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FREEHAND
PERSPECTIVE
AND SKETCHING
PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF
EXPRESSION IN THE PICTORIAL
REPRESENTATION OF COMMON
OBJECTS, INTERIORS, BUILDINGS
AND LANDSCAPES
BY
DORA MIRIAM NORTON
INSTRUCTOR IN PERSPECTIVE, SKETCHING
AND COLOR, PRATT INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN
BROOKLYN
PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR
1909
Vniver"^
OF
IT
:i£ORNA^
/V63
Copyright, 1908
By Dora Miriam Norton
THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, CAMBRIDGE, U. S. A.
TO THE
MEMORY OF WALTER SMITH
FIRST DIRECTOR OF THE MASSACHUSETTS NORMAL ART SCHOOL
. INSPIRING CRITIC AND JUDICIOUS FRIEND
THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED
WITH THE WISH THAT IT MAY HELP OTHERS AS ITS
AUTHOR HAS BEEN HELPED
D. M. N.
196827
' PREFACE
THIS book presents essentially the course of study in Free
hand Perspective and Sketching as developed during its
teaching at Pratt Institute since the founding of the
institute in 1887. It consists of a series of illustrated exercises
with explanatory text, so covering the subject that students who
follow the course as directed acquire the power to draw with ease
and intelligence, not only from objects, but from memory and
from descriptions. The principles and methods thus set forth
have been taught by the author for some years in the above school,
and have been found practically effective in that direction.
As offered to the public this course is intended to form a text
book for high, normal, and technical schools and for colleges ;
also as a book of reference for supervisors and teachers of draw
ing, and for draughtsmen and artists whose training in perspective
needs to be supplemented. Where a less extended course is de
sired, selections can be made from it at the discretion of the
teacher. Moreover there are students so situated that personal
art teaching is beyond their reach, though books could be had.
But while perspective books, excellent in certain directions, have
been published, it has been found difficult to direct inquirers to
anything at once directly applicable to immediate use and com
prehensive enough to give a working knowledge of the subject.
For several years, therefore, the need which this book is intended
to meet has been increasingly felt. In the hope that it may pass
on to others the aid received in the past it is sent forth.
In making these illustrations the author has been aided largely
by Mr. Ernest W. Watson, a graduate of the Massachusetts Nor
mal Art School, and later a student and now an instructor in
Pratt Institute. Of this efficient and valued assistance it is a
pleasure to thus express a cordial appreciation.
D. M. N.
Brooklyn, July 14, 1908.
CONTENTS
Fagb
Introduction xi
Chapter
I. General Directions 1
11. Pencil Measurement and the Picture Plane 4
III. The Ellipse 8
rV. A Cylinder and a Cylindrical Object 12
V. An Object above the Eye and the Cone Principle 18
VI. A Cream Jug 20
VII. A Time Study 24
VIIL A Group of Cylindrical Objects 26
IX. Cylindrical Objects Grouped with Fruit 29
X. A Group of Objects from Memory or Invention 31
XI. The Cylinder Cone and Ball Grouped — A Problem for Original
Study 34
XII. The Study of Straight Line Objects 36
XIII. Drawing the Book in Two Positions 43
XIV. The Book with a Cylindrical Object 45
XV. A Problem for Original Study — The Cylinder and Rectangular
Block 48
XVI. The Further Study of StraightLine Objects — A Cube at Angles
WITH THE Picture Plane 49
XVII. The Cube in Two Different Positions 53
XVIII. A Book at Angles to the Picture Plane 58
XIX. Two Books at Different Angles to the Picture Plane .... 61
XX. The Actual Center of the Circle and Measurement into the
Picture by Parallel Lines 63
XXL Books with a Cylindrical Object 67
XXII. The Study and Drawing of a House 69
XXIII. A Building from the Photograph or a Print 81
XXIV. Type Forms Helpful in Understanding the House — The Square
Frame 85
XXV. The Square Pyramid and Square Plinth 88
XXVI. A Problem for Original Study 91
ix
CONTENTS
Chapter Vxqb
XXVII. Cylindrical Objects when not Vertical 92
XXVIII. A Group of Flower Pots 95
XXIX. The Circular Frame in a Square Frame 96
XXX. A Round Window 100
XXXI. The Clock a Problem 102
XXXII. The Arch 103
XXXIII. Interiors — A Room Parallel to the Picture Plane .... 105
XXXIV. Interiors Continued — A Room at Angles to the Picture Plane HO
XXXV. Further Studies of Interiors 114
XXXVI. A Chair 118
XXXVII. The Hexagonal Plinth in Two Positions 121
XXXVIII. Interior with a Tiled Floor 126
XXXIX. The Hexagonal Prism and Frame 128
XL. The Triangular Prism and Frame — Problem for Original Study 131
XLI. The Study of Parallel Perspective * . . . . 132
XLII. A Street from the Photograph 137
XLIII. Exceptions to the Use of the Flat Picture Plane 139
XLIV. Shadows 143
XLV. Outofdoors Work 154
SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS 161
INDEX 169
F
INTRODUCTION
REEHAND Perspective teaches those few principles
or truths which govern the appearance of things to
the eye, and the application of these principles to the
varied conditions encountered in drawing. Strictly speaking,
there are but two foundation truths in perspective, namely:
First. Things appear smaller in proportion to their dis
tance from the eye. A house ten rods distant can be
wholly seen through one pane of glass (Fig. 8,
Ch. II).
Second. The eye can see surfaces in their true
shape only when placed at right angles to the direc
tion in which the eye looks, or, generally speaking,
parallel to the face. When not so placed they ap
pear lessened in one dimension, that is, either nar
rowed or shortened, in proportion as they are
turned away from the face or tend to coincide
with the direction of seeing. This apparent change of shape is
Foreshortening. The cylinder top held at right angles to the
direction of seeing appears as a circle (A in Fig. 1). When
turned away from this direction (as at B), it appears nar
n rowed, or foreshortened. So the pencil seen its
.^^^'^^^ full length at A in Fig. 2 appears foreshortened
^/ when held as in B. All the phenomena of free
A J * hand perspective, however complicated and per
FiG. 2 plexing, may be simplified by referring to one
or both of these principles.
One great obstacle to the ready mastery of these prin
ciples is our knowledge of the actual shapes of objects. For
XI
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
instance, we hnow the top of a cylinder (B, Fig. 1) to be
in fact a circle, and therefore we tend to mentally see a circle,
though it is just as truly a fact that the top can only appear
to the eye as a circle when the cylinder is held so as to lose
sight of all other parts of it, as at A. Consequently, the first
aim and benefit in studying perspective is the learning to see;
that is, to know what is the image really presented to the eye.
Therefore no step should ever be passed without clearly see
ing the appearance under consideration. And in all drawings
the final test must be the eye; for, unless the drawing loolis
right, it is not right. All rules and tests are only means to
this end.
Furthermore, the right study of perspective, which is think
ing and drawing in perfect coordination, enables the student
to draw objects singly or combined or in unfamiliar positions,
without having them in sight. Also he should be able to
draw an object which he has never seen if a description of it
can be supplied. That this last is quite possible any prac
tical artist will agree. The writer recalls hearing a popular
illustrator ask in a company of friends, " Does any one know
what a cider press is_like?" adding that he must put one
in an illustration with no chance to see the thing itself. No
doubt of the suflS.ciency of a description was expressed. In
fact it must suffice — a not uncommon situation. Hence the
necessity of memory work and dictation problems, such as
form part of this course of study.
Finally, it is not intended that in later practical work drawings
should be actually constructed by the explanatory methods here
given. These exercises should be drawn as directed, since only
by the actual experience of doing it can their principles be mas
tered,, but a rigid clinging to these methods in practice would
result in very little art. Freehand Sketching means drawing hy
the trained eye and judgment, only using constructive methods to
test new or doubtful points. It is to make such sketching valu
able by a foundation of definite knowledge that these methods
xii
INTRODUCTION
are given. The trained artist draws a vase in his flower study, or
a round tower in a landscape with no distinct recalling of ellipse
laws, feeling only joy in the living curves as they spring out
under his hand. But he would labor long and wearily over their
shaping had he not this foundation knowledge, which he uses
almost unconsciously.
xm
OF THE
UNIVERSITY
OF
Chapter I
GENERAL DIRECTIONS
MATERIALS. — Any paper having a fine and fairly soft
texture can be usedgfc It should produce an even
grain in both vertical and horizontal pencil strokes.
Pencil exercises such as those reproduced in this book are
usually drawn on paper of quarter imperial size (11" x 15") ,
on which at least an inch and a half of margin is allowed.
This is a good size for the student's drawings, whether copied
from these exercises or drawn from objects. Have two
pencils, one fairly soft (as No. 2 Faber, SM Dixon, or
\2 B Kohinoor), and a harder one; also a good eraser.
Line Practice. — Cut the pencil like the illustration
(Fig. 3), and rub on practice paper ^ till a broad line,
firm at the edges
and transparent
(that is, with the
grain of the paper
slightly showing
through it) can be
made. Sit erect,
with the paper directly
in front, and have the
desk top inclined, or use
a drawing board (Fig. 4),
that the paper may be as
nearly as possible parallel with the face. Hold the pencil almost
flat, as in the illustration (Fig. 5), and as loosely as is consistent
^ Save spoiled sheets for this. Practice paper should be like that on which drawings are
made.
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
Fig. 5
with a steady control. For horizontal lines use position A,
Fig. 5, moving the pencil from left to right; for vertical lines
use position B, moving from the top downward. Practice
vertical, horizontal, or oblique lines persistently; moving the
hand freely from the shoulder, not resting it on the wrist or
elbow. If the muscles acquire an
unpleasant tension, relax by dropping
the hands at the sides and loosely
shq^ng them. Unfamiliar or diffi
cult exercises should be first carefully
sketched with a thin, light line. If
wrong, (iraw over without erasing
until a satisfactory form is obtained.
Erase the incorrect part, and ren
der expressively (Ch. IV). But after
the composition of the. exercise is
planned, such straight lines as mar
gins, cylinder sides, and many ellipses may be drawn in full at
once. And as the student gains in skill, more and more of the
work should at the first touch be put on the paper as it is
intended to remain. The aim is to acquire exact knowledge,
that artistic interpretations may be expressed with ease and
certainty.
Models for Workr — Objects in common use have been chosen
for most of these exercises. Geometric solids are assigned only as
needed for the clearer elucidation of perspective truths. Neces
sary models, as the cylinder, the cube^ and others, should be made
by the student as directed. For forms (as the hexagonal frame)
too complicated to be easily made, the wellknown wooden
models have been used. But after thorough mastery of the
simpler forms, most of the later lessons can be understood with
out models.
Placing of Models. — All objects. for study should be placed so
as to present their vertical surfaces in nearly their true shape to
the student. Thus if the model is to be near, as on the table
GENERAL DIRECTIONS
at which the student sits, it is better to raise it a few inches
(Fig. 4). This will not be necessary if it can be placed four or
five feet distant. If the study is seen too much from the top,
the perspective will be unpleasantly violent, as in a photograph
where the camera has been pointed too much downward.
The Table Line. — To indicate a supporting surface under the
objects a horizontal line (A, B in Fig. 6) is used. It stands for
the back edge of the table or other horizontal support
ing surface, and is caljpd the Table Line. It should be
^ represented as further back than any portion of the
study. As will be observed later, it need not be used
if the supporting surface is otherwise suggested, as by
a cast shadow (Fig. 34).
All Work Freehand. — AH work is to be done freehand, that
is, with no ruling, and no measuring other than by the eye
and pencil.
Fig. 6
Chapter II
PENCIL MEASUREMENT AND THE
PICTURE PLANE
PENCIL Measurement. — Before studying the exercises which
follow, the beginner should become familiar with Pencil
Measurement. Place a book upright directly in front of
the eye. With one eye shut and the arm at full length (to ensure
a uniform distance from the eye) measure on the pencil held hori
zontally the apparent width of the book. Then turning the pen
cil, compare this dis
tance with its height
(Fig. 7). (It is bet
ter to take the smaller
distance first, and to
measure it into the
larger.) Compare the
proportions so found
with those obtained
by actual measure
ment of the book.
But always get the
pencil measurement
first, for this compels the eye to do all that it can unaided
before showing by actual measurement how much better it can
learn to do.
Now turn the book away a little, and compare this new ap
pearance of the width with the height (Fig. 11).
At this point the student must learn to lieep the 'pencil
parallel with the face in order that the pencil measurement
may be reliable. For this, go to the window, and stand facing
Fig. 7
PENCIL MEASUREMENT, ETC.
WIM0O«*/
USED AS
PICTURE
, PLANE
z
o
f
u
a
a
z
S
u
J
•0
t
c
z
o
<Kce
B. Plan of A
A. Showing osc
or WIN0O>V AS
PICTURE PUANE
the glass, so the face is parallel with it Choose some object
seen through the window, as another house, and resting the
pencil against the glass measure its width and compare that
with its height
(Fig. 8).
Observe that
if the outline of
the house could
be traced by the
pencil on the
glass it would
form correctly
the apparent
shape of that
house.
This leads us
to see that all per
spective drawing
may be regarded
as placing on
paper the equiva
lent of such a tracing on the glass. It will therefore be apparent
at once that pencil measurement, to be correct, must be taken
with the pencil held as if laid on such a pane of glass; or in
^<>r other words, on a plane parallel with and in
^^^jc^\ front of the face. This imaginary transparent
) plane is called the Picture Plane, and is a
flu. <, ^ '
fS I Hil^ J most important factor in all freehand draw
V ^ fl PTT i^S Thus, by turning or revolving the
pencil on the glass in front of the face,
thatis, by revolving the pencil in the picture
plane, it can he made to cover the appearance of any possible line or
direction. For example, the sloping gable edge of the outside
house, though retreating from the eye and therefore foreshort
ened, can be covered by the revolving pencil (Fig. 9) , thus giving
5
Fig. 8
^i^
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
the appearance or picture of its direction. Its apparent or fore
shortened length can also be taken on the pencil and compared
with any other dimension, as the height of the nearest corner.
The essential requirement is that the pencil shall constantly lie flat
on this pane of glass; that is, on the picture plane.
We have therefore, in the use of pencil measurement on the
picture plane, a ready and accurate means of ascertaining any
direction or any proportionate dimension seen by the eye. It
cannot give us actual sizes, as the length of the gable in feet ; but
it will tell us how long the slanting line representing the gable
must be drawn in proportion to other parts of the house. In this
case, for instance, the sloping edge appears, threefourths of the
gable width. The difficulty in using this valuable aid with exact
ness lies in the beginner's trouble in keeping the pencil always in
his invisible picture plane. To do this, he should always mentally
see this plane, recalling that it is always parallel with the general
position of the face — that is, vertical. And since the eyes look
mostly straight out, or at right angles to the face, the picture
plane is at right angles to what we may call the Central Direction
of Seeing.
The Central Direction of Seeing. — This central direction of see
ing must also now be imagined very definitely. It extends from
the eye to the center of the objects observed. In the case of the
house seen through the pane of glass, the central direction of see
ing extends from the eye to the center of the house ; while the
face and the picture plane are parallel to each other and at right
angles to it. The picture plane may then be thought of as a
transparent vertical plane pierced in its middle by the direction
of seeing.
We have said the central direction of seeing is at right angles
to the face. Since the face is generally vertical, the direction of
seeing is generally horizontal (A in Fig. 14, Ch. III). The com
monest exception is that of being directed slightly downward (B
in same Fig.). In this case it cannot be at right angles to the
picture plane. It will, however, always appear at right angles to
6
PENCIL MEASUREMENT, ETC.
it ivhen looked at from above. That is, it is at right angles from side
to side, and in a plan will always be shown at right angles, as in
Fig. 8.
Return now to the seat (Fig. 7), and try pencil measurement
on the turned book. Imagine as clearly as possible the trans
parent picture plane at arm's length,
on which the pencil may be revolved,
but through which it must never be
thrust. Starting with the pencil erect
(Fig. 10) drop it directly over to the
left (Fig. 11), watching carefully to
keep it from leaning back or forward.
Let another person help by turning the
book away while you measure it and at
the same time Fig. lo
keep the pencil from following it back
ward as it is turned away. Thus as the
book is turned, the pencil, if it remains on
the picture plane, shows the book to ap
pear narrower or be foreshortened. What
is now sought for
is that which the
eye really sees as
the width, not what the mind knows it to
be. It is of great importance to dis
tinguish sharply between actual facts of
form and size and the perspective appear
ance of them as presented to the eye.
An excellent object for practice is a
door. Stand facing a closed door, and take its proportions by
pencil measurement. Then let some one open it, and observe the
apparent decrease in width.
For further consideration of the picture plane see Chapters
XXXV, XLI, and XLIII.
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Chapter III
THE ELLIPSE
HAVING learned that the book cover and door appear
foreshortened in proportion as they are near to co
inciding with the direction in which they are seen,
we naturally look for the same change in the circle. Roll a
stiff piece of paper into a cylinder, the thickness of which shall
be half its length. Fasten it with a pin or rubber band. Holding
the cylinder vertically, as in A, Fig. 13, and with
one eye closed, raise it slowly till on a level with
the eye. The top now appears as a straight line
(B, Fig. 13). It is so foreshortened that its sur
face is entirely lost to sight, leaving only its edge
visible. Now, keeping the cylinder vertical, lower it
till the eye sees into it perhaps half an inch. Ob
serve carefully the shape formed by the top. Turn
it so the
top ap
p e ar s
as a cir
cle (A
in Fig. 14), then,
holding it vertically
again (as at B), com
pare mentally the
apparent shapes as  ^'°" ^^
the top is placed in the two different positions.
Now (keeping it always vertical) raise and lower the cylinder
slowly, and note how the form of the top changes, appearing
8
V
THE ELLIPSE
Fig. 15
rounder as it is lowered. This peculiar shape, varying in round
ness between the straight line and the circle, represents the ap
pearance of the circle seen obliquely, and is the Ellipse, one of the
most beautiful, spirited, and subtle of curves. While the circle
is formed by a curve bending equally
in all parts, the outline of the ellipge
is constantly changing in the degree e(
of its curvature. From the middle
of each side (A, A in Fig. 15) this
curvature increases smoothly to the
ends (B, B). Thus the ellipse may be divided by lines through
the middle of its sides and ends into four duplicate curves or
quarters. These lines are known as the Long and Short Diame
ters. On these two lines the ellipse must be symmetrical, what
ever the proportion of the diameters to each other; that is,
whatever the roundness of the ellipse.
A test useful to determine the correctness of a drawing of the
ellipse is sighting with one eye along the long diameter. If the
ellipse is perfect it will appear foreshortened to a circle having a
diameter equal to the short diameter of the ellipse. But there is
no test of the ellipse like the ellipse itself as seen in objects. The
student should compare his drawing of ellipses with the rhythmi
cally varying curves which compose ellipses as seen in real objects,
correcting and comparing till the eye is satisfied. If this be faith
fully done, the time will be short before ellipses,
often deemed a bugbear of freehand drawing, be
come a pleasure instead of a penance.
Since the top ellipse appears rounder as it is
<^^~^ dropped below the eye level, it must be concluded
that could the bottom be fully seen it would appear
as a rounder ellipse than that of the top. Place
the cylinder on the table and trace around the bottom with a
pencil. Move the cylinder to one side and compare the shape of
this traced ellipse with that of the top ellipse (Fig. 1^)^ Also
compare both with that part of the cylinder bottom which can
9
Fig. 16
OF THE
UNIVERSlTrV
. OF . T'
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
be seen. There is no difficulty in perceiving that the ellipses in
a vertical cylinder below the eye are rounder as they are farther
below the eye level.
Now, keeping the cylinder vertical, raise it slowly. When the
bottom ellipse reaches the level of the eye, it appears as a straight
line (A in Fig. 17), like the top ellipse when at the
same height. When the cylinder is moved on
above the eye, the bottom becomes an ellipse (B),
which as we raise it farther above the eye level
appears rounder. We perceive that it appears
rounder or less foreshortened in proportion as it is
farther from coinciding with the direction in which
the eye looks to see it, as was the case with the
book cover in Chapter II. Furthermore, if the
cylinder be turned horizontally and held at the level
of the eye with its length parallel to the picture
plane, and one end be brought in front of the eye,
we shall again see this circular end as a straight line (B in Fig. 18),
because it coincides with the direction of seeing. If the cylinder
be moved horizontally to one side, still keeping its length parallel
with the picture plane (A in Fig. 18),
the ellipse appears to widen exactly
as when the cylinder was held verti
cally and moved above or below the
.eye level. The circular top appears
as a circle only when its surface is
at right angles to the direction of
seeing (A, Fig. 14). When oblique to this direction, as at B, it
appears as an ellipse, or foreshortened circle. The ellipse is
plainly, therefore, an illustration of the second great principle,
that of Foreshortening.
The student should now practice drawing ellipses, both vertical
and horizontal, until they can be formed with ease and exactness.
Mark ijie extreme points (A, A, B, B, Fig. 15) first taking care to
have B B exactly opposite the middle of A A. Hold the pencil
10
Fig. 18
THE ELLIPSE
for drawing ellipses as directed in Chapter I for straight lines,
using a position of the hand that will bring the pencil at right
angles to the long diameter. If the ellipse is horizontal, begin it
a little to the left of the middle of the upper side, drawing to the
right first. If vertical, begin below the middle of the left side,
and draw up. Make the whole outline with one movement, first
carrying the pencil evenly several times over the paper without
touching it, to gain confidence and certainty of movement.
11
Chapter IF
A CYLINDER AND A CYLINDRICAL OBJECT
THE student should draw this exercise, following carefully
the directions given. After doing so he should draw a
cylindrical object of his own choosing, putting in practice
the principles taught in this chapter.
Fig. 19
Planning the Drawing. — The Design, or Composition, or Decora
tive Arrangement of the exercise, which is that kind of beauty
secured by a harmonious and artistic relating of the work and its
spaces, is to be considered first in all drawings, and should always
be kept in mind. For this exercise (Fig. 19) we first consider
how to place most effectively in a drawing these two separated
12
CYLINDER AND CYLINDRICAL OBJECT
objects, a cylinder whose height is twice its width and some
simple cylindrical object (in this case a rose jar). To this end
after drawing the margin the extreme points in the boundaries
of the objects are lightly indicated on the paper (Fig. 20), taking
care that the spaces between them and the margin are such as to
give an agreeable and interesting division of the
inclosed surface. The continuous table line be
hind them indicates that they stand on the
same surface, and thus links them together.
The size of the space between them, being no
Fig. 20 morc than that between either and the side
margin, also helps unite them ; and the position of the ornament
on the jar, near the middle of the sheet, attracts the eye to the
'center in comparison with the whole.
Drawing the Cylinder. — For this the paper cylinder model used
in Chapter III is placed as shown in the illustration (Fig. 19),
that is, a little below the eye level, and at least six times its
height from the eye. The apparent proportion of the top (that
is, if the width of the ellipse appears to be one third, one fourth
or some other part of its length) should be carefully judged by
the eye and then tested by pencil measurement. Four points for
this ellipse should then be lightly marked, and it should be drawn
through these points as previously directed. The bottom ellipse
is sketched directly under the upper and in the same way, re
membering that it must be of the same length, but rounder. The
back or invisible part of each ellipse is left light. The straight
lines for the sides must be tangential to the ends of the ellipses, 
so they will join with perfect smoothness. If they do not thus
join, the ellipse is the part most likely to be wrong.
Now is the time to put the drawing back by the paper model
and compare the two. Look longest at the model, glancing briefly
at the drawing ; the aim being always to form in the mind a clear
image of the model's true shape, and to correct the work by it.
The student should ask himself if the cylinder in his drawing
appears to press evenly on the ground like the model. The com
13
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
Fig. 21
monest error is that of bending the outline of the partially visible
ellipse too much at A in Fig. 21, and not increasing the curvature
toward its ends (B, B), thus making the curve
more circular than elliptical, and causing the cyl
inder in his drawing to look as if it would rock
on its base, instead of resting firmly on every
part of it. Sketching the ellipse entire (C, C) is
corrccr/<vs ^^ ^^^ j^ such a case.
Next a pencil line is drawn around the paper
cylinder half way between the top and bottom. Points (E, E,
Fig. 21) are then marked on the drawing, one half way between
the fronts, and the other half way between the backs of the
ellipses. These points should be tested after marking and made
correct, but never measured till the eye has been made to do its
utmost. Observe that these marks give a short diameter for the
middle ellipse half way in size between those of the upper and
lower ellipses.
In the same way the two other lines around the cylinder may
be made on the model and represented in the drawing.
Now another paper cylinder, of the same length as the first
but only two thirds its diameter, must be made, and placed within
the first. Have the space between them even all the way around,
so that the circular tops of the two cylinders form concentric cir
cles. They appear as ellipses. Observing carefully the space be
tween these ellipses, the student easily sees that it appears widest
between the ends, and a little wider between the front sides than
between the back sides. As we
made the inner cylinder two thirds
of the diameter of the outer, the
horizontal space between the ends
of the two ellipses will each be act
ually made one sixth of the length of the outer ellipse. They will
also appear as sixths, because the ends of the ellipse are equally
distant from the eye. The ends of the inner ellipse (C, C) are
marked by light vertical lines. For its front and back we divide
14
Fig. 22
CYLINDER AND CYLINDRICAL OBJECT
the width of the outer one also into sixths, but as these sixths
are in perspective or at varying distances from 'the eye, they are
^ persj^ective sixths. That is, they appear successively smaller as they
7'ecede from the eye. This perspective division is here made wholly
by the eye (though later another method is given). The per
spective middle (point G) is first marked on the short diameter,
making the near half considerably larger than the far one. Each
perspective half is then divided into perspective thirds, after
which the six divisions are tested to see if they are successively
smaller, as directed above. Draw the inner ellipse, making its
ends tangential to the vertical lines (C, C), and exactly opposite
the middle of its short diameter. It will now be found, if we
have drawn the long diameters of these two ellipses where they
must always be, in the apparent middle from front
to hack, that the long diameter of the inner one
falls higher on the paper than that of the outer
one. From this we conclude that neither long
diameter represents the actual diameter of the
circle. Fig. 23 shows the plan of a circle with
its true diameter, A A. The eye at x sees B B, a
line connecting two tangentials, as the longest line
in that circle. It therefore becomes the long diam
eter of the ellipse which the eye in that position
sees. Meanwhile the actual diameter appears both
shorter and farther back than B B, because far
ther away. That part of the circumference back
of B B, though actually larger, is so foreshortened as to appear
exactly like the part in front, producing the symmetry which is
the wonderful and unfailing characteristic of the ellipse.
Since the inner circle is smaller, the eye can see farther round
it, as shown in Fig. 23. This furnishes another reason for its long
diameter falling farther back, and agrees with the fact that the
really even space between the two circles appears greatest in front.
The Rose Jar. — For the second object proceed as with the
cylinder, drawing lightly all of the ellipses entire first. Should
15
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
Fig. 24
any fall at the same height as one on the cylinder, it must be
made of the same roundness, since the two objects are shown
by the table line to be on the same surface, and are equally near
the eye. Compare the size of the ellipses
with the extreme width of the space occu
pied on the paper by the jar. Compare
also the lengths of the top and bottom
ellipses, and the length of each with the
extreme width of the jar. Observe that
the sides of its short cylindrical neck slope
outward slightly toward the body of the jar.
The Shoulders and Base of the Jar. — Before
drawing the side outlines, hold the jar verti
cally at arm's length, and with the top on a
level with the eye. Mark the point (A in
Fig. 24) where the body and neck boundaries meet. Holding this
point, lower the object till the top appears as a fairly round ellipse.
It will be plain that we now see a portion of surface beyond the end
of the ellipse, and more than half way over its shoulder. The
boundary line which marks the limit of our seeing has moved back
on the shoulder, so that it passes out of
sight behind the neck. A little experi
menting shows that the surface visible be
yond the end of the ellipse is in exact h
proportion to the roundness of the ellipse.
Now place a sheet of paper on the
table, and first holding the jar so its base
is on a level with the eye (Fig. 25), mark
the extreme point of the base, B. Lower
the jar slowly, till the bottom rests on the
paper. Mark point B on the paper and
then tha points (C, C) where the side
boundaries now appear to meet the bottom ellipse. Trace
around the bottom and lift aside the object. It will be found
that the projecting mass of the jar, being nearer the eye than
16
/ :
Fig. 25
CYLINDER AND CYLINDRICAL OBJECT
the ellipse, had hidden from sight more than half of it. It is
also evident that on the lower and receding part of the jar the
boundary line advances, so that we see less than half of the sur
face, instead of more, as at the top. If we now trace on the jar
its boundary line and turn it around, the tracing will be seen to
cross the object obliquely (Fig. 26). With these facts
in mind, complete the drawing of the rose jar.
Tangential Joinings. — All meetings of boundary lines
with ellipses must he tangential. That is, they must
touch so that if smoothly continued they would not
cut the ellipse.
Artistic Rendering. — The jar should be first drawn with thin
light lines, corrected to accuracy, and afterward rendered with sig
nificance. For though outlines are entirely conventional, never
being seen in nature, yet they may not only be made to mark off
beautiful and interesting shapes, but by their character to sug
gest other truths and qualities for the enhancement of charm.
Thus in the rose jar the front edge is shown to be nearer than
the back by the heavier line, and the rounded thickness of the
top is indicated by the absence of nearly all of the inner ellipse
at the back and of 'the outer one at the front. The sides are
drawn with a little lighter lines at the top, and though firm
enough to clearly present the shape of the jar, are lighter than
the front part of the top, because representing a part of the jar
further from the eye.
The ornament may help to express the rounded form of the
jar by its foreshortened shape as it nears the boundary, and by
the greater clearness and emphasis of that portion of it most
thrust forward. Its outlines, emphasized on one side, with the
other side light or lost, and the detail shown in the side lines of
the jar, indicate it to be in relief. The expression of color in
places is used to strengthen the projection of the jar..
These remarks, however, must not be understood as rules.
They are but suggestions for the incitement of the student to
use his own artistic judgment.
2 17
Chapter V
AN OBJECT ABOVE THE EYE AND THE
CONE PRINCIPLE
T
sMKtmtiammm^i
HE electric lamp shade here shown (Fig. 27) is vertical
and above the eye, and its ellipses therefore increase in
roundness toward its top. The student should draw this
exercise, and make
another study from
some object similarly
placed.
Dravring the Object.
— Proceed as in the
previous exercise.
Observe that the slop
ing side boundary
lines of the shade join
the ellipses in front
of their ends. The
I flaring shade is like
the lower half of the
rose jar reversed. Its
smaller part is far
Ithest from the level
of the eye, as was the
I base of the rose jar,
I and we therefore do
j not see half way
I round it. To make
I this clear, hold a cone^
_,...«,.»»^««.™»...:^.^.l .^ various positions
Fig. 27
1 One may be made from paper (Fig. 28).
18
OBJECT ABOVE THE EYE, ETC.
Fig. 28
(that is, above and below the eye), and with apex up and down
(Fig. 29).
The button through which the cord is drawn forms an
obHque ellipse. But by turning Fig. 27 so as to bring this
ellipse horizontal, the button will be found symmetrical
on its axis (see Ch. XXVII), and as it is arched or
thickened in its middle, the space in front of the holes
for the cord appears a good deal wider
than that back of them. Each side of
the button is a very flat modified cone.
Notice in the outline of the cylinder the
slight depression marking where the key
enters its side.
It may be now noted that when the cone apex
(that is, its decrease of diameter) is nearer the
eye than its base, we see more than half way round
it. Conversely, we see less than half way round
when the apex is farther from the eye. This char
acteristic of curved or sloping surfaces in cylindrical objects
may be termed the Cone Principle. Broadly speaking, it is the
expression, hy outline merely, of Belief, or Solidity, or TJiird
Dimension. The rose jar in Chapter IV, the cream jug in Chapter
VI, and indeed all cylindrical objects with flaring or bulging
sides, are examples. More advanced applications of this principle
are found in the drawing of such natural objects as trees and
mountains, also in drawing the human face and figure.
Fig. 29
19
T
Chapter VI
A CREAM JUG
HE Model. — Provide an object similar to the cream pitcher
here shown (Fig. 30), from which the student's drawing
should be made. If inexperienced he will be helped by
first making a copy
from this example.
The Handle. — Place
the jug a little below
the eye (according to'
the directions in Ch.
I). Draw the cylindri
cal body entire first as
if it had neither handle
nor spout, and with
light lines (Fig. 31).
Then hold the model
with its center at the
level of the eye and
with the handle in
profile (A in Fig. 32).
Observe that a center
line for the joining of
the handle with the
model would fall in
the curved boundary
line or profile of the
jug. Turn it to bring
the handle directly in
front, when this same center line (x in Fig. 32) will appear
straight and vertical. Now, turn the jug slowly back, bringing
20
Fig. 30
Fig. 31
Fig. 32
A CREAM JUG ^
the handle again into the boundary line. It is apparent that as
the handle revolves, its center line of joining changes in appear
ance from a straight line in front through a succession
of curves that increase in roundness till at last it coin
cides again with the profile of the jug (C in Fig. 32).
These curves are lines such as would be produced on
the surface by cutting vertically through the jug cen
^ ter, as an apple is
halved; and maybe named
Profile Lines or Profiles.
Replace the model on the
table and revolve the handle
to the side again, when it
will be seen that these pro
file curves now begin and end on the top and bottom ellipses
of the jug (Fig. 33). And the side boundary of
the jug does not now coincide with the profile
at the side, as it did (A in Fig. 32) when the jug
was held at. the eye level. This is because of
the change in the position of the boundary.
As the jug is placed below the eye the bound
ary advances from A to B, recedes from B to
C, and advances again from C to D, in accord
ance with the cone principle (Ch. V).
In Fig. 34 is shown by a dotted tracing of this
boundary how it actually differs from
the profile curves in Fig. 33. In
sketching a profile curve, therefore, allowance must be
made, as shown in Fig. 33. Note how x, x, x, the
points of the smallest diameter, fall in an ellipse at that
height ; also the points y, y, y, of the greatest diameter.
One of these profile curves, shaped according to its
nearness to the boundary of the object, should he sketched as a
guide for the attachment of the handle.
In the same way we observe the shape of the handle itself to vary
21
Fig. 33
Fig. 34
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
Fig. 35
Fig. 36
according to position, from a profile view at the side (A in Fig. 32)
to a view of its outer surface (B in Fig. 32).
The Spout. — Looking directly into the jug from above (Fig.
35), we note that the spout is directly opposite the handle, so that
a horizontal line through the middle of both would
pass through the center of the circular top. We there
fore mark the perspective middle of the top ellipse (O
in Fig. 36) (that is, making the nearest half larger),
draw a line through it from the center of the handle top,
and mark the end of the spout on this line. For the
width of the spout, set off perspective distances from this line
either way on the top edge of the pitcher, remembering that the
half nearest the end of the ellipse is much
the more foreshortened; and that the dif
ference is greater the more the top is fore
shortened. From these points to the tip
of the spout straight lines may be sketched
as guides for drawing the edges, which
may be straight but usually curve both upward
and sidewise. The profile or center line for the
spout is sketched like that for the handle (A in
Fig. 36).
The Foot. — The drawing of the foot also needs
some explanation, though covered by the cone
principle of Chapter V. In profile it would ap
pear as at A in Fig. 37, with the circles as straight
lines; and the student should raise his model to
the eye level and observe it thus. On lowering
the model these seeming straight lines appear as ellipses (B,
Fig. 37), and the lower part of the side boundary lines of both the
pitcher and its foot move forward of the ends of these ellipses
till tangential joinings are made at C and D. The upper part
of the boundary of the foot moves back, joining the upper ellipse
at E. In consequence, this side outline of the foot (E D) is a
little lengthened, making its curve less round than in profile.
22
Fig. 37
A CREAM JUG
The lower half of the jug, as we can now see, is a modified ver
tical cone with its apex down (A, Fig. 38). The foot is modified
from two cones; one with the apex up, the other with the
apex down (B, Fig. 38). See Chapters
IV and V.
The Ornament. — The principle fol
lowed in suggesting the perspective of
the ornament will be readily seen from
the illustration (Fig. 39). The
curved guide lines are parts
of profiles similar to those for
placing the handle and spout.
The student will now begin to understand that it is
possible to recognize and suggest the solid rounding
surface of the object by every line and touch upon it.
To this end that part of the ornament nearest the
eye is more emphasized in the final drawing. And
looking carefully at the object, we see that besides
its foreshortening, that part of the ornament near
the boundary is less distinct, and is often lost in the reflec
tions from its surroundings.
Fig. 38
Fig. 39
23
Chapter VII
A TIME STUDY
HAYING carefully studied the principles of cylindrical
objects, it is now best to take a specified time, as fifteen
minutes, for the more free drawing of such an object,
choosing a simple one at first. Proceed as before, except that
most of the measuring and testing must be omitted. This leaves
■ Fig. 40. A Time Study.
time to draw slowly and thoughtfully, making the unaided eye do
all that is possible. Study the general shape, looking long at thB
object, and moving the pencil several times, without marking
over the paper where the lines are to be drawn to acquire confi
dence and certainty of touch. Require yourself to work with
24
A TIME STUDY
no erasing (except of such construction lines as may show when
the drawing is done), and to stop when the time is up. It will
be found a valuable exercise to draw in this way the same object
several times. After one drawing is done, carefully examine
and test it to find the errors, but do not correct them on that
drawing. Instead, make those points right in your next attempt
at the same object.
Observe in Fig. 39 how the effect of glass is given by a few
lines selected from those many graceful curves of delicate dark
and light which appear in the object; also the sketching of its
high lights, or window reflections, and the wavy distortion of
lines seen through it. The. straight lines give a firmness to the
\ composition which is needed, since the bowl consists wholly of
curved lines.
25
□
FiG. 41
Chapter VIII
A GROUP OF CYLINDRICAL OBJECTS
FIG, 44 is an exercise in the grouping of cylindrical objects
agreeably and appropriately together. The student is
advised to first draw this example, using carefully the
explanations given. After that, he should arrange and draw
another group of two cylindrical objects.
Making the Composition. — In composing this second group,
experiments should be made with a number of objects, combin
ing them in different ways. A Finder, which is a
card having a small rectangular opening cut in it
(Fig. 41) , will greatly assist in judging the pictorial
effect of a composition, especially in a rectangular
margin. The student should look through it at his arrangement
with one eye, letting its edge take the place of a margin, and
moving it back and forth till the ^
place is found where it makes the ^db
group look best. Little trial or ^^^
*' thumbnail" sketches (Figs. 42 —y
and 43) should also be made to
determine the best arrangement. ^=^
In Fig. 44, for example, we Fig42
observe that the objects are such as might naturally be placed
together, and are placed in positions that are not unusual. Next
their shapes make a pleasant relief or contrast to each other with
out harsh or awkward opposition ; one being tall and slender and
the other lower and round. Yet the teapot is not so low nor
wide but that it echoes in some degree the dominant height of
the candlestick, thus aiding harmony. Its spout is allowed to
26
Fig. 43
A GROUP OF CYLINDRICAL OBJECTS
project across the candlestick, thus contributing to the unity of
the composition. The leaning bowl, by passing behind both,
also strengthens
unity, and by its
lighter and more
interrupted lines
furnishes a tran
sition, or connec
tion, between the
nearer objects
and the white
paper. These
results might be
secured by other
groupings. But
had the candle
stick been in
front, for in
stance, its pro
jection above and
below the teapot
would have been
so nearly equal as
to seem uninter
esting (Fig. 42).
Yet we could
have remedied
this somewhat by
placing the can
dlestick a greater
distance in ad Fig. 44
vance, or raising
the teapot handle. Or the cover could have been placed on the
ground in front (Fig. 43) — indeed, many possibilities will be
suggested by a little study.
27
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
Drawing the Group. — In drawing this exercise, observe tliat
though the bottom ellipses of the two objects are at the same
level the nearer appears slightly rounder (Solutions of Problems,
Ch. XI) . Care must be taken in placing these ellipses to allow
for the bulging of the teapot sides. Remember that in propor
tion as the bottoms are drawn foreshortened so must all spaces
on the table be regarded as foreshortened. Note also that all
ellipses in the candlestick which are nearer the eye level than the
top of the teapot will be less round than those of the teapot.
The Teapot Ears. — In placing these, an ellipse may be used as
a guide (A in Fig. 45) . The middle points of the two ears should
^^<r:E?r^\ be on a line passing through the perspective (that is,
/^^^^^^y,^^ actual) center (o) of this ellipse, as were the handle
"^ and nose of the pitcher in Chapter VI. The
Q ^^^^i^^ cover is arched (B in Fig. 45), so that it conceals
^X X^ the back of its elliptical edge. This arched shape
sMowNOARCM orcovtR jg dlstluctly sccu 111 the form of its top boundary
and is a very different shape from the ellipse.
But this arched boundary does not fall in the actual middle of
the cover (since we are looking down on it), but a little beyond
that. The knob is in the actual middle.
The rendering of two things is more complicated and inter
esting than that of one alone. As the candlestick is farther away
than the teapot, its lines are made lighter, and in places are quite
lost. The lines of the glass rim, or hoheche are thinner, more
interrupted and more smoothly sweeping. The leaning bowl
may be omitted at this time, if found difficult. The principles
of its construction are given later (Ch. XXVII). If omitted it
will be found necessary to make the farther lines of the candle
stick lighter yet, to serve in place of the bowl as a transition.
28
Chapter IX
CYLINDRICAL OBJECTS GROUPED
WITH FRUIT
A N example of grouping is here given in which part of the
/\ group is cut by the margin, while the apples illustrate
jL JL the combination of natural forms with cylindrical ob
jects. As in the preceding exercise, the student should compose
Fig. 46
a group corresponding to this exercise and draw it ; and if inex
perienced should draw this before making his original one.
Study of the Group. — In locating the pitcher on the paper, see
that its base is far enough from the dish for the two objects to clear
29
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
each other. Observe the generally elliptical shape of the curves
in the glass pitcher ; and how the edge of the plate is seen warped
and interrupted through it. The plate is made subordinate, as
forming part of the background for
the other two objects. Its position,
appearing in its actual shape as a
simple circle, contributes to the de
sired effect of quietness or subor
dination, as does its being cut by
the margin line, and its lighter and
PtSSPECTIVE..
XY roReSMtMTtNED.
^^« 4'' slightly interrupted lines.
Since it is standing vertically, it must be supported by a
vertical surface behind it. Consequently the table line (Ch. I)
must be placed only far enough on the paper above the lowest
point of the plate edge to express the foreshortened necessary
distance of this point from the wall behind it (Fig. 47).
30
Chapter X
A GROUP OF OBJECTS FROM MEMORY
OR INVENTION
THIS example illustrates the drawing of objects from
invention or memory. The student may sketch this
exercise as directed; then should invent or draw from
memory one of his own arrangement, making small trial
sketches as in Chapter VIII, and using the best of these in his
Fig. 48
final composition. Should his memory not be clear enough
for this, it may be refreshed as often as necessary by study
of the objects he chooses to draw, the only condition being
that the drawing he done without the object in view.
31
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
Drawing the Above Study. — In this exercise the Japanese
luncheon carrier is placed first. Its ellipses are sketched in
full, whether entirely seen or not. The bowlshaped top, being
slightly inclined, is drawn on a leaning axis (A, B in Fig. 49).
But it is perfectly symmetrical on this axis (Ch. XXVII) . This
symmetry should be tested in the drawing by turning it to
bring the axis vertical, when any error is easily detected. (Ch.
XXVIII.)
The Flat Dish. — It was desired to draw the flat dish as it
would appear if touching the luncheon carrier. Its height (x y)
is therefore measured upon the front of that object from its lower
edge, and an ellipse of
the proper roundness
drawn at that height.
The top ellipse of the
dish would touch the
other object somewhere
in this ellipse, and so
was drawn tangential
to it. To obtain the
bottom ellipse of the
dish, this same height,
increased to allow for
its slightly greater near
ness to the eye, was measured downward from the dish top.
But as the sides of the dish are flaring, this measuring was done
from the estimated true middle (0 in Fig. 49) of the top of the
dish, giving O' for the true center of the lower ellipse. The foot
is like a very short cylinder. The flaring sides of the dish are
drawn tangentially from the rim (F, F) to the upper ellipse of
the foot.
The Ornament. — In drawing the ornament on the luncheon
carrier the explanation in Chapter VI is recalled. On the cover
the band of fret decoration appears narrowed at its front, and
widest at the ends. It is a modification of the cylinder top in
32
Fig. 49
OBJECTS FROM MEMORY
Chapter IV. Note the foreshortening in its details, and how the
lines of the fret express the curving form of the cover. It will
be seen that the stripes on the object and some lines of the fret
follow the profile lines mentioned in Chapter VI.
The Fan. — Like the plate in Chapter IX, the fan is purposely
placed so that it is not foreshortened. Therefore the two points
(G, Gr) at which it rests on the table appear, as they actually are,
in a horizontal line. It also appears in its true shape, symmetrical
on an axis passing through its handle (H, H). It is more easily
drawn entire first, erasing later the part not needed.
33
Chapter XI
THE CYLINDER CONE AND BALL GROUPED
—A PROBLEM FOR ORIGINAL STUDY
GENERAL Conditions for Perspective Problems. — Problems
are to the student both, a test of his comprehension of
the subject thus far, and an exercise by which the subject
becomes firmly fixed in his mind. To this end the drawings
must be made without the models in sight, though they should be
studied, and if necessary even sketched in the required positions
before drawing. If the student is at loss to recall
their appearance while engaged in work they may
be studied as often as needed ; provided only that
neither the models nor sketches of them are be
fore the student as the drawing is made. It can
' \"^«efpuANE )' not be expected that any object should be drawn
' ' ' until opportunity has been given for its thorough
Fi« ^0 study ; but on the other hand it is not mastered
until it can be correctly drawn from unaided knowledge and
memory. The stated dimensions are important, giving training
in the expression of proportion, though drawings need not be
full size.
Drawings should of course be made without assistance, and
without referring to the explanations in the back of this
book. When the student has under the required conditions
made his drawing, he may then test his work by consulting
the explanation.
Conditions of this Problem. — In this problem the cylinder and
cone are to be 4" in diameter by 8" high, and the ball ^' in
34
CYLINDER CONE AND BALL
diameter. The group is to be drawn as if three fourths of the
cylinder height below the eye, and at least six times its height
distant. The cylinder stands on one end and the cone on its base,
touching the cylinder and a little in front of it at one side. The
ball also touches the cylinder, and is a little more in front of it
on the other side. The plan (Fig. 50) will make this clearer.
85
Chapter XII
rT"
THE STUDY OF STRAIGHTLINE
OBJECTS
A Book with Back Paeallel with the Face
FOR this study provide a book, two long pencils, and three
yards of fine twine, also paper for sketching. Choose
a book of interesting appearance; a somewhat worn,
leatherbound book is best. Place it well back on the table in
front of you and below the
eye with its back next to
and parallel with the pic
ture plane, and its ends
equally distant from you
(Fig. 51).
The Book Below the Eye.
— Two surfaces are visible,
the back and one cover.
Count the edges seen (seven),
then decide how many of
these are actually horizontal.*
If the
Fig. 51 , i .
book IS
placed as directed, its back, being parallel with
the picture plane, will be seen in its true shape
if traced upon it. Lifting the cover till it
is vertical (Fig. 52), we see that the cover
also now appears in its actual form. But as we drop it slowly
* It may not at first be realized that the ends of the cover are horizontal, as well as its
sides. But as they are contained in a horizontal surface (in this case the cover), they also
must be horizontal. Their perspective appearance must be distinguished from their actual
position.
36
Fig. 52
STRAIGHTLINE OBJECTS
/
back till horizontal, we observe that the further edge seems to
grow shorter because moving from the eye, and that the whole
cover becomes foreshortened or narrowed from front to back,
like the circular ends of the cylinder in
Chapter lY. If (as with the house in
Ch. II), a pane of glass were standingin place
of the imaginary picture plane, a tracing of
the cover on that would be a true perspec
V tive of it. How to draw on the paper such a
perspective is our problem. Stand the pen
cils against the nearest comers of the cover
(Fig. 53) ; then closing one eye, and keeping the other exactly
opposite the middle of the book, incline the
pencils toward each other (being careful
not to lean them back or forward) until
they appear to lie just along the retreat
ing ends of the cover (Fig. 54). Let
another person hold a ruler against the ^^
pencils, moving it down until its edge seems
to coincide with the further edge of the
cover (Fig. 55). Now the pencils and the
ruler together picture the apparent shape of
the cover, and we plainly see how the ap
parent shortening of the back edge (caused by
its greater distance from us) makes the ends
appear to converge toward each other. The
question now is : Can the law of that conver
gence be so determined that it may be applied in any drawing?
The Converging B,ook Ends. — Substitute for the pencils the
string slipped under the cover to the back, and using one eye as
before, bring the ends together so that the strings will appear to
exactly coincide with the ends of the cover as did the pencils.
(Be sure to keep the string vertically over the front edge of the
book, not letting it fall back or forward.) The pencil may now
37
Fig. 54!
Fig. 55
,. ^f" THE
UNIVERSfTy
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
be taken in the other hand, and slipped down on the string, to
form again the shape of the foreshortened cover (A in Fig. 59).
Still holding the string as before, raise the book and string
a few inches, keeping the book level and the string taut (A in
Fig. 56). The string does not now cover the book ends, and
the joining must be brought lower (as in B) that it may do so.
If the book is raised more, the joining is yet
nearer to the book, as in C; until when the
book cover is at the level of the eye (Fig. 57)
the string and the book cover both disappear
in, or coincide with, the upper edge of the book.
Now, starting with the position last shown,
(Fig. 57) hold the thumb and finger firmly at
that place on the eye level (this can be done
by noting a point behind it on the wall), and
let the book drop slowly. Keep it exactly
horizontal, and let the string slip through the
stationary thumb and finger, so that their meet
ing point remains at the eye level. If this is carefully done, it
will be seen that as the book descends, the string continues
to cover the converging ends (as in C and B, Fig. 56). At the
same time the cover appears to grow wider, and its ends more
and more nearly vertical.
38
Fig. 57
STRAIGHTLINE OBJECTS
These experiments should also be tried with the lower
cover, holding the book above the eye (Fig. 58), and raising and
lowering it.
From the foregoing study it is easily perceived that, provided
we Jceep the hook Jiorizontal, the point toward which its ends appear to
converge remains always at the level of the eye.
We have therefore only to sketch the eye level
at its right height compared with some measure
ment on the object and mark the point of con
vergence in the right place on it, to be able to
use it for drawing these converging lines.
We have also found that the horizontal hook
covers (like the cylinder top in Ch. IV) appear
foreshortened according as they approach the eye
level, whether above or below it (Figs. 56
and 58).
Sketching the Book. — The book may now be replaced as at first.
Then, holding the strings, as before, take the pencil as in B, Fig.
Fig. 58
59, that the thumb nail may be used as a sliding gauge. With it
measure the length of the back of the book on its upper near
edge and compare its length with the vertical distance from this
edge to where the strings join (C in Fig. 59). (In this case it
takes one and one fourth of the book length to reach the joining
of the strings.) Now the back of the book may be sketched in,
the point of convergence (the joining of the string) marked on
39
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
Fig. 60
the paper one and a half book lengths above its middle, and lines
drawn from the upper corners of the back to this point. On
these lines the ends of the cover are to be marked
off. The perspective or apparent width of the
cover may be found by measuring it with a pen
cil held vertically as in Fig. 60, and comparing
this dimension with the length of the book. In
this case the apparent width is one fourth of the
book length.
The Level of the Eye. — This will be found of
the greatest importance in all drawings. It should
be carefully marked in the drawing as soon as the position of the
objects on the paper give a basis for locating it. At first, another
person may assist (Fig. 61), but a
little practice will enable the student
to find it for himself. The top of
a pencil, held vertically over the
objects, will appear as a straight
line when at the height of the eye
(Fig. 62). Or if any part of the
study is as high as the eye, the eye
level will be where any horizontal
surface or any receding horizontal lines appear as straight lines.
See Fig. 63.
Parallel Lines. — By holding one string down on
the near end of a margin line on the book this line
will be seen to converge to the same point with
the, two ends (Fig. 64). By placing a second book
on and parallel to the first, we can show that all
lines parallel with the first two converging ones will
appear to converge tvith them to the same point. An
Fig. 62 important deduction from this is that parallel lines
appear to converge to the same point.
It is also evident that since the whole book cover is fore
shortened from front to back, the margins will be foreshortened
40
Fig. 61
STRAIGHTLINE OBJECTS
— tr «. _ ,«
in the same direction. And we find that the side margins are
foreshortened in length, but not in width; while the front and
back margins are foreshortened in width, and
the back one more than the front. This fol
lows the principle of the top of the hollow
cylinder in Chapter IV.
The Vanishing Point. — We see that the
book ends seem to converge in proportion ^^^ ^^
as the back edge of the cover appears shorter. If a second
book like this were placed back of, and touching it, its front
edge would appear of
the same length as the
back of this, and its back
edge shorter, while its
ends would converge in
a line with those of the
first book (Fig. 65). This
can be imagined as re
peated infinitely, each
book appearing smaller
than the one before it,
Fig. 64
and the cover ends all falling in the same con
verging lines, until a point would be all that could
represent the last book. The
row of books might be said to
vanish in this point, which is
therefore called the Vanishing
Point of such lines as converge
toward it, as do the ends of
the book cover. Vanishing
Points, like the Level of the
Eye, play a most important part in the study
of perspective.
A familiar example of vanishing lines, as those which appear
to vanish, or converge perspectively, are called, is found in a
41
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
receding railroad track (Fig. 66). The ties appear shorter
as they are successively farther from the eye; and the rails
appear and converge, till the whole track, if it could be seen
for a long enough distance, might seem to disappear, or vanish
in a point.
42
Chapter XIII
DRAWING THE BOOK^IN TWO POSITIONS
■rf^jy
THE student may copy this example, but in any case
should place a book successively in these positions and
draw from that; having it high enough or far enough
from the eye, to see it
in a normal position as
explained on page 2.
He should also make
drawings from mem
ory of a book in both
positions, expressing
them as artistically
as possible.
In the first position
on this sheet, the
eye level falls off the
paper; and may be
marked for use on a
piece of paper fastened
to the drawing (Fig.
68) . See that the table
line is high enough on
the paper to clear the
lower back corners of
the book.
It will be observed
that the back of the
book is not quite flat
but slightly curved — a modification of the cylinder. This will
be understood by holding the cylinder horizontally (Fig. 69).
43
Fig. 67
Fig. 68
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
The curve opposite the eye is seen as a straight line, since it
coincides with (or lies in a plane passing through) the direction
j _ vft^ 1 of seeing. The farther these lines are from
^o» / \ gI^^^^^^^I coinciding with this direction (in this case
to right ajd left) the more apparent is their
curvature.
For the second position in this exercise
the book is opened and turned around so that
its ends are parallel with the picture plane.
They may therefore be drawn in their true
shape like the back of the book. The sides
and all lines parallel with them now vanish
to VP ^ (on the eye level directly in front of
the student). Note that points A, B, and C,
where the book rests on the horizontal table (Fig. 68), are in a
straight line that is parallel to the picture
plane, and therefore drawn in its true
direction, which is horizontal. Observe
the projection of the covers beyond the
leaves, and that it extends backward at
D and E. The thickness of the covers
must be recognized, though the wearing off of the edges and
corners may obliterate their sharpness. Since the right and Left
corners of the book are equally distant from the eye care must
be taken that the covers are drawn of equal wddth. The clasps
must be long enough to allow of their being fastened when the
book is closed. Their ends are in a line converging to VP.
The table line, being a subordinate element, should be so
placed that most of its length is covered. Avoid anything which
would tend to emphasize it, as making it coincide with the back
corners of the book.
1 Used as an abbreviation for the vanishing point.
Fig. 69
44
Chapter XIV
THE BOOK WITH A CYLINDRICAL OBJECT
THIS exercise (Fig. 70) combines a book in one of the
two positions previously studied with a cylindrical ob
ject. The student may draw this example or not,
according to his proficiency; but should compose and sketch
a similar group, arranging and making trial sketches of several
Fig. 70
compositions. Observe that the extreme points of the book
must be equidistant from the eye, as in Chapters XII and
XIII. But as soon as we place another object with the book,
the two must be considered together as forming one group or
picture.
45
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
PWNflF
PiCTUftt
PMALLC
SHOWINO
PLANE
TDAOOK
This brings us to reflect that whatever the number of objects
we include in our picture, it is always drawn with the eye directly
opposite the picture as a whole, so that the center of seeing is in
the middle of the group from side to side. We also
recall that the picture plane is always at right
angles (viewed from above) to the direction of see
ing. So, if the cylindrical object is placed on, or
in front of the book (as in Figs. 70 and 71), the
central direction of seeing the picture is not
changed ; and the picture plane continues parallel
to one set of lines in the book as in the preceding
exercise with the book alone. (See plan, Fig. 71.)
If, on the other hand, the cylindrical object is
placed at the side and the picture thus enlarged
in one direction only (Fig. 72), the direction of
seeing is immediately thereby
moved to correspond, and the
picture plane moves with it.
The book will cease to be equi
distant at its ends from the
picture plane and cannot be drawn as previ
ously studied. This subject is considered
more fully in Chapters XXXIV and XLI.
It would of course be possible to add objects
to the book equally at both
sides (as in Fig. 73), but dan
ger of stiffness in such an
arrangement must then be
remedied by some such device as the string of
beads, making a more complicated study than
is desirable at present.
For this exercise, therefore, place the cylindrical object some
where within the extreme points from side to side of the
book.
It will be observed that a cylindrical object is always placed so
46
Fig. 71
PLAN or
oaiecTS)
Tut OEKTIR'
W^ANE 16 MO
TDTIie
&AKie
WITH TKE 600K
AT THt RiOHT.
or THE PICTUSC
*N0 Tie PICTURE
LONGCR MRAIXEI.
Fig. 72
Fig. 73
THE BOOK WITH A CYLINDRICAL OBJECT
that a part of its base is seen, if only a very small part. For
this reason, it is not put behind the book unless the foot
can be left partly visible. The reason for this precaution is
the uncertain effect produced by a study in which it is not
observed.
47
Chapter XV
A PROBLEM FOR ORIGINAL STUDY— THE
CYUNDER AND RECTANGULAR BLOCK
FOR general directions see Chapter XI.
The Models. — The rectangular block is 4" square by 8"
long. It may be made of cardboard, cut as in the diagram
(Fig. 74), and glued/ like the cube in Chapter XVI. Or two
cubes, made as there directed, may be used in its place. The
cylinder is 4" by 8", and has a circle about its middle.
' »
!^
)(o,n.
• ^
Fig. 74
Fig. 75
Positions. — The block lies on one long face, its long edges par
allel with the picture plane. The cylinder stands on one base in
front of the block, touching it at its middle (Fig. 75). The
models rest on a surface three times the height of the block below
the eye, and are four feet distant.
^ The light lines indicate where it is scored and bent for the edges of the block,
quarterinch projections are laps for fastening.
48
The
Chapter XVI
THE FURTHER STUDY OF STRAIGHT
LINE OBJECTS— A CUBE AT ANGLES
WITH THE PICTURE PLANE
THE Model. — For this study make a cube, f oui* inches on a
side, from cardboard cut as in the illustration (A, Fig. 76).
Pass a string under one edge and out of adjacent corners
(B, Fig. 76) before glueing together.
Study of the Subject. — Turn the cube so the string comes from
the upper front corners, and place it
as the book was placed in Chapter
XII (Fig. 77). Now, holding a front
corner of the cube firmly, revolve
the cube on that corner, bringing
the side x into sight (Fig. 78). The
moment the cube begins to revolve,
the front, y^ begins to be turned
away, ceasing to be
parallel with the pic
ture plane, and tend
ing toward coinciding
Fig. 76
with the direction of seeing. In proportion as it
is turned away, its right edge (H) becomes shorter,
so that its upper and lower edges (E and F) appear
to converge. The cube may be revolved until
these edges (and their parallel, D) in their turn
converge directly in front (Fig. 79), as A and B did
at first. Then the side x, becoming parallel with the picture
plane, will in turn be seen in its true shape, while its top and
bottom edges appear horizontal.
4 49
Fig. 77
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
Fig. 78
//a\\
■4
1/
Now turn the cube slowly back to the position of Fig. 78,
and with the strings find the converging point of A and B.
Figure 80 shows the cube in this position,
and the vanishing of A, B, and C by the use
of three strings. The lines at right angles
to them, which in Fig. 79 vanished directly
in front, here (in Fig. 80) vanish so far to the
right that the strings cannot reach their
vanishing point.
If the cube is now revolved in the opposite direction, this
vanishing point (which we may call VP2 ^) again moves
inward, as seen in Fig. 81.
It will be now readily seen that though any set of
parallel horizontal lines (as A, B, and C) are directed
more to the right or left, according as the cube is turned,
they are never actually raised
or lowered. Hence their van
ishing point does not move
up or down, but is always
found on the eye level. We may
therefore conclude that receding hori
zontal lines always vanish in the eye
_ level.
We also confirm what was observed
in Chapter XII, that 'parallel lines vanish
to the same point.
Let us now study the effect on the
shape of its faces of revolving the cube.
In Figure 77 the front face, y^ appears
in its true shape, while lines at right
angles to this face (as A and B) vanish
directly in front, and the sides x and y
are invisible. As the cube is revolved
(Fig. 78) so that x comes into sight, so y is turned away, or
1 In distinction to that already found. Vanishing points are numbered in order of finding.
50
Fig. 79
■£.yf Lcii'^l
V.P^.
Fig. 81
STUDY OF STRAIGHTLINE OBJECTS, ETC.
Ar/^OT A CUI5E.
A,B,a«dC ASt
TOO/TEEP FOP
THE wimn or
X; ANO D, E
NOT yTEEP
ENOUGH FOB
THE ro(?e
5M0(^Tert/tMO
OF y.
B._CoR SECTION
OF A, BY CHANG
IMG THE JLANTOF
THE VANI/HINC
CC0lf»ECTl« EBGE/, WHEN TMI
ofA 8y vi/ioth of the '
CHANSINSTHE JIDE; i; FOUNOTO
WIDTH OFTHe BS Kl&MT.
TMEDlRScnOM
OF TX£ VANIfM
ItKi LINKJpROVlJ
Tb ee leoHT.
Fig. 82
foreshortened. As a; widens, and its horizontal edges (A and B)
grow less steep, the other side narrows, and its horizontal edges
(E and F) become more steep. Steep
ness of the horizontal edges, therefore,
goes with foreshortened surfaces. Good
judgment on this point is very impor
tant, as the cube is the basis for later
estimates of foreshortened surfaces.
For this reason much space has
been given to its study. It should
be drawn with great care till thor
oughly mastered.
The Recession of Horizontal Surfaces Tovrard the Eye Level. — It
will be interesting here to place several cubes in a receding row,
and see how the vanishing lines, being all included in one or
the other of two sets, will vanish accordingly to one or the other
of two vanishing points. Taking out
every second cube (Fig. 83), we find the
vanishing of those left to be unaltered.
We also perceive that the table on
which all rest seems to rise as it re
cedes, apparently tending to vanish or
merge itself in the line marking the
eye level.
Looking at the tops of the cubes, all
situated in one horizontal plane, and recalling the horizontal
surfaces in previous drawings (as the book covers and the
cylinder ends) we conclude that all horizontal surfaces appear
to approach the level of the eye as they recede. This is seen
to be true whether they are below the eye or above it. The
vertical distance between receding horizontal planes must ap
pear less as it is farther from the eye, till at an infinite dis
tance it would be entirely lost, and the parallel planes would
vanish in a line (the eye level) as parallel lines vanish in a
point.
51
"~To ^ZpI
FiG. 83
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
The Eye Level. — The eye level, or level of the eye, is not
actually a line ; but a height, or invisible horizontal plane, which
may be said to extend indefinitely. Thus if the student's eye is
^ five feet above the ground, his eye level passes through and
includes every point at that height. But as each one's eye level
is " edge to" him, it would (if visible) always appear to him as a
line, hence it is always drawn as a line.
52
Chapter XVII "^ '^^
THE CUBE IN TWO DIFFERENT POSITIONS
THIS exercise should first be drawn from the objects, and
then from memory, according to the general directions
for memory work (Ch. XI). Two drawings on one
sheet, showing the cube in different positions, are to be made.
They should be represented as of the same size, which may be
i iii i i iJMj w iffy yi w i k '^awyMMtapii
wta% »:* Wiii>M»t'^< I I Mi Milw tf
Fig. 84
done by making their nearest vertical edges of the same length
and at the same height on the paper, and using the same eye
level for both.
Position of Models. — For the first drawing, place the card
board cube so that its front faces are equally turned away, or
make angles of fortyfive degrees with, the picture plane (A in
53
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
Fig. 85, also plan). Notice that its upper back corner will then
appear exactly behind the upper front one, the vertical sides
Fig. 85
of equal width and the side corners opposite each other and
equidistant from the center. In the second position the cube is
turned so its right face makes an angle of
sixty degrees with the picture plane (B in
Figs. 85 and 86).
Making the Drawing. — Fasten the paper
in its place on the desk or have its posi vlaa or a plah of q
tion so marked that it can be accurately ^^^ ^^
returned to the same place. Draw the margin lines and lightly
mark the extreme points for the two cubes (Ch. lY). Note that
in the first position (A, Fig. 85) the cube
occupies slightly more space, both horizon
tally and vertically. Since the cube is a
type solid the lines in its final rendering
are simple and firm, only varying slightly
in thickness to suggest distance. Begin
the first cube with the easiest part, which is its nearest vertical
edge. This is parallel with the picture plane, and so is drawn
in its true position. As soon as this line is placed mark the
eye level (in this case it falls off the paper) finding its height
as directed for the book. The numbers on the diagram (Fig. 87)
54
DiAGPAM
shovinq a
convenient
order for .
drawing the
lines of the
cui3e, and of
rectangular
objects in general,
Fig. 87
THE CUBE IN TWO DIFFERENT POSITIONS
Fig. 88
give the order in which not only cubes, but rectangular ob
jects generally, should be drawn. Get the direction of lines
2, 2 by pencil measurement (Ch. II) with espe
cial care, as their meeting with the eye level
determines the vanishing points. Hold the pen
cil vertically in front of, or even touching the j<^"^:::jin
nearest end of line 2 (Fig. 88). Then keeping
it parallel with the picture plane
(that is, not receding as the line
does, but resting in an imaginary
vertical plane) revolve it down
ward to the right until it seems to cover line 2
Fig. 89 (Fig. 89). Holding it thus, with the other hand
slip the paper (on which the
drawing has been started) up
vertically behind it till the pen
cil touches the upper end of
the vertical line already drawn,
and lies on
C^\ the paper,
sh o win g
the direction line 2 should take (Fig. 90).
(This puts the paper in the position of
the picture plane.) Draw this first line 2,
and mark its vanishing point on the eye
level (VPl). The direction of the other
line 2 could be found in the same way
but as in this case they make equal angles
with the picture plane, their vanishing
points will be equidistant from the center,
and YP2 can therefore be so located, and the second line 2 drawn
to it. Lines 3, 3 are then drawn (recalling that parallel lines
converge to the same vanishing point).
For lines 4, 4 compare the apparent width of a near vertical
face (A in Fig. 91) with the front vertical line (B in Fig. 91).
55 •
Fig. 90
Fig. 91
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
Fig. 92
(This front line, being seen in its actual position and unfore
shortened, is the best for use as a unit of measurement.) Mark to
right and left from line 1 in the drawing the proportionate dis
tance so found (in this case two thirds of line 1) and draw lines
4, 4. From their upper extremities
draw lines 5, 5 to their respective
vanishing points.
For the second drawing place the
cube as directed, and proceed as
with the first cube. In this case
VP2 falls so far away that it can
not be shown in the illustration
(B, Fig. 85). But we know that
it must fall somewhere in the eye
level. (It will be so found in the
illustration, if tested.) At this stage a string pinned to VP4 will
aid in detecting errors of vanishing, and will also make real the
fact that these lines must vanish precisely to their own vanishing
point.
A Valuable Testing Method. — After this the following far more
speedy and convenient method of testing should be acquired:
With one eye closed hold the drawing close to the eye level, and
turn it so that
one set of van
ishing lines are
directed to the
open eye (Fig.
92). Push the
drawing back
or forward as
needed till the
eye occupies the place of the vanishing point for the lines in
question. Now sight back over this set of converging lines,
when it will be found that any failing to properly vanish are
quickly seen and easily noted for correction. A little expe
56
Fig. 93
THE CUBE IN TWO DIFFERENT POSITIONS
rience is needed to do this successfully, but it is well worth
the trouble.
Testing Before a Class. — An impressive method of demonstra
ting the vanishing of lines when teaching a class is the following.
Draw a long horizontal line on the blackboard and mark it " Eye
Level." Tack each pupil's drawing in turn on the blackboard so
that the blackboard eye level coincides with the eye level of the
pupil's drawing. With a long ruler follow out one of the vanish
ing lines (Fig. 93), and find its vanishing point on the blackboard
eye level. Holding the ruler at this vanishing point as a pivot,
swing it over the other lines of the set that should vanish to that
point. The test is convincing, even to children; and helps
greatly to form a standard of accuracy.
It should always be remembered, however, that such measur
ing is only for testing^ never for drawing the lines.
67
Chapter XVIII
A BOOK AT ANGLES TO THE PICTURE
PLANE
THE student may copy this example but must in any case
draw from a book similarly placed ; and finally make a
correct and spirited drawing of the same from memory.
The position of this book is like that of the last cube (Ch.
XYII). In studying this position begin with the book directly in
r
»SiXSvimMa^*fm
VrftMiittw rirjfl\*^ihi^iniiii'hiiai\f»mman<o
■ o iij^ tfW * '' w %S Bwt> ^ '^gg»Jr»»'vwgw
Fig. 94
front as in Chapter XII. Note the convergence of its ends ; then
turning it slowly into the required position for drawing (Figs. 94
and 95), observe how the ends change in their convergence and
how their vanishing point moves to the right on the eye level
as the book is turned. Look also at the long edges of the
book and see how, at the first movement of revolving it, they
58
A BOOK AT ANGLES TO PICTURE PLANE
cease to appear horizontal, and vanish toward a point which,
though at first infinitely distant, must nevertheless fall on the
eye level.
Drawing the Book. — Sketch the margin lines, and plan a good
position of the book in relation to the inclosed space. Mark the
height of the eye level as soon as a dimension (as xy. Fig. 95) by
Fig. 95
which it can be estimated is decided on. Find the direction of the
book edges (corresponding to lines 2, 2 in the cube in Ch. XVI)
with especial care. Sketch in the book with delicate lines, pro
ceeding in the order observed when drawing the cube, and
correcting where necessary.
Artistic Expression. — Finally, the subject should be rendered
artistically. To accomplish this, the line is adapted to the qual
ity of that portion on which it is used. Certain features may be
selected for use to augment interest ; as the curving ridges, the
ornament, and the title space on the back, or even the worn
corners. But having expressed in these details the point intended
(as a worn corner by the shape of its boundary line) take care to
do no more. It is wearisome, for instance, to see lines on these
corners to represent the separation into layers caused by wear.
Lines also produce a dark color, while worn corners are generally
light; and are also undesirable places for the use of dark
spots.
59
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
As the vertical edges of the cube are drawn vertical because
parallel with the picture plane, so the corners of the book must be
made vertical in the drawing, as they are in reality. For in
stance, points C and D being in a vertical line, must be so placed
in the drawing. The same is true of the curves on the back of
the book.
At this point the student readily sees that all vertical lines
(since the picture plane is vertical) will he parallel to the picture
plane, and must invariably he drawn as they actually are, or vertical.
60
Chapter XIX
TWO BOOKS AT DIFFERENT ANGLES TO
THE PICTURE PLANE
B
EGIN the study of this subject by placing the books as
in Fig. 97. Observe that in this position there is but
one vanishing point for the two objects, the ends of
Fig. 96
the books being all parallel, and their other horizontal edges
parallel with the picture plane. Now turn the whole group,
as in Fig. 98, and see that we have two vanishing points,
61
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
EYfUvaL
one for the ends and the other for the long edges of the
books.
Now revolve the upper book a little more (Fig. 99), so
that its horizontal edges cease to be parallel
to those of the other,
and it will have its
own points of con
vergence (VPS and t^i
VP4). Its length ap
pears lessened, and its — i ^^— _
ends longer, for this Fig. 98
change. The shortened edges vanish more steeply, and those
which have become longer appear less steep. We find, as
would be expected, that ivJien lines cease to be parallel^ their
vanishing points are different.
Fig. 97
£y£ LiVEL
■Tb'iff .
Fig. 99
62
Chapter XX
THE ACTUAL CENTER OF THE CIRCLE AND
MEASUREMENT INTO THE PICTURE BY
PARALLEL LINES
PRELIMINARY Study. — Does the eye see half way round the
cylinder! The question is best answered by experiment.
Holding the cylinder vertically and rather near (to
more easily see the facts), mark on it the points where the side
boundaries appear to meet the top (A and B in Fig. 101). It will
Fig. 100
be found that they are actually less than half way from the front
to the back (Fig. 102). Yet the pencil has marked what the eye
saw as the greatest dimension. As shown in Fig. 103 this appar
ent greatest dimension (A B) forms the long diameter of the ellipse
63
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
Showing apparent middle from
FffoNT To BACK. OR UONO DIAMCTeK
Fig. 101
in the perspective view. It is evident, therefore, that the eye does
not see half way round the cylinder, and (as seen in Ch. IV) that
the long diameter of the ellipse is
not an actual diameter of the circle,
while that portion of the circumfer
ence beyond the long diameter (A B)
is actually more than half of the circle,
the part in front of A B appearing equal
to it only because nearer to the eye.
The actual position of the apparent
greatest dimension (the long diameter)
changes with the position of the observer.
The plan (Fig. 102) shows that C D would appear as the greatest
dimension if the eye should be at 2. This also may be seen by
experiment (as in Fig. 101).
Planning the Exercise. — In 'placing this exercise observe that
the perspective of the concentric square and circles is made
much larger than the geometric diagram,
to show more clearly the perspective
details.
Drawing the Circles. — When the square
has been drawn in perspective (like the
top of the cube in Fig. 77) its actual
center (o in Fig. 103) is found at the
crossing of its diagonals, as in the geo
metric diagram above. In the diagram
the ends of its diameters mark the points
(C, D, E, and F) where the circle touches
the square, and they will do the same in
the perspective. The diameters pass through the true center and
one is parallel to the picture plane. It can therefore be drawn
in the perspective in its actual direction, giving two points
(c and d). The other diameter, being parallel with the receding
sides of the square, vanishes with them in the eye level directly
in front (at VPl) giving points e and /. Now, though the actual
64
Planofabovc,
showing' the
actual place
of the long
diameter, a b
Fig. 102
GECJMETRtC DIAGRAM.
THE \
UNIVERSITY )
ACTUAL CENTER OF CIRCLE, ETC.
diameter of the circle touches the square in c and d, the ellipse
appears longest at a part nearer than c and d, which seems to
be exactly half way between e and /. Through this halfway
point {x) the long diameter can
be drawn; making it longer than
cd, and yet not. quite touching
the square. The ellipse is then
easily sketched through these six
points (a, 6, c, d, e, and/), making
it symmetrical on ab and ef.
For the other ellipses the points
where they cross the actual diam
eter of the circle {cd) are marked
by lines from 1, 2, 3, and 4 which
vanish in VPl, giving four points
(9, 10, 11 and 12), two for each
of the smaller ellipses.
Measuring Distances into the
Picture. — For the front and back
points of these ellipses, line ef
must be divided into six perspec
tively equal parts, as EF in the
diagram is divided into six actu
ally equal parts. This can be done, and in practice usually is
done, by the eye (as for the cylinder in'Ch. IV), noting that
the true center (o), already known, is one point of division. But
the use of the diagonal for such distances is simple and often
a convenience. Thus it is easy to see that in the diagram the
vertical lines from 1, 2, 3, and 4 cut the diagonals proportionately
to the divisions on GH* in this case into six equal parts. These
divisions can in turn be transferred to EF by horizontal lines
from the points on the diagonal HI, giving 5, 6, 7, and 8, the four
^ students of geonojetry will recognize in this the problem
of dividing a line proportionately by means of parallel lines cross
ing a triangle.
5 64
Perspective representation or above.
Fig. 103
Fig. 104
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
points needed. In the perspective the method is the same, using
lines perspectively parallel to ef — that is, the lines already
drawn from 1, 2, 3, and 4 to VPl. This use of the diagonal
occurs further on, as for the steps in Chapter XXII.
A Second Method. — The vanishing point of the diagonal can
also be used to obtain these points. Thus the diagram shows
that lines from 1, 2, 9, and 10 parallel with the diagonal GrJ will
mark on EF the same divisions. In the perspective these lines
will appear perspectively parallel to the diagonal — that is, drawn
to the same vanishing point. Since they are horizontal, that
vanishing point will be on the eye level. Therefore the diagonal
GrJ can be carried out to the eye level to find its vanishing point
(VP2) to which the parallel lines are drawn.
The principle to be remembered for use is: WJmtever meas
urements can he ohtained geometrically hi/ the use of actually parallel
lines, can he ohtained in perspective hy the use of perspectively parallel
lines.
It must, however, be noted that these are only relative meas
urements. A first distance into the picture — the foreshortened
width of the square in this case — is determined freehand by
past experience (as with the cube). Mechanical perspective
gives methods of obtaining this first distance, the position of the
eye and the picture plane being given. It can also be obtained
from a side view, by using the same data. Both these methods
are too complicated for common use in freehand work. Such
proportions are so easily estimated by recalling the cube that it
is better to rely on a trained judgment for them.
66
'f.
Chapter XXI
BOOKS WITH A CYLINDRICAL OBJECT
T
HE student should take this exercise as previous ones,
copying first if he needs to do so, then composing and
sketching a similar study, and finally making a drawing
1

)
J
V
^^
1
H
V
^Q
zl^ "'
■gC^RT
■•:::tf.'n
\
8K ■^■^^;i^^"^^>^
s
ISr ' ^£^& \r<v\'lr .£l.' '
•^•■^■^
^^in^iiYiili^'
^M^me^
^j;~
W
"
iv '€^:
Pe;^
m? —
^^■i
Fig. 105
from memory. For both of the latter several different arrange
ments of objects, with trial sketches, should be made; and the
best chosen to use in the final drawing.
The Finder (Ch. VIII) should be used to compare the
effect of different compositions, also the effect of cutting out
67
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
compositions from larger ones by different margins. Note
that in Fig. 106, with a tall object, the books are turned so
that their horizontal dimensions are
not great enough to neutralize the
dominant vertical effect. In Fig.
107, on the other hand, the long
horizontal dimensions of the books
and the low flat dish harmonize
very well, and this arrangement
Fig. 106
Fig. 107
necessitates a marginal rectangle longer from side to side.
The books and dish alone make a good simple arrangement,
but the tray may be added if desired.
Fig. 108
68
Chapter XXII
THE STUDY AND DRAWING OF A HOUSE
M
ODEL for the Study. — Make an equilateral triangular
prism from cardboard cut as in the diagram (Fig. 110),
and place it on the top of two cubes. Put a box or
Fig. 109
books on the table under this model, raising it so that the level
of the eye will fall onefourth way up on the cubes (Fig. Ill) .
Place the model about sixteen inches from the eye, and turn it
so its long edges will make angles of thirty degrees with the pic
ture plane (Fig. 119). It may now be regarded as the type form
of a house, seen (in proportion to its size) from an ordinary posi
69
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
Fig. 110
tion for viewing a house. By aid of the imagination, it may
be regarded as a house of two stories, with a front door in the
middle of a side, the box top taking
the place of the ground.
This exercise should be first drawn
in thin, light lines, studying the dia
grams, and following the directions.
The construction lines should then be
erased, and the drawing rendered as
shown in Fig. 109.
Drawing the Exercise. — Begin with
the nearest vertical edge of the house.
The model was placed so that the
level of the eye should be onefourth way up the height of its
rectangular part because the eyes of a person standing might
be about five feet above the
ground, and the height of a
twostory house at its eaves
about twenty feet. Mark the
eye level on the paper there
fore, one fourth of the height
of the nearest edge from its
bottom, and take the direction
of lines A and B (Fig. 112)
to determine the two vanishing points, exactly as was done
with lines 2, 2 in the cube (Ch. XVII) although, being above
the eye, they appear to tend downward. Draw the two lower
horizontal lines and the side vertical lines as those of the cube
were drawn.
To construct the roof recall that the end of our model is
an equilateral triangle (Fig. 113) with its apex over the center
of the house end. Draw the diagonals of this square house end
and carry up a vertical line of indefinite length from its center,
on which the apex of the gable is to be marked. The actual
roof height of our small model may be found by this diagram ;
70
Fig. Ill
THE STUDY AND DRAWING OF A HOUSE
but as that makes a roof steeper than is usual, we will set it
off less in the drawing, that is, making EC (Fig. 112) but a
wOVP'
Fig. 112
little more than CD. (Since these distances are in the same
vertical line, and so at the same distance from the picture plane
they are seen and drawn in their true proportions to each
other.)
The sloping sides of the gable may then be^^ drawn
to the house corners, and the ridgepole to VE2. The
gable apex on the other end may be found by drawing
a vertical line from the center (x) of the invisible end
to cut the ridgepole. Its slanting sides are drawn to
complete the blockingin lines thus far of the house.
71
Fig. 113
V
\
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
/
Oblique Vanishing Lines. — We have said little about the slop
ing end lines of the roof. But now, looking again at our
model (Fig. Ill), we see that the ridgepole, R, because it is
farther away than the eaves, appears shorter, so that the
slanting ends (F and G) of the front surface of the roof appear
to converge upward. Turning to the drawing, we find in' con
firmation of this that (if the drawing has been carefully made)
these lines do thus converge. Now let us search for the general
truth governing that convergence. These slanting ends are not
horizontal, so that we should not expect them to tend toward the
eye level ; and we observe that they do not. But they are actu
ally parallel to each other and therefore must vanish or appear
to converge to the same point. How to find that point is the
question.
Put some books in the place of the house model, and arrange
them so that their edges vanish like the house edges. Now raise
the upper cover (A,
'^ '' ~  Fig. 114), and observe
that its ends 1 and 2,
though still parallel
with each other like
the ends of the roof,
have ceased to be
parallel with the
other book ends.
They therefore no
longer vanish toward
VPl, but to a higher
point. We have not,
however, turned these
edges to right or left, but have simply lifted their farther ends
or revolved them in parallel vertical planes. Therefore their
vanishing point cannot move to right or left; but as they are
revolved, must appear to move directly upward, or in a vertical line
passing through VPl. This continues until the cover becomes
72
Fig. 114
THE STUDY AND DRAWING OF A HOUSE
^. vertical ; when its ends appear in their true position and cease
to vanish, like all vertical lines.
Place strings under the cover, as in Chapter XII. Holding
the strings with the left hand as in the illustration (B in Fig.
114) raise the cover with the right (keeping the strings parallel
to the picture plane). By this experiment their convergence
toward a point in the vertical line from VPl is more plainly
shown. Since these slanting book ends are neither horizontal
nor vertical but oblique to both directions, their vanishing point
or that of any set of oblique lines, may be distinguished as an
Oblique Vanishing Point, or OVP.
By revolving the upper cover farther, or opening the lower
cover and using the string (A in Fig. 115), oblique vanishing
points below the
eye level may be
determined. And
the apparent di
rection of oblique
lines can be found
with the pencil ex
actly as that of
any line (B in
Fig. 115).
Vanishing Traces.
— By turning one
of these illustra
tions around, to bring the eye level vertical, as in Fig. 116, it
will be seen that the line containing OVPl and 0VP2 serves
a purpose similar to that of the eye level. We note that
the surface formed hy the visible ends of the hooks appears to
recede, or vanishes, toward this line. If a larger book be placed
against the other ends, the surface of the larger book, being
parallel to ,the visible ends of the other books, will be found to
vanish toward the same line. It may be concluded that all sur
faces parallel to the book ends in this case will vanish in this line,
73
Fig. 115
FREEHAND PERSP:ECTIVE
/ exactly as all horizontal surfaces appear to vanish toward the
eye level. We may call this line a Vanishing Trace. The eye
level is such a vanishing trace for all ^horizontal surfaces. See
note, Chapter XI, in Solu
tions of Problems. '
First replacing the house
model as in Fig. Ill, we now
turn to the drawing and test
these oblique lines (F and Gr
in Fig. 112). If correctly
drawn they will be found
to converge toward a point
(OVPl) directly above VPl.
At once use is made of this
point for drawing the ends
of the roof projection (sug
gested in the model by pin
ning cardboard as in Fig.
117). These edges are par
allel with the corresponding roof edges, like the book margins;
so their width can be set off oil the upper line of the house (B,
Figs. 112 and 117) to right and left,
(points X and y) remembering that
the nearer distance appears a little
greater. Through these points draw
lines vanishing to OVPl. A similar
projection is measured downward on a
continuation of the oblique gable edge
F beyond its lower end (z) ; and through
this point a line parallel to B (that is, vanishing with it in VP2)
forms the eaves. (The estimation of these last measurements by
the eye forms an important part of the student's training and
should be carefully thought out. Thus the eaves projection from
line B forward is more foreshortened than the gable projection
from F to the left; and distances should be set off accordingly.)
74
Fig. 116
IE
Fig. 117
'THE STUDY AND DRAWING OF A HOUSE
dA.C\\ VI tW
Fig. 118
The lower oblique vanishing point (0VP2) is used for the
projections on the back slope of the roof. Continue the back
oblique roof edge (line H) to meet the vanishing trace through
VPl, giving 0VP2. Draw line K from the near end (I) of the
ridgepole to 0VP2, and cut it by a line from the nearest eaves
i corner to VPl. Where this line cuts the oblique edge K will be
the eaves corner (M) for the far side of the roof ; and a line from
it to yP2 forms the eaves on that side.
There is another way of getting the projections on the
further slope of the roof, which is useful in case 0VP2 falls too
far away to be conveniently used.
Turning the model we see that the
invisible line (L in back view, Fig.
118), if carried to the edge, ends
in O, horizontall}^ opposite x (end
view). A line from x through O
would therefore vanish in VPl.
Hence, to obtain O, line L is carried forward indefinitely, and
cut by a* line from x to VPl. The desired edge is then drawn
from point I through O indefinitely, and cut by a line from J to
VPl, giving the corner, M.
The "L" Part of the House. — The plan (Fig. 119) shows its
position. Its width is marked off on the farther (invisible)
end of the house, and it is drawn
as was the main part of the
house. Note the less steep slope
of the porch roof (Fig. 112), so
that its oblique lines are nOt
parallel with those of the other
roofs but have another vanishing
point, 0VP3, lower in the same
vertical line.
Windows and Doors. — The windows and doors may be marked
on the model (Fig. 120). It will be easily seen that their top
and bottom edges are all parallel to the horizontal lines of the
75
Fig. 119
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
A
n 1
'd d
D n
DD □ DD
DOnDD
FEONT VIEW
Fig. 120
side on which they are located and therefore vanish to the same
point. Mark their heights on the nearest vertical edge of the
house, and draw lines (as P, in Fig. 112), thence to the vanishing
points. On these lines their perspec
tive widths are to be set off. Begin
with the door. Find the middle of
the house front by its diagonals, and
make the near half of the door a
little wider than the far one. Check
this by seeing that the remaining
distances (from the door to the front corners of the house) are
also perspectively equal, that is, the near one larger. Mark the
sides of the windows in the same way. Remember that since
the space between the near window and the near corner is con
siderably nearer to us than that between the far window and the
far corner, more difference should be made in their size than
between the halves of the door.
The width of the windows on the end of the house should be
to that of the front ones as the right face of the second cube in
Chapter XVII (Fig. 84) is to the right one. The height of the
windows in the "L" is made the
same perspectively by carrying their
measurements from the right front
corner of the main house on lines
vanishing to VPl. These lines lie
on the invisible end of the main
house, and from where they reach the
" L " are continued along its front by
lines running to VP2.
The Chimney. — To better visualize this part of the house, cut
and fold cardboard as in Fig. 121. Get the slope of lines 1, 2, 3,
and 4 by laying the cardboard against the apex of the gable
and marking around it. Stand this model on the roof in its
middle, and after marking on the roof around it, cut out the
space so marked and push the chimney down through the open
76
Fig. 121
¥
THE STUDY AND DRAWING OF A HOUSE
ing until it projects the proper distance above the roof. Lay a
pencil on the roof against the chimney (Fig. 122) , and move it to
the left without changing its direction till it coincides with the
gable edge. This shows the gable
edge and the oblique line where the
chimney passes through the roof to
be actually parallel. This oblique
line, therefore, has the same vanish
ing point as that of the gable line,
which is OVPl. The top of the
chimney front and the line below
it (AB, Fig. 123) are parallel to the
eaves and ridgepole. Turn the model (Fig. 120, end view) and
see that the top edge of the chimney is parallel with the hori
zontal lines on the house end, which we have already drawn to
Fig. 122
¥
Fig. 123
YPl. A pencil held horizontally and moved slowly up in front
of the model will help to see this as will marking the chimney in
the model off into bricks (Fig. 124).
Drawing the Chimney. — Continue on the roof the center line
used for the door (that is, vanish a line from its top to OVPl),
77
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
A. 'Plan or Chimney.
Q "Profile snowwe obna
MENTAU BAND AT TOP.
Fig. 124
and mark down from the ridgepole on this line half the thickness
of the chimney (judged by the eye). Draw a line through this
point toward VP2, and on it set off to right
and left perspectively equal distances for
the breadth of the chimney (AB). Draw
line C to OVPl. Where it crosses the ridge
pole (D) is the middle of the chimney from
front to back. Make the far half of the
chimney proportionately as much smaller
than the near half as the far half of the
house end is smaller than its near half.
The projecting band at the top of the chimney is shown in
plan and profile in Fig. 124. Its perspective is drawn as are
projecting book covers" Be careful to represent the backward
projection on the farther side.
The Steps. — For these the detail drawing (Fig. 125) is first
made. The height under the threshold of the door is a little
less than two feet, or about
one third of the height of
the eye — enough for three
steps. Divide the vertical
line under the near edge of
the door therefore into three
equal parts, and draw lines
of indefinite length to VPl
through the four points of
division. On the lower line,
B, mark off the proper dis
tance (as four feet), which
may be estimated by comparison with the windows on the end
of the house (their width being parallel with these lines, and
usually about three feet). Divide this distance into perspective
halves. A vertical line from the near end of line B, cuttins: line
E in Point 2, completes the rectangle, 1234, the middle of
which can be found by its diagonals, giving the perspective
78
1 Mu^JIJU
Fig. 125
THE STUDY AND DRAWING OF A HOUSE
^
E
?
^
N.^^
c>
<)
A
,^B
/■A
1
E
D
7 8
C J ^\
6
S
B ^x
Fig. 126
halves required. (See A, Fig. 126.) The further half is for the
wide top step. The near half of the rectangle can be divided
again in the same way for the two lower steps. Where the
vertical line from the near end of B cuts
line C is the upper near corner of the lower
step. A vertical line through will mark its
width on C, and continued to cut D forms
the nearest front corner of the second step.
Another method of sketching the steps
is shown in Fig. 126. When the first step
has been drawn its diagonal is continued
through 6, cutting line D in 7, and forming
the diagonal for the second step, which is completed by con
tinuing line D to cut a vertical from 6 in 8. This can be con
tinued for as many steps as needed. The diagonal can also be
used as a test for steps drawn by the first method.
The long edges of the steps vanish in YP2, and are cut alter
nately by lines vanishing in VPl and vertical lines.
The Dormer Window. — This is constructed in principle like
the gable of the roof. The detail drawing (Fig. 127) should be
carefully studied, and drawn sepa
rately if desired, before sketching
the window on the house.
On the center vertical line of the
house front continued upward, mark
the height of the dormer from line
B. (In this case it is not so high
as the main house.) Through this
point (S) the dormer ridgepole is
drawn to VPl, and cut by the
oblique middle line on the roof (in point T). The width (12)
of the dormer is then marked perspectively to right and left on
line B. Through these points (1 and 2) the " valleys," or meeting
lines of the dormer with the main roof, are drawn from the roof
end (T) of the dormer ridgepole to the edge of the eaves (points
79
Fig. 127
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
TJ and V) . From these points the edges of the dormer roof pro
jection run parallel respectively to A and C.
Oblique Lines in the Dormer. — These two lines A and C,
though oblique to line B, are in the same vertical plane (as the
gable lines F and H in the main house are in the same plane
with line A in Figs. Ill and 112), Therefore draw a second
vanishing trace for oblique lines vertically through VP2, and
continue A upward until it cuts this trace in 0VP4, to which
draw the edge D. The other oblique edge (E) vanishes in the
same vertical below VP2.
When experience has been acquired, such oblique lines can
be satisfactorily drawn without actually finding their vanishing
points. Such convergences are generally estimated in practical
work. But estimates are much more valuable when made
with a knowledge of methods by which they can be definitely
determined.
80
Chapter XXIII
A BUILDING FROM THE PHOTOGRAPH OR
A PRINT
THE example given in Fig. 128 is from the old church of
San' Apollinare in Classe, near Ravenna.
The beginner may draw this as a preparation for his
next work, which should be pilding or part of
one from a print of his own seieciiou.
Making a Selection. — This choice should be carefully made,
care being taken to secure unity, or an appearance of one whole
6 81
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
thing having a center of interest and parts which are subor
dinated, or catch the eye less quickly. It should be well placed
in its rectangle (Chs. VIII and XXI).
For instance, the tall tower in Fig. 129
needs a margin that is longest vertically,
and quite narrow, to produce a harmony
of lines. The smaller buildings with it
give variety, and by a contrast which is
not too great emphasize its height, be
ing subordinated that the tower may
remain prominent in the composition.
130, on the other hand,
In Fig.
the long,
low mass
of farm
buildings
set well
back into
the pic
ture re
quires a rectangle that is longer horizontally.
Some of the different selections that may be made from
one print (Fig. 131) are
shown in Fig. 132. The
beginner can by such
means obtain an example
simple enough to be with
in his powers and often
a better composition.
Drawing from the Print.
— As soon as the place
of the building on the
paper is fixed, the level
of the eye must he deter
mined and marked, and the vanishing points of the principal sets
Fig. 129
Fig. 130
Fig. 131
BUILDING FROM PHOTOGRAPH, ETC.
I
of horizontal lines must he found on that. It is of course easier
for the beginner to use such vanishing points as are near enough
to be marked. But the
student must fully un
derstand that a point too
far away to be marked
can be mentally located,
and the lines drawn
toward it with closely
approximated accuracy.
The essential thing is to
have the position of such a
point clearly thought out,
— even, for instance, as
specifically as that it is
" the width of the board,"
or " three times " that,
distant. The power to
do this accurately grows
rapidly, and can be
attained by students
of moderate ability. It
is one object of this
study.
Rendering from the Print. — As more complex sketches are
made, certain parts may be expressed in color (that is, covered
with a tone of pencil lines) , as was
done with the title space of the
books in Chapter XIX. The door
way, windows, and shaded sides of
the buildings in this exercise (Fig.
131), are examples of this. Such
use of color is intended sometimes to attract the eye to the most
important or interesting parts, or to bring out the beauty of such
details as the majestic forms of the trees in A, Fig. 132.
83
Fig. 132
JiJ.
'jp ^x c:
Fig. 133
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
The Comparative Simplicity of Perspective. — By experience in
mentally grouping each new vanishing line with the set to which
it belongs, the perspective of apparently difficult studies becomes
simple. In Fig. 133 a seemingly complex group of buildings is
shown to need but four vanishing points for nearly all of its
lines.
84
Chapter XXIF
TYPE FORMS HELPFUL IN UNDERSTAND
ING THE HOUSE' — THE SQUARE FRAME
T
HE Model. — The model for the square frame is six inches
on a side, and one inch square in section. Looked at
from the front,
it appears as two con
centric squares one
inch apart (Fig. 135).
It is placed with one
set of long edges ver
tical, and the other
horizontal and mak
ing angles of sixty
degrees to the left
with the picture plane
(Fig. 136).
In considering its
shape it may be first
regarded as a Plinth,
or oneinch rectangu
lar slice from a six
inch cube, and there
fore one sixth of the
cube in thickness
(Fig. 137).
^ Some of the geometric
solids here and later given may
be omitted at the discretion of
the teacher. Those selected
for study should be such as to
supply any deficiencies in the
student's mastery of the subject.
»* K <» Ka i.B i ■ mift »ii l1w i W" ' lu !WWBPMMIiWi<!P<mi>.'
— ..Tri. l.n. »,.•■. — ,W„^^p>^.yg;. , ..^.^y. g Y».^— '.^S
Fig. 134
85
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
TROMT SIDE
Fig. 135
Fig. 136
Drawing the Model. — The lines of this solid may be drawn
and its proportions established in the same manner as those of
the cube (p. 54). Remember to place the eye
level at once after drawing the first vertical edge.
Like the cube, these type forms should be lightly
sketched first and later rendered with the firm,
simple lines appropriate to them. Being more
complicated than the cube, their visible edges
may, if necessary, be strengthened (that is, be drawn as they
would finally appear) as soon as determined, to avoid confusion.
The inner square of the frame may next be marked
out on the plinth (Fig. 137). To do this place points
one sixth of the front vertical edge from each end,
and from them vanish lines to YPl. In these lines
the edges A and B of the inner square must lie. By
the front view (Fig. 135), we perceive that the corners
of the inner square lie in the diagonals of the outer
one. One diagonal, C, will mark two corners
{x and y) of the inner square. Its other two
corners are found by drawing the vertical edges
of the inner square, from corner x down to line
B and from y up to A.
If this inner square were cut out, leaving a
frame, parts of the inner thickness of the frame could then
be seen. Of this inner thickness, line D (Fig. 138) lies in the
back surface of the frame, parallel
to B, and at actually the " same
height. Hence it can be started
at a point (s) on the right hand
vertical edge of the frame, obtained
by drawing line E from the near
end of B to VP2. This may be
called carrying line B " around
the corner." From this point 0, D is drawn to VPl. The
lower inner edge (F) at the back is parallel to the outer thick
FiG. 137
Fig. 138
TYPE FORMS HELPFUL, ETC.
ness edges, and therefore can be drawn to VP2, cutting off line
D. A vertical line from where D and F meet completes the
inner thickness.
Tests. — The correctness of this drawing can be tested by
adding the invisible portions, shown
by dotted lines in Fig. 138. Thus
if line A be carried around the cor
ner, giving the invisible edge H, the
inner invisible edge I should cut it in
line G continued.
The Application of Type Form
Principles. — The application of the
foregoing work to the drawing of
such parts of the house as windows and doors may be seen
in Fig. 139, where the inner edges of door and window frames
converge with the set of horizontal lines at right angles to the
door. For instance, lines A and B converge with the dormer
eaves and other lines tending to VP2, and line C vanishes with
the set to VPl.
87
Chapter XXV
THE SQUARE PYRAMID AND SQUARE
PLINTH
THE Models. — The plinth is two inches high and six inches
square : the pyramid four" inches square at base and eight
inches high. The models can be made (Fig. 141). If
made, note that in
order to secure the
required height in
the completed pyra
mid, the length (a;^
in Fig. 141) of each
triangular side piece
of the pyramid pat
tern is measured
from xy in Fig. 142,
where the true
length of a side face
is shown. The face
ocryz in Fig. 142
leans back, making
xo foreshortened.
Position. — The
plinth rests on one
square face, with its
sides at angles of
thirty and sixty
degrees with the
picture plane (Fig.
142). The pyramid
Fig. 140 stauds ou the plinth,
88
SQUARE PYRAMID AND SQUARE PLINTH
A. Pattern
FOR MAKING
PYRAMID
with its base parallel to and equidistant from the edges of the
plinth top.
Drawing the Models. — Proceed
with the plinth as with the cube,
remembering that its height is
but one third as
much as the cube
in proportion to
its breadth.
For the pyra
mid base, mark
on line AB (Fig.
143) one perspec
tive sixth from
each end. For
these points (1
and 2) a diagonal of the side ABCD can be
used (as in Ch. XX). The vertical edge, AC,
being unforeshortened, can be divided into six
equal parts. Lines from the upper and lower
^
B. Pattern for
MAKINO PLINTH
J6iH.
Fig. 141
B. ! Plan
Fig. 14;^
• EYE LEVeU
"•^*<*v
division points to VPl trans
fer these divisions propor
tionately to the diagonal, AD.
From the diagonal they are
transferred by vertical lines
to the edge AB. (See also
Fig. 144.)
Or a diameter through the
center (0)
will divide ^'« ^^^
AB into perspective halves, when each half
can be divided into thirds by the eye. One
method can be .used to prove the other.
From these two points (2 and 3) draw lines to VP2. Where
they cut the diagonal, AE, will be two corners (4 and 5) of the
89
Geometric view of
side of plinth.
Fig. 144
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
pyramid. Lines to VPl through these points will give the two
other corners (6 and 7), and complete the base of the pyramid.
The apex of the pyramid will be vertically over the center of
its base, point O. On a vertical line from O must be measured
the perspective height of the pyramid. Its
actual height is four times that of the plinth.
The nearest corner of the plinth is conven
ient to use, hence from A the vertical line
is continued, and four times AC is measured
on it, giving AGr for the pyramid height as it
would appear at that point. If now this
height, AGr, could ' be moved back on the
diagonal AE to O it would appear to shorten
as moved. Its top would describe an actu
ally horizontal line above AE, that is, a line
parallel to it, consequently vanishing to the
same point. Therefore continue the diagonal
AE to the eye level, giving VPS, and draw
the parallel line from Gr to VP3, which will
mark on the vertical from O the desired
perspective height at x. Complete the py
ramid by drawing its oblique edges to the
corners of its base.
AppUcations. — The difficulty of making a church spire or
a tower (Fig. 145) " stand true " will be readily recognized. The
use of the diagonals (AB and CD) will aid in placing its axis
and apex.
Fig. 145
90
Chapter XXFI
A PROBLEM FOR ORIGINAL STUDY
THE Square Frame Leaning on the Rectangular Block. —
These models have already been described in Chapter XV
and Chapter XXIV, respectively.
Position. — The block rests on one long face, with its square
ends making angles of sixty degrees with the picture frame.
PLAN
Fig. 146
The frame leans against the block, equidistant from its ends,
and with a distance equal to half the width of the block between
its lower edge and the block.
91
Chapter XXVII
Fig. 147
CYLINDRICAL OBJECTS WHEN NOT
VERTICAL
A LTHdUGH in Chapter III the cylinder held horizontally
/\ was mentioned, we have only studied cylindrical objects
jL JL. when vertical. In this position they have been found
symmetrical, the ellipses and the axis (which is the middle
from end to end) being at right angles to each other. I'o study
___^_ them in other positions begin with the
cylinder model held horizontally, with its
middle oh the eye level, and its ends
equally distant (Fig. 147), It will be read
ily seen that the ends now appear at right
angles to the axis, as when the object was
vertical. Turning it a little so the right
end can be seen (still keeping it horizontal and at the eye level),
it will be observed that the apparent directions of the axis and
ellipses are unchanged. (The axis being
a horizontal line and at the eye level
remains apparently horizontal, and the
ellipses still appear vertical. The further
ellipse has become a little shorter and
rounder, and the side boundaries, like all
parallel receding horizontal lines, appear p^^ ^^^
to converge to the eye level.)
Now lower the model, keeping it turned away, till it rests a
foot below the eye on some horizontal support , (as the box in
Fig. 149).
The side boundaries and the axis, being below the eye, vanish
upward to a point on the level of the eye. ^^^hey will continue
92
"^"vp;
CYLINDRICAL OBJECTS NOT VERTICAL
11
1
1 1
IJll
T
"^
^ 111
i
1
I_.
1
H
■Tl
i.
ii
1
i
1
1:
if
to vanish to the eye level, whether below or above the eye (B
in Fig. 149), as long as the cylinder is kept horizontal. The
ellipses should now be exam
ined to see if in this position
they appear, as formerly, to be
at right angles to the axis. Do
this first with the head erect
as usual, looking with care,
and deciding mentally. Then
try inclining the head (in this
case of A, Fig. 149, to the right
and downward) to bring the
face in relation to the model
as it would be if both were
vertical. Two pencils held in
the shape of a letter T, held in
front of the cylinder (as in Fig.
150)
will
help
make sure that the axis of the cylin
der and the long diameters of its
ellipses unmistakably appear at right
angles to each other.
To understand how this can be
the case,
^''■'"' hold the
cylinder again at the eye level, as
in Fig. 151, and with a pencil mark
on it the points (A and B) where
the side boundaries meet the ends
of the ellipse. Lower the cylinder
again (Fig. 152) when it will be seen that these points are not
now at the ends of the ellipse, and that the line AB is not now
its long diameter. It has now a new long diameter, CD, at right
93
IlllillnW illiiii i 'iliilllill \tiiiiiiiii'
Fig. 149
Fig. 151
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
angles to the axis in its new apparent direction; and also new
side boundary lines from C and D toward the vanishing point.
As the long diameter is
always at right angles to the
axis, it must change its position
when the object is moved so that
its axis appears changed in
direction. We see therefore
that the long diameter is movable.
These experiments may be
tried with other cylindrical ob
jects, as a tumbler, or the flower pots in the next chapter. The
leaning dish in Chapter
YIII, and the tilted cover
in Chapter X are examples.
It will invariably be found
that, provided the circular de
tails of a
cylindrical
I'liMiillilliin \'A ' 'A Mm~
Fig, 152
Fig. 153
^^^C^^y oZy'ec^ are actually at right angles to its axis, they
Fig. 154
will appear so whatever the position of the object.
Consequently, cylindrical objects always appear
symmetrical.
Tests. — A drawing of such an object may
be tested by turning it to bHng the object in
question vertical (Fig. 156, Ch. XXYIII), when
errors in symmetry will be more apparent.
A wheeled vehicle (Fig. 153) is a common
illustration of this principle; also a clock (Ch.
XXXI) and the round arches in Chapter XXXII.
Others will readily occur to the student.
Flowers (Fig. 154) are striking examples, and
many awkward drawings of flowers are so be
cause drawn in ignorance of this beautiful and
simple principle of the symmetry of the cylinder.
94
A
Chapter XXVIII
A GROUP OF FLOWER POTS
S with previous examples, drawing this exercise is optional
with the student, according to his proficiency. But he
should compose a similar group, that is, having in it at
Fig. 155
least one cylindrical object not vertical.
And he should take especial pains to se
cure the symme
try of such non
vertical objects.
The illustra
tion (Fig. 156)
shows how this
symmetry may be
tested by turning Fig. uq
the group.
95
A.
6M6W
»NO A
TURNCb
lb BIhMCV
LEANIMO
SAUCER
VERTiOAl.
Chapter XXIX
THE CIRCULAR FRAME IN A SQUARE
FRAME
T
I
HIS is an example of rectangular and cylindrical forms
in the same object. The explanation should be carefully
studied, and the exercise drawn unless the student is
experienced.
The Circular Frame. —
After the square frame
(Ch. XXIV) is drawn,
look at the model from
the front (Fig. 158), and
note that the outer sur
face of the ring touches
the square frame at four
points only — where the
diameters of the square
cross it (A, B, C, and D).
These diameters, being
parallel respectively to
the sides of the square,
are represented in the
perspective by a vertical
line, and a line vanish
ing in VPl, both pass
ing through the true
center 0, at crossing of
the diagonals. Through
these four points the
outer edge of the cir
cular frame must pass.
96
Fig. 157
CIRCULAR FRAME IN A SQUARE FRAME
1
A
c
'^G
s^
B
<i
h
1
Disregarding at first the opening in it, the circular frame may
be temporarily thought of as a slice from the cylinder, one inch
thick, and therefore a very short cylinder, with
an axis only one inch long. As placed within
the square frame (Figs. 157 and 159) its axis and
side boundaries are parallel with the short edges
of the square, and its actual centre and that of
the latter coincide.
Hence we may draw its
axis from this center (0)
to VP2. Its circular outer edge will
be seen as an ellipse at right angles to
this axis, and passing through the four
points A, B, C, and D, previously found.
As the short diameters of such ellipses
always appear to lie in a line with the
axis of .
the axis ^^^f^
Front view.
Fig. 158
Fig. 159
Top AS SEEN aV EYE,
Looking at A .
Fig. 160
the object (Fig. 160),
line will give the apparent direc
tion of the short diameter of the
ellipse. (Here the beginner is
advised to turn the paper round,
bringing the axis as a vertical
line, the better to secure the
symmetry of the cylindrical part
of the model. See Fig. 161.)
To obtain the length of this short
diameter, slightly curved lines, perpen
dicular to the short diameter, are
sketched from B to the right and from
C to the left, giving x and y for the
extreme front and back of the ellipse.
Now (since an ellipse is always symmet
rical) the longest dimension or long diameter of this ellipse is not
on the vertical line through A and D (Fig. 159), but is on a line at
7 97
Fig. 161
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
right angles to x y, and through its apparent middle from front
to lack; making one end fall in front of D, and the other back
of A. It will also be a little in front of O, the true center of
the circle, and a little longer than A D, but not touching the
frame. Mark lightly and accurately this apparent middle and
sketch the long diameter through it. Mark the ellipse ends
by sketching rounded curves, from A back and from D for
ward, making them symmetrical on the long diameter, and
equidistant from the axis. Complete the ellipse by connecting
these ends and sides, correcting if necessary, till the ellipse is
perfect.
For the inner ellipse proceed as with the top of the cylinder
in Chapter IV, remembering to make its proportions as shown
in Fig. 158, also that the perspective halves of the short diameter
are already found by the true center, O. The side boundary
lines of the circular frame may now be drawn to VP2, when
there will remain only its inner thickness to draw. The edge
of this is an inner circle on the back of the frame, actually like
the inner one in front. Draw lines (E and F) from the ends
of the front inner ellipse to VP2. These may be called side
boundary lines of the cylindrical opening; and their conver
gence measures the smaller length of the desired back ellipse,
which lies with its ends in these lines as does the front one.
To find these ends it is necessary to obtain the apparent thick
ness of the frame at that distance into the picture. From where
E begins (on the front inner ellipse) carry a vertical line to the
upper near edge of the square frame. From this point G, vanish
a line in VP2, and drop a vertical from where it crosses the back
edge of the frame to line E again. This measures on E the
perspective thickness desired, and gives a point for the new
ellipse, which corresponds to the end of the front inner ellipse.
Set off the same distance on F for the other end of the new
ellipse. Sketch the ellipse, remembering that the thickness at
the back (12) is a little less, and at the front (34) is a little
more than at the ends.
98
CIRCULAR FRAME IN A SQUARE FRAME
The round arch (Fig. 162, also Ch. XXXII) is an interesting
application of this principle. Errors in drawing these and
kindred forms (B in Fig. 162) so common with beginners are
easily avoided when these principles are understood.
A. Showino application of methods.
B. WRONG. Inner 8ack eu.\pse'
MADE Too SHORT, AS IF ACTUALLY
SMALLER, INSTEAD OP A DUPLICATE.
Fig. 162
99
Chapter XXX
T
A ROUND WINDOW
HIS exercise (Fig. 163) and the methods of sketching it
should be carefully studied, and if necessary it should
be drawn. After this the student should sketch a
similar example
from a building or
photograph.
Having drawn
the straightline part
of the exercise, the
/ . round window is
next to be consid
ered. This is actu
ally a cylindrical
opening in the wall.
■ Being above the eye,
the circles of the win
dow appear as slant
ing ellipses like the
cylinder ends in Fig.
149 (Ch. XXVII).
To make sure that
the slant of these
ellipses shall agree
with the straightline
part of the building,
the axis of this cylin
drical window is
used. This axis is
actually at right an
gles to the wall, and
100
Fig. 163
A ROUND WINDOW
is therefore parallel to the lines already vanishing in VPl.
Hence the apparent middle of the window ellipse (0 in Fig.
164) is first located, and the axis is i
drawn through it to VPl, extend
ing forward indefinitely. The long
diameter (AB) is sketched at right
angles to the axis, and the short
diameter (CD) is set off on the
axis line. The ellipse is then drawn
through these four points. The
inner ellipses of the window are
shorter as
well as far
ther back
than the
outer one.
For the
partial ellip
ses of the
quatrefoil, the actual center of the inner
ellipse (1 in Fig. 165) must be marked.
A. TRONT VIEW
Fig. 164
and through it a vertical line (EF) and a
horizontal one (GrH, vanishing in VP2)
drawn. The real centers of the quatrefoil
circles fall each on one or the other of
these lines. Their long diameters (a little
in front of these real centers) are parallel
with the other long diameters of the window.
This quatrefoil is especially an example of objects which
should in practice be sketched freehand first, and afterward tested
by the constructive methods here given. (See Introduction.)
B, PeRSPecTive
Fig. 165
101
T
Chapter XXXI
THE CLOCK A PROBLEM
HIS example (Fig. 166) is given as an aid in rendering,
though it may be drawn first if desired.
The Model. — Any clock containing rectangular forms
and the usual cir
cular face will serve
as the model. It
should be placed
above the eye.
Conditions. — Un
like problems in
general, this draw
ing may be made
from the object,
but must be done
without assistance.
The aim is to test
the student's abil
ity to apply the
principles taught
in the last few
chapters.
Fig. 166
102
T
Chapter XXXII
THE ARCH
HESE arches from the cloister of St. Paul's Without the
Gates, at Rome, also illustrate the symmetry of the
cylinder, and can be drawn by the same method as
Fig. 167
the round window in the last chapter. (See Ch. XXX.) They
are semicylinders and their openings are semicircles (Fig. 169).
The semicircles are sketched on a horizontal line (A) which,
103
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
being above the head in this instance, vanishes downward (Fig.
168) . The true centers of the semicircles are on this line, and from
these centers the axes are
drawn, vanishing with
other lines to VPl. The
joints of the stones form
ing each arch, being lines
really tending to meet in
its true center, are so
drawn in perspective.
Pointed arches, and
other modified forms can
be readily drawn on the
same principles here
used.
The student should
draw this exercise unless experienced, when he should instead
select a print of artistic interest, illustrating the same principle,
and make from it a careful and ^expressive sketch. In either
case, he should follow his first drawing with another involving
the use of this principle, from a building.
Fig. 168
Front View
Fig. 169
104
Chapter XXXIII
INTERIORS — A ROOM PARALLEL TO THE
PICTURE PLANE
THE Cube as a Model. — With a penknife loosen one face of
the cardboard" cube; and turn it back or take it off. Place
it within a foot of the eye, with the opening parallel to
Fig. 170
the picture plane, and the eye level a little less than two thirds
of the way up. If desired, the windows, doors, rug, and pictures
may be marked with a pencil on the inside of the cube. It now
serves to illustrate the room shown in Figs. 170 and 172, as the
cubes and prism illustrated a house in Chapter XXII, In this
room the floor, ceiling, side walls, and all details on their surfaces
105
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
(as the window, the side door, and the rug) are foreshortened ;
while the side edges converge to VPl directly in front. The back
wall and all surfaces parallel to it (as the end of the table and
one side of the stool), being parallel to the picture plane, appear
in their true shape.
Directions. — This example (Fig. 170) should be drawn by the
student if a beginner. After this the end of a room, also with its
farther wall parallel to the picture plane, should be drawn from
memory or invention.^ A hall, a
kitchen, a street car, or a piazza will
be recognized as especially adapted
to such views.
The Apparent Width of the Sides.
— To aid in estimating this, recall the
appearance of the most foreshortened
side of the cube in Chapter XVI.
This estimate may then be tested
by pencil measurement of the cube
model.
The Pictures. — Although the pic
ture on the right wall is inclined
slightly forward, its sides are still parallel to the picture plane ;
and therefore appear in their true direction and shape. With
the picture on the back it is not so. Its top is slightly nearer to
us than its lower edge ; and must therefore appear longer, mak
ing the sides appear to converge ' downward (though almost
imperceptibly). To determine the direction of this convergence,
revolve it forward on its lower edge in imagination until hori
zontal (Fig. 171). It will at once be seen that the sides (A and
B) in this position are parallel with the lines already vanishing in
^ It may be asked why memory or inventive drawings should be advised before study from
a room. But in this case we meet a subject of which all have somethings in memory ; and
drawing from memory when possible (when one has something remembered) is not only far
pleasanter, but much less laborious. The object or place itself presents to a beginner a confus
ing mass of detail, much of it not needed" for the drawing. The student must make later many
drawings from the place to accumulate knowledge ; but will always do his most free and
individual work from this knowledge, not directly from the object.
106
ROOM PARALLEL TO PICTURE PLANE
VPl. If now the picture should be slowly revolved upward, the
converging point for the sides would descend as the picture rises.
As the picture is not moved sidewise at all, this point of con
vergence (OVPl) call only move downward in a vertical line
from VPl like the roof ends in Chapter XXII. When the
picture is returned to its original position, it varies but slightly
from the vertical ; consequently OVPl is too far away to locate
and the vanishing of its
sides must be estimated.
Make sure it is slight
enough, and toward a
point vertically under
VPl.
An Open Door. — So
far we have found but
one vanishing point on
the eye level. If we
begin to open the far
ther door, its horizontal
lines will instantly ac
quire a vanishing point,
but at an infinite dis
tance. In proportion as the door swings toward being parallel
with the sides of the room (that is, with the direction of seeing),
this vanishing point will move inward. When the door becomes
quite parallel with the walls of the room, this point will coincide
with VPl. If the door is swung still farther back, this point
moves on toward the left. The apparent width of the door
thus opened may be measured by an ellipse on the floor
(Fig. 172) representing the path of its near corner as it swings
in a circle. The short diameter of this ellipse is proportioned
to the foreshortening of the floor in which it lies. It can
also be found by the use of lines parallel to the floor diagonal
(Fig. 173). From this diagram it is seen that since the floor is a
square, its diagonal measures equal distances in its sides. Any
107
Fig. m
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
• ii>///^/////M//MM///A
yl^^^J
Fig. 173
distances in these sides or in lines parallel to them can therefore
be measured by lines parallel to the floor diagonal. In the per
spective drawing (Fig. 172) these lines can be used there perspec
tively in precisely the same way.^
It will also be noted that the
thickness edges of the door, being
horizontal and at right angles to
its top and bottom, have their
own vanishing point upon the eye
level (VP4). Also the door knob
is cylindrical, and its axis is paral
lel to these edges.
The Stool. — The proportion of
the stool is found in the same
manner as the height of the pyra
mid in Chapter XXV. The room
may be considered as nine feet high, and the stool as approxi
mately eighteen inches, or one sixth the height of the room.
Mark any point (as H in Fig. 172) where it is desired to place it
on the floor of the room. Its height cannot be compared directly
with that of the room here, for we cannot determine where a
vertical line from H will touch the ceiling. Therefore imagine
the stool moved from point H in a straight line to any place on
the front edge of the room, as I, where its height (IJ) can be
measured by that of the room. If now it were moved back on this
same line (IH) , its top would move in a horizontal line directly
over IH, that is, actually parallel to it, or vanishing in the same
point on the eye level. Both lines (HI and one from J) may
therefore be carried to this point VP5. The height of the stool,
when placed at any point on the line from 1 to VP5 will be
the vertical distance (as at H) between these lines.
The near side of this stool is now drawn in its true shape, and
the parts at right angles to this side found by vanishing lines
to VPl.
* The ellipse is made horizontal, as explained in Chapter XLIII.
108
ROOM PARALLEL TO PICTURE PLANE
Finally, to improve the composition some of the ceiling and
a little of the floor are cut off, as shown by the dotted lines in
Fig. 172. This gives a more generally favorable shape (Fig. 170)
to the inclosure, and keeps the oblique lines from running to its
corners, which should always be avoided. (See p. 116.) ^
^ See Chapter XLII for further consideration of a room parallel with the picture plane.
109
Chapter XXXIV
INTERIORS CONTINUED — A ROOM AT
ANGLES TO THE PICTURE PLANE
THE Model. — The cube model may be prepared for illus
trating this study by removing a side adjacent to the
opening made for the previous study.
Position. — The
eye level and the dis
tance from the eye
are the same as in
the last chapter.
Place the model so
that its receding
faces make angles
of thirty and sixty
degrees with the pic
ture plane. Both
sides and the top
and bottom are now
foreshortened and
their horizontal lines
vanish respectively
in VPl and VP2
(Fig. 174).
Selection of Sub
ject, and Use of the
Picture Plane.— It will
be seen that the room
in Fig. 174 is the same as in the previous chapter. The differ
ence is in the selection of subjectspace, and in the consequent
110
Fig. 174
ROOM AT ANGLES TO PICTURE PLANE
D
,
i

^ PICTUKE
Plane j
\ Z
/
\ °
/
\ ^■
o /
\ '^
Z f
\ "
Zi /
\ ^
ui /
\ <
^ /
\ ^
O /
\ w
/
\<J
/
relation of the subjectmatter within that space to the picture
plane. Thus in A, the extreme points {x and y) of the back
wall of the room ^^
are equally distant ^ ^^ ■ *^^ ^
from the picture
plane as well as
from the eye.
Therefore we can
not, without ab
surdity, vanish the
lines on this wall
in either direction
(A in Fig. 176),
still less in both
(B in Fig. 176).
The only way to
give a truthful
impression of the ^ Pj^, 175
back wall is to
draw it in its true shape (C in Fig. 176), as was done in the
last chapter.
But in the present ex
ercise (Fig. 174) part of
the room is left out. The
central direction of seeing
is therefore moved to the
right, and with it the pic
ture plane is turned (B,
Fig. 175). Consequently
the wall (0) which was
before parallel to the pic
ture plane now recedes
from it. Hence the height
of the room at the comer,
Fie 176 being farther into the pic
111
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
ture and from the picture plane ^ appears less than at the right
and left; and all horizontal lines on both walls appear to
converge.
In this drawing the rectangle incloses the parts of most
interest and cuts off the awkward outer lines (Fig. 177). An
Fig. 177
alternate selection is indicated by dotted lines. This brings us
to the consideration of a new point, namely: —
What to Include in a Picture. — This cannot be all that it is
possible to see from any point, for the head can be turned to
see all parts of the horizon circle. Such a view when painted
forms a panorama, which is a continuous cylindrical picture
surrounding the spectator.
It is evident that the legitimate picture must include, or cut
out from what it is possible to see, only such a space as can be
perceived by the eye in a single effort of seeing. It should
leave out whatever cannot be seen without turning the head,
or even noticeably moving the eyes. It is generally understood
112
ROOM AT ANGLES TO PICTURE PLANE
that sixty degrees of the horizon circle is the most that should
be taken, and that usually thirty degrees is better. The rule is
that the greatest dimension of the
selected space (whether height or
width) shall not exceed the artist's
distance from that dimension.
It will be seen by the diagram
(Fig. 178) that this is equivalent
to not exceeding sixty degrees in
the picture. It is also apparent
that it does not prevent the in
clusion of objects nearer than that
greatest width if they come into
the picture space, as the table and
part of the rug in this illustration.
In conclusion it should be
noted :
First. — The picture plane is dif
ferent for each neic picture selection.
Second. — The picture angle
should not he over sixty degrees^ and
is better less.
b. the f^pt selected fop a picture.
Fig. 178
113
Chapter XXXV
FURTHER STUDIES OF INTERIORS
THE student should copy carefully Fig. 179, always deter
mining the level of the eye, and locating the vanishing
points either actually or mentally. Note that the em
phasis of contrast and interest is concentrated on the old
114
Fig. 179
FURTHER STUDIES OF INTERIORS
fashioned desk while the details on the wall beyond it are very
quiet. The settle comes forward more (that is, has more con
trast and emphasis) than the wall, but
less than the desk. The floor is pu]>
posely quiet in detail to aid in con
centration of interest. The chair in the
extreme right of
the foreground
is subordinated
also.
Original Work. — Following the
above copy several interiors should be
drawn from the place. The finder
should be used, and thumbnail sketches
182) should be made to test the
Avoid equal angles in the
If both should be drawn
Fig. 180
Fig. 181
(Figs. 180, 181, and
artistic value of the selection.
principal sets of vanishing lines
at fortyfive degrees, or nearly that, the
composition would have a stiff effect.
The contrast between surfaces turned
away much and others turned away
little is generally pleasing. Should it
be impossible to avoid
equal angles of van
ishing, relieve the stiff
ness by using details
(as the sofa and win
dow in Fig. 183) that
are widely different in effect. The rug,
being parallel with the sofa, assists further in
overcoming the monotony. It is undesir
able to show the floor and ceiling as occupy
ing equal space in the picture ; and it is
usually better not to show both floor and ceiling. (Compare
Fig. 182 with the same subject in Fig. 184.) A subject may
115
Fig. 182
Fig. 183
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
often be improved by cutting it with a different margin
(Fig. 185).
Care should be taken to place the principal oblique lines
of the study in good relation to the
margin or inclosing rectangle that they
do not conspicuously point to the picture
comers. The rectangle which bounds a
composition is an orderly conventional
shape, and
hence unno
ticeable, leav
ing the atten
tion to be
concentrated
on the picture.
Lines to its corners direct the atten
tion there, and defeat this end.
Vignetting. — It is not necessary
Fig. 184
that an inclosing margin should always be
Fig. 185
used. The drawing
may be vignetted, or
blended off into the
white paper (Fig.
186). This is less
easy to do as the
tendency of the ir
regular outer edge
is to contrast sharply
with the white paper,
detracting from the
effect of the more
important central
parts. The edge details therefore must be carefully " quieted,"
or rendered inconspicuous.
Interesting effects are often produced with a partial margin
116
\
Fig. 186
FURTHER STUDIES OF INTERIORS
line (Fig. 187). This is advisable if the center of interest is
too near the edge of the paper to blend off well.
So many principles of perspective and of artistic rendering
are included in the drawing of interiors that they form a most
important division of the subject. In figure compositions they
are constantly used, especially by the illustrator.
Fig. 187
117
T
Chapter XXXVI
A CHAIR
HE chair in Fig. 188, like most chairs is different from
the stool in our first interior study (Ch. XXXIII) in
that the sides are not parallel to each other (see plan,
^.^..^ ,___. — , ^. Fig. 189). Also
the seat is a
trifle lower
in the back,
so that lines
B, B (Fig. 190)
slope down
ward toward
the back. But
the chair is
symmetrical on
its center line
(front view,
Fig. 189), there
fore the hori
zontal lines in
its front and
back are par
allel, having a
common van
ishing point on
the eye level.
Drawing the
Chair. — After
! having planned
Fig. 188 its place ou the
118
A CHAIR
paper and located the eye level, the next step is to converge the
horizontal lines of the feet and side rung (C and D) to their
vanishing point (VPl). Then sketch the line for
the front of the seat, one for the top of the back,
and line E on the ground to VP2.
The near side of the seat (lines B, B) is
drawn next. Although not horizontal, the side
is in the same plane with (directly over) the
horizontal lines C and D, so that its point of
convergence must be directly under theirs. The
direction of the upper line B is therefore taken,
and OVPl is located where this direction crosses
a vertical line from VPl.
On this line and the lower
line B (vanishing in the
same point) the curves of
the side of the seat are
drawn, after which the legs
and back on that side should be sketched.
The same method is pursued with the
other side of the seat, but as it is a little
more facing the beholder, the vanishing point for its horizontal
lines is VPS, farther away on the eye level. As the seat is
FRONT VIEW
Fig. 189
Fig. 190
Fig. 191
evenly slanted, the other oblique vanishing point (0VP2) is on
a level with OVPl.
All edges parallel to the front and back converge to VP2.
The curving front of the seat, the front rung and the curves of
119
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
the bars across the back are drawn so their ends rest on a line
to VP2. Since the back is hollowed from side to side, more
space will be visible between its vertical center and the far side
than between that and the near side. Mark its principal points
on lines to VP2, and draw the curve between them. The lines
where the cylindrical rungs enter the legs are actually modified
circles, hence they will be seen as shapes modified from the
elliptical, and should be carefully considered and drawn.
Following this, the student should choose and draw at least
one other piece of furniture. Selection should be made of
something interesting in itself; that is, well designed and con
structed, and agreeable in association. In chairs the oldfash
ioned rush or splint bottom ones, the wooden rockers of our
grandmothers, the beautiful examples by Chippendale, Sheraton
and others of the colonial period, and good examples of modern
mission shapes may be mentioned as among those satisfactory
for study. If one is fortunate enough to get a really fine old
cradle, it is a most instructive subject, as is an antique desk or
a tall clock.
The student who has faithfully done the work and study
prescribed thus far will find himself possessed of a rapidly
increasing power of judgment in applying the principles of per
spective, and will be able to express that judgment with ease
and certainty. The artistic quality of this expression should
also have gained ; though for this so much coordinate study and
observation are needed, that its degree cannot so certainly be
predicted.
120
Chapter XXXVII
THE HEXAGONAL PLINTH IN TWO
POSITIONS
THE student should draw this example from the objects,
following the directions here given; and should then
sketch them from memory, as by the general directions
in Chapter XI. r _ ., ,^
The Model. —
This can be
made from card
board according
to the diagram
(Fig. 193). For
the first posi
tion it should
be placed about
three feet from
the eye and
nine inches be
low it, and with
two vertical
faces parallel
with the picture
plane.
The Geomet
ric Hexagon. —
This should be
constructed
first. Divide
the line AB
(Fig. 194) in
halves, drawing Fig. 192
121
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
.<^ h
Fig. 193
a perpendicular at the point of division. Measure the distance
AB, taken on the pencil, from B against the perpendicular.
Where it falls (at O) will be one corner
of an equilateral triangle (AOB) which
will form one sixth of the desired hexa
gon. Sketch vertical lines of indefinite
length from A and B, and cut them by
continuing the sides of the equilateral
triangle (AG and
BO) to D and C,
then draw DC. The
constructive rec
tangle ABCD, which
we have now com
pleted, will be al
ways essential in
drawing the perspective of the hexagon.
Its diagonals (A and B) will form two di
agonals of the hexagon, and its center (0)
will be the center of the hexagon. The
other diagonal, EF, is drawn through O parallel to the rectangle
ends, half on each side of the center. Its length should be tested
by that of the diagonals already found. The other four sides
complete the geometric hexagon ABCDEF.
Drawing the Hexagonal Top. — The rectangle ABCD (Fig. 195)
is drawn first. Although it is actually nearly twice as long as
its width it will be found to appear less than half as long. The
diagonals of the rectangle will in perspective, as in the geo
metric view, form two diagonals of the hexagon. The other
diagonal, EF, is set off on a line of indefinite length through
their crossing. Looking at the diagram, it is observed that the
sides of the rectangle (AD and BC) and its middle (O) divide
this diagonal (EF) into four equal parts at x, O and y. In the
perspective drawing (Fig. 195) the two middle fourths (xO and
Oy) are seen to be already measured. Since these fourths are
122
Fig. 194
HEXAGONAL PLINTH IN TWO POSITIONS
all equally distant from the picture plane, they appear equal, and
are so set off from x and y. The hexagonal top is completed by
drawing its last four sides.
The Thickness of the Plinth. — The front face of this thick
ness, being parallel to the picture plane, is drawn in its true
shape. The lower edges of the other two faces are parallel to
the receding horizontal edges (AE and BE) above them, and
will therefore vanish with these edges respectively to VP2 and
VPS. Vertical lines downward from E and F will complete the
plinth.
fVf LE\/EL
Fig. 195
A Test for Vanishing Lines. — The other two diagonals and
the receding back edges of the hexagon are in reality each
parallel to one or the other of the two sets of vanishing lines
just drawn. Therefore when carried out to the eye level,
they should meet respectively in VPl and VP2 if the drawing
is correct.
The Hexagonal Plinth Slightly Turned. — For this drawing turn
the model so its front edge will make an angle of thirty degrees
with the, picture plane. Draw the constructive rectangle, ABCD,
as before; taking with the pencil the direction of the front edge
and of the imaginary left side (AC in Fig. 196)* of the rectangle.
Take especial pains to have these lines correct in direction and
1 Corresponding to the receding edges (2, 2) first drawn in sketching the cube.
123
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
length, as an error here causes a particularly unpleasant repre
sentation. In vanishing the back edge with the front one be
careful to keep it also tending upward.
CYF, LEVFL
A. Wrong. Lines 1,2,0
AND 4 DO NOT CONVERGE
TO THE EYE LEVEL.
Fig. 196
The vanishing point (VP2) of these front and back edges
is so far away that their convergence will naturally be only
estimated. Hence the necessity of locating
definitely in mind what cannot he seen —
that is, the vanishing point, not only of
these two lines, but of their parallels,
the diagonal EF and the lower edge of
the front face.
In this position the last diagonal, EF,
is in perspective, and therefore its four
actually equal divisions will appear de
creasing in size, or perspectively equal.
Consequently, if the work so far done is
correct it will be found that the space
xO is (almost imperceptibly) greater than
O?/, because a little nearer. Hence Eic should be set off a little
larger than icO, and 2/F a little smaller than Oy. Similar cases,
as the cylinder top in Chapter lY, and the concentric circles in
Chapter XX are readily recalled.
Testing the Drawing. — The test used for the other drawing
of the plinth is equally effective here. It is more needed here,
124
B. Wrong, lines J, 2,3
AND 4 ARE TOO STEE.P.
hexagon appears tiited.
Fig. 197
HEXAGONAL PLINTH IN TWO POSITIONS
since the vanishing point for one set of lines has not been
actually found. But if these lines have been carefully thought
out as to direction, the errors will be found encouragingly
slight.
The test of placing the eye at the vanishing point (Ch. XYH),
to sight back along the lines which should converge to them, is
especially applicable here.
125
T
Chapter XXXVIII
INTERIOR WITH A TILED FLOOR
HE plan of this floor is shown in Fig. 197. As drawn in
the example, the foreshortening of the tiles is proportioned
to that of parallel surfaces, such as the receding " treads "
or tops of the steps.
From the vanish
ing of their edges,
we may judge
these treads to be
foreshortened about
one half. Conse
quently lines paral
lel to the staircase
edges (vanishing in
VPl) must be fore
shortened as much.
The tile adjacent
to the lowest step
is the best to begin
with (since it is the
same distance into
the picture) , and as
with the previous
hexagons the rectan
gle ABCD is drawn
first. And since
much depends on
the correctness of
this first rectangle,
it is worth while to
Fig. 198
126
INTERIOR WITH A TILED FLOOR
take especial pains with it. Observe that as the tiles are here
placed, it is the width (AD) of this rectangle which is
parallel with the receding staircase edges.
Now if it is desired to represent tiles of
a certain size, a step is one of the best
objects to use for comparison, as steps
do not vary much from seven inches
in height
(Ch. XLV).
Thus these
tiles are
three and
a half inches on a side, making
the rectangle width actually half
the height of a seveninch step.
In the drawing this width, be
ing foreshortened as much as the steps, appears one fourth
as wide as the height of the step. The
actual length of the rectangle is seen by the
diagram to be one eighth less than twice its
width; or (what is the same thing) one
eighth less than the height of the step.
Being slightly turned away, it will appear
a little shorter in comparison than that. In
this case it was made one sixth less than the height of
the step.
It will be readily seen how if the rectangle proportions are
right, the lines of this first hexagon, when carried out forward
and back, will give points for the other tiles, making them fall
harmoniously into their proper perspective.
Fig. 200
EnpView or step
Fig. 201
127
Chapter XXXIX
THE HEXAGONAL PRISM AND FRAME
T
HIS exercise may be drawn from the objects, if they are
at hand. If they cannot readily be had, the drawing
may be made from these directions, using the cardboard
plinth made for
Chapter XXXVII.
The objects should
then be drawn
from memory.
The Prism. — Be
ing the simpler to
draw, this object
should be taken
first, though it
should be placed
at the bottom of
the sheet, on ac
count of its greater
horizontal dimen
sions.
This model is
eight inches long,
and the diameter
of its hexagonal
bases is four inches.
It is placed so that
the bases make
angles of sixty de
grees with the pic
FiQ. 202 ture plane. The
128
THE HEXAGONAL PRISM AND FRAME
Fig. 203
dotted lines in Fig. 203 show how the cardboard plinth may be
placed in the same position as a help in study.
The Nearest Vertical Hexagonal Base. — Sketch the construc
tive rectangle previously used, noting that i;s width is ^^fore
shortened as much as the most foreshort
ened side of the cube in Chapter XVII.
Set off the third diagonal of the hexagon
(EF) perspectively on a line vanishing to
VPl through the rectangle center (as on
page 124).
The Long Edges of the Prism. — Take
the direction of the nearest upper edge, giving YP2. Vanish
the other long edges with it, and set off on the one first drawn
its apparent length (AG). This can be easily estimated by re
calling the cube. That is, its actual length as given is twice that
of the diameter of its base (the near vertical line AB). AGr will
therefore be as long as two cubes placed side to side.^
The Further Base. — For the horizontal top edge of the further
base draw a line parallel to the same line in the near one (that
is, vanishing in VPl), which gives GH. For the corner corre
sponding to B in the near base drop a vertical
from G, giving J. The upper oblique edge
(GI) is parallel to AF in the near base, and
their vanishing point is OVPl, vertically
above VPl. Another oblique line, from the
nearest point, I, to the lowest, J, completes
the prism.
The Hexagonal Frame. — This model is three
inches on a side, and is one inch square in sec
tion (Fig. 204). It stands on one rectangular
face with its hexagonal faces at an angle of
thirty degrees with the picture plane (Fig. 205) . For the outer
hexagon and the outer thickness proceed as in the prism.
Face view or fpame
Section of frame
Fig. 204
XVI.
^ This method is given in a slightly different form under Solutions of Problems, Chapter
129
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
For the inner hexagon we may first study the actual shape in
Fig. 204, where it is seen that the vertical frame thickness can
be conveniently carried across to measure it at Qy on the
nearest vertical, BC. We know this thickness to be one inch,
which is more than one sixth and less than one fifth of the
vertical CB. H one fifth of CB (CO in
Fig. 205) be found, and three quarters of
this {Qy) be taken, it will serve the purpose.
Mark the same distance from B up (point
z). From these points (y and z) vanish the
horizontal lines of this inner hexagon with
their parallels to VPl. The corners of the
Fig. 205 iuucr hexagou are on the diagonals of the
outer one, so the crossings of the diagonals
by these two vanishing lines give four corners of the inner
hexagon (1, 2, 3, and 4). From 2 an oblique line vanishes down
ward with, its parallels to 0VP2, marking point 5 on the hori
zontal diagonal EF. Another from 3, also vanishing in 0VP2,
is drawn from 3 upward to cut EF in point 6. Lines from 6 to
1 and from 2 to 5, complete the inner hexagon; and should, if
the drawing is correct, vanish with those parallel to them in
OVPl.
The inner edges of the thickness which are visible vanish
from 4 and 5 to VP2, being parallel to the outer thickness edges.
For the visible part of the further inner hexagon, a line of the
near inner hexagon, as 43, may be carried " around the corner "
and back, as in the square frame (Ch. XXIV). From the point
where this vanishing line (78) cuts the line from 4 to VP2, an
edge (89) vanishes with its parallels (CF and others) to OVPl.
This point is even further away than 0VP2, so that the con
vergence of its vanishing lines must be slighter. Where line 89
crosses the one from 5 to VP2 it meets the last visible edge of
this back inner hexagon, a line vanishing in 0VP2.
130
Chapter XL
THE TRIANGULAR PRISM AND FRAME —
PROBLEM FOR ORIGINAL STUDY
THE MODELS. — The prism is eight inches long, and its
triangular ends are four inches on a side. The frame is
six inches on a side, and one inch square in section.
See diagrams. Fig. 206.
A TRIANOULAC TACE
B. 5ide: view
OF FPAME
Positions. — The objects are
placed at the usual distance and
height, and are drawn separated,
as were the models in the last
chapter. The prism rests on
one long face, with its long edges
making angles of thirty degrees
with the picture plane. The
frame rests on a rectangular face
with its triangular faces at thirty
degrees with the picture plane.
Arrangement on the Sheet. — Two drawings are to be placed on
one sheet. The position of the paper (whether with its long
edges horizontal or vertical) and the placing of the drawings
on the sheet must 'be such as to produce the most agreeable and
satisfactory effect.
C ENO OF PPI5M
D 5IDE VIEW or PEI5M
Fig. 206
131
Chapter XLI
THE STUDY OF PARALLEL PERSPECTIVE
FROM Chapters XXXIV and XXXV it is seen that inte
riors follow the law of the cube. This, however, leads to
what may seem an inconsistency. Why, it may be asked,
does the table in Fig. 207 differ from
the cube in Fig. 2081 In the cube
B was made shorter than A because
farther into the picture. But in
the table B was not drawn shorter
than A.
The answer to this is that the
table was not studied
alone, as was the cube.
It was part of a pic
ture in which the dominant part (the back of the
room) was parallel to the picture plane. Having
drawn the side of the table parallel to the sides
of the room, it is absurd (Fig. 209)
to draw its end otherwise than
parallel with the back of the room.
Fig. 207 satisfies the eye and gives
a true impression of the room and
its contents. Could the room be
erased, leaving the table alone, it
would present the error shown in
Fig. 210. Here it forms the whole
picture and its picture plane makes
an angle with its ends (see plan in Fig. 210), hence it must be
drawn as below.
132
Fig. 207
THE TABLE ISWeONO
Fig. 209
f Uf THE
f UNIVERSITY
OF
v^
COBVECTION
STUDY OF PARALLEL PERSPECTIVE
It is undeniable that in Fig. 207 B is farther from the eye
than A. But since drawing that corner smaller produces the
false impression seen in Fig.
209, we are guided by the dis
tance of these points not from
the eye, but from the picture
plane. The picture plane simply
forms the best means of attain
ing our fundamental object — a
truthful representation. Hence
the necessity of determining
the limits of the picture (Fig.
211) and of clearly fixing in mind re i^'tiono^pI^I^pe plane
. , 1 T ,. /. . ROTABLE. WHEN TABLE
the central direction of seeing '* ^'°''^
and the picture plane.
Under some conditions, sur
faces may even be drawn in
their true shape when not quite
parallel to the picture plane. In Fig. 211
none of the vertical surfaces, as A, B, and C,
are exactly parallel with the picture plane.
This is shown to the beholder at x by the
convergence of the lines at right angles to
these surfaces. They vanish a little out
of the center of the picture as seen in
Fig. 212. Yet if all these vertical surfaces
are drawn in perspective (A in Fig. 212)
the result is misleading or impossible, and
the eye protests. But the drawing is per
fectly satisfactory in B, Fig. 212.
A convincing illustration of dominant
surfaces parallel to the picture plane is the
familiar form of a bureau. With an un
broken top (A in Fig. 213) it is easily drawn like the book
and cube. If now the middle drawer is cut out, the remaining
133
Fig. 210
m^^^/^y/z/m
PLAN (X^
INTERIOR
SHOWN IN
FIGURE aiS..
Fig. 211
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
A Untpue drawing
or VIEW FROM X, IN PLAN
B CORRECT DRAWING
OF ThE 3AME VIEW.
Fig. 212
small ones are seen to occupy positions similar to that of the
table in Fig. 1.
The Street. — The street is another example of these con
ditions. Viewed from the middle of a crosswalk {x in plan,
Fig. 214) the fronts
of the houses pre
sent to the beholder
a perspective like
that of the interior
in Fig. 207. They
vanish to the center
of the picture, and
surfaces at right
angles to them are
drawn in their true
shape. This is done
even if the con
vergence is not
toward the exact middle of the picture (Fig. 215), provided it
does not fall outside of the house fronts.
The beholder has passed on to 2/, and the
conditions are then like those of the
interior in Fig. 211.
But if instead of using both sides
of the street for our picture, we choose
one of the corners, the picture plane for
this forms a different angle with the
principal surfaces (Fig 214), and must be
drawn as shown in Fig. 216.
It may therefore be concluded, that
in any picture having a dominant part ^J^^=
parallel with the picture plane and conse ^
quently drawn in its true shape, all por
tions of that picture which are parallel with the picture plane must
also he drawn in their true shape.
134
'^1
Fig. 213
%
STUDY OF PARALLEL PERSPECTIVE
Also, even such dominant parts as
with the picture plane must
be drawn in their true shape
in certain cases where drawing
them in perspective produces
false or misleading results.
Finally, it is of great import
ance to include in the pic
ture only what can easily he
seen.
Parallel perspective, as
work under such conditions
is called, involves no depart
ure in principle from free
hand perspective in general.
It is merely an adaptation
of perspective methods to
certain conditions in the
subject.^
Space has been given here
to a somewhat extended con
sideration of the subject.
are not quite parallel
. // Plan OF THE
StAiLLli.' ^TCEET^HOWN
'f \i' IN PEC5PECTIVE
Fig. 214
VlEVy or JTEEET FBOM Y.
Fig. 215
1 The terms " parallel " and " angular " perspective, though used for lack of better ones,
are therefore far from satisfactory.
135
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
because the confusion concerning it that frequently exists is
deemed unnecessary. It has been found that students may be
easily led to distinguish when such conditions are present, after
which there is no difficulty in dealing with them.
vitw or coENca tbom y
Fig. 216
136
ef XLII
A STREET FROM THE PHOTOGRAPH
THIS . exercise (Fig. 217) may be drawn first if judged best,
noting carefully the changes made in rendering from
the photograph shown in Fig. 218. The student should
then select a print
of a street and
make a drawing
f'rom it. All
.sketches should
be thoroughly
thought out, hav
ing the level of
the eye carefully
placed, and all the
vanishing points
ocated, either
ictually or hj^ml
talb It wilj^
probably be noeesi
correct
K^ . « distortion*
of tli camera (see
Cb. N. LIII).
Tils drawing
'Ollowed
■ le
in
; ^ es
etches made
,FiG. 217
137
A STREET FROM THE PHOVOGRAPH
by the student at the place chosen may be used to help this
memory work.
Chapter XLIII
EXCEPTIONS TO THE USE OF THE FLAT
PICTURE PLANE
IT will be observed that in photographs the circular tops of
columns near the edges of the picture often appear as slant
ing ellipses (Fig. 219). And all who have an acquaintance
with mechanical
perspective will
recall that in cer
tain problems the
ellipses of cylin
ders do not work
out at right an
gles to the axis
(Fig. 220). While
the eye sees ob
jects pictured on
the inside of the
spherical eyeball,
the camera forms
its pictures, and
mechanical per
spective projects its problems on a flat surface. Therefore the
camera cannot wholly reproduce objects as seen by the eye,
and certain results obtained by mechanical perspective are
untrue representations. ^
* The photographic error has been recognized, and a camera is now made in which a
clockwork attachment brings each part of the plate in turn directly facing the part of the
subject it is to receive, and gives horizontal ellipses to columns wherever placed in the
picture.
139
Fig. 219
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
As for mechanical perspective, though useful in many cases,
it has sometimes obscured the real aim of representative drawing.
It has even been taught that the
flat picture plane should be used
for all representative work as in
mechanical perspective, logically
to the end, regardless of any pro
test of the eye as to its results.
To this error it is sufficient reply
Cylinders as found by MtECMANicAL per&pective, , ^^ i it • u n i i
Side cyuinoebs vntwc as reprcscntations. to Say that thc aim 01 treehand
^^^ ^^^ perspective is the drawing of objects
as they appear; and that the eye never sees a column as in Fig.
219, nor a cylinder as the outer
ones in Fig. 220. When, there
fore, the use of the flat picture
plane produces an untrue draw
ing, it is evident that an excep
tion must be made in that case.
The Cylindrical Picture Plane.
— Looking at Fig. 220, we find
that the middle cylinder, which
does appear right to the eye,
extends equally each side of the
central direction of seeing, so
that the picture plane is parallel
to the apparent breadth of the
cylinder. By drawing the other
cylinders as if each had such a
central direction of seeing and
such a picture plane of its
own (A, Fig. 221) a result is
obtained that appears true to
the eye (B, Fig. 221).
In other words, cylindrical
objects, however placed, should he
\
\
\
A. Plan.
Showing \
K5E or SPEC .
lAL PICTURE
PLANES THE
EQUIVALENT OF
THE Cylindri
cal picture:
PLAN6.
EYE
B. Appearance of group at A,o(^awn by
U*E OF *PECIALTMATIS, CYLIHDRlCrtt, PLANEO.
Fig. 221
140
EXCEPTIONS TO FLAT PICTURE PLANE
f=e^EYE
^ Side view
' Showing the viz of
PICTURE PLANES INCLINED
TROM THE VERTICAiTKAT IS.
THE 5PHER1CAI. PICTi;RE PVAKE.
Fig. 222
drawn as if for those objects alone, the picture plane was bent or rolled
into a cylindrical picture plane. But this does not apply to the
straightline portions of the
picture (as the block in Figs.
220 and 221), nor to the plac
ing of the cylindrical parts, nor
to their height. These must
be determined in the ordinary
way, by using the flat picture
plane. We only abandon the
flat picture plane where we
cannot otherwise produce a
representation which the eye
will accept as true.
The Spherical Picture Plane. — Another exception occurs in a
vertical direction. Thus, the only outline that will truthfully
represent a ball to the eye is a
circle. To obtain that, we must
regard its special central direction
of seeing as directed to its middle,
not only from side to side (as in
case of the cylinder), but from
top to bottom also. If the ball is
above or below the eye therefore,
its special picture plane is slanted
accordingly (Fig. 222). In this
case the picture plane (again /or
such objects alone) may be called
a Spherical picture plane.
An example of its application
is the case of a model posed
higher than the student who is
drawing (Fig. 223). The head is
foreshortened vertically, and the forehead appears smaller in pro
portion than the lower and nearer features. At the same time the
141
Fig. 223
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
window beyond that model is drawn on the usual flat picture
plane; that is, with its vertical lines vertical, as always.
These distinctions will be found not only necessary, but
natural and easy to make;^ especially if care is taken to include
in the picture space only what the eye can see without noticeably
moving the eyeballs (Ch. XLI). The picture plane should be
regarded as limited to what will cover this selected space, and we
have no concern with what lies outside of that.
When working from a photograph therefore, as must often be
done, such camera distortions as the columns in Fig. 219 should
be corrected to agree with what is pictured by the eye. And in
freehand work only such truths of mechanical perspective should
be used as produce results which the eye confirms as true repre
sentations. Where the eye and a train of reasoning are in
conflict, the reasoning should be scanned for errors. Unless a
drawing looks right, it may safely be pronounced not right. It
may look right, and still be wrong ; but if the eye refuses to be
satisfied, it is certainly wrong.
1 So natural and easy, in fact, that space for this explanation is hardly needed, except to
guard against false reasoning in the subject.
142
Chapter XLIV
SHADOWS
WHILE it is unnecessary for the mastery of freehand
sketching to study this subject exhaustively, there
are a few simple facts which have been found funda
mentally useful in practice, and which may be easily understood.
Fig. 224
To that end the student should follow these explanations
carefully, making experiments and sketches as needed. He
should then compose and draw a group similar to Fig. 224,
also should make other studies involving the use of the truths
here developed.
Light may be regarded as composed of an infinite number
of rays. From a lamp they extend outward in all directions,
143
Fig. 225
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
forming what may be called a sphere of light. The shadow of
the apple on the right of the lamp in Fig. 225 extends toward the
right; that of the book
on the left in an almost
opposite direction. The
sun, on the contrary, is
so much larger than the
earth, and its rays have
traveled such an incon
ceivable distance, that to
us they are parallel, as
are the paths of fall
ing raindrops. Fig. 226
illustrates this familiar truth. (This, of course, is also true of
moonlight.) There are therefore two classes of shadows: those
cast by the sun, and those
produced by near light, as a
lamp. Under those formed
by the sun may be studied
first:
Small Objects in a Room. —
If a shadow box be placed
near and a little back of
the window,^ as shown in
Fig. 227, the shadow edge
(A6) cast by the vertical
box edge AB will lie on the
floor of the box in a line actually parallel to that of the vertical
hatpin. The shadow of a vertical vase (Fig. 228) also casts a
shadow in the same direction. (That is, the center line C of
its shadow will be parallel with the shadow of AB, both where
it falls on the box floor, and on the horizontal book cover.) The
* In this case the window is larger than the box; so that as far as the box is concerned the*
rays of light are parallel. As will be seen later in this chapter, the diffused light from a win
dow causes radiating shadows in the room itself.
144
Fig. 226
^
SHADOWS
shadow (F^) of the vertical book corner (FD) will be parallel
we push the box back or forward
EYE • ueveu
Fig. 227
with these lines. If
they all change direc
tion, becoming more
nearly parallel with
the picture plane
as the box moves
forward, and vanish
ing more steeply if
we put it further
back of the window.
But they always
remain actually parallel to each other.
In the same way we see in Fig. 227 that the shadow of the
horizontal edge BH and of a horizontal hatpin (EF) are actually
parallel to each other, both on the back and the floor of the
box. Also in Fig. 228 the shadow (be) falling on the hori
zontal book
cover from the
horizontal box
edge (BE) is
parallel to the
shadow (dg)
falling on the
horizontal box
surface from
the horizontal
line DG.
F^°228 " Wemaythere
fore say that actually parallel lines or objects cast actually parallel
shadows on the same or parallel surfaces.
But in perspective, parallel lines vanish; and if they are
hoHzontal lines they vanish to the level of the eye. We should
therefore expefet these parallel shadows to also vanish thus, and we
fln<] they do vanish, in the same manner as any lines or objects.
10 145
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
Fig. 229
We next observe (in Fig. 228) that the vertical vase casts
a vertical shadow on the vertical back of the box. Then we
recall that the horizontal edges BE and DGr cast on horizontal
surfaces horizontal
shadow edges he and
dg. As these edges
vanish, their shadows
vanish with them to
the same point, as any
parallel lines would.
It thus appears that
when the receiving sur
face is parallel to the
ohject or line casting the
shadow, the shadow tvill also he parallel to the object or line.
This brings us to consider how to find the extent of shadows.
If the shadow box is lowered from its usual place on the table
to the floor, the shadows will be found shorter (Fig. 229). The
light, falling more steeply, cuts off the shadows nearer the
objects. When the box is lifted back to the table (Fig. 228) the
shadows will be seen to lengthen.
With a light ruler or " straight
edge " (Fig. 230), take the actual
direction from the hatpin top (D)
to its shadow {d) on the floor of
the box. Keeping the ruler in the
same actual direction, move it to
the left till it grazes the top corner (B) of the box. It will be
found also to mark the shadow (6) of point B.
The evident truth is that the direction of the lightray from any
point in the object marks the same point in its shadoiv. Therefore
to find the shadow of any point, as of the other hatpin head
(E, Fig. 227) we have only to draw the lightray from E to where
it strikes the receiving surface.
But since in this case the window is nearer than the box, the
146
Fig. 230
SHADOWS
lightrays are receding slightly, hence must appear to converge
a little, like any parallel receding lines. Therefore to draw them,
we first find their vanishing point. Imagine one of these rays
(as T>d, Fig. 227) dropped vertically to the floor of the box (as
the gable edge in Ch. XXII was dropped). It would then lie
in the horizontal shadow line (C^) directly under it, and would
vanish in VPS. When lifted again to its former oblique position
(Dd) its vanishing point would have moved down in a vertical line
from VPS, and become OVPl. All other lightrays in this illustra
tion (as B6 and Ee) appear to converge to this vanishing point.
Hoiv to find where the light ray and the receiving surface
meet is the next consideration. In the
case of Dd we had a vertical line, CD,
and from it a shadow, cut by the light
ray. From E we can imagine a vertical
line, similar to CD, dropped to the floor
of the box. (We can find where this
vertical line will touch the floor by a vertical from F to the box
edge (IJ) at point K, and a vanishing line from VPl through
that point (K) to cut the vertical from E (in L). From L a line
actually parallel to the shadow C^ (vanishing in VPS) cuts the
lightray in the desired point, e. This is essentially the way most
shadow points are found : — by a vertical line from the point on the
object to the receiving surface, and from that a shadow line on the
receiving surface to cut the light ray. In other words we pass an
imaginary vertical plane through the point and the lightray.
Fig. 2S1 shows a simple application of these principles. When
the cube has been drawn, the direction and length of the shadow
edge Ba may be assumed (or taken if drawing from the object).
This gives the direction of the lightray Aa. The shadow ac
vanishes with AC till cut by the lightray from C, and cd
vanishes with CD. These points can be tested by vanishing the
lightrays from the other corners to OVPl, thus completing the
vertical planes above mentioned.
The shadow of the left horizontal box edge (BH) falls partly
147
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
on the back of the box in a slanting line which may be thus deter
mined. Take the book out (Fig. 227), when it will be seen that
the near part of the shadow, beginning at &, vanishes on the floor of
the box to VPl till it reaches the box edge in point i. From this
point to the box corner lies H^, the line in question. Many shadow
lines can be found thus, — hy locating any two points in the line.
Looking again at the shadow
of the vase on the back of the
box, we observe that the shadow
of its horizontal circular top f all
Vetzticau plane
at riomt anoue5 to
CENTER or 5hADOW
A. Pjlan3mowino
JVMMETPY OF JHAPOW
Fig. 232
Perspective
or ABOVE .
FACE VIEW OF
VERTICAL PART
OF SHAPOW.
Fig. 233
ing on the back of the box is not a horizontal curve. To
understand this, we will begin with the shadow of any vertical
cylindrical object on a horizontal surface, as in Fig. 232. It will
be found actually symmetrical. In perspective it will be fore
shortened (B in Fig. 232) ; and lines marking its horizontal details
(as AB, CD, and EF) will vanish, as would any parallel horizontal
lines. If now we move this object toward a vertical surface,
placed so that, viewed from above it makes right angles tvith the light
rays (as shown in A, Fig. 233), the shadow on the vertical surface
148
SHADOWS
A. 3nowiNG
VETZTICAU PUANt
ATUNEQOAJ ANGLES
TO 51IADOW CENTE12
B Pet?spe:ctive or above
— Shadow distot?ted
Fig. 234
also will he actually symmetrical] though it may appear fore
shortened, as in this case.
Now if the receiving surface be
turned so it is not at right angles
(viewed from above) with the
light (Fig. 234), we get what we
observed in Fig. 228, — an actu
ally onesided shadow. The reason
for this distortion is made clear
from the plan in Fig. 234. The
descending lightray from y has
farther to travel before striking
the receiving surface, hence its
shadow, yj is lower than the
shadow from z. Such variations
of original shapes are of the same
nature in producing beauty (and
consequent enjoyment) as theme
variations in music. Thus the bottle with shoulders (Fig. 235)
acquires a charm from the proximity of its interestingly altered
shadowself which it cannot have alone.
For the shadows of curves (as for
that of the horizontal hatpin in Fig.
227) vertical planes through several
points (as x^ y, and z) are taken and
the curve then sketched freehand.
The use of this method is also shown
in the vase shadow in Fig. 228. But
as soon as the underlying truths are
clearly understood, the actual taking
of points is seldom needed.
So far the shadows have fallen on flat surfaces, but the
shadow of the vertical box edge in Fig. 228 falls partly on the
curved book back ; and on this it forms a vertical curve — that is,
with its ends in a vertical line. The curve is sketched by the
149
Fig. 235
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
eye, though it could be constructed /fey points. In Fig. 229 the
shadow on the book back is cast by a horizontal edge and is
therefore an oblique curve. In this
case its upper point (M) is found by
imagining the book cover continued
until it cuts the back of the box in a
line from N vanishing with the long
box edges. Where the shadow line
HI cuts this line (point o) will be
the farther end of the line on the book cover. This shadow will
vanish in VPl, and where it cuts the upper edge of the book back
will be M, the upper end of the curve.
The book in Fig. 236 shows the use of points when the edge
casting the shadow is itself oblique. A vertical line from D to the
Ovp'
^
!0u.
^^/.
iifWff
^t
25
^=i2l^r
/^A/
^e
^V;p3
B vSHOWING VANISHING P0INT5 U5CD IN A.
A THf SHADOWS ON A HOUSE
Fig. 237
150
OVP:
SHADOWS
A
x:
POINtiQ
POINT O, THE
OAS TLAME
edge 12, and a line from that point (E) to C, constructs one
vertical plane. The lightray from point A cuts the shadow
direction of AB at a. The shadow of CD travels from C through
a to the edge 12,
and from there to
p. :S:^^^^^^ ^ Plan, SHOWING
L' ^^^^^^^^>i>^ T?At)lATINa RAVJ.
Shado'ws on a
House. — The truths
thus developed ap
ply to outofdoor
work, as shown in
the house (Fig. 237).
Here one new con
dition is met, — the
shadow of the ver
tical dormer edge
falls on the oblique
surface of the roof,
and hence has an
oblique vanishing
point. This vanish
ing point is easily
found, as we already
have two points in
the vanishing trace
of theroof, — OVPl
and VP2. The line
containing these
points is the vanishing trace, not only of the roof, hut of the infi
nite plane containing the roof. Hence the line can be drawn as
long as needed — it is really infinite in length. So we have only
to draw the trace from OVPl to VP2, and mark 0VP3 on it,
vertically over VPS, exactly as we marked OVPl over VPl.
The shadow of the bush is an instance of the ease with which
shadow laws are applied to natural objects. The shadow is sketched
151
or ABOVE
Fig. 238
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
freehand ; but with much greater certainty for knowing that its
center must fall on the ground in the direction of VPS, and that it
can extend no farther than its meeting with the ray of light, HI.
Shadows from a Lamp. — The radiating rays from an artificial
light can all be contained in an infinite number of radiating ver
tical planes through the light itself. Some of these radiating
planes are seen in the plan (OA, OB and others in Fig. 238).
These radiating
planes are used
instead of the
parallel vertical
planes previously
explained. Other
wise the methods
are the same as
with light from
the sun. Thus in
the shadow of the
stool the lightray
from O through
T> gives d where
cut by a line on
the ground di
rectly under it
^^° ^^^ (from through
E). The shadow of Gr^ falls on the floor in the direction of
oH till it reaches the wall. On the vertical wall, the shadow
of the vertical GH is also vertical. It is ended by the lightray
from O through Gr. The shadow of the edge GrI will be parallel
to it, and like it will appear as a vanishing line to VPl. The
near part {dj) of the shadow of DI will be parallel to DI, and
will vanish to VPl till it reaches the wall at J. A line from J
to I completes the shadow of DI.
Shadows in an Interior. — These are partly like the lamp
shadows. For instance the shadow on the couch in Fig. 239
152
SHADOWS
extends in an almost opposite direction from that of the chair.
These shadows are produced by the diffused daylight radiating
from the window. On the other hand a patch of sunlight falling
through the window would follow the laws of sunlight generally.
The edges ab and cd vanish with AB and CD, while points a
and h are marked by the meeting of lightrays from A and B
with shadows of verticals from A and B. In this case the light
comes from beyond the window, hence the lightrays recede up,
and appear to converge or vanish in that direction.
153
Chapter XLV
OUTOFDOORS WORK
A LTHOUGH the same perspective principles apply to out
/% ofdoors work the conditions of the study vary, and some
^ ^ cases need explanation.
Vanishing Points. — In drawing the house (Ch. XXII), we
placed ourselves proportionately in relation to the small cube
as we should naturally be in relation to the real house. Thus
the sixteen inches of distance from the eye, or four times the
51DE view or nousc showing two positions op eye
Fig. 240
height of the cube, was equivalent to only four times the height
of a twentyfoot house, or eighty feet — less than five rods. At
this short distance the vanishing of the lines is very decided ; but
at a half mile from the same house, those lines appear nearly
horizontal. The reason for it is seen in Fig. 240. When the eye
is near the house (at ic) the apparent difference in length between
the edges AB and CD is greater than when the eye is at y.
This is shown on picture plane 1 by ab and cd^ and on picture
plane 2 by do' and dd!. The horizontal edges of the house
as seen by the eye from x would therefore vanish more steeply,
causing the vanishing point to fall nearer, as shown in A, Fig.
241. As seen from y^ the horizontal edges are less steep ; there
fore in B the vanishing points fall much farther away.
It follows, therefore, that the greater the distance of the eye
154
OUTOFDOORS WORK
from an object, the farther to right and left will the vanishing
points fall. When the house is a half mile away they fall so far
to left and right that its horizontal lines appear almost level.
Hence the beginner in landscape work, accustomed only to near
objects, is sometimes puzzled, because distant houses seem to
have no perspective. And the landscape artist who has *' no
t^ SHAPE or HOUSE AS
5CEN FROM X
[! PI n
nniTin
B SHAPE OF HOUSE AS
SEEN TROM Y.
..^^i%.
Fig. 241
trouble with houses " in the distance may shrink from attempting
them in the foreground.
Size of Objects Seen. — The image formed on the retina of the
eye is always exceedingly small, and with distant objects becomes
microscopic. All mental picturing of the size of objects pro
ceeds from our mental knowledge of their actual dimensions.
Size judged from seeing alone can be but a matter of comparison.
This is easily proved by asking two persons how largejthe moon
appears to them. Here we have an object whose real size and
distance are so great as to be no guide in comparison with other
objects and it will probably appear of a different size to each
person. There is consequently no such thing as the drawing
of objects ''the size they appear." Size in draiving is merely
relative; and the scale on which a drawing is made is wholly a
matter of choice. We may choose to make a drawing what is
termed " actual size," but this means that we regulate its size by
a mental knowledge obtained either from measuring in the ordi
nary way, or by putting our sketch back by the object to compare
them by the eye.
The absolute size of objects varies so much, also, that unless
the picture contains something the size of which is well known
155
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
and but little variable, we cannot be sure of the sizes repre
sented. The human fig
ure serves best for such
a standard, but some
objects always adjusted
to the human figure in
size, as steps, and often
doors, will answer in its
place.
The size of objects ac
cording to their distance
into the picture is impor
tant in outofdoors work
also. Here the indis
pensable picture plane
becomes again useful.
In Fig. 242, for instance,
the gondolier must not
be too large for the
buildings. Lines drawn
from his head and a
Fig. 242 poiut ou the watcr di
rectly under it to the eye level will contain between them his
height above the water
all the way to their van
ishing point. If we
wish to know, for in
stance, whether the door
on the left is large
enough, we have only
to draw horizontal lines
from its top and from a
point directly under it on
the plane of the water f^^ 243
continued. Where this water line would cut the water line from
156
OUTOFDOORS WORK
the figure to the vanishing point a vertical line is erected, on
which the two heights can be compared.
Reflections. — If a mirror be
laid on a table, and a cup placed
on it (Fig. 243), the reflection
will appear precisely like the
cup reversed, with its bottom
resting against the bottom of
the real cup. The reflection
will not present to the eye the
same shape as the real cup,
for besides being reversed it is
farther below the eye, making
its inside invisible while its
base is covered by that of the
real cup. We can also see
farther around on its flaring
A. Perspective
SHOWING STAKE
FORESHORTENED
B. Side view of stake showing how
its foreshortening occurs.
Fig. 244
surface, because its decrease of diameter is toward the eye level,
while in the actual object it is away from the eye level.
Now since it is like the cup reversed we see that any point
(as A) in the cup, must be reflected directly under itself. So a
stake, thrust into a pool of still water (Fig. 244), will produce
a reflection like itself reversed ; ^ and each point in the reflec
tion will be directly under the same point in the real stake.
* In this case appearing longer than the real stake, as explained a few pages later.
157
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
It is therefore evident that in case of reflections on a horizon
tal surface, the image formed must he vertically under the reality.
Consequently, as long as the
reflecting surface remains
horizontal, reflections on it
cannot be thrown to one
side, but must be shown di
rectly under the real objects,
even if the reflecting surface
be broken (as in Fig. 242).
And if in drawing reflections
we represent them out of
the vertical (Fig. 245) the
reflecting surface (in this
case the water) appears to be
sloping, like rapids in a river.
We may therefore take as
our rule that reflections are
invariably like the reflected
object reversed on the reflecting
plane.
When the Object is Sep
arated from the Reflecting
Surface. — In Fig. 246 the bungalow is separated from the reflecting
WRONG. Reflections not ver
tically UNDER OBJECTS RE
FLECTED. WATER APPEARS
SLOPING NOT LEVEL..
Fig. 245
.The bonqalow/ is estimated lb b«
this ctistance (E r) forthev into the
picture thar\ the boo^House..
Fig. 246
158
OUTOFDOORS WORK
surface (the water) by a high bank. But by using a water line
of the boathouse (which stands parallel to it and directly on the
water), the points (A, B, and C) where the bungalow edges
continued would strike the plane of the water can be closely
approximated. From there the points (a, 6, c, and d) for the
reflection of the bungalow are measured vertically.
Even if we had not the boathouse to give parallel vanishing lines
on the water, the necessary points (A, B, and C) could be esti
mated with sufficient accuracy after a little experience. The main
thing to remember is that it is on the reflecting surface or on
its plane continued that the object is reversed in its reflection.
Reflections on Vertical Surfaces. — With reflections on vertical
surfaces the problem is very simple. In Fig. 247 the box appears
reversed as far back
of the mirror surface
(the thickness of its
frame) as it actually
stands in front of it.
Length of the Re
flection. — The verti
cal length of the re
flection, while the
reflecting surface is
unbroken (as in Fig.
243) is actually the
same as that of the real subject. This does not mean that the
reflection will always appear of the same vertical length as the
object, as that depends on its position and on the location of
the point from which it is viewed. In Fig. 244 the stake is
seen from a higher point and leans toward the beholder. It is
consequently seen foreshortened, as the roundness of its top
indicates. The reflection, being reversed, appears practically in
its true length. A point (x) on the surface of the water directly
under the top, appears lower than where the stake enters the
water, because nearer the eye. Cases like the familiar " silver
159
Fig. 247
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
path " of the moon in rippling water, or like Fig. 242, where
the reflections of upright objects appear lengthened vertically
as well as broken, are caused by the many curved surfaces of the
waves on which successive bits of the reflection fall.
Use of the Finder. — Nowhere will the finder (Ch. VITI) be
of more use than in outofdoors work. The difference in distance
between the near and far objects in a landscape is so great,
that the beginner finds it hard to realize how much difference
he must make in size. The finder serves as a measuring unit
for these differences, besides being invaluable as an aid in
selection.
160
/'^
SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS
CHAPTER XI
THE CYLINDER CONE AND BALL
THE Cone. — After the cylinder is drawn, the base of the cone is
next placed. This is actually a circle, and of the same size as
the cylinder base. Its position will be clear from the plan (Fig.
249). In perspec
tive it is best placed
by its true center.
If the cone were
moved on the
ground around and
touching the cylin
der, this center
would describe a
circle, twice the
diameter of the
cylinder base, and
equally distant at
every point from
the cylinder. This
circle is sketched in
perspective (Fig.
250) as an ellipse
(see Chs. IV and
XX). The true
center for the base
of the cone is placed
on this ellipse (at
0). From this
true centpr a ver ''^''''^"'''''!''^^'^"*^^i iti ^'<f Ti '~'<~[ t'^ r > "^v^irr\~n  rt—r —
Fig. 248
11 161
■ '11 m Di—itxowiiilgMi—
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
I PICTURE
Fig. 249
tical line of indefinite length may be erected, on which to set off the
axis of the cone. Its height, being actually the same as that of
the cylinder, will appear slightly greater because nearer the eye. At the
same time its apex (F), being nearer, cannot appear
quite so high on the paper as even the nearest edge
of the cylinder top.^ Through its lower end (0) the
real diameter of its circular base passes. Being at
the same distance into the picture as the axis, and
like it parallel with the picture plane, it appears
in its true proportion to the axis (one half). It is
therefore so set off, equally on each side of 0,
giving AB. The base of the cone, though actually of the same
size as the cylinder, will appear a little larger (and also a little
rounder), because nearer. The short diameter
of this base (CD) is therefore set off greater
than that of the cylinder base, remembering
that as is the real center, DO must be
larger than CO. The ellipse is then sketched
through the four points A, B, C, and D, tak
ing care to have it touch the base of the
cylinder, and to make the greatest length not
on AB, but at a point a little in front, 07i
the apparent middle from front to hack — that is, on the long
diameter (the light line in front of AB). The cone is completed
by drawing its sides from the apex tangentially to this elliptical
base.
The Ball. — If the ball be rolled about and touching the cylinder it
will follow the same path as the center of the cone base, so that its
resting point will always be somewhere in the ellipse representing that
path (its center being always vertically above the resting point). We
should therefore mark some point in the large ellipse (in this case x)
for the resting point of the ball. If we stoop to bring the eye nearly
^ Being actually of the same height, they lie in the same horizontal plane. This plane,
being below the level of the eye, appears to recede upwai'd, as the table does. This will be
better understood if a sheet of paper is laid on the tops of the two objects, when it can be seen
that it appears to recede upward. The following chapter will further illustrate this truth.
162
Fig. 250
SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS
to the table level, and look at the ball, we shall see it resting on this
spot. But if we return to the point from which the group was to be
viewed, we shall find this point hidden by the projecting mass of the
ball. The circle which represents the boundary of the ball is therefore
drawn with its lower edge a little below x, and its center vertically over
that point.
CHAPTER XV
THE CYLINDER AND THE RECTANGULAR BLOCK
The Block. — This
parallel with the pic
ture plane, it will
appear in its true
shape, and the block
ends will vanish in
VPl like the book
ends in Chapter XII.
In setting off the
apparent width of
the top, we remem
ber that it is actually
narrower in propor
tion than the book
cover.
The Cylinder. —
The cylinder rests
against this block
(side view. Fig. 252),
so we can measure
the height of its back
(AB, Fig. 253) actu
ally, making it twice
the height of the block
should be drawn first. Since its front face is
Fig. 251
163
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
51DE VIEW or GCOUP
Fig. 252
front. The lower base is actually the same in width as the block, but be
ing nearer the eye it will appear larger. Just how much can be easily
determined. Draw the invisible lines of the block (the dotted lines in
Fig. 253), and carry the di
agonal of one half {x) for
ward in a line of indefinite
length. Cut this by line y
of the invisible edge of the
block. From the point (C)
so found draw line 3 to the
right, to cut another invisi
ble edge continued. This constructs another
rectangle the actual size of the side of the block,
but nearer, hence appearing larger.^ The middle
of the front of this rectangle (point D) will be
the front of the base of the cylinder. Its back
will be A, and its long diameter, EF, can be set off on a line sketched
half way between this front and back, marking E and F half way
between AD and the ends of the construction rectangle. Through these
four points the bottom ellipse is drawn.
For the top ellipse a similar rectangle can be constructed directly
above it. This will give a much more foreshortened ellipse, as would be
expected. The back and front of the middle ellipse are drawn as
directed in Chapter IV.
Fig. 253
CHAPTER XXVI
THE SQUARE FRAME LEANING ON A REC
TANGULAR BLOCK
The Rectangular Block. — This solid is drawn in the same manner
as the book similarly placed. Recall that it is equal to two cubes, as
shown in Fig. 255. Here a diagonal of the first cube measures the
^ This use of the diagonal for measuring will be found in Chapters XXII, XXV, and
others.
164
SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS
width of the second, as in the steps in Chapter XXIL (Thus BD and
DE, being the same distance from the picture plane, are made actually
Fio. 254
equal. A line from E is then vanished with
those from A and C to VP2, and the diagonal
continued to cut it in point F. From F a
vertical line gives GH, the edge desired.)
The Frame. — For this the loioer face only
may be considered first. Place a sixinch
square of cardboard in the required position
(Fig. 256). Mark in the drawing its touch
ing points (A and B),
one eighth of the block
length from each end.
Now push up the card
board till it rests verti
165
III '
X 1 \ \ '
DIAGRAM
OF WORK
Beuow
Fig. 256
PERSPECTIVE I
Fio. 'ioo
\ t^^^
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
cally against the block (Fig. 257) and observe that its lower corners
move in lines parallel to the block ends and rest directly under points
A and B. Sketch vertical lines downward from
these points, giving C and D. Draw lines
through C and D, vanishing in VPl, and ex
tending forward indefinitely. On these lines
the distance of the frame from the block can be
measured. This distance is actually one half the
width of the block width, hence is made perspec
tively that, or apparently a little larger than the near half (Ca^, Fig. 258) of
the block width at that point. It ^^^ r eve leweu
is measured on the line through ^^
C, giving E. From E the lower
edge of the square is vanished
to VP2. Where it crosses the
line through D will be F, the
other lower corner of the square.
The leaning edges of the square
are drawn from E and F through
A and B, and will be found to
vanish in OVPl. They vanish
a little less (have a more distant vanishing point) than the horizontal
edge EF. They should therefore be made shghtly longer, but shorter
than if standing erect from E. We can check our
estimate by comparison with the vertical height of
the frame at that point (EH). To obtain this,
the height of the frame standing vertically at C is
measured (one and a half times the block height),
and a line through its top vanished in VPl. This
gives EH, the apparent height of the square if erect at that point. When
leaning it wdll appear slightly less (Fig. 259).
The Thickness Edges. — These edges must vanish sharply, or have a
near vanishing point, because the edges at right angles to them (the ones to
OVPl) are foreshortened but little. Hence VP2 is placed but little below
the group. To this point these short edges are drawn, carrying them for
166
Fig. 259
SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS
ward of the corners indefinitely for a short distance. The foreshortening
of these edges (actually one sixth of the long edges of the square) will be
much greater than that of the long edges ; and one may be set off accord
ingly, as at I. From this corner a horizontal edge vanishes to VP2, and
a long oblique one to OVPl, giving points J and K where they cross the
thickness edges. From K the other horizontal edge vanishes again to VP2
and from J the other long oblique one to OVPl, completing the square.
The Inner Square. — On this we may draw the inner square and its
thickness as in Chapter XXIV, remembering that the sixths to be meas
ured on IK are perspective sixths ; and that since IK does not vanish
much, the difference in their apparent size is very slight.
CHAPTER XL
The Triangular
Prism. — This solid is
easily constructed by the
use of the cube (see dotted
lines). The length of AC
is found by the diagonal
(ED) of one side of this
imaginary cube, DF being
made equal to DG (p.
165), The steps in Chap
ter XXII illustrate this
method. The end view
shows how the triangle
is related in shape to the
square face of the cube.
Its vertical center line is
located by the diagonals
of the square, and the
height of its apex is meas
ured to X on the near verti
cal edge of the cube (AE).
Fig. 260
167
FREEHAND PERSPECTIVE
The Triangular Frame. — This is also readily drawn by the help
of one face of the cube. After the triangular outline is sketched, the
height of one lower bar (one sixth of the height of the cube) is marked
V
Fig. 261
Fig. 262
upward from C, giving point E, and the lower edge of the inner triangle
is vanished through E. Where BF, drawn so as to divide AD per
spectively, crosses this lower edge is a corner of the inner triangle.
Through this corner (G) another edge of the inner triangle vanishes to
OVPl. The other edge is drawn toward 0VP2. The thicknesses are
found as in the square frame (Ch. XXIV).
168
INDEX
Aims of perspective, drawing objects as
they appear, 140
learning to see, xii
to acquire artistic judgment, 80, 83,
120
Apparent size of objects, according to dis
tance, xi, 156
in outofdoor work, 155
in relation to other parts of picture,
108
relative only, 6, 155
Arch, errors in drawing, 99
pointed and other forms, 104
round, 99, 103104
Artistic judgment, 80, 83, 120
Artistic rendering, book, 59
buildings, 83
glass, 25, 28, 30
rose jar, 17
Background, subordination of objects in,
fan, 33
leaning bowl, 26
plate, 30
Bases of cylindrical objects, see Foot
always partly visible, 47
location on horizontal surfaces, 29, 30,
32, 161162
Benefit of perspective study,
acquiring of artistic judgment, 80, 83,
120
learning to see correctly, xii
Book, artistic rendering of, 59
at angles to picture plane, 5860
back of, 44
clasps of, 44
cover thickness, 44
in two positions, 43, 44
margins, 40, 41
projection of covers, 44
use of pencils to show convergence of
lines, 37
use of strings, 38, 39
vertical edges, 60
with back parallel to face, 3842
with cyUndrical object, 4647
Books, two, at different angles to the pic
ture plane, 61, 62
•with, a cylindrical object, 67, 68
Boundary, movable, 16, 17, 21
tangential to ellipses, 13, 17
Buildings, camera distortions in, 139, 142
few vanishing points for, 84
from photograph or print, 81
house, the, 6980; see House
round arch, the, 99, 103
round window, the, 100, 101
spire or tower, 90
type forms useful in, 85, 88
Camera distortions, 139, 142
Carrying lines "around a corner," 86, 130
Central direction of seeing, alluded to, 10,
140
explained, 6
moves with changed picture center, 46
Chair, the study of, 118120
Circle, actual center of, 63 ; see Ellipse
concentric circles, 14, 6366
location of its center in ellipse, 15, 65
only position in which seen as circle,
xii
seen obliquely, 9
Circular frame within square frame, 9699
application of its principles, 99; see
CyUndrical objects not vertical
Clock, 102
Color, in buildings, 83 '
of book, 59
on rose jar, 17
Composition, cylinder and cylindrical ob
ject, 12
cylindrical objects grouped, 26; with
books, 68
in selecting from interior, 112, 115;
from photograph of building, 81
Concentric circles, 14
with square, 6366
Cone model, 18
Cone principle, 19
Cover of teapot, 28
169
INDEX
Cream jug, foot, 22
handle, 20
ornament, 23
spout, 22
study of, 2023
Cube, at 45° with picture plane, 53, 56
at 30° and 60° with picture plane, 56
making the drawing, 54
order of drawing edges, 54
proportions used in estimating other
objects, 51, 86, 129, 164165,
167168
recession of horizontal surfaces to eye
level, 51
relation of foreshortening to vanish
ing of edges, 50, 51
study of, 4852
taking direction of edges with pencil,
55
tests of vanishing lines by string and
by eye, 56 ; on blackboard, 57
Cylinder, errors in ellipses of, 14
hollow, the, 14, 15
inner cylinder, 14
models for, 8, 14
perspectively equal divisions, 15
position of model, 13
roundness of ellipses, 1416
sides tangential to ellipses, 13
study of, 1215
symmetry of elUpses, 15
true diameter of circle, 15
Cylindrical objects grouped, 2628
Cylindrical objects not vertical, 9294
application of principle, 94
other examples, button on cord, 19;
circular frame, 9699; clock,
102; flower pots, 95; leaning
bowl, 27; luncheon carrier, 32;
round arches, 99, 103104; round
window, 100, 101
symmetry of appearance, 9394
test for drawing of, 94, 95
Cylindrical objects with fruit, 29, 30
Cylindrical picture plane, 140141
Diagonals, use for measuring, concentric
circles, 65, 66
door in room, 108
square frame, 86 '
square plinth, 89
Drawing from a description, xii ; see Prob
lems
Ears of teapot, 28
Ellipse, at right angles to axis in cylindrical
objects, 9394
common errors in, 14
diameters of, 9, 15
drawn entire first, 14, 15
from concentric circles, 14, 6366
measurement on its diameters, 14, 15
position of hand in drawing, 11
practicing, 10, 11
roundness according to position, 9, 10,
1315
study of, 811
symmetry, 9, 15
tangential to boundary lines, 13, 15, 17
test of shape, 9
true diameter of circle, 15
varying curvature of boundary line, 9
Exceptions to the use of the flat picture
plane, 139142
cylindrical picture plane, 140141
spherical picture plane, 141142
Eye level, explained, 52
finding, 39, 40
importance, 40
way of using 39
Fan, 33
Finder, 26, 67, 160
Flower pots, 95
Foot of cylindrical objects, at least partly
visible, 47
of cream jug, 22, 23
of rose jar, 16, 17
Foreshortening, xi, 10
Freehand sketching defined, xii
Freehand work entirely, 3
Fruit grouped with cylindrical objects, 29
30
Foundation truths of perspective, two, xi
Geometric solids, omitted at the teacher's
discretion, 85, note
Geometric measurements, obtained per
spectively, 66, 108
Glass, bowl, 25
pitcher, 30 . '
Handle, cream jug, 2022
Hexagonal plinth, appUcation of study,
126127
test for, 124125
two positions, 121125
170
INDEX
Hexagonal prism and frame, 128130
estimating length of prism, 129
Horizontal surfaces foreshortened, 37, 40, 41
Horizontal surfaces recede to eye level, 51
Horizontal vanishing edges, 3739, 50
House, 6980
chimney, 76
dormer window, 79
eaves projections, 74
"L" part, 75
model, 69
porch, 75
roof, 7073
steps, 78
windows and doors, 7576
How much to include in the picture, 112
Interiors, at angles to picture plane, 110
113
ceiling, little or none shown, 115
door in an interior, 107
from memory, 106 and note
further studies of, 114116
lines must not point to corners, 109,
116
parallel to picture plane, 105109, 132,
133
picture on wall, 106
relation of subjectspace to picture
plane. 111
selection of subjectspace, 110
stool, 108
with tiled floor, 126127
Knob of teapot cover, 28
Lamp shade, 18, 19
Line, directions for drawing, 1, 2
expressive, 17
texture of, 1
Lines of the picture must not make equal
angles, 115
nor run to corners of margin, 109, 116
Margin of picture, 1, 13
cutting the group. 27, illus., 28, 30
moving, to improve picture, 116
partial, 116
Margins, of the book, 40, 41
Materials, pencil and paper, 1
models, 2 ; see Models
Measuring, by the diagonal, 65, 86, 89,
107108
distance into the picture, 6566
height within the picture, 90, 108
only relative, 6, 66
Measurements obtained geometrically can
be so obtained perspectively, 66,
107108, 122123, 164165, 167
168
Mechanical perspective, value alluded to,
140
errors of, 139
correction of, 140
limitations of, 142
Memory work, conditions of, 31
from interiors, 106
group of objects from, 3132
less laborious, note, 106
necessity for, xii
specially advised, 43, 53, 58, 67
Methods, their subsequent use in practical
work, xii, 101
Models, in general, 2
making, cone, 18, 19; cylinder, 8;
cube, 49; rectangular block, 48;
hexagonal plinth, 121 ; triangular
prism, 131
position for drawing, 2
Oblique vanishing lines, chair, 119
dormer, 80
hexagonal frame, 129, 130
light rays, 147
roof of house, 72
shadow on roof, 151
Obstacle to mastery of perspective, xii
Ornament, constructive principles of, 23
on Japanese luncheon carrier, 32, 33
rendering of, 17
use in composition, 13
Outofdoors work, 154160
greater distance of vanishing points,
154155
reflections, 156160 ; see Reflections
size of objects, 155
Parallel retreating lines, convergence of,
40, 50
Parallel retreating horizontal lines, meet
ing at eye level, 50, 93
Parallel perspective, bureau, 134
interiors, 105109, 132133
street, 134, 136137
term "parallel" unsatisfactory, 135,
no^
171
INDEX
Pencil measurement, difficulties of, 6
essential requirements for, 6
gives relative size only, 6
of a door, 7
of the book, 39, 40
of the cube, 55, 56
of the ellipse, 13
on a windowpane, 5
on the picture plane, 7
study of, 47
Picture plane, different for each picture,
46, 113
exceptions to use of flat picture plane,
139142
method of using, 7
position relative to central direction of
seeing, 6
relation to group of objects, 46
relation to subject in drawing inte
rior, 110112
study of, 47
Position, for drawing, 1
of hand for ellipses, 11 ; for lines, 12
of models, 2
Practical use of methods, xii, 101.
Practice, of ellipses, 11
of lines, 1, 2
Principles of perspective, two founda
tion, xi
Problems, clock, 102
conditions, general, 34; special, 102
cyUnder, cone and ball, 34, 161163
reasons for giving, xii
rectangular block and cylinder, 48,
163
square frame leaning on block, 91,
164
triangular prism and frame, 131, 167
Profile lines, 21, 22
QUATREFOIL, 101
Railroad track, illustrates vanishing fines,
' 41, 42
Reflections, lengthened by waves, 160
length of vertical, 159, 160
on a horizontal surface, 156158
on a vertical surface, 159
when separated from reflecting sur
face, 158
Rose jar, artistic rendering, 17
foot, 16, 17
ornament on, 17
shoulders, 16
study of, 1516
tangential joinings, 17
Round arch, 99, 103
Round window, 100101
San' Apollinare, Church of, 81
Selection for picture, from photograph, 81 ;
see Composition
from interior, 112, 115
Shadows, 143153
cast by an obfique edge, 150151
cast by parallel rays (sun, moon), 144
151
cast by rays from lamp, 143, 152
distorted, 148149
in an interior, 152153
in a shadowbox, 144150
located by imaginary vertical planes,
147
located by two points, 148
of a cube, 147
of curves, 149
of natural objects, 151152
on an oblique surface, 151
on a house, 151
on curved surfaces, 149150
vanishing of light rays, 146147
vanishing of shadowdirections, 145
146
Shoulders of cylindrical objects, 16; re
lation to cone principle, 19
Solutions of problems, 161168
cylinder and rectangular block, 163
cyfinder, cone and ball, 161
square frame leaning on rectangular
block, 164
triangular prism and frame, 167
Spherical picture plane, 141142
Spout, of cream jug, 22
Square frame, 8587
test of, 87
application of study, 87
leaning on rectangular block, 91,
164
Table fine, explained, 3
high enough on paper, 43
position vdth plate on edge, 30
significance in composition, 13
subordination of, 44
Taking direction of vanishing edges with
pencil, 55
172
INDEX
Teapot, cover, 28; ears, 28
knob, 28
study, 2628
Tests, by blackboard for vanishing lines,
57
by eye, for vanishing lines, 56
cylindrical objects not vertical, 95
hexagonal plinth, 124
square frame, 87
the ellipse, 9
the eye a final test, xii, 142
Thumbnail sketches, interiors, 115
stilllife objects, 26, 68
Tiled floor, 109, 126
Time study, glass bowl, 24, 25
Triangular prism and frame, 131, 167
Two books, at different angles, 6162
with cylindrical object, 6768
Vanishing lines, "converging," 3738
example of, railroad, 4142
oblique, 73; see ObUque vanishing
lines
taking direction of, with pencil, 55
tests of, 56, 57
Vanishing of parallel planes, 51, 7374,
162, note
Vanishing points, abbreviation of, 44
numbering, 50
oblique, 73; see Oblique vanishing
lines
use without marking, 56, 80, 124
Vanishing traces, 73, 151
Veri;ical fines drawn vertical, 60
Vignetting, 116.
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