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TIM- J ,- 


Puns, Ijjiivrc 

FRANC;OIS CLOUKT (15 10-1572) 
Kli/.abcth of Austria, Queen of France 




author of 

"an istroduction to dutch art," 

"the modern movement in art," etc. 










R 1931 L 

First printed, 1951 












i. The Importance of the Present xxiii 

ij. A Picture is an Object xxiv 

ii j. We cannot understand a picture by Just looking at it xxv 

iv. The Importance of Money xxv 

V. Do we need these Gentlemen and Fanatics ? xxvi 

vi. Continuities in French Painting xxvii 

vij. Difficulties of my Task xxxi 

viij. Acknowledgments xxxii 



i. Painting in Feudal France 3 

ij. The First School of Avignon 5 

iij. The First School of Paris 7 

iv. The First School of Burgundy 8 

V. The Due de Berri's Manuscripts 9 


i . The Second School of Burgundy 1 z 

i j . Rene of Anjou and Nicolas Froment 1 5 

iij. The Second School of Avignon 14 

iv. Charles VI I ^ Louis XI and Jean Fouquet 16 

V. Jean Fouquet 17 

vi. Charles VIII y Louis XII and the Mditre de Moulins 19 

vij. The Mditre de Moulins 20 

viij. The New Italian Taste 21 






i. Frangois I and the Palace of Fontaimbleau 25 

ij. hater work at Fontaimbleau 27 

iij. The Fontainehleau Style 



i. The Portrait Albums 3^ 

ij. The Clouets and Corneille de Lyons 33 



i. The Transformation of Paris 37 

ij. Simon Vouet 39 

iij. Eustache Le Sueur 41 

iv. The Influence of the Low Countries 47 

V. The Brothers Le Nain 48 

vi. Georges Dumesnil de la Tour 5 3 

vij. Portrait Painters 54 

viij. French Artists in Kome 5^ 

ix. Claude de Lorrain 5 ^ 

X. Nicolas Poussin "4 


i. Louis XI Vy Court Spectacles and Versailles 74 

ij. Charles Le Brun 7^ 

iij. The Kojal Academy of Painting and Sculpture 82 

iv. Pierre Mignard 88 
V. Louis XIV — the Last Phase 
vi. Hyacinthe Rigaud 
vij. Nicolas de Largilliere 




i. Watteau's Friends loi 

ij. Wat tea us Life 104 

iij. Watteau's CEuvre 106 

iv. Watteau's Art 116 

V. Watteaus Character 120 

vi. Watteaus Followers 121 


i. The Louis XV Stjle 125 

ij. Portrait Painters 126 

iij. Pastellists 129 

iv. Genre Painting 132 

V. Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin 133 

vi. The Academy and the Salons 140 

vij. Francois Boucher 144 

vii j . La Pompadour and La du Barry 151 

ix. Jean-Honore Fragonard 153 

X. Tableaux de Modes 164 

xi. Louis-Leopold Boilly 166 

xij. Jean-Baptiste Greu-:^e 168 

xiij. French Eighteenth-century Landscape 171 

xiv. Mmes Vigee-Le Brun and Labille-Guyard 173 


i. The Revolution 179 

ij. Jacques Louis David 181 

iij. The First Empire and A.-J. Gros 189 

iv. Pierre Prudhon 191 

V. Painting under Louis XVIII 193 . 

vi. /. .^1, D. 7;;^;-fj" 195 
i' ix 



vij. The Komantic Movement 203 

viij. Theodore Gericault 206 

ix. 'Eugene Delacroix 208 

X. 'Franco-Dutch L,andscape Painters 214 

xi. Camille Corot 216 

xij. Realism and the Salon Public ziz 

xiij. Gustave Courbet zz/i^ 

xiv. Daumier and Guys 230 


i. The Impressionist Movement z^j 

ij. Edouard Manet \ 244 

iij. Claude Monet ^ 256 

iv. Auguste Renoir \ , 261 

V. Edgar Degas '' 271 

vi. Henri de Toulouse-JLautrec zj6 


i. Post-Impressionism 287 

ij. Paul Gauguin 288 

iij. Vincent Van Gogh 295 


i. Character of the Movement 307 

ij. Paul Ce:(anne 308 

iij. Georges Seurat 318 


i. The Douanier Rousseau ^zj 

ij. Matisse and Picasso 329 

iij. The Sur-Realists 331 

INDEX 335 


A. In Colour 













Elizabeth of Austria, 
France {louvre) 

Queen of 



Landscape : The Flight into Egypt 

{Dresden) 60 

Gilles (Italian Comedians), {luouvre) 108 
The Admonition (La Governante), 

(JJechienstein) 132 

The Stolen Kiss (Le Baiser a la 

d€r:ohtt)y {Hermitage) 160 

Mme Rccamier {Louvre) 180 

Souvenir de Morte Fontaine {Louvre) 220 
Saint Prive {Birmingham ^ Art Gallery) 228 
La Route de Versailles {Scotland, 

Mclnnes Collection) 240 

Mi-careme sur les Boulevards {Lon- 
don, Luc i en Pissarro Collection) 268 
Sunflowers {Tate) 300 
Les Grands Arbres {London, S. 
Courtauld Collection) 308 

jB. In Monochrome 




TEENTH century) 






Virgin and Child with Saint and 
and Donor {Worcester {Mass.), 
Art Museum) xxiv 

Heads from Windows {Chartres 
Cathedral) xxv 

Pieta {Louvre) xxxii 

Last Communion and Martyr- 
dom of St. Denis {Louvre) i 

Virgin and Child {Antwerp, 
Museum) 2 

Coronation of the Virgin ( K/7- 
leneuve-les-Avignon) 3 




ya. JEAN FOUQUET Charles VII (Louvre) 6 

yb. FRENCH SCHOOL, c. 1470 St. Louis and St. John the Bap- 
tist (Louvre) 6 
8. MAiTRE DE MOULINS The Virgin. Detail of The 

Nativity (Autun, Eveche) 7 

9a. NICOLAS FROMENT King Rene of Anjou (Aix-en- 

Provencey Cathedral) 8 

9b. NICOLAS FROMENT Jeanne de Laval (Aix-en-Pro- 

vefjce. Cathedral) 8 

loa. FRENCH SCHOOL, c. 1470 The Altarpiece of the Parlia- 
ment of Paris (Louvre) 9 
lob. NICOLAS FROMENT The Altarpiece of the Burning 

Bush (Aix-en-Provence, Cathe- 
dral 9 

II. SECOND SCHOOL OF AVIG- Y\^\.2i {l^UVre) 16 


12a. MAITRE DE MOULINS Virgin and Child with Donors 

(MoulinSy Cathedral) 17 

12b. ENGUERRAND CHAREN- Coronation of the Virgin (1>7/- 

TON leneuve-les- Avignon Museum) 17 

13a. SECOND SCHOOL OF AVIG- Christ standing in the Tomb 

NON {Louvre) 1 8 

13b. SECOND SCHOOL OF AVIG- Head of Christ (L<?.w/'^) 18 


14. ROSSO Pieta (Louvre) 19 

15 a. JEAN CLOUET V i2.n(^o\s 1 (Louvre) 22 

15 b. ANTOiNE CARON Princess Sibylle of Julich Cleve 

(Munich) iz 

1 6a. SCHOOL OF FONTAINE- Flora and Attendants (Montpellier, 

BLEAu Private Collection) 23 

1 6b. BRONZING Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time 

(N.G.) 23 

17a. SCHOOL OF FONTAINE- Louise de Lorraine (?) as Venus 

BLEAU (Rouen, Museum) 24 

17b. JEAN COUSIN //f Artemisia (Paris, Private Coll.) 24 

17c. JEAN COUSIN pere Eva Prima Pandora (Lo^z^r^) 24 

18. JEAN CLOUET Fran5ois II as Dauphin (Ant- 

werp. Museum) 25 





20a. EL GRECO 












Gabricllc d'Estrees in her Bath 

{Chantillj) 3 2 

Diana {louvre) 32 

The Martyrdom of St. Maurice 

The Baptism of Clorinda 

The Rest on the Fhght {Grenoble^ 

The Fhght into Egypt {Uech- 

Inspiration of the Poet (Detail), 

Wealth {louvre) 
Qio, Euterpre and Thaha 

Melpomene, Erato and Polym- 

nia {L/)uvre) 
The Death of St. Bruno (Louvre) 
The Mass of St. Martin of 

Tours (Louvre) 
Portrait of a Nun {Avignon^ 

Musee Calvet) 
Peasant Family {Louvre) 


27b. ANTOiNE AND LOUIS LE The Village Pipe {Detroit) 










La Halte du Cavalier {London, 

Victoria (& Albert Alas.) 
Young Bull {The Hague) 
St. Sebastian mourned by 

Women {Berlin) 
Venus in the Forge of Vulcan 

{Rheirns, Museum) 
Peasant Meal {Detroit) 
Self Portrait {Louvre) 
Apollo and Daphne {Louvre) 
Bacchus and Erigone {PariSy 

Private Coll.) 























































Echo and Narcissus {Lj)uvre) 65 

Midas before Bacchus {Munich) 6G 
Apollo and Daphne {SchJeis- 

sheim. Castle Mus. 66 
Rape of the Sabines {Richmond^ 

Cook Coll.) 67 

Finding of Moses {Louvre) 67 
The Port of Ostia : Departure 

of St. Paula {Prado) 70 

Funeral of Phocion {Louvre) 70 

Parnassus {Boston) 71 

Landscape with Two Nymphs 
{Chantilly) yi 

Detail of Ceiling {Versailles) 80 

Alexander entering Babylon 

{Louvre) 80 

Illustrations to lecture : Human 
and animal heads {Louvre) 81 

Eli2abeth Qiarlotte Dowager 
Duchess of Orleans {Ver- 
sailles) 88 

The Lawyer Laideguive {Paris, 
Wildenstetn Coll.) 88 

Presentation in the Temple 

(Louvre) 89 

J. B. Tavernier {Brunswick, Mus.) 89 

Louis XIV at the age of sixty- 
two {Louvre) 89 

Duchesse d'Orleans ( Versailles) 9 8 

The Financier Montmartel and 
his wife {Cherbourg, Mus.) 98 

La Marquise de Seignelay as 
Thetis with Achilles and 
Cupid {London, N.G.) 98 

The Judgement of Paris {Paris, 
Louvre) 99 

L'Accordee de Village {London, 
Soane Mus.) 102 

























































Dctachcmcnt faisant altc {Glas- 
gow^ Art Gallery) 102 

L'Amour au theatre fran^ais 

(Detail), {Berlin) 105 

LeMezzetin {Jdermitage) 103 

La Finette {Juouvre) i o 3 

La Perspective {Boston) 104 

L'Amante inquiete (Chantilly) 104 

Le faux pas (Lauvre) 104 
L'Amour paisible {Berlin^ 

Charlottenberg Castle) 103 

Concert Champetre (Louvre) 103 

L'Embarquement pour I'ile de 

Cythtre. {Berlin, Castle Mus.) 112 

Les Amusements Champetres 

{Wallace) 113 

Drawing {London, British Mus.) 114 
L'Enseigne de Gersaint (detail), 

{Berlin, Charlottenhurg Castle) 115 

Mile Camargo dancing ( Wallace) 118 
La Danse {Coll. former reigning 

Prussian house) 118 

Antoine de la Roque 119 

Mr. Plampin (P. M. Turner Coll.) 119 
Fete Galante {Paris, David Weill 

Coll.) izz 

The Hunt Luncheon {Detroit) 123 

Dejeuner de Chasse (detail), 

{Louvre) 123 
Le Bain {New York, Simpson 

Coll.) izG 
Les deux Baigneuses {Hermitage) 1 26 
Mile Beaujolais {Chantilly) 127 
Mme Victoire as Diana {Ver- 
sailles) I If 
The actor Manelli {St. Ouentin, 
Mus.) ^ 128 




















Le Comte de Bastard (Pans, 
David Weill Coll.) 

MAURiCE-QUENTiN DE LA Mile Fel (St. Quentin^ Mus.) 


Mme de Sorquainville (Paris, 
David Weill Coll.) 

The Toper (Worcester (Mass.), 
Art Mus.) 

Jeune fille et sa grandmere 
(Marseilles, Mus.) 

Le Souffleur (louvre) 






La Liseuse (Louvre) 

Les Tours de Cartes {Hermitage) 

Les Amusements de la vie 
privee (Stockholm, Mus.) 

PHILIPPE DE CHAMPAIGNE La Mere Catherine- Agnes 

Arnaud et la Sceur Catherine 
de Sainte-Suzanne (l^ouvre) 

La Toilette du Matin (Stock- 
holm, Mus.) 

Still life (Boston) 










Still life with Hare (Paris, Wil- 
de nstein Coll.) 

La Recureuse (Glasgow, Hun- 
terian Mus.) 

The Toilet of Venus (Neiv 
York, Metropolitan Mus.) 

The Bath of Diana (L,ouvre) 

Mme de Pompadour (Vienna, 
Baron M. de Rothschild Coll.) 

Mme Boucher (Pans, David 
Weill Coll.) 

The Bagpipe (La Musette), 


























JEAN-HONORE FRAGONARD Lcs Pins dc la Villa Pamphili 

(drawing), {Paris, David Weill 
Coll.) 152 

JEAN-HONORE FRAGONARD La Fontainc d'Amour (K^*?//^^^) 153 

jean-honorh FRAGONARD Lcs Souvcnirs (Les Confidences), 

{New York, Frick Coll.) 134 

jEAN-HONORt FRAGONARD Lcs Pctards (drawing), {Paris, 

David Weill Coll.) 155 

jE.\N-HONOR^ FR.\GONARD Balgneuscs {Louvre) 155 

JEAN-HONORE FRAGONARD La Letttc {Paris, David Weill 

Coll.) 158 

JEAN-HONORE FRAGONARD La Resistance Inutile {Paris, 

David Weill Coll.) 157 

JEAN-HONORE FRAGONARD The Schoolmistress {Wallace) 159 

HUBERT ROBERT Les Fontaines {Chicago) 168 

LOUIS-LEOPOLD BOILLY L'Enfant au fard {Paris, Mttsee 

Cognacq) 169 

L'Arrivee de la Diligence (de- 
tail), {L,ouvre) 169 

Mme du Barry {Coll. of MM. 
Wildenstein et Cie, Paris c>° 
New York) 176 

Self portrait with her pupils 
{Coll. of MM. Wildenstein et 
Cie, Paris e> New York) 176 

Marie Antoinette and her chil- 
dren {Versailles) 177 

L'Artiste {Paris, David Weill 

Coll.) 177 

Paris and Helen (detail), {Louvre) 1 84 

Jupiter and Thetis {Aix-en- 

Provence, Mus.) 185 

Summer {Cleveland, Mus. oj Art) 192 

Death of Marat {Brussels, Mus.) 193 

Death of Bara {V. Avignon, 
Muste Calve t) 193 

Mme Riviere {Louvre) 194 



78. J.-A.-D. INGRES 


81, J.-A,-D. INGRES 




J.-A.-p. INGRES 


















Portrait Drawing {New York, 

Metropolitan Mus.) 195 

Francesca da Rimini {Chantilly) 198 
Head of a Girl {LofjJofi, Sir 

Philip Sassoon Coll.) 199 

Hesiod and the Muse {New Yorky 

A.. 'Lewisohn Coll.) 199 

Oriental Lion Hunt {Chicago) 208 
Pieta {Boston) 209 

Venice {Australia, Melbourne Mus. ) 2 1 6 
Honfleur-Maisons sur les Quais 

{Paris, MM. Paul Rosenberg 

Coll.) 216 

Mme Dufresne {Paris, David 

Weill Coll.) 217 

Dans I'atelier {Lyons, Mus.) 217 

Deer in a Forest {Minneapolis, 

Institute of Arts) zz^ 

La Soupe {Marseilles, Mus.) 225 
Les Amateurs d'Estampes 

{Louvre) z^z 

Les Amateurs d'Estampes 

{'London, Messrs. Reid c^ 

Lefevre Coll.) 232 

Les Amateurs de Peinture 

{Cleveland, Mus. of Art) 233 

Don Quixote {London, S. Cour- 

tauld Coll.) 234 

La Curee (The Quarry), (5(?j"/o/;) 235 
Le Depart {U.S.A., Private Coll.) 23 5 
Victorine en costume d'Espada 

{New York, Metropolitan Mus.) 238 
Jesus insulted by the Soldiers 

{Chicago) 239 

Engraving after Raphael : The 

Judgement of Paris (detail) 242 
Le Dejeuner sur I'herbe {Louvre) z^z 
Le Balcon {Louvre) 243 


















Eve Gonzales (Ta/e N.G.) 246 

Le Linge (Pan's, Gallimard Coll.) 247 
La Servante de Bocks {Taie) 248 
Le Bar des Folics Berg^rcs 

{London, S. Court auld Coll) 248 
The Seine {New York, A. 

h^wishon Coll.) 249 

La Falaise de Fecamp {Aberdeen, 

Art Gallery) 249 

Petite fille a rarrosoir {New 

York, Mr. <& Mrs. Chester 

Dale Coll.) 256 

La Place Pigalle {London, S. 

Court auld Coll. ) z^^-j 

Le Moulin dc la Galette {jJ.S.A., 

Private Coll.) 257 

Baigneuses {Philadelphia, Tyson 

Coll.) 238 

Femme allaitant son enfant 

{London, Mrs. Chester Beattj 

Coll.) 259 

Circus Children {Chicago) 262 

Les Chapeaux d'ete {Chicago, 

Art Institute, Rjerson Coll.) iG^ 
Femme allaitant son enfant 

{Paris, Pierre Renoir Coll.) 264 
The Shoelace {London, S. 

Courtauld Coll.) 264 

Gabrielle aux bijoux {Paris,Paul 

Guillaume Coll) 265 

Les Courses a Longchamp 

{Chicago) 272 

Le Phare, Honfleur {London, 

Messrs. Keid & Lefevre Coll.) 272 
Diego Martelli {London, Messrs. 

Reid <i^ Lefevre Coll.) 273 

Le Dejeuner des Canotiers 

{Washington, Phillips Memorial 

Gallery) 273 














1 1 8b. 


1 1 8c. 













124a. RAPHAEL 

Au Moulin Rouge {Chicago, Art 
Institute, Birch Bartlett Coll.) 

Un Cafe : Boulevard Mont- 
martre (pastel), {louvre) 

Cupid a Captive {Wallace) 

Le Ballet (pastel), {Glasgow^ 
Private Coll.) 

La Danseuse au bouquet saluant 
sur la scene {JLouvre) 

Le Foyer de la danse {Scotland, 
Private Coll.) 

Aux Ambassadeurs {Lyons, Mus.) z-j^ 

Au bar : Alfred la Guigne {New 
York, Mr. (& Mrs. Chester 
Dale Coll.) 

A la mie {Scotland, D. W. T. 
Car gill Coll.) 

L' Absinthe {louvre) 

Le Buveur dAbsinthe {Copen- 
hagen, Carlsberg Mus.) 

Stacking Hay {London, S. Cour- 

tauld Coll.) 
Jacob wrestling with the Angel 

{Edinburgh, National Gallery 

of Scotland) 

la Orana Maria (Ave Maria), 
{New York, A. Lem'sohn Coll.) 

Te Reriva (La Case), {London, S. 
Courtauld Coll.) 

Nevermore {London, S. Cour- 
tauld Coll.) 

L'Arlesienne {New York, A. 
Lewishon Collection) 

La Toilette {Chicago) 

Bedroom at Aries {Chicago) 

The School of Athens {Rome, 























Lcs grandcs Baigneuses {Paris, 
Pellerin Coll.) 303 

La Montagnc Sainte-Victoire 
{Landon, S. Courtauld Coll.) 304 

The Wood {Hinchitigbrooke, Earl 
of Sandwich Coll.) 305 

Drawing. The Wood {Haarlef»y 
Teyler Mus.) 305 

Le Lac d'Annecy (London, S. 

Courtauld Coll.) 306 

Drawing. The Tiber above 

Rome {London, British Mus.) 307 

Paysage du Midi (Paris, Paul 
Guillaume Coll.) 307 

L'homme a la pipe {London, S. 
Courtauld Coll.) 310 

Gustave GefFroy {Paris, Pellerin 
Coll.) 311 

Still life {Amiens, Mus.) 312 

Still life with clock {Collection of 
MM. Wildenstein et Cie, Paris 
<^ New York) 5 1 2 

Le Pot de Fleurs {London, S. 
Courtauld Coll.) 313 

Apples {Paris, Etienne Bignou Coll.)^ 1 3 

Un Dimanche d'Ete a la Grande 
Jatte {Chicago) 314 

Le Pont de Courbevoie {London, 
S. Courtauld Coll.) 315 

Landscape study for La Grande 
Jatte {London, Mrs. Chester 
Beattj Coll.) 3 1 5 

Le Cirque {Louvre) 3 1 8 

Le Chahut {The Hague, Mvie 
Kroller-Muller Coll.) 319 

LE DOUANiER ROUSSEAU Flowcr Piece {Paris, Collection of 

the Galerie Georges Petit) 







































Fleurs de Poete {Paris, Paul 
Guillaume Coll.) 

Jungle with Wild Beasts {New 
York, Mr. €>* Mrs. Chester 
Dale Coll.) 

Jungle with Monkeys (U.S.A., 
Private Coll.) 

The Wedding {Paris, Paul Guil- 
laume Brandon Davis Coll.) 

Petite Fille a 1' Eventail {Paris, 
MM. Paul Rosenberg Coll.) 

Orpheus {Cleveland, Mus. of Art) 

Abstract Composition {New 
York, V. Dudensing Coll.) 

Still Life Abstraction {Paris, 
Private Coll.) 

Mother and Child {Berlin, Col- 
lection of the Gallery Flechtheim) 

Jeune Femme accoudee {New 
York, A. hewisohn Coll.) 







Kaiser Friedrich Museum, Berlin 


Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 




Musee Conde, Chantilly 
Art Institute, Chicago 
Institute of Art, Detroit 




The Mauritshuis, The Hague 
Hermitage Gallery, Leningrad 
Prince Liechtenstein's Coll., Vienna 


Paris, The Louvre 


Alte Pinakothek, Munich 


National Gallery, London 
Madrid, The Prado 



National Gallery of British Art, Millbank 
Wallace Collection, London 



i. The Importance of the Present 

The study of art-history is stupid and dangerous pedantry 
unless it helps us to understand and appreciate the 
original painting of our own day. 

\\'e have not made the most of a visit to Chartres Cathedral 
unless the direct observation and calligraphic technique of the 
glass paintings (PI. 2) have helped us to understand the direct 
observ^ation and calligraphic technique in the work of The 
Douanier Rousseau (PI. 139) who died in 19 10, and of M. Henri 
Matisse (PI. 144), who is painting in Paris to-day. 

\\"e have misunderstood the art of Claude le Lorrain unless 
we realise that his approach to nature, as revealed in his drawings 
(Pis. 126b and 128a), was the same in character as that of 
Cezanne (Pis. 125, 127, and XII) and of the modern painter AI. 
Andre Derain (Pis. 126a and 128b). 

\\"e have missed the most helpful significance of the intimate 
contact with root simplicities that we find in the Virgin (PI. 8), 
ascribed to the Maitre de Moulins, unless it has enabled us to 
enjoy the same quality in ha petite filk a I'evantail (^\. 140) by 
Pablo Picasso, the central artist of the Ecole de Paris in the first 
quarter of our own century. 

According to most art-historians painting always becomes 
chaotic and decadent about the moment they were born. Rose 
Kingsley wrote in 1899 a well-informed History of French Art, 
1 100-1899, ^^ which she had assistance from Leonce Benedite, 
Conservateur du Musee du Luxembourg, Andre Michel, Conservateur 
ati Musee du louvre, and Roger Marx, Inspecteur principal des 
Musees ; in this book the names of Cezanne, Seurat, Gauguin 
and Van Gogh are not mentioned though in 1899 Cezanne was 
sixty, Seurat had been dead nine years, Van Gogh eight, and 
Gauguin had already painted all his most celebrated pictures. 
M. Louis Hourticq, an art-liistorian of enormous erudition and 
brilliant powers of analysis and synthesis, writing the liistory of 
French art as recently as 1919, thirteen years after Cezanne's 
death and sixteen years after the death of Gauguin, speaks of 
them as " ai'ant garde " painters, and describes their work as 



" decadent " — the art-historian's favourite adjective for recent 
or contemporary painting which he does not understand ; and 
even Spengler, in his majestic attempt to master the principles 
of the morphology of art history, has clearly imagined that art 
became " chaotic " somewhere about 1870. 

I have not, I hope, fallen into that particular error in this 
book. I know that the art of the present is more important to 
us than the art of the past ; I know that French art did not 
cease after David and Ingres, or after the Impressionists, or after 
Gauguin and Van Gogh ; and I know that it has not ceased 
after the Cubist-Classical Renaissance. I know that Degas was 
important because he made the work of Toulouse-Lautrec 
possible ; that Cezanne and Seurat were important because 
they opened paths for Picasso and Matisse ; and that these 
artists in their turn are important because they have opened up 
fresh fields for the original artists who have succeeded them. 
I know that the business of the art-historian is to try to under- 
stand the original work of his own day and to regard the art 
of the past as material for that end ; and I know that in so doing 
the historian is approaching the art of the past in exactly the 
spirit in which it has always been approached by original 
artists themselves.^ 

ij. A Picture is an Object 

A picture is an object. Behind that object there stands the 
artist ; in front there stands the spectator. 

Art history is concerned with these objects and the artists who 
made them. Art critics, aesthetic philosophers, and recorders of 
their own reactions — ^whom we may call " writers on art " to 
distinguish them from the art-historians — are concerned with 
the objects and the spectators. 

It is the fashion among writers on art at the moment to 
maintain that art history is dull and useless, and that only 
writing about art is of value. 

I do not agree. Firstly because, as I have said, art history can 
help us to understand contemporary production ; and secondly 

^ As Watteau, for example, approached Giorgione in 1716, and Manet 
approached Giorgione in 1863 (cf. Pis. 46a, 46b, 97b). 


Worcester (Mass.). Art Miisctoii 

FIRST SCHOOL OF A\ IGNON. \'in;in and Child with Saint and Donur. 

Chartres Cathedral 

GLASS PAINTING (Xlllth CENTURY). Heads from Windows. 


because in a restaurant where Kedgeree is always on the 
menu I want to know what every dish is made of before I 
begin to eat it. 

iij. We cannot understand a Picture by just looking at it 

An interest in an object involves an interest in its character, 
which can only be discovered when we know the purpose of 
the object and the conditions of its production. 

\\"e cannot understand and discover the real character of a 
picture by just looking at it. We can only discover it by finding 
out the aims of the artist and learning something of his 

iv. The Importance of Money 

A picture is an object made by a man. A man cannot paint 
unless he is alive. A man cannot remain alive unless he owns, 
makes, or is given money. 

At all periods pictures have been produced as trade objects to 
make money. At some periods there have also been pictures 
that can only be described as products of the spirit. 

The first thing to discover in order to understand a picture is 
whether it belongs to the one category or the other. 

It is only in this way that we can arrive at its social or meta- 
physical significance. 

At the present moment there are literally thousands of men 
painting pictures all day all over Europe and America. Unless 
the work of these men has a metaphysical or social justification 
it is worthless. 

There have been times, as I show in this book, when the 
necessity of a social justification for picture-painting was taken 
for granted, and when artists were expected to earn their living 
by their work. 

At the present moment it is fashionable to maintain that a 
picture-painting need have no social justification ; that it is 
purely a metaphysical activity. 

In practice this means that the artists who are now ranked 
most highly are the artists with independent incomes and the 
fanatics who regard the painting of pictures as a vocation of 

d XXV 


such value that it should absolve them from the necessity of 
earning their living and justify them in demanding to be kept 
by other people. 

v. Do we need these Gentlemen and Fanatics ? 

\X e have arrived at this point of view because since the French 
Revolution all the most conspicuously original artists have been 
Frenchmen or foreigners working in Paris ; and in Paris since the 
Revolution there has been no real social demand for pictures. 

In these circumstances the artists have fallen inevitably into 
two classes. In the one class there have been the popular 
artists who painted pictures that flattered the spectator in one 
way or another and thereby extracted for themselves the money 
they required ; and in the other we have had {a) original artists 
like Corot, Courbet, Manet, Degas, Toulouse-Lautrec, Cezanne, 
Seurat, Gauguin and Van Gogh, who had independent incomes 
or were kept by their relations, {b) original artists who were kept 
by one or two patrons and dealers, as Monet and Renoir were 
kept (and as Watteau had been kept at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century), and (c) original artists who also produced 
popular work for a livelihood — Ingres, for example, who drew 
pencil portraits, and Daumier who drew political and social 
cartoons for the newspapers.^ 

The artist in the first position has an obvious social justifica- 
tion of the same kind as the music-hall performer or the popular 
novelist. The artist in the second must be regarded either as a 
spiritual benefactor of humanity, or a social parasite, according 
to our hghts. 

The artist who regards liimself as following a vocation which 
can only be metaphysically justified is now a characteristic 
phenomenon in social life ; and society may soon have to decide 
either {a) that it must take steps to propagate these gentlemen 

^ For the distinction between original and popular art cf. my Modern 
Movement in Art, passim. Very broadly the difference corresponds to the 
two types of production to which I refer here — trade objects produced to 
make money and products of the spirit. Popular artists who flatter the 
familiar experience of some type of spectator can, of course, always make a 
living if they know their business. 



and fanatics for its own spiritual benefit, or else {h) that it can 
get what it requires from the popular artists, the illustrated 
newspapers, and the cinema, and can dispense with the activity 
of the vocational artists altogether. 

Whether society will decide one way or the other is obviously 
a matter of vital importance to the original artists of to-day and 
to-morrow, and it may prove to be a matter of vital importance 
to society itself. 

To discover the metaphysical and social character of the 
pictures of the past, by discovering how far they have been 
products of the spirit and how far trade objects produced to 
make money, is, therefore, now not only a matter of importance 
for the student of art histor}% but also a matter of importance for 
ever\^ thinking man. 

I believe that, at this juncture, the most useful way to study 
art histor}' is to begin {a) by inquiring who painted each picture, 
when and why ; and who, if any one, bought or commissioned 
it, and when or why ; and then {b) to look at the picture and then 
(c) to go on looking at it. 

In approaching this inquiry, I have therefore begun by an 
attempt to discover what the position of French artists was 
before the modern concept of the gentleman-or-fanatic-artist 
appeared ; and the reader will find that I have been able to tell 
him in most cases how men like the French Primitives and the 
French seventeenth- and eighteenth-century artists contrived to 
spend all their days painting pictures (many of which were pro- 
ducts of the spirit), and at the same time to be regarded as people 
who justified their existence from the social point of view. 

vi. Continuities in French Painting 

French art, as the illustrations in this book indicate, has 
manifested itself in many forms. But certain continuities run 
all through it. I have tried to demonstrate these continuities 
in my choice of illustrations. 

The French have always shown the greatest hospitality to 
foreign artists. From the earliest times they welcomed Flemish 
and Italian painters and encouraged them to settle in their 
midst. But they have never worshipped strange gods ; they 



have always induced the strange gods to come and worship at 
the feet of France, by the simple process of making France an 
exceptionally agreeable place to live in. In this way French art 
has been continually fertilised by original artists bom in other 
lands ; and this process continues to this day. 

French painting has been able by this means repeatedly to 
derive sustenance not only from the architectural genius of the 
Italians but even from the popular genre tendencies of the Low 
Countries ; and in the eighteenth century we find artists like 
Riguad, Chardin, Nattier, Fragonard and others deriving tricks 
and inspiration from the art of Rembrandt.^ 

We can trace the contribution of the Italian architectural 
genius from the First School of Avignon through Le Sueur, 
Claude and Poussin, Chardin, Louis David, Puvis de Chavannes, 
Cezanne and Seurat to the work of the modern Spaniard M. 
Pablo Picasso whom the French, in accordance with their tra- 
ditions, have encouraged to make Paris his home.^ 

But the French artists have always applied the power and 
knowledge thus acquired to their own ends ; and they have 
drawn on these foreign elements for the pageant and decorative 
painting which their civilisation has repeatedly encouraged, and 
for that expression of intimate contact with root simplicities 
to which I have already referred.^ 

A special aspect of this engaging contact with root simplicities 
can be seen in French pictures with the Mother and Child motif 
from the time of the Primitives to the present day. Fragonard 
(PI. 72b), Millet (PI. 90) and Renoir (PI. 106) all felt the same 
about a baby's feet.* 

In the French pageant-pictures we observe a change of 
material after the French Revolution. Before that time the 

^ Cf. Plates 40, 56b, 58, 62b, 63, 71 and 72. 

2 Cf. Plates 5, 25, 35, 126a, 128b, 31b, 34, 35b, 36c, 62a, 71, 73, 77, 78, 79, 
84b, 97b, 105, 108, 109b, 110, iiib, 124b, 131a, 131b, 132a, 132b, 135, 142a, 
142b, and 145. 

^ For the continuity of this most engaging aspect of French painting cf. 
Plates 2, 8, 23, 26, 27a, III, 59, V, 90, 103, 107, 113a, 115b, 129, 139. This 
quality in French painting also takes possession of the foreign artists in 
France such as Van Gogh and Picasso (cf. Plates 122, 125b, 140). 

* Cf. Plates I, 5, 12a, 72b, 90, 106, 109a. Here, again, we find French 
influence on the foreign artists of the Idcok de Paris (cf. PI. 143). 



pageant-pictures were influenced by the ecclesiastical plays 
with three stages (cf. PI. 12b), and later by court spectacles and 
theatrical and operatic performances — professional and amateur; 
after the Revolution the artists began to seek and find pageantry 
not only in the theatre but also in other places of public 
entertainment with their garish decorations and bright 

Drama, properly so called, has always also been a feature of 
French art ; we can trace it from the Primitive Martyrdoms and 
Crucifixions (Pis. 5, 4 and loa) and the great Avignon Pieta (PL 
1 1), through Le Sueur's Death of Saint Bnmo (PI. 24) and Poussin's 
Rape of the Sabiries (PI. 54a) to the light comedy of Fragonard's 
Lf Baiser a la derohee (PI. V) and l^a Resistance Inutile (PI. 72a), 
the sordid drama of the underworld in modern cities as portrayed 
by Lautrec (Pis. 117 and 11 8a), the mystic drama of Rcdon 
(PI. 141) and the architectural drama of M. Picasso (PL 
142a). 2 

French painters up to the twentieth century have always 
produced characteristic portraiture. In our own day portrait 
painting makes no appeal to original French artists who as 
intelligent people surrender to the popular artists and to the 
camera that which the camera can do indisputably well. But 
from the Clouets to Rigaud and Largilliere, from \X atteau, 
Boucher, Nattier, La Tour and Perroneau to David and Prudhon, 
from Ingres to Degas, Lautrec, Cezanne and The Douanier 
Rousseau, there has hitherto been uninterrupted production in 
this field.' 

Landscape-painting has been practised by French artists with 
ever-increasing enthusiasm from the landscape backgrounds in 
the early pictures (PL 7b) through the achievements of Claude 
and Poussin in the seventeenth centur\% of Watteau, Hubert 
Robert, Louis-Gabriel Moreau, and Claude-Joseph Vemet in the 
eighteenth, to those of Corot, the Impressionists, and the artists 

^ Cf. Plates 23a, 23b, 37a, 37b, 41b, 41C, III, 44a, 47, 51a, 56b, 64a, 66b, 
114a, 67, 73, 77, 78, 83, 95, loib, 104b, 114b, 115a, 116, 117, 133 and 136. 

- For this continuity as illustrated here cf. Pis. 3, 4, 10, 11, 14, 24, 29, 34a, 
IV, 72a, 74, 80a, 80b, 83, 85, 86, 87, 96, 113b, 117, ii8a, 119b, 141, 142a. 

^ Cf. Plates 15a, 15b, 18, 40b, 39a, 40a, III, 44a, 44c, 45b, 66a, 65, 39b, 36, 
57a, 37b, 37c, 37^, IV, 84a, 88a, 81, 82, 99, 112a, 130, 139. 



of the Cubist-Classical Renaissance (Pis. iiib, 134a, 134b, 125, 
127, XI, 126a, i28b).i 

The Romantic movement of the nineteenth century was partly 
an Anglo-German creation, but the French painters about 1825 
notoriously developed it in striking forms. The substitution of 
the Romantic search for unusual emotive fragments for the 
Classical search for formal harmony and order was definitely 
made by the French Romantic movement; and the French 
Romantic painters from 1825 to the present day exhibit an 
intensity in their emotive stresses and a courage in their emotive 
distortions that have never been approached or rivalled except 
by Michelangelo and Rembrandt.^ 

Lastly, we have the French as the painters of women. Here 
we can trace continuities and metamorphoses from the gravity of 
Fouquet (PI. 5), Charenton (PI. 6), and the Maitre de JMoulins 
(PI. 8), through the Fontainebleau school, to a new gravity in 
Le Sueur (Pis. 23a, 23b and 25) and Louis Le Nain (PI. 26) ; 
from the discreet flamboyance of the women portrayed by 
Largilliere and Nattier to the daintiness of Watteau's ha Finette 
(PI. 44c) and the majesty of his second model (Pis. 42, 45b, 50) ; 
and from the modish elegantes of Boucher (Pis. 64a, 65, 66a) and 
the calm ladies of Chardin (PI. 60a) to Fragonard's petites jemmes 
(Pis. 70a and 70b, and 71) — who created the petites femmes of 
the estampe galante and h,a Vie Parisienne. At the eve of the 
Revolution we get a different concept in the lecherous " pretty 
girls " of Greuze,^ and the desirable lassies of Boilly (Pis. 74a 
and 74b). Louis David started a new tradition, Ingres another, 
Manet a third. Degas a fourth that culminated in Lautrec ; and 
finally we get Renoir — perhaps the greatest painter of women 
who has ever lived.* 

^ For the full series illustrated cf. Pis. 7b, 12b, 28a, 21b, 31b, 33b, 34b, 
35a, 35b, 36a, 36b, 43, 45, 47, 48, 53, 67, 73, VII, 87a, 87b, VIII, IX, X, 
iiib, 134a, 134b, 125, 127, XI, 126a, 126b, 128a, 128b. M. Matisse has also 
painted many landscapes. 

^ Cf. Plates 8, 13a, 78, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 90, 92, 93, 112a, 113a, 114b, 117, 
1 1 8a, 1 18b, 119b, i2ib, 139, 144. Here, too, we get Van Gogh and 
M. Picasso influenced (Pis. 122, 123b, 123b, 140). 

^ No plates. 

* Pis. 104b, 105, 106, no. 



vij. Difficulties oj my Task 

Most writers on art appear to suffer from a complex against 
facts and figures. They continually refer to pictures without tell- 
ing us where they can be seen, and they rarely provide informa- 
tion about the time of their production. Even the compilers of 
art-dictionaries indulge in writing on art, instead of sticking to 
art-history, and generally give us more adjectives than dates. 

I have felt it necessary to discover and record the present 
whereabouts of every picture I have mentioned, and wherever 
possible to give dates. 

The lists of Characteristic Pictures and their whereabouts, 
which figure at the head of my notes on some of the outstanding 
artists, are not put forward as complete catalogues but as repre- 
senting the minimum of works by the particular artists of which 
the student must have some knowledge before he can form a 
reasonable estimate of the range and character of that artist's 
work. I have seen the majority of the pictures which I have 
chronicled ; of the others I have had photographs before me at 
the time of writing. 

The compilation of these lists and the discovery of dates have 
been matters of great difficulty — chiefly by reason of the art- 
writers' complexes stigmatised above. But in certain cases I 
have been able to use recent catalogues compiled by art historians 
and in such cases I have referred to them in the text. 

Another difftculty with which I have had to contend is the 
disgraceful condition of the pictures in the Louvre. A large 
proportion of the most interesting French pictures have passed 
in various ways, which I have indicated in the text, to the 
national collection. Most of the Louvre pictures are in need 
of cleaning and conditioning. Many are so covered with 
filth and discoloured varnish that it is quite impossible even to 
guess at their real appearance. The same applies to the condition 
of most of the pictures in French provincial museums. Wherever 
possible I have had, therefore, to supplement my studies in the 
French galleries by the study of examples in galleries and private 
collections where the pictures have been properly cleaned. 

I make no claim to have discovered any new facts or pictures. I 
have, of course, availed myself of the labours of the many erudite 



French historians who have written works about the various 
periods. But I can, I think, claim that the information assembled 
does not exist in any recent book on the subject in English, and 
that the reader would have to wade through a number of large 
unindexed French volumes to collect it for himself. 

I make, of course, no claim to have written a complete 
history of French painting, which would be quite impossible 
in a book of this size. 

viij. Acknowledgments 

I am greatly indebted to the private collectors who have 
allowed me to reproduce their pictures. In particular I must 
thank on my own behalf and that of my readers M. David Weill, 
of Paris, Mr. Samuel Courtauld of London, and Mr. Adolph 
Lewisohn of New York, who all threw their doors open to me 
and gave me a general permission to reproduce as many pictures 
as I liked. As the reader will see I have availed myself freely of 
these generous permissions. I am also indebted to the brilHant 
art scholar M. Charles Terrasse, Charge de mission an Musk du 
Louvre^ who facilitated my recent studies in the Louvre ; and to 
MM. Wildenstein et Cie, Paris and New York, M. Etienne 
Bignou and M. Paul Guillaume of Paris, Messrs. Reid and 
Lefevre of London, Messrs. Knoedler, London and New York, 
and the Directors of the Leicester Galleries, London, for expert 
assistance, photographs, and books. Wliile I have acknowledged 
most of the photographs underneath the illustrations, I should 
Hke to thank also the Curators of the following Museums : 
Metropolitan Museum, New York ; Cleveland Museum of Art, 
Ohio ; Art Institute of Chicago ; Detroit Institute of Arts ; 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ; Worcester (Mass.) Art Museum ; 
Minneapolis Institute of Arts ; and for permission to reproduce, 
the following photographers: Messrs. Mansell, Giraudon, 
Alinari, Anderson, Hansfstaengl and Braun. 

I have to thank Sir Robert and Lady Witt and their librarians 
who have been most kind and helpful on the many occasions 
when I have consulted their library of photographs ; Mr. W. F. 
Mansell who lent me several hundred photographs from his 
collection and allowed me to keep them for many months ; and 
my secretary Miss Muriel Skillington who has helped me in 
countless ways. 



Piiris. Louxre 


Plate 4 



i. Painting in Feudal France 

ij. The First School of Avignon 
iij. The First School of Paris 
iv. The First School of Burgundy 

V. The Due de Berry's Manuscripts 


i. The Second School of Burgundy 
ij . Kene of Anjou and Nicolas Froment 
iij . The Second School of Avignon 
iv. Charles Vll^ Fouis XI a?id fean Fouquet 
V. fean Fouquet 
vi. Charles VIII, Louis XII and the Mattre de 

vij. The Alattre de Moulins 
viij . The New Italian Taste 

JtAN FOUQUET. \irgin and Child. 

Villeneuve-les-A vignon . 

ENGUERRAND CMARENTON. Con.nati-.n ..f the \ iruin. Detail of Plate 12b. 



i. Painting in Veudal I ranee 

The artist in the modern world refuses to be ranked among 
artisans or tradesmen ; he claims the right to be regarded 
as a member of a liberal profession and sometimes to be following 
a vocation. I le is nobody's servant and nobody is responsible 
for his existence. 

No French artists attained or aspired to this position till the 
reign of Louis XIII. ^ In Feudal France there were at first 
artist-valets, artist-monks and artist-artisans ; and when the 
first independent artists appeared they were artisan-tradesmen 
without pretension to any other rank. 

The artist-valets were originally in the regular service of the 
King. They were attached to the Lord Chamberlain's depart- 
ment of the King's household. They bore the title oi peintre et 
valet de chambre du rot ; they were concerned with the King's 
comforts and pleasures, and they were expected to be architects, 
sculptors, decorators, painters of easel pictures, designers of 
tapestry, cabinet makers, book makers, pageant masters and so 
forth. When King Jean le Bon (13 5 0-1564) was brought as a 
prisoner to England he was accompanied by an artist-valet, one 
Girard of Orleans, who had made him at various times a litter, 
a number of chairs, a tailor's dummy and a set of chessmen. 
W hen the royal establishments became larger and the number of 
artist-valets increased, their functions were divided, and the 
man considered suitable was selected for the post of premier 
peintre du roi with jurisdiction over all the decorative works in the 
Lord Chamberlain's department. This system remained in force 
with modifications till the Revolution.^ 

The artist-monks were in the regular service of the Church. 
They worked in monasteries where they wrote and illustrated 

' Cf. pp. 7, 58, 83, 84. 

* The system was imitated in the establishments of other members of 
the royal family and at the noblemen's Courts. From the thirteenth 
century to the Revolution Queens, Princes and nobles as well as Kings had 
artists attached to their establishments. 


ecclesiastical manuscripts. These manuscripts were used in the 
monasteries and they were also sold for ecclesiastical purposes ; 
sufficient survive to indicate that the style of the monks' illustra- 
tions was based on traditions which went back to the earliest 
Christian art at Byzantium. Illustrated manuscripts had been a 
powerful instrument in the propagation of the faith among 
illiterate populations in the early middle ages. It was thanks to 
the manuscripts that the Byzantine conceptions of the appearance 
and attributes of the sacred characters permeated to all Christian 
countries and were adopted everywhere by the Church for early 
mediaeval sculpture and mosaics and for the painted windows 
of the great cathedrals. The formal character of this style is well 
known. It persisted in Russia right up to the recent Revolution. 
Its essence was the deliberate dehumanisation of sacred figures 
in order that they might appear impressive and aloof. The 
French artist-monks drew such figures in their manuscripts in 
the thirteenth century. 

The artist-artisans were in the regular service of the builders 
of the Gothic cathedrals ; they had incessant occupation all 
through the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries ; they covered 
the porches with sculpture and filled the windows with painted 
glass. From the many examples of this glass painting which 
have fortunately survived we know that the painters were 
influenced by the illustrated manuscripts — though it must be 
noted that these glass paintings in turn influenced later genera- 
tions of illustrators who found that the patterns of the leading 
in the windows gave them new ideas. 

These superb cathedral windows are outside my subject. But 
I must note, in passing, that, though the glass painters in a 
cathedral such as Chartres were ordered by the Church to retain 
the former Byzantine style when representing sacred characters, 
they were given a relatively free hand in narrative scenes in which 
they recorded their fresh and direct observation of the life around 
them. I reproduce some thirteenth-century heads from the 
Chartres windows (PI. 2). In our photograph-sodden age it is 
hard for the layman to appreciate this naif calligraphic art, where 
every line is a record of a new realisation of life as expressed in 
form, and not a record of some momentary appearance of form 
in light. But its qualities have been fully realised by certain 


intelligent and widely cultivated artists of the modern French 
school. i\I. Matisse and the I'am'es have made great efforts to 
recapture the vitality of these paintings by their countrymen who 
worked as simple artisans seven centuries ago ; and when we 
come to the latest aspects of French painting we shall find them, 
in appearance, most singularly like the first. 

Independent artist-artisans were very exceptional figures in 
thirteenth-centur)' France, and it would seem from the records 
that they were shopkeepers and tavern-keepers who illustrated 
manuscripts in their spare time and offered them for sale. But 
in the fourteenth ccntur}^ the independent painter becomes less 
exceptional, especially in Paris, which was now the seat of the 
monarchy, with a Court, a University and a considerable number 
of well-to-do citizens willing to buy not only ecclesiastical, but 
also secular manuscripts. A new class of independent book- 
making-artisans accordingly arose in response to this demand, 
and these men with secular customers to please soon found them- 
selves abandoning the fixed traditions of the Byzantine st}-le, 
though there was still a tendency to retain them when delineating 
the sacred figures. A pioneer among these new illustrators was 
one Jean Pucclle, who won so high a reputation that he was 
commissioned by Charles IV (13 22-1 3 28) to paint a Book of 
Hours for the Queen ; he also painted the celebrated Breviaire 
de Belleville preserved in the Biblioth^que Nationale in Paris. 

At the same time we note the appearance in Paris of the first 
independent painters of easel pictures. But before considering 
their productions we must glance at the Papal Court at Avignon, 
an art centre from which the Parisian painting w^as derived. 

ij. The First School of Avignon 

The Papal Court at Avignon played a most important part in 
the development of French Gothic painting. The Papacy was 
established in Avignon in 1309 and remained till 1370; two 
Antipopes reigned there between 1378 and 1424. The Palace 
of the Popes was primarily a fortress, since the Papacy had 
migrated to France for security ; but within the fortress there 
was a palace, and this dual character is apparent to this day. The 
Avignon Popes, though not Italian, were in touch with Italian 



art. The structure of the Palace is Italian, not French, in style ; 
and Italian artists were summoned to decorate the walls. The 
Sienese master Simone Martini went to Avignon in 1339 and 
died there five years later. In the Audience Chamber and the 
Chapels of St. John the Baptist and St. Martial in the Palace 
we can still see frescoes, representing saints and sacred subjects, 
in the Sienese-Florentine fourteenth-century style. In the 
Garderobe Tower, moreover, we also see frescoes (now much 
repainted) representing outdoor scenes, hunting, bathing, fruit- 
gathering and so forth in a style resembling the "verdure" 
type of Gothic tapestry which inspired William Morris. 

In addition to the frescoes in the Palace numerous easel 
pictures were produced at and round Avignon in this Papal 
period. These works of this first School of Avignon were 
fundamentally Italian in st}de, but they also show cosmopolitan 
elements. For the Papal Court itself was cosmopolitan ; Avig- 
non lay on the main route to Italy ; there was continual passage 
through the city of French and Flemish artists to Italy, and of 
Italian artists to the North ; travellers, artists and dealers came 
and went bringing Italian pictures for royal and noble patrons 
in Flanders and France. In particular there was continuous 
contact with Milan where the Cathedral, begun in 1386, gave 
work to artists of many different nationalities.^ 

As an example of the cosmopolitan style of this first School 
of Avignon, which was the foundation of the first School of 
Paris, I reproduce the charming Virgin and Child with Saint and 
Donor (PI. i), in the Museum of Worcester, Massachusetts. 
Here we have the gentle spirit and the formalism of Sienese art 
together with characters in the drapery that recall the early 
pictures of the School of Catalonia.'' 

1 Between 1386 and 1401 many French artists of eminence were working 
there ; and a Parisian architect, Philippe Bonaventure, who went there in 
1 3 89, was in charge, apparentlj'^, of the whole operations for two years. The 
French architects and artisans were welcomed at Milan for the first fifteen 
years of the construction of the Cathedral. After that, presumably because 
they became so numerous that the Italians became jealous, the work was 
carried on exclusively by Italians. Traces of French — notably Burgundian-^ — 
architecture, attributed to these migrations to Milan, are to be found in 
various Italian cathedrals and churches. 

^ Many of these are preserved in the Museum at Barcelona. 



Paris. LoHvri- 

FRENCH SCHOOL, c. 1470. St. Louis and St. John the Baptist. 
Detail of Plate loa. 

MAITRE DE MOULINS. The \'iru'in. Detail <.f The Nativity. 


iij. The I'irst School of Paris 

King C;h:irlcs V (1364-13 80) built the fortress castle of the 
Bastille and the fortress-palace known as the Old Louvre. His 
predecessor, Jean le Bon, already referred to, had ordered his 
artists to decorate the walls of his Chateau de V'audreuil with 
religious subjects and hunting scenes ; Charles V ordered his 
artists to paint similar frescoes in the Louvre and in the Queen's 
palace of St. Pol. The frescoes in the Queen's palace are said to 
have represented " a forest of trees covered with fruit, mingled 
with shrubs and flowers, among which birds and other animals 
disported and cliildren ran eating fruit and picking flowers." 
From this description it is clear that this Parisian decorative 
style resembled the paintings in the Garderobe Tower at 

The first easel pictures produced by the independent artists in 
Paris date from the reign of Charles VI (13 86-1422), who lives 
in history as Charles le Fou. In the early part of his reign there 
was a temporary cessation of the war with England, a brief 
period of peace before Henry V led his army to Agincourt in 
141 5. In this period Paris enjoyed prosperity. The royal and 
feudal courts were extravagant and willing to buy objects of 
luxury of all kinds, more indeed than could be supplied by the 
artists attached to their establishments. In these conditions the 
independent painters of easel pictures arose and prospered. By 
the end of the century they had become so notable they were 
recognised as a distinct class of trading artisans, and in 1391 
they were granted a Charter on the basis of which they were 
subsequently organised as the Guild of St. Luke, known as the 

From this time forward the Parisian artists all belong either to 
the class of royal or ducal domestics or to the class of indepen- 
dent artisans organised in their own trade association, which soon 
adopted the Guild system of apprenticeship terminating in the 
rank of Master. In Feudal France neither class was sutiiciently 

^ The Maitrise was a corporation and the members had the dual status of 
artisan and merchant, the second being considered the more reputable as it 
carried with it certain civic rights — the exact opposite of the relative status 
of the artist and the dealer in later times. (Cf. pp. 83, 84, 122 and 175.) 


numerous for any conflict to arise. The demand for art still 
greatly exceeded the supply. But later, under Louis XIII and 
Louis XIV, the mutual jealousy of the two classes created a 
third class consisting of members of the Royal Academy, which 
was founded in 1648.^ 

The few easel pictures which survive from tliis first School 
of Paris are works of much interest and charm. The Louvre 
has a grisaille (monochrome) on silk and two paintings with 
gold backgrounds, by unnamed artists of tliis School. The 
grisaille — which is known as the Parement de Narbonne (because 
it was discovered and bought by the painter Boilly in Narbonne, 
before it reached the Louvre in 1 8 5 2) — consists of a central panel 
of the Crucifixion, with Charles V and Queen Jeanne de Bourbon 
as donors, and six other panels with scenes from the Passion. 
The paintings on gold backgrounds are an Hntombmejit and a 
circular Pieta. All three paintings, originally in elaborate 
settings, were intended for private apartments or chapels. 

iv. The First School of Burgundy 

In addition to Avignon and Paris there was a third important 
art centre in France between the accession of Charles VI and 
the English occupation of Paris after Agincourt. This was the 
city of Dijon, where Piiilippe le Hardi, Due de Bourgogne, 
held his court. This Duke of Burgundy was Charles le Fou's 
uncle, and with his brother, Jean Due de Berry, he was the King's 
guardian during his minority — for Charles was eleven years old 
when he succeeded. The two Dukes lived in great magnificence, 
giving entertainments where their courtiers wore the most 
fantastic costumes, embroidered with pearls, hung with gold 
chains and trimmed with furs. To support their extravagances 
they were rapacious in the vast areas which they administered, 
— Philippe in Burgundy and Flanders (he inherited Flanders in 
1 3 84) and Jean in the regions round Bourges and Poitiers, in the 
Auvergne and Languedoc. From the standpoint of the student 
of French painting both men were figures of outstanding 
importance ; for both were enthusiastic patrons of the arts and 
both employed artists who were born in Flanders. 

1 Cf. pp. 82-88. 




piipiiBpr^ j[ 












^^^^^^^^^^ y\^ -^ 



^BL^^^^^^^^^^' ^HL 




- /. 

Paris. Louvre 

FRENCH SCHOOL, c. 1470. The Altarpiecc of the Parliament of Paris. 

NICOLAS FROMENT. The Altarpiecc of the Burning Bush. 


'I'lic Duke of Burgundy, even befcjre he became (>)unt of 
Flanders, had Flemish artists at his court in Dij(jn. He had 
summoned one Jean de Beaumetz in 1375, and two years later 
one Melchior Broederlam, who painted two triptychs for the 
("hartreuse Monastery at Champmol, one of which is preserved 
in the Museum at Dijon. The next Flemish artist invited was 
lean Malouel, painter of the Pieta (PI. 3), in the Louvre. In this 
picture, despite the Flemish origin of the painter, we perceive 
an Itahan rhythm in the spacing and Italian colour on a gold 

Philippe of Burgundy died in 1404 and was succeeded by 
Jean san Peur, who summoned Llenri dc Bellcchose from Bra- 
bant. The picture called ^Vbe hast Co/nmimion and Martyrdom of 
St. Denis (PL 4), in the Louvre, is believed to have been begun 
by Malouel and finished by Bellechose. In this we see the Cruci- 
fixion in the centre ; on the left St. Denis receives the Com- 
munion through the bars of his prison ; on the right is the 
execution scene, where we see the saint three times: — first stand- 
ing resigned to his fate, then kneeling at the block, and then 
with his head severed from his body on the ground. The 
picture has the same stylistic qualities as Malouel's Pieta ; the 
colours are lovely on the gold ground, and even the swing of 
the excutioner's axe makes a tranquil curve in the rhythmic 
lines of the composition. Malouel's Pieta (PL 3) and the 
Malouel and Bellechose Last Com m union and Martyrdom of St.. 
Denis (PL 4) are the key pictures for the study of the first 
Burgundian School. All other pictures of this period described 
as Burgundian have been grouped round them.^ 

V. The Dtic de Berry's Manuscripts 
I have referred to the misgovernment of his command by 
Jean Duke of Berry, the Duke of Burgundy's brother. This 

^ The Cleveland (Ohio) Museum has an interesting picture, A Sealed 
Bishop, catalogued by the Museum authorities as " Southern French or 
Spanish (?) about 1425 ". Judging by an excellent photograph kindly 
supplied to me it must be grouped with the first School of Burgundy. 

The Burgundian Portrait of a Young Lady of Sixteen in Philadelphia (J. G. 
Johns(.)n Collection), is a little later, i.e. about 1450. 

C 9 


was so serious that Charles VI, when he took the reins into his 
own hands, made a ceremonial progress through Languedoc 
and burned the Duke's chief tax-collector to appease the public 
discontent. When the King succumbed to the madness which 
has earned him his title, the Duke of Berry became Governor of 
Paris and there again his exactions were so unmerciful that 
popular risings destroyed his chateaux of Nesle and Bicetre. 
But the man lives in history as the most enthusiastic French art 
patron of his age. He built himself magnificent castles ; he 
borrowed Beaumetz and other artists from the Duke of Bur- 
gundy ; he covered his castles with sculpture ; he collected 
tapestries and jewels. It was above all for manuscripts that he 
seems to have had a passion. No fewer than forty books 
adorned with miniatures are known to have been produced to 
his order. His Psalter (Bibliotheque Nationale) was the work of 
Beauneveu and other artists ; his Grandes Heures (Bibliotheque 
Nationale) of Jacquemart de Hesdin ; and his name is immor- 
talised in Les Tres Riches Heures du Due de Berry now preserved 
in the Musee Conde at Chantilly. 

In the superb Chantilly manuscript, the work of Paul, Jean 
and Armand of Limbourg, the artists painted a calendar which 
marks an early stage in the history of the genre picture as an 
ohjet-de-luxe. Here, for January, we see the Duke himself at 
dinner in a tapestried hall ; he is burly and red-faced and is 
waited upon by servants in his livery. For February we see a 
snow-covered landscape and within doors a lady who dries her 
petticoat by the fire at which her male and female servants, 
destitute of underclothes, also warm themselves with their 
gowns pulled up above their knees ; for March we see peasants 
ploughing and pruning their vines ; for July harvesting ; for 
September the vendange ; and so forth. In the background 
of each picture one of the Duke's castles is exquisitely por- 
trayed. The October picture which is particularly famous 
presents peasants sowing and, in the background, the old 

All the Duke of Berry's artists were of Flemish birth ; they 
all worked also at architecture, sculpture and easel painting, 
though their miniatures alone can be ascribed to them with 
certainty ; and they must all be assimilated to the Burgundian 



School to which they contributed new aspects of develop- 

' In the Duke's Psalter, for example, Beaunevcu drew saints and apostles 
which stand extremely close to figures in the easel pictures by Malf)ucl and 
Bellcchosc, and closer still to those in the charming painting known as the 
Wilton Diptych, which many scholars regard as English work and which, it 
will be remembered, was acquired in 1929 from Lord Pembroke for the 
London National Gallery as an essential feature of Britain's artistic heritage 
for ^^"90,000. Beauncvcu's name has also been associated with the celebrated 
portrait of Richard II in Westminster Abbey. 



i. T/je Second School of Burgundy 

Between Agincourt and the English evacuation in 1453 con- 
ditions in France were not favourable to painting. Many nobles 
were killed in the war and more were ruined. The English 
occupied Paris from 1420 to 1436, and when Charles VI moved 
to Bourges the first School of Paris came to an end. The Court 
held at Bourges by Charles VII (who succeeded in 1422) was 
an impecunious makeshift affair in distressing times, when half 
France was occupied by the invaders and their ally, Phillipe le 
Bon, the new Duke of Burgundy, The Duke's fortune, however, 
was in striking contrast to that of the King. The Duke had 
inherited from his father and his grandfather, the patrons of 
Malouel and Bellechose, their vast domains in Burgundy and 
Flanders. He increased them by the purchase of Luxembourg, 
and by various territorial concessions when he made terms 
with the King in 1435. At the height of his power he ruled 
over Burgundy, Luxembourg, Belgium and Holland. He 
was immensely rich ; his Court at Bruges was luxurious ; 
and he had admirable artists. While Jeanne d'Arc was being 
bullied in a trial that lasted five months, Jan Van Eyck, 
the Duke's chief painter, was working on the Altarpiece of 
the hamb ; and when the Duke died in 1467 the Flemish 
school had already been enriched by the whole production 
of Roger van der Weyden and most of the pictures by Dirck 

The reputations of the Van Eycks and of Roger van dcr 
Weyden soon spread to France where notabilities began to desire 
their pictures. Jan Van Eyck's The Virgin with Chancellor Kolin 
in the Louvre, was commissioned by Nicholas Rolin, Chancellor 
of Burgundy, and presented by him to the collegiate church of 
Notre Dame at Autun. This became a widely celebrated picture 
and it was imitated both by Flemish and by French artists. The 
altarpiece at Beaune, probably by Roger van der Weyden, was 
commissioned by the same chancellor, and this work also must 
have attracted much attention. The influence of Roger van der 
Weyden is clearly seen moreover in the fine work known as the 
Altarpiece of the Parliament of Paris (Pis. 7 and loa), now in the 



Louvre.^ The Van F'yck tradition on the other hand is the 
foundation of the AnnutKiatinn by an unknown master in the 
Madeleine Church at Aix, and of the National Gallery pictures 
by Simon Marmion.- Flemish influence also permeated to 
France in this period in the persons of the Flemish painters who 
frescoed Notre Dame de Dijon and those whom another eminent 
art patron of the period, King Rene of Anjou, invited to his 
courts at Angers and Aix-en-Provence. 

ij . Kcne of Atyoii and Nicolas Fro went 

W'e know the appearance of/? bon roi Rene at the age of sixty- 
six from the picture painted by Nicolas Froment(Pls.9aand lob). 
Though as unicsthetic to look upon as his uncle, the Due of 
Berry, Rene was equally enthusiastic as an art patron and he 
wrote poetry and painted pictures himself.^ 

From 1442 to 1471 Rene held his Court at Angers ; then he 
was dispossessed by Louis XI and during the remaining eleven 
years of his life he held his Court at Aix. At Angers his Court 
painters were imported from Flanders. At Aix, as Comte dc 
Provence, he commissioned Froment (whose home was Uzes 
above Nimes) to paint the Altarpiece 0} the Burning Bush (PI. lob) 
for the cathedral of Aix, which can still be seen there. 

Apart from its subject, the Altarpiece oj the Burning Bush is 
rather a dull picture. In the central panel we see the Virgin and 
Child in the Burning Bush appearing to Moses ; a flock of sheep 
and goats and a large dog are in the foreground between Moses 
and an angel. Rene and his wife Jeanne de Laval (Pis. 9a and 9b) 

1 Cf. p. 16. 

2 The Christ before Caiaphas in Philadelphia (J. G, Johnson Collection) 
is ascribed to Simon Marmion's School. 

^ The vicissitudes of Rene's career are typical of the period. He was the 
nephew of Charles V, the brother of Charles VII's Queen, the father of 
Margaret of Anjou, Queen of Henry VI of England, and the son of Louis of 
Anjou, who had been crowned King of Naples by the Antipope Clement 
VII at Avignon. On paper he was King of Naples, Sicily and Jerusalem, 
Duke of Anjou, of Lorraine and Bar and Count of Provence. But his father 
had never been able to make good his claim to Naples, and Rene was not 
able to do so either or even to retain the Dukedom of Lorraine until he had 
suffered imprisonment at the hands of another claimant and paid him 
a large ransom. 



appear in the side panels as kneeling donors in the traditional 
attitude. Rene is accompanied by a small dog. The colours 
in this picture, which struck me when I last saw it as in need of 
cleaning, are lifeless ; and the hybrid nature of the style — which 
gives us a Flemish angel opposite a Venetian Moses — is curiously 
disconcerting. The convincing passages are the admirably 
incisive portraits.^ 

ii j . The Second School of Avignon 

The composite nature of Froment's altarpiece is characteristic 
of all Provencal work of this period where a second and most 
interesting School of Avignon was now flourishing. The 
Papal Legates who now occupied the Palace of the Popes con- 
tinued the traditions which had made Avignon a centre of art 
production. The Legates Cardinal de Foix and Cardinal della 
Rovere were notable art patrons ; and there are records of 
numerous commissions given by convents, monasteries, churches 
and rich citizens of the Avignon region. The second School of 
Avignon was in fact as influential as the first and it was quite as 

Three splendid works survive from this second School of 
Avignon : — a Pieta and a Christ standing in the Tomb, both by 
unknown masters and both in the Louvre, and a Coronation of 
the Virgin, by Enguerrand Charenton in the Hospice of Vil- 

The Pieta (Pis. 1 1 and 13b) is one of the world's most affecting 
pictures. It was in the Chartreuse of Villeneuve-les-Avignon 
till the Revolution. It has been disgracefully neglected and it 
is now in need of conditioning. But the artist's majestic design 
and his deep restrained passion are still tremendously moving. 
All the noblest elements in the cosmopolitan world of the 
Avignon School seem to have combined to produce this master- 

1 Hardly anything is known of Nicolas Fromcnt. This altarpiece which 
was painted in 1475 and a Resurrection of hcr^arus painted in 1461, and now 
in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, are the only pictures which are ascribed 
to him with certainty. Some scholars give him the portraits of Rene and 
Jeanne de Laval in the Louvre and a Saint Siffrein Bishop of Carpentras in 
the Musee Calvet at Avignon. A triptych in Philadelphia (J, G, Johnson 
Collection) is ascribed to his school. 



piece. W c have Italian rhythm, Flemish pathos, Spanish drama 
and I'lench tenderness. And the disparity in style between the 
sacred group and the donor is not disconcerting because, whereas 
in Fromcnt's Buming Bf/sb, against all the traditions of Christian 
art, the angel is naturalistic-Gothic and Moses is formal-Italian 
in design, here the traditional relations arc maintained — the 
sacred figures are hieratic and the donor is realistically por- 

The Chris f staiulhig in the Tomb (PI. 13a) emanates from the 
Church of Boulbon (Bouches-du-Rhone). It has been even more 
neglected in the past than the Vieth^ but it has now been restored. 
In this impressive and most curious work, Christ stands in the 
tomb ; behind we see the instruments of the Passion, and, 
withered to the bone, the hand which received the thirty pieces 
of silver ; in the foreground is the pillar of the flagellation ; 
behind the kneeling donor is the figure of St. Agricola ; behind 
the saint there is a coat of arms showing a stork — a reference 
to the legend of St. Agricola who obtained by prayer a flight 
of storks which destroyed a plague of snakes in the country- 

In Charenton's attractive Coronation of the Virgin (Pis. 6 and 
1 2b) the large flat design of the central group comes from Italy ; 
but beneath we have a completely Gothic landscape and city 
with the Crucifixion, and lower still we see the blessed received 
by an angel and the damned suffering torture from devils in 

The Coronation of the Virgin is in fact a three-tier picture which 
can be assimilated, to the church performances on three stages 
where the top stage represented heaven, the middle earth, and 
the lower the regions after death.^ 

^ It has been suggested that the picture is the work of a Spanish artist 
working in Avignon ; the Moorish city in the background is pointed to in 
support of this view, 

^ Cf. note p. 75. Charenton worked at Avignon from 1447 onwards. 
He also painted the Virgin of Pity, in the Musee Condc at Chantilly as 
a commission at Avignon in 1452. The Coronation of the Virgin was com- 
missioned for the Chartreuse of Avignon in the same year. 



iv. Charles VII, houis XI and Jean Fouquet 

1 have referred above to the unhappy Court of Charles VII 
(the CharUe of Bernard Shaw's '* Saint Joan ") at Bourges. We \ 
know Httle of the painters of this sovereign. We know however 
that Jean Fouquet painted his portrait (PI. 7), which survives in j 
the Louvre.^ i 

Jean Fouquet was also Court artist under the sly and sinister 
Louis XI (1461-1483). But of other painters at this Court we 
again know very little, though it is recorded of Colin d'Amiens, ; 
who was one of them, that he was commissioned to design a 
sepulchral effigy of the King in which the face was to be ''jeune et 
plein " and the head, it was expressly stated, was not be shown 
as bald. 

Apart from the productions of Jean Fouquet the outstanding \ 
surviving picture of this reign is the Altarpiece of the Parliament 
oj Paris (PI. loa) already mentioned. In this picture, which was 
in the Chambre Doree of the Parliament till the Revolution, I 
have noted the influence of Roger van der Weyden. The picture j 
shows us the Crucifixion in the centre ; on the left stand Saint j 
Louis (with crown and sceptre and robe embroidered with 
fleur-du-lys), and Saint John the Baptist ; Saint Denis and ' 
Charlemagne are on the right ; a quaint dog is at the feet of | 
Charlemagne ; the background contains views of contemporary | 
Paris (PL 7b). The choice of the figures of Saint Louis and ! 
Charlemagne for this particular work may have been, I submit, ' 
a symbolic reference to the accord betwen Louis XI and the ] 
Emperor Maximilian when the Dauphin was affianced to his j 
daughter Margaret. ^ ; 

We know nothing of the artist who painted the Altarpiece oj \ 
the Parliament of Paris, but in Jean Fouquet, whose work'j 
dominates this reign, we meet for the first time an artist whose 
life and activities can be envisaged in some measure as a whole. 

^ Cf. p. 17 and PI. 7a. 

2 A similar reference may reside in the National Gallery fragment, The 
Aleeling of Joachim and Anna, ascribed to the Maitre de Moulins (cf. pp. 20 and \ 
21 and pis. 8 and 12a), where we see Charlemagne, who is obviously balanced '. 
I y another figure — probably Saint Louis — in the lost half of the picture. 1 

16 ! 

Moulins. Cathedral 

MAITRE DE MOULINS. Virgin and Child with Donors. 
(Central panel ot triptych). 

V liiciwuvc'iii, .ivij^Hon. Muii-iiiii 

ENGUERRAND CHARENTON. Coronation of the \'irgin. 







Kaiser Friedrich 



V. jean I'ouquet 

BORN TOURS C. 1415 DIED TOURS C. 1 48 1 


Charles VII 

Guillaume Jouvenel des Ursins 
Virgin and Child 

Etienne Chevalier and his patron, St. 


London. British Museum Page from Le Eivre d'lleures d'Etientie 

London. H. Yates Thompson Pages from Historie ancienne jusqu'd 

Collection Cesar 

Paris. Louvre Pages from Le Litre d'lleures d' Etienne 

Paris. Louvre Pages from His/oire ancienne jusqu'd 

Paris. Bihliotheque Page from Ee Eivre d'lleures d'Etienne 

Nationale Chevalier 

Chantilly. Musee Conde Forty pages from Ee Litre d'Heures 

d'Etienne Chevalier 

Jean Fouquct made his first reputation in his native town of 
Tours, and he was under thirty when he painted the remarkable 
portrait of Charles VII (PI. ya). The deep melancholy imprinted 
on the features in this portrait makes it an intensely interesting 
document. The physiognomy fits in with the character of this 
neurasthenic prince who was shaken from his lethargy by 
Jeanne d'Arc and later dominated by Agnes Sorel. In style the 
picture is tied to the Franco-Flemish miniature tradition ; there 
is no hint in it of the trans-alpine Renaissance. But shortly after 
painting it Fouquet went to Italy and thereafter Italian influence 
is apparent in his work.^ 

^ In Italy Fouquet painted a portrait of Eugenius IV. This Pope, a 
Venetian, followed Pope Martin V, who was a member of the great and 
wealthy Roman house of Colonna. Eugenius claimed from the Colonna 
family their vast inheritance from Martin V as Papal property, and when 
they refused to surrender their wealth he joined with their rivals the Orsini, 

D 17 


Fouquet returned from Italy about 1447 and again found 
employment at Charles VII's Court. He was looked on with 
favour by Agnes Sorel and by Etienne Chevalier, who had risen 
from the position of the King's secretary to that of Treasurer of 
the Realm. Probably before 1450, the year in which Agnes Sorel 
died, he painted a diptych for Etienne Chevalier which was 
originally at Loches. The right hand panel of this diptych, T/'i? 
Virgin and Child (J?\. 5), is now in Antwerp, It shows us Agnes 
Sorel as the Virgin, surrounded by scarlet angels on a blue 
ground. This superb work which harks back to the first School 
of Paris is hieratic in conception. It follows the old tradition 
which prescribed formal treatment for the sacred figures, and- 
it is perhaps the last great mediaeval picture painted in France.^ 

The celebrated portrait, Guillaume Jouvenel des Ursins^ in the 
Louvre, was painted about 1465. The subject was Chancellor 
of France and a notability under both Charles VII and Louis XL 
He is depicted with elaborate renaissance architecture in the 
background and the broad silhouetting of the composition is 
entirely Italian in character. No other existing paintings can be 
attributed with any certainty to Fouquet, though it is known 
that he painted pictures for Notre-Dame-La-Riche, at Tours. ^ 

But though we have only four paintings by Fouquet we have 
a number of his illustrations to manuscripts. The series of 
miniatures known as " The Forty Fouquets " exhibited in the 
Musee Conde at Chantilly is from a Livre d'Heures painted by 
him for Etienne Chevalier ; and he also painted books for Marie 
of CI eves, for the Duke of Nemours, and others. 

and imprisoned various members of the Colonna family and seized their 
castles and belongings. The populace, urged on by the Colonna faction, 
rose in revolt and Eugenius had to fly from Rome by the Tiber where the 
ship that carried him was assailed with shot and stones. That was in 1433. 
By 1443 he was back in Rome ; in 1447 he died ; Fouquet's commission 
probably belongs to the Pope's last years. 

^ The left-hand panel of this diptych, which is now in Berlin, is much 
less interesting. It shows Etienne Chevalier on his knees with his patron, 
St. Etienne, standing behind him in a handsome Italian apartment. Both 
figures are painted as portraits. 

2 A Calvary, Crucifixion and Deposition in Notre Dame at Loches is 
ascribed to his school. 


J'ans. Louxn- 

SECOND SCHOOL OF A\ ICiNON. Christ standing in the Tomb. 

Piiris. I.Pir.r,- 

SECOND Sc;ilOt)L Ol A\ ICNON. I Ica.i ..t" Christ. Detail of Plate ii. 


vi. Charles I 7//, \j)uis XU and the Mattrc de Moulins 

Darkness descends again in respect of the painters of the 
period of Charles VIII (1483-1498) and Louis XII (1498-15 15). 
We have seen that Jean Fouquct came from Tours and that city 
would appear to have had a group of independent artists, pro- 
bably working as a local Guild. In the last quarter of the 
century these Tours artists had a reputation as makers of illus- 
trated manuscripts ; their works represent the last important 
production in this art which, destroyed by the invention of the 
printing press, developed to the art of the wood-cut and the 
copper-plate engraving. 

One Jean Bourdichon (145 7-1 521) passed from this School 
at Tours to the Royal service in the reign of Charles VIII, and 
he painted pictures for this sovereign and also for Louis XII. 
None of these paintings survives, but a triptych with Scenes from 
the life 0} St. Anne in Philadelphia (J. G. Johnson Collection), 
and a Virgin and Child with angels in the Minneapolis Institute of 
Arts, are ascribed to his School and we have from his hand a 
very celebrated series of miniatures, the L.ivre d'Heures (Biblio- 
theque Nationale), which he painted for Anne de Bretagne, 
Charles VIII's Queen. Bourdichon is believed to have worked 
also for Francois I. 

To this period we must also ascribe the exceedingly curious 
Annunciation to the Virgin in the Fogg Art Museum at Har\^ard 
University. Here we see Flemish influences that go back to the 
Van Eyck tradition combined with echoes of the early Venetian 
genre painters if not indeed of Carpaccio himself. 

The most mysterious figure of the period is, however, one 
Jean Perreal, known also as Jean de Paris, who was a Court 
painter in both reigns and who, it is recorded, painted portraits, 
designed effigies and pageants and the decoration of pageants 
on royal tours. There are no surviving works by this artist 
and it has been suggested that he is identical with the artist 
known as the Maitre de Moulins whom we must now con- 




vij. The Maitre de Moulins 




Triptych. The Virgin and Child in 
Glory with Pierre Due de Bourbon, 
the Duchesse Anne de France and 
their daughter as donors 



National Gallery 

Meeting of Joachim and Anna 


Art Gallery 

Saint with Donor. .• 


J. G. Johnson 

Portrait of a Young Man 



Woman as donor with St. Mary Mag- 





Alte Pinakothek 

Charles II of Bourbon 


Musee Conde 

Charles II of Bourbon 



Virgin and Child with angels 

The Maitre de Moulins is one of those mysterious figures in 
art history who is not a person but merely a name. He is the 
artist who painted the triptych, Virgm and Child with Donors (PI. 
12a), in the Cathedral at Mouhns. That is really all we know 
about him. 

The donors represented in this picture are Pierre Due de 
Bourbon and his wife, Anne de France. It is therefore clear 
that the artist was commissioned to paint the altarpiece by the 
Bourbons, then immensely powerful, since the Duchess was 
Louis XTs remarkable daughter, who was Regent during the 
minority of her brother, Charles VIII, and earned for herself the 
tide of " Madame la Grande." 

The altarpiece is obviously the work of a very able artist, 
who must have been widely famous in his day both on the 
strength of his talents and by reason of his connection with the 
Bourbon Court. But there is no record of the commissioning 
of this Moulins picture. 

On the other hand there are numerous records of an artist, 



Jean Pcrrcal, already mentioned, to whom no works can be 
ascribed. We have thus at one and the same period a picture 
of outstanding quahtics but no artist, and an artist of wide cele- 
brity but no pictures. Some scholars accordingly suggest, as 
noted, that Jean Perreal is the missing artist. But this is not yet 
established ; and until proof is forthcoming the painter of the 
Moulins picture must remain the Maitre dc Moulins as before. 
Various pictures are ascribed by scholars to this mysterious 
Maitre dc Moulins on the ground of their real or imagined 
resemblance to the Moulins picture. I have set down some of 
them above. But these ascriptions it must be remembered arc 
purely conjectural. The Chantilly picture is probably a copy of 
the picture in Munich. Two pictures in the Louvre, wings of 
an altarpiece, showing the same Due de Bourbon and the 
Duchess Anne, now catalogued as by the " Maitre de 1488," can 
be approximated to the list above. I reproduce the figure of the 
Virgin from the Nativity (PI. 8) at Autun, which is equally 
charming whether the ascription to the Maitre de Moulins is 
justified or not. 

viij. The New Italian Taste 

Though we are thus in almost complete ignorance of French 
painting under Charles VIII and Louis XII, we have certain 
knowledge of the trend of aristocratic taste in painting. This 
was the period of the fantastic quarrels about the Kingdom of 
Naples and the beginning of the Italian wars. In these wars the 
Kings and notables of France came into contact with Italy in 
the full flush of the Renaissance ; and this contact caused 
inevitably a revolution in artistic taste in France. When Charles 
VIII returned from Italy in 1495 he brought back Italian pictures 
from Naples, and he immediately attempted the foundation of an 
art centre at home. Louis XII in Milan endeavoured to induce 
Leonardo da Vinci to work for him, and in his reign various 
Italian artists were imported from Italy. Benedetto Ghirlandaio 
came to France and painted an Adoration of the Magi in the Church 
of Aigueperse in Auvergne ; and other Italian artists painted 
frescoes in the Cathedral of Albi. 

The most enthusiastic of the many French patrons of Italian 
art at this period was the Cardinal d'Amboise who owned a 



Descent from the Cross^ by Pemgino and summoned Solario from 
Milan to paint frescoes in the chapel of his Chateau de Gaillon 
which he built in the new Italian style and made a centre for the 
new Italian taste. 

Francois I, who is usually credited with the introduction of 
Renaissance art to France, did indeed consolidate and disseminate 
new standards. But at the time of his accession the new move- 
ment was in fact already launched. 

22 I 

PART Tiro 


i . Franfois I and the Palace ofFontahieblean 
ij. Juiter work at Fontainebleau 
iij. The Fontainebleau St jle 


i. The Portrait Albums 
ij. The Clouds and Cornel lie de Lj'ons 

k'niicii. Must lull 


Louise (Jc Lorraine (?) as \'enus. 

I'aris. I'rivitt,- ' '■.;!. tw; 

JEAN COUSIN fits. Artemisia. 

l\irii. Lo-.iX, 

|i AN (A)LSIN pin. Eva Trima Pandora. 

Anturrp. Museum. 

JEAN CLOUET. Frangois II as Dauphin. 



i . FratJ(0!S I and the Palace of i'oniainebleau 

Francois I was twenty when he ascended the throne. 
He was a fine figure of a man, physically courageous, 
attractive to women, and a lover of the arts. His taste from the 
outset was for the new Italian movement ; and he already had 
several Itahan artists in his service — including one Bartolomeo 
Guetti, who was later to paint nymphs and satyrs round the 
Tennis Court of the new Louvre. His reign opened with the 
victor)' of Marignano in which he personally played a valiant 
part. He returned to Paris in 1 5 16 to a Court of men who lauded 
him as a hero and of women who were ready to fall into his 
arms. The monarchy, moreover, had been much strengthened 
towards the end of the preceding century. By one more turn 
of the wheel Francois became in fact as well as in name an 
absolute King with a plentiful supply of money. He set out to 
make the most of all aspects of the position and, iuter alia^ to 
indulge in his taste for art. 

After Marignano Frangois had visited Milan, Pavia and 
Bologna. At Bologna he had a four-day conference with Leo X 
— when their talk was doubtless more of Michelangelo and 
Raphael than history records. In Milan he continued the inter- 
course with Leonardo da Vinci begun by Louis XII. As all the 
world knows, Leonardo accepted his invitation to go to France 
and the King gave him an estate near Amboisc where he lived 
till his death in 15 19. Andrea del Sarto accepted a similar 
invitation from the King ; he arrived in 1 5 1 8, painted the Charity 
in the Louvre, and some other pictures, and returned to Italy. 
Then began the long struggle between Frangois and the Emperor 
Charles. The defeat of Pavia was in 1525 ; Francois was for six 
months a captive in Madrid ; when he returned to France he 
began to build the Palace of Fontainebleau which is so closely 
associated with his name. 

In the first period Francois had lived partly at St. Germain- 
en-laye and partly at Blois, which he enlarged, and other places. 
In 1 5 19 he had begun the building of the vast Chateau dc 
E 25 


Chambord, which in fact he rarely occupied. Later he embarked 
on rebuilding the Louvre, and began the structure which we 
know. On Fontainebleau, begun in 1528, he spent immense 
sums of money. He filled it with treasures and he made it a 
monument of his personal taste. 

To decorate the interior Frangois summoned further artists 
from Italy — Giambattista di Guasparre, known as Rosso, a 
young Florentine who had made his reputation with an indivi- 
dual style ; and Francesco Primaticcio, a pupil of Giulio 
Romano in Bologna. Rosso arrived in 15 31, Primaticcio two 
years later. Both artists were accompanied by Italian assistants ; 
they were joined possibly by the Italian artists who had come to 
France with Leonardo and Andrea del Sarto ; and they also 
employed French artists as assistants. 

Hardly anything now remains of the actual paintings done at 
Fontainebleau by these artists. But we can still see the general 
schemes of the painted panels and the stucco ornaments sur- 
rounding them. Rosso was responsible for the Gallery of 
Frangois I. This had panels of mythological subjects which 
were repainted by Couder under Louis Philippe and again later 
by one Brisset. Primaticcio finished Rosso's Gallery, colla- 
borated with him in various other work in the Palace and was 
himself responsible for the Chamber of the Duchesse d'Etampes, 
the King's mistress, of whom Benvenuto Cellini has said some 
hard words in his account of his sojourn at the French King's 
Court. The Chamber of the Duchess, which can still be seen 
to-day, was decorated with painted panels supported by stucco 
female nudes of great elegance. The panels, depicting the story 
of Campaspe and Alexander, with allegorical allusions to the 
relations of the King and the Duchess in the taste of the time, 
were all repainted by Abel de Pujol under Louis Philippe. 

Primaticcio also designed the King's Bathing Hall which 
was decorated with paintings of the story of Calisto ; and he 
was in charge of the ante-chamber to this bathroom where, 
curiously enough, the King kept favourite pictures from his 
collection which included the Virgin of the Kocks^ and other 
pictures by Leonardo, the Charity,^ by Andrea del Sarto, 
Raphael's ha Belle Jardiniere'^ and Jeanne d'Aragon,^ Michelangelo's 

^ Now in the Louvre. 



heda^^ a Magdalen^ by 'J'itian, and Bronzino's J^efms, Cupid^ 
Folly and Time^ (PI. i6b). Primaticcio also fitted up and decorated 
a fantastic grotto in the gardens where, it has been said, the ladies 
of tlic Court were wont to bathe and where by an ingenious 
arrangement of mirrors the King could observe them. 

ij . hater work at Fontaimbleau 

Rosso committed suicide in 1541. Fran9ois I died in 1547. 
But the work continued. Under Henri II (1547-1559) Prima- 
ticcio painted the Ball Room (known as the Gallery of Henri II) 
and the Ulysses Gallery which had been commenced in the 
previous reign. He was now joined by Niccolo del Abbate 
from Italy and with his aid he painted, in the Ball Room, a 
series of compositions symbolising the Seasons (which were 
repainted by Toussaint Dubreuil in the time of Henri IV and 
again in the nineteenth century by Alaux), and, in the Ulysses 
Gallery (now demolished), fifty-eight pictures of the story of 
Ulysses on the walls and ninety-eight panels of mythological 
subjects on the ceiling. 

Under Frangois II (1559-1560) and Charles IX (15 60-1 5 74) 
various other decorations were carried out at Fontainebleau by 
Italian and French followers of Primaticcio, who died in 1570, 
and of Niccolo del Abbate, who died in 1571. The troubled 
period that followed the Massacre of St. Bartholomew (1572) 
naturally caused a decline in artistic patronage and production, 
Henri III (15 74-1 5 89), however, patronised one Antoine Caron, 
who designed decorative compositions, fetes and pageants and 
painted portraits (PI. 15 b). 

Henri IV (15 89-1 610), who added to the Louvre, also put in 
hand extensions and new decorations at Fontainebleau where he 
observed the traditions by ordering elaborate decorations of the 
apartments allotted to his mistress Gabrielle d'Estrees. These 
new decorations depicting scenes from the stor}' of Hercules 
were the work of Toussaint Dubreuil (1562 ?-i6o2). In the 
same apartment Ambroise Dubois (i 543-1614) painted Gabrielle 

^ Copy ascribed to Rosso now in the London National Gallery. 

' Now in the Bordeaux Museum. 

' Now in the London National Gallery. 



d'Estrees as Diana with hounds and cupids. None of these paint- 
ings now exists. Later the King ordered for Marie de Medici a 
set of decorations for the famous Gallery of Diana ; these paint- 
ings, which were destroyed under the Empire, were the work of 
Ambroise Dubois who also painted the Salon of Louis XIII (who 
was born there in 1601), and a series of pictures in the apartment 
known as the Clorinda Chamber. The pictures in the Salon of 
Louis XIII represented the story of Theagenes and Chariclea, 
some of which, repainted, can still be seen there. One of the 
Clorinda series, The Baptism of Clorinda by Tancred (PL 20b), is 
preserved in the Louvre. 

iij . The ¥ ontainehkau Style 

The School of Fontainebleau thus lasted for some ninety 
years. It represents French decorative and pictorial art between 
the beginning of the age of Francois I and the beginning of the 
age of Richelieu and Mazarin. It begins with Rosso, who came 
from Italy, and ends with Ambroise Dubois, who was born at 
Antwerp. Fontainebleau was regarded as one of the marvels 
of the age. It was the Sistine Chapel, the Doges' Palace of France, 
till its reputation was eclipsed by the Louvre and Versailles. 

This School cannot be understood or judged by the repainted 
remains now on the walls at Fontainebleau. We have to try to 
understand it by considering {a) the paintings produced by Rosso 
before he left Italy and by his P/>/^ (PI. 14) in the Louvre ; (^) 
the drawings by Primaticcio in the Louvre, at Chantilly and else- 
where, one or two paintings ascribed to him, and the pictures 
by the Italian artists on whom he based his style — Parmigiano, 
Pontormo and Bronzino ; {c) the few easel pictures by Niccolo 
del Abbate and unnamed Italian and French artists of the 
School which survive in various museums. 

Rosso was an eclectic artist and temperamentally a realist. 
He was influenced by Michelangelo, Pontormo and Bronzino. 
In his Viet a (PI. 14), in the Louvre, we have obvious echoes of 
Michelangelo's style in the massive limbs, but the open mouth of 
Christ reveals detailed rendering of tongue and teeth, and the 
teeth too are delineated in the mouth of the Virgin which is set 
in a face founded on some Greek marble head. In his Vietct at 



Borgo san Sepulcro \vc meet again the stylistic distortions of 
Michelangelo, and in the background a hideous noseless, bat- 
faced figure, which is among the most nightmarish creations 
in art.^ 

I suspect, indeed, that Rosso had a streak of madness. Various 
episodes in his life encourage this suspicion. Mc was always 
quarrelsome as we learn from Benvcnuto Cellini who knew 
him in his Italian days ; his departure for France was largely 
motived by a quarrel with a priest in Borgo ; and his suicide 
followed a quarrel with one of his friends in France. Perhaps 
physical causes contributed to this condition. When Rome 
was sacked in 1527 he was captured and ill-treated by the Ger- 
mans, and later a roof fell in upon his head and he suffered fever 
and concussion. He was an immensely interesting artist ; but 
he never arrived at a symbolic unity in pictorial expression and he 
thus lacked the first essential of pictorial style. 

The essence of the Fontainebleau style can, however, be 
found in Primaticcio, who absorbed the stylistic conceptions of 
Parmigiano, Pontormo and Pontormo's pupil, Bronzino. From 
these sources Primaticcio evolved the type of female figure which 
we regard as characteristic of this School. The figures in his draw- 
ings have small heads and narrow shoulders ; and the long torsos 
widen into majesty at the hips from w^iich elegant lines flow down 
over full thighs and neat knees to shapely calves and slim ankles. ^ 

The artists of the School of Fontainebleau soon lost the 
fundamental stylistic qualities presented to French art by 

^ We find the same mixed qualities in Rosso's pictures preserved in Italy 
— the Transfiguration at Citta di Castello, and his Betrothal of the Virgin in 
the St. Lorenzo basilica in Florence. His Moses and the daughters of Jethro 
(Florence Uffizi) is an astonishing mixture of Michelangelo's stylistic dis- 
tortions and of personal realistic observation. The central figure in this 
remarkable work is a portrait of an individual young girl with an exquisite 
face and figure ; the little sensual mouth of this model is open, her breasts 
are firm and full ; only her eyes are treated in a way that suggests that the 
painter had been studying Greek sculpture. 

* Frangois himself was a great admirer of the Italian masters on whose 
works Primaticcio's art was based ; we know from Vasari that he was 
anxious to possess some pictures by Pontormo ; and he owned Bronzino's 
Venus, Cupid, Follj and Time (PI. i6b). We may assume that the conception 
of beauty in the female figure which we associate with this School made a 
special appeal to his taste. 



Primaticcio. There is still a measure of the School's real style 
in Niccolo del Abbate's Continence of Scipio and in the Ejva Prima 
Pandora (PI. 17c) by Jean Cousin pere {c. 1490-f. 15 61) which 
are both in the Louvre. There is charm too in the Rouen 
Venus (PI. 17a) which has been ascribed to Primaticcio himself, 
but which is more probably a School picture representing 
Henri Ill's Queen, Louise de Lorraine. Some French artist 
who had not forgotten the lesson of Bronzino's Venus, Cupid, 
Foil J and Time, painted the attractive Flora with Attendants (PI. 1 6a), 
now in a private collection in Montpellier. But if we compare 
the Montpellier picture with Bronzino's we see that the lesson 
is but dimly remembered after all. 

The middle style of the School can be seen in allegorical 
figures called Justice and Peace in the Musee Dobree at Nantes, 
in the pretty Artemisia (PI. 17b) in a Parisian collection, ascribed 
to Jean Cousin fils (c. 1522-r. 1592), in the celebrated Diana 
(PI. 19b) in the Louvre, and the still more celebrated Gabrielle 
d'Estrees in her hath (PI. 19a), at Chantilly.^ 

1 The Gabrielle d'Estries in her bath dates from the fifteen-nineties. 
Gabrielle, whom Marguerite, Henri IV's first Queen, always referred to as 
cette bagasse, is here seen in a baignoir which is half covered with a tablet 
bearing fruits and flowers. Her little son from the King — Cesar, Due de 
Vendome, aged about three — is stretching out his hand to reach a fruit ; 
her second son, Alexandre de Vendome, is at his nurse's breast. Behind 
we see the interior of a kitchen with a serving-woman and a half-opened 
window. Commentators on this picture have not, I think, observed that 
this kitchen scene is reflected in a mirror on the wall behind the nurse, and 
another mirror — in days when mirrors were still luxuries imported from 
Venice — appears on the wall beside the fire. 

For the use of mirrors in pictures by Le Brun and Velasquez cf. p. 80. 
For their use by the Dutch painters of the seventeenth century cf. my 
Introduction to Dutch Art, Part VI, Section iii. 

Another version of this picture, possibly the original, is in the collection 
of Sir Herbert Cook in Richmond ; there is a third in the Musee des Arts 
Decoratifs in Paris, and I know part of a fourth (containing only the left- 
hand portion) in the collection of Mr. Oliver Brown in London. 

The identity of the bather in this picture has been disputed. Diane de 
Poitiers and Marie Touchet have been suggested. The picture has been 
attributed to Primaticcio, to Francois Clouet (cf. p. 34) and to Antoine 
Caron (cf. PI. 15 b). It has been recently suggested that the Richmond picture 
is an original by Francois Clouet representing Diane de Poitiers and that 
the Chantilly picture is a copy where the head of Gabrielle d'Estrees has 
been substituted. 



The last development of the School is seen in the Waptism of 
Clorinda (PI. 20b), by Antoinc Dubois, one of the numerous 
I'lemish artists who were attracted to Fontainebleau. In this 
picture we meet the Italianising Flemish style of the late sixteenth 
century. The materials that go to the making of this l^aptism of 
Clorinda strike us as so ridiculous in themselves that we cannot 
' imagine a tolerable picture resulting from their exploitation. 
But the same materials were being used in Spain at almost the 
same moment by El Greco, in his Martyrdom of St. Maurice 
(PI. 20a), in the Escorial. 



i. The Vortrait Albums 

While French decorative art was thus acquiring and forgetting 
an Italian style the members of the Kings' Courts were patron- 
ising local talent in the field of portraiture. At the beginning 
of the reign of Francois I it became the fashion to summon an 
artist to the house and to sit to him for a crayon drawing from 
which if required an oil painting was subsequently painted in the 
artist's studio. Replicas were sometimes made both of the 
drawings and the paintings ; and the drawings were put into 
albums, as people put photographs into albums in the nineteenth 

Hundreds of these sixteenth-century French drawings have 
survived. There are many in the Musee Cond6 at Chantilly 
and others at Versailles, in the Louvre, in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale, the British Museum, and elsewhere. Thanks to these 
drawings we know the features of all the outstanding members 
of the Courts of Frangois I and his immediate successors. One 
celebrated album in the Museum of Aix-en-Provence belonged 
to Mme de Boisy, wife of Gouffier de Boisy, Grand Master of 
France, who had fought by the King's side at Marignano. In 
this album the portraits of the notabilities bear comments 
believed to have been written at the dictation of the King 
himself. The commentator is especially outspoken about the 
ladies. On the drawing of Diane de Poitiers, who was later 
to be Henri II's mistress, we read : " Fair to see and virtuous 
to know," on that of Madame de Chateaubrian, " Better figured 
than painted " ; another lady is described as " honest, fat and 
pleasant at times " ; yet another is praised for her peerless figure. 

The character of all these drawings and paintings, apart from 
variations in skill, is much the same. The style remained 
unchanged throughout the reigns of Francois I, Henri II, 
Francois II and Charles IX. The artists were quite uninfluenced 
by the prevailing styles in decorative art. They were concerned 
with recording the features of their sitters. Their work is 
usually less drastically categoric than the similar portraits by 
Holbein, and the most attractive of the French drawings are 
warmer and more sympathetically observed. 







ij. The Clone ts and Come i He de Lyons 

The ascription of these drawings and tlic pictures painted 
from them to the individual artists of the period has been the 
subject of much labour by scholars, notably AI. Moreau Nekton, 
M. Bouchot and M. Louis Dimier. As a result it seems now 
possible to assign a first group to one Jean Clouet, who was 
of Flemish birth and was attached to the establishment of 
Francois I from approximately 1516 till 1540. A second group 
is assigned to his son, Frangois Clouet, who succeeded to his 
father's position and held it under Henri II and Charles IX. 
Other groups go to artists known as Jean Decourt, Etienne and 
Pierre Dumonstier, Frangois Quesnel, and to artists given 
reference names such as L'Anonyme Lecurieux and Le peintre 
de Luxembourg-Martiques. There is also the able painter known 
as Corneille de Lyons, born at The Hague, who painted 
Catherine de Medicis, Henri II's Queen, and all the notabilities 
of her Court. 

The following paintings may be said to be characteristic of 
Jean Clouet^ (i486 ?-i54o) : — 

Portrait of a Man with a volume of 

Portrait of Frangois I (No. 126) 
Portrait of Frangois I (No. 127) 
The Dauphin Francois, son of Francois I 
Claude, Due de Guise 

The portrait of Francois I (PL 15a) is of all the portraits of 
the King the one which convinces me most as likely to have been 
a faithful likeness. It was painted presumably from a drawing 
at Chantilly where the curious character of the face is still more 
incisively portrayed.- The Hampton Court picture is extremely 
expressive and the portrait of the Dauphin (PI. 18), showing the 
sitter at the age of two or three, is a most engaging picture. 

^ Two portraits in the New York Metropolitan Museum (Havemeyer 
Collection) are catalogued as by Jean Clouet or Corneille de Lyons. 

^ At Chantilly there is also a very attractive painting of Frangois as Due 
d'Angoulcme in his youth. The painter is unknown. 

F 55 













The following are characteristic paintings by Francois Clouet 

Philadelphia. (J.G.Johnson Portrait of a Gentleman 

Paris. Louvre 

Paris. Louvre 

Paris. Louvre 

Paris. Louvre 

Elizabeth of Austria, Queen of France 
Portrait. Pierre Quthe 
Henri II 
Charles IX 

The portrait of Elizabeth of Austria (PL i) is one of the 
most charming of the whole school. It represents Charles IX's 
Queen in the year of her coronation, 1371, when she was 
seventeen years old. Brantome wrote of her : " She was a very 
beautiful Princess with a fine and delicate complexion . . . she 
had a very beautiful figure though she was not tall. She was 
very good and virtuous and kind-hearted, she did harm to no one 
and never spoke a word that might have offended ; she was very 
quiet, spoke little and always in her native Spanish." She 
was the daughter of the Emperor Maximilian II, and when 
Charles IX died she returned to Vienna ; there she founded a 
convent, where she died at the age of thirty-eight.^ 

The following are characteristic pictures by Corneille de 
Lyons {c. 15 10-1574): — 

Antoine de Bourbon 
Portrait of a Nobleman 

Jacques Bertraut 

Charles de Cosse, Comte de Brissac 

Gabrielle de Rochechouart 

The Dauphin Francois 

Man in Armour 

^ The ascription of this picture to Francois Clouet is now called in ques- 
tion by some scholars. In the Louvre catalogue it is now described as 
" French School of the XVIth century." 



National Gallery 
(J. G. Johnson 





Musee Conde 
Musee Conde 





i . The Transformation of Paris 

ij. Simon Vonet 
i i j . / ins t ache I .e Sueur 
w . The Influence of the Tow Countries 

V. The Brothers Te Nain . 
vi. Georges Dumesnil cJe la Tour 
vij. Portrait Painters 
viij . French Artists in Kome 
ix. Claude le Lor rain 

X. Nicolas Poussin 


i. LuOuis XIV, Court spectacles and 

ij. Charles Le Brun 
ii j . The Royal Academy of Painting and 

iv. Pierre Mignard 
V. Louis XIV — the last phase 
vi. Hjacinthe Kigaud 
vij. Nicolas de Largilliere 



i. T/jc Transformation of Paris 

The scventccntli century falls naturally into two periods. 
The first, the Age of the Cardinals, extending from 1610 
to 1661, covers the reign of Louis XllI and the minority of 
Louis XIV. It is the period of the successive dominations of 
Richelieu while Marie de Medicis was Regent during the 
minority of Louis XIII, and of Mazarin while Anne of Austria 
was Regent during the minority of Louis XIV. The second 
period, the Age of Louis XIV, extends from the King's assump- 
tion of personal government in 1661 to his death in 1715.^ 

Paris in the first half of the century completely changed its 
appearance. New buildings appeared on every hand and new 
quarters were laid out. Marie de Medicis built the new Luxem- 
bourg Palace ; Richelieu built the Palais Cardinal (which has 
been known as Palais Royal since he bequeathed it to Louis 
XIII) ; and the King himself conceived the project of cjuad- 
rupling the original proportions of the Louvre and built the 
Clock Pavilion in 1624." 

La Place Dauphine and La Place des Vosges date from this 
period ; and the rich nobles and bourgeoisie began to build 
magnificent mansions, known as hotels, in the region of the 
Luxembourg Palace, round St. Germain-des-Pres and in the 
St. Antoine, the Marais, and Ile-St.-Louis quarters. 

There was also much ecclesiastical building. Under Richelieu 
and Mazarin there was a spectacular religious revival, accom- 
panied by a measure of real piety ; the old religious Orders 
flourished and new Orders were founded ; and ample money 
was forthcoming for building monasteries, convents, and 
churches in the new style of architecture which the Jesuits had 
introduced from Rome,' 

^ Richelieu died in 1642, Marie de Medicis in the same year, Louis XIII 
the year after, Mazarin in 1661, Anne of Austria in 1666. 

* Catherine de Medicis had built the Little Gallery of the Louvre and 
the Long Gallery connecting the Louvre and the Tuilcries. Henri IV added 
second stories to both structures. (Cf. note p. 77.) 

^ The churches of the Sorbonne and the Invalidcs, Saint Sulpice, Saint 



All this ecclesiastical and secular building created a great de- 
mand for artists to adorn the interiors with decorations and 
pictures ; and a new school of French painting arose in response. 
Though Marie de Medicis summoned Rubens to the Luxem- 
bourg in 1625 to paint the superb set of pictures now in the 
Louvre, and tried in vain to tempt Guido Reni to come to Paris 
for other work, it was to French painters and sculptors that the 
majority of the countless commissions were now given. 

Parisian taste in this period demanded a certain pomposity 
and pretension from the decorators. Though the artists patron- 
ised were French they were expected to produce pictures that 

Gervais, Saint Eustache, Saint Etienne-du-Mont, Saint Paul and the 
Val-de-Grace (cf. note p. 55, and pp. 89 and 90) date from this period. 

The religious attitudes of the time were very various. It was the age of 
Francois de Sales and Vincent de Paul. It was also an age when there were 
still armed conflicts between official Catholics and the Huguenots, and 
considerable persecution of free thought. The century which opened with 
the burning of Giordano Bruno in Rome (1600) continued with the burning 
of Vanini at Toulouse (1619) and of Fontanier in Paris (1621). There was 
much superstition and brutality. Vanini's tongue was torn out in presence 
of the populace and his atheism was said to have been demonstrated because 
at the pain he emitted a cry like an ox being killed. When Louis XIII and 
de Luynes wanted to follow the assassination of Concini by the removal of 
his wife, the confidante of the Queen Mother, they had her burned as a 
sorceress (1617) ; she was tried before Parliament, which was satisfied of her 
dealings in Black Magic and her frequentation of " Anabaptists, Jews, 
magicians and poisoners," when it was proved that in an attempt to cure 
herself of chronic neuralgia she had followed the advice of a Jewish doctor 
and applied chickens and pigeons to her head — though she had taken the 
precaution to have the birds first blessed by a priest. There were no 
executions for free thought under Richelieu. The freethinkers {lihertins as 
they were called in French) realised that all the Cardinal really asked of them 
was discretion and decent conduct and the recognition of the temporal 
authority of the Catholic Church. The Cure of St. Pierre de Loudun, who 
was burned alive by Richelieu (1654), was indeed described as one who had 
sold himself to the devil, but he was really executed for offences against 
nuns. Others executed under Richelieu as lihertins were also guilty of 
sexual crimes. Richelieu, whose personal religious attitude has puzzled 
all his biographers, was superstitious. He had the relics of St. Fiacre brought 
to him from Meaux as he believed they would cure his hemorrhoids. Under 
Mazarin one Claude Petit was hung and burned for the publication of 
" chansons impies " ; and M, d'Ambreville was burned alive for unorthodox 


I'iiris. Louvre 

EUSTACFIE LE SUEUR. The Death of St. Bruno. 


recalled Italian painting of some kind. Preference was given 
to those who had spent some years in Italy and knew h(nv to 
invest their compositions with some characteristic of contem- 
porary Italian painting or some echo of the Italian Renaissance 
masters. The taste of the time was willing to accept the flam- 
boyance of the Italian Baroque style, familiarised by the work 
of Rubens, and the more sober compositions of the so-called 
Eclectic Italian School which was based on the teachings of the 
Caracci ; and it also favoured echoes of the Raphaelesque 
tradition. All the artists who worked in the new hotels and 
churches complied with these conditions in varying degrees. 
The most famous and the most sought after were Simon Vouct 
and Eustachc Le Sueur.^ 

ij. Simon l^ouet 

BORN P.\RIS 1590. DIED PARIS 1 649 




Louis XIII, with allegorical figures of 
France and Navarre 

The Presentation of Jesus in the Temple 

Wealth, Faith, Victory, Eloquence (four 

St. Merry delivering the prisoners 

The Assumption 

The Entombment 
Presentation of the Virgin 
The Rest on the Flight 
Temptation of St. Anthony 
Death of the Magdalen 
Christ on the Cross 
Apotheosis of St. Eustache 

^ Among the other painters thus employed we must note Fran9ois Perrier 
(i 590-1636) who painted decorations for the Hotel Lambert, and for the Hotel 
de la Vrillierc which is now the Banquc de France ; Laurent de la Hyre 
(1606-1656) and Jacques Stella (i 596-1657) who worked especially for 
churches and religious Orders ; Charles Errard (1601-1689) who decorated 
numerous "hotels, worked in the Louvre and the Luxembourg Palaces, 
painted the scenery for Mazarin's production of " Orfeo ", and was 
eventually Director of the French Academy of Art in Rome ; and Louis 







Saint Merry 

Saint Nicolas des 











Simon Vouet, son of a decorative painter attached to the 
service of Henri IV, showed precocious talent for drawing and 
painting. If we are to credit Walpole he was already known as 
a portrait painter by the time he was fourteen. At the age of 
twenty-one he accompanied some ambassador to Constantinople, 
where he is said to have had an audience with the Sultan and to 
have painted a successful portrait of him from memory. In 
1612 we find him in Venice, in 161 3 in Rome. He remained 
in Italy for thirteen years. He decorated the splendid Doria 
Palace, in Genoa, and a chapel in the Vatican. His reputation 
in Italy eventually became so great that he was made a director, 
or Prince as the office was called, of the Roman artists' Academy 
of St. Luke. In 1627 he received a royal command to return to 
France and Louis XIII made him Premier peintre du rot with a 
handsome salary and apartments in the Louvre.^ 

Vouet painted the King's portrait, gave him lessons in pastel 
drawing, and executed to his order some decorations in the 
Louvre. From Marie de Medicis he received decorative com- 
missions for the Luxembourg, and he was also called on for 
numerous decorations for hotels^ and for altar-pieces in the new 
churches. He had an army of assistants and of apprentice 
pupils. At one moment Le Sueur, Mignard^ and Le Brun^ were 
all working in his atelier. His output was tremendous and his 
position was unchallenged for many years. 

Vouet's ecclesiastical style can be well seen in the K.est on the 
Flight (PI. 2 1 a), in the Museum of Grenoble, and in the Louvre 
Presentation of Jesus in the Temple, which he painted for the Church 
of the Jesuits in Paris to the order of Richelieu. His decorative 

Testelin (i6i6?-i695) who decorated the bathroom of Anne of Austria, 
and was eventually to formulate a Code of Art for the Academy (cf. p. 87). 
Some of these artists belonged to the Matirise and some were peintres du roi 
(cf. p. 84). 

^ The ground floor, entresol and first floor of the Long Gallery of the 
Louvre had been fitted up as lodgings for the artists in the Royal service 
by Henri IV, who installed there not only a number of painters and sculptors, 
but also an engraver of precious stones, an upholsterer, and one Bourgois, 
described as ouvrier en globes mouvants et en constructions mecaniques. Artists 
and some craftsmen continued to have lodgings in the Louvre till 1806. 

2 Cf. pp. 88-91. 

3 Cf. pp. 78-82. 


EUSTACHE LE SUI^LR. The Mass of St. Martin of Tours. 

.ivienon. Miisie Calvet 

LOUIS LE NAIN. Portrait of a Nun. 


style can be seen in the allegorical figures of Wealth (PI. 22b), 
\aith, I litory d.v\i\ li/oquf/ue, now in the Louvre.^ 

His reputation suHcrcd a set-back when Foussin visited Paris 
in 1640.* The King, after receiving Poussin in audience, 
exclaimed to his Courtiers, " I WA; I ^of/e/ hien attrapt^'' and the 
word went round. Vouet suflered further when Lc Brun re- 
turned from Italy and intrigued against him at the time of the 
foundation of the Academy, In this conflict with Lc Brun lie 
would doubtless have been defeated in the end. But he was 
spared this humiliation because he died in 1659 before the 
Academy was finally established. 

Though now completely forgotten Vouet was a most im- 
portant figure in the history of French art. His work stands at 
the root of nearly all the Parisian ecclesiastical and decorative 
painting of the first half of the century ; and his influence is 
seen not only in pictures by his pupils, Le Sueur and Le Brun, 
but also in certain works of Poussin himself.^ 

iij. Eustache Le Sueur 



The Holy Family 

The Angel appearing to Hagar in the 

The Descent from the Cross 
St. Paul preaching at Ephesus 
The Virgin appearing to St. Martin of 

The Mass of St. Martin of Tours 
View of the Chartreuse de Paris, with 

figures and plan 

* Vouet's ecclesiastical style was a compound of all the contemporary 
Italian formulae rendered tiresome in a special way by the heaviness of the 
figures which is accompanied by attempts at affected grace — (note the 
angel's little figure in PI. 21a). In his decorative style we see the influence 
of his visit to Venice (cf. PI. 22b). 

* Cf. p. 67. 

' Cf. Pis. 22a and 22b. 

G 41 


National Gallery 



















Le Mans. 




Musee Fabre 





The life of St. Bruno (twenty-two 

Hotel Lambert, " Cabinet d' Amour " 

(seven pictures) 
Hotel Lambert, " Chambrc des Muses " 

(six pictures) 
Portrait group of M. de Chambray and 

Tobias receiving instructions for his 

journey from his parents 
The Angel leaving Tobias 
The Wedding Night of Tobias 
Tobias returning to his parents 
Diana and her attendants hunting 
St. Louis tending the sick 
The dream of Polyphilus 

Eustache Le Sueur is another artist who is largely forgotten 
to-day though he painted some of the most charming religious 
and decorative pictures of the seventeenth century. I use the 
word religious, rather than ecclesiastical, in speaking of this 
artist's work, because his best pictures of religious subjects 
seem imbued with an intense and simple religious spirit that is 
rarely met with in any painting after the early years of the 
Italian Renaissance. ^ 

Le Sueur was born in Paris. His father was a turner. He thus 
belonged to the artisan class, and in that class he remained all 
through his life. He never went to Italy, and he never aspired 
to the fashionable position of Vouet though he worked for some 

^ Le Sueur was greatly admired by Reynolds, who spoke of him as con- 
stituting with Poussin and Le Brun a colony from the Roman School to 
which he assigned rank above the Venetian, Flemish and Dutch. In our 
own time he has been the subject of some curious and harsh judgments. M. 
Henri Lemonnier classes him with the French genre painters, the Le Nain 
brothers, and the engravers Callot and Bossc (cf. pp. 47 and 85). Sir Charles 
Holmes has written : " In Lesueur an intellectual temper similar to Poussin's 
was joined to a Raphaelesque sense of proportion and the resulting product is 
just redeemed from being colourless (his colour is his weakest point) by a 
certain rather frigid lead beauty" — a most strange comment on Le Sueur's 
colour, Ruskin described Le Sueur's religious pictures as " pure abortion 
and nuisance," and he described the Virgin and the saints in the Virgin 
appearing to St. Martin as " beautifully buoyant and graceful and tender, 
but not religious nor sublime." 



people in the fashionable work). I Ic niurrietl the daughter of a 
painter, one of his sons was a grocer and one of liis daughters 
also had a grocer for her husband. 1 le graduated as Master in 
the Mai/rise; when invited to do so he joined the Academy, 
without fuss ; and he paid his subscriptions regularly to that 
institution which the more fashionable members in the main 
omitted to do. He was a kindly, simple man without preten- 
sions ; and his character is reflected in his pictures. 

He was fifteen when he was apprenticed to Vouet, and he was 
doubtless regarded as a dunce by his fellow-pupils, Mignard and 
Le Brun, He profited, however, by Vouet's instruction and 
absorbed his manner so completely that one of his earliest 
pictures, the portrait group, AI. de Chambray and his friends, in the 
Louvre, was long ascribed to Vouet himself.^ 

After leaving Vouet's atelier he began to get commissions to 
design frontispieces and vignettes for books, and for pictures 
in churches, monasteries and private hotels. His most important 
decorative commission was a series of panels for two rooms, 
known as the Cabinet d' Amour and the Chambre des Muses, in the 
Hotel Lambert, belonging to Nicolas Lambert de Thorigny, 
President of the Chamhre des Comptes. 

The panels in the Chambre des Muses — (now in the Louvre) 
— consist of two large and three small compositions. The large 
pictures represent groups of the Muses — the first Clio, Euterpe 
and Thalia (PI. 23d), the second Melpomene, Erato and Polymnia, 
(PI. 23b); the small pictures represent single figures of Urania, 
Terpsichore and Calliope. Here we see Le Sueur in the field 
where Raphael's Parnassus in the Vatican reigns supreme.^ 

But Raphael's fresco is a superb pageant designed by a pageant 
master of genius and executed as it were by skilled professional 
actors wearing costumes from the best theatrical costumier of the 

^ The influence of Vouet is also seen in Le Sueur's Diana and her attendants 
hunting (which 1 presume is an early work) in the Lc Mans Museum. This 
picture is curiously hybrid. The figures arc painted in the manner of Vouet, 
with artificial flying draperies and bare breasts and legs ; and they are 
accompanied by realistically painted sporting dogs complete with collars 
and chain-rings. 

* Lc Sueur, as noted, never went to Italy, but he was familiar with 
Raphael's work from engravings. 



day. Le Sueut's pictures are tableaux vivants performed by 
amateurs who make up in friendliness for their shortcomings in 
professional panache. 

In the first group the performers, I feel, are the more mature 
and experienced of the members of the family who have organised 
these tableaux ; they are elder sisters or possibly young aunts. 
Clio the Muse of History has a book and the Trumpet of Fame, 
Euterpe the Muse of Lyric Poetry plays the flute, and at their 
feet Thalia the Muse of Comedy contemplates a mask. They all 
wear blue or bluish-grey draperies and Clio has a red drapery 
across her knees. 

In the second group, on the other hand, we have younger 
members of the family. Here Melpomene the Muse of Hymns 
is chanting from a book of music, Polymnia the Muse of Tragedy 
plays on the bass violin and casts her eyes to heaven in anguish, 
and Erato the Muse of erotic poetry, who is discreetly given 
no attribute, peeps over Polymnia's shoulder. What could be 
more engaging than Melpomene sitting as good as gold upon 
the ground with a drapery thrown over her frock and flowers 
in her hair, singing so demurely from the book of choral music 
— borrowed maybe for the occasion ?^ 

The Hotel Lambert pictures date from the sixteen-forties. 
About the same time Le Sueur was commissioned to paint 
twenty-two pictures of the life of St. Bruno, the founder of the 
Carthusian Order, for a cloister in the Chartreuse Monastery 
in Paris. 2 

* Most of these pictures from the Hotel Lambert — for Louvre pictures — 
are in very fair condition. But in some cases there has evidently been 
clumsy repainting, especially in the red draperies, which have become a 
heavy and crude scarlet. Where Le Sueur's work has been preserved the 
reds are of a delicate rose- vermilion, and the blues are warmed with a gold 
glaze ; in the original passages the surface has a tapestry-like quality that 
is very characteristic. 

' The Chartreuse Monastery in Paris was situated on a site now occupied 
by the Avenue de I'Observatoire and the houses between this avenue and the 
rue d'Assas. It is seen in Le Sueur's Louvre View of the Chartreuse of Paris 
with plan, which makes an interesting contrast with El Greco's View of 
Toledo with plan (in the Casa Greco, at Toledo), which was painted about 
fifty years before. The episodes assigned to Le Sueur were those which arc 
related in the official Lives of St. Bruno, together with the episode of Raymond 
Diocres, which is described by Butler in his L,ives of the Fathers, Martyrs 



These pictures arc now in die I.ouvrc, hut it is almost im- 
possible to judge them in their present condition as they were 
originally placed in the open air where they suffered from damp, 
exposure, neglect and wilful damage, and since then they have 
been completely repainted on three occasions. One picture 
alone of the series. The Death of St. Bruno (PI. 24), still conveys 
to us the spirit of the artist's work. 

We can see Le Sueur's individuality as a religious painter most 
clearly in The Mass of St. Martin of Tours (PI. 25), painted for the 
Abbaye de Marmoutiers. The episode represented is not that 
of St. Martin dividing his cloak with the beggar at the gate of 
Amiens, but a similar episode at Tours when the saint gave 
his own tunic to a beggar and celebrated the Mass in a cheap 
tunic which the archdeacon had intended him to give to a beggar 
for whom he had been instructed to provide clothes. In Lc 
Sueur's picture St. Martin is celebrating the Mass and above 
his head is a globe of fire — the sign that the beggar had in fact 
been Christ. Le Sueur has here achieved a \tty lovely work. 
There is a gentle serenity in this picture which is not destroyed 
by the genre painting of the congregation because the genre 
passages are treated with formal simplicity. The colour too is 
quite enchanting ; the woman in the foreground wears a rose- 

and other Principal Saints as " mere hearsay fiction injudiciously credited by 
those who committed it to writing." St. Bruno was born in 1030. " In 
his infancy," says Butler, " he seemed above the usual weakness of that age 
and nothing childish ever appeared in his manners." After various scholastic 
and theological studies he eventually rose to distinction in the Church and 
was about to be made Archbishop of Rheims when he felt a call to renounce 
the benefits and pleasures of the world. The episode of Raymond Diocres 
occurs as the motif for this decision which is otherwise attributed to less 
dramatic causes. Raymond Diocres was a famous theological doctor of 
Paris whose sermons were attended by the youthful St. Bruno and fired 
him with enthusiasm. When Diocres died he was granted the funeral 
honours of a holy man. But in fact he was an impostor and when his body 
was lying in state the horror-stricken mourners observed it rise in agony 
and utter three terrible cries : " By the just judgment of God I am accused," 
" I am judged," " I am condemned." Le Sueur's first picture is St. Bruno 
listening to the Sermon of Raymond Diocres ; the second, The Death of Raymond 
Diocres; the third. The corpse of Raymond Diocres announcing his damnation ^ 
represents the writhing, shrieking corpse striking the spectators with con- 



vermilion skirt, an olive-green bodice and a blue wimple ; the 
globe of fire is the same red as the skirt ; the rest of the picture 
is composed of delicate blues, whites and greys.^ 

The Mass of St. Martin of Tours is now in the Louvre. In 
another picture by Le Sueur, The Apparition of the Virgin to St. 
Martin^ also in the Louvre, the figure of St. Martin is extremely 
moving in its intense humility.^ 

In addition to these commissions for churches and religious 
institutions Le Sueur painted a number of religious pictures for 
private patrons. The Louvre has a charming Hagar and the 
Angel in the Desert, and a scene from the story of Tobias — one 
of a series of which others are preserved in the museums of 
Grenoble, Montpellier and Buda Pesth. The Montpellier picture 
represents The Wedding Night of Tobias, an incident which is rare 
in the many pictured versions of the story in Italian and Dutch art 
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. ^ 

^ In Le Sueur's picture the Saint is wearing his own vestments, not the 
cheap tunic of the legend. 

^ This picture, formerly catalogued as Sf. Scholastica appearing to St. 
Benedict, was the object of Rus kin's unfavourable comment quoted in my 
note on p. 42. 

The most famous of Le Sueur's religious paintings in his day was the St. 
"Paul preaching at Ephesus, painted for Notre Dame and now in the Louvre. 
This shows the burning of the magic books of those " which used curious 
arts," while St. Paul preaches in front of the Temple of Diana and a negro 
kneels on the ground and blows the fire. To the modern spectator this 
picture makes small appeal. It is too obviously a pastiche put together from 
Raphael's Death of Ananias and St. Paul at Athens. 

' Tobias it will be remembered was sent by his blind father Tobit to 
Rhages in Ecbatana to recover a debt. As Tobit had won favour in God's 
sight Tobias was accompanied on his journey by the angel Raphael. On the 
journey Tobias washed his feet in the Tigris and was attacked by a fish. 
Aided by the angel he killed the fish and became possessed of its liver and 
heart and of its gall. At Rhages he recovered his father's money and was 
able to win his cousin Sara of Ecbatana as his bride. Sara had been the 
victim of an evil spirit Asmodeus ; she had been married seven times and by 
the action of the evil spirit her husbands had always died on the wedding 
night. Instructed by the angel Tobias burned the liver and heart of the 
fish, and the fumes drove away the demon so that he could marry her in 
peace ; and when he returned home he was able to cure his father's blindness 
by application of the fish's gall. In Le Sueur's picture we see the liver and 
heart of the fish being burned in a brasier while the demon departs in the 
smoke, and Sara, seated on the nuptial bed, looks on with approbation. 



iv. The hi flue nee oj the hew Countries 
Side by side with this production of pictures for royalty, the 
weahhy, and tiie (-hurch, there was a xwoxc popular production 
of small easel pictures resembling the popular descriptive 
pictures of the Low Countries. Up to the seventeenth century 
popular descriptive art, produced in all countries, had generally 
been executed in cheap and fugitive materials. In Renaissance 
times art depicting scenes of everyday life was generally in the 
form of drawings or of prints on paper from wood-blocks or 
copper plates. In France this tradition continued into the reign 
of Louis XIII ; Jacques Callot (1592-163 5) made drawings and 
engravings describing tramps and gipsies, and he has left us 
mordant records of the pomp and the miseries of seventeenth- 
century war; and Abraham Bosse^ (i 602-1 676) engraved 
scenes of French bourgeois life with sly humour. This popular 
art first invaded oil painting in the seventeenth century in the 
Low Countries, especially in Holland ; and it was not long 
before oil paintings in the manner of Van Ostade, Molenaer, 
Paul Potter and Teniers began to be seen in Paris. 

There was, moreover, a recognised Low Country colony in 
the region of St. Germain des Pres, where various painters whom 
Rubens had brought to Paris as assistants had established them- 
selves. These Flemish and Dutch artists by the rules of the 
Maitrise were not allowed to exhibit their work in Paris or trade 
in pictures ; only those who made terms with the Maitrise or 
obtained Royal protection were able to do so ; but the others 
could expose their work for sale at the St. Germain Fair, in 
Februar)^ each year, because St. Germain des Pr^s, then outside 
the city, was a privileged place, with its own Guild of artists 
not controlled by the central Maitrise in Paris. "^ 

At the St. Germain Fair, accordingly, the exhibition of little 
popular paintings by Dutch and Flemish artists was a regular 
feature. These pictures were mainly sold for trifling sums to 
the petite bourgeoisie ; but when the Fair began to be visited by 
fashionable people from the new St. Germain and Luxembourg 
})6tels a few rich dilettanti of independent taste also began to 

^ Cf. note p. 85. 

2 Cf. pp. 7, 83, 84, 122. 



collect them ; and in the later years of the century — (in spite 
of the famous comment of Louis XIV, " etileve^ tfioi ces magots ") 
— the serious collecting of Flemish and Dutch pictures very 
considerably increased. ^ 

The influence of the Dutch painters is plainly seen in the works 
of three most interesting French artists, the brothers Antoine, 
Louis and Mathieu Le Nain ; and that of another type of Low 
Country painter, Gerard Honthorst, is seen in the pictures by 
Georges Dumesnil de la Tour. 

V. The brothers Le Nain : 

BORN LAON 1 5 88. DIED PARIS 1648 "i 



London. National Gallery Portrait Group (signed Lenain) | 

London. The Countess of Bute The Studio 5] 

Glasgow. Art Galleries Interior with figures ] 

Paris. Louvre Family Group (signed Le Nain fecit \ 

1642) , . 

Paris. Louvre Portraits in an interior (signed, Le Nain : 

fecit 1647) I 

Paris. David Weill Collec- The Grace * 

tion '^ 





London. National Gallery Saying Grace 2 

London. Victoria and Albert Landscape with figures. (La Halte du J^ 

Museum Cavalier) I 

London. Duke of Rutland Col- Peasants before their house (signed, and i 

lection dated 1 640 ?) 

Boston. Museumof Fine Arts Peasants before their house 

(formerly Earl of 

Carlisle Collection) 
Detroit. Institute of Arts The Village Piper 

(with Antoine Le 

Nain ?) 

^ Cf. pp. 93, 102, 103, III, 


I'iiris. Lvuirc 

l.OLIS IJ' NAIN. Peasant Familv. 

Ditroit. Institute of Arts 

ANTOINE AND LOUIS LI- NAIN. The \illagc Piper. 

London. Victoria and Albert Museum 

LOUIS LE NAIN. La J Jake Ju Cavalier. 

The Hague. Mauritshui^ 

PAUL POTTF. R. \uuni' Bull. 













Paul Jamot Collec 



Mus6c Calvet 



The Return from Haymaking. (La 

(^harrette) (signed Le Nain fecit 1641) 
The Peasant's .Meal (signed Le Nain fecit 

an" 1642) 
Peasant Family 
The Forge 

Nativity. (La Creche) 
The Return from the baptism (signed 

Le Nain f. 1642) 
Portrait of a Nun (perhaps La Marquise 

de Forbin-Janson) (signed Act. Suae 

84. A" 1644 Lenain f') 
The Open-air meal 

New York. 




Art Institute 
Art Museum 


Institute of Arts 








Baronne de Berck- 

heim Collection 


Private Collection 


Louis Sambon Col- 



Dr. Mary Collec- 








The Mendicants 

Peasant Family 
Children playing Cards 

A Peasant meal 
Tric-trac players 
The little card players 
Group of amateurs 
The Corps de Garde 

fecit 1645) 
The Gardener 
The dancine lesson 

(signed Lenain 

Nativity (signed Le Nain f. 1674) 

Venus in the Forge of Vulcan (signed 

Lcnaun fecit 1641) 
Portrait of a Young Man 
Portrait of a Young Man (dated 1646) 

There is an old tradition that the Brothers Antoine, Louis 
and Mathieu Le Nain collaborated on all their pictures ; and 
till recently no attempt was made to distinguish the works ot 
the three men. But in 1910 Sir Robert \\ itt, on the occasion of 
an exhibition of their works at the Burlington Fine Arts Club, 

H 49 


subjected the exhibits to detailed examination and established 
the basis of each man's separate style. Since then M. Paul 
Jamot has made an exhaustive study of the subject and com- 
pleted the grouping of all the known pictures ascribed to these 
artists. I give above lists of the outstanding pictures as now 
divided among them. 

Antoine Le Nain was the eldest of the three brothers. He 
painted little portrait groups. He had a shrewd and humorous 
eye but never attained to any great skill in the conduct of a picture. 
He was always defeated by problems of proportion ; the heads 
of the various figures in his groups are of different sizes, they 
are often too big for the bodies, and many of his figures appear 
to be dwarfs. The Village Piper (PL 27b) in the Detroit Institute 
of Arts which is ascribed to Louis seems to me to contain 
passages which seem characteristic of Antoine. On the other 
hand the piper himself and the girl on the right seem too com- 
pletely realised to be Antoine's unaided work and to be ex- 
tremely characteristic of Louis. We can assume here, I submit, 
collaboration between the two brothers — and we have the old 
tradition to support this view. 

Antoine Le Nain never graduated in the Paris Mattrise. But 
he acquired the rank of Master in the Guild of St. Germain and 
he doubtless frequented the St. Germain Fair and exhibited and 
sold his pictures there. We may assume that his brothers were 
in the same position till all three acquired Parisian reputations 
and were invited to join the Academy when in 1648 it was 
selecting members hostile to the Mattrise} 

Louis Le Nain was the outstanding artist of the three. His 
Peasant Family (PI. 27a) and Peasant Meal, in the Louvre, are 
masterpieces. Here we have the Dutch descriptive art of the 
period lifted from the level of commonplace genre to the level 
of the Velasquez Old woman frying eggs in the Cook Collection 
at Richmond, which had been painted about a quarter of a 
century before. 

Louis Le Nain also painted some outdoor groups in which 
again we find a dignity that is usually absent from similar Dutch 
pictures. The Louvre has The Keturn from Haymaking of this 
character, and there is a fine landscape with figures which the 

1 Cf. pp. 82-85. 



French critics call La Halte dti Cavalier^ in the lonidcs Collection 
at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. 

These outdoor subjects, especially Im Halte du Cavalier 
(PI. 28a), demonstrate, 1 think, that Louis Le Nain was acquainted 
with the work of his contemporary Paul Potter, painter of the 
celebrated Young Bull (PL 28b) in the Mauritshuis, The Hague. 
There is nothing in Louis Le Nain's technique which approxi- 
mates to the technique of the majority of contemporary Dutch 
and Flemish painters who worked with a light touch and an oily 
brilliance of transparent colour. But Paul Potter's handling of 
paint was different. His touch was deliberate, the substance of 
his pigment w^as thick and opaque, and his colour was pre- 
dominantly grey. In the Halt of a Cavalier Louis Le Nain has 
handled his paint in just Paul Potter's way ; and there is also a 
resemblance to the Young Bull in the general composition of the 

But even making the maximum allowance for Louis Le Nain's 
debt to such Dutch pictures his works remain essentially 
individual, and essentially French. The gravity, the restraint, 
and the feeling in his work represent an aspect of the French 
spirit which is deeply rooted in the permanent simplicities of 
life. This aspect, which we find in another form in the pictures 
of Le Sueur, found no expression in the French decorative art 
of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It reappeared in 
the eighteenth century in the pictures by Chardin,^ and in the 
nineteenth in certain works by Paul Cezanne.^ 

Scholars are still undecided about the list of Louis Le Nain's 

^ Paul Potter worked in Delft, Amsterdam and The Hague. He was 
born eighteen years after Louis Le Nain and outlived him by six years. His 
Hague Young Bullh dated 1647 — the year before Louis Le Nain died. Other 
versions of the picture exist which may have been painted earlier and one 
of them or a similar picture may have found its way to the St. Germain Fair. 
Potter had many pupils and imitators including Jacob Duck whose works, 
notably The Stable in Amsterdam and the Pipe Drunk Woman in Munich, 
have various affinities with Lc Nain's. (Cf. my Introduction to Dutch Art, 
Pis. 84 and 88.) Judging from a photograph the picture known as Chasse J 
I'Epieu ascribed to " Lc Nain " in the Hamelin Collection in Paris would 
seem to be a work by Paul Potter. 

* Cf. Pis. 59-65. 

=« Cf. Pi. 1 29. 



portraits. But there is general agreement on the fine Avignon 
Portrait of a Nim (PL 26). 

Antoine and Louis Le Nain both died in 1648. Mathieu, the 
youngest brother, outUvcd them for nearly thirty years. He 
was to all intents and purposes an artist of the Dutch popular 
school, a species of French Duyster. He painted portraits, 
including the clever Portrait of a Youth in the Laon Aluseum, 
genre pictures of young men playing tric-trac, bourgeois 
interiors, and so forth. The Peasant Meal (PI. 30b) in the 
Detroit Institute of Arts and the Tric-Trac Players in the Louvre 
are typical of his genre work. 

A large painting in the Louvre, the Nativity (La Creche), 
attributed by M. Jamot to Louis Le Nain, and described in the 
Louvre Catalogue as " Attributed to Louis Le Nain," may also 
possibly be a work by Mathieu. It is a curiously eclectic picture 
in which we see a Virgin with a Rubens facial type, a young girl 
who resembles the favourite model of Caravaggio, and elements 
which seem Spanish. It demonstrates the variety of foreign 
styles with which the brothers had contact when they frequented 
the St. Germain Fair.^ 

The same applies to Mathieu Le Nain's curious Ve/ws in the 
Forge of Vulcan (PI. 30a) at Rheims, where with considerable 
gaucherie the artist has attempted a mythological composition 
which contrasts strangely with The Forge (in the Louvre) by his 
brother Louis on the one hand and with The Forge of Vulcan (in 
the Prado) by Velasquez on the other.^ 

^ It is probable that Italian and Spanish pictures as well as Dutch and 
Flemish found their way to the St. Germain Fair. It is impossible to dis- 
sociate the gamins in the Le Nains' pictures from the gamins of Murillo. 
We may assume that if versions of works by the Spanish masters reached the 
St. Germain market, they were not originals but school pieces or copies. 

2 Mathieu Le Nain's Torge of Vulcan was painted in 1641 ; the Velasquez 
picture in 1630. 



vi Georges Dnmesiiil dc la Tour 



Adoration of the Shepherds 

Denial of St. Peter 

The Angel appearing to foseph 

Peter and the Serving Woman 

Mother and Child 

A young woman visiting a prisoner 

St. Sebastian mourned by Women 

Paris. Louvre 

Paris. Louvre 

Nantes. Museum 

Nantes. Museum 

Rcnncs. Museum 

Epinal. Vosges Museum 

Berlin. Kaiser-Friedrich 


Munich. Fischmann Collection Woman's Head illumined by candle- 


Georges Dumesnil dc la Tour, painter of the striking picture 
St. Sebastian mourned by Women (PI. 29), was a very able artist 
with a sense of drama and dramatic effect. All the pictures 
now ascribed to him are illuminated by candlelight, or torch- 
light, and they arc marked by fine serenity and broad simplifi- 
cations in the forms. 

It is clear that Dumesnil de la Tour was acquainted with the 
works of the School of painters known in Italy as the TenebrosL 
The art of these painters was based in the first place on Raphael's 
night scene, Tbe Liberation of St. Peter, in the Vatican, and in the 
second on the spotlight effects in certain pictures by Caravaggio ; 
and it was brought to the north by the Dutch painter, Gerard 
Honthorst, who went to Rome about 1610 and remained there 
till 1622.1 

The resemblance of Dumesnil de la Tour's works to certain 
pictures by Honthorst is ver)' evident. But we can only guess 
at the relation between the two artists because we know next 
to nothing of Dumesnil's life. 

1 Cf. my Introduction to Dutch Art (pp. 50-54 and Pis. 23, 24, 25 and 26) 
where the influence of the Tenebrosi on Rembrandt via Honthorst is dis- 
cussed. In Rome Honthorst painted a whole series of candlelight and torch- 
light pictures which included a Beheading of St. John the Baptist ^ the Christ 
before Caiaphas (now in the London National Galler}'), the Boy singing by 
Candlelight and the Girl catching a Flea in her Nightdress (both now in the Doria 
Gallery in Rome), and he thereby earned for himself the title of Gerardo 
della Notte (Gerard of the Night). 



We know that he was born in Luneville where he died in 1652, 
that he received commissions from Louis XIII, from the 
Governor of Nancy, and from Duke Charles IV of Lorraine ; 
and that he painted in 1644 a Nativity (perhaps the Louvre 
Adoration), in 1648 a Saint Alexis, in 1649 ^ ^^^^^^ Sebastian, and at 
other times a Denial of St. Peter 2Lnd other pictures of St. Sebastian. 

He thus clearly had influential patrons one of whom may 
have provided the money for a journey to Rome. If we put 
this presumed journey between 161 3 and 1622 he might have 
met Honthorst himself. Alternatively he may have visited 
Holland and become acquainted with the works of Honthorst 
or his followers in that way. In favour of a Dutch visit there 
is the striking resemblance of the formal simplifications in his 
pictures to those in pictures by Vermeer of Delft. There is 
also, of course, the third alternative that he may have seen 
examples or imitations of Honthorst's pictures in France. 

Dumesnil de la Tour in any case was no mere pasticheur. His 
pictures are not a mere combination of the formal feeling of 
Vermeer illuminated by the light effects of Honthorst. They 
reveal a personal artist. The St. Sebastian mourned by Women is 
one of the most original pictures in French seventeenth-century 

vij . Portrait Painters 

The most appreciated portrait painters of this period were 
the cousins Henri de Beaubrun (i 603-1 677) and Charles de 
Beaubrun (i 604-1 692), Philippe de Champaigne (i 602-1 674), 
Claude Lefebre (1632-1675), and Robert Nanteuil (1625-1678). 

1 Dumesnil de la Tour is one of the recent discoveries of art-scholarship, 
in the sense that in recent years various scholars have recognised his hand 
in a number of pictures the authorship of which was previously unknown. 

At present we only know two pictures which are signed. The first is 
The Angel appearing to Joseph at Nantes (which is known at the Museum as 
Sleeping Old Man arvakened by a Girl) and Pe/er and the Serving Woman, in the 
same gallery (known as The Denial of St. Peter). The second is dated 1650. 

The pioneer work on this artist was done by Herr Hermann Voss in 
Archiv fur Kunstgeschichte in 1914. M. L. Demonts followed in Chronique 
des Arts in 1922, M. Vitale Bloch in Forwes in December, 1930. At the 
moment of going to press 1 learn that M. Landry, of Paris, owns a daylight 
subject. The Card Sharpers, by this artist. 



The reputation of the de Beaubruns was immensely high all 
through the centurv. In the early part of their career they 
painted I.ouis XIV at the age of eight days, and Anne of Austria 
some months before he was born — a special commission from 
the luiglish Ambassador to celebrate the Queen's condition.^ 
Most of the French artists of the period came from the middle 
and artisan classes ; but the de Beaubruns could boast a family 
tree, and they were persons of polite and charming manners ; 
they flattered their sitters, and their portraits appealed especially 
to Court ladies. Till Henri died they seem to have worked in 
collaboration — one presumably painting the faces and the other 
the draperies. In their Court commissions they were evidently 
embarrassed by the casual conduct of the ladies who neglected 
to keep appointments, for a letter survives in which they com- 
plain to Colbert that unless the King will be good enough to 
speak a word to certain ladies to induce them to take the sittings 
more seriously they will not be able to complete their work. 

Most of the portraits by the de Beaubruns have now dis- 
appeared or are labelled " French Seventeenth-Centur}' School," 
but the manner of Charles can be studied in the portrait (painted 
after his brother's death) o^ Mile de I ^alois in the Prado in Aladrid, 
and their joint work can be seen in two portraits in the Musee 
Conde at Chantilly, one of which shows the celebrated Diuhesse 
de Longueville whose beauty moved her admirers to the most 
lyrical descriptions even after the smallpox had played havoc 
with her teint de perle. 

Philippe de Champaigne was born in Brussels, but as he 
worked almost exclusively in France he is usually included in 
the French School. As a portrait painter he introduced a 
categoric realistic manner and impressed his contemporaries 
by the " lifelike " quality of the resemblance. He ** modelled," 
as painters say, with vigour and completeness, more especially 
in his later years. He was admired above all other portrait 
painters by Richelieu, and he painted the celebrated full-length 
portrait of the Cardinal, now in the Louvre, and also the 

^ In Court and ecclesiastical circles the Queen's pregnancy, after many 
years of despair, was regarded as a miracle obtained by special prayers. 
Hence the painting of this picture and hence also the first title of Louis XIV : 



extremely interesting full-face and profile head studies now in 
the National Gallery in London. The head studies were painted 
for a Roman sculptor who made a bust from them, and they 
constitute a most valuable record of the Cardinal's real appear- 
ance. Two imposing groups, by de Champaigne, are now in 
the Louvre. The first represents the architects Francois Mansart 
and Claude Perrault, the second ha Mere Catherine-Agnes Arnaud 
et la Soeur Catherine de Sainte-Su^anne (PL 6ob). 

The picture of the nuns was painted in the convent of Port 
Royal in 1662 when the artist had to a large extent withdrawn 
from the official world and was frequenting the Jansenists by 
whom the institution had been founded. The younger nun on 
the chaise longue was the artist's daughter who had been attacked 
by fever and paralysis and given up by the doctors, when, as we 
read in the inscription, she was miraculously cured by the 
prayers of Mother Catherine- Agn^s in a nine days' retreat.^ 

Claude Lefebre was a pupil of Le Sueur and Le Brun. He 
was another favourite portrait painter of the Court, and he painted 
Colbert. The Louvre has his Portraits d'un precepteur et son eleve 
and a male portrait. From his style he may be presumed to have 
studied portraits by Van Dyck. 

Robert Nanteuil worked mainly as an engraver and pastellist. 
Louis XIV, Anne of Austria, Mazarin and Colbert sat to him. 

viij . French Artists in Kome 

In all this artistic activity the two greatest French painters 
of the period took scarcely any part. Claude Lorrain and Nicolas 
Poussin both lived almost entirely in Rome. Claude was there 
from 1627 till his death in 1682. Poussin was there from 1624 
to 1640 and from 1643 till his death in 1665. 

Rome at this time had large colonies of artists from Germany, 
Flanders, Holland and France. The artists went there for the 
most part in their youth at the expense of a patron to whom they 

^ Philippe de Champaigne also executed decorative compositions all 
through his life. He arrived in Paris at the age of nineteen and obtained 
employment on the decorations of the Luxembourg Palace, where his work 
appealed to Marie de Medicis who eventually attached him to her establish- 
ment as director of the decorations, which made him independent of the 
Parisian Matfrise. 


liirriin. Kuntr IruJru h A/wmiiii. 

DUMESNll. 1)1 l.\ lOlK. St. Sebastian mourned by Women. 

Rhcuiis. Miisi'uin 

MATHIEU LE NAIN. \'enus in the Forge of Vulcan. 

Detroit. Jiistilutc nf Art^ 

MATHIEU LE NAIN. Peasant Meal. 


sent back specimens of their studies and for whom they made 
copies of Old Masters and often collected objets d'ari ; others 
worked their way to Italy by painting at various places on the 
journey or rendering services to fellow travellers with means, 
for such journeys were always made in groups of people who 
travelled together for mutual protection. This method of travel 
had obvious advantages for a young artist over the express- 
train travelling or even the car-travelling of to-day ; for it was 
accomplished in short stages, the artists could survey the 
country through which they travelled and form an acquaintance 
with monuments in the towns and cities on the route. The 
journey was in fact an education for an artist in itself. 

Arrived in Rome the artists found themselves in an atmo- 
sphere where they could not only study contemporary Italian 
painting and have contact with the contemporary artistic thought 
of the Italian and foreign intelligentsia, but where they were also 
able to study the achievements of the Renaissance and the 
remains of antiquity. In the Rome which these artists knew 
fragments of ancient architecture abounded, sometimes upright, 
sometimes lying on the ground. Claude and the Roman-ruin 
painters who followed him did not invent the fallen pillars and 
deserted temples that figure in their pictures, they actually 
saw them. Claude's Vieip of the Campo Yaccino^ for example, 
is based on the Forum as it appeared in his day when it was used 
as a cattle-market. 

The seventeenth-century conceptions of antique art were 
different from our own. The artist in Rome in this period knew 
little of and cared little for Greek art. The Parthenon and its 
sculptures were unknown and the average seventeenth-century 
artist even if acquainted with fifth-century and archaic Greek 
sculpture paid no heed to them. The most admired statues in 
the Vatican collection were the Apollo Belvedere, the haocoon, 
and the Varnese Hercules. Poussin, who penetrated more deeply 
into the antique spirit, achieved a comprehension that was 
personal and unique. 

After a few years in Rome the artists generally returned to 
their own countries where, if they had been financed by patrons, 
they were introduced by tliem to the fashionable world. Oc- 
casionally they were able by their own paintings to attract the 

I 57 


attention of Italian dilettanti and make money and a local 
reputation in Rome ; and more occasionally still they had so 
much success in Rome that they were able to establish them- 
selves as permanent residents in the city — as happened in the case 
both of Claude and of Poussin. 

In Paris in the first half of the century the majority of artists 
were still regarded as fournisseurs of decorative and ecclesiastical 
pictures who were expected to submit their designs to their 
employers and work in accordance with their employers' taste. 
In Rome both Claude and Poussin worked in complete inde- 
pendence ; after a period of struggle they both succeeded in 
acquiring the liberty to paint what they pleased, to take their 
own time about their work, and to obey the dictates of their 
own aesthetic ideals. Many of their pictures were commissions ; 
but their patrons left them a free hand. Paris could thus offer 
nothing that could tempt Claude and Poussin to abandon their 
independence, which marked the beginning of the modern 
conception of the artist's position ; and when Poussin came into 
contact with the old Parisian attitude he soon desired nothing so 
much as to return to Rome — and this though Louis XIII and 
Richelieu were overwhelmingly gracious and placed at his dis- 
posal a comfortably furnished house where he found on his 
arrival a stock of fuel and a cask of excellent old wine. 

ix. Claude le l^orrain 




National Gallery 

Seaport at Sunset 


National Gallery 

Landscape : Cephalus and Procris 


National Gallery 

Seaport. The Queen of Sheba 


National Gallery 

Seaport. St. Ursula 


National Gallery 

Echo and Narcissus 


National Gallery 

Aeneas at Delos 


Widener Collec- 

Landscape with classical buildings 


J. G. Johnson 

Sunset on the Bay 


Museum of Fine 




La F^tc Villaqcoisc 

View of the Campo Vaccino in Rome 

Seaport with Sunset 

Seaport. The landing of Cleopatra 

Landscape : y\encas hunting 

Landscape : Mercury and Argus 

Landscape with cattle 

The Expulsion of I lagar 

Hagar and Ismael in the Desert 


Landscape : Acis and Galatea 

Landscape : The Flight into Egypt 

Landscape : The Mill (The Wedding of 

Isaac and Rebecca) 
Port of Ostia : St. Paula departing for 

the Holy Land 
Roman ruins : The burial of St. Sabina 
Landscape : The Finding of Moses 
Landscape : Tobias removing the liver 

of the fish 
Landscape : Peasants and cattle crossing 

a stream 
Morning. Eliezer and Rebecca (?) 
Midday, The Rest on the Flight 
Evening. Tobias removing the liver 

of the fish 

Claude Gellee, known as Claude le Lorrain or Claude Lorrain, 
was the son of obscure parents who both seem to have died 
before he was twelve. At that age he went to live with an elder 
brother at Freiburg-in-Breisgau who taught liim engraving. At 
fifteen he attached himself to another relation, a dealer in lace, 
who was travelling to Italy. In Rome and Naples he obtained 
various employments — (including, according to a contemporary 
biographer, employment as a pastry-cook) — and he worked in 
the studios of a Cologne painter, Gottfried W'ols or Walls, who 
taught him architectural perspective, and of Agostino Tassi 

He left Tassi's studio in 1625 and visited Venice. From 
there he worked his way through the Tyrol to Bavaria and 
finally back to his native town. Shortly afterwards we find 
him at Marseilles where he met the painter Charles Errard who 
was travelling with his father to Rome. Claude arranged to 













Kaiser Friedrich 



Alte Pinakothek 


Alte Pinakothek 


Alte Pinakothek 


Alte Pinakothek 






Dfuia Gallery 


















accompany them. He reached Rome again in 1627 and remained 
there, as noted, till he died. 

In Rome he was an obscure figure of the foreign colony 
for some years. But gradually his work began to attract atten- 
tion and he obtained some local commissions for decorations ; 
at the same time he painted easel pictures of seaports and views 
of Rome. About 1630 his Sea Port with a rising Sun and View of 
the Campo Vaccina (both now in the Louvre) were bought by 
M. de Bethune, the French Ambassador. A few years later 
another patron appeared in the person of Cardinal Bentivoglio 
who launched him among the Roman dilettanti and introduced 
him to Pope Urban VIII who ordered four pictures. From 
about 1640 onwards he had continuous success. From the 
age of forty-five he sold everything he painted to eminent 
collectors all over Europe.^ He worked till his death at the age 
of eighty-two. He never married. He left a proportion of his 
property to a little girl aged eleven whom he had adopted as his 

Claude's a/wre as we know it consists of numerous pictures 
in museums and private collections, of hundreds of drawings (of 
which the British Museum has a great collection), and of the 
LiberVeritatis, a series of two hundred drawings, kept as records 
of his paintings, which belongs to the Duke of Devonshire. 

The pictures fall into three types : (a) classical-picturesque 
presentations of seaports with figures ; {b) classical-picturesque 
views of Rome with genre or other figures, influenced by 
Bamboche^ ; (c) classical-picturesque landscapes with biblical, 
mythological, or pastoral episodes indicated by the figures.^ 

^ In one year nineteen of his pictures were acquired by collectors in 
England alone. 

^ Cf. note, p. 86. 

^ I apply the word picturesque to Claude's paintings because the English 
word was invented in the eighteenth century to describe effects in nature 
which recalled the composition of his pictures, or the type of building 
which appears in them. In i8oi the celebrated art critic, Payne Knight, 
recommended the buildings in Claude's pictures to gentlemen desirous of 
building " picturesque " country homes ; twenty-five years later in a book 
entitled Landscape Arcbi/ec/ure, one Thomas Laing Meason engraved a 
scries of such buildings for the gentlemen to choose from. 

I have added the word " classical " before the word " pictyresque " tO 




Most of, it indeed not all, the seaports and views of Rome 
were painted before 1650 ; and in connection with the seaports 
we must remember that Agostino Tassi, with whom C^laude 
worked for nine years, had a reputation as a painter of ports and 
shipping, and that he was himself a pupil of Paul Bril, the 
Flemish landscape painter who painted the Seaport in the Uffizi 
(which is founded on the port in Carpaccio's Departure of St. 
Ursula in Venice). The Port of Ostia : St. Paula departing for the 
Holy Land (PI. 35a), painted with three others for Philip IV of 
Spain in 1648, is a good example of Claude's work in this field.' 

But though Claude did not invent the seaport and Roman- 
ruin types of picture he perfected them and inspired numerous 
painters all through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 
notably Panini in Italy and Hubert Robert in France.* 

His landscapes with small figures have had an even greater 
influence on painting. They were the basis of the art of the 
Dutch picturesque painters — both, Pynacker and Bcrchem in 
the seventeenth century, and of that of Richard Wilson in Eng- 
land in the eighteenth ; in France they were known to W'atteau 
and Fragonard and to the landscape painters of the eighteenth 
ccntun,^ ; and after a period of neglect in the nineteenth century 

indicate the architectural character of Claude's compositions and to dis- 
tinguish them from the pictures by Crome and Constable, which later in the 
century caused English writers to describe thatch cottages and spreading 
chestnut trees as " picturesque." Claude's classical-picturesque style must 
be distinguished not only from the romantic-picturesque style of the " old 
English " painters, but also from the new Cubist-picturesque style which 
has appeared in our own day. 

^ Paul Bril's Seaport, in the Uffizi, is reproduced as PI. 58 in my Intro- 
duction to Dutch Art. In that book also I have discussed the relation of 
Claude's seaport The Rmbarkation of the Queen of Sheba (in the London 
National Gallery) to Dido building Carthage, painted by Turner as an attempt 
to surpass it ; and I have quoted there some of Ruskin's most vigorous 
comments on Claude's picture. 

Claude knew all the stages of the seaport tradition in painting, because 
he was not only acquainted with the work of Tassi and of Bril (who had 
painted a number of celebrated decorations in Rome, including a seventy- 
foot landscape, with small iigures in the Sala Clementina, in the Vatican), 
but he also doubtless saw Carpaccio's seaports in the St. Ursula series when 
he went to Venice in 1625. 

^ Cf. pp. 171, 172, and PI. 75. 



they have again become a source of inspiration to artists of the 
present day. 

The Dresden ¥Ught into Egypt (PL 11) is typical of these 
landscapes. Here we observe first magnificent woods on the 
left and a river on the right ; then in the foreground a girl in 
classical drapery kneeling to fill her pitcher while a youth, 
similarly garbed, plays a pipe to a shepherdess ; then we note 
a herd of cattle moving round this group to drink at a pool in 
the foreground ; and finally passing through the trees of the 
wood on the left we see the Holy Family, with the Virgin 
mounted on the donkey, pursuing their journey after resting 
by the stream. The sacred episode which gives the title to this 
picture, is thus but incidental to the composition as a whole. 
This is a characteristic of Claude's paintings ; he was always 
mainly concerned with the construction of an architectural 
picture in which the figures were regarded as details ; and he 
adopted the same procedure when the episodes indicated by the 
figures were biblical, mythological or pastoral.^ 

" Claude," said Ruskin, " set the sun in heaven and was, I 
suppose, the first who attempted anything like the realisation 
of actual sunshine in misty air." This is almost the only word 
of appreciation which we can find among the fierce onslaughts 

^ Claude employed assistants to paint the figures in many of his pictures. 
The figures in The Port of Osiia : Departure of St. Paula (PI. 35 a) are attri- 
buted to Jacques Courtois. In the case of pictures which have been properly 
looked after the figures fuse perfectly with the surrounding landscape to 
which Claude doubtless " tied " them with final glazes himself. But in 
Claude's pictures in the Louvre, which have been shockingly neglected and 
stand in vital need of conditioning, the binding glazes seem to have perished 
and the figures " jump " forward from their surroundings. 

We find genre touches in some of Claude's pictures. There is a laundry 
basket, for example, by the side of the shepherdess in the Dresden Flight 
into Egypt (PI. II) ; in a landscape in the Prado, a shepherdess wading with 
cattle through a stream holds her petticoats above her knees in true peasant 
fashion ; in the Kest on the Flight in the Leningrad Hermitage the Virgin 
has by her side an ordinary yf^/ro of water or wine. Such genre passages may 
well be touches put in by Claude's assistants. But on the other hand Claude 
himself may be responsible, since his drawings prove him susceptible to 
many kinds of impression. Genre details are not found in the works of 
Poussin till the landscapes of the last period, such as the Orpheus and Eurjdice 
and the Four Seasons. 



on Claude's infidelities to nature which Ruskin inserted into 
** Modern Painters " and subsequent works. But Ruskin, in 
fact, missed the point of tlie light effects in Claude's pictures. 
For Claude's sun never shines from the vault of heaven but 
always radiates towards the spectator from a flat backcloth, and 
this backcloth serves to indicate one of the four delimitations 
of imagined space symbolised by the picture. 

Claude had the classical conception of space. Me reacted 
not so much to individual specific forms as to the formal rela- 
tions of phenomena i This we observe clearly in many of his 
drawings which reveal a man who drew not in order to record 
individual boughs of trees or individual mounds of earth or 
rocks (though he occasionally did this also), but in order to 
arrive at greater comprehension of the formal movement of 
one bough in relation to another and of one mound or rock to 
another. In his drawings he forestalled the modern Cubist- 
Classical Renaissance (cf. Pis. 126a, 126b, 128a, i28b).^ 

> In my Introduction to Dutch Art (pp. 158 and 139) I have discussed 
Claude's system and contrasted his Abraham cliswissing liagar with pictures 
ot the same nominal subject by Rembrandt, Jan Steen and Van der Werff. 

Ruskin assumed that Claude was always trying to record nature " rightly " 
and failing in the attempt. " I know of no other instance," he wrote, " of a 
man's working from nature continually with the desire of being true and 
never attaining the power of drawing so much as a bough of a tree rightly." 
But Claude was not trying to record nature with the eye of a camera's lens 
(which was what Ruskin meant by " rightly "; cf. my Modern Movement in 
Art, pp. 76-112). He was trying to do something else and admirably 
succeeding. We know a good deal about Claude's methods of work from 
his friend the German artist, Joachim Sandrart, who accompanied him on 
sketching expeditions in the Campagna in the early years. Claude drew 
from nature in pen and wash ; he also made colour notes ; and he spent long 
hours in contemplation. But all his pictures were painted in his studio. 



X. Nicolas Poussin 




National Gallery 


National Gallery 


National Gallery 


National Gallery 


National Gallery 


Wallace Collection 


Devonshire House 


Bridgewater House 

(Lord EUesmere 



Cook Collection 

Belvoir Castle. 

(Duke of Rutland Col- 



(Lord Derby Collec- 




(Lord Radnor Collec- 










Walker Art Gallery 


National Gallery 

New York. 

Metropolitan Museum. 

Havemeyer Collection 


J. G. Johnson Col- 



Institute of Arts 




Private Collection 


Musee Conde 


Musee Conde 


Musee Conde 


Musde Conde 

Venus and Satyrs (1628-32) 
Cephalus and Aurora 
Bacchanalian Festival (1632-37) 
Bacchanalian Dance (1638-39) 
Landscape with figures (Phocion) 

Allegory of Human Life (The Dance 
to the music of Time) (1638-40) 
The Shepherds in Arcady (1632-35) 
The Seven Sacraments (Seven pic- 
tures) (1644-48) 

Rape of the Sabinas 
The Seven Sacraments (Seven pic- 
tures) (1638-40) 
The Finding of Phocion (1648) 

The Golden Calf (1637-39) 

The Triumph of David (1623-26) 
The Inspiration of Anacreon 
The Nurture of Jupiter (1633-36) 
Arcadian Landscape 
Pieta (1643-48) 
Orpheus and Eurydice 

The Baptism of Christ 

Moses defending the Daughters of 

Forty-one pictures 
Bacchus and Erigone (1620-24) 
The Massacre of the Innocents 

The Youth of Bacchus (1630-35) 
The Annunciation (1641-43) 
Landscape with two nymphs (1660- 



Paris. Louvre 

NICOLAS POUSSIN. Self Portrait. 

Paris. Louvre 

NICOLAS POUSSIN. Apollo atid Daphne. 

Paris. Private Collection 

NICOLAS POUSSIN. Bacchus and Eri-one. 

Paris. Lnuvre 

NICOLAS FOUSSIN. Echo and Narcissus. 





Alte Pinakothek 
Castle Museum 
Liechtenstein Gallery 






Leningrad. iiermitage 

Landscape with St. Matthew and 

Angel (1646-53) 
Midas before Bacchus (1632-36) 
Apollo and Daphne (1630-35) 
The I'light into Egypt (1635-38) 
David crowned by Victory (1624- 

Landscape with sarcophagus 
Landscape with Polyphemus (1649) 
Landscape with 1 lercules and Cacus 

The Triumph of Galathea (1638-40) 

Nicolas Poussin is now regarded by the French as one of the 
greatest of their artists and French critics rank him among the 
greatest artists of the world. The Louvre possesses forty-one 
of his pictures of all periods painted at different times of his life ; 
but nearly all these pictures are so obscured with dirt aad dis- 
coloured varnish that we can only guess at their original appear- 
ance. To discover the range of Poussin's achievements it is 
therefore essential to supplement a study of the Louvre pictures 
by a study of others in galleries where the pictures have been 
properly cleaned and conditioned ; and this fortunately can be 
done since, outside the Louvre, there are at least a hundred of 
Poussin's pictures in private collections and museums.^ 

From his biographers we have images of Poussin as an old 
man living peacefully in his house on Monte Pincio in Rome. 
\\"e are told of his regular habits, his quiet labours, his morning 
and evening walks surrounded by pupils and admirers to whom 
he discoursed of art and life. But Poussin was not always old ; 

^ But even in galleries where the pictures are properly looked after many 
of Poussin's pictures now give us but a faint idea of their appearance when 
he painted them, because he often used an Indian red ground and this in 
many cases has darkened the colours or completely worked through them. 

Hundreds of pictures were formerly ascribed to Poussin. These included 
works by his imitators and followers, copies by his pupils, copies by students 
at later dates, and forgeries. Gaspard Dughet, known as Gaspard Poussin, 
who was Poussin's brother-in-law, was the most important of his followers. 

M. Emile Magne and Dr. Otto Grautoff have established what is now 
regarded as the master's autre. Dr. Grautoff has established an approximate 
chronology. The dates in my list of characteristic pictures above are based 
on Dr. Grautoff's catalogue. 

K 65 


and we have but to look at his Louvre Self Portrait (PI. 31a) to 
realise that he was a man who knew no peace. 

Poussin was fifty-six and at the height of his career when he 
painted this Self Portrait. It portrays an artist engaged on a 
gigantic intellectual task ; an artist who was consciously striving 
to create a microcosm of the universe itself. 

Compare this Self Portrait with the self portrait painted by 
Poussin' s greatest contemporary at almost the same age — or to 
be accurate when he was fifty-seven. In the picture known as 
Kembrandt as an Old Man^ in the London National Gallery, we see 
an artist who, with humorous pessimism, has accepted himself 
as a grubby prematurely decayed old drunkard ; an artist content 
to be a sensual intuitive muddling man. In Poussin's portrait 
we see a man who, with exalted unhumorous optimism, has 
tried to be more than mortal and to capture eternal secrets by 
the sheer force of his own mind. Under Poussin's picture we 
might set the title : " Portrait of a rationalist " and the legend : 

" Sure, he that made us with such large discourse 
Looking before and after, gave us not 
That capability, that god-like reason 
To fust in us unused." ^ 

The facts of Poussin's career can be very briefly stated. He 
was born in a village in Normandy of humble uneducated 
parents. He was apprenticed to a local artist and later worked 
under various minor artists in Paris. After seeing drawings by 
Raphael and engravings from his pictures and those of other 
Italian masters he determined in spite of his poverty to make the 
journey to Rome. In a first attempt at the age of twenty-six 
he got as far as Florence. In a second some years later he only 
reached Lyons. At last in 1624 at the age of thirty he arrived in 
Rome where after a period of hardship culminating in illness he 
produced the earliest of his pictures that survive. In 1630 he 
married the daughter of a French chef and with her dowry he 
was able to buy the famous house on Monte Pincio. After this 
solution of the most pressing material problems he continued his 
work and began to build up his reputation in Italy. In 1640, in 

^ This was what Ruskin meant when he wrote of Poussin's " strong but 
degraded mind." In Ruskin's view Poussin's rationalism came straight 
from the devil. 

1^ <^ 










MiiisiJi. AlU: Piiiiikoliuk 

NICOLAS POUSSIX. Midas bcft)rc Bacchus. 

SchUissheim. Caslle Miiseuin 

NICOLAS I'OLSSIN. Apollo and Daphne. 

Richmond. Cook 

NICOLAS POUSSIN. Rape of the Sabincs. 

Paris. Louvre 

NICOLAS POUSSIN. LindinR of Moses. 


response to repeated ofiicial invitations, he returned to Paris. 
There he worked for Louis XIII and Richelieu and was put in 
charge of the dccorati(m of the Long Gallery of the Louvre. 
But he found himself most ill at ease in the atmosphere of French 
official art ; and two years later he went back to Rome and 
worked there for the remaining twenty-three years of his life. 

Poussin's work falls into four categories : {a) pagan and my- 
thological subjects including Bacchanals, {b) religious subjects, 
{c) histon'-picturcs, {d) architectural pictures, including land- 
scapes with incidental figures. 

{a) All Poussin's pagan and mythological pictures (except one, 
his xtvf last picture) and all his Bacchanals were painted before 
he was forty-five. They are the product of his sensibility and 
mind before he became the pedant of the historical compositions 
and the great architectural artist of his most significant and 
personal works ; and to the superficial observer they are the 
most attractive of all his pictures. 

I reproduce five pictures in this Category : Bacchus and 
Erigone (PL 32a), the Louvre Echo and Narcissus (PI. 32b), the 
Schleissheim Apollo and Daphne (PI. 33b), the Dresden Midas 
before Bacchus (PL 33 a) and the Louvre Apollo and Daphne (PL 31b). 
The first, which is now in a private collection, I beUeve, in Paris, 
is one of Poussin's earliest pictures and it demonstrates that 
from the outset he was profoundly attracted by antique sculp- 
ture. The lovely Echo and Narcissus dates, with the Dulwich 
Nurture of ]upiter and Inspiration of Anacreon, from this same 
period (1624-26) when the artist, newly arrived in Rome, was 
studying the Italian masters, — notably the Carracci and Dome- 
nichino (whose studio he frequented), and Titian for whom he 
was beginning to acquire a burning admiration wliich led him 
in 1629 to copy the Ariadne in Naxos, and probably other pictures 
in the same series, then in Cardinal Ludovisi's Palace in Rome.^ 

^ Titian painted this series for the Duke of Ferrara. It consisted of the 
Bacchus and Ariadne in the London National Gallery, the Feast of the Gods 
(begun by Bellini and finished by Titian), now in the Widencr Collection in 
Philadelphia, the Ariadne in Naxos, sometimes called a Bacchanal, and the 
Worship of Venus, now in the Prado, Madrid. Cardinal Ludovisi presented the 
Ariadne in Naxos and the Worship of Venus to Philip IV. Poussin's copy of 
the Ariadne in Naxos is now in the National Gallery of Scodand in Edinburgh. 



To Titian's influence we must attribute the series of Bacchanals 
(in the Louvre, London National Gallery and elsewhere) which 
Poussin painted in the next few years. The influence is also 
clearly seen in the Schleissheim Apollo and Daphne (PI. 33b). But 
Poussin's personality nevertheless is felt all over the Schleissheim 
picture ; for here we perceive for the first time his desire to 
create an art of a microcosmic character, his desire to make his 
picture a symbolic equivalent of some aspect of life as a whole. 
In this picture all the ages of man are symbolised ; it shows us 
childhood, maturity and old age ; and maturity, as in all 
Poussin's works, is symbolised by man and woman at the age 
of love. At the same time we observe the artist's preoccupation 
with antique sculpture in the figure of the old man that personifies 
the river — a figure that occurs again and again in Poussin's works. 

The same microcosmic aim, this time with the addition of 
contrasts of character, is seen in the Dresden Midas before 
Bacchus (PI. 33a). Antique sculpture has here been drawn upon 
for Bacchus and the recumbent figure is derived from Titian's 
Ariadne in Naxos.^ 

Poussin's pagan pictures are sensual. But we must distinguish 
between Poussin's sensuality at this time and the sensuality of 
Titian. In Titian's pagan pictures we meet a care-free sensuality 
freely and openly expressed in the most richly sensuous language 
that the art of painting has ever yet achieved. In Poussin's 
pagan pictures we have an inhibited sensuality which comes to 
us distilled through a mind that knows it for what it is ; and this 
distillation is set down in a language of almost scientific accuracy 
and restraint. For this reason some of Poussin's pagan pictures 
have an insidious, because disguised, erotic character that we 
never find in pictures by Titian."^ 

^ Other echoes of the figure in Titian's Ariadne in Naxos occur in the 
Sleeping Venus (Dresden), Venus and Satyrs (London National Gallery) and 
the Bacchanal in the Louvre, all painted at this time. 

Poussin's other pictures of this period influenced by Titian include theYouth 
of Bacchus (Chantilly), various pictures of Cupids (based on Titian's Worship of 
Venus), the Leningrad Tancred and Herwione and Kinaldo and Armida, the 
Louvre Triumph of Flora, Lord Carlisle's Triumph of Bacchus, the Madrid David 
crowned by Victory, and the London National Gallery Cephalus and Aurora. 

^ The French collector the Comte dc Briennc (cf. note, p. 87), who admired 
Correggio, Giorgione and Titian, had a picture by Poussin which would 



The distilled erotic quality in these pagan pictures by Poussin 
must also be ascribed to some extent to his study of antique 
sculpture. Poussin was perfectly conscious of the distilled 
animalism in Greek and the distilled lust in Roman sculpture and 
he accepted both. But at the same time he looked to paganism 
to contribute to the microcosmic art he was seeking to create. 

Poussin's pagan pictures differ in fact from all other pictures 
of pagan subjects in the Christian world. The Venetian 
painters of these subjects were hedonists, and their pictures 
were contributions to the enjoyment of the Renaissance concep- 
tion of life. Mantegna and Botticelli were humanists, and their 
pictures were contributions to the enjoyment of the Renaissance 
conception of literature. The painters of the School of Fon- 
tainebleau were decorators, and their pictures were contributions 
to royal grandeur. But Poussin was a pictorial architect and a 
pliilosopher. He asked paganism to reveal not only its obvious 
remains but the secrets of formal harmony and rhythm which 
Poussin believed its artists had captured ; he asked paganism 
to provide him with material for the architectural picture.^ 

The climax of Poussin's pagan pictures is the Louvre Apollo 
and Daphne (PI. 31b), liis very last work painted after he had 
abandoned these subjects for just on twenty-five years. From 
what can be seen of tliis picture, through the especially thick 
layers of filth which at present obscure it, we can realise that 
Poussin here assembled as it were the whole cast of players in 
his pagan pictures and set them in a landscape where in the 
middle distance we see a herd of cows. The microcosm which 
he had been seeking was thus enriched at the last moment by 

seem to have been a variant of the Dresden Sleeping Venus ; misfortune 
overtook him — partly as the result of gambling — and he was retired to a 
seminary ; though he had sold most of his pictures he took the Poussin 
with him ; but complaints were made and he was induced to cut off the legs 
of his Venus and to insert around her head the Cupids which had previously 
been grouped around the legs. 

^ Reynolds said that Poussin's mind was " naturalised in antiquity." 
He was right. But the antique world into which Poussin penetrated was 
not the real pagan world but an ideal pagan world of his imagination — a 
world of austere perfection which was quite different from the ideal pagan 
world imagined by the hedonists and decorators who thought of the antique 
world as a place more agreeable to live in than the world they knew. 



new material. Poussin was paralysed in hand and legs when he 
put the last touches to this painting which epitomises, though 
it may not achieve, the lofty ideal which he had been seeking 
all his life. 

{b) Poussin's pictures of religious subjects fall into three types 
— ecclesiastical, historical and architectural. The pictures of the 
first type were painted in the ecclesiastical-decorative manner 
of Vouet and the other French eclectic painters of the time. 
The Flight into F.gypt (PI. 21b) in Vienna is a good example. The 
pictures of the second and tliird types belong, properly speaking, 
to Poussin's historical and architectural styles. 

if) Poussin's historical pictures were the foundation of the 
whole school oipeinture d'histoire^ or as the English writers of the 
eighteenth century called it " history-painting," which was so 
much discussed and so highly esteemed from the second half 
of the seventeenth till the middle of the nineteenth century when 
the Impressionist movement threw it completely overboard. 

l"he history-picture was a reconstruction of some dramatic 
episode of the past ; it was the concoction of a tableau vivant on 
canvas, the crystallisation as it were of a moment in a play. At 
the same time — and here it differed from the true tradition of 
Christian religious narrative art — it was expected to be a demon- 
stration of the painter's technical powers. In history-painting 
moreover the illustrative-dramatic content was expected to take 
precedence over all others. 

In his history-pictures Poussin sometimes selected biblical 
subjects and sometimes episodes from the history of ancient 
Rome ; the two famous series of the Seven Sacraments which 
now belong respectively to the Duke of Rutland and Lord 
Ellesmere are examples of the one type, the two versions of the 
Kape of the Sabines^ one in the Louvre and the other in Sir 
Herbert Cook's collection at Richmond (PI. 34a) are examples of 
the other.i 

^ The first category of Poussin's history-pictures also includes the Mas- 
sacre of the Innocents (Chantilly), the Dulwich Triumph of David, the Louvre 
'Plague in Ashdod, Moses and Aaron's Rod, Woman Taken in Adultery, Israelites 
collecting Manna, and Judgement of Solomon, and the Leningrad Esther before 
Ahasuerus ; the second also includes the Louvre Saving of Pjrrhus, Camillus 
and the Schoolmaster and Death of Saphira and the Leningrad Continence of 


.U././r:'./. / ■ ' 

CLAUDE LE LORRAIN. The Port of Ostia ; Departure of St. Paula. 

Paris. Loiiirc 

NICOLAS POUSSIN. Funeral of Phocion. 

Boston. Museum of Fine Art<; 


Chantilly. Musee Condi 

NICOLAS POUSSIN. Landscape with Two Nymphs. 


Reynolds said that Poussin was a pedant and in another 
passage he refers to his work as ** dry." These judgments are 
merited by these histon'-picturcs in which Poussin was at pains 
to be accurate in archx-ological details and in which the dramatic 
content is without the sap of life. For just as in Poussin's pagan 
pictures we get distilled sensuality so in his histor^'-picturcs we 
get distilled drama. In Poussin's pictures of slaughter, plague 
and famine we look in vain for the fine frenzy of Tintoretto 
and Delacroix or the moving intuition of Rembrandt ; in their 
stead we have scenes of passion and movement frozen to fright- 
ful immobility as by some instantaneous act of God. 

But in these pictures, so tedious to modern eyes, Poussin, in 
fact, was again attempting to achieve a microcosm ; he was 
aiming at the expression of the whole range of human passions 
and emotions by gesture and expression. He failed. But the 
attempt is not to be despised. ^ 

In his own day the attempt was supremely higlily rated. 
These history-pictures were the real basis of the Academic 
concept of Great Art which was formulated into doctrine by 
the French Academy in its early years.^ Poussin had paid atten- 
tion to archaeological detail, therefore, said the Academicians, 
such detail was essential to Great Art ; Poussin had a box in 
which he disposed cardboard figures to estabhsh the composition 
of his history^-pictures, therefore the disposition of figures as on 
a stage must be accepted as a law ; each figure in Poussin's 
histor)'--pictures makes a definite gesture and each face has its 
definite expression ; therefore, in Great Art, every figure must 
strike an attitude and make a grimace.^ 

If Poussin had never painted any of his history-pictures the 
world might have been spared many thousands of miles of 
dreary Academic art. 

^ Among Poussin's history-pictures I can recall two in which he seems 
to me to have achieved the synthesis of human emotions at which he was 
aiming — the Weeping over the Dead Christy in Dublin, and The Last Supper^ 
at Bridgewater House. 

2 Cf. pp. 86-88. 

^ Le Brun's Alexander and the Family of Darius (cf. p. 80) was held up 
as a model to students in the Academy. Lc Brun tried in this picture to 
surpass Poussin and every member of the kneeling family of Darius makes 
some silly gesture and grimace. 



{d) To the modem student it is Poussin's architectural 
pictures that make the deepest and most direct appeal. From 
these pictures the influence of Titian's paganism and the 
illustrative-dramatic ideal of the history-pictures are alike 
excluded. The central content of these works is their formal 
harmony and unity. They partake of the character of architec- 
ture and the character of music. There are no gestures here to 
indicate emotions, no facial expressions. ^ 

Poussin arrived at his final architectural pictures by successive 
stages and he was working towards them all his life. Lord 
Radnor's The Golden Calf is at once the last of the Bacchanals 
and a stage in the architectural progress ; the Dance in the 
Wallace Collection (otherwise called An Allegory of Human Life, 
or Fame, Pleasure, Wealth and Poverty dancing to the Music of Time), 
the Louvre Inspiration of the Poet (PL 22a), Shepherds of Arcadj 
and Finding of Moses (PI. 34b) are others. 

The final achievement is heralded by a later Finding of Moses, 
also in the Louvre, where the figures are set in a landscape that 
stretches back to a remote horizon. For, in his last phase, 
Poussin tried to achieve a microcosm with the aid of landscape. 
His pictures of this phase are landscapes in which the figures are 
reduced to the small size that we find in the landscapes by Claude. 
But Poussin's architectural landscapes bear only a superficial 

^ In some of these pictures in his architectural manner there are no eye- 
balls within the eyes. The esthetic gain of this omission is made manifest 
when we compare one of these pictures with an engraving made from it 
where the engraver has sought to improve it by putting in the eyeballs, 
thereby bringing the figures to life and killing the picture. 

A picture where the eyeballs are thus omitted is the celebrated £//q;^r and 
Kebecca in the Louvre, which was the subject of many discussions at the 
Academy Conferences (cf. pp. 86-88). An Academician, who mistook this 
for one of Poussin's history-pictures, complained that he had omitted the 
ten camels which, we read in the Bible, Eliezer had brought with him and 
to which Rebecca herself supplied water ; but Le Brun replied, from the 
same point of view, that the camels were properly omitted because the sub- 
ject of the picture was an offer of marriage and as such it depicted " me 
entrevue galante et polie " at which bienseance demanded that no camels should 
be present. The frieze-like composition of Poussin's picture is in fact 
based on the Hellenistic painting known as the Aldobrandini Wedding which 
he had copied twenty years before ; and the stance of the famous figure of 
the girl by the well is derived from a figure in that work. 



resemblance to Claude's classical-picturesque art. Claude's land- 
scapes advance by a few simple planes from the flat wall at the 
back of the picture which, as noted, radiates the light. Poussin's 
landscapes recede from the front of the picture by a great number 
of subtly modulated and related planes to an infinite distance, 
and the light is diffused all over the picture. I reproduce two 
examples of such architectural landscapes by Poussin, the 
Louvre Funeral of Phocion (PI. 35 b) and the Chantilly Latidscape 
with two Njmphs (PL 36b), where the characteristics of the 
spatial organisation can be plainly scen.^ 

I must mention one other aspect of Poussin's achievements, 
one further attempt to achieve the microcosmic goal. The 
Louvre has four very celebrated pictures wliich he painted in the 
last years of his life for the Due de Richelieu, whose son wagered 
and lost them to Louis XIV at tennis.- These are called Spring: 
{The Eartb/j Paradise), Sf/wwer : {Bjith and Boa-:^), Autumn : {The 
Return from the Promised Land), and Winter : {The Deluge). In 
these pictures Poussin tried to combine history-painting with 
architectural landscape. The small figures here are not incidental 
as in Claude's pictures and Poussin's own landscapes, they have 
illustrative-dramatic significance and their gestures once again 
express the gamut of human emotions from the tranquil love of 
man and woman in the Earthly Paradise to the extremity of fear 
and horror in The Deluge. The architectural content of these 
pictures suffers from the illustrative-dramatic interest that per- 
vades them ; but considered as liistory-pictures they rank as 
Poussin's most expressive works. 

* Especially if contrasted with Claude's pictures reproduced in Pis. 35a 
and 36a. Claude, however, was influenced by Poussin's landscapes as can 
be seen in Pis. II and 36a. The most important of Poussin's final architectural 
landscapes, apart from the two I reproduce, are the Louvre Orpheus and 
Eurydice and Landscape n-ith Diogenes, the Leningrad Landscape with Polyphe- 
mus and Landscape with Hercules and Cacus, the Prado Landscape with three 
men. Lord Derby's Finding of Phocion and the London National Gallery Land- 
scape with figures {Phocion). 

« Cf. p. 87. 



i. Louis XIV, Court spectacles and Versailles 

Louis XIV was five years old when he became King in 1643. 
He was just under twenty-three when, in 1661, after Mazarin's 
death he undertook the government of France himself. He 
was forty-six when he married Mme de Maintenon after the 
death of the Queen. He was seventy-seven when he died in 

His reign thus falls into three periods. The first, the period 
of his minority, was the Age of the Cardinals which produced 
the paintings just recorded. The second was the period of his 
young manhood from 1661-1684. The third was the period 
when he developed into the grim and imposing god-emperor 
worshipped with complicated ceremonial by a Court of ten 
thousand people at Versailles. 

We tend to think of Louis XIV as the Pharaoh of the last period 
and to forget that he did not take up his residence at Versailles 
till 1682 when the really brilliant period of his reign was almost 
at an end. In all fields the dazzling period was from 1 661-1684. 
The successful wars were over by 1678. Colbert who re- 
organised France for the King's glory died in 1683. From the 
age of twenty-three to the age of forty-six Louis XIV was the 
Koi Soleil. It was not till later that he became the terrible Louis- 

As the Ro/ Soleil Louis XIV took his duties seriously and 
worked hard at the business of the State. But at the same time 
he was the centre of a splendid and not yet oppressively pompous 
Court. Though Grand Amoureux — (who has not read of his 
successive favourites. Mile de la Valliere with her intriguing 
limp, Mme de Montespan, Mile de Fontange ?) — he was neither 
debauched nor vicious ; Grand Seigneur, rejoicing in his eminence, 
he led the Court in a continuous series of brilliant entertainments. 
Devoted to music, dancing, the ballet, and the play, he was the 
patron of Moliere and LuUy, and he himself took part in masques 
and pageants for which he carefully rehearsed. 

To the student of French painting the Court entertainments 
of the Koi Soleil are important because they were closely con- 
nected with the decorative taste of the time and because artists 



were employed both on the theatrical productions and on the 
fetes and also in turn drew material from both. 

In the theatrical performances the most elaborate scenic 
effects were produced by ingenious and complicated machinery ; 
the sun and the moon rose or set shedding golden or silver 
radiance ; and pagan gods and goddesses moved through the 
air on clouds as we see them in Baroque and eighteenth-century 

Mazarin, who loved pageantry, and always moved abroad in 
state, had set a standard also in theatrical matters in 1647 when 
he produced Rossi's Orfeo at the cost of 500,000 ecus.^ This 
took place at the Palais Royal ; the mechanical effects which 
enabled the gods to sing in mid-air were the work of Mazarin's 
favourite machinist Torelli ; and the scenery and costumes were 
entrusted to the painter Errard.^ Louis XIV had tried to surpass 
this with the Ballet de la Nuit produced in the Salle du Petit- 
Bourbon in 1653 when Torelli brought a whole choir down 
from heaven on a cloud, and a house burst into flames before 
the eyes of the astonished Court. In this ballet, which repre- 
sented various episodes between sunset and sunrise, there were 
forty-three " entries," several of which were acted by the King 
himself, who had been coached by Lully. The new epoch 
opened with a still more ambitious performance — the Herctdle 
Amoureux performed in the Tuileries in 1662. This lasted 
six hours and the King made several " entries " accom- 
panied by Le Grand Conde. But the mechanical operations this 
time were on such a scale that the noise of the machines com- 
pletely drowned the music and ruined the effect. 

Such spectacles continued all through this period and they 

1 Theatrical performances have had great influence on painting from the 
time of the early Church performances to the Russian Ballet of our own 
day. The heavenly regions peopled by sacred figures on the top stage of the 
old ecclesiastical plays (cf. p. 15) became the vault of heaven peopled with 
the same figures in the vaults of Jesuit-Baroque churches. But meanwhile, in 
secular painting, the heavenly regions had become the abode of the gods and 
goddesses of antiquity and eventually Venus and Cupid replace the Virgin 
and Child as the normal denizens of the region above the clouds. 

2 I cannot give an equivalent in our present-day money. But the sum was 
considered grossly extravagant and attacked as such by Mazarin's enemies. 

' Cf. note, p. 39. 



culminated in the Triomphe de I' Amour given before the Court 
at St. Germain in 1681. In this the Dauphin and the Dauphine 
appeared and Mile de Nantes, the seven-year-old daughter of 
the King by Mme de Montespan, performed a dance with 
castanets ?■ 

The first great outdoor fete of the Koi Soleil, which was 
known as L.e Carrousel^ was held in 1662 on tht place which per- 
petuates its name. The King, Monsieur, Le Grand Conde and 
the Prince de Conti appeared respectively as a Roman Emperor, 
a King of Persia, an Emperor of the Turks and a King of the 
Americans ; they wore fantastic jewelled costumes and plumed 
helmets and led the Court in processions which included as 
minor performers negroes, monkeys and bears. Other fetes 
took place at Saint-Germain, at Fontainebleau, and at Versailles, 
then still the small chateau of Louis XIII. The first Versailles 
fete has also remained in history. It was given for Mile de la 
Valliere in 1664 and was known as I^es Plaisirs de Vile enchantee. 
It lasted nine days and the entertainments consisted of elaborate 
pageants, ballets and aquatic diversions with marine monsters 
and nymphs, and performances of Moliere's Tartufe and L,a 
Princesse d' Elide. ^ 

^ Le Triomphe de V Amour was given again later in the same year at the Opera 
in Paris when for the first time professional women dancers appeared in 
opera. The innovation was due to Lully. 

2 Detailed descriptions of this fete and others at Versailles can be found 
in John Palmer's " Moliere." Here is one passage : " At nightfall the 
candles about the arena were lit. Lully entered with his troop of musicians. 
Then came the four seasons : spring, on a Spanish horse. Mademoiselle du 
Pare, in a green habit embroidered with silver and flowers ; summer, on an 
elephant, richly decked, the Sieur du Pare ; autumn, on a camel, the Sieur 
de la Thorilliere ; winter, on a bear, the Sieur de Bejart ; finally. Pan, the 
Sieur de Moliere himself, upon a moving mountain of rocks and trees, 
and with him Mademoiselle Bejart as Diana, offering to the Queen and her 
ladies in poetic numbers, the fruits and meats of a splendid collation, served 
in the lists. Lining the barrier leaned the nobility of France, in helmets and 
plumes, as when they had jousted that afternoon, assembled to see their 
sovereign feed." Here is another : " Moliere had for his stage an entire 
garden complete with Satyrs, busts, fountains, terraces and a navigable water- 
way. . . . The King went to supper in a gigantic arbour that beggared all 
previous descriptions. Its decorations included an artificial mountain with 
Pegasus atop, from between whose feet fell a cascade which formed, after 



For this life of pageantry and panache the young King was 
now to devise a more imposing setting. He had visions of 
magnificent palaces where the triumphal chariots of the proces- 
sions would be permanent thrones and the pageants would be 
painted on the walls. He began his building enterprises, which 
were to assume vast proportions, with the continuation of the 
Louvre and the rebuilding of the Gallery of Apollo.^ 

The next stage was a vision of a palace at Versailles where all 
the business of the State and the pleasures of the Court might 
be permanently assembled round the person of the King. 

Versailles was begun about 1670. The King examined every 
plan and ever)' detail of the galleries and staircases, the sculpture 
and paintings, the gardens, the fountains, the grottoes and the 
lakes. Nothing was too large or too small for his attention. If 
the plan was complicated he listened with patience while it was 
explained. He delighted especially in the fountains. He would 
himself turn the taps in the engine-house and make no complaint 
of becoming wet. He was still, we must remember, in the early 
thirties, enthusiastic and young. 

For the execution of the Versailles concept Louis XIV had 
the aid of Colbert who made the King's service in all branches 
the centre of focus for all the energies of France. All the 
artistic talent of the moment was enlisted for tliis vast under- 
taking. The architects Le Vau, Mansart, Robert de Cotte had 
armies of assistants ; Le Notre had an army of gardeners to 
carry out his projects for the gardens and the park ; and in the 
field of interior decoration there was an army of sculptors and 
painters who obeyed the instructions of the remarkable person- 
ality Charles Le Brun, whose career we must now consider. 

much intermediate playfulness, four rivers, frequent with falls and losing 
themselves in small brooks upon lawns of moss. The nine Muses were 
naturally present with Apollo and his lyre." 

^ The apartments in the Louvre known to-day as the Long Gallery and 
Gallery of Apollo occupy the position of the second stories, added to the 
Little Gallery and the Long Gallery by Henri IV. The old structure was 
destroyed by fire in 1661 and the present Gallery of Apollo is the work 
carried out for Louis XIV. 



ij. Charles Le Brun 



Hofatius Codes defending Rome 

Massacre of the Innocents 

Holy Family (La Benedicite) 

The Crucifixion with the angels 

Christ in the Desert served by angels 

Alexander and the family of Darius 

The Entry of Alexander into Babylon 

The Elevation of the Cross 

The Entry into Jerusalem 

Meleager and Atalanta 

Neptune and Amphitrite, Evening, 

Series of pictures symbolising the glory 

of Louis XIV 

Jephtha's daughter 

Self portrait 

The Banker Jabach and his family 

Apotheosis of Louis XIV 
General with negro servant 

Charles Le Brun was the artist whom Louis XIV and Colbert 
required at a particular juncture ; he served their purpose and he 
saw to it that they also served his. He had great facility in 
painting, and as a decorator he had organising abilities that 
approached genius. He was also an arrivist of the very first 

He was the son of a sculptor who apprenticed hitn at the age 
of thirteen to Francois Perrier.^ In Perrier's studio he made a 
drawing of Louis XIII on horseback which his father, who was 
working for the Chancellor Seguier in his ho^el, showed to his 
patron. The Chancellor, impressed by the boy's evidently pre- 
cocious talent, arranged for Vouet, who was then decorating 
his library, to take him into his studio. Le Brun soon quarrelled 






















Louvre (Gallery of 



Galerie des Glaces 


Salons de la Guerre 

et de la Paix 












^ Cf. note, p. 39. 



with Vouet and, resolving on the first step in his arrivist career, 
he painted an allegory of the glory of Richelieu and presented 
it to the Cardinal himself. This bold move was rewarded ; 
Richelieu commissioned him to paint other pictures and in- 
troduced him to the King. Before he was nineteen he was 
a peintre du roi. 

Le Brun now realised that the next move must be the tradi- 
tional journey to Italy. He knew how much of the respect 
paid to Poussin by the King and the Cardinal in 1640 was due 
to the reputation which Poussin had acquired in Rome. He 
took steps to meet Poussin and to express his homage. By 1642 
when Poussin was returning to Rome Le Brun had arranged to 
accompany him, and he had persuaded the Chancellor Seguier 
to provide the money. 

In Italy, two years later, he painted Horatias Codes dejetiding 
Rome, a deliberate attempt to rival Poussin. He painted this 
secretly, exhibited it anonymously, and scored a great success 
in the artistic world of Rome. He was now impatient to 
conquer Paris to which he returned in 1646. 

As 2. peintre du roi of the last reign Le Brun had no difficulty in 
getting an appointment among the painters in the new King's 
establishment.! But a position in the ranks was intolerable to a 
man of his ambition ; and he set to work to found a new 
organisation of artists — a Royal Academy — of which he 
determined to be the first Director.^ 

While engaged in negotiations and intrigues about the 
foundation of the Academy he obtained commissions to paint 
altar-pieces for churches and convents and a picture for Notre 
Dame. His success in the ecclesiastical paintings reached the 
ears of Anne of Austria, the Queen Regent, who sent for him and 
described a vision which had come to her in sleep. Le Brun 
transferred the vision to canvas and placed it in the Queen's 
oratory. \\"e can see it to-day entitled The Crucifixion with the 
Angels in the Louvre. 

At the same time he was doing decorative work in several 

1 He actually bought or obtained as a gift a post of valet de chamhre. 
Cf. pp. 3,83-85. 

- For Le Brun's work as organiser and director of the Academy cf. 
pp. 83-85. 



hotels including the Hotel Lambert where he found Le Sueur 
at work and quarrelled with him ; and he was cultivating the 
friendship of the richest and most influential collectors and 
amateurs, and painting their portraits. The excellent group The 
Banker Jabach and his family (now in Berlin) was painted for the 
Cologne banker Jabach who was established in Paris in a magni- 
ficent hotel with a great collection of pictures.^ 

Le Brun's first great chance came when he attracted the 
attention of Nicolas Fouquet, the charming, cultivated and 
fabulously wealthy Surintendant des finances who eventually 
engaged him at a handsome salary to direct the decorations at his 
Chateau de Vaux. Here Le Brun had an opportunity of organ- 
ising decorative works on a large scale. He covered the 
Surintendant's apartments with allegorical compositions de- 
picting the glory of the owner ; he designed splendid fetes 
with tableaux vivants, transformation scenes, and fireworks ; and 
he founded Fouquet's private tapestry factory and supplied 
designs to the craftsmen. 

At Vaux moreover he met Mazarin, and through Mazarin he 
was personally presented to Louis XIV for whom he painted the 
Alexander and the family of Darius now in the Louvre. A great 
deal of this picture was painted in the actual presence of the King 
and the assembled Court ; the King was so excited at this 
tour deforce that he gave him his portrait in miniature surrounded 
with diamonds as a reward. ^ 

It was Le Brun who designed the celebrated fete at Vaux in 
September 1661 which was attended by Louis XIV and followed 
by the fall and disgrace of Fouquet who, the gossips said, had 
been rude to Mile de la Valliere when she refused his advances. 
The fete took place six months after the death of Mazarin and 
the King's assumption of the government. Le Brun perceived 
that a new era was starting and that Colbert, whom he had also 

1 Le Brun's group was painted about 1660. In the background there is 
a mirror in which the painter at his easel is reflected. I^as Meninas, where 
Velasquez made such ingenious use of mirrors, was painted in 1656. The 
curious should compare Le Brun's Jabach group with the group of The 
Merchant Geeling and his Famlj by Metsu, painted about the same time and 
also now in the Kaiser-Friedrich Museum. Jabach's collection of pictures 
was afterwards acquired by Louis XIV (cf. note, p. 87). 

2 For the character of this picture cf. note, p. 71. 


Versa a lis 

CHARLHS LR BRIN. Detail of Ccilint 

CHARLES LE BRUN. Alexander enterini^ Babylon. 


-<' w- 


Paris. Louvre 

CHARLES LE BRUN. Illustrations to lecture ; Human and animal Heads. 


met at Vaux, was now the rising star. The day after Fouquet's 
arrest he made Mme Colbert the present of a drawing. Six 
months later he was Prewicr peintre du roi. 

Le Brun now flung himself with enthusiasm into the service 
of Colbert and the King. For Colbert he decorated the Chateau 
de Sceaux and designed its fountains and gardens. For the King 
he designed the costumes in the Carrousel pageant and in other 
entertainments and painted designs for tapestries of which the 
gigantic Alexander entering Babylon (PI. 37b), now in the Louvre, 
is an example. Then came work in the Louvre itself — the 
magnificent decoration of the Gaierie d' Apollo ; and finally 
came Versailles. 

With the experience of Vaux behind him Le Brun approached 
the execution of the King's projects for Versailles with masterly 
assurance. He decorated what must have been the superb Grand 
Staircase (now only known to us in drawings), and the Salons 
de la Guerre et de la PaL\\ and the Grande Gaierie des Glaces which 
survive. The paintings on the ceiling of the Gaierie des Glaces 
represent his chief pictorial achievements. They consist of 
thirty compositions each symbolising a moment of glory in the 
King's career. Here we see Mercury proclaiming the King's 
assumption of government to the world at large, the King 
resolving to chastise the Dutch, the King as conqueror of the 
Franche-Comte and so forth : all pictorial equivalents of the 
King's " entries " in the ballets and pageants of the day. 

At Versailles Le Brun was decorative dictator. The sculptor 
Coysevox, who was responsible for the gilt bronze trophies on 
coloured marbles and other sculpture in the Gaierie des Glaces^ 
worked under his direction. Le Notre's gardens follow Le 
Brun's plan for the gardens at Vaux. Le Brun designed foun- 
tains in the lakes, and the Grotto oj Tethjs, an apartment with 
fountains and a triple apse covered with shells and filled with 
sculptured groups of mythological figures, based on the Grotto of 
Apollo at Frascati. His activity and that of liis assistants and 
collaborating artists was prodigious. But he also found time to 
w^ork for the King's " hermitage," the Chateau de Marly, which 
developed to a miniature Versailles, and to direct and make 
designs for the Gobelins factor}^ which produced not only 
tapestries but furniture, plate and objects of luxury of all kinds, 

M 81 


including the celebrated silver furniture which filled the Galerie 
des Glaces. 

Le Brun worked for twelve years at Versailles. But before 
his labours were completed the day of his dictatorship was done. 
Colbert, who, as Surintendant des Bdtiments, was his official 
chief, died in 1683. Le Brun had made many enemies in the 
time of his success and immediately his powerful supporter 
was removed they combined to dethrone him. The new 
Surintendant des Bdtiments was one of his enemies. The painter 
Mignard was another. The King himself had seen his projects 
carried out and he was no longer so concerned with the artists. 
He was moreover on the threshold of the Pharaoh period. The 
icy hand of Mme de Maintenon had fallen on his heart. In these 
new conditions Le Brun's authority in all quarters was gradually 
undermined. His orders were countermanded even at the 
Gobelins where hitherto he had personally engaged the whole 
personnel and directed every detail of the work. He met the 
situation with his customary astuteness. He observed that the 
King was becoming pious, that an orthodox religious move- 
ment was in the air. He therefore let it be known that he had 
drunk the cup of worldly success and found it worthless and 
that he had replaced it by the spiritual refreshments of religion. 
He owned, in addition to his houses in Paris and Versailles, a 
magnificent estate at Montmorency.^ To this estate he now 
retired and began a series of pictures of the Life of Christ. 
The Louvre Adoration of the Shepherds, Entry into Jerusalem^ 
Christ Bearing the Cross, Elevation of the Cj-qss, all in the theatrical 
ecclesiastical style launched in France by his old master Vouet, 
represent this last phase of his activity. In 1690 he was working 
at a hast Supper when he died. 

iij . The Koyal Academy of Painting and Sculpture 

The Academie rojale de peinture et sculpture was founded nomi- 
nally in 1648 ; but for various reasons it did not function with 
regular authority till 1661 when Colbert became officially its 
patron. It owed its existence and its organisation to several 
causes : {a) the growing friction between various categories of 

^ Cf. p. loi. 



artists and the Maitrise, {b) the personal ambition of Lc Brun, 
{c) Colbert's conception of the function of the arts. 

{a) Up to 1648 the French artists were all either (i) members 
of the old Guild of St. Luke, the Maitrise, which employed the 
usual Guild system of apprenticeship culminating after the pro- 
duction of a diploma work (known as a chef d'mwre) in the rank 
of Master, or (ii) artists attached to Royal or noble establishments 
or protected by some Royal licence, or (iii) " pirates " with no 
official status. 

I'he rules of the Maitrise were strict. Till the rank of Master 
was granted no student was allowed to exhibit or trade in his 
work ; the Maitrise had the right to prosecute in cases of infringe- 
ment of its rules and it frequently did so.^ It also had the right 
to prosecute foreign and other " pirates " and such artists had 
to sell their work in clandestine ways or at the St. Germain Fair 
as already noted.^ 

From very early times, as noted, there had been artists with 
the title of valet de chambre attached to the Lord Chamberlain's 
department in royal, princely and noble households. ^ These 
appointments, in the seventeenth century, were granted or sold to 
painters as distinctions which carried with them exemption from 
prosecution by the Maitrise and the right to food and lodging 
in the Royal household. The posts were obtained by favour, 
and holders often solicited their continuation for their sons.'* 

In addition to the artists who were valets de chambre in these 
households, there had always been others attached to the 
personal staffs of the Kings, Queens, Princes, and so forth. 
Such artists were given the title oi peintre du roi ot peintre de la 
reine or peintre ordinaire ; they received an official licence or 
brevet^ and they were also known for this reason as brevetes and 
breve taires. They were all subject to the authority of the Premier 
peintre du roi of the moment, and were given annual salaries and 
lodgings in the Louvre or Tuileries.^ 

1 Cf. p. 122. 2 Cf. p. 47. 3 cf. p. 3. 

*■ Thus Moliere's father who was valet-tapissier to Louis XIII, concerned 
with the duty of looking after the King's furniture both in Paris and when 
he travelled, secured the reversion of the title for his son, who retained it 
without fulfilling the duties. 

'" Cf. note, p. 40. 



There were also various other categories of artists exempted 
by Hcence from the authority of the Mattrise. From the time 
of Henri IV onwards it had been possible to buy the title of 
Maitre from the Crown which was accustomed to sell a certain 
number of such titles on the occasion of royal marriages, births or 
other festive occasions. The artists who held such titles were 
known as Mattres de lettres as opposed to the masters elected by 
the Mattrise who were known as Mattres de chefs d'ceuvre. There 
were also artists among the tradesmen who supplied the Court 
and followed it on travel ; an artist of this kind whose position 
was only semi-official would describe himself presumably as 
Journisseur du rot — to indicate a position equivalent to a tradesman 
to-day with a " By Royal Appointment " sign above his door. 

The friction between the artists who derived their status from 
the Mattrise and those who derived it in one way or another from 
the Crown, had been growing ever since the time of Henri IV 
and it came to a head under Louis XIII. The Mattrise com- 
plained that the granting and selling of the various types of 
licence had become an abuse and a scandal. The licensees 
charged the Mattrise in the first place with a desire to exercise a 
tyrannical monopoly and in the second with degrading the status 
of the artist by making him subject to a system properly 
applicable only to tradesmen and artisans ; ^ the first charge 
against the Mattrise was an old grievance, the second represented 
the new conception of the artist as an independent member of a 
liberal profession which Claude and Poussin had already adopted 
in Rome. 

{})) I have already referred to Le Brun's part in the foundation 
of the Academy. At a critical point in his career the Mattrise 
had brought the quarrel to a head by applying to Mazarin for 
strengthened powers against the brevetes. As a hrevete Le Brun 
was attacked, and he was too clever to remain content with a 
defensive action. He realised that negotiations for a new founda- 
tion would bring him into contact with influential quarters 
and that in a new organisation he might be able take a leading 
place. He therefore intrigued for the new foundation. But 
the Academy was of no real service to him till Colbert also saw 
in it an instrument for his own purposes. 

1 Cf. note, p. 7. 



{c) Colbert's conception of the function of the arts was 
simple. " C'est a Vaune des monuments qiion mesure les rois " he 
said and he might have added that in his faith the grandeur of a 
country was measured in foreign countries by the grandeur of 
its King. For Colbert the arts were a means of creating monu- 
ments to enhance the glory of Louis XIV and thereby of France. 
He believed in art as an instrument of national propaganda. At 
the same time he believed in organisation in this field as in every 
other. He supported the Academy with Le Brun at the head and 
brought it to life by becoming an active patron because he wanted 
a body of men who would organise art on the highest standards 
for the King's servnce under the control of a dictator responsible 
to himself. He had no doubts about the possibility of establish- 
ing fixed standards — and no doubt that an official organisation 
could produce artists capable of attaining to standards once 
efficiently laid down.^ 

Le Brun took advantage of Colbert's simplicity in this respect 
to defeat his rivals. The Academy once effectively established 
he set to work to make things unpleasant for artists outside its 
ranks. The Academy ran its own art school. Le Brun obtained 
an ordinance which prevented the Mattrise from running 
another and prescribed fines and imprisonment for any individual 
artist who did so.^ 

Another ordinance directed all the brevetes {pelntres du roi and 
others) who had not joined the Academy of their own volition 
to join forthwith or forfeit their privilege of immunity of 

^ Colbert proceeded on the same principle in the other arts. He founded 
the Royal Academy of Music (which also controlled dancing), with Lully 
as dictator ; the Royal Academy of Architecture, which he called on to 
invent a new Order to be known as the French Order ; the Royal Academy 
of Science ; and the Royal Academy of Inscriptions ; and he contemplated 
an Academic rojale de spectacles to centralise control and raise the standard 
oi carrousels, joutes^ luiies, combats, defiles, chasses d'animaux satwages et Jeux 
d' artifice, and a concession was actually granted to a blackguard, Henri 
Guichard, who planned to poison Lully because he could not get permission 
from him to accompany his spectacles with music. (The Academie franfaise 
was an earlier foundation — the work of Richelieu.) 

- This was dircctcdagainst the engraver, Abraham Bosse (cf. pp. 47, 
1 6s), who had been unwise enough to make unfavourable criticisms of 
Le Brun's paintings. Lc Brun had driven him from the ranks of the Academy 
and he had opened an art school to retrieve his fortunes. 



prosecution by the Maitrise. This second ordinance was directed 
against Le Brun's rival the painter Mignard who was a brevete 
and who had refused to join the Academy in a position inferior 
to Le Brun.i 

But though Colbert allowed Le Brun to use him for his 
purposes he was also determined to use him and the Academy for 
his own. He had entrusted the Dictatorship of Art to the 
Academy ; he now called upon the institution to define the art 
which it existed to control and propagate. The result was the 
celebrated series of Academy Conferences, or Discourses in which 
the Academicians endeavoured to formulate rules for the 
creation of Great Art.^ 

Le Brun's own Conferences were interesting and ambitious. 
In one he discussed human physiognomy in its relation to the 
physiognomy of animals ; his illustrations to this lecture, some 
of which I reproduce (PI. 38), are preserved in the Louvre. 
In another Conference, taking the Traite des passions de Vdme by 
Descartes as a basis, he tried to work out rules for the correct 
delineations of all human passions and sentiments in art. Other 
Conferenciers discussed the relative importance of colour and 
drawing in pictures ; and the principle that in art le vraisemhlahk 
is le vrai was laid down by Sebastian Bourdon. ^ 

The Academicians who argued in favour of colour instanced 
Titian and Rubens ; those who argued in favour of drawing 
instanced Raphael and Poussin ; and as concrete examples of 
these and other masters they were able to point to the pictures 

^ Cf. pp. 88-91. Charles Errard (cf. note, p. 39) was another dangerous 
rival. Le Brun had him shipped off as First Director of the branch of the 
French Academy which Colbert had just founded in Rome. Vouet by this 
time was no longer a rival as he had died, as noted, in 1649. 

2 These Conferences were delivered at meetings of the Academy attended 
by the members, by students, sometimes by the public, and sometimes by 
Colbert himself. The lectures were followed by discussions and, if con- 
sidered worthy by Colbert, they were subsequently published. 

^ This curious artist (1616-1671) imitated alternately the Italians, Poussin, 
and the Dutch painter Pieter Van Laer, who was known as Bamboche. 
Van Laer's pictures, known as " Bambochades," were compositions of 
Roman ruins and buildings with peasants and genre episodes introduced. 
His pictures were imitated by Dutch and French artists for more than a 
hundred years (cf. my Introduction to Dutch Art, pp. 172-175, and Pis. 69 
and 70). 



in the splendid royal collection which was then accessible to 
all artists, students and visitors to the Louvre.* 

I'ATntually after prolonged discussions, dealing largely with 
the history-pictures of Poussin, the Academy decided that all 
the problems had been solved ; and it instructed Louis Testelin^ 
to draw up synoptic tables of Rules for Great Art, and this 
Table de Vrkcptes was duly compiled and published in 1675.^ 

* The organisation and immense extension of the Royal collections was 
also Colbert's work. The collection inherited from previous sovereigns, 
which included the Italian pictures acquired by Frangois I (cf. p. 26), had 
been increased by the acquisition of many works from the collection of 
Fouquet and that of Mazarin, which contained many of the pictures pre- 
viously owned by Charles I. Colbert was responsible for these acquisitions 
and he continued to buy right and left on the King's behalf. He imported 
shiploads of antiques and Italian pictures from Rome, and he took advantage 
of every opportunity at home to buy others — often at very low prices fixed 
by Le Brun as expert. In 1671 the banker Jabach (cf. p. 80) was ruined, 
and Colbert acquired for the King a hundred of his pictures and five thousand 
drawings for a nominal sum. When the Comtc de Brienne, another notable 
collector (cf. note, p. 68), was ruined, he stepped in again. In ten years he 
acquired six hundred and forty-seven of the pictures now in the Louvre. 
At the same time it was intimated that the King would welcome gifts of 
pictures, and manv fine works were acquired in this way. Of the twenty- 
nine pictures by Poussin in the collection of Louis XIV three were gifts, 
five were acquired from the painter Herault, and twelve were won at 
tennis by the King from the young Due de Richelieu, who had inherited 
them from his father and staked them on a game. In 1681 Colbert had the 
King's collection brought from the various palaces and assembled in the 
galleries of the Louvre arranged to receive them. They included sixteen 
pictures by Raphael, six by Correggio, ten ascribed to Leonardo, eight to 
Giorgione, twenty-three by Titian, eighteen by Veronese and fourteen by 
Van Dyck. In 1709 the collection numbered two thousand four hundred 
pictures available for study by the French artists — (the English National 
Gallery was founded with thirty-eight pictures in 1824). 

2 Cf. note, p. 39. 

^ It was followed by another work by R. de Piles, who drew^ up tables allot- 
ting comparative marks to the great artists under various heads. Perfection 
was represented by twenty marks, and the tables included the following 

isments : 
Le Brun 




























The Authoritative Doctrine thus established was doubtless 
a source of satisfaction to Colbert. But it served no other 
purpose, and could serve no other, because fixed standards have 
no meaning in the case of the activity called art. 

iv. Pierre Mignard 




National Gallery 
National Gallery 














Eglise du Val de 




Musee Conde 
Musee Conde 
Musee Conde 
















La Marquise de Seignelay as Thetis with 

Achilles and Cupid 
The Virgin with the grapes 
Jesus and the Woman of Samaria 
The Road to Calvary 
The Grand Dauphin and his family 
Mme de Maintenon 
Self portrait 
" Gloria " in the Vault 

Moliere as Cesar 


Cardinal Mazarin 

Louis XIV 

Marie de Bourbon as a child 

Louis XIV crowned by Victory 

Catherine Mignard, Comtesse de Feu- 

quieres, as Fame, holding a trumpet 

and a portrait of the artist 
Portrait of a Magistrate 
Mars and Venus 
Mme de Montespan and the Due de 

Mme de Maintenon and her niece 
Mme de Sevigne 

When Le Brun desired to sweep all the artists of consequence 
into the Royal Academy and thereby establish his authority 
above them, one important artist, Pierre Mignard, resisted him ; 
and as already noted Le Brun obtained from Colbert an ordinance 




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= Z 

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Pctris. Louvre 
HYACINTHE RIGAUD. Presentation in the Temple. 




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Urunsivick. Museum 

J. B. Ta vernier. 

Paris. Louvre 

age of sixty-two. 


by which Mignard as brevete'^^s called upon to join. But Mignard 
flatly refused, and Colbert himself, with the Royal authority 
behind him, could not dissuade him from his decision.^ 

Mignard and Lc Brun had been enemies since the days when 
they were fellow-students in Vouet's atelier. Mignard was there 
in 1625. He went to Rome in 1655, and painted a series of 
Madonnas of the character of the Louvre Virgin with the Grapes 
which are known as Mignardes. 

In Rome he also won a great reputation as a portrait painter. 
Ihree Popes, Urban VllI, Innocent X (who was subsequently 
painted by Velasquez) and Alexander VII sat to him ; and 
Poussin in a letter dated 1648 refers to him as the best portrait 
painter at the time in Rome although he describes the heads in 
his paintings as '' Jroides,fardees^ satis force ni vigneur" 

The reputation of Mignard " le Komain,''' as he was then 
called, extended to France, and in 1656 Louis XIV recalled him 
to Paris. He arrived in France in the following year and stayed 
some months with his brother Nicolas Mignard (who was also 
a painter) at Avignon. There he met Moliere, who had been 
performing at Beziers and Dijon, and there doubtless he painted 
the celebrated portrait Moliere as Cesar in " l^a Mort de Vompee " 
which belongs to the Comedie Francaise.- 

Mignard left Avignon on receipt of an urgent summons from 
Mazarin to paint a portrait of the King to be sent to Madrid 
in connection with the negotiations for the hand of the Infanta 
Marie-Therese. Mignard painted the picture in a few days and 
won thereby the favour of Mazarin, the King, the Queen- 
Mother, and the new Queen herself. Henceforward, even during 
the triumph of Le Brun, he remained a favourite portrait painter 
in Court circles ; and he was also commissioned by the Queen 
Mother to paint the vault in the Church of the Val-de-Grace 

* " Monsieur" Mignard replied to Colbert, " le rot est le maitre, et s'il 
m'ordonne de quitter le rqyaume je suis pret a partir. Mais sacher^ bien qu'avec 
ces cinq doigts, il n'y pas de pays en 'Europe ouje ne sois plus consider i, et otije ne 
puisse faire une plus grande fortune qu'en France." 

2 Moliere was under forty at the time of" this first meeting ; and he is 
evidently still young in the portrait. In the equally famous portrait at 
Chantilly he appears older and rather weary, and the picture was probably 
painted in Paris about ten or fifteen years later. 

N 89 


which she had dedicated ''A Jesus naissant et a la Vierge Mere " 
as a thankofFering for the birth of Louis XIV.^ 

After the defiance of Le Brun in the matter of the Academy 
Mignard became the official leader of the artists of the old 
Mattrise ; he rallied all Le Brun's enemies and awaited the 
moment for his revenge. 

He had, in fact, to wait some time, for while Colbert lived 
he could really do nothing, though in 1677 while Le Brun was 
working at Versailles, he scored a success with the decorations 
of Monsieur's Chateau de St. Cloud which the King inspected 
and admired. Mignard's day came when Louvois who succeeded 
Colbert as Surintendant des Bdtiments commissioned him to work 
at Versailles itself. 2 

^ Cf. note, p. 5 5 . 

Mignard's painting is a circular composition of two hundred figures of 
saints fantastically foreshortened adoring the Trinity in a central circle of 
clouds and angels' heads ; in an intermediate circle we see Anne of Austria 
herself in adoration. The vault is a supreme example of the Jesuit style of 
ecclesiastical decoration. As is well known it evoked a panegryic from 
Moliere who was evidently inspired as much by friendship for Mignard and 
hostility to Le Brun as by the actual work, when in L.a Gloire de Val de 
Grace he wrote : 

Toi qui, dans ceite coupe a ton vaste genie 
Comme un ample theatre heureusenient journie 
Es venu deplojer les precieux tresors 
Que le Tibre t'a vu ramasser sur ses bords, 
Dis-nous, fanieux Mignard, par qui te sont versks charmantes beautes de tes nobles pensees . . . 
And addressing Colbert directly he wrote : 

Attache a tes travaux dont V eclat te renomme 
Les res tes precieux des Jours de ce grand horn me. 

and he followed this with a direct attack on Le Brun : 

Les grands hommes, Colbert, sont mauvais courtisans 
Peu faits a s' acquit ter des devoirs complaisans. 

Soujfre que, dans leur art s'avangant chaquejour. 

Par leurs ouvrages seuls ils te fas sent leur cour. 
2 There he painted decorations in the Petits appartements and in La Petite 
Galerie ; and when the King asked Le Brun to visit these apartments and 
give his opinion on Mignard's work conditions had so altered that Le Brun 
thought it more prudent to forget the Royal command. 



When Tx Brun died Mignard succeeded to all his honours. 
1 le became Prcwicr Peintre dn l\o/\ Director of the Academy and 
of the Gobelins factory, and at the age of eighty-five, just before 
he died, he undertook a commission for a painting in the vault 
of the Invalides.^ 

Mignard was essentially a portrait painter. His Portrait of a 
Magistrate in the Nimcs Aluseum (dimly perceived though it is 
through the dirt which now covers the whole surface of the 
picture) is a work of acute observation, sensibility and great 
skill. His Portrait of A^a^^arin at Chantilly is also excellent ; we 
can believe as we look on this effigy the tales of the Cardinal's 
avarice and of the hatreds which he inspired. Another admirable 
performance is the Louvre portrait oi Mwe de Maintenon as Sainte 
Frafi^oise painted two years before the artist died for the Maison 
d'Educatiofi at St. Cyr where the former governess of Mme de 
Montespan's children was playing the fairy-godmother to a lot of 
miserable girls. The charming picture in the London National 
Gallery Lm Marquise de Seignelaj as Thetis with Achilles and Cupid 
(PL 41c) doubtless represents the sitter as she appeared in some 
masque or theatrical diversion, probably with her children.^ 

V. Louis XIV — the Last Phase 

The last twenty-five years of the reign of Louis XIV were a 
period of gloom. France w^as depressed by the failure of the 
later wars and exhausted by the sacrifice of over a million lives. 
The rehgious persecutions that followed the Revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes (1685) filled thinking people with horror, and 

^ A full-length portrait of Mignard, painted either completely by himself 
or by a pupil from a head by Mignard, and representing him seated in his 
studio, was presented by Mignard to the Academy when he became Director. 
The pose and the disposition of the accessories in the picture are deliberately 
the same as those in the portrait of Le Brun by Largilliere which the Academy 
already had upon its walls. The pictures, which record the hatred and rivalry 
between the two men, can be seen in the Louvre. 

2 Mignard as a portrait painter must not be judged by the Portrait of 
Descartes in the London National Gallery, which merits Poussin's descrip- 
tion of his portraits. The affectation and weakness which pervade this 
picture strike us even without recalling the superb Louvre portrait of the 
same sitter by Frans Hals. 



when the population was not suffering for religion it was 
suffering from brutal repressions of political revolts or the 
tyranny of the King's soldiers billeted in the country between 

The Court itself was equally gloomy. The wars, the enter- 
tainments and the building of the palaces had emptied the 
treasury. " J'ai trop aime les hdtiments " Louis XIV confessed 
on his deathbed, and he might have added luxury and luxurious 
objects. But now all was changed ; in 1690 the silver furniture 
and appointments from Versailles were sent to be melted into 
money at the Mint. Life at Versailles had become an onerous 
ritual without sparkle or gaiety. Moliere and Lully were both 
dead. The King himself was a sick man ; nothing of the old 
world remained to him but LuUy's music which he still had per- 
formed at all times and seasons — during the lever ^ at dinner, in 
chapel, at supper, and wliile he went to bed. 

Mme de Maintenon contributed to the prevailing gloom. 
She was an open enemy of the arts. She disapproved of the 
King's devotion to music. She countermanded the importation 
of the copy of a Titian because it had nude figures ; she had 
the nudes in Gobelins tapestries decently draped or dressed. 
She also tried to abolish the opera and the ballet and succeeded 
in creating a new type of didactic performance an example of 
which, L^ Triomphe de la Kaison sur T Amour, was played in 1696 
to a dejected Court which remembered the glories of l^e 
Triomphe de I' Amour. ^ 

All this brought about a corresponding change in the field 
of painting. The Italian tradition fell out of favour ; the pagan 
gods and goddesses were dethroned ; religious subjects became 
de rigueur ; and when Le Brun's pupil Charles de La Fosse 
(163 6-1 71 6) painted The Finding of Moses (Louvre) in the last 
year of the century the women are depicted not in classical 

1 This tyranny was not however new. Mme de Sevigne wrote in 1676 : 
" Void qu'arrivent les troupes pour les quartiers dVjiver ; Us s^en vont cke^i les 
pay sans y les volent et les depouillent. . . .lis mirent P autre jour un petit enfant d 
la hroche ..." 

^ Cf. p. 76. Louis XIV used to refer to Mme de Maintenon as " Madame 
la Raison." The title of the austere ballet produced to her taste was perhaps 
a piece of flattering symbolism in the old tradition. 



draperies but in complete dresses, and beneath them — for the 
first time in the art of the century — they are evidently wearing 

The monument of doctrine constructed on the basis of 
Poussin's histor^'-pictures and the Itahan masters by the Academy 
was soon challenged. It was now the fashion to look to the pic- 
tures of the Low Countries for inspiration. This happened partly 
because these painters were felt to be more in keeping with the 
new attitude to art, partly because after the death of Le Brun 
there was a reaction against the Academy as such, and partly 
because in the wars many French notables had visited the Low 
Countries and brought back Dutch and Flemish pictures for their 
own collections.^ 

Many aspects of Dutch and Flemish art are reflected in the 
French pictures at the turn of the century. Jean Jouvcnet 
(1644-17 1 7) imitates Rubens in his Descent from the Cross and the 
Dutch painters of church interiors in his High Altar of Notre 
Dame ;- still life pictures of flowers and so forth in the Dutch 
and Flemish traditions begin to make their appearance ; Charles 
Desportes (1661-1743) paints sporting dogs and hunting scenes 
in the manner of his Flemish master Nicasius and of Snyders, 
and is commissioned by the King to record the rare animals 
in the royal menagerie ; and of the two leading portrait painters 
of the period Nicolas de Largilliere and Hyacinthe Rigaud the 
first appears after an apprenticesliip in Antwerp and the second 
is influenced not only by Rubens but also by Rembrandt, 
hitherto ignored in France and not represented in the King's 

* Le Grand Conde had begun this. He bought pictures in Holland, and 
brought Flemish and Dutch artists to Chantilly. The Due de Richelieu 
replaced his Poussins (cf. note, p. 87) by a set of pictures by Rubens. In 
1710 the Van Dycks of religious subjects in the royal collection were placed 
in the private apartments of the King. 

^ Both in the Louvre. 
















vi. Hyacinthe Kigaud 



J, G. Johnson 



Alte Pinakothek 



Self portrait 

The Presentation of Jesus in the Temple 
Louis XIV at the age of sixty-two^ 
Marie Serra the artist's mother 
J. F. P. de Crequi, Due de Lesdiguieres, 

as a child 
Louis XV, aged five 
Elizabeth Charlotte, Dowager Duchess 

of Orleans^ 
Portrait of Mignard 

The financier Montmartel and his wife 
Gaspard de Gueydan with bagpipe 
Mme de Gueydan 
Portrait of the artist 
Christ on the Cross 
Cardinal de Bouillon opening the sacred 

door in 1700 
Christian III, Duke of Zweibriicken 
King August III as Elector in armour 

with negro attendant 
Prince Wenzel-Liechtenstein 

Louis XIV in armour 
Charles XII in armour 

Hyacinthe - Fran gois - Honore - Mathias - Pierre - Martyr - Andre - 
Jean Rigau Y Ros, known as Rigaud, was a magnificently coni- 
petent painter of portraits. We owe to him the splendid portrait 
of Loms XIV at the age of sixty-two (PI. 40c)— the portrait 
which has fixed our image of the Pharaoh of the last period, 
who has been aptly described as the greatest actor of royalty 
in history. 

In Rigaud's works we can distinguish two manners. In the 
first the Baroque flamboyance of Rubens is adapted to express 

1 There is another version of this picture at Versailles. 

2 There are other versions of this picture in Brunswick and Buda Pesth. 



the grandeur and pomposity of the notables of the period and 
those who desired to be portrayed as notables. The Financier 
Montmartel and his wife (PI. 41b) at Cherbourg is an example of 
this manner ; the portraits Gaspard de Guejdan with bagpipe and 
of his wife in the Aix Museum, and Prince Wen^^el l^iechtenstein^ 
surrounded by a veritable tornado of curtains, in the Liechten- 
stein Gallery in Vienna, arc others. 

Later, as noted above, Rigaud set out to emulate Rembrandt^ 
and we see the influence of the Dutch master in the Louvre 
picture /. F. P. de Creqni as a child, in the celebrated lili'^aheth 
Charlotte Dowager Duchess 0] Orleans (PI. 39a), and in the illumina- 
tion of the great portrait of The King. This influence is seen 
above all in the Louvre Presentation in the Temple (PI. 40a) which 
Rigaud painted in the year of his death and left in his will to 
Louis XIV.i 

Rigaud's production was very large. Like Reynolds, he kept 
careful records of his commissions and from these we learn that 
he painted from thirty to forty portraits every year.'^ 

^ Rigaud tried, of course, to improve on Rembiandt, especially in the 
portraits, and to adapt Rembrandt's technical procedures to what doubtless 
seemed to him more distinguished and worthy ends. Cf. my Inircduction 
to Dutch Art, pp. 168-169 and Pis. 33, 65, 66 and 68, where I have compared 
attempts to improve on Rembrandt made by the Dutch painter, Van der 
Werft (1659-1722) with Rembrandt's own works. For the influence of 
Rembrandt on Nattier, cf. PI. 56b and p. 127. 

In this connection it must be remembered that many Dutch painters 
towards the end of the century borrowed in their turn from French art. 
Van der Werft himself was influenced by Claude and Poussin, and Gerard 
de Lairesse was influenced by Poussin and Le Brun. 

^ He was the son of a tailor and grcat-ncphew of a painter. After working 
for s ome years in Perpignan, Montpellier and Lyon he arrived in Paris in 
168 1. He was launched on his career in 1688 when he painted a successful 
portrait of Monsieur. Wo. did not go to Italy — a fact in itself significant 
of the change in taste. 



vi j . Nicolas de 'Largilliere 



Princess Ragotsky with a negro 

Portraits of Baron and Baroness de 

The Provost of the Merchants and 

the Sheriffs of Paris (Sketch) 
Portrait of Le Brun 
The President de Laage 
Portrait of the artist with his wife 

and daughter 
The actress Mile Duclos 
Marie de Laubespine (?) 
A gentleman of the house of Conde 
Mme de Gueydan as a Naiad 
The Provost of the Merchants and 

the Sheriffs of Paris (Sketch) 
Still life 
Still life 
Jean Forest 

J. B. Tavernier 
Count K. D. von Dehn 
James Stuart the Old Pretender, and 
his sister, Louisa, as children 

Largilliere is a painter's painter. He captured the secrets of 
the sheen and glitter of Van Dyck's painting and the lustre of 
Lely's and transformed them to something lighter and more 
engaging still. In Rigaud's pictures, even when the disposition 
of the drapery is most flamboyant, the touch is rather heavy 
and the paint substantial ; but Largilliere spread the colour 
as a thin fluid and while it was still wet he brought it to life with 
incisive touches of shadow and with little spots of glittering 
high light. We see his method to perfection in the Amiens 
sketch chronicled in my list above.^ 

^ The Amiens painting, like the painting in the Louvre, is a sketch for 
the official group of the Provost of the Merchants and the Sheriffs of Paris who 


National Gallery 

New York. 












Musee Conde 


Musee Conde 


Musee Conde 




















Largillicrc was born m Paris but he was brought up in 
Antwerp where his father had affairs. There he was apprenticed 
to a Flemish landscape and genre painter and employed on 
painting fiowers, game and iish in his master's works. At the 
age of eighteen he went to England where he became an 
assistant to Lely and painted the drapery in many of his pictures. 
He returned to Paris about six years later and remained there — ■ 
(except for a flying visit to England to paint James II and his 
Queen) — till his death at the age of eighty-seven in the middle 
of the reign of Louis XV. ^ 

In two portraits at Chantilly, the so-called Alwe de haubespine 
and Gentle wan of the House oJConde, the light touch of Largilhere's 
sketches has been to some extent sacrificed, as in many of his 
finished pictures, to completeness of representation. In the male 
portrait — where the wig is blonde, the coat red and the drapery 
orange — we see the influence of Van Dyck both in the composi- 
tion and the colour. In the other, a later work, we have the 
wliite powdered face, with blue shadows, the rouged cheeks, 
the brilliant eyes and brows, and the powdered hair which we 
associate with portraits of the age of Louis XV. 

The Brunswick full length/. jB. Tavernier (PI. 40b), in a Persian 
robe, is among his finest portraits. Interest also attaches to his 
still life paintings of game, fruit and so forth which are preserved 

gave a banquet to Louis XIV in 1687, to celebrate his recovery from illness. 
The commission was one of several which Largilliere received from the 
city dignitaries, who played a considerable role when Paris began to create 
its own Hfe in spite of the absence of the King and the Court at Versailles. 
During the Versailles period the King only came to Paris to attend the 
inauguration of his statues in the 'Place des Conqueles {Place Vendome) and 
the Place des VJc/oires, which were built to receive them. The Por/e St. 
Denis and the Porte St. Martin were built to celebrate his victories in Ger- 
many and Holland at a time when he was not yet established at Versailles. 
Largillicre's paintings of Parisian civic dignitaries have all disappeared. 
One was burned, some arc lost and some were destroyed in the Revolution. 
They represent the equivalents in French art of the numerous civic groups 
by the Dutch painters of the seventeenth century. Cf. p. 168. 

^ Largilliere amassed a considerable fortune and lost most of it in 1720 
in the crash of the East and West India Companies, floated in Paris by the 
Scottish banker, John Law, who had founded the Banque royale in 17 16, 
and introduced Bills of Exchange into France. 

o 97 


in the French provincial museums noted in my list above. For 
here we see Largilliere as the forerunner of the great French 
still life painter Jean-Baptiste Chardin whom he was subsequently 
to befriend.^ 

Largilliere's reputation has suffered from the numerous 
pictures by his followers which are frequently ascribed to him. 
But these School pictures have their own qualities. The 
Duchesse d' Orleans (PI. 41a), at Versailles, is typical of the more 
attractive of such works. 

1 Cf. p. 135. 


SCHOOL OI- 1,.\RC;ILLI1:RH. DucHcssc d'Orlcans. 

Cherbourg. Museum 

inACINTHE RIGALD. The Financier 
Montmartcl and his wife. 

I.oiiiloii. Siilional CnilUrv 

PIERRE MIGNARD. La Marquise de 

Seignclay as Thetis with Achilles and 


Paris. Louvre 

WATTEAU. The Judgement of Paris. 



















i. The Louis XV Style 
ij. For trait Faint ers 
iij. Fastellists 
iv. Genre Painters 
V. Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin 
vi. The Academy and the Salons 
vij. Francois Boucher 
viij. La Pompadour and La du Barrj 
ix. Jean Honore Fragonard 
X. Tableaux de Modes 
xi. Louis-Leopold Boillj 
xij. Jean-Baptiste Greu^e 
xiij. French Eighteenth-century Landscape 
xiv. Mmes Vigee Le Brun and Lahille-Guyard 




i. Watteaii's Friends 

Paris, as a city with a distinctive spirit, was born at the 
beginning of the eighteenth century. When the second 
decade opened, the Versailles Court, vicious and brutal beneath 
its outward pomp and gloom, was performing its last cere- 
monies. But Paris was preparing for the moment of release. 
There new values and new standards of luxury and life were in 
course of evolution, and a new generation of art patrons was 
beginning to appear. 

The new patrons, for the most part self-made men, or the 
sons of such men, were an important factor in the new Parisian 
civilisation ; genuine lovers of the arts, they stood both for 
the amenities and the decencies of wealthy bourgeois life ; and 
they were unaffected by the wild pursuit of pleasure and the 
hysterical speculations that broke out on the advent of the 

The names of several of these men live in history as the 
friends and patrons of Watteau. 

The first name is that of Pierre Crozat, who was known as 
Crozat le curieux (i.e. " the collector "), and also as Crozat le 
pamre, to distinguish him from his still wealthier brother, 
Antoine Crozat, who had the monopoly of trade with 
Louisiana and was known as Crozat le riche. Pierre Crozat had 
been at first associated with his brother in business and finance 
but at the age of forty-three he retired and bought himself the 
office of Tresorier de France. He was fifty when Watteau was 
brought to his notice, and he then owned in Paris a magnificent 
hotels which the architect Cartaud had taken ten years to build, 
and the Montmorency estate which had formerly belonged to 
Le Brun and was later to shelter Jean-Jacques Rousseau.^ 

* In Rousseau's day the Montmorency park and chateau belonged to 
the Due de Luxembourg. Crozat had improved the gardens and extended 
the chateau ; he had also built the petit chateau, the work of Gilles-Marie 
Oppenordt (cf. p. 104 and note p. 1 10). Rousseau was lodged by the Duke 
in this petit chateau and there " dans une continuelle extase " at the beauty ot 
his surroundings he worked at " Emile." 



In his town mansion Crozat had an astonishing array of 
artistic treasures. He had acquired what remained of Jabach's 
collection of pictures after Colbert had made his selection for 
Louis XIV, and he had also acquired pictures which had 
belonged to Vasari. He had an immense collection of drawings 
by Italian, Dutch and Flemish masters, some antique sculpture, 
and fourteen hundred engraved gems preserved in cabinets 
made at the Gobelins by Boulle. He continued to add to his 
collections all liis life ; agents bought for him in London, Ant- 
werp and Rome, and he liimself travelled to inspect and acquire 
pictures and collections of drawings ; when he died he had five 
hundred pictures and nineteen thousand drawings. Crozat was 
was also an amateur of music, and his musical parties were 
attended by the most cultivated elements in the new Parisian 
society. Philippe d'Orleans, the Regent, was among his friends, 
and at Crozat's house he forgot his wine and his women and his 
exhausting orgies and revealed his passionate interest in works 
of art which was equal to Crozat's own.^ 

The name of Jean de Jullienne is also closely associated with 
that of Watteau. Jullienne was an amateur painter, engraver 
and musician. At the same time he was the managing director of 
a flourishing factory attached to the Gobelins to which he sup- 
plied textiles dyed an orange-scarlet colour which was a secret 
and monopoly of the firm. Later he became de Jullienne, and 
the owner of the business which had belonged to his uncle. 

1 In 1715 Crozat went to Italy to acquire some pictures and drawings 
and he was commissioned by Philippe d'Orleans to buy other works 
for him. The Orleans collection in the Palais Royal included Italian, 
Dutch, Flemish and French works from the collections of Christina of 
Sweden (who had some pictures which had belonged to Charles I of Eng- 
land), of Richelieu, of the Marquis de Seignelay (Colbert's son), and of 
M. de Chantelou, who had one set of The Sacraments by Poussin. In 1723, 
among his four hundred and ninety pictures, nearly all of the first importance, 
he had six works by Raphael, as many by Correggio, and twenty-five by 
Titian. His son mutilated a Correggio on the plea of piety ; his grandson 
kept the whole collection in storage ; then Philippe Egalite to raise money 
for political propaganda in 1792 sold the whole collection which came to 
England. The Dutch and Flemish sections passed to various collections ; 
the French and Italian sections were acquired by the Duke of Bridgewater 
and most of the pictures can still be seen in London at Bridgewater 


London. Sounc Museum 

ANTOINE WATTEAU. L'Accordcc de \illagc. 

Glasgow. A rt Gallery 

ANTUINL W ATIL.AL. Dciaclunuin taisant altc. 

Berlin. Kaise.r-Friedrich Museum 
ANTOINE WATTEAU. L' Amour au theatre fran9ais (detail). 

From the lleriniiiii;e. i^cnini^raii. Reproduced by courtesy 
of MM. Wildcnstein et Cie, Paris and New York 


J'aris. Liiuvrc 



Jullicnnc began collecting pictures from an early age. He had a 
marked preference for works of the Dutch and Flemish Schools 
and owned paintings by Rembrandt, Terborch, Metzu, W'ouwer- 
mans and Rubens, as well as some by Correggio, Veronese and 
Claude. 1 le was twenty-one when he met \Vatteau, who was 
then the same age. 

Another friend and patron, the Comte de Caylus, was a man of 
rather different calibre. He was a nobleman by birth and a 
soldier by profession. At the age of fifteen he fought at Mal- 
plaquet. When peace came he retired from the army and became 
an amateur painter and engraver. He engraved a number of 
W'atteau's pictures, and delivered a Conference at the Academy, 
which is a main authority for the details of the artist's hfe and 
throws valuable sidelights on his temperament and character. 
Like Jullienne he was about W'atteau's own age when he made 
his acquaintance. 

The help and patronage of these wealthy amateurs was rein- 
forced by the interest of certain professional men of letters and 
certain artists. The names of Pierre-Jean Mariette (publisher, 
art liistorian, engraver, collector, and an intimate in Crozat's 
circle), of Antoine de la Roque (who wrote operas and later 
edited the Mercure de France), of Nicolas Henin {Intendant ordon- 
nateur of the King's Buildings and gardens, amateur artist and 
engraver (who drew from the model with de Caylus and Watteau 
in rooms taken by de Caylus) ) — must be mentioned in the first 
category ; those of La Fosse, Oppenordt, Vleughels and prob- 
ably of Ch. -Antoine CoypeU and Largilliere must be mentioned 
in the second. Finally, there were two art dealers — Sirois and 
his son-in-law Gersaint — whose names have been immortalised 
through their association with the artist. 

It is important for us to-day to realise W'atteau's debt to these 
friends and patrons, because he was the first original French 
artist who worked in Paris in a situation comparable with that 
of the original artist in the modern world to-day. Claude and 
Poussin, as noted, had achieved a position of artistic indepen- 
dence. They had done this without help from tlie general public 
which knew nothing about them, and they had been able to do 
it because they lived in Rome, to which the world's richest 

^ Cf. note, p. 142. 



dilettanti then habitually looked when they wanted to buy pic- 
tures. Watteau had to capture his artistic independence in Paris -' 
itself; and he too received no help from the general pubHc ■ 
which knew nothing of liis existence and nothing of his work till, '' 
after his death, it was engraved at Jullienne's expense.^ - 
Watteau's contribution to the world's art was made possible ; 
by the men I have described. They discovered him, they i 
rescued him from hack work, and they supported him with •' 
money.2 i 

ii. Watteau's Life ''] 

Antoine Watteau was born in Valenciennes in 1684. He was 

the son of a Flemish artisan. ^ He was poor and obscure till the , 

age of twenty-five. He died of consumption at the age of thirty- \ 

He arrived in Paris at the age of eighteen. Before that he had 

worked as an apprentice in the studio of a local artist. In Paris ! 

he earned his living for a time by painting little pictures of saints 1 

for a dealer who employed a number of hack painters and sold I 

their productions to peasants for small sums. From this hack- ' 

labour he escaped to the studio of a Flemish artist, Claude Gillot, i 

with whom he remained for five years. When he left Gillot he i 

attached himself to another artist, Claude Audran, who was i 

Keeper of the Luxembourg Palace where he had charge of the ' 

pictures which Rubens had painted for Marie de' Medicis. While i 

with Audran Watteau studied the Rubens' pictures and made - 
drawings from them ; he also drew in the Luxembourg park, 

and he competed unsuccessfully for the Prix de Rome.* Then • 

he met the art dealer Sirois who bought some of his easel pic- i 

tures, installed him in his house, and introduced him to Crozat 1 

who at once recognised his talents and commissioned him to ; 

paint four panels in his dining-room. | 

In the Hotel Crozat Watteau found Oppenordt^ who was 1 

acting as Crozat's domestic architect and decorator, and Charles ! 
de La Fosse,* who had painted the ceiling of the main gallery 

* Cf. note, p. 108. 2 But ^f. pp. 120, 121. n 
^ His father was a mattre cotwreur et charpentier (master tile and slate ] 

worker and carpenter). / 

* Cf. p. 141. ^ Cf. notes, pp. loi and no. ^ Cf. p. 92. j 

104 a! 

Boston. Miisfuni of Fine Arls 

ANTOINE WATTEAU. La Perspective. 

'kantilly. Mus,c- Comte Paris. Louvre 

JNITOINE W ATTEAU. L'Amantc inquictc. ANTOINE W Ai lEAL . Lc faux pas. 



[Berlin. Charlottenburg Castle 

ANTOINE WATTEAU. L' Amour paisible. 

Paris. Louvre 

GIORGIONE. Concert Champetre. 


of the hotel and was installed there (with his wife and niece), 
as curator of Crozat's collections. Through the influence of l.a 
Fosse he was introduced to the Academy which elected him 
<7gr//in 1712.* 

W'attcau now estabhshed himself as an independent artist 
with a youth named Jean-Fran(;:ois Pater^ from Valenciennes as 
his pupil and assistant; and in 171 5 Jullienne appeared and 
began to buy his pictures. 

In 1 71 6 La Fosse died and Watteau accepted an invitation 
from Crozat to occupy the apartment thus vacated in his house. 
On this second visit to the Hotel Crozat, Watteau lived in con- 
ditions of luxury ; he met all the influential dilettanti of the 
time, and he was able to examine Crozat's great collections at 
his leisure. From the hotels moreover, he could escape when he 
pleased to Montmorency, and draw and wander in the park. 

But Watteau only accepted Crozat's hospitality for about a 
year. In 1717 we find him again in the house of Sirois painting 
his tableau de reception for the Academy — the Louvre Embarque- 
nient pour Vile de Cjthere. A year later he left Sirois and went to 
live with the artist Nicolas Vleughels who had a house in the 
Saint Victor quarter; the air there, it was hoped, would be 
beneficial to his health. 

In the autumn of 17 19 he went to London, probably to con- 
sult a distinguished physician. Dr. Richard Mead. He remained 
in London for about nine months and had great success with 
his pictures. But during this period there occurred in Paris 
the Law crash^ which affected his financial position, and he was 
only saved from disaster by JuUienne who was looking after his 
affairs in his absence.* 

^ This was an important service to Watteau because till then, as he 
never attempted to graduate in the Maitrise, he was still a " pirate " liable 
to prosecution if the Maitrise considered it worth while (cf. pp. 85 and 122). 
The old category of peintres du roi was now restricted to the Academy. 
As agrei VC'atteau had to present a tableau de reception to the Academy before 
he could become Academicien and peintre du roi. He painted this picture 
five years later. 

* Cf. p. 122, 3 Cf. note, p. 97. 

* Wattcau's drawing (preserved in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford) 
and engraved by Caylus with the title of Le Naufrage is an allegorical repre- 

P 105 


In the summer of 1720 he returned to Paris and lodged with 
the art dealer Gersaint, who had married the daughter of his old 
friend Sirois ; for this host he painted the celebrated shop-sign 
UEnseigne de Gersaint (PI 50), and he renewed relations with 
Jullienne and with Cro2at who was giving parties " to meet " 
Mme Rosalba Carriera, the Venetian pastellist.^ 

In the following year he left Paris for a country house which 
had been lent him at Nogent-sur-Marne. There he was visited 
by Gersaint, by Jullienne, and other friends ; there he sum- 
moned his old pupil, Jean-Francois Pater, with whom he had 
lost touch in recent years, that he might give him some final 
instruction and advice ; and there, after destroying some of his 
pictures and drawings which he considered erotic, and painting a 
Christ on the Cross as a present for the local cure, on 12th July, 
1 72 1, he died. 

iij. Watteau's CEuvre 


La Surprise 

The Guitar Player (La Gamme d'Amour) 

The Music Lesson (Pour nous prover 
que cette belle) 

Gilles and his Family (Sous un habit de 

Harlequin and Colombine (Voule2 vous 
triompher des belles) 

The Champs I^lysees 

Fete in a Park (Les Amusements Cham- 

The Music Party (Les Charmes de la vie) 

The Halt during the Chase (Le Rendez- 
vous de Chasse) 

La Toilette 

The Marriage Contract (L'Accordee de 

The Ball (Plaisirs du Bal) 

Comediens Italiens 

sentation of Watteau rescued from this financial disaster by Jullienne. 
M. David Weill has a painting known as Le Rive de Watteau in which we 
again see Watteau himself — this time as an artist tortured by a vision of all 
the characters portrayed in his auvre. 
^ Cf. p, 129. 



Buckingham Palace 
National Gallery 


Wallace Collection 


Wallace Collection 


Wallace Collection 


Wallace Collection 


Wallace Collection 


Wallace Collection 


Wallace Collection 


Wallace Collection 


Soane Museum 



Lord Spencer Col- 


Fetes Vcniticnncs 

The Encampment (Detachcmcnt faisant 

Breaking up the Camp (Depart de troupe) 
La Perspective 

Comcdicns francais* (Five figures) 
L'embarquement pour I'ile de Cythere 

L'lndifTcrcnt and La Finette (Pendants) 
Jupiter ct Antiope 
Pastorale (Le Berger Content) 
Assemblee dans un pare 
Le Faux Pas 

Breaking up the Camp (Depart de 

La Troupe Italienne (Les habits sont 

Comedicns Italiens 

Le reve de Tartiste 

L'Armour desarme 

Le Mezzetin 

L'Amante inquiete 

L' Amour au theatre Italien 

L'Amour au theatre frangais 

Assemblee galante 

Le Dejeuner en plein air* 

* When not otherwise described, pictures which were the property 
of the former reigning Prussian house are now State property as the 
result of the agreement reached between the Prussian State and the 
ex-Kaiser in 1926. 

This picture was formerly the property of the former reigning Prussian 
House which retained it under the agreement. Sir Joseph Duveen acquired 
it about 1928. 

^ This picture is no longer in Berlin. I have been given to 
understand that it now belongs to Herr Reinhardt of Winterthur 



National Gallery of 


Art Gallery 


Art Gallery 
Museum of Fine 


New York. 

Bache Collection 


















Baron Edmond de 

Rothschild Col- 



Baron Edmond de 

Rothschild Col- 



Wildenstein Col- 



M. David Weill 



Musee Conde 
Musee Conde 


Musee Conde 













Castle Museum 






Schloss Sans-Souci 


Schloss Sans-Souci 







Legon d'Amour^ 
L'Enseigne de Gersaint 

L'embarquement pour I'ile de Cythere 
La Danse (Iris c'est de bonheur)* 
Les Bergers 

L'Amour Paisible 

La Mariee de Village 
Recreation Italienne 
Reunion Champetre 
Plaisirs d' Amour 
L'Accordee de Village 
Le Mezzetin^ 

Watteau's (smre to-day consists of two hundred or more 
pictures, a large number of drawings, and ten etchings. We 
know that all the surviving pictures were painted in the last 
twelve years of his life, but their detailed chronology is largely a 
matter of conjecture.* 

^ This picture remained the property of the former reigning Prussian 
house under the agreement. 

^ This picture remained the property of the former reigning Prussian 
house under the agreement. 

^ Cf. caption to PI. 44b. 

* Immediately after Watteau's death Jullienne began to compile a record 
of his work in the form of engravings made, at his own expense, from 
Watteau's pictures and drawings. This monumental work known as the 
Kecueil jullienne consists of more than five hundred engravings, and it records 
many pictures and decorations which have now disappeared. But it pro- 
vides no information about the dates of the painting of the individul 
pictures. It was followed by the Catalogue raisonne of Watteau's works, 
published in 1773 by Edmond de Goncourt, who was responsible for the 
rediscovery of Watteau after a period of neglect extending for nearly a 
hundred years. In 191 2 Dr. H. Zimmermann published an illustrated 
photographic record of Watteau's paintings in the Klassiker der Kunst series 
and attempted a chronological arrangement. Dr. Zimmermann restricted 
himself to pictures still preserved but even so his list is incomplete and 
many pictures in private collections are omitted because he could not 
obtain photographs or for other reasons. In 1922 MM. Dacier and Vuaflart 
published a new edition of the Keceuil Jullienne and added a catalogue con- 
sisting of Parts III and IV of that work and other engravings after paintings 
by Watteau. MM. Dacier and Vuaflart's work is illustrated by three 
hundred and sixteen plates. In 1928 M. Louis Reau compiled another 
catalogue of two hundred and seventy-nine pictures (including many which 


■, L-.uiic 

Gillcs (Italian Comedians) 


In the years of his apprenticeship to Gillot, Watteau worked 
as an assistant in the ordinary way. In Gillot's studio he learned 
to design arabesque decorations and to make sketches of stage 
performances and genre sketches of daily life, and there he also 
profited by the originality and versatility of his master.^ 

Gillot's chief service to Watteau was the directing of his 
attention to the Italian Comedy as performed by French actors 
in the Parisian Fairs. Gillot frequented these Fairs and doubtless 
took Watteau with him.- 

have disappeared), seventy-two selected drawings, and ten engravings ; 
this was published in M. Louis Dimier's Les Peintres frarifais du XVlllieme 
Siecle. I have before me as I write the catalogues of Dr. Zimmermann, 
MM. Dacier and Vuaflart, and M. Rcau, and the catalogue of engravings 
after Watteau's pictures and drawings by Edmond and Jules dc Goncourt 
printed at the end of their essay on Watteau in UArt du XVlllieme Siecle. 
The chronology suggested in my comments takes account of the labours 
of these scholars and represents my view of the general development of 
Watteau's art as I understand it from these sources and from the study of 
the pictures. 

1 Claude Gillot (1675-1722) was a most interesting artist whose con- 
tributions to Watteau's art have only recently been appreciated. An 
exhaustive study by M. Emile Dacier of his surviving works can be found 
in M. Dimier's book referred to in the note above. 

2 In the Italian Comedy the conventional figures — Harlequin, Scapin, 
Pierrot, Pantalon, Mezzetin, Scaramouchc, Colombine, the Doctor — 
indulged in much impromptu topical dialogue. In one of their perform- 
ances in 1697 called l^a fausse prude references to Mme de Maintenon were 
made or implied and Louis XIV banished all Italian players in order that 
" le sexe " which had applauded " des indecences qui etoient comvie dcs insultes 
solennelles faites a sa pudeur " might henceforward be protected. The 
Italian Comedians were recalled by the Regent in 171 6. The Franco-Italian 
character of the performances at the Parisian Fairs in the interval is recorded 
in the legend under Simonneau's engraving (begun by Watteau himself) 
of Watteau's La Troupe Italienne belonging to Baron Edmond de Rothschild. 

There we read : 

" Les habits sont It aliens 
Les airs franfois, etje par is 
Que dans ces vrays comediens 
Git une aimable tromperie 
Et qu' I tali ens et fran(ois 
Riant de I'humaine folie 
lis se moquent tout ^ lafois 
De la f ranee et de l' italic." 

Watteau's picture was, in fact, a portrait troup (cf. p. iii). 



In Gillot's studio Watteau had learned " grotesque " decora- 
tion and in his next employment he assisted Audran, who 
specialised in such work. No " grotesques " by Watteau sur- 
vive, but we know from the Rea/eil Jullienne that he executed a 
number of decorative commissions in this style and also a series 
of Chinese " arabesques '* for the Chateau de la Muette where 
the Regent's daughter, the Duchesse de Berry, held her drunken 
revels from 171 6 till her death three years later.^ 

Watteau's first easel pictures were also painted while he was 
with Audran or soon after. They are genre and picturesque- 
genre subjects in the Dutch-Flemish tradition of cortegaardjes 
or camp scenes, in the manner of Palamedes Stevens, Wouwer- 
mans and so forth.^ The Glasgow Detachement faisant alte (PL 
43b) is an example of this style which was soon developed, 
through study of other Low-Country painters, to a personal type 
of picturesque-genre seen in UAccordee de Village (PI. 43a) in 
the Soane Museum, London. 

^ The grotesque style of decoration goes back to Hellenistic painting. 
It then appears in Nero's Do?nus Aurea and the Christian catacombs. When 
antique decorations of this kind were unearthed in the Renaissance they 
were called grotteschi because the buildings in which they were found were 
known as grottoes ; the thrones and canopies of Apollos and Aphrodites 
then became the thrones and canopies of Madonnas and saints. In the 
hands of Gillot and of Audran, the thrones and canopies once more receive 
their original inhabitants. In Watteau's "grotesques" they receive pastoral 
figures including young women in swings, or Italian Comedians ; in some 
cases the ornamental framework is adorned with birds or monkeys, and 
the framework itself sometimes includes the shell or rocaille motives which 
we associate with the Louis XV style. 

This rocaille motive seems to have first appeared in decoration in the work 
of Oppenordt who, as noted, was employed in the Hotel Crozat when 
Watteau went there to paint the dining-room panels. 

The taste for chinoiserie in French decoration had been introduced by 
Mazarin who had a collection of Chinese lacquer work and porcelain ; 
some French lacquer work in the Chinese style was done at Versailles as 
early as 1655 and there were three manufactories devoted to it in Paris at 
the end of the seventeenth century. When Watteau designed the " arab- 
ques " for La Muette he had before him a collection of Chinese drawings 
which had been sent to Paris by some Jesuit missionaries and had greatly 
intrigued the amateurs who saw them. There exists a drawing by Watteau 
of a Chinaman from life (Albertina, Vienna). 

2 Cf. my Introduction to Dutch Art, pp. 170-179, 190-209, and Pis. 69-74, 
80-83, ^iid 100. 



This Low-Country basis to W'atteau's art is readidly compre- 
hensible. For in the first place he was in fact a Fleming ; his 
parents were Flemish (as Valenciennes became French only six 
years before he was born), and his first instructors, including 
Gillot himself, were also Flemish. Moreover, as a *' pirate " 
Flemish artist, not attached to the Parisian Mattrise^ and not yet 
attached to the Academy, he naturally began by consorting with 
Flemish artists in Paris and thus became familiar with the 
Franco-Low-Countr)' production for the popular market.^ 

In the second place, it must be remembered, there was now a 
vogue for the Low-Country styles among Parisian collectors 
and that the dealer Sirois, w^hen he bought W'atteau's early pic- 
tures and encouraged him to paint more in the same manner, was 
catering for this taste. UAccordee de Village (PI. 43 a) was actually 
one of the first of his pictures bought by Jullienne, who, as noted, 
especially favoured the Low-Country schools. 

In the next type of pictures — the Berlin U Amour au Theatre 
fratifais (PL 44a) and the Edinburgh Fetes Venitiennes — we get 
keen individual characterisation of the figures which, in fact, are 
all portraits. This portraiture is explained by W'atteau's method 
of work which was the same all through his life. He never 
painted from nature but constructed all his pictures from his 
collection of drawings which consisted partly of his own and 
other copies of drawings by the Old Masters wliich he kept in 
portfolios, and partly of his ow^n drawings done from nature 
(both out of doors and in his studio), which he kept in bound 
sketch-books. As studio properties he had a number of the- 
atrical and other costumes, and the figures in his pictures were 
painted from drawings of his friends and acquaintances dressed 
up in these properties. The comedians in his Itahan Comedy 
pictures were thus, for the most part, not drawn from real 
Italian or even real Franco-Italian Comedians ; and the figures 
in his Fetes were the result of similar procedures. - 

^ All through the eighteenth century Watteau was referred to as " peintre 
flam and. ^'' 

2 At the same time Watteau was always extremely interested in stage 
performances of all kinds and visited them and made the acquaintance of 
the performers whenever an opportunity occurred. He frequented the 
Franco-Italian Comedians' performances at the Fairs, as noted, and in 1702 



The identity of some of the figures in the pictures of this period 
is known. The male dancer in the FeUs Venitiennes is Watteau's 
friend, the painter Vleughels. The sitter for the girl dancer in 
this picture is the same as for the dancer in U Amour an Theatre 
franfais (PL 44a) ; she appears also in Baron Edmond de Roths- 
child's Troupe Italienne (Les habits sont Italiens), and in La Finette 
(PL 44c). She may have been the daughter of Sirois who married 
Gersaint in 171 8. The Me^etin in Sous un habit de Me^^etin, 
catalogued as Gilles and his Family in the London Wallace Collec- 
tion, is Sirois himself; the women are doubtless members of 
his family. 

In the year which Watteau now spent in the Hotel Crozat 
he became artistically educated. From Crozat's treasures he 
absorbed the secrets of the Old Masters — especially the secret of 
the Venetian contribution to aesthetic. When he left he carried 
with him portfolios containing his copies of landscape and 
figure drawings by Rubens, Van Dyck, Bassano, Titian, Veronese 
and a number after Domenico Campagnola (a Venetian of the 
School of Giorgione and Titian) to whom he professed his 
particular indebtedness.^ 

when he first arrived in Paris he saw Dancourt's L,es Trois Cousines and 
made the acquaintance of the actress La Desmares who played L,a Pe/erine, 
the leading part. The piece ended with a ballet-cortege and the song : 

" Vefie^ aVtle de Cy there 
Efi pekrinage avec nous, 
Jeune fille n'en revient gulre 
Ou sans am ant ou sans epoux." 

Watteau made a drawing of La Desmares as l.a Pelerine which was 
engraved in the Kecueil Jullienne and these impressions were eventually trans- 
formed into U'Emharquement pour Vile de Cythere (PI. 47). Watteau also 
doubtless frequented the real Italian Comedians when they returned to 

^ Watteau's work in the next period was certainly influenced by Gior- 
gione's Concert Champetre (PI. 46b) which is now in the Louvre. In Wat- 
teau's 'La Perspective (PL 45a) in Boston the group on the ground is the 
equivalent of the central group in Giorgione's picture and the light standing 
figure on the left is the equivalent of Giorgione's standing nude. The 
compositional resemblances between Watteau's U Amour Paisible (PI. 46a) 
in Potsdam and Giorgione's picture are also very striking ; a shepherd 
moreover and his sheep appear on the second plane in both pictures, 

Giorgione's picture after being owned successively by the Duke of 



In the pictures produced between the end of 171 6, when he 
left the Hotel Crozat, and his departure for England three years 
later, wc see the effects of his drawings from nature in Paris and 
at Montmorency and of his copies of the Old Master drawings. 
W'atteau used both types of drawing with equal freedom. In the 
Boston La Perspec/ire (PI. 45a), the building seen through the 
trees is the entrance pavilion of the Chateau de Montmorency. 
In Plaisirs du Bal, at Dulwich, we see the influence of Veronese, 
and a dog taken from one of the Rubens' panels in the Luxem- 
bourg. In the London Wallace Collection, Les Charges de la vie, 
we have a view of the Champs Elysees and the Chaussee d'Anain 
in the distance, and a dog which comes from another picture in 
the Rubens' scries.^ 

Watteau's study of the Old Masters also fired him with 
ambitions to paint some pictures with nude figures. But for 
this he had to find a young woman from whom he could make 
drawings from the figure. In Paris at this time there were no 
professional female models for the nude, and only male figure 
models were used in the Academy's school. Every artist who 
wanted to draw the female figure from hfe had to find a model 
among his own acquaintance. Watteau found one (who, tradi- 
tion has it, also acted as his servant) and thereafter the next 
aspect of his aitvre begins.- 

Mantua and Charles I passed to Jabach's collection ; it was among the 
pictures acquired by Louis XIV in 1671. Watteau presumably saw it in 
the Royal collections to which, of course, he could have obtained access 
through Crozat. 

On the other hand certain scholars ascribe the Concert Chatfipitre to 
Domenico Campagnola. Is it possible that tlie drawing for this picture was 
among those by Campagnola which Watteau copied, and that this is why he 
admitted particular indebtedness to this artist ? 

For my own part I see no reason to suppose that Giorgione was not the 
author of the picture ; and every reason for supposing that Giorgione and 
Watteau were kindred spirits in similar situations (cf. pp. 118, 119). 

For the relation of Giorgione's Concert Chatnpetre to Manet's Dejeuner 
sur I'herbe, cf. p. 239 and PI. 97b. 

' Watteau used the same sketch-books and portfolios all through his 
career and the figures and details are repeated in pictures of all periods. 
Dozens of examples could be quoted. 

' The nude by Watteau called L'Awour desarmi in the Musee Conde at 
Chantilly was not painted from a drawing made from life but from a drawing 

Q 115 


The new model appears in the Louvre Judgment of Paris (PI. 
42), in which Watteau captured the finer essence of the art of 
Rubens. She is a magnificently tall blonde, with a long neck and 
a straight nose. It is clear that she had what arti^sts call the " sense 
of pose " ; and that Watteau delighted in every turn of her head, 
in her simple but proud carriage as she stood erect, in her habit 
of sitting on the ground, and in every one of the perfectly 
balanced attitudes into which she was, as artists say, continually 
falling. The earlier model, immortalised as ha Finette (PI. 44c), 
had been petite with a little round head and a snub nose. She 
had been amiable, and with engaging gaucherie she would hold 
her skirts out and keep the pose which was asked of her (PI. 44a). 
But with this new model it was a different matter ; the problem 
here was to note with sufficient rapidity the hundreds of 
delightful attitudes which she unconsciously assumed (PI. 49). 

We see the new model also as the central figure in the Louvre 
UEmbarquement pour I' He de Cy there which was painted in 171 7, 
and again as the same figure and as the nude statue in the second 
version of the subject, painted for Jullienne, which is now in 
Berlin (PI. 47). Thereafter heads and figures painted from the 
hundreds of drawings which he made from her abound in his 
pictures. We see her in the Louvre Ee faux pas (PL 45 c) and in 
the Chantilly UAmante inquiete (PI. 45b). 

Watteau had now arrived at the personal and characteristic 
style which we associate with his name. In the next two years 
he painted a number of his most celebrated Fetes including the 
W^allace Collection Amusements champ etres (PI. 49) and Champs 
E/ysees, and the Dresden Keunion Champetre and Piaisirs d' Amour 
which both have statues drawn from the new model. ^ 

To this period we can also assign a new series of Italian 
Comedy pictures, for which Watteau may have used drawings 
made from the real Italian Comedians who had now returned to 
Paris ; Lord Spencer's group of five figures, Comediens Italiens^ 
was probably painted in this way, and so probably was the 
celebrated Gilles (PL III). 

by Veronese (now in the Louvre) which belonged to Marietta, who acquired 
it from Crozat. 

^ But figures painted from earlier drawings of La Finette also occur in 
the later pictures owing to Watteau's habit of using his old sketch-books. 


t>- ■■' <* 

London. British Museum 

ANTOINI^ W Al'lLAU. Drawing. 

i^cl'n. thai lull, nburg Laslle 

ANTOINE WATTEAU. L'Enscignc de Gcrsaint (detail). 


There are hardly any records of the pictures which he painted 
in England. But we know of two which belonged to Dr. 
Mead — a Cowediens Italiens and U Amour paisibky known as 
Pastoral Conversation to distinguish it from U Amour paisihle (PL 
46a) in Potsdam. The first, now in the Wildcnstein Collection 
in Paris, is a composition of fifteen figures grouped on a stage 
with architectural setting. The second, now in America, shows 
six large figures in a landscape. In both the main figures are 
evidently portraits and the Louvre has a life-sized head of an 
old man with flowing forked beard, catalogued as Portrait d'un 
anglais, which is ascribed to \\ atteau and believed to have been 
painted in England.* 

In England to-day rich people encourage imaginative artists 
by commissioning them to paint " speaking likenesses " of them- 
selves and their relations. In W'atteau's day it was probably the 
same. In England he was probably driven to portraiture ; and 
on his return to Paris his friends noted that he had become 

Tendencies to portraiture and direct genre, combined with 
a large scale in the figures, either for this reason or some other, 
mark the pictures ascribed to the last year after the return from 
England. These pictures include the Berlin UEnseigne de Ger- 
saini (PI. 50) (where modish actuality appears for the first time 
in W'atteau's work), the portrait of the little girl Iris c'est de bon- 
heur avoir I'air de la danse, known as ha Danse (PI. 51b), and 
probably the portrait of Antoine de la Koque (PI. jza).^ 

Many of Watteau's pictures are in bad condition. Plaisirs du 
Bal, at Dulwich, is a ruin ; UAccordee de Village, in the Soane 

^ M. Gillet's description of this picture is worth quoting : " Cette tete 
a une physionomie de vieux mar in, un regard de gin et d'eau salee fait songer ^ 
quelque loup de merT I have not noticed this myself. The gin and salt 
water effect has also escaped M. Jamot who believes the picture to be a 
portrait of Dr. Mead. 

2 Of the English visit de Caylus writes : " ^ly Jut assei(^ accue/ti et ne laissa 
pas de fairs ses affaires du cote de l' utile," and Gersaint writes that there " // 
commenca a prendre le gout pour I' argent," though previously " son desinteresse- 
ment etoit si grand que plus d'une fois il s' est f ache vivement contre moi, pour avoir 
voulu lui donner un prix raisonnahle de certaines chases . . ." De Caylus also 
relates of his earlier period that he gave a wig-maker two pictures for a wig 
and was worried afterwards lest he had not given him enough. 

' Cf. note, p. 122. 



Museum, is very much and very badly repainted ; the 
Louvre UEmbarquement pour Vile de Cythere is a ghost of its 
former self.^ 

iv. Watteau's Art 

Oest un peintre . . . qui imite a merveille la nature. 

Etienne Jeaurat,* 1729. 

11 a reus si dans les petites figures qu'il a des sinks, et qu'il a tres bien groupies ; 
mais il n' a jamais rien fait de grand, il en etoit incapable. 

Voltaire, he Temple du Gout. 

he gout qu'il a suivi est proprement celui des bambochades.^ 

D'Argenville, Abre'ge de la vie des plus fameux peintres^ 


N'aiant aucune connoissance de I'anatomie, et n'aiant presque Jamais dessine 
le nud, il ne sgavoit ni le lire, ni Vex primer . . . Cette insuffisance dans la pratique 
du des sin le mettoit hors de portee de peindre ni de composer rien de heroique ni 
d'allegorique, encore moins de rendre les figures d'une certaine grandeur . . . Les 
degouts qu'il prenoit si souvent pour ses propres ouvrages, partoient de la situation 
d'un homme qui pens e mieux qu'il ne peut executer . . . Aufond, il en faut convenir, 
Wateau etoit infiniment manierc. 

Le Comte de Caylus. Lecture on Watteau to the Royal Academy 

of painting and sculpture 3 Feb., 1748. 

Je donnerais dix Watteau pour un Teniers. 

Diderot,* Pensees detachees sur la peinture, c. 1760. 

Watteau is a master I adore. He unites in his small figures correct 
drawing, the spirited touch of Velasquez with the colouring of the Venetian 

Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

^ For this the Louvre authorities are not, for once, to blame. The 
picture which, as noted, was Watteau's tableau de reception, belonged to the 
Academy. When David abolished that institution it hung in one of 
the apartments of the art school directed by David himself, and it was then 
so little esteemed that it was used as an " Aunt Sally " by the students 
who pelted it with boulettes de mie de pain. 

Watteau himself was largely responsible for the deterioration of his 
pictures. We know from de Caylus that he neglected to clean his oilpot 
and palette, that he used badly prepared canvases and too much oil with his 
colours, and that he resorted to the bad practice known among painters as 
" oiling out " when a half-completed picture had " sunk in." 

* A genre and decorative painter (1699-1789) who engraved a number of 
Watteau's works. ^ cf, note, p. 86. * Cf. p. 144. 



I have learned more from Watteau than from any other Painter. 

J. M. W. Turner, R.A. 

Wafteau, ce carnaval ou bien dcs cattrs illustres, 
Comnies des papillons, errent en flamboyant , 
Decors frais et lexers eclair is par des lustres 
Qui versent la folic a ce bal tournojant. 

Baudelaire, l^es Pbares, 1857. 

Le grand poete du XVI 1 1' siecle est Watteau. 

Edmond and Jules de Goncourt, i860. 

The French . . . have never produced a single great painter. Watteau, 
their best, is still a mere room decorator.^ 

Ruskin, 1878. 

That impossible or forbidden world which the mason's boy saw through 
the closed gateways of the enchanted garden. 

Walter Pater, 1887. 

Son defaut, c'est de voir le monde comme une scene de V Opera, e'clairee aux feux 
de Bengale, de n'etre ni passionne ni emu, de sejouer a la surface des chases. 

Salomon Reinach, 1904. 
II sent qu'il va mourir. 

Elie Faure, 1920. 

Cette autre . . . e'tait I 'illustration de I'etat d'ame d'un phtisique caracterise . . . 
Une maladie est un etat, ce n'est pas necessairement une tare. Rile peut ex alter 
out ant que paralyser . . . II est per mis de penser que sans elk ni Watteau, ni Mo':iart, 
ni Chopin . . . n'eussent etc tels que nous les ad m irons. 

Camille Mauclair, 1920. 

Pictorial visions of a world devoted to beauty and idle dalliance. 

Sir Charles Holmes, 1927. 

It is possible to exaggerate the permanent aesthetic value of his painting, 
as it is easy to read into it more spiritual and psychological significance 
than is really there. . . . With happy carelessness he scatters his little figures, 
like so many glittering butterflies, along the grass under his feathery trees, 
rarely troubling about the exact proportion of the groups to the background, 
and never about the formal geometry of design. 

Sir Charles Holmes, 1927. 

Watteau's art must be judged by the pictures painted from 
1 71 6 to 1720 — the finest of his Fetes such as UEmbarquement 

^ There is no reference to Watteau in the whole of Ruskin's published 
works. The comment quoted comes in the MS. for the continuation of The 
haws of Fesole which was never completed. 


pour Vile de Cythere (PI. 47) and Les Amusements Champetres (PI. 
48). Those pictures were described in his own day as Fetes 
galantes and we must know what the term then meant if we are 
properly to understand them. 

The word ^^/^;?^ has acquired a pejoratory significance from its 
use in connection with the type of French print of the later 
eighteenth century known as estampe galante. In Watteau's day 
the word galant had not yet acquired this association with dainty 
lasciviousness. It was used to describe the new cultural values^ 
of the most refined sections of Parisian society. 

When Watteau was received by the Academy he was described 
2Apeintre des jetes galantes} No artist had ever been so described 
before because Paris had never loiown a vie galante till it was 
created there by the noblesse d'affaires represented by men like 
Crozat and Jullienne and the ladies of their world. The parti- 
cular quaUties by which Parisian civilisation is still to a great 
extent characterised to-day were born at the very moment that 
Watteau was painting his pictures. La Finette as transformed 
by Watteau was the first " Parisienne," and the afternoon parties 
in the park at Montmorency, which Watteau attended, werethe 
first expression of a culture that was about to call for the exquisite 
applied arts of the Louis XV and Louis XVI styles. Watteau's 
sensibility was stirred by contact with this civiHsation which was 
all the more attractive because it was still a civiHsation in the 
bud, a civilisation which had not yet revealed the imperfections 
of the flower. 

I have referred above to the influence of Giorgione's Concert 
Champetre (PL 46b) on Watteau's work. Watteau, I think, 
responded to tliis picture not only on account of its pictorial 
and aesthetic qualities but also because the Venetian civilisation 
symbolised by Giorgione was parallel to the Parisian civilisation 
by which Watteau himself was surrounded in Crozat's park. An 
artist can do nothing till he perceives, actually or in imagination, 
an aspect of life that holds his attention ; he is sterile till he 
feels himself part of an actual or imagined world which he can 
contemplate with fascinated interest. Having found such a 
world he has to retain his faith in it, and to do this he turns to 
the past for evidence that men have been intrigued by such a 

1 Cf. p. 141. 


! /..)iiiM/i. iWi.iaii Ci'llectiiDi 

NICOLAS LANCRl.r. Mile. Camargo dancini,^ 

Colldtton of the /■•riiu-r ri'igiiii;^ I'russian hu^i' 


ANTOINE WATTEAU. Antoinc dc la Roquc. 

London. P. M. Turner CulUtliun 



real or imagined workl before. Ciiorgione appeared at the 
moment when the new-rich Venetians and their sons were 
turning their backs on business and seeking a new civilisation in 
villas on the mainland, where for the first time in Venetian 
history they could lie upon the grass beneath the shade of trees ; 
and he sublimated this new amenity. When W'atteau saw 
Concert Champctre he had found the precedent he was seeking. 

I say that Giorgione " sublimated " the civilisation which 
surrounded him, because the Concert Champetre is not a record of 
a social gathering in a Venetian garden, as for example Van 
Loo's Dejeuner de Chasse (PL 54b) is a record of a social gathering 
at Fontainebleau ; and it was this sublimation that appealed to 
W'atteau who knew that the ladies in Venetian gardens did not 
habitually wander nude, just as we know that Crozat's guests at 
Montmorency were infrequently, if ever, garbed in the clothes 
from W'atteau's property-wardrobe or the costumes of mummers 
at Fairs. W'atteau saw that Giorgione's picture symbolised the 
ideal conclusion of a civilisation which (we now know), in fact, 
concluded in the society that Napoleon kicked into the sea ; 
and we can see that W'atteau's pictures symbolised the ideal con- 
clusion of a civilisation which in fact concluded in the society 
that was exterminated by the Revolution and the guillotine. 

In our day W'atteau's pictures appeal, as they appealed in their 
own day, to the bourgeois spirit in its least Philistine aspect. The 
bourgeois when he is a Philistine resents all art except popular 
art which is produced to achieve contact with his familiar 
experience.^ W hen he is not a Pliilistine he wishes to be trans- 
ported by means of art from the realities of every-day life to a 
world " devoted to beauty and idle dalliance." But he makes it a 
condition that this ideal world shall be one in which he can 
imagine himself a regular inhabitant. The imaginative bourgeois 
can project himself into Watteau's Fetes galantes ; but he cannot 
project himself into the pastoral and mythological world of 
Boucher ; therefore he prefers W'atteau to Boucher. 

But Watteau's pictures also appeal to those who ask art to 
provide a microcosmic concept as a means of focussing life as a 
whole. These spectators enjoy the character of the little figures 
in W'atteau's pictures and their relation to the woods and parks 

^ Cf. my Modern Movement in Art, passim. 



in which they move. We Hve in an age wearied of nineteenth- 
century Romantic individuaHsm with its exaltation of individual 
personalities and individual faces. To escape from the Roman- 
tic concepts of the last century and the Romantic journalism of 
our own to Watteau's Amusements Champetres — where generic 
figures seem to have achieved a perfect and simple adjustment to 
surrounding life — is to capture, for a moment, a sense of propor- 
tion, and with it refreshment and repose. 

V. Watteau's Character 

Watteau's biographers from de Caylus to M. Camille Mauclaire 
have insisted on his wayward personality and his restless dis- 
content ; and de Caylus assumed that his discontent was due to 
knowledge that his productions fell short of the standards of the 
Academic " Grand Manner. "^ 

The explanation of Watteau's discontent, his irritability, his 
depressions, his flight from the Hotel Crozat, and his flight from 
the kind offices of his other friends, can be explained, I fancy, 
by the eternal opposition between the original creative artist and 
the personnel of both the bourgeois and the social-artistic worlds. 
Watteau owed his existence as an independent artist to the 
friendship of contemporary dilettanti ; without their aid his 
poverty might have kept him a hack assistant to others painters 
all his life. But the friendship, in which from their good nature 
these dilettanti enveloped their patronage, was a source of con- 
tinual irritation. Watteau's reason reminded him of his debt 

^ De Caylus describes Watteau's personality as follows : "7/ etoit de 
moienne taiUe, il n'avoit point du tout de phisiommie, ses jeux n' indiquolent m son 
talent ni la vivacHe de son esprit. 11 etoit sombre, melancolique, comme le sont tous 
les atrabilaires, naturellement sobre et incapable d'aucun exces. L,a ptirete de ses 
maurs lui permettoit a peine dejouir du liber tinage de son esprit, et on s'en apercevoit 
rarement dans ses discours." 

Gersaint's description reads : " Watteau etoit de mojenne taille et d'une 
foible constitution, il avoit le caractere inquiet et changeant, il etoit entier dans ses 
volontes, lihertin d' esprit, mais sage de maurs ; impatient, timide, d'un abord froid 
et embarrasse, discret et reserve avec les inconnus, bon, mais difficile ami ; misantrope, 
meme critique malin et mordant, toujours mecontcnt de lui meme et des autres et 
pardonnant difficilement ; il aimoit beaucoup la lecture ; c' etoit V unique amusement 
qu'il se procuroit dans son loisir ; quoique sans lettreSy il decidoit asse^ sainement 
d'un ouvrage d' esprit." 

1 20 


to Crozat and Jullicnnc, but he could never feel at home in the 
company of men who, after all, were millionaires with a sense of 
values that were inevitably foreign not only to Wattcau " the 
mason's boy " but also to Wattcau the painter of Amusements 
Champctres and Ulimharquement pour Cythere. From the mil- 
lionaires W'atteau might escape to Sirois and Gersaint, well- 
meaning petits bourgeois of moderate means ; but there again 
W'atteau, the artist, was out of touch with an environment which 
regarded pictures, at bottom, as a means of making money ; 
though wc know that in their affection for W'atteau neither Sirois 
nor Gersaint ever stressed this point of view. 

De Caylus, who never appreciated the real character of W'at- 
teau's art, has nevertheless provided us with the key to his 
character. In the rooms which he hired as studios, where he 
drew with Henin and W atteau from the model, W'atteau, he 
tells us, " si sombre^ si atrabilaire^ si timide^ et si caustique partout 
ailleurs^ n*etoit plus alors que le Wateau de ses tableaux ; c'est a 
dire Vauteur qu'ils font imaginer^ agreable, tendre et peut etre un peu 
berger^ It was only when W'atteau was working that he could 
forget his benefactors — Crozat, Jullienne, Sirois, Gersaint, and 
de Caylus himself who was paying for the studio ; and it was 
because W'atteau could only feel at ease in the sublimation of the 
world around him that he gave that world his delicately 
sublimated images of itself. 

vi. Watteau's Followers 

The influence of W atteau's pictures is seen all over the painted 
decoration and the tapestries of the eighteenth century. But that 
influence for the most part was not direct. It came to French 
applied art through the engravings in the Ke.'ueil Jullienne and 
through the works of his followers^ 

^ Watteau's influence was not confined to France. At Ham House near 
London Lord Dysart has a celebrated set of eighteenth-century tapestries 
made from engravings after his pictures. One of these reproduces ha 
Cascade (now in the London Wallace Collection) which was engraved by 
Scotin. These tapestries signed " Bradshaw " were made in the tapestry 
factories at Fulham and Exeter which were founded in 1748 by a French 
capuchin P. Norbert, known as Parisot, who employed craftsmen trained at 
the Gobelins. They arc usually described erroneously as " Mortlake." 

R 121 


Of these followers Jean-Baptiste Pater and Nicolas Lancret 
are the best-known figures, 

Jean-Baptiste Pater (1696-1736) was a native of Valenciennes 
and he worked, as noted, in Watteau's atelier about 171 3. Wat- 
teau eventually quarrelled with him and he returned to Valen- 
ciennes. There, since he had had some success with his pictures 
in Paris, he refused to submit a work to the local Guild of 
Luc to qualify as t?mitre^ and when he began to ojffer his pictures 
for sale the Guild prosecuted him as ifraudeur de I' art de lapeinture, 
and it also prosecuted his father, a well-known local sculptor, as 
an accomplice. Pater and his father appealed from Court to 
Court and lost every appeal. In the end, driven out of Valen- 
ciennes, Pater returned to Paris. This was about 171 9. In the 
following year, he was summoned by Watteau to Nogent and 
from that time till his death, sixteen years later, he continuously 
produced pictures in the manner of his master. He was received 
into the Academy in 1728 ^iS peintre de sujets modernes. 

Pater's pictures are often impregnated with a delicate blue 
haze and seem at first slighter, more ethereal, and less realistic 
than Watteau's. But in spirit they are really more actual. They 
depict fragments of the life of the time with an eye that is almost 
journalistic. The ethereal quality is technical ; the spiritual 
quality is genre. 

His work stands, in fact, half-way between Watteau's pictures 
and the estampes galantes. In Pater's pictures the lovers make 
more daring advances, and the ladies who sit before their mirrors 
while their maids adjust their hair, or bathe so discreetly in a 
lake, are often hoping that some adventurous young gallant is 
concealed behind the curtains or among the trees. ^ 

Watteau's portrait of Antoine de la Raque or the engraving from it (PI. 5 2a) 
which is probably reversed, must have influenced Gainsborough's Mr. 
Plampin (PI. 52b) painted in his early Ipswich period. In Watteau's picture 
the attitude had particular significance because the sitter (cf. p. 103) was lame, 
having had his leg shattered at Malplaquet. 

Watteau's arabesque decorations were disseminated in the Kecueil Jullienne 
and also in engravings published by Gersaint " a l' usage des eventaillistes, 
sculpteurs, orfhres, tapissiers et hrodeurs. 

1 The Louvre and the London Wallace Collection have pictures by Pater 
where gallants in fact are so concealed. In the Louvre picture moreover 
the fundamentally genre character of Pater's imagination is seen in the 


I\ini. Dtiiul HV;7/ ('■^lUdum 

NORBLIN 1)1 LA COl Kl) \1M\ 

lY'tc Ciaiantc. 



Detroit. Instil 

NICOLAS LyVNCRHT. J he Hunt Luncheon. 

Paris. Louvre 

CARLE VAN LOO. Dejeuner de Chassc (detail). 


The most important collections of Pater's work are in the 
Potsdam Palaces and the London Wallace Collection. There 
are others in the Louvre and at Valenciennes. I reproduce a 
good example from the Simpson Collection in New York 

(PI. 53 a). 

Nicolas Lancrct (i 690-1 743) was a Parisian and a fellow pupil 
with Wattcau in the atelier of Claude Gillot. He continued 
relations with W'atteau, who was six years his senior, for a num- 
ber of years, until, tradition has it, W'atteau quarrelled with him 
when Julliennc had bought two of his pictures, exhibited in 1714 
on the Place Dauphine.^ 

Lancret's pictures are sometimes discordant in colour ; but 
he was a more capable representational draughtsman than Pater 
and his figures often show a solidity which appeals to admirers 
of genre art. Les deux baigieuses (PI. 5 5 b) shows this aspect of his 

Like Pater, he brought Watteau's art back to the genre level ; 
and he also carried on the actuality and modishness which 
appeared in Watteau's Unseigm de Gersaint (PI. 50). He painted 
a number of Italian Comedy pictures in imitation of W'atteau 
and also a number of pictures representing contemporary stage 
favourites such as the dancer 1m Camargo (PI. 51a) and her rival 
La Salle.- 

gesture of the maid who warms some undergarments by the fire. This 
gesture had not appeared, as my knowledge goes, in French art since the 
day when Fouquet drew the miniature of the Birth of St. John the Baptist in 
Etienne Chevalier's Livre d'heures (of. pp. 17, 18). The gesture would never 
have occurred to Watteau. 

^ At this time there was an open air picture show every year on Corpus 
Christi Day on the Place Dauphine where the procession terminated at an 
altar. The walls of all the adjacent houses and shops were hung with 
carpets and draperies from an early hour in the morning and pictures by 
Old Masters and contemporary^ artists were attached to them. The exhibi- 
tion lasted only till the ceremony was over and then the draperies and 
pictures were removed. The pictures which Lancret exhibited there in 
1 714 are said to have been mistaken for the work of Watteau himself. 

- Lancret may have met both in the salon of the collector Titon de Tillet 
who entertained the dancers from the Opera and adopted Corneillc's niece. 
Of the rivalr)' between La Camargo and La Salle, Voltaire wrote : 

Ah ! Camargo, que vous ites brillante ! 
Mais que Salle, grands dieux, est ravissante ! 



Lancret is seen above his usual level in a sketch like The Hunt 
huncheon (PI. 54a), in the Detroit Institute of Arts, which it is 
interesting to compare with Carle Van Loo's capable but rather 
prosaic Dejeuner de Chasse (PL 54b) in the Louvre.^ 

At his worst he achieved a final metamorphosis of Watteau's 
style to purely journalistic genre. The celebrated Dejeuner de 
jamhon (now in the Musee Conde at Chantilly) depicts a scene of 
drunkenness and gluttony which takes us back to the eating- 
and-drinking art of seventeenth-century Holland. But the 
gluttons and drunkards in Lancret's picture are no longer 
peasants or members of the petite bourgeoisie — they are persons of 
" quahty " continuing the tradition of the Regent's gluttonous 
and drunken suppers. ^ 

Que vos pas sont legers, et que les siens sont doux ! 
mie est inimitable, et vous toujours nouvelle. 
Les Nymphs sautent comme vous, 
£/ les Graces dan sent comme elk. 

^ For Van Loo cf. notes, p. 142. His Dejeuner de Chasse was painted for 
Fontainebleau (cf. p. 143). The horses are based on the tradition started by 
Van der Meulcn, an assistant of Le Brun, who painted the horses in Le Brun's 
Triumph of Alexander (PL 37b). Lancret's The Hunt 'Luncheon (PI. 54a) is a 
sketch for his La Collation apres la Chasse which was formerly at Potsdam in 
the collection of the former reigning Prussian House and now belongs to 
MM. Wildenstein & Cie, Paris and New York. The horses in Lancret's 
picture also go back to Van der Meulen. 

2 The Dejeuner de jamhon was one of four pictures for the petits cabinets at 
Versailles arranged for Louis XV, who following the taste of the time 
neglected the great galleries and preferred small apartments in the Palace 
and in the Grand Trianon (which Louis XIV had built for Mme de Main- 
tenon). The other three panels were painted by Jean Francois de Troy 
(cf. note, p. 143) ; one of them, Le Dejeuner d'huitres, preserved at Chantilly, 
is as much a scene of gluttony as Lancret's picture. 



i. Tbe Louis Xl'' S/y/e 

Louis XV, great grandson of Louis XIV, was born in 1710. 
He was five years old when he succeeded, and he was thirteen 
when the Regent died in 1723. 

His reign, from the standpoint of tlic art-historian, can be 
divided into three sections : {a) the Regency and the period from 
1726 to 1743, when France was ruled by Cardinal Fleur}% (b) 
the period of the influence of Mme de Pompadour, 1745 to 1764, 
and (f) the final period of Mme du Barry, 1769 to 1774. 

The growth of Paris as a social centre was encouraged by the 
Regent, w^io installed himself in the Palais Royal and the King 
in the Tuilerics. The theatre, the opera and the public masked 
balls instituted at the Opera in 1716 now became features of social 
life.^ Later the arcades of the Palais Royal and the boulevards, 
with the first cafes, became rende^^-vons of fashion.^ Under the 
Regency also, many new private mansions were constructed by 
the new rich, who included the Crozats and Jullienne already 
mentioned, and this construction continued in the period of 
Fleury, who achieved the miracle of balancing the State budget.^ 

The taste was now for smaller houses and more intimate 
apartments ; ladies of a frivolous turn of mind had their boudoirs 
for flirtations and others had their Salons where they entertained 
artists and men of letters.* 

^ The masked balls to which the public paid for admission were the 
idea of the Regent who himself attended them. They proved so lucrative 
that others were instituted in the galleries of the Academic frati(aise in the 

- The cafes, a development of the old cabarets of ill-repute, were at 
first tea and coffee houses. The purveyance of " soft " drinks was then, 
as now, so fantastically profitable that the number of cafes soon increased ; 
in 1723 there were 400 in Paris, in 1788 there were 1800. 

^ This was in 1738. It was the only year in which the budget was balanced 
between 1672 and the time of Napoleon. 

* The seventeenth-century Salons were destroyed by Molicre's 1^(S pre- 
cieuses ridicules ; the Salons now founded continued all through the eighteenth 
century and were an important factor in the development of the free thought 
of an age which began with the tradition of Colbert's King-Statc-Socialism 
and passed vii Voltaire to the Back-to-Nature Individualism of Jean-Jacques 



In these circumstances, as a hundred years earlier, the owners 
of the new hotels required artists and craftsmen, and the King 
also required them for the new small apartments in his residences. 
The Louis XV or rocaUle style in architecture and the applied 
arts, which had really begun at the end of the reign of Louis 
XIV and was definitely launched under the Regency, was the 
result of these demands. 

The characteristics of this style are well known because 
from France it was exported to and imitated by every country 
in the civilised world. It was a style which used the minimum 
of straight lines in the architecture and in the furniture and 
appointments designed to go with it. Its essential feature was the 
Chinese broken curve, which was soon developed to charac- 
teristic shell and foliage forms. ^ 

The vast production of applied art from this period to the 
end of the old regime was possible because the organisation of 
French art effected by Colbert and Le Brun was still in existence. 
The Gobelins factory had passed through serious depression at 
the end of the reign of Louis XIV, and had at one time been 
closed, but it now recommenced the manufacture of applied art 
— especially of tapestry which was also produced in the asso- 
ciated factory at Beauvais. In 1738 the Sevres porcelain factory 
(which was moved to Sevres in 1756) was established at Vin- 
cennes ; and various new establishments of cabinet makers 
obtained official patronage about the same time. There was no 
lack of skilled operatives because institutions, with royal protec- 
tion, trained them all over France, until the whole organisation 
was abolished in the Revolution. 

ij . Portrait Painters 

We are so accustomed to associate the age of Louis XV with 
the rocaille style in applied art and with the decorative painting 
by Fran9ois Boucher which went with it that we are apt to forget 

1 For Chinese influences in French decoration cf. note, p. no. Chinese 
motifs occur all over the marquetry in French furniture of this period. I 
have referred to Oppenordt as a pioneer of the rocaille style (cf. note, p. 1 10). 
Other pioneers of the style were Just Aurele Meissonier, Robert Martin and 
Charles Cressent. 


Xfic York. 61 


From llu- H,r)in!ii^,-. I ■>:.„>.(,/. I<: f-r .,/,•<.,( 
MM. Wilileiisleinct Lie, Paris ami AVtr York 

NICOLAS LANCRET. Lcs deux Baitrncuscs. 

Cli.inlilly. Musee Condi 

JEAN-MARC NATTIER. Mile Bcaujolais. 

JEAN-MARC NATTIER. Mmc \ictoirc as Diana. 


that the age also produced some excellent portraiture. Rigaud 
and Largillicrc both practised right up to the advent of Mmc dc 
Pompadour, since Rigaud, as noted, lived till 1743 and Lar- 
gilli^re till 1746 ; and the same period witnessed the rise and 
first successes of Jean-Marc Nattier, and the portrait painting of 
Subleyras, Pesne, Aved and Dumont, and much of the work of 
the pastelHsts La Tour and Perronneau. 

}can-Marc Nattier (168 5-1766) began his career with a com- 
mission from Louis XIV to engrave the Rubens panels in the 
Luxembourg. In 1717 he made a journey to Amsterdam with 
the ambassador of Peter the Great and painted the Czar, who was 
then in that city, and the Czarina, then at The Hague. In Holland 
he studied the works of Rembrandt and he afterwards adapted 
some of Rembrandt's effects of light and some of his composi- 
tional motifs to his own ends.^ 

On his return to Paris he lost most of his money in the Law 
crash- but he recovered by creating a vogue for an allegorical 
type of portrait in which he painted the first favourites of Louis 
XV and other ladies in Court circles.^ 

Commissioned by the Queen, Marie Leczinska, to paint her 

^ In Nattier's portrait Madame Victoire as Diana (PI. 56b) at Versailles we 
see in the background the rock aperture which figures in the background of 
many of Rembrandt's pictures, a wo/// which Rembrandt himself took over 
from Lastman and Pynas (cf. my Introduction to Dutch Art, Pis. 29, 36 and 38). 
The same Rembrandtesque background appears in Nattier's L^ Madeleine in 
the Louvre. Nattier's portraits of the Czar and Czarina were formerly in the 
Winter Palace at St. Petersburg. Since the Russian Revolution they have 
been removed to the Hermitage Museum. In Amsterdam Nattier also 
painted The Battle of Pultava for the Czar. This picture was believed lost. 
It has been discovered since the Russian Revolution in the castle of Sytchevka 
and transferred to the Moscow Museum. 

2 Cf. pp. 97-105. 

' Nattier was not, of course, the inventor of the allegorical portraiture 
of ladies in French art. We have already noted such portraiture among the 
productions of the School of Fontaineblcau (cf. PI. 17a) ; Mignard's portrait 
of the Marquise de Seignelay as Thetis (PI. 41c) painted in 1691 was a little 
different as it doubtless recorded some actual charade ; but Largillierc had 
painted Mme de Gueydan as a Naiad (Aix-en-Provence Museum) and other 
such pictures in Nattier's own day, and Raoux (cf. p. 132) also painted a 
number of society ladies in this way. It was however unquestionably 
Nattier who launched the vogue for this type of portraiture at this 



daughter Madame Henriette, he produced the celebrated full- 
length M??2e Henriette plajing the violoncello which is now at Ver- 
sailles. Thereafter he became the official Court painter of the 
Princesses and depicted them again in his allegorical manner in a 
series of pictures, now at Versailles, where we see Madame Vic- 
toire as Diana (PI. 56b), Madame Henriette as Flora ^ Madame 
Adelaide as Juno and so forth. 

The faithful portrayal of costume in the portrait of the Queen 
and in the first series of portraits of the Princesses is found in 
other portraits by Nattier. His Mile Beanjolais (PL 56a), for 
example, at Versailles, is a charming embodiment of the rose- 
and-lace aspect of French civilisation at this time. No painter 
has recorded this aspect with more sympathy, delicacy and skill.^ 

Pierre-Hubert Subleyras (i 699-1 749) went to Rome at the 
age of twenty-eight and remained there for the rest of his life. 
He painted mostly religious pictures for Italian churches and 
occasionally still life and genre subjects. His real talent, how- 
ever, was for portraiture as can be seen in his Pope Benoit XIVy 
now in the Musee Conde at Chantilly.^ 

Antoine Pesne (1683-175 7) was another artist who lived most 
of his life abroad as he became Court painter to the King of 
Prussia. His portrait of Frederic the Great is in the Kaiser 
Friedrich Museum in Berlin. The Rouen Museum has his por- 
trait, Tbe Artist's Daughter, which Reynolds may also have seen.^ 

Jacques-Andre-Joseph Aved (i 702-1 766), son of a doctor of 
Douai, was brought up at Amsterdam. He was impressed at 
an early age by the art of Rembrandt and eventually owned eight 
of his pictures and a complete set of his etchings. His portrait 

^ Nattier at his best achieved very delicate pearly tints in his flesh painting. 
He had a large collection of sea-shells which he studied for their form and 
colour. Collections of shells were very fashionable in Paris at this time. 
Boucher also had one (cf. p. 149). Reynolds who was in Paris in 1752 and 
again in 1771 possibly had Nattier's three-quarter-length portrait of the 
Queen (now at Versailles) in his mind when he painted T/)e Countess of 
Alhemark (now in the London National Gallery) in 1757-1759. 

* The Art Museum at Worcester (Mass.) has another example of his 
talent in this field — a portrait of Maria Tibaldi, the miniature painter, 
whom he married. 

* The Art Museum at Worcester (Mass.) has Pesne's protrait The e»graver 
F. G. Schmidt J and the Louvre has his Nicolas Vleughels. 


61. (Juiiitiii. MuSiUin 


The actor Manclli. 

Paris. Duii i Weill CulUctuiit 

Lc Comtc dc Bastard. 

>• I'aris. l)iivi,l U'c-ill ColU\:ion 


.NLllc Fcl. Mmc dc Sorquainville. 

Worcester {Mass.). Art Museum 

JEAN GRIMOU. The Toper. 

Marsi:iUis. Musluiii 

JEAN RAOUX. Jeune fille et sa grandmere. 

Paris. Louvre Pans. Louvre 


Le Souffleur. 


of Mme Cro'^aty painted ia 1741 and now in the .Nfontpcilier 
Museum, may also have intlucnccd Reynolds. Aved was 
intimate with and had an influence on Chardin. 

Jacques Dumont (1701-1781) was a minor history-painter in 
the Academic tradition. His name is preserved by the T.ouvre 
group of eleven figures, Mwe Alenier, the nurse of Louis XV, 
exhibiting the Kings portrait to herjawily^ which is a faithful record 
of bourgeois costumes and types in the year 173 1 when it was 

iij. Paste His ts 

The vogue for pastel portraits was started under the Regency 
by the Venetian pastellist Rosalba Carriera, who came to Paris 
in 1719-20 and stayed in the house of Pierre Crozat.^ Before 
Rosalba's time there had been a number of French artists who 
specialised in pastel. Robert Nanteuil- had used the medium in 
the seventeenth century and he was followed by Joseph Vivien 
(165 7-1725), who was drawing bold pastel portraits in the 
Rigaud manner when Rosalba arrived. But the light touch, the 
piquant distortions of drawing, and the vaporous colour in the 
Venetian artist's work appealed to those who wanted dainty 
ornamental portraits for their boudoirs, and after Rosalba's 
return to Venice the fashion which she had started was continued 
by Nattier and given a new significance by La Tour and 

Maurice-Quentin de La Tour (1704-1788) was the son of a 
precentor at St. Quentin. Me ran away to Paris at the age of 
fifteen to become an artist, and after the usual apprenticeship to 
various artists and a certain amount of travelling in search of 
work, including a visit to London, he began, about 1730, to 
get commissions for pastel portraits in Paris. 

In 1737 the Academy organised the first Salon of the reign,^ 
and there La Tour exhibited two portraits which attracted atten- 
tion. Three years later he staggered the Salon public with his 
full-length pastel portrait, The President of the Chamhre des 
Enquetes du Parlement^ one Gabriel Bernard de Rieux.^ From 

^ Cf. p. 106. 2 on p 56 3 Q- p i^j 

* This pastel is now in the collection of M. Wildenstcin in Paris. 

s 129 


this date onwards he had continuous success ; he drew pastel 
portraits of the King, the Queen and the Dauphin ; and his 
full-length M?}ie de Vompadour, now in the Louvre, was a feature 
of the Salon of 175 5 .^ 

La Tour was a splendid workman and a man of a downright 
character. Many stories are related of his independent attitude 
in dealing with his sitters and also of the originality and inde- 
pendence of his life, which culminated in madness in his last 
years. He died at the age of eighty-four. ^ 

La Tour's art was well calculated to attract attention under the 
new conditions of public exhibition inaugurated by the Salons, 
where the first essential of success in portraiture, as in other 
fields, was the power to produce a work that would destroy its 
immediate neighbours by superior vitahty and vigour. His 
pastels possess these qualities in a superlative degree. No por- 
trait painter has surpassed him in vigorous and accurate delinea- 
tion ; no painter has ever made faces that seem more astonish- 
ingly vital or more obviously " speaking likenesses " ; and as 
the colours in all his portraits are bright and the tones what 
painters call " pitched up," any La Tour portrait in any exhibi- 
tion arrests even the most listless visitor at once. 

^ Cf. p. 152. 

2 On one occasion a financier sent his servant to La Tour to explain that 
he was unable to come to a sitting. La Tour who was sitting at his easel 
waiting to begin work flew into a rage, comprehensible to all artists, and 
forced the servant to sit instead of his master. He then sent the portrait of 
the servant to the Salon and refused to continue the original commission. 

La Tour made all his sitters come to the studio which had been allotted to 
him in the Louvre (cf. note, p. 40). He made an exception, however, in the 
case of Mme de Pompadour, whom he drew at Versailles ; but he astonished 
the Marquise by undoing his shoe-buckles and taking off" his garters, collar 
and wig that he might be at his ease before commencing work, and when 
the King entered during a sitting he refused to continue work as he never 
drew with a third person in the room. He also refused to complete portraits 
of the Princesses because they had failed to keep appointments for sittings. 

He received large sums for his portraits and he amassed a great fortune, 
part of which he spent on founding scholarships for artists and in bene- 
factions to his native town. He never married and was for many years 
the lover of Marie Fel (PI. 5 7c) the opera singer, who sang Colette in Jean- 
Jacques Rousseau's Devin de Village. He drew a portrait of Rousseau, the 
study for which is preserved at St. Quentin. 



La Tour's talents arc seen at their best in the series of studies 
prcscr\'ed in the Museum at St. Quentin. From the study. 
The Painter Claude Dupouch^ we know not only the sitter's exact 
features but also exactly the hours that have passed since he last 
shaved — rather inadequately— his lips and chin. In The .Actor 
Manelli (PL 57a), we cannot escape the fascination of the dark 
quivering eyebrow and the amazing smile framed between the 
white of the wig and the pink of the tie on the blue and gold 
coat. What face in the history of portrait-painting is more 
memorable than Marie Pel (PI. 57c) ? What camera could have 
told us more of the French professional man of the period in his 
ow^n home than La Tour tells us in The Lawyer Pierre-hoids 
Laidegnive (PI. 39b) ?^ 

jean-Baptiste Perronneau (171 5-1783) was a man of a different 
calibre from La Tour and he had a very different career. Retiring 
by nature, in no sense a good business man, tentative in his 
approaches both as an artist and as a man, he never captured the 
favour of the great and spent his time wandering in the French 
provinces, in Holland, and even as far as Russia, doing pastel 
portraits for a livelihood.- 

As a portraitist he is less downright and categoric than La 
Tour and the quality of his touch suggests a sensibility that 
appeals to many collectors to-day. For students of English 
painting he is, moreover, an especially interesting artist because 
he stood, in a sense, in much the same relation to La Tour that 
Gainsborough stood to Reynolds. I reproduce his dehcately 

^ La Tour quite consciously attempted to suggest environment not only 
in accessories but also in the actual faces in his pastels. In this connection 
he wrote : " II ti'j a dans la nature, ni par consequent dans I' art, aucun etre oisif. 
Mais tout itre a du souffrir plus ou moins de la fatigue de son etat. 11 en parte 
I'emprelnte plus ou nioins marquee. Le pre/'iicr point est de hi en saisir cette 
empreinte . . ." (Cf. note, p. 27'i.) 

The portraits of Dupouch, Manelli and Marie Pel are at St. Quentin. 
Two other outstanding portraits by La Tour, the Self-portrait pointing hack- 
wards and Mile de la Fontaine Solare de la Boissiere^ belong respectively to the 
Comte Jean de Polignac and AL Arthur Veil-Picard in Paris. The portrait of 
Laideguive belongs to ^L Wildenstein of Paris. 

2 When Perronneau arrived in a French provincial town he used to send 
the town crier to announce in the market-place his address and his prices 
for portraits. 


seen oil-painting Mme de Sorquainville (PL 5 yd) and his expressive 
pastel l^e Comte de Bastard (PL 57b), both in the collection of M. 
David Weill.i 

iv. Ge7ire Painting 

The influence of Rembrandt, already noted in portraits by 
Rigaud, Nattier and Aved, also appears in the French genre 
pictures of the eighteenth century. This influence is evident, for 
example, in the Jeunne fille lisant une lettre (PL 5 8d) in the Louvre 
and ]emje fille et sa grand were (PL 58 b) in the Marseilles Museum, 
by Jean Raoux (1677-173 4), an eclectic artist who also painted 
decorative pictures, fetes galantes and allegorical portraits ; and 
we see it also in the w^ork of Jean Grimou (i 680-1 740), who was 
known as le Kembrandtfran^ais, though his Toper (PL 5 8a) in the 
Art Museum of Worcester (Mass.) shows us that he had also 
looked at Judith Leyster and other Dutch painters of that 

The paintings by Raoux and Grimou are softer and less 
categorically descriptive than those of the Dutch genre painters, 
and they are less profound than those of Louis Le Nain and 
of Chardin, the outstanding French genre painter of the age 
and one of the most interesting of the eighteenth-century 
French artists to the student of to-day. 

1 M. David Weill also has Perronneau's attractive portrait Mme d'Anglure. 
Other French collectors who have good examples of Perronneau's portraits 
are M. Arthur Veil-Picard, M. Georges Dormeuil, M. Andre Lazard, and 
M. Aicard. His portrait of the Countess of Athlone is in a private collection 
in England. The Louvre has his portrait in oils of The Painter J. B. Oudry, 
and pastels of an old man Abraham Van Rabais of Abbeville and of Mile 
Huquier with a kitten. The St. Quentin Museum has his pastel portrait of 
La Tour. The London National Gallery has two pastels : A Girl with a cat 
and Madame Legrue. 

2 Cf. PL 47 in my Introduction to Dutch Art, which reproduces Judith 
Leyster's Merrj Toper in the Rijks Museum, Amsterdam. Grimou painted 
a number of genre portraits of himself. 







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/'ii '1)1,1, l.:,i'/n,-r!<!t:ii iiiillcry 

The Admonition (La Gmcrnantc) 

Lie LiBRAKV \ 









New York. 

New York. 
New York. 
New York. 

V. ]ean-Wiptiste-Simeon Char din 

BORN PARIS 1699. niF.D PARIS 1 779 


National Gallery Still life : Wine bottle, glass and bread, 

The Lesson (La petite Maltrcsse 

d'Ecole),' Salon 1740 
Laundress with boy blowing bubbles 

(La Blanchisscuse)^ 

Kitchen utensils and eggs 

National Gallery 

Still life 

Sir Herbert Cook 

National Gallery 

of Scotland 
Hunterian Museum The Scullery Maid (La Recureuse), Salon 

Hunterian Museum The Potman (La Gargon Cabaretier),* 

Salon 1738 
Hunterian Museum Drinking tea (Une dame prenant son 

the). Salon 1739 
Metropolitan Still life : Preparations for a breakfast 

Sir Joseph Duvcen La Mere Laborieuse 
Frick Collection La Serinette, Salon 1740 
Chester Dale Col- Still life : Jug and peaches 
Boston. Museum of Fine 

Boston. Museum of Fine 

Philadelphia. J. G. Johnson Col- 
Philadelphia. J. G. Johnson Col- 
Philadelphia. J. G. Johnson Col- Girl Drawing 

Philadelphia. J. G. Johnson Col- Seven still life pictures 

Chicago. Art Institute Still life : Joint of meat and other objects 

* For more complete lists of Chardin's pictures the student is referred to 
^L Jean GuifTrey's catalogue and to the catalogue contained in Mr. Herbert 
Furst's Chardin. 

" The National Gallery of Ireland has a similar picture. 
^ There are other versions of this picture in the Stockholm Museum, in the 
Leningrad Hermitage and in Baron Henri do Rothschild's collection in Paris. 

* There are versions of ha Rkurense and Le Cargon Cabarelier in Baron 
Henri de Rothschild's Collection in Paris. 

Still life : Kitchen table 

Still life : Teapot, pear and grapes 

Old Man with a light 

Old Woman in a studio 




Institute of Arts 

Still life : Hare and other objects 



Still life (La raie), 1728 



Still life (Le Buffet), 1728 



Portrait of J. A. J. Aved (Le Souffleur), 
Salon 1737 



L'Enfant au toton, 1738 



Jeune homme au violon, 1738 



La Mere Laborieuse\ 1740 



La Benedicite,^ Salon 1740 



A monkey as painter, Salon 1740 



Self-portrait (pastel), 1771 



The artist's wife (pastel), 1771 



Twenty still life pictures 



Lady reading a letter, 1735 



La Fourvoyeuse,^ 1738 
La Ratisseuse,* Salon 1739 



Le Jeune Dessinateur, Salon 1738 



Five still life pictures 



The Admonition (La Gouvernante), 


Salon 1739 



La Garde attentive. Salon 1 747 



Le Dessinateur 



La Toilette du Matin, Salon 1741 



Les Amusements de la vie privee. Salon 







La Fontaine,^ 1733 



Les Tours de Cartes' 

1 There are other versions of this picture in the Stockholm Museum, the 
Leningrad Hermitage and in Mme Jahan-Marcille's collection in Paris. 

2 There is a second version of this picture in the La Caze Collection in the 
Louvre and others in the Stockholm Museum and the Leningrad Hermitage. 

^ There are other versions in the Louvre, the Liechtenstein Gallery in 
Vienna, in the Schleissheim Castle Museum, and Baron Henri de Roths- 
child's collection in Paris. 

* In the collection of the former reigning Prussian house. There are 
other versions of this picture in the Munich Alte Pinakothek, and the 
Liechtenstein Gallery in Vienna. 

^ This picture which was damaged by fire has not been exhibited since 1885. 

® There are other versions of this picture in the London National Gallery 
and in Sir Herbert Cook's collection in Richmond. 

' There are other versions of this subject in the Doucet Collection in 


Chardiii was the son of a Parisian cabinet-maker and was 
apprenticed in his youth to various academic painters. Later he 
was associated, as noted, with the Rembrandt lover, J. A. J. 
Aved, from whom he acquired an enthusiasm for Dutch painting 
which lies at the root of his art. In his twenties he began to 
exliibit at the Place Dauphinc.^ There in 1728 he attracted atten- 
tion with two large still-life pieces — rather more Flemish than 
Dutch in technique — La Kaie and L,e Buffet^ both now in the 
Louvre. He joined the Mattrise and at the same time applied 
for election to the Academy where — thanks largely to the 
enthusiasm of Largilliere — he was agree and made a member 
as peintre de fleurs^ fruits et sujets a caracteres at the age of 

He now painted the portrait of Aved (PI. 58c) where we 
clearly see the influence of the Rembrandt etchings in Aved's 
collection (which doubtless included the portraits of Jan Uyten- 
bogaert the Remonstrant, of Cornelis Anslo and Arnold 
Tholinx^), and he began the series of genre pictures of bourgeois 
life which made his reputation. 

The genre pictures consist of {a) studies of children engaged in 
simple amusements, drawing, building tours de cartes and so 
forth, (/?) studies of ladies engaged in recreations, and {c) studies 
of domestic hfe — women engaged in household duties or looking 
after their children. The types overlap in point of time. The 
Leningrad l^s Tours de Cartes (PI. 59) is an example of the first 
type ; lues Amusements de la vie privee (PI. 60a), in Stockholm, is 
an example of the second ; The Admonition {La Gouvernante) 
(PL IV), in Vienna, La Toilette du Matin (PI. 61), in Stockholm, 
La Kecureuse (PI 63) and its companion piece Le Gannon Caharetier, 
in Glasgow, and Le Benedicite, in the Louvre, are examples of the 

Paris, in the Louvre and in the London National Gallery. The National 
Gallery of Ireland has a version with two little girls watching a somewhat 
older boy. 

1 Cf. note, p. 125. 

2 Largilliere, who as noted, was an enthusiast for Flemish art, actually 
mistook Chardin's pictures for Flemish works of the seventeenth century 
and he became Chardin's champion when he discovered their authorship. 

3 Aved is said to have had a complete set of Rembrandt's etchings, as 


After 1750 Chardin entirely abandoned figure subjects and 
for the last twenty-five years he painted nothing but still life in 
which he had always been interested. 

Chardin married in 1731. His wife died four years later. In 
1744 he remarried. His second wife had small private means 
but he himself never amassed money and he was happy when in 
1754 he was granted a pension by the King and when in 1755 he 
was given the salaried post of treasurer of the Academy ; he 
was happier still when two years later he was accorded lodgings 
in the Louvre. 

He was a kindly, simple man, much respected by his acquain- 
tance. He lived into the reign of Louis XVL 

Chardin first made his reputation by the genre pictures of 
domestic subjects which he exhibited in the Academy's Salons. 
On the appearance of pictures like ha Gouvernante (PI. IV), ha 
Toilette du Matin (PI. 61) and hes Amusements de la vie privee (PI. 
60a) he was hailed by the dilettanti as a painter of Tableaux de 
modes} His pictures were bought and commissioned for the 
Royal collections of Russia, Sweden and Prussia, for that of 
Prince Liechtenstien of Vienna, and for that of Louis XV. They 
were also bought by a few private French collectors and by one 
or two in England — including Dr. William Hunter, whose 
acquisitions are now in the Hunterian Museum in the University 
of Glasgow. 2 

But in spite of his success in this field Chardin painted scarcely 
more than thirty genre subjects ; there are less than a hundred 
genre pictures in his whole mwre and of these two-thirds are 

^ Cf. pp. 165, 166. 

^ Chardin's fame has suflfered various mutations. Widespread in his own 
day, both in France and other countries, it disappeared in France at the end 
of the eighteenth century and was not revived till the de Goncourts pub- 
lished their enthusiastic essays in the eighteen-sixties. In England in his 
own day Chardin was not taken seriously by the Academic artists, though 
engravings after his works were known ; he is not, for example, referred 
to in the Discourses of Reynolds. He was equally neglected all through 
the nineteenth century ; his name is not mentioned in the thirty-seven 
volumes of the works of Ruskin ; he was overlooked by the brilliant 
amateurs of French eighteenth-century painting who formed the London 
Wallace Collection ; and he was not represented in the London National 
Gallery until Lord Savile presented a still life in 1888. 


Leningrad. Ihrmuugc 

JEAN-BAPT1STE-SIM£0N CllARDlN. Lcs lours dc Cartes. 

Stockholm. Museum 
JEAN-BAPTISTE-SlMfiON CHARDIN. Lcs Amusements de la vie privee. 








Paris. Louvre 

PHILIPPE dp: champaigne. 

La Merc Catherine-Agnes Arnaud ct la Soeur Catherine de Sainte-Suzannc. 


replicas, which he exhibited sometimes ten or even twenty years 
after tlie original picture.* 

'I'he public which visited the Salons greatly admired Chardin's 
genre pictures ; but they did not buy them — they bought 
engraved reproductions, for small sums, instead. As I have 
already pointed out much of W'attcau's influence on the art of 
the eighteenth century had been due to the dissemination of 
engravings reproducing his work. But in W'attcau's case the 
engravings were made after his death ; in the case of Chardin 
they were made soon after each genre subject was exhibited. 
They thus represent the beginning of a system which reached a 
climax in the Victorian age in England when popular artists in 
the Academy's exhibitions vied with one another to attract the 
print-buying public and when W. P. Frith, R.A., demanded and 
received in one case £5250 for a picture with the copyright to 
engrave, and ^(,'1500 in another for the copyright alone.^ Char- 
din, however, was not the man to see the commercial possibilities 
of this situation ; he seems to have made httle or no money from 
engravings after his pictures though there was in fact something 
like a " craze " for them in his life-time.' 

The Salon public admired Chardin's domestic pictures exclu- 
sively for their subjects. As a contemporary put it : " II ne vient 
pas la me jemme du Tiers etat qui ne croie que c'est une idee de sa figure, 
qui n'j voie son train domestique, ses manieres, ses occupations jouma- 
/ereSy sa morale, Vhumeur de ses enjants, son ameuhlement, sa garde- 
robe T The publishers of the engravings fully realised the nature 

1 Thus 'La Kkureuse was first shown in 1738 and a replica was shown in 
1757. Lm Benedicite was first shown in 1740 and replicas were produced in 
1746 and 1761. The replicas, some of which show variations, were pre- 
sumably painted from first sketches in oils retained in the studio, since 
Chardin, it is recorded, did not make many or detailed drawings. Herbert 
I'urst suggests in his Chardin that he kept the originals painted from 
nature, and sold replicas sometimes wholly or partly executed by his 

3 The sums received by Frith must, of course, be tripled or quadrupled 
to obtain equivalents in the money of to-day. 

3 The " craze " was not restricted to France. Plates after Chardin's 
pictures were engraved in his day by German and English mezzotinters 
and an engraving after Les Tours de Cartes was given away with The 
British Magazine in January 1762 (though in Academic circles in England 
Chardin, as noted, was not then admired). 

T 137 


of their appeal to the. petite bourgeoisie and they placed descriptive 
verses beneath the prints to give the subjects additional interest.^ 

The still-life pictures to wliich Chardin devoted himself after 
the age of fifty did not interest the Salon public as much as his 
genre pictures had done, and they were not engraved ; but they 
were admired nevertheless as trompe I'csil realism. 

It is not difficult to project ourselves into the attitude of the 
French bourgeois admirers of Chardin's work in his own time. 
We can recapture it by opening the door of any loge de concierge 
in an unpretentious French apartment house to-day. There we 
can see the concierge herself mending her child's frock, or adjust- 
ing it as the child leans against her knee, while the hot-pot sim- 
mers on the fire and on the table lie a work-basket, a rabbit, 
eggs, onions, fruit and cheese. There we can see, and smell, 
domestic life as it was known to and enjoyed by Chardin's 
admirers — and indeed by Chardin himself. For Chardin worked 
and was happy in just such an interior as this. All he asked of 
life was warmth, sustenance and quiet human company. He 
lived within four walls and never felt the urge to paint fields or 
trees ; he never even desired to look out at them ; you will find 
no window in any of his domestic pictures. ^ 

^ Thus under Lepicie's engraving of h,a Gouvernante (The Admonition) 
(PL IV), we read : 

Malgre le Minois Hipocrite 
Ef I' Air soumis de cet Enfant, 
Je gagerois qu'il premid'tte 
De retourner d son Volant. 

Under Lepicie's engraving of Ee Benedicite : 

Ea Soeiir, en tapinois, se rit dn petit Jrhe 
Qui hegaie son oraison, 
Lui, sans s'inquieter, depecbe sa pri^re. 
Son ape tit fait sa raison. 

Under the engraving of L^ Toilette du Matin (PI. 6i) by Le Bas : 

Avant que la Raison I'eclaire, 

Elk prend du Miroir les avis Seduisans 

Dans le desir et I' Art de plaire 

Les Belles, Je le vois, ne sont jamais Enfans. 

2 As my knowledge goes there are only two pictures by ^hardin which 
show windows — Ea Serinette and its companion piece E'Econome, and in 


JEAN-BAPTISTE-SIM£0N CHARDIN. La Toilette du Matin. 

Boston. AUiseum of Fine Arts 


Paris. Wildenstein Colkclion 

JEAN-BAPTISTE-SIMfiON CHARDIN. Still life with llarc. 


The French bourgeois of the eighteenth century divined with 
pleasure le pere Chardin himself iichind his pictures ; and they 
took to their hearts this man who obviously cared not a straw if 
things were left undusted provided that he was not disturbed by 
cleaning and never harassed by a draught — this good, gentle 
French bourgeois, for whom it would be a pleasure to prepare the 
dejeuner of soupe a l' onion, omelette, and civet de Uevre> 

But though we can project ourselves into the minds of Char- 
din's contemporaries we know now that they only partly under- 
stood him as an artist ; we know now that Chardin himself was 
never exclusively interested in the subjects of his pictures and 
that in his still-life studies he was not concerned with painting 
trompe rail cherries to deceive the birds ; we realise to-day that 
even the de Goncourts' delightful appreciation of 1m Toilette 
du Matin (PI. 6i) describes only one aspect of the painter's 
achievements. 2 

both these pictures (which belong not to the domestic series but to the 
earlier series of ladies' recreations) only fragments of the windows are seen 
in sharp perspective at the side. 

In Dutch and English genre interiors, on the other hand, windows and 
vistas through them are regular features. Even Van Ostade, who 
painted the most sordid interiors, showed windows which were frequently 

^ Compared with Dutch pictures of the same subjects Chardin's interiors 
are obviously stuffy and dusty. The French taste for small stuffy rooms, 
which began at this time with the scented boudoirs of the rich, still continues 
to some extent in all classes. The French have never suffered from the 
claustrophobia of the English, who are never really happy except in the 
open air. It is this claustrophobia, of course, which explains the English 
affection for landscape painting and the prevalence of landscape back- 
grounds in English portraiture from the time of Hogarth to the present 

2 The de Goncourts wrote of I^a Toilette du Matin : " Uomhre de la nuit 
commence a s'en aller de la piece. Sur la toilette, encombree de desordre, la chandelle 
qui a iclaire le lever et le commencement de I'kabillement hrule encore, decrivant dans 
I'air des ronds de fumee. Un peu dejour tomhant de lafenitre, glisse sur le parquet 
entre-croise, et va met ire une lueur argentine, la-has, sur Vencoignure ou pose une 
pendule marquant sept beures. Au-devant de la ventrue honilloire d'eau chaude, du 
tabouret portant le gros Hire de messe de la maman, la mdre en coquelucbon noir, la 
iupe au retroussis, arrange des deux mains sur la tite de sa fille le r.aud de sajanchon, 
tandis que la petite, impaticnte de soriir, et deja le manchon a une main, coule de 
cSte lesjeux vers la glace, en retournant la tite et en se souriant a demi. Le Dimanche, 
tout le Dimanche bourgeois, tient dans cette toile. *• 



The developments of French painting at the end of the nine- 
teenth century have taught us to recognise an artist's pre- 
occupation with formal problems for their own sake when we 
encounter it. We have learned the nature of that preoccupation, 
and we realise that Chardin when he painted Les Tows de Cartes 
(PL 59) was possibly more interested in architectural problems 
of formal relation than in the genre scene that gives the title to 
the picture ; and that the diagonal movements in the beauti- 
fully composed Amusements de la vie privee (PL 60a) must have 
given him great satisfaction and delight. This, we now realise, 
was why Chardin was always so deeply interested in still-life 
painting and why eventually he abandoned all other subjects in 
its favour.^ 

But Chardin did not push his attitude to its conclusion. If we 
compare Chardin's Still life (PL 62a), in the Boston Museum, 
with some glittering Dutch trompe Vceil production, we see how 
far Chardin has advanced from this elementary goal ; but if on 
the other hand we compare a work by Chardin with Cezanne's 
Still life (Pis. 131a and 131b) we see how much further Cezanne 
advanced towards the logical conclusion of Chardin's approach. ^ 

vi. The Academy and the Salons 

The fixed doctrine of Great Art which the Academy had for- 
mulated in its early days for Colbert had been challenged, as I 

^ His contemporaries could not understand this. They regarded Chardin 
as an eccentric, almost as a trifler, who painted, as they said, " que pour son 
amusement ." 

2 Chardin had a number of followers and imitators who all missed the 
architectural aspect of his work. The most successful was Michel-Bernard- 
Nicolas Lepicie, son of Frangois-Bernard Lepicie, who engraved a number 
of Chardin's pictures. Lepicie's imitations of Chardin's genre pictures 
stand in the same relation to the originals as Lancret's pictures stand to those 
of Wattcau. He was purely a genre painter. His pictures of children were 
essentially popular. The Lyons Museum has a little boy crying called 
UEnfant en penitence which is characteristic. M. David Weill has a Petit 
dessinateur ; there is a picture of the same subject in the Louvre. The 
London Wallace Collection has Une femme montrant a lire a une petite fille and 
also Une femme allaitant son enfant which is one of his best works. In the picture 
called Lrt demande accordee in the Cherbourg Museum Lepicie has imitated 
Greuze. Chardin's still-life pictures were imitated by Mme Vallayer-Coster 
(1744-18 18). 



havx noted, when the work of Rubens, Rembrandt and other 
painters of the Low-Country Schools began to exercise a general 
influence on French painting. But the doctrine, though chal- 
lenged, had never been ollicially denied ; and early in the 
eighteenth century it was revived and transformed by the main 
caucus of the i\cademicians into the doctrine of the Grand Manner 
in History-painting — a confused eclectic concept involving 
indiscriminate imitations of Rubens and the later Italian Masters.^ 

All through the eighteenth century the history-painters, who 
included the painters of decorations with allegorical and mytho- 
logical subjects, were the most highly-ranked artists in the 
7\cademy. Only the history-painters were given the higher ofTices 
in the Academy and the professorial posts in its art-school ; and 
when artists like Watteau and Chardin were made Academicians 
they were specifically described as belonging to a different rank.^ 

The Grand Manner in History-painting was the sole subject of 
instruction in the art school, and the Academy's prix de peinture 
were awarded exclusively for history-compositions. The subject 
when Watteau competed unsuccessfully was David accordant le 
pardon de Nobal h Abigail qui lui apporte les vivres ; the subject 
when Boucher competed was Hvilmerodach fils et successeur de 
Nahuchodonosor delivrant Joachim des chaines dans lesquelles son pere le 
retenait deptiis longtemps. The first prix de peinture^ known as the 
l?7'ix de Kome^ carried WMth it the Academy's authorisation for the 
journey to Rome and a further course of study in the French 
Academy in that city.^ 

^ Reynolds made a brilliant attempt to disentangle this confused eclectic 
doctrine in his Discourses. 

^ I have already noted the official designations of Watteau, Chardin, Pater, 
and Lancret. For the Academy's refusal to admit Grcuze to the rank of 
history-painter, cf. p. 170, 

^ Sometimes, when the Academy had funds, the prize also carried a 
subsidy for the journey. But the Academy's linances in the first half of the 
century were very precarious and it is probable that funds for the prize- 
winner's journey were frequently collected from private patrons. To 
remedy this unsatisfactory situation the King agreed in 1748 to the establish- 
ment of ricole royale des elhes proteges^ a special class under the direction 
of the Academy to which only the prizewinners were admitted ; the students 
in this class were financed by royal scholarships, while they prepared them- 
selves for the visit to Rome by passing examinations in Bossuet's Histoire 
Vniverselle, RoUin's Histcire anciemiey Calmet's Hisioire des Juifs and the works 



The Academicians, to justify the Academy's existence, had 
always, of course, been forced to claim that history-painting 
was an activity that could be taught and that they themselves 
were the only people who could teach it ; and they had made 
good this claim by teaching the activity to their own sons and 
relations who became Academicians in their turn.^ 

In this way the Academicians were able to keep the commercial 
advantages of the Academic monopoly in their own families for 
several generations ; and these commercial advantages were 
considerable because many lucrative commissions were still 
being given by churches for paintings in the Jesuit-baroque 
tradition, and many others, as lucrative, were being given for 
decorative panels in the financier's new hotels. The Academi- 
cians had made it their business to discredit the old Mattrise^ 
which was now regarded as the refuge of the incompetent, and 
all the commissions in the eighteenth century fell into their 
hands. 2 

of Herodotus, Thucydides, Homer, Virgil, Ovid and so forth ; if they 
qualified they received a further royal subsidy in Rome itself. While at the 
Ecole des elhes proteges the students had the privilege of sending a picture 
each year to Versailles to be inspected by the King and thus had opportun- 
ities of finding favour in Court circles. 

^ Thus Louis BouUogne (1609-1674) was followed by his sons Bon 
Boullogne (1649-1717) and Louis de Boullogne (1654-1733), and two 
women painters of the same name were made Academicians in 1669 ; Noel 
Coypel (1628-1707) was followed by his sons Antoine Coypel (1661-1722), 
and Nicolas Coypel (i 690-1 734), and by Antoine's son, Charles-Antoine 
Coypel (1694-1752) ; Jacob van Loo (1614-1670) who had come to Paris 
from Amsterdam in 1662 was followed by Louis-Abraham van Loo (1640- 
1712), whose sons Jean-Baptiste van Loo (1684-1745) and Carle van Loo 
(170 5 -1 76 5) were followed in their turn by Jean-Baptiste's sons Charles- 
Amedee van Loo (171 5-1795) and Louis Michel van Loo (1707-1771), and 
Carle's son J. C. Denis van Loo (1743-1821). 

When the art of painting is conceived as the art of producing a certain 
kind of picture and as a procedure that can be taught there is nothing to 
prevent any intelligent person from learning to produce it. This was 
demonstrated by these dynasties of French Academic history-painters and 
decorators, and it had been demonstrated before by the popular genre 
painters in Holland. (Cf. my Introduction to Dutch Art, p. 185.) 

^ Most of these Academic history-painters and decorators appear quite 
uninteresting to-day. Carle van Loo was undoubtedly competent and he 
was much respected by his pupils ; he departed from the Grand Manner 


Glassow. ilunUiiUii Mu^tiim 


-W;.' Yor/;. Melropolilan Museum 

FRANCOIS BOUCHER. The Toilet of \'enus. 


IQ^^^Ba^E!^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^' ' ■ 


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.^Jf^P^'- ^J^^UT •' \ 

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Paris. Louvre 

FRAN(;01S BOUCHER. The Bath of Diana. 


The Salons 

The Academy had held one or two Salons in the seventeenth 
century. It held another in 1704. In 1737 the function became 
annual ; after 1741 it was held every two years. There were no 
other public exhibitions in Paris at this time except the annual 
open-air shows on All Saints' Day on the Place Dauphine.^ The 
Salons were held in the Louvre and only Academicians and agrees 
were allowed to show their pictures — a condition which con- 
tinued till the Revolution. To make room for the Salons the 
magnificent Royal collections of Old Masters were removed from 
the Louvre and dispersed in various apartments at Versailles 
where they were not accessible to the public or students, 
though privileged artists, presumably, could visit thcm.^ 

These biennial Salons had far-reaching effects on the history of 
painting. They created a public which had contact with art for 
a few hours every two years and which formed its standards 
from that casual contact ; and they induced the artists to covet 
the approbation of this ill-educated public. Chardin, intent on 
the solution of his architectural problems, could turn a deaf ear 
to the Salon public's applause. But Chardin was an exception in 
his age. His colleagues worked for this new kind of applause 
and were dehghted when they obtained it. 

to paint the Dejeuner dc Chasse (PI. 54b) for Fontainebleau. Jean Fran9ois 
de Troy (1679-175 2), who also deserted the Grand Manner to paint the 
Dejeuner d' hut t res now at Chantilly (cf. p. 1 24), was a coarse-minded man as we 
can see in his Bathsheba at the Bath in Angers and he was not above porno- 
graphic double entente in some of his pictures. Nicolas Coypel's Innocence et 
I' Amour now in the Louvre forestalled all the Venus and Cupid pictures of 
the English eighteenth-century school. Francois Le Moyne (1688-1757), 
who committed suicide, evolved a very attractive recipe for flesh painting 
which he transmitted to his pupil Frangois Boucher. The work of many 
of these artists became attractive when it was translated into tapestry at the 
Gobelins and Beauvais. 

^ Cf. note, p. 123. 

* Thus Watteau certainly saw Giorgione's Concert Champitrt (cf. note, 
p. 112). In 1750 as the result of the publication of a protest against the 
inaccessibility of the Royal collections the King ordered a hundred of his 
most notable pictures to be transferred to the Luxembourg where, with the 
Rubens panels, they were on view to the public on two days of the week 
and to artists on the others. 


At the same time the Salons created the professional art critic. 
The public felt lost in what they regarded as a multitude of 
pictures though the eighteenth-century Salons only contained 
about two or three hundred ; and professional students of art 
history and men of letters began to write articles in journals and 
periodicals and to publish pamphlets to help the more intelligent 
sections of the public to understand and assess the exhibits 
and to enable the others to talk about the "pictures of the 

The most celebrated of the eighteenth-century art critics was 
Denis Diderot, the philosopher who edited the celebrated 
Encyclopedia. He wrote his first Salon article in 1759 and he 
continued for twenty years. Diderot as an art critic anticipated 
Ruskin and Tolstoy. He held that a picture should contribute 
to public morality and to the appreciation of the domestic 
virtues. He was a great admirer of Chardin and he praised his 
still-life paintings for their verisimiUtude in representation. But 
he failed to appreciate Boucher and he was bluffed by Greuze. 




vij. Franfois Boucher 



National Gallery 
National Gallery 
Wallace Collection 
Wallace Collection 
Wallace Collection 
Wallace Collection 
Wallace Collection 

Wallace Collection 
Wallace Collection 
Wallace Collection 
Wallace Collection 
Wallace Collection 
Wallace Collection 
Victoria and Al- 
bert Museum 
National Gallery 
of Scotland 

Le Billet Doux, 1754 

Pan and Syrinx, 1759 

Shepherd piping to shepherdess, 1745 

The Modiste (Le Matin), 1746 

The Visit of Venus to Vulcan, 1754 

Cupid a captive, 1754 

Venus and Mars surprised by Vulcan, 

The Judgement of Paris, 1754 
Summer and Autumn Pastoral, 1749 
The Rising of the Sun, 1755 
The Setting of the Sun, 1753 
Mme de Pompadour, 1759 
Jupiter surprising Callisto, 1769 
Mme de Pompadour, 1758 (?) 

Mme de Pompadour, c. 1757 


.1/. .i:- u :::■.. h::.i ('■::>■,;:■■>: 

FRAN'gOIS BOUCHER. Mmc dc Pompadour. 

jp J\ 

Paris. David Weill Collection 


Paris. Louvre 

FRANgOlS BOUCliLR. The Bagpipe (La Musette). 


New York. 

New York, 
New York. 
New York. 


















Art Gallery 

Frick Collection 
Frick Collection 
Yerkes Collection 
Museum of Fine 

Museum of Fine 

Institute of Arts 



Musee Cognacq 
David-Weill Col- 

The Muse of painting, c. 1743 
Tiic Toilet of Venus, 175 1 

The Seasons, c. 175 1 
Decorative panels 
The Toilet of Venus 
The Halt at the Fountain, r. 


Going to Market, c. 1749 

The Birth of Venus, c. 1754 

Venus ordering arms for Aeneas from 

Vulcan, 1752 
Rinaldo and Armida, 1754 
Pastoral decoration (Le nid), 1737 
Pastoral decoration (Les charmes de la 

vie champetre), 1737 
Interior with figures (Le Dejeuner), 1739 
The Bath of Diana, 1742 
Portrait of a Y^oung Woman, 1742 
Sleeping Shepherdess, 1743 
The Bagpipe (La Musette), 1755 
The Forge of Vulcan, 1747 
The Rape of Europa, 1747 
The Toilet of Venus, 1749 
Venus disarming Cupid, 1749 
Landscape: The Mill, 175 1 
Landscape: The Bridge, 175 1 
Venus receiving arms for Aeneas, 1757 
Cephalus and Aurora, 1764 
La Belle Cuisiniere, c. ij^-i 
Mme Boucher, 1743 

Eight Chinese compositions, 1742 and 

Tiger Hunt, 1737 
Crocodile Hunt, 1738 
Landscape decor for a stage scene 
Venus, Mercury and Cupid, 1742 
Baron M. de Roths- Mme de Pompadou r, 1 7 5 6- 1 7 5 7 
child Collection 

Girl on a Sofa, 1752 

The Birth and Triumph of Venus, 1740 

The Toilet of Venus, 1740 

The Modiste (Le Matin), 1745 

Leda, 1760 or 1769 

The Rest on the Flight into Egypt 



Alte Pinakothek 







Fran9ois Boucher was the most clear-headed of the French 
eighteenth-century Academicians. He reduced the prevaiHng 
chaotic concepts of the Grand Manner to a simple decorative 
formula and within that formula he produced most admirable 

Boucher's father, one of the despised painters of the Maitrise, 
apprenticed him at the age of seventeen or earlier to Francois Le 
Moyne who had just become an Academician. Boucher is said 
to have remained only a few months with Le Moyne but he 
learned from him an attractive system of flesh colouring, as I 
have already noted. From Le Moyne he went to the studio of 
the engraver Jean-Frangois Cars, where he became an expert 
engraver and designer of book illustrations and decorations ; 
and he soon attracted the attention of Jullienne who comissioned 
him to engrave a number of plates in the Watteau series.^ At 
the age of twenty-one he competed for and won the Prix de 
Rome, and three years later he went to Italy where he looked at 
the pictures of the Itahan masters purely in relation to the work 
which he himself was intending to do later.^ 

Back in Paris, in 173 1, he secured election to the Academy 
with his Kinaldo and Armida, now in the Louvre (which was 
influenced I fancy by Titian's Diana and Actmn now at Bridge- 
water House, London, but then in the Palais Royal), and he 
began to develop his own style in decorative pastorals and 
allegories and also in genre. 

l^e Nid and Les charmes de la vie champetre (commissioned at 

1 Cf. note, p. 108. 

2 He went to Venice and saw the works of Titian and Veronese and 
also of Tiepolo who was then about thirty-five and already hailed in 
Venice as the heir to the great Venetian decorative tradition. In Rome he 
evidently studied the 'Kape of Europa (now in the Colonna Gallery) by 
Francesco Albani (i 578-1660) whose works in the French Royal collection. 
The Toilet of Venus and Venus and Vulcan^ niay already have been known to 
him. (For Albani's influence on Dutch art and notably on Van Poelenburgh, 
cf. my Introduction to Dutch Art, pp. 146-147.) 

Boucher saw at once that by studying Raphael and Michelangelo he could 
only be diverted from his own aim and he accordingly avoided their 
works. Years later when Fragonard went to see him before leaving for 
Italy he warned him that with his particular talent he must also pay no 
attention to Raphael and Michelangelo. *' Je te le dis en confidence amicaky' 
he said to Fragonard, " si tuprends ces gens-la au sirieux tu esf. . ." 




this period by Louis XV for Fontaincblcau and now in the 
Louvre) are characteristic of his pastoral style which is also 
seen in La Musette (PL 66b), painted some years later as an 

The allegorical style appears in the Stockholm Kirth and 
Triumph of X^enus and the charming ?)ath of Diana (PI. 64b), now 
in the Louvre, where Boucher's graceful formula for the female 
figure is already perfected. 

The genre style appears in one aspect in 1m Belle Cuisinere 
(now in the Musee Cognacq in Paris) where the boy and girl 
actors of the pastoral decorations act the same charade in a 
kitchen ; and in another aspect in the Louvre Le Dejeuner and 
the Stockholm The Modiste {Le Matin) which were probably 
influenced by engravings after Hogarth.^ 

To these genre paintings we must assimilate M. David Weill's 
Mme Boucher (PL 66a), a dainty portrait of his young wife.^ 

Boucher painted in these various categories all his life and at 
the same time he produced landscapes (there are two in the 
Louvre) and he made drawings and a number of designs for 
scener}' and costumes in the theatres.^ 

1 Cf. the admirable catalogue of the Wallace Collection where there is a 
smaller version of The Modiste. 

2 Boucher had married at the age of thirty in 1733. His wife, who was 
of a bourgeois family, was then seventeen and she was twenty-seven when 
this portrait was painted. Mme Boucher, who probably sat for l^e Dejeuner, 
was herself an amateur artist, and the Glasgow Muse of Painting which 
depicts a young woman with an artist's palette may also have been painted 
from her. Boucher did not long remain faithful. He was very promiscuous, 
but there is no evidence that he ever cared for any other woman. Incessantly 
occupied with his prolific artistic production he amused himself for brief 
hours with professional girl models, who had now appeared in the Parisian 
art world (cf. p. 113) and professional light women whom he did not admit 
into his life. 

Mme Boucher is said to have consoled herself with the Swedish Ambas- 
sador, the Comte de Tessin, who bought Boucher's Birth and Triumph of 
Venus from the Salon of 1740 and commissioned The Modiste which was to 
t}'pify " Morning " in a series of pictures representing different hours of the 

'3 The scener)' at the Opera, which at this time was in the Palais Royal, 
was in the hands of the celebrated Servandoni who designed the most 
fantastic rocaille and Chinese " sets," with ingenious effects of lighting, for 
sixty operas. Boucher worked with him and designed the scenery and 



At the beginning of the seventeen-forties he was presented 
to Mme de Pompadour, then Mme Lenormand d'Etiolles, and 
for many years he was her favourite artist. He painted her 
portrait (PI. 65) on several occasions, and he designed the 
scenery and costumes for the private theatricals with which she 
entertained the King. For her Chateau at Bellevue he devised 
a Chinese boudoir and a bedroom decorated with panels of 
mjthologie galante ; for her bathroom he painted the Toilet of 
VenuSy possibly the picture now in the Metropolitan Museum in 
New York (PI. 64a) ; and for her chapel he painted an Adoration 
of the Shepherds} 

In addition to his other work Boucher was incessantly occu- 
pied all his life with the painting of pictures to be translated into 
tapestry at the Gobelins and Beauvais factories of which he 
became Director in 1755 on the death of Oudry with whom he 
had worked for a number of years. ^ 

costumes for the Indes Galantes in 1743 and for other performances in 1746 
and 1747. In 1752 Boucher designed for the Opera Comique which was 
then a theatre erected at the Saint Laurent Fair. In 1754 he designed for a 
theatre at the Saint Germain Fair. In 1764 when Servandoni left the Opera 
to execute still more elaborate scenic effects at the Theatre des Tuileries, he 
designed a further series of productions for the Opera. The Museum at 
Amiens has one of his theatrical designs — a landscape decor. 

^ As already noted (cf. p. 142), altar-pieces and decorations were painted 
for churches all through the eighteenth century in spite of the religious 
scepticism of the fashionable world. Boucher painted a number of religious 
subjects including a Nativity also for Mme de Pompadour, which was shown 
in the Salon of 1748. I have not been able to discover the present where- 
abouts of this Nativity or of the Adoration of the Shepherds. The Leningrad 
Hermitage has his Kest on the Flight where the sacred characters are 
surrounded by lambs which seem to have escaped from one of his pastoral 
decorations, and angels indistinguishable from his habitual Cupids. 

2 J.-B. Oudry (1686-175 5) was an able painter who excelled at depicting 
hunting scenes with dogs etc., in the Flemish tradition of Snyders which had 
appeared in French eighteenth-century painting in the work of Desportes 
(cf. p. 93). Louis XV was devoted to hunting, and Oudry, who designed 
upholstery for furniture and a whole series of large tapestries, Chasses de 
'Louis XVy was his favourite painter. His genre landscape work was also 
much admired by the Queen. Cf. note, p. 171. 

In 1736 Oudry issued commissions for a series of exotic hunting tapestries 
to be executed at Beauvais, and Boucher produced for the purpose in 1757 
and 1738 the Chasse au tigre par les Turcs and Chasse au crocodile now in the 
Amiens Museum where we can also see three others of the series : the 



The brilliant ]</>/>;;' of the Sun and Settw\i^ oj the Sun, wliich 
Boucher himself considered his finest pictures, were intended 
for CJobclins tapestries ; but the tapestries were never executed 
and Mme dc Pompadour obtained the pictures for her collection. 
They were painted in 1753 when he was at the height of his 
powers and they were followed the next year by the four cele- 
brated panels 'Yhe Visitoj\ ^enus to I ' ulcan, Cupid aCaptive (PI. 1 14a) 
114a), Venus and Mars surprised by Vulcan and the judge went of 
Paris which were painted for Mme de Pompadour's boudoir at 
the Motel de I'Arsenal and intended for the special entertainment 
of Louis XV. ^ 

At the apex of his career Boucher was Vrewier peintre du roi and 
Director of the Academy. He had a studio in the Louvre where 
he kept a collection of prints, including twenty etchings by 
Rembrandt, and other collections of bronzes, porcelain, shells, 
butterflies and all kinds of precious and semi-precious stones. 
He was a very amiable man and very accessible and kind to 
students. He was the first artist to exhibit red and black draw- 
ings of heads, nudes and so forth in the Salon, and they proved so 
great a success that they aroused the jealousy of the print-sellers. 

In his old age he suffered from the change in public taste 

Chasse a I'autruche par les Tuns by Carle van Loo, the Chasse au lion h\ de 
Troy and the Chasse au lion et au tigre en Chine by Pater. These pictures 
which anticipate the work of Delacroix (cf. PI. 85), were originally in 
the petits appartements or cabinets at Versailles together with Lancret's 
Dejeuner de jambon and the feasting pictures by de Troy. Boucher also 
painted, for Beauvais tapestry, a series of Chinese subjects now preserved 
in the Museum at Besan9on ; these compositions represent a Chinese 
Marriage, a Chinese Dance, an audience with the Emperor of China, fishing 
in China and so forth. 

The colour in Boucher's pictures eventually became rather mechanical 
as a result of this continual painting for tapestry. But the tapestries gained 
because he tended more and more to use colours which corresponded with 
the dyes. 

The effect of his association with Oudry is seen in The Bath of Diana 
(PI. 646) where the dogs, probably painted from a drawing supplied by that 
artist, rather destroy the unity of an otherwise perfectly unified picture. 

* These panels were objected to, as indecent, by Louis XVI ; after 
various travels they were acquired by Lord Hertford and they now hang in 
the Wallace Collection where the Rising of the Sun and the Setting of the Sun 
with ten other pictures by Boucher create a gay and brilliajot pageant on the 
walls of the Grand Stair. 



which caused the success of Greuze^ ; and Diderot in his 
accounts of the Salons attacked him in terms which would not be 
tolerated in art criticism to-day.^ 

Boucher's production was enormous. He painted hundreds 
of pictures and made over ten thousand drawings. His work is 
the result of a brilliant cold intelligence which achieved a grace- 
ful and consistent stylisation of the human figure considered as 
a unit in a decorative design. Boucher in his finest decorations 
is a master of scale ; the units wliich compose his pictures are 
not only architecturally satisfactory in scale in relation to one 
another but they are also satisfactory in relation to the units of 
scale in rocaille architecture and furniture. His paintings must 
not be judged as easel pictures ; they must be judged as part of 
the ensemble of a room decorated in the Louis XV style, ^ 

^ Cf. pp. 168-170. 

2 Of Boucher's exhibits in the Salon of 1765, when he was over sixty, 
Diderot wrote : ]e ne sais que dire de cet homme-ci. L.a degradation du gout, de 
la couleur, de la composition^ des caracie'res, . . . a suivi la depravation des maurs. 
. . . Que peut avoir dans V imagination un horn me qui passe sa vie avec les prostituees 
du plus has Stage ? . . . J'ose dire que cet homme ne sait vraiment ce que c'est que la 
grace ; j'ose dire qu'iln' a Jamais connu la verite ; j'ose dire que les idees de delicatesse, 
d'hometetS, d' innocence , de simplicite, lui sont devenues presque etranghes ; j'ose dire 
qu'il n'a pas vu un instant la nature, du moins celle qui est faite pour interesser mon 
&me, la vStre . . . Toutes ses compositions font auxjeux un tapage epouvantable : c'est 
le plus mortel ennemi du silence queje connaisse. . . . Dans toute cette innombrable 
famille, vous n'en trouvere^ pas un a employer aux actions reelles de la vie, a etudier 
sa legon, a lire, a ecrire, a tiller du chanvre. 

The words " c'est le plus mortel ennemi du silence " intended to contrast 
Boucher's art with that of Chardin which, as noted, Diderot admired (cf. 
p. 142), are the only words of valuable art criticism in the passage. 

^ It is important to remember that pictures in Louis XV rooms were 
generally hung either above the panels (which often contained mirrors) or 
over the doors. This explains the vogue of Nattier's decorative portraits 
and also the character of certain paintings by Fragonard (cf. note, p. 161). 
When a picture by Boucher was placed on a level with the eye it never had 
its own frame within the panel but filled the whole panel and was framed by 
it ; if Boucher had used Watteau's scale of decorative units his paintings 
would have made the rocaille motifs in the architecture and furoituxe look 



viii. ha Pompadour and L^ du Barry 

Mme dc Pompadour was interested in art. As Mme Lenor- 
mand d'Etiollcs, before she met the King, she had her salon 
where she entertained artists and men of letters ; and she was 
herself an amateur artist and took lessons in drawing and 
engraving from Boucher. 

Her name is so much associated witli the rocaille style that it is 
sometimes assumed that she was responsible for its success. 
But, as I have noted, the style was already launched in the 
Regency ; and by the middle of the century its flamboyant 
excesses — especially as vulgarised in stage decoration — were the 
object of hostile criticism among people of taste. 

Mme de Pompadour, in fact, played a part in the campaign 
against the excesses oi rocaille^ and her influence was used to assist 
the return to the appreciation of antique art which began about 
this time.^ 

In 1 749 she sent her brother, who was later made Marquis de 
Marigny, to Italy to study classical architecture and antique 
remains. IMarigny was accompanied by Nicolas Cocliin, 
engraver and official designer of ceremonies and spectacles at 
the French Court, who was a bitter opponent of rocaille and pub- 
lished pamplilets against it ; and when Marigny returned to 
Paris and became Surintendant des Bdtiments — (an office which 
still represented the central official patronage of art as in the 
time of Colbert) — the classical style known as " Louis XVI " 
was virtually launched. Before Mme de Pompadour died in 
1764 the Parisian architects were beginning to build and to make 
furniture in this style, and in the fashionable world the classical 
and Pompeian styles were so popular that even jewellery and 

^ The fashionable world in Paris was much interested in the excavations 
at Hcrculancum and Pompeii which began in 1748 and brought to light 
many objects used in daily life by the " ancients " of a kind then unknown ; 
and there was much discussion of various compilations relating to ancient 
art produced by Mariette and de Caylus (whom we have met as Watteau's 
friends) and of Winckelmann's Gedanken uber die Nachahmung der Griecheschen 
Werken which was published in 1754 and translated into French, When 
Winckelmann published his Geschichte dcr Kunst des Alterthums ten years 
later it was also widely read in France. 


snuff-boxes and the coiffures of fashionable women were " a la 
Grecque^ The craze for imitating the " ancients " which cul- 
minated in the Directoire and Empire styles, thus really began in 
the last quarter of the reign of Louis XV. 

Mme de Pompadour's taste in pictures is revealed by her 
appreciation of Boucher. She regarded the Academicians' 
Grand Manner in History-painting as tiresome and expressed her 
opinion to the artists themselves. But in Boucher she recognised 
a real styHst ; and a mind as clear and free from scruples as her 

This is not the place to describe the character of this domi- 
nating woman. But I must draw attention to the aspects of her 
personality with which, we learn from her portraits, she desired 
posterity to be acquainted. 

La Tour's pastel portrait, now in the Louvre, was painted 
when she was thirty-four and had already been the King's 
mistress for ten years. Here she holds a sheet of music in her 
hand, a viola is on a chair behind her, a portfolio of drawings is 
at her feet, and on a table by her side stand Diderot's Encyclo- 
paedia, Voltaire's " Henriade " and other books together with an 
engraving signed Pompadour sculpsit. 

Boucher's full-length portrait (PI. 65), which belongs to Baron 
Maurice de Rothschild, was painted the year after. In this she 
sits surrounded with objects of the finest contemporary crafts- 
manship ; behind her a mirror reflects her book-case surmounted 
with a clock ; her official seal lies on the table by her side ; a 
portfolio and her drawing crayon are on the floor at her feet ; 
she has just looked up from her book and like her pet spaniel she 
has resigned herself to sit for her portrait. 

It is clear that La Pompadour desired us to remember her as a 
woman of parts. 

Mme du 'Barry 

Louis XV spent vast sums of public money on the encourage- 
ment of Mme de Pompadour's culture and pleasures and on the 
series of her luxurious establishments. He did the same to 
support the extravagance of Mme du Barry, who had no culture 
to speak of, but who was much prettier than La Pompadour as 


Paris. DaiiU IVfi/; CulLau'r. 

JEAN-HONOR £ FRAGONARD. Lcs Pins dc la Villa Pamphili (drawing). 

London. Wallace C olUction 

JEAN-HONOR fi FRAGONARD. La Fontaine d'Amour. 


can he seen from her portrait (PL 73a) by Mmc Vigcc Ic 

I'or Mmc du Barry tlic architect Txdoux added a pavilion in the 
purest " Louis XVI " style to the Chateau de Louveciennes ; 
and the finest productions of the French craftsmen found their 
way to Louveciennes and the new favourite's establishments in 

In her early days, as a shop assistant, Mme du Barry had come 
into contact w^ith an artist in the person of Mile /Vdelaidc Labillc 
the portrait painter. =^ She now began to acquire pictures. She 
bought Van Dyck's great full-length portrait of Charles I (now 
in the Louvre) which she described as 2. portrait de faniille because 
some Dubarrys were related to some Stuarts. She also acquired 
the celebrated Cruche cassee (now in the Louvre) by Greuze, and 
a nude, which she kept curtained, by Van Poelenburg^ ; she com- 
missioned Frangois-Hubert Drouais (1727-177 5), a fashionable 
portrait painter and follower of Boucher, to paint overdoors at 
Louveciennes and to paint her portrait ; and finally she com- 
missioned a series of panels from an artist then known as " /^ 
petit Frago " in the world of Parisian fashion and pleasure. 

ix. Jean-Hotjore Vragonard 



London. National Gallery The Happy Mother, 1785-1795 

London. Wallace Collection The Gardens of the Villa d'Este (Le 

Petit Pare), 1760 
London. Wallace Collection The Souvenir (Le Chiffre d'Amour), 


^ Cf. pp. 174-176. 

2 As Lavisse puts it : " E//e aimait les meuhles en hois hlanc satine, ornes de 
tableaux de porcelaine, les meuhles garnis de hrorK^e dore, les commodes plaquees en 
ibene, les etageres de laque, les etoffes riches^ les bibelots tares ^ les ivoires, les biscuits 
de Shres, les miniatures et les c amies. Chaque matin, a sa toilette, defilaient les 
fournisseurs, des joaillers . . . les couturieres . . . des marc hands d' etoffes ^ des mar- 
chands de dentelles . . . les coiffeurs . . . Elle faisait la mode d Paris et dans toute 
I' Europe." 

3 Cf. p. 173- 

* Cf. note, p. 146. 

X 153 



New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 







Wallace Collection The Fovmtain of Love (La Fontaine 

d'Amour), 1 762-1 767 
Wallace Collection The Swing (L'Escarpolette), 1765-1796 
Wallace Collection A boy as Pierrot, 1765-1772 
Wallace Collection A young scholar, 1775-1777 
Wallace Collection The Schoolmistress (Dites done, s'il vous 

plait), c. 1783 
J. S. Bache Col- La Cascade, 1760 

J. S. Bache Col- L'Allee ombreuse, 1760 

E. R. Bacon Col- Le Serment d'Amour^, 1762-1767 

Le Rendez-vous (L'Escalade), 1770- 

La Poursuite (La Surprise), 1770- 1772 

H. C. Frick Col 

H. C. Frick Col 

H. C. Frick Col- 

Les Souvenirs (Les Confidences), 1770- 
H. C. Frick Col- L'Amant Couronne, 1 770-1 772 

H. C. Frick Col- L' Abandon, 1 770-1 772 

Institute of Arts 

Aurora (Decorative sketch), 175 3-1756 
Le grand pretre Coresus se sacrifie pour 

sauver Callirhoe. Salon 1765 
Le Vceu a rAmour,^ 1762-1767 
La Legon de Musique, 1768-1771 
Bacchante Endormie, 177 5 -1780 
La Chemise enlevee, 176 5 -1772 
Baigneuses, 1765-1772 
La Musique, 1769 or 1775-1779 
L'Etude, 1769 or 1775-1779 
Portrait de fantaisie, 1769 or 1778-1779 
L'Inspiration, 1769 or 1775-1779 
L'heureuse Fecondite, 1775-1780 
Jacquemart Andre Le Debut du modele, 1 766-1 769 

D. Weill CoUec- La lettre, 1775-1776 

D. Weill Collec- Taureau blanc a I'etable, 1775-1780 

D. Weill Collec- LTnutile resistance, 1 775-1780 

Cognac Museum 

^ There is another version of this picture in the Tours Museum. 
2 This is a sketch for the picture in the Orleans Museum. 


^^^^^P^V^K -''' 



mm^ „ 



^■^^^^K^ -^^1^ jd 

*:., .^ 

^ ■ 

Nt-w York. Frick Collection 

JEAN-HONORfi FRAGONARD. Lcs Souvenirs (Lcs Coutidtnccs). 

Paris. David Weill Collection 

JEAN-HONORfi FRAGONARD. Les Petards (drawing). 

Paris. Louvre 
















D. Weill Collcc- Lc rcve du sculptcur, 1775 -1780 

D. Weill Collec- Lcs pins h la villa Pamphili (Drawing), 

tion 1760 

D. Weill Collcc- Danscdcsenfants dans lc pare (Drawing), 

tion 1760-1762 

D. Weill Collcc- Lcs petards (Drawing), 1765-1769 

D. Weill Collec- Danae (Drawing), 1762-1769 

D. Weill Collec- Le Maitrc de dansc or Qu'en dit I'Abbc 

tion (Drawing), 1775-1780 

Charley Collection Jeunc fille a la Fontaine, 1752-1756 
Banquc de France La Fete de St. Cloud, 1767-1776 
Wildenstein Col- Sketch for Le Verrou, 1762-1769 

Pillet-Will Col- La Main Chaudc, 1767-1776 



Col- Lc Cheval fondu, 1767-1775 

Le Sauveur lavant les pieds a ses apotres, 

Museum Le Berceau, 1775-1780 

Museum Les Lavandieres, 1773 

Museum Mme Fragonard (Drawing), c. 1790 

Museum Adoration des Bergers, 175 5-1756 or 

Hermitage The Stolen Kiss (Le Baiser a la derobee), 

Hermitage La Famille du Fermier, 1775-1779 

H. H. Gaekwar of Le Verrou, 1762- 1769 
Baroda Collection 

(a) Fragonard' s Life 

Jean-Honore Fragonard, son of a merchant of Grasse, was 
brought at the age of fifteen to Paris by his father who had 
lost most of his money in bad investments. Articled to a 
notary he showed no talent for law but considerable talent for 
drawing, and he was taken to Boucher who recommended liim 
to apprentice himself to Chardin. After a period in Chardin's 
aU/kr he again showed his work to Boucher who now employed 
him as an assistant. In 1752, at the age of twenty, he won the 
Academy's Prix de Kome and entered the ecole des eleves proteges ; 



and in 1754 and 1755, according to custom, he sent pictures to 
Versailles to be inspected by the King.^ 

In 1756 he went, with a royal scholarship, to Rome, where 
after two years in the French Academy, he met Jean-Claude de 
Saint-Non, a rich Abbe who preferred the role of amateur 
engraver and patron of the arts to a career in the world of politics 
or the Church, and who chanced at this time to be in Rome. 
Saint-Non adopted Fragonard as his protege and invited him to 
the Villa d' Este, at Tivoli, which had been lent him by the 
Modenas who then owned it ; at the same time he invited 
Hubert Robert, another artist, who was Fragonard's friend. ^ 

Fragonard was Saint-Non's guest for a year or more ; and at 
his expense he visited Venice, where he studied Tiepolo's works 
(as Boucher had done), and Naples where he studied the decora- 
tions of Solimena (165 7-1747) which were greatly admired at the 

In 1 76 1 he returned to Paris and he was made an Academician 
and given a studio in the Louvre for L,e grand pretre Coresus se 
sacrifie pour sauver Callirhoe (now in the Louvre), which was a 
" picture of the year " in the Salon of 1765 and was bought by 
Marigny as Stirintendant des Bdtiments for translation into tapestry 
at the Gobelins. But though bought, the picture was not paid 
for, and Fragonard was completely without money. He began, 
therefore, to paint little pictures of sujets galants et grivois which 
appealed to rich people — though the artist's friends regarded 
them as lamentable " pot-boilers. "^ 

About this time he executed some commissions for ecclesias- 
tical pictures* and others for decorations in private hotels ; and 

^ Cf. note, p. 141. The 1754 picture was a subject from the story of Psyche, 
the other was l^e Sauveur lavant les pieds /d ses apotres, now in the Cathedral 
at Grasse. These pictures may have attracted the attention of Mme de 
Pompadour (cf. note, p. 161). 

2 Cf. p. 172, and PI. 73. 

^ Fragonard was kept waiting eight years for payment for his Coresus. 
One of his friends wrote to Marigny imploring him to make a payment on 
account because owing to the delay the artist was " oblige de se livrer a des 
ouvrages peu conformes a son genie" Diderot referring to Fragonard in 1769 
wrote : " On pretend que I'appat du gain I' a detourne d'une belle carriere et qu'au 
lieu de travailler pour la gloire et la posterity ^ il se contente de briller dans les 
boudoirs et les garde-robes." 

^ The Lille Museum has his Adoration des Bergers. 



then good fortune again appeared in the person of the immensely 
rich financier, Bergcret de Grancourt, Trcsoricr general dc la 
general ite de Montauhan, collector and amateur artist, who 
became his friend and protector. The next step was the decora- 
tion of apartments in the luxurious hotels of fashionable kept 
women, and Fragonard now became a well-known figure in a 
world of fantastic pleasure and extravagance, 'xn<\ persona Q/-ata 
with the most celebrated of these women — the dancer La 

Meanwhile the family Gerard, unsuccessful perfumers of 
Grasse, who had some connection with his own family, had sent 
him as a pupil Marie-Anne Gerard, aged seventeen, who showed 
talent for miniature painting — just as the Pater family of Valen- 
ciennes had sent Pater to Watteau ; and in 1769 when he was 
thirty-eight he found himself hesitating between marriage with 
Marie-Anne Gerard and the continuation of a life where he would 
pass as amant de cccur from one kept woman to another He 
chose respectability and a quiet life ; and he married Mile Gerard 
in that year. 

Thus protected he accepted and executed two important 
commissions in the next three years. The first was a series 
of panels for La Guimard, with whom he quarrelled before 
the work was completed. The second was a series of panels 
in the Pavilion de Louveciennes commissioned by Mme du 

* Of La Guimard, Portalis (cf. note, p. 1 5 9) writes : " £//^ avait trots soupers 
dlffcrents par semaine, I'un compose des premiers seigneurs de la cour, V autre d'auteurs 
et d' artistes, ' qui viennent aviuser cette Muse ' . . . Au troisieme, veritable orgte, 
etaient invitees les filles les plus seduisantes, les plus lascives . . . parades 
de son thiatre de Pantin, celebres par leur grivoiserie, n' etaient pas moins suivies. 
Les plus jolies filles de Paris y venaient avec les adorateurs, et si une honnite Jemme 
s'yglissait par curio site, ce n'etait qu'en loge grillee. 

La Guimard was a light and agile dancer but in figure too thin for the 
taste of the time. " 11 ne lui manque^'' it was said, " que des graces plus arrondies 
dans certaines parties — de son role.'"'' When Fragonard met her she was the 
mistress of the Prince de Soubise, who employed the architect Ledoux (who 
was about to build the Pavilion de Louveciennes for Mme du Barry) to build 
her a hotel in Paris. Later when La Guimard's fortunes waned she organised 
a public lottery for the hotel and all the objects of luxury (including the 
paintings by Fragonard and Louis David, cf. p. 158) which it contained. 
Though many people doubtless bought large numbers of tickets the winner 
was a lady of fashion who had bought only one. 



Barry who refused to hang them when they were com- 

In 1773 Fragonard and his wife were taken by Bergeret de 
Grancourt on a tour in Italy, Austria and Germany. The 
journey lasted about nine months and Fragonard was back in 
Paris at the end of the following year.^ 

His establishment in the Louvre now consisted of himself, 
his wife, a daughter of four, and his wife's sister Marguerite 
Gerard, aged thirteen, who had come from Grasse soon after 
his marriage. A son was born in 1780. In the period between 
1774 and the Revolution he used his own family as models for 
genre pictures, and he developed an amitie amoureuse with Mar- 
guerite Gerard when she grew up and became successively his 
pupil, his assistant, and a genre artist winning successes of her 
own. After 1767 Fragonard made no attempt to secure official 
patronage or the applause of the general public by exliibiting 
in the Salons. He exhibited his work in his own studio where he 
sold from the easel. He was thus the first eighteenth-century 
painter who defied the Academicians.^ 

When Fragonard quarrelled with La Guimard and left his 
panels unfinished an ambitious young artist, Louis David, 
asked and obtained his permission to complete them. This 
gesture on the part of Fragonard stood him in good stead when 
the Revolution arrived ; for David, then art-dictator, protected 

1 For this refusal cf. p. 162. Mme du Barry hung in their place a series of 
panels by Vien (cf. note, p. 181 and p. 183). 

2 The company travelled in two coaches. The first contained Bergeret 
and a mysterious lady (said to be Mme Bergeret's /^^//;/? de chamhre whom 
he married after Mme Bergeret's death) and Fragonard with his wife ; the 
second contained Bergeret's son and a chef ; Bergeret's valet and his son's 
man travelled ahead as couriers. 

Bergeret kept a diary of this tour which is most entertaining. Extracts 
are given by Portalis (cf. note, p. 159) and also in Fragonard, by Virgile Josz. 
At the end of the journey there was friction between Fragonard and his 
host and when they returned to Paris Fragonard brought an action against 
him to obtain possession of a number of drawings which Bergeret had 
retained. Bergeret lost the action and crossed out of his diary all flattering 
references to Fragonard whom he now described as a poltroon. Later the 
two men were again on terms of friendship. 

^ Greuze who abstained from the Academy after 1769 was the second, 
(cf. p. 170). 



Paris. Da ; 


Paris. David Weill Collalwn 

JEAN-HONOR fi FRAGONARD. La Resistance Inutile. 

London. Wallace Collection 

JEAN-HONOR fi FRAGONARD. The Schoolmistress. 


him. Thanks to David he was allowed to retain his studio in 
the Louvre and he was appointed President du Conservatoire of the 
Museum national des arts which tlic Revolutionary Government 
had established.^ 

He had made a good deal of money by his pictures. But 
when the rentes stir I'Htat were reduced his income became 
almost nothing, and though he made efforts to paint pictures 
in the prevailing spirit he was too old to secure success in a 
new field. 

In 1806 Napoleon suppressed all the artists' lodgings in the 
Louvre ; and Fragonard had to leave the studio which he had 
occupied for forty years and move his family and property 
elsewhere. He was then seventy-four. He died the same 
year of cerebral congestion after eating an ice in a cafe when 
he was hot from a long walk. 

{b) ^¥ragonard's CEttvre ^ 

Fragonard before his first journey to Italy was an imitator 
of Boucher. In Italy, as Saint-Non's guest, he drew monu- 
ments and ruins, and the gardens of the Italian villas, and he 

^ David recommended him in a report which said : " Fragonard a pour 
lui de nomhreaux ouvrages ; chaleur et originalite, c'est ce qui le caracterise ; a la 
fois cotwaisseur et grand artiste^ it consacrera ses vieux ans a la garde des chefs 
d'auvre dont il a concouru dans sajeunesse a augmenter le nombre " (cf. p. 183). 

2 The recorded works of Fragonard consist of about five hundred 
paintings, a thousand drawings, and some miniatures, illustrations and 
etchings. It is difficult, if not indeed impossible, to ascertain the present 
whereabouts of many of these pictures and a certain number have com- 
pletely disappeared. The dates of a few works are fixed ; the exact chron- 
ology of the others is a matter of conjecture. 

The de Goncourts produced the first modern account of his work in 1865. 
The Baron de Portalis published his splendid Fragonard, sa vie et son auvre 
with a detailed catalogue in 1889; but there are very few dates in his 
catalogue and many of the pictures have changed hands since his time. I 
am not acquainted with any later book which gives a list of the present 
whereabouts of all the existing pictures with a reasoned chronology ; dc 
Nolhac's " Fragonard " merely gives a list of pictures which have changed 
hands at sales and suggests no reasoned detailed chronology. 

My list of Characteristic Pictures above gives the present whereabouts 
of some fifty pictures ; the dates represent my conception of the artist's 
development as submitted in the text. 


painted a few pictures of similar subjects. The style of his work 
at this period shows the influence of Claude, as can be seen in 
the delicately formalised drawing Les Phis a la Villa Pamphili 
(PI. 67) which is now in M. David Weill's collection.^ 

In Paris between 1762 and 1769 he produced a series of 
pictures that can be grouped round the Academy success of 
1765 , L^ grand pre tre Coresus se sacrifie pour sauver Callirhoe. The 
drawing in the Coresus is rather simple and severe with few of 
the impetuous curves which characterise his later drawing. We 
find the relatively severe drawing in all the pictures that I group 
round the Coresus. We also find, in all of them, the use of the 
same models and the same studio properties. 

For the Coresus the models used were a tall blonde girl and a 
rather short young man with curly hair f and it is clear that the 
studio at this time contained a wreath of artificial flowers which 
appears on the heads of all the principal figures. 

The girl model appears in the Wallace Collection he Souvenir 
(a picture which suggests that Fragonard was acquainted with 
engravings after Reynolds), and both models appear in L,e Baiser 
a la derobee (PL IV) known as The Stolen Kiss (now in the Hermi- 
tage, Leningrad) ; in Le Verrou (now in the collection of H.H. 
the Gaekwar of Baroda), and the sketch for it in the Wildenstein 
Collection in Paris ; in the Wallace Collection I^a Fontaine 
d' Amour (PI. 68) where the figures wear the Coresus wreath ; in 
two of the Frick Collection panels painted for Mme du Barry, 
U Abandon and Tes Souvenirs (PI. 69) ; and in he Contrat which 
was a pendant to he Verrou.^ 

In addition to the Coresus wreath the studio properties at this 
time included a little round table (which is seen in he Baiser a la 
derobee and was converted into the altar in the Coresus^ and a 
white satin dress which the model wears in he Baiser a la derobee 
(PI. IV), he Verrou, he Contrat, h' Abandon and hes Souvenirs 
(PI. 69). A home-made shot-silk mantle is worn over the 

^ 'Le petit pare in the Wallace Collection is an example of Fragonard's 
painting at this period. Two pictures in the Bache Collection in New 
York, mentioned in my list, are others. 

2 Fragonard himself was under the average in height. The male figures 
in his pictures tend to be short. 

^ Le Contrat was engraved by Blot. In 1905 it was in the Marquis de 
Hautpoul's collection. 



dress in Le Ih/ser d la (Urohee ; this was taken off the dress 
and used as the young man's dressing-gown in \^e Conirat, 
which was evidently painted a little later because the dress 
has been renovated by the addition above the tight sleeves 
of a puffed over-slecve and the insertion of a new frilled 
modes tie} 

The impetuous note in Fragonard's drawing begins to be 
apparent in the sketcih for Le Verrou and it is still more clearly 
seen in the group of works that come next. In these we see 
another model, a petite brunette who posed for the delightfully 
lively figures in iM. David Weill's drawing hes Petards (PL 70a) — 
which represents young girls terrified by fireworks let off by a 
boy through a skylight in their bedroom — and for the paintings 
ha Chemise enlevee and hes Baigneuses (PI. yob) in the Louvre. ^ 

In Les Petards (PI. 70a) we observe much the same attitudes as 
in Les Baig/jeusesj(]?\. 70b), and in Les Petards there is a remarkable 
dog which was about the studio at this time. This dog appears in 
the Lefon de Ahisiqae in the Louvre where the seventeen year old 
Marie-Anne Gerard lately arrived from Grasse is trying to play 
the piano ; it may have belonged to La Guimard as it figures 
again in a full-length portrait of the dancer, where the artist, 
working in his old Boucher manner, has painted a Boucher 
Cupid aiming an arrow at the lady's foot.^ 

\\"e find a return to Boucher (who began we must not forget 
as an engraver of W'atteau) in the famous decorative panel Les 
hazards heuretix de I'escarpolette {The Saving) now in the Wallace 
Collection, and in the five Frick Collection panels painted for 

' Other pictures which belong to the Con'siis group are l^e Van a I' Amour 
in Orleans, for which there is a delightful sketch in the Louvre, L^ Serwent 
d' Amour in the Bacon Collection in New York, and L^ reve du sculpteur, 
in the collection of M. David Weill, a picture said to have been painted 
for Mme de Pompadour and therefore produced before 1764. 

2 L.a chemise enlevee is a sketch for an easel picture. It is in typically bad 
Louvre condition but it is still possible to see that it was painted with great 
delicacy of handling and colour, l^es Ba/gneuses on the other hand, which 
is coarse both in handling and colour, was certainly an overdoor panel and 
intended to be seen at a distance. The four pictures La Musiquey L'E/ude, 
Portrait de fantaisie and L' Inspiration (two of which bear the date 1769 
written on the back) are similarly coarse in handling and also overdoors. 

^ This picture is reproduced in de Nolhac's " Fragonard." I do not know 
its present whereabouts. 

Y 161 


Mme du Barry. The six pictures form a group in themselves 
dating from 1765 to 1772. I 

The subject of the du Barry series is known to have been Le 
progres de I' amour dans le cccur des jeunes filles. The traditional order 
of the panels is : (i) La Poursmte, also known as La Surprise, I 
(2) Le Kendeq^-vous, also known as U Escalade, (3) Les Souvenirs, • 
also known as Les Confidences (PI. 69), (4) L'Amant Couronne, \ 
(5) U Abandon. 

The reason that these pictures were rejected remains obscure. \ 
It has been suggested that the faces in Le Kende^-vous resembled 
Mme du Barry and Louis XV and that this offended the King, i 
But there was, I think, another reason. I believe that Mme du i 
Barry or the King saw an offensive double meaning in one of the 
pictures and rejected the whole series without giving an 

1 believe that the correct order for the pictures is : (i) 
L' Abandon which should be called Le Desir,'^ (2) Les Souvenirs \ 
which should be Les Confidences (PI. 69), (3) La Poursuite, (4) Le ' 
Kende^-vous which should be L' Escalade, (5) UAmant Couronne. | 
Thus arranged we get a continuous design illustrating a \ 
story ; and the last picture L'Amant Couronne, where the young 
couple are posing to the artist, is the calling in of Fragonard to 
record the " happily ever after " ending. ^ 

^ Fragonard himself was doubtless unconscious of the objectionable 
effect in this picture which is caused by a shadow that does not appear in ; 
the original drawing in the Groult Collection. The subjects of many of 
Fragonard's drawings and paintings are grivois in a light way, but I am not 
acquainted with any deliberate pornography from his hand. Pornographic 
double entente appears however with obviously deliberate intent in some 
pictures by Boilly. (Cf. p 167.) i 

2 For why should Fragonard paint Mme du Barry as deserted by the King ! 
— at the very moment of her triumph ? ! 

^ In his studio, however, Fragonard actually began, I think, with 'Le Dhir 
(L.' Abandon), Les Confidences {Les Souvenirs) and L'Amant Couronne, because ] 
the tall blonde still appears in all three pictures wearing her satin dress of 
which the sleeves have not yet been altered. In these pictures moreover i 
we see the old studio property, the Coresus wreath, and the lute, the music 
book and the boy's suit and ruffle of the Louvre Legon de Musique. L' Abandon 
is not a finished picture but a sketch in monochrome with touches of red. 
This does not mean, however, that is was necessarily the last from the illus- 
trative standpoint or the last to be produced. 



On his Italian journey with Bergcrct in 1773 Fragonard made 
a great many drawings mostly of Ba/z/hochade character ;* he 
probably painted few if any pictures. But I^vanclieres 
in the Amiens Museum I take to be a sketch done in three- 
quarters of an hour on tliis Italian tour. 

Fragonard's work of 1775-1779 after his return from the 
tour shows the influence of his study of Rembrandt in the 
German and Austrian collections which he visited with Bergeret. 
lie was already acquainted with Dutch pictures which he could 
have seen in many collections in Paris, but till then he had been 
mainly influenced by Terborch (as in L.e Baiser a la derobee (PL 
IV), and still more in he Contrat) and by Frans Hals as in the 
four ovcrdoors in the Louvre ;- and the spot-light effect derived 
from Rembrandt had already appeared in the sketch for 1^ 
T ^erron and other works ; but at this period the Rembrandt 
influence is so strong that Portalis has assumed that he visited 

This Rembrandtesque manner is seen in L^ lettre (PL 71) and 
1m resistance inutile (PL 72a) both now in M. David Weill's 
collection, and also in genre pictures like 1m, jamille du fermier 
in the Leningrad Hermitage and the Taureau hlanc a I'etable 
belonging to M. David W eill.^ 

For the remainder of liis career Fragonard painted genre 
pictures of domestic and rustic subjects, making free use of the 
Bawbochade drawings which he had made on the Bergeret tour. 
The Schoolmistress {Dites donc^ s'ilvousplatt) (PL 72b) in the Wallace 

In UEscalade and La Poursuite the model would seem to be Mme Fra- 
gonard wearing the satin gown, with the new puffed sleeves of Le Contrat 
and the old tight undersleeves now cut completely away, as she also wore it 
when posing for Lm. Lefon de Musique. 

All this of course is speculative as Fragonard like Watteau painted mainly 
from drawings which he might use after the model who sat for the drawing 
was no longer available. But he also sometimes painted direct from nature ; 
1m Lefon de Musique for example was obviously painted in this way ; Les 
Petards (PI. 70a) and Baigueuses (PL 70b) on the other hand both contain 
a figure copied from the same study. 

^ Cf. note, p. 86. ' Cf. note, p. 150. 

' Portalis records a drawing by Fragonard of Rembrandt's Night Watch 
and another of a Dutch mill. 

* ha fete du St. Cloud in the Banque de France, and the sketches for parts 
of it in two private collections, also belong to this period. 



Collection where we see Mme Fragonard and his son, aged ] 

about three, as models, is a pleasant example of his domestic ' 

subjects. j 

Fragonard was an artist with great gifts ; and his gaiety is i 
irresistible. The verve, the spontaneity, the wit and the delicacy i 
in drawings of the character of Les Petards were something new 
in art and in these qualities he has never been surpassed. His 
more impetuous oil paintings also make a great appeal to those i 
who enjoy facility and virtuosity of touch. But compared with 
Boucher, he was not a decorator ; and compared with Watteau j 
he had no microcosmic aim. He was a painter of easel pictures I 
who began as a lyric poet, who developed into the ancestor of \ 
ha Vie Parisienne draughtsmen and ended as a painter of genre, j 

We must recognise that Diderot's criticism at a crucial point 
of his career was to some extent justified. There can be no 
doubt that Fragonard took the line of least resistance. In lua 
Fontaine d' Amour (PI. 68), which was painted, I am convinced, j 
before the Coresus, there is an abstract lyrical quality in the j 
movement from which those of us who saw Pavlova and 
ISlordkin's first entrance in their Bacchanalian dance recapture I 
the same thrill. The lyrical movement that blows across L,a 
Fontaine d' Amour occurs again in the Louvre sketch for Fe Van 
a I' Amour ; and it is present in a slower tempo in Fe Baiser a la \ 
derobee (PI. IV). But already in the sketch for Fe Verrou the : 
movement has become rubato ; when we get to Fes Petards (PI. 
70a) and Fes Baigneuses (PI. 70b) the lyrical quality has 
disappeared. i 

Fragonard's spirit when he drew Fes Pins a la Villa Pamphili 
(PI. 67) was still modest ; it had idealism when he painted Fa , 
Fontaine d' Amour : it became irresponsible when he frequented j 
La Guimard and the gay world ; and it became bourgeois when j 
he married. 

In a word he lacked personality. He had sensibility, but not i 
much intellect, and hardly any will. ! 

X. Tableaux de Modes \ 

The eighteenth century in France was marked by the preva- ! 
lence of engravings known as gravures de modes which represented ' 

164 I 


fashionable costumes worn by figures placed in appropriate 
surroundings. Engravings of this kind had been produced all 
over l-'uropc in the seventeenth century and Jacques Caliot and 
Abraham Bosse, already mentioned, were among the French 

The tradition was continued by W'atteau who drew a number 
of fashion plates which were engraved in the Keatcil jullienm^ 
and it culminated in Lf Monument du Costume, delightful plates 
announced as a " Suite d'Estampes, pour servir a I'historie des 
maurs et due costume des Francois dans le dixhuitieme siecle " which 
perfectly fulfilled the advertisement.' 

These engravings, and the dainty and entertaining estampes 
^a/antes which sublimate the easy morals of French social life of 
the period, are outside my subject. But I must mention the 
names of the engravers Nicolas Delaunay (i 739-1 792), Robert 
Delaunay (1749-1814), Pierre-Philippe Choffard (1730-1809), 
Jean-Baptiste Simonet (1742-18 10), Frangois Dequevauviller 
(1745-1807) and the colour printers, J. F. Janinet (1752-1814), 
who invented an unsuccessful hot-air balloon, C.-M. Descourtis 
(1753-1826), and P.-L. Debucourt (175 5-1832) who made the 
brilliant drawings for many of his prints, and retired to the 
country- in the Revolution and bred rabbits. 

Exquisite gouache drawings and water-colours were made for 
these engravings and colour prints by Moreau le Jeunc (1741- 
18 14), who designed the most spirited of the plates for L^ 
Monument du Costume, Pierre-Antoine Baudouin (1723-1769), 
Augustin dc Saint- Aubin (173 7-1 807), Gabriel de Saint- Aubin 
(1724-1780), Nicholas Lavreince (1737-1807), and S. Swebach- 
Desfontaines who drew Lm Cafe des Patriotes where the Jacobins 
used to congregate in the Revolution. 

Paintings of the character of the gravures de modes had been a 
feature of Dutch seventeenth-century production, and Terborch 
and Metsu had achieved popular success with their illusionist 
texture painting of satin skirts and fur-trimmed jackets which 
they painted on lay figures.* When Chardin's paintings of 

1 Cf. pp. 47 and 85. " Cf. note, p. 108. 

' I^ Monument de Costume was published in instalments between 1774 and 

* Cf. my Introduction to Dutch Art, pp. 236-246. 



domestic subjects appeared they were ranked by the dilettanti as 
the continuation of this tradition, and some of the early pictures 
by Fragonard were regarded in the same way.^ 

In the Dutch tableaux de modes there was hardly any action. 
But the French artists soon began to give their pictures of this 
kind the additional interest of movement and incident and their 
tableaux de modes eventually developed into records of contem- 
porary life and manners as spirited and full of incident as the 

The last artist, whose name is associated with this school is 
Louis-Leopold Boilly : he was essentially an oil painter — 
though he occasionally drew for the engravers, and his work 
and career, both highly significant of the period, must be 
separately considered. 

xi. houis-LiCopold Boilly 

BORN LA BASSEE 1 76 1. DIED PARIS 1 84 5 ' 


The Dead Mouse 

The visit returned, 1789 

The Sorrows of Love, 1790 

Reunion d'artistes dans I'atelier d'lsabcy, 

L'Arrivee de la Diligence, 1803 
Les Amateurs d'Estampes 
L' Averse 
Seven portraits 
La Partie de Dames au cafe Lamblin, 

r. 1820 
Lucile Desmoulins 

L' Enfant au fard • ' 

La Jeune mere degue ( 

La Moquerie 
La Mere en courrace 
La Serinette 
Les Saltimbanques | 

^ The influence of Terborch appears, as already noted, in Fragonard's 
Ee Baiser a la derobee (PI. IV) and in Ee Contrat. In Ee Contrat moreover 
the lady has dropped on to the sofa a coat trimmed with white fur of the 
type which occurs in Metsu's pictures. 



Wallace Collection 


Wallace Collection 


Wallace Collection 














Musee Cognacq 


Musee Cognacq 


Musee Cognacq 


Musee Cognacq 


Musee Cognacq 


Musee Cognacq 


Musee Cognacq 


Musee Cognacq 


Musce Carnavalet 


Muscc des Arts 









Depart des concrits en 1807 
L' Atelier de Houdon 

Portrait of Boieldicu 
Marat portd en triomphc 
Studies tor L' Atelier d'Isabey 

Boilly, son of an ornamental sculptor of La Bassee, earned 
his living from eighteen to twenty-three by painting portraits in 
the provinces ; he is said to have produced three hundred in 
Arras alone. Arriving in Paris in 1784 he painted tableaux de 
modes which were generally risques, and sometimes indecent by 
reason of a double entente. In the Terror he was denounced as 
an indecent painter of the old regime and he escaped the guillo- 
tine by beginning Marat porte en triomphe (now at Lille) before 
the inquisitors arrived at his studio. Having weathered the 
storm he became a recorder of social life under the Directorate, 
the Consulate, the Empire and the Restoration, and he also 
continued to paint portraits and from time to time tableaux de 
r/jodes more or less in his old manner. 

Boilly 's social pictures are the forerunners of the journalistic 
descriptive paintings of the nineteenth century. In h! Arrive e de 
la diligence (PI. 74b), painted in 1803, now in the Louvre, we see 
a young wife embracing her husband, who has just arrived by 
the diligence; a nursemaid holds one of the lady's children 
in her arms and blows the nose of another ; in other pictures 
we see old cronies playing chess in a cafe and people caught in 
a rainstorm in the streets of Paris ;^ and hes Saltimbanques in the 
Musee Cognacq shows us open-air acrobats and the crowd 
watching them — a picture in the old tradition of The Quack 
Doctor started in Holland by Bamboche^ and carried on by Jan 
Steen and others.^ 

We see, in fact, the influence of the Dutch seventeeth-century 
pictures in all Boilly's work ; and he revived the Dutch tradition 
of portrait groups of men united by occupation or office, which 

^ This picture, which was acquired by the Louvre a few years ago, makes 
an interesting contrast with Lw Parapluies (in the National Gallery, Millbank) 
by Renoir. 

2 Cf. note, p. 86. 

3 Cf. my Introduction to Dutch Art, pp. 174 and 175 and Pis. 70 and 97. 



had already appeared in French art in the work of Largilliere.^ 
His Atelier d'Isabej in the Louvre, which was painted in 1798, 
is a briUiant piece of collective portraiture and a most interesting 
record of the continuation of the artists' life in their Louvre 
quarters all through the Revolution.^ 

Boilly gave his paintings the remarkably smooth poHshed 
finish which we associate with some of the Dutch pictures and 
which we encounter again in certain pictures by Ingres. He 
is said to have invented some optical device to assist him in 
representational imitation. It was possibly some instrument 
of the kind used by the Dutch painter Gerard Dou^ or some 
contrivance of the camera oscura variety of the kind used in the 
eighteenth century by Canaletto. 

As he always delineated costume with great accuracy, and 
worked over a period when it changed several times, his pictures 
have considerable value from that point of view. 

xij. Jean-Baptiste Greu^e (172 5 -180 5) 

In the second half of the century there was a reaction in 
certain sections against the estampes galantes and the tableaux de 
modes and it became fashionable to adopt Diderot's attitude 
and ask a picture to tell a moral tale. The " simple life " ideas 
of Jean-Jacques Rousseau were also fashionable, and genre 
pictures showing the presumed domestic happiness of peasants 
in rustic interiors were much admired.* 

Fragonard in his later genre pictures was thus working to 
achieve contact with a growing taste, but as he did not exhibit his 
genre paintings in the Salons he never experienced the popular 
success which Greuze achieved with his L'Accordee de Village 
in the Salon of 176 1. 

Greuze was the son of a builder of Tournes, near Macon, and 

^ Cf. note, p. 96. 

2 In another group L,' Atelier de Houdon (in the Musee des Arts decoratifs) 
we see the sculptor at work on a portrait bust with the sitter on the throne 
and the sitter's wife and daughters watching ; Houdon's famous statue of 
Voltaire (now in the Musee Fabre at Montpellier) is at the back of the studio. 

^ Cf. my Introduction to Dutch Art, p. 280. 

* Boucher's rustic interiors had been in the spirit of the estampe 
gal ante. (Cf. p. 147.) 


ChUago. .in hislilKl: 

HUBERT ROBHRT. Lcs Fontaines. 

Jl'AN-BAl^'llSTl' (,R1,U/I' 

he was apprenticed to a painter of J.yons who brought liim to 
Paris ; he remained obscure till at the age of thirty, in i755> '^^ 
submitted a u;enre picture to the Academicians and was aoree 3.nd 
allowed to exhibit Lhi pcre cie famille qui lit la Wible a ses enfant s in 
the Salon, He was taken to Italy by one of the dilettante Abbes 
of the time, and there he met and fell in love with a youni^ Italian 
Countess to whom he was giving lessons in drawing. Marriage 
being out of the question he returned to Rome in sentimental 
mood and fell a victim to a bookseller's daughter whom he 
married in 1769. Mme Greuze, he soon discovered, was a 
shrew ; she was also, as he discovered later, a harlot ; but she 
was pretty^ as we know from a long series of pictures. 

L'Accordee de Village, now in the Louvre, was unfinished when 
the Salon of 1761 opened and it arrived six days before the 
exhibition closed. For these six days — as the de Goncourts put 
it, '^ c'etait wie acclamation, une emeute d'enthousiasme, un prodigieux 
succes." The picture represents an old peasant handing a 
money bag to a young man whom he has just accepted as the 
betrothed of his daughter who is seen with her mother and 
various sisters on the other side of the peasant interior. The 
picture, in character, is a scene in a third-rate melodrama ; but 
its false sentiment was well calculated to appeal to the Salon 
public at the time.^ 

In the same Salon Greuze exhibited Alwe Greu-:(e envestale ; and 
his genre pictures in the next few Salons were accompanied by 
examples of those " fancy " heads and figures of young girls 
with which his name is most widely associated. The London 
Wallace Collection has a number of well-known examples of 
this aspect of his work, of wliich La Priere du Matin in the 
Musee Fabre, at Montpellier, is also characteristic. 

In 1767 the Academicians, jealous of his success, refused to 
allow him to exhibit as he had not yet painted his tableau de 
reception^ He therefore painted an agreed subject : " UEwpereur 
Severe reproche d Caracalla, son fils, d' avoir voulu I'assassiner dans les 

^ And to Diderot who hailed Greuze as the tultilment of his own art 
principles (cf. p. 144). " C'esi vraiment la," he wrote, '* ftion homr/ie que Gretcie 
. . . c'est la peinturc morale. Quoi done I le pinceau u'a-t-il pas v/e asse^ et trop long- 
temps consacre a la debauche et au vice ? . . . Courage, tnon ami Greic:ie, fais de la 
peinture morale etfais-en toujours corn me ccla. ..." * Ct. note, p. 105 . 

Z 169 


defiles d'Ecosse^ et lui dit : * Si tu desires ma mort, ordonne a Vapinien 
de ??ie la donner avec cette epee.'' "^ The Academicians then elected 
him — but in the inferior category of peintre de genre, which 
excluded him from the higher offices in the Academy.^ This 
so incensed him that he abstained from exhibiting at the Salons 
and organised exhibitions in his own studio which Marigny had 
granted him in the Louvre. ^ 

Greuze made a great deal of money out of the sale of his 
pictures and engravings from them.* But his capital, like 
Fragonard's, disappeared in the Revolution ; and he had not 
Fragonard's advantage of David's protection. In 1 8oi we find 
him writing to the Minister of the Interior : "/W tout perdu, or 
le talent et le courage. J'ai soixante quin-:(e ans, pas un seul ouvrage de 
cofnmandey In the hope of scoring a popular success he now 
broke his resolution and began to send pictures again to the 
Salons ; but the triumph of UAccordee de Village was not 
repeated ; and he was almost destitute when he died in 1805. 

Greuze was a detestable artist. He was coarse and stupid in 
his genre subject-pictures in which he never approached the 
contact with real simplicities that we find in the works of Louis 
Le Nain and Chardin ; and in his " fancy " heads and figures he 
was lecherous.^ 

^ The picture is now in the Louvre. 

2 Cf. p. 141. 

^ In this, cf. p. 158, he was following the example of Fragonard who was 
among his friends. The Salon public flocked to Greuze's studio exhibitions 
where many of his best-known pictures, including La Cruche casse'e, were 
first shown. La Cruche cassee, bought by Mme du Barry, as noted, passed 
to the Louvre when Mme du Barry's property at Louveciennes was national- 
ised in the Revolution. 

Greu2e believed in keeping his name before the public ; he wrote letters 
to the newspapers explaining " how the idea came to him " for a subject 
picture or protesting against unfavourable references to his pictures. 

* The engravings had an enormous sale ; they hung in countless bourgeois 
homes and even collectors oi estampes galantes 2ind gravures de modes competed 
to secure them. For Greuze's Portrait of Napoleon^ cf. note, p. 190. 

^ I have described some of Fragonard's drawings as ancestors of the 
drawings in L,a Vie Parisienne. Greuze was the ancestor of the " pretty 
girls' heads " on the covers of popular magazines. But Fragonard at his 
worst was better than the best of his imitators ; Greuze at his best was 
worse than the worst of his. 



xiij. French Yi'ightcenth-century landscape 

French landscape painting under the old regime showed few 
signs of the collapse into the imitative naturalism of the Dutch 
tradition that was to appear in the nineteenth century. The 
artists held fast to the picturesque-classical traditi<;n in landscape 
and they reinforced the mechanical vision of their eyes to 
architectural perception.^ 

Boucher's landscapes and landscape settings in his composi- 
tions were organised with the same cold intellectual clarity that 
we find in his other work. There is no haphazard imitation of 
casual appearance in l^e Moulin in the Louvre or h.e Moulin de 
Charenton at Orleans ; all the units in these pictures are con- 
sistently formaHsed and architecturally disposed. 

W'atteau, after his first genre period, gave style to his land- 
scapes by studying Venetian drawings, and in a picture like the 
Wallace Collection Amusements Champetres (PI. 48) he contri- 
buted a new space-concept of his own. Fragonard, who started 
in the Claude tradition (PL 67), also made a contribution in his 
massing of verdure in the Louveciennes panels (PI. 69) and in 
]_M Voire de St. Cloud in the Banque de France.- 

Apart from these artists who used landscape to some extent 
incidentally, there were others, especially in the second half of 
the century, who speciahsed in this field. Of these the outstand- 
ing names are Joseph Vernet, Louis-Gabriel Moreau and 
Hubert Robert. 

Joseph Vernet (1714-1789) was sent to Italy by a patron at 
the age of nineteen, and he developed there as a painter of 

^ I have discussed the fundamental difference between mechanical vision 
and perception in The Modern Movement in Art, pp. 17-23 and 76-118. 

2 The nineteenth-centur}' collapse was, however, heralded by Oudry 
in La 'Per me (painted in 175 1 and now in the Louvre). This picture which 
represents a farmhouse and farmyard with animals treated purely as genre 
was accurately described in the old Royal inventory as " un tableau dans le 
genre flamand." Oudry, as noted (cf. note, p. 148), was definitely a naturalist 
of the Low-Country school ; in his animal painting he followed Snyders 
and Desportcs and anticipated Courbet. 

Louis XV's Queen, Marie Leczinska, who, like Mme de Pompadour, 
was an amateur artist, made a copy of l^a Ferme which can be seen to this 
day at Versailles. 


decorative landscapes and marines in the manner of Claude. He 
was recalled to Paris by Mme de Pompadour in 1745 and Marigny ! 
commissioned him to paint a series of views of French ports. 
Fifteen of these views, which exhibit a fine decorative serenity, 
can be seen in the Louvre.^ 

Louis-Gabriel Moreau (1740-1806), known as Moreau I'Aine, 
to distinguish him from his brother of Monuwent dn Costume 
fame,2 specialised in views in the regions round Paris. His 
admirable Vm des coteaux de Bellevue in the Louvre, where little 
figures in the foreground give the sense of scale to majestic 
trees, is characteristic of the small number of his pictures that 

Hubert Robert (173 3-1 808) was taken at the age of twenty-one ■ 
to Italy by the French Ambassador. He worked in the French i 
Academy in Rome and under Claude's follower Panini. He 
became a friend of Fragonard and with him, as noted, a protege 
of the Abbe Saint-Non. He painted decorative pictures of 
Roman ruins with genre figures of lavandieres and so forth in the 
Bamboche-Claude tradition ; and he sometimes recorded actual 
scenes in a decorative way. J 

When he returned to France he received numerous commis- 
sions from owners of Louis XVI rooms with wliich his pictures 
admirably accorded. His work also appealed to the Russians 
of the Court of Catherine the Great and scores of his pictures 
can be seen to this day in Catherine's palace, known as Tsarskoe 
Selo, and in the mansions formerly owned by Russian nobles.^ 

In 1792 he was arrested as a suspect but he managed to escape \ 
the guillotine and to secure a post with his old friend Fragonard ' 
on the staff of the Museum. i 

Hubert Robert exhibited immense fertility in decorative com- 
position. His output was very large but he never repeated ! 

^ Vernet's Italian pictures, in which he often anticipated Romantic 
landscape by suggesting drama and mood, were bought by rich men as ' 
decorative panels for Louis XVI rooms. The Louvre has several examples I 
which entered the museum as nationalised treasures when the owners 
emigrated during the Revolution. (Cf. p. 180.) 

2Cf. p. 165. .: 

^ Cf. Sir Martin Conway's Art Treasures in Soviet Russia, a book which ' 
serves to remind us of the extent of the export of French art of all kinds 
under the old regime. (Cf. pp. 126 and 189.) 

^^^f^•.s \i(;i;i. i.i, hRiiM and i..\hii.i.i.-(;U^'ari) 

himself. He had ii Hght touch and his |:)icturcs arc agreeable in 
colour. I reproduce Les I'otitaines (PI. 73), now in the Art 
histitute of Chicago. 

xiv. M///CS I Igec-l^e Br/m atid iMbillc-Guyard 

\\\ the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries both in Holland 
and in France there were many women painters who imitated 
the various pictorial tendencies of their day ; and just before the 
Revolution there were two women painters, Mme Labillc- 
Guyard and Mme Vigee-Le Brun, who had rival reputations as 
portrait painters in Paris. ^ 

Mme Adelaide Labille-Guyard (i 749-1 803) was the daughter 
of a Parisian shopkeeper who supphed " dentelles^ rubans et jolies 
fatif re Inches " to the Court ; and in her youth she formed a 
friendship with Mme du Barry who was then an assistant in the 
shop. She studied painting under F. A. Vincent (1746-18 16) 
who painted the portrait of Fragonard's friend Bergeret which 
is now in the Museum at Besan^on. She married one Nicolas 
Guyard, divorced him, and then married Vincent. 

Clever and ambitious, she made friends with many of the 

' In the field of portraiture they had to compete with H.-P. Danloux 
(175 3-1 809) whose excellent Lo/a's- Henry- Joseph de Bourbon at Chantilly was 
painted in England (whither Danloux fled from the Revolution) and shows 
the influence of Reynolds and Lawrence ; Joseph Boze (1744-1826), painter 
of the celebrated full length of Mirabeau making his defiant reply to 
Dreux-Breze (now in the Carnavalet Museum in Paris), who worked 
all through the Revolution and also painted portraits of Napoleon and 
Louis XVIII; J. S. Duplessis (1725-1802), who painted the charming 
Mme Lenoir in the Louvre and a portrait of Franklin of which versions are 
preserved in the Musee Carnavalet in Paris and in the Museum of Boston ; 
Antoine Vesticr (1740- 18 24), painter of the Carnavalet portrait of the 
adventurer 'Latude holding the rope-ladder with which he escaped from the 
Bastille after thirty-five years' imprisonment, and of pleasing portraits of 
women in the Metropolitan Museum, New York, the Museum at Bristol 
(England) and in the Louvre; and J. Ducreux (1737-1802), who was La 
Tour's only pupil and was sent to Vienna to paint Marie-Antoinette's por- 
trait. F. H. Drouais (1727-1775), the favourite Court painter at the end of 
the reign of Louis XV, and Louis Tocquc (1696-1772), who was Nattier's 
son-in-law and another favourite portrait painter in the second half of the 
reign of Louis XV, were both dead before Mme Labillc-Guyard and Mme 
Le Brun began to attract attention. 



Academicians and painted their portraits ; in 1783, at the age of 
thirty-four, she was made an Academican, and she then waged a 
campaign to secure the admission of women painters to the pro- 
fessorial posts from which they were excluded, and to abolish the 
then existing limit to the number of women members. She had a 
considerable number of young women pupils, two of whom are 
seen in the striking full-length picture (PI. 75 b), now in the 
Wildenstein Collection, which I reproduce. She received com- 
missions from members of the Royal Family and was made 
peintre de Mesdames, a post which, it will be recalled, had been! 
held by Nattier. When the Revolution came she remained m 
Paris and was on terms of friendship with Robespierre who wrote 
to her in 1 79 1 : '' Onm'a dit que les graces voulaient faire mon portrait,.^ 
Je serais trop heureux d'tme telle faveur sije n' en avals senti tout leprlxA 

Mnie Labille-Guyard worked in oil and pastel with efficiency] 
and vigour. But her vision was rather prosaic, as can be seeij 
from M. David Weill's V artiste (PI. 76b), where she was not 
aspiring to the " Grand Manner " as in the full-length picturd 
(PI. 75b). The critics of her day continually compared her with! 
Mme Le Brun and many regarded her as the superior artist.^ 

Mme Ehzabeth Vigee-Le Brun (175 5-1842), the favouritei 
painter of Marie-Antoinette, lived through the Revolution, the 
Empire and the reign of Louis XVIII. She was the daughter of 
the pastellist Louis Vigee (1715-1767)2 and studied painting 
with various artists including Greu2e and Joseph Vernet. Atj 
an early age she began to exhibit and have success ; at twentf 
she married Jean-Baptiste Le Brun, a picture dealer who became! 
the father of the little girl who figures in the two well-knowni 
double portraits Mme Le Brun and her daughter in the Louvre. | 

1 Mme Labille-Guyard's portrait Mme Eli:iabeth painted in 1787 is at 
Versailles ; it depicts the princess on a terrace with a child and a parrot; 
and shows the influence of Reynolds. Her pastel portraits of Vincent and: 
/.-/. Bachelier are in the Louvre ; the Musee Cognacq in Paris has thd 
excellent Comiesse de Cipierre ; and Baron de Gunzbourg has an attractive^ 
pastel Alme Clodion. ' 

2 Louis Vigee drew the pastel portrait of Mme de Pompadour en p}lerine\ 
which now belongs to M. Germain Seligmann of Paris. It dates from 1745! 
and represents the sitter in what is believed to 1 : lYxe- costume she wore 
when she first met Louis XV at a hal masquS in :bat year. The Comedie 
Frangaise has Vigee's pastel Mile Dangeville and the museums of Tours and 
Orleans have others. 


Mme Le Brun's portraits were not such good likenesses as 
those of Mme Labillc-Guyard, but they were more attractive 
pictures, and her sitters liked the brightly-rouged cheeks and the 
vivacious elegance with which she presented them. As a result 
she found herself *' taken up " by Parisian society as a brilliant 
new artist and a personality with charm. In 1779 ^^^ received 
her first sitting from the Queen and was appointed her peintre 
ordinaire ; she then painted the celebrated Marie Antoinette 
with a rose, Marie Antoinette in velvet and Marie Antoinette and her 
children (PI. 76a) which are now at Versailles.^ 

In 1783 — the same year as her rival — she became an Academi- 
cian.2 Her diploma picture, an allegorical composition of two 
figures, lui Paix ramenant I'Abondance, is now in the Louvre ; 
and her composition in the next Salon caused Diderot to write : 
" Lorsque je vois Mme Le Brun peindre I'histoire, Je crois voir la 
mas sue d'Hercule soulevee par la main des Graces.''* For the next four 
years she continued to paint portraits ; just before the Revolu- 
tion broke out she painted the portrait Mme du Barrj (PI. 75 a) 
at Louveciennes ;^ and in 1789, feeling herself suspect as a 
friend of the Queen, she left France.* 

^ In contrast to Mme Labille-Guyard, who was short, frapue and pug- 
nacious, Mme Le Brun was amiable and graceful, a good hostess and a 
woman with a sense of humour. 

Marie-Antoinette refused to sit to Mme Labillc-Guyard. She was ex- 
actly the same age as Mme Le Brun and became her personal friend. They 
used to sing duets together in the intervals of work at the portraits. The 
King was delighted with the portrait of the Queen and her children. " Je 
ne me connais pas en peinture," he said to the artist, " mais vous me la faifes 
aimer " — a more pleasant remark for an artist to hear than " I know nothing 
about painting but I know what I like." 

2 The Academy, to mark the difference in social status of its members 
from that of members of the old Mat/rise, had made a rule that no member 
could be directly or indirectly connected with dealing. As the wife of a 
picture dealer Mme Le Brun was therefore not eligible for membership. But 
the rule was waived by order of the Queen. (Cf. note p. 7 and pp. 83, 84.) 

^ Mme Le Brun in her old age published her Souvenirs where she states 
that Mme du Barry at this period used no rouge and spent most of her 
time visiting the local poor. The portrait which was formerly in the col- 
lection of the Due de Rohan is now in the Wildenstein Collection in Paris. 

* When Mme Le Brun left Paris she was almost penniless though she 
had made considerable money by her portraits. The money, it would seem, 
was spent by her husband who looked after her business aff^airs. She 


During the Revolution Mme Le Brun travelled painting por- 
traits and, it is said, landscapes in Italy, Austria, Germany and 
Russia. She had no difficulty in making money as she had intro- 
ductions to the Courts and the wealthiest people wherever she 
went. In Naples she painted several portraits of Lady Hamilton 
in Nattier's allegorical tradition.^ 

In 1 802 she returned to Paris but she refused to be introduced 
to Napoleon and, finding herself ill at ease in the new Parisian 
society, she crossed to England where she stayed three years. 
In 1805 she reconciled herself to the idea of the Imperial regime 
and went back to Paris where she painted portraits at Napoleon's 
Court. Later she bought herself a house at Louveciennes where 
she died at the age of eighty-seven. ^ 

divorced him before leaving France ; he remained in Paris and acted as 
saleroom agent for the Government's purchases at art sales during the 
Revolution. (Cf. note, p. 180.) 

^ I do not know the present whereabouts of these portraits. 

2 Mme Le Brun's reputation was very high in her day. James Northcote, 
pupil of Reynolds, has recorded an amusing incident in connection with the 
exhibition of some of her portraits in London. " As I had not conceived 
that it was worth any painter's trouble to go to see them," he writes, " I 
had not gone ; but was glad when I found that he (Reynolds) had seen 
them that I might have the opinion of so great a judge. I said ' Pray what 
do you think of them Sir Joshua ? ' ' That they are very fine,' he answered. 
* How fine ? ' I said. ' As fine as those of any painter,' was his answer. 
' As fine as those of any painter, do you say ? do you mean living or dead ? ' 
When he answered me rather briskly, ' Either living or dead.' I then, in 

great surprize, exclaimed, ' Good G ! what, as fine as Vandyke ? ' He 

answered tartly, * Yes, and finer.' I said no more, perceiving he was dis- 
pleased at my questioning him. I mention the above circumstance to show 
his disinclination to oppose the popular opinion, or to say anything against 
the interest of a contemporary artist : as it was not his intention to mislead 
me, but only to put a stop to my enquiries." 

Mme Le Brun's comments on the work of Reynolds were more critical : 
" lis sont," she wrote, " d'une excellente couleur qui rappelk celle de Til/en, maiSy 
engeneraky sont peu t ermines, d V exception des tHes." 


T'^fi^r Five 


i. T/je KevoluiioH 

ij. Louis David 

iij. The First F^mpire and A.-]. Gros 

iv. Pierre Prudhon 

V. Fainting under Loi/is XV 111 

vi. /. A. I). Ingres 

vij. Fhe Romantic Movement 

viij. Theodore Gericault 

ix. Eugene Delacroix 

X. Franco-Dutch Landscape Painters 

xi. Cam ilk Corot 

xij. Kealism and the Salon Public 

xiij. Gustave Courbet 

xiv. Daumier and Guys 

2 A 


i. The devolution 

In the last years of the old regime when siijets grivois and genre 
pictures of the type of Greuze's UAccordee de Milage were 
popular, the number of painters considerably increased. This 
happened because it required little skill to paint such pictures 
well enough to satisfy a Salon public that asked nothing from 
the painter but the power to tell an anecdote in paint. With this 
increase in the number of painters the supply of such pictures 
began to exceed the demand and the painters began to protest 
against the Academy's tyranny and to complain that they had 
" nowhere to exhibit " their productions.^ 

The complaint at the time was largely justified, for the Salons, 
as noted, were limited to the works of agrees and members ; 
other artists could still only show in the discredited exhibitions 
of the Academic de St. Luc, i.e. of the old Alaitrise, and, on one 
day a year, in the old open-air exhibition on the Place Dauphine 
which was now known as l' exposition de lajeunesse? 

In these circumstances a club called La Societe des Amis des 
Arts was founded which had a gallery in the Hotel Bullion. 
There semi-public exhibitions were held to which collectors 
were invited ; and it was there that artists like Mme Labille- 
Guyard and Boilly first attracted attention. 

When the Revolution broke out the discontented artists be- 
came more articulate and in 1791 U Assemhlee Rationale decreed 
that the Salon should be open to everyone. As a result the 1791 
Salon contained tsvice as many pictures as the Salon of 1789, 
and the number of pictures shown in the Salons steadily increased 
all through the Revolution.^ 

In 1792, when David was virtually Art Dictator of the 
Republic, he was petitioned by a group of artists to abolish the 

^ The same complaint may be heard in Paris to-day though at least 
30,000 pictures are now shown there ever}- year. 

- Cf. note p. 123 and p. 135. 

^ In 1789 three hundred and fifty pictures were shown in the closed 
Salon. In 1791 seven hundred and ninety-four were shown in the first 
open Salon ; in the Salon of 1793 — the year of the Terror — there were over 
a thousand exhibits ; in 1795 there were over three thousand. ( I have 
taken these figures from A History of Trench Art, by Rose Kingsley.) 


Academie royale de peinture et sculpture and also all the other 
Royal Academies of the old regime. David had a report pre- 
pared and in the following year the Academy was abolished 
and with it all the old organisations for training craftsmen 
in the French provinces that had existed since the days of 

In the place of these organisation the Revolutionary Govern- 
ment set up a Commune generale des Arts to direct contemporary 
production and give employment to artists, as private patronage 
had now ceased, and on David's proposal they founded open 
competitions for patriotic pictures to be purchased by the 

The Government also founded a Museum national des Arts (to 
which, as noted, David appointed Fragonard) to inventory and 
direct the conservation of the nationalised works of art from the 
royal palaces, from churches, and from the houses of emigres.^ 

The Government further set aside a sum for the purchase 
of works of art at private sales in order to prevent the flight 
of fine works to foreign countries ; and in the year of the 
Terror, on David's proposal, they bought from this fund 
pictures by Rubens and Jordaens, and Rembrandt's Holy Family 
known as L,e Menage du Menuisier now in the Louvre.^ 

In 1795 the old Royal Academy was replaced by the Institut 
National which included a new Academie de la litterature et des 
Beaux Arts as a section ; and this eventually became the 
Academie des Beaux Arts. The artists known as Memhres de 
rinstitut corresponded to the Members of the old Academy 
and soon formed themselves into a caucus in the old way. 

The revival of the " antique " in architecture, painting and 
the applied arts, which took place during the Revolution, and 

^ The majority of the pictures which now form the Louvre Museum are 
nationalised property from these three sources. The first public museum of 
sculpture and applied art was arranged in a former convent in the year of 
the Terror by Alexandre Lenoir who rescued Goujon's Diane Chasseresse 
and countless other works from destruction. Such parts of his museum as 
were not eventually transferred to the Louvre can be still seen in the court- 
yard of the ^ficole des Beaux Arts. 

* This was bought on behalf of the government by the picture dealer 
Le Brun (Mme Vigee-Le Brun's divorced husband, cf. p. 176) at the sale of 
the property of the Due de Choiseul-Praslin, deceased. 



culminated in the celebrated Dircctoire style in clothes, is very 
widely known. This classical revival had really begun, as 
noted, under Mme de Pompadour, but in the days of the 
Revolution it was greatly developed because the " antique " 
styles were then given topical significance through their associa- 
tion with the supposed Republican virtues of antiquity. 

In painting, this classical revival found a first champion in 
Vien^ and a still more powerful champion in Louis David, who 
employed the famous cabinet-maker Georges Jacob to build 
furniture copied from Greek vases for his classical pictures. 

ij. Jacques-Louis David^ 



Head of a Gid, c. 1800 

Mile Charlotte du Val d'Ognes, c. 1800 

Portraits of the chemist Lavoisier and 

his wife, 1788 
Mme de Richemont and her son, c. 1805 
Portrait of a Youth 

Erasistratus discovering the cause of the 

sickness of Antiochus, 1774 
IMiner^'a, Mars and Venus, 1771 
Portraits of M. and Mme Pccoul, 1784 
Belisarius as a beggar recognised by one 
of his soldiers, 1784 

* Joseph Marie Vicn (17 16-1809) was an Academic decorator under the 
old regime and it was his work which replaced Fragonard's panels at Louve- 
cienncs (cf. note, p. 1 5 8). Under Louis XV he was Director of the Ero/e des 
llhves protigis and under Louis XVI he was Director of the Academy in 
Rome. Returning to Paris he was made Premier peintre du roi in 1789 and 
claimed to be the originator of the return to the classical style. 

In 1796 at the age of 80 he won a prize in one of the open competitions 
organised by the Directorate. In 1800 Napoleon made him a member of 
the Senate and Commander of the Legion of Honour, and at a great dinner 
given in his honour David and his pupils hailed him as the regenerator of 
French art. 

■•» For a catalogue of Louis David's works and ninety magnificent plates 
the student is referred to Cantinelli's Jacques-Louis David. 



Sir Philip Sassoon 


New York 



New York 



New York. 

Bcrwind Collection 


Johnson Collec- 



Ecole des Beaux 








































Fleury Collection 
Edmond de Roths- 

child Collection 


Bassano Collection 


Comtesse Murat 



Comtesse Murat 



Comtesse Murat 



Marquise de Ganay 




Musee Calvet 


Beistegin Collec- 









Branicki Collec- 


Leningrad. Hermitage 

The vow of the Horatii, 1785 

Paris and Helen, 1788 

Brutus, First Consul, in his home, after 

condemning his two sons to death, 

Fragment. Le Serment du Jeu dc Paume, 

La Marquise d'Orviliiers, 1790 
Mme Chalgrin, 1793 
View of the Luxembourg Garden, 1 794 
Catherine Tallart, 1795 
Portraits of M. and Mme Seriziat, 1795 
The Sabines, 1799 
Mme Recamier, 1800 
The Coronation of Napoleon, 1805- 

Leonidas at Thermopylae, 18 14 
The three ladies of Ghent, c. 18 18 
Portrait of Michel Lepeletier de Saint- 

The Death of Socrates, 1787 
Drawing : Marie Antoinette on her way 

to the scaffold, before 1793 
Sketch of Bonaparte, 1798 
La Marquise de Pastoret, c. 1795 

La Baronne Pauline Jeannin, 18 12 

Mme David, c. 1813 

Pope Pius XII and Cardinal Caprara, 

Bonaparte at the St. Bernard, 1800 
The Distribution of the Eagles, 18 10 
Death of Bara, 1794 
La Maraichere (La Tricoteuse), 1795 
Portrait Drawings for the Coronation 
Mme de Verninac, 1799 

The Death of Marat, 1793 

Mars disarmed by Venus and the Graces, 

Michel Gerard and his family, c. 1794 
Count Potocki on Horseback, 1781 

Phaon, Sapho and Cupid, 1809 



{a) David's Life 

Louis David was the son of a Parisian tradesman ; he was 
brought up by two uncles of whom one was a builder and the 
other an architect. His early drawings were taken to Boucher 
who recommended Vien as a first teacher. 

At the age of eighteen he entered the Academy's art school 
and there year after year he competed without success for the 
Prix de Rome. In 1773 after the fourth failure he attempted 
suicide. He was then twenty-four.^ 

It was after this period of frustration that he asked and 
received Fragonard's permission to complete his panels in La 
Guimard's hotel.^ 

In 1774 he competed once again for the Prix de Rome and 
won it ; and he set off for Italy with his old master Vien who 
was going to take up liis appointment as Director of the 
Academy in Rome. 

David was twenty-seven — unusually old for a scholarship 
winner — when he arrived in Rome ; but perhaps for that reason 
the impressions he received there were the more profound. 
He remained for three years and when he returned to Paris he 
had determined to bring French painting back to the point 
where it had been left by Poussin. 

In Paris he began at once as a history-painter, and by 1784 he 
was a member of the Academy with a studio in the Louvre. In 
that year the Comte d'x\ngiviUiers who had succeeded ^larigny 
as Surintendant des Batiwenls commissioned from him The VoiP oj 
the Horatii {Le Serment des Horaces)^ which is now in the Louvre.^ 

David determined to make this picture a demonstration of 
his passionate reaction against both the genre and the decorative 

^ Some of David's biographers ascribe the abolition of the Academy to 
the hatred of that institution which he acquired at this time. 

' If David nourished hatred against the Academy he was also capable 
of remembering a kindness, as the help which he gave to Fragonard during 
the Revolution (which has already been noted, cf. pp. 159, 180) bears witness. 

^ D'Angivilliers had persuaded the King to commission four or hve 
history-pictures every year to encourage the continuation of the Grand 
Manner which artists were beginning to neglect. The pictures however 
were apparently not actually bought for the Royal Collection unless they 
were approved on completion. 



traditions of French eighteenth-century art. He had married 
in 1 79 1 tlie daughter of the King's contractor for the Louvre; 
in the course of painting the Horatii he decided that he could 
only achieve the real classical severity in the atmosphere of 
Rome ; his father-in-law provided the money, and with 'his 
wife and a pupil-assistant he returned to Rome. 

he Serment des Horaces when finished was exhibited in the 
artist's studio in Rome and created a sensation. But in the Salon 
of 1785 in Paris it was " skied." Nevertheless it attracted 
attention and was bought by the King. Thus encouraged David 
returned to Paris and painted The Death of Socrates now in the 
Fleury Collection. This was ordered by a private collector and 
shown in the Salon of 1787. ^ 

The Louvre Paris and Helen (PI. 77), also a private com- 
mission, was painted in 1788 and exhibited in the Salon of 1789 
together with the celebrated Brutus (Louvre), which was another 
commission from d'AngivilHers on behalf of the King.^ 

When the 1789 Salon opened the Revolution had already 
begun ; the doors were guarded by Academy students acting as 
gardes nationaux. The Brutus, imposing in itself, was aided in its 
effect by the subject which in the eyes of the excited public 
seemed to have topical significance and to exalt the self-sacrifice 
of Republican patriots. D'AngivilHers had tried to exclude it 

^ All David's biographers state that Reynolds spent ten days in the Salon 
contemplating this picture and pronounced it faultless. I3ut this is an 
error. Reynolds was not in Paris in 1787. The eulogy referred to appeared 
in a London newspaper article called " The State of the Arts in Paris," 
written by a Paris correspondent in October 1777. (Cf. Whitley's Artists 
and their friends in England 1 700-1 799.) 

^ The full title of the Brutus as exhibited at the Salon was Brutus^ Premier 
Consul ^ de retour en sa maison apres avoir condamne ses deux fits qui s'etaient unis 
aux Tarquins et avaient conspiri contre la liberte Komaine. Les licteurs rapportent 
leurs corps pour qu'il leur donne la sepulture. 

The original commission had been for a scene from the life of Coriolanus. 
David tried various compositions without success and eventually changed 
the subject on his own initiative but without any political idea. The picture 
shows the wife and daughters of Brutus struck with horror at the lictors 
bearing the two corpses. Brutus sits in shadow in the foreground. The 
group of the woman and the two girls based on the antique Niobe has 
passages of grace. David, as noted, had the furniture in the picture 
specially made in the antique style but on the table he has placed a homely 
work-basket and a reel of wool. 


/'.J':-. Intivri- 

LOUIS 1)A\ ID. F.iris and Helen (detain. 

Aix-en-Provence. .1 

J.-A.-D. INGRES. Jupiter and Thetis. 

D.W'ID'S 1.1FR 

from the Salon hut the veto iinivcd too hitc ; and David found 
himself almost by accident acclaimed as the Painter of the 

It was therefore to David that the Jacohins turned with a 
commission for a Revolutionaiy propaganda picture : L^ 
Serment du Jen de Pan/z/e, and they allotted him a church as a 
studio in which to produce it.' 

In 1792 David became a Deputy in the Convention, a member 
of the Comite de I' Instruction and of the Commission des Arts ; 
and for two years he was virtually Art Dictator of the Republic. 
In this capacity, in addition to the abolition of the Academy and 
the organising work already recorded, he designed Revolution- 
ar)' propaganda fetes and processions, he suggested a new civil 
costume based on " I'Ktrusque, le Grec ou le Romain," and he 
painted propaganda pictures recording the deaths, for the 
Republic, of Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, of Marat and of the 
boy Bara. 

In these pictures all the Revolutionary victims are represented 
nude in accordance with the classical doctrine. Marat (PI. 80a) 
is shown in his bath as David saw him shortly after Charlotte 
Corday had delivered the blow, ^ara (PL Sob) who was actually 
in uniform at the time of his death, lies naked on the ground and 
presses a tricolor cockade to his breast. ^ 

After the fall of Robespierre in 1 794, David himself became 
suspect ; he was attacked in the Convention, arrested, and kept 
for four months in the Luxembourg Palace (then used as a prison). 
In the following year he was arrested a second time and again 
imprisoned for three months. In prison he painted a [ VV;;- of 
the l.Mxemhourg Garden from his window and began a design for 
a large composition depicting the Sabine women intervening 
to stop war. On his release he retired from politics and was 
given a studio by the Directorate. There he painted The Sabines 
and exliibited it in his studio from 1799 till 1804.^ 

' David never completed this picture because most of the personages 
represented became suspect when he was half-way through his work. A 
portion of the project is in the Louvre. 

2 The Death of Marat is now in the Brussels Museum. The Death of Bara 
is in the Musce Calvet at Avignon. 

^ David charged for admission to see this picture and made in gate- 
money 70,000 francs (which I am unable to translate into present money). 

2 B 185 


Napoleon, as First Consul, went to the studio to see The 
Sabines and when he became Emperor he appointed David 
Premier peintre de VBmpereur and commissioned him to paint a 
series of pictures recording Imperial ceremonies, two of which. 
The Coronation of Napoleon in Notre Dame known as L,e Sacre de 
Napoleon I" (now in the Louvre), and The Distribution of the 
Eagles now at Versailles, were painted between 1805 and 1809.^ 

Under the Empire, David tried to become Art Dictator for a 
second time. But he was now over sixty ; he no longer had the 
fire and energy of his earlier years ; and he was unable to com- 
pete with the opposing interests. He accordingly abandoned 
the attempt and buried himself in the composition of another 
large history painting, the Teonidas before Thermopylce^ now in 
the Louvre, on which he worked in 1 8 1 2 and 1 8 1 3 . 

At the Restoration of the Bourbons in 18 14 David sent all 
compromising pictures from liis studio into the country, and 
he was left undisturbed. During the Hundred Days he received 
a visit from Napoleon to see the Teonidas, and in a moment of 
enthusiasm he signed the Acte additionel for which he was exiled 
in 1 8 16 by Louis XVIIL He spent the remaining nine years of 
liis life in Brussels. 

{b) David's Art 

David's work has made a great appeal, since the Cubist- 
classical Renaissance, because he really was a champion of 
the classical concept. The modern artists look back to David 
above the agitations and accidents of nineteenth-century 
Romantic and Impressionist, pictures just as David himself 
looked back to Poussin over rococo art and the addle-pated 
productions of the eighteenth-century Grand Manner. 

We must not forget that he was a contemporary of Fragonard 
whom he regarded as a gifted but degenerate artist whose 
pictures represented self-indulgence. Point d'emportement du 

In a manifesto handed to visitors he stated that in demanding gate-money 
for the inspection of a picture in his own studio he had precedent in the 
practice of the English Royal Academicians. He would not have been 
allowed to do this in the old days of the A.cadh>iie royale which actually 
expelled a member who attempted it. 

1 Napoleon refused to sit for these pictures (cf. p. 190). 



pinccatt was his motto, lie excluded all parade of handling, all 
suggestion of facility from his work. I Ic desired, like Poussin, 
to instil the serenity of antique art into his pictures. Me sought 
continually the generic image. He endeavoured to thrust 
actuality on one side. 

But David never attained to the architectural heights of Pous- 
sin's outstanding works. He never achieved a coherent space- 
concept. Me had a classical concept of forms but not of form. 

Moreover, there was something doctrinaire — that came from 
his environment — in David's passion for the classical ideal. 
Poussin was a philosopher obsessed with a desire to create a 
microcosmic image. David was a fanatic obsessed with a hatred 
of rococo and Academic art. 

David's work, like Poussin's, is often described as cold and 
dr\\ But in truth David, like Poussin, was passionate and 
sensual and like Poussin he distilled this sensuality through his 
mind. This quality appears in his Bara (PI. Sob) and it also appears 
in the numerous portraits w-hich he painted at all periods of his 

David's portraits pulse with vitaHty beneath a brush that was 
always held in check. This controlled vitality is especially 
evident in an unfinished portrait like Mme Kecamier (PI. V) in 
the Louvre or in a sketch like the Head of a Gir/{]?\. 84a) in Sir 
Philip Sassoon's collection in London. The man who painted 
these sketches was not lecherous like Greuze but he also was 
certainly not cold or dry. 

David possibly was more true to himself in his portraits than 
in any other aspect of his work. The Sabines and the Uonidas 
before Thermopyla, both huge pictures, are magnificent efforts^ 
but they represent above all an exercise of will and we feel that 
the artist, in spite of high intentions, is really working in a field 
beyond his powers. In his portraits on the other hand and in l^e 
Sacre de Napoleon F' the artist has fulfilled his intentions. He has 
not taken the line of least resistance — David never succumbed 
to that — but he has aimed at a goal which with an effort he could 

^ When David painted Le Sacre de Napoleon I"' which contains scoresof full- 
length life-size portraits he was nearly sixty. W hen he had decided on the 
composition he had the figures made in wax and disposed in a box as Poussin. 



(c) David's Character 

David's biographers have fought hard battles about his 
character. He has been represented as an arrivist, a turncoat, a 
second Charles Le Brun who made the times serve his personal 
ambition. He has also been presented as a coward who betrayed 
his friends, and a sadist who insulted the dead body of Charlotte 
Corday and delighted in the slaughter of the guillotine. On the 
other hand, he has been presented as a man of intense enthu- 
siasms who flung himself with fanatical zeal into one cause after 
another — first into the creation of classical art, then into the 
purification of France by the Revolution, and finally into the 
glorification of Napoleon. 

There are facts to support all these contradictory estimates. 
David voted the death of the King ; he made no efforts to save 
his artist friends Peyre and Sedaine from execution. The sitter 
for one of his warmest, most sympathetic portraits, the Mme 
Chalgrin in the Louvre, was a daughter of Joseph Vernet the 
landscape painter ; David's picture was painted in the year of 
the Terror ; a few months later she was accused of theft and 
guillotined and David did nothing to assist her.^ 

There can be no doubt that David worked side by side with 
Robespierre in the days of the slaughter by the guillotine ; and 
he used to sit outside a cafe and make drawings of the victims 

had done for his compositions (cf p. 77.) For each head he made a por- 
trait drawing which was transferred " squared up " to the canvas and 
painted in by an an assistant while he sat in an armchair and issued his 
instructions. Afterwards he finished each head himself. -Le Sucre de Napoleon 
I"" and l^a Distribution des Aigles were painted in the Eglise de Cluny which 
was converted into a studio by the Imperial government for the purpose. 

^ Madame Chalgrin was accused as an accomplice in thefts from the 
Chateau de la Muette (which had been nationalised with its contents) because 
she shared an apartment with a daughter of the concierge (curator) of this 
former palace (where, it will be recalled, Watteau had painted chinoiseries 
in the time of the Duchesse de Berry's riotous occupation (cf. p. no) ). The 
inquisitors found fifty pounds of candles in this apartment and this was held 
to prove the guilt of Mme Chalgrin, of the concierge's daughter and of her 
mother who were all guillotined. Virgile Josz suggests in his " Fragonard " 
that David's desertion of Mme Chalgrin was an act of vengeaince because 
she had refused his advances when sitting for her portrait. 


being driven to their doom. Baron F^ldmond de Rothschild 
has a drawing Maric-Antoimtte nn her tray to the scaffold — an 
unforgettable pen sketch which David drew (as we know 
from the inscription upon it) from a seat in a window reserved 
for spectators of the procession ; and Mrs. Siddons, the actress, 
told the sculptor Nollekens that she was in a room with David 
when a rapporteur announced that eighty people had been 
guillotined that morning and David exclaimed, " No more ? " 
These are facts. But they are facts which must be read in the 
light of the hysteria of the period. They can be easily chronicled. 
But they cannot be lightly judged.^ 

iij. The First Empire and A.-]. Gros 

When Napoleon became Fmperor in 1804 he called for a new 
style to decorate his palaces and the residences of Josephine ; 
and the style Empire which resulted was the last phase of the 
antique revival which we have followed in its various forms. 
The furniture and decoration in this style though sumptuous 
and elaborate was coarse in execution, because the French skill 
in craftsmanship had been destroyed when David abolished the 
provincial organisations in which the craftsmen had been 
trained. It was one thing for Napoleon to order the resumption 
of the skilled work of the old regime and to desire to renew the 
revenue that came to France from export of applied art ; it was 
another for designers like Fontaine and Percier to try to revive 
French craftsmanship without skilled workmen, especially at a 
period when machines were beginning to displace hand labour in 
so many ways. 

In the field of painting I have already noted Napoleon's use of 
Louis David's power to paint propaganda pictures on a large 
scale. Napoleon's conception of the painter's art was much the 
same as that of Louis XIV. He regarded painting as a means of 
celebrating his own career ; and he was quite determined that 
his artists should represent him not as he was but as a new 
Augustus Cassar or Alexander the Great. In his youth he sat 

^ Perhaps the key to David's psychology may be found in the character 
of Evariste GamcHn in Anatole France's L^s Dieux ont soij which draws a 
convincing picture of the period as a whole. 



once to David for three hours on the eve of his departure for 
Egypt (in 1799), but as Emperor he refused to sit to anyone.^ 

Napoleon believed in art not only as a means of propa- 
ganda but also as a means of education and refinement for the 
masses. He turned all the artists out of the apartments in the 
Louvre (where artists had been lodged since the time of Henri 
IV) and completed the installation of the galleries as a national 
museum which had been begun in 1793 ; and side by side with 
the national treasures he exhibited art treasures which he had 
brought back after his victories in Italy and elsewhere. This 
additional Musee Napoleon could be seen in the Louvre until the 
great pictures it contained were returned to their countries of 
origin by the Allies after Waterloo. 

The pictures which Napoleon brought back from Italy had 
been chosen by an artist Antoine-Jean Gros (1771-1835), a 
pupil of David, who was attached to Napoleon's staff and 
afterwards painted pictures of his triumphs. Gros painted 
Bonaparte au pont d Arcole (now in the Louvre) in 1796 and 
exhibited it in the Salon of 1801; Napoleon had the picture 
engraved by the Venetian Giusseppe Longhi who was launched 
by the success of this plate. Gros also painted Bonaparte visite 
les pestijeres de Jaffa (now in the Louvre) in 1804, and the splendid 
Napoleon surle champ de batailled'Eylau (now in the Louvre) in 1 807. 
Although a pupil of David he was a Romantic at heart and his 
pictures, which are vigorous in handling and full of emotive 
movement, herald the Romantic reaction against David's art. 
In his later years Gros suffered from melancholia and he even- 
tually committed suicide by drowning himself in three feet of 

^ " Qu' ave^-vous besoin de modele ? " he said to David. " Croye^-vous que 
les grands hommes de Vanti quite aient pose pour leurs portraits ? Qui se soucie de 
savoir si les busies d' Alexandre sent ressemblants ? If suffit que nous ayons de lui 
une image conjorme a son genie. C'est ainsi qu'il convient de peindre les grands 

In 1803 Ingres who was twenty-three and Greuze who was seventy-eight 
both received commissions from provincial muncipalities for portraits of 
Napoleon as First Consul. Napoleon refused to sit to either. But he allowed 
them to come together to the Palais of Saint Cloud and to look at him for a 
few minutes, 



iv. Vierre Vriidhon 

Pierre Prudhon (175 8-1823), who painted the well-known 
portrait lV)e Yimpress Josephine (now in the Louvre), was another 
artist of consequence at this period. He was born in the reign of 
Louis XV and lived through the Revolution, the Empire and the 
reign of Louis XVIIL He had a distressing life, which included 
only a few years of prosperity, and his last days were clouded by 
a tragedy. 

Prudhon was the son of a mason of Cluny and he spent his 
youth as a provincial artist doing various kinds of hack painting 
and drawing for a living. At the age of nineteen he contracted 
a marriage of honour with a young woman of the people who 
plagued him for forty-five years and was finally locked up in a 
f?iaison de sante after she had forced her way to the Empress to 
complain about her husband. In 1782 he won a provincial 
travelling scholarship and went to Rome where he remained 
doing engraving and other work for seven years. 

On his return to Paris he found himself without friends at 
the time of the Revolution and he made a meagre living by 
engraving and book illustrations. But in 1 804 a friend, who was 
Prefer de la Seine, commissioned from him L^ Justice et la Ven- 
geance divine poursuivmit le Crime to hang in the criminal court of 
the Palais de Justice in Paris, and this picture, now in the Louvre, 
made his reputation in the Salon of 1808.^ 

As a result of this success he obtained commissions for 
portraits at the Court of Napoleon and he painted Le Triomphe 
de Bonaparte (a sketch for which is now in the Museum at Lyons). 
He also painted a Venus and Adonis (now in the London Wallace 
Collection) in wliich the nude Venus is traditionally supposed 
to have been drawn from the Empress Marie Louise to whom 
he gave drawing lessons, and a nude portrait (now in the Beskow 
Collection, New York) of Napoleon's sister Pauline Borghese.^ 

The period of Prudhon's success at the Imperial Court 

* This picture is now in a scandalous condition due partly to the artist's 
use of bitumen and a noxious medium of his own invention and partly to 
the Louvre authorities' criminal negligence in refusing to clean and condition 
their pictures. 

" This lady also sat nude for the sculptor Canova. 



coincided with the beginning of a romantic affection for his pupil 
and imitator Mile Constance Mayer, a young lady of independent 
means who went to live with him and help him with his pictures. 
In 1 821 when she was forty-six Mile Mayer became hysterical 
and cut her throat with one of Prudhon's razors before her 
mirror. Prudhon never recovered from the blow. He died 
two years afterwards and was buried in her grave. 

Prudhon's pictures have many attractive qualities. In Italy 
he acquired an enthusiasm for Correggio and still more for 
Leonardo da Vinci of whom he wrote " Pour moije n'j vols que 
perfection et c'est la mon fnaitre et tnon heros ..." 

His charming portrait Mme Dujresne (PI. 88a) shows the 
meUifluous line and twilight chiaroscuro which he imparted to 
his work as a result of this enthusiasm ; and this picture (which 
is now in M. David Weill's collection) also indicates, I fancy, 
that he was acquainted with engravings after portraits by the 
masters of the English eighteenth-century school. 

In his subject pictures Prudhon brought back the Cupid and 
Psyche, and the Venus and Adonis, of French painting in 
Boucher's day. But he portrayed the traditional figures in the 
soft light and shade used by Leonardo's early followers. His 
pictures moreover were not intended to be decorative panels 
to accord with a decorative style in interior decoration ; they 
were conceived as lyric poems in paint existing in their own 
right. Prudhon's subject pictures show what Fragonard's art 
might have become if he had pursued the lyric vein of L,a 
Fontaine d' Amour (PI. 68), which he afterwards abandoned. 

In Rome Prudhon was intimate with the sculptor Canova and 
his friendship, I fancy, had an influence on his work ; it probably 
induced him to paint his figures as marble statues in black and 
white without yellow in the carnations ; and it may be that 
we must ascribe to the same influence the mincing grace of the 
raised little finger which disfigures his otherwise graceful 
Enlevement de Psyche in the Louvre. 

The caucus of the Institute exerted all its influence against 
Prudhon's success and refused to admit him till 1816 when he 
was nearly sixty.^ 

^ Prudhon's Assumption of the Virgin (now in the Metropolitan Museum 
in New York) was painted for the Tuileries Chapel in 18 16. 


H ' ^AflH^i^^B^^I 


Brussels. Museum 

LOUIS DAVID. Death .if Maui. 

Aiit^Hoii. Mu:>ce Culvei 

LOUIS DAVID. Death of Bara. 


Paitititig under Louis X I 'HI 

III the reign t)f Louis XVllI (1814-1824) the outstanding 
artists were the pupils of David and of Jean-Baptiste Regnault, 

Regnault lived in Rome for some years and was the painter 
of the Three Graces (now in the Louvre), a group wliich 
resembles the celebrated Three Graces by Raphael (now at 
Chantilly), itself based on an antique group in the library of 
the cathedral at Siena. 

Rcgnault's most notable pupil was Pierre-Narcisse Guerin 
(1774-183 3) who painted Napoleonic propaganda pictures that 
can be seen at Versailles, and, later, pictures which were in- 
fluenced by David and the French classical drama as performed 
at the Comedie Frangaise. The Louvre has his Ketour de Marcus 
Sextus (1799), Phedre et Hippolyte (1802), Aurore et Cephale (1810), 
Clytemnestra (18 17), and Aeneas relating the woes of Troy to Dido 


David had a large art school from the time he exhibited his 
Brutus till he finally left Paris for Brussels, and the principles 
which he inculcated became nominally the basis of French 
official painting as represented by the Institute. But the 
Institute's concept of classical art soon became little more than 
a prejudice in favour of classical subjects with nude and draped 
figures and an insistence on smooth surface-painting with a 
show of detail in the representation. This degenerate pseudo- 
Davidian tradition persisted all through the nineteenth century ; 
it can be seen in the work of Gerome (i 824-1 904), and 
occasionally in the official salons of Paris to this day.^ 

David's outstanding pupils, apart from Gros, already men- 
tioned, and Ingres, whose work will be separately considered, 

1 The real Davidian tradition was, however, continued to some extent 
by Puvis de Chavannes (18 24-1 8 88) who executed mural decorations for 
the Pantheon, the Sorbonne and the Hotel de Ville in Paris, for the Library 
at Boston, and for a number of French provincial towns (cf. my Modern 
Movement in Art, pp. 66-67). Puvis went twice to Italy and his Summer 
(PI. 79), in the Cleveland Museum, which has passages which also occur in 
the Hotel de Villc decorations in Paris, shows that he was susceptible to the 
charm of Luini's loathing Nymphs in Milan. 

2 c 195 


were Girodet de Roucy Trioson (i 767-1 824) and Frangois- 
Pascal-Simon Gerard (1770-1837). 

Girodet was the painter o£ Le Som?neil d'E^ndymion (1792) and 
Atala mise au tombeau (1808), both now in the Louvre. In Atala 
mise au tomheau he tried to combine the Davidian tradition with 
motifs and chiaroscuro taken from Rembrandt. He also painted 
official Napoleonic pictures for Versailles. 

Gerard painted Psjche revolt le premier baiser de I' Amour 
(Louvre) in 1798 and thereafter he became the favourite portrait 
painter of the Courts of Napoleon, Louis XVIII, Charles X 
and Louis-Philippe. Many of his portraits can be seen at 

The Napoleonic propaganda pictures created a taste among 
the Salon public for history-pictures with figures in contem- 
porary clothes ; but when the Bourbons returned in 18 16 the 
official attitude encouraged the painting of history-pictures with 
subjects taken from the earlier liistory of France in order to 
stress the idea that the new regime had restored the continuity 
of French history interrupted by the Revolution and Napoleon. 
Pictures representing episodes from the career of Henri IV and 
other sovereigns, and painted illustrations of subjects taken 
from works of literature dealing with past periods, now began 
to appear side by side with pictures of classical subjects in the 
Davidian tradition. 

France had been more or less isolated from the time of the 
Revolution to the fall of Napoleon, but with the Restoration of 
the Bourbons contact was established with other countries, and 
foreign literature became the rage; as Sir Charles Holmes 
has put it, " Goethe, Scott and Byron among the modems, 
Dante and Shakespeare and Cervantes among the older writers 
took the place of Livy^ and Plutarch." This new movement 
was known, with a fine absence of pedantry, as le style trouba- 
dour ; and later it was known, with equal inaccuracy, as le style 

David saw his pupils one after another succumb to the new 
troubadour subjects. The first successes in the style were scored 
by a group of artists from Lyons known as the e.cole de Lyons 

^ During the Empire and the Restoration titles were given to successful 
artists ; Gros, Gerard, Regnault and Guerin were all made barons. 


P -Mm 

Paris. Louvre 

J.-A.-D. INGRHS. Mine Riviere. 







A'eif York. Metrupolitaii Museum 

J.-A.-D. INGRES. Portrait Drawing. 

J. A. 1). INC.RI'S 

who included Pierre Revoil (i 776-1 842) and Fleur)' Richard 
(1777-18 5 2), who had both been trained to paint classical subjects 
in David's school. Revoil's Un Toumo/ an XIV Steele^ now in 
the Lyons Museum, a picture which might have been produced 
by certain Academic artists in Paris or London in 191 2, was 
actually produced in 1812. Richard's Vert-Vert^ a work of the 
same character, which can also be seen at Lyons, was painted 
before 1822. 

But David knew that the tradition of Poussin and his own 
conception of classical style could not be compassed by the 
average mind. He foresaw the transformation of his classical 
concept into the pseudo-classical dogma of the Institute and 
he also foresaw the growth of the " troubadour " movement. 
In 1808 he wrote : " Dans dix ans, l' etude de I' antique sera delaissee. 
yentends hien louer l' antique de tous cotes et, quandje cherche a voir si 
on en fait des applications, J e decouvre qu'iln'en est rien. Aussi, tous ces 
dieux^ ces heros seront remplaces par des chevaliers, des troubadours 
chantant sous les fenetres de leurs dames au pied d'un antique donjon. 
La direction que J'ai imprimee aux beaux-arts est trop severe pour 
plaire longtemps en V ranee."'' 

But though he could forgive what he held to be degeneration 
in lesser men he could hardly forgive when he obser^^ed its 
appearance in the work of his most gifted pupil Jean-Auguste- 
Dominique Ingres ; and if he did not actually impede this 
remarkable artist he certainly refrained from assisting him in 
any way. 

vi. /. A. D. Ingres^ 




National Gallery 

Oedipus and the Sphinx, c. 1808 


National Gallery 

M. de Norvins, 18 13 


National Gallery 

Roger delivering Angelica, c. 1819 

New York. 


Portrait of a Man 

New York. 


Portraits of M. and Mmc Le Blanc, 



^ For a full account of the life and work of Ingres the student is referred 
to his biography by Hcnr)' Lapauze which reproduces four hundred paintings 
and drawings. 

J. A. 

New York. 



New York, 



New York. 

Frick Collection 


Museum of Arts 

































Paris. (?) 

Fitzjames Collec- 


Paris. (?) 

Bessoneau Collec- 


Paris. (?) 

Bessoneau Collec- 



Pereire Collection 


Baron E. de Roths- 



Baroness James de 

Rothschild Col- 



Due d'Orleans 



Comtesse de Fla- 

vigny Collection 


Duchesse de Bro- 

glie Collection 


Musee Conde 


Musee Conde 


Musee Conde 


Musee Conde 


Musee Conde 




Portrait Drawing : Lady and Boy, 1808 

Portrait of Cherubini 

La Comtesse d'Haussonville, 1845 

Portrait drawing, 1830 

Mme Riviere, 1805 

Mile Riviere, 1805 

Philibert Riviere, 1805 

Oedipus and the Sphinx, 1808 

La baigneuse, 1808 

La Grande Odalisque, 1814 

Roger delivering Angelica, 1819 

Christ giving the keys to St. Peter, 1820- 

Pius VII in the Sistine Chapel, 1820 
The Apotheosis of Homer, 1827 
Fran9ois Bertin, 1832 
Cherubini and the Muse, 1842 
The Virgin with the Host, 1854 
Jeanne d'Arc, 1854 
La Source, 1856 
Le bain turc, 1862 
Philip and the Marshal of Berwick, 1 8 1 8 

The entry of Charles V into Paris, 1821 

Aretino and Tintoretto, 1848 

L'Odalisque k I'esclave, 1839 
- Baronne James de Rothschild, 1848 

Raphael and La Fornarina, 18 14 

Le Due d'Orleans, 1842 

Mme Moitessier, 1 8 5 1 

La Princesse de Broglie, 1853 

Self portrait, 1804 

Mme Devaucay, 1807 

Stratonice, 1840 

Venus Anadyom^ne, 1807 and 1848 

Francesca da Rimini 

Francesca da Rimini, 18 19 















Muscc Bonnat I'rancesca da Kiinini 

Muscc Boniiat Mme Dcvaucay, 1807 

Musce Bontiat Baigncusc, 1807 

Muscc l^onnat Charles X, 1825 

Muscc Bonnat Portrait drawings 

Cathedral The Martyrdom of St. Symphoricn, 


Muscc Ingres Jesus among the doctors, 1862 

Muscc Ingres View from the Villa Medici, 1807 

Muscc Ingres View of the Villa Borhcsc, 1807 

Muscc Ingres Numerous drawings 

Cathedral Le vccu de Louis XIII, 1824 

Museum Philemon and Baucis ; drawing, c. 1801 

Museum La Belle Zelic, 1806 

Museum Jupiter and Thetis, 18 11 

Museum Virgil reading the Aeneid to Augustus, 


Museum Mme de Senonnes, 1814 — ^ 

Museum Virgil reading the Aeneid to Augustus 

(fragment), 18 19 

Museum Napoleon as First Consul, 1803-1805 

Ingres is one of the most puzzling figures in the whole history 
of French art. He could be Classical and Romantic, formal and 
naturalistic, ascetic and lascivious, majestic and absurd, all in 
the same picture. At his best he was unquestionably a great 
artist ; at his worst he touches the lowest Academic depths. 
One thing only is clear as we study his pictures year by year 
throughout his long life of unusual productivity — and that is that 
he became gradually less of an artist with each succeeding year. 
I lis finest and most intriguing pictures which include the ]upiter 
and Thetis (PL 78) and the portrait Mme Kiviere (PI. 81) were all 
painted before he was thirty-five. He was still working at the 
age of eighty-t\vo and he ended as alternately a pedant and a 
degraded photographic eye.^ 

Ingres was the son of a versatile artist of Montauban who made 
architectural and garden sculpture and painted miniatures ; he 
became a pupil in David's art school at the age of sixteen, and 
kept himself by playing the violin in the orchestra of a theatre 

^ And yet this extraordinary artist produced right at the end of his career 
he hain tun now in the Louvre — a picture compounded of the rhythmic 
grace of the early period and senile concupiscence. 


in the evenings.^ In 1801, at the age of twenty-one, he was 
awarded a Prix de Rome, but as no funds were forthcoming for 
the scholarship he had to wait for five years before receiving a 
grant for the journey to Italy. 

Within these five years he painted for the municipality of 
Liege, Napoleon as ¥irst Consul^ which is now in the Museum of 
that city. Napoleon as Emperor for the Corps legislatif, now in the 
Invalides, the Self portrait now at Chantilly, and the portrait 
Alme Riviere (PI. 81) which, with portraits of her husband and 
daughter, is now in the Louvre. 

Ingres went to Rome in 1806 and remained there till 1820. 
He then lived for four years in Florence. He was thus in Italy 
for eighteen years ; and there he kept himself, and later his wife 
and mother as well, by making portrait drawings in pencil of the 
character of A lady and a boy (PI. 82) which is now in the Metro- 
politan Museum in New York.^ 

In Rome Ingres looked at the Renaissance masters, especially 
Raphael, rather than at the antique sculpture which was recom- 
mended in David's school ; but he also must have studied 
antique cameos and we can perceive this influence in- the basso- 
relievo effect oi Jupiter and Thetis {VI. 78), now in the Aix Museum, 
which he sent to the Paris Salon in 1 81 1 when he was thirty-one.^ 

The Jupiter and Thetis is probably the most characteristic of all 

1 The modern French painter M. Vlaminck did the same thing for a 
number of years. 

2 Ingres charged small fees for these portrait drawings and his sitters 
came from all classes. They included artists and musicians, members of the 
French colony in Rome, and foreign visitors to the city (the Musee Ingres, 
at Moutauban, has a double drawing of Lord and Lady Cavendish-Bentinck). 
They also included members of the petiie bourgeoisie of Rome many of whom 
were sent to his studio by a friendly barber. Ingres drew his sitters singly, 
in pairs, and in groups. He elaborated the heads and lightly indicated the 
whole or half-length figures. The Musee Ingres at Montauban and the 
Musee Bonnat at Bayonne have many characteristic examples of these 

^ The head of Jupiter in this picture is based on the Otricoli Zeus in the 
Vatican. In 1806 Ingres painted his friend the sculptor Bartolini holding a 
small marble replica of the head of this statue in his hand. The student will 
find the picture reproduced by Lapauze who describes it as in the collection 
of Drake del Castillo. Bartolini was in Paris in his early years and was 
commissioned to make a head of Napoleon for the Colonne Vetidome. 


Chuiililly. Mtisec CoiuU 

l.-A.-D. INGRES. Franccsca da Rimini 

London. Sir Philip Sassoon Collection 

LOUIS DAVID. Head of a Girl. 

Ni-u- York. A. U..i^uhn ( :.......„. 

EUGENE DELACROIX. Hcsiod and the Muse. 


Ingres' pictures and the artist himself retained a preference for it 
all his life. But it was badly received at the Salon and found no 
purchaser. To critics accustomed to the Davidian tradition all 
Ingres' early pictures appeared Gothic. His portrait, Mwe 
\\iviere (PI. 8i), when exhibited in the Salon of 1806, had been 
denounced as an affected return to the Gothic primitives of the 
character of Jan Van l'!.yck and the same charge was made 
against the Jupiter and Thetis.^ 

Delacroix's comment on Ingres in his early years was nearer 
the mark ; Ingres, he said, was " un Chinois tgare dans Athenes " ; 
and indeed there is something Chinese in the rhythmic flow of 
line and in the tactile values of the Jupiter and Thetis and also in 
Alme Kiviere. 

Also, of course, the Jupiter and Thetis is more a Romantic than 
a classical picture. The distortions of natural forms which 
characterise it are more in the nature of Romantic distortions 
to stress the emotivity of fragments than in the nature of 
classical distortions determined by concerns with architectural 

But the Jupiter and Thetis is nevertheless not purely a Romantic 
picture ; its formal character is hybrid ; and it shows a strange 
mixture of lyric rhythm and the pseudo-tragic grandeur of the 
Operatic stage. 

In 1 81 2 Ingres painted J^irgH reading the .Aeneid to Augustus, 
a finely imagined history-picture in the Davidian tradition, 
which is now in the Museum at Toulouse. The celebrated nude 
known as La Grande Odalisque, now in the Louvre, was painted 
in 1 8 14 and was sent to the Salon of 18 19. This picture, which 
resembles the nudes of the French Renaissance School of 
Fontainebleau, shows that Ingres had been studying Bronzino and 
the Italian masters who influenced that school,^ and the same 
quality appears in Kaphael and La Fomarina now in a private 

* " L' Academic des Beaux Arts " wrote : " Cef artiste semble plutbt 
s^e forcer a se rapprocher de I'epoque de la naissance de la peinture qu' a se pimtrer 
des beaux principes qu' off rent les plus belles productions de to us les grands maitres 
de I' art, principes dont on ne saurait s'ecarter impunement ..." And the writer 
then proceeded to criticise the drawing of the torso of Jupiter and of the 
left leg of the kneeling nymph. 

- For the distinction cf. The Modern Movement in ^Ir/, pp. 29, 39, 145-153. 

* Cf. pp. 28-30 and PI. 17c. 



collection which was painted in 1814, and in the ¥ ranee sea da 
Rimmi (PI. 83) at Chantilly, which I assume to have been painted 
at the same time.^ 

ha Grande Odalisque received a hostile reception at the Salon. 
Once more Ingres was attacked as a Gothic artist but this time 
he was called " a Gothic artist of the school of Cimabue," and he 
was reminded that Gothic paintings of the Cimabue character 
were " sans harmonie " and that " tout peinture sans harmonie est 

In ha Grande Odalisque we can already perceive the direction 
in which the artist was about to degenerate. The figure, com- 
pared with those in the Jupiter and Thetis^ is over-modelled, and 
in the actual painting there is a good deal of unpleasant surface 
polish. The equally celebrated Mfne de Senonnes, now in the 
Nantes Museum, is a truly Gothic picture where the artist has 
aimed at trompe I' ail imitation of trumpery details and textures 
in the lady's dress and jewellery and at highly-polished smooth- 
ness in the face and hands. Mme de Senonnes anticipates the 
Daguerrotype by which Ingres was undoubtedly much influenced 
in his later years, ^ but it falls far short of the highest achievements 
in this method of painting.^ 

In 1 8 17 Ingres received a commission to paint a Christ giving 
the Keys to 'Peter for the church of Santa Trinita dei Monti in Rome. 
His picture, an incredibly dreary Raphaelesque pastiehe, now in 
the Louvre, was completed in 1820 ; it was much admired in 
Rome and its success procured him a commission for he Voeu de 
houis XIII for the Cathedral of Montauban. This picture 
represents Louis XIII in a fleur de lys mantle kneeling before a 

1 The version of this picture at Angers which lacks the rhythmic quality 
and the formal distortions of the Chantilly version is dated 18 19, Ingres 
often repeated his pictures with substantial variations at long intervals of 

2 La Grande Odalisque was a commission from Queen Caroline Murat of 
Naples who was unable to take delivery after the Napoleonic collapse in 
1 8 14. The picture found no purchaser at the Salon. 

^ Cf. The Modern Movement in Art, pp. 88-92, 95, 96. 

* The jewellery in Mme de Senonnes would be seen to be clumsily painted 
if compared with the mirror and the beads on the wall in Jan Van Eyck's 
picture Jan Arnolfini and his wife in the London National Gallery — or with 
the nails in the chair of Vermeer's Lady standing at the Virginals in the same 




Raphaelesquc Virgin ; it can still be seen in the Montauban 

In 1824 Ingres returned to Paris and exhibited L.e l^au de 
Louis XIII in the Salon. This time he scored a triumph ; he 
received congratulations from all sides ; he was invited to join 
the Institute ; and he was given the Legion of I lonour by 
Charles X.» 

Le Vau de Louis XIII, as a subject from French history of the 
past, was in the taste of the period as already noted ; and Ingres, 
who seems to have been aware of this orientation, brought to 
Paris at the same time a number of other pictures in this 
" tro:d'adour " style. They included Henri IV playing with his 
children,- The Ilntrj of Charles V to Paris, ^ Franfois I at the death- 
bed of Leonardo da Vinci, ^ Philip V and the Marshal of Berwick,^ 
Pius VII in the Sistine Chapel (Louvre) and the 18 19 Angers 
version of the Francesca da Ki;;/ini to which I have referred above. 

He now received commissions for the portrait Charles X 
(Musce Bonnat, Bayonne), for the Apotheosis of Homer, originally 
painted for the ceiling of a galler}" in the Louvre and now exhi- 
bited on the wall, and for the Martyrdom of St. Sjmphorien for 
the Cathedral at Autun. He also had commissions for portraits. 

The years of his adversity were thus over. Money flowed 
into his pockets. He sold the engraving rights of his " trouba- 
dour " pictures ; and he opened an art school v>^hich continually 
increased in size. 

As David was now dead and Delacroix had begun to show his 
tumultuous Romantic paintings in the Salons, Ingres — so long 
decried as Gothic — now found himself hailed as champion of 
the Davidian classical tradition, and even his complete failure 
to acliieve a classical picture in the Apotheosis of Homer was 
hailed as a success. He accepted the position and became a 

^ The Louvre has a picture Charles X distributing the awards in the Salon of 
1824 by F. J. Ileim (1787-1865) in which l^e Van de 'Louis XIII is seen on 
the wall of the Salon. 

'^ I do not know the present whereabouts of this picture. 

^ This dreary Academic tableau-vivant reproduced by Lapau/e is catalogued 
as in the collection Bessoneau d' Angers. 

* I do not know the present whereabouts of this picture. 

^ This picture which recalls Le Brun's Louis XIV tapestries is reproduced 
by Lapauze and catalogued as Collection de La Comtesse Robert de Fit^ames. 

1 D 201 


pedant of the Institute from which he helped to exclude Dela- 
croix for twenty-seven years. 

In 1834 he returned to Rome as Director of the Academy and 
remained there till 1841. His Stratonke (now at Chantilly) was 
painted at the end of this period in Rome. He spent the final 
period of his life in Paris. 

The climax of his career was the 'Exposition Universelle of 185 5, 
when he had a gallery entirely filled with his main production 
to that date.^ 

In his later years he painted a number of portraits of Second 
Empire ladies wliich continue the Daguerrotype manner of the 
Mme de Senonnes at Nantes. 

Ingres made a great many preliminary studies for all his pic- 
tures, and some hundreds are preserved in the Musee Ingres at 
Montauban. There the visitor will also find the Jesus among the 
Doctors — a picture horrible in colour and Raphaelesque in 
design — which Ingres painted at the age of eighty-two.^ 

Had Ingres died, as Raphael and Watteau died, at thirty-seven, 
the world would rank him very high indeed. Is it possible that 
Raphael and Watteau would also have degenerated had they 
also painted till the age of eighty-six P^ 

1 In this exhibition where Delacroix also had a gallery of his own (cf. 
p. 212), Ingres to his intense annoyance only received the second medal; 
the first was given to Horace Vernet (i 789-1 863), a painter of military 
pictures. Others who received medals were Delacroix, Meissonier (cf. note 
p. 251) and the English animal painter Landseer (cf. note, p. 207). The 
English Pre-Raphaelites were represented in this exhibition and their work 
was remarked by Delacroix. 

2 A day in the Musee Ingres at Montauban is a depressing experience. 
But the student will find a second day, when he has mastered the relation 
of the individual drawings to the artist's awre as a whole, exceedingly 
instructive. Ingres appears here as a man of extraordinary zeal and moral 
energy especially if we remember that he suffered all his life from rheumatism, 
asthma and vertiges. 

^ One more judgment on Ingres must be recorded — that of Baudelaire, 
a critic who belongs more to our century than his own. To Baudelaire 
Ingres was *^ ce pedant dont f aime peu les faculiis ffmlingres." But we must 
remember that this was written of the later periods as Baudelaire only 
frequented the Salons from 1 845 onwards. He may not have been acquainted 
with Mme Kivi^re and Jupiter and Thetis. 



vij. The Romantic Movement 

In the later years of the reign of Louis XVIII, and all through 
the reign of Charles X (i 824-1 830) and Louis-Philippe (1830- 
1848), liberal thought in France and especially in Paris was in a 
state of ferment. Charles X was a grotesque reactionary who 
believed that the misfortunes which had befallen Louis XVI 
were due to the concessions which he had made to liberal ideas ; 
he had nothing but contempt for the English theory of a con- 
stitutional monarchy ; he muzzled the Press and tried to put 
the clock back to the seventeenth century. The discontent 
aroused by this stupidity continued under the more prudent 
Louis-Philippe and culminated in the revolution of 1848 and the 
establishment of the Second Repubhc. 

The celebrated Romantic movement in literature and art 
that arose and flourished between 1820 and 1850 was the 
artistic equivalent of the individualist liberal thought of the 

The official doctrinaire and propaganda painting of the 
Revolution, and the official propaganda painting of the Empire, 
had been followed, as noted, by official " troubadour " painting 
under Louis XVIIL The Romantic movement developed this 
" troubadour " style, not as a renew^al with the past but as an 
exaltation of Gothic freedom and individualism as opposed to 
classical order and control.^ 

I have discussed the relation of the Romantic movement 
to the Cubist-classical Renaissance of 1 886-1914 in The 
Modern Movement in Art, where I wrote : " The idea of art 
served by the artists of the Romantic movement a hundred years 
ago was the idea that the artist's function was to discover and 
record unusually emotive fragments. For the creation of a formal 
harmony and unity symbolising the harmony and unity of the 
universe, which is and always has been the classical architectural 
idea of art, the Romantic artist substituted the search for some 

^ As M. HauteccEur has put it : " a la beaute il opposa k caractire, a la 
raison k sentiment, au dessin la couleur, a l' an ti quite les temps modernes, a Kaphael 
Michel- Ange, aux Carraches Rubens, au nu le vttement, a la nature humanisee la 
nature sauvage." 



emotive fragment hitherto regarded as without emotive power. 
The fragments chosen by the Romantics were chosen not for their 
formal or generic but for their emotive significance ; they were 
the fragments which had affected the artist's emotions. Whether, 
judged by standards of Greek or Grasco-Roman sculpture or 
Renaissance painting, the fragment was beautiful or ugly did 
not affect the issue ; if the fragment aroused emotion in the 
artist it was ' beautiful ' ; and its reproduction was worth while 
on that ground alone." In that book I have also pointed out 
that according to the Romantic creed the artist must be in a 
state of emotion at the time of working and that this emotion 
must be evident in the actual handling of the paint ; and I have 
discussed there the general character of the pictures painted as 
a result of this new creed, and the effects of that creed on pictorial 

From the social standpoint the Romantic movement was of 
great significance because the Romantic creed created the con- 
ception of the artist as an individual charged with the duty of 
increasing his sensibility and his emotional receptivity to the 
utmost in order to react with the utmost emotional vitality to 
emotive fragments of life ; and by the same token it created 
the conception of the artist as an eccentric^ an individual outside 
society, subject only to laws dictated by the needs of his peculiar 

The Bohemian artist was the creation of the Romantic move- 
ment, because original Romantic art could not be produced by 
a hon bourgeois who thought it important to wear the same clothes 
as his neighbours and to come home punctually for meals. 

As the Romantic movement was part of the liberal individual- 
ism of the period, and as the Bohemian artist defied the laws and 
standards of bourgeois life, the period also saw the beginning 
of that hostility between the artist and the bourgeois which, 
together with the conception of the original artist as of necessity 
a Bohemian, persists to some extent to-day. The hostility has 
been fomented by the popular artists, who, jealous of original 
art, have endeavoured to discredit all the original artists of the 
last hundred years. ^ 

^ Cf. The Modern Movement in Art, pp. 15-14, and pp. 14-17, 27-31, 38-40, 
55-66, 68, 197-201, 206-212. 2 (3f. pp. 222, 223, 238, 239. 



The Romantic movement at the outset was not understood 
by the public who looked at its first manifestations in amaze- 
ment. But its individualist character was stigmatised by the 
artists who remained attached to the Davidian tradition and 
opposed their own confused concept of the classical principle 
to the new creed. 

Both sides painted demonstration pictures, defending their 
principles, and sent these pictures to the Salons ; and thus 
began the production of pictures, often gigantic in size, which 
were painted to attract attention and defend a principle in public 
exhibitions, and had no further function when the exhibition 

^ These huge demonstration pictures were, of course, quite unsuited for a 
private house and unless they were purchased by the State they returned as 
" white elephants " to the artists' studios. 

In the eighteenth century, as we have seen, all the large pictures painted 
were either commissioned as decorations for particular places or else 
commissions from the Surintendant des Bdtiments for tapestries to be made at 
the Gobelins and Bcauvais factories for the Royal palaces or other luxurious 
interiors. When this demand began to disappear the production of large 
history-pictures was artificially continued by D'Angivilliers and Louis 
XVI for the sake of perpetuating the Grand Manner (cf. note, p. 183), 
and the pictures thus commissioned, when ultimately purchased by the 
State, were sent to Versailles. The Revolutionary Government, as noted 
(cf. p. 180), had commissioned and given money prizes for patriotic 
histor)'-pictures ; but they could not absorb all the production of such 
work, and David himself, who could not sell his Sabines and his Uonidas, 
reimbursed himself for the time and money expended on them by charging 
for admission to his studio to see them (cf. p. 1^5). During the First Empire 
the Napoleonic propaganda pictures, officially commissioned or bought, 
were hung in the Tuileries and at Versailles. When, under Louis XVIII, 
the pictures in the Musee Napoleon were returned to their countries of 
origin (cf. p. 190) the empty spaces on the Louvre walls were partly covered 
by the removal of the Rubens Medici panels from the Luxembourg Palace 
to the Louvre ; and this was followed in 18 18 by the arrangement of the 
Luxembourg as a gallery for contemporary pictures, and the official purchases 
of ''' troubadour ^^ pictures in this and succeeding reigns were sent there. 
But the Luxembourg eventually became " full up " and then provincial 
galleries were instituted to take the overflow. Under the Third Republic 
the fund allotted by the Revolutionary Government for the purchase of 
contemporary pictures (cf. p. 180) was developed to the caisse des musees and 
it became the custom for the State to buy and send to the Luxembourg or 
some provincial museum a certain number of pictures every year. As the 
choice has usually been for pictures that would otherwise be " white 



I have already referred to the Classical demonstration Salon 
pictures produced by the pupils of David. The earliest Romantic 
demonstration pictures were produced by Theodore Gericault, 
painter of the celebrated Kadeau de la Meduse^ which was a Salon 
sensation in 1819. 

Other early exponents of the new creed were E.-F.-M.-J. 
Deveria (i 805-1 865), painter of La Naissance de Henri 7K, which 
attracted attention in the Salon of 1 827 and is now in the Louvre ; 
and Richard Parkes Bonington (i 801-1828), an English pupil 
of Gros, who scored successes in the Salons of 1822 and 1824, 
and was a friend of Delacroix, the one great artist of the move- 

Vn]^ Theodore Gericault (1791-1824) 

Theodore Gericault was a rich amateur who scored a Salon 
success at the age of twenty-one with his Officier de chasseurs a 
cheval{my^ in the Louvre) where we see an officer of the Imperial 
Guard mounted on a rearing horse (copied from an engraving 
after Raphael's battle of Constantine). He tried to repeat the suc- 
cess in the Salon of 18 14 with he Cuirassier hlesse quittant le feu 
(now in the Louvre) which was painted in a fortnight ; but this 
picture, where the horse was not copied from Raphael, failed to 
impress the public or the critics. In 1816 he went to Italy 
where he studied Michelangelo's frescoes in the Sistine Chapel 
and the drawings of horses by Leonardo da Vinci. On his 
return to Paris in 1 8 1 8 he painted Le Kadeau de la Meduse which 
is now in the Louvre. 

This picture, which shows shipwrecked men on a raft, made 
a sensation in the 1819 Salon because the wreck of the Meduse 
was then of topical interest, and the liberals who were accusing 
the captain of incompetency were making the disaster an excuse 
for attacks upon the Government. For the emaciated survivors 
on the raft Gericault made studies in hospitals and from corpses ; 
for the central figure he made a study from a friend who was 

elephants " in the artists' studios, a visit to most of the French provincial 
museums entails a good deal of rapid walking until the works of a more 
significant character (which they generally possess as the result of gifts and 
bequests) are discovered. 



suffering from jaundice, and he borrowed the attitude of this 
figure from Ugolino and his sons (by Reynolds), engravings 
of which were known in the Parisian studios at the 

In 1820 Gericault went with he Kadeau de la Meduse to England 
where the picture was exhibited and brought him considerable 
money. ^ 

In England Gericault was influenced by the English genre 
school which he imitated in lithographs and paintings of urban 
and rustic subjects ; he also looked at English sporting prints 
and produced Le Derby d'Epsow, now in the Louvre, in 
imitation ; but above all he was impressed with the animal 
paintings of James Ward and Landseer.^ 

In luigland Gericault seems to have become (as Watteau 
became) avaricious. He now regarded his considerable private 
means as insutlicient and returning to France in 1822 he engaged 

^ The sum mentioned by his biographers varies from 17,000 to 20,000 
francs. I cannot translate this into present values. Gericault must also 
have made money from engravings of this picture ; but he never was able 
to sell it ; the Louvre acquired it at the sale of his pictures after his death. 
The Officier de chasseurs a c/jeval and Le Cuirassier blesse were bought (I believe 
at the same sale) by the Due d'Orleans. The Louvre acquired them from the 
Louis-Philippe sale. 

2 Animal paintings by James Ward (1769-18 5 9) can be seen in the London 
National Gallery (Millbank). In his handling of oil paint this most interest- 
ing artist, who must be reckoned an early contributor to the Romantic 
movement, anticipates Van Gogh. Gericault saw his pictures at the 
Academy and the British Institution, where he also saw works by Landseer 
who was then under twenty. 

Landseer (i 802-1 873) was a very precocious painter. He exhibited 
pictures in the Academy when he was thirteen ; and he scored successes at 
the British Institution in 1819 with The Cat Disturbed^ in 1820 with Alpine 
Alas tiffs reanimating a distressed Traveller, in 1821 with The Sei-::iure of a Boar, 
and in 1822 with The harder invaded {01 which he received a ^^150 premium 
from the Institution. 

Gericault wrote from London to a friend : " Vous ne pom'e-:^ pas vous 
faire une idee des beaux portraits de cette annee et d'un grand nombre de paj sages tt 
de tableaux de genre ; des animaux peints par Ward et par Landseer, agi de dix- 
huit ans ; les mattres n'ont rien produit de mieux en ce genre ..." 

Gericault also saw and admired Wilkie's Chelsea pensioners reading the 
Waterloo Gazette (which Wilkie painted for the Duke of Wellington whose 
descendants still own it). • 



in business speculations in order to increase them. But the 
speculations were unsuccessful and before he died two years later 
he was almost ruined.^ 

ix. Eugene Delacroix 



London. National Gallery The Baron Schwiter (Refused Salon 

1827. Worked on 1830) 
London. National Gallery, Attila driving Beauty, Art and Pleasure 

Millbank before him (1855?) 

London. National Gallery Sketches for the Palais Bourbon decor- 

London. Wallace Collection The Execution of the Doge Marino 

Faliero, 1826 
London. Wallace Collection Faust and Mephistopheles, Salon 1827 

London. Victoria and Al- The Good Samaritan, 1852 

bert Museum 
London. Victoria and Al- The Shipwreck of Don Juan, 1839 

bert Museum 
New York. Metropolitan The Abduction of Rebecca, 1846 


^ G^ricault died at the age of thirty-three as the result of a fall from his 
horse. There is a tendency at the moment in France to overrate his work 
which was coarse and derivative (and incidentally the source of the painting 
of Rosa Bonheur (1822-1899) ). 

Gericault had a most disagreeable streak in his psychological constitution. 
In Rome he enjoyed and made drawings inspired by the brutal sport known 
as the Barberi in which riderless horses with spurs attached to them were 
thrashed into racing in Carnival time on the P/«^:^d del popolo. His drawings 
for compositions show men thrashing horses and pulling their tails, horses 
biting one another, men stunning oxen in the slaughter-house, and negroes 
being beaten by slave drivers. He made a terra cotta group (which has 
disappeared) called Negre qui brutalise une Jemme ; he chose stallions for 
mounts and overrode them. 

He did not marry ; as my knowledge goes, he introduced no female 
figures into his compositions and he painted no pictures of women except 
several studies of mad women, one of which can be seen in the Lyons 

His Carabinier (in the Louvre), painted when he was twenty-three, is 
probably his best picture ; but it is no more than a good art-school study. 
The Wilstach Collection, Philadelphia, has the head and bust of a soldier 
with his head bandaged which is known as The Wounded Soldier. 


Boston, Aluseum^of Fine Arts 


New \'()rk. 
New York. 
New Yi)rk. 

EUGHNU di:lacroix 

The Garden of Georges Sand at Nohant 
Jesus on Lake Gcnncsarct, 1853 

New York. 


















A. Lewisohn Col- 

A. Lewisohn Col- 

Museum of Fine 

Museum of Fine 

Art Institute 

Art Institute 

Fairmont Park 

Museum of Art 










Decorative panels : 
Hcsiod and the Muse 
The Captivity in Babylon 
The Death of St. John the Baptist 
The Drachma of the Tribute 
The Death of Seneca 
Aristotle describes the Animals 

Martyrdom of St. Sulpicius (sketch), 
<r. 1855 

Lion Hunt, c. 1854 

Picta, 1848 

Dante's Barque 

Oriental Lion Hunt, c. 1834 

L' Amende honorable, 183 1 

Arabs resting in a forest 

Dante et Virgile aux enfers, 1822 

Les massacres de Scio : Families grec- 

ques attendant la mort et I'esclavage, 

balon 1824 
La Mort dc Sardanapale, Salon 1829 
Le 28 juillet 1830. La Liberte guidant 

le peuple, 1830 
Jeune tigre jouant avec sa mere, 1850 
Femmes d'Alger dans leur appartement, 

Le prisonnier de Chillon, 1834 
Noce juive dans le Maroc, 1839 
Hamlet et Horatio au cimetiere, 1839 
Prise de Constantinople par les Croises, 

Le naufrage de Don Juan, 1840 
Le Christ en croix, 1848 
Lion et sanglier, 1853 
L'enlevemcnt de Rebecca par le templier 

de Bois Guilbert, 1858 
Chevaux arabes se battant dans une 

ecurie, i860 
Medea furieuse allant poignarder ses 

enfants, 1862 
Still life with landscape background, 


2 E 









The Hague. 
The Hague. 

Louvre (Gallery of 

Musee Conde 

Musee Conde 
Musee Conde 


Musee Fabre 
Musee Fabre 
Musee Fabre 
Musee Fabre 

Musee Fabre 
Musee Fabre 
Musee Fabre 

Mesdag Museum 
Mesdag Museum 

Portrait of Chopin, 1838 

Portrait of Georges Sand 

Apollon vainqueur du serpent Python, 

Prise de Constantinople par les Croises 

Les deux Foscari, 1845 
Corps de garde marocain (before 1848) 
Odalisque couchee, 1827 
Derniers moments de I'Empereur Marc 

Aurele, 1844 
Assassinat de I'eveque de Liege, 1830- 

Aline la Mulatresse, 1821 
Exercise militaire des Marocains, 1832 
L'Education d'Achille, 1 842-1 843 
Femmes d' Alger dans leur interieur, 

Daniel dans la fosse des lions, 1849 
Michelangelo dans son atelier, 1850 
Orph^e secourt Eurydice mordue par un 

serpent, 1862 
La bataille de Taillebourg, Salon 1837 
La Justice de Trajan, Salon 1840 
Descent from the Cross 
The Eve of Waterloo 

(a) Delacroix's Life 

Eugene Delacroix's father was a lawyer, who eventually 
became Republican ambassador to Holland and Prefet at 
Marseilles. His mother's family included several artists. His 
parents had means, and Delacroix himself did not at first con- 
template painting as a profession. After completing the 
ordinary education of his class he entered Guerin's studio as 
an amateur.^ 

In 1 8 19 after the death of both his parents he found himself 
penniless as the result of an unsuccessful lawsuit about the 
family property ; and he was never completely without money 
difficulties for the rest of his life. 

In 1820 he painted a picture for the convent of Les Dames du 

1 " Je veux y passer quelque temps" he wrote, "pour avoir au moins un petit 
talent d' amateur." (For Guerin, cf. p. 193.) 



Sacrc-Grur at Nantes which can still be seen there. 'I'his 
commission had been passed on to him by Gcricault when he 
heard of his financial ditficulties. Delacroix's next picture was 
the Dank et l^irgde (now in the Louvre) which was a feature of 
the Salon of 1822 and was bought by the Administration des 
Bea/Lx Arts. The celebrated Massacres de Scio (now in the 
Louvre) was in the Salon of 1824. 

In these years Delacroix had been sharing a studio, in con- 
ditions of poverty, with an English artist named Fielding. In 
1825 he went for a few months to England and stayed with 
Fielding ; and there he called on Wilkie, Lawrence and F^tty.^ 

On his return to Paris Delacroix painted 1m Mort de Sardana- 
pale (now in the Louvre) and in the next two years he had 
commissions from the Minister of the Interior and from Louis- 
Philippe. In 1830 Louis-Philippe bought his l^e 28 juillet 1830: 
Lm liherte guidant le peuple (now in the Louvre) from the Salon, 
and awarded him the Legion of Honour in recognition of the 
picture's political significance. U Amende Honorable^ now in the 
W'ilstach Collection in Philadelphia, was painted in 1831. 

This ends the first period of Delacroix's activity. He was now 
thirty-three and his Romantic demonstration pictures Les 
Massacres de Scio and the ha Mort de Sardanapale had brought 
him great celebrity and called forth virulent abuse from the 
partisans of the Institute. But there was no denying his amazing 
facihty as a painter, or the richness of his pictorial conceptions ; 
there was no escape from the dramatic appeal of such a subject 
as La Mort de Sardanapale with its subtitle in the catalogue which 
read : " Couche sur un lit superhe an so m met d'lm immense bucfjer, 
Sardanapale donne I'ordre a ses eunuques et aux officiers dn palais 
d*egorger ses femmes^ ses pages, jusqu'a ses chevaux et ses chiens 
favoris, aucun des ohjets qui avaient servi d ses plaisirs ne devaient ltd 
survivre . . ." especially as the excitement of the subject was 
carried into the tumultuous rhythms of the picture and the 
vigorous touches of a " brosse ivre." 

In 1832 Delacroix went to Morocco with the Comte de 
Mornay, French Ambassador to the Sultan ; in the following 

^ Delacroix admired all these English artists. He also admired Constable. 
He stated that he had altered his own method of painting after contemplating 
Constable's Hay Wain (now in the National Galler}-) in the Salon of 1824. 



year he went to Spain ; on his return to Paris he exhibited 
paintings recording his experience on these journeys, and these 
pictures were the beginning of tlie wave of so-called " Oriental- 
ism " that now invaded the Salons.^ 

The Oriental Lion Hunt (PI. 85) now in the Chicago Art 
Institute, the Lion Hunt in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 
and the Exercises militaires des Marocains in the Musee Fabre at 
Montpellier are typical of Delacroix's " Oriental " pictures 
which greatly increased his reputation in Paris. His Femmes 
d' Alger dans leur appartement (now in the Louvre) was an official 
purchase from the Salon of 1834 and he was commissioned to 
paint L'Lntree des Croises d Constantinople (now in the Louvre) 
for Versailles, and decorations for the Salon du Roi in the 
Palais Bourbon. 

It was in fact now realised that Delacroix had superb decora- 
tive talents and these commissions for decorations were followed 
by commissions in 1 844 for decorations in the Library of the 
Palais Bourbon, in 1845 for the Library of the Luxembourg, 
and in 1 849 for the Salon de la Paix in the Hotel de Ville and for 
the ceihng of Le Brun's Gallery of Apollo in the Louvre. ^ 

Yet another aspect of his talent is seen in the splendid Pietd 
(PL 86) now in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, which was 
painted in 1848 when the artist was fifty. 

Delacroix's final triumph came in 1855 at the Exposition 
Universelle where he had a gallery of his own filled with thirty- 
five of his most important pictures. The Romantic movement 
by this time had won all its battles and Delacroix was recognised 
by all intelligent people as its central figure though the general 
public preferred the work of his less vigorous imitators. 

In that year also he received the commission for the decora- 
tions in the church of Saint-Sulpice. 

In 1837 he had apphed for a vacancy in the Institute and been 
refused. In 1838 he had applied again and been again refused. 

^ Cf. The Modern Movement in Art, p. 60, where I also refer to the work 
of Theodore Chasscriau (18 19-18 5 6) who began as a follower of David and 
Ingres and ended as an imitator of Delacroix's " orientalism." 

■^ Cf. pp. 77 and 81. Delacroix was able to get these official commissions 
because owing to his social position he had many highly-placed personal 
friends in political circles. He secured them in spite of the Institute's hostility. 



III 1 S49 he had applied a third time and been a third time refused, 
hi 1853 he applied a fourth time and his application was not even 
considered. In 1857 when he was nearly sixty and had only six 
years more to live he applied a fifth time and was elected to a 
seat vacated by the death of one of his imitators.^ 

{b) Delacroix's .Art 

Delacroix was the last of the Old Masters and the first great 
master of the modern school. He picked up the I'^uropean 
tradition of decorative painting at the point where it had been 
left by the Venetians and Rubens. The art of Rubens had been 
the epic art of the Italian High Renaissance and early Baroque 
masters translated into Flemish. For the remainder of the 
centur)" the followers of Rubens imitated the externals of his 
pictures. Then W'atteau translated the Rubens epic into French 
lyrics and this in turn was eventually echoed in charming little 
tunes by the English painter Charles Conder (i 868-1909) with 
whom the tradition breathed its last faint cadences and died. 

Delacroix went back behind W'atteau to Rubens himself. The 
Rubens series of Marie de Medicis panels was transferred, as 
noted, to the Louvre in 181 8 ;2 and in his youth Delacroix had 
doubtless seen magnificent works by the Venetians in the Musee 
Napoleon ; here were masters who worked on a scale and in a 
spirit that aroused his ambition and when the time came to test 
liis own capacities he found that he could challenge even in this 
majestic field. 

To the modern student with his eye and mind attuned to the 
Cubist-Classical Renaissance the whole Romantic creed as rep- 
resented by the work of Delacroix seems a lamentable heresy. 
Most of the material that went to the making of Delacroix's 
demonstration pictures seems to us absurd and \Tilgar. Trained 
by the classical calm and dignity of the pictures by Seurat, 
Cezanne, and the Cubists we can hardly bring ourselves to con- 
template the tumultuous rhythms, the drama, and the rhetoric 
in Delacroix's pictures. From the modern standpoint which 
appreciates David's diztMm pas d'ewportementdupinceau Delacroix's 

^ Paul Delarochc (1797-18 5 6), painter of The Princes in the Toner and The 
Death of Queen Elii:^abeth, now both in the Luxembourg (cf. The Modern Move- 
ment in Art, pp. 57, 59 and 66). • Cf. note, p. 205. 



brosse ivre seems sheer braggadocio, a form of exhibitionism 
that leaves us quite unmoved ; and compared with the 
architectural deliberation that pervades the work of the new 
classical masters a painting by Delacroix seems not so much a 
picture as a series of dramatic records of the artistes sensuous 
reactions to emotive fragments collected in one frame. 

But if we contemplate any individual passage in a picture by 
Delacroix, or one of the still life groups which he threw off now 
and then as relaxation, we find the artist's verve and use of colour 
an intoxicating vintage that it is hard if not impossible to resist ; 
and thus it comes that Delacroix seems to us most essentially a 
master in a fragment like the decorative sketch Hesiod and the 
Muse (PI. 84b) in Mr. Adolph Lewisohn's collection, or in the 
individual fragments of the Oriental Lion Hunt (PI. 85) ; and 
that he seems above all a master when he abandons the rubato of 
his most characteristic pictures and gives us a relatively tranquil 
picture like the Pieta (PI. 86) in the Museum at Boston, a work 
which recalls Tintoretto by whom it was obviously inspired. 

In the later nineteenth century when great interest was taken 
in methods of painting Delacroix's technique was much applauded. 
His use of broken colour to increase the vitality of the picture's 
surface — a device already used by Watteau on a miniature scale 
— made a great appeal to the Impressionists. The modern 
student is less concerned with methods of painting. The 
Romantics and the Impressionists finally established for the 
artist a right to dispose his paint upon the canvas in spots or 
dashes or in any other manner that he might adopt or invent. 
When those movements degenerated it was seen that this free- 
dom was, in itself, no aid to the creation of a work of art. But 
when Delacroix first proclaimed this freedom he was pro- 
claiming a paradox; and by so doing he made possible the 
achievements of Manet, Renoir and Cezanne.^ 

X. Franco-Dutch Landscape Painters 

While liberalism and individualism were being symbolised 
in Delacroix's pictures, another aspect of the period — the growth 

1 Delacroix was a very prolific artist. He has left us over eight h^r\(dj:ed 
pictures, a thousand minor works and some six thQ\jsand drawings, 



of the middle classes — was being symbolised in a group of 
French landscape painters who appeared at the same time. 

After the arrogance of Charles X, Louis-Philippe made a 
show of democratic sentiment and posed deliberately as le rot 
bourgeois ; he walked the streets of Paris, unattended, carrying 
an umbrella, and his Queen continued her needlework when 
she received the ladies of her Court. Modern bourgeois France 
as we know it began in fact about 1830 ; and these conditions 
created a new school of popular landscape painting of the kind 
which had appeared in similar conditions about 1630 in Holland.* 

The leading names among these Franco-Dutch landscape 
painters, some of whom worked a good deal in the region of 
Fontainebleau forest, are Jules Dupre (18 12-18 89), Theodore 
Rousseau (18 12-1867), Charles-Fran9ois Daubigny (18 17-1878), 
and Henri Harpignies (1819-1916) ; with them we must associate 
Charles Jacque (18 13-1894), who specialised in landscapes with 
ducks and geese and cliickens, and Constant Troyon (18 10-1865), 
who painted landscapes with cows, sometimes of a considerable 

Some of the landscapes produced by this school were less 
obviously categoric than the Dutch seventeenth-century pictures 
which they resemble and by which they were influenced ; the 
artists were affected by the Romantic movement and they often 
made their landscapes dramatic and emotive by recording the 
effects of light in nature which seem to correspond to human 
moods. I'his was notably the case with Theodore Rousseau 
whose work, moreover, sometimes shows qualities derived from 
the picturesque-classical tradition of French landscape ; and it 
was also the case with Diaz de la Pena (i 808-1 876), a French 
painter of Spanish parentage, who alternated landscape with little 
pictures of nude groups influenced by Delacroix himself. 

The Institute adopted an attitude of violent hostility to this 
school of popular landscape ; it persecuted the artists with all 

* It is usual to ascribe the blame iot these Franco-Dutch landscapes to 
the influence of Constable and the English painters of the Norwich School 
who had begun to imitate Hobbema and other Dutch eighteenth-centur)' 
popular landscape painters a little earlier. But the growth of the French 
middle class at this period would in any event have caused a recrudescence 
of this and other forms of popular art. (Cf. An Introduction to Dutch Arty 
p. 183). 



the means at its command ; and it was scarcely less hostile to 
Camille Corot, the outstanding French landscape painter of the 

xi. Camille Corot^ (1796-187 5) 

{a) Corofs hife 

Camille Corot was the son of a Parisian coiffeur who married 
a Swiss modiste and then opened a Magasin de modes in the rue 
du Bac, where he became prosperous and a fournisseur of the 
Tuileries. When Camille was nineteen he was an assistant in a 
draper's shop in the rue Richelieu ; he already drew and painted 
in his spare time but his parents refused to finance him for the 
career of an artist. Five years later the situation was much the 
same ; but that year saw the death of a poor relation whom 
Corot's father had supported and Camille now received this 
allowance with parental permission to devote himself to art. 

This occurred in 1822 when Corot was twenty-six. He lived 
on this small allowance and other funds provided by his father, 
without selling a single picture, for the next sixteen years, and 
he did not begin to make a regular income from his work till he 
was nearly sixty, when he had already inherited his father's 
property. '* Camille s'amuse " his father used to remark to his 
friends, just as Chardin's contemporaries — astonished at his 
later concentration on still-life paintings and liis neglect of his 
opportunities for making money — remarked that '* M. Chardin 
ne peint que pour son amusement T^ 

From 1822 to 1825 Corot painted landscapes at Rouen, on 
the Normandy coast, and at his father's country house at Ville 
d'Avray ; in 1825 liis father provided funds for a three years' 
stay in Italy and in 1834 he again provided money for a second 
visit with the proviso this time that the visit should not exceed 
six months. " Nous ne sommes plus jeuneSy ta mere et moi^'' his 
father said to him, " ne nous ahandonne pas trop longtempsT Corot 

^ For a catalogue of Corot's paintings and details of his life the 
student is referred to the works of Alfred Robaut and Etienne Moreau- 

Most of the leading museums in Europe and America contain examples 
of Corot's work ; a characteristic series showing his work at all periods is 
dispersed in various galleries in the Louvre. 2 Cf. note, p. 140. 


; >nu- M!,^::,iK 


Paris. MM. Paul Rosciiherg Collection 

CAMILLE COROT, HonHcur— Maisons sur les Quais. 


inherited his parents', largeness of heart. When he was himself 
an old man and dealers flocked round him he used to send them 
pictures by poor artists, whose work he respected, together 
with his own, 

Corot sent examples of his numerous paintings year after 
year to the Salons, but nobody bought them. Eventually the 
Due d'Orleans bought two in 1838. The State bought one the 
year after and another in 1842. In 1843 the Salon rejected his 
picture and the same thing happened the next year. In 1846 
when he was fifty he received his first commission — a baptism 
of Christy which was ordered for the Church of Saint Nicolas- 
du-Chardonnet. In the same year he received the Legion of 
Honour. *' Puisque I'on decore Camille, il jaut qu'il ait du talent^^ 
said his father who thought at first that the decoration was 
intended for himself. 

In 1 849 a reconstitution of the Salon Jury had a considerable 
effect on Corot's situation. Under the Restoration Kings and 
Louis-Philippe the Jury was exclusively composed of the Insti- 
tute caucus. When, after the Revolution of 1848, the Second 
Republic arrived, with Louis Bonaparte as President, the bril- 
liant art historian Charles Blanc became a Director of the 
Administration des Bea//x Arts, and the exliibition for that year 
was thrown open to everyone, without an intervening Jury, 
as it had been thrown open in the first Revolution in 1791 .^ The 
flood of popular landscapes and other popular pictures was so 
enormous at the 1848 Salon that the Jury was re-established in 
the following year, but its members were elected not by the 
Institute but by the votes of the whole body of exhibitors. In 
these conditions Corot found liimself elected to the jury and the 
Hanging Committee by the votes of the Franco-Dutch landscape 
painters who admired his work. 

About this time he adopted his fluffy grey treatment of trees 
and foliage wliich the public admired because it resembled trees 
and foliage as recorded in photographs ; and dealers began to 
think of securing liis production. ^ 

1 Cf. p. 179. 

* The dealers were encouraged by the action of Louis Bonaparte who as 
Napoleon III bought of his own volition Corot's Sotwcnir de Marcoussis (now 
in the Louvre) in the Exposition Universelle of 185 5. 

2 F 217 


Corot, personally, was a very agreeable companion. As 
he had never had to bother about selling his pictures, and 
as he had the sense to be content with his small independent 
means, he presented the engaging spectacle of a man with 
simple tastes who stood outside the struggle for existence 
and was always ready to be kind to other people. He spent a 
good deal of his time in visits to various friends and wherever 
he went he painted landscapes in the surrounding country. 

When the Franco-Prussian war broke out he was seventy- 
four and by that time he had been making a large income from 
dealers for fifteen years. During the war he worked in his 
studio in Paris and he sent a sum of money to the mayor of his 
arrondissement for " la confection des canons pour chasser les Prussiens 
des hois de Ville d'Avray." He died in Paris at the age of seventy- 

{b) Corofs Art 

Corot was the first French artist of consequence to look at 
nature with a photographic eye. He worked in his early years 
with minor French landscape painters who still retained some- 
thing of the picturesque-classical tradition of Vernet, Robert 
and Moreau ; he was all his life a student of the work of the Old 
Masters ; but, with a natural tendency to mechanical imitation, 
he had the misfortune to begin painting just before the arrival- 
of the camera and to work in the years of his maturity in the 
first flush of the photographic period. 

The photographic vision which pervades Corot's ceuvre 
inevitably prejudices the modern student against it. We live in 
a photograph-sodden age. We have photographs thrust before 
us in the morning paper at breakfast and again in the afternoon ; 
and many people go of their own volition in the evenings to 
establishments that exhibit still more photographs — photographs 
that succeed one another with lightning rapidity and are now 
accompanied, I am told, by noises that resemble human speech. 
The modern student, who has followed the magnificent efforts 

^ After Corot's death his pictures were so much sought after by collectors 
that they were forged in great numbers. But the number of his genuine 
works is extremely large because he never did anything but paint pictures 
from the age of twenty-six. 



made by the artists of the Cubist-classical Renaissance to drag 
painting from the morass of this photographic vision, cannot 
fail to rank Corot as an artist who succumbed. But he will 
recognise that Corot could not foresee the photographic tyranny 
of our own age ; and that, though he had a photographic vision 
and imitated photographs, he also had a genuine simplicity of 
outlook that enabled him to steer clear of the Romantic move- 
ment, and a lyric quality in his sensibility that lifts his work above 
that of other painters of the photographic school.^ 

Co rot's pictures fall into several types. We have {a) early 
landscapes including a number painted in Italy, (J?) subject- 
pictures with figures inserted into landscapes in the manner of 
Claude, {c) fluffy grey landscapes painted after 1850, and (d) 
photographic studies of figures. 

In all these periods we find Corot seeking, unconsciously, 
for a compromise between the photographic vision and the 
achievements of the architectural artists of the past. The 
student will find it instructive to compare on the one hand his 
Venice (PL 87a), painted in 1834 and now in the Museum of 
Melbourne, with the views of Venice painted by Canaletto 
(i 697-1 768) who used a camera-oscnra ; and to compare on 
the other his sketch Narni : Po?it d' Angus te sur la Nera, painted 
in 1826 and now in the Louvre, with Claude's drawing The Tiber 
above Ro///e (PL 128a) in the British Museum, and with the modern 
French painter Andre Derain's Pajsage du midi (PL 128b) which 
I reproduce on the same page.^ 

Corot's continual contact with tradition will also be seen if 
his Saint Jerome, painted in 1837 and now in the church of Ville 
d'Avray, be compared with Sai?it Anthony and Saint Paul the 
Hermit by Velasquez in the Prado, if his Diane au bain, painted 

^ Cf. note, p. 221. I have discussed the characteristics of the photographic 
vision in The Modern Movement in Art, pp. 76-1 12. 

2 Narni : Pont d'Auguste sur la Nera was a sketch for a picture Le Pont 
de Narni which Corot exhibited at his first appearance in the Salon of 1827. 
The Salon picture which is worked up into a classical-picturesque composi- 
tion with large umbrella pines in the middle distance was hung in the Salon 
between paintings by Constable and Bonington ; and Corot at his debut 
thus represented the picturesque-classical tradition hung between the Dutch 
seventeenth-century popular landscape tradition and the new Romantic 



in 1855 and now in the Bordeaux Museum, be compared with 
landscapes with figures by Claude, or if his Homere et les Bergers^ 
shown in the Salon of 1845 and now in the Saint L6 Museum, 
be compared with The Fmeral of Phocion (PI. 35 b) by Poussin. 

There were moments in the period before 1850 when Corot 
almost arrived at a conscious concept of architectural space 
and the creation of a new type of architectural picture. In 
Honfleur-maisons sur les quais (PI. 87b), which was painted about 
1830 and is now in M. Paul Rosenberg's collection in Paris, he 
was within an inch of such achievement but his photographic 
vision was responsible for the rowing boat which has nothing 
to do with the picture and was inserted because it happened to 
be there at the moment when Corot was making his sketch. 

Such incidental and accidental details together with incidental 
and accidental effects of light occur in the work of all photo- 
graphic artists and the elimination of such elements was the 
first achievement of the Cubist-classical Renaissance. 

After 1850 Corot made great efforts to recapture the secrets 
of the art of Claude and of Poussin's last phase. But by this 
time his eye was vitiated by photographs and he had acquired his 
degenerate naturalistic formula for the light on foliage and trees. 
There was thus a fatal disaccord between the type of picture at 
which he was aiming and the means which he employed to pro- 
duce it ; and there was a further disaccord because Corot in 
these subject pictures was generally more photographic in his 
landscape background than in his treatment of the figures.^ 

In the 'sixties Corot's fluffy photographic foliage, in the grey 
colour of photographs, degenerated into a mannerism ; and in 
the pictures of this period, turned out for the dealers, he aban- 
doned even the attempt to remain in the field of perceptive and 
creative art. In his last years he returned to the manner of 
Honfleur-maisons sur les quais and he then used compositional 
effects which he had observed in photographs. ^ 

Corot often painted photographic studies from models posed 
in the studio, and a series of such pictures dates from the period 

^ Cf. The Modern Movement in Art (Pis. loa and lob) where I reproduce 
trees and foliage from Corot's Concert Champetre, painted in 1857 ^^^ now in 
the Louvre, and a photograph of similar trees and foliage on the same page. 

2 Cf. The Modern Movement in Art, p. 99. 



of the Franco-Prussian War when he worked exclusively in his 
studio in Paris. L^; Vemme a T atelier (PI. H8b), painted in 1870 
and now in the Museum at r>y(jns, is an example of these photo- 
graphic studies. Jf we compare this picture with Prudhon's, 
Mnie Dnfresne (PI. 88a), which I reproduce on the same page, 
we can see the difference between light and shade used as archi- 
tectural elements in a picture, and light and shade copied in a 
photographic way. Prudhon preceived the model before him 
as a series of forms entirely independent of light and shade and 
he invented a picture of which an architectural disposition of 
light and shadow is an integral part. Corot with half-closed 
eyes recorded an accidental effect of light and shade before him 
and by so doing a semblance of forms has appeared upon his 
canvas ; but the picture itself is as formless as a photograph 
because the artist has degraded his perception to the mechanical 
vision of the human eye — which is much the same as the vision 
of the camera's lens. 

In the later nineteenth century when the photgraphic vision 
was officially regarded as the vision proper to an artist Corot's 
pictures were enormously admired, and his method of painting 
— known as painting " by the tone values " — was universally 
taught in schools. In the pictures painted " by the tone values " 
colour was reduced to a system of tinted greys ; and many 
hundreds of thousands of grey pictures were produced in 
France. Of these the little marine paintings by Louis-Eugene 
Boudin (i 824-1 898) were among the most pleasant; and the 
method was seen forced to its extreme photographic limit in 
the portraits and figure studies of Eugene Carriere (i 849-1906) 
and Fantin-Latour (1836-1904).^ 

^ All these artists were influenced by photographs. The Daguerreotype 
which influenced Ruskin and the English Pre-Raphaelitcs had little influence 
in France except, I fancy, on the work of Ingres (cf. p. 200) and Bastien- 
Lepagc (i 848-1 884), an artist who substituted a Daguerreotype ideal for the 
Romantic elements in the art of Millet (who was himself a good deal 
influenced by photographs. Cf. note, p. 250). Corot was not, I think, 
influenced by Daguerreotypes. But he was fascinated by photographs and 
frequently sat to photographers himself. 



xij. Kealism and the Salon Public 

Corot was the father of the Impressionist movement in 
French painting. But between Corot and the Impressionists 
there was a movement known as ReaHsm which was an appHca- 
tion to figure subjects of the principles of the Franco-Dutch 
imitative landscape already chronicled. 

The Realist doctrine excluded imagination, invention, archi- 
tectural construction, and Romantic comment. Its slogan was 
un peintre ne doit peindre que ce que ses yeux petwent voir. The 
painters who submitted to this doctrine were popular artists 
and their pictures appealed to the Salon public of the time. 

This Realist doctrine was launched in the first place by a 
man who was not himself a Realist of this calibre but a Romantic 
Realist — Gustave Courbet (i 8 19-1877), an artist whose work the 
Salon public particularly detested. 

Courbet described the aims which he ^ pursued as follows : 
" S avoir pour pouvoir, telle jut ma pen see. Etre a me me de traduire 
les mceurs, les idees^ I' aspect de mon epoque, selon mon appreciation ; 
etre non seulement un peintre, mais encore un horn me ; en un mot j aire de 
Part vivant, tel est mon hut^ For Courbet the essential part of 
this pronouncement was the qualification selon mon appreciation ; 
and it was the evidence in his work of this qualification that 
rendered it odious to the Salon public. 

It is impossible to understand the treatment to which Courbet 
and, later, the Impressionists were subjected by the Salon public 
unless we realise that a host of venal purveyors of popular art 
had now flattered that public into an attitude of extreme 

In the eighteenth century the Salon public saw relatively few 
contemporary pictures ; they began to see more when the 
exhibits became more numerous, as noted, in the days of the 
Revolution ; in the first quarter of the nineteenth century 
the interest excited by the works of the Italian Old Masters in the 
Musee Napoleon competed with the interest in contemporary 
art ; when the Musee Napoleon was dispersed at the Restora- 
tion, the biennial Salons, held in the Salon Carre of the Louvre, 
became the centre of focus, and under Louis-Philippe and the 



Second Republic the Salons became steadily larger, 'i'he public 
thus acquired a large experience of popular genre pictures and of 
popular demonstration pictures in the pseudo-classical and 
pseudo-romantic manners produced in order to attract attention 
and advertise the painters' names. ^ 

The painters of these demonstration pictures posed as the 
guardians of our old friend the Grand Manner ; and the 
uninstructed public adopted the products of this showmanship 
as their standard in judging works of art. 

The venal popular and demonstration painters and the public 
thus revolved together in a vicious circle. The painters worked 
to achieve contact with the Salon public's average experience of 
phenomena and with that public's experience of their own 
pictures ; and the public, thus flattered into a Philistine attitude, 
were entirely convinced that this flattery was the proper function 
of fine art. 

The vicious circle became still more water-tight after 1855 
because in that year the Government constructed for the Exposi- 
tion Uiiiverselle the vast Palais de I'lndustrie in the Champs Elysees ; 
the Salons thereafter wxre held there and in order to fill the huge 
galleries of this new building the number of pictures shown was 
enormously increased and the public had correspondingly 
increased experience of mediocre and venal popular art 
produced to flatter them.^ 

In these conditions the Salon painters found it easy to lead the 
public to the active persecution of original artists ; and perse- 
cutions thus fomented have been an unedifying feature of art- 
politics in Paris from 1840 to the present day. 

The first victim was Courbet whose work and curious career 
we must now consider. 

^ Paul Delaroche (cf. note, p. 215) and Thomas Couture (cf. pp. 247 
and 248) were typical painters of these popular demonstration pictures. 
For the Musee Napoleon, cf. p. 190. 

- The Salons were held in the Palais de I'lndustrie till 1899 ; it was then 
pulled down and the present Grand Palais and Petit Palais were built (with 
the Pont Alexandre) for the Exposition Universelle of 1900. Since then the 
Salons have been held in the Grand Palais where some eight thousand pic- 
tures and large quantities of sculpture are exhibited each spring. 




Gustave Courhet 






New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 
New York. 
New York. 
New York. 
New York. 
New York. 
New York. 

New York. 
New York. 






National Gallery, Millbank 
National Gallery, Millbank 
National Gallery, Millbank 
National Gallery, Millbank 
National Gallery, Millbank 
National Gallery, Millbank 
Victoria and Albert 

Victoria and Albert 

Sir W. Burrell Collection 

Sir W. Burrell Collection 
Metropolitan Museum 

Metropolitan Museum 

Metropolitan Museum 



Metropolitan Museum 
Metropolitan Museum 
Museum of Fine Arts 

Art Institute 
Art Institute 
Wilstach Collection 
Wilstach Collection 
Wilstach Collection 

Deer in a Forest 
The Pool 
Self Portrait 
Snow Scene 
L'Immensite, 1869 


L'Aumone d'un mendiant a 

Ornans, Salon, 1868 
Les Laveuses 
Nude Woman with a parrot. 

Salon 1866 
Les Demoiselles de Village,^ 

Salon 1852 
Brook of the Black Well, before 

Coast Scene 
Snow Scene 
The Amazon, c. 1856 
The Polish Exile, 1858 
The Source, c. 1862 
The Young Bather, 1866 
The Girl with the Mirror : 

Whistlers" Jo,"2 1856 

Marine — the Waterspout, 1876 
The Quarry (La Curee), before 

La Mere Gregoire, c. 1872 
Alpine Scene, 1874 
A view of Ornans 
A Mountain Stream, 1875 
The Waves 

in the collection of Mr. Charles 

^ Another version of this picture is 
Roberts, Leeds. 

^ There is another version of this picture, which is also known as La Belle 
Irlandaise, in the collection of Messrs Reid and Lefevre, London. 


Minneapolis. IiisUliili: cj !■ 

GLSTA\E C;C)L RHI:T. IXcr in a Forest. 

Marseilles. Museum 




Academy of Fine Arts 

Urbain Cucnot, 18^2 


Academy of Fine Arts 

Lc grand chcne d'Ornans 


Art Museum 

Low Tide 


Institute of Arts 

The Roe Covert, c. 1866 



Self Portrait. L'Homme 
Blessc, 1844 



Un enterrement a Ornans, 1849 



Berlioz, 1850 



L'homme a la ceinture de cuir 



(self portrait), before 1855 
L'Atelier du peintre : Allegoric 
reelle, 1855 



Combat de cerfs. Salon 1861 



Remise des chevrcuils. Salon 


Petit Palais 

Mer orageuse, 1870 

Self portrait with a black dog. 


Petit Palais 

P.-J. Proudhon, 1855 


Petit Palais 

Les Demoiselles au bord de la 
Seine, Salon 1867 


Petit Palais 

La Sieste, Salon 1869 


H. Matisse Collection 

La blonde endormie 


Musee Fabre 

L'homme a la pipe (self por- 


Musee Fabre 
Musee Fabre 
Musee Fabre 

trait, 1846) 
Baudelaire, 1853 
Baigneuses, 1853 
Le Rencontre : " Bonjour M. 

Courbet," 1854 


Musee Fabre 
Hotel dc Ville 

Bruyas, 1854 

Courbet in prison, c. 1872 


H6tel de Ville 

Le Chateau de Chillon, 1874-76 


Hotel de Ville 

Retour de Chasse 



Une apres-dinee a Ornans, 



Salon 1849 
Les Casseurs de pierres. Salon 

Mountain Landscape 
Recumbent Nude 

The Hague. 
The Hague. 

Mesdag Museum 
Mesdag Museum 

The Hague. 

Mesdag Museum 

Chevreuil mort 

The Hague. 
The Hague. 

Mesdag Museum 
Mesdag Museum 

Au bord du lac 
Road in Sunlight 

Jean-Desire-Gustav Courbet was bom in the village of 
Ornans that lies in the harsh and gloomy country near the Jura 

2 G 225 


mountains. He was the son of a wealthy farmer and after 
refusing to study law he worked in one or two art schools in 
Paris. His earliest works, painted when he was about twenty- 
three, already reveal a choice of Rembrandt and the Spaniards 
as his favourite masters in the Louvre. 

In the 1849 Salon, which included Corot, as noted, on an 
exceptionally liberal Jury, Courbet exhibited the self portrait 
known as UHomme a la ceinture de ciiir (now in the Louvre) and 
also l]?ie apres-dinee a Ornans (now in the Museum at Lille) which 
was remarked by Charles Blanc, bought by him for the State, 
and awarded a medal. ^ 

In 1850 Courbet took full advantage of his hors concours posi- 
tion. He sent nine pictures to the Salon including the celebrated 
Un Enterrement a Ornans now in the Louvre, the Casseurs de pierres 
now in Dresden, and the self-portrait known as UHomme a la 
pipe now at jMontpellier. 

The originality of Un Enterrement a Ornans — a group of 
intensely romantically observed peasantry round a grave — 
horrified both the Salon painters and the public debauched by 
popular fare ; and the Salon authorities led the opposition by 
suggesting that the subject of this picture and of the Casseurs de 
pierres (which depicts an old peasant and a boy breaking stones) 
were oifensively socialistic. Courbet who at this period had 
nothing but a normal sympathy with the peasants of the regions 
round his home thus found himself regarded as a dangerous 
socialist in Paris. ^ 

In the Salon of 1853 Courbet exhited his Baigneuses now at 
Montpellier; the Salon painters pointed out that the massive 

^ The acquisition of a medal was very important for an artist at this time, 
because it placed him hors concours for future exhibitions to which he could 
contribute without submitting to the Jury. Courbet's later works would all 
have been rejected from the Salons if he had not thus acquired the right to 
exhibit at this early stage. For Charles Blanc, cf. p. 217. 

2 Stonebreakers entered English art in 1858 when there were two pictures 
of this subject in the Royal Academy both praised by Ruskin " because the 
humblest subjects are pathetic when Pre-Raphaelitically rendered." The 
pictures were The Sionebreaker (which depicted a boy breaking stones and is 
now in the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool) by John Brett, and Thou wert 
our Conscript (which depicted an old man asleep over his heap) by 
A. Wallis. 



figures of the women showed their plebeian origin and that 
this choice of plebeian models showed the painter's socialist 

The BaioncNscs was bought by y\lfred Bruyas, a collector of 
Montpcllicr, who became (>ourbet's host and patron about this 
time and bought a number of his pictures including the Portrait 
of Baudelaire which was painted in 1853.^ 

In 1854 Courbet went to stay with Bruyas at Montpcllier and 
painted the celebrated L^ Kencotitre : Bonjour M. Courbet^ which 
shows a meeting between himself and Bruyas on a country 

In the following year, at the age of thirty-six, he painted the 
remarkable picture, now in the Louvre, which he called U Atelier 
du peintre : ^-Mlegorie reelle. This shows the artist seated at his 
easel with a nude woman standing by his side ; one half of the 
studio is occupied by a group of the artist's models who had 
figured in his realistic pictures — labourers, peasants, the priest 
of the 'Enterrement a Ornans and so forth ; the other half is 
occupied by a group of his friends including Bruyas, Baudelaire, 
Champfieur)^, who was one of the first to praise his pictures, and 
the socialist writer Proudhon whose portrait he had painted in 

Courbet sent IJ Atelier, together with Un Enterrement a Ornans, 
which he wished to exhibit a second time, to the Exposition 
Universelle of 185 5, where his hors concours privilege did not apply, 
because there was a special International Jur}'. Both pictures 
were rejected. Courbet was indignant. He had plenty of money, 
as he had an allowance from Ornans and he had already, as 
noted, procured some patrons for his pictures, which he never 
sold except for considerable sums, and he accordingly decided 
to put up a shed and hold a one-man show of his own in the 
Exhibition. In this one-man show he placed the two rejected 

^ This passed with the other Courbets in the Bruyas Collection to the 
Musee Fabre at Montpellier in 1868. It shows the poet seated at a table 
smoking a pipe and reading a book. It is at present in need of cleaning and 
conditioning and it is hung at such a height that it cannot be examined in 
detail. It would seem, however, to be quite uninteresting as a portrait and 
to suggest nothing of the sitter's characteristics except the massive brow. 
Baudelaire himself thought nothing of the picture. The portrait of Baude- 
laire in U Atelier du peintre was evidently painted from it. 



pictures and forty others. The show was a failure ; hardly 
anyone went in.^ 

Courbet was very ambitious ; he was also vain and not at all 
shrewd. He had collected round himself a number of young 
painters who flattered him and called him mattre, and he regarded 
himself as an important chef d'ecole. At the same time he began 
to live up to his new reputation as a socialist in which he was 
encouraged by Proudhon and a group of young socialists ; he 
thus began to regard liimself also as a chef de partie and painted 
he Ketour de la Conference wliich seems really to have been a 
socialist propaganda picture. ^ 

Courbet's socialism had very little effect on his work. He 
only painted two socialistic pictures — I^e Ketour de la Conference 
and UAumone d'un mendiant (1868) now in the Burrell 
Collection in Scotland ; but it brought him disaster later in his 

At the beginning of 1870 he was offered the Legion of 
Honour, and he refused it in offensive terms. When the Second 
Empire came to an end in September he was thus in the public 
eye as a militant socialist and he was called on by the new 
regime to act as President of a Commission des Beaux Arts in 
charge of the nation's art treasures. In this position he doubtless 
indulged in memories of Louis David and dreams of an art- 
dictatorship ; and when the Commune arrived in 1871 he became 
a Deputy in the Assemblee Nationale. In the civil war that 

^ But Delacroix (who was then nearly sixty and had just been refused 
membership of the Institute for the fourth time by the Salon caucus, cf. p. 
215) went and noted in his Diary : " Je vais voir l' exposition de Courbet. J'j 
teste seul pendant pres d'une heure. J'j decouvre un chef d'avre dans son tableau 
refuse {L.' Atelier). Je ne pouvais m'arracher de cette vue. ... On a refuse Id 
un des ouvrages les plus singuUers de ce temps." 

Courbet arranged another independent one-man show of a hundred of his 
pictures in the Exposition Universelle of 1867. This also was a complete 

2 L^ Ketour de la Conference was anti-clerical in character. It represented 
a procession of priests coming from a Conference where it was obvious that 
many had had too much to drink. The picture was huge in size. Courbet 
sent it to the 1864 Salon where the Jury, who could not reject it owing 
to his hors concours position, procured a special decree of the Government 
in order to reject it on political grounds. The picture was subsequently 
bought by a religious gentleman and destroyed. 



/. --> 



raged in Paris from March to May of that year the Colomie 
Vendome was overthrown. This was a tragic misfortune for 
Courbet because as President of the Commission des Bea//x Arts 
he had written a memorandum suggesting that this emblem of 
the I'jnpirc should be taken down. After the Commune when 
the Thiers Government was taking drastic vengeance on the 
Communards Courbet was arrested and held responsible for the 
destruction of the monument ; and he was condemned to six 
months' imprisonment and ordered to reconstruct the column 
at his own expense.^ 

Courbet was a man of means but he was quite unable to pro- 
duce the 400,000 francs required by this condemnation. He was 
also morally shattered by the failure of his dreams of a Davidian 
career. He escaped accordingly, when an opportunity occurred, 
to Switzerland, and there a few years later he died at the age of 
fifty -eight. 

Courbet's main activity as an artist was distinct from his posi- 
tion as che] d'ecole and also from his position as chef de partie. He 
was a truly original artist who painted numerous figure subjects, 
landscapes with animals, and seascapes. He was not content 
with the photographic vision but always reinforced it to per- 
ception ; and that perception, though harsh, was extremely 
personal. Courbet demonstrated that the Romantic stress of 
emotive fragments could be accomplished without any of the 
accessories — the Arab steeds and waving banners — that we 
find in works by Delacroix ; he made it clear that the most 

^ The Place Vendome, as noted, was originally Place des Conquetes when 
it was laid out under Louis XIV (cf. note, p. 97). It then contained an eques- 
trian statue of Louis XIV by Girardon, which is now in the Louvre. The 
Colonne Vendome was erected in 1805 to celebrate Napoleon's victories and 
it was then surmounted by a bronze statue of Napoleon as a Roman Emperor. 
In 1 8 14 the Royalists under Louis XVIII took down the statue, melted down 
the metal and remade it as the statue of Henri IV on the Pont Neuf, on the 
principle of renewal with the past already noted in the official Restoration 
commissions for pictures (cf. p. 194). In place of the statue a fleur-dc-lys 
was placed on the column. In 1833 Louis-Philippe replaced the flcur-de-lys 
by a statue of Napoleon in uniform and a cocked hat ; in 1863 Napoleon III 
removed this to the Invalides and put back a copy of the original statue. 
When the column was re-erected after the cornrfiunards had overthrown it the 
present statue was made ; this repeats the original type (cf. note, p. 198). 
The column itself, of course, is an imitation of Trajan's column in Rome. 



familiar fragments can be made emotive when recorded by an 
original mind. 

Technically he was also a very individual painter. He often 
applied his colours with a palette knife instead of a brush — a 
procedure which he initiated.^ 

As a result of this procedure and of his intense perception 
Courbet's paintings are often rich in quality and this applies 
especially to his pictures of deer in forests such as The Roe Covert 
(PI. 89) now in the Minneapolis Institute, and some of his sea- 
scapes which are very dramatic. His colour varies a good deal as 
he sometimes used a light scale and sometimes a darker one. It 
is usually harsh and unsubtle; occasionally — especially in the 
seascapes — he achieved a vitreous green that had not appeared 
in painting since Rubens. 

As Courbet did not succumb to the photographic vision his 
work appeals to students of the later nineteenth-century efforts 
to escape from that vision. ^ 

xiv. Daumier and Guys 

Under the Restoration Kings and Louis-Philippe there were 
fierce battles about the freedom of the Press, and the political 

^ Many of Courbet's pictures are partly painted with a brush and partly 
with a palette knife. But he sometimes painted the whole picture with a 
palette knife ; the Koad in Sunlight, in the Mesdag Museum, in The Hague, 
is an example. Cezanne at one period copied this technique (cf. p. 311). 

2 Another Romantic Realist, whose vision was, however, on the photo- 
graphic side, was Jean-Fran fois Millet (18 14-1874), painter of the well- 
known UAngelus in the Louvre. 

Millet translated the old Dutch tradition of the peasant genre picture into 
the new Romantic language of his day. At moments he achieved the pro- 
foundly intimate contact with his subject that we have noted in the work of 
Louis Le Nain and Chardin ; 'La Soupe (PL 90), in the Marseilles Museum, is 
a picture of this kind. 

Millet was himself a peasant and he painted sign-boards and other hack 
works for a living for many years. He was nearly sixty before a dealer 
assured him a regular income. 

He is well represented in the Louvre, in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, in 
the Chicago Art Institute, and in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. 

Alphonse Legros (18 3 7-1 899) was also a Romantic Realist. He imitated 
both Courbet and Millet. He came to England at Whistler's suggestion in 
1875 and was made Professor at the Slade School. 


cartoons of the period Vere extremely virulent. The history of 

these cartoons is outside my subject but I must refer to one 

cartoonist, Honorc Dauniicr (i 808-1 879), whose paintings and 

drawings are very highly ranked to-day. 

Dauniier was the son of a glass painter and his talents were 
first discovered by Lenoir, the creator of the first museum in 
Paris. ^ He learned to lithograph in his youth and made a meagre 
living as a lithographic illustrator all his life. 

He began as a political cartoonist on a paper called Caricature^ 
in 1830, and in 1832 he was imprisoned for six months for a 
caricature of Louis-Philippe called Gargantua swallowing hags of 
gold extracted from the people. Caricature was replaced by Charivari 
in 1835 and Daumier worked on this paper for forty years 
producing four thousand lithographs — an average of nine a 

In these lithographs Daumier appeared not only a political 
cartoonist but also a satirist of social life. He picked up the 
tradition of the gravures de modes and transformed it to a tradition 
of gravures de meeurs which had already appeared in England in 
the work of Hogarth and Rowlandson.- 

While he earned his living in this way he also made drawings 
of contemporary life, modelled little caricature heads of person- 
alities observ^ed in public places, and painted pictures ; but only 
his lithographs were known in his lifetime and he was never able 
to sell any of his other works. 

At the age of sixty-nine his eyesight failed and he retired in 
poverty to a country cottage which had been given him some 
years before by Corot. The Government of the Third Republic 
gave him a small pension as a reward for a lifetime devoted to 
republican propaganda. He died two years later. ^ 

On the staff of Charivari Daumier had Balzac as a collaborator, 
and Balzac said of him : " Ce garqon a du Michel-ange sous la peau^ 
This to some extent was true ; but it was less the spirit of 
Michelangelo, the first Romantic, than that of Rembrandt, the 

^ Cf. note, p. 180. 

2 His most notable follower in this field was Jean-Louis Forain (1852- 


^ After Daumicr's death all his paintings and drawings were acquired 
from his widow by a syndicate of dealers. 



second, which resided in Daumier, and the spirit found expres- 
sion in a language that was largely borrowed from Delacroix 
and Jean-Fran gois Millet — as we see in the celebrated Wagon 
de troisieme classe formerly in Sir James Murray's collection in 
London and now in a private collection in Canada. 

At the same time we find in Daumier's paintings the pre- 
occupation with formal relations which we have already 
encountered in pictures like l^es A?}msements de la vie privee (PL 
6oa) and 'La Kecureuse (PI. 63) by Chardin ; and this quality 
gives architectural significance to pictures like Les Amateurs 
d'Estawpes (PI. 91b), now in Messrs. Reid and Lefevre's collec- 
tion which I reproduce on the same page as Les Amateurs 
d'Estampes (PI. 91a) by Boilly who concentrated on surface 
polish and the imitation of folds and textures in the tradition of 
the tableau de modes > 

In his drawings Daumier used Rembrandt's technique and he 
worked to some extent in Rembrandt's spirit. But he found it 
hard, with a mind blunted by long drudgery at journalistic 
lithographs, to escape from caricature. The difference between 
the Romantic artist's distortions designed to stress the emotivity 
of characteristic features, and the caricaturist's distortions de- 
signed to render those characteristics funny, is a very fine one. 
Daumier in his most impressive drawings remained on the 
Romantic side, but sometimes he was on the caricaturist's side, 
as in his lithographs. I reproduce a typical drawing, Ees 
Amateurs de peinture (PI. 92), now in the Cleveland Museum of 

We see Daumier at his very highest level in the Don Quixote 
painting (PI. 93) in Mr. Samuel Courtauld's collection. This 
picture, which is almost a monochrome, achieves an astonishing 
result with great economy of means ; it combines the emotivity 
of Romantic painting with a large degree of the architectural 
stability of classical art ; and Daumier here demonstrates that an 
equestrian group can live and move before us though the artist 
has not delineated lapels or harness, buttons or bits, eyes or 
noses, fingers or toes. 

The Salon painters and the Salon public of Daumier's day 
would have preferred this picture as it might have been painted 
1 Cf. pp. 164-168. 


Cleveland. Museum of At I 

HONORfi DAUMIER. Lcs Amateurs dc Pciiiture. 


by BoilJy. There are possibly people now living who share their 
point of view.* 

Constantin Guys 

Constantin Guys (i 805-1 892) also drew for the illustrated 
papers and produced other work that is valued to-day. 

He was the son of upper middle-class French parents. At 
eighteen he fought with Byron in the Greek War. Four years 
later he became a dragon in the French Army. About 1830 he 
left the Army and travelled for some years in Spain, Italy, Bul- 
garia, Egypt and Algeria where he made a number of sketches. 
Returning to Paris he started to sell these drawings and to make 
others of operas, ballets and so forth which he sold to the 
Illustrated London Neivs. For that paper he then went as war 
correspondent to the Crimea and he was present at Inkermann 
and Balaclava. 

At tliis stage he seems to have quarrelled with his aged 
father, who had married a girl of sixteen, and to have gone 
in the 'forties to London where he gave lessons in French 
and drawing. In the 'fifties he returned to Paris and became 
an eccentric recluse ; the numerous dessins de maurs, on 
which his reputation rests, date from the 'fifties, 'sixties and 

Baudelaire made liis acquaintance in 1859 and published in 
1863 in the Figaro the celebrated articles on his work called Le 
peintre de la Vie Moderne, in which at the artist's request he 
referred to him simply as " M. G."^ 

In 1885 when he w^as eighty, Guys took several portfolios of 
his drawings to the Musee Carnavalet and handed them to the 
porter. The drawings were unsigned and the parcel contained 
no name or address. The Curator, however, realised that they 

^ Other examples of Daumier's drawings and paintings can now be seen 
in the L(*idon National Gallery, Millbank, and Victoria and Albert 
Museum ; in the Louvre ; in the Metropolitan Museum of New York, 
the Chicago Art Institute, and other museums. Mrs. Charles Payson, 
New York, has his Audience at the Tl^eatre Franfais. 

~ These were written in 1859. But Baudelaire, who after the FIcurs du Mat 
prosecution had great difficulty in getting his work published, was not able 
to sell them till 1863. 

2 H 233 


must be the work of Baudelaire's Veintre de la Vie Moderne and he 
carefully preserved them.^ 

Later in the same year Guys was run over by a carriage in 
the street and he was bedridden for the remaining seven years of 
his life. He died at the age of eighty-seven. 

Guys was a most engaging artist and his drawings and water- 
colours constitute a fascinating chronicle of Parisian maurs 
under the Second Empire. He drew entirely from memory, and 
his mind registered both psychological and architectural impres- 
sions. In practice he began by recording his architectural 
impressions ; the subject first appeared on the paper as an 
architectural arrangement of Ught and shade ; then he went over 
this adding specific form and psychological stresses ; finally, 
sometimes but not always, he added lines with a pen. 

His work had an influence on Manet who was doubtless 
introduced to it by Baudelaire. Both Manet and Baudelaire 
owned Guys' drawings. ^ 

1 These drawings, which include many of the finest surviving examples 
of Guys' work, are still in the Mus^e Carnavalet. 

2 Guys gave Baudelaire a number of his drawings ; and Baudelaire, in 
1859, sent a drawing of a Turkish woman by Guys as a Christmas present to 
his mother, Mme Aupick, who had lived in Constantinople ; she did not 
acknowledge the present and he wrote her three days later : " Do not 
scruple to tell me (if it is your opinion) that you think the Turkish lady is 
very ugly. I am afraid you are not very strong on the arts but that does 
not reduce my affectionate feelings and my respect for you." Mme Aupick 
preferred two heads by Greuze which her husband had acquired. 

A drawing by Guys (now in Baron Gourgaud's collection in Paris) called 
Im Promenade au hois must have been seen by Manet before he painted his 
Concert aux Tuileries now in the London National Gallery, Millbank ; in 
Baron Gourgaud's collection there is also a full-length wash drawing called 
Une Dam, which is known to have belonged to Manet and certainly 
influenced his painting. 

The student is referred {a) to the hundred and seventy excellent re- 
productions that accompany Mr. P. G. Konody's translation of Baudelaire's 
articles, published by " The Studio " as The Painter of Victorian Life, and 
(b) to Gustave Geffroy's book on Guys which reproduces some of the finest 
drawings in the Musee Carnavalet. 


London. S. Courtauld Collection 

HONORfi DAUMIF.R. Don Quixote. 

Boston. Museum of Fijie Arts 

GUSTAVE COURBET. La Curec (The Quarry). 

U.S.A. Private Collection 

EDGAR DEGAS. Lc Depart. 

PA1(1' SIX 


i. The Impressionist Movement 

ij. Jldouard Manet 

iij. Claude Monet 

iv. Angus te Kenoir 

V. Edgar Degas 

vi. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec 


i. The Impressionist Movement 

The Impressionists adopted Courbet's theory of Reahsm in 
respect of their choice of subjects, and in their technique 
they followed Co rot's photographic procedures which they 
developed to suit their several needs. Manet was the pioneer 
of the movement ; Renoir proved himself, in the end, the 
great master ; Monet, whose use of colour was architectural, 
anticipated the Cubists in this way ; Degas was a Romantic 
journalist whose work was pushed to its logical conclusion by 

Other artists connected with the movement were Camille 
Pissarro (i 830-1903), Alfred Sisley (i 840-1 899), Frederic 
Bazille (i 841-1870), Berthe Morisot (i 840-1 895), Eve Gonzalez 
(1850-1883) and iNIary Cassatt (1843-1926).^ 

^ Pissarro, son of a French Jewish father and a Creole mother, was an 
honest intelligent man who had intellectual contact with all the Impres- 
sionist masters and also with Gauguin, Cezanne and Seurat, a contact that 
was always mutually beneficial (cf. note, p. 280). He was influenced 
successively by Corot, Millet and the artists of the later movements ; his 
painting was prudent and conscientious. He was one of the first French 
artists to experiment with the bird's-eye view that occurs in Japanese prints. 
He applied this with success to street scenes in his later years. In Mi-careme 
sur les Boulevards (PI. IX), painted in 1897, we see him at his best. 

Sisley was born in Paris of English parents. He began as an amateur with 
an allowance from his father. In 1870 his father was ruined and thereafter 
he lived in real poverty for the rest of his life. In his art he enlivened Corot's 
photographic vision with Monet's colour and in this formula he produced 
many charming little landscapes of which La route de Versailles (PI. XI) is an 

Bazille who was associated with the Impressionist artists in the early days 
was killed in the Franco-Prussian War. He might have developed into an 
artist of consequence. The Louvre has his Kemion de famille (1869) and La 
Robe rose, the Luxembourg his Atelier de l' artiste and Reunion de famille, and 
the Musee Fabre, at Montpellier, his Vue de Village (1868), which shows a 
young peasant girl against a landscape with a view of Castelnau in the 

Berthe Morisot was a granddaughter of Fragonard and at first an informal 
pupil of Corot and afterwards a regular pupil of Manet whose brother she 
married. She imitated Manet's technique in his Impressionist pictures and 
achieved at times very pleasant effects of spontaneity and colour. La 


The Impressionist movement was a studio experiment. The 
artists all adopted the position of the research scientist working 
in his laboratory to solve a problem of his own selection 
considered as an end in itself. They did not regard them- 
selves as tradesmen, like the artists of the old Maitrise^ or as 
members of a liberal profession like Claude and Poussin, or as 
professional craftsmen like Le Brun or Boucher, or as propa- 
gandists in a battle of contemporary ideas like Delacroix and 
Courbet. They regarded themselves, as Corot, and possibly 
Chardin and Watteau had regarded themselves, as servants of a 
vocation ; and, therefore, from the standpoint of bourgeois 
society, they painted, like Chardin and Corot, for their own 
" amusement."^ 

The persecution to which the Impressionist painters were 
subjected had its source, as noted, in the camp of the popular 
and demonstration artists of the Salon ; and conditions, when 
Manet was ridiculed in 1865, and the other Impressionists were 
ridiculed in the 'seventies, were much the same as they had been 
when Courbet appeared, except {a) that in 1863 the Salon had 
become an annual, instead of a biennial function and the public 
experience of popular Salon painting was, therefore, increased, 
and (b) that the Salon Jury had again developed to a bigoted 
caucus. 2 

The ridicule and really scandalous abuse showered on the 

Toilette (PI. 123a), now in the Chicago Art Institute, shows the light touch 
characteristic of her work. 

Eve Gonzalez was a pupil of Manet who imitated the manner which he 
employed in painting her portrait (PI. 99). Her picture l^a l^oge, quite a 
good imitation, is now in the Louvre. 

Mary Cassatt was born in Pittsburg and worked under Renoir and Degas. 
She is well represented in the Metropolitan Museum, New York. 

1 Cf. note, p. 140, p. 216 and Preface § v. 

2 After the 1848 Revolution the Jury, as noted, was elected each year by 
the exhibitors at the previous Salon. Under the Second Empire the system 
was altered, and the Jury was composed partly of members nominated by the 
hors concours exhibitors (cf. note, p. 226) and partly of members nominated 
by the Administration des Beaux Arts. This system secured the re-election 
year after year of the same Jury which systematically excluded originality 
and works which might divert attention from their own productions. The 
rejections in 1863 were so scandalous that the Emperor permitted the 
famous Salon des Kefusis as a protest (cf. p. 240). 


New York. Mctrupuittan Muicum 

EDOUARD MANET. N'ictorinc en costume d'Hspada. 

Chicago. Art Institute 

EDOUARD MANET. Jesus insulted by the Soldiers. 


original French artists of this period were directed partly 
against the supposed socialistic and immoral tendencies of their 
productions. In the case of (^ourbet the Salon artists had pre- 
tended to hnd Socialism in Ufj llnterremeut a Oniatis, Les CasseNrs 
de pierres^ and IJ Atelier : Allegorie reelle. In the same way when 
Cezanne first appeared they tried to discredit him by describing 
his pictures as obviously the work of a Communard. Manet's 
Dejeuner sur I'herbe and Olymp'ia were attacked as indecent and 
there can be no doubt that the public which had then very little 
experience of Romantic-Realistic nude painting were genuinely 
shocked by both pictures. It was, of course, the duty of the 
Salon painters to explain to the public the real relation between 
Manet's Olympia and Giorgione's Venus in Dresden, Titian's 
Venus in Florence, and Titian's Venus and the man playing the 
Organ in Madrid ; and also the relation of Manet's Dejeuner sur 
I'herbe (PL 97b) to Giorgione's Concert Champetre (PI. 46b). 
They did not do so because {a) it did not suit their purpose, and 
{b) they were probably unacquainted with the Italian works in 
question — the bigotry and ill-nature of such artists being fre- 
quently accompanied by a remarkable ignorance of the history of 
art (cf. note, p. 251). 

But the main attacks, in the case both of Courbet and the 
Impressionists, were directed against the technical procedures 
of the artists. 

Courbet, as noted, applied his paint frequently with a palette 
knife ; Manet painted his shadows into his lights instead of the 
prevailing practice of painting his lights into his shadows ; and 
after 1870 all the Impressionists painted in bright tints and with 
httle touches of divided or broken colour. Left to themselves 
the public would probably have ignored these original artists 
as they ignored Corot for forty years, and they would have 
been mildly puzzled by these innovations when they chanced to 
come their way. There is nothing in the use of a palette knife 
for the application of colour, or in the use of bright tints and 
spots and dashes, which naturally arouses indignation in an 
average common-sensed decent-minded middle-class man. But 
the popular Salon artists stigmatised these teclinical devices as 
heinous, indeed as almost bestial, crimes, and encouraged the 
general public to persecute the criminals and wallow in the 



pleasure of ridiculing technical procedures which happened to 
be new. 

The history of the Impressionists' struggles is well known and 
can now be briefly told. 

From 1859 to 1874 Manet fought the Salon painters and the 
Salon public almost single-handed. 

In 1863 the Salon Jury's persecution of their rivals reached a 
point when protest became inevitable and the rejected artists, 
including Manet, Pissarro and Whistler, appealed directly to the 
Emperor who ordered a gallery in the Palais de Vlndustrie^ where 
the Salon itself was held, to be allocated to the rejected pictures ; 
and the Emperor himself accompanie.d by the Empress officially 
visited this Salon des Refuses^. 

In 1874 a group of thirty artists including Boudin, Pissarro, 
Monet, Sisley, Berthe Morisot, Renoir, Degas and Cezanne, 
formed themselves into an exhibiting society (with the title 
Societe anonjme des artistes, peintres, sculpteurs et graveurs), as a 
protest against their treatment by the Salon Jury .2 

Boudin was then fifty, Monet was thirty-four, Renoir was 
thirty-three, Degas forty, Pissarro forty-four, and Cezanne 
thirty-five. Manet, then forty-two, did not join and he never 
exhibited with this group — (which later changed its name to 
Veintres Impressionistes) — though he helped the members in many 

The Society's first exhibition was held in the same year on the 
Boulevard des Capucines in the studio of the photographer 
Nadar, an extraordinary man who contrived to be an aeronaut, 
a caricaturist and an intimate friend of Baudelaire as well as a 

^ Cf. note, p. 238. 

^ In so doing they had the precedent of the Sociite des Amis des Ar/s, 
founded as a protest against the Academy's tyranny just before the Revolu- 
tion (cf. p. 179). 

^ In 1863 when Nadar intended to go to London, Baudelaire gave him a 
letter of introduction to Whistler in which he said : " Un de mes tneilleurs et de 
mes plus vieux amis, M. Felix Nadar, va a I^ondres, dans le but, je crois, de 
raconter au public les aventures qu'il a courues avec son grand ballon, et aussi, je 
presume, pour faire partager au public anglais ses convictions relativement d un 
nouveau mecanisme qui doit etre substitue au ballon." 

He also gave him a letter to Swinburne in which he took the opportunity 



The Salon painters and their supporters in the Press encour- 
aged the pul^Hc to ridicule this First Impressionist I'.xhibition, 
which contained Monet's Impression : Soleil levant that gave the 
group its name.^ 

In 1876 the Second Impressionist Exhibition was held in the 
galleries of the dealer Durand-Ruel, who had decided to support 
the rebels in 1872, when he bought twenty-two pictures by 
Manet in one day.- 

At this exhibition the number of the exhibitors was reduced 
to sixteen, as the less adventurous members had fallen away. 
Gustave Caillebotte (i 848-1 894) appeared as a new member. 
Renoir, Monet and Berthe Morisot contributed.^ 

This exhibition was even more virulently attacked than the first. * 

to thank Swinburne for his " merveilleux article " on the Fleurs du Mai in the 
Spectator a few months earlier. In this letter Baudelaire stated his art-creed : 
" Tout objet d'art bien fait sugglre naturellement et forcement une morale" 

Nadar's book on Baudelaire throws valuable side-lights on his character. 
Baudclaireans will remember the revealing story of the child and the cake. 

* I do not know the present whereabouts of Monet's Impression : Soleil 
levant. In 1906 it was in the collection of M. Donop de Monchy. Judging 
by a reproduction it would appear to have been influenced by Monet's 
introduction to Turner's pictures when he came to England during the 
Franco-Prussian War (cf. p. 259). 

Charivari held this picture up to ridicule and referred to the whole group as 
" Jmpressionistes." 

To this exhibition Renoir sent L,a Petite Danseuse, now in the Widener 
Collection, Philadelphia, and L.a loge, now in the Courtauld Collection in 
London ; Degas Voitures aux courses now in the Boston Museum, Repetition 
d'un Ballet sur la Scene, Le Fojer de la danse and Le pedicure, all now in the 
Louvre ; and Cezanne La ALaison du Pendu, now in the Louvre. 

2 Cf. p. 25 1. 

^ I have not been able to discover the identity of the pictures exhibited, 
eighteen of which were by Renoir. Cezanne was not represented. For 
Caillebotte cf. note pp. 243, 244 and p. 242. 

•^ Albert Wolff, art critic of the Figaro, wrote : " On vient d'ouvrir che^ 
Durand-Kuel une exposition qu'on dit etre de peinture. Le passant inoffensif entre et 
a sesjeux ipouvantes s'offre tin spectacle cruel. Cinq ou six al.enes, dont unefemme, 
s'j sont donne rende-:^-vous pour exposer leurs aitvres. 

" 11 y a des gens qui pouffent de rire devant ces choses-la, moij'en ai le caur serre. 
Ces soi-disant artistes s'intitulent les Intransigeants, les Impressionnistes. lis 
prennent des toiles, de la couleur et des brosses, jet tent au hasard quelques tons et 
signent le tout. C'est ainsi qua la Ville-Lvrard des esprits egares ramassent les 
cailloux sur leur chemin et croient avoir trouvi des diamants." 

1 I 241 


In 1877 the Societe numbered eighteen members, who now 
called themselves ofhcially Veintres Impressionistes, and the Third 
Impressionist Exhibition was held in an empty house in the rue le 

At this exhibition Cezanne's pictures excited the chief odium ; 
the Salon painters and their associates spoke of him as a Socialist 
and a species of monster, though he never at any time in his 
life took an interest in politics. Discouraged by this stupidity 
and malice, he retired to the country, as he had independent 
means, and his work was not seen again in Paris for twenty years. 
Renoir and Monet shared the abuse that was poured upon him.^ 

But the artists were now supported by a small number of 
patrons and admirers. In the first category there was Chocquet, 
a civil servant who overspent his income to secure pictures by 
Renoir, in which he delighted, and who was one of the first 
people to understand Cezanne ; Georges Charpentier the 
publisher ; Caillebotte, a rich naval architect, who owned a 
fine house on the river and numerous sailing boats, who bought 
pictures by all the Impressionists and Cezanne, and was himself 
a gentleman-artist and member of the group ; and the Count 
Camondo, who also began to collect about this time.^ 

The artists were also supported by the critic-collector 
Theodore Duret, and Emile Zola, who had both already de- 
fended Manet, and by the critics Duranty and Henri Riviere, 

^ To this exhibition Pissarro sent pictures of kitchen gardens, and Renoir 
L(? Moulin de la Galette (either the picture now in the Louvre or the version 
now in a private American collection which I reproduce, PL 104b) ; Cezanne 
sent sixteen works, landscapes, compositions of bathers, still-life studies and 
the Portrait of Chocquet now in the Pellerin Collection, Paris ; Degas sent 
twenty-five works including Un Cafe : Boulevard Mont mar tre (PI. 113b) and 
La danseuse au bouquet (PI. 115a), both now in the Louvre ; and Monet sent 
l^es Dindons hlancs, a picture (painted in 1873) of which I do not know the 
present whereabouts. 

2 L(2 Chronique des Arts et des Curiosites wrote : " MM. Claude Monet et 
Ce-:(anne, heureux de se produire, ont expose le premier 30 toiles, le second 14. II 
faut les avoir vues pour s'imaginer ce qu'elles sont. Elks provoquent le rire et sont 
cependant lamentahles. Elles denotent la plus profonde ignorance du dessin, de la 
composition, du coloris. Quand les enfant s s'amusent avec du papier et des couleurs, 
ils font mieux." 

^ The majority of the pictures in the Caillebotte and Camondo Collections 
are now in the Louvre (cf. note, pp. 245, 244). 


MARC ANTON'K^. Engraving after Raphael : The Judgement of Paris (detail). 

IDOL \K1) \1 Wl-.T. Le Dejeuner sur Iherbe. 

Paris. Louvre 



who published, during the third exhibition, an illustrated weekly 
paper called Ulmpressioniste^ which lauded and explained the 
pictures. The main support came, however, as noted, from 
Durand-Ruel, an art dealer who really knew his business. 
Two other names must be mentioned — Muret, a restaurant 
keeper, who gave meals to the poor members of the group, 
including Monet and Renoir, in return for pictures ; and 
Tanguy, an artist colourman who supplied them with colours 
on the same terms. ^ 

The fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh Impressionist Exhibitions 
were held in 1879, 1880, 1881 and 1882. In 1883 there was no 
group cxliibition, but Durand-Ruel arranged a series of one- 
man shows by Monet, Renoir, Pissarro and Sisley in an empty 
house on the Boulevard de la Madeleine. The eighth and last 
Impressionist Exhibition was held in 1886.2 

By this time the Impressionist battle was really won. An 
exhibition of pictures by Monet, organised in New York by 
Durand-Ruel in 1886, was a considerable success, and all the 
leading artists of the group were now recognized — except 
Cezanne, who was working out in his retirement a new orienta- 
tion for modern art.^ 

But the Salon painters still encouraged the general public in 
hostilit)" to these artists ; they used all their influence to prevent 
any expenditure from la caisse des musees on their work. No 
Impressionist pictures were ever acquis par I'Etat, and when they 
were bequeathed or presented, they were not accepted without 
protest, and some were actually refused.* 

^ For Tanguy cf. p. 302 and note, p. 512. 

* The Impressionists in the years of adversity held two or three auction 
sales of their pictures at the Hotel Drouot. The pictures were knocked down 
for very small sums amid the jeers of the spectators ; the popular painters' 
supporters in the Press added derisive comments. 

^ In 1886 Manet had been dead three years, Monet was forty-six, Pissarro 
was fifty-six, Degas was fifty-two, Renoir was forty-five, and Cezanne was 
forty-seven ; Toulouse-Lautrec, who was twenty-two, had just arrived in Paris. 
By this time the Societe des Artistes Indipendants had been formed and Seurat 
who was twenr^'-seven had already painted and shown there lui V.aigKade (now 
in the London National Galler}', Millbank,) and I^ Grande Jatte (PI. 135) 
now in the Chicago Art Institute (cf. note p. 280 and pp. 269, ;o7). 

* None of the pictures by the Impressionists, Post-Impressionists, and by 
Cezanne and Seurat now in the Louvre and Luxembourg museums have 



The Impressionists' pictures, painted sixty and seventy years 
ago, have been imitated by derivative popular painters all over 
the world ; these imitations abound in all official exhibitions to 
this day. At the present moment Impressionism has taken the 
place of History-painting in the Grand Manner as the popular 
painters* creed ; and for the last thirty years it has been used 
by them as a weapon with which to attack the various forms of 
original painting that have since appeared. 

ij. Edouard Manet 



London. National Gallery- 

London. National Gallery, Millbank 

London. National Gallery, Millbank 

London. National Gallery, Millbank 

London. National Gallery, Millbank 

London. S. Courtauld Collection 

London. S. Courtauld Collection 

London. S. Courtauld Collection 

London. S. Courtauld Collection 

New York. Metropolitan Museum 

New York. Metropolitan Museum 

The Execution of the Emperor 
Maximilian. (Two frag- 
ments), 1 867-1 870 

Concert aux Tuileries, 1860- 

Mile Eva Gonzales, 1 869-1 870 

La Servante de Bocks, 1877 

Mme Manet with a cat, 1877- 

Le Dejeuner sur I'herbe (1862- 
1864), (first version) 

Argenteuil, 1874 

Les Pavcurs de la rue de Berne, 

Le Bar des Folies Bergeres, 

Boy with a sword, 1861 

The Woman with a parrot, c. 

been purchases. Manet's O/jmpia, offered by subscription in 1890, was at 
first refused and only accepted after protracted negotiations. When the 
whole of the Caillebotte Collection came to the nation by bequest, in 1895, 
the Administration des Beaux Arts refused two pictures by Cezanne, one by 
Manet, three by Sisley, eight by Monet and eleven by Pissarro and accepted 
the remainder under protest. 

^ For a catalogue the reader is referred to Theodore Duret's Edouard 
Manet et son auvre. Some changes in ownership have occurred since Duret's 
catalogue was compiled. My list gives present whereabouts in a number of 
such cases. 



New York. 
New York. 
New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 
New York. 

New York. 
New York. 
New York 
New York. 
New York. 



Metropolitan Museum 
Metropolitan Museum 
Metropolitan Museum, 

llavemeyer Collection 
Metropolitan Museum, 

Havemeyer Collection 
Metropolitan Museum, 

Havemeycr Collection 
Metropolitan Museum, 

llavemeyer Collection 
Metropolitan Museum, 

Havemeycr Collection 
Metropolitan Museum, 

Havemeycr Collection 
G. Vandcrbilt Collection 
G. Vandcrbilt Collection 

A. Lewisohn Collection 
A. Lewisohn Collection 
Osborn Collection 
Chester Dale Collection 
Chester Dale Collection 
Art Institute 

Art Institute 

Art Institute, Mrs. Potter 

Palmer Collection 
Wittemore Collection 


Wittemore Collection 


Mrs. Montgomery-Scars 


Wilstach Collection 


J. G. Johnson Collection 


Phillips Memorial Gallery 











The Funeral, c. 1870 
Jeanne^ — le Printemps, 1880 
Victorine en costume d'Hspada, 

Dead Christ with Angels, 1865- 

^'oung Man as a Majo, 1863 

Matador Saluting, 1866 

En bateau, 1874 

Lc Chcmin de Per, 1874 

L'Acteur tragique, 1866 

Lc Repos (Berthe Morisot), 

Boy blowing Soap Bubbles, 1868 
The Beggar, c. 1863 
Le Guitarrero, i860 
Mme Michel-Levy 
Le Vieux Musicien, 1 862-1 865 
Jesus Insulted by the Soldiers, 

A Philosopher, 1 863-1 865 
Les Courses a Longchamp, 

Racing in the Bois. Les 

Courses au bois de Boulogne, 

The Port of Calais, 1871-1872 
La Chanteusc dcs rues, 1862 

Marine View in Holland, 1871- 

The fight between the Alabama 

and the Kearsage, 1 864-1 865 
Ballet Espagnol, 1862 
Lola de Valence, 1 861-1862 
Le Dejeuner sur I'herbe, 1863 
Still life. Peonies, 1864 
Still life. Fruit, 1864 
Le Fifre, 1866 
Le Port de Boulogne, 1868- 


^ This picture is now on exhibition in the Louvre. 




Mme Manet at the piano 
(pastel), 1 867-1 868 



Olympia, 1863 



Le Balcon, 1 868-1 870 



Portrait of Emile Zola, 1868 



La dame aux eventails, 1873 



La Blonde aux seins nu, 1875 



Stephan Mallarine, 1876 



Clemenceau, c. 1880 


M. Gallimard Collection 

Le Linge, 1 875-1 876 





Le Dejeuner, 1 868-1 892 

Paris ? 





Nana, 1876 


En Bateau. Argenteuil, 1873- 




Chez le Pere Lathuille, 1878- 



Dans la Serre, 1 878-1 879 


Max Liebermann 




Max Liebermann 


Portrait of George Moore, 




E. Arnhold Collection 

Jeune femme couchee en cos- 

tume espagnol, 1864 ? 


E. Arnhold Collection 

Le Bon Bock, 1 872-1 873 


Staedelsches Institut 

The Croquet Party, 1873-18 74 




Le Buveur d' Absinthe, 1858- 


{a) Manet's hife 

Edouard Manet, the real originator of the Impressionist 
movement, abstained from the first Impressionist exhibition in 
1874, because he really belonged to an older generation — the 
generation of his friend and champion, Baudelaire.^ 

Manet, like Baudelaire, came from the upper middle-class. 
His father, himself the son of a well-to-do bourgeois, was a 
magistrate ; his mother also came of a moneyed bourgeois 
family. His parents objected to his desire to be an artist ; and 
this was comprehensible seeing that the gentleman-artist 

1 Baudelaire's Fleurs du AW appeared in 1857. 
1864 and died there in 1867. 


He retired to Brussels in 

Lottdon. Naiiotial OalUry Mxiibank 

EDOUARD MANET. Eve Gon2alcs. 

Paris. Gallimard CoUeclion 



was still a relatively rare phenomenon in French social 

In 1850, at the age of eighteen, Manet declared that he would 
rather go to sea than study law as his parents wished ; and to 
sea he went, with funds supplied by his father, on a merchant 
vessel bound for Rio de Janeiro, where he probably acquired 
the germs of the paralysis from which he died. 

On his return he again insisted on his vocation, and joined 
the art school of Thomas Couture, a Salon demonstration painter, 
whose Komaitis de la Decadence^ now in the Louvre, was a Salon 
success in 1849. Manet worked there intermittently for five 
years, and in this period he spent much time in the Louvre, and 
copied, among other things, the Cavaliers then ascribed to 
Velasquez. 2 

In the evenings he took pianoforte lessons from a Mile 
Suzanne Leenhoft, who became his mistress, the mother of his 
son, and eventually his wife.^ 

This Haison was kept secret from his father, who now pro- 
vided funds for travel in Italy, Germany and Holland. About 
1857 he shared a studio with another gentleman-artist, the 

^ Gericault and Delacroix were the first ; Corot, who as noted was 
financed by his parents all his life, belonged to the lower middle-classes (cf. 
p. 216); in the middle of the nineteenth-century artists whose financial 
position absolved them from the necessity of making money began to be 
more numerous in France. Courbet, Degas, Cezanne, Seurat, and Toulouse- 
Lautrec were, like Manet, in this position (cf. Preface, § v). 

- This picture is now catalogued as School of Velasquez. In 1850-1856 
the only real Velasquez in the Louvre was the half-length of Ulnfante 
Marie Marguerite. The full-length of Philip IV (a replica) arrived in 1862 ; 
the Aiarie-Therise d'Autriche was presented by La Caze in 1869. 

Between 185 1 and 1858 Manet also copied in the Louvre Tintoretto's 
Self Portrait, Titian's Vierge au lapiti, and, in the Luxembourg, ha Barque du 
Dante, by Delacroix, whose studio he had visited. Ribera's L^ Pied hot, 
which we might assume to have been a source of inspiration for his early 
work, was a La Caze gift in 1 869. (For the question of his acquaintance with 
works by Goya cf. note, p. 2^4.) 

^ Manet's picture, Mme Manet au pianOy now in the Louvre, was painted 
about 1867. Whistler's Piano Picture, now in the collection of Sir Edmund 
Davis, London, was painted in 1859. Fantin Latour's Autour du piano now 
in the Luxembourg was painted in 1857 ; Renoir's Jeunes filles au piano (of 
which several versions exist) dates from 1891 ; his Enfants de Catulle Mendis, 
where three children are grouped round a piano, dates from 1888. 



Comte de Balleroy, and at the beginning of 1 8 5 9, when he was 
twenty-seven, he painted Le Buveur d' Absinthe (PI. 11 8c), now 
in Copenhagen. 

Manet invited his master, Couture, to inspect this picture 
in his studio. " Mon ami,^^ said Couture, " // n'y a qu'un buveur 
d' absinthe ici — c'est celui qui a produit cette insanite.'* The picture 
was sent to the Salon and rejected. 

In i860 he took a studio of his own and painted ha Musique 
aux Tuileries, now in the London National Gallery, Millbank, 
a series of figures from a model called Victorine, and another 
series of figures in Spanish costumes, some painted from 
members of a troupe of Spanish dancers, then in Paris, and others 
from Victorine and members of his family dressed up.^ 

The outstanding pictures of this double series are L,ola de 
Valence^ now in the Louvre, Victorine en costume d'Espada 
(PI. 95), The Woman with a parrot and the Young Man as a Majc^ 
all now in the ISIetropolitan Museum, New York, the Ballet 
Espagnol, now in the Phillips Memorial Gallery, Washington, 
and Le Vieux Musicien, now in the Chester Dale Collection, 
New York. At this period he also painted the octoroon, 
Jeanne Duval^ who played so strange a part in the life of 
Baudelaire. 2 

After his father's death in 1862 Manet became a man of com- 
fortable though not large independent means. He married the 
next year. 

At the beginning of 1863 he held a one-man show of his 
pictures in the gallery of a dealer named Martinet. The pic- 
tures were violently abused by the critics ; Ea Musique aux 
Tuileries and hola dc Valence^ which both seem to us restrained 

^ Manet, like Watteau, had a number of costumes — especially Spanish 
costumes — as studio properties and nearly all his Spanish pictures were 
painted before he went to Spain. In the same way the sitter for Le Buveur 
d' Absinthe was not really an absinthe-drunkard but an out-of-work rag-and- 
bone merchant whom Manet had picked up in the Louvre where the poor 
wretch had gone for shelter on a cold day (cf. p. 284), 

2 This picture, which was never finished, is now, I believe, in Germany. 
It represents the sitter in a white crinoline muslin dress lying on a sofa with 
a white lace curtain as a background. It was presumably the source of 
Whistler's Symphonies in White, the first of which was rejected by the Salon in 


i.n::,ioii. .\iii:oiuil OiiiU'ry, Millhank 

EDOUARD iMANET. La Scrvantc dc Bocks. 

LDOLARD MANl-T. Lc Bar Jc> Tolics BcrL'crcs. 

i ..; ,, A.I 


Aberdeen. Art Gallery 

CLAUDE MONET. La Falaise dc Fecamp. 


and almost sombre in colour, were described as offendiiij^ by 
i<ti harioldoe rouge ^ bleti^ jaune ct mir} 

The Dejeuner sur I'hcrhe (PI. 97b), now in the Louvre, was 
painted in 1862-3, rejected by the Salon in 1863, and shown 
in the Saloti des Refuses of that year. The 1 emperor and impress 
led the way in the general condemnation of the picture which 
was described as an offence against decency ; no one, it would 
seem, perceived that it was painted in emulation of Giorgione's 
Concert Champctre (PL 46b) in the Louvre. ^ 

The Dead Christ with Angels (Havemeyer Collection) was 
shown in the Salon of 1864; the Jesus insulted by the soldiers 
(PI. 96), now in the Chicago Art Institute, was in the Salon of 
1865 together with the celebrated Olympia. The scandal of 
the Dejeuner sur I'herbe was repeated by the exhibition of these 
pictures, and the critics who supported the popular painters 
were violently hostile.^ 

Manet was much distressed by this hostile reception of his 
work ; he particularly resented the suggestion disseminated by 
the popular painters that he was merely a vulgar self-advertiser 
seeking notoriety by the exhibition of an offensive nude. To 
escape from this persecution he went to Madrid, where he met 
Theodore Duret, who became one of his most faithful champions 
and friends.^ 

^ The hola de Valence was then even less aggressive in colour than it is 
to-day, because it had a plain grey background which was afterwards changed 
to the coulisse de theatre background which now appears in it. Of this picture 
and l^a Musique aux Tuileries, Paul de Saint- Victor wrote in I^a Presse : 
" Imagine:;^ Goya passe au Mexique, devenu satwage au milieu des pampas, et bar- 
bouillant des toiles avec de la cochenille ecrasee, vous aure-::^ M. Manet, le realiste de la 
derniere beure. Ses tableaux . . . sont des charivaris de palette. Jamais on n' a fait 
plus effrojablement grimacer les lignes et hurler les tons. . . . Son ' Concert aux 
Tuileries ' icorche lesyeux, commc la musique des foires fait saignerVoreille." 

^ Manet took the composition of the central part of this picture from 
Marc Antonio's engraving, The Judgement of Paris, after a drawing by 
Raphael, The Judgement of Paris (PI. 97a). 

^ Saint- Victor wrote : " La foule se presse, comme a la Morgue, devant 
' I'Olympia ' faisandee (i.e. high, as of game) et I' horrible ' Ecce homo ' de M. 
Manet. Uart descendu si has ne mirite meme pas qu'on le blame." . . . "Neparlons 
pas d'eux ; re garde et passe." 

* Duret in his Manet et son auvre relates an episode which makes it clear 
that Manet at this moment was suffering from an attack of persecution mania. 

2 K 



In 1866, after his return from Spain, the Salon rejected Le 
Fifre, now in the Louvre, and UActeur tragique^ now in the 
Vanderbiit Collection, New York.^ 

In 1867 he was not invited to exhibit at the Exposition 
Universelle and, like Courbet, he put up a shed and arranged 
fifty of his works as a private exhibition ; hardly anyone went 
in, and none of the pictures was sold. 

On the other hand, he had now won for himself a number of 
admirers, the critics Theodore Duret, Duranty and Theophile 
Thore, and Emile Zola, who had written an enthusiastic article 
about his work, and lost his post as art critic to UEvenement as a 

These men and the artists who were about to form the 
Impressionist group used to frequent the Cafe Guerbois to 
meet one another, and especially to meet Manet, whom they all 
regarded as their leader. 

Le Balcon (PI. 98), now in the Louvre, was in the Salon of 
1869, and was greeted literally with roars of laughter; Eva 
Gonzales (PI. 99), now in the London National Gallery, Mill- 
bank — a portrait for which Manet had forty sittings — had the 
same fate in the Salon of 1870. 

This continued laughter at his pictures had a bad effect on 
Manet's nerves. As after the Olympia scandal, he was for the 
moment paranoiac, and in 1866 he quarrelled with Duranty, 
with whom he fought a duel.^ 

But he also tells us that the passport officer at Hendaye called his wife to 
look at this painter of scandalous pictures of whom they had read in the 
newspapers — which shows that the persecution was as real and widespread 
then as it is in the case of certain original artists to-day. 

1 About this time Manet sent two pictures — probably these two — to the 
Royal Academy in London which rejected them. 

2 Zola wrote : " L<7 place de M. Manet est marquee au 'Louvre. . . . 11 est 
impossible — impossible, entende^i^-vous — que M. Manet n' ait pas unjour de triomphe 
et qu'il n'ecrase pas les mediocrites timides qui I'entourent." This was considered 
so fantastic in 1866 that the editor thought his contributor was insulting his 
readers by " pulling their legs." Duret, who arranged to write articles with- 
out payment on the 1870 Salon in L'Electeur Libre, had to give an undertaking 
that if he praised Manet the praise must be attenue et enveloppe de circonlocutions 

^ Both survived and were afterwards reconciled. Some time later Manet 
quarrelled, over a trifle, with the Belgian painter Stevens, who had been for 
many years his friend. 



There was no Salon in 1871, and during the war Manet served 
in the garde nationale, where his colonel was the Salon painter, 
Meissonier, who took no steps to make his acquaintance.' 

He resumed work in 1872, and sent to the Salon Le Kepos 
(a portrait of Berthe Morisot), which had the usual bad recep- 
tion. But this picture, which is now in the Vanderbilt Collec- 
tion, New York, was accompanied by Le Bon Bock (now in a 
German collection), which represents a fat man, smoking a pipe, 
with a glass of beer in his hand. Pictures of fat men, especially 
of fat men eating or drinking, always appeal to Salon publics. 
This one was no exception to the rule, and Manet for the first 
time heard the Salon visitors make enthusiastic comments on his 

Manet now found himself short of money ; in the thirteen 
years in which he had been practising as an artist he had only 
sold two or three pictures ; he had overspent his income, 
especially at the time of his one-man show in the Exposition 
Universelle^ when he had gambled on the hope of selling some 
works ; and his actual capital was now considerably reduced. 
This position was relieved when the dealer Durand-Ruel came 
to his studio and bought twenty-two pictures for thirty-five 
thousand francs.'^ 

^ Jean-Louis Ernest Meissonier (1815-1891), a genre painter, chiefly of 
cortegaardjes in the Dutch tradition, was a pillar of the Salons and the first 
French artist to receive the Grand Cross of the Legion of Plonour. His work 
was much admired by Madame Sabatier to whom Baudelaire wrote the poem 
beginning : 

Ange plein de gatte, connaisse:^-vous I'angoisse 

La honie, les remords, les sanglots, les ennuis 

Et les vagues terreurs de ces affreuses nuits 

Qui compriment le caur conwie un papier qu'on froisse ? 

Ange plein de gaite, connaisse^-vous I'angoisse ? 

Meissonier was a very short man who wore a very long beard. Mr. Walter 
Pach, the distinguished American art-critic, has described him as " a ran- 
corous dwarf." In 1872 when Courbet was victimised on political grounds 
by the Thiers Government (cf. p. 229), Meissonier helped to make it 
impossible for him to pay the indemnity by urging the Salon Jury to exclude 
his work from all exhibitions. " He must be considered by us," said 
Meissonier, " as one dead." 

* The pictures bought included four port scenes and Victorine as an 
Espada (PI. 95), Le Ftfre, L'Acteur tragique. The Woman vith a parrot, Ut 



This was Manet's position at the time of the First Impres- 
sionist Exhibition. He had only ten more years to hve, and he 
was to hear again the Salon public's derisive laughter and to have 
his pictures again refused. 

In addition to his important figure subjects he had been paint- 
ing since the middle of the 'sixties Impressionist seascapes, port 
scenes, scenes on the beach, at the races and so forth, and he 
now began to use this Impressionist technique in Salon pictures 
of outdoor scenes.^ 

Le Chem'm defer (Havemeyer Collection), shown in the Salon of 
1 874, and Argenteuil (now at Tournai), shown in 1 875 , were both 
outdoor {plein air) effects painted in the light colours favoured 
bv the Impressionist group. The Salon painters and the Salon 
public were even more infuriated by these pictures than they had 
been by his earlier style. 'Le hinge (PI. 100), with its lovely light 
blues, so enraged the Jury of 1876 that they refused it; and 
Manet had other pictures refused in 1877 and 1878, years in 
which he painted the charming Pare//rs de la rue de Berne, now in 
Mr. Courtauld's collection in London, and La servante de Bocks, 

Chanteuse des rues. Young Man as a Mojo, Dead Christ n'ith Angels, L^ ballet 
espagnol, and Le Repos. Durand-Ruel did not buy Olympia, Le Dejeuner sur 
I herhe (PI. 97b), Le Balcon (PI. 98), Lola de Valence, or Jesus Insulted by 
Soldiers (PI. 96), which remained with at least a hundred other pictures 
in the studio. 

1 It must be clearly realised that Manet was the first to paint Impressionist 
scenes of daily life and that he was imitated by Monet and Degas in their 
early works. Manet painted his first race-course pictures about 1864. 
In 1867 he painted a Vue de l' exposition universelle (in the collection of 
Mme Angelot, Paris), in which he depicted people on horseback, a man 
watering a lawn, a boy with a dog, soldiers and so forth, and a balloon 
in the air — a t}^ical Impressionist sketch of the kind which is now 
considered rather dashing by Salon painters three quarters of a century 
later; he painted La Plage de Boulogne (Faure Collection, Paris) in 1869, Le 
Port de Bordeaux (Mendelssohn Collection, Berlin) in 1871 — a picture itself 
anticipated by Whister's Thames in Ice which was painted in 1862; Les 
Courses a Longchamp (PI. ma), now in the Chicago Art Institute (Mrs. Potter 
Palmer Collection), was painted in 1872, and in that year he painted the 
Young Ala/: on a Bicycle that was in the Moreau-Nelaton Collection. His 
Croquet Party, now in the Staedelsches Institute at Frankfort, was painted in 
1874. The first imitations of these pictures by foreign artists date from the 
'eighties. Sir John Laver^^'s Tennis Party, formerly in the Munich Neue 
Pinakotek, was painted in 1885, two years after Manet's death. 


jMAnf.t's art 

now in the London National Gallery, Millbank; Che^ le pere 
Lathuille was derided in 1880. 

But in 1 88 1 the Salon Jury was once more reconstituted on 
the old plan of election by the votes of all the exhibitors of the 
past year, and the Jury thus elected gave Manet a medal for the 
strange picture, he Chasseur de lions, which he exhibited in 
1 881 ; and this medal was followed in the usual way by the 
Legion of Honour.' 

Thus Manet had to wait till two years before his death to 
secure the hors concours position which gave him the right to 
exhibit his pictures without interference from the Jury. 

But by this time he was attacked by the paralysis to which he 
succumbed in 1883. He painted, nevertheless, before his death, 
some Impressionist landscapes (that were imitated by Sargent), 
Jeanne — le Printemps, which was a success in the Salon of 1882 
and is now in the Metropolitan Museum, New York, and the 
celebrated Bar aux Folies Bergeres (PL loib), now in the Courtauld 
Collection. He painted the later pictures seated in a wheeled 

(h) Manet's Art 

Manet was essentially a painter's painter. Like Chardin 
and Corot, he " amused himself " by painting. But whereas 
Chardin had " amused himself " with architectural explora- 
tion and Corot with an attempt to express a lyrical concept 
of landscape in photographic technique, Manet " amused 
himself" by concentrating on the actual handling of oil 
paint. He was the first artist to regard the practice of a 
particular method of oil painting as a vocation in itself. He 
was the inventor of the notion of " painting for painting's 
sake" — a notion elaborated by Walter Pater into the 
'* aesthetic " doctrine which is still upheld in our own day 
by art critics of one school. 

Manet's early pictures were all exercises in his chosen method 
of " direct " oil painting. He was attracted by effects noted in 

^ 1^ Chasseur de lions which is now, I believe, in Germany, shows the 
huntsman kneeling with a dead lion behind him. The model was posed 
among the trees in the Champs Elysees. 



over-exposed photographs and tried to capture them in a method 
of oil painting which he invented.^ 

In the subject-content of his pictures Manet took relatively 
little interest. He accepted the general doctrine of Realism, of 
which he heard a good deal from his friend Zola, and he painted 
subjects of everyday life. But he was not an original Romantic 
recorder of everyday life like Courbet or Daumier, Degas or 
Lautrec. Nor was he an original descriptive recorder. He was 
purely a painter who happened to select this material to paint. 

Le Dejeuner surVherbe (PI. 97b) is in character simply an attempt 
to paint Giorgione's Concert Champetre (PI. 46b) in his own 
technique, and it was for this reason that he was content to take 
the composition from the Marc Antonio engraving (PI. 97a). 
For the Concert aux Tuileries he borrowed, as noted, a composi- 
tion by Guys ; The Execution of Maximilian, Victorine as an 
Espada (PI. 65), Le Balcon (PI. 98), Olympia, and his pictures of 
Spanish bull-fighting, were all probably based on Goya's aqua- 
tints and on photographs of his pictures. ^ 

^ Manet mixed up on his palette a large lump of the general tone which he 
desired to be the final tone for each passage ; into this on his canvas he 
worked the minimum of shadows. He found the parlour game of acquiring 
dexterity in this procedure an enthralling " amusement." 

- I have not been able to discover what experience of Goya's work Manet 
actually had. There were no paintings by Goya in the Louvre in 1864 and 
the two portraits bequeathed by Guillemardet in 1865 were probably not 
exhibited there till 1866. Goya's L,a Femme a I'eventail, now in the Louvre, 
which would seem to have influenced the Eve Gomiales (PI. 99), was not 
acquired by the Louvre till 1898. 

The critic Thore described Manet's early paintings as influenced by 
Goya ; but Baudelaire in the famous letter of 1864, in which he said that 
he himself had written phrases that occurred in Poe's works before reading 
Poe, stated categorically : " M. Manet n' a jamais vu de Goya. . . . M. Manet 
n' a jamais vu la galerie Pourtales. Cela vous par ait incroyahle mais cela est vrai. 
. . . M. Manet ^ a Vipoque ou nous jouissions de ce merveilleux Musee Espagnol que 
la stupide Kepublique fran(aise, dans sa respect ah us if de la propriete, a rendu aux 
princes d'Orleans, M. Manet etait un enfant et servait a bord d'un navire. On lui a 
t ant parte de ses pastiches de Goya que, maintenant, it cherche a voir des Goya.'"'' 

Manet did not go to Spain, as noted, till the autumn of 1865 after the 
exhibition of his Olympia. It is, however, probable that he was acquainted 
either with Goya's Maja vestida and Maja desnuda (now in the Prado, Madrid) 
or with photographs of these pictures. Baudelaire makes obscure references 
to the pictures and to photographs of them in two letters dated May 14th 
and 1 6th, 1859, to the photographer Nadar (cf. p. 240), whom he urges to 



In his Impressionist sketches of outdoor scenes, such as 
Les Courses a l^ongchamp (PI. ma), in which, as noted, he was 
the pioneer, Manet set the fashion for pictures that rival the 
ertects of instantaneous photographs ; and when he painted 
such scenes in hght colours he was influenced by the general 
Impressionist interest in the spectrum palette, which was an 
attempt to reduce perception to the vision which the camera 
would achieve if it could chronicle colour.^ 

His pictures of the late 'seventies such as Argenteuil (now in 
the Tournai Museum), and l^a Servante de Bocks (PL loia), now 
in the London National Gallery, are photographic both in vision 
and composition. A good deal of the Bar aux Folies Bergeres 
(PL loib), now in the Courtauld Collection, London, was pro- 
bably painted from a photograph. ^ 

No one who has handled oil paints can fail to react to Manet's 
masterly technique in this medium ; and it is impossible to 
believe that the Salon painters did not deliberately shut their 
eyes to it from base motives when they encouraged ridicule of 
his Ere Gon^^ales in 1870, and rejected he L,i?ige in 1876.^ 

obtain or make photographs of the pictures (or versions of them) which it 
would seem were then in Paris and for sale for 2400 francs. My own view is 
that Nadar did obtain photographs of these pictures and gave them to his 
friend Manet. About 1864 Manet painted a sketch, ] erne fern me couchee en 
costume espagnole (Arnhold Collection, Berlin), which is based on the Maja 
vestida ; he gave this sketch to Nadar, possibly in exchange for the photo- 
graphs. It was presumably Nadar who made the photograph of the Oljmpia 
which is pinned up on the wall in Manet's Portrait of Zola now in the Louvre. 
The composition of Manet's l^e Balcon (PI. 98) is certainly based on Goya's 
Majas of the Balcony. But I do not know where he could have seen the original 
painting. Three versions of it now exist in private collections in Spain. 
There is no version in the Prado. 

^ Cf. The Modern Movement in Art, pp. 76-81 and 97-103. 

2 For the relation of photographs to the work of Degas cf. p. 276. 

^ Every painting by Manet has now been imitated ten thousand times. 
L^ Buveur d' Absinthe (PI. 11 8c), his first picture painted just after he had 
copied the Velasquez Cavaliers, was painted with thin flowing colour in a 
technique which he never repeated. This technique was imitated in all his 
full-length portraits by Whistler who was in Paris on and otf from 1856 to 
1863, and frequenting the Manet-Baudelaire circle. (Baudelaire wrote 
about \\ histler's etchings in 1862, Fantin-Latour painted him in his Hommage 
a Delacroix, now in the Louvre, in 1863.) Whistler's various Symphonies in 
White, as noted (cf. note, p. 248), were all, I believe, the result of Manet's 
portrait oi Jeanne Duval. 









New York. 
New York. 
New York. 
New York. 
New York. 
New York. 
New York. 
New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 




iij . Claude Monet 



National Gallery, Mill- Plage de TrouviUe, 1 870 

National Gallery, Mill- Vdtheuil — effet de Neige, 1 8 8 1 

National Gallery, Mill- Les peupliers, ^. 1 890 

National Gallery, Mill- Le bassin aux nympheas, 1 899-1 908 

National Gallery, Mill- Rouen Cathedral, c. 1894 

S. Courtauld Collec- Juan-les-Pins, 1888 

Art Gallery La falaise de Fecamp, 1881 

Metropolitan Museum The Green Wave, 1865 
Metropolitan Museum La Grenouillere, 1869 
Metropolitan Museum Sunflowers, 1881 
Metropolitan Museum Poplars, 189 1 
Metropolitan Museum Haystacks in Snow, 1891 
Metropolitan Museum The Ice Floe, 1891 
Metropolitan Museum Water Lilies. Nympheas, 1899 
A. Lewisohn Collec- The Seine, r. 1875 

A. Lewisohn Collec- Valley, Giverny, 1883 

A. Lewisohn Collec- Venice. The Contarini Palace, 1 908 

A. Lewisohn Collec- Waterloo Bridge, 1904 

Westminster, c. 1903 

La Gare St. Lazare, 1877 

Argenteuil, 1868 

Boats in Winter Quarters, Etretat, 

The Seine at Lavacourt 
Water Lilies. (Nympheas) 
Amsterdam, Westchurch Tower 
J. G. Johnson Collec- Railroad Bridge 

Barnes Foundation Madame Manet Embroidering, c. 



Ryerson Collection 
Ryerson Collection 
Art Institute 
Art Institute 

Carnegie Institute 
Carnegie Institute 
Fairmount Park 

m » 

Acu' York. Mr. and Mrs. Chcslcr Dale Collection 

AUGUSTE RENOIR. Petite flllc a larrusoir. 



^,.r ' 


London. S. Courlauld Collection 

AUGUSTE RENOIR. La Place Piualle. 

t/.S.,'l. Private Collection 

AUGUSTE RENOIR. I,c Moulin dc la Galcttc. 



y\rt Museum 



Art Museum 



Institute of Arts 


Art Institute 









































Waterloo Bridge, 1903 

Water Lilies (N'ympheas), 1909 


















Staedelsches '. 



Garden Scene 

Morning on the Seine 

La Charrctte. Effet de 

L'Ete : Femmes dans un 

Zaandam, 1871 
Carriercs-Saint- Denis, 1872 
Grosse mer a Etretat, c. 1875 
Le Pont du chemin de fer a Argen- 

teuil, c. 1875 
Les Barques a I'ancre (Argenteuil), 

Les Tuileries, 1875 
Les Barques Regates a Argenteuil, 

Le Bassin d'Argenteuil, 1875 
Les Voiles a Argenteuil 
Le Dejeuner, 1875 
Un Coin d'appartement, 1876 
La Gare St. Lazare, 1877 
La Seine a Vetheuil, 1879 
Le Givre, 1880 
Les Coquelicots, c. 1880 
Les Rochers de Belle-Isle, 1886 
Fcmme a I'Ombrelle, 1886 
La Cathedrale de Rouen : Temps 

gris, 1894 
La Cathedrale de Rouen : Soleil 

matinal, 1894 
La Cathedrale de Rouen : Plein 

soleil, 1896 
Nympheas : harmonic verte, 1899 
Nympheas : harmonie rose, 1900 
Vetheuil. Soleil couchant, 1901 
Londres, le Parlement, 1904 
L'Eglise de Vetheuil, before 1879 
Camille, La Dame a la robe verte, 

Le Dejeuner sur I'hcrbe, 1868 

2 L 



{a) Monet* s Life 

Claude Monet was the son of a grocer of Le Havre. At 
the age of fifteen he started to draw caricatures and earn money 
by selling them from a shop window. Shortly afterwards he 
met Boudin, who taught him to handle palette and brushes. At 
sixteen he competed for a Municipal Art Scholarship to take him 
to Paris ; he failed to get the scholarship, and in the following 
year he went to Paris on money saved from the sale of his 
caricatures. In Paris he worked in the studio of Troyon.^ 

The next year he was due for military service. His parents 
offered to buy him out if he would give up painting. He refused, 
and served two years in Algeria. 

In 1862 he was back at Le Havre painting on the coast with 
Boudin and Jongkind.^ At the end of the year his parents 
yielded to his determination to become a painter, and provided 
funds for a course of instruction in Paris in the art school of 
Marc-Gabriel-Charles Gleyre.^ 

In Gleyre's studio Monet found Renoir, Sisley and Bazille ; 
in 1863 they left together — Sisley (whose father was then pro- 
viding him with money), in a spirit of camaraderie, Renoir and 
Monet to try to earn their living. 

Monet's enthusiasms at this time were for Boudin, Jongkind 
and Courbet. But in 1865 he saw Manet's one-man show at 
Martinet's and Le Dejeuner sur Vherhe in the Salon des Refuses ; 
and a new enthusiasm for Manet began to drive out the others. 

In 1865, when he was twenty-five, he had two marines 
accepted by the Salon ; and he then painted his own Dejeuner 
sur Vherhe^ a replica of which is now in the Staedelsches Institut 
in Frankfort. In 1866 he was taken to Manet's studio and saw 
the imposing array of unsold pictures which it then contained. 
He rushed back home and painted — it is said in four days — 
Camilky La Dame h la robe verte, which is now in the Bremen 
Museum. Camtlle was accepted by the 1866 Salon. In 1867 he 

^ Cf. p. 215. 

2 Johann-Barthold Jongkind (1819-1891), a Dutch landscape and marine 
painter of the school of Corot and Boudin. 

^ Marc-Gabriel-Charles Gleyre (i 806-1 876), a Salon painter. 



London. Mrs. Chester Beatly Collection 

AUGUSTE RENOIR. Femmc allaitant son enfant. 


painted L'li/e: Femmes dans un jardin (now in the Louvre), which 
was rejected by the Salon ; his pictures were again rejected in 
1869 and 1870. 

Shortly before the war he married and established himself 
at Argenteuil on the Seine. I le was driven out by the German 
occupation in 1870 and travelled to Holland, where he accident- 
ally discovered Japanese prints, and to London, where he painted 
the river and discovered Turner. On his London journey he was 
accompanied by Pissarro. y\fter the war he returned to Argen- 
teuil, and worked there and in Paris, with occasional visits to 
the coast, for the next few years. 

From 1874 to 1886 he was associated as noted with the 
Impressionist exliibitions, and failed with the others to sell 
more than an occasional picture. In 1880 he had a completely 
unsuccessful one-man exhibition in a gallery on the Boulevard 
des Italiens belonging to Georges Charpentier the publisher, who 
has already been mentioned as one of the few people who bought 
the Impressionists' work in the early days.^ 

In 1883 Durand-Ruel arranged a one-man show of fifty-six 
of his pictures in an empty house on the Boulevard de la 
Madeleine. This exhibition was almost a success, and Monet, 
who had lived hitherto in real poverty, was able to acquire a 
country^ house at Giverny, where he lived for the remainder of 
his life. 

The relative success of the 1883 exhibition was continued in 
shows organised by Durand-Ruel in 1886 in New York, and in 
1887 in Boston, and in an exhibition which Monet held with 
the sculptor Rodin in the Galerie Georges Petit in 1889. 

After 1 891 Monet was a prosperous artist ; and his pictures 
shown in one-man exhibitions in the 'nineties and the beginning 
of the present centut)^ were all applauded and bought by dealers 
and collectors. 

In these later shows he exhibited paintings of Haystacks 
in sunlight at different hours of the day (1891), of Kouen 
Cathedral in different effects of light (1893), of Poplars on the 
Epte (1898), of l^ethenil seen across the river (1902), of the 
Thames near Westminster (1904), of I'enice (191 2) and of the 
water-lilies (Nj'wpheas) in his garden at Giverny (1891 and 
* "^ Cf. p. 242. 



1909). From 1 914 to 191 8 he worked on a series of large 
decorative panels based on his Njwpheas. 

In 191 8, when he was seventy-eight, his eysight failed. He 
died at eighty-six.^ 

{b) Monet's Art 

Monet did not develop his personal style till the beginning 
of the 'eighties when he was over forty. Till then his pictures 
were influenced successively by Boudin, Jongkind, Alanet, 
Pissarro, Turner, Japanese prints, photographs and Renoir.^ 

In his personal manner he achieved a Marxian grinding of 
the face of representational painting to a point which heralded 
the Cubist-Classical return to sheer architectural form. He 
concentrated on the problem of symbolising the perpetual 
movement of light. In so doing he eventually reduced the 
representation of specific forms to a minimum, and the formal 
content of his pictures to an architectural content of colour. 

The colour itself was mainly restricted to the colours of the 
spectrum, as he was influenced by the scientific doctrine that 

1 Before his marriage Monet painted mainly on the Normandy coast and 
occasionally in Paris. From 1874 to 1880 he painted mainly on the Seine, 
in Paris and on the coast. In 1880 he worked at Etretat, in 1882 on various 
parts of the Normandy coast. From 1883 onwards he worked at Giverny 
and also in 1884 at Bordighera, in 1885 and 1886 at Etretat, in 1886 at Belle 
Isle, in 1888 at Antibes, in 1889 at La Creuse, in 1892 at Rouen, in 1895 in 
Norway. He worked in Holland in 1870 and 1879, and in London in 1871 
and between 1900 and 1908. 

2 His Dejeuner sur I'herbe, painted in 1866, was influenced by Manet's 
Dejeuner surl'herhe (PI. 97b), and by the forest landscapes of Courbet. Monet, 
who doubtless knew that Manet was emulating Giorgione's Concert Cham- 
petre (PL 46b), tried himself to emulate Van Loo's Dejeuner de chasse (PI. 
54b), now in the Louvre. 

Monet's Dejeuner sur I' herbs was painted in the forest of Fontainebleau. 
Van Loo's picture had been painted for Fontainebleau ; it was not nation- 
alised or sold by Louis David's assessors, as they considered it worthless. 
It remained rolled up in an attic till 1846, when it was taken to the Tuileries. 
It was restored and transferred to the Louvre some years later. 

Monet's picture, which would seem to have been sequestered by his land- 
lord for rent, was also rolled up and neglected for some time. In 1868 
Monet made the replica which is now in Frankfort. The recumbent figure, 
based on the figure in the same attitude in Manet's picture, was painted from 
Bazille (cf. p. 237). 



\vc only perceive colour in terms of light, as it is seen by the 
camera. Jn practice this meant the dismissal of blacks and 
browns from the palette ; and much of the gaiety and charm of 
the colour in his pictures, and in those of Renoir and Sisley who 
adopted the same procedure, is due to the exclusion of those 

He painted many of his early pictures and the Haystack series 
entirely in the open air; but about 1892 he realised — as all 
artists before him had realised — that it is not advisable to do 
more than sketch in the open air, because the violence of the 
light soon affects the eye, and it becomes impossible to know 
what the picture will look like when brought indoors. His 
Kouen Cathedral pictures and the Thames series were painted from 
windows; after 1892 he worked over all his pictures in the 

I reproduce a fine example of his early work, The Seine (PI. 
102a), now in the Lewisohn Collection, New York ; and, as an 
example of his more personal work, ha Falaise de Fecamp (PL 
102b), which was formerly in Sir James Murray's collection, in 
London, and is now in the Aberdeen Art Gallery. 

iv. Augusts Kemir 



London. National Gallery, Mill- The Umbrellas (Les Parapluies), 

bank 1883 

London. National Gallery, Mill- At the Theatre (La Premiere Sortie), 

bank r. 1880 

London. National Gallery, Mill- Nu dans I'eau, r. 1888 


London. S. Courtauld Collec- In the Box (La Loge), 1874 


London. S. Courtauld Collec- La Place Pigalle, 1880 


London. S. Courtauld Collec- Portrait of Vollard, f. 1 910 ? 


London. S. Courtauld Collec- The Shoelace, c. 191 7 


London. H. Coleman Collection La Promenade, r. 1886 "" 

London. Paul Maze Collection Figures in a Landscape, c. 191 7 



New York. 
New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 












Mrs. Chester Beatty Mother and Child (Femme allaitant 

Collection son enfant), 1886 

Metropolitan Museum Mme Charpentier and her Children, 

Metropolitan Museum, By the Seashore, 1883 

Havemeyer Collec- 
Private Collection Le Moulin de la Galette, c. 1880 

A. Lewisohn Collec- Mme Darras, 1871 

A. Lewisohn Collec- Les canotiers a Chatou, 1879 

A. Lewisohn Collec- Les Vendangeurs, 1879 

A. Lewisohn Collec- In the Meadow, ^. 1894 

Mr. and Mrs. Chester Petite fille a I'arrosoir, 1876 

Dale Collection 
Phillips Memorial Gal- Le Dejeuner des Canotiers, c. 1880 

J. T. Spaulding Collec- Girl with a large hat (pastel), 1896 

Art Institute Circus Children, 1875 

Art Institute Mme Clapisson, 1883 

Art Institute Canoeists' Breakfast, c. 1879 

Art Institute (Ryerson Les Chapeaux d'ete, 1893 

Mrs. L. Coburn Col- Sur la Terrasse, 1880 

Mrs. L. Coburn Col- Young Women at a table, 1876 

Mrs. L. Coburn Col- The Garden, 1878 

Mrs. L. Coburn Col- Girl Sewing, 1879 

Mrs. L. Coburn Col- Portrait of Sisley, 1879 


Le Pont Neuf, 1872 

La promenade au bord de la mer, 

Mme Maitre 

Coe Collection 

R. M. Coe Collection 

Smith College 

Barnes Foundation 
Barnes Foundation 
Barnes Foundation 
Barnes Foundation 
Barnes Foundation 

Le Dejeuner, c. 1875 
Half-nude Girl doing her hair, c. 1875 
Mother and Child, 1881 
Washerwoman and Child, c. 1886 
La Famille Renoir, 1896 


Chudgo. Art liisliliile 

ALGL'STH R1;N()1R. Circus Children. 

Chictigu. Art Institute. Ryersoii Collection 

AUGUSTE RENOIR. Lcs Chapcaux d'ete. 


Three Girls at an embroidery frame, 

c. 1897 
La Promenade, 1898 
Dejeuner sur I'herbe, c. 1909 
Le petit dejeuner, c. 1910 
Bathing ( lirls at play, r. 191 5 
Baigneuses,* 1885 
Petite danseuse, 1874 
Bazille, 1867-1868 
Mme Th. Charpentier, c. 1872. 
La Rose, c. 1872 

Paysage aux environs dc Paris, 1873 
Mme llartmann, 1874 
La Liscusc, c. 1874 
Le Moulin de la Galette, c. 1875 
La Balan^oire, 1876 
Chemin montant dans les hautes 

herbes, c. 1878 
Les Bords de la Seine a Champrosay. 
Jeunes filles au piano,- 1 891-1892 
La fiUette au chapeau de paille, 1908 
Jeune fille assise, c. 1909 
Gabrielle a la rose, c. 1910 
La Toilette : femmc se peignant, 

Mile Colonna Romano, 191 3 
Les Nymphs (two recumbent nudes 

and two bathing girls), 1919 
Theodore de Banville (pastel) 
Torse de jeune fille au soleil 
Mother and Child, c. 1901^ 

La femme enceinte, 1917 

Panneaux decoratifs, 1901 
Baigneuses, r. 1901* 
The Judgement of Paris (bronze), 

^ This picture was formerly in the collection of the artist ^L J.-E. Blanche. 

2 There is another version of this picture in the Paul Guillaume Collection 
in Paris. Mr. Adolph Lewisohn has a version in pastel. 

^ This is a free version of the Mother and Child (1886) in Mrs. Chester 
Beatt}-'s Collection. Renoir also modelled this group in clay in 1 916. I have 
seen a bronze cast at the Leicester Galleries, London. 

* This is a repetition in a free handling of the Baigneuses, i88j, in the Tyson 




Barnes Foundation 

Phi lade 


Barnes Foundation 



Barnes I'oundation 



Barnes F-oundation 



Barnes Foundation 



Tyson Collection 


\\ idener Collection 








































Pierre Renoir Collec- 


Pierre Renoir Collec- 


Jean Renoir Collection 


VoUard Collection 


Vollard Collection 
























The Hague. 

The Hague. 

Durand-Ruel Collection 

Wildenstein Collection 

Paul Guillaume Collec- 

Paul Guillaume Collec- 

Paul Guillaume Collec- 

Paul Guillaume Collec- 

Paul Guillaume Collec- 

Paul Guillaume Collec- 

Georges Bernheim Col- 

Bernheim Jeune Collec- 

Bernheim Jeune Collec- 

M. Kapferer Collection 

Jos. Hessel Collection 

Jos. Hessel Collection 

Jos. Hessel Collection 
Jos. Hessel Collection 
Jos. Hessel Collection 
H. Bernstein Collection 
J. Strauss Collection 
Bader Collection 
National Gallery 
Arnhold Collection 
Mathiessen Gallery 
Thannhaiiser Gallery 
A. Gold Collection 

Folkwang Museum 
R. V. Hirsch Collection 

Kroller-MuUer Collec- 
KroUer-Muller Collec- 

Femme se coiffant, 1885 
Children of Catulle Mend^s, 1888 
La Lettre, c. 1892 

Gabrielle with the jewel, c. 1909 

Le Clown Blanc 

Gabrielle aux mains croisees 

La Blonde Costumee 

Au piano, 1 891-1892 

Coco playing with bricks, 1904 

Baigneuse s'essuyant, 1910 

Baigneuse s'essuyant, 191 7 

Baigneuses, c. 1901^ 

Pot pourri, c. 1892 

Jeune fiUe lutinant son amie avec un 

crabe, c. 1897 
Le Grand Nu, 1904-6 
Le Jardin a Cagnes 
Nu sur un canape, c. 1909 
Self portrait, ^. 1875 
Richard Wagner, 1881 
Ode aux Fleurs, 1909 
Les demoiselles Berard, 1884 
Boy with a cat, 1868 
Cagnes, 1901 

The Judgement of Paris, c. 1908 
Idyll, c. 1 914 
Sisley and his Wife, 1868 

Lise, 1867 

Skating, 1868 

Le Dejeuner, 1879 

Le Clown au Cirque, 1868 

Au Cafe, 1877 

^ This is a freely painted composition resembling, with some additional 
figures, the Tyson Baigneuses (1885). 


i .it:~. / ;,r'c Ktiluir Cviiturjii 

AUGUSTE RENOIR. Fcmmc allaitant son enfant. 

Loiiiloii. S. Courtauld Collection 

AUGUSTE RENOIR. The Shoelace. 


Paris. Paul Giiitlaume Collection 

AUGUSTE RENOIR. Gabricllc aux bijoux. 



(). Rcinlunlt Collec- 



Stchoukinc Collection 


Museum of Modern 

Art. Morosoff Collec- 



National Museum 


National Museum 


National Museum 


Stang Collection 


Stang Collection 


Matsugata Collection 

Portrait of Chocquet, 1876 

Nude. Anna, 1875 

Mile Samary (full length), 1879 

Chez la mere Antoine, c. 1865 
La Grenouillcre, 1868 
Conversation, 1879 
Baigneusc (blonde), 1 881-1882 
Nude with raised arms 
Parisiennes habillees en Algeriennes, 

id) Refioir's Life 

Pierre- Auguste Renoir was the great artist of the Impressionist 
group, and one of the greatest masters of the whole French 
school, if not, indeed, of European painting. His work was 
unequal because, as an essentially original artist, he was always 
in process of development. But his finest pictures will hold their 
own in exalted company, and the works of his extreme old age, 
when his brush was strapped to his paralysed hand, rank with 
the great works which Titian and Rembrandt produced at the 
very end of their careers. 

Renoir was the son of a tailor of Limoges, who came to Paris 
and arranged for him to work as a painter in a porcelain factory. 
Later he painted blinds and managed to save enough money 
to enter Gleyre's art school in 1 862. He left this atelier, as noted, 
with Monet and Sisley in the following year, at the age of twenty- 

Between 1863 and the end of the Franco-Prussian war he 
shared the poverty of Monet, with whom he was all the time on 
terms of intimate friendship. In this period he made ends meet 
with occasional porcelain painting and other commercial work, 
and with a little assistance from his mother. 

Between 1870 and 1878 his pictures were regularly rejected 
from the Salons and shown at the Impressionist exhibitions as 
noted ; in these years he sold pictures to Caillebotte and Choc- 
quet and received support from Durand-Ruel. 

In the 'seventies, also, he began to paint portraits, and this 

2 M 265 


was his main source of income till the middle of the 'eighties. 
His chief patrons for portraits were the publisher, Charpentier, 
and Mme Charpentier, who procured him a number of 
commissions and insured by influence the exhibition in the 1879 
Salon of his portrait of theactress,/^^w;^ i'^/^^r>' (Moscow Museum 
of Modern Art). The large group, Mme Charpentier and her 
children^ painted in 1878, is now in the Metropolitan Museum, 
New York. 

In 1 880-1 88 1 Renoir went to Italy, visiting Rome, Venice, 
Naples and Palermo, where he painted a portrait of Wagner, 
which is now in the J. Strauss Collection in Paris. ^ 

On his way back to France he was attacked by the rheumatic 
gout, which was eventually to paralyse him, and he spent the 
early months of 1882 in Algeria in the hope of curing it. 

When he returned to Paris he received commissions for ten 
portraits from a wealthy family named Berard, which put him in 
funds. His group, Demoiselles Berard, is now in the National 
Gallery, Berlin. 

In 1883 Durand-Ruel arranged a one-man show of seventy 
of his pictures in the empty house in the Boulevard de la 
Madeleine, to which I have already referred. From this time 
onwards he benefited by the growing appreciation of Impres- 
sionist pictures, and he madebusiness arrangements with Durand- 
Ruel which enabled him to support himself and a wife and family 
without difficulty. 

Soon after 1890 the rheumatic gout began to cripple him, 
and he established himself at Cagnes, in the Midi, where he 
remained for the rest of his life. In his last years he painted 
seated in a wheeled chair with his brush strapped to his hand 
which was contracted and paralysed. 

{b) Renoir's Art 

Renoir's earliest pictures, which he subsequently destroyed, 
were Romantic illustrations in the manner of the followers of 
Delacroix. He then worked through a moment when he was 
influenced by photographs ; of this Lise, which was in the Salon 

^ Wagner sat only half an hour for this portrait. 



of 1868, and is now in the Folkwang Museum at F.ssen, and 
La Cretiouillere in Stockholm, are examples. 

In the 'seventies he became a mature and personal artist, 
especially intrigued with the play of light. To symbolise this 
play of light he banished black and brown from his palette and 
applied the colours of the spectrum to his canvas in small 

La petite fille a I'arrosoir (PI. 103), now in the Chester Dale 
Collection, New York, Im Place Pigalle (PI. 104a), in the Cour- 
tauld Collection, London, Circus Children (PI. 107), now in the 
Chicago Art Institute, and Le Moulin de la Calette (PI. 104b), 
of which there are versions in the Louvre and in a private 
collection in America, are typical of his delightful painting at this 

Renoir regarded portraiture at this period as a form of 
potboiling, and when painting portraits he concentrated on 
representation and likeness. But even so, he was able to impart 
considerable charm to most of his productions. 

In the choice of subject at this period he was influenced by 
the Realism of Courbet, Manet and Zola, and he sought material 
in places where people foregathered for amusement. At the 
same time he painted some landscapes and began those studies of 
women and children and nudes that he was to continue all his life. 

On his Italian journey he was impressed by Raphael and by 
Pompeian paintings, and he became dissatisfied with his own 
light touch. He decided to abandon painting out of doors and to 
seek linear rhythms and more architectural stability in his 
compositions. In order to master line, he worked on his return 
to Paris in an art school, and eventually he removed, for a time, 
the charming madder reds and spectrum colours from his palette 
and made efforts to paint severe pictures, with insistence upon 
drawing, in a range of colours restricted to red and yellow ochre, 
terre verte and black. 

^ Other n-pical pictures arc the landscape 'Les Vendangeurs and lus 
Canotiers a Chatou in the Lewisohn Collection, New York, Im premiere sortie 
in the London National Galler)', Millbank, Lm Loge in the Courtauld Collec- 
tion, London, La petite danseuse in the Widener Collection, Philadelphia, 
Half-nude Girl doing her hair in the Barnes Foundation, Mcrion, Philadelphia, 
Im Balanfoire in the Louvre and Le Deiemer in Frankfort. 



The ¥emme allaitant son enfant (PI. io6), in Mrs. Chester Beatty*s 
collection in London, and the Baigneuses (PL 105), now in the 
Tyson Collection, Philadelphia, are two masterpieces produced as 
a result of the new orientation ; both would hold their own in 
any collection of great pictures in the world.^ 

The discipline to which Renoir subjected himself for the 
purpose of these pictures was of enormous service to his develop- 
ment. La petite fille a Varrosob' (PL 103), a thing of exquisite 
colour gradated to pale blues and pinks from the strong Prussian 
blue of the child's dress and the strong red of the poppies in the 
grass, is an enchanting picture ; but if Renoir had merely 
repeated this for ever his work in the end would inevitably have 
become flimsy. After the Italian journey all his pictures show 
architectural qualities that gradually increase as the years go on. 

When the " tight " manner had served its purpose Renoir 
abandoned it, and in the last years of the 'eighties and in the 
early 'nineties he sought and found a compromise between his 
early manner and the severe linear and architectural rhythms, 
of which he was now a master. Les Chapeaux d'ete (PL 108), 
now in the Ryerson Collection, Chicago, is an example of the 
works in which this compromise was achieved. 

At the end of the 'nineties he painted versions of most of 
the " tight " pictures in the new manner of les Chapeaux d*ete. 
His son, M. Pierre Renoir, has, for example, a version of Femme 
allaitant son enfant (PL 109a), which it is instructive to compare 
with the 1886 picture (PL 106). 

^ The " tight," rather dry, manner which Renoir employed in these 
pictures was a great disappointment to amateurs who had just begun to 
appreciate the loose handhng of the Impressionists and the photographic 
snapshot tranche de vie pictures which had been produced by Manet (PI. 1 1 la), 
who was now just dead, and by the artists who had followed him in this 

George Moore wrote, about 1886 : " Some seven or eight years ago 
Renoir succeeded in attaining a very distinct and personal expression of 
his individuality. Out of a hundred influences he had succeeded in extracting 
an art as beautiful as it was new. . . . Then he went to Venice. . . . When 
he returned to Paris and resolved to subject himself to two years of hard 
study in an art school. For two years he laboured in a life class working on 
an average from seven to ten hours a day, and in two years he had utterly 
destroyed every trace of the charming and delightful art which had taken 
him twenty years to build up " (cf. note, p. 270). 



u iz 


X '^: 





After his retirement to Cagnes he painted no more " subject '* 
or exhibition pictures, and very few portraits. y\ll financial 
problems having been solved by his arrangements for selling his 
work, he was now free to paint " for his amusement." This 
he continued to do every day for the remaining twenty-five 
years of his life, and he concentrated ever more and more on 
the perception of monumental grandeur in simple material and 
on the animation of the picture surface into architectural colour. 
Gabrielle with the jewel {^\. no) in IVI. Paul Guillaume's collection 
is an example of his majestic painting about the age of seventy. 

In the last period of all he reduced his palette to a few colours 
in which reds predominated ; with his brush strapped to his 
hand he replaced manual agility by knowledge derived from 
sixty years' incessant study ; and he produced l^a Vemnie en- 
ceinte in M. Pierre Renoir's collection, The Shoelace (PI. 109b) in 
Mr. Courtauld's collection, and a large number of similar pictures 
in which abstract rhythms and architectural relations are the 
main preoccupation. 

Renoir was thus one of the rare artists who continuously 
developed their conception of picture-making all through their 
lives ; and this development corresponded to the general 
development of the art of painting at the time. From 1868 to 
1883 Renoir was a notable figure in the Impressionist-Realist 
movement. In 1885 and 1886, with his Baigneuses (PI. 105) and 
¥emme allaitant son enfant (PI. 106), he arrived by his own efforts 
at the starting point of the Cubist-Classical Renaissance as it was 
appearing, at that very moment, in Seurat's Bai^ade (now in the 
London National Galler}'-, Millbank) and Un Dimanche d'Ete a la 
Grande J atte (PI. 133), now in Chicago Art Institute, which were 
then being shown in the Salon des Independants^ where the new 
movement was launched. After 1900 he arrived again by his 
own efforts at solutions of the same problems which pre- 
occupied Cezanne, as we see if we compare The Shoelace (PI. 
109b) with the central group of figures in l^es Grandes Baigneuses 
(PI. 124b) in the Pellerin Collection, on which Cezanne worked 
from 1895 till 1902. 

But this development — though intensely interesting to 
students of art history — is not sufficient in itself to rank Renoir 
among the great masters. He enters that company {a) because 



this development was accompanied by the power to make his 
work a microcosm of which the great artists alone hold the 
secret, and {b) because he achieved intuitively in a superlative 
degree that intimate contact with root simplicities which, as 
already noted, is one of the characteristics of the French 

For the last thirty years of his life he painted only women, 
children and flowers ; but he was not a painter of particular 
women, particular children, or particular flowers. He was a 
painter — almost perhaps the painter — of la jemme^ V enfant and 
fleurs. To Renoir all women, all children and all flowers looked 
alike because he perceived them genetically. A nude figure by 
Renoir after 1884 is not a painting of a naked girl called Jeanne 
This or Henriette That, but a pictorial symbol of the first woman 
and the last. A flower piece by Renoir is not a painted imitation 
of a bunch of blossoms, just picked by his servant in the garden, 
but a painted symbol of the life that flowers convey. 

There was a moment when the portrait painting by which for 
a time Renoir had to earn his living, almost decoyed him to a 
habit of individual characterisation. We see this, for example, 
in L<? Dejeuner des Canotiers (PL 112b), now in the Phillips 
Memorial Gallery in Washington, which was painted at the time 
when Renoir was much engaged with portraits. But after 1884 
Renoir became a classical artist, and remained one to the end.^ 

At the same time he was an artist who retained his contact 
with sensual life. He was scarcely conscious of the classical 
nature of his preoccupation. Immensely learned in the science 
of picture-making, he remained to the last as simple as a child. 

Renoir said, " Chacun chante sa chanson s'il a de la voix." The 
world has been deliciously enriched by the song that Renoir 

^ he Dejeuner des Canotiers was painted in 1882-1885 ^^ the moment when 
Renoir, after his return from Italy, was engaged with the Berard portraits 
and was working at drawing in order to equip himself for 'Les Baigneuses 
(PI. 105) and Yemme allaitant son enfant (PI. 106). In front of l^e Dijewier des 
Canotiers George Moore's judgment (cf. note, p. 268) is quite comprehensible. 



V. lldgar Deiias 

BORN PARI-i 1834. DIKD PARI^ 1917 


London. National Gallery, Mill- Jeunes Spartiatcs s'excr9ant i la 

hank luttc, i860 

London. National Gallery, Mill- La Plage, r. 1873 


London. National Gallery, Mill- Miss Lola at the Cirque Fernando, 

bank 1879 

London. National Gallery, Mill- Danseuses, r. 1899 


London. Victoria and Albert The Ballet in Roberto il Diavolo, 

Museum 1872 

London. S. Courtauld Collec- Deux danseuses sur la scene : La 

tion pointe,2 c. 1877 

London. S. Courtauld Collec- Danseuses : Corsages jaunes 

tion (pastel), c. 1883 

London. Lord Ivor Spencer Femme s'essuyant (pastel), r. 1895 

Churchill Collection 

London. F. Hindley Smith Col- Two Women in a Cafe, c. 1879 


London. Messrs. Reid and Diego Martelli,^ 1879 

Lefevre Collection 

Glasgow. Private Collection Le Ballet (pastel), f. 1890 

Scotland. Sir William Burrell La Repetition,* 1875 


Scotland. Sir William Burrell Durant)' (pastel), 1879 


Scotland. Private Collection Le Foyer de la danse a I'Opera 

(pastel), c. 1878 

New York. Metropolitan Museum Woman with chr^'santhemums, 1865 

New York. Metropolitan Museum L' Amateur d'estampes, 1866 

New York. Metropolitan Museum La Bouderie, r. 1873 

New York. Metropolitan Museum Danseuses a la barre, 1875 

New York. Metropolitan Museum Interieur, 1875 

New York. Metropolitan Museum La Modiste (pastel), c. 1882 

^ For a catalogue with eighty reproductions the student is referred to J. B. 
Manson's The Life and Work of Edgar Degas. 

2 This picture was formerly in the collection of Sir James Murray, 

^ This picture was formerly in the collection of Mrs. Workman, London. 

* This picture is now on loan at the London National Gallery, Millbank. 



L'Ecole de danse, c. 1875 

Jules Finot, 1868 

Ballet Scene, c. 1872 

Etude pour Danseuse sur la scene, 

c. 1876 
Duranty (pastel), 1879 

Danseuse dans sa loge (pastel), c. 

Femme Couchee (pastel), c. 1895 

Chevaux de courses, c. 1878 
Voitures aux courses, 1873 
Uncle and Niece, 1862 

Ecole de danse (pastel), c. 1875 

Cafe chantant (pastel), c. 1875 

Les diseuses (pastel), c. 1880 

La loge (pastel), c. 1880 

Le Ballet (pastel), c. 1882 

Le Depart, c. 1872 

Avant le depart, 1862 ? 

Portrait de famille, 1866 

L'Orchestre, 1868 

Le Foyer de la danse, 1872 

La femme a la potiche, 1872 

Le Pedicure, 1873 

A la Bourse, 1875 

Repetition d'un Ballet sur la scene, 

Classe de Danse, 1874 
L' Absinthe, 1 876-1 877 
La Danseuse au bouquet saluant sur 

la scene (pastel), 1877 
Devant les Tribunes, 1879 
Aux Courses, c. 1880 
Les Repasseuses,^ c. 1884 
Apres le bain (pastel), c. 1886 
Le tub (pastel), 1886 
Un Cafe, Boulevard Montmartre, 


^ There is another version of this picture, showing several dressed evening 
shirts on the ironer's table, in the Durand-Ruel Collection. 


New York. 

Mrs. C.H.Tweed Col- 


New York. 

A. Lewisohn 


New York. 

A. Lewisohn 


New York. 

A. Lewisohn 


New York. 

A. Lewisohn 


New York. 

A. Lewisohn 


New York. 

A. Lewisohn 



Museum of Fine Arts 


Museum of Fine Arts 


Mrs. L. L. 



Corcoran Gallery 
Corcoran Gallery 
Corcoran Gallery 
Corcoran Gallery 
Corcoran Gallery 
Private Collection 



































Chicago. Art Jitslihili- 

EDOUARD MANET. Lcs Courses k Longchamp. 


"•>ii311& Jt^ Iflft*^ VPfc' ?P1 T^' ^ ^"^ 

iOiV.i_--iS> -^,- 

Loiuioii. Messrs. Keid and Lejcvrc CulUitiun 

GEORGES SEURAT. Lc Pharc, Hontlcur. 

London. Messrs. Reid ami Lcfcvrc CoUcition 

EDGAR DF.GAS. Hie-.. Maiidl 

\Vashini:.ton. I'hiliips Memoriai Guilcrv 

AUGUSTE RENOIR. Lc Dejeuner des Canotiers. 




Danscusc nouant son brodcquin^ 
(pastel), c. 1876 



Danseusc sur la scene (pastel), c. 


A. Vollard Collection 

Danseuses and nudes (pastels), 



Aux Ambassadcurs (pastel), 1875 



Lc Comptoir de Coton, 1875 


Stacdclschcs Institut. 

Musiciensi I'orchcstrc, 1872 


National Museum 

Danseuses, 1899 

{(i) Degas' Life 

r.dgar Degas was the son of a French banker and a Creole 
mother from New Orleans. I lis father was a man of means, and 
Degas himself was always provided with money. 

Degas was first educated for the Law, but found his vocation 
in 185 5, at the age of twenty-one, when he entered the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts. In 1856 he went to Italy, where he seems to have 
remained for two years. He visited, among other places, Rome 
and Naples. 

On his return to Paris he painted history-pictures in the 
pseudo-classical Beaux-Arts tradition and exhibited them in the 
Salons ; he also painted portrait groups and interiors influenced 
by Courbet and Fantin-Latour. 

A few years before the war he began to frequent the Cafe 
Guerbois, where he met Manet and the other Impressionists, and 
also the critic Duranty, who eventually persuaded him to turn 
his back on the Beaux Arts and to join in the Impressionist 
movement of his own day. 

In 1870 he fought in the war, and in 1871 he took part in the 
street fighting of the Commune. In 1873 he went to New 
Orleans, where the family business had a branch in which he 
himself had an interest. He painted there he Cowptoir du Coton^ 
now in the Museum at Pau. 

On his return he ceased to exhibit at the Salons, and contri- 
buted up to 1886 to the Impressionist exhibitions as already 

^ This famous picture really depicts a dancer rubbing her ankle with her 
left hand. 

2 N 273 


After 1886, at the age of fifty-two, he became a recluse and 
ceased to exhibit. He had a contract with Durand-Ruel, to 
whom he delivered all his pictures. He never married. He 
worked incessantly in his studio in Paris till he died in 191 7, at 
the age of eighty-three. He was rather ill-natured, and he had a 
caustic wit. 

{b) Degas' Art 

When Degas was persuaded by Duranty to join the Impres- 
sionist-Realistic movement, he began by painting descriptive 
pictures of racecourses and so forth. Of these he Depart (PI. 
94b), now in a private collection in America, and the Voitures 
atix courses, now in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, are 

After the war he continued to record life in places where 
people foregathered for amusement. He sometimes worked in 
oil and sometimes in pastel. The brilliant pastel, Aux Am- 
hassadeurs (PI. 116), now in the Lyons Museum, is typical of 
his finest achievements in this field. 

But Degas was fundamentally a Romantic ; he was intrigued 
by the unusually emotive fragment ; he was less interested in 
generic than in individual and characteristic form ; and he 
was fascinated by occupational gestures. In the second half 
of the 'seventies he concentrated on those studies of ballet- 
dancers practising — such as l^e Foyer de la danse (PI. 115b), now 
in the Cargill Collection in Scotland — and actually dancing on 
the stage, as in Fa Danseuse au bouquet saluant sur la scene (PI. 1 1 5 a), 
now in the Louvre — by which he is most widely known. 

From 1875 to 1885 most of his work was concerned with the 
study of occupational gestures. Washerwomen carrying their 
baskets y formerly in Sir WiUiam Eden's collection, was painted 
in 1879.2 In the same year he painted Miss Fola at the Cirque 

1 The Louvre has a racecourse picture by Degas, Avant le Dipart, which 
is dated 1862. But Degas worked on this picture in 1880, and I think he 
must have dated it then 1862 instead of 1868 or 1872 in error. Anyone who 
has tried to get dates out of artists has discovered that they are often quite 
unable to remember exactly when they painted their pictures unless they 
chance to have some mnemonic. 

2 I do not know the present whereabouts of this picture. 


Chicago. .Irl liisliliiU :■'■'. < u 

II. ni- TOULOUSH-LAUTREC. Au Moulin Rouge. 

J'tiris. I.ou;rt 

EDGAR DEGAS. Lit Clafc : Boulevard Montmartre (pastel). 




i'cniando, now in tlic London National Giillcr)-, Millbank, which 
shows a girl-acrobat hanging by her teeth above the heads of the 
spectators at the circus, hes KepasseNses, now in the Louvre, 
which depicts women ironing shirts in a laundr)', and lui Modiste ^ 
now in the Metropolitan Museum, New York, are other examples 
of these studies of occupational gesture.' 

At this time Degas also began a series of pastels of nude 
women at their toilet ; and here he concentrated on the indi- 
vidual characteristic attitudes of his models. 

We find a similar approach in the case of his portraits. Like 
the pastellist La Tour, he delighted in the marks which occupa- 
tion and environment imprint on the physique, and in his 
portraits he always sought to present liis sitters in their environ- 
ment. Diego Martelli (PL 112a), formerly in Mrs. Workman's 
collection, London, and IJAbsifithe (PL 118), which contains a 
portrait of the engraver Desboutins, are typical examples of his 

In his later years he continued the series of pastels of ballet 
dancers and the series of intimate female nudes. 

Degas must be ranked as a Romantic-Realist ; and he thus 
stands nearer to Courbet than to Manet and the Impressionists. 
But he also had a keen decorative sense and a delight in pictorial 
colour. He looked upon the life in the places where people 
foregathered for amusement as a new kind of social pageantr)', 
which had replaced the pageantr)' of the old regime. Like the 
French painters of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, like 
le Brun (PL 37b), Mignard (PL 41c), Watteau (Pis. 44a and 47), 
and Boucher (Pis. 66b and 114a), he found in the performances 
at the theatre material for decorative pageant painting, and in 
the eighteenth centur}"" he would have been continuously em- 
ployed on decorations. 

Degas was both a superb and a subtle colourist. La Kepetition^ 
in Sir William Burrell's collection, which is fundamentally an 

^ At this period Degas was also an observer of prostitutes. His pastel, 
Un Cafe, Boulevard Montmartre (PL H3b), now in the Louvre, dates from 
1877 ; he made studies in maisons closes in 1879 (cf. p. 281). 

- Degas might have written La Tour's comment on this subject quoted 
on p. 131. The student should compare his Diego Martelli (PL 1 12a) with La 
Tour's The Lawyer Laideguii>e (PL 39b). Diego Martelli is now in the collec- 
tion of Messrs. Reid and Lefevre, London. U Absinthe is in the Louvre. 



occupational record, is rendered decorative by exquisite disposal 
of the coloured sashes worn by the dancers ; La danseuse au 
bouquet saluant sur la scene (PI. 115a) is a sonorous harmony of 
earth-reds, greys and greens ; and in the later pictures the colour 
glows and burns with ever more glorious intensity. In a pastel 
like Le Ballet (PI. 114b), drawn in 1890, Degas, in fact, arrived 
at a new type of picture as decorative, in its way, as Boucher's 
Cupid a Captive (PI. 114a), which I reproduce on the same page. 

In evolving this new type of decorative picture Degas used 
Japanese prints and photographs ; and all through his career 
he produced compositions in which the accidental effects of 
photographs were deliberately and most ingeniously exploited.^ 

At the same time we must realise that as a Romantic Realist 
he preferred an ugly characteristic face to a smooth pretty one, 
and limbs distorted by occupational abuse to the smoothly 
rounded limbs of the nymphs portrayed by Boucher. No 
French artist before the Romantic movement would have made 
the plebeian face of the dancer in Le Ballet (PL 114b) the point 
of focus in a decorative scheme. 

vi. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec 



London. National Gallery, Mill- Femme assise. 


London. S. Courtauld Collec- Jane Avril leaving the Moulin 

tion Rouge, 1892 

London. Messrs. Reid and Maxime de Thomas au bal de 

Lefevre Collection I'Opera, 1896 

London. F. Plindley Smith Col- La Toilette, 1891 


Scotland. D. W. T. Cargill Col- A la mie, 1891 


1 Degas was fond of putting a large head or object in the foreground or 
cutting off half a figure by the frame. 

2 For catalogues of Toulouse-Lautrec's numerous paintings, drawings, 
lithographs, etchings and posters, with many reproductions, the student is 
referred to Maurice Joyant's two volumes, Henri de Toulouse-'Lautrec^ pub- 
lished in 1926 and 1927. Some of the pictures which I mention have been 
acquired by their present owners since 1927. 



New York. Mr. and Mrs. C. S. La Roussc au jardin, 1891 

Sullivan Collection 

New York. Mr. and Mrs. C. S. La Toilette, 1891 

Sullivan Collection 

New York. A. Lewisohn CoUcc- The Opera " Messalina " at Bor- 

tion deaux, 1900 

New York. A. Lewisohn Collec- Riding to the Bois, 1888 


New York. A. Lewisohn Collec- La Liseusc 


New York. Mr. and Mrs. Chester Au bar. Alfred la Guignc, 1894 

Dale Collection 

New York. Mr. and Mrs. Chester The Quadrille at the Moulin Rouge, 

Dale Collection 1892 

New York. Messrs. Wildenstein Jane Avril dancing,^ 1893 


New York. Private Collection May Belfort singing, 1895 

New York. G. Brooks Collection La femme au chien 

New York. Messrs. J. Seligmann Oscar Wilde (water-colour), 1895 

Brooklyn. Museum La femme a la cigarette, 1 890 

Chicago. Art Institute (Birch Au Moulin Rouge, 1892 

Bartlett Memorial) 

Chicago. Art Institute (Birch Danseuses surlasc^ne, r. 1886 

Bartlett Memorial) 

Chicago. Art Institute Au Cirque Fernando, 1888 

Chicago. W. S. Brewster Col- May Milton, 1895 


Boston. J. T. Spaulding Col- Jcune Femme a I'atelier, f. 1889 


Los Angeles. W. P. Harrison Col- Chien couche, 1888 


Museum of Art M. Boileau au cafe, 1895 

F. A. Ginn Collection La Clownesse Cha-u-Kao, 1895 

Allbright Collection La Rousse, 1889 










Petit Palais 


La Clownesse, 1895 
Paul Lcclerq, 1897 
Baraque de la Goulue a la Foire du 

(i) La Danse mauresque 
(2) La Danse au Moulin 
Rouge, 1895 
Alphonse de Toulouse-Lautrec 
conduisant son mail-coach a Nice, 
La Femme au boa noir, 1892 

^ This picture is a study for the poster where the same figure appears. 



Deux Femmes au bar, 1894 v i 

La Toilette, 1896 i 

A table chez M. et Madame Natan- ' 

son, 1895 
Fcmme nue accroupie, 1897 

Chilperic, 1896 

May Belfort singing " Daddy 

wouldn't buy me a Bow-wow," 

Au lit. Le Baiser, 1892 
La Goulue, 1891 
La Goulue entering the Moulin 

Rouge, 1892 
Au Moulin Rouge. La Danse, 1890V/ 

Femme a sa Toilette, f. 1888 

L'Assommoir, 1900 ' 

Decoration du salon de la maison de 

la rue d'Amboise, 1892 j 

Artistide Bruant, 1892 j 

Une operation de Tracheotomie par I 

le Docteur Pean, 1891 j 

Geule de Bois, 1889 I 

Tenanciers de maison close, 1893 ' 
Le Blanchisseur de la Maison, 1894 
Au Salon : rue des Moulins, 1894 
L'Anglaise du Star au Havre, 1899I 
Deux femmes : Maison de la rue des 1 

Moulins, 1894 I 

Yvette Gviilbert : Les gants noirs 

(Project for a poster), 1894 
Un examen k la Faculte de Medecine 

1901 i 

Soldat anglais fumant sa pipe, 1898 i 
L' Abandon : Les Deux Amies, 1893 
Au Moulin Rouge. Les Deux 

Valseuses, 1892 
La Grosse Marie, 1884 
Suzanne Valadon, 1885 
M. Delaporte au Jardin de Paris, 

1893 1 

^ There is another picture of this subject in the collection of Mr. and Mrs. 
Cornelius J. Sullivan, New York. 



Jos. Hesscl Collection 


M. Exsteens Collec- 



Mme D — Collection 


Mme D — Collection 


Mme D — Collection 


Mme D — Collection 


Bernheim Jeune Col- 



Paul Rosenberg Col- 



Sacha Guitry Collec- 



Sacha Guitry Collec- 



Mme. Ch. Pomaret 



A. Vollard Collection 

Paris ? 

Tapie de Celeyran Col- 




















P. Cassirer Collection 


Gallery of Modern Art 




Carlsberg Museum 
Carlsberg Museum 

Paris. Louvre 
EDGAR DEGAS. La Danscusc au bouquet saluant sur la scene (pastel). 

Scotlaihi. Privale Collcclion 

EDGAR DEGAS. Lc I-oycr dc la J.inse (pastel). 

I.rons. Museum 

EDGAR DEGAS. Aux Ambassadcurs. 


{a) I^utrec's Life and Work 

Henri dc Toulouse-Lautrec, who brought the Romantic- 
Reahsm of Degas to a climax, was a direct descendant of the 
(founts of Toulouse, and he could trace his family history from 
the thirteenth century. His father was an eccentric sportsman 
and amateur sculptor who modelled animals in clay ; his uncle 
was an amateur painter. He was born on the family estate at 
Albi ; and suffered from infancy with weakness of the bones. 
In childhood he met with accidents and broke both thighs ; 
he thus became a cripple with abnormally short legs. 

As a young man he inherited his father's love of open-air 
sports and the traditional occupations of country gentlemen, and 
he began to paint pictures of horses, grooms and so forth before 
he was twent}\ His Alphonse de Toulouse-Lautrec conduisant son 
fuail-coach a N/ce^ now in the Petit-Palais in Paris, was painted 
when he was seventeen. 

In 1 882 ,when he was eighteen, he went to Paris and worked in 
the studio of Leon Bonnat for five years ; he then worked for a 
few months in the studio of Cormon.^ 

During these years he painted academic studies (the Stockholm 
Museum has his Grosse Marie of 1884) and began to show his 
individuality in the portrait drawings of Su':(anne Valadon (now 
in the Museum at Copenliagcn) and of Van Gogh, whom he met 
in 1886.2 

When he abandoned the art schools he shared with a friend a 
studio in Montmartre ; this w^as in a courtyard where Degas 
also had his studio ; and he seems at this time to have made 
Degas' acquaintance. About 1887, when he was twenty-three, 

^ Cormon was a Salon artist. Leon Bonnat (183 3-1922) was born at 
Bayonne, and spent his early years with his family in Madrid, where his father 
had a bookshop. In 1853 his father died and he returned to Paris, where he 
worked at the Beaux Arts and won a Prix de Rome. In his early work he was 
influenced by Fantin-Latour. Later he painted compositions of religious 
subjects and photographic portraits. His collection of pictures and many 
admirable drawings by the Old Masters and Ingres can be seen in the Musee 
Bonnat at Bayonne. 

2 Lautrcc's drawing, w^hich shows Van Gogh in profile seated at a table 
in a cafe, is now in the collection of Mme Th. Van Gogh-Bonger. 



he made an arrangement with his family which secured him an 
independent income, and he took a studio of his own in the 
same region. In 1888 and 1889 he painted pictures of the 
Cirque Fernando^ and plein air and ateher studies of young 

At this time he became a regular frequenter of the music halls, 
bars and dancing establishments of Montmartre, and began his 
chronicles of the life he observed there. 

In 1 891 his cousin. Dr. Tapie de Celeyran, came to Paris to 
work in the Hospital International, founded by the surgeon 
Pean. Lautrec witnessed several operations and recorded them 
afterwards in pictures. ^ 

Between 1891 and 1896 he was at the height of his powers. 
His most brilliant studies of Montmartre habitues and music 
hall singers date from these years. His output was prodigious. 
The grim cafe scene, A la me (PI. 11 8a), now in the D. W. T. 
Cargill Collection in Scotland, dates from 1891. Au Moulin 
Rouge (PI. 113a), now in the Chicago Art Institute, was painted 
in 1892. A series of studies of the Moulin-Rouge floor-dancers. 
La Goulue and Jane Avril, dates from 1892 and 1893. Au bar : 
Alfred la Guigne (PI. 117), now in the Chester Dale Collection, 
New York, and the celebrated series of lithographs of Yvette 
Guilbert date from 1894. The May Belfort paintings, drawings 
and lithographs were produced in 1895.^ 

^ These studies were painted in a technique influenced by Pissarro- 
Lautrec at this time was one of a number of artists whose work was en. 
couraged by Van Gogh's brother Theo, who was in the firm of Goupil. 
The group included Gauguin, Seurat, and Van Gogh himself from 1886 to 
1888, Seurat, who was one of the founders of the Salon des Independants 
in 1884, persuaded Lautrec to exhibit there. He sent his first picture in 1889, 
and exhibited there regularly afterwards. Pissarro though a much older 
man was interested in Seurat's work and theories (cf. p. 237), and though 
he did not exhibit at the Independants he was associated with the group, and 
influenced it and was influenced by it. 

2 Dr. Tapie is the tall figure beside Lautrec in the picture Au Moulin 
Kouge (Pi. 113a), 

^ The Jane Avril series includes Jane Avril dancing (a study for the poster), 
which is now in the collection of Messrs, Wildenstein et Cie, Paris, and 
the wonderful Jane Avril leaving the Moulin Kouge^ in Mr. Samuel Courtauld's 
collection in London. 

Yvette Guilbert appeared in 1890. Lautrec had been a delighted follower 


New York. ^[r. and ytrs. Clu-sl,? , 

H. DE TOULOUSE-LAUTREC. Au bar : Alfred la Guiijnc. 







Scotland. D. W. T. Cargiil Cuiieiiiuii 


*-",.-•— — 

Paris. Louvre 

EDGAR DEGAS. L'Absinthe. 

Copenhagen. Carlsberg, Museum 


d'Absinthc. j 


y\t this period also he made drawings and paintings of the 
inhabitants of Maisotis closes (as Degas had done in 1879, and as 
(iuys had done some twenty years before), and he decorated the 
interior of one of these establishments. He never publicly 
exhibited the maison close series, though they are technically 
among his finest paintings ; they now can be seen in the Lautrec 
Museum at Albi.* 

In 1893 he exhibited thirty of his pictures in a gallery on the 
Boulevard Montmartre ; none was sold ; and, indeed, he was 
never able to sell his pictures at any period of his life. But 
he made some money by his numerous lithographs, posters and 

Degas visited the exhibition on the Boulevard Montmartre. 
" Ca^ Lautrec, on voit que vous etes du hdtiment*' was his comment. 

By 1895 Lautrec had begun to take too much alcohol, and 
some friend suggested to his father that he ought to go into a 
home. " Nonsense," replied the eccentric sportsman, " let him 
go to England where tous les nobles s'alcoolisent." And to England 
he went several times between 1895 and 1898 ; there he associ- 
ated mainly with Whistler and Conder and drank less, in fact, 
than he had been drinking in France. He was in London 
during the \\ ilde trial, and made a coloured drawing of Wilde 
(now in the Jacques Seligmann Collection in New York) after 
meeting him for a few minutes.^ 

of her work, and made many sketches of her from the stalls. In 1894 he 
approached her with a proposal to design a poster. She was at first horrified 
by his productions and wrote him : " Pour l' amour du del tie me faites pas si 
atrocement laide." But her intelligence and wit soon led her to recognise 
the merit of the dozens of drawings and lithographs which he devoted to 
recording her expressive gestures and grimaces, and the two artists eventually 
became friends. 

The most famous of the May Belfort studies depicts her singing, " Daddy 

wouldn't buy me a bow-wow." It is now in the collection of Mme D 

in Paris. 

^ After Lautrec's death his mother presented numerous works remaining 
in his studio, together with some early works, to his native town ; they are 
now exhibited in the Palais Archiepiscopal. A visit to this museum is essential 
for the student of Lautrec's work. Au Salon : rue des Moulirts a maison close 
picture, and the most important in the museum is, I think, his finest work. 

^ The drawing is a head and bust portrait ; it shows Wilde in a blue dinner 
jacket with a velvet collar ; there is a deep expanse of shirt front ; the hair is 

2 O 281 


In 1896 he drew the intimate and sympathetic lithographs of 
young women known as Elles ; and in 1897 a number of nudes, 
including the Ve?nme nue accroupie^ now in the Exsteens Collection, 
in Paris. In 1898 he had an exhibition in London at the Goupil 
Gallery, which created a succes de scandale, but was otherwise a 
failure. It had a bad Press ; the critic of the Daily Chronicle 
wrote : " M. de Toulouse-Lautrec has only one idea in his head 
— vulgarity." 

At the end of 1898 he began to be affected by his alcoholic 
habits ; and in February 1899, he had a serious nervous break- 
down and was removed to a mental home. He recovered after 
a few days' abstinence from alcohol, and ten weeks later he was 
discharged by his doctors. In the home he produced fifty draw- 
ings and lithographs, including a series of Circus subjects, 
and the oil pictures. The Keeper and Inmates of the Howe, which 
can be seen at Albi. 

In July, 1899, he went to Le Havre intending to sail to Ar- 
cachon. There he was attracted by an EngUsh barmaid at the 
" Star " — a low bar frequented by English sailors. From this 
girl he painted UAnglaise au " Star " du Havre (now at Albi), a 
work comparable only with Hogarth's Shrimp Girl in the 
National Gallery in London.^ 

In 1 900 he saw at Bordeaux a performance of Isador de Lara's 
opera, Messalina, and painted the picture which is now in the 
collection of Mr. Adolph Lewisohn in New York. But his 
amazing visual memory was now beginning to fail him, and as 
aids for the picture he asked his friend Joyant to send him 
photographs of the production. In April, 1901, he was back in 
aris painting racecourse pictures, scenes at Armenonville, 

yellow ; the shadows on the face are green ; the eyes sag. In the back- 
ground we see Big Ben. 

In addition to these visits to England Lautrec travelled in the 'nineties 
to Belgium, where he exhibited some pictures, to Holland, Portugal 
and Spain. He was a good sailor and travelled whenever possible 
by sea. 

^ Lautrec returned to Le Havre in June, 1900, to recapture the bar- 
maid, but without success, as we know from a letter to Joyant which reads : 
*' Old chump. Les Stars et autres bars sons trh surveillis par la police, rien a 
faire ; /'/ n'j a plus de barmaids. . . , A toi, H. L. and Co. {tout ce qu'ily a de 
plus limited) " 



nudes, and (7; examen a la Vaculte de Medecim^ which is now at 

In August, 1 901, he felt his end approaching and joined his 
mother at the (Chateau de Malramc in the Gironde. In September 
he died there at the age of thirty-six. 

(/;) Lautrec's Art 

Debarred by his infirmity from the open air Hfe and the 
pleasures of the world in wliich he was born, Lautrec sought 
the world of society's outcasts among whom, as an aristocrat, 
he could feel himself a king. By this world he soon became 
intensely fascinated. As a Romantic-Realistic artist he sought 
for ever closer contact with its realities. He cared little for the 
pageantr}^ of lights and colours that had inspired Renoir to 
paint L^ Moulin de la Galette (PI. 104b) and Degas to create his 
colourful decorations ; the vulgar little face in Degas' L^ 'Pallet 
(PI. 114b) was \\\s point de depart, and he peered ever closer into 
the sordid drama that lay behind the glamour of the footlights 
and of the night haunts of Paris. 

Guys in the 'seventies had already drawn the women of the 
dance halls performing the Can-can. He had drawn them as 
generic figures moving forward with uplifted skirts like lovely 
vessels in full sail ; he had extracted architectural light and shade 
from the contrast of the white linen and the dark surrounding 
clothes. Lautrec drew these women as individuals. They 
were so much individuals to him that he imbued them with 
the life if not of historical personalities, at any rate, with the 
life of the most vivid characters in fiction. No novelist has 
created a personality whom we see more vividly than Jane Avril. 
Lautrec has shown us her lean legs dancing, her scarlet lips 
parted in the dancer's smile, and the green shadows under the 
livid cheek-bones as she passed the gas lamp outside the dance 
hall when her work was done. In the same way he has shown 
us La Goulue, a woman of coarser mould who throned it in the 
Moulin Rouge for a brief moment, and then went steadily down- 

Degas, as we have seen, was a social recorder who made 
comments on occupational gesture as he drew. But his 



comments are mild and obvious compared with Lautrec's. 
Degas drew features and muscles distorted by occupation. 
Lautrec drew occupationally distorted souls. 

I reproduce together Manet's Le Buveur d' Absinthe (PL ii8c), 
Degas' U Absinthe (PI. ii8b) and Lautrec's A la mie (PI. ii8a). 
Manet's picture of a dressed-up studio model is mere painting. 
Degas has given us an environmental portrait. Lautrec has 
portrayed a drama of the underworld that is hideous and true. 

Lautrec was a very interesting colourist. He experimented 
with green shadows and achieved intriguing and sinister effects. 
He studied Japanese prints for his compositions, and from the 
Japanese he acquired a calligraphic line that he used ingeniously 
in his attractive posters. As a poster designer he still stands, 
in fact, supreme. He is the father of the art as it is practised 
in Paris to this day. 




i . Post- Impressionism 
ij. Vaul G(2Ugiiin 
iij. Vincent Van Gogh 


i. Post-h/jpressionism 

Post-Impressionism is a term of convenience used to describe 
the paintings of Gauguin and Van Gogh and of their followers 
and imitators. The works of the German imitators of these 
artists are described by German critics as " lixpressionismus." 

I have traced the growth of the vocational concept of the 
artist from Chardin, who gave up his lucrative figure painting 
to devote himself to still life, and Corot, who was content to 
earn nothing and to be supported by his parents for sixteen years, 
to the Impressionists who braved hostile criticism and stuck to 
their experimental art. With Gauguin and Van Gogh the story 
takes on a new and more sinister aspect. 

Gauguin abandoned a lucrative position in a bank, his wife 
and family, the society of artists and literary men, and the 
amenities of Parisian civilisation in a fanatical belief that popular 
painting could be regenerated and the photographic vision 
conquered by contact with primitive life in the South Sea Islands. 

Van Gogh, who was always an exalte^ poured his vitality, 
debilitated by years of hardship, with fanatical prodigality into 
his pictures. On the material side both asked of life nothing 
but the most meagre necessities ; and even these they were 
never able to earn by their work. 

xvlonet and Renoir had worked for twenty years in poverty 
before fortune began to favour them ; in those years they ad- 
justed themselves to conditions, derived what they could from 
available amenities, and added nothing of their own volition 
to their hard fate ; after the tide turned they both painted in 
comfort for another forty years. Gaugin painted in all for only 
twenty years and Van Gogh for only eight ; both suflered 
extremities of hardsliip unimagined by Monet and Renoir, who 
were merely poor, both tormented themselves also at the same 
time, and both eventually succumbed. 

It is important to recognise that Gauguin and Van Gogh 
converted the vocational concept of the artist to a standard of 
fanaticism that society has no right to demand or even, perhaps, 
tolerate ; because the activity called art as pursued by these men 



was not only a vocation but also a prolonged, spectacular and 
agonising form of suicide. 

Gauguin himself discovered this too late. **L^ souffrance vous 
aiguise le genie^'' he wrote. " II tfen jaut pas trop cependant sinon 
elk vous tue.'^ 

From the aesthetic standpoint the contributions of Gauguin 
and Van Gogh, which were made more than forty years ago, 
constituted at once the finale of the Romantic movement and the 
overture of the Cubist-Classical Renaissance. In Gauguin's 
colour we encounter the drums and trumpets of Delacroix, 
which have now taken on the timbre of the tom-tom and the 
reed pipe, and with the new timbre we get a less impetuous 
though not less compelling rhythm. In Van Gogh's passionate 
records of emotive fragments we get the spirit of Delacroix's 
Death of Sardanapahis keyed up to what is often an intolerable 
pitch. But both Gauguin and Van Gogh had contact with the 
pictorial concepts that created the Cubist-Classical Renaissance, 
which was the real artistic movement of their day. They 
studied Japanese prints, and they were acquainted with Seurat 
and Cezanne. They were both conscious of the attempts that 
were being made around them to explore the emotivity of 
architectural relations of lines and colours, spaces and planes ; 
they themselves made explorations in this field. But they were 
not temperamentally or intellectually equipped to regenerate 
European painting. They were both psychologically abnormal 
personalities who painted great autobiographical pictures at the 
price of their own lives. 

ij. Paul Gauguin 



London. National Gallery, Mill- Tahitian group, r. 1893 ? 

London. National Gallery, Mill- Flower piece, 1896 


^ I am not acquainted with any satisfactory catalogue of Gauguin's work. 
The considerable literature on Gauguin provides very scanty information 
about the present whereabouts of his pictures. My list, as all the lists in this 
book, consists of (a) pictures which I have seen, and (b) pictures of which 


Jidinbiirgh. Salioiinl (inlU-ry of SiolUni,! 

PAUL GAUGUIN. Jacob wrestling with the Angel 

New York < / 

PAUL GAUGUIN. la Orana Maria (Ave Maria). 


Faa Ihcihc (Tahitian group), 1898 

Brittany Landscape. Stacking Hav, 

Tc Rcriva (La Case), 1897 

Nevermore, 1897 

Landscape with the Red Dog (Poul- 

du), 1890 
The Agony in the Garden, 1889- 
Self portrait in a striped jersey, 1889 
Jacob wrestling with the Angel, 

la Orana Maria (Ave Maria), 1891 

Maternitc, c. 1896 ? 

The Bathers, 1898 

Manao Tupapau (L'esprit veille),^ 

Poemes barbares, 1896 
Arlesiennes going to Church, 1888 

Reverie (Tahitian girl in rocking- 
chair), 1891 

Meyer dc Ilaan* (with " Sartor Re- 
sartus " and " Paradise Lost "), 

Te Burao (Tahitian landscape), 1892 

Mahana no Atua : (The Day of the 
God), 1894 

Tahitian portrait group, 1901 

I have photographs before me. I do not know the present whereabouts of 
JLd Femme aux Mangos (1893) (a recumbent Tahitian nude, in the attitude of 
Manet's Oljmpia, in a Tahitian landscape) ; Trots Tahltlans (half-length 
group with back view of a youth in the centre) ; l^a Reine des Areois (Tahi- 
tian woman seated on patterned drapery in a landscape) ; Otahi (Tahitian 
woman crouching on the ground with splayed feet). 

^ This picture is sometimes erroneously described as l^s MeuUs. 

^ This picture in 1924 was in Sir Michael Sadler's collection (Oxford). 

^ This picture formerly belonged to Sir Michael Sadler (Oxford). 

* The dwarfish figure in Conies barbares (Essen) is also a portrait of Meyer 
de Haan. 


National Gallery, Mill- 



S. Courtauld Collec- 



S. Courtauld Collec- 



S. Courtauld Collec- 



Maresco Pcarce Col- 


England ? 



Private Collection 
Private Collection 
National Gallery of 

New York. 

A. Lewisohn Collec- 


New York. 

A. Lewisohn Collec- 


New York. 

A. Lewisohn Collec- 


New York. 

H. C. Goodyear Collec- 


New York. 

Private Collection 

New York. 

James W. Barney 


New York. 

J. Stransky Collection 


Mr. and Mrs. Shaw 

McKean Collection 


Art Institute 
Art Institute. Birch 
Bartlett Collection 


Art Institute. Birch 
Bartlett Collection 

2 P 



Self portrait with lute, c. 1889 

Woman in Waves, 1,889 

Te Faaturuma : La Femme accrou- 

pie, 1891 
La Belle Angele (Pont-Aven), 1889 
Le Cheval blanc, c. 1896 
Femmes de Tahiti 
Still life 
Ravine on the Coast, 1888 

Aries Landscape, 1888 

Landscape with figures. Mar- 
tinique, c. 1887 

Laveuses a Tahiti, 1898 

Irarote Oviri : The Fruit-bearers, 

Arii Matamoe (La fin royale),^ 1892 

Tehuro : (Tahitian girl in striped 

overall with fan) 
Breton Children, c. 1894 
Le Christ Jaune, 1889 

Head of a Tahitian child with a 

flower in her hair 
Cote de Belle-Angenay, 1889 
Decorative Seascape, 1889 
Nave nave Mahana (Jours delicieux) 

Noa Noa (Le pays des parfums), 

Le Poldu, 1890 
Breton Girl, 1894 

Arearea (Tahitian pastoral with 
flute player and dogs in fore- 
ground, idol in background), c. 
The blue roofs, Rouen, 1884 
Dr. Gachet, 1884 

^ Gauguin himself described this picture which has a large idol's head in 
the foreground : " Vne tete de canaque coupee bien arrangk sur un coussin blanc 
dans un palais de mon invention et gardie par des femmes de mon invention 


W. S. Stimmel Collec- 



Mr. and Mrs. F. H. 

Ginn Collection 


Art Museum 











Musee des arts decora- 



Musee des arts decora- 



Private Collection 


M. Kapferer Collection 


M. Kapferer Collection 


Henri Lerolle Collec- 



Mme Daniel de Mon- 

freid Collection 


A. Vollard Collection 


Paul Rosenberg Collec- 



Wildenstein Collection 


F. Norgelet Collection 


A. Maillol Collection 




Private Collection 


Mme Maus Collection 


Galerie Flechtheim 


Galerie Thannhauser 


Private Collection 


Private Collection 



Tc Mafctc " The world weary,"* 

Riders by the Sea, 1902 

Contes barhares, c. 1891 

I faymakers, 1889 

Nafea faai poipo (When will they 
marry ?), 1892 

Nude \\ oman Sewing, 1880 

Gauguin's family with a baby- 
carriage in a garden, c. 1881 

Garden in Snow, c. 1881 

Pont Aven in Spring, 1888 

Vahine no te tiarc (half-length por- 
trait of a Tahitian woman), 1891 

Le Poldu, 1890 

Nude Boy, 1889 

Interior : Gauguin's home in Paris, 

Exotic still life, 1899 

D'ou venons-nous, que sommes- 
nous, oil allons-nous, 1 897-1 898 

Tahitian pastoral with dog in fore- 
ground, 1892 

Nave Nave Moe. Tahitian pastoral, 
c. 1892 

Still life. Oiseaux dcs Isles, 1902 

{d) Gauguin's Life 

The story of Gauguin's life has been repeatedly told. 

He was the son of a Parisian journalist and a mother of 
Creole origin. In 185 1 his father set off with his family to 
Peru and died on the journey. Paul lived at Lima with his 
mother for five years in a house where there were negro and 
Cliinese servants and a lunatic chained up on the roof — a lunatic 
who once escaped and got into the child's bedroom. W hen 
he was eight he was brought back to Paris and educated in a 

^ This picture, well known from a c( Ic-ur-print, represents a number of 
Tahitians sitting on a low seat against a sunlit background ; some of the 
figures have flowers in their hair. 



Private Collection 





Folkwang Museum 


Private (Collection 


Private Collection 










Private Collection 


National Museum 


Private Collection 


National Gallery 


National Gallery 


Private Collection 


Museum of Modern 

Art. Morosoff Col- 



Museum of Modern 

Art. Morosoff Col- 



Museum of Modern 

Art. Morosoff Col- 



Jesuit seminary at Orleans, where his father's brother Hved. 
At seventeen he went to sea, and remained at sea till he was 
twenty-one. He then entered a financial house in Paris, where 
he succeeded and made money. In his spare time at this period 
he dabbled in painting and sculpture. He married a Danish girl 
in 1873. 

A year or two later he met Pissarro and began to collect 
pictures by the Impressionist group. In 1880 and 1881 he was 
himself represented in the Impressionist exhibitions. 

In 1883 he gave up his employment and his income and 
decided to find some post that would enable him to give more 
time to painting pictures. He looked for such posts in Rouen 
and in Denmark and found nothing. His wife then quarrelled 
with him ; encouraged by her Danish relations she reproached 
him for throwing away his income for the senseless mania of 
painting pictures and the pleasure of posing as a Bohemian 
artist ; in 1885 he left her in Denmark with four of their five 
children and took one boy with him to Paris. 

There he was soon entirely without money and he got em- 
ployment as a bill-sticker ; then he was promoted to the 
office of the bill-sticking company and was able to paint in some 
spare time. In 1886 he contributed nineteen pictures to the last 
Impressionist Exhibition. 

Later in that year he went to Pont Aven in Brittany, where 
living was cheap. In 1887 he sold everything he possessed and 
sailed with an artist friend for Martinique, where he had heard 
that living was still cheaper ; to earn money on the way he 
took on navvy's work at Panama. After a few months in 
Martinique his companion contracted fever and attempted 
suicide ; and Gauguin brought him back to Paris. 

In the early part of 1888 he was financed for a while by a 
friend of his old stockbroking days ; and he began to take an 
interest in ceramics and mediaeval stained glass. He also had a 
one-man show in a gallery, of which Van Gogh's brother Theo 
was manager, and sold a few pictures for small sums. In the 
summer he was in Brittany ; from October to December at Aries 
with Van Gogh. At Aries he had some intercourse with Cezanne.^ 

^ In his picture-buying days Gauguin had acquired a still life by Cezanne, 
which he retained long after he sold all the others. It figures in the back- 



In 1889 he was again in Brittany, where he had financial 
assistance from the eccentric Dutcli litteratnir^ Meyer dc I faan ; 
in 1890 he began to share a studio with Daniel de Monfried, 
who remained his friend and confidant and helped him with 
money to the end. 

At the beginning of 1891 he sold thirty of his pictures by 
auction, and made just under 10,000 francs. With this money 
and funds raised by a benefit performance and exhibition at the 
Theatre des Arts, he went to Tahiti. 

Me remained in Tahiti on this first visit for two years. 

In August, 1893, he returned to France to take up a legacy of 
13,000 francs from his uncle at Orleans. He installed himself in a 
studio in Paris, where he dressed and entertained in a fantastic 
manner with a Javanese woman as his companion and attendant. 
Later in the year he exhibited forty-six Tahitian pictures and 
some carvings at the Durand-Ruel Gallcr}" ; they caused a sensa- 
tion, but hardly an}^liing was sold. 

In 1894 he went to Brittany with the Javanese woman and 
had liis ankle broken in a brawl with some sailors. In that year 
also he contracted syphilis in Paris. 

In Februar}', 1895, he tried to sell the pictures from the 
Durand-Ruel exhibition by auction ; but few reached the 
nominal reser^xs ; later in the year with such money as he had 
made from this sale and what remained of the 13,000 francs he 
returned to Tahiti. 

During this second period in Tahiti his disease grew upon him, 
and he lived in conditions of miser}% continually quarrelling 
with the French ofhcials, whom he accused of ill-treating the 
natives. In 1898 he tried to commit suicide. 

In 1 901 he left Tahiti and moved to the Marquesas Isles. 
There he began fresh quarrels of the same kind, and there he 
died two years later, at the age of fifty-two. 

{b) Gauguin's Art 

Gauguin did not become a really personal artist till he had 
been painting continuously for five or six years and on and ofl' 

ground of his painting, U ArUsienne, which I saw at the Leicester Galleries, 
London, in 1924, but of which I do not know the present whereabouts. 



for ten. His early pictures were influenced by Fantin-Latour and 
by Pissarro and the Impressionists.^ 

The decisive year was 1888 — the year when he studied 
mediaeval glass, saw Cezanne's pictures at Aix, and learned 
something from a painter named Emil Bernard, whom he met 
in Brittany. 

The style appears in the pictures painted in Brittany in 1888, 
1889 and 1890, such as Jacob wrestling with the Angel (PI. 119b), 
now in the National Gallery of Scotland, L,e Christ Jaune^ now 
in the Paul Rosenberg Collection in Paris, Stacking Hay (PI. 
119a), now in Mr. Courtauld's collection in London, and the 
Landscape with a red dog in Mr. Maresco Pearce's collection in 
London. It is fundamentally a decorative style appealing by 
rhythmic line and arbitrary colour ; but in the religious pictures 
Gauguin has also tried to recapture the naif directness of observa- 
tion and imagination which he had observed in the stained glass 
windows. In Jacob wrestling with the Angel (PL 119b) we see 
the episode as it appeared to the Breton peasant women after a 
sermon in the village church ; and Gauguin, partly to express 
this idea, has used the colours and, to some extent, the technique 
of stained glass windows. 

In the first period at Tahiti Gauguin's sensibility was enriched 
by the experience of his new surroundings ; he developed his 
style to symbolise effects of tropical sunlight and shade ; and 
the pictures which he painted on this first Tahitian visit are his 
finest productions. They include la Orana Maria {Ave Maria) 
(PI. 120), now in Mr. Adolph Lewisohn's collection in New 
York, and the celebrated U esprit veille, now in Mr. H. C. Good- 
year's collection in that city. 

In the second Tahitian period Gauguin endeavoured to get 
more solidity into his figures and to stress their emotivity on the 

^ The most interesting of the early works are the Inferior (now in the Oslo 
Museum), which represents his own home, and the Garden scene with a baby- 
carriage (now in the Copenhagen Museum), which were painted in 1 88 1 when 
he was still an amateur. In these pictures he was working on lines which 
have since been developed by M. Pierre Bonnard and M. Edouard Vuillard. 

Both Bonnard and Vuillard were born in 1867. Bonnard exhibited at the 
Salon des Independants from 1891 onwards, Vuillard from 1901 to 1910. 
Both are still living. Their art, based on Impressionism, shows the influence 
both of Lautrec and the Cubist-Classical Renaissance. 



psychological side. In works like Nevermore (PI. 121I5) and 7> 
\\eriva {\m Case) (PI. 121a), in Mr. Courtauld's C(jllLCtion, the 
artist's Romantic instinct competes with the decorative concept 
and to some extent destroys it. 

Gauguin, as I have said, made genuine and abnormal sacrifices 
for his painting. But there was also an element v>i \\\q. poseur in 
his constitution, 'lall and handsome in a rather barbaric way 
he had a very conspicuous personality; he was vain and liked 
making an impression and creating a scandal. There was an 
element of mumbo-jumbo in all his Tahitian pictures, which was 
reinforced by the Tahitian titles which he frequently inscribed 
upon them. In the early works this element is incidental to the 
decorative splendour of the ensemble ; in the later works it is a 
conspicuous constituent of the picture's content. 

Gauguin's talent was essentially decorative. He was a magni- 
ficent colourist, an admirable designer and a master of flowing 
line. Like Degas, he would have found regular employment as a 
decorator in the seventeenth or eighteenth century in France. 
At the end of the nineteenth century he could not find employ- 
ment ; and the task of regenerating European painting, which he 
set himself, was accomplished by two men with more brains, 
more patience and more humility — Georges Seurat and Paul 

iij. Vincent Van Gogh 



London. National Gallery, Mill- Sunflowers, 1888 


London. National Gallery, Mill- La chaise a la pipe : (The Chair), 

bank 1888 

London. National Gallery, Mill- Les bles jaunes (Landscape with 

bank cypress trees), 1889 

1 A catalogue raisonne fully illustrated has been compiled by M. de la Faille 
who has also published a supplement referring to some pictures in the 
catalogue which, he states, are forgeries. 

Van Gogh painted several versions of some of his important pictures. I 
have indicated the present whereabouts of other versions in some cases in 
this list. 



London. National Gallery, Mill- 



S. Courtauld Collection 


S. Courtauld Collection 


C. F. Stoop Collection 


Mrs. Sutro Collection 


A. J. McNeill Reid Col- 



Maclnnes Collection 

New York. 

A. Sachs Collection 

New York. 

Dr. H. Bakwin Collec- 


New York. 

Chester Dale Collec- 


New York. 

Chester Dale Collec- 


New York. 

A. Lewisohn Collection 

New York. 

Julius Oppenheimer 



Museum of Modern Art 


Museum of Art 


W. S. Brewster Collec- 



Art Institute. Birch 

Bartlett Collection 


Art Institute. Birch 

Bartlett Collection 

L'herbage aux papillons (Aries), 

Pay sage a Aries : Lahaie, 1889 
Self-portrait with the bandaged 

head,i 1889 
Vue a Auvers, 1890 
Restaurant Carrel a Aries, 1888 
Portrait of J. McNeill Reid,^ 1886- 

Le Moulin de la Galette, 1 886-1 887 
The Gardens of Aries, 1888 
L'Arlesienne,3 1888 

Le bebe de Roulin (Marcel Roulin), 

Girl in a striped dress (La Mousme)* 

L'Arlesienne (Mme Ginoux,)'^ 1888 
The First steps (after Millet), 1890 

La Maison de la Crau, 1888-1889 
Paysage des environs de Saint- 

Remy, 1889 
Fruit, 1886-1888 

Montmartre, 1 886-1 888 

Van Gogh's Bedroom.^ (Aries 
1888 or Saint-Remy 1889) 

* There is another version of this picture in the Fayet Collection at 

* This picture is erroneously catalogued by de la Faille as "Portrait of the 
Artist. The sitter was the art-dealer who was then studying painting in 
Paris and was acquainted with Van Gogh. 

^ This picture, which must not be confused with U ArUsienne {Mme 
Ginoux), was painted from a drawing by Gauguin which is now in the col- 
lection of Dr. F. H. Hirschland, New York. Other versions are in the Muni- 
cipal Museum, Amsterdam, and in the collections of Mme Kroller-Miiller 
(The Hague), Mr. Durieux-Cassirer (Berlin) and a collection in Munich. 

* There is another version of this picture in the Stang Collection, 

^ This picture which I reproduce (PI. 122) is one of several versions. A 
version in the Friedlander-Fould Collection, in Berlin, has a pair of gloves 
and a hunting crop on the table instead of the books. 

^ I reproduce this picture (PI. 123b). There are other versions in the 
collections of Mr. V. W. Van Gogh and Prince Matsugata. 



Institute of Arts 



Art Institute. Birch La Berceuse (Mme Roulin),' 1889 

Bartlett C^)llecti(»n 
Art Institute. liirch Still lite. Melon, Fish, and Jar.^ 
Bartlett Collection 

Portrait (if J. McNeill Reid in a 

straw hat,^ c. 1888 
L'Usinc, 1886-1888 
The Postman Roulin,* 1888 
Lc Lupanar (la sallc do cafe), 1888 
R. Treat Paine CoUcc- The Postman Roulin,'' 1888 

G. E, Fuller Collection Street in Saint-Remy (Lcs Paveurs)," 

Houses at Auvers, 1890 

La Guingette, c. 1887 

Restaurant de la Sirene, a Joinville, 

c. 1887 
Still life : Fritillaire couronne im- 

peria'.e dans un vase de cuivre, 

Le Pere Tanguy, c. 1887 
Portrait de Mile Ravoux, la fille du 

cabaretier, 1890 
Sunflowers, 1888 

Philadelphia. Barnes Foundation 

Philadelphia. Barnes Foundation 

Philadelphia. Barnes Foundation 



J. T. Spaulding Collec- 







Musee Rodin 

P. Rosenberg Gallery 

Jacques Doucet Collec 

Jacques Doucet Collec- Iris, 1888 

Dr. Paul Gachet Col- Portrait du docteur Gachet, 1890 

Fayet Collection Jardin public a Aries, 1888 






^ This represents the wife of the postman of Aries. Other versions are in 
the collections of Mr. V. W. Van Gogh (Holland), Mme KruUer- 
Muller (The Hague), Mr. R. Staechelin (Bale), Mr. Goldschmidt-Rothschild 
(Frankfort), and another private collection in Paris. 

2 This picture is not catalogued by de la Faille. 

3 This is catalogued by de la Faille as a self-portrait, but it evidently 
represents Reid. 

* This represents Rovdin against a flowered wall-paper. Other portraits of 
this postman with his patriarchal beard are in the collections of Mr. Mayer 
(Zurich) and Mme Kroller-Miiller (The Hague). 

^ This is a three-quarter length picture. Roulin sits against a plain back- 
ground on the cane chair in which Van Gogh painted La Mousnn. He rests 
his left hand on a table. 

^ There is another picture of this subject in the 1 1. Von Tschudi Collection 
in Munich. 

2 Q 




Municipal Museum 

Carnations, c. 1887 


Municipal Museum 

Montmartre, c. 1887 


Mme van Blaaderen- 
Hoogendijk Collec- 

Still life (oranges and lemons), 1889 


V. W. Van Gogh Col- 

Van Gogh's House at Aries, 1888 


V. W. Van Gogh Col- 

Pieta (after Delacroix), 1890 


V. W. Van Gogh Col- 

The Drawbridge : Aries, 1888 


V. W. Van Gogh Col- 

Stormy Landscape. Auvers, 1890^ 

The Hague. 

Municipal Museum 

Still life. Flowers, c. 1887 

The Hague. 

Mme Kroller-Mijller 

Le cafe, le soir, 1888 

The Hague. 

Mme KroUer-Miiller 

Le Pont de I'Anglois, 1888 


Durieux-Cassirer Col- 

Le passage inferieur du chemin de 


fer (Avenue Montmajour), 1888 



La maison de sante a Saint-Remy, 





Self-portrait, f. 1888 


M. Meirowsky 

Le Collegien, 1890 


Silberberg Collection 

Le Pont de fer de Trinquetaille, 1888 



Still life. Pears, 1 888-1 889 


Folkwang Museum 

Armand Roulin, 1888 


Folkwang Museum 

La Moisson. Saint-Remy, 1889 


Folkwang Museum 

Le pare de I'hopital a Saint-Remy, 

La Chaamiere, c. 1885 


Staedelsches Institut 


Staedelsches Institut 

Portrait du docteur Gachet, 1890 


Thannhauser Art Gal- 

La mere Roulin avec son bebe, 1888 



AUee pres d' Aries, 1888 



Les bles verts, 1889 



Paysage montagneux. Saint-Remy, 



Les Meules, 1888-1889 



Sunflowers, 1888 

^ This picture was painted within a month of the artist's death. 


London. S. CourlauUl CoIU'Llion 

PAUL GAUGUIN. Tc Rcriva (La Case). 

London. 6. tonriaiiid toilection 

PAUL GAUGUIN. Ncvcrmoiv. 

New York. A. LeieisohnJOollcctiZh 

VINCENT \-AN GOGH. L'Arlcsicnnc. 


{a) Van Goj^/j's Life' 

The ston'' of Van Gogh's life has been told and rc-told. 
Stripped of the dramatisation the following would seem to have 
been the facts. 

He was the son of a Protestant pastor of Groot-Zundert in 
Holland. In 1869, at the age of sixteen, he was put to work 
in the picture-dealing firm of Goupil at The Hague, with which 
his uncle was connected. Four years later he went to the firm's 
branch in London where he fell in love with a girl who was 
engaged to someone else. In 1875 and the early part of 1876 he 
worked in the firm's branch in Paris. Then he left or was 

In the summer of 1876 he went again to England and worked 
as a schoolmaster at Ramsgate and at Isleworth near London. 
He was now a religious zealot and did some lay preaching among 
the poor. 

In 1877 he returned to Holland to train as a minister of the 
Gospel. He was impatent to begin service and did not complete 
his training. 

In 1878 he procured some work as a lay preacher among the 
miners of the Borinage in Belgium. The missionar)^ society 
which employed him disapproved of his fanatical ascetism and 
at the end of 1879 they dispensed with his services. 

After some months of misery and frustration during which 
he tried to orient himself by reading Shakespeare, Dickens 
Victor Hugo, Michelet and Uncle Tom's Cabin, he decided to 
become an artist. His brother Thco, who was in the Goupil 
firm in Paris, encouraged and financed him ; and thereafter he 
was financed by Iheo all his life. 

Van Ciogh began to draw continuously in 1880 at the age of 
twenty-seven. He worked for a time under Anton Mauve 
(1838-1888), a Dutch follower of Corot. 

In 1 88 1 he fell in love with a cousin, a widow. She refused 
to have anything to do with him. 

In 1882 he established a simple household with a street-woman 

* Cf. Meier-Graefe. Vincent Van Gogh, A biographical Study. 



whom he hoped to regenerate. He left her the next year and/; 
went to Neunen, a village in Brabant, to which his parents had^ 
moved. There he had another frustrated love-affair — this timeg' 
with a respectable woman who called herself " mystical " and^ 
was really crazy and ended by committing suicide. 

In this period Van Gogh paid visits to the Rijks Museum in 
Amsterdam and to the gallery in Antwerp. 

In 1886, when he was thirty-three, he went to Paris and 
established himself with Theo. There he met Gauguin, Lautrec, 
Pissarro and Seurat, and as a result of these contacts he became 
the artist that we know. 

In February 1888 he went down to Aries in Provence. He 
was joined there in October by Gauguin ; and both artists saw 
something of Cezanne at Aix. 

In December he had an attack of madness. He quarrelled 
with Gauguin and threw a glass at his head. In an estaminet he 
was asked by a girl to give her a five-franc piece for Christmas ; 
he replied that he had not got one ; the girl was playing with 
his ears ; " Then give me," she said, " one of these big ears " ; 
Van Gogh went home, cut off an ear, and sent it, wrapped up in 
a parcel, to the girl. After this Van Gogh went into the local 
hospital. Gauguin, when Theo arrived to make arrangements, 
went back to Paris. 

Van Gogh recovered from this fit almost immediately. (He 
never became chronically insane.) After a few days he was 
discharged from the hospital (January 7th, 1889). 

In February he resumed work in the little yellow house where 
he had lived for the past year. The older Arlesians made light 
of his attack ; but the idlers and the school children began 
to treat him as the village idiot ; they collected outside his 
windows and teased him into violent rages. Finally, the 
Mayor was petitioned, and in March Van Gogh was taken 
to the local lunatic asylum where he continued to paint his 

In May he went to an asylum at Saint-Remy. He was allowed 
to paint in his room and in the garden ; he was allowed also to 
go out and he painted in the neighbouring country, between 
brief fits of madness that descended upon him periodically. 
Theo sent him prints after Delacroix, Rembrandt, Millet, Dore, 


London, Siitioiiiil Gtillery, Miiihani: 

\inci:ni' \ an (icHiH 




all sorts of artists, and when he was not allowed out Van Gogh 
painted pictures from these prints.* 

A year later (May 1890) he left Saint-Rcmy, visited Theo in 
Paris, and then placed himself under the care of Dr. Gachet at 
Auvers. Dr. Gachet collected pictures by the Impressionists 
and also by Gauguin and Cezanne with whom he was acquainted. 
He was a man who believed he understood artists. At Auvers, 
Van Gogh had complete liberty, and in Dr. Gachet he found a 
genuine admirer of his pictures. There he painted landscapes 
and Dr. Gachet's portrait ; and there, in July, he shot himself. 

{b) Van Gogh's Art 

Van Gogh was a man who had little education and scarcely 
any culture. He had no intuitive comprehension of works of 
art. He regarded Rembrandt, Delacroix, Chardin and Millet as 
great artists ; he also regarded Meissonier in the same way. 
He was always, in fact, addle-pated ; and the amorous and other 
frustrations of his early manhood contributed to the confusion of 
h'.s brain. Moreover, he was always excessive in liis enthusiasms 
and his sacrifices. He entirely lacked the sense of what the 
French call la niesure — the quality that creates the even tempo in 
the work of Poussin and Chardin, Renoir, Seurat and Cezanne. 

He did not become an artist of consequence till he had contact 
with Gauguin, Lautrec and Seurat in Paris. Till then he had made 
genre drawings and painted gloomy pictures influenced by 
Millet and the Dutch popular nineteenth-century artists. His 
early work has intensity because in this period of frustration it 
represented a channel of release for his inliibitions. If Van 
Gogh had died in 1885 we should rank him as a minor Romantic- 
Realist — if we chanced to be acquainted with his name. 

Meier-Graefe has told us, rightly, that in his early years Van 
Gogh " saw in art nothing but a penetration into nature." 
In his early work he asked art to help him towards that contact 

1 The First Steps {after Millet), now in Mr. Julius Oppenheimer's collec- 
tion in New York, and the Pieta {after Delacroix), in Mr. V. \V. Van Gogh's 
collection, are pictures painted in this way. They are not copies of the prints, 
but free improvisations upon them. The Pietd especially is very chaiacter- 
"istic of Van Gogh's later handling and colour. 



with humble Hfe which he had sought in his missionary activi- 
ties. At Neunen he was a kind of hysterical Louis le Nain. 

When he met Seurat he was persuaded that man's architectural 
conscience was as real as any other aspect of his spirit, and that 
the painter's business was to acquire a language that would 
achieve contact with that aspect of man's spirit. Van Gogh 
accepted this new conception of the painter's function, though 
he was temperamentally incapable of architectural creation as 
it was understood by Seurat. In Paris he cleared the browns 
and greys from his palette and painted La Guingette and Le 
Restaurant de la Sirene (both now in the Louvre), where we see 
the Impressionism of Pissarro and Monet stiffened on the one 
hand by Seurat's doctrines, and rendered on the other more 
intense by Van Gogh's temperament and vision. At this time 
also he painted Le Pere Tanguy, the artist colourman who was 
then storing most of Cezanne's pictures. In Van Gogh's 
picture (which is now in the Musee Rodin, Paris) Tanguy is 
seen in a short jacket and peasant's hat against a background of 
Japanese prints. The background is significant because Japan- 
ese prints contributed a great deal to the development of Van 
Gogh's art. 

Wlien Van Gogh went to Aries, he suddenly had direct contact 
with forms of simple happiness which, he recognised, were as 
fundamental as the misery of the Borinage and the gloom of his 
early years. Here men were not all frustrated. They lived 
simply, drank wine, made love without tears, and were burned 
brown by the sun. To this harassed Northerner the sun of the 
Midi was a continual intoxication ; in Aries the pores of Van 
Gogh's skin opened, the sweat poured out, and he felt for the 
first time in his life a peaceful and a happy man. He worked 
with the energy that can only come in such conditions. He 
painted all day, every day. He worked in shadcless places, in the 
hottest hours, and he frequently went out without a hat.^ 

Nearly all Van Gogh's enormous aiwre was painted between 
March and December, 1888. In the excitement of his new ex- 
perience he forgot all about Seurat and invented his own 

1 When Van Gogh had his first attack and cut off his ear, his Arlesian 
friends — Roulin, the postman, and his wife {La Berceuse) and Mme Ginoux, 
the cafe keeper {U ArUsienne) — ascribed his illness to sunstroke. 




.\ A 

Chiiiigo. .1 '/ 1 i:^!ru 

VINCENT VAN GOGH. Bedroom at Aries. 

Rome. \'aiican 

RAPHAEL. The School of Athens. 

PAUL C£ZANNE. Les grandcs Baigneuses. 


method to symbolise the vitality that poured into him from the 
glorious South, lie broke right away from the Impressionists, 
and completely abandoned the photographic vision. Me used 
colours as agents producing emotive associations, and used them 
for this reason in their fullest intensity. 'I'he blue of the sky in 
I 7/;; Goo/j's House at Arles^ in Mr. V. \V. Van Gogh's collection, 
is deliberately forced to extreme emotive pitch ; the yellows 
in the Smijiowers {\'\. XII), now in the London National Gallery, 
Millbank, are pitched up for the same reason and in the same 
way. Blue for Van Gogh was not a colour — it was the sky. 
Yellow was not a colour — it was sun itself. 

At the same time he retained the emotive handling of his 
Paris period and increased it — not in the Romantic way to stress 
his own emotional condition at the moment of painting, 
but in order to symbolise the throb and pulse of life. 

In this spirit and in this technique he painted the picture 
known as Van Gogh's Bedroom at Aries (PI. 123b), now in the 
Chicago Art Institute, which has the qualities of the celebrated 
Chaise a la pipe in the London National Gallery, Millbank. I 
reproduce Van Gogh's Bedroom at Aries on the same page as 
Berthe Morisot's La Toilette (PI. 123a), to point the distance 
which Van Gogh travelled from Impressionism when he surren- 
dered his frustrated being to the South. 

When Gauguin arrived, Van Gogh was reminded not of 
Seurat, of whom Gauguin thought nothing, but of the claims 
of decoration and of Japanese prints. The figure in U Arlesienne 
(PI. 122) is silhouetted against the background like the figures 
in the prints behind Vere Tanguy's head. 

This version oiL,' Arlesienne^ now in Mr. Lewisohn's collection 
in New York, is perhaps Van Gogh's most notable achievement. 
The background is a brilliant lemon yellow ; the chair is scarlet ; 
the table-cloth is green ; the front book is scarlet ; the open 
book has a scarlet edge ; the white of the pages and of the 
woman's scarf is a pale bluish green ; the woman's hair and 
dress are deep Prussian blue. There is the whole atmosphere 
of Aries in this amazing picture — all its curious stillness, its 
vitality that seems to have roots in the Forum, and its searching 

Van Gogh's terrific desire to achieve contact with his subject 



comes out in the portrait characterisation of this picture. 
UArlesienne is one of the great Romantic portraits of the world. 
No artist has ever sei2ed more passionately on a personality as 
an individual emotive fragment and rendered the individuality 
with more intensity. 

Van Gogh's debt to Gauguin appears most clearly in the 
last pictures which he painted at Auvers. In Aries he was so 
profoundly stirred, so furiously eager to penetrate his surround- 
ings, that he rarely paused to co-ordinate his pictures into linear 
rhythms. At Auvers, where the sun was milder and the atmo- 
sphere more calm, his art became more rational. The lines swirl 
and dance, it is true, in a kind of ecstasy, and the colour is more 
than ever arbitrary and symbolic ; but the dance obeys a rhythm, 
and the lines are lines of growth. Van Gogh's last pictures are 
the best organised and the most controlled. He was a little 
careful of his vitality in these pictures. At the end of his mad- 
ness he painted — perhaps for the first time — as a man who was 
completely sane. 

It is, however, essential to recognise that the great Aries 
pictures are what they are because Van Gogh destroyed himself 
to paint them. They thus set a standard of intensity which no 
artist who respects his sanity can dare to rival or repeat. 



''rooke. Earl of Sandwich Collection 


Haarlem. 'J'fvler Mitsettni 

CLAUDE LE LORRAIN. Drawin-. The Wood. 



i. Character of the Movement 
ij . Paul Ce-:((in>ie 
iij. Georges Seurat 

2 R 

London. Drilish Museum 

CLAUDE LE LORRAIN. Drawinti. The Tiber ahove Rome. 

/'.'/; (.iiillauvic Colli-c/i.:: 

ANDRE DERAIN, Paysage du Midi 


i. Character oj the Movement 

I have discussed the Cubist-Classical Renaissance in The 
Modern Movement in Art. Here I need only indicate its salient 
features and some outstanding dates. 

Speaking generally the movement in its intellectual aspect was 
a revolt against the Romantic-Realist attitudes of the nineteenth 
century ; and in its technical aspects it was a revolt against photo- 
graphic and Impressionist procedures in painting. At the same 
time it was an effort — and a most amazingly successful effort — 
to create classical pictures based on the concept that Architecture 
is the Mother of the Arts. 

This Renaissance took form between 1884 and 1900. The 
pioneers were Renoir, whose Tyson Baigneuses (PI. 105) was 
painted in 1885, and Seurat, whose Un Dimanche d'ete a la Grande 
jatte (PI. 133), was painted in the same year. Seurat continued 
with a series of pictures exhibited between 1884 and 1890 at 
the Salon des Independants, of which he was one of the founders 
in 1884. Cezanne had begun to work on the classical basis 
about 1877, and he arrived at his completely classical manner 
about 1893 when he was approaching sixty. 

1 he movement has brought about a regeneration of the art of 
painting. In 1880 it looked as though the camera had destroyed 
the faculties of perception and imagination in all European 
painters. France seemed to have nothing to look forward to 
but an endless succession of Fantin-Latours and Bonnats pro- 
ducing black-and-white photographs in oil colours, and of 
Manets painting Kodak snapshots in a formula of pinkish- 
yellows for the lights and blues for the shadows. To-day, half a 
centur}' later, we see on every hand an art that has completely 
abandoned competition with the camera and has become as 
fundamentally formal as the art of architecture of which it is a 



ij. Paul Ce:(anne 



London. National Gallery, Mill- Rocky Landscape, Aix 

London. National Gallery, Mill- Self portrait, c. 1882 

London. National Gallery, Mill- Bathers. (Four male figures) 

London. Lord Ivor Spencer Self portrait with felt hat, c. 1880 

Churchill Collection 
London. Lord Ivor Spencer Bathers (six male figures), c, 1885 ? 

Churchill Collection 
London. S. Courtauld Collection L' Amour en platre 

London. S. Courtauld Collection L'homme a la pipe, r. 1 891 

London. S. Courtauld Collection Les Grands Arbres, c. 1887 ? 

London. S. Courtauld Collection Le lac d'Annecy, 1897 

London. S. Courtauld Collection La Montagne Sainte-Victoire, c. 

London. S. Courtauld Collection Still life. Le Pot de Fleurs, r. 1895 ? 

London. S. Courtauld Collection Les Joueurs de Cartes (two figures), 

London. Tooth (Brandon-Davis) The House in the Wood (Le 

Collection Tholonet) 

London. Reid and Lefevre Col- L'Enlevement, 1 867-1 868 

Wales. Miss Davies Collection Paysagc Provengale 

New York. Metropolitan Museum MardiGras, 1888 
New York. Metropolitan Museum The Poorhouse on the Hill (La 

Colline des Pauvres) 
New York. Metropolitan Museum, Man with a straw hat, 1873 

Havemeyer Collection 
New York. Metropolitan Museum, L'Estaque 

Havemeyer Collection 
New York. Metropolitan Museum Landscape with Mont Sainte-Vic- 
New York. Metropolitan Museum, Still life 

Havemeyer Collection 
New York. Metropolitan Museum, Rocks — Forest of Fontainebleau 

Havemeyer Collection 
New York. Chester Dale Collection Portrait of Louis Guillaume, 1879 
New York. Chester Dale Collection Still life. (Liqueur bottle, water- 
bottle, glass, fruit and drapery) 


O 5 


New York. 

A. Lcwisohn Collection 

New York. 

y\. Lcwisohn Collection 

New York. 

A. Lcwisohn Collection 

New York. 

A. Lcwisohn Collection 

New York. 

Private Collection 

New York. 

Private Collection 

New York. 

Dr. H. Bakwin Collec- 


New York. 

Private Collection 

New York. 

J. Stransky Collection 

New York. 

J. Stransky Collection 

New York. 

Dr. F. H. Hirschland 



Phillips Memorial Gal- 

Phillips Memorial Gal- 

R. Treat Paine Collec- 



J. Nicholas Brown Col- 



Art Institute. Berson 


R. Coe Collection 


J. Winterbotham Col- 










Pellerin Collection 


Pellerin Collection 


Pellerin Collection 


Pellerin Collection 


Pellerin Collection 


Pellerin Collection 


A. VoUard Collection 


A. Vollard Collection 


A. Vollard Collection 


A. Vollard Collection 

Still life. (Primula, apples and 


Mmc Cezanne. (Three-quarter 
length ; red dress ; green pat- 
terned chair), c. 1890 ? 

Head of L'onclc Dominique, <•. 1864 

L'homme au bonnet dc coton, c. 

Mmc Cezanne, c. 1875 ? 

La Fcmme Accoudec, 1.'. 1875 

Chocquct in his Study, 1885 
The Boy by the Brook, c. 1870 ? 
Still life with ginger jar, pears and 

drapery, tr. 1885 
Gardanne, c. 1885 

La Montagne Sainte-Victoire 

Self portrait, c. 1890 

Self portrait in a cap, c. 1902 ? 

Road near Auvers, 1 872-1 877 

The Bay from L'Estaque 

The Pigeon Tower, c. 1894 
Apples and Draper}-, c. 1890 

La Maison du Pendu, 1872 
Les Jouers de Cartes. (Two 

figures), 1 891 
Three still-life pictures 
Cour de Village, Auvers, 1873 
L'oncle Dominique, 1864 
Leda au cygnc, 1868 
Portrait of Chocquct, 1874 
Baigneurs, 1884 

Portrait of Gustavc Gcffroy, 1895 
Les Grandes Baigneuscs, 1 895-1902 
Portrait of Zola, i860 
Mile Marie Cezanne, 1865 
Portrait of M. Vollard, 1899 
Les loueurs de Cartes. (Five 

figures), 1892 




A. VoUard Collection 


A. Vollard Collection 


A. Vollard Collection 


A. Vollard Collection 


A. Vollard Collection 


Kapferer Collection 


P. Cezanne Collection 


P. Cezanne Collection 


P. Cezanne Collection 


P. Cezanne Collection 


P. Cezanne Collection 


P. Cezanne Collection 


P. Cezanne Collection 


Wildenstein Collection 


Wildenstein Collection 


Jacques Doucet Collec- 



Jacques Doucet Colllec- 



Paul Guillaume Collec- 



Paul Guillaume Collec- 



Sacha Guitry Collec- 



E. Bignou Collection 


E. Bignou Collection 


Jos Hessel Collection 


Jos Hessel Collection 


Dr. Gevres Viau Col- 



C. F. Reber Collection 


C. F. Reber Collection 


C. F. Reber Collection 


Neue Pinakothek 


Neue Pinakothek 




Museum of Modern 

Art. Morosoff Col- 


Aisle of Trees, c. 1894 ? 

La Montagne Sainte-Victoire, e. 

Paysage avec baigneuses, c. 1903 
Deux arbres (Les Grands Arbres), c. 

Paysan assis, c. 1903 ? 
Le Jas de Bouffan, before 1899 
Self portrait at the easel, 1888 
Self portrait at the easel, 1888 
Le Jas de Bouffan, before 1899 
Le Cabanon de Jourdan, 1906 
Cezanne Pere, 1872 
Landscape, I'Estaque 
Still life with flowered jug. 
Still life with a black clock, c. 1870 
Harlequin, 1888 
La Femme au chapelet, 1896 

Paysage avec rochers, 1883 

Mme Cezanne assise (full length) 

Mme Cezanne en bleu 

Self portrait, 1882-188 5 

L'enfant a la poupee, 1 894 or 1 897 

Still life : apples 

Les Sables rouges 

Mme Cezanne sewing, c. 1880 

La Montagne Sainte-Victoire et La 

Vallee de I'Arc, 1887 
Le Gargon au gilet rouge, c. 1888 
Mme Cezanne in a striped blouse, 

Jeune homme a la tete de mort. (Le 

Philosophe), c. 1895 ? 
La Tranchee, 1868 
Nature morte a la commode, 1883 
Fond du ravin, I'Estaque, 1 880-1 885 
La Montagne Sainte-Victoire 


London. S. CuurtuuLi I'vIU^'liw: 

PAUL C£ZANNE. L'hommc a la pipe. 

Paris, rdlcrin ColUctio 

PAUL CfiZANNE. Gustavc Geffroy, 


{(i) Ct^iantw's Life 

Paul Cczaruic was the son of a hat manufacturer of Aix-cn- 
Provence, who later became a banker and a man of means. He 
was trained for the law but soon discovered his artistic bent. 
In 1863, when he was twenty-two, it was decided that he wcjuld 
adopt painting as his profession and that his father would make 
him an annual allowance of 3600 francs. He received this 
allowance (equivalent to rather more than ^300 a year in 1 English 
money of to-day) for twenty-three years. At the end of that 
time when he was forty-six he was still unable to support himself 
by his pictures ; he had hardly in fact sold anything at all.^ 

At an art school in Paris Cezanne met Pissarro ; he saw 
Manet's Dejeuner stir I'herbe at the Salon des Kejuses, and later met 
Manet himself, Renoir, Monet, Sisley and Bazille. Zola, who 
was also an Aixois, was already his friend. 

In 1866 he submitted pictures (which have now disappeared) 
to the Salon ; the pictures were rejeaed, and he wrote to the 
Surintendant des Beaux Arts demanding a new Salon des KeJuseSy 
but without result. 

In 1867 he saw the one-man shows of Courbet and Manet in 
the Exposition Universelle. He married in that year. 

He spent some time every year with his family at Aix and in 
1870 when war broke out he was staying at his father's country 
farm-house, L^ Jas de Bouffan, and painting landscapes. He 
remained in the south throughout the war, painting at, among 
other places, L'Hstaque on the bay opposite Marseilles. 

In 1 872 he returned to Paris. In the summer of that year and 
of succeeding years till 1877 he painted landscapes near Paris — 
at Auvers, Pontoise and Saint-Ouen-l'xVumone. •^ 

At Auvers he worked a good deal in the company of Pissarro 
and there too he met Dr. Gachet already mentioned in connection 
with Van Gogh, ha Mai son du pefidu^ now in the Louvre, was 
painted at Auvers in 1872. 

^ His fkther died in 1886, and he then seems to have inherited some 
property. He succeeded to a third share in the family capital when his mother 
died in 1897. 

* There are several of these landscapes in the Peilerin Collection. 


In 1873, as already noted, he sent ha Mai son du pendu to the 
first Impressionist exhibition, and in connection with this 
exhibition he met Chocquet whose portrait, now in the Pellerin 
Collection, he painted in the following year. Chocquet was the 
first collector to appreciate his work.^ 

He did not contribute to the second Impressionist exhibition 
of 1876, but in 1877 he sent his portrait of Chocquet to the third, 
and painted several portraits of his wife. 2 

After 1877 he no longer exhibited with the Impressionists ; 
from 1878 to 1889 he worked almost exclusively in the 
Midi, and only one of his pictures was publicly shown in Paris — 
a portrait which he sent to the Salon in 1882.^ 

By 1889 his name had quite dropped out of artistic life in 
Paris ; liis work was under-rated by the Impressionist leaders 
and it had not yet been discovered by the new generation of the 
Salon des Independants.^ 

In 1889 he returned to Paris and between 1890 and 1894 he 
worked there, at Fontainebleau, and at Aix ; he also made a 

1 The 1874 portrait is a head study. In 1885 he stayed with Chocquet at 
Hattenville, and painted a full-length portrait of his host in his study (which 
is now in a private collection in New York). A third portrait painted in 
1885 in Chocquet's garden, shows the sitter in a white jacket with a back- 
ground of foliage. I do not know the present whereabouts of the third 
picture. Chocquet by 1899 owned thirty-three paintings by Cezanne, 
including L.e Mardi-Gras and La Maison du pendu. 

2 Cezanne painted portraits of Mme Cezanne at all periods. I have 
indicated the present whereabouts of several in the list above. He also 
painted self portraits and still-life studies at all periods. 

^ One of Cezanne's friends, the painter Guillemet, was on the Salon Jury 
in that year. Every member of the Jury had a right to hang one picture 
from those rejected by the Jury as a whole.- Guillemet rescued Cezanne's 
portrait — which was catalogued as Portrait de M. L.-A. Its identity is not 
now known. 

* Between 1877 and 1889 he stored his pictures in Paris with the artist- 
colourman Tanguy (Van Gogh's P^re Tanguy), who showed them to 
artists and amateurs. Tanguy apparently had permission to sell the pictures 
on a fixed scale, 40 francs for the small sizes and 100 francs for the large 
ones. Very few were sold ; but Duret bought some about 1879 at these 
prices. In 1889 one of Cezanne's pictures was shown at the Exposition 
Universelle. It was lent by Chocquet, who refused to lend other things which 
the' Committee wanted unless it was accepted. In the exhibition the picture 
was " skied." I have not been able to identify it. 


::iiri,s. Miisci,,,, 


ColUrlv'i ■•; -W.U W iiJtftsl,-iit ,1 (I,-, l\ins .nut .Wi, York 

PAUL C£ZANNE. Still life with cluck. 

London. S. Courtauld Colh-clion 

PAUL CEZANNE. Le Por dc Fleurs. 

Paris. Eiieiiiie riigiwu Collection 

PAUL (.E/ANNL. Apples. 


journey to Switzerland where he was not moved to paint. The 
well-known pictures called Les Joueurs de Cartes date from this 
period. IJbomme a la pipe (PI. 129), now in Mr. Ciourtauld's col- 
lection in London, was painted from one of the peasants who sat 
for these pictures.^ 

In 1892, when Cezanne was fifty-three, the dealer, Ambroise 
Vollard, began to take an interest in his pictures ; appreciative 
articles by the critic Gustave Geffroy began to appear in the 
papers ; and Cezanne's work began to be discussed in Parisian 
art circles. In 1895 he painted the Portrait of Gustave Gejjrqy (PI. 
1 30) and began hes Gratides Baigueuses (PI. 124b), both now in the 
Pellcrin Collection ; Vollard opened a shop in the rue Laffitte 
to exhibit and sell his pictures ; and the Luxembourg Museum 
refused three bequeathed by Caillebotte.^ 

The superb picture he Lac d'Amiecj (PI. 127), now in the 
Courtauld Collection, was painted in 1897. In 1899 he finally 
retired to Aix, where he remained (with a short visit to Paris in 
1904) till his death in 1906. 

In 1899, when he was sixty, he was persuaded by the artists 
of the Salon des Independants to exhibit two still-life pictures 
and a landscape ; he exhibited in that Salon also in 190 1 and 1902. 
In 1904 the Salon d'Automne allotted a room to his pictures ; 
the Portrait of Gustave Geffroy (PI. 130) was in the Salon d'Au- 
tomne in 1905 . A retrospective exhibition was held in the Salon 
d'Automne in 1906. 

(b) Ce^anne^s Art 

Cezanne n'itait qu'm lamentable rati. 

(A. M., Lm Lanterne, 1904). 

Cezanne n' a fait ni un tableau ni une awre. 

(E. SchufFenecker, Mercure de France, 1905). 

Kien d dire des tableaux de Cezanne. C'est de la pe'mture de vidangeur saoul. 

(Victore Binet, Mercure de Trance, 1905). 

^ Cezanne painted several versions of l^s Joueurs de Caries ; some rep- 
resent two figures ; others more. I have indicated the present whereabouts 
of several in my list. 

- Cf. note, p. 243, 244. 

2 S 313 


Cet honnete vieillard qui peint en province pour son plaisir . . . et produit des 
auvres lour des, mal haties . . . n'a jamais pu produire ce qu'on appelle une 

(Camille Mauclair, Im Revue, 1905). 

If the greatest name in 'European painting is not Cezanne it is Giotto. 

(Mr. Clive Bell, 1920). 

Ce:(anne's organisation of the lines and planes of his pictures will stand as an 
even greater achievement than his work with colour. 

(Walter Pach, 1925). 

With Ci^anne a mere crumpled tablecloth may take on the majesty of a mountain. 

(Sir Charles Holmes, 1927). 

We can write critically of Ce':(anne now ; we can treat him with as little respect 
as we treat Ker/ibrandt, Rubens or Titian. 

(Anthony Bertram, 1929), 
The fumbling Ce:(anne. 

(James Greig, London Morning Post, 193 1). 

There is really no mystery about these pictures which we thus 
see described on the one hand as " drunken scavenger's paint- 
ing " and on the other as the greatest productions of European 

Cezanne began as a follower of Courbet. In the 'sixties 
he painted with heavy colours and often applied them 
with a palette knife, as in UOncle Dominique^ now in Mr. 
Lewisohn's collection in New York. His touch and colour 
were still heavy in 1870, when he painted the Still life with a 
black clock (PI. 131b), now owned by Messrs. Wildenstein in 

In these years he was an earnest student in the Louvre. He 
admired the Venetians, the Baroque masters, Poussin and 
Delacroix. L,' Enlevement^ which now belongs to Messrs. Reid 
and Lefevre in London, reveals an impulse to emulate these 

In the early 'seventies when he painted La Maison du pendu, 
he was influenced by Pissarro ; but he never saw eye to eye with 
the other Impressionists and Manet's Kodak snapshot manner 
did not interest him at all. At the end of the 'seventies he 
adopted, nevertheless, the Impressionists' light palette, and th6 


S. Courtauld Collection 

GEORGES SEURAT. Le Pont de Courbevoic. 

Loudon. Mrx. Chester Jleiitty Collection 

GEORGF'^S SEURAT. Landscape study for La Grande Jatte. 


task which he set himself was the grafting of Impressionism on 
to the main tree of classical art.* 

From the outset he had been at heart an architectural artist. 
If we compare his Still life trith a black clock (PI. 131b) with 
Chardin's Still life (PI. 131a) in the Amiens Museum, or with 
Chardin's Still lije (PI. 62a) in Boston, we sec the formal character 
of Cezanne's preoccupation even in this early work. He is 
already less concerned with the objects before him as objects 
and more with their formal relations than was the case with 
Chardin ; and later, when he had schooled his perception and 
mastered his language of expression, he painted still-life groups 
in which the formal relations, which include relations of colour, 
constitute the central content of the picture as a whole. Le Pot 
de fleurs (PI. 132a), in Mr. Courtauld's collection, is an example 
of this later style.^ 

Like Chardin, he never wearied of painting still-Iife ; but he 
also attacked the same problems in compositions — usually of 
bathers — in figure-studies and portraits, and in landscapes, 
painted mainly in the South. 

The figure-studies culminate in L^ Gar^onaugikt rouge ^ painted 
about 1888, and now in the Reber Collection, Lausanne, 
Joueurs de Cartes, painted about 1892, and now in the Vollard 
Collection, h,e jeune homme a la tcte de mort, also called l^ Philo- 
sopher painted about 1895 and now in the Reber Collection, and 
the great Portrait of Gustave Geffroy (PI. 130), now in the Pellerin 
Collection in Paris. 

These pictures appeal not only by their majestic architecture, 
but also by that intimate contact with life which we have 
already observed as a characteristic of one aspect of French art. 
This quality in Cezanne's figure-studies and portraits, has not, 
I think, been adequately stressed by commentators. Fver}'onc 
(except my friend the art critic of the London Morning Post) 
now recognises that Cezanne was a superb architect and a con- 
summate technician. But architectural power and craftsmansliip 

^ Cezanne's two definitions of his aims say the same thing in different 
ways : " Faire du Poussin sur nature " and ^' /aire de Vlmpressionisme I'art des 
musics. " 

- Others are the superb still-life groups now in the collections of Mr. and 
Mrs. Chester Dale and Mr. Y\dolph Lcwisohn of New York, and of M. P. 
Cezanne in Paris. 



are not in themselves sufficient to place a painter with the small 
group to whom the civilised world pays homage as masters of the 
very highest rank. Cezanne enters this company, as Renoir 
enters it, partly because, at moments, he could use his architec- 
tural science to capture contact with root simplicities and the 
very springs of life itself. He enters this company partly because 
he was not only the painter of Les Grandes Baigneuses (PL 124b), 
but also the painter o£ Uhomme a la pipe (PI. 129). 

In the history of the regeneration of modern painting Les 
Grandes Baigneuses (PI. 124b) is a very important and significant 
picture. I reproduce it on the same page as Raphael's School oj 
Athens (PL 124a), and from the juxtaposition we can see the 
architecture that is the central content of both works. But 
Cezanne, who makes Chardin's still-life painting look material, 
makes Raphael's seem almost mechanical and cold. 

In Cezanne's landscapes we find the same intimate contact 
with the spirit of his subject that we find in the figure-subjects 
and the portraits. Cezanne was born in the Midi ; he was not 
a sun-starved Northerner like Van Gogh ; he could work in the 
sun without losing his head ; he knew and loved every foot of 
the country which he has immortalised, and his pictures sym- 
bolise that knowledge and that love. But he never copied what 
he chanced to see before him. His landscapes are among the 
most architectural of his works ; and at his highest level, as in 
L,e lac d'Annecy (PL 127) and La Montagne Sainte-Victoire (PL 125), 
both in Mr. Courtauld's collection, and in the Kock)i Landscape, 
in the London National Gallery, Millbank, the planes are dove- 
tailed with skill and ingenuity only comparable with Poussin's 
skill and ingenuity in the landscape of the Funeral of Phocion 
(PL 35 b), in the Louvre. 

Cezanne is even more incontrovertibly a master in his land- 
scapes than in his figure-studies and his portraits. Like Poussin, 
he could make his picture a microcosm by a space concept of 
which every imagined particle was realised ; and he was a 
greater landscape painter than Poussin because he achieved 
the realisation not only in the formal field but also — if the 
word can be used of a landscape — in the psychological field as 

Cezanne's supreme skill of hand in his later years is not 



apparent to the uninstructcd because he refused to permit 
himself the slightest bravura or the slightest fake. Pas d'ewporU- 
metit (in pinceau was his motto as it had been the motto of Louis 
David. Me meditated every touch. For the Portrait of Gustat'e 
Ceffroy (PI. 130) he had eighty sittings ; for a portrait of M. 
Vollard, which he eventually abandoned, he had a hundred and 
fifteen, and at the end he pronounced himself ''pas mecontent du 
dtrant de la cfjemise.'"^ 

In his later pictures Cezanne began with the architectural 
structure. In Le lac d'Atineg (PI. 127), for example, he would 
have begun with the arch formed by the boughs of the tree 
which join with the sky and mountains at the back of the picture. 
If he was not satisfied at any stage that the architecture was 
holding together in every direction he abandoned the canvas 
and began again. ^ 

Of this architecture, colour was an integral and central con- 
stitutent. Cezanne was one of the world's great colourists. I 
know no landscape finer in colour than he lacd'Annecy (PL 127). 
He had made an intensive study of the Old Masters in the 
Louvre, as already noted, and he knew that the great colourists 
never copied the colours that they saw before them ; he knew 
that the colour of Titian, Rubens and W'atteau was " artificial " ; 
he also knew that Renoir's colour was the same. In his composi- 
tions of bathers the exquisite mother-of-pearl flesh tints are 
in this great tradition ; and in landscape he founded a new 
tradition of " artificial " colour of his own. 

Corot and the photographic painters of the nineteenth 
century had achieved imitations of effects of light and shade by 
destroying local colour and painting " by the tone values.'* 
The Impressionists had ignored local colour and substituted 
arbitrary colours symbolising light. Cezanne knew that the 
Old Masters had rejoiced in local colour and exploited it in 
glorious ways ; he, too, rejoiced and exploited local colour, 
and he succeeded in painting sunlight at the same time. 

* The sittings for this picture have been amusingly described by M. 
Vollard in his ^aui Cezanne. 

~ In his later manner he used thin transparent colour and every touch 
contributed to the final result. This method precluded the drastic alterations 
which are possible with opaque colour. 


It was thus that he converted Impressionism into the art des 
musees. In the same way he refused to follow the Romantics, 
the photographic painters, and the Impressionists, in their 
sacrifice of architecture to the imitation of eiSFects of atmospheric 
perspective. He contrived to render that perspective without 
sacrificing his architectural concept of defined and dovetailed 

Cezanne's pictures have been understood and valued in most 
countries for the last twenty years. His reputation in England 
has grown more slowly because relatively few of his finest pic- 
tures have been publicly exhibited in London ; and the growth 
of his reputation everywhere has been impeded because he left 
a great many unfinished pictures and water-colours which, 
though intensely interesting to students of his method, mean 
relatively little to anyone else. 

iij. Georges Seurat 



London. National Gallery, Mill- La Baignade, 1 8 83-1 884 

London. S. Courtauld Collection La Poudreuse, 1890 

London. S. Courtauld Collection Le Pont de Courbevoie, 1887 

London. Mrs. Chester Beatty Landscape Study for La Grande 

Collection Jatte, 1 884-1 886 

London. Messrs. Reid & Lefevre Honfleur : L'Hospice et le Phare, 

New York. S. C. Clark Collection Boy on the river bank. Study for 

La Baignade, 1883 
New York. A. Lewisohn Collection Study for La Grande Jatte, 1884- 

New York. Private Collection Port-en-Bessin, 1883 or 1888 

New York. J. Stransky Collection The Mower, c. 1882 
New York. Mr. and Mrs. J. J. Study for the left-hand portion of 

Sachs Collection La Grande Jatte, 1884 

New York. Private Collection The woman with the monkey. 

Study for the right-hand portion 
of La Grande Jatte, 1884 

^ I have discussed other aspects of Cezanne's technique in Tbe Modern 
Movement in Art. 


Paris. Louvre 

GlA)RGi:S Sl-.LRAT. Ix Cimuc-. 

The Hague. Mme Kroller-M filler Collection 



New York. 

Private Collection 

New York. 

Private Collection 

New York. 

Messrs. Knocdler Col- 



Art Institute (Birch 

Bartlett Collection) 


Barnes Foundation 




P. de Marees Collection 


MM. Beniheim Jeune 



Jos Hessel Collection 


Paul Rosenberg et Cie 



Aman-Jcan Collection 

The Hague. 

Mme Kroller-Miiller 


Drawing for the seated woman with 

a sunshade in La Grande Jatte, 

Woman Sewing, r. 1883 
The Naval base at Port-en-Bcssin, 

Ln Dimanche d'Etci a Grande 

Jatte, 1 884-1 886 
Les Poseuses, 1 887-1 888 
Le Cirque, 1890-1891^ 
Entree du port, Montleur, :886 
La Parade, 1 887-1 888 

Sketch for La Baignade, 1 884 
The Beach at Le Crotoy, 1889 

Portrait of Aman-Jean (drawing), 

LeChahut, 1 889-1 890 

(a) S cur (it's Life 

Georges Seurat was the son of a bailiff of La Villette, Paris, 
from whom he seems to have received an allowance all his life 
sulhcient for his requirements. I can find no record that he was 
ever in financial distress or that he made any money by his work.^ 

After an ordinary education he worked for four years at the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts ; then he shared a studio with the painter 
Aman-Jean and worked in the Louvre and the Library of the 

^ This picture was bequeathed to the Louvre by the late John Quinn of 
New York. 

2 Coquiot in his Seurat states that he only sold four or five works in the ten 
years in which he practised as an artist. 

At Seurat's death his paintings and drawings were divided between his 
mother, his mistress, and a few friends who included the painter Paul 
Signat, first owner of L^ Cirque (PI. 135), Emile Vcrhaeren, first owner of 
Honfleur : L' Hospice et le Pbare (PI. iiib), Felix Feneon, first owner of Lm 
Baignade, and Edmond Cousturicr, first owner of Un Dimanche a la Grande 
Jatte (PL 133). 

In 1900, nine years after Seurat's death, one of his pictures was sold at 
auction in Paris for twenty-seven francs. In 1901 fifty-three of his works 
(paintings and drawings) were collected into an exhibition on the Boulevard 
des Italicns, and not one was sold. 


Ecole des Beaux Arts studying the Old Masters. Of the nine- 
teenth-century painters he admired Ingres and Delacroix — 
especially Delacroix's decorations in Saint Sulpice. He also 
studied Charle Blanc's La grammaire des arts du des sin and 
Chevreul's De la loi du contraste simultane des couleurs et de l^assorti- 
ment des ohjets colories either at this period or on his return from 
a year's military service where he acquired his first experience of 
harbours and ports. 

In 1 88 1, at the age of twenty-one, he took a studio and began 
an intensive concentration on pictorial problems ; he continued 
for ten years, working by day and by night in his Paris studio and 
out of doors at various places. 

In 1 88 1 and 1882 he worked occasionally in the country round 
Paris. In 1883 he made studies of boating and bathing at 
Asnieres which culminated in La Baignade^ now in the London 
National Gallery, Millbank. In 1884 he began to make studies 
on the Island of La Grande Jatte and at Courbevoie on the 
same stretch of the Seine ; these studies culminated in Un 
Dimanche d'Ete a la Grande Jatte (PL 133), now in the Chicago 
Art Institute, and Le Pont de Courbevoie (PI. 134a), now in Mr. 
Courtauld's collection in London. In 1884 he took part in the 
foundation of the Salon des Independants at which he was a regular 
and leading exhibitor for the rest of his life. 

In 1885 he worked at Grandcamp and on the Grande Jatte ; 
in 1886 and 1887 at Honfleur and at Courbevoie; in 1888 at 
Port-en-Bessin and in Parisian music-halls; in 1889 at Le 
Crotoy, in 1890 at Port-en-Bessin, and in 1891 at Gravelines. 

When in Paris he lived in his studio and took most of his 
meals at his mother's house. The sitter for La Poudreuse was 
his mistress and the mother of his son. In 1891, at the age of 
thirty-one, he was attacked by some infectious form of pneu- 
monia of which he died. His little son was infected and died too. 

Seurat was very reserved about his private affairs. His most 
intimate friends were unaware of the existence of his mistress. 
As Seurat painted on a scientific system he could paint by 
artificial light and his working day was regularly prolonged into 
the night. It is assumed that the pneumonia to which he 
succumbed might not have proved fatal had his constitution 
not been debilitated by this habitual overwork. 









.Trim lif'UDf(l(i 

1 (>(«9-'~-^ 

/'iiris. (■<-;/<■.. '/(-,! 0/ llu- (j.ilene (..■(.ri;,-s /^Wj/ 


Flower Piece. 

I mmtwmmmm9^^''mm 

Paris. Paul GuiUitimtf CoUcctioit 

LE DOUANIFR ROLo^EAL. 1 kur. Jc l\«.i 

A'C!,' York. Mr. and Mn.. ( In iter Dale ColUitwn 

LE DOUANIER ROUSSEAU. Jungle with Wild Beasts. 

U.S.A. Private Collection 

LE DOUANIER ROUSSEAU. Jungle with Monkeys. 


{b) Se Ural's Art 

Seurat was a scientific artist of great intellectual powers and 
incredible industry and patience. \\ ith Cezanne he set the stan- 
dard of conscientious workmanship that has been an outstanding 
feature of the Cubist-Classical Renaissance as a whole. 

In his ten working years he produced seven important figure 
compositions and twenty or thirty pictures of harbours and 
ports. The compositions are Im Bai^iade now in the National 
Galler)', Millbank, Un Dimanche d'lJe a la Grande JaUe (PI. 
133) now in the Chicago Art Institute, Les Poseuses now in 
the Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia, ha Parade now in MM. 
Bernheim Jeune's collection in Paris, I .e Chahut {^\. 136) now 
in Mme Kr*; ller-Miiller's collection in The Hague, he Cirque 
(PI. 135) now in the Louvre, and ha Poadreuse now in Mr. 
Courtauld's collection in London.' 

The character of Seurat's art is immediately apparent if we 
compare his llonfleur : h' Hospice et le Pbare (P. iiib) with 
Manet's hes Courses a hongchamp (PI. ma), which I reproduce 
above it. Seurat at the ver)^ beginning of the 'eighties had 
the intelligence to realise that Kodak-snapshot Impressionism 
had already run its course, and that, unless the painter was 
prepared to acknowledge defeat by the camera, painting must 
be brought back to the classical basis. Like David and Cezanne, 
he wrote Pas d'emportement du pinceau and jaire du Poussin sur 
nature on his doorpost. 

To do this he began by the theoretical study of the laws of 
pictorial harmony and contrast ; he made hundreds of drawings 
of experimental combinations of lines, and hundreds of charcoal 
drawings from nature in which he sought to recapture the 
art of chiaroscuro as it was understood by artists before the 
camera arrived. 

From this he proceeded to a theoretical grasp of the action 
of colour, and he made scores of colour experiments in which, 
with the aid of Chevreul's book already mentioned, he elaborated 
the Impressionists' empirical use of the spectrum palette to a 

^ L<7 Poudreuse and ha Baigmde are reproduced in my Modern Movement in 

2 T 321 


complete system with separated spots of colour which took on 
the required relations to their neighbours when the picture was 
contemplated from a distance as a whole. His large pictures 
were painted spot by spot in accordance with this system.^ 

Seurat eliminated all spontaneity and all records of his 
mechanical vision from his pictures. He used the Impressionist 
technique for sketches ; he then analysed this material ; and 
he then made a synthesis for the final work. For Un Dimanche 
d' 'EH a la Grande Jatte (PI. 133), he painted scores of Impressionist 
oil sketches as a beginning ; he then worked out in his studio 
every aspect of the picture separately considered. Mrs. Chester 
Beatty in London has his preliminary worked-out study for the 
landscape (PI. 134b) ; Mr. Adolph Lewisohn in New York has 
a version of the whole picture which stands half-way between the 
first Impressionist sketches and the final work ; and there are 
scores of charcoal drawings in which the exact tonal relations 
of each figure to the surrounding passages are meticulously set 

It should be observed that, like Cezanne, Seurat did not find it 
necessary to paint Venus and Adonis, or Paris and Helen, to 
indicate his return to the most austere conceptions of classical 
art. He accepted the subjects of the Impressionists. He painted 
holiday-makers by the riverside, dancers in music halls and 
performers in a circus. He took the same material as Renoir 
(Pis. 104b, 107 and 112b) and Degas (Pis. 114b, ii8a, and 116), 
and in frequenting the circus he was following the example of 
his friend Toulouse-Lautrec. But from Seurat's standpoint 
these records by Renoir, Degas and Lautrec were journalism. 
He foresaw the day when this type of record would appear 
every morning in the illustrated newspapers and every evening 
in the cinema. The task he set himself was the use of this material 
not for descriptive or Romantic but for architectural ends. 

In Ees Poseuses and La Grande Jatte (PI. 133) Seurat was con- 
cerned with the creation of static compositions, with recaptur- 
ing, for example, the stability and serenity of Le Sueur's Mass of 
St. Martin oj Tours (PL 25). In L^ Chahut (PI. 136) and L.e 
Cirque (PI. 135) he attacked the problem of retaining this 
serenity and at the same time symbolising gaiety and movement 

^ The system was known as Pointillisme. 



LL UOL AMl.K. IvOL^M'AU. The Wedding. 

I'ans. MM. Pi'ul Rn'.cnhcra Collection 

PABLO PICASSO. Petite Fillc a I'fiventail (1905). 


by linear rliythms. I Ic was still working on this pnjblcm when 
he died. 

Scurat's death robbed the twentieth ccntur)-" of a superlatively 
original artist, (xzanne, of course, was the greater master; 
his nature was richer and his mind was less dogmatic. But we 
must not forget that Cezanne studied for fifty years, and Seurat 
worked for only ten. W'c can set no limit to the possible achieve- 
ments of a man who was able to see the path that modern art 
was bound to follow and to advance himself, in a brief period, so 
far along the way. 



i. The Dotuitiier Kousseau 
ij. Matisse and Picasso 
iij. The Sur-liea/isfs 

.^- ^./.^ 

Y "'^^ 


E^ '-' 


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wtt^^ ^ ' l 


pr '" ^^I^^^K 


()l)iL( ).\ KinON. Orpheus. 

Nr., y..>A'. r. Diiiliiisini; CulUcliuii 
PABLO PICASSO. Abstract Composition (1930). 

Paris, Private Collection 

GEORGES BRAQUE, Still Life Abstraction. 


i. The Doihinicr KoNsseat4 

By a strange irony of fate Seurat's intellectual achievements 
could be compared in successive SaK^ns des Indcpendants 
with the pictures by Le Douanier Rousseau (i 844-1910). This 
extraordinary artist, the son of an ironmonger, was at one time, 
as his sobriquet denotes, an excise olTicial. In his spare time he 
played the fiddle and painted pictures. About 1886, when he 
was just over forty, he sent his hrst pictures to the Indcpendants, 
and some years later he retired from his employment and 
devoted all his time to painting. 

For the remainder of his life he worked in poverty ; he kept 
the wolf from the door by giving violin and painting lessons in 
the suburb where he lived ; he hardly ever sold his pictures, and 
when he did so he received the smallest sums. Like Chardin, 
Corot and Cezanne, il peignait pour son amusement. His pictures 
in the Salons des Indcpendants eventually attracted the attention 
of the poet Guillaume Apollinaire and the painters Picasso and 
Braque who made his acquaintance and helped him in the last 
ten years. 

This uncultured son of the people, who knew nothing of 
drawing as it was taught in the art schools, and nothing of 
Impressionism, and who never thought about the struggle of art 
against the camera, arrived by instinct at a point reached by 
Seurat by intellectual effort and endless experiments with 
compasses and rules. 

I am not suggesting, of course, that the organisation of 
Rousseau's pictures (Pis. 157a, 137b, 138a, 138b and 139) has the 
complex architectural qualities of Seurat's masterpieces ; but 
Rousseau did arrive intuitively at astonishing solutions of 
architectural problems ; he had an instinct for scale and propor- 
tion and a compelling decorative sense. Moreover, in so far as 
Seurat was remarkable for his freedom from the Romantic and 
photographic concepts of the nineteenth ccntur\', he was 
equalled and surpassed by Rousseau who was free from these 
concepts, not because he rejected them, but because they never 
came into his head. 



Rousseau, as Charles Marriott has put it, *' refused to be 
taught to see." For the public that roared with laughter at his 
pictures he had nothing but contempt. To an art critic who had 
referred to his work as " naif " he wrote : "y> ne pourrai main- 
tenant changer ma maniere que fat acquise par un travail opinidtre^ 
vous deve:(^ le penser.^^ In a biographical note which he compiled 
himself for a publication in 1S95 he wrote : " C'est apres de hien 
diires epreuves que M. Kousseau arriva a se jaire connaitre du nomhre 
d* artistes qui V environnent . II s'est perfectionne de plus en plus dans le 
genre original qu'il a adopte et est en passe de devenir Vun de nos meilleurs 
peintres realistes.''^^ He was certain that he was really an artist ; 
and he was right. 

Rousseau, like the great artists, created a microcosm in his 
pictures. As a boy he went to Mexico in a military band, and 
years later he painted a series of jungle pictures that are micro- 
cosms of a tropical world. I reproduce his Jungle with wild beasts 
(PI. 138a), now in the Chester Dale Collection, New York, and 
his jungle ivith monkeys (PI. 138b) in another American collection. 
Mr. Adolph Lewisohn has liis magnificent he Repas du Lion^ 
where a lion devours his prey in a landscape of huge tropical 
flowers. Another tropical composition. The Snake Charmer , 
formerly in the Jacques Doucet Collection in Paris, is now in the 
Louvre. 2 

Seurat — in spite of his immensely elaborate method — pre- 
served an astonishing freshness in his observation, as we see in 
La Grande Jatte (PI. 133) and Le Chahut (PI. 136). But no man 
can consciously achieve the freshness and directness of observation 
that we encounter in Rousseau's group The Wedding (PI. 139). 
The artist here reveals a delight in discovery and immediate 
expression that recalls the painters of the windows at Chartres 

(pi-^)- . . . . 

Rousseau, moreover, was a poet. He had real imagination of 
a very fragrant kind. Mr. Marriott has rightly compared him 
to the poet Blake. His jungle pictures are pictorial equivalents 
of Blake's " Tiger."=^ 

^ He added that com me signe caracteristique he wore la harhe broussaillante. 
2 Bequeathed by M. Doucet. 

^ Rousseau, like Blake, suffered from hallucinations. He frequently 
" saw spirits," and he believed that his dead wife helped him on days when 


nc-rliii. Collection of the GalUry Fhchtlu-im 

PABLO PICASSO. Mother and Child (c. 1923). 

Ne-tC York. A . Leinsohn CoUecHon 

HENRI MATISSE. Jcune Fcmmc accoudcc. 


As a technician Rousseau at liis best was faultless. His hand 
did exactly what his niiiul, his spirit uhlI liis imagination 

ij. Miilisse and Vic as so 

The work of living artists is outside the programme of this 
book. But 1 must mention the names of two contemporary 
masters whose relation to Frencii painting in the first quarter of 
the twentieth century is the same as that of Cxzanne and Seurat 
to French painting in the last quarter of the nineteenth. 

M. Matisse was born in 1869 and is thus now sixty-two. He 
began to exhibit in the Salon des Independants thirty years ago. 
Like all the artists who have followed Cezanne and Seurat in 
working out the Cubist-Classical Renaissance, he is a man of 
great artistic erudition. To a knowledge of the pictures in the 
Louvre, the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists added a 
knowledge of Japanese prints. The artists of the modern move- 
ment ha\T far wider artistic experience. 'Jhanks to modern 
facilities for travel and the enormous production of illustrated 
art-books they are familiar with the art of all times and places — 
with the art of India and China, of l-gypt, I'.quatorial Africa and 
Peru. The modern artist has to begin by the heavy work of 
digesting all this accumulated knowledge. 

i\l. Matisse came to the front as a man who had completed this 
process of digestion and retained a compelling natural talent 
unimpaired. His natural gifts are an instinctive sense of scale 
and decoration, a personal and delightful sense of colour, and an 
observation which he has contrived to keep as direct and fresh 

he was working especially well. There is no doubt that he saw his pictures 
complete in his mind before he painted them. He painted nothing from 
nature except the faces in his portraits, and some of his flower pieces. 

^ Rousseau's work was very unequal — inevitably so, since only the con- 
scious and cultivated artist can maintain a consistent level in his work. His 
pictures fall into four groups : imaginative compositions, portraits, i;enrc 
subjects and flower pieces. The student will find a list with dates and 
thirty-nine reproductions (but no inf. »r.nati.)n regarding the whereabouts 
of the pictures) in Philippe Soupault's Henri Koussean le Douanier. I have 
reproduced and discussed one of Rousseau's genre pictures, Old Joncet's Curt, 
which is remarkable for its architectural qualities, in The Modern Movement 
in Art. 

1 U 329 


as the observation of the Douanier Rousseau (PI. 139), and of 
the glass painters of the windows at Chartres (PL 2). 

Like Rousseau, he is a brilliant technician ; his hand obeys 
exactly the dictates of his mind. His calligraphic language 
of expression, based on mediieval glass painting and Indo- 
Chinese art, is always perfectly controlled. There is nothing 
accidental in his pictures. Every line and every space of colour 
has its allotted function in the picture as a whole. I reproduce 
his Jeune femme accoudk (PL 144), a fine example, now in Mr. 
Adolph Lewisohn's collection in New York. 

M. Pablo Picasso is a Spaniard, but he has worked so con- 
tinuously in Paris and is so closely identified with modern 
French production that historically he must be included in the 
French School. He was born at Malaga in 1 8 8 1 , and is thus now 

Picasso has been the central artist of the French School in 
the first quarter of our century ; and he is one of the most 
interesting and significant artists now alive. His production 
has been enormous ; he has never painted a dull picture or made 
a dull drawing ; he has never ceased to enlarge his experience ; 
he has attacked incessantly problem after problem ; he has 
never abandoned a half-solved problem ; and he has never 
consented to repeat a success. His influence can be seen in 
paintings all over the civilised world. His followers can be 
counted by dozens. His imitators abound in every country in 
Europe, in America and in Japan. 

He began as a Romantic-Realist impressed by the achievements 
of Toulouse-Lautrec. He developed this Romantic-Realism in 
the so-called " Blue period " and " Pink period," 1 901-1906. 
The pictures of this type produced when he was in the early 
twenties are very moving and poetical and definitely on the 
sentimental side. I reproduce as an example lua petite fille a 
I'eventail (PL 140), which was painted in 1905 and is now in 
Messrs. Paul Rosenberg's collection in Paris. 

In 1907 Picasso abandoned this Romantic production and 
resolved to contribute to the Cubist-Classical Renaissance. 
He excluded ever^^thing charming from his work and sought to 
achieve a new classical style by studying the architectural aspects 
of Negro sculpture. M. Paul Guillaume's Le Corsage Jaime^ 



which has all the magnetic power of an African idol, expressed 
paradoxically in very r^>// colour, is the most imposing produc- 
tion of this period. 

In 1910, with Cieorgcs Braque he invented CAibism (PI. 142b), 
which — as I have tried to explain in The Mnder?i Movemetit in Art 
■ — was a drastic forcing hack of the art of painting to the root 
character of architecture. 

With the ground thus cleared he began in 1919 to rebuild. 
He sought to create a new form of monumental painting ; and 
for this purpose he turned to the antique as Poussin and David 
had turned before him. I reproduce as an example of his monu- 
mental " antique " studies the Mother and Child (PL 143), which 
was painted about 1923, and is now in the Gallery Flcchtheim 
in Berlin. 

But even in this monumental manner M. Picasso's Romantic 
temperament works through. The picture is as much a con- 
tribution to the history^ of the Mother and Child wotif in art as 
a contribution to the history of monumental painting. 

From 1924 onwards M. Picasso has once more damped down 
his Romantic bias ; and he has recently been painting architec- 
tural constructions of the character of the Abstract Composition 
(PI. 142a), which dates from 1930, and is now in the Dudensing 
Collection in New York.^ 

iij. The Stir-Realists 

In M. Picasso's later abstract compositions there is a vitality 
that is not purely architectural in kind. It is a disquieting 
vitality that evokes the world of nightmares and of dreams ; 
and the contemporar}^ movement known as Sur-Realism has 
been attempting for some time to develop vitality of this 

The Sur-Realists have the precedent of Odilon Redon (1842- 
191 6), who exhibited in the Salon des Independants in the 
'eighties. But Redon lived before the days of Freud, when the 
dream-world was still associated with vagueness and blurred 

1 For numerous reproductions of M. Picasso's work the student is referred 
to the monographs by Andre Level and Eugenio D'Ors. 


edges, as we see in his Orpheus (PL 141), now in the Cleveland 
Museum of Art. 

The Sur-Realists, in exploring the dream-world as material for 
pictures, start by remembering that we believe dream images, in 
spite of their incredible proportions and juxtapositions, because 
they are so vivid and so clear. 


A la niit, by Tuulousc-I.autrcc, 280 
Abandon, L', by I'ragonard, 160, 162 
Abbatc, Niccolo del, 27, 28, 50 
Abraham dismissing Hagar, by Claude, 

63 n. 
Absinthe, L', by Degas, 275, 275 n. 
Abstract Composition, by Picass(j, 5 3 1 
Academic royale de peinture et sculpture, 

Accord^e de Village, by Grcuze, 168, 

169, 179 

by Watteau, no, in, 115 

Acteur tragique, L', by Manet, 250, 

25 1 n. 
Actor Manelli, The, by La Tour, 131 
Adelaide^ Mme, as Juno, port, by 

Nattier, 128 
Admonition, The, by Chard in, 155 
Adoration des Bergers, by Fragonard, 

1 56 n. 
Adoration of the Magi, by Ghirlandaio, 

Adoration of the Shepherds, by Boucher, 


by Le Brun, 82 

Aeneas relating the Jives 0/ Troj to 

Dido, by Regnault, 193 
Alber marie. Countess of, by Reynolds, 

128 n. 
Albi Cathedral, frescoes in, 21 
Alexander and the Family of Darius, 

by Le Brun, 71 n., 80 
Alexander entering Babjlon, by Le 

Brun, 81 
Alphonse de Toulouse-luiutrec conduisar.t 

son mail-coach a Nice^ by Toulouse- 
Lautrec, 279 
Altar piece of the Lamb, by J. van 

Eyck, 12 
Altarpiece of the Parliament of Paris, 

School of van der Weyden, 12 
Am ant Couronne, L', by Fragonard, 

Amante inquiite, L', by Watteau, 1 14 
Amateurs d'Estampes, by Boilly, 232 

A'fjateurs d'Esta'fipes, by Dauinicr, 

Amateurs de Peinture, hy Daumier, 232 

Amboise, Cartiinal tl', 21 

Amende Honorable, L', by Dclacr(jix, 

21 1 
Amour au Theatre franfais, by 

Watteau, in, 112 
Amour desarme, by Watteau, 113 n. 
Amour Paisible, by Watteau, 112 n., 

Amusements Champetres, by Watteau, 

1 14, 118, 171 
Amusements de la vie privee, by 

Chardin, 135, 136, 140, 232 
Angel appearing to Joseph, by 

Dumesnil, 54 n. 
Angelot, Mme, 252 n. 
Anglaise au " Star " de Havre, by 

Toulouse-Lautrec, 282 
Anglure, Mme d', by Perronncau, 

132 n. 
Angouleme, Frangois due d', port. 

of, 33 
Anne of Austria, 79 

port, by Beaubrun, 5 5 

Annunciation, School of van Eyck, 13 
Annunciation to the Virgin, school of 

Bourdichon, 19 
Anonyme Lecurieux, 33 
Antoine de la Roque, by Watteau, 1 1 5 
Apollo and Daphne, by Poussin 

(Schleissheim), 67, 68 

(Louvre), 67, 69 

Apotheosis of Homer, by Ingres, 201 
Apparition of the Virgin to St. Martin, 

by Le Sueur, 46 
Apres-diner a Ornans, bv Courbet, 

Argenteuil, by Manet, 2w 
Arlesienne, L', by Gauguin, 292 n. 

by Van Gogh, 303-504 

Arrivee de la diligence, by Boilly, 167 
.■Irtemisia, School of I'ontaincblcau, 




Artiste, L\ by Mme Labillc- 

Guyard, 174 
Artist's Daughter, The, by Pesne, 

Assumption of the Virgin, by Prudhon, 

Atala mise au tomheau, by Trioson, 

Atelier de Houdon, by BoiUy, 168 n. 
Atelier de I' artiste, by Bazille, 237 n. 
Atelier d'lsabej, by Boilly, 168 
Atelier du peintre : Allegorie reelle, 

by Courbet, 227, 228 n., 239 
Athlone, Countess of, port, by 

Perronneau, 132 n. 
Au bar : Alfred la Guigne, by 

Toulouse-Lautrec, 280 
Au Moulin Kouge, by Toulouse- 
Lautrec, 280 
Au Salon : rue des Moulins, by 

Toulouse-Lautrec, 281 n. 
Audience at the Theatre Franfais, by 

Guys, 253 n. 
Aumone d'un mendiant, by Courbet, 

Aurore et Cephale, by Regnault, 193 
Autour du piano, by Fantin Latour, 

247 n. 
Aux Amhassadeurs, by Degas, 274 
Avant le depart, by Degas, 274 n. 
Aved, Jacques-Andre-Joseph, 128-9 

port, by Chardin, 135 

Avignon, First School of, 5-6 
Avignon, Second School of, 14-15 
Avignon Palace, 6 

Bacchanal, by Poussin, 68 n. 
Bacchus and Erigone, by Poussin, 67 
Bachelier, J. -J., by Mme Labille- 

Guyard, 174 n. 
Baignade, Ta, by Seurat, 243 n., 269, 

320, 321 
Baigneuses, by Courbet, 226, 227 
Baigneuses, Les, by Fragonard, 161, 

161 n., 163 n., 164 

by Renoir, 269, 270 n. 

Bain turc, Le, by Ingres, 197 

Baiserdla derobee {The Stolen Kiss), by 

Fragonard xxix, 160, 163, 164, 

166 n. 
Balanfoire, La, by Renoir, 267 n. 
Balcon, Le, by Manet, 250, 251 n., 

254, 254 n. 
Ballet, Le, by Degas, 276 
Ballet espagnol, by Manet, 248, 25 1 n. 
Banker Jabach and his Family, by Le 

Brun, 80 
Baptism of Christ, by Corot, 217 
Baptism of Clorinda by Tancred, by 

Dubois, 28, 31 
Bar aux Folies Bergeres, by Manet, 2 5 3 
Bastien-Lepage, 221 n. 
Bath of Diana, by Boucher, 147, 148 n. 
Bathing Nymphs, by Luini, 193 n. 
Bathsheba at the Bath, by de Troy, 

143 n. 
Baudelaire, 202 n., 233, 254 n, 
Baudouin, Pierre Antoine, 165 
Bazille, Frederic, 237, 237 n. 
Beaubrun, Henri and Charles de, 

54, 5 5 
Beaujolais, Mile, port, by Nattier, 128 
Beaumetz, Jean de, 9 
Beauneveu, 1 1 n. 

Belle Cuisinihre, La, by Boucher, 147 
Belle Jardiniere, La, by Raphael, 26 
Bellechose, Henri de, 9, 1 1 n. 
Belleville, Breviaire de, 5 
Benedicite, Le, by Chardin, 1 3 5 , 1 37 n. 
Benoit XIV, Pope, port, by Subleyras, 

Berard, family of, ports, by Renoir, 

Bergeret, port, by F, A. Vincent, 173 
Berry, Jean, Due de, 8-1 1 
Betrothal of the Virgin, by Rosso, 

29 n. 
Birth and Triumph of Venus, by 

Boucher, 147, 147 n. 
Blanc, Charles, 217, 226 
Boilly, Louis-Leopold, 166-8 

pictures by, 166-7 

Boisy, Gouffier de, 32 

Bon Bock, Le, by Manet, 2 5 1 



BoHiif)urte an fnint de I'Anolf, by 

Gros, 190 
iionjpiir/e visile des pestiferh de j^ijf'i, 

by Gros, 190 
Bonhcur, Rosa, 208 n. 
Bonnard, Pierre, 294 n. 
Bonnat, Leon, 279, 279 n. 
Bonnington, Riclianl Parkcs, 206 
Borghese, Pauline, port, by Prutlhon, 

Bosse, Abraham, 47, S5 n. 
Boucher, Fran9i)is, 145 n, 144-50, 

161, 168 n., 171, 275 

pictures by, 144-5 

Boucher, Mwe, by Boucher, 147 

Boudin, Louis-Eugene, 221, 240 

Bourdichon, Jean, 19 

Bourdon, Sebastian, 86 

Boze, Joseph, 175 n. 

Breviaire de Belleville, 5 

Brienne, Comtc de, 68 n., 87 n. 

Bril, Paul, 61 

Broederlam, Mclchior, 9 

Bronzino, 27, 28, 29, 199 

Brutus, by David, 184 

Bruyas, Alfred, 227 

Buffet, Le, by Chardin, 135 

Burgundy, Philip the Bold, Duke of, 

Burgundy, First School of, 8-9 

Second School of, 12-13 

Burning Bush, by Fromcnt, 13, 14 n., 

BurrcU, Sir William, 275 
Buveur d' Absinthe, by Manet, 248, 

248 n., 255 n. 

Cabinet d' Amour, by Le Sueur, 43-4 
Cafe : Boulevard Montmartre, by 

Degas, 242 n., 275 n. 
Cafe des Patriotes, by Swebach- 

Desfontaines, 165 
Caillcbotte, Gustavc, 241, 242, 265 
Callot, Jacques, 47 
Calvary, Crucifixion and Deposition, 

School of Fouquet, 18 n. 
Camargo, La, by Lancret, 123 

Car/tille, La Pa we d la robe verte, by 

Monet, 258 
Camillus and the Schoolmaster ^ by 

Poussin, 70 n. 
Camondo, Count, 242 
Cano tiers d Chatou, by Renoir, 267 n. 
Carabinier, by Gericault, 208 n. 
Card Sharpers, by Dumcsnil, 54 n. 
Caron, Ant(jine, 27 
Carriere, Fugeiic, 221 
Cassatt, Mary, 237, 237 n. 
Casseurs de pierres, by Courbet, 226, 

Catalonia, School of, 6 
Caylus, Comte de, 103, 121 
Cephalus and Aurora, by Poussin, 

68 n. 
Cezanne, Mme, ports, by Cezanne, 

512 n. 
Cezanne, Paul, 237 n., 240, 242, 

242 n., 243, 295, 508-18 

pictures by, 308-10 

Chahut, Le, by Seurat, 321, 322, 328 
Chalgrin, Mme, by David, 188 
Chambray, M. de, and his Friends, by 

Le Sueur, 43 
Chambre des Muses, by Le Sueur, 43-4 
Champaigne, Philippe de, 54, 55-6 
Champs Elysees, by \Vatteau, 114 
Chanteuse des rues, by Manet, 25 1 n. 
Chapeaux d'ete, by Renoir, 268 
Chardin, Jean-Baptiste-Simon, 132, 

133-40, 170. 287, 515 

pictures by, 1 3 3-4 

Charenton, Enguerrand, 14, 1 5 , M n. 
Charity, by Andrea del Sarto, 25, 26 
Charles II of Bourbon, port, by 

Maitre de Moulins, 20 
Charles IV, King of France, 5 
Charles V, — , 7 

Charles VII, , 16 

port, by Fouquet, 17 

Charles VIII, King of France, 19, 21 
Charles X, by Ingres, 201 
Char me s de la vie, by W'atteau, 1 1 3 
Charmes de la vie champetre, by 
Boucher, 146 




Charpentier, Georges, 242, 259, 266 

Charpentier, Mme, 266 

Charpentier, Mme, and her children, by 

Renoir, 266 
Chartres Cathedral, windows of, 4 
Chasse a Vautruche par les Turcs, by 

Van Loo, 148 n. 
Chasse a VEpieu, by Potter, 5 1 n. 
Chasse au crocodile, by Boucher, 148 n. 
Chasse au lion, by de Troy, 148 n. 
Chasse au lion et au tigre, by Pater, 

148 n. 
Chasse au tigre par les Turcs, by 

Boucher, 148 n. 
Chasseriau, Theodore, 212 n. 
Chasseur de lions, by Manet, 2 5 5 
Chavannes, Puvis de, 193 n. 
Chemin defer, by Manet, 252 
Chemise enlevee, L.a, by Fragonard, 161 
Che^ le phe hathuille, by Manet, 255 
Chocquet, 242, 265 
Chocquet, Portrait of, by Cezanne, 

242 n., 312 
Christ bearing the Cross, by Le Brun, 

Christ before Caiaphas, School of 

Marmion, 13 n. 
Christ giving the Keys to Peter, by 

Ingres, 200 
Christ Jaune, Le, by Gauguin, 294 
Christ standing in the Tomb, Second 

School of Avignon, 1 5 
Cipierre, Comtesse de, by Mme 

Labille-Guyard, 174 n. 
Circus Children, by Renoir, 267 
Cirque, he, by Seurat, 321, 322 
Cirque Fernando, by Toulouse- 
Lautrec, 280 
Claude le Lorrain, 56, 58-63, 160 

pictures by, 5 8-9 

Clouet, Frangois, 30 n., 33 

pictures by, 34 

Clouet, Jean, 33 

pictures by, 3 3 

Clytemnestra, by Regnault, 195 
Colbert, 81, 82, 85, 86, 88, 102 
port, by Lefebre, 5 6 

Colin d'Amiens, 16 

Collation aprls la Chasse, by Lancret, 

124 n. 
Comediens It aliens, by Watteau, 114, 

Comptoir du Coton, by Degas, 275 
Comte de Bastard, Le, by Perronneau, 

Concert aux Tuileries, by Guys, 234 n. 

by Manet, 254 

Concert Champetre, by Corot, 220 n. 

by Giorgione, 112 n., 113, 

118, 239 

Confidences, Les, by Fragonard, 162 
Continence of Scipio, by Abbate, 30 

by Poussin, 70 n. 

Contrat, Le, by Fragonard, 160, 161, 

163, 166 n, 
Cormon, 279 
Corneille de Lyons, 33 

pictures by, 34 

Coronation of Napoleon in Notre Dame 

{Le Sacre de Napoleon ler), by 

David, 186, 187, 187 n. 
Coronation of the Virgin, by Charenton, 

14, 15 
Corot, Camille, 216-21, 237 n., 287 
Corsage Jaune, Le, by Picasso, 330 
Courbet, Gustave, 222, 224-30, 254, 


pictures by, 224-5 

Courses a Longchamp, by Manet, 2 5 2 n. 

by Seurat, 321 

Courtauld, Mr. Samuel, 232, 252, 

269, 280 n., 294, 295, 313, 315 
Courtois, Jacques, 62 n. 
Cousin, Jean, pere, 30 

fils, 30 

Couture, Thomas, 247, 248 

Croquet party, by Manet, 2 5 2 n. 

Crozat, Antoine, 10 1 

Cro':^at, Mme, by Aved, 129 

Crozat, Pierre, loi 

Cruche cassee. La, by Greuze, 153, 

170 n. 
Crucifixion with the Angels, by Le 

Brun, 79 



Cubist-C^lassical Renaissance, ^07 
Cuirassitr bltssi qui tt ant le feu, h\ 

Gcricault, 206, 207 n. 
Cupid a Captive, by Boucher, 276 

Dame, Vne, hy Guys, 234 n. 

Dance, hy Poussin, 72 

Danseville, MIU, pastel hy Vigec, 

174 n. 
Danse, lu2, hy W'atteau, 115 
Danseuse au bouquet, by Degas, 242 n., 

274, 276 
Dante et Virgile, by Delacroix, 211 
Dauhigny, Charles-Francois, 215 
Daumier, 231-5, 254 
David, Jacques-Louis, 158, 181-9, 

pictures hy, 18 1-2 

David croaned bj Victory, hy Poussin, 

68 n. 
Dead Christ with Angels, by Manet, 

249, 251 n. 
Death of Bara, by David, 185, 185 n., 

Death of Marat, hyY^TLx'id, 185, 185 n. 
Death of St. Bruno, by Lc Sueur, xxix, 

Death of Saphira, by Poussin, 70 n. 
Death of Socrates, David, 184 
Decourt, Jean, 33 
Degas, Edgar, 257, 240, 242 n., 254, 

271-6, 283-4 

pictures by, 271-3 

Dejeuner, L€, by Boucher, 147 

by Renoir, 267 n. 

Dejeuner de Chasse, by Carle Van Loo, 

124, 124 n. 
Dijeuner de jambon, by Lancrct, 124, 

124 n., 148 n. 
Dejeuner des Canotiers, by Renoir, 

270, 270 n. 
Dejeuner d'huitres, by de Troy, 143 n. 
Dejeuner sur I'herbe, by Manet, 239, 

249, 251 n., 254, 258 

by Monet, 258, 260 n. 

Delacroix, Eugene, 148 n., 206, 

208-14, 228 n., 229, 288 

Delacroix, pictures hy, 208-10 
Deluge, The, hy Poussin, 73 
Demoiselles Berard, ijts, hy Renoir, 

Depart, Zv, hy Degas, 274 
Derby d'lLpsom, hy Cicricault, 207 
Desboutins, port, hy Degas, 275 
Descartes, port, hy Mignard, 91 n. 
Descent from the Cross, by Jouvcnct, 


by Perugino, 22 

Desir, he, by Fragonard, 162 

Desportes, Charles, 93 

Detachement faisant alte, by Wattcau, 

Deux Baigneuses, Les, by Lane ret, 1 23 
Dcveria, E.-F.-M.-J., 206 
Diana, School of Fontainchlcau, 30 
Diana and Actaon, by Titian, 146 
Diana and her Attendants hunting, by 

Le Sueur, 43 n. 
Diane au bain, by Corot, 219 
Diane Chasseresse, by Goujon, 180 
Diane de Poitiers, 30 n., 31 
Diderot, Denis, 144, 150, 164, 169, 

Diego Martelli, by Degas, 275, 275 n. 
Dimanche d'Ete a la Grande Jatte, by 

Seurat, 269, 320, 521, 322 
Dindons blancs, Les, by Monet, 242 n. 
Distribution of the Eagles, by David, 

Dites done, s'ilvous plait, hy Fragonard, 

Don Quixote, by Daumier, 232 
Dormeuil, Georges, 152 n. 
Drouais, Francois-Hubert, 1 5 3, 173 n. 
Du Barry, Mmc, 132-5 
port, by Mme Vigec-lc Brun, 

Dubois, Ambroisc, 27, 28, 31 
Dubreuil, Toussaint, 27 
Duck, Jacob, 5 1 n. 
Ducreux, J., 173 n. 
Dufresne, Mme, by Prudhon, 192, 

Dughct, Gaspard, 65 n. 



Dumcsnil de la Tour, Georges, Entry of Charles V to Paris, hylngtcs^ 


pictures by, 53 

Dumonstier, Etienne and Pierre, 33 

Dumont, Jacques, 129 

Duplessis, J. S., 173 n. 

Dupre, Jules, 215 

Durand-Ruel, 241, 243, 251, 259, 

265, 266, 274 
Duranty, 242, 250 
Duret, Theodore, 242, 249, 250 

Harthly Paradise, by Poussin, 73 

Echo and Narcissus, by Poussin, 67 

Ecole de Lyons, 194 

Econome, L', by Chardin, 138 n. 

Eden, Sir William, 274 

Elevation of the Cross, by Le Brun, 82 

Elie^er andKehecca, by Poussin, 72 n. 

Eli:(abeth, Mme, by Mme Labille- 

Guyard, 174 n. 
Elizabeth of Austria, 34 
Elles, by Toulouse-Lautrec, 282 
Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba, by 

Claude, 61 n. 
Embarquement pour I'lle de Cjthere, by 

Watteau, 105, 114, 116, 116 n., 


Empercur Severe reprocke a Caracalla, 

etc, by Greuze, 169 
Empress Josephine, The, by Prudhon, 

Enfants de Catulle Mendh, by Renoir, 

247 n. 
Engraver F. G. Schmidt, The, by 

Pesne, 128 n. 
Enlevement, E', by Cezanne, 314 
Enlevement de Psyche, by Prudhon, 

Enseigne de Gersaint, by Watteau, 

106, 115 
Enterrement a Or nans, by Courbet, 

226, 227, 239 
Entombment, First School of Paris, 8 
Entree des Croises a Constantinople, 

by Delacroix, 212 
Entry into Jerusalem ^ by Le Brun, 82 

Errard, Charles, 39 n. 
Escalade, L', by Fragonard, 162, 

163 n. 
Esprit veille, L', by Gauguin, 294 
Esther before Ahasuerus, by Poussin, 

70 n. 
Estrees, Gabrielle d', 27, 30 
Ete, L' : Femmes dans un Jar din, by 

Monet, 259 
Etienne Chevalier, port, by Fouquet, 

Etoiles, Mme Lenormand d', 151 
Etude, L', by Fragonard, 161 n. 
Eugenius IV, Pope, port, by 

Fouquet, 17 n. 
Eva Prima Pandora, by Cousin pere, 

30 ^ 
Examen a la Faculte de Medecine, by 

Toulouse-Lautrec, 283 
Execution of Maxmilian, by Manet, 

Exercises militaires des Marocains, by 

Delacroix, 212 
Eyck, Jan van, 12-13 

Falaise de Fecamp, by Monet, 2 5 9 
Famille dufermier, by Fragonard, 165 
Fantin-Latour, 221, 294 
Fauves, The, Relation to primitives, 5 
Faux pas, Le, by Watteau, 114 
Femme a l' atelier, by Corot, 221 
Femme allaitant son enfant, by Renoir, 

268, 269, 270 n. 
Femme enceinte, by Renoir, 269 
Femme nue accroupie, by Toulouse- 
Lautrec, 282 
Femmes d' Alger dans leur appartement, 

by Delacroix, 212 
Ferme, La, by Oudry, 171 n. 
Fete du St. Cloud, by Fragonard, 

163 n. 
Fetes galantes, by Watteau, 119 
Fetes Venitiennes, by Watteau, m, 

Fifre, Le, by Manet, 250, 251 n. 



Financier Mont mar tel and his Wife, hy 

Rigaud, 9^ 
Finding of Moses, hy La Fosse, 92 

by Poussin, 72 

Finding of P/jocion, bv Poussin, 73 n. 
Finette, La, by W'attcau, 114 
First Empire, The, 189 
First Steps, Fhe {after Millet), by 

Van G(\gh, 301 n. 
Flemish School, 8-11, 12-13 
Flight into F^gjpt, bv Claude, 62 

by Poussin, 70 

Flora with Attendants, School of 

Fontainebleau, 30 
Foire de St. Cloud, by Fragonard, 

Fontaine d' Amour , by Fragonard, 160, 

164, 192 
Fontainebleau, Palace of, 25-6 

School of, 2^-30 

Fontaines, Fes, by Robert, 173 
Forge, The, by L. Le Nain, 5 2 
Forrain, Jean-Louis, 231 n. 
Fouquet, Jean, 16, 17-18 
Fouquet, Nicolas, 80 
Foyer de la danse, by Degas, 241 n., 

Fragonard, Jcan-Honore, 150 n., 

153-64, 186 

pictures by, 153-5 

Francesca da Kimini, by Ingres, 200, 

Frangois I, King of France, 25-7, 

29 n., 32 

port, of, 34 

Franfois I at the death-bed of Leonardo 

da Vinci, by Ingres, 201 
Franfois Mans art and Claude Perrault, 

by Champaigne, 56 
Franklin, by Duplessis, 173 n. 
Frederic the Great, port, bv Pcsnc, 

French Eighteenth-Century Land- 
scape, 1 71-3 
Fromcnt, Nicholas, 13, 14 n., 15 
Funeral of Phocion, by Poussin, 73, 

220, 316 

Gabrietle with the jewel, by Renoir, 269 
Gachct, Dr., 301, 5 1 1 

port. Iw Van Gogh, 501 

Gaillon, Chateau dc, frescoes, 22 
Gurfon au gtlet rouge, by Cezanne, 3 1 5 
Gar f on Cabaretier, Lf, by Chard in, 

1 5? 
Garden scene with a bahj carriage, by 

Gauguin, 294 n. 
Garguntua swallowing bags of gold 

extracted from the people, by 

Daumier, 23 1 
Gaspard de Gueydan with Bagpipe, by 

Rigaud, 95 
Gauguin, Paul, 237 n., 280 n., 287, 


pictures by, 288-91 

Geffroy, Gustave, 313 

Gellee, see Claude 

Genre painting, 132 

Gerard, Frangois-Pascal-Simon, 194 

Gericault, Theodore, 206-8 

Gerome, 193 

Gersaint, 103 

Ghirlandaio, Benevetto, 21 

Gilles and his Family, by W'attcau, 

112, 114 
Gillot, Claude, 109 n, 
Girard of Orleans, 3 
Girl with a cat, by Perronneau, 1 32 n. 
Glcvre, Marc-Gabriel-Charlcs, 258, 

Golden Calf, by Poussin, 72 
Gon:^ales, Eva, by Manet, 250 
Gonzalez, Eve, 237, 237 n. 
Goodyear, Mr. H. C, 294 
Gourgand, Baron, 234 n. 
Gouvernante, Fa, by Chardin, 136 
Goya, 254, 254 n. 
Grancourt, Bcrgeret dc, 157 
Grand pretre Coresus se sacrifie pour 

saui'er Callirhoe, by Fragonard, 

156, 160 
Grande Jatte, Fa, by Scurat, 243 n., 

321, 328 
Grande Odalisque, ha, by Ingres, 199, 

200, 200 n. 



Grandes Baigmuses, Les, by Cezanne, 

^69, 313, 316 
Grenouillere, La, by Renoir, 267 
Greuze, Jean-Baptiste, 141 n., 150, 

Greuze, Mme, en vestale, by Greuze, 

Grimou, Jean, 132 
Gros, Antoine-Jean, 190 
Grosse Marie, by Toulouse-Lautrec, 

Guasparre, Giambattista di, see 

Guerin, Pierre-Narcisse, 193 
Guilbert, Yvette, studies by 

Toulouse-Lautrec, 280 
Guillaume, M. Paul, 269 
Guillaume Jouvenel des Ursins, by 

Fouquet, 18 
Guingette, La, by Van Gogh, 302 
Guys, Constantin, 233-4, 283 

Haan, Mayer de, 293 

Hagar and the Angel in the Desert, by 

Le Sueur, 46 
Half-nude girl doing her hair, by 

Renoir, 267 n. 
Halte, du Cavalier, by Louis Le 

Nain, 51 
Hamilton, Lady, ports, by Mme Le 

Brun, 175 
Harpignies, Henri, 215 
Haystacks, by Monet, 259 
Ha':{ards heureux de I'escarpolette {The 

Snmg), by Fragonard, 161 
Head of a Girl, by David, 187 
Henri II, King of France, 27 

Henri IV, , 27 

Henry IV playing with his children, by 

Ingres, 201 
Henriette, Mme, as Flora, port, by 

Nattier, 128 
Henriette, Mme, playing the violoncello, 

by Nattier, 128 
Hertford, Lord, 149 n. 
Hesiod and the Muse, by Delacroix, 


Heures du Due de Berry, 10 

High Altar of Notre Dame, by 

Jouvenet, 93 
Holy Family {Le Menage du Menuisier), 

by Rembrandt, 180 
Homere et les Bergers, by Corot, 220 
Homme a la ceinture de cuir, by 

Courbet, 226 
Homme a la pipe, by Cezanne, 313, 

Honfleur : L'Hospice et le Phare, by 

Seurat, 321 
Honfleur-maisons sur les quais, by 

Corot, 220 
Honthorst, Gerard, 5 3 
Horatius Codes defending Kome, by 

Le Brun, 79 
Hunt Luncheon, The, by Lancret, 

Hunter, Dr. William, 136 

la Orana Maria {Ave Maria), by 
Gauguin, 294 

Impression : Soleil levant, by Monet, 
241, 241 n. 

Impressionist Movement, 237 

Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique, 
195-202, 221 n. 

pictures by, 195-7 

Inmates of the Home, by Toulouse- 
Lautrec, 282 

Innocence et V Amour, by Nicolas 
Coypel, 143 n. 

Inspiration, L', by Fragonard, 161 n. 

Inspiration of Anacreon, by Poussin, 

Inspiration of the Poet, by Poussin, 72 
Interior, by Gauguin, 294 n. 
Israelites collecting Manna, by Poussin, 
70 n. 

Jabach, 80, 87 n., 102 

Jacob wrestling with the Angel, by 
Gauguin, 294 

Jacque, Charles, 215 

Jane Avril dancing, by Toulouse- 
Lautrec, 280 n. 



Jane ylvril le\3vins>^ the MoiJin Kouge, by 

Toulouse-Lautrec, 280 n. 
Jean le lion, King, 3, 7 
Jeanne d'Aragon, by Raphael, 26 
Jeanne Duinil, by Manet, 248 
Jeanne — le Printemps, by Manet, 253 
Jeanne Samary, by Renoir, 266 
Jesus among the Doctors, by Ingres, 

Jesus insulted by soldiers, by Manet, 

251 n. 
Jeune femme accoudee, by Matisse, 350 
Jeunefemme couchee en costume espagnole, 

by Manet, 254 n. 
Jeune fille et sa grandmhe, by Raoux, 

Jeune fille lis ant une lettre, by Raoux, 

Jeune bom me a la tete de mort (Le 

Pbilosophe), by Cezanne, 3 1 5 
Jeunes filles au piano, by Renoir, 

247 n. 
Joueurs de Cartes, Les, by Cezanne, 

51}. 315 
Jouvenet, Jean, 95 
Judgment of Paris, by Raphael, 249 n. 

by Watteau, 114 

Judgment of Solomon, by Poussin, 

70 n. 
Julienne, Jean de, 102 
Jungle with Monkeys, by Rousseau, 528 
Jungle with wild beasts, by Rousseau, 

Jupiter and Thetis, by Ingres, 197, 

Justice and Peace, School of Fontaine- 

bleau, 30 
Justice et la Vengeance divine poursuivant 

le Crime, by Prudhon, 191 

Keeper, The, by Toulouse-Lautrec, 

La Fosse, Charles de, 92 

La Hyre, Laurent de, 59 n. 

La Pena, Diaz de, 215 

Lm Koque, Antoine de, by Watteau, 1 1 5 

La Tour, Maurice Quentin de, 

p(jrt. by Perronneau, 132 n. 

Labille-Guyard, Mme Adelaide, 

Lac d'Annecy, by Cezanne, 313, 316, 

Lady and a boy, drawing by Ingres, 

Lancret, Nicolas, 123 
Landscape with a red dog, by Gauguin, 

Landscape with Diogenes, by Poussin, 

73 n. 
Landscape with Figures, by Louis 

le Nain, 50 
Landscape with Figures {P hoc ion), by 

Poussin, 75 n. 
Landscape with Hercules and Cacus, 

by Poussin, 73 n. 
Landscape with Polyphemus, by 

Poussin, 73 n. 
Landscape with Three Men, by 

Poussin, 73 n. 
Landscape with Two Nymphs, by 

Poussin, 73 
Largillicre, Nicolas de, 95, 96-8, 


pictures by, 96 

Last Supper, by Le Brun, 82 

by Poussin, 70 n. 

Latude, by Vestier, 173 n. 
Lavandihes, Les, by Fragonard, 163 
Lavreince, Nicholas, 165 
Lawyer Laideguive, The, by La Tour, 

151, 275 n. 
Lazard, Andre, 132 n. 
Le Brun, 40, 41, 71 n., 78-82, 84, 

85. 275 

pictures by, 78 

Le Brun, Mme Elizabeth Viged, 

lu Brun, Mme, and her daughter, 174 
Le jeune, Morcau, 165 
Le Moyne, Frangois, 143 n., 146 
Le Nain, Antoine, 48-50, 52 
pictures by, 48 



Le Nairij Louis, 50-52, 170 

pictures by, 48-9 

Le Nain, Mathieu, 5 2 
pictures by, 49 

Le Sueur, Eustache, 41-6 

pictures by, 41-2 

Le 28 Juillet 1830, by Delacroix, 

L,efon de Musique, by Fragonard, 161, 

162 n., 165 n. 
Leda, by Michelangelo, 26 
Lefebre, Claude, 56 
Legrue, Madame^ by Perronneau, 

132 n. 
Lenoir, Mme, by Duplessis, 173 n. 
Leonidas before Thermopjla, by David, 

186, 187 
Lettre, La, by Fragonard, 163 
Lewisohn, Mr. Adolph, 282, 294, 

303, 314 
Liber Veritatis, by Claude, 60 
Liechtenstein of Vienna, Prince, 

Liechtenstein, Prince Weni^el, port, by 

Rigaud, 95 
Limbourg, Paul, Jean and Armand 

de, 10 
Linge, Le, by Manet, 2 5 2 
Lion Hunt, by Delacroix, 212 
Lise, by Renoir, 266 
Loge, La, by Gonzalez, 237 n. 

by Renoir, 241 n., 267 n. 

Lola de Valence, by Manet, 248, 

249 n., 251 n. 
Lola, Miss, at the Cirque Fernando, by 

Degas, 274 
Longueville, Duchesse de, by Beau- 

brun, 55 
Lorrain, Claude, see Claude 
Louis XI, King of France, 16 

Louis XII, , 19, 21 

Louis XIII, , 28 

Louis XIV, , 74-7, 91-3 

port, by Mignard, 89 

port, by Rigaud, 94 

Louis XV, King of France, 136 
Louis XV style, 125-26 

Louis XVIII, King of France, port. 

by Boze, 173 n. 
Louis-Henrj- Joseph de Bourbon, by 

Danloux, 173 n. 
Louis Philippe, caricature by 

Daumier, 231 
Louvre, 77, 81 
frescoes in, 7 

Maison du pendu, by Cezanne, 241 n , 

3", 3M 
Maitre de Moulins, see Moulins 
" Maitrise," 7 

Maja vestjda, by Goya, 254 n. 
Malonel, Jean, 9, 11 n. 
Manet, Edouard, 234, 237, 239, 240, 

244-5 5 , 267 

pictures by, 244-6 

Manet, Mme, au piano, by Manet, 

247 n. 
Marat porte en triomphe, by Boilly, 

Marie-Antoinette, port, by Ducreux 

173 n. 
Marie Antoinette and her children, by 

Mme Le Brun, 175 
Marie Antoinette in velvet, by Mme 

Le Brun, 175 
Marie Antoinette on her way to the 

scaffold, drawing by David, 189 
Marie Antoinette with a rose, by Mme 

Le Brun, 175 
Mariette, Pierre Jean de, 103 
Marigny, Marquis de, 1 5 1 
Marmion, Simon, 13 
Martini, Simone, 6 
Martyrdom of St. Sjmphorien, by 

Ingres, 201 
Mary Magdalen, St., by Maitre de 

Moulins, 20 

by Titian, 27 

Mary, the Virgin, see Virgin 

Mass of St. Martin of Tours, by Le 

Sueur, 45, 322 
Massacre of the Innocents, by Poussin, 

70 n. 
Massacres de Scio, by Delacroix, 211 



Mutin, l^, l)y Bouclicr, 147 
Matisse, 329-30 

Relation to Primitives, 5 

Mauve, Anton, 299 

Mazarin, port, by Mignard, 91 

Alee ting of joaihiM and Anna, by 

Maitre de Moulins, 16 n., 20 
Meissonicr, |can-l,ouis l">nest, 25 1 11. 
Minage de Menuisier, by Rembrandt, 

Alercier, At me, the nurse of houis XV, 

exhibiting the King's portrait to her 

family, by Dumont, 129 
AUre, La, Catherine- Agnis Arnaud et 

la saur Catherine de Sainte-StC(anne, 

by Champaigne, 56 
Aii-careme sur les Boulevards, by 

Pissarro, 237 n. 
Michelangelo, 26, 29 
Midas before Bacchus, by Poussin, 67, 

Mignard, Nicolas, 89 
Mignard, Pierre, 40, 82, 86, 88-91, 


pictures by, 88 

Milan Cathedral, 6 
Millet, 221 n., 237 n. 
Miniatures by Bourdichon, 19 
Miniatures by Fouquet, 17, 18 
Mirabeau, port, by Boze, 173 n. 
Alodiste, La, by Degas, 275 
Aiodiste, The {Le Matin), by iiouchcr, 

147, 147 n. 
Aloliere as Casar, by Mignard, 89 
Monet, Claude, 237, 240, 241, 242, 

243, 256-61, 287 

pictures by, 256-7 

Alontaigne Sainte- Victoire, by Cezanne, 

Alonument du Costume, 165 
Moreau, Louis-Gabriel, 171, 172 
Morisot, Berthe, 257, 237 n., 240, 

Alort de Sardanapale, by Delacroix, 

Aloses and Aaron's Kod, by Poussin, 

70 n. 

Aloses and the Daughters of Je thro, by 

Rosso, 29 
Aluther and Child, i>y Picasso, 331 
Aloulin, 1^, by B<jucher, 171 
Aloulin de Charenton, by B<jucher, 171 
Moulin de la (ialette, by Renoir, 242 n., 

Moulins, Maitre de, 16 n., 19, 20 21 
Muret, 243 

Murray, Sir James, 261 
Aluse of Painting, by Boucher, 147 n. 
Alusette, La, by Boucher, 147 
Musique, La, by Fragonard, 161 n. 
Musique aux Tuileries, by Manet, 


Naissance de Henri IV, by Deveria, 

Nanteuil, Robert, 129 
Napoleon, port, by Boze, 173 n. 

port, by David, 189 

port, by Greuze, 170, 190 n. 

Napoleon as Emperor, by Ingres, 198 
Napoleon as First Consul, by Ingres, 

Napoleon sur le champ de bataille 

d'Lylau, by Gros, 190 
Narni : Pont d'Auguste sur la Nera, 

by Corot, 219 
Nativity, by Boucher, 148 n. 

by M. Le Nain, 52 

by Maitre de Moulins, 20, 21 

Nattier, Jean-Marc, 127-8, 176 
Naufrage, Le, drawing by W'atteau, 

105 n. 
Nevermore, by Gauguin, 295 
Nid, Le, by Boucher, 146 
Night Watch, by Rembrandt, 163 
Nurture of Jupiter, by Poussin, 67 
Nympbias, by Monet, 259 

Officier de chasseurs a cheval, by 

Gericault, 206, 207 n. 
Old Joncet's Cart, by Rousseau, 329 n. 
Olympia, 254 
Olympia, by Manet, 239, 243 n., 

25 1 n. 

2 Y 



Oncle Dominique, U, by Cezanne, 314 
Oriental Lion Hunt, by Delacroix, 

212, 214 
Orleans, Elizabeth Charlotte, 

Dowager Duchess of, port, by 

Rigaud, 95 
Orleans, Girard of, 5 
Orleans, Philippe d', 102 n. 
Orpheus, by Redon, 332 
Orpheus and Eurjdice, by Poussin, 

62 n., 73 n. 
Oudry, J.-B,, 148, 148 n. 

Painter Claude Dupouch, The, by La 

Tour, 131 
Painter J. B. Oudrj, The, by Perron- 

neau, 132 n. 
Paix ramenant I'Ahondance, by Mme 

Le Brun, 175 
Parade, La, by Seurat, 321 
Parapluies, Les, by Renoir, 167 n. 
Parement de Narbonne, 8 
Paris and Helen, by David, 184 
Paris in 17th cent., 37-9 
Paris, Jean de, 19 
Parliament of Paris, 1 6 
Pastellists, 129-32 
Pastoral Conversation, by Watteau, 

Pater, Jean-Baptiste, 122-3 
Paveurs de la rue de Berne, by Manet, 

Pay sage de midi, by Derain, 219 
Pearce, Mr. Maresco, 294 
Peasant Family, by Louis Le Nain, 5 o 
Peasant Meal, by Louis Le Nain, 5 o 
Pedicure, Le, by Degas, 241 n. 
Peintre de Luxembourg-Martiques, 

Pere de famille qui lit la Bible a ses 

enfants, by Greuze, 169 
Pere Tanguy, Le, by Van Gogh, 302 
Perreal, Jean, 19, 21 
Perrier, Francois, 39 n., 78 
Perronneau, Jean-Baptiste, 131-2 
Perspective, La, by Watteau, 112 n., 


Perugino, 22 

Pesne, Antoine, 128 

Petards, Les, hy Fragonard, 161, 

163 n., 164 
Peter and the Serving Woman, by 

Dumesnil, 54 n. 
Petite Danseuse, La, by Renoir, 241 n. 
Petite fille a Varrosoir, by Renoir, 

267, 268 
Petite fille a I'eventail, by Picasso, 

xxiii, 330 
Phedre et Hippolyte, by Regnault, 


Philip V and the Marshal of Berwick, 

by Ingres, 201 
Philosophe, Le, by Cezanne, 3 1 5 
Picasso, Pablo, 330 
Pietd, by Delacroix, 212, 214 

First School of Paris, 8 

by Malonel, 9 

by Rosso, 28 

Second School of Avignon, 

xxix, 14-13 
{after Delacroix), by Van Gogh, 

301 n. 
Pins a la Villa Pamphili, by Fragonard, 

160, 164 
Pipe Drunk Woman, by Duck, 5 1 n. 
Pissarro, Camille, 237, 237 n., 240, 

242 n., 243, 280 n., 294, 311 
Pius VII in the Sistine Chapel, by 

Ingres, 201 
Place Pigalle, La, by Renoir, 267 
Plage de Boulogne, by Manet, 252 n. 
Plague in Ashdod, by Poussin, 70 n. 
Plaisirs d' Amour, by Watteau, 114 
Plaisirs du Bal, by Watteau, 113, 115 
Pompadour, Mme de, 1 5 1-2 

ports, by Boucher, 148 

port, by La Tour, 130, 152 

Pompadour, Mme de, en pelerine, pastel 

by Vigee, 174 n. 
Pont de Courbevoie, by Seurat, 3 20 
Pont de Narni, by Corot, 219 n. 
Poplars, by Monet, 259 
Port de Bordeaux, by Manet, 252 n. 
Port ofOstia, by Claude, 61, 62 n. 



Portrait de fantaisif, by Fragf)n.ird, 

i6i n. 
Portrait de M. L. -.-!., by Cc/annc, 

512 n. 
Portrait d'tm artp^lais, hy W'attcavi, 1 1 5 
Portrait of a Magistrate, by Mit^nard, 9 1 
Portrait of a Yoh/ij^ Lady of lO, 

Burgundian vSchool, 9 n. 
Portrait of a Youn^ Man, by Mail re- 
de M(iulins, 20 
Portrait of an Artist, by Afnic Labillc- 

Guyard, 174 
Portrait of Baudelaire, by Courbet, 227 
Portrait of Gustave Geffroy, by 

Cezanne, 313, 315, 317 
Portraits d'un Precepteur et son elhc, 

by Lefebre, 56 
Poseuses, Les, by Scurat, 321, 322 
Post-Impressionism, 287-8 
Pot de fleurs, by Cezanne, 3 1 5 
Potter, Paul, 5 1 

Poudreuse, L^, by Seurat, 320, 321 
Pour suite. La (La Surprise), by 

Fragonard, 162, 163 n. 
Poussin, Gaspard, 65 n. 
Poussin, Nicholas, 56, 64-73, ^7 "•> 

186, 187, 316 

pictures by, 64-5 

Premiere sortie. La, by Renoir, 267 n. 
Presentation in the Temple, by Rigaud, 

Presentation of Jesus in the lemple, by 

Vouet, 40 
President of the Chamhre des Ltiquctes 

du Parlement, by La Tour, 129 
Priere du Matin, by Grcuze, 169 
Primaticcio, 26, 27, 28, 29, 20 
Promenade au bois, drawing by Guys, 

234 n. 
Proudhon, port, by Courbet, 227 
Prudhon, Pierre, 191-2 
Psyche refoit le premier baiscr de 

I' Amour, by Gerard, 194 
PuccUe, Jean, 5 
Pujol, Abel de, 26 

Quesnel, Francois, 55 

Kadeau de la M^duse, by Gcricault, 

206, 207 
Kaie, l^, by Chardin, 135 
Kaoux, Jean, 1 52 
Rape of the Sabines, by Poussin, 

xxix, 70 
Raphael, 26 
Raphael and J^ Fornarina, by Ingres, 

Realist doctrine, 222 
Kecamier, Mme, by David, 187 
Receuil julienne, 108 n., no 
Ricureuse, La, by Chardin, 135, 1 3 7 n. , 

Rcdon, (Odilon, 331 
Regnault, Jcan-Baptiste, 193 
Rembrandt, 127, 128, 132, 232 
Rencontre, Le : Bonjour M. Courbet, 

by Courbet, 227 
Rende^-vous, Le (L'Escalade), by 

Fragonard, 162 
Rene of Anjou, 13-14 
Reni, Guido, 38 
Renoir, August, 237, 240, 241, 242, 

243, 258, 261-70, 287 

pictures by, 261-5 

Repas du Lion, Le, by Rousseau, 328 
Repasseuses, Les, by Degas, 275 
Repetition, La, by Degas, 275 
Repetition d'un Ballet sur la Seine, by 

Degas, 241 n. 
Repos, Le, by Manet, 251, 251 n. 
Resistance inutile. La, by Fragonard, 

xxix, 163 
Rest on the Flight, by Boucher, 148 n. 

by Claude, 62 n. 

by Vouet, 40 

Restaurant de la Sirine, by Van Gogh, 

Resurrection of Ltr^arus, by Froment, 

14 n. 
Re tour de la Conference, by Courbet, 

228, 228 n. 
Re tour de Marcus Sextus, by Regnault, 

Return from I fay waking, by Louis Lc 
Nain, 50 



Return from the Promised L.and, by 

Poussin, 75 
Keutuon Champetre, by Watteau, 114 
Reunion de famille, by Bazille, 237 n. 
Keve de Watteau, by Watteau, 105 n. 
Revoil, Pierre, 195 
Revolution, The, 179-81 
Richard 11, portrait of, 1 1 
Richard, Fleury, 195 
Richelieu, Cardinal de, port, by 

Champaigne, 55 
Rieux, Gabriel Bernard de, port, by 

La Tour, 129 
Rigaud, Hyacinthe, 93, 94-5, 127 

pictures by, 94 

Rinaldo and Armida, by Boucher, 146 

by Poussin, 68 n. 

Rising of the Sun, by Boucher, 149 n. 

Riviere, Henri, 242 

RJviere, Mme, by Ingres, 197, 198, 199 

Robe rose. La, by Bazille, 237 n. 

Robert, Hubert, 171, 172 

Rocky Landscape, by Cezanne, 316 

Rodin, 259 

Roe Covert, The, by Courbet, 230 

Romains de la Decadence, by Couture, 

Romantic Movement, 203 
Rosenberg, M. Paul, 22c 
Rosso, 26, 27, 28-9 
Rothschild, Baron Maurice de, 1 5 2 
Rouen Cathedral, by Monet, 259, 261 
Rousseau, Le Douanier, 327-9, 

329 n. 
Rousseau, Theodore, 215 
Route de Versailles, by Sislcy, 237 n. 
Royal Academy of Painting and 

Sculpture, 82-8 
Rubens, 38 
Ruth and Boa^, by Poussin, 73 

Sabines, The, by David, 185, 187 
Sacre de Napoleon ler, by David, 186, 

187, 187 n. 
St. Anthony and St. Paul the Hermit, 

by Velasquez, 219 
St. Aubin, Augustin de, 165 

St. Aubin, Gabriel de, 165 

St. Denis, Last Communion and 

Martyrdom of, by Malonel, 9 
St. Jerome, by Corot, 219 
St. Non, Jean-Claude de, 156 
St. Paul preaching at Lphesus, by Le 

Sueur, 46 n. 
St. Pol, palace of, 7 
St. Sebastian mourned by Women, by 

Dumesnil, 53, 54 
St. S iff rein Bishop of Car pen tr as, by 

Froment, 14 n. 
Saint, with Donor, by Maitre de 

Moulins, 20 
Salons, The, 143-4 
Saltimbranques, Les, by Boilly, 167 
Sandrart, Joachim, 63 n. 
Sarto, Andrea del, 25, 26 
Sauveur lavant les pieds a ses apotreSy 

by Fragonard, 156 n. 
Saving of Pyrrhus, Poussin, 70 n. 
Scenes from the Life of St. Anne, School 

of Bourdichon, 19 
Schoolmistress, The, by Fragonard, 

Seaport with a rising Sun, by Claude, 

SeatedBishop, Burgundian School, 9 n. 
Seine, The, by Monet, 259 
Self-portrait, by Ingres, 198 

by Poussin, 66 

Senonnes, Mme de, by Ingres, 200, 

200 n. 
Serinette, La, by Chardin, 138 n. 
Serment des Horaces, by David, 183-4 
Sermentdujeu de Paume, by David, 185 
Servante de Bocks, by Manet, 252 
Setting of the Sun, by Boucher, 149 n. 
Seurat, Georges, 237 n., 243 n., 

280 n., 295, 318-23 

pictures by, 318-9 

Seven Sacraments, by Poussin, 70 
Shepherds of Arcady, by Poussin, 72 
Shoelace, The, by Renoir, 269 
Sirois, 103 
Sisley, Alfred, 237, 237 n., 240, 243, 




Sleeping Venus, hy Poussin, 68 n. 
Snake Charmer, The, hv Rousseau, 

Solario, 22 

Sommeil d'llndymion, by Trioson, 194 
Sorcl, Apncs, port, by Fouquct, 18 
Sorquainville, Mme de, by Pcrronncau, 

Sous un habit de Mr::^:ietin, by XX'attcau, 

Soui'enir, l^, by Fragonard, 160 
Souvenir de Marcoussis, by Corot, 2170. 
Soui'enir s, Les (Les Confidences), by 

Fragonard, 160, 162 
Stable, The, by Duck, s i n. 
Stacking^ Hay, by Gauguin, 294 
Stella, Jacques, 39 n. 
Still life, by Cezanne, 140 

by Chardin, 140, 315 

Still life with a black cloak, by Cezanne, 

314. 315 
Stolen Kiss, The, by Fragonard, 160 
Stratonice, by Ingres, 201 
Subleyras, Pierre-Hubert, 128 
Summer, by de Chavannes, 195 n. 
Sunflowers, by Van Gogh, 303 
Surprise, La, by Fragonard, 162 
Sur-Rcalists, The, 331-2 
Suzanne Valadon, by Toulouse- 
Lautrec, 279 
Swcbach-Dcsfontaincs, S., 165 
Suing, The, by Fragonard, 161 

Tableaux dc Modes, 164-6 

Tancred and Herminone, by Poussin, 

68 n. 
Tanguy, 243, 312 n. 
Tassi, Agostino, 61 
Taureau blanc a I'c table, by Fragonard, 

le rcriva, by Gauguin, 295 
Tessin, Comtc de, 147 n. 
Testelin, Louis, 39 n. 
Thames, by Monet, 259, 261 
Thorc, Thcophilc, 250, 2^4 n. 
Three Graces, by Rcgnault, 193 
Tibaldi, Maria, by Subleyras, 128 n. 

liber, above Rome, l^y Claude, 219 
Titian, 27, 67 
'r()ct]ue, Louis, 173 n. 
Toilet of Venus, by Boucher, 148 
Toilette, La, by Nlorisot, 237 n. 
Toilette du Matin, by Chardin, 135 

. 139 n- 
Toper, in' Cirimou, 132 

Toucher, Marie, 30 n. 

Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de, 237, 

254, 276-84 

pictures by, 276-8 

Tournoi au XIV Sikle, by Rcvoie, 195 
Tours de Cartes, by Chardin, 135, 140 
Transfiguration, by Rosso, 29 n. 
Triomphe de Bonaparte, by Prudhon, 

Trioson, Girodet de Roncy, 194 
Triumph of Bacchus, by Poussin, 68 n. 
Triumph of David, by Poussin, 70 n. 
Triumph of Flora, by Poussin, 68 n. 
Troubadour movement, 194-5 
Troupe Italienne, by XX'atteau, 1 1 2 
Troyon, Constant, 215 
Turner, W. M., 61 n. 

Valois, Ml.e de, by Bcaubruns, 55 
Van Gogh, Vincent, 280 n., 287-8, 


pictures by, 295-8 

port, by Toulouse-Lautrec, 279 

Van Gogh's Bedroom at Aries, by 

Van Gogh, 303 
Van Gogh's House at Aries, by Van 

Gogh, 303 
Vcil-Picard, Arthur, 132 n. 
Vendangrurs, Les, by Renoir, 267 n. 
Venice, by Corot, 219 

by Monet, 259 

Venus, by Bronzino, 27, 29 n., 30 

by Giorgione, 239 

School ot Primaticcio, 30 

by Titian, 239 

Venus and Adonis, by Prudhon, 191 
Venus and Satyrs, by Poussin, 68 
Venus and the man playing the Organ, 

liy Titian, 239 



Venus in the Forge of Vulcan, by 

M. Le Nain, 5 2 
Vernet, Joseph, 171-2 
Verrou, Le, by Fragonard, 160, 161, 

163, 164 
Versailles, 77, 81, 90 
Verf-Verf, by Richard, 195 
Vestier, Antoine, 173 n. 
Vetheuil, by Monet, 259 
Vicioire, Madame, as Diana, port, by 

Nattier, 128 
Victorine en costume d'Espada, by 

Manet, 248, 251 n., 254 
Vieu, Joseph Marie, 181 n. 
Vieux Musicien, Le, by Manet, 248 
Vie}]' of the Campo Vaccino, by 

Claude, 57, 60 
View of the Luxembourg Garden, by 

David, 185 
Vigee, Louis, pastellist, 174 n. 
Village Piper, by A. and L. Le Nain, 

Vincent, by Mme Labille-Guyard, 

174 n, 
Vinci, Leonardo da, 21, 25 
Virgil reading the Aeneid to Augustus, 

by Ingres, 199 
Virgin, by Maitre de Moulins, xxiii 
Virgin and Child, by Fouquet, 1 8 
Virgin and Child with Angels, by 

Maitre de Moulins, 20 

School of Bourdichon, 19 

Virgin and Child with Saint and Donor, 

School of Avignon, 6 
Virgin ofPitj, by Charenton, 15 n. 
Virgin of the Rocks, by Vinci, 26 
Virgin with Chancellor Rolin, by 

J. van Eyck, 12 
Virgin with the Grapes, by Mignard, 

Vivien, Joseph, 129 
Vleughels, Nicholas, by Pesne, 128 n, 
Vau a I' Amour, by Fragonard, 164 
Vau de Louis XIII, by Ingres, 200 

Voi lures aux courses, by Degas, 241 n, 


VoUard, Ambroise, 315 

port, by Cezanne, 317 

Vouet, Simon, 39-41, 78 

pictures by, 39 

Vow of the Horatii {Le Serment des 

Horaces), by David, 183-4 
Vue de I'exposition universelle, by 

Manet, 252 n. 
Vue de Village, by Bazille, 237 n. 
Vuillard, Edouard, 294 n. 

Wagner, port, by Renoir, 266 
Wagon de troisihme classe, by Daumier, 

Washerwomen carrying their baskets, by 

Degas, 274 
Watteau, Antoine, 101-24, 165, 171, 


pictures by, 106-16 

Wealth, by Vouet, 41 

Wedding, The, by Rousseau, 328 

Wedding Night of Tobias, by Le 
Sueur, 46 

Weeping over the Dead Christ, by 
Poussin, 70 n. 

Weill, M. David, 132, 160, 163, 174, 

Weyden, Roger van der, 12, 16 

Wilde, Oscar, drawing by Toulouse- 
Lautrec, 281, 281 n. 

Wilton Diptych, 1 1 n. 

Woman taken in Adultery, by Poussin, 
70 n. 

Woman with a parrot, by Manet, 248, 

251 n. 

Wounded Soldier, The, by Gericault, 
208 n. 

Young Bull, by Paul Potter, 5 1 
Young Man as a Majo, by Manet, 

248, 25 1 n. 
Young man on a bicycle, by Manet, 

252 n. 

Youth and Bacchus, by Poussin, 68 n. 

Zola, Emile, 242, 250, 267 

Zola, Portrait of, by Manet, 254 n. 


The Mayfiuitfr Press, Plymoulk. 
Willi:iiu brciidon & Son, Llil.