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Full text of "Four Years Campaigning in the Army of the Potomac"

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FOUR YEARS 



t 
ft; I 



©AMPAIiJlfllf© 



I 



COLOR SERGEANT, 

n. a. GROTTO, 

Third Michigan Volunteer Infantry. 



GEAND EAPIDS, MICH : 

IRT BEOa. t CO. PRiNTBRS AND BI.N'DER?. 
1874. 



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linlerpil accoviling to Act of Congress in the year 1874, by 1). G, Cbottt. 
in Ihp offipp of (lie Llbrnrian of Congress, at ffasbingUii!. 



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PREFACE. 



To the enlisted men of the firmy this book h dedicateJ, 
with whom the author has shared the fatigues of four 
years' campaigns, described in these pages. I come before 
my late comrades to remind them of by-gone times, to talk 
over our army life, aad keep afresh in our minds the hard- 
ships we had to endure to save our country from disunion, 
and make it the greatest nation of the earth. There are 
protrayed within this book the doings of the soldier In 
camp and field, by one who has marched with the army 
from the first Bull Kuu, down to the surrender of Lee and 
all the Rebel army. If this book should meet the appro- 
bation of my late comrades, I am well paid ibr the trouble 
of writing it. 

TUE A UTHOH, 

Muskegon, August lUlh, 1872. 



3 / bOv) J 



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CONTENTS. 



CHAPTEE I. — Secession — insult to our flag — uprising of 
the north — enlistments — leaving home — trij) to the front. 

CHAPTER II.— First night on picket — a scare— grand 
rounds — the relief-— picking cherries — a dangerous ani- 
mal. 

CHAPTER III.— Guard mounting— Fourth of July— 

A scene in the national capitol — getting ready for >our 

first campaigns and battles. 
CHAPTER IV. — On to Richmond — bivouac — second 

night's halt — a scare on the line — a beautiful sight — 

Ceut«rville — Battle of Blackburn's Ford. 

CHAPTER v.— Getting reinforcements — Old Bumfuz- 
zle — Battle of first Bull Run — a disastrous defeat — 
the retreat — a blue Monday. 

CHAPTER VI.— A long day— visit from Senator Chand- 
ler — getting the regiments together — camp at Arlington 
— Camp Hunter — detailed on special duty. 

CHAPTER VII.— McCleltan takes command— grand re- 
view — Camp Lyon — arrival of the 5th Michigan — Alex- 
andria. 

CHAPTER VIII.— Farther to the front— building winter 
quarters-— Camp Michigan — picket line — Pofaick Church 
— Mount Vernon. 

CHAPTER IX. — winterjin camp — reconnoissance — Fight- 
ing Dick — dvess parade — visitors — good times. 

CHAPTER X.— Good bye Camp Michigan— Fojt Lyon 
again — rain and mud — aboard of transports — arrival at 
Fortress Monroe — the Monitor— Hampton village — the 
bivouac. 

CHAPTER XI.— On to Richmond— seige of Yorktown- 
building forts and redoubts — picketing — artillery duel — 
a footless page — our photographer — a big shell — balloons 
— evacuation of Yorktown. 



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CHAPTER XII.— Following up the enemy—torpedoes— 
Battle of Williamsburg — Fifth Michigan Infantry 
make a gallant fight, &c. 

CHAPTER XIII.— Retreat of the enemy— burying the 
dead — fearful sights — on to Richmond once more — 
McDowell withdrawn from our command— cross the 
Chickahominy — battle of Fair Oaks. 

CHAPTER XIV— .Reinforcements called for— the battle- 
field — burying the dead — building breastworks — a hard 
fight for a few feet of ground — preparations to fall back. 

CHAPTER XV.— The seven days fight— battles of Gains' 
Mills, Peach Orchard, Charles City Cross Roads, and 
Malvern Hill — skirmishing — a brave pioneer — the retreat 
— arrival at Harrison's Landing. 



CHAPTER XVI.— We go into carap—Foo-fh of July, 
1862 — ^batallion drill, etc. — camp life — orders to msrch 
— daughter of the regiment. 

CHAPTER XVII.— Ou- backward move— familiar ground 
— a hot and dusty march— back to Williarr'^biirg and 
York Town — arrival at Washington again. 

CHAPTER XVIII.— To the front again— McCIellan 
removed — second battle of Bull Run — defeat and re* "eat 
to Centei /ille. 

CHAPTER XIX.— The enemy try a flank movement- 
battle of Chantilly — a fearful storm — it ends the conflict 
— a miserable night — death of General Kearney — 
McCIellan in command again — back to Washington once 



CHAPTER XX.— Battles of South Mountain and Ante- 
tam — suffering of the army — Leo back in Virginia — 
McCIellan relieved again and Burnside takes command — 
at the f-'oat i^ain — McClellan's farewell address to his 
army. 

CHAPTER XXL— i ij :o for F.-edericksburg- the enemy 
in email force across the river — camp life — orders to 
march — gallant feai of the Seventh Michigan infantry — 
battle of Fredericksburg — the defeat and retreat. 



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CONTENTS. 7 

CHAPTER XXII. — Bnikling winter quarters — a soldier's 
funeral — furloughs — feeling in the North — scenes and 
incidents — at the front again. 

CHAPTER XXIII.— Orders fo march— we try a flank 
movement, and get stuck in the mud — the rehels mak- 
ing fun of lis — desertions — back to camp — Bnrnside 
relieved and Hooker takes command, 

CHAPTER XXIV.— Nice weather— marching orders- 
sutlers to the rear — on the road again — Battle of the 
Cedars — midnight charge — Stonewall Jackson killed — 
battle of Chance] I orsville—the Potomac Army again 
defeated. 

CHAPTER- XXV.— Lee tries another move North— 
the Army of the Potomac after him — both armies on 
Northern soil — scenes and incidents on the way — 
Emmetsbutg— Hooker relieved — General Meade in com- 
mand. 

CHAPTER XXVI.— Leave Emmetsbnrg and cross the 
lines into Pennsylvania — good feeling among the people 
— the enemy met — battle of Gettysburg — night after the 
battle — hard fighting and fearful slaughter. 

CHAPTER XXVII.— Fourth of July, 1863— the enemy 
gone from our front and retreat to their sacred soil — in 
pursuit of them — arrive among the mountains — scenes 
and incidents while there. 

CHAPTER XXVIIL— Our chase resumed— battle of 
Wapping Heights — defeat and pursuit of the enemy 
through Manassas Gap — rebel bees — a fierce encounter. 

CHAPTER XXIX.— Retrace our steps and move to Sul- 
phur Springs — recreation— New York riots — our regi- 
ment sent to help enforce the draft — arrival on Gover- 
nor's Island. 

CHAPTER XXX. — Proceed to New York— at Castle 
Garden — A march up Broadway— at City Hall Park — 
amusements — the draft quietly takes place, etc. 

CHAPTER XXXI.— A trip up the Hudson—a lovely 
night and beautful scenery — arrival in Troy — pitch our 
tents — Annie beseiged with visitors — hotel life — gay 
times — the draft in Trov. 



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8 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXXII.— A military ball—farewell to Troy 
— aboard the steamer — handkerchiefs to the eyes of the 
fair maidens on shore — three times three — arrival in 
New York — on to the front — arrival among our comrades 
— orders to march — drawing rations, 

CHAPTER XXXIII.— On the march again— Culpepper 
Court House — new country— a surprise — Battle of 
Kelly's Ford — a great battle anticipated — reflections—- 
the enemy gone from our front— pursuit— Battle of Mine 
Run — cold weather. 

CHAPTER XXXIV.— Retrace our steps to camp— anoth- 
er retreat— a cavalry fight, in which the rebels come out 
second best — back to Centerville. 

CHAPTER XXXV.— Pursuit of the enemy once more- 
Battle of Bristow's Station — the Rebels commence win- 
ter huts at Brandy Station — the huts taken by our men, 
and we go into winter quarters — furlough of 30 days 
— reinlistmenta for three years more — reception at Grand 
Rapids — home again. 

CHAPTER XXXVI— Visiting our friends— gay times- 
death of CoJ. Champlin — his funeral — recruiting — 
scenes and incidents — off to the wars again — arrival at 
the front — camp life once more. 

CHAPTER XXXVII— Winter life in camp— shooting a 
deserter — General Grant appointed over all the armies — 
preparations for the spring campaign — sutlers to the 
rear, and sick sent to the general hospital — ready for a 
forward move again. 

CHAPTER XXXVIII.— On the march again— crossing 
the Rapidan — the advance of the army — halt for the 
night — the 5th of May — a surprise — battle of the "Wil- 
derness — a fearful encounter in the woods — great slaugh- 
ter and nothing as yet accomplished. 

CHAPTER XXXIX.— A flank movement— battle of 
Todd's Tavern — 'the burning wilderness — fearful sufier- 
ing of our wounded — inhuman work of rebel guerrillas 
— a charge at Spottsylvania Court House — two Major 
Generals, 8,000 prisoners, and forty-two pieces of artil- 
lery captured— another great battle — scenes and inci- 
dents. 



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CONTENTS. 9 

CHAPTER XL.— Burying the dead— another swing 
around on our all summers hne — battle of North Anna 
River — a touching incident — another swing — battle of 
Cold Harbor — the three years men go home— reflections. 

CHAPTER XLI.— Another swing on tho line— a forced 
march — crossing the James River — sick and left behind 
— ambulances — the rear guard — lie down to die— -scared 
into life by a ractlesnako — heavy fighting in front of 
Petersburg — the field hospital. 

CHAPTER XLII.- Getting well again— back with my 
regiment-— a long siege before us — building forts and 
breastworks — the Petersburg express — Fourth of July, 
1864 — how it is celebrated. 

CHAPTER XLIII.— Orders to march with three days 
rations- — a forced march — on the Peninsula again — bat- 
tle of Deep Bottom — an incident — failure of a flank 
movement— forced march back to Petersburg — blowing 
up a rebel fort — a failure. 

CHAPTER XLIV.— Second battle of Deep Bottom— 
another fizzle — front of Petersburg again — build more 
quarters — arrival of Colonel Pulford — building Fort 
Davis — quartered in the fort — a touching incident — Fort 
Hell — rebel dash for provisions — all quiet again — mortars 
— beautiful sights — a poem, " The Picket Guard." 

CHAPTER XLV.— Dangers and hardships of the siege- 
good times — music — our railroad — City Point — exchang- 
ed prisoners — all women to the rear — orders to march — 
another flank movement to the rebel right — battle of 
Hatcher's Run — a fierce enconuter — confusion— another 
fizzle — in camp again. 

CHAPTER XLVI.— Oami) life again— winter quarters- 
Thanksgiving — home again — feeling in the North — back 
to the army — progress of the siege. 

CHAPTER XLVII.— New quarters— drawing rations- 
army cooking — Sunday inspection — camp life — orders to 
move. 

CHAPTER XLVIII.— On the move once more— across 
Hatcher's Run again — a skirmish — build breastworks — 
the Fifth corps hard pressed — we go to their relief — 



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10 CONTENTS. 

raioy and cold — a miserable time — building more quar- 
ters — in camp again and happy — good news from Sher- 
man's army. 

OHAPTER XLIX.— The paymaster— sutler's stuif— Sun- 
day in the army — St. Patrick's Day — rumors of peace — 
orders to march — ready to fight for peace. 

CHAPTER L.— March to the front — the ball opens— tre- 
menduous flreing along the lines— the rebels give way-— 
a halt—advance on Petersburg — capture of llie city — 
Richmond ours — great rejoicing. 

CHAPTER LI. — Jeff. Davis— following up the retreating 
army — Rebel prisoners — stragglers— tlie Rebel array de- 
moralized — a running fight — capture of a wagon train — 
a motley crowd — a needed rest. 

CHAPTER LII. — Following up the enemy — brought to 
bay again — a stubborn resistance — the enemy gone from 
our front — forward again— a burning bridge — Grant 
wants Lee to surrender — they will die in their last ditch 
— the surrender of Lee and the Rebel army — reflections 
— joy and sadness, 

CHAPTER LIII.— Plenty of rain— mud, mud, mud- 
feeding the Rebel army — our homeward march begun — 
great rejoicing among the colored population — arrival at 
Burksville station. 

CHAPTER LIV.— Death of Lincoln— the feeling in the 
army — surrender of Johnston's army to Sherman — death 
of the assassin Booth — homeward march resumed — 
scenes and incidents — arrival at Manchester. 

CHAPTER LV— Marching through Richmond— a pass- 
ing notice of the city — scenes and incidents— Li bby pris- 
on — the tobacco warehouse — southern hells — a beautiful 
Sunday morning— through Hanover C, H.— the bivouac. 

CHAPTER LVI.— Our march resumed— a Blue Mon- 
day — go out of our way — in no hurry, and bivouac — 
on the right road again— Mesopotamia church — Ladies 
wave their handkerchiefs at us — we are struck with won- 
der — bivouac near the bloody city of Fredericksburg— - 
the last chapttir of marches. 



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CONTENTS. 



11 



CHAPTER LVII.— Capture of Jeff Davis— camp life 
again — visiting our friends — gay times — troops going 
liomfi — what' will the soldiers do when they get home? 
— heautifnl illuminations — the grand review. 

CHAPTER LVIII.— Last visit to Washington— a day of 
humiliation and prayer — orders to pack up — ordered to 
Louisville, Kentucky — leaving familiar scenes — a ride 
over the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad— beautiful scenery 
—arrival at Parkersburg. 

CHAPTER LIX,— Down the Ohio—the steamer Pickett 
—a magnificent ride— fog bound— Porkopolis— Vine- 
yards— the Caliope — arrival at Louisville— cross the 
Ohio and go into camp near Jefferson rille, Indiana. 

CHAPTER LX.— The muster out roll arrives— all feel 
jubilant — July 4th, 1865 — a review of the past— orders 
to be ready to march — hurrah for old Michigan — recep- 
tion in Jackson — '^' Johnny Comes Marching Home." 

CHAPTER LXI. — Railroad smash up— one man killed 
and several wounded— Ann Arbor — on the rail again — 
arrival at the City of the Straits — our reception — grand 
times— visiting— time of service drawing to a close. 

CHAPTER LXIL— Closing scenes— last pay received- 
Anna — leave taking of old and tried comrades— good-bye 
to the suit of blue, and good-bye to ray readers — wel- 
coming address of Governor Crapo to Michigan troops. 



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MENTS — LEATING HOME — TRIP TO THE FROST. 

The year 1861 will lio remembered as one of the most extraor- 
dinary in the history of tlie United States. The hideous monster, 
Sepeasion, spread its venomous poison over t!ie country. Oh, that 
we had a Jackson to put his iron heel upon tlie monster's head, 
and save our bleeding country the anguish for four long years, of 
the greatest rebellion of modern times. 

The telegraph flashed the sad news to every city, town and ham- 
let in the land, that the Stars and Stripes had been insulted and 
trailed in the dust, and that, too, by men who called themselves 
Americans, But they will pay dearly for their rashness. Oh ! 
what memories crowd upon me when I read how heroically the 
gallant band of seventy Patriots, under the brave Anderson, stood 
out against seven thousand traitors, at Fort Sumpter, and not until 
the last shot was fired did they surrender. 

Grand Rapids responds to the first call of the President for sev- 
enty-five thousand men, and begins to raise a regiment. I am no 
native American, but will enlist to help chastise the enemies of 
my adopted country, which I pride myself to love second to none. 
Accordingly, at the age of eighteen 1 find myself enrolled in our 
good old Uncle Sam's army, and encamped on the Fair Grounds 
in the beautiful Valley City, ready to march to the defence of our 
Nation's Capitol. 

On the 12th of June, 1S61, we file out of our camp, to com- 
mence our trip to the front, some never to return to the weeping 
loved ones left behind. Whoever experienced the leave-taking on 
such an occasion, can appreciate the heart-pangs they feel, but 



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14 FODR YEARS CASIPAiasING 

none others. No pen can describe it. ^V^e can never forget our 
triumplial trip — tow proud we felt as we passed tlie cities and 
towns of our own Michigan. At every station we are met witli the 
wildest enthusiasm. The people of Lowell bid us Clod speed ; the 
gallant littleoitj of Ionia has everything ready to fill up the inner man 
and our train starts off amid wild huzzas. At St. Johns the firemen 
are drawn up and give us three times three, which we return 
with a will, Owosso greets us with the same welcome. Dashing 
past Corunna and Gaines, the iron horse takes a drink at Holly and 
after an hour's ride the lovely city of Pontiae is reached. The 
whole town turns out and gives us a substantial greeting. Men and 
women, boys and girls, carry baskets filled with all the good things 
that can be found at any time in Pontiae — hot coffee, cakes, 
oranges, lemons, apples, etc. The soldiers of the Third will keep 
the people of this city always fresh in memory. Nothing was 
talked about for a long while but the perfect ovation received there. 
The iron horse is impatient, and off we start amid the cheers of 
the multitude, who eame from far and near in old Oakland County 
to bid God speed to the first regiment thai passed through to the 
front. An hour's ride brings us to the City of the Straits, where 
we are well entertained for a few hours, and then we take the boat 
for Cleveland. Passing down the beautiful Detroit River, we are 
soon ploughing the lovely waters of Lake Erie. Will we ever ride 
upon its bosom again ? is asked by many a hero, who, alas, never 
will, for they have met the grave of the patriot, and sleep in their 
long home in the South. 

We arrive in Cleveland nest morning, and the good people of 
the Forest City have everything ready for a good breakfast, and 
off we start again for the smoky city of Pittsburgh. The patriotic 
people of the Buckeye State meet us at every station, and have 
good things for us to eat. Beautiful flowers are given us by the 
fair daughters of Ohio, which were kept as reminiscences of the 
fair donors. After a short stay and fine entertainment at Pitts- 
burgh, we are all aboard again for the capital of the Key Stone 
State, where we arrive after passing the beautiful scenery of the 



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IN THE ARMY OJ THE POTOMAC. 15 

AUeghanies. Here we reoeive some munitions of war, and are 
ready for tlie land of secession. We take the traia for Baltimore, 
and there is a rumor that the engineer is a rebel, and means to tip 
UB into the ditch. We have an engineer too, and our gallant Sutler, 
Ben Luce, mounts the engine and telle the rebel that if he plays us 
falee he will be the first to suffer with his life, No accidents happen, 
however, and we arrive safe in the Monumental City on Sunday 
morning. We have to be on our guard now, for we are in the 
enemy's country, which was shown a few days before by the shed- 
ding of tlis blood of Massaohusotts' patriot sons. We get out of 
our box cars, take in the situation, and draw up in line. Our noble 
Colonel, Dan McOonnell, gave the order to prime our pieces, which 
gave the roughs who gathered around to understand that we were 
not to be trifled with. The order is given to get into platoons, for 
we have a march of about three miles to the Washington depot. 
Our Colonel says : " If a man in my regiment is hurt, the streets 
of Baltimore will run with blood." The order forward is given, 
our band strike up the tune of Dixie, and one thousand and forty 
men keep step to the music. The mob on the streets could tell by 
•the steady tread of the soldiers and the watchfulness of their eyes 
that it would be useless to try the Sixth Massachusetts game on us. 
Arrived safe at the depot, we take the cars for Washington, where 
we arrive after a forty miles ride. The first object that meets the 
eyo is the grand Capitol building, a worthy monument to this great 
Nation. We take up our line of march to Chain Bridge, distant 
about eighteen miles. The day is fearfully warm, and we suffer 
greatly on our march, not being used to marching under a southern 
sun. As we pass through Pennsylvania Avenue and Georgetown, 
we would give anything for a half hour's rest under the beautiful 
shade trees, but no, we must keep on if it kills us, and glad were 
we to halt at our future camp, and not yet accustomed to the fatigues 
of the soldier's life, our stragglers are numerous. We throw our- 
selves down on mother earth, on the banks of the beautiful and 
historic Potomac, to rest our weary limbs. Here Lieutenant Ryan, 
an old soldier, is ordered to lay out a camp, which ho does, and 
we call it, after our Michigan War Governor, Camp Blair, 



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CHAPTER II. 

ElEST NIQIIT ON TICKET — A ECARE — GKANB ROUNDS — THE RELIEF — 
PIOKIHO CHERRIES A DANGEROITS AKIMAL. 

I shall never forget my first night on picket. A detail is made 
from each company, and off we start for the outposts, a few miles 
from camp. There are two or three men on each post, and I am 
sure there will be a sharp lookout this night, as it is our first night 
on picket. One man keeps watch on eaeh post, which are about 
ten or fifteen paces apart, while t!ie others lie down to sleep. All 
is as still as the grave. Nothing is heard hut the distant hoot of 
the owl or the chirp of the insects on the trees, What is the sen- 
tinel thinking of ? Perhaps of the far off loved ones at home, or 
of his own position in an enemy's country. Probably some hid- 
den rebel is not far from him, and in an instant his life may be 
taten by the lurking foe. How long is this war going to last, and_ 
will I live to get home again? is his reverie, which is cut short by 
tlie sharp report of a musket. He peers into the darkness, and 
thinks that the enemy is near. Every one is awakened, enquiring 
the cause of the noise, but the mystery is solved, for a soldier, 
while asleep, turned over on his side, kicked the hammer of his 
piece, firing it off and causing the scare. The soldiers sleep on, 
and dream of the loved ones left behind, All is still again. The 
hour of midnight approaches and with it a challenge is heard : 
Who goes there? A- voice answers: Grand Eounds, The 
rounds advance, give the countersign. The Officer of the Day 
gives strict orders to keep a sharp lookout, and passes on from 
post to post, leaving the lonely picket to keep his watch. One of 
his comrades relieves him on his post and he lies down to sleep 
and awakens in the morning to hear the birds sing over his head. 
The relief comes, we start for camp, and end our first night on 
picket. 



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IN TUB ARMY OP TnB POTOMAC. 



17 



At this time it was commoa to make raids ioto Marjland to 
pick cherries that grew in abundance, and sueh other fruit as we 
could get. There is a field ahout three miles from camp with 
some nice trees, and Uiither we would go and eat our fiil. One 
day, while up in a large tree eating away, we hesfrd a loud, rum- 
bling noise, like thunder. Looking down wc saw a large bull 
beneath the tree, scraping the ground and bellowing fearfully. It 
was very likely he was anxious for us to come down and pay 
for the cherries we had eaten ; but no, we stay up the tree and 
wait for his majesty's departure. Tired of waiting, he majesti- 
cally walks away. We get down from the tree and leg it for the 
road. The bull gives chase and wo fly ignominiously, for we would 
rather be excused from taking a horn, especially in that shape. I 
don't think there were any more cherries picked in that field, by 
any of our crowd at least. 



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CHAPTER III. 



hid g llj p de themselves upon appearing well on guard 

t f t t tLo nicest maneuverings in the service. A 

d t 1 t m h rap y is made by the Adjutant, and sent to the 

d 1 wh It who have not been on guard recently. 

Th f m th mpany ground, the band meanwhile form- 

^ th p d g d and playing a lively tune as each detail 
m h 'li fe d 1 line, coming to an open order. When 

11 th g d the hand eeaaes playing. The Adjutant 

g th d I pection— arms, at which the ramrods are 

p d 1 t d p t the pieces. They are all inspected, during 

wh h th b d 1 1 J ome alow tune. The Adjutant takes bis 
place in front of the guard, telling them to come to a shoulder 
arms. The next order is : " present arms." He turns on his heel 
and salutes with his sword the Officer of the Day, telling him the 
guard is formed. Nest, "close order march;" after which the guard 
wheel into platoons and march past the Officer of the Day, coming 
to a shoulder arms. The latter acknowledges the salute by rais- 
ing his head covering, and they pass on to relieve the old guard at 
the guard house. 

The reliefs are told off into first, second and third, The first 
relieve the sentinels on guard, and stay on the beat two hours and 
get off four, and so on for the nest twenty-four hours. After the 
old guard gets off he is at liberty these times to go where he 
pleases. Guard mount takes place in cainp every morning, at half 
past eight. 

Hurrah for the Fourth of July. I am going to Washington to 
SCO Congress open, which is called together by our beloved Presi- 
ident, Lincoln, to see what can be done under the present cireum 



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IN THE ARMY Olf THE POTOMAC. 19 

stances. Of eourso, nothing else but a vigorous prosecution of the 
war to put down treason and chastise those arrogant rebels, who 
d fl h d St. 

A I g S Cli mber I see that each member has 

!>. li Th P nt strikes the desk with his gavel, 

h m mb and jioceil to busiaes-* It is 

y g m h wever ani I td,kc a stroll through 

d f: d t rotunda There i sight meets my 

hi fl g There are hundreds in the biauti- 

m d d thej all look on the glorious ind 

W h I, p ng SI lite like that rue would think 

li w g d gwponjou The sfira aad stripes hang 

g f d h ne i,au gaze upon the leautilu! flag 

A singer from New York is fired with enthusiasm andcommmeis 
to sing the Star Spangled Banntr and eierj \uiLeiuthat lasthill 
joined in the chorus. Oh, with what pathos aid enthusiasm 
that beautiful song was sung on that occasi n none can tell but 
those who had the good fortune to be there I make my way to 
otlier places of interest in that vast building. But it would take 
a week to see all, so passing out to the street, a short walk on Penn- 
sylvania avenue brings me to the White House. A grand stand 
is erected in front, covered with a canopy of Stars and Stripes. A 
great multitude assemble around to see and hear the great men of 
the Nation on the fearful issues of the day. In the midst of the 
group can be seen the honest and homely face of our good Presi- 
dent Lincoln, Around him are the members of his Cabinet, Wm. 
H. Seward, Edwin M. Stanton, and Gideon Wells. The most 
prominent of them all is the old hero of Mexico, General Scott, 
six feet four inches high dud a? straight i^ a whip. I look on 
those men with a feeling akin to iwe, and listen t* the speeches 
that are made, take a stroll through the opposite park, aod return 
to camp well pleased with my first Fourth ol July in the army. 
A few days after, orders come to be ready to march, with three 
days' rations and forty rounds of ammunition The sick are all 
sent to the rear. We are now ready to enter on our fii-st cam- 
paign and fight our first battles for the Union. 



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CHAPTER IV. 



On the 15tli of July we cross the Potomac on tLo Chain Bridge, 
and are marching on the sacred soil of old Virginia, our first martli 
to Richmond. 

IVe all feel jubilant, and each man keeps time to the tune 
of "John Brown's Body," and, as the song goes, he is still march- 
ing on. So are we, and pass through some dilapidated old yjI- 
lages. We march through Germautown, which is in flame 
fire hy some lawless fellow that will be missing when the hour ol 
action comes. The poor people run around trying to save some- 
thing, but are so bewildered that they don't know what they are 
doing. All we can do is to look on as we pasa at the destruction 
and misery caused by this fratricidal war. 

We come to a place on the Orange and Alexandria Eailroad 
called Vienna, where a train containing some Ohio troops was 
fired upon by some skulking rebels as it passed, killing and wound- 
ing several. We pass on a few miles further and the order eoniea 
to bivouac for the night, which we were glad to do after our 
march of fifteen miles. We stack our arms build our little fires 
cook our coffee, and take our frugal mea! wh ch is rehshel with a 
good appetite. We spread our blinkefh n the ground coAcr up 
sleep and dream till morning dawni and wc xie ready to renew 
the march, which we commenced at 7 o'clock. The band strike 
up the tune of Dixie, and all keep step with the music. Nothing 
worthy of note happens on this day, except to keep a sharp out- 
look for the enemy, but none appear, and we file into some 
nice fields a few miles from Centerville and camp for the night. 
The troops are all massed in the fields, and it is a beautiful sight 



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IN THE ARMY OF TUB POTOMAC. . 21 

at niglit, especially at this time, for it is the largest number of 
troops that we Lave seen together thus far. 

This is the night hefore our first battle, and every one has his 
own thoughts — some think, prohably, of the loved ones far away, 
and that this night will be their last. Oh, how would the father 
or mother take it at homo when the sad news should reach them of 
the death of their darling sou, or the poor wife, and his darling 
children, who will eonifort them in their affliction ? But he finds 
consolation that there is One who will EOt desert them in the hour 
of trial, and feels, satisfied to leave all to Him, and he lies down 
to take the much needed sleep and be ready for the battle on the 
morrow. Everything is hushed in sleep, when at the hour of mid- 
night, each man is awakened to be ready for an expected attack ; 
but none comes, for the scare is caused by some unruly mules that 
try to get away from their fastenings and are making an unearthly 

On the 18th of July we buckle on our cartridge boxes, file out 
of our camp, and get on the Richmond road again. Shortly we 
halt by the road side for a brief rest, when a regiment of cavalry 
daah past. To our inexperienced eye, we thought there was 
enough of them to walk through the South, and that we would 
not have any fighting to do, and, after all, have to go home with- 
out firing a shot. Soon we are out short in our thoughts of this 
kind, by the sharp report of pop, pop, pop, from a few pieces of 
musketry, and soon found out that the cavalry had " struck ile," 
They dash back faster than they went. Fall in boys, is the order 
of our gallant Colonel McConnell, as he dashes up on his beautiful 
charger. Falling in, the order, double quick, is given, and down 
through the streets of Centerville we go, and cross Bull Bun creek 
at Blackburn's Ford, where we smell the enemy's powder for the 
first time. They open on us from some masked batteries, but we 
pass to the right and maneuver in some fields in their front. Our 
skirmishers are having a lively time of it, and onee in awhile we 
see a poor fellow fall to rise no more until the last day, when the 
trumpet shall awaken them to appear before their heavenly judge. 



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22 



We are in plain sight of the rebel artillery, which opens on us 
with shot and shell. There are some nice blackberries near by, and 
we cannot resist the temptation, and so fall too and eat as though 
nothing was happening. The Second Michigan, Twelfth New York 
and First iUassachusctts, with our regiment, are brigaded together 
under Col. Eichardson, an old hero of the Mesican war. He rides 
around and seems to be everywhere at once, and all feel confident 
when we see the brave hero, " Fighting Dick." We get behind a 
battery to support it, and He down to watch the rebel shells burst 
in the woods beyond. Nothing is accomplished by this battle, but 
to find out the position of the enemy. Our brigade loose between 
two and three hundred in killed and wouoded in this day's battle. 
It is evident the fighting is over, for we have not enough troops to 
dislodge the enemy, who are posted behind some formidable works, 
and we wait where we are for reinforcements to renew the attack. 
Thus ends our first day's fight, the battle of Blackburn's Ford. 



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Saturday morniag, and all througli the preceding Friday, we 
receive reioforceraents. As the troops pass we cheer them, and 
everyone is eonfident of a auccessful battle when it is fought. It 
is plain that the heaviest fighting will be on our right, and if we 
are left whore we are wc shall not have much of it to do. 

I will not forget old Bumfnzzle, an old devil that poisoned a 
well we used to get water from at Camp Blair. We brought him 
along, and many of us believed it would have served him right to 
shoot hira — but the old fellow stole away from us in the excite- 
ment of the battle, and, it is said, gave important information to 
the enemy concerning our forces and different positions held by 
our troops. 

All is ready now, and Saturday night is the night before the 
great battle, We sit around and smoke our pipes. Not a shot is 
fired by either party, and all is still ; but it is the ominous still- 
ness before a great struggle, and each has his own peculiar thoughts. 
What are the loved ones at home thinking of? Probably every 
one is in a fever of excitement, thinking of the loved ones in 
danger, and many a prayer goes up to the throne of Grace to spare 
their friends, but, alas, the fortunes of war require some sacrifice, 
and many a poor soldier who lives to-night will never see another 
Sunday morning dawn. On both friend and foe the sun rises above 
the eastern forest and pours its beautfiul warm rays on all around. 
The ball is opened away to the right by the skirmishers, as they 
advance and drive the rebel pickets, followed closely by our men 
in solid masses, on the charge. They are met by the enemy, and 
a hand to hand fight takes place, when our men push them inside 
their works. The rebel artillery opens on the advancing columns 



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24 FOUR YEARS CASIPAIGNINO 

and throw their deadly missels into their ranks. They falter, and 
cannot go any further, when the rebel infantry reforming, take cour- 
age, advance over their works, and drive our men back. Some 
new men relieve those who have been fighting, and going in with 
a cheer, drive the rebels back. For a long time neither side has 
much advantage, but we can tell by the direction of the roar of 
artillery that the rebel infantry are being driven inside their works 
again. Hark ! we hear a yell as if all the fiends of bedlam were 
let loose, and the enemy drive our men before them, for they are 
reinforced by the famous Black Horse Cavalry, and nothing, it 
seems, can stop their terrible onslaught. Hurrah, hurrah, is heard 
along the lines, for it is the gallant Sisty-Ninth New York, a reg- 
iment composed of the stalwart sons of Erin, led by the brave Cor- 
coran. They advance with a cheer, and meet the flower of the 
South. The chivalry try to ride over the mudsills, but are met 
by the bayonet, and thrust after thrust is made by the sturdy arms 
of the Celt, and many a horseman is left dangling from his horse's 
stirrups. Forward— charge, is the order given by their noble 
Colonel, and the Black Horse Cavalry are no more, as but few get 
back to tell the tale how they were cut to pieces. Surely, such 
men are worthy of al! praise, and their name will be handed down 
by all good Americans as true defenders of this glorious country, 
This charge caused a lull in the battle, A locomotive whistle is heard 
from Manassas, and it is evident that Beauregard's army is being 
reinforced. Now wl must not giie them time to gtt to the bat- 
tle ground before the rebel army is demohshid and accordingly 
the battle is renewed with more vigor than before The roar of 
artillery and the rattle of musketry is •klmost deafening. Our 
men go forward once mjre on the tharge and drive the rebels 
before them, but aro met by the fresh trnps of J" hn-ou's army 
and are forced back against superior numbers Oh that we could 
get reinforcements to), but, alas, tir some ones neglect to keep 
Johnson from uniting his men with Beauregard's. Our men are 
hurled back in utter confusion. The excitement is taken up by the 
oitizens who went from Washington to witness the battle. They 



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IN TUB ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 25 

fly, and neper pull up until they are safely inside the Capitol. The 
teamsters cut the traces of their horses and luuies, leaving hund- 
reds of wagons behind to hlock up the roads. The artillery cannot 
get through, and have to abandon their guns and fly. All is in one 
utter raaas of confusion. The enemy advance with their artillery 
and fire into the rear of ihe retreating columns, all fly in dis- 
may. Of course we have to get back now, and wo retire in good 
order, and camp on Centerville heights, where we wait until the 
last man has passed, which is about 3 o'clock Monday morning. 
It is left for our regiment to cover tho retreat. We file into the 
road and march in platoons, taking np all the road ; fix our bayo- 
nets 80 as to bo ready to resist the rebel cavalry, should they fol- 
low up the retreating army. But they do not pursue, and proba- 
bly are as badly whipped as we. 

Monday, and indeed it is a blue one, and to add to our miserable 
feelings it commenced to rain about 5 o'clock. It pours down in 
torrents and all are wot to the skin. We continue our march, 
never halting till we pull up in front of Washington, after march- 
ing about thirty miles in tho rain, slush and mud. Oh, how tired 
we are, as a few of us make our way to the Long Bridge, thinking 
to cross over to Washington and get something good to eat, but 
there is a sentinel on the bridge with orders to let no one pass i 
officers. Oh, yes, the officers could pass and bask in the sunshine 
of luxury, but the poor soldier could lie down by the roadside and 
die from want. Making our way back to an old barn, we find 
every place in the hay taken up with the poor, tired soldier, and it 
is difficult to find a place to crawl into. At last a comrade calls 
out. " here is a place." We go to the offered shelter, make a nest 
in the hay, and soon forget our disastrous battle and ignominious 
flight from Bull Run by being clasped in the arms of good old 
morpheus. 



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CHAPTER VI. 



. LONG DAY— -VISIT FBOJI SENATOR CUANBLER — CErilNO THE REGI- 
MENTS TOGETHER DAMP AT ARLINGTON CAMP HUNTER 

DETAILED ON SPECIAL DUTY, 

When I awoke from my refreshing sleep, I heard the word bread 

m the outaide of the barn, The sua was shining through the 

cracks, and I thought, of course, that it was morning, I look 

at my watch to find that it is 5 o'clock, but whether in the morn- 

g or afternoon I do not know. On getting out I find that the 

n is pointing away to the west, and it is Monday still. Going to 

wagon from Washington, I buy some bread and cheese, return to 

my nest in the hay, share with my neighbors, cover up again, and 

sleep soundly till morning. We all crawl out of our steaming 

nesta and get out in the morning sun, feeling as fresh as a daisy. 

We build some fires, cook our favorite coffee, and feel happy once 

Senator Chandler visits us, makes us a neat little speech, and 
assures us that the women in Michigan will not get married till we 
get home. Hut we shall see how near a prophet he is. 

There is a great time getting the different regiments together 
and placed in position. Our brigade strike off for Arlington 
Heights and go into camp, where the gallant Thirty-Seventh Kew 
York, an Irish regiment, join us. We have now the Twelfth and 
Thirty-Seventh New York, First Massachusetts, Second and Third 
Michigan brigaded together under command of General I. B. 
Richardson, We commence to build some forts, and are kept busy 
one way and another. Soon we move to Hunter's Place, midway 
between Washington and Alesandria, where we have a nice camp 
on the banks of the Potomac. 

A detail is made from our regiment to guard the tooK that arc 
used for building forts and other duty. There are twenty of us 



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IN TUB ARMY OF THE POIOMAC. 2l 

on the detaii, commanded by Lieutenant Bogardus, and we proceed 
up the bluffs overlooking the valley beneath. Oh, nvhat a lovely 
camping ground ! I shall never forget my lonely beat on guard in 
this camp. A panorama Btretchea out before me that is difficult 
to describe. Down in the valley are myriads of tents shining in 
the sun ; the lazy four-mule teams, as they pull their covered 
wagons along the different roads ; the beautiful Potomac, as it 
winds its way to the sea ; the Long Bridge leading across the river 
connecting the sacred soil with Washington, whose beautiful Gov- 
ernment buildings increase the grandeur ; and the unfinished mon- 
ument to the Father of his Country, are all visible at one view. 
The fortifications around Washington are growing up like mush- 
rooms, and now the Capitol is considered safe. We have built 
three or four forts in a short time, Fort Scott, Fort Richardson, 
and some smaller redoubts and breastworks. Our work is done 
here now, and we have to move to some other locality. 



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CHAPTER VIL 



HO OLE LL AN T. 



Who is to take command of the armj ? is asked by President 
Lincoln of the old hero, General Scott, for it is evident that the 
Commander-in-Chief is too old now for the great work heforehim. 
The hero of Mexico did know one man lie thought he eould trust 
his army to, and that man was General George B. MeClellan, a 
young man who had proved himself a brave and cool officer under 
him in Mexico. Geueral McCIellan is in command now. He is 
busy organizing the army; and it is given out that he is going to 
have a grand review, and every one ia getting ready for the first of 
the kind in the army. We are all ready, and each regiment files 
out of its camp, headed by a band of music, for Munson's Hill, 
there to be reviewed by our gallant Commander, General McCIellan. 
The different corps, divisions and brigades take up their position 
in line, and we hear great cheering to our right. It sounds nearer 
and nearer, when our band strike up the beautiful tune, " Hail to 
the Chief." Our gallant Little Mac. rides past and is cheered by 
General Richardson's brigade. He passes along the lines, followed 
by his long train of staff officers, and looks as proud as a king ; 
and no wonder, for the whole vast army that covers the fields 
around him is of his own making, numbering 75,000 men. He 
halts at a front in the field, the whole army break into company 
fronts and pass in review before their noble Chief, the President, 
Cabinet, Foreign Ministers, and about 80,000 citizens from all 
parts of the United -States. Truly that was a sight that none will 
ever forget who had the good fortune to be there. We all go home 
the shortest way we can after passing in review, each one feeling 
proud of his Chief. 

We go now to Camp Lyon, in front and to the left of Alexan- 
dria, where we build more forts, one of which is named after the 



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IN THE ARMY 0? HIE 



hero of Wilson's Creek, General Lyon. Here our brigade 
an additional regiment, the Fifth Michigan, one of the best that 
ever carried and protected a flag, commanded by a big old lawyer 
from Detroit, Colonel Terry. But he was too corpulent, and the 
gallant Fifth soon shipped him for a more active Colonel, for he 
was not fast enough for that regiment. 

All are busy now and ha\e plenty of work. When not on duty 
we visit the Secesh hole, Alexandria, where the brave Ellsworth 
met his death, by the rebel landlord of the Marshall House, while 
in the act of tearing down the rebel rag. The landlord, Jackson, 
met him on the stairway, underneath the hole that led up to the 
top of the house, and shot him dead with a rifle. I have stood 
often on the spot where the deed was committed, but the murderer 
did not live long after he committed the act, for one of Ellsworth's 
men was near by, and avenged the death of his commander by put- 
ting his bayonet through his body; his eyes roll in his head; the 
soldier pulled the bayonet out, and Jackson fell down stairs a 
corpse. 

Alexandria is a ijuaint old town, and one of the bitterest in the 
country against the soldiers of Uncle Sam, but the people have to 
keep quiet, for it does them no good to show their hatred of us. 



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CHAPTER VIII. 

FARTHER TO THE FRONT — BUILDING WINTER QUARTERS — 

CAMP MICHIGAN PICKET LINE — rOHICK 

CHURCH — MT. VERNOS. 

We have got through with fort building around the 
defences of Washington, and move out three or four miles 
farther to the front, and build winter quarters, as the cold 
weather is fast approaching. We go to work, and in a 
short time have comfortable quarters, and all are ready for 
the wintry blasts, naming our camp after our own State, 
Camp Michigan. Our picket line is out about twelve miles, 
and we generally stay out forty-eight hours. Our 
line was along by the famous Pohick Church, an old brick 
structure that the great Washington and family used to 
attend, but it has seen its best days, and is now used for 
shelter by man and beast. There is something about the 
venerable old building that makes one think of the olden 
time, when it was in its glory, I have sat in the same pew 
that he was wont to sit in, listening to the word of Grod as 
expounded by the good old minister. Along side the 
church is an old graveyard. The tombstones indicate from 
the names and dates thereon, that the dead were buried 
there nearly two hundred years ago. What wonder that 
the place seems lonely and venerable.? We have always 
kept the place unharmed, with feelings of veneration. 

While coming off picket, a few of us resolved to visit 
Mount Vernon, the resting place of George and Martha 
Washington. Arriving outside the enclosure, we there 
leave our guns, as no soldier is allowed to carry arms inside 



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the sacred grounds. We are met by an aged negro, who 
claims to have had Washington for his master, and he talks 
with tears in his eyes about his good " ole massa." We 
stand before the stately old mansion and think how the 
great man himself had often stood on the same spot. 
Making our way into the hall of the building, we register 
our name, put our mite into the bos close by, to help keep 
the grounds in repair, and pass into a large room on the 
ground floor, where there are to be seen some relics of the 
past. Iti the corner is an old-fashioned musical instrument, 
an old knapsack of revolutionary times; a very heavy aifair 
and looks a good deal different from our own in make, 
shape and weight. Ascending the stairs and entering the 
very room in which the great man breathed his last, we 
observe an old-fashioned bedstead, on which, it is said, he 
died. After going out on the verandah and looking off on 
the broad Potomac, we retrace our steps. Thence passing 
to the rear, we stand beneath the beautiful magnolia that 
was planted there by the great man himself. Taking a leaf 
off its branches, we next make our way to the once beauti- 
ful garden and hothouses. The gardener gives us a beau- 
tiful bouc[net, which we send home as a reminiscence to our 
friends of our visit to this great place. Next we visit the 
old tomb of Washington. Sear by is an ever running 
spring of ice cold water. After taking a drink of the cool- 
ing liquid, we proceed to the present tomb of the sacred 
dead. I will not undertake to describe my feelings as I 
gaze through the iron bars at the two spotless marble 
sarcophagi that encases the remains of George and Martha 
Washington, true in life and sleeping side by sidein death. 
Oh, how I linger and think that if the founder of his 
country were to wake from his sixty years sleep, and see 



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It Y£ARS OAMPAIGNIKO 



his very own eoimtrymen trying to read the Union asun- 
der, what would he say. I linger long around the spot 
and feel loth to leave; but the sun is sinking fast below 
the western hills, and we must get back to camp. After 
taking one more lingering look through the bars, I leave 
the lonely and silent spot to the illustrious dead, and return 
to camp by the nearest route, well pleased with my first 
visit to Mount Vernon, to which I was wont to repair at 
every opportunity, as I never tired of the beautiful place. 



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CHAPTER IX. 



Winter lift.! in camp is very weary, as it is but one rou- 
tine over and over again— reveille in the morniug, breakfast 
call, Bick call, guard mount call, drill call, dinner call, 
which is the best of all the calls; the batallion, or brigade 
drill call, which is not liked very well; drees parade call, 
sui)per call, roll call and taps, which mean lights out and 
cover up in blankets. All this is gone through day after 
day, and after a time becomes tedious, leaving ont the eat- 
ing calls, which are always well appreciated. Bnt we are 
to have something by way of a change, and the order 
comes to he ready to march on a reconnoisance in force, to 
feel of the enemy and try to find out where he is all win- 
ter. Accordingly on Christmas we take up our line of 
march, pass through the picket lines, and halt in front of 
tlie old church, on the crest of a hill where we have a beau- 
tiful view of the country for miles around. Our com- 
mander, General Helntzelman, takes a.rjde out on the crest 
of the hill, peers through his field glass, but no rebel is in 
sight. So, of course, nothing is left but to get hack to 
i camp, which is done in straggling order, all hungry, sore, 
! and tired, and hoping that that will be our last reconnois- 
I ance, as well as the first. John Dibble lost an arm in this 
: campaign from an accidental shot tired by one of our own 
I men . 

We all claim that our "Fighting Dick" is the plainest 
j general in the army, as well as one of the best. A stranger. 



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34 



FOUR YEARS C 



to Bee him in camp, would think he was a hostler for some 
officer, as lie never cared much about his dress, which con- 
sists of a jacket, an old straw hat, and trowsers, in the side 
pockets of which !iis hands are generally thrust. This was 
his every-day attire, without any insignia of rank about 
him; but, with all these rough outlines, we all know he has 
a head and a heart. Every one loved good natured and 
plain old " Fighting Dick.'*' One morning, while walking 
along the road, the General was accosted by a sprig of a 
Lieutenant, who looked as though he was fresh from a band- 
box, saying: " Hello, old fellow, can you tell me where 
General Eichardson's headq^uarters are?" The General 
looked at him with his pecnhar grin, and told him that he 
could, pointing out the direction to thcni. He then strolled 
on leisurely toward his log hut on the hill, and found the 
dandy saying all kinds of things, for he was mad that no 
one waited on him. When he saw the General approach- 
ing, he told him to hurry up and hold his horse while he 
went in to deliver the dispatches he had for the General, 
The good natured General took the horse, tied him to a i 
stake, went in by another door, and stood before the cox- 
comb Lieutenant with his stars on his shoulders. "Now," 
said bo, " what do you want ?" Tho dandy would gladly 
have crawled through a knot-hole just then, but he had to 
face the music, and handed the dispatches to his late groom 
with trembling hands. He was doubtless relieved of a 
heavy load when the good natured General told him " that 
will do," and the sprig of a shoulder-strap was doubtless 
taught to find out whom he talked to before asking them 
to hold his horse. 

The dress parade in the evening is never forgotten in 
camp, not even Sundays excepted, "for it is one of the fixed 



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IN THE ARMY OF TIIB POTOMA< 



inatitutioDS of camp life. Eacli company ia formed on its 
grouod by the orderly sergeant. The tallest men take the 
right of the company,' and so on down, the shortest man 
on the left. The men then count off into ones and twos, 
80 that each man knows his place, when the order is given 
to right face and march by the flank. The band strikes up 
a lively tune, as on guard-mount, and each company ia 
marched out in full dresa by the company commander, and 
gets into line with the company before them. For instance. 
Company A form on the right, then Company E on their 
left, and so on down, until all are formed. The band stops 
playing; the adjutant orders the batallion to present arms, 
and each gun comes perpendicular before the body. He 
turns and salutes the commanding officer, telling him the 
parade ia formed. The Colonel directs him to march to 
his post, behind himself, when the manual of arms is gone 
through with; and when he is satisfied, lie says: "Parade 
is dismissed." The adjutant tabes hia place as before, and 
tells the orderlies to report by calling them to the center of 
the regiment. Company A orderly gives hia report, all 
present or accounted for, and so on with all the order- 
lies. They are then ordered to an outward face, and get to 
their posts. The orders for the regiment, if any, are read; 
then the officeis of the line march from their respective 
companies to the center of the regiment, come to a front, 
and all forward in line, keeping step to the music, halting 
within a few paces of the Colonel or commanding officer of 
the regiment, and salute him in the regular way. He then 
gives any instructiona that he has, and dismisses them. 
The companies are marched back to their company ground, 
and there break ranks. 

We are visited in our camp by people who come to see 



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their friends from the north, and we have fine times. We 
never had a camp in which we enjoyed ourselves better than 
at camp Michigan, We have our moonlight dances and 
walks, debating schools, singing, music, visiting Alexan- 
dria and Washington, and occasional visits to that quiet 
retreat — Mount Vernon. Nothing but enjoyment in this 
camp; received our mails regular, and daily papers, plenty 
to eat and drink and wear — for at this time we were throw- 
ing off the dirty, shoddy suit of gray, furnished us hy a 
shoddy contractor at Grand Kapids, who made a fortune 
out of the speculation. 



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CHAPTER X. 



GOOD-BYE CAMP MICHIGAN — FOBT LYON AGAIN — RAIN AND 
MUD — ABOARD OF TRAKSP0KT3 — AKRIVAL AT FOR- 

TEES8 MONROE — THE MONITOR HAMPTON 

VILLAGE — THE BIVOUAC. 

The winter now 13 pretty well advanced, and sigas of 
spring commence as the trees begin to show a thin coating 
of green. Of course, a move will soon be made, and accord- 
ingly an oi-der comes fo be ready to march. All our Biir- 
plus baggage is packed up and seut to the rear, also the 
sick. We take a farewell look at our late pleasant camp, 
get on the road, and are soon back on our old camping 
ground, at Fort Lyon. It commences to rain in torrents, 
and we pitch our shelter tents in the mud. Oh, what a 
miserable time we are having. It seems now that we are 
paying dearly for our comfortable times in Camp Michigan. 
The creeks are all swollen, and the bridge that crtisses the 
bayou, leading to Alexandria, is inundated. The wind 
blows fearfully, dashing the pelting rain in through our lit- 
tle tents, and it seems as though no human being could 
stand such hardships, but we have to grin and bear it. In 
a few days the storm ceases, and wrapping up our tents 
and blankets, we file into Alexandria to take transports. 
While waiting for our turn to get aboard, I take a stroll 
down to the dock and see a black looking craft — a govern- 
ment vessel. On the lower deck sat our great President, 
on a board, whittling away with his knife. Around him 
walked the Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, and our 
almost idolized Little Mac, Admiral Dahlgrceu and some 



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FOUR VEAES CAMPAIGNING 



other great men, It was evideot that they were talking 
and layiDg out plans for our coming campaign. Looking 
around, I see my regiment going down with their accoutre- 
ments. I rnn to get my own anii leave these men to their 
plans. Getting aboard, we steam out into the middle of 
the stream and there await the embarkation of the other 
troops. At last all are embarked, the signal from the flag 
ship is given, and the heavily laden transports with the 
grand Army of the Potomac, steam down the majestic 
river amid the firing of salutes from the navy yard and the 
playing of scores of bands. Passing Fort Washington, a 
salute is fired in our honor, and soon wo are opposite the 
silent shades of Mount Vernon, with its honored dead. 
Proceeding on by Aquia Creek; where the rebels had works 
all winter firing on the shipping that passed, we steam into 
Chesapeake Bay and next morning arrive safely in Fortress 
Monroe. Arising from my couch on the upper deck, feel- 
ing sore about the hips, I hear laughter on the other side 
of the boat, and passing thither, learn the cause of 
it, as 1 "do not feel much that way, some one points 
out to me an object floating around in the water. It looks 
like the back of a whale just floating under the water, with 
a large round box on its back, very much resembling a 
huge cheese box. A man with a glass walks up and down 
and around the box, looking very anxiously up Hampton 
Koads toward Norfolk, for some purpose or other. At last 
we solve the mysterious looking animal, and pronounce it 
to be none other than the Mistress of the Seas — the little 
Monitor, which is waiting for the much talked of Merrimac 
to come out and show herself again, but she never came, 
as one touch of Uncle Sam's pet was enough for her, and 
prefers to remain in Norfolk Navy Yard. 



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IS THE AUMY or TUB poioiiit!. 39 

About the firet of April we leave our floating camps ami 
get on the sacred soil once more at Fortress Monroe. Pass- 
ing by the largest fort in the country, we march by some 
contraband negroes that are encamped around, and pass 
through the once beautiful village of Hampton, now noth- 
ing but a mass of ruins, caused by the rebels themselves, 
who burnt the place on leaving it, thus cutting off their 
own noses to spite their faces. A short distance beyond we 
bivouac for a few days to got ready for our campaigns on 
the Peninsula. 



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CHAPTER XI. 

ON TO BICHMOND — SIEGE OK YOBKTOWS— BUILDING FORTS 
AND BEDOCBTS PICKETING — ARTILLERY DUEL — A FOOT- 
LESS PAGE — OUR PHOTOGRAPHEB A BIG SHELL — BAL- 

LOOSS EVACUATION OF YOBKTOWN. 

About the 7th of April we commenced our march oa the 
road to Richmond, via Yorktown and Williamsburg. "We 
pass by Big Bethel, where Ben Butler tried to make a 
breach through to Richmond, for a few spoons, but failed. 
Soon wo are before Yorktown. Since it would cost a great 
sacrifice of life to storm the works, we settle down to di* 
the rebels out. In a short time breast-works are thrown 
up, and large forts, filled with cannon, spring up as if by 
magic. As we picket but a short distance from the rebels, 
frequent skirmishing occurs. In an army of this size, and 
under fire nearly all the time, some one must necessarily 
get killed or wounded every day. One morning, while on 
picket, a battery pulls up on the line and opens out from 
the same post I am on. Tbey fire on some rebels who are 
in plain sight, building forts. The way they get down and 
hug mother earth is astonishing to us, for not one is seen in ■ 
a moment. After awhile the laugh is turned on ourselves, 
for they open on us with their great guns, and we rather 
get down too. An artillery duel commences and lasts 
nearly an hour, when we hear a shout to the left and front 
of otir post. Pretty soon a man is borne to the rear, and 
we find that Fernando Page, of Co. K, has both feet shot 
off by a premature discharge of one of our own guns. As 
he passes our post we observe that both feet hang-only by 



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IN THE AEMY OF THE POTOMAC. 

pieces of il^sh. Poor fellow, his soldiering is done. The 
enemiea guns are silenced and the battery is taltcn to the 
rear. We are relieved, and return to camp. 

In the afternoon, while busy cleaning our guns, a thun- 
dering noise is beard. Looking in the direction of the 
sound, a monster shell is observed approaching. We all 
drop a courtesy, a la Japanese, by getting on our knees. 
It passes over and thuds into the ground behind the pho- 
tographic tent of Fred H , who runs out, white as a 

sheet, to learn the cause of the noise, and observes behind 
his tent, a hole large enough to bury a mule in, caused by 
the shell. He immediately packed up his pictures, 
vamoosed the camp, and it is said, never stopped until he 
was safe in his own valley city, in Michigan, nor did he 
take any more pictures on the sacred soil. 

Near by our camp there is a saw-mill in full operation, 
and lumber is sawed to tloor our hospitals, which makes it 
very comfortable for the sick. 

Not the least institution in the army is the balloon of 
Prof Lowe. It is a huge affair, and can be seen every day 
up in the air taking observations of the enemies' works and 
positions, which proves a great help to the G-eneral com- 
manding. 

It is rumored that the siege is at an end, and all are 
getting ready to open up on the enemies' lines, and make 
breaches in their works; but we are spared the trouble, for 
our pickets, about the first of May, find that they have 
evacuated their works. The pickets conamence cheering, 
and soon it is taken up by thousands in the vast army over 
our bloodless victory. The bands strike up the tune, 
"Ain't I Glad to Get Out of the Wilderness/' a very 
appropriate piece, as we had been in the wilderness long 
— ^-_^ 



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42 FOUR YEAES CAMPilONING 

enough, and it is the first music we have had since we 
arrived before Yorktown, there being no music allowed 
during the siege, which lasted about three weeks. 



CHAPTER XU, 

FOLLOWING UP THE ENEMY — TORPEDOES — BATTLE OF WIL- 

LIAMSBUBG— THE FIFTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY 

MAKES A fiALI.ANT FIGHT, ETC. 

Striking ouv tents and packing onr knapsacks, we soon 
file out of our late camps and follow up the retreating army. 
Getting inside the late rebel works, we are cautioned to keep 
in our places, for the enemy have put torpedoes in the 
ground for the purpose of blowing up the Yankees, but 
they do not accomplish their hellish plot, for some of their 
own men, taken prisoners, are set to digging them out. 
Passing through some miserable country, we pull up in 
some fields to camp for the night. Early on the fifth of 
May it begins to rain, and heavy cannonading is heard not 
far off. Our advance have struck the enemy, and are forc- 
ing a fight. 

Our brigade fall in under the gallant son of Maine, Gen- 
eral Berry, and forward on the double-quick for the scene 
of action. General Hancock ia engaged with his brigade, 
and is fighting bravely against heavy odds — but we soon 
take a load off his shoulders, and the gallant "Fighting 
Fifth" is in the midst of the battle, and ia getting cut up 
fearfully; but the brave men keep their ground against 
heavy odds. The Thirty- Seventh New York go into the 



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IN TUB ARMY OF THE POTOJIAC!. 43 

figlit with a wild cheer, and drive the retels at the point 
of the hayonet. The firing along the Jiiie is terrific. A 
body of rebels are seen moving to our left and our regiment 
is sent to oppose them. Drawing up in line in an open 
field, we wait for the expected charge. Tlioy emerge from 
the woods beyond, and every man is ready to give them a 
warm reception. Ready, is the order given by our noble 
Colonel Champlin, and each man brings his piece where he 
can handle himself. But we have no occasion to use them, 
for the rebels get bad; into the woods again. Meantime 
the battle rages on our right. At 5 o'clock we hear a loud 
cheer, aod General Hancock and his brigade charge and 
take the principal fort of the enemy, Fort McGnider. 
This has been a fearful battle on account of the close prox- 
imity of the opposing armies. Never did a regiment make 
a better fight during the war than the gallant "Fighting 
Fifth," a name they worthily earned on this bloody field. 
They charged against fearful odds and took some breast- 
works from the enemy, and seven or eight times stood their 
ground against the enemy, who tried to dislodge them, and 
more than half of their men and ofiicers were either killed 
or wounded. Lieutenant-Colonel Beach received a severe 
wound and had to be borne from the field. The regiment, 
too, feel proud of their old pussy. Colonel Terry, for he 
proved himself a brave officer. The Thirty-Seventh New 
York, a gallant Irish regiment, under the command of 
Colonel Haymon, also showed their mettle, and proved 
themselves worthy of the old lied Diamond Division under 
the indomitable one armed General Kearney. So with the 
Second Michigan, under Colonel Poe, a regular officer, who 
took command after the promotion of Colonel Richardson, 
now a general commanding a division. The night after 



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FOUR YEAES CAMPAIGNING 



the battle was a fearfully wet and muddy one. We try to 
take care of the wounded as best we can, and have to wade 
knee deep in mud on the roads and in the fields; but the 
longest night must have an end, and so did the night after 
the battle of Williamsburg. We are already to renew the 
conflict, and the morning of the 6th dawns lovely and 
bright. The birds sing over our heads, wc build our fires, 
cook our coffee, and are happy again. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

BETEKAT OF THE ENEMY — BURVINU THE DEAD — FEARFUL 

SIGHTS ON TO BICHMOND ONCE MORE — MC'dOWELL 

WITHDRAWN FROM OUR COMMAKD CROSS 

THE CHICEAHOMiNY — BATTLE 
OF FAIR OAKS. 

Karly on the 6th our skirmishers advance, but meet no 
enemy, who had left the night before, so there is cause for 
more cheering, and thus far we have whipped the enemy on 
the Peninsula. We all feel confident that Kichmond wiU 
be ours in a few days. 

Details are made to bury the dead, which are very 
numerous. Horrid sights meet the eye everywhere. The 
dead are in all possible shapes, some on their backs with 
their eyes wide open, others on their faces, others on their 
sides, and others in a sitting posture leaning against some 
brush or tree. One dead rebel I never shall forget, He 
was in a ditch leaning on bis elbow, the face turned up the 
very picture of dispair and fright. He holds his right 
hand pointing up ready, as it were, to grasp at something. 



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IN THE ARMY OP TOE POTOMAC. 45 

j His head and face are swollen to an unnatural size, and is 
i of a dirty, greenish hue, positively the worst sight of a 
i rebel I ever saw, and I am sure that a good many of my 
I comrades will remember the same. Our regiment file by, 
! and each one turns his head with loathing at the horrid 
! sight. The dead of both friend and foe lie sidu by side, 
' but it is remarted by all that the pleaeant smile on the 
patriot's face contrasts strangely with the horrid stare of 
the rebel dead. 

We advance over the stubbornly contested field of the 
day before, through a thick slashing made by the enemy to 
impede our progress, and get on the Eichmond road again; 
march through the quaint old city of Williamsburg, where 
we get the ne-vs of the withdrawal of McDowell's forces, 
numbering between forty and fifty thousand men, who were 
to co-operate with our army, on the other side of York 
river, all under the brave Little Mac, They are ordered to 
get back to protect Washington, where there were not 
enough rebels to fight a corporal's guard. General McClel- 
lan protests bitterly against such a move, but all to no 
avail, and is ordered forward with the troops he has. Oh, 
why do they not leave all the army together, and no power 
in the South can check our onward march. Our gallant 
hero tells them he has not troops enough to follow up his 
advantage, but like a good soldier he obeys orders, and 
s them in Washington he will do the best he can. 



The army still keep up the Peninsula to the Chicka- 
hominy, where all the bridges have been burned by the 
enemy after they had crossed. After the heavy rains the 
roads arc terrible, and it is very diflicult to move artillery and 
supplies. Sometimes it takes sixteen horses to pull one 
gun. Casey's division have crossed the river and estab- 



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40 FOL-R YEARS CAMPAIGNING 

lished tlieir lines, having some heavy fighting on their out- 
posts occasionally, while the pioneers are as busy as bees 
building bridges. At last our division cross and go into 
camp in rear of Casey's. We pitch our tents on the ever 
memorable 31st of May, and all think we are going to have 
some rest. We lie q^uietly in nur little tents, when all at 
once, a tremenduous fire is opened ia our front. The offi- 
cers do not give the order to fall in, for every man is in his 
place in the line in aa instant. Forward, douhle-cLuick 
march, is the order given by our noble Colonel Champlin. 
Marching by the flank we soon strike "ile," for we meet 
Casey's men coming oat of the woods followed close by the 
enemy. By company into line, is the order, and we exe- 
cute the order on a double quick, charge bayonets, and in 
we go with a cheer. The rebels open a tremenduous fire 
into our ranks and kill and wound nearly half our regi- 
ment We close up our ranks and go for them with the 
cold steel, and a whole rebel brigade fly before the gallant 
old Third. They are driven through swamps and woods, 
and fiy through Casey's camps into their breastworks 
in the field beyond. Surely this is a great charge, 
but we suffer fearfully in killed and wounded. We stand 
now at the edge of the woods and the enemy open up a 
galling fire with shot and shell. What is left of the Fifth 
and Second Michigan and Thirty-Seventh New York now 
come up in line with us, and we are ready for any charge 
the enemy may make. They form in our front, and we 
expect an attack. They are within good musket shot, and 
all open a vigorous fire on them, which throws thein into 
utter confusion, and it is plain to us that they dare not 
charge. On our right our lines are hard pushed, but they 
hold their own, and all is well on the night of the first 



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47 

(lay's fight. After the firing ceases, wliat is left of the 
regiment get back to camp ntnler our gallant Lieutenant- 
Colone] Stevens. Oh, how many of our comrades we leave 
behind, fallen in defence of their Nation's fiag. The brave 
and heroic Captain Samuel Judd, of Company A, is no 
more. He was killed on the skirmish line leading on his 
men. He sold his life well, however, for when his body 
was found three large rebels lay by his side, whom he made 
hite the dust. The whole regiment mourn his loss. His 
brother, of the same company, has an arm off. He has 
given his mite to the cause of freedom, and it is hoped that 
Lieutenant Geo. Judd will survive his great loss. Our 
noble Col. Champlin was severely wounded while leading 
his regiment on the charge. Lieutenant Waters is wound- 
ed, and Peter Burgiman, of Co. H, has a leg oif, and is 
borne to the rear. But I must stop giving names, for it 
would require a volume to name all the killed and wounded 
and give every little particular. Suffice it to say that the 
loss in our regiment was about two-thirds the number that 
went into the fight. During the night troops are crossing 
the river, and we are expecting to renew the fight in the 
morning; so we all Ho down and get all the sleep we can. 
Sunday morning, June 1st, opens bright and lovely, and 
about 9 o'clock the ball is re-opened. Old Fighting Dick 
is in with his Division. The enemy charge under the rebel 
Gen. Longstreet, but are met by the gallant Irish Brigade, 
with their green flags flying in the breeze, side by side with 
the Stars and Stripes, headed by the brave Gen. Meagher. 
They do not stand long before the stalwart sons of Erin, 
but are hurled back to their works at the point of the bay- 
onet. The fighting lasts about an hour, when the enemy 
retire inside their defences before Richmond, and thus ends 
the terrible battle of Fair Oaks, 



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CHAPTER XIV. 

REINFORCEMENTS CALLED FOR — THE BATTLE-FIELD — A RE- 
CONNOIBSARCE — BUHYING THE DEAD — BUILDING BREAST- 
WORKS A HARD FIGHT FOR A FEW FEET OF CEOUND — 

PREPARATIONS TO FALL BACK. 

Our noble commander calls for more men to follow up 
the enemy, for he sees that it would be sheer madness to 
try to capture Richmond through the formidable works 
built for its defence. Biit-a deaf ear is turned to his en- 
treaties for some cause, or other, and he must get along the 
best he can without them. Our division go out on a recon- 
noisance, passing over the battle-groimd, and advancing 
about a mile beyond. No enemy is in sight. We. estab- 
lish a picket line, and get back to our bivouac. Details 
are made to bury the dead, which now begin to smeil, and 
make the air very unwholesome to breathe. The dead lay 
around thick, and in almost every instance Ibe Union dead 
are stripped of their boots and shoes, coats, and sometimes 
pants and shirts, pockets turned inside out, by the rebel 
robbers of the dead, who held that portion of tlie field be- 
fore they retreated. 

The whole army form in line now, and build breast-works 
and redoubts, and await events. The enemy make a dash 
on our line once in a while, and every man is in his works, 
no matter how often, for we do not want them io come 
Casey on us. We are always ready to gtve fhem a warm 
reception should they have a mind to pay us a visit. 
About the middJe of June the enemy come down in force 
on our picket line, and drive them in. We are all in our 



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P THE POTOMAC. 



worksj fur we expect it is going to be a general attack. 
They come in plain sight, stop, and establish tlieir picket 
line. Now this onr one-armed Phil. Kearney does not 
like, to see them every day so close to our lines. So he 
makes a detail from every regiment of about fifty men to 
drive the rebels back and retake our own ground. The 
detail start over the works and soon drive the rebel pickets 
in, but they are met by their heavy reserves, and try to 
stand their ground. A beautiful fight here takes place. 
Our gallant Kearney rides up and tells us to give it to 
them, when the little army charge and drive the rebels 
from our lost ground; we establish our line in its former 
place and return in triumph to our breastworks, amidst the 
cheers of our comrades in camp. 

We are now having the same routine of life as at York- 
town — digging, fighting, and picketing. Every one is get- 
ting tired of this place, for the air is impregnated with 
nauseous odors, caused by the decomposition of half buried 
men and horses. 

On the 27th of June we liear great firing to our extreme 
right, at Mechanicsville. Jackson comes from the valley 
and reinforces Lee's army. It is evident that they mean 
to turn our right flank and destroy our army, or drive us 
back from the front of Bichmond, for they think we are 
too close to their Capitol for comfort. Our men fall back 
at night, and we got the orders to destroy all our camp 
eq^uipage, and one hundred and sixty rounds of ammunition 
is dealt out to each man, making a heavy load, enough to 
last until we get to our supplies, wherever that may be. 



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CHAPTER XV. 

THE SEVEN DAYS FIGHT — BATTLES OF T.AINEs' MILLS, PEACH 
ORCHARD, CHARLES CITY CROSS EOADR, AND MALVERN 
HILL — SKIRMISHING — A BRAVE nOKEER — THE liETREAT 
— ARRIVAL AT HARRISOS'S LASDISC. 

On Jujie 28tli there is a batile raging away to our right 
and rear. Our men fell back during the night from Me- 
chanicsville, and now (he First Corps, under Gen. Porter, 
is fighting the battle of Gaines' Mills. The rebels come 
down with great force, but our troops stand their ground 
against heavy odds. Our division still keep our works, 
and the indomitable Kearney is spoiling for u fight. But 
the enemy in our front don't feel disposed to satisfy him in 
his little game, for they don't appear in our front jet. An 
aid-de-canip rides np in a great hurry, and fella our Gen- 
eral to get back or wc will be gobbled uj). None of ue see 
where the gobbling is to come from, but we are all satisfied 
to leave, so we file out of our works and get back leisurely, 
halting a few miles in the rear of our late works. Mean- 
while the right of our army is having a hard time. They 
have to fall back to Peach Orchard, where they are met by 
some more of our troops, they pitch into the Johnnies and 
give them Hail Columbia. 

On June 30th our part of the line get some tieavy work 
to do. Our corps begins to fall back, leaving a part of our 
regiment to skirmish with the enemy and throw obstruc- 
tions in their way. We are deployed at intervals, and 1 
see the rebel skirmishers advance, followed close by their 
heavy lines, We fire and fall back. They advance stead- 
ily and fire as they come. Our pioneers are busy chop- 



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E ARMY OF THE 



51 



piag in the rear, and many a monarch of the forest falls 
across the road. Th<3 enemy push iia pretty lively. Wo 
fling onr knapsacks with contents into the woods to make 
ns lighter on foot. Coming out into the road, Jerry Eich- 
ardson, a pioneer, is chopping away at his level hest at a 
huge six-footer. He has it nearly cut through, we tell 
him to get back or he is gone. But Jerry says he will 
have the tree down if he dies for it. The skirmish lino all 
get in the rear of him, and he is within both fires. The 
rebels fire a dozen shots at him, the balls fall thick around 
and we all expect to sec him fall; but no, the last cut is 
in the tree and it fitlls across the road, making a noise like 
thunder. When Jerry saw the tree commence to stagger 
he did some lively walking, and got inside our lines safe, 
sweating like a butcher. Every man that saw him cheered 
: til! he was hoarse, 

■ We fall back behind our lines that are drawn up on the 
I crest of a hill, with artillery in position. When the enemy 
emerge from the woods, they are met by a galling fire, and 
fearful gaps are made in their ranks. They charge and re- 
charge, but they have to got back again. They next try a 
ilank movement, by trying to gain the Charles City roadj 
but before they do they will have to fight hard for it. We 
learn from some prisoners who left Richmond that morn- 
ing that General Lee sent word to the Mayor and city 
authorities to be ready to give the Army of the Potomac a 
grand reception, for he would capture the whole army that 
day. But we shall see how it was done. 

They form in six or eight lines deep on our left, tliink- 
ing they can walk right through us, but our artillerymen 
open the dogs' mouths, which begin to bark, a barking too 
that bites, follow, and make savage cuts in the enemy's 



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52 



FOUR YGABS CAMl 



ranks. The noble Thirty-Seventh N. Y. go to the sup- 
port of the Twentieth Indiana, and both regiments make 
a bold and splendid fight. The good old Eifth is ia again 
and relieves the Thirty-Seventh. The Seventeenth Maine 
follow up. This is a new regiment, and their first fight. 
All are anxious to know how they will demean themselves. 
They get the order to forward — they hesitate si little, are 
cheered on hy us, and the stalwart sons of Maine go in on 
the charge. They make a splendid fight and are pro- 
nounced hy all to be worthy of the Red Diamond Divisiou 
and Berry's Brigade. Next comes the turn of the old 
Third. The Twentieth Indiana are hard pressed, and wo 
go to their relief and hold the position. The enemy try to 
break through several times, hut get repulsed with fearful 
loss. At last night puts an end to the confiict at Charles 
City Cross Eoads. The army of the Potomac holds its 
own under its gallant leader Little Mac, and all think 
that the good people of the Capitol of the so called South- 
ern Confederacy will be very much disappointed by not 
seeing the Army of the Potomac at the present time. But 
at some future day we will make up for the disappoint- 
ment we put them to, by appearing probably in a different 
way from that they expected to see us to-day. 

The night after the battle we lay down to sleep so close 
to the enemy that we ean hear them talk. All is as still 
as the grave, and the stars shine brilliantly over our heads. 
We lie down with our canteens for pillows, and soon are 
all in the arms of good old Morpheus, except the watch on 
picket. How long we sleep we cannot tell. We are gently 
shaken on the shoulder and a voice whispers: "Get up, 
follow, and make no noise." In an instant we are all on 
our feet, the right of our regiment commences to move off. 



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IN THE ARMY OF TIip POTOJIAC, 53 

We follow ono after another. Nothing breaks the stillness 
but the crackling of the dry brush beneath our tread. Soon 
we are passing over parts of the battle field, and can see 
by the early twilight of the morning men and horses lying 
side by side in the arms of death. Here and there )ay some 
dismounted guns with broken oimages, caisons, and 
hundreds of small arms tying around. We soon reach the 
road, and the death-like stillness is broken by a sneeze, 
then a laugh, and the whole regiment commence to talk 
and laugh. We are out of the woods now and all feel 
good Eigain, and trudge along the road fLuick and fast. Wo 
pull up at Malvern Hill. The order comes from some unrelia- 
ble source to pitch our tents and make ourselves comfort- 
able. But there don't seem to be any rest for the weary, 
for tlie order comes again to pack up and march for the 
front and got into line, for the enemy is advancing again, 
and feel confident that they will gobble us up this time 
surely. We hear their well known yells once more, and 
our army is ready for them. Now this is a fair field — no 
works to get behind, and a fair chance to whip us if they ever 
can. But we are not afraid they will do that with our 
brave Little Mac. at our bead. They open the fight with 
a fierce charge, but are hurled back again to where they 
started. Their artillery open a tremenduous fire on us, 
but they do not have it all their own way, for our artillery 
soon reply and shut up their barking. Wo are in a very 
bad position, for we are 'in an open field exposed to the 
enemy's shells. A great many are wounded while lying 
down, and are carried to the rear. The day is fearfully 
warm, and the sun strikes down on us so hot as to almost 
singe the clothes on our backs. The enemy is seen to make 
demonstrations on our right, but the heaviest charge comes 



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04 FOUR YEARS CAMPAIGNING 

on our center. They might as well charge on the big fort 
at Fortress Monroe as to try to break our lines at Malvern 
Hill. The enemy retire and bring every available man 
they can spare from other parts of their hnes, and form for 
their last charge. Meanwhile our noble chief is not idle, 
for every piece of artillery is being brought to the front. 
The big siege guns are all ready, and every one now is on 
the lookout for what is to come next — the great charge of 
the whole campaign on the peninsula. At about 5 o'clock 
the enemy is seen to emerge from the cover of the woods. 
They cross the open field seven or eight lines deep. They 
commence their horrible yells, thinking they can fiighten 
us some — but we don't scare worth a cent, for we all feel 
confident that our lines are impregnable. They are close 
up to our lines, and five hundred guns belch forth tlieir 
missies of death into their ranks. They falter, but are 
urged on by the imprecations and threats of their officers. 
Our infantry pour their deadly bullets into them. The 
bravest men in the world cannot stand against such fire, 
and they fall back for shelter in their friendly woods to 
mourn over and count their great losses, and leave ns to 
fall back at leisure to our base of supplies, at Harrison's 
Landing. Part of the army commence to fall back after 
night sets in, and about 3 o'clock we leave the bloody field 
of Malvern Hill behind, amid a rainstorm, and in a short 
time it pours down, making the roads very bad to pass 
over. 

" How far is it to Harrison's Landing.^" we ask of an 
old inhabitant whom we pass. He answers: " Indeed sah, 
I don't know, but it is a right smart ways, T reckon," and 
before we got there wc found it was. Weare put through 
on a forced march, and the number of stragglers is fearful. 



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When we arrived at Harrison's Landing there were about 
enough that kept up to make a Corporal's guard. A great 
many fell out by the roadside and never rose iigain. 

Arrived at the Landing, we try to cook our favorite bev- 
erage, coffee, but the rain would put the fire out as fast as 
we could build it. At last we hold our old clothes over 
ihe fire, and think we are going to have our coffee sure, 
when we hear a tremenduous cheering up the road, and cof- 
fee is soon forgotten. Running out to see what is up, a 
horseman is seen riding along the road followed by two 
cavalrymen. We see that it is our gallant Little Mac, 
the hats and caps commence to fly in tJie air, and men 
cheer as though they were crazy. The General, command- 
ing liis own army of the Potomac, acknowledges with 
graceful waves of the hand, assures us we are all right 
now, and passes on, leaving us to go back and attend to 
our coffee, which we find tipped over in the smouldering 
chips. Again dipping some water out of the ditch and re- 
building the fire, wo cook and drink our coffee, eat our 
hard-tack, smoke our pipes, and feel happy, but not very 
long, for the enemy open up their long range guns at us, 
and send some shells among the masses of soldiers in the 
fields. W^e hear some cheering in the direction of the 
Landing, and soon find out the cause. It is a fresh Divis- 
ion from the Shenandoah Valley under the immortal 
Shields. They pass by us on a r[uiek march and keep on 
to the front. They walk around our tormentors, capture 
their artillery and all the force that supported them, bring- 
ing them back in triumph amidst the cheers of the old army 
of the Potomac, thus ending the seven days' fight on the 
Peninsula. 

I will say here that the soldiers in the army of the Poto- 



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56 FOUR YEARS CAMPAIGNING 

mac loved their brave commander with such a love that a 
Napoleon would envy, for every one feels confident (hat no 
other man Hving could take the army out of such an ordeal 
as occurred on the last seven days. Figbt every day, and 
march every night, whipping the enemy in almost every 
battle, and that, too, against heavy odds. No good soldier ; 
ever fought under the gallant General Geerge B. McClel- ! 
Ian but will always recollect him with the greatest pride, and 
S3-mpathize with him in the hours of his affliction. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

WE GO INTO CAMP — FOURTH OF JULY, 1862 — BATALLION 

DRTLL, F,TC — CAMP LIFE — ORDERS TO MARCH — 

DAUGHTER OF THE REGIMENT. 

On the Fourth of Juiy, 1862, we go into camp and make 
ourselves as comfortable as we can. We have a good tase 
of supplies. The army is encamped upon the banks of the 
James River, and we get supplies by that way. Our sut- 
lers return, and everything goes well. Camp life here is 
very hard, the weather being very hoi, and we drill a great 
deal. In the morning at 5 o'clock we are awakened by the 
reveille; get up and iinswer the roll-call; then form for 
squad drill; then breakfast, after which is company drill; 
come in and rest fur awhile, and then the whole regiment 
goes out for batallion drill; next dinner; next brigade drill; 
nest division drill, and we all think if the fields were only 
large enough, we would have a corps and army drill. 

One year ago to-day we celebrated our I'ourth of July 
in Washington. What hardships wo have endured in the 



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IN THE ARMY or THE POTOMAC. 57 

one single year just gone by! Then we felt jubilant and confi- 
dent, but to-day we feci depressed in spirita after our late 
disastrous campaigns. Oh, whoever are to blame for the 
sacrifice of our brave commander and his glorious old army, 
may the curse of thousands of widows and orphans fall on 
their heads. For the war is prolonged now to an indefi- 
nite time, in which there will be thousands of lives sacri- 
ficed to satisfy the appetites of wicked and designing men. 
Here we have the same routine of camp life as in all 
other camps— guard mount, guard duty, picket duty, and 
fatigue duty. Hundreds are getting sick every day 
and if we stay here in this hot hole much longer there 
will not be much of the army left fit for service. 

Our drilling is very hard, and we would much rather 
be excused from so much of it, at least. There are 
rumors that Lee's army is getting off to destroy Pope's 
army in the valley and unless the army of the Potomac go 
to his rescue, his will be destroyed. So the sutlers are 
ordered to the renr and the sick are sent on transports 
to Washington. 

1 must mention in these pages Anna Etheridge, the he- 
roine and daughter of our regiment. The world never pro- 
duced but very few such women, for she is along with us 
through storm and sunshine, in the heat of the bat- 
tle caring for the wounded, and in the camp looking after 
the poor sick soldier, and to have a amiie and a cheering 
word for every one who comes in her way. Every soldier 
is alike to her. She is with us to administer to all our lit- 
tle wants, which are not few. To praise her would not be 
enough, but sufiice to say, that as long as one of the old 
Third shall live, she will always be held in the greatest 



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58 FOUR YEARS CAMPAIGN I KG 

esteem, and remembered with kindly feelings for her ^ood- 
ness and virtues. 

Orders come to pack np and be ready to march at a mo- 
ments notice, which we do, and are glad to go anywhere 
out of our hot and dirty camp. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

OUR BACKWARD MOVE — FAMILIAR GRODND-^A HOT AKD 
DUSTY MARCH — BACK TO WILLIAMSBURG AND 
TOBK TOWN— ARRIVAL AT WASH- 
INGTON AGAIN. 

About the first of August we commence our backward 
march on the Peninsula. The marching ia very disagreea- 
ble on account of tlie severely warm weather and dusty 
roads. Water is very scarce along the route, and there is 
much suffering from the want of it. When we camp 
nights, if there are any nice springs around, there ia soon a 
guard put over them, and, of course, it is reserved for the 
officers. Like a certain free at the battle of Fair Oaks. 
In the heat of battle a certain officer, well known to us all, 
took a position behind a huge pine. A couple of soldiers 
thought they would like to take shelter there too. But 
the gallant Captain drew his sword and told them to be 
gone, for this tree is reserved for the officers, and none oth- 
ers. Of course, the poor soldiers give way, for they dare 
not disobey the order of an officer, even if he was a cow- 
ard, for he would be courfmartlaled, his pay stopped, be 
made to march in camp with a stick on hia shoulder, or be 
bucked and gagged and forty pails of water thrown on his 



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IN THE ARMV OF THE I'OTOMAC. 59 

head, or, if lie did not like all this, by way of a change, be 
tied up by the thumbs to the limb of a tree. Oh, yea, all 
the good things are reserved for the officers, and the poor 
soldier has to roam over the fields and hunt some cow track 
for some water to cook his coffee. But we have one con- 
solation. The soldier is here to save thisconntry, and suf- 
fer for it, while,such cowardly officers as the one at Fair 
Oaks are here for pay. I will say here, that I thank God 
that such officers are scarce in our army, and we have some 
as humane and as good men as live — but the bad ones 
have influence, and the good ones cannot do much against 
them. For if they say anything against theilltreatment of 
Boidiers, they are spotted by the men that work for pay 
and shoulder straps, are intrigued against, and probably 
for some slight misdemeanor get a dishonorable discharge 
from the service. 

I will relate an incident that happened to myself on this 
hot and thirsty march. There was not a drop of water 
with any of us, and witJi three canteens beside my own I 
started off in quest of some. Seeing a house not far off, 
hither I went, finding many there ahead of me, getting the 
precious liquid out of a very deep well. I cannot des- 
cribe my feelings as I drew near the water, for my lips 
were parched with thirst. While in the act of drawing 
■some, a raaa pulled up on horseback, and, I am ashamed 
to say, wore the dress of an officer. Said he, " Get away 
from here," at the same time drawing his cowardly sword. 
I told him 1 must have some water as the boys ia the 
ranks besides myself were nearly choked with thirst. "Get 
back, 1 say, or I will run you through with my sword," 
said he, coming close to me. At that time I did not care 
much whether I lived or not, but I was maddened almost 



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KOUR YEAKS CAMPAIGNING 



to desperation. I seized my gun and in iin instant fixed 
the bayonet thereon, and made one lunge at him. It was 
well that his horse shied to one side, or ray bayonet would 
have been thrust through his miserable body. He attempted 
to draw hts revolver, hut cocking ray piece, I hade him 
leave it in its case — bringing my gun to a ready. He asked 
rae what regiment I belonged to. I told bini one of the 
best in the service — the Third Miching Volunteer Infantry 
— and my name besides, for I was sure my noble Colonel, 
Byron R, Pierce, would see justice done me should my 
tormentor make any complaint. I asked him for his name 
but he rode off without telling rae and I filled my canteens 
in triumph. I never saw or heard of him after. When I 
reached the boys they were almost played out, and took a 
drink of the water which nearly cost rae my life to get. 

We keep on our march, and puli np at Williamshurg, 
where we halt for a few days and then renew o«r backward 
march. Passing through that place with colors flying, we 
can tell by the looks of the inhabitants that they are pleas- 
ed at our departure. We pass by the old battle ground, 
and point out as near as we can the positions held by eaeh 
regiment in our brigade. It is cLuite difficult, as the under- 
brush has grown up all around. Here and there is a limh 
or skull protruding up over the half covered corpses, and 
evidences are all around of a hard fought battle. 

At last we arrive at the now historic old village of York- 
town, made so in revolutionary times, as well as by our 
own war, for it was here that tbo British under Lord Corn- 
wallis surrendered to the immortal Washington, and the 
very spot where the lordly man surredered to the Father of 
our Country and founder of the greatest nation of earth, 
is fenced in and held sacred hy all lovers of this great 



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IS TUE ARJIT OF TlIE rOTOJlAC. 61 

Republic. And in our own war, brought on to destroy the 
country that was built itp for a home of the oppressed peo- 
ple of all lands, no matter from wliat q^uarter of the globe 
they come. The rebels, under Geneml McGruder had to 
fly from here to escape annihilation hy McClellan and his 
army. 

At last we get aboard of transports and steam down the 
York Kiver, thence over the bosom of Chesapeake Bay into 
the broad Potomac, passing by old familiar spots, Ac^uia 
Creek, the beantiful shades of Mt. Vernon, Fort Wash- 
ington, Alexandria, and arrive safely in Washington. 



CHAPTER XVllI. 

TO THE FRONT AGAIN — MC'CLELLAN REMOVEU— SECOND BAT- 
TLE OF BULL RUN — DEFEAT AND BETREAT 
TO CENTERVILLE. 

Arrived in Washington, we immediately get aboard the 
cars, cross the Long Bridge, and thunder along to Manas- 
ses Station, where we get off and move to the front. Some 
heavy flring is heard in advance, which sounds as natural as 
ever. Here we learn that our gallant Commander, General 
McClellan, has been removed from the command of his army. 
Oh, what a blow that is at the present time. Surely our great 
army must be doomed to destruction, for to take its leader 
from our army is a victory already achieved for the enemy. I 
We all feel it and think that none other can eope success- 
fully with the rebel Chief, General Lee. McClellan is put in 
eommand of the defences around Washington, and Gen- 
eral Pope, with his headc[uarters in the saddle, is in com- 



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a CAM PHONING 



mand of the armies that co-operate against the crafty Lee. 
Our corps is assigned a position to the right of t!ie army, 
and our division, under the nohle Kearney, are sent to the 
support of tho Ninth Corps, under Burnside. On the 29th 
of August the battle of Groveton, or second Bull Enn, 
op5ns. Both armies are tornbly strong, but the rebels are 
somewhat flushed with their late victories over Pope's and 
Seigle's armies. The firing commences on our left and soon 
comes along to the center and extends away to the right. 
All along the line the battle rages fiercely. We lie cLuietly 
by, taking the rebel shells and balls that come over our 
men who are engaged in front. For a time neither party 
has much the advantage. There seems to be a weak point 
a short ways from us, to the left, and our regiment is taken 
away from the brigade to fill up the place. The troops 
now in our front are hard pressed, for we can tell by the 
firing that is coming back. Looking ahead into the woods 
we see our men coming over a hill, followed close by the 
rebels. Our flying comrades form in line with us. The 
rebels halt and fire. The order forward is given by our 
gallant Colonel Champlin, who is back again with us, 
for he can't keep away long enough for his Fair Oaks wound 
to heal. We urge him not to go in, but he says he 'will 
lead his gallant Third on the charge if he dies for it. The 
poor Colonel, he looks sick and tired on his horse. March- 
ing by the flank we come to an old railroad embanknlent. 
Front, dress to the right, and over the railroad, is heard, 
and each man jumps on to the embankment. The enemy 
on the other side blaze away, but fire at random, and very 
few of us are yet harmed. Charge bayonets is the order^ 
and down comes the cold steel, which the rebels cannot 
stand, and they are driven pell-mell through the woods. 



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i\ TUE ABSiY OF THE roTOMAC, 63 

We open a vigorous fire on their rear, and many of them 
fall to lise no moie. We pas3 over them, and keep on the 
charge. They get inside their breastworks and make a 
stand, pouring volley after volley into onr ranks with their 
artillery, and nearly two-thirds of our regiment fall one 
over another. Poor Ed. Eiorden, my right hand man in 
the ranks and a brave soldier, is shot through the head, 
throws up his gun, falls upon his face, and dies without a 
groan. Pat Doran, my left hand man, is wounded in four 
different places, but keeps his place in the line. Sergeant 
Van Dusen commences to hop on one leg and says some- 
thing that sounds like swearing, for he is shot in the ankle. 
Our gallant Captain, I. C. Smith, has a severe wound in 
the shoulder, but still keeps in command of his company. 

But it would take too long to enumerate all the loss we 
sustained in this battle. Looking behind to see if any rein- 
forcements are coming to our relief, none are in sight, and 
we fall back, taking what wounded we can with us, leav- 
ing our dead comrades behind, for there are not enough 
alive and well to take them back, 

" Oh, what has become of my gallant old Third," said 
Gen. Kearney, as the remnant of our regiment pass by him, 
I shall never forget his look of anguish as he asked the ques- 
tion, and the tears rolled down his manly cheeks, "G-et back 
to the rear," he says, for he knows our ranks are too thin 
to be of any more service, at least in this battle. So we 
gather around our colors to count our severe loss. We find 
that the Colonel's old wound has broken out afresh, and he 
is being borne to the rear. Lieutenant Kyan is badly 
wounded in the hip, but by good nursing and a strong con- 
stitution he may get over it. Lieutenant Tracy, our regi- 
mental quartermaster, is also severely wounded in the hip. 



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64 



Meanwhile the fighting continues withfiereeneBS, and charge 
after charge is made on both sides. All at once both armies 
cease firing, as with common consent, for night puts an end 
to the terrific conflict, both lie down as it were, side by side, 
waiting to renew the battle on the morrow. 

The 30th of August opened witli a fearful yelling in our 
front. They have been concentrating during the night on 
our center, to try if possible to cut our lines in two. They 
think they had the better of us yesterday, and to-day will 
finish the job. But they will have to pay dearly for their 
victory if they whip us, for they are fighting here on the 
offensive, and have to do all the charging. They seem to 
have all of Lee's army in our front, as they are driving our 
men back, and we can tell by the way the firing is that it 
is getting further to our rear. Our brave men hold iheir 
own for a long while, but cannot stand it much longer, as 
every available man is brought to the front. But the enemy 
outnumber us, and we have to give way to force. About 4 
p. M. the enemy come down on our center, and our men 
have to retreat. Everything now is in confusion. Our 
army is cut into, and we on the right must get back or be 
cut oiF. The enemy bring their artiJlery to bear on us. 
We cross some fields and have to do some queer dodging 
and running. At last we get behind our cavalry, that is 
drawn up in line to give the rebels a turn. Col. Broadhead 
leads his gallant First Michigan Cavalry on the charge, and 
is killed at the head of his men. Nothing now can stop the 
onward march of the victorious enemy, and we cross Bull 
Bun creek and halt on the Centerville heights, after getting 
the finest whipping of the war, not excepting the first Bull 
Run. 



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CHAPTER XIX. 



THE ENEMt TRY A FLASK MOVEMENT — DATTLE OF CHAX- 
TILLY — A FEARFUL SrORM — IT ENDS THE CONFLICT — A 
MISERABLE NIGHT — DEATH OF GEN. KEARNEy--MC'CLEL- 
LAN IN COMMAND AGAIK — BACK TO WASHINGTON ONCE 
MORE. 

Oa the first of Septumlier the enemy try a flauk move- 
mont, to cut off our retreat if they can. Falliag back from 
Centervilli3 five or six miles brings us to Cliantilly, where 
the enemy is in force. Part of our troops are already 
engaged, to the left of the Washington turnpike, and the 
firing discloses that our men are steadily receding. If the 
enemy take the road, our army will be in a bad position, 
but they will find the old Red Diamond Division, under 
their gallant one-armed Gfeneral, Phil. Kearney, ready to 
contest with them every foot of ground, for we are all 
drawn up in lino waiting for our troops to give way in our 
front. Ha! we see heavy clouds away to the west. They 
approach closer and closer, moving over the rebel army and 
soon covering our own. The lightning begins to flash and 
the thunder roll, loud enough to hush in silence the loud 
roar of artillery and musketry. The rain poured down in 
torrents, saturating our clothing to the very skin, wetting 
and making useless onr ammunition, and putting an end to 
tlie terrific conflict, saving our division a hard encounter. 
The storm rages fiercely, and night approaches. We estab- 
lish our picket line, and the storm ends. All is still as the 
grave onco more. Nothing to be heard but the dry, hoarse 
cough from those soldiers who have caught a severe cold 
from the effects of the late storm, which may bo the cause 



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66 rouR YEARS CAMPAiGNisa 

of some poor fellow's death, offered up for the good cause. 
No matter whether it be by bullet or shell, or on the bat- 
tle-field or in hospital that the soldier offers up his life, it 
is all the same; his name will be inserted on the roll of 
honor, • 

Tiie stars shine brightly over our heada, and the air is 
BO chilly that we feel almost chilled through. We He down 
and try to get some sleep or rest. The pickets still keep 
tbeir silent watch. Not a gun is fired on the lines, and as it 
were, everything is wrapped in slumber, when, all at once 
the stillness is disturbed by some sharp firing by the pick- 
ets in front. In an instant we are on our feet and in line. 
Leaning on our muskets we can see the flash and hear the 
sharp report of small arms, and expect a night attack 
from the enemy, and are ready for them. We wait for 
awhile, the firing ceases, and all is quiet again in the 
Potomac aiTny. Ob, if we only knew what a loss we had 
sustained in those few minutes firing, wo would not rest 
much that night; but we lie down in blissful ignorance of 
our irreparable loss, and go to sleep. Early in the morn- 
ing we are stirring, and the rumor ia circulated that our 
brave Kearney is no more, and iind that the rnmor is but 
too true. The sorrow of his gallant division is unbounded, 
and many a tear streams down the cheeks of his soldiers. 
He had gone out, as was bis wont, to see tJiat all was right 
on the lines, going farther than he should, and did not 
learn his mistake until be was inside the rebel picket lines. 
They saw that be wore the uniform of a U. S, officer, 
and told him to surrender; but be did not fee! inclined to 
do that, so they fired and killed him instantly. They 
approached, and when they saw whom they had killed, 
they treated him with every consideration, and when the 
rebel chief saw bim be wept like a child, for he thought of 



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IN THE ARMY or ■EIIE TOTOMAC. 67 

by-gone times, when tliey were class-mates at West Point. 
Oil, wliat a difference in the two men; one died for his 
country, that it may be saved from traitors and disunion; 
the other is fighting to destroy the country that gave him 
all that he ever possessed. I"are thee well, our gallant old 
General; thy memory will remain as long as the country 
shall endure in the hearts of all the good and the true in the 
land; while thememory of your late classmate will forever be 
a shame and a disgrace in the land that nurtured him. For 
the name of Robert E. Lee will go down to generations 
yet unborn, as the great rebel chief, that wanted to destroy 
the greatest nation on the globe, while the name of Philip 
Kearney will be exalted to the skies, as one who died for 
his country, that it might be the home of all who are 
oppressed in every clime. 

It is rumored now that the enemy have left in front, and 
we soon find that he means to take a trip north, which 
produces the wildest confusion imaginable in Washington, 
for it is evident that some one else besides the gentleman 
in the saddle, will have to take command of the army, to 
check the onward march of the victorious army under Lee. 
They knrjw in Washington who can drive them back again, 
but will they put him in command after taking him away 
from his almost idolized army. The authorities see that 
it would be utter suicide to have any other man take com- 
mand, and accordingly Gen. McClellan is reinstated in 
command of his army, where he is received with the wild- 
est joy imaginable. Our division is now without a com- 
mander, and suffering terribly from the late battles. It is 
necessary to send us back to Washington, to recruit our 
thin ranks, Wc commence our backward march, and the 
rest of the army under McClellan give chase to Lee. We 
arrive safe in front of Washington, and go into camp. 



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CHAPTER XX. 



BATTLES OF SOUTH MOU^-TAIN AKD ANTIETAM — SUrFERIN-QS 
OP THE ARMY — LEE BACK IN VIBGINIA — MC'CLELLAS 
RELIEVED AGAIN, AND BURNSIDE TAKES COM- 
MAND — AT THE FRONT AGAIN — MC'CLELLAN's 
FAREWELL ADDRESS TO HIS ARMY. 

Gen. Lee's victorious army, flushed with their late vic- 
tories, try and move north, in hopes to be able to make the 
"Washington authorities do sQinething towards helping 
their cause, but they will soon find out that McClellan is 
in command again, and their stay will be very short north 
of the Potomac. Loe has crossed the Potomac, and 
McClellan, his only chastiser, so far, ia treading on his 
heels. The rebels have to face about at South Mountain, 
and fight their old adversaries again. They have to get 
back off the mountain, and pull up at Aotietam Creek, 
where one of the bloodiest battles of the war is fought, 
and they have to got back to their own sacred soil again in 
Virginia. A great many in the north now censure Gen. 
McClellan for not following up Lee's army. They do not 
think of the hardships the army has had to endure for the 
last year, how they needed clothing to cover their naked- 
ness, and shoes to cover their bleeding feet. They do nDt 
praise our noble chief for hurling back the arrogant enemy 
from their very doors; but the men under him, who know 
him best, appreciate his worth and virtues. Oh, do not 
censure him, but thank God there is a man in your country 
who can drive the rebels back every time they dare to over- 
run it. 



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IS THE ARMY OP THE POTOMAC. C9 

General Birney has taken command of our division and 
we are ordered to the front again, having had a very much 
needed rest and all feel recruited. We march up the 
Potomac on the Maryland side in forced marches. It is a 
very wet and muddy time. I do not 2}retend to give day 
and date for every place where we halt, for it would be too 
voluminous. But it is my intention to bring hack to mind 
as near as memory will serve, the many battles and princi- 
pal events that ocBurred in a four years stay with the Grand 
Army of the Potomac. We pass by Monocacy, Falling 
Waters, Leesburg in Virginia, and pull up at the famous 
village of Harper's Ferry, where the great John Brown 
made his raid, and for which his body was swung in mid 
air and his soul sent marching away to realms of bliss. 
But, as the" song goes, he still keeps marching on to that 
bourne from whence no traveler returns. Winding our 
way around the Maryland heights, and over the bridge that 
spans the Shenandoah river, get on the sacred soil once 
more, camping for the night among the hills and feeling 
happy. Ne.xt day we resume our march and go through 
some nice country, where cither army did not reach before. 
We are in Loudon county, one of the richest in the state. 
The people hereabouts are said to be leaning towards the 
Union, and so we deal as gently with them as we can. 
There are plenty of nice fence rails. Of course we must 
have our coffee and afire to cook it; so I hope the good peo- 
ple of Loudon county can spare a few rails from their fen- 
ces. There are some nice turkeys too, and a gobbler is 
gobbled up and brought to camp, where he is very much 
welcomed. Now the good people will remember us, for we 
spared them the trouble, in a good many instances, of feed- 
ing the corn to their turkeys and chickens, which they may 
need before this cruel war is over. It is rumored when we 



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arrive at Warrington that McClellan is removed again now- 
Lee is back in Yirginia, and the authorities feel safe. Well 
let them fire away ; they will soon see where they will pull 
up. Burnaide now takes command. I don't think there 
is a better man in the army than he, but of course we all 
think with himself that he is not capable of commanding 
the Army of the Potomac. The feeling in the army at 
this time is better imagined than described, and I do be- 
lieve, if he only said the word, McClellan and his army 
would march on Washington, and chastise those who are 
intriguing against our noble commander, and doing their 
best to destroy our army. But no ; he bows hie head with 
resignation, and amid the tears of bis comrades, ' takes a 
sad farewell, November 7th, in the following noble address 
to his much cherished army. 



IIeabquartkrs or tub Akmy of the Potomac, > 
Camp near Rectortown, Va., November 7. ^ 
Officers and Soldiers op the Akiiy of the Potomac : 

An order of the President devolves npon Major Generil 
Burnside the command of this Army. In parting f r n y u I an 
not express the love and gratitude I bear to you. \ n m> 
yon Lave grown up in my care. In you I have neve f und d ubt 
or coldness. The battles you have fought under y mm nd 
will probably live in our Nations' history. The gl y y la 
achieved over mutual perils and fatigues, tlie grave f « m 
rades fallen in battle and by disease ; the broken forms oi those 
whom wounds and sickness have disabled ; tke strongest associa- 
tions which can exist among men unite ns by an indissoluble tie. 
We shall ever be comrades in supporting the Constitution of our 
country and the Nationality of its people, 

GRO. B. MdCLELLAN, 



Major General U. S. A. 



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CHAPTER XXI. 



A KACE FOB KKEDEICKSUURGH — THE ENEMY IN SMALL FORCE 

ACROSS THE RIYEK — CAMP LIFE ORDERS TO MARCH — 

GALLANT FEAT OF THE 7tH MICH. INFANTRY — BATTLE 
OF FREDRICKSBUKG — THE DEFEAT AND RETREAT. 

While Biirnside is organizing ami fixing things to suit 
him, we halt for a few days. The enemy is making to- 
wards Fredriukshurg on the south aide of the Blue Ridge, 
and if he gets there before us he will have the inside track 
to Richmoud. Accordingly we strike tents and start for 
Fredricksliurg, whei^e we arrive after several forced march- 
es. The enemy has taken up a position on the heights iu 
the rear of the city, When wo arrived there were only a 
small force before us, but we go quietly into camp and 
make ourselves comfortable. Here is the same routine of 
camp life ; camp guard, picket duty, fatigue duty and 
drill. All of Lee's army now is encamped and in position 
in and around Fredricksburg, If McClellan had been in 
command when we first arrived here and lay idly by, what 
a cry of on to Richmond would be heard by bis enemies ; 
but he is not in command, and what anyone ciso does is all 
right ; they can take their time and no cry of on to Rich- 
mond is made. 

Both armies are encamped iu plain sight of each other, 
and their pickets are stationed along the Rappahannock, 
within a stone's throw of each other. There are no hos- 
tilties between them, and generally all is C[uiet along the 
lines. But our friendships are soon to be broken, for about 
Dec. 10th we get the order to be bo ready to march with 



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72 rODR YEARS CAMPAIGNIKG 

three days rations in our haversacks, and accordingly, on 
the 11th of December we are up bright and early, ready 
for an onward move. The morning is clear, cold and fros- 
ty. About 7 A. ai. a tremendous artillery fire from our 
batteries is opened on the city and rebel works. The rever- 
berations of the sound, as it passes along the river, makes 
it seem to us as though there were five thousand dogs of 
war barking all at once. Our engineers are busy laying 
down pontoon bridges for the troops to cross over. It is 
plain to lis now that a forward movement is going to be 
made. The enemy's sharp-shooters are making sad havoc 
among the pontoon builders, for they are firing from the 
houses in the city at our men. Something must be done 
to remedy this, and a detail is made from the gallant Sev- 
enth Mich. Infantry to cross and clean out the rebel sharp- 
shooters. Those few who crossed in those open boats have 
earned for themselves a crown of glory, and that little party 
will be remembered as long as their country will last, for 
performing one of the most daring feats of the war. They 
push out from the shore, bearing the starry flag aloft. The 
enemy pour their deadly missies into the midst of them, 
and many a brave hero is tumbled, into the turbid waters 
of the Kappahannock. Can it be possible that any of 
them can cross with their lives ? They have a very poor 
way of defending themselves, but they still keep on, and 
are about to land, when the house skulkers pour their 
deadly lead among the devoted band. They strive to keep 
a foothold, and commence firing. Some more troops are 
crossing in boats to reinforce. They make a desperate 
charge on the buildings occupied 'by the enemy, whom they 
drag forth from their cover. We have a foothold now, and 
the bridges are quickly built. The army moves to the 



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Y OP TUG POTOMAC. 



front, and night ends the operations. During the night 
many cross, while our corps move to the left. 

On the morning of Dec. 13, 1862, the biittle of Fred- 
ericksburg commenced. Our men advance and dislodge 
the rebels from their front line of worlis. They open up a 
.1 tremendous fire on our men from their artillery, and we 
cross the river on the douhle-qnick, the sheila bursting like 
hail al! around. The gallant Fifth are already engaged, 
and our regiment join them on the left. A fearful fight 
is now taking place ail along the line, both armies holding 
their ground. A battery of artillery pull up in Hue with 
us and arc soon making sad havoc in the enemies ranks. 
The rebel infantry don't like to have the canister poured in 
among them, so they form in the valley to charge and take 
the battery. They are four lines deep, and await the order 
to charge. Cease firing, is the order of the Captain com- 
manding the battery, and double shot yonr pieces with 
canister. Lieutenant Colonel Ed. Peirce of the old Third 
gives the command to be ready. Wo feel sure if they take 
our glorious battery they will pay dearly for every piece. 
Ha, they are in motion, coming as cool as if on parade. 
Steady boys, don't fire yet, is beard in a firm voice from 
our brave Colonel. They set up a hideous yelling, and are 
close to us. Why don't we get the order to fire we ask ; 
but they are not near enough yet. The captain of the bat- 
tery gives his order to fire, and six guns open with their 
double-shotted mouths into the advancing masses. Ha, 
that is enough for them. They break in confusion and fly 
to the rear, satisfied that they don't want that battery. 

The fight rages terribly along the lines for eight miles. 
The rebels try hard to drive us into the river and to break 
our lines in every available spot ; first with a right flank 



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74 FOUR YEAHS CAMP41GNIN0 

movement, then a lett, and then a center, and each time 
get back behind their works with great loss. But they are 
not having a]l the losses, for our army ia suffering fearfully 
too. We hear great cheeriog to our right, and can tell 
that it is a charge from our side, for we can always tell the 
difference between the hellish yells of the enemy and the 
manly cheering of the union men. The Irish brigade, un- 
der the great and brave General Meiiglier, are on the charge, 
with their sleeves rolled up, and they mean heavy business. 
They are trying to dislodge the enemy from behind a stone 
wall on the heights. For awhile the contestants on either 
side cease, and all look on the gallant brigade going for- 
ward on their forlorn hope. They charge up the hill, bear- 
ing aloft the green flag of Ireland and the stars and stripes. 
Thousands of the enemy are waitiiig behind the wall to 
cut them to pieces. I have heard it said by a rebel who 
was behind the wall at the time, that they were loth to fire 
on such brave men ; hut they were their enemies, and were 
forced to do so. Volley after volley is poured into the 
brave brigade. They close up the gaps in their ranks, for- 
ward on the double-r[uick with wild cheers, and soon have 
a hand to hand iight with the enemy. They do not get 
reinforced for some reason, and have to fall back against 
fearful odds. Surely such men ought to be remembered by 
all true Americans, for no greater supporters are in the 
country than the brave Irish volunteers. Let bigots grum- 
ble about the Irish, but this country is their country, and 
no power can gainsay it, for they fight for it, and do every- 
thing to make it a home for them and for the oppressed of 
every nation, who like themselves, have to fiee from the 
land of their birth. 

Our men try the enemy's lines in different places, and 



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F OF THE POTOMAC. 



each time get repulsed with great loss, and night puts an 
end to the great battle. On the night of the 15th our 
army retire across the river, for it would be sheer madness 
to attempt to break the enemy'a lines and lake the 
heights. So we get back to our our old camps, after losing 
abut fifteen thousand men in Idiled and wounded, and 
accomplishing nothing. 



CHAPTER XSII. 

BUILDIKU WISTEil QUARTEKS — A SOLDIEk's FUNERAL — FUR- 

t.OUOHS — FEELISG IN THE NORTH — SCENES AND 

ISCIDEST8— .iT THE FROST AGAIN, 

It is evident now that all movements of the army is at 
an end for a while at least. Each corps, division, brigade, 
regiment and company, is assigned camping grounds, and 
all are told to build winter quarters, and make ourselves aa 
comfortable as we can. The forests around this country 
are stripped of their trees for houses and fire-wood. The 
walls of our houses are built of logs, and covered with 
shelter tents, with a nice cosy fire place at one end, made 
of brick or stone, with a mud and slick chimney. They 
are very comfortable houses, with plenty of blankets and a 
bed of long poles. The sutlera are all up again, and sup- 
ply us with what delicacies we can afford. 

When one of our men die in the hospital, all who can, 
go to his funeral. It is one of the most selemn things of 
the soldier's life, to witness the burial of one of his com- 
rades. One might suppose that a soldier is so used to see- 
ing death on the battle-field, that he is hardened to every- 



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(0 FOUR YEARS CAMPAIONINQ 

thing, but it is a mistake, for when one dies in camp he is 
mourned over as much as those at liome mourn over their 
friends. The soldier has the most acute feeUngs for his 
suffering comrades, and sympathize with the loved ones 
who have lost their relative or friend. The poor soldier 
dies away from home; no relative is near by to comfort 
or sympathize with him in his last hour, hut hia comrades 
gather around him and give him the burial of Ihe warrior. 
He is laid out in his uniform of blue, in a plain, rough 
coffin, over which hang the stars and stripes. The mourn- 
ful procession commences its slow march, headed by the 
band. Oh, how solemn are tlie strains as they are taken 
up by the chilling breeze. His comrades follow close be- 
hind, marching with reversed arms. The solemn 2>rocea- 
sion halt at the lonely grave, when the coffin is lowered 
into the earth. "Ashes to ashes," are the words said by 
the man of God, The volleys are fired over the departed 
hero, and he is left to rest in peace. Poor comrade, thy 
battles and fatigues are over. No more shalt thou respond 
to the wakening notes of (he reveille by the regimental 
bugler, but will be wakened on the last day by the clarion 
notes of St. Michael's trumpet, to appear before the great 
Captain, who commands the heavens and the earth, and all 
contained therein. 

Now tlie army is lying peaceably in winter quarters and 
I would like to go home on furlough ; so obtaining a blank, 
I fill it out and send it along through the regular channels 
to have it approved. It is first signed by the Company 
comniander, then by the Colonel of the regiment, then by 
the Brigade commander, then Division, and finally by the 
Corps commander. So it takes q^uite a while for it to get 
up and down the regular channels, causing a good share of 
anxiety to the poor soldier for fear it would come hack dia- 



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IN TUE ARMY 



approved ; and so he is io fever heat all this time. At last 
the furlough comes back covered all over with signatures, 
and now hurrah for a twenty days' leave, which don'fc take 
long to pass by, especially when they arc days of pleasure; 
and a soldier, after the hardships of campaigning for near- 
ly two j'ears, can appreciate a little pleasure and enjoy him- 
self among his friends at home. After taking a short fare- 
well of my eomrades, I start for Acquia Creek to take the 
boat for Washington. Arriving at the Creek, I find there 
great crowds on the wharf waiting to get aboard, and with 
my leave of absence in my pocket have to wait 'fill all the 
snobbery and slioulderstraps get aboard, so as to take up 
all the good places on the boat. At last the word eomes to 
get aboard, and the crowds rush on, and soon every availa- 
ble spot is taken up. A few of us try to get into the cabin 
to lie down on the floor for the night ; but no, there is a 
sentinel on guard at the stairway, and none but officers can 
pass as usual. Oh, this is what makes the soldier hate 
himself and all others, for he thinks a dog is thought more 
of than he is, and is made to feel his degradation more and 
more 'till he arrives out of reach of shonlderstraps. After 
rousting about on the boat all night, we arrive safe in 
Washington. Here we think we can enjoy freedom with 
the rest ; so making our way to a restaurant for some 
breakfast, have to take it in the roughly fitted-up room for 
the common soldier, while inside are our more favored com- 
rades under shoulder straps, eating in a luxuriously fitted- 
up apartment, which we have to pay for as a general thing. 
Going to the depot to take the train for Baltimore, and 
thinking we can take any car on the train, ate politely told 
by an usher that we can't get into that car, a first-class 
one ; there is a car for j'ou said he, pointing to one better 
adapted for hogs than men. For once I disobey orders. 



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FOUR YBARS 



and tell him I must ride in any car, as I have paid for a 
first-class ticket. The conductor cries all-aboard, and my- 
self with a few other soldiers get into a first-class car, as we 
mean to maintain our rights. The conductor comes around 
and tells us to get into the other cars. Acting as spokes- 
man for the party, I ask him what kind of fare our tickets 
call for ; he sees that they are first-class. He does not put 
us off, and leaves us in peace. At last we arrive at Balti- 
more, and take the train for Harrisburg, where we feel 
more at home, for now shoulderstraps are getting at a dis- 
count, and the soldier is as good as the officer. We thun- 
der along through the Alleghanies and arrive at Pittsburg, 
which is as smoky as ever. Here the soldiers are alwaj'S 
treated well by the citizens, who will always he remember- 
ed with gratitude by every soldier who passed through 
that city. Taking the train for Cleveland, we have no 
more trouble to get as good fare as there is. We arrive at 
the Forest City and are soon off for Toledo, and thence for 
the City of the Straits, in our own Michigan. Arrived at 
Detroit, I take the Great Western, and soon reach my 
friends. Of course they are glad to see mo, and I spend a 
few days in qniet and rest. Generally the people of Cana- 
da are not favorable to the Union cause, and I have to do 
some talking to uphold the cause I fight for. the country 
is overrun with skedaddlers and deserters from the United 
States, who are protected by the government of England. 
The South has its quota of inhabitants in Canada, who are 
allowed to concoct their plans for any move they can make 
against our government. The British are doing all they 
can and dare to help destroy our union of states ; but let 
them work, for Great Britain and hell itself cannot destroy 
our country. We have to stand some of their insolence 
now, as in such cases as the Mason and Slidcll affair ; but 



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IN THE AEMY OF TOE POTOMAC. 79 

let them beware, for it may be our turn next to play the 
same game. Let them fit up their Alab-imas and man 
them, to destroy our commerce. They can do a great many 
mean things now with impunity, but the day of rectoning 
will come, when John Bull will be paid back with heavy 
interest what is due him by our much abused Uncle Sam. 
After a few days' stay, I take a parting farewell of friends 
and relatives and am off for Detroit, where I arrive much 
recruited in flesh and health. An all-nights' ride on the 
lazy express on the D & M. railroad finds me once more in 
the Valley City. Everything looks as natural as ever. By 
night my right arm is very lame, and no wonder, after the 
shaking it had to go through by all my friends. All is 
done that can be to make my visit pleasant. But now on- 
ly four days are left for me to get back to the army, and 
bidding good-bye to dear friends, I retrace my way back 
to my log house in the camp in front of Fredricksburg, 
where I arrive in due time and am met by my comrades, 
and it seems like home to get back again, and tell them of 
the thousand things I saw while away in the North. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 



ORDERS TO MABCH — WE TRY A FLANK MOVEMENT — AND GET 

STUCK IN THE MUD THE REBELS MAKING FUN OF 

US — DESERTIONS — BACK TO CAMP — BURNSIDE 
RELIEVED AND HOOKER TAKES COMMAND, 

About the 1st of February we have orders to be ready to 
march, and so we fill our haversacks with havd-tack, salt- 
pork, coffee and sugar. We take off our shelter tents, and 



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80 FOUK YEAES CAMPilGNINO 

pack them in our knap-sacks, kave the bare walla of our 
bouses to keep lonely watch, and file out of our camp on 
the Eichmoud road again. The army march along to the 
right of our lines, and it js plain a flank movement is on 
foot. After getting twelve or thirteen miles the rain pours 
down in torrents, making the roads fearfully muddy. The 
army halt on the banks of the Eappahannock. We pitch 
our tents for a covering from the cold rains, and build fires 
in the woods. The smoke lingers around, for the atmos- 
phere is 80 heavy it will not bear it away. Our eyes are 
nearly melted out of their sockets with the thick smoke, 
and we have to lie on the wet ground to relieve them. Oh, 
what misery we are in, wet to the skin, ragged, dirty and 
hungry, for our supplies cannot get up over the muddy 
roads, and artillery, wagons and ambulances are all stuck 
in the mud. One morning, on looking across the river we 
observe that tlie rebels have plac-cards stuck on poles, let- 
ting u8 know that Burnside is stuck in the mud. They 
throw all kinds of slang at us, and have lots of fun at our 
expense, and we can't help it, for we all know we are stuck. 
Our commander finds out that it would be useless for him 
to try to go any further, and we get the order to retrace our 
steps for camp. We pack up our wet traps, and each man 
has a load fit for a mule to carry. 

1 never knew so much discontent in the army before. A 
great many say they "don't care whether school keeps now 
or not," for they think there is a destructive fate hovering 
over our army. At this time there are a large number of 
desertions, and unless something is done to prevent it, our 
ranks will grow pretty thin in a short while. 

Arriving back in our old camps again we cover the bare 
walls of logs, and go to house-keeping once more. The 



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1 IK THE AKMY OF TIIE I'OTOMAC. 81 

; picket-line is doubled to keep a closer watch on thoso wlio 
; mean to desert. Hand-bills are circulated through the 
! army by the Southern authoritiesj that they will furnish 
I free transportation to any country on the globe to all who 
i will desert into their lines. Orders come, and are issued 
: from our headquarters, putting quite a veto on the above 
I offer. All who are caught deserting will be shot. This 
I puts an end, virtnally, to deserting. 

About the last of March, General Burnside is removed, and 
i tfencral Hooker takes command. The authorities at Wash- 
ington want to fry another experiment on the army of the 
Potomac. Now, we all feel that G-eneral Hooker will be 
Hko the poor man that won the elephant at the raffle. 
After he got the animal he did not know what to do with 
him. So with fighting Joseph. He is now in command 
of a mighty large elephant, and it will remain to be seen if 
ho knows what to do with him. All know that General 
Hooker can command and fight a division to perfection, 
but to take a great army like ours in hand, and cope with 
the great rebel chief successfully, is another thing. But 
wo will wait and see, and like good soldiers, obey orders 
and go where we are sent, even unto death. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

yKE WEATHER — MARCHIXG ORDERS — SUTLEKS TO TEE 
KEAR — OS THE ROAD AGAIN — BATTLE OF THE CE- 
DARS — JIIDKIGHT CHARGE — STONEWALL JACK- 
SON KILLED — BATTLE OF CHANCELLOESVILLE 
— THE rOTOMAG ARMY AGAIN DEFEATED. 

The spring of 1863 is ushered in with beautiful weather, 
and, of coursCj should it last Jong, we shall soon be on the 



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move again. About April 2Gth we have orders to be ready- 
to march. The sutlers, with their surplus stuff, are ordered 
to the rear. The sick are sent to the different hospitals, 
and we arc nil ready for the Richmond road. We pro- 
ceed along on the same road meant to be traveled by General 
Burnside, when we got stuck in the mud. We cross the 
Rappahannock at Ely's Ford, on the 2Sth, and proceed as 
far as we can into the enemy's country, pulling up at the 
Chancollorsville House, where the Army of the Potomac is 
got into position. Now the army is in splendid condition, 
and we all think that probably we might do something 
under Fighting Joe; and he thinks so himself, for he 
issues an order to the army, that he has got the enemy 
where he wants them; that they will have to come out and 
fight him on his own ground, or fly ignominioualy, which 
will cause their utter destruction. Now, after this celebrated 
order is read to us, we feel confident that something extra- 
ordinary is going to be done, and we wait anxiously for the 
enemy to come out of their holes, or see them flyignomin- 



The Red Diamond division has a position on tlio Rich- 
mond road, commanded by our gallant 'Bii-ncy. Ha, we 
Bee over the valley beyond, long wagon trains, moving 
south. Now they are on the move and are flying sure. 
Our division is ordered forward, and get into the cedar 
.woods, where we strike some rebels, who fire into us, but 
we go for them with the bayonet. They fall back, and we 
advance, fighting all the way for about three miles. They 
pull up behind some works, and we halt in front. The 
rebel train keeps moving on, and we lie still, for some cause 
or other. Berdan's sharp-shooters have quite a fight on 
the picket line. Our regiment is ordered to lie down, and 



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83 



we are in sucli a position that the rebels Have a good 
chance to fire at us. Once in a while one of our poor fel- 
lows ia taken to the rear, mortally wounded. It is here | 
that a comrade of mine gets killed, P. H, Doran, and a j 
better soldier never carried a mnsket than he. While lie- 
ing down, a bullet from a sharp-shooter did the deed, and 
passed through his head. Poor fellow, he has fought his 
last battle, and his campaigns are ended. Let him he 
inscribed on the roll of honor as a martyr to his adopted 
country. 

While lying still, we bear, all at once, a tremendous 
firing in our rear; it sounds in the direction of the 
position we left in the morning. Can it be possible the 
enemy is in our rear ? Such is the fact, for we soon find 
out that the rebel General Jackson has got around behind 
us, and is fighting the lltb corps under Howard, who was 
in the position we left. Now we are in a pretty condition, 
rebels in front and rebels in our rear. We must get out of 
this, or else be gobbled up. So getting back, we change 
our front of the morning to rear at night. The 11th corps 
are driven from their position. Night puts an end to all 
fighting, and we take up a position in an open field, and 
try to rest after our day's fatigue. 

The queen of night shines out with all her brightness, 
and throws her lustre all around, making the fields aa 
bright as day. All is as still as the grave ; nothing to 
break the stillness of the hour hut the neighing of the 
horses of the artillery close by. At about twelve o'clock 
we get the order to fall in, and it is made known to us that 
a midnight charge is on foot to dislodge the enemy and 
take back our lost ground. The awful grandeur of -the 
scene defies description. About 15,000 soldiers are in solid 



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84 roUH YEARS CAJIPAIQSING 

mass at the dead hour of night, to charge on the enemy 
who are slumbering in blissful ignorance of what is going 
on. Our first line have their guns primed, it is the 
intention when they come to the enemy to fire, and 
the other lines to charge with the cold steeh The order 
is quietly given to forward, and the whole mass move into 
the woods, which are thick and dark as hades. No one 
knows where to strike the rebel lines; some commence to 
fire, others follow suit, and all blaze away, not knowing 
what at, and all seem to be one vast square of fire. All 
begin to yell and cheer, some go forward, some to the right 
and some to the left. The rebels open with their artillery, 
and ours reply from the fields. All is utter confuaiou, and 
no one knows where we are going. I find myself with 
others, charging on some works; we get over them, think- 
ing they belong to the enemy, but we soon find out that 
we have been charging on our own works, occupied by the 
the 12th corps, who thought the rebels wanted their works, 
and they left them in peace for their old friends. Whoever 
took part in the fizzle in the woods on the night of the 2d 
of May, will remember it as long as they five. After a 
while we make our way to the field we started from. 

It was in this melee in the woods that the notorious 
Stonewall Jackson, of the Confederate army, received his 
death-wound. Tlie rebels themselves claim they gave it 
to him, but we don'c care how he got it so long as he is out 
of the way, for he was the terror of our army. The de- 
tails of his death we get from rebel prisoners. When he 
heard the firing in the woods he rode out on one part of 
his own lines, and was going in by another post. The 
rebels were so excited hy the firing in the woods that they 
thought it was the Yankees on the charge. They fired a 



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IN TUl! ARMY OF TUT. rOTOMAC. 85 

volley, and killed one of the best generals in their army. 
So our fiz?;le was the cause of doing some good after all. 

All is cLuiefc again in the Potomac army, and we lie down 
toiiave some sleep to refresh ns for the next day's work. 
At fonr o'clock on the f[uiet Sabbath morning of the 3d of 
May, we look towards the woods and see our skirmishers 
emerge therefrom, followed close by solid masses of rehel 
infantry. In an instant we are in line. Our artillery open 
out on them, but they don't seem to care for anything, as 
they set up a hellish yelling and come for us. We open 
onr small arms on them and cau-se some to fall to mother 
earth to rise no more. They close up the gaps in their 
ranks and still come on. We get the order to fall back, 
which is done in good order, loading and firing as we go. 
Our artillery get to the rear and take positions so as to be 
ready for the enemy when we have passed them. The bat- 
tle rages fearfully along the line, and thousands fall on both 
sides. The whole rebel army is in one solid phalanx and 
nothing can stand before them. They break line after line, 
but not 'till they pay dearly for every foot of ground they 
take. Falling behind a line in front of the Chancellorsville 
House, we get the order to lie down^ which is done gladly for 
a few minutes rest. The rebels pour their shot and shell into 
our midst, and many a poor fellow rolls over without a 
groan. Captain Mason is killed lying down by my side ; 
a piece of shell takes him in the bowels and kills him in- 
stantly. Our front line gives way again, and we are on our 
feet once more, ready to receive the charge of the victori- 
ous enemy. The enemy charge on us in eight or ten lines 
deep. Our artillery opens out on them and then our mus- 
ketry, mowing down fearful gaps in their ranks. But on 
they come, and back we have to got again, Here our gal- 



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86 FOUR TEARS OAMPAICNINO 

lant Birney ridea \ip on his beautiful horse and gives tbe 
order to countercharge the enemy. Wc come to a right- 
about face, and before the rebels knew what we were about, 
charge in their midst, making them get back a short dis- 
tance, and taking a number of prisoners. The rebels fol- 
low up again, and we get in behind some works that were 
bnilt during the day. They charge on us, thinking to car- 
ry our works, but they have got as far as they can get, as 
we hold our works against all their attacks, and about 12 
o'clock the terrible battle of Chancellorsville is ended. We 
establish our picket lines, and all is still but an occasional 
shot on the outposts. While the fighting was going on in 
the morning, General Sedgewick with his 5tb corps crossed 
the river and took the Fredricksburg heights. After the 
fighting ceased on our part of the lines, (Jeneral Lee stole 
away from our front, went to Fredricksburg ami drove the 
5th corps off the heights across the river again, and ending 
the fighting on that bloody Sunday. Our army is whipped 
again, and we loose a great many men and some valuable 
officers. On the 6th of May we recross the Happahannoek, 
flying ignominionsly from the army that we thought would 
have to come out and fight us on our own ground, which 
they did. But we see the destruction on the other side, 
and all feel as though the present commander has too large 
an elephant on his hands. 



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CHAPTER XXV. 



LEK TRIES ANOTHER MOVE XOBTH — THK ARMY OF THE PO- 
TOMAC AFTER HIM — BOTH ARMIES ON NORTHERN SOIL 
— SCENES AND INCIDENTS ON THE WAY— EUMETS- 

nUROn — HOOKER BELIEVED GENERAL MEADK 

ly COMMAND. 

After Leo's victory ut Chancellorsvilie, ha tries another 
movo North to see what lie can do there again. We have 
to follow in his wake and see that the rebel army don't get 
into any mischief. But it is plain to us all that if sonic 
one don't take command of the army that can handle it, 
General Lee will do almost as he pleases. Oh, why do 
they not give us back our Little Mac, and then we can 
feel coniident of victory no matter where we meet our old 
adversaries. But no, if the whole country is sacrificed he 
will never be called to our eoiEmand again. 

On the 15th of June, after marching across the country 
from Chancellorsville, General Lee crosses the Potomac and 
makes his way through Maryland. The President issues a 
call for one hundred thousand men to repel the invasion. 
The country North is fully aroused to the danger that is 
thundering at their doors. Volunteers and militia are sent 
to intercept the onward march of the rebel chief and Iiis 
army. General Lee seems to think after he is in Maryland 
he can recruit up his ranks from the sons of that state, but 
wherever he goes the cold shoulder is turned to him, for 
the loyal State of Maryland is true to the Union, and its 
people testify to their loyalty by giving us everything they 
can to help ns on our way to drive the invader from their 



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8a FOUK YEARS CAMPilONISG 

Our army cross into Maryland, in close pursuit of our old 
enemy. The militia meet the advance of the rebel army, 
but have to get back from Lee's veteran's. We are now 
traveling in the heart of our noble and true Maryland, and 
pass on the march, some lovely country. The fair daugh- 
ters of this State often sing patriotic songs as we pass, 
such as the Star Spangled Banner, Kally Round the Flag, 
Maryland, My Maryland, and other songs that inspire us 
with enthusiasm to follow up the arrogant rebel army, and 
chastise them for daring to put their feet on loyal ground. 
We march by a lovely village, called Taneytown, whoso 
people show their loyality by waving their handkerchiefs 
and showering flowers on our path. This village is called 
after the learned Judge Taney, Chief- Justice of the United 
States. The roads around here are beautiful and macada- 
mized, and we enjoy marching over them very ranch. 
Every man in the ranks feel jubilant; we keep step to 
some song that is sung by the soldiers, crack our jokes, and 
all feel happy. We pass some nice villages, and at every 
place we are met with perfect ovations. The next place of 
any interest is the beautiful city of Frederick. As we near 
the place we observe some bodies dangling from the limbs 
of trees. They were rebel spies. We camp around the 
city, and have nice times. Pulling up stakes we march 
through the city. The stars and stripes hang gracefully 
from buildings, and across the streets. What a contrast 
from that we used to see in old Virginia. As we passed 
the towns and cities there, we were met with iinprecations 
and curses by the secesh folks of the sacred soil. But 
here, halleliijas and praises by the good people of Mary- 
land. AVe pull up at Emmetsburg on the 27th of June. 
This is a nice village, near the Pennsylvania iine. Here is 
where the celebrated St. Mary's College is sitnated, a Cath- 



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S THE ABJIY OP TUE POTOMAC. 



oiie institution, where tbe young men of our land aro edu- 
cated for the Priesthood, and are sent out to teach all 
nations the truths that our Lord and Saviour left behind, 
as a legacy that we might be saved and meet him in realms 
of bliss, where he reigns in heaven. We camp near the 
beautiful grounds of the College, and a goodly number of 
us, who profess that religion, avail ourselves of the oppor. 
tunity offered us by the good priests, to partake of the 
rights of our Holy Mother, the Church, which strengthens 
us for the mission before ns, and makes us better soldiers 
of our Divine Redeemer, us well as of our beloved country. 
Here we receive the news that General Hooker is relieved, 
and General Meade, takes command of the army. We do 
not know much about our present commander, but all feel 
confident that Lee and his army must get back to their 
own ground, on the sacred soil of old Virginia. 



CHAPTEE XXVI. 

LEAVE EMMET8BURG ASD CROSS THE LINES INTO PENNSYL- 
VANIA — GOOD FEELING AMONa THE PEOPLE — THE ENE- 
MY MET — BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG — NIGHT ATIER 
TUG BATTLE — HARD FIGHTING AXD FEARFUL 
SLAUGHTER. 

After a stay of a oouple of days at Emmetsburg, we 
leave tbe beautiful college grounds and march through the 
village. The bell in the tower of the village church tolls for 
morning mass, and makes us think of bye-gone times when 
we were wont to respond to the call of the bells in the tow- 
ers in our far-off Michigan homes. We leave the echo be- 
hind, and march on to the fearful carnage that is waiting 
for us. 



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FOUR VBAR3 C. 



On the 1st of July the advance of the rebel army is 
cheeked at Gettysburg, and it is evident they must fight 
before going any further North. We hear the distant boom 
of artillery, and inarch by quick time towards the front. 
Every man feels jubilant, and that if Lee goes any further 
he will have to do it by passing over the old Army of the 
Potomac. 

While we are marching along the road, within a few 
miles of G-ettysburg we are all singing and cracking jokes, 
but our jubilant spirits come to a sudden end, for the rebels 
open up a fire on us from a piece of woods to our left as 
we are marching on the road, to remind us of our close 
proximity to our old friends, of the army of Northern 
Virginia. Passing by on the double quick, we get into 
position to the left of Round Top, a mountain made his- 
toric by the Battle of Gettysburg, Our gallant corps com- 
mander. General Sickles, rides up, and soon we are in line 
in front of our old adversaries. There is heavy fighting 
to our right and we are soon engaged with some South 
Carolina troops. They fight well, but have to get 
back, and we follow with bayonet, driving them inside their 
artillery, which opens on us, causing us to fall back to a 
safe distance. The battle of the first does not tell on either 
side, for both lie down at night where they started in the 
morning. Our troops are arriving ali night, and taking 
positions along the line. Our army is in splendid spirits, 
and every one is confident of victory under our new chief; 
besides, we are fighting on our own soil, and every man 
thinks that if Lee don't get a whipping here he never will. 

The morning of July 2d opens up the ball, commencing 
to our right, near the village. Charges are made on both 
sides. The rebels occupy the village, but ore driven 



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IS THE ARMY OP THE POTOMAC. 91 

oat, whec our men take possessioo, anfl so the vil- 
lage is all day on our side of the line. We are fighting in 
a peach orchard, and they make it very hot for us. Their 
artillery do some fearful execution among our ranks, and 
frec^uently we have to lie very low. TKe battle rages fear- 
fully along the lines. On our part of the lines we are hard 
pushed. Our gallant Sickles falls wounded, and is torna 
off the field. Our division and corps feel disheartened at 
this, and we feel a little panic strickt-n. Our Colonel, 
Byron E. Pierce, is wounded. We lose a good many men. 
The rebels push us so hard that we have to give way. They 
pour their balls and shells like hail around us. We still 
get back, and everything looks bad for us. Making our 
way back, and getting on top of a round hill, an officer 
rides up, Genera! Williams of Michigan, and begs of us, 
for God's sake, to form a line right there, for if the enemy 
gained this hill the army would be in great danger. Fall- 
ing into line in an instant, and facing the rebels, we pour 
volley after volley into them. They falter. We load and 
fire. Some of tliem commence to skedaddle, more follow, 
when a!l of them up and dust. We chase them into their 
own lines, ending the fighting on our part of the lines; for 
night wraps its sable mantle over the bloody field of July 
1st and 2d. Some of us make our way for some water to 
cook our coffee. Finding some in a cow track close by, we 
dip it up with a spoon, and after about an hour's dipping we 
had sufficient for coffee, which was drank with a hearty rel- 
ish, as it was the first we have had since leaving Emmets- 
burg. Water is very scarce around here, and what there is, is 
reserved for the wounded, and of course the officers. We 
lie down, wearied and tired, to get some sleep, for neither 
party is vantiulshed yet, and not till one side or the other 
is whipped will they leave the field. 



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92 FOUR YEABS CAMFAIflNIKG 

The morning of the 3d opens bright and lovely. The 
fighting commences, and both armies fight as though con- 
fident of success. Charge after charge is made on both 
sides. Oh, what fearful carnage '. Men and horses drop all 
around. The boom, boom, boom, of artillery, and roar of 
musketry is deafening. Tlie enemy throw themselves, 
with great force on our left and center. Our lines waver, 
and all expect to get back against the terrible onslaught of 
the enemy. A part of oar lines have already given way. 
The rebels see it, and charge with redoubled fury, thinking 
our lines are almost broken. Oh, is there no hope for us 
but to fly ? At this juncture a brave aJd-de-camp rides 
along the lines, and tells us to hold our ground, as McClel- 
lan was coming up with forty thousand men. This is 
enough, and the very name of McClellan inspires new cour- 
age in the soldiers of his old army, and they commence 
cheering. The enemy thinking we are gettmg reinforce- 
ments, get back a litttle to reform their lines. We follow 
lip, and drive them again inside their lines, and fall back leis- 
urely without the enemy following us, getting the order to 
build breastworks, which is done with a will, and in less 
than one hour we have good works to get behind. While 
reclining behind our shelter, chewing our hard-tack, and 
talking about our expected reinforcements, about four 
o'clock in the afternoon, a tremendous fire is opened on us 
by the enemy, with all their artillery. We lie down and 
hug mother earth, knowing just what is coming next, as a 
heavy firing like that is always a prelude to a charge by 
the enemy. The rebels, after a ten minutes cannonade, 
cease firing. We raise our heads over the works, and a 
sight meets our gaze that none who saw it will ever forget. 
Line after line of rebel infantry emerge from the woods in 
our front, and it is evident that they are coming otf their 



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IN THE ABSIY OF THE POTOMAC. 93 

last charge. All our guns are double-shotted with schrap- 
nell, grape aud eannister, ready to pour into the approaching 
masses. The charge is to be made a short distance to our 
right, and we watch the whole proceedings from where we 
are. The rebel masses come up as cool as if on parade, and 
our men coolly wait for their coming. Ready, is the order, 
and the enemy are within one hundred yards of onr line, 
They come c-ioser still, all yelling and making a horrible 
noise. Our men stand their ground, and all are ready to 
repel the attack. The enemy are almost np to our works 
when the order is given to fire.; artillery and infantry 
pour their deadly missiles into their solid ranks. More than 
half of those animated masses are made to bite the dust. 
For a moment the men in the rear are nou-phissed, and 
some fly back, only to be killed by the unerring aim of our 
men. The survivors are desperate, and keep forward on 
their forlorn hope, only to be slaughtered as they come. 
"Forward, drive the Yanks," is plainly heard, but they 
might as well try to drive the mules that got stuck in the 
mud on a certain occasion, mentioned before in these pages. 
The Yanks would not drive, but they did their best to do 
it, and some of them actnlly got inside of our works, only 
to be bayoneted on the spot. 

Never during the war has there been a more dariug 
charge on either side than the rebels under Genera! Pickett, 
on that ever to be remembered 3d of July, 1S63. Our 
sympathies at this time for them was unbounded, and 
we all try to alleviate their sufferings as best we can. And 
although they are our enemies they are brave, and fought 
worthy of a better cause. Of course they are repulsed 
with fearful slaughter, and it is stated by themselves that 
out of about eleven thousand men who were in the charge, 
only one thousand got back safe. All the rest were killed 



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94 FOUR YEARS CAMPAIGNING 

or wounded, and that, too, inside of a ten acre lot. Among 
the roost severely wounded on this great charge, was the 
recently elected Governor of Virginia, General Kemper, 
who was borne off the field by Captain Collins, Sergeant 
Joe Evered, of Co. A., and Henry Parker of the same 
Company, all of the Third Michigan Infantry. 

Thus ended the battle of Gettysburg, and now all do 
what we can to alleviate the sufferings of the wounded. 
The moon shines out beautiful and bright, shedding her 
rays on the field of carnage. Taking my canteen, at a brick 
house near the rebel lines, which is completely demolished 
by balls and shells, I get some water and repair back to the 
dead and dying enemy. " Oh, please sir, give me only one 
drop of water," I hear from over twenty poor fellows at 
once. 1 gave them the cooling beverage, and empty my 
canteen in a short time. Soon it is again filled, and I am 
in their midst. "Oh, sir, put something under my bead," 
says one; "straighten my limb," says another, and I find 
them wounded in all conceivable ways about the body, 
limbs and head. While putting some guns under a poor 
fellow's head to relieve him, I bear not far from me the most 
plaintive song I ever heard. It put me in mind of my far 
off home in the Emerald Isle. The strangeness of the 
scene, and manner the song was sung, made the tears fall 
thick and fast down my cheeks. Making my way in the 
direction of the sound, I beheld a sight that chilled the 
blood in my veins. Before my eyes lay the singer stretched 
on his back, and eyes looking up at the starry firmament. 
He did not seem to be in any pain, but when he saw me 
standing over him, he asked for some water, which I gave 
him. The God bless you he said more than paid me for 
what I did that fearful night. I found, when I spoke to 
him, that lie was an Irishman. I asked him how it was 



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IN THE AKMY OF THE POTOMAC. 95 

possible that he could take up arms against the govero- 
ment that gave him a home which he could not fiod in 
peace in his native land. Oh, said he, it is ail misfortune, 
and now my dying regret is that I do not die for the starry 
flag. Fixing him up as well as I could I left him in peace 
and made my way back to our breastworks to get some rest 
and sleep till morning. 



CHAPTER XXVn, 

FOURTH OF JULY, 18G3— THE ENEMY GONE FROM OUIt FKONT 

AND RETURN TO THEIR SACRED SOIL — IN PURSUIT OF 

THEM — ARRIVE AMONG THE MOUNTAINS — SCENES 

AND INCIDENTS WHILE THERE, 

The Fourth of July opens bright and lovely, and all ex- 
pect a renewal of the conflict. Our pickets advance to 
where the rebel Jines were the night before, and get further 
into the woods and commence cheering. The enemy has 
left onr front. The excitement is very great in our army, 
for we have defeated our old adversaries again, and every 
one praises our gallant Meade for leading McClellan's army 
on to victory. We spend our Fourth with great joy, which 
is mingled with sadness at the loss of so many of our men 
who fell and died that our present victory might be achiev- 
ed. The fortunes of war cause a great many lives to be 
lost, and untold misery to be endnred ; but wc must all 
take our chances in this great lottery of life. 

The 4th and 5th are spent in burying the dead, and on 
the Cth we commence the chase after Lee and his army into 
Virginia again. Our cavalry take a good many prisoners, 
and are having hvely times with the enemy's rear guard. 



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06 FODB YEARS CAMP 

We are now making our way to Williamsportj where the 
enemy have taken np a position and built works. It is 
their intention to make a stand here until they can cross 
the Potomac with their trains and artillery. Pulling up in 
front of them about the 9th of July, every man expects 
that an attack is meant on the enemy's position ; but for 
some reason or other we get the order to bivouac for the 
night, and no attack is make. Nest morning we find that 
the enemy have crossed the river, and our army makes its 
way down the river on the Maryland side, and cross into 
Virginia at Harper's Ferry, over the bridge that spans the 
Shenandoah Eiver. We wend our way around the cele- 
brated Loudon Heights, and bivouac for the night among 
the hills. We have a long chase now, for the enemy are 
trying to make their way through the Blue Ridge at Man- 
assas Gap into the rich Shenandoah Valley. Next morn- 
ing we are up bright and early, and are on the march again, 
passing over some beautiful country. We leave the village 
of Leesbnrg to our left, and strike for the Catoctin Moun- 
tains, which overlook the beautiful County of Loudon. 
We wend our way up the rugged and steep mountain roads, 
and camp on the top in some lovely fields. Here the scenery 
is sublimely grand, and a view is before our eyes in the 
early twilight of the evening that is fit for a connoisseur, 
or the romantic eye of an artist. Away as far as the eye 
can reach is the broad and beautiful Potomac, meandering 
its way through lovely glades, and emptying its fresh water 
into the Chesapeake Bay, there to mingle with the briny 
waters of the broad Atlantic. Nearer to the eye can be 
seen the rich fields with their ripe grain ready for the farm- 
er's cradle, the beautiful houses ensconced among the nice 
trees laden with ripe and luscious fruit ; the cattle grazing 
in the meadows, all of which make up a panorama too grand 



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to be described, and when once seen will never be forgotten. 
We pitch our shelter tents, build our numerous firea, cook 
our much needed coffee, eat our frugal meal, and set by the 
camp fire, the moon shining down upon us and making 
everything look sublimely grand. We smoke onr pipes, 
tell our yarns, and not until nature needs its repose do we 
lie down to sleep in our temporary mountain home. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

OUB CHASE RESUMED — BATTLE OF WAPPINQ HEIGHTS — DE- 
FEAT AND PURSUIT OF THE ENEMY THROUGH MANAS- 
SAS GAP REBEL BEES — A FIERCE ENCOUNTER. 

We are loth to leave our mountain camp, but must keep 
moving, for there is plenty of work before us. We take 
up our line of march, leaving the hundreds of camp fires 
to smolder into ashes, and wend our way down the rugged 
roads and get on to the bod of the old Manassas Gap Rail- 
road, which leads tliroiigh the Blue Eidge. The track of 
this road is all torn up, the ties burnt, and the iron rails 
twisted in all conceivable shapes. We march along the 
bed of the road. The poor people along the line of the 
road are suffering very much for the want of food and 
clothing. 

On the 12th of July we come up with the enemy's rear 
guard, who have taken up a position on the heights that 
connect with the Blue Eidge Mountains. They have built 
some works on top, and seem to feel very secure against 
any force which we can send to dislodge them. But our 
corps commander. General Humphrey, is equal to the 
emergency, Onr corps, the Third, is all alone, for the rest 



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FOUR YBAKS CAMPAIOKINQ 



of the army is moving on other roads, to try fo intercept 
the enemy's backward march. Our corps forms in splendid 
position, and is drawn up in lines to charge on the heights. 
The enemy don't think it possible that we are going to 
charge up those steep hills, but such ia the fact. The 
order cornea to forward and fake the position. Our 
skirmiBherg advance, and are soon engaged with the rebel 
pickets, who fall back over the hills to get inside their 
breastworks, from which a brisk fire is opened on us, but 
we still keep on. Forward on the double-^uick is heard 
along the lines, but we have to put our hands on our knees 
to help ourselves on up the steep heights, and take hold of 
scrubs and brush to keep us from falling back. The rebels 
are dismayed at our move, and fire very wide of their mark, 
bnt once in a while one of our number is seen to roll back 
down the hill a corpse. At last we gain the top, and wait 
a moment to dress up our ranks. The order now comes to 
forward on the double-quick, which is done, and inside of 
less time than it takes to write about it we are inside the 
rebel works, capturing a number of prisoners, and planting 
the starry flag on the top of the highest hill in the range. 
The rebels now skedaddle down the mountain, and we hurry 
them on by sending some of Uncle Sam's leaden pills after 
them. The rebel army now are crossing the Shenandoah 
Eiver at Front Eoyal. We chase those in our front, and 
they get through the gap. Before us we see the beautiful 
valley, but cannot get there, for the rebels have burnt the 
bridges over the river after crossing. 

While halting for a rest a funny incident occurs, partic- 
ularly to those who were not actors in the serio-comic play 
of hunting bees. Some of our boys think they would like 
some honey from some bee-hives in a garden close by, so 



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IN THE ARMY 



they make a raid on the bees to rob them of their stores, 
which they have worked eo hard to accumulate. The boys 
think to take the bees by surprise, and bag every one of 
them — but the bees charge and make their way to a safe 
distance. The would-be robbers now make a charge on the 
store where the bees have their supplies, but do not take 
any honey, for the beea form in mass and charge on their 
adversaries, plying tht-ir keen edged ewords, and slashing 
in such a manner as to" make the Yanks come to grass, and 
turn such somersaulting on the ground as to put to shame 
a lot of Japanese acrobat performers in a circus ring. We 
spectators hold our sides for fear of bursting with laughter 
at the antics of our much sttiog comrades. At last our 
men beat an inglorious retreat, and leave the bees masters 
of the situation and their honey. When the raiders reached 
the ranks their heads resembled a huge mortar-shell, and 
all declared that their taste for honey is played out, and 
they don't care for any. So I think they will be content to 
hunt rebels after this, and leave their bees alone. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

RETRACE ODR STEPS AND MOVE TO SULPHUR SPRINGS — RE- 
CREATION — NEW YORK RIOTS — OUR REGIMENT SENT TO 
HELP ENFORCE THE DRAFT — ARRIVAL ON GOV- 
ERNOb's ISLAND. 

Our corps now retrace their steps, and march back in 
the direction of Warrenton, a beautiful village near the 
celebrated Southern watering-place. Sulphur Springs. We 
pass through the village and camp at the Springs, a dis- 
tance of about five miles. We get the ordere to go into 



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100 FOUR YEABS CAMPAIQNINC 

camp and make ourselves comfortable. This has been once 
a beautiful jjlace, but now the desolating hand of civil war 
has made its marks on the place. The princiiial hotels are 
nothing hut a mass of ruins, caused by General Seigel's 
shells a few weeks before ; but the lovely shades still exist, 
and the wells that so many Southern aristocrats were wont 
to drink from are here yet, and in their best trim. Here 
we have some nice times, and are getting a very much need- 
ed rest after our campaigns and battles of the last few 
months. 

Here we receive the news of the great draft riot in New 
York, caused by the three hundred dollar clause in the 
President's call for three huudrcQ thousand men. The 
clause is, that anyone who pays three hundred dollars will 
be exempt from the draft. Of course all poor people will 
think it unjust, as they can never raise the requisite sum 
for exemption. Three hnndred dollars is like a drop in the 
bucket to a rich man, and of course he need not go to war, 
for he can raise the to him, paltry sum at any time, while 
the poor man must leave his home and those depending on 
him for support to the cold charities of this miserable 
world. Oh, why do not the young men of our land come 
down to help us crush this rebellion. There are plenty of 
them in the North to take the place of the poor man with 
his helpless family, and none the less loving to him 
because they are poor. A young man that will not enlist 
now, but waits to be drafted, ought to be spotted by all 
good citizens, and made to feel his shame for not taking up 
arms to help his brothers in the field put down treason in 
the land. He ought never to show himself in his native 
place after the war is ended, but should fly to some corner 
of the earth, there to end his days in shame and disgrace, 
for he is unworthy to associate with those who suffered for 



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IK THE ABMY OF THE POTOMAC. 101 

this country that it might be the land of the free and home 
for all who love liberty. 

It is plain now that there must he some troo^B sent to 
New York to enforce the draft, and our regiment is one of 
the many detailed for that purpose. The gallant Fifth 
accompany us, and amid the cheers of our comrades who 
stay behind, we march to Beal'a Station and take the cars 
to Alexandria, passing by some old familiar places along 
the Bull Run country, and then take a steamer for New 
York, our new field of labors. We pass the beautiful 
shades of Mount Vernon, the celebrated Aquia Creek, 
Point Lookout, and soon are plowing the broad Atlantic, 
with its phosphorescent lights shining on the water like 
myriads of stars. The noble craft shakes a little, caused 
by the waves as they toss her to and fro. Some lean over 
the bulwarks, a shiver runs over them like an ague chill. 
They look around very wistful for some one to pity them, 
but must bear their sea-sickness as best they can, I, for 
my part, cannot appreciate their feelings, for I never was 
sea -sick. 

At last, after a pleasant journey, we arrive safe in New 
York and get off at the foot of Canal street to await orders. 
After lying around all day, in the evening we are conveyed 
to Governor's Island, there to rusticate until we are sent 
for. The Fifth get stuck in a sand bar and do not arrive 
for a few days after. This is a lovely island in New York 
harbor. Some regular soldiers are stationed here, and 
they have a fat, lazy time of it. We have nice times 
bathing, and enjoy all the comforts we wish for. 



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CHAPTER XXX. 



PBOCEED TO NEW YORK — AT CASTLE GARDEN — , 

BROADWAY AT CITY HALL FARK — AMUSEMENTS 

— THE DRAFT QUIETLY TAKES PLACE, ETC. 

After a stay of a few days on the Island we get orders to 
pack up and get ready to move. Marching to the wharf, 
we take a ferry to New York, landing at Castle Garden, a 
huge round building jutting out into the water. Here is 
where all the emigrants from foreign countries first set foot 
on American soil. The place is always infested with a lot 
of thieves, ready at any time to rob the poor, unsophisti- 
cated emigrant of his last dollar. The regiment form qui- 
etly, and, without any music, march up Broadway, one of 
the most wonderful streets in the world. We are bewil- 
dered at the sight of the grand buildings on either side, it 
being our first visit to the great metropolis of the United 
States. We pass by Trinity Church, with its tall 
spire looming up almost to the sky, and the old grave yard 
with its silent dead; immense buildings, occupied chiefly 
by bankers, insurance companies, real estate agents, and 
brokers, also the celebrated Astor House, and St. Paul's 
Church, halting at the City Hall park. A little further on 
we are quartered in a Government building, on Chambers 
street, and stack our guns. Picking out the softest floor 
in the buildmg we lie down to sleep, and next morning are 
up bright and early, looking in wonderment at the crowds 
passing to and fro to their daily toil. One would suppose 
there was no war in the country, for the number of people 
we see passing in this one city alone would make a good 
sized army. How long wo are to stay here we cannot tell. 



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IN THE ARUT OF T 



hut are informed that the draft will take place this week. 
Not having much trouble in obtaining passes, and desiring 
to see all the sights I can in tlie great city, I sally forth 
and arrive at Barnum's Museum. The first object that 
meets the eye is the picture "Before and After the Shave." 
One picture represents a son of the Emerald Isle just land- 
ed after his voyage from his native land. His long, grizzly- 
hair and unshaved beard make him look anything but pre- 
possessing. The other picture represents him after the 
barber got through with him. It is said that this man made 
Barnum pay the dearest for any one shave in his hfe. One 
morning Mr. B. went into a barber's shop to get shaved. 
There wag one in the shop before him. Barnum, being in 
a hurry, made a proposal to this man to pay his bill in the 
shop if he would give him his turn in the chair. The man 
aliead gives way, and after Barnum got through hetsid the 
barber to charge the other bill to him, and walked off in a 
hurry. Patrick sat down in the chair, got his hair cut, 
face shaved, head shampooed, then a bath, whiskers dyed 
and boots blacked, and tells the barber to charge the bill to 
Barnum. When the latter found out he was humbugged, 
he had the son of Erin pictured out and put in a frame, 
and hung where all can see the man who tricked the great 
showman and made him pay so dearly for a shave. 

I will not attempt to describe the numerous curiosities 
in this building, for it would take a volume to do so. After 
getting tired of seeing the views here, I wend my way 
through the vast throngs in the building, and gain the 
street. Then 1 stroll up Broadway, taking care lest I get 
knocked down in this thoroughfare. Men and women bus- 
tle along as though the old boy himself was after them, all 
elbowing their way through the crowds. Approaching a 
policeman on a street corner, I commence a chat with him, 



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104 ronH YEAE3 CASIPilGNISQ 

he telis me some woDilerful things about this city. Sud- 
denly he starts away in a hurry, and dives in among the 
hundreds of vehicles, which are so hlocked that not one in 
the whole street, as far as the eye can reach, can move 
either way, for their is a perfect jam. Those near cross 
streets are made to go on either side, to make a start in the 
jam and all commence to move again, like one vast machine. 
When the policeman gets back he tells me that the sight 
I saw was a very irequent occurrence. The next place of 
amusement I visit, is Wallack's Theater, situated on the 
corner of Broadway and Twelfth Street, and is one of the 
nicest in the city. There is a beautiful drama on the 
boards, and every one is delighted with the play, which is 
well rendered. But I must hnstle through, for tliis took 
is not large enough to contain descriptions of a twentieth 
part of this great metropolis. The nest place is Niblo's 
Garden, a cozy theater in the rear of the Metropolitan 
Hotel. Here the great sensational play of tbe Ghost, is 
on the boards, which is having a great run. After leav- 
ing this beautiful place, next I enter 444 Broadway a 
a great variety theater; nest I visit Bryant's Minstrels, 
and see the great Dan himself. There is a very funny 
little fellow here who goes by the name of Little Mac. 
The performance is first-class, and some of the best 
people in the c^ty visit the burnt cork professionals. Next 
I visit tbe old iowery Theater, run by Mr. Fos, A pan- 
tomime is on the boards, Mr. Fox taking part, and is a 
clever fellow, indeed. If one wants a hearty laugh, this is 
the place to get it. 

The time for the draft is drawing near; the men are 
all cautioned to be around. The day of the draft has 
come, and every man is at his post, crowded together in 
the large room. With anxious faces the wheel commences 



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F THE POTOMAC. 



105 



to revolve, and those who are drafted have their names 
announced. Ono in a while a poor fellow, when he hears 
his name, staggers to tlie door and makes his way to hia 
humble home, that is soon to be left fatherless, to inform 
his loving wife and darling children of hia bad Juck in the 
wheel. They fall on hia neck and weep as though their 
hearts would break at the loss of their only mainstay in 
this life. Oh, what misery this cruel war has spread all 
over the laud. But we must try and bear up, for if it 
takes every man in the country, this nation must be saved, 
and treason wiped out. 

The day of ihe draft has closed. No disturbance oc- 
curred, and it is well, for there are now nearly 30,000 vet- 
eran soldiers from the Army of the Potomac ready to put 
down any riot which might he made. The crowds disperse, 
but the poor unfortunates that cannot raise the rorruisite 
$300 go home to their families and there we leave them to 
their sad reflections while we lie down with the assurance 
that all is quiet in our part of the Potomac army. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

A ritlP liP THE HUDSON — A LOVELY NIGHT AND UEAUTIFUL 

SCENERY ABRIVAL IN TROY — PITCH OUB TENTS — 

ANNIE BESIEGED WITH VISITOKS — HOTEL LIFE — 
OAY TIMES — THE DRAFT IN' TROY'. 

Our work now iu the great city is ended, we pack up 
and march to the river and get aboard the Vanderbilt, a 
Hudson Biver steamer for Troy, our new field of labor. 

We leave the great city with its gaiety and misery, and 
are soon on the bosom of the broad and romantic Hudson. 



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106 FOUR YEARS CAIIPAIGNIKG 

Twilight approaches, and we can see in the distance the 
innumerable gas lights of New York, The moon shines 
out in all her fullness and glory. We group upon the deck 
and watch the beautiful scenery along the shores, which 
are dotted with opulent mansions, hidden away among the 
stately trees. On we go, the noble steamer bowed forward 
like a duck in the water, sometimes so close to shore that a 
jump would bring one on (errfi/rma, and then, in a few 
minutes more, out in the middle of the stream. At last 
nature needs repose, and all that can find room on the spa- 
cious cabin floor, lie down to sleep. In the morning we 
are awakened by the loud whistle of the steamer as she 
Dears Albany, the Capital of the Empire State. She draws 
near to the wharf to let off passengers, and then strikes out 
into the middle of the stream again, and after a ride of 
about &ve miles further we arrive at our destination in the 
city of Troy. Disembarked, we draw up in line on the 
main street, The people all flock around and don't know 
what to make of it, to see so many soldiers land on their 
shores. Our two regiments, the Third and Fifth Michi- 
gan, make quite a formidable appearance. Our regiment 
march up the street and we pitch our tents in the Court 
House Square. The Fifth go out to the fair grounds to camp. 
The people gather around and eye us curiously, watching 
our every move. We lie down in our little tents to take a 
snooze aud are awakened for dinner. Of course, we must 
be more than usually particular about our toilets, for we 
are now going to board in a hotel. We are seated at the 
tables, and everything seema very strange to us, not being 
used to hotel life. Reaching over we seize the pies and 
cake, and eat all the dessert on the table. Then we are 
ready to give our order to the waiters for our favorite dish 
of pork and beans. Coffee, too, we get, but do not relish 



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IN THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 107 

it like that we cook in the field ourselves, in our burnt tin 
Clips, which serve fo cook our meat, beans, eoup, coffee, 
tea, and everything else we get to cook. We make the 
waiters fly around, and, after our first meai, the hotel must 
be pretty well cleaned out of provisions, and the table- 
cloths will need wasliing before using again. After dinner 
wo file back to camp, and find our tents occupied by the 
I curious crowds to see what they can. We find that the 
people are as green about soldiering matters as we are in 
the hotels. 

Annie's tent is besieged with visitors. People come from 
far in the rural districts to get a sight of the great heroine 
of so many campaigns and battles. We do not blame them 
much, for, indeed, she is a curiosity, as she is one woman 
in a million who would leave a home of luxury and cast 
her lot with the soldiers in the field, wiio are all proud of 
her, and any man in the regiment would die in her defense, 
should any one cast a reproach on her fair name and char- 
acter. All believe her to be one of the truest of women. 
A few days in Troy makes us used to civilized life, and 
we get so we commence to eat our meals as other people 
do, leaving the dessert for the last. We are having nice 
times, and the people all think a good deal of us, when 
they find that the veterans of the old Army of the 
Potomac can be gentlemen aa well as soldiers. Each even- 
ing we have a parade, and long before the time comes 
thousands gather and occupy the most prominent places to 
witness the parade, which we go through in fine style, to 
please our auditors. 

The day of the draft is drawing nigh, and every one is 
anxious to know hoiv it will come out. Some citizens antic- 
ipate trouble, and think that some will resist the draft, but 



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108 



it don't trouble our appetite or break our rest in tbe least. 
I bave a bet of a twenty dollar greenback witb a citizen 
that there won't be a gun fired on eitlier aide, and that the 
draft will take place. 

At last the drafting day has come and every man is in 
his place. We have a section of Uncle Sam's barkers 
looking down Main street, and the powder monkeys are 
around to play mischief with any one who will be foolish 
enough to resist the law, even if it is a hard one. For the 
soldier must obey orders, no matter whether he likes it or 
not. The wheel revolves, and the unlucky ones go home 
to tell their families of their ill-luck. Everything passed 
ofi" quietly. The draft is ended, no disturbance, and I win 
my twenty dollar note. The men who were drafted deserve 
great praise, for they behaved like men, and deserve to be 
taken by the hand of the soldier and bo called comrades. 
They paraded the streets, carrying the starjy flag, headed 
by a band of music, all having a gay time in general, thus 
ending our work in Troy. 



CHAPTER XXXir. 

A MILITARY BALL — FAKEWELL TO TROY — ABOARD THE 

STEAMER HANDKERCHIEFS TO THE EYES OF THE FAIR 

MAIDENS ON SHORE — THREE TIMES THREE — ARRIVAL IN 

NEW YORK ON TO THE FRONT — ARRIVAL AMONG OUR 

COMRADES — ORDERS TO MARCH DRAWING RATIONS. 

Our work is done in the North now, and before we go 
back to fight secesh we must have a sliake of the light, fan- 
tastic toe. So we get up a military ball, and are favored 
■with the presence of the elite of the city. Everything goes 



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S THE ARMY OF THE 



off as merry as a marriage bell, and not until the wee small '■ 
hours of the morning did we leave the gay and festive ball l 
room. ! 

Getting the order to pack up, soon we are ready to start 
once more for the front. Aboard of the beautiful steamer 
thousands flock down to the wharf and line the shores, to 
bid us good-bye. Many a handkerchief goes to the eyes of 
the fair daughters of Troy. We give tlie good people, 
three times three cheers, which they return with a will. 
The noble craft moves down the stream, and we bid good- 
bye to the beautiful city after a pleasant stay of two 
■ week.?. 

We lie down and sleep tilt awakened by the iond whistle 

1 of the steamer as she nears the wharf at New York, where 

I we disembark and take a ferry for Jersey City, where we 

I take the cars for Philadelphia. Not much time is given 

■: US to go around in the Quaker City to see the sights, for 

the cars are ivaiting to take us to Baltimore, where we 

arrive after our pleasure excursion North. Then we take the 

train for Washington and after a short stay in the Soldiers' 

Home, go to Brandy Station where the army lay. We are 

met by our comrades of other regiments, go into camp, and 

are settled down once more to a soldier's life in the field. 

We now enjoy some nice weather, and a fall campaign is 
anticipated. So wo get the orders to march with three 
days' rations in our haversacks. The orderlies of each 
company go to the Regimental Quartermaster and draw the 
rations. They have it brought to the company grounds, 
and each man's name is called to come forward and get 
what is coming to him. It is a curious sight to see the 
men gather around and get their variety of provisions — 
salt pork, hard tack, sugar, coffee, salt, and just enough- 



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110 rorK YEARS CAMPilONlNCf 

pepper to make one sneeze, all of which is stowed away in 
the best possible manner in the haversacks. Sometimes 
when we go on a double-quick, everything is mixed together 
in solid mass, arid it takes us no little time to get our pro- 
visions in shape again. But we have to take a mixture of 
pepper and salt, coffee and sugar, onco in a while, as we 
find it impossible to part our provisions. 

We are now already to march, and the bugle sounds the 
call to fall in. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

ON THE SIAECH AGAIN — CULPEPPER COUltT HOUSE — NEW 
COUNTRY — A SURPRISE — BATTLE OF KELLY's FORD — 
A GREAT BATTLE ANTICIPATED — REFLECTIONS — 
THE ENEMY GONE FROM CUB FRONT — PUR- 
SUIT — BATTLE OF MINE RUN — 
COLD WEATHER, 

We are once more on the move, but this time on a new 
route to Richmond, passing the once beaiitifnl village of 
Culpepper C. H., the home of the celebrated terror of sut- 
lers. Colonel Moseby, of guerilla memory. We strike a 
direction to the front and left, passing over some new 
country where we find lots of fence rails to build fires, 
which is needed in these cold November nights. We push 
forward, and come to the bluffs that overlook the Rapidan 
river. Halting behind the hills, the order comes not to 
build any fires, for the enemy is in force across the river, 
and they must be taken by surprise. Everything is still, 
and our troops are silently getting into position and at last 
all are ready. Our skirmishers advance, followed closely 
by the reserves. They plunge into the river. The rebel 



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IN THE ABMY OF THE POTOMAC. Ill 

pickets open fire, and some of our men fall dead in the 
stream and are liorne away by the swift cnrrent at Kelly's 
Ford. Forward men, and the brave skirmishers reach the 
enemy's shore, driving tliejr pickets inside their works and 
holding their ground. Our corps march forward in solid 
mass, and soon the river is full of soldiers, up to our hips 
in water. Graining the shore, and shaking some of the 
water off our clothes, we get into linCj tlie enemy all this 
time playing on us with (heir artillery. But we will soon 
put a stop to their little game. See to the priming of your 
pieces, men, is the order. Forward — double-quick — charge 
bayonets, and in less than three minutes we are inside the 
rebel works, capturing a number of prisoners, and all is 
well. "We have a good foothold now, and can wait for the 
rest of the troops to get up, who are now crossing rapidly, 
filling the space between us and (he river in solid mass. 
Night sheds her sable mantle over both armies, which are 
confronting each other quietly. As soon as tcorning comes 
we expect to have a terrible battle, and each man has his 
own thoughts and reflections. We ait around the bivouac 
fires, and, as is usual before a great battle, each tells the 
others that in case he should fall what will be done iu 
regard co letting the loved ones at home know what became 
of him, and what should be done with the little efifects that 
a soldier carries about him. Write to my mother, says 
one, and tell her, if I fall, that I always tried to do my 
duty to my country. Write to my wife, says another, and 
j should I fall, my last thoughts were of her and my darling 
children. Write to my brother, says another, and should 
I fall, fell him to come and fill my place in the ranks. A 
thousand and one things are talked about and thought of 
the night before a great battle, which no one can tell but 
those who have passed through the sad ordeal. At last 

i . ^____^_ 



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IIJ FOUR YEARS CAMPAIGNINO 

poor human nature needs repose, and we lie down to rest. 
We look up and see the stars peeping down at us ; we 
nestle close together, for the night is frosty and cold, and 
soon we are oblivious of all tlio dangers that surround us. 

The morning of the expected battle comes, and all are 
up and ready for the fray. Our skirmishers advance, fol- 
lowed close by lines of infantry. We soon find out that 
the birds have flown, and nothing is left to show where 
Lee's army had encamped the night before but the low 
fires, smouldering in ashes. We must follow up the rebel 
chief and his army, and, if possible, make them fight 
before winter sets in. Probably that is what they are up 
to by falling back. The crafty Lee thinks he will get us 
far from our supplies and get us stuck in the mud again. 
The enemy has fallen back quite a distance, and we take 
our time to follow them up. At last we have come upon 
his frail, and find that the rebel army has taken a position 
at Mine Run. Our skirmishers feel their position, and 
soon strike "ile." Our army now gets into position, and 
a^drizzling, cold rain begins to fall, making us cold and 
miserable. We are now campaigning ' in part of the 
worst time of the year, and we all think our move will turn 
out to be a premature one. However, we are so close to onr 
old friends that we must fight them, or else we will have 
to, in the language of one of our army commanders, fly 
ignominiously, which may cause our utter destruction. 

On the 27th of November we are drawn up in line, the 
rebel army has a position on the other side of the deep 
run. How are we to get over, is the question, for the 
enemy's artillery line the steep banks on the other side. 
Our brigade is detailed to cross. We begin to walk in 
single file a couple of logs that span the Run. Moving to 



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IN THE ARMY OF IIIE POTOMAC. 113 

the right as fast as we cross, anotiier regiment moving to 
the left. We forward up the hill and soon get engaged. 
The rebels, we find, are not in very heavy force in our 
front, but enough to give ns all the fighting we want for a 
cold day. They stand their ground well, but some of our 
men get on their flank, driving thera back to a piece of 
woods. We follow up, they turn and face us. Nothing is 
thought of but load and fire, but we soon get tired of this 
kind of fighting, for it is so cold we must have warmer 
work. So we charge on our adversaries, but they don't 
get back. We are so close to tliem that they ask us to 
surrender, but thinking we a,re as strong as they, we de- 
mand the same of them; but neither party seems to be 
obliging enough to comply with the other's rer^uest. Finally 
the enemy give way a little, and once they give an inch 
Ihey have to get back. A few skedaddle through the 
woods, and they all soon fly panic stricken. We follow 
them up and take shelter in some of their works they 
have abandoned. We do not see any reinforcements com- 
ing to our aid, the bugle sounds the retreat, we all get 
back the same way we crossed, bringing our killed and 
wounded with us. Our last man h back over the Run 
when we hoar the yells of thousands of rebels charging in 
force; but they are too late. It is impossible for them to 
cross, and they know it, so they are satisfied to keep up a 
sharp Arc on our picket line, which we have established on 
the banks of the Kun. It is almost certain death to show 
one's head over ground, so the better part of valor in the 
present case is to keep as close to mother earth iis pos- 
sible. ' 

It was here that we lost one of our best soldiers by his 
own carelesness, Simeon Woodard. WTien about to 
relieve a man on the picket line, he commenced to walkout 



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114 FOUR TEARS CAMPAIGNINQ 

to the post upright. We caution him to creep out, like 
the other men, but he don't heed onv admonitions, 60 he 
takea the consequences. He had only moved n, few rods 
when he dropped his gun and put hack to the reserve. Sit- 
ting down, he drops off a corpse. We soon learn that he 
received his death wound through the bowele, 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

BETKACE OUR BTEI'S TO CAMP — ANOTHEH RETREAT — A CAV- 
ALRY FIGHT, IN WHICH THE REBELS COME OUT 
eeCOSD BEST— BACK TO CENTEBVILLE. 

It is evident now that the operations against the enemy 
at present, are at an end. The Aveather is cold and wet, 
and all feel miserable. Wo soon get the orders to fall 
back, leaving our position between two days. Our retreat 
begins in good order. The enemy don't s^em to follow 
very close, for we get away without having any trouble 
with them, recrossing the Kapidan and going into our old 
camp ; but don't stay longer than to cook our coffee, and, 
as is often the case, have no time to drink it. The army 
under Lee is said to be advancing in force, and mean busi- 
ness. For some unexplained reason, best known to Gen- 
eral Meade, we leave our camp and fall back toward Wash- 
ington. Wc file over the sloping hills to the west of Cul- 
pepper, Our division halt for a brief rest, wo look back 
over the level country in the direction of Culpepper and 
see our cavalry pull up in the rear of our army, commanded 
by the dashing General Custer. Clouds of dust rise away 
in the rear, caused by the enemy as they dash through the 
village. Our cdvalry wheel about and face them, evidently 



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raeaniog to give them battle. Thousands of the rebel 
troopers thunder down like anavalanche,butaroiiiet by our 
brave Michigan cavalry, who charge through their midst, 
and hundreds on both sides are left dangling in their sad- 
dles, while the horses dash wildly along, not knowin<' 
where to go, for their riders are in the arms of death. For- 
ward to the charge again the contestants go, and a fearful 
hand to band encounter now ensues. Neither party seems 
to give way, for both are determined to win the battle. 
The sight is awfully grand; the contestants' sabers flash- 
ing in the sun, the rattle of small arms aud the roar of 
the field pieces of the flying artillery. This is the only 
cavalry fight we ever witnessed, and all art^ anxious to 
know how it will come out. Both sides seem to be about 
equal, and fight nobly. At last, after charging and re- 
charging, tlio enemy gives way, and we, the spectators, 
make the welkin ring with cheers. The rebels are now on 
the retreat and our brave troopers follow up their advantage 
and drive them through the village of Culpepper. The 
rebel infantiy ai-e drawn up to receive our cavalry, who do 
not feel disposed to try a fight with them, and claim the 
old adage, to let well enough alone, retracing their steps 
and following in the rear of our army, ready to perform 
the same operation if Stewart's rebel cavalry wish to try 
another tussel. 

Nothing more disturbs our backward march except now 
and then a few rebel cavalrymen, who dash down some by 
roads and fire on our flankers, who are marching at inter- 
vals in the woods. "We get our long trains back with us, 
and our whole army pull up on the Centerville heights, 
waiting for the rebels to come. They, however, do not 
seem to risk another battle in the Bull Run country, and 
retire after taking in the situation. 



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CHAHTER XXXV. 
puEsurr Oh- the kmbhy oxoe more — uattli; of eristow 

STATION — REBELS COMMENCE WINTER HUTS AT BRANDY 
STATION — THE HUTS TAKEN BY OUR MEN AND WE GO 
INTO WINTER QUARTERS — FURLOUGH OF THIRTY DAYS — 

RE-ENLISTMENTS FOR THREE YEARS MORE RECEPTION 

AT GRAND RAPIDS HOME AGAIN. 

Once more the bugle sounds the fall in call, and we com- 
mence our cliaso after Lee. This advancing and retreating 
puts me in mind of childhood days, when we used to play 
the game of tag. We fall back from the enemy and make 
a stand; they follow up and feel of us. Then they fali 
bact, and now it is our turn to feel of them. We tread 
on their heels so close at Bristow Station, on tho Orange 
and Alexandria EaiJroad, that Ihey turn on ns and we 
have quite a fight with them; but during the following 
morning they are all gone from our front. Making our way 
to Brandy Station, we find that the rebels are busy as bees 
building winter quarters. As we are hunting for grounds 
to camp on too, and the country around here suits us very 
well, but the rebel army being too close for comfort, antl 
thinking that they can as well camp across the Kapidan so 
as to have that stream between both armies, we are desir- 
ous of their leaving their present quarters. But they 
don't feel disposed to go unless forced to. There could 
not be a better time or place than here to try once more 
which is the best army, so our gallant Meade thinks he will 
give them a fair chance if they want to fight on fair ground. 
Our whole army is drawn up in splendid position and 
ready to forward at the word of command. Never was the 
army in better trim for battle since our gallant Little Mac. 



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F TUB POTOMAC. 



117 



left us. The whole army loolis like one vast machioe — tho 
skirmish line in front, then the solid lines of infantry with 
bayonets shining in the snii, next the artillery, the pride of 
ourarray, with shining guns, whose brazen throats are ready 
to belch forth their missies of death, next our brave cavalry, 
with their sabres drawn ready to slash and cut. The enemy 
are drawn up in line, and look as though they mean fight. 
They wafcli onr every move. Will they fight, is the qiios- 
tiou. We shall soon see. Onr biiglea sound the forward 
call, and the whole grand Army of the Potomac move like 
one vast machine. Oh, what a sight ! Who can describe 
it? I win not attempt it, but will each one of my readers 
imagine the spectacle of nearly one hundred thousand men 
in solid mass, all bearing and ready to use the missies of 
death, artillery, musketry, revolvers, sabres, swords, and 
every conceivable instrument used in modern warfare. Ha, 
the rebels don't moan to make a stand, but fly ignomin- 
iously across the Rapidan, leaving us to confiscate their 
unfinished quarters and turn them to our own use. 

Our division take up a position near the farm of John 
Minor Botts, and go into camp. We build comfortable 
quarters, and are going through the old routine of camp 
life. The sutlers come up. Gingerbread, cakes, and can- 
ned fruit of all kinds arc in great demand. The sutlers 
and clerks are kept busy, and are reaping a ricli harvest 
again. 

About this time, the last of the year, an order comes 
that those who will re-enlist for three years more shall 
receive a furlough of thirty days, and receive a government 
bounty of $402. In six months more our term of service 
expires. Have we not done om" share for a while. After 
serving three years for our country cannot we go home sat- 



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118 FOrR YEARS CAUPIIQNING 

jsfied that we have done our share towards putting down 
the rebellionj and let those who stayed at home come and 
give their time as long; tiie country is as dear to them as 
to us. But myself, with thousands of others think that 
we would like to see the war ended,, now that wo have 
stayed so long, and accordingly re-enlist for three years 
more. A great many who have stayed at home have said 
that we are paid for serving in the army. If they mean 
with money, I fling the lie in their face, for I am sure that 
were it not for the danger our beloved country is in, no sol- 
dier who has ever been engaged in one battle, can be hired 
FOB money to fight another. 

Only three companies of our old Third re-euUst to hold 
our organization. So our regiment must lose its name 
after the three years are up. The gallant Fiftli re-enlist 
nearly to a man, and go home in a body retaining their 
organization and name. About the 27th of December wo 
take farewell of our comrades who did not re-enlist, and 
march to the station, where we take the train for 
Washington, passing by old familiar places where we have 
marched, fought and camped — Manassas, Bristow's, Union 
Mills, Fairfax and Fall's Church, leaving them all behind 
for a while, and forgetting our wearied marches and hard- 
fought battles. We arrive safe in Washington and take 
the train for Baltimore, and march over the same route we 
traversed two and one half years ago. What a change 
has taken place since then in the Monumental City. At 
that time the city was so full of treason that the very air 
stenched with foul secession, but now, a more patriotic city 
is not to be found in the union. Soldiers are treated with 
respect wht^rever they go, but when we first marched 
through we were in danger of our lives and had to be on , 
oar guard while in the city. We take the train for Harris- i 



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IN THE AKMY OF THE POTOMAC. - 119 

burg, and from there proceed to Pittsburg through the old 
Alleghaney Mountains. From there we travel very eiow, 
for a fearful storm of snow is raging all over the north, 
causing us to lay over sometimes on account of its depth. 
I am sure most of my readers will remember the first of 
January, 1864, as the coldest day that the oldest inhab- 
itant ever saw. I shall always remember it, for the mar- 
row in my bones was almost frozen, and all wished our- 
selves back to our comfortable camp in old Virginia. But 
time flies by, and so did those few coldest days, and we find 
ourselves in the Cily of tho Straits after a. long and tedious 
journey. We are well received by the good people of 
Detroit, and talie the sleepy night train for Grand Rapids. 
When we arrive in Lowell there are four trains laying over, 
for the track is blocked with snow in a cut a short distance 
beyond. Our conductor wants to lay over too, but we can't 
see it OH a thirty days' furlough. Now we have built for- 
tifications and breastworks, are as used to the shovel, 
and can handle it as well as the gun. So we tell the con- 
ductor to provide us with some of the former weapons and 
we will shovel him and his train through. Provided with 
the necessary implements, the locomotive snorts and blows 
her whistle, and of we go for the snow bank. The engine 
comes to a sudden halt. We jump out and attack the 
snow bank, and after working hard we soon had the track 
80 clear that the train passed over in safety. We jump 
aboard, the engine pufis along slowly up the grade, and 
gains the top all right. She goes faster and faster, and 
we come thundering down to the depot of the Valley City. 
Of course no one expects us, as all thi ok we are snow-bound 
somewhere. It is well they think so, for greater will be 
their surprise and pleasure to see us. As we get otf the 
cars the snow is almost blinding, the weather is fearfully 



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120 FOUR YBiHS CAMPAlGNIKfi 

cold, and we have to look ontforour eava to keep them from 
freezing. We have a march of a mile to the city, and 
find the snow as deep on the road as the mud was at the 
battle of WilliamsbHrg — up to our knees. 

When we get to Bridge street, the head of our little 
coltima pulls up, for we have some stragglers. Getting 
into martial order, our drummer boy begins to tap his 
drum, and all keep step as best we can. Eat, tat, tat, rat, 
tat, tat, the people all flock from tlieir comfortable firesides 
to the doors to see who are passing on that cold and stormy 
night. They soon find out who the intruders are, and all 
flock into the middle of the street, charge on our ranks, 
and everything is in utter confusion, for the hands of warm 
and loving friends sei^e ns and welcome us home. We find, 
on examination, that some of our number on the march 
from the depot, have been attacked by his majesty, king 
frost, and received severe contusions in the nose and ears, 
hut I myself, as usual, come out without a scratch. A 
beautiful banquet is prepared for us at the Bronson House, 
and are welcomed home after our two years and a half in 
secessia. 



CHAPTER XXXVr. 

VISITING ODK FRIENDS — &AY TIMES — DEATH OF COL. ClIAM- 
PLIN — Hia FUNERAL — RECRUITING — SCENES AND 
IN'CIDESTS — OFF TO THE WARS AGAIN — ARRI- 
VAL AT THE FRONT — CAMr 
LIFE ONCE MORK. 

We can go now where we choose, aud, of course, tivery 
one strikes for homo. I go to Canada for a few days to see 
my friends. Of course I nm welcomed very kindly by 



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IN TUB ARMY OF TUE POTOMAC. 121 

them. After a few days at home I begin to gee lonesome, 
and want to get back to the Valley City, where nearly al! 
our boys are living. 

Bidding furewel! to friends once more, I jump aboard the 
train for Detroit, and take the same old sleepy express for 
Grand Rapids, but by taking a berth in the eomfortable 
Pullman sleeping car, 1 sleep soundly fill morning, when 
we arrive in the Valley City. I find my comrades all look- 
ing as though they were well used and are having gay 
times, and enjoy themselves hugely, for they well know- 
how to appreciate a good time when they get it. Uut a 
soldier's life in the field hfis its joys as well as miseries. 

Our poor Colonel Champlin is dying, His Fair Oaks 
wound has killed hliu. Oh, what a loss to the country at 
this time, to lose such a man, when his brilliant career has 
only begun. But he has done his share for the country, 
and can die with the satisfaction of having his comrades 
of his old regiment, the Third, give him the last rites of a 
brave soldier's burial. As his comrades gather around bis 
dying bed, each one takes a last sad farewell of their com- 
mander, and more than brother. The tears fall thick and 
fast, and each one feeJa his loss indeed. But we must be 
reconciled in knowing tiiat all must go the same road, good 
and bad, old and young, rich and poor. AU must pass to 
that great unknown beyond the grave, but happy is he 
who, like the brave and gentle General Champlin, can say 
on his death bed, I have fought the good fight, for my 
country, and now there is a crown of glory laid up in the 
hearts of my countrymen for me. The members of the old 
regiment in the city march at the head of the funeral pro- 
cession, for they have a right to the post of honor. We 
march slowly to the city of the dead and lower our beloved 



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122 FOUR YEAHS CAMPAIONING 

Colonel into the silent grave, fire the parting salute over 
him, and leave the warrior to his rest. Brave soldier, 
thy worlv is done. No luore siialt thou lead the men that 
loved thee on the charge. No more more shall we hear 
the clarion voice of our hrave Colonel at the hattle front. 
We drop a silent tear, and bid farewell to the honored 
dead, and march back to the city to make preparations to 
go and face the enemies of our country again. We have 
a few days more, and we fll! up the lime in recruiting 
for onr regiment. 

The day of our departure has come, and we bid good- 
bye to onr friends and leave for the front once more, going 
over the same old route, through Detroit, Toledo, Cleve- 
land, Pittsburg, Ilarrisburg, Baltimore, Washington, over 
the Long Bridge, through Fairfax, Union Mills, Manassas, 
Bristow, Catlett's, Warrenton Junction, Bealton, Rappa- 
hannock, and arrive safe at Brandy Station. We get off 
the cars and march over a short distance to our old camp, 
where we are met by onr comrades and welcomed back to 
the front again. 



CHAPTER XXXY]}. 

WINTER LIFE IN t'AMl' — SHOOTING A DESERTER — GES. GHAST 
APPOINTED OVER ALL THE ARMIES — PREPARATIOXS 
FOR THE SPRING CAMPAIGN — SUTLERS TO THE 
UEAR, AND SICK SENT TO GEN- 
ERAL HOSPITALS — READY FOR 
A FORWARD MOVE, 

Our whole army has comfortable winter quarters around 
Culpepper and Brandy Station. We have our churches, 
theatres, debating schools, plenty to -eat and drink, and 



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clothing to keep iis warm. Kverytiiiiig passes off verj' 
quietly along the lines, and all seems to be working well. 
Once in a while our cavitliy wake up the enemy on the 
outposts, but nothing more than a skirmish takes place. 
The monotony of camp life is to he broken by the shoot- 
ing of a deserf«r. Of course, it is a hard thing to see one 
of our comrades shot in such a way, but military discipline 
must have its course. The soldier who deserts his com- 
rades in the hour of danger, deserves all the punishment 
due him, which is shooting to death by musketiy. If he 
had stood his chances with all the rest, then there would 
bo no need of his coming to such an ignominious death. 
The ceremony is a sad one, and ought to be a warning to 
all soldiers to stand up like men and endure the hardships 
alike, with liis comrades by his side. The day of execu- 
tion has come. The bugle sounds the call to fall in, and 
the whole division form to witness the death of their 
unhappy comrade. Oh, what must be the poor culprit's 
thoughts when he iiears that call, for it is the signal for 
him that his last hour on this earth has come. 

The division is formed in a square, the head of which is 
left open, where the grave of the unhappy man is dug and 
waiting to receive ils tenant. One regiment faces another, 
leaving space between for the procession to pass by. We 
hear in the distance the slow and mournful strains of the 
band as it leads the procession, playing the dead march. 
The mournful cortege comes slowly along; hand first, then 
a posse of soldiers, then the coffin, borne on the shoulders 
of four men, and the doomed man behind it. Cy his side 
walks the man of God, preparing him for his last moments. 
After them in the rear is the sqnad of twelve men, with 
their loaded muskets, that i.s to send thn poor, unhappy 



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124 FouB yeahs cajipaignikg 

comrade ioto eternity. At last the solemn procession halt 
at the grave; the coffin is laid by its side, the sc[iiad of 
men take twelve or fifteen paces to the riiar, turn about 
and face the man to he shot; the Provost Marshal of the 
division moves forward, and reads in distinct words the 
charges to the man and the sentence of the Court Martial, 
after which he steps hack to his command. The Chaplain 
kneels with the culprit and sends forth a prayer to the 
throne of grace for the unhappy man. At this time the 
stoutest heart melts into sympathy, and many a handker- 
chief is seen to go to wipe the scalding fears that full thick 
and fast, for indeed it is a uoieicn time, as any one can tes- 
tify that had the iinhappiness to witness such a scene. 
After the good Chaplain has done his duty, the doomed 
man is blindfolded and stands erect, waiting for the awfnl 
moment to come for him to he sent before his Maker. The 
Marshal gives the order to fire by signs with his sword, one, 
two, three, and the unhappy man is before the great Com- 
mander of lis all, to give an account of all his doings in 
life. The guns of the si^uad are inspected, to see that 
every man had fired his piece. The muskets are loaded by 
other parties, and out of the twelve is one blank cartridge, 
each man thinks probably that he had the gun containing 
the blank. The division march by the corpse, which lays 
where it fell, each take a last look at the unhappy deserter 
and then march back to camp. 

About the middle of March, General Grant was appoint- 
ed Lieutenant-General and Commander of the armies of 
the United States, and all think that he will lead the 
Army of the Potomac in the next campaign. "We don't 
know anything about Grant only by reputation, for he has 
always figured in the west. We hope now that this will 
be our last campaign, and when we do move we have 



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IN TUB AKMY OF THE rOTOJIAC. ' 125 

"beat our last retreat." We are daily recoiving large 

acquisitions to our army, iiiid now it is stronger than ever 

before. It is variously estimated at one hundred and forty 

thousand men or thereabouts, and all feel confident that if 

we have a good leader to conimand our vast army that 

victory will surely be ours. 

; About the middle of April tlio sutlers and all ciimi> fol- 

; Jowers are ordered to the rear, and we )iave orders to be 

■ ready to move. I receive a beautiful new flag, and send 

I my old one home to Michigan. We gaze on the bright 

j stars and stripes and feel proud of our banner that is so 

j soon to be baptized with the enemy's bullets. The sick are 

i sent to the general hospital, we pack up and send back 

I our surplus baggage, and all is ready for the fearful 

I campaign of 1864. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

on THE MARCH AGAIK — CliOSSISG THE BAPIDAN— THE AD- 
VANCE OF THE AKMY HALT FOR THE NIGHT — THE FIFTH 

OF MAY -A SURPRISE-— BATTLE OF THE WILDERNESS — 

A FEARFUL ENCOUNTER IX TEIE WOODS — GREAT 
SLAUGHTER AND NOTHING AS YET ACCOMPLISHED. 

On the 4th of May the bugle sounds the call to falliu. 
We file out of our late camps, all hoping never to return 
to them again. We make our way towards the Kapidan 
River, where we arrive without u rest on the road. Our 
corps, like the Second, under the Gallant Major-General 
Hancock, cross at Ely's Ford, followed close by Warren's 
Fifth corps. We push forward a short distance and camp 
for the night. The usual cooking is gone through with, 
the frugal meal is eaten, and all discuss the movements of 



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126 FOUR YEAHB CAMPAIGSIKQ 

our new conimaoder, General Grant, taking command in 
person. We have no idea that the enemy is near, and all 
think now that our object is to get between Lee's army and 
Richmond. On the morning of the 5th, Warren with his 
corps advance, not thinking that a fight wonld soon take 
place. They get on the Gordonsville turnpike and com- 
mence to march through an immense wilderness, but are 
surprised by Lee's army, hidden in the woods, who pour 
fearful volleys into their ranks before they know what they 
are about. The gallant corps withstand the shock, and 
forward on the double-quick, meeting their adversaries face 
to face. For a while our men kept the enemy at bay, but 
had to fall back nearly a mile against superior numbers. 
In the meantime we are hurried forward, and after a, forced 
march of about ten miles, come to Warren's relief. Our 
corps go into the fight with loud cheers, and drive the 
rebels before us. The firing becomes deafening, for all onr 
infantry that can be got into position are fighting. Sedg- 
wick, with his sixth corps is engaged on our right, and the 
battle rages for the length of seven miles along the wilder- 
ness. No artillery can be got into position, and it must be 
all infantry fighting here. The slaughter is fearful, men 
fall on every side, and my flag is receiving its share of bul- 
lets. Charge after charge is made on both sides. Some- 
times we drive the enemy, and then they rally and drive 
us, until both sides are almost exhausted, and night puts 
an end to our first day's conflict. The slaughter durin" 
the day has been fearful, but of course the battle has 
only commenced, for it is evident that Lee means to 
make all he can in this Wilderness, where he is well 
acquainted with every inch of the ground. We all feel as 
though we would like to "get out of the Wilderness," but 
we must stay and fight, for to retreat now would be njth- 



J 



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S THE AKMI OF TUB POTOMAC. 



iug bat utter defeat. We maneuver around a good share 
of the night, and at last lie down in the woods so close to 
the enemy that we can hear them talk, to bo ready as soon 
as morning dawns to forward on the charge. 

As the dawn of day approaches we are awakened, and 
stretch out of our unfinished sleep, but how many have 
slept their last sleep! We are again ready for the charge. 
The order comes to forward, and we go in, thinking to sur- 
prise the Johnnies, hut they are up and waiting for na in 
the thick chapan-el. They pour a volley into our ranks, 
and the ball haa commenced once more. Both sides stand 
and take the fearful fire, and the whole line seems to be 
one vast sheet of flame in the early morn. The number 
that fall on both sides Js fearful, for we are fighting at 
very close range. We charge on their lines with great 
odds, but they stand their ground like a solid wall of ma- 
sonry. Tlie roar of musketry, the dying groans of the 
wounded, tbe hellish yeils of the rebels, and the shouts 
and cheers of the Union men, mingle together, all making 
a noise and confusion that is hard to describe. Nothing is 
thought of but load and fire. The wounded must take 
care of themselves, and every man must stand and fight 
till either killed or wounded. The rebels fall in their line 
but those who fi»ll have their places filled with a man in 
the rear. So they faH, one on another. Pretty soon those 
in the rear make breastworks of their dead comrades. We 
don't like this kind of fighting much, and forward on (he 
charge in fonr or five lines deep. The rebels now give way 
and we chase them through the dense forest. We have to 
be very careful or we step on their dead and wounded, 
which Jay around in thousands. We drive them nearly a 
mile, when they fall behind some works for sIieKer. We 
now halt, for their artillery begins to fire into us. We 



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128 FOUR YEARS CASIP4IGSING 

hear them forming their broken hnes, ancl their officers 
lead them forward again. Here, Captftin Gear of Company 
0, received a severe wound, and had to be left to the ten- 
der mercies of the enemy, driving us over the same ground 
they had to sfcedaddie over only a short time before. About 
this time both armies, nearly two hundred thousand strong, 
keep up a rattle of musketry like the boiling cauldron 
of hell, as it is represented to us by our good Chaplains. 
My beautiful flag that looked as bright as a dollar when 
we startetl, is fit now, after nearly two days' fighting, to send 
home, for it is completely riddled with bullets and torn by 
the brush. Nothing is done on this day. but perfect slaugh- 
ter on both sides, and at last night puts an end to the 
sickening carnage. Which has the worst of the days' i 
slaughter? We certainly suffer the most in killed and 
wounded, for our numbers are almost two to one, but 
neither side, as far as ground is concerned, has any advant- 
age, for both armies lie down whore the battle commenced. 
The stench on this night is fearful, for the weather is very 
hot and the dead bodies, which lay around in thousands, 
commence to mortify. We suifer fearfully, too, on account 
of the scarcity of water, and the sight of a mnd-puddle is 
pleasant indeed^we go for it'like a drowning man catch- 
ing at straws. Oh, how tired we are, after these two fear- 
ful days. We stretch ourselves down, but are too tired 
to sleep, and spend the night in the greatest misery, Will 
the battle be renewed on the morrow ? We shall see. 

The morning of the 7th we stand up on our weary limbs. 
Our men are leaning on their guns in line. Some nice 
works have been thrown up during the night, and some 
artillery put into position, with a heavy slashing in front. 
In this battle there is not much chance to maneuver troops. 
Al! that is to be done is to keep the lines from being broken 



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P TUB POTOMAC. 



and see that there are no gaps. As fast as one man gels 
tilled or TOunded put another in his place, is the extent of 
good generalship in this featfnl and hellish wilderness. 

The fearful hatchery commences on the morning of the 
7th, and charge after charge is made on hoth aides. The 
sights that meet ns all aronnd arc sickening in the extreme. 
Bloated corpses are lying around in all conceiv.ahlo shapes, 
and more are added to the nnmhers every minute. An in- 
cident happened during this days' tight that I never shall 
forget. As we are going forward on the charge, a wcunded 
soldier, as he is borne to tlie rear on a stretcher, caught 
sight of my tattered banner, and begun the song, " Eally 
Konnd the Flag, Boys." Kvery man took up "the words 
and went in with renewed vigor, driving the rebel lines 
inside their works. They reform and drive us back. We 
take shelter in some temporary works thrown up by them- 
selves, and here hold them in check for awhile. Bui they 
come down on ns with superior nnmhers. We keep them 
on the other side for awhile, and a hand to hand fight 
takes place. Here is where Captain Nickerson, of Com- 
pany K., was killed by a bayonet thrust. Some of our 
lines commence to fall back, and a huge rebel asks me to 
surrender my colors, hut these I never intend to let go out 
of my hands till I have no life in me to carry them. Ev- 
erythmg is in an uproar, for it is plain to ns that the reb- 
els on this charge are trying to make all they can. There 
IS only one chance for me te escape, and that is to get back. 
I take a few steps to the rear, and an accident happened to 
me that probably saved my life. I tripped my toe agaiast 
something and away I went on my face, stretched out as 
if killed. No sooner than I fell, abont a doaen bullets 
whistled over and around mo. One of my brave color 
guard, thinking that at last my race |wa.s run, sprnncr 



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130 yOVR TEARS CASirAIGKlSp 

forward to save the flag, but in an instant I am on my feet 
again, and soon get away with my flag amid the cheers of 
my comrades. The rebels follow up close. We fall behind 
our breastworks, pursued so close by the enemy that it is 
with diificulty we make onr way through the slashing. 
When we get out of the way our artillery open upon the 
rebels with grape, cannister and shrapnell, and malte fear- 
ful havoc in their ranks, causing them to fall back to a 
safe distance. 

There is nothing to be written about now but slaughter, 
and night finds us in the same place we started from three 
days before. During the night we get the order to fall 
back, and all think we are going to re-cross the Kapidan, 
but the order is eouotermanded, and after marching a few 
miles, turn about and inarch to the front again. We find 
that what our new commander, General Grant, lacks in 
generalship he makes up in pluck, and says he will fight it 
out on this line if it fakes him all summer. 

We do not see that there has been anything accom- 
plished by the last three days' fighting, except a fearful 
slaughter of men, It has been variously estimated that 
our losses in this gory Battle of the Wilderness amounts 
to from twenty to forty thousand men in killed and 
■wounded. 



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CHAPTER XXXIX, 

A FLANK MOVEMEKT — BATTLE OF TODD S TAVKRS — THE 
JIURNING WILDERNESS — FEARFUL SUFFERING OF OUR 

WOUNDED — INHUMAN WORK OF EJCBF.L CUEItll.LAS A 

CHARGE AT SPOTTSYLVANIA COUHT HOUSE — TWO MAJOK 
GENERALS, EIGHT THOUSAND PRISONERS, AND FORTY-TWO 
PIECES OF ARTILLERY CAPTURED — ANOTHER GREAT BAT- 
TLE — SCENES AND INCIDENTS. 

On the eighth of May we commence to swing around on 
the celebratett Hue which we all think we shall have to 
fight on all summer, and leave the gory slaughter-pen of 
the wilderness behind. It is evident that a flank move- 
ment is on foot. But Lee is wide awake, and they meet 
us in force at Todd's Tavern, where we fight another bat- 
tle. We see that the woods in the rear, wliere we left, are 
all ablaze, and thousands must be burning up. Oh, what 
suffering there must be amoag the wounded, and, to make 
it more horrible for them, the rebel guerrillas prowl around 
and take everything from them, even to the clothing on 
their backs. Inhuman fiends ! It is a wonder that the 
wrath of God does not fall on them and smite them to the 
earth. 

The battle of Todd's Tavern was meant for a,flank move- 
ment on the enemy's lines, but the rebel chief seems to 
know where we are going to make a move, for his troops are 
as thick as bees wherever we go. It is easier for him to 
concentrate, and he can do it quicker on account of not 
having so much ground to pass over. Jle is in the circle, 
and can cut across, while we have to go around. We do 
not deny, however, that General Lee is an extraordinary 
General, for there is not a place he meets us, even with our 



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132 



FOUa TEARS 



far superior numbers, but that we arc clitcked. It is all 
nonsense to say that he fights on tho defensivi", for they 
make aa many charges as we do. Now what is the reason 
that we cannot walk right straight through them with our 
far superior numbers ? "We fight as good as they. They 
must understand the country better, or else there is a screw 
loose somewhere in the machinery of our army. 

Nothing is accomplished here, and we move further to 
the enemy's flank, but no matter how still we keep our 
movements, we are met with almost equfil numbers. On 
the night of the lltJi of May, our corps is put on a forced 
march to the enemy's extreme right, which rests at this 
time, at Spottsylvania Court House. The night is 
pitchy dark, and it is all we can do to see our way one after 
another. We march all night after fighting for the last 
six days without intermission. Oh, yes, let those misera- 
ble poltroons, who say tJiat a soldier fights for pay, come 
down and fight just one single battle in this campaign, and 
they will find out whether money could hire them to fight 
in another. About 4 o'clock of the morning of the 12th, 
we arrive, after a march of about twenty miles, at our des- 
tination. Wo get a little rest while the regiments are 
forming in line. Make no unnecessary noise, is the order, 
and every move is executed with the utmost stillness. A 
drizzling rtrin comraences; the clouds ai;e looking black, 
and we now see that a storm is approaching. AVell, we 
shall have two storms — the storm of the elements, 
with its thunders and lightnings, and the storm of battle, 
with its thunders of artillery and roar of musketry. We 
are in line, and every man is ready to forward at the word 
of command. Forward men, keep steady, and your lines 
closed up, are the orders, and twenty thousand men go in 
solid mass for the enemy's lines in the early morn. The 



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IN TUB ARMY or THE 

; whole mass commence shouting and cheering as they go on 
the clonhle quick, and heforo the rebels in their front line 
of ivork know what we are about, the gallunt second corps 
are down on them like ftn avalauehe, capturing eight thou- 
sand prisoners, forty-two pieces of artillery and two Major- 
Generals — General Johnson and the haughty General 
Stuart, of cavalry fame. The former General was filled 
with emotion. When our gallant corps commander, Gen- 
eral Hancock, offered him his hand he took it and wept 
like a child, and said that "he was sorry tliat they met 
under the present circumstances, for he did not like to bo 
captured in the way he had been." How much unlike he 
acted to his brother General. When the nohle Hancock 
offered him his hand, the proud slave-holding aristocrat 
replied, "Sir, 1 am General Stewart, one of the F. F. V'a 
and decline to shake hands with a mudsi! of the north," or 
words to that effect. But we were all proud of our brave 
and gallant General (or hiareijly to the haughty slave- 
driver. He answered and said : "And General Stewart, 
under no other circumstance than the present ono, when 
you are my prisoner, would I offer you my hand." 

The rebels are now infuriated, and Lee concentrates all 
the force he can possibly spare to try to take back that 
which he lost. They make charge after charge on our now 
well established, lines, but all the good they do is to "et 
slaughtered as fast as they come. The rain is now pour- 
ing down in torrents, and we are ankle deep in mud. The 
fighting along the lines for eight or ten miles is terrific. In 
this charge we lose one of the best officers in our regiment, 
Captain Thomas Tait, who was wounded while leading his 
company on the charge. Our artillery is doing great exe- 
cution here, for they have a good chance to make up for 
their inactivity at the wilderness. For fom- or five days we 



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13-1 roCB TEARS CAMPilGNlNG 

fight around tins place, and the slaughter Is nearly as great 
as at the wilderness. Oh, how sleepy, tired, and dirty we 
are, after the last three weeks' campaigns and hattles, fight- 
ing every day, and in the night huilding breastworks or 
marching. If the slaughter and fatigue lasts all summer 
on THIS line, as it has lasted since we started from camp at 
Brandy Station, wc think there will not be many of the 
original Army of the Potonmc left after the summer. Up 
to this date our losses are estimated at forty thou- 
sand men killed, the same number of men that Lee 
had when he started on this campaign, hut, of course, he 
is receiving reinforcements every day from the South. 
What would be the cry against our old commander. Little 
Mac, if he had lost so many men in such a short time. 
The cry would he long before this, perhaps, to hang him 
for incapacity to handle so many men; bnt the former 
growlers do not say anything now ; only look on in dismay 
at the butchery of thousands of the best lives in the coun- 
try, and send more down, without a murmur, to fill their 
places. Surely, we cannot see much generalship in our 
campaign so far, and the soldiers are getting sick of such 
butchery in such a way. Half the time the men are fight- 
ing on their own responsibihty, and if there is anything 
gained so far it is by brute force, and not by generalship. 
But we will fight it out anyway, if it takes every man in 
the army all summer. 

Our regiment, with all of our corps, has suffc^red fear- 
fully so far. John McNabb, of Company A, or, as he was 
more familiarly called, Scotty, has given his left eye as his 
mite for the cause, Lieutenant Leonard, of Company F, is 
no more, and nothing would afford me greater pleasure 
than to mention all would space permit. 



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CHARTER XL. 

BURYING THE DEAD — ANOTHEE SWINU AROUND ON OUR ALL 

summer's line — BATTLE OF NORTH ANNA EIVER — A 

TOUCHING INCIDENT— ANOTHER SWING — BATTLE 

OF COLD HARBOR— THE THREE YEAR'S 

MEN GO HOME REELECTIONS. 

After both armies get tired and exhausted in their 
slaughtering, we have a kind of rest, only some hard skir- 
mishing going on, which, in ordinary campaigns would be 
called hard fighting. But we are so used to it now that 
we don't pretend to make any more bowing to the bullets, 
and only when a huge shell comes slowly through the 
air do we bow our heads in meekness. We pitch in and 
bury all the dead we can reach, but there are thousands 
between both lines that neither party can reach, conse- 
r[uently we have an unwholesome atmosphere to breathe. 

About the 17th of May we make another swing around 
to the enemy's right, leaving the gory fields around Spott- 
sylvania Court House behind. Almost every step we take 
wo find the enemy before us. We leave littlemounds along 
our route, with their tenants, who have fallen on this ter- 
rible line. 

On the 27th we arrive at the North Anna Kiver, and find 
the enemy entrenched on both sides of theriver before us. 
Our division, under the gallant General Barlow, of New 
York, form quietly in a piece ot woods in front of a rebel 
redoubt. Wo know what is to be our nest move. We 
have a couple of hours before everything is ready for the 
charge which is going to be made. So we hurry up, and 
in a short time have our steaming coffee ready for use. 



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tt YEAK3 CAJIPAIONINO 



I Oh, what a delicioii8 flavor this coffee has, from our burnt 
j tin cups. I nm sure I never tasted anything which I rel- 
I I'shed more than my ciii) of coffee on this occasion, for it 
I was our only chance to have anyin a long while, and this 
' tune it was hke stolen fruit, but we took the conseijuences and 
had a cop of our iiivorite beverage. After finishing our 
meal, the order comes to pile our knapsacks in a heap, for 
this time wo were going a little lighter than we were used 
to do on the charge. It is only a short ways to the enemy's 
works on our side of the river. It is an easy task to cap- 
ture those, but we mean to cross the river and take the 
works on the other side. Getting into line, fix bayo- 
nets, shoulder arms, are the orders. The order to load is 
not given, for on this campaign every man is supposed to 
keep his piece loaded nt ali times. Forward— double- 
quick— march, is the order, and ali move forward in solid 
mass with a cheer, and in less than five minutes we have 
the rebel redonht and the works are taken in our front, 
with the troops that were in them. The rebels open up 
from their artillery, which line the banks on the other side, 
and pieces of shell fly all around. We follow up the charge 
to the banks of the river, bnt are so close to the rebels that 
they fire at us with musketry, and pour inshrapnell, grape 
and cannister at us thick and fast, We make our way 
along the bank and attempt a passage over the bridge that 
spans the stream, but the enemy have a fearful fire concen- 
trated at that passage, and we get off quicker than we got 
on, and get behind what cover we can for protection, as it 
is of no possible use to be exposed where no benefit is de- 
rived. Making our way back to the redoubt, after running 
the gauntlet of the rebel batteries, we get into position. 
Night puts an end to this days' fight. 

Here we lost a good many of our men whose term of 



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service would have been up on the 10th of June, only four 
days more. Poor fellowa, what plans for the future they 
must have made for themselves after they should get home. 
But, alas, for all our plans. In an instant they are dashed 
to pieces by the fortunes of a cruel war. 

Daring the night our troops make a crossing on the right, 
causing the enemy In onr front to give back, so that we can 
cross with leisure. After crossing the river, we find that 
they have fallen back only a short distance and are forti- 
fied behind some strong works. We get orders to build 
breastworks, too, and commence only a short distance from 
the rebel lines. They keep firing at us while we are at 
work with the spade, and quite a number are borne to the 
rear, killed or wounded. At last we have our works built, 
and feel safe against any attack they choose to make, with 
a good foothold on their side of North Anna River. 

On the 26th we fight ono more battle here, and make 
another move on our line, this time getting around in 
hopes to get between Lee's army and Richmond, but we 
are met at Cold Harbor by the rebel army, ensconced be- 
hind strong p'orks. This is the hardest line w-e ever trav- 
eled on to go to Richmond. But we have many a long 
day's work before us ere we reach our much fought for 
Richmond, 

Here we fight another great battle, thinking to drive 
Lee's army into the Chickahominy river. For five or six 
hours wo attempt to force the enemy's works, but' eaph 
time are repulsed with great slaughter. Our lines extend 
about eight miles, and the roar of musketry and boom of 
artillery along the entire line, make a noise equal to that of 
the wilderness or Spotsylvania. Our losses here, after accom- 
plishing nothing as we can see, are estimated at from twelve 



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lab FOUB YEARS CAMPAIGNIKO 

to fifteen thousand men. After being repulsed we build 
6ome breastworks by a creek of water, and stay behind 
them for a few days, probably to rest. Indeed it is a rest 
much needed, after more than a mouth's campaign, which 
never was equalled in modern times. Not a day in all this 
time but we have been under fire, most of the time fight- 
ing hard battles, and bo far have seen nothing but fighting, 
marching, digging, and burying tlie dead. Oh, what a 
bloody trail we have left behind to point out to all future 
generations the celebrated line that we fought on all sum- 
mer in the year 1S64. Not loss than fifty thousand men 
have been left behind, weltering in their gore, on our own 
side, and that, too, inside of one short month. 

On the 10th of June, at this place, those who did not 
re-enlist of our gallant old Third, are going home, for tlieir 
contract with their good Uncle Sam is ended, and now they 
can go and bask in the sunshine of those they love, after serv- 
ing their country for three long years of hard campaigns and 
battles. We who cannot go home with our comrades have 
entered into another contract with our Uncle Sam for three 
years more. We do not censure them or feel hard toward 
them for not re-enlisting, for we consider that they have 
done their share, at least for awhile, in this great struggle. 
It is just three years ago to-day, the 10th of June, since 
we enlisted to fight the enemies of our country. We left 
our beautiful Valley City with more than a thousand 
strong. But how many of all that gallant regiment are 
left after the campaigns and battles of the last three years. 
Let the poor widows and orphans at liome answer this all 
important question. Our comrades who leave us giS^e us 
three times three cheers, and we return them with a will, 
and they leave on their homeward march, while we stay to 
fight it out on the line if it takes all summer, and winter 
too. 



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CHAPTER XLI. 



ANOTHEH SWING ON THE LINE— A, FOHCED MARCH CltOSS- 

ISO THE JAMES RIVEK — SICK, AXD LEFT BEHND — AMBU- 
LANCES — THE REAR GUARD— LIE DOWN TO DIE — 
SCARED INTO LIFE BY A RATTLESNAKE — HEAVY 
FIGHTING IN FRONT OF FETERSBURG^ 
THE FIELD HOSPITAL. 

It ia now clear that it is impossible to break the eoemy'a 
lines at this point, and we get the order to move again. 
We strike across the Peninsula, and after a forced march, 
(irrive at the James Kiver. On the 14th of June cross the 
river at Wilcox Landing. We camp a short distance from 
the river, and we feel that a good bath would do us no 
harm, and soon hundreds of us are rolling around in the 
beautiful James. The day is very hot, and I find that 
during the night I am awakened by cramps, and diarrhcea 
set in, which put me in a fearful condition, especially now , 
wliea the army is on the move. Next morning I am so 
sick that I cannot march any further. The regiment file 
out of their bivouac, and for the first time in over three 
years am left behind. One of our drummer boys is left 
with me, and I have a surgeon's pass to get into an ambu- 
lance. Making my way to the main road, I sit down to 
wait for one to take me along. Hundreds pass by empty, 
but I cannot get any of them to stop. At last I get picked 
T.p by one belonging to the Eighteenth Corps. This is my 
first ride in one, and I trust in God ic will be my last, for 
I never suffered so much in my life as on that day. The 
rougher the roads the faster my inhuman driver would 
drive, until at last I beg of him to have mercy on me and 
drive slower over the rougher part of the road. But I 



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140 POUR TEAKS CAMPAIGNING 

might as well ask mercy from the devil himself as to ask 
it from this miserable sneak and shirk. If all ambulance 
drivers are as devoid of feeling as this one, I pity those 
who have the misfortune to have to ride with any of them 
when sick or wounded. 

About twelve o'clock at night we halt in some fields. 
The ambulances are all parked together in a circle. My 
driver comns around and tells mc to get ont, so that he 
can get in. Of course, I cannot make any resistance, and 
crawl out and stretch myself on the wet, dewy grass, with- 
out a covering or an oil cloth to put under me, for every- 
thing has been thrown away on our fearful campaign to 
make us lighter for marching, except canteens and haver- 
sacks. I have a raging fever, and pass off into an unsound 
sleep. When I awoke in the morning, I found the warm 
rays of the sun shining upon me. Looking around, I find 
I am alone in the field, for the ambulances had all left early 
in the morning. I feel lonely, tired, and very sick. Every-' 
thing is as still as the grave. I can hear the distant boom 
of heavy guns, and the faint sound of musketry. Oh, 
that 1 could he up with my comrades again and all right. 
But now, alas, I am not able to help myself. I make a 
feeble effort to reach the main road and sit down by a tree. 
While here I see the Provost Q-uard of the army headquar- 
ters advancing np the road, fetching up the rear and pick- 
ing up all stragglers. The ofiicer in chargecomes up to me 
and tells me to come along. I tell him I am sick. But 
he says he is too used to the plea of sickness, and tells mo 
that that is played out. I tell him that I am played out, 
but that is no escuse, and I try to raise up, hut my limbs 
fail me and I fall to the ground again. He asks me where 
is my gun. I tell him that I am Color Sergeant of the 
Fifth Michigan Infantry, for at this time we are consoh- 



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141 



dated with the Fifth. He saw then that I was not play- 
ing off, as he thought at first, and tells me to get into the 
shade, where I would he ont of the burning sun, and they 
leave me to my fate. 

I will explain here and make a few remarks ahoufc shirks, 
bummers, sneaks and thieves, all called camp followers. 
The first is a man that when the army comes up, and is 
expecting that every man will do his duty, now wo are 
ready to meet the enemy, he looks around to see if any of 
his comrades are watching him, and drops to the rear — 
deserts his comrades in time of danger. He then becomes 
a bummer, and prowls around, and will do anything to 
keep himself away from danger in the ranks. He then 
becomes a sneak, and tries to get an ambulance to drive, 
or "sigh." After that he becomes the thief, and will steal 
from friend and foe alike, and is devoid of all principle. 
Reader, look around yon, and sco if there is such men in 
your midst. Shun them as yoii would a viper, and show 
to them that they are despised in private life by their 
neighbors, as ,fhey were in the army by their comrades. It 
is such men as these that cry f^r an equalization of boun- 
ties. 

I make my way further into the woods and lie down 
among the leaves, thinking that that would be my dying 
bed. Oh, the awful stillness that prevails around me 1 I 
have no water, and am almost choked with thirst. Oh, 
that 1 could die now and end all my hardships ; but what 
account would be given of me should I die here? No one 
knows where I am, and the thoughts that run in my mind 
are hard to describe. As I lie on my back thinking, I hear 
a rustling in the dry leaves by my head. Turning to see 
what causes the noise, a sight meets my eye that makes 



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ro.DK YEARS CAMPAIGNIXG 



the blood ran cold in my veins. A huge rattlesnake is in 
the act of making a spring at me. Instantly I am on my 
feet, and with one bound leap about ten feet from the spot. 
I take renewed courage and make my way for a distance of 
about a mile, when I see some tents pitched in front of a 
house close by. I make my way to the gate, but find 
that my head becomes dizzy and everything looks dark 
around mo, and 1 fall at the gate as if dead. When I 
come too, I find somo kind nurses bending over me, and all 
looking anxiously for my recovery. I find, after awhile, 
that I Ml into the hands of the ladies of the Christian 
Commission, who have left home and all its luxuries to 
administer to the poor soldiers iu the field. God bless all 
those devoted women, and if they do not receive their 
reward on this earth may they receive it in heaven, is the 
wish of one who owes them a debt of gratitude. 

We hear heavy firing in front, and it is plain to iis that 
heavy fighting is going on. The wounded now commence 
to come back, aud they are talking of sending the sick 
back to the general hospitals. I take up my line of march 
for the front. I feel a little stronger, and am in hopes by 
taking it easy, to reach my regiment or fall in with my 
division field hospital. I come up to a fort near the 
O'Han-ow House, in front of Petersburg, where are quar- 
tered some negro troops, who claim that they fought bravely 
to capture the forts and breastworks in their front. Of 
course no one could tell me anything about my corps, and 
I strike off for the left of the lines. The pickets are firing 
in front, and an occasional bullet spats harmlessly by 
my feet. At last I came in sight of an officer of our divi- 
sion stafi; and he informed me where the division field hos- 
pital was. I make my way there, where 1 meet our kind 
surgeon, Henry F. Lyster, with hia sleeves rolled up and 



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143 



his hiiuds dripping with blood, fur he has jast come from 
the amputating table. He tells liis colored boy to make 
a bed for me in his own tent, and to get mo something 
gojd to eat. Soon the boj' has a chicken stewins fur me, 
and I make a hearly meal, which revives me very much, 
for it is the only thing I had to eat in two days. Tlie 
wounded come back now from the front in great numbers, 
and after a day or so I am about, doing all I can for my 
comrades. I find Kalph Steffans of my own Company, 
iihot through the lungs, and in a fearful way. The mag- 
gots crawl ali over his body. No one has as- yot seen to 
him, for there is not enough help, and a great many die 
for the want of care, I go to work and wash his wound, 
and got some clean drawers and a shirt for him. He seems 
to think he is going to die, but I cheer him up as well as I 
can, in the meantime I have no hopes of his recovery, 
— but he got over it, and now is at home after the war and 
is doing well. Poor Sergeant Deidrick. No better soldier in 
the service, and one who has caiTied one of the colors of my 
regiment, but now he is dying, after bearing the starry flag 
aloft for over two years. He informs me that Corporal 
Weir, who carried my colors, has been shot dead, and near- 
ly all of ray guard are either killed or wotmded since I 
left, only a few days. I try to cheer him up, but no use, 
as he says he is bound to die, and I find, when I go to see 
him next morning, that he is in the arms of death. Poor 
fellow, thou hast fallen at last, bearing the starry emblem 
of your adopted country. Who will say that the foreign- 
ers have not done their duty in this rebellion ? Where is 
there a battie-field in the country that is not sealed with the 
life blood of the foreigner. Of course they have, uud claim 
as good rights under the Constitution, as any who live in 
the land, consequently they claim a right to fight for this 



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I4i FOnit YEARS CAMPAIGNIHQ 

country, and keep it whole, so that it will be the home of 
all who are oppressed by foreign tyrants, no matter from 
what country they come. 

The scenes around a field hospital wilt baffle all descrip- 
tion; the bringing hack the worst of the wounded on 
stretchers, men hobbling back, shot in the leg or arm; 
men wounded in all conceivable shapes, in the head, limbs 
and body; the groans and shouts of the sufferers; ampu- 
tated limbs heaped up around the dissecting tables ; hun- 
dreds under the influence of chloroform, and cuttting np 
all kind of antics; ail make up a scene that would melt a 
heart of stone at the suffering that is all around. This is 
my first instance in a field hospital, and I hope my last. 
We witness great suffering on the field in the heat of bat- 
tle, but everybody is so excited that no one will think 
much of it, but here in the hospital one can see and appre- 
ciate all the sufferings of the wounded soldier. 



CHAPTER XLII. 



GETTING WELL AGAIN — BACK WITH MY REGIMENT— A LONG 
SIEGE BEFORE US BUILDING FOKTS AND BREAST- 
WORKS — THE PETEKSBUEO EXPRESS — FOURTH OF 
JULY 1864 — HOW IT IS CELEBRATED. 

About the 20th of June I make a start fur the regiment. 
The doctor thinks I had better stay back for a while, but 1 
want to get back, for it seems a long while to be away, two 



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weeks. But what has been done la those two weeks ? 
more slaughteriog on the line, but the array has pulled up 
at last, and have been thundering away at (he gates of 
Richmond. But we cannot force them, and a long siege 
is now before us. 

My comrades are all glad to see me back. I miss a goodly 
number of brave boys, who have fallen since I left. Wo 
have hard work now before us, for we lay right down to 
tlie siege— nothing hut digging and picketing is the order 
of the day, mixed up with a charge now and then, by way 
of a change. 

Our corps, the Second, under General Hancock, is 
assigned a position in the center, and we strive now to build 
coverings for protection from the rebel shells'and the heat 
of the burning sun, for the weather is extremely warm 
and a large number are overcome with heat and hard work. 
We are so close to the rebel lines that we can plainly hear 
them posting their watch on picket. But neither the enemy 
nor our men fire on each other, and all is iiuict along the 
lines, but an occasional artillery duel between our batteries 
and the enemy's, so once in a while we have to bow our 
heads in submission to the rebel shells. Our sutlers all get 
up again, and we get what we want in the way of luxu- 
ries. We have to keep moving from one part of the line 
to another, and are only two or three days In a place. We 
build comfortable quarters in one place to-day and to-mor- 
row have to leave them, and so on with every regiment in 
the army. We receive a despatch every morning from the 
rebels by the way of the "Fetersbukg Express," a large 
gun that they fire, which they have named after the paper 
of that place, which is issued in the city. Despatches of 
this kind we can get along without very well. But they 



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146 



will force them upon us, so wc have to receive them as 
courteously as wo can. 

Bat the Fourth of July is now at hanJ, and we retarn 
the salute of our old friend, the -'Petersburg Express," 
ten fold. The glorious Fourth is ushered in by firing a 
shotted salute of thirty-seven guns, to let our neighbors 
knoiv that we Btill believe in the union of all the States. 
Our misguided brothers iu arms cannot appreciate our way 
of celebrating, but we cannot help it, for we must iire 
sahites in honor of the day, and we are not going to turn 
our guns around, ro they must put up with our shotted 
salutes. 

We have swung around a good many circles since our 
first Fourth of July, iu Washington. What hardships we 
have endured since then no one can tell, and now that ws 
have passed through such bloody ordeals, we cannot real- 
ize fully that we have experienced such tiresome marches 
and fearful battles. As we look over the past, to most of 
us it seems like a dream. A bloody panorama is spread 
before our gaze, from the bloody fields of first Bull Hun, 
down the majestic Potomac, across the beautiful Chesa- 
peake. We confront on the Peninsula the rebel army, and 
fight them up to the very gates of tlieir capital. Then 
come our seven days of fearful fighting, our tiresome and 
thirsty marching over the same ground, and once more we 
fight the enemy on the old battle ground of First Bull 
Run. Next the bloody battles ot South Mountain and 
Antitani were fought on the loyal soil of Maryland, and 
the rebel horde were swept back to their sacred soil. Next 
the long and fatiguing marches to Fredericksburg, to fight 
on the gory field at that place; next we are stuck in the 
mud, and the bloody battle of Chancellorsville is fought; 



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N TUB ARMY OF TUB 



then we chase the rebel army into Pennsylvaniaj and after 
three days' dreadful fighting at Gettysburg, drive them 
once more to their sacred soil; next we climb to the tops 
of the mountains and there meet and drive the rebels off, 
who fly ignominionsly across the Shenandoah into the val- 
ley; then comes our trip to the North to enforce the draft; 
the winter at Brandy Station, followed by the fearful cam- 
paign whichwe have just gone through, from tlie Wilderness 
to our present siege at the gates of the rebel Capital. Who 
will not say that the three years just passed have not been 
the most fearful and bloody of modern times ? But now 
what must be done ? Of course, as our present Com- 
mander, General Grant, has said, we must still fight on 
this LINE if it takes all summer. The Fourth of July is 
ended by firing more salutes in honor of the glorious day 
we are trying to hand down from our fathers to our sons, 
thence from them to time immemorial. 



CHAPTER XLIil. 

ORDERS TO MARCH WITH THREE DAYs' EATIOSS — A FORCED 

MARCH — ON THE PENINSULA AfiA IN — BATTLE OP DEEP 

BOTTOM — AN INCIDENT — FAILURE OF A PLANK 

MOVEMENT — FORCED MARCH BACK TO 

FETEBSBUKG — -ELOWIKa UP A 

REBEL FOBT — AFALUBE. 

All is r[uiet in the Potomac Army, but not very 
long, for wc get the order to move again. We have now 
some nice works and forts built along the line in the face 
of the rebel stronghold. We get the orders to march with 
three days' rations in our haversacks. Where to ? now is 



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148 JOUR YEARS CAMPAIQNINO 

asked, one of another, but no one can toll with any cer- 
tainty, and we file out oi our late curap, moving to the 
right. We have a forced march before us, and the order 
is for every man to keep in his place. The night is very 
dark and warm. Clouds of dust envelope us, and we 
trudge along the load passing by fires that are kept burn- 
ing to guide lis on our way. After a weary and fatiguing 
march we pull up at the mouth of the Appomattox river, 
and cross over on pontoons that are laid down for us. We 
step once more on the Peninsula anil adv.ince. About 
eight o'clock in tlie morning we arc met in some fields by 
our friends, tlie Johnnies, who are ready to give us a warm 
reception. It is now clear to us that a movement on the 
enemy's flank is meditated, and we pitch in and fight the 
battle of Deep Bottom. A large number are engaged on 
both sides, and every place we try the enemy's lines we 
are met by numbers equal to our own. 

An incident happens in this battle that is worthy of 
note, as it relates to Anna, the daughter of our regiment, 
which is deployed as skirmishers in tlie woods. The place 
for the colors at such a time is in the rear, far enough from 
the skirmish line to keep in sight. Our regiment, the 
i"ifth, are having lively times on the line, commanded by 
our gallant Lieutenant-Colonel, Dan. S. Boot, as brave an 
officer as there is in the army in battle, while in camp he 
is the personification of mildness to a fault. The Colonel 
arose from the ranks by his bravery and good conduct. He 
knows how to appreciate the love of his men, who now 
are forcing the rebel skirmishers, and they fall back to 
their main support, when their reserve open out a withering 
fire on our men. Anna has remained with the colors, but 
this time we are up too close to the front line, and unless 
we get back we may be captured. So we have to do some 



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IN TUB ABMY OP TIIE POTOMAC. 149 

tali walking to get out of the swamp wo have got into. 
Anna falls back with us io good oeder, but her dress is a 
little torn by the brush. Ono of onr boys ia borne back 
wounded, our heroine does up his wound. The balls fall 
thick and fast around lier, but she fears them notj and 
performs her task as coolly ae if she was in camp and out 
of danger, I need not mention this one instance, hund- 
reds of the same kind conid be related of her. She is still 
with us through thick and thin for the last three years. 

Our army has paid dearly in this day's battle, as in all 
others of the canipaigu. Charge after charge is made on 
the enemy's works, but each time repulsed with great 
slaughter. At night we lie down on the same ground we 
started from in the morning, and our flank movement is 
evidently a failure. We try to cook our coffee, hut have 
not time, for the order comes to firll in. We commence 
our march over the same ground we marched over the night 
before, and about seven o'clock we arrive in front of Peters- 
burg, foot-sore, tired, and hungry. We take a position 
in some breastworks, to tlie left of the Ninth cori)s, under 
General Burnside. From the ominous silence that pre- 
cedes great battles, we think another movement of some 
kind is on foot. 

About the 25l:h of duly, at 11 o'clock in the torvnoon, 
we hear a rumbling noise, like distant thunder, to the left 
of our position, where clouds of dust rise in the air, toward 
some rebel works. Column after column advance from the 
works immediately opposite the rebel fort that has heen 
blown up, and they charge into the rebel works. The enemy 
open on the advancing cohimns from "their inside works, 
but our brave Ninth corps boys do not heed the shells that 
are bursting all around them, and still keep on. A hand 



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150 FOCK YEARS CAMPAIONING 

to hand conflict now takes place, and the rebels are forced 
to retire inside their inner lines of breastworks. Ob, wby 
do not reinforcements follow up, and the rebel army would 
surely be cut in two ? but our brave boys fighting in front 
are forced to retire for the want of support, after leaving 
hundreds of their comrades to share the warrior's grave. 
Who is to blame for this blunder ? Of course, no one will 
shoulder the fault or incapacity of the move, and the whole 
mining operation has turned out to be one of the greatest 
blunders of the war. It is said that the "colored troops 
fought bravely " in this battle, and suffered fearfully be- 
fore they were forcfd to retire. 

We lie down to rest in our present position, and next 
morning moved back to where we started to go on our Deep 
Bottom campaign. Here we build comfortable c[uarters 
out of oak boughs, to keep away the rays of the hot, 
burning sun, and all is again c[uiet in the Potomac army. 
We do not stay long, however, to enjoy our quarters that 
we have worked so hard to build, for we get the order to 
move again. There does not seem to be any rest for the 
weary; at least this can be applied in our case, for this is 
only a repetition of a good many cases, where we worked 
hard to build comfortable quarters and would be ready to 
enjoy the fruits of our labors, when an order would come to 
pack up and be ready to march at a moment's notice. Once 
we were on a march, and a forced one at that; we halted in 
a field for a rest when the Colonel told us we would have 
time to cook coffee. One of the boys asked if we would 
have time to drink it. But our Colonel could not answer 
in the afSrmative, for be could not tell any better than our- 
selves on such occasions. 



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CHAPTER XLIV. 

SECOND BATTLE AT DEEP BOTTOM— ANOTHEB FIZZLE— FRONT 

OF BETEBSBUEa AGAIN— BUILD MORE QUABTERS— ABRIV- 

AL OF COLONEL PPLFOKD — BUILDING FORT DAVIS — 

QUARTERED IN THE FOET — A TOUCHING INCIDENT — 

FORT HELL — REBEL DASH FOB PROVISIONS — ALL 

QUIET AGAIN — MORTARS — BEAUTIFUL GIGUTS 

— A rOElI — THE TICKET GUARD. 

About the JOth of August we take up our line of march 
for Deep Bottom again. This time as well as before, we 
march as though the "old boy" himself was after us. Not 
a rest nor a halt during the long, dreary, sultry night. Oh, 
how tired every man is. A great many fall out by the 
roadside, not caring what becomes of them. Those who 
ride on horseback have to change horses once in a while, 
but the poor wearied soldier keeps on. Who is putting 
down this monster rebellion .P Is it the officers .^ Of course 
they help to a certain extent, but get well paid however, 
and as for hardships, they know but little of them, for 
when they halt. at night fhey have their servants to wait 
on them, and fhey live like princes, for their baggage wag- 
ons with supplies are sure to be up at night,>hen they can 
bask in the luxury of everything good to eat and drink; 
while the poor wearied soldiers who do the fighting are so 
tired that when they halt for the night they are glad to lie 
down; so tired that he cannot got anything to eat, only 
chew his dried hard-tack. In speaking of officers I do not 
mean those of the line, for very often they have to share 
the hardships of their men. 

We arrive once more on the enemy's left flank, and try to 
break their wing, but fhey will not break, so we give «p in 



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152 Foun YEARS cAMPAianiNo 

disgust at their stubborness, and get back to help dig 
them out in front of Petersburg. We arrive foot-aore and 
weary, and get the orders to build more quarters. We 
settle down to the task with the best humor we can muster 
after another great fizzle. 

Here the gallant and brave Colonel John Pulford once 
more joins his regiment, the Fifth, after his severe and almost 
mortal wound received at the battle of Malvern Hill. Too 
much praise cannot be given this officer for his bravery and 
conrage. Fear he does not know, for he rides ahead of his 
noble regiment on the charge. He does not say, like some 
officers I could mention, "Go in boys," but always leads 
and says, "Come on boys," which means that he is always 
in the front and thickest of the fight. 

While in our present camp we build Fort Davis, one of 
the nicest forfs on the line. It has embrasures for about 
twenty-four guns, with a wide ditch all around, filled with 
water, and three lines of abattis around the fort. Abattia 
is sharp sticks stuck in the ground with points sticking 
outward. They are put solid in the ground, and so thick 
that a man with great difficulty can get through. They 
are for the purpose of impeding the progress of an attack- 
ing party against the fort. We move into the fort, and 
have very comfortable quarters ; nothing to disturb ua but 
an occasional bullet from some rebel long range guns on 
the picket line. 

Our neighboring fort to the right, which is named after 
the flery place underneath that our good Dominie talks ao 
much about, is so close lo the rebel picket line that it is 
almost certain death to show one's head above the works. 
Both picket lines keep up an incessant fire on each other 
day and night. The fort is pierced with port holes for the 



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N TUE ARMY OP T 



153 



iofantry to fire through. The rebel sharp-shooters have 
such a close range of these that almost every time tliey can 
put a bullet through. 

A touching iticident occurred here which is worthy of 
mention, to show that in an instant all of our plana can 
be dashed to pieces by cruel war. A brave soldier, whose 
term of three years hard service was out, with his dis- 
charge in his pocket was ready to go home and rest on the 
laurels he had so dearly won, and enjoy the comforts of 
" home, sweet home." But alas, for all his plans for the 
future, he never leaves Fort Hell alive. He had shaken 
hands and bid his comrades good-bye, and starts to leave 
the fort on his homeward march, but a thought strikes 
him, and he turns back and tells his comrades that he must 
have one more look at the Johnnies before he leaves. His 
comrades expostulate with him not to go near the port 
holes again; that now he has his discharge in his pocket 
and ought to be satisfied with what sights he has seen; 
but all to no purpose; he must have one more look, and 
goes to the port hole and looks through, but it is his last 
look on this earth, for he falls back a corpse in the arms of 
his weeping comrades. Poor fellow, he has received his 
discharge, and now goes home to that bourne from whence 
no traveler returns. 

One dark night, while everything is hushed in silence, 
all is as still in the Potomac Army as can possibly 
be ; the stars shine brightly down on the scene, and the 
lonely pickets strain their eyes keeping their watch. Those 
in our front do not see the silent and advancing foe, as 
they come through the grass before them. Al! at once 
thousands of the enemy rise up and capture the men on 
picket before they had time to give the alarm. In an 



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154 



instant a breach is made in our works, and all is done so 
still that the sentinels walking their beats on the parapets 
of our fort did not hear a sound, nor did they think there 
was anything unusual going on, until a tremendous 
firing opens out in the rear, where the commissary 
stores are kept. Every one is around in the fort; the 
draw bridge is taken np, and we line the parapets, expect- 
ing an attack every moment. We peer into the darkness, 
but nothing in tlie shape of a rebel is seen, and we lean 
on our arms and await events. We think it is only a 
splurge of the Johnnies to get some of our hard tack and 
salt pork, but we notice by the sound that the firing is 
getting nearer to us, and once in a while a stray bullet whis- 
tles over our heads. ^Nearer and nearer it comes, and the 
rebels get back between us and Fort Hell. Our artillery 
open upon them and the rebels open from their forts. Fort 
Hell is let loose, and nearly five hundred guns open their 
deadly throats along the line. The mortars commence to 
throw their kettle-like shells, and the whole air is filled 
with the most magnificent as well as dreadful fireworks 
that any one could wish to behold. The mortar shells 
chase each other way up into the air and then come down 
with a graceful bend on the other side of the rebel works, 
where they hurst, the pieces flying in all directions, and woe 
be unto him who runs into contact with one of them. A 
mortar gun resembles a huge kettle imbedded in the earth, 
with its great, wide, round mouth pointing upward, ready 
at any time to be fed with its deadly food. 

Our surmises were correct about the rehel move. All 
they wanted was some provisions, and, of course, they 
would like to have been let alone in their little operations, 
as their distinguishsd chieftain, Jeff., has often said. But 
wo are afraid our Uncle Sam would not like to have 



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lis ins AEMY OF TUB POTOMAC. 155 

them, especially when they are fighting to brealt tip his 
good Government, get any of the hard tack he sends down 
lor liis boys ; and they get back without any. Whenever 
they come around and tell onv good old Uncle they are 
sorry for what they have done, and behave themselves in 
the future, I have not the least doubt but that he will give 
them all they want to cat and to cany away, but at the 
present state of the gaite they must get along without any 
of our provisions, at least for this night. They have got 
back inside their lines. Our picket lines have been estab- 
lished with strict orders not to be caught napping again. 
The soldiers seek their cLuarters, and all is again f^uiet in 
the Potomac Army. 

Tlie following beautiful lines, from the pen of Mrs. Ethel 
Lyon Beers, illustrates the present quietness : 
THK PICKET-GUARD. 

All f[Tiiet along the Potomac; ttey say, 

Esoept now and then a stray picket 
Is shot, as he walks on his beat, to and fro, 

By the riflpnien hid in the thicket. 

'Tis nothing : a private or two, now and then, 
Will not count in the news of the battle; 

Not an officer lost — only one of the men, . 
Moaning ont, all alone, the death rattle. 

All quiet along the Potomac to-night, 

Where the soldier lies peacefully dreaming; 

Their tents in the rays of the clear Autumn moon, 
Or the light of the watch-fires, are gleaming. 

A tremelous sigh, as the gontle night wind, 
Through tha forest leaves softly is creeping ; 

While stars up above with their glittering eyes, 
Keep guard — for the army is sleeping. 

There is only the sound of the lone sentry's tread 
As he tramps from the rock to the fountain, 

And he thinks of the two in the low trundle-bed, 
Far away in the cot on the mountain. 



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FOUR YEARS CAMPAISNISG 

His musket falls dack ; his face, dark aad grim, 

Grows gentle with memories tender, 
As he murmura a prayer for the children asleep, 

For their mother — may heaven defend her. 

The moon seems to shine just as brightly as then. 
That night, when the love yet unspoken 

Leaped up to his lips — when low murmured vovs 
IV ere pledged to be ever unbroken. 

Then drawing liis sleeve roughly over his eyes. 

He dashes off tears that are welling, 
And gatkere his gun close up to its place, 

As if to keep down the hcart-sweUing, 

Hepasses the fountain, the blasted pine tree, — 

The footstep is lagging and weary ; 
Yet ownward he goes tliroagh the broad belt of light, 

Toward the shades of the forest so dreary. 

Hark I was it the night-wind that rustled the leaves? 

Was it the moonlight so wondrously flashing ? 
It looked like a rifle : " Ha ! Mary good-bye," 

And the life-blood is ebbing and plashing. 

' All (juiet along the Potomac to-uight,— 
No sound save the rush of the river ; 
While soft falls the dew on the face of the dead,— 
The picket's off duty forever. 



CHAPTER XLV. 

DANGERS AMD HARDSHIPS OF TUB SIEGE — GOOD TIMES — 
MpSIC — OUH RAILROAD OITY POINT — EXCHANGED PRIS- 
ONERS — ALL WOMEN TO THE REAR ORDERS TO MARCH — 

ANOTHER FLANK MOVEMENT TO THE REBEL RIGHT — BAT- 
TLE OF HATCHE's RUN- — A PIERCE ENCOUNTER — CONFU- 
SION — ANOTHER FlZSiLj;' — IN CAMP AOAIN. 

The siege goes bravely on. The two armies keep dig- 
ing away under each other's gims. The hardships to be 
endured are very great, but all now have schooled them- 
selves down HO that they are met as a matter of course. 



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We do not pretenii to say how long we will have a rest, 
nor do we care much, for we aro so used to hardships that 
almost everything is done without a murmur. Of course, 
when we have a chance we enjoy ourselves as hest we can. 
A soldier loves music, and listens to the strains of the 
beautiful military bands, of which we have plenty in our 
army, and boast of the best bands in the country. Some- 
times we have a dance under the shining moon, and a 
looker on would think that trouble or hardships were 
unknown to the jolly soldiers, who are hoeing down with 
their Government pontoons on the green-sward. Oh, those 
beautiful nights in old Virginia, I look back to with great 
gladness, and think of the jolly^ as well as the hard limes 
wo used to have. 

Our milUtary railro dm t u t be forgotten. It runs 
along the rear of our am^s to C tj Point, where we get 
all of our supplies. Tl t n t thunders along, is in 
plain sight of the reb 1 ani n a while they waste 

some ammunition by fi n at t but they never hit any- 
thing to do any harm. We get passes c[uite often to go to 
City Point, a place now made up of the most motley crowd 
that ever congregated in one place. All come to this place 
for the one purpose of getting all the money they can from 
the soldiers. They care only for their hard-earned money, 
but not a straw for them. 

While at City Point one day in September, I hear that 
some exchanged prisoners were going to arrive. I make 
my way down to the landing and wait for the boat, which 
hove in sight ere long with her freight of emaciated patri- 
ots. Oh, who ia to blame for the more than sufferings of 
our poor prisoners in those Houthern hells. Whoever is, 
there is a place awaiting them where they will have to pay 



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158 FOUR YEARS CAMPAIGNINO 

more than a million fold for their cowardly treatment of 
unoffending men. It h;is been said that the South could 
not hdp it, for they did not have the means nor the way 
to treat them well. If they could not feed them they had 
plenty of room in the open fields, and plenty of water to 
wash the filth that would naturally arise from large num- 
bers being together, which they might have let them have. 
The poor, half-starved, emaciated forms tliat crowd the 
decks of the steamer as she brings her precious freight 
under the protection of the flag of the free, show plainly 
that the Southern chivalry do not know how to treat pris- 
oners of war. Chivalric, indeed ! they have forever dis- 
graced the name by their inhuman treatment of those whom 
the fortunes of war have cast into their devilish power. 
For my part I never was in prison, nor do I know of a rel- 
ative of mine who has been, but I feel the suiFerings of 
my comrades none the less keenly for all this. The boat 
nears the landing, and when they catch eight of the stars 
and stripes that are waving proudly on the bluff that 
overlooks the landing, their feelings give way. Some shout 
and cheer; others cry with emotion, and all seem to be so 
glad that they show their joy in different ways. The spec- 
tators on the wharf give them loud cheers, which they re- 
turn but very feebly. They are sent to good homes where 
they can recruit their shattered health again. 

About the last of September General Grant issues an 
order that all women in the army have to get back, and 
Anna for the first time has to leave her regiment. A peti- 
tion is sent to the Commander to have her stay, but no 
use, she must get back, and she bids us good-bye and goes 
to City Point. We hear from her, however, often, by 
receiving lots of good things sent to us by her, such as 
potatoes, onions, and all kinds of vegetables she can obtain. 



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IN TUB AEMY OF inE POTOMAC. 169 

About the 20lh of October we have orders to be ready 
to march with three days rations and the usual forty rounds 
of ammunition in the cartridge boxes. We file out of the 
fort and this time strike off to the left of our lines, on 
another flank movement. We march in the rear of our 
lines, and pull up by a run named, I presume, after some 
man by the name of Hatcher. We get into line in front 
of some rebel works that command the Boydtown plank 
road. The rebels open a vigorous fire on us from a fort in 
our front, and our artillery in an instant is in position and 
return fheir fire. Part of our corps is heavily engaged in 
some thick slashing, and the rebels retire inside their works, 
where they hold fheir own. Our brigade, under the funny 
Frenchman, General De Trobriand, is assigned a position 
on the flank to guard it from an attack, but we do not 
anticipate one in this quarter, and if we are left here we 
all think we won't have much fighting to do. So we walk 
around leisurely, and some of us stroll up to a small grove 
to see the head generals of the army. There is a lull in 
the battle, and they all sit or walk around taking observa- 
tions and discussing the probabilities of the move. There 
is Genera! Grant, Commander of the army, the gallant Gen- 
erals Meade and Hancock, other Generals of Jesser note and 
their aids, orderlies, and servants. They are having gay 
times, and talk and laugh as though notJiing was going to 
happen; but their fun conies to a sudden stop. The reb- 
els open out on them, and pour shot and shell into their 
midst. Of course, there is a scattering, and we all put 
back to our regiments. The enemy keep up the fire, and 
all wonder what the ne.^t move will be. We have sorao 
videttes out in front, and all laugh and talk as though 
we were safe from an attack in our position. Hark ! a shot 
ia heard in our front. It is only some of the boys in front 



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160 FOUR YBAH8 CAMPilONINQ 

discharging his piece, to reload again with a fresh cartridge, 
think all; hut pop, pop, pop, is heard again, and some of our 
videttes come hack wounded. They could not tell who 
fired at them — prohably some of our own men by mistake. 
But pretty soon all the advance fall back on our lines, fol- 
lowed close by heavy lines of rebel infantry, and before we 
have time to be ready for them tJiey fire a deadly volley 
into our ranks. In an instant every man is in his place, 
pouring deadly missies into the ranks of the advancing 
foe. The fire along the line is deafening, and the remnant 
of the old Third, with the gallant " Fighting Fifth," 
never fought better during the whole war. The foe gets 
away from our front and make an onslaught on the regi- 
ment to our right, and they have to give way against fear- 
ful odds. The enemy now pour an enfilading fire on us, 
and get reinforced in our front. For awhile we hold them, 
and pour the bullets from our breach-loading guns among 
them, but they are too many for us, and charge right into 
our midst. Of course I must get away with my colors, 
and a number around me are taken prisoners. Looking 
behind me, I see a large corn field to be crossed, and with 
several of the boys start to run the gauntlet. The rebels 
open on us, and the balls spat around us like hail. Some 
of our comrades fall dead, but we must keep on and get 
out of the way. Of course, it would not be gallant to say 
that anybody run, but if there was any tail walking done 
during the war, we did it crossing that field. How is that. 
Captain Gunsalar ? There is a high fence before us, but 
I, for my part, cannot tell how I ever got on the other 
side, but I found myself there safe, pursued closely by the 
rebels. Ail now is utter confusion. The rebels turn our 
guns on us. They have captured large numbers of prison- 



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IN THE AEMY OF THE POIOJIAC. 161 

ers, and unless something is done we sliall all be eaptured, 
for the rebels are advancing in large force. 

Our brave Corps Commander, Genera! Hancock, rides 
up and brings order out of chaos. We go to work and 
throw up breastworks, and soon have a covering made with 
rails, and all fall behind and wait for the rebel charge. 
They come, but cannot drive us from our covering, and we 
hold them at bay. Meantime some reinforcements arrive, 
and they walk around the Johnnies and capture nearly all 
that charged on iis, besides retaking most of our men and 
all our cannons. This, for a short fight, has been one of 
the bloodiest of the war, and some of us nevur were in a 
tighter box during the whole campaign of '64. Our regi- 
ment lose very heavily in this day's fight in killed, 
wounded and prisoners. Among the former is our gallant 
Adjutant, James Mclnly, as brave a soldier as ever marched; 
Lieutenant Birdsal is wounded, and Lieutenant Peter 
Lennon, with several otJiers, is missing. Peter afterward 
made his escape, after enduring severe hardships, from the 
Salisbury prison hell. The account of his escape would fill 
an interesting volume. 

Night puts an end to the battio of Hatcher's Kun, sur- 
iiamed the Bui! Ring. We get the order to march back 
again to camp, after lying down in the mud and rain to 
have a rest after our late fizzle on the rebel's right. We 
arrive safe at our camp in Fort Davis, after a hard night's 
march. 



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CHAPTER XLVI. 



CAMP LIFE AGAIN — WINTER QUARTERS — THASKSGIVING — 

HOME AGAIN — FEELING IN THE NORTH — BACK TO 

TOE ARMY — PROGRESS OF THE SIEGE. 

JNuvembcr now is upon us, and we settle down to camp 
life again. The same routine ia gone through — camp guard, 
picliet duty and fatigue duty. Winter is upon us, and 
heavy cold rains commence to fall. Of course we pitch in 
and make ourselves as comfortahle as we can; build fire- 
places in our tcnt.f, and draw more covering from our 
Uncle's wardrobe. Now that all operations, except the 
regular sipge, are at an end for the season, we say that the 
quicker the winter is over the better we like it, for no sol- 
dier likes the inactive life of camp more than three or four 
weeks at a time. 

The time honored Thanksgiving day is announced by 
the President, We have a rumor that the good old New 
England States are to give the Army of the Potomac a 
dinner in the olden style — turkeys, chickens plum pud- 
dings and pumpkin pies. Everybody is on the lookout tor 
the grand dinner. The day has arrived, and sure enough 
the rumor proves to be true, for vessels are discharging 
their cargoes of good things from our New England frienda. 
Everything is dealt out in good shape, and each man gets 
his share, which is more than enough for a good square 
meal. God bless those dear friends for their kindness in 
not forgetting us. All will remember with gratitude 
the donors of the good things sent us on that ever to be 
remembered thanksgiving day. 



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363 



Now that the campaign is ovev, I am thinking of visit- 
ing luy friends once more. 1 soiid up my furlough through 
the regular channel, and it comes back approved. I 
bid good-bye to my comrades and take the train for City 
Point, and theuce by boat for Washington, spending a 
miserable night on the way. Not being an oflicer, of course 
I eould not enter the cabin, and 'with hundreds of soldiers, 
choose a soft spot on deck, and go to sleep. Arrived safe 
in Washington, we leave the boat with sore hips, and go 
to the paymaster's to get our pockets filled with greenbacks. 
Making my way to a barber shop, I get fixed up and feet 
as fresh as though hardships are unknown to me. Taking 
the train for Baltimore I spend the night in the Monumen- 
tal city for the first time. I go to the theatre and see the 
brilliant little star, Maggie Mitchell, play in her favorite 
character of Fanchon the Cricket. Next morning I leave 
for Harrisburg, then through the old Alleghanies, which 
are covered at this time with their winter sheet of snow, to 
Pittsburg. The ride I enjoy very much, for it is a comfort to 
lide in the beautiful coaches of the Pennsylvania Central. 
Cleveland is reached, then Toledo, and in good time the 
City of the Straits, where a Michigan soldier is always wel- 
comed, and feels at Iiome. Crossing the river 1 am soon 
among my friends in Canada. The same bitter feeling still 
exists among the Kanucks against the North, and they sav 
the South will never be brought back into the Union again. 
This kind of talk I don't like, and a short visit is enough 
for me, and I make my way back to Michigan, my Michi- 
gan again, where I find a different feeling prevailing in 
regard to the war. I am asked how the soldiers in the 
field feel about the war at the present state ofaifairs. 
I fell my friends that nothing bnt hard fighting will put 
down the rebelhon, and they would have to come and help, 



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164 FOUR TEARS CAMPAIGNING 

liut of course the North is ai'oused to tlu^ danger of 
the country, and volunteering goes bravely on. No more 
child's play now, and everyone is alive to the emergency, 
all feeling that the rebellion is on its last legs, in spite of 
the feeling of our John Bull neighbors, who are, to a cer- 
tain extent, responsible for prolonging the war thns far, 
with their Alabamas and blockade runners. But look out 
Mr. Bull, for the American eagle may some day make you 
pay for your double-dealing, and come down and pick the 
cyee out of your head for interfering in Uncle Sam's affairs. 
A twenty days' furlough does not fake long to end, and 
I must leave my friends once more. Hurrah for the army 
again, and 1 arrive safe among my comrades, refreshed 
after my furlough, and ready to enter into the same rou- 
tine of camp life. The siege is progressing lively, and 
every one is anxious for the order to forward on the last 
campaign and end this cruel war. Everything is quiet at 
present, but the winter is passing by, and we look for- 
ward for lively times before long. Well, let them come, 
for all are getting tired of this long war, and every man is 
anxious to see the end. 



CHAPTER XLVII. 



In the army, it is necessary, so our superiors think, but 
sometimes we poor soldiers would rather be excused, to 
keep changing positions with other soldiers, and viceveisa. 
We get relieved in the fort and get back into the woods, 



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TN THE AHMY OF TUB POTOMAC. 165 

aad build more c[uarterp. The woods are heavy timbered, 
and soon men wtih axes are busy foiling the monarchs of 
the forest for new winter quarters. All are as busy as bees, 
and the buzz of the men at work through the different 
camps make a noise like lumbermen at work in their camps, 
Comfortable quarters, good hospitals and churches rise up 
as if by magic. We are very comfortable again and all 
are as happy as circumstances will permit. 

One of the most peculiar features of a solder's life is the 
drawing of his rations. Everything in our army goes like 
clock-work, from the Army Quart^ermastcr down to the 
Orderly Sergeant who deals out the sugar, coffee, pork, beef, 
and hard-tack, or hard bread, to his company, who gather 
around him like chickens around an old hen, to get their 
daily food. To us in the field it does not seem anyway 
strange to flock around and receive our coffee and sugar by 
the spoonful as fast as the names are called, but to an out- 
sider the sight must he a strange one. 

Another feature in a soldier's life in camp is cooking his 
rations. We are not very particular how we cook our pork. 
Sometimes we fry it in a tin spider, which we make by cut- 
ting in two a canteen ; other times we punch our ramrods 
through a slice and let it fry over the camp fire, and, in 
order not to lose any of the grease, we hold a hard-tack 
under and let the gravy drop on it, which answers very 
well for butter. We have different ways of cooking hard- 
tack. At first we could not manage it very well, but 
necessity is always the mother of invention, and during 
our four years campaigning we have found out a good 
many ways to make our life more comfortable than at first. 
The best way we find to make hard bread palatable is to 
soak in cold wafer, then fry in a spider with the fat of 



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FOUR YEARS CAMPAIGNINO 



pork. Of course, butter would be better, but that luxury 
is out of the CLuestion, uoless we pay an extravagant price 
for it to the sutler. Hot water will not soften hard-taclc, 
but will make it as tough as leather. Our "concentrated 
soup" will bear a brief mention. Vegetables of ail kinds 
are pressed together and made as hard as a stone — pota- 
toes, onions, parsnips, can-ots, cabbage, pepper, salt, and 
garlick, are mixed up in a solid mass, so when boiled about 
ten hours it makes a delicious soup, but it is not much of 
a favorite with many soldiers, because of a sickish taste 
there is to it. There is nothing a soldier likes better than 
his coffee, without it he could not live in the field. In 
about ten minutes after we halt we can sip our favorite 
beverage. On the campaigns "concentrated soup" is out 
of the question, for we do not stay long enough in a place 
to cook it. 

The Sunday morning inspection in camp will bear a 
brief mention. It takes place after guard mount, on the 
parade ground. Each man must appear to the best ad- 
vantage he can. His brasses must be cleaned and bis mus- 
ket in good order ; knapsacks packed tidy, and everything 
about him must be as neat as possible. The band form 
on the parade ground, the companies march to the music 
and form as if on parade. The Adjutant turns and salutes 
the Colonel, telling him the batallion is formed. The Col- 
onel then gives the order for the companies to right wheel, 
the right of the companies standing still, thus leaviug a 
space between each company. Then the front ranks come 
to an about face, so as to face the rear rank, which has 
stepped to the rear about four paces, before the front rank 
has got the order to face about, thus leaving a space be- 
tween both ranks for the inspecting officer to pass through. 
"Unsling knapsacks," is the order after "ground arras," 



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IN THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 167 

and each maa puts his knapsack at his feet, unpacked and 
the contents laid bare to open inspection. It is funny 
sometimes to see the contents, especially after a campaign. 
A soldier has perhaps a shirt, a pair of socks, and a prayer 
book or testament. Some have more, and some less, more 
generally the latter, but in wintor-q^uarters, where there is 
a chance to have plenty of clothing, the knapsack of a 
tidy soldier is worth looking at. The overcoat is folded in 
a nice roll and strapped on top; the blankets, shirts, draw- 
ers and socks, with a soldier's album, which almost every 
soldier carries with the pictures of dear and loving friends 
at home. All have their proper places in the knapsack. 
The inspecting officer inspects the right company first, the 
band playing, meanwhile, a slow tune. As fast as one 
company are inspected they go to their quarters. It takes 
about two hours to inspect the whole regiment, which 
makes it tedious for the last company, who have to wait 
for their turn. 

Camp life now is getting tedious, but the monotony is 
broken by orders to march with three days' rations in hav- 
ersacks and the usual forty rounds of ammunition. The 
weather is very fine, and everybody feels good. Al! are 
ready for the next move, which is to go to the support of 
the Fifth Corps, who arc fighting, away to the left of our 



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CHAPTER XLVIJI. 

ON THE MOVE ONCE MORE ACROSS nATCHEli'S RUN AGAIN 

A SKIRMISH — BUILD BKBASTWOBKS — THE FIFTH CORPS 

HARD PRESSED— WE GO TO THEIR RELIEF — RAINY AND 
COLD— A MISERABLE TIME — BUILDING MORE QUAR- 
TERS — IN CAMP AGAIN AND HAPrY — COOD 

NEWS FROM Sherman's army. 

On Sunday Morning, February 5, 1864, we file out of 
our late camp, and move to the left. Crossing Hatcher's Run 
we strike the enemy, and have r^uite a skirmish with them. 
They outnumber us, as in every other place, and we set 
too and build breastworks. In a short time we have form- 
idable works built with all the fence rails within reach, and 
are ready for the Johnny's charge; hut they are satisfied 
with a skirmish, and no charge is made. In the meantime 
the Fifth corps are heavily engaged to our right, and about 
five o'clock we get the order to go their support. A forced 
march brings us to their relief, but night puts an end to 
the conflict, which had been a severe one, and both parties 
suffered heavily in killed and wounded. The gallant Fifth 
corps fought this hattle alone, and made some of the finest 
charges of the war. 

The fine weather of the past few days has been inter- 
rupted by a cold, drizzling rain. We lay around here for 
a few days in great misery, the eyes melted almost out of 
our heads with the smoke that stays around from the nu- 
merous camp fires that are built to keep us warm. Oh, 
what a miserable time, wet to the skin, ragged and dirty, 
with the scalding water rolling down our cheeks, caused by 
the smoke. Surely, this is another bhinder, caused by 



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IS TUB ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 169 

some one ; we can all see that no good will come of this 
move, but, on the contrary, it will be the cause of many a 
brave man being ruined for life from these few days ot 
hardships. It seems to ns that it is the delight of some 
officers to see the poor soldier suffer. Oh, who has suffered 
that the country might be saved ? Is it the officer or the 
private ? In almost every book written on our bloody war 
the gallant officer so and so is spoken about, but not a 
word about the poor privates, who, I contend, put down 
this gigantic rebellion, fjr th^y have stood the brunt of 
every battle, and braved the hardships of the campaigns, 
and what do they receive in return from the officers for 
doing the most trivial offense ? They are degraded with 
punishment not fit for an Indian savage. I will not class 
all officers with those mentioned, for our army are blessed 
with as good men as ever were horn to command, but they 
are an exception to the general rule. Oh, yes, but it was 
the officers that led the men into the battle, but how long 
would the majority of them stay after they did go in ? A 
very short time, as thousands of brave soldiers can testify, 
who had to fight the battles that saved the Union, and to 
them the praise is due of every true American citizen. 

After enduring untold miseries for a few days, and for 
no purpose, we get the order to move back, and build more 
quarters. It is dreadfully cold and the suffering is intense. 
Tlie wet clothing on our backs freeze stiff, and we iiave to 
lay out and take the snow and sleet that falls unpiteously 
on our heads. The people North probably think there is 
no such cold weather in the South, but let them experience 
one winter's campaign and they will find their mistake. 
At last we have our quarters built, and hardships are for- 
gotten once more. Jifi" ^. 



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^ ^ FODR'YEiRaCAilPilGNIXIJ 

About the 21st of February the good news comes that 
the hot-bed ot treason, Charleston, has fallen before Sbcr- 
man'B triumphal army that marehed to the sea. The army 
of the Potomac feci jubilant, and are ready as soon as the 
weather permits, to end this «nr, which has lasted long 
enough. All are tired of soldiering, especially those that 
have marched with llic army from tho commencement of 
the war. 



CIIAPTEK Xf.lX. 

THE rATJlASl-ER— sUTLEn's STUFF— SUKEAY IN THE AliMY 

ST. PATEICk's day — RUMORS OF PEACE — ORDERS 

TO MARCH — READY TO FiGUT FOR PEACE. 

There is probably no more welcome guest in tho army 
than tho Paymaster, especially when he has not been 
around for a long time, as in tho present case. We have 
four months back pay due us and are glad to receive our 
money to buy little necessaries and to send home some, 
that the poor soldier's family needs to live on. The pay 
rolls are made out, and the man of money comes on the 
2d of March. Company A is called and they march up 
and get their greenbacks. Our necessary evil, the sutler, sets 
by with his checlis and gels his pay first, as at all other pay 
days, which is almost always the lion's share. Of course, 
the sutler's tent is crowded, and what he don't get from 
the paymaster, he will get from the soldier himself, for 
some, as .con as they get their pay, stutl themselves up 
with all kinds of eatables that are to be had, and, in a 
short time, have to fall back on sutlers' tickets again, and 



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IN THE ARMY OY THE I'OTOJIAC. 



171 



so on all the time. But all are not that way, for, as a gen- 
eral thing, they send their money home. In the army, as 
in every other place, it takua all kinds of men to make up 
a people. 

Sunday in the army does not difl'er much from oiher 
days of the week, except that the duties in camp are 
more. The same guard mount, inspection, and meeting, 
which is extra, when we resort to some shady place to hear 
the word of God from our good dominie, Mr. Pritchard, 
whom we all like, and think ho can do as well in his line 
as any other preacher in the army. Then on Sunday, too, 
can be seen Annie in her best dress, sitting on the ground 
with her own hoys listening to the man of (Jod. These 
Sunday meetings, as u general thing, are well attended, 
and all listen with the greatest attention to the sermons 
and join in the liymns that are sung. Poor, self-saerificing 
Annie, you, I hope, will get your reward in lieaveu when 
your campaigns and battles in this life are ended. For no 
one on this earth can recompense you for the good you 
have done in your four j'ears' service for the boys ia blue, 
in the heat of battle, on the wearied marches, and in the 
hospitals and camps. May your path through this hfe he 
strewn with roses, and may you rest on the laurels you 
have so dearly won, is the prayer of thousands who have 
been benefited by your timely presence. 

St, Patrick's day is at hand, the day which every Irishman 
loves. It is going to be celebrated at the head-quarters of 
the Prince of Irishmen — General Thomas Francis Meagher. 
Every one is going, myself with the rest. A walk of about 
four miles brings us to the Irish brigade. We find every- 
thing gotten up in grand style for the occasion. A grand 
stand is erected, on which can be seen the leading Generals 



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172 FOUR TEARS OAMPAIQNIKQ 

of the army — Grant is not present, but tlie gallant Meade, 
Hancock, Warren, Sedgwick, and others of lesser note are 
to be seen, the guests of the idolized Meagher. There is 
to be an old fashioned burdie-race, and ail too, where the 
Johnnies can witness tlie sport; for everj'tliing is carried on 
in plain sight of the enemy. The horses start, about ten 
in number, and all present enjoy the sport. The hurdles 
are leaped in fine style, and the horses come in amid the 
wild cheers of the spectators — the hoys in bine, After 
the races, a banquet is sat down to, where the day is cele- 
brated in fine style, with all the usual toasts on such occa- 
sions. On the grounds too, are booths, erected by the 
sharlcs of the army, where the soldier may eat his fill at 
exhorbitant prices. After the horse races, come all kinds 
of games, such as sack-racing, wheelbarrow-racing, climb- 
ing greased poles, and other games, which all enjoy very 
much, and then return to their camps, well satisfied with 
the celebration of St. Patrick's day in the army. 

There are rumors of peace again, but after a few good 
sr[uare meals the rebel Peace Commissioners will go back 
to tell their superiors that Uncle Sam will not be sat- 
isfied with anything less than an unconditional surrender 
to the laws of the United States. So after all we will 
have to fight it out on our line for peace if it takes a dozen 
summers. And now the weather is getting fine we have 
orders to buckle on our cartridge boxes, and fight the last 
battle for the Union and peace. 



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CHAPTER h. 

M4KCH TO THE FROST — THE BALE OPEXS — -TREMESDOOS 

riKINO ALONG THE LINES — THE REBELS GIVE WAY— A 

HALT — ADVANCE ON PETEBSEUIlfi — CAPTDRE OF THE 

CITY — RICHMOND OURS — GHEAT REJOICING. 

On liie 2Gt\i of March, oidois come lu pack up, which is 
done in a hurry^ and eoon we are at the front, and immedi- 
ately engaged with the enemy by charging on their worka 
and capturing a niimher of pvisoner:^. Wo fall back again, 
and pitch our tonta, but there is no rest for us now, for the 
crisis is at hand, and tents are struck again. We march 
to the support of the picket line and lay on our arras all 
night, but are relieved, and go back to camp again. Now 
this fooling must soon cease, for the lions are growling at 
each other, and anxious to be let loose for the final strug- ' 
gle. On the 29th ive break camp again and move to the 
left and build more works. It is evident that the greatest 
caution is exercised in this move, and if nothing unusual 
happens, we have surely beat our last retreat. At three 
o'clock we advance through woods and swamps, and occupy 
some works that have been deserted by the enemy, and 
bivonac for the night. Next morning we advance through 
more swamps, and beard the lion in his den. We get 
engaged with them right off, and have quite a tussel, but 
do not force things very hard, and are contented to hold 
what grouniid we have, for a while at least. In the mean- 
time the right of our army are not idle, for they are clos- 
ing up on the enemy's lines, and have captured some of 
the king-row already. General Lee may try to fight out 
the Ejame for a short time, but he will have to succumb to 



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force. About ten o'clock on the ever to be remembered 
Saturday niglitj the lat of April, 1865, a treniendoiis fire 
is opened along the liacs. It seems as though bedlam was 
lot loose, and such was the fact, for Fort Hell opened with 
her neighboring forts and poured the shot and shell into 
the enemy's lines, as c^uick as Uncle Sara's powder mon- 
keys could load and lire. Out brave pickets advance, sup- 
ported well by solid lines of infantry, and before the rebel 
pickets knew there was a Yank around, were captured ere 
they could fire a shot. "Forward !" is heard in suppressed 
commands by the officers, and the men in an instant are 
pulling up the abattis in front of the rebel strongholds. 
The artillery cease firing, and in the dead hour of night 
the Union army advance and capture the outer works of 
the enemy, with a large number of prisoners. Cheer upon 
cheer ascends along the lines, and every one fuels jubilant, 
but there is plenty of work ahead yet to be done, for the 
enemy have several lines of works in front of Petersburg. 

Sunday morning bright and early we are up and advance 
through the woods and drive the rebels before us. Hurrah, 
boys, now keep them moving and they never can make a 
successful stand again. We still advance, and plant our 
banners on their forts. The enemy are now flying before 
us like a vast mob, and we have their army cut in two. 
They hold some works immediately iu front of Petersburg, 
but we need not sacrifice any more men by charging on 
them, for they will have to leave before morning. They 
evidently mean to do all the mischief they can, for they 
open up a vigorous fire on us, and wo have to keep low. 
We lay around Sunday evening, and Monday morning at 
four o'clock our advance enter Petei-sburg, the key to tlic 
rebel Capital. Tremendous cheering is heard along the 
line, and it is made known to us that Richmond, the Cap- 



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I" TUB ARSIY OF THE POTOMAC. 175 

ital of the Soiithera Confederacy, is ours. Trulr, we have 
cause to rejoice, for that ivc have suffered so' 'much to 
get (or the last four years, at last is ours. In the charg- 
ing of Saturday night the enemy lost a good many of their 
hestofBcers, among whom was the famous General Hill, 
and it was told to us by some rebel prisoners that the gal- 
lant General Lee had some narrow escapes, for it was with 
difficulty he could be made to fall back when all was lost. 
Now we are ready to follow up the retreating armv and 
will use another chapter for the ch.ase. 



CHAPTER L(. 

JM'K. DAVIS— rOlLOlVISa UP THE ItET«E4rilI0 AMIV— 

IlEBEL PHISOKEBS— STBACGLERS— THE REBEL ABMY 

"EMORALIZED — A EUNNIXG EIGHT — CAPTURE 

OF A WAGON TBAIN — A MOTI.Y 

rnoWD — A NEEDED BEST. 

It was hoped that Jeff. Davis would he captured, bnt 
he made a hasty retreat, and vamoosed the camp. Every- 
one is sorry he was not caplnred and hanged to the first 
"sour .apple tree," as has been sung so often for the last 
four years. But he will have to keep his ege open pretty 
sharp to get away, for his race is run, and the day of retri- 
bution is at hand. 

Lob's destination seems to be to join Johnston's army in 
North Carolina, for they have left in that direction, and if 
they can join both armies together, probably will fight and 
die in the last ditch. But the (jucstiou is, can Lee°« army 
get away from us. Vfe. shall see. About eight o'clock 
^ =,- 



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FOUU TEARS CAilPAlGNIKG 



Monday morning, our corps, the Second, strike, off on the 
river road on a forced march. On the road, as we pass hy, 
can be seen all kinds of munitions of war thrown in every 
conceivahlo way by the retreating army to lighten their 
progress. The Fifth Corps and Sheridan's cavalry are in 
advance to cut off tlieir supplies on the South Side Kail- 
road, at Burkesville Station. We receive the news that 
they have captured tlie place, with agreattiuaotity of sup- 
plies, which will leave the retreating array very sliort^ of 
proraions. We make a march of about seventeen miles 
and bivouac for the night. Every man feels jubilant, and 
is anxious for the morrow, to renew the chase. On Tues- 
day we mal;e an easy march of about nine miles, and 
bivouac for the uight. The gallant Phil. Sheridan's cav- 
alry are having lively times with Lee's army. Wednesday 
. we make the Danville Railroad and pass the Fifth Corps, 
who are in strong works, and march to the extreme left, 
where we bivouac for the night, after a fifteen miles march. 
On this day's march we pass by thousands of rebel strag- 
glers who are played out. They say that the main array is 
demoralized. 

Thursday morning we start on our march at eight o'clock, 
and strike the eneray at ten. They make a stubborn resist- 
ance for about ten minutes, but we at them with a cheer 
and drive them from their position. In this fight we lose 
a great many good men in killed and wounded. But we 
pass over the bodies of a great number of the enemy, who 
have fought their last battle for the "lost cause." 

We have got the enemy now on the run, and go for them 
on the double-auick. Our gallant Colonel Pulford is on 
horseback, and it would seem as though he would be pierced 
with a bullet every moment. We try to have him dis- 



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E ARMY OP THE 



moant, but he knows no fear, and leads his gallant !Fiftii 
on his noble charger. Lieutenant-Colonel Root is along, 
too, cheering his men. No braver soldier ever drew a 
sword than he. He is the beloved of those who have the 
good fortune to be in his command. la camp, mild but 
firm; in battle as brave as the bravest. Always at his 
post, he never lost a battle, from the first Bull Eun to the 
present time. He will always be remembered with the 
greatest pleasure by those who have shared the nuoicrous 
campaigns with him in the Army of the Potomac. Gen- 
eral Byron R. Pierce commands our old brigade. He is 
as cool under fire as on parade, and, nothing daunted, he 
leads his men in the midst of the battle, and all are proud 
of our gallant Greneral. We have not space in this volume 
to record the bravery of every man. Suffice to say, that 
all have done their duty, with a few exceptions, that will 
not be mentioned in these pages. 

The enemy now have fallen hack, and taken up a posi- 
tion near a brick house, where they fight very wickedly, as 
they are tiying to get a large wagon train away from our 
reach, which is in their rear. The rebels are posted at 
every window in the house, and keep up a vigorous fire 
on us. On the crest of a bill beyond, they have a very 
wicked battery, which they use right lively. Now wo are 
exposed too much for nothing and would much rather 
charge on them than stand their fire. So the order is giv- 
en to forward, and inside of two minutes the brick house is 
ours. The Johnnies who flred at us are pulled out of the 
windows and taken prisoners. The enemy's battery still 
holds its position, and pour in shell quick and fast, but wo 
have good shelter now, and wait for the rest of our lines to 
come up, which they do in a few minutes. All is ready 
now to go for the train, and the order "forward" is given 



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178 TOVR TEAES 



once more; t!ie rebel battery makes a hasty retreat, leav- 
ing about two hundred and fifty wagons in our hands. 

We have had a running fight all day of about fifteen 
miles, and are satisfied to bivouac. Tlie boys are tired 
after their days' work, but they must go for the wagons. 
We find all kinds of rebel clothing and dry goods, from a 
private's uniform to a Major- Generals. We have plenty 
of rebel Major-Generals and officers of every grade iu our 
Ciimp, for the, boys don the gi-ey uniforms of the rebels for 
a change. The enthusiasm of the troops is unbounded, 
and ali feel that the rebellion in Virginia is on its last 
legs. A motley crowd is in camp to-night, and feeling 
happy. After a talk and a smoke wc He down to get some 
needed rest, and sleep the sleep of the wearied soldier. 



CHAPTER LII. 



FOLLOWING UP THE ENEMY THEY ABB BROUGHT TO BAT 

AGAIN i. STUBBORN RESISTANCE — THE ENEMY GONE 

FROM OUR FRONT — FORWARD AGAIN — A BURNING 
BRIDGE GRANT WANTS LEE TO SURRENDER — THEY 
WILL DIE IN THEIR LAST DJTCH — SURRENDER 
OF LEE AND THE REBEL ARMY — RE- 
FLECTIONS JOY AND SADNESS. 

On the morning of Friday we renew our chase, and at 
noon overtake the enemy, who are entrenched behind some 
works thrown up by them the night before. They make a 
stubborn resistance, but all in vain, as nothing can stand 
now before their old adversaries, the Army of the Potomac. 
If, is not necessary now to sacrifice many lives by charging 
on them, for we have men enough to surround the rera- 



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IK THE ARMY OP TUB POTOMAC. 179 

oants of Lee's army. After a sharp fight we lie down in 
our position, well satisfied that the enemy will be gone 
from our front in the morning, and snch we find is the fact 
for on Saturday morning our skimiishers advance, and soon 
find out that the rebel army had left their position of the 
previous night. We pack up and start on the chase once 
more. Coming up (o the high bridge on the Danville 
raih'oad, which spans the Appomattox Kiver, we find it one 
vast sheet of flame. In a moment our brave pioneers jump 
on the bridge to save the useless destruction of that fine 
structure, which the enemy had set on fire in their mad- 
ness. But we think they have only spited themselves, for 
they will have to re-build it again if they travel from Vir- 
ginia to North Carolina by the modurn way of travel. 

We still keep on our march, and leave tho beautiful vil- 
lage of Farmville on our left. We hear cannonading a 
a long ways off, and think the gallant Phii. Sheridan and 
his famous cavalry are heading them off". At Farmville, 
Gen. Grant sends word to Lee to surrender and stop the 
unnecessary shedding of any more blood, but the rebel 
chief means to fight it out to the bitter end. By not sur- 
rendering at this time Gen. Lee has lost all the respect that 
the old Army of the Potomac ever had for him, for we 
know that a few days longer at the farthest, is as long as 
he can hold out. But in every skirmish some poor 
fellow must loose his life. After a march of fifteen miles 
wt! halt for the night, thinking the end of our chase is not 
far oft'. On the ever to be remembered Sunday morniug, 
the 9th of April, 1865, we resume our chase at 8 o'clock. 
We hear the firing of artillery in the rear of the enemy, 
and can see that they are completely surrounded. All 
expect that they will try to make a break through our 
lines somewhere, but we are ready fjr them. Up to about 



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laO FOUR YEAKB CAMPAIGNINQ 

twelve o'clock heavy fighting is going on, and the rebels 
are driven baclc into a more compact body in the ring. At 
about twelve o'clock the firing auddonJy ceases, and a flag 
of truce advances from the enemy's lines. We imagine 
what it is for, but none dare to be sure of what is to follow. 
Everything is hushed in silence on that quiet Sabbath 
evening, and ail wait patiently for the news. 
■ The flag of truce bore the following note from General 
Lee to General Grant : 

Sunday, Ajiril 9lh, 1865. 
Genebal : — 

I received your note of this morning on the picket line, 
whither 1 had come to meet you, and ascertain definitely 
what terms were embraced in your proposition of yester- 
day, with reference to the surrender of this army. I now 
request an interview, in accordance with the offer contained 
in your letter of yesterday for that purpose. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

R. E. LEE. 

In reply, Grant sent the following note to him : 

S0KDAY, April 9th, 1865. 
General E. E. Leb, Commanding 0. S. A. :— 

Your note of this date is but this moment, 11:50 a. m., 
received, in consequence of my having passed from the 
Kichmond and Lynchburg road to the I'armville and 
Lynchburg road. I am, at this writing, about four miles 
west of Walter's Church, and will push forward to the 
front for the purpose of meeting you. Notice sent to me 
on this road, where you wish the interview to take place, 
will meet me. 

Very respectfully your obeditnt servant, 

U. S. GRANT, 
Lieutenani General. 



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IN THE AKMT OF THE POTOSEAC. 181 

The following proposals were also sent by General Grant: 
AprouATTOx Court Hodki;, April 9tl), 1865. 
Geseual K. E. Lee, Commanding G. S. A. : — 

In accordance with the substance of my letters to you 
of the 8th instant, I propose to receive the eurreuder of 
the army of Northern Virginia on the following terms, to- 
wit : Rolls of all the officers and men to be made in du- 
plicate; one copy to be given to an officer designated by 
me, the other to be retained by such officers as you may 
designalc. The officers to give their individual paroles not 
to take up arms against the Government of the Unitpd 
States until properly exchanged, and each company or reg- 
imental commander sign a like parole for the men of their 
command. The arma, artillery and public property to be 
parked and stacked, and turned over to the officers appoint- 
ed by me to receive them. This will not embrace the side 
arms of the officers, nor their private iiorses or baggage. 
This done, each officer and man will be allowed to return 
to their homes, not to be disturbed by United States 
authority so long as they observe their parole, and the 
laws in force where they reside. 

Very respectfully, 

U. S. GRANT, 
Lieutenant General. 
The following is the reply of the rebel chief to the 
above, and accepted ; 

Headquarters army Nokthern Virginia, ) 
April 9th, 1865. J 
LiBUTESAST General, U. S. Grant, Commandinq U. 
S.A.: 

General : — 1 have received your letter of this datecon- 
taining the terms of surrender of the army of Novthern 
Virginia, as proposed by you. As they are substanfiaily 
the same as those expressed in your letter of the 8th inst., 
they are accepted, I will proceed to designate the proper 
officers to carry the stipulation into effect. 
Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

R. E. EEE, 
Genpral. 



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182 



FOUR YEARS 



Immediately after General Grant rode forward to meet 
the rebel chief, and both met at the house of a Mr. McLain, 
both accompanied by several of their staff. After a chat 
about old times they proceeded to business, and Grant 
wrote with a pencil the same terms oifered by him in the 
morning and handed it to Gen. Lee, who read it over care- 
fully and inc[uired the construction of private horses, as ho 
said that nearly all of his men owned their horses, when 
Gen. Grant told him they must be turned over to the 
United States Government. But after a careful and wise 
reflection, he told Lee that all who owned their horses could 
retain them as they would need them to till their farms. 
While the terms of surrender were being copied. Grant and 
Lee conversed about old times. When the document was 
copied, Lee wrote the following reply ; 

Genebal : — 

I have received your letter of this date, containing the 
terms of surrender of the Army of North Virginia as pro- 
posed by j'ou. As they are substancially the same as those 
expressed in your letter of the 8th inat., they are accepted. 
I will proceed to designate the proper officers to carry the 
stipulations into effect." 

On that quiet Palm Sunday evening our adversaries in 
over fifty battles, the Army of Northern Virginia, had sur- 
rendered to the Grand Army of the Potomac. During the 
time the arrangements were being perfected for the formal 
surrender, the feeling among the soldiers was at a fever 
heat. Everything was as still as the city of the dead, and 
all were waiting patiently to hear whether the order would 
be to advance to fight again or to stack our arms and bury 
the hatchet of the last four years. But, thank God, the 
welkin rings with the glad cheers as the good news is an- 
nounced by our gallant commander, General Meade, that 



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IN THE ASMY or THE POTOMAC. 183 

Lee and his army at last had surrendered. The artillery 
helch forth shot after shot, hut this time they are shots of 
peace, and the whole army is one vast body of cheering and 
wild excitement. Some langh, some cry, caps are sent into 
the air and every man cheers until lie is hoarse. But let 
every one cheer and send the echo to the glorious North 
that peace has davk'ned this heautifulPalm Sunday over our 
bleeding and distracted country. Surely every one has 
cause of rejoicing at the close of this bloody and fratricidal 
war. But our great joy is intermingled with the deepest 
of sorrow at the loss of so many great men on over a hun- 
dred different battle fields, and in the Southern slaughter 
pens. 

Let the good news reach them in their soldier graves that 
they did not die in vain, for this great and glorious country 
is saved, and will be handed down through all time to come 
as the greatest nation of the earth, and will be a home for 
the oppressed of foreign raonarchs. 

We have advanced fiir enough South now and we He 
down lo rest, well satisfied with our work of the last short 
week, — breaking through their strongholds at Petersburg 
and Richmond and capturing the whole Kehelarmy after 
a chase of about seventy-five miles — we take the needed 
sleep, well satisfied that our work is done, and done well. 



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CHAPTER Lin. , 

PLENTY OF BAIK — MUD, MUD, MUD — FEEDIKQ THE BEBEL 
ABMY — OUR HOMEWARD MAECH BEGUN — GREAT RE- 
JOICING AMONG THE COLORED POPULATION — 
ARRIVAL AT BURERVILLE STATION. 

Sunday evening it commenced to rain, and kept it up all 
the next day. In the meantime we do not forget our fal- 
len enemy. At the time of their surrender they were very 
destitute of provisions, but thank God we have a surplus 
on hand, and all the past is now forgotten, and provisions 
are hastened forward fo their relief. Five hundred head of 
cattle are sent to fbeni, with plenty of hard tack, coffee, 
sugar and all the neeessaries to make them a few good 
square meals. The rain pours down in toirents, and we 
are almost to our knees in mud. If we have no more 
fighting to do we have the same hardships of a soldier to 
endure. We have a long road before us to Washington, 
and it ntnst be all tramped over before our soldiering is 
ended. 

On Tuesday, April lltli wo start on our backward march, 
and get to a small village by the name of New-Store, and 
bivouac for the night. Wednesday we start again, and 
march to Farmville, a distance of eighteen miles. During 
this day's march along the road, as we pass by, hundreds 
of colored people flock to the roadside, to cheer us on our 
homeward march. "God bless you, massa sojers," is heard 
on every side by the late slaves, for now they can rejoice to 
be free. Very touching scenes are witnessed, as old men 
and women fall on their knees and clasp their hands in 
prayer to the Almighty for their deJiverence from their 



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IN THE ARMY OP THE POTOMAC. 185 

chains of slavery. Great tears roll down their sable cheeks, 
and the stoutest hearted soldier is filled with emotion. 
Surely if there was any good accomplished by our late war, 
it was the freeing of millions of poor human beings, and 
as for myself, I thank Grod for being an humble instrument 
in helping to make this great and glorious country free to 
all. 

At Farmville we find the creeks and streams swollen to 
an enormous size by the late rains, and it is with difficulty 
we can cross, but after laying down our pontoons we get 
over all right, and start on our march tor the Southside 
Railroad, to have an easy base of supplies. As we march 
back, thousands of our late adversaries march with us on 
their way home. Poor fellows, what will they find there ? 
Only desolation, ruin and misery. But alas, it is the fate 
of cruel war. And now that all is ended let us try to build 
up that that has so long been destroyed, peace and happi- 
ness in our destracted country. After a tiresome march 
we arrive at Burksville station, on the Richmond and 
Danville Railroad. Here the sutlers reach us again, and 
we commence to live on the fat of the good things found 
in their tents. All feel tired however, and it will take a 
few days (o recuperate. 



CHAPTER LIV. 

DEATH OF LINCOLN — THE FEELING IN THE ARMY — SURREN- 
DER OF JOHNSON'S ARMY TO SHERMANS — DEATH OF 
THE ASSASSIN BOOTH — HOMEWARD MARCH RE- 
SUMED — SCENES AND INCIDENTS — AR- 
RIVAL AT MANCHESTER. 

Amid the rejoicing of the whole country at the down- 
fall of the rebellion, the sad news is flashed over the wires 



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ISD FOrB YEARS CAMPAiaNING 

that our beloved President, Abraham Lincoln, has been 
murdered by a foul assassin, and at a time, too, when all 
his hopes and wishes had been realized, the end of treason. 
I shall not attempt to tell how the news was received 
in the North, but I can tell a little of the feeling the sad 
event created in the army. Who could have told that 
amidst the great rejoicing, from the length and breadth of 
our loyal North, that the rejoicing would be turned into 
the deepest mournicg, and that, too, by the loss of the 
nation's greatest son. The feeling in the army was in- 
tense, for all felt that we had lost our best friend, and at a 
time, too, when his magnanimity would shine forth in all 
its benevolence. If the foul assassin could only be brought 
to the army he would be made to suffer more than a thous- 
and deaths, could he die so many times, for depriv- 
ing us of more than a father. But alas, the monster 
Secession had to crown all of its miseries by this most 
diabolical act. But after all the nation has one consola- 
tion, that Abraham Lincoln had lived to see the day when 
peace dawned upon his distracted country, and that it was 
safe as a Union of all the States, and that the question of 
disunion was forever settled before he was called to receive 
the reward that is meted out by the just Judge to all 
those that doeth his will. Peaceful be thy rest, Father 
Abraham ; you will be kept fresh in the memories of all 
true American citizens, as the great martyr of our country's 
freedom. 

At this time of great mourning we receive the news 
that Johnson's army has surrendered to Sherman on the 
same terms that Lee's army surrendered to our own. Now 
the war is virtually at an end, and of conrse our work is 
done. We are waiting patiently for the order to come to 
resume our homeward march, but do not wait long, for on 



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IN THE ARMY OF THE rOTOJUC. 187 

the lat of May the order cornea to pack up and be ready 
to march, which we do with a will. But before we start 
we get the news tLat the villainoua assassin had been 
killed, and every one thinks that he received too hon- 
orable a death, as he was killed by a shot fired at him 
while brought to bay in an old barn in the vicinity of Front 
Royal, Virginia, by a soidier named Boston Corbet. But 
he is dead, and while his victim will be held with feelings 
of admiration by his fellow countrymen, the name of J. 
Wilkes Booth will go down to posterity with the utmost 
loathing and contempt. 

About the 1st of lovely May we resume our homeward 
march. The weather is beautiful and all nature is in it's 
grandest glory and seems to smile upon us. I am sure my 
late comrades will agree that we never enjoyed a march 
better than those of the few first days from Burkesville 
Station. Step is taken to the tune of the song '"When 
Johnny comes marching home again," and all join in the 
chorus with a will, for the song is a very appropriate one 
on the present marches, and all feel happy to think they 
can go home again. 

After a nice march of about ten miles we camp for the 
night. Next morning, the 3rd, we resume our march and 
make a mile post on the railroad marked ''33 miles from 
Richmond" and halt for dinner. After resting about one 
hour and a half we marched to Appomattox Eiver, where 
we bivouac for the night. The same ovation is shown us 
by the colored people along our line of march. All treat 
us with the utmost kindness, while the white people keep 
rather shy of us. We cannot blame them much and we 
pity them now, and pass by in silence, wanting to get away 
from them as fast as we can, and leave them to re-build 
that which they have destroyed. 



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188 fOTJR TEARS CAMFAlQNlNa 

On the 4th we resume our march and at night camp 
about nine miles from Richmond. On the 5th we 
have an easy march and camp inside the late Kebel 
works at Manchester, on the south side of James River. 
We have a beautiful view of Richmond, Manchester is a 
very dilapitated old town, and the people look something 
like the place. Feeling tired we lie down to sleep and rest 
our weary limbs and be ready to march through Richmond 
the next day. We will march triumphantly through the 
late Rebel stronghold in the next chapter. 



CHAPTER LV. 



MARCHISG THROUGH RICHMOND — A PASSING KOTICB Oi" THE 

CITY — SCENES AND INCIDENTS — I.IBBY PRISON THE 

TOBACCO WAREBOOSE — SOUTHERN HELLS — A 

BEAUTIFUL SUNDAY MORNING — THROUGH 

HANOVER C. H. — THE BIVOUAC. 

On the 6th of May we are ready to march. We hear 
the music from scores of bands float in the air, and all is 
hustle and commotion. Forward is the order and we file 
out of our camp and march through Manchester. We un- 
furl our tattered flags and carry them in triumph through 
the city that caused their war-worn looks. We are all 
proud of our old flags and it is hoped they will he cherished 
with the greatest veneration not only by those that have 
cause to love every star and stripe that hangs together, but 
all who love and honor the beautiful emblem of our Free 
Government. 



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189 



As we pass by the principal places of note crowds gather 
through curiosity to see the great elephant pass — the Army 
of the Potomac. Tiiey gaze with eyes wide open to see 
that so many of the Northern mudsills still live after 
wiping out all ideas of a Southern Confederacy. And now 
we enter the late Capitol, hut not in the way that the 
Rehel chief assured the inhabitants we would, on a certain 
occasion mentioned in these pages. We pass by the Capi- 
tol where were foul, treasonable utterances for over four 
years, and which was the cradle of all the leading spirits in 
the late fizzle. Next we pass Libby Prison and the old 
tobacco warehouse. Oh, could those old gloomy walls 
speak, they con!d tell of such miseries of poor human 
beings, not to speak of the poor unfortunate prisoners that 
fate threw in the way of such inhuman fiends. The treat- 
ment our poor fellows received in these Southern hells 
would put to blush the most savage barbarians in the wilds 
of Africa. But let this pass, for all wilt have to give 
an account of themselves and their doings to a more just 
judge who will mete out to every one according to his just 
deserts. We expect justice done to the villains that caused 
such misery in those prison hells. And now we will leave 
thenij expecting that their time will come. So we march 
through with flags flying and bands playing, and come to 
a halt three or four miles beyond and camp for the night. 

Sunday morning dawns and all are up making prepera- 
tions for an early start. The morning is beautiful and 
every man feels as happy as can well be expected, and are 
pleased that we are drawing nearer to our destination, 
which is Washington. We pass by old battle grounds, 
through tho village of Hanover Court House and camp for 
the night on the north bank of the Pamunkey river, after 
a nice day's march, Here we draw rations — hard-tack, salt- 



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190 rouK YBABs CAMPiiasiNG 

pork, coffue and sugar — for we are not through with our 
old rations yet. Our coffee tastes as well as ever, aud now 
we have plenty of time to cook and driuk it. The times 
have changed, too, Iq some other respects, for we are very 
saving of fence rails. We try and leave the poor people 
what little they have left, and favor them all we can. 



CHAPTER LVr. 



OUB MARCH RESUMED — A BLUE MONDAY — GO OUT OF OUR 

WAT IN NO HURItY AND BIVOUAC — ON THE RIGHT 

ROAD AGAIN — MESOPOTAMIA CHURCH — LADIES WAVE 

THEIR HANDKERCHIEFS AT US — WE ARE STRUCK 

WITH WONDER — BIVOUAC NEAR THE BLOODY 

CITT OF FREDERICKSBURG — THE LAST 

CHAPTER OF MARCHES. 

On Monday morning, the 8th of May, we resume our 
march and after going ten or fifteen miles, are lost in the 
wilderness of Old Virginia. As we are not in a very "reat 
hurry, we camp for the night. The day has turned out to 
he a blue Monday, hut the next morning we get out 
of the wilderness and on the right road that leads to 
Washington. Grassing the Ny river we camp once more 
about twelve miles from Fredericksburg, and an easv 
march will bring us to that place. On the 10th we resume 
onr weary pilgrimage and while marching by Mesopotamia 
Church are met hy a wonder of wonders in the shape of 
some ladies who actually are waving their handkerchiefs at 
us and singing patriotic songs, the first treatment of the 
kind we met with in Old Virginia. No wonder we are 
struck with amazement at the sight, and we all cheer them 



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as we go by. We are shaking off the sacred soil from our 
goverDinent pootoons as fast as we can, and a few days 
more will end our most weary marches. Tramp, tramp, 
tramp, we go, and pull up at the bloody city of Fredericks- 
burg. Around here we feel quite at home, for we see old 
familiar places. We roam oyer the heights where so many 
brave men fell trying to dislodge the enemy from them. 
The old battle ground looks dreary and desolate. Here 
and there can be seen skulls and bones protruding above 
the ground, whiie around are seen the evidences of a fierce- 
ly contested battle. Old pieces of muskets and cannon are 
strewn about. Places and positions held by the different 
corps and divisions are pointed out by those who think 
they know. But we find that time has changed the looks 
of the battle ground to a great extent. Brush and wild 
shrubbery have grown all around and everything now about 
the battle ground of December 13th, 1862, looks sad and 
still. Peaceful be thy rest, oh, fallen comrades. We leave 
thee in sorrow and get back to our camp to prepare our 
frugal meal, and rest from the fatigues of the day. 

It has been raining for a few days, making the roads 
very muddy and difficult for artillery trains and ambulances 
to cross over them. On the llth we had to build roads so 
as to move over our trains, but are still pushing our way 
for Washington. We have changed now the cry from "On 
to fiichmond," to "Back to Washington." We halt for 
the night after a sixteen miles' hard march. On the 12th 
we have a nice day but it is very muddy and the sacred 
soil seems loth to leave our army shoes. But we try to 
shake it off and get through fifteen miles more of muddy 
roads and encamp again. On the 13th we resume our 
march and pass through swamps and creeks, cross the Or- 
ange and Alexandria railroad at Bnrk's Station and pull up 



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192 



S CAMPilONINO 



: and agaio go into camp where we remain 
over Sunday, the 14th, and have religious services. Our 
good Dominie thanks the Lord for hringing us like the 
children of Israel over the Eed Sea, safe and sound, under 
the protecting wing of the American Eagle at Washington. 
On Monday, the ]5th, we brake camp, and after an easy 
march pull up about sis miles from Washington and go 
info camp. This ends our weary marching in Dixii^. 



CHAFTEU LVII. 

CAPTURE OF JEFF DAVIS— CAMP LIFE AGAIN — VISITING OUR 

FRIENDS — GAY TIMEG — TROOPS GOING HOME — WHAT 

WILL THE SOLDIERS DO WHEN THEY GET HOME ? 

—BEAUTIFUL ILLUMINATIONS — THE 

GRAND REVIEW. 

While in camp we receive news of the capture of the de- 
funct President of the late Southern Confederacy, He was 
captured disguised as a woman. His number ttvelves 
caused his capture, for while crossing a fence his pursuers 
saw such large feet on that woman, they guessed right away 
that it must be Jeff, and told him to surrender, which he 
did, with very poor grace. It was a shame to the sex he 
tried to impersonate, for to have such a great big homely 
fellow try to palm himself off for one of the tender sex. 
An exact painting of him at the time of his capture must 
be a great curiosity, and it was too bad that a special artist 
from Frank Leslie's establishment was not on the spot. 

We have now the same routine of cimp life as of yore, 
but picket and fatigue duties are abolished, as there is no 



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IN TUB iJlSiY OP THE POTOUAC. 193 

more need for them now, the soldier's heavy work is done. 
We try to pass away the time by visiting our friends, and 
seeing the sights in Washington and Alexandria. We are 
having gay times and feel happy. 

There are a great many troops going homy, and other 
regiments go to see them off and bid tliem good-bye. Now 
that the soldiers are going home a great many ask, what 
they will do when they get home'.? I will try and answer. 
Always take notice in your own vicinity, that when an 
old soldier settles down, is industrious, keeps sober and 
makes a good citizen, almost invariably put him down as a 
good soldier in the field. But let all good people deal 
lightly with a soldier's faults, for they have been through 
the mill for the past four years, and will be always glad to 
see their old comrades and talk over their campaigns and 
battles, and for a while after they get home very few will 
blame them for having their time out. 

The scenes in camp every night are beautiful. Thou- 
sands of candles and lamps are seen as far as the eye can 
reach. Dancing and music is the order of the night, and 
every man enjoys the sports that is going on all around. 

Sherman's army has joined our own, and there is talk of 
one more great review of the whole army — infantry, cav- 
alry and artillery. The order comes to get ready for our 
last review. On the 23d of May our army takes up its 
line of march and cross the Long Bridge. Our corps 
takes a position on Capitol Hill, stack arms, and wait for 
the whole army to get into position. Great preparations 
have been made in the city for this, the grandest pageant 
that ever took place in modern times. Standing room, in a 
prominent place, where can be seen the army as it passes, is 
rented at fabulous prices, and the city is one vast sea of hu- 



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194 FOUK YEARS CAMPAiaNlKQ 



manity. About nine o'clock we commence our mavcli down 
Pennsylvania Avenue. The buildings are beautifully deco- 
rated with all kinds of mottos, evergreens and flags. Thou- 
sands flock to the streets to welcome the cotiquL-ring armies — 
the grand army of the Potomac, who first made their adver- 
saries succumb to their power, and the great army under 
the indomitable Sherman, that marched to the sea, and 
followed close to their brother army, and likewise captured 
their adversaries. The sight before our eyes as we pass 
the Capitol building, is grand in the extreme. As far as 
the eye can reach along the beautiful Avenue a solid mass 
of men are seen moving, and all keeping step to the 
numerous bands that lead the different regiments. One 
would think that the whole avenue was covered with one 
vast sheet of burnished steel, for the bayonets glitter in 
the sunlight, and throw their bright lustre on all around. 
Cheer upon cheer goes up from the crowds as the old tat- 
tered flags pass by. There are people present from all parts 
of the civilized world, to see what no other country on 
the face of the earth can produce — a conquering army 
of citizen soldiers, numbering nearly three hundred thou- 
sand. Every available spot is taken up — from the cellars 
of buildings to the giddy height of fifth story roofs. The 
lamp post8, trees and telegraph poles have their share of 
humanity clinging to them. As we pass the grand stand 
we observe the President, Andrew Johnson, the members 
of his Cabinet, Lieutenant General Grant and Staff, 
Ambassadors from foreign nations, and others of distiction. 
We salute by dropping our colors, and paes on to camp, 
hoping it will be our last review. It took all of this day 
for the Army of the Potomac to pass the reviewing stand, 
and on the twenty-fourth ended the great review, for on 



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195 



this day Sherman's iirmy, the cavalry and artillery are 
reviewed- in like manner. We are back in camp again, and 
now wait anxionsly to go home. 



CHAPTER LVIII. 

LAST VISIT TO WASHINGTOK — A DAY OF HUMILIATION — 
ORDERS TO PACK UP — ORDERED TO LOUISVILLE, KEN- 
TUCKY LEAVING FAMILIAR SCENES — A RIDE OVER 

THE BALTIMORE & OHIO R. R. — BEAUTIFUL 
SCENERY — ARRIVAL AT I'ARKERSEUBG. 

Ahout the 1st of June I make my last visit to Wash- 
ington to visit old familiar places. As I walk up the 
beautiful avenue I think what a change there is in eveiy- 
thing and everybody I meet, since four years ago. Then 
everything was in commotion. The bustle and preparation 
for war was seen on every turn, and all looking out for the 
defenders of the National Capitol to come from their far 
off homes in. the North. But to-day everybody is settled 
down and feel happy to think that our lato bloody war is at 
an end. The soldier is free as of yore, to visit all the 
places of interest, and I take a stroli up to the grand old 
Capitol and stand once more in that vast rotunda, where I 
stood on the eventful Fourth of July, 1861. The same 
picture of the Father of his Country looks down on the 
visitor and with more veneration than ever. I look on that 
smiling face and recall the past, A strange feeling comes 
over me that is hard to describe. Then I make my way , 
up, up, up, to the dome, and gaze on the beautiful pano- 
rama before me. Away to the front is the old city of 



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lOG rOCR YEAES CAMPAIGKIKQ 

Georgetown with its beautiful Catholic College, and Oak 
Hill Cemetery — a fit place for the hallowed dead. Nearer 
can be seen the White House — the home of our Presidents 
and home-stretch of many a Presidential race. The Treas- 
ury Lepartment, with its untold wealth within its vaults, 
the grand Post-Uffice building where all our billets doux 
used to go through on their way to the Boys in Blue ; the 
great Smithsonian Institute with its Egyptian mummies 
and millions of curiosities ; the unfinished monument of 
the great and immortal Washington, which stands as a re- 
buke to the American people, are all in plain view. Beyond 
is the majestic Potomac, winding its way to the Chesapeake^ 
to mingle with the briny deep. Beyond the river can be 
seen the home of the Rebel Chief, Arlington Heights, with 
its grounds dotted with plain head-hoards to the graves of 
the heroic dead. All around can be seen myriads of shelter 
tents of both armies, the Eastern and Western. Seven 
miles down the river is the former seccsh hole of Alexan- 
dria, where tho gallant and intrepid Ellsworth met his 
death. Oh, how grand the view before me. Long I look, 
and not 'till the shades of evening hover around do I leave 
the spot. I make my way down tho winding stairway, 
give one more look around the vast rotunda and leave the 
grand old Capitol for camp, well satisfied with my last visit 
to Washington. 

The 1st of June has been appointed by President John- 
son as a day of humiliation and prayer in honor of our 
late President Lincoln. Everything looks solemn in camp 
and the day is appropriately observed. 

Large numbers of the two years' men are discharged and 
considerable dissatisfaction exists on that account by those 
who enlisted at the commencement of the war and are still 



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X07 



kept in service. But we have the consolation that we were 
among the first to enter the service of our country, and are 
the last to leave the fleltl. But the good news has at last 
arrived, to pack up and he ready to march. 

On the 16th of June we leave our last camp in Virginia 
and march past forts and hreastworks that took many a 
hard day's work to huild, hut now their work is accom- 
plished and they are of no more use but to leave as trophies 
to lot travelers and sight-seers penetrate through the great 
mounds of earth that encircle Washington. Wo wend our 
way to the Long Bridge, and the boys point out, as we pass 
by, old familiar landmarks. We step on the bridge from 
off the sacred soil of old Virginia and cross the river to 
vfhere the cars are in waiting for us, to carry us over the 
Baltimore & Ohio railroad. The iron horse blows her 
whistle and off we go, leaving Washington and the scenes 
of onr late operations behind. This is one of the most 
beautiful railroads in the United States, and a trip over it 
will well pay any traveler that loves the Eublime and 
grand scenery along the line. We soon arrive at that much 
captured village, Harper's Ferry. The train winds its way 
around Maryland Heights and cross the bridge that spans 
the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers. We dash along over 
bridges and culverts, pass strong block houses that have 
seen their day and pull up at the dilapitated village of 
Martinsburg. We see the old familiar brick chimneys with 
houses built to them, which puts us in mind of old times. 
The conductor blows his whistle and ail are aboard and off 
we go. We soon come to the Alleghanys and pass through 
the tnnnels that penetrate those mountains. The scenery 
here is beyond description, and must be seen to be appre- 
ciated. We pull up at Cumberland, West Virginia, 
and rest a few hours. We start again and go through 



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i J» FOUR YEARS CAMPAIGKIKQ 

the Cheat Mountains. The ah- is delightful aod all enjoy 
the ride as well as they can. "We branch off at a place 
called Grafton for Parkersburg. Clarkesville and a num- 
ber of other towns are passed on this branch and we arrive 
safe at Parkersburg without any accident, and go into camp 
for the night, after a delightful trip of nearly three days, 
traveling a distance of four hundred and twenty-four miles. 



CHAPTER LIX. 



>\VS THE OHIO — THE aXEAMBR PICKETT — A MAGNIFICENT 
RIDE — FOa BOUND — PORKOPOLIS — VINEYARDS — THE 

CALLIOPE — ABEIVAL AT LOUISVILLE CROSS THE 

OHIO AXD GO INTO CAMP NEAR JEFFERSON- 
VILLE, INDIANA, 

Monday, the 19th of June, everything looks lovely and 
bright. The warm sunshine invigorates us after our sleep 
on the damp dewy ground. We full in once more and 
march to the river and get aboard the good steamer Pickett 
and commence our pleasure trip down the beautiful Ohio. 
The boys begin to sing the good old song "Down the Ohio" 
and all join in the chorus. The puffing of the steam pipe 
and rumbling sound of the paddle-wheel put us in mind of 
old times, and all feel happy to think that every turn of 
the wheel brings us nearer to our happy homes. About 9 
o'clock p. M. we are enveloped in a heavy fog, and lay to 
by the bank of the river until it clears away. Not, till 
about 10 o'clock next day could we leave our position. 
The officers of the boat, however, had to keep a sharp look- 
out to guard against collisions in the fog. We arrived op- 



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IN THE ARSIY OF TIIE POTOMAC. 199 

posite Cincinnati, and lay an hour in the stream. We 
start once more and pass some beautiful vineystrds that line 
the shores on either side of the river. The view [9 grand, 
and all enjoy the trip down the Ohio. 

On the 2Ist we arrive safe in Louisville, Kentucky, and 
disembark ; stay in the city three or four hours and cross 
the river to Jeffersonville, Indiana. We march through 
the place and camp two miles up the river. We have a 
beautiful camp on a high bluif overlooking the Ohio, and 
can stand it a little longer here, but of course we will soon 
get tired even of our beautiful camp, for all are anxious 
now to go home. Away in the distance can be seen Louis- 
ville, and directly across the river are the waterworks. The 
Ohio is dotted with steamers of all kinds and sizes. The 
boats, as they pass our camp, strike np Home beautiful air 
with their calliope played with steam. At a distance the 
music sounds beautiful. 1 will not attempt to describe the 
calliope, but the different notes are regulated on the same 
principle as the common whistle, making different sounds. 

The weather now is intensely warm and all wo have to 
do is to try to keep cool, but it is very difficult, for all are 
in a heat to go home. However, we must await our turn, 
for it takes a long while for our good old Uncle to settle up 
with all his bovs. 



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CHAPTER LX. 

THE MITSTER OUT ROLL ARRIVES — ALL TEEL JUBILANT 

JULY 4th, 1S65 — A REVIEW OF THE PAST — ORDERS TO 

BE READY TO MARCH — HURRAH FOR OLD MICHIGAN 

— RECErXION IN JACKSON — " JOHNNY COMES 

MARCHING HOME." 

On the 30th of June our muster-out rolls came, whicli 
make all feel gkd. Every one whose duty it ia to work at 
them pitches in with a will to get them done. 

Hurrah for the Fourth of July ! This is the fifth Fourth 
in the army. The first was spent in Washington when the 
preparations for putting down the rebellion were going on; 
the second, at Harrison's Landing, on the Peninsula, after 
our terrible campaign among the swamps and forests; the 
third, at Gettysburg, after hurling back the Rebel horde 
from off our free Northern soil ; the fourth, in front of 
Petersburg, bearding the iion in his den, and to-day, the 
glorious Fourth, the natal day of our American Indepen- 
dence, we find ourselves in Louisville, after wiping out all 
traces of the late gigantic rebellion. Surely this ou^ht to 
be a great day of rejoicing all over the land, for never since 
the first Fourth in the good old year of 76, had the people 
more cause to rejoice than on this day. We enjoy our- 
selves very much and the Fourth ends by firing a salute 
with cannon, the last day of the kind we are to spend in 
the army. 

We are all ready now to move. Our muster-out rolls 
are completed, and we are awaiting transportation to "-o 
home, which comes on the sixth, and we take the cars for 
Indianapolis, where we arrive about eight o'clock r. 51. 



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IN THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 201 

Here we change cars for Michigan City, where we arrive 
ahout noon of the seventh. We are now on the good old 
Michigan Central Raih-oad, and a short ride will bring U3 
to our own beloved Michigan. One can tell the love each 
man has for this good old State, and how anxious each 
asks: "Have we struck Michigan yet ?" But a short drive 
only and we cross the line, amidst the cheers of the boys 
as they drown the rumbling noise of the train as it dashes 
along, and the song, "Michigan, my Michigan," is taken 
up by all and sung with such zest as only those can sing 
about a place they love. 

The good city of Jackson is reached about eight o'clock. 
The citizens, headed by the noble patriotic Ex-Gov- 
ernor Blair, meet us and take us to their largest hall, 
where a bountiful banquet is spread for us, the only real 
good square meal we've had while in the army. The way 
provisions disappeared on that occason 1 will refer any of 
my readers to the numerous and beautiful young ladies 
who waited on us on that occasion, for we could tell by 
the merry twinkle of their eyes that their labors were 
appreciated. Governor Blair delivered to us a welcoming 
speech, which very {ew of the old Third and Fifth will 
ever forget. After the banquet we marched to the depot, 
and took the train for our destination. 



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CHAPTER LXr. 

RAILROAD SMASHUP — ONE MAN KILLED AND SEVERAL 

WOUNDED — ANN ARBOR — ON THE BAIL AGAIK — ARRIVAL 

AT THE CITY OE THE STRAITS — OUB RECEPTION — ' 

ORAND TIMES — VISITING — TERM OF SERVICE 

DRAWING TO A CLOSE. 

On Saturday morning, July 8th, when all were fast 
asleep, and the train with its human freight was dashing 
along at the rate of thirty miles an hour, we were brought 
up suddenly liy being huddled together. What is the 
cause? we ask as we pick ourselves up. By jumping from 
our cars and going forward we soon see the cause. The 
engine is stuch in the bank at Ann Arbor, and live or six 
cars telescoped. We look on with horror and think that 
after being so near home it. is terrible that our comrades 
should he killed. We stand transfixed to the spot, and 
hear the groans of the wounded. Making our way among 
the debris to help them out, we are met by nearly all of 
our comrades as they crawl on hands and knees toward us 
through the wreck, dragging their guns and accoutrements 
with them. We say to ourselves, that after all perhaps 
only a few are hurt with slight wounds. But we soon learn 
that one of our number has been called to his last home, 
poor Sergeant Herbst. A railroad smash-up has done what 
the rebel bullets could not do, taken the life that has with- 
stood the storms of battle for the last four years. It is 
the wonder of all that bo few are hurt. The cause of the 
accident was laid to the switchman, who left the switch 
open, whether purposely or not, no one can tell. After a de- 
lay in the beautiful eity of Ann Arbor of a few hours, a train 



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is sent for, and we arrive in the City of the Straits without 
further accident. Tho citizens have a good breakfast 
awaiting us at the depot, which we eat with a wilh 
Breakfast over we are welcomed home by the Mayor, in a 
beautiful and touching speech. The joy of all is now 
unbounded, and all feel happy to be home again. Friends 
gather arouud and weep for joy to see the bronze faces, 
after hearing the hardships of the campaigns and storms 
of over fifty battles. We fall in and commence our march 
through the beautiful Jefferson Avenue, as nice a street as 
any city can boast. Both sides are lined with people, and 
all greeting us with waving of handkerchiefs and loud 
cheers. Surely all of our fatigues are forgotten now with 
the thought tliat our services are appreciated by a free 
people. We cannot keep in very good marching order for 
our ranks are charged upon by our friends, regardless of 
military discipline. 

After marching through as well as we could, we break 
off and stack our arms near Elmwood Cemetery, there to 
await the coming of the paymaster to give ua our last pay. 
Of coarse there is uo restriction placed on us, only to be 
around when wanted, and we all go to vieit our friends for 
the last lime in Uncle Sam's uniform. Nearly all of us 
make our way to some, merchant tailoring establishment to 
get measured for a suit of citizen's clothes. We are hav- 
ing gay times, and all seem to vie with each other in treat- 
ing us well. 



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