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Full text of "The numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society"

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THE 



NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE, 



AND 



JOUKNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 

/If ( m 

(JOURNAL 



OF THE 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 



EDITED BY 

SIR JOHN EYANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., F.R.S., Y.P.S.A., 

CORRESPONDANT DE I/INSTITUT DE FRANCE, 

BARCLAY Y. HEAD, D.C.L., PH.D., 

KEEPER OF COINS, BRITISH MUSEUM, 

MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, 
HON. MEMBER OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF VIENNA, 

HERBERT A. GRTJEBER, F.S.A., 

ASSISTANT-KEEPER OF COINS, BRITISH MUSEUM, 

AND 

EDWARD J. RAPSON, M.A., M.R.A.S., 

PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT, UNIVERSITY COLL., LONDON. 



FOURTH SERIES. VOL. III. 

,^U"IO, 

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'fa(/\fy 

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Factum abiit monumenta manent Ov. Fast. 



LONDON : 
BERNARD QUARITCH, 15, PICCADILLY. 

PARIS : 

MM. ROLLIN ET FEUARDENT, PLACE LOUVOIS, No. 4. 

1903. 




LONDON : 

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, 
DUKB STREET, STAMFORD STREET, S.E., AND GREAT WINDMILL STREET, W. 






CONTENTS. 



ANCIENT NUMISMATICS. 

PAGE 

The History and Coinage of Artaxerxes III., his Satraps 
and Dependants. By Sir Henry H. Howorth, K.C.I.E., 
F.E.S 1 

The Numerical Letters on Imperial Coins of Syria. By 

George Macdonald, M.A. ...... 105 

Notes on some Phocian Obols. By Neville Langton . , 197 

Classification Chronologique des Emissions Monetaires de 
1'Atelier de Nicomedie pendant la Periode Constanti- 
nienne. By Jules Maurice . . . . . .211 

Greek coins acquired by the British Museum in 1902. By 

Warwick Wroth . 317 



MEDLEVAL AND MODERN NUMISMATICS. 

The Coinage of William Wood, 1722-1723. By Philip Nelson, 

M.D 47 

A Find of Silver Coins at Colchester. By H. A. Grueber, 

F.S.A Ill 

The Gold Coinage of the Reign of Henry VI. By Frederick 

A. Walters, F.S.A. . .286 



j CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

George William de Saulles. Obituary Notice. By John H. ^ 

Pinches . 

A Find of Coins of Alfred the Great at Stamford. By H. A. ^ 

Grueber, F.S.A. . 



ORIENTAL NUMISMATICS. 
Coinage of the East India Company. By J. M. C. Johnston 71 

Two Coins relating to the Buwayhid and 'Okaylid Dynasties 
of Mesopotamia and Persia. By J. G. Covernton, M.A. 

History and Coinage of Malwa (Part L). By L. White King, 

F.S.A. 356 



MISCELLANEA. 

Errata in Mr. Crump and Mr. Johnson's "Notes on 'A 
Numismatic History of the Eeign of Henry I.' By 
W. F. Andrew." . 

Roman Coins found at Southwark 

Coins found on the Premises of the Worshipful Company of 

Carpenters. . . .102 

Ancient British Coins of Verulamium and Cunobelinus . . 192 

An Unpublished, or Unique Half-crown of Charles I. . . 193 

The Mughal Mints of India 194 

Malwa Coins of Bahadur Shah of Guzerat . . . 314 

A Round Copper Coin of Ghiyath Shah of Malwa (?) . . 316 

Coins of the Nomes of Egypt 399 

Some Coins of Caria and Lycia , . . 399 



CONTENTS. Ill 



NOTICES OF EECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 

PAGE 

Medaillen des italienischen Renaissance. Von Cornelius 

von Fabriczy . . . . . . . 190 



LIST OF PLATES CONTAINED IN VOL. III. 

PLATES 

I., II. Wood's Irish Coinage. 

III. Coins of the East India Company. 

IV. Short-cross Pennies (Henry II.-IIL). 
V. Phocian Coins. 

VI., VII. Monnaies de Nicomedie. 
VIII., IX. Gold Coinage of Henry VI. 
X.-XII. Acquisitions of the British Museum in 1902. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE NUMISMATIC 
SOCIETY. 



SESSION 19021903. 

OCTOBER 16, 1902. 

SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., F.R.S., 
V.P.S.A., F.G.S., President, in the Chair. 

The President proposed, and Sir Augustus Prevost seconded, 
a vote of condolence with the family of the late Mr. Alfred E. 
Copp, who for over twenty years had filled the office of 
Hon. Treasurer to the Society. 

A. H. Baldwin, Esq., and Edward Charles Davey, Esq., 
were elected Members of the Society. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
Nos. 226-230. 

2. Foreningen til Norske Fortidsmindesmerkers Bevaring. 
Aarsberetning for 1901. 

3. Academic royale de Belgique ; Bulletin de la Classe des 
Lettres, 1901 ; and Nos. 1-8, 1902. 

4. A sketch catalogue of Australian copper tokens. Revised 
edition. By M. H. Long. From the Author. 



4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

5. Bulletin de Numismatique, Mars-Juillet, 1902. 

6. Bulletin international de Numismatique. Nos. 2-3. 

7. Una Medaglia d' Argento di Vincenzio Bellini. By 
L. Pasetti. From the Author. 

8. Journal of Hellenic Studies. Vol. xxii. Pt. 1. 

9. Revue Beige de Numismatique. 3 me et 4 me livr., 1902. 

10. Bulletin de la Societe des Antiquaires de 1'Ouest. 
l er trim., 1902. 

11. Revue Numismatique. 2 me trim., 1902. 

12. American Journal of Archaeology. Vol. vi. Nos. 
2 and 3. 

13. Archaeologia Cantiana. Vol. xxv. 

14. Thirty-second Annual Report of the Deputy Master of 
the Royal Mint, 1901. 

15. Proceedings of the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society 
of Philadelphia, 1899-1901. 

16. Le piu antiche Monete di Napoli. By L. Correra. 
From the Author. 

17. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Vol. xxxii. Pt. 2. 

18. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American 
Numismatic and Archaeological Society of New York, 1902. 

19. American Journal of Numismatics. April-June, 1902. 

20. Alcuni Acquisti del R. Gabinetto numismatico di Brera. 
By S. Ambrosoli. From the Author. 

21. La Gazette Numismatique. Mai-Juillet and Oct, 
1902. 

22. Papers of the British School at Rome. Vol. i. 

23. Report on the Administration of the Government 
Museum, Madras, 1901-2. 

24. Dell' Affinita delle Monete di Restituzione e le Monete 
dei Nomi d'Egitto. By G. Dattari. From the Author. 

Mr. S. B. Boulton exhibited a gold quarter stater of the 
British chief Cunobelinus, struck at Camulodunum, and having 
on the obverse an ear of corn and the legend CAM. C VN., and 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. O 

on the reverse a horse and the legend CVK (Evans, PI. IX., 
11). The occurrence of this chiefs name on both faces is most 
unusual on his coins. 

Mr. H. W. Taffs showed two pennies of Alfred, and a 
groat and two half-groats of Edward III. found at Southend. 

Mr. W. Webster exhibited a quarter-noble of Edward III., 
with the letter e( in the centre of the cross on the reverse, 
which he attributed to the fourth coinage of that monarch. 

Mr. L. Forrer showed some medals and plaques published 
by the Societe des Amis de la Medaille Fransaise, and 
executed by the artists Gardet, De Vernon, Legastelois, 
Niclausse, and Daniel Dupuis. 

The President read a paper on some rare or unpublished 
Roman coins, among which are two denarii of Galba struck in 
Spain ; some aurei of Julia Domna and Caracalla, with 
their portraits; of Diadumenian as Caesar, showing two 
varieties of portrait ; of Elagabalus, with a representation of 
the sacred stone " Elagabal " in a chariot ; of Balbinus, with 
reverse type of Victory, the only gold coin known of that 
emperor ; and two others of Carausius with figures of Pax, 
varying in treatment ; also a very rare denarius of that 
emperor with the head of Sol on the reverse. Some of the 
gold coins came from the recent finds in Egypt at Minieh and 
Alexandria. This paper is printed in Vol. ii., p. 345. 



NOVEMBER 20, 1902. 
SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., President, in the Chair. 

W. C. Boyd, Esq., was unanimously elected Hon. Treasurer 
of the Society in succession to the late Alfred E. Copp, Esq. 

A letter was read from A. E. G. Copp, Esq., conveying 
the thanks of his mother and the other members of his family 
for the vote of condolence passed at the previous meeting on 



g PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

the death of his father, A. E. Copp, Esq., Hon. Treasurer of 
the Society. 

Henry Fentiman, Esq., Oswald Fitch, Esq., Francis John 
Haverfield, Esq., F.S.A., E. Alfred Jones, Esq., and Henry C. 
Ramsden, Esq., were elected Members of the Society. 

The foUowing Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, 
Vol. xxxii. Pt. 3. 

2. Ancient Tokens of Colchester. By E. N. Mason. From 
the Author. 

3. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
Nos. 231 and 232. 

4. False Shekels. By G. F. Hill. From the Author. 

5. Bulletin de la Societe des Antiquaires de 1'Ouest. 
2 me trim., 1902. 

6. Revue Numismatique. 3 me trim., 1902. 

7. American Journal of Numismatics. Vol. xxxvii. No. 1. 
1902. 

Mr. R. A. Hoblyn exhibited a fine specimen of the Blondeau 
pattern half-crown with inscribed edge and dated 1651. 

Sir Augustus Prevost exhibited a specimen of the newly- 
issued two and half gulden of Queen Wilhelmina of Holland, 
the dies for which were executed in 1898. 

Mr. F. A. Walters showed a sestertius of Galba with the 
reverse legend " Senatus Pietati Augusti," and with a senator 
crowning the emperor. 

Mr. C. E. Mackerell exhibited two similar coins of Vitellius. 

Mr. J. Pinches showed specimens of the University College 
of South Wales medal for anatomy, of the Royal Society's 
memorial medal of David William Hughes, and a new prize 
medal for the Royal Agricultural Society. 

Mr. H. W. Taffs showed a pattern penny of Victoria dated 
1865. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 7 

Mr. P. Carlyon-Britton read a paper on the rare penny of 
Regnald I., King of Northumbria, having the hammer of 
Thor on the obverse, and a strung bow with arrow on the 
reverse. 

Mr. "W. Wroth communicated an account of the Greek 
coins recently acquired by the British Museum, amongst 
which were copper pieces of Aphytis; Potidaea; Pausanias, 
King of Macedon, B.C. 390-389 ; Aegium, with reverse the 
boy Zeus standing on a pedestal ; and Naukratis ; also silver 
pieces of Larissa with the nymph seated on a hydria and 
holding one of her sandals ; of the Federation of the Achaean 
cities, being a didrachm of the first Achaean Federation, circa 
B.C. 370 ; and of Neandria, Cyme, and Mytilene. The paper 
is printed in Vol. ii., p. 313. 



DECEMBER 18, 1902. 
SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., President, in the Chair. 

The President announced that the Council had had under 
consideration a proposal to change the hour of the Ordinary 
Meetings from 7 P.M. to 6.30 P.M., and suggested that the 
question should come up for discussion at the next Ordinary 
Meeting of the Society to be held on the 15th January next. 
The meeting approved the suggestion of the Council and 
ordered that, in accordance with the Statutes, due notice of the 
proposed change should be sent to each Member of the 
Society. 

J. G. Covernton, Esq., was elected a Member of the Society. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Journal of Hellenic Studies. Vol. xxii. Pt. 2. 

2. Revue Suisse de Numismatique. Tome xi. I 6re livr. 

3. Appunti di Numismatica Alessandrina. By G. Dattari. 
From the Author. 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

4. La Gazette Numismatique. Nov. 1902. 

5. Transactions of the Japan Society. Vol. v. 

The President exhibited two half-nobles and a quarter- 
noble of the annulet coinage of ' Henry VI. These coins 
afforded strong evidence that the trefoil-annulet coinage 
followed the annulet one and should not be placed last in the 
series as proposed by Mr. Kenyon in his Gold Coins of England. 
Sir Augustus Prevost exhibited a prize medal presented by 
himself, and to be awarded to the company of the 25th 
Middlesex Volunteers, composed of porters and messengers in 
the employment of the Bank of England. The medal has 
portraits of the Bong and Queen on the obverse and a seated 
figure of Britannia on the reverse. 

Mr. C. A. Mackerell showed a sestertius of Commodus with 
the reverse type the Emperor spearing a lion. It resembles 
in fabric the medallions of that period. 

Mr. F. A. Walters exhibited a denier of Boemund I., struck 
at Antioch. 

Mr. L. A. Lawrence showed impressions in shellac of the 
Waterloo medal by Pistrucci. 

Mr. Grueber read a paper on the recent find of silver coins 
at Colchester. The find numbered about 10,926 pieces which 
were mostly English pennies of the short-cross coinage 
(1180-1248). Besides these there was a considerable number 
of contemporary Irish and Scottish pennies and a few foreign 
deniers esterlins. The writer gave an analysis of the hoard, 
which he said confirmed in a most satisfactory manner the 
classification of the short-cross money proposed by the 
President as far back as 1865. Mr. Grueber was of opinion 
that the hoard formed part of the exchange, which took place 
on the issue of the long-cross money in 1248, and that it had 
been stolen, or concealed, and not unearthed till a few months 
ago. This paper is printed in Vol. iii. } p. 111. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 9 

JANUARY 15, 1903. 
SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., President, in the Chair. 

The following alterations in the Rules relating to the hours 
of Meetings of the Society were proposed and carried 
unanimously. 

Rule 28. For " Business shall commence at seven o'clock 
in the evening precisely " read " Business shall commence 
at half -past six o'clock in the evening precisely." 

Rule 31. For " A General Meeting shall be held annually 
on the third Thursday in June at 7 P.M. " read " A General 
Meeting shall be held annually on the third Thursday in June 
at 6.30 P.M." 

Rule 33. For " The Ballot shall commence at 7 P.M. and 
close at 8 P.M." read " The Ballot shall commence at 6.30 P.M. 
and close at 7 P.M." 

Henry Elliott Fox, Esq., Harry Price, Esq., and Max 
Rosenheim, Esq., F.S.A., were elected Members of the Society. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Numismatic Circular, 1902. From Messrs. Spink and 
Sons. 

2. Revue Beige de Numismatique. l feve livr., 1903. 

3. Kong. Yitterhets Historic och Antiquitets Academiens 
Manadsblad. 1897. From the Society. 

4. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Yol. vi., 
No. 4, and Yol. xxiv., Pt. 1. 

5. J. Laugier : un Numismate Provencal. By Baron 
Guillibert. From the Author. 

6. Bonner Jahrbiicher. Heft 108-9. 

7. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 233. 

8. American Journal of Archaeology. Yol. vi., No. 4, and 
Supplement. From the Archaeological Institute of America. 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

9. Trois Monnaies Luxembourgeoises. By the Vic te B. de 
Jonghe. From the Author. 

10. Repertoire General de Medallistique. By Paul Ch. 
Stroehlin. From the Author. 

The President exhibited a medallion in bronze of the 
emperor, Gordian III., having on the reverse the emperor on 
horseback, preceded by Victory and accompanied by soldiers. 

Mr. G. R. Marten sent for exhibition through the President 
a forgery of a half-crown of Victoria made in Sicily, and 
another of a shilling of the same reign made in Germany. 

Mr. W. C. Boyd exhibited a denarius of Julia Maesa, 
grandmother of Elagabalus, with the unpublished type of 
reverse " Fides Militum " seated. 

Mr. R. A. Hoblyn showed a series of one-third farthings 
struck for currency in Malta, including one of Edward VII. 

Mr. Boyd gave an account of a find of Roman coins made 
at Salbris, near Romorantin in the Department of the Loire. 
The find consisted of from six to seven hundred base denarii 
extending from the reign of Valerian to that of Aurelian, 
A.D. 253-275, and included many pieces of Gallienus, 
Postumus, Victorinus and Tetricus I. and II. 

Mr. Grueber read a paper on a small hoard of coins of the 
time of Alfred discovered recently at Stamford. Some of the 
pennies of Alfred were of the Lincoln and London mints, one 
of the latter bearing the moneyer's name on the obverse instead 
of the king's. Amongst the halfpennies of Alfred were two of 
an unpublished type, bearing on the reverse a monogram 
formed of the Greek letters, A and d). There was also a 
half denier of Charles the Bald struck at St. Denis. The find 
was an interesting one, as several of the coins, which purported 
to be of Alfred, were Danish copies of his coins, which may to 
a certain degree be accounted for, as Stamford was one of the 
five burgs which were specially set apart by Alfred or his 
successor for the occupation of the Danish population. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 11 

FEBRUARY 19, 1903. 

SIR HENRY H. HOWORTH, K.C.I.E., Vice-President in the 

Chair. 

H. Alexander Parsons, Esq., was elected a Member of the 
Society. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Bulletin international de Numismatique. Vol. i., No. 4. 

2. American Journal of Numismatics. Oct., 1902. 

3. Bulletin de Numismatique. Oct.-Dec., 1902. 

4. Bullettino di Numismatica e del Circolo Numismatico 
Milanese. No. 1, 1903. 

5. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 234. 

6. Annual Report of the Board of Reports of the Smith- 
sonian Institute. 1901. 

7. Rivista Italiana di Numismatica. Fasc. 4, 1902. 

8. Revue Numismatique. 4 me trim., 1902. 

9. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Pt. iv., 1902. 

10. Bulletin de la Societe des Antiquaires de 1'Ouest. 
3 me trim., 1902. 

11. Zeitschrift fur Numismatik. Band xxiii. Heft 3 and 4. 

12. Academic royale de Belgique. Bulletin de la Classe des 
Lettres. Nos. 9-12, 1902. 

13. Royal Irish Academy : Proceedings. Vol. xxiv., Pt. 2. 

14. Coronation medal in bronze for Hong-Kong. From 
Messrs. J. Edwards and Co. 

Mr. Horace W. Monckton exhibited two London pennies of 
Henry VI. of the rosette-mascle and pine-cone-mascle coinages. 

Mr. L. A. Lawrence showed a Canterbury penny of the first 
issue of Edward III. with English N'S in the legend and the 
portrait of the king resembling that of Edward II. 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Mr. A. H. Baldwin exhibited a copper coin of Carausius 
struck at Camulodunum, and having on the reverse a centaur 
and the legend " Leg. III. Flavia." 

Mr. F. A. Walters read a paper on the gold coinage of 
Henry VI. After calling attention to the large amount of 
gold coined (according to the Mint records) during the first 
six years of this reign as compared with the small amount 
during the later years, Mr. Walters gave reasons for attributing 
the bulk of Henry VI.'s gold coins to the annulet and not to 
the trefoil coinage, as has been done hitherto by English 
numismatists. The writer suggested that the flag in the 
stern of the ship on some nobles and half-nobles was the 
distinguishing mark of the Calais mint both in this and 
previous reigns ; and it was also suggested that the fleur-de-lis 
on the ship's stern on other pieces denoted the York mint. 
He concluded with a classification of the coins of the several 
gold issues, which he showed corresponded in a remarkable 
manner with those of the silver money. 



MARCH 19, 1903. 

SIB HENRY H. HOWORTH, KG. I.E., Vice-President in the 

Chair. 

Oberst-Lieut. M. Bahrfeldt of Halle, Saxony, was elected 
an Hon. Member of the Society, and William H. Regan, Esq., 
an ordinary Member. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Catalogue of Greek coins in the British Museum : Coins 
of Parthia. By Warwick Wroth. From the Trustees of the 
British Museum. 

2. Appunti di Numismatica Alessandrina. Pt. xvi. By 
G. Dattari. From the Author. 

3. Bullettino di Numismatica. No. 2. Feb., 1903. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 13 

4. Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1900. 

5. Annuaire de PAcademie royale de Belgique, 1903. 

6. Archaeologia Aeliana. Vol. xxiv. Pt. III. 

7. Berliner Miinzblatter. Jan., 1903. 

8. La Gazette Numismatique. Jan., 1903. 

9. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 
No. 235. 

Mr. L. A. Lawrence exhibited a halfpenny of Edward III. (?) 
struck in London. The portrait of the king differed much 
from that usually found on Edward's coins, being long and 
narrow. 

Mr. W. Talbot Ready showed an unpublished drachm of 
the fourth century B.C., struck at Atarneus, with head of 
Apollo on the obverse and a serpent on the reverse. 

Mr. Harry Price exhibited specimens of copper boat-shaped 
money from Laos, and an eighteenth-century manuscript 
catalogue of a collection of Greek and Roman coins. 

Dr. O. Codrington showed a gold coin of the Malay 
Peninsula, probably struck at Acheen in the fourteenth 
century, and a tutenag copy of a mohur of Shah Jehan. 

Mr. Grueber read the first portion of a paper on Roman 
copper money of the first century B.C., which included not only 
that struck at Rome, but also local issues of the East, Spain, 
and Gaul. The writer first dealt with the coinage of the East 
which was struck in the names of Mark Antony, P. Canidius 
Crassus, the legate of Antony, and Augustus. From analyses 
of the coins these issues appeared to be of the semuncial 
standard. 



APRIL 23, 1903. 
SIE JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., President, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. American Journal of Archaeology. Vol. vii. No. 1. 



14 PR0 ^DINGS OF THE 



2. Revue Nu^ ismatique lflr trim } 190 3. 

3. Bulleti de Numismat ique. Jan.-Feb., 1903. 

sta Italiana di Numismatica. Fasc. 1, 1903. 

5. Academic Royale de Belgique. Bulletin de la Classe des 
Lettres. Nos. 1-2, 1903; et de la Classe des Sciences. 
No. 1, 1903. 

6. Bullettino di Numismatica. Nos. 3-4. 

7. Ancient Greek Coins. Vol. ii. Syracuse. By Frank 
Sherman Benson. From the Author. 

8. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London. 
Vol. xix. No. 1. 

9. Revue Beige de Numismatique. 2 me livr., 1903. 

10. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 236. 

11. American Journal of Numismatics. Jan. -Mar., 1903. 
Mr. L. A. Lawrence exhibited a penny of Edward I. (?) 

struck at Newcastle, and bearing a similar portrait of the 
king to that on the London halfpenny shown by him at the 
preceding meeting of the Society. 

Mr. P. Carlyon-Britton showed an Anglo-Saxon sceat 
found at Dorchester, in Dorsetshire, having on the obverse a 
small head surrounded by ten circles, and on the reverse a 
fantastic bird. 

Mr. W. C. Boyd exhibited a copper coin of Constantine II. 
struck at Treves, with the diademed bust to left on the obverse, 
and the legend CONSTANTINVS AVG. within a wreath on 
the reverse. It is a combination, somewhat varied, of Cohen, 
Monn. Imp. Itom., Nos. 69 and 68. 

Mr. F. A. Walters exhibited a half-groat of the heavy 
coinage of Henry IV. and two half-groats of the light 
coinage. 

Mr. Grueber read the second and concluding portion of his 
paper on Roman Copper Coinage of the First Century B.C.," 
dealing with the issues in Spain, in Gaul, and of the mint at 
Rome. With regard to the last series, the writer, following 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 15 

the classification of the late Count de Salis, showed, that in 
B.C. 44 and 43, an attempt was made at Rome to revive the 
issue of a copper currency which had been in abeyance since 
B.C. 80, but that it was not successful. When the re-appearance 
of inoneyers' names on the coinage occurred, circa B.C. 16, the 
copper currency was again revived, and from that time was 
continuous. The analyses of the metals from which these last 
coins were struck showed that the sestertius and dupondius 
were of orichalcum i.e., brass, composed of 75 per cent, copper 
and 25 per cent, zinc and that the as and quandrans were 
practically of pure copper. The current value of the orichalcum 
coins was nearly double that of those of pure copper. 



MAY 21, 1903. 
SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C,B., President, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Bulletin International de Numismatique. Vol. ii., 
No. 1. 

2. Academic royale de Belgique. Bulletin de la Classe des 
Lettres. Nos. 3 and 4, 1903. 

3. Notes on Indian coins and seals. By E. J. Rapson. 
From the Royal Asiatic Society. 

4. A Malay coin. By Col. Gerini. From the Royal Asiatic 
Society. 

5. Numismatische Zeitschrift. 1902. 

6. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
Nos. 237-238. 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

7. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Vol. xxxiii. Pt. 1. 

8. Bulletin de la Societe des Antiquaires de 1'Ouest. 
4 me trim., 1902. 

The President exhibited a bronze sestertius of Augustus 
struck by the Commune Asiae in B.C. 27, having on the 
obverse the head of Augustus and on the reverse the letters 
C . A . within a wreath ; and also a dupondius of the same 
emperor struck at Lyons with a view of the Altar on the 
reverse. The head of Augustus on the obverse is more after 
the style of that on medallions. It is figured in Num. Zeitschr., 
Vol. xxxv., PI. v. 9. 

Mr. L. A. Lawrence showed an Anglo-Saxon sceat recently 
found in Goldsmith Street, Drury Lane, during some 
excavations. On the obverse is a floriated whorl and on 
the reverse a female centaur. 

Mr. F. Willson Yeates exhibited some copper tickets 
inscribed on the obverses " Folly," and on the reverses with 
the names of " G. Gait " or " Hulbert," which he thought 
were used as checks at the Folly Inn near Bathwick. 

Mr. W. Webster exhibited a gold medallion of Constantius II. 
as Caesar struck at Treves ; having a laureate bust on the 
obverse, and on the reverse Constantius crowned by Victory, 
raising a female figure wearing a turreted crown and supported 
by a soldier. Around, the legend "PIETAS AVGVSTI 
NOSTRI." This medallion was evidently struck by 
Constantius during his governorship of Gaul, A.D. 332. 

Mr. P. Carlyon-Britton read a paper on " Edward the 
Confessor and his Coins," in which he proposed some modi- 
fications in the order of the types based on what are termed 
" mules," i.e.) pieces having the obverse type of one issue 
and the reverse type of another. In attempting to fix the 
dates of the different issues he was of opinion that when a 
change of type took place the reverse dies were issued on the 
29th Sept., i.e., Michaelmas ; but that the obverse dies did not 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 17 

appear till the Christmas following. In a discussion which 
followed, Mr. Grueber criticised Mr. Carlyon-Britton's 
arrangement of the earlier types, and said that the attempt to 
fix the actual dates of the issues of the new dies was purely 
speculative. 



JUNE 18, 1903. 
ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., F.R.S., 
V.P.S.A., F.G.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Annual General Meeting were read 
and confirmed. 

Mr. Horace W. Monckton and Mr. Richard A. Hoblyn 
were appointed scrutineers of the ballot for the election of the 
Council and the Officers for the ensuing year. 

The Report of the Council was then read to the Society. 

GENTLEMEN, The Council again have the honour to lay 
before you their Annual Report as to the state of the 
Numismatic Society. 

With much regret they have to announce the death of the 
following six Ordinary Members : 

G. D. Brown, Esq. 

Alfred E. Copp, Esq., Hon. Treas. 

H. Syer Cuming, Esq., F.S.A. Scot. 

John Gloag Murdoch, Esq. 

H. P. Smith, Esq. 

J. M. Stobart, Esq. 

And of the following Hon. Member : 

S. E. Baron Wladimir von Tiesenhausen. 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

The Council also regret to announce the resignation of the 
following nine Ordinary Members : 

W. J. Andrew, Esq., F.S.A. 

F. Brayne Baker, Esq. 

H. Cassels Kay, Esq. 

H. W. Lawrence, Esq. 

A. B. Richardson, Esq. 

E. J. Sidebotham, Esq., M.B. 

C. F. Spink, Esq. 

E. Fairfax Studd, Esq. 

Lieut.-Col. R. N. Sturt. 

On the other hand the Council have much pleasure in 
recording the election of the following thirteen Ordinary 
Members : 

A. H. Baldwin, Esq. 

J. G. Covernton, Esq., M.A. 

Edward Charles Davey, Esq. 

H. Elliott Fox, Esq. 
. Harry Fentiman, Esq. 

Oswald Fitch, Esq. 

F. G. Haverfield, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 

E. Alfred Jones, Esq. 

H. Alexander Parsons, Esq. 

Harry Price, Esq. 

Henry A. Ramsden, Esq. 

William Henry Regan, Esq. 

Max Rosenheim, Esq., F.S.A. 
And of the election of the following Hon. Member : 

Oberst-Lieutenant M. Bahrfeldt. 

It will be seen from the above statement that an unusual 
number of deaths and resignations has been nearly met by an 
exceptional number of elections ; the effect of which is to cause 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 19 

but slight change in the numerical state of the Society, 
which as compared with last year is as follows : 

Ordinary. Honorary. Total. 

June, 1902 270 23 293 

Since elected 13 1 14 



Deceased 


283 
6 


24 
1 


307 

7 


Resigned 


9 




9 



June, 1903 268 23 291 

The Council have to announce that they have awarded the 
medal of the Society to M. Leon Gustave Schlumberger, Membre 
de 1'Institut de France, in recognition of his services to 
Numismatics, more especially in connexion with the coinages 
of the Latin East. 

The Council have also to announce that they have had 
before them a proposal duly made by nine Members, and 
supported by a large number of Members of the Society, that 
Rule 45 should be amended by the addition of the words 
" Every such paper, or, if it be too long, a synopsis of its 
contents, shall be read at an Ordinary Meeting of the Society 
before insertion in the Chronicle." 

After careful consideration the Council, being of opinion 
that, if the proposed alteration of the Rules were made, the 
regular publication of the Chronicle would be delayed and the 
work of the Editors immensely increased, ordered that the 
following circular expressing their view be sent to Members of 
the Society before the General Meeting. 

NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

Proposed Alteration of Rules. 

The Council of the Numismatic Society have had before 
them a proposal, strongly supported, that Rule 45 be altered by 
the addition at the end thereof of the words, "Every such 

I 2 



20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

paper, or, if it be too long, a synopsis of its contents, shall be 
read at an Ordinary Meeting of the Society before insertion in 
the Chronicle." 

The Council, while regretting that an article in the 
Numismatic Chronicle has met with a certain amount of 
disapproval, venture to think that the supporters of this 
proposal can hardly be aware of the difficulties that attend the 
regular publication of the Chronicle, or of the amount of work 
entailed upon the Editors. They would point out that the 
spirit of the proposed alteration in the Rule is at present so 
far as practicable complied with both by the Officers of the 
Society and by the Editors of the Numismatic Chronicle ; but 
the Council cannot recommend the adoption of the proposed 
alteration, inasmuch as if it were literally carried out it would 
be almost impossible for the Editors to fulfil the duties 
delegated to them by the Council, especially during the four 
months of the year in which there are no Ordinary Meetings 
of the Society. 

Signed on behalf of the Council, 
JOHN EVANS, 

PRESIDENT. 
22 Albemarle Street, 

28th May, 1903. 

The Hon. Treasurer's Report, which follows, was then 
submitted to the Meeting and adopted. 



Statement of Keceipts and Disbursements of the 
Dr. THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF LONDON IN 







. 


d. 





8. 


d. 


To Messrs. Virtue & Co. for printing Chronicles 


5 


3 










Part II., 1902 


57 6 


3 










Ill 


67 5 


9 










IV., 


41 3 


8 
















166 





11 










69 


14 


6 


n 


The Koyal Asiatic Society, one year's rent due June 24, 


1903 


. 


30 











Mrs. Harper, for attendance, Tea, Coffee, &c. . 


. 


. 


10 


19 


8 


it 


Messrs. H. Bowyer & Co., for Bookbinding 


. 


. 


2 


1 


5 





Messrs. Whittingham & Co., for Stationery 


. 


. 


2 


1 


6 





Messrs. Thomas Mills, for Stationery 


. 


. 


1 


5 


6 


n 


Messrs. Hachette, for " Dictionn. des Antiq." . 


. 


. 




3 


9 





Mr. B. Quaritch, for Catalogue .... 




. 


1 











Mr. F. Anderson, for Drawing Coins 


12 













... 


1 5 













>i ... 


8 













... 


1 













... 


1 12 



















4. 




o 


n 


Mr. Pinches, for Engraving ..... 








4 





Messrs. Williams & Norgate, for Eeinach, "L'Hist. par 


les 










Monnaies" 








g 


n 












1 s 






Mr. I. W. Miles, for Legal Expenses 






2 


.10 

2 


o 




Secretaries' Account 






S 









M Treasurer, for Postages, Receipts, &c., and Cheque Book . . 1 12 3 

Collector (Mr. C. G. Coleman), for Commission and Postages . 145 

By Balance in hand . . . . 196 7 



495 17 5 
Examined and found correct, 

THOS. BLISS, ) . 

15th June, 1903. ARTHUR H. LYELLJ Audllors - 



Numismatic Society, from June, 1902, to June, 1903. 

ACCOUNT WITH WILLIAM C. BOYD, HON. TREASURER. Cr. 










* 


a. 


By 


Balance from last Statement ....... 


154 


It) 


I 


n 


Entrance Fees ......... 


13 


13 





n 


Subscriptions . . . . . . . 


236 


11 


3 


n 


Amount received for Chronicles 










Mr. B. Quaritch 3 15 










40 10 










14 5 













58 


10 





> 


Mr. C. B. Stainer 




14 





>/ 


Mr. E. Rapson 




15 





> 


Messrs, H. Virtue & Co., Limited, discount returned . 




5 


1 


n 


Inland Eevenue, Eeturned Income Tax 


4 


3 


5 





Allowance on old Cheques ....... 




1 








August Dividend on 700 London and North- Western Railway 










4% Consolidated Preference Stock (less Tax 16. lid.) . 


13 


3 


1 





February ditto (less Tax 17. 6<Z.) .... 


13 


2 


6 



495 17 5 

WILLIAM C. BOYD, 

HONORARY TREASURER. 
15th June, 1903. 



24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

The Report of the Council was received and, after consider- 
able discussion, adopted. By a Resolution of the Meeting the 
Ballot for the Council and Officers remained open till 7.30 
p.m. After the Report of the Council had been adopted, and 
after some further discussion as to the Council and Officers 
for the ensuing year, the President presented the Society's 
Medal to Mr. B. V. Head to forward to M. Schlumberger, 
who was unable to attend the meeting, and addressed him 
as follows : 

Mr. Head, I have much pleasure in presenting to you the 
Medal of this Society for transmission to Mons. Leon Gustave 
Schlumberger, Membre de Tlnstitut de France. It has been 
awarded to him by the Council in recognition of his long and 
important services to numismatic science, more especially in 
connection with the coinages of the Latin East. 

For a period of nearly thirty years he has devoted special 
attention to this department of our studies, but his descrip- 
tion of the coins, jetons and medals of Beam, which forms a 
second volume of the Monetary History of that important 
ancient province of France, and his various articles on 
Byzantine Coins republished in his Melanges d 'Archeologie 
Byzantine, show that his interests are not confined to a single 
branch of numismatics. His L'epopee byzantine a la fin du 
dixieme siecle and his NicepJiore Phocas bear evidence to the 
same effect. I must also mention his Sigillographie de 
F Empire Byzantin, which is not unconnected with the coin- 
age. But, after all, it is in respect of his Numismatique de 
I' Orient Latin, published in 1878, with a supplement in 1882, 
that this award has been mainly made. This exhaustive 
work treats of the Principalities of Syria and Palestine, the 
Kingdom of Cyprus and the Grand Masters of the Order of 
St. John of Jerusalem at Rhodes, beginning with the eleventh 
and coming down to the fifteenth century ; and enables us to 
trace, both by historic and numismatic evidence, the rise and 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 25 

progress of the Crusades and their far-reaching results. The 
work is indeed one that affords an admirable example of the 
due combination of historical and numismatic research, and in 
conveying to M. Schlumberger this medal we may express 
not only our gratitude to him for his past achievements, but 
our hope that there may be other fields before him in which 
his labours in the future may produce equally valuable and 
satisfactory results. 

Mr. Head, in returning thanks for the medal on behalf of 
M. Schlumberger, who was unable to be present, said that this 
was the seventh occasion on which he had been privileged to 
act as the deputy-recipient of the Society's medal on behalf 
of a Numismatist of European reputation. He had read 
before the Annual Meetings letters of warm acknowledgment 
for the award of the medal from the Oriental numismatist, 
Edward Thomas, in 1885, from Imhoof-Blumer, in 1888, from 
J. P. Six of Amsterdam, in 1890, from his kind old friend 
and adviser, M. W. H. Waddington, in 1893, from Mommsen, 
the veteran historian of ancient Rome, in 1895, and from his 
learned colleague, Von Sallet of Berlin, in 1897. And now, 
once again, he had the honour of communicating to the 
Society the following letter addressed to him by another 
distinguished foreign numismatist, M. Gustave Schlumberger, 
whose published works have already gained for him the 
highest honour to which an Archaeologist can look forward, 
that of Membership of the French Academy of Inscriptions. 
M. Schlumberger's letter, as read by Mr. Head, is as 

follows : 

Paris, 37 Avenue d'Antin, 

24 Mai, 1903. 
" Monsieur, 

Je ne puis vous exprimer combien la nouvelle de 1'honneur 
insigne que m'a confere, sur votre proposition, la Societe Numis- 
matique de Londres, me touche, me flatte et m'honore. Je 
vous prie d'etre assez bon pour etre 1'interprete de ma gratitude 



26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

aupres de votre illustre compagnie, car, a mon extreme regret, 
il m'est materiellement impossible de me rendre a Londres. 
Aucune recompense ne pouvait m'etre plus precieuse. Veuillez 
en assurer vos savants confreres. II me reste a vous dire, 
Monsieur et cher confrere, ma gratitude profonde pour votre 
si aimable et flatteuse initiative qui me touche profondement. 
Je suis fier de penser que mes modestes travaux m'ont valu 
une telle distinction. Veuillez Monsieur et cher confrere, 
croire a 1'expression de mes sentiments les plus distingues et 
tres reconnaissants. 

GUSTAVE SCHLUMBERGER, 

de 1'Institut de France." 



The President then delivered the following address : 

The year that has just closed has been more eventful than 
usual in the annals of the Society. We have unfortunately lost 
our Honorary Treasurer by death ; we have unexpectedly, in 
consequence of the winding-up of the old-established business 
of Virtue & Co., Lim d ., been compelled to place our printing 
in new hands, those of Messrs. W. Clowes & Sons, Lim d . ; 
and there has been some excitement in the Society with 
regard to a proposed change in a Rule which the Council, on 
due consideration, and having regard to the necessities of the 
Editors of the Numismatic Chronicle, have not been able to 
accept. Their reasons for this action have been explained in 
a short statement that has been circulated among the 
Members. 

The number of those whom the busy hand of death has 
removed from among us has, I am glad to say, been only six, 
but the resignations from various causes have been far more 
numerous than usual, amounting to nine in all, a diminution 
in our numbers which all must regard with regret. 

On the other hand, we may congratulate ourselves on the 
accession of fifteen Members, so that our total number of 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 27 

Ordinary Members, 268, remains at nearly the same level as 
that of last year, 270. 

Our finances, as you will have heard from the Report of 
our excellent present Honorary Treasurer, Mr. W. C. Boyd, 
are in a satisfactory condition. 

Our medal has this year been bestowed on a highly dis- 
tinguished foreign numismatist, M. Leon Gustave Schlum- 
berger of Paris. 

We have added the name of Oberst-Lieutenant M. Bahr- 
feldt of Halle to our List of Honorary Members, from 
which, however, the distinguished name of Baron Wladimir 
von Tiesenhausen has to be removed on account of his 
lamented decease. 

Tt is as nearly as may be two years since, at our Anni- 
versary Meeting in 1901, I placed our medal in the hands of 
Dr. Codrington for transmission to Baron von Tiesenhausen. 
It had been awarded to him by the Council in recognition of 
his long and valuable services to Oriental Numismatics, 
especially in connection with the coinages of the Khalifs. On 
that occasion I pointed out that his numismatic labours had 
commenced so long ago as 1855, and I cited some of his 
principal works, such as his Monnaies des Khalifes Orientaux 
and his Recueil de Materiaux relatifs a Vhistoire de la Horde 
d'Or. I may now just mention his " account of two hoards 
of Cufic coins found in Russia," * his notes on the collections 
of Oriental Coins belonging to Count Stroganoff, to General 
Komaroff, and to M. N. P. Linovitch, and a paper on an 
unknown Dirhem which appeared in 1900. He was long 
regarded as a chief among the students of Mohammedan 
numismatics, and many will deeply regret his loss. 

Mr. Alfred E. Copp joined our Society in the year 1877, 
and in 1879 succeeded Mr. J. F. Neck in the post of 
Honorary Treasurer a post which he held from that time 
1 Num. Zeitschr, 1871. 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

until the day of his death, October 7, 1902. On his accession 
to office the invested funds of the Society amounted to 409 
consols, while in June 1902 our capital consisted of 700 
London and North Western Railway 4% Preference Stock of 
the present value of about 900, or more than double what it 
was twenty-three years previously. A better testimony to 
the assiduous care of our finances by our Honorary Treasurer 
can hardly be offered. Mr. Copp, however, did not confine 
his attention to the current coins of the realm, but took a 
warm interest in those of an earlier date, of which he not 
infrequently exhibited specimens at our meetings. In my 
last address, unaware that we were so soon to lose his 
valuable services, I made mention of some beautiful plaques 
by Simon Passe, that he had recently brought under our 
notice. While mourning the loss of Mr. Copp, I feel that I 
cannot do otherwise than take this opportunity of offering our 
warmest thanks to Mr. Boyd for so readily undertaking the 
somewhat onerous duties of the Honorary Treasurership of 
the Society, and of expressing a hope that he may long be 
spared to look after our interests in every department. 

Mr. Syer Cuming joined the Society in 1875, but though a 
diligent antiquary he never communicated anything to our 
publications. It is, however, hardly an exaggeration to say 
that he favoured the British Archaeological Association with 
innumerable papers and notes on an infinite variety of sub- 
jects, among which coins and medals occasionally appear. 
Medalets relating to Mary Stuart, to the Old and Young 
Pretenders, to the Virgin Mary and St. Benedict, to Porto 
Bello and Culloden, the Lee penny and memento mori, were 
all in turn the subjects of his researches. When his extensive 
collections which, with a sum for their maintenance, have been 
bequeathed to the Borough of Lambeth come to be arranged, 
it will I think be found that they consist of more multifarious 
objects than exist in any other museum, and that there is 
hardly a phase of domestic life or of national industry 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 29 

but will receive some illustration from the collections formed 
by Mr. Syer Cuming with such unceasing zeal through a 
long life. 

In Mr. John G. Murdoch, who died on July 22, 1902, we 
have lost an ardent and intelligent collector, whose refined 
taste and critical judgment are well exhibited in the mag- 
nificent collection of coins and medals, which are now, alas ! 
in process of dispersion under the hammer. 

I must now, in accordance with my usual custom, pass in 
review the Papers that have either been read before the 
Society or communicated to the pages of the Numismatic 
Chronicle. As in former years they cover a wide field, both 
chronologically and geographically. 

In Greek numismatics Mr. Wroth has been so good as to 
give us another of his valuable papers relating to recent 
acquisitions by the British Museum. In the year 1901 these 
were no less than 1069 in number, including 38 of gold and 
411 of silver. Among the coins may be mentioned as 
specially worthy of notice an early obol of Larissa, showing 
the nymph seated on a hydria, and replacing one of her 
sandals which has become loose during her efforts to while 
away the time at the fountain by a game of ball. It is a 
wonderful 4th century B.C. picture in a circle of less than 
half-an-inch in diameter. A tetradrachm of Euboea is a fine 
specimen of late 5th century work. A bronze coin of Eretria 
of the time of Commodus, with a triple bust on the reverse, is 
of great rarity and interest, whether the faces be male or 
female. A coin of Aegium, of the time of Antoninus Pius, 
shows the figure of the boy Zeus on the reverse, doubt- 
less taken from the bronze statue by Ageladas that was seen 
and described by Pausanias. 

A remarkable Aeginetic didrachm of the Federation of 
Achaean Cities, probably dating from about the middle of the 
4th century B.C., demands attention on account of the 
wonderful female head in profile on the obverse. It was 



30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

also probably struck in Aegium. Coins of the Cilbiani Nicaei 
of Lydia with a bull's head, and of Side in Pamphylia with 
Asklepios, and of Cremna, with the word DON ATI O on the 
reverse, the equivalent of AOPEA, are also worthy of notice. 
The Trustees of the British Museum are much to be con- 
gratulated on the value and interest of these accessions to 
the Greek Series. 

To Mr. George Macdonald, whose labours in connection 
with the Hunter Collection at Glasgow are beyond all praise, 
we are indebted for a Paper on the Coinage of Tigranes I. 
He regards the duration of his coinage as having extended 
over fourteen years, which he divides into three periods, the 
coins of the second and third being dated. The earliest bears 
the title of BAZIAEflZ simply ; the second that of BAZIAEQZ 
BAZIAEflN, while those of the third revert to the title on the 
first. Coins in silver and copper are known of all three 
classes, the reverse type on the silver pieces being in all 
cases the Tyche of Antioch. 

In Roman numismatics we have to thank Mr. Grueber for 
an exhaustive account of the Roman copper money of the 
first century B.C., in which he traces the issue of the coins, 
not only at Rome, but in Spain, Gaul, and the East. At 
Rome the coinage, which had been in abeyance since 80 B.C., 
was partially revived about 44 B.C., but did not become con- 
tinuous again until about 14 B.C. At that time the as and 
quadrans were of copper and the sestertius and dupondius of 
orichalcum, a metal which analysis shows consisted of about 
three parts copper to one of zinc. This compound was re- 
garded as being of twice the intrinsic value of copper. The 
letters c. A. on the reverse of the fine copper coins of 
Augustus struck in the East, are regarded by the author as 
significant of Commune Asiae, or some other Latin form of 
KOINON AZIAZ. 

M. Jules Maurice has favoured us with another of his 
valuable monographs on the issues of certain Roman mints 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 31 

during the Constantino Period. On this occasion it is the 
Mint of Alexandria to which he directs our attention. He 
classes the coins under no less than eleven issues, beginning 
with A.D. 305 and ending with the small pieces struck after 
the death of Constantine the Great in A.D. 337. Like former 
Papers by the same author, this essay will be found of great 
assistance to those who have to undertake the difficult task of 
arranging the coins struck by the numerous Emperors and 
Caesars of the close of the third and the first half of the 
fourth century of our Era. 

In a Paper on Some Rare or Unpublished Roman Coins, I 
have called attention to a considerable number of interesting 
pieces which with one exception are in my own cabinet. One 
of the small silver coins of the time of Galba is remarkable as 
having been found in this country, and as presenting a new 
type of the " Hispaniarum et Gralliarum Concordia." A series 
of gold coins, for the most part from Egyptian hoards, give 
some new varieties of the days of Septimius Severus and his 
successors, while the aureus of Balbinus adds a new name to 
the Roman gold series, and some hitherto unknown coins of 
Carausius, both of gold and silver, are of especial interest to 
British numismatists. We have had brought before us 
several notices of finds of Roman coins. Mr. Boyd has 
described a hoard of six or seven hundred coins from the 
time of Valerian to that of Aurelian, found near Romorantin 
in the Department of the Loire. Mr. Haverneld has given 
us lists of two hoards of much the same period, from Brighton 
and Eastbourne, and of another of somewhat later date 
coming down to the Constantine Period, unearthed at Easton 
near Norwich. An earlier hoard of denarii from Tiberius to 
Faustina II., found near Caistor by Norwich, has also been 
described by Mr. Haverfield. 

Mr. Hill has given us a list of a small hoard from the tune 
of Agrippa to that of Vespasian found during excavations in 
Southwark, and Mr. Percy H. Webb has described a number 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

of coins found on the rebuilding of Carpenters' Hall in 1872, 
among which are Roman and Byzantine coins of very various 
dates. 

In the domain of Anglo-Saxon numismatics the indefatigable 
Mr. Grueber has placed on record particulars of an extremely 
interesting small hoard of coins of the time of Alfred recently 
discovered near Stamford. One of them, struck at Lincoln, 
has the name of the moneyer, Herebald, upon the obverse, 
instead of that of the king. Two half-pence are of an unpub- 
lished type, and bear on the reverse a monogram formed of 
the letters A and U), somewhat in the manner of that upon 
certain Merovingian trientes. Several of the coins are 
Danish copies of those of Alfred, as was the case in the great 
Cuerdale hoard. 

Some curious coins of Eadgar, with remarkable florid 
reverses, have also been described by Mr. Grueber, who in 
the same paper has noticed a rare noble of Henry VI. 
belonging to his first or annulet coinage. 

Mr. Carlyon-Britton has called attention to a rare penny 
of Regnald I. of Northumbria with the hammer of Thor on 
the obverse and a bow and arrow on the reverse. In a later 
Paper he has given an exhaustive account of the coinage of 
Edward the Confessor and attempted a slightly novel 
arrangement of the types, relying to a great extent on 
certain historical data. 

I must now direct your attention to what has been done 
with regard to our post-Conquest numismatics. 

The long and important Numismatic History of the Reign 
of Henry I., by Mr. W. J. Andrew, which occupies the First 
Volume of the Fourth Series of the Chronicle, has been the 
subject of a considerable amount of criticism. Some notes 
upon it by Messrs. C. G. Crump and C. Johnson of the 
Record Office appeared in the Chronicle, but it must not be 
forgotten that for the opinions therein expressed the 
authors alone and not the editors are responsible. The 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 33 

authors have corrected some few errors of their own, in- 
cluding one of some importance as to the date of the building 
of the Cathedral of Exeter, in Part I. of the Chronicle for the 
present year. 

Mr. J. H. Round, in the English Historical Review? has 
also commented on Mr. Andrew's History, mainly in connec- 
tion with the Mint of Colchester. It is not for me here to 
say whether the critics are right or wrong as to facts, but 
when we consider the vast area of the field covered by 
Mr. Andrew, we must feel that it would be strange indeed if 
he did not occasionally fall into error. As numismatists we 
must all acknowledge our indebtedness to him for the immense 
labour that he undertook in collecting particulars of all the 
known coins of Henry I., and for the skill shown in the 
difficult task of arranging their types. Very possibly he may 
have been in error in regarding certain remissions, of which 
we have evidence in records, as being credited to the wrong 
fund, but he himself must be credited with first calling 
marked attention to the fact that these remissions, on the 
ground of defect of moneyers at certain mints, have a direct 
bearing on the history of the coinage. If but one moneyer 
worked at a certain place for a given time instead of four, it 
is evident that the type issued at that time would at that mint 
be relatively scarce, and if no moneyers were at work the 
type would be absent. The reasons for the shortness or total 
want of moneyers at certain mints in certain years may or 
may not be absolutely those suggested by Mr. Andrew ; but 
though in many cases the evidence is of necessity negative in 
character, he has contributed to our studies a good working 
hypothesis which may eventually lead to a more perfect 
knowledge of the numismatic history of Norman times. For 
this we should all be grateful. 

With regard to the connection of a local coinage, with the 
absence or presence of the grantee of the mint within his 
2 Vol. xviii., p. 305. 

C 



34 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

demesne, I am inclined to think that we have not as yet 
heard the last word. 

Mr. Grueber has laid before us an account of a large hoard 
of silver coins lately discovered at Colchester. Nearly 1 1,000 
pieces were present, mainly English, of the short-cross type, 
but also a fair number of Irish and Scottish pennies and a 
few foreign deniers. A careful analysis of the coins has 
enabled the author to add some new names of moneyers to 
the lists already published ; but on the whole the examina- 
tion of this large hoard has resulted in confirming the views 
that I brought forward nearly forty years ago, viz., that the 
short-cross pennies bearing the name of HENRICUS were 
struck not only under Henry II., but throughout the reigns 
of Richard I. and John, and during the first years of 
Henry III., until the introduction of the long-cross type in 
the year 1248. 

Mr. F. A. Walters has supplemented his exhaustive Paper 
of last year, on the Silver Coinage of Henry VI., by a Paper 
on the Gold Coinage of that monarch. He showed that the 
bulk of Henry's gold coins were struck in the early part of 
his reign, and he was therefore inclined to assign the annulet 
rather than the trefoil coinage to his mints. He suggested 
that the flag of the ship on the nobles and half -nobles is 
indicative of the coins bearing it having been struck at 
Calais, and that the fleur-de-lis on the stern of the ship in 
other cases may indicate their having been struck at York. 
When the Paper has been printed we shall be better able to 
examine the cogency of these suggestions, which at first 
sight have much to commend them. That as to the fleur-de- 
lis being the symbol of York is to my mind more hazardous 
than the others, but may after all have a solid foundation. 

Coming down to the later times, I find the Rev. G. Searle 
calling attention to about fifty sixteenth-century Tradesmen's 
Tokens, not given in Williamson's edition of Boyne. The 
majority, as might be expected, are of London, but I am 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 35 

interested in noting two unpublished Hertfordshire Tokens in 
the List. 

Mr. Pritchard has also favoured us with a supplementary 
note on the Bristol Tokens of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth 
Centuries, mainly relating to varieties of those already 
published, but also including a new and unpublished Private 
Token. 

An engraved and unique naval reward medal, presented to 
Mr. John Breton, pilot to H.M.S. " Crescent," has been the 
subject of an interesting account by Mr. Bardasano and 
Mr. Grueber. 

In Oriental numismatics we have had descriptions of some 
rare coins of the Khalifs of Baghdad, both Umayad and 
Abbasi, struck at various mints, from the pen of Dr. 
Codrington. 

Mr. Long worth Dames has given us an account of some of 
the Coins of the Moghul Emperors, struck at the numerous 
mints within their wide-spread dominions. 

Tha coinage of the East India Company has been carefully 
discussed by Mr. J. M. C. Johnston. The subject is none the 
less difficult on account of so large a proportion of the Com- 
pany's coins having in these early days been struck in the 
name of Moghul Emperors and Native Princes. 

I must now call your attention to some of the numismatic 
publications of the past year, and in doing so must acknow- 
ledge my indebtedness to Mr. Grueber for assistance in 
preparing a portion of these short notices. 

Another volume of the British Museum Catalogue of Greek 
Coins, the twenty-third of the series begun in 1873, has 
recently been published. It relates to the Coins of Parthia, 
and has been compiled by Mr. Warwick Wroth. It is illus- 
trated by a map and thirty-seven autotype plates. The coins 
of the Arsacidae, with the exception of those of early date, 
do not perhaps possess the same attractions, either as works 
of art or as historical monuments as most of the other Greek 



36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

series. There are, however, mysteries as to chronology, 
identification and classification, which have attractions of 
their own, and in this country both Professor Percy Gardner 
and Mr. Warwick Wroth have found a special interest in 
working on these Parthian coins. A Paper by the latter on 
the rearrangement of the series, principally that portion of it 
that is anterior to the time of Phraates IV., appeared in 1900 
in the Numismatic Chronicle, and the lines then laid down 
have been followed in the Catalogue. I cannot pretend to 
pass an opinion on the merits of this book, but on the face 
of it an immense amount of patient labour lias been bestowed 
upon it, the Indices and Introduction are all that could 
be desired, and the Plates give admirable reproductions of 
the coins. 

Another important work on Greek numismatics is Dr. 
Imhoof-Blumer's second and concluding part of his Klein- 
asiatische Munzen, which deals with rare and unpublished 
coins of Lycia, Pamphylia, Pisidia, Lycaonia, Cilicia and 
Galatia, with an Appendix. Such a work needs no commen- 
dation on my part, as the great value and interest of all 
Dr. Imhoof-Blumer's publications are so well known to Greek 
numismatists, who will find in this volume not only much 
fresh information but also the identification and elucidation 
of many coins hitherto classed as " Uncertain." Illustrations 
are given of all the more important pieces, and full indices 
are supplied for reference. 

Mr. G. F. Hill has added to his already numerous numis- 
matic works a volume on the Coins of Ancient Sicily. In his 
Preface he tells us, " It is a conviction of the high interest to 
all students of antiquity and lovers of art of many things in 
the history of Sicilian coinage, which are hidden away in 
special highly technical publications, that has suggested the 
compilation of this book." Holm in his GescMchte Siciliens 
im Alterthum has described the Sicilian coins in the form of a 
Catalogue ; and Mr. Arthur Evans, in the fourth volume of 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 37 

Freeman's History of Sicily, has discussed them rather from an 
economic and political view, though his valuable papers on 
Syracusan Medallions and Artists' signatures on Sicilian coins 
in the Numismatic Chronicle deal with the coins of Syracuse, 
both from the chronological and the artistic standpoint. 
Mr. Hill is inclined to confine himself more especially to the 
numismatic and artistic interest of the series. In consequence 
the attention of the reader is not disturbed by long and minute 
descriptions of the coins, though he fully explains their types 
and historical import. The introductory chapter, which gives 
a brief sketch of Sicilian history, is a fitting prelude to the 
main subject. The book is well illustrated by blocks and 
collotype plates, the latter being admirably executed. 

M. Theodore Reinach has collected, under the title L'Histoire 
par les Monnaies, a number of his contributions to archaeo- 
logical periodicals within the last fifteen years. As the title 
implies, the volume is mainly concerned with numismatics as 
applied to the elucidation of history. Among the many 
important articles included I may mention that on the 
relation between gold and silver in antiquity, as well as the 
brilliant suggestion that the supposed artist "Acragas," 
mentioned by Pliny, is a myth originating in a decadrachm 
of Acragas having been let into the bottom of a silver cup. 
The discovery of a new King of Bithynia and the identifica- 
tion of the Bithynian sculptor of the Venus accroupie as 
Doedalses, and not, as hitherto supposed, Daedalus, may be 
mentioned as being of special interest among the twenty-five 
subjects which are discussed in the volume. 

In concluding this short address, I must again thank the 
Society for the indulgence which for so many years it has 
extended to me, and express a hope that the Temple of Janus 
may now be closed, and that the future years of the 
Numismatic Society may be blessed with peace and pros- 
perity. 



38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

A vote of thanks to the President for his Address was 
moved by Professor Percy Gardner, seconded by Sir Augustus 
Prevost, and carried unanimously. 

The President announced to the meeting the result of the 
Ballot for the Council and Officers for the ensuing year, 
which was : 

President. 

SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., 
F.K.S., V.P.S.A., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. 

SIR HENRY H. HOWORTH, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
SIR AUGUSTUS PREVOST, BART., B.A., F.S.A. 

Hon. Treasurer. 
W. C. BOYD, ESQ. 

Hon. Secretaries. 

HERBERT A. GRUEBER, ESQ., F.S.A. 
PROF. EDWARD J. RAPSON, M.A., M.R.A.S. 

Foreign Secretary. 
GEORGE FRANCIS HILL, ESQ., M.A. 

Hon. Librarian. 
OLIVER CODRINGTON, ESQ., M.D., F.S.A. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 39 

Members of the Council. 

THOMAS BLISS, ESQ. 

STEPHEN W. BUSHELL, ESQ., M.D., C.M.G. 

LADY EVANS. 

PROF. PERCY GARDNER, M.A., Lnr.D., F.S.A. 

BARCLAY VINCENT HEAD, ESQ., D.C.L., PH.D. 

RICHARD A. HOBLYN, ESQ., F.S.A. 

HORACE W. MONCKTON, ESQ., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

C. R. PEERS, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A. 

FREDERICK A. WALTERS, ESQ., F.S.A. 

SIR HERMANN WEBER, M.D. 



LIST OP MEMBERS 



OP THE 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 

OF LONDON, 

1903. 



LIST OF MEMBERS 

OP THE 

NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 

OF LONDON, 

1903. 



An Asterisk prefixed to a name indicates that the Member has compounded 
for his annual contribution. 



ELECTED 

1873 *ALEXIEFF, M. GEORGES D', Maitre de la Cour de S.M. 
1'Empereur de Eussie, 40, Sergnewskaje, St. Petersburg. 

1903 ALLBUTT, HENRY ARTHUR, ESQ., LL.D., D.C.L., M.E.C.P., 
24, Park Square, Leeds. 

1892 AMEDROZ, HENRY F., ESQ., 7, New Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
1884 ANDREWS, E. THORNTON, ESQ., 25, Castle Street, Hertford. 

1888 ARNOLD, G. M., ESQ., D.L., F.S.A., Milton Hall, Gravesend, 
Kent. 

1900 AVEBURY, KT. HON. LORD, P.O., F.E.S., High Elms, Down, 
Kent. 



1882 BACKHOUSE, SIR JONATHAN E., BART., The Eookery, Middleton 

Tyas, E.S.O., Yorks. 

1902 BALDWIN, A. H., ESQ., 212, Eglinton Eoad, Plumstead, 
Woolwich. 

1898 BANES, ARTHUR ALEXANDER, ESQ., The Eed House, Upton, 
Essex. 

1887 BASCOM, G. J., ESQ., 109, Lexington Avenue, New York, 
U.S.A. 

1896 BEARMAN, THOS., ESQ., Melbourne House, 8, Tudor Eoad, 
Hackney. 

1898 *BENSON, FRANK SHERMAN, ESQ., 214, Columbia Heights, 
Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 

1880 *BIEBER, G. W. EGMONT, ESQ., 4, Fenchurch Avenue, E.G. 

1883 BIGGE, FRANCIS E., ESQ., Hennapyn, Torquay. 
1882 BIRD, W. S., ESQ., 74, New Oxford Street, W.C. 



4 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

ELECTED 

1885 BLACKETT, JOHN STEPHENS, ESQ., C.E., Inverard, Aberfoyle, 

N.B. 

1882 BLACKMORE, H. P., ESQ., M.D., Blackmore Museum, Salis- 
bury. 

1896 BLEAZBY, GEO. BERNARD, ESQ., Assist. Accountant-General, 
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, Allahabad, India. 

1882 *BLISS, THOMAS, ESQ., Conmgsburgh, Montpelier Eoad, 
Ealing, W. 

1879 BLUNDELL, J. H., ESQ., 157, Cheapside, E.G. 

1896 BOULTON, S. B., ESQ., J.P., D.L., F.E.G.S., Copped Hall, 

Totteridge, Herts. 

1903 BOUSFIELD, STANLEY, ESQ., M.A., M.B. (Camb.), M.E.C.S., 
35, Princes Square, W. 

1897 BOWCHER, FRANK, ESQ., 35, Fairfax Eoad, Bedford Park, W. 

1899 BOWLES, HAROLD BOLLES, ESQ., Oakside, 35, Oakfield Eoad, 
Clifton, Bristol. 

1892 BOYD, WILLIAM C., ESQ., J.P., 7, Friday Street, E.G., Hon. 
Treasurer. 

1899 -BOYLE, COLONEL GERALD, 48, Queen's Gate Terrace, S.W. 

1903 BRAMBLE, LT.-COL. JAMES EOGER, J.P., F.S.A., Seafield, 
Weston-super-Mare, Somerset. 

1896 BRUUN, HERR L. E., 101, Gothersgade, Copenhagen. 
1878 BUCHAN, J. S., ESQ., 17, Barrack Street, Dundee. 

1889 BUCKLEY, LADY, Bathafarn Hall, Euthin, Denbighshire. 

1884 BUICK, DAVID, ESQ., LL.D., Sandy Bay, Larne Harbour, 
Ireland. 

1881 BULL, EEV. HERBERT A., Wellington House, Westgate-on- 
Sea. 

1897 BURN, EICHARD, ESQ., Allabahad, India. 

1881 BURSTAL, EDWARD K., ESQ., M. List. C.E., 38, Parliament 

Street, Westminster. 

1900 BUSHELL, STEPHEN W., ESQ., M.D., C.M.G., Shirley, Harold 

Eoad, Upper Norwood, S.E. 

1878 *BUTTERY, W., ESQ. (address not known). 

1886 CALDECOTT, J. B., ESQ., Wallfields, Hertford. 

1894 CARLYON-BRITTON P W. P., ESQ., D.L., J.P., F.S.A., 14, 
Oakwood Court, Kensington, W. 



1898 CAR ^ ;g MAJOR D. LINDSAY, 6, Playfair Terrace, St. 

1899 CAVE, CHARLES J. P., ESQ., Ditcham Park, Petersfield. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 5 

ELECTED 

1886 CHURCHILL, WM. S., ESQ., 102, Birch Lane, Manchester. 

1884 *CLARK, JOSEPH, ESQ., 5, Grosvenor Gardens, Muswell Hill, 

N.W. 

1890 CLARKE, CAPT. J. E. PLOMER, Welton Place, near Daventry, 

Northamptonshire. 

1891 *CLAUSON, ALBERT CHARLES, ESQ., 12, Park Place Villas, 

Maida Hill West, W. 

1890 CLERK, MAJOR-GEN. M. G., Bengal Army, c/o Messrs. H. S. 
King & Co., 9, Pall Mall, S.W. 

1903 CLULOW, GEORGE, ESQ., 51, Belsize Avenue, Hampstead, 
N.W. 

1886 CODRINGTON, OLIVER, ESQ., M.D,, F.S.A., M.E.A.S., 12, 
Victoria Road, Clapham Common, Librarian. 

1895 COOPER, JOHN, ESQ., Beckfoot, Longsight, Manchester. 

1902 COVERNTON, J. G., ESQ., M.A., The Cherries, St. Briavels, 
near Coleford, Gloucestershire. 

1874 CREEKE, MAJOR ANTHONY BUCK, Westwood, Burnley. 
1886 *CROMPTON-EOBERTS, CHAS. M., ESQ., 52, Mount Street, W. 

1900 CRONIN, ALFRED C., ESQ., F.S.A., 25, Kensington Palace 
Mansions, De Vere Gardens, W. 

1899 CULL, REUBEN, ESQ,, Tarradale, Glebe Avenue, Enfield, 
Middlesex. 



1884 DAMES, M. LONGWORTH, ESQ., M.E.A,S., Alegria, Enfield, 
Middlesex. 

1900 DATTARI, SIGNOR GIOVANNI, Cairo, Egypt. 

1891 DAUGLISH, A. W., ESQ., Stanmore, Foxley Lane, Purley. 

1902 DAVEY, EDWARD CHARLES, ESQ., 1, Somerset Cottages, Prior 
Park Eoad, Bath. 

1878 DAVIDSON, J. L. STRAQHAN, ESQ., M.A., Balliol College, 
Oxford. 

1884 DAVIS, WALTER, ESQ., 23, Suffolk Street, Birmingham. 

1898 DAVIS, WILLIAM JOHN, ESQ., Erceldeane, Wake Green Eoad, 
Moseley, Birmingham. 

1888 DAWSON, G. J. CROSBIE, ESQ., M. Inst. C.E., F.G.S., F.S.S., 
May Place, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 

1897 DAY, EGBERT, ESQ., F.S.A., M.E.I.A., Myrtle Hill House, 
Cork. 

1886 *DEWICK, EEV. E. S., M.A., F.S.A., 26, Oxford Square, Hyde 
Park, W. 



6 LIST OF MEMBEKS. 

ELECTED 

1888 DICKINSON, REV. F. BINLEY, M.A., Manor House, Ottery St. 

Mary. 

1889 DIMSDALE, JOHN, ESQ., c/o C. J. Mercer, Esq., Northwick 

Lodge, Harrow-on-the-Hill. 

1868 DOUGLAS, CAPTAIN E. J. H., Junior United Service Club, 

Charles Street, St. James's, S.W. 
1893 DUDMAN, JOHN, ESQ., JUN., Eosslyn Hill, Hampstead, N.W. 

1893 ELLIOTT, E. A., ESQ., 41, Holland Park, W. 

1895 ELY, TALFOURD, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., 13, Well Road, Hamp- 
stead, N.W. 

1888 ENGEL, M. ARTHUR, 66, Rue de 1'Assomption, Paris. 
1879 ERHARDT, H., ESQ., 9, Bond Court, Walbrook, E.G. 

1872 EVANS, ARTHUR J., ESQ., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.S.A., 

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 

1849 EVANS, SIR JOHN, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.S.A., 
Corr. de 1'Inst., Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead, President. 

1892 *EVANS, LADY, Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead. 

1861 EVANS, SEBASTIAN, ESQ., LL.D., Abbots Barton, Canterbury. 



1836 FAY, DUDLEY B., ESQ., 53, State Street, Boston, Mass., 
U.S.A. 

1902 FENTIMAN, HARRY, ESQ., 3, Aylesbury Villas, Hounslow. 

1902 FITCH, OSWALD, ESQ., Woodhouse Eaves, Crouch End. 

1901 FLETCHER, LIONEL LAWFORD, ESQ., Norwood Lodge, Tup- 
wood, Caterham. 

1898 FORRER, L., ESQ., Edelweiss, Grove Park, Kent. 

1894 *FOSTER, JOHN ARMSTRONG, ESQ., F.Z.S., Chestwood, near 
Barnstaple. 

1891 Fox, H. B. EARLE, ESQ., 42, Rue Joufiroy, Paris. 

1903 Fox, HENRY ELLIOTT, ESQ., Jeune House, Salisbury. 

1868 FRENTZEL, RUDOLPH, ESQ., 96, Upper Osbaldeston Road, 

Stoke Newington, N. 

1882 *FRESHFIELD, EDWIN, ESQ., LL.D., F.S.A., New Bank 
Buildings, 31, Old Jewry, E.C. 

1896 *FRY, CLAUDE BASIL, ESQ., Howcroft, Stoke Bishop, 

Bristol. 

1897 GANS, LEOPOLD, ESQ., 207, Madison Street, Chicago, U.S.A. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 7 

ELECTED 

1871 GARDNER, PROF. PERCY, Litt.D., F.S.A., 12, Canterbury Road, 
Oxford. 

1889 GARSIDE, HENRY, ESQ., Burnley Eoad, Accrington. 
1894 GOODACRE, H., ESQ., The Court, Ullesthorpe, Eugby. 

1885 GOSSET, MAJOR-GEN. MATTHEW W. E., C.B., Westgate House, 

Dedham, Essex. 

1899 GOWLAND, PROF. WILLIAM, F.I.C., M.C.S., F.S.A., 13, 
Eussell Eoad, Kensington, W. 

1891 *GRANTLEY, LORD, F.S.A., 2, Buckingham Palace Gardens, 

S.W. 
1865 GREENWELL, EEV. CANON W., M.A., F.E.S., F.S.A., Durham. 

1903 GRIFFITH, FRANK LL., ESQ., M.A., Eiversvale, Ashton -under- 
Lyne. 

1894 GRISSELL, HARTWELL D., ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., 60, High 
Street, Oxford. 

1871 GRUEBER, HERBERT A., ESQ., F.S.A., Assistant-Keeper of 
Coins, British Museum, Hon. Secretary. 

1899 HALL, HENRY PLATT, ESQ., Toravon, Werneth, Oldham. 
1898 HANDS, EEV. ALFRED W., Wanstead, Essex. 

1903 HASLUCK, F. W., ESQ., The Wilderness, Southgate, N. 

1902 HAVERFIELD, FRANCIS J., M.A., F.S.A., Christ Church, 

Oxford. 

1864 HEAD, BARCLAY VINCENT, ESQ., D.C.L., Ph.D., Keeper of 
Coins, British Museum. 

1886 *HENDERSON, JAMES STEWART, ESQ., F.E.G.S., M.E.S.L., 

M.C.P., 1, Pond Street, Hampstead, N. 

1901 *HENDERSON, EEV. COOPER K., M.A., Members' Mansions, 
Victoria Street, S.W. 

1892 HEWITT, EICHARD, ESQ., 28, Westbourae Gardens, W. 

1900 HEWLETT, LIONEL M., ESQ., Parkside, Harrow-on-the-Hill, 

Middlesex. 

1880 HEYWOOD, NATHAN, ESQ., 3, Mount Street, Manchester. 

1903 HIGGINS, FRANK C., ESQ., 78, Eue Eichelieu, Paris. 

1893 HILBERS, THE VEN. G. C., St. Thomas's Eectory, Haverford* 

west. 

1898 HILL, CHARLES WILSON, ESQ. (address not known). 

1893 HILL, GEORGE FRANCIS, ESQ., M.A., British Museum, 
Foreign Secretary. 

J873 HOBLYN, EICHARD A., ESQ., F.S.A., 30, Abbey Eoad, St. 
John's Wood, N.W. 



8 LIST OF MEMBERS. 



, WILLIAM JOHN, ESQ., 1, Eoyal Mint, E. 
1895 HODGE, EDWARD G., ESQ., F.S.A., 13, Wellington Street, 

Strand, W.C. 

1895 HODGE, THOMAS, ESQ., 13, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 
1889 HODGES, GEORGE, ESQ., Thornbury, Gloucestershire. 

1877 HODGKIN, T., ESQ., D.C.L., F.S.A., Benwelldene, Newcastle. 

1878 HOWORTH, SIR HENRY H., K.C.I.E., F.B.S., F.S.A., 

30, Collingham, Place, Earl's Court, S.W., Vice- 

President. 
1883 HUBBARD, WALTER E., ESQ., 6, Broomhill Avenue, Partick, 

Glasgow. 
1885 HUGEL, BARON F. VON, 13, Vicarage Gate, Kensington, W. 

1897 HDTH, EEGINALD, ESQ., 32, Phillimore Gardens, Kensington, 

W. 

1892 INDERWICK, F. A., ESQ., K.C., F.S.A., 8, Warwick Square, 
S.W. 

1872 JAMES, J. HENRY, ESQ., Kingswood, Watford. 

1879 *JEX-BLAKE, THE VERY EEV. T. W., D.D., F.S.A., Deanery, 

Wells. 

1880 JOHNSTON, J. M. C., ESQ., The Yews, Grove Park, Camber- 

well, S.E. 

1898 JONAS, MAURICE, ESQ., 9, Drapers' Gardens, E.G. 

1902 JONES, E. ALFRED, ESQ., Junior Conservative Club, Albemarle 

Street, W. 
1843 JONES, JAMES COVE, ESQ., F.S.A., Loxley, Wellesbourne, 

Warwick. 

1873 KEARY, CHARLES FRANCIS, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., Savile Club, 

Piccadilly, W. 

1874 *KENYON, E. LLOYD, ESQ., M.A., Pradoe, West Felton, Salop. 

1884 KING, L. WHITE, ESQ., C.S.I., F.S.A., The Old House, 
Totteridge, Herts. 

1891 KIRKALDY, JAMES, ESQ., Park House, Hendon Lane, Finchley, 

N. 

1876 KITCHENER, GENERAL VISCOUNT, OF KHARTOUM, G.C.B., 
K.C.M.G., O.M., c/o Messrs. Cox & Co., Charing Cross, 
S.W. 

1884 *KITT, THOS. W., ESQ., Snowdon, Woodbridge Eoad, Guildford. 
1901 KOZMINSKY, ISIDORE, ESQ., Langport Villa, 43, Eobe Street, 
St. Kilda, Victoria, Australia. 

1879 KRUMBHOLZ, E. C., ESQ., Alcester House, Wallington, Surrey. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 9 

ELECTED 

1883 *LAGERBERG, M. ADAM MAGNUS EMANUEL, Chamberlain of 
H.M. the King of Sweden and Norway, Director of the 
Numismatic Department, Museum, Gottenburg, and 
Rada, Sweden. 

1901 LAMBERT, HORACE, ESQ., Norgrave Buildings, 59A, Bishops- 
gate Street Within, E.G. 

1888 *LAMBROS, M. J. P., Athens, Greece. 

1871 *LANG, SIR EGBERT HAMILTON, The Grove, Dedham, Essex. 

1900 LANGTON, H. NEVILLE S., ESQ., 62, Harley Street, W. 

1898 LAVER, PHILIP G., ESQ., M.R.C.S., Head Street, Colchester. 

1899 LAWES, SIR CHARLES BENNET, BART., The Studio, Chelftea 

Gardens, S.W. 

1877 LAWRENCE, F. G., ESQ., Birchfield, Mulgrave Road, Sutton, 
Surrey. 

1885 *LAWRENCE, L. A., ESQ., 51, Belsize Park, N.W. 

1883 *LAWRENCE, RICHARD HOE, ESQ., 15, Wall Street, New York. . 

1871 *LAWSON, ALFRED J., ESQ., Smyrna. 

1893 LESLIE-ELLIS, LIEUT.-COL. HENRY, D.L., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., 

Magherymore, Wicklow. 

1892 LEWIS, PROF. BUNNELL, M.A., F.S.A., Queen's College, Cork. 
1862 LINCOLN, FREDERICK W., ESQ., 69, New Oxford Street, W.C. 

1900 LINCOLN, FREDERICK W., ESQ., JUN., 69, New Oxford Street, 

W.C. 

1887 Low, LYMAN H., ESQ., 36, West 126th Street, New York, 
U.S.A. 

1893 LUND, H. M., ESQ., Makotuku, New Zealand. 

1903 LYDDON, FREDERICK STICKLAND, ESQ., Nore House, Portishead, 
Somerset. 

1885 *LYELL, A. H., ESQ., F.S.A., 9, Cranley Gardens, S.W. 

1895 MACDONALD, GEO., ESQ., M.A., The University, Glasgow. 

1901 MACFADYEN, FRANK E., ESQ., 24, Grosvenor Place, Newcastle- 

on-Tyne. 

1887 MACKERELL, C. E., ESQ., Dunningley, Balham Hill, S.W. 
1895 MARSH, WM. E., ESQ., Marston, Bromley, Kent. 

1897 MARTIN, A. TRICE, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., The School House, 
Bath College, Bath. 

1903 MARTIN, T. COWPER, ESQ., 44, White Ladies Road, Clifton, 

Bristol. 

1897 MASSY, COL. W. J., 96, Oakley Street, Chelsea, S.W. 
1880 *MAUDE, REV. S., The Vicarage, Hockley, Essex. 

1901 McDowALL, STEWART A., ESQ., 166, Holland Road, Kensing- 
ton, W. 



10 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

ELECTED 

1868 MCLACHLAN, E. W., ESQ., 55, St. Monique Street, Montreal, 
Canada. 

1897 MILNE, J. GRAFTON, ESQ., M.A., Holly House, Plaistow, E. 

1887 MITCHELL, E. C., ESQ., c/o Messrs. H. S. King & Co., 65, 

Cornhill. 

1898 MONCKTON, HORACE W., ESQ.,' F.L.S., F.G.S., 3, Harcourt 

Buildings, Temple, E.G. 

1888 MONTAGUE, L. A. D., ESQ., Penton, near Crediton, Devon. 

1897 MOREIESON, LT.-COL. H. WALTERS, E.A., 16, Sumner Place, 

South Kensington, S.W. 

1894 MURPHY, WALTER ELLIOT, ESQ., 17, Longridge Eoad, Earl's 

Court, S.W. 
1900 *MYLNE, EEV. EGBERT SCOTT, M.A., B.C.L., F.S.A., Great 

Amwell, Herts. 

1893 NAPIER, PROF. A. S., M.A., D.Litt., Ph.D., Hedington Hill, 
Oxford. 

1864 NECK, J. F.,ESQ., c/o Messrs. F. W. Lincoln, 69, New Oxford 
Street, W.C. 

1898 NELSON, PHILIP, ESQ., M.D., Ch.B., 73, Eodney Street, 

Liverpool. 

1880 NELSON, EALPH, ESQ., 55, North Bondgate, Bishop Auck- 
land. 

1891 NERVEGNA, M. G., Brindisi, Italy. 

1903 NEWALL, WILLIAM, EsQ.,-Eed Heath, Croxley Green, E.S.O., 
Herts. 

1898 OGDEN, W. SHARP, ESQ., Hill View, Danes Eoad, Eusholme, 
Manchester. 

1897 *O'HAGAN, HENRY OSBORNE, ESQ., Al4, The Albany, 
Piccadilly, W. 

1882 OMAN, PROF. C. W. C., M.A., F.S.A., All Souls College, 
Oxford. 

1890 PAGE, SAMUEL, ESQ., Hanway House, Nottingham. 

1903 PARSONS, H. ALEXANDER, ESQ., 6, Clayton Eoad, Peckham, 
S.E. 

1890 PATON, W. E., ESQ., Maison Camus, Place Maze, Viroflay, 
S. et 0., France. 

1882 *PECKOVER, ALEXANDER, ESQ., LL.D., F.S.A., F.L.S., 
F.E.G.S., Lord Lieut. Cambridgeshire, Bank House, 
Wisbech. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 11 

ELECTED 

1898 PEDLEB, G. H., ESQ., L.E.C.P., 6, Trevor Terrace, Eutland 

Gate, S.W. 

1896 PEERS, C. E., ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., 96, Grosvenor Eoad, S.W. 

1894 PERRY, HENRY, ESQ., Middleton, Plaistow Lane, Bromley, 

Kent. 

1862 *PERRY, MARTEN, ESQ., M.D., Spalding, Lincolnshire. 

1888 PINCHES, JOHN HARVEY, ESQ., 27, Oxenden Street, Hay- 

market. 

1889 POWELL-COTTON, PERCY H. GORDON, ESQ., Quex Park, 

Birchington, Thanet. 

1887 PREVOST, SIR AUGUSTUS, BART., B.A., F.S.A., 79, Westbourne 
Terrace, W., Vice-President. 

1897 PRICE, F. G. HILTON, ESQ., F.S.A., F.G.S., 17, Collingham 

Gardens, S.W. 

1903 PRICE, HARRY, ESQ., Cloverley, St. Donatt's Eoad, New 
Cross, S.E. 

1878 PRIDEAUX, COL. W. F., C.S.I., F.E.G.S., M.E.A.S., 1, West 

Cliff Terrace, Eamsgate. 

1899 PRITCHARD, JOHN E., ESQ., F.S.A., 8, Cold Harbour Eoad, 

Eedland, Bristol. 

1902 EAMSDEN, HENRY A., ESQ., Consulado General de la Eepublica 

de Cuba, Barcelona, Spain. 

1887 EANSOM, W., ESQ., F.S.A., F.L.S., Fairfield, Hitchin, Herts. 
1893 EAPHAEL, OSCAR C., ESQ., 37, Portland Place, W. 

1890 EAPSON, PROF. E. J., M.A., M.E.A.S., British Museum, 

W.C., Hon. Secretary. 

1848 EASHLEIGH, JONATHAN, ESQ., M.A., D.L., J.P., Menabilly, 
Par Station, Cornwall. 

1887 EEADY, W. TALBOT, ESQ., 55, Eathbone Place, W. 

1903 EEGAN, W. H., ESQ., 51, Queen's Eoad, Bayswater, W. 

1895 EIDGEWAY, PROFESSOR W., M.A., Fen Ditton, Cambridge. 

1876 *EOBEBTSON, J. D., ESQ., M.A., 21, Park Eoad, Eichmond 
Hill, Surrey. 

1889 EOME, WILLIAM, ESQ., C.C., F.S.A., F.L.S., Creeksea Place, 
Burnham - on - Crouch . 

1903 EOSENHEIM, MAX, ESQ., 68, Belsize Park Gardens, N.W. 

1900 EOSKELL, EGBERT N., ESQ., 10, Oakwood Court, Ken- 

sington, W. 

1862 EOSTRON, SIMPSON, ESQ., 1, Hare Court, Temple, E.G. 



12 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

ELECTED 

1896 *EOTH, BERNARD, ESQ., J.P., Wayside, Preston Park, 

Brighton. 
1903 EUBEN, PAUL, ESQ., Ph.D., 18, Montague Street, W.C. 

1872 *SALAS, MIGUEL T., ESQ., 247, Florida Street, Buenos Ayres. 

1877 *SANDEMAN, LIEUT.-COL. JOHN GLAS, F.S.A., Whin-Hurst, 
Hayling Island, Havant, Hants. 

1875 SCHINDLEE, GENERAL A. H., c/o Messrs. W. Dawson and 
Son, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

1895 SELBY, HENRY JOHN, ESQ., The Vale, Shortlands, Kent. 
1890 SELTMAN, E. J., ESQ., Kinghoe, Great Berkhamsted, Herts. 
1900 SHACKLES, GEORGE L., ESQ., Southfield, Hessle, near Hull. 

1896 SIMPSON, E. C., ESQ., Huntriss How, Scarborough. 

1893 *SiMS, JR. F. MANLEY-, ESQ., 11, Sumner Place, South 

Kensington, S.W. 

1896 SINHA, KUMVAR KUSHAL PAL, BATS OF KOTLA, Kotla, Agra, 
; , India. 

1883 SMITH, E. HOBART, ESQ., 542, West 150th Street, New 
York. 

1866 SMITH, SAMUEL, ESQ., 25, Croxteth Eoad, Prince's Park, 
Liverpool. 

1890 SMITH, W. BERESFORD, ESQ., Kenmore, Vanbrugh Park Eoad 
West, Blackheath. 

1892 SMITH, VINCENT A., ESQ., Gwynfa, Cheltenham. 

1881 SMITHE, J. DOYLE, ESQ., F.G.S., Ecclesdin, Upper Norwood. 

1890 *SPENCE, C. J., ESQ., South Preston Lodge, North Shields. 

1894 SPINK, SAMUEL M., ESQ., 17, Piccadilly, W. 

1902 STAINER, CHARLES LEWIS, ESQ., 10, South Parks Eoad, 
Oxford. 

1890 STANFORD, CHARLES G. THOMAS-, ESQ., 3, Ennismore 
Gardens, S.W. 

1889 STORY, MAJOR-GEN. VALENTINE FREDERICK, The Forest, 
Nottingham. 

1869 *STREATFEILD, EEV. GEORGE SIDNEY, Fenny Compton Eectory. 
Leamington. 

1896 STRIDE, ARTHUR LEWIS, ESQ., J.P., Bush Hall, Hatfield. 
1894 STROEHLIN, M. P. C., 86, Eoute de ChSne, Geneva, Switzer- 

1864 



LIST OF MEMBEES. 13 

ELECTED 

1870 SUGDEN, JOHN, ESQ., Dockroyd, near Keighley. 

1896 *TAFFS, H. W., ESQ., 35, Greenholm Eoad, Eltham, S.E. 

1879 TALBOT, LiEUT.-CoL. THE HON. MILO GEORGE, E.E., 2, Paper 

Buildings, Temple, E.G. 

1897 TALBOT, W. S., ESQ., I.C.S., c/o Messrs. King & Co., 9, Pall 

Mall S.W. 

1888 TATTON,THos.E.,EsQ.,Wythenshawe, Northenden, Cheshire. 

1892 TAYLOR, E. WRIGHT, ESQ., F.S.A., 8, Stone Buildings, 
Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 

1887 TAYLOR, W. H., ESQ., The Croft, Wheelwright Eoad, 
Erdington, near Birmingham. 

1887 THAIRLWALL, T. J., ESQ., 12,' Upper Park Eoad, Haverstock 

Hill, N.W. 

1880 *THEOBALD, W., ESQ., North Brow, 9, Croffcsea Park, 

Ilfracombe. 

1896 THOMPSON, HERBERT, ESQ., 35, Wimpole Street, W. 

1896 THORBURN, HENRY W., ESQ., Cradock Villa, Bishop Auck- 
land. 

1903 THORPE, GODFREY F., ESQ., 32, Nightingale Lane, S.W. 

1888 THURSTON, E., ESQ., Central Government Museum, Madras. 

1895 TILLSTONE, F. J., ESQ., The Librarian, Brighton Public 
Library, Church Street, Brighton. 

1894 TRIGGS, A. B., ESQ., Bank of New South Wales, Yass, New 
South Wales. 

1880 TRIST, J. W., ESQ., F.S.A., F.S.I., 3, Great St. Helens, E.G. 
1887 TROTTER, LIEUT. -CoL. HENRY, C.B., United Service Club. 



1874 VERITY, JAMES, ESQ., The Headlands, Earls Heaton, Dewsbury. 

1903 VINTER, WALTER FREDERICK, ESQ., Glenville, Walton-on- 
Thames, Surrey. 

1893 VIRTUE, HERBERT, ESQ., 7, City Garden Eow, City Eoad, N. 
1874 VIZE, GEORGE HENRY, ESQ., 15, Spencer Eoad, Putney, S.W. 

1899 VLASTO, MICHEL P., ESQ., 12,Allee des Capucines, Marseilles, 
France. 

1892 VOST, DR. W., Jaunpur, North West Provinces, India. 

1902 WAKLEY, THOMAS, ESQ., JUN., L.E.C.P., 16, Hyde Park Gate, 
S.W. 



14 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

ELECTED 

1883 WALKER, E. K., ESQ., M.A., Trin. Coll. Dub., Watergate, 
Meath Eoad, Bray, Ireland. 

1897 WALTERS, FRED. A., ESQ., F.S.A., 37, Old Queen Street, 
Westminster, S.W. 

1894 WARD, JOHN, ESQ., J.P., F.S.A., Lenoxvale, Belfast, 
Ireland. 

1889 WARREN, COL. FALKLAND, C.M.G., 911, Nicola Street, Van- 
couver, British Columbia. 

1901 *WATTERS, CHARLES A., ESQ., Highfield, Woolton Eoad, 
Wavertree, Liverpool. 

1901 WEBB, PERCY H., ESQ., Walton-on-Thames. 

1887 * WEBER, EDWARD F., ESQ., 58, Alster, Hamburg, Germany. 

1885 * WEBER, F. PARKES, ESQ., M.D., F.S.A., 19, Harley Street, 

1883 *WEBER, SIR HERMANN, M.D., 10, Grosvenor Street, Gros- 

venor Square, W. 

1884 WEBSTER, W. J., ESQ., 19, The Parade, Norbury, S.E. 

1899 WELCH, FRANCIS BERTRAM, ESQ., B.A., 8, York View 
Pocklington, East Yorks. 

1883 WHELAN, F. E., ESQ., 6, Bloomsbury Street, W.C. 
1869 *WIGRAM, MRS. LEWIS, Eedcourt, Haslemere. 

1881 WILLIAMSON, GEO. C., ESQ., F.E.S.L., The Mount, Guildford, 
burrey. 

1869 WINSER, THOMAS B., ESQ., 81, Shooter's Hill Eoad, Blackheath, 
1868 WOOD, HUMPHREY, ESQ., F.S.A., Chatham. 

1860 WORMS, BARO* r G DE F.E.G.S., F.S.A., V.P.E.S.L., F.G.S., 
D.L., J.P., 17, Park Crescent, Portland Place, W. 

1903 WRIGHT, H. NELSON, ESQ., Allahabad, North West Provinces, 
1880 WROTH, W. W., ESQ., British Museum. 



ESQ " 7 ' LeiDSter Garfe ' Hyde 
1880 YOUNG, AETHUB W., ESQ., 12, Hyde Park Terrace, W. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 15 

ELECTED 

1898 YOUNG, JAMES, ESQ., 44, Beresford Eoad, Highbury, N. 

1900 ZIMMEEMANN, REV. JEREMIAH, M.A., D.D., LL.D., 107, South 
Avenue, Syracuse, New York, U.S.A. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

ELECTED 

1898 His MAJESTY VICTOR EMMANUEL III, KING OF ITALY, 
Palazzo Quirinale, Borne. 

1891 BABELON, M. ERNEST, Mem. de 1'Jnst., Bibliotheque Nationale, 
Paris. 

1903 BAHRFELDT, OBERSTLEUTNANT M., Kronprinzenstrasse, 6, 
Halle, Saxony. 

1862 BARTHELEMY, M. A. DE, 9, Eue d'Anjou, Paris. 

1898 BLANCHET, M. J. A., 40, Avenue Bosquet, Paris. 
1881 DANNENBERG, HERR H., N.W., Lessingstrasse, Berlin. 

1899 DROUIN, M. EDMOND, 47, Avenue Kleber, Paris. 

1898 DRESSEL, DR. H., Munz-Kabinet, K. Museen, Berlin. 

1899 GABRICI, PROF. DR. ETTORE, Salita Stella, 21, Naples. 
1893 GNECCHI, SIG. FRANCESCO, 10, Via Filodrammatici, Milan. 

1886 HERBST, HERR C. F., Director of the Museum of Northern 
Antiquities and Inspector of the Coin Cabinet, Copenhagen, 

1886 HILDEBRAND, DR. HANS, Eiksantiquarien, Stockholm. 

1873 IMHOFF-BLUMER, DR. F., Winterthur, Switzerland. 

1893 JONGHE, M. le VICOMTE B. DE, Rue du Trone, 60, Brussels. 

1878 KENNER, DR. F., K.K. Museen, Vienna. 

1893 LOEBBECKE, HERR A., Ccllerstrasse, 1, Brunswick. 

1898 MADDEN, F. W., ESQ., Holt Lodge, 86, London Road, 
Brighton. 

1898 MILANI, PROF., Luigi Adriano, Florence. 

1899 PICK, DR. BEHRENDT, Herzogliche Bibliothek, Gotha. 
1895 REINACH, M. THEODORE, 26, Rue Murillo, Paris. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



ELECTED 



KLEUTKU ir i -I -It 

1891 SVOEONOS, M. J. N., Conservateur du Cabinet des Medailles, 

Athens. 
1886 WEIL, DR. BUDOLF, Konigliche Museen, Berlin. 



MEDALLISTS 

OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

1883 CHARLES ROACH SMITH, ESQ., F.S.A. 

1884 AQUILLA SMITH, ESQ., M.D., M.E.I. A. 

1885 EDWARD THOMAS, ESQ., F.E.S. 

1886 MAJOR-GENERAL ALEXANDER CUNNINGHAM, C.S.I., C.I.E. 

1887 JOHN EVANS, ESQ., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.S.A. 

1888 DR. F. IMHOOF-BLUMER, of Winterthur. 

1889 PROFESSOR PERCY GARDNER, Litt.D., F.S.A. 

1890 MONSIEUR J. P. Six, of Amsterdam. 

1891 DR. C. LUDWIG MULLER, of Copenhagen. 

1892 PROFESSOR E. STUART POOLE, LL.D. 

1893 MONSIEUR W. H. WADDINGTON, Senateur, Membre de 1'Institut, 

Paris. 

1894 CHARLES FRANCIS KEARY, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A. 

1895 PROFESSOR DR. THEODOR MOMMSEN, of Berlin. 

1896 FREDERIC W. MADDEN, ESQ., M.E.A.S. 

1897 DR. ALFRED VON SALLET, of Berlin. 

1898 THE EEV. CANON W. GREENWELL, M.A., F.E.S., F.S.A. 

1899 MONSIEUR ERNEST BABELON, Membre de 1'Institut, Con- 

servateur des Medailles, Paris. 

1900 PROFESSOR STANLEY LANE-POOLE, M.A., Litt.D. 

1901 S. E. BARON WLADIMIR VON TIESENHAUSEN. 

1902 ARTHUR J. EVANS, ESQ., M.A., F.E.S., F.S.A., Keeper of the 

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 

1903 MONSIEUR GUSTAVE SCHLUMBERGER, Membre de 1'Institut, 

France. 

1904 His MAJESTY VICTOR EMMANUEL III, KING OF ITALY. 



I. 

THE HISTORY AND COINAGE OF AETA- 
XERXES III., HIS SATEAPS AND DEPENDANTS. 

AKTAXEKXES II., King of Persia, an effeminate and feeble 
ruler, died in the year 358 B.C., after a long reign of 
forty-six years, during which the Empire decayed, and in 
fact was threatened with dissolution. Droysen says of 
him that he played the role of a ball in the hands of his 
harem and his eunuchs. Inter alia he had married his 
own daughters Amestris and Atossa. 

His eldest son Darius had already at the age of twenty- 
five been invested with the succession, and, as Plutarch 
tells us, had been permitted to wear the point of his tiara 
erect as a mark of royalty. Darius asked as a favour 
from his father the hand of Aspasia, who had been the 
mistress of Cyrus the younger and was now one of the 
King's concubines. Artaxerxes gave her her choice and 
she selected to go with Darius, but the King presently 
took her away from him again and made her a priestess 
of Anaitis, whom Plutarch styles the Diana of Ecbatana. 
She was thus compelled to adopt a life of perpetual 
chastity. This was highly resented by Darius, who was 
further incited by one of the grandees of the Court, 
Tiribazus, who had himself a grievance, since he had 
been successively promised the hands of his two daughters 
Amestris and Atossa by the King, who had subsequently 

VOL. III., SERIES IV. B 



2 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

married them himself. They accordingly formed a con- 
spiracy against Artaxerxes. This was disclosed to him by 
a eunuch, who informed him that the conspirators intended 
to enter his chamber at night and kill him. The King, 
says Plutarch, had a hole made in the wall of his room, 
covered it with tapestry, and then watched the proceed- 
ings of the conspirators, and as they advanced sword in 
hand to kill him he withdrew into an inner room, the door 
of which he bolted. Tiribazus was seized by the guards 
and put to death after a terrible struggle. Darius was 
tried and condemned to. death and was executed ; some 
affirmed that he was decapitated by his own father, who 
afterwards went to the temple of Ormuzd to return 
thanks to his god for his escape. Ariaspes was the 
second and only remaining legitimate son of Artaxerxes. 
He was a favourite of the Persians on account of his 
mildness and good disposition. He presently committed 
suicide, being incited to do so by the supposed threats of 
his father, which were in reality invented by his ambitious 
and illegitimate brother Ochus, in Old Persian, Vahuka. 

Arsames, who was his father's favourite, and like 
Ochus born of a concubine, was now looked upon as the 
successor to the throne. Ochus, who was encouraged by 
Atossa, with whom he had intrigued, incited Harpates, 
the son of Tiribazus, to assassinate him. All this we 
learn from Greek sources, and the Greeks hated, and had 
indeed occasion to hate, Ochus bitterly. According to 
Plutarch the successive loss of his sons at length over- 
whelmed Artaxerxes with trouble, and he died, he says, 
at the age of ninety-four, after a reign of sixty-two 
years. Diodorus says he reigned forty-three, but it 
would seem in fact that he reigned forty-six years. 

There was now no one to dispute the succession with 



COINAGE OF ARTAXERXES III. 3 

Ochus, who mounted the throne with the title of 
Artaxerxes III. He is described by the Greeks as cruel, 
merciless and truculent, but there is no doubt he was 
endowed with courage and vigour. Nbeldeke says of 
him that he was one of those despots who can raise up 
again for a time a decayed Oriental Empire, who shed 
blood without scruple, and are not nice in the choice of 
means, but who in the actual position of affairs usually 
contribute to the welfare of the State as a whole. 

For the chronology of this period the safest and, so far 
as we know, the impeccable guide is the Astronomical 
Canon of the Persian Kings. According to this Canon 
Artaxerxes mounted the throne in the 390th year of the 
aera of Nabonassar, i.e. November 359-November 358 B.C. 
According to a statement of Polysenus, vii. 17, he, in 
conjunction with the eunuchs, the chamberlain, and 
the captain of the guard, disguised the late king's death 
for ten months, during which he wrote circular letters in 
his father's name and sealed them with the royal 
signet. In one of them he commanded all his subjects 
to obey himself, Ochus, as their king. This mandate 
was universally complied with. Thereupon Ochus 
publicly acknowledged his father's death and ordered 
a general mourning for him in the Persian fashion. 

This postponement of the publication of his death 
accounts, according to Judeich, for the disagreement of 
the Koyal Persian Canon, which was kept at head- 
quarters, where the truth was probably known, with the 
epigraphic evidence from Asia Minor, and he suggests 
that if we date the death of Artaxerxes Mnemon about 
the 1st of May, 358, then Ochus may be supposed to 
have officially mounted the throne about the 1st of 
March, 357 (Kleinasiatische Studien, 230-231). The new 

B 2 



4 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 

king began his reign by putting to death his near 
relations and such as might raise pretensions to the 
throne. If we are. to credit the late writers Justin and 
Curtius, he buried alive his own sister Ocha, whose 
daughter he had married, and having placed his uncle 
with one hundred of his sons and grandsons in an open 
court, he had them shot down with arrows. This uncle, 
says M. Dubeux, was probably the father of Sisygambis, 
the mother of Darius Codomannus, for Q. Curtius tells 
us he put to death eighty of her brothers together with 
her father in one day (see Justin, x. 3, 1 ; Curtius, x. 
5, 23). This remedy for potential turbulence, which 
always grates against the Western conscience, has been 
often justified by the experience of the East as a very 
rough means to a good end. 

If we are to follow the statement of Polyaenus above 
quoted, Ochus was everywhere acknowledged as sovereign, 
but the seeds of disaffection and of rebellion were plenti- 
fully planted everywhere, and this quiet succession was 
the prelude to speedy disillusions. 

The provincial governors had been too long in the 
hands of an impotent prince to tolerate a tight rein. 
One of the first acts of Ochus was to send a representative 
to the coast satraps of Asia Minor, from whom the 
greatest danger might be apprehended, commanding 
them to dismiss their mercenary troops, which were the 
great source of their power. This order was obeyed 
(Scholiast to Dem., I. Phil. iv. 19) ; but as Artaxerxes, 
not content with this disarmament, determined to bring 
to account Artabazes, the satrap of the Hellespontine 
Phrygia, who had his seat of government at Daskylion ; 
for the part he had taken in the revolts of the 
previous reign, Artabazes determined to resist. He was 



COINAGE OF ARTAXEEXES III. 5 

the nephew of the late king, and was therefore a 
dangerous rival as well as a powerful personage (see 
Diodorus, xvi. 22, 1). He had married the sister of two 
famous Rhodian condottieri, Mentor and Memnon, who 
commanded his mercenaries. 

In 356 Artabazes entered into an alliance with the 
Athenian admiral Chares, and they presently completely 
routed the army of the Persian king, which numbered 
70,000 men, the commander of which was named 
Tithraustes, or perhaps Mithraustes. 

Chares also seized Lampsacus and Sigeion, towns 
having very close ties with the Persian king. Artabazes 
rewarded Chares with a very handsome largess to pay 
his soldiers with. Diodorus tells us that at first this 
news was pleasing to the Athenians, and there were 
in fact rejoicings at Athens, but presently, finding the 
resentment it had caused in Persia, whence Artaxerxes 
sent his envoys to lodge a complaint, they repented. 
The Great King also threatened to join the league of the 
four towns of Chios, Ehodes, Cos and Byzantium, which 
had been for some time at war with Athens, with a fleet 
of 300 sail. The Athenians were thoroughly frightened, 
recalled Chares and made peace with the confederated 
towns. Thus was concluded the Social War. Chares 
apparently returned to Athens in 354 B.C. (Judeich, 211). 

Artabazes now turned to the Thebans for help, who 
sent 5,000 men under Pammenes to his assistance, while 
Philip of Macedon, who was friendly to him, accompanied 
him to Maroneia. This action of the Thebans greatly 
increased their fame, for they were being hard pressed in 
the Phokian war at the time. Pammenes is reported to 
have won two victories over the troops of the Imperial 
satraps. According to Polyaenus, vii. 33, 2, the two 



6 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

confederates presently quarrelled, and Artabazes had 
Pammenes arrested on a charge of treachery. 

About 351 B.C. the Thebans had apparently withdrawn 
their contingent from Asia Minor and made peace with 
the Great King, having been corrupted by a present of 
300 talents, and we find them in that year appealing to 
him for help in the Phokian war. We do not know what 
became of Artabazes for some time. He apparently fled 
to Macedonia with Memnon, while Mentor went to Egypt. 
He does not seem to have struck any money during his 
usurpation. Nor do we know of any coins at all struck 
in his special satrapy of Phrygia so early as his time. 

Meanwhile Orontes, who had married Ehodogune, 
daughter of the late king, another turbulent satrap 
who no doubt felt uncomfortable under the tighter rein 
of the new Persian sovereign, and perhaps had reason to 
fear punishment from him, also rebelled. He also, no 
doubt, cherished the hope of retaining the control of the 
maritime districts of Western Asia Minor, which he had 
now held for some years. 

Orontes was a very notable person in the history of 
the fourth century B.C. and it is only lately that his 
history has been partially disentangled. From an in- 
scription found by the Germans at Pergamon and 
containing a fragment of a local chronicle we learn that 
he was the son of Artasyras and that he was a Bactrian 
by origin (see Pergamene Inscriptions, no. 613). On a 
second inscription found at Nimrud Dagh on the tomb 
of Antiochus the First, king of Commagene, who was his 
descendant, we read, " To the memory of Aroandes, son of 
Artasuras, who married Khodogune, daughter of the 
King of Kings, the great Artaxerxes, called Mnemon " 
(Hermann and Puchstein, Reisen). Aroandes, as Eeinach 



COINAGE OF AETAXERXES III. 7 

has shown, is only the Armenian form Eruant of the 
name Orontes. These inscriptions make it plain that 
the Orontes who occupied and fortified Pergamon in the 
reign of Artaxerxes the Third was the same Orontes who 
as early as 401 B.C., when he had already married 
Khodogune, was satrap of Armenia, as we learn from 
Xenophon and Trogus Pompeius (Prol. x.). He had 
commanded the land forces of the Great King in his war 
against Evagoras the First of Cyprus, while Tiribazes 
commanded the sea forces (Diodorus, xv. 2), and pre- 
sently conspired against the latter and persuaded the 
Great King to withdraw him, and himself negociated 
peace with Evagoras in 380 B.C. After a while 
an inquiry was instituted, Tissaphernes was restored to 
favour and Orontes was probably compromised and 
apparently transferred to another government, for when 
we next hear of him he is styled Satrap of Mysia 
(Diodorus, xv. 90, 3) ; according to Noeldeke this is the 
only occasion when Mysia is treated as a satrapy, and it 
was perhaps constituted specially for him. At all events 
his position as a son-in-law of the late king and as 
a successful soldier led to his being appointed leader 
in the great rebellion of the satraps which took place 
about 367 B.C., in which almost the whole of Asia Minor, 
Syria and Phosnicia were compromised. It would seem 
that Orontes now became the dominant factor in the 
politics of the maritime districts of Asia Minor, and re- 
mained so more or less for many years in fact till his 
disappearance from Western Asia Minor about 349 B.C., 
Autophradates, who was loyal to Artaxerxes, was at this 
time the satrap of Lydia and Ionia. 

We must assign to this time Orontes' occupation and 
fortification of Pergamon, of which epigraphic evidence 



8 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

was found by the Germans in their excavations there, 
and his struggle in Ionia and Lydia with Autophradates, 
mentioned by Polyamus (vii. 14, 2-4). In 354 and 353 B.C. 
Orontes was again in open strife with the Great King, 
as is clear from a speech of Demosthenes (De Symmoriis, 
186). In the following year we must date some of the 
monumental records in which Orontes is mentioned 
(C.I.A. ii. 108) in transactions and schemes of alliance 
with Athens, where the Persian and Anti-Persian parties 
ruled the roost by turns. An inscription dated in that 
year records the conferring of honours upon him by the 
Athenians (see Judeich, op. eit. 213-216). Judeich 
speaks of Orontes and the King of Egypt as in fact the 
most powerful opponents of the Great King, and says 
the former must have controlled the greater part of the 
coast of Western Asia Minor. The Athenians, accord- 
ing to an inscription, put their commanders, Chares, 
Charidemos and Phokion, at his service (Judeich, 213). 
This alliance may be placed between 354 and 350 B.C., at 
which latter date we find the Athenian Phokion taking 
part in the Cyprian expedition organised by Idrieus of 
Caria on behalf of the Great King (Judeich, 213, 219). 
Orontes now seems to have returned to Armenia. 

It is very probable that some of the finest coins struck 
at Lampsacus were issued during his usurpation, and it 
seems to me very probable that the head of a Persian 
satrap on a well-known Lampsacene stater in the Hun- 
terian Collection represents Orontes, as Von Sallet and 
Six also think (see Num. Chron. 1888, p. 113). Other 
coins in silver and bronze, with the head of Pallas or 
Zeus or a man's head with a Persian headdress on one 
side and on the other a winged horse, and identical 
with the coins of lolla, only bearing the name OPONTA, 



COINAGE OF ARTAXERXES III. 

and therefore clearly struck by Orontes, have by some 
been attributed to Lampsacus, and by others to lolla, both 
being in Mysia, and both having used the winged pegasus 
as a type. Others again, with a naked warrior kneeling 
and defending himself with a shield and a short spear on 
the obverse, and with the fore-part of a winged boar in 
an incuse square and signed OPONTA, have been attri- 
buted to Clazomenae on account of the reverse type 
(see B. M. Cat., Ionia, p. 326). These coins have been 
also attributed to Tarsus, from the T between the 
warrior's legs, but we have no evidence that Orontes 
ever had authority at Tarsus. His role was in Western 
Asia Minor, and this letter must mean something else. 
Orontes, as we have seen, was styled satrap of Mysia by 
Diodorus, and I would suggest that the T stands for 
Teuthrania, a famous town if not the capital of Mysia, of 
which an account is given by Six (see Num. Chron. 1890, 
pp. 188-190), and it may be that the winged boar on 
some of the anepigraphic coins of Clazomenae may, as in 
the case of these coins with the T, refer not to Clazomense 
but to Teuthrania. It is at all events clear that the fabric 
of these coins is quite different from those of Tarsus, to 
which place Babelon also repudiates their attribution, 
and that they must belong to Western Asia Minor (Les 
Perses Achemenides, Ixxiv., note 5). 

It is nevertheless curious that the kneeling hoplite 
should occur both on this coin and also on true coins of 
Tarsus with Aramaic letters representing the beginning 
of its name. Waddington very ingeniously, and I think 
rightly, explained the figure as the result of the changed 
tactics introduced by Chabrias the Athenian admiral. 
We read of him that he taught his soldiers when charged 
by the enemy to kneel on one knee, to rest their shield 



10 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

against their other knee, and to hold their lances at the 
rest (Polysen. ii. 1, 2 ; Corn. Nepos, Chabrias). C. Nepos 
says the device became so famous in Greece that Chabrias 
chose to have his own statue, which was erected in his 
honour by the Athenians in the forum, in this posture. It 
is precisely the attitude of the hoplite on the coins, and 
it is well to remember that the careers of Orontes and 
Chabrias were largely contemporary and that the latter 
commanded an Athenian fleet which was in the pay of 
the King of Egypt in his war against Artaxerxes 
Mnemon, when the revolted districts of Asia Minor, which 
included Cilicia, and therefore Tarsus, were in alliance 
with him. It seems to me that we must also assign to 
this famous and very powerful prince (i.e. Orontes) some 
other coins, all apparently of this date and struck in 
different parts of the coast region of Asia Minor, where 
he was virtually king. Among these the most famous is 
a splendid tetradrachm in the British Museum (see 
Catalogue of Ionia, pi. xxxi. 6) with a remarkable head 
of a satrap on the obverse, while on the reverse we have a 
lyre such as occurs on the coins of Colophon, and on 
some uncommon coins of lasos in Caria, with the inscrip- 
tion BAZIA. I see no reason to doubt the attribution 
of this coin to Colophon, and it seems to me that its 
style makes it very unlikely to be a Carian coin as Six 
and Babelon have argued, nor does it seem probable 
that the head on the obverse, which is not crowned with 
the eidaris, but wears the ordinary head-dress of a 
satrap, can be anybody else than the satrap himself. 
Upon this I quite agree with Babelon (op. cit. xxxiv.), 
but I differ from him as to the satrap who issued it. He 
argues it was Tissaphernes. I think the evidence points 
strongly to its having been Orontes. It will be remem- 



COINAGE OF ARTAXEBXES III. 11 

bered that Plutarch, in his life of Aratus, says that 
the face of Orontes, the Persian, was like that of 
Alkmseon, son of Amphiarus, which makes the beautiful 
portrait on this coin more interesting. Basileus would be 
a style fitting to Orontes at this time. The same head 
occurs on the obverse of another coin in the Munich 
Collection, on the reverse of which is a horseman 
apparently in Persian dress, riding to the left, under 
which is the inscription KIZGA, i.e. Cisthene, a town in 
Mysia, which I would also attribute to Orontes (see 
Babelon, op. cit. Ixxiv.). 

I am further disposed to transfer from Tissaphernes to 
Orontes three other well-known coins, one formerly in 
the Fox collection and now at Berlin, with a satrap's 
head very like in features to the Colophon tetradrachm 
above mentioned and with the same head-dress, and on 
the reverse the kneeling figure of the great king wearing 
the cidaris&nd. holding a bow and spear, inscribed BAZIA, 
and having a galley with one row of oars in the 
field (see Babelon, op. cit. p. xxxii.) A drachm with 
the same obverse and reverse types is in the British 
Museum (Cat. of Ionia, p. Ixxxi. 7) and is inscribed BAH. 
A similar hemidrachm is in the French Collection and 
inscribed BA (see Babelon Cat., No. 167). 

Let us now return again to Artaxerxes. Soon after 
his accession, it would seem from a somewhat vague and 
indefinite statement in Diodorus that he made an 
attempt to conquer Egypt, but he was unfortunate (Diod. 
Sic., xvi. 40). The Egyptian forces on that occasion 
were commanded by Diophantos the Athenian and 
Lamios the Spartan (id. xvi. 48). It does not seem that 
he commanded his own army in person. However this 
was, it seems pretty certain that it was this defeat which 



12 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

largely encouraged the revolt of the Phoenicians and 
other dependants of the Great King in the Mediterranean. 

The Spartan faction seems also to have filled a con- 
spicuous role at the time in the Egyptian army (see 
Polysen., Strat. ii. 66 ; Front., Strat. ii. 3, 13). Theo- 
pompus has a rhetorical passage describing the loyalty 
of the various allies and dependants of the Persian king 
at this time. " What city or what nation of Asia," he 
says, " did not send embassies to the sovereign ? What 
wealth did they not lavish on him, whether the natural 
products of the soil or the rare and precious productions 
of art ? Did he not receive a quantity of tapestry and 
woven hangings, some of purple, some of divers colours, 
others of pure white ?, many gilded pavilions completely 
furnished and containing an abundant supply of linen 
and sumptuous beds ?, chased silver, wrought gold, cups 
and bowls, enriched with precious stones, or valuable for 
the perfection and richness of their work? He also 
received untold supplies of barbarian and Grecian 
weapons, and still larger numbers of draught cattle and 
sacrificial victims, bushels of preserved fruit, bales and 
sacks full of parchments and books, and all kinds of 
useful articles. So great was the quantity of salted 
meats which poured in from all sides that from a distance 
the piles might easily be mistaken .for rows of hillocks 
or high mounds" (Frag. 125 in Miiller's Frag. Hist. 
Grizc., vol. i., 298-9; Maspero, The Passing of the 
Empires, 766). 

At this time the focus and capital of Phoenicia was 
Tripolis, which, says Diodorus, comprised three cities all 
within a furlong (stadium) of each other, namely, the 
quarter of the Sidonians, of the Tyrians, and of the 
Aradians respectively. It was there the senate met to 



COINAGE OF ARTAXERXES III. 13 

deliberate upon the affairs of the country. The Great 
King was represented there by his satrap or legate, 
who treated the townsmen haughtily and tyrannically, 
and they determined to rebel. Having concerted a 
common policy with the rest of the Phoenicians, the 
townsmen approached Nectanebo, the Egyptian king, 
who was then at issue with the Persian king; they 
offered him their alliance, and they prepared for war. 

Inasmuch as Sidon was the richest of all the Phoenician 
towns, and its merchants had great fortunes, its inhabitants 
determined to build a large number of triremes, to enlist 
a large body of mercenaries, and to bring together ample 
arms and provisions, and in order to begin the struggle 
and to compromise the position, they destroyed the royal 
garden or Paradeison, in which the Persian kings had 
been wont to amuse themselves, and they cut down its 
trees. Maspero says, I do not know on what authority, 
that it was in the Lebanon. They then set fire to the 
forage which the satraps had collected to feed the 
horses with this was apparently a provision prepared for 
the coming Egyptian war ; and lastly, they seized and 
executed the Persian officials who had ill-used them. 
Thus, whatever offence was committed by others, there 
can be no doubt the Sidonians had especially incurred 
the wrath of Artaxerxes. 

The revolt of the Phoenicians and Cyprians aroused 
the Great King to make a vigorous effort to reinstate 
the fortunes of the Empire, and he determined not again 
to entrust the task of re-conquering the rebels to his 
incapable or unfortunate lieutenants, but to take com- 
mand of the forces himself ; and he accordingly prepared 
a great armament with large supplies of arms and an 
ample commissariat. His army consisted of 300,000 foot- 



14 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

soldiers and 30,000 cavalry, with a fleet of 300 triremes 
and 500 transports and provision ships, and having 
assembled it at Babylon, he marched westwards. This 
was apparently in the year 345 or 344 B.C. 

While he was on the march, Belesys, the satrap of 
Syria, and Mazaios, the satrap of Cilicia, assembled their 
forces and attacked Phoenicia. Meanwhile Tennes, the 
king of Sidon, secured the help of a contingent of 4,000 
men under the command of the skilled condottiere Mentor 
the Khodian. These were sent him by the Egyptian 
king, and with their help and that of the citizens he 
attacked the two satraps just mentioned, who no doubt 
had marched against him from the north, and expelled 
the Persians from Phoenicia. 

Meanwhile a similar revolt took place in Cyprus, 
where there were at this time nine petty kings who ruled 
over nine considerable cities, under whose authority were 
ranged the lesser towns. These kings had all acknow- 
ledged the supremacy of the Persian king. They now 
conspired together, and each one proclaimed himself 
independent. Artaxerxes, furious at this act, whic'h 
certainly bordered on insolence, wrote to Idrieus, Prince 
of Caria, and bade him send ships and an army of foot- 
soldiers to reduce the island. 

About the year 353 B.C. there had died Maussolus, the 
king or rather the hereditary satrap of Caria, and faithful 
friend of the Great King. He was succeeded by his 
wife and sister Artemisia, who, two years later, also died, 
after building the famous Mausoleum for her husband, 
of which the remains are in the British Museum. She 
was in turn succeeded by her brother Idrieus, who had 
also married his sister Ada. It was the fashion in Caria 
for kings to marry their sisters, and the widows succeeded 



COINAGE OF ARTAXERXES III. 15 

their husbands, to the prejudice of their living brothers 
and also of the sons of the late king. 

Idrieus equipped 40 triremes, on which he put a force 
of 8,000 mercenaries under the leadership of the condot- 
tiere Phokion of Athens and of Evagoras, who had some 
years before been over-king of the island, or rather of 
the Phoenician settlements there, and was now an exile. 
His banishment had perhaps been due to his having sided 
with the Persians. This force was sent to Cyprus, and 
proceeded to attack Salamis, the largest of the Cyprian 
towns. They dug a trench and built themselves a for- 
tress, and beleaguered the town by sea and land. The 
island had long been at peace, and was very rich, whence 
the invading troops secured a large booty. This having 
been noised abroad, they were speedily recruited from 
the opposite coasts of Syria and Cilicia. In this way 
the army of Phokion and Evagoras was doubled in size, 
and the petty kings were reduced to dire distress. Shortly 
after this Phokion returned to Athens and took part in 
the war with Euboea in 349 B.C. 

Let us now return to Ochus. He marched, as I have 
said, from Babylon to Phoenicia. Tennes, the King of 
Sidon, was terrified at the appearance of such a force and 
the disparity in numbers between it and his own army. 
He determined to save his own skin, and accordingly 
either he or his mercenary general (the account is 
confused, and perhaps it was the latter), sent one of his 
confidential officers named Thersalion to Artaxerxes, 
with an offer to surrender Sidon to him, and further 
promised to help him against Egypt, which he could 
the more easily do as he knew the country well and 
knew the various fords across the Nile. 

Artaxerxes was delighted with what he heard from 



16 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Thersalion, and promised to reward Tennes greatly if lie 
carried out his promise. Thersalion asked the Great King 
to hold out his hand as a token of his sincerity as 
was the wont among the Persians a demand which 
greatly angered him, for it seemed an imputation upon 
his integrity ; but he eventually consented to do so, and 
Thersalion returned to his people (Diod. Sic., xvi. 
41-43). 

The Great King had a much more important object than 
the subjection of Sidon and the Phoenician towns, namely, 
to recover his hold upon Egypt, which had so much 
baffled him, and he determined to use all the weapons 
he could command for the purpose. He sent envoys 
to ask help from the Greek cities. The Sacred War was 
almost at an end. The Athenians and Lacedaemonians 
sent him sympathetic messages, but no material aid. 
The Thebans sent him 1,000 heavy-armed men under 
Lacrates, while the Argives sent him 3,000, who were 
placed under Theostratos, the King's own nominee. He 
was famous both for his courage and his prudence, and 
also for his great physical strength, and imitated Her- 
cules in that he wore a lion's skin and carried a club 
when fighting. The Greeks of Asia Minor also sent a 
contingent of 6,000 men under Bagoas, so that the Greek 
contingent mounted up to 10,000 men. 

Meanwhile, Ochus arrived before Sidon, whose in- 
habitants had determined to resist him in the most des- 
perate fashion. They had girdled their city with a triple 
ditch and also built a wall around it, and duly equipped 
it for a great struggle. Its citizens volunteered nobly to 
defend their home. They were rich as well as brave, and 
we are told by Diodorus that they furnished a fleet of 100 
triremes and quinquiremes. 



COINAGE OF ARTAXERXES III. 17 

These preparations were, however, of no avail in view 
of the treachery of the Sidonian king (abetted by the 
mercenary leader Mentor), or perhaps rather of Mentor, 
who dominated the king. They left the place with 500 
men on pretence that they were going to attend the 
general assembly of the Phoenicians, and also took with 
them 100 of the principal citizens. The latter were handed 
over to Artaxerxes, who had them mercilessly slaughtered 
as authors of the revolt, while he extended a temporary 
favour to Tennes. Presently 500 more citizens came 
out, bearing olive-branches, for under the circumstances 
resistance was hopeless. They asked for mercy for them- 
selves and their compatriots, but were ruthlessly put to 
death. Afterwards, we are told, Tennes persuaded the 
Egyptian mercenaries to surrender the place, and to 
allow him and his patron, the Great King, to enter it. 

The conduct of Tennes all through this business was 
so utterly purposeless and base that it would almost seem 
as if Diodorus had not told us the whole truth. At all 
events we read with some satisfaction that, judging that 
Tennes could no longer be of service to him, Artaxerxes 
had his throat cut ; perhaps he executed him because he 
failed to secure the actual surrender of the city. The 
Sidonians, inspired by one of those acts of dramatic 
despair with which history is studded, burnt their ships 
lest any of the citizens should try to escape, and when 
the enemy entered the place they shut themselves up in 
their houses with their wives and children and set fire to 
them. It is reported, says Diodorus, that 40,000 of 
them, including household servants, thus perished. 
After the fire the King sold the ashes for many talents, 
for the city was very rich, and a large quantity of gold 
and silver was found melted among the ruins. The 

VOL. III., SERIES IV. C 



18 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

terrible fate of Sidon frightened the other cities of 
Phoenicia, which surrendered and again acknowledged the 
supremacy of the Great King. 

Let us now return to Artaxerxes. Phoenicia and the 
greater part of Cyprus being at his feet, the way was 
open for him to prosecute what was really his great aim, 
namely, the conquest of Egypt. Thither he marched 
with all his forces. Diodorus tells us when they reached 
the Sirbonian Lake he lost part of his army in the bogs, 
then called Barathra, from a want of knowledge of the 
country. Having traversed this difficult district, he at 
length reached the first mouth of the Nile (that called 
Pelusium) where it enters the sea, which had been 
strongly fortified by the Egyptians, and where 5,000 
men were in garrison under Philophron. These were 
doubtless mercenaries and most probably Greeks, for 
their captain bears a Greek name. 

The Theban contingent in the Persian army made the 
first assault upon the ditch, but the place was hotly de- 
fended and the attacks on the first day were repelled. 
The next day the Greeks were divided into three bodies, 
each under a Greek leader, with whom was associated a 
trusty Persian. 

The first brigade consisted of Boeotians and was led by 
the Theban Lacrates ; with him was associated Kosaces, 
the satrap of Ionia and Lydia, a man of high descent, 
with a great body of horse and foot. Diodorus says these 
were all barbarians, that is to say they were not Greeks, 
and doubtless comprised various Asiatic contingents. 

The second brigade was composed of the contingent 
from Argos under Nicostratus, with whom was Aristazanes, 
one of the Great King's most trusted friends. He had 
5,000 men with him and eighty triremes. 



COINAGE OF ARTAXERXES III. 19 

The third brigade was led by Mentor, who had betrayed 
Sidon and had formerly commanded the mercenaries in the 
Egyptian service. With him was Bagoas, an able and 
unscrupulous man. He commanded the Greeks who were 
the Great King's subjects, i.e. the Greeks of Asia Minor, 
and a great body of barbarians, besides a large navy. 
The rest of the army the King kept in his own hands. 

The forces of the Egyptian king Nectanebo were much 
smaller in number. He had 20,000 Greek mercenaries, 
as many Africans these were probably Libyans and 
60,000 Egyptians, besides a great fleet of river boats on 
the Nile, and he had fortified the Arabian frontier by 
planting there a great number of fortresses well armed 
and equipped ; but he was not a soldier, and was vain- 
glorious of his former successes when he possessed some 
excellent commanders; nor would he allow others to 
interfere, but determined to take the command himself. 

Having garrisoned the towns, he with 30,000 Egyptians, 
5,000 Greeks and half of the Libyans, defended the most 
dangerous approaches. 

The Argives, under Mcostratus, having seized some 
Egyptians, detained their families as hostages and made 
the men act as guides. Through their aid they managed 
to traverse one of the canals traversing the marshes of 
Mensaleh with their fleet, round to a point where their 
men were landed and encamped. Here they were attacked 
by 7,000 of the enemy under Klinias, of the island of Cos. 
The battle was sharp, and Klinias with 5,000 of his men 
was killed. This defeat put Nectanebo, the Egyptian 
king, into a panic, and he determined to withdraw to his 
capital, Memphis. 

Meanwhile Lacrates the Theban, who was attacking 
Pelusium, managed to drain the trench which girdled the 

c 2 



20 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

town, and raised a mound close by the walls, on which 
he planted battering machines with which he battered 
the walls. The garrison replaced the breaches with fresh 
walls and also raised up high wooden towers. The place 
held out for some days, until the garrison heard of the 
king's retreat. They then agreed to surrender on con- 
dition that they should be allowed to return to Greece 
with whatever they brought with them out of the town. 
Bagoas was thereupon ordered to garrison Pelusium with 
a body of Persians. 

The promise to the soldiers who had surrendered was 
not kept, and they were deprived of many things they 
were carrying, which so exasperated Lacrates that he 
attacked the Persians and killed some and put others to 
flight, Bagoas among them. When the matter was reported 
to Artaxerxes he decided that Lacrates was right and those 
who had plundered Philophron's men were punished. 

Meanwhile Mentor spread abroad the report that the 
Great King would receive graciously and pardon all those 
who submitted, while the towns which resisted would be 
treated as Sidon had been treated. He also gave their 
liberty to all the Egyptian captives he had made. This 
artful policy speedily led to dissensions between the rival 
Egyptians and Greeks who garrisoned the towns, and 
there was a strong party everywhere in favour of surrender. 
The first place to do so was Bubastis, whence the Egyptians 
sent an envoy to the Greek commanders. He was way- 
laid by Mentor's Greek mercenaries, and his employers 
were attacked and driven into a corner by their faithless 
allies. The Egyptians then sent a fresh messenger to 
Bagoas offering to surrender the place. This seems to have 
aroused the jealousy of Mentor, who secretly advised the 
Greeks in the town of what had taken place, and coun- 



COINAGE OF ARTAXERXES III. 21 

selled them to set upon Bagoas and his Persians directly 
they had got them entrapped in the place. This was 
done ; Bagoas was captured and had to appeal to Mentor 
to rescue him. Mentor then himself persuaded the Greeks 
to surrender the place and also to spare Bagoas ; thus the 
latter got the credit of capturing the place. 

Strange to say, the result of all this was that Mentor 
and Bagoas became firm friends and the real masters of 
Persia, for Mentor was afterwards made governor of 
all the maritime districts of the Empire, and Bagoas was 
made satrap of Upper Asia. 

The other cities of Lower Egypt followed the example 
of Bubastis, and Nectanebo, seeing that his cause was 
hopeless, collected a large mass of treasure and fled to 
Ethiopia. Thus Artaxerxes recovered Egypt again for 
the Persians. He demolished the walls of the chief cities 
and spoiled the temples of their treasures of gold and 
silver, and also carried away the records from the most 
ancient temples. These last, Bagoas presently allowed 
the priests to ransom for a large sum of money. 

In former days, when fortune had not smiled upon 
Artaxerxes, the Egyptians, who hated him bitterly, had 
nicknamed him " the ass," which to them was a most 
unclean beast. His revenge was characteristic. He 
ordered that an ass should be installed in the temple of 
Ptah and have divine honours paid to it, while the sacred 
bull Apis was slaughtered and served up at a banquet 
which he gave his friends on taking possession of " the 
White Wall." It was even said that he killed it with his 
own hand, whence the Egyptians afterwards called him 
" the dagger." The sacred goat of Mendes was also 
slaughtered, and, as Maspero suggests, the other sacred 
animals probably met the same fate. 



22 NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 

Artaxerxes after his great success sent home the Greek 
mercenaries, who had served him so well, with large 
rewards, and having appointed Pherendates satrap of 
Egypt, he returned to Babylon laden with spoil (Diod. Sic. 
xvi. c. 47-52), having also restored the prestige and power 
of the Empire to a high condition. The work was really 
done very largely by his G-reek commanders and Greek 
mercenaries, and when the same forces were marshalled 
against it by the strong hand of Alexander presently, the 
same Empire fell in pieces like a house of cards. 

Let us, however, continue our story. Mentor, the man 
of many resources and of scant loyalty, was amply 
rewarded for his recent services. He was inter alia 
presented with a hundred talents of silver and rich 
furniture for his house, and, as we have seen, he was 
made governor of all the coast lands of Asia Minor, with 
virtually absolute power. Mentor was the brother-in-law 
of Artabazes, who, as we have seen, had revolted against 
the Persian King. When Athens made peace with 
the confederated towns, Artabazes fled to Macedonia to 
Philip. Memnon of Ehodes, who afterwards fought so 
well against the Macedonians, and who was a brother of 
Mentor, had also rebelled against the Great King and 
sought refuge with Philip, who was always willing to 
harbour the revolted servants of his Eastern rival. 
Mentor now secured their pardon from the Great King 
and sent for them with their families. Artabazes had 
eleven sons and ten daughters, and Diodorus tells us 
that Mentor was delighted with his nephews and nieces 
and promoted the former to high commands in the army. 

His first expedition was against Hermias, the Prince 
of Atarnea in Mysia, opposite Lesbos, the friend of 
Aristotle, who had rebelled and who possessed many 



COINAGE OF ARTAXERXES III. 23 

strong cities and castles. He inveigled him into a 
parley, secured his signet ring and wrote letters in his 
name to his various cities, saying that he had been 
restored to the royal favour through the interest of 
Mentor, and the various governors accordingly gave up 
their towns. Hermias was put to death. This manoeuvre 
greatly pleased the Great King. By similar adroitness 
we are told by Diodorus he secured the obedience of the 
other rebellious chieftains (op. cit. xvi. 32). 

The growing power of Philip of Macedon, of which 
Artaxerxes had been warned by the Athenians, had 
opened the eyes of at least one of the Persian grandees, 
namely, Arsites the satrap of the Hellespontine Phrygia, 
and we read how in 340 B.C. he sent help to the city of 
Perinthus when besieged by him, and thus enabled it to 
successfully resist his attack (Diod. xvi. 75). The Great 
King turned a deaf ear, however, to the prayer of the 
Athenian envoys for a subsidy, and even wrote a trucu- 
lent reply, embodying his suspicions and containing 
menaces which his early death probably prevented him 
carrying out. Thus did the Persians lose their most 
promising ally in their deadly struggle with Macedon. 

As I am trying to make this paper a fairly complete 
monograph I ought to say a word about an obscure part 
of the reign of Artaxerxes, namely, his dealings with the 
Jews. The Jews apparently joined in or sympathised 
with the general revolt of Syria and Phoenicia. Ariamnes, 
king of Cappadocia, left two sons, Ariarathes and Holo- 
phernes. Diodorus tells us that the latter took part with 
the Great King in his campaign against Egypt and was 
richly rewarded by him, and that, by the affection of 
his brother he was raised to the highest dignities (op. 
cit. xxxi. 19). Noeldeke suggests very plausibly that 



24 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

he was employed by Ochus to pacify Palestine, which 
accounts for the prominent place he occupies in the book 
of Judith as an enemy of the Jews. We are told that at 
this time Jericho was captured by the Persians and the 
Great King settled a number of Jews in Hyrcania and 
Babylonia (Euseb., Syncellus, s. 486 ; Solinus, xxxv. 4, 
s. 171 ; Orosius ed. Mommsen, iii. 7, 61 f.). 

It was probably after his return from his expedition to 
Egypt, loaded with riches and prestige, that Artaxerxes 
built a palace at Persepolis. An inscription still remains 
there in which he records his genealogy, his devotion to 
Ormuzd and Mithra, and his building of a vaulted 
colonnade (Oppert, Records of the Past, First Series, ix. 
86 and 87). 

Meanwhile, according to Diodorus, Artaxerxes grew 
more and more disliked by his people for his ill-nature 
and cruelty, and we are told that Bagoas, " a chiliarch 
and also a eunuch" doubtless the Bagoas already 
mentioned, who was evil-disposed and warlike with the 
help of his physician, administered poison to the King, 
and put his youngest son Arses on the throne (Diodorus, 
vii. 5). The death of Ochus took place in the year 
336 B.C. 

According to ^Elian (Var. Hist. vi. 8) the news of the 
death of Ochus was hailed with great delight in Egypt, 
upon which he had pressed with a cruel heel. It was 
accepted by the Egyptians as a proof of the vengeance of 
the gods whom he had outraged. It was reported that 
Bagoas was an Egyptian, that he had been privy to 
putting to death the sacred Apis under compulsion, and 
that as soon as he could do it in safety he had avenged 
the sacrilege. It was further said that he ate a portion 
of the dead king's body and threw the rest to the cats. 



COINAGE OP ARTAXERXES III. 25 

He then collected his bones and made them into 
whistles and knife handles (^Elian, Var. Hist., ed 
Didot, 352-3 ; see Maspero, The Passing of the 
Nations, 807). This is of course a mere folk-tale of 
the Egyptians, and was probably spread about by 
the priests; but it may mean that Bagoas through- 
out all this time had remained faithful to his 
Egyptian religion and antecedents. This may explain 
the story told of him by Josephus. He calls him the 
general of "another Artaxerxes," and says he polluted 
the Temple at Jerusalem and imposed tribute on the 
Jews of a shekel for every lamb they offered in the daily 
sacrifices. He further tells us that a certain Jesus or 
Joshua was the brother of Johanan or John, the High 
Priest, and was a friend of Bagoas or Bagores (as he calls 
him), who had promised to get him the high-priesthood, 
and relying on this support he quarrelled with Johanan 
in the Temple and was killed by him. Josephus 
denounces this as a crime which had never before been 
committed either by Greek or barbarian, and tells us 
that in consequence of it the Jews were enslaved and the 
Temple was polluted by the Persians. Bagoas, in fact, 
insisted upon entering the Temple, and punished the 
Jews for seven years for the murder of Joshua (Ant. 
xi. 7). 

Let us now turn to the regal and satrapal coins which 
were issued during the reign of Ochus. In regard to the 
imperial coinage of Artaxerxes, I have three things to say. 
In the first place, as in the case of the other Persian 
kings, the coinage of gold was no doubt a special privilege 
of the sovereign, and was in fact one of the most ex- 
clusive privileges retained by him, and, as Babelon says, 
" Although there exist some gold coins of the last kings 



26 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 

of Salamis and Citium, in Cyprus, and of some other 
Cypriot dynasts, and of the Carian Pixodaros, it may be 
stated as a demonstrated truth that the King of Kings 
had the sole right of coining gold coins in Asia. Neither 
the kings of Tyre, Sidon, G-ebal, Aradus, nor the Cilician 
or Lycian dynasts, nor generally those of Cyprus and 
Caria, nor the most powerful satraps nor the most 
flourishing towns of Asia Minor struck gold coins " 
(op. cit. iv.). 

It was no doubt from the Persian kings that the 
tradition passed on to Alexander, who reserved to himself 
the same privilege exclusively, as did his successors the 
SeleucidaB, the Ptolemies, etc. Eventually the Koman 
Emperors also treated this coinage as a peculium of their 
own, whence as Babelon says, the gold coin was styled 
the sacra moneta, that specially reserved for the Emperor. 

I have no doubt that the apparent exceptions to this 
rule were no real exceptions at all, The reign of 
Pixodaros of Caria extended from 341-335 B.C., when the 
Persian monarchy was falling to pieces, and it is perhaps 
a certain proof that Caria had then passed out of the 
hands of the Great King ; while Cyprus was so far off 
and so difficult of access that usurpation of such a right 
as that of issuing gold coins was probably difficult to 
punish if, indeed, the Cyprian towns were ever more 
than nominally subject to the satrap of Phoenicia. 

Secondly, I believe that the coins struck by the Persian 
kings, both in gold and silver, were not struck for use by 
their Persian subjects in Persia and the East. Among 
them the precious metals passed by weight, and a true 
coinage did not probably exist; there being instead a 
modified form of barter, in which probably gold and 
silver were treated as standards of value, measured by 



COINAGE OF ARTAXERXES III. 27 

weight and not by any artificial value attaching to true 
coins. 

On the other hand, it seems to me that while the coins 
of the Persian rulers were not in all probability struck 
for their own immediate subjects in Persia and the far 
East, they were, on the other hand, struck for the Greek 
cities and districts in Asia Minor and its borders, and 
the towns of Phoenicia and Cyprus which were mediately 
or immediately subject to the Great King, and were thus 
meant to circulate among people who had been accustomed 
to the use of coined money from early times. They 
were, in fact, especially meant to pay the great fleets 
and masses of mercenaries whom the Greeks constantly 
supplied for the service of the Great King. The Greeks 
resembled the Swiss of later days, in that they qualified 
their devotion to democracy at home by becoming the 
willing hirelings of every despot abroad ; and the aphorism, 
"No money, no Swiss," no doubt equally applied to the 
Greeks of old. 

This view is also that of a much more learned authority 
on such matters, namely Babelon. " Les Perses," he says, 
" continuant jusqu'a la fin a avoir recours a la balance 
pour peser les lingots metalliques ; c'etait pour le com- 
merce de 1'Asie Mineure et pour le paiement de leurs 
armees que les Achemenides battaient monnaie. Aussi 
parait-il certain que ce fut surtout dans des ateliers d'Asie 
Mineure que la darique a ete f rappee " (op. cit. vii.). 

This is confirmed by the fact that on a single daric 
now in the French collection, instead of an incuse square 
we have the representation of the prow of a ship with a 
Carian letter on it, which was therefore, with little 
doubt, struck in Caria (see Babelon, Cat., no. 124). A 
unique coin acquired by the British Museum at the 



28 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Montagu sale, and weighing twelve grains, seems only 
explicable as having been struck in imitation of the 
weight of the small gold coins of Cyprus, with which it 
entirely agrees, and it was doubtless struck for use 
in Cyprus. Its type is the same as that of the darics 
to be presently described, namely, the King marching to 
the left, with his left knee bent and holding a bow in 
one hand and a spear in the other. 

It must also be remembered that a great number of 
the sigloi or silver coins of the same types as these darics, 
and no doubt dating from the same period, are, as 
Babelon has mentioned, countermarked. A number of 
these countermarked coins are in the British Museum 
collection, and Babelon figures a number of the marks 
themselves on plate xxxix. of his work. He says of 
them: "Bemarquons que la Lycie, la Pamphylie, la 
Cilicie, Cypre meme, paraissent etre les pays ou ces con- 
tremarques ont, en general, ete appliquees. La triquetre, 
la tetraquetre sont des symboles lyciens qui figurent 
frequemment comme contremarques sur les sides perses. 
On y trouve souvent aussi les signes qui ressemblent a la 
grenade des monnaies de Side en Pamphylie; la croix 
ansee parait en Cilicie surtout." He goes on to say that 
one of these signs resembles the fta of the Cypriote 
syllabary. On one siglos occur the letters 0^, which also 
figure on the archaic coins of a satrap of Lycia. The 
sign &, mentioned as occurring on a siglos by Fellows, 
belongs to the syllabaries of Lycia and Cyprus, while the 
curious sign 8-0-3, occurring on certain sigloi, is also 
found on Lycian coins (Babelon, xi.). 

Evidence that the darics and sigloi were struck 
for the Western parts of the Empire, is to be 
gathered from the fact that so many of them have 



COINAGE OF AETAXEEXES III. 29 

occurred in the Greek world. A most famous find was 
that made in 1839 in the canal ordered to be dug by 
Xerxes through Mount Athos. The hoard consisted of 300 
darics, together with 100 early tetradrachms of Athens. 
They were described by Borrell in the Numismatic 
Chronicle, vol. vi., p. 153, note. A number of darics from 
this find are in the French collection, and a number of 
others which came to the British Museum from the 
Woodhouse collection probably had the same prove- 
nance. 

All these facts tend to show, as I have said, that the 
darics and sigloi were largely coined for their Greek 
subjects by the Great Kings. 

Let us now turn to my third point. 

I very much question the attribution of the Persian 
coins without letters or inscriptions, which include all 
those specially issued by the Great King, to any particular 
ruler. It seems to me that all the attempts to classify 
them by style, and notably those made by Messrs. Six 
and Babelon, and especially the latter, in his classical 
work, have failed. The distinctions seem to me arbitrary 
and uncertain, as Mr. Head pronounced them to be long 
ago, and I confess that I still prefer to say "I do not 
know " rather than give spurious and fictitious historical 
reputation to coins which they cannot be made to 
possess with our present knowledge. I am speaking now 
especially of the darics and sigloi, and excluding the 
double darics with Greek letters, which I think Mr. Head 
has conclusively shown were not struck by the Great 
Kings at all, but by Alexander and his successors. It is 
no doubt possible to sort these darics and sigloi into 
a more primitive and a less primitive series in regard to 
style, but in my view we cannot go beyond this and 



30 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

assign any of the anepigraphic coins of this class to 
particular rulers. 

I cannot myself find any criterion by which it is 
possible to distinguish them. The iconography of the 
coins seems to me to be quite conventional, and except 
in the case of two darics to be presently described, to be 
really undistinguishable as portraits. M. Babelon, who 
has given an elaborate classification of them, tells us 
that, apart from some small details in the type of the 
archer in a certain class of coins which he puts late, 
these coins are as uniform in type as the coins of Athens 
or those of Alexander. Their outward appearance, their 
weight, and the amount of alloy they contain, remain 
constant for two centuries from Darius I. to Darius 
Codomannus (op. cit. vii. and viii.). 

I am bound to say that I altogether fail to find any 
marks by which to separate them definitely. The coins 
found at Mount Athos we may with some confidence 
attribute to Darius Hystaspis or Xerxes, and they are 
attributed by Babelon to the latter. Those from the 
Woodhouse collection, which probably come from the same 
find, have been attributed in the British Museum, from a 
comparison of their type, to Artaxerxes. The coins un- 
doubtedly struck in Cyprus by Artaxerxes III., in 
conjunction with Evagoras II., and marked with the 
initial of the latter name, bear on the obverse the type 
of the King bending his bow and without a spear (see 
Babelon, plate xvii., 14, 15, and 16). This type is assigned 
to Darius Codomannus on another plate of the same 
work. 

Again, a number of coins have been assigned by 
Babelon to Darius Codomannus, upon what grounds I 
do not know. On these coins the King, instead of holding 



COINAGE OF ARTAXERXES III. 31 

a bow and a spear, has drawn the bow to the stretch and 
has no spear. These coins are rare in gold, but are very 
common in silver; so common that it seems incredible 
that they should have been issued in such a short and 
unsettled reign as that of the last Persian king. I know 
of no reason of any kind for this attribution. 

Again, in the British Museum series of Persian gold 
coins, both darics and double darics, the type, except on 
three, is the same throughout on the obverse, namely, 
the Great King marching to the right, dressed in a long 
robe, with a crown on his head, and holding a spear with 
a round knob at the end of it in his right hand, and a 
bow in the other. On one coin alone, which is attributed 
to Cyrus the Younger by Babelon, the figure is that of a 
beardless young man, and not of a bearded one, and the 
stuff of which his gown is made is apparently hairy, and 
may be made of the material called kainakkes, but I 
do not know why the coin should be assigned to Cyrus 
the Younger. More than one of the other Achsemenian 
kings were young when they mounted the throne. 

Whichever way we look at the problem of arranging 
the Persian series, therefore, we seem to lack any reliable 
criterion by which to distribute them among the different 
kings. All we can say is that the series started with 
Darius Hystaspis and went on to the end of the dynasty 
in the reign of Darius Codomannus, but we cannot, if 
we follow inductive methods, assign any of these coins 
(from their types) to any particular king. The coins 
found at Mount Athos we may, with confidence, assign 
to the first Darius or Xerxes. We may presently, per- 
haps, similarly assign other coins if we find them with 
others of which we otherwise know the date, but this will, 
I am afraid, not help us to a scientific arrangement of 



32 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the coins when their provenance is unknown. I cannot, 
therefore, see my way to definitely attribute any of the 
Imperial Persian coins specifically to Artaxerxes III. 

The coins attributed by Babelon to Bagoas (Cat. Achem. 
351-371), and affirmed by him to have been struck in 
Egypt, seem to me again to be so attributed on most insuffi- 
cient grounds. To my mind they are most clearly coins 
of Phoanicia. Bagoas was never satrap of Egypt as far 
as we know. He only filled a subordinate position in 
the Egyptian war, and was really subject to Mentor. 
Directly after the Egyptian war, Artaxerxes nominated 
another person, namely, Pherendates, as satrap of Egypt, 
and he sent the mercenary soldiers home. Bagoas was 
given a satrapy in Upper Asia, where he apparently 
continued to live not far from the court, for he was 
eventually responsible for the assassination of two of the 
Persian kings. How, under these circumstances, he 
could possibly have struck coins in Egypt, I do not 
know. The only direct reason for attributing these coins 
to Egypt given by Babelon, is that on them the man 
behind the car wears a tall mitre, like that worn by the 
kings of Lower Egypt ; but this was also a Phoenician 
head-dress, and is in fact the usual head-dress worn by 
the Phoenician deities. Apart from this a precisely 
similar figure is found on one of the double staters in 
the British Museum, which has on it not the letter 9 
only, but the letters 90 (see Hist. Num., p. 672, 
figure 354), which are generally treated as the initials of 
the Phoenician form of the name of Strato, King of 
Sidon. (A similar figure is given in one of Babelon's 
own plates, Les Perses Achemenides, pi. xxx., fig. 11.) 

It seems plain, therefore, that every reason for attri- 
buting these coins to Egypt fails, -and we must resort 



COINAGE OF ARTAXEBXES III. 33 

to the views which were generally held before Babelon 
wrote his memoir, namely, that the coins in question 
were struck in Phoenicia or for Phoenicians. 

Let us now shortly consider the Sidonian coins of this 
period, which have been admirably treated by M. Babelon. 
The King of Sidon, called Tennes by Diodorus, had, as 
we have seen, been put on the throne of Sidon on 
the revolt of Strato I., by the Persian king, and possibly, 
as M. Babelon says, he was not of Semitic origin. On 
some of his coins the years of his reign are marked, 
and as we have four of these numbers on them, and four 
only, it seems probable that he in fact only reigned four 
years under the conditions which dominated their issue. 
These conditions were undoubtedly that he reigned as 
the subordinate of the Persian king. On one side of 
these coins we have the representation of a Phoenician 
galley propelled by oars and without sails ; on the other 
is the portrait of the Great King, with the Phoenician 
letters representing the two first letters of the name of 
Tennes. The four years just mentioned cover the period 
when Artaxerxes II. was succeeded by Artaxerxes III. 
The coins of his first year were in fact struck in the last 
year of Artaxerxes Mnemon. The king is represented 
wearing the cidaris on his head and having on him 
the robe called the candys, holding a dagger in his right 
hand and seizing a lion's mane with the other. This is 
a Phoenician tritemorion. On a double stater of his 
third year the Great King is represented standing in his 
chariot drawn by three horses, marching to the left. 
He wears a cidaris, and holds aloft his right hand. His 
charioteer holds the reins. Behind the chariot there 
follows an official on foot, wearing a low tiara. In his 
left hand he holds an oinochoe,. and in .his; right a 

VOL. III., SEKIES IV. D 



34 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

sceptre with an animal's head upon it. These coins 
were doubtless issued, as M. Babelon says, during the 
four years 362-358, when Tennes remained loyal to the 
Great King. 

The destruction of Sidon was only temporary, and it 
must soon have risen again from its ashes. The next 
step in its history was recovered by the ingenuity of 
M. Babelon. Diodorus tells us that Evagoras II., having 
been nominated for a short time to a command in 
Cyprus, was presently transferred to another in Asia, and 
M. Babelon has shown that this was no other than the 
government of Sidon, for we meet with coins which bear 
the two first letters of the name of Evagoras in their Phoe- 
nician form, O O = v, as we find them on his Cyprian 
issue. They are marked, like other Sidonian coins, with 
the years of his reign, and inasmuch as we only meet 
with them during three years, this confirms the state- 
ment of Diodorus that he did not hold his post very 
long. If, as Babelon suggests, we allow a year for the 
time during which Sidon was in ruins, we may take it 
that he continued to reign until four years after the 
death of Tennes, when he was probably expelled or 
deprived of his satrapy, and the Sidonians reverted to 
their old royal line in the person of Strato II., whose 
coins prove that he deemed himself a dependant of the 
Great King. 

Let us now turn to another series of coins which 
M. Babelon attributes to Sidon, but I think on doubtful 
grounds. Let us begin with the oldest. Of these, a re- 
markable specimen in the British Museum, obtained from 
Mr. T. K. Kich in 1863, is of the weight of 422-8 grains, 
and represents a coin of 6 sigloi. On the reverse, in an 
incuse square, the Persian king is being driven by a 



COINAGE OF ARTAXERXES III. 35 

charioteer in a three-horsed chariot. There is no figure 
behind the chariot, as on other coins of the series, nor is 
there any letter or mark on it. Above the chariot is an 
incuse representation of the head of an ibex facing. On 
the other side is a galley with sails and moving to the 
left ; underneath is a conventional representation of the 
sea. The incuse representation is a very curious one. It 
seems to me to be distinctly a countermark, and we will 
return to it presently. A second example of this coin 
is figured by Imhoof-Blumer (Choix, etc., pi. vii., 229). 

Other coins of the same series, and doubtless of the 
same period, are of smaller dimensions. First, on the 
sigloi, or half-staters, we have on the obverse a figure of 
the Great King standing and drawing his bow to the full, 
while on the reverse is a sailing galley similar to that on 
the coins last mentioned. Of these sigloi, one in the 
Vienna collection is not countermarked. It is figured 
by Babelon (op. cit. clxxxiii.). On the specimens in the 
British Museum and the French collection, which weigh 
104 '9 grains, we have two countermarks, also incuse. 
One is the horn of an ibex, while the other, according to 
Babelon, who figures the French coin, is a full face 
of the god Besa (see his Cat., no. 1563, pi. xxix., 
fig. 19). The coin in the British Museum was bought in 
1856 from Mr. T. K. Lynch, who obtained it in Persia. 

Thirdly, we have some smaller coins, namely, sixths 
of staters or tritemorions, represented both in the 
French collection and the British Museum. On the 
obverse is a figure of the King half kneeling and 
drawing his bow, in an incuse square, while a similar 
galley is on the other side. 

This series of coins has a very early look. The incuse 
square and the general rudeness of the coins, the im- 

D 2 



36 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

pressions being struck on rough pieces of silver, seem to 
me to make it impossible to attribute them to a later 
date than the first part of the fifth century B.C., nor do I 
think they were issued by any of the Phoenician towns. 
They seem to me to be Imperial Persian coins struck for 
the purpose of paying the Phoenician fleets in the 
Persian wars of the fifth century, and may well belong to 
the reign of Xerxes and the time of the battle of the 
Eurymedon in 465 B.C. The countermarks on them 
support this view. The goat's or ibex's head seems to 
recall the coins of Salamis. The only reason for attri- 
buting the series to Sidon is the presence of the galley 
on them, but the galley does not occur on the autonomous 
coins of Sidon of this early date, while it does occur on 
those of Aradus and Grebal, and is really a generic repre- 
sentation of the fleet ; nor can I believe for a moment 
that these coins were struck so late as 390 B.C. 

Let us now turn to another series of similar coins. 
These also for the most part are anepigraphic, and they 
have been attributed to Sidon, as it seems to me very 
arbitrarily, by M. Babelon. 

They consist of quadruple sigloi, sigloi and trite- 
morions, and are apparently a continuation of the former 
series, and are also Imperial and not merely local coins, 
and were probably struck to pay the Phoenician fleet. 

On the quadruple sigloi we have on the reverse the 
Great King standing in his chariot holding up his right 
hand. The chariot is drawn by two horses only, and the 
design is in an incuse roundel. On the other side is a 
representation of a rowing galley with one row of rowers, 
anchored at the foot of a fortress which is crenellated and 
armed with five towers. As the galley is at anchor its 
sails are naturally down. Below this are represented two 



COINAGE OF ARTAXERXES III. 37 

lions walking away from each other and standing back 
to back. 

As in the other series there is an incuse countermark ; 
on these coins it is underneath the feet of the horses 
attached to the chariot. According to Babelon it repre- 
sents a dead ibex (Hist. Num., page 671, figure 353). 

Let us now turn to Cyprus. On the submission of 
the Phoenician towns, their example was followed by the 
revolted cities of Cyprus, except Salamis, which was 
bravely defended by its king Pnytagoras and which was 
besieged by Evagoras and Phokion. Evagoras appa- 
rently obtained for a short while the supreme rule in 
Cyprus, always excepting Salamis. The king of the 
latter, Pnytagoras, it would appear, accused Evagoras of 
misconduct and made his peace with Artaxerxes, who 
granted him his kingdom of Salamis, while Evagoras 
was appointed to rule a great province in Asia. Accused 
of misgovernment, he fled once again to Cyprus, where 
he was captured and put to death (Diodorus, lib. xvi., 
43-46). 

This is the account which Diodorus gives us about the 
latter part of the reign of Evagoras, and it is singularly 
confirmed by his coins. Of these perhaps the most 
interesting are a series of which a number were found, 
as Babelon tells us, in a hoard not many years ago at 
Calymna, in the island of Khodes, with coins of the 
Carian princes Maussolos, Idrieus and Pixodaros. 
Hence and because they are of Rhodian weight, M. Six 
argued that they had been struck in Caria. This view is 
contested by M. Babelon. He argues that other coins of 
Ehodian weight were certainly issued in Cyprus. The 
fact that they have Phoanician letters upon them seems 
to make it clear that they were struck not in Caria but 



38 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 

in Cyprus, while their weight, as M. Babelon argues, is 
probably due to the fact that they were meant to pay the 
Greek mercenaries from Asia Minor who were led by the 
Carian chief Idrieus. The types of these coins are quite 
different from the contemporary Carian coins, while the 
symbols on them are Cyprian. Of these we know the 
lion's head, the dove, the eagle, the head of Hercules and 
lastly the dolphin, which is found on the coins of Nicocles 
(Babelon, Les Perses Achem., cxxiv. and cxxv.). All this, 
however, is consistent with the fact that though not meant 
to be current in Caria, they were possibly struck there 
for the special purpose of paying the mercenaries. These 
coins were no doubt issued in Cyprus by Evagoras when 
he was representing the Great King there as a kind of 
satrap. On the obverse we have a representation of 
Artaxerxes Ochus half kneeling to the right and drawing 
his bow. His cidaris is finished off at the top with three 
points. He wears the candys and carries a quiver full of 
arrows on his back. On the reverse we have what is 
doubtless meant to be a representation of Evagoras him- 
self riding a horse at the gallop and using his lance, 
which he holds aloft in his right hand. His head is 
covered with the Persian tiara and his robe is girdled at 
the waist. Above the horse is the letter O, the initial of 
Evagoras. On one type of these tetradrachms the first 
two letters of the name Evagoras occur. In addition to 
these tetradrachms M. Babelon describes some obols, 
two of which he figures. These have a bust of Aphrodite 
turned to the left on the obverse. She wears a crenellated 
diadem on her head and also has earrings. On the 
reverse is a bust full-face in a Persian tiara with flaps 
covering the cheeks and fastened on the chin as in the 
horseman on the tetradrachms. There are no letters on 



COINAGE OF AKTAXEKXES III. 39 

these obols, but it is hardly possible to attribute them to 
any one else than Evagoras, who alone of the rulers of 
this dynasty would be represented wearing a Persian 
head-dress. 

The issue of these coins was doubtless limited to the 
short time only when Evagoras remained in Cyprus and 
before he was made governor of Sidon, as I have already 
described. 

On the withdrawal of Evagoras, Pnytagoras continued 
to rule at Salamis, and was reigning there in the time of 
Alexander the Great and took service with him. We have 
numbers of his coins, but they are not immediately 
interesting to us here, for they contain no trace of any 
kind of the domination of the Persian King at Salamis. 
It would seem, in fact, that the Persians with their Greek 
allies never took the place, and that Evagoras only con- 
trolled the other parts of the island. There are no 
Phoenician or Cypriote letters on these coins, but the 
inscriptions, like the types, are purely Greek. The 
Phoenician settlements in Cyprus were doubtless subject, 
except when in revolt, to the satrap of Syria and 
Phoenicia, but I know of no evidence that he controlled 
the Greek towns there, and the notion that Cyprus was 
subject to the Great King must be accepted with a large 
reservation. Diodoms calls Pnytagoras Protagoras, and 
M. Babelon has made separate persons of the two, 
making Protagoras the father of Pnytagoras and the 
son of Evagoras L, but for this there is no authority of 
any kind, it seems to me, and the whole thing is easily 
explained as a natural mistake of Diodorus, to whom 
Pnytagoras must have been a very unfamiliar name. 

As we have seen, Belesys, satrap of Syria, and Mazaios, 
the satrap of Cilicia, opposed the revolted Phoenician 



40 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

towns, pending the arrival of Ochus in person, but they 
did not command a sufficient force, and Tennes, King of 
Sidon, defeated them and compelled them to abandon 
Phoenicia (Diodorus, xvi. 8). This, according to Diodorus, 
took place in 351 B.C. M. Six points out that at this time, 
as in the time of Darius, the fifth satrapy comprised all 
the country from Posidion as far as Egypt Coslesyria, 
PhcBnicia, Palestine, Northern Arabia and Cyprus (Hero- 
dotus, iii. 91 ; Xenophon's Anabasis, vii. 8, 25). The 
North of Syria, on the other hand, formed part of his 
fourth satrapy of Cilicia, but was afterwards detached, and 
it was there that Belesys, called Satrap of Syria and 
Assyria by Xenophon, was living in 401. He was probably 
the same man as the Belesys of 351 (see Xen. i. 4, 10 ; 
vii. 8, 25), for it is remarkable how long-lived the 
satraps as a rule were. If so he must now have been 
a very old man. Mazaios, according to Judeich, became 
Satrap of Cilicia in the same year as Artaxerxes Ochus 
mounted the throne, having succeeded Datames there. 

After the unsuccessful struggle against the Phoenician 
towns we hear no more of Belesys. It may be that from 
the initial letter on the coins attributed by Babelon to 
Bagoas they were issued by Belesys to pay his forces on 
the occasion of his war against the revolted towns, or on 
previous occasions. He may have perished in this war 
or died soon after, for presently we find his satrapy 
united to that of Mazaios, who is styled on some of his 
coins Satrap of " Abarnahra and Cilicia." By Abarnahra, 
" beyond the river," is no doubt, as Halevy showed, meant 
the country west of the Euphrates i.e. Ccelesyria. On 
the disappearance of Evagoras, who had been governor 
of Sidon, as we have seen, it would seem that Mazaios 
became the dominant overlord on behalf of the Great King, 



COINAGE OF ARTAXERXES III. 41 

both of the Phoenician towns on the mainland and probably 
also of the Phoenician settlements in Cyprus. This we 
gather from his coins, for unfortunately our information 
about him is otherwise very scanty. 

In a previous paper I have excluded certain coins from 
the list of those generally attributed to Mazaios, and have 
attributed them to a later time. Let us now turn to the 
jest. These, it seems to me, may be arranged in several 
series to illustrate the different events in his life. 

First, I would name what I deem to have been his 
original, initial coinage, i.e. the coins he issued as satrap 
of Cilicia before the Western campaign of Artaxerxes. 
On these coins we have on the obverse the figure of a god, 
with the inscription Baaltars round it, and on the reverse 
a well-modelled " lion passant " to the left, with the 
name of Mazaios in Aramaic letters. 

In some cases (see Babelon, op. cit., pi. vi., figs. 18 
and 19) the lion has the sun above him and the cres- 
cent below his feet. I cannot help thinking that this 
is the badge and emblem of the Persian Empire, as it 
still is of the kingdom of Persia. 

This type of the god and the lion walking to the 
left occurs, as we have seen, on later coins, probably 
struck by the successors of Mazaios before the time of 
Alexander, and it is the only type of his they used, which 
seems to me to be strong evidence that it was the real 
original type, while the others were accidental ones. 

The others, in fact, were employed rather to com- 
memorate particular events, and even, perhaps, struck to 
pay the wages of the fleet or the soldiery on particular 
occasions. 

Keverting to the typical series above described, I would 
say a few words about the god represented on them. 



42 NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 

I find in the numismatic memoirs known to me, and 
notably in that most excellent book, Mr. Hill's Catalogue 
of the Coins of Cilicia, that Baal is treated as a personal 
name of a god. As a matter of fact it is merely an 
appellative. There were many Baalim. Baal, like its 
Babylonian form Bel, merely meant Lord, or The Lord, 
and it would be better to speak of " The Baal " rather 
than of " Baal," as if he were some special god with a 
special name. 

I venture to question, in fact, the identification of the 
figure of the god on the coins of Tarsus on which the 
word Baaltars occurs as the god of Tarsus. TJie great 
god of Tarsus, as Dio Chrysostom tells us, was Hercules, 
that is, Sandan or Melkart, who is represented on some 
coins of the city. This god, who has either a bunch of 
grapes or an eagle in his hand, has nothing to do with 
Melkart. 

Again the various memoirs I have read about the coins of 
Cilicia treat the word Baaltars, which occurs on the coins 
of Tarsus, as the name of a god. I do not think this is 
quite certain. The form of the name does not suggest 
this conclusion. It seems to me that if we follow analo- 
gies, it is rather the name of a place, and not of a god, 
and in every probability that it is the name by which 
Tarsus itself was known to the Aramaic-speaking people 
who lived there. I would compare with it such place- 
names as the following, all occurring in Syria, Palestine, 
or Phoenicia, districts neighbouring on Cilicia, and whose 
people spoke a closely cognate language : Baal Judah, 
Baal Gad, Baal Hamon, Baal Hazor, Baal Meon, Baal 
Peor, Baal Perazim, Baal Shalisha, Baal Tamar, Baal 
Zebub (which has been shown to be a place-name, and 
not to mean " god of flies " as generally supposed), and 



COINAGE OF AETAXEKXES III. 43 

Baal Zephon. In these cases the names, whatever their 
explanation, are not personal but geographical. 

A more important analogy for my purpose may be 
drawn from some of the coins of Gazur, the capital of 
Cappadocia, on which it is called Baal Gazur, or Baal 
Gazer (see Babelon, Eois Achem., Ixxxiii.). The god 
on these coins is precisely the same as that called Baaltars 
on some of the coins of Tarsus, and shows that each name 
is only an appellative. It has not, I think, been noticed 
that while on one side of these coins of Baal Gazur the 
representation of the griffin killing the stag is an echo 
of the lion killing the stag on some of the coins of 
Mazaios, on the other the god is represented with the 
eagle, which was the form adopted on the coins I have 
ventured to attribute to Byblus. On these coins the 
inscription, as I have said, instead of being Baaltars, is 
Baal Gazer or Baal Gazur. They have another pecu- 
liarity, namely, that some of them present both Aramaic 
and Greek letters. 

Let us now turn to the coins with the reverse 
of the lion killing the stag. As Six and Hill have 
pointed out, the reverse of all these coins, which 
is entirely new in Asia Minor, is directly taken 
from that of the coins of Citium in Cyprus, where 
it was an old one going back to the time of Azbaal, 
who reigned from 449 to 425 B.C. In addition to this 
we also have an explanation of the shallow incuse square, 
which had been abandoned at Tarsus but retained 
in Cyprus (Hill, Cat. of Cilicia, cxxxii.). I may notice 
another very interesting fact, that the crux ansata which 
occurs on some of these coins is a very common symbol 
on the Cyprian coins, and forms in fact the actual reverse 
of many coins of Salamis (Babelon, xvi.). 



44 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

The letter O which occurs on some of these coins 
ought assuredly to be placed in comparison with the same 
letter on the coins of true Persian types issued in 
Cyprus by Artaxerxes Ochus (see Babelon, pi. xvii., 
Nos. 14 and 15). It is simply the initial letter of the 
name Evagoras II. of Salamis. The M on some of them 
may represent the initial of Marium, in Cyprus. The 
ram's head is surely taken from the ordinary type of the 
coins of Salamis (see Babelon, pi. xvi.). 

This series of facts makes it plain that the coins just 
described were meant to be circulated not at Tarsus, with 
which they have little or nothing to do, but in Cyprus, 
and especially in Citium, and they typify the domination 
of the Persian King there, and probably the fact, as 
Mr. Hill says, that Cyprus or a portion of it was then 
subject to the Cilician satrap. Why they should be 
treated as coins of Tarsus or be catalogued among the 
coins of Cilicia I do not know. 

It seems to me that they were struck in Cyprus, as is 
evidenced by their incuse square, and by the fact that 
they had a type and symbols probably understood only in 
Cyprus, and were meant to have currency in Cyprus, and 
that they are as much coins of Cyprus as the Hanoverian 
money of George III. was Hanoverian and not English. 

Let us now pass on to another series of the coins of 
Mazaios. On these we have a lion devouring a bull 
instead of devouring a stag. This Mr. Hill calls the 
emblem of Tarsus (I do not know why), and he bases an 
argument against Babelon on the fact. Except this 
series there is only a single coin of Tarsus known to me 
with this type (Brit. Mus. Cat., Cilicia, pi. xxviii. 12), and 
its meaning on this coin is very doubtful, since the 
reverse, an ear of corn diagonally in a square, is a 



COINAGE OF AKTAXEKXES III. 45 

unique one. The type on the obverse, on the other hand, 
is that of Byblos in Phoenicia, which was probably the 
head-quarters of the satraps Mazaios and Belesys when 
they went there to put down the revolt of the district. 
After the war Phoenicia was joined to the satrapy of Ma- 
zaios, and we may be sure that, as in Cyprus, he struck a 
local coinage in Phoenicia. In Cyprus he took the type in 
vogue at Citium. In Phoenicia he seerns to have taken 
the type in vogue at Byblos. This type occurs in two 
forms. In one the lion devouring the bull occupies the 
reverse ; in the other this carnasial incident is represented 
on the walls of a town or fortress; and it seems to me that 
the two types may have a separate meaning. On the ob- 
verse of the former class of coins the god is represented 
in every case, I believe, with an eagle, and the eagle only 
occurs on coins of this type. There is again a double 
form of the god associated with the eagle. In certain 
coins, of which Babelon describes one (i.e. No. 226, pi. v., 
12), the god is represented in profile as on the coins from 
Cyprus above mentioned. Of this type two staters occur 
in the British Museum and are figured (Cat. of Cilicia, pi. 
xxv., 10 and 11). In another type the god is represented 
facing ; of this form Babelon describes eleven coins 
and Mr. Hill six. There are minor differences only. 
All these coins were apparently struck at Byblos to 
be used in Phoenicia ; on some of them, the letters q>^ 
occur in the field, or these letters reversed. These 
letters have been supposed by Babelon to represent 
Mallus, but surely they may as well represent Marathus. 
The fact that the letters are Aramaic is no bar, for we 
know that Mazaios also struck octodrachms of an entirely 
different type at Sidon, with inscriptions in Aramaic and 
not Phoenician letters (Hist. Num. 672). 



46 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

These latter coins are interesting because they enable 
us to date the reign of Mazaios with greater precision. 
As I showed in a previous paper, distaters with the 
name of Mazaios occur with the numbers 1, 2 and 3 on 
them, and M. Babelon has treated them as if these refer 
to the regnal years of Ochus. This I think is impossible. 
M. Six has rightly treated them as the first, second and 
third year of Ochus' successor Arses ; the hiatus between 
the years 3 and 19 (which M. Babelon allows), might have 
warned him against the improbability of his conclusion. 
The evidence of the coins, then, is that Mazaios was 
satrap of Syria from the nineteenth or twentieth year of 
Ochus to the third of Arses, i.e. from 339 or 340 B.C. to 
334 B.C. 

H. H. HOWORTH. 



II. 

THE COINAGE OF WILLIAM WOOD, 1722-1733. 

(See Plates I.-II.) 

CHAPTER I. 

BRIEF LIFE OF WILLIAM WOOD. 

IT is unfortunately a matter of considerable difficulty to 
write anything approaching a full or connected account 
of the life and work of William Wood, owing to the in- 
sufficient data left to us. This may very naturally give 
rise to some little surprise when one considers the no 
small part that Wood played in public affairs during the 
later years of the reign of George I. 

William Wood appears to have been born July 31, 
1671, and during the period 1692-1713 he resided at 
the Deanery, Wolverhampton. 

He must, prior to his venture in the numismatic field, 
have been a person of very considerable financial stand- 
ing, since we are informed that he was the owner of 
copper and iron mines in the west of England, and is 
understood to have leased mining rights, in some thirty- 
nine English and Welsh counties ; and when we re- 
member his ability to pay 10,000 for his patent, very 
different must we picture him, in comparison with the 
sorry figure presented to our imagination by Swift and 
other writers of the same school. 

Early in 1722 the Duchess of Kendal, the King's 
mistress, received from the Earl of Sunderland a patent 
for coming copper money for Ireland, which she appears 



48 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

to have sold to William Wood for the sum of 10,000, 
the details of which coinage appear in the indenture 
which George I. commanded to be drawn up between 
himself and Wood. 

This indenture, which was issued June 16, 1722, pre- 
sented the following points. The patent was for the 
period of fourteen years, for the sole privilege of coining 
halfpence and farthings for Ireland, the total weight of 
which was not to exceed three hundred and sixty tons, 
thirty pence being coined from one pound avoirdupois. 
During the first year one hundred tons were to be 
coined, and twenty tons during each of the succeeding 
thirteen years. Wood was to pay during each year the 
sum of 800, the reserved rent to the King, and 200 to 
the clerk comptroller. This patent was passed July 22, 
1722, by the English Commons, without reference to the 
Irish Privy Council or the Lord Lieutenant. 

The value of the total weight of copper, viz., 360 tons, 
at this period amounted to the sum of 43,680, and if 
coined at the rate of thirty pence to the pound, it would 
have produced the sum of 108,000. 

I subjoin the total cost of coining 360 tons of copper 
at this period in tabular form. 

Value of 360 tons of copper at 13d. per Ib. 43,680 

Converting into bars at 6d. per Ib. . 16,800 

Cost of coining at 4dL per Ib. . 13,940 

Rent to the Crown, etc. . . . 14,000 

Purchase of patent .... 10^000 

98,420 

At the Eoyal mint at this time one pound of copper was 
coined into forty-six halfpence, and consequently 360 tons 
would produce about 77,280, in other words about 30,720 
less than the patent for the Irish coinage provided for. 



THE COINAGE OF WILLIAM WOOD. 



49 



From the above table it will be apparent that, had 
Wood carried out the provisions of the patent strictly, 
his profits would, in the course of fourteen years, have 
amounted to the miserable sum of 9,580, a profit 
scarcely commensurate with the labour involved. 

As a result of this, it will occasion no surprise to learn, 
that in order to make the affair yield a reasonable return, 
the weight of the coins was cut down, as will be apparent 
from the table below, which gives the weights of speci- 
mens selected from parcels sent to Ireland, for issue 
there, a number being taken from each parcel weighed 
and divided into lots. 



The different lots. 


Weight of 
Halfpenny. 


Number 
Integer. 


in 1 Ib. 
Dec. 


Curreu 
Pence. 


fc value, 1 
Half- 


722, in 
Dec. 


















grs. 












First sort 


120 


58 


33 


29 





33 


Second sort 


111 


63 


06 


31 


1 


06 


Third sort 


103 


67 


96 


33 


1 


96 


Fourth sort 


96 


72 


91 


36 





91 


The average 


107-5 


65 


11 


32 


1 


11 





Quantity 
coined. 


Cost 
coined. 


Current value. 


Loss to Public. 


If as patent provided 
If first sort coined 
If second sort coined 
If third sort coined 
If fourth sort coined 


tons. 

360 

5> 
? 
> 
J 


74420 
i 



i 
> 


s. 

108,000 
97,994 8 
105,940 16 
114,172 16 
122,488 16 


33,580 

23,574 8 
31,520 16 
39,752 16 
48,068 16 


If average coined 


360 


74,420 


110,149 4 


35,729 4 






VOL. III., SERIES IV. 



50 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 

In January, 1722-23, the striking of these Irish pieces 
began, the place of issue or mint being in Phoenix 
Street, Brown's Gardens, Seven Dials ; whence they were 
conveyed by waggon to Bristol, where they were shipped 
to various ports in Ireland, Dublin being of course the 
principal centre for their distribution. 

August, 1722. In the Treasury Papers appears a 
memorial of William Wood for a license to coin " copper 
money for Ireland at the city of Bristol." On August 
3rd, a Treasury minute is to be found, ordering a consti- 
tution appointing Sir Isaac Newton comptroller of the 
coinage, when the Treasury will give Wood powers to 
coin a certain quantity of copper money at Bristol. 

August 31st. Treasury warrant authorising Wood to 
establish his office for coining at or near Bristol (Hist. 
MSS. Com., Appendix to 8th Eeport, p. 79). 

The dies for this issue were in all probability engraved 
by the same artists who prepared those for the American 
coinage, at least this is certainly the case in respect to 
the obverse dies. 

Pieces of the dates 1722 and 1723 were struck and 
issued in Ireland to the sum of 14,566, of which 1,086 
was issued in farthings. The coins of the year 1722 do 
not appear to have had any large circulation and were 
in all probability only issued as patterns. 

Wood's coinage for Ireland never appears to have been 
popular, and this may in no small measure have been 
due to the secrecy attending its issue. Since the Irish 
nation had never been consulted in this matter, and their 
interests but little regarded, it is not surprising to find, 
September 13, 1723, both Irish Houses of Parliament 
petitioning the King in regard to this subject, in which 
petition they were joined by the Lords Justices, the 



THE COINAGE OF WILLIAM WOOD. 51 

Council, and the Grand Juries of the city and county of 
Dublin. 

Wood was at this period described " as guilty of most 
notorious fraud in his coinage," and foolishly allowed 
himself to be drawn into a very unwise reply, which 
appeared in The Flying Post, Oct. 8, 1723. Now there 
is no doubt that Wood, firm in his belief as to the omni- 
potence of Walpole, expressed his views as to the Irish 
in language more forcible than elegant, since among 
other remarks he is reported to have said " that he would 
cram his brass down their throats in spite of them." 

Shortly after this appeared the first of a series of seven 
letters, the author of which was Jonathan Swift, D.D., 
Dean of St. Patrick's, and since they were signed M. B. 
Drapier, became known as Drapier's Letters and were 
supposed to have been written by a drapier or draper 
resident in Dublin. The first letter made its appearance 
April, 1724, and produced a tremendous sensation, being 
followed at short intervals by the others. Swift placing 
all regard for the truth on one side, and aiming solely at 
the aggrandisement of himself, and if fortunate at the 
overthrow of his old enemy, Walpole, found all the 
means for such an end ready to hand. Here was an 
opportunity not to be missed, and, emerging from his 
comparative obscurity, he availed himself of it with 
readiness, and in a few homely but at the same time 
telling words, poured out the imagined wrongs of his 
country. 

By such means as this was the prospect of a successful 
future for this coinage done away with, and although 
Wood in 1724 consented to reduce the amount of his 
issue to one of 40,000, and limit the tender to fivepence 
halfpenny, yet in the following year, 1725, we find him 

E 2 



52 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

consenting to resign his patent in consideration of his 
receiving a pension of 3,000 per annum, for eight years, 
on the establishment of Ireland. 

On April 10, 1724, a letter from the Treasury to Sir 
Isaac Newton occurs, directing him to send a competent 
person to Bristol, where Mr. Wood had his office, to assay 
the fineness of his halfpence. 

Notwithstanding the outcry raised against these pieces, 
the report of Sir Isaac Newton, the then Master of the 
Eoyal Mint, amply proves them to have been in many 
respects very admirable coins, and vastly superior to any 
copper money previously coined for use in Ireland, their 
only fault being the discrepancies in weight between 
individual specimens. 

The following advertisement will serve to show the 
contemporary feeling in regard to these Irish pieces. 

ADVERTISEMENT. 

"Whereas I, Thomas Handy, of Meath Street, Dublin, did 
receive by the last packet from a person in London, to whom 
I am an entire stranger, bills of lading for eleven casks of 
Wood's halfpence, shipped at Bristol, and consigned to me by 
the said person on his own proper account, of which I had 
not the least notice until I received the said bills of lading. 

" Now I, the said Thomas Handy, being highly sensible of 
the duty and regard which every honest man owes to his 
country and to his fellow-subjects, do hereby declare, that I 
will not be concerned, directly or indirectly, in entering, 
landing, importing, receiving, or uttering any of the said 
Wood's halfpence, for that I am fully conceived, as well 
from the addresses of both houses of parliament as otherwise, 
that the importing and uttering the said halfpence will be 
destructive to this nation, and prejudicial to his Majesty's 
revenue. 

'* And of this my resolution I gave notice by letter to the 
person who sent me the bills of lading, the very day I 
received them, and have sent back the said bills to him. 

"Tno. HANDY. 

"DUBLIN, 2Mh Aug., 1724." 






THE COINAGE OF WILLIAM WOOD. 53 

On July 12th, 1722, Wood also obtained a patent to 
issue coins for the North American Colonies, or, as they 
were then called, " The Plantations," for a term of four- 
teen years. The amount to be coined was not to exceed 
300 tons, of which 200 tons were to be coined in the first 
four years and not more than ten tons per annum during 
the last ten. For this right of coinage Wood was to pay 
an annual rent to the Crown of 100 and to the clerk 
comptroller 200. The material for the coinage of these 
American pieces was a mixture called Bath metal, the 
composition of which, in twenty ounces of metal, was as 
follows : 

Silver .... 1 dwt. 
Tutanaigne ... 4 ozs. 19 dwts. 
Brass . . . .15 ozs. 

Of this sixteen ounces were to be coined into thirty 
twopenny pieces, sixty pence, or one hundred and twenty 
halfpence. This series of coins for America, best known 
by the name of the "Kosa Americanas," was issued 
during the years 1722-1724; the dies being engraved 
by the following artists Mr. Lammas, Mr. Harold, and 
Mr. Standbroke, who were probably also the engravers 
for the Irish issues. Together with William Wood there 
appear to have been associated in this venture one 
Kingsmills Eyres, Esq., and a Mr. Marsland of Cornhill, 
a hardwareman, which latter person it is related had a 
cellar full of these coins, and since the difficulty of 
passing them appears to have been as great as was the 
case with the Irish series, it may be no surprise to learn 
that Mr. Marsland was ruined thereby and subsequently 
died an inmate of Gresham College. 

Some of the dies for the American coinage were taken 



54 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

to New York by Mr. Winthorpe, when he emigrated 
thither. 

The American coins were struck at the French 
Change, Hogg Lane, Seven Dials, and also at Bristol, 
and were made of Bath metal, the composition of which 
we have previously alluded to. The blanks were heated 
before being struck by the die, which was raised to a 
considerable height and then released, and this fact may 
in some measure account for the numerous examples 
which appear to be blistered as though by the action of 
fire. No doubt the unusual composition of the metal of 
which these coins were struck accounts for but few 
examples having reached us in fine condition, the 
softness of Bath metal being but little calculated to 
withstand the ravages of time and circulation. In regard 
to the difficulty of passing this issue, the following letter 
dated October 29th, 1725, to the Governor of New 
Hampshire, is of interest. 

Whitehall 29* Ocf 1725. 

"Sir 

His Majesty having been pleased to grant to Mr. William 
Wood his Letters Patents for the Coyning of Halfpence, 
Pence and Two Pences of the Value of Money of Great 
Britain for the Use of His Maj ty ' 8 Dominions in America, 
which said Coyn is to receive such additional Value as shall 
be reasonable and agreeable to the customary allowance of 
Exchange in the several parts of those His Maj ty ' 8 Dominions, 
as you will see more at large by a Copy of the Patent, which 
will be laid before you by the person, that delivers this 
Letter to you ; I am to signify to you His Maj ty>s pleasure, 
that, in pursuance of a Clause in the said Patent by which 
all His Maj ty ' 8 Officers are to be aiding and assisting to Mr. 
Wood in the due Execution of what is therein directed and 
in the legal Exercise of the several Powers and Enjoyment 
of the Privileges and Advantages thereby granted to him, 
you give him all due Encouragement and Assistance, and 
that you and all such other of His Maj ty ' 8 Officers there, 
whom it may concern, do readily perform all legal Acts, that 



THE COINAGE OF WILLIAM WOOD. 55 

may be requisite for that purpose ; This I am particularly 
to recommend to your Care ; and to desire your Protection 
to Mr. Wood and to those he shall employ to transact this 
affair in the Provinces under your Government. I am 

Sir 

Your most humble Servant 

HOLLES NEWCASTLE. 
" Gov r of the Massachusetts Bay 
and New Hampshire." 

On January 14th, 1723, the following notice appears 
in The London Post. "William Wood, of Wolver- 
hampton, Esq., having a patent for fourteen years, for 
coining farthings and halfpence for Ireland, and half- 
pence, pence, and twopences for all His Majesty's 
dominions in America, hath erected a building in 
Phoanix Street, Brown's Gardens, near the Seven Dials, 
for the American coinage, and another in the city of 
Bristol for the Irish coinage." 

On January 18th appears in the same journal the 
further information, which also occurs in the St. James's 
Journal on January 19th. " Wood began his coinage 
for Ireland on Monday last near the Seven Dials. In 
about a week's time he will begin to coin at Bristol 
pieces for America, which will be made of a beautiful 
compound metal." 

Though the Irish patent was surrendered in 1725, this 
does not appear to have been the case with that for the 
American issue, and confirmation of this may be found in 
the issue of a pattern piece dated 1733, which, though 
subsequent to Wood's decease, was in all probability the 
work of his successors to the privileges of the patent. 

William Wood only enjoyed his Irish pension for five 
years, as he died in London, August 2nd, 1730. He was 
married to Mary Molyneaux, of Witton Hall, Stafford- 
shire. 



56 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Wood and his successors were in all probability the 
minters of the various issues and patterns for the Isle of 
Man, 1723-1733 ; and though we have no documentary 
evidence to adduce in support of this theory, yet I think 
we are justified in holding this view, both on account of 
these pieces appearing at the same time as his other 
coinages and also on account of their very similar design 
and execution. 1 

Interesting among other details preserved to us is the 
fact that Wood was the first to manufacture iron with 
pit coal, which up to this period had been refined with 
wood ; and hence he appears to have been the pioneer in 
an industry whose far-reaching results have revolutionised 
the world's trade. It is not improbable that the steel 
impressions from the obverse die of the Kosa Americana 
twopence of 1733 were issued to show the excellence of 
the metal prepared by the use of coal. 

The selection by Wood of Bristol as his place of mint- 
age was no doubt owing to the fact that at this period, 
1723, that city was the centre of the English brass trade 
and was possessed of the largest copper smelting works in 
the kingdom. One may recognise as brass the " beautiful 
compound metal " mentioned by The London Post. 



CHAPTER II. 

COINAGE FOR IRELAND. 

WITHOUT giving at this point the patent for the Irish 
coinage, which will be found in brief in the previous 
section, we will proceed at once to the description and 

1 See Num. Chron., 1899, p. 35. 



THE COINAGE OF WILLIAM WOOD. 57 

discussion of the various patterns and coins issued by 
Wood for use in Ireland. The first coin I shall describe 
is that known as the " Kock halfpenny," bearing the 
legends GEOKGIVS D : G : KEX HIBEBNL3E 
1722 ; this title standing quite alone in the English and 
Irish series, either before or since this time. 

No. 1. HALFPENNY, DATED 1722. (Pattern.) 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right, the neck of 
which is disproportionately long. GEOKGIVS 
D : G : EEX 

Rev. Figure of Hihernia seated front, looking to right 
at a mass of rock, and holding in front of her 
a harp. HIBEENL3E ; in exergue J722. 

Wt. 120 grs. [PL L, 1.] 

It is very probable that the engraver of this coin was 
also that of the next one, as well as that of the pattern 
farthing and halfpenny of 1724, with the seated figure of 
Hibernia. I judge the next piece to appear was the 
pattern farthing of 1722, and after this the corresponding 
halfpenny, with Hibernia playing on the harp. 

No. 2. FARTHING, DATED 1722. (Pattern.) 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEOKGIUS - 
D : G : EEX 

Rev. Hibernia seated to left, holding a harp before her, 
on which she plays. - H1BEENIA - J722 . 

Wt. 60 grs. [PL L, 8.] 



No. 3. HALFPENNY, DATED 1722. (Pattern.) 

Obv. GEOEGIUS DEI - GEATIA EEX . Lau- 
reate head of George I to right. 



58 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Rev. Hibernia seated to left holding a harp before her, 
on which she plays. - HIBERNIA . J722 - 

Proofs occur in copper. 
Wt. 132 grs. [PI. L, 2.] 

The next coin was no doubt the design which appeared 
to give the greatest satisfaction, since, with the omission 
of the dot which appears first on the reverse, we find it 
repeated in 1723 and 1724. I regard this coin only as a 
pattern, both on account of its rarity and also from the 
occurrence of a dot before, as well as after, HIBERNIA, 
which exists in the other patterns of 1722, but on no 
subsequent issue except the pattern halfpenny of 1723. 

No. 4. HALFPENNY, DATED 1722. (Pattern.) 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEOEGIUS 
DEI GEATIA EEX . 

Eev. Hibernia seated with harp at her side, upon which 
she rests her left hand, whilst in her right she 
holds a palm-branch. HIBEENIA - J722 

Proofs occur in silver. 
Wt. 112 grs. [PI. L, 2.] 

Following this would appear an identical coin, but 
bearing the date 1723. 

No. 5. HALFPENNY, DATED 1723. (Pattern.) 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEOEGIUS 
DEI GEATIA . EEX 

Rev. : Seated figure of Hibernia leaning on a harp, 
holding a palm-branch in her right hand. 
HIBEENIA J723 

Proofs in copper and silver. 
Wt. 123 grs. [PL L, 2 6bv., 3 rev.] 



THE COINAGE OF WILLIAM WOOD. 59 

The next issue of the year 1723 was a farthing, having 
the same obverse as the pattern farthing of the year 
1722, with the contracted legend. 

No. 6. FARTHING, DATED 1723. (Pattern.) 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEORGIUS - 
D : G : KEX . 

Rev. Seated figure of Hibernia leaning on a harp, 
holding a palm-branch in her right hand. 
HIBEKNIA J723. 

Wt. 60 grs. [PI. L, 8 obv., 9 rev.] 

This would no doubt be succeeded by the usual type of 
farthing with the obverse legend in full, and then at the 
same time would be issued the corresponding halfpenny. 



No. 7. FARTHING, DATED 1723. 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEORGIUS 
DEI GRATIA . REX - 

Rev. Seated figure of Hibernia leaning on a harp, 
holding a palm-branch in her right hand. 
HIBERNIA J723 . 

Proofs in silver and copper. 
Wt. 64 grs. 



No. 8. HALFPENNY, DATED 1723. 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEORGIUS 
DEI GRATIA . REX . 

Rev. Seated figure of Hibernia leaning on a harp, 
holding a palm-branch in her right hand. 
HIBERNIA J723 - 

Wt. 114 grs. [PI. I., 2 6bv., 4 rev.] 



60 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 

Subsequent to this, the pattern with the star on the 
reverse would appear, but was apparently not accepted 
for currency, since we do not find this method of punc- 
tuation repeated. 

No. 9. HALFPENNY, DATED 1723. (Pattern.) 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEORGIUS 
DEI GEATIA . REX - 

jfet;. Seated figure of Hibernia leaning on a harp, 
holding a palm-branch in her right hand. 
. HIBERNIA & J723 - 

Wt. 109 grs. R. I. Academy. 

The ordinary issue for 1724, the last year of the 
coinage, is exactly the same as for the year 1723. 

No. 10. FARTHING, DATED 1724. 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEORGIUS 
DEI GRATIA . REX . 

Eev. Seated figure of Hibernia leaning on a harp, 
holding a palm-branch in her right hand. 
HIBERNIA - J724. 

Proofs in silver. 
Wt. 55 grs. [PI. L, 9.] 



No. 11. HALFPENNY, DATED 1724. 

Olv Laureate head of George I to right. GEORGIUS 
DEI GRATIA . REX 

Rev. Seated figure of Hibernia leaning on a harp, 
holding a palm-branch in her right hand. 
HIBERNIA J724 

Wt. 118 grs. [PI. I., 2 dbv., 4 rev.] 

Of the year 1724 we also find several patterns as 
follows : 



THE COINAGE OF WILLIAM WOOD. 61 

No. 12. FARTHING, DATED 1724. (Pattern.) 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEOEGIUS 
D : GEA KEX 

Rev. Seated figure of Hibernia to left, leaning on a 
harp, holding in her right hand a palm-branch ; 
the date in exergue. HIBEENIA . 1724 

Hoblyn Coll. A proof of this exists in silver. 

Wt. 79 grs. [PI. I., 10 obv., 11 rev.] 

No. 13. HALFPENNY, DATED 1724. (Pattern.) 

Obv. Fine laureate head of George I to right, with 
flowing hair curling beneath the prominent 
truncation of neck. GEOEGIUS - DEI 
GEATIA EEX . 

Rev. Seated figure of Hibernia to left leaning on a 
harp, holding in her right hand a palm-branch ; 
date in exergue HIBEENIA - 1724 

Proofs in copper and bell metal. 
Wt. 130 grs. [PL L, 6 obv., 5 rev.] 

Then would follow the next two pieces : 

No. 14. FARTHING, DATED 1724. (Pattern.) 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right, with flowing 
hair curling beneath the prominent truncation 
of the neck. GEOEGIUS - D : GEA . EEX 

Rev. Trident and sceptre crossed and united by a 
triple knot, around which is EEGIT UNITS 
* UTEOQUE 1724. 

Proofs in copper. 
Wt. 79 grs. B. M. [PL I., 10.] 

No. 15. HALFPENNY, DATED 1724. (Pattern.) 

Obv. Fine laureate head of George I to right, with 
flowing hair curling beneath the prominent 
truncation of the neck. GEOEGIUS DEI . 
GEATIA EEX - 



62 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Rev A. trident and sceptre joined by a knot, around 
which is EEG1T YNYS * VTEOQYE 
1724 * 

Proofe exist in copper. 
Wt. 135 grs. [PL L, 6.] 

It seems probable that the design of the last two coins 
described was copied from the following medalet of 
Charles I, struck in silver, the engraver of which was 
Nicolas Briot. 

No. 16. 

Obv. Shield of Britain, crowned, within the collar and 
badge of the Order of the Thistle all within 
the Garter. CAROLYS - D : G - ANG 
SCO FRAN ET HIB REX FIDEI 
DEF. 

Rev. Trident and sceptre crossed and united by a 
triple knot around which is REGIT* & 
YNYS * YTROQYE ; in exergue, 1628. 

Wt. 80 grs. [PL L, 12.] 



We find a mule composed of the reverses of the two 
pattern farthings of 1724. 

No. 17. FARTHING, DATED 1724. (Pattern.) 

Obv. Hibernia seated to left, leaning on a harp, 
holding in her right hand a palm-branch. 
HIBERNIA - ; in exergue, 1724. 

Rev. Trident and sceptre crossed and united by a 
triple knot, around which is REGIT * UNITS 
* UTROQUE 1724 

Montagu Coll. 
Wt. 76 grs. [PI. I., 10 rev., 11 rev.] 



THE COINAGE OF WILLIAM WOOD. 63 

No. 18. HALFPENNY? No DATE. (Pattern in Bath Metal.) 

Obv. Fine laureate head of George I to i ight, as on 
No. 14. GEOEGIUS DEI . GKA. 

Rev. Emblematic female figure seated to left, holding 
in her outstretched right hand a large orb; 
her left arm supports a spear and rests upon a 
shield which bears the rose and shamrock. 

Hoblyn and Caldecott Colls. 

Wt. 76 grs. [PI- I-, 7.]' 

Snelling, in his Supplement to Simon's Coinage of 
Ireland, p. 6, describes a halfpenny in which Hibernia 
points to a sun in the upper part of the field. 



CHAPTEK III. 

COINAGE FOB THE AMEKICAN COLONIES. 

" Omne tulit punctum qui miscuit utile dulci." 

Hor., Ars P., 343. 

THE patent for this coinage and also the letter to the 
Governor of New Hampshire, in reference to this series, 
have already been given. The obverse dies were in all 
probability engraved by the same artists as those for the 
Irish series, if indeed the dies of both are not identical. 
I shall now, as in the case of the Irish coinage, endeavour 
to describe the various pieces, as far as I am able, in the 
approximate order of their appearance. 

These coins are of three denominations, viz., twopenny 
pieces, pence, and halfpence, although in size they would 
correspond at this period, in England, to coins of but 
half these values. 

As in the previous section we traced a connection 
between the design of one of the Irish coins to a piece 



64 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

of Charles I, so now I think we may in like manner 
observe the prototype of the Eosa Americana issue. 

It appears to me that 1 we have, in the following pattern 
piece of silver of the reign of Elizabeth, the original from 
whence is derived the design for the American coinage. 

No. 1. PENNY, WITHOUT DATE. (Pattern.) 

Obv. A crowned rose within a circle, around which 
.-. KOSA - SINE - SPINA .-. 

Rev. A shield bearing the cross of St. George m.m. 
cross; around, PKO o LEGE o KEGE o 
ET o GEEGE. 

Wt. 26 grs. [PI. I., 13.] 

In the first issue for America we find the rose alone, in 
the second the rose and crown, whilst in the coin de- 
scribed under No. 19 we have the rose only and the 
legend KOSA : SINE : SPINA in full. In all pro- 
bability the first piece struck was a twopenny piece 
without date and without a label, and on account of its 
great rarity it may be a pattern. 

No. 2. TWOPENCE, WITHOUT DATE. (Pattern.) 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEOEGI VS 
D : G : MAG : BEI : FEA : ET : HIB : 
EEX. 

Rev. Large seeded rose, above which is EOSA 
AMEE10ANA . and beneath . UTILE 
DULCI 

Wt. 121 grs. [PL II., 1.] 

This coin was followed by a piece almost identical, but 
of rather better execution, in which the words UTILE 
DULCI are on a label. 



THE COINAGE OF WILLIAM WOOD. 65 

No. 3. TWOPENCE, WITHOUT DATE. 

Obv. Laureate bust of George I to right. GEOEGIVS 
D : G : MAG : BEI : ERA : ET - HIB : 
EEX. 

.Re,._Seeded rose, above which is EOSA - AMEEI- 
CANA, and beneath UTILE - DULCI on a 
label. 

Wt. 243 grs. [PI. II., 2 olv., 3 rev.] 

Then would be issued a penny bearing the date 1722 
which in the use of V in place of U, both on the obverse 
and reverse, appears to me to have been struck before 
the other pence of the same date. 

No. 4. PENNY, DATED 1722. 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEOEGIVS 
DEI GEATIA - EEX - 

Eev. Seeded rose, around which is EOSA AMEEI- 
CANA * VTILE - DVLCI . J722 

Wt. 115 grs. [PI. I., 2 obv.] 

[PL II., 5 rev.] 

Following the last piece, and exactly similar as regards 
the reverse, we find : 



No. 5. PENNY, DATED 1722. 

Obv. Laureate head of G eorge I to right. GEOEGIVS 
DEI . GEATIA - EEX - 

Eev. Seeded rose, around which is EOSA AMEEI- 
CANA * VTILE . DVLCI J722 * 

Wt. 116 grs. [PI. I., 2 obv.] 

[PI. II., 5 rev.] 

Together with a halfpenny, though the reverse reading 
is somewhat contracted. 

VOL. III., SERIES IV. F 



66 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

No. 6. HALFPENNY, DATED 1722. 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEOKGIUS 
DEI . GEATIA - EEX 

fi ev . Seeded rose, around which is EOSA AMEEI : 
YTILE DVLCI - J722. 

Wt. 64 grs. [PL IL, 7.] 

A very similar coin, a halfpenny, exists, with the 
legends of both obverse and reverse contracted. 

No. 7. HALFPENNY, DATED 1722. 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEOEGIUS 
D : G : EEX. 

.Ret;. Seeded rose, around which is EOSA AMEEI : 
UTILE DULCI - J722. 

Wt. 62 grs. [PI. IL, 6.] 



The succeeding five coins would probably appear in 
the order in which they are placed here. 

No. 8. TWOPENCE, DATED 1722. 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEOEGIUS 
D : G : MAG : BEI : TEA : ET : HIB : 
EEX - 

Rev. Seeded rose, above which is EOSA AMEEI- 
CANA . J722 ; and beneath UTILE 
DULCI on a label. 

Wt. 213 grs. [PI. IL, 3 obv., 2 rev.] 

No. 9. PENNY, DATED 1722. 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEOEGIUS 
DEI . GEATIA . EEX - 



THE COINAGE OF WILLIAM WOOD. 67 

Llev. Seeded rose, around which is ROSA AMERI- 
CANA UTILE - DULCI , J722 * 

Wt. 122 grs. [PL I., 2 060.] 

[PI. II., 4 rev.] 



No. 10. PENNY, DATED 1722. 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEORGIUS 
DEI GRATIA . REX. 

Rev. Seeded rose, around which is ROSA AMERI- 
CANA UTILE DULCI - J722 * 



Wt. 127 grs. 



[PI. I., 2 olv.] 
[PI. II., 4 rev.' 



No. 11. HALFPENNY, DATED 1722. 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEORGIUS * 
DEI . GRATIA . REX. 

Rev. Seeded rose, around which is ROSA AMERI- 
CANA UTILE . DULCI - J722 

Wt. 70 grs. [PL II., 9 dbv., 8 rev.] 



No. 12. PENNY, DATED 1722. 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEORGIUS 
DEI GRATIA . REX. 

Rev. Seeded rose, around which is ROSA AMERI- 
CANA UTILE DULCI - J722 . 

Wt. 125 grs. [PL I., 2 obo.] 

[PL II., 4 rev.] 



In the following year, 1723, it was evidently the 
intention to repeat the design of 1722, merely changing 
the date. Of this evidence is shown in the pattern 
halfpenny next described. 

F 2 



68 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

No. 13. HALFPENNY, DATED 1723. (Pattern.) 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEORGIUS 
DEI . GRATIA - BEX. 

R eVm Seeded rose, around which is ROSA AMERI- 
CANA UTILE . DULCI - J723 * 

Wt. 62 grs. [PL II., 9 obv., 8 ret?.] 

This issue was evidently abandoned in favour of the 
more handsome coins bearing the rose surmounted by a 
crown. The issue consists of pieces of three denomina- 
tions, viz., twopence, penny, and halfpenny. 

No. 14. TWOPENCE, DATED 1723. 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEORGIUS 
D : G : MAG : BRI : ERA : ET HIB . 
REX. 

Rev. Seeded rose beneath a crown, above which is 
ROSA AMERICANA J723; below on a 
label, UTILE . DULCI. 

Wt. 240 grs. 



No. 15. PENNY, DATED 1723. 

Obv. Head of George I to right. GEORGIUS - DEI - 
GRATIA REX. 

Rev. Seeded rose beneath a crown, above which is 
ROSA . AMERICANA J723; below on a 
label, UTILE . DULCI. 

Wt. 128 grs. 

No. 16. HALFPENNY, DATED 1723. 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEORGIUS 
DEI GRATIA . REX. 

Rev.- Seeded rose beneath a crown, above which is 
ROSA - AMERICANA . J723 ; below on a 
label, UTILE . DULCI. 

Wt. 66 grs. [PI. II., 9.] 



THE COINAGE OF WILLIAM WOOD. 69 

No. 17. TWOPENCE, DATED 1724. (Pattern.) 

Obv. Fine laureate bust of George I to right, with hair 
curling beneath the truncation. GEOEGIUS 
D : G - MA . B - FEA . ET . HIB - 
EEX - 

Rev. Seeded rose beneath a crown, above which is 
EOS A AMEEICANA . J724; below, on a 
label, UTILE - DULCI 

Wt. 200 grs. [PL II., 10.] 

Of this magnificent specimen of medallic art only three 
examples are known, the one from which this description 
is taken being in the collection of Mr. J. B. Caldecott. 

Of the year 1724 a penny exists very similar to that 
of 1723. 

No. 18. PENNY, DATED 1724. (Pattern.) 

Obv. Laureate head of George I to right. GEOEGIUS - 
DEI GEATIA . EEX. 

Rev. Seeded rose beneath a crown; above, EOSA - 
AMEEICANA : J724; beneath, on a label, 
UTILE DULCI - 

Wt. 120 grs. 

Probably after this was struck a coin which, notwith- 
standing the fact that it is undated, must be of the same 
year, since the obverse is the same as that of the Irish 
pattern halfpenny of the same date. 

No. 19. PENNY, UNDATED (1724? Pattern.) 

Obv. Fine laureate bust of George I to right, with 
flowing hair curling beneath the prominent 
truncation of the neck. GEOEGIUS DEI 
GEATIA EEX 



70 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



Rev. A leafy sprig, bearing three roses and two rose 
buds, springing from the ground. KOSA : 
SINE : SPINA- 

Wt. 120 grs. 





Of this coin only three specimens are known. 

William Wood died in 1730, as previously mentioned, 
and hence the coin described below was in all probability 
issued by his successors to the patent for the coinage of 
money for the American colonies. There remain to us 
only three examples of this coin. 



No. 20. TWOPENCE, DATED 1733. 



(Pattern.) 
GEORGIVS 



Obv. Laureate head of George II to left. 
II D - G KEX. 

Rev. A branch bearing a full-blown rose, a bud, and 
seven leaves, all beneath a crown ; above which 
is EOSA AMERICANA J733; and be- 
neath, on a label, UTILE - DULCI. 



Wt. 290 grs. B. M. 



[PL II., 11.] 



There exist some six examples of the obverse of this 
coin struck in steel, one being in the author's cabinet ; 
and on the reverse of another is engraved Hawkins, 
Janry. 1737. PHILIP NELSON. 



III. 

COINAGE OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 
(See Plate III.) 

In the arrangement of the various Indian coins, issued 
during the eighteenth and early part of the nineteenth 
centuries, great difficulties present themselves in 
distinguishing between 

(1.) The Moghul issues struck in the name of the 

Emperor. 

(2.) The local coinages of the Petty States which 
attained to semi-independence during the decay 
of the Moghul Empire; which coins frequently 
bear the name of the Emperor, Shah-'Alam, 
although struck after his death, and, 
(3.) The purely imitative issues of the East India 
Company, designedly struck to pass as though 
they formed part of the Moghul coinage. 
There can be little doubt that the system of classifica- 
tion adopted by Prof. Stanley Lane-Poole in his catalogue 
of the coins of the Moghul Emperors, in placing the 
purely imitative section of the East India Company's 
coinage in the same series with the Moghul issues, is the 
true arrangement, and one that must commend itself to 
all who are collectors of Mohammedan coins. In the 
case, however, of the arrangement of a collection of the 
various coinages issued under British rule and such 



72 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

collections are becoming more and more frequent now 
that an ever-increasing interest is manifested in all that 
belongs to the British Empire it becomes necessary 
to adopt some line of demarcation between the purely 
native issues of Indian princes, and such of the coinage 
as may be truly said to fall within the control of the 
East India Company. 

This paper claims to deal with this period of over- 
lapping, and to show the means of distinguishing between 
the East India Company's imitations, and the issues of 
the Moghuls and the Native Princes. For this reason 
no reference is made to the coins issued in India with 
European legends or devices, or to the Imperial currency 
instituted by the Company in 1835. 

The problem of determining when the native coinage 
ends and the Company's begins is still beset with 
difficulties, but the solution has been greatly facilitated 
by Prof. Stanley Lane-Poole's masterly summary of the 
History of the coinage of the Moghuls, which accompanies 
his catalogue of the coins published in 1892. Mr. Edgar 
Thurston has also issued a series of notes on the Kecords 
of the Calcutta and Madras Mints, which further help to 
clear up obscure points in the history of the coinage of 
the East India Company. 

Prof. Stanley Lane-Poole has pointed out that the 
coinage may be seen to fall within three periods : 

(1.) The period of Prohibition, when the Company had 
to send its bullion to be coined at the Moghul 
Mints. 

(2.) The period of Concession, when the Company 
obtained limited rights of coining : 

In Bengal, authorised and executed in 1758 (1171 

A.H.). 



COINAGE OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 73 

In Bombay, authorised in 1716 (1129 A.H.), executed 
in 1719 (1131 A.H.). 

In Madras, authorised in 1742 (1154 A.M.), executed 
about 1758 (1172 A.H.). 

(3.) The period of Administration, when the Company 
practically took over the administration and the 
charge of the Coinage of the Moghul Empire, 
1765 (1178 A.H.). 

All coins struck under the first of these three periods 
must clearly be classified under the Moghul issues. 

Under the second period the classification is simplified 
by the fact of there being only three mints to be considered. 

In Bengal Calcutta. The name of this place does 
not appear as a mint under the Moghul series; 
the first coin issued bears the Hijrah date 1171 
(1757 A.D.) the year the Company were authorised 
to establish a mint : all coins with the name of 
this mint must therefore belong to the Company. 

In Bombay. The earliest coins bearing the name 
Munbai appear to have been issued in the Hijrah 
year 1131 (1719 A.D.), the first year of the reign of 
Muhammad Shah ; all coins, therefore, giving the 
name of this mint can safely be attributed to 
the Company. 

In Madras. Authority was given both to the British 
at Madras and to the French at Pondicherry to 
copy the Arkat rupee. There is, however, little 
difficulty in distinguishing between the three 
issues ; coins of the city of Arkat itself have no 
distinguishing mark. The French coins were 
nearly all struck in the name of Shah-'Alam, with 
varying regnal years, and have a crescent as the 
mint mark. 



74 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

The British coins all bear the name of the 

Emperor 'Alamgir II., and the sixth year of his 

reign, with the addition of the " trisul " as a mint 

mark. All coins, therefore, giving the name of 

this mint, with the regnal year T and the mint 

mark Y, belong to the Company. 

Under the third period, which commences with the 

administration of the Company in Bengal 1765 (1178 

A.H.), when the rule of the Emperor Shah-'Alani was 

purely nominal, it is difficult to make any distinction 

between : 

(1.) The coins issued in his name by provincial 

governors. 
(2.) Those issued at mints under native control under 

the authority of the Company. 
(3.) Coins struck at the Company's own mints. 
The only method is to draw a hard-and-fast line at the 
date when the Company took over the administration of 
the district in which the mint was situated, and to 
attribute all coins after such date to the Company. 
Fortunately the difficulty is limited to coins issued in 
Bengal bearing the mint names Murshidabad and 
Benares ; and even with these mints it is possible to give 
some distinguishing characteristics, which enable a dis- 
tinction to be drawn between the Company's and the 
Moghul issues. 

This will be more fully explained under the sub- 
sections referring to these mints. 

In Bombay, the English, who had virtually owned the 
City of Surat since 1759, took the decided step of 
abolishing the authority of the native Nawab in 1800 
(1215 A.H.), the 43rd year of the nominal reign of Shah- 
'Alam. All coins of Surat bearing an earlier Hijrah 



\ 

COINAGE OP THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 75 

date than 1215, or a regnal date prior to 43, must be 
considered as forming part of the Moghul coinage. The 
Company's coins nearly all have the regnal date 46, the 
fabric arid style of the early coins being entirely native. 

In Madras, the coinage continued to be issued in 
native style until 1815, when a milled coinage, also 
bearing the mint name Arkat, was introduced. There 
are also a few silver coins bearing the mint name 
Masulipatan. 

To return to the Bengal coinage : 

Calcutta. The Calcutta mint records given by Mr. 
Edgar Thurston note the establishment of a mint at this 
place in 1758 (1171 A.H.). This date is confirmed by 
coin No. 1. With the exception of the few recorded 
coins of the first period, this mint appears to have been 
subsequently employed exclusively in striking coins for 
the province of Bengal, under the various mint names of 
Murshidabad, Benares, and Ferrukhabad ; and for Madras 
under the name of Arkat ; hence the name of Calcutta 
disappears after a few years from the Company's issues. 

Murshidabad. This place had been a Moghul mint for 
many years when in 1765 (1178 A.H.), in the fifth regnal 
year of Shah-'Alam, the British took over the administra- 
tion of the district, together with the right of coinage. 
There is little doubt but that the Nawab of Bengal 
continued to strike coins at his own mint at Murshidabad 
side by side with the Company's coins, which bore the 
same mint name, but were probably struck at Calcutta. 
The result is that for some years coins of native fabric 
appear side by side with others struck in a collar in 
European style, all bearing the mint name Murshidabad. 

In the native style it is impossible to say whether the 
coins were actually struck by the Nawab or by the 



76 NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 

Company, but, as the Province was then under the control 
of the East India Company, it seems reasonable to place 
all the coins with the mint Murshidabad after the 
Hijrah date 1177, or with a higher regnal year than six 
of the nominal reign of Shah-'Alam, under the British 
series. All with earlier dates would naturally fall to the 
Moghul issues. 

Fortunately there is a further distinction than that of 
date to be drawn between the late Moghul issues, and 
the continuation of the same series under the Company's 
rule ; it is in the fact that for the first/time the latter 
bear on the reverse the " cinquefoil ' a mint mark 
apparently instituted at Calcutta and adopted at Murshi- 
dabad when the Company took over the mint with the 
administration of the district. The presence, therefore, 
of this mint mark on a coin bearing the Murshidabad 
mint name, can be taken as evidence that the coin 
should be classed in the British series. 

Benares. Mr. Edgar Thurston, in his historical sketch 
of this mint, established in the reign of Muhammad Shah 
(1734), records that in 1776 (1191 A.H.), in the 17th 
year of Shah-'Alam, the mint was placed by the East 
India Company in the hands of Chait-Singh, who engaged 
to continue the die of the 17th regnal year to avoid 
confusion. "All rupees, therefore," the record states, 
" coined in the Benares mint, and current in the district, 
may be classed as Sanwat and Sikka, the former coined 
under the Moghul princes and the latter since the 17th 
year of the reign of Shah-'Alam, when the mint was 
ceded to the Company by the Vizier, and by them 
transferred to Chait-Singh." This clearly gives the date 
1776 (1191 A.H.) when the Company's issue may be 
said to commence, and shows that the long series bearing 



COINAGE OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 77 

the nominal regnal year 17, as well as the real regnal 
year, were issued under British control (See Nos. 101 to 
112). 

From the time the Company took over the adminis- 
tration of the district (1776) until 1811, when the 
new coinage with a milled edge was instituted, there 
were two distinct types of native style, bearing the mint 
name of Benares, struck concurrently ; the former begin 
the continuation of the existing issue of the Moghuls, at 
the time the mint was taken over, with mint marks, Flag 
and Fish, but having as a distinction the fixed regnal 
date 26 ; the latter being the issue with the nominal 
regnal date 17 before referred to, and having a four- 
petalled flower and an improved form of fish as the 
distinguishing mint marks. Hence it will be seen that 
it is comparatively easy to make a division between the 
Moghul and Company's coinage at this period, as 
follows : 

(1.) Moghul, Hijrah dates before 1191, varying regnal 

years. 

(2.) Company's issue, in continuation of this series 
Hijrah, dates after 1190, and always a fixed regnal 
year 26, Flag and Fish mint marks. 
(3.) Company's new type, having, in addition to 
Hijrah dates and regnal years, a fixed regnal 
date 17. Four-petalled flower and improved fish 
as mint marks. 

When the Company decided in 1811 to issue the new 
coinage with the milled edge, this last type was selected 
as the one to be copied, so that the new coin (European 
style) is an exact reproduction of the native style coin, 
even to the perpetuation of the double regnal years ^. 



78 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Ferrukhabad. This mint was also established in the 
reign of Muhammad Shah. The records published by 
Mr. Edgar Thurston show that the Company commenced 
to strike coins here in 1803 (1218), and that they adopted 
the 45th regnal year of the nominal reign of Shah-'Alam 
as the standard date for their coinage. Consequently 
all native style coins before the 45th regnal year should 
be classed amongst the Moghul issue. In 1805 a milled 
coinage was recommended, but does not appear to have 
been fully adopted until 1807. 

The subsequent issues of the East India Company can 
easily be distinguished from the Moghul coinages, as the 
Company adopted the European style of collar, ring, or 
milled edges. 

The Bengal coins continued to bear the mint names of 
Murshidabad, Ferrukhabad and Benares. 

The Bombay coins that of Surat. 

The Madras coins that of Arkat. 

J. M. C. JOHNSTON. 

N.B. In the following list coins marked B, followed by 
a number, are represented in the British Museum 
Catalogue of Coins of the Moghul Emperors. Coins 
marked M are represented in my own collection. 






COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 



CALCUTTA. 

(a) In the name of 'Alamgir II. 
Issue of Regnal years 4 and 5. A.H. 1171 (1759). 



1 




Rupee 
1171 


. [, , 


S^ 




1 1 < 1 








J U &*> 


&A$3^ ^ 


M 








[Pi. in.] 




2 


5) 


J Rupee 
1171 


Same: showing part only 
of the inscription. 


Same : showing part only 
of the inscription. 












Regnal year \ 




3 

4 


" 


| Rupee 
2 Annas 


J5 


[PL III.] 


M 
M 


5 





Anna 








M 








The distinguishing mark of this issue is on the 
obverse m.m. sun : on the reverse m.m. cinquefoil. 





(b) In the name of Shah-Alam. 
Issue of Regnal year 4. A.H. 1176 (1763). 



Rupee 
1176 



ItX^ ..J^ , v 
^ 



Same as No. 1, but regnal 
year f 

jj eoLu> 



X -uj 



1 1 < 1 



Mint marks as in previous issue. 



B67 



80 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



CALCUTTA (continued). 

(c) Copper. In the name of Shah- Alam. 
A.H. 1188 (1774). 



M 


4Pais 

-j i OO 


x\ ( ' < < ^ 


(J^O-^o 






lloo 


. 


&JUA> 1 1 








( * * r 


( *r*j^ 








j* 


i& 


B 150 




4Pais 


Same : but A A 




B152 




1188 










2Pais 


Same : but 1 1 A A 


Same: but JO \,J (?) 


B153 




1188 







MURSHIDABAD. 

In the name of Shah- Alam. 
(a) Native style : m.m. sun and cinquefoil. 



10 


A7 


Mohr 
1181 


) * '> 


CUUi- 


B1185 


>^ 


11 


M 


Rupee 
1179 


Regnal year 7 


^^x 


Same : but < 










J\j 


.J\P iL2i> Js^ . 

KXMl 


>UA> 












1 1 < ^ 














^ cl^^ Jj 




M 


12 





Rupee 
1180 


Regnal year 7 


Same : but II A 


Same. 


M 


13 





Rupee 


Regnal year 8 


Same. 


Same : but A 


B1188 



COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 



81 



MURSHIDABAD (continued). 



2 Annas 


Regnal year 9 


Part only of above ; 
no Hijrah date. 


Part only of 
above, with ^ 


B1196 


Rupee 
1184 


Regnal year 11 


Same as No. 11 ; 
but 1 1 A 


Same as No. 11; 
but 1 1 


B1189 


Rupee 
1186 


Regnal year 12 


Same: but MAI 


Same; but 1 r 


B1190 


| Rupee 


j> )> 


Same : part only 
visible; no Hijrah 
date. 


Same: part 
only visible. 


M 


Anna 


Regnal year 15 


Same : part only 
visible ; no Hijrah 
date. 


Same ; but 1 a 
part only 
visible. 


B1197 


Rupee 
1192 


Regnal year 19 


Same as No. 11; but 

IMP 


Same as No. 11; 

but 1 1 
[PI. III.] 


M 


Rupee 





Same ; but no Hijrah 
date. 


Same. 


B1193 


Rupee 





Same. 


Same. 
[PL III.] 


M 


| Rupee 


" " " 


Same; part only 
visible. 


Same; part 
only visible. 
[PL III.] 


M 


2 Annas 


5J J> 


> 


[PL III.] 


B 1198A 


Anna 


J> 


> 


Same; part 
only visible. 
[PL III.] 


B1198 


} Rupee 


Regnal year 25 


Same as No. ISA. 


Same as No. 18; 




Rupee 

00 

(I 


Regnal year 28 

European style 
Early issues 

) Struck in a col 




but PC 
Same : but P A 

stated. 
I rims. 


B1194 
B1195 


m.m. cinquefoil unless 
between 1765 and 1793. 

lar ; no milling; dottec 


JMohr 
1182 


Regnal year 10 


Same as No. 11 ; but 
date MAT 


Same as No. 11; 
but 1 . 


Bl 


VOL. III., SERIES IV. G 



82 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 
MURSHIDABAD (continued). 



26 


AT 


1182 


Regnal year 10 


Same as No. 11; but 
date MAT 


Same as No. 11; 

but 1 


27 


99 


1183 P 


99 99 >9 


MAT 


1 . 










V 


No cinquefoil. 


28 


99 


^ Mohr 
1183 


99 99 99 





99 99 


29 


M 


A Rupee 
1182 


99 99 99 


Obv. and rev. same 
as No. 25. 


[PL III.] 


30 


99 


J Rupee 
1182 


99 99 99 


Obv. and rev. same 
as No. 26. 




31 





2 Annas 
1182 


99 99 99 


Obv. and rev. same as 
No. 27; but 1 1 Ar 




32 





2 Annas 
1183 


99 99 99 


Obv. and rev. same 
as No. 27. 


[PL III.] 


33 





Anna 
1182 


99 99 J9 


Obv. and rev. same as 
No. 28; but 1 1 AI- 




34 





Anna 
1183 


99 99 99 


Obv. and rev. same 
as No. 28. 




35 


A7 


Mohr 
1184 


Regnal year 11 


Same as No. 25 ; but 
date 1 1 AH 1 


Same as No. 25; 
but 1 1 


36 


M 


Rupee 
1183 


99 99 


Same; but 1 1 AT 





37 


" 


Rupee 
1182 


99 99 >9 


Same; but I I At 6 


99 


38 


99 


J Rupee 
1184 


99 99 9> 


" 





39 





I Rupee 


99 99 >9 


Same; noHijrahdate. 


99 


40 





2 Annas 


J9 99 J9 


Same ; part only 
visible. 


Same ; part 
only visible. 


41 


99 


Anna 


>9 99 9) 


,, 





COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 



MURSHIDABAD (continued). 



42 


A/ 


Mohr 
1185 


Regnal year 12 


Same as No. 25; but 
date II AO 


Same as No. 25; 
but I r 


43 


& 


Kupee 
1185 


Regnal year 13 


" 


Same ; but 1 1** 
[PL III.] 


44 


AT 


Mohr 
1187 


Regnal year 15 


Same ; but 1 1 A < 


Same ; but 1 a 


45 


n 


Mohr 
1196 


Regnal year 19 


Same ; but Mil 


Same ; but 1 1 


46 


" 


Mohr 
1197 


5J 


Same ; but 1 M v 





47 





Mohr 
1198 





Same ; but IMA 


" 


47A 


n 


Mohr 
1199 


V 


Same ; but 1 M 1 


" 


48 





Mohr 
1201 





Same ; but 1 1 r , 





49 





JMohr 
1202 





Same ; but 1 r r 


> 


50 





JMohr 
1202 


> J> 


Same as No. 27 ; but 

t r .r 
No cinquefoil. 


Same as No. 27; 
but I 1 


51 





T V Mohr 
T 1202 








)> 


52 





fcMohr 
1203 


J> > 


Same ; but 1 r r 





53 


" 


^Mohr 
1203 





> 


" 


(II) Struck in a collar, with milled rims or milled edges. 


54 


M 


Kupee 
1198 


Regnal year 26 


Same as No. 25; but 

II 4 A 


Same as No. 25; 

lint I- 1 



Round the edge of this coin : 

UNITED * EAST * INDIA * COMPANY * 1784 * 

G 2 



84 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 
MURSHIDABAD (continued). 



55 M 2 Annas Regnal year 26 
1198 



IMA 



&JU*> V 1 



No cinquefoil. 
[PL III.] 



M 



Issue of the Old 19-Saw SiTekah, 1793-1818. 
Oblique milling ; m.m. cinquefoil.- 



56 


A7 


Mohr 
1202 


^JV 


sz 










^^JiiuHU 


1 * 










******* 


,u r 


B29 


57 


55 


Mohr 
1202 


55 


55 


B31 


58 


" 


iMohr 
1204 


'. 


1 1 










&SsjM> 

V 


-X 


B33 


59 


M 


Rupee 
1202 


Obverse and reverse same as No. 56. 


B35 


60 


55 


Rupee 
1202 


55 55 55 5> 55 55 55 

In this rupee the milling extends some distance 
over the edge on to the face of the coin. 


B36 


61 





Rupee 


Same as No. 59 : but without Hijrah date. 


B37 


62 


55 


Rupee 


" " 55 55 55 55 55 


B39 


63 


" 


| Rupee 
1204 


Same as No. 58. 

Nos. 61-63 formed the silver currency during the 
years 1793-1818. 


B41 



COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 



MUKSHIDABAD (continued). 

Issue of the New W-San Sikkah, 1818-1832. 
Straight milling, m.m. cinque/oil. 



64 


AT 


Mohr 


Same as No. 61. 


65 





JMohr 


Same as No. 62. 


66 





1 Mohr 


Same as No. 63. 


67 


& 


Rupee 


Same as No. 61. 


68 


)) 


i Kupee 


Same as No. 62. 


69 





5 Kupee 


Same as No. 63. 


70 





Rupee 


Like No. 67, but smaller flan ; may be distinguished 
by the coarser milling, and by a small five-pointed 
star below 4} \j on the obverse. 


71 


M 


Rupee 


Like No. 67, but smaller flan and a dotted rim 
round the edges. 


72 


? 


Rupee 


Like No. 68, but smaller flan and serrated rim, a 
small crescent on upper part of reverse. 


73 





| Rupee 


Like No. 69, but smaller flan and serrated rim, a 
small crescent on the obverse. 








Nos. 67-69 form the common issue for this period 
(1818-1832). 



Latest issue of the 19-San Sikkah, 1832-1835. 
Plain edge and serrated rim ; m.m. cinquefoil. 



74 





Rupee 


Same as No. 61. 




75 


n 


| Rupee 


Same as No. 62. 




76 





| Rupee 


Same as No. 63. 
The Rupee has a small five-pointed star on the 
obverse below &\) 








The Half-Rupee has a small crescent on the 
part of the reverse. 


upper 



86 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



77 M 



Rupee 



Kupee 



FARRUKHABAD. 

In the name of Shah-'Alam. 

Issue of the old 45-San Sikkah, 1803-1819. 

Oblique milling ; m.m. cinquefoil. 

Obverse same as No. 61. 



Reverse. 



A variety of the preceding, with a broader margin 
and with the oblique milling in the opposite direction. 

The half and quarter rupees of this issue, although 
authorized, do not appear to have been prepared. 



B50 



M 



Rupee 
| Rupee 
J Rupee 



Rupee 



Issue of the new 45-San Sikkah, 1819-1833. 
Straight milling ; m.m, cinquefoil. 

Same as No. 77 ; small A under &\ 



I r .t* 
aU 



below W 



Like No. 79, but differs in having a broader margin, 
in the absence of the A under j ; also having a 
small crescent on the reverse. 



B51 
M 



M 



M 



Rupee 



Latest issue of the 45-&m Sikkah, 1833-1835. 
Plain edge and plain rim; m.m. cinquefoil. 

Same as No. 77. 

Same as No. 77 ; small crescent on the reverse. 



B52 
B53 



COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 



FARRUKHABAD (continued). 



87 



85 


M 


| Rupee 


Same as No. 81 ; small crescent on the obverse. 


B54 


86 


n 


Rupee 


Like No. 77, but broader margin, and with a small 










crescent on the reverse. 


M 



BENARES. 

(a) Native style, with regnal year 26 ; m.m. flag and fish. 



87 


M 


Rupee 
1204 


Regnal 
year 26 


V 


^b^cX-^ 












^ j-i 


^u2^ 




88 




Rupee 
1207 


Regnal year 5 


/ "* ,. . 

Aj^jjJ ^^^ A Pii^ ^ 

J* 


L. 


Same 


M 

M 


56 


Same; but 1 r 


v 


88A 





Rupee 
1212 





1 M r 


" 


B57 


89 


A7 


Mohr 
1214 





1 M f 





B55 


89A 


M 


Rupee 
1214 





' " 


"* 





M 


90 





Rupee 
1215 





' 1MB 


" 


B58 


90A 





Rupee 
1215 





1 f 




i. 





M 


91 


" 


Rupee 
1216 





1 M 1 


[PL III.] 


M 


91A 





Rupee 
1219 





1 M ^ 


Same 


M 


92 





Rupee 
1221 





' 


T, 





B59 



88 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 
BENAEES (continued). 



93 

94 


M 


Eupee 
1222 
Eupee 
1226 


Eegnal year 26 

> 55 55 


Same ; but 1 f f r 
55 im 


Same. 


B60 
B61 


95 





Eupee 
1227 


55 55 55 


55 55 


55 


B62 


96 





Eupee 
1229 


55 55 55 


55 55 1 r 1 " 





B63 


97 


55 


Eupee 
1231 


55 55 55 


I rn 





B64 


97A 




Eupee 
1232 


5, 


55 55 1 I*!"!* 





M 


98 





1 Eupee 
1232 


55 55 J5 


" " "'-' 


55 


M 


99 





Eupee 
1233 


55 55 5) 


55 55 i f rr 


55 


B65 


100 


AT 


Mohr 
1235 


55 55 55 


1 fro 


55 


B56 


(b) Native style, with fixed regnal year 17 : m.m. four-petaled flower and fish. 


101 


JR 


Eupee 
1196 


Eegnal year J| 


Same as No. 87; Hij- 
rah date 1 1 ) 1 


Same as No. 87, 
but -~ 
[PI. III.] 


M 


102 





Eupee 
1203 


" " SO 


Same, but 1 r * r 


Same, but - 

r 


B1143 


103 


55 


| Eupee 
[1203] 


55 55 


Same, but no Hijrah 
date. 


,5 


B1144 


104 





Eupee 
1207 


M 


Same, but I f . < 


1 < 

1 ro 


B1145 


105 


A7 


Mohr 
1209 


, ,,** 


I r 1 


,5 ^< 


B1142 


105 A 


A 


Eupee 
1212 


.u 


& I r i r 


1 < 

" rl 


M 


106 





Eupee 
121 [3] 


H 


i r i [ 


i < 

" " C~| 


B1147 



COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 



89 



BENAEES (continued). 



107 


M 


Rupee 
1217 


Regnal year ! 


Same; but 1 r 1 v 


Same, but 


108 


" 


Kupee 
1222 


?> 5^ 


IP Pi* 


1 < 


109 


5J 


Rupee 
1224 


> j 


>> > 1 P P^* 





110 





Rupee 
1225 





- - lrro 





111 





| Rupee 
1225 











112 





Rupee 
1229 


>> ?? 


1 i 





(c) European style ; oblique milling ; m.m. as in last issue. 


113 


JR 


Rupee 
1229 


Regnal year H 


Same as No. 112. 




114 





Rupee 
1229 





Same, without dia- 
critical points. 


[PL III.] 


115 





5 Rupee 
1229 





i rr i 


KI-1 


- 








ftXui 


^ 












[PL III.] 








The fact of Nos. 114 and 115 being without dia- 
critical points would appear to show they are proofs. 
It is doubtful if the half and quarter Rupee were 
issued for circulation. 


(d) European style. Copper coins. 


116 


JE 


2Pais 
1221 


r^ ^> 








I r r i ( t j^^s ^j**.lx^ 


117 





1221 






90 



118 



M 



2 Pals 

1228 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 
BENAKES (continued). 



B182 



119 


M 


2 Pais 
1195 


120 





Pai 
1195 


121 


" 


Pai 
1195 


122 


" 


1195 


123 





1195 


124 


" 


Pai 


125 





2 Pais 



BENGAL PROVINCE (COPPER). 
In name of Shah-'Alam. No mint. 

Regnal year 22 



Regnal year 37 



I I 1 C JV> 
5 stars. 

2 stars only. 
5 stars. 



Same, without the 
trisul. 



2 stars. 



Nagari 
inscription. 



Nagari 
inscription. 



COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 



91 



BENGAL PROVINCE (COPPER) (continued). 



M 


Pai 


Regnal year 37 


Same as No. 124, 
without the trisul. 


&XwJ 












Nagari 
inscription. 


B170 





Pai 








Bengali 
inscription. 








- 


& 


Nagari 
inscription. 


J> 

B171 





Pai 








(milled rim). 


B174 





JPai 


" 


" 


Same ; but 

&XM L$\J .>.-* 


B175 





Pai 


Regnal year 45 


Same as No. 124; 
but F<5 




B176 




Pai 


Regnal year 45 


Same ; but with 
star instead of trisul 
on the obverse. 




B178 


5> 


Pai 





Same as No. 127; 
but Fc 




B180 



M J Rupee 
1131 



BOMBAY (MUNBAI). 

(a) In the name of the Shah (Muhammad). 
Native style ; m.m. L? on obverse. 

Regnal year 1 



I 1 ri 



B68 



92 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 
BOMBAY (MUNBAI) (continued). 



134 


M 


Eupee 


Eegnal year 3 


Same as No. 133; 
no Hijrah date. 


Same as 
No. 133; but 
regnal year r. 
[PI. III.] 


135 


,, 


| Eupee 


Eegnal year 9 





Same; but 1 


136 





\ Eupee 
1143 


Eegnal year 


Same; but 1 Fr 


Same; but l[ 



137 



138 



(b) In the name of Muhammad Sliah. Native style. 



Eupee 



Eupee 
1148 



Eegnal year 7 



Eegnal year 18 









Same ; but 1 1 F A 



Same as 
No. 133 ; but 
regnal year / 



Same; but 1 



(c) In the name of Shah-'Alam. 
(I) Native style, regnal year 9. 



139 




Mohr 


Eegnal year 9 


^jJlP HA[ 


Same as 
No. 133 ; but 
regnal year 1 


\\& SWitiw 










,Ux) c\X-ui 




140 


* 


| Eupee 

1188 





Same ; but 1 1 A A 





141 





Eupee 





Same; no Hijrah date. 






COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 



93 



142 



BOMBAY (MUNBAI) (continued). 

(II) Struck in a collar ; m.m. inverted crescent over \j. on obverse. 
Star on LJ** on reverse. 

Rupee* Regnal year 1 



&XM> 






The imperfection in the letters on these Kupees 
is very marked; the engraver must have been quite 
ignorant of t lie Persian characters. The issue appears 
to be a first attempt to strike coins for Bombay in 
European style. 



B79 



SURAT. 

In the name of Sliali- Alam.^ 
(a) Native style ; issue of 1802 ; m.m. crowned head and star. 



143 AT Panchia 
(5 Rupees) 



Only a small portion of inscription showing : 
Obv. , Rev. 



On reverse : 1 802 ; incuse on an oval label. B 81 



(b) Native style; issue of 1825 ; 46 san; m.m. crown and star. 
144 AT Mohr 



,Ux> 



B82 



* The records of the Calcutta mint, published by Mr. ^hurston, do not confirm the statement 
in Atkin's Coins of British Possessions, 1889, that these rupees were struck at Calcutta for 
Bombay in 1800. 

t The Rupee, attributed to Munbai-Surat in the Brit. Mus. Cat. (No. 80), is a native coin of 
Mysore, and does not therefore form part of the East India Company's series. 



94 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



145 
146 

147 
148 



Al 



Panchia 
(5 Eupees) 

Eupee 



Kupee 
Eupee 



SUE AT (continued). 
Same as No. 144. ; only partly legible. 

Same as No. 144, with, in addition on the reverse, 
1825, incuse on raised label. 

Same ; only partly legible. 



149 


Al 


Mohr 


150 


> 


Panchia 


151 


5> 


Eupee 


152 


yli 


Eupee 


153 





Eupee 


154 





| Eupee 


155 





2 Annas 


156 





Anna 



(c) Native style ; 46 San issues ; m.m. star. 
(I) With further m.m. '^ over 5 in centre of obverse. 

Same as No. 144. 



Same as No. 144 ; only partly legible. 



Same as No. 149. 



Same as No. 149 ; only partly legible. 



[PI. III.] 



[PL TIL] 



(II) With further m.m. ; instead of ^ 



157 


A7 


Mohr 


Same as No. 149. 


158 





Panchia 


150. 


159 


n 


Eupee 


151. 


160 


M 


Eupee 


,, ,, 152. 


161 





J Eupee 


153. 


162 


M 


J Eupee 


154. 


163 





2 Annas 


155. 


164 





Anna 


156. 



[PI. III.] 



[PI. III.] 



COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 



95 



SUEAT (continued}. 

(d) European style, 46 San issues, 1215 A.H. 
(I) Straight milling : line round rim : m.m. star. 



Mohr* 



Eupee* 



I r 




B96 



A7 



(II) PZcw'n e<7gre, serrated rim : m.m. dbv. }!{ rev. star. 



Mohr 

Eupee 

Eupee 

Eupee 



Same as No. 165. 
, 166. 



B98 

B99 

B100 



AEKAT (MADEAS). 

In the name of 'Alamgir II. 
(a) Native style ; regnal year 6 ; m.m. trisul 



Eupee 



Eupee 



(Portions only of the above 
appear.) 



[PL III.] 



B101 
M 



* Although there is a reference to * and i Mohrs and to i and i Rupees of this issue in 
Atkin's Coins of British Possessions, I doubt if such coins exist. The Calcutta mint records 
show that in 1821 the divisions of the Bombay Mohr (180 grs.) were the Panchia (60 grs.) and the 
gold Rupee (12 grs.). 



96 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



ARKAT (MADRAS) (continued). 



173 


M 


Rupee 


Same as No. 171. 




174 


?j 


2 Annas 


w 


Part only legible. 










[PL III.] 


175 





Anna 





Part only legible. 



(b) European style ; regnal year 6. 
(I) Madras issue of 1811 ; oblique milling ; m.m. trisul. 



176 


jj 


Double 
Rupee 


177 


jj 





178 


,, 


Rupee 


179 


jj 


Rupee 


180 


jj 


| Rupee 


181 


jj 


2 Annas 


182 





Anna 



I 1 vr 



&x^ 



Same ; but sj^^ (an error). 



These double Rupees are re-struck on Spanish 
dollars. 

Same as No. 176. 



1 I vr 



M W 

ftXu) 



M 

M 

B120 



(II) Calcutta issue of 1818 ; straight milling ; 
(2 Annas and Anna oblique) ; m.m. rose. 



183 
184 



Rupee 



Rupee 



Same as No. 178. 
179. 



B121 
B122 



COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 



97 



AKKAT (MADRAS) (continued). 



185 


M 


J Rupee 


Same as No. 180. 


B123 


186 





2 Annas 


M 181. 


B125 


187 


" 


Anna 


loZ. 


B126 


(III) Madras issue of 1833; plain edge iaith indented cord milling in the centre; 
m.m. trisul. 


188 
189 
190 


AT 




Mohr 
JMohr 
JMohr 


Same as No. 176. 


B109 
B110 


180. 


191 


JR 


Rupee 


176. 


B113 


192 





Rupee 


Hijrah date M v 1 


B115 


193 


> 


J Rupee 


5> 5> J> 


B117 


194 





J Rupee 


,, 180 


B119 


(c) Native style ; copper. 


195 


M 


2 Pais 

1200 


Regnal year 27 


^ 


r A 
t _j ^Q 












'!' 


\ \ 

L -}\\ \ 


B184 


196 


> 


2 Pais 

1208 


Regnal year 35 


Same ; but I r . A 


t>" V^^ 
(**> 














^^^ 

AJulf \^\ ' 














"^ 


B185 


197 


H 


2 Pais 

12[22] 


Regnal year 49 


Same ; but Hij- 
rah date only 
shows 1 f 


Same ; but I* 1 


B186 


198 





Pai 


JJ 99 


N 


M 


B187 



VOL. III., SERIES IV. 



98 



NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 



MASULIPATAN. 

In the name of 'Alamgir II. 
Struck in a collar; m.m. triaul* 



199 


M 


Double 


Regnal year 21 


JVP .jj^j\P 


^M>Vt 








Rupee 




L LILiiif 


A ; 








1194 




iUtib 1 


-J^^&J^i 












^J 


13 ' 












>^ 


c^iji 


B145 


200 




Rupee 





Same ; but 1 M < 


Same, without 








1197 






regnal year. 


B146 


201 


f| 


i Rupee 


>> 


Ml A 


|f 


BUT 






1198 











* The two Rupees, Nos. 148 and 149 of the Brit. Mus. Cat., attributed to this mint, are coins of 
Mysore struck in the name of Shah-'Alam by the Hindu Raja, with a crescent for a mint mark. 



The mint reads 



The coins do not form part of the East India Company's series. 



MISCELLANEA. 



ERRATA in Mr. Crump and Mr. Johnson's " Notes on 
* A Numismatic History of the Keign of Henry I.,' by W. J. 
Andrew" (Part iv., 1902). Page 372, line 22, to "the full- 
face types occur alternately " add " two full-face types being 
followed by one profile type " ; p. 374, line 2, for " 14 " read 
"18"; line 3, for "7" read "12"; and line 23, after 
" Eedvers," for " had " read " was long thought to have 
had " ; and p. 375, line 8, for "1130 " read " 1112." 



ROMAN COINS FOUND AT SOUTHWARK. The small hoard of 
coins here described was shown at the British Museum in 
April, 1902. It is said to have been found by a working 
engineer, during excavations for the "tube" railway at 
South wark, close to the river, 18 feet below the surface, on a 
bed of peat moss. The neighbourhood is, of course, well 
known for its Roman remains. Of coins of the first two 
centuries previously found in or near Borough High Street, 
Roach Smith mentions (Archaeologia xxix, pp. 148, 149) 
plated denarii of Tiberius, a large brass of Nero ("Decursio"), 
a second brass (" Pax Augusti "), denarii of Vespasian, a large 
brass of Faustina the Elder, and denarii of Severus. 



M. VIPSANIVS AGRIPPA. 

(B.C. 27-12.) 

[M AGRIPPA L ] F- COS- [III]. 
Head of Agrippa ]., wearing rostral crown. 

9- S C in field. Neptune standing L, dol- 
phin in r., 1. resting on trident, mantle 
over shoulders. 

M 23 mm. (Cohen, p. 175, No. 3.) 

H 



Number of 
Specimens. 



100 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



CLAYDIVS. 

(A.D. 41-54.) 

2. TI CL AVDI VS C AES AE AVG P * M TK 

P IMP Head of Claudius 1. bare. 
$. S C in field. Pallas r., hurling javelin 
with r., holding shield on 1. 

JE 28*5-26-0 mm. A.D. 41. 
The obverse legend of these coins is that given 
by Cohen (p. 257, No. 83) for the "large brass" 
coins of this type. The British Museum possesses 
three other " middle brass " coins with the same 
legend (29 '5-25 -5 m.m.). 



NERO. 

(A.D. 54-68.) 

3. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER 

P M . . . Head of Nero 1. bare. 

$. ARAPACIS in exergue; S C in field. 
Sacellum of the Ara Pacis. 

M2Q-5 mm. (Cohen, p. 280, No. 28.) 

4. IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-P'MAX-TR- 

P*P*P' Head of Nero r. laureate; below, 
small globe. 

9. SECVRI TAS-AVGVSTI around; S C 
Securitas seated r. ; before 



in exergue, 
her, altar. 

^E (bright yellow) 29 5 mm. 
p. 300, No. 324.) 



(Cohen, 



5. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER- 
MANIC VS. Head of Nero r. bare; below, 
small globe (?). 

$. PONTIF-MAX- TR-POT-IMP-P-P 

around ; S C in field. The Emperor r. as 
Apollo Citharoedus. 

^30-5 mm. (Cohen, p. 295, No. 247.) 



Number of 
Specimens. 



MISCELLANEA. 



101 



6. NERO -CLAVD- CAESAR -AVG-GER- P- 

M-TR-P-IMP-P-P- Head of Nero r. 
laureate ; below, small globe. 
$. VICTORIA AVGVSTI around; S C in 
field. Victory 1. with wreath in r., palm 
inl. 

M (bright yellow) 28-5 mm. (Cohen, 
p. 302, No. 340.) 

7. NERO CLAVD CAESAR- AVG-GER- P- 

M-TR-P-IMP-P-P- Head of Nero r. 
bare ; below, small globe. 

^. S C in field. Victory 1., holding shield 
inscribed SPQR. 

M 28 5 mm. (Cohen, p. 299, No. 292.) 

8. IMP-NE RO- CAESAR -AVG-P -MAX- TR- 

POT P P Head of Nero r. bare. 

$. Similar to No. 7. 
M 27-5 mm. 

9. IMP- NERO -CAESAR -AVG-P-M AX-TR 

P-P-P- Head of Nero r. bare; below, 
small globe. 

$. Similar to No. 7. 

M 30 mm. (Cohen, p. 299, No. 302 ) 

10. Legend as on No. 9. Head of Nero 1. bare ; 
below, small globe. 

R. Similar to No. 7. 

M 31-5-28-5 mm. (Cohen, p. 299, 
No. 303.) 



VESPASIAN. 
(A.D. 69-79.) 

11. IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG 
COS JTm. Head of Vespasian r. laureate 
below, small globe. 

R. AEQ VITAS AVGVSTI around; S C 

in field. Aequitas standing 1., holding 

balance in r., sceptre in 1. 

M 27 mm. A.D. 72 or 73. 



Dumber of 
pecimens. 



102 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

12. Similar to preceding, but apparently no 
globe. 

R. S C in field. Eagle displayed on globe. 
^E 27 -5 mm. A.D. 72 or 73. 

G. F. HILL. 



COINS FOUND ON THE PREMISES OF THE WORSHIPFUL COMPANY 
OF CARPENTERS. I have had an opportunity of inspecting a 
number of coins found on the premises of the Worshipful 
Company of Carpenters, the greater part of which were 
discovered during the excavation of their property at the 
corner of London Wall and Throgmorton Avenue preparatory 
to the rebuilding of the Company's Hall in or about the year 
1872. There is no record of the numbers of separate finds 
nor of the exact position in which they were discovered. 

There are altogether 68 coins, of which the greater part 
are Roman. 

It seems possible that the more modern portion of the 
collection was never actually buried. It comprises : 

A penny of George III., 1797. 

Three very worn halfpence of about the same date. 

A medalet. Justice and scales. 

Three 18th century tokens, viz. : 

A Coventry halfpenny, 1799. 

A Yarmouth halfpenny, 1790. 

A Dodd's halfpenny. 
A 15th century French jeton. 
A two-sou piece and two sous of Louis XVI. 
A 17th century Kuremburg counter. 
A half-cent U.S.A., 1800, and 
A one-pie sicca of the East India Company. 

The Roman pieces are mostly in poor condition and consist 
of: 

Denarii 7 

1st bronze . . . 7 

2nd bronze . . . .16 
3rd bronze . . . .10 
Byzantine bronze ... 9 
Undecipherable ... 4 

53 

They cover a period of no less than 1300 years and no 
doubt comprise several deposits. 



MISCELLANEA. 



103 



Twenty-seven Emperors and Empresses are represented as 
follows : 

Eoman Emperors. 
Name. Coins. 

1. Augustus .... 1 2nd Br. 

2. Germanicus 

3. Nero 

4. Vespasian . 

5. Domitian 



6. Hadrian . 

7. Antoninus Pius . 

8. Faustina Senior (his wife) . 

9. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus . 

10. Commodus . 

11. Septiniius Sever us 

12. Julia Domna 

13. Gordianns III. (Pius) . 

14. Marcia Otacilia Severa . 

15. Victorinus Senior 

16. Tetricus Junior . 

17. Carausius . 

18. Allectus 

19. Galerius Maxiiuianus 

20. Constantino II. 

" Constantinopolis " . . 



Byzantine Emperors. 

21. Justin II. and Sophia . 

22. Heraclius .... 

23. Constans II. ... 

24. Constantino V. . 

25. John I 

26. Emanuel I. (Comnenus) 

27. Andronicus II. (Paleologus) . 
Uncertain 



ist 
22nd 
2 2nd 
1 1st 

1 Denarius 

2 1st Br. 
2nd 

II Denarius 

1 1st Br. 

3 Denarii 

2 

1 1st Br. 

1 

2 3rd Br. 

^ j > 
> 
* > > 
1 2nd 
33rd 



40 



1 Br. Coin 



The collection contains several coins of special British 
interest. 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

One of the second bronze of Antoninus Pius is of the 
" Britannica Cos IIII." type. 

Of the seven Denarii five are of the reign of Septimius 
Severus who passed his latter years here, and both Carausius 
and Allectus are represented each by small bronze. 

One of the middle bronzes of Domitian is of the " Moneta 
August " type, and the reverse appears to be from the same 
die as a similar coin which was found near the Mansion 
House Station during the building of the Underground 
Eailway. 

Perhaps the most interesting portion of the find is the 
batch of nine Byzantine coins. They cover a period of more 
than seven hundred years, and are evidently a little collection 
made in the East and brought here by some traveller. One 
or two of them are somewhat rare. 

A great authority has suggested that they were the hoard 
of some English Crusader, but the late date of the last 
emperor represented, Andronicus II., 1282-1328, seems to 
me rather to negative this, for Edward I. brought the 
English crusading army home in 1272. 

It is no doubt possible that there may have been 
individual Englishmen engaged until the end of the last 
crusade in 1291, but as in the case of the crusades, as so 
often since, trade followed the flag, I prefer to believe that 
the hoard is that of some old London merchant. 

PERCY H. WEBB. 




i 



xcaiK. 

.X* sfcxi'vs 





12 



WOOD'S IRISH COINAGE. 



Chr0n> Set: IV. M. JIT ftjff. 






w *m^<> ^ 




COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 



IV. 

THE NUMEKAL LETTEKS ON IMPEKIAL 
COINS OF SYEIA. 

AMONG the minor unsolved problems of ancient numis- 
matics is that suggested by the appearance, during the 
second century A.D., of single letters, or pairs of letters, 
on the reverses of the coins issued by certain Syrian 
cities. For the most part, at least, they are numerals. 
What can they have signified ? Eckhel, in his Doctrina, 
discusses the question more than once, successfully com- 
bating the view that they were meant to indicate the 
regnal years of the various emperors. 1 The nearest 
approach he makes to any positive conclusion is the 
statement that they were "haud dubie notae monetari- 
orum" 2 a remark which he elsewhere qualifies by the 
cautious " nondum explorato, quod hactenus novimus, earum 
sensu." 3 Since these words were written, much fresh 
material has accumulated. There is, therefore, good 
reason for once more endeavouring to discover the 
explanation. 

The following list makes no pretence to completeness. 



1 D.N.V., iii., pp. 259 f. 

2 Ibid., p. 302. 

3 Ibid., p. 284. 

VOL. III., SERIES IV. 



106 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

It has been compiled merely from such sources as 
happened to lie ready to hand 4 : 

COMMAGENE. 

ANTIOCHIA AD EUPHKATEM 
M. Aurelius, A. 

DOLICHE 

M. Aurelius, A, B, A. 

M. Aurelius and L. Verus, A, B, l~, A. 

Commodus, A. 

GEBMANICIA CAESAREA 
M. Aurelius, A, A. 
L. Verus, A. 
Commodus, A, B. 

ZEUGMA 

Trajan, <5. 

Antoninus Pius, A, B, l~, A, s 6, 9, X, H, 9. 

M. Aurelius, A, B, l~, A. 

L. Verus, A, B, T, A. 

Commodus, B. 

Septimius Severus, B, I"". 

CYKRHESTICA. 

BEROEA 

Trajan, A, B, I", A, H. 
Antoninus Pius, A, B, F. 

CYRRHUS 

Trajan, A, B. 
Antoninus Pius, A, B. 
M. Aurelius, A, B, f, A. 
L. Verus, A. 
Commodus, A, B, P, A. 

4 Besides the trays of the Hunter Cabinet, I have consulted B.M.C. 
Galatia, etc., Mionnet's Description, Eckhel's Doctrina, Leake's Numism. 
Hellen., the official catalogue of the Turin Collection, and the Catalogm 
of Ramus. All the examples to be found in any of these are included, 
with the exception of three recorded under " Antioch," by Mionnet. 
These three are SI, I A, and l<5 (Mionnet, Suppl., viii., Nos. 104, 113, 
117), all of which rest on the very doubtful authority of Sestini. In the 
case of three of the coins described by Mionnet and of two described by 
Leake, I have been able to correct the reading by the aid of casts, which 
I owe to the courtesy of M. Babelon and Dr. James. The corrections are 
noted in their proper places. 

4 This is the correct reading of the coin described in Num. Hellen., 
p. 141, as having II. 



THE NUMERAL LETTERS ON SYRIAN COINS. 107 
CYRRHESTICA (continued). 

HlEROPOLIS 

Trajan, A, B, l~, A, , S, H. 
Antoninus Pius, A, B, l~, A, 6, ^, Z, H. 
M. Aurelras, A, r, , Z, H, 0, I, IA. 
L. Verus, A, B, T, A, Z, H, 0, I, IA. 
Commodus, A, B, A, H. 
Caracalla, A, B. 

CHALCIS- CHALCIDICE. 

Trajan, A, B, A. 

Hadrian, A, B, A. 

Antoninus Pius, A. 

M. Aurelius, A, B. 

L. Verus, A. 
AXTIOCH- SELEUCIS AND PIERIA. 

Domitian, A, . 

Nerva, A, B, T, A, , <3, H, 0, I ; K. 

Trajan, A, B, T, A, 6, S, Z, H, , 6 I, Al, Bl, IT; B 7 ; 
K, TA, X. 

Hadrian, A, B, T, , Z, H, 0, I ; AB, FA, 8 S- 

Antoninus Pius, A, B, l~, A, 6, <5, Z, H, 0, I, I A, IB. 

Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, A, B, H. 

M. Aurelius, A, B, A, 6, Z, 0, IA, Bl, H. 

L. Verus, A, , S, H, Al, Bl, H. 

Commodus, A, 0. 

Septimius Severus, A, A I, IB. 

Caracalla, B. 
EMISA 

Antoninus Pius, A, B, l~, A, , <5. 

Julia Domna, A. 
SELEUCIA PIEKIA 

Trajan, A, B, T, A, , S, Z, 0; A. 

Hadrian, T, A. 

Antoninus Pius, A, B, A, . 

A survey of the list will show that the custom of 
placing the letters upon the coins was introduced at 
Antioch under Domitian, and that it did not finally die 
out until the reign of Caracalla. In the cities which 
adopted it, it was practically universal from the time of 
Nerva until that of Commodus ; for it must be remem- 

6 This, and not C, is the reading of Mion. V., p. 197, No. 397. 

7 This, and not merely BA, is the reading of Mion. V., p. 197, No. 396. 

8 This, and not I A, is the reading of Mion. V., p. 198, No. 406. 

I 2 



108 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

bered that the omission of an emperor's name from the 
list is due not merely to the absence of letters, but to 
the absence of coins. As regards the letters themselves, 
it is plain that, with a very few exceptions (to be dis- 
cussed presently), they represent the ordinary series of 
Greek numerals. The essential point to notice is that 
in no instance do they go beyond 13. 

If we turn now to the reverses of the coins struck at 
Zeugma under Antoninus Pius, it will be found that the 
variations in type and inscription are such as will enable 
us quite readily to distinguish three (or possibly four 9 ) 
separate issues. 10 In the following brief description it is 
the points of difference that are emphasised : 

First Issue. ZGY TMA TGCON (from L, downwards). Tetra- 
style temple, with peribolos and colonnades, the whole 
protected in front by a panelled wall; the roof of 
the temple is flat ; numeral letter in field r. (A, B). 

Second Issue. Same inscr. Similar type ; the pediment of the temple 
rises high above the roof, and has upon its summit 
a crescent with horns upwards ; numeral letter in 
field 1. (A, B, T, 6, 5, Z, H, 0). 

(Coins of this second issue are frequently counter- 
marked on the obverse with a star.) 

Third Issue. XYrM AT6CON n (from L, upwards). Similar type; 
pediment shown ; no crescent ; numeral letter in 
field r. (A, B), or beneath (l~, A, 6, 5, X, H) ; 
the whole enclosed within a wreath. 

9 The variation in the position of the numeral letter in what is called 
below the "Third Issue" may indicate a difference of issue. As the 
evidence stands at present, I think not. 

10 The classification here indicated suggested itself when I was arranging 
the Hunterian coins of Zeugma. Subsequently, through the kindness of 
Mr. Wroth, M. Babelon, and Dr. K. Regling, I was able to test it by 
applying it to casts of all the relevant specimens in the Museums at 
London, Paris, and Berlin. In every instance where the details were 
decipherable, the coin fell naturally into its place. The chronological 
older of the issues is, of course, less certain. 

11 The form X is invariable in this issue, so far as my observations go, 
just as Z is invariable in the two earlier issues. The Z of B.M.C. 
Galatia, p. 124, No. 1, is a misprint. 



THE NUMERAL LETTERS ON SYRIAN COINS. 109 

It will be seen that each separate issue has its own 
cycle of numerals, beginning in every case with A. The 
next step ig to compare this result with the evidence 
supplied by the class of pieces for which the not very 
euphonious name of "pseudo-autonomous" has recently 
been proposed. Only two of the cities in question struck 
coins that will help us here. 12 These were Hieropolis 
and Antioch. The following are all the examples I have 
been able to collect. In the case of Hieropolis the dates 
are reckoned from the Seleucid Era, and in the case of 
Antioch, from the Caesarian Era. 

HlEKOPOLIS 

ZMY [447] A. 
ZNY [457] A, B, T. 
AOY [471] A, B. 
TOY [473] H. 

ANTIOCH 

OP [170] 1S A. 
ZOP [177] A, B, F, G. 

SP [190] 0. 
ASP [194] A, B, T, A. 

eqp [195] A, B, r, 14 A, e, z, H, e, i. 

ZC [207] A. 
BIG [212] Bl. 15 

A simple calculation will show that all these pieces 
fall within the period during which the numeral letters 
appear regularly on the imperial coins. Further, scanty 

12 The pseudo-autonomous coins of Seleucia Pieria occasionally bear 
letters, but they have no dates (B.M.C. Galatia, p. 272, No. 29 f.). 

13 The coin reported by Leake to have OP, with B in the field (Num. 
Hellen., p. 15), has really ZOP. 

14 Eckhel (V.N.V. iii., p. 283) cites from Pellerin a coin of the year El P 
with A or f. The types, however, are not found elsewhere with the date 
EIP, whereas they are characteristic of E^P. No doubt there is a mis- 
reading, particularly as the appearance of numeral letters so early as El P 
has no parallel. 

15 This, and not BA, is the proper reading of Combe,. Mus. Hunter, 
p. 30, No. 59. 



110 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

as the list is, it contains every year (within that period) 
during which the " pseudo-autonomous " money was 
issued at all. There can, therefore, be no doubt but 
that the letters on the two sets of coins are identical 
in purpose and significance. We learned from the first 
set that the highest numeral ever found was 13, and also 
that the numbers ran in cycles. We see now that the 
cycles correspond to years. It is obvious, then, that 
each numeral must indicate the month in the course of 
which the coin that bears it was struck. The thirteenth 
is, of course, the intercalary month, which persisted at 
Antioch (and presumably elsewhere in Syria) down to 
at least 221 A.D. 16 Parallels will suggest themselves 
readily. It seems odd that on the imperial coins there 
should be no mention of the year. Possibly the 
characteristics of the different issues were regarded as 
sufficiently distinctive. 

It only remains to deal with the exceptions, which are 
not numerous. We found at Antioch K (under Nerva), 
K, TA, X, BA" (under Trajan), and AB, FA, ^ (under 
Hadrian) ; at Seleucia Pieria A (under Trajan). It is 
plain that AB, TA, A, e<^ simply indicate a period covered 
by two successive months. In B/r the two months 
become three. The remainder (TA, K, K, X) can best 
be explained as the result of an attempt or attempts to 
introduce at Antioch the custom of placing on the coins, 
not the numbers of the months, but the names of the 
magistrates a custom that is occasionally found at those 
Syrian cities on whose money the numeral letters do not 
appear at all. Gabala and Laodicea ad Mare are cases in 
point. GEORGE MACDONALD. 

18 Sec linger in Iwan-Muller's Handbuch (Hilfs-DiszipUnen-, p. 770). 



y. 



A FIND 
OF SILVER COINS AT COLCHESTER 

(See Plate IV.) 

ON July 5th, 1902, whilst some workmen were exca- 
vating for foundations on premises partly occupied by the 
London and Counties Bank in High Street, Colchester, 
they found a flat leaden vessel containing a large 
number of silver coins. There appears to have been 
the usual scramble, and many specimens passed into 
private hands, but most of these seem to have been 
recovered by the local police. When the authorities at 
Colchester were informed of the find, steps were at once 
taken to secure as much of the hoard as possible. In 
the course of a few days an enquiry was held by the 
coroner of the district ; and the jury, having found that 
the coins were treasure-trove, they were handed over to 
the police and forwarded to H.M. Treasury, and thence to 
the British Museum for examination and classification. 

The hoard, which, as delivered at the British Museum, 
comprised in all 10,926 pieces, consisting mainly of 
English "short-cross" pennies, with a good number of 
contemporary Irish and Scottish coins, and some foreign 
deniers esterlins. There was not a single specimen of the 
English "long-cross" coinage. It is probably the 
largest find of mediaeval coins that has ever occurred 
in this country. The Chancton find of coins of Edward 
the Confessor and Harold II. numbered about 1,700 ; 
that of Beaworth, of coins of William I. and II., about 
6,500 ; that of Tealby, of coins of Henry II., about 
5,700 ; and that of Eccles, which cavers precisely the 



112 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



same period as the Colchester find, about 6,220. The 
Tutbury hoard of the time of Edward I. and II., found 
in 1831, was estimated at 200,000 pieces, but this 
number is no doubt excessive (Arch, xxiv., p. 148). 
A summary of the Colchester hoard is as follows : 



Henry I. (London) 


2 


Norwich 


55 


Stephen l 


1 


Oxford 


21 






Rochester 


9 


Short-cross Pennies 




St. Edmundsbury 


457 


Canterbury 


4,122 


Shrewsbury 


6 


Carlisle 


21 


Wilton 


8 


Chichester 


34 


Winchester 


247 


Durham 


21 


Worcester 


15 


Exeter 


48 


York 


153 


Ilchester (?) 


1 


Rhuddlan 


15 


Ipswich 


34 


Uncertain 


22 


Lenn or Lynn 


20 


Irish (John) 


160 


Lincoln 


100 


Scottish (William the 


Lion 


London 


5,096 


and Alexander II.) 


168 


Northampton 


67 


Foreign deniers esterlim 


23 



Total 10,926 

On comparing this hoard with that found at Eccles 
in 1864, which, as already mentioned, comprised about 
6,220 pieces, it will be seen that in the case of the more 
important mints their respective numbers stand at a 
little below two to one, thus : 





Eccles. 


Colchester. 


Canterbury 


2,278 


4,122 


Exeter 


19 


48 


Ipswich 


18 


34 


Lincoln 


58 


100 


London 


2,643 


5,096 


Oxford 


13 


21 


St. Edmundsbury 


212 


457 


Winchester 


142 


247 


York 


96 


153 



1 There was, I believe, another specimen of Stephen's coinage in the 
hoard, but it was not surrendered to the Treasury with other coins which 
were handed in by the holder. 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 113 

The less important mints show more variation, and in 
the case of the Irish coins the numbers are 104 to 160 ; 
in the Scottish series, 196 to 168 ; and foreign deniers, 
4 to 23. 

The two coins of Henry I. do not call for any special 
remark. Both pieces are described by Mr. Andrew in 
his account of the coinage of that king (see Num. Chron., 
1901); but as to the reading of the legend on the 
reverse of the coin of Stephen, I am still in some doubt 
as regards the moneyer and the mint. 

Turning to the " short-cross " coins, which formed the 
bulk of the hoard, the question which would naturally 
be uppermost in the mind of the English numismatist is 
whether the classification proposed by Sir John Evans so 
far back as 1865, and published in that year in the 
Numismatic Chronicle, 2 bears the test of this large hoard. 
The answer must at once be given in the affirmative, 
for the hoard not only completely confirms that classi- 
fication, and, with the exception of a few new moneyers' 
names, practically adds but little to what is already 
known of English numismatics during the period over 
which the short-cross series extended. But for the 
addition of these moneyers' names, the table of mints 
and moneyers published in 1865 remains unaltered. The 
hoard, too, has not added a single new mint, so we may 
conclude that all those in operation between 1186 and 
1248 are now known to us. As it will therefore not be 
necessary for me to repeat the arguments used by Sir 
John Evans, which led up to his classification of the 
short-cross coinage, I shall limit my remarks chiefly to 
an analysis of this particular hoard in respect of the 

2 See Num. Chron., 1865, p. 219 f. 



114 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

moneyers and the history of the mints. As, however, it 
is by no means improbable that some Members of the 
Society may not be able conveniently to consult the 
Chronicle of 1865, I shall make one exception, which 
is that I shall repeat that portion of Sir John Evans's 
paper which describes the variations of the portraits of 
the monarchs, always the obverse type, and on which 
the classification of the short-cross money is based. 

These variations are arranged in five distinct classes 
as follows : 



Class I. Large, well spread coins ; workmanship fine, 
see PI. iv. though in but slight relief ; head turned 
slightly to the left, usually two curls on 
the dexter and five on the sinister side ; five pearls to 
the crown. Occasionally the curls are more numerous 
viz., three to five on the dexter and six to eight on the 
sinister side, but the general appearance of the bust is 
preserved. Dots are found at intervals between the 
words of the legends, especially on the later coins, 
whilst on the earlier pieces the Koman E for Q, and C for 
a are sometimes met with. The letter A is scarcely ever 
barred, and the various forms are ft, TV, ft, R, Zf, the 
last very rarely. Throughout this and all the other 
classes the letter w is written w. 



Class II. Coins rather reduced in size and of flat 
seePi.iv. relief; workmanship coarse, very rude 

Nos. 5-10. , -i-i 

later on, ana again less coarse ; more tnan 
five pearls to the crown, and frequently a mere beaded 
irregular line. The bust has the appearance of being 
full-faced, and the number of curls varies from four or 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 115 

five on a side to a single curl, the number on either side 
being generally equal. The eyes are sometimes repre- 
sented by annulets and sometimes by pellets, and the 
beard by pellets or small crescents. Some of the later 
pieces (PL iv. Nos. 8-10) show an improvement in style 
and workmanship: the beard is slightly pointed, and 
the face is well marked in outline. They also have 
generally three curls on each side of the head. These 
coins appear to be intermediate between Class II. and 
Class III., and thus form a connecting link. The letter 
A is not barred, and its usual form is the simple fl. The 
.Roman E or C is not met with. 

Class III. Smaller coins of neat workmanship and in 
see PI. iv. good relief; a long face narrowing much 
to the chin, and the line of the bust 
clearly defined; beard pointed, formed of straight 
strokes and joining on to the curls, which are always 
two in number on either side of the head, each enclosing 
a pellet. The bust varies a little, the chin being repre- 
sented slightly broader, but the beard is always pointed 
and well defined. The letters of the legend on the 
reverse are sometimes linked in monogram, especially in 
the case of the London, Northampton, and Norwich 
coins. To this class belong the coins of London without 
a moneyer's name, and reading LONDON aiVlTsS, QIVITS 
or CHVIS. Stops occur frequently in the legends in this 
and the next class. 

Class IV. Bust similar to the last, but with more than 

see PI. iv. two curls on one or both sides, though as a 

rule not exceeding three. Sometimes the 

lower curl is extremely small. The beard is always 



116 NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 

pointed. The busts on some of the coins with three 
curls on one side show the transition into Class V. 

These two classes are properly varieties of one class, 
but, as we shall hope to show, mark separate issues. They 
also possess two marked peculiarities. 

(a.) Coins with the cross pommee mint-mark. These 
as a rule are of good relief and of much better workman- 
ship than other coins of these two classes. They usually 
present the peculiarity of the S reversed, and the word 
R8X is sometimes divided by the sceptre R8 X, instead 
of the usual R 8X. The coins of this variety are noted 
in the description of the hoard by a !. When coins 
with the ordinary cross pattee mint-mark occur of the 
same moneyer, a + is added in the table showing the 
sequence of the money ers (p. 139). 

(I.) Coins with ornamental letters. The letters to 
which ornamented terminations have been given are 
the C( and 9, the ends of which are frequently curled 
round and sometimes enclose pellets OB or es or occasion- 
ally flourished or. The letter A is always barred, s, and 
sometimes made ornamental, yt, but this form has only 
been met with in the name of HB8L of London and RRVF 
of St. Edmundsbury, the latter using sometimes ^ for T. 
The upright strokes of B's and D's and the transverse 
one of N's are sometimes made double, whilst the tails of 
the h's and R's are often prolonged and curved, and 
letters are joined, as W=VN; R=SR. 

Class V. Coins still somewhat smaller. Though having 
see PI. iv. a neat appearance, the workmanship is 

Nos. 17-20. . . ' , . , , . 

inferior to that of the two preceding 
classes, and the striking is done carelessly. The 
bust is placed lower down to the inner circle, and 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 117 

at first the neck and beard are shown, and the chin 
usually terminates in a pellet; later on the chin 
disappears, the beard and face broaden out, and very 
little of the former remains, the inner circle approaching 
nearly to the mouth. The curls are usually three on 
each side and formed of crescents enclosing pellets ; 
sometimes there are only two curls, and in the earlier 
pieces the lowest curl is very small, as in Class IV. 
Stops are interspersed in the legend on the reverse, 
not infrequently dividing the syllables, as IO hRN ON 
(XANTe(R; S LIS ON LVN DS ; hS LIS ON - LVN 
DS; TQR Rl ON - LVN - D - 3 

The coins of all live classes have the king's name 
" Henricus," though they were issued by Kichard I. and 
John, as well as by Henry II. and Henry III. The 
chronological sequence of the short-cross coinage is 
therefore based, not on the king's name, but on the 
variations of the king's portrait. This is the only 
instance in the English coinage of monarchs using 
throughout their coinage not their own name but that 
of a predecessor. Edward VI. at the beginning of his 
reign struck gold coins with his own portrait, but with 
the name of his father, Henry VIII. ; and Henry VIII. 
himself and Charles I. adopted their father's portrait. 

In describing such a large number of coins of the 
same issue, after giving the general type, the reverse 
legends only are set out, but the various spellings of the 
mint names under each moneyer have been carefully 
noted, with the number of specimens of each. Following 
the descriptions of the coins is a table of mints and 



3 These pellets or stops occur but rarely on Canterbury and other coins, 
so they have not been noticed in the descriptions; but being more fre- 
quent on the London coins they have been noted. 



118 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

moneyers, the latter being placed in their supposed 
chronological sequence. It is practically a reprint of 
the list given by Sir John Evans in 1865, with the new 
moneyers' names added. Moneyers not represented in 
the Colchester hoard are distinguished by a line below, 
and those which were hitherto unknown by an asterisk. 
Specimens with the cross pommee mint-mark are also 
noted. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF THE COINS. 

HENKY I. 

(Pennies.) 
LONDON. 

Obv. * hENRICVS RfEX]. Crowned bust facing. 
Rev. [*] PVLSfiR ON LVN[DE]. Cross fleury. Coins. 

Hks. Type iv. ; Andrew, Type xi. 1 

Obv. 3? hENRIC. Crowned bust, three-quarters to left ; sceptre 

in right hand. 
Rev. * B[7\LDEPINE ON] LVN. Cross fleury with pellet in 

each angle over square of slightly concave sides, and with 

fleur-de-lis at each angle. 

Hhs. no. 255 ; Andrew, Type xv. 1 



STEPHEN. 
(Penny.) 
OXFORD ? 

Obv. <%< STIEFNE. Crowned bust, slightly turned to left; 

sceptre in right hand. 
Rev. ^ Pfil_[TER O]N OXCE. 4 Short double cross within 

quatrefoil, having a fleur-de-lis inwards at each angle. 
Hies. no. 268. 

Carried forward 
4 This reading is somewhat uncertain. 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 119 

No. of 
Coins. 

Brought forward 3 

SHORT-CROSS COINAGE. 
(Pennies.) 

Type. 

Obv. Head of king, three-quarters to left or facing, crowned, 
with beard; in right hand, sceptre ; around, %* hSNRICVS 
RSX. 

Rev. Short-cross voided ; cross pommee in each angle ; around, 
names of money er and mint. 5 

CANTERBURY. 
Class L 
None. 



Class II. 

3RNAVD ON C(AN 6 (1) 1 
SOLDWIN9 ON a (21); C-A (15); QAN (7); without 

ON (2); no mint name (3) 48 

hVQ ON C(fi NT (2); C(ANTI (2) 4 

IOAN ON C(ANT(3); aANTSR (1); C-ANTR (4) 8 

lOhAN ON C(ffN (2) 2 

M6UNIR ON (XAN(42); CANT (14) 56 

R6UNALD ON C((l); C(A (17); C(AN (10) 28 

RSINAVD ON 0(5); aA(ll); OAN (7) 23 

ROBQRD ON aA(16); CAN (36); C(ANT (4) 56 

8AMV6(L ON (XA (2) 2 

SIMVN ON C(AN (2) 2 
VLARD ON CAN (17); aANT(29); aANTQ(2); QANTI(2); 

aANTR (4) 54 

Uncertain moneyers (6) 6 

Class III. 

ANDRQV ON C(A (1); QAN (1) 2 

ARNAVD ON 0(2); C(A(44); C(AN (2) 48 

^ ARNAVD ON C(A (1) 1 

OOLDWINQ ON (29); OA (14) 43 

Carried forward 387 

5 The name of the king and the moneyer's name is always preceded by 
a mint-mark, a cross patte'e or a cross pommee. In the list of moneyers the 
occurrence of the cross pomme'e only is noted. 

6 The word ON always occurs before the mint name, but is given in the 
list in the first instance only. Any exceptions are specially noted. 



120 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

CANTERBURY (continued). 

No. of 

Coins. 

Brought forward 387 

* aOLDWINQ ON a (2) 2 
haNRI ON aSN(l); aSNT(15); CfaNTS (28) 44 

! hSRNSVD ON 0(1) 1 

hIVN ON aSNTa (22) 22 

hV6( ON aSNTQ (39) 39 

* hV6( ON as NTS (1) 1 
IVN ON aSNT(l); aSNTaO (2) 3 
IOSN ON aSNTa(2) 2 
lOhSN ON as (2); aSN(33); aSNT(20); aSNT6( (19) 74 

* lOhSN ON aSN(6); aSNT (4) 10 
lOhSN . B ON as (10); OSN (2) 12 
lOhfiN M - ON as (29); CSN (5) 34 
RSVF ON aSN (1) 1 
ROB9RD ON as(32); aSN (26) 58 
ROBERT ON aSNT (3) 3 
ROB9T ON aSN (1) 1 
ROS3R ON aSN(l); aSNT(2); aSNT6( (12) 15 
SSL6(MVN ON as (4) 4 
SSMVaL ON as (15)5 aSN(37); aSNT (9) 61 

^ 3SMV8L ON as (1) 1 

SIMON ON aSN(6); OSNT (31) ; aSNTQ (2) 39 

* SIMON ON aSN (2) 2 
SIMVN ON aSNT(5); aSNTS (14) 19 
TOMSS ON aSNT(5) 5 
WSLTaR ON as (13); aSN(27); double struck (1) 41 
Uncertain moneyers (7) 7 

Class IV. 

SRNSVD ON OS (1) 1 

* SRNSVD ON OS (3) 3 
6OLDWIN3 ON a (2) 2 

* soLowma ON a(i) i 

hSNRI ON aSNT(5); aSNTS (13) 18 

hIVN ON aSNT6( (12) 12 

hV6( ON as NTS (2) 2 

IOSN ON aSNTa(4); aSNTS (6) 10 

lOhSN ON aSN(5); aSNT(4); aSNTQ (3) 12 

f lOhSN ON aSN (4) 4 

IVN ON aSNT6((l) 1 

ROB^RD ON as(l); aSN (2) 3 

^ ROBSRD ON aSN (2) 2 

ROSaR ON aSNT(5); aSNTGC (7) 12 

SSMVSL ON aSN(8); OSNT (12); aSNTQ (1) 21 

Carried forward 992 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 121 

CANTERBURY (continued). 

No. of 
Coins. 

Brought forward 992 

SAMVaL ON as (4) 4 

SIMON ON aSN (3) 3 

SIMVN ON aSN (1); aSNT (2); aSNTS (15) 18 

TOMSS ON aSNT(3); OSNTa (1) 4 

WALTER ON OS (2); aSN(10); aSNT (2) 14 

WSTSR ON OS N (3) 3 

Uncertain moneyers (2) 2 

Class V. 

hSNRI ON aSN(45); aSNT(252); aSNTS (113) 410 
IVN ON aSNT (1); aSNTS (15); aSNTQR (73); 

aSNT3RB(6); aSNT3RD(20) 115 
IOSN ON aSN(6); aSNT(40); aSNT6U237); OSNTSR 

(87); blundered (9) 379 

IOSN ahia ON a (12); as (103); aSN (31) 146 

IOSN ahlQ ON as (28); aSN (9) 37 

IOSN ahl ON aAN (3) 3 

IOSN F - R ON aSN (90); aSNT(36) 126 
lOhSN ON OS (1); aSN (5); aSNT (4); OAfT (2); 

OS NTS (4); double struck (1) 17 

NiahOLS ON as(l) 1 

NORMSN ON aSN (10) 10 

OSMVND ON OS (8); aSN(153); aSNT(49); blundered (1) 211 

osMVNoa ON as (17); asN (5) 22 

OSMVNT ON as (1); OSN (1) 2 
ROB6CRT ON a (5); as (10); aSN (26); aSNT (9); 

double struck (1) 51 

ROBaRT VI ON aSN (2) 2 

RO66(R ON as (I); aSN (82) : aSNT (206); aSNTa (21) 310 
ROSaR OF R ON a (112); OS (134); OSN (5); 

blundered (9) 260 

[R]O69R OF R ON as (1) 1 

SSL3MVN ON a (10); aA (o2) ; CSN (4) 66 
SSMVaL ON a (1); as (3); OSN (31); aSNT (22); 

aST (2) 59 

SIMON ON aSN(l); OS NT (20) 21 

SIMON aSNTSR(l) 1 
SIMVN ON aSN (1); OSNT (60); OSNTS (96); 

aSNTSR (4) 161 

TOMSS ON aSN(17): aSNT(231); OS NTS (102) 350 

WST3R ON aSN (11); OSNT (4) 15 

WILLSM ON OS (7); OSN (75); aSNT(52); aSNTQ (1) 135 

WILSM ON aSN(4); OS NT (4) 8 

Carried forward 3959 
VOL. IIL, SEKIES IV. K 



122 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 
CANTEEBUKY (continued). 



No. of 
Coins. 



Brought forward 3959 



WILLQM - TA - ON a (14); OR (127); CRN (1) 
WILOM - TA - ON OR (5) 
Uncertain money ers (19) 

CARLISLE. 

Class I. 
ON OfiR(l); OfiRD (7) 



142 

5 

19 



Class IT. 
fiLTXIN ON OfiR(3); OfiRD (3) 



TOMKS ON OSR (5) 
TOMKS ON OKR (2) 



Class III. 
Class IV. 



CHICHESTER. 
Class II. 

ON 01 (2); 010(1); 1 7 (1) 
6OLDWINO ON 01 (1) 
ROIN7WD ON 01 (1) 

Class III. 

PIOROS ON 010(2); 0100(5) 
R7WF ON 0100 (3); OIOOS (1) 
SIMON ON 0100(3); 01008(2) 
! SIMON ON 0100(1) 
WILLOLM ON 010(6) 
WILLOLM 010(1) 

Class IV. 

R7WF ON 0100 (2) 
! SIMON ON 0100(2) 

DURHAM. 

Class II. 
KLOIN ON DVN (1); DVRO (2) 



Carried forward 4183 



7 01 ? This coin, from its moneyer's name, evidently belongs to 
Chichester; hut another coin of Class II. reading hORNTWD ON I is 
usually attributed to Ilchester (see p. 123). 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 123 

DURHAM (continued'). 

No. of 
Coins. 

Brought forward 4183 
Class III. 

P6(Re(3 ON DVR6((1) 1 

PIQRe(S ON DVR(12j; DVR8 (2) 14 

Class IV. 
PI6(Re(S ON DVR(l); DVR3 (1) 2 

Class V. 
PiemSS ON DVR (1) 1 

EXETER. 

Class I. 
IORD7XN ON 9X8(1(2) 2 

OSBSR ON ecxaae;s(2) 2 

RTWL ON sxeuxeco); sxaass (i) 2 

ON QXe(a(7) 7 

ON 8X6(3(3) 3 

Class II. 

ON aaa(4) 4 

Class III. 
GILSBSRD ON 90(7) 7 

ON e;a(i) i 

ON aaa(i); e(cxae((7) s 

! ioh^N ON aaaec(i) i 

RIQARD ON ea(l); BWO (8) 9 

* Ria^RD ON aaaei(i) i 

Cfass IF. 

^ RiasRD ON eract(i) i 

ILCHESTER ? 

C/ass II. 
^ hSRNAVD ON I (I) 8 1 

IPSWICH. 

Class III. 

KLISSNDR ON 6(1) 1 

ON 6(16); 61(3) 19 

ON 61 PS (10) 10 

Class IV. 

KLISfiNDR ON 6(1) 1 

SLISSNDRQ ON 6 (2); 61 (1) 3 

Carried forward 4284 

8 See also coin of SVSRARD ON I given to Chichester. 

K 2 



124 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. of 
Coins. 



Brought forward 4284 



LENN OR LYNN. 



Class III. 

lOhAN ON LQN(2); LQNa(l); LQNN (1) 
NICHOLS ON LQN(l); LN (4) 
WILLQLM ON LQ(4); LQN (2) 

Class IV. 
lOhAN ON LQNN (3) 

WILLQLM ON LS (1) 

LINCOLN. 

Class I. 

QDMVND ON NiaO (3); NiaOL (1) 
6IRARD ON NiaOL (1) 
L61FWIN ON NiaO(6) 
WALTER ON NiaOL(l) 
WILLQLM ON NiaO(3) 
WILL D F ON NiaO(3) 

Class II. 

QDMVND ON NICX (2) 
RANDVL ON N : (1): Nl (2) 
WILLQLM ON Nia(l); NI(XO(3) NiaOL(l) 

Class III. 

ALAIN ON NiaOL(2) 
ANDRSV ON Nia(25); NICK) (4) 
ANDR6(V ON NiaO(l) 
hV ON NIC(OL(4); NiaOL6((24) 
RAVF ON NiaOL(3) 
RIQARD ON NI(XO(1) 
TOM AS ON NiaO(2); NiaOL(3) 



2 

29 
1 

28 
3 
1 
5 



! ALAIN ON NIC(O(2) 
* ANDRSON NiaO(l) 



Class IV. 



LONDON. 

Class I. 

AIM3R ON LVN(l); LVND(3); LVNDQ(l) 
ALAIN ON LVND(3); LVNDQ (4) 
ALAIN . V ON LVND(l) 



Carried forward 4417 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 125 

LONDON (continued). 

No. of 
Coins. 

Brought forward 4417 

Fit - filMSR ON LVN (5 one halfpenny) 5 

SIL6(Be(RT ON LVN (2) 2 

hQNRI ON LVN(l); LVND(l); LVNDS(2); LVNDI (1) 5 

ON LVND(4); LVNDQ(l) 5 

ON LVND(4); LVNDS(2); LVNDE (1) 7 

OSBSR ON LVND(14); LVNDS?(1) 15 

PI6(RQS ON LVND(6); LVNDS(l); L - - (2) 9 

PIQRSS M ON LVN (6); LVND (1) 7 

RfiNDVL ON LVND(l) 1 

R7WL ON LVN(l); LVND (9); LVND6((8); L (1) 19 

RGUNfiLD ON LVN (3) 3 

STIVSNS ON LVND(l) 1 

WILLQLM ON LVN (2); LVND (2) 4 

Class II. 

filMQR ON LVN (3); LVND (13); LVND6((2); LVNDE (1) 19 

D7WI ON LVND (22).' LVND6((1) 23 
FVLK9ON LVND(9); LVND or LVN D9 (1); LVNDQI(l); 

LVND6(I(1) 12 

IRQ or [FV]LK6( ON LVND (1) 1 

SSFRGU ON LVN (1); LVND (2) 3 

l8FReU ON LVND(l) 1 

SILQBQRT ON LVN (1) 1 

6OLDWIN6C ON L(l); LVN (1) 2 

hSIM ON LVN (1) 1 
hSNRI ON LVN (4); LVND (16); LVNDI (3); LVNI (1); 

L (1) 25 

hQNRI or hQNRia ON LVND (3) 3 

hSNRICX ON LV(1); LVN (10); LVND (5); L - - (1) 17 

ON LVN (1) 1 

ON LVND (3); LVNDQ(l) 4 

PISRSS ON LVN (4); LVND (22) 26 

pietRecs cn ON LVN (2) 2 

R7WL ON LVN (3); LVND (17); LVND8 (65); 

LVNDSN (1); L -(3) 89 

RAVF ON LVND (1) 1 

RSINfiLD ON LVND(l) 1 
RiaTXRD ON LV(1); LVN(37); LVND(48); LVNDE(2); 

LVNDQN(l); L (1) 90 

ON LV(17); LVN(41); LVND(13); LVNDI (1) 72 

ON L(3); LV (1) 4 

WfiLTQR ON LV(2); LVN (1) 3 

Carried forward 4901 



12(5 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

LONDON (continued). 

No. of 
Coins. 

Brought forward 4901 
WILLQLM ON LV(9); LVN (33); LVND (13); LVNDS(l); 

L -(7); LVDI (1) 64 

MVJ HV MJBJJIW(l) 1 

WILL6CM ON LVN (8); LVND (3); L - - (2) 13 

Uncertain (7) 7 

Class III. 

7* BSL ON LVN (3); LVND (72); LVN D6( (229); 

LVNDSN(8); L (9); LVDS (1) 322 
fiDfiM ON LVND (8)5 LVND3 (32); LVND3N (1); 

L - - (1) 42 

BQNSIT ON LVN (5); LVND (21) 26 

BetNGU ON LVND (2); L (1) 3 

FVLK9 ON LVND (7); LVNDS(2) 9 

! FVLKS ON LVND (4) 4 

* hSNRI ON LVND (3); LVND3(2) 5 

IL66CR ON LVN (30); LVND (112); LVNDQ (215); 

LVND6(N(2); L - (7J); LVNV(l); LVQ (1) 369 

IL<36(. R ON LVND8N (1) 1 

IL6SR ON LVND6((1) 1 

ILSSL ON LVNDS(l) 1 

lOhAN ON LVN(l); LVND (3) 4 
RAVF ON LVN (7); LVND (124); LVN D (1); 

LVND6((195); LVNDQN (6); L (4) 337 

R7WLF ON LVND (3); LVND6((16) 19 

R7WL ON LVND(l) 1 

[R]flOL ON L (1) 1 

ON LVN (7); LVND (27); LVNDQ(2) 36 

ON LVN (8) 8 

RICXftRD ON LV(1); LVN (3) ; LVND (1) 5 

B ON LV(17); LVN (10); L - - (1) 28 

T ON LV (2); LVN (4) 6 
WALTER ON L (1); LV (142); LVN or LW (122); 

LVND (3); LVND6((3); L - - (6) 277 

WRLT6(R ON LVN (1) ' 1 

RfiLTQR ON LVN (2) 2 

W^LVTSR ON LV(1) 1 

WATQR ON LVN (6); LVND (4); LVND9(1) 11 

WA ON LV(1); LVN (1) 2 

WLKTSR ON LV(5); LVN (6); LVND(l) 12 

WILLSLM ON LV(2 9 ); LVN (5); LVND(l); L (1) 9 

WILLSLM ON LV(2); LVN (1) 3 

Carried forward 6.132 
9 Oae of these may be WILLSLM B, L or T. 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 



127 



LONDON (continued). 



Brought forward 
WILLQLM ON LVN (1) 
WILLEM or WILLQN ON LVND(3) 

* WILLQM ON LVN (3) 

* WIL3M ON ON LV(1) 
WLLSN ON LVND(l) 

WILLQLM-B ON LV(32); LVN (14); L - -(1); V (1) 
WILLQLM-L ON LV(25); LVN (15); L (2) ; V (1) 
WILL9M-L ON LVN (1) 

WILLQLM-T ON L(l); LV (30); LV or LVN (2)1; LVN(8) 
Uncertain ON LV (1) ; LVN (3); LVND (3); LVNDS (8); 

L . - (3) 
LONDS C(IVITAS(1); aiVITS(2); aiVIS (1) 

Class IV. 

fiBetLorfiBSL ON LVND(l); LVNDQ(32); LVND6(N(1) 
KDKM ON LVND (2); LVN OS (1) 
RLfilN ON LVNDS(l) 
fiRNTWD ON LV(1) 
B9NSIT ON LVND(l) 
FVLKS ON LVND (1) 

* FVLK9 ON LVND(l) 
hQNRI ON LVND9(1) 

^ hQNRI ON LVNDQ(l) 

ILSSR ON LVND (7); LVNDQ(24) 

IOKAN ON LVND(l) 

PIRSS ON LVN DS (1) 

R7WF ON LVNDS(19)i L (1) 

RQNG(R ON LVN (2); LVND (1) 

* RICXfiRD ON LVN (2) 

ON LV(1) 

ON LVN (2) 
WILL9LM ON LVN (1) 
WILLSLM ON LV(1) 
WILLQM ON LVN (1) 
WILLSLM-B ON LV(2); LVN (1) 
WILLSLM-L ON L (2) 
WILLQLM-T ON LVN (1) 

Class V. 

HBSL ON LVN (2); LVND (20); LVND9(82); LVND9N(2); 
L (1) 

ON LVND (78); LVN -D (23); LVND6C 
LVN DEN (35); L -(19) 



No. of 

Coins. 

6532 

1 

3 

3 

1 

1 

48 

43 

1 

41 

18 
4 



3 



20 
3 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
3 
2 
1 



107 



535 
Carried forward 7452 



128 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

LONDON (continued). 

No. of 
Coins. 

Brought forward 7452 
QLIS ON LVND9 (91); LVN -061(2); LVNDQN (81); 

LVN-DQN (2); L - -(5) 181 

Q-LIS-ON LVN- D6( (1) 1 

hSLIS ON LVND(l); LVN D (4) ; LVND6((3) 8 

hfl-LIS ON LVN-D6(.(2) ' 2 
6IFFR6U ON LV(4); LVN (180); LVN D (101); LVND6((9); 

L (5) 299 

SIFFRieC ON LVN (7) 7 

SIFFRI ON LVNDS(6) 6 

SIFRQI ON LVN-D(2); LVNDS(l) 3 
IL66(R ON LVN (10); LVND (167); LVN - D (42); 

LVND6((113); LVN-D6((4); LVNDQN (7); L (5); 

LV-D6((1) 349 

ILSSSR ON LVND(l) 1 

ILSR ON LVND6((2) 2 

IL69 ON LVNDS(3) 3 

ISG(R ON LVND (2) 2 
LGCDVLF ON LV (4); LVN (170); LVND (170); 

LVNDG((10); L - - (5) ; LVD (6) 365 

LQDVFFS ON LV (2) 2 

LQDVF ON LVND (7); LVN D (7) 14 

LSDLVF ON LVN (2) 2 



NIChOLQ ON LVN (1) 1 

R7WF ON LVN(l); LVND(14); LVND6((58); L - . (2) 75 
R7WLF ON LVN (23); LVND (92); LVN D (11); 

LVNDS(25); L (7) 158 
RICKRD ON LV(5); LVN(228); LVND (93); LVND6((4); 

L (10); O LVND (2); LVO (15) 357 

RICttRD ON LVN (5) 5 
T6CRRI ON LVN (5); LVND (60); LVN-D(16); LVND9 

(20); L (2) 103 
T6(R.RI ON LVN (4); LVND (13); LVN D (11); 

LVN D6C (3) 31 

T6(RIRI ON LVN (3) 3 

T6CRI ON LVNDQ(l) 1 

WRLTSR ON LV(19); LVN (16) ! LVND (3); L . - (3) 41 

WLT^TSR ON LV(1); LVN (5); LVND (2) 8 

WflTetR ON LVN(l); LVND(l); LVND6{(1) 3 

Uncertain ON LVND (4); LVND6((4); LVNDSN (1) 9 

Classes and raoneyers uncertain (5) 5 

Carried forward 9500 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 129 

No. of 
Coins. 

Brought forward 9500 
NORTHAMPTON. 

Class I. 

F!L1P ON NORhT(l) 1 

10 6IF6(ReU ON NOhft (1) 1 

hVSO ON NORhT(2) 2 

R7WL ON NORh(3) 3 

"SIMVN ON NORh(2) 2 

12 WALTER ON NOR (6) 6 

Class II. 

RANDVL ON NO (2); NOR (3) 5 

ROBSRD ON NOR (1) 1 

WALTER ON NOR (2) 2 

Class III. 



ON NORh(13); NCRH (5) 18 

ROBSRD T ON N (2); NO (5); NCR (12) 19 

Class IV. 

SDfiM ON NORh(6) 6 

ROBSRD ON NCRh(l) 1 

NORWICH. 

Class I. 

RGUNALD ON NCR (8) 8 

Class II. 

R6UNALD ON. NOR (2) 2 

WILLQLM ON NO(1); NOR (1) 2 

Class III. 

IQFQReU ON NCR (1) 1 

SIFRQI ON NOR (5); NORW(l); NORY(l) 7 

lOhfiN ON NOR (7); NCR (1) 8 

! lOhfiN ON NORW(2) 2 

^ R6(NKLD ON NOR (1) 1 

R8N7WD ON NO (2); NOR (5); NCR (8) 15 

Carried forward 9613 



10 Although the name of Gifrei occurs in Classes II., III., and IV. 
on coins of Norwich, this coin is given to Northampton as the letter A in 
the mint-name is very distinct. 

11 These coins are certainly of Class I. 

12 One specimen reads hQNRICVS on obv. 



No. of 
Coins. 



130 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

NOKWICH (continued). 

Brought forward 9613 
.Class IV. 

SIFRGU ON NORY(3) 

lOhRN ON NOR(l); NORY (4) 5 

RGtNfiVD ON NCR(l) 1 

OXFOKD. 
Class I. 

7\SKerni_ ON OXSN (i) 

ISFRSI ON oxe(Ne((i) 1 

oweuN ON OXSN (i) 1 

RiafiRD ON 0X9(1): OXSN (3) 1 

13 RODB6(RT ON OX8N (1) 1 

"RODBSRT ON COCO?(1) 1 

Class III. 15 

SILWINQ ON Oa(3); OCXS (2) 5 

hSNRI ON OaSG((2) 2 

MILSS ON OaSS(5) 5 

ROCHESTER. 

Class III. 

fiLISRN ON ROV(l) 1 

SLISfiNDR ON RO(1) 1 

KLISSNDRQ ON R (2) 2 

hVNFQRSI ON R (1) 1 

hVNFReU ON RO(2) 2 

Class IV. 

KNDR6(V ON R (1) 1 

Class V. 

16 KNDR6(V ON R (1) 1 

ST. EDMUNDSBURY. 

Class III. 

FOLKS ON S - fiDM (4) 4 

FVLK3 ON S fiD (1); S - - ADM (4); S 3DM (4) 9 

Carried forward 9665 

13 This coin is of very good style, and therefore should be placed early 
in the series. 

14 Probably a blunder for OXO. 

15 Classes IV. and V. not represented. 

16 This coin is of coarse work, and the portrait shows no crown, but a 
rich mass of hair and beard. 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 131 

ST. EDMUNDSBURY (continued). 

No. of 
Coins. 

Brought forward 9665 

FVKS ON S QDMV(l) 1 
RAVF ON SANTA(2); 17 S ANTAD (7) ; S A NTS (2); 

S ANT3A (1) 12 

RA.VF ON SA.N2/AD (3) 3 

Class IV. 

FVLKS ON S ADMV(2); S QDM (3) 5 
RAVF ON SANTA (1); S ANTAD (10); 18 S ANTS (3); 

S ANT9A (6) 20 

RA,VF ON S - AJMTAD (1) 1 

Class V. 

NORMAN ON SAN (63); SANT(30) 03 
SIMVND ON SAN (25); SANT (225); SANTQ (26); 

SAT (2) 278 

SIMVNDGl ON SANT(4) 4 

WILL0LM ON SAN(l); SANT(23) 24 

Uncertain moneyers (3) 3 



IV6( ON SALOP (6) 



SHREWSBURY. 
Class II. 



WILTON. 
Class I. 

OSB-QR ON WILT (3); WILTV(3) 6 

RODBQRT ON WILT (2) 2 

WINCHESTER. 
Class I. 

ADAM ON WINQ(15); WINaS(4) 19 

or LLSMSNT ON WIN (5) 5 

ON WIN (3); WIN(X(15) 18 

19 hENRI ON WINa(2) 2 

Carried forward 10167 

17 In one case the A in the name of the moneyer is formed A,. 

18 Similar in two cases, similar A's. 

19 This was probably an early moneyer, as the letter E is square on obv. 
and rev. He is not mentioned in Sir John Evans's list. 



132 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

WINCHESTER (continued). 

No. of 
Coins. 

Brought forward 10167 

OSBSR ON WIN(X(3); WINCES (3) 6 

OSBGtRN ON WINC((5) 5 

R7WF ON WINa(l) 1 

RGCINISR ON WIN(X(3) 8 

RODB9RT ON WIN (4) 4 

WILLSLM ON WIN(l); WINI (1) 2 

WILLQM ON WINQ(l) 1 

Class II. 

SOaSLM ON WIN (5); ON WINC((8) 8 

20 h6(NRI ON WIN (1) 1 
WILLQLM ON Wl(l); WIN (2); WINCX (1); WN (1); 

WNN(2) 7 

Class III. 

TSDflM ON WIN (9); WING (8); WINaS(l) 18 

! T^DSM ON WINQ(l) 1 

SNDR9 ON WIN (2) 2 

flNDRSV ON Wl(8): WIN (8); WINC((4) 20 

B^RTaLQMeC ON W (8) 8 

hQNRI ON WIN(l) 1 

4- hQNRI ON WIN (1) 1 

lOhKN ON WIN (6); WINC((18) 24 

LVKAS ON WIN (10); WINC((10) 20 

MILQS ON WINa(ll); WINC(e((7) 18 

MLQS ON wmae((2) 2 

R7WF ON WINa(15); WINaS(4) 19 

RICCKRD ON WIN (10); WN (3) 13 

Without moneyer's name, i.e. double struck (1) 1 

Class TV. 

fiDKM ON WIN (6); WINC((2) 8 

* KDKM ON WIN (1) 1 

KNDR61V ON WIN (1) 1 

hetNRi ON wmae((i) i 

LVKfiS ON WINC((1) 1 

Ml LetS ON WINO((3) 3 

RAVF ON WINa(l) 1 

ON WIN (1) 1 

Carried forward 10370 



.This coin has old English 6('s. 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 



133 



No. of 

Coins. 



Brought forward 10370 



WORCESTER. 
Class I. 

6OWIN6C ON WIR(9); WIRI (4) 
OSBSR ON WIRIO((2) 

YORK. 

Class I. 

SFRfiRD ON aVQR (13) 
<36(RfiRD ON 9V6(R(9) 
hVSO ON aV6(RW(7); 3VSRWI (2) 

isfict ON avetRwi (2) 

TVRKIL ON aVR(7); gVRW (1) 
WILLSLM ON aVQR (3) 

CZass JL 
D7WI ON QVe(RV(2); 8V6(RW (1) 

ON QV(6); QVQ (2) ; QVaR(2); 3VR (1) 
ON QV9RWI (4); QVaRWia(l) 

ON SV(1); QV6((2); QVQR (3) ; QVR (2) 
R7WL8 ON 6(Va (2) 
TVRKIL ON eCVSR (23) 

Class III. 
D7WI ON SVQR (8) 

* DKVI ON 6(Ve(RW (2) 

NiaOLS ON aVQ(7); ON QV0R (6) 
4- NiaOLS ON QVQR (1) 
RSN7WD ON 9V (6) 
TOMfiS ON QVQR (3); QVR (7) 

Class IV. 

* D7WI ON aVQRW (1) 

ON eV6(R (1) 

ON ecvet(i) 
ON ecve(RY (4) 

RSNflVD ON QV9(1) 

TOMAS ON QVflR (3); aVQRY (3) 

WILAM ON QV9R(2); QVR (1J 

RHUDDLAN. 21 

CZa8 II. 

hfiLLI ON RVLT^ retrograde (1) ; 
ON RVL7X (1) 



13 

2 



13 
9 
9 

2 

8 
3 

3 

11 

5 

8 

2 

23 

8 
2 

13 
1 
6 

10 



Carried forward 10540 



21 All the coins of this mint are of very rude work. 



134 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

KHUDDLAN (continued). 

No. of 
Coins. 

Brought forward 10540 
SIMOND ON RVLfi (2) 2 

* SIMOND ON RVLfi (3) 3 

* TOM7XS ON RVLfi (1) 1 

Class III. 

hSNRICXVS ON RVLfi (2) 2 

* SIMOD ON RVLR retrograde (1) I 

* SIMOND ON RVLA 22 (4) 4 

UNCERTAIN : Class II. (2) ; Class III. (3) ; Class V. (13) (one 
reading lOhRN L ON ....); a l so fragments (4) of 
thin platings (?) of obv. and rev. 22 



IRISH. 

(Pennies.) 
Type. 

Obv. Bust of king, facing, crowned, within a triangle; in r. 

hand, sceptre ; on r. quatrefoil ; arranged outside the triangle, 

lOhflNNSS R6(X. 
Rev. Within a triangle, a flaming star above a crescent ; in each 

angle a small star, and at each point a cross ; stars also at 

sides of triangle, arranged outside which is the name of the 

inoneyer and that of the mint. 

JOHN. 

DUBLIN. 

ROB9RD ON DIVQ (142) 142 

WILL61LM ON Dl (2) 2 

WILLQM ON Dl(4); DIVS (3) 7 

LIMERICK. 
WILL8M ON LI (2); LIM6((7) 9 

Carried forward 10735 
22 The older form of A is here used. 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 135 

No. of 
Coins. 

Brought forward 10735 

SCOTTISH. 

(Pennies.) 

WILLIAM THE LION. 
Class II. 



Obv. Head of king to left, crowned ; before, sceptre ; around 

* WILSLMVS R6(X. 
Rev. Short double cross voided, star in each angle; around, 

names of moneyers, or moneyers and mint. 

With mint-name. 
PERTH. 

WATSR ON pe(RT(2); perr(2) 4 

KOXBURGH. 

AimetR - ADAM ON ROK(l) 1 

RAVL ON ROCX(2); ROaQ (4) 

PSRIS ADAM DQ ROa (1); DQ ROai (1) 2 

pemecs ADA ON ROKe(e((3) 3 

PQRIS ADAM ON ROQ (1) 1 

Without mint-name. 

hV WALTQR (67); name retrograde (10) 77 

hVQ WALTQR O (19) 19 

WALTaRQ (1) 1 

WALTER - ADAM (6) 6 

WALTER 6( - h (2); 9 hV (2); 3 hVSR (1) 5 

hSNRI LS RVS(9); retrograde (1) 10 

hflNRI RWS(l) 1 

hSNRIC L9 RV(2) 2 

Uncertain (2) 2 

Cto /I., Far. a. 
Similar ; but head of king to right ; before, sceptre. 

With mint-name. 

KOXBUKGH. 

ADAiTl ON ROK6((5) 5 

AIMSR - ADAM ON RO (2) 2 

PSRIS ADAHl ON RO (6) 6 

PQRIS ADAM ON RO9 (1) 1 

RAVL ON ROK6(BV(1) 1 

Carried forward 10890 



No. of 
Coins. 



136 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

SCOTTISH (continued). 

Brought forward 10890 
ALEXANDER II. 

Type. 

Obv. Head of king to left, sometimes crowned ; before, sceptre ; 

around, * fiLetXfiNDSR RQX. 
Eev. Short double cross voided; star in each angle; around, 

names of moneyers or moneyers and mint. 

With mint-name. 
ROXBURGH. 

* PQRIS flDTUn D6t ROai (2) 2 
fr P3RIS KDKM. ON R (2) 2 

* PISRSS ON ROa (9) 9 



FOREIGN. 

(Deniers.) 
ARENSBERG (Gottfried II., Count, A.D. 1156-1235). 

Obv. * SODQVORDI. Eagle, with spread win;8. 

Eev. ! RRN6(SBe(R(3. Short double cross; cross pomme'e 

in each angle. (Chautard, 23 PI. xxv. 10.) 1 

CORVEY, Abbey of, xiiith cent. 

Obv. * SCS VITV.S mON . Head, facing, of St. Vitus. 
Eev. >%* SCS DSPHRNVS. Short double cross; cross 

pomme'e in each angle. (Chautard, PL xxvii. 1.) 1 

Similar, but legend on rev. SCS DQRHAVSD 1 

COLOGNE (Abp. Philip I., A.D. 1167-1191). 

Obv. * PHILIP TtRCHISPC. The archbishop seated, facing, 

holding crozier and book. 
Eev. * SfiNCTfi COLON Ifi. View of the City of Cologne. 

(Cappe, 24 PI. ix. 147.) 1 

COLOGNE (Abp. Adolphus I., A.D. 1193-1205). 

Obv. * 7XDOLPVS fiRCHIQPC. The archbishop, seated, 

facing, holding book and crozier. 
Eev. * SfiNCTfi COLON Ifi. View of the Cathedral of 

Cologne, with flag on either side. (Cappe, PI. x. fig. 152.) 1 



Carried forward 10908 



23 Imitations des Monnaies au Type Esterlin. 

24 Beschreibung der colnischen Mtinzen des Mittelalters. 



No. of 
Coins. 



THE COLCHESTEK FIND. 137 

FOREIGN (continued). 

Brought forward 10908 

COLOGNE (temp. Otto IV., A.D. 1209-1218). 

Obv. OTTO INPRRTOR. Bust of emperor, crowned, 

facing. 
Rev. ! TR N CR COLONI. Short double cross ; cross pomme'e 

in each angle. (Chautard, PL xxi. 1.) 1 

COLOGNE (Civic xiiith cent.). 

Obv. SRNCTR COLON Ifi. Temple surmounted by cross. 
Rev. & SfiNCTA COLON IS. Cross patte'e : pellet in each 

angle. 1 

DORTMUND (temp. Otto IV., A.D. 1209-1218). 

Obv. OTTO INPRRTOR. Bust of emperor, facing, crowned. 
Rev. * TRemONIR RSR. Short double cross; cross 

pomme'e in each angle. (Chautard, PL xxi. 2.) 1 

Obv. OTTO INPATOR. Similar. 
Rev. * TRemONIS RGIH. Similar. 1 

DORTMUND (temp. Frederick II., A.D. 1218-1250). 

Obv. ^ FRDIC I.JRR on three sides of lozenge, within 
which, head of emperor, crowned ; on 1., hand with sceptre ; 
the head is within a circle. 

Rev. *T-RMfiNIRat sides of lozenge, within which, 
circle enclosing short double cross, with cross pommee in 
each angle. (Chautard, PL xxi. 7.) 1 

LIPPE (temp. Bernard III., A.D. 1229-1265). 

Obv. H6UN RIG' RSX. Bust of king, facing, as in Class III. of 
short-cross pennies, i.e. with two curls on each side of head ; 
right hand with sceptre. 

Rev. 3* LOMQ6O (XIV. Short double cross ; cross pomme'e in 

each angle. (Chautard, PL xxvii. 5.) 1 

MUNSTEB (Episcopal, xiiith cent.) 

Obv. * SHNOTI PAVLI. Head facing, nimbate (as in 

Class III.) 
Rev. ! MONASTQRIVM. Short double cross; with star of 

six points (or roses) in each angle. (Chautard, PL xxv. 7.) 1 

Carried forward 10915 
VOL. III., SERIES IV. L 



138 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

FOKEIGN (continued). 

No. of 
Coins. 

Brought forward 10915 
FREDERICK II., Emperor, A.D. 1218-1250. 

Obv. * RCXX FRSDQRI S. Bust, facing, crowned; sceptre 

in r. hand. 
Rev. ! ROOTRNVS R9X. Short double cross ; cross pomme"e 

in each angle (5). (Chautard, PI. xxi. 4.) 5 

Others with RQI on rev. (2) ; and RQXK (2) 4 

UNCERTAIN. 

Obv. hetriRiaVS Re(X. Head of king, facing, as in Class III. 

of short-cross pennies. 
Rev. & SLNIGRNIQRVS Q [P]. Short double cross, with 

cross pommee in each angle. 1 

Similar; but with head of king as in Class V., and legend on 

obv. 



10926 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 



139 



? - 

1 

K * 

co 13 



i 

3 2 

i 

* * 



ja 



K <S 

CO ^ 




~ cc 


5 3 


Q 

> 


4C. 

| 


Q 

CC 


_1 
w 


z oc 


o 


p; 


z 


_l 


2 


> 


W _I 





5 


w 


O 





^ 


2 > 


C9| CC 


cc 


C9 


cc 


CO 



S.9 



140 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 




_ oc 

cc w 



QC 




* * 



_ OC 

cc ttf 



CC 




: r co co 
* * 



03 






QC 



oc 

CC W 
Z C9 
QJ O 

r DC 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 



141 



I 



W 



cc w u. 

S z z 



o o z 



O r; 



cc 

CO HJ 

K H 



o 
tf 






> Z 
> 



142 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



K K 

CC CC 





THE COLCHESTER FIND. 



143 






D 

Q g 

cc S z 

535 

E 5 2 









cc * 

I a > 

I 8 



8 I 

I 



144 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



* z 3 

K O 

C "O 



Z -J 
K O 






THE COLCHESTEU FIND. 



145 



1 5 

i 5 

K K 

* * 



UL- 

W > 

> K 2 

r cc cc 



s I i 

I I 5 

H- K K 



i - 

> 3 

i d 

Q 



8 * 



W 






m j-j _, > 
w o i v - 5 ^ Q ~i 

-J DC I ^ ^ W ^ 



146 



NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 



o 

ii 



M Z Z 

< K 
-J _l 


fiLWKRD 


fiNDRSV 


Fit T^IMSR 
(SILSBSRT 


6ODKRD 


0. 

E 

z 
w 




C 

5 S 
fc S 

5 o 


PI3RQS M 


RT^NDVL 
KIM6(R 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 



147 



z a: 5 

1 5 * 

2 o 



:z cc 



* * 



^ * 



3 



5 
3 cc 



K 






Q W - j 

S|>^||33 

QLCLCCCCQCCOCg^ 



E z 

_- K 



> 



CO 



148 



NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 



CO 





S 



K K 



W - 

K K - -J 
OC CC Z ttf 



00 



CQ 



5 

-y "^ 

i 

CQ CC 



DC OC 



_l _J 

3 3 .. 



K K = CC 



" 



CQ 



CQ 



Q Q 



_i ^ 



CC DC CC > 



CQ 



. 

K > > 

Q K K 

K - CC CC 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 



149 



W 







2 1 

O Q 




- 



u. 



150 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



w z 

CC K 
U. x: 



K 






X 



X O 



3 i 

-j u. 

~ LL 



-J tt 



g I I 

c/) O ib ^ 
K cc 2 O 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 



151 






o 

II 

Z CO ^ 



1 

> fi 



g - 



152 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



. 

K > 
Q K 

K tr 



^ n w 

H E 



. 

2 S 

K CC 



33 



\- 1-2 

* z cc z cc 2 j 

^I|S^52LL 
ZGJCQQtJ_I<> 

uJ_JWcoOO^QK 

JCtJCCOCCC9>KCC 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 



153 



HI 

i I 2 

4- 



s I = 

* s z 

> 2 W 



c? 2- 

i 

I 2 



I 

^ cc 

g w K 

Q CQ _l 

O CO CO 

cd o o 



Q 5 
cc 

K O 
CC (9 2 



VOL. III., SERIES IV. 



154 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



3 
S 



Q 








CC 
i-i K 

B | 


3 

> O 
< 
Q Z 


RQN7WD 


CO 

K 

1 


Z 
K . 




+ + 






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> 

K 5 
Q Z 



. 3 
? S 

JC CC 







THE COLCHESTER FIND. 



155 



05 5; 

* L^ A 

d 1 2 

K O 

h CO 



M 2 



156 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

The number of coins in each class of the short-cross coin- 
age is as follows : Class I. 303 ; Class II. 901 ; Class III. 
2807 ; Class IV. 364 and Class V. 6197. The number of 
coins of Classes III. and V. of a single moneyer in the case 
of the more important mints, such as Canterbury, London 
and St. Edmundsbury, is sometimes very large. In Can- 
terbury in Class III. they range from about 40 to 74 for 
a considerable number of moneyers ; in Class V. several 
range from 115 to 410 ; in London in Class II. of six 
moneyers there are from 25 to 90 coins ; in Class III., 
three over 300 ; and in Class V., the numbers vary from 
about 103 to 535. 

For reasons which will be set out at greater length in 
the notes on the mints, I would assign dates to the classes 
as follows. This is practically following Sir John Evans's 
classification, but with a slight modification. 

Class I. Henry II., 2nd issue (1180-1189). 

Class II. Kichard and John (1189-1208). 

Class III. John (1208-1216). 

Class IV. Henry III. (1216-1222). 

Class V. (1222-1248). 

Sir John Evans suggested that the coins of improved 
style under Class II. appeared to be intermediate between 
this one and Class III., and as the great re-coinage of 
John did not take place till 1208, these, with some of the 
baser type of Kichard I. would fill up the space. In 
confirmation of this we have the evidence of the 
Chichester mint, which, after being in abeyance since the 
reign of Stephen, was revived by John in 1204 and was 
granted three moneyers. These were Keinaud, Goldwine 
and Everard, who all struck coins of rude fabric as 
Class II., but Everard also issued some of improved style 
approaching the type of the next one. Class III. has 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 157 

been attributed to John, and it is these coins only that I 
would assign to him, for I do not think it at all probable 
that, having established a stereotyped design for his 
portrait, any change in that respect would occur again 
during his reign. In support of this we have the 
evidence of the Irish coins, the issue of which probably 
lasted till 1216, and in which no change whatever took 
place in the form of the king's bust, which is precisely 
similar to that on Class III. The Irish coins were first 
issued in 1210, i.e. two years after the reforms in England. 
The period of 1216-1222 would then be well filled up by 
Class IV., and that would furnish a good reason for a slight 
change in the portrait. Later on I hope to be able to 
show that greater events must have taken place in 1222 in 
connection with the coinage than appear to be recorded. 

As to the moneyers, Sir John Evans in his original 
paper went very fully into their relation, class by class, 
and brought a good deal of historical evidence to support 
his classification. As I cannot materially add to that 
information I shall only note what new moneyers' names 
have been added to the list by the Colchester hoard. As 
already mentioned, the names of these new moneyers are 
distinguished by an asterisk. They are : 

Canterbury. Ernaud and Hue (01. II.) ; Hernaud 
( Arnaud ?) and Kauf (01. III.) ; Kobert, Samuel, Kobert 
Vi and Willem (01. V.). Eobert Yi is not altogether a 
new name, as it occurred in a small hoard of short-cross 
pennies described by Mr. L. A. Lawrence in the 
Numismatic Chronicle, 1897. 

Exeter Eaul (01. I.) and Kicard (01. II. and IV.). 

Lenn or Lynn. Johan and Nicole (01. IV.). 

Lincoln. Girard (01. I.); Eandul (01. II.); Alain 
(01. III.). 



158 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

^London. Gilebert, Gefrei or lefrei, Pieres M., Eauf, Gold- 
wine, Johan, Heim and Walter (Cl. II.) ; Johan and Kaulf 
(01. III.) ; Alain, Pires, Willelm L., and Arnaud (Cl. IV.) ; 
Walter, Kaulf (Kauf ?), and Helis (Elis ?) (Cl. V.). Gilebert 
is mentioned as a moneyer in a Charter of Kichard I., the 
date of which is about 1195 (see Brit. Mus., Add. Ch. 1046). 

Northampton. Giferei and Simun (Cl. I.); Koberd 
(Cl. II). 

Oxford. Kodbert (Cl. I.). 

Rochester. Andreu (Cl. IV. and V.). 

Winchester. Henri (Cl. I., II. and III.) ; Miles (CL IV.). 

York Efrard (Everard) (Cl. I.); Hue and Kaule 
(Cl. II.) ; Nicole (Cl. IV.). 

Ehuddlan. Henricus (Cl. III.). 

Besides these new names it will be seen that the hoard 
supplied almost a full list of moneyers who struck the 
short-cross pennies. The chief absentees are those who 
issued coins of Class I. in London, and these are only 
four out of a total of twenty. 

Several additions have also been made of the cross- 
pommee mint-mark against the moneyers' names. These 
it is not necessary to note specially. In his account of the 
Eccles hoard, 11 Mr. Vaux went into this question at great 
length in connection with foreign deniers, which had 
only one result, and that was that he was able to show 
that at that time and later this special mint-mark was 
in somewhat common use on coins of the Emperors of 
Germany, of Cologne, Mtinster and certainly in the Low 
Countries. Whether in England it was borrowed from 
the Continent or not is of little importance ; and on this 
point, I think, Sir John Evans gave the most probable 
explanation when he expressed the view that it was only 

11 Num. Chron., 1865, p. 219 f. 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 159 

the private mark of a set of die engravers in London. 
If a moneyer had struck with this mint-mark only, there 
might have been a special reason for his using it ; but 
since nearly all the moneyers who used the cross-pommee 
mark used also the cross-pattee one, it seems difficult to 
work out a special theory on this question. One thing, 
however, is certain, that the engravers who made the 
dies with this special mark were much more skilful at 
their art than their fellows (see PI. IV., No. 12). The 
general workmanship of these coins is much superior, and 
as a rule of higher relief; and the cutting of the die 
is very cleanly done. One other peculiarity of these 
moneyers was, they often, not always, reversed the letter S. 
Mints. In glancing through the comparative table of 
mints and moneyers one is much struck at the irregularity 
of the issues. It will be seen that there are fewer mints 
issuing coins of Class II. than Class I. ; the number is 
again raised under Class III., but again reduced under 
Class IV., and still much further under Class V. These 
changes, I think, in most cases, can be accounted for ; 
but in dealing with this subject it is necessary to keep in 
one's mind the following data connected with the issue 
of the short-cross coinage. 

1. The introduction of the short-cross issue in 1180 
under the superintendence of Philip Aymary. 

2. The inquisition of moneyers, assayers and keepers 
of dies in 1208 at Westminster, when writs were issued 
to the moneyers of London, Winchester, Exeter, 
Chichester, Canterbury, Bochester, Ipswich, Norwich, 
Lynn, Lincoln, York, Carlisle, Northampton, Oxford, St. 
Edmundsbury, and Durham. 11 

11 It is interesting to note that of Class III. (John) we have coins 
struck at all these mints, and at these mints only. 



160 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

3. The order of 1222 for a coinage of considerable 
value, when, as Kuding (Vol. L, p. 181) records, that on 
the morrow of Ash - Wednesday Ilger, the king's 
goldsmith, and three others, as Custodes Monetae of the 
City of London, Adam Blund and seven others, Custodes 
Cuneorum, &c., were sworn before the Justiciary, and 
eight dies for halfpennies and farthings, were delivered 
to them. And afterwards, on the Thursday before Easter, 
eight dies for pennies and the same number for half- 
pennies and farthings were further supplied, over and 
above the eight before mentioned. 12 

Sir John Evans has shown that the order for changing 
the name of King John to that of King Henry in 1220 
does not apply to the coinage, as supposed by Ending, 
but to the stamp in use in the Stannaries, for, as we know, 
John's name never appeared on his English coins. 13 We 
are unable, therefore, to connect the order of 1220 with 
the coinage ; but I am of opinion that a very great 
change took place two years later, and that it is due to 
some regulations made then that, although there may 
have been a great increase in the output of the coinage, 
there was at the same time a considerable suppression of 
the smaller mints, which had been in operation during 
the reign of John. 

When Henry II. came to the throne, one of his first 
acts was to simplify the coinage and by ordering a 
general type for all his money, "which should be 
continuous," his desire was to establish a greater fixity 

12 It is possible that these dies represented eight different mints, but 
we only have a record of five mints in operation after 1222. It is 
probable that all the mints did not exercise their right, or may not have 
received the dies ordered. The dies for the halfpennies and farthings 
were evidently not put into use. 

13 Num. Chron., 1865, p. 288. 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 161 

of type, and so do away with those constant changes 
which had hitherto existed. In 1180, when the short- 
cross coinage was introduced, this policy was still further 
extended, and it is evident that one of the chief objects of 
this reformation of the coinage was its centralization, to 
be brought about by a reduction of the number of mints 
and by placing them under the superintendence of a 
general overseer. During the reign of William I. and II. 
about 70 mints were in operation ; under Henry I. there 
were about 44, and a similar number under Stephen. 
Daring the first coinage of Henry II. the number of 
mints in operation, as shown by the coins in the National 
Collection, is 32, and the effect of the new regulations of 
1180 was to reduce the number to 12, or, as circumstances 
happened, to 11, Canterbury being at that time, so to say, 
in disgrace. These mints were either royal or episcopal 
only, the so-called baronial or manorial mints being 
entirely swept away. This, I think, is a strong argument 
in favour of the theory propounded by Mr. Andrew in 
his "History of the Coinage of Henry I.," that the 
granting of a manor carried with it sometimes the right 
of coinage. 

The mints of which we have short-cross pennies 
of Class I. (Henry II.) are Carlisle, Exeter, Lincoln, 
London, Northampton, Norwich, Oxford, Wilton, Win- 
chester, Worcester, and York. During the issues of 
Class II. and III. (Kichard I. to John) some of these mints 
fell into abeyance, and others took their place ; but under 
Class IV. (Henry III.) the number is reduced, and under 
Class V. (also Henry III.), though the output of coins is 
apparently much larger than previously, the number of 
mints is only five ; and if the contents of the Colchester 
hoard are any criterion, three only out of the five were in 



162 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

active operation, viz., Canterbury, London and St. 
Edmundsbury. As I think it will be possible, in most 
cases, from evidence supplied by Kuding and by Mr. 
Andrew, who also drew largely from Euding, to account 
for this instability of the centres of coining, I propose to 
give a slight sketch of their operations before and during 
the period of the short-cross coinage. The mints will be 
taken in their alphabetical order. 

Canterbury. This mint, which was only second to 
London in its activity, dates back from the eighth 
century, and was in continuous operation from that time 
till and including the first coinage of Henry II. It may 
at first sight seem strange that of this mint we have no 
short-cross coins of Class I. (Henry II.) ; for though the 
name of " Meinir " was inserted by Sir John Evans under 
that Class, no specimen which I have met with can be so 
attributed ; but they are all of Class II. Mr. Andrew u 
states that when Edward the Confessor granted his 
rights in the city to the then archbishop, the royal 
mint ceased, and thus the absence of any reference to 
this mint in Domesday is accounted for. When the 
quarrel took place between Henry and Becket, which was 
followed by the latter's flight and the forfeiture of all his 
privileges, the right of coinage appears to have been 
rescinded, and was not restored by the king to the see 
during the remainder of his reign. Hence the absence 
of coins of Class I. In his first year Kichard I. restored 
the coinage to Canterbury, and gave to Hubert, the 
Archbishop and his successors, the liberty of three dies 
and three moneyers. This grant was confirmed by John 
in his first year, and it appears also that, at the same 

14 Num. Chron., 1901, p. 131 ff. 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 163 

time, a royal mint was re- erected there with three 
dies and three moneyers. Henceforth it will be seen that 
Canterbury was next to London the most active mint in 
striking coins. 

Carlisle. A royal mint was established there about 
1129, and it appears to have been assigned one moneyer, 
as Durant and Erebald only struck coins during the 
reign of Henry I. The latter continued to work under 
Stephen, and was succeeded by his son William, who 
remained in office during Henry II.'s first coinage, and 
was followed by Alain in that reign and the next, and by 
Thomas under John and during the early issue of 
Henry III. It ceased operations in 1222 and again 
became active on the issue of the long-cross money, as in 
1248 a writ was directed to the magistrates of that city 
to choose four persons for the office of moneyers. 

Chichester. From 1112-1114 this was an episcopal 
mint. It was continued under Stephen ; was dormant 
under Henry II. and Kichard I. ; but was revived in 1204 
by John, who commanded that there should be three dies 
in this city, two for the king and one for the bishop ; and 
again in 1205 the king granted to the bishop two of his 
dies in that city, and the mint with all its appurtenances 
and liberties at a rent of thirty marks. We may there- 
fore conclude that the three moneyers, Keinaud, Gold wine 
and Everard, whose coins are included in Class II., struck 
under John and not under Eichard. In 1208 the officers 
of this mint were ordered to appear at Westminster ; but 
it is probable the moneyers were reduced to two, as that 
number appears under Class IV. As there are no coins 
of Class V. we may conclude that the mint came to an 
end in 1222, and was not again revived. 

Durham. This was an episcopal mint, the right of 



164 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

coinage having been granted to Bishop De Carileph by 
William I., circ. 1082. It was in abeyance under 
William II., but was continued under Henry I., Stephen 
and Henry II., who reduced the rent for dies from ten 
marks to three marks on account of those which he 
first placed in Newcastle ; and who at last took away the 
dies which had been used for many years. The privilege 
was not restored till 1196, when Eichard I. gave to Philip 
of Poitiers, bishop elect, license to make money in the 
City of Durham; a permission, it is added, which had 
not been granted to his predecessors for a long time back. 
Hence there are no coins of Class I. In 1208 the officers 
of the Durham mint were summoned to Westminster, 
and evidently the grant was confirmed, as we have coins 
of Classes III., IV. and V. ; but the dies were apparently 
limited to one moneyer only, as we find only the name 
Pieres on coins of the last two classes. It would seem, 
therefore, that the mint ceased operations soon after 1222, 
but was revived in 1252 when Henry III. restored to 
Walter, Bishop of Durham, seven of his dies ; but they 
could, not have been long in use, as no specimens of the 
long-cross money are known with III or TQRC(I after the 
king's name. In 1272 Edward I. again restored to the 
bishops of Durham the privileges of their see, which 
included the right of issuing money. 

Exeter. The name of Exeter appears on the coinage 
of this country from the time of Alfred, and was continued 
through the Anglo-Saxon and Norman Kings to the 
reign of John. It was one of the mints which were 
closed in 1222, but it was revived on the issue of the 
long-cross coinage in 1248. 

llehester. That this mint was in operation during the 
issue of the short-cross money seems doubtful, as the 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 165 

evidence rests on one money er only, whose coin reads 
hSRNTWD ON I. Coins of this mint of the Tealby 
type are known ; but there are no short-cross pennies 
which can be given to Henry II. after 1186. It was 
revived on the issue of the long-cross money in 1248. It 
is possible that Richard I. on his accession renewed the 
grant of coinage, and that, like Lichfield, it was only put 
into force by one moneyer, and for a short time. On the 
other hand, the coin may be of Chichester if we take into 
account the coin of that mint reading QV6(R7\RD ON I. 

Ipswich. Mr. Andrew 15 points out that when William I. 
confiscated the Earldom of East Anglia, Roger Bigod, 
who received the lion's share of the lordships and manors 
in Suffolk, had also the custody of the burg of Ipswich 
in manu Eegis, and in that capacity was entitled to the 
grant of the mint. From this time coins of Ipswich 
exist down to the reign of Henry II., i.e. till 1171, when 
the king, as Robert de Torigny records, succeeded to 
tota Britannia et comitatus de Gippewic. No further 
mention is made of the mint till 1208, when the officers 
were summoned by writ to Westminster ; and as no coin 
exists of Class I. or II. we may conclude that from 
1186, till that date it was not in operation. It closed 
about 1222, and no further mention is made of it. 

Lenn or Lynn. The first record of this mint is met 
with in the ninth year (1208) of John, when the money ers 
of this and various other places were commanded to 
attend at Westminster. This would imply that a mint 
had already existed there ; but the only proof of this is a 
coin of the first issue of Henry II., Tealby type, which 
reads ROeetR ON LSN. It was found at Ampthill, and 

15 Num. Cliron., 1901, p. 231 f. 



166 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

should be in the possession of the Numismatic Society. 16 
As there are short-cross pennies of Classes III. and IV. it 
is evident that the grant was renewed in 1208, but not 
continued after circ. 1222. 

Lichfield. The first mention of this mint in the records 
is during the reign of Stephen, who gave by Charter to 
the Church of St. Chad at Ipswich, and to Walter, Bishop 
of Coventry and his successors for ever, the privilege of 
one die here. This grant was made some time between 
1149 and 1159, and it was renewed in 1189 by Richard I. 
to Hugh, then Bishop of Coventry. I am not aware if 
there were any coins of Stephen issued under this grant ; 
but in evidence of that of Richard I. there are coins 
struck by the money er lOfiN, a specimen of which is 
in the British Museum. It is undoubtedly of Class II., 
so I have transferred the name to that section in the list 
of moneyers. Though the grant of Richard I. was " for 
ever," it would appear that only one pair of dies was 
despatched to Lichfield, and that the mint was active for 
only a very short time. This is the only mint which was 
not represented in the Colchester Find. 

Lincoln. This was at all times a royal mint, and the 
name of Lincoln occurs first on the coins of Aelfred and 
from Eadgar to Edward I. From the evidence of the 
coins it seems that there was a cessation of work at the 
Lincoln mint during the later period of the short-cross 
coinage, i.e., Class V. It is therefore possible that for 
some reason not recorded, dies were not sent to that city 
from about 1222 till the issue of the long-cross money in 
1248. 

London. It is scarcely necessary to make any remarks 

16 Num. Chron., N.S. ii., p. 233. 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 167 

about this mint. Its origin dates from the introduction 
of coinage in this country, and at least from Norman times 
it has been the centre of our currency ; so that whenever 
money was issued London has always provided its full share 
of the output. We have not therefore, in the case of the 
short-cross coinage, to account for any lacunae. In close 
association with the London mint was that of Southwark, 
which was closed about 1131, 17 but re-opened by Stephen. 
As no coins are known of Southwark from that time till 
the reign of Edward VI. we may conclude that the mint 
was in abeyance from the accession of Henry II. 

Northampton. This royal mint was the creation of 
Henry I., and the date of its foundation was about 1126 
1128. 18 It was in active operation from that time till the 
beginning of the reign of Henry III., when it is recorded 
tha,t in the 14th year (1229) of that king's reign the 
townsmen accounted for sixty shillings out of the profits 
of the coinage, and for thirty-six pounds arising from the 
said profits, which had been unpaid for some years past. 
The absence of coins of Class V. may therefore be 
accounted for in a measure to the circumstance that the 
mint, early in Henry's reign, not having paid its dues was 
closed, and was not opened till the issue of the long-cross 
money, when it became again active. The attribution of 
some of the coins reading NO or NOR to this mint and 
not to Norwich is doubtful ; but similarity of moneyers' 
names is the only criterion for their classification. The 
attributions made by Sir John Evans have not in 
consequence been disturbed. The abbreviation of TH into 
fi should be noticed, and also CR for OR in this and the 
next mint. 

17 Num. Chron., 1901, p. 286. 

18 Num. Chron., 1901, p. 320. 



168 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Norwich. This was a royal mint and was in active 
operation from early Anglo-Saxon times, and there is a 
nearly continuous series of coins till early in the reign of 
Henry III. Domesday states that the bishop had the 
privilege of one moneyer in Norwich, if he thought fit ; 
but it is not known if he exercised this right. With 
other mints it ceased work about 1222 ; but was again 
active on the issue of the long-cross money until the end 
of the reign. 

Oxford. The earliest coins of Oxford are of the time 
of Aelfred ; and though the series is continuous down to 
the accession of Edward I. there appears to have been 
intervals when operations were suspended. Mr. Andrew 19 
shows that to all appearance there was an interval from 
1103-1131, when such a suspension took place. This he 
accounts for in a dispute between the citizens and the 
king, in consequence of which the privilege of the mint 
was rescinded. Throughout the reign of Henry II. coins 
were struck at Oxford, and also in that of John and 
Henry III. ; but as the money ers are few the issues were 
small. An interval occurred in the reign of Kichard I. 
as there are no coins of Class II., and this is the more 
noticeable as in 1208 Oxford was one of the cities whose 
officers of the mint were ordered to put in an appearance 
at Westminster. We are therefore at a loss to account 
for the suspension of the mint in this instance. 

Rochester. The history of this mint is interesting. 
Coins are supposed to have been struck at Kochester 
under the Kentish kings, and that the mint was continued 
by the kings of Wessex we have ample proof. By the 
law of Aethelstan the king had two moneyers there and 

19 Num. Chron., 1901, p. 354. 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 



169 



the bishop one. As no mention is made of this mint in 
Domesday Mr. Andrew 20 concludes that when William 1. 
created his half-brother, Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, Earl of 
Kent, and gave him the City of Kochester, the grant 
carried with it the king's mint ; and when the earldom 
was escheated in 1082 the right to two money ers fell into 
abeyance. The bishop, however, still appears to have 
exercised his right ; but even this ceased for some reason 
in 1102, and the mint was not revived for o\er a century, 
viz., in 1208. To explain this, Mr. Andrew supposes that 
for some reason the Eochester mint was transferred to 
Canterbury, and remained absorbed into the archiepisco- 
pal mint until it was revived by John. Unfortunately 
this is only conjecture. It is clear, however, that it was 
revived by John, and was in operation for some time in 
the reign of his successor, but as we have only one 
moneyer who issues coins of Classes IV. and V. it could 
not have been very active. It was not again revived. 

8t. Edmundsbury. The evidence of the coins scarcely 
coincides with the records of this mint. It was an 
ecclesiastical one, having been granted to the abbot, and 
is therefore not mentioned in Domesday. It had one 
moneyer under William I. and II. and Henry I. ; but this 
number was increased by Stephen and again reduced to 
one by Henry II., who granted that it should have one 
moneyer with all the privileges it had been accustomed 
to exercise. Though this grant was confirmed by 
Kichard I. we have no coins of that king nor of his father 
after the introduction of the short-cross money. This is 
one of the mints which were suppressed by Philip Aylmer. 
At the inquisition of 1208 the money ers of this mint 



!0 Num. Chron., 1901, p. 380. 
VOL III., SERIES IV. N 



170 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

were summoned to Westminster, and the coinage again 
re-commenced, and continued throughout the reign of 
Henry III. and onwards to that of Edward III. St. 
Edmundsbury stands third in the list of mints for the 
number of coins of Class V. in this hoard. Simund the 
moneyer appears to have been very active. 

Shrewsbury. The coinage of this place was somewhat 
intermittent. Established by Aethelstan we find the 
mint in operation under several of the succeeding kings 
to William II. During the reign of Henry I. it was 
dormant, was renewed by Stephen and continued active 
till the striking of the short-cross money ; and was only 
resuscitated for a short time under Eichard during the 
whole period over which that issue extended. It is 
probable that on his accession Eichard renewed the 
grant of the mint, of which however but little use was 
made. In 1248 Henry III. revived it, together with 
several others of the old mints, but it does not appear to 
have had a long existence. It was again revived under 
Charles I. 

Wilton. Of this mint Mr. Andrew says 21 : " It was a 
comparatively prolific Saxon mint from the time of 
Edgar until the Conquest ; it was a royal mint and 
seems to have usually employed three moneyers. This 
condition prevailed under William I., until the time 
came when Herman, Bishop of Sherborne and Wilton, 
finally removed the joint see to Salisbury. It is evident 
that coinciden tally with such removal the mint of Wilton 
discontinued its constant output, and seems only to have 
issued its money when some special demand for currency 
would render such issue profitable." Throughout the 

21 Num. Chron., 1901, p. 448 f. 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 171 

reigns of Henry I. and Stephen the coins are not 
numerous. When the new type was introduced by 
Henry II. at the beginning of his reign, we meet with a 
few moneyers, and this occurred again in 1186 ; but of 
the short-cross coinage only two moneyers are known, 
and thus the mint seems to have been in abeyance 
throughout the remaining period of this issue, and only 
to have resumed operations for a short period on the 
striking of the long-cross money in 1248, when a writ 
was issued for the election of officers of the mint in this 
and in various other towns. 

Winchester.-^- This mint dates back to early Saxon 
times. Aethelstan established six moneyers there ; this 
number was doubled by Aethelred II. ; but again reduced 
to six by William I. ; and by Henry to one. At the 
Inquisition held by Henry I. in 1126 Winchester 
again received its six moneyers. This number does 
not seem to have been maintained after Henry I. ; and in 
1208 John granted to the city a moneyer and an 
exchange. The number of moneyers, however, of which 
we have coins of Class III. would rather prove that there 
was more than one moneyer employed at Winchester in 
that reign. For some reason not recorded, the operations 
of the mint were suppressed about 1222, and not revived 
till the issue of the long-cross money in 1248, when 
Matthew of Paris states, " Henry III. also continued the 
mint here." This mint appears to have been discontinued 
after the death of Henry III. 

Worcester. This mint dates from the reign of Aethelred 
II., and was a royal one ; but as no mention is made of it 
in the survey of 1086 it was probably farmed to the 
citizens, as were also other royal mints. 22 It was working 

22 Num. Chron., 1901, p. 474. 

N 2 



172 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

during the reigns of Henry I., Stephen, and Henry II., 
and survived the introduction of the short-cross coinage ; 
but apparently only for a short period as the only coins 
known are of Class I. It was not again revived till the 
reign of Charles I., and then only under exceptional con- 
ditions. 

York. For many centuries York was the monetary 
centre of the north, and evidence is not wanting that it 
may have existed even in Ancient British times. It is 
scarcely necessary to say that it was an archiepiscopal 
as well as a royal mint. At the Conquest, owing to the 
resistance of its inhabitants, the city was disfranchised 
and deprived of its mint privileges ; but William was not 
strong enough to curtail the rights of the archbishops, 
who continued to strike money and were entitled to 
three moneyers. 23 These were reduced to two under 
William II. and Henry I.; but in 1131-1135 a third 
moneyer was appointed who was a royal moneyer, thus 
resuscitating the king's mint in that city. The coinage is 
henceforth continuous throughout the reigns of Stephen, 
Henry II., and Kichard and John to the commencement of 
that of Henry III. Like many others it ceased operations 
about 1222, was revived on the issue of the long-cross 
money, and continued with some intermission till the 
reign of William III. 

Rliuddlan. The attribution of coins to this mint has 
always been considered uncertain, as there are no records 
on which to rely. Yet the legends RVLA and RVLfiM sug- 
gest no other place. Rhuddlan was a town of considerable 
antiquity, and also of importance on account of its being 
situate on the borders of England and Wales. It was 

23 Num. Chron., 1901, p. 481. 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 173 

the scene of a great conflict in 795 between Offa of Mercia 
and Caradoc, King of North Wales. A castle was built 
there in 1015, which was restored by Henry II. in 1157. 
Towards the end of the reign of Kichard I., Kanulph de 
Meschines, Earl of Chester, was besieged there by a body 
of Welsh; but was relieved by Koger de Lacy, his 
lieutenant, just when the defence of the town seemed to 
be no longer possible. When John invaded North Wales 
in 1211 he advanced through Khuddlan ; and in the 
following year the castle was attacked, but without effect, 
by Prince Llewellyn, who however succeeded in capturing 
it in 1214. From this time till 1277 the place constantly 
changed hands, when it was finally wrested from the 
Welsh by Edward I. 

The coins attributed to Khuddlan are of Classes II. 
and III., and therefore their issue just covers the period 
when the town witnessed its two sieges, viz. at the close 
of the reign of Kichard I. and in 1214. It is probable, 
therefore, that if these coins were struck at Khuddlan 
they are of the nature of a " money of necessity," i.e. were 
struck for the soldiery and townspeople during those 
sieges. What favours this view is that the dies used 
must have been of local manufacture, and could never 
have come from London, the design being very rude and 
the letters misshapen, whilst the legends read 'sometimes 
backwards. Taking these points into consideration I 
think these coins with RVLfi and RVLfiH may with every 
probability be attributed to Khuddlan ; and the absence 
of any record of a grant of a mint to the place is due 
to the exigencies under which the coins were struck. 

Turning to the other coins in the hoard, which are not 
purely English, the first to be noticed are the Irish. 
These are all pennies of John and of one type only, with 



174 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the bust of the king crowned and holding a sceptre 
within a triangle on the obverse, and on the reverse a 
crescent surmounted by a star (the badge of John, which 
he had assumed on the death of Kichard) also within a 
triangle. Unlike his English money John puts his own 
name on the obverse, whilst on the reverse is that of the 
moneyer and the mint. This coinage was introduced by 
John in 1210, and the portrait of the king is borrowed 
from that on his English coinage, which had first appeared 
two years previously. The face is long and the beard 
pointed, and formed of downward straight lines; he 
wears a crown, and the hair on each side of his head is 
always arranged in two curls, each enclosing a pellet. 
There was absolutely no change in the portrait throughout 
the reign, and it is on account of this fixity of type in 
his Irish coinage that we have presumed that also no 
change occurred in the portrait on the English coinage. 
The only mints represented in the hoard are Dublin and 
Limerick, no specimen of Waterford being present; 
and the only money ers are Eobert and Willelm (Dublin) 
and Willelm (Limerick). It is not surprising that there 
were no Irish coins of Henry III. in the hoard, as they 
are only of the long-cross type, of which no English 
specimens were met with also. 

The Scottish coins are of William the Lion and 
Alexander II., and are all pennies of the short-cross type, 
which was adopted in Scotland in 1195, or nine years 
after its introduction into England. The coins of 
William the Lion are of the Pertli and Koxburgh mints ; 
but by far the greater number are without the mint 
name. Those of Alexander II. are of Koxburgh only, and 
vary only in the head being crowned or not crowned. 
They are of the early type of his reign. 



THE COLCHESTER FIND. 175 

The foreign coins are all deniers esterlins of the Low 
Countries and Northern Germany, and are mainly of the 
short-cross type, borrowed from the English money. In 
fact, on many the portrait of John is closely copied, and 
on one piece of Dortmund, temp. Frederick II., a com- 
bination of the types of the English and Irish money is 
shown, having the head within a triangle on the obverse 
and a short double cross within a triangle on the reverse. 
The presence of so many of these foreign deniers may be 
accounted for in the circumstance that Colchester, even 
at that time, was noted for its woollen manufactures, 
which no doubt attracted a considerable number of 
foreigners, especially Flemish, who brought these coins 
with them. 

It now only remains to account in some way for the 
burial of so large a hoard. If it could be shown that 
the hoard had been concealed early in the reign of Henry 
III., a cause would be found in the fact that, towards the 
end of the reign of John, Colchester fell into the hands 
of foreigners, who had come over to assist the barons, and 
was held by Prince Louis, son of Philip II., king of 
France, soon after the accession of Henry III. The barons 
submitted to their " new king," and the castle was again 
taken and Prince Louis was expelled from the kingdom. 
The sudden departure of this Prince would have 
accounted for the concealment of such a large hoard. 
But the coins themselves show that the burial could 
not have taken place till very shortly before 1248, or 
about that date, for the names of all the moneyers who 
coined Class V. at London and Canterbury are met 
with, and even the latest struck pieces show that they 
had been for some time in circulation. We must therefore 
look for some event which occurred about J 248. It was at 



176 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 

this time, 1247, that Kichard, Earl of Cornwall, son of 
John, was, by authority of the Pope, whose demands he 
had secretly and wisely satisfied, raising large sums for 
himself from those who wished to be absolved from their 
vow of proceeding on the crusade; but there is no 
evidence that Earl Eichard was at this time connected in 
any special manner with the town of Colchester. Another 
reason must therefore be sought for, and I would suggest 
that this hoard was one of the effects of the issue of the 
long-cross coinage. Colchester had been a mint of con- 
siderable importance down to the end of the reign of 
Henry I. ; in fact, it dates back from Roman times. It 
was the ancient Camulodunum, and it was there and 
in London that the Romans struck their coins when in 
Britain. Though the mint was in abeyance the town of 
Colchester was a centre of commercial activity, and it 
could well have been selected as one of the places for 
the distribution of the new long-cross coinage and the 
withdrawal from circulation of the old short-cross one. 
This would, moreover, not only account for the entire 
absence of any long-cross coins, as well as for the presence 
of so many Irish and Scottish pieces, but also for the 
somewhat unusual number of foreign denier s, nearly all 
of which are of the short-cross type. Every coin in 
circulation in the district would have to be brought into 
the exchange ; for from that date only the new coins would 
be accepted. The nature of the vessel in which the coins 
were placed points to the circumstance of a theft ; and 
one might further conjecture that the coins were stolen 
whilst the exchange was proceeding, concealed and not 
recovered till they were unearthed in July last. I am 
inclined to think that the Eccles hoard was buried under 
like circumstances. 

H. A. GEUEBER. 






VI. 

TWO COINS RELATING TO THE BUWAYHID 

AND 'OKAYLID DYNASTIES OF 

MESOPOTAMIA AND PERSIA. 

TOWARDS the close of the year 1900, my official duties 
took me to Bombay, where I obtained the two silver coins 
which form the subject of this note. Being shortly after- 
wards compelled to return up-country, I was precluded, 
by want of leisure and lack of the authorities necessary 
for reference, from making anything like a complete 
identification of the coins or a satisfactory transcription of 
their legends. In 1902 I came home on long leave, and 
have been able to devote the necessary time to a careful 
examination of the pieces and to consultation with 
recognised authorities on the subject. Thanks to the 
kind assistance of Dr. Codrington and Mr. Rapson, I 
have succeeded in fixing the attribution of the coins, and 
in transcribing more or less completely the obscure but 
very interesting legends which they bear. 

The result has been the discovery of two unedited 
coins, which will, I believe, supply important supple- 
mentary data for the history of a confusing and little- 
known period. The exact significance to be attached to 
this fresh information must be admitted to be doubtful 
at any rate, until it has been dealt with by more 
competent scholars than myself. I have ventured, how- 
ever, to offer a tentative explanation of these new data in 



178 NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 

the hope that it may go at least some way to elucidate 
the matter. 

The first coin is to be assigned to the Buwayhid 
dynasty, and appears to have been issued by 'Imad al 
Din Abu Kalinjar Marzban in 428 H. at the mint 
Medinat al Salam. Its legends, which are in characters 
of an extremely " caligraphic " type, run as follows : 

Obverse : area 



Margin : *- *^?.^ f*; 4 L-^-O & +~* 



Eeverse : area 



Margin: 

yj^ijl l/jj, 

The characters at the end of the third and fourth lines 
of the legend on the reverse area (viz. : ^) have not been 
accounted for. Weight, about 59J grains. Diameter y 
slightly over 1-1 inches. 



TWO COINS OF MESOPOTAMIA AND PERSIA. 179 

The second com belongs to the 'O nay lid ruler, 
Mu'tamid al Daulah, and was struck at 'Akbara in 
428 H. The legends, which are in characters similar to 
those of the first coin, read as follows : 



Obverse: 



area 



Inner margin- \\*6* +*^\ \A* 



margn ^?. &&* j ^ e/ J 
(Koran, xxx., 3-4) d 

The inner margin is much worn, and is broken into in 
one place and corroded in another. Dr. Codrington, 
however, found sufficient lettering to give a clue to the 
text. 

Reverse: area ^jj 

<*U\ JyWj 

411 



Inner margin. This is divided into four spaces, 
separated by conventional scrolls. 
Starting from the top leftwards, I 
believe the spaces to contain the 
following: (1) (J\ (Jl, i.e., 



180 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 

King of Kings; (2) 
(3) (?) aSjjM J^U, *X Jalal al 
Dawlah ; (4) (?) ^*U* ^\, i.e., Abu 
Tahir (the name of Jalal al Dawlah). 
The words in this margin are not easily deciphered, and 
were not read by Dr. Codrington. Further study of the 
coin, however, subsequent to his examination, has led me 
to think the above readings substantially correct. On a 
dirhem of Abu Sinan Gharib Seyf ul Daulah (an ally and 
vassal of Jalal al Daulah) we find the name Jb!\* *>\ 
and the titles sll3UU and cjLLJ*, (not, be it noted, as 
yet (^LJ\ Lil/c). This coin was struck at 'Akbara in 
422 H. Mu'tamid, also a nominal vassal of Jalal, 
appears to have occupied 'Akbara at a later date, and to 
have acknowledged the supremacy of the Buwayhid on 
his coins in the same way as Abu Sinan had done. 

Outer margin. Too worn and broken to be deciphered. 
The letters visible suggest a Koranic 
text, very possibly that found on 
the reverse margin of the Buwayhid 
coin. 

Weight^ 85 grains. Diameter, slightly over 1 1 inches. 
In connection with these legends, the following points 
are noteworthy : (1) the date and mint of the Buwayhid 
piece ; (2) the designation of the Abu Kalinjar as Shah- 
in-Shah; (3) the title \^\ ^UaL* on the obverse of 
the Okaylid piece ; (4) the titles on the inner margin of 
the reverse of the same. A remarkable coincidence is 
the fact that both coins not only belong to the reign of 
the Khaliph Al Kaim bi-amri-allah (422-467 H.), but 
also bear exactly the same date 428 H. The one 
specimen of Mu'tamid's coinage in the British Museum 
lacks a date, but bears the name of the preceding 



TWO COINS OF MESOPOTAMIA AND PERSIA. 181 

Khaliph, Al Kadir, as also that of Baha al Daulah the 
Buwayhid, and must therefore be dated between 388 H. 
and 4U3 H. The Museum has no specimen representing 
'Imad al Din. 

For the better comprehension of the possible signifi- 
cance of the legends on these two coins a brief sketch of 
the relations between the 'Okaylid and Buwayhid houses 
is necessary. The founder of the latter family was 
"the chief of a war-like clan of the highlanders of 
Daylam" (S. Lane-Poole, "Mahomedan Dynasties"), 
who was reputed a descendant of the ancient kings of 
Persia. On the break-up of the Abbasid empire, which 
ensued in the 9th century A.D., the Samanid power, 
founded by the Persian noble Saman, emerged pre- 
eminent, but like that of most oriental dynasties 
remained unchallenged for little more than a generation. 
The Ziyarid prince, Mardawij, rendered himself inde- 
pendent of the Samanids and appropriated a considerable 
portion of their western territories, notably Ispahan and 
Hamadhan. To him Buwayh, renouncing his allegiance 
to the Samanids, attached himself and obtained the 
government of Karaj. The son of Buwayh, 'Imad al 
Daulah Abu'l Hassan 'Ali, extended the territorial 
possessions of his family by the seizure of Ispahan and 
other districts on the Persian borders. With the help of 
his two brothers, Mu'izz al Daulah and Kukn al Daulah, 
'Ali next took Shiraz, and the three then working 
westward entered Baghdad in 334 H., and reduced the 
Khaliph to complete political dependence. Though them- 
selves shiahs, the Buwayhids were content to allow the 
head of the Mahomedan world to retain a religious 
supremacy, provided that they secured for themselves 
the administration of his temporal authority and the 



182 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

actual occupation of his territorial dominions. Of the 
familiesof the elder brothers, though to Mu'izz the Khaliph 
had granted the rank of Amir al Umara, and though 'AH 
appears to have been the leading spirit in the confederacy, 
little or nothing is heard in subsequent generations. 
From Kukn al Daulah, the youngest, the family branched 
off in several lines, each apparently inheriting as its own 
some particular portion of the Khaliph's dominions, and 
each striving to obtain as much more as the weakness of 
the parallel branches and its own strength would permit. 
The grandson of Eukn al Daulah was Baha al Daulah, 
who united under his sway the provinces of Kirman, 
'Irak, Ahwaz and Ears. The eldest son of Baha was 
Sultan al Daulah, who became the father of 'Imad al Din 
Abu Kalinjar Marzban. The youngest son of Baha was 
named Jalal al Daulah. The latter was proclaimed in 
416 H. successor to his brother Musharrif, the deceased 
prince of 'Irak. Jalal, however, was a weak man, and the 
country was in so disturbed a state that he did not 
actually occupy his capital, Baghdad, till 418 H. In 
the meantime his nephew, Imad al Din, who in 415 H. 
had become ruler of Ears, had been strengthening his 
own position, so that in 419 H. he was able to annex 
Kirman. 'Imad appears to have had ambitions, and the 
fact that he was the son of Jalal's eldest brother no 
doubt gave him in his own eyes a superior claim to 
what had belonged to his grandfather, Baha al Daulah, 
and in part to his father. Moreover, 'Irak was, so to say, 
the metropolitan province of the empire, and its possession 
carried with it the control of the Khaliph, and at least a 
nominal supremacy over his dominions. Given, then, 
weakness in the de facto ruler Jalal, it was only to be 
expected that 'Imad would advance pretensions to his 



TWO COINS OF MESOPOTAMIA AND PERSIA. 183 

place and power, and would endeavour to enforce them 
when and as opportunity offered. 

The situation, however, is complicated by the inter- 
vention of a third party, the 'Okay lid prince Mu'tamid al 
Daulah Kirwash (391-442 H.). The Banu 'Okayl was a 
branch of an important Arab clan that had emigrated 
from Arabia and settled in Bahrayn. Being driven 
thence they descended upon 'Irak and Mesopotamia, 
where they became, in the 4th century (H.), the subjects 
of the Hamdanid princes. This dynasty had acquired 
considerable territories in Syria and Mesopotamia, their 
two chief seats being Mosil and Aleppo, where, under the 
brothers Nasir al Daulah and Seif al Daulah, their 
prestige reached its acme. Success naturally brought 
the Hamdanids into collision with the rising power of the 
Buwayhids. In 367 H. 'Adud al Daulah, the Buwayhid 
ruler of Fars and Kirman, took Mosil and drove the 
Hamdanid Abu Taghlib from Mesopotamia. The fall 
of the Hamdanids paved the way for the rise of the 
'Okaylid chief Abu-1-Dhawwad Mohammad, who, after a 
perfidious alliance with the brothers of Abu Taghlib, 
deserted them and seized Mosil for himself. Abu-1- 
Dhawwad hastened to acknowledge the supremacy of 
the Buwayhid sovereign Baha al Daulah, who despatched 
a representative to Mosil. His submission, whether 
genuine or not, availed the 'Okaylid .little, for in 381 
Baha, evidently unwilling to permit the erection of a 
power so nearly independent in such close proximity, 
sent an army against Mosil and captured it. In 386 H. 
the chieftainship of the 'Okaylids passed to Mukallad, 
who regained Mosil, and, on condition of paying tribute 
and acknowledging his supremacy, was confirmed in 
possession by Baha al Daulah, who was occupied in 



184 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

defending himself against his brother Samsam. Mukallad 
was assassinated in 391 H. by his Turkish guards, and was 
succeeded by Mu'tamid al Daulah Kirwash. 

Mu'tamid entered upon an inheritance by no means 
peaceful. Not only had he to protect himself against 
the Buwayhids, who appear to have been always anxious 
to regain direct possession of Mosil, but in addition he 
was compelled to meet the rivalry of a hostile branch 
of his own family, at the head of which was Abu Sinan 
Gharib. In 411 H. the latter, in combination with Nur 
al Daulah Dubays, a neighbouring chief, and aided 
(presumably with Buwayhid connivance) by troops from 
Baghdad, attacked and captured Mu'tamid. Gharib 
indeed released his kinsman, but the allies seized and 
held the city of Takrit. In 417 H. Mu'tamid's own brother, 
Badran, joined another confederacy against him. This 
was headed by two other 'Okaylids, and Mu'tamid was 
only saved by the assistance of his former foe Gharib. 
An indecisive battle, followed by a theatrical recon- 
ciliation of the chief contending parties, closed the 
episode. 

It was shortly after these events that Jalal al Daulah, 
the Buwayhid, came to Baghdad; for his times and 
circumstances he was singularly ill-suited, yet singularly 
long-lived. Unable to compel even the Khaliph to his 
will, he could not control his own janissaries, much 
less intervene with effect in the welter of rivalries and 
conflicts around him. We find him struggling with Nur 
al Daulah Dubays, the Asadi chief, in 420 H., and with 
the 'Okaylid Kafia' in 421 H. The latter was in command 
of the town of Takrit, a place much desired by his 
cousin, Abu Sinan Gharib. Eafia' allied himself with 
Mu'tamid, and Gharib sought the help of the Buwayhid 



TWO COINS OF MESOPOTAMIA AND PERSIA. 185 

lord paramount. The two 'Okaylids defeated Jalal and 
Gharib, and consequently the ownership of Takrit 
remained unchanged. In 423 H. the Turkish guards of 
Jalal rose and drove him out of Baghdad. He fled to 
'Akbara, then in possession of Gharib, and after a sojourn 
of 43 days was permitted to return to his capital. In 
425 H. his powerful vassal and protector Gharib died, 
and in 427 H. another outbreak again forced the luckless 
Jalal to leave Baghdad. This time he sought refuge 
with Gharib's cousin Kafia' at Takrit. Kafia' dying 
later in the year, Jalal, on the receipt of 80,000 dinars, 
confirmed his nephew Khamis in the succession. The 
deaths of Kafia' and Gharib left the field clear for 
Mu'tamid Kirwash. He appears to have resolved to 
recover the towns held by the rival branch of his house, 
and to do this if possible without prejudice to his loyalty 
to the Bu way hid overlord. Probably he looked on 
Jalal as likely to become a useful tool, and hoped to 
establish an influence with him similar to that enjoyed 
by Abu Sinan Gharib. That he was successful in his 
attempt on 'Akbara is shown by our coin, which also 
proves his nominal loyalty to Jalal al Daulah. Takrit, 
however, was another matter ; here Jalal appears to have 
been pledged to support Khamis, and when Mu'tamid 
made his attack he was repelled by the combined forces 
of Jalal and Khamis. 

We can also discern other reasons inducing Mu'tamid 
not to break with Jalal al Daulah. During this period 
Imad al Din Abu Kalinjar would seem to have been 
extending and consolidating his power in the East. He 
had, however, taken no part in Western affairs. But by 
423 H. he appears to have come to the conclusion that 
his increased power required higher titles of dignity, 

VOL. III., SERIES IV. O 



186 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

and accordingly he demanded from the Khaliph a grant 
of the laqab, Sultan al 'Azam, Malik al Umara, a title 
reserved for the Khaliph himself. Al Kaim, the new 
Khaliph, of course refused this extravagant request, but 
granted the title of Malik al Daulah. Hitherto the career 
of 'Imad al Din between this event and his accession to 
the throne of 'Irak on the death of Jalal in 435 has been 
wrapped in obscurity. The discovery, however, of the 
first of the two coins dealt with in this article now 
enables us to hazard conjectures at any rate for one year 
of this period. It is dated 428 H. and purports to have 
been minted at Medinat al Sal am, i.e., Baghdad, the capital 
of the empire. Hence, judging from the general politi- 
cal conditions and from the known incapacity of Jalal al 
Daulah, we may suppose that, upon the second expulsion 
of the latter from Baghdad in 427 H., 'Imad al Din deter- 
mined to assert his own claims to the headship of the 
Buwayhid family and to the control of the Khaliph's 
dominions. Whether he actually came in person to 
Baghdad and there asserted his pretensions cannot be 
definitely stated, but from the data supplied by the 
coin under reference we may infer that in token of his 
supremacy he was at least able to have coins minted at 
Baghdad and to assume the title of Shahin-Shah. This 
honour was one that, perhaps in virtue of their reputed 
descent from the Great Kings of ancient Persia, com- 
mended itself to the Buwayhids in a peculiar degree. 
Nevertheless it was by its very nature not a title that 
each and every ruling prince in that family could 
assume as a matter of course. Its assumption implied 
either a right or a challenge. The right belonged to 
the just head of the house : the challenge might issue 
from such kinsman, as conceived his right superior to 



TWO COINS OF MESOPOTAMIA AND PERSIA. 187 

that of the de facto chief, or relied for his justification 
upon the extent and quality of his power and resources. 
The relationship between the various sections of the 
Buwayhid family seems not very unlike that which 
connected the different branches of the Talpur Mirs of 
Sind in the 18th and 19th centuries A.D. Just as each 
Talpur chief, whether at Khairpur or Mirpur Khas, 
maintained his own petty court, and worked, fought 
and intrigued for his own advantage, yet in theory and 
occasionaliy in the larger questions of practical politics 
admitted the ascendancy of the Hyderabad ruler, the 
Mirunjo Mir, so among the Buwayhids the ruler of 'Irak 
appears to have been generally the recognised head of 
the family, both as controller of the capital and of the 
Khaliph, and as usually the representative of the senior 
branch of the stock. Hence the assumption of the title 
Shahin-Shah by a Buwayhid who was not a ruler of 
'Irak could only; mean that the pretender disputed the 
right of the de facto holder to it, and intended sooner or 
later to enforce his own claims to the headship. 

The attitude of Mu'tamid Kirwash towards 'Imad al 
Din would not be difficult to guess. It was little to his 
interest that an ambitious and capable prince, backed by 
the power of possibly all Persia, should replace the 
feckless Jalal in Baghdad. Consequently we should 
expect that, at least until the might of 'Imad al Din 
proved insuperable, Mu'tamid would favour and support 
Jalal al Daulah. The inscriptions on the second of our 
two coins appear to confirm this expectation. At the 
very time that 'Imad al Din was challenging Jalal al 
Daulah for the supremacy and had perhaps gained a 
temporary hold of his capital, we find Mu'tamid vindicat- 
ing in his coinage the right of Jalal to the supreme title, 



188 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 

and acknowledging him as paramount, with no reference 
whatever to the pretender. For once the claims of interest 
coincided with the obligations of duty, and in such a 
case Mu'tamid was not the man to hold back. Indeed 
his loyalty appears almost excessive, for, combined with 
the title Shahin-Shah, occurs on this same coin the 
parallel designation Malik al Maluk, which in 429 H. 
Jalal was to beg from the Khaliph and almost to be 
refused. Mu'tamid, aware probably in 428 H. of Jalal's 
desire for this dignity, seemingly thought that he might 
anticipate the Khaliph's sanction. In so doing he erred, 
for Al Kaim (who quite possibly preferred 'Imad al Din 
to Jalal al Daulah on the ground that a strong master is 
better than a foolish one) at first refused Jalal's request, 
and eventually referred the case to a committee of jurists 
who after much dispute decided in favour of the grant. 
There is little doubt too that Mu'tamid was playing for 
his own hand. He recovered 'Akbara and also obtained 
for himself the new and unheard-of title " Sultan al 
Umara " (presumably the Khaliph wished to conciliate 
the strong men on both sides) ; and, in order perhaps not 
to arouse the suspicion and jealousy of Jalal, he seems to 
have sought to compensate on his coins for his own 
increased dignity by conferring brevet rank, so to say, on 
his overlord. 

Whether Mu'tamid was called upon to attest his some- 
what clamant loyalty by deeds, and whether 'Imad al Din 
and Jalal al Daulah settled their quarrel by an appeal to 
arms, we cannot say. The veil of history drops and does 
not lift again, so far as Abu Kalinjar is concerned, until 
the death of Jalal in 435 H. and 'Imad's own accession to 
the throne which he had challenged some seven years 
earlier. That he had not been successful in that 



TWO COINS OF MESOPOTAMIA AND PEESIA. 189 

challenge (as we must apparently infer was the case) may 
very probably have been due to the fact that it was 
premature, and that disturbances in his own dominions 
prevented him from reaping more permanent benefits 
from the temporary advantage which he appears to have 
gained. 

[For the main facts of the above sketch I am indebted 
to an article by Mr. H. C. Kay on the Banu 'Okayl in the 
Journal of the Koyal Asiatic Society of Great Britain, 
Oct. 1886, vol. xviii., part iv., and to Mr. S. Lane-Poole's 
" Mahomedan Dynasties." The statement re the request 
of 'Imad al Din for a new title in 423 is due to a note 
furnished by Mr. Amedroz through Dr. Codrington. I 
am specially indebted to the latter for help with the 
inscriptions.] 

J. G. COVEKNTON. 



2 



NOTICES OF EECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 



Medaillen der italieniscJien Renaissance. Von Cornelius von 
Fabriczy. Mit 181 Abbildungen. (Monographien des 
Kunstgewerbes IX.). Seemann, Leipzig, [1903]. 

Herr von Fabriczy's work is of considerably more im- 
portance to the study of Italian medals than would 
naturally be expected of a volume of little more than 
100 pages dealing in a popular way with the medallic art 
of Italy during the whole of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries. It is difficult to conceive how the origin and 
development of the art during this period could have been 
more clearly and effectively stated in a way intelligible to 
the person of artistic tastes who is without special training 
in numismatics. But the monograph is more than such 
a statement. It gathers up in a convenient form a good 
deal of new material, discovered since the appearance 
of Heiss and Friedlander's works, but scattered in various 
periodicals which, it is to be feared, seldom meet the eye of 
numismatists, at least in this country. I propose here to 
indicate some of the more important and interesting features 
of Herr von Fabriczy's work. We may pass over the intro- 
ductory portion, which of course owes much to the well- 
known article by von Schlosser in the Vienna Jahrbuch on 
the oldest medals and the antique. Under Pisanello, we 
meet with Venturi's attribution to this artist of the remark- 
able plaques with the portrait of Leone Battista Alberti ; of 
these, the author accepts the attribution to Pisanello only 
for the specimen in the Louvre, reserving his reasons for 
rejecting the others. The portrait is so fine that we would 
gladly accept its attribution to the greatest of all medallists ; 
but it will be hard to prove that its resemblance in style to 
the signed medals is more than superficial. The whole feeling 
of the piece, and the modelling of the features, are surely 
different from anything else known to be by Pisanello ; it is 
the work of a sculptor rather than of a medallist. But it 
will be interesting to see the author's views developed at 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 191 

greater length. The medallist who generally ranks next to 
Pisanello, Matteo de' Fasti, fares rather ill at Herr von 
Fabriczy's hands. True, he is a bad second to Pisanello, 
but the man who could produce the medals of Guarino 
and of Isotta da Kimini, and the view of the Castle of 
Rimini on the reverse of the medal of Sigismondo 
Malatesta, is a genius of high order. The Castle of Rimini 
is without doubt the finest representation of any architec- 
tural subject no easy task in the whole range of medallic 
art, and it is unfortunate that it is omitted from the 
illustrations in this volume. Matteo de' Pasti is however 
the only important artist in whose case we feel that the 
writer's appreciation is anything but just, although perhaps 
he is inclined to overrate the merits of Cristoforo di Geremia's 
Alfonso I. of Naples. Sperandio meets with most appropriate 
criticism. By a quaint misprint he is described (p. 42) as 
"der furchtbarste der Quattrocento-medailleure." At first 
sight, the epithet seems, in the sense of Setvoraros, most 
admirably to describe this exceedingly clever artist, with 
his showy, unrefined, and not over-scrupulous artistic 
method. It is disappointing to have to conclude that it is 
but a misprint for " fruchtbarste." In the matter of mis- 
prints we may note that on p. 43 Marescotti is twice called 
Marescalco. So much for questions of general criticism. Of 
new or comparatively new attributions, some are due to the 
author himself. One of the most plausible is that of the 
Magdalena Mantuana medal and others to L'Antico. Bode 
has attributed to Gian Cristoforo Romano the medals of 
Alfonso d'Este, his wife Lucrezia Borgia, and a lady named 
Jacopa Correggia. The first and the third of these attribu- 
tions are much less attractive than the second. To the 
same artist the writer attributes the medal of the young 
Cardinal Domenico Grimani with the figures of Theology 
and Philosophy, hitherto assigned to Gambello. Another 
plausible attribution gives the medals of Tomaso Rangone to 
Alessandro Vittoria. The coronation medal of Pope Alex- 
ander VI., classed by Friedlander with the works of 
Caradosso, is assigned with greater probability to Francia* 
The interesting medal of Federigo Montefeltre, by Paolo da 
Ragusa, is shown to belong to about 1450. It represents 
him with his nose still unbroken. The medal of Alfonso of 
Calabria is taken away from Guazzalotti and given to 
Bertoldo di Giovanni, to whom Bode had already attributed 
the Pazzi and other medals. Antonio Pollajuolo is thus 
erased from the list of known Italian medallists, and the 
same fate befalls Michelozzo. On the other hand, we are 



192 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

provided with a new medallist in the sculptor Adriano 
Fiorentino, a pupil of Bertoldo. To him are assigned the 
medal of Degenhart Pfeffinger, that of the crown prince 
Ferdinand, afterwards Ferdinand II., of Naples, with a w 
on the hat, the Urania medal of Grioviano Pontano, a medal 
of Cardinal Eaffael Kiario, and the well-known medals of 
Elisabetta Montefeltre, Duchess of Urbino, and of Emilia 
Pio. There is documentary evidence that he made the last 
two medals in 1495; the other attributions are based on 
stylistic grounds. 

We have said enough to show that no one interested 
in Italian medals can afford to neglect Herr von Fabriczy's 
book. The process illustrations are plentiful, and in most 
cases good of their kind; but it is unfortunate that the 
publishers should not have found it possible to make them 
all on the same scale as the originals. It is not always 
justifiable to enlarge coins and medals ; but in no case can 
their reduction be defended, except on the ground of 
economy. 

G. F. HILL. 



MISCELLANEA. 



ANCIENT BRITISH COINS OF YERULAMIUM AND CUNOBELINUS. 
Mr. William Ransom, F.S.A., possesses two ancient British 
coins in copper recently found in the neighbourhood of 
Sandy, Bedfordshire. 

The first is of Yerulamium, of the type of Evans, PI. 
XIII., 8, and XXL, 8. 

Obv. Convex. Wide-spread beardless head in profile to 
the right, in front AAAAAAA' tne wn l e 
within a beaded circle. 

Rev. Concave. Seated figure to the left, much as on 
PI. XXL, 8, but the exergue not visible. 

M 24J grains. 

This coin is of much interest as having the obverse 
perfectly preserved. Several specimens of the type are 
already known, but though the VER in the exergue of the 
reverse proved them to have been issued from the mint of 
Verulamium, the legend on the obverse was shrouded in 
mystery. And now that we have this well-preserved 
specimen, as to the legend, on which there is no room for 



MISCELLANEA. 193 

doubt, our knowledge can hardly be said to be increased. 
What seems to be a legend is in fact a meaningless zigzag, 
consisting of seven and a half repetitions of the letter V or 
of an /y without the bar. The question arises whether, 
after all, this is an original coin of Verulamium or a 
somewhat barbarous reproduction of one. In my collec- 
tion is a specimen showing the beaded circle in front of the 
upper part of the face, but with no legend whatever inside 
the circle. On another example in the same collection there 
are traces of a legend, the letters of which seem to vary, and 
not to present the unbroken uniformity exhibited on the 
coin now described. We must wait for further discoveries 
before the question as to the original legend can be regarded 
as definitely solved. 

The second coin is of Cunobelinus. 

Obv. Convex. CA(MV). An ear of bearded corn. 
Rev. Concave. (C)V(NO). Horse prancing to the left. 

M 72| grains. 

A specimen of this type is engraved in Evans, PI. XIII., 4. 
The coin belongs to a class of which several examples are 
known. Like the gold coins of Cunobelinus, they usually 
have the horse turned to the right instead of to the left. 
They seem to be ancient imitations of the gold coins and not 
legitimately to belong to the copper coinage, which consisted 
of pieces both smaller and lighter. Taylor Combe indeed 
mentions one of these pieces as having been formerly gilt and 
with the gold still adhering in places. J. E. 



AN UNPUBLISHED, OR UNIQUE HALF-CROWN OF CHARLES I. 
FROM THE EXETER MINT. It is with pleasure that I can 
report to the Numismatic Society the existence of one more 
variety of the beautiful and very rare Truncheon half-crown 
of Charles I., from the Exeter mint; which I believe is 
unique in its variety. 

The king is here represented with a three-quarter face, 
and with a truncheon in his right hand, and riding on a 
horse which is curvetting or capering, but not over arms 
as in Hawkins No. 1 ; and inasmuch as he is holding in his 
right hand a truncheon or baton, instead of a sword, it differs 
from the horse-capering specimens of Hawkins, Nos. 2 and 3 
of his list, and 488 of Plate XLI. The significance 
apparently intended by the peculiarities of "this device 
would seem to be that the king is holding out the baton of 



194 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

sovereignty, without trampling triumphantly over hostile 
arms. The legend also differs slightly from the other 
known Truncheon varieties and reads Obv. CAROLVS D : 
G : MAG BRIT - FRAN - ET HIB REX ; and Rev. CHRISTO f 
AVSPICE T REG NO (observe the marks which divide the 
words of the legend, and which differ from those on other 
Truncheon half-crowns). The reverse type is a shield of the 
parallelogram or square-oval shape characteristic of Exeter 
coins, and has the letters C R at its sides, with a lis over 
its top. The mint mark on both obverse and reverse is a rose 
that on the obverse being much smaller than the one on the 
reverse and the rose is not accompanied with pellets on its 
sides. It is probable that this coin was struck as a pattern, but 
in the striking the die seems to have been cracked, as a small 
flaw appears near one of the horse's legs, and this no doubt 
stopped its issue. The coin here described is in my 
collection, and is in very fine condition, and weighs just 
under 10 dwts. 

The late Mr. J. B. Bergne in 1849 (Num. Chron., vol. xii., 
page 63) called attention to two unpublished Exeter half- 
crowns of Charles I. with Truncheon, which are in the British 
Museum, and remarked that they were probably unique 
varieties. As regards one of them, which has the date, 1644, 
at the end of legend, instead of 1642, which is usually in a 
small compartment below the shield on the Truncheon type 
he was mistaken in thinking it was unique, for there is another 
specimen with this type and date, 1644, in my collection, 
which was formerly in the Marsham and Montagu collections. 

JONATHAN RASH LEIGH. 



THE MUGHAL MINTS IN INDIA. In his interesting paper 
on "Some Coins of the Mughal Emperors" (Num. Chron., 
1902, pp. 275 et seq.), Mr. M. Longworth Dames gives a list 
of mints added since the publication of the British Museum 
Catalogue. There are some errors and omissions in this list 
which appear worthy of note, as the list is the latest 
published. 

Page 278. Etawa should be struck out under Farrukh 
Siyar, and 'Azimabad under Ahmad Shah, as 
these mints were published in the B. M. C. 
Of the mints added by Mr. Dames from the coins in his 
paper the following have been already published : 

Aurangzeb . . . Katak (in copper, Lahore Museum). 
Bahadur Shah . . Ahmadabad (Dr. Taylor, Coins of 



MISCELLANEA. 



195 



Ahmaddbad,J.Tl.A..S.(Bomba,y Branch), 

vol. xx.). 
Jahandar .... Etawa (Lucknow Museum, Eeport 

1901-2). 
Farrukh Siyar . . Ahmadabad (Dr. Taylor's paper), 

Baraili (Lahore Museum). 

The following mints published since the B. M. C. was 
issued should be added. 



Akbar . 

Jahangir . 
Shah Jahan 



Aurangzeb 

Jahandar 

Rafi-ud-darjat 



Shah Jahan II. . 
Muhammad Shah 
Ahmad Shah . 
Alamgir II. . 

Shah Alam 



Akbar II. 



Satgaon (doubtful), Kashmir, Manik- 
pur , Nagar, Khairpur, Iqlim Jalal abad , 
Chatarkot, Ahmadnagar, Salemgarh- 
Ajtnlr. 

Udaipur, Narnol, Dogam, and Urdu 
dar rah i Dakhin. 

Ajmir, Udaipur, Aurangnagar, Patan 
Deo, Zafarabad, Zafarnagar, and 
Fathpur. 

Bairata, Malikanagar, and Hafizabad. 
Aurangabad, Patna and Kabul. 
Dr. Taylor has pointed out that 
Zmat-ul-bilad is the title of Ahmada- 
bad. 

Ahmadabad. 

Ujain, Bhakhar, and Kabul. 
Ahmadabad and Peshawar. 
Ahmadabad, Jaipur and Mah Indar- 
pur. 

Islamabad, Elichpur, Baroda, Bindra- 
ban, Bhakhar, Chachrauli, Kachrauli, 
Kanan, Gangpur and Kharpur. 
Gwaliar. 



Mr. Dames also repeats the late Mr. C. J. Rodger's reading 
of Dar-ul-barat Kandi. I have not seen the coin, but 
imagine it must read Dar-ul-barkat Nagpur. 

There are several inaccuracies in the map, which appeal- 
worth correcting. Audh (Ajodhya) is on the south, not the 
north bank of the Ghagra. Dogam is east, not west of 
Bahraich. Bairat should be near Alwar, not north of 
Saharanpur. Qamarnagar is surely Karnul in South India, 
not Karnal in the Punjab. 

Regarding the identifications on pp. 281-2, I would point 
out that Akbarpur in the Fyzabad district of Oudh has 
some claim to be taken as the mint town. I have a rupee 



196 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

of Shah Alam II. of the Islamabad mint on which Mathura 
also occurs. This does not prove that the Islamabad of the 
other coins was also Mathura, but may be considered an 
argument in its favour. In the Eeport of the Lucknow 
Museum for 1900-1901 it was pointed out that Mustafabad 
is probably Rampur, the chief town in the native state in 
Rohilkhand. The dates on the coins of this mint, of which 
I have seen several, all belong to the period when the 
Rohillas were in power. 

Mr. Dames does not show the position of Mominabad on 
the map, but I have a rupee of Shah Alam with the mint 
name Mominabad-Bindraban, though some writers have 
taken Mominabad in the Deccan as the mint-town. There 
will be several additions to be made in the lists of Mughal 
mints when the catalogue of the Lucknow Museum is 
complete, and there are other novelties in the collection of 
Mr. H. Nelson Wright and in my own. 

R. BURN. 



< Oirons. JerJTfolM PI. IV. 







CLASS II. 

(1189-1208) 




CLASS m. 

(1208 12)6 




CLASS IV. 

(1216-1222) 




CLASS V. 

(1222-1248) 








SHORT-CROSS PENNIES (HENRY H-ffl) 



VII. 
NOTES ON SOME PHOCIAN OBOL& 

(See Plate V.) . 

SOME time ago I acquired a number of these small coins* 
which came, I was informed, from a recent find iti 
Central Greece, in company with other obols and triobols 
of Phocis and many Athenian tetradfachms of the 
" refined archaic " type, i.e. of the period B.C. 525-430. 
Several of the obols now in my possession do not appear 
to be represented in our National Collection, and it may 
therefore be of interest to record them, with a few notes 
on their individual peculiarities, which consist not of 
any actual novelty in the types but of the wide diversity 
of their treatment and of the variations exhibited in both 
style and inscription. 

No. I.B.C. 550-480 (early), 

Oiv. Bull's head facing, of archaic style ; the horns 
straight ; forelock shown by circles. 

Rev. Forepart of boar to r. both forelegs shown, one 
extended, the other bent ; in incuse square. 

M. Obol. Wt. 13 grs. [PI. V., 1.] 

No. 2. 

Obv. Similar, but that the horns are shorter. 
Rev. Same. 

M. Obol. Wt. 14-5 grs. [PI. V., 2.] 

(The reverses of Nos. 1 and 2 are from the same die.) 

VOL. III., SERIES IV. P 



198 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 

No coins of the same early style appear to have been 
noticed* They are carelessly struck, of irregular shape 
and uninscribed, and the treatment of both obverse and 
reverse shows all the signs of an early period of art. 
This is especially noticeable on the reverse, which has a 
boar of a thin type that differs materially from the 
thickset, sturdy animal that took its place and is 
found on all later issues : it is also very conventional 
in treatment and so arranged as to fill the entire 
field, showing the "horror vacui" that characterises 
early art. 

These coins are, of course, later than those of the 
first known issue of B,C. 600-550, which have the bull's 
head with curved horns and the rough incuse reverse. 
Equally they should precede the inscribed coins with 
the bull's head of strong massive style and the reverse 
type of the thickset boar which in the British Museum 
Catalogue, Phocis, are given, tentatively, to the period 
B.C. 480-421. 

No obols have hitherto been definitely given to the 
intermediate period B.C. 550-480, but Mr. Head (B. M. 
Catalogue, Phocis, p. xxv.), in assigning to this period 
before the Persian wars the earliest inscribed coins 
triobols remarks that " it is probable that many of the 
smaller denominations described under the next period " 
(i.e. those with the bull's head of strong massive style 
and inscribed) " may belong to this." 

That they do so belong I feel certain, as they not 
only harmonise well with the triobols mentioned, but 
would also have supplied the necessary small coinage, 
and I would therefore suggest that to the earlier years of 
the period B.C. 550-480 belong such obols as are 
described above, and to the later years the coins with 



NOTES ON SOME PHOCIAN OBOLS. 199 

the bull's Lead of early massive style, such as is found 

on the two following obols : 

/ 
No. 3. B.C. 550-480 (late). 

Obv. Bull's head facing, of massive style; the forelock 
shown by circles. 

Rev. Forepart of boar to 1. * one 1 foreleg only shown, 
extended ; in front j all in incuse square. 

JR. Obol. Wt. 12 grs. [PI. V., 3.] 

So far as I can ascertain the British Museunl do&s 
not contain a piece of similar style or like arrangement 
of types. Both obverse and reverse show exceptional 
vitality of design and execution^ the reverse especially 
so. The type of the boar travelling to the left is an 
uncommon variety. 

No. 4. B.d. 550-480 (late). 

Obv. Bull's head facing, of massive style ; the fdrelock 
shown by lines : at sides Q O- 

Rev. Forepart of boar to r. } one 1 foreleg shown, extended j 
in incuse square. 

JR. Obol, Wt. 15 grs. [PL V., 4.] 

I have included this obol on account of the very 
unusual treatment of the eyebrows of the bull. At first 
sight it appears that this is due to a curious flaw in the 
die, 1 as it is unnatural to find the eyebrows carried 
straight down, instead of round, and then united over 
the nasal bone, but there are .no traces of the usual 
double or triple concentric rings round the eye, nor are 
these carried round as on coins otherwise similar, and I 

1 Mr. Head thinks that there is a flaw in the die. 

p 2 



200 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

am therefore inclined to regard it as ^,n attempt at 
novelty of treatment. 

No. 5. B.C. 480-421. LILABA. 

Obv. Bull's head facing, of late massive style ; the forelock 
shown by circles ; above A I. 

Rev. Forepart of boar to r. ; both forelegs shown, one 
extended, the other bent ; in incuse square. 

M. Obol. Wt. 15 grs. [PI. V v 5.] 

This coin, which is of rather indifferent workmanship, 
is unpublished and may, as is indicated by the inscrip- 
tion (which, though marred by faulty striking, is quite 
distinct), be assigned to Lilaea, an important Phocian 
town, of which the following coins have already been 
noted : 

(a) Obv. Tete de bceuf de face. 

Rev. Al devant une tete de femme a droite, de style 
archai'que, ceinte d'une bandelette et d'un collier 
perle ; carre creux. 

JR. Triobol. Wt. 2-88 grms. 2 
(Imhoof-Blumer, Monn. Grec., p. 150.) 

(b) Obv. Bull's head facing. 

Rev. A I Head of Apollo to r. ; the whole in flat sunk 
square. 

JR. Triobol. Size 2J. 
(H. P. Borrell, Num. Chron., vi., p. 124.) 

(c) A bronze coin with the inscriptions AT and <I>f2KEQN. 

(Prokesch-Osten., Num. ZeitscJir., 1870, p. 268.) 

2 I have recently acquired a similar triobol : it has on the reverse the 
letters A I in the upper right-hand corner: the bull's head on the obverse 
bears a star, as on Nos. 6 and 7. 



I 







NOTES ON SOME PHOCIAN OBOLS. 201 

Of these the first only would appear to be contempo- 
rary with the obol now mentioned, and it is interesting 
to note that, though the coins of the individual Phocian 
cities are rarely to be met with, the few examples known 
cover nearly every period of the coinage. 

The town of Lilaea was situated near Parnassus, at 
the source of the river Cephisus, and received its name 
from the daughter of the river-god. Strabo refers to it 
(Phoeis, iii. 16), as does Pausanias, who calls it about a 
day's journey from Delphi. It is twice mentioned by 
Homer (Iliad, ii. 453 and 523), and appears to have escaped 
the common fate of the Phocian towns at the hands of 
Xerxes, though the close of the Sacred War saw it razed 
to the ground. It was subsequently rebuilt, and suffered 
siege at the hands of Philip, son of Demetrius (Paus. 
x. 23). That it was a place of some account may be 
gathered from the description of its buildings, which 
included a theatre, baths, an agora and temples of 
Apollo and Artemis, with statues of Attic workmanship. 

No. 6. B.C. 480-421. 

Obv. Bull's head facing, of late massive style ; the forelock 
shown by lines ; between the eyes a star ; above 
CD - O. 

Rev. Forepart of boar to r. ; both forelegs shown, one 
extended,, one bent ; in incuse square. 

JR. Obol. Wt. 14-5 grs. [PI. V., 6.] 

A coin with a different reverse but with an almost similar 
obverse is to be seen in the British Museum (B. M. Cat., 
Phoeis, No. 49) ; the bull's head, however, lacks the dis- 
tinguishing mark of the star, which may have been some 
natural mark essential to the sacrificial bull alluded to 
by Mr. Head (Hist. Num., p. 287); or some votive orna- 



202 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

ment or decoration like the fillets found on later coins. 
On certain coins of Poly rhenium in Crete (B. M. Cat., 
pi. xvi.) an obviously artificial star or rosette is found on 
the bull's head, which is also filleted ; but here the mark 
Appears more natural, as it also does on two coins of 
Eretria in Euboea (J5. M- Cat, Nos. 13 and 14 ; pi. xxii., 
5 and 6), though in their case the rays of the star are 
curved. 

It may be of interest to note that the .bull's head on 
the Eretrian coins is attributed (B. M. Cat., Central 
Greece, p. 1.) to the worship of Artemis Amarynthia, and 
in referring to the coinage of folyrhenium, Mr. Wroth 
(J5 M. CaL, Crete, p. xxix.) remarks that " at Polyrhenium 
the Cretan Artemis wftg venerated as Diktynna." It is 
allowed that the female head on the triobols and the 
boar on the obols indicate the worship of Artemis, and it 
seems possible on the analogy of the Polyrhenian and 
Euboean coins that the bull's head may have the same 
intention (the horns, especially on the earliest coins, 
might well suggest a lunar symbolism) ; the sacrificial 
and symbolic sides being thus combined.- On the other 
hand, we have the references to the eponymos Phokos 
and to the bull of Neoptolemos (Head, Hist. Num., 
p. 287) and also the possibility suggested by Plutarch's 
statement that Theseus sacrificed the Marathonian 
bull to the Delphinian Apollo. The place of this last 
sacrifice was, of course, the Delphinion at Athens, dedi- 
cated in the joint names of Apollo and Artemis (Pollux, 
viii. 118), and with a special maiden service to Artemis 



3 In his monograph on " Samoa and Samian Coins," p. 16, Professor 
Gardner draws attention to the worship of Artemis Tauropolos at Samos, 
and refers to the possible connection of the bull on the coinage with that 
divinity. 



NOTES ON SOME PHOCIAN OBOLS. 203 

Delphinia (Harrison, Ancient Athens, p. 206). In all 
probability the Cretan and Marathonian bulls had a 
common origin (Harrison, ibid., Introduction) and we 
know that " on many Cretan coins Minos slides off into 
the Dorian Apollo " (Head, Hist. Num., p. 383), so that 
the bull's head, perhaps originating in the legend, may 
represent one or both of the twin divinities of Sun and 
Moon. 

No. 7, B,C. 480-421. 

Obv. Bull's head facing, of late massive style; forelock 
shown by waved lines; between eyes a star; in 

I K 

the four corners Q _ Q 

jSev. Forepart of boar to r. ; both forelegs shown, one 
extended, one bent ; in incuse square, 

JR. Obol. Wt. 15 grs. [PI. V., 7.] 

This is the only obol that I have met with that bears 
on the obverse the four-lettered inscription (as to its 
possible appearance on the reverse, see Nos. 11 and 12.). 

Like the preceding coin, No. 6, it bears the mark 
of the star between the bull's eyes. 

No. 8. B.C. 480-421. 

Obv. Bull's head facing, of late massive style; forelock 
shown by circles : at sides 4> (O). 

Rev. Forepart of boar to 1. ; one foreleg only shown, 
extended ; in incuse square. 

JR. Obol. Wt. 15 grs, [PI. V., 8.] 

I have included this coin, though its parallel exists 
in the British Museum (Cat., Phocis, No. 46, pi. iii., 13), 
on account of the lettering, which is of considerable 
epigraphic interest, as it shows the change from the 
old self-contained form of to the later one with the 
prolonged hasta. Mr. Head remarks (B. M. Catalogue, 



204 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

P. xxyi.) that this change first occurs on the bronze 
coins of the period B.C. 371-357, bearing the head of 
Pallas, but with all deference I think he must have 
overlooked the Museum specimen, as there can be no 
possible doubt of its earlier date, nor of that of the coin 
now noticed. On a triobol also, in my collection, of 
about B.C. 480 [Pl f V., 9], with the inscription <t>OKl, the 
later form is clearly shown. 

The same change occurs on coins of about the same 
period, i.e. B.C. 480-400 (B. M. Cat., Thessaly, pi. x., 
Nos. 1 and 2 and 4-7), of Pherae Pelasgiotis in Thessaly, 
which state was continuously in contact with and a 
rivaj, of Phocis. On the coins of Pharae in Boeotia the 
change took place between B.C. 480 and 387. The new 
form would therefore seem to have been introduced in 
Phocis and the neighbouring states in the early part of 
the fifth century. 

No. 10. B.C. 480^431. 

Obv. Bull's head facing, of late massive style ; the forelock 
shown by waved lines : at sides - O. 

Eev. Forepart of boar to r.- both forelegs shown, 
extended; in incuse square. 

M. Obol. Wt. 15-5 grs. [PI. V., 10.] 

The reverse type, the boar galloping with both fore- 
legs outstretched, has not, I think, been published 
before. 

No. 11. B.C. 480-421 (late). 
Obv. Bull's head facing, of late style. 

Eev. Forepart of boar to 1. ; one foreleg shown, extended ; 
above, in 1. corner, indistinct letter or symbol ; 
below, in r. corner I (?). 

M. Obol. Wt. 16 grs. [PI. V., 11.] 



NOTES ON SOME PHOCIAN OBOLS. 205 

The interest of this coin lies mainly in the late style 
of the treatment of the obverse, no example of which 
is in the British Museum. 

The object in the field on the reverse appears to be 
or to have been a letter; unfortunately, it is almost 
illegible, though it most nearly resembles a K. If so, 
it might help us with regard to the reading Kl suggested 
for the two coins next described, the more so as possibly 
the head of an I can be made out behind the boar's 
shoulder. Should this be the case the position of the 
letters would seem to eliminate the chance of the 
inscription <I>OKl, but in view of the uncertainty of the 
evidence, and also of the fact that, though the obverse 
of our ' coin resembles that of No. 13, the reverse is 
dissimilar, I have thought it advisable to speak of 
Nos. 12 and 13 by themselves. 

There is, of course, the alternative that the object may 
be a symbol, examples of which occur on the Phocian 
coins and are referred to under No. 14. 

No. 12. B.C. 480-421 (early). KIRRHA (?). 
Obv. Bull's head facing, of late massive style. 

Mev. Forepart of boar to r. ; one foreleg only shown, 
extended ; below I K , all in incuse square. 

M. Obol. Wt. 12 grs. [PL V., 12.] 

No. 13. B.C. 480-421 (late). KIRRHA (?). 
Obv. Bull's head facing, of late style (as No. 11). 

I$ev. Forepart; of boar to r, ; one foreleg shown, extended \ 
below I K ; all in incuse square. 

JR. Obol. Wt. 14 grs. [PI. V., 13.] 

I have bracketed these two coins together, as, though 
their obverses are of different periods, their reverses are 



206 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

alike and bear the same inscription, and perhaps point 
to an addition to the growing number of those Phocian 
towns which struck money in their own name. Unfor- 
tunately, through faulty striking, neither is as distinct 
as could be desired, and, although it seems to me that 
the coins when taken together form a fairly complete 
whole, I shall be glad to know if any collector possesses 
such a specimen as may determine the question. 

Of the two coins the older one (No. 12) reads Kl very 
clearly in the lower part of the field, but, unfortunately, 
the upper portion, owing to defective striking, is 
missing, and a slight abrasion of the edge, where further 
lettering might be looked for, only adds to the difficulty. 

On the later coin (No. 13) the front portion of the 
field is intact ; in the lower part the K is again quite 
clear, and, as on No. 12, traces of the I are visible 
behind the boar's shoulder. In the front upper part it 
has been suggested to me that faint traces of an O 
appear, but, though this would greatly simplify the 
reading, I fear that I cannot decipher it myself; while 
the K and upper part of the I are distinct, in high relief 
and well away from the edge of the incuse, the assumed 
traces of the O are most irregular, exceedingly faint, 
and placed on the very slope of the incuse, where, if 
anywhere, they should have been protected from wear, 
and are, I think, nothing but a slight fortuitous rough- 
ness common to most of the Phocian coins. On neither 
coin does there appear to be any space for the o 
necessary to complete the suggested inscription. Of 
course, if the O could be clearly read there would be 
little doubt that the intended inscription was (0)OKI, as 
is found on triobols of the period and on the obverse of 
No. 7, and though no other obols are known with the 



NOTES ON SOME PHOCIAN OBOLS. 207 

four-lettered inscription on the reverse there is no reason 
why these coins may not (like No. 7) be the first 
examples of the reading to be made known. Failing 
the reading (DOKl r which I cannot think these coins in 
any way bear out, it may be well to consider the 
alternative Kl. That it is not a case of an inscription 
begun on one side and continued on the other (as on 
coins of Phlius, Larissa, Thyrreion, Lampsacus, etc.) is 
clear, since the obverses are devoid of lettering. The 
older coin, No. 12, might possibly have been held to be 
a mule, but that the later one, No. 13, bears no sign of 
any inscription on the obverse, nor does the only one 
with a similar obverse that I know of, i.e. No. 11. 

It seems to me more probable that we have in the 
Jetters Kl the initial part of the name of another Phocian 
town, previously unknown as a mint, striking coins with 
the common federal type and its own distinguishing 
letters, parallels for which are found in the neighbour- 
ing Boeotia and also among the cities of the Achaean 
League. Coins with the letters Al, EA, AE, AN and NE 
(an obol, not a trihemiobol, as mentioned in the Hist. 
Num., p. 290) have been previously assigned to the 
Phocian towns of Lilaea, Elatea, Ledon, Anticyra and 
Neon, so there is no novelty in the suggestion, and 
should the letters be ultimately found to read Kl, a 
suitable attribution would be to Kirrha, the seaport of 
Delphi, famous in history as the cause of the first Sacred 
War, and as the centre for the pilgrim traffic to Delphi 
from the south of Greece. 



While a general survey of the coins mentioned con- 
firms the federal character of the Phooian coinage, as 
already pointed out by Mr. Head, and the conservatism 



208 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

of its types, it will, I think, be allowed that they suggest 
several points of interest, and give us some further 
material for a knowledge of Phocian numismatics. 
Even the steady adherence to the old types, though 
somewhat monotonous, is of considerable assistance in 
that it enables us to see more clearly the main steps 
taken in the progress of art and thus to arrange the 
coins in a probable sequence. 

The different phases of art that they exhibit and the 
great number of minor variations in treatment (e.g. that 
of the bull's forelock) point to an extension of the period 
suggested (B.C. 480-421) for the date of their issue, as 
the 60 years are too few to allow for the artistic progress 
and decline shown on the coins before us. 

As already mentioned, I am disposed to place at the 
commencement of the period B.C. 550-480 such coins as 
Nos. 1 and 2, and to the later part advance the earlier 
obols of the " strong massive " type, as Nos. 3 and 4. 
To the earlier years of the next period, B.C. 480-421, 
appear to belong the coins of the late massive style, as 
Nos. 5-8, 10 and 12, and to the later years such as 
Nos. 11 and 13 ; these last I should be inclined to put 
even later were it not that the old form of incuse 
remains unchanged, and also for the presence (by- 
report) in the hoard of the Athenian tetradrachms, the 
date of which agrees with the periods indicated. 

No. 14. 

Obv. Bull's head facing ; forelock shown by circles ; traces 
of O at sides. 

Rev. Forepart of boar to r. ; both forelegs shown, extended; 
above, two olive leaves and berry ; all in shallow 
incuse. 

M. Obol. Wt. 12 grs. [PI. V., 14.1 



NOTES ON SOME PHOCIAN OBOLS. 209 

I have described this obol by itself, as it came from 
another source than those previously mentioned, from 
which it differs greatly in style. It is struck on a con- 
siderably larger and thinner flan, with a very shallow 
and almost circular incuse; the treatment also is 
different and of later style. The reverse type is un- 
published (it is altogether different from No. 10), and 
gains in interest from the presence of the olive spray 
resembling that found on the Athenian coinage ; this 
same symbol occurs on another but different obol in the 
British Museum (No. 49) of the period B.C. 480-421. 

Symbols on Phocian coins are of rare occurrence, but 
the following are quoted in the B. M. Catalogue : 

No. 49. Olive spray. Obol. B.C. 480-421. 

No. 55. Dolphin. Obol. B.C. 421-371. 

No. 58. Ivy branch. Obol. B.C. 421-371. 

No. 78. Lyre. Triobol. B.C. 357-346. 

No. 87. Laurel branch. Triobol. B.C. 357-346. 

It is interesting to note that all these symbols are of 
an Apolline character; some, as the olive and dolphin, 
occur as types on the coinages of Phocis and Delphi ; 
the ivy leaf is present on two Delphian coins in the 
Museum (Cat., Nos. 20 and 21), and the lyre and laurel 
are well known in their connection with the god. 

It is not easy to account for their presence; the 
infrequency of their appearance over so extended a 
period and their persistent religious character are un- 
favourable to the view that they may be magistrates* 
symbols ; for the same reasons they can hardly be the 
mintmarks of the various federal cities, of which all 
the coins hitherto attributed are inscribed, and to none 
of which do the various symbols seem applicable with 



210 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the possible exception of the dolphin, to Delphi, which 
had, however, at that period (B.C. 421-371) a coinage of 
its own. That the coins bearing them were struck on 
the various occasions when the Phocians occupied 
Delphi is improbable, as the majority of them belong to 
the period after the peace of Nikias when the " splendid 
isolation" of Delphi was confirmed. The theory of 
foreign alliances being indicated helps us no further, as, 
with the exception of the olive, the symbols seem 
unconnected with any state. The present coin 4 might, 
perhaps, be an exception, as it differs so remarkably 
from the other Phocian coins, but I think it is more 
advisable to class it with the others, and, in view of the 
apparent references to Apollo, to regard the symbols as 
of religious significance either as to the place of issue (as 
some temple) or to the occasion, which might be that of 
some special festival. 

NEVILLE LANGTON. 



4 It is noteworthy how exactly the olive spray resembles that on the 
Athenian coinage, and there are several occasions of alliance between the 
two states which might have been thus recorded, e.g. in B.C. 448-431, etc. 
Samian coins bearing an olive spray have been assigned by Prof. Gardner 
to the period of the Athenian conquest in B.C. 439, but in the present case 
we have no such decisive evidence of suzerainty. 



VIII. 

CLASSIFICATION CHKONOLOGIQUE DES 

SIONS MONE1TAIKES DE L'ATELIER DE 
NICOMEDIE PENDANT LA PERIODS CON- 
STANTINIENNE. 

(Voir Planches VI., VII.) 

LA province de Bithynie, dans laquelle se trouvait 
Tatelier de Nicomedie, faisait partie des etats de Galere 
lors de 1'abdication des empereurs Diocletien et Maximien 
Hercule, qui eut lieu le l er Mai 305 a Nicomedie meme 1 
pour Diocletien et a Milan pour Maximien Hercule. 
Dans la nouvelle tetrarchie qui fut constitute avec 
Galere et Constance Chlore Augustes, Severe et Maximin 
Daza Cesars, Galere conserva 1'Illyrie, la Thrace et 
la Bithynie, 2 et 1'atelier de Nicomedie resta dans ses 
etats jusqu'a sa mort en 311. La Bithynie, province 
voisine de celle d'Asie, avait eu le meme systeme 
monetaire qu'elle sous le haut empire. 3 A 1'epoque qui 
nous occupe, mais a partir de Tannee 306 seulement, 

1 Lactantii de Mortibus Persecutorum, cap. ix. : " Cum haec essent con- 
stituta, procedit kalendis Mails." Eutropii brev., ix. 27 : " Tamen uterque 
una die private habitu imperil insigne mutavit, Nicomediae Diocle- 
tianus, Herculius Mediolani." Aurelius Victor, Epitome, 33 ; Zonaras, 
xii. 32. 

2 Anonymus Valesii, iii. 5 : " Maximino datum est orientis imperium ; 
Galerius sibi Illyricum, Thracias et Bithyniam tenuit." 

3 Mommsen, Histoire de la Monnaie Romaine; traduction Blacas f 
tome iii,, p. 310. 



212 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

les ateliers de Cyzique en Asie et de Nicomedie en 
Bithynie frapperent le meme sigle (CMH, qui indique la 
valeur du follis), sur leurs pieces de bronze. Les memes 
legendes et les memes types furent egalement inscrits et 
represented sur les bronzes des deux ateliers, bien qu'ils 
appartinsent a deux empereurs differents, Galere et 
Maximin Daza. 

PREMIERE EMISSION. 

Frappee depuis V abdication de Diocletien et de Maximien 
Hereule le l er Mai 305 jusqu'a TeUvation de Licinius 
Auguste le 11 Novembre 308. 

Cette emission se divise chronologiquement en deux 
parties dont la premiere fut emise depuis 1'abdication de 
Diocletien et Hereule jusqu'a Felevation de Severe II 
au rang d' Auguste, qui suivit la mort de Constance 
Chlore, laquelle survint le 25 Juillet 306. La seconde 
partie de 1'emission parut apres 1'elevation de Severe II 
au rang d' Auguste. 

Les grands bronzes, ou folles, de la premiere partie de 
cette emission sont les memes que ceux qui etaient 
frappes a la fin du regne de Diocletien ; ils pesent en 
moyenne 10 grammes, et ont 25 a 26 millimetres de 
diametre. Ceux de la seconde partie de 1'emission n'ont 
qu'un diametre moyen de 22 millimetres. Les pieces 
d'or sont toutes taillees sur le pied de l/60 me a la livre 
d'or; c'est a dire qu'elles ont un poids normal de 
5 gr. 45 c. 4 Je parlerai plus loin des sigles qui se 
trouvent sur ces different es pieces. L'atelier de Nico- 
medie n'a que deux officines ouvertes au cours de cette 
premiere emission. 

4 E. Babelon, Traite des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines, l er volume^ 
p, 530. 



L'ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 213 

PREMIERE PARTIE DE I/EMISSION. 

Frappee depuis le l er Mai 305 jusqu'au 25 Juillet 306 
et caracterisee par les pieces de Constantius I (Constance 
Chlore). 

Exergues des pieces de bronze de la premiere partie 
de remission : 



SMNA SMNB 

Ces exergues doivent se lire "Sacra Moneta Niko- 
mediae " ; officines A et B. 

On trouve 

I. Au revers. La legende GENIO . POPVLI - ROM AN I, et 
comme type le Genie coiffe du modius, a demi 
mi, debout a gauche, tenant une patere d'oii la 
liqueur coule et urie corne d'abondance. 

Au droit. 1. IMP C - FL - VAL CONSTANTIVS - P . 
F AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 102 ; 
off. B ; BR. Mus. ; Voetter. [PL VI., No. 1.] 

2. IMP C GAL VAL - MAXIMIANVS P F AVG. 

Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 81; off. A; 
BR. Mus. ; 25 m.m. ; Voetter. 

3. GAL VAL MAXIMINVS - NOB CAES. Sa tete lauree 

a droite. Cohen, 81 ; off. B; BR. Mus. 

4. FL VAL SEVERVS NOB CAES. Sa tete lauree 

a droite. Cohen, 27 ; off. A ; Voetter. 

La legende Genio Populi Eomani caracterise les 
emissions sorties de 305 a 308 des ateliers de Galere 
(Serdica, Siscia, Nikomedia), et de ceux de Maximin Daza 
(Cyzicus, Antiochia, Alexandria). 

II. Au revers. VIRTVTI EXERCITVS et comme type 
MarSj le manteau flottant, marchant a droite, 
portant une haste et un trophee. 
VOL. III., SERIES IV. Q 



214 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Au droit. IMP C GAL - VAL MAXIMIANVS P F 
AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 231 ; 
BR. Mus. ; off. A. 

Les monnaies d'abdication de Diocletien et de Maxi- 
mien Hercule, d'apres les recherches de Friedrich Kenner 
et les miennes, n'ont pas ete emises a Nicomedie, dont 
1'emission presente ne comprend que les pieces de Con- 
stance Chlore, Galere, Severe, Maximin Daza, puis apres 
la mort de Constance Chlore celles de Constantin. 



PIECES D'OR FAISANT PARTIE DE LA PREMIERE 
PARTIE DE L'EMISSION. 

Ces pieces presentent a la fin de la legende du revers 
le sigle N< compose de deux lettres du nom de Nt/eo/^Saa, 
ou Nikomedia. 

Elles presentent toutes 1'exergue ' et sont de 

SMN 

1'espece du l/60 me a la livre d'or. 

On trouve 

I. Au revers. ipVI - CONSERVATORI N<. Jupiter laure, 
demi-nu, debout a gauche, le manteau rejete en 
arriere, tenant un foudre dans la main droite et 
appuye de la gauche sur un sceptre. 

Au droit. 1. MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS. Sa tete lauree 
a gauche. Cohen, 374 de Hercule, attribuable 
a Galere ; H. Mus. V. ; 5 gr. 35 c. 

2. Piece de Constantin (voir Fr. Kenner). 

II. Au revers. MARTI PATRI - N<. Mars debout a 
gauche, appuye sur un bouclier et tenant une 
haste. 

Au droit. SEVERVS - NOB CAES. Sa tete lauree a 
droite. Cohen, 55 ; coll. Trau ; 5 gr. 43 c. 



L'ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 215 

III. Au refers. SOLI INVICTO - N<. Le Soleil radie, 
debout de face, regardant a droite, le manteau 
deploy e derriere lui, levant la droite et tenant 
un fouet. 

Au droil. MAXIMINVS CAESAR. Sa tete lauree a droite. 
Cohen, 163 ; BE. Mus. ; H. Mus. V., No. 25097; 
coll. Trau j 5 gr. 30 c. ; 20 m.m. 

DEUXIEME PARTIE DE I/EMISSIOff. 

Frappee posterieurement a la mort de Constance Chlore 
le 25 Juillet 306 et a Televation de Severe au rang 
d'Auguste et de Constantin a celui de Cesar. 

Les folles ou monnaies de bronze de cette partie de 
1'emission sont d'un pied monetaire moindre .que les 
precedents. Us n'ont en moyenne qu'un diametre de 
22 millimetres et un poids moyen de 7 gr. 50 c. a 
8 gr. On y lit, inscrit a la fin de la legende du revers 
de ces especes le sigle CMH. La coincidence de la 
diminution du poids des monnaies de bronze avec 
1'apparition du sigle CIVH a fait admettre a Friedrich 
Kenner que ce sigle etait 1'expression d'une valeur qu'il 
lit CMX ou 900 deniers de bronze, le signe du denier se 
trouvant incompletement represente dans le monogramme. 
La difference du chiffre de 900 avec celui de 600, qui est 
le nombre des deniers de bronze contenus dans un 
aureus ou piece du l/60 me a la livre d'or dans le systeme 
de Diocletien, resulterait, d'apres Kenner, de 1'adoption 
a Nicomedie de poids locaux/ La livre d'or en usage, 
ou talent, peserait non pas 328 grammes mais486 grammes, 
et contiendrait non pas 60 aurei ou pieces d'or mais 90 ; 6 

5 Friedrich Kenner, Die altesten Prdgungen der Munztflitte Nicomedia, 
Numismatische Zeitschrift, 189 1, pnbliee en 1895, tome xxvi., pp. 5 k 9. 

6 De plus Kenner remarque que le poids grec, le statere, etant de 
8 grammes, son 6 me ou Hecte de 1 gr. 85 c., 4 Hecte' font un aureus de 
5 gr. 40 c. ; et qu'il y a 90 aurei de 5 gr. 40 c. chaque dans une livre d'or 
de Nicomcdie de 486 grammes. 

Q 2 



216 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

les deniers de bronze varieraient dans la meme proportion 
de 600 a 900 pour un aureus. De cette fapon s'expli- 
querait tout a la fois le sigle inscrit sur les pieces d'or 
et celui qu'on lit sur les bronzes. En effet le sigle 
NKYXC qu'on lit sur les pieces d'or (aurei) se compose 
de N<, sigle de Mkomedia deja signale, du chiffre 90, XC, 
qui indiquerait la division de la livre en aurei, et du 
sigle Jj^ compose d'un V et d'un L, que Kenner propose 
de lire Librae Valore. L'explication de Friedrich Kenner 
a Ta vantage de donner une traduction tres vraisemblable 
et complete des deux sigles de Nicomedie ; c'est pourquoi 
elle me semble preferable aux autres explications 
tentees. 7 

MONNAIES DE BRONZE. 

Exergues : 

SMNA SMNB 

On trouve 

I. An revers. GEN IO POPyLl ROMANI - CIVH. Avec le 
type du revers deja decrit avec la legende Genio 
Populi Romani. 

Au droit. 1. IMP C - GAL VAL . MAXIMIANVS P F 
AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 82 ; 
collection. Lichtenstein au H. Mus. V. ; off. A. 

2. GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB - CAES. Tete ana- 
logue. Cohen, 80 ; off. B ; BR. Mus. ; Musee 
de Berlin; Yoetter; pieces de 22 m.m. 



7 Notamment & celle de Friedlaender dans la Zeitschrift fiir Numis- 
matik, tome ii., 1875, p. 15, a celle de Missong, meme Zeitschrtft, 
tome vii., 1880, pp. 251, 262, 287, qui ne tiennent compte toutes deux 
que d'une partie du sigle des pieces d'or ; et meme a celle de John Evans, 
(Numismatic Chronicle, 188G, pp. 282 et 283) qui est une hypothese 
inge'nieuse qui aurait besoin d'etre confirmee de la reunion de deux 
chiffres 55 ou Y et 90 ou XC, exprimant la taille de Vaureus dans 1'atelier 
de Nicomedie et son rapport a la taille romaine. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 217 

Les pieces analogues de Severe Augusts et de Con- 
stantin n'ont pas ete rencontrees jusqu'ici. 

II. Au revers. VIRTVTI - EXERCITVS CIVH. Avec le revers 
deja decrit avec cette legende. 

Au droit. 1. IMP C GAL - VAL MAXIMIANVS - P - F - 
AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 232; 
Voetter ; off. A. 

2. GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES. Tete ana- 
logue. Piece inedite ; Voetter ; off. B. 



PIECES D'OR APPARTENANT A LA SECONDE PARTIE 

DE L'EMISSION. 

Avec 1'exergue -gL- 

On trouve 

I. Au revers. IOVI CONSERVATORI N<MXC. Le type 
deja decrit avec la legende lovi Conservatori. 

Au droit. MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS. Sa tete lauree a 
droite. Cohen, 375; de Hercule, attribuable 
aGalere; H. Mus. V. 

II. Au revers. HERCVLI VICTOR I N<. Hercule nu, 
debout a droite, appuye sur sa massue et tenant 
de la main gauche la peau de lion et cinq 
pommes. 

Au droit. SEVERVS AVGVSTVS. Sa tete lauree a 
droite. Cohen, 50 ; H. Mus. V., No. 25053 ; 
5 gr. 40 c. ; BE. Mus. [PI. VI., No. 2.] 

Cette piece demontre que le sigle NK, le plus simple 
des deux, continue a etre inscrit sur certaines pieces 
d'or au cours de cette seconde partie de 1'emission, 
tandis que le sigle NCYXC 1'etait le plus sou vent. 
L'on peut remarquer egalement que Severe II, qui avait 
re9u 1'heritage de Maximien Hercule, etait un prince de 
la dynastie Herculeenne afnsi que Constantin, tandis que 



218 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Maximin Daza et Licinius, qui repurent le pouvoir des 
mains de Galere, heritier de Diocletien, et furent adoptes 
par lui, etaient des princes de la dynastie Jovienne. 

III. Au revers. SOU 1NVICTO N<YXC. Le Soleil radie, 

a demi nu, debout de face, regardant a droite, 
le inanteau deploye derriere lui, levant la droite 
et tenant un fouet. 

Au droit. MAXIMINVS CAESAR. Sa tete lauree a droite. 
Cohen, 164; FR. No. 1496; 5 gr. 20 c. ; 
20 m.m. ; coll. Trail ; 5 gr. 30 c. [PI. VI., 
No. 3.] 

Les effigies des Nos. 2, 3, 4 et 5 reproduisent, toutes, 
les traits de Galere, dans lea etats duquel se trouve 
1'atelier jusqu'en 31 1. 8 

IV. Au revers. MARTI PATRI N<XXC. Mars debout a 

gauche, en habit militaire, tenant de la main 
droite un bouclier a terre et appuye de la 
gauche sur une haste. 

Au droit. CONSTANTINVS CAESAR. Sa tete lauree a 
droite ; variete de Cohen 357 ; Musee de Turin ; 
coll. Trau; 5 gr. 15 c. 

La piece de Cohen No. 357 est semblable a celle-ci, 
si ce n'est qu'elle ne presente a la fin de la legende du 
revers que le sigle le plus simple, c'est a dire le mono- 
gramme de Nicomedie seul, soit N<. II est certain que 
toutes les pieces d'or de cette serie se presentent avec 
1'un et 1'autre des deux sigles indiques. 

L'on peut indiquer comme piece barbare imitee de 

celles de Nicomedie et portant 1'exergue J la suivante : 

V. Au revers. SO LVN VI CTO (we) N<YXC. Avec le type 
deja decrit avec la legende Soli Invicto. 

8 Voir sur ces emprunts d'eflBgie par les empereurs du iv me siecle 
mon article sur I' Atelier Monetaire d'Alexandrie, dans la Numismatic 
Chronicle de 1902, p. 124 et seq. 



L'ATELIER MONETAIKE DE NICOMEDIE. 219 

Au droit. SEVTVAS (sic) AVGVSTVS. Sa tete lauree a 
droite. Seutuas pour Severus.* Coll. Welzl 
von Wellenheim. 



DEUXIEME EMISSION. 

Frappee depuis I' elevation de Licinius au rang d" Augusts 
a la conference de Carnuntum le 11 Novembre SQSjusqu'a 
la mort de Galere qui survint le 5 Mai 311. 

En effet les monnaies de Licinius Auguste apparaissent 
des le debut de cette emission et eelles de Galere et de 
1'imperatrice Valerie, sa femme r cessent de paraitre avee 
elle. 

La frappe des monnaies de Galerie Valerie fut decidiee 
a la conference de Carnuntum, ainsi que je 1'ai expliqu 
dans mon etude sur 1'atelier d'Alexandrie. 10 

Quant aux empereurs Maximin Daza et Constantin, ils 
repurent d'abord le premier le titre de Cesar, le deuxiem^ 
celui de Filius Augusti, au debut de cette emission,, et 
echangerent tous deux ces titres contre ceux d'Augustes au 
printemps de 309, ainsi que je Tai explique dans mon article 
sur 1'atelier d'Antioche. 11 A par-tir de ce moment il y eut 
jusqu'a la mort de Galere quatre Augustes dans 1'empire, 
Galere, Licinius,. Maximin Daza et Constantin. Maxence, 
qui n'etait pas reconnu par Galere, resta en dehors de 
cette tetrarchie. Cette emission? se distingue encore de 
la precedente parce que 1'atelier de Nicomedie fonctionna 
a partir du debut de cette emission avec six officines 
A B r A e^s. Le sigle civn continue a se trouver a 



9 Piece decrite dans Fried, Kenner, loc*. cii., p. 24. 

10 J. Maurice, L' Atelier mon&aire d'Alexandrie, Numismatic Chronicle, 
1902, p. 108. 

11 J. Maurice, ISAteliev montfaire d'Antioclie, Numismatic Chronicle, 
1899, p. 218. 



220 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

la fin des legendes du revers sur la plupart des monnaies 
de bronze, et le sigle N<Y.CX sur certaines pieces d'or. 
Cela s'explique par ce fait que les memes especes 
monetaires continuerent a paraitre et que Ton emit des 
pieces du meme pied monetaire qu'au cours de la seconde 
partie de remission precedente. Mais le poids de ces 
pieces est toutefois plus variable; elles pesent depuis 
6 gr. 50 c. jusqu'a 8 gr. 50 c. 
Exergues de remission : 

_L _L JL I I I 

SMNA SMNB SMNf SMNA SMN6 SMNS 

L'atelier de Nicomedie frappa au debut de cette 
emission jusqu'au printemps de 309 les pieces de Galere 
et de Licinius avec la legende du revers Genio Augusti, 
et celles de Maximin et de Constantin avec le revers 
Genio Caesaris ; ces deux derniers empereurs eurent aussi 
leurs monnaies frappees avec la legende Genio Augusti, 
mais a partir du printemps de 309 seulement. 

On trouve 

I. Au refers. GENIO . CAESARIS CI^H. Avec le Genie 
coiffe du modius, a demi nu, debout a gauche, 
tenant une patere d'ou la liqueur coule et une 
corne d'abondance. 

Au droit. 1. QAL . VAL . MAXIMINVS NOB - CAES. 
Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 45; off. 
B r S; BB. Mus. ; FR. 8824; Musee de 
Berlin ; coll. Voetter, Mowat. 

II existe des pieces pareilles mais sans le sigle CIVH 
qui sont inedites, notamment dans la collection Lichten- 
stein au musee de Vienne, H. Mus. V. ; ces pieces ont un 
diametre moyen de 26 m.m. II est possible qu'elles aient 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 221 

ete frappees au cours de remission precedente, Daza 
ayant ete elu Cesar le l er Mai 305. 

2. FL VAL . CONSTANTINVS FIL - AVG. Sa tete lauree 
a droite. Cohen, 189; off. |~ B; BR. Mus.; 
H. Mus. V. ; coll. Lichtenstein ; Musee de 
Berlin; Voetter. [PL VI., No. 4.] (Con- 
stantin regoit 1'effigie de Galere.) 

Constantin semble etre le seul des deux Cesars designe 
comme Filius Augusti sur les pieces de Nicomedie. L'on 
sait que Maximin Daza refusa ce titre que lui offrait 
Galere, et defendit de 1'inscrire sur les monnaies de ses 
ateliers de Cyzique, Antioche et Alexandrie. 12 Mais 
Nicomedie appartenait a Galere et cet empereur donna 
le titre de Filii Augustorum tant a Maximin Daza qu'a 
Constantin, et le fit inscrire sur les bronzes de son atelier 
de Thessalonica 13 comme sur ceux de celui de Siscia, 14 
qui appartenait au second Auguste qu'il avait cree, 
Licinius. Si done Maximin ne reut pas la inerne deno- 
mination sur les pieces de Nicomedie, cela tient a une 
raison speciale. Je la trouve dans les echanges permanents 
d'especes qui ayaient lieu entre la Bithynie et TAsie, ou 
1'atelier de Cyzique avait le meme systeme monetaire 
que celui de Nicomedie. II eiit ete inutile d'ernettre 
dans ce dernier atelier des pieces qui n'eussent pas eu 
cours dans la province d'Asie 15 comme dans celle de 
Bithynie, et c'est pourquoi 1'on n'y frappa probablement 



12 J. Maurice, L 1 Atelier d' Antioche, p. 218; L 1 Atelier d' Alexandrie, 
p. 103; Numismatic Chronicle, 1899 et 1902. 

13 J. Maurice, L'Atelier mon&aire de Thessalonica, Numismatische 
Zeitschrift, pp. 112 et 113. 

14 J. Maurice, L'Atelier mon&aire de Siscia, Numismatic Chronicle, 
1900, p. 309. 

15 Qui appartenait a Maximin Daza. 



222 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

pas de bronzes avec la legende Maximinus Fil. Aug., 
qui n'eussent pas eu cours dans les etats de Maximin 
Daza, qui comprenaient la province d'Asie. 

L'on trouve 

II. Au revers. GENIO AVGVSTI CIVH. Avec le Genie a 
demi mi, debout a gauche, coiffe du ruodius, le 
manteau rejete en arriere, tenant une patere 
d'ou la liqueur coule et une corne d'abondance. 

Au droit.l. IMP . C - GAL - VAL . MAXIMIANVS P F 
AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 42 ; 
off. A-A-6; FR. Nos. 8501, 8502, 8503; 

7 gr. 55 c. ; 25 m.m. ; BE. Mus. ; Musee de 
Berlin; Voetter. [PI. VI., No. 5.] (Effigie 
de Galere appliquee a Hercule.) 

2. IMP C . VAL - LICIN - LICINIVS P- F AVG. Tete 

analogue. Cohen, 37 ; off. A A 6 S ; BK. 
Mus. ; Yoetter. 

3. IMP - C GAL VAL . MAXIMINVS P F AVG. Tete 

analogue. Cohen, 34; off. B A 6 S; FR. 
Nos. 8795 ; 6 gr. 40 c. ; 26 m.m. ; 14020, 
6 gr. 10 c. ; et 14021 ; BR. Mus. ; Yoetter. 
[PL VI., No. 6.] 

4. IMP - C FL - VAL CONSTANTINVS P F - AVG. 

Tete analogue. Cohen, 183 ; off. B-f; Voetter. 

Ces deux dernieres pieces n'ont pu etre frappees qu'apres 
la reconnaissance de Maximin et de Constantin comme 
Augustes par Galere, au prin temps de 1'annee 309. 

III. Au revers. VENERI VICTRICI CM-I. Venus debout 
a gauche, tenant une pomme dans la main 
droite et soulevant son voile. 

Au droit. GAL VALERIA AVG. Son buste drape a 
droite avec le croissant dans les cheveux et un 
collier de perles au cou. Cohen, 13 ; off. A B A ; 
BR. Mus. ; Voetter ; off. s ; Musee de Berlin ; 

8 gr. 40 c. ; 26 m.m. [PI. VL, No. 7.] 



L' ATELIER MONET AIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 223 

J'ai montre dans une etude recente sur 1'atelier de 
Treves et en me reportant a la classification chronolo- 
gique des monnaies de Constantinople et d'Antioche, que 
le diademe n'avait ete adopte pour les effigies imperiales 
sur les monnaies romaines qu'apres la prise de Con- 
stantinople par Constantin en 324 ; 16 et que c'etait bien 
a cette epoque qu'il fallait faire remonter 1'adoption du 
diademe par cet ernpereur, qui en avait orne d'abord la 
fete de 1'imperatrice Helene. 

Je crois done qu'il est necessaire de changer les descrip- 
tions de Cohen ou il est dit que la tete ou le buste 
de Valerie sont diademes. Cette imperatrice porte un 
croissant comme celui de Diane. 

Les monnaies de Valerie furent emises depuis la con- 
ference de Carnuntum (11 Novembre 308) jusqu'a la mort 
de Galere (le 5 Mai 311), a une epoque ou le diademe ne 
s'etait pas encore montre sur les monnaies romaines, si 
ce n'est sur quelques pieces de Tarse sous Caracalla dans 
des frappes locales qui n'interessaient pas 1'ensemble 
de 1'empire. 17 Cohen au contraire decrit comme diademes 
les bustes de plusieurs imperatrices, notamment Magma 
Urbica et Galeria Valeria, qui ne portent qu'un simple 
croissant dans les cheveux. 

IV. Au revers. VIRTVTI EXERCITVS CIVH. Mars en 
habit militaire, marchant a droite, portant une 
haste et un trophee et ayant un bouclier au bras 
gauche. 

Au droit.\MP C GAL VAL - MAXIMINVS P F . AVG. 
Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 215 ; off. B r ; 
BE. Mus. ; Voetter. 



18 J. Maurice, IS Atelier mone'taire de Treves, deuxieme par tie, Me'moires 
de la Sociel des Antiquaires de France, 1901, pp. 76 a 79. 

17 Voir 1'article Diadema dans le Dictionnaire des Antiquites Grecques 
et Romaines de Daremberg et Saglio, tome ii., p. 120. 



224 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Les pieces suivantes ne presentent pas le meme 
sigle CM-l ; elles font toutefois partie de la meme 
emission a laquelle elles sont rattachees par leurs 
exergues. 

V. Au revers. \OV\ CONSERVATORI AVG. Jupiter a 

demi nu, debout a gauche, le manteau sur 
1'epaule gauche, appuye sur un sceptre et 
tenant un globe ; a ses pieds a gauche un aigle 
tenant une couronne en son bee. 

Au droit. \MP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F 
AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 120 ; 
off. A B r A ; FR. 8880 ; 8 gr. 70 c. ; 
26 m.m. ; BR. Mus. ; Voetter. 

VI. Au revers. VIRTVS - EXERCITVS. Mars casque en habit 

militaire, marchant a droite, portant une haste 
et un trophee et ayant un bouclier au bras gauche. 

Au droit.\MP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F . AVG. 
Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 204 ; off. A B ; 
FR. 8919; BR. Mus. 

On doit ranger dans cette emission les pieces d'or 
suivantes, avec 1'exergue ^^ 

On trouve 

I. Au revers. VENER I . VICTRICI. Avec le type decrit 
avec cette legende. 

Au droit. GkL VALERIA AVG. Son buste drape a 
droite avec le croissant dans les cheveux. 
Cohen, 1, piece d'or du type du l/60 me a la 
livre; FR. I486 ; 5 gr. 31 c. ; 20 m.m. 

II. Meme piece avec la legende VENERI VICTRICI NKYXC. 
au revers. Cohen, 11 ; Musee de Berlin, piece 
pesant 5 gr. 10 c., mais trouee. 

III. Au revers. CONSVL P P PROCONSVL. Maximin 
laure et en toge, debout a gauche, tenant un 
globe et un sceptre court. 

Au droit. MAXIMINVS P F AVG. Son buste laure 
a droite avec le manteau imperial et tenant un 
sceptre. Cohen, 11 ; BR. Mus. ; 18 m.m. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 225 

Maximin Daza fut consul en 1'annee 307, mais comme 
il ne prit le titre d'Auguste qu'apres 1'elevation de 
Licinius en Novembre 308 et meme quelques mois plus 
tard, au printemps de 309 apres 1'echec de negotiations 
prolongees avec Galere, cette piece ne peut pas avoir ete 
frappee pendant 1'annee de son consulat, mais a dii 1'etre 
dans 1'une des annees qui suivirent. Ce fait est a noter 
car a 1'epoque Constantinienne, on trouve des representa- 
tions d'empereurs en toge portant le globe et le 
baton d'ivoire sur les pieces frappees pour celebrer leur 
entree en consulat avec les legendes caracteristiques, 
FELIX PROCESSVS COS AVG . N. 18 

L'on voit que le meme type se retrouve sur d'autres 
pieces que celles de 1'entree en consulat des empereurs, 
et sur des pieces emises en d'autres annees que celles 
de leur consulat. 19 

TROISIEME EMISSION. 

Frappee depuis la mort de GaTere le 5 Mai 311 ou 
plutot depuis la prise de la Bitliynie et de T atelier de 
Nicomedie par Maximin Daza, a la suite de cette mort, en 
Mai ou Juin 311, jusquen Vannee 312, pendant laquelle 



18 Nos. 152 k 155 de Constantin dans Cohen. Maxence se fait plus 
souvent representer dans un char a six chevaux ou dans un quadrige sur 
les pieces portant la meme legende FELIX PROCESSVS CONS .... 
AVG N , Cohen, Nos. 62 et 63, mais parfois aussi il est en toge. 
Maximin Daza n'est represente qu'en toge sur ses pieces, indiquant un 
consulat comme celles ci-dessus. 

19 Friedrich Kenner, dans un article sur les types monetaires (Pro- 
gramm-Munzen romischer Kaiser, Numism. Zeitschrift, xvii., 1885, p. 79 
et seq.), n'avait indique cette repre'sentation de 1'empereur en toge, 
tenant le globe et le baton d'ivoire, que sur les pieces frappees pendant 
les anne'es de consulat. L'on voit qu'elle se trouve egalement sur 
d'autres. 



226 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Vatelier de Nicomedie augmenta d'une le nomlre de ses 
officines. 

En effet 1'emission debute apres la disparition des 
pieces de Galere et d'autre part si reellement la troisieme 
et la quatrieme emissions qui vont etre decrites different 
bien par le nombre d'une officine, la septieme, Z, il 
n'est pas douteux qu'il faille placer en 312-313 la 
quatrieme emission, qui presente les sept officines que 
Licinius laissa ouvertes en s'emparant de 1'atelier de 
Nicomedie en Mai 313. 

D'ailleurs les ateliers d'Antioche et d'Alexandrie, qui 
appartenaient aussi a Maximin Daza, frapperent egale- 
ment deux emissions, une en 311-312 et une en 312-313. 

Maximin Daza, des qu'il eut envahi la Bithynie apres 
la mort de Galere, eut 1'habilete de s'attacher les popu- 
lations de cette province par la suppression de 1'impot 
le plus odieux. Licinius, qui s'avan9ait de son cote 
avec une armee en Thrace, renonca a la guerre, et le 
detroit de Chalcedoine devint la limite des deux 
empires. 20 

L'atelier de Nicomedie se trouva done des lors dans 
les etats de Maximin Daza. Get empereur avait adopte 
un precede nouveau de persecution des Chretiens, 
dont Ton trouve 1'expression dans les types monetaires. 
II avait en effet donne un grand developpement au culte 
provincial d'Auguste et de 1'Empereur, pla9ant un 



20 Lactantii de Mortibus Persecutorum, c. xxxvi. : "Ingressus (Maxi- 
minus) Bithyniam quo sibi ad praesens favorem conciliaret, cum magna 
omnium laetitia sustulit censum. Discordia inter ambos imperatores ac 
poene bellum : diversas ripas armati tenebant. Bed conditionibus certis 
pax et amicitia componitur, et in ipso freto foedus fit ac dexterae copu- 
lantur." Une loi du Codex Theodosianus, liber xiii., titul. x., lex ii., 
me semble indiquer que le census en question etait I'impot de capitation 
sur les populations urbaines de la province. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 227 

grand pretre (Saeerdos) a la tete des Flamines de chaque 
ville et en outre un pontife d'ordre plus eleve (Saeerdos 
Provinciae, dp%<,6pevs eVapx t/a? ) & ^ a tete du clerge de toute 
la province. 21 A 1'aide de cette organisation, il exigea 
plus facilement des Chretiens 1'accomplissement des 
sacrifices a 1'Empereur et sur leur refus eut une raison 
pour les persecutor. 22 Le culte provincial du Genie 
d'Auguste ou de 1'Empereur joua done sous son regne 
un role capital qui dans les camps dut etre attribue 
egalement au Genie de 1'Armee. 

Or ce sont ces cultes qui sont indiques au revers des 
monnaies de Nicomedie, comme de celles d'Antioche 
ou de Cyzique, autres ateliers de Daza, par 1'association 
des legendes : Genio Augusti, Genio Imperatoris, Genio 
Caesaris, Genio Exercitus? 3 avec le type suivant : un 
autel allume sur lequel un Genie, a demi nu, coiffe du 
modius, verse la libation d'une patere. 24 

Le Genie du Peuple Eomain etait associe a celui de 
1'Empereur, en qui se personnifiait 1'Empire, et parut de 
305 a 311 sur les monnaies de Lyon et d'Aquilee, en 
dehors des etats de Maximin Daza. 

Ce qui prouve bien que nous nous trouvons en face 
d'une representation du culte provincial, qui etait princi- 
palement celui de 1'empereur regnant, c'est que si 
Ton examine les monnaies des 17 ateliers ou verts succes- 
sivernent ou en meme temps dans 1'Empire romain a 



21 Lactant,'i deMortib. persec., cap. xxxvi. ; Euseb. Hist. Eccles., lib. viii., 
cap. 14. 

22 Euseb. de Martyr. Palest. Hist. Eccles., ix., 7; 13. 

23 Dans les deux villes d'Occident (Lyon et Aquilee) ou le culte 
provincial etait deja etabli sous Maximien Hercule, 1'autel parait 
e'galemi-nt avec la legende " Genio Populi Eomani " frappee de 305 a 31 1. 

24 Parmi les trois ateliers en question le Genie de 1'Armee (Genio 
Exercitus') est particulier a Antioche. 



228 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

1'epoque Constantinienne, Ton remarque que 1'autel 
n'apparait aux pieds des Genies indiques (en y comprenant 
le Genie du Peuple Komain pour Lyon et Aquilee) que 
sur les monnaies sorties des ateliers des villes dans 
lesquelles on celebrait ce culte. Ces villes sont celles de 
Lyon, dont 1'autel au confluent de la Saone et du Khone 
etait celebre, celle d' Aquilee, capitale de la Venitie, 26 
ou existait le culte provincial, 26 et qui etait une tres grande 
ville a 1'epoque Constantinienne ; 27 enfin les trois villes 
d' Orient, Antioche, Cyzique et Nicomedie, ou le culte des 
Empereurs Komains vivants avait succede a celui des rois 
Asiatiques. De ces trois villes, Antioche et Nicomedie 
etaient a la fois les capitales politiques et religieuses de 
leurs provinces respectives ; 28 Cyzique n'etait que Tune 
des villes ou se reunissait 1'assemblee provinciale de la 
province d'Asie, 29 neanmoins on y celebrait en conse- 
quence le culte de I'Empereur. Quant aux douze autres 
villes dont les ateliers emettaient des monnaies sur 
lesquelles les Genies etaient parfois represented, mais 
sans avoir a cote d'eux 1'autel allume qui, associe aux 
Genies, est seul caracteristique du culte provincial, ces 
villes n'etaient pas le siege d'assemblees provinciales, 
tout au moms dix d'entre elles ne 1'etaient pas. Kestent 



25 C. Jullian, Les Transformations politiques de Vltalie sous les 
Empereurs Romains, Paris, 1883, p. 172. L'inscription (6., v., 281) designe 
un correcteur de Venitie sous Maximien Hercule. 

26 Guiraud, Les Assemblers provinciales dans VEmpire Romain, Paris, 
1887, p. 223, indique une dedicace au Patron de la Venitie et Istrie, qui 
temoigne d'une assemblee provinciale. 

27 Herodiani Hist., lib. viii., c. 4. 

28 Mommsen et Marquardt, Manuel des Antiquite's Romaines, trad, 
frangaise: Organisation de VEmpire Romain, ii., p. 526. Guiraud, loc. 
cit., p. 74, et C. I. G., 2810, 1720, 3428. 

29 Paul Monceaux, De Communi Provindae Asiae, Paris, 1885, 
pp. 37, 38. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 229 

les deux dernieres, c'est a dire Carthage, qui avait ante- 
rieurement pratique le culte des rois morts, et Tarragone. 
Ces villes ne pratiquaient plus a 1'epoque qui nous 
occupe que le culte des Empereurs morts ou Dm', 30 au 
lieu de <celui d'Auguste et de 1'Empereur regnant, qui 
est le culte provincial que nous trouvons represented sur 
les monnaies. 

Apres la mort de Maximin Daza en 313, sa politique 
religieuse fut abandonnee par Licinius qui 1'avait vaincu, 
et Ton vit 1'autel disparaitre des monnaies d'Antioche, de 
Cyzique et de Nicomedie, pour etre remplace par les 
diverses representations de Jupiter. 

Les folles ou monnaies de bronze de 1'emission presente 
ont, les uns, des poids comparables a ceux des pieces de 
remission precedente; d'autres sont beaucoup moins 
lourds, et leurs poids tombent jusqu'a 3 gr. 55 c., avec 
un poids moyen de 4 a 5 grammes. A Nicomedie, comme 
a Antioche, ce fut apres la mort de Galere en 311 que 
1'abaissement du poids moyen des folles se produisit 
une seconde fois. 31 La premiere reduction de poids avait 
eu lieu en 306-307 ; et il est a remarquer que ce fut 
entre ces deux dates que le sigle CIVH, qui est une 
expression de valeur, fut inscrit sur les bronzes de 
Nicomedie. Toutefois il Test sur des pieces de poids 
tres differents et parfois tres reduits. 

30 M. C. Pallu de Lessert a, seul mis en lumiere ce fait, et c'est sur son 
travail, ou a ete expose ce caractere particulier du culte des Empereurs en 
Afrique et en Espagne, que je m'appuie pour etablir cette distinction 
des deux ateliers monetaires des villes ou le culte des Dim avoit 
remplace celui des Empereurs vivants. Cf. Cle'ment Pallu de Lessert, 
Les Assemblies Provinciales tit le Culte Provincial dans V Afrique Romaine, 
Paris, 1884; et Nouvelles Observations sur les Assemblies Provinciates, 
Paris, 1891, pp. 6 a 8, edit. Picard. 

31 J. Maurice, L 1 Atelier monelaire d'Antioche, Num. Chron., 1899, 
p. 223. 

VOL. III., SERIES IV. R 



230 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



PKEMIERE SERIE: 

L _L _J_ II J JL 

SMNA SMNB SMNT SMNA SMN6 SMNS 

On trouve 

I. Au revers. GEN IO AVGVSTI CIVH Avec le type decrit. 
II ne se trouve pas d'autel au revers des pieces 
de cette serie, ou se trouve copie le type de 
1'emission anterieure. 

Au droit. 1. IMP C GAL . VAL MAXIMINVS P F 
AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 34 ; off. 
A B r A 6; Voetter; FR. 14119. 

2. IMP . C - VAL . LICIN - LICINIVS P F . AVG. Tete 

analogue. Cohen, 37; off. A 8 ; FE. 14116, 
14117, 14118; 3gr. 55 c. ; 20 m.m. 

3. IMP C FL VAL - CONSTANTINVS . P F AVG. 

Tete analogue. Cohen, 183; off. B r; Voetter. 

Ces pieces sont semblables a celles de remission ante- 
rieure, mais d'un pied monetaire inferieur. 



DEUXIEME SEKIE I 

I A IB |r |A |g |s 

SMN SMN SMN SMN SMN SMN 

I. Au revers. GENIO AVGVSTI. Genie a demi mi, debout 
a gauche, le manteau rejete derriere lui, tenant 
une corne d'abondance et repandant la liqueur 
d'une patere sur un autel allume a ses pieds a 
gauche. 

Au droit. 1. IMP . C GAL . VAL MAXIMINVS P 
F AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 29 ; 
off. A B A ; BE. Mus. ; Voetter. 

2. IMP - C - VAL LICIN - LICINIVS P F AVG. Tete 
analogue. Cohen, 23 ; off. B A ; Voetter. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 231 

3. IMP C . FL - VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. 
Tete analogue. Cohen, 180 ; off A B ; Yoetter. 
[PI. VI., No. 8.] (L'effigie est celle de Maximin 
Daza, dans les etats duquel vient de passer 
1'atelier de Nicomedie.) 

L'autel aux pieds du Genie est celui dont il vient 
d'etre question. 

II. Au revers. GENIO . AVGVSTI Mais avec un aigle aux 
pieds du Genie a gauche au lieu de 1'autel. 

Au droit. 1. IMP C GAL . VAL - MAXIMINVS P - 
F AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 31 ; 
off. B r; Yoetter ; FR. 14013 ; 5 gr. ; 20 m.m. 

2. IMP - C - VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F . AVG. Tete 
analogue. Ne se trouve pas dans les descrip- 
tions de Cohen ; off. A ; Yoetter. 

III. Au revers. IOVI CONSERVATOR I. Jupiter nu, debout 
a gauche, le manteau deploys derriere lui, tenant 
une Yictoire sur un globe et appuye sur un 
sceptre. 

Au droit. 1. IMP C - GAL VAL - MAXIMINVS - P - F 
AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 117; 
off. A B r A ; BR. Mus. ; Yoetter. 

2. IMP C FL - VAL CONSTANTINVS P F - AVG. 
Tete analogue. Piece mal decrite dans Cohen ; 
off. B r A 6; BR. Mus.; 21 m.m.; FR. 
14705. 

IY. Meme legende et merne type du revers si ce n'est que Ton 
trouve en outre un aigle tenant une couronne 
en son bee aux pieds de Jupiter a gauche, 

Au droit. Meme droit. Mal decrite dans Cohen ; off. 
A r A 6 ; H. Mus. Y. et FR. 14706-7. 

Y. An revers. VIRTVTI EXERCITVS. Mars, en habit mili- 
taire, marchant a droite, portant une haste et 
un trophee et ayant un bouclier au bras gauche. 

Au droit. IMP - C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F - 
AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 214; 
off A r ; Yoetter. 

R 2 



232 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



TROISIEME SERIE : 

B | r| AI e | s | 

MN SMN SMN SMN SMN SMN 

I. Au revers. SOLI INVICTO. Le Soleil en robe longue, 
debout a gauche, levant la droite et tenant la 
tete de Serapis. 

Au droit. 1. IMP C . GAL VAL - MAXIMINVS P F 
AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 161 ; 
off. B r S ; FB. 14052 ; 4 gr. 65 c. ; 21 m.m. 

2. IMP C VAL . LICIN LICINIVS P - F . AVG. Tete 

analogue. Cohen, 159 ; off. B r ; Voetter. 

3. IMP . C FL - VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. 

Tete analogue. Cohen, 507 ; off. B r ; Voetter. 

Le culte de Serapis existait tout au moms a Alexandrie, 
et 1'Egypte faisait partie des etats de Maximin Daza ; 
aussi la representation de la tete de Serapis n'est-elle pas 
etonnante sur les monnaies que fit emettre cet empereur. 

II. Au revers. HERCVLI VICTORI. Hercule nu, debout, 
incline a droite et s'appuyant sur sa massue 
enveloppee de la peau de lion. 

Au droit. IMP . C - GAL - VAL MAXIMINVS P F . 
AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 105 ; 
off. A f A ; Voetter ; Tanini, supplement a 
Banduri. 



QUATRIEME EMISSION. 

Frappee depuis le moment ou Tatelier de Nicomedie 
commenga dfonetionner avec sept officines (312) jusqu'd la 
prise de cette mile par Licinius apres la defaite de Maximin 
Daza a Tzirallum en Thrace le 30 Avril 313 et la fuite 
de cet empereur vers Tarse en Cilieie. 



I/ ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 233 

En effet Licinius, venant de Thrace et poursuivant 
Maximin Daza, s'empara en Mai 313 de 1'atelier de Nico- 
medie et il publia le 13 Juin dans cette ville son edit 
de tolerance a Tegard des Chretiens* 

Les monnaies de Maximin Daza furent done emises 
jusqu'en Mai 313 et remission presente se distingue 
seulement de la precedente par 1'addition d'une officine 
(la septieme)' et des differents signes; etoile et croissant, 
dans le champ du revers. 

Les folles de poids reduits de 1'emission precedente 
continuent a etre frappees au cours de eelle-ci. 

PREMIERE SERIE : 



# I* 
A IB r 



# I * I * 

- S Z 



SMN SMN' SMN SMN SMN SMN SMN 

On trouve 

I. Au revers. GENIO AVGVSTI. Avec le type deja decrit 
et 1'autel allume caracteristique du culte 
provincial. 

Au droit. 1. IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS - P -F - 
AVG. Cohen, 29; off. A B f A S ; FR. 
14010; Musee de Berlin ; Voetter. 

2. IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P . F AVG. 

Cohen, 23 ; off. A Z :, Voetter. 

3. IMP - C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P - F . AVG. 

Cohen, 180 ; off. B S ; Musee de Berlin ; 
Voetter; 22 m.m. 

II. Au revers. VIRTVTI EXERCITVS. Mars marchant a 
droite, portant un bouclier et un trophee et 
trainant un captif par les cheveux. 

Au droit. 1. IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P 
F AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Piece 
inedite; off. B ; Voetter. 



234 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



DETJXIEME SERIE: 



*l #1 *l #1 
A| B I n A I 

SMN SMN SMN SMN SMN SMN SMN 

I. Au revers. SOLI INVICTO. Avec le type deja decrit 
avec cette legende. 

Au droit.l. IMP C GAL VAL . MAXIMINVS P F . 
AVG. Cohen, 161 ; off r A S Z; BE. Mus. ; 
Voetter. [PL VI., No. 9.] (Effigie de 
Maximin Daza caracteristique.) 

2. IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG. 

Cohen, 159; off B 1~ Z ; Voetter. 

3. IMP C FL . VAL CONSTANTINVS - P F AVG. 

Cohen, 507 ; off e; BE. Mus. 

II. Au revers. HERCVLI - VICTORI. Avec le type deja decrit. 

Au droiLmp - C GAL - MAXIMINVS - P F AVG. 
Cohen, 105 ; off r A ; Voetter. 



TROISIEME SERIE: 

Sigles des revers releves 
*|A ^|B 



SMN SMN SMN 

I. Au revers. lOVI CONSERVATORI. Avec le type deja 
decrit 

Audrdt. IMP - C GAL - VAL MAXIMINVS P . F . 
AVG. Cohen, 117; off A B r; Voetter. 

Piece unique avec le sigle A| 

SMN 

Au revers. SO LI . I NV I CTO. Avec le type decrit No. 1 6 1 
de Maximin Daza dans Cohen. Voetter. 



I/ ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 235 

' Piece d'or classee par son different monetaire dans cette 
emission. 

Aurevers.- 



IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG. Jupiter a demi 
nu, debout a gauche; le manteau sur 1'epaule 
gauche^ tenant un globe surmonte d'une Victoire 
et un sceptre ; a< ses pieds a gauche un aigle 
tenant une couronne en son bee. 

Au drmt. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Sa tete 
lauree a droite: Cohen, 296 ; FR. 1526 ; 5 gr. 
28 c. ; 20 m.m. Piece d'or de 1'espece du 60 me 
a la livre. 

J'ai deja fait remarquer dans mon etude sur Fatelier 
de Kome que Constantin frappa des monnaies de Maxi- 
min Daza jusqu'au moment de la defaite de cet empereur 
par Licinius, et qu'il resta par suite etranger a la lutte 
entre ces deux rivaux. La piece d'or, ainsi que les series 
de bronzes qui viennent d'etre decrits, prouvent que de 
son cote Maximin Daza emit les monnaies de Constantin 
jusqu'au moment on il perdit ses etats. 

CINQUIEME EMISSION. 

Frappee depuis la prise de V atelier de Nicomedie par 
Licinius en Mai 313 jusqu'd la rupture et la guerre entre 
cet empereur et Constantin a la fin de Vete de 314. 

En effet la premiere grande bataille entre ces 
empereurs eut lieu a Cibales en Pannonie Inferieure le 
8 Octobre 314, 32 mais leur entree en campagne et leur 



32 II y avait en des engagements preliminairea en Pannonie : Eutrope, 
x. 5. Idat. Fast. : " Volusiano II et Anniano ; his conss. bellum Cibalense 
fuit die viii Idus Octob." Zosim., Hist., lib. ii., cap. 18. 



236 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 

rupture, qui dut suspendre la frappe des monnaies de 
Constantin a Nicomedie, dut etre anterieure d'au moins 
un mois a cette date. Licinius se preparait depuis 
quelque temps a cette guerre, cherchant a detacher de 
Constantin par trahison Bassianus, qui avait epouse une 
sceur de Constantin, Anastasie, et que cet empereur 
avait voulu faire Cesar. Licinius ren versa pres d' JEmone 
les images et les statues de Constantin, 33 ce qui constituait 
une rupture ouverte avec lui. II cessa alors la frappe de 
ses monnaies au debut de la campagne de 314, peut-etre 
seulement au commencement de Septembre, car il avait 
eu tout interet a se preparer sous main a la guerre. C'est 
ce dont temoigne 1'emission presente qui comprend encore 
les monnaies de Constantin. 

Les bronzes qu'elle contient sont de petits folles de 
poids encore en general superieur (4 gr. a 4 gr. 50 c.) 
a ceux des Nummi Centenionales qui seront emis dans 
les etats de Constantin aussitot apres la guerre de 314 
Le Nummus Centenionalis est 1'espece monetaire qui 
servira d'etalon des cette epoque; meme les bronzes 
de Licinius s'en rapprocheront, jusqu'a ce qu'elle de- 
vienne d'un emploi universel dans 1'empire en 317 lors 
de Televation des trois Cesars, Crispus, Licinius II et 
Constantin II. 



33 Lenain de Tillemont, Hist, des Empereurs, iv., p. 160. Anonymus 
Valesii, iv., 14,. 15 : . . . . " per Senecionem Bassiani fratrem, qui 
Licinio fidus erat, in Constantinum Bassianus armatur .... Cum 
Senecius auctor insidiarum posceretur ad poenam, negante Licinio, fracta 
concordia est; additis etiam causis quod apud Aemonam Constantini 
imagines statuasque dejecerat." Cette destruction des images et des 
statues peut etre compare'e dans nos temps modernes a une insulte aux 
etondards. ^3mone est en Pannonie Sup. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRB DE NICOMEDIE. 237 



EXERGUES DE IEMISSION, 

se presentant avec et sans la lettre N dans le champ du 
revers. 

PREMIERE SERIE: 

A B f A E S Z 



SMN 



DEUXIEME SERIE: 

N N N N N N N 
A B f A S Z 



SMN 

La lettre N, qui se rencontre egalement sur les pieces 
d'or et sur les bronzes, est sur les premieres une indica- 
tion de valeur. II est difficile de dire s'il en est de 
meme pour les monnaies de bronze. 

I. Au revers. IOVI CONSERVATORI. Jupiter, a demi mi, 

* debout a gauche, le manteau sur Fepaule gauche, 

tenant une Victoire sur un globe et un sceptre ; 

a ses pieds a gauche un aigle tenant une couronne 

en son bee. 

Au droit.l. IMP . C VAL LICIN LICINIVS - P - F 
AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 71. 
P re serie, toutes les officines ; FR. 14152, 14153 ; 
4 gr. 70 c. ; 14154-5-6-7-8; BE. Mus. 2 me 
serie, toutes les officines; FR. 14159, 14160; 
4 gr. 55 c.; 22 m.m. ; 14161-2-3; BR. Mus. 
[PI. VI., No. 10.] (Effigie de Licinius, dans 
les mains duquel est passe 1'atelier.) On trouve 
ces pieces dans toutes les collections. 

2. IMP C FL - VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. 
Sa tete lauree a droite. Piece mal decrite dans 
Cohen, dont le tableau des Jovi Conservatori est 

incoherent. I 6re serie, off. A B f A 

FR. 14705, 14707 ; H. Mus. V. ; Voetter, 2 me 
serie, off. A B r 6 S ; Voetter. 

La piece suivante peut etre classee, quoique sans 
exergue, parmi celles de 1'atelier de Nicomedie, a cause 



238 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

de sa legende du droit, qui est pareille aux autres 
legendes de Licinius inscrites sur les mounaies de cet 
atelier. 

Elle y a ete emise apres la prise de 1'atelier par 
Licinius, car elle porte inscrits au revers les VOTIS - 
V MVLTIS X de cet empereur, qui fut eleve au rang 
d'Auguste en 308 et par suite celebra Faccomplissement 
de ses Quinquennalia en 313. II recut des lors, comme 
le prouve cette piece, le souhait de ses Decennalia. 
Une inscription (C. I. L., iii., 6159) qui indique Faccom- 
plissement de ses Quindecennalia en 323 est d'accord 
avec ces dates. 

II. Au revers. VOTIS V MVLTIS X dans une couronne 
de laurier. 

Au droit. IMP - C VAL . LICIN LICINIVS P - F - 
AVG. Sa tete lauree a droite. Cohen, 207 ; 
Yoetter. 

Une couronne de laurier entoure frequemment les Vota 
des divers empereurs ; on peut la considerer, semble-t-il, 
com me indiquant les jeux celebres aux anniversaires de 
1'elevation des empereurs. 



SIXIEME EMISSION. 

Frappee pendant et depuis la guerre de 314 entre 
Licinius et Constantin jusqu'a la reconnaissance des trois 
Cesars, Crispus, Licinius II et Constantin II, dans tout 
I 9 empire le l er Mars 317. 

L'on peut affirmer que Tatelier de Nicomedie emit 
des monnaies pendant la guerre de 314. C'est a cette 
periode de la guerre, je crois, que Ton doit rapporter les 
monnaies et les medaillons qui ne furent frappes qu'aux 



L* ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 239 

noms des deux Licinius, Auguste et Cesar, 34 ainsi qu'on 
le verra plus loin. 

J'ai deja parle de ces pieces daus mon etude sur 
1'atelier d'Alexandrie, 35 et montre qu'il y avait eu deux 
proclamations ou elevations successives des Cesars dans 
Fempire romain: une premiere apres la guerre de 314 
dans les etats de 1'empereur d'Orient Licinius ; et une 
deuxieme dans tout 1'empire et en particulier dans les 
etats de Constantin en Occident le l er Mars 31 7. 36 
Ce sont ces deux elevations successives des Cesars qui 
ont donne lieu aux recits differents des historiens et 
des chroniqueurs : qui indiquent, les uns (ceux qui ont 
surtout puise leurs renseignements aux sources de 
1'histoire d'Orient 37 ) la periode qui suivit la guerre de 
314 comme etant 1'epoque de 1'elevation des Cesars; 38 
tandis que les autres, notamment les Fastes d'Idace et la 
Chronique Paschale 39 (qui ont pris leurs renseignements 
aux archives imperiales), et le Panegyrique prononce a 
Borne lors de Tanniversaire de la cinquieme annee de regne 
des Cesars, placent cette elevation le l er Mars 317. 40 

34 J. Maurice, IS Atelier monetaire d'Alexandrie, Numismatic Chronicle, 
1902, pp. 127 et seq. 

35 J'avais place leur frappe, dans mon etude sur 1'atelier d'Alexandrie, 
aussitot apred la guerre de 314, mais il semble qu'on doit 1'avancer encore 
un peu plus. 

36 J. Maurice, L' Atelier monetaire d'Alexandrie, Numismatic Chronicle, 
1902, pp. 129 et seq. 

37 Zozime, Hist., lib. ii., c. 21 ; Aurelius Victor, Epitome, 58 ; 
de Caes., 41. 

38 Le texte de VAnonyme de Valois, v., 19, est douteux. On ne sait 
de quel consulat il veut parler. 

39 Idat. Fast. ; Chron. Pasch. Les Chroniques n'ont dft tenir compte que 
de la date officiellement admise. 

40 L'ordre des consulats eponymes, tel qu'il semble avoir ete applique a 
cette epoque, n'est pas en rapport avec ces eleVations des Cesars. 
Licinius II, eleve deux fois, en 314 et en 317, n'est consul eponyme qu'en 
319 ; Constantin II, eleve au plus tard en 317, n'est consul eponyme qu'en 
320. Crispus 1'est par contre en 318. 



240 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

J'ai explique que Licinius avait cree son fils Cesar 
apres la guerre de 314 pour le faire echapper aux con- 
sequences de sa naissance servile, 41 et que pour obtenir 
1'adhesion de Constantin a cette politique apres avoir 
fait la paix avec lui il fit emettre egalement vers cette 
epoque des monnaies des Cesars (Licinius II et Crispus) 
avec la legende IOVI - CONSERVATORI - CAESS. 42 

Mais Constantin refusa d'acquiescer aux propositions de 
Licinius et ne proclama lui-meme Televation des Cesars 
qu'en 317, comme le prouvent les emissions de Treves, 
Aries, Londres, Kome, Tarragone, dont les emissions 
de 315 et 316 ne contiennent pas de monnaies des 
Cesars. 43 

Mais j'ignorais encore en ecrivant mes articles sur 
Alexandrie et sur Treves qu'il existait egalement des 
pieces de Constantin II frappees a Nicomedie, a partir 
de la guerre de 314, avec la legende du droit FL CL 
CONSTANTINVS - NOB cs. La presence de ces pieces 
vient confirmer de nouveau la these que j'ai mise en 
avant, celle des deux elevations successives des Cesars, 
1'une apres la guerre de 314 et 1'autre en 317 ; mais 
elle a deux consequences nouvelles. 

1 D'abord, puisque les pieces des trois Cesars, ainsi 
que celles des deux Augustes, ont ete frappees dans les 
ateliers de 1'empereur d'Orient Licinius aussitot apres 
la guerre de 314, on doit supposer que les pieces des deux 



41 J. Maurice, L' Atelier mon&aire d' Alexandrie, Num. Chron., 1902, p. 131. 

42 J. Maurice, L' Atelier monetaire de Treves, M&moires de la Societe'des 
Antiquaires ds Franct, 1902, p. 35 de 1'article ; le volume est en cours de 
publication. 

43 Meme travail, pp. 54-56. J'y indique 1'emission d'Arles caracter- 
istique des annces 315-316, presentant une piece datee de 315 par le 
consulat iv de Constantin ; et qui ne contient pas les monnaies des 
Cesars. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIEE DE NICOMEDIE. 241 

Licinius, pere et fils, designes comme Auguste et Cesar 
uniques, ont ete emises pendant la guerre meme de 
314. 44 

2 Ensuite il est necessaire de renoncer a 1'annee 
316 qui avait ete considered par MM. O. Seeck 45 et 
E. Ferrero, 46 dont j'ai suivi les conclusions, comme etant 
celle de la naissance de Constantin II. Ce prince, dont 
1'anniversaire de naissance est indique le 7 du mois 
d'Aout dans les Fastes de Polemius Salvius, 47 naquit, 
selon Zosime 48 et Aurelius Victor, 49 peu de temps 
avant son elevation comme Cesar. Zosime dit meme: 
ov Trpo 7ro\\o)v r}/jLp)v. L'epoque de sa naissance a en 
consequence ete determinee par tous les auteurs comme 
proche de celle de son elevation au rang de Cesar, que 
Ton pla$ait au l er Mars 317, et 1'annee 316 choisie pour 
celle de cette naissance. 50 Mais la donnee fondamentale 
du probleme est changee si Ton admet que des monnaies 
de Constantin II Cesar ont ete emises aussitot apres la 
guerre de 314. C'est dans ce cas dans la periode qui 
precede immediatement cette guerre, au 7 Aout 314, 
qu'il faut placer la naissance de ce prince. En la fixant 
a cette date on se rend mieux compte de ce qu'a dit 

44 Dans I'hypothese admise de 1'elevation unique des Cesars en 317 on 
devait considerer ces pieces comme emises seulement a partir de cette 
date. Mais le temoignage des emissions monetaires ne laisse pas de doute 
sur I'existence d'emissions diife'rentes representant les deux elevations des 
Cesars. 

45 O. Seeck, Die Zeitf. d. Gesetze Constantins, Zeitschrift f. Eechts- 
Geschichte, 1889, vol. x., p. 186. 

46 E. Ferrero, Mogli e Fili di Costantino, Accademia R. d. Scienze di 
Torino. Se'ance, 13 FeVrier 1898. 

47 C. I. L., i., p. 269. 

48 Zosime, Hist., lib. ii., cap. 20. 

49 Aurelius Victor, Epitome, xli., 4 : " iisdem diebus natum." 

50 C'est 1'avis de Lenain de Tillemont, Hist, des Emperturs, iv., 
note 38, p. 638, bien qu'il avoue que la difficulte soit grande. 



242 NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 

un panegyriste contemporain, 51 qui, lors des Quinquennalia 
des Cesars en 321, presente deja le jeune Constantin II 
comme " jam maturate studio litteris habilis, jam felix 
dextera fructuosa subscriptione laetatur." Get avance- 
ment dans les lettres et dans 1'ecriture, ainsi que Finteret 
qu'il est dit egalement porter aux victoires de son frere 
Crispus, 52 seraient peu comprehensibles si le jeune Cesar 
n'avait eu alors que 4 ans, mais sont possibles s'il avait 
alors 6 ans et demi. Et le texte de Zosime se trouve 
ainsi completement d'accord avec lui-meme, puisque 
Ton a vu que c'etait aussitot apres la guerre de 314 
que cet auteur place 1'elevation des Cesars. II en est 
de meme d'Aurelius Victor. 63 La naissance de Con- 
stantin II doit done remonter au mois d'Aout 314. 

L'on comprend enfin la conduite de Constantin le 
Grand dans ce cas aussi facilement que si Constantin II 
etait ne en 316. En effet cet enfant n'etait age que de 
3 a 4 mois apres la guerre de 314, et son pere ne devait 
pas etre aussi presse de le declarer Cesar que Licinius 
1'etait d'elever a ce rang son fils qu'il voulait affranchir 
de sa naissance servile. II est facile de comprendre 
que Constantin ait recule de deux ans et demi, jusqu'au 
l er Mars 317, 1'elevation au rang de Cesar de ses deux 
fils (le second seul etant de Fausta, dont 1'elevation de 
Crispus aurait excite la jalousie), et qu'il se soit refuse 
jusque-la a reconnaitre le jeune Licinius, qui etait un 
batard; car la sceur de Constantin, Constantia, avait 
epouse Licinius et n'avait pas d'enfants. 



51 Eumen. Paneg., x., Nazarii Constantius A. dictus, cap. 37. 

52 Idem. Panegyric., c. 36. 

53 J. Maurice, L' Atelier mon&aire d' Alexandrie, Numismatic Chronicle, 
1902, p. 129. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 243 

PREMIERE PARTIE DE I/EMISSION. 

Frappee pendant la guerre de 314. 
Premiere serie de bronzes ^L gjL 

Ces lettres du revers sont les memes que . dans 1'emis- 
sion precedente. Je n'ai rencontre que les officines 
A et A. 

I. Au revers. \ . O M - ET . FORT . CONSER -D-D - 
N N AVG ET CAES. Jupiter a demi nu, 
debout regardant a gauche, le manteau deploye 
derriere lui, tenant une Victoire sur un globe et 
un sceptre, en face de la Fortune debout, 
tourelee, qui tient une corne d'abondance et un 
gouvernail pose sur un globe. 

Audroit.D D N N IOVII LICINII INVICT 
AVG ET CAES. Bustes laures et drapes, en 
regard, des deux Licinius, soutenant une statue 
de la Fortune. Cohen, vii., p. 210, No. 1 ; BR. 
Mus. ; H. Mus. V. ; Off. A-A. 

Le medaillon d'or suivant doit se placer dans cette 

I A 
serie avec -W 



II. Au revers. IOVI CONSERVATORI LICINIORVM . AVG - 
ET CAES. Jupiter a demi nu, assis de face, 
tenant un sceptre et une Victoire sur un globe. 

Au droit.D D N - N LICINIVS . P - F AVG ET . 
LI GIN I VS CAESAR. Bustes nimbes (effigies 
vraies) des deux Licinius pere et fils, ayant le 
manteau imperial agrafe sur 1'epaule droite. 
Une etoile au dessus de chacun d'eux. 





244 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Les nimbes qui entourent les tetes des empereurs 
semblent avoir encore pour les Licinius, qui s'intitulent 
princes Joviens, une signification paienne et indiquer 
la divinite de 1'Empereur. Plus tard, sous Constantin, 
de 324 a 326, le nimbe se retrouve sur plusieurs pieces 
et medaillons 54 a une epoque ou la signification paienne 
de toutes les formules et de tous les symboles se perd, 
ou les formules comme PROVIDENT1AE - AVGG ne sont 
plus frappees que par imitation des monnaies anterieures. 
Le nimbe a cette epoque semble done devenir un simple 
symbole de la souverainete imperiale. Mais il n'en etait 
pas encore de meme pour Licinius en 314, c'est a dire 
a 1'epoque ou son adversaire Constantin adoptait seule- 
ment le Christianisme comme religion officielle. 55 

DEUXIEME SERIE: 



SLI* ^I B 3H r 11* ^l e a*ls ILL? 

SMN SMN SMN SMN SMN SMN SMN 

Cette serie monetaire, ou Ton ne trouve encore qu'un 
seul Auguste et un seul Cesar, doit pour cette raison 
avoir ete emise pendant la guerre de 314. 

De nombreuses fautes d'orthographe, certaines sem- 
blables a celles que commettraient des ouvriers barbares 
ou etrangers, d'autres etant de simples suppressions de 
lettres, d'autres exprimant la contraction du AE en E, 
se remarquent sur les monnaies de Nicomedie. 

54 Cohen, vii., No. 657 de Constantin le Grand et 104 de Constantin II. 

55 M. Babelon a presente a 1'Acade'mie des Inscriptions et Belles 
Lettres dans la seance du 27 Mai 1903 un admirable medaillon de 
Constantin ou le buste de cet empereur se trouve accole a celui du 
Soleil, et qui porte en legende ADVENTVS AVGG - NN en 
Thonneur de 1'entree a Milan de Constantin et Licinius en Fe'vrier 313 
pour la conference oil fut etablie la paix religieuse. Constantin se laissa 
done representer couime paien jusqu'en 313. 



L'ATELIEB MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 245 

Je releverai quelques exemples : 
NOV CS pour NOB CAES. 
PROVIDENTIAE CAES pour CAESS. 
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICG pour REIPVBLICAE. 
EQVES pour EQVIS. 
CAVS pour CAES. 
VIRTVS CAESARjN^ pour CAESARVM. 

Puis des erreurs de noms propres : 
AALMATIVS pour AELMATIVS. 
CONSTANTINOPOIJ pour CONSTANTINOPOLIS. 

Dans les exergues SMNM ou SMNP , M et P sont 
a la place de lettres grecques d'officines. 

Une partie des confusions de lettres que Ton remarque 
sur les monnaies de Nicomedie a ete relevee egale- 
ment sur les monnaies d'Antioche par le Colonel 
Voetter. 

On trouve 

I. Au revers.\QV\ . CONSERVATOR I AVG. Jupiter a 
demi nu, debout a gauche, le manteau rejete en 
arriere, tenant une Victoire sur un globe et un 
sceptre. 

Au droit.Vk . CO LICINIVS NOV (sic) CS. Son 
buste laure et drape a gauche. Piece inedite. 
Voetter ; off. s. 

Avec une etoile en plus dans le champ du revers 



!L 

SMN 
VOL. III., SEEIES IV. 



246 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

II. Au revers. IOVI CONSERVATORI CAES. Memetype. 

Au droit. LICINIVS - NOB CAES. Son buste laure et 
drape a gauche. Piece inedite. Musee de 
Berlin. 

Ces pieces pourraient aussi avoir ete f rappees par des 
barbares aussitot apres la guerre en imitation des pieces 
qui parurent alors a Nicomedie, mais il semble plus 
naturel d'admettre, a cause de la designation d'un seul 
Auguste et Cesar, qu'elles ont ete emises a Nicomedie 
pendant la guerre. Le jeune Licinius reput sur les 
monnaies pendant et aussitot apres la guerre les noms 
de Valerius Constantinus. II est a remarquer que ces 
noms sont ceux, a part le Gentilice, de Flavia Valeria 
Constantia, femme de Licinius et soeur de Constantin. 
Ne faut-il pas voir dans ce fait une nouvelle confirmation 
de la tentative faite par Licinius pour adopter le fils 
qu'il avait eu d'une esclave et le faire echapper aux 
consequences de sa naissance servile ? 

DEUXIEME PARTIE DE I/EMISSION. 

Frappee apres la guerre de 314 depuis la fin de Vannee 
314 ou depuis le l er Janvier 315, date a laquelle la 
reconciliation de Licinius et de Constantin fut rendue 
offieielle par la prise en commun du consulat par ces deux 
empereurs jusquau l er Mars 317, date de la reconnaissance 
des trois Cesars dans tout Vempire. 

Ce qui permet de marquer les limites de cette emission, 
c'est la comparaison avec les emissions synchroniques 
d'Alexandrie et de Cyzique. L'on frappa dans ces trois 
ateliers des legendes lovi Conservatori avant la guerre 
de 314 ; lovi Conservatori Augg. ou Caess. apres la 



I/ ATELIER MONETAIBE DE NICOMEDIE. 247 

guerre en 315 et 316; et encore de 317 a 320 avec de 
nouveaux differents monetaires; enfin de nouveau la 
legende lovi Conservatori de 320 a 324. 56 

PEEMIERE SERIE : 




I. Au revers.\OV\ CONSERVATORI AVGG. Jupiter a 
demi nu, debout a gauche, le manteau sur 
1'epaule gauche, tenant une Victoire sur un 
globe et appuye sur un sceptre. 

Au droit. 1. IMP L1CINIVS AVG. Son buste laure a 
gauche avec le manteau imperial; tenant le 
foudre d'une main et de 1'autre un sceptre et un 
globe. Cohen, 116; off. A B f A S Z ; 
FR. 14203-4, 3 gr. 30 c. ; 19 m.m. ; 14205-6-7 ; 
3 gr. ; 19 m.m. ; 14208-9 ; BE. Mus. ; Yoetter. 
[PL VI., No. 11.] (Effigie de Licinius, dans les 
etats de qui se trouve 1'atelier.) 

2. IMP CONSTANT! NVS AVG- Buste analogue. Piece 

voisine de Cohen, 301 ; off. A B 1~ A S 
_Z ; FR. 14727 ; 3 gr. 60 c. ; 19 m.m. ; 
BR. Mus. ; Voetter. [PI. VI., No. 12.] 

3. FL VN CRISPVS NO CAS (sic). Son buste laure, 

drape et cuirasse a droite, Decrite par Gnecchi ; 
off. A. 

Cette piece, d'apres son type, n'est pas barbare. La 
tete de Crispus semble empruntee a Maximin Daza, dont 
Teffigie servit encore apres sa mort. 

a6 II y a en effet une emission de la legende Jovi Conservatori sans les 
Cesars et qui continue jusqu'a la frappe des monnaies de Valens 
pendant la guerre de 314 ; et il y a une frappe de la legende Jovi 
Conservatori Augg. qui continue a presenter a Alexandrie les memes 
sigles du revers que la precedente, puis vient de nouveau la legende Jovi 
Conservatori avec les trois Cesars et Martinianus. 

a 9 

b ^ 



2i8. NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

4. VA CO LICINIVS N CS. Son buste laure et 

drape a gauche. Piece inedite. Gnecchi; off. s. 

5. FL CL CONSTANTINVS NOV CS. Son buste 

laure et drape a gauche. Piece inedite. BR. 
Mus. [PL VL, No. 13.] 

Le buste de cette piece n'est pas le portrait de Con- 
stantln II. L'effigie de ce prince, enfant age seulement 
de quelques mois, ne pouvait pas encore etre parvenue a 
Nicomedie, d'autant plus que Licinius frappait les 
monnaies de Crispus et de Oonstantin II sans 1'autori- 
sation de Constantin. 

DEUXIEME SEEIE. 

Cette serie se rapproche beaucoup de la precedente. 
Elle ne presente comme different monetaire nouveau 
qu'un point dans le champ au dessus de la lettre 
d'officine, et il ne semble pas toujours present. 

i 



B 



6 



_ _ _ _ _ _ 

SMN SMN SMN SMN SMN SMN SMN 

1. Au revers. PROVIDENTIAE CAESS. Jupiter nu, 
debout a gauche, le manteau rejete sur Fepaule 
gauche, tenant un globe surmonte d'une Victoire 
et un sceptre. 

Au droit.l. D N VAL - LICIN LICINIVS NOB C. 
Son buste laure, drape et cuirasse a droite. 
Cohen, 37, en retablissant la legende, dont une 
partie a ete oubliee dans Cohen ; off. A B f 
A 6 S Z ; FE. 14407-8-9-10-11 ; 3 gr. 90 c. ; 
19 m.m. ; 1441^-3-4-5; BE. Mus.; au Musee 
de Turin, sans point dans le champ. ("PI. VII., 
No. 1.] 

2. Meme legende. Son buste laure a gauche avec le 
manteau imperial, tenant de la droite le foudre 
ou la mappa, et de la gauche un globe avec un 
sceptre. Cohen, 38 ; off. A A S ; BE. Mus. ; 
Yoetter. 



L' ATELIER MONET AIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 249 

L'on remarquera que si les legendes sont changees 
d'une serie a 1'autre de cette emission, les types restent 
les memes. L'on trouve le meme Jupiter au revers. 

3. b N FL IVL - CRISPVS NOB CAES. Son buste 

laure, drape et cuirasse a droite. Cohen, 114 ; 
off. A B 1~ A S ; PR. 15474-5 ; BR. Mus. ; 
Voetter. 

4. Meme legende. Son buste laure a gauche, avec le 

manteau imperial, tenant le foudre ou la mappa 
de la droite et un globe avec un sceptre de la 
gauche. Piece inedite ; off. A ; Yoetter. 

5. D N FL CL CONSTANTINVS - NOB . C. Son 

buste laure, drape et cuirasse a droite. Cohen, 
161; FR. 15762; BR. Mus.; Yoetter; off. 
B A Z. 

6. Meme legende. Son buste laure a gauche, avec le 

manteau imperial, tenant le foudre ou la mappa 
de la droite et un foudre avec un sceptre de 
la gauche. Cohen, 162; BR. Mus.; off. B. 

La legende Providentiae Caess. avait encore une signi- 
fication paienne sous Licinius, etant associee au type 
de Jupiter, tandis que, lorsque Constantin eut pris 
1'Orient en 324, elle continua a paraitre sur les monnaies 
mais associee a la Porte de Camp et n'ayant plus de sens 
religieux defini. 

SEPTIEME EMISSION. 

Frappee depuis la date de la reconnaissance des trois 
Cesars, Crispus, Constantin II et Licinius II, dans tout 
rempire le l er Mars 317, jusqud la prise de Vatelier de 
Nicomedie par Constantin quelques jours apres la bataille 
de Chalcedoine, qui est du 18 Septembre 324. 57 

57 Idatii Fasti; Calendrier de Philocalus, C. I. L., i., p. 350: "x kal. 
Oct." La Chronique Paschale donne une date fausse. 



250 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

En effet, a partir du debut de cette emission, les 
monnaies des trois Cesars portent an droit leurs noms 
orthographies comme dans les autres ateliers et qui 
indiquent des frappes uniformes dans tout I'empire. En 
outre, des trois series qui composent remission, 1'une 
se continue evidemment jusqu'a la chute de Licinius, 
puisqu'elle comprend les monnaies de Martinianus, et 
une autre comprend les Vota X des Cesars, qui ne furent 
inscrits qu'a la fin de remission de 320 a 324 dans 
d'autres ateliers de I'empire. 58 

Martinianus, qui d'apres Theophanes 69 regna trois mois, 
fut cree Cesar selon les auteurs, et Auguste d'apres ce 
que nous apprennent les monnaies, par Licinius, quand 
cet empereur avait deja ete vaincu par Constantin a 
Hadrianopolis et etait assiege dans Byzance par terre 
et par mer. Licinius se sauva alors de Byzance a 
Chalcedoine en Bithynie et tandis qu'il surveillait le 
Bosphore il envoya Martinianus surveiller 1'Hellespont 
a Lampsaque. 60 Mais vaincu de nouveau a Chalcedoine, 
il se refugia a Nicomedie ou il se rendit a Constantin, 
qui lui laissa momentanement la vie sauve ; mais bientot, 
en 325, Constantin le fit executer par ses soldats, peut- 
etre a 1'occasion d'une revolte, ainsi que Martinianus 
refugie d'apres 1'Anonyme de Yalois en Cappadoce. 61 

Mais tous deux furent en tous cas dechus du rang 
d'Augustes aussitot apres la reddition de Licinius en 
Septembre 324. II en resulte que cette emission fut 
alors suspendue, au moins en partie, et que les monnaies 

58 J. Maurice, IS Atelier monetaire de Siscia, Num. Chron., 1900, 
pp. 342-343. 

59 Theophanis Chronographia. 

60 Les recits les plus complets sont ceux d'Aur. Victor, Epitome, 59, et 
de Zosirae, Hist., liv. ii., chaps. 25 et 27. 

61 Anonymus Valesii, v., 29. 



L* ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 251 

de Martinianus ne furent emises qu'a Nicomedie et peut- 
etre a Cyzique, ateliers qui furent seuls au pouvoir 
de Licinius et de Martinianus reunis. 62 

Les pieces de bronze de cette emission sont de 
1'espece du Nummus Centenionalis. Les monnaies d'or sont 
de 1'espece du 60 me a la livre d'or ; elles portent parfois 
la lettre N dans le champs du revers ; cette lettre est 
une indication de valeur. 

PREMIERE SERIE. 

Cette serie est parallele a celle qui comprend a 
Antioche les monnaies de 1'imperatrice Ste Helene 
frappees aussitot apres la guerre de 324. 

Q| A Q| B Q|f Q|A Q! Q|S g^Z 

SMN SMN SMN SMN SMN SMN SMN 

J'indique 1'officine Z qui doit exister, mais je ne 
1'ai pas trouvee. 

I. Au revers. lOVI - CONSERVATORI . AVGG. Avec le 
type deja decrit avec cette legende dans 
remission precedente. 

Au droit. 1. IMP LICINIVS AVG. Buste deja decrit. 
Cohen, 116; Musee de Turin; off. B. 

2. Je n'ai pas trouve la piece de Constantin analogue a 
celle de la serie precedente. 

II. Au revers. IOVI CONSERVATORI CAESS. Avec le 
type deja decrit. 



62 La mer n'appartenait plus a Licinius apres la victoire de la flotte de 
Crispus en Juillet ou Aout, et 1'Egypte, completement isolee, ne dut pas 
recevoir 1'ordre d'emettre de monnaies de Martinianus, et en effet on n'en 
trouve pas dans ses emissions. Cf. O. Seeck, Zur Chronologie des Kaisers 
Licinius, Hermes, 1901, pp. 28 a 35 ; J. Maurice, L' Atelier d'Alexandrie, 
Num. Chron.y 1902, p. 133. 



252 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Audroit.l. IMP . CONSTANTINVS . AVG. Son buste 
laure et drape a gauche, tenant un globe et un 
sceptre. Piece inedite. Off. A; Musee de 
Berlin. 

2. D N VAL - LICIN LICINIVS NOB . C. Son 

buste laure a droite avec le manteau imperial, 
tenant le foudre dans la droite et de la gauche 
un globe et un sceptre. Musee de Turin. 

3. D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES. Son buste 

laure a gauche, avec le manteau imperial, tenant 
le foudre dans la droite et de la gauche un globe 
et un sceptre. Cohen, 80 ; FB. 15545 ; off. B. 

4. II doit exister une piece analogue de Constantin II. 

DEUXIEME SEEIE: 



X 

nr 



x 
nr 



X IX 83 

nr nr 



SMNA SMNB SMNT SMNA 

I. Au revers. IOVI CONSERVATOR!.^ Jupiter nu, debout 
a gauche, le manteau sur 1'epaule gauche, tenant 
une Yictoire sur un globe et un sceptre sur- 
monte d'un aigle ; a ses pieds a gauche un aigle 
tenant une couronne en son bee et a droite un 
captif assis. 

Au droit.l. IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F . 
AVG. Son buste radie, drape et cuirasse a 
droite. Cohen, 74; off. A B r; FB. 14174; 
3 gr. 45 c. ; 20 m.in. ; 14175-6; Voetter. 

I x 

Variete | II [PL VII., No. 2.] 
SMNA 

2. IMP . C FL VAL - CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. 
Son buste radie, drape et cuirasse a droite. 
Cohen, 292; off. A; FB. 14709; off. A; 
H. Mus. V. ; off. r A ; Yoetter, B 1~. 

X 
63 Pour le chiffre up je renvoie aux articles originaux dans mon 

etude sur L' Atelier d'Alexandrie, Num. Chron., 1902, p. 134. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 253 

3. D - N VAL LICIN LICINIVS - NOB . C. Son buste 

casque et cuirasse a gauche, tenant une haste 
sur 1'epaule et un bouclier. Cohen, 21 ; off. 
A-B r A; BE. Mus. ; FE. 14389-90; 2 gr. 
90 c. ; 18 m.m. ; Voetter. 

4. D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES. Son buste 

laure et drape a droite. Cohen, 77; off. r ; 
BE. Mus. ; FE. 15442 ; Yoetter. 

5. D N FL CL CONSTANTINVS - NOB C. Son 

buste laure et drape a droite. Cohen, 133 ; off. 
A A; FE. 15747 ; Musee de Turin ; Voetter. 

6. D N - MARTIN I ANVS P F - AVG. Son buste 

radie et drape a droite. Cohen, 1 ; off. B l~ A ; 
BE. Mus. ; Voetter. Avec sa tete radiee a 
droite. Cohen, 5 ; off. r ; coll. Gnecchi. 

7. D N . M . MARTIN I ANVS P F AVG. Son buste 

radie et drape a droite. Cohen, 3. Les officines 
T et A sont indiquees par Cohen. Les officines 
P et T, si elles sont bien observees, indiquent 
des pieces fausses. 

8. D N M MARTINIANO P F . AVG. Son buste 

radie, drape et cuirasse a droite. Cohen, 4 ; 
off. A B r; H. Mus. V.; Musee Brera; FE. 



TROISIEME SERIE: 

I I I 

MNA SMNB SMNT SMNA 

I. Au revers. CAESARVM NOSTRORVM. Autour d'une 
couronne de laurier dans laquelle on lit VOT X. 
(Cette couronne de laurier est sans doute une 
couronne agonistique indiquant les jeux qui 
devaient etre celebres aux anniversaires des 
Cesars, lors de raccomplissement de leurs Quin- 
quennalia, Decennalia, etc.) 

Au droit.l. CRISPVS NOB CAES. Son buste laure 
et drape a droite. Cohen, 42 ; off. r ; 
H. Mus. V. 

2, II doit exister une piece analogue de Constantin II. 



254 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Quant a Licinius II, il n'est pas sur que le chiffre 
des Vota qui lui sont souhaites ait coincide dans les 
etats de son pere avec ceux des Vota des autres Cesars, 
ce prince ayant pu etre considere comme cree plus tot 
Cesar. 

II. Au revere. DOM I NOR NOSTROR - CAESS. Autour 
d'une couronne de laurier dans laquelle on lit 
VOT X. 

Au droit.CR\SPVS NOB CAES. Son buste laure et 
drape a droite. Cohen, 65 ; off. B; FR. 15439 ; 
3 gr. 50 c. ; 20 m.m. 



PIECES D'OR DE LA SEPTIEME EMISSION. 

Avec 1'exergue ^L 

On trouve 

I. Au revers. lOVI CONSERVATORI. Jupiter, a demi 
nu, debout a gauche, sur un cippe, le manteau 
sur 1'epaule gauche, tenant une Victoire sur un 
globe et appuye sur un sceptre ; a ses pieds a 
gauche un aigle tenant une couronne en son bee ; 
sur le cippe on lit SIC X SIC XX. 

Au droit. LICINIVS AVGVSTVS. Sa tete lauree a droite. 
Cohen, 61 ; FR. 1505 ; 5 gr. 25 c. ; 21 m.m. 

Licinius, cree Auguste en 308 a la conference de 
Carnuntum, celebra ses Vota X des 1'annee 318; c'est 
ce que confirme la celebration de ses Quindecennalia 
indiquee par une inscription avant la chute de Licinius, 
c'est a dire en 323. 64 En meme temps que ses Vota X 
on lui souhaita par anticipation les Vota XX. 



64 C. I. ., iii., 6159 ; J. Maurice, L' Atelier monMre de Treves. 
Me'moires de la Socie'te nationale des Antiquaires de France, seance du 
16 Juillet, 1902. 



I/ ATELIER MONETAIBE DE NICOMEDIE. 255 

II. Meme legende du revers et meme type mais sans le cippe 
ni les Vota. 

Au droit. Meme legende et meme tete. Cohen, 63 ; 

FB - SM'NA 5 & 20 c - '> 21 m - m - '> H - Mus - v - 

5gr.30c.;21m.m. ., 



L'on voit que la lettre N ne peut pas etre 1'initiale 
du mot vojjbio-^a puisqu'elle est inscrite sur des pieces 
de I'espece du 60 me a la livre. Mais elle doit etre un 
signe de valeur. 

Ce sont les Vota deja indiques qu'on retrouve sur une 
piece reprise de Banduri par Cohen. 

III. Au revers. SIC . X - SIC XX SMNB - sur unbouclier, 

dessus un aigle. 

Au droit. LICINIVS AVGVSTVS. Sa tete ceinte d'une 
couronne de perles. Cohen, 157, piece d'or 
reprise de Banduri. 

Licinius pere celebra ses Vota X des 1'annee 318 inais 
on continua a inscrire la foramle SIC X - SIC XX sur 
ses monnaies pendant toute cette emission jusqu'en 324, 
puisqu'on ne trouve pas d'autre formule sur les pieces 
de Nicomedie, atelier qui lui appartint jusqu'aux 
derniers jours de son regne. 65 II en resulte que la 
piece suivante a pu etre frappee jusqu'en Tannee 324. 

IV. Au revers. lOVI CONS LICINI AVG. Jupiter debout 

sur un cippe, regardant a gauche, tenant une 
Victoire sur un globe et appuye sur un sceptre ; 
a ses pieds un aigle qui tient une couronne en 
son bee ; sur le cippe on lit : SIC X SIC XX. 



65 Les Vota XXX lui furent souhaites a Thessalonica, mais Thessalonica 
etait dans les mains de Constantin, et Licinius put lui emprunter le 
chiffre de ees Vota. 



256 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Au droit.UC\H\VS - AVGVSTVS. Sa tete lauree a 
droite. Cohen, 131 ; Musee de Berlin ; Cohen 

indic l ue SMNA 
Exergue 

Licinius etait un prince de la dynastie Jovienne, 
ayant ete adopte par Galere, qui 1'avait ete lui-meme par 
Diocletien. C'est ce qui explique la quantite de repre- 
sentations de Jupiter et de legendes IOVI etc., que 
Ton trouve sur ses monnaies, ou elles ont rernplace les 
Genies qui y etaieut represented du temps de Maximin 
Daza. 

V. Au r ever s. Meme legend e. Jupiter est assis de face sur 
le cippe, tenant le globe surmonte d'une Victoire 
et un sceptre; a ses pieds 1'aigle tenant une 
couronne ; sur le cippe SIC X SIC XX. 

Au droit. LICINIVS - AVG OB D V FILII SVI. 
Son buste, tete nue, drape de face. Cohen, 
128; FK., or, 1506; 5 gr. 12 c. ; 20 m.m. ; 
Musee de Berlin ; H. Mus. V. ; 5 gr. 30 c. ; 
22 m.m. 



Les Vota X des trois Cesars ont ete inscrits sur les 
monnaies dans les etats de Licinius en 324. Mais la 
formule (ob Decennalia Vota Filii sui) appliquee a Licinius 
jeune par 1'empereur d' Orient a une portee speciale. II 
ne s'agit plus en effet de voeux souhaites ou suscepta ; 
mais de voaux acconiplis ou soluta. Peut-etre cette formule 
est-elle la consecration de 1'elevation de Licinius II au 
rang de Cesar en 314. 

La piece suivante indiqne en effet que Ton compta 
au cours de 1'emission presente les Vota V de ce Cesar. 



L'ATELIEE MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 257 

VI. Au revers. \OV\ . CONSERVATORI CAES. Jupiter a 

demi nu, assis de face, sur une base, tenant une 
Victoire et un sceptre ; a ses pieds un aigle 
tenant une couronne en son bee; sur la base 
on lit : SIC V SIC X. 

Au droit.D - N VAL LICIN LICINIVS - NOB - C. 
Son buste, tete nue, drape de face. Cohen, 
28:; Musee de Berlin; Cohen indique les 

officines A f G. Exergue SMNA 

VII. Au revers. lOVI CONSERVATORI. Avec le type de 

Jupiter debout tenant une Victoire sur un 
globe et un sceptre ; a ses pieds a gauche un 
aigle tenant une couronne. 

Au droit. D N VAL - LICIN LICINIVS NOB C. 
Son buste laure et drape a droite. Cohen, 20 ; 

FR. 1510; avec Q^ e ; 5 gr. 30 c. ; 21 m.m. 
[PL. VII., No. 3.] (Effigie de Licinius jeune.) 

VIII. Au revers. SOLI INVICTO. Le Soleil radie, debout 

a gauche, en robe longue ; levant la droite et 
tenant un globe. 

Au droit.D N . FL IVL - CRISPVS NOB - CAES. 
Son buste laure, drape et cuirasse a droite. 
Cohen, 135; FR. 1561; 5 gr. 32 c. ; 21 nun. 

Exer ^ e SlvfNA 

Les legendes Soli Invieto et Soli Invieto Comiti sont les 
plus frequentes sur les monnaies de Constantin et de 
Crispus: la premiere est ici inscrite sur cette piece de 
Crispus en opposition avec la legende Jovi Conservatori 
sur les pieces des Licinius. 

IX. Au revers. VICTORIAE AVGG N N. Victoire debout 

a droite ecrivant sur un bouclier pose sur un 
cippe VOT X MVL XX. 

Au droit. LICINIVS AVGVSTVS. Sa tete lauree a droite. 
Piece d'or de M. Gnecchi, decrite par lui dans la 
Hiv. It. di Numismatica, 1896, fasc. ii., No. 291. 

Exergue 



258 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 

X. Meme legende et meme type du revers. 

Au droit. CONSTANTJNVS P F AVG. Latetelauree 
a droite. Cohen, 624, autrefois Coll. Rollin. 

J'ai fait plusieurs fois remarquer que dans les etats de 
Constantin ses Vota etaient attribues a Licinius. L'on 
trouve ici une application inverse du meme principe. 
Ce sont les Vota de Licinius qui dans les etats de cet 
empereur a Nicomedie sont appliques a Constantin. En 
effet les Vota X de Constantin furent inscrits sur les 
monnaies en 315 et 316, c'est a dire avant 1'emission 
presente, 

XI. Au revers. VICTORIA - AVGQ ET - CAESS N N. 
Victoire assise sur des armes, tenant un bouclier 
sur lequel on lit VOT XX ; aupres d'elle un 
trophee au pied duquel est un captif. 

Au droit. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Sa tete lauree 
a droite. Cohen, 591 ; Ancien Catalogue du 
Cabinet de France. 

Les Vota XX de Licinius lui furent appliques au 
moins a partir de raccomplissement de ses Vota XV 
en 323. Toutes ces pieces sont de Tespece du 60 me a la 
livre d'or, qui fut supprimee comme monnaie courante 
apres la prise de 1'atelier de Nicomedie par Constantin 
en 324. 

HUITIEME EMISSION. 

Frappee depuis T elevation de Constance II au rang de 
Cesar le 8 Novembre 324 jusqu'a la mort de Fausta, qui 
suivit eelle de Crispus en Septembre 326. 66 

En effet cette emission est caracterisee par la dis- 
parition des monnaies de Licinius, vaincu et detrone par 

66 J. Maurice, L' Atelier d' Antioche, Num. Chron., LS99, p. 237. 



L'ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 259 

Constantin en Septembre 324, 67 et par I'apparition des 
monnaies de Constance II. On y trouve en outre les 
pieces de Crispus et celles de Fausta qui ne parurent 
qu'au cours de cette emission. 

Constantin s'etant empare de Nicomedie et y ay ant 
sejourne des le mois de Septembre 324, il est impossible 
de dire s'il n'y fit pas des lors frapper cette emission? 
moins les pieces de Constance II et de Fausta. 

Quoiqu'il en soit, les monnaies de Constance II ne 
parurent qu'apres Televation de ce prince au rang de 
Cesar le 8 Novembre 324, et Ton dut commencer a 
emettre en meme temps a 1'occasion de ce couronne- 
ment celles de Fausta, mere de Constantin II, et de 
Constance II. 

Cette emission presente une officine de moins que les 
precedentes. 

Les pieces de bronze sont de 1'espece du Nummus 
Centenionalis, designe aussi dans certains textes comme 
denier Constantinien, dont le poids moyen est de 
3 gr. 50 c. 

Les fetes des Vicennalia de Constantin furent celebrees 
au cours de cette emission et donnerent lieu a la frappe 
de nombreuses monnaies et medaillons. 0. Seeck a 
fait remarquer qu'un temoignage formel indique que ces 
Vicennalia furent fetes une premiere fois a Nicomedie 
en 325 68 et une seconde a Eome en 326. II dut en 
etre de meme des Decennalia des Cesars en 326 et 327. 
Les Vota X des Cesars leur ont ete deja attribues par 
anticipation au cours de 1'emission precedente; mais- 



67 La bataille de Chalce'doine est du 18 Septembre 324. 

68 O. Seeck, Zeitschr. d. Savigny-Stiftung fur Bechtsgesch. Bom., Abth. 
x., p. 186. Hieronymi Chr., " Anno 2342 Constantini 20 vicennalia 
Constantini Nicomediae facta, et sequent! anno Romae edita." 



260 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



certaines pieces qui celebrent exclusivement leurs Deeen- 
nalia sont celles oil Ton trouve les noms des Cesars 
au revers et au droit leurs tetes diademees, les yeux leves 
au ciel, sans legende ; il en sera question plus loin. 
Elles furent frappees en 326. 

Tableau des Exergues de V Emission. 
Premiere serie : 



SMNA SMNB SMNT SMNA SMN6 SMNS 



Deuxieme serie : 



SMNA* SMNB* SMNT* SMNA* 

Troisieme serie : 



MNA MNB MNT 

Quatrieme serie : 



__ 

MNA* MNB* 

Cinquieme serie : 
_L J. 

NA NB 

Sixieme serie : 
NA* NB* 



MNP* 



NT* 



MNA 



MNj 



J_ 
NA 



NA* 



MN 



MN* 



N 



N* 



SMNS* 



MNS 



MNS* 



_ 
NS 



NS* 



L'on voit que chaque serie d'exergues est repetee deux 
fois, avec et sans points. L'atelier de Nicomedie y est 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 261 

designe par la lettre N comme dans les emissions 
precedentes. On y lit parfois les initiales des mots 
S(aera) M(oneta) et Ton y trouve toujours une lettr-e 
d'officine grecque. 

I. Au revers. PROVIDENTIAE AVGG. Porte de camp 
sans battants surmontee de deux tours; au 
dessus une etoile. 

Au droit. 1. CONSTANTINVS AVG. Sa tete Iaur6e a 
droite. Cohen, 454. 

l fere serie] f BR. Mus. ; H. Mus. V. 

3 me serie > A B f A 6 S <FR. 14793-4-5; BR. Mus. 
5 me serie J IFR. 14831-2-3^4. 

Ce sont les series sans les points. 

2. Meme legende. Son buate diademe et drape 4 droite. 

Cohen, 455 ; P re serie, off. B f 6 ; BR. Mus. 

3. CONSTANTINVS - MAX AVG. Son buste diademe et 

drape a droite. Cohen, 452 ; I 6re serie, off. 
A B F~ A S ; H. Mus. Y. ; Voetter. 

Des bustes diademes de Constantin et de 1'imperatrice 
Saint e Helene se montrent sur les monnaies des le debut 
de cette emission. J'ai fait remarquer dans une etude 
sur Treves 69 que la comparaison deg emissions des divers 
ateliers de la periode Constantinienne conduit a admettre 
que ce fut apres sa conquete de 1' Orient sur Licinius que 
Constantin le Grand adopta le diademe pour les effigies 
imperiales. II en orna d'abord la tete de Fimperatrice 
Sainte Helene, quand la guerre d'Orient etait a peine 
achevee, apres sa victoire de Chalcedoine, 70 puis il 



09 Memoires de la Socitftf nationale des Antiquaires de France, 1903, en 
cours de publication, pages 52 a 55 de 1'article. 

70 Sur les monnaies d'Antioche, J. Maurice, IS Atelier d'Antioche, Num. 
Chron., 1899, p. 231. 

VOL. III., SERIES IV. T 



262 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

1'adopta pour lui, et en 325, au plus tard, pour les 

Cesars. 71 

II. Au revers. PROVIDENTIAE CAESS. Meme type du 
revers. 

Au droit. 1. FL - IVL . CRISPVS NOB - C. Son buste 
laure et drape a gauche. Cohen, 123. l fere serie, 
off. B-r S; BE. Mus. ; Voetter; FR. 15481. 
3 me serie, Fr. 15480, off. B. 

2. FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES. Son buste laure, 

drape et cuirasse a gauche. Cohen, 125. P re 
serie, off. A B r ; Voetter ; Fr. 15489. 

3. CONSTANTINVS - IVN NOB C. Son buste laure, 

drape et cuirasse a gauche. Cohen, 165. 
l fere serie, off. A 1~ A ; BR. Mus. ; Voetter. 
2 me serie, off. A B f S ; Fr. 15759-60; 
15771-2; Voetter; BR. Mus. [PI. VIL, No. 
4.] (Effigie de Constantin II.) 3 me serie, off. 
S ; FE. 15778 ; 3 gr. ; 17 m.m. ; BR. Mus. 



Je n'indique que les officines que j'ai vues. mais il est 
probable qu'on a du frapper des series completes. 

4. Meme legende du droit. Son buste laure, drape et 

cuirasse a droite. Cohen, 164. La cuirasse 
n'est represented que par quelques series. 
2 me serie, off. A B f -8 ; FR. 15769; BR. 

Mus. 

5. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS - NOB C. Son buste 

laure, drape et cuirasse a gauche. Cohen, 167. 
l fere serie, off. A S ; BR. Mus. ; Voetter. 
2 me serie, off. B-A S ; FR. 16227-8 ; 3 gr. 40 c. ; 

19 m.m. ; Voetter. 



71 Sur toutes les pieces et me'daillons frappes en 1'honneur des 
Decennalia. Le Professeur O. Seeck avait deja reconnu que 1'adoption 
du diademe e'tait poste'rieure a la clmte des Licinius. Seeck, Zu den 
Festmiinzen Constantino und seiner Familie, Zeitsch. f. Numism., xxi., 
p. 27. 



I/ ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 263 

3 me serie, off. A S; FR. 16235; Voetter. 

4 me serie, off. B f A S ; BB. Mus. ; Voetter. 

[PI. VII., No. 5.] 
6 me serie, off. B A S ; Voetter. 

6. Meme legende du droit. Son buste laure, drape 
et cuirasse a droite. Cohen, 168. Meme 
remarques que plus haut sur la cuirasse. 
2 me serie, off. A-S; FB. 16227-8. 

L'etude des monnaies de bronze de Nicomedie et 
de Heraclee de Thessalie permet de donner la raison 
pour laquelle les legendes PROVIDENTIAE AVGG et 
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS avec les Augustes au pluriel 
furent frappees lorsqu'il n'y avait plus qu'un Auguste 
dans Fempire. L'on voit en effet que la seconde de ces 
formules fut inscrite sur les monnaies de Nicomedie de 
315 a 316, et la premiere, avec la porte de camp au lieu de 
la representation de Jupiter comme type du revers, sur 
celles de Heraclee de Thessalie de 315 a 320, sur les 
monnaies de Licinius principalement. Ces deux ateliers 
appartinrent a Licinius jusqu'a sa chute, car Fetude 
des emissions monetaires de Heraclee montre que la 
Thessalie resta unie a 1'empire d'Orient jusqu'a la 
chute de Licinius en 324. L'on voit done que Con- 
stantin ne fit que continuer les frappes monetaires de 
son devancier et que lorsqu'il conquit 1' Orient sa 
chancellerie fit expedier dans tout 1'empire les for- 
mules qui avaient deja ete inscrites sur les pieces de 
Licinius, Providentiae Augg. et Caess., en supprimant 
seulement la representation paienne de Jupiter, qui 
d'ailleurs indiquait specialement la dynastie divine de 
Licinius. 

III. Au revers. PROVIDENTIAE CAES au singulier, avec 
le meme type du revers. 

T 2 



264 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Au droit. 1. FL . IVL . CRISPVS - NOB - C. Son buste 
laure et drape a gauche. Inedite ; ne differe de 
Cohen 123 que par le mot CAES. l fere serie, 
off. B S; Voetter; 4 me serie, off. B A; Voetter. 

2. CONSTANTINVS IVN - NOB - C. Son busfce laure, 

drape et cuirasse a droite. Cohen, 160 ; 
2 me serie, off. A B 6 S ; BR. Mus. 

3. Meme legende du droit et meme buste a gauche. 

Piece inedite. 2 me serie, off. r ; BR. Mus. ; ne 
differe de Cohen 165 que par le mot CAES. 

4. FL - IVL CONSTANT IVS - NOB C. Son buste 

laure, drape et cuirasse a gauche. Inedite ; ne 
differe de Cohen 167 que par le mot CAES. 
2 me serie, off. B S ', BR. Mus. ; 4 me serie, off! 
B A S ; BR. Mus. ; 6 me serie, off. B S ; 
BR. Mus. 



Ces monnaies ne differant des precedentes que par le 
mot CAES au singulier, Ton pent en conclure que Ton 
n'est pas en presence (Tune frappe reguliere mais simple- 
ment d'une erreur des ouvriers qui gravaient les coins 
a Nicomedie et dont la negligence ou 1'ignorance sont 
constantes a 1'epoque qui nous occupe. 

IV. Au revere. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE (sic). LaSecurite 
voilee, debout a gauche, tenant un rameau 
baisse et souienant sa robe. 

Au droit. FL HELENA - AVGVSTA. Son buste diademe 
et drape a droite. Cohen, 13. P re serie, off. 
r A 6 S; FR. 13895, 13900-1; BR. Mus.; 
Voetter. 3 me serie, off. |~ A ; BR. Mus. ; FR. 
13869-70. Collection Louis Thery. [PL VII., 
No. 6.] 

La legende Securitas BeipuUice, avec la contrac- 
tion, de ae en e, est un nouvel exemple de 1 'envoi 
des legendes et des types monetaires d'Orient en 



L'ATELIER MONETAIRE, DE NICOMEDIE. 265 

Occident apres la victoire definitive de Constantin sur 
Licinius. 

La contraction de ae en e se presente plusieurs fois 
dans les legendes monetaires des pieces sorties des 
ateliers d*0rient au III me siecle. Le Colonel Voetter 
en a fourni plusienrs exemples tires des monnaies 
d'Antioche. 72 Get atelier tomba dans les mains de Con- 
stantin pen. apres la reddition de Licinius, a Mcomedie 
en Septembre 324, car j'ai montre dans mon etude sur 
1'atelier d'Antioche 75 que les monnaies de Helena Aug. 
y parurent avant remission qui debuta loss de 1'elevation 
de Constance II Cesar en Novembre 324. Ce fut done 
peu de temps- apres sa victoire definitive et avant 
d'elever au rang de Cesar son fils Constance II que 
Constantin donna 1'ordre de frapper ces pieces a 1'effigie 
et au nom de sa mere, qui portent la legende Securitas 
EeipuUice, et d'en expedier le modele dans tout 1'empire. 
C'est ainsi que la contraction du ae en e se rernarque a 
cette epoque sur cette piece de Helena dont le modele 
fut envoye aussitot apres la guerre d'un atelier d'Orient,. 
probabletnent d'Antioche, ou cette contraction etait 
frequente; tandis que les autres legendes analogues 
dont la frappe ne fut decidee que plus tard, en meme 
temps que celle de toute une nouvelle emission pour 
tout 1'empire reorganise,, ne presentent pas la meme 
orthographe H speciale a certaines villes- d^Orient.. 



72 Voetter, Die Legenden der Reichmiinzstatte AnMochia voir egaleinent 
1'interessant extrait de Kubitscheck : Riickgang des Lateinischen in Osten 
des romischen Reiches, dans le bulletin de la Numismatische Gesellschaft 
in Wien du 17 DeVembre 1902. 

73 J. Maurice, IS Atelier, monetaire d'AntiocJie, Num. Chro^, 1899, p. 231. 

74 En effet une chancellerie reguliere dut etre reorganisee apres la 
guerre et dut envoyer des modeles de legendes ecrites suivant 
1'orthographe non pas d'une ville mais de tout 1'empire. 



266 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

C'est le cas des deux pieces suivantes. 

V. Au revers. SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Fausta voilee, 
debout a gauche, tenant deux enfants dans ses 
bras. 

Au droit. FLAV . MAX . FAVSTA . AVG. Son buste en 
cheveux ondules a droite et portant un collier 
de perles. Cohen, 6 et 7. P re serie, off. B; 
Voetter ; 3 me serie, off. A ; Voetter ; 5 me serie, 
off. A B r ; Voetter. 

VI. Au revers. SPES REIPVBLICAE. Avec le meme type. 

Meme droit. Cohen, 15. P re serie, off. B A; FR. 15340; 
BR. Mus. ; 3 ser ie, off. A ; FR. 15329-30; 
5 me serie, Off. e ; BR. Mus. 



Pieces d'or et Medaillons faisant partie de Remission. 

Les pieces d'or de cette emission sont de 1'espece du 
Solidus ou 72 me de la line, dont le poids moyen est de 
4 gr. 55 c. ; tandis que les pieces de 1'emission prece- 
dente etaient de 1'espece du 60 me de la livre. 

I. Au revers. PIETAS . AVGVSTI NOSTRI. Constantin 
en habit militaire, debout a gauche, relevant une 
femme tourelee a genoux (Constantinople) que 
lui presente un soldat, et tenant un sceptre. 
II est couronne par la Victoire, qui tient une 
palme. 

Au droit. CONSTANTINVS . MAX AVG. Son buste 
diademe et drape a droite. Cohen, 
393; FR. 1529A ; 4 gr. 48 c. ; 19 m.m. ; 

exergue gjL [PL VII., No. 7.] (Effigie 
de Constantin le grand.) BR. Mus., avec 
I'exergue 



La lettre C est une forme cursive du digamma Q. 

Constantin porta le diademe apres sa conquete 
de TOrient en 324. La piece ci-dessus et plusieurs 
medaillons analogues ont du etre frappes pour celebrer 



L'ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 267 

cette conquete, apres la prise de Constantinople. Aussi 
la figure feminine tourelee me semble, en raison de la 
representation ordinaire de Rome et de Constantinople 
par des femmes tourelees, pouvoir etre considered comme 
la ville de Constantinople, et la Pietas de 1'empereur qui 
releve cette femme est la qualite de Tempereur qui fut 
celebree plusieurs fois par les Panegyristes : la Pitie a 
l'egard des nations vaincues. 75 

II. Meme piece, mais en medaillon, avec Fexergue 
; FB. ; 20 gr. 36 c. ; H. Mus. V. ; Musee 



de Berlin ; Musee de Carlsruhe, avec .J Me 

OlVl IN C 

III. Au revers. PIETAS AVGVSTI N. Meme type du 

revers. 

Au droit. D N CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG. Son 
buste radie, drape et cuirasse a gauche, a mi- 
corps, levant la main droite et tenant un globe. 
Cohen, 291, medaillon d'or; FR. No. 83, 8 gr. 
90 c. ; 26 m.m. Medaillon d'or du poids de deux 
solidi. 

IV. Au revers. SPES REIPVBLICAE, avec kr type deja 

decrit avec cette legende. 

Au droit. FLAY MAX . FAVSTA AVG- Son buste a 
droite, drape et coiffe en cheveux. Cohen, 12; 

FR. No. 85A ; 8 gr. 84 c. ; exergue L 
Medaillon d'or du poids de deux solidi. 

V. Au revers. SALVS REIPVBLICAE, avec le revers deja 
decrit avec cette legende. 

Au droit. Meme legende et meme buste. Cohen, 5 ; 
BR. Mus. ; 4 gr. 34 c. ; 20 m.m. ; Gnecchi. 

Solidus ; exergue 



75 Nazarii Panegyricus, Eumen., x., cap. 37, et Eumen. Paneg., vii. 
cap. 20 : " singularem tuam, Constantine, pietatem," etc., etc. 



268 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

VI. Au revers. SECVRITAS PERPETVAE (sic). Constantin 

en habit militaire, debout a gauche, erigeant un 
trophee et tenant un sceptre. 

Au droit. D N CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB - CAES. 
Son buste laure, drape et cuirasse a droite. 
Gohen, 178, gravee p. 386; autrefois collection. 

Rollin ; exergue ^L 

tine piece analogue de la collection du British 
Museum porte 1'exergue de Sirmium, atelier qui ne fut 
ouvert que de 320 a 326. 

VII. Au revers. VIRTVS CONSTANTIM CAVS - (sic). 

Constantin II, en habit militaire, marchant a, 
droite, portant une haste et un trophee et 
poussant du pied gauche un captif assis a terre 
et retournant la te"te vers lui. 

Au droit. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C. Son buste 
laure et cuirasse & droite. Cohen, 243 ; FR. 
1573A ; 4 gr. 50 c. ; 20 m.m. Solidus ; exergue 

[P1 . VII., No. 8.] 



Des pieces analogues, celebrant la Virtus de Constantin 
et des Cesars, ont ete frappees a Thessalonica a la meifie 
epoque. Cette pik;e se classe dans cette emission par 
le fait que le solidus ne semble avoir ete frappe dans 
ratelief de Mcomedie qu'apres la prise de cette ville 
par Constantin. 

VIII. Au revers. VIRTVS * CAESARIN (sic). Crispus tenant 
Un bouclier, galopant a droite et frappant de sa 
haste un ennemi a genoux ; sous le cheVal un 
ennemi renverse et un bouclier. 

Au droit. PL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, Son 
buste laure a gauche, vu de face, artn6 d'une 
haste et d'un bouclier. Piece inedite, voisine 
de Cohen 164 ; H. Mils. V., No. 27049 ; 4 gr. 

55 c. ; 20 m.m. Solidus. ; exergue \ N - (sic), 

Le No. 164 de Cohen donne au revers VlRTVS 
CAES . N N. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 269 

IX. Au revers. FEL1C1TAS - PERPETVA AVG ET CAESS 
. N N. L'empereur en habit militaire et 
nimbe, assis, tenant une haste ; de chaque cote 
un soldat debout avec un bouclier et une haste. 

Au droit. CONSTANTINVS , IVN NOB CAES. Son 
buste laure a droite. Cohen, 104 ; 45 m.m. ; 

exergue J Medallion d'or de 1'ancien cata- 
SM N 

logue du Cabinet de France. 

Le nihibe apparut sur plusieurs medallions de 
Tarragone et de Treves comme sur le medallion ci-dessus 
de Mcomedie de 324 a 326, 76 c'est a dire pendant la 
periode qui suivit la guerre de 324 et la reunion de tout 
['empire dans les mains de Constantin. L'on a vu plus 
haut que Licinius se 1'etait attribue a lui et a son fils en 
314. Mais il y a lieu de croire que le nimbe ne garda 
plus apres la victoire definitive de Constantin la signi- 
fication paienne qu'il avait auparavant, car Constantin, 
qui avait supprime la consecration paienne des empereurs 
apres leur mort, n'eut pas maintenu les signes de la 
divinite pour lui de son vivant. 

L'on dut frapper a partir de 1' elevation de Constance II 
au rang de Cesar le 8 Novembre 324 la piece d'or suivante. 

X. Au revers. PR I NCI PI IVVENTVTIS. Constance II, en 
habit militaire, debout de face, regardant a 
droite, tenant une enseigne surmontee d'un 
aigle et une haste \ a droite une enseigne, sur- 
monte'e d'une main. 

Au droit. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS - NOB C. Son 
buste laure, drape et cuirasse a droite. Variete 
de Cohen 158 ; H. Mus. V., No. 27700; 4 gr. 



50 c. ; 20 m.m. Solidus ; exergue 



SMN 



76 J. Maurice, L' Atelier monftaire de Treves, 2 me partie, Me'moires de la 
Soci^tf natiunale des Antiquaires de France, 1901, p. 52 de Particle, en 
cours de publication. 



270 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Le medallion suivant n'a pu etre frappe que de 324 a 
326, entre 1'elevation de Constance II Cesar et la mort de 
Crispus. 

XL Au revers. CRISPVS ET . CONSTANTIVS NOBB 
CAESS. Leurs bustes en regard. Celui de 
Crispus est a mi-corps a droite, laure, avec le 
manteau imperial, tenant un sceptre surmonte 
d'un aigle et un globe. Celui de Constance II 
est laure, drape et cuirasse a gauche. 

Au droit. D N CONSTANTINVS -MAX AVG. Buste 
radie de Constantin a gauche, avec le manteau 
imperial, levant la droite et tenant un globe. 

Cohen, tome vii., page 321. Exergue ' 

SM N 

Medaillon d'or de 8 gr. 80 c. ; 25 m.m. Double 
solidus. Anciennement collection Ponton d' Ame- 
court. 

Constantin porte rarement sur ses pieces la couronne 
radiee. 

Les trois medallions d'or qui suivent ont ete frappes 
a 1'occasion de la troisieme entree a Kome de Constantin 
lors de ses Vicennalia, le 21 Juillet 326." En effet les 
pieces et medaillons connus qui celebrent les Adventus 
de Constantin a Kome ont tons ete frappes dans ses etats, 
soit a Londres et Aquilee pour les deux premiers Adventus 
en 312 et en 314, 78 a Antioche, Constantinople 79 et 
Nicomedie pour le troisieme en 326 ; et Nicomedie 
n'appartint a Constantin qu'apres 1'annee 324. De plus 
Fun des medaillons qui vont etre decrits presente un 

buste diademe et porte un exergue J qui le classe 



" C. I. L., i., p. 397. 

78 J. Maurice, L' Atelier mondlaire de Lonclves, Num. Chron., 1900, 
p. 121. IS Atelier moruftaire d'Aquitee, Eivista It. d. Num., 1901, p. 301. 

79 L 1 Atelier d' Antioche, Num. Chron., 1899, p. 236. L' Atelier de 
Constantinople, Revue Numismatique, 1901, p. 178. 



L'ATELIER MONET AIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 271 

dans 1'emission presente, et un autre est tout a fait 
analogue a un medallion frappe a Antioche a la memo 
epoque. 0. Seeck a conclu de 1'etude des rares textes 
que nous possedons sur ce sujet que ces medaillons 
devaient etre distribues aux grands personnages de 
1'empire et aux ordres des Senateurs et des Chevaliers 
a 1'occasion d'evenements importants. 80 Get evenement 
est dans le cas present Tentree de Constantin a Kome, le 
21 Juillet 326. 

On trouve 

XII. Au revers. ADVENTVS AVG N. Constantin a cheval, 

levant la main droite, precede par la Victoire 
qui tient une couronne et une palme. 

Au droit. CONSTANT! NVS MAX AVG. Son buste 
diademe et drape a droite. Cohen, 5 ; medaillon 
d'or; 26 m.m. Ancien catalogue du Cabinet 

de France. Exergue ' _ 

Cet exergue, qui se trouve dans la I 5re serie de 
1'emission presente, ne se rencontre pas dans les series 
monetaires emises en 312 et en 314. II fixe done la 
frappe de ce medaillon en 326. 

XIII. Au revers. ADVENTVS AVG N. Constantin en 

habit militaire, a cheval a gauche, levant la 
main droite, et tenant une haste. 

Au droit. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Satetelauree 
a droite. Cohen, 71. Exergue J K 

oM N 

Un medaillon analogue d'Antioche est classe dans 
remission de 324 a 326 par son exergue. 81 

XIV. Au revers. FELIX ADVENTVS AVG N. Constantin 

en habit militaire, a cheval au pas a gauche, 
levant la main droite et tenant un sceptre. 

80 O. Seeck, Zu den Festmunzen Constantins und seiner Familie, Zeitsch. 
f. Numism., xx., 24. 

81 J. Maurice, L' Atelier d'Antioche, Num. Chron., 1899, p. 236. 



272 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Au, droit. D N CONSTANTINVS MAX . AVG. Son 
buste laure, drape et cuirasse a droite. Cohen, 
151 ; H. Mus. V., No. 32343, et FR. No. 25; 
6 gr. 76 c. ; 24 m.m. Piece d'un solidus et 
demi, dont O. Seeck a indique egalement la 

presence parmi ces medallions. Exergue qjrWi 
[PI. VII., No. 9.] (Effigie de Constantin.) 

Les annees 325 et 326 furent signalees par plusieurs 
evenements importants. Ceux qui semblent avoir eu 
une influence sur la frappe des medallions sont les- 
Vicennalia de Constantin, qui tombaient au 25 Juillet 326,. 
et furent celebres une premiere fois une annee plus tot, 
en 325, a Mcomedie, et une seconde fois a Kome en 
326, et d'autre part les Deeennalia des Cesars, qui 
tombaient au l er Mars 327, mais durent etre celebres. 
egalement une annee plus tot, le l er Mars 326, a Nico- 
medie, tandis que Constantin se trouvait encore en 
Orient. II faut encore noter le consulat de Constantin. 
en 326. 

0. Seeck a emis I'hypothese ingenieuse que le* 
medaillons qui portent en legende Equis Bomanus ou 
Senatus et la representation de 1'empereur etaient 
offerts aux Chevaliers et aux Senateurs, dont 1'ordre etait 
ainsi honore d'une mention speciale de 1'empereur. 82 
Ces pieces durent etre frappees a 1'occasion des Vicennalia 
de Constantin. Quant aux pieces d'or ou d'argent qui 
furent emises en 1'honneur des Deeennalia des Cesars, 
elles portent 1'indication des Vota ou bien presentent 
un type tout special, le Cesar ou 1'Empereur les yeux 
leves au ciel, la tete ceinte d'un bandeau ou diademe 
oriental, dont il sera question plus loin. 

82 O. Seeck, loc. cit., p. 24. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 273 

XV. Au revers. EQVES ROMANVS. Constantin a cheval, 
au pas a droite, et levant la main droite. 

Au droit. D - N - CONSTANTINVS - MAX . AVG. Son 
buste laure, drape et cuirasse a droite. Cohen, 
138; medaillon d'or; 23 m.m.; Vente de 

Moustier. Exergue 



SMN 

XVI. Au revers. EQVIS ROMANVS. Meme type et meme 
exergue. 

Au droit. D N CONSTANT! NVS MAX AVG. Son 
buste laure, drape et cuirasse a droite. Cohen, 
139 ; FR., Nos. 23 et 24 ; 6 gr. 62 c. ; 23 m.m. 
[PI. VII., No. 10.] li Solidm; H. Mus. V., 
No. 32339 ; 25 m.m. ; Musees de Berlin, de 
Turin. (Effigie de Constantin). 



Ces deux medallions avec les legendes Equis et Eques 
sont un exemple des confusions de lettres frequentes a 
Nicomedie. 

XVII. Au revers. SENATVS. Constantin laure debout a 
gauche, en toge, tenant un globe et un sceptre 
court. 

Au droit. D N CONSTANTINVS AVG. Sa tete 
diademee a droite, levant les yeux. H. Mus. V., 
medaillon d'or, No. 26277. 

Un medaillon voisin de Thessalonica est classe par 
son exergue dans remission contemporaine de celle-ci. 
J'ai deja indique 1'annee 326 comme celle de la frappe 
de ces medallions. 83 Mais il est possible aussi qu'ils 
aient ete frappees egalernent en 325 lors de la celebration 
a Nicomedie des Vieennalia de Constantin. Le medaillon 
qui vient d'etre decrit presente un type de tetequi se trouve 
repete sur toutes les pieces des Cesars emises en 326 a 

83 J. Maurice, Bulletin de la Socie'tf nationale des Antiquaires de 
France, 1898, pp. 381-2, seance du 14 Deceinbre ; et L' Atelier de 
Thessalonica, Numism. Zeitsclirift, 1901, p. 139. 



274 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

1'occasion ou apres Taccomplisseinent de leurs Decen- 
nalia, et qui a partir de cette date reapparut a chaque 
anniversaire des Vota des Cesars et des Augustes jusqu'a 
1'Empereur Julien inclusivement. Ce sont les tetes 
diademees d'empereurs, les yeux leves au ciel, sans 
legende, et la tete ceinte du bandeau royal ou diademe, 
que Ton voit au droit des pieces presentant au revers les 
Vota des empereurs dans une eouronne de laurier, mais plus 
specialement sur les pieces d'or et d'argent, et de meme 
sur les pieces d'or qui presentent au revers les noms des 
empereurs, telles que celles qui furent emises en 326 a 
Nicomedie et qui vont etre decrites. Ces faits coincident 
avec ce qu'Eusebe dit de Constantin, 84 qu'il se fit repre- 
senter sur les monnaies d'or le visage tourne vers le ciel, 
dans 1'attitude de la priere, et que ces pieces circulerent 
dans tout I'empire. 

Nous savons done a quelle occasion ces pieces paru- 
rent : ce fut aux anniversaires des avenements des 
empereurs, lors de Quinquennalia, Decennalia, etc., etc. 
Nous savons egalement que 1'origine de cette coutume 
remonte a 1'annee du Concile de Nicee ou a celle 
qui la suivit (326) et il est probable que Constantin 
voulut donner une attitude de priere, indiquer une in- 
vocation de la puissance de Dieu, sur ces pieces, ainsi 
que le dit Eusebe ; mais Ton ne trouve pas de symbole 
particulier du Christianisme sur ces pieces, et c'est 
probablement la raison pour laquelle non seulement les 
empereurs Ariens mais meme Julien les firent emettre 
aux anniversaires de leurs Vota. 

Ces pieces parurent principalement aux deux anni- 

84 Eusebe, Vita Con?tantini, iv., 11 : "eV TO?S XP V<TO ? S vofjLto-/j.a<ri T}\V 
avrov avr6s fiK6va (js'Se ypd4>ecr6ai SieruTrou, us Hvw ft\firfiv 
irpbs Qebv, Tp6Trov eu^o/ieVoy," etc. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 275 

versaires de 1'annee 326, les Deeennalia des Cesars le 
l er Mars, et les Vicennalia de Constantin le 25 Juillet, 
dans la plupart des ateliers de 1'empire alors ouverts. 

On trouve 

XVIII. Au revers. CONSTANTINVS - AVG en legende et 

dans le champ de la piece deux couronnes de 
laurier entrelacees. 

Au droit. Sans legende. Tete diademee de Constantin 
a droite, les yeux tournes vers le ciel. Cohen, 
105; H. Mus. V., No. 25945. Solidus. 

Exergue J- 

XIX. Au revers. Meme legende. Victoire assise a gauche 

tenant un globe surmonte d'une Yictoire et une 
corne d'abondance ; derriere elle un bouclier. 

Au droit. Sans legende. Sa tete diademee a droite, les 
yeux tournes vers le ciel. Cohen, 102. Solidus ; 

20 m.m. ; Berlin. Exergue J 

oMN 

XX. Au rem-s. CONSTANTINVS CAESAR. Yictoire mar- 

chant a gauche, tenant une couronne et une 
palme. 

Au droit. Tete diademee de Constantin II a droite, les 
yeux tournes vers le ciel dans Fattitude de 
1'oraison comme sur les autres pieces. Cohen, 
75 ; H. Mus. V. ; No. 27201 ; 4 gr. 53 c. ; 

20 m.m. Solidus; FR. Exergue -L [PI. 
VII., No. 11.] 

XXI. Au revers. CONSTANTIVS - CAESAR. Meme type du 

revers. Tete diademee pareille de Constance II. 
Cohen, 14; FR. 1588; 4 gr. 50 c. ; 20 m.m. 

Solidus ; coll. Gnecchi. Exergue -!_ 

XXII. Au revers. CR IS PVS CAESAR. Meme type du revers. 

Au droit. Tete analogue de Crispus. Cohen, 59 ; 
FR. ; 4 gr. 42 c. ; 19 m.m.; coll. Gnecchi. 

Exergue ' - 



276 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Toutes ces tetes ont pour diademe le simple bandeau 
royal, tandis que les diademes representes sur les 
medailles frappees en d'autres circonstances sont formes 
de pierres precieuses ou ornes de perles. La piece 
d'argent suivante fut frappee avec les pieces d'or 
qui viennent d'etre decrites. 

XXIII. Au revers. CONSTANTINVS AVGVSTVS. Meme 
revers. 

Au droit. Sans legende. Tete analogue de Constantin a 
droite. Piece d'argent ; coll. Gnecchi ; 20 m.m. 

Les pieces d'argent qui vont etre decrites sont de 
1'espece du Miliarense^ qui fut frappee de 324 a 326 
ainsi qu'en temoigne 1'emission de Sirmium qui parut 
a cette epoque. Ce fut, a ce qu'il semble, 1'epoque de 
creation du Miliarense. 



Avec 1'exergue . [ on trouve : 

oM N 

XXIV. Au revers. FELICITAS ROMANORVM. Constantin 
debout entre deux de ses fils en habit militaire 
et s'appuyant sur des hastes, sous une voute 
soutenue par des colonnes. 

Au droit. I. CONSTANTINVS - MAX - AVG. Son buste 
laure et cuirasse a droite. Cohen, 150 ; 
Gnecchi, Miliarense. 

2. D - N - CRISPVS NOB - CAESAR. Son buste laure 

et cuirasse a droite. Piece inedite ; BE. Mus., 
Miliarense. Belle effigie de Crispus. [PI. VII., 
No. 12.] 

3. FL - IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C. Son buste laure 

a droite avec le manteau imperial et la cuirasse. 
Piece inedite. Musee de Berlin ; 4 gr. 40 c. ; 
23 m.m. 



85 G. Babelon, Trait? des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines, tome i., 
569-70. 



I/ ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 277 

Le Miliarense est le 72 me de la livre romaine ; il pese 
en moyenne 4 gr. 55 c. et a de 23 a 24 millimetres de 
diametre. Le medaillon d'or suivant se classe encore 
dans eette emission par ses Vota et par son exergue de 
la troisieine serie. 

XX Y. Au revers. VOTIS X CAESS N N en trois 
lignes dans le champ; au dessous MNP, dans 
une eouronne, en haut de laquelle est un aigle. 

Au droit. D N - CONSTANT! NVS IVN - NOB CAES. 
Son buste diademe, drape et cuirasse a droite. 
Cohen, 279 ; 9 gr. ; 25 m.m. [PI. VII., 
No. 13.] (Effigie de Constantin II.) 



NEUVIEME EMISSION. 

Frappee depuis Velevation de Delmatius Cesar le 
18 Septembre 335 jusqu'a, la proclamation des fils de 
Constantin le Grand Augustes et la frappe des monnaies 
ou Constantin reqoit le nom de Divus Constantinus Pater 
Augustorum, le 9 Septembre 337. 86 

En effet 1'atelier de Nicomedie resta ferme depuis la 
cessation de la frappe des monnaies de Crispus et de 
Fausta en Septembre 326 87 jusqu'a 1'apparition des 
monnaies de Delmatius, elu Cesar le 18 Septembre 335. 
On trouve egalenient dans remission presente les pieces 
de Constant I, elu Cesar le 25 Decembre 333 et celles de 
Kome et de Constantinople, qui furent emises depuis les 
fetes de 1'inauguration officielle et religieuse de Con- 



86 J. Maurice, IS Atelier monetaire de Constantinople, Revue Numismatique, 
1901, pp. 208-209. 

87 J. Maurice, L 1 Atelier mon&taire d'Antioehe, Num. Chron. y 1899, 
p. 237. 

VOL. III., SERIES IV. U 



278 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

stantinople en presence de Constantin et de la cour le 
11 Mai 330. 88 

Les pieces de bronze de cette emission sont de deux 
sortes. Les plus grandes sont une variete du Nummus 
Centenionalis d'un poids moyen de 2 gr. 50 c. ; ce sont 
principalement celles qui offrent au revers la representa- 
tion de deux etendards entre deux soldats. Les plus 
petites, designees dans Cohen cornme quinaires, sont la 
moitie du Nummus Centenionalis de 3 gr. 50 c. et ont 
en consequence un poids moyen de 1 gr. 75 c. 89 

II existe des pieces de Delmatius des deux sortes, ce 
qui conduit a admettre que remission ne parut qu'a 
partir de son elevation comme Cesar le 18 Septemhre 
335. L'atelier de Nicomedie etait done reste ferme de 
326 a 335. 

Exergues des monnaies de bronze de 1'emission 

I I I I 

SMNT SMNA SMN6 SMNS 



A. Pieces de Tespece du Nummus Centenionalis reduit 
au poids moyen de 2 gr. 50 c. 

On trouve 

I. Au revers. GLORIA EXERCITVS . Deux soldats, 
casques, debout et se regardant, tenant chacun 
une haste et appuyes sur un bouclier ; entre 
eux deux enseignes militaires surmontees de 



88 J'ai montre dans mon etude sur Constantinople (Rev. Numis- 
matique, 1901, p. 175) que cette capitale re9ut son nom nouveau le 
8 Novembre 324 mais ne fut inauguree qu'en 330. 

89 E. Babelon, Trait? des Monnaies Grecques et Eomaincs, tome i., 
612-614. 



L' ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 279 

Au droit. 1. CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG. Son buste 
diademe et drape a droite. Cohen, 254 ; off. 
A B r A S; FE. 14654; 2 gr. 25 c. ; 
17 m.m.; 14655, 14657, 14682; BR. Mus. ; 
Voetter. [PI. VII., No. 14.] 

2. CONSTANTINVS . IVN NOB C. Son buste laure et 

cuirasse a droite. Cohen, 122 ; off. A B f 

6 S ; FE. 15717-18 ; 2 gr. 50 c. ; 18 m.m.; 

BE. Mus. ; Musee de Turin ; Voetter. 

3. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C. Son buste laure 

et drape a droite. Cohen, 104; off. A f A 

-; FE. 16192, 16201-2, 16208-9 ; BE. Mus. ; 
Voetter. 

4. FL CONSTANS NOB CAES. Son buste laure et 

drape a gauche. Cohen, 72 ; off. A A 6 ; 

FE. 15966 ; Voetter. 

5. FL IVL CONSTANTIS (sic) NOB - C. Son buste 

laure et drape a gauche. Piece inedite ; off. 
A_e ; FE. 15962 ; Voetter. 

6. FL AALMATIVS (sic) NOB CAES. Son buste 

laure et drape a droite. Cohen, 14; off. ; 
FE. 15572 ; 2 gr. 50 c. ; 17 m.m. ; Voebter. 

II. Au revers. Sans legende. Victoire debout a gauche, 
posant le pied sur une proue de vaisseau, tenant 
un sceptre et appuyee sur un bouclier. 

Au droit. CONSTANT! NOPOLI (sic). Son buste casque 
a gauche avec le casque laure, tenant un sceptre 
et portant le rnanteau imperial. Cohen, 21 ; 
FB. 15204-5; off. A B A -6 ; Voetter; Br. 

Mus. 

III. Au revers. Sans legende. La Louve a gauche, allaitant 
Romulus et Remus et les regardant. Au-dessus 
deux etoiles; entre les etoiles deux ou trois 
points. 

Au droit. VRBS ROMA. Son buste casque a gauche 
avec une aigrette sur le casque et le manteau 
imperial. Cohen, 17; FE. 15272-3; off. A S ; 
Voetter ; BE. Mus. [PI. VII., No. 15.] 

U 2 



280 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

B. Pieces du poids moijen de 1 gr. 75 c. 
(demi-Centenionalis) . 

IV. Au revers. GLORIA - EXERCITVS. Avec le type du 
revers deja decrit, si ce n'est qu'il n'y a qu'une 
enseigne entre les soldats. 

Au droit.I. CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG. Son buste 
diademe et drape a droite. Cohen, 250 ; off. 
A B r-A 6 S; FR. 14610,14613-4,14616; 
BE. Mus. ; Yoetter. 

2. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C. Son buste laure et 

cuirasse a droite. Cohen, 114; off. A B f A 
6 S ) BR. Mus. ; Musee de Turin ; Voetter. 

3. Meme legende. Meme buste a gauche. Piece inedite ; 

off. A ; Musee de Turin. 

4. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB - C. Son buste laure 

et drape a droite. Cohen, 92 ; off. r A ; 
FR. 16147; BR. Mus. ; Voetter. 

5. FL CONSTANS NOB CAES. Son buste diademe 

et drape a gauche. Cohen, 47 ; off. B f A 
S ; Voetter. 

6. FL AALMATIVS NOB - CAES. Son buste laure et 

drape a droite. Piece inedite ; variete de 
Cohen 5, avec 1' e remplace par A ; off. A ; 
BE. Mus. ; Voetter. [PI. VII., No. 16.] 

7. VRBS ROMA. Buste de Rome a gauche avec une 

aigrette sur le casque et le manteau imperial. 
Cohen, 1 ; off. B ; Voetter. 

8. CONSTANTINOPOLI - (sic). Buste de Constantinople a 

gauche avec le casque laure et le manteau 
imperial, tenant un sceptre. Cohen, 5 ; off. A ; 
Voetter. 

V. Au revers. Sans legende. La Louve a gauche, allaitant 
Romulus et Remus et les regardant. Au dessus 
d'eux deux etoiles; eiitre les etoilesdeux ou trois 
points. 



L'ATELIER MONETAIKE DE NICOMEDIE. 281 

Au droit. VRBS ROMA - Avec le buste deja decrit. 
Cohen, 19, piece indiquee comme quinaire ; 
off. B-S; FK. 15274; 1 gr. 71 c. ; 19 m.m. ; 
Voetter ; 3 points entre les etoiles. 

Les points places an dessus de la Louve sont des 
differents monetaires, tandis que les etoiles entre lesquelles 
sont les points font partie du type du revers de ces pieces 
et sont un souvenir des Dioscures, au dessus de la tete 
desquels se tenaient ces etoiles et qui etaient les 
divinites protectrices de Home. 

VI. Sans legende. Victoire debout a gaucHe, posant le pied 
sur une proue de vaisseau, tenant un sceptre et 
appuyee sur un bouclier. 

Au droit. CONSTANTINOPOL! (sic). Avec le buste 
deja. decrit. Cohen, 22, pieces indiquees comme 
quinaires ; Yoetter ; Off. A . 

Les Vicennalia de Constantin avaient ete fetees en 
325 a Nicomedie et en 326 a Eome ; ses Tricennalia 
furent celebres une premiere fois a Constantinople le 
25 Juillet 335, 90 avec beaucoup d'eclat, suivant le dire 
d'Eusebe, qui y rattache 1'envoi de deputations de divers 
pays, et notamment de 1'Inde, vers 1'Empereur. Ces 
ietes durent se renouveller en 336, annee qui fut 
egalement marquee par le mariage de Constance II, le 
second fils vivant de Constantin depuis la mort de Crispus. 
De plus, en 336 tombaient les Vicennalia des Cesars, qui 
donnerent lieu a une nouvelle frappe de monnaies des 
Cesars, dont les tetes, le regard tourne vers le ciel,, 
portent le diademe ou bandeau royah 

90 La Chronique Paschale les indiqua en 335. Idatii Fast. : 
" Constantino et Albino, his conss., tricennalia edidit Constantinus Aug. 
die viii kal. Aug." Euseb., Vita Const., iv., 46, 47, 50. 



282 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Ce fut a 1'occasion de la celebration des Trieennalia en 
335 que durent etre principalement frappees les pieces d'or 
et d'argent suivantes : 

I. Au revere. VICTORIA CONSTANTINF AVG. Victoire 
assise a droite sur une cuirasse et un bouclier et 
ecrivant VOT -XXX sur un bouclier que lui 
presente un genie. 

Au droit. 1. CONSTANTINVS - MAX AVG. Sa tete 
diademee a droite, les yeux leves au ciel. 
Cohen, 617 ; Musee de Berlin ; 4 gr. 30 c. ; 
24 m.m. Solidus de grande dimension, tel que 
sont ceux de la fin du regne de Constantin. 



L'on retrouve ici le type des tetes avec les yeux leves 
au ciel, dans Tattitude de 1'oraison, qui ont ete indiquees 
par Eusebe et dont la frappe se repete a 1'occasion de 
chaque anniversaire important du couronnement des 
empereurs, c'est a dire a 1'occasion de la celebration de 
leurs Vota. 

2. Meme legende du droit, mais le buste diademe et drape 
a droite. Cohen, 616, mais Solidus ; H. Mus V. 

gjiJRf, peut-etre^L; exergue irregulier, 

ou la lettre M finale qui n'a pas de sens, mais 
qui se retrouve sur plusieurs pieces d'or de 
Nicomedie. 

II. Aurevers.D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG autonr 
d'une couronne de laurier dans laquelle on lit 
VOT XXX. 

Au droit. CONSTANTINVS AVG. Sa tete diademee a 
droite, les yeux leves au ciel. Piece d'argent 

inedite du Musee de Berlin ; exergue ' 

Voisine du petit bronze de Cohen 130. Les couronnes 
de laurier que Ton trouve sur les pieces de ce genre 
autour du chiffre des Vota ne s'y trouvent pas repre- 
sentees sans motifs, mais elles doivent commemorer les 






L' ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 283 

jeux celebres en 1'honneur des anniversaires imperiaux 
lors de la celebration des Vota. 

Les medallions d'or suivants, bien que la lettre 
d'officine S ne soit pas inscrite sur le medallion a 1'exergue 
comme sur les autres pieces de remission, mais dans le 
champ du revers, ont du etre frappes lors des anniversaires 
de 335 et de 336, car, en effet, au droit de ces pieces 
1'empereur a les yeux leves au ciel, dans 1'attitude de 
1'oraison, comme sur toutes les medailles emises lors 
des anniversaires des Vicenncdia et Trieennalia de Conr 
stantin comme des Decennalia et Vieennalia. des Cesars. 

On trouve 

III. Au revers. GLORIA CONSTANTIN1 AVG. Constantly 

casque et en habit militaire, marchant a droite; 
portant un trophee et trainant un barbare par 
les cheveux. II pose le pied gauche leve sur 
un captif assis devant lui a terre. 

Au droit. Sans legende. Tete diademee de Constantin 

a droite, les yeux leves au ciel. Cohen, 237. 

i 
Exergue ^^ Medallion d'or ; 6 gr. 34 c. a 

6 gr. 81 c. 

IV. Au revers.- Meme legende. Constantin debout a gauche, 

entre deux captif s assis les mains liees derriere 
le dos ; tenant un globe surmonte d'une Yictoire 
et une haste. 

Au droit'. Sans legende. Tete diademee de Constantin 
a droite, les yeux leves vers le ciel. Cohen, 
240 ; BE. Mus. ; medallion d'or ; 6 gr. 25 c.. 

I Q 

Exergue et lettre dans le champ ' 

oIVI N 

Une serie' de pieces d'or ou d'argent presentant aux 
revers les noms des empereurs et aux droits leurs tetes 
diademees,. avec le simple bandeau royal et la face et 
les yeux tournes vers le ciel, fut frappee lors des 
anniversaires de 335 (Trieennalia de Constantin) et 336 



284 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

(repetition des memes et Vicennalia des Cesars). Les 
Vicennalia des Cesars se repeterent en 337 et donnerent 
lieu a 1'emission des memes pieces. Plus tard Ton 
emit des monnaies presentant la legende SECVRITAS 
REIPVBLICE et VOT - XX, dont la description sort de 
notre sujet, car elles parurent apres 1'elevation des 
Augustes, dont ils indiquent le titre, en Septembre. 
Ces pieces demontrent qu'apres la celebration des Vota, 
Ton en repetait le chiffre jusqu'a raccomplissement des 
suivants; mais elles ne sont pas les monnaies frappees 
a 1'occasion meme de la celebration de 1'anniversaire 
comme la monnaie de Delmatius dont la description 
suit. Je n'ai pas trouve de piece analogue de Constant I. 
Quant aux pieces des autres Cesars elles ont ete decrites 
dans remission precedente. 

V. Au revers. DELMATIVS . CAESAR. Victoire mar- 
chant a gauche tenant une couronne et une palme. 

Au droit. Sans legende. Tete diademee avec le simple 
bandeau royal de Delmace a droite et les yeux 

leves au ciel ; exergue gJ-^ Cohen, 3; piece 
d'argent; BE. Mus. [PI. VII., No. 17.] 

L'on ne frappa egalement que pendant cette emission 
les pieces de Constant I, elu Cesar en 333, telles que la 
suivante. 

I. Au revers. PRINCIP1 - IVVENTVTIS. Constant I en 
habit militaire, debout a droite, tenant une 
haste transversale et un globe. 

An droit. FL . CONSTANS NOB CAES. Son buste 
laure et drape a gauche. Variete inedite de 
Cohen 94. Triens ou tiers de Solidus ; 

exergue ^L ; H. Mus. V., No. 27459; 1 gr. 
65 c. ; 17 m.m. 

L'on sait que les pieces designant les Cesars comme 
princes de la jeunesse etaient emises des leur avenement. 



L'ATELIER MONETAIRE DE NICOMEDIE. 285 

Apres la mort de Constantin le Grand, survenue le 
22 Mai 337, 1'empire resta dans un etat d'anarchie jusqu'a 
la proclamation des trois Augustes, Constantin II, Con- 
stance II et Constant I, le 9 Septembre 337. L'atelier 
de Nicomedie ne semble pas avoir emis de monnaies 
nouvelles ni avoir change le chiffre de ses officines 
pendant cette periode, qui donna lieu a Constantinople 
a la frappe des monnaies qui presentent 1'unique 

exergue ' . 91 Apres le 9 Septembre 337, Ton emit 

les monnaies qui consacraient la memoire du Divus Con- 
stantinus Pater Augustorum. 

L'on trouve a cette epoque deux series d'exergues. 



P re serie 



I 
' SMNA B f A -S Z H 9 I. 



2 me serie, SMNA* ; memes lettres d'officines. 

Pieces de la moitie du Centenionalis. 
On trouve 

I. Au revers. VN -MR. La Piete ou une figure feminine 
debout ^ droite et voilee, les mains enveloppees 
dans sa robe. 

Au droit. DN CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG. Sa tete 
voilee a droite. Cohen, 716 ; P re et 2 me serie ; 
off. A a I ; BE. Mus. ; Toetter ; FE. [PL VII., 
No. 18.] 

II. Au revers. Sans legende. Constantin dans un 
quadrige au galop a droite tendant la main a 
une main qui descend du ciel pour le recevoir. 

Meme legende et meme tete ou buste au droit. Cohen, 

760. 

l fere serie, off. A a s ; BE. Mus. ; FE. ; Voetter. 
2 me serie, off. A a S ', de meme. 

JULES MAUEICE. 

91 J. Maurice, IS Atelier mon&aire de Constantinople, Revue Numismatique, 
1901, pp. 206 a 209. 



IX. 

THE GOLD COINAGE OF THE KEIGN OF 
HENKY VI. 

(See Plates VHI.-IX.). 

WHEN I read my paper on the silver coinage of Henry 
VI our learned President suggested the desirability of 
the gold coins of this reign being specially studied with 
a view to seeing how far they would corroborate the 
conclusions I arrived at in regard to the arrangement of 
the silver coins. In deference to this suggestion I have 
since devoted some little attention to the subject, with 
what I hope may prove to be some interesting results, 
and these I will now submit to the Society for their 
consideration. I think I shall be able to show reason 
for considerably altering the arrangement hitherto 
followed as to the coins already known and published, 
and also to add several varieties of nobles of the later 
coinages, corresponding with the silver issues, of hitherto 
unknown types. Before attempting to classify the gold 
coins I will, as I did in my last paper, quote the mint 
accounts as given by Ending of the amount of bullion 
coined during the various periods of this reign; and I 
would specially call attention to the large amount of gold 
coined at the London and Calais mints from the tenth 
year of Henry V up to the ninth year of Henry VI, and 
to the small amounts coined during subsequent years. 



THE GOLD COINAGE OF HENRY VI. 287 

The following accounts are given by Kuding (Vol. I., 
pp. 84, 85):- 

London 
From the 10th year Henry V to the s. d. 

3rd year Henry VI 19,746 11 

From July 28 of the 3rd year to July 27 Lbs. ozs. dwts. 

of the 9th year of Henry VI. . . 5,963 7 llf 
Calais 
From Jan. 24 of the 2nd year to Dec. 24 

of the 6th year 2,834 c# 9 7 

From May 20 of the 6th year to Aug. 2 

of the 9th year 361 3 10 

London 
From Oct. 16 of the 10th year to Oct. 22 

of the llth year 663 4 15 7 

18th and 19th years 505 3 

From Michaelmas of 23rd year to Mi- 
chaelmas of 24th year .... 162 3 

25th year 87 11 17 J 

From June 24 of 26th year to Oct. 11 

of 28th year 207 11 2^ 

From Michaelmas of the 29th year to 

Easter of the 30th year .... 416 4 11 J 
From April 1 of the 31st year to 

April 21 of the 32nd year ... 123 10 7J 
From April 21 of the 32nd year to 

March 28 of the 34th year ... 149 6 10 
From Michaelmas of the 37th year to 

Michaelmas of the 38th year . . 49 5 5 

Kuding states that these accounts are not complete, 
but they appear in a general way so well to correspond 
with the proportion of coins, both in gold and silver, that 
remain to us, that there cannot be a great deal missing, 
while any incompleteness is probably of a proportionate 
nature. 1 A very slight examination of the foregoing 
details shows us, as we might (having reference to the 
silver) naturally expect, that by far the largest amount 
of gold coined during this reign, was within the period 
that comprises the great annulet coinage in its various 

1 The accounts from 1433 to 1440 are entirely missing, which period I 
suggested in my last paper accounted for the whole of the pine-cone coinage. 



288 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

phases, while the amount coined during what we may 
assume to be the period of the trefoil coinage, or from about 
1440 to 1450 (approximately), is trivial by comparison. 
Now, according to the classification of Kenyon and others, 
practically no annulet gold coins are known ; and although 
almost unique specimens of both noble and half-noble 
ascribed to this coinage have appeared in recent years, 
they do not materially alter Kenyon's conclusions. On 
the other hand, while not recognising the existence of 
gold coins of the annulet issues, he, with other writers, 
ascribes the bulk of Henry VI's gold coins to the trefoil 
issue, notwithstanding the fact that on all specimens the 
annulet occupies the place of a distinguishing mark in a 
most prominent way on both the obverse and reverse, 
small trefoils being merely used as stops. It will be 
seen from these preliminary remarks that I propose to 
transfer the gold coins of the, up to the present, so-called 
trefoil coinage, to the annulet coinage ; and I will 
endeavour to give in detail my reason for doing so, my 
task being made much easier by the fact that one speci- 
men at least of a noble, indisputably of the trefoil coinage, 
is now known and is in the National Collection. It was 
obtained with several other varieties of either very rare, 
or previously unknown types of nobles and half-nobles 
from a recent find in France, but in what locality I have 
been unable to ascertain. On the noble to which I now 
refer, the trefoil, which is large, is placed in the legend 
as on the groats of the trefoil coinage, and it only occurs 
in one place, small sal tires being used between the other 
words. It is also placed in the field of the obverse. I will 
describe it more in detail later on in going through the 
several issues and comparing them with the silver coins. 
It will perhaps be remembered that, in my paper on 



THE GOLD COINAGE OF HENRY VI. 289 

the silver coins of this reign, I endeavoured to show that 
the great bulk of the annulet coins belong to Henry VI, 
and that all those belonging to Henry V are to be 
distinguished by a variety of the pierced cross mint-mark 
which I called type I. cga ; 2 while I gave reasons for 
believing that, with the .accession of Henry VI and the 
renewal by the Regency of the indenture with Bartholo- 
mew Goldbeter, a new distinguishing mark would be 
most probable, and was to be found in an altered form of 
the pierced cross which I called type II. >. The same 
reasoning will, I think, apply to the gold coins, and in 
this case the, at present, unique specimens of the annulet 
noble and half-noble (the former in the National Col- 
lection, and the latter in those of Sir John Evans and the 
late Mr. Montagu), 3 together with the quarter-noble in the 
British Museum, at once fall into position, with the silver 
coins of the annulet type which I ascribed to Henry V, all 
having as m.m. the pierced cross of type I. This, it should 
be observed, is the only form of pierced cross found on the 
annulet gold coins ; and I would suggest that, instead of 
the pierced cross of type II. which, on the silver coins, I 
take to be the distinguishing mark of the first issue of 
Henry VI, the fleur-de-lys was adopted as the new mark 
on the gold coins. It would obviously be suggested by 
the succession of the infant king to the throne of France 
almost immediately after that of England, through the 
death of his grandfather Charles VI, who had been 
compelled by treaty to acknowledge Henry V as his 
heir. The lion or leopard of England was prominently 



2 In speaking of the pierced cross of types I. and II. reference is only 
intended to 'the annulet coinage, there being a third and earlier type 
still, which is found on some coins of Henry IV or the first of Henry V. 

3 The half-noble is photographed in the Montagu Catalogue. 



290 NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 

introduced in conjunction with the fleur-de-lys, upon all 
the French coins of Henry VI, and what could seem 
more appropriate than to introduce the emblem of France 
in a prominent way upon the new issue of English money 
of the first English sovereign acknowledged as King of 
France. If this idea should be % correct the adoption of 
the fleur-de-lys for the reason given as a distinguishing 
mark upon the gold coins at the very commencement of 
Henry VPs reign would also account for its long con- 
tinuance throughout so many coinages, and even to its 
revival on the angels of the restoration. As the French 
possessions gradually fell away from the power of England 
the symbol of their sovereignty would probably be re- 
tained with increasing tenacity by Henry, while the re- 
membrance that he had been solemnly crowned king of 
France, as the acknowledged heir of her kings, would make 
him feel that the emblem of that country was specially his 
own from his infancy. I believe that the fleur-de-lys had 
not until Henry VFs first coinage been used as a distin- 
guishing mark on the coins of York, and it probably was 
so placed there as his special emblem. Its continuance in 
after years into the reign of Edward IV would thus very 
possibly be due to the well-known Lancastrian tendencies 
of the City. Having given my reasons for believing the 
fleur-de-lys to be the special mark distinguishing the 
first gold coins of Henry VI from the last issued during 
the reign of his father, and also for believing it to have 
been adopted and retained as his personal emblem 
through all his coinages, I will briefly endeavour to 
show how far the several coinages of gold correspond with 
and bear out my conclusions as to their arrangement, 
together with their relation to the various coinages of 
silver. 



THE GOLD COINAGE OF HENRY VI. 291 

I. THE ANNULET COINAGE. 

As I have already said, I believe that, as with the 
silver, so with the gold, the great bulk of the coins of 
Henry YI really belong to the annulet coinage and not, 
as has been previously supposed, to the trefoil coinage. 
I think this is proved by reference to the mint accounts 
given by Euding. The small trefoils in the legends 
I should consider merely a variety of stops, such as are 
found on coins of other reigns as well as of this ; while 
in passing it may be noted that similar trefoil stops 
are found on the angels of Henry VI, which of course 
could not possibly belong to the trefoil coinage. In the 
case of the exceptional coins with annulets between the 
words on both sides, which I think we may safely assume 
to be quite the earliest annulet coins in gold, I admit 
that the annulets in the obverse legend, in conjunction 
with those on the reverse, are probably the distinguishing 
mark of the coinage, and in this respect take the place 
of the annulet at the king's wrist, which had not as yet 
been introduced, but as soon as it was, the small trefoils 
supersede the obverse annulets as stops. If these assump- 
tions be correct there is no longer any difficulty in 
assigning the great bulk of the gold coins of Henry VI 
to the annulet coinage, as, notwithstanding the trefoil 
stops on the obverse, the early distinguishing marks stand 
out most prominently and unmistakably, while the 
general character of the king's figure and accessories, 
such as the shield, can be readily seen, upon close 
examination and comparison with gold coins of really 
later issues, to differ from them quite as much as the 
annulet silver coins differ from the later silver coinages. 

The few very rare annulet gold coins with the pierced 



292 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

cross mint-mark I should unhesitatingly ascribe to the 
last issue of Henry V. The so far unique noble in the 
National Collection (Plate VIII. 1) reads hSRRia # Dl 
<3Rfi o Rax 7m<3L z FRsncx DRS o hYB (there is no 
annulet at the king's wrist), and on the reverse lhO( * 
TWTeun o TRTxnsians o PQR o metDivm o ILLORV o IBTTT 
with the pierced cross of type I. (ca) as mint-mark. A 
half-noble of similar type, and described as unique, was 
in the Montagu Collection (Lot 516), and is illustrated 
in the Catalogue. It had previously been in the Brice 
Collection. It has a mullet after h9n,RiC( and after the 
first word of the reverse legend as on the noble, and the 
mint-mark on the reverse is the same pierced cross. 
Sir John Evans has recently acquired another and 
similar specimen of the half-noble, but so far these seem 
to be the only known examples, and, together with the 
noble, they were unknown to Kenyon. Three specimens 
of the quarter-noble are also known. One is in the 
British Museum Collection (Plate VIII. 4), and reads on 
the obv. : hediRia * Dl o SRA o RQX o AHSL; and on the 
rev.iSXKLTKBiTVR * in o GLORIA, with mint-mark pierced 
cross on both sides similar to that on the noble and half- 
nobles. Another reads D6U and was in the Montagu Collec- 
tion, while the third is in Sir John Evans' Collection. 
These quarter-nobles, it may be noted, differ from all 
others of this reign in being without the usual trefoil ter- 
mination to the cusps of the tressure on both sides. These 
coins are evidently the earliest examples in gold of the 
annulet coinage, and their extreme rarity shows that they 
could only have been issued for a very short time. As 
regards the pierced cross mint-mark, they correspond 
exactly with the earliest type of groats, &c., of the annulet 
silver coinage, which I have ascribed to Henry V. They 



THE GOLD COINAGE OF HENRY VI. 293 

have the mullet after the first word in both the obverse 
and reverse legends, which is a well-known distinguishing 
mark on earlier coins of Henry V both in gold and silver, 
but which on the latter entirely disappeared with the 
introduction of the annulet ? while it was continued on 
the gold even apparently into the early part of the reign 
of Henry VI. The nobles and half-nobles have no 
annulet at the king's wrist. The quatrefoil, another 
well-known distinguishing mark on the earlier coins of 
Henry V, especially in silver, is found above the mast 
and before the king's name on the two half-nobles 
described. 

There is a remarkable noble in the British Museum 
Collection, formerly in the Montagu Collection, which 
the late Mr. Montagu ascribed to Henry VI, but which 
I think must be quite the earliest annulet noble of 
Henry V. On the obverse it has the quatrefoil above 
the mast of the ship and the mullet under the king's 
sword arm. It also has a trefoil between the shield and 
the prow of the ship, and another on the ship itself. It 
will be remembered, no doubt, that the trefoil in conjunc- 
tion with the mullet is found on a certain number of the 
later silver coins of Henry V previous to the annulet 
coinage. The obverse die of this coin I should consider 
to have been made before the introduction of the annulet, 
but converted into an annulet coinage die by the punching 
of an annulet above the hand of the sword arm, and it 
was then used in conjunction with a regular annulet 
reverse. This coin rather puzzled me at first, but I think 
it is accounted for in the way I suggest. 

With these very few and rare examples, the existence 
of which proves that gold coins of all denominations 
were struck of the earliest annulet issue, the mint-mark 

VOL. III., SERIES IV. X 



294 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

of the pierced cross disappears for a long period on any , 
gold coins, and its place is taken by the fleur-de-lys, 
which was continued throughout all the succeeding gold 
issues of Henry YI previous to his first deposition. 
The introduction of the fleur-de-lys mint- mark on the 
gold coins must have taken place at a very early period 
of the annulet coinage, as both nobles (Plate VIII. 2) 
and half-nobles (Plate VIII. 3), although of the highest 
rarity, are known with the obverse type resembling 
exactly and corresponding in all particulars with those 
with the pierced cross mint-mark, but which have instead 
on the reverse the fleur-de-lys mint-mark, and in 
addition an annulet in the first spandril of the tressure 
is now first introduced. I have suggested, a ad fully 
believe, that this change distinguishes the earliest gold 
coins issued after the accession of Henry VI in the same 
way, and even more distinctly, as the later type of 
pierced cross marked his first silver issue. From the 
great rarity of both varieties having annulet stops on both 
sides we may conclude that both were only struck during 
a very short period the first variety probably quite at 
the end of the reign of Henry V, and the second after 
the accession of his son. In the latter case the same 
obverse dies were used, the reverse dies only being 
changed, by the substitution of the lis for the pierced 
cross as mint-mark, and the introduction of an annulet 
into one of the spandrils of the tressure as an equivalent 
to the annulets between the pellets on the reverses of the 
silver coins. It is very probable that these last described 
coins do not really belong to a separate issue, but are 
again merely the result of former obverse dies which had 
probably had little wear, being in a few instances used in 
conjunction with reverses of the newer type having the 



THE GOLD COINAGE OF HENRY VI. 295 

lis mint-mark, which I suggest was introduced after the 
accession of Henry VI. 

We now come to what I venture to call the regular 
and common type of the gold annulet coinage, which we 
may safely consider as belonging to the same period 
(1422 to 1428 probably) as the common annulet silver 
coins. The annulet now always appears in prominent 
positions on both obverse and reverse of the nobles and 
half-nobles; on the obverse at the wrist of the king's 
sword arm, which may be considered to correspond with 
the annulets at the sides of the neck on the silver coins, 
and on the reverse in usually the first spandril of the 
tressure, which again suggests a comparison with the 
annulets between the pellets on the reverse of the silver 
coins. A small lis now takes the place of the mullet 
after hSnma on the obverse, but the mullet is retained 
after the first word of the reverse legend. The stops 
between the words of the obverse legend are now invari- 
ably small trefoils, and on the reverse annulets ; which on 
the quarter-nobles, owing to the mullet invariably 
following the first word of the legend, only occur once 
after the word in, and that is the only instance of the 
annulet as a distinguishing mark on these small pieces. 

On the nobles (Plate VIII. 2) the usual inscription is, 
Obv. : hetnma' + or A SRTT * Rax A 7m<3L' /. z * FRTma * 
ons * hYB', sometimes hiB; Eev. : ihcc # ZWT o TR?m- 
sieins PQR o mecDivm o ILLORV o IBAT, m.m. lis. On 
the side of the ship are two lions and three fleurs-de-lys, 
which are arranged in two manners, 1st. lion, two lis, lion, 
lis ; 2nd. lis, lion, lis, lion, lis. The first form appears on 
the earliest annulet nobles with the pierced cross mint- 
mark, and may perhaps mark the first issue of the later 
type with the lis mint-mark, but there are no other special 

x 2 



296 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

characteristics to indicate that the two varieties of ship 
ornaments were not contemporary in the later annulet 
coins, and merely accidental variations. Some nobles 
(Plate VIII. 7) and half-nobles have a flag at the stern of 
the ship, and, as in all other respects they exactly corre- 
spond with those without it, it seems a little difficult to 
assign a reason for the difference, while at the same 
time it appears unlikely that so striking a variation 
should have had no meaning at all. I therefore suggest 
as a solution that the flag was the distinguishing mark 
of the gold coins struck at the Calais mint, ilot only 
in this but in previous reigns, and should I be right 
in my surmise it would to some extent account for the 
apparent anomaly of our seeming to have no coins 
from the Calais mint between the treaty of Bretigny 
period of the reign of Edward III and the annulet 
coinages of Henry V and VI, notwithstanding the fact that 
the mint is referred to in various ordinances, and officers 
were appointed both in the last period of the reign 
of Edward III and in the reigns of Kichard II and 
Henry IV. I am, of course, not forgetting that there are 
gold coins of both Edward III and Henry VI, which, in 
addition to the flag, have a in the centre of the cross on 
the reverse ; but is it not highly probable that this was 
only quite a secondary mark and possibly only used for 
a short time, at least on the coins of Henry VI ? In the 
mint accounts given by Euding the large amount of 
2S34d[/. 9. 7 of gold is recorded to have been coined at 
the Calais mint (the only gold coined there during this 
reign) between the 2nd and the 6th year of the reign of 
Henry VI, and it would be strange if no more of this 
large coinage remained to us than the very rare coins 
with d on the reverse. The nobles and half-nobles 



THE GOLD COINAGE OF HENRY VI. 297 

with a on the reverse, but all having the flag, are of 
extreme rarity, while those having the flag, but with the 
ordinary reverse with h instead of Q in the centre of the 
cross are fairly common, although scarcer than those 
without the flag. It will be remembered that the first 
issue of nobles, &c., of Edward III have L in the centre 
of the cross on the reverse for London, but that this was 
almost immediately omitted in favour of the initial letter 
of the king's name, and the same thing may very well 
have been done both in his reign and in that of Henry VI 
in regard to the Calais gold coins. The flag is found, I 
believe, on all the undoubted Calais coins of both reigns, 
which I submit is strongly in favour of my argument, 
and the flag of England would appear to be a very 
appropriate emblem for such an important over-sea 
outpost as Calais then was. 

Another variety of what I will now call annulet nobles 
and half-nobles is distinguished from others by a large 
fleur-de-lys over the stern of the ship (Plate VIII. 6), 
while in all other respects they exactly correspond with 
the ordinary types. They are rather rare, and their special 
mark in so prominent a form must I think, as in the case 
of the flag, have some special meaning. I therefore suggest 
that the fleur-de-lys thus placed denotes the York mint. 
When these coins were classed as belonging to the trefoil 
coinage there would not have appeared the same reason 
for this attribution ; but assuming, as I do, that they 
belong to the early annulet coinage, the fleur-de-lys at the 
side of the king at once suggests comparison with the 
same ornament on either side of the bust on the York silver 
coins of the early annulet issue. On reference to Kuding 
We find abundant reason for believing that Goldbeter or 
his subordinates coined a large amount of gold at York, 



298 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

although apparently they struck very little silver. I will 
here quote from Kuding (Vol. I. p. 269) the records which 
he gives : " In the same Parliament (October 1423) the 
Commons of the counties of York, Northumberland, 
Westmoreland, Cumberland, Lancaster, Chester, Lincoln, 
Nottingham, Derby, bishopric of Durham, and all parts 
of the north, petitioned the King and the Lords spiritual 
and temporal, stating, that in consideration of the 
provision in the statute of the ninth of the late king, 
which forbade the currency of gold under the lawful 
weight the last parliament had ordained, at the suit of 
the said suppliants, that the master and worker of the 
king's monies, within the Tower of London, should come 
to York, there to coin the gold and silver of the said 
country which were not of legal weight, and to remain 
there during the king's pleasure. By virtue of which 
ordinance the said master was at York, and there placed 
his mint to the great profit of the king, and ease of 
the said counties. But that the said master and his 
workmen had since retired from thence : wherefore the 
king's lieges, in the said parts, for their private conveni- 
ence, commonly received and paid light gold, at rates 
and abatements, against the ordinance of the statute 
aforesaid, in contempt of the king, and to his and his 
people's loss. They therefore prayed that the master of 
the mint should be commanded to return to the said city 
there to coin as he had done before, and to remain, or 
leave there his sufficient deputies, for whom he should 
be responsible, during the king's pleasure. And also 
that it might be enacted, that all the gold, of the said 
parts, which should be deficient in weight, should be 
brought to the castle at York, there to be coined, before 
the Feast of St. Michael next. And that no gold, not of 



THE GOLD COINAGE OP HENRY VI. 299 

just weight, should be current thenceforward in payment, 
nor have course within the counties aforesaid, nor else- 
where within the realm, and that proclamation to that 
effect should be made throughout the realm. This 
petition was granted by the said lords, with the assent of 
the Commons in parliament assembled." With this record 
from the rolls of Parliament before us, there appears every 
reason for believing that there was a considerable coinage 
of gold at York in the second year of Henry VI, and the 
fleur-de-lys having been already adopted as a prominent 
distinguishing mark in the field of the obverse for the York 
annulet silver coins, it would almost certainly be adopted 
for the gold also. Owing to the great rarity of the silver 
annulet coins of York, which apparently could only have 
been struck during the first brief visit of the Master of 
the mint, Bartholomew Goldbeter, it has been perhaps 
assumed that the petition of the Commons of the Northern 
Counties in the Parliament of 1423, although granted, 
was never acted upon ; but I think the evidence of these 
fleur-de-lys marked annulet nobles, &c., proves that the 
enactment of the Parliament in answer to the petition 
was fully carried out. The coins, although scarce varieties, 
are not very rare, and are in no way to be compared in this 
respect with the silver. This is evidence that the Master 
of the mint, or his deputies, did actually return and stay at 
York, as requested by the petition, as long as was required. 
It is scarcely necessary to say much about the half- 
nobles of what I have ventured to call the regular annulet 
coinage, as with the usual variation of the reverse legend 
they exactly correspond with the nobles of the three 
varieties I have described, viz,, with and without flag 
at stern of ship and with lis over the stern of the 
ship. All have a small lis after hecriRict on the obverse 



300 NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 

and a mullet after Doming on the reverse, and all have 
the mint-mark lis on the reverse only. I have one which 
omits the usual annulet in one spandril of the reverse 
tressure, but it is no doubt a reverse of the earliest 
variety used with the later obverse. 

The quarter-nobles present several varieties of distin- 
guishing marks in the field of the obverse. All read 
hQRRia^Di (or rarely D6(i') * <3R7V * RQX * 7\RSL,with mint- 
mark lis, and on the reverse QXfiLTfiBiTVR # in o SLORifi, 
mint-mark lis, and all have a small lis in the centre of the 
floriated cross. It will be noted that on the quarter-nobles 
only the mint-mark occurs on both sides. The marks 
referred to in the field of the obverse are (1) lis over shield, 
(2) two lis together over shield, (3) one lis over shield and 
one at each side. There was one of this type in the 
Montagu Collection, No. 525 of first portion of sale, and 
it is there described as unpublished. I myself have 
another specimen of the third variety with a lis at each 
side of the shield as well as above it. There is a speci- 
men in the British Museum with an annulet instead of a 
trefoil after Dl. I have one in my cabinet which 
reads DQi, but with no annulet on the obverse. I 
think it is very possible that this last variety may belong 
to the York coinage, as the two lis at the sides of the 
shield would again recall the similar arrangement on the 
silver coins at the sides of the king's head. I would also 
suggest the possibility of the variety with two lis above 
the shield having been struck at the Calais mint, while 
the single lis in the same position denotes that of London, 
this latter variety being much the more common. The 
single lis above the shield is also found on quarter-nobles 
of both Henry IV and Henry V. A late and scarce 
variety of silver coins from the Calais mint, with the 



THE GOLD COINAGE OF HENRY VI. 301 

usual annulets in the field on the obverse, has, as will be 
remembered, a trefoil also at one side of the king's crown 
and also after the word POSVI on the reverse. They 
are of a transitional issue, which has been called the 
" annulet trefoil " coinage. No London silver coins of 
this issue have so far been discovered, although I sug- 
gested in my previous paper that certain York pennies 
might belong to it. There are, however, certain rare gold 
coins having a small trefoil in the field of either the 
obverse or reverse, but with otherwise annulet charac- 
teristics, which would seem to probably belong to this 
presumably small issue. The coins to which I allude are 
(1) a noble described by Kenyon as in the Thorburn 
Collection, and which is stated to have a " trefoil in the 
second quarter near lion's head." It is classed under 
the " trefoil coinage," but it is in all other respects similar 
to the nobles which I have ascribed to the annulet 
coinage. I can trace no half-noble of this issue, but in 
the British Museum there is a quarter-noble with a 
trefoil below the shield, resembling in other respects the 
later annulet coins of the same denomination. These 
two coins, having the trefoil in the field, appear to me to 
correspond with the distinct silver issue we are referring 
to ; but I think it very improbable that the small trefoils 
in the obverse legend of the bulk of the annulet gold 
coins have any connection with the "annulet trefoil" 
issue, which, to judge by the silver coins, could only have 
been quite a transitional one at the end of the annulet 
coinage. As the annulet coinage, according to my 
theory, includes by far the greater part of the gold 
issued during this reign, it may be well to give here a 
brief summary of the conclusions I have arrived at in 
reference to it and the reasons for so doing : 



302 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

1. The coins having annulet characteristics but 

with the pierced cross mint-mark I ascribe to 
Henry Y, for the reasons given in my paper on 
the silver coins. Their great rarity bears out 
this attribution. 

2. The coins with annulet characteristics but with 

the lis mint-mark on the reverse I attribute to 
Henry VI, and believe this to be the distinctive 
mark of the first coins issued after his accession. 

3. Although the annulets in legends when on both 

sides certainly denote the first annulet coins, 
the early introduction of this distinguishing 
mark at the king's wrist and in one spandril of 
the reverse, accompanied by the substitution of 
small trefoils as stops on the obverse legend, 
distinctly marks the great annulet coinage. 

4. The large amount of gold recorded in the mint 

accounts given by Kuding to have been coined 
during the first years of Henry VI's reign 
compared with the very small amounts in after 
years, proves that the annulet coinage must 
account for by far the greater portion of his 
gold coins. 

Comparison with the silver of the same coinage 
The fleur-de-lys as a mint-mark is confined to the gold. 
The mullet is also confined to the gold as a distin- 
guishing mark after the first word in legends. It is a 
reason for ascribing the coins bearing it to the first 
coinage of Henry VI, it having been so much used by 
his father, and being found on none of his other coinages. 
The annulet at the king's wrist and in one spandril 
of the reverse tressure correspond very closely with the 
annulets on the obverse at the sides of the king's neck, 



THE GOLD COINAGE OF HENRY VI. 303 

and on the reverse between the pellets of the silver coins. 
In the rare instances of a trefoil occurring in the field it 
corresponds with the same mark in the field of the silver 
coins of the annulet-trefoil issue. 

II. THE KOSETTE-MASCLE COINAGE. 

With the cessation of the annulet coinage the gold 
issues become greatly reduced in quantity, as will be 
seen by the mint accounts which I quoted from Euding 
at the commencement of this paper. In discussing the 
silver coinage I gave reasons for assuming the approxi- 
mate duration of the annulet coinage to have been from 
1422 to 1428, and that of the rosette-mascle coinage from 
1428 to 1433. Assuming these dates to be approximately 
correct, the only really large amounts of gold coined 
come within the period of the first coinage and into part 
of the second. As the rosette gold coins are, however, all 
so very much rarer than even the scarce annulet varieties, 
excepting only the almost unique pieces with annulet 
stops in both legends, it is evident that a very small 
part of the amount recorded as having been coined can 
belong to the rosette-mascle coinage. There are of this 
issue nobles, half-nobles (Plate VIII. 8), and quarter- 
nobles (Plate VIII. 9) ; the first are all rare, and the two 
smaller denominations extremely rare. On the nobles 
and half-nobles a lis now takes the place of the annulet 
at the king's wrist and at the head of the lion in the first 
quarter of the reverse, and rosettes occur usually after 
every word, but one, of both obverse and reverse legends. 
Where the rosette does not occur its place is occupied by 
a mascle or open lozenge. On the obverse this is usually 
after GRfi ; and on the reverse it generally conies after 
on the nobles and after FVRORS on the half-nobles. 



304 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

The half-nobles have only two ropes at the stern of the 
ship, and with one exception in the British Museum 
none at the prow. 

There are of this issue nobles and half-nobles with the 
flag, which I assume to denote the Calais mint, and in 
support of this it will be seen by the mint accounts that 
between the sixth and the ninth year of this reign (part 
of the period of the rosette coinage) a small amount of 
gold (361 Ibs. 3 oz. 10 dwt.) was coined in the Calais 
mint. This is the last record of any gold coined at 
Calais, and the rosette-mascle nobles and half -nobles are 
the last upon which the flag appears. The nobles are 
very rare, and the half-nobles extremely so. 

There is a quarter-noble of the rosette coinage in the 
National Collection described and illustrated by Kenyon 
(Plate VIII. 9). It has rosettes after every word in both 
obverse and reverse legends, and a rosette on either side 
of the shield, and a lis above the shield as on the 
previous coinage. The mint-mark on all coins of this 
issue continues to be the fleur-de-lys. 

III. THE PINE-CONE-MASCLE COINAGE. 

Of this coinage again, although common in silver, the 
gold coins are all rare. The mint accounts between the 
eleventh and eighteenth year of this reign (which there 
is little doubt is the period of this coinage) are wanting, 
and we therefore get no assistance from them. It is 
rather curious, as I remarked in connection with the 
silver coins of this issue, that there are what appear to be 
mules of every denomination of both gold and silver 
between this and the preceding coinage, which would 
make it appear that a distinct transitional coinage must 
have taken place. Kenyon describes a noble with a 



THE GOLD COINAGE OF HENEY VI. 305 

rosette obverse and a pine-cone reverse (Plate IX. 1), 
and I myself have another. I also recently acquired a 
similar half-noble (Plate IX. 2), while in the British 
Museum Collection (from the Montagu Sale, lot 523) 
there is a quarter-noble (Plate IX. 3) with a rosette 
obverse and a pine-cone reverse. The two latter coins are 
unpublished and were unknown to Kenyon. They are, I 
believe, so far unique, but they prove that gold coins of 
these denominations having the pine-cone characteristics 
were actually struck, and are forthcoming, as was antici- 
pated they might be. 

On the reverse of the half-noble alluded to there is a 
pine-cone after every word except TVO, where a mascle 
occurs. There is no lis in the field (as in the last issue) 
in any angle of the cross. 

Of complete pine-cone coins on which this distin- 
guishing mark appears on both sides we have still only 
the nobles (Plate IX. 4) of which Kenyon describes 
several varieties, including one or two transitional coins 
to which I have alluded, and one (the last) which should 
not be there at all. 

In my paper on the silver coins I alluded to a rare 
issue previously classed with the pine-cone coinage, the 
chief characteristic of which is a large and well-defined 
leaf under the king's bust in the spandril of the tressure 
on the groats. A noble in the Murdoch Collection 
corresponds, I think, exactly with this silver issue. It 
has a mascle after R61X, as on the groats, and it has a 
large leaf of the same peculiar character in the waves 
under the ship, which may be considered a corresponding 
position to the one it occupies on the groats. This coin 
is so far apparently unique. 

In describing the various silver coinages I adopted for 



306 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

convenience the classification of Hawkins. In the same 
way I am following that of Kenyon with the gold, and 
we therefore now come to 

IV. THE TREFOIL COINAGE. 

None of the coins described by Kenyon under this 
coinage really belong to it, although one which he places 
under the pine-cone coinage does. It is, however s 
imperfectly described, and its proper position is con- 
sequently not detected. In connection with the silver 
coinage I have called attention to several varieties 
of an evolutionary character on which the trefoil occurs, 
and although up to the present time no gold coins 
really belonging to this issue have been published as 
such, I am now able to describe specimens of the noble 
which I attribute to issues corresponding with three 
distinct silver issues of the trefoil period. The first 
(Plate IX. 5) corresponds with the groats, on which 
the trefoil first occurs in conjunction with the leaf in 
the legends, but before the leaf was introduced on the 
point of the cusp on the breast. This noble reads on the 
obverse hariRicr <) DI <) <3Rfi Q Rx * AftSL' * FRnncp Q 
ons' hYB; reverse, mint-mark lis, I ha' Q fiVT' TR7\n- 
aians Q PQR v maoivm v ILLOR' IBAT Q . There is 
no lis or other mark in any quarter of the field of the 
reverse. It will be at once noticed how different in 
character and position the trefoils are on this coin as 
compared with the small trefoil stops on the coins 
of the annulet issue formerly ascribed to the trefoil 
coinage. This coin is in my own collection, and I know 
of one other exactly similar ; but I believe these to be the 
only two that have so far appeared. I suspect that both 
came from the French find. The king's figure shows 



THE GOLD COINAGE OF HENRY VI. 307 

some change from the earlier issues, and begins to 
approximate to that of Edward IV. The ship ornaments 
continue to be lis, lion, lis, lion, lis, but the lis appear to 
be larger and more distinct than on the earlier coins. 

The next coin to describe (Plate IX. 6) is that placed 
by Kenyon the -last in his list of nobles of the "pine- 
cone " coinage. It is, as he states, in the collection of 
Sir John Evans, to whom I am indebted for the loan of 
it. It may be described obv : h QnRia * DI SRfi 
RX o TmSL' $ FRfina o DRS hY; below the shield and 
above the side of the ship are an annulet, a lis, and a 
leaf, the latter very distinct with fibres ; ship ornaments, 
lis, lion, lis, lion, lis : rev. m.m. lis, lhC( x 7WT x TRTmsietns 
P6(R meCDivm ILLORV IBTTT; no distinguishing mark in 
the field. It will be noted that in Kenyon's description 
the trefoil after hQHRlc( is omitted. There is another noble 
exactly similar to this in the National Collection from 
the French find. On account of the leaf introduced below 
the king's shield I attribute these nobles to an issue 
corresponding with the small silver coinage having one 
or more trefoils in the legends on which the leaf is 
first introduced on the point of the cusp of the tressure on 
the king's breast. I am unable at present to suggest 
any reason for the lis and the annulet in the field. The 
pellet at each side of the h in hQnRia, I should have 
been inclined to associate with the pellets at the sides of 
the crown on some groats of the trefoil period, but for the 
fact that on the very rare early nobles of Edward IV the 
pellets are at the sides of the crown as on the silver 
coins. 

The third noble (Plate IX. 7), which has every indica- 
tion of being the latest of the three, is in the British 
Museum Collection, and was also in the French find. It 



308 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

reads on the obverse hetriRia * or ^ 6Rfi ^ RSX * 
?m6L' ^ FRAria J DS hie. There is a large trefoil of 
pellets under the shield and above the side of the ship. The 
ship ornaments are lion, lis, lion, lis, lion, differing from 
all previous nobles of this reign in having three lions 
instead of two, and only two lis instead of three. On the 
reverse we have m.m. lis, iha TWTGC A TRAnsisns 
P9R A STISDIV ILLO' IB7TT. This coin, although in mint 
state, is carelessly struck, and in this respect, as well as 
in the character of workmanship, it resembles many of 
the later silver pieces of the trefoil coinage. The large 
trefoil in the field below the shield evidently corresponds 
with the trefoils at the side of the king's head upon the 
late trefoil groats. This coin is in all probability unique, 
and until its discovery no gold coin of so late a period of 
this reign was known. The various types included in 
what is generally known as the trefoil coinage belong, 
in my opinion, to separate coinages. Small coinages 
occurred between 1440 and 1450, during which time it 
will be seen by the mint accounts that very small 
quantities of gold were struck, and considering the usual 
proportion of a coinage which comes down to us it is not 
therefore surprising that so few nobles which are un- 
doubtedly of the trefoil period are known. The same 
reasoning also clearly shows how impossible it would be 
that the coins given by Kenyon to this coinage could 
really belong to it. 

V. THE PlNE-CONE-PELLET COINAGE. 

I have been unable to trace any gold coins correspond- 
ing to the silver coinage of this class, although the mint 
accounts show that several small amounts of gold were 
coined between 1451 and 1456, which dates would most 



THE GOLD COINAGE OP HENKY VI. 309 

probably include the period of the "pine-cone-pellet" 
coinage. The noble in the collection of Sir John Evans, 
and the similar one in the British Museum, which I have 
ventured to locate in the earlier trefoil period, may 
possibly belong to this, but if so, the trefoil in the legend 
of both would show them to be transitional coins. They 
are, however, of neat execution and well struck, and are 
thus unlike the latest trefoil nobles and groats, but in 
these respects have much greater affinity to the early 
groats of the trefoil issues. 

CLASS VI. THE CROSS AND PELLET COINAGE. 

Seeing that the mint accounts only record 49 Ibs. 5 oz. 
5 dwt. of gold to have been coined during the period 
when the silver coinage of this class was being issued, we 
could hardly expect any of it to have been preserved to 
our own time. We know, however, that some gold coins 
were struck, and if specimens are forthcoming, although 
unlikely, at some future time, they will probably be 
found to correspond exactly with the extremely rare 
early nobles of Edward IV. These latter have pellets at 
the sides of the king's crown, and a lis under the shield, 
and thus correspond with his early silver coins in a 
manner similar to the various issues of Henry VI which 
I have described. 

Owing to its want of any continuity with the coinages 
previous to his deposition in 1461, 1 think it undesirable 
to touch upon the gold coinage of the short restoration 
of Henry VI in 1470-71, which, as I said in reference to 
the silver, appears to require to be treated separately, 
or in connection with the reign of Edward IV. 

FREDK. A. WALTERS. 

VOL. III., SERIES IV. Y 



310 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



REFERENCES TO PLATES. 

Plate VIII. 
No. 

1. Earliest annulet noble of Henry VI with m.m. pierced cross (type II.) ; 

annulet in legends of both sides. 

2. Similar annulet noble of Henry VI with m.m. lis; annulet in 

1st spandril of treasure of reverse. 

3. Half-noble exactly similar to last. 

4. Quarter-noble, m.m. pierced cross ; annulets in legends both sides. 

5. Annulet half-noble with trefoil stops in obverse legend. Annulet 

at king's wrist. 

6. Annulet noble (of York?); annulet at king's wrist and large lis 

over stern of ship ; trefoil stops on obverse. 

7. Annulet noble (of Calais?). As last but with flag at stern of ship. 

8. Half-noble of rosette-mascle coinage. 

9. Quarter-noble of same coinage. v 



Plate IX. 
No. 

1. Noble with obverse of the rosette-mascle coinage and reverse of the 

pine-cone-mascle coinage. 

2. Half-noble with similar characteristics (unique ?). 

3. Quarter-noble of similar obv. and rev. type (unique ?). 

4. Noble of the pine-cone-mascle coinage. 

5. Noble of early variety of the trefoil coinage with leaves and trefoils in 

legends of obverse and reverse. 

6. Noble of later variety of the trefoil coinage with leaf, lis and annulet 

below shield; trefoil after hSnR I C(. 

7. Noble of later trefoil issue with large trefoil below shield. 

8. Early quarter-noble of Henry V (included in error). 



X. 

GEORGE WILLIAM DE SAULLES, 
CHIEF ENGRAVER TO THE ROYAL MINT. 

BORN 1862; DIED JULY 21sT, 1903. 



BY the death of Mr. de Saulles, after a very short illness, 
the country, and the Numismatic world more especially, 
have to deplore the loss of an artist who, by strenuous 
application, succeeded in rising from the obscurity of a 
Birmingham apprenticeship to the appointment of Chief 
Engraver to the Royal Mint, having passed away at the 
early age of forty-one when on the threshold of a brilliant 
career. 

George William de Saulles began his art training at 
an early age at the Birmingham School of Art, where, 
under the able tuition of the master, Mr. Taylor, whose 
influence he was always pleased to acknowledge, he 
studied some years, winning several prizes and a scholar- 
ship, which he could not follow up in consequence of 
being apprenticed to Mr. Wilcox, die-sinker, of Birming- 
ham, with whom a varied practice, which included the 
execution of dies for labels for Manchester goods at 
that time large and artistic in design, some including 
figure subjects gave good scope for training to an 
intelligent student. Occupied with these and ordinary 
die-sinking work, Mr. de Saulles completed his term of 
apprenticeship and came to London in 1884, where he 
spent several years working for the writer, who is glad 
of this opportunity of testifying as well to the excellence 
of his work as to his kindly disposition, resulting in a 
friendship lasting to the end of his life. Leaving 
London in 1888, Mr. de Saulles returned to Birmingham 
and worked for Mr. Joseph Moore, the medallist, until 



312 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

1892, when, hearing that the post of Engraver to the 
Koyal Mint was vacant, on account of the death of Mr. 
Leonard Charles Wyon, he made application for the 
office, and was duly appointed. Since that time he has 
been occupied in the production of dies for the coins 
and medals issued by the Government, his first public 
work being the execution of the dies for the new issue of 
coins in 1893, designed by Mr. Thomas Brock, E.A., who 
also superintended the work. Mr. de Saulles has also 
executed many private and public commissions, one of 
the most recent being the dies for the new issue of coins 
on the King's accession. I append a list, as far as is 
known to me, of the works executed from the time of 
Mr. de Saulles's official appointment. Besides these, he 
has exhibited other works during the last five years at 
the Koyal Academy and other exhibitions. 

To practise the art of die-engraving to perfection, as 
near as it is possible to be attained, the engraver requires 
to combine the qualities of a draughtsman, a modeller, 
and an engraver, and the subject of this memoir was 
gifted with facility in all these requisites. He designed, 
modelled, and engraved most of his works. He initiated 
and executed with remarkable rapidity the most com- 
plicated and diverse designs, as the following list shows, 
but it is to be feared that devotion to his art, which kept 
him working early and late, weakened a constitution never 
very robust and helped on the end so much to be deplored. 

LIST OF WOKKS BY G. W. DE SAULLES. 

Official Medals. 

1894. Volunteer (Long Service). 
1894. Colonial and Auxiliary Forces (Long Service). 
1895. India (General Service), first issued for Chitral. 
1896. Koyal Victorian (Queen's Private Medal). 



GEORGE WILLIAM DE SAULLES. 313 

1896. For services at wreck of " Drummond Castle." 

1897. Soudan. 

1897. Uganda, or Eastern Central Africa. 

1897. Queen's Jubilee, or Longest Eeign Celebration ; two sizes, 2 T 3 S 

inches and 1 inch. 

1898. Canada (Fenian- Raid, 1866, etc.). 
1900. South Africa (Queen's head). 
1900. Naval Hospital, Haslar. 
1900. Irish Constabulary. 
1901. Eoyal Society Gold Medal (Newton). 
1901. Cape of Good Hope (given by Cape Government). 
1901. King's head (Africa General Service). 
1901. King's head (Ashanti). 

1902. Coronation Medal ; two sizes, 1 inches and 2^ inches. 
1902. Police Medal (Coronation). 
1902. King's Private Medal. 
1902. Royal Society of British Architects. 
1902. Winchester College. 
1902. Military head of King for Sandhurst, Woolwich, and Wellington 

Colleges. 
1902. Naval head of King for Training Ships, Britannia, Worcester, and 

Conway. 
1902. Kugby School. 

Private Medals. 
1899. Professor Stokes. 
1900. Duke and Duchess of Cornwall on the occasion of their visit to 

Canada. 

1901. Professor Aspinwall Howe (Montreal School). 
1901. Lord Strathcona (Montreal School). 
1901. Samuel Carnegie. 
1903. National Lifeboat Institution. 

Coins. 

1893. Gold and Silver series, including Maundy Money. 
1894. Dollar for Hong Kong and Straits Settlements. 
1895. Bronze series, with newly-designed reverse, Britannia. 
1900. Cyprus. 
1902. India. 
1902. Gold, Silver, and Bronze series, on accession of King Edward VII, 

and other Colonial issues having same obverse as Indian, 

crowned head of King. 

Plaques. 

Sir W. Chandler Roberts-Austen, K.C.B. 
Sir Horace Seymour, K.C.B. 
F. T. Cobbold, Esq. 

Seals. 

1898. New Great Seal of England and many designs for new Official 
Seals for the Colonies, etc. 

JOHN H. PINCHES. 



MISCELLANEA. 



MALWA COINS OP BAHADUR SHAH OF GUZERAT. Three 
copper coins recently forwarded to me from Indore appear to 
merit attention, as they are not to be found in the Catalogue 
of the British Museum, nor in those of the Indian Museums 
which I have consulted, and I believe them to be hitherto 
unpublished. They are all square; the first two are about 
the same size, the third being, roughly, half the size of the 
others. In detail their description is as follows : 

(1) Obverse : Divided into two equal parts by a slanting 

horizontal line, above which are the name 
and title, sU> j^^- Below the line is 
^UaL*. Above the (j~ of ^VlaLa is a 
star of four points, with a dot in each 
angle between the points. 

Reverse : Divided into two equal parts by two slanting 
horizontal lines. The upper part is again 
divided (unequally) by a third slanting 
line, into which the letters above it run. 
Only detached portions of legend are 
visible. The first line is illegible; two 
perpendicular strokes meet the horizontal 
dividing line, above which, and to the left 
of the two perpendiculars, is a dot. The 
second line contains . . . .>,., the dots 
representing a letter or letters destroyed by 
corrosion. In the lower half, below the 
two medial horizontal lines, are ^ (or ^ ) 
and j, between which is the mark JfJ. 

The diagonal diameter is 7 inch (medial width 6 inch) ; the 
weight 109-5 grains (about). 

(2) Obverse: Nearly as in No. 1, except that there are two 

medial lines, and that the h in Bahadur is 
of the more regular form. There is a 
perpendicular stroke to the extreme right 
of the upper half which is difficult to 
account for; it may represent the B in 



MISCELLANEA. 315 

Bahadur (which is otherwise lacking), or it 
may be a figure in a date, the remainder of 
which is missing. 

Reverse : Nearly as in No. 1, except that the first line 
is absent. The second line reads (^,.1. 
Below the two medial lines are ^ and . 
separated by the mark , and under these 
respectively ^ and . 

Diagonal diameter * 7 inch (medial width under 6 inch, over 
5 inch). Weight 109 grains (about). 

(3) Obverse : Two horizontal lines, above which are traces 
of letters ; below ^.UaJu*j and star, as in 
Nos. 1 and 2. 
Reverse : Two horizontal lines, above which <) and 

below traces of letters now illegible. 

Diagonal diameter little under 6 inch (medial width * 5 inch). 
Weight 55 grains (about). 

These coins resemble those of Malwa in the following 
points: (1) their square form; (2) the division of the field 
by horizontal lines ; (3) the wording and arrangement of the 
legend ; (4) the " tree-like " cross, anchor, and star marks. 
They also resemble a coin struck by Ibrahim Lodi " to com- 
memorate the fraudulent acquisition of Chanderi " (see Thomas, 
PatTian Kings, p. 377, No. 321). In no case, however, are 
they identical with either the ordinary coinage of the local 
rulers or with the special coinage of Ibrahim Lodi. 

No king of the local Malwa Mussulman dynasties was 
named Bahadur Shah ; but the Guzerati sovereign of that 
name conquered Malwa in 937 H. (1530 A.D.), and I suggest 
that he issued a local coinage bearing his own name, but after 
the Malwa and not the Guzerati type, in this respect following 
the practice of Ibrahim Lodi. The innate persistence of the 
square Malwa type is further illustrated by the square copper 
coins struck by Shah Jehan at Ujain. Hitherto no such 
coins of Bahadur, Shah of Guzerat, have been edited, but 
the Rev. Dr. Taylor, of Ahmedabad perhaps the greatest 
authority on Guzerati coins informs me that he considers 
the attribution " highly probable." The main difficulty in its 
way is the weights, which disagree with the known weights 
of either the Malwa copper coins or the Guzerati issues of 
Bahadur Shah. 



316 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

A ROUND COPPEE COIN OP GHIYATH SHAH OF MALWA (1). 
This was obtained by me in Ahmedabad. I at first attributed 
it to Ghiyath al Din Mahomed of Guzerat, 846-855 H., as in 
size and general appearance it resembled a specimen of his coinage 
obtained at the same time, for which see Plate I., No. 7, of the 
Coins of the Guzarat Sultanat, by the Rev. Dr. Taylor (Journal 
of the E.A.S. Bombay, Vol. xxi., No. Iviii., 1902). Its legends, 
however, differ materially from those of the Guzerati Ghiyath's 
copper coins, and indeed from those of any Guzerati king. 
Dr. Taylor, whom I consulted, considers it a Malwa coin, 
although it is not of the usual square Malwa type, and com- 
pares it with the gold (and presumably round) Malwa coin 
given in Thomas, Pathan Kings, p. 349, top. The legends 
in part agree. Those on my own coin (which is not in the 
British Museum, and is, I think, as yet unpublished) are as 
follows : 



Obverse: ^ ^UaLJl ^ ^UaLJl To the right of 
js^P is the top of a letter (or a dot) not 
accounted for. 



Reverse: . \laLJ \ aU L^Up- Below UaLJ\ are traces of 

a date [8]79, i.e. [ ] v i . 
Diameter nearly 7 inch. Weight about 64 grains. 

According to Mr. S. Lane-Poole (Mohammadan Dynasties), 
Ghiyath Shah of Malwa succeeded in 880 H. If, however, the 
above date be correct, his accession is thrown back a year. 

J. G. COVERNTON. 



Num-. Chron SerlV Vol. 177 PI. /T 



















10 











14 



Num. Chron.Jer./V Vol. HI. PI 





alii f; 



MONNAIE5 DE NICOMEDIE 



Num.. Ckron, Ser. /V Vol. 117. PL W. 



IBK/ ^ 




MONN Al E5 DE NICOMEDIE. 



Num. Chron. Ser. IV. Pol. Ill PL //// 




Mt/n, Chrvrt- Ser IV Vol. II! PI. IX. 




GOLD COINAGE OF HEN RY VI. 



XL 

GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH 
MUSEUM IN 1902. 

(See Plates X., XL, XII.) 

The total number of coins of the Greek series (see the 
annexed Table) acquired by the British Museum during 
the year 1902 is 543. Most of these acquisitions have 
been obtained by purchase, but some are presentations 
due to the generosity of Mr. W. C. Boyd, Mr. Percy 
Davies, Mr. H. A. Grueber, Sir H. H. Howorth, 1 Mr. 
J. B. Hue, Mr. A. J. Lawson, Mr. Augustus Ready and 
Sir Hermann Weber. As in my fifteen previous papers, 2 
I give some account of the more noteworthy specimens. 
I have not, however, referred to acquisitions of many 
Phrygian, Cypriote and Phoenician coins, which are 
reserved for publication in future volumes of the Museum 
Catalogue of Greek Coins. The Cypriote additions 
include the most important portion of the collection 
formed by Sir R. Hamilton Lang during his residence in 
Cyprus. 

1 Numerous coins of southern Italy, most useful as filling gaps in the 
Museum series. 

2 Important Greek acquisitions of the Department of Coins from the 
year 1887 onwards will be found described by me in the Numismatic 
Chronicle for 1888, p. If.; 1889, p. 249 f . ; 1890, p. 311 f.; 1891, 
p. 116 f. ; 1892, p. 1 f. ; 1893, p. 1 f. ; 1894, p. 1 f.; 1895, p. 89 f. ; 1896, 
p. 85 f. ; 1897, p. 93 f. ; 1898, p. 97 f. ; 1899, p. 85 f. ; 1900, p. 1 f. 
and p. 273 f. ; 1902, p. 313. In preparing this paper I have once more 
had the advantage of consulting the section on Greek coins written by 
Mr. Barclay Head for the Parliamentary Return of the British Museum 
(printed 1903), and I am also much indebted for several valuable 
suggestions to Mr. Head and Mr. G. F. Hill. 

VOL. III., SERIES IV. Z 



318 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



GKEEK COINS ACQUIRED 1887-1902. 



Year. 


Gold and 
Electrum. 


Silver. 


Bronze, &c. 


Total. 


1887 


8 


58 


110 


176 


1888 


10 


217 


228 


455 


1889 


12 


65 


270 


347 


1890 


5 


102 


70 


177 


1891 


16 


280 


73 


369 


1892 


10 


99 


348 


457 


1893 


4 


118 


281 


403 


1894 


31 


164 


453 


648 


1895 


20 


178 


479 


677 


1896 


54 


428 


170 


652 


1897 


20 


313 


503 


836 


1898 


3 


222 


699 


924 


1899 


1 


112 


372 


485 


1900 


1 


310 


604 


915 


1901 


38 


411 


620 


1,069 


1902 


6 


202 


335 


543 


Total . . 


239 


3,279 


5,615 


9,133 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 319 



NEAPOLIS (CAMPANIA). 

1. Obv. Female head 1., wearing broad band, earring and 
necklace ; behind, Herm r. ; border of dots. 

Rev. NEoPoAlTQN (in ex.). Man-headed bull r., 
head facing, crowned by Nike flying r. 

M. Size -9. Wt. 1 1 1 grains. [PL XL, 1.] 
Presented by Sir H. H. Howorth. Cp. Dressel, 
Besclireibwg (Berlin), III. (1), p. 118, nos. 101, 
102. 



OLOPHYXUS (MACEDONIAN CHALCIDICE). 

2. Obv. Female head r., wearing stephane and earring ; 
hair rolled. 

Rev. OAO<t> V3EION Eagle r., with wings closed; 
whole in linear square. 

M. Size -6. [PI. X.,L] 

Olophyxus was not, hitherto, known to have issued 
coins. It was one of the cities of the peninsula of Acte, 
and is mentioned by Herodotus (vii., 22), and by later 
writers. It occurs in the Athenian tribute-lists of the 
fifth century, e.g. in the Thracian tyopos of B.C. 425 
('OXo^u^o-tot e^9 "A0fc>). 3 This coin is of good fourth- 
century style. The head somewhat resembles the fine 
female head on the coins of Pydna, circ. B.C. 364-35S, 4 
and the reverse recalls the eagle within a square on the 
money of Amyntas III, B.C. 390-369. 5 The coin may 
therefore belong to circ. B.C. 390-358. 



3 Hicks and Hill, Greek Hist. Imcr., p. 123. 

4 Brit. Mus. Cat., Macedonia, p. 101, nos. 4-6. 

5 Sallet, Seschreibung, II., p. 193. 

Z 2 



320 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

PHILIP III (ARIDAEUS). 
B.C. 323-316. 

3. Obv. Head of Athena r. ; griffin on helmet ; hair in 
formal curls. 

Rev. 4>iAippoY Nike 1., holding wreath and trophy- 
stand (or oTvAi's?) ; in front, 3? ; behind, 



AT". Size -65. Wt. 132-6 grs. [PI. X., 2.] 

Purchased together with a number of coins of Cyprus 
from Sir R. Hamilton Lang. It is doubtless one of the 
specimens referred to by Lang in Num. Chron., 1871, 
p. 230, as having formed part of a large hoard of gold 
staters of Philip II, Alexander III, and Philip III, 
discovered near Larnaca in Cyprus. 

The coin was probably struck in the 'East, perhaps in 
Syria : cp. the monograms in Mliller, pi. xxviii., nos. 
108-110 and p. 397. 

HADRIANOPOLIS (THRACE). 

4. Obv. cj>AVCTEIN ACEBA[CTH] Bust of Faustina 
jun. r. 

Rev. AAPIANOTT OAEITHN Female figure standing 
1., wearing stephane, veil and chiton ; 1. holds 
long sceptre ; r. holds patera over a lighted and 
garlanded altar (Juno Lucina, or Faustina in 
the character of this goddess). 

M. Size -85. [PI. X., 3.] 

Both obverse and reverse types are almost exact 
reproductions of an aureus of Faustina jun., inscribed 
IVNONI LVCINAE (Ponton d'Amecourt, Catal, pi. xiii., 
no. 329 ; another specimen in Brit. Mus.). Other coins 



GREEK COINS ACQUIBED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 321 

of Hadrianopolis of this empress represent Homonoia and 
Tyche. 6 

THESSALIAN CONFEDERACY. 

B.C. 196-146. 

5. Obv. Head of Zeus r., laur. ; behind, ZIMIoY. 

Rev. EZZA AON ^ ^ Athena Itonia r., in attitude 
of attack ; in field above, two stars. 

M. Size -95. Wt. 99-5 grs. [PI. X., 4.] 
Cp. Schlosser, Beschreibung (Vienna), I., p. 1, 
no. 4. 

MOLOSSI (Epmus). 

6. Obv. Dog wearing collar, standing r. 

Rev. |/?n> (letters thin and straggling). Fulmen ; 
circular incuse. 

M. Size -55. Wt. 35 grs. [PI. X., 5.] 

The obverse represents one of the fierce hunting-dogs 
of the famous Molossian breed. 7 The same dog is seen, 
lying down, on a smaller silver coin of the Molossi in the 
Berlin Museum, 8 and he occurs also on a bronze coin of 
the Epirotes. 9 These dogs, according to Oppian, were 
broad-backed, of great height and ferocious aspect, and 
had enormous tails characteristics which would seem to 
be indicated on the Molossian coins. It is possible that 
the coin-types may have some mythological significance, 
for, according to Nicander of Colophon, 10 the Molossian 
hound was (by a strange freak of evolution) the 

6 Brit. Mus. Cat., Thrace, p. 117, nos. 6, 7. 

7 On these dogs, see Cougny, art. "Canis" in Daremberg, Diet, I., 
p. 881 f. 

8 Imhoof, Monn. (Jr., p. 140, no. 41. 

9 Imhoof and Keller, Tier- u. Pflanz-Zild., pi. i., 31 ; cp. no. 32. 

10 Ap. Pollux, V., 5, 1. 



322 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

descendant of the wondrous dog of brass fashioned by 
Hephaistos. 

The fulmen relates to the Dodonaean Zeus, like nearly 
all the coin-types of the Molossi. 

UNCERTAIN, OF EUBOEA (?). 

7. Obv. Astragalos ; linear border. 

Rev. Incuse square, divided diagonally. 

M. Size -75. Wt. 130 grs. [PI. X., 6.] 
Presented by Sir Hermann Weber. Cp. Hist. 
Num., p. 309 ; Beule, Monn. d'Ath., p. 19. 

ATHENS (ATTICA). 

8. Obv. Head of Athena r. (usual type). 

Eev A E 

<i>ANO KAHZ 

ATTOA 

AQNIOZ 

APIZ 

TOA 

HMOZ 

Owl on amphora inscribed B ; beneath amphora, 
M E ; in field r. Artemis with torch ; whole in 
olive wreath. 

JR. Tetradrachm. Size 1-2. Wt. 256 '7. 
Cp. Beule, p. 375 ; Brit. Mus. Cat., Attica, p. 75, 
series Ixxi., after 146 B.C. 

ATHENS. Imperial Times. 

During the past year the Museum has filled many 
gaps in its series of Athenian coins of the Imperial 
period, and I have here figured a few specimens on 
account of their interest or excellent preservation. 

Most of the types in the Athenian series have been 
well studied by Imhoof-Blumer and Gardner in their 



GEEEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 323 

Numismatic Commentary on Pausanias, but something, 
perhaps, remains to be done in the way of determining 
the exact dates and sequence of the specimens. The 
study of a very complete collection would reveal 
differences of module and fabric, several varieties in 
most of the reverse types, and considerable diversity in 
the treatment of the Athena-head of the obverse. In his 
catalogue, Attica, Mr. Head assigns the coins to the 
period of Hadrian and the Antonines (p. 93 ; p. lix.). 



9. Obv. Head of Athena r., wearing ornamented 
Athenian helmet with crest ; border of dots. 

Rev. A0HNA I flN Athena standing r., holding in 
r., spear ; in 1., figure of Nike 1., with wreath 
and palm branch ; Athena wears Corinthian 
helmet, chiton and peplos, one end of which 
falls over her left arm ; border of dots. 

M. Size -8. [PL X., 9.] Cp. Brit. Mus. 
Cat., Attica, p. 93, no. 672. 

The reverse is well preserved and derived from a^good 
fifth-century original of the class of the Athena of 
Velletri : see Imhoof and Gardner, Comm. Pans., p. 133, 
8 ; Lermann, Aihenatypen, p. 86 and reff. there to 
Furtwangler. 



10. Obv. Bust of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet 
and aegis, with serpents ; border of dots. 

A0HN A I ON Athena, wearing Corinthian 
helmet and chiton, standing 1. before olive-tree ; 
r. hand touches tree and holds a spear 
transversely ; 1. hand rests on shield ; border 
of dots. 

M. -8. [PI. X., 10.] Cp. Imhoof and 
Gardner, op. cit., p. 131. 



324 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

11. Obv. Head of Athena r., wearing ornamented 
Corinthian helmet. 

Rev. A0H NAIHN Similar, but tree varied; Athena 
does not touch the tree, and before her is 
a serpent coiled ; border of dots. 

M. -85. [PI. X., 11.] Cp. Brit. Mus. Cat., 
Attica, " Athens," nos. 694-697, and Imhoof and 
Gardner, loc. cit. 



12. Obv. Bust of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet 
and drapery ; serpents of aegis visible ; border of 
dots. 

Eev. A0HNAI ON Athena, wearing helmet and 
chiton, standing in chariot drawn r. by two 
galloping horses; she holds in r. hand, spear; 
border of dots. 

M. ' 85. [PI. X., 12.] Cp. Brit. Mus. Cat., 
" Athens," nos. 705, 706 ; Imhoof and Gardner, 
p. 136, 17. 



13. Obv. Head of Athena r., wearing Athenian helmet; 
border of dots. 

Eev. A9H NAIQN Olive tree; on 1., owl facing; on 
r., amphora and palm tree. 

M. -8. [PI. X., 7, rev.] 

The olive is probably the tree in the temple of Athena 
Polias mentioned by Pausanias, I., 27, 2. 11 The amphora 
and palm tree 12 are agonistic types, as appears from the 
next coin. 



14. Obv. Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet; 
border of dots. 



11 Imhoof and Gardner, p. 132, 6. 

12 The similar coin in Brit. Mus. Cat., "Athens," no. 711, is without the 
palm tree but has a palm branch in the exergue. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 325 

Rev. A0HNAI ON Agonistic table on which wreath, 
helmeted bust of Athena r., with aegis, and owl ; 
beneath table, amphora ; in field r., palm 
branch ; border of dots. 

M. -85. [PL X., 13.] 

Belongs to a series with agonistic types (Brit. Mus. Cat., 
" Athens," nos. 719-725) referring to the public games 
called AAPIANEIA, HANeAAHNIAand nANAeHNA(^./.JV., 

xxi., p. 208). 



15. Obv. Bust of Athena r., wearing crested Corinthian 
helmet ; drapery on neck ; border of dots. 

Rev. A HNA I O N Apollo Lykeios, naked, stand- 
ing r., r. hand raised resting on head 13 ; 1. holds 
strung bow and rests on a tripod (entwined by 
a serpent) placed before him ; behind Apollo, 
laurel tree ; border of dots. 

M. Size -85. [PI. X., 14.] 

An Apollo characterized by the raised right hand 
resting on his head is found on many ancient 
monuments and is due to a sculptured original by 
Praxiteles or his school. 14 The type has been generally 
known as the Apollo Lykeios, of whom a statue, 
described by Lucian (Anacharsis, 7), stood in the Lyceum 
at Athens. According to Lucian, this figure leant upon 
a column (<rrrf\rj} holding a bow in the left hand, while 
the right hand bent over the head wairep eic /ca/judrov 
/Aarcpov avaTravopevov Selxwai 6e6v. 

The type of our coin forms a variety of two Athenian 
coins presenting this Apollo : A, symbol on tetradrachm 

13 The hair appears to fall in two long tresses, as more clearly seen in 
Brit. Mus. Cat., Attica, " Athens," no. 750. 

14 For a list of references, Klein, Praxiteles, p. 164; cp. Keinach, 
Repertoire de la Statuaire, 1L, pp. 94-96. 



326 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

of Epigenes Xenon 15 ; B, imperial coin, Brit. Mus. 
Cat., Attica, " Athens," no. 750 ; figured Imh. and Gardn., 
PI. cc xix., p. 145. 

The object beside the Apollo is, on A, a tall column 
surmounted by a tripod (resembling a choragic monument 
rather than the support of a statue) ; on B, it is a lyre 
placed on a base or short column; on our coin it is 
a tripod entwined by a serpent. In the last case the 
tripod affords an evident support for the hand which 
holds the bow. What the O-T^\TJ of Lucian's description 
exactly was is, therefore, not decisively elucidated by 
the evidence of the coins. On our coin the left knee is 
somewhat bent; on B, the knee is bent and the leg 
drawn back quite in the manner of Praxitelean figures 
(the resting Satyr, Apollo Sauroktonos, &c.). 

I may take this opportunity of remarking that the 
Pan on the coins of Caesarea Panias in Trachonitis 
which I noted in Brit. Mus. Cat., Galatia, &c., 
p. Ixxxii., as reproducing "some good original in 
sculpture," is no doubt derived, as Klein has pointed 
out, 16 from a Praxitelean original resembling the beauti- 
ful flute-playing Paniskos in the Louvre. 17 

16. Obv. Bust of Athena r., wearing crested Athenian 
helmet ; border of dots. 

Rev. A0H N A 1 ON Nike, winged, and wearing chiton 
with upper fold, advancing to front with 
dancing step ; her head looks r. ; in r. and 1. 
hands she holds the ends of a garland ; border 
of dots. 

M. Size -85. [PL X., 15.] 

15 Head, Attica, " Athens," no. 402, figured by Imhoof and Gardner, 
op. cit.,p\. co xviii. See also Bev.Num.,1903,ip. 212,no. 45 (Marcianopolis). 
18 Praxiteles, p. 214 : cp. Arch. Zeitung, 1869, p. 97, pi. 23, nos. 2 and 3. 
17 Figured Klein, p. 213. 



GKEEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 327 

For the familiar palm-branch and wreath of Nike 18 a 
garland an uncommon attribute on coins is substituted. 
This pleasing type belongs to a class of figures of Nike 
(chiefly in terracotta) which have been thought 19 to be 
ultimately derived from the dancing Victories that 
supported the throne of the Zeus of Olympia : 20 in these 
figures, however, Nike holds not a garland but the 
ends of the folds of her chiton. 

A Roman medallion of Antoninus Pius (Froehner, 
Med. Bom., p. 54) and an aureus of L. Verus (Montagu, 
Catal., pi. xiv., 427, also specimen in Brit. Mus.) 
represent Victory as on our Athenian coin, but wearing 
a mural head-dress. 



17. Obv. Bust of Athena L, wearing crested Corinthian 
helmet and drapery ; border of dots. 

Eev. [A] 0H N Al 1 N Theseus advancing r. ; in 
raised r. hand, club; lion's skin wound round 
left arm and flying behind ; border of dots. 

M. Size -8. [PI. X v 8, rev.] 

Imhoof and Gardner (op. cit., p. 148; pi. DD xviii.) 
describe this reverse, as it appears on the specimen 
reproduced by them from the Loebbecke Collection, as 
" Aristogeiton (?) advancing to right," holding " sword 
and chlamys." From our coin it becomes clear that the 
figure holds a club and the skin of a beast, probably 
a lion. In spite of these attributes, it is not Herakles 
who is represented, because the figure is slim and 
beardless, while Herakles on the Imperial coins of 



18 Brit. Mus. Cat., Attica, "Athens,' 5 nos. 756, 757. 

19 H. Bulle, art. " Nike " in Koscher's Lexicon, p. 338 f. 

20 Paus., V., 11, 2 ; cp. Murray, Hist. Gr. Sculpt., II., p. 124. 



328 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Athens is always bearded and of the usual heavy and 
muscular type. 

The figure must, therefore, be intended for Theseus, 
who, in fact, on other Athenian coins wields the same 
weapon and has a skin wound round his arm. 21 In one 
case he is seen (the lion's skin is on his arm) bludgeoning 
the Minotaur, and our type is either a partial repro- 
duction of this group or may be intended to represent 
the hero as he advances to the attack. 



18. Obv. Bust of Athena r., wearing Athenian helmet 
crested, and adorned with floral scroll ; border 
of dots. 

Rev. A9HNA I [Q] N Theseus r., naked, raising 
rock [beneath which are the sword and sandals 
of his father Aegeus] ; border of dots. 

M. Size -8. [PI. X., 16.] 

This specimen is better preserved than those figured 
in Imhoof and Gardner 22 and the Brit. Mus. Cat., 
Attica though it does not very clearly show the sword 
and sandals placed beneath or beside the rock. The 
coin-type has been recognised as a reproduction of the 
bronze " Theseus raising the rock," seen by Pausanias 
on the Acropolis. 24 It can, however, only convey to us 
a notion of the general motive of that original and is no 
guide to the details; the treatment of the head and 
hands, for instance, is singularly weak, and a much 
better reproduction may be found (e.g.) on the terracotta 

21 Brit. Mus. Cat., Attica, " Athens," nos. 768-770 ; no. 763 ; Imhoof 
and Gardner, pi. DD iv. 

22 PL DD ii. The type also occurs at Troezen, Imhoof and Gardner, 
p. 49 ; M xi. 

23 P. 105, nos. 760, 761 ; cp. Beule, p. 398. 

24 Paus., I., 27, 8, and Frazer's commentary, II., p. 347. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 329 

relief from Cervetri in the British Museum 25 (D 594) 
where Theseus is seen with head and body straining 
forward while his hands grip the huge rock in a 
workmanlike fashion. 



PYLAEMENES EUERGETES, KING OF 
PAPHLAGONIA. 

Circ. B.C. 130. 

19. Obv. Head of Herakles, beardless, r., bare ; lion's skin 
round neck ; club at shoulder ; on the face, 
countermark [p ; in front, countermark OEfl. 

Eev. BAZIAEOZ 

TTVA[AIMENOV] 
EVEPPETOV 

Nike 1., holding in upraised r., wreath; in 1., 
palm branch. 

M. (with black patina). Size -9.' [PI. XI., 
3, obv.] 

The coins bearing the name " Pylaemenes " 26 have 
been usually assigned to the second (eirc. B.C. 95) of the 
four Paphlagonian dynasts who are asserted to have 
borne this name. M. Th. Eeinach 27 is in favour of 
attributing them to Pylaemenes I, who was the ally of 
the Komans in B.C. 130. Certainly the style and fabric 
of the coins is consistent with a date earlier than B.C. 95. 

Our coin, No. 19, is like the specimen in the Brit. 
Mus. Cat., Pontus, &c. (p. 103, no. 1), but derives 



25 This will be included in the Brit. Mus. Cat. of Terracottas, by Mr. 
H. B. Walters. The subject occurs on a gem in Arch. Anzeiger, 1899, 
pp. 200, 201. 

26 Brit. Mus. Cat., Pontus, &c., p. 1Q3. 

27 Reinach, L'histoire par les Monn., p. 159 f.; cp. Mommsen in Z. f. N., 
xv., p. 215 f. 



330 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

interest from the two monograms stamped upon the 
obverse. The first of these, or something like it, is 
common (cp. coins of Prusias II and civic bronze of 
Mithradates Eupator); the second recalls the mono- 
grams of the kings of Bosporus. Anyone who can 
succeed in identifying this pair of countermarks will 
probably furnish a useful clue to the date of the issuer of 
the coin. 

BITHYNIA. 

20. Obv. AYTOKPATITOZKAIZAPZEBAZYIOZ Head of 
Titus r., laur. 

Rev. -- EniMMAIKIOYPO[Y]cI>0[Y]ANeYTTATOY (M. 
Maecius Rufus, proconsul of the province 
"Bithynia et Pontus" under Vespasian and 
Titus). Palm tree; on r., shield and two 
spears; on 1., helmet, cuirass and two spears. 
(Cp. " Judaea capta " types). 

M. Size 1-15. [PI. XL, 2, rev.} 



CAESAREA GERMANICA (BITHYNIA). 

21. Obv. I OVA I A AVrOVCTA Bust of J. Domna r. 

Rev. KAICAPEIAC TEPMANIKHC Part of an amphi- 
theatre (?), showing, within, two rows of 
spectators (six in front, five behind). On the 
outside, three circular objects; in front, 
obelisk. 

M. Size 1 35. [PI. XI., 4, rev.] 

The reverse of this curious, and, so far as I know, 
unique coin evidently represents the onlookers at some 
public spectacle. At the first glance one might almost 
say that it was a family party crowded into a box at a 
modern theatre, and one recalls the bas-reliefs of the 
column of Theodosius at Constantinople, with spectators 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 331 

of imperial and high official rank. watching the games of 
the Circus. 28 But no such explanation is possible, if 
only for the reason that the receptacle of our spectators 
is open at the bottom. 

The engraver's intention was, doubtless, to portray 
both the outside and the inside of a public building, as 
has been attempted on the well-known Eoman coins 
(Titus 29 ) and medallions (Gordian III 30 ) representing 
the Flavian Amphitheatre at Kome. On these pieces, the 
four storeys of the exterior the three lowest formed of 
arcades are very clearly delineated, but on the coin of 
Caesarea there are no such indications of architectural 
structure. I can only suggest, therefore, that we have 
here merely the fourth or uppermost storey of the 
Koman Amphitheatre or of some similar building. If 
the medallion of Gordian be examined it will be seen 
that the fourth storey consists of a wall on which is repre- 
sented a series of circular objects just as on our coin. 
On the coin of Titus the wall of this storey is divided by 
pilasters between which alternately appear square and 
circular objects. The existing remains of the Colosseum 
show in the fourth storey the same pilasters, between 
which, alternately, are windows (oblong, however, not 
square) and bare spaces which, in antiquity, may have 
been decorated by circular metal elipei. 

The engraver of Caesarea Germanica evidently aimed 
at representing the spectators, rather than the building 
in which they sat. These spectators, then, are not 
likely to be "the common people of the skies" the 

28 Diehl, Justinien, p. 441, fig. 147; H. Earth, Constantinople, 97-100. 

29 Daremberg and Saglio, Diet, art. " Amphitheatrum," fig. 270, 
cp. fig. 271 (view of Colosseum) ; Donaldson's Architecture p. 294 ; 
Cohen, Med. imp., L, p. 461. 

30 Grueber, Koman Medallion* in Brit. Mus., pi. xlii., 1. 



332 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

rabble who filled the worst seats at the top, but we are 
meant to look down upon the important personages 
who occupied the ledge above the podium and who were 
in close proximity to the arena. 31 The six persons in 
front may be Septimius Severus and his wife, Caracalla 
and Geta and two other persons of high rank. The five 
dimly-seen figures behind may be the occupants of the 
rows of back seats. 32 

In front of the building is an obelisk which recalls the 
Meta Sudans placed beside the Amphitheatre on the coin 
of Titus. 33 But it may be doubted whether the Koman 
Amphitheatre would be represented on the coins of a 
provincial town, and it is very probable that an amphi- 
theatre at Caesarea itself may be intended. The coins of 
this place are already known to display its city-gate, as 
well as its harbour, beside which are a temple and a 
statue on a column. It may be that Septimius visited, 
or bestowed some patronage upon, the games of the 
Bithynian city, which was thus led to strike this unusual 
commemorative type. 34 



NICOMEDIA (BITHYNIA). 

22. Obv. 4>AVCTEINA CEBACTH Bust of Faustina jun.,r., 
draped ; hair waved and tied in bunch. 



31 The medallion of Gordian actually shows the arena with a bull and 
elephant in fierce combat. 

32 Cp. Lanciani, Ruins and Excavations of Ancient Rome (1897), p. 382. 

33 Possibly the obelisk may be intended to stand within the building, with 
its apex pointing upwards through the aperture. But a column of this 
kind would be more suitable for the interior of a circus than of an 
amphitheatre. 

34 On coins of Caesarea, see Brit. Mus. Cat., Pontus, p. 122 ; Imhoof- 
Blumer, Griech. Miinzen, p. 597 f. ; Num. Chron., 1895, p. 98. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 333 

Eev. MHT-NEQ NEIKOMHAI Aphrodite, wearing 
stephane and mantle over lower limbs, seated 1. 
on rock ; hair tied in bunch, one tress falling 
on neck; in outstretched r. hand, apple; 1. 
hand resting on rock. 

M. Size 1-1. [PL XI., 5.] Cp. Invent. 
Waddington, nos. 464, 465. 

The representation of Aphrodite seated is compara- 
tively rare in ancient art. 35 The best-known group of 
monuments that represent the goddess holding the apple 
is that which is believed to reproduce the statue of 
Venus Genetrix made by Arcesilaus, B.C. 45, for the 
temple in the Forum Julium at Home. 36 In this 
series, however, the goddess is a standing figure and 
is draped in a chiton which leaves only one breast 
uncovered. 

On the Eoman coins of Faustina jun. (whose head 
appears on the obverse of our specimen) the Venus that 
often occurs as a type is a standing figure and completely 
draped, perhaps because it was the empress who was 
intended to appear on the coin in the character of the 
goddess. 

It has been suggested to me that this seated Aphrodite 
may have formed part of a group, such as the Judgment 
of Paris. But in this scene, as represented on vases and 
coins, Aphrodite and Athena are generally seen standing, 
while it is only Hera who is sometimes seated. Paris 
himself is, of course, usually found seated. A coin of 
Tarsus (e.g.y with this subject shows him seated on a 
root, extending the apple to Aphrodite, who stands in 

85 Bernoulli, Aphrodite, p. 196 f. ; Koscher's Lexicon, art. " Aphrodi 
p. 414. 

36 Lanciani, Ruins of AUG. Rome, pp. 302-304. 

37 Imhoof, in Jahrbuch arch. Inst., III., 1888, pi. ix., 21 ; p. 291 ff. 
Parisurtheil"). 

VOL. III., SERIES IV. 2 




334 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

front of her rivals. It is possible that the seated Paris 
holding the apple may have suggested to a painter or 
sculptor the type of a seated Aphrodite displaying the 
apple after her triumph. In any case the Aphrodite of 
our coin has a certain grace and simplicity which seem 
to point to some good original. 



ABYDUS (TROAD). 

23. Obv. Head of Apollo 1., laur. ; hair long. 

Rev. A BY Eagle standing r., with wings closed; in 
front, crescent. 

M., with dark green patina. Size '75. [PI. 
XI., 6.] Cp. Brit. Mus. Cat., Troas, p. 4, no. 33. 

The obverse is not to be classed with the splendid 
head of Apollo on the staters of Abydus issued 
circ. B.C. 411-387 ; it is, however, of excellent style and 
may be placed early in the later coin-series of this town, 
which in the Brit. Mus. Cat., Troas (pi. i.), are assigned to 
the period B.C. 320-280. 

ASSUS (TROAD). 

24. Obv. Head of Athena !., wearing crested helmet 

wreathed with olive. 

Eev. A^ ^ Bull's head, facing. 

.ZE., with light green patina. Size *45. 
[PI. XL, 7.] Fourth cent. B.C. Cp. Brit. 
Mus. Cat., Troas, " Assus," nos. 4-9. 

HARPASA (CARIA). 

25. Olv. AV-K-M-AN rOPAIANOCC Bust of Gordian 

III r., radiate, wearing paludamentum and 
cuirass. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 335 

Rev. APTTACH NHN Tyche-Demeter standing 1. 
She wears calathos, chiton and peplos wound 
round body and 1. arm ; in 1. hand, cornucopiae ; 
r. hand placed on rudder holds two ears of 
corn and a poppy-head. 

M. Size 1 2. [PL XI., 8, rev.}. 

The reverse is of good style for the period and may, 
perhaps, reproduce a statue of the goddess. 

In ancient cultus the goddess Tyche was connected 
or identified with many divinities who fostered and 
bestowed on men the riches of field and wood with 
Agathodaemon, Ploutos, Pan, and especially Demeter 
and Persephone. 38 

HYDISUS (CARIA). 

26. Obv. Bearded male bust r., in helmet ; border of dots. 
Rev. Eagle turned towards r., standing on fulmen 
and flapping wings ; in field r., ^EON 

M. Size -8. [PI. XL, 9.] (A variety of 
Imhoof, Kleinas. M., p. 134, no. 2; cp. reff. 
there to coins of Hydisus.) 



ANINETUS (LYDIA). 

27. Obv. Head of Zeus r., laureate; hair falls in formal 
curls ; border of dots. 

Rev. ANINHCIOON Eagle 1., on thunderbolt; wings 
open ; in field 1., nt; in front of eagle, ear of 
corn and poppy-head. 

JE. Size -7; neatly struck; green patina. 
[PL XL, 10.] 

A coin of the second (or first?) century B.C., with 
the types of which compare Imhoof, Lyd. Stadtmunzen 

38 See Allegre, titude mr la dffesse grecque Tychf, chap. vii. 

2 A 2 



336 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

p. 23, no. 4. The monogram may represent a magistrate's 
name, seeing that such names are found on this series of 
coins, but it certainly recalls the mint-mark of Per- 
gamum, familiar to us from the cistophori. Aninetus, 
however, was not a neighbour of Pergamum, for it lay in 
the Maeander valley between Mastaura and Briula. 39 

Mr. Head suggests that the ear of corn and poppy- 
head are symbols of Persephone, who was probably 
worshipped at this city, if we may judge from the 
fact that the Kape of the goddess occurs on coins of 
Augustus. 40 

ATTALEA (LYDIA). 

28. Obv. AVTOKAIMAV PANTflNI[NOC] Bust of young 
Caracalla r., laur., beardless, wearing paluda- 
mentum and cuirass ; last three letters of legend 
obliterated by countermark, eagle with wings 
spread (cp. the eagle reverse-type of several 
coins of Attalea). 

Rev. eTTCTPMN KPA[TO]VCBATTAA 6ATQN Young 
Dionysos, standing to front, looking 1., and 
extending r. hand to the horned Pan, who lies 
r. on the ground with 1. hand raised. Dionysos 
wears wreath and endromides ; body naked ; his 
1. hand rests on thyrsos. 

M. Size 1-2. [PL XL, 11.] 

A quasi-autonomous coin of Attalea of the second 
century A.D. represents the same Pan as he dances, 
holding his lagobolon and a bunch of grapes. 41 Here he 
is shown overcome by his exertions or by indulgence in 



39 Paton, cited by Imhoof, Kleinas. M., p. 168. Mr. Head remarks that 
it is curious that the Notitiae Episcopatuum (Eamsay, Hist. Geog., table, 
p. 104) mention Pergarrmm immediately after Aninata (i.e. Aninetus). 

40 Imhoof, Lyd. Stadtm., p. 23, no. 6. 

41 Brit. Mus. Cat., Lydia, " Attalea," nos. 3 and 4. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 337 

the gifts of the god of wine, who is seen helping him to 
his feet. 

A similar coin is published in Berliner Blatter, V., 
p. 24, no. 33 (Yon Bauch collection), but the recumbent 
figure is erroneously described as a " Stadtgottin." The 
engraver (pi. lv., 8) has turned the two horns of Pan 
into three mural turrets and has thrown drapery over the 
lower limbs of the supposed goddess. 



TMOLUS (LYDIA). 

29. Obv. CGBACTH CAB6INA Bust of Sabina r. 

Rev. TMHAI TON Apollo naked, standing r., with 
r. hand fitting arrow to bow held in 1. (Cp. 
type of Apollo in chariot, at Tmolus, under 
Commodus.) 

M. Size -75. [PL XL, 12, ref>.]. 



TRALLES (LYDIA). 

30. Obv. <t>POV-CAB-TP ANKVAA6INA Bust of Tranquillina 
r., draped. 

Bev. EhrTON TTE<i>IAirrTTONKENTAVP in ex., 
TPAAAIANQ N Female figure fully draped and 
veiled standing r., at the entrance of a shed or 
hut ; a male figure wearing himation, who 
stands 1. before her, extends his r. hand as if to 
lead her forth. (Zeus and lo.) 

M. Size 1-2. [PL XII., 1, rev.]. 

Mr. Head 42 has given a very interesting account of 
this remarkable specimen, which I cannot do better than 
quote, adding only a few notes : " Coin of Tranquillina 
issued by authority of the Board of Grammateis under 

42 Brit. Mus. Parliamentary Return, printed 1903. 



I 



338 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the presidency of Philip the son of Centaurus. The 
reverse-type of this coin shows a draped figure (Zeus ? ) 
leading by the hand a veiled bride (Io?) out of a wattle 
shed. This entirely new and curious subject may be one 
of the scenes in the Nuptials of Io (6IOVC rAMO[l], Brit. 
Mus. Cat., Lydia, p. cxlvi.) as represented at Tralles during 
festival times, in commemoration of the remote Argive 
origin of the city. 43 It supplements two other scenes 
from the same drama (Brit. Mus. Cat., Lydia, loc. cit.) 44 
and may represent Zeus meeting Io in her father's 
cow-shed (ftova-rao-is) whither she had been impelled 
by dreams to betake herself in order to fulfil her 
destiny " : 

ffv B\ <w TTCU, fjirj 'TroXa/CTiV??? Xe^o? 
TO Z?7Z/o9, aXX' eeX$e TT^O? Aep^? fiaOvv 
XetyLtcoz/a, TroijJLvas fiovcrTda-eis re Trpo? Trarpos, 
a)? av TO &iov oj^jjua Xftx/^cn; irbOov. 

Aesch., Prom. Vinct., 669 f. (651 f.). 45 



43 Compare the lepbs ydpos of Zeus and Hera which was commemorated 
at Cnossus by annual sacrifices and by a mimetic representation of the 
marriage (Diod., V., 72). The marriage was also represented in various 
festivals, especially in the Heraia in Caria and elsewhere. (See Graillot, 
art. "Hieros Gamos" in Daremberg and Saglio, Diet). The union of 
Zeus (as a serpent) and Persephone was shown to the epoptae at the 
Eleusinia. 

44 The two scenes are: IOVC fAMO[l] Hermes conducting Io 
(Brit. Mus. Cat., Lyd., p. 348, no. 142), and Io (?) as a bride seated in 
chariot drawn by bulls, conducted by Hermes (?) (&., p. 348, no. 
141). For references as to sacred chariots represented on coins, see 
Brit. Mus. Cat., Galatia, &c., p. xc. As to the vehicle in which a 
bride proceeded on the journey (aycaytf') from her father's house to her 
husband's see art. "Matrimonium" in Daremberg and Saglio, Diet., 
p. 1651 ; cp. /. H. S., p. 132. 

45 Or the scene represented on the coin may possibly refer to a later 
incident, when Io, at the Egyptian Canobus, is restored to sanity by the 
gentle touch of Zeus's hand and becomes the mother of Epaphus the 
ancestor of the Argive Danaoi (Prom. Vinct., 865 f. (846 f.)). 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 339 



ATTALIA (PAMPHYLIA). 

31. Obv. TTOV - AIK K OVAA6PIANON C Bust of 
Cornelius Yalerianus r., laur., wearing paluda- 
mentum and cuirass ; in front I. 

Rev. ATTAAfiNOIKOVMN[IKOC] Prize-crown, con- 
taining two palm branches, placed on table 
inscribed OAYMTTIA. 

JE. Size 1 35. (Types similar to Hill, Cat., 
Lycia, &c., pi. xxiii., 10 ; cp. p. Ixxvi.) 



ANTIOCHIA (PISIDIA). 

32. Obv. Bust of Men r., in Phrygian cap ; crescent at 
shoulder. 

Rev. Ap -p|\/j|r^- Nike advancing r. ; over shoulder, 



palm branch, which she supports with both 
hands ; r. and 1. of Nike, star. 

M. Size -8. [PI. XII., 2.] 

The coinage of the Pisidian Antioch was formerly 
supposed 46 to begin only with the foundation of the 
colonia by Augustus, B.C. 25, but the city is now known 
to have had an autonomous currency of the first century 
(before B.C. 25), 47 namely the coins with obv. Head of 
Men, rev. Nike or Zebu, hitherto assigned to Antioch 
on the Maeander (Caria). This coin adds another name 
to the list of magistrates found on this series. 

ETENNA (PISIDIA). 

33. Obv. M-QTAKIAIA CeOYHPACGB Bust of Otacilia 
Severa r. 

46 Brit. Mus. Cat., Lytia, &c., p. cxii. 

47 Babelon, Invent. Wadd., noe. 3566-3570; Imhoof, Kleinas. M., II., 
p. 356 f. 



340 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Rev. TN N ON Helios, radiate, standing 1. ; r. 
hand upraised ; in 1. hand, lighted torch ; 
chlamys round 1. arm. 

M. Size 1 2. [PL XII., 3.] Neatly struck 
on a large flan ; cp. Invent. Wadd., 3729. 



PROSTANNA (PISIDIA). 

34. Obv. AVKMAV ANT1N[INOC] Bust of Elagabalus 
r., laur., wearing paludamentum and cuirass. 

Rev. TIP OCTA NNeQN Male figure, bearded (?), 
standing 1. ; wears himation over left shoulder 
and lower limbs ; in r., branch ; 1. hand at side, 
covered by drapery. 

M. Size 1 05. [PL XII., 4, rev.]. 

An addition to the varied series of coin-types found at 
Prostanna. 48 The standing figure is not easily identified, 
but as the mountain Viaros often occurs on the coins of 
this place, I would suggest, though with hesitation, that 
lie is the mountain divinity. 

The branch and the arrangement of the drapery would 
be suitable to such a god, 49 though mountain-gods are 
usually represented seated or reclining. 



LAODICEA COMBUSTA (LYCAONIA). 

35. Obv. TITOCKAIAOMITI[AN]OCKAICAPC Heads of 
Titus and Domitian, both bare, confronted. 

Rev. KAAYAIOAAO AIK6GJN Kybele in chiton and 
tall head-dress seated 1. on throne; in out- 
stretched r. hand, phiale; 1. hand rests on 
tympanon ; beneath throne, lion lying 1. 

* Hill, Brit. Mus. Cat, Lycia, &c., p. cvi. ; Imhoof, Eleinas. M., II., 
p. 389 f. 

49 For mountain-gods on coins, see Imhoof, Kleinas. M., p. 18 ; p. 80 ; 
p. 503, and reff. there. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRI r rr ISH MUSEUM. 343 

M. Size -9. [PL XIL, 5, %ling the infant 
Invent. Wadd., no. 4779 ; set i ,- . 
Lycaonia, p. xxii. f. ; Imhoof, A' -* ls nard to 

^in is a mere 

^e of the 
LAERTES (CILICIA). 

36. Obv. AV-KAITPA AAPIANOC Bust of Hadrian r., 
laur., in paludamentum and cuirass. 

Rev. AAPTGI[TON] Zeus, wearing himation, standing 
1. ; in outstretched r. hand, phiale ; 1. hand 
holds long sceptre ; before him, eagle 1., looking 
back. 

M. Size M. [PL XIL, 7, rev.] 

A seated Zeus, with his eagle before him, occurs at 
Laertes under several emperors (Hadrian, Trebonianus 
Gallus, Gallienus). 50 



TARSUS (CILICIA). 

37. Obv. Baal-Tars seated r., on throne without back; r. 
hand upraised ; on extended 1. hand, eagle (?) ; 
border of dots. 

._, H p (Tars). Male figure (Baal Tars?), bearded (?), 
hair short, standing r. ; on outstretched 1. hand, 
eagle r. ; r. hand holds short sceptre ; wears 
chlamys fastened by brooch. The muscles of 
the body are represented in exaggerated detail, 
and the chlamys hangs behind the back, falling 
in formal folds ; slight circular incuse. 

M. Size -35. Wt. 13 -3 grains. [PL XII., 6.] 



ANCYRA (GALATIA). 

38. Obv. AVT K M - AVPH ANT ONINOC . . . 
Head of Caracalla r., bearded, laur. 

50 Num. Cliron., 1900, p. 293. On coins of Laertes, see Hill, Brit. Mus. 
Cat, Lycaonia, &c., p. xxxiv., and Imhoof, Kleinas. M., p. 463. 



340 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



Rev. 6TN IVHTPOTTOAnC 
hanc" ANKVPA 

eh' c 

/anther standing r., suckling infant (Dionysos) 
seated 1. ; on r., boy (Satyr ?) stands 1., caressing 
panther's head with both hands ; in background, 
vine tree. 

^E. Size 1 15. [PL XII., 8, rev.] 

A coin with a similar reverse is in the Fitzwilliam 
Museum at Cambridge. 61 The type (sometimes with 
the standing figure omitted) occurs also at Ancyra under 
J. Domna, Greta, Elagabalus and Valerian. 52 Until now 
this interesting type has not been represented in the 
British Museum, and for this reason, and because I 
believe no photographic reproduction has been published, 
the coin is here included. 

I have not been able to find any exact analogy to this 
charming composition, which probably existed inde- 
pendently in painting or relief. The scene is doubtless 
Dionysiac, 53 because the tree is a vine, and the animal, 
seemingly, a panther rather than a lioness. A cultus 
of Dionysos existed at Ancyra and the god is often 
represented on its coins. 54 

After the death of his mother Semele, the infant 
Dionysos had many nurses and protectors Ino, the 
Nymphs of Nysa, the Maenads, Makris, who fed him with 
honey, Zeus, who preserved him in his thigh. There 
does not appear, however, to be any legend of his being 
suckled by an animal, though on a marble relief in the 



51 Leake, Num. Sell, sup. Asia, p. 15. 

52 Babelon, Invent. Wadd., nos. 6637, 6641, 6644 ; Cohen, Cat. Greau 
(1867), p. 176; Drexler in Z.f. N., xv., p. 88. 

53 So Babelon, op. dt. 

54 See C. I. G., no. 4020, and Brit. Mus. Cat., GalMia, " Ancyra," under 
Caracalla. 



GKEEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 343 

Naples Museum a goat is seen suckling the infant 
Dionysos, 55 just as Amalthea suckled Zeus. ' It is hard to 
say, therefore, whether the scene on our coin is a mere 
fancy of the artist or whether it embodies one of the 
myriad legends of the infancy of Dionysos. 

The little figure on the right can hardly be a wingless 
Eros, as Drexler has suggested, but is probably a 
youthful Satyr who is fearlessly caressing the good- 
natured and almost human panther. Dr. Oti 
Keller, 66 who has collected the Dionysiac scenes in 
. which the panther figures, pleasantly summarises them 
as follows : " Man halt ihn auf dem Schooss, streichelt 
ihn, neckt ihn, packt ihn am Schwanz, wahrend er 
trinken will, oder giesst ihm den Wein auf den 
Kopf, futtert ihn mit Speise und Wein, ja mit 
Menschenmilch." 5T 

ANCYRA (GALATIA). 

39. 'Obv. AtfHNINOC AVrOVCTOC Head of Caracalla r., 
bearded and laur. 

Rev. MTPOTTO ANWPACICOTIV0IA Male figure, 
wearing himation, which covers his lower limbs 
and left shoulder, seated 1. on (stone) seat; 
in extended r. hand, prize-crown containing 
palm branch ; 1. hand rests on seat. On the 

IEP 

seat, Q ; in ex., ArUN- 

M. Size 1 2. [PI. XII., 9, rev.] 

Ancyra, under Caracalla, displays a large series of 
agonistic types relating to the iCOTTveiA and other public 



45 Cited by Lenormant, art. " Bacchus," Daremberg, Diet, p. 603. 
38 Thiere des classischen Alterthums (1887), p. 150 f. 
i7 See Keller's note 128, p. 392. 



344 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

games. On one coin 58 we find AfHN inscribed on a prize- 
crown 59 ; on another, IPOC ATQN accompanies a similar 
crown. 60 IGPOC AfON is also found at Nicaea in 
Bithynia, with type, prize-crown, 61 also with type, athlete 
standing wreathing himself; 62 cp. lPOC MVCTIKOC at 
Side, lepoc OIKOVMENIKOC at Attalea, &c. 

At first sight the inscription lPOC AFON on our coin 
seems to identify the seated figure as " Agon," the 
personification of athletic sports and other contests, 63 but 
the instances above cited show clearly that this in- 
scription has reference to the games generally and is not 
descriptive of the figure represented. This figure is of 
muscular, almost Herculean appearance, but I do not 
think that he is a victorious athlete, seeing that he wears 
a himation and that the athletes seen on the coins of 
Ancyra 64 and elsewhere are slim and naked. He is a 
more important personage the judge or insti tutor of the 
contests (aywvoOeTr)?) holding forth the prize-crown to 
the victor. 

BAMBYCE, afterwards HIEROPOLIS (CYEBHESTICA). 

40. Obv. Bust of the goddess Atergatis facing; her hair 
falling in two formal curls; she wears orna- 
mented calathos, necklace and drapery ; on 1., 
\g ; on r., name of Atergatis written in Aramaic 
characters ; border of dots. 

59 Brit. Mus. Cat., Galatia, " Ancyra," no. 26. 

59 The object usually called a prize-urn, but see Dressel in Z. f. N. 9 
xxiv., p. 34 f. 

60 Mion., iv., p. 384, no. 63. 

61 Brit. Mus. Cat., Pontm, &c., p. 160 and p. 166. 

62 Macdonald, Hunter Coll, II., p. 248, no. 18. 

63 Personifications of Agon are mentioned in the writers, 'Ay&p $4ptov 
aXrripas, &c., but no quite certain representations have been identified 
in existing monuments ; Keisch, art. " Agon " in Pauly-Wissowa. 

M Brit. Mus. Cat., Galatia, " Ancyra," no. 22. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 345 

Rev. Within a temple supported by two Ionic columns, 
Abd-Hadad (priest and king of Bambyce circ. 
B.C. 332) standing 1. before altar ; he wears tall 
conical head-dress and a long embroidered robe ; 
his right hand is raised and holds a pine-cone ; 
in his left hand is a phiale (?) ; in front, d ; 
behind, name of Abd-Hadad written in Aramaic 
characters ; slight circular incuse. 

-ffi. Size -9. Wt. 121-2 grains. [PL XII., 
10.] (Cp. the specimen at Paris, Babelon, 
Perses Achem., p. 45, no. 315 (cp. p. li. f.) = Rev. 
Num., 1861, p. 9, no. 1 (Waddington) = Num. 
Chron., 1878, p. 105, no. 5 (J. P. Six); cp. 
Brit. Mus. Cat., Galatia, &c., p. liii.) 

LEUCAS ON THE CHRYSOROAS (Coele-Syria). 

41. A coin of Trajan, similar to Brit. Mus. Cat., 
Galatia, &c., p. 296, no. 3 (types, obv. Head of Trajan, 
rev. Emperor in quadriga). 

It is countermarked on the obverse very clearly with 
the letters AAP, 65 evidently with a view to giving the 
coin currency under Hadrian. I believe that coins of 
Leucas bearing the head of Hadrian are unknown, and it 
would seem likely that none were struck, or, if struck, 
only in small quantities, the deficiency being supplied 
by countermarking the coins of Trajan. 

UNCEETAIN. 

42. Obv. Prow r. ; above, A ; border of dots. 
Rev. BJ , on r. of which, aphlaston. 

M. Size -8. [PL XII., 11.] (Cp. Imhoof, 

Monn. Gr., p. 467, no. 53 ; cp. Kl. M., p. 529 ; 

Svoronos, in R. N. y 1888, p. 60, no. 1, and Crete, 

j p. 149.) 

65 The countermark on the coin in the Brit. Mus. Cat. (p. 296, no. 3) 
is obscure, but it was read AAK, as a coin in Rollin's Cat. (cp. De Saulcy, 
Terre-Sainte, p. 25) is described as bearing this countermark. But in the 
light of our new coin the British Museum specimen, and doubtless also 
the Bollin specimen, should certainly be read AAP. 



346 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

The attribution of this coin and of others bearing the 
same monogram still remains undetermined. Can 
anything be ascertained as to their provenance ? Dr. 
Imhoof-Blumer considers them to be of Asia Minor 
(Carian, Pamphylian or Pisidian). Svoronos, who 
assigned them to Erannos in Crete, now leaves them 
" Uncertain." 

WARWICK WROTH. 



XII. 

A FIND OF COINS OF ALFEED THE GREAT 
AT STAMFOED. 




HALFPENNY OF ALFRED. 

ON the 25th August last year, as a workman named 
Thomas Brown was digging out trenches near the 
premises known as Cornstall Buildings in St. Leonard's 
Street, Stamford, for the purpose of laying the drain 
pipes in connexion with a sewerage scheme for the 
borough, he unearthed some coins of the time of Alfred 
the Great. Whether the coins were placed in a vessel of 
some kind I do not know ; but from their appearance it 
is very evident that they had been a good deal exposed 
to the dampness of the soil. The police having received 
notice of the find secured as many as possible, and the 
coroner having declared them to be treasure-trove they 
were sent to H.M. Treasury and thence to the British 
Museum. The coins forwarded to the Museum were 
fifteen in number, viz., nine pennies and four halfpennies 
of Alfred the Great, a half-denier of Charles the Bald of 
France, and a shilling of George III, dated 1817. 



348 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

From information subsequently obtained the coins 
sent to the Treasury formed only a portion of the hoard. 
Others of Alfred and his time, pennies and halfpennies, 
to the number of at least a dozen, are known to have 
passed into private hands ; but when inquiry was made 
about them by the police, they were informed by the 
holder that he had lost them on his journey from London 
to Stamford. This reason rather savours of what at a 
later date would constitute treasure-trove itself, and 
would seem to imply that the holder had lost them in 
such a manner as to make their recovery, if desirable, 
not impossible. 

The coins sent to the Museum are as follows : 



ALFRED THE GREAT. 

(Pennies.) 
With Mint Name. 

LINCOLN. 
1. Obv. EL FR ED RE. Small cross pattee. 

P C? P 

Rev. Monogram * EE *^ (Herebert ?) ; above, Llll; 



below, c * 1 1 A (Lincolla). 

Wt. 20-5 grs. [Brit. Mus. Cat., Vol. II., 
p. 46, no. 83.] 

LONDON. 

2. Obv. /ELF REDR. Bust to right, in armour; head 
bound with diadem. 

Rev. Monogram Jwm (Londonia) ; above, ; ; below, ; 

Wt. 18 5 grs. [See Brit. Mus. Cat., Vol. II., 
p. 48, no. 102.] 



A FIND OF COINS AT STAMFOED. 349 

3. Obv. Similar ; legend ^ /EfbR ED RE; bust rude. 
Rev. Similar; six pellets in o ; above, ,:. ; below, : . 

Wt. 216grs. 

4. Obv. Similar; legend^ \EI"hR ED RE; bust rude. 

Rev. Similar ; three pellets in D ; none in o and no 
ornaments above or below. 

Wt. 17-5grs. 

5. Obv. TEL WIN. Bust to r., of rude work, in armour ; 

head bound with diadem. 

Rev. Monogram j&m (Londonia); above, ;; below, ;;. . 
Wt. 12-4grs. 

Without Mint-Name. 

6. Obv. EL FR ED REX. Small cross pattee. 

Rev. Moneyer's name in two lines /^NEE (uncertain). 
Wt. 13-5grs. 

7. Obv. XE FR ED RY. Small cross pattee. 

Rev. Money er's name in two lines ip/Hm ( uncerta i n )- 
Wt. 17'7grs. 

8. Obv. EL FR ED REX. Small cross pattee. 

LVDIG 
Rev. Moneyer's name in two lines 

M *9 H 

Wt. 19-8grs. 



9. Obv. Similar. 

LVDI 

' Rev. Moneyer's name in two lines + (Ludig). 

MON 

Wt. 16-8 grs. 
VOL. III., SERIES IV. 2 B 



350 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

(Halfpennies.) 

10. Obv. EL FR ED RE- Small cross pattee. 

Eev. Monogram 9fc(= A U)); around, TIL VVN (Tile wine). 
Wt. 7-7 grs. 

11. Similar. Wt. 6 '8 grs. 

12. Obv. EL FR ED RE. Small cross pattee. 

TILE 
Eev. Moneyer's name in two lines (Tilewine). 

Wt. 8-6 grs. 

13. Obv. ij EL EF DR LE. Small cross pattee. 

3UJNA 

Eev. Moneyer's name in two lines : : (uncertain). 

H#H v 

Wt. 8 -8 grs. 

FOKEIGN. 

CHARLES THE BALD, A.D. 840-877. 
(Half-denier or Obole of St. Denis.) 

14. Obv. + GRATIA D I REX. Monogram of CAROLVS. 

Eev. + S[CI]AIONVM. Cross pattee. Wt. 7'lgrs. 

[Gariel, Monn. roy. de France, PI. xxxiv., 
no. 223.] 

The shilling of George III, though found during the 
course of digging the trenches for the drainage, was 
probably not part of the hoard. It was of the ordinary 
type of 1817. 

The coins of Alfred which were in the hoard but 
which were not secured by H.M. Treasury were six or 
seven pennies with rev. moneyer's name in two lines, and 
three or four halfpennies, one or two of the common type 



A FIND OF COINS AT STAMFOKD. 351 

like the pennies ; one with the king's bust and monogram 
of London, and one with the monogram 95 on the reverse 
as nos. 10 and 11. With these were shown one or two 
Cunetti pennies, which may have been in the hoard, a 
Koman coin and a sixpence of Elizabeth (?), which, like the 
shilling of George III, may have been dug up elsewhere. 

This small hoard is interesting from two points of view ; 
first on account of the strong Danish element which 
pervades it ; and secondly because it adds another type 
to Alfred's coinage in the series of halfpennies, which are 
all of considerable rarity. 

Of the Danish element the coin of Lincoln is a good 
example. This specimen varies slightly from, I believe, 
the only other example known, which is in the British 
Museum, in reading Linc^iiA for LIIIIC^LLA, and in a 
slight difference in the monogram of the moneyer's 
name HER I BERT. Though it bears the name of Alfred, 
yet it is very clear from its style of work that it was not 
issued from any of his mints ; and in support of this 
statement I think I shall be able to show that when this 
coin was struck, the city of Lincoln was under Danish 
control, and practically independent of Alfred's authority. 
Heribert too was essentially a Danish moneyer, as his 
name does not appear on any of Alfred's own coins. Of 
the London coins nos. 3, 4, and 5 are also of Danish 
work. Nos. 3 and 4 present us with a rude bust of the 
king and the legend on the obverse is blundered, whilst 
on no. 5, instead of the king's name on the obverse, we 
have that of the moneyer " Tilewine." That this sub- 
stitution of the moneyer's name for that of the king was 
not pure accident, is shown by another coin of Lincoln 
in the British Museum, which has the monogram of the 
city on the reverse, and on the obverse around the bust 

2 B.2 



352 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the name of the moneyer " Heribert," who as we have 
seen struck another type in that city. Tile wine was a 
moneyer of Alfred, and appears on coins struck by him 
in London. It is probable therefore that the Danish 
coin was copied from the London piece, and this circum- 
stance may help in some way to fix the date of the 
coins of Alfred struck at London of the monogram 
type. 

In his account of the well-known coin of Halfdan, 
which has on the obverse two figures seated facing and 
behind them a winged figure, and on the reverse the 
monogram of London, as on coins of Alfred, 1 and which 
is supposed to have been struck in London, when the 
Danish leader was there in A.D. 874, Mr. Keary says : 
" Probably this coin is the inauguration of the- monogram 
type. The monogram upon the reverse of coins had 
been hitherto essentially a Frankish device. And not 
only is it primd facie probable that the Vikings would 
be more familiar than the English with the Prankish 
currency of this date (so much of which had been paid 
as ransom into their pockets), but we have evidenc^ in 
the Cuerdale coins that the Vikings, in the earliest coins 
which they struck for their own use, were disposed to 
imitate the coinage of the Franks. This first London 
monogram, then, was introduced in A.D. 874. But 
Halfdan only remained a short time in London. It is 
highly probable that after his departure the Londoners 
continued to strike coins with this monogram, but placed 
upon it the head and name of Alfred." 2 Historical 
evidence favours strongly this view. London was a 
Mercian city, and Alfred during the first few years of his 

1 Brit. Mus. Cat., Anglo-Saxon Coins, Vol. II., p. xxxiv. 
3 Brit Mus, Git., Anglo-Saxon Coins, Vol. II., p. xxxix. 



A FIND OP COINS AT STAMFORD. 353 

reign was kept in the west by the Danes, and it is 
evident that he never was near London till some time 
after the departure of Halfdan, and perhaps not until 
after the defeat of G-uthorm (Aethelstan) at Aethandune 
in A.D. 878. As a rule the Yiking coins struck at this 
time, south of the Humber, were copied from English 
types; but this monogram type of London could well 
have been an exception, if we take into consideration also 
the piece with the monogram of Lincoln, which is of the 
same period and is undoubtedly of Viking or Danish work. 

We may therefore take it that the London monogram 
type was instituted by Halfdan and continued by 
Alfred, and though its use may have extended over a 
few years it must have been adopted by Alfred not later 
than A.D. 878. When Guthorm (Aethelstan) settled down 
into his kingdom after the peace of Wedmore, he adopted 
for the type of his coins that of Alfred, which have on 
the reverse the moneyer's name in two lines, and on 
the obverse a small cross pattee. This settlement of 
Guthorm does not appear to have been accomplished 
before A.D. 880, and it is to this period that I would 
attribute the issue of the Danish imitations of the 
London monogram type. Guthorm reigned till A.D. 890 ; 
but it is possible that he allowed a short time to inter- 
vene after his settlement before he set his mint or mints 
in operation. 

The blundered legends on nos. 6 and 7, which are of 
the common type of Alfred's coins, show that these also 
are Danish imitations. This type, I think, we may 
safely look upon as belonging to the later issues of 
Alfred's coinage. 

Amongst the halfpennies, those with the name of the 
moneyer Tilewine may certainly be given to London, 



854 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

and no. 13, on account of its blundered legends, is pro- 
bably another Danish imitation. The ornamented O on 
the reverse of the last piece is not infrequently found on 
Alfred's coins of Oxford. 

Perhaps the most interesting pieces in the hoard are 
the two halfpennies which have for reverse type the 
monogram of A and U) (Alpha and Omega). We meet 
with these letters as types of coins in more than one 
form on English coins of the tenth century. On coins of 
Aethelstan I of East Anglia we have the fi for the 
obverse type, and the CD for the reverse 3 ; on others of 
Ceolwulf I and Berhtulf of Mercia these letters are 
placed in monogram, $, the U) being below the fi. 4 
This type was copied by Ecgberht. 5 The new type of 
Alfred varies from them in having the CO placed above 
the ft, and thus forming what in Merovingian coinage 
would be called a croix ancree fourchee. It is not 
impossible that the Merovingian croix ancree suggested 
the design to Alfred's moneyer ; but this precise com- 
bination does not occur on the Merovingian money. 
This new type of Alfred is therefore an important 
addition to the coinage of that monarch. 

The presence of the obole or half-denier of Charles the 
Bald in the hoard needs no comment. Many coins of 
this class must, as we have already remarked, have been in 
the hands of the Danish invaders, and in the Cuerdale 
hoard they existed in considerable numbers. The 
St. Denis at which this coin was struck, I conclude, was 
the St. Denis just outside Paris. The coins of this mint 



3 Brit. Mus. Cat., Anglo-Saxon Coins, Vol. I., pi. xiv., 12. 

4 76., pi. ix., 4, and pi. x., 4. 
16., Vol. II., pi. i, 2. 



A FIND OF COINS AT STAMFORD. 355 

are scarce, and M. Grariel 6 only figures an imperfect 
specimen of this piece in the hoard, which itself is con- 
siderably worn by being in circulation. 

Any attempt to explain the circumstances under which 
the burial of the hoard took place would be pure con- 
jecture ; but the very limited number of coins which it 
contained shows that it was probably the savings of a 
private individual. Its discovery at Stamford is of con- 
siderable interest, and would fully account for the strong 
Danish element which pervades it. 

That city was one of the "Five Burgs," the others 
being Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby and Leicester, which 
were set apart for the occupation of the Danish popu- 
lation in England, and which became practically 
fortified cities. They appear to have been governed by 
their own laws, and to have formed separate small 
republics within the state. No doubt amongst their 
privileges they exercised also that of coining money, and 
this alone fully accounts for the large number of 
imitations of Alfred's coins which still exist and are still 
being constantly found. The date of the assignment of 
these cities to the Viking invaders is uncertain, but as 
they were incorporated with the English kingdom in 
the reign of Edward the Elder, or at latest, in that of his 
son Edmund, 7 it must have occurred soon after the death 
of Guthorm in A.D. 890, when Alfred took over Mercia 
and East Anglia and joined them to his own kingdom. 
This supplies us with the approximate date of the con- 
cealment of the hoard, which would be during the later 
years of Alfred, i.e. between A.D. 890-901, probably nearer 
the latter than the former year. H. A. GKUEBEK. 

6 Monn. royales de France, pi. xxxiv., no. 223. 

7 Brit. Mus. Cat., Anglo-Saxon Coin*, Vol. II., p. iv. 



XIII. 

HISTOKY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 

I. 

HISTORY. 
General Summary. 

THE old kingdom of Malwa was bounded by 
the Nerbudda on the south, the Chambal on the 
north, Gujerat on the west, and Bundelkand on the east. 
The limits of ancient Malwa were, therefore, much more 
extended than those of the present Province of that 
name, comprising as it did the existing Agencies of 
Indore, Gwalior, Banswarra, Western Malwa, Guna, 
Bhopal, and Bhopawar, and including, among others, 
the modern States of Gwalior, Indore, Bhopal, Jaora, 
Kutlam, Dhar, and Jhalawar. Hoshang Shah extended 
his sway over Gondwarra (Kherla), Hoshangabad, and 
Kalpi, and is said to have even penetrated to Jajnagar in 
Orissa. In the reign of Mahmud I, when the kingdom 
reached its zenith of power, the limits of Malwa were 
extended by conquest to Biana, Karauli, Ajmer, Ean- 
tambhor, Dongarpur, and Kechwara, while tribute was 
exacted from the Eajput States of Me war, Kotah, and 
Bundi. It was at first ruled by a long series of Hindu 
kings, among the most celebrated of whom were Vikra- 
majit (56 B.C.), and Kaja Bhoja Deva (llth century A.D.) 
The grandson of Raja Bhoja was taken prisoner and his 



HISTORY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 357 

country conquered by the Kaja of Gujerat, but Malwa 
soon recovered its independence under a new dynasty. 
Malwa was one of the last of the ancient Hindu 
States to submit to Muhammedan rule. In 399 A.H. ( = 
1008 A.D.), the Raja of Malwa joined the Hindu con- 
federacy against Mahmud of Ghazni, who in revenge 
marched his devastating army through the country. The 
son of another Ghaznevide king, Ibrahim, is also said to 
have subdued Malwa, but both these expeditions can 
only be regarded in the light of forays. In 623-30 A.H. 
( = 1226-32 A.D.), the Delhi Emperor, Shams ud Din 
Altamsh, conquered Malwa, but the province revolted, 
and had to be resubdued in the reign of Nasir ud Din 
Mahmud, 646-49 A.H. (= 1248-51 A.D.), by his Wazir, 
Ghyas ud Din Balban, who afterwards usurped the 
Imperial throne. In the reign of Jelal ud Din Firoz II 
the people of Malwa again rose in rebellion, and resisted 
the inconclusive attempts of the Emperor to subdue them 
in 691-92 A.H. (= 1291-92 A.D.). The first permanent 
conquest of Malwa by the Muhammedans was effected by 
the Emperor Ala ud Din Muhammed, whose general, 
Ain ul Mulk, defeated and killed the Eaja Mahlak Deo 
at Mandu, 705 A.H. (= 1305 A.D.), and was appointed 
Viceroy of the conquered province. In 744 A.H.- ( = 
1343 A.D.), Katlagh Khan, the Viceroy of Malwa, was 
recalled, and the government of the province entrusted 
by the Emperor, Muhammed Tughlak, to a low-born 
ruffian, named Aziz Himar, who by his cruelty and 
oppression raised the whole country in revolt. Aziz 
Himar was killed by the insurgents, who were not 
subdued until the Emperor marched against them in per- 
son, 745 A.H. ( = 1344 A.D.). Malwa remained a province 
of the Delhi Empire until the death of Muhammed III, 



358 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

son of Firoz III, in 795 A.H. (= 1392 A.D.), when Dilawar 
Khan Ghori, the Viceroy, asserted his independence, 
though he did not actually assume the ensigns of royalty 
till 804 A.H. (= 1401 A.D.), in the second reign of Mah- 
mud II. In 839 A.H. ( = 1435 A.D), the Ghori dynasty of 
Malwa was replaced by that of the Khiljis, which lasted 
until the conquest of Malwa by Bahadar Shah, King of 
Gujerat, in 937 A.H. ( = 1530 A.D.). Malwa subsequently, 
941 A.H. (= 1534 A.D.),fell temporarily into the hands of 
Humayun, but was partially reconquered in 943 A.H. ( = 
1536 A.D.) by an officer of the Khilji dynasty named 
Kadir Shah. In 949 A.H. ( = 1542 A.D.), the Suri Emperor 
of Delhi, Sher Shah, became possessed of Malwa, to the 
government of which a noble named Shuja' Khan was 
appointed. Except for a short space, during which Isa 
Khan ruled Malwa on behalf of the Suri Emperor, Islam 
Shah, Shuja' Khan continued to govern this province 
until his death in 962 A.H. (= 1554 A.D.), when he 
was succeeded by his son Malik Bayazid; who after 
defeating his two younger brothers, Daulat Khan and 
Mustafa Khan, was crowned in 963 A.H. (= 1555 A.D.) 
under the title of Sultan Baz Bahadur. 

In 968 A.H. (= 1560 A.D.) Malwa was conquered for 
Akbar by his general, Adam Khan. In 969 A.H. (= 1561 
A.D.), Baz Bahadur recovered his kingdom, but was again 
dispossessed in the following year, 970 A.H. ( = 1562 A.D.). 
For eight years Baz Bahadur maintained a guerilla 
warfare against the Moghal troops with varying success, 
but finally submitted in 978 A.H. (= 1570 A.D.), when the 
province of Malwa was incorporated in the Moghal 
Empire. 

The following is a genealogical table of the Ghori and 
Khilji dynasties : 






HISTORY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 

GENEALOGICAL TABLE. 
KHILJL GHORL 

Malik Moghis Cousins Dilawar Khan Sister 



359 



MAHMUD I 
Daugh 


;er m. 


HOSHANG SHAH Musa 
(Alp Khan) 


MUHAMMED I Usman Ahmed 
> (GhazniKhan) 




Masud Umar 


Fidwi GHYAS UD DIN 

1 



NASIE UD Dm Ala ud Din 



MUHAMMED II 
(Sahib Khan) 

Ahmed Shah 



MAHMUD II 



Shahab ud Din 
Makhsus 



The following table exhibits in a succinct form the 
independent rulers of Malwa, with the duration of their 
reigns, as derived from historical sources, and as shown by 
the dates on their coins : 



Name of Ruler. 


Historical 
Reign. 


Coin Dates. 


Dilawar Khan 


804-808 


No coins. 


Hoshang Shah 


808-836 


824, 829, 83. 


Nasrat Khan (Viceroy for Muz- 
affer Shah I of Gujerat) . 

Musa Khan (Rebel) . . . 
Muhammed I 
Mahmud I 


810 
810 
836-839 
839-873 


No coins. 
No coins. 
No coin dates. 
842, 845, 847, 848, 850, 851, 






853, 854, 855, 856, 857, 
858, 860, 862, 869, 870, 
871, 873. 



360 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



Table continued from page 359. 



Name of Ruler. 


Historical 
Reign. 


Coin Dates. 


Ghyas ud Din 


873-906 


*864, *865, *866, 876, 877, 


Nasir ud Din 


906-916 


878, 879, 880, 881, 882, 
883, 884, 886, 887, 889, 
890, 893, 894, 895, 896, 
897, 898, 899, 900, 901, 
902, 903, 904, 905, 906. 

906, 907, 908, 909, 910, 911, 




916-937 


912, 913, 914, 915, 916. 
917, 918, 919, 921, 922, 923, 


Muhammed II (Rebel) . . 
Ibrahim Lodi (occupation of 


916-921 


924, 925, 926, 927, 928, 
929, 930, 931. 

917, 921. 
Square dateless coin. 


Bahadur Shah (kingofGujerat) 


937-941 
941-943 


Square dateless coin. 
942 (Mandu). 


Kadir Shah (nominal vassal of 
Bahadur Shah of Gujerat) . 

Shuja' Khan (Viceroy for Sher 
Shah and Islam Shah) . . 

Baz Bahadur 


943-949 

949-962 
962-968 


No coins. 

No coins. 
Square dateless coin. 


Adam Khan (Viceroy of Akbar) 

Pir Muhammed (Viceroy of 
Akbar) ...... 


968 
969 


No coins. 
No coins. 


Baz Bahadur (restored) . . 

Abdullah Khan (Viceroy of 
Akbar) 


969-970 
970-972 


No coins. 
Square dateless issue of Uj- 


Baz Bahadur carries on gueril- 
la warfare with Akbar . 

Baz Bahadur's final submission 
to Akbar 


970-978 
978 











* Struck in his father's lifetime as heir-apparent. 



HISTORY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 361 

GHOBI KINGS. 
DILAWAR KHAN. 

Dilawar Khan's grandfather came from Ghor, and 

held office under the Delhi Government. His father 

was ennobled, and he himself attained high rank in the 

reign of Firoz III. During the reign of Muhammed III. 

792-795 A.H. (= 1389-92 A.D.) he was nominated to the 

government of Malwa. On assuming independence in 

795 A.H. (= 1392 A.D.), Dilawar Khan made Dhar his 

capital, though he often visited Mandu, which came to 

be the seat of government in the next reign. In 801 

A.H. (= 1398 A.D.), Mahmud II, the Delhi Emperor, 

having been driven from his throne by Amir Timur, fled 

to Gujerat. As, however, his reception by the ruler of 

that kingdom, Muzaffer Shah I, was not satisfactory, he 

sought protection in Malwa, where he was hospitably 

entertained by Dilawar Khan for three years. This 

courteous treatment of the exiled Emperor was not 

pleasing to Dilawar Khan's son, Hoshang Shah, who 

retired in disgust to Mandu, where he remained during 

Mahmud's residence in Malwa, and which he employed 

himself in fortifying. 

In 804 A.H. ( = 1401 A.D.), Mahmud quitted Malwa for 
Delhi, where he resumed the reins of government, 
taking with him a quantity of money and jewels supplied 
by his loyal supporter, Dilawar Khan. On his departure 
Hoshang Shah returned, and shortly afterwards, at his 
instance, Dilawar Khan assumed royal state. He only 
survived his assumption of regal power four years, as he 
died suddenly in 808 A.H. (= 1405 A.D.). It has been 
alleged that his death was due to poison administered 



362 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

by his son Hoshang Shah, and the invasion of Malwa by 
the King of Gujerat, Muzaffer Shah I, to revenge his 
friend's death, lends colour to this story, which however 
is discredited by Ferishta. 



HOSHANG SHAH, 

Alp Khan, better known as Hoshang Shah Ghori, 
succeeded his father as king in Malwa, and reigned 
twenty-seven years, 808-835 A.H. (= 1405-1431 A.D.). 
In 810 A.H. (= 1407 A.D.), Muzaffer Shah I, King 
of Gujerat, invaded Malwa to revenge the suspected 
murder of his old comrade Dilawar Khan. A battle was 
fought at Dhar, which resulted in favour of Muzaffer 
Shah. Hoshang Shah, who surrendered, was taken to 
Gujerat, and detained as a State prisoner. Nasrat Khan, 
Muzaffer Shah's brother, was left in charge of the 
government of Malwa, but his oppressive rule created 
universal disaffection. The people of Malwa accordingly 
rose in rebellion, drove out Nasrat Khan, and elected 
Musa Khan, the nephew of Dilawar Khan, as their leader. 
The astute Hoshang Shah took immediate advantage of 
this emeute, and persuaded Muzaffer Shah to release him, 
and reinstate him on his throne, as a vassal of Gujerat. 
Accordingly, in 811 A.H. (= 1408 A.D.), Ahmed Shah, the 
Gujerat king's grandson, accompanied Hoshang Shah to 
Dhar, and after reducing that place, and restoring his 
authority, returned to Gujerat. Meanwhile Mandu still 
held out under Musa Khan, and for a time defied all 
Hoshang Shah's efforts to capture it. The defection of 
Malik Moghis, the cousin of Hoshang Shah, however, 
compelled Musa Khan to surrender, and Hoshang Shah 
thereupon entered Mandu, and resumed the reins of 



HISTORY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 363 

government. In 813 A.H. ( = 1410 A.D.), Muzaffer Shah I 
died, and Ahmed Shah succeeded him on the throne of 
Gujerat. Unmindful of past favours, Hoshang Shah 
supported the cause of Firoz Khan and Haibat Khan, 
the sons of Nasrat Khan, against their uncle Ahmed 
Shah, by an incursion into Gujerat, which, however, was 
unsuccessful. In 816 A.H. (= 1413 A.D.), Hoshang Shah 
opened secret correspondence with certain disloyal 
nobles of Gujerat, and, taking advantage of Ahmed 
Shah's campaign against the Eaja of Jalwara, led an 
army into Gujerat territory, which he began to lay 
waste. Ahmed Shah, however, postponing his attack 
on Jalwara, despatched a powerful force under Imad ul 
Mulk, which compelled Hoshang Shah to retire. In 
821 A.H. ( = 1418 A.D.), after the reduction of Jalner, at the 
solicitation of the Khandesh prince, Muhammed Iftikhar, 
who had been driven out by his elder brother, Malik Nasir, 
an attack was made on Sultanpur, a district of Gujerat, 
by Ghazni Khan, the crown prince of Malwa, which was 
frustrated by the sudden advance of Ahmed Shah. 
While Ahmed Shah was engaged in the Sultanpur 
direction, Hoshang Shah invaded Gujerat by way of 
Mahrasa, but the Kajas of Jalwara, Idar, Champanir, and 
Nandot, who had invited him to join the confederacy, 
failed him at this critical juncture, and he was obliged 
to retreat again into Malwa before Ahmed Shah's rapid 
advance. Ahmed Shah then marched into Malwa, 
defeated Hoshang Shah at Kalliada, and pursued him to 
the gates of Mandu, which was too strong for him to 
attack. In 822 A.H. ( = 1419 A.D.), Ahmed Shah returned 
to Gujerat. In the latter end of the same year this king 
took measures for completing his conquest of Malwa, but, 
on Hoshang Shah sending an embassy to him with 



364 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

splendid presents to appease his wrath, he accepted 
terms, and returned to Ahmedabad. About this time 
Hoshang Shah began to evince great partiality towards 
Malik Mahmud, the son of his cousin Malik Moghis, on 
whom he conferred the title of Khan, and the office of 
Deputy Wazir. He generally accompanied his sovereign 
in the field, while his father, the Wazir, usually remained 
at the capital. This is the first we hear of a man who 
afterwards ascended the throne of Malwa as Mahmud I. 
In 823 A.H. (= 1420 A.D.), Hoshang Shah undertook a 
successful campaign against Narsingh Kai, the chief 
of Gondwara, who was defeated and killed. On this 
occasion many elephants and a vast quantity of treasure 
fell into his hands, and the young Kaja became his vassal. 
By this victory Kherla, the Raja's capital, together with 
the adjoining territory, came into Hoshang Shah's 
possession, a circumstance, however, which later involved 
him in hostilities with the Bahmani king of the Deccan. 
Hoshang Shah had previously built the city of Hoshang- 
abad on the left bank of the Nerbudda to facilitate opera- 
tions against the Hindu princes of Gondwara. In 825 
A.H. ( = 1421 A.D.), the king made an excursion in disguise 
to Jajnagar with a small following for the purpose of 
obtaining elephants. He captured the Kaja of Jajnagar, 
and secured a large number of elephants with which the 
Raja had purchased his liberty. On his return to Malwa 
he was greeted with the news that his kingdom had 
been invaded, and his capital besieged by the king of 
Gujerat. The reason for this aggressive act is partially 
traceable to the rumour of Hoshang Shah's sudden dis- 
appearance, and the partition of the kingdom among his 
nobles. Ahmed Shah was, however, unable to make any 
impression on the strong fort of Mandu, which was 



HISTOKY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 365 

besieged for a month and a half, and contented himself 
with occupying the surrounding country, and marching 
through Ujjain towards Sarangpur. Hoshang Shah, 
reaching Sarangpur before him, sent a conciliatory 
message to Ahmed Shah, who consequently neglected to 
take the military precautions necessary in a hostile 
country. In a night attack on the G-iijerat camp, 826 
A.M. ( = 1422 A.D.), the Malwa king was successful, but was 
himself defeated in turn by the Gujeratis next morning. 
Ahmed Shah then began his retreat towards Grujerat, 
but was so harassed by the attacks of Hoshang Shah, 
who had rallied his disordered troops, that he resolved 
to give him battle, which resulted in the total defeat of 
the Malwa army, and the capture of all their elephants. 
In 832 A.H. (= 1428 A.D.), Ahmed Shah I, the Bahmani 
king of the Deccan, attacked the frontier fortress of 
Kherla with a large force. Hoshang Shah marched to 
its assistance. The Bahmani army retreated, but was 
pursued by Hoshang Shah, who however fell into a 
skilfully laid ambush, and was signally defeated, leaving 
the ladies of his family, as well as his heavy baggage, in 
the hands of the enemy. The Bahmani king chivalrously 
sent the ladies back to Mandu with an escort of cavalry. 
In 835 A.H. ( = 1431 A.D.), Hoshang Shah made an expedi- 
tion to capture Kalpi, then in charge of Abdul Kadir, an 
officer of the Delhi Emperor. Ibrahim Shah of Jaunpur 
was advancing for a similar purpose. The Jaunpur and 
Malwa armies were in sight, and about to engage, when 
Ibrahim Shah was suddenly recalled to defend his 
capital from Mubarik Shah, Emperor of Delhi, leaving 
Hoshang Shah free to devote his attention to Kalpi, 
which soon after surrendered. About this time Hoshang 
Shah, coming to be afflicted with a dangerous disease, 

VOL. III., SEEIES IV. 2 C 



366 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

formally proclaimed his eldest son, Ghazni Khan, as his 
successor, and made Mahmud Khan, whose ambitious 
views were no secret, swear to support him. In view of 
the king's approaching end, intrigues dealing with the 
succession were rife at court. One party favoured 
Ghazni Khan, and another supported the cause of his 
younger brother Usman Khan, now in confinement in 
Mandu, while Mahmud astutely took advantage of these 
disputes to play for his own hand. Hoshang Shah died 
on the road to Mandu on September 7th, 1432 (836 A.H.). 
His eldest son Ghazni Khan was at once proclaimed 
king by Mahmud, after which the deceased monarch's 
remains were conveyed to Mandu, and buried in the 
noble mausoleum which is still to be seen there. 



MUHAMMED I. 

Ghazni Khan was crowned King of Malwa two days 
after his father's death with the title of Sultan Muhammed 
Ghori. Business was transacted as usual by Malik 
Moghis and his son Mahmud. Muhammed soon proved 
himself a thoroughly depraved character without a single 
noble instinct. His jealousy of his brothers Usman and 
Ahmed prompted him to indulge in acts of fiendish 
cruelty. Several persons were put to death on the bare 
suspicion of favouring them, and he blinded his nephew 
and son-in-law, Nizam Khan, as well as the latter's three 
sons by his own daughter, for a similar reason. The only 
political event of importance in this reign was an 
incursion into Malwa by the Raja of Nandot, which was 
quickly repulsed by Malik Moghis. The king relin- 
quished all interest in public business, which was left 
entirely in the hands of his minister, Mahmud, and 



HIST0KY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 367 

abandoned himself to drunkenness and debauchery. The 
nobles, dreading Mahmud's designs on the throne, sent 
secret messages to warn the king, who, instead of taking 
resolute measures, told Mahmud that he had heard of his 
intention to usurp the crown, and, leading him by the 
hand to the presence of his wife, the minister's sister, 
adjured him to at least spare his life. Though Mahmud 
disavowed any such disloyal motive, the king's doom 
from that hour was sealed, as the minister felt that, 
having been suspected of treason, there was no security 
for his own life except by his sovereign's death. One of 
the king's attendants was accordingly bribed to poison 
his wine, from the effects of which he died in 839 A.H. ( = 
1435 A.D.), after an inglorious reign of three years. On 
Muhammed's death the sceptre passed from the house of 
Ghori to that of Khilji. 

KHILJI KINGS. 
MAHMUD I. 

An ineffective attempt was made by the late king's 
supporters to place his eldest son, Prince Masud, a boy 
of thirteen years of age, on the throne, but Mahmud had 
no difficulty in defeating it, whereupon the Prince's 
party took refuge in flight. Mahmud made a show of 
offering the crown to his father, Malik Moghis, who 
refused it. Mahmud I, the greatest of the kings of 
Malwa, was thirty-four years of age when he ascended 
the throne, under the title of Sultan Mahmud Khilji, in 
839 A.H. (= 1435 A.D.). Most of the officers of the late 
king's court were confirmed in their appointments and 
estates. Malik Moghis was continued as Prime Minister, 
and he was also granted the privilege of the white 

2 c 2 



368 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 

canopy and the silver quiver, distinctive marks of 
royalty. Shortly after Mahmud's succession a conspiracy 
was formed against him by Prince Ahmed, the youngest 
son of Hoshang Shah, and a number of discontented 
nobles who had remained unprovided for in the distri- 
bution of honours and estates. The conspirators' intention 
was to seize the person of the king, and to this end they 
got access to the courtyard of the palace by escalading 
a mosque which commanded it. Mahmud, aroused by 
the noise, attacked his assailants single-handed, and, 
with the assistance of his palace guards, who soon after 
joined him, quickly put them to flight. At the inter- 
cession of the king's father, Prince Ahmed was spared, 
and granted the estate of Islamabad. Mahmud soon had 
occasion to repent his magnanimity, as Prince Ahmed 
lost no time in assembling a force at Islamabad and 
raising the standard of rebellion. Taj Khan, alias Malik 
Barkhwrdar, was sent to put down this revolt, but could 
make no impression on the fort of Islamabad. He 
accordingly asked for reinforcements, and Malik Moghis 
was despatched against the insurgents. The delay thus 
caused had given courage to the rebels, who were joined 
by Malik Ittibar of Hoshangabad, Nasrat Khan of 
Chanderi, and Kawam Khan of Bhilsa. Malik Moghis, 
or, as he was now known, Azim Humayun, despairing of 
the capture of Islamabad, bribed one of his servants to 
poison Prince Ahmed, whereupon the fort fell into his 
hands. The victorious minister then marched against 
the rebels at Hoshangabad, Chandausi, and Bhilsa, and 
reduced them without difficulty. On his return march 
to Mandu, 841 A.H. ( = 1437 A.D.), he heard that Ahmed 
Shah, King of Gujerat, having espoused the cause of 
Prince Masud, was advancing on the capital with a large 



HISTOEY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 369 

force. By rapid marches Malik Moghis reached Mandu 
before the Gujerat army, which shortly after closely 
invested the fort. A fierce sortie of the besieged was 
unsuccessful, as information of the attack was conveyed 
to the Gujerat leader by Nasrat Khan, the displaced 
Governor of Chanderi. Mahmud gained over many of 
the faction of Prince Masud, and courted the popularity 
of the poorer classes by the free distribution of corn. 
Prince Umar, the younger son of Muhammed I of 
Malwa, now appeared at the head of a force at Chanderi, 
which opened its gates to him. The King of Gujerat on 
hearing this despatched his son Muhammed Khan with a 
force of 5,000 cavalry and 30 elephants to Sarangpur 
to make a diversion in favour of the Prince, who was also 
joined by the Governor of that place. In 842 A.H. ( = 
1438 A.D.), the King of Malwa resolved to take the field 
in person, and marched towards Sarangpur. On the way 
he was attacked by Malik Haji of Gujerat, who was 
guarding the road to Kaithal, but overthrew him with 
ease. Muhammed Khan, on hearing of Mahmud's 
advance, fell back on Ujjain, where he was joined by his 
father's army. Malik Ishak, the Governor of Sarangpur, 
after soliciting his sovereign's pardon for his disloyalty, 
informed him of the junction of the two Gujerat armies, 
and of Prince Umar's advance with a force from Chanderi 
to seize Sarangpur. On the advice of Malik Ishak, who 
had been forgiven and loaded with honours, this im- 
portant town was occupied by the royal forces. News 
was now received that Ahmed Shah with 30,000 cavalry 
and 300 elephants was in full march on Sarangpur, and 
that Prince Umar, after burning Bhilsa, was advancing 
in the same direction. Mahmud determined to attack , 
Prince Umar before he effected a junction with the 



370 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Gujerat army. In this measure he was signally successful. 
Prince Uniar was defeated, taken prisoner, and beheaded. 
The remnant of his army fled to Chanderi, where 
Suleman, a relation of Prince Umar, was placed on the 
throne, and saluted as king with the title of Sultan 
Shahab ud Din. The King of Malwa next proceeded to 
attack Ahmed Shah. The enemy, however, was obliged 
to retreat to Gujerat owing to an outbreak of pestilence, 
which left Mahmud free to devote his attention to the 
reduction of Chanderi. Suleman, unable to meet 
Mahmud in the field, retired to the fort of Chanderi, 
where he soon after died suddenly. The Chanderi rebels, 
however, set up another pretender, and persisted in 
resistance. The siege lasted eight months, when Mahmud, 
becoming impatient, took the fort by escalade. The 
king's next expedition was in the direction of Gwalior, 
the territory of which he laid waste. Dungar Singh, the 
Eaja of Gwalior, had besieged Narwar ; and the object 
of Mahmud's raid into Gwalior, which was to relieve this 
town, having been successfully accomplished, he returned 
to Mandu. In 843 A.H. (= 1439 A.D.), the king built the 
magnificent mosque near the Kampura gate at Mandu, 
the remains of which are still to be seen, in memory of 
Sultan Hoshang Shah. In 844 A.H. (= 1440 A.D.), took 
place Mahmud's operations against the feeble Emperor 
of Delhi, Muhammed bin Farid. The Delhi nobles 
opened overtures with Sultan Mahmud to seize the 
Imperial throne, and the latter, accepting the tempting 
offer, marched with a large army to the capital. The 
Delhi army was commanded by the Emperor's son, the 
advance-guard of archers being under the leadership 
of Bahlol Lodi. Sultan Mahmud, considering it dero- 
gatory to his dignity to command his army in person 



HISTOEY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 371 

under these circumstances, placed it under the orders of 
his two sons, Ghyas ud Din and Fidwi. The fight raged 
all day without any decisive result on either side. Next 
day an accommodation was arranged, and Sultan Mahmud 
retreated to Malwa, which he reached in 845 A.H. (= 1441 
A.D.). An insurrection at Mandu, which was only quelled 
by the timely exertions of Malik Moghis, is said to have 
been the real cause of Sultan Mahmud's hasty retreat to 
Malwa, while the Delhi Emperor was anxious to make 
peace on any terms. According to the Tarikh i Alfi 
this expedition of Malwa against Delhi took place earlier 
in his reign, about 841 A.H., Mahmud's hasty retreat 
being attributed to the sudden invasion of Malwa by a 
Gujerat army. After resting his army Sultan Mahmud 
crushed Nasir Khan of Kalpi, who had proclaimed his 
independence. He next directed his arms against Kana 
Kumbho of Chitor, and, capturing Kumbal Mir and the 
lower fort of Chitor, compelled the Eana to seek refuge 
in flight. During this expedition the Sultan's father 
Malik Moghis died, and Taj Khan was appointed to 
command the army in his place. In 846 A.H. ( = 1442 
A.D.), the Rana made a night attack on the Sultan's camp 
before Chitor, which was beaten off with severe loss to 
the Rajputs. On the following night the Rajput camp 
was in turn successfully attacked by the Malwa force, 
and the Rana driven to shut himself up in the upper 
fort. The advent of the rainy season compelled Sultan 
Mahmud to raise the siege of Chitor for the time, and he 
accordingly returned to Mandu. In 847 A.H. ( = 1443 A.D.), 
an embassy arrived at Mandu from Mahmud, King of 
Jaunpur, with rich presents, informing him of the 
heretical leanings of Nasir Khan, the Governor of Kalpi, 
and requesting permission to punish the apostate, if he 



372 . NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 

had not time to do it himself. This permission was 
readily granted, and Nasir Khan was in due course 
expelled from Kalpi by a Jaunpur force. Nasir Khan 
fled to Chanderi, and thence despatched a message to 
his sovereign imploring his assistance to recover Kalpi. 
Sultan Mahmud accordingly sent an embassy to the 
Jaunpur king, requesting him to reinstate Nasir Khan, 
who had now returned to the right path, but Mahmud 
Shah failed to send any direct reply to this communica- 
tion. Sultan Mahmud, incensed at this indignity, set 
his army in motion towards Chanderi, where he was met 
by Nasir Khan. He then continued his march to Kalpi, 
whither he was followed by Mahmud Shah of Jaunpur. 
A general action ensued, but the result was indecisive, 
though a detachment of the Malwa force had succeeded 
in cutting off the baggage train of the Jaunpur army. 
After this engagement Sultan Mahmud retired to Fate- 
habad. Other acts of hostility between the two kings 
followed, but the terms proposed by the Jaunpur king, 
which included the restoration of Nasir Khan, were 
ultimately accepted by Sultan Mahmud, and peace was 
declared in 849 A.H. ( = 1445 A.D.). In 850 A.H. ( = 1446 
A.D.) the king again commenced operations against Kana 
Kumbho by laying siege to Mandalgarh. The Kana 
purchased peace by the payment of a large sum in jewels 
and cash, and Sultan Mahmud returned to his capital. 
He next reduced Muhammed Khan, the Governor of 
Biana, to submission, captured the fort of Anandpur, and 
exacted a heavy contribution from the Kajas of Bundi 
and Kotah. In 854 A.H. ( = 1450 A.D.), the king, at the 
solicitation of Kaja Ganga Das, marched to relieve 
Champanir, which was closely invested by Muhammed 
Shah, the King of Gujerat. Muhammed Shah, on being 



HISTOEY AND COINAGE OP MALWA. 373 

apprised of 'the approach of the Malwa army, destroyed 
his camp equipage and military stores, and retired to 
Ahmedabad. Champanir was relieved, and Sultan 
Mahmud, after receiving a valuable present in money 
and horses from the Kaja as a reward for his services, 
returned to his capital. In 855 A.H. ( = 1451 A.D.), Sultan 
Mahmud set out with a large force with the intention of 
conquering .Gujerat, but the expedition proved an igno- 
minious failure, and the Malwa army suffered its first 
real defeat during this reign. Sultanpur was first 
besieged, and captured. Malik Sohrab, its Governor, 
despairing of relief, surrendered to Mahmud, whose 
service he entered. He was nominated to the command 
of the Malwa army, with the title of Mubariz Khan. On 
the march to Gujerat news was received of the death of 
Mahmud Shah, and the accession of Kutub ud Din to 
the Gujerat throne. Sultan Mahmud sent the usual 
letter of condolence to the new King of Gujerat, but at 
the same time proceeded to lay waste his territories as 
far as Baroda, which he accomplished without opposition. 
The traitor, Malik Sohrab, took this opportunity to make 
his escape to his own master, the King of Gujerat. . In 
856 A.H. ( = 1452 A.D.), a battle was fought at Kapparbanj 
between the armies of Gujerat and Malwa, ending in the 
total defeat of the latter, which was chiefly due to the 
fact that Muzafier Khan of Chanderi, who commanded 
the left wing, withdrew from the action after plundering 
the headquarter tents. This action disorganised the left 
wing, which fell back before the enemy. Sultan Mahmud, 
leaving the centre, of which he was in command, galloped 
with a small body of cavalry to assist the shattered left 
wing, but the party was cut off, and, on its return, the 
main body had been defeated. The King of Malwa, by 



374 NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 

a desperate effort, however, had managed to reach the 
royal pavilion, and plundered it of some of the regalia, 
which were returned eighty-three years afterwards on the 
restoration of Mahmud II to his throne by Muzaffer 
Shah II of Gujerat. 

In 857 A.H. ( = 1453 A.D.), Sultan Mahmud made peace 
with the King of Gujerat, and entered into an offensive 
alliance with him against Kana Kumbho of .Me war. In 

858 A.H. (= 1454 A.D.) the Sultan reduced the Kajputs of 
Kerauli, and placed his son, Prince Fidwi, in charge of 
the district, which included Kantambhor and Ajmir. 
Shortly after his return to Mandu, the Sultan, at the 
solicitation of certain disaffected nobles, marched against 
the fort of Mahur in Berar, which was under the dominion 
of the Bahmani King Ala ud Din. The latter advanced 
with a large force to oppose the Malwa army, which 
retreated. About this time the territory of the Kaja of 
Buglana, a tributary of Malwa, was invaded by Mubarik 
Khan of Khandesh. The Malwa army was accordingly 
again set in motion. The Khandesh chief was routed, 
and Buglana relieved. Sultan Mahmud next made an 
expedition in the direction of Chitor, as a result of 
which the Eana of Mewar submitted, acknowledged the 
suzerainty of Malwa, and paid a large indemnity. In 

859 A.H. (= 1454 A.D.) the Sultan occupied the Eajput 
province of Mandsor. In the same year he laid siege to 
the fort of Ajmir, which was stormed after severe fighting, 
in which Eana G-angadhar Eai was killed. Eana Kumbho 
of Mewar attacked the Malwa army near Mundalgarh on 
its retirement from Ajmir, and defeated it, the magnifi- 
cent " Jai Kumbh," or pillar of victory, at Chitor, being 
built by him at a cost of nearly a million sterling to 
commemorate the event. In 861 A.H. (= 1456 A.D.) the 



HISTOKY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 375 

Sultan besieged and captured Mandalgarh, where the 
temples were demolished, and mosques erected out of 
their remains. In 862 A.H. (= 1457 A.D.), Prince Ghyas 
ud Din ravaged the country of the Bhils and Eols, while 
Prince Fidwi took the fort of Bundi by storm. In 
863 A.H. (= 1458 A.D.), Mahmud made an expedition 
against the Kai of Dungarpur, who submitted, and paid 
a large indemnity. 

In 866 A.H. (= 1461 A.D.), Sultan Mahmud crossed the 
Nerbudda for the purpose of subduing the Deccan, to 
the sovereignty of which a boy of eight years, Nizam 
Shah, had succeeded, and marched within a short 
distance of Bidar, where a battle was fought. The 
Malwa army was defeated, and fled, but Mahmud rallied 
two thousand cavalry, and, waiting till the Decannies 
were fully engaged in plundering the camp, attacked 
them in rear, and completely routed them. Bidar, the 
Deccan capital, was then besieged, but Malik ut Tujjar, . 
the Deccan general, having marched with a large force 
to raise the siege, Sultan Mahmud thought it advisable 
to retire to Mandu. In 870 A.H. ( = 1465 A.D.), Kherla 
was captured by a Deccan force under Nizam ul Mulk 
Turk, but in the following year the Malwa general, 
Makbul Khan, defeated the Deccanies, took Elichpur, and 
reoccupied Kherla. Mahmud himself meanwhile was on 
the march to invade the Deccan, but, on reaching the 
Daulatabad frontier, news reached him that the King of 
Gujerat was advancing in his rear to assist the Deccan 
king, so he was obliged again to retire to Mandu. It 
was during this expedition that Sultan Mahmud was met 
by envoys from Mustanjid-billah Yusuf, the Caliph of 
Egypt, who presented him with a dress of honour, as a 
token of friendship, and a letter styling him the Defender 



376 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

of the Faithful. In 871 A.H. (= 1466 A.D.) a peace was 
concluded between the sovereigns of Malwa and the 
Deccan. In the same year Sultan Mahmud caused the 
public accounts to be kept according to the lunar year. 
In 872 A.H. ( = 1467 A.D.), Makbul Khan, the Governor of 
Kherla, after plundering the town, and making over the 
fort to the native Kaja, fled for protection to the King 
of the Deccan. A massacre of Muhammedans in Kherla 
ensued, and the Eaja of Kherla, being joined by the 
Gonds, took to robbing travellers. Taj Khan accordingly 
was despatched to reoccupy Kherla. The Kaja was 
defeated, and obliged to fly, but was delivered up to 
the Malwa general by a Gond whose protection he had 
sought. After this success Sultan Mahmud received 
Khwaja Jawal ud Din, an ambassador from the court of 
Abu Said, King of Bokhara, and sent him back laden 
with honours and presents. Ala ud Din was at the same 
time deputed to accompany him to Bokhara as envoy 
from the court of Malwa. In 873 A .H.( = 1468 A.D.), Sultan 
Mahmud undertook his last campaign, which was against 
the Zemindars of Kachwara, who had raided Malwa 
territory. After punishing them he built the fort of 
Jalalpur on their frontier to hold them in check. During 
his march back to Mandu the king suffered severely 
from the excessive heat, and died on the road in the end 
of 873 A.H. (= 27 May, 1469), after a reign of thirty-four 
years, and in the sixty-eighth year of his age. He had 
the reputation of being brave, just, and polished, and 
was held in high estimation by his contemporary 
sovereigns. Scarcely a year passed that he did not take 
the field, and he was generally successful in his military 
undertakings. Under his rule Malwa reached its highest 
prosperity as a kingdom, which extended to Gujerat on 



HISTOKY AND COINAGE OP MALWA. 377 

the west, Bundelkhand on the east, Mewar and Harauti 
on the north, aud the Satpura range on the south. A 
significant proof of the excellence of this sovereign's rule 
is shown in the fact that the kingdom suffered no 
diminution during the long reign of his indolent and 
dissipated successor. 



GHYAS UD DIN. 

Ghyas ud Din, Mah mud's eldest son, who ascended the 
throne on the death of his father, appointed his younger 
brother, Fidwi Khan, to the Governorship of Eantambhor. 
He nominated his own son, Abd ul Kadir, heir-apparent 
(Wali Ahd) under the title of Xasir ud Din, appointed 
him Prime Minister, gave him the insignia of the Koyal 
Umbrella, and conferred on him the command of 12,000 
horse. The king abandoned himself to. a life of sensual 
pleasure, and left all power in the hands of his son. 
His name became a proverb for luxury. None dared to 
intrude upon the Sultan with unpleasant news, which had 
to be conveyed to him in a circuitous manner. He is .said 
to have possessed a seraglio of 15,000 women, including 
his Amazon guard of 500 Turkis and 500 Abyssinians, but 
in spite of this he was very particular about his religious 
observances, and was characterised by humanity and 
justice. No rebellion among his subjects, nor invasion 
of Malwa territory by an enemy, occurred in this reign 
until 887 A.H. (= 1482 A.D.), when Kantambhor was 
attacked by Bahlol Lodi, Emperor of Delhi, and Lalpur 
was destroyed. Ghyas ud Din despatched Sher Khan, 
Governor of Chanderi, to resist the invasion, and he was 
so successful that Bahlol Lodi not only returned to 
Delhi, but paid him a sum of money to induce him to 



378 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

refrain from molesting his country. In the same year, 887 
A.H. ( = 1482 A.D.), Kawal Patai, the Kaja of Champanir, 
sent a message to Ghyas ud Din to beg his assistance 
against Sultan Mahmud of Gujerat, who had invested his 
fort. Ghyas ud Din agreed, and put his army in motion. 
On hearing this, Sultan Mahmud, leaving the conduct of 
the siege to his general, advanced towards Mandu, upon 
which Ghyas ud Din got a fatwa from his Kazis that it 
was unlawful for one Muhammedan king to help an 
infidel against another, and returned to Mandu. In 
903 A.H. (= 1497 A.D.), towards the close of his life, the 
king was disturbed by intrigues between Shuja'at Khan, 
his youngest son, and the heir-apparent. Shuja'at Khan 
entered into a conspiracy with the Eani Khurshed, one 
of the royal mistresses, to poison the king's mind against 
his elder brother, who was obliged in consequence to fly 
from the capital (905 A.H. = 1499 A.D.). Thereupon 
Shuja'at Khan, in concert with the Kani, but without 
the king's knowledge, raised a force, and attacked his 
brother, but was defeated, and pursued to the fort of 
Mandu, which was surrendered to Nasir ud Din after a 
few days' siege (906 A.H. = 1500 A.D.). Shuja'at Khan 
was put to death with all his family, and Nasir ud Din, 
having assumed the reins of government, was formally 
crowned, with the consent of his father, who however 
was found dead in his seraglio a few days after, the 
result, it was supposed, of poison administered by his 
son, though there was not much foundation for this 
rumour. 

Ghyas ud Din had reigned for thirty-three years, but 
there can be little reason to doubt that his power was 
never anything but nominal, and that in his closing 
years, at least, his mind was affected. 



HISTORY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 379 

NASIR TJD DIN. 

Nasir lid Din ascended the throne in 906 A.H. ( = 
October, 1500 A.D.). His! accession was disturbed by 
domestic feuds, and public affairs fell into disorder. The 
contemplated invasion of his kingdom by the King of 
Gujerat was abandoned owing to his conciliatory attitude. 
Sher Khan of Chanderi, who was joined by Muhabbat 
Khan of Mandsor and other malcontent nobles, rebelled, 
and advanced towards the capital. The king marched 
to meet him, and forced him to battle near Sarangpur, 
which resulted in his total defeat. Shortly after this 
Sher Khan again took up arms at the solicitation of the 
people of Chanderi. The king despatched a force 
against him under Ikbal Khan, who attacked him near 
Chanderi. Sher Khan was again defeated, and died of 
wounds received in the battle. The king subsequently 
caused his body to be exhumed, and hung up on the gate 
of Chanderi. On Nasir ud Din's return to the capital 
he gave himself up to shameless excesses and fiendish 
cruelty, and put to death all the adherents of his late 
brother he could lay his hands on. In 908 A.H. ( = 1502 
A.D.) the king marched to attack the Eajputs of Kachi- 
wara, whose territory he ravaged. In the following year, 
909 A.H. ( = 1503 A.D.), he proceeded to Chitor, where he 
extorted a large present of money from the Eana, as 
well as a Eajput lady of high rank for his harem. On 
his way back he was informed that Ahmed Nizam Shah 
had marched to reduce the province of Khandesh, and 
had forced its ruler, Daud Khan, to shut himself up in 
the fort of Asir. As the ruler of Khandesh owed 
allegiance to the King of Matwa, the latter sent Ikbal 
Khan with a large force to his assistance, on the approach 



380 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

of which Ahmed Nizam Shah retreated to Ahmednagar. 
Prayers having been read at Burhanpur in the name of 
JSTasir ud Din, the troops returned to Mandu. Towards 
the close of his reign the king was filled with jealous 
fear of his sons' designs against him. Shahab ud Din, 
the declared heir-apparent, feeling that his life was in 
peril, was at last persuaded by the malcontent nobles, 
who were wearied of the king's licentiousness and 
cruelty, to assume the government, 916 A.H. ( = 1510 A.D.). 
He accordingly left Mandu, and collected a considerable 
force, but was defeated by the royal army. He fled 
towards Delhi, and refused to return in spite of his 
father's remonstrances. On the return of Nasir ud Din 
towards Mandu after his successful campaign, he was 
seized at Bhurtpur with a fever, which proved fatal. 
Nasir ud Din died after a reign of a little over eleven 
years, having previously designated his second son 
Mahmud as his successor. 

MAHMUD II. 

On hearing of his fathers death Shahab ud Din 
returned to Mandu, but was refused admittance by the 
Governor, Muhafiz Khan. Mahmud meanwhile hurried 
back to the capital from Nalcha, and was formally crowned 
there with great pomp, 916 A.H. = (1510 A.D.). It is said 
that as many as 700 elephants marched in the coronation 
procession. Shahab ud Din, on his brother's approach, 
had fled to Asir. Shortly after his accession a conspiracy 
was formed against the king's favourites, of whom 
Balwant Rao was murdered, and Nizam ul Mulk banished. 
The king next incurred the hostility of Muhafiz Khan, 
who had used disrespectful language towards him in 
Darbar, and advised him to order the execution of his 



HISTORY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 381 

elder brother Sahib Khan, a prisoner in the Mandu fort. 
Mahmud, incensed at the gross insubordination of 
Muhafiz Khan, wounded him with his sword. Muhafiz 
Khan thereupon collected his retainers, and attacked the 
palace, but was repulsed by the royal guards. The king, 
failing to raise a sufficient force, escaped from Mandu, 
upon which Sahib Khan was immediately released, and 
proclaimed king by Muhafiz Khan. Mahmud, having 
called upon all loyal vassels to rally round his standard, 
was soon joined by Medni Rai, a Rajput, Shirza Khan, 
Governor of Chanderi, and other nobles, and marched on 
the capital. A battle was fought outside Mandu, which, 
chiefly owing to the gallantry of Medni Rai and his 
Rajputs, was declared in Mahmud's favour. Sahib Khan 
fled to the Mandu fort, which was closely invested. 
Sahib Khan rejected the king's overtures for an accom- 
modation, by which he was to receive a stipulated 
annuity if he relinquished all claims to the throne. 
Mahmud, accordingly, bribed some of the nobles within 
the fort to admit him, and Sahib Khan and Muhafiz 
Khan, having discovered the treachery of their adherents, 
made their escape to G-ujerat (917 A.H. = 1511 A.D.). 
Sahib Khan was at first well received by Muzaffer Shah 
II, King of Gujerat, but a fracas having arisen between 
his followers and those of Mirza Ibrahim, Ambassador 
of Shah Ismail of Persia, he thought it advisable to quit 
Gujerat, and proceeded, via Asir and Burhanpur, to 
Berar, where he was assigned an estate by Murad Shah. 
Nasir ud Din's eldest son, Shahab ud Din, who had 
taken refuge with the ruler of Khandesh, had mean- 
while died of fever, while on the march towards Mandu 
for the purpose of bringing forward his claim to the 
throne. His son, Makhsus Khan, was at once proclaimed 

VOL. III., SERIES IV. 2 D 



382 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

king under the title of Sultan Hoshang II, by his father's 
faithful adherent, Ikbal Khan. Finding, on their 
arrival at Mandu, that Mahmud's power was firmly 
established, they threw themselves on his mercy. Shortly 
afterwards, however, at the instigation of his minister, 
Medni Eai, Ikbal Khan was executed. This arbitrary 
act, and the growing influence of Medni Kai, so alarmed 
the nobles that they began to conspire against the king. 
Buhjat Khan of Chanderi and others sent a message to 
Sahib Khan, who had, in the meanwhile, sought an 
asylum in Delhi, inviting him to return and assume the 
reins of government. They at the same time addressed 
a letter to Sikandar Lodi, the Delhi Emperor, and 
solicited his assistance on behalf of Sahib Khan, as 
Malwa, they declared, was no longer a Muhammedan 
province, being under the sway of Medni Kai and his 
Kajput minions. A force of 12,000 cavalry was accord- 
ingly despatched from Delhi to Sahib Khan's aid under 
Imad ul Mulk Lodi, who was accompanied by the 
prince's old adherent, Muhafiz Khan. Mahmud at this 
juncture seemed beset with misfortunes, as not only was 
Sahib Khan in revolt with a Delhi force at his back, but 
Muzaffer Shah II, King of Grujerat, with a large army, 
had invaded Malwa, and penetrated to the vicinity of 
Mandu, while Sikandar Khan of Bhilsa had also broken 
into rebellion, and Prince Makhsus and his party had 
joined the enemy. Muzaffer Shah was first attacked, 
and compelled to retreat to Grujerat, 919 A.H. ( = 1513 A.D.). 
This potentate does not seem to have been much dis- 
posed for active interference in Malwa affairs, and indeed 
according to the Mir at i Sikandar i he withdrew his 
army without coming in contact with Mahmud's force. 
The author of the Tabahat i Nasiri says that Muzaffer 



HISTORY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 383 

Shah's departure was the result of a letter of remon- 
strance addressed to him by Mahmud, who reproached 
him for taking advantage of his misfortunes to attack 
him. Malik Zadah, however, who had been despatched 
to reduce Sikandar Khan to submission, was defeated and 
slain. The Machiavellian diplomacy of the minister 
Medni Eai triumphed over the powerful confederacy 
formed against the king. At his instigation Imad ul 
Mulk tried to persuade the Chanderi chief, Buhjat 
Khan, to coin money, and read prayers in the Delhi 
Emperor's name. Buhjat Khan, however, spurned the 
idea of disloyalty to Sahib Khan, and made an excuse 
for holding aloof from the Lodi army, which shortly 
after was recalled to Delhi. Sikandar Lodi, on hearing 
that the King of Malwa was on the march with a large 
army to oppose his small force, ordered it to fall back on 
Delhi. Meanwhile Sahib Khan, who had assumed the 
title of Sultan Muhammed II, 921 A.H. (= 1515 A.D.), had 
despatched Muhafiz Khan by a circuitous route to invest 
Mandu. This force was opposed, and defeated by Habib 
Khan with a body of Rajputs near Nalcha, and in the 
encounter Muhafiz Khan was slain. Sahib Khan and 
Buhjat Khan, being now in desperate straits, made 
overtures for peace, which resulted in the cession to the 
former of the districts of Eaisin, Bhilsa, and Dhamong, 
for his support. Sahib Khan was also given ten lakhs of 
tankas and twelve elephants by the king. The sub- 
sequent history of this rebel is wrapped in obscurity, but 
we know that he died during the reign of Ibrahim Lodi 
(923-932 A.H. = 1517-1525 A.D.), who, taking advan- 
tage of his death, obtained possession of the person 
of his heir Ahmed Shah, and placed a dependant of his 
own in charge of Chanderi, from whence it passed in 

2 D 2 



384 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

later days, by Kana Sanka's gift, to Medni Rai. The 
copper coin No. 321 in Thomas's Pathan Kings of 
Delhi, which follows the Malwa square type of currency, 
is supposed to commemorate this fraudulent acquisition 
of Chanderi by Ibraham Lodi. The minister, Medni Kai, 
who was now the de facto ruler of the State, spared no 
efforts to oust all Muhammedans from State offices, and 
fill them with Kajputs. Even the guards at the gates 
were all Hindus. Many of the old Muhammedan nobles 
were executed without cause, their houses plundered, 
and their estates confiscated. This intolerable state of 
things created great discontent among the Muhammedan 
chiefs, and induced Ghalib Khan, the Governor of Mandu, 
to refuse admittance to the king on his return from a 
hunting expedition. Though this particular conspiracy 
was not successful, it foreshadowed the end. After this 
incident Medni Kai removed all Muhammedans from 
public offices, except a few personal servants of the king. 
The king himself now became alarmed at the ascendency 
of the Hindus, and directed his minister to disband the 
whole of the Kajput army, but such a drastic measure 
was of course out of the question. A temporary com- 
promise was then effected by which all personal offices 
of the State were to be filled by Muhammedans, all former 
Muhammedan officers to be restored to their posts, and 
all Muhammedan women released from Kajput seraglios. 
Jt was clear, however, that the state of tension that now 
existed between the king and his minister could not last 
long. The king, provoked by the insults of Salivahan, 
a Rajput henchman of Medni Rai, ordered his personal 
guard to waylay and murder both. The former was 
slain, and the latter severely wounded. The Rajputs, on 
hearing of this incident, proceeded to attack the palace, 



HISTOKY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 385 

but were repulsed by the king with a handful of 
attendants. Medni Eai, who was too astute to break 
altogether with his sovereign, ordered his retainers back 
to their quarters, and made his peace with the king. 
The minster, however, distrusting the king's intentions, 
never went to the palace without an escort of 500 armed 
men, and this measure so greatly disturbed Mahmud's 
mind that one night he left the fort of Mandu with a 
faithful Kajput attendant, Kishna, and his favourite wife, 
and never drew rein till he reached the frontier of Gujerat, 
where he was cordially received by the king, Muzaffer 
Shah II. It should be explained that the above is 
Ferishtah's account of this episode in Mahmud's reign, 
and there is reason to believe that it is to some extent 
partial. The misfortunes which fell to Mahmud's lot at 
this period were not altogether due to Kajput treachery 
and family discords, which were no doubt encouraged by 
the Lodi Emperors in Delhi. They must, in part at any 
rate, be attributed to the valour and ability of Kana 
Sanka of Chitor, at this period the" acknowledged 
chief of the Kajputs, who gained many victories over 
Mahmud, and wrested from him, according to Baber, 
the provinces of Sarangpur, Chanderi, Bhilsa, and 
Rathgarh. 

The Gujerat king readily consented to assist Mahmud 
to regain his throne, and in 923 A.H. (= 1517 A.D.) they 
both set out for Malwa at the head of a Gujerat army. 
Medni Eai, having left his son Kai Pithora, or the Kai 
Eaian, with a considerable force, to defend Mandu, 
proceeded to Chitor to seek the aid of Rana Sanka. Dhar 
opened its gates to the two kings, who then advanced on 
Mandu. After a siege of two and a half months' duration, 
the fort fell by assault, in which 19,000 Rajputs are said 



386 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

to have been slain, 924 A.H. (= 1518 A.D.). Muzaffer Shah, 
having restored Mahmud to his throne, returned to 
Gujerat, leaving an auxiliary force of 3,000 cavalry under 
Asaf Khan for duty at Mandu. Bhilsa, Raisin, Sarang- 
pur, Chanderi, and Gagrone being still in possession of 
the Eajputs, the king took the field to reduce them and 
advanced to Gagrone, where he was opposed by Medni 
Eai and his ally, the Kana Sanka, 925 A.H. ( = 1519 A.D.). 
The sanguinary defeat of the Malwa army, which 
followed, was mainly due to the impetuosity of Mahmud, 
who, in spite of Asaf Khan's remonstrances, insisted on 
bringing on an action before his troops were rested and 
fed. After performing prodigies of valour, and being 
several times wounded, Mahmud at last fell into the 
hands of Rana Sanka, who showed him every mark of 
attention, and conveyed him to Chitor, where he was de- 
tained until he was cured of his wounds. The Rana then 
chivalrously furnished him with an escort, and sent him 
back to Mandu, where he assumed the reins of govern- 
ment. In the battle of Gagrone the golden girdle and 
jewelled crown of Mahmud II fell into the victor's 
hands. They formed subsequently (940 A.H. = 1533 A.D.) 
part of an indemnity paid by the Rana's grandson, 
Vikramajit, to Bahadur Shah of Gujerat. During this 
period of disorder many of the Malwa chiefs, such as 
Sikandar Khan at Sivas, Medni Rai at Chanderi, and 
Silhaddi of Bhilsa, had declared their independence, and 
appropriated the revenues of their respective districts, 
while a not inconsiderable portion of the kingdom had 
been appropriated by the Raja of Chitor, so that the 
finances of the State were reduced to a very low ebb. In 
926 A.H. (= 1519 A.D.) Mahmud marched against Sarang- 
pur, which was held by Silhaddi, but he miscalculated 



HISTORY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 387 

his strength, and was defeated. While, however, the 
enemy were engaged in plunder, he rallied a few troops, 
and, charging the Kajputs, gained possession of Sarangpur. 
After this exploit Mahmud returned to Mandu, where 
he appears to have passed a peaceful existence till 
932 A.H. ( = 1525 A.D.), when his interference in the affairs 
of Gujerat led to his ruin, and the extinction of his 
dynasty. In that year the King of Gujerat, Muzaffer 
Shah II, having died, the succession devolved on Bahadur 
Shah, whose younger brother, Chand Khan, sought refuge 
at Mandu, where he was kindly received by Mahmud. 
About the same time a Gujerat noble, named Kazi ul 
Mulk, arrived in Mandu from Delhi, whither he had gone 
to induce the Emperor Baber to espouse the cause of his 
master, Chand Khan. After a secret audience with this 
prince, Kazi ul Mulk returned to the Moghal court at 
Agra. Bahadur Shah remonstrated with Mahmud for 
his unfriendly act in giving countenance to these 
intrigues. Mahmud however paid no heed to these 
protests, and allowed a second interview between the 
prince and his envoy. Bahadur Shah accordingly deter- 
mined to adopt measures for the overthrow of the Khilji 
dynasty. The time however was not yet ripe for the 
accomplishment of this purpose. 

In 933 A.H. (= 1526 A.D.) the Emperor Baber had 
defeated Kana Sanka and the Hindu confederacy in the 
decisive battle of Kanwa. One of the Kana's most 
powerful allies in this battle was Medni Eai of Chanderi, 
against whom the Emperor turned his arms in the 
following year, 934 A.H. ( = 1527 A.D.). After a short siege 
the fort was taken by storm, and all the defenders, 
including Medni Kai, were slain. Chanderi was then 
made over by the Emperor to Ahmed Shah, the son of 



388 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Sahib Khan (Muhammed II), whose cause he affected 
to espouse. Baber was prevented from following up his 
successes in Malwa by insurrections in the eastern 
provinces of his empire, which necessitated his immediate 
presence there. Sultan Mahmud, instead of taking steps 
at this juncture for the defence of his kingdom, menaced 
as it was by the sovereign of Gujerat, embroiled himself 
unnecessarily with the Kajputs. Kana Sanka having 
died about this time was succeeded by his son Kana 
Kattan. Mahmud without any provocation despatched 
Shuja' Khan with a force to ravage the district of 
Chitor. Kana Kattan, who was aware of the state of 
tension that existed between the rulers of Malwa and 
Gujerat, advanced to the frontier of the former kingdom. 
Mahmud marched to oppose him, and endeavoured to 
conciliate his quondam enemies, Silhaddi and Muin 
Khan, the adopted son of Sikandar Khan, but without 
avail, as they joined the forces of Rana Kattan. The 
ambassador of the Chi tor Kana, with Bhupat, son of 
Silhaddi, and Muin Khan, waited on Sultan Bahadur, who 
was encamped in the neighbourhood, and complained to 
him that Sherza Khan, the Governor of Mandu, had 
plundered the country of their master, and that Mahmud 
was plotting the murder of Silhaddi and Muin Khan. 
The embassy was kindly received by Sultan Bahadur. 
On hearing of this circumstance Mahmud took alarm, and 
sent an envoy to Bahadur Shah asking permission to pay 
him his personal respects, and congratulate him on his 
accession to the throne. A favourable reply was returned, 
but Mahmud evaded the meeting, either through fear or 
from shame at his recent unfriendly conduct in connection 
with Chand Khan, and returned to Mandu, where he set 
about repairing the fortifications. Bahadur Shah, in- 



HISTORY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 389 

censed at Mahmud's behaviour, inarched at once on 
Mandu, which was closely invested. Deserters from 
Mahmud's army had joined him in great numbers en 
route, and Miran Muhammed, the ruler of Khandesh, also 
accompanied him. Mahmud with only 3,000 men 
defended the capital with heroic courage, but, on the night 
of the 26th February, 937 A.H. (= 1530 A.D.), Bahadur 
Shah, with a small forlorn hope, escaladed the walls by the 
Sangor Chitori, which, owing to its supposed impregna- 
bility, had been left unguarded, and thus got possession 
of the city. Chand Khan succeeded in escaping during 
the confusion, and made his way to the Deccan. Mahmud 
retired to his palace, and prepared to defend himself to 
the last, but was at last compelled to surrender with all 
his family. Bahadur Shah was inclined at first to treat 
him kindly, and even to restore him to ihis kingdom, 
but Mahmud, unable to control his irritable temper, 
abused Bahadur Shah grossly to his face on one occasion, 
after which he was ordered into confinement with his 
seven sons, and sent to the fort of Champanir with an 
escort under Asaf Khan. On the way, at Dohad, the 
patty were attacked by a large force of Bhils and Kols, 
and Asaf Khan, thinking that the attack had been made 
with the intention of rescuing the royal party, ordered 
the king and all his sons to be put to death. Mahmud II 
had reigned twenty-one years. Though deficient as a 
ruler, he was a man of dauntless bravery, and the 
misfortunes that beset his latter days enlist our sympathy. 
The House of Khilji was now without any male repre- 
sentative, except Ahmed Shah, who was in the service 
of the Emperor Baber. 



390 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



GUJEKAT SUPEEMACY. 

After the conquest of Malwa by Bahadur Shah, the 
kingdom was incorporated in the State of Gujerat, and 
partitioned into districts, which were assigned to various 
chiefs, Kalan Khan being appointed Faujdar of the 
province. Silhaddi, who was the first to join the 
conqueror's standard, obtained Ujjain, Sarangpur, and 
Eaisin, but having given offence to Bahadur Shah by 
aspiring to independence, he was defeated and shortly 
afterwards captured by a treacherous stratagem. The 
reduction of Ujjain, Sarangpur and Bhilsa quickly 
followed. Meanwhile Bhopat, the son of Silhaddi, had 
fled to Chitor, and entered into an offensive and defensive 
alliance with the Eana. Bahadur Shah, deputing Imad 
ui Mulk to meet Bhopat, marched himself to Kaisin to 
oppose Lokman, the brother of Silhaddi. The reinforce- 
ments from Chitor under Bhopat and Eana Sanka were 
forced to retire before the Gujerat force, and Eaisin 
eventually surrendered. In the final assault, Lokman and 
Silhaddi (who had meanwhile been released from con- 
finement and deputed to negotiate with the defenders), 
with a hundred of their relations, fell victims to the 
" Jauhar " ceremony, in which 700 women also perished. 
Alam Khan was put in charge of Bhilsa, Eaisin, and 
Chanderi. Bahadur Shah spent the next year in 
reducing recalcitrant chiefs to obedience, and restoring 
order in the province. Among the Gujerat nobles who 
obtained grants of districts at this time, was Mallu 
Khan, who afterwards ruled Malwa as Kadir Shah. He 
was made Governor of Sarangpur by Bahadur Shah. In 
939 A.H. (= 1532 A..D.), after wresting Gagrone from the 
Eana of Chitor, and deputing Imad ul Mulk to reduce 



HISTORY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 391 

Bantambhor, Sultan Bahadur returned to G-ujerat. In 
the same year Bahadur Shah sent an embassy to 
Humayun at Agra, which was well received. In 940 
A.H. ( = 1533 A.D.) he invaded Mewar, which was now ruled 
by Vikramajit, the son of Eama Kattan, and laid siege 
to Chitor. The Eana applied for assistance to Humayun, 
who made a diversion to Gwalior in his favour. 
Humayun at the same time sent repeated messages to 
Bahadur Shah demanding the abandonment of his 
enterprise against Chitor, and the surrender of all 
rebel refugees from the Imperial dominions, especially 
Muhammed Zaman Mirza, the Emperor's brother-in-law, 
and several Lodi Amirs. To these demands Bahadur 
Shah returned insolent replies, which so angered the 
Emperor that he determined on the reduction of Malwa 
and Gujerat. Meanwhile the siege of Chitor was pressed 
on with vigour, and at last the Rana was obliged to pur- 
chase the retirement of the Gujerat troops at a high price, 
including the crown and regalia of Kutub Shah, which 
Mahmud I, King of Malwa, had carried off in 856 A.H. 
(= 1452 A.D.) In 941 A.H. (= 1534 A.D.), Bahadur Shah, 
in pursuance of an arrangement with the rebel Lodi 
chiefs at his court, who supported the claim of Ala ud 
Din, the uncle of the late Sultan Ibrahim, to the Imperial 
throne, again laid siege with a large army to Chitor, 
where he would be at hand to assist the enterprise if 
required. Through a mistaken policy he failed to declare 
openly against Humayun, though he furnished the Lodi 
faction with large sums of money. Tatar Khan, the son 
of Ala ud Din Lodi, who had advanced towards Agra 
with a considerable body of troops, was defeated by the 
Imperial army under Hindal Mirza. Humayun's road to 
Malwa was now open, but he lingered at Ujjain until 



392 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Bahadur Shah had brought his campaign against the 
Chitor Kana to a successful issue. After the capture of 
Chitor, 941 A.H. (= 1534 A.D.), a bloody victory, which 
was due chiefly to the powerful artillery under Bumi 
Khan, Bahadur Shah marched to meet Humayun, who 
was advancing from Ujjain. The two armies came in 
sight of each other at Mandsor. Here Bahadur Shah, by 
the evil advice of Eumi Khan, who was disgusted at 
being refused the Governorship of Chitor, entrenched 
himself, and declined to give battle. As the Imperial 
troops held the open ground, they were able to cut off all 
supplies. After the two armies had faced each other for 
two months without any decisive result, Bahadur Shah 
was reduced to such straits that he was obliged to 
abandon his camp and fly to Mandu with a small 
following. The Gujerat camp was plundered and a 
number of prisoners taken. Bumi Khan was one of the 
first to enter the Imperial service. Humayun pressed on 
to Mandu, which was closely invested. Bahadur Shah 
opened overtures and offered to cede Malwa to the 
Emperor. During the progress of these negotiations, 
the garrison being thrown off its guard, a small body of 
troops escaladed the walls and opened the fort gates to 
Humayun, 941 A.H. (= 1534 A.D.). Bahadur Shah 
escaped in the confusion to Champanir with a few 
followers. The citadel surrendered after some little 
parley, but, to Humayun's deep disgrace, the town was 
abandoned to pillage and massacre for three whole days. 

HUMAYUN'S KULE. 

Humayun was now supreme in Malwa. After a brief 
halt at Mandu he invaded Gujerat, which fell into his 
hands without much trouble. The year 942 A.H. ( = 1535 



HISTORY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 393 

A.D.) was spent by Humayun in Gujerat, Malwa being 
governed during his absence by his lieutenants. In 
943 A.H. (= 1536 A.D.), while engaged in the pursuit of 
Bahadur Shah, who had fled to Diu, alarming news 
reached Humayun of insurrection in Behar and the 
eastern provinces, revolt in the neighbourhood of Agra, 
and disaffection in Malwa. In the latter province the 
Imperial troops were hard pressed by the rebels under 
Sikander Khan and Mulla Khan, and had even been 
forced to surrender Ujjain and Hindia. The Emperor, 
having appointed Hindal Mirza his lieutenant in 
Gujerat, hurried to Mandu, which he made his head- 
quarters for the time. His presence had a tranquillising 
effect in Malwa, which was quickly reduced to submission. 
After Humayun's departure a reaction took place in 
Gujerat in favour of Bahadur Shah, who defeated Hindal 
Mirza, and drove the Imperial troops from the province, 
943 A.H. (= 1536 A.D.). Shortly afterwards Humayun 
withdrew his army from Malwa, and retired to Agra, 
where his presence was urgently required to quell an 
insurrection. No sooner, however, had the Imperial 
forces left Malwa than Mandu was occupied by Mallu 
Khan, who ascended the throne under the title of Kadir 
Shah, and thus Malwa, as well as Gujerat, slipped from 
the unsteady grasp of Humayun. 

KADIR SHAH'S EULE. 

Kadir Shah, though practically independent, owned 
nominal allegiance to Bahadur Shah of Gujerat, who 
kept his son Langar Khan as a kind of hostage near his 
person. This Langar Khan met his death at the hands 
of the Portuguese at Diu in 943 A.H. ( = 1536 A.D.), along 



394 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

with his master Bahadur. Through the good offices of 
his friend Imad ul Mulk, the Wazir of Sultan Mahmud 
III of Gujerat, Kadir Shah was granted the privilege 
of the Koyal Umbrella, and the right of striking coins, 
so that, when that minister fled from Gujerat in 
944 A.H. (= 1537 A.D.), he sought an asylum in Malwa. 
Daria Khan, the Sultan's Wazir, demanded his surrender 
from Kadir Shah, which the latter refused. Kadir Shah 
was at first threatened with invasion, but the distracted 
state of Gujerat at this time prevented this being done. 
Subsequently, in 950 A.H. ( = 1543 A.D.), after Daria Khan's 
fall, Imad ul Mulk was allowed to return to Gujerat. 
Bhopat, son of Silhaddi, at this time reoccupied Raisin, 
but paid tribute for it to Kadir Shah. Shortly after his 
accession Kadir Shah received a firman from Sher Shah, 
then King of Bengal, stating that the Emperor Humayun 
was on the march to attack him, and requesting him 
to distract Humayun's attention by a movement towards 
Agra. Kadir Shah, incensed at this epistle, addressed 
Sher Shah in reply as an equal, an insult which that 
potentate never forgave. 

SURI SUPREMACY. 

In 949 A.H. (= 1542 A.D.), Sher Shah, the Emperor of 
Delhi, marched to the conquest of Malwa. Kadir Shah 
submitted, under the -impression that he would be 
continued in the government of Malwa, but on learning 
from Sher Shah that he was nominated to the charge 
of Lucknow, he fled with his family to Gujerat. Shuja' 
Khan, a relative of Sher Shah, was then appointed 
Governor of Malwa. Kadir Shah made an attempt to 
regain his kingdom, but was defeated by Shuja' Khan, 
who succeeded in possessing himself of the whole country 



HISTORY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 395 

of Malwa without any further fighting. After governing 
the country peacefully for some years an incident 
occurred which led to his temporary deposition. An 
Afghan, named Usman Khan, made himself obnoxious 
in the Darbar, and, on being remonstrated with by the 
royal servants, beat one of them severely. Shuja' Khan 
therefore had both his hands cut off. He took his 
complaint to the Emperor, Islam Shah, who told him he 
could exact his revenge in a short time from Shuja' 
Khan, who was about to visit the court. Accordingly, 
on Shuja' Khan's arrival, he was attacked in the city of 
Gwalior, and wounded by Usman Khan, who was 
immediately cut down by Shuja' Khan's attendants. 
The Emperor being much irritated at this occurrence, 
Shuja' Khan thought it wise to quit Gwalior and return 
to Malwa, which he did without taking leave. Islam 
Khan, thereupon, marched to Sarangpur to seize Shuja' 
Khan, who however refused to take up arms against the 
son of his old master, and fled to Banswara, when Isa 
Khan was appointed Governor in his place. Not long 
afterwards, however, the Emperor on his march towards 
Lahore reinstated Shuja' Khan in the government of 
Malwa. According to the Tarikh i Alfi it was not 
till the reign of Islam Shah's successor, Muhammed 
Adil, that Shuja' Khan was restored to Malwa. Shuja' 
Khan now divided Malwa into several districts, of which 
he gave Ujjain to his second son, Daulat Khan, the 
favourite of the Emperor ; Kaisin and Bhilsa to his 
youngest son, Mustafa Khan; and to his eldest son, 
Bayazid Khan, Sivas and Hindia, while he retained him- 
self the government of Sarangpur. In the period of 
anarchy which preceded the restoration of Humayun to 
the Empire of Delhi, Shuja' Khan meditated declaring 



396 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

his independence, and coining money, but death cut him 
short before his purpose could be accomplished. He died 
in 962 A.H. ( = 1554 A.D.), after a rule of twelve years. 

BAZ BAHADUR'S EULE. 

Shuja' Khan's eldest son, Bayazid Khan, under the 
title of Baz Bahadur, then assumed the government. 
His brother, Daulat Khan, having asserted a claim to a 
share in the kingdom, and obtained the support of the 
Sarangpur division of troops, Baz Bahadur thought it 
politic to temporise, and Ujjain and Mandu were 
accordingly ceded to him, while Mustafa Khan was left 
in possession of Eaisin and Bhilsa. After this arrange- 
ment Baz Bahadur marched to Ujjain, on pretence of 
paying his brother a visit of condolence. Daulat Khan, 
unsuspicious of treachery, was murdered by Baz Bahadur, 
who had his head hung up on the gate of Sarangpur. 
Baz Bahadur then proceeded to bring the whole of 
Malwa under his rule, and was formally crowned Sultan 
in 963 A.H. ( = 1555 A.D.). Baz Bahadur next turned his 
attention towards his younger brother, Mustafa Khan, 
who after sustaining several defeats, fled from Malwa, 
leaving Kaisin and Bhilsa open to the occupation of his 
brother. A disastrous campaign against the Gonds 
succeeded, in which the Malwa army was almost annihi- 
lated. Baz Bahadur, stung with shame at this defeat, 
abandoned himself to dissipation and sensual ease. He 
was a great lover of music, which he cultivated with 
assiduity, and his attachment to Kupmani, a celebrated 
courtesan of that age, became so notorious that their 
loves have been handed down to posterity in song, and 
many stories are still told in Mandu of this romantic 
episode and its dramatic close. 



HISTORY AND COINAGE OF MALWA. 397 

MOGHAL SUPREMACY. 

Akbar, the great Emperor, taking advantage of the 
distracted state of Malwa under Baz Bahadur, despatched 
an army under Adam Khan in 968 A.H. ( = 1560 A.D.) for 
its conquest. Baz Bahadur heard nothing of the move- 
ments of this force until it had arrived within a short 
distance of the capital. Hastily collecting a few troops 
he advanced impetuously, though without order, to give 
battle. After displaying great gallantry his troops 
deserted him, and he was obliged to seek safety in flight, 
leaving Adam Khan free to occupy the country. Adam 
Khan, having heard on his arrival at Mandu of the 
beauty of Rupmani, was determined to take her into his 
harem. She gave him an assignation at her house, but 
he arrived only to find her dead. True to her old love, 
she preferred death to dishonour, and poisoned herself to 
avoid falling into the hands of her lover's conqueror. 
Adam Khan was soon after recalled, and Pir Muhammed 
was nominated Governor of Malwa in his place. In 
the Tdbakat-i-Akbari it is related that Akbar was dis- 
pleased with Adam Khan for keeping all the spoils of 
victory, including Sultan Bahadur's singing girls, in 
his own hands. The Emperor at this time thought it 
advisable to visit the conquered province in person, a 
journey which was accomplished in sixteen days. He 
had, in fact, arrived at Sarangpur before his general 
knew he had left Agra. In 969 A.H. (= 1561 A.D.), Pir 
Muhammed marched against Burhanpur, which he 
captured, the inhabitants being put to the sword. Baz 
Bahadur, who was in the neighbourhood, concerted 
measures with Tufal Khan, Regent of Berar, and Miran 
Mubarik Khan of Asir, for Pir Muhammed's overthrow. 
The confederates routed Pir Muhammed, who was drowned 

VOL. III., SERIES IV. 2 E 



398 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

in the pursuit, and drove the Moghal troops out of 
Malwa, whereupon Baz Bahadur was restored to his 
kingdom. He had hardly been seated on the throne, 
however, when Abdullah Khan Uzbeg, another of 
Akbar's officers, reoccupied Malwa, and compelled him 
to seek an asylum in the hills of Gondwara, 970 A.H. 
( = 1562 A.D.). Baz Bahadur made occasional raids from 
these mountain fastnesses, and sometimes even secured 
temporary possession of small districts, but what he 
gained by force of arms he soon lost again owing to his 
habits of indolence and apathy. Growing tired at last of 
this guerilla warfare and wandering life, he in 978 A.H. ( = 
1570 A.D.) determined to surrender to the Emperor, who 
gave him a commission as commandant of two thousand 
cavalry, but he died not long after. After this Malwa 
remained a province of the Moghal Empire, until its 
conquest by the Mahrattas. In 972 A.H. ( = 1564 A.D.), 
Akbar paid a second visit to Malwa, the Governor of 
which, Abdullah Khan, had given cause in his adminstra- 
tion for the royal displeasure. This man rushed into 
rebellion, but was quickly crushed, and punished. In 
1025 A.H. (= 1616 A.D.) the Emperor Jehangir visited 
Malwa, and gives a description of it in his Memoirs. 

In the reign of Akbar (1594 A.D.), Malwa, "the 
Province of pleasant climate," consisted of 12 Sarkars 
and 301 Pergannahs, with an area of 42,66,221 Bighas, 
and a revenue of Kupees 60,17,376. The Sarkars of 
Malwa were Ujjain, Eaisin, Kanauj, Chanderi, Sarangpur, 
Mandu, Hindia, Mandsor, Gagron, Kotri Paraya, Bijagarh, 
and Nandubar (Shahabad). The chief towns of the 
province were Ujjain (the new capital), Chanderi, Mandu 
(the old capital), and Dhar. 

L. WHITE KING. 
(To be continued.) 



MISCELLANEA. 

COINS OF THE NOMES OP EGYPT. Signor Dattari of Cairo, who 
two years ago published a Catalogue of his unrivalled collection 
of Numi Alexandrini, is now engaged on a Corpus of the coins 
of the Nomes of Egypt. His own series has been enriched by 
upwards of a hundred pieces since his Catalogue appeared, 
and in order that the Corpus on which he is engaged may be 
as complete as possible, he appeals to all collectors and others 
interested in the coinage of the Nomes to communicate to him 
any pieces that appear to be as yet unpublished. 

SOME COINS OP CARIA AND LYCIA. 

LYDAE (CARIA). 
Obv. Forepart of lion to r. 

Rev. Female head (Aphrodite) r., hair rolled, between 
A Y Traces of incuse square. 

JR. 12 mm. Wt. 1-62 grammes (25*0 grains). 




The types of this coin at once recall the coins of Cnidus ; 
but as there is no trace on either face of the letters KM I which 
would fix it to that town, we are driven to suppose that the 
letters AY represent the name not of a magistrate, but of a 
mint ; and it is reasonable to look for that mint not far from 
Cnidus. We shall perhaps not be rash in fixing on Lydae, 
the town found by Bent x on the promontory Ancon in the 
extreme S.E. corner of Caria. Practically nothing is known 
of the place except from the inscriptions found by Bent, which 
show that in Imperial times Lydae belonged to Lycia. This 
fact, however, does not concern the time to which the new 
coin belongs. In style it most resembles the coins of Cnidus 
of about 390 B.C., 2 and in weight it would appear to be a half- 
drachm of the Rhodian standard. The resemblance in style 
between the coin of Lydae and those of Cnidus does not, of 
course, prove any political, but only a commercial, connection 
between the two cities. 



1 /. H. 8., ix., pp. 83 f. ; x., pp. 50 f. 

2 E.g. Head, Brit. Mus. Cat., Curia, pi. xiv., 7. 



2 E 2 



400 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

NEAPOLIS AD HAKPASUM (CARIA). 
Obv. Head of Zeus r., bearded and laureate. 

Rev. N6ATT 1. ; OAITU) r. Eagle, wings displayed, stand- 
ing r., on thunderbolt. 

M. 20 mm. Wt. 7 23 grammes (111-6 grains). 

This coin was presented to the British Museum by the 
Hellenic Society in 1900, having been obtained by Mr. W. L. 
Paton in Caria. Like the bronze coin with the types : head 
of Zeus or Dionysos, and huntress Artemis, recently pub- 
lished by Imhoof-Blumer, 3 it belongs to the earliest issues of 
the city, to which previously nothing earlier than the time of 
Gordian III had been assigned. This piece is certainly not 
later than the first century B.C. The types are of small 
interest, but it is worth noticing that the head of Zeus occurs 
at Harpasa, lower down the Harpasus, and the eagle on the 
thunderbolt is found at Plarasa, less than twenty miles east of 
Neapolis, which is represented by the modern Ineboli. 

PROVINCE OP LYCIA. 

Obv: TIBEPIOZ KAAYAIOZ KAIZAP ZEBAZTOZ Head of 
the Emperor Claudius to 1., bare. 

'Rev. rEPMANIKOZAYTOKPATHP TTATHPTTATPIAOZ 

View (in cross seqtion) of a temple, approached 
by steps, with two columns ; Victories as 
acroteria at sides (and summit of gable 1) ; in 
pediment, eagle. Within the temple, cultus 
statue of a goddess, wearing long veil reaching to 
her feet ; on the ground beside her, to left, 
circular object. 

M. 30-5 mm. Wt. 15-80 grammes (243 -9 
grains). 




Kleinasiatische Miinzen, I., p. 147, no. 1. 



MISCELLANEA. 401 

This coin belongs to a small group of bronzes bearing the 
head and titles of the Emperor Claudius, and distinguished by 
various peculiarities of fabric and style (such as the treatment 
of the head, the elegance of the lettering) from most other 
provincial coins of the same peiiod. Hitherto the local 
attribution of these coins has been a puzzle ; but the reverse 
type of the specimen here published throws some light on the 
question. A comparison of the cultus-figure with that repre- 
sented on the coins of Myra in Lycia 4 leaves little doubt that 
we have before us the goddess of Myra; even the curious 
circular object which rests on the floor of the temple on the 
coins of Myra is not omitted here. The object has been 
described as a coiled serpent, 5 and as a patera ; 6 but although 
it seems to be too regular in shape for the former, I am 
not satisfied that I was right in proposing the latter 
interpretation. 

Numismatically, whatever the correct interpretation of this 
type may be, the chief interest of the coin lies in its enabling 
us to attribute to Lycia other coins of the same class. These 
all bear exactly the same inscription as the one described, and 
the same head of the Emperor Claudius ; the specimens in the 
British Museum however differ in the fact that the inscription 
on the obverse is written " outwardly," as is the case on the 
reverses of all the specimens. 

The following reverse types are known to me : 

Apollo, draped, standing to 1., holding in his r. a branch (?) ; 
in his 1 , bow. 

30- 5 mm. Wt. 15 '23 grammes (235 grains). 




4 Brit. Mus. Cat., Lycia, p. lv., and pi. xv., 7, 8. 

5 Greppo, Eev. Num., 1849, p. 427. 
Brit. MUB. Cat., loc. cit. 



402 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Warrior, mounted on horse galloping to r., wearing 
crested helmet, his chlamys flying behind him ; 
in his 1., shield ; in his r., javelin. Behind him, 
pedestal, on which statue of the Emperor (?) in 
military dress, his r. resting on spear ; in his 1., 
patera (?). 

23 mm. Wt. 7-27 grammes (112-2 grains). 

Female figure, draped, standing to front, head r. ; in r., 
bell-shaped object (cap of Liberty ?) ; in 1., short 
wand (?). 

24 5 mm. Wt. 6 05 grammes (93 4 grains). 

Of these types, the first is obviously suitable to Lycia, and 
is indeed found on the coinage of the Masicytes district during 
the existence of the Lycian league, 7 as well as, in a more 
elaborate form, on the imperial coins of Patara. 8 

With the warrior type we may compare the type of 
Cyaneae, 9 although there the statue is absent. The simple 
type is however so common that it can hardly be supposed to 
have any local significance. 

The female figure, so far as I know, is not to be paralleled 
on the Lycian coinage. The details are poorly preserved ; 
but the figure bears a considerable resemblance to one of the 
forms of Libertas on Roman coins ; 10 the short wand would 
then be the vindicta. 

G. F. HILL. 



7 Brit. Mus. Cat., Lycia, p. 66, nos. 26, 27; pi. xiv., 2. 

8 Ibid., pi. xvi., 2, 3. 

9 Ibid., pi. xii., 8. 

p E.g. Claudius, Cohen, 47 (without wand); Galba, Cohen, 107 foil., etc. 



INDEX. 



A and U), monogram of, on half- 
penny of Alfred, 350, 354 
Abydus, Troas, copper coin of, 334 
Adam Khan invades Malwa for 

Akbar, 397 

Adolphus I, Abp- of Cologne, 
denier of, in the Colchester 
hoard, 136 
Agrippa, M. Vipsanius, copper 

coin of, found in South wark, 99 
Akbar, Moghal Emperor of Delhi, 

conquers Malwa, 397 
Alexander II of Scotland, pennies 
of, in the Colchester hoard, 112, 
136 

Alfred, find of coins of, at Stam- 
ford, 347; new type of half- 
penny, 354 

American Colonies, "Wood's patent 
for coinage for, 53; struck at 
French Change, Seven Dials, 54, 
55 ; description of, 63 f .. 
Amphitheatre, representation of, 
on coin of Caesarea Germanica, 
330 
Ancyra, Galatia, coins of Cara- 

calla of, 341, 343 

Andrew, W. J., his "Numismatic 
History of Henry I," review of, 
corrected, 99 

Aninetus, Lydia, copper coin of, 335 
Annulet coinage of Henry VI, 

291 ; classification of, 302 
Annulet noble of Henry V, 293 
Antiochia ad Euphratem, numeral 

letters on imperial coins of, 106 
Antiochia, Pisidia, copper coin of, 
339 



Antiochia, Syria, numeral letter 

on imperial coins of, 107, 109 
Arensberg, denier of, in the Col- 
chester hoard, 136 
Ariaspes, son of Artaxerxes II, 

death of, 2 
Aristazanes commands in Egypt, 

18 
Arkat, K I. C. mint of, 73, 75, 

78 ; coins of, 95 
Arsames, son of Artaxerxes II, 

death of, 2 

Arsites, satrap of Hellespontine 
Phrygia, his assistance to 
Perinthus, 23 

Artabazes, satrap of Phrygia, 
revolts, 4; allies with the 
Athenians, 5 ; receives help 
from the Thebans, ib. ; leaves 
Phrygia for Greece, 6; invades 
Mysia, 22 
Artaxerxes II, history and death 

of, 1-3 

Artaxerxes HI, history and coinr 
age of, 1 ; accession, 3 ; invades 
Egypt, 4; invades Phoenicia, 
13-15; attacks Sidon, 16; in- 
vades Egypt, 18-21; returns to- 
Babylon, 22; builds palace at 
Persepolis, 24; his death, ib.; 
his coinage, 25 f. 

Assus, Troas, copper coin of, 334 
Athenians assist Artabazes, 5 
Athens, tetradrachm of, 322 ; im- 
perial copper coins of, 322-329 
Athos, Mount, darics found at, 29 
Attalia, Lydia, copper coin of 

Caracalla of, 336 

Attalia, Pamphylia, copper coin, 
of Valerian I of, 339 



404 



INDEX. 



B. 



"Baaltars" on coins of Tarsus, a 

place-name, 42 
Babelon, E., his classification of 

satrapal &c. coinages criticized, 

30 f. 
Bagoas commands Greeks in Egypt, 

19 ; garrisons Pelusium, 20 ; 

taken prisoner, 21 ; satrap of 

Upper Asia, ib. ; poisons Arta- 

xerxes III, 24; enters the 

Temple at Jerusalem, 25; coins 

attributed to, 32 
Bahadur Shah of Gujerat, coins of, 

struck for Malwa, 314 ; conquers 

Malwa, 388, 390 
Bambyce aft. Hieropolis, Cyrrhes- 

tic-a, copper coin of, 344 
Bath metal used for American 

colonial coinage, composition of, 

53,54 
Baz Bahadur, his rule in Malwa, 

396 ; his restoration and death, 

398 

Beaworth and Colchester finds con- 
trasted, 111 
Belesys, satrap of Syria, attacks 

Phoenicia, 14 ; his rule, 40 ; coins 

attributed to, ib. 
Benares, E. I. C. mint of, 75, 76, 

78 ; coins of, 87 
Bengal, E. I. C. mint of, 72-74; 

coins of, 90 

Beroea, Cyrrhestica, numeral let- 
ters on imperial coins of, 106 
Bithynia, copper coin of Titus of, 

330 
Bombay, E. I. C. mint of, 73 ; 

coins of, 91 
Bristol, Warrant to William Wood 

to strike Irish coins at, 48, 55, 56 
British coins found at Sandy, 

Beds., 192 

British Museum, Greek coins ac- 
quired by, in 1902, 317 
Bubastis, surrender of, to Arta- 

xerxes III, 20 
BURN, K. : 

Mughal Mints in India, 194 
Buwayhid dynasty, coin of, 177; 

history of, 181 f. 

Byblos, coins of Mazaios, attri- 
buted to, 45 

Byzantine coins found on the 
premises of the Carpenters' 
Company, list of, 103 



C. 



Germanica, Bithynia, 
copper coin of Julia Domna, 330 
Calais mint, accounts of, during 
the reigns of Henry V and VI, 
287 ; gold coins of, distinguished 
by the flag, 296 ; amount of gold 
coined at, during reign of Henry 
VI, ib. ; quarter nobles of, 300 ; 
last issue of gold coins at, 304 
Calcutta, E. I. C. mint of, 73; 

history of, 75 ; coins of, 79 
Canterbury, short-cross pennies of, 
in the Colchester hoard, 112, 
119; moneyers of, 139, 157; 
history .of mint, 162 
Caracalla, copper coin of, of Attalea, 

336 ; of Ancyra, 341, 343 
Caria, coins of, 399 
Carlisle, short-cross pennies of, in 
the Colchester hoard, 112, 122 ; 
moneyers of, 142; history of 
mint, 163 
Carpenters' Company, coins found 

on premises of, 102 
Chalcis, Chalcidice, numeral let- 
ters on imperial coins of, 107 
Chancton and Colchester finds 

contrasted, 111 
Chares, Athenian admiral, captures 

Lampsacus and Sigeion, 5 
Charles I, medalet of, type adopted 
for Irish coins, 62 ; uuique half- 
crown of Exeter, 193 
Charles the Bald, half-denier of, 

found at Stamford, 350, 354 
Chichester, short-cross pennies of, 
in the Colchester hoard; 112, 
122; moneyers of, 142; history 
of mint, 163 

Cisthene, Mysia, satrapal coin of, 11 

Claudius I, copper coin of, found 

in South wark, 100 ; of Lycia, 400 

CMH = CM* (i.e. 900), mark of, 

on bronze coins of Nicomedia, 

215, 219, 220, 222 

Coinage of Persian satraps struck 
for currency amongst the Greeks, 
26,27 
Colchester, find of short-cross 

pennies and other coins at, 111 
Cologne, deniers of, in the Col- 
chester hoard, 136, 137 
Colophon, Ionia, satrapal coin of, 10 
Commagene, numeral letters on 
imperial coins of, 106 



INDEX. 



405 



Constans I, his election as Caesar, 

277; coins of, struck at Nico- 

media, 279 f. 
Constantine I (the Great), coins of, 

struck at Nicomedia, 218 f. 
Constantine II, date of his birth, 

241 ; coins of, struck at Nico- 

media, 249 f. 
" Constant inoplis " on coins of 

Constantine the Great, struck 

at Nicomedia, 279, 280 
Constantius I, Chlorus, coins of, 

struck at Nicomedia, 213 
Constantius II, Caesar, first issue 

of coins of, at Nicomedia, 259 ; 

coins of, 262 f . 
Corvey, Abbey of, denier, in the 

Colchester hoard, 136 
Countermarks on sigloi, 28 
COVEBNTON, J. G., M.A. : 

Two Coins relating to the Bu- 
wayhid and 'Okaylid Dy- 
nasties of Mesopotamia and 
Persia, 177 

Malwa coins of Bahadur Shah of 

Gujerat, &c., 314 
Crescent and star, type of, on Irish 

coins of John, 174 
Crispus, coins of, struck at Nico- 
media, 247 f. 
Cross and pellet coinage of Henry 

VI, 309 
Cross mint-mark, form of, on coins 

of Henry V and VI, 289 
Cross-pommee mint-mark on short- 
cross pennies, 158 
Crump, C. G., errata in review of 

Andrew's Numismatic History of 

Henry I, 199 

Cunobelinus, copper coin of, 192 
Cyprus, revolts against Persia, 14 ; 

invaded by Idrious of Caria, 15; 

its coinage, 26, 28; struck by 

Evagoras II, 37-39, 43, 44 
Cyrrhestica, numeral letters on 

imperial coins of, 106 
Cyrrhus, numeral letters on im- 
perial coins of, 106 



D. 

Danish imitations of coins of Alfred, 

351 f. 
Darics coined for circulation 

amongst the Greeks, 28, 29; 

their classification, 29 f. 



Darius, son of Artaxerxes II, 
history of, 1 ; death, 2 

Dattari, G., his Corpus of the coins 
of the nomes of Egypt, 399 

Delmatius, his election as Caesar, 
277; coins of, struck at Nico- 
media, 279, 280, 284 

Deniers esterlins in the Colchester 
hoard, 112, 136, 175 

De Saulles, George William, Chief 
Engraver to the Koyal Mint, 
biography, 311 ; his works, 312 

Dilawar Khan, Ghori King of 
Mulwa, history of, 361 

Dionysos, type of, on coin of 
Ancyra, 342 

Doliche, Commagene, numeral let- 
ters on imperial coins of, 106 

Domitian and Titus, copper coin of, 
struck at Laodicea Combusta, 340 

Dortmund, deniers of, in the Col- 
chester hoard, 137 

Drapier's Letters of Dean Swift, 51 

Dublin, pennies of, in the Col- 
chester hoard, 134 

Durham, short-cross pennies of, 
in the Colchester hoard, 112, 
122 ; money ers of, 143 ; history of 
mint, 163 

E. 

East India Company, coinage of, 
71 f. ; distinguished from issues 
of Moghal and native princes, 72, 
78 ; periods of, 72-74 

Eccles and Colchester finds con- 
trasted, 111, 112 

Egypt invaded by Artaxerxes III, 
18-21 

Elagabalus, copper coin of, struck 
at Prostanna, 340 

Emisa, Syria, numeral letters on 
imperial coins of, 107 

" Eques Eomanus " on coins of 
Constantine the Great, 972 

Etenna, Pisidia, copper coin of 
Otacilia Severa, 339 

Euboea, uncertain coin of, 322 

Evagoras II of Cyprus, invades the 
island, 15; his coinage struck 
for Sidon, 34; and for Cyprus, 
37-39, 44 

EVANS, SIB JOHN, K.C.B. : 

His classification of the short- 
cross coinage comfirmed, 113 
Ancient British coins of Veru- 
lamium and Cunobelinus, 192 



406 



INDEX. 



Exeter, short-cross pennies of, in 
the Colchester hoard, 112, 123; 
money era of, 143, 1 157; history 
of the mint, 164 ; unique half- 
crown of, 193. 

Eyres, Kingsmills, associated with 
Wood in his Irish coinage, 53 

F. 

Fabriczy, Cornelius von, his Medail- 

len der italienischen Renaissance, 

noticed, 190 
Fausta, first issue of coins of, at 

Nicomedia, 259; coins of, 266, 

267 
Faustina jun., copper coins of, 

struck at Hadrianopolis, Thrace, 

320; at Nicomedia, Bithynia, 

332 
Ferukhabad, E. I. C. mint of, 75, 

76,78; coins of, 86 
Finds of coins : 

Colchester, English, 111 

Laruaca, Greek, 320 

Sandy, British, 192 

Stamford, Anglo-Saxon, 347 
Five Burgs, the, 355 
Flag on gold coins of Henry VI, 

&c., mark of Calais, 296 
Fleur-de-lys mint-mark on coins of 

Henry VI, 289, 290, 294, 302; 

the symbol of York, 297 
Follis, its value, weight, &c., 212 

et pass. 
Foreign deniers in the Colchester 

hoard, 112, 136, 175 
Frederick II, Emperor, deniers of, 

in the Colchester hoard, 137, 138 
French Change, Seven Dials, 

Wood's American coins struck 

at, 54 

G. 

Galeria Valeria, coins of, struck at 
Nicomedia, 222 f. ; duration of 
issue, 223 

Galerius, coins of, struck at Nico- 
media, 213 f. 

Gardner and Imhoof-Blumer, iheir 
Numismatic Commentary on Pau- 
sanias, referred to, 322-328 

Gazur, Cappadocia, satrapal coins 
of, 43 

Genius of the Koman people, cult 
of, 227 



George I, Wood's Irish coinage of, 

described, 57 f. ; his American 

coinage, 62 f. 
Germanicia Caesarea, Commagene, 

numeral letters on imperial coins 

of, 106 
Ghiyath Shah of Malwa. See 

Ghyas-ud-din, &c. 
Ghori kings of Malwa, history of, 

361 
Ghyas - ud - din, Khilji king of 

Malwa, coin of, 316 ; history of, 

377 
Goldbeter, Bartholomew, master of 

the York mint, 297, 299 
Gordian III, copper coin of, struck 

at Harpasa, 334 
Gottfried II, Count of Arensberg, 

denier of, in the Colchester 

hoard, 136 
Greek coins acquired by the British 

Museum, in 1902, 317 
GBUEBEB, H. A., F.S.A. : 

A Find of Silver Coins at Col- 
chester, 111 

A Find of Coins of Alfred at 

Stamford, 347 
Gujerat, supremacy of, in Malwa, 

390 

H. 

Hadrian, copper coin of, struck at 
Laertes, 341 

Hadrianopolis, Thrace, copper coin 
of Faustina jun., 320 

Halfdan, Danish leader, his Lon- 
don coin, 352 

Halfpennies of Alfred, found at 
Stamford, 350 ; new type of, 354 

Handy, Thomas, disclaimer re- 
specting Wood's Irish coins, 52 

Harold, , engraves dies for Wood's 
American coins, 53 

Harpasa, Caria, copper coin of 
Gordian III, 334 

Helena, St., first issue of coins of, 
at Nicomedia, 261 ; coins of, 364 

Henry I, coins of, in the Colchester 
hoard, 112, 118 

Henry II, period of short-cross 
coinage, 156 

Henry III, period of short-cross 
coinage, 156 

Henry VI, gold coinage of, 286 

Hermias, Prince of Atarnea, death 
of, 22, 23 



INDEX. 



407 



Hieropolis, Cyrrhestica, numeral let- 
ters on imperial coins of, 107, 109 
Hieropolis or Bambyce, Cyrrhes- 

tica, copper coin of, 344 
HILL, G. F., M.A. : 

Koman Coins found in South- 

wark, 99 

Medaillen der italienisclien Re- 
naissance, by Cornelius von 
Fabriczy, notice of, 190 
Some coins of Caria and Lycia, 399 
Holophernes, son of Ariamnes, of 
Cappadocia, commands in Egypt, 
23 ; pacifies Palestine, 24. 
Hoplite, figure of, on coins of 

Tarsus, explained, 9 
Hoshang Shah, Ghori king of 

Malwa, history of, 362 
HOWORTH, SIR HENRY H., 

K.C.I.E. : 

The History and Coinage of 
Artaxerxes III, his Satraps 
and Dependants, 1 
Humayun, Pathan king of Delhi, 

conquers Malwa, 392 
Hydisus, Caria, copper coin of, 335 

I. 

Ibrahim Lodi, Pathan king of 

Delhi, seizes Chanderi, 383 
Idrieus, Prince of Caria, assists 

Artaxerxes III, 14; attacks 

Cyprus, 15 
Ilchester (?), short-cross penny of, 

in the Colchester hoard, 112, 123 ; 

moneyer of, 144 ; history of mint, 

164 
Imad al Din Abu Kalinjar Marzban, 

Buwayhid ruler, coin of, 178 
Imhoof-Blumer and Gardner, their 

Numismatic Commentary on 

Pausanias, referred to, 322-328 
India, Moghal mints of, 194 
Inscriptions, blundered, on Roman 

coins, 245 
lo, nuptials of, represented on coin 

of Tralles, 338 
lolla, supposed coins of, 9 
Ipswich, short-cross pennies of, in 

the Colchester hoard, 112, 123; 

moneyers of, 144; history of 

mint, 165 
Ireland, copper coinage of, by 

William Wood, 47 f. ; struck at 

Phoenix Street, Seven Dials, 50, 

55 



Irish coins in the Colchester hoard, 
112, 134, 173 

Irish coins of John in the Col- 
chester hoard, 134 ; crescent and 
star type, origin of, 174 

Isle of Man, Wood's coinage for, 56 



J. 



John, Irish pennies of, in the Col- 
chester hoard, 112, 134 

John, periods of short-cross coinage 
of, 156 

Johnson, C., errata in review of 
Andrew's Numismatic History of 
Henry I, 99 

JOHNSTON, J. M. C. : 

Coinage of the East India Com- 
pany, 71 

Julia Domna, copper coin of, struck 
at Caesarea Germanica, 330 



K. 

Kadir Shah, ruler of Malwa, history 

of, 393 
Kendal, Duchess of, receives patent 

for Irish copper money, 47 
Khilji kings of Malwa, history of, 

367 
Kl on Phocian obols, initials of 

Kirrha(?), 207 
KING, L. WHITE, F.S.A. : 

History and Coinage of Malwa, 

356 
Kirrha (?), obols of, 205 ; initials of, 

on coins, 207 
Klinias commands for Nectanebo 

and is slain, 19 



L. 



Lacrates, Theban general, assists 

Artaxerxes III in Egypt, 18; 

takes Pelusium, 19, 20 
Laertes, Cilicia, copper coin of 

Hadrian, 341 
Lammas, , engraves dies for 

Wood's American coins, 53 
Lampsacus, capture of, by Chares, 

the Athenian, 5 
Lampsacus, Mysia, coins of, struck 

by Orontes, 8, 9 



408 



INDEX. 



LANGTON, NEVILLE : 

Notes on some Phocianobols,197 
Laodicea Conubusta, Lycaonia, cop- 
per coins of Titus and Domitian, 

340 
Larnaca, Cyprus, gold coins of 

Philip II of Macedon, found at, 

320 
Lenn or Lynn, short-cross pennies 

of, in the Colchester hoard, 112, 

124; moneyers of, 144, 157; 

history of mint, 165 
Leucas, Coele-Syria, copper coin of 

Trajan, 345 
Lichfield, short-cross moneyer of, 

144 ; history of mint, 166 
Licinius I, coins of, struck at Nico- 

media, 222 f. 
Licinius II, proclaimed Caesar, 240 ; 

coins of, struck at Nicomedia, 

243 f. ; proclaimed Augustus, 254 
Lilaea, Phocis, obol of, 200 
Limerick, pennies of, in the Col- 
chester hoard, 134 
Lincoln, penny of Alfred of, 348 ; 

its Danish fabric. 351 
Lincoln, short-cross pennies of, in 

the Colchester hoard, 112, 124; 

moneyers of, 145, 157 ; history of 

mint, 166 
Lippe, denier of, in the Colchester 

hoard, 137 
London, mint accounts of, during 

the reigns of Henry V and VI, 287 
London, monogram of, on coins of 

Alfred, origin of, 352 
London, pennies of Alfred, found 

at Stamford, 348 ; their Danish 

fabric, 351 
London, short-cross pennies of, in 

the Colchester hoard, 112, 124; 

moneyers of, 146, 158 ; history of 

mint, 166 

Lycia, coins of, 400 
Lydae, Caria, coin of, 399 
Lynn or Lenn. See Lenn, &c. 



M. 

MACDONALD, GEORGE, M.A. : 
Numeral Letters on Imperial 
Coins of Syria, 105 

Madras, E. I. C.'s mint of, 73 ; coins 
of, 95 

Mahmud I, Khilji king of Malwa, 
history of, 367 



Mahmud II, Khilji king of Malwa, 
history of, 380 

Malwa coins of Bahadur Shah of 
Gujerat, 314; of Ghyas-ud-din, 
316 

Malwa, history and coinage of, 356 ; 
rulers of, 359 ; supremacy in 
Gujerat, 390 ; Moghal supre- 
macy over, 397; annexed by 
Akbar, 398 

Man, Isle of, Wood's coinage for, 
56 

Marsland, , associated with Wood 
in Irish coinage, 53 

Martinianus, created Caesar and 
Augustus. 250 ; coins of, struck 
at Nicomedia, 253 

Masulipatan, E. I. C.'s mint of, 
75 : coins of, 95 

MAURICE, JDLES : 

Classification Chronologique des 
Emissions Monetaires de 1' Ate- 
lier de Nicomedie pendant la 
Periode Constantinienne, 211 

Maximinus Daza, coins of, struck 
at Nicomedia, 213 f.; Ids treat- 
ment of Christians, 226 ; death, 
229, 233 

Mazaios, satrap of Cilicia, attacks 
Phoenicia, 14 ; succeeds Belesys 
in Syria, 40; his coinages, 41, 
44, 45 ; his length of rule, 46. 

Memnon, the Rhodian, flies to 
Greece, 6; is pardoned by 
Artaxerxes III, 22 

Mentor, the Rhodian, 6 ; betrays 
Sidon, 17; commands in Egypt, 
19, 20, 21; governs in Asia 
Minor, 21, 22 

Mesopotamia and Persia, two coins 
of, 177 

" Miliarense," earliest issue of, 
276 ; its value, 277 

Mint-marks, forms of, on coins of 
Henry V and VI, 289 

Mints and moneyers of the short- 
cross coinage, list of, 139 

Mints of short-cross coinage, history 
of, 159 f. 

Moghal coinages distinguished from 
those of E. I. C., 72 

Moghal mints in India, additions, 
194 

Moghal supremacy in Malwa, 397 

Molossi, Epirus, silver coin of, 321 

Moueyers and mints of the short- 
cross coinage, list of, 139 



INDEX 



409 



Moneyers, new names of, on short- 
cross coins, 157 

Mount Atbos. See Athos, Mount, &c. 

Mughal mints, &c. See Moghal. 

Muhafiz Khan, Governor of Mandu, 
380-383 

Muhammed I, Ghori king of Malwa, 
history of, 366 

Muhammed II, of Malwa. See 
Sahib Khan. 

Mullet, mark of, on coins of Henry 
VI, 302 

Munbai (Bombay), E. I. C.'s mint 
of, 73 ; coins of, 91 

Miinster, denier of, in the Col- 
chester hoard, 137 

Murshidabad, E. I. C.'s mint of, 
75, 78 ; coins of, 80 f. 

Mu'tamid al Daulah, 'Okaylid 
ruler, coin of, 179 



N. 

Nasir ud Din, Khilji king of 

Malwa, history of, 379 
Neapolis ad Harpasum, Caria, coin 

of, 400 
Neapolis, Campania, didrachm of, 

319 
Nectanebo defends Egypt against 

the Persians, 19; flies to Ethiopia, 

21 
NELSON, PHILIP, M.D. : 

The Coinage of William Wood, 47 
Nero, copper coins of, found in 

Southwark, 100 
Newton, Sir Isaac, his report on 

Wood's coinage, 52 
Nicomedia, Bitliynia, coins of the 

Constantino period, 211 f.; cop- 
per coin of Faustina jun , 332 
Niccstrates commands Greeks in 

Egypt, 18, 19 
Nimbus on Koman coins, symbol of 

imperial power, 244, 269 
Northampton, short-cross pennies 

ol, in the Colchester hoard, 112, 

129; moneyers of, 149, 158; 

history of mint, 167 
Norwich, short-cross pennies of, in 

the Colchester hoard, 112, 129; 

moneyers of, 149; history of 

mint, 168. 
Numeral letters on imperial coins 

of Syria, 105 ; first introduced at 

Antioch, 107; denote months, 110 



" Nummus Centenionalis," issue of, 
236, 278 



O. 



Ochus. See Artaxerxes III. 

'Okaylid dynasty, coin of, 177; 
history of, 183 f. 

Orontes, satrap of Mysia, &c., his- 
tory of, 6-8; strikes coins at 
Lampsacus, 8 ; at Teuthrania (?), 
9 ; at Colophon, 10 ; at Cisthene, 
11 

Otacilia Severa, copper coin of, 
struck at Etenna, 339 

Otophyxus, Macedonia, copper coin 
of, 319 

Otto IV, Emperor, deniers of, in 
the Colchester hoard, 137 

Oxford, short-cross pennies of, in 
the Colchester hoard, 112, 130; 
moneyers of, 150, 158 ; history of 
mint, 168. 



P. 



Pammenes, Theban general, assists 

Artaxerxes III, 5, 6 
Pausanias, Numismatic Commen- 
tary on, by Imhoof-Blumer and 

Gardner, referred to, 322-328 
Pelusium attacked by Artaxerxes 

III, 18; surrenders, 20 
Pcrgamon fortified by Orontes, 7 
Perinthus attacked by Philip II of 

Macedon, 23 
Persepolis, palace at, built by 

Artaxerxes III, 24 
Persia and Mesopotamia, two coins 

of, 177 
Perth, pennies of, in the Colchester 

hoard, 135 
Pherendates appointed satrap of 

Egypt, 22 
Philip I, Abp. of Cologne, denier 

of, in the Colchester hoard, 13H 
Philip II, of Macedon, attacks 

Perinthus, 23 
Philip III, of Macedon, gold stater 

of, 320 

Phocian obols, notes on, 197 
Phoenicia invaded by Artaxerxes 

III, 13-15 
Phoenix Street, Seven Dial s, Wood's 

coinages struck in, 50, 55 
Phokion, of Athens, invades Cyprus, 

15 



410 



INDEX. 



Pieria and Seleuci8, numeral letters 

on imperial coins, 107 
PINCHES, JOHN H. : 

George William de Saulles, Chief 

Engraver to the Royal Mint, 311 

Pine-cone-mascle coinage of Henry 

VI, 304 
Pine-cone-pellet coinage of Henry 

VI, 308 
Pir Muhammed made Governor of 

Malwa, 397 ; death, 398 
Pixodaros, dynast of Caria, coinage 

of, 26 
Pnytagoras, king of Cyprus, 37; 

coinage of, 39 
Prostanna, Pisidia, copper coin of 

Elagabalus, 340 
Pylaemenes Euergetes, king of 

Paphlagonia, copper coin of, 329 



B. 



Ransom, William, his coins of 
Verulamium and Cunobelinus, 
noticed, 192 

RASHLEIGH, JONATHAN, M.A. > 
Unique Half-Crown of Charles I, 
struck at Exeter, 193 

Rhuddlan, short-cross pennies of, 
in the Colchester hoard, 112, 
133; moneyers of, 155, 158; 
history of mint, 172 

Richard I, period of short-cross 
coinage, 156 

Rochester, short-cross pennies of, 
in the Colchester hoard, 112, 130 ; 
moneyers of, 151, 158 ; history of 
mint, 168 

Roman imperial coins found on the 
premises of the Carpenters' Com- 
pany, list of, 103 

" Rosa Americana " coins struck by 
William Wood, 53, 56 ; described, 
63 f. 

Rosaces, satrap of Ionia, commands 
in Egypt, 18 

Rosette-mascle coinage of Henry 
VI, 303 

Roxburgh, pennies of, in the Col- 
chester hoard, 135, 136 



ft 



Sabina, copper coin of, struck at 
Tmolus, 337 



Sahib Khan (Muhammed II of 
Malwa) revolts against Mahmud 
II, 381, 382; assumes title of 
Muhammed II, 383 

St. Denis, half-denier of, of Charles 
the Bald, found at Stamford, 350, 
354 

St, Edmundsbury, short - cross 
pennies of, in the Colchester 
hoard, 112, 130; moneyers of, 
151 ; history of mint, 169 

Sandy, Beds., ancient British coins 
found at, 192 

Satrapal coinages, currency of, 26, 
27 ; classification of, 29 f . 

Satraps, coinage of, temp. Arta- 
xerxes II T, 1 

Saulles, George William de. See 
De Saulles, &c. 

Scottish coins in the Colchester 
hoard, 112, 135, 174 

Seleucia Pieria, numeral letters on 
imperial coins of, 107 

Seleucis and Pieria, numeral letters 
on imperial coins of, 107 

" Senatus" on coins of Constantino 
the Great, 272 

Severus II, coins of, struck at 
Nicomedia, 213 f. 

Sher Shah, Emperor of Delhi, 
conquers Malwa, 394 

Short-cross pennies found at Col- 
chester, 111; classification of, 
113-117, 156; type of, 117 

Shrewsbury, short-cross pennies of, 
in the Colchester hoard, 112, 
131 ; moneyers of, 151 ; history 
of mint, 170 

Shuja' Khan, his rule in Malwa, 394 

Sidou revolts against Persia, 13 ; 
taken and pillaged by Arta- 
xerxeslll, 16 ; coinage of, under 
Tennes, 33; under Evagoras II, 
34; sigloi, &c., attributed to, 
34-36 

Sigeion, capture of, by Chares the 
Athenian, 5 

Sigloi coined for circulation amongst 
the Greeks, 28, 29 ; countermarks 
on, 28 ; classification of, 29 f. ; 
type of, 35 ; attributed to Sidon, 
34-36 

Southwark, Roman coins found in, 
99 

Stamford, find of coins of Alfred 
at, 347 ; one of the " Five Burgs," 
355 



INDEX. 



411 



Standbroke, , engraves dies for 

Wood's American coinage, 53 
Star and Crescent on Irish, coins of 

John, origin of type, 174 
Stephen, coins of, in the Colchester 

hoard, 112, 118 
Sunderland, Earl of, grants patent 

for Irish coinage to the Duchess 

of Kendal, 47 
Surat, E. I. C.'s mint of, 74, 78 ; 

coins of, 93 

Suri supremacy in Malwa, 394 
Swift, Jonathan, Dean of St. 

Patrick's, and Wood's coinage, 51 
Syria, numeral letters on imperial 

coins of, 105 



T. 



Tarsus, supposed coins of, struck 
by Orontes, 9; coins of, with 
inscription " Baaltars " ; 42, 341 ; 
of Mazaioa attributed to, 44 

Teal by and Colchester finds, con- 
trasted, 111 

Tennes, king of Sidon, defeats the 
Persians, 14; surrenders to 
Artaxerxes III, 15, 17; his 
death, 17 ; his coinage, 33 

Teuthrania, Mysia, supposed coins 
of, 9 

Thebans, assistance of, to Arta- 
bazes, 5 

Thessalian Confederacy, double 
victoriatus of, 321 

Tiribazus, conspiracy of, 1 ; death, 
2 

Titus, copper coin of, struck in 
Bithynia, 330 

Titus and Domitian, copper coin 
of, struck at Laodicea Combusta, 
340 

Tmolus, Lydia, copper coin of 
Sabina, 337 

Trajan, copper coin of, struck at 
Leucas, Coele-Syria, 345 

Tralles, Lydia, copper coin of 
Tranquillina, 337 

Tranquillina, copper coin of, struck 
at Tralles, 337 

Trefoil coinage of Henry VI, 
306 

" Tricennalia " of Constantino the 
Great, date of, 281 

Tutbury and Colchester finds con- 
trasted, 112 



IT. 



" Urbs Koma " on coins of Con- 
stantine the Great, struck at 
Nicomedia, 279-280 



Y. 



Valerian I, copper coin of, struck 

at Attalia, 339 
Verulamium, ancient British coin 

of, 192 
Vespasian, copper coins of, found 

in Southwark, 102 
" Vicennalia " of Constantino the 

Great, date of, 270, 272, 281 ; of 

his sons, 281,284 
Y (= VL) Librae Valore, mark of, 

on gold coins of Nicomedia, 216, 

218, 220 



W. 



WALTERS, F. A., F.S.A. : 

The Gold Coinage of the Reign 
of Henry VI, 286 

WEBB, PERCY H. : 

Coins found on the premises of 
the Company of the Carpen- 
ters, 102 

Wikon, short-cross pennies of, in 
the Colchester hoard, 112, 131 ; 
money era of, 152 ; history of mint, 
170 

William the Lion, pennies of, in 
the Colchester hoard, 135 

Winchester, short cross pennies of, 
in the Colchester hoard, 112, 
131 ; moneyers of, 152, 158 ; 
history of mint, 171 

Wood, William, coinage of, 47; 
history of, ib. ; strikes coins at 
Phoenix Street, Seven Dials, and 
at Bristol, 48 ; resigns patent for 
Irish coinage, 52, 55 ; patent to, 
for American coins, 53, 54 ; his 
death, 55 ; his Irish coinage de- 
scribed, 56 ; his American coinage 
described, 63 

Worcester, short-cross pennies of, 
in the Colchester hoard, 112, 
133; moneyers of, 153; history 
of mint, 171 

WROTH, WARWICK : 

Greek coins acquired by the 
British Museum in 1902, 317 



412 



INDEX. 



Y. 



York, short-cross pennies of, in the 
Colchester hoard, 112, 133; 
moneyers of, 153, 158 ; history of 
mint, 172; its symbol, the fleur- 
de-lys, 297 



Zeugma, Commagene, numeral let- 
ters on imperial coins of, 106, 
108 



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