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Full text of "The French in America during the war of independence of the United States, 1777-1783"

Gc 

973.34 
Aalba 
V.2 
1830626 J 



REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



iifi'7'iff,„99,'rlfiTl PUBLIC LIBRAR 




1833 01076 7157 



The Frenc h in Am erica 



DURING THE 



War of Independence of the United States 
1777-1783. 



A TRANSLATION BY 

EDWIN SWIFT BALCH 

AND 

ELISE WILLING BALCIi 



Les Francais en Amerique 



PENDAM LA 



Guerre de L'Indepcndance des Etats-Uiii; 

THOiWAS BALCH. 



VOL. II. 

PHILADELPHIA: 

PORTER & COATES. 
1895. 



T "? 



1S30G26 



Coptjrifjhf, 1895, hij EdvAn Swift Batch . 



TEAInTSIvATOR'S istote. 



My fitlier intended to jnibli^li the second volume of "Les 
Fran^'ais en Ameriiiiie " in Fran.ee, but at\er lie had received 
the proofs from the printer, he decided not to do so, because, 
as he says in the preflicc : " I received for the second part 
so large a number of interesting comuumicritions that I have 
found myself obliged to add to my finished manuscript." 
He ]nir[)osed also rewriting some of the l>iographical notices. 

The present volume is a translaticMi from these proofs, with 
the addition of the nununxms manuscript notes in the margin. 
Most of these notes arc in my father's liandwriting. These 
I have inserted as notes, with the explanation : " INIarginal 
note by T. ]J." A few other notes were added in a revision 
of the book made at the "Archives" of the French Navy. 
These I have inserted as notes, with the explanation : " Mar- 
ginal note." My one aim in translating has been accuracy. 
I have been as literal as possible, and have tried to get the 
absolute meaning of every sentence. 

The references, Archives of War or Archives of the Navy, 
refer to the French Archives. 

The ranks of warechal de camp, hriyadier, and mestre de 
camp occur fre(|ucntly in the course of the book. These were 
ranks in the French army before the French Revolution, of 
which we have no exact counterparts in English. M. Littr6 
gives the following explanations about them in his dictionary : 
MarecJia! de camp : general oflicer, whose ranlc is immediately 
above that of colonel, and who corres])onds to the rank of gen- 
eral of brig-ade. Formerly, their ollice was to march ahead of 
the armies to make sure of the roatl and arrange the camps. 
Brigadier: olliccr in the armies of the King, whose rank was 
(iii) 



iv Translafor\s Note. 

between that of a colonel and a marfchal de camp. Medre de 
camp: colonel of a regiment of ijiflmtrv or cavalry. Mcstre de 
camp (jeneral de la cavalerie : officer Avho ran.ked next to the 
colonel-general of the cavalry. Tlie I'lrre was a piece of money 
in use before the franc, and slightly less in value. 

To the names of the kind friends of my ftither, mentioned 
in the " Translator's Xote " to the first volume, I wish to add 
those of Ge!)cral (jf Artillery Susane ; General Fave, com- 
mandant of ihe " ocole polytechnique " and aid-de-camp of 
Napoleon the Tiiird ; ]\I. de Parieu ; and Friedrich Kapj), 
meml)cr of tlie German Reichstag. 

EDAVIN SWIFT BALCII. 



Philadelphia, May 1st, 1895. 



CONTEIsTS. 



Introduction 



Pages. 

1-4 



List of Kcgiuicnts • 5-3S 

List of Officers 39-252 



The French in America 

DURING 

THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE. 



The list of the French regiments and officers who crossed 
to America during the AVar of Indei)cndcnce is presented in 
this part of my vrork for the first time in as exact and com- 
plete a manner as possible. The list of the regiments presents 
no gaps, but it is not possible that it should be so with the 
list of the officers, for the pre]>aration of which official doc- 
uments either are wanting or are filled with errors. A few 
detailed remarks will explain the difficulties which I have 
encountered in my researches for the compilation of the bio- 
graphical notices. 

In all the memoirs of the time you often find the name of 
one and the same person written in several ways, so that you 
arc at first led to believe in the existence of several officers 
where in truth there is but one. In other cases, tlie same of- 
ficer bears several names, and is designated sometimes by one, 
sometimes by another, or perhaps he clianges his name dur- 
ing the course of his career. Again, to a few names are 
adapted titles of nobility entirely fictitious or quite in di.siiccord 
with the rules of lieraldry. 

For instance, the Count do Bozon is indifi'erontly called 
Bozon, or de Talleyrand, or de Perigord, titles whicli in truth 
belonged to him. 

The Couut de Sainte-Mesme, alst) caUed tie Saint-Maime, 
was known a few vears after the American expedition only 



2 The French in America. 

by the title of Count da Muy, which he inlioiltcd • from lii- 
uncle. The same observation a])plies to the Dal;e de Lauzun, 
wlio became Duke de Gontaut-Biron. 

De Chastellux is spoken of sometimes as Chevalier, some- 
times as Marquis, whit-h would lead to tlie belief that there 
were two officers of this name, while there was but one. 

To make amends for this, there were two Viomcnil, and 
while the older is called Baron, his brother receives more often 
the title of Viscount than that of Chevalier. 

The three Lameths are generally confounded under the 
unique designation of Chevalier de Lameth. Only an atten- 
tive examination of the ihcts has permitted me to distinguish 
between them, and to accord to each the share of merit that 
belongs to him. 

Count jMathieu Dumas becomes Du Mas in the Memoirs of 
Lauzun; de Leaumont is written Lomout in the Journal of 
Cromot Dubourg ; Cholseul is put in place of Choisy in the 
Memoirs of llochambeau, and so on for many more. 

Without dwelling further on this point I will call attention 
to the foct that if I have found some difficulties in recogniz- 
ing the important personages under their multiplied or disfig- 
ured names, or under their inexact or variable titles, it has 
been still more laborious for me to make this discrimination 
for the officers of an inferior rank. 

The Etats iMilitcdres from 1777 to 1783, which I have 
studied, present in this respect the most shocking inexactitudes ; 
the names there are so altered that they often mislead the re- 
searches of the historian instead of facilitating them. In the 
impossibility which I found of rectifying them all, I have con- 
tented myself in working out lists of the officers, following 
after the notices on the regiments, from the KtaU JJilitaires, 
and indicating as often as possible the probable rectifications -^ 



^General of Artillery Susane has publishe.l, from a dilferent point 
of view, an interesting and remarkable work, instolrd dc rancieane in- 
fanUric fmncaise, Paris, 1853. 8 vole., aixc ailas. 



Iiifrodiiction. 3 

then, in tlie biographical notice?, I have followed the more 
certain indications of the arclihcs of the Ministry of War or 
those of the original documents in my possession. 

My researches in this direction have caused me to discover 
unexpected names, which have since reappeared with distinc- 
tion in the events of this centnry. It is thus that, without 
speaking of La Fayette, de Scgur, de Ifochambeau, de Xoailles, 
de Broglie, de Saint Simon, de Mira1>eau, de Lameth, and 
many others to whom their birth assured a high social position, 
I liave found and been able to follow the trace of the Berthiers, 
of de Menou, :\IiollIs, Dumas, Gantlieanme, Truguet, Pichegru, 
Mac^Iahon, and many otliers, who, unknown when tliey ]-»er- 
formed their lirst military service in America, afterwards be- 
came celebrated among their countrymen. 

It has, unfortunately, not always been possible for me to 
procure precise information about the conduct during the 
war of tlicse personages, as nothing had as yet brought them 
to public notice. But my investigations liave sometimes 
borne fruit, and I have the' hope that I shall have furnished 
to biogra])liers and historians useful information. It also 
seemed* to me interesting to follow to the end of their career, 
these men whom a generous impulse had brought, in their 
youth, to the succor of the revolted colonies. I have thus 
been led to complete a few biographical notices, written at first 
only with reference to the expedition of 17S0-S3. 

It will be noticed, in looking over the list of the officers 
attached to the army of Rochambeau, that the decorations and 
the pensions were accorded for the most part to the regiment 
of Gatinais, later Koyal-Auvergne, and to that of Deux-Ponts. 
They were, in truth, the regiments that were ordered to cap- 
ture the great English redoubt during the night of tlie 14th 
of October, 17S1, and the ones who thus contrilnitcd most to 
the capture of Yorktown. They lost also the largest num- 
ber of men during the cam])aign. 

The legion of Lau/.un did not receive any gratification, nor, 



4 The French in America. 

as they said thou, any fjrdc;. Its chief had lost all favor at 
court, and the important services which tliis ariuv corps had 
rendered during the ^vllolc campaign Avere unworthily forgot- 
ten. Neither the names of the officer, nor even the name of 
the legion, appear in any way in the £tafs MHitaircs from 1777 
to 1783. This probably was due to the fact that this corps 
was paid from the funds of the navy, and was classed among 
the forces of the navy. 

The legions were mixed corps, composed of infantry and 
cavalry. 

But little attention, moreover, was paid to acquired rights 
and to merit at the Court of Versailles, where everytliing was 
at the discretion of the lavorites of the day. I have been able 
to convince myself tliat the promotion of the officers was due 
to an arbitrary will or to intrigue. ^Vhilc a soldier of some 
value could not reach the grade of petty officer until after 
twenty years of service, the nobles obtained at once this title, 
and could become colonels in less than four years. A few of 
them became lieutenants at fifteen years of age, like Chastel- 
lux, or even at nine, like Custine. They left their regiments, 
traveled according to tlicir fancy, even carried on regular war 
where it pleased them, without troubling themselves about the 
functions that were attributed to their rank.'^ Their advance- 
ment was not retarded on that account ; they found, if nec- 
essary, on their return, a place as ofcier rffonne? But talent 
and courage were of small weight in the scale of royal favors. 

'See Vol. I., page 96, and also Extruit dii Journal d'un officier de 
marine sous les ordres de d'Estaiuj, Paris, 17S2. 

» Offiders rcformcs were those who wore serving away from tlieir own 
regiments while waiting for a vacancy. They were the ojjkicrs d la sxute 
of to-day. 



LIST OF THE FEET^CII REGIMEjN^TS 

AViIICH SERVED IN A>[ERICA FROM 1777 TO 1783. 



agMois. 

The first and sGCOiul Ijattalions of this regiment vcre sent 
to Cape Franrais, Saint Domingo, and remained tliere from 
1777 to 1783. In 17SJ they eros.^ed to the eontincnt with 
tlie regiment of Touraine, nuder tlie eonnnand c>f the Mar- 
quis de Saint-Simon, to talce part in the siege of Yorktown. 
They had previously fought before Savannah in 1779 under 
d'Estaing, and liad distinguislied themselves at the capture 
of Saint Christopher with the same admirah 

These two battah'ons were taken baek to ]Martini(juc by 
de Grasse, between the 4th and the 2Gth of November, 1781.. 

In 1777 their statf was composed as follows: — 

Colonel- Commandant, 
The Baron de Cadignan. 

Colonel en /Second, 
The Count de Crillon. 

Lieufenaid- Colonel , 
Eayne de Cantis. 

3Iajor, 
Desdorides. 

(5) 



6 TJie French in America. 

In 1779 tlieir staff was thus iiKxlilicd : — 

Colonel en Sccoafl, 
The Chevalier Diilau d'Allemans. 

Lieutenant- Colonel, 
Duplelx Je Cadignan. 

Major, 
The Chevalier de Saguarigue. 

Pay)nasLer, 
Barres. 
In 1780 I fiiid :— 

Colonel- Commandant, 
The Count d'Auticliamp. 
The rest as above. 

In 1781 Pai/master BarrC-s was replaced by D-'-riot, then 
by Berruet, and the rncjor was de iLommcfort, or Iiumtbrt. 
The otiier offieers were : — 

Captedas- Commandants : 
De Terson, L'Espes, 

De I>(Ustrac, Saint-Germain, 

De Behaglc or Behague, Bourguissou, 

Dc La llochecoquet, Ch. d'Ypres, 

Ricliard, Desbarry.'* 

Captains en Second: 
Ch. Dianons, Ch. dc la Villebrune, 

Desniarets, De Soy res, 

De oNIarrans, Cauniont, 

De Caire, Feydeau. 

De la Corbiore, 

*See ill tlie List of Otlk'cr.s: Imbert de r.arrv. 



List of Picr/imcafs. 



De CauviUo, 
Ch. criml)ert, 
Drouillicl, 
Trauroux, 
De Najac, 



First LicidcuaniS : 

Saint-Sauvcur, 
La Coussaye, 
Latour, 
L']^:cotay. 



Pioling, 
DasnitTcs, 
La Landclle, 
L'lluudctot de Columby, 
De A-^oisins, 



Seco7id Licidenants : 

Gincste, 
Le Honx, 
De Mazelicr, 
Pigno] de Rocreusc, 
Dii Bouzet. 



Suh-Licuicnan(s : 

Pujol, De la Forgcrie, 

liacroix, Marciissy, 

Parfouru, Lcmoiix, 

De Jji-uge, Chaussepied, 

Bessenay, Lavoutte, 

Montaigut, Morrcigc, 

Fabas, Gouzie, 

Coquet, De Montlong, 

Drouillaiit, Leaumont or Launiout.' 

ANIIALT. 



This regiment, which originally was intended to form part 
of the army of lloehambcau, had to remain at "Brest, owing 
to the lack of transports, and did not cross to Amei'ica. 
The same thing happened to tiie regiment of Neustrie, and 
to half the reirinient of Soissonnais. 



*See in the List of Officer; 
Leoiiardy, Yresoseor. 



Blaudat, Bouillet, Dcidier, Korniarce, 



8 The French in America. 

ARMAGNAC. 

This regiment was sent to Guadeloupe in 1777, but did 
not cross to the eontinent. In 1780 and 1781 it was coni- 
niandcd as follows : — 

Colonel, 
The ]\Iarquis de Livarot. 

Colonel en Second, 
De Montval. 

Lieutenant- Colonel, 
Feydeau de Saint Christophe. 

Meijor, 
The Chevalier de Hostaing. 

Paymaster, 
Dufosse. 

Captains : 

De la Garde, De Tarragon, 

Boulland, D'Armentieres, 

De Fresne, Ville, 

Marin, Scrvilange. 

Lieutenants : 
De Iloquefeuille, Londcix de la Brosse, 

De la Chaussee, De la Ferte. 

Saint ]\Iai-tin, 

Further on I give biographical notices of those officers who 
crossed to the American continent to take part in the siege 
of Savannah and who fought wiih their regiment at Tabago, 
Saint Christopher, Saint Lucia, and Dominica.^ 

*Sce in the List of Ofiicers: liosnier de Saint Cosmo, Ei?cury, Fou- 
quet, GrilliOrcs, Lecomte. 



List of Bcfji meats. 9 

ARTILLERY AND EXGIXEERS. 

After carefully examining the J^^tofe MiUtah-es from 1777 to 
1783, I find that the corps of thc-e departments which crossed 
to America during that period were : — 

REGIMENT OF METZ. 

Two of the ten companies of the first battalion and the 
entire second battalion. 

The positions were fdled as follows : — 

Colonel, 

De Fanltrier, replaced at the time of Rochambeau's 

departure for America by d'Aboville. 

Lieutenant- Colonel, 
De Gimel. 

Major, 
De la Barriere. 

Chiefs of Bm/ade : 
De ]Missolz, I>e Yilhcrs, 

La ]5orde, La Barre de Garoy. 

De Grandcourt, 

Aide-Major, 
Vernier. 

Paymaster, 
Chapelle. 

Captains : 

De Mauroy, La Doaillere, 

De Laborie, Maigret, 

Durand, Turgot, 



10 The French in Amcrka. 

Calage, Pcllelicr do (ilatigny, 

RotiiHcr, Lefcvre de Givry, 

Tardy dc ]\Iontravel, Diij)iiy, 

Olry de Val^en, Burtin, 

De Yulmont, Briixel de Sancy, 

De Bcaudre, Launaguet, 

Dubuat, Berth icr. 

CajAains en Second (detached): 
Greville, at Saint Domingo ; 
Dc Pecoault, at ^Martinique ; 
Mauduit-Duplesis, volunteer to Anierica ; 
Vatry, at Guadelon{)e ; 
Doucnne, at Guadeloupe. 

First Lieutenants: 

Prevost, Jupillcs, 

Marsilly, Le Blanc d'Eguilly, 

Olivier, Songis, 

Douay, Blaize, 

Ducliat d'xVubigne, Gimel, 

Scmecourt, Duglacv, 

Durand dc Gevigny, Belgrand. 
Drozain, 

Second Lieutenants : 

Sucy d'Auteuil, De Mestre, 

"Peyrelongue, La Pierre, 

Caussanel, Duroz, 

Dupueh, Gouplain, 

Marieulle, Vernier, 

Neuvy, Legrain, 

Gcrvais, Iluniljert, 

Pelletier de Voileniont, Golllird, 

Sance, Pecqucux, 

Durand, Contosset. 
De Faultrier, 



List of PiCginicnfs. 11 

REGIT^IEXT OF AUXOXXE. 

Only the second l)attalion of this regiment crossed to 
America. 

Chiefs of Brigade: 
Xadal, De Buzelct. 

Captains: 
De Neuris, Duibrt, 

Dupuy, De Boisloger. 

Josserand, 

Lieutenants : 
De Jumecourt, De Vcrton, 

La jNIartiniere, Berthicr, 

De Pusignan, Tardy de la Brosse. 

D'Audreo.-,sy, 

Savournin, captain en second of the regiment of Grenoble, 
was detached to America to join the corps of Rochamlwau. 

Chanteclair, captain en second of the regiment of Strasbourg, 
was detached to Saint Domingo.'' 

CORPS OF MIXERS. 

The company of Dupuch was sent to America in 17S0 
with the expeditionary corps. 

Captain en Premier, 
Dupuch. 

Captain en Second, 
Reimes. 

First Lieutenants, 
De Corbcau, Vauriou. 

Second Lieutenant, 
Le Roy. 

Of the company of de Xey remand. Captain de Xeyremand 
and Captain en. Second La Cheze were sent. 

' See in the List of Oliiccrs : r>;uolier, liellangcr, LaziO, Logo. 



12 



The French la America. 



Of tlio coin])any of dc Cliazel two cktaclniients -were with 
the army of KoclianibGau. 

Of the coiiipaiiy of Barbarin, forty men were in Marti- 
nique.^ 

ROYAL CORPS OF EXGIXEP:RS. 

Colonels : 

Labbe de Talsy, at Guadeloupe, in 1777; 

Geoffroy dc Bourgct, at Martinique. 

Under-Bngadicr, 
Tavcrne de Bois-Forest, at Saint Dominica. 

Colonels : 

Desaudroins, commandant of the artillery and of the engineers 

of the corps of Count de Rochambeau, in 1780; 

Querenet de la Combe, in 17S2. 

Under-Brir/adicr, 
Bcylie, attached to the same corps. 

Majors: 

Palys de Montrepos, attached to the same corps ; 

Deshautschamps, attached to the same corps. 

Capia'ms : 
Ch. d'Oyre, Gouvion, Sr., 

Garavaque or Caravagne, Dubois de Crance, 



De Turpin, 

Laffite du Courteil, 

Bonnet, 

Guerin dc Fonsin, 

Saint-Julien, 

Dc Laumoy, 

Briinck de Frihidcck 



De La Lustiere, 

D'Abadie, 

De Prade.s, 

Crublier d'0])terre or d'Au- 

beterre, 
Blet de Yillencuvc, 
Girard de Chant rant. 



*Mr. Barbarin, the artist, has given me some details about his fai 
ily. IMaiginul note by T. \->. 



List of Ikgimcnts. 13 

Lieutenants : 
Chevalier Je Soalliat, T)o Fontalard, 

Buuan, Rapine deSaxi 

Planchct, Chaussegros de Leiy. 

Employed in the Colonies. 
Ca}-)ta'm-^ : 
Cantcl d'Anetcville, at Saint Dominica ; 
Cluzcl, at Guadeloupe; 
ISIerault dc IMonneron, at Guadeloupe; 
Bexon, at ^Martinicjue ; 
Crubicr de Saint-Cyran, at ^Slartinique ; 
Morlet, at ]Martini(pic ; 
Girard de Chatoauvieux, at ^lartinique. 

Chief of Brir/ode, 
GeoflVoy, at :\[artiuique. 
Captains : 
O'Connor, at :Martiniquc ; 
Fontbanido, at ^lartinicpie ; 
Rallier, at Doniiniai. 
Gau, war commissioner for the artillery and engineer corps, 
was attached to Kochambcau's corps in 1781. 

To recapitulate, d'Abovillc was commander-in-chief of the 
artillery and of the engineers corps of the French expedi- 
tionary army in 17S0; and Desandroins was the immediate 
commander 'of tlie engineers. Part of the artillery that was 
to cross to America with Count de Rochambean was lett at^ 
Brest owing to a lack of transport ships. Six companies ot 
canonniers started, one of bombardiers, a detachment ol work- 
men, miners, and sappers; in all fiyc hundred and ninety- 

nine men. , , 

The field artillery followed Rochambeau's army by land 

from Newport to Annapolis, where it was^^-kedjor 
»<eo in the List of OlUcers: Dumtis, Pichegni, Plancher. 



14 The French !a America. 

JuDicviown, wliilo tlie siege artillciy remained at Xewport 
under tiie guard of de Cholsy, ^villl five liundred Freiieli 
soldiers and a thousand American militiamen. 
^ Tlie 21st of August, 17S1, de Clioisy, learning of the ar- 
rival of the army at Williamsburg, embarked his artillery 
and four hundred of his soldiers u})on the ships of tlie 
squadron of de Barras. He left a hundred men at Provi- 
dence, under command of Desprez, majoi- of Deux-Ponts, to 
guard tlic hospital. The scpiadron set sail for Chesa})e'ake 
Bay. At tlie same time Count de Grasse advanced a^rainst 
the English fleet commanded l)y Admiral Graves, who, owing 
to an engagement with the vanguard of the French flee^ 
under Botigainville, was obliged to retire on August 24th, 
De Barras, taking advantage of this circumstance, entered the 
bay and landed de Clioisy, witli his troops and artillery, at 
Cape Charles. 

While the allied armies lay before New York, two artil- 
lery ofHcors, do Xeuris and de A^'erton, ^vel•e ordered to i)lace 
a battery of eight cannon and six mortars on the left bank 
of the North Pivcr to stop the incursions of the English 
ships. At the first opportunity tliese batteries received the 
English vessels in such a way as to prevent tliem from re- 
turning to annoy the Franco-American camp.^° 

AUVEEGNE. 

According to the fi:kds MUltmrcs, this regiment M-as sent to 
the Antilles in 1781. 

Colonel, 
The Viscount de Laval. 

Colonel en t^ccond, 

The Marquis de Lametli. 

Lieutenant- Colonel, 

Duverdier. 



'Cromot Duboun 



Lhi of Regiments. 15 

Major, 
Menoii. 

Paymaster, 
Jean Bart. 

It was from tliis rcp,inient, divided in lialf, that tlie regi- 
ment of Gatinais, wliich distinguished itself so signally before 



AUXERllOIS. 

This regiment was sent to ]\rartiniquc in 1777. It served 
also at Dominiea and Saint Lueia ; erossed with Saint Simon 
to the continent to take part in th.e siege of Yorktown, and 
then returned to the Windward Islands. 

The chasseurs of the regiment under the orders of Major 
dc Frene, of Royal-Comtois, took part in the capture of Saint 
Eustatius on November 2Glh, 1781. 

In 1778 and 1770 the regiment was officered as follows: — 

Colonel- Commcuidant, 
The Viscount de Damas. 

Colonel en Second, 

The Marquis de Rostaing, replaced in 1770 by the Count de 

Chapt. 

Lieutenant- Colonel, 

The Count de Fondcvaux, replaced in 1770 by Major de 

Tunnel. 

Major, 
De Turmel, replaced in 1770 by Galaup. 

Quartermaster and Paymaster, 
Auricoste. 
" See in tlio List of Eotriments : Gdtinais. 



16 The French in America. 

The following officers, the Clicvalier de Saint Surin, Bre- 
thous, Galaup, captains-commandants, and La Ciiaise and 
Gailliot, frst lieutenants, were decorated witli the order of 
Saint-Louis, in 1779, after the capture of Dominica. 

BELZUXCE. 

The dragoons of this regiment formed part of the troops 
who landed at Savannah. The archives of the War Dejiart- 
ment and the Ftats JUlitaires of that time have furnished me 
no information about the list of the officei^ of this regiment 
or of the follo-snng one : — 

BERVriCK. 

Only one battalion of this regiment crossed to the AVind- 
ward Islands in 1777. It returned with the rest of the French 
troops in 17S3.'- 

BOURBOXXAIS. 

This regiment took part in the German campaigns of 1760, 
1761, 1762, and the whole of it M'as sent to America with 
Count de Rochambeau. On ^Nlarch 16th, 1781, it fought in 
Chesapeake Bay on the ships the Ardent and the Jason, un- 
der the orders of the Baron de A'iomenil and of de Laval. 
The history of this regiment during the expedition is com- 
pletely given in the fii-st part of this work. 

In 17S0 the regiment was commanded as follows : — 

Colonel, 
The Marquis de Laval. 

Colonel en Second, 
The Viscount de Bochamljcau. 

*'See in the List of Ollicers : Mullens. 



List of Regiracnis. 

Licuienani- CoJon cl, 
De Bressoles. 
3Iajor, 
De Gambs. 
Paymaster, 
De Bczucliet. 
Captains- Commandants : 
Dc :Montfort, De La Ludcrle, 

De Losse, Desoudes, 

De Lanet, De la Brue, 

De Caziils, Duplcssis, 

Dii Chevalier, De dial vet. 

Captains en Second : 
De Corn, De la Chassaigne, 

Du Faiire, Saiut-Aubin, 

De Mauny, De Hitton, 

Chenuevieres, Kininon. 

De IMorand, 

First Lieutenants : 
D'Arlandcs, Seilhac, 

De Lamezan, Cieurac, 

Salton, Chevalier de Coriolis, 

De Bargues, D'Artigues, 

Deschaux, Eychcnne. 

Second Lieutenants: 
Boiscoiitaud, Du Bayct," 

De Roche, De Comeiras, 

Casteras, Narbonne, 

Saint-Cir, Crouzat, 

Jousseitm, De Conrcellcs. 



17 



"This refers to d'Aubert-Dubayet, who w;vs Mhiit^ter of War during 
the French Kevohition. 



18 The French hi America. 

fiub- Lieut e Hants : 

De Silly, De Catcy, 

Chevalier Dufautc, Giemard, 

Vidampicrre, De Haus.sen, 

De Benic, De la Garde, 

Pochard, Villcmontes, 

Tugnot, Hitton, 

Gaudin, Gineste, 

Mellet, Monmonnier, 

Busselot, Marcognet.*'* 

CAMBRfiSIS. 

This regiment was at Mole Saint Nicholas, in Saint Do- 
mingo, in 1777. 

Colonel, 
The Marquis d'Angosse. 

Colonel en Second, 

The Count de Dimis. 

Lieutenant- Colonel, 

De Morisot. 

Major, 

De Montgon. 

Paymaster, 

Joucn. 

This regiment was afterwards incorporated in that of Saiut- 
onge. 

CHAMPAGNE. 

The second battalion was sent to the Windward Islands in 
1779, and several of its officers were wounded at the cajjture 
of Saint Vincent and in the iights fouglit by de Guichen. 

"See in the J.ist of Ollicers : Coussol, Langoron, Manny, Montes- 
quieu, Muderie. 



List of Hcgimcnfs. 19 

On June IGtli, 1770, Ca[)tain Jjaritaut, fightino- under the 
orders of tlie Clicvalicr du Riuuain, aided in tiie capture of 
Saint Vincent, and on the 17tli received the ^^urrender of 
Kingstown. On the 3d and 4th of July Grenada was taken. 
At that engagement a hundred chasseurs of the regiment of 
Chamj)agnc were at the van of the cohmm on the right. 

Tlie soldiers of C-ham])agne did n^any deeds of valor on 
the 24th of September, 1779, before Savannah. Captain I^a 
ISIothe and a lieutenant were woiuidcd there. 

A detachment of the regiment was on board of the ships 
of de Guiehen on A])ril 17lh, and May 15th and 19th, 1780. 
Tiie whole regiment was on the fleet of Count de Gras.se dur- 
ing the 9th and 12th of April, 1782. During those actions 
Lieutenant Quetteville was dangerously wounded.^^ 

ROYAL-COMTOIS. 

De Blanchelande, at the head of the second ])attalion, the 
only one that was sent to the French "West Indies belbre 1781, 
left Saint Vincent on June 1st, 1 780, tu ciij)ture Tabago. 

The Chevalier du Frene, the major, in command of the 
chasseurs, carried the defenses of Saint Eustatius on Novem- 
ber 2Gth of the same yexir. In 1781 this battalion was sta- 
tioned at Grenada and at Saint Christopher. 

Colonel, 
The Count de Cast«'ja. 

Colonel en Second, 
The Chevalier de la None. 

Lieutenant- Colonel, 
The Chevalier de Pagny. 

Major, 
De Frene. 

Paymaster, 
Lacroix. 

"See in the Li.st of Oiiicers: Pctitot. 



20 The French in America. 

HOY A L-DEUX-PONTS. 

This regiment ^va.s first called regiment du Palatinnt, be- 
cause originally it belonged to the prince palatine of Deux- 
Ponts (Zweibriieken),^'^ It was under this original name that 
it took jiart in the German campaigns from 1757 to 1762. 
Chosen to form part of the corps under the orders of Count 
de Rochambeau, it embarked on the 4th of April, 17S0, on 
the FA-elUe, of sixty-four guns. Unfavorable v»'inds detained it 
at Brest until ]May the 12th. It arrived at Newport with the 
squadron commanded by de Ternay, after a voyage of seventy- 
two days. On the lltli of June, 1781, it encamped at J-*rov- 
idcnce, and from there followed the general line of march of 
the army to New York, and then to Annapolis, from where 
it was taken by the DUkjcnte to the mouth of the York Iviver. 

Four hundred men of this regiment were detailed io attack 
the strongest redoubt of Yorktown during the night of the 
14th to the loth of October, 17S1. Under the command of 
Guillaume de Deux-Ponts, they formed the centre of the col- 
umn, whose van and rear guards were composed of the regi- 
ment of Gatinais, the van commanded by de I'Estrade and 
the rear by de Rostaing. I have related in the history of 
the campaign of 1781 the glorious part that the regiment 
took in the triumph of the allied armies. 

This regiment returned from Boston to France in jMarch, 
1783. 

Titulary ( 'oloncl, 
The Count Christian de Deux-Ponts. 

Colonel en Second^ 

The Viscount Guillaume de Deux-Ponts, who became full 

colonel in 1782, and whose position was filled 

by de Fersen. 

"See in tlic List of Ollkers: Deux-ronts. 



Lid of Rrfjimenfs. 21 

Licidrnant- Colonels : 

De Hadeii, 

The Baron d']-]sebcck. 

J/fy'or, 
De Prez or Dcsprcz. 

Paymaster, 
Anciaux. 

Caplain.H- Commandanfs : 
Baron de Furstonwacrthei-, De Sunnalil, 

Baron De Wiscli, De Stack, 

De Klock, Du Ilainault, 

Dc Flad, Riilile de Lilienstern, 

De Tliuillioros, Charles de Cabannes. 

Captains en Second : 

INlax de Cabannes, De Ludwig, 

Baron de JTaacke, ]5aron de Joham, 

De Furks, Chevalier de Haacke, 

Baron d'l].sebeek, Baron de Closen. 
De Miihlenfl-ls, 

First Lieutenants : 

Connt de Spaner, Baron de Bibra, 

Baron de Kalb," D'lclitersheim the elder, 

Baron de Schwengsfcld, De IToen, 

Baron de Glaubitz, De Lutzon, 
Baron de Truch.ses, 

Second Lieutenants : 

De Bertrand, Stoertz, 

D'lohtersheini, Baron 'de Rathsaniluuisen, 

De Schanenibonrg, ]>aron de Giintzer, 

Du Pugct, De Geispitzheini, 

Balthaz. de Schauenibour'r, Baron de Galatin. 



"Son of the general of the same name. 



22 The F/'cvch in America. 

^Sub-Lie^dcn(l ids : 

De Pradcllcs, De Peschcry, 

De Sc'hwcrin, De Ribcaupierre, 

De Bcrgh, D'EglofVstein, 

De Humbert, De Zoller, 

De Gallois, De L'upplin, 

Scliutz, De Savignac, 

Philippe (Ic ITocn, De ^Martines, 

De GalonniC' do Varize, De Tscliiuly, 

Baron dc Liickuer, De la Roche, 

De Ciistine, De Vergct.** 

DILLON. 

WhcTi James the Second, driven from England, sought a 
refuge \vith Louis the Fourteenth, Count Arthur Dillon, who 
had supported James's cause, followed him to France with a 
large number of Irishmen, and received ])ermi.ssion to form 
a regiment of his own name. 

The regiment of Dillon distinguished itself in Spain un- 
der de Noailles and dc Yendome, in Germany under Villc- 
roy, in Italy under Vcndome, and fnially in the cam})aigns 
in which Marshals de Villars and dc Berwick commanded. 

The first battalion went to the AVindward Islands in 1777, 
under the command of de ])Ouillc, and aided in the capture 
of Grenada, Saint Eustatiiis, Tabago, and Saint Christopher. 
It took part in the siege of Savannah, under the command 
of Arthur Dillon, grandson of the one above mentioned. 

Six hundred and thirty-three soldiei's of this regiment, who 
composed the second battalion which had remained in France, 
were joined to Bochambcau's expedition, and endiarked at 
Brest in March, 1780, on the rronncc. This vessel also 
carrietl to .America the legion of Lauzun. These two army 
corps did not leave one another during the campaign. They 
embarked at the same time at Head of Elk and were de- 



"See in the List of Ollioers: Leval. 



List of Rcgimints. 23 

tailed for tlio attack on Gloucester. "While Eobert Dillon 
carried out this attack \\\\]\ (lie second battalion, the first, 
commanded hy Arihur Dillon, was brought before Yorktown 
by Saint-Simon. Arthur Dillon, immediately after the de- 
feat of CornMallis, returned to the AVindward Islands,^^ while 
Robert Dillon remained on the continent. 

The whole regiment returned to France in 1783. 

One battalion of this regimeiit was in Martinique in 17S0, 
and the second was at Lille. 

Its list of officers, at that time, \vas thus composed : — 

Colonel, 

The Count de Dillon. 

Colonel en Second, 

Taaffe. 

Lieutenant Colonel, 

De ]\Iahony. 

Major, 

Browne. 

Paymader, 

Harvey. 

"The French called at this time Windward Islands the present 
I-<;sser Antilles, from Saint Thomas, Saint John, Saint Croix (the Vir- 
gin Islands), up to and including Saint Eustatius, Saint Bartholomew, 
Saint Christo{)ht-r, Monserrat, Desirade, Guadeloupe, Marie Galante^ 
the Saintes, Dominica, ^Martinique, Saint Lucia, Barbadoes, Saint Vin- 
cent, Grenada, Tabago, and Trinitj'. The Spaniards had thus named 
them, because they were constantly exposed to the trade winds. 

For the Spaniards, the Leeward Islands were those which were pro- 
tected from the trade winds by the coasts of America, from the mouth 
of the Orinoco to the (Julf of Maracaibo ; that is, Margaritii, Blanquilla, 
Tortugas, Aves, Bonaire, Curacao, and Arouba. 

The English, like the French, called Windward Islands those from 
Martinique to Tabago; and their Leeward Islands were not the South- 
ern Antilles, but tliose of the Xortli, near the Clreat Antilles, the Car- 
aibes. 

To sum up, for all nationalities, the French possessions, from Saint 
Eustatius to Tabago, were the Windward Islands. Saint Domingo be- 
longed 1o the Ix'eward Islands of the English. 



24 Tlic French in America. 

Among the capfahm tliore were : — 

Bartliolcmy Dillon, of the grenadiers, 
Count Theobald Dillon. 

Among the sub-lieutenants was : — 
Guillaume Dillon. 

In 1781 the regiment was commanded as follows: — 

Colonel, 
The Count Arthur Dillon. 

Colonel en Second, 
The Count Theobald Dillon. 

JJcutenant- Colonel, 
Barthelcmy Dillon. 





Jfajo?', 




0'i\Ioi-an. 




Paymaster, 




Mencarely. 




Captains : 


Gerard jNIoore, 


Shee, 


Purdon, 


William ?.Ioore, 


Banks, 


O'Neil (with rank of major), 


De Xugent, 


O'lx'rin or O'Brien, 


Paul Swiny, 


Taalfe. 



Captains en Second : 
JNIandeville, JMacdermott, Jr. 

Maguire, Xowlan, 

Maedermott, Sr., O'Doyer, 

O'Reilly, ■ Lyncii, 

Kelly, Coghlan. 



lAst of Beghncnf:^ 



25 



First Lieutenants : 



Greenlaw, 

Th. Dillon, 

O'Keellb, 

O'Farcll, 

Bernard ]\Iiictlcrmot(, 

Second Lieutenants : 
D'Arcy, Hui 

Fitzharris, 
Th. Browne, 
Cliristoplic TaafTe, 
Fennell, 



Welsh, 

Evin, 

Jose])h Comerford, 

Jean Browne, 

Diicrgan. 



!Maclosky, 
Maurgan, 
Mac-Entire, 
Edw. Fitzgerald, 
Whill Shee, 
Hyae. O'J'^arell, 
Fitz I^raurice, 
Ch. O'Reilly, 
Macdonald, 
O'Meara. 



Ch. Whyle, 
Edw. Swyny, 
Denis O'Farcll, 
James O'Farcll. 

Sub-Licntenanl,'^ : 

Knopfr, 

Mahony, 

Sheldon, 

Char. O'Moran, 

Owens, 

Strange, 

Purdon, 

INIurphey, 

Hays.^« 



ENGHIEN. 

According to the archircs of the War D(>partnient, this reg- 
iment was sent to the "West Indies in 1777. The Ltats Mil- 
itaires from 1777 to 1783, on the contrary, tell us that it was 
sent to Saint Domingo only in 1780. At that time it was 
connnandcd as follows : — 

Colondy 

The ^lai-quis de Montazet, who was replaced in 1782 

by Count de Canillac. 

*^Sce in tlie Ivist of Oilicers: Arcy, Tarragon. 



26 The French in America. 

Colonel en Second, 

The Count de Canillac, who was replaced in 17S2 by 

de Senecterre. 

Lieuiena nt- Colonel, 
Dehaumont. 

Major, 
Le Beuf, replaced in 17S2 by de Cani})aguol. 

Payinaysier, 
Rollet. 

I also find two captains of the name of Dudeniainc and 
Lieutenants Grandseignc and de Bressoles.^^* " 

FOIX. 

The EtaU MUikiircs do not even mention this reginient. 
According to the arcldvcs of the A\'ar I>e])artnient, it was sent 
to the AVest Indies in 1777, fuuglit at Savannah under 
d'Estaing, and returned to France in 1783.''^'^^ 

FOXTAXGES. 

A legion of that name, composed of nmlattoes and free 
negroes from Saint Domingo, saved the French army at Sa- 
vannah by courageously covering its retreat.'^ 

GATIXAIS. 

This regiment was formed by the splitting in half of the 
regiment of Auvergnc"'' and Mas sent in 1777 to Saint Pumingo, 

"For these names see the List of Ofiicers. 
"See in the List of Officers: Pit'vul. - 
*^See Hidoire dc Vinfantene, by General Siisane. 
" See in the List of Officers : Trenonay. 
''See in the I>ist of Officers: Fontan':es. 
» Order of March the 25th, 1770. 



Lid of Rcglmcids. 27 

while that of .Vuvcri2;n(^ remained in France, The .second bat- 
talion was at Cape Francais, Saint Domhijj^o, since 1775. It 
liad served in (Jerniany in tlie campaigns from 1757 to 17G2, 
and afterwards fuui;lit at Savannah under d'Estaing. 

Sub-lieutenant I^evert was the first to enter the intreneh- 
mciiis from which the defendei's fled ; but the English soon 
returned in stronger force, and the French had to retire, car- 
rying Avith them their dead and wounded, among whom were 
Count de Buthizy, colonel en ^second, with three gunshot wounds ; 
Captain de Sireuil, struck by a gnipe shot in the side ; Cap- 
tain en Second de Foucault, Lieutenant Justamont, instantly 
killed; the Chevalier de la liochenegly, wounded in the head; 
and the Chevalier de Tourville, wounded by a bullet. 

In the naval engagement of the 7th of April, Sergeant 
Charles Daurier, later general and baron of the Empire, was 
severely wounded on the ship the (Adon. 

Saint Simon brought to Yorktown the regiment of Giiti- 
nais, who.-e men regretted their ancient name. 

I have related, in the account of the expedition, the glori- 
ous role that this regiment played during the night of the 
Htli and loth of October, and in what way it succeeded in 
changing its name for that of lloyal-Auvergne. I will not 
again relate this incident here." 

Gatinais returned to France in 1783. 

Colon eh- Commandants : 

De Caupcnne, 1777, 

The Count de 15riey, 1778, 



Colonels en Second: 
The Viscount de Poudens, 1777, 

De licthisy, 1778,' 
The Baron de Saint Simon, 1781. 

"See Vol. I., pajze 198. 



28 Tlie Frcncli in America. 

Lieutenaiit- Colonel, 
The Clicvalier de I'Estnide. 

Major, 
Chapiiy (le Tourville. 

Payriuiders : 

De la Passe, 1779, 

Dc Yaiulriiue, 1779. 

Captains- Co 1 1 iinuml ants: 
lialbcnquc, Dudrol, 

De Cabrieres, De Saint-Florent, 

Yaclieron, Pecoinme, 

De Cliauniont, Langoii. 

De Sireuil, De Coussol. 

Captains en Second: 
De Jussy, Mascaron, 

De Foucaiilt, Molliere, 

De Bordenave, Carrert^, 

S. Morel, Bertliclot, 

D'Assas, Fontboinic. 

Fii'st Lievtcnanfs : 

Dubroea, De la Fabivgue, 

Boislevc, La ^Morandai.s, 

De Chaleiidar, Laubadcre, 

Clmbot, Roussilhe. 
Basquiat, 

Set -ond Licntenan ts : 

Terrade, De la Poclienegly, 

De Kcnty, De La Pierre, 

Daliiias, D'Emery, 

De Gcnvillo, Chappuv de Courville. 
Dc Yiliaubois. 



List of Rajbnaits. 29 

Sab-LicutenaatH : 

Le Vert, De Sillcgue, 

Diimont, Dumnd, 

Cli. dc Diirat, De Navores, 

Calonnc, Marain, 

Dcschaux, Beaiirin, 

Pinray, Palliol, 

De la Morandiero, Dejcan, 

Desgouttcs, Berenger, 

Dc Caignct, Bonneville, 

De Leoiuirdy, Sufiren.^ 

HAINAULT. 

This regiment^ which had gone to the colonics in 1775, 
formed part of the troops who landed at Savannah. 

LAUZUX. 

De Lauzun, npon his return from a short and fortunate 
exj)cdition to Senegal in 1770, received the colonelcy of a 
regiment, composed of llungtirians, that was then in process 
of formation, and at the same time permission to recruit a 
foreign legion to })ear his name, of which he should be pro- 
prietary colonel. It was to consist of eighteen hundred in- 
fantry and six iuuidrcd cavalry ; it was also not to be divided. 
But in fact this legion never had more than eight hundred 
infantry and four hundred cavalry ; and owing to lack of 
transport's to c;irry the force to America, a third of the legion 
had to remain at lirest. During the absence of de Lauzun, 
and without his aj)])roval, the force tiiat remained at Brest 
was sent to Senegal.-^ 

**See in the List of Ollicers: Bonnot, Cornet, Foret, Galliot, Laborde 
de Beauinc, Lanniet, ^Slenou, Stark. 

"See the first part of this book, quoted niid followed as authority by 
General Su?ane in his lately published (IS74) La cavalcrie Frangaiae, 
article Lau/un. [Marginal note by T. li. 



30 Tltc FrciicJi in America. 

The part of Lan/im'.«, legion tliat cm])ark('(l on- the Pro- 
vence to cross to Ainerieu under the order* of de Ilochaiubeau 
included two squadrons of hussars and lancers, grenadiers and 
chasseurs, consisting altogether of about six hundred men. 

This legion arrived at Newport on July iGth, 1780, hut, 
OM'ing to lack of fodder for the horses, could not take up its 
winter quarters in that town. On November 10th it moved 
on to Lebanon, and on July 21st, 1781, it started Irom there 
to march along with the rest of the army towards Xew York, 
the legion guarding the right ilank. 

I^auzun's cavalry rendered great services during the cam- 
paign. It reconnoitred the route of the army, sup])orted 
General Lincoln in reconnoitering before Xew York on Julv 
3d, and fought successfully with Tarlcton's rivalry before 
Gloucester. The cavalry of the legion followed the land route 
with the quartermasters, the baggage wagons, and the field ar- 
tillery, Mdiile the infantry of the legion embarked at Head of 
Elk under the conuuand of de Custine. 

The whole legion was united before Gloucester under the 
orders, first of A\'eedon, afterwards of de Choisy. It was the 
first force to meet the corps of Tarleton, and it was for this 
service that de Lau7Ain was chosen to carry the news of the 
surrejider of Yorktown to France. He was badly received, 
and none of his officers, he says, received any rewards. 

The legion continued to play a useful part in 1782, under 
de Rochambeau, until Lauzun took it back from Boston to 
Fi-ance in ;March, 1783, with the rest of the expeditionary 
corps.^" 

SAINTOXGE. 

This regiment went to Cayenne, remained there from 17G3 
to 1708, then again left France and made tlu^ campaigns with 
Rochambeau from 1780 to 1783. Its "lieutenant-colonel, de la 



*'See in the List of Ollicers : Anot, Baudoin, Beflroy, Billy-Dillon, 
Dutertre, Foks, Killenmine, Monthurel, Nortnian, S-heklon. 



List of Rcglmcids. 31 

Valcltc, was sent with one lumdred and fifty men to oecupv 
Conaiiiciit Island, but as Eochambcau did not consider it a 
safe position, lie ordered him l)ack to Xewport. 

The history of this regiment blends with that of the army 
itself. 

By an ordinance of April '2Gtii, 1775, this regiment was 
enlarged from one to two battalions by the incorporation of 
the regiment of Cambresis. Still the Etats Militaires, which 
give this information in 177G, continue to speak of the regi- 
ment of Cambresis, and give the list of its officers. 

The regiment of Saintonge was composed in 17S1 as fol- 
lows : — 

Colonel, 

The Count de Custine, replaced in 17S2 by the 

Viscount de llochambeau. 

Colonel eii Second, 

The Count de Charlus, replaced in 17S2 by the 

Prince de Broglie. 

Lieutenant- Colonel, 
The Chevalier de La Valettc. 

Paymaster, 
Lafage. 

Major, 
De Fleury. 

Captains : 
Baron de Ferrette, De la Foluere, 

De ]>eaumont, De la Corbiere, 

De Wonves, Des Forets,^^ 

De Brie, De Bedee. 

Duchesne, 

"See in the List of Oliicers: Laforest. 



32 



The French in America. 



Captains en Second : 

De Roclie, De Champagne, 

Dcnos or d'Enos. De Saint-Cyr, 

Scot de Coiilauge, De James de Longueville, 

De Laganiy, De Reciisson, 



De Courvol, 



De Dolomieii, 



De ISrargucrIt, 
Du Rozol, 
De Vallcs, 
De La Chenaye, 
De Coulaino, 



First Lieutenants : 

De Bellcmaro, 
De la Carre, 
De Cliamj^ertier, 
De VilleiVanclie. 



Second Lieutenants : 

De Taelier, De la Valette, 

D' A r pa von, De Reste, 

De Qnirit, De Mestrc, 

Desvignes, Le Momiier, 

Dupcrron, Dntcil. 

Sub-Lieutenants : 



De Joussclin, 

De Seguin, 

De Lauberdieres, 

De James, 

De Biotere, 

De la Chans-sec, 

Dague de la A'outc, 

Fauste, 

Bellegardc, 

Ijccomte, 



Desprez, 

De Taffin, 

Denis, 

Millevillc, 

Fauville, 

Bcaugendre, 

Dc Bilhnnau, 

Ducluscan, 

Barbier de la Serre.^- 



^'Scc in the List of Officers: BriCres, Marcoii, Montalcuibert, Noes, 
Treesan. 



List of Regiments. 33 

SOlSSONNxVIS. 

This regiment, made up of tliose of Briqueville and Segur, 
served in Germany in the campaigns from 17G0 to 17G2. It 
distinguished itself at Lanfeld, where de Segur, afterwards 
marshal, was shot in the chest. It then served in the Cor- 
siciin campaign of 1709. 

Two battalions of this regiment were sent to follow Eo- 
chambeau to America. The rest of the regiment was left 
behind at Brest, owing to lack of transport. These two bat- 
talions left Brest on ]May 12th, arrived at Newport on July 
13th, 1780, moved on to Providence on June 11th, 1781, 
and formed the rear guard during the march from Provi- 
dence to Head of Elk, where they embarked. The rest of 
their history is told in the account of the expedition.^ 

Colonel-ChmriKinddnt, 
The Count Felix de Saint^Maime. 

Colonel en Second, 

The Viscount de Xoaillcs, replaced in 1782 by the 

Count de Segur. 

Lieutenant- Colonel, 
D'Anselme. 

Major, 
D'Espeyron. 

Paymaster, 
L'Estrignier. 

^'The Mercure de France of September, 1781, page 33, relates the 
following act of courage : During the action of March KJth a grenadier 
of Soissonnais, having had hU leg splintered by a cannon shot, drew 
his knife and cut the flesh holding his leg, wiiirh he then tlirew into 
the sea. lie then sat down and loaded his gun, and said : " Thanks to 
God, I still have two amis and one leg left for the service of my king." 



34 



The French in America. 



Copta iih^- C oin man (hi n(.-< 



Didicr, 




An.-elrne de la Gardette, 


Dc Bicii dc 


Cheviyny, 


Dc la Boyere, 


De Baud re, 




Saint-Leger, 


De Marin, 




Dupalais. 


De Gillx-rt, 








Captains en 


Second : 


Le Bret, 




Moyria, 


Sinety, 




Saint-A^ictor, 


Bazin, 




De Lagi-ange, 


Baudot, 




Varcilles, 


Menou, 




De la Caterie. 




Fird ]jicu(en(infs : 


Boi.<dellc, 




De J^ahurtlic, 


AVindling, 




Giou, 


Barois, 




De Bai.ssac, 


De Cousin ■ 


Duvalcs,"^ 


Saint-PIilaire. 


Caldague:>, 




Dc Caumont. 




Second Lieu 


tcitcinfs : 


Marjuoi, 




De Kninon, 


Mauvis, 




De Bouillonev, 


De ^lenou, 




De Sully, 


De Guerpel, 




Montcpin, 


De Gotho, 




Dursue, 




Sub-Lieidc 


n<rut.< : 


De Bonne, 




Miollis, 


De Gaillard, 


> 


Ban-as, 


D'Eroux, 




Villeneuve, 


D'Avalon, 




Pothonier, 


Clavi.s, 




De Bn.yer, 


Bonnefo ns. 




D'Arandcl, 


Loubat, 




Danncbault, 


Marin, 




Jjortliier de Berlhuis, 


Girard, 




D'Arihus.^ 


Robcniicr, 







See in the List of Oflicors: f^coussin. 

See in the List of OHkers : Coussin, Dalplu'raii, Guicliard, Maj-'usis. 



182062G 

List of FiCgimcnts. 35 

TOURAIXE. 

This )-cgImcnt scrvwl in tlie German campaigns from 1758 
to 1762; was sent to ]Nrai-tini(jiie, and remained (here from 
1780 to 1783. Saint-Simon, its eohjnol, took the regiment to 
Yorktown, together with tliosc of .\genois and Gatinais. It 
was stationed on the left of the alh'ed army, between impass- 
able swamps and the York River, at the same time having 
to tlie rear free communications witli tlic rest of the army. 
Saint-Simon built a strong l)attery of eiglit Ciuinons and six 
mortars, and was ordered to make a feint during the niglit 
of the 14th and lotli of October, v.hilc do ViomOnil in tlie 
centre and La Fayette on the right each Ciiptured a redoubt. 
The regiment of Touraine returned to tlic West Indies with 
Saint-Simon on the ships of <k' Grasse November 4th, 1781, 
and arrived on the 2Gth at Saint Domingo. It returned to 
France in 1783.'" 

Colonel Mcdre dc Ounp, 

The Viscount dc Poudens. 

Colonel en ^Second, 

The Count dc Flcdiin, repkieed in 1780 by tlie Chevalier 

de Mirabeau. 

TAeutcn a ni- Colonel, 

De Montlezun. 

Major, 

De ]\Ienonville. 

Paymaster, 

Heynaud. 



*A soldier of the iej,'iment of Touraine, Claude Tliion, only seven- 
teen years old, distinguished himself at the capture of Bristoiie Hill, 
on the Island of Saint Christopher, by an act of great heroism. The 
20th of January, 1782, Thion was ordered to carry homlis, from the 
magazine in the trenches, to the batteries. During one of his trips a 
cannon ball cut oil" his right arm, which only hung by a tendon. He 
borrowed the knife of one of his conu-adcs, cut tiie tendon, had the 
bomb rcplaceil on his left shoulder, and carried it to his battery before 
liaving his wound dressed. He Wiis admitted to the Invalides. 



The French in America. 



Ccipta in s- Cohnnandan is : 
De la Coste, Chariot, 

De llomniofort, De Saver v, 

De Beauregard, Ducasse, 

De Launay, De Thoreuc, 

Desbordes, D' Artel de Weinsljcrji:. 



Captains en Second: 



D'Alozc or d'Alausc, 

D'Espenan, 

Do Marcy, 

De 1/atour-Clamoiize, 

De Posscplane, 



Normandin, 
De Saint-Felix, 
De Signy, 
De C'anipan, 
De Ve/jan, 



First Liculciunds : 
De licaiidreuil, De Pontavis, 

Parnienticr, Hemard, 

De Vaiibercey, Beatrix, 

De Bonne, De Prechateau, 

De Gonrcy, Chevalier. 

Second Lieutenants : 
Desln-anches, La Rochevcrnay, 

De Creiuoux, Ponierry, 

Patet, Vidampierre. 

Sub-Licutcnants : 

Maqiiette de ]Marey, 

Banal, 

Dubac, 

Duhamel, 

De Montleztin, 

De La Porte, 

Blondel de ]>onneuil, 

Du})eyron, 

Casteinau." 



Fran9ois, 

De Bressoles, 

De :Mathey, 

Lecoq, 

D'Albenas, 

De Retz, 

De Montaleinbcrt, 

Dujoncpioi, 

Latour de C'lanioiizo, 



*'See in the List of Officers: Bonne, Cuzal, Crozat de Sarrazin, Des- 

p<^yroiis, Fulquen'itte. 



JAM oj Regiments. 37 

VIENNOIS. 

This regiment served in the AVindwiirJ Islands, under de 
Boil i lie, from 1775 to 1783. 

It was at Martinique in 1777, and was thus oflieercd : — 

Colon el- Comman rJa n f, 
The Count de ]\lironieniI. 

Colonel en Second, 
The iMarquis de Pardieu. 

Lieutenant- Colonel, 
Rouxel do Blanchelando. 

3Iajor, 
Villetard de Guerie. 

Paymeister, 
Mallet. 

In 1779 and 1780 the colonel-coinniandani was the Mar- 
quis du Chilleau, formerly eulonel of the regiment of Guyenne. 

Colonel en Second, 
The Count dc La Porte. 

The rest of the staff Avas as above. 

In 1781 the regiment was at Dominica, and was commanded 
as follows : — 

Colonel, 

The Marquis du Chilleau. 

Colonel en Second, 
The Count de La Porte. 
Lieutemnit- Colonel, 
])e Blanciielande. 



38 The French in America. 

3Tqjor, 
De Gimat. 

Paymaster, 
]Mor«iu. 

In 1782 the Count de liouille took the phicc of du Chil- 
leau, the Marquis dc Coigny that of the Count de La Porte, 
and La Bcrillais tliat of Gimat. 

WALSH. 

Tiie second battidion alone crossed to Aniericii in 1780, to 
the West Inches ; it did not go to Yorktown.*^ 

Colonel, 
The Count de Walsh-Serrant. 

Colonel en Second, 
The Viscount dc Walsh -Serrant. 

Lieutenant- Colonel, 
De Butler. 

Major, 
O'Brien. 

Paymaster, 
Bamelin.^' 

* We find the name of IMac^Muhon among the sub-lieutenants. 
"See in the List of Ollicerrt : IMafurthy, Staack (ICdouard). 



LIST OF THE FEE^TQH OFFICERS 

AVlIO TOOK TART IX THE WaR OF^ AMERICAN InDEPENDENCI': 

either as voeunteers with a commission from 
Congress, or in the French Expedition. 



A. 

Abovili.e (FraiK;ois-i\Iuric, Count d') was born at Brest 
in 1730, and died in 1817. lie served with distinction un- 
der llochambeau in the American campaign as colonel-com- 
mandant of tlie artill(MT. By liis able arrangements he aided 
materially in the caj)ture of Yorktown/**'^^ 

In 1789 he was a])])ointed marfclKd Je camp, and com- 
manded the artillery of the Armies of tlie North and of the 
Ardennes, with the rank of lieutenant-general, during the 
French llevolntion in 1702.^ 'In 1793 he declared against 

*Deux Fonts, 70. 

* One may jnd<j;e from tlie following incident how d'.Aboville com- 
manded liis artillery : — 

The 15th of October Lord Cornwallia wrote to General Clinton: 
" Last evening the enemy carried my two advanced redoubt.s on the 
left by storm, and during the night included them in the second par- 
allel, which they are at present busy in perfecting. My situation now 
becomes very critical ; we dare not show a gun to their old batteries, 
and I expect that their new ones will open to-morrow mornimr. Ex- 
perience has shown that our fresh earthen works do not resist their 
powerful artillery, so that we shall soon be exposed to an assault in 
ruined works in a bad i)osition and with weakened numbers. The 
safety of the place is therefore so precarious that 1 cannot recom- 
mend that the lleet and army should run great risque in endeavor! ns^ 
to save us." 

^-.Manuscript of Dupetit-Thouars. 78. 



40 Tlic French in America. 

Duniouriez ; tlion, under the Ein]iirc, he beeame inspector-gen- 
eral of tlie artillery, .-enator, and grand olfiecr of the liCgion 
of Honor. 

The Count d'Aboville invented a kind of ^vheel with metal 
naves, whieh was first shown at the Industrial Ex])osition in 
1802, and which has since been used for velocipedes, 

AiGUiSV (D'), an infantry officer, was killed in the naval 
fight olf Saint Eucia, the lOtli of May, ITSO.*"' 

Aix, an auxiliary officer, was killed.*^ 

Alausse, Alozk or Ai.ause (Joseph-Philemon Galtier d'), 
born December 24th, 1742, in Languedoc; was in the three 
battles fought by the Count de Guichen ; captain in the regi- 
ment of Ton ra inc. 

Anselme de ea Gatidette (Joseph-Bernard-Modasto) was 
born the 2Gth of xUigust, 1737, at Apt in Provence, and began 
to serve in 1745. His father was an officer in the regiment 
of Soissonnais, and, according to the custom of the day, the 
son was inscribed on the lists of that regiment when seven 
yeiirs of age. He was captain in 1760, major in 1774, 
lieutenant-colonel in 1777, and, in spite of poor health, he 
followed his regiment to America and served in the small 
expedition that started from Newport on the squadron of Des- 
touches for Delaware I'ay. An excellent officer, his brilliant 
conduct at Yorktown gained for him a pension of six hun- 
dred Varcs in the order of Saint-Louis. He was the oldest 
of the lieutenant-colonels in America who was not a brigadier. 

Lieutenant-general in IN Fay, 1792, he took, at the head of 
a corps of the Army of the South, Xice, ISlontalban, and 
Villefranche. But, having suffi'red a defeat at Sospello, he 

** Manuscript of Dapetit-Tliouars, 413. 
^* IManuscript of Dupetit-Thouars, 7, 180. 



List of Officers. 41 

was accn-od of trcacliory and locked up at I'Abbaye. The 
9th Thcrmidor rclea.'^cd him. 

Ansei.me de ea Gardette (Jacques), brotlier of tlie 
precediu<i; one, was born at Apt, July the 3d, 1740, and 
served in America with the rank of captain-commandant, in 
the same regiment of Soissonnais. At first he only bore 
the name of do La Gardette, which was that of his mother.*^ 
He died in 1S12. 

Arcy (Jacques-Philippe d') was l)orn at Paris in 1742; 
captain in the regiment of Dillon ; died before Savannah. 
It is })robable that he was a son of the celebrated Patrick 
d'Arcy, who was born at Galway, September 27th, 1725; 
was a member of the Academy in 1749, was colonel at the 
battle of Rossbach, and died at Paris, October IStii, 1779. 
The father left scientific works on artillery, the moon., a iiew 
gun, eledriciiii, and other subjects. 

AiiENDT (Baron d'), commanded Fort Island and the Ger- 
man battalion, and resigned in 1777 on account of his health. 
He was one of the first to euiraee as a volunteer. 



■o"o" 



Armakd (Charles, Marquis de la Pouerie), better known 
as Colonel Annnnd. He served for ten years in France in 
the French Guards, but left the service to enter the order of 
the Trappists, owing to a love alfair."'^ He stayed M'ith them 
only a short time, and crossed to America, where he received 
from Congress, March the 22d, 1777, the title of colonel, 
and the permission to enlist a legion of two hundred men. 
He fell in so readily with the republican customs of the 
country that he wished to be known only by his baptismal 



^'See in tlie List of Koyinients : Soissonnais. 

"It w;is his unfortunate love for the Boaumcsnil, of the OjK'ra, 
which first caused him to enter tlie order of the Tra]>pists, and then 
induced him to cross to America. 



42 The French in America. 

name. He siiowcd during; tlie Avhole war great courage and 
activity, to which he joined a gay and witty character. He 
fought at Red Bank, and then in New Jersey under La 
Fayette. 

In November, 177<S, he commanded, as colonel, at the 
camp at the Valley Forge, a corps of light armetl troops ; 
he was then only twenty-four years of age. His legion was 
almost entirely destroyed at the battle of Camden, in Caro- 
lina. He captured, near Kingsbridge, the loyalist Baremore. 
His cor])s was incorporated into the legion of Pulaski in 1780. 

De la Ronerie returned to France in May, 1781. (icneral 
AVashington intrusted him with a letter for Marshal de ]>iron, 
in which he recommended him to the goodwill of the French 
Minister, saying that this brave officer had not received in 
America, in spite of his excellent services, the rank he de- 
served. 

The ]Marc]uis received at that time the cross of Saint-Louis. 
But he did not wish to abandon the cause that he had already 
so M'ell served ; he bought everything that was necessary to 
arm and cqui}) a legion, and returned to America, where he 
offered to Congress his purchases. 

Upon the signing of peace, in 1783, he was promoted to 
the rank of brigadier-general. 

Iveturning to France in 1784 he took an active j)art in 
the Jlevolulionary moven\cnt ; neverthele.rs, he op])osed the 
excesses of the Jacobins, but it was too late, and he had to 
take part in the Royalist revolts of the Bretons and the 
Vendeens. 

He organized the Royalist insurrection of J^)rittany and pre- 
pared a general revolt for the month of ]March, 17U3. For 
a long time he was able to esuipe the researches of the agents 
of the Convention, and lived for six mouths at Rennes, in 
the midst of his (Micmics, all intent upon his conspiracy, dis- 
guised as a crij)plcd bcggai- with a ])laster on his eye. But 
he was so nuich alfccted by the death of the kin^r that he 



Lid of Officers. 43 

was seized with a violent fever and died on January oOrh, 
1793, without liaving accomplished anything. He was buried 
at night, by moonlight ; but his body was exhumed a few 
days later by the Kepubliciins, who found upon it pa})ers 
compromising several of his political friends. A few of them, 
on these indications, were sought for and guillotined. 

Arkot (Viscount d') was on board of the Provence to 
cross to America with Count de Dillon, under the orders of 
de Lauzun."*^ 

AliUNDEiv, enlisii'd as a volunteer, was aj^pointed captain 
of artillery the iDth of March, 1770, under the orders of 
General I^ec. 

AasAS (D'), captain en second in the regijnenl of Gatinais. 

This d'Assas was the ue])hew of the famous Chevalier 
d'Assiis, who fell at Clostercanij) under the bayonets whilst 
crying out the famous, " A moi, Auvergne, voila I'ennemi." 

The Clievalier d'Assas was c<iptaiu of cha.sseur,'^ in the regi- 
ment of Auvergne, and he had in the same regiment his elder 
brother, father of the d'Assas whom we find here, captain 
in the regiment of Gatinais. 

Ilochambeau had belonged to the regiment of d'Assas, and 
it was probably on this account that he chose this corps to 
take part in the American expedition under his command. 
The present ]\Iuv(piis d'Assas must be the grandson of the 
Captain d'Assas of the American expedition, and he con- 
tinues to enjoy the pension of one tlu)usand francs given by 
Louis the Sixteenth t(j the })ostcrity of the hero of Closter- 
camp, which was one of the lour pensions^'* of the ancien 
regime which were kej)t up by the National Assembly."" 

*' Manoires de Laiizun. 

*'" These four pensions were the Ibllowin;^: Heirs of Moiito;ihn, 
d'Assas, de Chanibors, and Mansluil de Luckncr." ]ShirL;inal note. 
*'^ Archives of war. 



44 The French in America. 

AuiiKTKKitp: ur Optekre (IT), an officer of engineers at- 
tached to ihe expeditionary corps. 

AuEiEii (Charles, Baron d'), officer in tlic French arnn- 
under Eochanibcnu/" 

AUTICHAMP (Antoliie-Josoph-Eulalie de Beaumont, Count d') 
was born October 10th, 1744, at Angers. He began to serve 
in 1759, was officer in 1761, captain in 1763, and colonel 
April the 11th, 1770. He served in four campaigns in Amer- 
ica, and especially distinguished himself at Yorktown, where 
he M'on by his gallant contluct the rank of brigadier mcdrc 
de camp in the ivgiment of Agcnois on the oth of December, 
1781. He was endowed with nuich talent, activity, and firm- 
ness. He distinguished himself at Saint Christopher, and upon 
the signing of peace was appointed marcched de camp. 

Cromot Dubourg found him at AA'illiamsburg, where he had 
returned with Saint-Simon, and Dubourg says in his ^Memoirs 
that he was very glad to see him again on account of the 
kindness that his brother had received from him. 

Aymahi) De A^ilee (Louis-Fi-ancois d'), a captain in the 
regiment of Armagnnc, born at Yerdun, Xovember 5th, 1 740. 
He was severely wounded in the battles fought, from the Oth 
to the 12th of August, 1782, by the Count de Grasse. 

B. 

Baldivia (Potthicr de), a well educated young man, son 
of a chevalier of Salnt-I^ouis, engineer attached to the Duke 
of Orleans, whom Dr. Dubourg enlisted for America. He 
started with Gil let dc Lomunt. 

Bargues. Sec Chazelle. 

"^Admitted (to what not said) July -tth, 1S25, upon ajtplication of 
La Fayette. Marguuil note by T. B. 



Ijist of Officers. 45 

Barolier (I^'i), captain of artillcrv, was almost killed dur- 
ing the night of the 28th of May, 1781. by one of his sergeants, 
who gave him several cuts with a sabre, without known ixason. 
The would-be murderer was immediately tried and hung.^' 

B Aim AS (Louis, Count de), born in Provence of an old 
family distinguished in the ])rofession of arms. There was a 
saying : " Noble as the Barras, as ancient as the rocks of 
Provence." 

The early jiart of liis life is not clearly known. He first 
followed d'Estaing in his campaign in Xorth America and 
distinguished liimself in the fight at Grenada. 

After the death of the Chevalier do Ternay, Cajitain Des- 
touchc, as the oldest ofilicer, took command of the squadron ; 
but the command was given to de Barras, who came to tike 
possession of his post on the 8th of ^iay, 1781. He had 
left Brest on the 2Gth of March on the frigate the Concorde, 
with Viscount de Ivochambeau and the two brothers Berthicr, 
and lauded at Newport. He was escorted by tlie Emcraudc 
and the Jkllone. At this time AVashington was inicertain 
what direction to take to strike a decisive l^low. But de Bar- 
ras let him know, by a disj>atch, that he was bringing him 
six millions in ])lacc of the promised trooj)s, who could not 
come for lack of transport, and that Count de Grasse was to 
start on the 4tli of August from Cape Franyais in Saint Do- 
mingo for Chesapeake Bay, with twenty-five or twenty-nine 
war vessels and three thousand six hundred soldiers under the 
command of Saint-Simon. The allied generals then immedi- 
ately made their arrangements to raise the siege of New York 
unknown to the enemy, and to move by forced marches on 
to Yorktown. 

At the same time tluit the trooi)s under the conunand of 
Washington and Kochambeau executed this movement, de 
Barras remained with his s(juadron in the port of Khode 

"Bhvnchard. 



40 The French in America. 

Island under the })ro(octi<)n ol' Jive hundred Krenvh soldiei-s 
under the command iA' de Clioisy, and one thousand American 
militiamen. Finally, having received news (»f the near arri- 
val of de Grasse in Chesaj)eake Bay, de Bai-ias took- on board 
of the tQii shij)s he conmiandcd the troojxs of de Choisy and 
the artillery, and, ])rofiting by an engagement of the I'^rench 
admiral with Admiral (Jraves, he entered tlie bay and suc- 
cessfully disend)arked his stores and his troojis. 

De Grasse had just been appointed lieuteiuuit-general, and 
Count de Barras, although his senior officer, agreed to serve 
under his oixlers until the end of the campaign. He gave 
thus an example of devotion Mhieh has had lew models and 
few imitators, especially at tliat tiiue.^- 

I)c Barras followed Count de Grasse from Chesapeake Bav 
to tiie West Indies, and fonght bravely, on the 25111 and 2(]tli 
of January, 17S2, against Admiral liood, whose squadron was 
anchored under the guns of Saint Christopher. De Bouille 
having captured this colony, de Barras was detached to «ip- 
ture the islands of Nevis and ^Nlontferrat, mIucIi surrendered. 
He returned afterwards to Europe and was not j)resent at 
the disaster of the following April. He retired at the Peace 
of 1783, and died shortly after the French Revolution. 

He was the uncle of Jean Nicolas de Barras, one of the 
five Directors of the J'rench liej)ublic. 

Barre (De La) entered the service as cadet in the tr<jops 
of the colonies in 1 750, passed as aspirant into the artillery 
in 17G4, volunteer in the carabiniers in 1707, sub-lieutenant 
in 1770, lieutenant in the regiment of Conde in 177G, be- 
longed to the squadi-on of the king commanded by Count 
d'Estaing, and to the trooj)s which were landed at the siege 
of Savannah in 1780, where lie was wounded. He is, per- 
liaps, the same as the following. 



"See Vol. I., payes 1U!». 110, and padres 1(;S-1S2, and extracts from 
"Journal d'un oj)i<:\,:r de ma rim;" page 24, Paris, 1782. 



Ust of Ojjiccrs. 47 

Bahre (I)e La), Fn-nch L.^rncral, 

The liiogrdphk Ghifrale .<ays tliat, carrial away by liberal 
ideas, this one followed La Fayette to Anieriea, where he 
distinguished himself"; that afterwards he returned to serve 
in Franee, and was aj)pointed brigadier-general. Fmployed 
at the siege of Toulon, and afterwards in the army of the 
Pyrenees, he -was nDrtall}' wounded between Koses and 
Figuiercs, 'J'he Convention decreed that his name and his 
deeds should be engraved on a column in the Fantheon, 

Baudin de ]3i:AiJin:GAi'vD de Komefout (Charles-Pierre), 
major in the regiment of Agenois, born at Cognac the loth 
of June, 1740. 

Baudot. See Tayet. 

Baudouin, lieutenant-colonel of the legion of Lauzun, 
came to America and landed at Newport, with Jvochambeau. 
lie returned to France in October, 1780. JJlanchai'd gave hira 
a letter for his uncle, Blanchard de Lavaric, residing in Saint 
Domingo, member of the Sujjerior Council at Port-au-Prince. 

BAUDiiE (Olivier-Victor de), born at Bayeux the 21st of 
May, 173G ; served since 17oG ; captain in 17G2 ; c-aptain- 
commandant in the regiment of Soissonnais, and the oldest 
captain of tliat regiment during tiie American War; excellent 
officer, full of honor, zeal, and intelligence ; good conduct at 
Yorktown. 

Bazin ((luillaumc de), born the 21tli oi" ^farch, 1710, at 
Marmande, in Guyenne, captain-eonunandant of Soissonnais. 
Twenty-four years and eight months of" service ; three cam- 
paigns in Germany, two in Corsiai in 1708-1709, two in 
America; woundetl at Clostercamp and in Corsica; decorated 
for his good conduct before Yorktown. 



48 The French in America. 

Beauharxais (Alexandre, Viscount do), born in Mar- 
tinique in 1760, guillotined in Paris in 1704; served as 
major under Rocliambeau in the United States. Deputy from 
Blois to the States General, he was one of the first to join 
the Third Estate, became President of the National Assembly, 
general of division in the Army of the Phine in 1792, 
minister of war in 1793.-'^ Falsely accused of having 
aroused a disturbance at .Nlctz, he was arrested and condemned 
to death by the revolutionary tribunal. His widow, Josephine, 
became Emjn-css of the French, and his son was made Vice- 
roy of Italy by Napoleon. 

Beaulip:u (Dc), former captiun of infantry m Franco, ob- 
tained the same position in America, where he went to serve 
in the legion of Pulaski. Aji infantry officer of this name was 
wounded in the fight off Saint Lucia, on the fleet of Guichen. 
Pontgibaud says that afler the war he married an ICnglish 
woman, and kept a tavern at Asylum. We think that per- 
liaps he means de Pontleroy, secret agent of Choiseul, to 
whom we have given another notice. 

BEAU.^rAIiCIrAIS (Pierrc-Augustin Caron de). We do not 
have to consider here the man of letters so celebrated from his 
creation of Figaro, but only the merchant ^^•ho covered his specu- 
lations with the flag of liberalism. Already in the beginning of 
the year 1776, Barbuc Dubourg, agent of the Americans in 
Paris, liad addressed to Congress two French officers, Penct and 
de Pliarne, who engaged to furnish arms and ammunition to the 
revolted colonies, and effectually, on the 10th of June, 1770, 
Penct started from Nantes with liftoen Thousand guns from 
the royal gun shops. They wore sent under the name of la 
Tuilleric. Beaumarcliais, associated with Pelletier du Doyer 
and de jMontieu, equipped, in January, 1777, the AmphitrUe 

"Did not accept tliis position. Muigiuul note. 



Lid of OJjkers. 49 

and two other .ships, on whicli were Dueoudray, de la Eon- 
eric, de Bore, Conway ; Captain Fautrelle was in command 
of the Ampliitriic. Xi the same time Arthur Lee ratified in 
Paris, in the; name of Conj^ress, M'ith the French Government, 
a secret treaty, by which the latter aii;recd to secretly furnish 
arms and ammunition to the Americans under the cover of 
commerce. Ijcaumarchais undertook sending- the arms and 
the management of the funds. He took the name of Plor- 
tales Rodrigue, residing at Ca[)e Fi'anyais, Saint Domingo, 
and he had addressed to that residence the convoys that Lee 
sent him, under the name of the manufacturer, Mairy John- 
son. The treaty was not carried out until October, 1777 ; 
tlie first convoys were loaded on the mercliant vessel the 
Heureux, and thiy arrived at I'ortsmouih, New ITamjishire, 
on the 1st of xSovember. The brave Baron Stenljcn was on 
this same vessel. 

The Fler-Rodriguc, Caj^tain dc ^Nlontaut, then the Fcrragus, 
the Zqihir, the Kdargdlc, the Thcrc.sc, were armed in 177S. 
The Fier-l\odri(jvc was a real war N-es>eI \\\\.\\ .--ixry guns, and 
was convoying some ten mercliant ships, when, in sight of the 
Island of Grenada in the beginning oi' July, 1771), it met the 
fleet of Admiral d'Estaing preparing to light the tleet of Ad- 
miral Byron. The Fler-llodrigxie had to take a position in 
the line of battle under the orders of d'Estaing. De IMontaut 
was killed, and Gantiieaume, afterwards admiral, replaced him 
in command. 

Tlie arms were often of a poor quidity ; several loads were 
captured by English cruisers. Congress, whose finances were 
in a bad state, could not always send to Beaumarchais the 
moneys that he wanted. Nevertheless he showed himself as 
able a financier and merchant as li<' was a literary man, and, 
thanks to his good sens(^ and his activity, he acquired some for- 
tune which he augmcnlcd by other six'cuhitiims. He nearly lost 
his riches as well as his life during the French Jlcvolution ; 
his good luck, and perha})s his exaggerated love for money, 



50 The French in Anurica. 

had made him manv enemies. He died in 1799 at the age 
of seventy ; lie litid, it was said^ committed suicide.** 

Bp:aumont. Sec Gorat. 

BEAUMO^"T (Antoinc-Franr-ois, Viscount de), born the od of 
May, 1753, at the Cliatcau of la Roque, in Perigord. He 
■was commander of sc^uadron in 17S1, and brought himself 
into notice in the battle of the 11 th of September, 17S1, 
where lie captured the English frigate the Fox. 

Appointed in 17S9 deputy from the tribunal of the nobil- 
ity^^ of Agen to the States General, he steadily voted with 
the right in the Assembly Constlhi.ante, was opposed to the 
uniting of the three orders, and protested against the decree 
of the 19th of June, 1790, which abolished the nobility. 
After the session, he withdrew to England, then to Russia. 
Returning to France during the Consular Government, he 
settled at Toulouse, where he died on the loth of September, 
1805. 

Bp:deaux (Eebrun de). Appointed brevet captain with pay 
the 10th of ;May, 1777 ; lieutenant-colonel of the legion of 
Pulaski the 10th of December, 1777;^ died in America." 

BI^:i)1^:k de Boisbkas (Ange-Armand de), born at Rennes 
the 1st of March, 1742; entered the service in 1757; cap- 
tain-commandant in the regiment of Saintonge the 2Sth of 
August, 1777 ; live campaigns at Cayenne, two in America. 

"This extraordinary man (li}>ped into everytliiir_' ; lie was indeed 
a jack of all trades. He almost succeeded in everything, so ]>rodi;_dous 
were his abilities. He tried, however, in vain, one must admit, to be 
an honest man. {Rtcae JiCtrosprctlce, 15th ol" ^hirch, 1S70, i^age IGS.) 
See Vol. I., pages S2, S3. 

^ Xobh'Ksc dc Id Sciicrhafim'C. 

"Perhaps 1778. Marginal note. 

" Auberteuil. 



List of Officers. 51 

Beffkoy, ofijccr of the legion of Lauzuiij wJio distinguished 
himself at Glouccster.^'^ 

Bl^:iiAGLE or Bejiague (Jcan-Baptiste-Emmanuel de), born 
at Paris the 3d of February, 1735 ; captain-commandant in 
the regiment of Agenois after twenty-six years of service ; 
served in the campaigns in Germany. Six years of sojourn 
in America ruined his constitution and incapacitated him from 
continuing to serve.^'' 

Beleangeii (De), officer of artillery, who was killed in 
the trenches before Yorktown on the 17th of October, 17S1, 
the day of the preliminary steps for surrender. 

Bellecour (Lebrun de). See Bedeaux. 

Borage de La Boykre (Jean-Pierre), born at Aix in 
Provence, the 24tli of Fel)ruary, 1730 ; ca])tain-commandant 
in the regiment of Soissonnais the 7th of June, 1770, after 
twenty-five years of service. He made two campaigns in 
America, proved himself a good ollicer, and was decorated for 
his good conduct at Yorktown. 

Beraxd de Mauraige or IMorreige (Christophe-Pliil- 
ippe), born the lotli of !March, 1759 ; appointed sub-lieuten- 
ant in the regiment of Agenois the 1st of Xovember, 1779; 
decorated for a wound received at Savannah, where lie had 
a leg broken the 9th of Octolicr, 17S0. Pemained on the 
battlefield, and was for lour months prisoner of war in the 
enemy's hospitals. 

Berguissoxt, Bourguissox or Bourguigxoxt (De), cap- 
tain of Agenois, commanding the redoubt on the right against 
which tiie Kiiglisli made a sortie during the niglit oi" the loth 



*^ Rej)ort of Kocliamljeau. 
'' Archives of war. 



62 The French in America. 

to the IGth October, ITSl. lie was wounded and made 
prisoner/^ 

Bekruet. Sec Bervkt. 

Bertiielot (Aiigustin-Clement de Villeneiivo, Chevalier 
de), born the 10th of Aii(2;ust, 1750, at Eesignc, in Anjon ; ap- 
pointed captain in the regiment of (iatinais (Royal-Auvergne) 
the \1i\\ of August, 1770; died in 17S1 from wounds re- 
ceived at tlie siege of Yorlctowu. 

Bertiiier (I.ouis-Alexandre), born at Versailles the 20lli 
of Novenibci', 1753 ; captain of the regiment of Soissonnais 
the 2Gth of A])ri], 1780 ; made four campaigns in America 
as sub-assistant <piartermaster." " The tM'o brothers Berthier, 
recently arrived from France," says General Dumas in his 
Memoirs, "are joined to our staff.'"'-' ''^ 

Berthier went in 1783 to Porto Cabello with Segur and 
surveyed the latter's property at Saint Domingo. He re- 
turned to France a colonel, served the Bepublic with distinc- 
tion, then l)ccame closely attached to Bonaparte, who, having 
become Emperor, covered him with favors, made him his 
major-gencnd, and created him IMarshal of France, Prince 
of Neuchatel and ol' Wagram. He died the 1st of June, 
1815. 

*" Manuscript of Cromot Dubourg. 
^ Marcclial des logis, 

**In the roconnoiterircr expeditions tliat were made on tlie 21 st of 
July by the Count de Danias, the Count de Yauban and Berthier, all 
aids-de-camp of the Count de Kochambcau, the leg of the Count de 
Damas's horse was broken by a ball ; de Dainas then took olf the 
saddle and the bridle himself in front of the enemy's batteries, put 
the saddle on the horse of a hussar, and jrot up behind the latter to 
return to the generals. De Vauban and IJertiiier each took a prisoner, 
but the latter ollicer killed the one he had made, because, having sur- 
rendered, he had fired at him with a pintol. {Mt retire de France, Octo- 
ber, 1781, page 172.) 



List of OjlJlccrs. 53 

Bertiiip:h (Ce-ar-Gabrlcl), the s^'cond brother of tlic pre- 
ceding one, was born at Versailles the 4tli of ^lay, 1 765, 
was only fifteen years old in 17S0, and consequently could 
not serve as aid-de-catu]) to Koeliambeau, but he also went 
to America. 

Bekvet or Bejiuet, quartermaster-paymaster in the regi- 
ment of Ag6nois; private in 1708, officer in 1779; was pres- 
ent at the siege of Yorktown. 

Betjii.sy (.Licfjues-EK'onor, Viscount de), born at Calais 
the 4th of December, 17-18. Entered the service in 176-1, 
captain of dragoons in 1708, colonel en second of the regiment 
of Gatinais^^ the 7tli of August, 1778. AVas unhappy at not 
having been on the expedition to Grenada, and did all he 
could with Count d'Estaing in order to be on the following 
expedition, which was granted him ; obtained the position of 
third commander of the column of Dillon. He received two 
gunshot wounds before Savannah on the 9th of October, 1779 ; 
one went through his left hand ; the other cut his skiu near 
the groin. 

Bj^:viele (De), served since 1740. I^ieutenant-colonel in 
1761, brigadier in 1778, marechal de camp the 5th of Decem- 
ber, 1781 ; went through the German AVar on the staff, and 
through the entire American A\'ar as quartermaster-general.'^ 
He made ten marches of over seven miles each, crossing fif- 
teen great rivers, with the whole army and few means, with 
neither delay nor accident. His distinguished conduct at 
Yorktown brought him a pension of twelve hundred lirres; 
asked, in 1783, for a ])lace as comuiancU'r of the order of Saint- 
liOuis, aud hoj)cd to be cmjiloyed. 

"Royal-Auvcrgne. 

'^Manchal general den logis. 



54 The French in America. 

B^viLLE (Chevalier do), .son of the former, served since 
1773. Officer in 1775, captain on leave'"' of the dragoons 
of Noaillcs in 1770. In 1780 he went to America, where 
Rochambeau first employed him as aid-de-camp and placed 
him in the rear of the army as assistant (piartcrmaster-general 
of the regiment of Touraine. 

BiciiET DE EociiEFONTAiNE, cnllstcd as a volunteer, 
brevet engineer with rank of captain the ISth of September, 

1778." 

BiEX PE CiiEYiGNY (Frcderlc-Franyois-Louis de), born 
at Avallon the 13th of April, 1737. Lieutenant of the 
chaAsciir.-i of Solssonnais, and commanded that company, dur- 
ing the absence of de Tarragon, before Savaimah. lie was 
present at tiie sortie of the 25th of Xovember and at the 
attack of the intrenchments, where he lost half of his com- 
pany. He made as captain the campaign of Yorktown, al- 
though already on the retired list. 

BiLLY-DiLEOX (De), officer in the hussars of Lauzun; 
wounded before Gloucester the 4th of October, 1781;''^ was 
guillotined under the 4Vrror with his brother and Lauzun. 

Blanciiaed (Claude), born the lOth of May, 1742, at 
Angers, of a family of that town ennobled by belonging to 
the municipal magistracy.^" lie began, in 1762, in the war 
office, under the orders of one of his relations, Dubois.'" Ap- 
pointed commissary of war in 17GS, Blanchard made in that 

•* lUformc. 

"Major, Xovember Kith, 17S1. :MarLrinal note by T. E. 

"Manuscript of Croinot Duboiirg. 

''^ Echtvlnnijc. 

'"Dubois bad for successor in ITiiS, in the position of secretary- 
general of SwitzeHand and the Grisons, the Abbe liartlielemy, author 
of tho Yonnij Anacharsis. (See the Almamich Jloijal of 17(38.) 



Lid of Officers. 



00 



position the c-ami)aigu of Corsica, ^-liere lie stayed ten yeai^. 
The 29tli of JamiaiT, 1773, he received from the minister 
of war, Monteynard, the permission to marry Therese-Char- 
lotte de Coriolis, of a nol.K- family of Provenee. Principal 
connnissary in 1780, he accompanied in that position Po- 
chamhean to America and I have indicated in my account 
of the war tlie part he played in that campaign.'^ In 1784, 
comraissaiy of war in Brittany. In 1788 he was cojnmand- 
ing commissary at Arras, and was calk-d the following year 
to the command of the National Guard of that town^ of 
which he soon became, with Carnot, the representative in the 
National Assembly. In that chamber, with Lacuee and 
Mathieu Dumas, he became the ordinary reporter of military 
matters. He was expelled by the Committee of Public Safety, 
and was obliged to hide to escape pursuit. It was then 
that he wrote up his ''Journal de la Campagne d'Amirirjue,'' 
from which we have taken interesting extracts."- " Now that 
I have some leisure," he says (:\Iessidor, year II. of the Re- 
public), '' 1 shall make u clean copy of' ray diary, without 
changing anything important in tlie style or in the facts." 
After the fall of Pol)espierre, J^lanchard reassumed the posi- 
tion of chief commissary to the Army of Sambre and IMcusc, 
then to the Army of the Interior, then to the Army of Ba- 
tavia^ where he was sent by Ikn-nadotte, who thanked him, 
in 1798, foi- his y.val and devotion, and lastly to the Hotel 
des Invalides, where he died in 1802, at the age of sixtv, 
leaving, says General Berruyer, Governor of the InvalidJs^ 



:\e ex- 



" Blanchard was the principal commissary of war, durinf^ the ex- 
pedition, with de Tarle, de Yillemanzy, Jujardy, Chesnel, and'de Cornv 
{Etats MUiiain's). He embarked at JJrcst on the Con^ptirant, and slept 
on board, the 14th of April, at Sainte-Barbe, with thirty or forty per- 
sons. Rochambeau added in a note in his own handwriting, to the 
report on Blanchard which the Intendant de Taric had written for the 
minister of war after the siege of Yorktown, "a man of the crcatest 
distinction." Still, he received no reward, and complained about it. 

"See Vol. I., page 9. 



56 The French in America. 

in a letter to the minister of war, the rc})utation of an ad- 
mhiistrator remarkable for his talents and liis virtnes.'^ 

Clande Blanchard had a son, Edouard-Henri Blanehard, 
who also beeame eommissary of war, and who died about 
1865, aged ninety-two, at J.a FkVhe, Sarthe. 

Blanciielande (Philibert-Fran9ois Bonssel de), general, 
born at Dijon in 173o, guillotined, together with his son, 
on the 11th of April, 1703. He went to Martinique in 1779, 
with the second battalion of the regiment of Viennois, of 
which he was ]ieutenant-c<donel ;"^ defended Saint A'incent, on 
the 17th of December, 1780, with seven hundred and fifty 
men against four thousand Englishmen, and was appointed 

"See Vol. I., page 222, note 222. See also Journal of Claude 
Blanchard, pages 1G0-1G9. The stations on the return journey, accord- 
ing to Blanchard, were the following : — 

Dates. Stops. Distances. 

23 June, 17S2 Williamsburg. 

24 " " Drinking Spring 9 miles. 

5 July, " Bird's Tavern 8 " 

6 " " Kavelaf House. 

7 " " New Kent. 

8 " " Newcastle (sojourn). 

10 " " Hanover Town 5 miles. 

11 " " Hanover Court House. 

12 " " Brunk's Bridge. 

13 " " ...... Bullengreen (Bowling Green). 

14 " " 12 miles south of Fredericksburg. 

15 " " Fredericksburg and Falmouth. 

IG " " (Sojourn). 

17 " " Peyton's Tavern. 

18 " " Dumfris. 

19 " " Coldiestcr. 

20 " " Alexandria. 

21 " '• Georgetown. 

22 " " Bladensburg. 

25 " " Rose Tavern. 

2G " " Spurier's Tavern. 

27 " " Baltimore. 

^*De Blanchelande also commanded the second battalion of Koyal- 
Comtois at the capture of Tabago. E. S. B. 



List of OJJker.^. 57 

brigadier as a reward.''^ After the ea])turc of ']"'a1)ago lie 
was appointed its governor ; afterwards he ec^n-nnanded at 
Saint Domingo, whieli he left when the llevolution broke out, 
by order of the commissioners sent by the Convention. He 
followed ]\rauduit-Duplessis, commandant of the regiment at 
Port-au-Prinee, in his resistance to revolutionary ideas and 
to freeing the negroes. He su]->ported the Poyalist side ; but 
the assistance which he had as]<ed from France was fatal to 
him, as the Ivepublic was proclaimed. He had to liide to 
escape from the zeal of the republican soldiers of the regi- 
ments of Artois and Normandy, who had landed on the 2d 
of March, 1701. He was taken, brought back to France, 
and executed. 

Plaudat (Malliieu), born the 17th of January, 1725, at 
Mulan, in Franche-Comte ; enlisted as private in 1740, and 
reiichcd the rank of second lieutenant of Agenois in 1777. 
First lieutenant in 1779. He was wounded by a musket ball 
which passed through both thighs at the siege of Tournay 
in 1745; received another bullet in the right thigh before 
Laufeld in 1747, and was cut by a sword on the liead at 
Wartburg in 1700, for which wound he was trepanned. He 
was killed at the siege of Savannah on the 24th of Septem- 
ber, 1770. 

Bois-Pertkaxd (De), " young man full of honor, cour- 
age, and zeal, who held a brevet of lieutenant-colonel in 
France in June, 177G," and whom Dr. Dubourg engaged that 
month for the colonies. " He asks for nothing," he writes to 
Franklin, "and will be placed as is desired." He embarked 
with Ducoudray on the Amplutntc, belonging to ]]eaumarchais. 
According to the Amcrlcnn Archives, he left in August, 1770.'" 



'*See Relation des combats ct des ircriements de la gunre maritime entre 
la France et VAnglrtcrrr, by Y. J. Kcr:^uolcn, former rear-admiral. Paris. 
Year IV. of the Republic. 

"Sent to General iMercor by Congress. Marginal note Viy T. V>. 



58 The French in America. 

BoiSi.OGER (Ilenri-fimeiy de), cajitain of gunners iji tlic 
regiment of artillery. 

BoxNAFOKCE DE Bellinay was present at the capture of 
Grenada and at the naval action off Saint Lucia. 

]5oNXE (Jean, Chevalier de), born the 22d of July, 17o0, 
at Yivier-lcs Montagues ; captain in the regiment of Touraiue ; 
pensioned in 17S2 for his good conduct at Saint Cliristopher. 

BONXOT. Private in 17G5 ; sub-lieutenant in the regiment 
of Gatiuais" in 1779 ; %vas present at the attack of the re- 
doul)t of Yorktown. 

Bony made the expedition of 17S1, in the position of 
paymaster attached to the army of Rochambeau. ]\rentioncd 
as liolding this position at the camp of Dobbs Ferry by Cromot 
Dubourg. 

BoRDA (Jean-Charles), born at Dax, Landes, the 4th of 
May, 1733 ; died at Paris the 20th of February, 1799. Cel- 
ebrated mathematician and physicist. He studied at the col- 
lege of La Flcche, entered the army engineer corps while still 
very young, and Mas at once noticed for important scientific 
reports. In 1757 lie was aid-de-camp of Marshal"^ ^Slaillebois 
and fought at Hastembeck. In 1707 he was attached to the 
navy by the Minister de I'raslin ; ho at once made a cam- 
paign and never ceased traveling and doing useful things for 
the navy. He went through the cam])aigns of 1777 and 
1778 with Count d'Estaiug, with the rank of naval lieuten- 
ant, and afterwards reached the rank of major-general in the 
naval army. In 17S1 he commanded the Gucrricr ; in 17S2 
he was charged to escort with the Solitaire a corps of troops 

^ F^oyal-Ainrrgiu'. 

'• Lieutenant-general. Marginal note. 



Lid of Officers. 59 

that was being sent to ]\rartinique. When these troojis had 
reached tlieir destination lie began to cruise ; but attacked 
by a liostilc fleet, he fouglit a hmg action and oidy sm-ren- 
dered after a lieroic struggle. The reputation he had a(;(iuired 
as a scientist caused the English to treat hiui with distinction, 
and to send liim on parole to his own country. We need 
not speak of liis well-known works. Perhaps he is the author 
of Journal iVun ofjicicr de marine,^' already cited, Vol. II., 
page 4. 

BoKDKNAYE (Jean-Ignace, Chevalier de), born at INIont- 
Marsay the 13tli of December, 1742; captain in the regiment 
of Gatinais tlie 28th of August, 1777 ; decorated at the sur- 
render of Yorktown. 

BoiiE (Prudhomme, Chevalier de), French officer who started 
in January, 1777, on the Ainpliltiite, fitted out by Beaumar- 
chais. lie embai-ked at Lorient with Ducoudray, Conway, 
de la Pouerie ; arrived at Portsmouth in March, 1777, and 
enlisted as volunteer in the army of the Americiuis. Elected 
brigadier-general, he resigned the 14th of September of the 
same year. 

BosNiER DE Saint Cosme (Jacques-Antoine-Fran^ois- 
Marie), born the 1st of February, 1750, at Montpellier ; 
entered the service in the Grey Musketeers in 17GG, whence 
he passed as sub-lieutenant into the regiment of Normandy 
until 1772; lieutenant in waiting"^ for the colonies in 1775; 
captain in waiting of the regiment of Armagnac in 1777 ; 
received a gunshot wound through the chest at the attack 
on Savannah. 

BoTZEN (Baron de), Polish lieutenant-colonel in the serv- 
ice of the Americans in the legion of Pulaski. He was killed 

"Ji la suite. 



60 TJte French in America. 

at Egg Harhor in 1778. Cited as the Barou de Bozo in 
Recorch of JU'volv.ilonai-ij liar. 

BouCHET (Deni.s-Jean-Floriinoiid-Ivaiiglois, Marquis du), 
born at Clermont, Auvergiic, the 20th o? October, 1752 ; died 
at Paris in October, 1820. His fnnn'ly came from Xorn^andy. 
Entering tlie military engineers at the age of liitcen, he passed 
into the artillery. lie served Avith distinction in the campaigns 
of Corsica in ] 700 in the regiment of La Marche-Prince ; left 
in 1770 for America as volunteer; reached the rank of ma- 
jor-general after the battle of Saratoga. It was then that Con- 
gress gave him a pre.-ent of money to enable him to return 
to France. In 1780 Eochambeau chose him as aitl-major- 
general. Betuniing to Franco in 1783, he re-entered the 
service as colonel, received the decoration of the Cincinnati, 
then the cross of Saint-Louis. He emigrated in 1791, served 
in the legion of Conde, and -was appointed martchal de cump 
by Louis the Eighteenth in 1795. He returned to France in 
1803, and commanded for Xapoleon the fortresses of Ypres 
and Breda from 1809 to 1810. He was made lieuteiiant- 
general by the Bourbons in 1810, and re.-igned. 

Bougainville (Louis-Antoinc, Count de), born at Paris 
the nth of November, 1729; died the 30th of August, 1811. 
Son of a notary of Paris, he studied in that town and first 
intended to follow the law, although jt)ining the Black ^lus- 
keteers. At the age of twenty-five he was intimate with 
d'Alembert and Clairaut, and published his Traiie de Calcul 
Inii'yrcd. Jn 1753 he started as aid-major in the provincial 
battalion of Picardie, and Chevest, \\\\o conunanded the camp 
of Sarrelouis, chose hiu) as aid-dc-camj). He went to Lon- 
don in 1751, was made mcmbci' of tlic l\oyal Society, and 
returned for the war <>f 1755 with the Duke de ^lirepois. 
As aid-de-cam]), with tiie brevet of lieutenant of dragoons, he 
joined his former general, who was commanding a cam[) of 



List of Officers. 61 

inaiKx^uvrcs at ]Metz. Captain in 1756, lie was attached as 
aid-tle-camp to tlie Marquis dc Montcalm, who was leavinj; 
for Canada. His activity in this campaign won him the rank 
of quartermaster*"" of the })rincipal corps in that army. He 
was wounded on the otli of July, 175S, at Ticonderoga, while 
defending victoriously the fort against Abcrcrombv. Bougain- 
ville returned to Paris, sent by IMontcalm to ask for succor. 
He only obtained four hundred recruits and some ammuni- 
tion. Still Louis the Fifteenth appointed him colonel in 
waiting of the regiment of Rouergue and chevalier of Saint- 
Louis, despite his short service. He rejoined his general in 
1759. He covered the retreat to Quebec, and wiien Mont- 
calm had been killed on the 15th of September, 1759, Bou- 
gainville kept up the fight for a year, then surrendered. Can- 
ada was lost to France. Bougainville returned to France in 
]76L 

Bougainville served in Germany in 1762. Then, in 1763, 
he obtained permissitiu to change his title of colonel for that 
of naval captain. He had built at Saint Malo the Aijlc, of 
twenty guns, and the Sphinx of twelve guns, and sailed on 
the 15th of September with families from Acadia and lauded 
in the ]Malouin Islands on the 3d of February, 1764. He 
founded there a colony which he had to give up the following 
year to Spain. He returned by the Pacific, making discov- 
eries, from 1767 to 1769. 

AVhen war broke out in 177S he commanded the Biai- 
Airiie, under the orders of Lamotte-Piquet. In 1779 he was 
appointed lleet commander, and took command of the Lan- 
ffucdoc as flag captain to Count d'Fstaing. The same year 
he was made rncurchal de camp, and participated in various 
combats fought in the Antilles against Ilood. At Grenada, 
against Lord J^yron, he commanded the Gucrrio', whose 
manreuvres were very fine. 

^ Mai\chal des logls. 



62 The French in America. 

At tlie action of Chesapeake Bay, the 5th of September, 
1781, Bougainville commanded, on the Angustc, the vanguard 
of the fleet of Count de Grasse. The English ship the Ter- 
rible was taken, and Washington and Roehambeau considered 
that the victory was due to l^ougainville.®^ 

The following year he participated in the ca])ture of Saint 
Christopher. The 25tli and 2Gth of January, 1782, he fought 
in the vanguard against Admiral Hood, The 12th of A})ril, 
at the fatal action of the Saintes, he covered with his ship the 
Augude, the Xorlhianbcrland, whifh was in danger, and re- 
mained until he had rallied oiglit sln'ps, which he brought 
back first to Saint Eustatius, then to Cape Eranyais.^^ In 
1783 he received the decoration of the Cincinnati and was 
made member of the Academy of Science. Vice-admiral in 
1790, senator under the Empire, grand officer of the Legion 
of Honor. 

BouiLi.lo (Erancois-Claude-Amour, Marquis de), born at 
the Chateau de Cluzel, in Auvergne, the 19th of November, 
1739; entered the service in 1754, and joined as cadet gcni'd- 
hommc the regiment of infantry of which the Prince de Ilohau- 
Rochefort was colonel ; the following year he passed into the 
Black Musketeers, and in June, 175G, received a brevet of 
captain in the regiment of dragoons commanded by de La 
Ferronavs. AVith this rank he fought in Germany during 



''Good action of Bougainville at the battle in Chesapeake Bay. 
Seven vessels against fourteen. 

"When General Wasliington and General de Rochambeau came to 
compliment him (de Grasse) on this battle, de Grasse told them that 
the compliments were due to me as having commanded the vanguard 
and personally fought the Ti rrihk." 

P'xtract from a letter of JJougainville to de Y.iudreuil, sliown to me 
by M. Pierre IMargry, tlic learned archivist of the ministry of marine, 
to whom I owe much useful information. 

'^See the report of tlic council of war who judged his conduct in 
this battle. 



List of Officers. 63 

the Seven Years War, from 17;")S to 17C3. De Bouille 
showed during the.-e eanipaiu;ns great eourage and mncli skill ; 
he reeelved several wounds. As reward for the important 
part lie had played in the sneeess of the battle of Griinberg, 
he received, on the lUth of November, 17C1, the brevet of 
colonel, but his regiment was partly destroyed at the siege of 
Brunswick, ^vhere he ^vas himself -wounded and made pris- 
oner. 

He was sent in 17G5 to ^Martinique with his regiment, 
which had been remodeled, and, anticipating the coming 
changes in the English colonies, he explored the Antilles, 
which might soon become the scene of the im])ending struggle 
against England. After a journey to France, he returned 
to take his new position of Governor of Guadeloupe in 1768. 
He aided the prosperity of this colony by his wise and en- 
lightened administi-ation ; but disappointed in his hoj^e of hav- 
ing to defend it against England after the dismissal of Choiseul 
from the ministry, he asked for his recall, and returned to 
France in October, 1771. 

In 1777 he was appointed marCchaJ <Je camp and was sent 
once more to the "Windward Islands, with the title of gov- 
ernor-general. At the outbi-cak of the war he seized Dominica, 
and was getting ready to attack the other English islands, 
when the arrival of Count d'Estaing with a squadron paral- 
yzed his plans, or at least caused them to partly miscany. 
Placed in a most critical position on account of his isolation 
and his being forsaken by de Grasse and de Guichen, he 
created resources for himself, repaired the disasters caused by 
a hurricane, got together a small fleet and made himself feared 
by the English, from whom he took Tabago and Saint Eu- 
statius in 1778, then Saint Christo})lier in 1782. This last 
success brought him, on his return to France the same year, 
the rank of lieutenant-general. 

At the peace of 1783, de Bouille, having finally returned 
to Europe, received the title of chevalier of the orders of 



64 Tlic French in America. 

the king, and the gift of two cannon captured at Saint Chris- 
topher. The Americans on their side announced to him liis 
admission to the order of the Cincinnati by autograph letters 
from Genei'al AVashington, containing the expres.^ion of tlie sen- 
timent of admiration and i-c.-pect which tlie character of the 
Marquis do Bonille had inspired in him. 

He tlien became famous in France for his affection for Louis 
tlie Sixteenth. Appointed in 1790 commander-in-chief of the 
Army of the ]Meuse, Sarre and Moselle, he had to contend at 
Met/, with the spirit of insubordination wlilch tended to disor- 
ganize liis army, and had also to resist the town authorities. 
He grew so disgusted witli all this, that he had decided to quit 
France, when he A\as prevented by the pressing letters of La 
Fayette, of I^atour du Pin, minister of war, and of the king 
himself. From this time his only thought was saving the king 
and the monarchy from the coming disasters, and he sounded 
on this point I^a Fayette, who did not seem to enter into his 
ideas. A formidable military in-urrcction broke out among 
his troops at Metz and at Xancy. This time again his cour- 
age and his ability triumphed over the danger, but not Avitli- 
out the shedding of blood (31st of August, ITl'Oj. 

He refused })atriotically the baton of marshal oi" France, 
not wishing, he said, to accept a reward for having had the 
misfortune to use his arms against Frenchmen. Xcverthelcss 
his victory made him numerous enemies, and brought hiiu 
still nearer to the king, to whom he sent his eldest son to 
concert the plan and the means of a flight prepared and med- 
itated by Louis the Sixteenth himself. De Bouillc was to 
advance towards the king, receive him, ju-c^tect him as well 
as tlie remnants of his authority at T'-Iontmedy, in a camp 
composed of his surest and most devoted troops. This plan 
failed from a series of unexpected events, and the king was 
arrested with his family at A^arcnnes, while de Bonille was 
forced to quit France in 17W1. 

From Coblentz, where he took refuge, he still tried to serve 



List of Officers. 65 

Louis the Sixteenth ])y makin*^ oiTers to foreipfii com't.s,.biit 
they were all useless, and after the death of the king he 
withdrew to England. He died in London in LSOO.*^ 

BouiT.LET (De), offu-er of the regiment of Agenois ; was 
present at the siege of Yorktown. The 30th of September, 
1781, early in the morning, he had his thigh broken by a 
musket ball on the left of the line of the besiegers while 
they were working to join together the abandoned forts. 

BoULAND, captain in the regiment of Armagnac, thirty- 
Keven years of service ; wounded at the attack on the intreuch- 
raents of Savannah. 

BoiiKAYNE (Cesar-Jose])h, Baron de), naval captain, born 
at Brest in 17G8. He enlisted as a volunteer at the age of 
thirteen on the Aur/usU', commanded by Bougainville, which 
formed part of the squadron of Count de Grasse. He was 
present at the action in Chesapeake Bay, the 5th of Sep- 
tember, 1781; at the cjipture of Saint Christopher; at the 
actions of the 25th and the 2Gth of January, 1782, off Saint 
Christopher, and at the disastrous battle of the Saintes. 

Naval ensign in 1702, naval lieutenant in 1703; wounded 
and captured by the English. Captain of frigate in 170G ; 
again a prisoner iii 1810, was only freed in 1814; baron of 
the Empire, with a present of four thousand francs, the 21st 
of July, 1814. Louis the Eighteenth made him chevalier of 
Saint-Louis. Died in active service at Brest in 1817. 

Bourdon de Yatry (^Nlarc-Antoine, Baron), born at Saint 
Maur the 21st of Xovember, 17G1. He followed de Grasse 

'""The Marquis de Bouilk's" says several times J. de Saint-Yallier 
{Ilisloirc raisonnce de la dernih-e guerre), "showed in all liis enterprises 
rapidity, ability, and courage." An intcrcstinpr bio<.'raphy of de Bouille 
was published in Paris by his grandson, the present ^Ian}uis de Bouill(5. 
This book has the merit of a great sobriety of style when the author 
is led by his narrative to give praise. 



66 The French in America. 

in the position of general secretary of the expedition, and 
was present at the battle of the 12th of August, 1TS2. At 
the peace he was made chief of tlie division of the colonics 
at the ministry of tlie navy. He was minister of the navy 
under the Directory and under the Consulate, occupied various 
positions under the Empire, and would not serve under the 
Restauration. He had no fortune at his death, which occurred 
at Paris in 1S2S. 

BouRGET (Geoflroy de). Colonel of engineers at Martin- 
ique. 

BouRGUissox. See Berguisson. 

BouVET (Franyois-Joseph), born at Loricnt the 23d of 
April, 1753; died at Brest in 1832. Made two campaigns 
to the Antilles and to Saint Domingo, He was auxiliary 
officer on the Belle Ponle during the action of the 20Lh of 
June, 1778, in which he was wounded. 

Captain of the ship the Audadeux in 1793 ; rear-admiral 
in 1802. He returned at this time to Saint Domingo with 
General Richepance. He became vice-admiral and was re- 
tired in 1817. 

Boyp:re. See Berage. 

Boys (Pierre-Francois de), enlisted as a volunteer, brev- 
eted the 7th of October, 177G, as major iu waiting of the 
army.**^ 

Boze (Baron de). See Botzen. 

BozoN DE Pf:RiGORD (Couut), came to America in 1782 
with tlie Prince de Broglie, and rejoined the tro()j)s at Cram- 
pond, tlicn went from Boston to Porto Cabello witii Dumas. 

" Auberteuil. 



List of Officers. 67 

]5nAiLM (Fenlinainl do), eiiirincor for South Carolina the 
lOtli of Fe'oriuuy, JTTC.^' He is mentioned also in Jicconh 
of Jievolufionarif ]V</r in these terms: "The 11th of Janu- 
ary, 1778; Congress gave him a In-cvct of engineer with rank 
of major in the servi(,'e of the United St;ues."*° 

BiiEXTAXo (de), aid-de-eiimp of the Chevalier dc Yiomenil; 
distinguished himself at the attack of the redoubt of York- 
town. 

BiJESSOLES (Gilhcrt de), born the 3d of December, 1739, 
at la ]*]anchc, in Dourbonnais. Entered the service in 1757 ; 
wounded by several sabre cuts at the l)attle of Mindcn in 
1759 ; badly crushed by a Jiorse killed under him at Casscl 
in 17G2 ; caj)tain in 17G9 ; major in 1776 ; lieutenant-colonel 
of Bourbonnais the 29th of December, 1777 ; received a pen- 
sion for liis good conduct at Yorktown. " Serves with much 
distinction, and is one of the best lieutenant-colonels."^^ 

Bkice or Brue,** enlisted as volunteer aid-de-camp to La 
Fayette; brevet lieutenant-colonel the 27th of October, 1778. 
Had a horse killed under him before Gloucester, the 25th of 
November, 1777. 

Bjrip: (Jean-Gcorges-Prosper Dauricr dc Madron de), born 
the 25th of November, 1737, at Brie, near Savendun, county 
of Foix ; served since 1749 ; captain in 1760 ; captain-com- 
mandant in the regiment of Saintonge ; received a pension for 
his good conduct before Yorktown.*^ 

Bri]:res (Zacharic-Jacques des), born at Paris the 26th 
of March, 1736. Four campaigns at the lie dc France, 



** American Arrliircs. Series 4, Vol. V., page 584. 

** Built Fort Moultrie. Marginal note by T. B. 

" Archives of ^^'ar. 

^ Manoires of La Fayette. 

^Archives of "War. 



G8 The French in America. 

two in America ; captain-coLiiinandant in tlic regiment of 
Saintonge. His good coiKluct at Yorktown brought him the 
cross of Saint-Louis. 

Broglip: (Vietor-CLaude, rrince de), of an iUu^trious family 
from Quiers in Piedmont, \\\ne\\, at tlie time of the Ameri- 
can War, had already given to France several marslmls and 
otlier eminent men. 

The grandfather of Yictor-Claude, who won the liattles of 
Parma and of Guastella (1734), afterwards commanded the 
troops sent in 1741 to Bohemia with the ]\[arquis°'' of Belle- 
Isle, and was created duke by Louis the Fifteenth. His fa- 
ther was appointed, in 1759, Prince of the Holy Roman Em- 
pire by the Emperor of Germany, in return for the services 
he had rendered him during the war against Prussia. In 
1789 Louis the Sixteenth intrusted him with tlic ministry 
of war. 

Born in 1757, Yictor-Claude de I^>roglie entered the service 
iu 1771, and was appointed colonel of the regiment of Saint- 
onge the 3d of June, 1779. He was sent to America in 
1782, with the rank of moitre de camjj. Mathicu Dumas 
says in his Souvenirs that he started from liocliefort on the 
12th of May of that year,^^ but he tells him^^elf in his Me- 
moirs"^ that he embarked on the 19th of ^Nlay at J3rest, on 
the Gloire, commanded by de Yalonge. This was at the 
time when several superior officers of the expeditionary corps, 
who had come on missions or on leave of absence to France 
after the Ci^pturc of Yorktown, were returning to their posts. 
Many of the young nobles, anxious to share in the glory 
and the dangers of the Frenchmen who had i)receded them 
to the United States, had also obtainal permission to join 



^Marshal. Marginal note. 

"It is by an error that Mr. Drake, in his new anil excellent 7)-V7)'o»an/ 
of American Biogrnplni, makes de Broglie serve in the campaign of 17S1. 
" Vol. I., page 15. 



List of Oflhrrs. 69 

the afiny of lloe'liainbcau. So wo see leavin2; on the same 
ship as the Piiiice de J^roglie: the Duke de Lau/.un, do Shel- 
don, the Count de Segur, de Lonicnie, Alexandre de Ijaineth, 
the Baron de Montesquieu, de Polereski, the Viscount de Vau- 
dreuil, and an aid-de-eanip of the king of Sweden, do Ligliorn. 

The Aigle, whicli left at the simie time as the Gloire, liad as 
passengers Matiiieu Dumas, the l>aron de Yioiuenil, the Count 
Rieci, the Duke d(! Laval, de I^angeron, Count ]jozon de 
Talleyrand, de Floury. This frigate was commanded l)y 
Latouche-Treville. She carried two million five hundred 
thousand licrcs for Congress. I have narrated in the first 
part of this book the events that hajipened during the passage, 
and the circumstances that trouljled the landing in Delaware 
Bay. De Broglie, after liaving aided in saving tlie barrels 
full of money which Latouche-Treville was obliged to throw 
overboard at tlie mouth of the Delaware, joined the army at 
Cramjiond. 

The expeditionary corps liad done its work ; there were no 
more laurels for the young oillcer to gather in the now defin- 
itely established United States. So he s(.)on em})arked at 
Boston for the United States of Columbia, which he explored 
in company with several of his fellow passengers. 

After his return to ]*^rance he was made deputy to the 
States General, then employed as rnarechal de camp in the 
Army of the Rhine. But he would not recognize the act of 
suspension of the king ; he Avas, for this act of resistance, 
accused, condemned to death, and guillotined at Paris, the 
27th of June, 1794. He was thirty-seven years of age.^ 

"^lu the Magazine of American Jlintory for 1877 there appeared 
the translation, by my sister, of the narrative of the Prince de Broglie, 
with a preliminary notice, by my father, of the family of the Prince 
de Broglie. 

In ISStj the same nia;_'a7.ino published a note by my si-^ter on the 
family of de Broglie, quoting pat^sages from a letter of the present 
Duke de Broglie, in which he says : " The f;icts quoted by your father 
in regard to my family are in absolute confnnnitij with the truth." E. S. B. 



70 The French in America. 

Bkomer (De), Swedish officer, wounded at the naval aetion 
off Saint Lucia. He was present at the attack of Savannali. 

Broves (De), officer of artillery in the service cf the 
Americans, returned to France with La Fayette, Pontgibaud, 
JSIauduit-Duplessis, de Ravmondis and others on the Alliance, 
in January, 1779. They arrived at Brest on the Gth of Feb- 
ruary. 

Browne (Thomas), major of the regiment of Dillon, was 
born at Castelloffre the 12th of October, 1732; killed the 
9th of October, 1770, before Savannah. 

BiuiE. See Brice. 

Brueys d'Aigallier-s (Franyois-Paul), born at Vzb^ in 
1753. He entered the navy at the age of thirteen, and in 
1780 served as naval lieutenant iu the fleet of Count do 
Grasse. He took part in the five actions that were fought 
with Admirals Hood and Graves. 

Captain in 1702 and vice-admiral in 1708, he convoyed 
to Egypt the army of Bonaparte, and was cut in two by a 
cannon ball at the" battle of Aboukir, on the 24th of August, 
1798. 

Bruix (Eustachc), born in Saint Domingo the 17th of 
July, 1759; died as admiral at Paris the 18th of June, 1805. 
He embarked first on a merchant vessel, and made his first 
campaign on the Fox and his second on the Connrrd After 
having served on the various squadrons which went to the 
assista'iice of the United States, and been present at three 
actions, he was ajipointed ensign in 1781. After much work, 
and repeatedly distinguishing himself, he was made minister 
of the navy at the beginning of the Empire. At the time 



Lid of Officers. 71 

of his dcatli lie Avas cliarj^eJ by Napoleon with organizing 
a lancliiio- in Eiiirland. 



Bruyi^ues (Count de), born in 1734; died in July, ]821. 
He entered the navy very young, and distinguished himself 
under d'Estaing in the American AVar, and under the Bailli 
de Suft'ren. Having been given the command of the lUustre 
and remaining alone with the Ilcros, he drove away twelve 
English ships. He returned to Euro])e in 17S4, and was 
despoiled of his rank and fortune during the Kevolution, and 
even of his liberty in 1703. Louis the Eighteenth made him 
grand cross of Saint-J^ouis. 

BuissON (Chevalier du), enlisted as a volunteer, brevet- 
major the 4th of October, 1777 ; retired in 1781. The Poin- 
sylvanla Gazette of the 4th of October, 1780, printed the fol- 
lowing letter from the Chevalier du Buisson to Generals 
Smallwood and Gist. It was dated at Charlotte the 26th of 
August : — 

" My Dear Generals : — Having received several wounds 
in the action of the ICth instant, I was made prisoner with the 
honorable major-general, the Baron dc Kalb, with whom I 
served as aid-de-camp and friend, and had an opportunity 
of attending that great and good officer during the short time 
he languished with eleven wounds, which proved mortal on 
the third da)^ 

"It is with pleasure I obey the Baron's last commands, in 
presenting his most affectionate compliments to all the oflicers 
and men of his division. He expressed the greatest satisfaction 
in the testimony given by the British army of the bravery of 
his troops, and he was charmed w'ith the firm opposition they 
made to superior force, when tibaudoned by the rest of the 
army. The gallant behavior of the Delaware regiment and 
the companies of artillery attached to the brigades atforded 



72 The French in America. 

hiui infinite ]-»le;i>nre, and tlie exemplary conduct of the whole 
division gave liiin an endearing sense of the merit of the 
troops he had the honor to command. 

"I ani^ dear genei-als, with regard and re.-pect, your mo.--t 
obedient humble servant, 

"Le Chevalier Duijuys-son, 

"Lieutenant- Colonel. 
"To Brifjadier-Generfils Smallicood and Gist.'^^^-^^' 

BuzALET (Charles- Adrien de), chief of brigade in the reg- 
iment of Auxonue, royal corps of artillery. 

0. 

Cabannes (Charles-Guillanme de), born the 21st of April, 
1742 ; entered as second lieutenant the regiment of Royal- 
Dcux-Ponts the 9tli of April, 175S ; captain-commandant 
the 4th of April, 1780; made five campaigns in Germany, 
then two in America, where his conduct before Yorktown 
brought him the decoration of Military Merit. 

Cabannes (Adam-]\Iaximilien de), born at Xassau-Sieghen 
the 4th of January, 1741 ; entered the 30th of June, 1758, 
as sub-lieutenant, the regiment of Royal-Deux-Ponts ; made 
the campaigns of Germany and America like the former, and 
received also the cnjss of Military INIcrit after the capture of 
Yorktown, but was not appointed captain-commandant until 
the 30th of June, 1782. 

Cabrieres. Sec Rouverie. 

CaldaguivS (Pierre-Kaymond de), born at Aurillac the 
3d of August, 1747. Entered the service in 17G3 as sub- 

**See also Mcrcnre de I-Yanci; January, IT'^l, page 154. 
**He is not cited in the life of de Kalb by the Hon. Friedrich 
Kapp. Marginal note by T. 13. 



List of Officers. 73 

lieutenant in tlic regiment of Soissonnais, a}>j)ointecl Ciiptain 
en second in this regiment the 12t]i of May, 1781 ; had no 
fortune, and received a pension for his conduct before York- 
town. 

Ca]mrray (Chevalier du), entered the service as amdi- 
date (cisjnrant) to the royal corps of artillery in 1770, and 
was not made officer, as there was no vacancy. He left for 
America willi de Carmichael in 1778, and arrived in the 
month of June. In the Memoirs of La l^ayette at that time 
is a letter where he writes to his wife that du Cambray ^yill 
be well placed. He was, in fact, appointed by Congress*"' lieu- 
tenant-colonel in the corps of the engineers, under the orders 
of Du Poi'tail, and fortilled Charlestown in 1779. Then he 
was commander of the artillery in the Department of the West. 
At the peace he was appointed major in the provincial troops. 

Campanhs (La Muderic de). See ^MuDEiiiE. 

Cartel i)'InI^:tevilee. See Daxetevilee. 

Caravagxp: or Gakavaque, officer of engineers attached 
to the expeditionary corps.^' 

Carmichael, arrived in Americii with du Cambray in 
June, 1778. La Fayette writes at this time that he had not 
yet received a position.'^ 

CAKRf:RE, enlisted as private in France in 1752, became 
officer in 17G7 and captain en second of the grenadiers of 
Gatinais in 1779. Distinguished himself at the attack of the 
redoubt before Yorktowu. 

*° October, 177S. Marginal note by T. B. 

" Blanchard. 

^ Mcmoircs of La Fayette. 



74 The FreiKh in America. 

Catay (Fran 901 s-Cesar tic), lieutenant in the rco-imcntof 
Bourbonnais durin^jj the expedition of the United States; v.-as 
wrecked during the action of the Jason, and only escaped 
with difficulty. 

Cateime (Julien Drude de la). See Drude. 

CazaIj (De), captain-commandant in the regiment of Tou- 
raine; entered the service in 1761. 

Chaeannes (Jaccjucs-Gilbert-]\Iarie, Count de), born at 
Paris the 3d of August, 17G0. Officer in 1776, captain in 
waiting of the regiment of Royal-Piemont in 1778. !Made 
the campaigns in America as aid-quartermaster-general of the 
army of J-?,ocham])eau. lie M'as also aid-de-camp of tlie IJaron 
de Viomenil, who, in his report of the capture of York- 
town, calls attention to his bravery and his merit, lloeh- 
ambeau asked for him, on account of his worth and his 
valor, the rank of mestre de camp en second, which he ob- 
tained as soon as he was old enough, on the 3d of August, 
1783. 

Cuabert (Marquis de), born in 1724, died in 1805. As- 
tronomer and French admiral. Entered the navy as guard 
in July, 1741, and distinguished himself in several expedi- 
tions, notably in Acadia, at Louisbourg, in 1746. lie left, 
February the 28th, 1778, on the sixty-four gun vessel, the 
VaiUant, which he commanded and which formed part of the 
fleet of the Count d'Estaing. He took part in the actions 
off Grenada. lie changed, on the 20th of September, 1780, 
to the eighty-gun ship, the Saint Esprit, in which he took 
part, under de Grasse, in the actions of the lOtli of ^Vpril, 
2d of June, oth of Septend)cr, 1781, and at the coml)at of 
the 8th of the same month, where he was wounded. Ap- 
pointal chief of squadron the 20th of January, 1782, he 



List of Officers. 75 

nevertheless did not neirleet hi.s scientific work. Commander 
of Saint-Louis in 17S1 and vice-admiral in 1792.^^ 

Chaise (De la), commanded a little detachment of thirty 
men who captured Fort Loubieres at the attack of Dominica, 
the 7th of September, 1778. lie was detached from the 
regiment of Auxerrois, under the orders of Viscount de 
Damas. Received the order of Saint-Louis in 1779."" 

Chat.endar (Jean-Baptiste-IMarguerite, Chevalier de), born 
at Bonay, near to Le Puy, the IGlh of April, 1751. En- 
tered the service in 1771 as sub-lieutenant in the regiment 
of Gatinais. Distinguished himself at the attack of Yorktown, 
and was apj)ointed ca})tain in October, 17SL AVas made pris- 
oner the 12th of April, 1782, on the ship the Cafon. 

CiiAMiLLARD DE Vakville, lieutcnant-coloncl, com- 
mander en second of the Bon Homme Richard under Paul 
Jones, commanded a party of twenty men during the action 
with the Serapis}^^ 

CiiAMPAGNY (Jean-Baptiste de Nompere de, Count de 
Champagny, Duke de Cadore), born at Koanne the 4th of 
August, 1756; died the 3d of July, 1834; entered the navy 
in 1775 as naval ensign ; was wounded in the naval action 
of the ]2tli of April, 1782."- 

He became naval lieutenant and chevalier of Saint-Louis ; 
was deputy to the States General from the nobility of Forez 
in 1789; was imprisoned during the Terror; was in succes- 
sion state councillor, minister of the interior, and minister of 



" L. B., 96, 200, 204-243. 
^'^ Longchamj). 

'■'^Llfe of J. I'aul Jo/irx, by Sherburne, 1825, page 129. Life of J. 
Paul Jones, by Jeannette Taylor. New York, 1830. Page 162. 
><» L. B., 262. 



76 Tlie French in Amrrica. 



was 



forcio-ii aflairs under Najioleon, and also senator. He 
created Count de Clianipa<,rny the 24tli of April, 1S08, Duke 
de Cadore (Picve di Cadore) the loth of August, 1809, and 
peer of France under the llestauration. He served also under 
Louis Philippe, 

CiiATsri'CEXKZ (De), cited in the oMemoirs of the Prince de 
Broglie and in those of Dumas as having made excursions 
with them in North America, then in Columbia. He was on 
the Aigle during its passage, and showed the greatest courage 
in trying to save the vessel and the crew at the mouth of 
the Delaware. 

CliAPruY DE Coi:i:viLEE (Toussaint-]\Iagloire), born the 
6th of June, 1761, at Viviers, in the A'ivarais ; cadet r/cniil- 
homme the 6th of June, 1776; sub-lieutenant of Gutinais the 
28th of August, 1777; second lieutenant the lOlh of March, 
1780;. first lieutenant the 2d of April, 178-1; made the 
campaigns in the Antilles with his regiment; wounded by a 
musket ball at Savannah, and made prisoner at the naval 
action of the 12th of April, 1782, on the ship the Ardent. 



Chapuy de TouiiYiLLE (Charlcs-Bertin-Gaston), born at 
Metz the 4th of January, 1740. Entered the service in 
1765, major in the regiment of Gatinais in 1776; fulfilled 
for a year in America the duties of major-general. 

Charlot, entered the service in 1750 ; made the American 
expedition as captain-commandant in the regiment of Tourainc. 

Chaklus DE La Ciioix (Count de), son of the Marshal 
de Castries, ndnister of war in 1782."' He was born the 



^■^ Minister of the navy in 1780. Marginal note. 



Lid oj Ojlicers. 77 

3(1 of May, IToG; entered tlic service in 17CG; captain tlie 
4tli of April, 1774; made the campaign of America as 
mcMre de camp ni second of the regiment of Saintonge, a 
rank he had obtained the '23d of May, 1779. He sliowed 
much zeal and courage in all circumstances, according to tlie 
report of Rochambeau. He left Bre.^t with the expeditionary 
corps, aud embarked on the Ja.Hon with Dumas, Charles de 
Lameth, and Fersen ; then, after the capture of Yorktown, 
he returned to France the 25th of October, 1781, on the 
Andromaqiic, witii CJuillaume de Deux-Funts, the Count de 
Damas, aud the ^lanpu's de Laval, to bear the news of the 
success of the expedition. They had, liowever, beeu antici- 
pated by de Lauzun. 

He emigrated during the French Kevolution, and died peer 
of France in 1842.^"* 

CiiASTELT.ux (Francois- Jean, Clievalicr de), Icnown by the 
title of jNIarquis, which he took only in 1784. He had be- 
fore that only the title of Chevalier, which Lauzun calls 
him by, and which he calls himself by in his Voijagcs. 
Born at Paris in 1734, died in 17SS. Entered the service 
in 1749, at the age of fifteen ; colonel of the regiment of his 
name at the age of twenty-one ; colonel of the regiment of 
la ]\Iarche in 17o9 ; brigadier in 1709; made the campaigns 
of Germany ; went to America with the title of major-general 
in the army of Kochambcau in 1780, and devoted himself 
especially, during liis stay, to studying the territory of the 
revolted colonies and the customs of the Americans. His 
observations have been published in two volumes of Memoirs, 

'''^On the frigate the Amazone there were, besides de Charhis, the 
Viscount de Rocluunboau and Guillaume de Deux- Pouts. Tlie -l/«/ro- 
viaque, which left the 31st of October, only took nineteen days to cross. 
The Eiigagamtc arrived at Loricnt four days later; it had had a pas- 
sage of t\venty-two days, and aime from Doston. {Mt rcare dc France, 
1781.) 



78 The French in America. 

under the title of Voijofjes daus rAmerique Scjifcnfrhnale en 
1780-81-82, Paris 17SG, in 8".'*^ 

He was present at the principal conferences of Count de 
Rochanibeaii with AVasliington, and also at the fii-st interview 
of the American generalissimo with Count de Grasse, on the 
Ville de Pai^is, hefore the attack ou Yorktown, togctlier M-itli 
General Knox and du Portail. T^auzun reproaches him for 
his frivolity in his jMenioirs, and it is strange to see such a 
judgment liy the man who was considered the least serious 
in the whole army. He did, at any rate, nothing of im- 
portance during the campaign, except that he repulsed with 
a reserve corps the six hundred English Nvho were making 
a sortie on the batteries on the right during the night of the 
loth to the IGth of October, before Yorktown. He com- 
manded, with the r>aron de Viomenil, the retreat of the troops 
in 1782. He returned al'terwards to France ahead of the 
array and at tlie same time as de Ilochambcau, de Beville, 
and the staff. 

He was appointed marcchal de camp immediately after his 
arrival. Since 1775 he was member of the French xVcad- 
cmy.^"^ He married in 1787 an accomplished woman of Irish 
extraction, Miss Plunkett, whose acquaintance he had made at 
the baths of Spa. Washington sent him his congratulations 
in a letter which we find in his corresi)ondence. But this 
marriage was not happy and a year after the marquis died. 
His fortune was doubtless lost during the Revolution, for in 
1795 his widow asked help from the American Government 
for herself and her son, invoking the remembrance of the 



**This book has been translated into English, with interesting and 
instructive notes. Travels in Xorfh Anurica in the years 17S0-1-2, by 
the ]\Iarquis de Chastellux. 2 vols. Du1)lin, 17S7. Translated by an 
English gentleman who resided in America at that period. 

^'*l)e Chastellux also pul^lished, among other books: Discours sur 
Ics avaiitagcs qxii pciarnt rfmltrr j)Our I'Jiarope de In (Itcouverie dc VAvu'r- 
ique, I'aris, 1787. Discours en vers adrcsse aux ojjiciers el soldats Amn-i- 
cains, Paris, 1786. 



List of Oficers. 79 

services performed by her husband. This petition luid no 
result. lie was a member of the order of the Cincinnati. 

Blanchard says in liis diary : " He was received, he told 
me, associate member of the Academy of Philadel]:)hia. He 
has had printed in two voUimes the account of his journey, 
and one can find there a few agreeable details, but much 
minutiffi, mediocre jokes and praise, often ill deserved, of 
people who liad flattered him. Brissot de Warville wrote a 
bitter criticism on this work." 

CiiAUSSi^E. See A^artn. 

Chaussepi]':d enlisted as private in the regiment of Agcnois 
in 1757, made the campaigns of Germany during the Seven 
Yciirs' War, was apjiointed sub-lieutenant in 1779, and made 
with his regiment the campaigns of America. He took part 
in the sieges of Savannah and Yorktown. 

CiiAZELLE DE Bahgttes (Autoinc), born the 23d of No- 
vember, 1752, at Sales in Auvcrgne ; made the campaign of 
1780-81 in America, with tlic rank of lieutenant of Bour- 
bonnais. During the sortie whicli the English made, during 
the siege of Yorktown, against the battery on the right, dur- 
ing the night of the loth to the IGth of October, 1781, he 
was dangerously wounded and remained crippled. 

Chexnevieres (Guilhuune), born the 11th of June, 1734, 
at FHermitage in Normandy; eidistod as private in 1754; ap- 
pointed officer in 17C7, and made the expedition of America 
as captain en second of tlie grenadiers of l^ourbonnais. lie 
distinguished himself before Yorktown, and obtained a pen- 
sion of three hundred llvrcs. 

CiTESXE (Du) or DiTCiiESNE, entered the service in 1758; 
made two campaigns in Germany, ibur at the lie de France ; 



80 The French in America. 

went to Aincricn wltli Ivochambcau ns Ciiptain-commandant of 
the regiment of Saintonge. 

Chesnel, commissary of war of the expedition of Ilo- 
chambeau nndcr tlic orders of Bhinchard.^"' 

Chevigny (Bien dc). See Biex. 

Ciif:zE (De la), an officer of artillery; made the campaigns 
of 1780, 81, 82, and 83 on the American continent. lie 
was very intimate witli Blanchard, witli whom lie lived.'"^ 

Chileeau piarquis de), colonel of the Viennois regiment; 
distinguished himself at the Capture of Saint Domingo^"'-* under 
Bouille, the 7th of September, 1778. There were in all two 
thousand men in this attack ; they were drawn from the Aux- 
errois and Viennois regiments, to whom were added a hun- 
dred volunteers. After the cajtturc of the island de C'hillcau 
was intrusted to guard it with eight hundred men. He was 
also at the capture of Tabago, the 2d of June, 1780. 

Choisy (De), entered the service in 1741, was major in 
17G3, lieutenant-C(.)lonel in 17G7, brigadier in 1772, nicdre 
de camp in the fourth regiment of chasseurs in 1779, and 
resigned this rank in order to go to America. "He was 
very brave, and feared nothing," says Lauzun, " but had a 
quick and violent temper." He obtained all his promotions 
by deeds of valor, and had distinguished himself especially 
in Germany at the defense of Cracow, where he requested to 
serve with the expeditionary corps of Bochambcau. 

He arrived at Xew})ort on the oOth of September, 1780, on 
the Gcnfille, with nine other officers, after having touched at 

^'"Etats Mililairc.^. 
^'^Joarnnl of Blanchard. 
^"^Douiinica. ]\rargiiial note. 



U^t of Officers. 81 

Cajic Fvan(;ais, Saint Doniiii;i;(). The brothers Berthicr were 
witli him."'' 

A\'liile the expeditionary corps ^vas goinji; first to New York, 
then to Yorktowii, he was charged with guarding tlie tieet 
and stores at Rhode Island, with one thousand American mil- 
itiamen and five Innidred French soldiers. At the news of 
the arrival of the allied armies at Yorktown he left a hun- 
dred men at Providence, under command of Dcsprez, major 
of Deux-Ponts. Then he embarked with five hundred men 
and all the artillery on the ten vessels which composed the 
squadron under the cuninKind of de J'arras, on the 21st of 
August, 1781, and, taking advantage of the action between de 
Grasse and uVdmiial Graves, he penetrated into Chesapeake 
Bay, and landed his men and stores in sight of the French 
camp. The 27th of September he left Williamsburg to take 
coumiand of the siege on the side of Gloucester, until then 
intrusted to the too pacific General AVeedon. He took some 
artillery thei'e undisturbed, and assembled under his orders the 
one thousand American militiamen inider command of Weedon, 
the legion of Lauzun, and eight hundred men taken from the 
marines of the ships furnished by de Grasse. The Ameri- 
can general henceforth had only a nominal authority in that 
quarter. jNIoreover, A^'eedon, at first scared by the audaeity 
and the bravery of the French commander, which he called 
foolhardincss, never foi- a moment thought of taking his place 
at the head of the troops on the battlefield, nor to conte.-t the 
authority which de Choisy had taken in the camp. 

De Choisy, in an impetuous charge which he made with the 
legion of Lauzun, l)r()ke up tlie cavalry of Tarleton ; he op- 
posed afterwarils the attemj)ts at flight of Lord Cornwall is, and 
after having advanced his outi)Osts up to the walls of Glouces- 
ter, he was i)reparing an assault on that side when lie learned 
that the articles of surrender were signed. He was ajipointed 



Mircure de France, 17S1. 



82 The French in America. 

marcchcd dc camp and promised the governorship of a. fortified 
town. 

CHRiSTOniE (Henri), King of Iluyti in 17G7, comnn'ttcd 
suicide in 1820; received a wound at the siege of Savannah. 

ClaiPvAUD (De), infantry officer, killwl at the naval action 
off Grenada, tlie 7th of July, 1 779. 

Clavis, enlisted as private in the regiment of Soissonnais 
in 1749, passed through all the lower grades, and was apj)ointed 
officer in 17G9. He received several wounds. 

Clocjietterik (De la), captain of tlie ship the Jason ; lefl 
Brest with the squadron under command of de Ternay ; dis- 
tinguished himself in a number of actions, especiallv at the one 
which was fought on the IGth of March, 1781, by Dcstouchc, 
in Chesajjcakc Bay. 

At the beginning of the war the English vessel the ArefJixsa 
attacked the Iklle-Foidc, commanded by de la Clochettcrie. He 
sustained gloriously the unequal fight, and forced his antagonist 
to fly ; he brought back to Brest his frigate riddled with shot 
and a crew reduced to one-half. He was received with enthu- 
siasm by the people and the court. 

Ceozen^ (Jean-Christophe-Louis-Frederic-Ignace, Baron de), 
born the 14th of August, 1752; entered as sub-lieutenant the 
regiment of Koyal-Ueux-Ponts the 10th of September, 1769 ; 
captain en Kccond the 4th of Api-il, 1780; made the expedition 
of America as aid-de-camj) of dc liuchanibeau. He was very 
intimate with Cromot Dubuurg. 

CoiGNY (l^^'ran^ois-^Marie-Casimir-Franquctot de), general, 
son of the duke of that name, born in 1750, died the 27th 
of January, 1810; served in America under the onlcrs of de 



lAi^l oj Officers. 83 

Bouille ; came back to France and returned in tlie beirinning 
of 1782. He was made inarcchal de camp the 0th of March , 
1788; emiVrated during the Terror, then returned to France. 

CoLERUS (Chretien de), servin^^ with the rank of major tlie 
]9th of September, 177G."' 

CoLLOT, entered tlie service in 1705, cjiptain in 1778, at- 
tached to the regiment of Eerclieny."" jS'cpliew and aid-de- 
camp of lloehambeau during the expedition of 1781. He 
embarked on tJie .same vessel as Dumas, who mentions him. 

Coj.OMBE (Chevalier de la), enlisted as volunteer in the 
Ameriam service ; left ]^>ance with La Fa}-ette, to Avhoni he 
was aid-de-canip. He ^\■as breveted ca])tain by Congress tlie 
16th of November, 1777. lu .January, 1779, La Fayette, 
about to start for I'^rauce, wrote to Washington a letter to 
recommend de la Ccjlombc and ask for him a brevet of major. 
At the end of the war de la Colombe returned to France and 
was enij)l(jyed by the Republican Government. 

He was made prisoner with La Fayette, in 1792, by the 
Prince of Coburg, and shut up in the citadel of Olmutz. 
He was released, and returued to Fhiladclphia to await 
events."'' 

CONAVAY (Thomas), born in 1735, in Ireland ; lieutenant 
in an Irish regiment in the French service in 1747; served 
in the German war from 17G0 to 1701. In January, 1777, 
he went to .Vnicrica on the Aviphitritc, fitted out by Beau- 
marchais, who recommended to him his nephew, des Kiiinicres, 
also a volunteer in the service of the Americans."^ He was 



'"Arch. Sj)arkf?. 

"*For subsequent history of tliis roghnent see Mhno ires of Baron de 
Marbot, who at lirst served in the liussars of Eercheny. E. S. B. 
'" Pontgibaud. 
"* Lomenie. 



84 The French in America. 

comini:5sionocl l)y Congress the IStli of May, 1777."^ It is 
by an error that the tran.slator of the memoirs of Gouvcrneur 
Morris .says that lie c^ine with La Fayette."^ He served 
under the orders of La Fayette, and commanded a division 
at the battle of t\\e ]>randy\vine and at Germantown. 

Congress, fearing the influence of a military chief, and be- 
ing actuated by jealousy, often annoyed Washington, The 
most detestaljle inti-igues were at work to replace General 
Washington by General Gates or General Charles Ia'C. In 
these intrigues we find the names of Conway, Joseph liced, 
and others."^ The conspirators even forged letters, which 
were accredited to A\\ashington/^* No doubt these miserable 
inti'igues were kept up by the English, who had discovered 
that to d'lHplace or fni.spoid General Was-hinr/ton irmild he to 
finish the var. This was also the real aim of Arnold's trea- 
son, and we know to-day that it was declared in the English 
camp that vo reward could have paid so important a. serv- 
ice}^^ Fortunately, all the plots to accomplish this end failed, 
including the conspiracy of Arnold. 

"Ambitious and dangerous," says La Fayette of Conway, 
" he wished to jnit (loneral Gates and "Washington in compe- 
tition. His intrigues in this direction having become known 
to the latter,^-*^ an explanation followed, after which he re- 
signed." 

This resignation v.'as handed in three times, and only ac- 
cepted the fourth time by Congress, which was most unworth- 
ily disposed to create troubles for AVashington. Conway was 
wounded in 1770 in a duel with General John Cadwalader, 



'•^Auberteuil. 

^^^ Memorial de Gouvcrneur Morrl-^^, Iroduil <Ic J. Sparks, par Augustin 
Gandais. Paris, 1842. I., 12S. 

"'See Vol. 1., pase 82. 

*"Juue and July, 177G ; reprinted in 179."). 

"'See Vol. I., pages GS, 82, IIG, 124, and the autliorities niriitioned. 

'™The letter oF Joseph Kecd to Charles Lee only becanii' known 
after the death of Washington. Irving II., 284. 



List of Officers. 85 

of iscw Jersey, wlio liad sliarj)ly (.-vitici.-^ed liis coutluct. The 
American oliiccr Avoundcd Coinvay Avitli a bullet which en- 
tered lii.s rig-lit jaw and came out throui^h his neck.'-' Think- 
ing lie was guiuL!; to die, Conway wrote a repentant letter to 
Washington. All the men who led these intrigues lell into 
contem])t sooner or later. Aft^r lie had recovered his health 
he abandoned the cause of the Aniericiins.'" 

Finally he returned to serve in France. lie received, in 
1770, the raidc of aid-major-general in the army of Flan- 
ders. Colonel of the regiment of Pondichery in 17S1, inare- 
chal de. camp hi 1784, governor-general of the French sta- 
tions in India in 17S7. He was still living in 1792. 

COPPIN DE LA Gakde enlisted as volunteer; recommended 
for some position in the division of General Sullivan the 
26th of May, 1777. 

CoPviUERE (Rene-Anne-Gil bert-Franyois de la), born the 
11th of February, 1742, at Saint-^lartin de Juliers, near 
Avranches ; entered the service in 17G1 ; went to the col- 
onies with the reglm(!nt of Agenois, in which he was captain, 
and distinguished himself before Yorktown. He was deco- 
rated after this campaign. 

C0PJJif:P.E (Antoine-Madcleine de la), Ijrother of the former, 
lx)rn at Avranches in 1743, was also decorated for his con- 
duct before Yorktown. 

CoRiOLis. — This family furnished several defenders to the 
American cause.'-'' They were : 

CoRiOLiS (Jcan-Baptiste-P^lzear, Chevalier de), cadet of an 
ancient and illustrious family of Provence, born the ISth of 

'" Aubertcuil II., 277. 

'- 1779. 

'^Manuscripts furnished by M. Muurite La Chcsnai.s. 



86 The, French in America. 

May, 1754, at Aix; sub-HcutGnant in tho rcgimont of Boiir- 
bomiais tlio 7tli of April, 1773, lieutenant the '29(li of De- 
cember, 1777. He embarked at Brest at tlie same time as 
the expeditionary corps of Rochambeau on the ti-ansport the 
Tsk-de- France, which cai-riod three hundred and fifty men of 
his regiment. He distinguished himself before Yorktown, ac- 
cording to the army reports. He was the brother-in-law ol" 
War Commissioner Blanchard, who speaks of him with much 
esteem in his Journal de la Campnr/ne d''Ahirrlqv<\ 

Tiie Chevalier de Coriolis was appointed ca])tain after his 
return from America, the 15th of July, 1784. He entered with 
this rank the constitutional guard of Louis the Sixteenth the 
13th of November, 1791. This corjxs having been disbanded 
the 30th of May, 1792, Coriolis remained none the less de- 
voted to the king, and defended him as a volunteer at the 
Tiiileries during the 10th of August, 1792. He retired to 
Niincy during the Terror, and married there. He n^-entered 
the service under the Empire, and in 1809 made the cam- 
paign of Holland as captain-commandant of the reserve com- 
pany of the Meurthe. He died the 15th of February, 1811.'-'* 

His son, Gustave Coriolis, who died in 1842, was a cel- 
ebrated French scientist. His works on Balional Jfechan- 
ics^'^ brought him membership in the Institute of France. 
The Chevalier de Coriolis also left a daughter, who married 
the learned physicist Peclct, one of the founders of the cen- 
tral school of arts and manufactures. 



"^Tbe Chevalier de Coriolis left an iiupublishcd nianu?crii.t describ- 
ing a few episodes of his return from the expedition of America, with 
the troops under the command of tho Earon de VioinOnil. The most 
interesliiig portion of this manuscript was published as a separate 
pamphlet in 1S70 l)y M. INTaurice l.a Chesnais. It is the stirrinsr ac- 
count of the shipwreck of the French vessel, the Bourgocinr . of seventy- 
four guns, on the coast of New Sj^ain. Part of the crew and of the 
passen;jrcrs perished, and the Chevalier de Coriolis only escaped with 
difliculty from a similar fate. 

'^ Mccanique Rationnclk. 



Ust oj Officers. 87 

CoRiOLis (Picrrc-Gabriel-Xavier, Clievalicr de), brotlicr of 
the former, entered the royal school of artillery of Grenoble 
the 1st of April, 1764; second lieutenant of the reg^iment of 
artillery of Grenoble the lotli of January, 1707; sub-lien- 
tenant of the second company of artillerynien-6o/?j6a/Y//e/-.s at 
Saint Domingo the IDtii of September, 1770. Resigned the 
1st of INIay, 1775, and entered the navy. 

The 1st of April, 1780, de Coriolis, in command of the 
brig the JL'ros, sailed from Cape Conserve at Saint Domingo, 
and w:is cliased by a j)rivateer, of strength superior to his 
own, who came up witli him. 'i'lie fight whicli toolc place 
was so severe that one-third of the crew of the Heros was 
disabled. De Coriolis himself was severely wounded in the 
head by a grape shot. After trying to board several times, 
which tiie enemy avoided, de Coriolis succeeded in getting 
away. He made s(!veral captures on the same vessel. The 
20th of March, 1781, pursued, then oiught again by a ves- 
sel stronger than the lUros, he captured it by boarding, after 
having been wounded in the thigh and tiie hand.^^ 

Captain of a fireship the 12th of January, 1782 ; naval 
lieutenant the 1st of May, 178G. On leave the 2d of May, 
1789. Was chevalier of Saint-Louis from the 5th of August, 
178G. 

Gabriel de Coriolis, having left the service in 1789, with- 
drew to the lie de France, now Mauritius, where his son, 
aged eighty, still lives with his iamily, who is entirely set- 
tled there.*-^ 

Coiiioi.is d'Espinouse (Commandenr de), a relative of 
the former, became chief of squadron during the W-av of In- 
dependence. He tooi< part in the principal naval actions of 
the war, and distinguished himself at the attack of Dominica. 



^ ArcJdvc^ of the Navy. 
1870. E. S. 13. 



88 Tlic FrcncJi in America. 

Cornet (Lo) enlisted as private in the regiment of Gati- 
iiais in 1760, sergeant in 1789; marched at the liead of the 
attacking cohmm of the ])rinci])al redoubt of the English at 
Yorktown. lie Mas ehai'ged with Sergeant Forct, of the same 
regiment, to direct the sap})ers or axe-bearers who were to 
break down the palissades. 

CoivNY (Louis-T)ominifiue-Tfithis de), commissary of war, 
wlio stiirted with La Fayette from ]tOchefort two weeks be- 
fore the squadron Ashicli was at Brest under command of do 
Ternay, to announce to the Americans the succors promised 
by France and to ])rcparc for the landing in lihodc Island.^-* 

He did not belong to the expedition under the command 
of Rochambeau, and he was sent with tlie Marquis de La 
Fayette when the latter left, because de Corny happened to 
be at A^ersailles just then, and because, as time was short, it 
was not possible to send to Brest to inform either Blanchard 
or any one else. "lie brought about large expenditures," says 
Blanchard, " and was not of much assistance." Blanchard 
adds later in his diary : " lie left in the first days of Feb- 
ruary, 1781, for France, on the Alliance. He was a clever 
man, but intriguing and grasping. He went away because 
there was nothing for him to do. Still his stay in America, 
short as it had been, had not hurt his success." 

De Corny was better known as a writer under the name 
of lilthis. He was born at ]Metz in 1738, and was at first 
a lawyer at the bar of that town. He kept up a regular 
correspondence with Voltaire, at Ferney. 

On his return from America he was appointed attorney of 
the king. He was in favor of the l\evolution, and was one 
of the commissaries sent by the people to summon the Gov- 
ernor of the Bastile to open its gates on the 14th of July, 
1789. He died at Paris in 1790. 

^'^Manoires of La Fayette. 



Lisit of Officers. 89 

CoiiTE, medical director of the cx])cditionary corps, wont 
to visit the Jiospital prepared by de Corny at Rhode Island 
immediately after the landing: of the expeditionary cori)s. lie 
was with ]>lanchard and Dcmars. He showed nnich zeal after 
the capture of Yorktown, and took care, with the same devo- 
tion, of both allies and enemies. 

CoTTiNEAU DE ViLOGUENE (de), cuptain of the Palla.^ in 
the action bctM-ecn the BoiiJiomme liichanl and the Serapis. 

CoUDio (Louis-jSIarie), rear-admiral, born at Auray the 17th 
of December, 1752, died at Pontivy in 1822. 

His father intended him for the priesthood, but he ran away 
at the age of fourteen and embarked at Lorient as assistant 
pilot. Ensign in 1775 ; lieutenant of the frigate the Iplilgcnie 
in 1778, he went to cruise on the coasts of Xew England. 
He made an expedition to Senegal in 1779, and was wounded 
in an encounter l)y tlie explosion of a package of cartridges. 

In 1780 Coude took, at Brest, command of the Sauinon, a 
rapid-sailing brig, which, during the three years he ]>assed in 
the Antilles, served successively as scouting ship for dc Ter- 
nay, de Barras, and de Grasse, and Coude was present, there- 
fore, at the various naval actions fought by these officers. 

He re-entered the merchant navy at the peace, and re- 
called to the service of the State in 1792 as naval lieutenant, 
he distinguished himself by the most glorious struggles agaijist 
the English. Naval ciiptain in 1793. Prisoner of the P^nglish 
from 1795 to 179G, and from 1805 to 1814. Kciir-admiral 
on his rctuj-n, and retired in that rank. 

CouLANGE (Scot de). See Scot. 

Coussix (He), entered the service in 17G3, ca})lain ni sec- 
ond in the rcginujut of Soissonnais in 1781 ; had made with 
distinction the campaign of Corsica, where he was wounded, 
and kept up before Yorktown his rt'pulation lor courage. 



90 The French in Aincrica. 

CoussOL d'EsI'ARTAC, oaptain-oominaiulant of 15(>iirhonnai.s ; 
made tlie campaigns of Germany and of America. 

CrwOMOTDuF.OURG^-''(Mario-Francoi.s-Josepli-Maximc, Baron), 
born at A^ersailles tlie 28th of April, 1756. Tiie reports of his 
services at the ministry of war say : vohmteer in the dragoons 
of La Rocliefoucauld in 176S ; rank of sub-lieutenant in the 
dragoons of Monsieur in 1770 ; sub-lieutenant of infantry in 
1772; captain in 1771; put on the waiting list in 1770, at 
his request. 

He was permitted to go to America to join the expeditionary 
corps as aid-de-camj) to Eochambeau ; but he did not Iciive 
ou the fleet under the command of the Chevalier de Ternay, 
for Blanchard says })ositively in his diary : " Cromot Dubourg 
only left later." He says liimself that he embarked at Brest 
on the Concorde, in March, 1781, at tJie same time as Vis- 
count de llochambeau and the new chief of squadron, de 
Barras. His conduct before the capture of Yorktowji brought 
him, after itrf successful issue, the rank of assistant-quarter- 
master-general of tlie army, with which rank he made the 
campaigns of 1782 and 1783. He returned to France and 
became successively major in 1783, lieutenant-colonel in 1787, 
colonel in 1788. 

The political events found him devoted to royalty. He 
handed in his resignation in 1700, emigrated, and was aid-de- 
ramp of Monsieur (Louis the Eighteenth) in tlie ai-my of the 
princes in 1702 ; then he was a volunteer in the cor])s of 
Williamson in 1705 and 1 70t). 

On the return of the Bourbons he was retired as colonel, 
and in 1826 was apj)ointed honorary martchal de ca;np. He 
died the 26th of A])ril, 1836. He was member of the order 
of the Cincinnati and chevalier of Saint-Louis. 



'^ ]Manuscripts lent to me by his prandson, the Baron Varai^nu 
Dubourjj;, and by M. Caniille Kousset, of the French Academy. 



List of Officers. 91 

Cromot Dul)ourg left :iu unpublished diurv of his first .cruii- 
paign in America in 17S1, of which I have a copy, but of 
which the original has been lost or mislaid.^"'' 

Crozat de SarPvAzin (Jeau-Franjois), born at Yienne, 
IsSre, the 7th of January, 1733; captain of the regiment of 
Touraine in 1778 ; killed on the sc^uadron of de Guichen the 
15th of May, 1780. 

CusTiNE (Adam-rhili])pe-Jarreek, Count de), born at Metz 
the 4 th of Fel»ruary, 17-10 ; entered the service in 1747 ; sub- 
lieutenant at the age of seven. He took part, at the age 
of eight, in 1 718, in the campaign of Germany"^ under Mar- 
shal Saxe. Captain of dragoons in 1758 ; meslre de camp in 
1763 ; brigadier in 1780. He served with distinction in the 
Seven Years' ^^'ar. 

After this war the Duke de Choiseul, who favored him, 
credited for him a regiment of dragoons by the name of Cus- 
tine. He exchanged this regiment for a regiment of infantry, 
which was going to America; it was, J think, the regiment of 
Saintonge. It was under his orders that the infantry of Lau- 
zuu's legion embarked at Head of Elk, went to Annapolis, 
where it stopped two days, then reached Cape Henry. Be- 
fore Yorktown he was always in the trenches every second 
day, because he was the only brigadier, and Rochambeau 
praises in his reports his zeal, his courage, his talents, and his 
honesty. 

On his return to France he became marechol de camp and 
governor of Toulon. Deputy from Lorraine to the States Gen- 
eral of 1789, he favored the Ivcvolution, which put him at the 
head of the Army of the Khine in 1792. At first he had 
some successes ; but, forced to n-tirc before the Prussians, he 
was recalled to Paris and guillotined the 28th of August, 1793. 

'''See Vol I., pages 12, 13, and 14, and page 141. 
'^Flanders. Marginal note. 



92 The French, in America. 

Tlic good opinion Avliicli Ilocliamboau had of Custine was, tlicv 
say, exaggerated. He was, doul)tle.ss, a good officer, but lie 
has been reproached for liis bad temper and his excessive 
severity.^'- It is, moreover, extrcniely dilllcult to judge a no- 
table man l)y tlie invariably partial rc})orts of his contempo- 
raries."^ This is almost impossible in an epoch of revolution, 
where partisiuiship destroys all sense of justice. 

D. 

Dalpiiekan (Felix), born the 6th of April, 1744; sub- 
lieutenant in the regiment of Soissonnais in 1781. He made 
the campaigns of 1780-81-82-83 in America, and was pres- 
ent at the capture of Yorktow)i.^"^ 

DALi'iii^:iiAX (^I.), naval lieutenant, who came on the Con- 
corde with de Barras.'^^ 

Damas (Joseph-Fran9ois-Louis-Charles, Count de), of the 
older branch of the Damas d'Anlezi, the only one sui'viving 
to-day; born in 1758; served since the 9th of February, 1777, 
and entered as second lieutenant the infantry regiment of the 
king. He went then to America in the position of aid-de- 
camp of de Rochambeau, and distinguished himself during the 
entire campaign of 1781. The 29th of April, 1781, he ob- 

^^De Custine left a diary of his journey in Xorth America, says 
Blanchard. The latter relates in his own diary, the 17th of Febnrtry, 
1781, that those memoirs are accurate and ven.- sensiljle. It is not 
known what became of this diary of Custine, but from what Blanchard 
says of it, it only contained analogous observations to those of de 
Chastellux about General Washington, the nature of the soil in the 
United States, the climate, «.<:c. 

'^The diary of Blanchard relates an anecdote about this which 
explains the judgment of the soldiers about this general. t?ee in the 
List of Oflicers: Laforest. See also the Life of Cudinc, by one of his 
aids-de-camp, 1S02. His cliaracter and his conduct, as general, are very 
severely judged there. 

'^Archirrs^of War. 

'^Blanchard. 



Ust of Officers^. 93 

tained the title of colonel, to take rank from tlie 1st of 
September. He \va.s present at the interview at Hartford 
between Washiiiirton, Roehambeau, and T^a Fayette ; had a 
horse killed under him at iMorri.^ania while reconnoitering on 
the 23d of July, 1781, and took ])art in the attack of the 
great redoubt before Yorktown, although lie had not been 
ordered to do so, and against the advice of Guillaume de 
Deux-Ponts, who commanded the attack. He returned to 
France on the 2Gth of October, 1781, with de Charlus, Guil- 
laume dc Dcnx-Ponts, and de ]vaval, and was appointed 
gentleman of honor of the Count de I'rovence. Arrested with 
Louis the Sixteenth at Varennes, he succeeded in emigrating, 
fought in the army of Conde against his country, and re- 
mained in exile the faithful companion of the Bourbons, who 
made him duke and jieer of France at the beginning of the 
Restauration. He was always hostile to political liberty.^^*^ 
He died in 1829. 

Damas (Claude-Charles, Viscount de Damas de Marillac), 
served in the campaigns of Americn at the Windward Islands 
during the AVar of Independence, but did not set foot on the 
Continent. He was colonel of the regiment of Auxerrois 
when Bouille, su^iported by the lleet of d'Estaing, attacked 
Dominica in 1778. He was the first to go ashore with 
his chasseurs, and helped in capturing the island. He also 
took an active part in the capture of Tabago on the 2d of 
June, 1780, and of Saint Chri.-topher in February, 1782. 

He was not a brother of the before mentioned, but came 
from another branch of this important family. He was born 
at Lyons in 1731, and was successively ensign in the regi- 
ment of Beauce in 1748, lieutenant in 1752, aid-major in 

'^The Count de Damas was the owner, under tlie Restauration, of 
the Chateau de Livry, near Paris. Louis tlie Eiirhteenth slept there 
the 18th of April, 1S14, the night before his entry into I'aris. Jas En- 
virom de Paris, by A. Joanne, lluchette, Paris, lSo7. E. S. 13, 



04 The French in America. 

1753, caidain in IV-");"), major in 1763, colonel of th-c; regi- 
ment of Auxerroiri in 1776, brigadier of infantry in 1778, 
and marcchal dc camp in 1781, the 5th of December. lie 
was apjiointed Governor of ^Martinique in 1783, then Gov- 
ernor of tlie ^\'in(l^v;u•d Islands. He repressed vigorously the 
revolts at Martinique during the Revolution, defeated the in- 
surgents at Saint Pierre the 3d of June, 1790, but was ac- 
cused by Barnave and some of the colonists of being the 
cause of the disturbances and of having asked the help of 
the English of Snint Domingo. Impeached in February, 
1791, with all the members of the government of ISIartin- 
ique, he was set free after being cleared ol' the charges. He 
died in 1800. 



Danetevilij-: or D'Annp:teville (Cantel), major in tl 
corps of engineers, went to America with de Kochambeau. 



le 



D'AuDiFREDY or Daumfeedy, infantry officer, wounded 
at Saint Lucia on the fleet of de Guichen the ]9th of No- 
vember, 1780. 

Dauhe (Hector, Count), superintendent of the food sup])lies 
during the campaign of America,^" was successively chief trcas- 
urer'^* of the expeditionary corps to Saint Domingo ; then in 
Egypt, under Bonaparte; minister of war and of the ntivy 
at Naples ; without employment under the Bestauration ; ap- 
pointed, after 1830, director of the administration at the min- 
istry of war. 

Davin, "former very distinguished sergeant-major," says 
Dubourg, who engaged him in June, 1776, for America, 
with some advance pay, the journey paid, and the promise 
of the rank of captain. 



'" Blaiicliard. 
^^ Ordoiuiateur. 



lAst of Officers. 95 

Decatouiis or Dkcatuh (Junics), volunteer Freneli lieu- 
tenant in tlie service of Congress."'^ Perhaps a relation of 
the celebrated Commodore Stephen Decatur, of the American 
navy. 

DKCRf:s (Deni.s, Duke), vice-admiral, minister of the navy, 
born at Ciiaumont in 1701, died in 1S20, at Paris, Em- 
barked as candidate guard of the marines in 1780 oji the 
lUchiiiond, of the scpiadron of de Grasse. He took part in all 
the combats which this ileet had to sustain. In the action of 
the 12th of April, 1782, he went in a boat, under tire of the 
English fleet, to tow the ship the Glorieiix, whose masts had 
fallen, out of the danger in which it was placed. He was 
then appointed naval ensign. Naval lieutenant in 1786, cjip- 
tain in 1793. He was deprived of his position on r^ccount 
of being a noble. Chief of squadron in 1796, rear-admiral 
in 1798, minister of the navy from 1801 to 1814 and during 
the "Hundred Days." Retired under the Pestauration. In 
1820 his servant stole some of his things, and blew him up 
in bed with some gunpowder. The servant was killed and 
Decres received wounds of which he died. 

Deidier, sm-geon-major in the regiment of Agtinois, showed 
zeal and knowledge. 

Dp: Kalb. See Kaeb. 

Delaunay or De Launay. See Launay. 

Demars, director of the hospitals, left on the Anient with 
de Yillemanzy."" 

Desandhoixs (Viscount), brigadier-general who eonnnanded 
the corps of engineers under the orders of de Rochambeau 

'*> Elanchurd. 



96 The French in America. 

during tlic caDipai;^!! of 1781. I'^alling .sick at Williain.sbiiru;, 
he was ol)Iigf'cl to intrust the care of the work to dii Portail 
and Querenot. As early as 1740 ]ie had left for Canada; in 
IMay, 1750, he M-as appointed captain of engineers, and be- 
came the aid-de-eainp and the secretary of Montcalm. He dis- 
tinguished himself at Ticonderoga and in the other operations 
in Canada; brigadier of infantry in December, 1781; chief 
of brigade in the engineers and chevalier of I\Ialta in 17S9 ; 
member of the National Assembly for Calais. He was, j)er- 
haps, a member of the Cincinnati. 

DESBorvDES entered the service in 1755, was appointed 
ciptain in the regiment of Tonraine in 17G9, and made the 
campaign of 17S1 in America as captain-commandant. 

Des Fokets. See Lafoeest. 

Desoteux (Pierre-]\Iarie-Felicite, Baron de), born in 1750, 
died at Lyons in 1812. Son of a surgeon, lie made at lirst 
a few journeys in Europe, then entered the service, and left 
for America. He served in the campaign of 1781 in the 
position of aid-de-camp of the Chevalier de Viomenil, and 
distinguished himself while under his orders at the attack of 
the redoubt of Yorktown. He was captain of dragoons, and 
aid-quartermaster-adjutant."' He embarked the following year 
at Boston to go to Porto Cabello with de Broglie, Dumas, 
and de Segur, who mention him in their memoirs. He was 
especially intimate with the de Lameths. He helped the side 
of the Revolution in Fi-ance, and Avas amidst the women who 
went to Versailles on the 5th of October, 1789. ]>ut, wit- 
nessing the progress of the demagogues, he turned towards 
the Iloyalist party, served as stalf officer to de ]>ouillc, and 



^"Desoteux drew tlie two {^eograpliical charts in tlie Voijarjen of dc 
Cliastellux. Sec^ preface by the printer of that work. I'aris, 17So. 
Maririnal note bv T. 15. 



Lid of Ojlicers. 97 

tried to hcl]) tlic- iliL'lit of tlie kin:;. He cniiiri'atcd, returned 
and cuiij^raicd anew after tlic 10th of Auf^ust. lie landed 
in Normandy, with a mission i'vom the; Count d'Artois, in 
July, 171*1, and went to de Pui.-aye, Nvho eonmuindcd the 
Vendeens on the right hank of the lAjire, and who made him 
his treasurer-i^eueral. He served there under the name of 
Cormaiin. A treaty of pacification having been signed by 
him on the 2(Jth of April, 1795, at La Mabillais, Hoehe 
had him arrested in October as having infringed on it. He 
w^as kept under ari-est at Cherbourg, then at Ham. The 
Consulate freeil liim, and he withdrew to his estate near 
!Macon. He lei't several literary M(jrks. 

Dkspkyi'.on (Piprre), born the 21th of March, 1734, at 
Barthelemy, in the Perche. He entered tlie service in 1747, 
was made caj)tain in 17G0, and major in the regiment of 
Touraine the 24ih of March, 1780. He showed in his career 
much valor and intelligence, gave u]) a considerable fortune 
to pass to America with de Ivochambeau, and obtained a 
pension for his conduct in front of Yorktown. 

Desphez (Kticnne-Philil)ert de Crassier), born at Crassier, 
Ain, the ISth of January, 1733, died about 1803 at Ornaix.^*^ 
He entered the service of France as cadet in the Swiss regi- 
ment A'igier, which became Chateauvieux ; he was in succes- 
sion ensign in ]May, 1748, sub-lieutenant in A])ril, 1754; 
passed as ca])tain to lloyal-Deux-Ponts in April, 1757 ; then, 
during the campaign, became lieutenant-colonel of the same 
regiment in June, 17G2 ; ])ut in waiting"^ in 17C3 with a 
pension of eight hundred //r/'o-, he was a])pointed majitr of 
Dcux-Ponts."'' He made willi tliis rank the canipaign of 
America. He was left, with a hundred men, to watch the 

'^He is also called do I'rez in many memoirs and books. 

'« Rt'forntc. 

"*See Deux-l*onts and Cromot Dubour?. 



98 Tlw French in America. 

storelionsfs and the l)ospilai.s of Providence while the troops 
were goini!; by land to Williamsburg, and while de Choisy 
M-as enibarkini;' at Newport on the 21st of August, 1781, 
with the siege artillery and the rest of his troops.**' 

Returning to Europe after having been appointed adjutant- 
general at the siege of Yorktown, he went with Count de 
]Maillebois to Holland, where he stayed until the 19th of 
July, 1788. His corps having been broken up, he was ap- 
pointed marC'chal dc camp in 1791, and employed in the 
Array of the North. Lieutenant-general the 5th of Septem- 
ber, 1792, he passed to the Army of the Centre, where he 
commanded the vanguard which repulsed the Prussians at the 
o^mj) of I^a Lune and at Fonton. Suspended as a noble in 
April, 1793, he was reinstated the 6th of June following, 
and employed in the Army of Italy, and later in that of the 
AVestern Pyrenees. He retired in June, 1796, and withdrew 
to liis chateau of Ornaix. 

De Staacic or Destaack (Joseph), born at Neukireh the 
4th of ;March, 1737; entered as ensign the regiment of Alsace 
in 1758, and was appointed captain-commandant in the regi- 
ment of Royal-Deux-Ponts the 3d of June, 1779. He beg-an 
by making three campaigns in Germany, and received two 
wounds at Clostercamp. He passed to America with liis 
regiment, and distinguished himself at the capture of York- 
town. He received the cross of ^Military Merit and the order 
of the Cincinnati. 

Destouciies was the oldest naval c;iptain of the squadron 
under command of de Ternay, which left Brest with the ex- 
peditionary corps. He was on the Duc-ch-Bourgognc. He 
took command of the scpiadron before Newport at the death 
of de Ternay, and until the arrival of de liarras, and in that 



^** Deux- Pouts. 



List of OJJicers. 99 

slior(. interval lie made an expedition to Clic.sai)cxike Bay, 
having on his ships twelve hundred men under command of 
the Baron dc Viomc'nil and of de Laval. He could not force 
the passage, and reuirncd to Ivhode Island. 

Deux-Po^'ts. The town of Deux-Ponts is situated on the 
Erbach, near the junction of that river "svith the Sarre, five 
miles to the west oi" Spcyer. It was first the capital of a 
duchy which afterwards passed under the domination of Swe- 
den, then of Bavaria. The ducal family of Deux-Ponts gave 
kings to both of these countries. 

Later, Christian, Count Palatine and reigning duke of Deux- 
Ponis-Birkenfeld, uncle of King Maximilien the First of Ba- 
varia, had married morganatic-ally a dancer, famous in Paris 
under the name of Fontenay, who was created on that occur- 
rence Baroness de Forbach. But Christian and Guillaume, 
who were born from this marriage, were not admitted as heirs 
to the father, so thtit it was Charles, nephew of Duke Chris- 
tian, and elder brother of King Maximilien, mIio obtained the 
government of the Dukedom. 

The two sons of Christian, Christian and Guillaume, at 
first took the name of their mother, then they joined thereto 
the name of their father and called themselves Barons For- 
bach de Deux-Ponts. Later, they took without contest the 
title of Counts, which is given them by all Frenchmen, and 
by which they are indiscriminately mentioned. Their con- 
temporaries, among whom I will cite Franklin and Colonel 
Trumbull, often made mistakes about their titles, and have 
sometimes mistaken the two either for one another, or for a 
member of their family who was made Jving of Bavaria by 
Napoleon. 

These explanations have seemed to me necessiiry to establisli 
a precise distinction between the two members of the family 
of Deux-Ponts who made the campaign of America, and this 
distinction is all the more neccssiiry as the two brothers, having 



100 The Frcncli in America. 

both served in the regiment of tlicir name and liavinir been 
present at the same actions, have often Ix^en mistaken for 
one another. 

To finish th.e general history of this family, I will men- 
tion that Guillanme married a Polignac and Christian a Beth- 
une ; then, after the French Revolution, the two brothers 
lived in Bavaria^ where they were intrusted with important 
commands. 

Dj:ux-Ponts (Christian, Count de Forbach, Marquis de), 
born the 20th of October, 1752, at Deux-Ponls ; received on 
the 20th of April, 17GS, the rank of second lieutenant with- 
out })ay in a French regiment. In 1772 he was ap])ointed 
colonel of the regiment of Royal-Dcux-Ponts, but on account 
of his youth he did not take command until the; 20th of 
September, 1775. It Mas with this rank that he M'as in 
America, under the orders of Pochambeau, from 17S0 to 
1783. lie distinguished himself according to all accounts 
during this expedition, obtained there the cross of Saint-Ix)uis, 
and the assurance that he would be appointed brigadier at 
the first vacancy. The French Revolution forced him to take 
service in Bavaria, where he commanded an auxiliary Ba- 
varian corps against ]\Iorcau, at Holienlinden, in 1800. He 
distinguished himself in spite of the defeat, and received the 
grand cross of the order of Maxi milieu- Joseph of Bavaria, 
newly created. He left two daughters. One of his sons-in- 
law, Count de AVittgenstein, was killed at Borodino. 

Deux-Po^-'IS (Gtiillaume, Count de Forbach. Count de), 
born at Deux-Poiits the l^ith of June, 17<j1. He was ap- 
pointed sub-lieutenant in his brother's regiment rlie 12th of 
November, 1770, captain the 25th of April, 1772, then lieu- 
tenant-colonel (II sccoh'I in the .-ame regiment the 2d of Oc- 
tober, 1777. He rtjoincd his regiment at Landerncau, after 
the useless attem])t in 1779 at lauding in England. He made 



JAd of Oi)iccr.<i. 101 

the campai<^n of America mider tlic orders of de Rochaniheau, 
and left an interesting account of it."" He embarked at 
Brest on the 4th of April, 17S0, on the flvdlU', of sixty-four 
guns; disemljarked at Newport after a seventy-two days' trip, 
and went info camj) on the llth of June, at Providence. 
During the march of the trooj)s towards New York he Avas 
given the command of the grenadiers and of the cJuisscurs of 
Bourbonnais, between New York and Anna]X)lis, and he em- 
barked on the 21st of Sc})tember, 1781, on the DUigentc, to 
return to Cape Henry, then to \Villiamsburg. 

He played a more brilliant role than his brother during - 
the siege of Yorktown. Although only lieutenant-colonel, he 
was intrusted with the assault, on the 14th of October, 17S1, 
of the principal )edoubt, at the head of four hundred men of 
his regiment. lie w^as preceded by a detachment of Gatinais 
under command of dc I'Estrade, and followed by the remain- 
der of the same regiment under command of de Rostaing. 
Guillaume de Deux-Ponts sprang first into the redoubt and gave 
his hand to a grenadier to help him to follow. This gren- 
adier having been that instant mortally wounded, Guillaume 
withdrew his hand and gave it with great coolness to another. 
Guillaume was slightly wounded, l)ut the redoul)t was cap- 
tured in seven minutes with such brilliant courage that I^ieu- 
tenant-cohniel Tarleton, who defended it, could not help 
mentioning in his report the merits of his adversary. Koch- 
ambeau was so much plc^ised with tin- exploit that he asked 
for a I'cgimcnt for dc Deux-Ponts in preference to his own 
son. He was made chevalier of Saint-Louis and returned to 
France on the 2Gth of October on tlie Amlromdcpie, with 
Damas, Charlus, and de I^aval, to carry the news of the 
ca})itulation. 

During the French lievolution he was captain of the body 
guards of Iving rslaximilien of l>avaria, who was particularly 



'«Sce Vol. I., page i: 



102 The French in America. 

fond of liini. He diod sixteen years befoi'c liis brotlior, leav- 
ing two sons, Ciuirles and Chi'istian, of wliom the first pei'- 
islied at Borodino. The Deux-Ponts and, I tliiidc, all the 
superior officers were members of the order of the CInclnnaii. 

Pii.LEMBOUKG (Ciievalier de Hoehn, rhilIppe-FrederI(!), 
born the IGth of June, 1759; snb-licutcnant of grenadiers of 
Ivoyal-Dcux-Ponts the ISth of October, 1777 ; second lieuten- 
ant the 2'2d of July, 1779; was at the attack of the redoubt 
of Yorktown the 14th of October, 1781, and received a re- 
ward for the courage he showed there. 

Dillon. This family belongs to a very noble house of 
Irish origin, Avhose members received on three several occa- 
sions the titles of Viscounts of Dillon, Counts of Iloscommon, 
and Lords Clonbrock. After the fdl of James the Second, 
Arthur de Dillon, the best known (1070-1733), entered the 
service in Fj'ance, and was jjlaced by Louis the Fifteenth at 
the hea<l of his Irish guard, which took the name of regi- 
ment of Dillon.''^' lie married Christiana Slieldon, by whom 
he had five sons and four daughters, who all reached high 
positions. 

Dillon (Arthur, Count de), grandson of the former, born 
at Bray wick, in Ireland, the 3d of Septem'oer, 1750. While 
still a child Ik; was aj^pointcd colonel of the regiment of his 
name in the service of France, passed to the Antilles with a 
battalion of his regiment, under command of de Bouille, in 
1777, and helped in the capture of Grenada, Saint Eustatius, 
Tabago, and Saint Christoj^her. lie was appointed governor of 
these last two Islands. lie was present also at the fruitless 
attack on Savannah, went to Yorktown with the troops led 
by the IManpiis de Saint-Simon, was wounded betbre Glou- 



'See the historioul notice of this regiment. 



Ust of Officers. 103 

ccstcr,"'' 'iiitl returned to the Antilles witli lilm."'' lie mar- 
nVl Lucie, daugliter of the Count de lloth, who died in 1782. 
Afterwards lie married a widow, cousin of the Empress Jo- 
sephine, Cotinle.-s Delatouche, by wliom he liad two daughters. 
One of them, Fanny, was married to General Count Bert- 
rand, so famous for liis fidelity to Xapoleon. 

Having returned to France at the peace, Count Arthur 
Dillon favored the cause of the Revolution of 17 89. Still, 
appointed deputy IVom ^Martinique to the States General, he 
sometimes voted against the llevolutionists. He received, in 
1792, the command of an army corps, at whose head he 
fought against the Prussians ; but he protested against the 
insurrection of the 10th of August; then, the 12t]] of Octo- 
ber, 1792, he retook Verdun from the Prussians, yet he was 
wrongfully accused of having oi-ganizcd a conspiracy to save 
the Dantonistcs. He was arrested in 1793, and freed by 
Garat; arrested again in July, he was defended by Desmou- 
lins, vv'ho compromised him. He perished on the scaffold 
the 13th of April, 1794. 

Many members of his family were in the service of France, 
so that contemporary writers often mistake them for one 
another.^^" Thus we find in the Archives of War the fol- 
lowing account : — 

Dillon (Bartlu'lemy), born the 17th of October, 1729, in 
Ireland; lieutenant-colonel the 2-1 th of June, 1780; married 
Mademoiselle de La Bourdonnaie, widow of the Marquis de 
Montlerim, and no mention of his acts in the service. 

From the memoirs of Lanzun and of Mathieu Duniiis, and 
from the Altiianach Tlojjal for 1781, it appears also that: 

'** Mentioned by Rorhanibeuu. 

'""De Noailles atul de Dillon fought a duel on the eveninj; of the 
6tli of September, 1780, for a matter which is not worth menliouing," 
says Blanchard. 

'"'See in the List of Oflioers: Billy DiUou. 



104 The French in America. 

Dillon (Count t-Alouai-d) was also wounded M'hile under 
the command of d'Estainf^ at the action of Grenada the otli 
of July, 1770, a,2;ainst Admiral Byron, Pie commanded the 
column of the centre, and Arthur the one of the right. Born 
in 1751, died in 1839. Colo)iel, the 2d of Decemlxn*, 1781, 
of the regituent of Provence, he followed the Bourbons in 
their emigration, and returned w'ith them in 1814. lie was 
then appointed lieutenant-general. 

Dillon (Robert), embarked on the 23d of March, 1781, 
at Brest, on the Coiwordr, with the six hundred and thirty- 
three remaining men of ihe regiment of his name, under com- 
mand of de Lauzun. He distinguished himself before (Jlou- 
cester in a charge against Tarleton, and commanded, during 
the return to Boston, the cavalry of Lauzun, wdiich he brought 
back to France. He reconnoitercd on the right of the army 
between AVilliamsburg and Boston. 

llobcrt Dillon had made the campaign of 1778 as aid-de- 
camp of de Lauzun. " He was tliere the liero of an adven- 
ture of which our modern dramatists would avail themselves 
of with profit if it Ciime to their knowledge."^'^ 

DiLT-ON (Count Theobald), colonel en secoufJ of the regi- 
ment of Dillon ; marechal de camp the 13th of June, 1783. 
Served under lu>chand)eau in 1792.'^'" Assassinated by his 
soldiers in April, 1792. 

In a pamphlet of the day of which I have a co]n', "^Ic- 
curatc account of the capture of the htawl.-i of Saint J'Ju-'<tatius, 
Saint Martin, and *SVi/yf;, whcrr iccj-e found tu-o iniliions J)rh»ajing 
to Adinind liodnei/j"^^^ the ^lanpiis de Pxtuillc praises warndy 
the conduct of the Dillons, of de la Fresne, and others. 

'"See Mhnolrcs of tlie Ctnmt i\o Pontsiband, page 1S7. 

'^"In the Army of the North. ]\I;u-<:;iii:il note. 

^^ Detail circonskuiti,' dr la pri>ir <h's //r,>- Sn'titt-JAisfacJie, S'xi)lt■^[(t)•t^n 
et Saha, dans ksriuiis U x'ctil (ronir drux )iul!u)its ap])artciiant a I'aiitirul 
Eodney. 



JJst of Officers. 105 

DoLOMiEU i)E ^Marguerite (Cliarlcs-Franyois-Sebasticn, 
Chevalier), born at Falaisc the 21st of March, 1740; captain 
the 9th of DoctMnbcr, 1780, in the regiment of Saintonge ; 
made with this rank tlie campaign of America. 

DoiTERGUE DE Saint-Feorent (Franyois-Isaac), born in 
1742 at Conse in Languedoc, twenty-one years of service, three 
cami)aigns in Germany, six in tlic colonies ; captain-command- 
ant of Gatinais the IGth of Jnne, 1775; was decorated with 
tlie order of Saint-Tjonis ibr his good conduct before York- 
town, whore he took part in the attack of tlie redoubt. 

DoRRE (FidMe), volunteer, recommended on the 29th of 
July, 1770, by Congress to Washington, that he shouUl give 
jiim emj)loyment suited to his ability. 

Dorset (Chevalier), adiuitted as lieutenant in the volun- 
teers who had gone to America with Tronson-Ducoudray, the 
17th of November, 1777. Congress gave him a reward to 
enable him to return to France. 

DouviEEE, infantry ofllcer, killed at the naval action off 
Saint Lucia the U)th of May, 17S0. 

DoYRE or D'Oyre, son of a mark-hal dc camp, director of 
the fortifications of the towns of the jNleuse. He was captain 
in the royal cor])s of engineers, and directed in this position 
part of the laying down of parallels before Yorktown. His 
merit brought him a j)ension. 

Drouieiiet DE FiCJALAS (Ignace), born the 2Gtli of Sep- 
tember, 1755, at ]\rarmande ; entered the service in 1770 as 
lieutenant of tlie grenadiers of .Vgenois. \n the tlilse attack 
made against the right of the enemy on the 1st of Sc^ptem- 
bcr before Yorktown he received a severe wmnid, from which 



106 The French in America. 

it was feartxl he would remain cri])ple<l. The 1st of Decem- 
ber, ]78], lie was appointed eaj)tain. 

Dkude dk la Caterie (Julien), born at Vire, in Nor- 
mandy, tlic 1st of August, 1742. He entered the service in 
1761. He h.ad made two campaigns in Germany and tAvo in 
Corsica, when he was appointed captain in the regiment of 
Soissonnais the 19th of March, 1780. He went with tlie 
expeditionary corps to America, wliere he gave proofs of 
bravery. He was decorated for iiis good conduct before York- 
town. 

Dubois (]jonis), enlisted as volantccr ; received, witli the 
title of colonel, the commajid of a battalion newly rdi^M] for 
the army of Canada on the 26th of June, 1776.^''^*^' 

Du Buissox. See Buissox. 

DuciiivSXE. See Ciiesxe. 

DucoUDitAY (Pliilii)])e-Charles- Jean -Baptiste Tronson-),'^ 
born at lleims the 8th of September, 17o8, the third of ten 
children, amongst whom we must mention more es]x'cially 
Guillaume-Alexandre Tronson-Dacoudray, defender of Queen 
Marie Antoinette. 

Entering the service, he obtained the rank of lieutenant of 
artillery in the reginuMit of l^a Fere, and deserved the con- 
fidence of de Gribeauval, one of the reformers of the artillery 
in France. Amid comj)anions in arms who were ahnost all 
nobles, the rather modest position of his lamily, which was 
in trade, kei)t him long iu the category of blue ojjicers, name 
given to officers from the lower classes. 



'" Aubertcuil. 

'^ Resigned 2Slh October, 177(), by leave of Coiisi'oss. .Marginal note 
by T. ]?. 

"* Manuscript cumniunicatcd by M. Michelin Tronsun-Ducoudray. 



JJM of Ojjicers. 107 

Of a naturally ar!il)iti(ju.s and rather iiaughty character, he 
found it hard to bear the consequences of this })osition, which 
wounded his vanity, and fonjjht more tlian thirty duels after 
enteriuij^ the rep,'in)cnt. It Avas doubtless to these social dis- 
tinctions and to the jars (hat resulted therefrom that we must 
attribute the unlcindly judgment that the Marquis de La i^'ay- 
ette gave of Tronson-])ucoudray, saying that he did not look 
on his death as a loss. 

In 1770 he be«une chief of brigade of artillery and pre- 
cej)tor of the ])ages of the Count d'Artois, afterwards Charles 
the 'i'enth, and formed part of the first expedition sent by 
Beaumarchais with some fifty French officers. There were 
three vessels laden with arms and ammunition, of which the 
strongest was the AmjjJutrite, Captain Fautrelle. This ship 
was to start from Havre in Dcccnd)er, 1770 ; but the lazi- 
ness of Ducoudray resulted in its still being at Lorient at the 
end of Jamiary, 1777. After several mishaps, it finally ar- 
rived at Portsmoutli in ]March, 1777. 

The 17th of Sej)tcmber, 1777, lie was on the march with 
u troop of French olficers to join Washington, w^hen, while 
crossing the Schuylkill, the young and skittish horse he w-as 
riding backed off the fiat boat where he had embarked. 
Horse and rider fell into the river and were drowned. His 
aid-de-camp Roger tried in vain to save him.^^' The body of 
Ducoudray was buried a few days later at the expense of 
Congress. 

The iiunily Tronson-Ducoudray is represented to-day by a 
daughter of G ail laume- Alexandre, who has herself two chil- 
dren ; a son, Miehelin Tronson-Ducoudray, inspector-general 
of finances, and a daughter married to lulouard Laboulaye, 
member of the Institute, member of the National Assembly, 
and a distinguished writer. 

The writings <>i Tronson-Ducoudrav arc all about artillery. 



•"See Vol. I., page SO. 



lOS The Frcncli in Arncrica. 

DuDKOT (Marc-Antoine), born at Charleville tho lOtli of 
Janiuiiy, 1743 ; ap])ointed captain-commandant of grenadiers 
in tlie regiment of Gatinais the 23d of April, 1773, and made 
with this mnk the campaign of America, ile took part at 
the head of his company in tlic attack of tlic great redoul)t, 
and was decorated with the order of Saint-Louis after tlie 
capture of York town. 

DuGAX, enlisted as volunteer, and received, among the first, 
on the 27th of April, 1776, a reward from the American 
Government for his services in the campaign of Canada, and 
was recommended to the generals of the Continental Army to 
be employed according to his merit. He served afterwards 
under the orders of de ]x)nille. I find his name, and, T think, 
his portrait also, in the "Collection of engrurinris reprexciitinr/ 
the different events of the icar lohich brought about the fniJejxnd- 
ence of the United Statej^ of America." Drawn by Codefroy, 
17 sheets. ^'^ 

Dumas (Count ^rathieu), born at Montpellicr in 1753, is 
silent in his own memoirs about his origin and about his fam- 
ily, w^hich, it seems, was numerous. He entered as sub-lieu- 
tenant the regiment of ^Nledoc at Montauban, in the spring 
of 1773. Appointed captain in 17S0, he was attached as aid- 
de-camp to CTcncnd Ivochambeau, and embarked at Brest, the 
12th of April, 17S(), on the Jason, commanded by the brave 
Captain La Cloehelterie ; but, held back by head winds, they 
only sailed on the 2d of May. During the whole cam])aign 
he served as oiliccr in the engineers, and was intrusted, with 
his friend Charles de Lamcth, with leading the grenadiers and 
the cJKisseur.s who were to occupy, in the beginning of the 
sictro of Yorktowu, the strong; redoubt of Pii^con Hill. This 



^^ Rccucil (Vcytantpcs rrpn'sevtant lea dijlYrcnts rrninncnts (h- l<i (juirrc rjui 
a procuree I'indtpoulance dcs Etats-Unii iVAtnh-iquc. 



JAM of Officers. 109 

redoubt M'as already al)aii(l()nc(] by llie EiiL^b'.^li and not a 
single sliot was lired there. A few days later his friend de 
Laraeth, who had just re])laced hi)ii in the Irenehes, was 
severely wounded. A\'hen Count de ]\,oeiiainl)eaii had lell 
America, Dunuis ^;tayed as chier of ^tail" under the orders ot" 
the 15aron de ViouK'nil, then he enibarlccd with this general 
officer the 24th of December, 1782, on the Triomphant, Com- 
mander de Yaudrcuil, to go to Porto Cabello in Venezuela. 
There lie explored the country in company with de Segur, de 
Broglie, the ]\Jar(|uis de Campccnetz, Berthier the future mar- 
shal. Count ]jozon de l\'rigoi-d, J)esoteux, ajid others, and 
found at Caracas the ^Nlaripu's de l^^leury, the Duke de Ijaval, 
and Alexandre de Lameth. He then went to Capo Fran- 
9ais, Saint Domingo, and afterwards returned to Paris. In 
1784 he ^vas ordered to cx])lore the coasts of the cast of the 
Mediterranean and the islands in the Archipelago. 

On his rctuin from this mission he organized with La 
Fayette the Natic^nal Cuard, escorted the king and protected 
him while returning from Varenncs, and fought then with 
might and main against the anarchists. Obliged to exile him- 
self during the Terror, he reappears after the 18th Brumaire 
and served in the administration of the Em})ire. He hel[)cd 
the Revolution in 1830, was made peer of France in 1831 
and died in 1837.^'^ 

Dui'ETiT-TiKHiAits (Gcorgcs- Aristidc- Aubcrt), born near 
Saumur in 17G0. lie studied at the College of la Flcche ; 
entered at the age of fourteen the ]\rditary School of Paris. 
Cadet gcniUliomme in the regiment of Poitou iii 1770; sub- 
lieutenant in 1778. ^Midshipman in the navy the l.-~t of 
March, 1778, he embarked on the Fendant and took ])art in 
the battle of Ouessant. In the same ship he was present, in 

"°I have cited his Souvenirs in several places in the fii>'t volume. 
They were published by his son in lS3i». 



110 The French in America. 

1779, at the capture of Saint Louis in Senefi;al and at the 
three actions which dc Guichen fouglit in the Antilles in 1780. 
In 1781 he changed to the Cowonne, and returned to the 
Antilles soon enough to be present at tlic unfortunate action 
of the 12th of April, 1782. He visited the j)orts of the 
United States, the Antilles, and Porto Cabello. Ensign in 
1784, I have often used the manuscript^*''' mentioned as by 
Duj:)etit-Thouars, &specially in the account of the o})erations 
of the siege of Savannah. 

Naval lieutenant in 1702, he left with his l)rother to sairch 
for Lu Pcrouse, but was arrested in Brazil, where his vessel 
went ashore and was confiscated. He went to the United 
States and spent there the years 1795 and 179(j. He tiien 
wisl'.ed to return to France. But his rank had been taken 
away from him. He received an offer of reinstatement. He 
Icfl Toulon the 19th of May, 1798, on the Franhlin, which 
formed part of the fleet under command of Brueys. The 1st 
of August, 1798, he perished at the battle of Aboukir.*" 

DuPLECix (Colonel).'*^- 

DuPLEix (Girard-Joan-Baptiste, Chevalier de Cadignan or 
de Badiguay), lieutenant-colonel of the regiment of Agenois 
the 19th of August, 1777 ; distinguished himself es})ccially 
at the capture of Saint Christopher. 

Du PoxcEAU (Pierre-]^]ticnne), born at the Island of Be tlie 
3d of June, 1700, where his father held a military command. 
He showed as a boy much ability in tlic study of languages. 
Before he was thirteen years old he knew English and Italian 
thoroughly. His father intended him for an engineer in the 



'*«See Vol. I., page 10. 

"•"At Paris mid at Cuhiis there were stixetd named after Dupetit- 
Thouurs. There is also a Cape Dupetit-Thouais in Korea. E. S. B. 
'**See Landais Memoirs, 9. ^Marginal nute by T. B. 



List of Officers. Ill 

army, but lie was obliged to abandon this airccr bcaiuse he 
was sliortsiglited ; he was then sent to a college of Benedictine 
monks at Saint-Jcan-d'AngC-ly. Having stayed there eighteen 
months he returned to the Island of lie, where his father had 
just died. His mother wished him to become a priest. He 
long resisted her desires, because he had embraced the })rin- 
ciples of Protestantism ; but his friends pushed him on, and 
lie received the tonsure. He was then about fifteen years of 
age. The }5ishop of La Rochelle, M'ho was a friend of his 
family, sent him as regent to the College of Bressuire, where 
he taught Latin. The i)ersecutions he had to endure from 
the other professors, older than himself by nine or ten years, 
caused him to escape from the college, which he did on 
Christmas Day, 1775, with a shirt in one pocket and "Para- 
disc Lost" in the other. 

He went to Versailles, where there were old friends of his 
father, who received him with kindness. Going thence to 
Paris, he made his living by translating English books. At 
de Bcaumarchais' he was presented to the Baron von Steuben, 
at the time when Steuben was about to start for xVmerica. 
The Baron needed a secretary who could speak and write 
English. Du Ponceau suited him. 

They embarked at Marseilles, and arrived at Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire, the 1st of December, 1777. As the Baron 
could not speak a word of English his secretary accompanied 
him everywhere. At a dinner at George Langdon's they 
learned the defeat of General Burgoyne. 

In Boston he made the acquaintance of many eminent men, 
among whom were •]o\in Hancock and Samuel Adams. The 
latter, hearing Du Ponceau upholding Eepublican principles, 
asked him wliere he had found them. He answered, " In 
France." Adams said that was impossible, but Du Ponceau 
answered immediately, " ]3ccause a man is born in a stable it 
is not necessary that he should be a horse." This proverb was 
borrowed by Du Ponceau from his mother tongue. 



112 The French in America. 

Thev were three weeks going from lioston to York, in 
Pennsylvania, wliere Congress was sitting. At the request of 
the Baron, Du Ponecau was api)ointed captain in the army. 

At Valley Forge Du Ponceau was presented to General 
Washington, and endured with him and his army of recruits 
the sufferings of a severe winter. 

Baron von Steuben having been appointed major-genend, 
du Ponceau became his aid-de-camp, with the rank of major. 
At the end of the campaign of 1779 the Baron and his sec- 
retary came to Pliiladelphia, wlierc Du Ponceau was attacked 
with trouble in his lungs, and his case seemed desperate to his 
physician. To cure himself he lived on nothing but milk. 
At the same tiuie he wrote satires on consum})tion. 

Baron von Steuben received orders to join General Greene, 
who had been put in couuuand of the Army of the South. 
Du Ponceau, thinking that riding on horseback would do him 
good, obtained from the Baron permission to go with him. 
His heidth grew worse in Virginia, and at the express wish 
of the Baron he returned to Philadelphia, where he was soon 
appointed secretary of Robert R. Livingston, Secretary of 
Foreign Affairs, who was living in a house at the corner of 
Chestnut and Ninth Streets, where Du Poncciui remained until 
his deatli.^''^ Pie occupied the office which was formerly Mr. 
Livingston's. 

At tlie end of the war Du Ponceau decided to become a 
lawyer. He studied with William Lewis, an eminent lawyer 
of Philadelphia, was admitted to the bar in June, 1785, 
and soon obtained a large and lucrative practice. He married 
in 1786. 

President Jefferson offered him tlie position of Chief Justice 
of the Territory of Louisiana, which lie declined. 



^"Between "Walnut and Spriu-e Street*', rhiladeli>lna, opposite the 
Pennsylvania Hospital, is a small street called Duponceau :^troet. 
E. S. B. 



Lif^t of Officers. 113 

He was an active iiit'inbcr of several societies in Pliiladcl- 
phia. Aniong tlie offices which he tilled were iliat of Chief 
Provost of the Acadeniy of I.a\\-, of the American Philo-ophical 
Society, and President of the Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania. Thanks to several learned writings, he was elected in 
1827 corresponding member of the Institute of Fi'ance, 
Academy oi' I.nscri[)tion>, and in 1835 he received froin this 
celebrated body the pri/e of Iinf/iii.-<'iqi(c founded by Yolney. 

In 1829 he took a large part in the attempt to introduce 
silk worms into the United States. 

Besides being nearsighted he was very absent minded, and 
some amusing anecdotes are told of him. He died in Phila- 
delphia the 1st of A])ril, 1844. Among the papers of Du 
Ponceau was ibund an intcre.~ting biography. 

DUPONT D'AuiiEVOYJO DK I^AUBARDIJCKES (Louis-Fraucois- 

Bertrand), born the 27th of October, 1759 ; student of the 
Military School of Cadets in 177G ; entered as sub-lieutenant 
the regiment of Saintonge the 30th of January, 1778; made 
tlie campaign of America with the rank of captain, in the 
position of aid-de-camp to Count Rochambeau, whose nephew 
he was. After the Ciipture of Yorktown he obtained, with- 
out paying anything, tlie position of captain in waiting of 
cavalry, as a reward Ibr his distinguished conduct. 

DuPOHTAii. (Louis liC Begue), student at the Military 
School of ^Nlczieres; entered the engineers as officer in 17()1; 
captain in 1773. The 28t]i of July, 1777, he was sent to 
America by Franklin with Gouvion, Padiere, and Laumoy. 
He obtained from Congress the title of chief engineer with 
the rank of colonel; brigadier-general the 17th of Novem- 
ber, 1777. Tlie 25th of April, 1780, he was attached as 
lieutenant-c()h»nel to the corps of I'rench infantry, and dur- 
ing the siege of Yorktown he directed, under the orders of 
Desandroins, the work on the trenches. He is one of the 



114 The French in America. 

higlier officers M'hom ^^''asllington mentions particularly as 
having most helped in tlie ca])turc. lie obtained afterwards 
the cross of Saint-Ijoiiis, with a pension of twenty-four hun- 
dred Hires and the promise of the rank of brigadier-general 
after the peace. Congress, on its side, raised him to the 
rank of major-general. He returned to France, -where he was 
marcchal de camp in 1788. Through tlie influence of La 
Fayette he obtained, the 16th of November, 1790, the port- 
folio of minister of M-ar. lie resigned after tlie disgrace of 
La Fayette; was condemned by accusation on the loth of 
August, 1702, and hid in Paris lor twenty-two months. In 
1704 he lied to America, and on the 28th of June, 1707, 
Mathieu Dumas succeeded in having his name struck off the 
list of emigrants. He died at sea. while ]-eturning to France 
in 1804.^^^ 

DuRAXD, agent of de Choiseul at London from 17GG to 
1770. 

Beaumarchais also took this name in December, 1776, 
when he went to Havre to send ammunition and guns to 
America -with Tronson-Ducoudray and some fifty officers. 

It was also the name of a friend of Beaumarchais who 
accompanied him to London about the sale of guns to the 
French Government in 1793. 

DuKAT (Count de), coh)ncl en second of the regiment of 
Cambrcsis, commanding the fifty volunteers and the one hun- 
dred and thirty grenadiers who composed the vanguard of 
the column of attiick against Grenada, under d'llstaing, in 
July, 1770. It is supposed that he was present at the attack 
of Savannah. 

*** Among the numerous literary ouricsities wlnoh I have examined 
is "Love and ]'atr!olls-)ii, or tlic extraordinary adventures of ^Ir. Du- 
portail, late major-general in the armies of the United States. 1797. 
12mo., pp. 120." 



List of Officers. 115 

DuRSUS or DuRSiF, (Jaoquc-s-riiili])pc-Anp;ustc), bovn the 
26th of April, 1758, at Moiuleville, in the gencraliU of Caen; 
lientcnant in the rcciimcnt of Soissonnais in 1774; was se- 
verely wounded at tiic siege of Yorktown during- the night 
of the 12th to the IStli of October while laying out the sec- 
ond parallel.""' 

DuTERTRE, oflicer of the hussars of I/auzun ; slightly 
wounded the -Ith of October before Gloucester.^'^ 

E. 

Ecoussix (Jcan-Grcgoire Duvales d'), born the 27th of 
January, 174G, at Montiuorin in Languedoc ; served since 
1703; was wounded at Borgo, in Corsica, the 8th of Octo- 
ber, 17oS, by a shot in the left thigh ; captain in the regi- 
ment of Soissonnais tlic 15th of April, 1780 ; made the cam- 
paign of America, and received a reward for his good conduct 
before Yorktown. 

Eglise (De L'), volunteer in the Army of the North ; 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel the 23d of October, 1778. 

Em^^^riau (Maurice- Julien, Count), vice-admiral, peer of 
France; born at Carhaix, Finistere, the 20th of October, 1762; 
a descendant of an old family of Scotch descent ; embarked at 
the age of fourteen on the ^ijlplic. Volunteer on the TntrC-- 
pidc and the JTiadhnc, he was present at the action of Oues- 
sant, at the attack and capture of Grenada, where he was 
one of the foremost in the storming ; at the action of the 4th 
of July, 1771>, in front of that island, as well as in those 
of the 20th, 21st, and 22d of :\rarch, 1780, in one of which 



'®.-lrt7iur.s of liar and Cromot Dnhouri:. 

*" Mentioned in tlie Mcmolrcs of llocluiiubcau. 



116 The French in America. 

lie -was Avoundofl in tlic riglit foot. At the siege of Savan- 
nah, in Scptenil)cr, 17S0, young Emeriau Avas employed in 
erecting batteries, and at the time of the general attack lie 
was one of the iirst to jump into the trenches and was se- 
verely wounded in the right eye. His good conduct in this 
combat made d'Estaing apjjoint him lieutenant of frigate. He 
was only seventeen years of age. At the end of tlie war he 
received the decoration of the Cinciimati. In November, 1781, 
lie embarked at Brest on the Triomphant, Ca])tain dc Vau- 
dreuil, of the squadron of the Count de Grassc, and was pj-es- 
ent at the actions of the 9th and 12tli of April, fought with 
Admiral Rodney. In the last of these combats a splinter from 
a cannon ball wounded Emeriau in the small of the back, 
anotlun* wounded him in the groin. The ca])tain of the Tri- 
omphanf was killed and the shij) lost three hundred men. 

Emeriau was appointed naval lieutenant in 1780, captain in 
1794, chief of S(juadron in 1797. He had his arm shattered 
at Aboukir in 1798 on the Spartiafc while resisting five Eng- 
lish ships, and was obliged to surrender. In 1800 he was 
made military commander of the port of Toulon; in 1802 
rear-admiral. Every advance in rank or distinction he won, 
was the reward of some service. Count of the Empire in 
1810, vice-admiral in 1811, peer of France in 1815, ho 
kept aloof during the "Hundred Days," and was called back 
to high office in 1831 by Louis Philippe. 

Epixiehes (Des), ]ie])hew of C\iron dc Beaumarchais, en- 
listed as volunteer ; appointed brevet-captain by Congress the 
11th of ^Vugust, 1777; afterwards appointed major; obtained 
permission to return to France the Ith of December, 1778, 
and dieel at Paris in 1782. He was the son of a watch- 
maker, de ljej>ine, and had transformed his ntime. He started 
in the position of artillery otlicer on the Ainjiliiirite^ the tirst 
vessel armed by his uncle for the service of the ^Vmeric^uis. 
He was with Conway, de la Bouerie, and Dncoudray, who 



Lid oj Officers. 117 

all arrived in America in March, 1777, before La Fayette."^ 
Longclianips calls hi in IJc'ipinih-cs. 

EscURY (Edouard des), born the 3d of June, 17G0; sub- 
lieutenant of the conij)any of clKusseurfi in the regiment of .Vr- 
magnac ; went to the colonies witli that regiment, and was 
present at the siege of Savannah in 1780. Although he was 
shot in the hand during the sortie of the 4th of Septeinber, 
he took ]iart in tlie bloody and useless attack on the intrench- 
nients of the town. 

EsTAiXG (Ciiarles-JIector, Count d'), born in ] 729 at the 
Chateau de Kuvel in Itouergue, of an illustrious family. His 
first rank was that of colonel of infantry. He endjarked as 
brigadier the 2d of May, 1757, with Lally-Tollendal for the 
East Indies, and learned thei'e something about naval matters ; 
taken prisoner in 17;")!), at Madras, after having been wounded, 
he was put in lii)erty on parole. In October, without waiting 
for his exchange, he went into the Persian Gulf to take the 
fort of Bender-Abasse, with three English vessels ciiptured at 
Sumatra, manned by two hundred men. He was anew taken 
prisoner while returning to France in 1760. Appointed lieu- 
tenant-general in 1703, his good luck raised much jealousy. 
He showed for blue ojicers^^"^ a partiality which offended 
many navy officers. All say of him that he was a brave 
soldier, but a poor general or naval office]'. 

Vice-admiral in 1777, he raised his ])ennant on the LaiKj- 
uedoG of ninety guns; left Toulon on the 13th of April, 1778; 
reached llhode Island on the 20i;h of July. On the 8th of 
August he forced the passage into New port, and entered Con- 
necticut Jiay. The next day he sailed against the forces of 
Howe, who had joined Byron. A tempest which raged from 

"Me Lonu'nie, Life of Bcaumarchais. 

^'^Officiers bleus, name in the old navy, applied to an officer a captain 
appointed on his own ship. (Littn'-.) 



lis The French in America. 

the lull to the 12tli of Au,a;u.^t, 1778, divided d'Estaing's 
fleet. The Languedoc only escaped by the unex])ectcd assist- 
ance of two French ships. From Newport, -where he was 
kept by Sullivan and La Fayette, d'Estaing- withdrew to 
Boston, and aroused thus the anger of the Americans, who 
accused him of treason. La Fayette defended hira. He went 
to the Windward Islands, and his title of Commander-general 
of the Windward Islands aroused the antagonism of de 
Bouille. He tried in vain to take Saint Lucia, but captured 
Saint Vincent and Grenada on the 4th of July, 1771>, by a 
sudden attack, at the head of thirteen hundred men. The 
next day he gave battle to the English squadron of Byron, 
who took refuge at Saint Christopher. He then tried vainly 
to take Savannah.^^^ Wounded and repulsed, he was dis- 
graced in 1780 on his return to France, and remained Mith- 
out employment until 1783. 

In 1787, member of the Assembly of the Notables, com- 
mander of the National Guard of Versailles, he was a be- 
liever in the Constitution by principle, but wished to save 
the king. His role was difficult. His deposition about the 
queen before the Revolutionary Tribunal was variously criti- 
cised. He soon followed her to the scatlbld, on the 28{h of 
August, 1794. 

" D'Estaing found himself, alone, charged with a very im- 
portant mission in America. Only twelve vessels had been 
intrusted to him, and no hope had boon left him of any suc- 
cor or any increase of strength. He might meet, not only 
during his passage, but especially in the Antilles, torces nnich 
superior to those he commanded, and, des])ite this incontest- 
able infei'iority, he was able to raise the honoi- of llic new 
French navy, to obtain genuine successes, and dispel the very 
unfavoi-al)le o})inion then general in Euro})e on the possibility 
of France ever placing seriously a lew vessels on the ocean, 



'See Vol. I., page SS. 



Ud of Opcers. 119 

and cspocially of being- able for one instant to sustain a 
strugcjle with England. This is a glory which the contem- 
porary writers accord without contest to the French admiral, 
a glory which the misfortunes he endured and tlie actual sit- 
uation of the navy of France has too much etiliced." ^'" 

I lind in the Journal cV an ojjiekr dc marine^'^ a most in- 
teresting accoiuit of the manccuvrcs of the fleet of d'Estiiing 
from the Dth to the 12th of August, 1778. The author 
blames d'J']staing for " the worst conceived plan of battle 
possible." Re praises the ability of de Barras, who com- 
manded the vanguard, but as soon as " we have perceived 
the Engli.-h s(|uadr<jn to windward " the author changes his 
criticism. It is no longer d'Estaing, but the officers under 
his comuiand. He reproaches them for their egotism and 
their insubordination. "The gcnci-al gave the signal all day 
with cannon shots to ]nit on all sail. I cannot hide that 
some cai^tains were neglecti'ul and others in the rear took in 
sail." lie says also that on the morrow " d'Estaing, in the 
siimc position as the day before, gave the same signal to form 
in line of battle." 

" The intention oi' the general, who was at the head of the 
line, was doubtless that the line of battle should be formed 
as soon as ])ossible, without regard to rank or seniority, and 
for each one to take his ])osition wherever he was, which was 
all the same tor success, as the strongest of the enemy's ships 
was not stronger than the weakest of ours. I do not know 
by what flitality, nor M'hy, each captain understanding the 
signal, they all tried to take the position given to the rank 
of their ships in the line of battle, which lost nuich time, and 
once more the best o])portuniiy which was ever seen to fight 
and conquer the English. A\'c shall see the same thing arrive 
at the action of Grenada." 

"'^Hisioirc raisonnee dc la dcrniHrc giurrt', by J. de Sivint-Vallior, LiC't^e, 
1783. 

"'Vol. II., page 4. 



120 The Frenclt in America. 

I quote tlic.-c remnrks as another example of the disasters 
brought about by tlie s})irit of iiidiUerence and insubordi- 
nation of the oili(,'ers of the French navy. De Grasse in 
his Mcmoire ah-cady nieniioned''" attributes to the same causes 
the fatal consequences of the action of the 12th of April. "^ 

EsTRADE (Claude, ]>aron de 1'), born at Puy-cn-Velay 
the 5th of April, 1730, entered the service in 1740, was ap- 
pointed captain in 1757, and lieutenant-colonel of Gatinais 
the 17th of August, 1777. It was with this rank that he 
made the carn})aign of America. The 14th of October, 17S1, 
before Yorktown, he served as second for Guillaumc de Deux- 
Ponts in recomioilering tlie great redoubt. The Siinie even- 
ing the attiick was made by the regiment of Deux-Ponts, under 
the lead of Guillaumc, its colonel, as commander-in-chief, aided 
by the regiment of Gatinais. A detachment of this formed 
the vanguard imder the command of de I'Estradc, the remain- 
der of Gatinais was in the rearguard under the command of 
de llostaiug. The redoubt was taken in a few minutes, and 
the regiment of Gatinais regained there its old name ot" Ivoyal- 
Auvergne. 

"He was as much respected for his merit as for his age," 
says Cromot Dubourg in his narrative. " Pie was present at 
fourteen sieges or battles. He marched at the head of his 
grenadiers, amidst the abatis and the palissadcs, as if he had 
been only twenty years of age, and Mas one of the first in 
the assault of the redoubt. A soldier, not recognizing him, 
seized him by his coat to help himself up, and caused him 
to fall into the ditch, where nearly two hundred men walked 
over him. ]Ie rose nevertheless, entered the redoul)t, and the 
next day, although bruised all over, he did his turn of tluty 
in the trenches." 



"'Sec Vol. I., })age 9 and page 109. 
"*See in tlie List of Ollicers : de Grasse 



List oj Ojl'iccrs. 121 

Eyroux (]\rai-i(>-Jean-Biil{ha.-ar PontivGs d'), second Hciitoii- 
ant in tlic regiment of Sois.-onnais ; obtained a reward for 
his servMces before Yorktown. Entered the service in 1777. 



F. 

Fabreglt-s (Joan-Barthelcuiy Monlalegre, Chevalier de), 
born the 7th of January, 1755, at Vigan in Languedoc; lieu- 
tenant of chassciirs in the regiment of Gatinais in 1775 ; 
made captain in tlic same regiment the 1st of July, 1782, for 
the courage he slioweil before Yoi-ktown. 

Faiij.y (Chevalier du), enlisted as volunteer in the War 
of Independence the 1st of December, 1776; brevet lieuten- 
ant-colonel with salary from Congress the 11th of August, 

1777. 

Faluer (Le Fcvre de la), captain-conmiandant in the reg- 
iment of Saintonge, entered tlie service in 17G0 ; made the 
campaigns of Cayenne and of the United States with his reg- 
iment. 

Falqiiereitte (I^ouis-l'^tienne-Aronde de Saint Felix, 
Chevalier de Ivebourquil), born tiie IGth of February, 1749, 
at Milhau ; entered the service in 1 700, was appointed ca[)tain 
in the regiment of Touraine in December, 1770. He was 
employed as aid-major at the siege of Yorktown, and ob- 
tained, the 5th of Dcceml)(T, 1781, tlie promise of the rank 
of major in recognition of tlie zeal and talent lie showed. 

Faneitil, enlisted as volunteer in the VCtxr of Inde])end- 
ence the 24th of March, 1777, with the rank of colonel, with 
neither pay nor rations.^''' 



"* Auborteuil. 



122 The Frcncli in America. 

Fauste de Mayence (Charlcs-Gaspard), born the 23cl of 
Fcbruaiy, 1735, at Blangy in Normandy; sub-lieutenant the 
12th of jNIarcli, 1780 ; lieutenant in the regiment of Saintonge 
the 8th of April, 1784. Made with his regiment the cam- 
paign of America. 

Fautkelle, captain of the merchantman the Amphiiiih\ 
a ship equipped and loaded with stores of war by Beanmar- 
chais. 

Feuneau, officer of tlie Vengeance. 

Fekke'jte (Jeiin-Baptiste), born the 13th of January, 173G, 
at Cernay in Alsace; entered the service in 1753, appointed 
captain in 1758 ; received the rank of majoi- in the regiment 
of Saintonge the 3d of March, 177-i. It is not sure that he 
went to America with his regiment, on account of his age, 
although his name is mentioned in tlie regimental books in 
the ArcJuves. 

Fersex (Axel, Count de), born at Stockholm the 4th of 
September, 1754. Son of a minister of state in Sweden, he 
came in his youth to France, and entered the army in 17()0,''* 
where he commanded as colonel the regiment lloyal-Sucdois. 
Appointed iirst-aid-de-camp of de Kochambeau for the expe- 
dition of America, he embarked on the Jason with Damas 
and Mathicu Dumas, at Brest, in April, 1780. 

He played a rather imjiortant part in the campaign, and 
became colonel en .second of the regiment Eoyal-Deux-Ponts 
in 1782. The 15th of August, 1781, de Kochambeau an- 
SM'crcd the letters tluit de Barras, who had just arrived, luid 
written him, and (k' Fersen was intrusted with taking them 
to Newport. This circumstance was commented on, because 
up to that time an American dragoon had been clio'^en for 

"*1779. Manruuil note. 



IJd of 0(Jtc(rs. 123 

this duty. The other ofliccrs drew from this fact more or 
less exact inferences about the projects of the generals-in-cliief. 
De Fersen was also sent from Cape Henry to Annapolis witli 
ten transports of the squ:ulron of do Barras, by "Washinirton, 
to hasten the arrival of the troops. He acquitted himself of 
this mission with diligence, and the troops were able to em- 
bark at Head of Elk and at Annapolis to reach by water the 
James River. He himself took the land ronte, and with his 
friend do Damas he accompanied dc Rochambeau, while Vau- 
ban and Laubardiei-e embarlced at Elk with the trooj)s nnder 
command of dc Custinc, and while Chiscn and Cromot Du- 
bonrg followed the same route as tlic cavalry of Lauzun across 
Virginia.^'" 

On his return to France he showed himself entirely devoted 
to the Court, and tried to protect it against the Repnblicans. 
For instance, disguised as a coachman, he foHov>-cd the king, 
and got ont of Paris the coach which took the king in his 
flight to Varennes. Arrested, then released, he tried aftcr- 
Nvards to make the king escajie from the Temple. After the 
death of Louis the Sixteenth he returned to Sweden, and was 
there in great favor with Charles the Thirteenth, who ap- 
pointed him Grand ^Marshal of the l^ilaco and Cliancellui- of 
the University of Uj)sala. He was sent to Vienna with a 
secret mission in 179E Ambas.sador to the Imperial Diet in 
1797, and afterwards, in 1803, at Dresden. Unjustly accused 
by the peoj)le of having heljxHl in tiie death of the Duke of 
Align sten burg, he was killed in Jnne, ISIO, during a riot. 

FiGANiKiiE (Cesar-Henri de la), of the Figaniere family of 
Provence, entered the l^rench navy when a l)uy. He oifercd 
his services to John Paul Jones, who gave him a commission 
as lieutenant on the Jlonhommc liichard when he was only 
seventeen years old. A certilicatc, dated Ortolier the 20th, 



Various nianuscripts and menioii-s. 



124 The French in America. 

3779, signed l)y Paul Jones, attests the couraiic of the young 
officer, who afterwards served on the squadron of tlie (\nnit 
dc Grasse. He was decorated with the order of the Cincinnati. 

He served afterwards under La ^Nfotte-Piquet, and was 
badly wounded in an action Ix'ibre Trinconialee, in C'eyhju. 
When the Eevohitiou broke out he was oflered tlie command 
of a frigate by the Republican minister of the navy, but as 
he was a Royalist he refused it, and emigrated to Italy. He 
then served as lieutenant in the British navy, but resigned in 
1797 on account of being a Catholic. Vriien the government 
of Portugal asked the British government for some ohicers to 
serve in the Portuguese navy de Figaniere was one of those 
sent. He became in succession captain of corvette, capUun of 
frigate, and naval captain. 

In Portugal he married Donna A'iolante Rosa Morao. He 
died at Lisbon, October the 31st, ISoO.^" 

Fladen or Flad (Charles-Louis de), born at ]\Iaidieim 
the 17th of July, 173S ; cadet in the service of the Palatinate 
in 1757; captain in the regiment of Royal-Dcux-Ponts the; 
18th of October, 1777 ; made the campaigns of Germany and 
that of America with Rochambeau ; distinguished himself at 
Yorktown, and received the cross of Saint-Louis. 

Fleciien de Ya.mix (Charles-Fran9ois- Joseph, Count de), 
entered the service in 17G0; was appointed captain the 7th 
of June, 177<), and mc-'^fre dc camp en. sccoiul in the regiment 
of Touraine the 13th of April, 1780. He went to the col- 
onies with his regiment, and distinguished himself especially 
at Saint Christopher, where, with a ,-mall cor[is of three luui- 
drcd grenadiers and chd.^scur.^, he rejiulscd a trooji of fourteen 
hundred men, whom the I'^nglish had disembarked. His eon- 
duct before Yorktown was also worthy of praise. 



'"Information received from the Viscount dc la FiLranidie, Porlu- 
"uese minister to Saint rctcrsbiirg. T. B. 



J Ad of Officers. 125 

Fleuiiy (Frai)ooi.s-Loui's Teisscidrc, ^Marquis de), tlie hero 
of Stony Point ; son of Franyois dc Flcury and ^Marguerite 
Domadieu, liis wife. He was born the 28th of August, 1740, 
at Saint-Hippolyto, in Languedoe. 

La Fayette says in Ids ^Memoirs tliat dc Fleuiy belonged 
to tlie regiment of Gatinais, l)ut in a doenmeni in the archives 
of the French A\'ar De})artment it is stated that he entered 
the regiment of Ilouergue as volunteer on the loth of May, 
17G8, and served in it during the campaign of Corsica, ris- 
ing gradually to the rank of first lieutenant. 

In 1770 he sailed lor America with Tronson Ducoudray,''* 
liaving received a leave of absence and the rank of ca])taiu 
of engineers from his government. On his arrival he joined 
the American army as volunteer, and accompanied it in this 
cajiacity during a part of the campaign of 3 777. He received 
the rank of ca])tain for his gallant conduct at the battle of 
Biscatagua.''" Hq was then sent to Philadelphia, coming the- 
atre of the ^var, to map its suburbs, sound the Delaware, and 
fortify Billingsjxjrt. He rejoined the array with the rank of 
major of brigade when the enemy landed at Hith. 

His brave and gallant conduct at the Brandywine on the 
11th of Sei)tembcr, 1777, where he remained on the battle- 
field after the rout of his brigade, and had his horse killed 
under him, attracted the notice and admiration of ^^'ashing- 
ton, who drew the attention oi' Congress to him. The quar- 
termaster-gcuieral received orders to present de Flcury with a 
horse, " in token of the high esteem in which his merit was 
held by Congress. ''*° He served as major of the brigade of 
dragoons at the battle of Cicrmantown ; was wounded in the 
leg, took sevci-al prisoners, and had the horse, given to him by 
Congress, killed under him. He was then sent as enginecr-in- 
chief to Fort Miillin, on Mud Island, which was thrcatenetl 

»"See Vol. I., pa-oy SO, SI. 

'"* Mimoire of de Flcury in Archives of French War Department. 

^^Mauoire of de Flcury in Archices of French "War L)ei)artuiont. 



12G The French in America. 

by the English .s(|ua'lroii and army. There lie sustained a 
siege of six weeks, during which tlie Au(/u.sf, of sixty-four 
guns, and the Merlin, of twenty-two guns, were blown up by 
the fire of the fort. The commaudant and the garrison of 
six hundred men were relieved three times, but de Flcury 
steadily refused to quit his post. He was severely wounded 
on the IGth of October, and the same night the fort was 
evacuated. ]Ie was appointed lieutenant-colonel, and received 
a letter of thanks for his able and valiant conduct from the 
President of Co)igress. 

During the winter of 177S he formed the bold project to 
cross the ice and set fire to the ]i]nglish squadron. The 
Delaware not being entirely frozen that winter, he invented 
" batteaux mines," \', hicli were to be worked by the repul- 
sion of fusees; })ut whilst he Avas working on them he was 
ordered to the Army of the Xorth. The expedition into 
Canada ditl not take place. On his return he was made in- 
spector, and was charged with instructing and disciplining the 
troo})s. 

At the opening of the campaign of 1778 he was the second 
in command of a picked corps (which comprised the body- 
guard of the general) of six hundred men, two pieces of 
artillery, and fifty cavalry. He led it into action at the battle 
of ]\Ionmouth. ^^\lshington sent him to meet the Count 
d'Estaing on the hitter's arrival in xVmerica, and he accom- 
panied him to Ifhode Island, which was to be attacked. His 
entreaties prevailed on the admiral to raise the useless siege 
of Newport, and to retire to the north of the island. His 
company repulsed the enemy and covered the retreal."^ Count 
d'Estaing wrote to Genei'al A\'ashington : "Allow me to recom- 
mend ]M. de Fleury especially to your good gi-aces. General 
Sullivan will tell you all about his conduct at IJhode Island. 
He is an excellent ollieer and a uscf'ul Frenchman. I hope 



Mcinoirc of do Floury in Archiirs of French War Dcpartuiont. 



Ust of Officers. 127 

to sorve again witli him. Hft is a man nuulo to unite })rivatc 
individuals in the same way that our nations arc unitccL^'*- 

De Floury commanded a regiment of light cavalry when 
the camjmign of 177') opened. He was the first to scale 
the ramparts of Stony Point, and he carried off the English 
flag witli his own hand. For this brilliant deed Congress 
awarded him a moJal, which was fastened to a band cut from 
the flag he had so galhuitly captured. He was the only 
Frenchman to whom such an honor was accorded. This medal 
is in the collection given by M. Vattemare to the Bibliothequc 
Nationalc of Paris, and he describes it as follows: "A general 
in lloman costume, standing on a pile of ruins, holding in 
one hand a drawn sword and in the other a flag, on which 
he is trampling. Legend: A'^lirrUTlS Et AuDACIiE MoNUif 
Et ]?im:.mu.m. — Exeiyitc. D. t>f. Fleury Equiti Gai.lo 
PiMMO SuPKA ]\Iuiios, Respub. Americ. (Duvivicr fecit.) 
Reverse — A fortress built on a rock and besieged by a 
squadron, Lee/end: Aggeres, Paludes, Hostes A^icti. — 
Exergue. Stony Point. Jul. mdcclxxix." 

The President of Congress wrote to him : " Congress hopes 
that your own country will sho^v its appreciation of your 
merit." ^^^ And the l^^'reuch minister wrote "that he flattered 
himself that the Court would give, in the person of j\l. de 
Fleury, a proof to America of the satisfaction with which it 
has seen that a French officer had been so useful in her 
service."^*'* When de la Luzerne arrived General Washing- 
ton begged him to give an account of de Fleury's gallant 
conduct to the French Court; and de la Luzerne wrote to 
the Council about it. 

At the end of the eam])aign de Fleury asked for and ob- 
tained a leave of absence of nine months, and General Wash- 
ington wrote to Congress on de Fleury's departure that he 



^^ Letter of d'Estnint;. 

^^ Mi-moire of de Fleury in Archives of French War Department. 

'" J/twojrc of de Fleury in Archives of French War Department. 



128 Tlic French in America. 

liopcd for tlic I'ctuni of un officer wlio luid rendered such 
im})ortant services. 

De Fleury retui-ncd to France. ^\'liile tliere lie addre.-.sed 
a memoir to tlic Court, wlierein he gave an aeeount of Ids 
services, endint^ as follows : " M. de Fleury having thus by 
liis services risen from the rank of simple soldiei- lo that of 
lieutenant-colonel, honored by the goodwill of the nation 
and the army. In- the esteem of Congress, by the confidence 
of his general, ventures to solicit some sign of tlic ap])rol)ati()n 
of his prince and of the minister under who^c auspices he 
passed into the service of the allies of France. Although 
convinced that he owes his success more to his good fortune 
than to his talents, and that his zeid alone was able to com- 
pensate for his inability, he ventures to hope that his country 
will not disdain his services, and that that hapjMncss of every 
Frenchman, the return to a loved land, will not lie for him 
a sorrow and a disgrace. P. S, — M. de Fleury has drawn 
some plans and written some memoirs which have received 
the approbation of ]M. Girard. lie asks leave to i)resent 
them to the minister." 

De Fleury received the rank of chevalier of Sainl-Louis 
on the 5th of December, 1781, and a pensiou of four hundred 
livrcs was awarded to him for his services at the siege and 
capture of Yorktown. He returned to America on the Ai(//e 
with the Prince do P)roglie and several other oflicers, and re- 
joined the army; but finding that the war was ])ractieally 
over, and that his services were no longer necessary, he went 
to South America to make some explorations. On his return 
to France he Mas made colonel of a regiment at Pondichery in 
1784, and died in his native land MJth the rank of mar^chal 
dc c([)np}^ 

'^""This notice of de Floury war? dictated by my fatlitr to my sister 
and jniblished in the Mntjaziiw of Auurinni Hn^ioni lur 1S77, j>aj;;es 
724-72(3. I liave inserted it in place of the ori;j;inal one in the List of 
Onicers, as it is more complete. E. S. B. 



lAd of Officers. 129 

Flokent (Domcrguc de Saint). Sec D(>.mergue. 

FoKS (])ar()n dc). Dc Laiizun in his i\[omoir.s mentions 
this officer ;i.s hU aid-dc-cainp at K(nvporl just as he was re- 
turning in Mareli^ 17S3. 

FoLiE (De La), infantry officer, wounded at the naval ac- 
tion oir Saint Lucia the U)th of ^Jay, 1780. 

FoLUERE. See Faluer. 

FoNTA^•(;E,s (Viscount de), born tlie 21st of March, 1740, 
at Monthiyon in Allier. Entered the service as lieutenant in 
the infantry regiment of Poiton the 1st of Januarv, 1750; 
appointed cajitain in the same regiment in 1758. He made 
first the ciunpaigns of Germany from 1757 to 1763, was 
Avounded at llosl)ach the oth of November, 1757, and served 
with his rank of captain until May, 1775, at which time he 
passed into the Dejiartmcnt of the Xavy and of the Colonies, 
and was appointed major in the regiment of the Cape at Saint 
Domingo. He reached his post in September, 1775. Chevalier 
of Saintr-Louis in 1777 ; lieutenant-colonel in 1778; colonel in 
1780. In the ])osition of major-general of the landing forces 
of the naval army of the Count d'Estaing in July, 1779, he 
took part in the siege of Savannah. He commanded there a 
legion of mulattoes,^'"' and he saved the army ai'ter the useless 
assault on the fortifications by bravely covering the retreat. 
He was there, on the 7th of October, 1770, dangerously 
wounded by a gunshot. Among the blacl-cs who distinguished 
themselves in this action were Andre Ivigaud, ]>eauvais, Vil- 
lattc, Beauregard, and Landiert, who became afterwards gen- 
erals under the Convention, and also Henri Christophe, the 
future Kino- of Hayti.^'*' 



According to my inuiinscripts, of more than eiglit hundred men. 

^f(nmscriJ)t of Dupetil-Thouars. 



130 Tlie French in America. 

Dc Foiilangcs v.-as in command at Saint Domin^-o at the 
time of tlie revolt of tln^ negroes. He was forced to tly to 
France, -where he died on the 13th of June, 1822. 

FoNTiVEAUX (Chevalici- de). Lientenant in the service of 
Congress.^''^ 

FouET, sergeant of chasseurs of Gatinais, who was chosen 
with Le Cornet, sergeant-major, to march at the liead of the 
cohunn of attack of the great redonht at Yorktown, and to 
direct tlie men with axes wlio were to cut down the palis- 
sades and the abatis. He showed mncli bravery on this oc- 
casion. Pri\ate in 17C9, sergeant in 17S1. 

FoRGEiiiE (De la), infantry officer, sn])-lientenant of Age- 
nois, killed at the naval action off Saint Lucia.'**^ 

FOSSELIX DE Ll^AUMONT. Scc Ll^:ArMOXT. 

FoucAULT (Jean-Simon-David de), born in the Island of 
Re on the 2Gth of February, 1741; entered the service in 
1760 ; captain of chasseurs of the regiment of Gatinais the 2Sth 
of August, 1777 ; was wounded at the attack on Savannah ; 
took i)art in the combats of La IMotte-Pi(]uet ; Avas decoi'ated 
the 4th of April, 1781, and was present at the attack of the 
redoubt of Yorktown. 

FoUQUET d'Auvileers (Jcnn-Gabrk'l-] Jene-Francois), rncstre 
de camp conmianding the regiment of Armagnac, born at Metz 
the 13th of jNIarch, 1751. Decorated for the bravery he 
showed at the capture ol" Saint Christo))h('r. 

FraxciiIvSSEX (Jac(jues-Antoine de), enlisted as volunteer 
the 2()th of July, 1770; was chevalier of Saint-Louis. He 

^^Jiicords of the JUvolidlon. 
»«»L. B., 2U1. 



Lht of Oficcrs. 131 

received from Congress tlic nmk of lieutenant-colonel on en- 
tering the serviec.^''"^ 

Fkancy (Thevencau de), after being a student in the navy, 
was employee of I'eaninarchais in France. He showed much 
intelligence, and obtained tlie coniidence of his en^ployer to 
such an extent that he intrusted him to go and look out for 
his int<!rests and rej)resent him in America. Francy started 
towards tlie end of 1777. He had accunudatcd a rather large 
fortune in the service of ]]caumarchai?, and, nevertheless, while 
supporting his interest before Congress, he took service in the 
militia as volunteer. He Ibught bravely, especially at the 
Brandywine, un<k'r the orders of Conway. 

Beaumarcliais asked for him and obtained a commission of 
captain for the colonics, which he sent to him in America, 
witli epaulettes made by Madame de Beaumarchais. But 
young Francy had delicate health. He was troubled with 
his lungs, and having returned from America to Paris in 
1782, he died in that city in 1783.^''^ 

Fhkne (Chevalier de), major of the regiment Royal-Com- 
tois. At the head of the chdsseur.s of this regiment, and with 
the help of that of Auxerrois, he co-operated actively in the 
recapture of Saint Fustatius, the 26th of November, 1781. 

FurvSTENWEUTiiKK (Cliarlcs, Baron de), born at jMusenheim 
the 23d of August, 1741 ; entered the service as ensign in 
the regiment of Koyal-Deux-Ponts the 8th of January, 1758; 
made the cami)aigns of Germany during the Seven Years' 
War, and was a])j)ointed captain-conunandant in the Siime 
regiment in 177(). He went to America in 17^1, and ob- 
tained the cross of Saint-Louis for his good conduct before 
Yorktown. 



""Aubertcuil. 

^""De Louienie. JnainitarcJiaix ft ko)1 tfinjis. 



]32 Tlic. French in America. 

G. 

Gaillot (Aiitoino), entered the serviee as jM'Ivate tlie 1st 
of February, J 750 ; was a]>pointcd sub-lieutenant ol" grenadiers 
of Gatinais tiie 21st of April, 1779. Distinguished himself 
before Yorktown. 

Galatjx, sceond lieutenant in tlie reiriment of lioyal-Deux- 
Ponts ; entered the serviee in 1770; was at the attack of the 
redoubt of Yorktown. ]\Lr. Galatin, of New York, told me 
that he was a near I'ekitive of the fullowinj^ : 

Gai.atin (Albert), born at Geneva the 20t]i of January, 
1761; went to America in 17S0 ; served as vohniteer, and 
comn^anded for some time Fort Passamaquoddy ; Senator of 
the United States, Minister of Finance, Ambassador to Saint 
Petersburg:^ London, and Paris; literary man and distinguished 
statesman. Died tlic 20th of August, 1841). 

GAT.TIER d'At.ausse (Josepli-Philemon). See Alausse. 

Gaevax (De), French officer, enlisted as volunteer in the 
service of the United States ; was charged by La I'^ayette^'^'^ 
to await the arrival of de Pochambeau at Cape Henry in 
case he should have disembarked at tlie entrance of Chesa- 
peake Bay, instead of at Boston. (Jalv:;n was to give him the 
instructions of de Yei'gennes and valuable advices about the 
situation of the hostile armies. Another officer, wliose name 
is not given, had received the same inission to Rhode Island. 

Gambs (Jean-Daniel de), born at Strasburg in 1741 ; en- 
tered the service in 1757 ; was appointed captain in the 



■See Mimolrcs of La F;ivc'tte. 



Lid of Oficrrs. 133 

regiment of T'ourLomiais in 1772, aiul major in tlie same 
regiment in December, 1777. He made tlie eampaigns of 
Germany and Corsica, and then went to America. lie %vas 
an officer of great distinction, and the oldest major in the 
expeditionary corps. J fe M'as in the oxjiedition of I^estouches 
in Cliesapeake ]>ay in tSei>tember, 1781. He received a pen- 
sion for his conrage before Yoi'ktowJi. lie died at Xaples 
the 8th of June, 1823. 

Gan, commissary of artillery, arrived at Boston the 20tli 
of August, 1780, on the Alliance, Avhich brought also de 
Pontgibaud and Commissary Lee.^^^ 

Gantheaumio (TIenri-ITonore-JosepIi-Antoine, Count de), 
born the 13th of April, 1755; enlisted at the age of four- 
teen as a sailor on a ship of his fiithcr's ; at twenty-two years 
of age had made seven campaigns to the East and to the 
Antilles ; then officer of the merchant navy in the service of 
Beaumai-chals ; was present at the action of Grenada, fought 
by d'Estaing with A(hniral Byron the 12th of July, 1770, on 
board of the Fier-llodrif/iic, which was much damaged, and 
whose captain, de ]\lontaut, was killed.''^' 

Beaumarchais made Cantheaumc enttu- the navy.^'^' lie was 
present at the ca])ture of Grenada and at the siege of Sa- 
vannah, and tot)k part in the last actions fought by the Sar- 
veillante and the Apollon}'^'^ 

Naval ca])tain in 17i>l, he made the cam})aigns of the 
Republic ; was chief of stalf of Brucys and wounded at 
Aboukir ; returned from Egypt Avitli Bonaparte, and was 

'^'Blanchard. 

"^^ Manuscript of Dupctit-Thouars and Joitriuil (Vun oiUncr dc rnai-iui'. 

'"Accordinj? to the Archirrs of the Freucli navy; but the Enci/do- 
pcdia of Chronology, London, Longmans, says lie had entered tlic royal 
navy in 17(iO. 

**'De Lomenie. 



134 The French in America. 

covered with hojiors al'ter tiio 18th r>niiuairc ; vice-admiral 
ill 1801, and later coinnuinder of the naval army charged 
with making a descent on England. He joined tiie Tvovalists 
wlien tiie Eniperor ioll, kcj)t aloof during the " Iliiudred 
Days," and .served tlie Jjourbons, M'ho gave him the cross of 
commander of Saint-Louis and the peerage. He died the 
28th of Sej)teniber, 1818. 

Gakavaque. See Caravagxe. 

Gauguet, officer of the Vcnjcance. 

Genville (Barthelemy-Laurent Lcvert do), born in 1759 
in Franche-Comte ; ciidei yeniiUiomnic in 177(); second lieu- 
tenant in i\\ii regiment of Gatinais in Xovember, 1781. Fol- 
lowed this regiment to tlie colonies, then went with it to 
America ; distinguished himself at Savannah, at Yorktown, 
and was taken prisoner in the action of the 12th of April, 
1782, on the ship the Hector. 

Geogiteiiam. Xame of two brothers, Irishmen, mentioned 
by Dr. Dubourg in his letter of the 10th of June, 1776, to 
Dr. Franklin. He has not been able to jiromisc them any- 
thing, but he gives to understand that they are very distin- 
guished, and that if they should go to America they ought 
to be made general ollicers. One is lieutenant-colonel of cav- 
alry in France, the other captain in India, where he is in 
reality at the head of a small army. 

Gilbert (]\relchior-Josei>h de), born the 4th of October, 
1737, at Die in Dauphine ; entered the service in HoG; ap- 
pointed caj)tain-commandant of Soissonnais the 11th of ^lay, 
1760. Distinguished himself before Yorktown, and was dec- 
orated. 



List of OJJiccrs. 135 

GiMAT (Dc), enlisted as vulunlcer ; first-aid-dc-cani]) of La 
Fayc'tto, who liked liini es])ceially.*''' He saved perliaps I^a 
Fayette at the l)attle of llic Brandywinc in 1777, by givinjz; 
the (general liis own lioi-.-r; at the time La Fayette reeeived 
a ball through the leg. lie it was whom La Fayette, in 
1778, intrusted a ehallenge to for Lord Carlisle, for offensive 
remarks to the honor of Franee which the diplomatist had 
pul)lished. Lord C'arlisle declined, covering himself by his 
j)Osition of })lenipotcntiary. 

De Gimat also had the mission of awaiting the Count de 
Grasse at Cape Ileniy in 1781, when this admiral was ar- 
riving with Saint-Simon and some troops. He gave him the 
instructions of La Fayette. 

De Gimat was ap])ointed lieutenant-colonel by Congress on 
the 17th of November, 1777, was promoted the following year 
to the i-ank of colonel, and received the command of a regi- 
ment of rillemen. He was wounded before Yorktown at the 
attack of the redou])t on the left of the enemy. After the 
peace of 1783 he received a command in the French Antilles, 
and was appointed colonel of the regiment of ^Martinique. 
Decorated with the order of the Cincinnati. 



GoRAT ]JE Beallmont (Alcxis-Jean-Fraucois), born at Li- 
moges the 25th of July, 1735; entered the service in 1754; 
was appointed captain-commandant in the regiment of Saint- 
ongc in 1770. He made with distinction the campaigns of 
Germany, then served with his regiment in Cayenne. He re- 
turned to France, where he was appointed ca])tain, and started 
again with the ex])editionary corps of Kochamheau. He 
showed zeal and bravery before Yorktown. 

'"De Cliastellux ppcaks in ]ii<rh terms of de Gimat, t^aying : "A 
French oflicer over whom 1 chiim the rights of a ?urt of miht;iry 
paternity, having brought him up in my regiment from his earliest 
youth." 



loG TJiC French in America. 

Gouviox (Jeau-BaplL-tf), born the 7th of January, 1747; 
lieutenant in the Military Scliool of ^tezieres in 1709; in the 
engineers in 1771 ; engaf2;ed at Paris by J^^'anklin in 1777 
with do Launioy, La liadiere and Du I'ortail to be employed 
as engineer. He had served sinee 17(U) in the enjiineers. 
Congress admitted him as engineer with i\\c. i-ank of major 
the 28th^»* of July, 1777, and breveted him eolonel the 17th 
of November of the same year. He was appointed eaptain 
on tlie lists of the Freneh army in 1770, and the services he 
rendered to the Americans caused him to receive, at the peace, 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the j)rovincial trooj^s, rank 
he already held in the United States, lie was decorated with 
the order of the Cincinnati. 

La Fayette chose him in 1789 for major-general of the 
National Guard of Paris. In 1791 he was deputy from Paris 
to the IjCgislative Assembly, resigned in 1792, and sei'ved 
under I^a Fayette as lieutenant-general in the Army of the 
North. 

Gouvlon Avas killed the lltli of June, 1792, by a cannon 
ball near the village of Griduelle, in the neighborhood of 
Maubeuge. He was the son of a lieutenant of j)olice of 
Toul. 

His brother had been killed while serving under the or- 
ders of de Bouillc during the revolt of the troops at Nancy 
in 1791. 

He was a relation of Gouvion Saint-Cyr, Avho did not go 
to America, as has been sometimes said.'^^ 

GouziK, private in the regiment of Agenois in 1757 ; was 
made olllcer in 1779. ]Made all the eamj)aigns of the Seven 
Years' A^"ar, and siu^wed great lirmness bcl'ore Yorktown. 



'"«8th of July? :ilurginal note by T. B. 

"^Saint-Cyr vas captain ea siro)id in the regiment of Saintouge. 
INIarLrinal note bv T. B. 



List of Officers. 137 

(ioVEKT (.liicqiU'.^-lViul), brcvctci] ca])t:iin-]ic'uten:int of artil- 
lery by C^.ii-T(-^ tlic 20tli of July, 177G.^'" 

Grancjiatn (Do), naval captain, who was joinctl to Lau- 
rens aufl dv Xuaill'js to arrange tlie articles of capitulation of 
Yorktown.-'^^ 

GiiANDiKiiE (De La), caj^lain of the ship the Conqucrraity 
forming pari of the s(|uaJron that started from Brest. Distin- 
guished himself at the naval action of the IGth of April, 17SL 
His son had been killed in the iiaval action off Saint Lucia 
on the 101)1 ui' March, 1780. At the battle of Ouessant, the 
20th of 'Tilly, 1778, he commanded the ship the InJien, of 
sixty-foin- guns.-°- 

" De la Grandiere," says l^lanchard, " is ill-humored, big- 
oted, little enlightened, a gambler, self-interested, taking the 
communion every Sunday without being more Immane for his 
sailors and his sick; in short, a Moliniste."-''^ Further on 
the same writer adds : " But one forgives him his defects on 
a day of battle. He has much activity and coolness." 

Grandsfjgxe (Dv), infantry officer ; wounded at the naval 
action oif Saint Lucia fought by de Guicheu the l*Jth of 
May, 1780. 

Grasse (Franyois-Joseph-Paul, ]\Lu-(juls de Tilly, Count de), 
born at Yalette in Provence in 1723 ; entered the Galleys of 
Bdigion (Ships of INLalta) as early as July, 1734, with the rank 



**Auberteuil. 

^^-L. B., i;)2. 

»«L. B., (iS. 

*^FoUo\vcrrt of ]\I.>liii;i, a Spanish Jesuit, of whom Pascal (Pensi'cs) 
says: " Tliey are iiooplo who know the truth, but only uphold it as 
lonj' as it is to their interest." K. S. B. 



138 The French in America. 

of marine miard, and made several cam))ai<i:n.s again.st the 
Turks. Entered the J'' reach fleets in 1749, and served nnder 
La Jonquiere at Pondiehery ; v,as captured by Admiral Anson, 
and kept prisoner two years in England. Xaval lieutenant 
in May, 1754; captain in January, 17G2. At the battle of 
Ouessant, in 1778, he commanded the ship the Robn.sie, of 
seventy-four guns. In 1779, under the orders of d'Estaing, 
he helped in the capture of Tabago. In 1781, although he 
had been a shorter time in the service than the Count de 
Barras, he was intrusted with the command of a fleet which 
brought succor to the Americans, and received the title of 
lieutenant-general, which gave him the connnand over all 
the other general officers. The Count dc Barras had enough 
greatness of character to serve under his orders in these 
conditions until the happy ending of the AVar of Independ- 
ence. 

The co-operation of the Count de Grasse was much more 
profitable to the Americans than that of d'Estaing. Count 
de Rochambeau having asked him for help by the Concorde, 
which found liim at the Windward Islands, the Admiral 
answered that he would start with twelve hundred tliousand 
Uvres^"^ and three thousand five hundred men under the com- 
mand of the ]\Lirquis de Saint-Simon. Do Ivochambeau would 
have liked five or six thousand men. Still, this news brought 
by the Concorde filled with joy the allied generals. De Grasse 
kept his word ; he started on the 4th of August from the 



'^De Grasse tried to procure this sum among the inhabitants of the 
Cape, but it was impossible to find it. He sent the frigate the Aifjnttr 
to Havana. The commander of this jiort made known to the principal 
inhabitants the needs of the French army ; at once every one sub- 
scribed ; the ladies especially brought their money, and even their 
jewfls, and the same day there was collected live Imndred thousand 
piadrcs (two milliou tivo liundri^l thousand lirrt.<), whirh tin- Aigritli: 
took to de (inissc, who then wrote from rvhitan/.as to the ladies of 
Havana to thank ihem for the essential service they were doing to the 
French army, and to praise them for their patriotic devotion. 



List of rjfjlrcrs. 139 

Antilles witli all tlio promised siuvors.'-"' lie broiiglit them 
to tlic shores of Chesapeake Bay; thcn^ the 3d of Septembei-, 
he won a victory over the fleet of the English Admiral 
Graves, victory which allowed the tnjops embarked at Annapo- 
lis under the command of Ciistine to make their junction with 
those de Grassc brought himself, and with the army of La 
Fayette. This circumstance decided the fate of Cornwall is 
and that of liis army shut up in Yorktown. 

The 12th of A])ri], 1782, forced to fight Admiral Rodney 
near the Salutes with inferior forces, he was taken prisoner. 
Tiiere were only three men entirely sound left on his ship 
when lie was forced to strike.""'' 

I have a printed sheet, having- for title: " Accoimt of the 



**I)e Grasse had on board three thousand four hundred and sixty- 
four men, besides the ordinary crews of the sliips. {Mcrcurc de France, 
October, 1781, page 77.) 

Tliis news was ])rought to France on tlie cutter the Mouclie, Captain 
de Ncgrier, an English prize recently captured at Tabngo, which left 
the fleet of the Count de Grasse after the diliicult passage of the canal 
of the Bahamas. {Idem, page 123.) 

'^This is what one reads in the book of ^l. de Saint- Vallier, already 
cited. It is an example of the insults which were hurled at de Grasse 
in France on account of his want of success : 

"After his important victory of the 12th of April, 1782, Admiral 
Rodney hastened to send de Grasse to London, as the principal troi)hy 
of his victory. The French admiral was well received ; he seemed to 
be assisting at a real triumph ; he was received at Court, and he never 
missed accepting the numerous invitations he received, nor to show 
himself on the promenades or on his balcony. The people who ac- 
claimed him wished, doubtless, by exaggerating his merit, to increase 
their own glory and the success of Admiral liodney ; but Count de 
Grasse did not seem to look on it thus, and until the peace lie enjoyed 
this strange infatuation of his enemies. 

" De Grasse stupidly attributed this rece])tion to his own merit. In 
France he was treated quite otlierwise ; he was jeered at ; the women 
wore golden crosses d la JeanneUe, with a heart on them. Those made 
d la de Grasse had no heart. 

"De Grasse, in his naivetC; told how the King of JOngland had said 
to flatter him : '1 would see you with pleasure again at the head of the 
French armies.' " 



140 Tlic French in America. 

naval action of the Count dc Ora.<isc iclth Admiral Tiodncy.^]-^'' 
It is dated from jNIartiiiique on the 17th of April, 1782, and 
begins tlius : " Tlicre has arrived to-day, at tliree o'clock in 
the afternoon, a cutter brin2;ing the following news of the 
French army, which is to M'indward of Gnadelouj)e." They 
were far oil' from the truth. De Grasse only returned to 
France two years later, when peace was concluded. Pie con- 
tributed, lioweyer, during his captivity, towards bringing about 
]:)caee. lie justified himself in a mcmoire-^^ on his return, 
and was acquitted by a court-martial held in March, 17S4. 
lie died the 11th of January, 17SS. 

In a letter of A\"ashington to Kochambeiui of the 22d of 
April, 1788, the American general, alluding to the misfortunes 
of dc Grasse's later yciirs, said : " But his frailties should 
now be buried in the grave with him, while his name will 
be long deservedly dear to this country on account of his 
successful co-operation in the glorious campaign of 1781." 

Grassp:-Limme]IMONT (Dc),"^"^ about whom I have no in- 
formation. 

Gi{iLLif:RES (l^^ranyois-Marin dcs Bouillieres, Chevalier dcs), 
born the 28th of October, 1752; captain en second in the 

^Detail du comhat mn:al dc. M. le Comic de Grasse avcc I'cunlml liodnri/. 
^Seo Vol. I., page *J. 

In his mcmoire he said, after having rehited the focts of the hattle: 
"Such are tlie circumstances of tliis misfortune to tlie arms of the 
king and to mine. One nnist not be surprised thereat; tlic most im- 
portant manu'uvros were not carried out; nine of my signals were ab- 
sohitely neglected. It is for my judges to decide whether the move- 
ments ordered were suitable to the circumstances of the combat and 
to the winds then blowing. I sul)mit myself to their knowledge with 
as much confidence as resjK'ct. It is my signals, it is the defense of 
my ship which I have jnu-jiosed giving to their examination. * * * * 
1 am the first general of the French army to be judged by a court- 
martial." 

^'L. B., page 90. 



Lht of Ojjicers. 141 

rcginu^iit of Arm;!;i,nac; (listiiio-uishcd himself at tlio taking of 
Saint Cliristoplicr ; conimaiidcd a picket of hh regiment at 
the attack of the intrencliments of Savannah, and was wounded 
tliere by two gunshots. He was then under tlie command of 
Count do DiHuii. He also took part in the expedition to 
Hudson's 13ay on the 13th of June, 17S2/"' 

GuiCiiArvD entered the service as private in 174G ; made 
all the campaigns of Germany as non-commissioned officer, 
and was wounded at LaufeKl. Appointed sub-lieutenant of 
Soissonnais in 1770, he made the campaign of America, and 
was wounded in the battle of the IGth of March, 17S1, be- 
fore New York. 

GuiCHKX (Louis-Urbain du Boucxic, Count de), born at 
Fougeres in 1712, died at ]\[orlaix in 1700. Pie entered the 
navy in 1730 as guard, and went through all the ranks. 
A})pointed naval captain in 175G. The following year he 
commanded the AtdUndc, and ciiptured f<.>ur English privateers 
and nine mcrchantuicn. \\\ 1778 chief of squadron and com- 
mander of Saint-I^ouis. He was present on the 27th of July, 
1778, at the battle of Oucssant, where he took the place of 
Count Du Challault de Ijcsuc, who was wounded while com- 
maiiding the rearguard. In 1779 he became lieutenant- 
general, ruid the following year he left Brest with fifteen 
vessels to replace d'Estaing in the Antilles. He escorted a 
fleet of merchantmen, ami arrived .-afely in ^larch, 17S0, at 
the Martinique. The 17th he met Admiral Rodney and 
fought a successful naval action wiili him near Dominica, 
another on tlie loth of ^lay following, and a third on the 
19th. Ivodney abandoned the town after the hx-s of the 
Cormorant, of seventy-four guns. But the I^nglish have 
always held that Rodney won the victory. 

"" See in the List of Oflicors : POrou.se. 



142 Tlic French in America. 

In 1781 dc Guich(Mi was made grand cross of Saint-Louis, 
and loft Brest on the lOtli of December with nineteen war 
vessels and many merchantmen, some of wliicli tlic English 
Admiral Kempenfeld captured. Let us note that at this time 
the escorting of merchantmen had become, for the ofHcers of 
the royal navy, a si'condary mattei', a thing indeed below 
their dignity.-'^ 

He did nolhing more that was remarlcaljlc. In 17>S4 Jiouis 
the Sixteenth made him elievalier of the Saint-Esprit, which 
position was not generally considered suitable for the dignity 
of a grand cross of Saint-Louis. 

H. 

PIaab or AiiAAiJ, naval ensign, a Swede. Killed the .5th 
of September, 17S1, in tlic ojK-ratictns before Savannah."'- 

Haak (Frederic-Charles, Baron de), born at Lappe the 1-lth 
of March, 1744. Made three campaigns in Germany in the 
regiment of Boyal-Deux-ronts ; was appointed captain of the 
grenadiers of that regiment in April, 1779. He received the 
cross of ]\[ilitaiy ^lerit for the bravery he showed at the 
attack of the redoubt of Yorktown. 

IIaden (Charles-Louis de), born at Manheim the 17th of 
July, 1738; entered as cadet the service of the Palatinate in 
1757 ; captain of a conij)any, lieutenant-colonel of Boyal- 
Deux-Ponts the ISth of October, 1777. Received the cross 
of Saint-Louis for his conduct before Yorktown. 

Hainaui.T (Charles-Theodore), born at 2ilanheim the 1st 
of October, 1738 ; entered as cadet the service of the Prince 



^^'See Vol. I., p;i:_'eH 10'.), 110, and pa-os ir.S-177. Also an extract 
from " JotinKil (/'»/; nijicicr dr marine" pa.i^e 24, Paris, I7S2. 
'^' Maiin,'<cri])t of Dupelit-Tliouarti. 



Li^t of Officers. 143 

Palatine tho 20tli of August, 1750; captain-coniinandant of 
Jloyal-Doiix-routs the 22(1 of July, 1779. Made six cam- 
paif^ns in Gei'iuauy and went to America with his regiment. 
He received the cross of Military ]Merit. 

H(EN (Chevalier dc Dillenbourg). See DiLI.EXiiOUKG. 

HouDETO'J' Di: CoLO.MBY (Marc-Joscpli d'), boi-n the 18(h 
of June, 1752, at Saint Martin in Fressin ; entered the service 
as sub-lieutenant of Agenois in 1777; lieutenant the 21st of 
April, 1779. lie was M'ounded at the siege of Yorktown by 
a bayonet thrust in the light thigh, in the sortie which the 
English made during the night of the 15th to the 10th of 
October, 1781, on the battery on the right of the allies. 

HoLZENiX)]iF (Baron de), one of the first enlisted volun- 
teers in the War of Independence, received the brevet of lieu- 
tenant-colonel the 29th of July, 1777, with pay from the 
preceding 17th of iS'ovendjcr. He resigned the 31st of Jan- 
uary, 1778. 

HuMEERT (Claude-dac(jues-Fran<,'ois), born the J 5th of Au- 
gust, 1757 ; entered as sub-lieutenant the regiment of lloyal- 
Deux-Ponts the 28th of August, 1777. He received a re- 
ward for his good conduct before Yorktown, and tlie rank of 
lieutenant in Iioyal-Deux-l*onts the 30th of January, 1782. 



IciiTEitsiiKiM (Francois-Ciiarles), born the 25th of Octo- 
ber, 175(5; entered the service in the regiment of Ixoyal- 
Deux-Ponts in 1775; second lieutenant the 28th of April, 
1778. Received a reward for his good conduct before York- 
town. 



144 Tlie FrciicJi in America. 

Imrekt (Jean-Louis), enlisted as volunteer in tlio War of 
In(le])eiKlencc ; employed as engineer v.ith the rank of" eaj)tain 
the lOth of September, ITTG.-^" 

iMr.KKT DE IjAIIRY (Denis), born the IHh of ]'>l)iuaiy, 
1742, at Pu}daurens in Lan(i;uedoc ; entered the scrviee the 
4th of IMay, 1759, as sub-lieutenant in the regiment of Age- 
nois; sub-aid-major the 11th of August, 1771 ; captain in t^ce- 
ond tlie lull of June, 177G. Was wounded at the attaek of 
Savannah by a shot in the lefb arm ; distinguished himself at 
Saint Christopher. 

J. 

James. See Loxgi-evjlle. 

Jones (John-raul), born the Gth of July, 1747, at Arbig- 
laud in Scotland; died in Paris the ISth of Jidy, 170-!. His 
family name was Paul, but he added to it Jones, to show his 
gratefulness to his Virginian benefactor. At the age of twelve 
he was apprenticed to a merchant of Whitehaven, who traded 
with Amci'Ica, and he made his first V(jyagc to the United 
States, where his brother was already established, and where 
lie was to find a new country. 

]n 1775, when the ^^ar of Independence broke out, and 
the American Congress thought of organizing a navy, Paul 
Jones, who had already commanded several merchantmen, and 
wlio found himself in Virginia in very straightened circum- 
stances, acce])ted the position of first lieutenant on board of the 
Alfred, lie was soon a])i)<>intcd c;!|itaiu of the l*rovidciice, and 
took an active part in those little known but heroic early 
struggles of five or six ships against the numerous vessels of 
England. In ^Tay, 1777, he M-as sent to the American com- 
missaries in h" ranee with the promise of a more important com- 
mand, lint the Court of A'ersaillcs hail not yet pronounced 

"'Aiibertcuil. 



List of Officers. 145 

officially for America, and they had to be content with sending 
him to cruise with his frigate, the Ranger, of eighteen guns, 
v/herevcr he wanted to, with no other instructions than to do 
the most harm he could to England. 

In consc(iuence, he started irom Brest on the 10th of Aj)ril, 
1778, on that famous cruis(^, which, says one of his American 
biographers, showed the weak side of England, and showed for 
the future where to attack it in its own home. Using the inti- 
mate ac(iuaintance he had \\'\i\\ the northern coasts, he made a 
descent at V/hitehaven, burnt the port, attacked the Island of 
Saint J^Iary's and s\n-priscd the r-astle of Lord Selkirk, of which 
his father had been gardener. He also took the sloop the 
Dmhc on the coast of Ireland, lie made a second no less 
brilliant e.\i)edition in August, 1770, with the rank of conuno- 
dore, and at the head of a little squadron composed of Erencli 
and American ships and ercws. He was on a forty-gun ship 
equipped by France to which he had given the name, popular 
in America, of Jlonhotiunc Ilichard. These forces were intended 
to act against Liverpool, and La Fayette, on his return from 
America, was to command a landing corps of seven hundred 
men. The project became known and was abandoned; but to 
make this cruise famous there was the action of the 22d of 
Septembei- with the ."^entpis, an English ship of greater 
strength, which Paul Jones took by boarding after an en- 
gagement of foni- hours. On his return from these two cruises, 
in which he had cai)tured more than eight hundred prisoners 
and spread terror on all the coasts of England, the brave sailor 
went to Versailles, where lie became the hero of the day. The 
king decorated him with the cross of ]\rilitary I^Ieril, and gave 
him a sword with a golden handle on which was engraved : 
Vindicaii maris Ludovicm XVI. rcniuncrator drcnuo riiidici. 
Other honors awaited liini at Philadelphia, where he returned 
on the 18th of February, 1781. He received there the con- 
gratnlations of Oongrcss, a gold medal, and a flattering letter 
from AVashinuton. 



;Il46 Tlte French in Aw.rrica. 

The rc<t of his career offers few remarkable events. He 
went on board of tlie fleet of Count <le Yaucbx.nil to joni 
Count d'Estalno;, ^vho was plannin- an expedition a-a.nst 
Jamaiea, but peaee was made. He tlien returned to France 
for the liquidation of tlie moneys cumin,-:; from the ]my.i^s 
made in common with that ])ower, and ne.o-otiated this ai!a.r 
to the satisfaction of Congress. The following year, in 1784, 
he entered the service of Russia, and was employed as rear- 
admiral in the war against the Turks. Court intrigues and 
quarrels with Poiemkin and the Prince of Nassau, his su]KU-i- 
ors made him leave the service about 17S0. He asked m 
vain for a conunand at the Court of Vienna, and returned to 
Paris in 1790. He lived two years more in that city un- 
ki.own, forgotten, and displeased with all governments, who, 
he said, did not appreciate his merit. His adventurous career 
finished on the ISth of July, 1792, and the Legislative As- 
sembly decided that a deputation should be present at his 

interment.-'* 

Paul Jones had all the instincts of a real sailor. He loved 
battle as did the battle-horse spoken of in the Book of Job. 
As he was very able in manoeuvring his vessel, he always 
tried to o-et as near as he could to the bowsprit of the enemy s 
ship aiuf to give him a broadside, l^Howed by boarding. It 
was to this manamvre that he often owed his successes.^ In 
the action between the Bonhommc Biclmrd and the Scropi.^, he 
fastened his ship to the enemy's with grapnels, acc<.rding to 
his old privateersman's customs.''"^ 

='^"0f whatever si/.e was the slup, the hnceaneers went without 
hesitation to boanlin.. A. soon us the ..-apncl .as thrown it was a 
rintured shin." (l^.avnal, lM<nrc phih^ophique. X., page 10.) 

is adventures furnished the matter for several romanees, an.ong 
others the lied Hocer of J. I'^cnimore Cooper. De Pontgihaud recounts 
r in-'ular occurrence, ati attempt at munler on Paul Jones by Captain 
lSI of the American frigate the MUancc. Amon, the curK>us books 
whkh i have collected are: Paul Jones, on propJnUes sur lAuurxp^e, 



List of Oficcrs. 147 

Paul Jones left llie iiiiin-int of his genius on the Aniericiin 
Navy. One of his cardinal iM-inci])]es Nvas ''the largo ball." 
He said that one hirge bore cannon uas worth two of smaller 
calibre, and the brilliant and numerous victories of the Amer- 
icans in the war of 1812-15, between the United Slates and 
England, showed the truth of the principle. 

JujARDV, commissary of war of the expedition under the 
orders of Blanchard.-'" 



JuMJ^:couKT (De), officer of artillery. Freemason, caused 
his Iriend JJlanchard to be received apprentice of the Society 
of Freemasons, at ]'*rovidence, together with de Pisanfon, sec- 
retary of Blanchard."''^' 

K. 

Kai.b (Ilenry-Jules-Alexandre von Ilobaii, Baron De),-'* 
born at lliittendorf, in the Margravedom of Baireuth, the 29th 
of June, 1721 (there arc ditferent dates given in dillerent 
notices); served llrst in the French army, in the regiment of 
Royal-Dcux-Ponts, during the Seven Yeai's' A\'ar, with the 
title of lieutenant-colonel of infantry. lie rweived from de 
Choiseul the secret mission to go to America to see Mhether 
the germs of revolt were sufficiently developed, and to stir up 
the feelings of the malcontents. He left London on the 4th 
of October, 17G7, and acquitted himself with intelligence of 

VAngldcrr,', la France, dc, ;x7r J'did Jones, corsctire, proph'te et sorciei' 
comme il n'en jut jamais, An V </-• I'lndLpcndcnce de rAmirique. There 
are several bio<,'nii)]ucs of Paul Jones. The best is L[h- of raid Jones, 
by Shiims, Ne\v York, 1S45, in 12nio. See also the MunUcur Univcrsel 
and Naval Ilhtonj of tlw United Ulatcs, by J. F. Cooper. 

■''J'aats Milllaiirs. ' 

'^''Journal of lilanrhard. 

'"'The knowled-^e of his name, von Kobaii, I owe to M. Pierre 
Maryry, which information I have found nowherea else. 



148 The French in America. 

this dangerous rolc.*^^ lie traveled under a disguise, and was 
arrested in Canada as a susjiect, but was Ireed tlirough want 
of proofs. He returned tlien to Franec, hut soon .-tartcd 
again for .\nierica with La Fayette and otlier ollicers in the 
spring of 1777. 

Dc Kalb held in Franee the position of brigadier from 
1775. Congress comniissioned him major-general the loth of 
Septend)er, 1777. He was with the column which I^a Fay- 
ette commanded in his march from South Carolina towards 
Philadelphia, and always sliowed the greatest courage. His 
death was most glorious."" He fell at Camden, pierced with 
eleven wounds, and died three days later, on the IGth of Au- 
gust, 1780. Congress proposed to raise for him, at ^Vnnajiolis, 
in jSIaryland, a tondj of which the in.-cri])tion said that he 
was then ibrty-three years of age. However, (icneral Henry 
Lee, who knew him inliniately, says in his memoii-s that he 
was nearly seventy, but that the vivacity of his mind and the 
energy of his physique, kept up by great sobriety of living, 
M'ould give the idea that he was twenty years younger."^ 

Kalij (He), son of the former, was boi-n in the ]\[argravc- 
dom of Baireuth in 1753, and served also in America. He 
was lieutenant in the regiment of Iloyal-Hcux-Ponts ; was 
present at the assault on Yorktown and i'ec(.'!ved the onler of 
the Cincinnati. He is juentioned in the Eiati Mililaircs of 
1779-80 as being in the Antilles. 

Kkkan])Koax (Dc la Jloche de), naval ensign ; killed on 
the rnUc-Fouk- the 20th of June, 1778. In July, 1770, 
Congress appointed him engineer in the service of the Llnited 



^''See Vol. I., paj?e 54. 

'^'Seo in the List of Oiliceivs (for tlie IcttiT of his aid-iU'-cani])) : Dii 
Bnisson. 

^^ This notice of De Kalh must be rewritten. ]\Iar''inal note bv T. E. 



List of Officers. 149 

States, vitli sixty dollars pay a month and the rank of licii- 
tcnunt-colonel. lie sorveil in the army of Gates, in the corps 
of riflemen commanded by iMoruan, and retired from the 
service with the rank of colonel the 5th of INIarch, 1778."" 

KEn^rAiJEC (Louis-Jean -Eusebc Ivoron de), born at Quiui- 
perle the 8th of Deceml)er, 1749 ; was lieutenant of Agenois 
during the siege of Yorktown, Avlierc lie distinguished himself. 
lie was wounded at the action of the 12th of April, fought 
by Count dc Giasse, and received the rank of captain the 
1st of February, 1782. 

Kermoiivax or Keu.movan (Chevalier dc), one of the 
first French volunteers in the service of the Americans. It 
was r»arbier^-'^ Dubourg who sent him to Franklin. De Ker- 
morvan distinguished himself at Saratoga on the 7th of Octo- 
ber, 1777, by turning the right of the English, and by oppos- 
ing thus a clever maiueuvre of Burgoyne. 

Keiine (IX'), infiiiitiy officer, wounded in the naval battle 
off Saint Lucia, fought on the lOth of ]May, 1780, by de 
Guichen with Admiral llodney. 

Kl^:iiovAN. See Quekouiiaxt. 

KEKVfeuEX (Gauthier dc), entered the service iu 1755 in 
the position of naval engineer ; went to Saint Domingo as 
aid-de-camp of d'Fstaing in 1700; apj)ointed cngineer-geog- 
rajjhcr of the camps In 17t)7; was sent to Coi'siea and stayed 
there until 17(iO. Ai)puinted captain of Inlant ry in 17(Jl), 
he was employed on the coasts and on tlie frontiers of France 
until lie returned to the Antilles in 1777. 

^Auberttniil and Ainrricati, Archive-i, 
'■^ Vol. I., page 81. 



150 Tlie French in Aynerica. 

He was present at all the battles on land and sea wliieli 
took place during the twenty-one months of oani]iaio;ii of the 
squadron of d'Estaing. He mounted, one ol" the first, to the 
assault of the hills ^-"^ near the hosj)ital of Grenada, and he 
also gave proof of courage at the attack of tlic intrenchinents 
of Savamiah. Decorated with the order of the Cincinnati."' 

Killp:maixe, or better, Kil:\iaixe (Charles-Joseph),--^ l)orn 
at Dublin in 175-1; entered the service in France, and went 
to America as snb-lieutenant in the legion of Lauzun. Dc 
Kochambeau having ordered Dumas, in July, 17S1, to rec- 
onnoiter as near to New York as he could, Durnas took a 
detachment of lancers of the legion of Lauzun, at whose 
head was Kihnaine, whose vigor and intelligence cnaljled the 
reconnoltering party to get within riilc shot of the enemy's 
works. 

Captain in 17S0. He was employed later in France in the 
Army of the North ; was at Jennnapes and in the Vendee ; 
general of division in 1703 ; soon after general-in-chief of 
the Armies of the North and of the Ardennes. Distinguished 
himself in Italy under Bonaparte ; general-in-chief of the 
Army of England in 1798. He died at Paris in 1700."' 

Klocker or DE Keock (Rernard-Antoine), born in the 
Palatinate the IGth of June, 1730; enlisted in the regiment 
of Poyal-Deux-Ponts ; Avas made sergeant the ISth of October, 
175G, and reaclu'd the rank of captain-coniinandant in the 
same regiment in 177S. He distinguished himself before 
Yorktown, and received the decoration of Military ^lerit on 
this occasion. 

*=* Momcx. 

^Manuscript of Diipclil-Thouius. Marginal note. 

^ }fi'moircs of Diiinas. 

"'The En''>irh)piilit( of Chrmiolor/i/, London, Loncrinan?, p;ivos tlu' name 
of Charles ■/('»»»»'/>■• Kilinaino, ajul niake? a mistake in s;iying that he 
pcrvcd under La Fayettti inslcail of umler Lauzun. 



Lid of O'Jlccrs. 151 

Kosciusko (Tliaddous), born in Lithuania of an ancient 
and noblo family. Tlie date of his birth is uncertain. The 
Biof/raphic UniverscUe gives the 2Sth of October, 174G, wliich, 
I think, is the most likely (kite; in the Convci: Lev and 
several otlu^r works the years ] 753, 1755 and 175G are 
Dientioned. He was a student at the ^Military School at 
Warsaw; studie(l in France, in Germany and in Italy, then 
served in Pokuid. In 1775, after a disappointment in love, 
he embarked on a shij) which was going to Martinique. 
Tlience, in 1770, he went to the United States, where he 
found Pulaski, who presented him to Washington. He was 
successively aid-(kscamj) of Gates, Armstrong, Greene and 
Washington. He was a})})ointed engineer by Congress, with 
the rank of colonel, in the autumn of 1777, and succeeded to 
La Ixadiere, on the Upper Hudson, in 177S. He fortified 
the eamj) of Gates, and directed the works of AVest Point. 
Much e.-teemed by the .vmerican oflicers, and a member of the 
society of the Cincinnati. He returnc;d to Poland after the war 
in 1783; there he became major-ginieral under Poniatowski. 

In 1704, when a new revolution upset Poland, he was 
made generalissimo, with dictatorial powers. He won a victory 
against the Ilussians at Paclawice on the 4th of A])ril, 1794. 
His defense oi" Warsaw was glorious. The 10th of October 
he was wounded and taken [)risoner at the battle of ^Nlazciewice, 
and taken to Saint Petersburg, where lie was ke})t until the 
death of Catherine in 17->(X The Emperor Paul restored 
liim to liberty, and wished him to accept a command in his 
army, but Kosciusko rcl"u.-cd. ]le then made a journey to 
the United States in 17'-*7; went to Philadclj)hia and >sew 
York, and Congress oflcrcd him, as a rewanl lor his services, 
a land grant, which he i-efused. He returned to Switzerland, 
and stayed there until his death, on the IGth of October, 
1817. His remains were taken to Cracow. 

Popular imagination, in Kngland as well as in Amerii-a, tt)ok 
hold of Jvosciusko. The sympathy iclt lor his unlbrtunate 



152 The French in America. 

country was niucb increased by the virtues, the [)atriotisni, 
the worth, and the moral height of the man it had chosen for 
dictator. He was the hero of the popular romance of jNliss 
Jane Portei", Thaddcus of Warsctr, and in one of the finest 
poems of the Eni^Hsh hniiruaux", the Pleasures of Hope, l)y 
Camj)bcll, his defeat is immortalized in bitter regret: 

Hope, for a season, bade the world farewell, 
And Freedom shrieked when Kosciusko fell. 

L. 

Lablanque or Lakexque or Laijji:xque (Jean-Francois 
de), born in December, 1 730, at la Touray in Quercy. En- 
tered the service in 1744; captain in 1757 in the regiment 
of Gatinais. 

Lahoude T)E Bplvume (Jean-Francois), born the 7th of 
Februaiy, 1743, at La Bastide in Armagnac; captain-com- 
mandant in the regiment of G'ltinais the 17t}i of .Vngu.-t, 
1775. ]Madc the campaigns of Germany and of the colonics, 
and was decorated after the capture of Yorktown. 

LABOEDE-IMKRtviLLE (Franyois-Louis-Josepli, ^Manpiis de), 
financier and ])olitician. ]Made the American campaign, and 
was filling, in 1789, the functions of guard of the royal treas- 
ury. Signer of the oath of the Jen de Paumc ; defended and 
sustained the ideas of political and religious liberty; then 
retired in 1791 to Elngland, and died at London in 1801. 
Two of his brothers, Ijaborde-Bouteville and Laborde de 
INlaichainville, were on the e.\])edition of J^a Perouse. 

La Comhe. See Qri:i:EXET. 

Lacy (L'abbe), chaplain of the French lutspital, of Irish 
origin.--* 

^ Blanchard. 



List of Officers. 153 

La Fayette (^^larie-Josoiili-Panl-Yvcs-r.ooh-GilUert tin 
Mothier, IManiiii.-.; de), born the Gth of September, 1757; son 
of ;\richel-I.ouis-Cbrlsio])lie-Iloch-Gilbcrt du :\rothier, .AEarqnis 
de T.:i Fayette, l'>aron de Vi?-ac, Seigneur de vSaint-Romain 
and other phices, and of the Lady ]Marie-Loni?e- Julio de la 
Riviere; baptized the 7th of Septeiul)er, 1757, parish of Char- 
vanliac, bishoprie of Saint-lHour. His army records say : 

1771, 9th of April, musket(!er of tlie second company; 1773, 
7th of April, sub-lieutenant in tlie regiment of dragoons of 
Noailles; 1771, IDth of jNIay, captain. In waiting in 1776. 
1777, went to Xorth America, where he commanded an army 
corps, lie pays eighty thousand //c/r.s for the regiment of 
de Crequy, whose titulary colonel he becomes. 1771), od of 
March, wc4n- de camp, commander of the dragoons of the 
king. 1770, 1st of June, returns to France to beg help in 
men and money Ibr the Americans, and is appointed aid- 
quartermaster-general of the army of Lrittany and Normandy, 
which was being i)repared Ibi- a desc(>nt on England. 1780, 
returns to America, ]M-eceding by a i'vw days de Rochambeau. 
1783, 12th of March, brevet of niarcrhcd de ecnap sent with 
the date of the 1st of November, 1781. Received the order 
of the Cinciimati. 

1788, 15th of July, the king has thought fit to take from 
him his letters of service in the rank of acting mcdrc dc camp. 
1789, 15th of July, commander-general of the National Guard 
of Paris ; i^rotecled the royal family during the 5th and 6th 
of October ; dispersed by force the peo])le assembled on the 
Champ de Mars the 17th of July, 1791. 171'1, iJOth of 
Auirust, commands with success one of tlu; armies intended to 
drive back the foreign invasion on the frontier oi the north. 
1792, 20th of Jmie, is phiced out of the pale of the law ibr 
having tried to make the king leave Paris, and leaves his com- 
mand on the 20th of Augu>t with I.aumoy, Latour Maubourg, 
Lallcmand, du Koure and others. Arrotcd din-ing his llight 
by the Austrians, he was shut u]) in the citadel of Olmiitz 



154 The French in America. 

for luivinj^ iudvd in tlio revolution. He remained tliere a 
prisoner until ITi'T, wlieu a special article of the treaty of 
Canipo-Forniio restored him to liberty. 

He would not take any part in ])uhlic matters under the Em- 
pire, and was elected deputy by the opposition from 1814 to 
1830. The bitter struggle which he ke])t up against the Boiu'- 
bons was only interrupted by a journey to the United States in 
1825, journey A\hieh was a continuous ovation. After the Kev- 
olution of July, 1830, and for the second time, after an inter- 
val of forty years, he was ai)pointed gcncral-in-ehief of the 
National Guard, and tried to Ibund oji a liberal basis the gov- 
ernment of Louis Piiilippe, while maintiiining order ; but by 
1831 he had recognized that the hope lie had jdaccd in the 
new government was an illusion, and he re-entered the ranks 
of the op})osition. lie stayed there till his death, in 1834. 

It would be too long to give here the com])lete history of 
his sojourn in America, from 1777 to 1782. It would be to 
rewrite the story of the War of Independence during that 
jjcriod. The reader will find some notice on the character 
and the rule of La Fayette in the ehajjter devoted to foreign 
volunteei's."^ 

I will summarize this part of his life by saying : 

He arrived in America in July, 1777, on a vessel e([uij)pGd 
at his own expense and accompanied by a number of French 
officers, among whom were de Valfort and de Ternan. He 
made the campaign of that year with the rank of major-gen- 
eral, and was wounded by a gunshot in the leg at the battle 
of the Brandywinc. " Care for him as if he were my son," 
Siiid on this occasion General A\'ashingtou tcj the surgeon who 
was attending him. 

In 1778 he was aj)})ointed general connnanding a corps of 
troops intended for an expedition into Canada. This expe- 
dition did not take place, but La Fayette stayed at the head 



Vol. I., Chapter VII. 



List of Ofjlccrs. 155 

of a pari of the American army aiul lielped in the defense 
of Ivhode Jshmd. 

He lieljied also tlie eanse of tlie Americans, dnrini:: tlie year 
1779, hy going to France to ask for succors ; and on liis return 
to America, in March, \1'^^\ he commanded a picked corps in 
the van of Washington's army. In 1781 lie was charged with 
the defense of Virginia witli a little army of ten thousand men, 
of whom three thousand two hundred were French. By his 
brilliant manteuvres he forced Lord Cornwallis to take refuge 
in Yorktown, where he was soon blockaded by all the allied 
forces on land and sea. 

Before Yorktown, La Fayette held the right of the line of 
attack, and during the night of the 14th of October, while the 
Baron de Viomenil captured the great redoubt on the left, at 
the head of the American militia La Fayette carried the one on 
the right. After this double success the town had to surrender 
on the 19th. In November, 1781, he went to France to carry 
the full accounts of this success, i)ut he did not return. His 
tiisk was accomplished. Yet he was still under the ordei*s of 
d'Estaing, ready to fill the position of major-general of the 
combined armies of France and Spain that were to be sent 
to Jamaica, when the preliminaries of pe^ice were signed. 

Lafokest or Deh Fokets, captain in the regiment of Saint- 
onge, highly esteemed. Blanchard speaks of him in his diary. 
De Custine one day made rei)roaches to him in such terms that 
the eajitain had to ask for satisfaction. Xot having been able 
to obtain it, he conunitted suicide from despair. This event, 
which became known a few moments before parade, the 4tli of 
March, 1781, caused a great sensation. J)e Custine M'as in- 
sulted, and had it not been for some of the higher oHicers, the 
soldiers would have given him a severe punishment.--''^ 



"°See Vk de CuMine by one of his aia-<le-canips, 1S02. See also in the 
List of Officers ; Custine. 



156 The French in America. 

Lalbexque. Sec Lablaxque. 

Lametii. There were three ofFiccrs of this name, three 
brotliers, wlio came to America and foiif^ht there. They were 
iie})hcws of i\Iarshal de Broglie. They are often mistaken i'ov 
one another, and I will here make as clear as possible the his- 
tory of each, 

Lameth (Theodore, Connt de, and later Marquis de), the 
eldest, was bo)"n at Paris in 17oG. He was naval ensign at 
the age of fifteen, and was wounded in tlie naval action off 
Grenada the 7tli of July, 1779. Ho it was who was ordered 
to take to France the ne\ys of that success. He scrycd after- 
wards, at the age of twenty-six, as captain of cavalry in the 
French army. He was appointed marcchal dc camp in 1791, 
did not adopt the Republican ideas, took no part in the llevo- 
lution, and was content to maintain discipline in his regiment ; 
he emigi-atcd in 1793 to Hamburg, returned after the ISth 
Brumaire, and took no further part in politics. He died in 
1834 at his niece's, the Marquise de XicolaV. 

Lametii (Cliarlcs-]Malo-Francois, called the Chevalier A^'is- 
count de), the second brother, was born at Paris in 1707 ; 
served first in the regiment of Poyal-Cayalerie ; sub-lieuten- 
ant the 29th of July, 177G; caj)tain the Gth of Xovember, 
1779. He started as aid-de-camp of de liochambeau with 
the rank of aid-major-quartermaster-gencral. In the cross- 
hig, which he made with the expeditionary corps, he was on 
the Jccsoii with de h\;rsen, (\)llot, Charlus, and his intimate 
friend Dumas, He showed talent and courage dui'ing the 
canqKiign. Dumas tells how dc J.ameth wished to talce part 
in the attack of the great rctldiibt of Yorktown, although it 
was not his turn of soryice. \\'hilc lu-ading the assault he 
received t^v■o gunshot wctunds, one of which broke his knee 
ca]), and the other went through the thigh of the other leg. 



List of Officers. 157 

He "A'oukl not allow his Icixs to be amputated, luckily for 
himself, since at the end of two mouths he was able to re- 
turn to France almost cured. He received then the command 
of the cuirassiers of the king with the title of colonel. 

Chosen deputy to the States General by Picardy, whence 
his family came, he v.as noted for liis advanced liberalism. 
He sat with the left and voted for the abolition of the 
j)rivi leges. 

]n 1791, he fought a duel with the Duke dc Castries, Avho 
wounded hini. 1'he peojile gave him an ovation after this 
duel, and saelced the house of de Castries. Lameth brought 
about the arrest of the king and that of de Bouille, and 
was elected President of the Assemby the 5th of July, 1791. 

Appointed commander of the cavalry of the Army of the 
North, he fled on the 10th of August, and took refuge at 
Hamburg, where lie established, with his brother Theodore 
and the Duke d'Aiguillon, a rich mercantile house. He re- 
turned to France after the ISth Bruraaire, re-entered the 
service in 1809, and was lieutenant-general in 1814. He 
helped the Pevolution in 1830; was deputy from Pontoise, 
and died in 1832. 

Lametji (Alexand)'e-Tlu'odore-Yictor de), the third brother, 
was born at Paris- in 1700; left for America only in 1782; 
arrived there on the 15th of July together with the Baron de 
Vionicnil, who was returning to his post, and with the Count 
de Scgur, the Prince de Broglie, Count Picci and others, who 
had all left Ivochefort on the Aicjlc and the Gloiir, under 
the command of Latouche-Treville. Alexandre de Lameth 
came to replace his brother Charles as adjutant-general, but 
he did no fighting. He went then with the companions of 
his ocean trij) into Cohunbia, commanded as adjutant-genei'al 
the attack against Jamaica, and was made colonel on his re- 
turn to Fraui-e. A])p()int('d deputy to the States (!eucral, he 
distinguished himseU", like his brother Charles, by his eUxjuent 



158 TJie Froich in America. 

speeches oil bclmlf of ])ul)lic liberties. He re:?poctcd, how- 
ever, the royal prerogatives, and had on this subject frequent 
quarrels with Mirabeau. In 1792 he served under I^a Fay- 
ette, emijrrated with hiu], and shared his cii])tivity in Austria. 
Liberated by an exchange of prisoners, he rejoined his broth- 
ers at Hamburg. He was employed in the administration of 
the Empire and under tlie Ilestauration, and was created baron 
and peer of France. He died in 1829. 

Landais (Pierre dc), of a noble ruined family of Nor- 
mandy, born in 1734 at Saint Malo ; died in 1S20 at Xew 
York. He was lieutenant in 1763 in the French navy, but 
he resigned to go into that of the United States, with the 
rank of cajitain, in 1773. In January, 1779, he commanded 
the Alliance which bnjught back La Fayette to France. His 
extravagant conduct and the clouding of his mind made it 
necessary for him to resign ; he lived afterwanls poor and 
forgotten. -'^^ 

LangePvOX (Andrault, Count de), born at Paris in 17 Go. 
Entered as sub-lieutenant the regiment of Bourbonnais in 
1780 ; left on the Aigle for America,-'^- and made the cam- 
paign under the orders of the Baron de Viomenil. 

Captain of Conti-Dragoons-"^ on his return to France, colo- 
nel en second of the regiment of Mcdoc in 17S(3, colonel of 
Armagnac in 1788. Emigrated in 1790 and entered the serv- 
ice in Eussia, Mhere he distinguished himself against Sweden 
and Turkey ; served then the Princes of Nassau and Bruns- 
wick against Frame; in 1792; re-entered the service in Eus- 
sia, -svhere he was apjiointcd, in 1799, lieutenant-general and 
count by Paul the h'irst; was at the defeat of Austerlitz 
under Kutusoll', and afterwards sought cheai)er laurels against 



*"See in the List of Oflicors: Paul Jones, note 215, and Pontgi- 
baud. See also Cooper's Xaml llidory. 

'""See Mcmu'urs of de SO;j;nr and dc Proglie. 
^Conde-DraLTOons. Maririnal note. 



List of Officers. 159 

the Turks in .Moldavia and A^'alacliia. Eiitcrod France with 
the Allies in IS 14; took the Buttes I\rontinartre, and con- 
tinued to serve the Russians. Enijieror Nicholas the First 
covered him with honors. He died ot" cholera, at Saint Feters- 
burg', in 1831. 

Langon (Jean-Jacques), born in 1737 at Aire in Guy- 
cnne ; served in the regiment of Gatinais, and made the Seven 
Ycjirs' AVar, then the expedition of America, as captain-com- 
mandant. He was decorated after the capture of Yorktown. 

Lannet (Franyois-Claudc de),"^^ born in November, 1738, 
at La Garde in Berry ; captain in the regiment of Gatinais ; 
decorated for his conduct before Yorktown. 

La I^eyeousi:. See Fekouse. 

Latouii-Foissac (Philijipe-Francois de), born the lltli of 
July, 1750; entered the engineer corps and served as captain 
in the American War ; returned with ideas flivorable to the 
llevolution ; served in 1791 in the Array of the Xortli, and 
was present at the siege of Naraur and the battle of Jem- 
mapes. Appointed general in 1793 ; then arrested as a sus- 
pect, he was freed at the fall of Robespierre and emjiloyed 
in Italy. Intrusted with the defense of Mantua, he was 
Ciiptured by the Austrians with his array in Julv, 1799. 
This surrender excited much indignation in France. After 
the IStli Brumairc, Bona])arte degraded him from his rank", 
forbidding hira to wear the French uniform. He then witli- 
drew to his estate near Foissy, Mhere he died in I'Vbruarv, 
1804. 

LAUBARDlflRES or LAUJiERDII^RES, See DUPONT. 

*^In the List of Kesinients De Lauet appears as captain-command- 
ant of Bourbonnai.s. E. S. B. 



IGO The Fmich in America. 

Laumont (Do). See Lomont. 

Laumoy or Lo.MOY (Dc), \'.as cai)t;iiu in llu' I'oynl corj)s 
of engineers, wlicn he was cho.~en by l^ranlclin lor the service 
of Congress in the position of engineer, with l)u I'ortail, La 
Radiere and Gouvion. He arrived in America on tlie same 
ship as La Fayette, l)ecame major, tlien cohmcl, (hiring the 
War of Indcpoulence. It was with this rank that he server] 
at Stono, where he was wonndcd on the 20tli of Jnne, 
1779.-"' lie received afterwards in France a position of heu- 
tenant-colonel in tlie provincial troo])s.-"" 

Lauxay (De) or Delauxay (.]ean-Bai)tisle-llcnc-CIement), 
born in 1739 at llatieville in Normandy, lie enlisted in the 
I'egiment of Tourainc in 1757, and reached tlie rank of Ciip- 
tain in Jnly, 17G9. He made the campaigns of Hanover, 
then went to t!ie colonies, where he obtained in succession, a 
reward after the captnrc of Saint Christopher, the cross of 
Military Merit after the battles fonght by Connt de Cnichen, 
and a pension after the capture of Yorktown. 

Lauzux (Armand-Louis de Contant-Biron, Duke de), born 
at Paris in 1747 ; was long known only iui(k'r the name of 
Lauzun, and only took the title of Duke d(^ J>iron after the 
death of his uncle in 17SS. He served in the French guards, 
as early as 1701. In 17G7 he made the expedition of Corsica 
as aid-de-camj) of de Chauvelin, and on coming to tnmouncc 
the success of the ]''rench on dune 2'.)th, 17(>''', he was made 
chevalier of Saint-iviuis, After beiiig intrusted Mith varicjus 
missions, which he pretends in his Jluiwircs only to look upon 
as the occasion for various love aifaii"S, he was sent, in 1779, 

*^ Ramsey. 

^October 8th, 1783. Congrei:.s gives "leave to retire" to I'.rigadier- 
General de Lauinoy, Du Portail and Oouvion. ^Maiginal iiotij by T. B. 



List of Officers. 161 

with some ships under the coniinand of dc A'audrcuil, to Sen- 
egid, txnd caj)tiircil this budding; colony from the English, mIio, 
however, recaptured it directly after his departure durijig the 
same year. He received on his return to Paris the title of col- 
onel of hussars, and beciiuu^ pro})rietary colonel of a foreign 
reghnent whicli was to bear lu"s name. This legion was to 
consist of eiglitceu hundred infantry and six hundred cavalry, 
who were not to be separated. In reality, it never had more 
than eiglit hundred infantry and four hundred cavalry, almost 
all Germans. Custine served with or under the orders of 
Lauzuu, h^)ur hundred uicn of this reduced legion were 
kept a(, l>rest diu'ing the exjicdition of ,V.merica and sent to 
Senegal, contrary to the agreements and to the great displeas- 
ure of Jjauzun. 

Appointed brigadier the 1st of March, 17S0, Lauzun em- 
barked at l)i-est on the 12th of A})ril. Contrary winds held 
him back until the 12th of Alay, on the Provciicc of seventy- 
four guns, counnanded by de Chamj)aurein. He arrived Avith 
his two regiments of hussars, his grenadiers and his cha.iscars 
on the 13th of July at Xewj)ort, and took up iiis winter 
quai'ters at Lel)anon, During the march between Providence 
and the Hudson River, Lauzun jn'otected the right of the 
army with his cavalry. He also su[>ported brilliantly, before 
New York, on tlie od of July, 17S1, a reconnoitering party 
of Cicneral Lincoln. 

At Elk, the infantry of his legion, with all the grenadiers 
and the chasseurs of the army, were embarked on all sorts 
of boats and put under the direction of Custine. They hoped 
thus to bring help sooner to La Fayette. Custine, in fact, 
soon arrived alone at the mouth of the James Ixiver. Put 
Lauzun, with the trooj)s and General Ivineoln, who were fol- 
lowing on other boats, luul to stop at Annapolis to await 
news of de (Jrasse. The presence of an 7-]nglish fleet had 
been signaled, and it was necessary to wait until de Grasse 
had di-iven it oil' or dispersed it, which took place two days 



162 The French in America. 

later, on the 3d of Se)')tember, 178 J, after a ronil)at o-loi-ious 
for tlic Frcncli and deeisive for the success of tlie eani]xiigii. 
Ijauzun had only just arrived, with neither ai-tillerv, men nor 
powder, when he was charged with tlie ])]ockade of Gloucester, 
already Ijegnn in a scarcely serious ^vay l)y General Weedon 
and his three th«)usand American troops. Lanzun, having 
asked the General-in-Chief for what Avas indisjiensable, took 
his place under the orders of de Choisy, mIio arrived with 
the artillery and eight hundred men ta]<en from the shi])s. 

Lauzun had immediately, and first of all the army, tlie 
chance to show his brilliant courage. He beat back, with 
French impetuosity, the cavalry of Tarletnn, three times as 
numerous as his own, and forced it to retire precii)ilately 
into Gloucester. This tight brought him the honor of going 
tx) Paris to bear the news of the caj^itulation of Yorktown 
with Guillaume do Deux-Ponts, wlio bad directed the attack 
on the great redoubt. They left on tlu; Survci/lanfe on the 
24th of October, and after a twenty-two days' })assage they 
reached Brcst."^' As de Maurepas, Lauzun's protector, had 
just died, Lauzun's regiment received scarcely any rewards. 

Lauzun started again from Brest, on the l'2th of May, 
1782, with de Coigny, then from La Kochelle, on the Hth 
of July, witli de Segur and de Broglie.*^^ He stopped at 
Terceyre and reached the mouth of the Delaware, whence he 
rejoined the army with his numerous traveling companions. 
Finally Eochambeau, on his departure, left the command with 
de Lauzun, who received the order to sail for France on the 
11th of :\rarch, 1783, at AVilmington. 



*"De Lauzun returned to Brest on the SimriUatifc, Captain dc Cillart ; 
there were with hhn Du})lessis-t':iscaut, captain of the Intri'pUh; wliich 
had been burnt in the harl)or of tlic Cape, and Avho was carrying dis- 
patches from Count de Grasse ; Lord Kawdon, his wife, the hrother of 
Lord Cornwallis, and a major of the EngHsli army, captured during tlie 
siege. Tlic last two went immediately to luigland. I^ord I'awdon spoke 
highly, in a letter, of the courtesy de Lauzun showed to him. 

^See Mt-muurii of de Segur and de Broglie. 



List of Officers. 163 

On liis return lie acconijKuiiod Tallevraiul in liis embassy 
to ]<]ng]and, and became iriends with the Prince of AVulcs, 
afterwards (k'ornc the l'\^ur(h, l^llected deputy to tlic States 
General in 1781), he (iit(!red the j)arty of the Duke d'Orloans ; 
then, acceptiufi; tlie ideas of the licvolution, he served the 
llejniblic as geniM'al, was ord(.'red to crush the insurrection 
in the A^cndec, and commanded in succession the Armies of 
the lihine, of Italy, and of the coasts of La llochelle. Becom- 
ing suspected, he was called Itefore the revolutionary tribunal, 
condemned to death, and executed on the 31st of December, 
1703, v/ith the two Dillons, who had served with him in 
America. 

Besides the J/('/no//-c.s- left by de Lauzun,"'-' there are Lcttrcr^'^ 
written by him while he was member of the States General. 

lie was courageous, handsome, and well educated for the 
time when he lived. He conciliated the friendship of the 
Americans by his bravery and his good looks. But he liad 
tlie fault of allowing himself to be carried away by the 
easy, loose morals of the time. His wife, Anne de BoufHers, 
was guillotined on the 27th of June, 1791. 

Laval (Anne - Alexandres - Marie - Sulpice - Joseph, ^Marquis 
de), born at Paris the 22d of January, 1747. Entered the 
musketeers in 1702; captain of the regiment of cavalry of 
Berry in 1705; colonel of Toui-ainc in 1770, and of Bour- 
bonnais in 1775; made the campaign of 1769 in Corsica as 
quartermaster. lie started for America with his regiment 
under the orders of de Itocham])eau, and took part imme- 
diately in the expedition to Chesapeake Bay which Dostouches 
commanded. There M'cre on the ships twelve hundrcil men, 
connnandcil by the Baron de Viuuu'nil, with de Laval second 
in command, lie was present thus at two naval battles. In 

'^ Vol. I., page 17. 

**■ Printed by Buchelin-Dollorunno, rariij. 



164 TIlc French in America. 

the last, on tlie IGtli of Marcli, J 781, lie remained alone on 
the rear poop deck of the Conqutrant with his major, the 
enemy having killed or wounded every one else. This at- 
tempt was glorious, but useless, since it was lor the puri)ose 
of putting troops ashore in Virginia, and they could not even 
enter Chesapeake Bay. He distinguished himself also before 
Yorktown, and left on the 26th of October, 17S1, with de 
Damas, Christian de Deux-Ponts and Charlus, on the Andro- 
maquc, to carry the news of the surrender. Lauzun had jnv- 
ccded them. De Laval returned on the Gloirc,'^'^ with the 
rank of brigadier vie.strc de camj) of Bourbonuais, and l)r(»ught 
back the troops from AVilliamsburg to Boston with de Viomcnil, 
Lauzun and Custine. " Laval and CiLstiue," says La Fayette, 
"never stopped quarreling during the march. At every place 
where a battle had been fought tlicy said that the English 
and American generals had bungled the matter, and that they 
would have done it better. Still, they were never of the same 
opinion." 

Laval then went to C-olumbia, at Porto Cabello, and re- 
turned to France in 17S3. 

Laval (!^rontmorency-]\Lithieu-Paul-Louis, Viscount, tiien 
Duke de), born at Paris in 174S, died there in 1S17. Son 
of the Marshal de ^Montmorency. Very severe about dis- 
cipline. 

L.\VAL-M()NTMOi;en'C\' (Mathieu-Jean-Fclicite), son of the 
former ; served under his fathci-'s orders in America, and 
was wounded in 17S1 on the squadron of Destouches, in 
Chesapeake Bay. He was minister of foreign affairs in 1S21, 
and died in lS"2t], at fifty-nine years of age. 

LiAZii:, major of artillery."^^ 

^> See dc Bro-lie. 
'" Blauchard. 



TAd of Officers. 165 

L6AUMONT (Mai-Ic-]vobei-t do Castile, Chevalier de), born 
in 1762 on the Island of Saint Domingo; was at the siege 
of Yorktown as siib-lieiitenant of Agenois, and Nvas wounded 
by a bayonet thrust in the chest during the night of the 
15th to the IGth of October, 1781, in a .sortie of the English 
on the battery on the right of the besiegers. He received a 
pension from the king. He must not be mistidcen for Gillet 
de Lomont.'^^ 

Le BiiET (Jean-Fran9ois), born in 1742 at Belusson in 
Normandy. Captain in the regiment of Soissonnais ; had 
made the Seven Years' War and the campaign of Corsica of 
17G8. Went with his I'egimcnt to America, and was deco- 
rated after the capture of Yoi'lvtown. 

LECO>rTE (Joseph), born the 3d of January, 1743, at Beau- 
four in Calvados. Private in the regiment of Armagnac the 
14tli of January, 1772, cor])oral in 1778, sergeant in 1780, 
sub-lieutenant in 1792, lieutenant in 1793. Commissary of 
war in the Army of the Coast of Cherbourg ; died at the 
siege of Thionville the otli of January, 1795. 

He made the campaigns of 1778 to 1783 in America, and 
received the cross of Saint-Louis the 17tli of June, 1792. 
He was the grandfatlier of General Lecomte, who was shot 
by the Comnuniists on the ISth of ]\Iarch, 1871, at ]\Iont- 
martrc.'*^' 

Le l^'EViiE, servant of Colonel Armand de la Kouerie, who 
followed his mast(!r to America, and weu( with him when he 
was presented to Congress, "lie was a very handsome and 
a very brave man. They were going to give him, lor his 
good looks, a brevet of colonel, as they did to his master, 

'"See in the List of Otlicors: Loinont. 
'"JManuscript loanetl l)y M. La t'hesiuiis. 



IGG The French in America. 

wlicn he refu-^cd it, ealliiiir attention to the error they were 
making- abont liis merit and his social position.-^ 

Le Fevre. See Fall'er. 

Leiioux (?,Iiclie]), born in 173G. Lieutenant in the regi- 
ment of Agenoi.s; Avcnt to the colonies in 1775, and took 
part in tlic siege of Yorktown in 17S1. 

Lexfaxt (Pierre- Charles), born m France in 1755. Was 
lieutenant in the troops of the colonies, when, in 1777, he 
entered as engineer the American army, in which he was aj)- 
pointed captain the Sth of February, 177S. He was wounded 
at the siege of Savannah, on the morning of the Sth of Octo- 
ber, 1779, and was left for dead on the field. He serve<l 
afterwards under the immediate orders of AVashington, and 
was ap2)ointcd major the 2d of May, 17S3, He was known 
as Major Lenilmt. He lost his fortune during the War of 
Inde])cndence, and received at the peace a pension of three 
liundred livrcs and the rank of aiptain. 

Not only did Major Lenfant receive the order of the Cin- 
cinnati, but he was intrusted willi having the medals of the 
order struck in Paris, which he did to the complete sati>iac- 
tion of the Council, who thank- cd him. He was still in Paris 
in 17S0.'^<' 

He was em[)loyed as engineer at Fort Milllin in 1704, and 
refused the position of professor of the department of engin- 
eering at West Point in July, 181 2. He was the designer 
of the plan of the city of AVashington and architect of sevci'al 
important buildings of that city. He died in Prince George 
County, Maryland, the 14th of June, 1S25. 

*** Pontgibaud. 

"*See rrocoodhigs of the llistoiii-d Society of roniis_vlv;inia, Vol- ^I-. 
1858. 



lAd oj Officers. 167 

LfioxAKDY (CharIc.-Jo.<c])h de), l)om in 175S; cadet (/cn- 
tiUiomme in 1777; sub-lieutenajit of tiie chu-^KCiirs of AgOnois 
in 1779. Distinguished liimself at Yorktown. 

LEsriis (Jean-Joseph dc), born in 1731 at Mcugron, near 
Sartres, in Gascony. Ca])tain of the regiment of Agenois 
in 1771; decorated after the capture of Yorktown, and died 
on the 17th of jSlarcli, 1782, from wounds received at the 
siege of Saint Christopher. 

Lestrade. See Estrade, 

Levae (Jean-Franyois), born in 1761 at Paris; died in 
1834. Son of a goklsmith, lie enlisted in 1779 in the regi- 
ment of Poitou ; made the campaigns from 1781 to 1783 as 
private on a Avar vessel ; took, in 1793, the command of the 
regiment of Koyal-Deux-Ponts ; made the wars of the Re- 
public under Iloclie and Jourdan as brigadier-geneml. He 
then bec^ime general of division in Sjiain. He was retired 
after 1816. 

Levaeier de Saixte-^Iarie.-" Captain the 9th of Octo- 
ber, 1779, in the first regiment of South Carolina. ^ly in- 
formation is not exact enough to say whether he was a French 
volunteer or descended from a family of Protestant refugees.^''® 

Levert de Gexvilee. See Gex-^^ille. ]\rcntioned in 
manuscripts and books by both names. 

L'Hermite-Maillaxf. (Joan-Marthe-Adrion), born at Cou- 
tanccs in 1766. He entered the navy at the age of fourteen 

^"Manuscript belonging to Mr. H. Carey Baird, brought to my notice 
by :Mr. J. C. Sims. 
=^n'o!. J., page 3G. 



168 The French in America. 

as volunteer, an<l embarked at r>rest in 17S0, on tlic Nor- 
ihuiiiberland, of the .squadron of do Grassc. lie was present 
at tlie principal actions fouglit witli Admirals Hood, Graves, 
and Rodney, as well as at the eaptuiv of Saint Christopher. 
He entered tlie juerehant navy in 17''o; was ap})ointcd 
naval lieutenant ; eapt;un the same year of an En_«j;lish frigate 
ho had cai)tured. ?ilade prisoner by the English, he was cx- 
clianged in 1801. Rear-admiral in 1S07, and baron of the 
Empire a few months later. He was retired in ISIG, and 
died near Paris in 182G. 

IviGLioiJX or EiLiEHORN (Do), aid-de-cauip of the King 
of Sweden ; mentioned by de Broglie and de Segur, in their 
memoirs, as one of the passengers on the Gluirc, which took 
them back to America in 1 782. 

LiTO.M.sKY (Charles), friend and companion of ]*ulaski ; 
lieutenant in his legion at Savannali. "When his commander 
was killed, he took the body and buried it at tlie loot of a 
tree on the Island of Saint Helena. 

LoGE (He la). "The Gth of October, 1781, before York- 
town, the regiment of Touraine opened the trench on the right ; 
seven grenadiers were killed or wounded, and de la Lo<;e, 
ofliicer of artillery, had a thigh carried away in his battery 
and died from the etfects. The trench on the right was 
opened more quietly."'^' 

Lo>MKMi: (Athanase-Louis-Marie, Count de Brienne de), 
born in 1730. Olficer passenger on the (Uo'irc, in 1782, 
with de Segur, de J]roglie and oiliers. ]ji'canu' lieutenant- 
general and was minister o( war from 1787 to 1788. He 
was guillotined niulcr the 1err(n-. 



°*^C'roiuot Duboun 



List of Officers. 169 

Lo^toxT (l'^raiK;oi.s-l'ieiTL'-Nicli()las Gillet do), born tlic-^Otli 
of May, 1747; died in 1S34. Son of a lawyer, he followed 
at fir<t the career of his father, and was, in 170S, lawyer at 
the j)'i-''^Ciafiit of Paris. After the exiling: of tliat court he 
entered the ^Military School in 1772, joined the royal grena- 
diers, and reached in less than five years the rank of com- 
mandant, lie entered the service in the troops of Congress 
on the lOtli of June, 1776, through the intervention of Bar- 
bier Diibourg, who says in his memoirs: "He is a young 
man of rare merit, to whom nothing is wanting except to 
have served in wai'.'' 

Having returned to France in 17S4, he abandoned the 
military career and studied mineralogy. He was appointed 
inspector-general of the mines of Brittany ajid of the Pyr- 
enees, and discovered, in Finistere, the green phosphated lead 
and the fine leolite, whicli Haiiy called " I^uronite." He 
studied the deposits of coal in F]-ance, helped in the or- 
ganizing of the School of Mines, and was member of the 
Academy of Sciences in 1S16. A fine character and a la- 
borious savant, to whom France owes much."'" 

LoMOY. See Laumoy. 

LoNDEix DE LA BiiosSE, boDi iu 1761; lieutenant of the 
regiment of Armagnac in 1779; wounded in the fiice in the 
battle of the 12th of April, 1782, fought by de Grasse. 

LoNGUEViLLE (Jcau-Joachim, C'licvalier de), born in 1762; 
appointed sub-lieutenant in the regiment of Saintonge in 
1779 ; was wounded at the siege of Yorktown, l)ut doulitless 
slightly, fur Cromot Dubourg, in his very detailed list of the 
killed and woundeil, does not mention him, nor any olficer 
of the regiment oi' Saintonge. 

^^'See in the Lisit of Otraors: Loiiuinoiit. 



170 Tlic French in America. 

LossE i)E Bayac (Clmrles-Josoph), l)oru in 1742 at Fim- 
eray in Pcrigord ; captain of Bourbonnais in 1771; was 
at the battle of the Jason, undei- Destouchc.^, the loth of 
March, 17S0, and was decorated after the caj)turc of York- 
town. 

LoYAUT^ (Anne-Philippe-Dieudonne de), born at Metz in 
1756, died in 1830. He served under liis father in the ar- 
tillery in Germany and Corsica ; captain in 177G. Pie was 
sent with fifty ctmnons and ten thousand muskets to Virginia; 
stayed in America, and served during the ^^"ar ol" Independence 
as inspector-general of artillery and of Ibrtilications in Vir- 
ginia, lie was appointed lieutenant-colonel, and served nndor 
Stenben before Yorktown. He showed himself a ])ai-tisan of 
royalty during the Fi'cnch Ixevolution ; was arrested, then 
exiled. He remained, in spite of this, in obscurity under the 
Kestaiu-ation. 

LoWEXDAL (l)e), son of the marshal of France of that 
name ; commanded the centre of the attacking corps at Saint 
Lucia, on the 14th of Decemi)er, 1778, with d'Estaing on the 
right and de Bouille on the left. 

Lucas (Jcan-Jacques-Etienne), naval captain, commander 
of the Legion of Honor, chevalier of Saint-Louis; born at 
Marennes in 17G4, died at Brest in 1810. 

He enlisted at the age of fourteen in the navy. In 1779 
he went as under assistant pilot on the Ilcnnionc, Mhieh 
Latouche-Trcville commanded. This vessel joined, in 1780, 
the naval army of Coiuit de Cjiiiciien, and Lucas was ])resent 
at all the principal battles of this campaign in which the 
Ilcrmione took part. He was grievously woundetl in tlie aim 
in one of them. Assistant pilot in 1783, ])ilot in 17'-'1, 
ensign in 1702, naval lieutenant in 1701, ca{)tain of iVigate 



Li fit oj Officers. 171 

in 1790, naval cai)taiii in 1S03. He di.-tinguislicd liinisclf 
on the Rcdoulahle at Trallilgar, and was wounded there and 
made prisoner. Liberated on parole, he was able to return 
to France, where Naj^oleun appointed liim commander of the 
Legion of Honor. The fill of the I'^nipire pi'cvented him 
from obtaining the rank of j-ear-adnni-al, Mhieh his bravery 
entitled him to. 

LuSTRAO (Jean-Joseph de), born in 1733 at Aire in Gas- 
cony; entered tlie service in 1756; made the campaigns of 
Germany ; was apjwinted captain-commandant of Agenois in 
17C0, after having been severely wounded before Munster. 

It is lie, I think, wliose name I find in the manuscripts 
as liaving been at the siege of Savannah. 

LUTZON (Guillaumc-Frcderic-Bcrnard de), born in 1758 ; 
entered the service in 1775 as sub-lieutenant of Royal-Deux- 
Ponts ; was wounded at the siege of Yorktown at the attack 
of the great redoubt, 

LuzEKNE (Anne-Ccsar, Chevalier de la), descended from an 
old family of Xonnandy, and nej^hew of Malesherbes on his 
mother's side, was born at Paris in 1741, and studied at the 
School of the Light Horse. He was aid-de-camp of the Duke 
de Broglie, his relation, made several campaigns with him, and 
becjmie, in 17G2, major-general of cavalry, then colonel of 
grenadiers. He abandoned afterwards the military career, and 
was sent, in 177G, on a mission to the Court oi the ]\ueti>r of 
Bavaria, ]SIaximilien-Joseph, and \v;is aiijioiuted minister to 
the United States in 1779, in place of ]\L Gerard. He was 
not long in acquiring a great inlluence in the direction of 
aflairs in this counti-y. h'or iiislanee, in 17'^<', he arraugitl, on 
liis own ]-es[)onsibiruy, a loan which was to helj) tlu> Ameri- 
can troops. All the memoirs of his time speak highly of his 



172 The French in Amrrica. 

merit and his |)loa>ant manners.-^' On liis dopartvire, in 
1783, he reeoived the most honoral)le tokens of esteem from 
the Americans. At a reception which was given to do la 
Lnzerne the Qualvcr Benc/.et said io liim : " Thon knowcst 
I cannot use the ci>ni])h'ments which the company h.avc ex- 
pressed, but I wisli thee tlic favor of heaven and a safe re- 
turn to tliy country." The count exchiimed : " Oli, Mr. 
Bcnezet, you liave exceeded tliem alh" The citizens of Penn- 
sylvania, as a mark of gratitude, called one of tlie counties of 
the State after him. ]n January, 1788, he was ai)pointed 
ambassador at London, and he stayed in tJiat city until his 
death there in 1701. 

Lynch or Lixcu (Isidore), born at London in 1755, of 
Catholic parents, mIio sent him as a boy to France. He was 
studying in Paris wlien lie was taken to India by one of his 
uncles on his mother's side, colonel in a French regiment. 
Lynch received, in 1770, the position of lieutenant in the 
regiment of Dillon. lie distinguished himself under d'Es- 
taing at the ca])turc of Grenada and at Savannah, where he 
showed extraordinary coolness"'" in carrying an order through 
the cross fire of the combatants. He rejoined the army of 
Rochambeau, was aid-de-camp of Chastcllux, was present at 
the siege of Yorktown, and went to Porto Cabello with de 
Segur. He was nearly ca])tured and shot by Nelson, the future 
admiral, in sight of the port of La Guayra, and owed his life 
to the generosity of the young English captain.'*'^ He re- 
turned afterwards to Paris, where he was a])i)oinled colonel.-'^ 
Marcchal de camp in February, 1702, shortly afterwards lieu- 
tenant-general. He took part in the successfid battle of 
Valmy. Arrested in 1703 at Dijon, then freed, he preferred 

""'See Vol. 1., pa-e 2;]3. 

^- Mt'7)ioircs of dc Srtjur, })a^e 4G0. 

^^Manoircs of de St'^'iir, 

«^ Walsh. ZVIargiiud note bv T. 13. 



lAst of Officers. 173 

to resign ratlicr tliaii to go to figlit in Vendee. lie was 

division inspector under the Empire ; was retired in 1815, 
and died in 1838.-'^ 



M. 



MACAr.Tny, ofllccr in tlie regiment of Walsh, and lieu- 
tenant of volunteers on the Bonhoriime Bichard. 

INIacdermotc (Tlionias), Ix.rn in 1742; entered the service 
in the Irish regiment of Dillon in 1750 ; made the campaigns 
of the Seven Years' War and those of the Windward Islands ; 
was present at the capture of Grenada, at the naval battle off 
Saint Lucia, and at the siege of Savannah, where, although he 
was oidy captain en second, d'Estaing put him in command of 
a picket of sixty volunteers in the action of the 0th of Octo- 
ber, 1770. 

Mac-Maiion (Ciiarles-Laui-e, Marquis de), descended from 
a noble Irish family who ruined itself for the cause of the 
Stuarts, and who followed them to France. He was officer 
of artillery on the Aigle, in 1782, with de Broglie and de 
Segur.^'' When this frigate had stranded at the mouih of the 
Delaware, and after the money had l)een saved, he escaped on 
a boat with the eighteen men of the crew who remained, in 
spite of the steady fire of th.e Engli>h, who were three times 
as uumerous.* He became the intimate friend of Charles the 
Tenth, formerly Count d^Vi-tMi--, was made mark-lnd de vamp 
in 1814 and peer of France in 1827. He married ]\Iademo:- 
selle de Caraman, by whom he had four sons and four daugh- 
ters. Marshal :\rac-]Mahon, Duke de ^Magenta, Avas the last 
survivor of this numerous family. 

^'-^ .^fanu.^<crij)t of Dupetit-Tliouais. 
'^ Souixnirs of de Sogur. 



174 Tlic Frc/icJi in America. 

]\rAGOX (Cliarlcs-ltone), i-cur-tidiuiral, bom at Paris in 17G3 ; 
caiulidate for tlie navy in 1777, at the age of fourteen; guard 
in the marines the following yeiir on the Brdar/nc, which 
d'Orvillicrs coinmanded, was present at the action of Oues- 
sant; ensign, in 1780, on tlie Sol/lain', which took ])art in all 
the battles of de Gnichen. The lollowing ycai- he was j)res- 
ent, on the Calou, in the fleet of the Count de Grasse, at the 
actions of the 28th and 29th of April, and of tlie oth of Sep- 
tember, 1781. The Caton, having been captured by the Eng- 
lish on the 12th of April, 17S2, ]Magon was kept as prisoner 
in England until the peace. 

Naval lieutenant in 178G, ca))tain of frigate in 1791, na- 
val captain in 1790, chief of squadron in 1799, rear-admiral 
in 1802; killed at tJic battle of Trafalgar the 21st of October, 
1805. 

Magusis, entered the service as private in 1742, in the 
regiment of Soissonnais ; went through every grade, and was 
made officer in 1 7G;>. He was present at the siege of York- 
town, in spite of the numerous wounds he had received in 
preceding wars. 

Malleyille (De), olficer of infantry ; wounded at Saint 
Lucia, under de Gnichen, the 19th of May, 1780. 

Maemady (jNIarquis de), volunteer ; breveted major by 
Congress the l,9tli of September, 1776."'" 

Malouin, commander of the AUiancc after Ivandais re- 
signed. 

^Iakcogxet, sub-lieutenant of J>ourbonnais ; became gen- 
eral under the Convention. 

^'Auberteuil. 



Lid of Officers. 175 

Maijcou, g-rcnadior in the regiment of Saintongo ; made 
the entii'e campaign. He was wounded on the Zclce wliile 
boarding the JlGinuIm, and received some of the prize money. 

Maikhjekite. Sec Dolomieu. 

Makigny (Charles-llene-Lonis, Viscount de Bernard de), 
vice-admiral, grand cross of Saint-Louis; born at Seez, Ornc, 
in 1740. His parents intended hira to enter the church, but 
he ran away from tliem at the age of fourteen and went to 
his brother, who v/as guard in the marines at Rochefort, 
and embarked. He entered tlie marines as guard in 1754; 
ensign in 1757; ca])tain in 1778, after the action of Oues- 
sant. Ho obtained the command of the ship the Ardent, 
which he had captured in 1779, and which formed part of 
tlie squadron which saih'd froin Brest, imder command of de 
Ternay, with the expeditionary cor[)S. He distinguished him- 
self at the naval battle of the IGth of March, 1781, fought 
by Dcstouches at tlie entrance of Chesapeake Bay. The Ardent 
had fifty-four men killed and many wounded. On the '25th 
and 2Gth of January of the following year he took part in 
the combat of Saint Christopher and in the capture of that 
island. Ordered to France by de Grasse to inform the Gov- 
ernment of the operations, de Marigny embarked on the Aig- 
rette, and v>as not present at the action of the 12th of April, 
1782, where his brother, the Count de ]\Iarigny, was blown 
up with his ship, the Ccmr. In 1783 he became Viscount, 
and commanded the Vldoire. Kear-admiral in 1702, he op- 
posed the excesses of the Revolution, and resigned. Arrested, 
he owed his safety only to the fall of Robespierre. Did not 
serve under the Empire, but was made vice-admiral in 1814 
by Louis the Eighteenth, and died in 1810. 

]\Iakix (dean-l>aptiste, Chevalici- dc), born at Tarascon. 
He entered the service in 1757 ; N\as captain-commantlant of 



17G The French in America. 

Soissonnais in ^Vpril, 1702 ; received two severe wounds at 
the cajitnre of Yoi-lciowii, and died from the eifects. 

Mascai^OX (Philippc-Louis-Bean), l)orn in Januaiy, 17-14, 
at A^auvert, Lan<i;nodoc. He entered tlie reg-inient of Gatijiais 
as sub-lientonant in 17G7 ; was captain in 1771*, ami made 
with this rank tlie cani})aign of America. 



Mauduit du ri.E,ssis (Thomas-xVntoine, Chevalier de), bom 
tlie 12l}i of September, 1753, at Hennebont ; massacred at 
Port-au-Prinec tiie 4th of March, 1791. lie was scarcely 
twelve years of age, and had just entered the artillery school 
at Grenol)lc, when he ran away with two of his comrades to 
travel. They M'ent on foot to jNIarscilles, and engaged as cabin 
boys. They visited Greece, the East, and Alexandria, where, 
attacked by fever, they went into a hospital, having no money. 
The two companions of Mauduit died. The latier, being lei't 
alone, Mcnt to Constantinople, and was sent home by the 
French ambassador. His family received him very well. 
He studied for the artillery, and left in 1777 for America. 

He distinguished himself on the 4th of October, 1777, at 
the battle ol' Germantown, Mdiere he attacked with twenty- 
eiglit men a "white lionsc," which was the key of the English 
position. He escaped scot tree from this reckless attempt. All 
his soldiers were killed, and his friend, Colonel Laurens, who 



^'■^ Massox, born aljout 1750 ; died at the a^e of ninety-seven ; came 
to America as a volunteer, and t^crved during the entire war. He was 
for some time under the orders of La Fayette, lie wa.s present at the 
battle of Saratoga and at the sieges of Savannah and Yorktown. "The 
troops suflered greatly at times from exi)osure to the weather, from 
the want of shelter and provisions, and hum the. fatiguing marches in 
thick forests and desert plains." 

Information received from his grandson, M. Masson, librarian at 
Laon, France. F. S. 1>. 



Lint of Ojjicci-s. 177 

had followed liiin, mrivo.l n woiiiul in tho sliotiMcr. Tluy 
liad both advanced to this stone fortress and tried to enter 
it, Laurens by the do^r and ]\rauduit by the window, and 
wlicn they saw tliat they were the oidy survivors, and tliat 
they coukl aeeoniplisli notliin^u', tliey retired (juietly among a 
sliowcr of bullets. 

The 22d of Oetober followinti;, dc ^Vlauduit was at Kcd 
Bank at the head of three luuidi-ed men, when he Mas at- 
tacked by a corj)s of two thousand five hundi'cd Hessians, 
commanded by Colonel Donoj). xS'ot oidy did he refuse to 
surrender unconditionally, as he was ordered, with the threat 
of rceeivinjij no ([uarler if he resisted, but he rejndscd the 
assault so vii;orous1y that the Hessians lost a great many 
men. Among the dying was found Colonel Donop. De 
Mauduit treated him with all the respect due to ill-fortuned 
bravery, and Donop died in his iirms next day. The colonel 
showed him much gratitude and esieem. 

Dc IMauduit commanded the right wing of the artillerv at 
Monmouth, where the English lost so many men through 
cannon fire. His character -svas as original as Ids valor was 
brilliant. It Avas on account of a bet of an ecu,-^^ about the 
real position of the Athenians and the Persians at the battle 
of Plat;ea, that in his boyhood he ran away from the Mili- 
tary School at Grenoble to go himself to verifv the fact, and 
that he took the singular journey mentioned above. 

Ordered one day to rcconnoiter the intrenched camj) of the 
enemy, he approached it alone imdcr cover of night, crawled, 
lying down, to the f )ot of the jvdi.v-ades, tore some of them 
aAvay, and only relurned to the American camp after having 
penetrated the intreuchments he was to rcconnoiter. 

During the "NA'ar of Independence de Mauduit carried to an 
extreme his love oi" c(iii:dily. Tie got angry when he was 
calleil "Monsieur," and had himself calletl "Thomas Duplessis." 



'The ecu was u ])iL'ce of money in U'^e before tlie franc. E. S. B, 



178 The French- in America. 

Ou his return, in 1770, lie Mas made chevalier of Saint- 
Louis and major of the chasseurs of tlie Vosges, In 1787 
he was appointed commander of the regiment of Port-au- 
Prince, when. In- a singular contradiction, he proved a most 
violent adversary of revolutionary principles and of the eman- 
cipation of the blacks. Carrying along in his reactionary 
spii-it de Blanchelande, Govei'uor of Saint Domingo, they both 
refused to promulgate the orders coming from the metropolis, 
disarmed the ]S'ational Guard, and arrested the members of the 
Colonial Committee on the 29th of August, 1790. ]\Iauduit 
even formed a company of loyalist volunteers from the rich- 
est colonists, Mhieh was called the *' AVhito Pompons," with 
V\-hich he made some bloody expeditions, which led lo no other 
result than to make the whole island revolt. 'J'he battalions 
of Artois and Normandy, ,>ent for by de JJlanchelaude a.s 
succors, ari'ived on the 2d of March, 1791, crying, "Hurrah 
for freedom !" and wearing the tricolor coeade. The regi- 
ment of Port-au-Prince, the sailors and the people joined 
them. Planchelande had to hide and ]Mauduit, after trying, 
M'ith the brothers d'Anglade, to rally the AVhitc Pompons to 
oj)pose the movement, was massacred and torn to pieces by 
Iiis own soldiers. A mulatto, who was much attached to 
him, s])ent several days in collecting his scattered remains, 
buried them, and killed himself on his grave with a justol 
shot.'''" 

Mauleyijieu (Chevalier de), commander of the cutter the 
Giiepe, which was lost on Cape Charles in October, 1781. 
He succeeded in saving his crew."'* 

Mau^'Y (Loui--I''j-an(;()i>-Pliili])pe de), \iorn in 1719; ])uj)il 
at the jNlilitary School in 1707, captain of vhdsscurs of Pour- 



'^De la Fosse de Rouville. Elofjc hhtontjac ihi chevalier MuuduU du 
Pless-is, Senlis, 1818, in 8". 

-" i/c'mouvi) of DL'Ux-l\<nl.<, jiage 28. 



Ust of Officers. 179 

boniiais in 1770; \v;i.s at the attack of the redoubt of York- 
town, and obtained a jjension after the siege. 

Maujjaigk (Jjerand de). See Bekand. 

Mauroy (IX'), oflieer, enlisted vohmtcer, who left France 
with Iva Fayette in 1779."''" 

Maurville (Count Bide de), Frencli admiral ; born at 
Rochcfort the 17th of November, 1752; died at Paris in 
March, 1840; embarked at the age of twelve, and behaved 
bravely at the battle of Oiiessint, the. 27th of July, 1778. 
Ai)pointed naval lieutenant the following year, he received 
the command of tlie lugger the Chnaseur, and was employed 
in the wars of America under Guiehen, then under the Count 
of La ^lotte-Piciuet. The 2Cth of April, 1781, he captured 
an Fngli.sh privateer stronger than his own ship. A few days 
later he captured four mereiiantmen whicli formed part of a 
convoy escorted by two line of battle ships and two frigates. 
The 17th of January, 1783, on board of the eighteen gun 
cutter the MaVin, he was attacked in the Maters of Porto Pico 
by a strong Fnglish frigate, which he forced to retreat; and 
afterwards took pai-l, under de A'^audreuil and de Soulanges, 
in the various actions which jn-eceded the peace of 1783. Was 
naval captain in 1792, and emigrated. Peturned to France 
in 1802 without being employed. The Bourbons made him 
rear-admiral in 1810, major-general and commander of the 
])ort of Pochefbrt, grand cross of Saint-Louis, ollicer of the 
Legion of Honor. He was retired by Louis-Philippe. 

^lELFOiiT (de), oilicer who was on board the A'kjIi:, in 1782, 
with de Scgur, de Jiroglie and otliers. Jle helped to sjive 

-'= JA'//('-;,v.s- of La Fayette. 



180 The French, in uimcricn. 

the tv.'o inilUDii Hvc luindrcd tliousaiul llcrcs that this frigate 
was bringing to llocjianibcau, 

MfeoxVJFJj-] (Franoois-Louis-Arthur Thibaut, Count do), 
a descendant of an Englisii family wliicli had talcen refuge 
in France during tlie troubles caused by the establishment of 
the Church of England. One of his ancestors, Arniand Thi- 
baut, was employed by tlie Court of France in negotiations 
with Cromwell, and obtained letters of nobility as a i-eward. 

Tlic one I am esjiecially writing of, was born the 2d of July, 
1740, at the Chateau of Ville, near Kambervilliers, Vosgcs. 
]Iis father ^\•as Francois-Louis Thibaut de IMenonville, coun- 
sellor of the king and commissary of war, and his mother was 
Marie-Anne de ]>a/.o]nire de I'lCsseu. lie entered the service 
as student of the School of AiiiHcry and Engineers the 1st of 
May, 1757. He had been from the 1st of January, 1756, 
cadet gcntilhoimnc of Leczinski, King of Poland and Lorraine. 
Engineer in 17C0, he served as such in Corsica. He was sent, 
after tlie subnn'ssion of this island, to the assistance of the Con- 
federuiion de Bur, under the orders of the Baron de Viomcnil. 
His conduct brought him the rank of lieutenant-colonel, the 
24th of iVIarch, 1772. Tlie 1st of January, 1773, he was put 
on staft'duty and received the cross of chevalier of Saint-Louis, 
He left as aid-major-general with do Tarle ; was present on 
tlie ships of Captain Destouches""^ at the action in Ch(\<apeake 
Bay the IGth of ^SFarch, 1781, and by his skillful manage- 
ment during the siege of Yorktown hel])cd in bringing about 
the sunvndcr. JTc was mtide major-general in Xo\-emb(i-, 
1781, and lieutenant-general in 1782. On his return to 
France he married, in September, 178.T, Mademoiselle de 
Martim])rey, of the same family as the jiresent French generals 
of that name. He was brigadier of the armies of the kinir 



*"For an incident sliowiii;^ tlic coolncKs of de IMeiionvillo dmin-r the 
action, see Vol. I., page 136. 



List of Ojjkcrs. 181 

at Saint Di*', wlicro he received ])ei'inis-;ion from Louir; the 
Sixteenth to wear tJie deconition of tlie Cincinnati, the 24ih 
of Auy;ust, 1784. 

Marcchnl de camp tlie 2l.st of Se])tcm]-)er, 17SS. II<' liad at 
tliis tijue a pension of eiirht thousand three hnn(h-ed and ninety 
fj-ancs. Deputy from the nobility to the States General, ho 
voted the abolition of the privileges, and was deprived of his 
pay through the passing of the mea^^ure to revise the pensions. 

The king, who knew his fidelity, had asked him not to 
leave him, intrusting to him several pieces of work. JJut 
he had to go to ]..orraine to look after his affairs, which were 
in bad shajie. He was arrested in 1792 at Saint Die, and 
came near being torn to j)ieces, as happened to one of his 
friends and relatives, de Spisemberg, whose house was pil- 
laged. From there he was taken to E}>inal, where he stayed 
four yeai's, J>onaj)arte gave him a ])eiision of a thousand 
francs, a sum much inferior to what, his rank deserved, lie 
would acccj)t no ollicial ])osition for his sttn, and left no for- 
tune to his children. 

It is to his grandson, Fran(;ois-?dichel-Antoine de ^lenon- 
ville, present head of the family, that 1 owe these notes.-'^^ 

Mexou (liOuis-Armand-Francois de), born at ]\Ionsegui', 
Guyenne, in 1744 ; served from 1701 ; captain in the regi- 
ment of Soissonnais in 1778; ajipointed major of the regiment 
of Gatinais, which became lloyal-Auvergne, after the capture 
of Yorktown. 

" lie AS'as a distinguished ofliccr and brilliant in war," says 
a note. One must not mistake him for the Baron de Menou 
who served later in Fgypt, and who took the command of 
the French troops after Kleber, wlien the latter was assas- 
sinated. 



"^General do Mt'nonville loft ii jonriial which lias been very useful 
to me. See Vol. 1., page 10. 



182 TIte French in America. 

Mexou (Plerrc-ArinaiKl, Chevalier do), born at Monsegiir, 
Giiyenne, in 1755 ; made the expedition of" America as caji- 
tain in the regiment of Soissonnais. 

jMicoul (Chevalier de), who seems to have been at Sa- 
vannah ; defended to tlie last ditch, with de liouille, Saint 
liucia, of which he was governor, on tiie 13th of November, 
1778, against Brigadier-General jMeadows and General Prevost. 
The island was taken, but the garrison received the honors of 
war, and Chevalier de Micoul obtained permission to remain 
long enough to take away all his j^ersonal effects. He was 
soon exchanged for other prisoners."''"' 

jSIiollis (Sextus-Alexandrc-Fran(;ois, Count do), born in 
1759 at Aix, one of the sixteen children of Joscph-Laurcnt- 
ISIiollis, counsellor to the Ciiamber of Accounts of Aix; en- 
tered, in 1772, the infantry regiment of Soissonnais, became 
sub-lieutenant in 1770 and left for America. A\'as wounded 
in the face by a sj^lintei' from a bomb, before Yorktown, dur- 
ing the night of the 13th of October, 1781, in the line of 
the second parallel; was appointed lieutenant in 1782 and 
captain on his return to France. Decorated with the order 
of the Cincinnati. Served under the Kepublic and the Em- 
pire with distinction and was made general in 1705. lie it 
was who carried out the orders of Napoleon against Pius the 
Seventh, but with a moderation for which the Pope was very 
grateful. He died in 1828, at Aix. 

IMiRABEAU (Audre-Ix)niface-Louis-liiquotii, Clu^valier de), 
born at ]>ignon, Gatinais, in 1754; was inscribed at his birth 
on the lists of the Knights of Malta. His studies were very 
poor, but he had much natural wit. lie went to Malta from 
1775 until 1778, and then embarked to serve in .Vmerica 



lvongchiuni>H. 



List of Officers. 183 

under tlic orders of do Guidien. He showed a bravery akin 
to recklessness in the actions ])efore Yorktown, Saint Eustatius 
and Saint Christopher, where he was dangerously wounded. 
Later he was deputy to tiie States General; but, a Ivoyalist, 
he was constantly annoying the left of the Assembly l>y 
pointed, witty and sarcastic remarks. An open champion of 
the aristocracy and of the privileges, he attacked even his 
brother, who kept sparing him, and fought with Latour- 
jNIaubourg a duel in which he was severely wounded. De- 
voted to good eating and creature comforts, he grew so fat 
that at the age of thirty he weighed over tAvo hundi-ed pounds, 
which made the jjcople nickname him, Jfirabeaa Tonncau. The 
Assembly w^as about to take steps against hiin when he emi- 
grated. He raised then the celebrated Legion of Jlirabcau, or 
Iliuisars of Death, of three thousiind men, who in 1792 fought 
a bloody skirmish war with the Republicans. Died in 1792, 
and was buried at Saitzbach, at the place Avhere Turenne was 
killed. Decorated with the order of the Cincinnati. 

ISIissiESSY (Edouard-Thomas-Burgues, Count de), born the 
23d of A]n*il, 1754. Enlisted at the age of ten on the vessel 
of his father, the AUier ; marine guard in 1770, ensign in 
1777. The Vail/auf, on wiiich he then served under d'Estaing, 
took part in the campaign at Newport, and in the actions of 
Saint Lucia, Grenada and Savannah. In 1780 lie embarked 
on the frigate the Surveillanle, Captain do Cillart, which was 
taking troops to Rochambeau. After the landing at Newport 
he went to Saint Domingo, and had occasion to fight a brilliant 
combat of three hours against an J'>ngHsIi ship, the fJ/z/Asr*-, of 
sixty guns. The frigate had t)nly thirty-two, of smaller size. 
INIissiessy received the rank of ca])tain of frigate in ]May, 1781. 
He served afterwards in Europciui seas. Xaval caj^tain the 
1st of January, 1792, rear-admiral the following year. He 
was then at Toulon, and iled to Italy during the Terror. He 
returned in 1795, was kc]>t arrested for some time, then 



184 The French in America. 

acquitted. Vice-admiral in 1800, he defended the mouth of 
tlie Scheldt ag'uinst the Engli.^li, and >\as made count by Napo- 
leon, with four thousand francs income. In 1811 grand oflicer 
of the Legion of Honor, w\\\\ twenty thousand francs income ; 
made grand cross in ISli In- Louis the Eighteentli. He kept 
aloof during the "Hundred Days." Commander of Saint-Louis 
iu 181G and grand cross in 1823; chevalier-commander of 
the Saint-Ksprit in 1827. Retired in 1832. 

MoLiERES (xVudrt'-IiOuis-Floret de), born in 1719, ])ujnl of 
the Military School in 1707 ; was captain en tucond in the 
regiment of Gatinais during the campaign of 1781. 

MoNTALKCr.E (Jcan-Bartliolcmy Fabrcgue de). See Fab- 

REGUK. 

]\IONTALEMBEiiT (Louis-Fraucois- Joseph -Bonavcuture de 
Tryon, Count de), born the ISth of October, 1758, died in 
1831 ; entered early the army, and made the Amcri(^in c;uu- 
paigns with the regiment of Saintonge. In 1789 he resigned 
from his position of commander of squadron in the regiment 
of Gevaudan. Under the Empire, as also under the Ivestau- 
ration, he had a seat in the Assembly. He was chamberlain 
of Napoleon tlie First. 

iNIoNTAUT (He), ca})tain of the Ficr-llodrir/ue, three-decker 
of sixty guns, belonging to Beaumarchais, and serving as escort 
to the merchant lieets sent by the latter to America. The 12(h 
of July, 1779, d'Estaing ordered this ship to ta.ke its place 
in the battle line belbre the Island of Grenada to light the 
fleet of Jiyron. De ]Montaut was killed in the action. 

i\lo^■TCAE:kr (Paul-Francois-loseph, Marquis de), born in 
1750 in the Rouergue, died in J'iediiiom in 1812, was the 
son of the General killed at Quebec. lOutcnd the navy and 



List of Officers. 185 

served as naval rajitain under d'E.-tainii; and Sullren, lie dis- 
tinguished himself at Grenada and at Gil^raltar. Deputy to 
tlie States General, he pro])Osed abolishing the pensions. Those 
of tlie ^lontcalins and the I)'>\ssas were i-etained."*^'^ He emi- 
grated in 17U0, and went into Spain and j-'ledniont. lie died 
from a fall. 

MoNTcouuKiER (De), infantry officer, killed in the naval 
action olf Saint Lucia, the 19th of May, 17S0. 

MoxTES(ji:iEU (Baron de), grandson of the antlior of the 
Spirit of titc Dars, went to America in 1782 on the Gloirc with 
de Broglie and de Segur. He had made before this the expe- 
dition of 1780-81 as aid-de-eamp to de Ghastellux.-" He re- 
ceived the oi'der of the Cincinnati, and was a])j)ointed colonel 
of the infantry regiment of Bourbonnais, whence he went to 
that of C\'inibn'sis. He emigrated in 1792, and joined the 
army of the princes, wlicrc he served on the stalf of the 
Duke de l^aval and also on that of Lord llawdon, later ^lar- 
quis of Hastings. He died near Canterbury, in England, in 
1822. 

MoNTFOivT (Count de), eidisted as a volunteer ; sent to A\^ash- 
ington, to fill the position of lieutenant, the 27th of Man-li, 

1777.-*''' 

MoNTiiuuEi., officer of hussars of the legion of Lanzun, 
distinguished himself before Gloueester.-'^^ 

jvIONTiKU (De), privateersman at Xante-, Irieiul of Beaumar- 
chais, desired to go to America, although no longer young. 



'"'See in tlie List of Onicers : Assas, note 48. 

"' r.lanchard. 

"^Auberlcuil. 

^^^ liejwrt of KoclKunbeau. 



18G Tlic French in America. 

Duboiirg wished at first to cn<j;ao;o him on account of his tal- 
ents and his experience, but recoiled before his pretensions.^"'' 
A do Monthieu went later to A merica : perha})s he is the same. 

MoNTLEZON (Jean-Francois dii Moulin do la Bastille), born 
in ]720 at Aire, Guyenne ; entered the service in 1744, cap- 
tain in the regiment of Touraine in 1755, lieutenant-colonel 
in 1 770 ; received a severe 1)ruise in the action fought by de 
Grasse on the 12th of April, 17S2. 

MoNTLONG, served in 1777 as sub-lieutenant of Agenois^ 
and Nvas present at the sieges of Pensacola and Yorktown. 

ISIOKAiiD DE Galek (Justlu-Bonaveuture), vice-admiral, 
grand officer of the Legion of Honor, senator ; born at Gon- 
celin, I)au])hine, in 1741. Private of the marine guard at the 
age of sixteen; entered the navy; flag guard in 1757, ensign 
hi 17G5. 

He was naval lieutenant on the Ville de Paris, under de 
Grasse, at the action of Ouessant, the 27th of July, 1778. In 
1780 he was present on the Couromie at the three actions 
fought by de Guichen. He served afterwards under Suffren 
in the East Indies, and died at Gueret, Creuse, in 1809. 

Mohreige. See Bkrand. 

MoiiY (He), infantry officer, wounded in the naval action 
off Gi-enada. 

IMoTTE or ISIoTiiE (Durand de La), officer of the regiment 
of Champagne; was at the ca{)ture of Gr(>nada and at the naval 
action off Saint Ijucia. A\'ounded at Savamiah. 

""American Arcltircs. 



List of Officers. 187 

MoTTE-PiQUET (T()n.-.<aint-Guillaui!ic, Cuunt do La), licu- 
tenant-gcDoral of tlic naval armies, grand cross of Saint-Louis, 
born at Ivonncs in 172*), ?i[arine guard in 1735, naval lieu- 
tenant in 1 74-'), made the same yea.r a canipaign to Canada; 
e<a])tain t>f eorvette in 1755, chevalier of Saint-Louis in 175G, 
naval captain in 1763. Chief of squadron in 177S, he was 
])rcsent on the >Saini-E.Yjrii at the action of Ouessant, the 27th 
of July, 1778, as flag captain to the Duke de Chartres. In 
1770 he went to the Antilles under the orders of the Count 
d'Estaing, Mas present at the capture of Grenada the 4th of 
July, and at tlie action of the (3lh. AVhen d'Estaing resolved 
to capture Savannah, the Chevalier de La Motte-Piquet was 
charged to protect, with seven vessels, the landing of three 
thousand five hundred soldiers. Ke distinguished himself by 
several brilliant deeds ; was appointed lieutenant-general in 
1782, grand cross of Saint-Louis in 1784. He died at Brest 
the 11th of June, 1701. Doubtless decorated with the order 
of the Cincinnati. 

MoTTix DE EA Balme, cnlistcd as volunteer the 20th of 
May, 1777 ; brevet lieutenant-colonel of cavalry. The 18th 
of July following he was appointed inspector of cavalry, with 
the rank of colonel. He resigned on the 12tli of October of 
the same year. 

There was a de la Balme, infantry olllcer, wounded at the 
naval action otf Saint Lucia the 10th of March, 1780. He 
is })erhaps the same as the above, who may have re-entered 
the service in the Fi'cnch colonial troops. 

MoYELV (Joseph-^^rarie-Annc), born at Bourg in Bresse in 
1744 ; student at the oMilitary School, then ofliccr, in 1702, 
in tiic regiment of Soissonnais, He made campaigns in Ger- 
many, in Corsica and in America. He was captain at the 
time of the siege of Yorklown, and was decorated after the 
siege. 



188 Tlic French in America. 

Mudp:iiie de Campanjos (Pierre Ln), burn hi 1739 ; 
appoinled captiiin in the regiment of Bourbonnais in 1777, 
obtained a pension of four liundrcd Uvrcs at the time of tlie 
capture of Yorktown. 

MufiEENFELS (C-hnrle.s-Adam), born in 1748 ; sub-lieu- 
tenant of Eo}al-Deux-Ponts the 3d of August, 1705, captain 
in 1770; obtained a reward for liis courage before Yorktown. 

MuLLEMS, enlisted as volunteer ; private in the regiment of 
Berwick in 1757, sub-lieutenant iu 1770, lieutenant in 1778 
and ciiptain in 1770. He made two cam])aigns in Germany, 
two to i\Iauritius and seven in America. 

MuiiNAND (Jeau-l>ernard de). 

MuY (l^u), name that de Saintc-Mesme, colonel of iSois- 
sonnais, took on his return to France. See Sainte-Mesme. 
The notice of Didot is under the name of Du Muy. 

Nadal, director of the artillery trains during the expe- 
dition of llochambcau ;-'^ lieutenant-colonel, chief of brigade 
in the regiment of Auxonne. 

Neuius (De), oflicer of artillery, who belonged to the ex- 
peditionary corps of llochambeau ; captain in tlie regiment of 
Auxonne. He was intrusted with establishing and conunand- 
ing a battery of mortars and cannons at the narrowest point 
of the Xorth lliver, above Peekskill. The ISth of July, 1781, 
he did much ha)-m to the English scpiadron, which had ven- 
tured into this [)art of the river.-'- 

"•Blancliara. 

^^'^ Journal of Cruinot Duliouig. 



List of OJjircrs. 189 

Neuville or De ea Xeuvii.ee, culir^lcd as vohintcor'uii 
the 27tii of Oetuljcr, 1777; served as aid-de-camp of Iju Fav- 
ettc, and under the orders of General Parsons. 

])o Neuville asked for iKjthing less, says General Washinii;- 
ton,-'^ than the creation of a position of brigadier-general for 
him, tlie 24th of July, 1778, to which Morris answers from 
Philadeli.liia the M of August, 1778: "The faith of Con- 
gress is in some measure plighted to M. de la Xeuville, but 
it is not to their interest that his l)revet shall give command. 
The Baron has a claim iVom his merit to be noticed ; but I 
will never consent to grant M-Jiat 1 am told he re(iuest-, and 
I thiidc Congress will not." lie obtained this title of brig- 
adier-general, but resigned the 4th of December, 1778.-'^ 

Niemcewic/, l)()rn at Skoki, Lithuania, in 1757; entered the 
service at A\"arsaw. followed Ivosciusk'o to Ainei-ica ; -wounded 
at the same time as Kosciusko at Savannah, Xiemewicz took 
care of him with the most devoted friendship. Having re- 
turned to his native land he was elected, in 1788, a mem- 
ber of the Polish Diet and became noted for his eloquence 
and his liberal writings. In 1794 he made the cam})aign 
against Catherine and was taken j)risoner with Kosciusko. 
Eestored to freedom, lie returned to the United States and 
only returned thence in 1807. He died at ]Montmorency, near 
Paris, in 1841. He was a distinguished man of letters and 
a poet. 

NoAiEEEs (Louis-]\rarie, Viscount de), second son of Mar- 
shal de Mouchy, born at Paris the 17th of April, 17.")<;. He 
was brother-in-law of La Fayette, and a great friend of his 
and of de Segur. They had tbi-jned the ])r(>ject of starting- 
together for America, but their parents, having discovered 

"'XZ/c' and Writings of Goarcrna'r ^[ol■l•is, by J. Sparks. Vol. I., paiie 174. 
"♦Auberteuil. 



190 The French in America. 

their plans, prevonterl tliem. La Fayette alone had will and 
independenee enouoh^ thanks to his fortnnc, to eany out his 
generous project. 

Captahi the 7th of iNlareh, ITTo ; colonel of Soissonnais the 
28th of February, 1778, but only to take his rank when he 
was twenty-eigfht years old. He made with this rank the 
expedition of America and had several times the chief com- 
mand of the work' on the trenches before Yorktown. He was 
intrusted with arran<2:in<:; the terms of surrrender with Col- 
onel I^aurens and de Granchain. AVashington several times 
pmises his courage and his intelligence. 

On his return he was appointed nie.sfre de camp, lieutenant- 
commandant of the regiment of dragoons of the king, and 
was replaced in his position of colonel en. second of Soissonnais 
by de Segnr in 1782. lie had conceived in America a great 
enthusiasm for lil)erty, and he took u]) with eagerness the cause 
of the French Revolution ; he proposed, during the famous 
iiight of the 4th of August, the principal reforms against the 
privileges. He commanded the advanced posts of Valenciennes 
in 1792 ; but not approving the excesses of the Ten-or, he 
resigned and withdrew to England and thence to the United 
States, where he played a strange role.-'^ He re-entered the 
service again under the Consulate, and went in 1803 to Saint 
Domingo with the rank of brigadier-general. 

The rest of his life is so well told by his sister-in-law, 
Madame de ^Montagu, tliat I insert here her account which 
is found in the very interesting book : Annc-Paule-Dominique 
dc Kouilles, Jfarquise de Montagu, by the Duke de Xoailles. 
Paris, 1808.-"'^ 

" The Viscount de Xoailles, considered one of the best of- 
ficers of his day, who had followed La Fayette, his brother- 
in-law, to America during the War of Inde])endeuce ; who, 

^^Pontgibaua. 

"^•See that book, piigcs 3SG-392. E. S. B. 



List of OlTicers. 191 

miicli sniiltoii with tlic itlc-as of 17S0, had .'^at in the Coii.<ti- 
tuiional Assembly bcsiilc ]\[anry, ]>arnave and oMirabcau ; 
who, in the fainons i)i<;lit (tf the 4th of Aiigu.'-t, lakini^ the 
initiative of the tluee propositions, indispensable basis of the 
great reforms, then in every mind, the equal distribution of 
all taxation among all FreJichmcn, the; al)olition by purchase 
of feudal rights, and the abolition witliout purchase of the 
coi'vccs and persontd servitude, had given the signal for the 
enthusiasm with which in that same sitting the nol)ility and 
the clergy despoiled themselves so generously and so patriot- 
ically of their i-ights and ])rivileges. This same Viscount de 
Noailles was none the less an oiUf/rc like the others,-" 

"A\'hen Mar was declared, in April, 1792, he commanded 
a brigade in the advance guard during tlie first invasion of 
Belgium, and he found himself surrounded in the flight of 
our troops, which took ))lace \vith the cry of " Troiichcry !" and 
amid which General Theobald Dillon was massacred, and he 
himself was obliged to seek a refuge beyond the frontier, 
wlierc lie was immediately declared an ctalgre and proscribed. 

" He first went to England, then to America, where he en- 
tered with success into the commercial operations of the house 
of Bingham. JNIadame de Montagu succeeded in having his 
name struck off the list of tuur/rea. His return was retarded 
by a long lawsuit, where he argued his case himself in Eng- 
lish before the American courts. So well did he speak that 
language, of which we will see the imiiortanco to him later, 
that he won his suit, amid universal a]i})lause. But the 
obligation of following out llic conse(|Uences forced him to go 



^''"Tliose who liy liutrt-d for llie past," says de Cliateaiibriand, "cry 
out to-day against tlie nobility, forget that it was a niembor of that 
nobility, the Visxouiit de Xoailles, supported by the Puke d'Aiguillon 
and -Mathieu de Montniorouoy, who overtlirew tlic edifice which was 
attacked by re])ublican prejudice. On the innlion of the feudal deputy 
the feudal rights were abolished. As the old France owed its glory to 
the feudal nobility, the new France owes it its liberty, if tliere is lib- 
erty for France. {Mcmuires iVOntrc-Tumhc, Vol. II., page tit}.) 



192 Tltc French in America. 

to Saint Domingo, M-hcrc oar ])o>scs.sion.s bad falkn iiito tlie 
power of tlio negroes, and wliicli a French army was tiwing 
to reconqner, 

"He found this army partly destroyed Ijy yellow fever, and 
its remains attacked on one side by tbe negroes, on the other 
by the British squadrons, liochambeau was in command. 
Noailles devotedly put himself at the disposition of liIs old 
comrade in arms, and, amongst other deeds, helped materially 
in the eaptui-c of Fort Dauphin.-'^ 

"Ivoehambcau gave him the command of the Mole Saint 
Nicholas, whose garrison, reduced to eighteen hundred men, 
was besieged by twenty thousand blacks and a I^ritish scpiad- 
ron. He defended himself there for five months. ]3ut Ivoeh- 
ambcau, shut in at the Cape, was at lengtli forced by famine 
to suri-ender with his negroes. He Mas going to retire witli 
his troops on neulral vessels, but the English ileet sur- 
rounded these ships, forced them to sui'render, and pre])ared 
to take them to Europe. The commander of the squadron 
which was blockading Mole Saint Nicholas informed General 
de Noailles of these events, asking him to cease a useless re- 
sistance. 

" ' A French general,' he answered, ' cannot surrender with- 
out shame as long as he has supplies, ammunition and de- 
voted soldiers. France, like England, has fleets on the ocean. 
I will wait.' 

"This answer hid his intrepid ])roject of escaping with his 
entire force from the hostile fleets. Informed that the con- 
voy which took with it the ships of Rochambeau M'as to pass 
three days later before the jNIole during the night, lie pre- 
pared his men, and on seven ships which were in the port 

"*In striking liirn nfl' tlie lists of nuiijri'.'i lie had beon reinstiited in 
his military rank, fur be wrote to his son Alexis: "I have not yet re- 
ceived the coiilirmation of the rank of acting brigadier-general, wliich 
position J have Olleil for eight months. I desire that the ciiniiuiHt:ion 
bear the date of the cai)ture of Fort Dauphin." 



List of Officers. 193 

mounted liis soldiers, his cannons, ln"s aminuiiition, with some 
of the inliabitants of tlie ]M6lo, and awaited in silence the 
passage of the convoy, AVhen the ship's lights appeared tlie 
order for departure was given, and during a dark in"ght the 
seveii ships, profiting by the confusion of the ])assage and de- 
ceiving the blockading sr[uadn>n, joliu'd the convoy. Xoailles 
himself led, and, speaking English jx-rfectly, answered himself 
all the hails from the nearer ships. Little by little he drew 
away with his ships, and spread all sail at da^vn, and although 
the English then discovered what had happened and sailed 
after him, he reached successfully, with his seven sl)ips, ]jar- 
acoa, a ])ort in the Islaud of Cuba. He landed there the 
inhabitants of the ]\Jule, as mcII as his troops, of whom he 
sent some back to France and kept the others, intending to 
lead them to Havana, where General Lavalettc was in com- 
mand. 

"He chartered for this ])urpose three small vessels, got as 
escort the war schooner the Courric/-, and sailed himself on 
this schooner, which was only armed with four guns, with 
his staff and a com])any of grenadiers of the 34th half 
brigade. Four days afterwards, oit the 31st of December, 
1803, olf the Great-Xuevita, he met at dusk an English 
corvette, tlie llazard, of seven guns, which hailed him. He 
hastened to raise the English c(j1oi-s, and answered in sttch 
good Euglish that the commander of the corvette informed 
liim that he was in search of a French boat carrying General 
de Xoailles. 'I have precisely the same mission,' he answered, 
and began to sail with the corvette. Then, when the night 
bccitme dark, he ])n)p<)sed to his soUliers to bcxird the ]-2nglish. 
The proposal being received with ck'light, Lieutenant Do.-iiayes, 
who was connnandiug the Courricr, sailed it so as to bring it 
all of a sudden alongside of the corvette. The shock was so 
violent that the stem of the Conrricr was broken. The English, 
surjn-ised, rushed to arms ; but de Xoailles dashed with his 
irrenadiers on to their deck, and alter a terrible combat, the 



The French in America. 



194 

corvette, whicli ]ui(l lost half its crew, surrendered. Unr(>r- 
tunatelv, at the er^d of tlie battle, an enemy's bnllet strnek tl.e 
heroic 'descendant of a race of warriors, of whom he had 
showed himself so worthy; and on the morrow, on hoard o. 
his prize, but mortally wounded, and toNving the Conrrur, hal 
broken to pieces, he entered gloriously Havana. He lived 
only six days after his triumph, and died on the 5th of .)an- 
uaiy ISO-L His heart was inclosed in a silver box by Ins 
grenadiers, who fastened it to their flag and l)rought it back 
to France, which the brave Frenchman had desired to have 
reopened to him by his glory." -'^ 

Noailt.es (Viscount de), ])erhaps a brother of the pre- 
ceding one, was with Edouard Dillon at the head of an at- 
tacking eolunm at Grenada on the Gth of July, ITJdr'' 

Noes (xVugustin-liousselin de), born at Caen in 1741. En- 
tered the regiment of Saintonge in 1702, captain in 177U; 
decorated for his conduct before Yorktown. 

NOMPERE DE CIIAMPAG^•Y. SeC ClIAMrAGNY. 

NoRTM.VN, officer of the legion of Lauzun, of whom Croniot 
Dubourg speaks as follows: " AVhile on ])atrol before New 
York, with six hussars, during the night of the 17th tu the 
18th 'of Julv, 1781, a few pistol shots were exchanged with 
some dra'.o(ms of Delancey ; Nortman was killed. The in- 
fantry advanced to support the hu^>ars, but the enemy had 
gone under cover of the darkn.-s. The riderless hor>e re- 
turned to camp; a sentinel hailed it, and, reeeivmg no answer, 
killed it with a single shot." 



^»"This brilliant foat of arms nvus paintoa Iw Gu.liu in one of liis 
best pictures." , ., 

s^"Tlie Marquis do Noaillcs has written to nie that there is a nub- 
take here. Must be looked up." IMar-inal note by T. li. 



Lid of Gjjicers. 195 

o. 

O'Faiiuel (Claude), l)oni at Aliiis in 1751. Served four 
years in tlic rej^iiueut oi" Jjally in India; ])ut on tlic Av;iiting 
list, aiid entered the regiment ol" Dillon as cadet in ITT-"), He 
was apjiointed officer in 1770, ami was ])resent at the assault 
on the Monic of Grenada, at the naval action and at the 
assault of Savannah, where he received a gunshot wound in 
the leg. He served in the campaign of America as lieuten- 
ant in the regiment of Dillon. 

Ollonj] (Chevalier d'), sub-lieutenant in the regiment of 
Schomberg since 1773. ^\'ent to America as aid-de-cam]3 of 
the Laron de Viojueiill. TTis uncle was employed on the 
staff, in waiting. lie received a brevet of captain after the 
capture of Yorktown. 

O'MoPvAN (Jacques-Joseph), born at Elphin, Ireland, in 
1730. At the Ilcvolution was colonel of the regiment of Dil- 
lon. Ap]-)ointed marecJial de camp, he made under Dumoui'iez 
the campaigns of Cham])agnc and Belgium. In 1703, he took 
Tournay and Casscl, but accused of incapacity, he was arrested 
by the orders of the deputies Levasseur and Delbret, sent to 
Paris and condemned to death. Guillotined the 6th of ]March, 
1704. 

O'Xeil (Bernard), born at Saint Omcr in 1730. Was the 
fifth generation to serve in the Irish regiment of Dillon since 
its ibrmatiou in Fi-ance. He made first the campaigns of 
Germany, ihcn went to the Antilles and Avas present at the 
capture iA' Grenada, at the naval action and at the siege of Sa- 
vannah, where he received a gunshot wound in the chest. He 
died in America in 1780, after twenty-nine years of service. 

OuiUKUT, lieutenant-colonel, 20th of June, 1770. 

Ol'TKKKK (11). See AuiiKTEniiE. 



196 Tlie French in America. 

P. 

Paiij.ot or Palliol, enlisted as private in tlie resxinicnt 
of Gatinais in 17'")0, sub-lieutenant of grenadiers in 1770; was 
present at the attaek of the redoubt of Yorktown. 

Pange (J^e), aid-de-eamp of the Chevalier dc Yiomenil ; dis- 
tinguisiied himself at the attack of the redoubt of Yorktown,-*^ 

Parent (Charles), enlisted as a volunteer ; started in the 
beginning of the war with another volunteer named A^'ar- 
ren, of Englisli extraction. AVas present at the battle of the 
Brandywine. lie returned to France after the war, entered 
the regular army, and retii-ed in ISIG with the rank of chief 
of battalion.-"- 

Pah.mentieij (Jacques-Jose])h), born at Ileigen in 17"2S; 
private in the ivgimcnt of Touraine in 1746, officer in 17G4, 
lieutenant in 177G. He received a gratific-ation after the cap- 
ture of Yorktown. 

Pecosme (Laborde de). See Laboude.'-'^ 

P/:lissier (Christophe), enlisted as volunteer the 20th of 
July, 177G, one of the tirst ; appointed engineer with the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel.-^'' 

Pi^:ROU.SE (Jean-Frauyois-Galaup, Count de La), chevalier 
of Saint-Louis, chief of scpiadron, boru at Albi in 1741 ; 
sliijiwrecked in 17SS. 

^^Dupctit-Thouars and Blanehard. 

-^Information given by his jrreat nepliew, M. Chark'S Louandre, 
literary man and French historian. 

-*^I leave tliis as it is in the French. I lliiiik lie is perhajis the san^.e 
as Laborde de Dcauine. E. S. 13, 

-**Auberteuil. 



List of Officers. 197 

Enlisted as marine ;j;uanl at the age of fifteen, ensign in 
1764, naval lientenant in 1777; eomniantled the Amazone of 
twenty-six gnns, which took ]n\rt in the captnrc of Saint 
Vincent and of Grenada, as well as in the action of the -1th 
of July, 1779, against Admiral liyron. In October, 1779, 
while cruising on the coast of Georgia, he ca])tnred the frig- 
ate Ariel, of twenty-six guns, after an hour's fight, and on the 
8th of December following he captured, in the neighborhood 
of Savannah, the Knglish j)rivateer the Ti'jer, of twenty-two 
guns. 

In A])ril, 1780, he became naval caj)tain, and was a})- 
pointed to the command of the Asfrfc. The 21st of July fol- 
lowing, while cruising with the fi'igatc the Jlcnnione, Captain 
do La Toiichc-Trcville, he fought a brilliant action in sight 
of Royal Island against six British ships, of which he cap- 
tured two. 

In 17S2, La Perouse, who commanded the Scrptre, was 
sent to destroy the English establishments of Hudson's Bay. 
The Astree and the En/jcujeeintc were placed under his orders. 
On these three ships were embarked two hundred and fifty 
infantry, forty artillerymen, four fu-ld guns, two mortars and 
three hundred boml)s. I>,a Bc'i-ouse carried out his mission 
with skill, and ON'crcame the difliculties of navigation in these 
icy regions. He reconciled the duties of a soldier and those 
of liumanity by giving supplies and arms to the Englisli, who 
had taken shelter in the woods on his approach, and who 
were there in danger of starvation. 

In 1785 he started on a trip ai'ound the woi'ld, with tlie 
frigates the BoukxoIc and the Astrolahc and a hundred men 
in the crews. It is well known how he was lost on the 
north shore of the Island of Vanikoro. 



Petjto'I', officer of the regiment of Champagne ; was pre:^ 
cut at the capture of (Ji-enada and at the naval action. 



198 The French, in America. 

PeyPvELOxguk (Do), infantry officer; wounded at the naval 
action of Grenada. 

PiCHEGRU (Charles), born at Arbois the Ifith of Febru- 
ary, 1701 J of little-known ])arcnts, studied there, and showed 
a turn ibr the matlieniatieal scienees. Enlisted very young 
in the first regiment of artillery, where his good conduct and 
his education caused him to be appointed scrgciint soon after- 
wards. He was sent to America, where he noticed with great 
benefit all the relations between the navy and the siege troops. 
He was going to be )nado an officer when the lu'volution 
broke out. He adopted the new ideas, and was put at tlie 
head of a battalion from the Var. One of his contemjK)- 
raries says of him : 

"Pichegru is five feet five inches liigli ; he is very solidly 
built, without being fat. His constitution is very strong ; in 
other words, he is cut out for a man of war. His face at 
first is severe, but it softens down in conversation, and in- 
spires great confidence. His politeness does not resemble that 
which is called of etiquette, which is ordinarily only duplicity 
and deceit. His own is without alFectation. One sees that 
he is genuinely obliging and by nature kind, but he has 
none of that which formerly made courtiers succeed. 

"I do not know his family. From A\hat he has himself 
told me it is neither illustrious nor rich. Jhit men of true 
worth do not need the help of their ancestors to seem great. 
Like those luminous meteors whose causes we ignore, but 
which leave us charmed \\'\{\\ admiration, ev(Mi after tliey 
have dis:i})]H'ared, Fii-hcgru ncctls neither an(vst<_)rs nor de- 
scendants; he forms alone his entire race. "We have shalcen 
off the prijudiccs of a nobilliy ol' birth, and we only recog- 
nize })crsonal nobility. Nothing is more sensible, for as it is 
no use to a blind man for his ])arents to have liad good 
eyes, so it must be very useless to a coward and a scamp to 
liave had virtuous parents. 



Usi of OJjkers. 199 

" Piclicgru !n;ulc his first stuilies at tlic Colle^^c of Arbols, 
and stiulicd iiis philosophy at the Minimes-"' in that little 
town. Having passed a special examination, and showing a 
strong turn for the exact sciences, the IMininies advised hira 
to re})cat his conrse in })hiluso])hy and niatheniatics at the 
college they had at ]>ri(!iine. lie went there, not only to 
strengthen himself in tlie knowledge he already had, bnt to 
teach it to othei*s. 'J'his is what has made some think that 
Pichegru had been a jNIinime, bnt this is a mistake. 

" In teaching mathematics to others Pichegru had improved 
himself in that science. lie enlisted in the first regiment of 
artillery. The officers of that corps were not long in finding 
out that the young man had valuable knowledge in the art 
of the artillery. They appointed him sergeant. One knows 
that that was then a great gift to make to a plebeian, and 
that it was the ulltuiaiiuii of his advancement, because the 
nobility was as exclusive as the Jacobins. The Revolution 
came on ; Picliegru, without seeing nuich of the ])roconsuls, 
whom he did not esteem, was known to them, and he rose 
rank l)y raidc to the generalship of three great armies, and 
he led them as well as if he had been taken from the thigh of 
Jupiter. Jlose, Fabcrf, Chccai, Laabanic, Jixin-Bart, lJu<juay- 
Trouhi, should have proved to tlie J'^rench nobility tliat mili- 
tary talent needs no genealogy, but that caste has always i)een 
inexora1)le on that article. Proof that it prcicrred its })rivi- 
leges to the weliare of the Slate. We have had the experience 
that this mania is inherent to the species. Our dirty sans- 
culottcs were as intolerant as the nobles." -^'^ 



'^'^i^Iinimes. A religious order fouudod in the fifteenth century by 
Saint Francis of Panle in Calabria (I-'rancesco Martorillo, whom Louis 
the Eleventh .sent for, to pray fur him in his last illness). Littir. 
E. S. B. 

^^Jlistoirc Chro)i(Aii(j'ique ilrs opu-ationa dc Vacm'i: da Xutd ct </t' <y//(' de 
Sambrc-d-Miitfc (March, 1794-95), taken from the books and orders of 
the two armies, by the Citizen Jhukl, a witness of most of their ex- 
ploits. I'aris, no date. 



200 The French in America. 

Pierre (La), ])rivato iu the regiment of Gatinais in 17-10, 
officer in 1770; lieutenant of grenadiers in the ^^anie regiment 
during the siege of Yorktown. 

PiGXOE DE RocREUSE (Gaspard-Jean-Joseph-OUivier), lieu- 
tenant in the regiment of Ageiiois, was, during the crossing, 
on the ship the Trols-Henricttes, which was wrecked in 17S0. 
By his energy and his courage he saved from death one 
hundred and eiglity men of tlio two liundrcd whom he was 
commanding. 

PiSAXCON, secretary of Ijlanchard, a Freemason, wlio wiih 
de Junu'court was sponsor for Blanchard when lie entered an 
American lodge at Providence, on the 7th of February, 1781. 

Planciier, lieutenant in tlie i-oyal corps of engincei's ; re- 
ceived a pension after the campaign. 

Plessis de ]Mauduit (Du). See Mauduit. 

Pl1^:ville ee Peley (Georges-Kene), admiral, born at 
Granville the 2Gth of June, 172G ; died at Paris on the 2d 
of Octol)er, 1S05. He ran away from college at the age of 
twelve, and embarked at Havre as ship's boy under the name 
of Du Yivier. After having gone fisliing for (H)d, )io was 
employed as lieutenant on a privateer from Havre. ^Meeting 
two lOnglish ships, with ^yhom lie fought a sharp action, he 
lost his right leg and was made prisoner in 174G. On his 
return to France he sailed on the Aiyonaidc, commanded by 
de Tilly le Pele, his uncle ; but lie was captured afi;am by 
the English in 1750, on the Mo'cnrc, which was part of the 
fleet of the Duke d'Anville. A cannon ball carried olf his 
wooden leg during the action. lie fell, then rose, laughing 
and saying : " The ball has made a mistake ; it has only 
given work to the carpenter." In 175!.>, he conunanded the 



LiBt of Officers. 201 

IlironiJd/e, of fourteen guns, and canscfl tlireo vc>.-^ols stro^ngcr 
than his own to strilce. His wooden leg was again carried 
away in tJiis aetion. On account of his health he was given 
service in ])ort. He commanded at Marseilles in 1770. He 
saved from a tempest, at the risk of his life, the ICnglish 
frigate Alarm, Captain Jcrvis, since Lord Saint-Vincent. ]*le- 
ville had himself tied to a rope, and went on boaitl of the 
ship in distress. The English Admiralty sent him, for this 
deed of bravery and generosity, some important presents, 
wliich Jervis handed to him himself. 

In 177S he emhai-ked on the Jjiiir/Kcdoc, and served through 
the American war imder the orders of Count d'Estaing. He 
received the order of the Cincinnati. 

He remained on the side of the Revolution, but served 
only In the administration. In June, 1707, he was minister 
plenij)otentiary at the Congress of Ijille, and in July he re- 
placed Truguet in the ministry of the navy. His healtli 
forced hijn to I'csign in 1708; he was made senator in 1799, 
and grand cross of the Legion of Honor in 1S04. 

Pluquet, infantry officer; wounded in the naval action off 
Grenada.-" 

PoiiiEV, secretary of de La Fayette. " He is getting jn-etty 
well used to the life of a soldier," says La Fayette in his 
memoirs. 

PoLERESKi or SoLEPiSKi, Polish officer, who crossed on the 
Gloire m 17S2 with de Segur and do Broglie.-^ 

PoxoEVAUX (De), commanded the feigned assault on the 
IMorne, at the ca])ture of Grenada, under d'Estaing, the Gth 
of July, 1779. His column consisted of two hmidrcd men 

^■L. 15. 

**^ See Manuscript of de liroglie, also Dupi'tit-Tliouars. 



202 TIlc French in America. 

of tlic rcijjinicnts of Clianipagnc, Vieiinois, ^Martijiique, and 
legion of Lanzun. 

PoNTEVKs d'Eyroux. Sog Eyroux. 

PoNTEVES-GiEX (IIcnrI-Jea]i-Bai)t!.<ro, Yiseonnt ih), sailor, 
born in 1740. Came i'roin the family of the Ponteves de 
Carccs ; cntci'cd the navy, distinguished himself in several 
actions against the English, and received the position of ma- 
jor-general in the marines, at Brest. Decorated with the 
order oi" the Cincinnati. 

A])pointed chief of squadron in 170", he served under the 
command of Count de Yaudreuil, who sent him to dt-siroy 
the English establishments on the Gambia and at Sierra 
Lconc. He captured seven hundred prisoners, seventy-six 
guns and fourteen ships. Appointed to the command of the 
station of the Antilles, he died, l)efore ^lartinique, of an epi- 
demic fever on the ship the llludre, the 23d of July, 171JU. 

PONTGIBAIT]) (Count dc ^Nlore, Clievalier de), born at Pont- 
gibaud, Auvergnc, the 21st of April, 17r>S, was a younger 
son and as such not well off. Shut uj) by a litre dc cdchet 
in tlie castle of l-*ierre-en-Cise, near Lyoiis, at the age of 
eighteen, at the instance of his ste})mother, wlu) was too se- 
vere with him, he escaped in 1777, giving thus a proof of 
his decision and his energy, lie made use of his liberty to 
join his countryman, de La Fayette, who had just left Ibr 
America. .Ifter his father's anger had subsided, he received 
from him an allowance of a hundred lonis, and then em- 
barked at Xantes on the Aroen-Ckl. The passage took >i.\ty- 
scven days and terminated in the cajUure of t!ie little I'^rench 
vessel, which had strande<l at the mouth t>f the James Piver, 
within shot of the hjiglish shi[) i.s'/.s of sixty-ibur guns. 

Dc Pontgil)aud succeeded in escaping, and went inuncdi- 
ately to ^^'illiamsbuI•g to (iovernor Jell'erson, who gave him 



Lid of Officers. 203 

a sort of passport to go to Valley Forge, where La Fayette 
was encamjied. Finally, after a most arduous journey, in 
an unknown country, all forest and sand, whose rare inhabit- 
ants spoke a language ho did not understand, do Pontgiliaud 
reached La Fayette in the beginning of Xt)vember, 1777. 
La Fayette received him with kinchicss, and, touched In' his 
youth and the story of his adventures, enlisted him as volun- 
teer on the oth of November, 1777, and soon made him his 
aid-de-caiu}), in which position he introduced him to "Wash- 
ington. 

He returned to Fr;incc on the AUlanrc with de La Fayette 
and Mauduit Duplessis in January, 177^'. He was warmly 
welcomed by his family, and received in A})ril from the king 
a commission of captain in wailing, for which he did not 
have to pay the brevet price of seven thousand //f/vw. 

While La ]'\iyette Mas returning to America on the A'kjIc, 
Captain de la 1'ouche-Treville, de Tontgibaud embarked once 
more on the Alliance with C'a])tain Landais, mIio went mad 
during the passage,-"" Two American commissaries were on 
this frigate. 

After having helped his general at the siege of Yorktown 
he returned to France. He was on the Ariel, a fast ship, 
commanded by his iViend de Caj>ellis, and M-hich had been 
cxiptured by the squad rcjn of the Count d'Estaing. Still, 
they took fifty-six days to reach Corunna, in Spain. During 
the passage the Ariel captured the English ship Dublin. 

De Pontgibaud emigrated with his family at the outbreak 
of the lu'volution. He was complciely ruined, and learnt 
just then that Congress was paying oil', with interest, the ])ay 
of all the (jtficers who had served during the war. He em- 
barked at once at Hamburg for Pliilaiiel])hia, where he re- 
ceived immediately and with no trouble the sum of fifty 



-^'Scc Vol. I., pa.^o 120, and in the List of Officers : Paul Jones, 
note 215. 



204 Tlic French in America. 

tlio'.isaiid francs. He vras, with his brother and V\< nephew, 
one of the five hundred and thirty-six gentlemen who be- 
longed to the Coalition of Auvergne, which was intended to 
deliver the Icing from liis ]n-ison.-'-"' 

He returned to liis elder brother, whet, having .-acrilieed 
all his foi'tuno in trying to save tlie king, had succeeded in 
founding in Trieste a mercantile house under tlie name of 
Joseph I/i lirossc. This establishment succeeded on account 
of tlie confidence that its director insjnred. Ho had gathered 
round him some ol' his old comrades in war. Among the.-e 
was the ]Mar(|uis de jMac-]\Iahon and several other meritorion- 
officers. 

Ti)e Count do ]More publis])cd his Mr moires in 1S2S. 

I desire to publish here two letters which I have received 
from one of hi.s descendants : 

Rome, this 20th of December, 18G9. 

SiK : — It is I, who am to-day, as you thouglit, the rei)rescnta- 
tive of the name and of the collateral descent of ]\I. Charles 
Albert, Count de JNIore, younger brother of the Count de Pout- 
gibaud, my grandAxther, and formerly called the Chevalier de 
Poutgibaud. We had the sorrow to lose him in 1839, when he 
was about reacliing liis eightieth yeax-, after a green old age still 
enlivened by the remembrance of the memorable events of which 
he had been the bravest witness and at the same time a close 
observer. We have often regretted that his memoirs, i)crfectly 
exact from the historical point of view, and inexact only in a few- 
details relating to his elder brother, had not brought out many 
small points which he excelled in telling about, and which were 
the delight of my younger years. No one united in convei-sation 
a quicker wit tu a more delicate courtesy ; he was the type of the 
French chevalier of the Old Kegime. His bravery was ahvays 
ready to serve the cause which he thought just and his cordiality 
had no limits. He often said that Providence had done him a 
great service in giving to his face a certain appearance of sever- 

^Sce Vol. I., page 1(3. 



Lid of Officers. 205 

ity, " f^or," he ^lud, " ^vitllOllt my appearance of stiiTness, ^vhat 
would lieconie of my pui>e." Therefore he had friends, numer- 
ous and devoted, in all ranks of society. 

General Washington, wlio had i-eer; him at work, always hon- 
ored him with his kindest friendshij). Despite the divergence of 
political opinions which separated him from General La Fayette, 
they remained bound in a close friendship, and during the revo- 
lutions Avhich agitated tlie c»]d world, they more than once re- 
gretted the happy days of tlicir cxj)e<litiou to the new world. 

During half a century the Count dc 'Move held in France a 
distinguished position in society. lie had v/edded the only 
daughter of ^NFarshal dc Vaux, widow of the Count de Fougiere, 
and who v.ns, hefore the Revolution, one of the ladies of honor 
of her Ivoyal Highness IMadame la Comtesse de Provence. 

The qualities of the warrior had not excluded from him those 
of the writer. His private letters might have been used to com- 
plete contemporary histoi'y, of which he knew how to bring out 
the princi])al points with remarkable truih. He had written anon- 
ymously different comedies which were given on the theatres of 
Paris. The fineness of the allusions sometimes gave them a bril- 
liant vogue. But he would never make any profession of being 
a literary man, so as not to damage the profession of warrior. 
Therefore it was said jokingly, there were sometimes fusees ex- 
ploded in his kna])s:iek. He carried to the highest degree the 
affection f)r his family, and wlion he had lost the faithful com- 
panion of his l())ig career, he wished to finish his life near his 
nephew, whom he looked on still as the head of the family.-^^ 
He had been made chevalier of the order of Saint-Louis, and 
felt an especial honor in the decoration of the order of the Cin- 
cinnati, which he had received at the time when that order only 
numbered fifty members. 

I am the oldest of his great nciihews ; it has been given to me 
to carry out one of his wishes by restoring in Auvergne the fiiim- 
ily mansion Vvhere he was born. While waiting for this restoration 

'^^ Annand-Vietor de ]\Iorc', Count de rontiribaud, peer of France 
under the Piestam-ation, wlio made in France notable changes in tlie 
workhig of metallurgical deposits, and the work begun by whom still 
remains in the mountains of .\uvcr-ne. See in the Tinus the Mines 
of Tontgibaud quoted every day at the London Exchange. 



206 The French in America. 

to be coni})lctecl, I liavc taken u]) ray residence in tlie I\[anclie, 
devoting my spare time to the cultivation of my lands and to 
literature and art. I see my successors growing up around me, 
and I like to hope that they will inherit some of the rightminded- 
ness, of tlie delightful wit, and of the bravery of he who was their 
great uncle. 

Please accejit, sir, with my most sincere thanks for your gracious 
letter, the assurance of my distinguislied sentiments. 

The Count im: PoNTcm^AUi), 

Meinber of the General Council of tJw Di'jxniineiit of ihe Jlan'-hc. 

P. S. — I shall be much obliged if you will let me know when 
your interesting work has appeared. 

ClIAl'KAU DE FONTEXAY, NEAR ]M0NTEB0U1U; (iNlANCJlE), 

the 1st of jNlay, 1870. 

Please acce])t, sir, all my thanks for the article relating to the 
memoirs of the Count do ]\rore, my great uncle. It gives a true 
idea of his style and of his character, but I must point out to you 
a slight inexactitude from a genealogical standpoint. The Count 
de More had married, as his second wife, the Coimtess de FougiOre, 
daughter of Marshal de Vaux ; it is one of )ny cousins of the 
Gcvaudau who married into the family of Chaulues. Finally, I am 
not the only representative of the family of Pontgibaud, but only 
the head of the house, being the oldest of three brothers, of whom 
one was killed by the enemy at Solferino, leaving a son not of age, 
and the other, counsellor-general in IMaiue-et-Loire, has been one 
of the most active propagators of the best agricultural processes as 
apj)lied in that region. 

I am glad to lind a fresh occasion to olier to you, sir, the ex- 
pression of my distinguished and grateful sentiments. 

The Count de Pontguiaud. 

PoNTiiiEiiK (Do), enlisted as volunteer, brevet ctiptain of 
cavalry the ISth of Febi'uai-y, 1778,-'' the .same as Jjouis da 
]*ontier, ca})tain in the sei'vict^ of (on gross. -'^ 



• Auberleuil. 
Kecords, &c. 



Lid of Officers. 207 

POQUET Di: PUYLEUY DE SaIXT - SaU VEUK (MatluCU- 

Louis), l)oni in 1750 at ]\[artiniquc; lieutenant of Agenois 
in 1770; captain after the ea])ture of Yorktown. He was 
wounded in tlie clie.-t at Savannali, and in the tliigli during 
the siege of Yorkto^vn. 

PoitTAiL (Le Beguo du). See Dupohtail. 

PouDEUX or PouDEXS (ITcnri-Fran^ois Licniart, Viscount 
de), born at Paris in 1718. Served since 1760; captain in 
17G8, viedre de ccunp in 1774, colonel of tiie regiment of 
Tonraine the 17th of April, 1780; was present at the siege 
of Yorktown. 

PrJ:VAL (Claudc-Antoinc, Chevalier de), born at Salins; 
died the 13th of January, 1808, at Besaneon. Entered as 
volunteer the regiment of Enghien ; served in the Seven Yeai's' 
War, and in two campaigns in America; captain in 1793; 
brigadier-general for his good conduct at Landau. 

Pr1^:vai>AYE (Picrre-Bernardin, jNIanpiis de la), bom at the 
Chateau of la Provalaye in 17-15; died at tlie same Chateau 
the 2Sth of July, 1810. Shov.od as much courage as talent 
in the war in Xortli .Vmerica, and ivceived after the Avar the 
rank of naval cajitain, with the decorations of Saint-IxMiis 
and of the Cincinnati. In 1783 he was intrusted by the 
French Governnient to carry to America the treaty which 
assured to the United States their indei)endence. lie returned 
to Paris to serve in the Council of the Xavy ; emigrated 
in 1700, and served in tlie army of Conde. Jveprievcd 
during the Consuhite, he liveil In relrcal until the lH)ur- 
bons withdrew him from it by apj)ointing him rear-admiral. 
He left a Jlcmoirc Sa,- (a Campagnc de JJodon ai 177S, in 
folio. 



208 The French ia America. 

Pulaski (Casimir, Count do), 1)oru at AViniarv in Lithu- 
ania, the 4th of :^.Iarch, 1718;-^* had ^-ludied law, but was 
turned therefrom by tlic military events. Jle took jiart in 
the revolt of his coujitry against Stanislas in 1700, and ^vas 
one of the most active members of the Confederation of Bar/^^ 
After his father had been captured and executed, he "was put 
at the heail of the insurrection, but soon had to take rclu,i;e 
in Turkey, uhcre he entered tlie service again.-t ]vus>ia."'" His 
property was confiscated, and he came to Paris, where he had 
an interview Mith Franklin. He then decided to start for 
Amei-i(.-a. He end^arked at ^Marseilles in 1775. He rejoined 
the ai-my of A\'^ashinglon, and was put in command of a corps 
of cavalry. His legion rendered great services. It ^vas sur- 
I)rJsed at Egg Harbor by the English and partly dc'struyed. 



^ Life of Frederick the Great, by Thomiis Carlyle, Tauchnitz edition, 
1865, XIII., pages 92, 93, 94, 95, for the defense of Klostcr Czenstochow, 
Several authors spell Pulawski, but they mistake two diirerciit families. 
One comes from rulazie, from which come the Pulaski^, and the other 
are natives of Pulawy, whence the Pulawski. The first alone became 
celebrated, after the Confederation of Bar. They were seven in num- 
ber: Joseph, his three sons, L'asimir, Francois ixnd Antoiae, ixnd his three 
nephews. I have to consider here only Casimir. 

^He was the terror of the Eussians, whom he astonished and sur- 
prised by the rapidity of his marches. In 1770 he shut himself in tlie 
fort of Czenstochow, where he repulsed all attacks. He tried to carry 
off the King of Poland the 3d of ^'ovember, 1771, but the plotters did 
not succeed. They were declared regicides, and Pulaski was obliged to 
fly in 1772, after the Russians had carried out the partition of Poland. 

"* Marshal of Terre de Loznui, in the Palatinate of INIazowie, in 
1768; military chief of the Confederation of Lar from 1769 to 1772; 
general of cavalry under the orders of "Washington in 1777; command- 
ing the foreign legion in the service of the United States in 1779. 
Marginal note by T. J]. 

A cutting from the l'hiladel])liia rr>.<.<, of January 2'./th, 1S75, says 
of a miniature of Pulaski iu the author's possession : " Mr. Thomas 
Balch, whose investigations into the antecedents of the French i)arti- 
sans of the American cause during the Revolution are well known, has 
deposited in the National Museum a line original miniature of Count 
Pulaski, a gentleman who, having fought fur the independence of his 
own country, tenilered liis services to Congress in 1777, was ajipointed 



List of Officers. 209 

Li'jateiiant-c'oloncI Dnroii do ]iot;xni M-as killed thorc. In 
1779 Pulaski was serving- under the orders of Linroln at 
the siege of Savaiuiah, and was mortally wounded tlicvo the 
9th of October, 1779. J lis coiujKinion and friend, Lieutenant 
Charles Litoniski, hurled him at the foot of a large tree, on 
the Island of Saint Helena.-^' 

La Fayette says of him, while speaking of the battle of 
Gcrmantown, that he was a brave knight, devout and dissi- 
pated, better eaj>tain than genei'al. lint these judgments, 
given l)y ofilcers N\ho \vere generally jealous of one another, 
are liable to be inaeeurate. 

PusiGXAN (De), lieutenant of artillery, regiment of Aux- 
onne ; wounded before Yorktown in the sortie whieh the 
English made u})on the batteries on the left, during the night 
of the loth to the IGth of October, 17S1.-'-'' 



Q. 

QuJERENET DE LA Co>rnE (Do) made the campaign with the 
expeditionary corps in the position of colonel-undcr-brigadier 
in the corps of engincoi-s. He contributed greatly to the cap- 
ture of Yorktown, and received a pension after the campaign. 

brigadier-general, and given tlie coininand of the cavalry. He fell 
mortally wounded, gallantly fighting for the cau.se of American inde- 
pendence, in the assault upon f<avannah. The identical bullet which 
caused his death was extracted by a physician whose son now resides 
on Chestnut Hill, and who still cherishes the deadly missile, and who 
will, we presume, i)]ace it on deposit during the Centemiial with the 
portrait. The above miniature was i)aiuted by FroissiU-d jeune, and 
possesses additional interi'st tor Amcrirans from the ihcL that it repre- 
sents him in his uniform as conmiander of the American i-avahy, 
while the familiar Chodzko i^ulrait was taken earlier in life, and in 
his uniform as a rolish general." E. S. B. 

^'The gratitude of the Americans made them eroet a monument to 
Pulaski, of which the llrsL slone was laid by J^a J'ayetle in \b2\. 

='U}erthier. 



210 The French hi America. 

QuJiiKOUiiANT (T)e), Avliosc name should porliajis be spelled 
KiiiKOUAX, infuiitry offiecr, wounded at Saint ]^ueia, under 
Guichen. 

QuESNAY DE Beaukepaire, grandsou of the M^cll-known 
politiral economist Qucsnay, entered first tlie gendarmes of the 
guard of the king, and on the remodeling of this regiment 
went to America. " Carried away/' he says, '' by a glow- 
ing hope of distinguishing myself in the profession of arms, 
I went to serve in Virginia during the years 1777 and 1778, 
with the raidc of cajitain ; but the loss of my l)aggage, that 
of my letters of reconmiendation, mislaid in the ofilees of (lov- 
ernor Patrick Henry, to A^hom I had hitrustcd them, finally a 
long and painful illness, together with a lack of funds at 
this great distance from home, forced me to give up the career 
of arms." -°^^^"'^ 

He had traveled over the United States in all directions. 
Sir John Peyton,^"^ touched by his ill fortune, with great kind- 
ness, took him to his house, and made him live tliere for 
nearly two years, while awaiting assistance from his home, 
giving him all the time proofs of great friendship. 

^^ Mcmoires, SlatvtK et ProsjM'ctus .vir I'Acadimic d(S Sciences cl Ikaux- 
Arts d'Anurique, Taris, 1788, page 19. 

^'"M. IJeboul, librarian at Albi, France, wrote a letter in June, 1802, 
to my brother, about Lcs J'V«»;a(s en Amcrique, in ■which lie said : " The 
only tiling I can certify to is the general infatuation of the aristocracy 
at that time for the American cause, which went so far as to give Amer- 
ican names to the servants of good families. Thus, my mother has 
spoken to me of the valet of my grandfather, the Count de Sampigny 
the only one who remained f:iitliful to him during the Terror, and whom 
he only spoke of by the name of IJoston, liaving entirely forgotten his 
family name." E. S. D. 

^^ He was called Sir John Peyton, but was not a real baronet. A de- 
scendant of his, Colonel Jesse Enlows IVyton, of Iladdonfield, New 
Jersey, was the proposer and organizer of the centennial celebration of 
{lie surrender of Yorktown, which took jjlace at Yorktown on ()ctober 
the 19th, 1881, and at which some of the descendants of the French olli- 
ccrs — the Marquis de liochambeau among others — were present. E. S. B. 



List oj Officers. 211 

Diirijig the wliole time of his sojourn with Poyton, the 
house of that good man, as well as those of dilfereut mem- 
bers of his family, seemed to him refuges for opj^ressed and 
unfortunate sti'angcrs. He mentions the sons-in-law of J\y- 
tou : Traeher, AVashington, Throgmorton, John Dixon, 'J^abb 
and Boiling. lie speahs also of the generosity of the de- 
censed Colonel Samuel Washington, brother of the General ; 
of John Page, Whiting, Perin, the Pev. Mr. Fontaine, Willis, 
Hubard, Xutal. 

He says in his Avork already mentioned: " If part of the 
Amerieans have a poor opinion of Frenchmen in general, it 
is because they judge from a few adventurers who have come 
to America." 

He heliK'd to found an Academy of Sciences and Fine Arts 
at Piehmond. This academy, which gained rapidly in im- 
portance, was inaugurated the 24th of June, 17S6, and Ques- 
nay de Beaurepaire was a})pointed president. 

QUETTF.VJLLE (Dc).^"' 

R. 

Padiere (De la), was engageil in 1777, with Duportail, 
Laumoy and Gouvion, by Franklin, who had been intrusted 
with a n)ission to engage engineers. They were all lour, of- 
ficers of engineers, and received permission from the Fi'ench 
Government to enter the service in America. '* They left on 
the same ship as La Fayette."^"' 

On his arrival on the 21)th of July, 1777, de la Padiere 
was a})poInted engineer Avith the rank of lieutenant-colonel, 
then eoloJU'l on the 17th of November. He died in serviee.^'^'' 

»^ L. B., 2G2. 

*« L. B., 202. 

^iV('//iO(Vt'.s of dc Segur. 

**Dicd at "West Point late in 1770. I\l:u<'inal note bv T. 15. 



212 The French in America. 

Raffix, ofilocr of infantry, woundf^J in tlio action off 
Grenada/'"' 

liEEOURQini. DK FaLQUERETTE DE SaINT-FeLIX. ScG 

Falquereite. 

Requier de Eosst, lieutenant-colonel, July tlie 12t]i, 1777. 

lliBEAuriERRE (Cliarlcs-Roger de), born in 17o2 ; entered, 
in 1778, the re;i,inieut of lioyal-Deux-routs as sub-lieuten- 
ant of (7h7o>(!o>'. Keceivcd a reward for his services before 
Yorktown. 

RiCCi (Count de), left Roehefort on the Aif/k with do 
S^gur, de Broglie and otiiers, and accompanied tliciu in South 
Amcricii. 

Ricoi> (P.), captain of the Vau/cance. 

Rioxs (Franc;ois-IIcctor d'Alljcrt, Count de), born at Avig- 
non in 1728, died the od of October, 1802; entered, as guard, 
the marines in 1743 in the company of Rochctbrt; ensign 
in 1748. He was naval lieutenant on tlie Foudroyant when 
it fell into the hands of the English in the battle of the 28th 
of February, 1758. After having served in the infantry and 
the artillery of the navy, he Mas a]^}K)inted naval captain the 
24th of ^larcli, 1772, and was ])resent, under tlie ordei's of 
d'Estaing, at the; attack on Saint Lucia in 1778, and at the 
two combats of Grenada in 1771>. During the American 
war he commanded the Ftalon in 1781-1782, and was pres- 
ent at the ciipture of Tabago and at the actions of Fort 
Royal, of Chesa])cake Ixiy, of Saint Christopher and of Do- 
minica. Jlls brilliant services were rewai'dcd l)v the grand 



L. B., lOG. 



I Ad of Officers. 213 

cross of Saint-Louis in 17S4, and the position of naval com- 
mander at Toulon in 1785. A revolt having broken out in 
that town on the 1st of December, 1789, he was beaten and 
insulted by the furious jjopulation, who threw him into a 
dungeon with a former convict. The National Assembly, on 
the 10th of Jamiar\', 17!H), j)assed a decree which freed him, 
without doing him the justice which was his due. Called af- 
terwards to Kochefort to command the fleet named the Ocean 
Fleet, he was again the victim of a revolt which the publica- 
tion of the penal code jiroduced. He resigned from his posi- 
tion. Appointed rear-admiral in 1792, he emigrated shortly 
afterwards, and took ])art the same year in the campaign 
against France in the army of the princes ; he then with- 
drew into Dalmatia. Iveturning to France under the Con- 
sulate, he was retired with a jKuision of four thousand francs ; 
he only enjoyed it one year. 

RoBiLT^ATiJ), sui-gcon-in-chief of the expeditionary corps,^"^ 

RoBix (]/Abbe), chaplain of the expeditionary corps; left 
an interesting account of the siege of Yorktown. 

RociiAMiJEAU (Jean-Jiaptisie-Donatien de Yimeur, Count 
de), born at A'^endome in 1725. His father was Governor of 
Yendomc and lieutenant of the marshals of France. Roch- 
and)eau was first intended for the church, and was about to 
receive the tonsure at the Jesuits of Blois, when news came 
of the death of his elder brother. On the 24tli of jNFay, 1742, 
lie entered as cornet the cavalry regiment of Saint-Simon, with 
which he went through the campaigns of Bohemia. The army 
re}u)rts of his services say : 

1743, 23(1 of -luly, captain. 

1740, aid-de-camp of Louis-Philippe d'Ork'ans. 

^ Dumas. 



214 The French in America. 

1747, 4tli of March, colonel of the infantry regiment of 
la Marche.^"^ AYounJcd at the battle of Laufekl. 

1755, Ist of June, Governor of Vendurae after the death 
of liis father. 

1756, 23d of July, brigadier-general ; sent to Minorca under 
the orders of Richelieu. He received the cross of Saint-Louis. 

1757, 1st of May, employed in the Army of Germany. 
Distinguished himself at the battle of Hastembeck, then at 
Crevcldt, ^Nlinden, Forl>aeh and Clostercamp, where he was 
M'ouuded in 17G0. 

1759, 7tli of ]March, colonel of the regiment of Auvergne. 

1761, 20th of February, mareclial de camp. 

1761, 7th of ]\Iarch, inspector-general of the infantry. 

1766, 1st of April, commander of the order of Saint-Louis. 

1771, 9th of December, grand cross of the same order. 

1776, Governor of Yillefranche. 

1778, 1st of June, employed in Xormandy and Jjrittany 
in the army corps intended to invade England. 

1780, 1st of ]\[arch, lieutenant-general and commander-in- 
chief of the expeditionary corps sent to America. He em- 
barked at Brest on the Due de Boarr/or/nc. Here his history 
is so intimately connected with that of the expedition that 
we refer the reader to the first volume for the account of 
that memorable campaign. He returned in 1782, leaving his 
army under the orders of the Baron de Viomenil and of de 
Lauzun. He was then overwhelmed M'ith favors, received the 
blue ribbon of the Saint-Esprit, the order of the Cincinnati, 
and was appointed to the government of Picardie and Artois. 

In 1791, marshal of France; intrusted by Louis the Six- 



**He had become aiJ-de-cainp of the Count de Clcrinont. At the 
siege of Namnr, sent to recoimoiter the place, he climbed ii hill on wliich 
he found only two sentinels quietly smokin<r. He sent tit once word 
to the Count de Clermont, wlio made an attack on that side, and Namur 
was taken. This service brouszht him the rank of colonel. lie distin- 
guished liimselfalso at the siea;e of Maestricht. After peace was made 
he married Mademoiselle TellCis d'.Vcosta, in 174S). 



Lint of Officers. 215 

tecnth with tlio coiiunand of the Aniiy of the Xortli, he tried 
ill viiiii to e.st;ihli.',]i c1i.sei[)liiie there and re.~iii;ned the I'ulhnv- 
ing; year. Coiideuiiied to deatli under the Terror, lie was 
about to mount the iiital eart, w Ian the executioner/"''^ seeing 
it was full, said to him: '* AViilidraw, old marshal; thy turn 
will soon come." A tradition says that Andre Chenier then 
mounted the cart. The fall of liobes])ierre saved llocham- 
beau. 

When lie was ])resented to the First Consul, the latter, 
pointing out l»erthier, Dumas and some others who were on 
his stjiif, said to him : " ^Marshal, iiere are your pupils." 
"The pupils," answered Jvochambcau, "have much surpassed 
the mastc)'." In ISO-'i, Xajxdci.n made him grand oificer of 
the Legion of Honor and gave him a pension. He died in 
1807, at the age of eighty-two. 

He left some memoirs which I have often mentioned. 



Rociia:\[I1EA1i (Donatien-Marie-Joseph do Vinieur), son of 
the former; born at Paris the 7th of April, 1755. Although 
very young, he entered as sub-lieutenant, in 1709, the royal 
corps of artillery; \\as captain in 1773; meshr dc camp en 
second of ]3ourbonnais in 1779. He served with this rank 
in the campaign of America under his father, Init the latter 
only speaks of him as of a stranger. 

After the interview of Hartford between AVashington and 
Kochambeau, the son made a journey to France at his own 
ex]iense, to make known the result of the conference, ha>ten 
the departure of th(! remainder of the expeditionary corps 
and ask for new succors. He started on the 17th of Octo- 
ber, 1780, on the frigate the Amnzone, CL>nnnaudcd l)y La 
Perouse, and returned on the Conco7xle with de Ibarras and 
Cromot Dubourg, in April, 17S1. He had obtained some 



*"It is said that this iiuin liad been one of Ivochanibcau's sergeants. 
E. S. B. 



216 The French, in America. 

h(-]p in moneys and the ])r()Uii>e of the co-opefation of tlic 
Count de Grassc. Arrived before Yorktown, he phieed tlic 
battalion of grenadiers and chasseurs he connnanded, so close 
to the intrcncliments of the enemy, that the latter, without 
striking a blow, abandoned the redoubt of I^igeon Jlill, which 
was immediately occupied by Dumas and Charles de Lameth. 
On the return of the expedition he Avas decorated with 
tlic orders of Saint-Louis and of the Cincinnati, and was ap- 
pointed colonel of the regiment of Royal-Auvcrgnc.^^'* Mart'- 
chal de camp in 1791 ; was sent to Saint Domingo in 1702 
to replace de Bchaguo, connuander of the "Windward I.-lands. 
Sent to Martinicpie in 1793, he drove out the English 
and de Behague, who had joined them with tlic Royalists; 
forced recognition there of the IJepublican Government ; but, 
besieged by superior forces, liad to surrender in 1794. He 
held out in Saint Pierre tluring forty-two days of siege, with 
six hundred men against fourteen thousand. On his return 
to France he was esnjiloycd for some time in the .Vrmy of 
Italy ; but he soon returned to Saint Domingo with General 
Lcclerc, whom he replaced at his death on the 2d of Xo- 
vember, 1802. Not receiving any assistance, he was ol)liged 
to surrender to the insurgents. The English kept him ])i-is- 
oner on the galleys in utter disregard of" agreements, and he 
only recovered his freedom in 1811. He went as general 
to tlic Army of Germany in 1813, and was killed at Leip- 
zig, where he was commanding a division of the (ifth corps, 
under the orders of Lauriston. 

Rociii^FEK^roY (oNIathieu-Alcxandrc dc La), volunteer in the 
service of the Americans the 5th of November, 177G; one of 
the first to enlist; was ajipointcd brigadier-general of the 
Continental army. Jxcsigncd on the 31st of January, 177S, 
and died away from the service. 

^° GAtiuais. 



Lid of Ofjlccrs. 217 

RociiEFONTAiXE (Blclict <lc), fiilistcd as volnntocr in the 
service of tlic United States; brevet captain of engineers the 
18th of September, 1778, then major tlie IGth of November, 
1781. l\etiirneJ alter the ])eaee to France, and was employed 
as captain in tlie jtrovincial troops. 

RociiEXEGiA" (Gabriel-Fran^'ois dc La), born in 1757 at 
Chand)lay; entered the service in the regiment of Gatinais 
in 1770; was wounded at tlie attack of the intrenchments 
of Savannali ; apjiointed lieutenant in 1779, he came to the 
siege of Yctrktown, and was made prisoner in the action of 
the Gth of June, 1782, on the CaUoi. 

Roches (rhili])])e-IIenri Des), born at Perigueux in 1742; 
entered as officer the regiment of Saintonge in 1762, and 
served at C.ayenne, then in North .Vmerica. He was decorated 
after the capture of Yorktown, 

Roger (Nicolas), volunteer; enlisted the loth of September, 
1777; aid-de-camp of Ducondray, with the rank of major; 
lieutenant-colonel the IGth of December, 1778.''" He tried in 
vain to save Ducondray at the crossing of the Schuylkill by 
swinnning to him. 

RoMAix (Jules), born at Angers about 17G3 ; guard in the 
marines in 1778 ; embarked on the Vengeui\ which belonged 
to the scpiadron of the Count de Grasse, in 1770. He was 
present at the ca])ture of Grenada and at the action off Sa- 
vannah, and died at ]\rartini(|ue on his I'cturn i'mm this ex- 
pedition, Blanchard Mas a relative of his, and s})eaks of him 
in his Journal:'^ 

^'Auberteuil. 

^- There is a notice about tliis interestintr youivjr man in the book 
of his brother: Snurcnirs (Van ojjlc'ur roi/dllsic, by M. de Komain, former 
colonel of artiUery. Paris, 1824. 



218 Tlic French in America. 

IvOMKFOliT. Sec BaUDIX. 

lloNCiiAXT, gi-aiid-provost of tlie cxpoditioiiaiy corps ; mca- 
tioned by Crouiot J)ulwurg at the cainj) of Dubb's Feny, and 
by Blaneluii'd. 

]loQUELAURE (Chcvalici' dc), an ensign ; escaped from the 
wreck of tlie Bourgogne^^^"' 

KossEi. (Klisalx'th-Paul-j^Mouard, Chevalier dc), scientist 
and French saihjr, born in 1705 at Sens, died in 1820 at 
Paris. His father, Coloiuban de llossel, hiarcchdl dc co.inj), 
was killed at (^nibcron in 171)5, at the age of seventy, and 
liis mother perished on the revolutionary scailbld. He was 
brought up at the College of La Fleche, and entered the 
navy in 1780 as marine guard. Took part in all the battles 
which de Grasse fought up to the i)eacc of 1783. Ue served 
then under d'Entrecasteaux, and became naval lieutenant in 
1789. He was sent in 1701, with Huon dc Kennadec and 
d'Auribeau, in search of La Ferousc. But, on his return, in 
1705, he was Ciiptured by the English in the latitude of the 
Shetlands and ke])t a ])risoner in London until 1802. He 
received the lionoi-ary title of rear-admiral in 1822, and was 
made member of the Institute de France. His work in nau- 
tical astronomy is remarkable. He wrote numerous pamjihlets, 
and was the lirst president of the French Geographical Society. 

RoSTAiNG (Juste -Antoine - Henri - ]Maric - Germain, ^Marquis 
de), of an ancient and noble family of Forcz ; born at Mont- 
brison in 17-10; died in September, 182(), at the same ])Iace. 

He belonged at first to the huusehold of tlie Grand Dauphin, 
then became first page of Louis the Filleenth; cavalry olliccr 
in 1750; Avent through the campaign of Germany under Mar- 



«' BliiTichura. 



Ust of Officers. 219 

shal tie Jjro_i:;Iic; ea])tain in 1759; became colonel of tlie re2;i- 
ment of Anxerrois ; then in 1770, colonel of the regiment of 
Gatinais; in 1778, went to .Vmerica with Gatinais, and dis- 
tinguislied himself at ]Martini(|ue and at Saint Lucia. Came 
with Saint-Simon to the sie<j;e of Yorktown in 1781. Cromot 
Dubourg relates that, at de Saint-Simon's, on the 0th of Sep- 
tember, 1781, he was present at a discussion between tliese two 
superior officers, and that de Ilostaing did not show all tlie 
deference which is due to a chief, especially when on a cam- 
paign. "We sin too much," he adds, "by our want of sub- 
ordination." 

De liostaing was chosen to command the rear guard of the 
coluuni of attack of the great redoubt of Yorktown, under 
lac orders of Count Guillaume de Deux-Pouts, on the 14:th 
of October. He bore hiuiself bravely, and received as reward 
the rank of brigadier on the r7th of December, 1781, the 
cross of Saint-Louis and the order of the Cincinnati. Mi(rcchal 
de camp in 1783. IJo belon<i;ed to the As.-^onbifc Con.stiiuanfc 
in 1789, as de})uty from Forez, and was then ai)pointed 
lieutenant-general. Soon after he retired to his country seat, 
and neither served again nor took any further share in poli- 
tics. 

RouERiE. See Ahmaxd. 

KoussiLLE (Raymond de), l)orn In l7oG; sub-lieutenant in 
the regiment of Gatinais in 1775, lieutenant in 1778. AVas 
staif officer of the Baron de Viomenil when the latter was in 
connuand of the Intrciu-hments before Yorktown. 

RouvKrviH (Chevalier de Cabrieres, Charles de), born at 
Nimes in 1711; scrvi'd in the regiment of Gatinais since 
1757 ; went through the Seven Years' War, and was ap])ointed 
oa])lain in 1701. lie commanded at Ydrktown the second 



220 The French in America. 

battalion beloiiuiiiLr to tlic coliuun of attack under the com- 
mand of tlie Baron de Viomenil. Ilis valor brought hijn 
tlic cross of Saint-Louis and the order of the Cincinnati. 

KuJiLE DE LiLiENSTEKN (Guillaunic - Charlcs), boi'n in 
Saxony in 1740; was at first ensign in the service of Hol- 
land. He entered the regiment of Eoyal-Denx- Fonts in 
1760, He went through the Seven Years' War, then mad(^ the 
campaign of America as captain-commandant of Koyal-Deux- 
Ponts. After the capture of Yorktown he received the cross 
of Military ^.lerit. 

s. 

SaIGE de YlLEEBRUNE. ScC YlLLEBRUNE. 

Sai>;t-Amand, aid-dc-camp of the Baron de Yiomenil ; dis- 
tinguished himself at the attack of the redoubt of Yorktown. 

Saint-Aulaihe (Chevalier de), enlisted, among the first, 
as volunteer in the United States; employed as captain of an 
independent company to serve in Canada the 21st of March, 

1770.=^^" 

Saint-Cosme (Bosnier de). See Bosxiek. 

Saint-Cyk. Sec Gouviox. 

Saint-Felix. Sec Falquekette. 

Saint-Flokent. See Do>meec;ue. 

Saint-Luc, born in France. After having served in the 
trooj)s of Canada against the Fngli.-h, he j)ut himself at the 
head of tlic savages of J^ake Ontario to massacre the An\cri- 

^^Aubcrtcuil. 



Lid of Officers. 221 

caiLs. lie quarreled ^vI(:ll llieni in 1777, before the defeat of 
Biirgoyiio, and oifercd liis scrviees to General (ilate.s, who re- 
fused them with indignation.^'' 

Saixt-Maime. See Saixte-INIivSME. 

Saixt-Mahtix, enlist"d as volunteer in the War of Inde- 
pendence ; reeeived the rank of lieutenant-colonel the 23d of 
July, 177G.'^*' 

SAiXTE-]\rESME or Saixt-]\Iatme (Jean-Baptistc-Louis- 
Pliilippe-Felix d'011i(-')-c.<, Count de), born in 1751 at OIH- 
eres, near Aix ; took later, on hi.s return to France, to date 
from 1784, the name of the ^Marshal Du ]\[uY, his uncle, who 
died withou.t heirs. J'^ntered the service in 17G9; officer of 
cavalry, in the dicvdu-Ji'fjt r.-^, in 1770; colonel of the regiment 
of Soissoiuiais in 1775. Kemained in America until 1783, 
and was on his return a])pointed brigadier, and received a 
pension and the cross of Saint-Louis.^^'' He made several 
campaigns during the French IJevolution, was intrusted with 
the siege of Lyons, took ]xirt in the campaigns of Fgypt and 
Syria; was created baron of the Empire in 1808. lletired 
at the Restauration, he was made peer of France the 17tli of 
August, 1815. He died at Paris in 1820. 

Saixt-Ouahy, enlisted as volunteer; was made prisoner at 
the battle of the iJrandywine. 

Saixt-Sauveuu (J)e Fotpiet de Puylery). See PociUET. 

Saixt-Sauveuj?, Frenchman killed in a riot at Boston in 
1777. The ]>ostonians accused at this time the l^""rench of hav- 
ing jeopardized the success of the campaign by the defection 

'" Aubcrtcuil. 
^"Aubertouil. 
'"I think he returned to rhihuleli>hia. Marginal note by T. B. 



222 The French in America. 

of their fleet l)eforc liliode I.-^laiul. It \vas not a defection; 
but the Americans did not understand at once tliat Count 
d'Estaing had been obliged to retii'c before superior forces. 

Saint-Sjmox (Claude-AinK'-?^lontl)lcru, TNlarquis de), born 
in 1740 at La Faye, near Ivnii'ee, son of Louis-Gabriel de 
Saint-Simon, of tlie bi-anch of the family of Montbleru. On 
coming out of the ^lilitary School of Strasburg he went into 
the regiment oi" Auvergne. At the age of eighteen he was 
a])pointed lientenant-cliief-of-brigade in the guards of King 
Stanislas. Soon colonel, he commanded in 1771 tlie regiment 
of Poitou, and in 1775 that of Touraine, with \\]ii('h he left 
in 1779 for America. He Mas serving in the AVindward 
Islands when the war with England broke out. He started 
from Saint Domingo with about three thousand five hundred 
men of his legiuients on the fleet of Count de (Jrasse, to join 
La Fayette before Yorktown, which he reached on tlie 2()th 
of August, 17S1. On the 17th of October, lie Mas slightly 
M'ounded in the trenches, but in spite of this, he M'ould not 
quit his ])ost. After the surrender, the 3d of Kovember, 17S1, 
lie returned to the Antilles M'itli Count de Grasse. He re- 
ceived the order of the Cincinnati. 

According to the memoirs of tlie time, he M^as one of the 
handsomest men in the army. He sat in 1780 in the States 
General as de})uty from Angoumois. He defended the priv- 
ileges of the nol>ility and of royalty. In 1700, he left for 
Spain, M'as appointed in 1793 marCchal dc camp colonel of 
the i-oyal legion of the rnu'/rrs^ and fought against France. 
He received two gunslu)t MOunds, one at Iiini, tlie other at 
Argeiisu. In 170(), he was appointed captain-general of old 
Castillo. When the h'reiich besieged ]Sladrid, in 1S08, he 
defended the town ; taken and condemned to death, he ob- 
tained a delay, then a eomnuitation of his snitence. He was 
shut up in the citadel (^f lu'saiicon, M here his oiilv daughter 
took care of him. Ijccoming free in 1811, Louis the Eight- 



List of Officers. 223 

ecntli {Icolared tliat Ik; liad done wvl) {or the liou.'^c of Bour- 
bon and revoked tlio sentence. lie rcturnal to Spain, where 
he "svas njade duke and grandee of Spain. He did not occupy 
himself furtlier v\ith politics. He died at ^ladrid in 1810. 

Saint-Simon (Claude-Henri, called Baron or Count de), a 
distant connection of the former one. This one belonged to 
the branch of the family of the Sandicourt. He was born 
at Paris on the 17th of October, 17(>0. He, who was to be- 
come an apostle of Socialism, was bi'ought up among aristo- 
cratic prejudices, as a descendant, through the Counts ofVer- 
mandois, of the Em])eror Charlemagne. He drew from this 
tradition an immoderate love i'ov glory, which, joined to a 
vivid imagination, made liim do the most ecc(,'ntric things 
and aided him to endure* the greatest misfortunes. At the 
age of thirteen he refused to make his first communion, be- 
cause, he said, he Avas incapable of bringing to this act the 
slightest conviction. Shut up for this at Saint-La/.are, he 
beat the jailer, took his keys and ran away to his fathei', 
who forgave him. Soon afterwards he was bitten by a mad 
dog, and cauterized himself with a red liot iron to prevent 
fatal consecpieuces. He armed himself at the same time with 
a loaded pistol, which he carried for a long while, intending 
to commit suicide if the cautery proved inefficacious. At the 
age of sixteen he ordered his servant to wake him every 
morning by saying : ''Cet uj), Sir Count; you have great 
tilings to do." He studied ])hiloso])hy, as was the fashion of 
the day, and attended tlie lectures of d'Aleml)ert. At the 
age of eighteen he entered on a military career, and this is 
what he says himself ol" this jieriod of his life: 

"T entei'cd the service in 1777. I left for America in 
1779; I served under the orders of de Bouillc and tlu»>e of 
AVashington. * * * Qj, jj,y j-^.tm-n (^ P^jancc 1 \\as ap- 
pointed colonel. I was not yet twenty-three years of age." ■'* 

"'* Preface to Lcttres au bureau dcs Longitudes, pages 1 and 2, in 4", ISOS. 



224 The French in America. 

And olsewlierc : "The year fullowing my entry into tlic 
service, France declared in favor of the American insurgents, 
and I projited of this circumstance to go to Ainerica, where 
I have made five camjiaigns. 

"I was present at tiio siege of Yorktown ; I contributed 
in a rather im])ortant manner to the ca])tnre of (jcneral Corn- 
walh's and of his army; I may therefore regard myself as 
one of the founders of liberty in the United States, for it 
was tliat military operation, which, by bringing about ])eaoe, 
fixed in an irrevocable way the independence of America." ^^^ 

The dearth of material furnished by Saint-Simon himself 
on his military career is easily explained l)y the way he 
looked on that career since he had resolutely plunged into 
the study of the new social system, which he elaboj'ated from 
1803 to his last hour. I have given in jny account of the 
camj)aigns of the French in America all the information I 
have been able to find altont the movements of the corj)s of 
volunteers Nvhich the liaron do Saint-Simon commanded be- 
fore Yorktown. 

While returning to France, in 1782, lie Mas present at the 
defeat of the French squadron under the orders of de (Jrasse, 
by Admiral Ivodney, near the Saintes. He was on the ad- 
miral's shi}), the Mile de P«/-w, and was taken as prisoner 
to Jamaica, where he remained until the peace."'-*' lie then 
went to ]\Iexico, where he presented to the Viceroy a project 
to make the river navigable in partido, to make a comnnini- 
cation between the two oceans. 

Scarcely arrived in k^ance, he was aji|)ointed chevalier of 
Saint-Louis and colnncl of the regiment of Aquitaine. He 
received also the title of member ol" the society of the Cin- 
cinnati. As ])eacc ill suited his active s])irit, alter having 
passed some time at Metz as commandant of the town, and 



^^'^ L'industrit', Vol. II., p.iges 23 and 24 of tlic oricrinal edition, in S''. 
Paris, 1817. Ldlrcs tl u.n Amcricain, collection of "M. Henri Foin-nel. 
^"^ i^ainl-Simon, sa vie d scs (ravaax, paj^es 12 and 13, 185'J, by Hubbard. 



Lid of Oificcrs. 225 

followc.l the locturcs of the matlicniatician ^Moiicio, ho rosigiiod 
and went to no]!;uiil in 1785, thon to Spain in 17ST. He 
afterwards ;-U)i-lcd various entcr])rises, which he luid to abandon 
at the devolution. He did not occupy himself mucli -with 
polities, but speeulated in the national finances, and seen.icd 
especially jmssessed Avith the passion of growing rich. Arrested 
as a noble in 1793, he .s])ont eleven monliis in })rison, and was 
only freed at the fall of ltobesi)ierre. 

Then begins another phase of his life, lie abaiuLjned 
financial matters fjr the study of social questions. He re- 
appliei^l hiniseli" to tlie study of the exact sciences with an 
ardor all the more remarkable that he was thirty-eight years 
of age. He settled down for this purpose op]">osite to the 
polytechnic school ; then he lived \n\n' the medical school, 
wliose lectures he attended. He married, and ruined himself 
with sumptuous entei-tainments, to which he iiivited the tlite 
of Paris society. 

Having learned that ]\ladame de Stael was a widow, he 
obtained a divorce from his first wife, and proposed to the 
daughter of Xeeker to unite their existence and their genius. 
He hojK'd from this union a most brilliant result and one 
most useful to humtinity. ^Nlatlame de Stael rejected this 
proposal. Saint-Simon tlicn settled at Geneva ; he wrote there 
his Letters of an inhahltant of Geneva to his vontcmporarics,^'-^ 
in which he lays down the basis of a new social organii:a- 
tion, where ])o\vcr is divided between science and cai)ilal, 
and ends by the declaration that religion is only a human 
invention. 

Becoming very poor in 1808, he was taken care of l)y one 
of his former clerks, Diard, who paid his expenses, and even 
the cost of printing the work entitled : Introduction to the 
scientific u-orks of the nineteenth centuri/.^" Saint-Simon here 

*•'' JA'llrt's (run hdbitatif iJc Genlre d ws cotitanporaiuft. 
^ Lili-uihirtiuu (iii.r tntraK.v Sclci)tiji(jius da XIX* ISih-lc. 



22G Tlic French in America. 

rises to n great lioi;^-lit in liis g:eiiei'al o]M'nions, and ho asks 
for nothiiii^ Jc.-s tlian tlie complete transformation of llio 
motliods of scientific; instruction and the substitution of in- 
duction for analysis. 

The death of Diard, in 1810, plunged Saint-Simon au-ain 
into Avretchcd ])overtv. Cuvier alone sustained him ; his 
petitions to the em})eror remained fruitless. Later his family 
was able to make him a small allov.ance, and he took up 
his woi'k afresh. Augustin Thierry became, after the devolu- 
tion, his most intimate friend ; he co-operated in the lic- 
orgcmizatiern of European Society ^-^ a work wJiich created a 
great stir. Saint-Simon afterwai'ds took as disciples and col- 
laborators Saint-Aubin and Auguste Comte. 

The poverty mIucIi clnng to him threw him into despair. 
On the 0th of ]\larch, 1813, he shot himscll' in the head 
with a pistol, but only succeeded in disfiguring himself by 
bloM'ing out one eye. Olinde liodrigucs, Leon Ilalevy, J'ailly 
de Blois, Duvergier, then became followers of his, and he 
published in 1825 his most i-emarkable work, TJic Xcw 
Cliridicmity^-^ which was, so to speak, the crowning point 
of his life. He died on the 19th of March, 1825, at the 
age of seventy years and seven months. To the names of 
his disciples whom T have already mentioned I nui'it add 
Bazard, Enfantin, Buchez, Carnot, Michel Chevalier, Talabot, 
Pierre Lerc»ux, lOmile Pereire, Felicien David, Gueronlt, Char- 
ton, and M. Henri Fournel, wlio has kindly furnished me 
with soaie materials for this notice."'-' 



^ litorgaii'atttion df hi Socirtc Enropienne. 

^* Le Nouvcau t'hri.'<lifnii<iii(: 

^^ There was a Saint-Simon wounded on l)oard of tlie ship T7//<' de 
Paris in 1782. (See L. B., 2(52.) It was undoubtedly this one, and 
he remained so long insensible tliat lliey w(mv near throwing hint 
overboard. {Sii!nt-J:^imon, by Arthur ^o\\n Eooth. Longmans, 1871.) 
M. Ilenri Fournel kindly sent mc tlie following letter a])Out Saint- 
Simon : 



List of Officers. 227 

Salle (Dc La), infaiitrv ofiicoi-; wounded at the naval 
action of Chesapeake Bay, tlie lOtli of September, 1781. 



Paius, the IGth of :\Iardi, 1S70. 

Dear Sik: — 1 have been lon;^ in iin.swerini,' the question which you 
have been good cnouglx to as-k of me, and yet I have not lost sight 
of it for a single instant. 

Earring some piecrs Vvrilten by the hand of Saint-Simon, I have 
gathered together the oidi/ compUic colledioa of his printed works, 
and I wished to find among these numerous works anything that 
might touch on the subject you are working at. I have been able to 
find only the two following passages: 

"Je suis entre au service en 1777; je partis pour FAmcrique en 
1779 ; j'ai servi sous les ordres de ^I. de I'uiiilk- ct sous ceux de "Wash- 
ington. * * * De rctour en France, je fus fait colonel. Je n'avais 
pas encore vingt trois ans." 

(Preface to Lcttrc-f an bmran drs IjonrjUuda^, pages 1 and 2, in 4". 
1808.) 

Saint-Simon was born tiie 17th of October, 17G0. It was therefore 
between January and October, 1783, that this appointment took 
place. 

The second passage is found in Lcttrcs il ini Ariu'rlcaio, which are 
part of the work which he published under the title of Vlwhidfic. 
This passage is thus worded : 

"Dans I'annce qui suivit mon entree au service, la Prance se declara 
en faveur des insurgents amcricains, et je profitai de cette circonstancc 
pour passer en Amerique oil j'ai fait cinq campagnes. 

" Je me suis trouve au siege de York ; j'ai contribue d'uue maniere 
assez importante a la prise du general Cornwallis et de son arraee ; je 
puis done me regarder comme un des fondateurs de la liberte des Etats- 
Unis, car c'est cette operation militaire qui, en determinant la paix, a 
fix6 d'unc maniere irrevocable Tindependance de I'Amdrique.'' {L'ln- 
dustrie, Vol. II., pages 2?> and 21, in S". Paris, 1817.) 

The truth of the explanations furnished by the Oeitrrr.^ of Saint- 
Simon on his military career, is easily explained by the way in which 
he looked at tliat career, from the time he resolutely plunged into the 
study of the new social system, which he elaborated from 1S03 (the 
date of the publication of the first sketch) up to his last hour, on the 
19th of IVlarch, 1825. 

I should have much liiaMl, sir, to furnish you with more ample doc- 
uments; but if tliey exist, which I think doubtful, they have escaped 
me in the forty-two years during wliich 1 liave been occupied with 
tliis collection. If it were otherwise, I slioukl have hastened to let 
you know of them ; I sliuuld have thought it only a duty to help the 



228 The Frcncli in America. 

Saxtp:!IIIE (D<.>)^ was captain of grenadiers of tlio reoinient 
of Martini(pic, in garrison at Saint Domingo, and was dcro- 
nited with the order of Saint-Lonis''^-'^ after having >oi-ved in 
Franee for t\vent}'-fonr years. ILe was reeonnuendcd by M. 
Moleau, of .l*rovidenee, on the lOtJi of Febrnary, 1770, to 
Washington, as possibly nsefnl to the Americans on account 
of his knowdedge of war. " He has," adds M. Moleau, " a 
rather large fortune in France, and has only the intention ol* 
gaining sonjo glory, lie will probably settle in America, if 
he does not die in the service."^-^ I)e Santerrc wrote a let- 
ter on the 27th of January, 177G, to General AA'^ashington, 



researclies of a historian wlio is trying to throw licrht on the youth 
of the man whoso name will l;e so great in the future. 
Accept, ] i)riiy you, sir, my very cordial salutations. 

Henki Fournkl. 

P. S.— In a little volume published by ISl. Hubbard in 1857, under the 
title of >'^(tint-Simon, m rii: d scs tramux, one finds, on pages 12 and 13, 
a story which touches on the subject you are treating of. According 
to this account Saint-Simon was on the Ville de ]\irh, one of the ves- 
sels of the French squadron, which, on its return from America, had 
to fight a naval action with the ICnglish fleet, commanded by Admiral 
Ilodney. I do not know from what authentic pa]jer this account was 
taken, but it must be true, for the work of jNI. Hubbard is in reality 
due to Olinde Rodrigues, who died on the 17th of December, ISol, and 
who often spoke to me about it, and even read me some extracts. 

After the decease of Rodrigues, several manuscripts of Saint-Simon, 
perhaps simply consisting of loose sheets, were not found, and I sup- 
pose it is I'nnn one of these lost manuscripts that the ejti.'^ode on the 
ViUc ill- I'uris has been taken. II. F. 

If you mention these passages you have here the urhjiiud alitiotis 
from wiiicli 1 take thorn. 

(I leave the quotations in the note in French, as they are translated 
in the text. In A. Jeianuc's J-'iirimns dc Vnri^, Ilaehette, Paris, lSo7, 
at pages 100-1 Go, there is an account of the life of the diseii)les of 
Saint-Simon at Memihnontant. On the 27th of August, \'i>?>?>, l-jifantin. 
Chevalier and Barraidt were lined one hundred francs eaeli and con- 
demned to a year's impiisonment. F. S. 13.) 

*•■« American Arrlorcs, Series 1., Vol. IV., pages 1, 202. 

'"American Avcldccs, 4th Series, Vol. W., page SG6. 



Lhf of Officer.'^. 229 

in Avliicli he says he had served tweiity-foiir years and gone 
lln'ougli tlie Seven Years' Wiw. 

Sarkazix. See Crozat. 

Sauvage de Servieaxge (Jean-Gaspard), born in 1743 
at Narbonnc ; was eaptain in tlic regiment of Arniagnac, whieli 
only fought in. the Antilles. Pie reeeived a severe wound in 
the left leg at Saint Lueia. 

Scot de Coueax(;e.s (Jacques), born in 1742 in Touraine ; 
captain of Saintonge in 1777. Served in this regiment at 
Cayemie and before Yorktown. 

S/iOUiER ri'] Tersox entered the service as officer in 175G ; 
captain of Agenois in 17G0; captain of grenadiers in 1777. 
Was present at the siege of Savaniiah, where he filled the 
functions of superior officer. 

Sl^xunx (De), infantry officer, killed the 10th of May, 1780, 
at tlie naval action oil' Saint Lucia. He appears to have 
been ])resent at the siege of Savannnh. 

Secur (Louis-rhilij)])e, Count de), Ijorn in 1753, of an 
illustrious Jiimily of liouergue, son of the marshal, ^Minister 
de Segur, uncle and friend of I^a Fayette. He entered tlie 
service in 17G1), and was apj)ointed ca})tain-commandant of 
the dragoons of Orleans in 1770. He planned, while still 
very young, in 177G, the project of going to America with 
La Fayette and de Xoaillcs, but was kcj)t back by his par- 
ents, and only took ])art in the war in 17S2, when he went 
to rephice do Noailles as coh)uel en .'<rcoiul of Soi>sonnais, 
under de Sainte-Mesnie, coh)nel. The regiment of Soissonnais 
liad been formed from the regiments of SOgur and of Brique- 
ville, which had fouglii in (u'l-iiiany during tlie Seven Years' 
War, undci" the generals of tho-^c nanus. 

He k'lt Ivochefort on the loth of July, 1~^'2, on the Gloirc, 



230 The French in America. 

with (1e Liiuzun, de Broglio, do Moiitesqnion, Slieldon, de 
Lomenie, de Polercski, de Ligliorn and Alexandre de Lametli. 
This frigate was commanded by de Valonge. At the sanu; 
time tlie Ai[/Ic stiirted, commanded by de La Tonche-TrOville, 
wliom de A'^alonge was jealous of, l)ecau.se he had hcen less 
loncij in the service tha?i himself, and yet was his superior in 
rank. Tiie Aif/Ie carried as jxissengers the Baron de Viomenil, 
de Laval, de Yauban, de Mclfort, Bozon de Talleyrand, de 
Cham])cenolz, the ]Mar(juis de Flenry, de Chaltannes, Tlic-ci 
and others. The voyagi! was interru]ited by a rather long 
stop at Tcrceli-e in the (,'anary Islands, wliere the young of- 
ficers practiced their gallantry on the young nuns of a con- 
vent f'^ there was then a very sharp and brilliant action with 
the Hector, which the English had taken from de Crasse in 
the battle of the Saintes. One of the }.)assengers of the (ilnirc, 
Grandeau, lieutenant in the merchant navy, M'as very lielpful 
in the manccuvring during the action ; he aided in the dis- 
embarking off Cape Charles at the juouth of the Delaware, 
and was abk; to save the money which the frigates carried 
and which was destined to the ex])editionary corps ; but the 
Akjle had to be sunk so as not to fall into the hands of the 
English. Champccnetz was the last to leave the sinking shi]>, 
and saved by his firmness ihe eighteen men of the crew who 
had got into the long boat. De ]ja Touche-Trevillc was made 
prisoner ; the disaster was somewhat due to him, as lie had 
embarrassed himself at starling with a merchant vessel, for 
the sole reason that tin* latter boi'c a wom-an M'hom he was 
in love with. This vessel and the woman had been ca])tured 
on the way by the English. 

De Segur joined his regiment at I'^I.-likill on the 21tli of 
December, 1782, after having loft on his way the disj)atches 
which the jninister, his father, had given him for dc la 
Jjuzerno, de A^audrcuil and de Rochambcau. 

^"Soe the Mnnoira of de r.ros^lio and of do Scgur. 



Lid oj Officrrs. 231 

He wont to (^oliinil)ia tli(! -aino year, then to Saint Do- 
mingo, wliere he owned some lands, of wliieh lils friend 
Bcrtliier niadc a siu'vcy for him. Finally he returned to 
Franec with the latter on the 30th of April, 17S3, was ap- 
pointed ambassador to llnssia, desj^ite his youth, and remained 
in France durljig the Revolution, liviiii;' by hi.s pen. He was 
academician in 1797, senator in ISlo, and peer of France in 
1818. He died in 1830. 

Sercey (Picrre-Cesar-Charles-Guillanme), born in 17r)3, 
near Antun. At the age of thii-tcen and a hall' he lett for 
Brest and embarked as volunteer on the frig^atc; the Lv^/rrc, 
which made a cruise to the Windward Islands in 1708. He 
then went to the East Indies, to the Southern Se^is and to 
the Leeward Islands. He commanded the Belle Poule while 
de la Clochetterie, the captain, mIio had been mounded, had 
gone to Paris. Xaval ensign in 177'*, he cruised in succes- 
sion on the ships the Triton, the Coiironnc, the Mile dr. Paris 
and the Concorde, until the month of November, 177U, when 
lie was commandant of the cutter Satis-Pareil. He served 
then at the Windwai-d Islands under dc Guiehen, and was 
present at the tliree actions de Guiehen fought on the 17th 
of April, and loth and lOlh of May, 1780. Sercey Was made 
prisoner on the '20th of June, and returned to Saint Domingo, 
in October, to tal:e connnand of the cutter the Scrpcnf, then 
of the Lrrrcllc. Xaval lieutenant after aiding in the capture 
of Pensacola in 1781. He returned to France in 1782, and 
was made chevalier of Saint-Louis at the age of twenty-nine. 

He served then in various quai-ters; was a]ipointed ca})tain 
of frigate in 1700, and rear-adnu'ral the Ist of January, 
1703; was arrested as ;i noble in duly, but was liberated 
a year later, and then made a seven years' cruise in the 
Indian Ocean. He resigned in 1801. He was aj)pointed 
vice-admiral in 1814, commander of Saint-Louis in 1810, 
grand cross of the same order in 1820, and grand cross of 



232 The French in Amcrka. 

the Legion of Honor in 1S25. He was pensioned off in 
1832, with tlie title of peer of France. 

Serieui. or, better, Suieuii. (Jean de), horn in 1742 in 
Pcrigord ; served in tlie regiment of (u'ltinais ; was W(nindcd 
at Savannali, and was present at the three naval l)attles 
fought by de Guichen. As captain of cha.sscws of Gatinais, 
he was present at the attack on the redoubt of Yorkto\vn, 
during tlic night of the 14th to the loth of October, 17S1. 
He had a leg severely injured, and died from the effects of 
this wound forty days later. 

Seryieange. Sec Saua^age. 

Shee (Jaccjues), burn in Ireland in 1735; went through 
the campaign as ea])tain in the regiment of Dillon. 

SiiEEDOX, oilicer of English extraction, related to the Dil- 
lons ; was mcdre de camp attached to the hussars of the legion 
of Lauzun and distinguished himself before Gloucester. He 
returned to France after the surrender of Yorktown, but re- 
turned to America in 1782 with de Segur and de Broglie. 

Shwerix or SciiWERix (Guillaume-IIenri-Florus, Count 
de), born at AYiedrangel, Germany, in 17o4. Sub-lieutenant 
of Royal-Deux-Ponts in 1777, he took part in the attack on 
the redoubt of Yorktown, and received, after ihe surrender, 
the rank of lieutenant and a reward. 

SiGAEA (Drouilhet de). See DROUiEiiEr. 

SiELKGUE (one fnids Siryhqee in C'romot Dubourg ; Jean- 
Francois de), born in 17G1 ; cadet (jcnlUhommc, then ^ub- 
lieutenant of (ifilinais in 1777 ; was present with this rank 
at the siege of Yorktown, and took part in the a>~ault of 



Lid of OJjicers. 233 

the redoubt dnring- tlie iiiii;lit of tlie 14th to the l.'ith of 
October, 17S1. Having mounted llie broach, and while help- 
ing the Yi.-connt do Deux-Ponts to mount also, lie was strurk 
by a gunshot M'hicli went through ]iis thigh. He o])tained 
a pension of tlirce liundred Uvres. He embarked for Saint 
Domingo in June, 1782, bearing a letter from Blanchard to 
the lattcr's uncle, who was in business at Port-au-Prince. 

SiNETY (Francois-Bernard de), born in 1743 at Apt; en- 
tered the service in 1701 ; served through the Seven Years' 
War and the ciimpaign of Corsica before going to America 
with the regiment of Soissonnais, of which he was captiiin 
since 1777. 

SiEEUiL. See Sekieul. 

SniVEQUE. See Sillegue. 

SoEERSKi. See Poleresici. 

SoNTAG (von), later admiral in the service of the Tsar. 

Staack or Stac^c (Edouard), lieutenant of the regiment of 
Walsh, and officer of volunteers on board of the Uonhomme 
Richard; commanded the main top during the action with 
tlie Scrapis. 

Stack (Joseph dc). See De Staack. 

Stack (De), captain attached to the third battalion of 
mounted chai>scurs of Gatinais. 

Steding (Baron de), a Swede, who served as volunteer 
with the title of colonel ; was M-ounded at the siege of Savan- 
nah and took part in the naval battle. 



234. Tlic French in America. 

Steuben or Stuuex (Frictlrlch-AVillu'lni- August, Baron 
von), born on tlie lotli of" ^fay, 1730, and servc.l witli dis- 
tinction first in tlic Prussian army as aid-do-cain]) of the 
Great Frederic, then under Prince Charles of" ]>adeii. He 
had retired, when, in goini^ to England, he met in J'aris his 
old friend the Count de .Saint-(iermain, who advised him to 
go to .Vmeriea. ]Ie started on tlie Jfcurcu.v, from ^Marseilles, 
the '20th of Septeudu'r, 1777, with the arms and stores which 
Bciunnarchais was sending to the Americans under the name 
of Ilortales llodrigucs & CoS'"^ Steuben arrived on that ship 
at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on the 1st of Xovembei-. 
He succeeded at once to Conway as inspector-general of the 
Continental army and instructor of the recruits, with i-aulc and 
pay of m;ij()r-geue)';d. lie Ijrought his new V(»lunteefs into 
discipline, and America liad no brav<'r oflic.'cr iioi' one more 
devoted to itd cause. 

He joined the army at Valley Forge, Vv-as present at the 
battle of ]\Ionmouth, and connnand(^d in the trendies before 
Yorktown. On the 1-lth of Oetober, 17S1, while the col- 
umn under the orders of Guillaume de Deux-Ponts was as- 
saulting the redoubt on the left, Steuben ciirried the one on 
the right with La Fayette. 

After the war he remained in America, where the State 
of Xcw Jersey, the State of Xew York and the (/Jovern- 
ment of the United States ovi'rwliclmed him with gii'ts. He 
died of apoplexy at Steuben vi lie, near New York, on the 
28th of Xovembcr, 170"), at sixty-fbm- years of age. 

His life has been very carefully written by ^I. Frederic 
Kapp : Lcbcii <lcs Amcri/canlscJioi Generals, Frudrich Wilhelm 
von Steuben, Berlin, 1S.")8. 

SuNDiiAE or SuXNAiiL (Chreticu-Louis- Philippe de), born 
at Dcux-Ponts in 1731; ensign in the service of the Prince 
of Waldeck in 1754; captain-connnandant of Royul-Deux- 



'For the iinpertincut letter of IVaumarohais, see Vol. T., page 82. 



List of Officers. 235 

Fonts in 1779. Kcccivcd the cross of Military Merit after 
the capture of Yorktown. 

T. 

Taafe (Georges), born in 1757 in Ireland; served in the 
regiment of Dillon since 1777, and went at first to Germany 
and to Minorca. He was taken from nnder the wreckage 
caused by the explosion of a mine l)efore Gloucester. 

Talleyrand de Perigord. Sec Bozox. 

Talsy (Labbe de), colonel in the royal corps of engin- 
eers in 1777. 

Tahle (De), entered the service in 1759 ; was aj^pointed 
captain in the regiment of Bouillon, and received tlie rank of 
lieutenant-colonef tlie 21tli of March, 17S0.«^'^ Served in the 
campaign of America with tlie rank of aid-major-general f^ 
was commissioner-'- at the camp of Dol)l)'s Ferry, befor(> Xew 
York in 1781. He served with distinction and talent. . 

De Tarle arrived at Brest on the 30th of ]\Iarch, 1780, 
teii days afier Blanchard, to whom he bronght the commis- 
sion of commissary-in-chief He embarked on the admiral's 
ship, the Bourgorjne. He had at Newport, in August, 1780, 
a rather sharp discussion with Blanchard, in the presence of 
de Kochambeau and de Yiomenil, at a meeting of the coun- 
cil of administratio'n, on account of some me;it which Blanch- 
ard reproached him for buying at too high a price. They 
made up, thanks to tlie intervention of the Baron de A^'io- 
menil, but Blanchard -peaks of de Tarle as '' but ill enlight- 
ened, cold, surly, and %nili an unres])onsive dispo.-ition." De 
Tarle stopped living at the mess in February, 1781, and 
from that time Blanchard lived with his friend dc La Cheze, 
an artillery oflicer. 

^ Archhrs of War. 
^'' Blancharii. 

^ LdaahtuL 



236 Tlip. French in America. 

TarlI^: (ChcvaliiT dc), brother of tlie jn-cceding one ; aid- 
major-gciR'i-al ^vi(Il do MOiiouville.^'" 

Tarragon (Annc-Claiidc de), born at Bonncval in Bcnucc; 
entered tlic regiment of Dillon, and was present at the ex- 
peditions of Savannah, of Tabago, of Saint Lneia and of Saint 
Christopher, lie had a leg severely injnrcd on the Jason in 
the aetion of the 12th oi" April, 1782. 

Tasciiereau (De), infantry oflieer ; woinided at tiie battle 
of the ChesajK'ake in 1781. 

'J'ayet de Baudot (Jean-Baptiste-Antoine), born at Cliarle- 
mont in 1730; .served since 1750; captain-coinnrandant of 
Soissonuais in 1777; had l)eon wounded at Minorea and at 
Borgo in Corsica. Ixeceived a reward for the courage he 
showed before Yorktown. 

Teisseidre de Fleury. Sec Fleury. 

Terxant (De), French oflicer who starle<l foi' America 
-with La Fayette, de Yalfort and others in 1777. lie carried 
out several commissions with which he was intrusted, then 
took sei'vice in the .\merican army in ]\larch, 1778. lie was 
appointed, by the inlcrvention of A\'ashingto]i, sub-inspector 
under Steuben, lie had nnich wit and talent, says de Chas- 
tellux in his memoirs; he drew well, and spoke English as 
well as he did French. ISIadc prisoner at Charleston, he did 
no more fighting in America, but, later, took service again in 
Holland as colonel of the legion of ^lailldiois. 

Terxay (Clx^valicr dc),^'" formerly govci-nor of the lie de 
France; tried to get him>clf ap[)ointcd chief of the scpiadron 

^« Bhincliara. 

*'^For tliis notioe of de Teniuy soo speeches of Si'imlor Anthony, let- 
ters of de Noailk'S, and Svdnov KNcritrt; article, ^hux'inal note bv T. T.. 



List of Ofl'iccrs. 237 

M'hieh M'us to make an ox[)cdition to India auainst tlic lOiiji^lish. 
He wanted tlins to snpplant do Bussy, bnt lie did not succeed, 
in so doing. As compensation, lie \vas given command of 
the squadron wliieli was to conduct to Amei'ica t)ie cxjiedi- 
tionary cor})s of Kocliambeau. On the ]2tli of ^Tay, 17S0, 
the troops embarked were able to ]>ut to sea; tiioy had been 
kept at Brest, since the 12th of .^pi-il, by contrary winds. 
The fleet was comjwsed of two vessels of eighty guns, one 
of scvcjity-ibui-, four of sixty-four, and two frigates. During 
the passage, de Tcrnay met some English ships on the 20th 
of June; but wisliiug to folloNv his instructions, \vhich en- 
joined him (o reach America as soon as possible,^""^ he declined 
the combat and arrived at Newport on the 23d of July, after 



***De Ternay, oil startiiit/ from Brent, liad taken with him scaled in- 
structions, wliicli lie was only to open ;it f-ea, and if he sliould meet 
the enemy. On e^igliting the s(jiuuh-on of Captain CornwalUs, which 
was taken for tliat of Admiral Ciraves, ^vllieh lie knew was ready to 
follow him, he opened his orders. He found there the one ordering 
him not to attack the English, no matter Avhat good opportunity 
should j.resent itself, no matter how inferior he found them, and to 
sail straight to IMiodo Islaiul. Time was important; the least delay 
might have had fatal consequences. A battle at sea, with a convoy 
disturbing the attention of the commander, would have retarded his 
arrival at his destination. He etlectually only anchored at Newport 
three days before Admiral Graves and General Clinton had already re- 
turned to New York. The latter, at the first news of the arrival of 
the French, had hastened to abandon Charleston, in hopes of being 
before them in llliode Island, to defend that island and prevent them 
establishing themselves there. A brilliant or fleeting advantage, to 
which de Ternay might have aspired, might have rendered dillicult or 
murderous, or perhaps prevented, the disembarking of the army of the 
Count de liochambeau. The capture or the destruction of some English 
vessels would not have made up for it. Victories have a brilliancy 
which may touch ardent imaginations and superiicial minds, wlio only 
see the present moment, and never that which is to follow. It is by 
their eflects that we must judge them, and those of de Ternay would 
have been more fotal to France and her allies and more favorable to 
England than a complete defeat. {M-rccrc (h- Fnuur, January, 17S1, 
page 11.) 



238 The French in America. 

a seventy-two days' cross! nn;,^^'^ By uniiuimous o])iiiioii he lost 
there u fine occasion to begin by making some valuable prizes. 
It ^\•as, in fact, a convoy of three thousand troops, escorted 
only l»y four or five frigat(;s, sailing from Charleston to Xew 
York, which he had let escape. He -was mucli aflectcd by 
the unaniuK-iis rc])r()aclies of tlie army on the subject, and the 
sorrow he felt thereat is said to have hastened his death, on 
the 27th of Septem])er, 1780. He was only able before his 
denth to be present at the interview of Hartford, between 
Washington, Ivochambeau and Chastellux, on the 2Uth of 
September, 1780. 

" He was rougli and obstinate," says La Fayette, '^ but 
firm and of good counsel. On the whole, he is a loss to 
France." 

Terrade (Jean-jSIaric), born in 1731 at Perissac in Guy- 
enne ; private in the regiment of Auvergne, oilicer in 17G0, 
lieutenant in 1771', lieutenant of grenadiers of Gatinais alter 
the caj)tiu-e of Yorkto\\n, wJiere he had di>tinguished himself. 

Teksox. See Segujeu. 

Texiek (Felix), French sergeant in the service of Con- 

ThiebxVult de ]NH;xonville. Sec Mexonville. 

TiiUiLLiERES (De), captain in the regiment of Royal-Denx- 
Ponts ; arrived at Xewport on the 30th of September, 1780, 
on the Goilif/e, coming from Cape Fran^-ais with dc Choisy 
and eight other officers, among whojn were the two Perthiers. 



'^Thanks to Mr. Shcniokl, I find that tlie report of do Tornay's 
liaviii;^' been killed in a duel by a lieutenant in tlie navy is mentioned 
in Ciovcrnor Bull's nu'inoirs of Newport. jMargiual note by T. B. 

^^ Jii'cords of JicrululiuiKiri/ Wur. 



Ust of Officers. 239 

Tilly (Dc), niajor-gencral of the t]-oops at 3.rartinifjiio 
under do Bouille, He was in the rear guard of the attack- 
ing column against tlie Island of ^Martinique the 2d of Sej-)- 
tember, 1778. He eoinmauded al.-o a little expedition which 
was transportetl by the squadron of Destouches to Clie:-apeakc 
Bay, where he captured the Eonudus in 1780.^^ 

ToTT (Chevalier de), arrived from Constantinople in Paris 
the 27th of June, 177G; went to see Dr. Dubourg, who en- 
gaged him for America. He had handled with talent the 
artillery of the Turks in their war with the linssians. He 
left with Ducoudray in January, 1777."^^ 

TouciiE-TuEVJLLE (Louis - Ecue- Madeleine Ix'vassor dc 
La), born at Eochefort in 1745. He entered the marines as 
guard at the age of thirteen; became naval ensign in 17G8; 
was retired and enlisted in the musketeers. He follo^vcd as 
aid-de-camp General Dennery to Saint Domingo, with the 
rank of captain of cavalry. 

In 1771, he entered with the same rank the regiment of 
La Rochefoucauld, and became aid-de-camp to General Ija 
Valliere, connnandant of the Windward Islands. He was 
reinstated in the navy as captain of a fire ship in 1772, and 
became naval lieutenant of the liossignol in 1778. He was 
in command of the Hennionc when, in the month of ]\Iarch, 
1780, he fought a two-hours' action with the English frigate 
the Iris. He lost in this alTair thirty-seven men killed and 
fifty-three wounded, and his leit arm ^\•as pierced by a bullet. 
He was then apjiointed naval captain and chevalier of Saint- 
Louis. He brought back then to America on the Hcr)iuonCy 
La Fayette and several (.)thcr oilicers. On his arrival in 



*^(I think this must be the De Tilly who commanded the KrcUlc of 
de Tcrnay's squiuhon. Sec Vol. I., i>:ige 104. E. S. B.) 
*" American Arvhiics, 



2-10 The Frencli in America. 

lihodo Islninl he was intni.sted to e.-tablisli tlio coast dcfciiso 
batlcries, and j)n)vrd liimsfll" there a skillful engineer. 

In the month of July, 17>S1, tlie Ilcnnion'-, in concert with 
the AstrC'C, which La Perouse commanded, sustained on the 
coast of Acadia an action of several lioui-s, a^'ainst four Eng- 
lish iVigatos and two corvettes. Two of these shij)s were 
captured. The following year, La Touehe-Tjeville was in- 
trusted to carry on the Ah/fc and the Gloirc, with de Broglie, 
de Segur and many other oflicers as passengers, the three mill- 
ions which France was sending to the expeditionary corps. 
AA'e have relaled this trip as told by de Broglie. In disem- 
barking. La Touehe-Treville was caj)tured with tlie Aigk, and 
kept prisoner In' (lie English until the peace. 

De})uty of the nobility from INIontargis to the States Gen- 
eml in 1780, he was among the first to join the I'hird Es- 
tate, and then f )nncd part of the Assemblee Condliunnle until 
1701. v\])p()inie(l rear-admiral in 1791. Dej)rived of his rank 
and ke})t }>risoner as a noble in 1703, he was freed in 1701, 
and ^vould not serve again until 1700. lie became vice-ad- 
miral in 180], alter an expedition to Saint Domingo. 

He died in 1801 at Toulon, where he was in command, 
on board of his admiral's ship, the Buccnlaurc. 



TouzARD (De), was caj)tain of artillery in the regiment of 
la Fere, when he obtained leave to stai't for America. He 
took his rank on the 27th of OetolKT, 1777. In September, 
1778, he lost an ai'm Avhile withdrawing a battery at lihode 
Island, llo. was lilling the position of aid-dc-camp to La 
Fayette. His arm was amputated, and he received irom 
the Amci'ican Government the title oi' lieutenant-colonel with 
an aiHHiity of thirty tlollars a month. The l*resident sent 
liim besides a most ilattering letter.^'^ 

""Longchanii)S an J Mojtoiirs of Lu Fayelle. 



Lid of Officers. 241 

TuAuno>;T (Chevalier do), entered the regiment of Agi'nois; 
sub-lieiiteiuiiit in 1771, licntcnant of g-renadiers in 1777. 

Tkessax {Do), captain in the regiment of Saintonge. 

Trexoxay (De), licntcnant in the regiment of Foix in 
1757, captain in 1702; appointed major at Savannah by 
d'Estaing in 1779. 

Trogoff (Jean-Honore, Connt de), born the 5th of ]May, 
1751, at Laumeur ; died at the Island of Elba in 1794; of 
an ancient family of Brittany. Ensign in 1773 ; distingnishcd 
himself in the AYar of America and fell with dc Grassc into 
the hands of the English.. Xaval captain in 1784, rear-ad- 
miral in 1793. He surrendered Toulon to the English, and 
fled to Spain when the French retook the town in 1793. 
He died on board of a juerchant vessel. 

Teoxsox. See Ducoudray. 

Troude (Aimablc-Gilles), rear-admiral, officer of the Legion 
of Honor, chevalier of Saint-Louis; born at Cherbourg in 
1762, died at Brest in 1824. Embarked as under pilot in 
1776; made in 1777 two cruises to ^Nfartinirjue on the Ann- 
able- Victor. In 1781 he was on the Hcrculc, which belonged 
to the naval army of de Gnichcn and de Grasse. 

He served in European waters from 1782. Naval ensign 
in January, 1793, lieutenant in July of the same year, cap- 
tain of frigate in 179G. lie sustained in 1801, within sight 
of Cadiz, on tlie Fonni'hiblf^ a most glorious conilxit and was 
appointed naval ca[)tain. Bear-admiral in 1811, he was re- 
tired in 181 G. 

Truguet (I^aurent-Jean-Francois, Count de), son of a chief 
of squadron, was bom at Toulon in 1752, and entered in 
1766 the marines as guard. Jle was naval en>iL;n, and had 



242 The French in America. 

already made eight eniisos wlien tlie American \var broke 
out. At the siege of Savannah, Truguet, then naval lieuten- 
ant, saved tlie life of Count d'Estaing, wlio was nnahle to 
move on account of his "wounds. De Truguet placed Jiiui on 
the shoulders of two grenadiers, who Vv'ere killed Ijy gi-apc- 
shot, but were immediately replaced by othei-s, and he suc- 
ceeded in bringing d'Estaing back to the reserves, 

lu 1784, he aceouipanied the French ambassidor to Con- 
stantinople, and drew the first marine charts of the Black 
Sea, of the Sea of ]\Tarmoi'a and of the Archipelago. His 
maps are to be found in the Journey of the Young Anachar- 
sis. He returned to l^'rancc in 17S9 and was a])pointed naval 
captain, then rear-admiral in 1702. Imprisoned as a suspect, 
he was delivered on tiie 0th Thcrmidor and a})pointed viee- 
adjiiiral. Minister of the navy under the Directoire in 1795, 
lie gave uj) his position in 1707 to l^leville Lc Peley,^^' and 
was sent as ambassador to Spain. Disgraced under the Em- 
pire, he only took service again in 1809 as vice-admiral, 
then in 1811 as ])refect of the maritime provinces of Hol- 
land. He remained ]>risoi\er of the allies until the peace. 

Made count and grand cross of the Legion of Honor by 
Louis the Eighteenth in ISl'l, peer of France in 1819, hon- 
orary admiral in 1831. He died in 1839. 

Tutrix (He), oiricer of engijieers wlio w^orked activi'ly with 
Gouvion in laying down the parallels before Yorktovv'n. He 
was attached to the J-'reneh expeditionary corps while Gou- 
vion was serving with the Americans.^^^ 

Y. 

Vaciiox or Vaciiekox (Pierre-Charles-Fran^ois), born in 
1742 at Ivctournac in Vclay ; served since 1760. Captain in 

^"Soo in the iAst of OlUcers : riovillc Le Polov. 
'^'BlunclKinl. 



List of Ofircrs. 243 

the rci^inient of Gfitinais in 1771 ; was decorated, after the 
«t])ture of Yorktowii, wiili the orders of Saint-Loul.s and of 
the Cincinnati. 

Yai.ette (Clrarles-Frauf;ois Cliaudron, Clievalier de I.a), 
born at ]Montfort-rAmaury in 1731. Entered tlie service in 
174G; lieutenant-colonel of Saintongc in 1773; brigadier in 
December, 17S1, after the capture of Yorktowu. Although 
he had only the rank of lieutenant-colonel, yet he was in- 
trusted with the command of the rear guard after the capture 
of Yorktown and during tlie retreat. He was leli at York- 
town ^vith six hundred men and the siege artillery, wliile the 
rest of the army went ahead. He rejoine<l the bulk of the 
army at Baltimore. 

In the beginning of the campaign he was detached with 
one hundred and fifty men to guard Conanicut Island, bat 
was soon called back to Newport by Eochambeau, who did 
not think he was in safety. 

Yalfort (De), captain in the regiment of Aunis, with 
brevet of colonel in the French Islands. He went to Xorth 
America on the same ship as La Fayette, de Ternant and 
others. His long experience, his profound knowledge and 
liis uprightness drew to him the friendship of the Americans, 
and he would have stayed among them if his heahh had per- 
mitted, 1)ut he w^as forced to return to France in October, 
1777. La Fayette gave him a letter for his family. 

The minister of war, de Scgur, appointed de Yalfort di- 
rector of the ]\rilitary Sciiool at Brienne, and he thus became 
the principal instructor of Xapoleon Ijonaparte.^^^ 

Yalt.kxays (De), enlisted as volunteer ; brevet captain of 
cavalry with pay the 2Sth of July, 1777. 

="' Sc-ur. 



244 The French in America. 

Vai.onge or Vai.ogne or Yaeoncjue (Chevalier dc), cap- 
tain of tlie Gloire. a fritiate of thirty-six t-welve-pounder can- 
nons, -whicli sailed for America on the 19th of ^Iny, 1782, 
carrying two millions of livres and a Jiumber of olliccrs.^'" 

Vamin (Count do FlCchin). See Fl1^:ciiix. 

Varaic;:>']:, ca])lnin of engineers with Dueoudray, with pay 
from the 7th of November, 1777. 

Yaiux dk la CiiAUSsf:E (Charles-Alexandre), born in 
1759 at ]{ouen ; sub-lientenant in the regiment of Saintonge ; 
was wounded at the siege of Yorktown. 

Yaubak (Jaeques-Aim6-Josc])h Le Prestrc, Count de), great 
grand-ne])hew of the marshal of Louis the Fonrteenth ; born 
at Dijon in 1754, died there in 1816. He entered at the age 
of sixteen as sub-lieutenant the regiment of dragoons of La 
Koehefoueauld ; Avas captain in 1775; received the I'ank of 
lieutenant-colonel in tlie r/auhinneric. in 1777, mcsfre dc camp 
in 1779, attached to the regiment of Chartres in 1780. He 
obtained permission to join the army in America, which would 
seem to indicate that he did not go with the ex])edition in 
May, 1780. He was attached as aid-de-camj) to the staft' of 
Rochambcau, and showed the greatest valor, especially at the 
attack of the redoubt of Yorktown, where, ordered by de Ko- 
charabeau to make a re[)ort of everything that should happen, 
he took his position near to de Yiomenil and de Deux-Ponts 
and shared all the dangers of the assault. He Mcnt, in 1782, 
into Columbia Mith di; ]>roglie and de Si'gur. 

At the French Jicvolution he had been colonel of the in- 
fantry regiment of Orleans since 1781. He emigrated and 
served in the war as aid-de-camj) of the Count d'Artois. He 



Narrative of the Trincc de Biu^lie. 



List of Officers. 245 

took part in the expedition of C>nii^oron, and only aba'ndonod 
the Eoyal can>e wlien he saw it ^vas hxst. He re-entered 
France urider the Consulate, was arrested in ISOG for loyalist 
niananivres and intrigues, but was released. He toolc no iur- 
ther part in public life, and died without having been able 
to obtain an audience from the J'^ourbons, whom the pul)lica- 
tion of his Rlifoire de la Guerre dc Vendee, revised by the 
Imperial Government, had indisposed towards him. He died, 
it was said, of sorrow. 

Yaudkeuil (T.ouis-Pliilippe de Uioaud, Maripiis de),^^' son 
of the sailor lieutenant-general of that name, and gi-andsou 
of the Governor of Canada. He was honx at lioeheibit in 
1724; fought as ensign tlie 25th of October, 1747, against 
the English on tlie Injlcxlhle, of wliich his father was cap- 
tain. Naval lieutenant in 1754. He escorted with the frig- 
ate Ardhme a numerou.-, convoy, for whose safety he sacrificed 
himself by sustaining, on the 10th of ^Nfay, 1750, at the en- 
trance of the Bay of Audicrne, an action of two hours against 
a frigate and three English ships. His arm was broken and 
he had to strike. Chief of scpiadron in 1777, he sUirted 
from Brest in December, 1778, with a fleet bearing troops 
for the Antilles, and on his road seized, with de Lauzun, the 
Senegal. 

Yaudreuil took part in the actions of the 17th of April 
and 15th and IDth of May, 1780, fought in the Antilles 
by de Guiehen with Admiral Rodney, and was al'terwards 
made grand cross of Saint-Louis and Governur of Saint Do- 
mingo. Preferring an active life to this sedentary occupa- 
tion, he asked for a po-ition at sea ; joined the fleet of de 
Grasse, and was present, on the 12th of ,\pril, 1782, at the 
battle of the Saintes. Feeling that tlie critical po-ition of the 

='^Sce tlie history of de Vainlreiiil, JIi--<''>li\' rnisuiuu'c <.h hi ihni:ire 
Gacrrc. by J. Jo Saint-Vullici-, pa-cs llC, 117, US. 



246 The French in America. 

Admiral's sliij), the Mile <lc Faris, miolit prevent do Gra<se 
from paying attention to tlie other ships, he made general sig- 
nals, which wore approved ; bnt when the Ville de Pdris had 
struck, de Grasse made a com})laint against de Vaudreuil, 
wlio, on his demand, was, as well as tlie other ollicers who 
had l)ccn present at this action, brought before a council of 
war assembled at Lorient in ]\Iarch, 17S4. On the 21st of 
May, de A^audreuil was freed from all blame, and even con- 
gi-atulated for his conduct in the battle. 

liaised on the Litli of August, ] 78*2, to the rank of lieu- 
tenant-general, he was elected de])uty to the States General 
in 1789 by the nobility of Castelnaudary. He sat on the 
right and opposed the revolutionary measures. During the 
night of the 5th to the 6th of October he ])enetratcd to the 
royal family, and by his firmness held in check the people 
M'ho were invading the palace. In 1701 he emigrated to 
England, returned to Paris under the Consulate, and died 
in 1802. 

Vence was at the head of the fifty fdibusters mIio, sus- 
tained by a few soldiers under command of dt.- lion i lie, 
bravely seized, by a sudden attack, Dominica in 1778. lie 
distinguished hiiuself aderwards at the capture of Grenada 
and at Savannah. "^"^ 

Vermonet (Jean-Arthur de), enlisted as volunteer, and 
was brevet captain as early as the 25ith of July, 1770. On 
the ISth of September following, he was appointed major in 
consideration of his >erviccs, on the demand of A\'a.-hington. 

Yerton (De), ofliccr of artillery ; Mas charged to defend 
the passage of the North Kiver again-t an English s<juad- 
ron which was annoying the allied troops at the camp of 

^V\ubcrtcuil, Vol. II., i-age 300. 



Lid of Officers. 247 

Doblj's FoiTv. ITo was aided in lliis duty bv another artil- 
lery oflicer, de Xeuris.^^' 

Verton (Baron de), lieuteiiant-eolonel of artillery; was a 
passenger on the Aifjlc, to return to America in 17S2 with 
de S6gur. He savetl the money which was aboard of the 
frigate, with the help of Mac-]Mahon. The minister of war, 
dc Segur, addressed to him, in the name of the king, a letter 
of congratulation. 

ViEBERT (Antoine-Fclix), enlisted as volunteer on the 2Gth 
of June, 177G. Kecomniended to General AVa^hington in the 
capacity of engineer. 

ViEXNE (Marquis de), enlisted as volunteer on the 15th of 
June, 1770 ; served without any rank during one campaign, 
and was then breveted colonel. He had beibre been major 
the French army, and he resigned in America in October, 
1777, to return to serve in his own country. 



m 



YuaJ-: (Aymard de). See Aymakd. 

ViLLEBRUXE (Scrvaut-Paul Le Saige de), born in 1747 
near Saint Malo ; entered the service in 17G2 ; ca])tain in 
the regiment of Agenois in 1759. He fought bravely at 
Pensacola and at Yorktown, and was killed in 17S2 at the 
siege of Fort Saint Christopher. 

ViLEEBRUXE, Captain of the JRotiwhis, of the squadron of 
Destouehes; deserved praise for the handling of his ship during 
an action with the .Loiuhni, a three decker, in Chesapeake Bay, 
on the IGth of March, 1781.'^'^' 



'Cromot Diibourg. See Vol. I., i>ai:e 150. 
'Blanchard. 



248 The French in America. 

Yjllkfranciie M-as in succession, student engineer in 1770, 
sub-lieutenant in 1772, lieutenant in the dragoons of the king 
in 1773. He resigned in 1777, to go to America, where he 
received the rank of innjor. lie wasted his fortune there, 
and received after t!ie war a pension of five hundred Urrc-i. 
He M'as then ajipointed cai)tain in the provincial troops of 
France. 

Vii^iiEMANZY (De), commissary of war who followed the 
expeditionary corps of Eoclianibeau. He embarked at Brest 
on the Ardent with Demnrs, director of the hospitals. He 
was ordered to establish bakers' ovens at Chatham, and to 
pretend to bring up stores before Xew York and Staten 
Island, while the allied army crossed the Xortli Jliver and 
moved towards Baltimore. He acquitted himself ]>erfcctly of 
this mission, got himself cannonaded, and ke])t constantly on 
the alert, the garrison of Xew Yo]"k under the orders of 
Clinton. He beciime, later, peer of France. 

YiNET, oflicer of the Vengeance. 

YlOMfiNiL (Antoine-Charles du Houx, called Baron de), 
born at Fauconcourt, in the Yosges, in 172S; entered the 
service in 1740, at the ago of twelve, with the rank of 
sub-lieutenant in the regiment of Limousin, and became cap- 
tain at the age of nineteen, in 1747. He was wounded at 
the siege of Berg-o])-Zoom ; served afterwards in Hanover 
and in Corsica, became colonel in 17;")!), brigadier in 17G2, 
marechal dc camp in 1770. He started in 1771 for Poland, 
where he fought against the Bussians, and directed the defense 
at the castle of Craco\v. 

The Baron de Viomenil crossed to ^Vmerica on the Om- 
querant, on which were de Custine, de MeMK>nvil]e, Blaneliard, 
de Chabaunes and de Pange, aids-de-camj) ; Brizon, naval 
officer, secretary of the liaron, and part of the regiment of 



List of Officers. 219 

Saintonge. During- tlie oxpodition of 17S1, Baron dc Vionic'iiil 
pla}ed a very important part. He was at the liead of the 
expedition wliich started in -March on the vessels of Dcstouches 
to take succors to A'irginia by way of Chesapeake Bay. The 
expedition was fruitless ; Init it was not the fault of de Vio- 
menil or dc Laval, who were leading it, and who bore them- 
selves bravely. The Baron de Viomenil afterwards commanded 
the rear guai-d, during the march between Xew York and 
Williamsburg. It is he Avho directed the two simultaneous 
attacks on the English redoubts during the niglit of the 14th 
to the loth of October. AVhile La Fayette and Steuben 
were ca])turing the one on the right, he himself, sword in 
hand, led towards the enemies' intrenehments the first division 
of the column on the left, commanded by Guillaume de Deux- 
Ponts, de TEstnide and de Kostaing. The success was ])rompt 
and decisive. The Baron de A'ionicnil then went to spend a 
few months in France. He returned to America on the Aif/le 
in 1782, after having been mtidc commander of the order of 
Saint-Louis and lieutenant-general. He rejoined tlie army at 
Crampond, and handed over to de Bochanibeau the two 
million five hundred thousand Uvrcn he had bi-ought him. 
He took tlie troops back to France, and lived at La llochelle 
until 17S9, epoch when he made ])art of the Army of I'aris 
under the orders of de Broglie. He opposed energeticallv the 
Revolution. During the fighting of the lOtli of August, 
1792, he proved himself one of the best and most courageous 
defenders of the royal family. Severely wounded, he was 
picked u}) and hidden in a friend's house, where he died at 
the end of three nionlhs. He was a member of tlie order of 
the Cincinnati. 

YiOM]^:xii> (Cliarles-Ju.-eph -Hyacinthe du IIoux, called 
sometimes Chevalier, snnuiiiiies N'iseount de), younger brother 
of the fornuT, was IjDrn in 17') 1 at Rupjies, in the Voso;es. 
He entered the service in 1717 in the regiment of Limousin, 



250 Tlic FroicJi in America. 

and ^vas })resent at Iho battle of Laufold and at tlic siege of 
Berg-op-Zoom. Dnring tlie Seven Years' War he was aid-de- 
camp of Chevert; Avas apj)ointed colonel of the legion of 
Lorraine in 1701, and made tlie eamjiaign of Corsica; he 
was appointed brigadier in 1770 and niuricJud iJe camp in 
1780. 

The Viscount dc A^iomenil crossed to America on tlie Nep- 
tune, Ho served under the orders of his brother, tlie Baron 
de Viomenil, who Mas six ycirs his senior, and who gained 
more laurels in the campaign. AMiile the Banni had gone 
to France, after the surrender of Yorktown, the Viscount re- 
placed him, and with de Chastellux led the return from 
Yorktown to Crampond. The Baron rejoined him there, and 
both together brought the army b;ick to Boston, while de 
Bochambeau was with the legion of Txmzun. 

Despite the slight nniown ^vhich the campaign of Amcricu 
gave to the Viscount, yet he had a more brilliant destiny 
than his brother. On his return to France, he received frum 
the king, a pension of five thousand Uvrcii. He Avas ap- 
apointed Governor of i\Iartini([ue and of the Windward Isl- 
ands in 1789; returned to Europe in 1791 and served in 
the Army of Conde against his country in 1792 and 1793. 
In 1794 he was put at the head of a regiment of his name 
in the service of England; but in 1795 he returned to the 
Army of Conde where he commandc;d a brigade in 179G and 
1797. He then went to Russia, where Paul the First ap- 
pointed him lieutenant-general of his army in 1798. Later 
he went to Portugal, where King John the Sixth gave him 
the title of ^Marshal-General of the Kingdom; he had re- 
ceived a few months Itefore the title of lieutenant-general 
from the King of Fj-ance. 

On the return of the JJourbons, in 1810, he was made mar- 
shal and jK'cr of France, marquis and chevalier of the Saiiu- 
Esprit. He was also a member of the order of the Cincin- 
nati. He died at Paris in IS'27, at the age of ninety-three. 



Lid of Officers. . 251 

VirjNEJOUX (Jean-Louis dc), volunteer ; employed \vith the 
rank and pay of captain on the 19th of September, 1776;^' 
bore lii])iself with much l^ravery, when he was made prisoner 
at Brunswick, on the Hih of December, 1776.^''" 

VosSELi.E (De), infantry officer ; -wounded at the naval 
battle ofl' Saint Lucia the 19th of >ray, 17S0. 

VpvECOUKt (Count dc). Colonel, April the 12tli, 1777. 

VruGXY (r)e), enlisted as volunteer ; received the rank of 
captain the 15th of September, J 777; resigned on the 21st 
of October, 1778.^^^ 

w. 

WiLEAUMKZ (Jean-Baptistc-Philibert, Count de), born in 
1753 at Belle-lie. lie embarked as cabin boy in 1767; 
was present at sevei-al fights with the English, and was em- 
ployed in 1782 as first pilot on the frigate the Amazone, 
commanded by de Vaudreuil. Xaval lieutenant and deco- 
rated with the order of Saint-Louis in 1790, captain of frig- 
ate in 1795, naval ciiptain in 1798, rear-admiral in 1804, 
vice-admiral in 1819, peer of France in 1837 ; gave the first 
instructions about naval matters to the Prince de Joinville ; 
created count in 1813; died in 1845 at Suresnes near Paris. 
He was the adoptive father of Admiral Count Bouet-Will- 
aumez. 

WiMPFFEN (Georges-Felix, Baron de), born at ]Minfeldeu 
in 1741. He was in succession, lieutenant en .second in the 
regiment of Boyal-Deux-Ponts in ] 757 during the Seven 

*^' Auberteuil. 

^George Mooiv, Trcasoji of La; page 02. 

*■ Auberteuil. 



252 The French in America, 

Years' '\^'"ar, comuiandant of a corps of volunlfcrs in Corsica 
in 176G, mesh'c de camp of the regiment of Bouillon in ITvSO. 
He took ])art In llic camjxiigns of America, then ^vas pres- 
ent at Ihe sii\L:;e^ of Mahon and Gil^rallar; I)ocamo lieutenant- 
general aiid commandant of Thionville in 17^12. Xo lon- 
ger able to hold the place, he was going to surrender to 
the Duke of Brunswick, who did not know of his resolve, 
when the latter oifered him a million if he would ca])itulate. 
"Wimpifen answered : " I accept the million if an act is sworn 
out before a notary public." Tliree days later, the 20th of 
September, 1792, the victory of Valmy delivered Thionville. 
AVimpflcn, having taken sei'vicc with the Girondins, hid 
at Baycux during the Terror. He was a witty man, a brave 
soldier and a brilliant general.^-'- 

"VVlSCU (JcJin-Christophe, Baron de), born in Holstein the 
22d of May, 1739. Furnisher in the service of the Emj)ire 
in 175G, captain of the regiment of Royal-Deux-Ponts in 
1777, captain of the grenadiers in 17S0 ; was wounded at 
Yorkto^^'n so as to be no longer able to serve. He received 
the order of the Cincinnati and the cross of ^Military ]\Ierit. 

WUIBERT. 



Yresoseer, private in the regiment of Agenois in 17GS, 
reached the rank of oillcer in 1779; was present at the siege 
of Yorktown. 

*^' Perhaps u relation of the Cleneral de WiniplTou wlio signed the 
capitulation of Sedan. i\Iar>;iual note by T. B. 



The End 




MANCHESTER.