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Full text of "Free thoughts upon the brute-creation ; or, an examination of Father Bougeant's Philosophical amusement, &c. ; in two letters to a Lady"

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FREE THOUGHTS 

UPON THE 

BRUTE-CREATION: 

OR, AN 

EXAMINATION 

O F 

Fzthtr BO UGE A NTs 

Fhilofophkal Amtife?nent^ &c 
(Price One Shilling.") 



BOOKS lately printed for R. Minors, t/i 
S't. Clen:ient's Church-yard. 

I. \ Letter to a Member of Parliament, contain- 
£\ ing, A Propofai for bringing in a Bill to re- 
vive, amend, or repeal certain obfolete Statutes, cal- 
led the Ten Cotnmandmenis. 

2. The Contempt of the Clergy confider'd : In, 
a Letter to a Friend. 

3. An ElTay for the better Regulatioa and Ini* 
provement of Free- thinking. 

4. An EfTay on Honour, 

5. A Commentary upon the Second Pfalm. 




^It. / r" ^ucAr J'.-til 



FREE THOUGHTS 

UPON THE 

BRUTE-CREATION: 

OR, AN 

EXAMINATION 

O F 

Father BOUGEANTs 
Philofophkal Amufement^^ &c. 

In Two LETTERS to a Lady. ^ 

Job xii. 7, 8, 9, 10. But ask now the beqfis^ and 

they Jh all teach thee; and the fcivls of the air^ 

and they Jh all tell thee. 
Or /peak to the earth, and itjlmll teach thee ; and the 

fijhes of the fea Jhall declare unto thee. 
Who hioweth not in all thefe, that the hand of the 

Lord hath 'wrought this ? 
In ijohofe hand is the foul of every living things and 

the breath {Jprit) of all mankind. 

By JOHN HILDROP, M. A. 
Redor of Wath, near Rippon in Torkfmre : 
And Chaplain to the Right Honourable Charles 
Earl of Ailesbury and Elgin. 

LONDON: 

Printed for R. Minors, Bookfeller and Stationer, 

in St. Clement's Church-yard. M.DCC.XLII, 



(O 



FREE THOUGHTS 

UPON THE 

BRUTE-CREATIOm 

O R, 

An Examination of Father 
BOUGEANT\ Philofofhical 
Amufefnent^ &c. 

Madam, 

ID A R E fay you have made many a merry 
Reflection upon the good Company and 
Converfation we lately enjoyed at 5- — ton : 
for my own part, I can never think of it with- 
out laughing. Methinks I hear my little Doc- 
tor pouring forth all his Rhetoric and Logic 
upon an abftrufe Queftion, which I was fure 
he had not Capacity enough to underftand, 
I fee, and hear, and admire his modefl AfTu- 
rance, uncapable of Contradiction, affirming 
without Proof, and concluding without Premi- 
fes, that all the Animal Fun5lions and Operations 

B of 



CO 

of the Brute-Creation (which different Philofo- 
phers had afcribed to different Caufes, fuch as 
Mechanifm, Inflind:, Subflantial Forms, ^r.) 
njoere entirely owing to the Operation of evil Spi^ 
rits, who are the moving Principle in every 
one of them. As this Thought was quite new 
to me, and perfectly oppofite to all the Senti- 
ments I had ever entertained upon that Quef- 
tion, I could not for my life imagine, where 
he had pick'd up this new Philofophy, which 
had almofl frighted fome of the Company out 
of their Senfes. — I fhall never forget the puz- 
zled afflided Face of the honefl Jufdce, who, 
tho' a very good Protellant, and in all other re- 
fped;s of blamelefs Life and Converfation, had 
fpent fo many Years in following a Pack of 
Devils, which he had innocently miffaken for 
a Pack of harmlefs Beagles. — But the whimfi- 
cal Diftreffes of the poor Ladies, gave me no 
fmall Diveriion. Sweet Mifs fenn\\ who has 
laviih'd away more Kiffes upon her favourite 
Cat, than (lie would beflow upon the heft Man 
in the Parifh, felt fome compun(5tion within 
herfelf, that (he had been wantonly, and almoft 
malicioufly, throwing away thofe Careffes upon 
an evil Spirit, which many a good Chriilian 
would have been glad of. Dear Mifs Harriot 
had the fame regret for her beloved Moii key, 
and poor Dolly for her Parrot j and refolved, cne- 
and-all, never to hold commerce or correfpon- 
dence with evil Spirits for the future, in what- 
ever amiable Shape or Figure they might ap- 
pear; which, I apprehended, could end in nothing 

lels 



(3 ) 
lefs than an intlre deftmdiion of all the favourite 
Domefticks of the Family j whilft you, with a 
chearful compofure of Mind and Countenance, 
infeparable from good Nature and good Senfe, 
fat fmiling at the empty Harangue of the Ora- 
tor, and the fantaftical Sufferings of the Au- 
dience. 

Well ! home I went, full of this abfurd, un- 
philofophical Scheme, wondering how my learn- 
ed Friend, who, with very moderate Talents, af- 
fects to be thought a very great Scholar, and 
profound Philofopher, could ever fall into this 
uncommon way of thinking. But as I chanced 
a few days after to flrole into a Bookfeller's 
Shop, I fpyed a little Pamphlet lying upon the 
Counter, entitled, A Philofophical Amufemenfy 
concerniJig the Language of Birds and Beajis, 
Written originally in French by Father Bou- 
geant, a learfied yefuif. Sec. I quickly per- 
ceived where my learned Friend had pick'd up 
his new Fhilofophy, from what Fountain all 
this profound Erudition was drawn. The ho- 
neft Man has a very prepofterous Ambition to 
be famous j and as he is confcious that he has 
no chance to attain any degree of Diftindion 
from the proper and regular ufe of his intellec- 
tual Faculties, he therefore attempts a nearer cut 
to Fame, by engaging the Attention of the Un- 
learned to fomething that has a new and mar- 
vellous Appearance : This has given him an 
itch after Novelty, and an affedtion for uncom- 
mon Notions, more than common Senfe. No 
wonder, therefore, he was immediately flrack 
B 2 with 



(4) 

with this furprizing Sentiment, which he re- 
folved to put off at the next Tea-table for his 
own, affuring himfelf, that neither the Ladies, 
nor myleif, (whofe Obfcurity he heartily defpifes) 
fhould ever find him out, but admire him for 
a molt profound Philofopher. I took my Pam- 
phlet home with me, and read it over and 
over, with the greateft Care and Candour ; and 
upon the whole muft needs fay, that I fliould 
never have fufpeded the Author (if he had not 
told us fo himfelf) to be a Jejuity much lefs 
a Famous yejiiit. He has done no credit to his 
Order ; the Gentlemen of that Society owe him 
but little Thanks -, they generally acquit them* 
felves much better upon any Subjedl they un- 
dertake. He has treated a noble Subjed loofe- 
ly and fuperficially, to fay no worfe ; for I might 
add, idly and profanely j and had I been his 
proper Superiour, I fhould have changed his Con- 
finement at La Flechej for a more proper Ha» 
bitation at Moorjields. 

But this (fay you) is libelling without Prooij 
condemning at random : Let us come to 
Particulars ; make good your Charge, fhew us, 
if you can, the Defecfts of his Scheme, and try 
if you can flrike us out a better. 

With all my heart, Madam. But before I pro- 
ceed to a more particular Examination of his 
Scheme, I mufl: freely acknowledge, that there 
are a great many juft and fprightly things fcat- 
tered up and down through his whole Perfor- 
mance ; but favouring more of the vivacity of the 
Frenchman^ than the piety and folidity of a Chri- 

lliaq 



(5) 

Aian Philofbpher. He juflly and fmartly ridi- 
cules the unintelligible trumpery of Mechanifm, 
Inftind:, Subftantial Forms, and what not of the 
Arijlotelian and Cartefian Philofophy, which, 
like occult qualities, are hard Words without a 
Meaning, intended only as a thin difguife for 
Ignorance and Affedlation : But what has he ad- 
vanced in the room of them ? Why, fomething 
equally abfurd, but not equally innocent ; fome- 
thing {liocking to a Philofopher, and ofFcnlive 
to a Chriftian, in diredt contradidion to Reafon 
and Revelation, as I fhall endeavour to make ap- 
pear. Nor is he lefs offenfive in point of Delica- 
cy, his Ideas and Sendments are often fo low, his 
Images fo indecent, his Expreffions fo coarfe, as 
could hardly be expe(5led from a polite French- 
man, and an Ecclefiaftic to a fine Lady, whom, 
at the fame time, he feems to confider as a Per- 
fon of Difcernment and Diftindiion. Let us now 
follow him his own way. His lirfl Chapter is 

Of the TJnderJlanding of Brutes, 

He begins with this Queftion ; Have Brutes 
any Underjianding f I am convinced (fays he) 
that you will ?iot fo much as heft ate upon this 
^ejtion : farely prefuming fhe would anfvv^er in 
the Affirmative, and as I dare venture to affirm 
that his fair Correfpondent had not a better 
Underftanding than mine, I will venture to pre- 
fume the fame for you. An XJndcrjianding they 
certainly have of fuch a kind or degree, at leail 
as is fufficient for their flate and rank in tlie 

univerlal 



(6) 

unlverfal Syftcm, and the feveral duties and of- 
fices for which they were intended by their 
Creator. Lefs than this I think cannot be faid, 
and who prefumes to fay more ? Though I have 
known many an honefl Fellow that made a 
good figure in his Neighbourhood, who yet has 
hardly difcovered more Reafon, a better Under- 
ftanding, or half fo much Virtue as the Beafl 
he rode on. Take any Man of a plain, natural 
good Underftanding without the prejudices of 
Philofophy, and propofe the fame Queflion to 
him : 1 dare fay he would flare at you, and think 
you were bantering him -, or if he thought you 
were in earneft, he would not fo much as de- 
mur upon it. In fliort, however we may af- 
fe(ft to puzzle ourfelves or others with learned 
Objedlions proceeding from downright Igno- 
rance, we all own it, we prefume upon it, as a 
firfl Principle, we reafon upon it, and adi agree- 
ably, as we make it an unerring Rule to di- 
rect us in the Treatment and Management of 
our domeflick Animals j this it is that guides us 
in the education of our Dogs and Horfes, to 
train them up by Corred:ion and Difcipline to 
the feveral Offices for which they are intended, 
and the Services which we exped: to receive 
from them. This it is that directs us to careis 
and reward them when they do well, and to 
correct and punilh thsm, when they are vicious 
tind difobedient. Did we confider them as meer 
Machines, as Creatures that had no Senfe, Un- 
derftanding, or Refled:ion ; this Conduft would 
be as abfurd and ridiculous, as it would be to 

carefs 



(7) 

carefs and reward your Clock or your Watch for 
going well, or corredl and punifh them with a 
Whip or Cudgel for going wrong. On the 
other hand, we difcover in Brutes plain and evi- 
dent marks of Senfe and Underftanding. They 
are fenfible what we do to them, and what 
they do to us. When for inftance I fee a Dog 
haftening to me when I call him, carels me 
when I ftroke him, tremble when I rate him, 
run away from me when I beat him : nay, fur- 
ther, when I fee him refleding and reafoning 
upon my Condudt towards him, I muft con- 
clude he is aded by fome higher Principle than 
meer Mechanifm. Be pleafed. Madam, to try 
this Experiment with your beloved ^^«v, (though 
upon fecond Thoughts he has been too much 
and too long a Favourite to apprehend any danger 
from your Hands,) or call any other Dog of 
the Family, whofe Hunger may make him leap 
at a good Morfel, fhew him a Piece of Meat 
in your Left Hand, and hide your Right Hand 
behind you, and fee how he will behave ; efpe- 
cially, if he knows he has been guilty of a 
Fault, or been rated or punifhed for fome Mif- 
demeanour. He will either not come near you 
at all, unlefs urged by the violence of his Hun- 
ger, or approach you with the utmoft Diffidence 
and Caution : for thus I hear him reafoning with 
himfelf ; Sttreh\ this is ?2ot the Hand that ufed 
to feed me^ and ivhy is that other Hand hid from 
me f That Uand^ from ivhich I have received 
many a fore Stripe^ ivhen I have offended, has 
now^ Ifear,fomefecret Vengeance^ fome Whip, or 

Cudgel 



(8) 

Cudgelin fiore for me^ if 1 get within the reach 
of it ', I will therefore prefer the Dogs Portion 
of Hunger and Eafe^ before Lajhes and Stripes, 
and broken Bones. Ay ! and he is much in the 
right, he reafons well, and difcovers more Senfe 
and better Logic than many a flupid Puppy 
with two Legs, who lives at random, who pur- 
fues every appearance of Pleafure, gratifies every 
Appetite, fubmits to every demand of Luft or 
Fancy, without Thought or Reflection, and ruihes 
with his Eyes open into certain Difeafes, Beg- 
gary and Damnation. Now then if the Senfes 
and Perceptions of Brutes be fo quick and lively, 
if from thofe Perceptions they never fail to draw 
juft and rational Conclufions, and to make a prac- 
tical Ufe of them for the preventing Pain, or 
procuring Pleafure,. if by the different Motions 
and Geftures of their Bodies, or Sound of their 
Voice, they exprefs their different Sentiments of 
Joy and Sadnefs, of Pain or Pleafure, of Fear and 
Defire, of Love or Hatred j I cannot help con- 
cluding from thence, that they have in them 
fome Principle of Knowledge and Sentiment, 
be it what it will. Now, were all the Philofo- 
phers in the world to affert and maintain the 
Cart ef an Opinion of their being Machines, there 
is fome ftrong inward Convidion in every fenfible 
unprejudiced Mind that gives them the lye, tho' 
we were not able to confute their Affertion, nor 
defend our ownj and furely nothing but the 
Vanity of a Frenchman could ever exped that 
fo abfur d a Scheme could pafs upon a learned 
World for iound Reafon and true Philolophy. 
3 f'or 



(9) 

For my own part, I could as foon exped to fee 
Gallantries between a couple of amorous Clocks 
or Watches, or a Battle betwixt two quarrel- 
fbme Windmills. 

The Notion of InfibiB^ though not fo pal- 
pably abfurdjis equally obfcure, unneceffary, and 
ufelefs for all the great ends and purpofes which 
it is intended to ferve. They who ule it, do not 
pretend to define it, to {hew us its real Nature, 
or wherein it confills, they feem only to fpeak 
of it as a blind Impetus, and unknown Impulfe; 
a kind of Mechanical Neceffity, by which we 
are in a manner compelled to perform fuch and 
fuch Actions, without being able to know or ex- 
plain the Reafbns for fo doing. By this, they 
pretend to account for many wonderful Ope- 
rations and Effects in the almofl inrinite Variety 
of Species through the Brute-Creation, fuch as, 
for inftance, all forts of Birds building their 
Nefts in exa6t uniformity of Model and with 
the fame Materials, all the various Methods of 
Cure that both Birds and Beafts have recourfe 
to when they are any ways indifpofed or wound- 
ed J this it is, they fay, that teaches the Spar- 
rows to purge themfelves with Spiders and other 
Infedts j this teaches Birds to fwallow Gravel to 
facilitate their Digeflion i this teaches the Dog 
with a furfeited Stomach to run to a particular 
kind of Grafs to procure a Vomit 5 to this we 
owe all the excellent and wonderful Operations 
to be found among Bealls and Birds, Reptiles 
and Infeds j many of which llem to exceed the 
C highell 



( 10 ) 

higheft Improvements of human Reafon and 
Invention. But why muft all this be owing to 
Inflind; ? Since we cannot refufe them a know- 
ing Faculty, why fhould we give them a need- 
leS Inftind? Thefe wonderful Operations may be, 
for ought we know, the fimple Efted:s of their 
Underftanding : and fince it is folely in confe- 
quence of a knowing Faculty, that Man performs 
the fame Operations, why fhould not the fame 
Principle alfo rule in the Brutes ? And where 
would be the Herefy of believing or affirming, that 
thofe Adions which Brutes are fuppofed to per- 
form by meer InftincS, are performed in confe- 
quence of their Underliandings, withUnderftand- 
ing and Reafon ? Is fuch a thing impoffible ? Does 
either Reafon or Revelation forbid it ? Are they 
not equally poflible to their Omnipotent Creator ? 
And can any reafonable Doubt be made, whe- 
ther they were not endued with every Perfedion 
that their Rank in the Scale of Beings required ? 
And would it not be a great Imperfedion to 
want the means of knowing and procuring what- 
ever was requifite in the common Order of 
Nature, for the Prefervation of the Individuals 
and the Propagation of the Species ? And fince it 
cannot be denied that every Species of Beings 
have that power, I fee nothing abfurd or un- 
philofophical in fuppofing, that the All-wife 
and Omnipotent Author of Nature has given 
each of them fuch Faculties as are proportion- 
able to their Wants and Capacities, and the part 
they fill in the univerfal Syftem. Is there ei- 
ther Abfurdity or Herely in fjppofing, that the 

fame 



( JI) 

fame infinite Power that could form the Body 
of the moft minute Infed:, with fuch exquifite 
Proportion and Beauty, could at the fame time, 
with the fame eafe, provide a proper Inhabitant 
to animate and govern it, and anfwer all the 
purpofes of its Creation ? He that can think other- 
wife, mull: have been either a very ignorant or 
a very indolent Obferver of Nature. The Scrip- 
tures diredly call this Knowledge by the name 
of JVifdom, Prov. xxx. 24. There be four Things 
that are little upon Earth, but they are ex~ 
ceeding wife. The Ants are a People notjlrongy 
yet they prepare their Meat in the hummer. The 
Conies are but a feeble Folk, yet they make their 
Houfes in the Rocks, The Locujls have no King, 
yet go they forth all of them by Bands. The 
Spider taketh hold with her Hands, and is in 
King's Palaces. Holy Job fuppofes the fame 
thing, that the whole Brute- Creation adt by 
Wifdom and Underflanding, of fuch a Kind and 
Degree as is proper for their State and Condi- 
tion in the Scale of Beings. Thus Ch. xxxix. 
13, 14, 15, 16, 17. fpeaking of the OJirich, 
he obferves, thatyZ^ leaves her Eggs in the 
Earth, and warms them in the Duft^ and for- 
gets that the Foot may crufi them, or that the 
wild Beajl may break them. She is hardened 
againfi her young o?ies, as though they were not 
hers, her labour is in vain without fear, becaufe 
God hath deprived her of Wifdom, neither hath 
he imparted to her JJnderfianding. The Fadt 
is afferted by all Travellers, that the Oftrich 
leaves her Eggs in the Sand to be hatch'd by 

C 2 tlie 



( 12 ) 

the Sun, which unnatural difregard for her Off- 
iJDring is fo remarkable, that when they fee a Mo- 
ther who has little Tendernefs for her Chil- 
dren, they compare her to an Oftrich j to which 
the Prophet 'Jerc??iicib alludes in his Book of 
Lamentations^ ch. iv. 3. T^he Daughter of my 
People is become crtiel^ like the Ofirlches in the 
Wildernefs, In fliort, the Olblch is allowed, 
on all hands, to be a very ftupid foolifli Bird, 
deftitute of tliat Prudence and Caution which 
are vifible in every other Family of Infeds, Birds, 
and Beafts ; for it is particularly obferved in her, 
that when fhe is purfued by the Hunters, fhe 
runs to hide her Head, and particularly her 
Eyes behind a Tree, all the reft of her large 
Body is expo fed to view \ but as flie no longer 
fees the Hunter, flie wifely imagines he does not 
fee lier, and that therefore fhe has no danger 
to apprehend. Now this whole abfurd and 
ridiculous Condud:, the infpired Writer afcribes 
to her want of that PVifdoin, Underflandijig and 
co?nmon Senft\ which are to be found in every 
other Species of Beings, for the Produdion and 
Prefervation of tlieir feveral Families. Becaiife 
God hath deprived her of Wifdom, neither hath 
he i?nparted to her Underftandifig, v. 17. Were 
we now to extend our Enquiries to the Polity, 
Architedlure, and Oeconomy of Bees and Wafps, 
and all the other Tribes and Families of In- 
fcdls, we Hiould find them in many refJDcdis 
excellent Monitors to the Bulk of Mankind. 
" * The Beehive, for inftance, is a School to 

*' which 

* Spcftacle de la Nature, Dial. ;. p 155. 



( 13 ) 

" which numbers of People ought to be fent, 
" Prudence, Induftry, and Benevolence, pub- 
" lick Spirit, and Diligence, Oeconomy, Neat- 
** nefs, and Temperance, are not only pracSifed 
" by them in the mod exemplary manner, but 
" flrongly recommended to us by their Ex- 
*' ample. Look on a Swarm of Bees, and ob- 
"= ferve the Diipofition that influences every In- 
" dividual j they all labour for the general Ad- 
" vantage j they are all fubmiffive to the Laws 
'* and Regulations of the Community j there 
" is no particular Intereft, and confequently 
" no Emulations nor Competitions for Gain or 
" Glory J no Diflincftions, but thofe which Na- 
" ture and the Neceffities of the Family have 
" introduced among them. We never fee them 
" difTatisfied with their Condition, or inclinable 
" to abandon the Hive, in Difguft to find them- 
*' felves Slaves or Neceffitous. On the contrary, 
" they think themfelves in perfe(5t Freedom, 
'* and perfect Affluence, as indeed they are: 
*' they are free, becaufe they depend only upon 
*' the Laws 5 they are happy, becaufe the Con- 
** courfe of their feveral Labours inevitably pro- 
*' duce an Abundance, that conftitutes the Riches 
" of each Individual. Let us compare Human 
** Societies with this, and they will appear al« 
" together monftrous. NecelTity, Reafon, and 
" Philofophy, have eftablifhed them under the 
" commendable Pretence of mutual Aids and 
" Benefits; but a Spirit of Selfiflinefs deftroys 
" all ; and one half of Mankind, to load them- 
[[ felves with Superfluities, leave the other half 
3 *' deflitute 



( H ) 

«^ deftitute of the common NecefTarles of Life." 
In fhort, upon the llridefl and clofeft Enqui- 
ry we can make into the ieveral Tribes of 
Families of the Brute-Creation, it will appear, 
that they are all directed and a(5t by fome 
Principle analogous at leall:, and equivalent to 
what we call Underftanding in ourfelves ; and 
why we fhould call it by any other Name in 
them, I confeis I am at a lofs to determine. 
If then the feveral Species of Brutes do by the 
Strength of their own Underftandings, think, 
reafon, projedl, contrive, and perform every Of- 
fice within their proper Sphere of Life and 
Action in ajuft and due proportion to what we 
do in ours, they muft be allowed to have fome 
immaterial Principle within them, in which 
thefe Faculties are inherent, and by which they 
are diredled. Now, to my poor Apprehenfion, 
Underflanding without a Soul, and a Soul that 
is not a Spirit, appears quite as abfurd as Light 
without Flame, or Flame without Fire ; the 
one I think naturally fuppofes and includes the 
other. 

T'he Great Mr. Locke^ in his EJfay on Human 
Underftandings lib. 2. cap. 11. allows that Brutes 
have Ideas, and that they reafon, tho* they are not 
capable of comparing and comprehending thefe 
Ideas, and reafoning abftradledly, as we do. Tet 
(favs he) if they have any Ideas at all, and are not 
mere Machine s^ as fome ivould have them, we cant 
deny them to have fome Reafon. It feems to me as 
evident, that they do in fome inftances rea- 
fon, as that they have Senfe -, hut it is only in par- 
ticular 



( 15 ) 

ticular Ideas, juft as they received them from 
their Senfes.—'^Jui): as they received them from 
their Senfes !— -Why, how fhould it be elfe ? 
What is the Foundation of our Reafon, but 
thole particular Ideas we receive from our Sen- 
fes? Ideas are Images, excited or impreifed 
upon the Soul by external Objeds, thro* the 
Mediation of the Senfes ; and the enlarging, 
comparing, and combining thefe Ideas, and form- 
ing practical Conclufions from them, is the whole 
Province of Human Reafon. This philofophi- 
cal Limitation of the Underftanding of Brutes, 
founds a little aukwardly from this great Man, 
becaufe he has allowed the mod exalted Hu- 
man Underftanding no better Materials to work 
upon. He has veryjuftly exploded the No- 
tion of innate Ideas, and has by confequence left 
us nothing but thofe which we receive by Sen- 
fation, to be the Ground- work of our moft re- 
fined Speculations. Why then will he not al- 
low the fame uniform Effed to be produced 
by the lame uniform Caufe in both ? Why does 
he take fo much pains to perfuade himfelf and 
us, that Rationality in Brutes muft proceed 
from a quite different Caufe, from what it does 
in ourfelves ? What is he afraid of ? What 
would be the terrible Confequences of fuch a 
ConcelTion ? For my own part, I think I fee 
none, but what your own excellent Under- 
Aanding will, with a little Recoiledion, eafily 
evade, without the lead violence either to Rea- 
fon or Revelation. He concedes, indeed, to 
the main Point, and allows the Rationality of 

Brutes 5 



(i6) 

Brutes 3 but, for fear of allowing them Imma- 
terial, and confequently immortal Souls, he fre- 
quently infinuates, that Thought, Rationality, 
or Refledtion, is not the abfolute Privilege of 
immaterial Beings, but may be communicated 
by the Power of God to certain Portions of 
Matter, differently modified, and confequently 
that Matter exalted to a certain degree of Puri- 
ty, may be as capable of Reafon and Refled;ion, 
as an immaterial Spirit. And in his Difpute with 
the Bi{hop of Worcejier, who juftly charged him 
with this unphilofophical Notion, he was re- 
duced to a neceflity of alTerting it in plain and 
exprefs Terms, and of putting all his Philofophy 
to the utmoft ftretch, to reconcile it to Reafon 
and common Senfe 5 which, I humbly conceive, 
is abfolutely impolTible. Yet he frequently and 
diredly alTerts the Poffibility of Thinking Mat- 
ter, allowing to his material Animal Senfe, Per- 
ception, Reafon, fpontaneous Motion or Volition, 
which, one v/ould imagine, that nothing but 
Vanity, an Itch of Singularity, or a Defire of 
Vidlory, could ever have extorted from fo great 
and excellent a Perfon : and I cannot pafs it by 
without fome little Examination, for which I 
fhall offer at no Apology to a Lady of yourin- 
quifitive Genius, and fnperior Underftanding, di- 
rected folely by Reafon and the Nature of Things, 
without the Prejudices of vulgar Errors, or the 
Siibtilties of Philofophy, falfely fo called. 

The moil obvious Idea we have of Matter, is 
of an extended impenetrable^ jUid Sub/ia?2ce, iin- 
capable of moving it/elf or of being moved ^ but 

bv 



(,>r) 

h^ the Age?icy and ImpreJJion of fim'e fup'erior^ 
external^ aBive Caiife j from whence it will un- 
avoidably follow, that mere Matter,, however 
modified, exalted^ or purified, will be as un- 
capable of Self-motion^ as., it was in its. loweft 
Itate of Dsnfity, or DeprelTiori ^ and confequent- 
ly cannot, by any Power, be trarifmuted, or fub- 
limated into a living, felf-moving Sabftanee 5 
from whence it follows, that all Gravity, At- 
tradioUj Elaflicity, RepulfioUj and whatever 
Tendencies to Motion are obferved in Matter^ and 
commonly called natural Powers of Matter, are 
not Powers implanted in Matter, or pofiible to 
be made inherent in it j but are intirely owing 
to fome Impulfe, or Force imprelTed upon it from 
external Gaufes. And the moll: that can be laid, 
is, that Matter is indeed fufceptible of Motion, 
or capable of being moved, but that the Motion 
itfelf mud proceed from fome external Caufe, 
totally diftind from, and fuperior to Matter, 
Mr. Locke J therefore, had very little Reafon to 
be fo peremptory in his Difpute with the Bilhop 
of Worcejier^ about the Poffibility of Thinking 
Matter ; where, to prove it poflible, he fays, 
Vol. 2. p. 144. Edit. 1^1$' for example, God 
creates an extended Jblid Sub/lance, without fu- 
peraddhig any thing elfe to it, and fo we may 
confide r it at reft ; to fome parts of it he fuper- 
adds Motion, hut it has fill the E fence of Matter, 
Other paYts of it he forms into Plants, with all 
the Excellencies of Vegetation, Life, and Beauty, 
which is to be found in a Rofe or a Peach-tree, 
above the EJfence of Matter in genera l^ but it is 
D fill 



( .8 ) • 

Jiill but Matter ." To other parts he adds Senfe, 
or fpontaJicoiis Motion^ and thqfe other Properties 
that are to be found in an Elephant. Hitherto 
it is not doubted but the Poicer of God may go -, 
but ifive venture to go one Step further^ and fay y 
God may give to Matter Thought^ Reafen, and 
Volition., as ivell as Senfe andfpontaneous Motion^ 
there are Men ready to limit the Poicer of the 
Omnipotent Creator ^ and tell us he cannot do it j 
becaufe it dejlross the Ejejice, or changes the ef- 
fential Properties of Matter^ &c. Well ! and a 
very good Realbn it would certainly be ; for Om- 
nipotence itlelf cannot produce ImpolTibilities, 
cannot effe6t Contradictions, cannot make the 
fame Thing to be, and not to be, at the 
fame time ; cannot make a Subftance, which, 
as folidly extended, muft refill all Change of 
State, become (while it continues unadive and 
dead) Life, Senfc, and fpontaneous Motion ; for 
that is diredtly affiriiHng, that the fame Portion 
of Matter, which is unadlive, dull, and dead, 
may be at the fame time living, fenfible, and 
fpontaneoufly moving. To fay the truth, his 
Zeal to fupport his Argument, and confound 
his Adverfary, has thrown him into fuch In- 
confiftencies of Thought and Expreffion, as 
could never have proceeded from cool and fo- 
ber Reafon. For Inftance, where he fays above, 
To fome parts of Matter., God fuper adds Motion^ 
but it has jiill theEffence of Matter . What does 
he mean by faying. It has Jiill the Efjence of 
Matter ? Does he mean, that Motion has the 
Ellence of Matter, or is elTential to it, or a Mode 

?- of 



( 19 ) 

of It : Neither of thefe could be his MeaRingj. 
he could only mean, tliat that Poriion of Mat-' 
ter to which Motion is faperadded, has Aill the. 
Elfence of Matter. Who douks it ? And 
therefore is Intirely diftlncft from the Motion fa- 
peradded, which is really and truly nothing lefs 
than an Emanation or Imprellion from the Ofi- 
girial and Eternal Fountain of Life and Power; 
and, confequently, intirely diflincl: from Matter, 
If Solidity, Inadivity, and Relilfince, be the 
efTential Properties of Matter, it will unavoida- 
bly follow, that all thole Eifeds commonly af- 
cribed to certain natural Powers refidinp- in Mat- 
ter, are immediately produced by the Power of 
an immaterial Being, who firfl: created this dead 
Subflance Matter, originally impreffed, and ftill 
continues to imprefs Motion upon it. Now 
whatfoever begins Motion where it was not, and 
ftops it where it was, that eifeds a Change from 
Reit to Motion, and from Motion to Reft, and 
that arbitrarily, can never be Matter, whofe ef- 
fential Property it is necelTarily to refill all 
change of its State, either of Reft or Motion. I 
therefore conclude, that whatever Principle or 
Being can arbitrarily effecSt a Change of the pre- 
fent State of Refl or Motion, in that Portion of 
Matter which compofes the Body of any Ani- 
^lal, cannot be the Matter of the Body itfelf, 
which neceflarily refifts or oppofes all change of 
.its prefent State, and therefore mufl be conclu- 
ded to be an adlive, immaterial, and ipiritual 
Subftance, which, without any violence to Phi- 
Ipfophy, we may venture to call a Soul. Pardon 

P 2 me. 



( to ) 

me. Madam, for leading you into this intricate 
dry Speculation ; my Subje(ft led me into it, and 
requir'd fome little Examination in this place. 
Some further Cbnfiderations upon this Subjedt, 
and the Reverend Father's deviliili Contrivance 
to account for all animal Fundtions and Opera- 
tions, without allowing them to have Souls, we 
fhall defer to a more proper Place, and proceed 
to the next Head of Inquiry. ' 

IL Of the NeceJJity of a Language between 
Brutes, 

By Language we are not only to underfland 
a Sequel of articulate Sounds, by which Meni 
have agreed to express their Ideas and Sentiments 
to each other, but any fort or kind of inarticu- 
late Sounds, Geftures, or Motions, by which, in 
the feveral Tribes and Families of the Brute-Cre- 
ation, the Individuals communicate their Senti- 
ments, their Wants, their Defires to each other : 
and thefe are, no doubt, as different as the Spe- 
cies themfelves, and as expreflive and ligniti- 
cint to them as our moft articulate Sounds can 
b: to us. Of this there can be no manner of 
doubt, eipecially among thofe that live in for 
ciety, as particularly Pigeons, Rooks, Swal- 
• lows, and Storks among Birds; Bees and Ants 
among Infedts ; and particularly the Beavers 
among Beafts ; and no doubt but there muft be 
the fame among Fifhes, thofe efpecially which at 
certain Seafons remove in Shoals to different 
parts of their Element. All, and each of theffe, 

fpeak. 



(21 ) 

fpeak, undoubtedly, a Language proper and pe- 
culiar to their Species, which are as expreffive 
and intelligible to them, as our Language is to 
us J and may, not improperly, be called the dif- 
ferent Dialed:s of the Language of Nature. 

Our Author, in the midft of this Inquiry, has 
dropp'd an ExprefTion which I cannot under- 
■ftand, as having no apparent relation to his Sub- 
ject, or any Connection with what goes before, 
or follows after. Page 2^, Y{t{zyz^j4?7gelsjpcak 
to each other, yet have no Voice. How bold, 
how crude, how unphilofophical is this Expref- 
lion ? Have Angels a Voice to fpeak to us, and 
none to fpeak to one another ? Did he never read 
of the Converfation of Angels with the Patriarchs 
and Holy Men of the OldTeftament ? Of the 
Angel Gabriel delivering a MefTage from God to 
Zachanas, concerning the Birth of yohn the 
Baptifl, Luke i. and another to the BlefTed Vir- 
gin, concerning the Incarnation of our Lord 
Jefus Chrift? Did he never read of the Voice of 
the Archangel, i ThefT. iv. i6? If he only 
means, that they have not a Voice like us, ardcu- 
lated by the Organs of the Human Body, and 
different Modulations of the Air -, who difputes 
it ? But is this fufficient to juftify him in faying 
they have no Voice ? Does he allow a Voice, or 
fomething equivalent to it, to the loweft Orders 
of Brutes and Infects, and will he allow none to 
the higheft Orders of intelledhial Beings ? How 
furprizing, how unaccountable is this ? Surely 
he had as mean an Opinion of the good Scnfe of 

the 



(22 ) 

the fine Lady to whom he was writing, as Ik 
had a good one of his own. But to return : 

He obferves, veryjuftly, that we have a diou- 
fand ways of exprelling our Paffions, our Senti- 
ments, our Hopes and Fears, our Defires and 
Wants, our Joys, or Sufferings, without the Me- 
diation of Words. JVhen ive are pic a fed ((iiys 
he, pag. 23.) everything in us /peaks : Do lue 
not continually /peak by certain Looks, by a Mo- 
tion of the Head, a Gejiure, nay the leaji Sign 
in the JVorld? Ay ! and when we are diipleafed 
or angry, we can as eafily make ourlelves under- 
ilood by Looks and Geftures, as by the plainefl 
and moft expreffive Language. How often have 
I feen thofe, lovely Eyes of yours rebuking, with 
unutterable Eloquence, the affuming Coxcomb, 
and the malicious Prude, into Silence and good 
Manners ? How many melting Addrefles have 
you received from the Eyes of your languilliing 
Admirers, who had neither Courage nor Merit 
enough to addrefs themfelves in any other Lan- 
guage ? In fhort, languifhing mode 11: Lovers re- 
femble a Nation or Society of dumb People, who 
are never at a lofs for a Set of flgnificant Looks, 
Motions, and Geftures, to fupply the want of 
Words, and Defett of other Expreffions; and 
which form a Language as expreffive and intel- 
ligible to them, as the moft articulate Language 
in the World can be to other People. Now 
can any one reafonably doubt, whether the Brute- 
Animals have the Power and Means of doing 
the fame ? It is, I think, undeniable, that they 
have all a knowing Faculty 3 but to what pur- 

pofe 



- ( 23 ) " 

po{e can wc fuppofe the all- wife Author of Na*: 
ture has given them this Faculty, but to enable 
them to provide for their Wants, their Preferva- 
tion, and whatever is fit for their Condition, and 
fuitable to the peculiar kind of Life he has ap- 
pointed for them. Let us, moreover, confider 
that many Species of Birds, Beafts, and Lifefe 
are made to live in Society at large, and others' 
to live in a kind of domeftic Society, Male and 
Female cohabiting together, in a kind of Family, 
for the Education of their Young-ones. Now,' 
do but confider what Ufe could the firft Speciesf 
make of their Underflanding, for the Prelerva- 
tion and Welfare of their Society, and of courfd 
for their own peculiar Good, arifing from the 
publick Profperity, if the Members of that Soci- 
ety have not among themfelves a common Lan- 
guage perfecftly known to every one of them ? 
What Ufe could they make of their Knowledge 
and Underftanding, if they had not fome Me^ 
thod of communicating their Knowledge, Ad- 
vice, and Affiftance, to each other? If they 
could not underftand, or be underftood by each 
other, they could neither give nor receive anf 
Comfort, Affiftance, or Help from Society, and 
without fuch a Communication it would be ab- 
folutely impoffible for fuch a Society to fubfiit^ 
in a word, no more Communication, no more 
Society. 

For the better under-ftanding the Neceffit37 

of this Communication,- let lis take a nearer 

View of thofe particular "Families among : thfe 

-Beafts, Birds, and Inle6ts, that feera moH to want 

2 ■):.:< :.i : ■. and 



( H) 

and to ufe it, thofe I mean that Vive in So- 
ciety. Among the Beafts, we will particularly 
coniider the Beaver, who for his lingular Saga- 
city, Patience, Induftry, and Skill in Architec- 
ture, feems to excel all the quardruped Fami- 
ly. * " The Beaver is a Creature particular- 
" ly remarkable for the ufe made of his 
" Skin, but moft of all, for the Dexterity with 
" which he builds his Habitation. The Beaver, 
*' whether Male or Female, has four Bags un- 
*' der his Inteftines, impregnated with a reii- 
" nous and liquid Subftance, which when it is 
** ejected fettles into a thick Confidence, of which 
** he makes a fingular ufe in the building his 
*' Habitation. The Phyficians call it Ca/lor, 
** and prefcribe it as an excellent Remedy a- 
*' gainft Poifons, Vapours, and other Indifpo- 
•* Stions ; when it grows old, it blackens and 
** degenerates into a dangerous Poifon. He is 
*' furnilli'd with three very ufeful Implements 
*' for building, his Teeth, his Paws, and his 
** Tail. His Teeth are flrong and deeply ri- 
*' veted into his Jaws, with a long and crooked 
*' Root ; with thefe he cuts, as well the Wood 
** for his Building, as that which furnifhes him 
*' with his Food. His fore Feet refemble thofe 
** of fuch Animals as hold what they eat in 
<* their Paws, as Apes for inftance, Rats, and 
* Squirrels ; with thefe Feet, he digs, foften?, 
** and works the Clay, which is extremely fer- 
•* viceable to him. His hind Feet are accom- 
<* modated with Membranes, or large Skins 

[[ between 

* Spedlale de la Nature, Dial. iz. f. •-;, 



(25) 

** between his Toes like thofe of Ducks, and 
*' other Water-Fowl. His Tail is long, a little 
*« flat, entirely covered with Scales, fupplied 
" with Mufcles, and perpetually lubricated with 
«^ Oil or Fat. This Animal, who is an Ar- 
<« chited from his Nativity, ufes his Tail in- 
" ftead of a Hod, for the Conveyance of his 
*' .Clay or Mortar, and a Trowel to ipread and 
«* form it into an incruftation ; the Scales pre- 
" vent thefe Materials from penetrating the Tail 
<« with their Cold and Moifture j but the Scales 
" as well as the Tail would be injured by the 
<* Air and Water, if it were not for the pre- 
** vention of an Oil, which he diftributes all 
" over them with his Snout j and the four Bags 
** I have mentioned, are undoubtedly the Ma- 
" gazine of this Fluid. 

** The Beavers inhabit the fame Manfion 
*' in great Numbers, unlefs violent Heats, or 
" Inundations, the Purfuits of Hunters, Scar- 
" city of Provifions, or an extraordinary Increafe 
« of their Offspring oblige them to fepa- 
*' rate. In order to fix their Settlement, they 
" chufe a Situation that abounds with Provi- 
" fions, and is wafh'dby aRivulet, where they 
" may form a convenient Refervoir of Water 
*' for their Bagnio. They begin with Build- 
" ing a Mole or Caufey, in which the Water 
" may rife to a level with the firft Story of 
<' their Habitation. This Caufey at the Foun- 
<* dation may contain ten or a dozen Feet in 
« thicknefs : it defcends in a flopc on the Side 
" next the Water, which in proportion to its 
E ** Elevation 



(26) 

** Elevation gravitates upon the Work, and 
*' prelTes it with a ftrong tendency towards the 
" Earth. The oppofite Side is raifed perpen- 
** dicular Hke our Walls, and the Slope, which 
*' at its Bafis is twelve Foot broad, diminifhes 
** tov/ards the top, whofe bread :h does not 
" exceed two Feet. TheMaterialsoftliis Work 
" are Wood and Clay. The Beavers with ad- 
*' mirabk facility cut the Pieces of Wood as 
** thick as one's Arm, others as large as one's 
" Thigh, and from two to four, five, or fix 
*' Foot in length j and fometimcs more, in pro- 
** portion to the Afcent of the flope : They drive 
<* the extremity of thefe very near each other 
*« into the Earth, and take care to interlace them 
<« with other Stakes more flender and fupple. 
*' But as the Water without fome prevention 
«* would glide through the Cavities, and leave 
** the Refervoir dry, they have recourle to a 
** Clay, which they prefently know how to 
<* procure, and with it they clofe up all the 
" Interfi:ices both within and without j and this 
" entirely prevents all Evacuation ; they con- 
*' tinue to raife the Dyke proportionable to the 
<f Water's Elevation and Plenty. They are like- 
'« wife very fenfible, that their Materials are not 
*^ fo eafily tranfported by I^and as by Water, 
" and therefore take the Opportunity of its 
*' increafe to fwim with Mortar placed on their 
*' Tails, and Stakes of Wood between their 
« Teeth, to every Place where they have oc- 
*' cafion for thofe Materials. If the Violence 
** of the Water, or the Foot-fi:eps of Hunters, 

" who 



tc 



« 



« 



( 27 ) 

who pafs over their Work, damage it in any 
degree, they immediately repair the Fradture, 
vifit all the Edifice, and with indefatigable 
Application refit and adjuft whatever hap- 
pens to be difconcerted 5 but when they are 
too frequently perfecuted by the Hunters, 
they only work in the Night, or elfe difcon- 
tinue their Labours. 

" When the Caufey or Dyke is compleated, 
they begin to form their Cells, which are 
round or oval Apartments, divided into three 
Partitions, raifed one above another ; the firfl is 
funk below the level of the Dyke, and gene- 
rally full of Water ; the other two are formed 
above it. They raife this Stru(flure in a very 
iblid manner on the edge of their Caufey, 
" and always in Stories, that in cafe the Wa- 
*' ter fliould afcend, they may remove to a 
" higher Situation ; if they find any little Ifland 
*' near the Refer voir, they fix the Dwelling 
" there, which is then more folid, and they 
** lels incommoded with the Water, in which 
'^ they are capable of continuing but a iliort 
" time : but if they are not favoured with this 
** Advantage, they drive Stakes into the Earth 
** with their Teeth, to fortify the Building 
" ao-ainft the Winds and Water. At the bot- 
" torn they ftrike out two Openings to the 
** Stream ; one conducts them to the Place where 
" they bathe, and which they always keep very 
*' decent ; the other is a Paflage to that quar- 
'' ter, where they carry out every thing that 
*' would foil or rot the upper Apartininis. There 

E 2 *^ is 



(< 



( 28 ) 

is a third Aperture much higher, calculated 
" to prevent their being fhut up, when the 
'' Ice has clofed the Openings into the lower 
" Lodgments. They fometimes build their 
'' Houle intircly on the dry Land, and fink 
*' Ditches five or fix Feet deep, in order to 
'■ defcend to the Water. They employ the fame 
*' Materials and Induftry in the Strucfhire of their 
'' Dwelling, as they ufe for their Caufey. The 
" Walls of the Building are perpendicular, and 
" two Feet thick. As their Teeth are more 
^' ferviceable than Saws, they cut off all the Pro- 
*' je(5lions from the Wood, that ftand out beyond 
*' the Perpendicular of the Wall, after which 
*' they work up a mixture of Clay and dry Grafs, 
'* into a kind of Mortar, with which, by the 
*' Aid of their Tails, they rough-cafl the out 
" and infides of the Work. 

** The Edifice is vaulted within like the 
" handle of a Balket, and generally rifes in an 
" oval Figure. The Dimenfions are propor- 
" tioned to the number of the intended In- 
" habitants. Twelve Feet in length, and ten 
" in breadth are fufficient for eight or ten 
'' Beavers j if the number increafes, they en- 
*' large the Place accordingly. It has been af- 
'* ferted for a Truth, that there have been 
" found above four hundred of thefe Creatures 
** in different Lodgments communicating with 
'* one another. But thefe popular Societies are 
*•' very rare, becaufe they are too unmanage- 
" able and tumultuous, and the Beavers are 
" generally better acquainted with their own 

'' Intertlls. 



( 29 ) 

" Interefts. They afTociate to the number of 
" ten or a dozen, and fometimes a few more : 
" they are a fet of amicable and fagacious In- 
'' habitants, in whofe mutual Society they may 
*' propofe to fpend the Winter together in a 
" very agreeable manner -, they are gifted with 
*' a natural Arithmetick, which enables them to 
" proportion the Place and Proviiions to the 
" Neceffities of the Company ; and as it is cuf- 
*' tomary for every Individual to continue in 
*' the conftant PofTeffion of his own Cell, they 
" never charge themfelves with unneceflary Ex- 
*' pences for any accidental Guefts. 

" There are fome Beavers called Terotirs, 
" who make their abode in Caverns dug in a 
'* rifing Ground, either on the Shore or at fome 
" diftance from the Water, to which they fcoop 
" out fubterranean Trenches from their Ca- 
" verns, which defcend from ten to an hun- 
** dred Feet in depth. Thefe Trenches furniili 
*' them with retreats iituated at unequal heights, 
" and wherein they enjoy a flielter from the 
*' Water when it afcends. Tlieir Beds are 
*' made of Chips, which ferve them inftead of 
" a Quilt; and of Grafs, which accommodates 
" them in the nature of a Feather- Bed. 

" All thefe Works, efpecially in the cold Re- 
" gions, are compleated in AugiiH or Septem- 
** ber ; after which Period, they furniih them- 
" felves with Provifions. During the Summer 
*' Seafon they regale themfelves with all the 
*' Fruits and Plants the Country produces. In 
** the Winter they eat the V/ood of the Afh, 

" the 



( 3°) 

" the Plane, and other Trees, which they fteep 

" in Water, in Quantities proportionable to 

*' their necefTary Confumption ; and they arc 

** fupplied with a double Stomach, to facilitate 

" the Digeftion of fuch a folid Food at two 

" Operations. They cut Twigs from three to 

** fix Feet in length ; the large ones are con- 

" veyed by feveral Beavers to the Magazine, 

" and the fmaller by a fingle Animal : but they 

" take different ways, each Individual has his 

'' Walk afligned him, to prevent the Labourers 

" from being interrupted by their mutual Oc- 

" cafions. The Dimenfions of their Pile of 

*' Timber are regulated in proportion to the 

** number of the Inhabitants ; and it has been 

" obferved, that the Provifion of Wood for 

, " ten Beavers, comprehended thirty Feet in a 

^^ fquare Surface, and ten in thicknefs. Thefe 

, ** Parcels of Wood are not piled up in one con- 

" tinued Heap, but laid crofs one another, with 

" Interfaces between them, that they .may the 

*' better draw out what Qui^iuity they want, 

*' and always take the Parcel at the bottom, 

** which lies in the Water : they cut this Wood 

" into fmall Particles, and convey it to their 

'* Cells, where the whole Family come to re- 

**^ ceive their particular Share. Sometimes they 

" expatiate in the Woods, and regale their 

" young with a new Collati-jn. The Hunters, 
*' who are fenfible that thefe Creatures love 

" green Wood better than old, place a Parcel 

" of the former about their Lodge, and then 

" have feveral Devices to enfiiare them. When 

7 " the 



( 31 ) 

*' the Winter grows fevere they fometimes break 
" the Ice, and when the Beavers come to the 
*' opening for the Benefit of the Air, they kill 
** them with Hatchets, or make a large Aperture 
" in the Ice, and cover it with a very ftrong Net, 
*^ and then overturn the Lodge ^ upon which the 
" Beavers, who think to efcape in their ufual way 
" by flying to the Water, and emerging at the Hole 
*' in the Ice, fall into the Snare, and are taken." 

Among the Birds let us take a View of the 
different Tribes of thofe which are particularly 
called Birds of PafTage, who pafs in great Bo- 
dies or Flocks from one Climate to another ; 
fome feeking for a cold, others a hot, others a 
temperate Region : fuch particularly as Quails, 
Swallows, Wild- Ducks, Plovers, Woodcocks, 
and Cranes *. In the Spring, the Quails pafs 
from Ajrica into Europe, to £nd a more tole- 
rable and moderate Summer than they could 
enjoy in the Country from whence they came. 
Toward the clofe of Autumn, they return over 
the Mediterranean to obtain in Barbary and 
Egypt a gende heat, correfpondent to the Cli- 
mates they abandoned, when the Sun was on 
the other fide of the Equator. They take their 
flight in Troops, that fometimes refemble Clouds j 
they frequently cover Ships, and the Sailors take 
them without difficulty. 

As for the Swallows, it was ufually thought 
that they crolTed the Seas at the different Sealons 
of the Year, but it is much more probable 
that in thefe ISlorthern Countries, they conceal 

themfelves 

- • Spedacle de la Nature, Dial, ii. p. 4S, 49, 50. 



( 32 ) 

themfelves in the Caverns of the Earth, riveted 
to one another u'ith their Claws and Bills. 
They flock to Places unfrequented by Men, or 
even bury themfelves in the Water j the Precau- 
tion they take to lubricate their Feathers with their 
own Oil, and to roll themfelves up like a Ball, 
preferves them in the Water, and even under 
the Ice. They are there benumbed, and pafs 
the whole Winter without Motion. The Heart 
however has a conftant palpitation, and the 
Warmth revives them at the return of the 
Spring jthey then reviflt their former Habitations, 
and each Individual finds out his own Country, 
and even his particular City, Village, and Neft. 

As to Wild-Ducks and Cranes, both the one 
and the other, at the approach of Winter, fly 
in queft of more favourable Climates : They 
all aflemble at a certain Day, like Swallows and 
Quails, they decamp at the fame time, and 
'tis very agreeable to obferve their Flight ; they 
generally range themfelves in a long Column like 
an I, or in two Lines united like aV reverfed. 
The Duck or Crane who forms the Point, cuts 
the Air and facilitates a Paflage to thofe that 
follow J but he is charged with this Commif- 
fion, only for a certain time, at the conclufion 
of which, he wheels about into the Rear, and 
another takes his Poft. It is very common, but 
yet a very furprizing Obfervation, to fee how 
regularly the Swallows meet upon a certain Day, 
in order to depart all together, and every Cir- 
cumftance of their Journey has fomething in 
it almofl: miraculous in their Progrefs over Seas 

and 



( 33 ) 

ahd Kingdoms, one knows not which to ad« 
mire mofti the force that furtains them in fo 
long a PalTage, or the order in which the whole 
is accompUflied. Who acquainted their Young, 
that it would foon be neceffary for them to 
forfike the Land of their Nativity, and travel 
into a ftrange Country ? Why do thofe who 
are detained in a Cage, exprefs fo much Dif- 
quietude at the Seafon for the ufual Departure^, 
and feem to be AfiFlided at their Inability to 
join the Company ? What particular Bird charges 
himfelf with the Care of affembling a Council, 
to fix the Day of their Removal ? Who founds 
the Trumpet to inform the Tribe of the R^- 
folution taken, that each Party may be pre- 
pared ? Whence have they their Almanack to 
inftru6l them in the Seafon and Day when 
they are to be in motion ? Are they provided 
with Magiftrates and Officers to preferve the 
Difcipline which is fo extraordinary among them I* 
For not one of them diflodges till the Procla- 
mation has been publifh'dj and not aDeferter 
is feen on the Day that fucceeds their Depar- 
ture. Have they Charts to regulate their Voy- 
age by ? Are they acquainted with the Illands 
where they may reft, and be accommodated 
with Refre£hments ? Are they furnifhed with 
a Compafs to guide them infallibly to the Coatl 
they would fleer to, without being difconcerted 
in their Flight by Rains or Winds, or the dif- 
mal Obfcurity of many Nights ? or are they 
endued with a ReaJo?t Juperigu?- to that of Man ^ 
who has not Courage to attempt fuch a Paflage, 

F without 



( 34 ) 

without a Multitude of Machines, Precautions^ 
and Provifions ? Where would be the Danger o? 
Ablurdity of afcribing all this to Rea/ou ^ A 
Heafon limited and circumfcribed within the 
narrow Bounds of their own Sphere. A Rea^ 
foil fufficient to direct them to the Means of 
preferving and increafing their feveral Families, 
and anfwering the feveral Ends of their Being, 
and the Purpofes of their Creation. A Reafon 
not fuperioitr to that of Man^ becaufe the Reajon 
of Men is vaft and comprehenlive, taking in 
the whole Compafs of Nature, looking forwards 
and backwards into Eternity j whereas the Sphere 
of Adion aiIo<-ted to Brutes, is contradted into 
a very narrow Compafs, and confined to a few 
Articles of Life and Adion ; in which too, 
perhaps, the exquilite Strudure of their Organs^ 
and the Tenuity and Purity of their Juices and 
animal Spirits, not corrupted, or impaired by Lux- 
ury, and Intemperance, may, poliibly, give them 
^ confiderable Advantage over the greater part 
of the Human Species. But more of this \\\ 
its proper Place. 

Let us next defcend to the various Tribes 
of Infects, which, tho' vile and contemptible 
in their Appearance, yet each of them in their 
feveral Ranks and Stations proclaim aloud the 
infinite Wifdom and Power of their Creator. 
Their Variety, their Difpofitions, their Sagacity^, 
their Policy, their Lidulhy, the wonderful Pro- 
portion of their Organs, the Delicacy of their 
Structure, and a thouland other Curiolities oh* 
icrvable in every Species, are matter of infinite 

Delight. 



(25) 

pelight and Plcafurc to a curious and inqiiifi- 
tive Genius ; but were we able to examine them 
in a nearer View, could we be caoable of know- 
ing the diredl Pui-pofcs of iniinite Wifdo:n in 
their Creation, the Pvclation they bear, and the 
harmonious Proportion they ftand in to the uni- 
verlal Syil:em, it Avould afford us inlinite .mat- 
ter of Afioniiliment and Surprize, as well as of 
relisiious Reverence and Adoration to their Om- 
nipotcnt Creator. Small and contemptible as 
they appear to us, they are really formed with 
the moft exqiiilite Symmetry, the moft delicate 
Proportion. ;Vulgar Prejudice may coniider tliem 
as the Effeifr of Chance, and the Refufe of 
Nature ; but an attentive Eye, aiTilted by the 
help of Microfcopes, difcovers in them afion idl- 
ing Marks of iniinite Wiidom, wliich, far from 
neglecting them, has been particularly careful 
to cloath, arm, and accommodate them with 
all the Inilruments and Faculties necelfary to 
their Condition. This it is ^ that has arrayed 
them, even to a degree of Complaifince, by 
laying out fach a Profufion of azure, green, 
and Vermillion, Gold, Silver, and Diamonds, 
Fringe, and Plumage, upon their Robes, their 
Wings, and the Ornaments of their Heads. We 
need only behold the Ichneumon, ^panijh Dra- 
gon, and Butterfly, nay, a Caterpillar itfelf, to 
alfonifh us with this Magniticencs. The lame 
infinite Wifdom, which has been fo liberal in 
their Ornaments, has completely armed them 
for making War, and aifaulting their Eneniies, 
* Spectacle de la Nature. Dial i. p. :, S. 

Fa as. 



(36) 

as well as defending themfelves. The genera- 
lity of them are provided with flrong Teeth^ 
a doable Saw, a Sting with two Darts, or vi2;o- 
rous Claws, and a fcaly Coat of Mail, for the 
Defence of their whole Body. The Safety of 
the greateft: part of them confifts in the Agi- 
lity of their Flight, by which they eafily avoid 
the Danger that threatens them : Some by the 
Affiftance of their Wings, others by a Thread 
that fupports them, when from the Leaves on 
xvhich they live, they throw themfelvcs at a di- 
ftance from their Enemy ; and others by the 
Spring of their Hind-feet, whofe Elafticity im- 
mediately launches them out of the reach of 
Danger, and when they are deftitute of Force, 
Stratagem, and Cunning, fupply the want of the 
common and ordinary Means of their Prefer^ 
vation. 

This is very wonderful ; but our Wonder in- 
creafeSj when we attentively confider the diffe- 
rent Organs and Ini elements with which each 
of them work in their feveral Profeilions : Some 
fpin, and have a couple of Diftaffs, and Fingers 
to form their Thread ; others make Nets and 
Lawn, and for that purpofe are provided with 
Shuttles, and Clues of Thread. There are fome 
who build in Wood, and are therefore fup- 
plied with two Bills for cutting their Timber. 
Others make Wax, and have their Shops 
furniili'd with Rakers, Ladles, and Trowels. 
Moft of them have a Trunk, more wonderful 
for its various Ufes than the Elephant's, and 
which to fom.e ferves for an Alembic for the 

diftillation 



( 37 ) 

dlftlllatlon of a Syrup Man can never imitate j 
to others it performs the Office of a Tongue ; 
many employ it as a Drill for piercing, and the 
generality of them ufe it as a Reed for Suction. 
Several, whofe Heads are fortified with a Trunk, 
a Saw, or a couple of Pincers, carry in the other 
extremity of their Bodies an Augur, which 
they lengthen and turn at difcretion ; and by 
that means dig commodious Habitations for 
their Families in the Heart of Fruits, under tlie 
Bark of Trees, in the Subftance of Leaves or 
Gems, and frequently in the hardeft Wood itfelf. 
There are few who have excellent Eyes, but 
have likewife an additional Benefit of a couple 
of Horns, or Aiitennce^ that defend them j and 
as the Animal moves along, efpeci.illy in the 
dark, make a tryal of the V/ay, and difcover by 
a quick and delicate Senfation, what would de- 
file, drown, or endanger them ; and if they find 
thefe Horns moiftened by any ofFenfive Liquor, 
or bend by the Refi fiance of a folid Body, the 
Animal is warned of the Danger, and turns 
another way. Now all thefe Motions, even of 
the minutefi: Animals, however accidental or 
capricious they may appear to us, are as really 
directed to a certain End, as thofe of the largeft 
Beings : we fhall find all the Sagacity and Cun- 
ning we admire in a Fox, for chuling himfelf 
an advantageous Kennel, providing for himfelf 
and his Family the Neceflaries of Life, and avoid- 
ing the Snare of the Gin, and the Perfecution 
of the Hunter : The fame Indufiry with which 
we fee a Bird build itfelf a convenient Neft, pro- 
vide 



_ (38) 

vide for the Subfiftence of itfelfand Young-ones> 
and elude the Snares of the Fowler ; yon will 
find the fame Care, the fame Sagacity, ailua- 
ting the fmallefl Infc(5l for the Prefervation of 
itfclf and its minute Pofterity. The Parent is 
feldom, or never, deceived in the natural Choice 
of Means for its own Prefervation, or the Se- 
curity and Education of its Young-ones. Dif-^ 
folve a Grain of Pepper in Water, you may 
difcover by the help of a JVlierofcope, Worms 
of an incredible Smallnefs, fwlmming in the 
Fluid. Tlie Parent, who knows this to be their 
proper Nourifliment, never lays her Eggs in any 
other Place. Look through a Microlcope at a 
Drop of Vinegar, there you ■s\'ill difcover a num- 
ber of little Eels, and never any other Animals, 
becaufe one particular Creature knows, that Vi- 
negar, or the Materials that compound it, is pro- 
per for her Family, and therefore depofits them 
either in that Matter, or in the Liquor itfelf, 
and no where elfc. -f- In thofe Countries vsdiere 
the Silk-worm feeds at large in the Fields, her 
Eggs are only to be found on the Mulberry- 
tree : 'tis eafy to fee what Interell determines 
her to that Choice. You will never find up- 
on a Cabbage any Eggs of the Caterpillar that 
cats 'the Willow; noi fee upon the Willow the 
Eggs of any Caterpillar who feeds upon Cab-, 
bage. The Moth feeks for Curtains, Woollen 
Scuff, drefs'-d Skins, or even Paper, becaufe its 
M itcri^ds are Fragments of Cloth, which have 
loft the bitter Flavour of Hemp, by the work- 

•j- S'jeftaclc dc la Nature. Did. i. p. ly. 



( 39) 

ing of the Paper-mill. In fliort, eveiy Species 
of Animals, from Man the Lord of the Creation, 
to the minutefl Infedt that the naked Eye, or the 
MicTofcope can difcover, ad: with Regularity and 
Uniformity, with all the Marks of Wifdom, Sa- 
gacity, and Prudence, within their feveral Spheres 
of Action, for the Prefervation of their Beinc:, 
the Propagation of their Species, and anfwering 
the feveral Ends and Purpofes of Providence in 
their Creation, and the Rank which they hold 

in the Syftem of Nature. But what am I 

doing ! ——Pardon me. Madam, my Purfuit of 
this copious and delightful Inquiry, has led me 
off from the main Queftion I propofed to con- 
iider, which was, the Neceflity of Ibme Lan- 
guage, fome Means of communicating the Sen- 
timents, Wants, Inclinations, and Defires of 
the Individuals of every Society and Family, in 
order to confult and provide for the Safety and 
Happinefs of the whole. The mutual Wants 
of Society, the Care and Education of a Fa- 
mily, muff be in fome fenfe, and to a certain 
degree, the fame in ail Societies and Families 
of Birds and Beafts, Reptiles and Infedls, as 
well as of Men j and without fome kind of Lan- 
guage, fome Method of Communication, thofe 
Wants could never be known, nor thoie Ne- 
cetiities effedually fupplied. All Creatures, there- 
fore, that live in fociety, who divide the feveral 
Duties and Offices of that Society among the In- 
dividuals, who appoint to every Member their 
diflind: Offices, their peculiar Pofts, tlieir parti- 
cular Provinces, muff of neceffity have fonie Lan- 
guage,- 



( 43 ) 

guage, be it what it will, fince, without this 
Help it is quite impoilible for any Society to iiib- 
fift, Now, tho' all Animals do not incorporate 
inllirge Societies, yet all have Families, domelHc 
Engagements, Cares, and NeceiTities, which re- 
quire mutual Help and Afliftance, and by con- 
fequence a certain Language, by which their mu- 
tual Wants, Inclinations, and Neeeffities may be 
difcovered and made known to each odicr 3 ib 
that every Species of Animals feem to haVe the 
fame want of a Language, of fome kind or ano- 
ther, as thofe which live in great Societies : for 
as all Societies are but AfTociations of Families or 
Individuals, whatever infers the NecefTity of a 
Language in one cafe, infers it equally in all. 

It would be hard to aflign a Reafon why Na- 
ture, or rather the all-wile Author of Nature, 
who always ad:s uniformly, fliould deny fome of 
them a Privilege he has granted to the reft. It 
is a general Obfervation that all the Produdions 
of Nature are uniform, that as flie is fparing in 
Superfluities, fo llie is rather profufe in things 
necelfary, and upon the whole docs nothing in 
vain : but is it not iiecefTary that a Couple of 
Animals, joined to form a Houfliold and Fa- 
mily together, a Couple of Birds for inftance, 
fhouldbe able to underftand, and mutually to 
impart their Sentiments and Tiioughts to each 
other? Let us return to the old Suppofition of 
two People abfolutely dumb, living together in 
the fame Houfe, without the Afhftance of any 
other Perlbn ; I defy the Union to fubfift, if 
they have no means left of agreeing about their 

Affairs. 



( 41 ) 

Affairs, and exprefling their mutual Wants and 
Neceffities. Two Sparrows, two Foxes, two 
Whales, will lie under the fame Impoffibility 
of living together ; and all the Inconveniencies 
of the dumb Society I have mentioned, will be 
feen in their refped:ive Families : In a word, the 
Neceffity of a Language between a Husband 
and his Wife, to enable them to live together, 
upon which human Societies fublift, is, in due 
degree, the fame in all the Species of Beings be- 
low them, in every Tribe and Family of the 
Brute-Creation/' Could it be fuppofed, that 
there were any Race of Animals in the Um- 
verfe capable of producing their Kind in abfo- 
lute Solitude, without the Intervention of a dif- 
ferent Sex, it mufl be confeffed the Faculty of 
Speech to them would be quite a ufelefe Ta- 
lent : but wherever tv/o Beafls, or two Birds, 
fiiall ftand in an habitual Need of each other, 
and form among them a lafling Society, they 
mufl of neceffity fpeak to each other. How is 
it to be conceived, that in the Gallantry of 
their fiifl AddrefTes to each other, their mutu- 
al Concern and Vigilance for each other's Wel- 
fare, and the necefiary Cares that attend the 
Education of their Families, they iliould not 
have a thoufand things to fay to each other i* 
It is impoffible in the order of Nature, that a 
Sparrow, or a Turtle, that is fond of his Mate, 
fliould be at a lols for proper Expreilions to dif- 
cover the Tendernefs, the Jealoufy, the Angtr, 
the Fears he entertains for her, in the feveral In- 

* PHiilofoph. AmufeiTient, f- Vh ST') ^^• 

G cidents 



(42) 

Cidents of Life that muft arife betwixt the 
moil loving Couple, in the courfe of a long 
Cohabitation. He muft fcold her when ihe 
plays the Coquet, he mufl bully the Sparks that 
make Attempts upon her Virtue, he muft be able 
to underfland her when flie calls to him ; he 
muff, whilft {lie is afikluoufly fitting upon her 
Brood, be able to provide NecelTaries for her, 
and know diilindtly what it is fhe wants or 
calls for, whether it be fomcthing to eat, or 
Materials to repair her Nell ; in all which, a 
Language, of Ibme fort or ouier, is abfolutely 
neceffary. 

Our Author reafons fo pertinently and con- 
fiftendy upon this Head, that I lliall chufe to 
give you the two or three following Paragraphs 
in bis own Language. 

*' Many Bealfs, one will fay, have not a fet- 
*' tied and permanent Houfhold like Birds, (for 
*' by-the-bye. Birds are the moll perfed; Mo- 
^* del of conjugal Conltancy and Fidelity:) this 
'* I very well know, and their Number is 
*' even very great. Such are Dogs,Horfes, Deer, 
*' and almofl all Quadrupeds, Fifhes, and Rep- 
" tiles. But I fliall always infift upon a Prin- 
*' ciple, granted and acknowledged as certain ; 
*', Nature is too much like herfelf in Productions 
*^ of one and the fame Genus, as to have put 
** between Beads fo elTential a Difference, as 
*' that of Speaking, or not Speaking at all, 
'^ would be. Upon this Principle it is, that 
'* though we hardly know the Seeds of Coral, 
*' of Muflirooms, of Trufles, or Fern, we are 

" neverthelefs 



(n) 

*« neverthelefs perfuaded that thefe Plants pro^ 
*' ceed from Seeds, becaufe it is the manner 
*' in which Nature produces all the reft. Let 
" us then conclude, that if Nature has given 
*' to Beafts (or Animals) living in Society, and 
^' in a Family, the Faculty of Speaking j flie 
*' has doubtlefs bellowed the fame Advantage 
*' on all the reft. For we are not now upon 
** thofe accidental Differences which Nature 
*' loves to diverfify in the different Species of 
" the fame Genus : there are not, perhaps, in 
" the whole World two Faces perfedily alike ; 
" but yet all Men have a Face. There are 
" among the feveral Species of Animals Diffe- 
** reaces ftill greater : fome have Wings, others 
" have Fins, fome Feet and Legs j the Serpents 
** have none of thefe : but all Animals have 
" the Faculty of moving and tranfporting them*- 
*' felves wherever they pleafe, according to 
'' their Wants. Am^ong Animals there are fome 
*' that fee and hear more or lefs perfciftly 5 but 
*' yet they uli hear and fee. It is the fame thing 
"' with the Faculty of Speech : this Faculty, 
" perhaps, is more perfedt in the Beafts which 
*' live in Societies and form Families 5 but it 
" being in fome, we muft believe it to be in 
" all of them, but more or lefs perfedl, accord- 
" ing to their refpeClive V/ants. 

'' It ir even obfervable, that the AnimaU 
*« who live neither in Society, nor in a fettled 
*' Family, yet have in each Species a fort of 
" Commerce or Society among themfelves. 
*' Such are the Quadruped?, the Fiihes, the 
G 2 " Reptiles^ 



( 44 ) " 
Reptiles, the Birds themfelves independently 
of their Houfliold, as Starlings, Partridges, 
Ravens, Ducks, and Hens. Now what Ad- 
vantage could thefe Creatures have by endea- 
vouring to live in Society one with another,' 
if they did it not for mutual Affiihmce, and 
reciprocally to have the Benefit of their Know- 
ledge, Difcoveries, and of all the Helps they 
can afford each other ; and how could they do 
fo, if they do not underftand one another ? 
All the Arguments I have already ufed to 
prove, that the Creatures which live in So- 
ciety muft have a Language, here again find 
their Place and their whole Energy. All the 
Difference muft be only in the Degrees of 
Plus and Mimis--, and if we judge of this only 
by Matters of Fads, perhaps there is no dif- 
ference at all. 

*' The Wolves, for inftance, hunt with great 
Skill, and together contrive warlike Strata- 
gems. A Man eroding a Frith, faw a Wolf 
who ieemed to be watching a Flock of Sheep. 
He informed the Shepherd of it, and advifed 
him to caufe the Animal to be purfued by 
his Dog : I flian't be fuch a Fool, replied the 
Shepherd j the Wolf yonder is there only to 
divert my Attention, and another Wolf who 
is working on the other fide, only watches 
the Moment when 1 fliall fet my Dogs upon 
this to fnatch one of my Sheep from me. 
The Man who was pafling by, willing to 
be fatisfied of the Fadt, promifed to pay for 
the Sheep j and the thing happened, jufl as 

" the 



( 45 ) 

*' the Shepherd faid it would. Does not a Stra- 
*' tagem fo well concerted evidently liippofe 
" that the two Wolves had agreed together, 
'* one to fliew, and the other to hide himfelf ? 
^' ,Now how is it polTible to agree in this man- 
** ner without the help of Speech ? 

.** A Sparrow finding a Neft that a Martin 
" had juil built, {landing very convenient for 
" him, pofleft himfelf of it. The Martin 
" feeing the Ufurper in her Houf -, call'd for 
" help to expel him. A thoufand Martins came 
*' full fpeed and attacked the Sparrow : but the 
** latter being covered on every fide, and pre- 
" Tenting only his large Beak at the Entrance 
'^ of the Neft, was invulnerable, and made the 
" boldeft of them, who durft approach him, 
" to repent their temerity. After a Quarter 
" of an Hoar's Combat, all the Martins dif- 
*' appeared. The Sparrow tliought he had 
" got the better, and the Spectators jud2;ed 
" that the Martins had abandoned their Un- 
*' dertaking. Not in the leail. Immediately 
*' we fav/ them return to the Charge ; and 
*' each of them having procured a litde of that 
■*' temper'd Earth, with which they make their 
" Neils, they all at once fell upon the Spar- 
^' row, and inclofed him in the Neil to perifh 
** there, tho' they coukd not drive him thence. 
*' Can you imagine. Madam, that the Martins 
" could have been able to hatch and concert 
•** this Defign all of them together, without fpeak- 



ing to each other ? 



** Wonders 



( 46 ) 

'' Wonders are recounted by Travellers of 
" the Monkeys, when they go a plundering; 
*' a Troop of Soldiers when they go a For- 
" raging, cannot march in greater Order, or 
*' with more Precaution. I could mention, and 
*' you can eafily recoiled: a thoufand other In- 
**■ fiances of the fame Nature ) but this would 
" require a Volume, and I aim only at fupport- 
" ing my Argument, Men hitherto have al- 
" ways made ufe of thefe Inflances to prove 
" that Bealts have a knowing Faculty -, and they 
" have been in the right fo to do, becaufe it 
" is really inconceivable, that Beafts can do fuch 
" fingulij- Adions withouL Knowledge, but we 
*' have not futhciently examined into the Me- 
" rits and Bottom of this Queftlon ; for if it be 
" abfolutely impoihble for Beafls to perform 
" thefe Actions without fpeaking, we are more- 
" over obliged to conclude, that they have a 
*' Faculty of fpeaking to each other. Now, 
" Madam, I would beg of you here to ob- 
" ferve, that this is not an Opinion or a Syllem 
" founded upon meer Conjedure or probable 
" Explications, but an Argument fupported by 
" fenlible and palpable Fadts j I fay fenfible Mat- 
" ters of Fad, fuch as thefe I have jull been 
" alledging, and a thoufand others of every 
♦" Kind. Enter into a Wood where there are 
•' a Parcel of Jays, the firft then that fees you 
" gives the Alarm to the whole Troop. Mag- 
" pyes, Blackbirds, and almoft all the Feather- 
" ed Kind do the fame. Let a Cat but fhow 
" herfelf upon the top of a Houfe, or in a Gar- 

1 " den. 



( 47 ) 

^* den, the very firft Sparrow that perceives her, 
*' exad:ly does what a Centinel does among us, 
*' when he perceives an Enemy ; he by his 
" Cries warns all his Companions, and ieems 
" to imitate the Noile of a Drum beating a 
" March. See a Cock near his Hen, a Dove 
" near the Female he is courting, a Cat fol- 
".lowing his Mate, there is no end of their 
" Dilcourfes, till there is an end of their Court- 
" fhip. B'-it there is one important Refled:ion 
'' yet behind, which in my Opinion is little 
" lefs than Demonftratipn. We every day 
" fpealc to Beafts, and they underftand us very 
" well. The Shepherd makes himfelf under- 
" flood by his Sheep, but particularly by his 
" Dog that attends him. The Cows under- 
f' fland all the Milkmaid fays to them. Many 
" a profound Converfation palfes between the 
*' Sportfman and his Dogs ; the Groom and his 
" Horfes ; the Lady and her Parrot ; Mifs and 
" her Cat -, we fpeak to them all, and they 
*' underfband us j they in their turn fpeak to 
'' us, and we underftand them. How much more 
*' probable is it,thuit they fpeak to and underfland 
" each other ! for with regard to them, we can 
'* fpeak no other than a foreign Language 5 and 
" if Nature has enabled them to fpeak a foreign 
f .Language, how can fhe have refufed them the 
/^ Faculty of fpeaking and under {landing a Na- 
" tural one ? This can hardly be conceived. 

" But though we Ihould allow Understand* 
" ing and Language to the feveral Species of 
f Beafls, Birds, and Infedts j What llmll we do 

*' with 



tc 



( 48 ) 

with the FiOies and Reptiles ; What can we 
*^ fay for them? Has Nature been as boun- 
" tiful to them as to the reft, muft we al- 
** low them to have Speech and Underfland- 
*' ing ? Clin they underftand and converfe with 
" each other ? Can we imagine a Converfatiori 
" betwixt two Fifhes, two Ants, or two 
** Worms ? The Birds indeed fing, the Dogs 
*' bark, the Wolves howl, Sheep bleat, Lions 
*' roar, Oxen low, Horfes neigh ; this every 
** body hears and knows : but who ever heard 
** the Language of a Fifli, or the Converfi- 
*' tions of Worms and Caterpillars? What- 
" ever Difficulty there may be in hearing or 
** explaining their Language, I think there can 
'^ be but little in apprehending they have one, 
" upon the fame general Principles laid down 
" before j and fince there is a ftrong Prefump- 
*' tion that all other Species have it, as arifing 
*' from theNeceihty of their Nature j the Pre- 
** fumption feems equally ftrong for them as 
" for the reft. But the Difficulty lies in be- 
" ing; able to know and diftinguifh it, part 
** of them live in an Element forbidden to 
" us, and mariy of the others efcape our Sight 
'* by their fmallnefs. But how do we knov/ 
*' that Fiflies have not as many and perhaps 
" more vocal Expreffions than the Birds them- 
" felves ? They all of them feem to be form- 
" ed upon the fime Model ? Some fly, others 
'* fwim ; but flying and fwimming are one 
" and the fame Motion, the Difi^erence is only 
** in the Element. We are- told in the Book 

" of 



c< 



<c 



t( 



ti 



(C 



<( 



*c 



a 



(49) 

of Genefis, ch. i. v. 20. that God created at 
the fame time both Filhes and Fowls from 
the Bofom of the Waters. Fidies have five 
Senfes as v^ell as Birds and other Animals, 
and why fhould they not have the Faculty 
of Speaking as well as the reft ? It is true, 
we cannot hear them fpeak or fing, but it 
is perhaps for want of proper Organs to hear 
them. The Water is throughly penetrated 
with Air which the Fifties breathe, Why may 
they not with that Air, and by means of 
a Spring equivalent to the'Tongue and Throat, 
form Vibrations and Sounds too nice and de- 
licate for our Ears, but which are eaftly heard 
and underftood by their own Species ? The 
Ear of Man is extremely coarfe, which is 
the refult of a neceftary Providence ; for were 
our Ears fenfible of the minuteft Vibrations 
of the Air we live in, we ftiould be for 
ever ftunned with a thoufand confufed Noifes, 
which would never permit us to diftinguifti 
any one of them. There are then certainly 
in the Air many Sounds which we do not 
hear ; fuch as, for inftance, the Noife of a 
Silk- Worm gnawing a Mulberry Leaf} if he 
is alone, or there are but few of them to- 
gether, no body can hear them : but put a 
a certain Number of them in a Cabinet, and 
then all thofe httle Noifes joined in unifon, 
become mighty fenfible to our Ears. How 
much more is it poftible, that there may be 
in the Water Noifes infenfible to us, and that 
Fifties may by that means ipeak, without 
H ** being 



( 5° ) 
'^ being audible to us : at lead: I dtlight in 
*' thinking fo, not to rob any part of the Cre- 
'* ation of thofe Perfections which Nature ufes 
*' to beflovv on all : nor could I think, with- 
'* out a kind of philofophical Melancholy, 
*' that flie had doomed to eternal Silence, in- 
" numerable Nations, which inhabit the Im- 
*' menfity of the Seas and Rivers. Silence is 
*' the Portion of the Dead ; Speaking enlivens 
" the Living themfelves. You may laugh, and 
" be as merry as you pleafe upon my fpeak- 
*' ing Fifh, as doubtlefs he was laughed at that 
" firfl mentioned a flying Fifh, and yet the 
" one may chance to prove as true as the 
*' other. 

*' The Reptiles and Infe<5ls are jufi: in the 
" fame Cafe. There are many kinds of Rep- 
** tiles which have veiy diilind: vocal Ex- 
*' preffions; fuch as Serpents, Frogs, and Toads : 
*' and confequently, arguing upon the Principle 
** of the Uniformity of Nature, we are inti- 
<* tied to fuppofe an Equivalent in the reft; 
*' not to mention fupplemental Miens, Looks, 
" and Geftures. It is not quite fo with the 
" Infe(^ls : there is no Species of them, that we 
" know of, that has vocal Expreffion, pro- 
" perly fo called : The Cry of the Cricket, the 
" finging or chirping of the Grafhopper, the 
*' Noife of certain Butterflies, and the hum- 
*' ming of Flies, are not properly vocal Sounds, 
*' but Noifes caufed by the trembling of a 
*' Membrane. But what of all that ? h can- 
*' not be doubted, but that the Cry of tl^e 

*' Cricket 



(5' ) 

" Cricket and Grafhopper, ferves them to call 
** each other in order to meet, and, very hke- 
** ly, to converfe. It may be thought that the- 
** humming of the Fhes likewife lervcs them 
*' to know each other in every Society, eidier 
" by the Uniformity or Unifon of the Tone, 
*'"or imperceptible Differences not within our 
'' reach, which may be equivalent to vocal Ex- 
" preluons, and is at the fame time a Proof, how 
*.' Nature, always uniform as to what is gcne- 
** ral and .eiTential, is, at the fame time,, ingeni- 
" ous in varying the Means and Particulars of 
" of her own Produdions. Now, what Nature 
" has done for fome Infeds, flie has- certainly 
" done for all. 

*' There is, for Inf}:ance, a particular Sort of 
** Spiders, which have a very fmgular Method 
^'of teftifying to each other their Defire of 
" being together. The Spider that Wtints Com.- 
" pany, ftrikes, with I know not Vv^hat Inura^ 
" ment, againft the Wall or Wood where ihe 
*' has fettled, nine or ten gentle biows^ nearly 
" like the Vibrations of a Watch, (which ihere- 
" fore the Ignorant and Superftitious call a Death- 
** watch) but a little louder and quicker j after 
** which flie fl:ays for an Anfwer : if ilie hears 
**.none, (lie repeats the fame by Intervals for 
** about an Hour or two, refuming this Exer- 
" cife, and relling alternately Night and Day. 
•^ After two or tinee Days, if fiie hears no- 
^* thing, (hQ changes her Plabitation, till (he 
<* finds one that anfwers her. It is another S[i^ 
*' der that anfwers her exadlly in the fan:je maii- 
H 2 '' Dcr, 



ic 



( 52 ) 

ner, and, as it were, by Echo. If the lat- 
ter likes the Propofal, the Converfation grows 
brifker, and the beating becomes more fre- 
quent. Give attention to it, and you will 
find by the Noife that they gradually ap- 
proach each other, and that the Beatings 
*' come at lad fo clofe, that they are confound- 
'* ed, after whicJi you hear no more Noife ; 
** very likely the red of the Converfition is 
*' whifper'd. I have oftentimes amufed my- 
" felf in making the Echo of a Spider, 
*' which I have heard beating, and whofe 
*' Noife I imitated, and (he anfwered me punc- 
*' tually ; fhe fometimes even attacked me, and 
*' began the Converfation : I have often given 
** that Diverfion to feveral People, and made 
** them believe it was a familiar Spirit. 

" How many like Difcoveries might we make 
*' upon Infects, if our Organs were delicate 
** enough to fee and perceive their Airs and 
** Motions, to hear their Voices, or what Nature 
*' has allotted them inftead of Voices, I make 
*' no doubt, but we fhould find in Ants, Bees, 
*' Worms, ScarabiEiis's, Caterpillars, Palmer- 
" worms, Mite?, and all the Infeds, a Language 
" defigned for their Prefervation, and the fup- 
*' ply of their Vv^ants, And as there are certain 
" Species of Infects, in which we obferve great- 
•*' er Induftry and Knowlege than in large Ani- 
*' mals, it is not improbable that they have like- 
^' wife a more perfed: Language in proportion, 
^■^^ahvavs confined however to the NccelTiu'ies of 
" Life.'" 

Thus 



(53) 

Thus far I have tranfcribed almoft intlrely 
from the ingenious Author, who upon this Head 
talks more like a Philofopher, than in any 
other part of his Work. But were we now to 
enter into a minute Examination of the various 
Labours, the indefatigable Application, the pub- 
lick Spirit, the regular Policy, the exadt Oecono- 
my of the feveral Families of In feds, Bees, 
Ants and Wafps in particular, of which you find 
mo ft furprizing Accounts in SpeBacle de la Na- 
ture, and other learned Writers, it would be 
very hard to account for them, any otherwife 
than by allowing fome mutual Means of Com- 
munication betwixt the Individuals of each So- 
ciety, which we may venture to call a Lan- 
guage, or fomething analogous to it ; and why 
Ihould we be afraid of allowing this, when we 
confider, that even the moft inarticulate Sounds 
are a kind of Language to fome part of the 
Creation or other ; nay, I may venture to add, 
even to ourfelves. Do not the Drum and Trum- 
pet fpeak to the Soldier ? Does not every mu- 
fical Sound fpeak to fome part of our Nature ? 
How are we excited by fome to martial Rage 
and Fury, foften'd by others into jovial Mirth 
and Pleafures and dilTolute Luxuryj and melted 
by others into the tendereft Sentiments of Pity 
and Compaffion, and fometimes even into Tears? 
Nay, the moft difcordant and grating Sounds 
have a Power over us 5 they make difagreeable 
Impreffions, and excite painful Senlations in us ; 
they difcompofe and diffipate the Spirits, they 
feem to curdle the Blood, like Acids thrown into 

xMilk, 



(54) 
Milk, they enfeeble the whole nervous Syftem, 
they fpread a Trembling through our Joints* 
and Palenefs over our Faces, and make the flout- 
eft Heart to tremble. Mr. Collier^ has fome- 
where in his Effays, carried this Thought fo far 
as to fancy, that fuch a Concert of difcordant 
Sounds, or Anti-mufic, might be compofed, as 
fhould fink the Spirits, fliake the Nerves, cur- 
dle the Blood, and infpire Defpair, Cowardice, 
and Conflernation into all that hear it. '-T/V pro- 
bable (fiyshe, Part II. page 24.) that the roar- 
ing of Lions, the warbling of Cats and Screech- 
Owls, together with a Mixture of the honvling of 
Dogs, (to which I could add fome other Sounds, 
which I tremble to think of ) judicioujly imi- 
tated and compounded, tnight go a great way 
in this Invention : And propofes it as a very 
ufeful Improvement for the military Service, to 
ftrike a Terror and Panic into an Enemy 5 
pot confidering, that the Performers in this in- 
fernal Concert, and their Friends about them, 
would be in more Danger than the Enemy, 
who would be further removed from the dif- 
cordant Sounds, and confequently from the terr 
rible Impreirion.-r-This by-the-bye. — But in ge- 
neral we may venture to affirm with the Apo- 
ftle, lihat amongfi that almoji infinite Variety of 
Sounds and Voices that are to be heard thro the 
whole Creation, there is not fo much as one with- 
out its Sig7iification. 1 Cor. xiv. 10. 

Well ! Madam, thus iar, I think, our Au- 
thor and we are pretty well agreed, that Brutes 
have Under/landing to know and exprefs their 

Wants, 



( 55 ) 

Wants, and provide for their Neceffities ; and a 
Language, or fomething equivalent to it, to de- 
mand and give mutual Advice and Affiftance. 
Here, I think, we mufi: make a Stand, we can 
go no further : their Language, however known 
to them, is quite unknown to us ; but could we 
converfe with them in their own Language, as 
our renown'd and ingenious Countryman Capt. 
Lemuel Gulliver did with the Nation of the 
HouhynnimSy we might then perhaps have Rea- 
fon to p.gree with him, that they think and ad: 
more rationally, have more Senfe, more Ho- 
nour, and more Virtue, are better Philofophers, 
and deeper Politicians, than fome of the fineft 

Folks in Great Britain. The only Difference 

now between us is, how to account for thefe 
furprizing Faculties, that they are not the Ef- 
feds of mere Matter and Motion ; that they vaft- 
ly exceed all the Powers of Mechanifm, he rea- 
dily confelTes, and fo I think muft you and I. 
But fpiritual Powers and Faculties, without a 
ipiritual Subjed to which they belong, and in 
which they relide, is a fhocking Abfurdity. 
Well, and how does he get rid of this Diffi- 
culty ? You fhall hear him. Madam, in his 
own Words, Page lo. Reafon (fays he) fiatu- 
rally inclines us to believe that Beajis have a 
fpiritual Soul ; and the only thi?jg that oppofes 
this Sentiment^ is the Confequences that might be 
inferred frorn it. If Brutes have a Soul, that 
Soul mufi be either Matter or Spirit, it mufl 
be one of the two ; and yet you dare afirm nei^ 
ther, 2'hu dare n^t fay it is Mattery becaufe 

sou 



( 56) 

you mufi then necejfarily fuppofe Matter to be ca- 
pable of Thinking ; nor will you fay that it is 
Spirit y this Opifiion brijiging with it Confeqiie?!- 
ces contrary to the Principles of Religion j and 
this among others, that Men would differ from 
Beajis, only by the Degrees of Plus and Minus, 
which would demoUp^ the i)ery Foundations of all 
Religion. T^herefore, if I can elude all thefe Confe- 
quences, if I can affign to Beajis afpiritual Soul^ 
without firiking at the Doctrines of Religion, it 
is evident that my Syjiem, bei?jg moreover the 
tnofl agreeable to Reajbn, is the only warranta- 
ble Hypothefis. Now iflmll, and can do it with 
the greatejl Eafe imaginable. I even have means ^ 
by the fa?ne Method, to explain many very ob- 
fcure Paffages in the Holy Scripture, and to re- 
folve fonie very great Diffculties, which are not 
well confuted. This wejhall unfold in a more par- 
ticular Manner, 

And, in good truth, Madam, you will find 
the Matter as particular as the Manner. An 
Hypothefis, fo wild and unphilofophical, fo con- 
trary to Reafon and Scripture, fo ilnocking to 
common Senfe, delivered with fuch an afTuming 
Air, and fuch dogmatical Language, could 
furely proceed from nothing but an Excefs of 
Vanity, or Contempt of his fine Lady's Under- 
ftanding. But I fhall detain you from it no lon- 
ger, but give you as fhort and plain a View of it as 
1 can J and, as near as poffible, in his ownWords. 

Page II. Religion teaches us, that the De^ 

vih, from the very Moment they hadfnned, were 

reprobate, and that they were doomed to burn for 

3 ever 



( S7) 

ever in Hell ; hut the Church has not as yet de^ 
termined whether thev do a^lualh endure the Tor- 
ments to which they are condemned: it may thcit 
be thought they do not yet fuffer them^ and that 
the Execution of the VerdiB brought a gain ft them 
is referued for the Day of the final fudgment.—^ 
Page 13. Now what 1 pretend to infer fan hence 
isj that till Dooni s-day comes ^ God^ in order not 
to fufer fo many Legions of reprobate Spirits to be 
of no ife, has diftributed them thro the fever al 
Spaces of the Worlds to ferve the Defgns of his 
providence, and make his Omnipotence to appear, 
Some continuing in their natural State, bufy 
themfelves in tempting Men, in feducini and tor- 
menting them, either ijnmediately, as Job'j T)e- 
vil, and thofe that lay hold on hnnan Bodies^ 
or by the mAnijirv of Sorcerers or Phantom's. 
Thefe wicked Spirits are thofe whom the Scrip- 
ture calls the Powers of Darknefs, or the Pow- 
ers of the Air. God, with the others, makes 
Millions of Beafts of all kinds, which ferve for 
thefeveralUjesof Man, which fill the Univerfe, 
and caife the Wifdom and Omnipotence of the 
Creator to be admired : Bv that means I can ea^ 
fily conceive how, on the one hand, the Devils can 
tempt us ; and on the other, how Beafis can think ^ 
know, have Sentiments, and a fpiritual Soul, 
without any way firiking at the DoBrines of 
Religion. I am no longer fur prized to fee them 
have Dexterity, Forecaji, Memory^ and "Judg^ 
ment. . IJhould rather have occa/ion to wonder at 
their having no more, fince their Soul, very like- 
ly, is more perfeB than ours : But 1 df cover the 
Re af on of this ^ it is becaufe in Beajis as well as in 

I our 



( j8 ) 

otir felvesy the Operations of the Mind are de-' 
pendent on the material Organs oj the Machine 
to which it is united j and thcfe Organs being 
grqfjcr and lefs perfeci in Beajis than in iiSy it 
folloijus^ that the Knowledge^ the T^hoiights^ and 
the other fpiritual Operations of Beajis, inuft oj 
courfe be lefs perjeB than ours : and if thej'e 
proud Spirits know their own difmal State, 
what an Humiliation muji it be to them, thus 
to fee themfehes reduced to the Condition of 
Beajis ! But whether they know it or no, fojhame- 
ful a Degradation is flill with regard to them^ 
that primary RifeB oj^ the divine Vengeance I 
ju/i mention d, it is an anticipated Hell. P. 
17. Having mentioned the P?'ejudices againji 
this Hypothefis, fuch as particularly the Flea- 
fur e which People of Senfe and Religion take in 
Beafts and Birds, efpecially all Jbrts of Dome- 
flick Animals ; he proceeds : Do we love Beajis 
for their own fakes F No. As they are alto- 
gether Strangers to human Society, they can have 
no other Appoint?nent, but that of being ujejul a?jd 
amufmg. And what care we, whether it be a 
Devil, or any other Creature, that ferves and 
amujes us? 'The thought of it ^ far Jrom JJjock^ 
ing, pleajes me mightily. I with Gratitude ad- 
viire the Goodnejs of the Creator, who gave ?ne 
too many little Devils to ferve and amufe vie. 
If I am told, that thcfe poor Devils are doofncd 
to Jhffer eternal Tortures, I admire Goih De- 
crees, but I have no inanner of Jhare in this 
dreadful Sentence-, I leave the Execution of it to 
■the Sovereign fudgey and notwithfanding this, 
I live with my little Devils^ as 1 do with a Mul- 
titude 



( 59 } 
titude of People y of wbom Religioii informs ?ne^ 
that a great Number fJjall be damned. But the 
cure of a Prejudice is not to be cff'eBed in a 
Moment y it is done by Tifne and Rcjic^iicn ; give 
me leave then lightly to touch upon this Difncu:tx^ 
in order to obferve a very important Thing to \mi. 
■ Perfuaded as we are, that Beajts have In- 
tellige7ice^ have we not all of us a tboifa?id times 
pitied them for the excefjive Evils, which the 
7najority of them are expo fed to, ajid in reality 
fuffer ? How unhappy is the Condition cf Horfcs, 
w^ are apt to fay, feeing a Horfj whom an un- 
merciful Car?nan is jnurdering with Blows / How 
miferable is a Dog whom they are breaking for 
Hunting ! How difmal is the Fate cf Beafts 
living in Woods, they are perpetually expojcd to 
the Injuries cf the Weather, always feized with 
Apprehenfions of becoJJiing the Prey of Hunters, 
or of fome wilder Animal, for ever obliged, after 
long Fatigue, to look out for fome poor infpid 
Food, often fuff'ering cruel Hunger, and jlibjeEl 
?noreover to lllnefs and Death I If Men arefub- 
jeSi to a multitude of Mijeries that overwhehn 
them. Religion acquai?2fs us with the reafon of it. 
Viz. their being born Si?mers : but what Crimes can 
Beafts have conmiitted, by Birth to be fubjed 
to Evils Jo very cruel f What are we then to 
think (p. ■[().) of the horrible Excefes oj Miji:ries 
undergone by Beafts : Miferies indeed, far grea- 
ter than thoje of Men ? "This is in any other 6"v'- 
fem an tnconiprehenfible M\fery ; whereas no- 
thing is more eafy to be co?2ceivedfrom the Syftem 
I propoje. Jhe rebellious Spirits deferve a Fu- 
nifmeut fiill more rigorous, and. happy is it J or 
I 2 tijcm 



( 6o ) 

them that their Punifiment is deferred ; in a 
word, God's Goodnejs is vindicated^ MaJi him- 
Jelf is jujiified: for what Right can ive have 
ijDithout Necefjity, and often in the way of nicer 
Diver fion^ to take away the Life of Millions of 
Beafls^ if God had not authorized him jb to do ^' 
And Beafis being asfenfible as our f elves oj Pai?! 
and Death^ how could a jufi and merciful God 
have given Man that Privilege^ if they were not 
fo many guilty ViElimsof the Divine Vengeance ? 
But hear llill jbmething more convincing, and 
of greater Confequcnce : Beajls, by Nature, are 
extremely Vicious. We know well that they ne- 
ver fin, becaufe they are not free ; but this is 
the only Condition wanting to make them Sinners. 
'The Voracious Birds aiidBcafls of Prey are cruel z 
Many InfeBs of one and the fame Species devour 
each other. Cats are perfidious and ungrateful. 
Monkeys are mij'chievous. Dogs are envious. All 
Bcajls in general are jealous and revengeful to 
excefs J jiot to mention many other Vices we ob- 
ferve in them \ and at the fame time that they 
are by Nature fo very vicious, they have, fay 
we, neither the liberty, nor any helps to rejiji 
the Byafs that hurries them into Jo many bad 
Aclions. They are, according to the Schools^ ne- 
cefjitated to do Evil, to difconcert the general Or- 
der, to commit whatever is in Nature mofl con- 
trary to the Notion we have of natural yufiice, 
and to thePrinciples of Virtue. What Monflers 
are thefe, in a World origi?ially created for Order 
and fujlice to reign in? This is iti good part 
what formerly perfuaded the Manicheans, that 
there were ofnecefjity two Orders of Things^ one 

good. 



( 6i ) 

good^ and the other bad; and that Bea/Is icere 
not the JVork of the good Principle. A monftrous 
Error ! But how then fiall lae believe that 
Beajis came out of the h-ands of their Creator 
with ^lalitiesf) 'very fir ange ? If Man is fo ve- 
ry wicked and corrupt, it is becaufe he has htm- 
f elf through Sin perverted the happy Nature God 
had given him at his Formation. Of two things 
then we muftfay one : either that God has taken de- 
light in making Bea/ls fo vicious as they are, 
and of giving us in them Models of what is moji 
ff:amejul in the World ; or that they have like 
Man Original Sin, which has perverted their 
primitive Nature. 

The frft ofthefe Fropofitions finds very difficult 
accefs to the Mind, and is an exprefs Contradic- 
tion to the Holy Scriptures^ which fay, that what- 
ever came out of God's hands, at the time of the 
Creation of the World, was good, yea very good ^ 
What good can there be in a Monkey s being fo 
very mifchlevous, a Dog fo full of envy, a Catfo 
malicious ? But then many Authors have pre- 
tended, that Beafts before Mans Fall were diffe- 
rent from what they are now -, and that it was 
in order topunifh Man, that they are rendredfo 
wicked : but this Opinion is a jneer Suppofition, 
of which there is not the leaf Footflep in Holy 
Scripture. It is a pitiful fiibterfuge to elude a 
real Difiiculty ; this at inofi might be faid of the 
Beafls with whom Man has a fort of Correfpon- 
de?ice, but ?iot at all of the Birds, Fifi^es^ and In- 
fers, which have no manner of relation to him. 
We mu/i then have recourfe to the fecond Propofi- 
tion, That the Nature ofBcafis has, like that of 

Man^ 



( 62 ) 

Man, been corrupted by fome original Sin : Ano^ 
ther HypGtheJis void of Foundation^ and equally 
inconfiftent "iJC'ith Reafbn and Religion, in all the 
Syjlems 'which have been hitherto ejpoujed concern- 
ing the Soul of Beafts. What party are we to 
take f Why^ admit of my Syjlem and all is ex- 
flained. The Souls of Beajis are refraBory Spi- 
rits^ which have made themfelvcs guilty towards 
God, The Sin in Bea/ls is no original Sin, it is 
a perfonalCri?ne, which has corrupted and per- 
verted their Nature in its whole Subjlance ; hence 
all the Vices and Corruption we obferve in them, 
tho^ they can be no longer criminal ; becaufe God by 
irrecoverably reprobating them, has at the fame 
time dlvefted than of their Liberty. 

You have here, Madam, a full View of our 
Author's Hypothefis, the reft being nothing but 
flourifh and trifle, idle Anfvvers to idle Objec- 
tion:;, upon a Suppolition that his Scheme is de- 
nionilrably certain. And is it not a choice one, 
to anfwer fo many Purpofes, and folve fo many 
Difficulties in Philofophy and Scripture, and re- 
concile fo many apparent Contradidions in Rea- 
fon and Religion ! Does not your very Heart re- 
coil at the monftrous Thought ? Can you view 
it in any Light without Abhorrence and Aver- 
lion. It was a juft Cenfure of a very great Man 
upon T)efcartes\ Philofophy, that if he were at 
a lofs for Reafons to oppofe his Dodrine, that 
Brutes were mere Machines, this alone would be 
a fufficient Proof to himfelf, that it was making 
^ y^ft ff great a part of the Creation : but 
this Author has exceeded him with a Ven:2:eance ! 
Inftead of maki?ig a Jef, he has made them De^ 

vils ', 



( 63 ) 

inh ; and in the Management of his Argument 
there is fuch a Confufion of Sentiments, fiich a 
Jumble of Light and Darknefs, Truth and Er- 
ror, Reafon and Imagination, that one knows not 
where to begin, or in what Order to proceed, 
how to difentanojle Truth from Error, to feoa- 
rate the Precious from the Vile, to diftinguiili 
the cool Dilates of R eafon and Philofophy, from 
the wild Flights of Imagination and Fancy. To 
follow him through all his Excurfions, would 
be an endlefs and ufelefs Undertaking. Our befl 
and ihorteft way will be to examine the Good- 
nefs of the Foundation, and fee whether there 
be any Ground in Scripture or Reafon to fupport 
fo monftrous a Superftrudure ; if not, it muil fall 
to the ground, and leave room for a jufl and uni- 
form Strudiure upon folid and lafting Founda- 
tions; which, (if you approve of this) fhall be 
the Subjed: of a fecond Letter. 

In the mean time, Madam, I alTure myfelf, 
you will be in no pain about the Event. You are 
too well acquainted with the Language and Ge- 
. nius of that lively Nation, as not to know that they 
have Gafconades in Philol'ophy, as well as in Gal- 
lantry, Romance, and Politics : You are bleffed 
with anUnderflanding too good to be im.pofed up- 
on by vain Pretences to Reafon and Philofophy 5 
you can eafily diflinguiih betwixt empty Sounds, 
and folid Senfe -, betwixt the wanton Sallies of a 
luxuriant Fancy, and the fevere Conclufions of 
Truth and Juflice. You have a Firmnefs of Mind 
too great to be mov'd by the vain Terrors of a 
frighted Imagination, which are too often the 
Curfe of weak and little Minds. Continue, there- 
fore. 



( 64 ) 

fere, your wonted Care and Afte^flion for your in- 
nocent Domefticks; they look up to you for their 
Support ; from your Hand they receive the (lender 
Provi(ions of Life, without murmuring or repin- 
ing, which they endeavour to repay with the lin- 
cereft Gratitude, the moft faithful Services, and 
unfeigned Affetlions that their Natures are capa- 
ble of: If you are pleafed, they rejoice with you ; 
Do you care is tl:em? They are tranfported with 
Pleafure. Do you frown ? They tremble, Do you 
chide or puniih them ? They endeavour toappeafe 
you by the moft humble Proftration and Sub- 
milfion. Do not many of them difcover more 
Gratitude, Sincerity, nay, I had almoil: faid Vir- 
tue, than many of their Mafters, who value them- 
fclves upon the Retinements, upon their Reafon, 
the Improvements of their Underflandings, and 
nice Senfe of Honour? Are they wretched as well 
as we ? Are they expofcd with us to the unavoid- 
able Calamities of Life? They are not wretched 
tl irough their own fiiults, they are not the Authors 
of their own Mifery j they (as well as we) are 
viade JiihjeB toVanity\ hut they not willingly^ by a 
voluntary Abufe of their proper Faculties, but are 
by aNeceffity of Nature involv'd in the Guilt and 
Condemnation of their rebellious, attainted, natu- 
ral Lord and Sovereign. Kom. viii. 20. 

If you are not difpleafed with the Subje6l, ti- 
red with the Length, or difgufted with the man- 
ner of this tedious Epiftle, 1 lliall quickly do my- 
felf the Honour to fend you fome further Confi- 
derations upon the lame Subje(5t. I am, with 
great Refpedt, Madam, 

Your moft humble Servant.