the stops, I would venture to suggest that 
although in a general way the annulet stops are associated 
with the two earlier periods of Edward Ill's coinage, 
and the saltires on both sides with the last period, still 
they are by no means a certain guide. In support of this 
view I confidently refer to the groat previously described 
with both French and Aquitaine titles and which has 
annulet stops on the reverse, although from its legend it 
is undoubtedly of the last period. The groats and half- 
groats to which I have alluded with saltire stops on both 
sides, but corresponding in all other respects with those 
of the period 1360-69, confirm, I think, my contention, 
and we may also recall in passing that there are a few 
groats of the first period, 1351-60, which have saltire 
stops on one or both sides ; they are, however, confined 
to a few of one single variety having dots on either side 
of TV in Civitas. What appears to me a much more 
certain characteristic and one which I would submit 
for consideration, is to be found in the peculiar and 
special character of the letter Z in connection with 
the titles of the King. This will be found upon even 
slight examination to be entirely different from the same 
letter on both the previous coinages of Edward III and 
on the subsequent one of Richard II. On coins of the 
period in question it is invariably thus jj. On previous 



182 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

issues it is thus "J or thus JJ. This last form being 
reverted to on the coinage of Richard II. 

If the principle which I now suggest be accepted for 
identifying coins of the last period of Edward III, 
several pieces would be included which, on account of 
annulet or pellet stops, have been assigned to the pre- 
vious one, although their inscriptions would indicate the 
position which my theory gives to them. In this connec- 
tion I would call attention to a York penny reading 
GCDWTVED'o RffX 8 finGL'o B 8 ER. One of this type was 
in the Balcombe find, and apparently on account of its 
stops was assigned to the 1360-69 period notwithstand- 
ing its inscription. I have also a specimen, and the 
peculiar Z is very distinct, while the X in RSX is not of 
the character identified with the treaty period. 

In the list of coins in the Balcombe find, the Durham 
penny of the last period is stated to have a lis or a 
quatrefoil on the breast. I have two which show the lis 
very clearly. It resembles exactly the similar object always 
found on the very rare Durham pennies of Richard II, 
and would thus seem to show that these pennies are quite 
the latest of the Durham coins of Edward III. 

The pennies of the latest period of this reign have been 
so fully described in vols. xiii and xviii, Third Series, of 
the Numismatic Chronicle before referred to, that I have 
little to add. There is in the British Museum collection 
a penny of the last period reading ffDWTYRD x RffX x 
TTRGL x I x FE7VnCC' x with a pellet on the breast, which 
has not, I think, been previously noticed, and there is also 
another remarkable London penny different from any that 
I have seen and which must be of quite the last type issued. 
The head is exactly that of Richard II with smaller face 
and more bushy hair than on the other late pennies. It 



THE LAST SILVER COINAGE OF EDWARD III. 183 

reads 6CDW7VRDVS * EffX * 7VR6LTQ: and there is a quatre- 
foil on the breast. The N's in London are Roman. 

In regard to halfpence and farthings there is in the 
British Museum one of each of a type so like the Durham 
penny No. 313 in Hawkins, which is undoubtedly of the 
last period, that I should put them in the same place. 
The special characteristic is a tall bust with small head 
and long thin neck. The only stop on the halfpenny is 
an annulet. 

FREDK. A. WALTERS. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

1. Groat with the four titles, with annulet stops in rev. 

legend. In my own collection. 

2. Groat with the four titles, with saltire stops both sides. 

In B. M. ; described by Hawkins. 

3. Groat of same character, but with only English, French, 

and Irish titles. In B. M. collection. 

4. Groat of very similar character, but with only English 

and French titles. Like the three previous groats it 
has the unusual final Stt in SttffVftl in the rev. legend. 
In B. M., from Balcombe find. 

5. Half-groat of similar character to those of the period 

1360-69, but with saltire stops on both sides. In 
B. M. collection. 

6. Half-groat as last, but reading 6CDW7TED. In B. M. 

7. Half-groat of the most usual type of the period 1869-77. 

8. York penny with annulet stops, but with peculiar E 

associated with last period. 

9. Durham penny of latest type, with lis on breast. 

10. London penny of latest type, with quatrefoil on breast, 
closely resembling the bust of Richard II. In B. M. 



MISCELLANEA. 



CORRECTION SOME PONTIC ERAS. A mistake has crept into 
my recent paper on " Some Pontic Eras,-" in the last number of 
this Chronicle. Speaking of the era of Sebastopolis-Heracleo- 
polis, I identified the 21st tribunitia potestas of Hadrian, men- 
tioned in the well-known inscription published by Leon Renier 
(Inscriptiones graecae ad res rowanas pertineriles, III, No. HI) 
with year "December 137-8" A.D. As my learned friend 
Dr. Imhoof kindly points out to me, this is a lapsus, for the 21st 
trib. pot. corresponds really to December 186-187 A.D. There- 
fore, as in the aforesaid inscription, year 189 of Sebastopolis is 
identified with the 21st trib. pot. = 186-7 A.D., it is much more 
likely that the starting point of the era is, as is commonly given, 
October 8 B.C., than, as I put it, October 2 B.C. This would 
only be possible if the inscription dated from between October 
and December 187. 

THEODORE REINACH. 



Two HOARDS OF ROMAN COINS. The two following hoards 
of Roman coins found in England appear to have been 
published, the first only in small part and the second not 
at all. I do not pretend myself to be able to give full details 
of either, but the following facts about them may be worth 
recording, in default of more. 

(1) In July, 1879, some labourers digging flints in one 
of the valleys between Beachy Head and Biding Gap, Sussex, 
found, about two feet underground, an earthenware vessel 
containing Roman " third Brass." How many were found 
is not known ; 681 or 682 were submitted to Mr. Thos. 
Calvert, and 148 were selected by him and presented by 
the owner of the place where the coins were found, the 
late Duke of Devonshire, to the Free Library at Brighton, 
where they may still be seen. A little "Descriptive Cata- 
logue " was compiled by Mr. Calvert and printed, and a short 
note of the discovery inserted in the Sussex Archaoloyictd 



MISCELLANEA. 185 

Collections (xxxi, 201). A large part of the rest of the hoard 
was given to the Caldecott Museum at Eastbourne and has 
never been published. By the courtesy of the Trustees I have 
been lately able to look this through. 

The following is a table of the results. B = Brighton, 
E = Eastbourne. 

B E 

Valerian .... 1 
Gallienus .... 45 10 

Saloninus .... 1 
Salonina .... 6 
Postumus .... 16 
Laelianus .... 2 
Marius .... 1 

Victorinus . . . .11 175 

Claudius Gothicus . .42 14 

Quintillus .... 7 
Tetricus (Senior and Junior) . 14 167 

Aurelian .... 2 
Illegible .... 7 

148 373 

From some'figures on the paper wrappings at Eastbourne, 
I should infer that Mr. Calvert's 680 coins originally included, 
inter alia, 224 of the Tetrici and 208 of Victorinus. 

(2) On December 11, 1851, the son of the landlord of the 
Dog Inn, at Easton, six miles west by north from Norwich, 
found in ploughing a coarse earthenware vessel containing 
about 4,000 " small Brass" of the third and fourth centuries. 
The hoard, or a large part of it, came at once into the 
possession of Mr. J. Hudson Gurney, and was given by him, 
some little while ago, to the Norwich Museum, where I have 
roughly looked through it. The Museum seems to possess 
about 2300 coins, 2142 of which belong to the following 
Emperors. The larger figures, I fear, may be only approxi- 
mate. 

Gallienns . . . . . . 2 

Victorinus . .... 2 

Tetricus (Senior) ..... 1 

Claudius Gothicus ..... 

Diocletian . j". t .... 1 

Constantius Chlorus 

Licinius I . . f. -. .. . . . 

Constantino the Great . . . . ';. 377 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. B B 



186 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Crispus ....... 88 

Constantino II 847 

Urbs Koma 549 

Constantinopolis . . . . 571 

Helena ....... 9 

Constantius II 229 

Constans ...... 1 

The hoard might, I think, be worth cataloguing in detail 
and accurately, and comparing with similar Constantinian 
hoards found in England and on the Rhine. 

F. HAVERFIELD. 



FIND OF ROMAN SILVER COINS NEAR CAISTOR, NORFOLK. In 
1895, a small hoard of twenty denarii in a little earthenware 
urn were found on the Caistor Hall estate, close to the 
" camp " at Caistor by Norwich, which probably represents 
a Romano-British town that in all probability was called Venta 
Icenorum. These coins are preserved by Mrs. Green at 
Caistor Hall ; the following is a brief list, which she has 
allowed me to make. 

1. Tiberius, of A.D. 15. for. PONTIF. MAXIM. Livia 

seated to right. Cohen 16 (second edition). 
Much worn. 

2. Otho. IMP. OTHO CAESAR AVG . . Plain head to 

right. Rev. PONT. MAX. Otho (?) seated to 
left. Cohen 18 (or possibly 7). 

8. Vespasian. Rev. AVGVR. TRI. POT. Augural objects. 
Cohen 48. 

4. Vespasian. IMP. VESPASIAN Head to right. 

Rev. PON . . . TR.P. COS. IIII. Seated female 
figure holding out branch to left. Not in Cohen. 

5. Vespasian. Rev. Two capricorns and buckler. Cohen 

497. 

6. Vespasian Head to right. Defaced. 

7. Nerva, of A.D. 97. Rev. AEQVITAS AVGVST. 

Figure of Equity to left. Cohen 9. 



MISCELLANEA. 187 

8. Trajan, of A.D. 104-110. fav. 8.P.Q.R. OPTIMO 

PRINCIPI. Valour standing in military attire 
with shield, dagger, and foot on helmet. Cohen 
402. 

9. Trajan, of A.D. 101-102. Rev. P.M . TE.P. COS. IIII 

P.P. Hercules with club and lion's skin. 
Cohen 234. 

10. Hadrian. Rev. ANNONA AVG-. Modius with four 

spikes of corn. Cohen 172 (tete nue a droite). 

11. Hadrian. Rev. RESTITVTORI AFRICAE. Woman 

(Africa) worshipping Hadrian. Cohen 1223. 

12. Hadrian. Rev. FELICITAS AVG. Felicity with 

caduceus and cornucopia, standing. Cohen 
602. 

13. Sabina. Head to right. Defaced. 

14. Antoninus Pius (TR. P. XV., A.D. 152). Rev. COS III. 

Vesta. Cohen 196. 

15. Faustina the Elder. Rev. AETERNITAS. Figure of 

Eternity. Cohen 11. 

16. Marcus Aurelius (as Csesar). Rev. COS. II. Peace, 

standing. Cohen 105. 

17. The same. 

18. Marcus Aurelius. TR. P. XXVII. Rev. IMP. VI. COS. 

III. A woman (not a man) weeping at the foot 
of a trophy. Variety of Cohen 296. 

19. Marcus Aurelius (TR. P. XXXI., A.D. 177). Cohen 942. 

20. Faustina the Younger. Rev. CONSECRATIO. Pea- 

cock. Cohen 70. 

The last two coins are the latest ; both are in good 
condition. The hoard was, I imagine, buried either during 
the troubles of the reign of Commodus or during the struggle of 
Albinus and Severus (A.D. 193-7) which closely concerned 
Britain. Similar hoards of denarii, which must have been 



188 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

buried at one or other of these periods, are common in 
Britain, Examples from the same district as the one just 
described have been found at Caston (Archaolofjia, xx, 577) ; 
North Elmham (Blomefield's History of Norfolk, ix, 491) ; 
Feltwell (Journal of the British Archceological Association, 
xxxvi, 104) ; Melton Magna (Archceological Journal, xlvi, 862) ; 
probably at Oxnead (Blomefield, ib. vi, 498). The only note- 
worthy feature in the Caistor hoard is the occurrence of a 
denarius of Tiberius. In general the Imperial denarii issued 
before Nero's depreciation of the denarius (circa A.D. 60) are 
rare in these hoards. Being better silver than the current coin, 
they had long been melted down either by private individuals 
or by the Roman Treasury. 

The hoard seems to contain two new varieties, Nos. 4 and 
18, but neither is of special interest. 

F. HAVERFIELD. 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 



Catalogue of Greek Coins in the Hunterian Collection, 
University of Glasgow. Vol. II. By George Macdonald, M.A. 
Glasgow, James MacLehose & Sons, 1901. 

Mr. Macdonald has not kept us long waiting for the second 
instalment of his Catalogue of Greek coins in the Hunter 
Museum, especially when one takes into account the circum- 
stances under which he has performed his task. The first 
volume of the Catalogue, published in 1898, gave a description 
of the coins of Italy, Sicily, Thrace and Macedon ; the second 
carries us on from North- Western Greece to Central Greece, 
Southern Greece and Asia Minor ; the last including the im- 
portant series of Pontus, Troas, Ionia, Caria, Lycia, Cyprus, &c. 
Throughout the collection maintains a general standard of 
uniformity, and though coins of a very special nature are not 
numerous, yet each section is fairly and sometimes even fully 
represented. When we consider the conditions under which 
Dr. Hunter formed his collection, this general uniformity is 
somewhat surprising. It is not necessary to say that though 
Mr. Macdonald has produced his volume in a very short space 
of time, there are no signs of haste, and each coin is most care- 
fully described, and the heading notice to each district and town 
and his references to published works are as carefully written and 
as numerous as in his first volume. The third volume, which is 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 189 

promised "after a not less reasonable interval," and which will 
describe the coins of Syria, Northern Africa, &c., will bring 
Mr. Macdonald's work to a conclusion. 

The plates which accompany this volume are thirty-two in 
number, and in these we notice a great improvement as com- 
pared with those in the first volume. 

The University of Glasgow is again to be congratulated, not 
only in securing the continued and, we believe, unremunerated 
services of Mr. Macdonald ; but also in having found so liberal 
a patron in Mr. James Stevenson of Hailie, who, having ascer- 
tained that the original estimate of the cost of the work would 
probably be exceeded, has made a substantial addition to his 
fund. H. G. 



Traite des Monnaies grecques et romaines. Part 1, Vol. 1. 
By Ernest Babelon. Paris, Ernest Leroux, 1901. 

We quite agree with M. Babelon when he says that, in 
attempting to write a general treatise on ancient classical coins, 
he has undertaken an arduous task and one of longue haleine. 
To the uninitiated the task may not seem so arduous ; but 
those acquainted with the subject know that it means nothing 
less than an Encyclopedia of Ancient Numismatics. 

The work will be divided into two portions : one dealing 
with the theory and doctrine of Ancient Numismatics ; the other 
with the history and description of the coins themselves. The 
first portion will occupy three volumes, but the author does 
not say how many are to be devoted to the second portion, 
in which the coinage of every province, town and royal dynasty 
will receive either its book, livre, chapter or paragraph according 
to its importance. 

The first volume of Part I, now issued and consisting of 
some 600 pages quarto, is a general introduction to the subject, 
defining the science of numismatics and dealing with its history, 
the nomenclature of the coins, the different modes of calculation 
used by the Greeks and Romans, metallurgy, and the technical 
production of money, under which last heading are included the 
striking of the coins, the administration of the mints and 
the explanation of the different mint-marks. 

It would be outside the limits of this notice to attempt an 
analysis of so many and varied subjects ; so we shall limit our 
remarks to a few points noticed during a somewhat superficial 
glance ; for to read the work seriously would take a considerable 
time. 

After pointing out the scientific utility of ancient numismatics 



190 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

M. Babelon gives a history of the science from the earliest 
times, for amongst the ancients such names as P. Aemilius 
IScaurus, Pompey, Julius Caesar, Lucullus, Sallust and Verres are 
associated with the collectingof rings, cameos, coins and statuary; 
but passing on to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries he 
shows how misleading were many of the publications, especially 
as regards the illustrations. To produce uniformity, all coins, 
of whatsoever denomination, are figured to one standard size, and 
absolutely false identifications are supplied by the most mis- 
leading inscriptions. Thus on a coin of Gela, with the man- 
headed bull personifying the river Gelas, the legend 
MINOTVRVS occurs ; the deified head of Alexander on the 
coins of Lysimachus is accompanied by the name of that monarch, 
and around the helmeted head of Pallas on the stater of Corinth 
is seen the name of Antigonus. To us who nowadays are 
accustomed to the accurate reproduction and illustration by the 
autotype processes such incongruities are simply appalling. In 
continuing his account the author not only mentions all the 
principal works on numismatics, but supplies particulars of their 
authors, and the history of the formation and gradual growth 
of the most important public collections ; but in his list of 
Sale Catalogues of the nineteenth century it would have been 
well if a little more discrimination had been used, for many 
mentioned of those which occurred in England are of no 
importance whatever. 

The chapter on the nomenclature of the coins is full of learning 
and information ; but we cannot agree with M. Babelon that in 
the case of the nummi serrati, the first struck at Rome may have 
been issued by a money er whose name was Denter or Dentatus, 
nor with M. Svoronos and Mr. Seltman who assign to such 
pieces an astronomical allusion. The suggestion that the 
serrated edge was due rather to the exigencies of cutting out 
the flan from the flat bar of metal seems to us the most 
probable one. A punch with a plain circular edge would be 
much more liable to injury than one with a dentated edge, and 
for that reason the latter was occasionally used ; but it is 
probable that these rough-edged pieces at no time met with 
much favour ; and so their only occasional issue for a limited 
period may be accounted for. 

In connection with the striking of coins we are not surprised 
that M. Babelon takes the more rational view as regards the 
interpretation of the famous wall painting recently discovered 
in the house of the Vettii, at Pompeii. As at first suggested, 
he considers it to show the interior of a mint and not the 
workshop of a goldsmith. We quite agree with M. Babelon in 
this view, and in support of it we would only add as regards 



NOTICES OF KECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 191 

those who take the other view, that we do not think that the 
ancient Roman jewellery was at any time manufactured with 
sledge hammers. 

The last chapter on mints and their marks, especially those 
established during the later Roman period, will be a delight 
to those interested in those later series of coins. Hitherto the 
numerous letters and symbols have been an enigma ; but M. 
Babelon has reduced them to an intelligible order and shows 
that each mint had its own peculiar system of numeration, 
which in most cases was of a complex nature. In solving this 
difficult question M. Babelon has no doubt derived considerable 
help from recent publications in the Numismatic Chronicle and 
similar journals, more especially those of M. Jules Maurice, 
" On the Coins of the Constantino Period." It was only by 
treating such coins from a chronological point of view that the 
system of these mint marks could be unravelled. 

It is needless to add that the work undertaken by M. Babelon 
will recommend itself to all numismatists, or to prophesy that it 
will be the future text book to ancient numismatics. M. 
Babelon is to be congratulated on his courage in launching on 
such a big venture, and he has our heartiest wishes that he may 
see it to a successful issue. H. G. 



Greek Coins and their Parent Cities, by John Ward, F.S.A., 
accompanied by a Catalogue of the Author's Collection, by G. 

F. Hill, M.A., of the British Museum. John Murray, 1902. 
Mr. Ward within a surprisingly short time has succeeded in 

forming a cabinet of fine Greek coins, which will certainly take 
its rank in future among the more famous private collections of 
English amateurs of Greek art ; and, wiser than most of his 
predecessors, Mr. Ward has not hesitated to publish during his 
own lifetime a richly illustrated catalogue of his treasures. He 
has also been fortunate in having been able to secure the ser- 
vices of such an accomplished scholar and numismatist as Mr. 

G. F. Hill, as a cataloguer competent to arrange his coins in 
chronological order, and to describe every specimen in strict 
scientific terms, and with an accuracy of detail which will be 
appreciated at its full value by all serious students of numis- 
matics. 

If other well-known collectors of Greek coins, such as Wigan, 
Bunbury, Six, Montagu, &c., and, among those still living, 
Greenwell, had only been inspired with a similar generous 
desire of making their acquisitions available for scholars, what 
a mass of material for study might have been accumulated 



192 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

which is now only imperfectly accessible in sale catalogues 
compiled after the death of the collectors, catalogues which, 
excellent as they are in many cases for sale purposes, are 
necessarily insufficient for scientific research. 

Mr. Hill's Catalogue contains minute descriptions of more 
than 980 specimens ranging over the entire field of Greek 
Autonomous and Regal money. Of these, about 870 belong to 
Magna Gracia and Sicily, 210 to Greece proper and the 
Islands, and 854 to Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, &c. All the 
more important specimens are well illustrated by the autotype 
process in a fine series of 22 quarto plates, with numerous 
additional half-tone blocks inserted in the text. 

This splendid catalogue is bound up, rather incongruously, 
with a lively and popular treatise by Mr. Ward entitled 
Imaginary Rambles in Hellenic Lands, which is lavishly illus- 
trated from photographs of picturesque sites and masterpieces 
of Greek sculpture, &c., such as might well have adorned, had 
it been possible in the eighteenth century, the fascinating pages 
of the Abbe Bartbelemy's Voyage da jeune Anacharsis. What 
would not the worthy Abbe have given for such beautiful illus- 
trations for the Imaginary Rambles of his imaginary hero ? 

With this portion of the work it would be out of place to 
deal in the pages of the Numismatic Chronicle, and we think 
the author would have been well advised to have published 
it separately, appealing as it does to an entirely different 
class of readers, whose interest in coins is merely casual, and 
might well have been sufficiently stimulated by an occasional 
engraving of a beautiful coin whenever the author could illus- 
trate his remarks by a numismatic allusion. 

B. V. H. 



Num. CA.ron.Ser. 7V Vol. 77. Pi. V. 




MONNAIES D' ALEXANDRIE. 




MONNAIES D' ALEXANDRI E. 




LATER SILVER COINS OF EDWARD III 



XIII. 

THE COINAGE OF TIGRANES I. 

IN working at the third volume of the new Hunterian 
Catalogue, I have recently had occasion to examine 
somewhat carefully various specimens of the money of 
Tigranes I. As a result, there have emerged certain 
points that seem to render possible a more complete and 
orderly arrangement of his coinage than any hitherto 
suggested. It may be convenient to have these formally 
recorded in the Chronicle. At all events, the foot-note 
to which I had originally intended to relegate them 
threatens to expand to altogether unreasonable dimen- 
sions. 

It has been generally and I believe rightly assumed 
that the issues of Tigranes, so far as we know them, com- 
menced shortly after he had made himself master of Syria 
in 83 B.C. The prominence given to the Tyche of An- 
tioch upon his coins shows plainly that it was rather as a 
Seleucid king than as ruler of Armenia that he struck 
money. Further, it is intrinsically improbable that he 
was allowed to retain any right of mintage after he had 
been humbled by Lucullus in 69 B.C. This stretch of 
fourteen years I now propose to divide into three periods. 
Characteristic coins belonging to the second and third of 
these periods are dated. Here, therefore, there can be no 
doubt as to the proper chronological succession. That 
the first of my periods is also the earliest in time, is less 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. C C 



194 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

absolutely certain. But its priority will hardly be seri- 
ously questioned by any one who considers the superior 
style of the coins that attach to it, combined with the 
neat way in which they fill an obvious gap. It is, of 
course, quite conceivable that the periods indicated may 
have overlapped. At present, however, there is no evi- 
dence that they did so ; and, until such evidence is forth- 
coming, we shall be justified in keeping them apart. My 
re-arrangement is, I should explain, based entirely on the 
silver issues. At the same time it has seemed desirable 
to attempt to account for the copper also. 

PERIOD I. 

UNDATED. STYLE VERY FAIR. TITLE BAZIAEQZ. 
Silver. 

Here I would place the great majority of the tetra- 
drachms that have come down to us. The following is a 
general description of the types : 

Obv. Head of Tigranes r., wearing a lofty Armenian tiara, 
decorated with an eight-rayed star placed between 
two eagles which face outwards, but have their 
heads turned back ; bead and reel border. 

7kt>. BAZI AEflZ (to r., downwards). The Tyche of An- 
TITPANOY (to 1., downwards), tioch, draped 

and wearing 

turreted crown, seated r. on rock, holding palm- 
branch in her r. ; at her feet, the river-god 
Orontes, swimming r. ; the whole within wreath. 

[B. M. C., PI. XXVII. 6.] 

The workmanship is, as a rule, good. On the reverse 
there are usually to be seen, either on the rock or in the 
field, one or more monograms or letters. I have compared 
the monograms and letters that occur on published speci- 



THE COINAGE OF TIGRANES I. 195 

mens. The results of the comparison have been valueless. 
All that can safely be said, is that some of the combina- 
tions appear to represent magistrates' names. I should 
add that during this period the silver issues must have 
consisted mainly, if not entirely, of tetradrachms. I have 
met with no examples of any lower denomination. 

Copper. 

Among the copper pieces which I would assign to this 
period, three sets can be distinguished. I append to each, 
in grammes, the weights of all specimens about which I 
have exact information. 

(i) Wt. 5-31 (B. M.) ; 4-23 (Hunter). 

Obv. Similar head of Tigranes r., wearing tiara ; border 
of dots. 

Rev. BAZIAEflS (tor., downwards). Nike advancing 
TlfPANOY (to 1., downwards), left, holding 

wreath and 
palm. 

(ii) Wt. 3-69 (B. M.) ; 2-94 (Hunter). 

Obv . Similar ; but behind head of king, A- 

Rev. Similar. 

[B. M. C., PI. XXVII. 9.] 

(iii) Wt. 4-15 (Paris). 
Obv. Similar ; no letter. 

Rev. BAZIAEHZ (to r., downwards). p , fi]lpted 
TITPANOY (to 1., downwards). 

[Babelon, Rois de Syne, PL XXIX. 18.] 

In connecting these with the tetradrachms described 
above I have been guided partly by style and partly by 
the inscription. The execution is distinctly superior to 



196 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

that of the silver of Period III. ; in particular, the 
different treatment of the tiara should be noted. On the 
other hand, on all the silver of Period II. the King has 
the high-sounding title of /ScunXeu? fiaaiXecov. These 
two considerations are confirmed by a third. Letters 
and monograms are found on the reverse of certain 
examples of (i.) and (iii.). Small as is the number of 
available copper pieces, I have observed at least one case 
of undoubted agreement with the silver. The letters ^. 
are shown in the field left on the tetradrachm figured in 
B. M. C., PI. XXVII. 6. They are recorded by Leake 
(Num. Hellen. p. 38) as occurring in precisely the same 
position on a copper coin with the types of (i). 

PERIOD II. 
DATED. STYLE FAIB. TITLE BAZIAEftZ BAZIAEflN. 

Silver. 

With the exception of a tetradrachm at Paris (Babelon, 
Rois de Syrie, PI. XXIX. 15), the only pieces I have noted 
as falling within the second period are drachms. The 
following general description will suffice for both denom- 
inations : 

Obv. Head of Tigranes r., as in Period I. ; border of dots. 

Rev. BAZIAEQZ (tor., downwards). TheTycheof An- 
BAZIAEQN)/, i A nA \ tioch seated r., 
TirPANOY} (tol " downward8 ^ as m Period I." 

with the river- 
god Orontcs at her feet; letters in field r., and 
beneath. 

[B. M. a, PL xxvii. a] 

The workmanship is fair. The letters on the reverse 



THE COINAGE OP TIGRANES I. 197 

call for special [attention. Those beneath vary but little. 
I find ZK, ZC, and ZK recorded. Probably, therefore, 
they represent a mint-mark. Those that appear in the 
field r., above, are much more interesting, as the follow- 
ing list will prove : 

AA (Imhoof, Monn. grecq., p. 438.) 

EA (B. M. C,, PL XXVII. 8.) 

SA (Hunter.) 

ZA (Imhoof, Monn. grecq., p. 438.) 

HA (Babelon, Rois de Syrie, PL XXIX. 15.) 

It is plain that we have here to do with a system of 
dating. Before discussing it further, it will be well to 
dispose of a minor point. Very often there is a third 
letter in the field, just above the head of the river-god. 
Under the year 35 (EA) I have found recorded the 
following :: 

B (Imhoof, Monn. grecq., p. 438.) 

Z (Babelon, Rois de Syrie, p. 215, No. 24.) 

H (Imhoof, Monn. grecq., p. 438.) 

(B. M. C., PL XXVII. 8.) 

1 (Cat. Greau, PL V. 2445.) 

Similarly, under the year 36 (SA) I have observed two 
varieties. 

A (B. M., unpublished.) 
H (Hunter.) 

The inference is, I think, clear. During at least two 
years the month of striking was usually recorded. In- 
stances of similar precision will readily suggest themselves. 
The one most in point is the case of Tigranes's own 
relative and ally, Mithradates. 

Eeturning to the more important dates, I may point out 
that the numbers are too large to admit of the possibility 



198 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

that they indicate regnal years. On the other hand, 
running as they do from 34 to 38, they tally perfectly 
with the system which is known to have been employed by 
Philippus Philadelphia. Various views have been put 
forward as to the starting-point of that system. M. 
Babelon suggested 111 B.C. (Roisde Syrie, p. clxix) on the 
ground that this corresponded with the ascertained era of 
Tripolis and Sidon. His suggestion is now confirmed by 
epigraphic evidence which at the same time entirely ex- 
plains the significance of the date. In a letter, first 
published in the Journal of Hellenic Studies for 1888 and 
afterwards fully discussed by U. Wilcken in Hermes for 
1894 * (a reference I owe to the kindness of Mr. E. R. 
Bevan), we find Antiochus VIII (Grypus) making the year 
of his return from Aspendus (111 B.C.) the commencement 
of a new epoch. So far as I am aware, this method of 
reckoning does not appear upon his coins. But there need 
be no surprise at its being adopted by his son Philippus or 
by Tigranes, who served himself heir to the latter' s 
possessions. It follows that the silver belonging to our 
Period II. was struck between 77 and 73 B.C. 

Copper. 

To the same period must be given a series of copper 
pieces that agree in types, in style, and in inscription with 
the dated drachms. A characteristic specimen is figured in 
B.M.C.y PL XXVII. 10. An apparent exception is described 
by M. Babelon (Hois de Syrie, p. 213, No. 15) as reading 
BAZIAE&Z TlfPANOY. lam convinced, however, 
by an examination of the corresponding plate (XXIX. 10), 
that this coin does not differ from others of the same class. 

1 Hermes. Vol. xxix., pp. 436 ff. 



THE COINAGE OF TIGRANES I. 199 

If it actually has BAZIAEQZ, this is a mere engraver's 
blunder such as has produced the curious variety of legend 
in the B.M. coin to which I have referred, where the word 
BAZIAEflN is both retrograde and inverted. Stray 
letters or monograms occasionally make their appearance 
on the reverse. Of these I cannot offer any explanation. It 
falls to be added that the class contains two denominations, 
which differ markedly in weight and size, the first being 
probably twice the value of the second. My list of weights 
is as follows : 

(i) 10-32 (Hunter) ; 8-64, 7'73, 6-83 (all in B. M.) ; 7'80 

(Paris), 
(ii) 4-63 (B. M.); 3-39 (Hunter). 

A third variety of copper must also be assigned to this 
period. The solitary example I have met with is B. M. C., 
PI. XXVII. 11. The reverse type is Herakles standing. But 
the inscription, combined with the style of the obverse, 
renders it impossible to place it elsewhere. The weight is 
6'15 grammes. 

PERIOD III. 
DATED. STYLE POOB. TITLE BAZIAEQZ. 

Silver. 

The silver coins of the third period are rare. I know 
only of three or four tetradrachms, which may be thus 
described : 

Obv. Head of Tigranes r., wearing Armenian tiara, 
decorated with eight-rayed star and simple 
volute ; bead and reel border. 

Rev. BAZ I A EliZ (tor., downwards). Tyche draped, 
T I TPANOY (to 1., downwards). seated 1. on 

rock, stretch- 



200 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

ing out r. hand and holding cornucopiae in 1, ; 
beneath her feet, river-god, swimming to front ; 
in field 1., monograms and letters ; in ex., date ; 
all within wreath. 

[B. M. C., PL XXVII. 5.] 

The style of these pieces is coarse. Some characteristic 
differences from Period I. may be pointed out. On the 
obverse the decoration of the tiara is less elaborate, while 
the treatment of the flap shows marks of deterioration. 
On the reverse the type is so much changed that I doubt 
whether it can be interpreted as a representation of 
Antioch at all. May not the coins have been struck 
elsewhere ? Again, the figure looks to 1. instead of to 
r., and holds a cornucopiae, not a palm-branch. Further, 
the rock on which she is seated is highly conventional- 
ised. 2 Lastly, the position of the river-god is altered. 

The letters in the field need not detain us long. A or 
A, whatever it may mean, occurs on all of the specimens 
known to me. For the rest, GEO<I> (B- M. C., PI. 
XXVII. 5) is obviously a magistrate's name, while 
analogy would lead us to say the same of N which occu- 
pies a similar place on a Paris tetradrachm (Babelon, 
Eois de Syrie, p. 214, No. 16). The monogram H ap- 
pears both in the first and in the third periods. It has 
long been recognised that the dates in the exergue refer 
to the Seleucid era. Two are certain BMZ (242) in 
London (B. M. C., PI. XXVII. 5), and TMZ (243) in 
Paris (Babelon, Rois de Syrie, PI. XXIX. 11). A third 
is doubtful AMZ (241) in Paris (Babelon, op. cit., p. 



2 So much so, indeed, that on the corresponding copper coins it 
has sometimes been taken to be part of the legend (=0EOY), 
e.g. Eamus (i., p. 802), and Gough's Coins of the Seleuctdae 
(PI. xxiii. 9). 



THE COINAGE OF TIGRANES I. 201 

214, No. 16). These determine the apparent limits of our 
third period, 71-69 B.C. 

Copper. 

The copper can be dealt with very briefly. A glance 
at B. M. C., PI. XXVII. 7, will leave no room for doubt 
as to its close connection with the silver. It is true that 
there are no dates, any more than there are on the copper 
coinage of Period II. But types and style are identical. 
If further confirmation were needed, it could be got from 
the magistrates' names. Thus, 0EO4> and N, which we 
have seen on the silver, occur again on the copper 
(B. M. C., PL XXVII. 7, and p. 104, No. 9). The 
weights indicate that there are two denominations of this 
variety. The following is a list : 

(i) 8-42, 7-58 (both in B. M.) ; 8-2 (The Hague); 7'55, 

7-45, 5-80 (all in Paris) ; 6-41, 6'09, 6-02 (all Hunter), 
(ii) 4-04 (Hunter) ; 3-2 (The Hague). 

To complete the analogy with Periods I. and II., there 
ought to be a third denomination of copper, differing in 
the type of the reverse from the other two, and coming 
midway between them in weight. That is possibly to be 
found in Babelon, Rois de Syrie, PI. XXIX. 14, which has 
on the obverse a head of Tigranes in the later style, and on 
the reverse a standing figure of Tyche. It is true that the 
Paris example is very light (3) ; but there is a specimen 
at Copenhagen which weighs 4'15. 

Such, it seems to me, is a fair statement of the numis- 
matic data with which historians of Tigranes I. have to 
reckon. This is hardly the place to speculate on any 
conclusions that might be deduced from them. 

GEORGE MACDONALD. 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. U D 



XIV. 

THE CROSS AND PALL ON THE COINS OF 
ALFRED THE GREAT. 

AT a time immediately after what I may venture to 
call the national celebration of the millenary of our 
great King Alfred, any questions relating to his coinage 
must of necessity possess more than ordinary interest, 
especially if the discussion of them is, even in the slightest 
degree, calculated to throw light on the history and 
religious attitude of England in the days of that enlight- 
ened founder of the British Empire. 

Now there are two types of the pennies of -ZElfred which 
in my opinion have hardly as yet received the attention 
that they merit, and whose origin and meaning, hidden 
though it may be, have not as yet been suggested by 
numismatic writers. It is true that the late Rev. D. H. 
Ilaigh, l in speaking of some of the coins to which I am 
about to call attention, says, " The most remarkable feature 
on these coins is the division of the obverse legend into 
four groups so as to give to the type a cruciform appear- 
ance. This is a feature peculiar to the English money 
of the time " " observable on no Continental coin." He 
assigns no cause for the adoption of the type. The types 

'' Num. Chron., N.S., x. 38. 



CROSS AND PALL ON COINS OF ALFRED THE GREAT. 203 

that I am about to consider are among the commonest of 
those of Alfred's coinage, and in the Catalogue of English 
coins in the British Museum compiled by Messrs. Grueber 
and Keary 2 are designated Types XIY and XV. They are 
thus described : 

TYPE XIV. 

Obv. Small cross pattee. Around, inscription between 
two circles, generally in three or four divisions. 

Rev. Money er's name, &c., in two lines across field; 
ornaments. 

TYPE XV. 

Obv. Small cross pattee. Around, inscription in three 
divisions and between two circles. 

Rev. Moneyer's name, &c., in two lines across field, 
divided by three crosses pattees. 



There is also the unique coin Type X, struck by 
Tilewine at London, with the small central cross and the 
inscription around it in four divisions. 

The question that I wish to discuss is what is the 
meaning and intention of subdividing in this manner a 
circular inscription into four or three segments, as the case 
may be, leaving a blank space between each segment and 
the next ? And the suggestion I have to make is that in 
the one case the four spaces were intended to typify the 
Christian cross and in the other the archiepiscopal pall. 
Looking at a coin with the four spaces, the imaginary 
figure of the cross is not at once apparent, but on 
contemplating it for a short time, the " shadow of the 

2 Vol. ii., 1893, p. 35. 



204 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

cross " over the legend becomes distinctly apparent, and 
it is difficult afterwards to shake off the feeling that it is 
there. The same is the case with the coins that have 
three spaces in the legend, only the pall is more readily 
appreciable than the cross. 

I have already on a former occasion 3 called attention to 
the representation of the archiepiscopal pall on coins 
struck by Anglo-Saxon kings, and shown that these coins 
issued from the mints at Canterbury. It is also occasion- 
ally symbolized by the insertion of three small crosses at 
equal distances in the legend. Obliterate these crosses 
and leave three blank spaces in their stead, and the obverse 
legend on Type XV is at once developed. It now becomes 
a question whether any of these coins of ^JElfred with the 
cryptic form of pall can be identified as having been issued 
from the Canterbury mint. Appended is a list compiled 
from the British Museum Catalogue, but with the omission 
of some few doubtful names, showing the moneyers who 
struck coins of Types XIV and XV at Canterbury and 
London as well as of those the site of whose mints is at 
present undetermined. The moneyers, eight in number, 
who coined for Archbishop Plegmund as well as for King 
Alfred are distinguished by a P. It will be seen that at 
Canterbury, JEthelstan struck coins of Type XIV with the 
pall only, JEthered with the cross for Type XIV and with 
the pall for XV, and Elfstan Type XV only, with the pall. 
Seeing that this last adopted the archiepiscopal symbol 
only, I regard him as working at Canterbury and not at 
London. JEthelulf, who struck Type XV with the pall, 
coined also for Plegmund and ought to be classed under 
Canterbury. Beornmer also, who struck Types XlVand XV 

3 Num. Chron., 3rd 8., ii., pp. 74, 82. 



CROSS AND PALL ON COINS OF ALFRED THE GREAT. 205 

with the pall, may with some degree of probability be 
regarded as belonging to the Canterbury mint, and 
possibly Byrnhelm and Heremund, who struck Type XIV 
with the pall only. It will, however, be seen that at least 
nine of the acknowledged Canterbury moneyers struck 
Type XIV with the cross only. 

It will also be seen that seven moneyers whose place 
of mintage is unknown coined pennies of both Types XIV 
and XV, sometimes with the cross and sometimes with the 
pall. Among these Wulfred seems to have an indisput- 
able claim to be connected with Canterbury, while the 
names Cuthbert, and Cuthwulf, and Cynewulf present 
close analogies with the well-known name of Cuthred, 
King of Kent. 

It remains to be seen what can have been the possible 
cause for the introduction of this occult use of the two 
Christian and ecclesiastical symbols. It may, perhaps, be 
found in the large payments of money by which JElfred 
purchased the departure of the heathen Danish invaders 
from his territory. There may have been a secret satis- 
faction in feeling that the coins extorted from Chris- 
tian Wessex by the Vikings should carry with them in a 
hidden form the tokens of that religion over which for 
the moment the heathen had triumphed, and that the 
conquerors in copying the coins, as they did, as for 
instance Herebert at Lincoln, should unawares be driven 
to adopt the emblems of Christianity. There may also 
have been a thought for the Christian captives among 
the Danes, who on recognising the hidden mystery on 
these coins would thank God and take courage. I submit 
these suggestions for what they are worth, but the fact 
that the cross and the pall are typified by the vacant 



206 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



spaces in the legends on these coins will, I think, be 
accepted by all impartial observers. 

JOHN EVANS. 



MONEYERS OF ALFRED WHO STRUCK COINS OF TYPES XIV AND 

XV OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM CATALOGUE. 

Four divisions in the legend are represented by +, and three 
by Y. (P) signifies that the moneyer whose name it follows 
coined also for Archbishop Plegmund. 



CANTERBURY. 



^DELSTAN (P) 
^EDEEED (P) 
BEOENEED 


Type 
XIV. 

Y 


Type 
XV. 

Y 


EADVALD 

ELFSTAN (P) 
EDELVINE 


BEENVALD (P) 
DIAEVALD (P) 
DVNINE 


+ 




HEEEFEED (P) 
TIDVALD (P) 



Type 
XIV. 



^ELFSTAN 

terbury 
HEAVVLF 



?Can- 



LONDON. 



TILEWINE 
Also Type X. 



ABENEL 


-}- 


^LFVALD 


_|- 


^DELVLF (P) 




ALVVADA 


-|- 


BEACSTAN 


-|- 


BEOENMEE 


Y 


BEEHTEEE 


-). 


BEIDAED 


-j- 


BOG A 


+Y 


ByENHELM 


Y 


ByENHEEE 


+ 


EVDBEEHT 


+Y 


EVDVVLF 


+Y 



UNRECOGNISED MINTS. 



EYNEVLF 

DEALINE 

DEALLA 

DVDID 

DVNNA 

EALDVVLF 

EEBEEHT 

EEVVLF 

ELDA 

ELFVALD 

EDELVLF 

FEELVN ? 

CAEVINE ? 



+Y 

+ 

+ 

+Y 



CROSS AND PALL ON COINS OF ALFRED THE GREAT. 207 



UNRECOGNISED MINTS continued. 



CODA 

CVDHEEE 

HEEEMOD 

HEEEMVND 

HEEEWLF 

HVNBEEHT 

IVDELBAED 

LVDin 

OSV% T LF 

S^EIS 



Type Type 




Type 


xrv. xv. 




XIV. 


-if. 


SAMSON 




-f 


SICEVALD 


^_ 


-J- 


SIMVN 


_{_ 


Y 


STEFANVS 


_j_ 


+ 


VVIL7BALD 


_|_ 


_j_ 


WINE 


_|. 


.4- 


WINIL7EE 


-j- 


-f 


WLFEED 


Y+ 


t 


WYNBEEHT 


+Y 



Type 
XV. 

Y 



XV. 

ON THE COINS OF WILLIAM I AND II AND THE 
SEQUENCE OF THE TYPES. 

ON the 14th October, 1066, was fought the Battle of 
Hastings, at a place about five miles north-west of that 
important Saxon town and seaport. 

The ships of William, Duke of Normandy, were brought 
to land at Pevensey Bay, near Hastings, and the Battle 
of Hastings shortly afterwards took place at the spot now 
known as Battle. 

Harold having been slain and his adherents routed at 
Battle, William marched to Dover, where the castle was 
taken and the town of Dover destroyed. His move to 
London was rapidly completed, and William was then 
crowned at Westminster Abbey at Christmas, 1066, by 
Aldred, Archbishop of York. 

It was part of William's policy to reign as the rightful 
successor of the Saxon Kings, and to that end he showed, 
in the early part of his reign, a wish to adhere to the 
Saxon laws and customs, and to disturb as little as possible 
the existing order of affairs. 

This fact is illustrated by his strict adherence to Saxon 
rules in reference to the weight and fineness, and even the 
pattern or type, of his early issues of coins, and by the 
retention of the Saxon moneyers in many cases, a circum- 
stance more fully alluded to hereafter. 

It is clearly and often stated in Domesday Book that 



COINS OF WILLIAM I AND II. 209 

there were certain sums payable by the moneyers for dies 
of new types, and there were undoubtedly benefits derived 
by the Exchequer or Royal Treasury on a change of type 
taking place. The evidence of all finds of Norman coins 
tends to show that there was, in addition to a change of 
design, a change also in legal tender, certain prior types 
being periodically superseded by the issue of a new and 
easily distinguishable pattern of coin. It is unfortunate 
that the exact date of the first imposition of the tax of 
monetagium has not yet been ascertained. This was a 
tax of 12 pence on the head of each household, payable 
every third year, and in return for its payment the 
King guaranteed to the tax-payers that he would not 
exercise his prerogative to change the type of money 
oftener than once in three years. Mr. W. J. Andrew, at 
page 14 of his Numismatic History of the Reign of Henry I, 
(see Num. Chron., 1901), remarks in reference to the tax of 
monetagium, "If it was instituted immediately after the 
Conquest, it certainly did not restrict the number of new 
coinages to one in every three years, for we have examples 
of nearly a score of distinct types issued during the thirty- 
four years of the reigns of the two Williams." 

With this statement issue is joined, and it is interesting 
to compare it with the incongruous statement on page 37 
(op. cit.}, that there are about thirty-five distinct regal types 
in the Norman series. If Mr. Andrew's fifteen types of 
Henry I be deducted from thirty-five, there are twenty 
only left for William I and II and Stephen, and if " nearly 
a score," or, to be precise, Hawkins's eighteen types be 
deducted from twenty, there are two only left for Stephen ! 
This, to use a phrase reminiscent of our old friend Euclides, 
would seem to be a conclusive " reductio ad absurdum." 

There are in fact only thirteen distinct types of the 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. E E 



210 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

coins of the two Williams, and of these there may be 
attributed eight to "William I and five to "William II. 

William I reigned nearly twenty- one full years and Wil- 
liam II nearly thirteen years, and in each case the succession 
and death took place approximately at the end (or com- 
mencement) of an Exchequer year (viz. 29th September) i.e. 

WILLIAM I. 1066. Oct. 14. Battle of Hastings. 

Dec. 25. Coronation. 
1087. Sep. 10. Death. 

WILLIAM II. 1087. Sep. 10. Succession. 
1100. Aug. 2. Death. 

If the monetagium rule of a change of type once in 
three years be applied to the two reigns, the coins account 
for a definite change of type every two and a-half years, 
and if the reigns be taken separately, it will be found that 
the same result is arrived at if eight types be attributed 
to William I, and the remaining five of the total of 
thirteen to William II. 

On the accession of Henry I the monetagium tax was 
abolished. The passage in the " Laws " of this monarch 
(I. 5) is as follows : " Monetagium commune, quod 
capiebatur per civitates et per comitatus, quod not fuit tern- 
pore Edwardi regis, hoc ne amodo fiat omnino defendo." 

The statement that the tax did not exist in the time of 
King Edward is of interest. 

Although the tax of monetagium was thus abolished by 
Henry I, it does not follow that the practice of changing 
the type once in three years as in the reigns of William I 
and II was not continued, as the thirty-five years of 
Henry I would by the same rule give fourteen types. 
There are in fact fifteen. 

Pending the publication of Mr. Andrew's account of 



COINS OF WILLIAM I AND II. 211 

Stephen's coins, it would be indiscreet to speak definitely, 
but the application of the rule enunciated above should 
give six or possibly seven regal types for that troubled 
reign, and the coins seem to justify the application of the 
rule in this case also. 

It would therefore seem that the monetagium agree- 
ment was to restrict the change of type to once in three 
years, and that in practice several types were allowed 
to be current at the same time. In reference to Mr. 
Andrew's argument as to the issue of a, profile type being 
necessary to effect a change of legal tender (page 36) this 
may be so, but in that case there were only two such 
changes in the reign of William I, namely Hks. 233 and 
239, and there was only one such change in the reign of 
William II, viz., when Hks. 244 was issued, and that at the 
commencement .of the new reign. It is submitted that 
the more consistent, and consequently more reasonable 
and better conjecture, is that during the time of the 
monetagium tax (William I and II) the tender was not 
changed (except in some special circumstances), but that 
when it was abolished (Henry I and after) the tender was 
changed on the issue of a profile type. 

The distinct types of William I are Hawkins 233, 234, 
236, 237, 238, 239, 241-2, and 243, total 8. 

Those of William II are 244, 246, 247, 248 and 250, 
total 5. 

The other numbers are accounted for as follows : 235 
is a " mule " connecting 233 and 234 ; 240 is a " mule " 
of 239 and 241 ; 242 is a variety of 241 ; 245 is a 
"mule" of 244 and 246 ; and 249 is a variety only of 250. 

These three " mules" and two varieties account for the 
remaining five illustrations in Hawkins, but there are other 
" mules " and other varieties to be alluded to hereafter. 



212 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



In reference to the " mule " specimens it will be seen 
that they consist of the obverse of an earlier type with 
the reverse of the next succeeding type in every case, 
and they thus afford important evidence of the sequence 
of the types. It would appear almost that it was the 
established custom for a short period between the issue 
of each successive type to coin specimens with the older 
type obverse and the new reverse, so as to accustom the 
people to the change and to preserve a record of the 
authorised succession of types, and these remarks apply 
equally to the coins of Edward the Confessor. The 
rarity of the " mule " coins points to their issue being 
for a short period only. It is proposed in the table 
next following to give the known distinctive types and 
to attempt an arrangement of their sequence, and to 
this end to apply the monetagium rule as propounded 
in this paper to fix the approximate dates of issue. 
The evidence of the " mule " theory is incorporated in 
the table, but varieties of type and other points of 
argument are dealt with hereafter under the headings 
of the respective types of the two reigns thus arranged. 
WILLIAM I. 



N. of Type. 


Hawkins' 
Illustra- 
tion. 


Date of issue according 
to " monetagium " 
theory. 


Remarks. 


I. 

" Harold " 
type. 


283 


1066,afterOcU4 
1068, Sep. 29. 


235 " mule " obverse 
of 233 and reverse 
of 284. 
As this was only a con- 
tinuance of Harold's 








sole type, its issue 
ceased at the end of 








the 3rd Exchequer 
year after its first 
issue by Harold. 



COINS OF WILLIAM I AND II. 

WILLIAM I continued. 



213 



No. of Type. 


Hawkins' 
Illustra- 
tion. 


Date of issue according 
to " monetagium " 
theory. 


Remarks. 


II. 


234 


1068, Sep. 29 




" Bonnet " 




1071, Sep. 29. 




type. 








III. 


236 


1071, Sep. 29 


The so-called canopy 


" Canopy " 




1074, Sep. 29. 


represents the royal 


type. 






throne. SeeBayeux 








Tapestry. 


IV. 


237 


1074, Sep. 29 


The two sceptres 


"2 Sceptres" 




1077, Sep. 29. 


may represent the 


type. 






regal authority and 








the authority 








claimed by William 








I in ecclesiastical 








matters (the sceptre 








with cross at top 








representing the 








civil power under 








God's authority, 








" Christo auspice 








regno," and the 








sceptre with three 








pellets at top on 








the King's left the 








ecclesiastical au- 








thority newly as- 








serted, the three 








pellets being em- 








blematic of the 








Holy Trinity). 1 








" Mule " obverse of 








237 and reverse of 








238 


V. 


238 


1077, Sep. 29 




1st" 2 Stars" 




1080, Sep. 29. 




type. 









It has been suggested that there are four pellets, but that 
at the base of the three pellets alluded to is the rounded top of 
the staff of the sceptre. 



214 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



WILLIAM I continued. 



No. of Type. 


Hawkins' 
Illustra- 
tion. 


Date of issue according 
to " monetagium" 
theory. 


Remarks. 


VI. 


243 


1080, Sep. 29 




" Sword and 




1088, Sep. 29. 




Quadrilateral 








Ornament " 








type. 








VII. 


239 


1083, Sep. 29 




" Profile 




1086, Sep. 29. 




Sceptre " 








type. 














240 " mule " obverse 








of 239 and reverse 








of 241-2. 


VIII. 


241-2 


1 086, Sep. 29 


241 would seem to 


14 Paxs " 




1087, Sep. 10. 


be the correct type 


type. 






and 242 a common 








variety. There are 








other varieties, but 








less general. 



WILLIAM II. 





Hawkins' 


Date of issue according 




No. of Type. 


Illustra- 


to " monetagium " 


Remarks. 




tion. 


theory. 




1. 


244 


1087, Sep. 




" Profile 




1090, Sep. 29. 




Sword "type. 














245 " mule " obverse 








of 244 and reverse 








of 246. 


2. 


246 


1090, Sep. 29 




" Sword, 




1098, Sep. 29. 




Cross, and 








Pellets "type. 









COINS OF WILLIAM I AND II. 

WILLIAM II continued. 



215 



No. of Type. 


Hawkins" 
Illustra- 
tion. 


Date of issue according 
to " monetagium " 
theory. 


Remarks. 


3. 


247 


1093, Sep. 29 




" Sword and 




1096, Sep. 29. 




Cross Flory " 








type. 














249 " variety " only 








of 250. 


4. 


250 


1096, Sep. 29 




2nd " 2 




1099, Sep. 29. 




Stars " type. 






- 


5. 


248 


1099, Sep. 29 




" Sceptre and 




1100, Aug. 2. 




Star " type. 









POINTS OF ARGUMENT IN SUPPORT OF THE ABOVE 

SEQUENCE OF THE TYPES. 

WILLIAM I. 

"Harold" Type. Type I (233) so resembles the coins 
of Harold on the obverse that a comparison of the 
specimens of that type and those of Harold affords 
convincing testimony to the eye of the observer. The 
head and crown are of the same drawing and the 
trachea is indicated distinctly in both. 

A coin of Type I of the Bed win mint in the 
writer's collection has the square-topped Saxon J7 on 
the obverse and reverse, while the head and neck 
are those of Harold with a bust below added to 
or drawn on to the Harold head and neck. In 
this specimen the legend begins above the King's 
crown, instead of opposite the lower end of the 
sceptre. Mr. J. G. Murdoch has a coin of this type 



216 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

struck at York with somewhat similar distinguishing 
characteristics. There are coins of this type of the 
Hereford, London and other mints without a sceptre, 
like the variety of Harold's one type without sceptre. 

" Sonnet " Type. Type II (234) is the full- faced represen- 
tation of the obverse of Type I, and is connected 
with that type by the "mule" (Hawkins 235). A 
Wallingford coin of this type in the writer's collec- 
tion has the legend beginning above the King's 
crown and divided by the bust, and another variety 
struck at Ipswich has a small head of the King 
within an inner circle (Montagu, lot 195, now in the 
British Museum). The coin with reverse of this 
(234) type and obverse of Edward the Confessor's last 
type (a profile) is doubtless a mule, the profile obverse 
type of Edward having been used in mistake for an 
obverse die of 233 (see illustration in the British 
Museum Catalogue, Vol. II., Plate XXVIII, fig. 7). 
This is attributed to Shaftesbury. 

"Canopy" Type. Type III (236) has a very similar 
reverse to Type I, and the obverse of this type 
resembles as regards the head and crown (including in 
the case of specimens of the Wallingford mint in the 
collections of Mr. L. A. Lawrence and the writer, the 
dependent ornaments or tassels at the side) the head 
and crown on Harold's coins and those of Types I 
and II. 

"2 Sceptres" Type. Type IV (237) is connected with 
Type II by the presence in some specimens of the 
line on the King's neck indicating the trachea, by 
its similarity to the varieties described under Type II 
as regards the placing of the obverse legend and the 






COINS OF WILLIAM I AND II. 217 

inner circle, and by the full form of the Latin legend 
on the obverse. 

1st 2 Stars " Type. Type V (238) is connected with 
Type IV by the general similarity in workmanship 
and appearance and by the " mule" above mentioned 
(in the writer's collection), having the obverse of 
Type IY and the reverse of Type Y. 

" Sword and Quadrilateral Ornament " Type. Type YI 
(243) resembles the neat workmanship of the imme- 
diately preceding types. Specimens were present 
in the Beaworth hoard, and no place remains for this 
type unless it is placed here. The statement on page 
170 of the third edition of Hawkins as to there being 
a mule with obverse 243 and reverse 244 struck at 
Colchester is a mistake on the part of Mr. Kenyon. 
This erroneous statement does not occur in the first 
or second edition of Hawkins. The coin thus mis- 
described by Mr. Kenyon is in the British Museum 
and is an ordinary specimen of 247 without any 
special variation. 

" Profile Sceptre " Type. Type YII (239) must precede 
Type VIII, as the " mule " 240 has this obverse and 
consequently indicates the earlier type with the 
reverse of Type VIII. 

"Paxs" Type. Type VIII (241) follows Type VII by 
the evidence of the " mule " 240. 

WILLIAM II. 

" Profile Sword " Type. Type 1 (244) being a profile type 
may well mark the commencement of a new reign. 
It preceded Type 2 by the evidence afforded by the 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. F F 






218 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

" mule " 245, which has the obverse of Type 1 (244) 
and the reverse of Type 2 (246). 

" Sword, Cross, and Pellets" Type. Type 2 (246) succeeded 
Type 1 by the evidence of the " mule " 245. 

" Sicord and Cross Flory " Type. Type 3 (247) probably 
succeeded Type II, as the workmanship is similar, 
but the execution rougher. In some specimens the 
bust is almost identical with the last preceding type 
(246). A conclusive proof that Type 3 (247) was 
issued subsequently to Type 2 (246) is afforded by a 
specimen (coined at Rochester) in the writer's collec- 
tion which is struck over a coin of Type 246 of 
Hawkins, the 246 reverse being clearly visible 
through the impression of the new 247 obverse. 

2nd " 2 Stars " Type. Type 4 (250) is a type generally 
much resembling in workmanship and style Type 3. 
249 is a variety without the stars and more nearly 
resembling Type 3. 

" Sceptre and Star " Type. Type 5 (248) was, by reason 
of its close resemblance in size, workmanship, and 
general style (especially as regards the reverse type) 
to the first or second type of Henry I (Hawkins 251), 
probably the last type of the reign, and if, according 
to the raonetagium theory, it only was issued for 
ten months or so, this would, in the absence of a find 
of coins deposited at or near this very period, 
account for its great rarity. 

In the above remarks the evidence of " finds " of coins 
has not been referred to, and it is now proposed to deal 
with this subject. The great hoard (a treasure chest) 
found at Bea worth in 1833 consisted of about 8,000 to 



COINS OF WILLIAM I AND II. 219 

9,000 coins, which were, with the exception of about 100, 
all of Type VIII of William I (Hawkins 241-2 and 
varieties). The recorded exceptions were approximately 
thirty-one of Type Y (238), thirty-four of Type VI (243), 
eleven of Type VIII (239), and six of the " mule " (240), 
total eighty-two. 

In the hoard discovered in the City of London in 1872, 
the coins were chiefly of Edward the Confessor, and the 
only ones of William were Types II (234) and IV (237) 
of William I. 

At Tamworth in 1877 were found 294 coins consisting 
solely of Type VIII (241-242) of William I, and Type 1 
(244), " mule " (245) and Type 2 (246) of William II. 

Mr. Allen, in Numismatic Chronicle (N. S.) xi, 227, 
gives some account of the Shillington, Co. Bedford, 
find in 1871. Of the coins inspected by him there 
occurred one of William I, Type VIII (Paxs), some of 
William II, Types 1 and 2 (244 and 246) and the most 
numerous were those of William II, Type 4 (250). There 
were also some early types of Henry I. 

Mr. W. F. Lincoln has mentioned to me a " find " of 
coins of William I that came to his hands many years 
ago. These were exclusively of Type I (233), Type II 
(234), and Type III (236), and the last two types greatly 
predominated. Nearly all the coins were of the Walling- 
ford mint. 

In adducing the above proofs the " in and out " 
baronial and chartered-mint theory of Mr. Andrew has, 
for obvious reasons, not been made use of, but his idea of 
the date of the " Paxs " type some time between 1082-87 
(see page 183, sub Durham), appears to be confirmed by 
the argument deduced from the monetagium theory as 
now propounded. The date tentatively assigned for the 



220 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

issue of this type, viz., 29th September, 1086, is just after 
the compilation of Domesday Book had been completed, 
and the date at which William I received at Salisbury the 
oath of fealty from all the freeholders of the Kingdom. 

Type VIII discloses the greatest number of mint towns 
(and these in all parts of the Kingdom), and the large 
preponderance of coins of this type in the Beaworth hoard 
points to it having been the latest type issued at the time 
of the deposit. In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, page 189 
of the translation, occurs the following passage, " Among 
other things is not to be forgotten the good peace he 
(William I) made in this land ; so that a man who had 
any confidence in himself might go over his realm with his 
bosom full of gold, unhurt." 

The PAXS coinage may well be commemorative of the 
ultimate state of peace and law instituted by the Con- 
queror's firm government. 

As said above, Mr. Andrew's theory of barons and 
chartered mints has been avoided, but in order to assist 
Norman numismatics generally there is appended hereto 
a list of mints and the types issued from each. 

It was originally my intention to add also a list of 
moneyers' names and mint names as they appear in con- 
junction, on the coins ; but as the editors of the Nu- 
mismatic Chronicle have intimated to me that such a list 
would infringe too much on the limited space available in 
the Chronicle, I propose to issue it shortly through 
another channel. I would, however, add that in this list 
I shall endeavour to show, not only the continuity of the 
moneyers in connection with the mints throughout the 
Norman period, but also to trace them back to the period 
previous to the Conquest. 

P. CARLYON-BRITTON. 



COINS OF WILLIAM I AND II. 



221 



TYPE 



THE MINTS AND 

WILLIAM I. 



p 

< 

EH 



* 


X X XX X 


X XXX 


ft 


X XX X X X 


XXX X XXX 


ft 


XXXX X 


XXX X 


til 


X XX XXXXXX XX 


XX XXXXXX 


w 


X XXXXXXX X X 


X XXX XX 


ii 


XXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 


H 


XX XX 


X 


MCO 


X XXX X 


X XX 


>t 


XXX X X XXXX XX 


XX XXX X 


fcS 


X XXX X X 


X X XXX 


M to 
M CO 
IH IN 


XX X XXX X 


XXX X 


B2 


XX XX XXX 


xx xx x 


M 


XX XXX XX X 


XX XX X X 


Order of Types . . 
Hawkins' JFigures 




1. 




. 1 ... 




o 
Q. . 






^ 1 . 

llllllltl 

W O cb W W W W W M 


lilllli|i|i||"lll 



222 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



M 
Qi 

R 

H 



>S 


XX XX XX 


XX X XX 


M " W 


X XXX X XXX 


X XXX XX XX 


3 v 

3 0^ 


XX XX 


X XX X X 




XXXXXXX XXX 


xxxxxxxxxxx 


4 


XXXXXXXXXXXXXX 


X XX XXXXXX 


i 


xxxxxxxxxxxxxx> 


:xxxxxxxxxxx 


tj 


X XXXX X X 


XXXX 


M 


X XXX X XX 


X XXX X XX 


M 


XXXXXX X X XX 


XX XX X 


i 


X XXXX XX XXX 


X X XX X 


s ri . 

94 


XXXX X XX 


X XX 


dg 


X X XX X XXXX 


GU 

X XXXXXX 


-1 


XX XX 


XX X 










^ 




8 


1 




I? 


}'" 

CO 




Order of 
Hawkin 


^* F*3 ^ 

iW>4.53h5S5ls^<Sft 


a , 

'i~t . t. Tl33^frH *_rf 

?w O J ^ " .. r "^ 

J g^JI ^^og-3 

liilllllllf 

-S .3 * 08,^343 O O -M ---> 

PHWcQajajcocccccoaiaj 



COINS OF WILLIAM I AND II. 



223 



Q M 



WJ. *^3 

H 1-3 

fc d 



r" ~^ 


X 


1 


X X XXXX 


M !>: 
M * 
MS 


XX XX 


M 

>-*s 


GU 

XXXXX XXX XXXX 


^~ 


XX XX XXXX 


02 
>z 


XXXX XXXXXXXX 


ei 


X XXX XXXX 


MM 

t>s 


X XX XX X XXX 


^"'s 


XX XX XXXX 


fcS 


XX XXX XXXX 


M > 

M 5 


X XX XXX 


^?5 


XX X XXXX 


M TO 


X XX XXXX 


. 








'I 


2 

o 

3 


P 


I 


Order of 
Hawkins 


-2 

blg^ 'Jilsijil ' 

iilliijilii'slu 

^a|^b ; lss^s.a'g 

lll^M^^^^pp^ts 



XVI. 

THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 
(See Plates VIH. XI.) 

IT is now more than thirty years since Mr. Neck wrote 
his admirable paper on the Coinage of Henry IV, V, and 
VI, and as in this interval many coins unknown to him 
have come to light, particularly in connection with the 
reign of Henry VI, the time would seem to have arrived 
for attempting a further classification of the coins of 
this period than has hitherto been possible, and I pro- 
pose to do what I can to deal in a complete manner with 
the last of the three reigns. In so doing I must, I fear, 
ask indulgence for a considerable amount of repetition of 
what has been previously written by others at various 
times, but this appears to be unavoidable if anything like 
a consecutive history of the coinage of this reign is to be 
attempted. 

During the nearly forty years of the reign of Henry 
VI we have at least six distinct coinages, some of them 
very large ones and practically unvaried, and others so 
subdivided as to form groups of separate issues. By 
carefully following these out, particularly in the later 
periods, we incidentally remark how the political vicissi- 
tudes of the times made themselves felt even in connection 
with the coinage. One, and perhaps the most remarkable 






THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 225 

feature of the earlier numismatic history of this reign, is 
the great importance attained by the mint at Calais, 
from which for some years by far the greater portion 
of the silver money for circulation in England was issued. 
From the mint accounts given by Ruding we find that 
while from the 10th year of Henry Y to the end of the 
reign of Henry VI only 39,166 Ibs. weight of silver was 
coined at the London mint, 183,588 Ibs. was coined at that 
of Calais, more than a third of this latter amount being 
issued for currency during the first five and a-half years. 
The mint accounts are acknowledged to be incomplete, and 
were they not so, I believe, as I shall subsequently give 
reasons for supposing, that the proportion of bullion coined 
at Calais was even larger. Edward III established the 
mint at Calais within three months of the surrender of 
the town to him in 1347, and commanded that the white 
money to be made there should be such as was coined in 
England. No Calais coins of Edward III are, however, 
known of this period. On the 20th of February, 1362, 
Thomas de Brantyngham was appointed receiver of all the 
profits arising from the King's mint established there, and 
about the same time certain privileges and immunities were 
granted to the officers of the mint similar to those enjoyed 
by the officers of the mints of London and Canterbury. 
Money of both gold and silver was now actually coined 
at Calais in some quantity of the same types and values 
in all respects as that issued from the London mint during 
the period of the observance of the treaty of Bretigny. 
As recorded by Ruding, officers of the mint were ap- 
pointed in 1371 and 1375 during the reign of Edward 
III and in 1393 and 1396 under Richard II, while refer- 
ence is made to the Calais mint in several ordinances of 
Henry IV. However, no Calais coins have come down 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. G G 



226 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

to us corresponding with any English issues subsequent 
to the 1360-69 period of Edward Ill's reign until we come 
to the great annulet coinage, which commenced in 1422, 
the last year of the reign of Henry Y, and was continued 
well into that of Henry VI. At this period by far the 
larger portion of the English silver money was issued 
from the Calais mint, and for many years after, even well 
into the reign of Edward IV, we have evidence of its 
abundance in various ordinances, which allude to the 
Calais groats as being the ordinary type of money then 
in circulation. This abundance has proportionately come 
down to our own times, and it is hardly necessary to 
remark that the ordinary Calais coins of Henry VI are 
perhaps the commonest of the mediaeval English series. 
As Hawkins entirely excludes the Calais coins from his 
work, although they were undoubtedly coined for circula- 
tion in England only (Calais being then considered an 
English town and sending two members to the English 
Parliament), they admit perhaps of a somewhat fuller 
description even than the London issue. Mr. Neck treated 
them as English coins in his paper, and described and 
located all the varieties noticed at the time he wrote, but 
since then several others have appeared which were ap- 
parently unknown to him, and which prove that the mint 
at Calais was at work, if only in a fitful and feeble way, 
for some years later than he assumed it to have been, 
when he wrote that the last coins struck there were of the 
type corresponding with one of London described by Haw- 
kins under Class III, having the voided cross as mint-mark, 
and a leaf in the spandril of the tressure under the bust. 
Owing to the abundance of a great portion of the Calais 
money and to its being practically identical in type, save 
for the name of the place of mintage, with the contem- 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 227 

porary London issues, it has not, perhaps, been very 
generally noticed how uncommon are almost all the coins 
of this reign of the earlier issues from the latter mint 
some of them being very rare indeed, as I shall endeavour 
to bring out in dealing with the several coinages in detail, 
while several varieties that are not very unusual of the 
Calais mint are unknown from that of London. Towards 
(presumably) the middle of this reign the coinage from 
the Calais mint, which until that time had been so abun- 
dant, appears to have rapidly fallen off in quantity, and 
practically almost to have ceased, although there are a 
few rare examples of small subsequent issues that have 
appeared since Mr. Neck wrote his paper, which, in con- 
junction with existing records, prove that the Calais mint 
did not entirely cease working until quite the latter part 
of the reign of Henry VI. After the cessation of its 
great activity, the London mint became much more im- 
portant, and from about 1440 almost all the silver money 
was issued from it, but although the varieties to be found 
are numerous, the quantity of each issue must have been 
comparatively small, as none of the later coins can be 
called very common, while many are rare, particularly all 
denominations smaller than the groat, with perhaps the 
exception of the half-pennies of some issues. 

CLASS I. ANNULET COINAGE. 

In dealing with the coinage of this reign, one serious 
difficulty is to determine where it actually commences 
and which are the earliest coins of Henry VI, seeing that 
such authorities as Neck, Longstaffe, and Hawkins differ 
decidedly on the question, not to mention others who have 
at various times written on the subject. In agreement 
with the latest edition of Hawkins (1887) I believe that 



228 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the very rare York annulet coins practically decide this 
question. The indenture of February 13th of the ninth 
year of Henry V with Bartholomew Goldbeter only 
provides for the coining of money in the " Tour de 
Londres " and the " Ville de Caleys," and it is only by 
an endorsement of the 16th of February of the first 
year of Henry VI, or a year afterwards, that provision 
is specially made for him to coin also at York and 
Bristol. This endorsement should dispose of the sug- 
gestion that York was implicitly included in the original 
indenture of Henry V, owing to the fact that York 
pennies are found having the open quatrefoil in the 
centre of the cross on the reverse of every reign and 
period since the time of Edward I. It is now, I believe, 
generally admitted that there was at York, in addition to 
the archiepiscopal mint which worked regularly during 
the reign of each succeeding sovereign, a royal mint 
which worked intermittently. The former, until the 
reign of Henry VII, coined pennies only, and these are 
all distinguished by the well-known open quatrefoil in 
the centre of the cross on the reverse. The royal mint, 
on the contrary, issued all denominations of silver coins, 
and the quatrefoil is never found upon them. Goldbeter 
appears to have done nothing at Bristol, and not very 
much at York, but the little he did at the latter city has 
given us a pretty certain clue to the type of the earliest 
coins of the reign of Henry VI. As the indenture of the 
ninth of Henry V evidently refers to no earlier issue than 
the annulet coinage, while from the special endorsement 
as to York on the document, when it was confirmed by 
the regency in the first year of Henry VI, we know that 
the existing annulet groats and half-groats, &c., of York 
were not coined previously, while, in addition, we know 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 229 

that they must have been struck almost immediately 
after the granting of the authority, from the fact (as 
recorded by Ruding) that complaints were made to the 
Parliament held at Westminster on October 20th of the 
same year, that Goldbeter, after having been at York and 
set up his mint there, had since retired, and praying that 
he might be compelled to return, we may feel certain 
that these York annulet coins are examples of the first 
coins struck after the death of Henry V. In addition to 
their own special distinguishing mark, the lis on either 
side of the king's neck, they have other peculiar charac- 
teristics which will be found to occur on annulet coins 
from both the London and Calais mints, of what I shall 
call later type 2 of the early annulet money, and I hope 
to be able to show that in this type we can identify un- 
mistakably the earliest coins of Henry VI, although, as 
stated by Hawkins, it is very probable that some of 
nearly the same type had been issued previous to the 
death of Henry V, from the mints of both London and 
Calais. We are without any evidence as to Calais, for in 
the mint accounts given by Ruding there is no record of 
any silver coined at this mint previous to the second year 
of Henry VI. The accounts are, however, stated to be 
imperfect, and as there is no record of any bullion coined 
at York, they are so, in this respect at least. 

As Mr. Neck truly observes, the annulet coinage is the 
most difficult to arrange satisfactorily, but I am in hopes 
that I have found a clue to the classification of the several 
issues more nearly than has been previously done, and, as 
I venture to think, of deciding which coins were issued 
during the last year of the reign of Henry V, and which 
are those first issued after the accession of his son. The 
mint-marks on all varieties of the annulet money of every 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

denomination have been hitherto always described as a 
pierced cross, or a cross. A careful examination of a 
number of the coins will, however, show that there are 
two distinct varieties of the pierced cross, and that the 
cross, when not pierced, is quite different from the plain 
cross of previous and succeeding coinages. 

The pierced cross of what I shall call Type I is a 
distinct and clearly defined cross with the limbs square 
at the extremities, and rather broader than at the in- 
tersection, and having a piercing in the centre almost, 
if not quite, touching the angles formed by the inter- 
section of the limbs. 

The pierced cross of the second type is very different, 
and is formed, as it were, by cutting four quarter circles 
out of the angles of a square, and has, as before, a central 
piercing, which, owing to the altered form, is now well 
within the centre of the cross. 

The cross on some of the annulet money of the smaller 
denominations, when not pierced, has the ends more or 
less forked, as if a piece in the form of the letter V had 
been cut out of a square end. 

Pierced Cross. Pierced Cross. 




Type I. Type II. Cross. 

The annulet coins with the pierced cross of Type I are 
evidently the earliest, and are found of both London and 
Calais, but are less common of Calais than of London. I 
attribute these coins to Henry V, and believe that they 
were those first struck by Bartholomew Goldbeter under 
the authority of the enactment of the second Parliament 
of the year 1421 (the 9th year of Henry V), which met 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 231 

at Westminster on December 1st, and of the subsequent 

indenture dated Feb. 13th, 1422. Henry Y died on the 

31st of August of the same year, but there was time before 

his death to do a good deal, and probably no time was 

lost owing to the urgent need of remedying the great 

scarcity and bad condition of the currency, which was at 

that time causing much trouble and discontent among the 

people. Goldbeter would naturally place the Tower mint 

in working order before proceeding to Calais; and it would 

have been active longer than the latter mint at the death 

of Henry Y, thus accounting for the London groats at 

least being more common than those of Calais, which 

are, in fact, not very easy to obtain. I now come to the 

coins with the pierced cross of Type II as a mint-mark, 

which I believe to be those first issued after the accession 

of Henry YI. As the authority conferred by the original 

indenture would lapse with the death of Henry Y, and 

was not renewed by the Regency until the 16th of 

February following, or an interval of nearly six months, 

it is probable that work at both the London and Calais 

mints ceased during this time. 

With the renewal of his authority and with its extension 
to York and Bristol, Goldbeter would appear to have 
made a new departure with fresh dies, which, while 
resembling very closely (although not exactly) those of 
the last issue, have all the pierced cross of Type II as a 
mint-mark, and I submit that this is the distinguishing 
mark of the earliest coins of the reign of Henry YI. We 
are practically certain that the York annulet groats and 
half- groats were struck by authority of the renewed 
indenture of the first of Henry YI, and all the known 
specimens, together with the corresponding penny and 
halfpenny, have the No. 2 Type of pierced cross as 



232 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

mint-mark. It might be expected that some change in 
the way of a special mark would be introduced with the 
first issue of the new reign, and here we have one clearly 
identified with its very commencement. Of these York 
coins, which are all extremely rare, there are three groats 
in the British Museum [PL VIII. 3] and there was one in 
the Neck and Webb collections. Two half-groats only 
appear to be known. One was in the Montagu collection 
and is illustrated in one of the catalogue plates ; the other 
is now in the Lawrence, and was previously in the Rostron 
collection. The only penny that I can trace is in the 
British Museum. It is in poor condition, and has a piece 
broken out of the edge. The halfpenny [PL VIII. 4] 
also appears to be unique, and is now in my own collection, 
having previously been in the Shepherd and Montagu 
cabinets. All these coins, from the groat to the halfpenny, 
have as mint-mark the pierced cross of Type II, which is in 
all cases clearly shown. They can only have been struck 
during a very short period, as according to Ruding, in 
the Parliament held at Westminster on October 20th of 
the year 1423, or only eight months after the authority 
was given, the Commons of the northern counties petitioned 
the King and the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, " that 
the master and workers of the King's monies who had 
been at York and there set up his mint, to the great profit 
of the King and the said counties, but had since with his 
workmen retired from thence, shall be commanded to 
return to the same city and to remain or leave sufficient 
deputies during the King's pleasure." 

This petition reveals the short time that Goldbeter 
remained at York, and incidentally accounts for the rarity 
of the coins themselves, while it also fixes the time of their 
issue. 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 233 

The York type (if I may call it so), which I will 
assume to be of the first coinage of Henry VI, was also 
issued from both the London and Calais mints, and here we 
find in regard to rarity a reversal of what is found in the 
previous issue. The Calais coins are fairly common, but 
those of London are scarcer. The York groats, as well as 
those of London and Calais of the same type, all read 
T^nGLIGC, a reading considered by some to belong ex- 
clusively to the coins of Henry Y, but which assuming the 
York coins to belong to Henry VI, was evidently con- 
tinued into the reign of the latter. Of this earliest issue 
of Henry VI there are groats, half-groats, pence and 
half-pence of London, York, and Calais, all with the 
No. 2 Type of pierced cross. The York half-groats, as 
well as some of those of London and Calais of the same 
type, have eleven arches to the tressure, similar to coins 
of Henry V of the same denomination. The groats all 
show the well-known swelling on the neck, also a feature 
long supposed to be identified with the coins of Henry V. 

There are pennies of the early annulet coinage from the 
York archiepiscopal mint, and also of Durham, which 
latter have not, I think, been correctly ascribed, either by 
Hawkins or Mr. Neck. The former discredits a coin 
illustrated in Ruding as being either forged or altered, 
owing to its reading T^RGLI, and having an annulet in 
two quarters of the reverse. It is evidently carelessly 
drawn, and the annulet shown between the pellets in two 
quarters should only be in one. Probably one quarter 
was obliterated, and the artist drew what he thought 
should be there. The final S in TYnGLieC was also proba- 
bly invisible, and was consequently omitted altogether. 
Apart from these, easily to be accounted for, inaccuracies, 
coins of this type certainly exist [PI. X. 3]. They have 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. H H 



234 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the mullet to left and annulet to right of the crown, and 
an annulet between the pellets in one quarter of the 
reverse. The mint-mark is indistinct on the specimens I 
have seen, and therefore it is, according to my theory, un- 
certain as to whether they belong to the end of Henry Y's 
reign or to the beginning of that of Henry VI. The latter 
appears to be more probable, as the type of bust exactly 
resembles that of the York type of the annulet pence. 
Mr. Neck gives this coin to the early part of the reign of 
Henry V, but describes the annulet at right of crown as 
broken, which it certainly is not on the specimen which I 
have. These pence are undoubtedly of the annulet coinage, 
and as this was undertaken so near to the end of the reign 
of Henry V, it seems most probable that any Durham 
annulet coins would be struck under Henry VI. 

Having, as I hope, shown the most probable method of 
identifying the earliest coins of Henry VI, I propose to 
follow the issues subsequent to the annulet coinage in 
accordance with the arrangement of the 1887 or later 
edition of Hawkins, thus being able to avoid as much 
unnecessary repetition as possible. In regard to the 
Calais coins of which Hawkins takes no notice, I shall 
supplement what has been said by Mr. Neck in regard 
to them, by describing certain coins apparently unknown 
to him at the time he wrote. 

The annulet coins, of what I have called the York type 
and which on the groats all read 7VR6LI6C in the obverse 
legend, were followed by a variety of nearly similar type 
but reading (on the groats) TTRGL' and with the arch of 
tressure on the breast not fleured [PI. VIII. 7]. The 
egg-shaped swelling on the neck still continues on the busts 
and the mint-mark is the pierced cross of Type 2. The 
coins of this type are of London and Calais and are all 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 235 

rather rare, particularly those of London. The only half- 
groat which I can attribute to this issue is of London ; it 
has a broader and larger bust than the first variety of 
annulet half-groats, but like them has the reverse legend 
ending TTDIVTOEGC ^ 5ft and without any cross before POSVI. 
The obverse mint-mark is a cross of the type shown 
previously with slightly forked ends [PI. X. 5]. I have 
a London penny also of, I believe, this issue [PI. X. 6]. 
The bust is unlike either the succeeding or preceding 
type, but otherwise there is no special feature to describe. 
These coins correspond with Mr. Neck's type 2 of the 
annulet money, but he describes no half-groats, and the 
Calais penny, which he gives, appears to have a London 
obverse, while he gives to London for this issue that with 
the DI GRA legend and no annulets on the reverse. These 
rare DI GRA pence certainly resemble very closely the 
earliest annulet type as to the bust, and the crown has 
the little points between the fleur-de-lys terminating in 
balls as on the annulet pence, and differing thus from the 
early coins of Henry V. I should be inclined to attribute 
these DI 6R7Y pence to the end of Henry V's reign. 
Possibly they are a few of the first coins struck by 
Bartholomew Goldbeter before the distinguishing annulet 
mark was adopted. They are of neat workmanship and 
well struck, and thus differ from most of the other pence 
of Henry V. Returning from this digression we come to 
the third and last type of annulet money, which from the 
Calais mint is (with the exception of the halfpence) so 
extremely common even down to the present time. Of 
the London mint, however, the groats are scarce, and the 
lesser denominations so rare that Mr. Neck states that he 
had not seen them. The characteristics of this issue are 
on the groat [see PI. VIII. 8 and 9], a more youthful 



236 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

portrait with smaller neck with a tube-like line in centre 
and more spreading shoulders than before. The half- 
groats differ from the preceding ones in having the reverse 
legend preceded by a plain cross and ending TUDIVTORff 
mavm instead of TYDIVTORff i$tt. The obverse mint-mark 
is the cross before described. The Calais groats and half- 
groats of this issue are very common indeed. The only 
exception, and indeed the only variety that I know of 
which is not of a transition nature, is a groat which on 
the reverse has no annulets between the pellets in any 
quarter, while having one in the normal position after 
POSVI. There is a specimen of this coin in the British 
Museum, which, although described in Hawkins' Anglo- 
Gallic Coins, was not noted by Mr. Neck. I have only 
seen one other specimen of this groat, which must be very 
rare. The Calais pence are a little less common than the 
larger pieces, while the half-pence are scarce. Of the 
London mint the groats are the only pieces not very 
difficult to obtain, and even they are decidedly scarce. 
Of the half-groat I have only seen one specimen [PI. X. 
7], the National Collection being without one. Those 
described by Hawkins are, from their reverse legend, of 
the earlier variety, which I have called the York Type. 
The penny is also very rare. It only differs from the 
last type in the bust, which is fuller in the face. As to 
the annulet half -pence it is rather uncertain to which 
variety they are to be attributed, but although not common, 
they appear to be much less rare than the pence and half- 
groats of the second and third varieties. There are 
York pence of the archiepiscopal mint having an annulet 
between the pellets in one quarter of the reverse similar to 
those of Durham, and also one after CCIVIT7VS. These 
have on the obverse a mullet to the left and a fleur-de- 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 237 

lys to the right of the crown. Others have a trefoil in 
place of the lys. The former I attribute to the period 
of the second and third annulet issues, and the latter pro- 
bably to a transition type to which I am about to allude. 
From the scarceness of the annulet coins of the London 
mint, particularly of the later variety, which is on the con- 
trary so abundant of Calais, it would appear that almost 
the whole of the money for circulation in the kingdom must 
at the end of this period have been coined at the latter 
mint. This idea would seem" to be borne out by the fact 
that there are two transitional types of annulet money of 
Calais, of which there are no London counterparts. The 
first is the variety called by Mr. Neck the annulet trefoil 
coinage, on which the annulets still continue at each side 
of the King's neck on the obverse and in one quarter only 
of the reverse on the groats and half-groats, but on the 
pence [PI. VIII. 9] (which were unknown to Mr. Neck) 
they continue in two quarters as before. The variation 
now introduced consists in a small trefoil being placed on 
the left side of the King's crown on the groats and pence 
[PL X. 9] and after POSVI on the reverse in place of 
the former annulet. It is a little curious that the trefoil 
is omitted from the obverse of the half-groat, but appears 
on the reverse in the same position as on the groat. It 
may be noted that on the groats of this issue the pierced 
cross before POSVI is for the first time superseded by the 
plain cross, which latter retains the same position through 
several subsequent coinages. These coins are all scarce, 
particularly the pence. A noticeable feature of this 
issue is that it does not form a connecting link with the 
subsequent one, the trefoil entirely disappearing after a 
very short existence until a much later period. There 
are a few York pence of the archiepiscopal mint having 



238 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

an annulet between the pellets in one quarter of the 
reverse and with a trefoil to the right of the crown in 
place of the lis on other annulet pence of the same mint. 
These may, I think, be considered possibly to belong to 
the same period as the annulet trefoil coins of Calais. 

The last variety of Calais groats [PI. VIII. 10] and half- 
groats having still the annulets on either side of the 
King's neck is of a distinctly transitional character, con- 
necting the annulet coinage with the succeeding rosette 
mascle coinage. This variety is also scarce. On the 
obverse the trefoil of the last-described groats is omitted, 
and it is thus the same in all respects as the former 
annulet coins. On the reverse, however, the annulet 
entirely disappears, both from its position between the 
pellets and after POSVI. A pierced rosette of five foils 
is now placed after POSVI and CCTYLISIff. Another sign 
of transition on some of the half-groats of this variety 
is in the fuller spelling of the mint name. Up to now 
and even on part of these half- groats it is spelt CC7TLIS', 
but now for the first time it reads on some CC7VLISI6L 
There appear to be no pence which can be in any way 
identified with this transition type, and there are no 
London or other coins of any denomination. 

CLASS II. ROSETTE MASCLE COINAGE. 

The coins of this issue, particularly the groats, have a 
rather different bust of the king, altogether larger and 
with longer neck. The groats of this and the succeeding 
issues are usually of larger diameter than those of the 
annulet issue. 

The rosette, which appeared on the last annulet issue 
on the reverse only, now appears on the obverse also, 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 239 

between the words of the legend, but on the Calais coins, 
at least, it is always accompanied by a new distinguishing 
mark, the mascle or open lozenge. 

The rosette mascle coinage marks the second distinct 
period in the coinage of the reign of Henry VI, and 
there was both a Calais and a London issue. The former 
is very abundant, but the latter is very rare in all 
denominations excepting, perhaps, the groats ; even these, 
however, are rather rare. There are also pence from the 
episcopal mints of York and Durham. This coinage 
may be divided into two periods. The first still retains 
the same mint-marks as the later annulet coins ; viz., 
for the groats the pierced cross of Type 2, and the half- 
groats and pence the cross with forked ends *{}* as on the 
annulet coins, and the reverse the plain cross noted on 
the transitional issues of Calais. The Calais groats have 
rosettes on the obverse after every word except E6CX, 
after which a mascle occurs. On the reverse a rosette 
occurs after POSVI and dTTLISIff, while a mascle is placed 
after VIL and L7L The Calais half-groats are exactly 
similar, while the pence have a rosette after tyffRBICIVS 
and a mascle after R6CX, and on the reverse a mascle 
between YIL and L7Y and a rosette after dftLISieC. Calais 
farthings are known of this issue only and are very rare 
[see PI. X. 14]. The London groats and half- groats of the 
first rosette mascle type differ from those of Calais in 
having neither rosettes nor mascles on the obverse 
[PI. VIII. 2], but on the reverse they are found in the 
same position as on the Calais coins, and a rosette after 
POSVI and LORDOR, and on the groats there is a mascle 
before LOR. On one half-groat there is no mascle 
[PL X. 11]. Hawkins, in the latest edition of 1887, 
states that no London penny is known on which a rosette 



240 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

appears. I have, however, one in my cabinet exactly 
corresponding with the groat and half-groat of this issue 
and having a mascle before and a rosette after LORDOR, 
[see PL X. 10]. I know of no other specimen and so far 
I think mine is unique. Of presumably this period is 
a Durham penny having the mint-mark a plain cross 
with a large mullet to the left of the crown, said to be the 
badge of Cardinal Langley, Bishop of Durham from 
1406 to 1437. This coin is figured in Hawkins (332) 
[PI. X. 13]. 

The second period of the rosette mascle coinage is 
distinguished by a change in the obverse mint-mark. 
The pierced cross now disappears and for the first time 
we have the cross fleury, which has, I think, been 
erroneously called the cross patonce of heraldry, and 
which continues to be generally used in nearly all the 
later issues of this reign. The Calais coins of this issue 
[see PI. VIII. 12] with the latter mint-mark are in other 
respects similar to those previously described with rosettes 
and mascles on both obverse and reverse. All are 
common or very common excepting the halfpence and 
farthings, the latter being rare. The coins of the London 
mint are similar to those of Calais, differing from those 
with the pierced cross mint-mark in having the rosettes 
and mascles in the obverse legend, which are absent in 
the earlier coins [PI. VIII. 13]. There are groats and 
half-groats of London, both rare, the latter especially 
so. A penny is not at present known, but halfpence are 
described by Hawkins. 

There are Durham and York pence from the episcopal 
mints corresponding with this issue in its principal 
characteristics. Those of Durham have the cross fleury 
mint -mark with a rosette after ^GCRRiaVS and a 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 241 

mascle after E6CX, and on the reverse a mascle after 
DVROLSIU. There are no marks at the sides of the head 
or crown [PI. X. 15]. The York pence have the same 
characteristics on the obverse, and in addition have a 
mullet at each side of the crown. On the reverse there is 
usually a rosette before 6CBOR7TCCI and a mascle between 
GCIVI and T7VS. Some of these pence appear from their 
neat workmanship to be struck from London-made dies, 
while others are of barbarous character, suggesting local 
make or that they possibly may be contemporary for- 
geries. They appear, however, to be of good silver and 
weight. 

In describing the general characteristics of the coins 
of this issue I have noted the usual position of the 
distinguishing marks of the rosette and mascle, but they 
are occasionally in different positions in the legends, 
although probably only by accident. 

CLASS III. PINE- CONE MASCLE COINAGE. 

This is the last of the three really abundant coinages of 
this reign, and, like the two previous ones, would appear 
to have been continued for some time, although the coins 
are rather less common in general than those of either 
the annulet or rosette mascle coinages. It is also to be 
noted that the London groats at least, unlike those of the 
two previous issues, are fairly common, while the half- 
groats, although still rather rare, are probably less so 
than of any other coinage of Henry VI subsequent to the 
earliest annulet issue. There is not much difference in 
the king's portrait, although an evolutionary process may 
be observed by careful examination and comparison. The 
mascle is still retained in the same positions as on the 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. l J 



242 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

coins of the last issue, but the rosette is replaced in the 
same position by an object which has now been generally 
accepted as being a pine-cone, which it probably is. 

In passing, it may be interesting to note in this con- 
nection that at this period a certain type of conventional 
ornament, which has been variously supposed to be de- 
rived from the pineapple, the artichoke, or the pine-cone, 
possibly all three, in different cases, was very prevalent, 
and formed the basis of design for much architectural 
carving and woven silk materials, ecclesiastical em- 
broidery, decorative painting, &c. This pine-cone should 
be regarded as quite a distinct object from another 
that appears later, and which on coins sharply struck 
and not worn is distinctly seen to be a leaf; but of 
this later. Mr. Neck describes a rosette pine-cone coin- 
age, but these coins are probably only the result of an 
obverse and reverse die of the pine-cone and the rosette 
coinage being used together [PI. X. 16]. I have exam- 
ples of both an obverse and a reverse of the pine-cone 
type, with the corresponding reverse and obverse of the 
previous type, which would tend to prove that these coins 
are simply mules, and not entitled to be considered a dis- 
tinct issue. It is perhaps remarkable that groats, half- 
groats, and pence of this type are known of London, and 
groats and pence at least of Calais. In connection with 
the pine-cone coinage, a very remarkable mule occurs, of 
which there is a specimen in the National Collection, and 
I myself have another. It is struck from an obverse die 
of the pine-cone mascle coinage and a reverse die of the 
annulet coinage, and is the only example I have heard of 
in which two dies of non-consecutive issues have been 
used together. 

All denominations of coins (except probably farthings) 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 243 

of the pine-cone mascle coinage are found from the 
London mint. The pence are rare and the half-groats 
fairly so, but the groats and halfpence are common. The 
Calais groats [PI. IX. 1] are common, but the half-groats, 
pence and halfpence become scarcer with this issue, and 
the first symptoms of the decline of the Calais mint thus 
become apparent. Of this issue there is a remarkable 
York penny with no quatrefoil in the centre of the re- 
verse. This coin would thus appear to be struck at the 
royal mint, although we have no other evidence of its 
being at work at this time. Hawkins describes a penny of 
this type in the Pownall collection, with a pine-cone after 
CCIVI on the reverse. I myself have one with a pine-cone 
after IxffnBKIVS and a mascle after E6CX, with mint-mark 
cross-fleury and a rosette on the breast. Other York pence, 
resembling in general character this last coin, but with 
the quatrefoil in the centre of the reverse, are attributed by 
Hawkins, and probably rightly so, to this issue, although 
they are without the pine-cone, while having a mascle after 
EGCX on the obverse and after CCI VI on the reverse. They 
have small crosses either upright or in saltire at the sides 
of the head [PI. X. 19], which the pennies of the other 
type have not. 

It is, as I have previously remarked, during the period 
of the pine-cone mascle coinage that we notice the first 
symptoms of a decrease in the quantity of coins from the 
Calais mint. Petitions are recorded (as noted by Euding) 
to have been presented to the King in Parliament in 
1437 and 1442, which show that the mint was not then 
so prosperous as it had formerly been. The dates of 
these petitions probably come approximately within the 
duration of the issue under consideration, which, for 
reasons given later, I should fix at from 1435 to 1440, 



244 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

or perhaps a year or so later. To about the date of the 
petition of 1442 I should attribute the groats which Mr. 
Neck describes as being the last he had seen from the 
Calais mint, and he rightly describes them as rare. 
There are, however, as we now know, some of still later 
issues which are still more rare. The groats in question 
of Calais correspond with a very distinct and rare issue of 
London, which has not, I think, been sufficiently noticed 
before, the groats alone being only incidentally alluded to 
by Hawkins as varieties of the pine-cone coinage. The issue 
could only have been a small one and of brief duration, 
following the pine-cone coinage [PI. IX. 3 and 4], but 
possibly after some interval. It resembles it in some 
particulars, but is distinctively different generally. Its 
characteristics are, on the groats for mint-mark a cross 
voided in place of the cross-fleury in use for some time 
previously, and with the exception of this issue, on all 
subsequent ones up to the dethronement of Henry VI, no 
pine-cones appear, but the mascle after EGtX on the ob- 
verse, and either before or in the middle of the mint- 
name on the reverse, is still retained. In addition, a new 
distinctive mark is now found, which on well-struck coins 
can be seen to be unmistakably a leaf with stalk and 
central and lateral fibres distinctly showing, and quite a 
different object from the previous pine-cone. On the 
groats this leaf is of fairly large size, and is placed in the 
spandril of the tressure under the bust, and partially 
overlapping the point of the cusp. On the reverse it is 
at the end of the mint-name in conjunction with a small 
saltire stop, and generally overlaps the beaded circle be- 
tween the outer and inner legend. I have one Calais 
groat on which the leaf also occurs after POSVI [PI. IX. 
4], but this is exceptional, all others that I have seen 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 245 

being without any mark after POSVI, which is, how- 
ever, always preceded by the same plain cross, as on 
the pine-cone issue. A groat in my collection has a 
reverse of this type with an ordinary pine-cone obverse, 
thus showing a connecting link between the two issues. 
Of Calais there are groats only of this type, but of 
London I can instance half-groats, pence, and half- 
pence, all very rare, the halfpennies being least so. 
All have for mint-marks a plain cross with slightly 
forked ends, a leaf partly under and partly on the 
bust of the King. The half-groat [PL X. 18] has, in 
addition to the leaf in the spandril under the bust, single 
leaves after tySnRICC and DI, and two leaves, one turning 
each way, after 6ETC. There is also on the reverse a leaf 
after DOR, overlapping the beaded circle in an exactly 
similar manner to the groat. There are no mascles on 
this half- groat. The penny has a leaf after tyffRKKIVS, 
as well as on the breast of the King, but no mark on the 
reverse. The halfpence have a leaf after tydRBKI. I 
should like to call this the rose-leaf issue, as a distin- 
guishing name, if it would not too much disturb existing 
arrangements, which would probably be thought unde- 
sirable. 

At this point I will ask leave to make two digressions, 
as we have now come to the end of the three first and by far 
the largest coinages of this reign, after which, probably 
owing to the increasingly disturbed state of the kingdom, 
the coinage appears to have been very irregular, and to 
consist of comparatively small and intermittent issues. The 
first digression is a reference to the mint accounts as re- 
corded by Ruding, which, although stated to be incomplete, 
give what appears to be, in the light of the coins that have 
come down to our times, a fairly accurate statement as to 



216 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the proportion of bullion coined at the mints of London and 
Calais respectively during the earlier part of this reign, 
and from which I think it possible to approximately fix the 
dates and duration of the first two great issues which I 
have been describing. 

We find that the whole of the silver coined at Calais is 
included in the mint accounts ending with the llth year 
of Henry VI, and I here give from Ruding the amounts 
recorded to have been coined both at Calais and London 
respectively up to that date : 

London. Calais. 

s. d. Ibs. ozs. ilwK 

1422 to 1424 6,924 10 1423 to 1427 67,745 4 10 

Ibs. ozs. dwts. 

1424 to 1431 4,919 9 10 1427 to 1431 89,660 9 10 
1432 to 1433 1,466 9 10 1433 26,182 10 

After 1433, or the llth year of Henry VI, the mint 
accounts record no further bullion coined at Calais, and 
none at the London mint until the eighteenth year of the 
reign. I think it may be considered probable that the 
records up to 1433 include the first two out of the three 
great coinages which we have been considering, and allow- 
ing for possible incompleteness in the accounts, we may 
from these particulars approximately date these two great 
issues. I therefore suggest the period of 

The Annulet Coinage, earlier types 1 and 2, 1422 to 1424 

latest type . . 1424 to 1428 

The Rosette Mascle Coinage . . . 1428 to 1435 

After the llth and until the 18th year of Henry VI, 
there is, as we have seen, a blank in the mint accounts 
which appears almost certainly to indicate that some 
important records of this period must be missing. I 
believe that they must be the whole of those referring to 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 247 

the pine-cone mascle coinage, which various circumstances 
tend to locate approximately between 1435 and 1440. 
The first petition of the Commons in reference to the 
Calais mint was in 1437, which would bear out my 
remarks as to the decreasing proportion of coins of the 
pine-cone coinage from that mint, assuming that this issue 
was being struck at this period. It is, of course, possible 
that all the three first coinages occurred during the first 
eleven years of Henry VI, but in that case there would, 
according to the mint accounts, be an interval of seven 
years before the fourth or trefoil coinage, which seems 
unlikely, and is rendered the more improbable by the 
existence of mules between the third or pine-cone coinage 
and the fourth or trefoil coinage, which would hardly be 
possible if the two were separated by such a long interval. 
The second digression that I desire to make is on the 
subject of " galley halfpennies." During this and pre- 
vious reigns, but more often in this, we are struck in study- 
ing Huding by the numerous enactments against the 
currency of these coins, which must, from the frequent 
references to them, have been in very general use and in 
large quantities, for, notwithstanding all attempts to stop 
their circulation, we find strong measures were necessary 
in regard to them well into the reign of Henry VIII. 
Ruding states that these galley halfpennies derived 
their name from their being imported by the Genoese and 
Venetian merchants in their galleys, but he does not 
attempt to say what sort of coins they were. It seems to 
be assumed that notwithstanding their abundance at the 
period we are discussing, they have since so totally disap- 
peared that no trace of them can be discovered at the 
present time. This I venture to suggest is quite a 
mistake. So far as I am aware, no satisfactory explana- 



248 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

tion has, so far, been forthcoming as to the use of the 
so-called Nuremberg counters. The suggestion of their 
being counters seems only to be accepted for want of 
some better explanation, and I think this may be found 
if we identify them with the galley halfpence of the 
Middle Ages. They exist of types which from their 
character and design we can appropriate to all periods, 
from those of Edward I, II and III to that of Henry VIII 
and later, and their abundance and wide distribution is 
another reason for my attribution of them. The galley 
halfpence were used in other countries as well as our own, 
and it would be astonishing if counters for any purpose 
whatever could have been so universally required in such 
large numbers, and I hope the Society may see in my sug- 
gestion a way to the settlement of an interesting 
question. 1 

To return to the main subject of this paper, we have 
now come to about the middle of Henry VI's reign, when 
the effects of the rivalries of his relatives and councillors 
during his long minority were beginning to be disas- 
trously felt. The turn of the tide in France had well set 
in. The French King had triumphantly entered Paris 
in 1437, after it had for many years been under the domi- 
nation of England during that time Henry himself 
had been solemnly crowned in Notre-Dame as King of 
France ; but now even Normandy and the provinces of 
Aquitaine and Guyenne were held precariously, only to be 
entirely lost within the next few years. Henry himself 

1 I am glad to find that some such views as I now put 
forward have been already formed by the numismatic authorities 
at the British Museum ; although I had not heard of them 
before, and nothing of the sort had, as far as I am aware, been 
published. 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 249 



had reached the age of manhood and showed no signs of any 
of his father's qualities. He was on the contrary weak and 
swayed alternately by the advice of various counsellors 
all seeking their own ends and regardless of the welfare 
of the country. Popular discontent at the conduct of 
the French wars and of affairs generally now also began 
to be seriously felt. This generally disturbed condition 
made itself felt even on the coinage : during the latter half 
of his reign much less money would appear to have been 
coined, and both from the mint accounts given by Ruding, 
and from the coins that have come down to us we see 
that although there were many issues they were all small, 
or comparatively so. This is particularly noticeable 
between his eleventh and thirty- eighth year. It will also 
be remarked that the coins of these later issues are as a 
rule more or less carelessly and imperfectly struck, and in 
marked contrast in these respects to the coins of the large 
early coinages. I will here quote from Ruding the mint 
accounts of the silver bullion coined later than the eleventh 
year until the thirty-eighth, after which there is no 
further record. All the accounts refer to the London 
mint only. 

Amount of silver coined in the London mint after 1483 : 

1433-40 (no accounts) 

1440-41 . 

1445-46 . 

1447 

1448-50 . 

1451-52 . 

1453-54 . 

1454-56 . 

1459-60 . 

A careful examination of these accounts of bullion 
coined, together with a study of the coins we have, 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. K K 



ts) 


Ibs. 


oz. 


dwts. 




2,751 


3 


10 




207 


3 







88 


7 


5 




651 


2 


15 




9,980 


5 


17 




3,605 


5 


5 




5,469 


10 







3,103 


2 






250 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

would almost lead us to suppose that, with the exception 
of the interval between the eleventh and eighteenth 
year, together with any Calais accounts after the pine- 
cone coinage, the records are nearly, if not quite complete, 
and I should be inclined to think that each of the accounts, 
which Ruding describes as " in bundles in the Tower," re- 
presents the total amount of bullion coined during each of 
the separate issues, which, by their mint-marks and other 
special characteristics, were no doubt confined to certain 
dates. The large amounts for Henry's first eleven years 
would clearly be identified with the annulet and rosette 
coinages. The long interval between 1433 and 1440 for 
which the accounts are not forthcoming would account 
for the pine-cone coinage, and those from 1440 to 1460 
agree very well with the number of small issues of which 
we have evidence during that period. Hawkins and others 
have divided these into three groups, Classes IV, Y, and 
VI, but they could be divided into a considerably larger 
number. Unlike the first three great issues, of which 
the London and Calais coins, at least, are all practically 
identical in type and details, the later issues after the pine- 
cone coinage present a very large variety of types and 
details, it being not very easy to find two coins exactly 
alike, either in the style of the bust or the position and 
character of the distinguishing marks. All the coins of 
these later issues must have been rare previous to the great 
find of coins at Stamford in 1866, the number of which 
exceeded 3,000. Unfortunately, no careful account of 
this find appears to have been written by anyone at the 
time, but I have been told by one who saw the greater 
part of the coins that although there was a certain con- 
siderable number of Henry VFs groats of later issues, 
the bulk was of the earlier coinages. The coins of the 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 251 

later issues were, however, mostly in mint condition, and 
amongst them were several varieties previously unknown, 
notably a few from the Calais mint, which proved it to 
have been at work, in a small way at least, much later than 
had been previously supposed. 

CLASS IV. PINE-CONE TREFOIL COINAGE. 

To resume the regular consideration of the consecutive 
issues of the latter half of this reign, we must recall that 
we left off with the small and rare issue of which the 
distinguishing marks were on the groats a cross voided, 
as mint-mark, and a leaf in the spandril of the tressure 
under the bust. The mascle was still retained in both the 
obverse and reverse legends. It had survived several 
changes, and throughout several issues, but it gives way 
at last to a new mark the trefoil, which also had a 
considerable run, and like the mascle appears on several 
varieties of coins unlike in other respects. All coins with 
the trefoil in any position are however classed by Hawkins 
as one coinage, although they vary in general type as 
much, if not more, than any on which the mascle appears. 
None are common, and I think that the several varieties 
to which I shall allude may very probably be the coins of 
the issues to which the mint accounts refer between 
1445 and 1452. The earliest groat with a trefoil is a 
distinct connecting link with what I have tentatively 
called the rose-leaf issue, but it is an evolutionary type and 
not a mule. The mint-mark of the voided cross dis- 
appears and the previous cross- fleury is restored. A 
small leaf with fibres carefully indicated is placed after 
tyanRKT, DI, and GRTT on the obverse, but a trefoil takes the 
place long occupied by the mascle after K6CX. On the 



252 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

reverse, the plain cross mint-mark is continued, the mascle 
still lingers on in one of small and unassuming proportions 
between CCIYI and T7TS and there is a leaf before and a 
trefoil after LORDOR [see PL IX. 5J. The coins which I 
should place next in order are still of a transitional character 
[PI. IX. 6]. The leaf appears in the obverse legend as on 
the last coin and the trefoil after EGCX. On the reverse, 
however, the mascle no longer appears at all, but the 
trefoil in addition to appearing after LORDOn, is some- 
times found at the end or between the words of the outer 
legend. There are half-groats corresponding practically 
in all respects with these groats, but they are very rare. 
There is one in the National Collection and I have 
another myself. These earliest coins with the trefoil, like 
all those of Henry VI since the earliest annulet issue, have 
the cusp of tressure on the breast unfleured, but now a 
new and special feature is introduced of a leaf terminating 
the point of the cusp. This leaf is quite distinct and 
different from those on the rose-leaf groats. These latter 
are large and are in the spandril of the tressure under the 
bust. The leaf now introduced is smaller and forms a 
termination to the point of the cusp. The first groats 
presenting this new feature are exactly similar to those 
preceding them. The trefoil and leaf occupy the same 
positions in the obverse and reverse legends, and there is 
no variation in any other characteristic. There are half- 
groats, pence and halfpence corresponding to the groats of 
this type, but all are very rare. I may here mention that 
occasionally on all varieties of coins on which the trefoil 
appears, its position in the legends and that also of the 
leaf slightly vary. This is probably only due to accident 
or carelessness, and is not, I think, worth taking into 
consideration as a variation in type. The coins of the last 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 253 

type described, I should like to call tlie rose-leaf trefoil 
coinage. We now come to what may be called the 
trefoil coinage proper. The leaf now entirely disappears 
from the legends of the obverse and with rare exceptions 
of the reverse, and retains only its position invariably at 
the point of the cusp on the breast. The main feature 
of this issue is a rather large trefoil at each side of the 
neck of the King's bust, with a trefoil in the obverse 
legend usually after ESX, but on some examples it is 
placed at the end of the legend or omitted altogether. 
On the reverse of the London groats it is sometimes 
placed after LORDOR, but perhaps quite as often omitted 
entirely. No half-groats, pence or halfpence are known 
having the trefoil at the sides of the neck of the bust, 
although a London penny has a trefoil after the King's 
name [PL X. 21]. It has been generally assumed that 
by this time the Calais mint had ceased to coin silver. 
This is, however, an erroneous idea, as Calais groats of the 
trefoil coinage, although very rare, are now known 
[PL IX. 8]. Three in the National Collection are from 
the Stamford find, and probably nearly all the other 
known specimens are from the same source ; although 
it is to be noted that Sainthill describes one in a list he 
gives of the groats of Henry IV, V, and VI in his own 
collection. It is curious, and points to the strong probability 
of the Calais mint having been long idle, that no coins 
of any of the transitional types similar to those from the 
London mint occur. Although there are several instances 
of mules due to the employment of an obverse die of the 
full pine-cone coinage with a reverse die of the full trefoil 
coinage [see PL IX. 7], which would point to there having 
been no intermediate issues, while the fact of there being 
several distinctly intermediate types of London and, as far 



254 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

as I can discover, no instance of mules like those of 
Calais, would strongly point to there having been, as we 
assume, a considerable interval between the pine-cone and 
the trefoil coinages. 

These interesting and rare Calais groats of the trefoil 
coinage display the characteristic mark more freely than 
those of London. In addition to the trefoils at sides of 
the King's neck, they occur in the obverse legend after DI 
and 6E7V, or on some after EffX instead of 6E7V. On the 
reverse trefoils occur between VIL and LTV, after CC7VLISI6C 
and after 7VDIVTOE6C. In one case the trefoil is after 
VILL7V only, and in another in the middle instead of at 
the end of OCALISI6C. It is to be noted that these groats 
read TVRG', instead of the invariable 7VR6L' of the London 
mint. The piedfort of the Calais groat of the trefoil 
coinage is in the British Museum, and is considerably 
worn. On the one described by Sainthill he gives the 
reading tydfiEICIV. Of the mules to which I have 
alluded, I know of three, two in the British Museum, and 
one in my own cabinet. All have a regular pine-cone 
obverse with trefoil reverses, as just described, but all 
appear to be from different dies, as the number and 
position of the trefoils in the mint name vary on each 
one. This would rather show that probably from motives 
of economy, the mint being at the time in an impoverished 
condition, a number of old obverse dies were purposely 
made use of to save expense. Another peculiarity of the 
Calais trefoil groat is that the reverse mint-mark is for 
the first time a cross-fleury, while those of London 
still continue the plain cross, so long in use, or have none 
at all. I have, it is true, one London groat with a cross- 
fleury on the reverse, but it is quite exceptional, and the 
only instance I have seen. In Ruding's description of 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 255 

places of mints and exchange, he states that a certain Giles 
Seyntlowe, Armiger, was, in May, 1437, appointed Con- 
troller of the Town of Calais and of the mint there, but 
that, owing to some irregularity in the letters patent, he 
did not obtain possession until November of the same 
year. In 1444 he resigned his patent into Chancery, and 
the King granted him a new one. This would seem to 
imply that although he had no doubt tried to make the 
appointment profitable, the decayed state of the mint (of 
which we have evidence in the petition of the Commons 
in 1442) rendered it impossible, and he probably obtained 
his patent of 1444 on terms which he hoped would prove 
more advantageous. This would be about the date to 
which we may almost certainly attribute the Calais groats 
of the trefoil coinage, and they probably represent a sort 
of spurt that was put on in Seyntlowe's no doubt unsuc- 
cessful endeavour to revive the prosperity and profits of 
the mint. In 1445 other officers of the mint appear to 
have been appointed, probably owing to Seyntlowe's want 
of success, and again others in 1446. However, Seynt- 
lowe (now spelt Seynchlowe) was again appointed in 
1452, which seems to imply that those who had pre- 
viously succeeded him had not done as well as even he had. 
Of this last appointment I shall have more to say pre- 
sently. 

To return to the London coins of the trefoil coinage. 
During what I consider its later phases the trefoil is re- 
tained at the sides of the bust, but with rare exceptions 
disappears from both obverse and reverse legends. One 
curious variety has the trefoil on either side of the bust so 
placed as to form terminals to the cusp points in place of 
the ordinary fleurs [see PI. IX. 10]. Another scarce type 
of this issue has the small spandrils between the circle 



256 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

and the cusps of the treasure filled by pointed trefoils re- 
presenting the piercings of architectural tracery [PI. IX. 9], 
as on the reverse of the nobles and half-nobles. There 
are three specimens of this coin in the National Col- 
lection, all from the Stamford find, previous to which 
it was probably unknown. The latest groats of this coin- 
age have a pellet at each side of the crown and occasionally 
in two quarters of the reverse, thus forming a connecting 
link with the succeeding coinage. The various issues of 
the trefoil coinage may with a fair degree of certainty be 
placed between 1440 and 1450. The mint accounts for 
this period show several small amounts of bullion coined 
in different years, which may correspond with and account 
for the rather numerous varieties of coins upon which 
the trefoil appears, which previous to the Stamford find 
must have been of considerable rarity, and of which even 
now specimens are not in any instance common. 

There are a few groats which Hawkins places at the 
end of Class IV, but which are very difficult to locate 
satisfactorily. They have no characteristic marks what- 
ever on the obverse. The mint-mark is a cross-fleury, 
the cusp of tressure on breast is not fleured, and there is 
no leaf on the breast. On the reverse there is no mint- 
mark, but there is a small additional pellet in each quarter 
[see PI- IX- 12]. Some specimens have only the ad- 
ditional pellet in two quarters. The pellets appear to 
connect these groats with the next coinage, but the ab- 
sence of a leaf on the breast and the style of bust are 
more suggestive of their issue shortly after the pine-cone 
period. Perhaps these groats may belong to one of the 
small issues of 1445-46 or 1447, as they are very rare. I 
believe that all the specimens of these groats were derived 
from the Stamford find. 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 257 

CLASS Y. PINE-CONE PELLET COINAGE. 

The trefoil now entirely disappears, but the small 
pellets which we found on some of the coins of the 
issue and the leaf on the breast remain and form the 
distinguishing marks of the next period. A decided 
change takes place in the bust, which is placed higher up 
and has a shorter neck, showing more of the breast, which 
is indicated by two strongly defined arched lines. On the 
London coins the mint-mark continues to be the cross- 
fleury, but on the reverse there is none. The earliest 
examples of groats without the trefoil have only the pellets 
at each side of the crown on the obverse, but the usual 
type is that having them in two quarters of the reverse as 
well, The few varieties of this type which we find are, I 
believe, unintentional and merely due to the irregular and 
careless spacing out of the letters. We have, for instance, 
some without a mint-mark at all, but this appears to be 
solely due to want of space. The usual inscription of these 
groats with the leaf or the point of the cusp of the tressure 
on the breast continues to be fiGCRRia DI 6K7t RffX 7TR6L 
Z FRTinCC [PI. XI. 1] ; the latter word is, however, at times 
variously spelt FETTRff, FE7VR, FR7VI6C, and FETVnaia 
(M. B.). I should locate this issue at about 1450, and 
probably the rather large amount of bullion (for these later 
issues) given in the mint accounts for 1451-52 (9,980 Ibs.) 
was employed in its coinage. 

In connection with this coinage we find for the last time 
a groat from the Calais mint. From its being in mint 
condition, I believe it to have come from the Stamford 
find, and I have neither seen nor heard of another like it. 
This groat resembles in all respects those which I have 
just been describing of London, with the exception that 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. L L 



258 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

there are no pellets either at the sides of the crown or 
additional ones in any quarters of the reverse [PI. XI. 2]. 
It has a cross-fleury mint-mark before POSVI, which is very 
unusual for this coinage, although I have alluded to an 
exceptional London groat with the same characteristic. 
It has no distinguishing mark either in the legend or 
elsewhere save the leaf on the point of the cusp under the 
breast. It is noticeable that the first four letters of CCTVLISIff 
appear to be struck over CCIVf or SIVI, which would rather 
indicate that the makers of the dies were now so un- 
accustomed to make any for Calais that they found it 
difficult to avoid punching the letters of the (at this period) 
almost invariable diVITTSS LORDCR. I consider this 
groat of the greatest interest, as it proves that the Calais 
mint coined at least a small amount of money up to 
quite late in the reign of Henry VI and considerably after 
the date of any other known examples. 

I alluded previously to the re-appointment, in 1452, for 
the third time, and after some considerable interval, of 
Giles Seyntlowe, or Seynchlowe, to the mastership of the 
Calais mint, and as from the few records we have, we may 
infer that he was a man of some energy, I think we 
may not improbably assume this groat to be a specimen of 
a small issue resulting from an attempt by him to restore 
the activity and prosperity of the mint. It must by this 
time, however, have been in a very bad way indeed, and 
probably too far decayed to make permanent revival 
possible, for we read in Ruding that in the Parliament of 
1454 the Commons represented that for want of enforcing 
the statutes relating to the staple at Calais, the mint there 
was like to stand void, desolate, and to be destroyed. 
This groat then, I think, we may safely assume to be one 
of the very last that was issued from the Calais mint, and 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 259 

that its date is between 1452 and 1454. It, as it were, 
closes a most interesting chapter of history, for although 
Calais remained for another century under English 
dominion, 110 sovereign after Henry VI struck any coins 
at its mint, which, after a period of brilliant prosperity, 
when it produced almost the whole of the money coined 
for all England, now sinks completely into an oblivion 
from which it never again emerged. 

We have now arrived at what I may call the second 
type of Class V, or the " pine-cone pellet coinage " (to 
keep to the classification of Hawkins), when two changes 
occur which, although not very striking to a casual 
observer, distinctly mark a new departure at the mint. 
The leaf on the point of the cusp on the breast is now 
placed on the neck immediately under the chin, and the 
point of the cusp on the breast is fleured like the other 
cusps. The obverse legend now almost always reads 7VR6LI 
FRTYnd, but occasionally 7VR6LI Z FRTYnd instead of as 
formerly, 7VR6L Z FBTVRCC. No mint-mark ever appears 
now on the reverse, but the additional pellets in two quarters 
and on the obverse at each side of the crown occur 
almost invariably. The groats of this and the previous 
issue, although not very common, are fairly numerous ; the 
latter class I should, from reference to the mint accounts, in 
addition to other reasons, place between 1453 and 1456. 
The bust varies considerably on groats of this coinage, but 
otherwise there is little change to note ; the most remark- 
able variety of which I am aware being a groat in the 
National Collection with a star of four points, or perhaps 
two saltires, on either side of the King's bust [PI- XI. 5] ; 
otherwise it is exactly similar to the groats last described. 
It is figured in Hawkins [Suppl., PI. VII. 644]. The half- 
groats of this coinage are very rare. There is one in the 



260 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

British Museum Collection [PI. XI. 4] exactly correspond- 
ing with the groats with mint-mark cross-fleury, leaf on 
breast, and the pellets at sides of crown and in quarters of 
reverse. I myself have one without the pellets on the 
obverse, but with them on the reverse. The obverse 
legend reads 7TR6LI FKTtnd Z, the last letter being most 
exceptional. Hawkins states that " there is no London 
penny of Class V. known." One is, however, described in 
the catalogue of the Montagu Collection (lot 555, second 
portion), and I have two varieties in my own cabinet. 
All have the leaf on the breast and the pellets at the 
sides of the crown, but the Montagu coin and one of my 
own are without the additional pellets in the two quarters 
of the reverse [PI. XI. 6], but the other has them. All have 
for mint-mark the cross-fleury and read tySnRICC R6CX * 
TtnGLI * and on the reverse dlVlTTTS LORDOR. There are 
also pence of the ecclesiastical mints of both York and 
Durham of this class, both rare, those of York being 
perhaps the rarest [PI. XI. 10]. These latter have the 
same mint-mark, legend and other characteristics as those 
of London, save the name of the place of mintage. They 
are mostly without any extra pellets in the quarters of the 
reverse. The Durham pence have, like those of London 
and York, the leaf on the breast and the pellets at the sides 
of the crown. On the reverse they usually have the well- 
known badge of Bishop Nevill, the two interlaced rings in 
the centre of the cross. There are some, however, without it 
and also without the leaf on the breast ; they read DVROLin 
and Hawkins puts them in Class IV., although they have 
the pellets at the sides of the crown and read 7TRGLI F. 
Those struck after 1457 have a cross in saltire to the left and 
the letter B at the right of the neck on the obverse for 
Bishop Booth, who was bishop from 1457 to 1476 [PI. XI. 13]. 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 261 

These latter may possibly be more correctly placed in the 
next and latest coinage, but they have the leaf on the breast 
or neck, which is in no other instance found in Class VI. 
Some have the pellets on the reverse united by lines so as 
to form triangles. There are halfpence and farthings of 
London of this coinage, the latter being very rare. 

CLASS VI. CROSS AND PELLET COINAGE. 

We now come to the last coinage of which other de- 
nominations than groats are known, and which (again 
being guided by the mint accounts) may most probably 
be assigned to 1459-60. As is well known, the leading 
characteristic of this coinage is the small cross in saltire 
on the King's neck, which, together with the pellets at the 
sides of the crown and in two quarters of the reverse, are 
never absent on the coins of any denomination ; of which 
each one, from the groat to the farthing, is to be found. 
All but the groats are very rare, and even these are 
rather rare. There are several varieties of the groat. 
Some have a small mullet or star of five points usually 
either at the end of the obverse legend or after POSVI 
[PI. XI. 7]. Others have mascles in the obverse legend 
usually after ^GCnRICC and GRTt, but occasionally after 
FKTtnCC [PI. XI. 9J. I have one with the mascles in 
these three positions, but without any mint-mark. A 
very curious groat of this type is figured in Ruding, Sup- 
plement, PI. I., No. 41. It is described as of Henry IV, 
and has an object after tyffnRKI which strongly resem- 
bles the Arabic figure 4, as it appears on the Perkin 
Warbeck groat and elsewhere [PI. XI. 11]- Kuding states 
in a note that the authenticity of this coin is extremely 
doubtful, and that " it first appeared in Withy's plates 
from the communication of Mr. John White, and is not," 



262 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

he believes, " now known to exist." Hawkins alludes to 
this coin as a blundered or altered coin, but, apparently 
without the plate before him, seems to refer to the cross 
on the breast. 

It so happens that I myself have a groat of Henry VI 
of the issue under consideration, which has the same 
figure after the name as the one in Ruding. It is, of 
course, possible that mine may be the identical coin so 
long lost sight of, although it seems hardly likely. If it 
is not, and mine is another coin, it would be an argu- 
ment against its being an altered coin. It certainly is a 
genuine groat of Class VI, but what the object after 
^ffRRIOC is, I am unable to suggest. It may possibly be 
an alteration, but if so, it is cleverly done. Perhaps 
some member of the Society may be able to suggest an 
explanation, now that the actual coin is forthcoming, 
after being so long lost sight of. 

The half-groats of this issue are almost identical in 
type with the groats, but the mint-mark is a plain cross 
and there is a star after tydRKKI, but not elsewhere 
[PL XI. 8]. The three pellets in the quarters of the reverse 
are joined trefoilwise. The penny is figured in Hawkins 
(No. 333). It has mascles after rjdnma and ESX 
[PI. XI. 12]. There are York pence of this type with 
a small cross in saltire at each side of the neck. They are 
rare, but much less so than those of London. The groats 
almost invariably, and the half -groats always, read 
TtnGLI FET^nCC, while the pence and halfpence read 
E6CX 7^I76LI. The Durham pence of Bishop Booth may 
also belong to this coinage, but having the leaf on the 
breast they vary from all other coins of the issue, and 
they are also without the extra pellets in the quarters 
of the reverse. 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. 263 

Amongst the groats in the Stamford find there were 
a few of a type thought to be previously unknown and 
which must have been struck immediately previous to 
the accession of Edward IY, as the same types are found 
on his earliest heavy groats, and were known before 
similar ones of Henry VI were discovered. The special 
characteristic of these groats is their having a fleur- 
de-lis on the neck in place of the saltire cross, while, 
although exceptional, a few examples have also a mint- 
mark on the reverse before POSVI, a feature long dis- 
continued, but which was revived by Edward IY and 
continued by his successors. Of the two examples known 
of this reverse mint-mark on these latest groats of 
Henry YI one is a plain cross, and is described by 
Hawkins as in the Pownall Collection. The other is in 
my own collection and has a small lis before POSVI 
[PI. XI. 14]. It is to be noted that heavy groats of 
Edward IY occur with precisely the same reverse mint- 
marks as these Henry YI groats and are much less rare, 
showing that they must have immediately followed them 
without presumably any interval. No half-groats or 
lesser coins of Henry YI have appeared with the lis 
on the neck, but the heavy half- groat and halfpenny of 
Edward IY with this characteristic is known. 

The light coinage issued during the short restoration of 
Henry YI in 1470 is so entirely unconnected with any 
of his previous issues that it appears to me to be out 
of place to allude to it here. It rather seems as if it 
should be treated either by itself or as part of the coinage 
of the reign of Edward IY. 

FREDK. A. WALTERS. 



264 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

REFERENCES TO PLATES. 

PLATE VIII. 
Annulet Coinage. 

1. London groat of Henry V with M.M. pierced cross, type I. 

2. London half-groat of Henry V with M.M. pierced cross, 

type I. 

8. York groat of Henry VI with M.M. pierced cross, type II. 
4. York half-penny of Henry VI with M.M. pierced cross, 

type II. 
6. London groat of Henry VI of earliest type, similar to the 

York groat. 

6. Calais groat of Henry VI of earliest type, similar to the 

York groat. 

7. Calais groat of Henry VI of slightly later type, reading 

AR6L'. 

8. London groat of third and latest annulet type. 

9. Calais groat of third and latest annulet type. 

10. Calais groat of transition type or " annulet rosette " 

coinage. 

Rosette-Mascle Coinage. 

11. London groat of first type, M.M. pierced cross, rosettes on 

reverse only. 

12. Calais groat of second type, M.M. cross fleury, rosettes 

both sides. 

13. London groat similar in all respects to last. 

PLATE IX. 

1. Calais groat of pine-cone mascle coinage. 

2. London groat of pine-cone mascle coinage. 

8. London groat with M.M. cross voided, leaf in spandril 
under bust. 

4. Calais groat of similar type to last. 

5. London groat of transition type on which the mascle, leaf 

and trefoil marks all appear. 

6. London groat with leaf on breast, trefoils and leaves in 

legend. 

7. Calais groat with pine-cone obverse and trefoil reverse. 

8. Calais groat of the trefoil coinage. 

9. London groat of the trefoil coinage, pointed trefoils in 

spandrils of treasure. 

10. London groat of trefoil coinage, trefoils forming points to 
cusps at sides of bust. 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY TI. 265 

11. London half-groat with trefoils and leaves in legend. 

12. London groat with no distinguishing mark, small extra 

pellets in four quarters of reverse. 

PLATE X. 

1. London annulet half-groat of Henry VI., earliest issue, 

M.M. pierced cross, type II. 

2. London annulet penny, same issue. 

3. Durham annulet penny. 

4. Calais annulet penny, earliest type, M.M. pierced cross, 

type II. 

5. London annulet half-groat, second type, M.M. cross not 

pierced. 

6. London annulet penny, second type, M.M. cross not 

pierced. 

7. London annulet half-groat, third type, reverse legend ends 

mecvm. 

8. Calais penny, last annulet type. 

9. Calais penny, annulet trefoil issue, trefoil to left of crown. 

10. London penny, rosette mascle coinage ; mascle before, 

rosette after LORDOR, unique ? 

11. London half-groat rosette mascle coinage, first type, M.M. 

plain cross. 

12. Calais half-groat, rosette mascle coinage, second type, M.M. 

cross-fleurie. 

13. Durham penny, rosette mascle coinage, first type. 

14. Calais farthing, rosette mascle coinage. 

15. Durham penny, rosette mascle coinage, second type.' 

16. Calais penny with rosette obverse and pine-cone reverse. 

17. Calais half-groat, pine-cone mascle coinage. 

18. London half-groat, leaf under bust and in legend corre- 

sponding with groats 3 and 4, Plate IX. 

19. York penny, pine-cone mascle coinage. 

20. London penny corresponding with half -groat No. 18. 

21. London penny, trefoil coinage, trefoil after ^eCRBICC. 

PLATE XL 

1. London groat, pine-cone pellet coinage, leaf on breast. 

2. Calais groat, same coinage. The last struck at Calais. 

3. London groat of later issue, with leaf on neck. 

4. London half-groat of pine-cone pellet coinage. 

5. London groat, same coinage, saltires at sides of bust, M.B. 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. M M 



266 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

6. London penny, same coinage, said by Hawkins to be 

unknown. 

7. London groat, cross and pellet coinage. 

8. London half-groat, same issue. 

9. London groat, same coinage, mascles in obverse legend. 

10. York penny, pine-cone pellet coinage, leaf on breast. 

11. London groat of cross and pellet coinage with peculiar 

mark Q after ^eCHEICC. See Buding, Supplement, 
Plate I, No. 41. 

12. London penny of cross and pellet coinage. 
18. Durham penny of Bishop Booth, latest type. 

14. Last London heavy groat of Henry VI, corresponding in 
every respect, but the name, with some of the first 
heavy groats of Edward IV ; lis on neck and before 
POSVI on reverse. 



XVII. 

SOME RARE ORIENTAL COINS. 
(See Plate XII) 

I. KHALIFS OP BAGHDAD. 

THE following coins of the Umayyad and Abbasi Khalifs 
which are in my collection, being mostly unpublished 
varieties, appear to be worth noticing in the Chronicle 
in somewhat the same way as was done in the Fasti 
Arabici of Mr. S. Lane - Poole in the years 1885 - 87. 
They are not to be found in the Catalogues of the 
Oriental Coins in the British, Paris, Berlin, or Cairo 
National Collections, nor in the Fasti Arabici. Some of 
them are, however, included in Tiesenhausen's "Monnaies 
des Khalifes Orientaux" ; reference in these cases is given 
as (Ties. No.). 

UMAYYAD KHALIFS. 
Istakhar. 79 M. ,j~x?~i is written _y JJJJ . 

90 JR. ( jz* M ^ distinctly written. 
Annulets, o . oooo. [PI. XII, 1,] 

al Biyan. 81^1. ^LJlj. Annulets, ooooo. 

Biyan was on the "Blind Tigris," the present Shatt al 
Arab, just above the junction of the Nahr Dujayl with 
it, that is, some 30 miles east and a little north of Basra. 

[PL XII, 2.] 



268 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Jayy. 82 JR. ^^^tjj ^\ <Li-j. Similar to Tiesenhausen, 
No. 299, on which is the same spelling of the unit 
of date. 

Junday Sabur. 91 JR. (Ties. 361.) 

Dastawa. 92 JR. al-Rayy. 81, 82 JR. Sijistan. 91 JR. 
(Ties. 353.) 



Suk al Taimarah. 81 JR. 

The lettering is not very good, but there seems little 
doubt about the reading of the mint place, although ^j~> 
is put for jjji- Wk^l is also a misspelling. Suk does 
not appear to have been noticed on a coin prefixed to 
Taimarah. This is apparently the same as the coin 
read as Sok Morra by Tornberg in Nummi Cufici. 

[PI. XII, 3.] 

Farab or Furat. 82 JR. The latter is probably the right 
reading and is that adopted by Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole, 
who writes Furat, " the Arabic name of the Euphrates; 
but here meaning a town on the eastern bank of the 
estuary of the Euphrates and Tigris, facing Ubulla " 
(Cat. of Arabic Coins at Cairo, p. 20, footnote). Lavoix 
and others read Farab, which is given in Yakut as 
" a town of Ardistan in the Province of Ispahan." 

JCumix. 92 JR. Described in the Journal of the Bombay 
Asiatic Society, vol. xvi, 1883, p. 98. 

Mah al Basra. 79 JR. Mah al Basra is known as a mint of 
the Abbasides aid Samanis, but has not until now been 
seen on such an early coin as this. [PL XII, 4.] 

Afarv. 79 JR. With Marv in Pahlvi characters below last line 
of Obv. 84 JR. Of very inferior workmanship and 
lettering, Marv in Pahlvi below Obv. 



SOME RARE ORIENTAL COINS. 269 

Connecting Link. 
Sabur. 129 JR. Obv. Inner marg. inscrip. : 

^jti\ ^ teyt\ 1\ \^\ ^ fO-U JJ 

Outer marg. inscrip. : 



<Uj O ^.MS-j _AM fc*~> jjUuJ <^Jj^> O < tfU^ 

[PI. XII, 5.] 

Marv. 130 ^R,. Obv. Inner marg. inscrip. as on last coin. 
Outer marg. inscrip. : 

< 



oo <j ^j oo xj jj-xtJ oo (Jbij k& oo 

[PI. XII, 6.] 

ABBASI KHALIFS. 

AL-SAFFAH. Junday Sabur. 135 JR. Obv. Annulets, ooo ooo ooo. 
Rev. <OJ1 



. Ghurshistan. 137 JR. This remarkable coin was 
described in Num. Chron., Vol. XIV, 1894, p. 88. It 
is now figured in the accompanying plate. 

[PI. XII, 7.] 

AL-MAHDI. Basra. 164 JR. Obv. as Brit. Mus. No. 97. 
Rev. as Brit. Mus. No. 98. 

Madinat al Salam. 162 JR. As Brit. Mus. No. 126, but 
with one pellet above and two beneath Rev. area. 

AL-HADI. Afrikiya. 170 JR. Obv. as Brit. Mus. No. 161. 
Rev. Area : 



Abovey. Beneath A. (Ties. 1,100.) 
AL-EASHID. Arran. 190 ^R. Oi?. Annulets, ooooo. 



270 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Rev. Area <dl! | J^> | X^sf 

Above <Ujjrk. Beneath /;^>- ^ (Ties. 1,484.) 
Khazimah b. Khazim was appointed Governor in Armenia 
A.H. 183. 

Arminiyah. 181 JR. Obv. Annulets, oo oo oo. 
Rev. Area ( j^L M ^\ j^f. Jj /v^"*^ *^\ \ J^-) Jc*^ 

Above ^ Ju*j . Beneath *L. (Ties. 1,332.) 
Said b. Salm was appointed Governor of al-Jazira, 
A.H. 180 (8. Lane-Poole). 

Misr. 180 JR. Obv. Annulets, oo o oo o oo o oo o. 

Rev. Area J- ; <ulc | *U\ ^a <dJl J^ JL^S^ 
Above -^. Beneath 7 Ju^- r. (Ties. 1,282.) 



Mad in Bajunis. 191 ^R. Similar to Cairo Museum No. 515, 
but pellet beneath J^^J and point above <O on Rev. 

Madinat al Salam. 185 M. As Brit. Mus. No. 218, but 
annulets, ooooo. 

A i,- A MIX. Limask. 198 M. Obv. Annulets, 000. 
Rev. Area : 



Above Jk^sr*. Beneath jj-^o li ^. [PI. XII, 8.] 

Similar to Ties. 1,705 of doubtful year. 

Madinat Samarkand. 193 JR. Obv. Annulets, o O O O O. 
Rev. area as Brit. Mus. No. 238 of the year 194, but 

without ^Jl beneath. 



Madinat Nisabur. 193 M. As Brit. Mus. No. 245, without 

^AAC beneath Rev. area. 
194 M. As Brit. Mus. No. 245 of the year 193. 



SOME RARE ORIENTAL COINS. 271 

196 ^R. Same pattern, but nothing beneath Rev. area. 

Madinat al Salam. 194 JR. Obv. Annulets, O oo O oo o oo. 
Rev. area as Brit. Mus. No. 240 of the year 193. 

L-MAMUN. Madinat Isbakan. 207 JR. As Brit. Mus. No. 279, 
but beneath Rev. area o ,^r. 

Basra. 199 JR. Obv. Annulets, O oo O oo O oo. 



Rev. Area 



Rafikah. 200 ^R. 
Point t-r^-tf . 
Rev. Area dU! 



ail 

**J s 

(Ties. 1,692.) 
Annulets, ooo ooo ooo. 



. Beneath yt> Us . 

[PI. XII, 9.] 



209 JR. Obv. Second marginal inscription. 



Rev. Area <dJ1 



aJJ . Nothing beneath. 



Samarkand. 204 ^R. As Brit. Mus. No. 289, but without 
)UH beneath .R^. area. (Ties. 1,762.) 

Marv. 199 JR. Obv. Second marginal inscription. 
below area. 



Rev. Area .^ 



<dl! 



215 JR. Obv. Nothing beneath area. 
Rev. <d 



<d) 
(Ties. 1,698.) 



Madin Bajunis. 19|9| 
Rev. Area ~ 



djj only. 

. Annulets, oooooo. 



AL-"WATHIK. Muhammadiyah. 228 ^R. 

AI-MUTAWAKKIL. ^arr w Ran. 239 ,R. (Ties. 1,900.) 



272 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



Sarra min Rao,. 258 JR. Similar to Brit. Mus. 
No. 872 of the year 257, j*x>- above and * beneath 
Rev. area. 

Madinat al Salam. 274 JR. (Ties. 2,082.) 

AL-MuATADn>. Rafikoh, 288 JR. Sarra min Raa, 283 M. 
Mosil, 283 JR. Nisabin, 282 JR. (Ties. 2,127), 283 JR, 
288 ;R (Ties. 2,156). Ramadan, 286 A. 

AL-MUKTAFI. Masisah, 292 .AT. Isbahan, 292 ./R. Ahwax, 
294 jR. 2?o*r, 290 jR. TVwfar aJ Ahwaz, 292 ^R. 
Dimask, 294 ^R. ^a* o^ -4ym, 291 yR; beneath Obv. 
area JU^jJl ^. Rafikah, 291, 294 ^R. Suk al Ahwaz, 
292 ^R. Kufah, 295 ^R. JKb7, 295 ^R. (Ties. 2,205.) 



. al-Earkh, 318.A7. 
Obv. Area : 



Rev. Area <d)b ^JcJuJ! dll Jj-y | J*-*^* | <dl 
Nothing beneath. The final letter of the mint name is 
not very distinct, but appears to be similar to that on the 
dinar figured in the Paris Catalogue No. 1,130, of the 
year 308. 

Madinat al Salam. 317 N. As Brit. Mus. No. 419, but 
there are no pellets on either side. 

Shirax. 302, 306, M. No point on Rev. 

Muhammadiyah. 311 JR. Obv. Area as usual. Two rings 
outside the outer marginal legend with four small 
annulets. 
Rev. Area : 



[PL XII, 10.] 



SOME RARE ORIENTAL COINS. 



273 



Madinat al Salam. 300 M, as Brit. Mus. No. 438, but no 
points below Rev. 301 M, as Brit. Mus. No. 439, but 
two points instead of one below Rev. 303 M, one point 
above and one below Obv. area. Two points below Rev. 
area. 303 JR, crescent above and point below Obv. 
Two points below Rev. 304 M, nothing above or below 
Obv. i below Rev. 305 M, crescent above and point 
below Obv. o below Rev. 306 M, as Brit. Mus. 
No. 442, but no pellet below Rev. 308 M, as Brit. Mus. 
No. 442i, but <j below Rev. 308 M, as Brit. Mus. 
No. 442#, but nothing below Rev. 



No mint. 302 M. Obv. Area 

Margin <LUdJ 
-Rw. Area <d!b 
Margin alJl 



(jw 



L*!i 



> H-] 



Mekka. 325 tf. 

v. Area _ *5 < j 

C 

Area <d!b ,5-^ 

This remarkable coin was sent to me a short time ago 
by Mr. Howland from Paris ; it was given to him as 
a Persian coin, and had been worn on a watch chain. 
There is an imperfect dinar of this mint in the Royal 
Museum at Berlin of the year 289, and another in the 
Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, dated 25 x 

[PL XII, 12.] 

Basra. 328 Si. 
Obv. Area : 



(Ties. 2,435.) 



NN 



Nisilin. 323 Si. (Ties. 2,404.) 

VOL. II. FOUB.TH SERIES. 



274 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

AMIE AL "UMARA, TTTZTTN. Madinat al Salam. 333 N. Described 
but not figured in my " Some Eare and Unedited Arabic 
and Persian Coins," 1889. [PI. XII, 13.] 

Madinat al Salam. 333 M, as Tornberg, Symbolce, part iii, 
No. 70. 

0. CODRINGTON. 



XVIII. 

SOME COINS OP THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 
(See Plates XIII., XIV., and Map.) 

THE first authoritative and exhaustive catalogue of the 
coins of the Mughal Empire was that of the splendid 
collection of the British Museum published in 1892. 
This catalogue described over 1,400 coins: in many 
respects the collection is unrivalled, and it is likely to 
remain so. But its publication, by furnishing a standard 
of comparison, has been instrumental in bringing to light a 
great number of hitherto undescribed coins, and in illus- 
trating the apparently inexhaustible variety of this series. 
The late Mr. C. J. Rodgers was for some years the chief 
labourer in this field, and his catalogues of the Mughal 
coins in the Lahore Museum (the collection made by 
himself and purchased by the Panjab Government) and 
of the collection in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, which 
were respectively published in 1893 and 1894, went far 
to supplement the deficiencies of the National Collection, 
especially in the department of the copper coins. This 
branch, relating especially to the copper coins of Akbar's 
time, was further very exhaustively dealt with by him in 
his article on Mughal copper coins in the Journal of the 



276 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Bengal Asiatic Society, 1895, and another entitled " Bare 
Mughal Coins," in the same journal in 1896. Several 
Mughal coins are also included in Captain Yost's article 
in the J. A. S. B., 1895, " On some rare Muhammadan 
Coins " ; and in 1896 appeared in the Numismatic Chronicle 
" Some Novelties in Mughal Coins," by Mr. L. White 
King and Capt. Yost, in which several interesting coins 
from Mr. White King's cabinet were described. 

The Lahore Museum Catalogue is especially full and 
interesting, and it is much to be regretted that it is 
without illustrations. The Indian Museum Catalogue is also 
very inadequately illustrated, only thirty-one coins being 
given (in Plates I. and II., Part II). Mr. Rodgers' other 
articles are fully illustrated with outline lithographs from 
his own drawings. Capt. Yost's article is accompanied by 
two plates in photo-etching, which are not very clear, 
while Mr. White King's is illustrated by two excellent 
autotype plates. 

The coins described in this paper are all from my own 
cabinet. With the exception of Nos. 16, 17, 23, 26, 42, 
68 and 70 they are, as far as I can ascertain, unedited, and 
none of them have been figured with the exception of 
Nos. 42 and 68. 

New mints will be found under the names of most of 
the Kings from the time of Aurangzeb onwards. Nothing 
illustrates more remarkably the extraordinary extent and 
variety of the Mughal coinage than the number of new 
mints which have been brought to light since the publi- 
cation of the British Museum Catalogue. On pp. xlvii 
to 1 of the introduction of that catalogue, Mr. S. Lane- 
Poole gave a statement showing the mints represented 
under the name of each sovereign from Babar to Bahadur 
Shah II, and it will be interesting to supplement that 



SOME COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 277 



statement by a further list derived from the authorities 
quoted above, showing the mints since added. 1 



No. of Mints in B. M. C. 

Babar . 
Humayun 
Kamran . 
Akbar 



Mints since added. 

1 Agra, Urdu, Jaunpur, Kabul . 4 
1 Agra, Debli, Kabul, Qandahar . 4 
Kabul, Qandahar . . . 2 
24 Ajmer, Akbarpur, Audh, Atak- 
Banaras, Bandar-Shahi, Ban- 
gala, Bhakhar, Chitor, Hisar, 
Kalpi, Lakhnau, Bahraich, Ja- 
lalpur, Lahri-Bandar, Qanauj, 
Saharanpur, Sherpur, Sitpur, 
Srmagar, Surat, Ujjain,Alwar, 
Govindpur, Dewal, Manghir, 
Gorakhpur, Kalanur, Chunar, 
Amirkot . . . .29 

Jahanglr . . 14 Ahmadnagar, Elichpur, Jalair, 

Bairat, Mandu, Zafarnagar, 
Panjnagar ... .7 

Shah Jahan I . .20 Bairat, Bhilsa, Ahmadnagar, 

Khambayat, Lakhnau, Narnol, 
TJjjain 7 

Aurangzeb . . 27 Ahmadabad, 'Azimabad, Bhak- 
har, Haidarabad,Imtiyazgarh, 
Jahangirnagar, Kashmir, Kul- 
barga, Makhuabad, Muham- 
madabad, Muradabad, Murshi- 
dabad, Sarhind, Sholapur, 
Bandar - Mubarak (Surat), 
Ujjain, Mailapur, Ahsanabad, 
Hasnabad (probably the same 
as Ahsanabad with initial 
letter omitted), A'azamnagar, 
Islamabad . . . .21 

1 In this article the following abbreviations have been used : 

L. M. Lahore Museum Catalogue. 1894. 
I. M. Indian Museum Catalogue. 1894. 
B. M. British Museum Catalogue. 1892. 

R. Mr. C. J. Rodgers. Various articles in J. A. S. B. 

V. Capt. W. Vost in J. A. S. B. 1895. 

K. Mr. L. White King and Capt. W. Vost in Num. Chron. 

1896. 
E. D. History of India. Elliott and Dowson. 1867-1877. 



278 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. of Mints in B. M. C. 

Bahadur Shah I .11 



Jahandar . . 4 



Farrukh-siyar . 21 
(Including Jahan - 
girnagar (No. 908) 
which is omitted in 
the list on p. Ixix.) 

Kafl'u'd-darjat . 6 
(Including Kora 
(No. 942) not 
given on p. xlix.) 

Shah Jahan II . 8 

Muhammad Shah . 20 



Ahmad Shah . 



. 7 



Shah Jahan III . 5 

'Alamglrll . . 8 

(Including 'Azim- 

abad, No. 1088, 

not given on p. 1.) 

Shah 'Alam . .16 

(Including Arkat ; 

see Cat. p. 239, 

not given on p. 1.) 



Mints since added. 

Sarhind, Zafarabad, Tatta, 
Etawa, Chinapatan, Bareli, 
Khambayat, Narnol, Elichpur, 
Kabul, Lakhnau, Murshidabad, 
Karimabad, Ahmadnagar, Kul- 
barga . . . . .15 

Mustaqarru'1-Mulk, Khamba- 
yat, Lakhnau, Lahore, Bur- 
hanpur, Kulbarga . . 6 

Khujista-bunyad, Tatta, Sar- 
hind, Lakhnau, Mustaqarru'l- 
Mulk, Etawa, Ujjain, Islama- 
bad, Elichpur, Mailapur, 
Bankapur, Kabul . . .12 

Kabul, Multan, Gwaliar, Zinatu'l- 
bilad, Etawa, Murshidabad . 6 



Islamabad, Tatta, Indarpur . 8 
Ajmer, Gwaliar, Sarhind, Bur- 
hanpur, Akhtarnagar - Audh 
(given in B. M., but described 
as Akbarnagar-Audh, No. 
985), Ahmadabad, Peshawar, 
Multan, Dera, Atak, Kham- 
bayat, Arkat, Jahanglrnagar, 
Chinapatan, Muhammadahad, 
Qamarnagar, Firoznagar, 
Elichpur, Hafizabad, Musta- 
qarr-u'1-Khilafat (Bodleian) . 20 
Sarhind, Lahore, Islamabad, 
Kalpi, Jodhpur, Burhanpur, 
Khambayat, Multan, 'Azima- 
bad, Katak, Arkat . . .11 
Murshidabad, Surat . . .2 
Sarhind, Burhanpur, Kashmir, 
Muhammadabad-Banaras, Na- 
jibabad, Arkat, Baroda, Kham- 
bayat, Jodhpur, Hafizabad . 10 
Indarpur, Aonla, Muradabad, 
Muhammadnagar, Din-garb, 
Kora, Daru'l-barat Kandi, 
Jammun, Najafgarh, Bareli, 
Saharanpur, Hardwar, Mo- 



SOME COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 



279 



No. of Mints in B. M. 0. 



Akbar II 

Bedar-Bakht 
Bahadur Shah II . 



Mints since added. 

minabad,Muzaffargarh,Mahes- 
war (Mysore), Mulharnagar, 
Gwaliar, Nagpur, Gokalgarh, 
Akbarpiir, Husainabad, Mus- 
tafabad, Jhansi, Damla, Na- 
han, Farrukhnagar 

Ahmadabad, Ajmer, Indarpiir, 
Jaipur, Firozpur, Jaunpur 

Muhammadabad 

None. 



26 

6 
1 



To the above list I am now able to make the folio win 

o 

additions from the coins here described. 



Aurangzeb . 
Bahadur Shah I . 
Jahandar . 
Farrukh-siyar 
Rafi'u'd-darjat . 
Muhammad Shah 

Ahmad Shah 
'Alamglr II. 
Shah 'Alam 
Akbar II . 
Bahadur Shah II. 



Ilahabad, Katak, Guti, Mu'azzamabad 4 
Akbarnagar, Bijapur, Ahmadabad . 3 
Etawa, Sarhind, Ahmadabad . . 3 
Ajmer, Ahmadabad, Barell, Khambayat 4 
Burhanpur, Patna, Sarhind . . 3 
Haidarabad (Farkhanda-bunyad), Bala- 

pur 2 

Shahabad-Qanauj .... 1 
Islamabad, Muradabad, Gwaliar . . 3 
Burhanpur . . . . .1 
Haidarabad . . . . .1 
Haidarabad, Najibabad . . .2 



A very good idea of the expansion of the Mughal 
Empire may be obtained from the accompanying Map, 
which shows the mint-towns of the Mughal Emperors 
at different periods. The decline of the Empire is not so 
accurately reflected in the mints, as many of the new 
states, which were formed from its ruins, continued to use 
the name of the reigning emperor to give colour to their 
usurpations. It must not, for instance, be supposed that 
coins struck in the name of 'Alamgir II or Shah 'Alam at 
Indore (Indarpur), Gwaliar, Baroda, Mulharnagar or Nag- 
pur were really struck under their authority. They 



280 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

merely represent the desire of the Mahratta chiefs to take 
advantage of the prestige still attaching to the name of 
Badshah. The abstraction of the north-west frontier 
province by Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Durrani, and 
the rise of the Sikh power are, however, accurately re- 
flected in the coinage, and the mints of Peshawar, Lahore, 
Multan, Bhakhar, and Tatta, so common on the coins of 
the earlier kings, disappear altogether. None of them, 
except Lahore, are found after Muhammad Shah. Lahore 
and Sarhind last till 'Alamgir II, but after Ahmad Shah's 
conquest of the Mahrattas they are found no more as 
Mughal mints. The Sikhs remained in possession of them, 
while Peshawar, Atak, Dera, Multan and Bhakhar became 
mints of the Durranis. Kashmir ceases to be represented 
about the same time, and also becomes a Durrani mint. 

SARHIND. 

The history of the Sarhind mint may be said to have 
been completely brought to light since the publication of 
the British Museum Catalogue, which shows only one coin 
of that mint, a mohar of Akbar. Mr. Rodgers in his 
various publications gives coins of Aurangzeb, Bahadur 
Shah I, Farrukh-siyar, Muhammad Shah, Ahmad Shah 
and ' Alamgir II, and I can now add Jahandar and RafiVd- 
darjat, thus completing the chain from the revival of the 
mint by Aurangzeb to the disappearance of the Mughal 
power. The earliest coin of Aurangzeb given by Mr. 
Rodgers (L. M. p. 189) is dated 1108. I have one of 1106, 
which corresponds to A.D. 1694-95, the year in which 
Guru Govind Singh commenced his active career. The 
revival of the mint may perhaps be connected with this 
event, as Sarhind was always a centre of Sikh influence, 



! Stei 



Si 



}ZS 



Southern bou 
Ahbar's Empir 

Southernlbou 
death of Shah 
North west boi 
invasion ofAhn 



SOME COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 281 

and was captured by the Guru Banda in Farrukh-siyar's 
reign. 

One of the Gurus, when killed by the Muhammadans, 
is said to have prophesied that Sarhind should be scat- 
tered from the Jamna to the Satlaj, and the Sikhs claim 
that this prophecy was fulfilled when the railway was con- 
structed by the English, and some bricks from the ruins 
of Sarhind were used in ballasting the line. The re- 
mains, however, are still extensive. 

Mr. Rodgers has already pointed out that this mint 
always appears on the coins in the form <^>^-^ Sahrand, 
and not Sarhind. The usual modern form is no doubt 
due to a false etymology, the Persian words Sar-hind 
meaning " head of India," a very inapplicable name for a 
place situated in no commanding situation. 

With regard to the mints of the Dekkhan and Southern 
India, the following points may be noted in extension of 
the remarks on p. Iviii. of the B. M. C. : 

HAIDARABAD. First struck by Aurangzeb in A.H. 1099. Last 
by Muhammad Shah in A.H. 1141. Later coins issued 
by the Nizams in the name of the Emperors. See 
remarks under Nos. 44 and 61 below. 

SHOLAPUB. Aurangzeb in A.H. 1096, as well as Bahadur Shah. 

IMTIYAZOAKH (ADONI). Appears on the silver coinage of Aurang- 
zeb in addition to the later diminutive gold coinage. 

GUTI. Also appears on the silver coinage of Aurangzeb (A.H. 
1107) in addition to Farrukh-siyar's small gold coins. 

AHSANABAD, KULBABGA, HASNABAD. The mint of Ahsanabad, 
given by K. under Aurangzeb (A.H. 1115), and that of 
Hasnabad, given in I. M., p. 88, of the same date, are 
probably identical. For its identity with Kulbarga 
see Tarikh-i Iradat Khan in E. D. p. 534, vol. vii. 

AKBABPUB. This mint is given by Eodgers in L. M. under 
Akbar in both silver and copper, and by K. under 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. 



282 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Shah 'Alam II, in copper. It has not yet been found 
in any of the intervening reigns, and the mint has not 
yet been identified as far as I am aware. It seems to 
be the place on the Narbada, not far from Mandu, 
which is found on some modern maps, and is described 
by Khafi Khan as an important ford (E. D. vii. 218, 
451). 

ISLAMABAD. This place was given in B. M. C. only as a mint 
of Muhammad Shah and Shah-Jahan III. To these I 
have now added 'Alamglr II ; and Aurangzeb,Farrukh- 
siyar, Shah-Jahan II, and Ahmad Shah, have been 
supplied by other authorities quoted. The earliest and 
latest dates are those now published, 1106 and 1167. 
The B. M. C. gives Chittagong (Chatgam) as the place 
referred to under this name. It was conquered and 
called Islamabad in A.H. 1075 (E. D. vii, 275), but 
hakna, in the Dekkhan, had already received the 
name in A.H. 1070, on its capture from Sivaji (E. D. 
vii, 268). Mr. Rodgers advocates the claims of 
Mathura to be the mint, on the ground that it is nearer 
to the Panjab than Chittagong, but rupees from the 
most distant mints are sometimes found in very 
remote spots. I have myself obtained a Haidarabad 
rupee of Kambakhsh at Harrand on the N.-W. Frontier. 
Primd facie it would seem that Chakna, as the first 
conquest from the infidel in the reign of Aurangzeb, 
was the original Islamabad. 

MUSTAFA- ABAD. This mint has been found only on rupees of 
Shah 'Alam II, described by Capt. Vost and myself. 
There are two or three places of the name. One is in 
the Dekkhan, being another name for Chopra (see 
E. D. vii, 807). One is in the Doab between Agra 
nd Mainpuri, and one in what is now the Ambala 
district, which was plundered by the Sikhs in A.H. 
1121 (E. D. vii, 428). It is not far from Sadhaura 
(wrongly spelt Shadhura in E. D.), and will not be 
found on most modern maps, but is given in Rennell's 
map of Hindostan of 1782. This is no doubt the place 
which Capt. Vost mentions as between Saharanpur 
and Ludhiana, and it seems to be a probable position 
for a mint in Shah 'Alam's time, although the site 
near Agra is also a possible one. 



SOME COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 283 



No. 

JR. 
1 


Mint and Date. 


Inscription. 


929 


BABAR. 

Obv. Area an irregular fonrsided figure, 
continued at the angles to form a margin 
of four compartments. 






Area : <dJ! $\ <d! 1 






Margins : 






Rev. Area in ninefoil, small. 






Margins : 
i^\ JkL>- /X* Ulsyi* >Jic^i ^InLuii <\**( 






JR1-0. Wt. 72. [PL XIII, L] 


2 





Obv. Area in looped quatrefoil, legends 
as in No. 1. 






Rev. Area in eightf oil, legends as in No. 1 . 






Counterstruck. J^ <--y 






Similar to the coin in Thomas, Chroni- 
cles of Pathan Kings of Delhi, No. 323, 
PL V, 172, with the exception of being 
counterstruck. 
JR-9. Wt. 72. [PLXin,2.] 


3 





Kesembles No. 1, but the obv. area is 
larger, and certain words unintelligible 
to me are added under the Kalima. 






Hl-05. Wt. 66. [PL XIII, 3.] 



284 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. Mint and Date. 


Inscription. 




HUMAYfJN. 




4 Kabul 


Olv. Area in looped eightfoil. 




Kalima. 






Margins in compartmeT 


its. 




Rev. Area in small eightfoil. 




Margin : fj*~*\ ^^ 


jJ^U^JI 




~* ) o 




M 1-0. Wt. 70. 


[PI. XIII, 4.] 


5 


Olv. Area in plain circle, legends as in 
No. 4. 




Rev. Area in plain circle. 

tjrjli 




Margin as in No. 4. No mint. 




A small thick coin. 


M -85. Wt. 73. 


6 


Olv. Area in looped qu 
margin, in segments. 


atrefoil. Kalima 




Rev. In mihrabl. 


^ 




Outside as in margin of No. 4. No 
mint. 




JR -95. Wt. 72 


. [PI. XIII, 6.] 



SOME COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 



285 



No. 



Mint and Date. 



Inscription. 



10 



Urdu 

Zafar-qarm 
1000 



Variety of B.M., 19. Circle on obv. 
smaller and not looped. 

(lj ^ JjjrJ t J\*uj>- jfju &\ under 

Kalima.) 

M -9. Wt. 72. 

Another variety of B.M. 19. Words 
differently arranged. 

M -95. Wt. 64. 

K AM RAN. 

Olv. Area in square, with knots at 

corners. 

Kalima, etc., as in L.M. 1, p. 14. 
Rev. Area in oblong, with corners cut off. 




Margins as in L.M. 1. 
The shape of the area differs from the 
L.M. coin. 

51 1-1. Wt. 69. [PI. XIII, 9.] 

AKBAR. 

Obv. Kalima in area formed by the tails 
of the final letters of names of Khalifas. 

Inscriptions as in B.M. 66, but the coin 
is round, not square, and the Kalima is 
inserted perpendicularly, not diagonally. 

Lc &+~a\ instead of ^.Le J-& . 

For the word here read as A--A the 
meaning of which has not yet been ex- 
plained, of. B.M.C., Miscellaneous Index, 
p. 373, with its references to Nos. 24 and 30. 

Rev. Inscriptions as in B.M. 73, but 
round, in dotted square. 

^ 85. Wt. 162. [PI. XIII, 10.] 



286 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 


Mint and Date. 


Inscription. 


11 


Lahore 


Resembles B.M. 171, but ilah! date f* 




Year 48, 
month Ardl- 


and month *>_" -** t * o J i' 




bihisht 


N -75. Wt. 168. 


12 


972 


Resembling B.M. 90, but obv. as well 






as rev. enclosed in eightfoil, and the 






lines enclosing areas double on both 






sides. M.M. fift on obv. Date ^r on rev. 






M 1-05. Wt. 174. 






f. 


13 


Allahabad 


Obv. Jy ff\j *b 




Year 49 








*2^ 


j r*** 






The couplet is the same as that in B.M. 






254 and L.M. 158, 159, but differs in 






j) 
omitting the word : over ^.x" 4 ^ and 






substituting the date PI . 






M-1. Wt. 174. [PI. XIII, 13-] 


14 


1001 


Square Kalima type. No mint. Date 1 1 






over j\ . 






M -7. Wt. 175. 


15 


1001 


Square Kalima type. Loop attached. 






Date A^ \ over -! . Shroff-marked on 

fc"*^^ 1 * J * 






edges. 






^7. Wt. 177. [PI. XIII, 15.] 



SOME COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 



287 



No. 



Mint and Date. 



Inscription. 



16 



? Bangala 
1010 



17 



TJrdu-I 

Zafar-qarm 
1000 



See remarks of C. J. Rodgers in J. A.S.B., 
1896, p. 221. I do not think either of 
the rupees there mentioned has been 
edited. 



Obv. The Kalima. 
Rev. 




N.B. I publish this specimen of this 
very rare coin as only one has hitherto 
been figured, and its attribution seems 
doubtful. C. J. Rodgers gives two (in 
L.M. Cat. p. 245), and Professor Hoernle 
one in J.A.S.B. 1893, p. 244 (pi. ix, 24). 
Mr. Rodgers informed Professor Hoernle 
that he had another in his possession, 
probably the coin here described, which 
came from his collection. 
Square M ?. Wt. 171. [PI, XIII, 16.] 

Obv. Both areas in double square with 
dots between lines. 




This four-anna piece was described in 
L.M. Cat. 124, p. 69, but has not been 
figured yet. It is remarkable from the 
combination of Hijri date with the words 
J*\ alN, which never occurs on the rupees 
of the year 1000 of the same mint. 
Quarter rupee, square. M -5. "Wt. 43. 
[PI. XIII, 17-] 



288 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 



18 



Mint and Date. 



Inscription. 



19 



20 



21 



Burhanpur 
Year 45, 
month Bahman 



Year 44 



Lahore 

Year 45, 
month Bahman 



Year 4-, 
month 

Khurdad 



Obv. On flowery field 
Rev. 




The only fractional coin of the Burhanpur 
mint yet published. 

Half rupee, M -65. Wt. 84. 
[PL XIII, 18-] 



Obv. 
Rev. 



See L.M. Ill, p. 67, which Mr. Rodgers 
states to he the only known specimen of a 
dasd or one-tenth rupee of Akhar. 
One-tenth rupee. M -3. Wt. 16. 

[PL XIII, 19.] 

Resemhles the two-anna piece of Lahore 
in L.M. 194, p. 78, hut the legends are 
arranged diagonally. 

Rev. 



One-eighth rupee, square 

Copper. 

Obv. 

Rev. 



'4. Wt. 21 



s 

This is a different form of damn from 
that given in L.M. 247, p. 120. 
Damr!. ^'5. Wt. 33. [PI. XIII, 81] 



SOME COIN'S OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 289 



No. 


Mint and Date. 


Inscription. 






JAHANQIB. 


22 


1015 


Obv. The Kalima. 




Year 1 


Over J^~i the figure of a bird in outline. 






Over Jk^sr* : I . 






> 






Between Jj~si and A!!! a mint-mark ^~) 






^ S 






Rev. (ji^vy 






> 






C->-* 
The figure of a bird in outline across 






the c ^of _x)l^rj- . 






A new type of Kalima rupee. 






M -75. Wt. 175. [PI. XIII, 22.] 


23 


Agra 


Obv. Area, in an irregular square. 




1020 






Year 6 


|jL~ i -J*\ 






\ 






a -5oL^r>- 
Margins filled with a pattern of vines. 






Flowers are also scattered about the area. 






Double square outside. 






Rev. Area in a square, with a semi- 






circular recess on each side. The sides 






of the square and the semicircles pro- 
longed so as to divide the margin into 






several segments. 






i 






Ail- 






Margins and area covered with flowers. 






Square. M "85. Wt. 175. 
[PI. XIII, 23.] 



A'OL. 11. FOURTH SERIES. 






290 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 


Mint and Date. 


Inscription. 




N.B. This is probably the same as 
L.M. 45, p. 136, as to which Mr. C. J. 
Rodgers remarks, " This much worn rupee 
is unique." The coin here described is in 
good order. 


24 


Qandahar 
1027 


Obv. all J&\ 
. Ir \ 




Year 13 


* .t\ 


Rpp iL^i- . n-? 








Half rupee v M -6. Wt. 85. 






New, as a half rupee of Qandahar. 






SHAH JAHAN. 


25 


1038 


Obv. On area, covered with flowers. 




Year 1 


The Kalima. 






Under it : i-r^-tf 






1 -PA 






Rev. (~*fe 

t Oo*j 

^*^ J Ow i (^_^^ r rjj 


15 J^j -^-U 






yR-85. Wt. 175. [PI. XIII, 25.] 






New variety of the rupee of the first 

> 1 j ^ > **>-\ 
year. <-A* instead 01 riv * 


26 


Shahj ahanabad 
1066 
Year 30 


Obv. Area in small circle. Kalima. 

-.r 1 1 / \ ''"'"' 

Margins: j* ij&c-) |^*J ^j> ] ( J <X-3 ^ 



SOME COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 291 



No. 


Mint and Date. 


Inscription. 




Rev. Area in small circle. 


r 






Margin. The couplet, 






^j*g\j*\>\^tel^ 






J\ji ^^L^ylj fUj bb u^j^r 

MI-l. Wt. 170. [PI. XIII, 26.] 






A similar rupee of 1065 and year 28 
has been described in L.M. 73, p. 171. 
It has never been figured, and that here 
described is in fine condition. B.M. 568 






is a similar coin in gold. 


27 


Akbarabad 


Obv. Jj*. J&a. 




Year 2 


4 " e. ' 


J!^. ; 


Rev. As in B.M. 588. 






M -85. Wt. 176. 






This differs from B.M. 588 in the 
arrangement of Obv., the Kalima being in 
the middle with names and attributes of 
Khalifas above and below. Cf. L.M. 25, 






p. 165 (Burhanpur). 


28 


Allahabad 
1037 Hijri 


Obv. <d!U^n 


bfl^Vn . ^'Jr^ 


^M\ ' 


i ^?2 



292 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 


Mint and Date. 


Inscription. 




Eev. ^j\i 






.Ujbe^lA p 


^ ^&\ <_'Vi, 


M -75. Wt. 175. 






The only coins of Shah Jahan of Alla- 
habad hitherto edited are B.M. 606 and 






623, which both differ from this. Compare 
B.M. 580 (Burhanpur), also L.M. 1, p. 160, 
both of which give the word Hijri for the 
year 1037. 






Both areas in small circles. 


29 


Surat 


Obv. Area. Kalima. 




Year 31 


Margin : . . jJ-c *lc ^ ^1*1* ^jb . . 






J[ 

Rev. Area : ^J*^ wJy 


Margin : ^ J^T.'S' *A* 






1 -9. Wt. 175. 






A type of Shah Jahan's rupees not yet 
figured. 


30 


Burhanpur 
1052 


Areas in dotted squares. Date I c r under 
Kalima. ,-jllV t_ >,*> on rev. margin. 






1 -8. Wt. 172. 






Differs from the ordinary type (B.M. 
616), only in that the squares are dotted, 
not plain. 


31 


1068 
Year 32 


A rupee of ordinary type with square 
areas, but with the signs Y over the 
jj of ^\^r and ;p over the ^i of 






*li>. Possibly these stand for Aries 






and Sagittarius. 






M -8. Wt. 176. [PI. XIII, 31.] 



SOME COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 



293 



No. 


Mint and Date. 


Inscription. 


32 


Multan 
YearS 


As the ordinary type of rupee with square 
areas, but new in this mint as a half- 






rupee. 






A on obv. beneath Kalima. ^vjJ^ on 






rev. in margin. Corroded surface. 






Half rupee. M -65. Wt. 80. 


33 


Akbarabad 


Obv. In double circle, plain and dotted. 




1049 


. 1 A 




Year 12 


^rr 






iru 






Rev. In double circle, plain and dotted. 






One-eighth rupee. M -40. Wt. 21. 
[PI. XIII, 33.] 


34 


Kashmir 
Year 2 (?) 


Copper. 
njitt x~\ 1 i_v-f 1 *** 




c 


Dam. M '8. Wt. 260. 


35 


Bairata 


oim. ^ c/y s-^ u 




Year 7 (?) 








Rev. . ^j^.j 






v t^J? 






Dam. M'35- Wt. 311. 



294 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 



Mint and Date. 



Inscription. 



36 



37 



Akbarabad 
1095 
Year 27 



Allahabad 
Year 2 (or 2-) 



38 



Islamabad 
1106 
Year 38 



39 



Kajak 
Year 46 



This is a different type from the copper 
coins of Bairata hitherto published, and 
resembles the Udaipur coin (L.M. 13, 
p. 178). 

[PL XIV, 35.] 

AURANGZEB. 

Square areas similar to B.M. 733, \>utobv. 
area omits *Ll before^-- *Jlfc . Date 
t ^ o in margin after j\tf 
Year rv in rev , margin. 

M -85. 



Wt. 175. 



Obv. Usual couplet. 
Rev. 



;R-9. Wt. 176. [PL XIV, 37.] 

A new mint of Aurangzeb. 

Obv. Usual couplet. 1 1 1 after 
Rev. At foot 



See L.M., p. 188, Nos. 71 and 71 (both 
of 1107). 

Pi 
Usual legends. On rev. <Li and 



Shroff-marked. M -85. Wt. 180. 

[PI. XIV, 39.] 

The only rupees of the Katak mint 
hitherto published are three of Farrukh- 
siyar (B.M. 907, 908, 914), and seven of 
Ahmad Shah (I.M., pp. 69, 70, 71). 



SOME COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 



295 



No. 



40 



Mint and Date. 



Inscription. 



Gutl 
1107 



41 



Mu'azzamabad 
1118 
Year 50 



42 



Akbarabad 
1078 
Year 12 



43 



Olv. Usual couplet. Two eight-pointed 
stars. 



. * fU over 



Rev. M ' v after 



1 -95. Wt. 177. [PL XIV, 40.] 

This mint has hitherto occurred only on 
the small gold coins of Farrukhsiyar (B.M. 
901). 

Olv. Usual couplet. Date IMA. 
Rev. 




-8. Wt. 177. 

Mu'azzamabad has only been noted on 
a gold coin of Kafi'u'-d-darjat (B.M. 937). 
It is a name for Gorakhpur given in 
honour of Shah 'Alam Bahadur Shah, who 
bore the name Mu'azzam previous to his 
accession. The coin here given belongs to 
the last year of Aurangzeb, who was 
succeeded by Bahadur Shah in A.H. 1119. 



Olv. 




One-sixteenth rupee, nisar. JR -35. 

Wt. 11. 



Olv. 



296 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 


Mint and Date. 


Inscription. 


44 


Haidarabad 
1120 
Year 2 


, W"4.1^~ <\A*J 

IT' ' ^ 


> 

One-sixteenth rupee, .51 -4. "Wt. 9. 
[PI. XIV, 43.] 
These two small coins are silver annas. 
No. 42 is a nisar or jeton, while No. 43, 
which unfortunately has lost the mint 
town, appears to belong to the ordinary 
coinage. A similar coin to No. 42 has 
been published by K. No. 28, but No. 43 
appeal's to be new. 

KAMBAKHSH. 
Obv. [ iA=^ A^ jl> 

,r >r \ 


iw iX*M> !_> 

A ^ 


>/**> 

Rev. ^yb 

C^-i-*K -* 


ob^ju*. (j^? 

L ... .^.Jf 


Jl^ljb"' 

Jl-95. Wt. 171. [PI. XIV, 44.] 

Gold coins of Haidarabad mint of 
Kambakhsh have been published by J. G. 
Delmerick (Proc. A.S.B., May 1884), and 
in B.M. 852, but none in silver. This 
coin was found near Jehlam in the Pan jab. 
The appellation of Daru'l-jihad was given 
to Haidarabad after the overthrow of the 
Kutbshahl dynasty by Aurangzeb in 
A.H.' 1098 (A.D. 1687). (See Khafi Khan, 
quoted in Elliott and Dowson's History of 
India, vol. vii, p. 336). W. Vost, in 
J.A.S.B., 1895, p. 45, states that the term 
was applied to Haidarabad (Sind), but it 



SOME COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 



297 



No. 


Mint and Date. 


Inscription. 


45 
46 


Akbamagar 
Year 2 

Ahmadabad 
1120 
Year3 


was evidently Haidarabad of the Dekkhan. 
The coin there given is attributed by him 
to the Tatta mint, but the letters read as 
Tatta are, I think, merely the strokes of 
the (JM of (jMJi\s See his pi. iii, No. 
xxvii, and the coin is doubtless one of the 
Haidarabad mint. Aurangzeb's first pub- 
lished coin is dated 1099, the year after 
the conquest (L.M. 54, p. 187). The 
other dates of Aurangzeb are 1108, 1114, 
and one of Muhammad Shah is dated 1144 
(infra No. 61). 

BAHADUR SHAH (SHAH 
<ALAM I.) 

Obv. t*~*')^ *^ 


, f 
Rev. crr^ <U -~ ) 


M -8. Wt. 177. [PI. XIV, 45.] 
New mint of Bahadur Shah. Not 
hitherto noted after the reign of Aurangzeb. 

Obv. s^)^- ^--"^ 


^ ^V r 11 ^.. 


1 1 r <^J>^L_^ 
Rev. u^y^* 

' ^l -9. Wt. 172. 

A new mint of this king. 



VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. 



Q Q 



298 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 



47 



Mint and Date. 



Inscription. 



Bijapur 
Daru' z-zafar 
1122 
Year 4 



48 



Etawa 
1124 
Year 1 



49 



60 



Ahmadabad 
1124 
Yearl 



Sahrind 
(Sarhind) 
1124 
Year 1 



Obv. As in No. 46. Date 1 1 rr. 
Rev. 



j 9 Vi U 



-9. Wt. 176. 



A new mint of this king. 
JAHANDAB. 



rf 



. As in No. 46, but 



-9. "Wt. 174. 



A new mint of Jahandar. 
As in No. 48, but jl^J^ 

A new mint of Jahandar. 
Obv. 



-9. Wt. 174. 



nri 



SOME COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPEROKS. 299 



No. 



Mint and Date. 



Inscription. 



51 



Ahmadabad 
1125 
Year 2 



Rev. As in No. 48, but Jo 

M -85. Wt. 175. [PL XIV, 50.] 
A new mint of Jahandar. 



FARRTTKH-SIYAR 

Olv. 



*\: 



nro 



Ajmer 

Daru'l-khair 
Year? 



Rev. As in No. 49, but <U 

M -95. Wt. 172. 
A new mint of Farrukh-siyar. 



Obv. 



Rev. 




M -8. AVt. 176. [PL XIV, 52.] 

The epithet Daru'l-Khair shows that 
the mint is Ajmer, which has not been 
before recorded among Farrukh-siyar 8 



coins. 



300 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 
53 


Mint and Date. 


Inscription. 


Bareli 
Year3 


Obv. A--MIT? /_*- ij-^ * j' 
y\ .*. 




j?<!t>. As in No. 46, but <fc > and * ^r 3 






;R -9. Wt. 172. 






Bareli has not been recorded among the 
mints of Farrukh-siyar in silver. B.M. 
893 gives it in gold, but the coin is 
barbarous and the mint very doubtful. 


54 


Kambayat 
Year 7 


u 

Obv. and Rev. as in No. 51, but <U_- and 






M 1-0. Wt. 173. 






A new mint of Farrukh-siyar. 






RAFI'U'D-DARJAT. 


55 


Burhanpur 
1131 
Year 1 


Obv. e^Ar- j^ T-t*j 

> * t*. 


.^^jfclj _ 


Rev. LJ*)* ^/"y^" 






M -95. Wt. 175. 






A new mint of this king. 



SOME COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 301 



No. 


Mint and Date. 


Inscription. 


56 


Patna 


Obv. As in 55, but differently arranged. 




1131 


_ . 




Year 1 


Rev. LJ*}*** 






&CJ 






M -95. Wt. 178. " [PI. XIV, 56.] 






Patna is a mint not hitherto identified 






on the coins of Kafl'u'd-darjat. B.M. 944 






is doubtful. This is the latest recorded 






occurrence of this mint, as 'Azimabad 






generally takes its place after Aurangzeb's 






time. 


57 


Sahrind 


Obv. and Rev. as in No. 56, but ^J^-f <^* 




(Sarhind) 


M -85. Wt. 176. 




1131 






Year 1 


A new mint of this king. 






MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM. 


58 


Shahjahanabad 


As in B.M. 956, but the date nrr is on 




1132 


the left side of the inscription over the 




Year 1 








J of J-a-s. 






1 -85. Wt. 175. 






MUHAMMAD SHAH. 






Gold. 


59 


Balapur 


Obv. *li ***" 






Rev. jy^V 
N -25. Wt. 6. [PL XIV, 59.] 






This is a gold fanam of Balapur in 
Mysore. The existence of such a fanam 
is mentioned by Tufnell (Hints to Com 






Collectors in S. India), but none has been 






published as far as I am aware. BUioH 
and Bidie do not mention it. 



302 



NUMISMATIC UHKONICLE. 



No. 



Mint and Date. 



Inscription. 



60 



Akhtarnagar 
1132 
Year 1 



61 



Haidarabad 

Farkhanda- 

bunyad 
114- 
Year 14 (?) 



Obv. 



Rev. 



all 



nrr 




M -9. Wt. 176.' [PL XIV, 60.J 

The mint of Akhtarnagar Oudh is given 
in L.M. Nos. 12 and 20 (pp. 211, 212), 
and the plate shows that this is the mint 
of B.M. 985 (given in the text as Akbar- 
nagar Oudh). The present coin is a new 
variety of Akhtarnagar (without Oudh). 
The mint was named after Roshan Akhtar, 
Muhammad Shah's name before his 



accession. 



Obv. As in No. 60. Date nf under 

J^s'*, and year tf (?) over * of ill . 
Rev. [ 



M -95. Wt. 176. [PI. XIV, 61.] 

A new mint of Muhammad Shah. 
Remarkable as giving the earliest example 
of the epithet 'Farkhanda-bunyad,' after- 
wards used on the coins of the Nizam s, 
and also on some coins struck in the names 
of the Emperors Akbar II and Bahadur 
Shah. See infra Nos. 71 and 73. See 
note under No. 44 for the previous use 
of Daru'l-jihad. Haidarbad is alluded to 
as Farkhanda-bunyad by KhafT Khan in 
AH. 1136 (E.D., vol. vii, p. 527). 



SOME COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 



303 



No. 



62 



63 



64 



Mint and Date. 



Lahore 
Year 2 



Shahabad 



1166 
YearS 



Qanauj 



Arkat 
Year 3 



Inscription. 



Obv. 



Rev. 






Lc 



j] 



One-eighth rupee. M -46. Wt. 21. 
[PI. XIV, 62.] 

The fractional currency of Muhammad 
Shah is very rare, and no 2-anna piece of 
the Lahore mint has yet been edited. 



AHMAD SHAH. 

Obv. , .J 1 




9. Wt. 170. 



A new mint of Ahmad Shah. The only 
coins of this mint hitherto published are 
of Muhammad Shah. 



'ALAMGIR II 

Obv. 



304 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 


Mint and Date. 


Inscription. 






Rev. jj-y ** 


C^ ' ; V 






ital -* O II 

N -7. Wt. 166. 






No mohar of 'Alamglr II's coinage 
of Arkat has been published, although 
half mohars of the E.I C. are known. 
The long stroke of the shows that the 
mint is Arkat, as does the general style of 
the coin. 


65 


Islamabad 
1167 


Obv. ^ JUlU 
C inv 




Year 1 


^J * 


> 
Rev. Jyl.*!-)! 






> , 


1 -95. Wt. 171. 






A new mint of 'Alamgir II. 


66 


Gwaliar 
1167 
Yearl 


Obv. ^U^Ldlc jjJjJ^ 


^J^^ lA- U 


JS#P. ^^y ^* 


^^ ^i^ 


"-95. Vt. 173. 



SOME COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 



305 



No. 


Mint and Date. 


Inscription. 






No rupee, after Muhammad Shah, has 






jeen hitherto described of this mint. For 






couplet see L.M., No. 3, p. 220. 


67 


Muradabad 
1171 


Obv. As in No. 65, but^* SU 




Year 6 


. i 






Rev. (j*y ** 






I ) ^a 


Jr 






M -9. Wt. 173. 






"With the exception of the unique rupee 






of Aurangzeb of 1097 (L.M., 49, p. 186) 






the issues of the mint of Muradabad seem 






to have been confined to a very limited 






period, the known coins being only of 






Ahmad Shah, 1167 (B.M.,_No. 1057), the 






coin here described of 'Alamglr II of 






1171, and four of Shah 'Alam of 1176 






(I.M.), 1180, and 1182 (L.M.) and 1189 






(No. 700 infra). The coinage of the 






invader Ahmad Shah Durrani of 1174 






comes within the same period. The 






crescent mint-mark, which appeal's on 






several of these coins, including both of 






those here described, has not been ex- 






plained. 






<ALI GOHAR 






(name of Shah 'Alam II previous to 
accession). 


68 


Year 2 


Obv ,*$ J^ 6 L 






cf 






) * 



VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. 



R R 



306 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 
69 


Mint and Date. : 


Inscription. 


i 

Burhanpur 
1188 
Year 14 


Rev. u~jJ I* 
T \ > t 

{JM -*-^~ * "* 


jr 

M -9. Wt. 174. [PL XIV, 68.] 
Another similar coin, formerly in my 
possession, and given by me to Mr. C. J. 
Rodgers, is now in the Lahore Museum 
(L.M., 21, p. 227). Mr. Rodgers thought 
the mint might be Puna. For a similar 
mint-mark see No. 72 infra, and one of 
similar fabric given by Dr. Hoernle (in 
J.A.S.B., 1897, p. 273, No. 76 of 
pi. xxxiv), which is on native authority 
attributed to the Peshwas. 
The coin here described is the only one 

on which the word jb appears in full, 
and there can be little hesitation in 
attributing it to Shah 'A lam, probably 
during the lifetime of 'Alamglr II. 

SHAH 'ALAM II. 

Obv. jjj J ^^>- A\ 
<J . *a-* 


*li*>V jiA-i 
^ ' IAA 


j^S oJiA^jJ, 
Rev. (j*?^ 


1 1 

j -wJI .'J <C*.M 

^v , ^ 


jn*\-*j* 

M -85. Wt. 178. [PL XIV, 69.] 

A new mint of Shah 'Alam, and the 
last appearance of the Burhanpur mint on 
the coins of the Mughals. 



SOME COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 



307 



No. 


Mint and Date. 


Inscription. 


70 


Mustafa-abad 
1185 
Year 12 


Obv. J Jlc all 


c J \ ' \ 


J 






Rev. ^wi ^m>sis 


JLuZ^Ll 






x . ir 


M -85. Wt. 170. 






The only coin of this mint hitherto 
published is that ^iven by Captain Vost 
in J.A.S.B., 1895, p. 46, pi. iii, 29. That 
rupee is of the year 1184, and is described 
as unique. The mint-mark, which here 
appears in the curve of the (j*> of (jy> ^*, 
is not visible in the plate of Captain Yost's 
coin, and appears to be a new shape. 


700 


Muradabad 


Obv. ^ J cy*^*" *^ 




1189 


\ _^ j 




Year 16 


all J V JU *ll 
i 


i4xLS ci-^AA j J: 






Rev. As in No. 67, Year n. Mint-mark, 






star in curve of ^/u of ^*,^JL* and 






M-9. Wt. 168. [PI. XIV, 70.] 






AKBAR II. 


71 


Haidarabad 
(Farkbanda- 
bunyad) 
1244 


Obv. j all ,-Si .XKS'* 


JUi 



308 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 


Mint and Date. 


Inscription. 


1 




Rev. &*~> (jwjJt* 


Wt. 173. 


>: : *> 

i ~ 


M-9. 






A new mint of Akbar II. 


Bears the 






mint-mark of the Nizam. 





72 


1231 


Obv. ^ 




jU L-ljL. 

i 


!? 

i 

m* 
\ 

Wt. 173. 


Rev. ^^ x**.--. 


2D *Q K 

. 1 v ' . 






See note under No. 68. This is similar 
to Dr. Hoernle's coin, which is, however, 
of another date (1243). The date 1231 
shows that it must be referred to Akbar II. 
It is remarkable in that the figures are 
Nagari and not Persian in both coins. The 
mint is illegible. 






BAHADUB SHAH II. 








Silver. 




73 


HaidaraOad 
1274 
Year 18 


Obv. (-> /**# '**' 


*< 


t J i 


y 



SOME COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 



309 



No. 


Mint and Date. 


Inscription. 






Rev. (ju ' A )[\ZT 






i >fZ> 


M -85. Wt. 173. [PL XIV, 73.] 






This, like the preceding coin, bears the 
mint-mark of the Nizam's mint. It is 






remarkable as being struck at Haidarabad 
in 1274 A.H. = 1857 A.D., the year of the 
Indian Mutiny. 






Copper. 


74 


Najibabad 
1263 


Obv. <*~M U" 1 l# 

V 


i r i r ^*5 [ 






jRw. J ^^ 






^1 -75. Wt. 95. [PI. XIV, 74.] 






A very late issue of the Najibabad 
mint, which had at this date (1846 A.D.) 
been long under the E.I.C. The only 
copper coin I know of Bahadur Shah. 
The obverse is confused. It is possible 
that the letters which can be read are 
a blundered form of 






S\J* j^V 



M. LONGWORTH DAMES. 



MISCELLANEA. 



UNPUBLISHED STYGAS OP ^ELFWALD I AND ^THELBED I. It 
has long been accepted that the coinage of the sceatta, or earlier 
type of the coins of Northumbria, ceased with ^Elfwald I, 1 whilst 
the period of the coinage of the styca, or later type, has been 
only surmised. 2 The two following unpublished and, so far, 
unique stycas, which are in my collection, will probably solve 
the latter question. 

.2ELFWALD I. 

Obv. Afc^^t-DV Cross of five dots in the centre. 
Eeo. +EARDVVLF. Cross in the centre. 




This styca, which I attribute to .Elfwald I, A.D. 778-788, 
is Of brass, and in fine condition, but unfortunately, the first and 
last letters of the obverse legend are indistinct, owing to corro- 
sion, though there appear to be faint traces of the letter E at 
the beginning, and of the letter ~L at the end, thus making the 

legend read EAL1LDVZ 

As will be seen in the above woodcut, the letters on the 
obverse are dissimilar in character to those on the ordinary 
styca, but the letter j(( is peculiar to the sceattas of J31fwald I. 
The reverse legend appears to have been engraved by a different 
hand; the letters, however, are of the character appearing on a 
sceatta of the same king. 3 

It would seem, from the above, that J31fwald I issued the last 
sceatta as well as the first styca 4 of Northumbria. 

1 . M. Cat., Anglo-Saxon, vol. i., p. xxvii., note. 

2 Num. CAron., Ser. iii., vol. xvii., p. 136. 

3 Idem., PI. VII. 4. 

* The stycas hitherto attributed to Ecgfritb, A.D. 670-685, are doubtful. 



MISCELLANEA. 311 

^THELEED I 

Obv. +EDILRED. (Retrograde.) Cross in the centre. 
Rev. + E D I h Vfl Cross in the centre. 




I assign this slyca to JSthelred I, during his restoration or 
second reign, A.D. 790-794. It is in fine condition. 

Ediluth was also moneyer to Eardulf, A.D. 796-806, and 
coined stycas for him, two of which are in my collection. On 
comparing the reverse of one 5 of them with the reverse of this 
styca, it is apparent that they were both struck from the same 
die. The peculiarities of eaeh are common to both, such as the 
junction of the lower portion of the letter {] with the end of one 
of the limbs of the centre cross ; the flaw or bifurcation of the 
central limb of the letter |f at its junction with the vertical 
limb ; a similar flaw or bifurcation of the right limb of the letter 
V ; and the shortening of the right limb of the initial cross in 
the legend. The other coin of Eardulf does not show any of 
these peculiarities. 

A. B. CREEKE. 



A UNIQUE NAVAL REWARD, " THE BRETON MEDAL." The 
following account of an interesting naval reward medal has 
been supplied to me by Mr. L. Bardasano, of the Advertiser, 
Guernsey, who has also sent a photograph of it, from which I 
am able to give the following description : 

Obv. Sea with ships ; a French squadron of five ships 
engaging three English war-ships. Leg. 
HMS Crescent Sir JAMES SAUMAREZ & 
DRUID Capt. ELLISON Engaging the ENEMY 
to prevent HMS Earidice from FALLING In 
their HANDS. 

Rev. Sea with ships, similar to the obverse, but the 
position of the vessels varied. In the foreground 

5 Mr. Nathan Heywood has a styca of Eardulf with exactly the same 
reverse. 



312 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the British ensign and a house, and stamp of the 
English silver hall-mark for 1794. Leg. 
GIFT of Major GENERAL SMALL to Mr. 
John Breton PILOT to HMS Crescent As A 
REWARD of his Merit done the 8th JUNE 1794 
off GUERNSEY. 

Silver-gilt. Size 8 '8 inches. 

Entirely engraved, and with loop for suspension. The particu- 
lars connected with the award of this medal to the pilot, John 
Breton, are : On the 8th June, 1794, the Crescent, frigate, 
commanded by Captain Sir James Saumarez, accompanied by 
the Druid, frigate, and Eurydice, a twenty-four-gun ship, fell in 
with, off the island of Jersey, and was chased by, a French 
squadron, consisting of two cut-down seventy-fours, each 
mounting fifty-four guns, two frigates, and a brig. Sir James, 
perceiving the vast superiority of the enemy, ordered the 
Eurydice, which was the worst sailer, to make the best of 
her way to Guernsey, whilst the Crescent and Druid fol- 
lowed under easy sail, occasionally engaging the French 
ships and keeping them at bay, until the Eurydice had 
gained some distance ahead, when they made all possible 
sail to get off. The enemy's squadron, however, gained 
upon them so rapidly that they must have been taken but 
for a bold and masterly manoeuvre. Sir James, seeing the 
perilous situation of his consorts, hauled his wind and 
stood along the French line, an evolution which immediately 
attracted the enemy's attention, and the capture of the Crescent 
seemed for some time to be inevitable. Among the Guernsey 
men on board the Crescent was an experienced King's pilot, 
John Breton, a native of St. Saviour's parish, well acquainted 
with all the rocks and currents round the island. He pushed 
the frigate through numerous intricate passages, where a king's 
ship had never before sailed, and singularly enough approached 
so near the shore of the Castel parish, that Sir James could 
distinctly see his own house. Success attended this bold 
experiment and the Crescent effected her escape into Guernsey 
roads, greatly to the disappointment of her pursuers, who 
counted on an easy and certain triumph. Major-General Small, 
who was Lieut. -Governor of Guernsey from 1794-1796, with a 
multitude of the inhabitants, beheld the whole of these naval 
evolutions from the Guernsey shore, and as a reward to Breton 
for his pluck and skill presented him with the above-described 
medal. The present owner of the medal is Mr. H. Turner, of 
Mill Street, St. Peter's-Port, Guernsey. 

H. G. 



. CA.rnn. Ser.SV: Vo/,. fl. /#. Vfff. 




SILVER COINAGE OF HENRY VI 



W Yel-.// Pl./X. 




SILVER COINAGE OF HENRY VI 



Chron. Ser. /V. Ib/. // Pt. X. 



'f-"9 -Wm 

^ JT 'rrf^Ww .1 



' . V /fJ>Vr'iV-> i ^T^. k * ,/ 

'f'S&tt. ' 



r?f?<& 
4sr3ttA \'t Wit, 




SILVER COINAGE OF HENRY VI. 



Ckron. Ser /I/ Vol. f/ Pi 




SILVER COINAGE OF HENRYV1. 



Num. CfavH.Sw.WVoUI.Pl.Xff. 






COINS OF THE KHALI FS. 




COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS 



Man. t'&tvn. Se 




70 /R 



COINS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS. 



XIX. 

GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

IN 1901. 

(See Plates XV, XVI, XVII.) 

THE total number of coins of the Greek series (see the 
annexed table) acquired during the year 1901 is 1,069. 
This unusually large total includes a collection of 686 
coins, chiefly of Gaul, formed by M. Leon Morel, of Rheirns. 
Although this collection does not appear to include many 
varieties not already to be found in the extensive work of 
Muret and De La Tour, it is a welcome addition to the 
British Museum, where the Gaulish coin series has been, 
hitherto, most inadequately represented. 

Most of the acquisitions have been obtained by purchase, 
but some are presentations due to the kindness of the Rev. 
A. Dixon, Sir John Evans, Messrs. F. W. Lincoln and 
Son, Mr. W. T. Ready, Mr. John Ward, of Belfast, and 
Sir Hermann Weber. As in my fourteen previous papers, 1 

1 Important Greek acquisitions of the Department of Coins 
from the year 1887 onwards will be found described by me in 
the Numismatic Chronicle for 1888, p. 1 f. ; 1 889, p. 249 f. ; 
1890, p. 311 f. ; 1891, p. 116 f. ; 1892, p. 1 f. ; 1893, p. 1 f. ; 
1894, p. 1 f. ; 1895, p. 89 f. ; 1896. p. 85 f. : 1897, p. 93 f. ; 
1898, p. 97 f. ; 1899, p. 85 f. ; 1900, p. 1 f., and p. 273 f. 
In preparing this paper I have once more had the advantage of 
consulting the section on Greek coins written by Mr. Barclay 
Head for the Parliamentary Return of the British Museum 
(1902), and I am also much indebted for several valuable 
suggestions to Mr. Head and Mr. G. F. Hill. 

VOL. II. FOURTH SEK1ES. * - s 



314 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



I give some account of the more noteworthy specimens. 
I have not, however, referred to acquisitions of many 
Phrygian and other coins which are likely to be described, 
before long, in volumes of the Museum Catalogue of 
Greek Coins. 

GKEEK COINS ACQUIRED 1887 1901. 



Year. 


Gold and 
Electrum. 


Silver. 


Bronze, &c. 


TotaL 


1887 


8 


58 


110 


176 


1888 


10 


217 


228 


455 


1889 


12 


65 


270 


347 


1890 


5 


102 


70 


177 


1891 


16 


280 


73 


369 


1892 


10 


99 


348 


457 


1893 


4 


118 


281 


403 


1894 


31 


164 


453 


648 


1895 


20 


178 


479 


677 


1896 


54 


428 


170 


652 


1897 


20 


313 


503 


836 


1898 


3 


222 


699 


924 


1899 


1 


112 


372 


485 


1900 


1 


310 


604 


915 


1901 


38 


411 


620 


1,069 


Total . . 


233 


3,077 


5,280 


8,590 



APHYTIS (MACEDONIAN CHALCIDICE). 
1. Obv. Head of Zeus Ammon r., horned, beardless. 

Rev. A <I>Y Eagle standing r., wings closed ; circular 
incuse. 

M. Size -5. Fourth cent. B.C. ; before 858. 
[PI. XV. 1.] 

The usual obverse on the coins of Aphytis is a head of 
Zeus Ammon, whose cultus was of chief importance (Paus. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 315 

iii. 18, 2; Plut. Lys. 20; Steph. Byz.). The god is 
represented either bearded or (as in this case) beardless, 2 
this dual representation being not uncommon in the case 
of Ammon. Thus we find both the young and the bearded 
head on the coins of Tenos, Cyrene, Mytilene and Lesbos 
(hectae) and doubtless at other places. 

The usual reverse type is an eagle 3 or sometimes two 
eagles (Head, Cat. Macedonia, p. 61, No. 5). These eagle 
types have not been explained. The two eagles stand 
facing one another and recall the " golden eagles " of Zeus 
connected with the Delphic omphalos, 4 yet here they can 
hardly be Apolline types. In Cat. Macedonia, " Aphytis," 
No. 3, the two facing " eagles " might be as well, or better, 
described (as Mr. Head has suggested) as doves. The 
reverse of this coin (No. 3) is, in fact, an almost exact 
reproduction of a reverse at Scione where doves are 
evidently intended (Von Sallet, JBeschreibung, ii. p. 125, 
No. 5). On the other coins of Aphytis, however, it is 
certainly an eagle that is represented. 

POTIDAEA (MACEDONIAN CHALCIDICE). 
2. Olv. Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. 

Rev. POT Trident. 
(13?) 

M. Size -5. [PL XV. 2.] 

The bronze coins of Potidaea are rare, and this piece is 

2 Cp. the coins in Jmhoof, Monn. gr., p. 64. 

3 Some types, namely kantharos (Cat. Maced. No. 1) and 
bunch of grapes (Hirsch in Annuaire, 1884, p. 36), refer to the 
Dionysos of the city mentioned in Xen., Hell. v. 3, 19. 

* B. M. Cat. Mysia, p. 32, No. 100, note ; Studniczka in 
Hermes, vol. xxxvii, p. 258 f: " Eine Corruptel im Ion des 
Euripides." 



316 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

unpublished. The types represented in this metal are as 
follows : 

i. Head of Athena r., in Corinthian helmet. 
Rev. POT Pegasos flying r. 

Imhoof Coll., Motin. gr., p. 91, No. 112 = Head, 
H. N., p. 188. 

ii. Athena and trident types (see No. 2 supra). 
Hi. Female head with earring r. 

fov> (P)OT(EI) Bull butting r. 

(Berlin : Von Sallet, Beschreibung, ii. p. 124, No. 6 
Athens : Postolacca, Monumenti deWInst., viii. 
pi. xxxii, 3 ; cp. Imhoof, Monn. yr., p. 91 ; p. 63. 

Mr. Head in his Historia has expressed (p. 188) the 
opinion that the coinage of Potidaea came to an end with 
the blockade of the city by the Athenians in B.C. 432-429. 
The bronze pieces just described (especially Nos. i. and ii) 
seem, however, to furnish evidence that the Potidaean 
coinage, at any rate in bronze, lasted longer than has been 
supposed. It can hardly be doubted that Nos. i. and ii. 
are modelled on the coinage ofCorinth, where coinage 
in bronze does not begin till circ. B.C. 400. The trident 
type, in particular, recalls the bronze coins with this type 
struck at Corinth B.C. 400-300 (Head, Cat. Corinth, pi. xiv, 
1-8). The Potidaean coins, then, were probably not 
minted earlier than circ. B.C. 400. They are certainly 
not later than circ. B.C. 358, when Philip I[ seized the 
city and handed it over to the Olynthians : B.C. 400-358 
will then be the approximate date of their issue. 5 

5 In B.C. 882 Potidaea was in the occupation of the Olyn- 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 317 

The adoption of the types of Corinth by Potidaea is not 
surprising, 6 for close ties bound the two cities together. 
Not only was Corinth the mother city of Potidaea, but 
she every year sent to Potidaea certain of her own citizens 
as magistrates (Epidemiurgi) . When Potidaea, at the 
critical period in her history, B.C. 432-429, threw off the 
yoke of Athens, Corinth was her instigator and ally. 

PAUSANIAS, KING OP MACEDON. B.C. 390 889. 

3. Obv. Youcg male head r., bound with taenia. 
Rec. PAYZ A [Nl] A Forepart of lion r. 

m. Size -75. [PI. XV. 3.] 

(Re-struck; on obv. BOTT and traces of types (bull's 
tail ? &c.) ; on rev. head r.). 

The types are well known, but this specimen has some 
interest through being re-struck on a coin of Bottice (in 
the Chalcidice) that was issued at the time of the Chal- 
cidian League, circ. B.C. 392. The original coin appears 
to have been similar to one described in Imhoof, Monn. 
gr., p. 66, No. 6: Obv. Female head r. Rev. BOTTIA 
IHN Butting bull r. 

AEMJS (THRACE). 

4. Obv. Head of Hermes r., in petasos. 

Rev. AINI Goat r., nearer foreleg raised, and beneath 
it, crab : incuse square. 

M. Size -45. Wt. 19'6 grs. [PI. XV. 4.] 

thians. In 364 it was taken by Timotheus, the Athenian 
general. 

6 The trident, though primarily Corinthian, may have had a 
peculiar appropriateness for the Potidaeans as being the 
attribute of their Poseidon Hippios. 



318 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

(A similar diobol, Von Sallet. Beschreihnng, i. p. 121, 
No. 15 ; cp. B. M. Cat. Thrace, " Aenus," No. 8, 
tetrobol with crab symbol.) Presented by Mr. 
John Ward. 

APOLLONIA PONTICA (THRACE). 

5. Obv. Head of Apollo r. [laureate]. 

Rev. AIXAAKIH Anchor inverted ; beneath left 
fluke, A ; beneath right fluke, cray-fish ; in 
field, r., E- 

IE, (black glassy patina). Size -55. Wt. 
38-4 grs. Fourth cent. B.C. [PI. XV. 5.] 

A similar reverse inscription has been read by Dr. 
Pick 7 on specimens less well preserved. The coin 
here published proves the correctness of the reading. 
Pick explains the legend as liya\K(ov), regarding IH 
as unexplained letters which do not, however, seem to 
be marks of value. AIXAAKON is inscribed on JEt of 
Chios of Imperial times. 8 

LARISSA (THESSALY). 

6. Obv. Horse r., trotting; above, Ofc: border of dots. 

(Similar to B. M. Cat. Tttessaly, p. 28, No. 43.) 

Bev. A ^1 SAA The nymph Larissa seated 1. on 
hydria ; she wears chiton, which has fallen back 
so as to leave left arm and shoulder bare ; on her 
right foot is a sandal ; her left leg is extended 
and rests on her right knee ; in her right hand 
she holds sandal ; her left hand draws back 
chiton. On the ground in front, a ball ; whole in 
incuse square. 

M. Size -5. Wt. 18'9 grs. [PL XV. 7.] 
Fourth cent. B.C. 

7 Pick in Rev. Num., 1898, p. 225 (with references tolmhoof- 
Blumer and Tacchella). 

' Head, Cat. Ionia, p. 341 ; Babelon, Traite, i. p. 465. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 319 

A very rare obol, not quite in the finest state of pre- 
servation, yet presenting an interesting addition to the 
charming series of types of which the nymph Larissa is 
the subject. 9 

A glance at any good collection of the coins such as 
that described in the British Museum Catalogue of Thes- 
saly readily reveals the simple series of incidents that 
the Larissaean artist wished to depict. The maiden has 
set out for the lion-headed fountain to draw water in her 
hydria (cp. Cat. Thess., pi. iv. 11). She lingers on the 
way, and as she rests for a time upon a seat improvised 
out of the water-jar, she thinks like Nausikaa of be- 
guiling time with a game of ball (PI. iv. 15). During 
her innocent diversion of bouncing the ball to earth, of 
throwing it high in the air and running to catch it 
(cp. pi. iv. 16), 10 the strap of a sandal becomes loose and 
she stoops to fasten it (pi. v. 8). 11 But this "careless 
shoe-string " again gives trouble. The sandal comes off, 
and (as our coin shows) Larissa has to sit down on the 
hydria to fasten it with greater care. 

PHALANNA (THESSALY). 

7. Obv. Young male head r., hair short ; behind, T ; border 
of dots. 

Rev. <|>AA A[NNAII1N] Female head r., wearing 
sakkos with tassel, earring and necklace fastened 
behind ; behind neck, pellet ; circular incuse. 

M. Size -8. [PL XV. 6.] 

9 Another specimen is in the Imhoof Blumer Collection. 

10 Cp. the representations of women playing ball in the vase 
paintings ; e.g. Reiuach, Repertoire des Vases, i., p. 16 ; ii., 
p. 191 ; 276, &c. 

11 Compare the figure of a woman stooping to attach her 
sandal on a kylix, in Murray, Designs from Greek Vases in 
Brit. Mas., pi. iv., 14. 



320 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Coins of this type are well known, but the style, 
especially of the reverse, can be well studied on our 
specimen. Certainly the style seems to suggest the 
middle of the fourth century, or, less precisely, the period 
B.C. 350-300. 12 Professor Gardner has assigned all the 
pieces of this type to the period B.C. 300-190, yet, at 
any rate, the best- executed examples, such as Cat. 
Thcssaly, No. 4, pi. viii. 15, and p. 41, No. 10, must 
surely belong to the fourth and not to the third century. 

Gardner calls the obverse head " Ares " ? no doubt 
because it bears some resemblance to the head on the 
gold staters of Philip II, which he maintains to be Ares 
and not Apollo. If the head at Phalanna is not admitted 
to be Ares, it must be allowed to be some warrior con- 
nected with Phalanna or its neighbourhood. For on a 
bronze coin of the place (in the Imhoof-Blumer collection) 
we find a beardless head wearing a helmet. 

The female head, called by Gardner a "nymph," may 
be the Phalanna after whom the city was supposed to be 
named. Steph. Byz. : <ba\avva, TroXty Ileppaifiia?, CLTTO 
T//S TU/JOUV Ovyarpos. 



SCOTUSSA (THESSALY). 
8. Obv. Head of young Herakles r., in lion's skin. 

Rev. ^ [K] O Bunch of grapes on stalk ; circular 
incuse. 

JE. Size -6. B.C. 400-867. [PL XV. 8.J 

This combination of types is unpublished ; though the 
bunch of grapes and Herakles (here of a pleasing and 

12 Mr. Head (Brit. Mus. Parliamentary Return for 1902) dates 
the coin circ. B.C. 850. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 321 

somewhat unconventional style) are already known on 
coins of Scotussa. 13 

HALIABTUS (BOEOTIA). 
9. Obv. Half Boeotian shield. 

Rev. A R Trident, downwards ; traces of incuse. 
JR. Size -35. Wt. 6*4. [PI. XV. 9.] 

An unpublished hemi-obol, struck B.C. 387-374. A 
trident adorns the shield on the staters of Haliartus of 
this period and is the symbol of the Poseidon of On- 
chestus. 14 

EUBOEA (ESETEIA ?). 

10. Obv. Head of nymph r., hair rolled, 15 

Rev. EYB Bull or cow standing r. ; traces of circular 
mcuse. 

M. Size 1-05. Wt. 246-3 grs. [PI. XV. 10.] 

A nearly identical specimen of this coin was published 
by Imhoof-Blumer (G. M., p. 536 ; pi. i. 20), from his 
own collection. The Photiades specimen (Catal., lot 
452, reading EYBOI) passed into the Berlin Museum 

13 See e.g. B. M. Cat. Thessaly, p. 49 ; Num. Chron., 1890, 
p. 318. 

14 Head, //. N. p. 293. 

15 I can see no clear traces on this specimen of the broad 
band that Mahler (Journ. internat., 1900, p. 194) declares to 
exist on the specimen published by Imhoof, G. M., pi. i. 20. 
Dressel describes the Photiades specimen as having a circular 
earring. In the case of our coin, I am inclined to think, as 
Mr. Head does, that the circular object may be the lobe of the 
ear represented rather big, as it is on the corresponding drachms 
in Cat. Central Greece, p. 94, Nos. 1 6. 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. T T 



322 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

and has been described by Dressel in Z.f. N., xxi., p. 215 ; 
pi. v. 3. These coins were probably struck at Eretria 
towards the end of the fifth century B.C., when Euboea 
was independent of Athens. 16 Drachms with a similar 
female head are assigned in Head's Central Greece (p. 94, 
No. 1-6) to B.C. 411-387. 

Mahler, writing (Journ. Internat., 1900, p. 194 f.) on 
Dr. Imhoofs specimen, compares the obverse with a head 
in the Louvre usually called " Apollo," which he considers 
to belong to the school of Polycleitus. 

EBETEIA (EUBOEA). 

11. Obv. MKOMANTCON6INOC Bust of Commodus 
r., laur., bearded ; border of dots. 

Rev. 6P6TPI U)N Triple bust; the central 
facing head is youthful and wears head-dress (a 
kalathos containing fruits ?) ; on each side a 
(bearded ?) head (without head-dress) in profile : 
border of dots. 

M. Size -85. [PI. XV. 12.] 

A similar specimen of this rare coin belonged to H. P. 
Borrell and was published by him in Num. Chron. vi. 145. 
He describes the two side faces as " bearded male profiles," 
and the central as a female head " with a crenelated crown." 
On our specimen the side faces certainly appear to be 
bearded, though it is just possible that the supposed beards 
may be due to abrasions of the surface of the coin. If 
the three heads are really female, the type would fairly 
well resemble the representations of *E/raT?7 rpnrpoauJTro? 
that we know from gems, reliefs, &c. If, however, the 

18 Cp. Imhoof, G. M.,p. 535; Head, Cat. Central Greece, 
p. Ik. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 323 

profiles be male, we may adopt a recent suggestion of Mr. 
Head's that the central face is that of Demeter joined 
with the two Cabiri, with whose cultus she was some- 
times associated. 17 

ATHENS. 

12. Obv. Head of Athena Parthenos r., in helmet; border 

of dots. 

Rev. A OE Owl r., on amphora ; in field, r., naked 
O figure (Harmodius) standing facing ; 

AE M O right hand raised, brandishing sword ; 
^ left hand holds sheath : whole in- 
olive wreath. 

M. Size 1-2. Wt. 246*6 grs. [PI. XV. 14.] 

The British Museum has long lacked a specimen of this 
interesting tetradrachm, which was struck probably circ. 
B.C. 83, subsequent to the capture of Athens by Sulla 
(B.C. 86). The type is well known since Kohler's publica- 
tion in Z.f. N., xii. (1885) p. 103. 18 

AEGIUM (AOHAIA). 

13. Obv. ANTQNe.IN.OC AVrO[VCTOC] Bust of 

Antoninus Pius r., laur. 

Rev. ZGVCTTAIC Air[ieWN] Statue of the boy 
Zeus standing r. on pedestal, with right foot slightly 
raised ; body naked ; hair short ; right hand raised 
to hurl thunderbolt ; on outstretched left hand 
eagle about to fly r. 

M. Size 1-85. [PL XV. 13, rev.] 

17 Brit. Mus. Parliamentary Return, 1902 ; cp. Daremberg 
and Saglio, p. 767. In the introduction to Cat. Central Greece, 
Head quoted Borrell's description, and suggested that the type 
was a representation of the moon in her three phases. 

18 See also Head, Cat. Attica, p. Ivi. ; Imhoof and Gardner,. 
(?oww. on Pans., p. 148 ; pi. DD., xiv.-xviii. ; Salletin Z.f. N. t 
xiii., p. 62, pi. iii. 4, on the specimen in the Berlin Museum.. 



324 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

This specimen was formerly in the collection of M. 
Kambanis, and though it has already been well described 
by Svoronos, 19 I am reluctant to omit it from the list of 
our principal acquisitions. The reverse legend leaves no 
doubt that a representation of Zeus as a boy is intended, 
and the figure can be better studied here than on some of 
the smaller coins of Aegium on which the same type 
occurs. 

Pausanias (vii., 24, 4) 20 saw at Aegium a bronze statue 
of the boy Zeus (Zeu? re rj\utlav rauV) by the Argive 
sculptor Ageladas, and there can be no reasonable doubt 
that this is the statue intended to be represented on this 
coin. 21 The youthful god stands, with one foot slightly 
raised, in a formal attitude, holding his thunderbolt in one 
hand and his eagle in the other ; this motive is in keeping 
with what would be expected of Ageladas, especially when 
we compare it with what is known of his statue of Zeus 
Ithomatas, reproduced on the coins of Messene. 22 

FEDERATION OF ACHAEAN CITIES. 

14. Obv. Female head 1., wearing necklace and circular 
earring with pendant ; her hair is rolled, tied in 
a knot on the crown of the head, and falls behind 
in a wavy mass ; some loose tresses touch the 
face and neck. 

> Journ. Internal., 1899, p. 802; pi. xiv. 11. 

20 See Imhoof and Gardner, Num. Comm., p. 85 ; pi. B, 
xii., xiii. 

21 Ageladas, or, more correctly, Agelaidas (or Hagelaidas), 
apparently worked circ. B.C. 620-455 : see A. S. Murray, Hist, of 
Greek Sculpt., i. pp. 185-190; Collignon, Sculpt, gr., i. p. 817 ; 
E. Gardner, Handbook of Greek Sculpt., p. 192 f. ; cp. Miss 
C. A. Button in Annual of British School, Athens, iii., 150; 
Mahler, Polyklet und seine Schule, pp. 13, 14. 

M Head, Hist. Num., p. 861, figs. 238, 289 ; Imhoof and 
Gardner, op. rit., p. 67; pi. P, iv. and v. ; Collignon, i. 
p. 818. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 325 

Rev. AXAIflN Zeus, wearing himation over lower 
limbs and left shoulder, seated 1. on throne, the 
right side-arm of which is supported by a sphinx ; 
in his outstretched right arm eagle 1. ; his left 
hand rests on long sceptre ; his feet rest on 
footstool ; in field, 1., crested helmet : circular 
incuse (double struck^. 

JR. Size 1-05. Wt. 185-2. [PI. XVI. 4.] 



This coin, an Aeginetic didrachm, is believed to have 
been found near Levadeia (Lebadea in Boeotia). It is 
unique, but is related to a series of drachms and hemi- 
drachms that have been known for many years. 23 These 
lesser denominations have the same female head on the 
obverse and on the reverse the inscription AXAIHN 21 (type, 
Athena charging). In 1873, when publishing the British 
Museum hemi-drachm, Prof. P. Gardner described it as 
unquestionably pre- Alexandrine in style (circ. B.C. 340) 
and attributed it to the old league of the cities of Achaia. 
Later on, however, Mr. Gardner brought down the date to 
B.C. 302-286 and assigned the coin (B. M. Cat. Thessaly} 
to Achaia Phthiotis, in Thessaly. This Thessalian attribu- 
tion is also maintained by Imhoof-Blumer and Weil. 

The discovery of our coin, which is in much better con- 
dition than the smaller pieces, furnishes fresh material for 
the discussion of date and attribution. The new didrachm, 
as can hardly be denied, has distinct affinities with the 
fine Peloponnesian staters issued a few years before the 
middle of the fourth century. A comparison with the coins 



23 Gardner, Num. Chron., 1873, p. 182 ; B. M. Cat. Thessaly, 
p. 48; p. xxix. ; Imhoof-Blumer, Monn. gr., p. 156; Weil, 
Z.f.N.ix.. (1882), p. 241. 

24 Both on the didrachm and on the Brit. Mus. hemi-drachm 
each letter of the inscription appears with an incuse background. 



326 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

of Stymphalus, Messene, and Pheneus 25 suggests the period 
B c. 370-360 as the approximate date of our didrachm. It 
can hardly be said that the attribution to Achaia Phthiotis 
rests on cogent historical or numismatic grounds. Certain 
Thessalian coins, indeed, bear the monogram AX, but in 
such cases the town-name is inscribed in addition. Here 
the inscription AXAIflN gives no hint of Phthiotis, and 
it seems much better to refer it to the well-known 
Achaeans of the Peloponnese. There seems, then, good 
warrant for the view recently expressed by Mr. Head 26 that 
"this beautiful coin belongs to the earlier Achaean Federa- 
tion, of which the famous Achaean League, formed in 
280 B.C , was a revival." 

The place of mintage was doubtless the city of Aegium. 
This place, after the decay of the older cities of Achaia 
and the destruction (in B.C. 373) of Helike, the old religious 
meeting-place, became the political centre of Achaia, and 
its sanctuaries of Zeus 'A/zapto? and Demeter Panachaia 
the religious centres of the Achaean League. Whether the 
coins were issued soon after 373, when Aegium began to 
hold the leading position in the KOIVOV rwv 'A^auav, or at 
a rather later date, I will not now attempt to decide. In 
B.C. 366 the Achaeans became for a brief space the allies 
of Thebes, but in 362 we find them opposed to the preten- 
sions of the Boeotian city and forming part of a combina- 
tion consisting of Athens, Mantinea, Elis and Phlius. 

The Zeus on the reverse of the didrachm is probably the 
Zeus Amarios. 27 The Athena on the smaller coins may be 

35 B. M. Cat. Peloponnesus, pi. xxxvii. 4 ; xxii. 1 ; 
xxxvi. 7. 

26 Brit. Mus. Parliamentary Return, 1902. 

27 There was also a Zeus Homagyrios at Aegium. See Pauly- 
Wissowa, under " Aigion " and " Amarios." 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 327 

Athena A/zapm, who is known to have been a protectress 
of the later Achaean League. 28 The head on the didrachm 
may possibly be intended for Demeter Panachaia, or it may 
be one of the other goddesses of Aegium, such as Artemis 
or Eileithuia. 29 

The identification of this splendid head is, indeed, 
rendered difficult by the absence of attributes ; yet its 
artistic effectiveness is largely due, I think, to the sparing 
use of accessories, and especially to the unconventional 
treatment of the hair. Usually, when a Greek coin- 
artist aims at the portrayal of rich and stately female beauty 
he adorns the head with an ornamented Stephanos (as in 
the case of Hera), or (as at Syracuse) confines the hair in 
a jewelled net or in a sakkos embroidered with star or 
maeander. Here, the engraver has employed no such 
artifice and has produced his effect simply by a skilful 
manipulation of the hair itself. The effect would be still 
more remarkable were our didrachm fleur de coin, but 
though it is in excellent condition, some details in high 
relief have suffered partial effacement, especially some of 
the fine lines by which the hair was rendered. 

ELIS. 

15. Obv. Female head r. (Olympia ?), hair rolled and falling 
behind. 

28 Or possibly the Athena Panachais who had a temple at 
Patrae : Paus. vii., 20, 2 ; Imhoof and Gardner, Comm. on Paw., 
p. 78, pi. Q, xiv. The helmet found as a symbol on the 
reverse of the didrachm appears also as a symbol on tbe drachm 
and on one of the specimens of the hemi-drachm (Imhoof, loc. 
cit.). Whether it refers to Athena or is a magistrate's signet 
can hardly be determined till more coins have come to ligbt. 

29 On these goddesses at Aegium, Imhoof and Gardner, op. cit., 
p. 87, pi. R, xxi., xxii. ; p. 83, pi. R, vi., &c. 



328 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Rev. FA Eagle standing r., wings closed; circular 
incuse. 

JR. Size -45. Wt. 11-8. [PI. XV. 11.] 
(A variety of B. M. Cat. Peloponnesus, " Elis," No. 108 30 ). 

ANDKOS. 

16. Obi: Head of young Dionysos r., wreathed with ivy, 

hair flowing ; behind, <J> : border of dots. 

Rev. ANA P Panther advancing r. : traces of circular 
I incuse. 

JR. Size -05. Wt. 50-2 grs. [PI. XV. 15.] 

This specimen is more complete than the one published 
in Brit. Mus. Cat., Crete, &c., " Andros," No. 1. M. Pas- 
chalis, in his elaborate monograph on the numismatics of 
Andros (Journ. Int., i. p. 348, pi. xiv. 3-5), assigns the 
coins of this type to the beginning of the fourth century 
B.C., and treats the letter 4> as the signature of an en- 
graver whom he would identify with the artist 4> of 
Thurium, Terina, &c. (cp. ib. pi. xvii.). 

The resemblance in style between this coin and the 
coins of Magna Graecia is, to me at least, not obvious. 
Compared with the Nike-head at Terina and the Athena 
at Thurium, this Dioiiysos seems comparatively common- 
place both in conception and treatment. In the British 
Museum Catalogue I assigned the coin to the third cen- 
tury B.C., and I am not convinced by the arguments of 
M. Paschalis that it is earlier than circ. B.C. 300. 

APOLLONIA AD RHYNDACUM (MYSIA). 

17. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laur. 

30 Where for Similar read Female head r. 



CREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 329 

Rev, ATTpAAH NIATON PYN Lyre: whole 
within laurel-wreath. 

M. Size -95. Thick fabric with bevelled 
edges : dark green patina. [PL XV. 16.] 

{First century B.O. Cp. Babelon, Invent. Wad- 
dinyton, No. 643). 31 

CYZICUS (MYSIA). 

18. Obv. Head of Kore Soteira r., wreathed with corn. 

Rev. KY Tunny 1. : whole in oak- wreath. 
II 

M. Size -55. Wt. 23-5 grs. [PI. XVI. 1.] 

This accompanies the bronze coins of the period B.C. 
200-100 described in Brit. Mus. Cat. Mysia, p. 38. 

HADRIANEIA (MYSIA). 

19. Obv. Bust of Denieter r., veiled ; in front, two ears of 

corn : border of dots. 

Rev. AAPIA N6HN Telesphoros standing facing: 
border of dots. 

M. Size -65. 

This is an addition to Mr. Hill's very useful lists of the 
two | Mysian towns Hadrianeia and Hadrianoi (Journ.. 
Internal., 1898, p. 241 f.). It is of thin, flat fabric, and 
undoubtedly of imperial times ; perhaps of the reign of 
Antoninus Pius, during which Telesphorus occurs as a 
reverse type at Hadrianeia. 32 

31 For other autonomous coins of Apollonia, see Svoronos in 
Rev. Num. 1889, p. 177 ; Imhoof, Kleinasiatische Munzen, 1901, 
p. 13 f. 

32 Imhoof-Blumer, Kleinasiatische Munzen, p. 20, No. 2 ; 
and references there to Ramsay and Munro. 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. u u 



330 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

ClSTOPHORI. 

The following are additions to the Brit. Mus. Cata- 
logues : 

PEKOAMUM (B.C. 200188). 

20. (Cp. Mysia, p. 128, No. 86 f.) Rev. In field 1. Ik ; 

between bow-case and left serpent, a prow^r. ; 
in field r. dolphin swimming 1. 

M. Size 1-1. Wt. 190-5 grs. 

PEBOAMUM (B.C. 188 67). 

21. (Cp. Mysia, p. 128, No. 94 f.) Rev. In field 1. -ffe; in 

field r., thyrsos entwined by serpent; above 
bow-case, KP 
rff 

JR. Size 1-1. Wt. 190-7 grs. 

EPHESUS. 

22. Rev. In field 1. MC (= year 46 = B.C. 88) and E$E ; 

in field r. long torch; above bow-case, head- 
dress of Isis (Cp. Head's Coins of Ephesus, p. 66). 

JR. Size 1-1. Wt. 192-4 grs. 

ABYDUS (TROAS). 

28. Obv. Bust of Artemis r., draped, wearing stephane [and 
necklace] ; hair tied in bunch behind ; bow and 
quiver at shoulder : border of dots. 

AH 

Rev. A BY NUN Eagle r. ; wings open ; in front, 
rose; in front of head, star ; in ex., AHMHTPI : 
whole in laurel-wreath. 

M. Size 1-2. Wt. 259-8 grs. [PI. XVI. 3.] 

Struck after B.C. 196 ; of the same class as Brit. Mus. 
Cat. Troas, " Abydus," Nos. 4957). 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 331 

NEANDEIA (TROAS). 
24. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laureate ; hair short. 

Rev. A N Altar with ornamental necking and horns. 
N E It is raised on steps and behind it is a 
laurel-tree. 

M. Size -45. Wt. 28'9 grs. [PI. XVI. 2.] 

An unpublished coin belonging to about the same 
period (circ. B.C. 430-400) as the silver coin of Neandria 
presented to the British Museum by Sir Hermann Weber, 
and described by me in Num. Chron. 1896, p. 93, No. 11 ; 
PI. VII. 8. The head of Apollo is almost identical on 
the two coins. 

An altar is a rare type on autonomous money. 33 Pro- 
bably a sacrificial altar of considerable size is here 
intended, such as would be placed before a temple or in a 
sacred grove. 34 The tree behind it seems to be of laurel, 
and may indicate that the altar is dedicated to Apollo. 
Thus, on vases we find an altar of Apollo, identified by 
the palm-tree and tripod placed beside it. 35 

The reverse type of the Neandrian coin above cited 
consists of a ram biting the leaves of a branch. I have 
already (Num. Chron., loc. tit.} suggested that this animal 

33 An altar occurs as type on a fourth century drachm of 
Western Sicily : A. J. Evans, in Num. Chron., 1896, p. 140 ; 
PI. IX. 13. 

34 Cp. the representation on coins of the Great Altar of 
Parium, described by Strabo. Wroth, Cat. Mysia, p. 97, note ; 
PI. XXI. 1012. 

35 Stengel, Die griechischen Kultusaltertumer, ed. 2, PI. I. 
Fig. 6 b ; cp. Fig. 3. Instances of trees represented near 
altars : Coins of Amasia (Brit. Mus. Cat. Pontus, PI. II. 2 6) ; 
relief in Daremberg and Saglio, I. p. 350, Fig. 418; Num. 
Chron. 1896, PI. IX. 13 (laurel sprays) ; Decennial Publications, 
Univ. Chicago, vi. 1902 ; PI. II. ; p. 8 (F. Tarbell). 



332 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

may be regarded as sacred to the pastoral Apollo Kar- 
neios, Nomios, &c., and that the branch may be intended 
for the laurel-branch of Apollo which was credited with 
medicinal and purificatory virtues. It is certain from the 
obverses of the coins that Apollo was an important divinity 
at Neandria. 

CYME (AEOLIS). 

25. Obv. Head of horse r., with K Y inscribed on neck. 
Rev. Rosette of eight leaves : circular incuse. 

JR covered with brownish grey patina. 
Size -85. Wt. 14 grs. [PI. XVI. 5.] 

Fourth century B.C. ; cp. Imhoof, Griech. Miinzen, 
; p. 681 f, Nos. 248245 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. Troas, 

etc., p. 106, No. 15 ; cp. also Imhoof in Z.f. N. 
xx. p. 277, No. 1. 

LABISSA PHBTCONIS (AEOLIS). 

26. Obv. Female head r., wearing sphendone, earring, and 

necklace. 

Rev. AAP 1^ Al Amphora : circular incuse. 

M. Size -4. Wt. 17-2 grs. [PL XVI. 6.] 
(Acquired from a resident at Smyrna.) 

An unpublished piece and the only known silver coin 
of this place. It has the usual reverse type of Larissa, 
viz., an amphora, and the obverse head is the same as on 
one of the bronze coins of the fourth century B.C. (Brit. 
Mm. Cat. Troas, &c., p. 134, No. 2.) M 

36 Cp. Introduction," p. Ix. ; Imhoof in Z.f. N., xx. p. 281. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 333 

MYTILENE (LESBOS). 

27. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laur., hair falls behind in strag- 
gling locks. 37 

i Rev. to V T I AH /V A O N Female head 1., 
wearing sphendone fastened by two crossing 
bands ; whole in incuse square. 

M. Size -6. Wt. 60-8 grs. [?1. XVI. 7.] 



Another specimen of this interesting coin is in the 
Waddington collection (Babelon, Invent., No. 1386; PI. 
III. 7). It clearly belongs to the latter part of the fifth 
century, circ. B.C. 440-400, and the head of Apollo, espe- 
cially in the treatment of the hair, resembles the head on 
the unique electrum stater of Mytilene in the British 
Museum (Cat. Troas, PL XXXII. I). 38 

The reverse head is of fine, somewhat severe style, and 
may be compared with heads on hectae of Phocaea 39 and 
Lesbos. 40 

The legend on the autonomous coins of Mytilene is 
almost always abbreviated (as MYTI). On the Imperial 
coins it is MYTIAHNAIUN. Here it is MVTIAH- 
NAON. In lapidary inscriptions of Lesbos of the fourth 
century B.C. we find MimA^ycuof, but MimAjyi/aot also 
occurs, e.g., in the well-known monetary convention 
between Phocaea and Mytilene, apparently circ. B.C. 400. 41 

37 The hair is not so long and flowing as it is on the Apollo 
heads of a later period, e.g., B. M. Cat. Troas, &c., " Mytilene," 
No. 8. 

18 Cp. also the heads of Apollo on the Lesbian hectae, Cat. 
Troas, PI. XXXII. 13-16, and on the small ^l of Mytilene, 
ib. p. xxxvii., 10, 11. 

39 B. M. Cat. Ionia, Phocaea," No. 66, PI. V., 16. 

40 B. M. Cat. Troas, PI. XXXIII. 1. 

41 Hicks and Hill, Greek Hist. Inscr., No. 94. 



334 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

It may be doubted whether the inscription on our coin 
is in the genitive plural (ov for >). Probably it is the 
neuter of the adjective, with vojjaa^a. (?) understood. 42 

The inscriptions on the coins of Methymna are nearly 
parallel. On the autonomous money the inscription is 
usually abbreviated (as MA0Y) ; on the Imperial, 
MHeYMNAIHN occurs. Circ. B.C. 420-400 we find 
(as on our coin) MAGVMNAION. The earliest coins 
have a rather remarkable legend MA0YMN AIOZ written 
(in archaic letters) both on obverse and reverse. This 
must be the adjective with arart'jp (?) understood. 

MYTILENE (LESBOS). 

28. Obv. C6XTOC NGOC MAKAP. . . Head of 
Sextus r., bare, beardless : border of dots. 

Rev. ANAPOM[AA] NA A6C[BOC?] Bust 
of Andromeda r. ; hair tied behind : border of 
dots. 

&. Size -8. [PI. XVI. 8.] 

Specimens of this coin, which forms an interesting 
addition to the series of Mytilenean coin portraits, 43 were 
published by Dr. Imhoof-Blumer in Zeit. fur Num., xx., 
p. 286, who read the last word of the obverse legend 
MAP[KOY?] (i.e., "Sextus the Younger, son of Mar- 
cus"), and the last word of the reverse legend as A6CBQ) 
(ya/rros ?) (i.e., " Andromeda the Younger, daughter of 
Lesbonax"). 

Our coin reads on the obverse quite certainly MAK- 

42 On the use of the adjective instead of the ethnic, see Hill, 
Handbook of Greek Coins, p. 180. 

43 Wroth in Classical Review, May, 1894, pp. 226, 227 
(" Portraits of famous citizens of Mytilene "), and Cat. Treat., 
pp. Ixx.-lxxv. ; Imhoof, Z. f. N. xx., p. 286 f. ; cp. Kl. M. ii., 
p. 611. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 335 

AP . . ., and we must therefore, as Mr. Head has already 
pointed out, 44 render these inscriptions as " Sextus the 
new Makar (or Makareus)," and " Andromeda the new 
Lesbos." 45 Makar, or Makareus, was a colonist and 
ruler of Lesbos, which he called after himself Makaria, 
while Lesbos (according to Schol., II., xxiv. 544) was 
his wife. 46 

Sextus and Andromeda are not historically known. A 
Sextus '///>J9 figures on the Mytilenean coins, but being 
bearded is probably distinct from this Sextus, though 
perhaps related to him. It is noteworthy, moreover, 
that the portrait of Andromeda-Lesbos is almost identical 
with the portrait of Flavia Nicomachis, who appears on 
the reverse of the coin of Sextus ?//?>9. 47 Imhoof would 
attribute the " Sextus and Andromeda " coins to the time 
of Titus or Domitian, chiefly on account of the style of 
the coiffure on the reverse. 

APOLLONOS-HIERON (LYDIA). 

29. Obv. Youthful head r., wreathed with ivy (Dionysos) : 
border of dots. 

44 British Museum Parliamentary Return, 1902. 

45 Cp. AeCBftNAZ HPHC N6OC, Lesbonax in the 
character of Dionysos, in B. M. Cat. Troas, &c., " Mytilene," 
No. 164; NGIi lAKXIl and Nft TTYOIjQ of Antinous 
on coins of Tarsus (Hill, B. M. Cat. Lycaonia, p. Ixxxix) ; 
NGA 0GA HPA HAAVTIAAA on coins of Alabanda 
(Head, B. M. Cat. Caria, p. 12, No. 19). 

46 See Schirmer in Koscher's Lexikon, s. v. "Makar," 
"Makareus"; art. "Lesbos," ib. ; and further in Plehn's 
Lesbiacorum liber, p. 24 f. The appearance of the name of 
Makareus on this set of coins rather supports my conjecture 
(Cat. Troas, &c. , p. Ixxv.), that the Leukippos who appears on 
a coin of Mytilene (ib. p. Ixxv.) may be the Leukippos, son of 
Makareus, who was the leader of a colony which his father 
despatched from Lesbos to Rhodes. 

47 Cat. Troas, p. Ixxiii, Ixxiv. 



336 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Rev. ATTOAAHNiePITHN Bunch of grapes: 
border of dots. 

m. Size -65. [PI. XVI. 9.] 
(Imperial times, Tiberius Caracalla.) 

80. Obv.fW K M ' AVPH ANTON6I Head of 
Caracalla r., with slight beard; laur. : border of 
dots. 

Rev. ATTOAAH NOI6PIT Athena, wearing helmet 
and chiton, standing to front, looking r. ; right 
hand supports spear ; left hand, shield : border 
of dots. 

M. Size -9. [PI. XVI, 10.] 

CILBIANI NICAEI (LYDIA). 

31. Obv. Within wreath (of olive ?) bull's head facing ; fillets 
attached to horns ; on 1., T A ; on r., 



Rev, Within wreath (of olive?), KIABI ANHN : 
border of dots. 

m. Size 1-8. [PI. XVI. 11.] 



This curious coin is of flat fabric and probably of Im- 
perial times (second or early third century A.D.). It may 
be doubted whether it should be assigned to the Cilbiani 
Superiores or the Cilbiani Nicaei, as the distinctive 
legends TUN ANH or TON TT6PI N6IKAIAN, 
<c., are wanting. It is probably best assigned to the 
Cilbiani Nicaei, who issued coins of large module in the 
second and third centuries, and on whose coins (though 
indeed very rarely) the inscription KIABIANflN is 
found without mention of Nicaea. 48 I am unable to 
explain the letters on the obverse. 

The bull's head is not known to be a badge of the 

48 Jlrit. Mus. Cat. Lydia, p. 64, No. 2. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 337 

Cilbiani, nor is it found on their coins. I am inclined 
to suppose that it has here some special significance, 
and that the coin was issued on the occasion of some 
notable festival of which the sacrifice of a bull formed a 
prominent feature. 49 The bull's head, it will be noticed, 
is adorned with sacrificial fillets and encircled by a 
wreath. 

CILBIANI NICAEI (LYDIA). 

32. obo. nonce n rerAc KA Bust of Geta r., 

with whisker, head bare ; wears paludamentuin 
and cuirass : countermark, Asklepios standing, 
holding serpent-staff. 

Rev. 6TTIC KATTAA B TOV IOVAA 

APXO ' Asklepios holding serpent-staff stand- 
ing towards r., looking 1. in the direction of 
Hygieia who stands r., wearing chiton and peplos 
and feeding serpent from patera. In ex., 
NGIKAenN KIA BIANHN 

m. Size 1-25. [PI. XVI. 12.] 

This specimen was briefly referred to by Head in the 
introduction to his Catalogue, Lydia (p. xlvii.), where 
he reads em S/caTrXa j3' TOW 'lou\. a a/%o. Imhoof had 
read the name as "ATrXajSro?, but it appears that he now 
agrees to Head's reading, and thinks that the coin in his 
Kleinas. Munzen (p. 175, No. 5 ; cp. reff. there) should 
probably be read ETTIC KATTAA B. IOV, &c. (Kl. M. ii., 
p. 521.) 

GERME (LYDIA). 

83. Obv. AYTOKAAY KOMOAOC Bust of Corn- 
modus r., with whisker ; laureate ; wears paluda- 
mentum and cuirass. 

49 Cp. the ceremonies connected with the sacrifice of a bull 
brought together by H. Von Fritze, Troja und llion, pp. 514 
516 : c7ro[ij;]o-aTO e Kal ras apcreis TCOV ftowv eVavSptos / re 
'EXcuo-Ivi rrj Ova-ia /cat TOIS trp [017/300-1015] ; 17 /?ovs in the inscrip- 
tions of llion, &c. 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. x x 



338 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Rev, ETTI EPM O AA f TEPMH Apollo naked 
standing, with legs crossed, towards r., resting 
right hand on head and with left supporting lyre 
on a column which is entwined by a fillet (or a 
garland) ; behind, tree round which a serpent is 
coiled. 

-ZB. Size 1-1. [PI. XVII- 1.] 
(Cp. Brit. Mus. Cat. Lydia, p. liii ; p. 85, No. 27). 

SIDE (PAMPHYLIA). 

84. O^.-AVT KAI TTO Al TAAAIHNOC C 
Bust of Gallienus r. laur., wearing paludamen- 
tum and cuirass ; in front, . 

Rev. CIAH TUN Asklepios wearing himation, stand- 
ing facing ; right hand holds staff entwined by 
serpent with human head. 

M. Size 1-2. [PI. XVII. 3.] 

The figure resembles the Asklepios familiar on coins, 
except that it stands more full to the front than usual. 
The staff with the human-headed serpent is quite excep- 
tional. Were the coin of the period of the Antonines 
and of the north of Asia Minor there would be little diffi- 
culty in identifying the serpent with Glycon, the serpent 
exploited by Alexander, the famous impostor of Aboniti- 
chus, but it seems doubtful whether Glycon would occur 
at a Pamphyliau town in the third century. 50 Probably 
this unusual representation is due to some Egyptian or 
Gnostic influence 51 prevalent in CIAH MYCTIC. 52 

60 Lucian, Alex. The influence of Alexander still, however, 
prevailed at Abonitichus itself in the third century : F. Cumont, 
Alexandre d' Abonotichos, p. 41 f. ; Babelon, Rev. Num. 1900, 
p. 1 f (" Le faux prophete Alexandre "). 

81 Babelon, op. cit., pp. 28 30. 

62 Inscription on a coin of Salonina, Babelon, Invent. Wad- 
dimjtvn, No. 8501 ; cp. No. 3497. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 339 

Judging from the coins and inscriptions, Asklepios 
was a very much less important god at Side than Athena 
and Apollo. 

CERAITAE (PISIDIA). 

35. Obv. Female head r. (Artemis or Tyche of city ? ), hair 
tied in bunch behind ; wears tall head-dress, 
apparently turreted. 

Rev. KePAeiTfl (N?) Boar advancing r. : slight 
circular incuse. 

M. Size -15. 53 [PI. XVII. 2.] 
(First century B.C. ?) 

The exact provenance of this coin is unknown, but it 
was acquired (like No. 36 infra) from a resident in Smyrna, 
through whose hands a large number of Asiatic coins are 
frequently passing. There is thus some probability that 
it was found in Asia Minor. It is unpublished, but 
in both its types resembles the bronze coin inscribed 
K6PA6ITA (N ?), and described by Svoronos in his 
Crete (p. 46, No. 6) under " Ceraia," though with hesita- 
tion, as he suggests as an alternative that it may belong 
to a town of Pisidia. The reverse of Svoronos's coin, 
described as an owl, is a boar. 

To the Ceraitae, Imhoof has already attributed bronze 
coins with the head of Artemis, reverse club, and also some 
with reverse bow and arrow. These are inscribed KE. 54 

CREMNA AND CERAITAE (PISIDIA). 

86. Obv. Female bust r. (Artemis or Tyche ?), hair in two 
formal curls ; wears turreted head-dress : border 
of dots. 

53 Since this was in type, Imhoof has discussed two similar 
coins : Kl. M. ii., p. 375. 

64 Hill, Lycia, p. 210 ; p. xcix. ; cxx. ; Invent. Wadd., 3658 f. 



340 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Rev. K PH M N EH N Double cornucopiae. 

KAI 
KEPAEITflN 

M. Size -65. Wt. 50-7 grs. [PI. XVII. 4.] 
(Second century B.C. ?) 

Specimens of this rare drachm (Hague and Wadding- 
ton Collection M ) were first published by Dr. Imhoof- 
Blumer (Monn. gr., p. 336 ; cp. Griech. M., p. 693). Of 
the Ceraitae nothing is known, but the evidence of the 
coins suggests that they lived in the neighbourhood of 
Cremna. (Cp. Imhoof, Kl. M. ii., p. 376.) 

CBEMNA (PISIDIA). 

87. Obv. IMP C S L DOM AVR6LIANO Bust 
of Aurelian r., laur., wearing paludamentum and 
cuirass. 

Jfetf.-DONATIOC OLCR6MN Female figure 
(Aniiona ?) in long drapery, standing to front, 
looking 1. ; each hand rests upon a modius, in 
which are ears of corn ? 

M. Size 1-8. [PI. XVII. 5.] 

A similar specimen in the French collection is briefly 
referred to in Mr. Hill's CataL Lycia, &c., p. ciii. Im- 
hoof (Monn. gr., p. 337, No. 78a) has published another 
coin of Cremna of Aurelian with reverse DON AT IO 
COL * CRG "Urnedejeux, avec deux palmes, pose"e sur 
une table."' 56 

The word donatio, the common legal term for a gift 
(e.g., Imt., bk. ii., tit. 7, " De Donationilm "), seems to 

65 Babelon, Invent. Waddington, No. 8691. 

56 See also the description in Imhoof-Blumer's Klelnasia- 
tischen Munzen, Wien, 1902, vol. ii., p. 884, No. 15 j pi. xiii. 
28, published since this article was in type. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 341 

have here nearly the meaning of largitio (cp. donativum, 
the imperial largess to the soldiery, congiarium, the largess 
to the populace). I am not aware that it is found on 
other coins. The inscription apparently here records a 
gift of the Emperor Aurelian to Colonia Cremna. The 
coin published by Imhoof may be illustrated by the coin 
of Side with the word AHP6A inscribed near a table 
which supports two purses and a prize-urn with palm- 
branches. Our coin (No. 37) seems to record a largess 
of corn, or, at any rate, a money gift which had been 
placed at the disposal of the magistrates (airwvai or 
ayopavo/jioi) charged with the provisioning of the town. 
Good parallels are furnished by inscriptions on coins of 
Tarsus: AftPCA CITOV ATTO 6TV TAPCI2 
(Egyptian corn presented to Tarsus by the Emperor Cara- 
calla) ; AHP6A AA6EANAPOV (i.e., Severus Alex- 
ander). 57 Compare also AETERNVM BENEFICIVM 
accompanying a modius with corn on imperial coins of 
Sidon and Laodicea in Syria. 

LYSINIA (PISIDIA). 



38. Obv.'H Cen reTAC K Bust of Geta r., 
beardless ; wearing paludamentum and cuirass ; 
head bare : border of dots. 

Jta;. AVCIN I 6.QN The god Men standing to 
front, looking r., left foot resting on bucranium ; 
he wears Phrygian cap, chiton and himation ; 
crescent at shoulders. In left hand he holds Nike 
carrying trophy ; right hand rests on long sceptre : 
border of dots. 

M. Size -8. [PI. XVII. 6.] 

Cp. specimen in the French collection published by 
Babelon, Rev. Num., 1893, p. 340, No. 87; 
Roscher's Lexikon, " Men," p. 24724, Fig. 8. 

57 Wroth, Num. Chron., 1900, p. 291 ; Bostowzew in Num. 
Chron.y 1900, p. 96 f., on largesses of corn. 



342 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Coins of Lysinia are scarce and are known only of 
Caracalla arid of Geta. 58 The representation of Men is 
one often found on the coins of the Pisidian Antioch, 
which was an important seat of his cultus. 59 

ICONIUM (LYCAONIA). 

89. Obv. Bust of Perseus, looking r. ; he wears winged 
helmet, with vulture as crest : border of dots. 

Rev. eiKONIGHN Zeus seated 1. ; in right hand, 
thunderbolt ; left hand on long sceptre : border 
of dots : slight circular incuse. 

m. Size -85. [PI. XVII. 7.] 

(Cp. Waddington, Rev. Xum., 1888, p. 46, Nos. 8, 4 ; 
Babelon, Invent. Waddington, No. 4760 ; Hill, 
Cat. Lycaonia, p. xxiii.) 

PARLAIS (LYCAONIA). 
40. Obv. Head of Artemis r. ; quiver at shoulder. 

Rev. fl APAA . . UN Ship 1., with rowers ; beneath, 
AlOMHAoY : slight circular incuse. 

JE. Size -55. [PI. XVII. 8.] 

M. Dieudonne has lately published (Rev. Num. 1902, 
p. 88 f.) some interesting coins of Parlais which apparently 
belong to the first century B.C. Previously, the only 
known coins were colonial (M. Aurelius to Sept. Severus) 
with Latin inscriptions. 60 Our coin is a variety of Dieu- 
donne^s No. 79. The magistrate Ato^//t/9 is found on 



68 See Hill, Cat. Lycia, &c., p. xcv. ; p. 228; Babelon, Rev. 
Num., 1893, pp. 840, 341 ; on site, &c., Ramsay, Cities and 
Bishoprics of Phrygia, p. 826, &c. 

59 Hill, op. tit., p. 177, No. 5; PI. XXXI., 6, 8, 17. On the 
Pisidian cultus of Men, see Drexler, " Men," in Roscher's 
Lexikon, pp. 27202725. 

80 Hill, Cat. Lycaonia, &c., p. xxvi. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 343 

other coins (type, panther). (The latest publication of 
coins of Parlais is in the recently issued second volume of 
Imhoof-Blumer's valuable Kleinasiatische Munzen.} 

SYEDRA (CILICIA). 

41. Obv. <|>AYCTINA CGBACTH Bust of Faustina 

the younger, r. ; head bare. 

Rev. CY6A P I1N Demeter, wearing chiton, 
peplos, and veil, advancing r. ; in each hand a 
long torch flaming. 

M. Size -95. [PI. XVII. 9.] 

TARSUS (CILICIA). 

42. Obv.WT KAIMAVPANTONeiNOC Bust of 

Elagabalus r., beardless, laur. ; wears paluda- 
mentum and cuirass. 

Rev. TAPCOVTHCMHTPOTTOA6 On left, 
altar, garlanded, and surmounted by plain crown 
of the tfyjuioupyos ; on right, crown of the dp^icpevs 
decorated with seven heads : on right and left of 
this crown, F B : in ex., AMK. 

M. Size 1-1. [PL XVII. 11.] 

(Cp. Brit. Mus. Cat. Lycaonia, "Tarsus," p. 201, 
No. 207 ; Imhoof in Journ. Hell. Stud., 1898, 
p. 180, No. 55 ; PI. XIII. 22 ; Kl. M. ii., p. 494.) 

The demiurgic and archieratic crowns have been dis- 
cussed by Mr. Hill in Jahreshefte des Oesterr. Arch. Inst., 
ii., p. 245 f., and in Cat. Lycaonia, &c., pp. xcvii, xcviii. 61 

The three upper heads rather seem to be Sept. Severus 
(in centre) and his sons Caracalla and Geta, while the 

61 For the office of Srj/uovpyos in Asia Minor (especially 
Cilicia), in Imperial times, see the references in Pauly-Wissowa, 
art. " Demiurgoi," p. 2861. On the demiourgos at Tarsus, 
Le Bas-Waddington, Inscr. iii., Pt. 1, No. 1480; p. 350 ; Bull. 
Corr. Hell., vii., p. 286 (Waddington) ; p. 326 (Ramsay). 



344 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

two heads below (on the left) appear to be female (J. 
Domna ? and another princess of the Imperial family). 
The two heads below on the right side appear to be male. 
On this coin Elagabalus wears the ordinary military 
dress of the Roman Emperor, but the. coins of Anazarbus 
show him arrayed in the crown and garments of demi- 
ourgos, and the crown of the demiourgos appears as a 
reverse type (Cat. Lycaonia, p. 34, No. 20). 

NAUKBATIS (EGYPT). 

48. Obv. Female head r. ; (Aphrodite ?), hair rolled, with 
four loose locks falling behind ; wears wreath, 
earring, and necklace ; beneath, NAY. 

Rev. Female (?) head r., wreathed : beneath, AAE. 
M. Size -6. [PL XVII. 10.] 

This coin was procured at Naukratis itself. It is from 
the same die on the obverse as the coin in the British 
Museum found (as well as another specimen) at Naukratis 
by Petrie, and published by Head in the Num. Chron. for 
1886, p. 10 ; PI. I. 9. 

CYKENE. 
44. Obv. Silphium plant. 

Bev.K V A I Beardless male head 1. (Zeus Ammon), 
horned ; hair curly : deep circular incuse. 

M. Size -55. Wt.50'2grs. [PI. XVII. 12.] 
(Cp. Miiller, L'anc. Afrique, i., p. 45). 

WARWICK WROTH. 



XX. 

ON SOME EAEE OR UNPUBLISHED ROMAN 
COINS. 

(See Plates XVIII. and XIX.) 

ON two 1 former occasions I have had the honour of 
communicating to this Society papers under this title ; in 
the former of these, however, limiting myself to gold. In 
both cases by far the greater number of the coins described 
were in my own cabinet, where also, with one exception, 
the twenty-three pieces to which I am about to call your 
attention repose. 

The term " unpublished " must not, at all events in 
Roman numismatics, be regarded as in every instance 
strictly accurate. In general it is merely a formula 
implying that the coin to which it is applied varies from 
any described in Cohen's Mtdailles Imperiales, or is en- 
tirely unmentioned in that excellent and indispensable 
work. In the following pages a few coins have, as, for 
instance, those of Diadumenianus, been included on 
account of their rarity and their remarkably fine state of 
preservation. 

1 Num. Chron. N.S. viii. (1868), p. 223; 3rd S. vi. (1886), 
p. 265. 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. * Y 



346 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

No. 1. STRUCK UNDER GALBA. 

Obv. HISPANIAEVM ET GALLIARVM CON- 
CORDIA. Draped bust of Spain, to right, with 
long hair gathered in a knot behind, facing that 
of Gaul, to left, with long hair hanging down ; 
below Spain a cornucopiae, and below Gaul a 
Gaulish shield ; between the busts a small 
draped Victory facing and springing upwards 
from a globe ; in her right hand a wreath, in her 
left a palm-branch ; above her a narrow crescent 
enclosing a six-pointed star. 

Rev. VICTORIA P. R. Winged Victory in a biga to 
right, holding in her right hand a wreath with 
a fillet, and in her left the reins ; the whole 
within a plain circle. 

M. 49grs. [PI. XVIII. 1.] 

This remarkably elegant coin was found in 1898 at 
Braughing, Herts, a locality where numerous ancient 
British and Roman coins have been disinterred. It is in 
my own cabinet and, so far as I know, it is unpublished 
and unique. 

Like the next coin to be mentioned, it belongs to the time 
of the Emperor Galba and to a series of denarii struck in 
Spain, on which the names of Gallia and Hispania 
frequently occur, in one instance (Cohen No. 73) con- 
jointly. On that coin, however, the two countries are 
represented by full-length figures and not by busts. 

The coins of Galba with the reverse legend VICTORIA 
P. R. have usually the type of Victory standing and not 
that of Victory in a biga. The name of Hispania generally 
occurs in the singular and not in the plural, and the same 
may be eaid with regard to Gallia. In the plural it refers 
to the Provinces Citerior and Ulterior or Cisalpina and 
Transalpina, or, in this instance, more probably to the 
TRES GALLIAE. Mr. Philip Smith in Smith's Dictionary 



ON SOME RARE OR UNPUBLISHED ROMAN COINS. 347 

of Geography r , s.v., says that the form Hispaniae is of very 
frequent occurrence, but I believe that the singular form 
Hispania is much more frequent. As is well known, it was 
at the instigation of Julius Vindex, the governor of Gaul, 
and with the approbation of the troops both in Spain and 
Gaul, that Galba undertook the perilous task of revolting 
against Nero. Though at first successful, his avarice 
alienated the army from him, and his reign lasted but 
seven months. During that period, however, such was the 
activity of his mints, that Cohen records nearly 450 
varieties of his coins. 

No. 2. GALBA. 

Olv. HISPANIA. Female laureate and draped bust to 
right, with long hair partly tied in a knot behind 
and partly running down her neck ; behind, two 
lances with pennons ; below, a round buckler ; 
and in front, two ears of bearded corn. 

R ev . GALBA IMPEE. The emperor on horseback 
galloping to left, raising his right hand ; his 
mantle flying behind him. A beaded circle 
surrounds both obverse and reverse. 

M. 53f grs. [PI. XVIII. 2.] 

This well-preserved coin is in my own collection and 
differs from Cohen No. 76 in reading IMPER, instead of 
IMP. It also shows the types more clearly than the coin 
described by Cohen. I have ventured to regard the face 
bearing the head of Spain as the obverse, thus consigning 
the Emperor to the reverse. The attributes of Hispania, 
partly military and partly agricultural, differ from those 
exhibited on the closely allied denarius last described. The 
execution of the coin is remarkably good, the characteristic 
features of Galba being faithfully reproduced on an 



348 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

extremely minute scale in the head of the horseman on 
the reverse. 

No. 3. DOMITIAN. 

Obv. IMP. CAES. DOMITIAN. AVG. GERM. COS. 
XI. Laureate head of the emperor to right ; in 
front of the neck the aegis apparently suspended 
by a chain. The whole within a beaded circle. 

Rev. S. C. Peace standing draped to left, in her left 
hand a cornucopiae, and in her right a torch 
with which she is setting fire to a heap of arms 
consisting of a helmet, two long German 
bucklers, two long trumpets, and two lances. 
The whole upon an exergual line, and within a 
beaded circle. 

&. 1. [PI. XVIII. 3.] 

I purchased this sestertius in Rome in the year 1880, 
and, though not in Cohen, it can hardly be said to be un- 
published. It dates from A.D. 85, and, like many others 
of the same period, seems to refer to the conclusion of the 
somewhat fabulous German war. A similar coin is 
described by Hobler in his Records of Roman History. 2 
It is not, however, figured. Another or possibly the 
same coin is described by Admiral Smyth 3 in the Addenda 
to his Large Brass Medals. " Absque epigraphe. Peace 
burning a pile of arms." 

Singularly enough, a figure of the reverse of this coin, 
very roughly executed, is given in Mr. Leopold Montague's 
Guide to Roman First Brass Coins.* 

Among the sestertii of Vespasian is one of much the same 
type as this, but with the legend PAX AVG. S. C. 5 

1 Vol. i., p. 212, No. 424. 

8 P. 310, No. 13. 

* Bury St. Edmunds, 1896, p. 29. 

6 Cohen, No. 802, vol. i., p. 390. Smyth, p. 57, No. Ixxv. 



ON SOME RARE OR UNPUBLISHED ROMAN COINS. 349 

Peace standing to right holding a torch with which she 
is setting fire to a pile of arms before an altar ; holding 
also an olive-branch ; behind, a column surmounted by a 
statue, against which rest a spear and a buckler. 

No. 4. ANTONINUS PITTS. 

Olv. ANTONINVS AVG. PIVS P.P. TE. P. COS. 
IIII. Laureate head of the emperor to left. 

Rev. LIB. IIII. in exergue. Antonine seated on a 
curule chair to left, on an estrade on which is 
Liberality standing to left holding a tessera and a 
cornucopiae ; at foot, a male draped figure. 

# HOgrs. [PI. XVIII. 4.] 

This beautiful coin, found near Minieh, Egypt, is in 
my own collection. It differs from Cohen No. 495 merely 
in the fact that the bust of Antonine is to the left 
instead of to the right, but on account of its condition I 
have thought it worth while to reproduce it in the Plate. 
It dates from A.D. 145. 

No. 5. FAUSTINA THE ELDER. 

0^. DIVA FAVSTINA. Draped bust of the empress 
to right. 

Rev. AVGrVSTA. Fortune, draped and veiled, stand- 
ing to left; in her extended right hand a 
patera ; in her left a rudder resting on a globe. 
A beaded circle surrounds both obverse and 
reverse. 

N. H2grs. [PL XVIII. 5.] 

This coin also was found near Minieh, Egypt, about 
the year 1897, and is in my own cabinet. Gold pieces 
with the same legends are abundant, but this, instead of 
presenting, as usual, Ceres, Diana, Pietas or Vesta, gives 



350 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

us Fortune, with some of her accustomed attributes. Its 
condition is such that it might have been just issued 
from the mint. 

No. 6. MARCUS AURELIUS. 

Obv. AVRELIVS CAES. ANTON. AVG. PH F. Bare 
head of Aurelius to right. 

Rev. TE. POT. X COS. II. Minerva robed and 
helmeted to right, a buckler on her left arm, 
and in her right hand a spear. 

N. 115*grs. [PI. XVIII. 6.] 

This coin, now in my cabinet, was likewise found at 
Minieh, Egypt, in 1897. It differs from Cohen No. 684, 
both in the obverse legend and in having the head to the 
right instead of to the left. No. 685, with the head in the 
same direction, differs in the legend. The type of the 
reverse requires no comment. The date of the coin is 
A.I). 156. 

No. 7. SEPTIMIUS SEVEBUS. 

Obv. SE VERV8 PIVS AVG. Laureate bust of Severus 
to left. 

Rev. LIBERALITAS AVG. VI. Liberality draped 
standing to left ; in her right hand a tessera, in 
her left a cornucopiae. 

N. 113* grains. [PL XVIII. 7.] 

I obtained this coin at Cairo in 1899, and though it 
differs from Cohen No. 297 in the direction of the head of 
the emperor only, I have, on account of its beauty and 
condition, thought it worthy of a place in the Plate. 
The date of the sixth Liberality of Severus is A.D. 208. 



ON SOME RARE OR UNPUBLISHED ROMAN COINS. 351 

No. 8. JTJLIA DOMNA AND CARACALLA. 

Obv. IYLIA AVGVSTA. Draped bust of Julia to 
right. 

Rev. ANTONINVS AVG. PONT. TE. P. IIII. Lau- 
reate and draped bust of young Caracalla to 
right. 

N. 114 J grs. [PI. XVIII. 8.] 

Cohen does not describe any gold coins of Julia and 
Caracalla, and those which he mentions in silver have 
legends round the head of Caracalla different from that 
on this gold coin, though his No. 1 is of the same year, 
A.D. 201. The coin here figured is another of those found 
near Minieh, Egypt, and is in my own collection. It is 
in the finest possible condition. 

No. 9. CARACALLA. 

Obv. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG. GEEM. Laureate 
bust of Caracalla in cuirass to left. 

Rev. P.M.TE.P.XVIIII COS. IIII P.P. The Sun 
partially draped, standing facing but looking to 
left, his right hand lifted up, and in his left a 
globe. 

N. lOOJgrs. [PI. XVIII. 9.] 

This coin, in my own collection, was found in the 
neighbourhood of Alexandria. Several gold coins of the 
same date are described by Cohen, but in all cases with 
the bust of the emperor to the right and with different types 
on the reverse. A silver coin, however, No. 358, presents 
the Sun with similar attributes. 

No. 10. MACRINTJS. 

Olv. IMP. C. M. OPEL. SEV. MACEINVS. AVG. 
Laureate and draped bust of Macrinus to right. 



352 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Rev. PONTIF. MAX. TE.P. COS. P.P. Jupiter fa- 
cing but looking to left, mantle over his shoulder, 
holding in his right hand a thunderbolt, and 
in his left a sceptre. 

N. HOgrs. [PI. XVIII. 10.] 

This coin, in my own collection, formed part of the great 
hoard recently found near Karnak, in Egypt. It dates 
from the year A.D. 217, and though of fine work is not in 
such high relief as some of the gold coins of the same 
emperor, struck in the second year of his tribunitian 
power. His reign only lasted fourteen months, but the 
activity of his mints was great. Cohen describes silver 
and brass coins of the same type, 6 but was not acquainted 
with it in gold. 

Nos. 11 and 12. DIADUMENIANUS. 

Obv. M. OPEL. ANT. DIADVMENIAN. CAES. 
Draped bust of the youthful Diadumenian to 
right. 

Rev. SPES PVBLICA. Spes standing to left, in her 
right hand a bud, with her left holding up her 
robe. 

N. HHgrs. [PI. XIX. 1.] 

Obv. As last. Draped bust of Diadumenian to right. 

Jfct>. PKINC. IWENTVTIS. Diadumenian in mili- 
tary costume to left, but looking to right ; in his 
right hand a military standard, in his left a 
wand ; behind him two standards. 

N. 108 grs. [PL XIX. 2.] 

Both these coins are described by Cohen (Nos. 22 and 
2), the former from Mionnet, but on account of their 

* Nos. 63 to 55. 



ON SOME RARE OR UNPUBLISHED ROMAN COINS. 353 

wonderful state of preservation and of their rarity, I Lave 
thought it well to include them in the Plate, bringing 
them together for facility of comparison. 

Both came to me from the great hoard of Roman gold 
coins found near Karnak, Egypt, in 1901, in which I be- 
lieve that nearly twenty coins of this Caesar were present. 
Though their rarity is thus diminished, they still com- 
mand extremely high prices. Both the types are figured 
in the Revue Beige de Numismatique for 1902. 7 

Of the two, No. 11 is the rarer, and in all probability 
the older. Macrinus, on his accession to the purple in 
A.D. 217, nominated his son Diadumenian, then of the age 
of nine years, as Caesar. He appears to have been a 
youth of great promise, so that the legend SPES PVB- 
LICA on his first coins would be singularly appropriate. 
The title of PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS was probably 
conferred upon him soon after his nomination as Caesar, 
and by far the larger number of his coins bear this title 
on the reverse. He perished with his father in battle 
after a short reign of fourteen months. 

A remarkable point in connection with these two coins 
is that No. 11 presents a distinctly younger portrait than 
that on No. 12, in which the features, and especially the 
nose, have become more pronounced and developed. How 
the engravers of the dies were able to keep pace with 
the changes in the appearance of a growing boy is a 
mystery that has yet to be solved. 

No. 13. El/AGABALUS. 

Obv. IMP. CAES. M. AYR. ANTONINVS P.F. 
AVQ-. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Elaga- 

7 PI. VIII., Nos. 12, 13. 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. Z Z 



354 NUMISMATIC CHRONICI.K. 

balus to left ; over the shoulders an embroidered 
consular scarf or lorum. 

Rev. SANCT. DEO SOLI ; in exergue ELAGABAL. 
Chariot with four horses marching to right ; in 
it the sacred stone with an eagle upon . it in 
relief ; around it four small parasols. 

N. 106* grs. [PI. XVIII. 11.] 

This interesting coin is in my own collection, and 
varies from Cohen No. 265, especially on the obverse, 
which presents the head of Elagabalus to the left in- 
stead of to the right, and gives the legend in a rather 
more extended form. 

The type seems to represent the bringing of the 
sacred black stone, the Elagabal or Syrian sun- god, to 
Rome. I have elsewhere 8 spoken of the probability of 
Elagabalus having combined the worship of the sacred 
stone, the sun, and of Mithra. The original home of 
the worship of Elagabal, "the god of the mountainous 
part of Syria " (?) was at Emisa, 9 many of the coins of 
which city, from the time of Antoninus Pius downwards, 
have the reverse type of the sacred stone, on which a 
large eagle is seated. Whether this was the Roman 
eagle, or that which would be appropriate on an " image 
that fell down from Jupiter," is uncertain. On this coin, 
however, the placing of the figure of the eagle upon the 
sacred stone may be intended to show that this foreign 
divinity took an especial interest in Rome, of which the 
king of birds was the recognised ensign or symbol. 

There has existed some doubt as to the signification of 
the four stemmed objects placed in the chariot around 



Num. Chron., 3rd Series, xviii. (1898), p. 181. 

B. M. Cat. Galatia, &c., 1899, p. 237. 



ON SOME RARE OR UNPUBLISHED ROMAN COINS. 355 

the stone. Eckhel 10 regarded them as poles, on each of 
which was placed a smaller sacred stone. The poles, 
however, in such a case, would hardly be able to support 
the weight of such heavy bodies. Judging merely from 
the coin under consideration, one might be tempted to 
regard the objects on the top of the font poles as hats or 
pilei, such as the Pontifices and Flamines wore on solemn 
occasions. They would thus typify the attendance of the 
priests. 

Cohen describes them as parasols or umbrellas, em- 
blems of dignity in the East, such as that on the well- 
known copper coins of Herod Agrippa I of Judaea. In this 
view he is supported by the fact that on several coins of 
Emisa, 11 on which the conical stone is represented within 
a temple, it is accompanied on either side by an object of 
this kind, which far more nearly resembles a ceremonial 
parasol. I have therefore retained Cohen's description. 

For further details with regard to Elagabalus and the 
sacred stone I would refer to Daremberg and Saglio's 
Dictionnaire des Antiquites, s.v. 

No. 14. BALBINUS. 

Obv. IMP. C. D. CAEL. BALBINVS AVG. Laureate 
and draped bust of the Emperor to right. 

^.VICTORIA AVGG. Winged Victory, standing 
left, holding a wreath in her extended right 
hand, and a palm-branch in her left, which is 
depressed. 

N. 81 grs. [PI. XIX. 3.] 



10 Doct. Num., vii., p. 251. 

11 B. M. Cat., PI. XXVII. 12, 13, 14. 



356 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

This coin was found, together with a large number of 
gold coins mostly of Haximianus Herculeus, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Alexandria, Egypt, in the spring of 1902. 
I acquired it in Cairo shortly after its discovery. 

Both Cohen and Francesco Gnecchi state that coins in 
gold of Balbinus are unknown. Several of the earlier 
writers on Roman numismatics, however, mention gold 
coins of this Emperor. In Mezzabarbu's edition of Occo 
(1730) no less than five varieties of his gold coins are des- 
cribed with the reverses FIDES MVTVA AVGG., PRO VI- 
DENTIA DEORVM, and VICTORIA AVGG. Vaillant 
(1743) gives one only with VOTIS DECENNALIBVS, 
and Eckhel (1828 ?) cites the coin described by Beger in 
his Thesaurus Brandenburgiensis, 12 with the reverse AMOR 
MVTVVS AVGG., as of doubtful authenticity. 

It seems strange that none of these coins should have 
stood the test of time, but critical knowledge in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries seems to have been 
at a low ebb among collectors, and the anxiety to fill a 
gap in a series tended to remove the safeguards against 
the forger's art. 

The coin now under consideration is fortunately above 
all suspicion, and its reverse corresponds with that of the 
gold coin of Pupienus, cited by Cohen (No. 37), from 
Caylus, so that the only two types in gold extant of/ 
the two colleagues Balbinus and Pupienus are, in fact, 
identical. 

Their joint reign in A.D. 238 lasted but three months 
only. The name of the Emperor in full was Decimus 
Caelius Balbinus. He was already an old man when he 
and Pupienus were elected joint-emperors by the Senate. 

13 Vol. ii., p. 723. 



ON SOME RARE OR UNPUBLISHED ROMAN COINS. 357 

Something is known of his previous history. He is 
reported to have been of noble birth, as he was descended 
from Cornelius Balbus of Cadiz, the friend of Pompey, 
Cicero and Caesar. He was rich and had been twice 
Consul. He had governed in succession the most important 
of the peaceful provinces of the Empire, such as Asia, 
Africa, Bithynia, Galatia, etc. Moreover, he was cele- 
brated as one of the best orators and poets of the age, 
who had gained the esteem and love of all ranks. He 
was to remain at Rome to direct the civil administration, 
while Pupienus proceeded with the army to encounter 
Maximinus. 13 After his death at Aquileia, by the hands 
of his own soldiers, the garrison at Rome, which had never 
been favourable to the two Emperors, violently took their 
lives, and Gordian III, who had been appointed Caesar, 
succeeded them as Emperor. 

No. 15. GALLIENUS. 

Obv. IMP. GALLIENVS AVG. Laureate bust of 
Gallienus to left. 

Jfcfl. VICTORIA AVG. Victory to right, holding 
palm-branch and wreath, standing on a globe 
between two captives seated back to back. 

N. 50grs. [PI. XIX. 4.] 

I acquired this coin at a sale in Paris in 1896. It 
probably came from Egypt. A billon coin with a similar 
reverse is described by Cohen, No. 1108, but this in gold 
appears to be unpublished. The adaptation of two con- 
ventional bearded captives as supporters to a globe on 

13 Julii Capitolini, Maximus et Balbinm; Herodian, Hist. 
vii., 10 ; Eckhel, Doct. Num., vii., 305 ; Smith's Diet, of G. and 
R. Biog. s.v. Balbinus. 



358 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

which Victory is poised, so that it is well clear of the 
exergual line on which the feet of the captives rest, has 
a tendency to pass from the sublime to the ridiculous. 

The variety of weight in the gold coins of Gallienus 
renders it difficult to determine the exact proportion of 
the one to the others. 

No. 16. DlOCLETIANUS. 

Obv. DIOCLETIANVS AVGK Laureate head of the 
Emperor to right. 

Rev. VIETVS AVGGK NN. Diocletian seated on 
throne to right, in his right hand a globe, his 
left holding a vertical sceptre ; behind, Victory 
standing right, with her right hand placing a 
wreath over the head of the Emperor, over her 
left shoulder a palm-branch ; in front a crouch- 
ing captive. 

N. 83 grs. [PL XIX. 5.J 

This interesting coin, which I procured at Constanti- 
nople, presents an entirely new type in conjunction with 
the legend VIRTVS AVGG, to which in this instance 
Nostroruin is appended. The device speaks for itself 
and requires no comment. / 

No. 17. MAXIMIANUS HERCULEUS. 

Obv. MAXIMIANVS P. AVG. Laureate head of 
Emperor to right. 

Rev. HERCVLI VICTORI. In exergue P.T. . Her- 
cules standing to left, naked, but with the 
lion's skin over his shoulders ; in his right 
hand a Victory with wreath and palm-branch, 
his left supported on his club. 

N. 84 grs. [PI. XIX. 6.] 



ON SOME RARE OR UNPUBLISHED ROMAN COINS. 359 

This coin formed part of the hoard found near Alexan- 
dria in 1902, and is in my own cabinet. The reverse 
legend is common enough, but the figure of Hercules, 
with a Victory in his right hand, is novel. The exergual 
letters seem to designate Tarraco in Spain, as the mint in 
which it was struck. 



No. 18. MAXIMIANUS HEKCTTLETJS. 

Obv. IMP. MAXIMIANVS AVG. Laureate bust of 
Maximian to left, with the attributes of Her- 
cules, holding in his right hand a club which 
rests on his shoulder, and on the other shoulder 
having the head belonging to the lion's skin. 

Rev. SALVS AVGG. Salus standing right holding a 
serpent, which she feeds from a patera. 

N. 69 grs. [PI. XIX. 7.] 

I obtained this coin, also, from the Alexandrian hoard 
of 1902. The reverse is well known, and presents no 
special features of interest. The portrait of Maximianus 
on the obverse is well designed and executed. A nearly 
similar bust appears on some few of the copper coins of 
this emperor, but this is the only gold coin presenting 
this obverse with which I am acquainted. 

No. 19. CARATJSIUS. 

Oh. IMP. CAEAVSIVS P.F. AVG. Laureate and 
draped bust of the Emperor to right. 

Rev. PAX AVG, in exergue VOT. V. Peace standing 
left, an olive-branch in her extended right 
hand, a nearly vertical hasta pura in her left ; 
a part of her robe thrown over her left arm. 

N. 64 grs. [PL XIX. 8.] 



360 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

This coin is in the possession of "Wilfred Cripps, Esq., 
C.B., who has kindly allowed me to figure it. It was 
found during some excavations at Cirencester, and as the 
original has been hammered into a somewhat cup-shaped 
form, the autotype representation of it has been taken 
from a flattened electrotype. 

The coin itself was exhibited to the Numismatic Society 
on May 16, 1901, and its unique character was then 
pointed out, as well as its intimate connection with 
another unique coin in my own collection, on which 
MVLT. X. occurs in the exergue instead of VOT. V. 
My coin is figured in Num. Chron., 3rd Series, 
vol. vi, PI. XII. 6, and described at p. 273. In my 
description I remark that the words MVLT. X. seem to 
supplement VOTIS V., which on my coin must be 
understood though not expressed. The discovery of Mr. 
Cripps's coin fully bears out my remark. The Treaty of 
Peace between Carausius and the two Emperors, Diocle- 
tian and Maximian, was concluded in A.D. 290, and it has 
been suggested that that year is the probable date of the 
issue of these coins. The style of the bust oil the ob- 
verse seems to show that, like many of the copper coins 
of Carausius, these gold pieces were struck in the mint of 
London. 

No. 20. CARAUSIUS. 

Obv. IMP. CAEAVSIVS P.F. AVG. Laureate and 
draped bust of the Emperor to right. 

Rev. PAX CARAVSI AVG. Peace standing left, on an 
exergual line, in her extended right hand an 
olive-branch, her robe hanging over her left 
arm, the hand of which holds a nearly vertical 
hasta, the point downwards. 

N. 67 grs. [PI. XIX. 9.] 



ON SOME RARE OR UNPUBLISHED ROMAN COINS. 361 

This coin was found at Silchester in 1896, but not in 
that part of the Roman town in which recent excavations 
have been carried on. It is now in my own collection. 
The reverse of Pax is that most common on the coins of 
Carausius, but the introduction of his name in the middle 
of the reverse legend of this and of the coin next described 
is almost singular. The same kind of formula may be 
observed on the reverse of some coins of Ghillienus and 
Posfcumus. As an obverse legend VIRTVS CARAVSI 
AVG. is well known. 

No. 21. CARATTSIUS. 

Obv. IMP. CAEAYS1VS P.F.A. Laureate bust to left, in 
a cuirass, over which is thrown the lorum or 
consular robe ; in the right hand a sceptre 
surmounted by an eagle. The whole within a 
beaded circle. 

Rev. CLAEIT. CARAVSI AV. Draped bust of the Sun 
to right, with long hair, four rays proceeding 
from the back of the head, the whole within 
beaded circle. 

M. 59f grs. [PI. XIX. 10.] 

This unique and interesting coin was formerly in the 
collection of the Marquis of Exeter, sold by Messrs. 
Christie, in March, 1899, and is now in my own cabinet. 
It is rather imperfectly figured in Spink's Numismatic 
Circular, for May, 1899, p. 3332, the coin at that time 
not having been properly cleaned. 

The legend CLARITAS AVG. first occurs on a gold 
coin of Postumus with the jugate heads of the Sun and 
Moon on the reverse and those of the Emperor and 
Hercules on the obverse (Coh. No. 12). Eckhel 14 suggests 

14 Vol. vii., 441. 

o . 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. 



362 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

that the meaning of the type is that the deeds of Pos- 
tumus were as bright and conspicuous as the sun and 
moon in the heavens. CLARITAS AVG. or AVGG. also 
appears on silver and copper coins of Diocletian, Maximian, 
Constantius Chlorus and Galerius, but with the type of 
the Sun standing; and CLARITAS REIPVBLICAE, 
either in full or in an abbreviated form, frequently occurs 
with the same type on coins of Constantino the Great 
and his family. 

The workmanship of this coin of Carausius is spirited 
and bold, but there are no indications of the mint at 
which it was struck. In my own collection, 15 however, 
is a silver coin with the same type of obverse, but with 
two hands joined on the reverse, and the legend CON- 
CO RDIA MILITVM and R S R in the exergue. The 
coin now under consideration may therefore have issued 
from the same mint, whether Rutupium or elsewhere is 
still undetermined. There are, moreover, several other 
coins with the same obverse type and different reverses, 
all of them with R S R in the exergue. 

No. 22. CONSTANTIUS CHLORUS. 

Obv. CONSTANTIVS NOB. C. Laureate head to 
right. 

Rev. HERCVLI DEBELLAT. Hercules to left kill- 
ing with his club the hydra, which is coiled 
round his right leg. 

N. 80 grs. [PI. XIX. 11.] 

This coin, which was probably found in Egypt, was 
purchased by me in Paris at the same time as No. 15. 

15 Num. Chron., N.S., i. (1861), p. 161. 



ON SOME RARE OR UNPUBLISHED ROMAN COINS. 363 

The reverse type is common on gold coins of Diocletian 
and Maximian, but was unknown to Cohen on those of 
Constantius Chlorus. 

No. 23. LIOINIUS JUNIOR. 

Obv.D. N. YAL. LICIN. LICINIYS NOB. C. 
Youthful laureate bust to right, draped and 
in cuirass. 

Rev. IOVIO CONSERVATORI CAESS. In exergue 
ANT. Jupiter naked, to front but looking left, 
in his right hand Victory on a globe, his left 
resting on a vertical sceptre ; at his feet to left 
an eagle with a wreath in his beak, in the field 
to right a star and crescent. 

N. Sligrs. [PI. XIX. 12.] 

I purchased this coin at the De Quelen sale in 1888. 
A coin of nearly the same type in small brass is described 
by Cohen as No. 29, but it reads IOVI. The legend 
IOVIO CONSERVATOR! CAESS. is, however, given in 
the list 16 of legends as occurring on a gold coin of Licinius 
the Younger. Whether IOVIO is an error of the en- 
graver of the die, or stands for Jovi Olympico, as on 
some silver coins of Augustus with IOVI OLY or 
OLYM., it is hard to say. Possibly IOVIVS was a late 
form of Jupiter. Judging from the face of Licinius the 
date of the coin is about A.D. 320. It was struck in the 
mint of Antioch. 

JOHN EVANS. 



14 Cohen, vol. viii., p. 396. 



XXI. 

SOME COINS OF EADGAR AND HENRY VI. 1 

AMONGST recent acquisitions made by the British Museum 
are three coins belonging to the Anglo-Saxon and English 
series, which appear to be of sufficient importance to merit 
some record. In none of these instances is the type a new 
one ; but each piece furnishes either an additional type or 
a denomination new to the coinage of the reign to which 
it belongs. The coins are of Eadgar and Henry VI. 

The first piece to be mentioned is a penny of Eadgar, 
King of Wessex, of which the following illustration and 
description are given : 




Obv. tfcEADDAR REX. In the centre a small cross 
pattee. 

Rev. A mitre-shaped object dividing the moneyer's name 
O^PALD; below it, a T-shaped cross and a 
rosette (double-struck). 

JR. -85. Wt. 15-5grs. 

1 This paper was read before tbe Society on the 20th April, 
1899. 



SOME COINS OF EADGAR AND HENRY VI. 865 

This reverse type, though new to this reign, is however 
not unknown in the Anglo-Saxon series. It occurs in the 
previous reign of Eadwig. These are, however, the only 
instances of the mitre of this particular form. The 
connection between the two coins is further strengthened 
by the fact that they both bear the same moneyer's name 
and are of precisely the same fabric. It may there- 
fore be concluded that the moneyer Oswald, who struck 
coins under Eadwig and Eadgar, was one and the same 
individual. 

The object represented on the reverse at first sight is a 
little difficult to define ; but comparing it with illustrations 
of ecclesiastical ornaments of the period, it is apparent 
that it is intended to represent a mitre, though the form is 
somewhat elaborate. It is, however, not altogether unlike 
a pall or pallium, and as such it has often been described. 
The T-shaped cross and the rosette, symbolical of the 
Virgin, are appropriate adjuncts to the main type. 

The type is clearly of an ecclesiastical nature, and as 
such the coin must have emanated from one of the two 
principal ecclesiastical centres of the time, Canterbury or 
York. There seems little difficulty in selecting between 
these mints. One strong argument in favour of Canterbury 
would be, that the name of Oswald as a moneyer is not 
found on coins struck by the Northumbrian kings ; but it 
occurs on the Wessex coins not infrequently before and 
after the reign of Eadgar. 2 In the absence, therefore, of 
any mint records, we must be guided by similarity of 
fabric and style. If we take these as our guide, the clue 

2 It is not impossible that when Eadgar visited the North in 
A.D. 978 he took with him his moneyer Oswald, with the express 
purpose of issuing coins during his stay in the Northumbrian 
capital. 



366 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

must be sought in the earlier example, viz., in that struck 
by Eadwig. 

Since the reign of Eadward the Elder, the Kings of 
Wessex, as occasion occurred, struck coins at York. The 
Anglo-Saxon chronicle relates that in 924 "Eadweard went 
northward and built burghs at Northampton and Beak- 
well, in Peakland, and in the same year he was chosen 
for father and for lord by the king of the Scots and by 
the Scots, and by King Regnald and by all the North- 
umbrians." As the striking of coins was an inherent 
right of sovereignty even at this time, it is not impos- 
sible that when Eadward received the over-lordship 
from the Northumbrians he struck coins in their capital. 
If we were to point out any which may have been issued 
there, we would certainly select some of those which bear 
representations of buildings, the hand of Providence, 
scroll ornaments, &c., as they are so totally unlike the 
usual types of the Wessex coins of that period. Aethel- 
stan, Eadward's successor, struck coins bearing a repre- 
sentation of York Minster, and Eadward styles himself 
" Rex Eboraci " or " Rex Eboracum." On the conquest 
of Northumbria by Eadred in 954 and the expulsion 
of Eric Blothox, a regular English mint was established 
at York and coins were issued by each succeeding 
monarch. Thus in the reign of Eadwig there are coins 
bearing the mint-name of York. If we compare these 
coins with that having the mitre on the reverse, it will be 
seen that they are of precisely similar style. The obverses 
correspond in legend and type, and on the reverse in both 
instances we have a clearly cut and denned rose, which would 
make it appear that the dies of both series were engraved 
by the same hand. Having thus fixed the mint-place of 
the coin of Eadwig, the piece of Eadgar of similar type 



SOME COINS OF EADGAR AND HENRY VL. 367 

and by the same moneyer must be placed side by side 
with it and for that reason it should be ascribed to York. 
The next piece to be mentioned is also a coin of Eadgar, 
but it is of the very unusual denomination, a halfpenny. 
It is the only specimen of this reign known. An illus- 
tration with description of this piece follows. 




Obv. JEADI}AR EEX. In the centre, a small cross 
pattee. 

Eev. HILDVLF. Above, a straight line, the ends 
pommes; from it springs a rose on a stem, 
between two branches ; at the sides of the 
stem are the letters H C> ; below, a rose. 

M. -7. Wt. 8-4 grs. Pierced. 

The occurrence of a coin of this denomination at this 
particular period would naturally be received with some 
suspicion. As to the genuineness of this coin, however, 
there cannot be any question. Before the reign of Eadgar, 
the only kings of Wessex of whom halfpennies are known, 
are Aelfred, Eadweard the Elder, and Eadred, the latter 
being represented by only one specimen and a half, i.e. a 
cut penny. No coins of this denomination were struck by 
any of Eadgar's successors. Besides Wessex, Northumbria 
alone, of all the coin-issuing kingdoms of the Heptarchy, 
struck halfpennies, and these were issued by nearly all 
the Norse Kings. Halfdan, the first Northumbrian king 
of that race, struck them, and they continued to be 
issued till nearly the end of the rule of these North- 



368 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

urabrian kings. As Eadgar had established a mint at 
York, it is therefore to that place that we would ascribe 
this piece. Moreover, it is very probable that some of 
the coins of Aelfred of this denomination were of Danish 
origin, and also that those of Eadweard the Elder and 
Eadred were struck at York, as we have shown above 
that these last two kings exercised the right of coinage 
at that mint. Besides the denomination, the type too is 
new to this reign, but not new to the Anglo-Saxon series. 
Pennies of very similar type are found amongst the coins 
of Eadweard the Elder. They are figured in Hawkins, 
PI. XIV., No. 180; Ruding, PL XVI., Nos. 8 and 9; and 
Brit. Mm. Cat. ii., PL VIII., No. 6. Others are known 
of Aethelstan, see Ruding, PL XVII. No. 12, and Brit. Mus. 
Cat. ii., PL X. No. 8 ; Eadmund, Brit. Mus. Cat. ii., 
PL XI. No. 9 ; and Anlaf, Brit. Mus. Cat. i., PL XXIX., 
No. 5. This last piece, however, appears to be a copy of 
Aethelstan's coin, as on the obverse the legend reads 
ANLAF EGX TOD, a clear corruption of the TOT. B. 
(Totius Britanniae), which occurs on the latter's coins. A 
remarkable resemblance, too, between the coin of Eadgar 
and those issued by Eadweard the Elder, is that the same 
letters occur on each on the reverse at the sides of the 
rose-stem. It would be rash to say that all the coins of 
this type were struck at York, but if the surmise that the 
above halfpenny is of that mint is right, as in the case of 
Anlaf, the moneyer took as his prototype a similar piece 
of a preceding reign. The moneyer's name, Hildulf, 
does not occur on Northumbrian money, but it is found on 
coins of Eadred of Wessex and Aethelred II, and he may 
have been employed by Eadgar in the same capacity, and 
as is conjectured with Oswald, accompanied him in his 
journey to the north. 



SOME COINS OF EADGAR AND HENRY VI. 369 

As to the meaning of the letters H > on the reverse, 
no very satisfactory solution has been suggested. If the 
rose-tree has a religious signification, which is not improb- 
able, may not these letters H > be the initials of Yios Geoy. 
The forms of H = u, and > = th, are not infrequent on 
Northumbrian coins. It has also been suggested that 
they may stand for UJ and A ; but this is doubtful, as the 
letters would be in the wrong position, and it is difficult 
to make UJ from H and A from >. The significance of 
these letters is in consequence still open to suggestions. 

The third coin to be mentioned is of later date, and 
belongs to quite another class. It is a noble of the first 
issue of Henry VI. It may be described as follows : 



* D 

DOS o I\YB'. The king standing facing in ship, 
holding sword and shield, two ropes from stern 
and one from prow ; the ornaments from left to 
right on the ship are lion, two Us, lion, and lis. 



o ILLORV o IB7TT. Within double tressure of 
eight arches, a floriated cross with large lis at 
end of each limb ; in each angle lion passant 
guardant surmounted by a crown ; in the centre, 
an open compartment enclosing the letter Ii, and 
S having at each angle an ornament of three pellets ; 

a trefoil in each spandril of the arches of the 
tressure ; m.m. cross, pierced. 

JR. 1-3. Wt. 106-7 grs. 

The interest of this coin is in the circumstance that it 
belongs to the first or annulet coinage of Henry VI, of 
which hitherto no specimen has been known. 3 It will be 

3 Since this paper was written another specimen of the noble 
of the annulet coinage has been acquired by the British Museum ; 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. 3 B 



370 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

remembered that the gold coins of this reign are divided 
into four issues or series, distinguished by certain marks 
which are usually found between the words of the legends. 
Their order and the various denominations hitherto known 
of each series are : 1, annulet (half and quarter noble) ; 

2, trefoil and annulet (noble, half and quarter noble) ; * 

3, rosette or rosctte-mascle (noble, half, and quarter noble) ; 
and 4, pine-cone or pine-cone and mascle (noble). It will 
be seen that of the second and third series the denomina- 
tions are complete ; but of the first series hitherto only 
the half and quarter noble were known ; and of the fourth 
series only the noble. The recent discovery of the above 
piece now completes the series of the first issue. Kenyon, 
Gold Coins of England, says of the annulet coinage, "no 
nobles are known," and of the half-nobles, " these seem 
to belong to the rosette and trefoil coinages only." In 
the Montagu collection, however, there was a specimen of 
the half-noble, which is described as probably unique, 
and which in the mint-mark and in the stops between 
the words of the legends precisely corresponds to the 
above noble. In other respects, too, the coins are alike, 
with the exception of the reverse legend, which is always 
different. Of the quarter-noble only three specimens appear 
to be known ; one is in the British Museum, another was 



it varies only in having the lis for mint-mark. It was found in 
France with a large number of English and French gold coins 
of the time. Still more recently Sir John Evans has acquired 
a half-noble of this coinage with the pierced cross mint-mark, 
and another with the lis mint-mark. Of this last piece there 
is also a specimen in the National collection. 

4 Kenyon (Gold Coins of England, p. 49) places the trefoil 
annulet issue the last in the series ; but the points of resem- 
blance between this and the annulet coinage are so numerous it 
must stand second in the list. 



SOME COINS OF EADGAR AND HENRY Tl. 371 

in the Montagu collection, and a third is in that of Sir 
John Evans. It is very clear, therefore, from their scarce- 
ness, that very few gold coins were struck of the annulet 
coinage. 

Of the attribution of the coins of this issue to Henry 
VI, it is not necessary to enter into any minute 
explanation. The subject has been fully discussed by 
Mr. Neck in the Numismatic Chronicle for 1871, and also in 
Hawkins' Silver Coins of England, 2nd and 3rd ed. Taking 
the coinage of Calais as our guide there can be little doubt 
but that this issue began during the reign of Henry V 
and was continued into that of Henry VI. The pierced 
cross as a mint-mark occurs in both reigns ; but Hawkins 
has shown that the silver coins of this issue struck at 
York could only be given to Henry VI. It would 
therefore be difficult to state definitely whether these 
annulet gold coins belong to the last coinage of Henry 
V or to the first of Henry VI. 5 It need only be added 
that the above coin gives us another link in the chain of the 
coinage of that time, which will be still further completed 
when we discover the half-noble and quarter-noble of the 
fourth issue. No doubt in time these also will turn up, in 
the same manner as the noble and half-noble of the first 
issue have recently come to light. 

H. A. GRUEBER. 



8 In his recent article on " The Silver Coinage of the Eeign 
of Henry VI " (see ante, pp. 224-268), Mr. F. A. Walters, at 
p. 230, attributes the silver coins with the pierced cross mint- 
mark of the form as on our noble to the last issue of Henry V. 
It is very possible that he would transfer the gold pieces with 
this mint-mark to that reign also. 



XXII. 

NOTES ON " A NUMISMATIC HISTORY OF THE 
REIGN OF HENRY I " BY W. J. ANDREW. 1 

THE relation of numismatics to other branches of his- 
torical study has always been a peculiar one. Trained 
historians have rarely found time or energy to master 
its details ; and trained numismatists have been prone 
to content themselves with a slender historical equip- 
ment. Indeed, the treatise of Ruding remains almost 
the only instance of an attempt to combine both means 
of inquiry. 

The appearance of Mr. Andrew's monograph must 
therefore be of interest to numismatists and historians 
alike. Only trained numismatists can deal with the 
numismatic theories and facts propounded in it ; but 
students of history may be permitted to discuss the 
historical methods employed. In a treatise extending 
to some five hundred pages Mr. Andrew has attempted 
to arrange in chronological order every type of coin 
attributed to Henry I. He has examined all the 
extant coins, and notices in all a thousand specimens, 
some of which, he warns us, have probably been described 
twice over. These coins fall into fifteen types, which are 
arranged by him in an order in which the profile types 
and the full-face types occur alternately. He ingeni- 
ously gets over the difficulty that there is one profile type 

1 See Num. Chron., Ser. iv., vol. i. 



NOTES ON " A NUMISMATIC HISTORY OF HENRY I." 373 

too many for this arrangement by placing the extra pro- 
file type after the inquest of money ers in 1125. And 
with further ingenuity he seeks support for his system 
from arguments drawn from the history of the family of 
Fitz-Otho, the hereditary cutters of the King's dies. 
The conclusion aimed at in this discussion is that the 
issue of a profile type involved the calling in of all issues 
prior to and including the last profile type. Certain 
numismatic evidence is adduced in support of this con- 
clusion. Of historical evidence of its truth or falsity 
there is no trace. 

The second main proposition of the book is, however, 
based upon evidence of an historic kind. Mr. Andrew 
has come to the conclusion that in the reign of Henry I 
provincial mints were mainly in private hands, and could 
only coin money when the lord to whom they belonged 
was in England. We must admit that it seems to us 
wholly impossible to find evidence either for or against 
such a theory, neither can we regard Mr. Andrew's 
attempt to support it as demanding serious refutation. 
The number of existing coins of the provincial mints is 
small ; the movements of the great barons are imper- 
fectly known, and their chronology often unascertainable. 
And yet it is with a cobweb of argument on such points 
that Mr. Andrew has filled the greater part of the mono- 
graph before us. Deficient evidence has frequently produced 
bad history ; and Mr. Andrew's paper is no exception to 
this law. 

His treatment of the history of the mint of Exeter is 
only one among many instances. Here the various men- 
tions of Exeter in Domesday, the Pipe Roll of 1130 and 
the Chronicles are carefully set out ; the history of the 
mint is given from the combined study of the chronicles 



374 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

and the coins; and finally the coins themselves are enume- 
rated. In this case there are 14 belonging to 5 types, 
7 being of Hawkins* type 255. It would appear rash 
upon so small a basis to assume that these 5 types were 
all the types issued. Yet Mr. Andrew proceeds to explain 
not only that this was the case, but why it was the case. 
Unfortunately at the base of his explanation lies a funda- 
mental error. He assumes that the city of Exeter be- 
longed to the Earls of Devon, whereas it is well known 
that it belonged to Queen Maud, and that the Earl of 
Devon had no interest whatever in it. That his whole 
account of the descent of the Redvers family is incorrect 
is a small matter beside this fatal error. 

It is scarcely necessary to follow Mr. Andrew's history 
of the mint of Exeter further, but a few more instances 
of his method may be given. A Cotton MS., which we 
have been unable to identify, but which Mr. Andrew cites 
as Cotton MS. Julii, B. 10, states that Henry I granted 
to Richard de Itedvers the honour of Plympton with 
other places and the tertius denarius of the county. Mr. 
Andrew's comment is characteristic : " probably an error 
for the tertius denarius of the city of Exeter only." Now 
as Richard de Redvers had the third penny of the county, 
as Earl of Devon, and had not the third penny of the city 
of Exeter, we may be pardoned if we agree with the 
statement in " Cotton, Julii, B. 10," rather than with Mr. 
Andrew's correction. 

Another instance of the kind of reasoning employed 
may be quoted. " In 1112," says Mr. Andrew, " occurred 
the foundation of the Norman cathedral" of Exeter, "by 
William de Warlewast. Unfortunately the charter is 
not extant, but the usual custom would be followed and 
the presence of the Lord of Exeter was necessary to join 



NOTES ON "A NUMISMATIC HISTORY OF HENRY I." 375 

in the grant of its lands and endowments. So Baldwin, 
now probably of age, would visit his lordship of Exeter 
on that occasion to receive his own confirmation charter, 
and to then grant the charter of foundation to the new 
church, which again would require a confirmation charter 
from the King. It is, therefore, no mere coincidence 
which gives us type 267 (1112-1114) of this mint." 

The actual fact is, that in 1130 William de Warlewast, 
Bishop of Exeter, began to build a new cathedral there. 
For this no charter of endowment was necessary, and no 
confirmation charter from the King. It is therefore not 
surprising that neither of them are extant ; neither can 
the presence of the Earl be considered in the least 
necessary at such a time ; and the whole edifice of Mr. 
Andrew's argument crumbles into fragments. 

It is not only in the case of Exeter that Mr. Andrew 
constructs his facts to fit his theory. In the case of 
Lewes, being unable to account for the non-appearance of 
certain types or "to explain this numismatic catastrophe 
by the misfortune of the Earl," he takes refuge in the 
allegation that the burgesses of Lewes betrayed Henry I 
in 1101, a charge for which he adduces no evidence 
worth a moment's consideration. 

Another serious defect in Mr. Andrew's equipment is 
his ignorance of mediaeval Latin. He quotes Roger of 
Wendover in Giles's translation, and prefers to cite the 
Dialogus de Scaccario in Dr. Henderson's inaccurate 
version. On page 157 he extends hoibz into honoribus, 
and translates it " fees or rewards," and then embarks 
upon a discussion of Exchequer practice, which we are 
wholly unable to understand. In another place he trans- 
lates "placitum thesauri" as a Treasury plea, though 
Glanvill would have told him what it meant. He con- 



376 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

fuses " portus " with " porta," and thus elaborates the 
strange theory, which he turns to such wonderful account 
in his story of the Nottingham mint. And yet the Win- 
chester Domesday, which he quotes, might have saved 
him from making the assertion that " the gate, according 
to the institutes of Ethelred II, was the place of 
coinage " ; for in Winchester the mint was in the market- 
place. 

It would be easy to select' further instances of the same 
kind. One more must not be omitted. In his account 
of Rochester Mr. Andrew cites from Ruding the state- 
ment made by Mr. North, on the authority of the Textua 
Roffensis, that Geldwine and Robert were moneyers at 
Rochester in the time of Henry I. " This," Mr. Andrew 
comments, " is the usual error . . . caused by land being 
described in later confirmation charters under the original 
description," and goes on to point out that Geldwine 
coined under Edward the Confessor. Now the charters 
in the Textus Roffensis are as follows: A charter by 
Geldwin, with the witnesses given ; and a charter by a 
Geldwine Grec, to which Geldwin and Robert are both 
witnesses. Both these charters are witnessed by Helwes, 
the Archdeacon, who is known to have been Archdeacon 
of Canterbury in 1134. Had Mr. Andrew looked at the 
Textus Roffensis instead of speculating as to the truth of 
Ruding's statement, he might have saved himself the 
trouble of writing a whole page of print. 

The need, in fact, remains that a numismatist with a 
knowledge of history should do over again in the light 
of modern evidence the work that Ruding attempted. 
Ruding is not exempt from blunders, and his omissions 
are many. But his mistakes are usually patent, and 
his omissions can be supplied. And one virtue of capital 



NOTES ON " A NUMISMATIC HISTORY OF HENRY I." 377 

importance he possesses. He very rarely attempts to 
obtain from his authorities information which they are 
not capable of affording. Only those who follow his 
example can become familiar with the "pleasures of 
ignorance," of which Cardinal Newman speaks in his 
Grammar of Assent. 

C. G. CRUMP. 

C. JOHNSON. 



VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. " C 



XXIII. 

SOME UNPUBLISHED SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY 
TOKENS. 

AMONG the large collection of coins given in 1901 to 
Queens' College, Cambridge, by Mr. Barnes Williams, is 
a great number of seventeenth-century tokens, numbering 
about 3,500 specimens. The collection in Queens' College 
is derived from all parts of England, but is richest in the 
Kent series. 

Among these tokens are many which are not described 
in "Williamson's edition of Boyne's Trade Tokens ; they 
are entered in an interleaved copy of Boyne's own work, 
given to the College museum by Mr. Barnes Williams. 
The descriptions have been verified in each case. 

W. G. SEAKLE. 

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. 
20. The Queens' College specimen has 1669. 

CORNWALL. 
Grampound. 

14 bis. Obv. AT Y B SPREAD EAGLE = A two-headed 
eagle. 

Rev. IN GRAMPONT 1657. = M A G J 

Newport. 

60. Perhaps struck by John Norman of Newport Pagnell, 
Bucks, Williamson, i. 51, No. 102. 



SOME UNPUBLISHED SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY TOKENS. 379 

ESSEX. 
Romford. 

263 bis. Obv. ELIZABETH MARCVM. = A lamb couchant. 
Rev. IN RVMFORD BAKER. = E M * 

HEEEFOBDSHIRE. 
Hereford. 

24 bis. Obv. ROGER MORGAN 1671. = A fleur de lis. 

Rev. IN HEREFORD HIS HALF PENY. 
R M in five lines, octagonal. % 

HERTFORDSHIRE. 
Much Had ham. 

141 bis. Obv. MARGERY COCKETT. = 1666. 

Rev. IN MVCH HADHAM. = MC conjoined. J 

Ware. 

203 bis. Obv. THOMAS FITT IN. = HIS HALF-PENY. 
OSTLER 1667. = T M F * 



LONDON. 
Aldermanbury. 

12 bis. Obv. JOHN BERKET AT THE. = A shield 
with a cross saltire in each quarter. 

Eev. IN ALDERMANBVRY 1669. = HIS 
HALF PENY } 

Barbican. 

116 bis. Obv. THOMAS KITCHINMAN AT Y B . = A 
tree within a garter. 

Rev. US ' BARBICAN 1666. = HIS HALF 
PENY. * 

Basinghall Street. 

138 bis. Obv. AT THE WHITE HORSE. = A horse. 
Rev. IN ' BASINGHAL STREET. = G A S * 



380 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Brick Lane. 

418 bis. Obv. IOHN HARVY 1669. = A doubtful device. 
Rev. IN BRICK LANE. = HIS HALF PENY J 

Cannon or Candlewick Street. 
464 bis. Obv. RICHARD : KENNON : A T . = A peacock. 

Rev. IN : CANNON : STREETE. = R M K. i 

Cateaton Street. 

483 bis. Obv. ROBERT GARRETT. = A sugarloaf and a 
roll of tobacco. 

Rev. IN CATEATON STREET. = GRO CER 
in two lines. Large ] 

Chandos Street. 
585 bis. Obv. EGBERT THORPE. = A gate (?) 

Rev. IN SHANDAY STREET. = A horse-shoe i 

Coleman Street. 
711 bis. Oii;. THOMAS HVLL IN. = A wheat sheaf. 

Rev. COLEMANS STREET. = T M H i 
Cornhill. 

782 bis. Obv. STEPHEN WILKINSON AT. = Three 
tuns. 

Bev.Y K 8 -TVNS IN CORNHILL. =16 S W. 
57 in three lines. i 

Covent Garden. 

748 bis. 0fo. CHARLES MORGAN GROCER. = An 
angel C M 

Rev. STREET COVENT = HIS 

HALFE PENY. 

Cowcrosi. 

758 bis. Obv. ROBERT LYFORD AT Y B COPER 8 . 
= Cooper's arms. 

Rev. ARMES AT COW CROSS 1667. = HIS 
HALF PENY in three lines ; below R E L 



SOME UNPUBLISHED SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY TOKENS. 381 

Currier's Alley. 
817 bis. Obv. IN CVEIEKS ALLEY. = A dolphin. 

Eev. IN SHV LANE 1658 (?) = T M B i 

Fetter Lane. 

1011 bis. Obv. GEORGE HARPER = A bear. 

Rev. IN FETTER LANE. = G M H 

Field Lane. 

1027 bis. Obv. AT THE GAY OF WARWICK. = Guy 
Earl of W. holding a boar's head upon a 
spear. 

Eev. IN FILD LANE 1693. = . . . E C * 

Holborn. (So placed by B. W.) 

1466 bis. Obv. GEORG SLATER AT Y E BLEW. = A 
shoe sole. 

Rev. IN M . . LE ROW HIS HALF PENY. 
= G -I- S i 

Iron Gate. 

1536 bis. Obv. THE FOVNTIN TAVERN. = A fountain. 

Eev. AT IRON GATE 1651. = I M C i 

Old Swan (B. W.) 

2172 bis. Obv. MATHEW CARR AT Y B ROSE. = HIS 
HALFE PENY in three lines ; below 
M-M-C 

Eev. TAVERN AT Y B OVLD SWAN 69. 
= A rose. 

Paul's Chain. 

2193 bis. Obv FRANCIS LASHE (?) AT. = A rose. 

Rev. S T PAVLES CHAINE. == F E L i 

Ratcliff Cross. 

2331 bis. Obv. WALTER ONIONES . . . . = A bell. 

Eev. RATCLIFFE- CROSSE -1667. = HIS HALFE 
PENNY in three lines. i 



382 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Saint John's Lane. 

2552 bis. Obv. EDW BAGLEY AT Y E THATCHT. = A 
house. 

Rev. HOVSE IN S T JOHN STREET. = HIS 
HALF PENY 1668 in four lines. * 

Saint Martin's in the Fields. 

2636 bis. Obv. IOHN HIGGS IN NEW STREET IN. 
= A broche of 7 candles between I M H 

Rev.S T MARTINS IN Y B FEILDS 1668. 
= HIS HALFE PENY. * 

Saint Paul's Churchyard. 

2723 bis. Obv. FEATHERS TA VERNE. = A plume of 
feathers. 

Rev. WESTEND 8 PAVLS. = I S B below 

i 

St. Swithin's Lane (so given by Williamson). 

2732 bis. Oto. JOSEPH CLEEVE BAKER. = A gate. 

Rev. IN : S T SYTHS LANE. = I E C J 

Seacole Lane. 

2756 bis. Obv. GILES HONE AT THE PVMP. = Coat 
of arms ; three chevronels. 

Rev. IN SEACOLE LANE 68. = HIS HALF 
PENY in three lines ; below G D H * 

Shoe Lane. 

2793 bis. Obv. PASTRY COOKE 1657. = A crown. 

Rev. IN SHOO LANE. = I H K 



MIDDLESEX. 
Brentford. 

18 bis. Obv. LVKE IVORY OF OLD. = A man making 
candles. 

Rev. BRENTFORD CHAND E . = L E I 1 



SOME UNPUBLISHED SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY TOKENS. 383 

Islington. 

125 bis. Obv. WILL SAVIDG AT Y E PECOCK. = A 
peacock. 

Rev. IN ISLINGTON 1670.=HIS HALF PENY 
in three lines ; below W F S v % 

OXFOEDSHIEE. 

Oxford. 
181 bis. Obv. WILLIAM WALKER. = A stag courant. 

Rev. IN OXON 1668. = W M W i 

Watlington. 

219 bis. Oii;. NICHOLAS LANGFORD. = A man in front 
of a bull. 

Rev. IN WATLINGTON 1670. = HIS HALF 
PENY in three lines ; below N G L 

SOUTHWAEK. 

Bfeckman Street. 
194 bis. Obv. AT 3 PIDGONS. = Three pigeons. 

Bev. IN BLACKMAN STREET. = C A W i 

STAFFORDSH JEE . 
Leek. 

26 bis. Obv. WEN .... D 1666. = Two roses I W 

Rev. IN ' LEE . . (three roses). = HIS HALF 
PENY (a fragment). } 

SUFFOLK. 
Stratford. 

320 bis. Obv. RICHARD HVNT = B A H 

Rev. IN STRATFORD 1651 = B A H i 
Boyne No. 250, omitted in Williamson. 

325 bis. Obv, WILLIAM VGL . . OF. = A man making 
candles. 

Rev. STRATFO = W V 

SUEEEY. 

Beddington. 

13. The type on Obv. is an axe. 



384 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Croydon. 

88 bis. Obv. DORATHE EATEN (two roses). = A tan- 
kard. 

Rev. AT CROYDEN 1666. = D E and roses. J 
Ewell. 

71. The name and the date on Obv. is Ferdinando 
Downeing (in script) 1668. 

Godalming. 

98. The type on Obv. is the dove and olive branch. 

WARWICKSHIRE. 
Coleshill. 

61 bis. Obv. RICHARD IOHNSON -OF. = Apothecaries' 

arms. 
Rev, COLESHVL APOTHECARY. = R I and J 

Coventry. 

80 bis. Oii;. GEORGE MONCK. = Two men carrying a 
barrel, 

Rev. IN COVENTRY -166 

(detrited). i 

WILTSHIRE. 
Chippenham. 

48 bis. Obv. SAMVEL GAGE OF. = Three doves. 

Rev. CHIPPENHAM 1668. = 8 E G i 

44 bis. 0\n.-^ JOHN HACKMAN (quite plainly, not 
"Heorman," as Williamson No. 45). = A 
currycomb (?) 

Rev. IN CHIPENHAM 1671. = I M H 
(See Williamson.) 

YORKSHIRE. 
Haworth. 

118 bis. Obv. RICHARD NEAST = 1664. 
Rev. IN HAYWORTH = R N 

Boyne No. 108, omitted in Williamson. 



MISCELLANEA. 



BRISTOL TOKENS OF THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CEN- 
TURIES. As it is three years since my previous paper was 
printed (see Num. Chron., 3rd Ser., vol. xix., pp. 350-361), it 
may now be interesting to record the additional pieces that 
have come under my notice during that period, with some 
further observations : 

CIRCULAR FARTHINGS (dated). 

13a. Similar to No. 13, but with raised letters I. R. in the 
centre of the arms on the reverse (the letter 
" R " reversed). These letters, which are 
raised, were evidently contemporary with tb> 
casting. (From a Bristol excavation in 1900.) 

17. Similar to No. 17, but the inscription reads BRISTOL. 
(From a Bristol excavation in 1899.) 

lib. Similar to No. 17, but with a single fleur-de-lis over 
C. B. ; a lozenge between the letters. 

Note. The specimens Nos. 11 and lib appear to indicate 
that the engraver of the dies was of French extraction. 1 have 
carefully examined hundreds of these town pieces, but these 
are the only two specimens I know of bearing this addition. 
The latter piece is in the cabinet of Mr. W. Symonds. 

18a. Similar to No. 18; mint-mark, on obverse, a rose ; 
on the reverse, a large rose pierced. (From a 
Bristol excavation in 1899.) 

Note. In writing of this period my friend, Mr. Latimer, 
says : l " After having suspended the issue of small tokens for 

1 Annals of Bristol in the Seventeenth Century, p. 358. 
VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. 3 1) 



386 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

several years, the Corporation about this time pat in circulation 
a number of Bristol farthings, struck from two dies showing 
slight variations, but both bearing the date 1670. No refer- 
ence to these coins is to be found in the civic accounts, and it 
is clear that they were circulated without tho sanction of the 
Government, for at a Council meeting on October 3rd, the 
chamberlain announced the receipt of information that a <ju<> 
warranto was suspected to be preparing against the Corporation 
for unlawfully stamping and issuing the farthings. As the 
matter does not turn up again, the Corporation apparently 
succeeded in obtaining forgiveness from the Ministry." 

PRIVATE TOKENS. 

22. WILLIAM COOKE. It is probable that this issuer was the 
same William Cooke, grocer, of High Street, who, 
in the troublous times (August, 1641), together 
with Dennis Hollister, afterwards M.P., was 
brought before the magistrates and committed 
for trial, charged with keeping a conventicle and 
occasioning a riot for several hours before his 
own door. He was evidently a prominent 
citizen, as the houses in High Street were then 
of the most important character, all being 
handsome overhanging timber structures with 
high gabled roofs. 

UNPUBLISHED. 

I have just discovered yet another eighteenth-century private 
trader's token, which also came from the Bristol Harbour 
dredgings, whence so many historic specimens have been 
rescued. It is as follows : 




Obv. AT . THE . BOARS . HEAD . IN =r A Boar's Head. 

Uei\ WINE . STREET . BRISTOL = M . B . W. 



MISCELLANEA. 387 

I have not been able to trace any tavern bearing that name 
in Wine Street (it was at the "Horse-shoe," in this same 
street, that Samuel Pepys put up on his memorable visit in 
1668), but as in the Commonwealth period so many shop- 
keepers conducted their business by a " sign," the issuer was 
most probably not an inn-keeper. But careful research may 
enable me to clear up this point, which is of no little interest. 

As Mr. Williamson, in his edition of Boyne's Trade Tokens 
(1889) only described one private token, the only one then 
known, it will doubtless be useful to record here the present 
complete list : 

IOHN . BRADWAY 
WILLIAM . COOKE 
IOHN . IENKINS 
THOMAS . BICRAFT 

M . B . w (The Boar's Head) 

Bristol was a great and prosperous city at that period, and it 
is therefore most likely that many other traders issued similar 
pieces to facilitate business. 

JOHN E. PRITCHA.RD. 



INDEX. 



A. 

Abbasi Khalifa, coins of, 269 
Abd-el-Mumin, Muwahhid, gold 

coins of, 78 
Abdulla, the Khalifa, coins of, see 

Khalifa, the, &c. 

Abu Abd- Allah Mohammad, Mu- 
wahhid, gold coins of, 80 
Abu Yaakub Yusuf I, Muwahhid, 

gold coins of, 79 
Abu Yueuf Yaakub I, Muwahhid, 

gold coins of, 80 
Abydos, Troas, tetradrachm of, 

330 
Achaean cities, early federation of, 

didrachm of, 324 
Addedomaros, coins of, 11 ; types 

of, 13, 14 ; find-spots of, 1518 ; 

weights of, 16 ; standard of fine- 
ness of, 1 8 
Aegium, Achaia, copper coin of 

Antoninus Pius, with figure of 

boy Zeus, 323 
Aelfred the Great, cross and pall 

on coins of, 202 ; moneyers of, 

206 
Aelfwald I, of Northumbria, styca 

of, 310 

Aenua, Thrace, diobol of, 317 
Aethelred I, of Northumbria, styca 

of, 311 
Ahmad Shah, Mughal Emperor, 

coins of, 303 
Akbar, Mughal Emperor, coins of, 

285 
Akbar II, Mughal Emperor, coins 

of, 307 
'Alamgir II, Mughal Emperor, 

coins of, 303 
Aldrovandi. Ulisse di Teseo, medal 

of, by "T. R.,"59 



Alexandria, coins of the Constan- 

tine period, 92 
'Ali Gohar, Mughal Emperor, coins 

of, 305 
Alphonso V, of Portugal, coins of, 

found in England, 45 
Amasia, Pontus, era of, 7, 8 
ANDREW, W. J., his ffumismatie 

History of the Reign of Henry /, 

notes on, 372 
Andromeda, wife of Sextus, 

" The New Makar " of Lesbos, 

coin of, struck at Mytilene, 334 
Andros. drachm of, 328 
Annulet coinage of Henry VI, 

227 
Antonia Tryphaena of Pontus, 

coins of , 4, 6 ; regnal years on her 

coins, 5 ; daughter of Polemon I 

and Pythodoris, 6 ; her succes- 
sion to throne of Pontus, ib. ; era 

of, 7 
Antoninus Pius, coin of, struck 

at Aegium with figure of boy 

Zeus, 323 ; aureus of, with Liber- 

alitas, 349 
Aphytie, Macedonian Chalcidice, 

copper coin of, 314 
Apolloma ad Rhyndacum, Mysia, 

copper coin of, 328 
Apollonia Pontica, Thrace, copper 

coin of, 318 
Apollonos-Hieron. Lydia, copper 

coins of, 335, 336 
Aramaic legends on satrapal coins 

of Maznios, 82 
Archieratic crown on coin of Elaga- 

balus struck at Ephesus, 343 
Armenia, Tigranes I, his coinage, 

193 
Athene on eatrapal coins of Cilicia, 

83, 84, 86 



INDEX. 



389 



Athens, tetradrachm of, with figure 

of Harmodius, 323 
Augustus, genethliac sign of, 3 
Aurangzeb, Mughal Emperor, coins 

of, 294 
Aurelianus, copper coin of, struck 

at Cremna, 340 
Aurelius, see Marcus Aurelius, &c. 



B. 

Babar, Mughal Emperor, coins of, 

283 
BABELON, E., Traite des Monnaies 

grecques et romaines, pt. i, vol. i, 

noticed, 189 
Bagdad, Khalifs of, their coins, 

267 
Bahadur Shah (Shah 'Alam I), 

Mughal Emperor, coins of, 297 
Bahadur Shah II, Mughal Emperor, 

coins of, 308 
Balacros, satrap of Cilicia, coins of, 

83 
Balance, the, genethliac sign of 

Tiberius (?), 3, 4 
Balbinus, unique aureus of, with 

Victory, 355 
Beachy Head, Roman imperial 

coins found near, 1 84 
Bedwin, coins of, under Edward the 

Confessor and William I, 20, 22, 

24, 25 

BLANCHET, A., and GEUEBEE, 
H. A. : 

Treasure- Trove, its ancient and 

modern laws, 148 
Booth, Bishop of Durham, his 

coinage, 262 
Boxmoor, coin of Hadrian found 

at, 88 
Brantyngham, Thomas de, receiver 

of the Calais mint, 225 
Breton, John, medal awarded to, 

311 

Breton medal, a naval reward, 311 
Bristol mint under Henry VI, 228 

et seqq. 
Bristol tokens of the sixteenth and 

seventeenth centuries, 385 
British Museum and Celtic orna- 
ments found in Ireland, 164 
British Museum, Greek coins ac- 
quired by, in 1901, 313 
Buckinghamshire, unpublished 



seventeenth-century token of, 
378" 

Burning of bonds by Hadrian on 
coins and reliefs, 88 



C. 

Caistor, Norfolk, find of Roman 

silver coins near, 186 
Calais mint under Henry VI, 225 

et seqq. ; bullion coined at, 246 ; 

last coin struck at, 257 
C.ipricorn, genethliac sign of 

Augustus, 3 
Caracalla and Julia Domna, aureus 

of, 3ol 

Caracalla, aureus of, with Sol, 351 
Carausius, aurei of, with Pax, 

359, 360 ; denarius of, with head 

of Sol, 361 
Carlisle, sterling of Henry Earl of 

Northumberland struck at, 26 
CAELYON-BRITTON, P., F.S.A. : 

Bedwin and Marlborough and 
the moneyer Cilda, 20 

A rare sterling of Henry Earl of 
Northumberland, 26 

On the coins of William I and II 
and the sequence of the types, 
208 
Celtic ornaments found in Ireland 

and the law of treasure-trove, 

164 
Ceraitae, Pisidia, copper coin of, 

339 
Ceraitae and Cremna, Pisidia, 

coppt-r coin of, 339 
Charles the Bold, Duke of Bur- 
gundy, coins of, found in Eng- 
land, 44 
Cilbiani Nicaei, Lydia, copper coin 

of, 336 ; copper coin of Geta, 

337 
Cilda, inoneyer of Bedwin and 

Marlborough, 21-25 
Cilicia, satrapal coins of, attributed 

to Mazaios, 81 ; early history of, 

under Alexander the Great, 85 
Cistophori of Pergamum and 

Ephesus, 330 
CODEINGTON, 0., M.D., F.S.A. : 

Some rare Oriental Coins, 267 
Commodus, copper coin of, struck 

at Germe, 337 
Constans, Caesar, coins of, struck 

at Alexandria, 141 et seqq. 



390 



INDEX. 



Constantino the Great, coins of, 

struck at Alexandria, 100 et 

seqq. 
Constantine II, Caesar, coins of, 

struck at Alexandria, 134 et 

seqq. 
" Constantinopolis," coins with, 

struck at Alexandria, 142 et 

seqq. 
Constantius I, Chlorus, coins of, 

struck at Alexandria, 98 et seqq. ; 

aureus of, with Hercules and 

hydra, 362 
Constantius II, Caesar, coins of, 

struck at Alexandria, 139 et 

eqq. 
Cornwall, unpublished seventeenth 

century tokens of, 378 
Cox's Museum, ticket of admission 

to, 76 
( 'KKKKK, MAJOR A. B. : 

Unpublished stycas of Aelf wald 

I and Aethelred I, 310 
Cremna, Pisidia, copper coin of 

Aurelian, 340 

Cremna and Ceraitae, Pisidia, cop- 
per coin of, 339 
Crispus, Caesar, coins of, struck at 

Alexandria, \3 et terjq. 
Cross and pall on coins of Aelfred 

the Great, 202 
Cross and pellet coinage of Henry 

VI, 261 
Cross pierced, mint-mark on annulet 

coinage of Henry V and VI, 

230, 370 
Crowns, demiurgic and archieratic, 

on coin of Tarsus, 343 
CHUMP, C. G., and JOHNSON, C. : 

Notes on A Numismatic History 
of the Reign of Henry 7, by W. 
j. Andrew. 372 

Cyme, Aeolis, silver coin of, 333 
Cyzicus, Mysia, hemi-drachm of, 

329 



D. 

Dames, M. Longworth, tee Long- 
worth Dames, M. 

Delmatius, coins of, struck at 
Alexandria, \43etteqq. 

Demiurgic crown on coin of Elaga- 
balus, struck at Tarsus, 343 

Denmark, law of treasure- trove in, 
156 



Diadumenianus, aurei of, with Spes 
and " Priuc. Juventutis," 352 

Diana of Mantua, see Ghisi, Diana 

Diocletian, coins of, struck at 
Alexandria, 96 et seqq. ; aureus 
of, with Emperor seated, 358 

Domitian, sestertius of, with Pax 
burning arm*, 348 

" Donatio," legend on coin of 
Cremna, Pisidia, 340 

Durham mint under Henry VI, 
233 et seqq. 



E. 

Eadgar, coins of, struck at York, 

364 et seqq. 
Easton, Norfolk, Roman imperial 

coins found at, 185 
Edward the Confessor, coins of, 

struck at Bed win, 20-22 ; law of 

treasure-trove under, 160 
Edward I, treasure -trove enforced 

by statute of, 161 
Edward III, last silver coinage 

of, 176 
Edward IV, find of silver coins 

of, 34, 35, 45 
Eighteenth - century lead tickets, 

74 
Elagabal, sacred stone on aureus of 

Elagabalus, 343 
Elagabalus, copper coin of, struck 

at Tari-us, 343 ; aureus of, with 

sacred stone, Elagabal, 353 
Elis, silver coin of, 327 
England, law of treasure- trove in, 

157 et seqq. 
Ephesus, Ionia, cistophorus of, 

330 
Era*, of Pontus, 1 ; of Sebasteia, 9, 

10 ; of Sebastopolis, 7, 8, 9, 184 ; 

of Tripolis Hnd Sidon, 198 
Eretria, Euboea, tetradrachm of, 

321 ; copper coin of, 322 
Essex, unpublished seventeenth- 
century token of, 379 
Euboea (Eretria), tetradrachm of, 

321 
EVANS, SIH JOHN, K.C.B. : 

Note on a gold coin of Added - 
omaros, 1 1 

The Burning of the Bonds under 
Hadrian, 88 

The Cross and Pall on coins of 
Aelfred the Great, 202 



INDEX. 



391 



On some rare or unpublished 

Roman coins, 345 

Exeter mint under Henry I, his- 
tory of, criticised, 373 



F. 

Farrukh-Siyar, Mughal Emperor, 
coins of, 299 

.Fausta, coins of, struck at Alex- 
andria, 137 

Faustina, Junr., copper coin of, 
struck at Syedra, 343 

Faustina, Senr., aureus of, with 
Fortuna, 349 

Federation of Achaean cities, 
didrachm of, 324 

Finds of coins : 

Beachy Head, Roman, 184 
Caistor, Norfolk. Roman, 186 
Easton, Norfolk, Roman, 185 
Silver coins of Edward IV- 
Henry VIII, 34 

France, early customs of treasure- 
trove in, 151-155; recent laws 
relating to, 154, 155, 174 

French coins current in the Sudan 
64 



G. 

Galba, denarii of, struck in Spain, 

346, 347 
G-aleria Valeria, coins of, struck at 

Alexandria, 186 et seqq. 
Galerius, coins of, struck at Alex- 
andria, 103 et seqq. 
Galley halfpence, their nature and 

description, 247 
Gallienns, copper coin of, struck 

at Germe, 338 ; aureus of, with 

Victory, 357 
Germany, law of treasure -trove in, 

156 
Germe, Lydia, copper coin of Com- 

modus, 337 
Geta, copper coins of, struck by 

the Cilbiani Nicaei, 337 ; struck 

at Lysinia, 341 
Ghisi, Diana, medal of, by "T.R.," 

60 

Glasgow Assembly, tickets of ad- 
mission to, 74 
Goldbeter, Bartholomew, provisions 

with, for coining money under 



Henry V and VI, 228, 231, 232, 
235 

Greece, law of treasure -trove in. 

156 
Greek coins acquired by the British 

Museum in 1901, 313 
Greek Coins and their Parent Citiet 
by John Ward and G. F. Hill, 
noticed, 191 
GKUEBER, H. A., F.S.A. ; 

Catalogue of Greek Coins in the 
Hunterian Collection, By G. 
Macdonald, notice of, 188 
Traite des Monnaies grecques et 
romaines. Part i, vol. i. By 
E. Babelon. notice of, 189 
The Breton Medal, 3 1 1 
Some Coins of Eadgar and 

Henry VI, 364 
GKUEBER, H. A., F.S.A., and 

BLANCHET, A. : 
Treasure-Trove, its Ancient and 
Modern Laws, 118 

H. 

Hadrian burning bonds, illustrated 

by coins and reliefs, 88 
Hadrianeia, Mysia, copper coins of, 

329 
Haliartus, Boeotia, hemi-obol of, 

321 
Harmodius, figure of, on tetra- 

drachm of Athens, 323 
HAVEKFIELD, F., F.S.A. : 

Two Hoards of Roman Coins, 

' _184 

Find of Roman silver coins near 

Caistor, Norfolk, 186 
HEAD, B. V., D.C.L. : 

Greek Coins and their Parent 
Cities. By John Ward and G. 
F. Hill, notice of, 191 
Helena, coins of, struck at Alex- 
andria, 137 et seqq. 
Henry I, law of treasure-trove 

under, 161 
Henry /, Numismatic History of 

the Reign of, by W. J. Andrew, 

notes on, 372 
Henry VI, find of silver coins of, 34, 

36, 45 ; silver coinage of, 224 ; 
noble of, of first issue, 369 
Henry VII, find of silver coins of, 

34, 36, 46 

Henry VIII, find of silver coins of, 

35, 39, 47 ; sequence of mint- 



392 



INDEX. 



marks on his silver coins, 48-62 ; 

use of Roman and Lombardic 

letters in legends on coins, 50 
Henry, Earl of Northumberland, 

rare sterling of, 26 
Henry, son of Matilda, afterwards 

Henry II, and coin struck at 

Carlisle, 29 

Herefordshire, unpublished seven- 
teenth-century token of, 379 
Hertfordshire, unpublished seven- 
teenth-century tokens of, 379 
HILL, G. F., MA.: 

Timothens Refatus of Mantua 

and the Medallist "T. R.," 55 

Hill, G. F., and John Ward, Greek 

Coins and their Parent Citiet, 

noticed, 191 
HOWOETH, SIR HENBY, K.C.I.E.: 

Note on Some Coins generally 
attributed to Mnzaios, Satrap 
of Cilicia and Syria, 8 1 
Humiiyun, Mughal Emperor, coins 

of, 284 
Hungary, law of treasure-trove in, 

156 
Hunterian Collection of Grtek Coins, 

Catalogue of, vol. ii. By G. 

Macdonald, noticed, 188 



I. 

Iconium, Lycaonia, copper coin of, 

342 
Ireland, Celtic ornaments found in, 

and the law of treasure -trove, 

164 ; law of treasure-trove in, 

173 
Italy, law of treasure- trove in, 156, 

175 



J. 

Jahandar, Mughal emperor, coins 

of, 298 
Jahangir, Mughal emperor, coins 

of, 289 
JOHNSON, C., andCsuMp, C. G. : 

Notes on A Numismatic History 
of the Reign of Henry I. By 
W. J. Andrew, 372 
JOHNSTON, J. M C. : 

Gold coins of the Muwahhids, 77 
Julia Domna and Caracalla, aureus 

of, 351 



K. 

Kambaksh, Mughal emperor, coins 

of, 296 
Kamran, Mughal emperor, coins 

of, 285 
Khalifa Abdulla, the, coins of, tee 

Khalifa, the, &c. 
Khalifa, the, coins of, struck at 

Omdurman, 62 ; first issue of, 

64 ; debased, 65, 67 ; types of, 

69 

L. 

Larissa, Thessaly, silver coin of, 
318 

Larissa, the nymph, representation 
of, on coins, 318 

Larissa Phriconis, Aeolis, silver 
coin of, 332 

LAWBENCE, L. A. : 

A find pf silver coins of Edward 
IV Henry VIII, 34 

Libra, genethliac sign of Tibe- 
rius (?), 4 

Licinius I, coins of, struck at 
Alexandria, 108 et seqq. 

Licinius II, coins of, struck at 
Alexandria, 125 et seqq. ; aureus 
of, with Jupiter, 363 

Limavady, Ireland, Celtic orna- 
ments found at, 164 

Lombardic letters in legends of 
silver coins of Henry VIII, 50 

Lomellini, Card. Benedetto, medal 
of, by " T. R.," 58 

London, mint of, under Henry VI, 
225 et seqq. ; amount of bullion 
coined at, 246, 249 ; unpublished 
seventeenth-century tokens of, 
329 

LONGWORTH DAMES, M., M.R. 

A.S. : 

Some coins of the Mughal Em- 
perors, 375 

Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of, law 
of treasure-trove in, 156 

Lysinia, Pisidia, copper coin of 
Geta, 341 

M. 

MACDONALD, GEORGE, M.A. : 
His Catalogue of Greek Coins in 
the Hiinterian Collection, vol. 
ii., noticed, 188 
The coinage of Tigranes I, 193 



INDEX. 



393 



Macrinus, aureus of, with Jupiter, 
351 

Mahdi, the, coins of, struck at 
Omdurman, 62 ; issues of, 64 ; 
standard of, 68 ; types of, 64, 
68, 69 

Marcus Aurelius, aureus of, with 
Minerva, 350 

Maria Theresa dollars current in 
the Sudan, 64 

Marlborough, coins of, and the 
moneyer Cilda, 20-24 

MAURICE, JULES : 

Classification chronologique des 
Emissions monetaires de 
1' Atelier d'Alexandrie pendant 
la Periode constantinienne, 92 

Maximianus Herculeus, coins of, 
struck at Alexandria, 97 et seqq. ; 
aurei of, with Hercules and 

. Salus, 359 

Maximinus Daza, coins of, struck 
at Alexandria, 98 et seqq. 

Mazaios, satrap of Cilicia and 
Syria, coins attributed to, 81 

Megalopolis and Sebasieia, identi- 
fication of, 9 

Middlesex, unpublished seven- 
teenth-century tokens of, 382 

Mint-marks on silver coins of 
Henry VIII, sequence of, 48- 
52 

Mints and their types of "William I 
and II, 221 

Mints of the Mughal emperors, 
277 

Mohammed Ahmad, the Mahdi, 
see Mahdi, the, &c. 

Monetagium, tax of, and change 
of coin-type, 209-211 

Moneyers of Aelfred the Great 
and the cross and pall types, 
206 

Monnnies grecques et romaines, part 
i., vol. i., by E. Babelon, no- 
ticed, 189 

Mughal emperors and their coins, 
275 ; their mints, 277 

Muhammad Ibrahim, Mughal em- 
peror, coins of, 301 

Muhammad Shah, Mughal em- 
peror, coins of, 301 

Muwahhids, gold coins of the, 77 

Mytilene, Lesbos, silver coin of, 
333 ; copper coin with portraits 
of Sextus, the "New Makar," 
and Andromeda, his wife, 334 

VOL. II. FOURTH SERIES. 



N. 

Naukratis, Egypt, copper coin of, 
344 

Neandria, Troas, silver coin of, 
331 

Neufeld, C., on the coinage of the 
Sudan, 66 

Nevill, Bishop, his badge on pence 
of Durham, 260 

Normandy, custom of treasure- 
trove in, 150 

Northumberland, Henry, Earl of, 
see Henry, Earl of Northumber- 
land 

Nuremberg counters and galley 
halfpence, 248 

Niitzel, Dr. H., on the coinage of 
the Sudan, 67, 68, 69, 73 



0. 

Ohrwalder, Father, on the coinage 
of the Sudan, 65, 67 

Omdurman, coins struck at, by the 
Mahdi and the Khalifa, 62 

Oxfordshire, unpublished seven- 
teenth-century tokens of, 383 



P. 

Pall and cross on coins of Aelfred 

the Great, 202 
Pantheon Gardens, Spa Fields, 

ticket of admission to, 75 
Parlais, Lycaonia, copper coin of, 

342 
Pausanias, King of Macedon, 

copper coin of, 317 
Peace burning arms on sestertius 

of Domitian, 348 
Pergamum, Mysia, cistophorus of, 

330 
Phalanna, Thessaly, copper coin 

of, 319 

Pierced cross mint-mark on annu- 
let coinages of Henry V and VI, 

forms of, 230, 370 
Pine-cone mascle coinage of Henry 

VI, 241 
Pine-cone pellet coinage of Henry 

VI, 257 
Pine-cone trefoil coinage of Henry 

VI, 251 

Polemon I of Pontus, children of, 6 
Polemon II of Pontus, coins of, 4, 
3E 



394 



INDEX. 



6 ; regnal years of, 5 ; his ac- 
cession, 6 

Pontic eras on coins, 1 
Pontic year, commencement of, 1 
Potidaea, Macedonian Chalcidice, 

copper coins of, 315, 316 
PKITCHAKD, JOHN E., F.S.A. : 

Bristol Tokens of the sixteenth 

and seventeenth centuries, 385 

Pythodoric era, commencement 

of ,2 
Pythodoris, Queen of Pontus, coins 

of, 1 ; children of, 6 ; extent of 

her rule, 10 

Q. 

Qualla, Theodore, medals of, by 
Timotheus Rt-fatus, 55, 56, 61 

Queens' College, Cambridge, col- 
lection of seventeenth-century 
tokens at, 378 



R. 

Raf i'u'd-Darjat, Mughal Emperor, 

coins of, 300 
RefatuH, Timotheus, of Mantua, 

medals by, 55, 56 
RBINACH, THODORE: 

Some Pontic Eras, 1 ; correction, 

184 
Roman coins, rare or unpublished, 

345 
Roman letters in legends of silver 

coins of Henry VIII, 60 
Romans, law of treasure -trove with 

the, 148-150 
Rosette mascle coinageof Henry VI, 

238 

S. 

Sarhind mint, history of, 280 
Satrapal coins of Mazaios, 81 
Scotland, law of treasure- trove in, 

173 
Scotussa, Thessaly, copper coin of, 

320 

SEAKLE, REV. W. G., M.A. : 
Some unpublished Seventeenth- 
Century Tokens, 378 
Sebasteia, Pontus, era of, 9, 10 
Sebasteia, and Megalopolis, identifi- 
cation of, 9 

Sebastopolis, Pontus, era of, 7, 8, 9, 
181 



Septimius Severus, aureus of, with 
Liberalitas, 350 

Seventeenth-century tokens, un- 
published, 378 

Severus II, coins of, struck at 
Alexandria, 98 et seqq. 

Sextus, " New Makar" of Lesbos, 
coin of, struck at Mytilene, 334 

Seyntlowe, Giles, controller of the 
Calais mint, 255, 258 

Shah 'Alam II, Mughal Emperor, 
coins of, 306 

Shah .Lilian, Mughal Emperor, 
coins of, 290 

Side, Pamphylia, coin of Gallie- 
nus, 338 

Sidon and Tripolis, era of, 198 

Slat in Pasha on the coinage of the 
Sudan, 65, 66, 67 

SMITH, SAMUEL, JUN. : 
Some notes on the coins struck at 
Omdurman by the Mahdi and 
the Khalifa, 62 

Solis, Diego de, medal of, by 
"T. R.,"57 

Southwark, unpublished seven- 
teenth-century token of, 383 

Spa Fields, Pantheon Gardens, ticket 
of admission to, 75 

Spain, denarii of Galba struck in, 
346, 347 

Staffordshire, unpublished seven- 
teenth-century token of, 383 

Suffolk, unpublished seventeenth - 
century tokens of, 383 

Surrey, unpublished seventeen th- 
oentury tokens of, 383 

Syedra, Cilicia, copper coin of 
Faustina, jun., struck at, 343 

Syria, Tigranes, king of, his coin- 
age, 193 

T. 

Tarsus, Cilicia, copper coin of Ela- 
gabalus, 343 

Tiberius, genethliac sign of, 3, 4 

Tigranes 1 of Armenia and Syria, 
coinage of, 193 

Timotheus Refatus of Mantua, 
medallist, see Refatus, Timo- 
theus, &c. 

Tokens of the seventeenth century, 
unpublished, 378 

" T. R.," medallist, medals by, 55, 
57 

Treasure-Trove, its ancient and 



INDEX. 



395 



modern laws, 148 ; amongst the 
Romans, 148-150 ; in Normandy, 
150; in France, 151 et seqq., 174 ; 
in Germany, 156 ; in Denmark, 
156; in Hungary, 156; in the 
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 
156 ; in Greece, 156 ; in Italy, 
156, 175 ; definition of, 157-160 ; 
under Edward the Confessor, 

160 ; under Henry I, 161 ; en- 
forced by statute of Edward I, 

161 ; right of, established in 
England, 161, 163 ; modifications 
of, in England, 168 ; in Scotland, 
173; in Ireland, 173 

Tripolis and Sidon, era of, 198 
Tryphaena, see Antonia Tryphaena 
Tyche on coins of Tigranes I of 

Armenia and Syria, 193 
Types of coins of William I and II 

and their sequence, 208, 212 

U. 

Umayyad Khalifa, coins of, 267 
" Urbs Roma," coins with, struck 
at Alexandria, 142 et seqq. 

V. 

Valerius Valens, coins of, struck at 
Alexandria, 123 et seqq. 

VN. MR. (Venerandae Memoriae) 
on coin of Constantino the Great 
struck at Alexandria, 146 

W. 

WALTERS, FREDK. A., F.S.A. : 
Some Remarks on the last Silver 
Coinage of Edward III, 176 



The Silver Coinage of the Reign 

of Henry VI, 224 
WABD, JOHN, and G. F. HILL, Greek 
Coins and their Parent Cities, 
noticed, 191 

Warwickshire, unpublished seven- 
teenth-century tokens of, 384 
Willelm, moneyer of Carlisle, 26 
William I, coins of, struck at 

Marlborough, 23, 24 
William I and II, coins of, se- 
quence of types, 208, 212 ; mints 
and types, 221 

Wiltshire, unpublished seventeenth- 
century tokens of, 384 
WROTH, WARWICK : 

Greek Coins acquired by the 
British Museum in 1901, 313 



Y. 

YEATES, F. WILLSON : 
Three Lead Tickets of the Eigh- 
teenth Century, 74 

York, coins minted at, by Eadgar, 
366 et seqq. 

York mint under Henry VI, 228 
et seqq. 

Yorkshire, unpublished seven- 
teenth-century tokens of, 384 



Z. 

Zeno-Artaxias, King of Armenia, 

6 
Zeus as a boy, statue of, on coin of 

Aegium, 323 



END OF VOL. II. 



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ROMAN COINS. PLATE I. 



Num. Chron, Str W. Vo(. HPIJIX. 















ROMAN COINS. PLATE II. 



CJ The Numismatic chronicle 

1 and journal of the Royal 

N6 Numismatic Society 

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