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1 W 11.1. ;5?^ 


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®Ifor^ ifrencb Series 


General Editor: RAYMOND ^lEEKS, Ph.D. 








AMERICAN BRANCH: 35 Wkst 32nd Street 




Copyright, 1913 
BY Oxford University Press 



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The path of any one undertaking to furnish a guide to 
French pronunciation is a thorny one. Nevertheless, 
despite this fact and the thanklessness of the task, the 
subject receives, in a variety of forms, some attention 
annually. Most of this attention is of the obligatory 
kind and is found in the opening chapter of almost every 
French granunar that appears. Such treatment, while 
necessarily concise and brief and generally well adapted 
to the purpose in view, of introducing the student to the 
subject, hardly ever goes beyond that goal. Besides the 
grammars, there are quite a few manuals, or treatises, on 
pronunciation that appear from time to time, and in their 
way are helpful to the serious student of the subject, no 
matter how objectionable he may consider many features 
in such works. Lastly there are the recent dictionaries, 
in most of which the most cursory examination reveals an 
amount of attention given to the su})ject of pronuncia- 
tion proportionate to the very considerable interest there- 
in manifested of late years. 

During this period the above sources have been quite 
fully drawn upon by the writer in giving the course on 
French pronunciation to the students of advanced courses 
in French in Boston University and in the course on pho- 
netics given among the courses for teachers at the same 
institution. The need, however, of something more tan- 



gible, particularly in the way of drill exercises illustrating 
the principles involved, has yearly made itself more sen- 
sibly felt. The present treatise is an attempt to supply 
this want. The system of indicating pronunciation of the 
International Phonetic Association has been adopted be- 
cause it is the system now most universally in use for in- 
dicating pronunciation in dictionaries and standard works 
of reference. For that reason it is better known than any 
other system. Moreover, it is well adapted for indicating 
the sounds of French, and in itself may be made to do ex- 
cellent service in introducing the student to the subject 
of general phonetics, a most valuable asset in the study 
of language. 

Quite a number and variety of books of reference, more 
or less "authoritative," have been in use constantly dur- 
ing the preparation of this treatise. From many of them, 
simply a word, a sentence, an idea, a suggestion has been 
taken. Others have served continually as a vade-mecum, 
particularly in noting pronunciation. The difference of 
opinion among educated French people as regards the pro- 
nunciation of some words is, in many instances, consider- 
able. In view of this lack of agreement, the writer's aim, 
in justice to all concerned, has been simply to record what 
he believes from printed data to be the facts. The stu- 
dent may be absolutely certain that, barring mistakes, 
every indicated pronunciation in the treatise has more 
or less endorsement as vouched for in the French sources 
of information. This testimony serves as an affidavit to 
which any one can turn at any time. The opinion of the 
educated Frenchman or of the experienced teacher is un- 
doubtedly most helpful in such cases. It has the disad- 


vantage, how-^ver, of being verbatim testimony, as over 
against written statement, and for that reason its weight 
is less enduring. Investigation of the records will very 
rarely result in other than additional proof verifying the 
correctness of any one particular pronunciation noted. 

Undoubtedly many a scholar will condemn roundly a 
number of the books of reference cited in the appended 
list. The subject is many-sided. What appeals to one 
will shock another. It will be remembered, however, that 
it is hardly possible to produce a work of any kind what- 
ever on the subject that may not in some way contain at 
least a suggestion, if not more, that may be of practical 
use to somebody. Therefore, such as it is, and containing 
most of the publications consulted in the preparation of 
the present treatise, the list is herewith offered as a bib- 
liographical guide to others working up the subject of 
French pronunciation. 

The brief portion of the treatise following that on the 
"spoken word" has been suggested by the many ques- 
tions of teachers in regard to the "written word": "Is a 
hyphen used between the parts of such and such a word?" 
"Do you abbreviate the first part?" "Is it written with 
a capital?" "What corresponds to 'Sincerely Yours'?" 
etc. The answers to such questions are not readily found 
in the ordinary grammar and composition book, although 
it is possible to locate them in a very few of such works. 
Therefore it is hoped that tlu; treatment here of this part 
of the subject embraced in th(; Sununary will help to make 
more complete and accessible the information already 

It only remains for the writer to thank his friend Pro- 


fessor Weeks, the editor of the series, for reading the manu- 
script and for making a number of valuable suggestions 
which have been carefully carried out. 

James Geddes, Jr. 
Boston University, May 1, 1913. 



Bibliography ix 

I Introduction 1 

Key to pronunciation 1 

Symbols to be noted 1 

Table of French sounds 3 

Vowel differences ' 4 

Consonant differences 5 

Stress 6 

Quantity 7 

French alphabet 9 

Orthographic marks 11 

Division of syllables 13 

Double consonants 16 

Written and spoken forms 17 


II Oral vowels 19 

a = [a] 19 i = [i] 36 

a = [u] 21 .,„ o = [o] 37 

e = [o] 25 "^'^ o = [ol ■ . . 40 

e silent 26 ^.. eu = [o] 43 iX 

... e = [e] 30 \Veu = [a'] 44 ^^ 

> S = [e] 33 ou = [u] 45 

e without accent . . 36 u = [y] 46 

III Vowel combinations 47 

ai, ei, au, eu, ou, etc 47, 123 

IV Nasal vowkls 49 

an, am, en, em . . . 50 on, cm 54 

in, im, etc 52 un, um 55 




V Semi-vowels 57 

i+ vowel »=[j] . 57 u + vowel = [q] ... 62 

o + vowel = [w] 60 Semi- vowels + nasals . 64 

VI Consonants 65 

Distinctions between French and English consonants. 65 

General principles 65 

b, c 68 m, n 93, 95 

ch, sch 71 p, q, qu 96, 98 

d, f 73 r, s 101, 104 

g, gn 76 sc, sch 108 

gn = [ji] .... 78 t, th 109 

h, j 81,85 ti + vowel 112 

k, 1 86 V, w 118 

Imouille .... 87 wh, x, z 119,122 

VII Review. Resume op vowel combinations 123 

VIII Review. Consonant combinations . . : 125 

IX Liaison 126 

b, c, f, k, 1 . . . 128 z 133 

p, q, r, t . . . . 130 d, g, s, X . . . . . . 134 

t in -ect, etc. . . 131 m, n 138 

Special cases, exceptions, etc 140 

X Elision 142 

XI Capitals 145 

XII Punctuation 154 

XIII Conventional forms used in letter-writing . . . 157 

XIV Abbreviations 161 

Index 165 


Alvergnat, v. The modern class-book of French pronunciation, 
containing all the rules with their exceptions which govern the 
pronunciation of the French language. Boston (Schoenhof), 
1891. (Particularly useful and suggestive as regards the syllabi- 
cation of the %\Titten and spoken forms of many difficult words.) 

Beasley, H. R. Sure steps to intelligent French. London (Swan, 
Sonnenschein & Co.), 1905. (An elementary treatise employ- 
ing the system of the International Phonetic Association to in- 
dicate the pronunciation.) 

Bernard, C. H. L. N., and Leon E. Bernard. Visible French 
pronunciation. Boston, 1899. (The authors employ a phonetic 
transcription of their own, silent letters appearing in red.) 

Bernard, Victor F. Les fautes de langage ou le fran^ais comme on 
le park. New York (Jenkins), 1900. (Pp. 59-69 contain a list 
of common words likely to be mispronounced.) 

Besscherelle aine. L'art de conju{juer. Paris (Fouraut et fils), s. d. 
(Few more handy works of the kind have ever been devised 
in order to locate at once a peculiar verb-form than this "old 

Bevier, Louis, Jr. A French grammar, with exercises by Thomas 
Logic. New York (Holt), 1896. (The Phonology (pp. 9-46) is 
unusually complete.) 

Beyer, Franz. Frunzosische Phonetik. 2d ed. Cothen (Schulze), 
1908. (Pp. 136-153 contain instructive Tcxtproben. A few 
characters indicating sounds differ from those now used by the 
J. P. A.) 

. Idem. Dritte Auflage im Auftrage des Verfassers, neu be- 

arbeitet von H. Klinghardt. Cothen (Schulze), 1908. (Of inter- 
est as compared with the first edition because of the progress 
made in the subject of phonetics during the twenty years be- 
tween the two editions and the additions to its Literatur, pp. 224- 



Beyer und Passy. Das gesprochene Franzosisch. Cothen (Schulze), 
1893. {Grammatik: pp. 77-170; Specimens of pronunciation: 
pp. 1-76; Useful phonetic glossary: pp. 174-218.) 

B6cher's Otto's French grammar. New York (Holt), 1884. (Pro- 
nunciation: pp. 13-27.) 

BoNAME, L. StvAy and practice of French. Philadelphia (1930 Chest- 
nut St.). Part I, 1899; Part II, 1908; Part III, 1899. (Con- 
siderable attention is paid, particularly in Parts, I and II, which 
are of an elementary character, to the subject of pronunciation. 
Useful simple examples abound.) 

. Idem. A handbook of pronunciation. Ibidem, 1900. (Par- 
ticularly useful for those who do not care for phonetic transcrip- 
tions and desire the subject stated along ordinary lines in the 
simplest and most direct form.) 

Bracket and Toynbee. A historical grammar" of the French lan- 
guage. Oxford (Clarendon Press), 1896. (Good common ex- 
amples and very clear statements.) 

Brittain, Margaret. Historical primer of French phonetics, with 
introductory note by Paget Toynbee. Oxford (Clarendon 
Press), 1900. (One of the few books of the kind in English 
showing up-to-date scholarship.) 

Brunot, F. Precis de grammaire historique de la langue frangaise. 
Paris (Masson), 1887. (A standard work.) 

Cameron, J. H. The elements of French composition. New York 
(Holt), 1901. (Useful hints to students on capitals, punctu- 
ation, etc.: pp. 103-116.) 

Cadvet, Alfred. La prononciation frangaise et la diction, k I'usage 
des ecoles, de gens du monde et des etrangers. Dixidme edition 
accompagnee de lettres adressees a I'auteur par MM. Delaunay, 
Got et Massenet. Paris (Ollendorff), 1889. (Offers many useful 
suggestions passim throughout.) 

Chardenal's Complete French course, revised by Maro Brooks. 
Boston (Allyn & Bacon), 1907. (Pronunciation: pp. 1-16.) 

Churchman, P. H. An introduction to the pronunciation of French. 
Cambridge, Mass., 1907. 

. Exercises on French sounds. New York (Jenkins), 1911. 

(A revised edition of the preceding Introduction, etc. Both of 


these manuals are among the best of the kind published in the 
United States.) 

Cledat, L. Grammaire elementaire de la vieille langue frangaise. 
Paris (Garnier freres), 1887. (A standard work.) 

. Grammaire raisonnee de la langue frangaise. Paris (Soudier), 

1894. (A standard work.) 

Colin and Serafon. Practical lessons in French grammar. Boston 
(Sanborn), 1910. (Pronunciation: pp. xxix-xxxv.) 

Delahaye, Victor. Diciionnaire de la prononciation modeme de la 
langue frangaise. Montreal (Beauchemin), 1901. Seul ouvrage 
portatif donnant la prononciation figuree de tous les mots de la 
langue frangaise. Precede d'une lettre a I'auteur de Louis Fre- 
chette. (A simple system of indicating pronunciation is em- 
ployed. The syllabication of every word receives more thorough 
treatment than can perhaps be foimd in any other similar work.) 

DuMAis, Joseph. Parlons frangais. Montreal, 1905. (Particularly 
adapted to the needs of the French-speaking inhabitants of 

Eve and de Baudier. The Wellington College French grammar. 
16th edition. London (David Nutt), 1904. (One of the best 
grammars of the kind published in England. Hints on pro- 
nunciation: pp. 324-339; phonetic transcription: pp. 363-365.) 

Fraser and Squair. A French grammar for schools and colleges. 
Boston (Heath), 190S. (Many editions; widely used in Canada 
and the United States. Plionc'tic introduction: pp. 1-12.) 

Grandgent, C. H. a short French grammar. Boston (Heath), 1894. 
(Pronunciation and spelling: pp. 1-11.) 

. The essentials of French grammar. Ibidem, 1900. (The first 

fifteen chapters (pp. 1-44) are devoted to a detailed study and 
analysis of the essential features of French pronunciation. 
Both this work and the preceding, because of the marked ori- 
ginality of treatment of the entire subject of French grammar, 
are highly suggestive.) 

. Selections for French composition. Ibidem. (Pp. v-vi and 

53-54 et .leq. contain the most complete guidance for the con- 
ventional usage in letter-writing that has yet appeared.) 

IIatzfeld, Darmesteter et Thomas. Diciionnaire general de la 


langue franqaise dii commencement du xvii siecle jusqu'a noa 
jours. Paris, s. d. [Public en fascicules en 1893-4-5]. (A stand- 
ard work very generally considered the most authoritative work 
of the kind.) 

Jespersen, Otto. Lehrbuch der Phonelik. Autorisicrte tJbersetzung 
von Hermann Davidsen. Leipzig und Berlin, 1904. (This 
author's works are among the most authoritative of the kind.) 

Knowles-Favard. Perfect French -possible. Boston (Heath), 1910. 
(French sentences expressed in English words.) | 

KoscHWiTZ, Edward. Les parlers parisiens. Paris (Welter), 1896. 
("Anthologie phonetique" made up of records taken of the 
speech of a number of well-known educated Frenchmen and 
transcribed according to the system of the I. P. A.) 

KuHN, Maurice N. Elements of spoken French. New York (Ameri- 
can Book Co.), 1900. (Twenty lessons, French on one side of 
the page, English on the other, studying the individual sounds, 
with exercises on them and a good many examples.) 

Lesaint, M. a. Traite complet de la prononcialion frangaise dans la 
seconde moitie du xix" siecle. 3^ ed. Halle (Gesenius), 1890. 
(One of the best and most useful works of the kind ever pub- 
lished. It has been reprinted several times but not revised; or 
if any revision has been made, it has been very slight.) 

LiET, Albert. Traite de prononcialion frangaise. Theorie et pra- 
tique. Paris, 1900. (Very useful in indicating both syllable 
division and pronunciation.) 

Larousse, Pierre. Grand dictionnaire universel du Xixe siecle. 
Paris, 1865. (The fifteen-volume work with the two supple- 
ments, as an encyclopedia, is even to-day unsurpassed, except, 
of course, in matter that is modern and made possible since the 
pubUcation of the Larousse.) 

Littre, E. Dictionnaire de la langue frangaise. Paris (Hachette), 
1889. (The four volumes and the supplement, Mke the preceding 
work, in its way is even to-day a most valuable work. The small 
Larousse and Littr^ dictionaries generally furnish pronunciation 
only in particular cases where without it the difficulty is appar- 
ent at once.) 

Maitre phonetique, organe de I'Association phonetique internatio- 


nale. Bourg-la-Eteine, Seine. (A monthly review devoted to 
sounds and their expression according to the I. P. A. system.) 
Matzke, J. E. A printer of French pronuncialion. 3d edition. New 
York (Holt), 190G. (An excellent brief and concise treatise of 
the subject, employing the I. P. A. system tliroughout.) 
Micha£lis-Passy. Didionnaire phonetiqiie de la langue fran^aise. 
Hanovre, 1897. (A unique work and perhaps the only one of 
the kind. Many "popular" pronunciations not considered 
"standard" by scholars are given. That they are heard cannot 
be doubted. This in itself gives a pecuhar value to the diction- 

MuLLER, August. Allgemeines Worterbiich der Aiissprache ausldndi- 
scher Eigennamen. 7th edition, in collaboration with G. A. Saal- 
feld and H. MichaeUs. Leipzig (Haberland), 1903. (The diffi- 
culty of finding the pronunciation indicated of proper names is 
very real. This work, as a book of reference, may at times prove 

Nicholson, G. G. A practical introduction to French phonetics. 
London (Macmillan), 1909. (A scholarly ex-position of the sub- 
ject up to date and along modern lines.) 

Passy, Paul. Choix de lectures frangaises phonetiques. Cothen 
(Schulze), s. d. (Specimens of the "popular" pronunciation of 
children. The French rendering is not given on the opposite 
page. Many teachers prefer it should not be given. Well adap- 
ted for class-room use, provided the teacher ex-plains the differ- 
ence between "popular" and "standard.") 

. Slvde sur les changemenls phonetiques et leurs caractcres gene- 

raux. Paris (Firmin-Didot), 1890. (A most useful work to 
students interested in sound-change and general phonetics.) 

. Le franqais parle. 2*^ cd. Heilbronn (Henninger freres), 

1889. (Specimens of spoken French.) 

. Petite phonetiqu£ comparee des principales langues euro- 

pSennes. Lcipsic et Berlin (Tcubner), 1906. (Of particular 
value to students of phonetics and hnguistics.) 

. Lectures varices mises en transcription phonMique. 2® 6d. 

Pari.s, 1910. (Specimens of spoken French (without the French 
rendering; cf. what is said above under the author's Choix de 


lectures, etc.)- The language is not of quite as "popular" a 
character as that found in the Choix.) 

. Les sons dufrangais. 6® ed. Paris, 1906. (This well-known, 

clear and simple expose of the subject furnishes as good an intro- 
duction as is available.) 

. The sounds of the French language, translated by D. L. Sa- 
vory and D. Jones. Oxford (Clarendon Press), 1907. (This is a 
translation of the above with useful notes and suggestions, 
making it thoroughly desirable.) 

Passy-Hempl. International French-English and English-French 
dictionary. New York (Hinds, Noble and Eldridge), 1904. (A 
useful work and unique of the kind, giving the pronimciation in 
both parts, French and English, according to the I. P. A. sys- 
tem. Moreover, the pronunciation of a number of proper names 
is indicated.) 

Passy-Jones. Ex-pose des principes de l' Association phonelique in- 
ternationale. Bourg-la-Reine, 1908. (A pamphlet of 20 pages 
containing, besides the Expose of the principles of the organiza- 
tion, specimen selections.) 

■ . The principles of the international phonetic association. Bourg- 
la-Reine (Seine) and University College, London, 1912. (New, 
revised, and enlarged edition in English of the Expose. It con- 
tains 40 pages including quite a complete Bibliography of the 
entire subject.) 

Passy, Jean, et Adolf Rambeau. Chrestomathie jranqaise. 2^ ed. 
New York (Holt) and Paris (Soudier), 1901. (One of the best 
books of the kind and the most complete both as regards expo- 
sition of the principles of sound-change and the selections. 
The French rendering of the phonetical transcriptions is found 
throughout the work on the opposite page. Pp. xlvii-H con- 
tain a good bibliography of the subject.) 

Rippmann, Walter. Elements of phonetics. Enghsh, French and 
German, translated and adapted by Walter Rippmann from 
Professor Victor's Kleine Phonetik. London (Dent), 1907. (For 
the student of phonetics, one of the best books published.) 

Rivard, Adjutor. Manuel de la parole. Traite de prononciation. 
Quebec, 1901. (An excellent work of the kind, giving briefly 


and clearly the many peculiarities of pronunciation of Canadian 
French children and therebj^ proving most helpful Unguistically 
and phonetically.) 

RocHELLE, Philippe de la. Guide to French pronunciation and prac- 
tical phonetics. Philadelphia (Fuller Building), 1909. (The 
ordinary difficulties explained more from the popular than the 
scientific standpoint.) 

RoussELOT et Laclotte. Precis de pfrononciation Jranqaise. Paris 
and Leipzig, 1902. (A well-known useful work of reference.) 

Saillens and Holme. First principles of French pronunciation. 
London (Blackie & Son), 1909. (One of the few up-to-date scien- 
tific contributions that are beginning to appear in EngUsh.) ^ 

SiMONSEN, Elna. Franske Lydskrifttekster. Copenhagen (Gylden- 
dalske Boghandel), 1908. (Selections well adapted for class- 
room use.) 

Snow, Wm. B. Fundamentals of French grammar. New York 
(Holt), 1912. ("Letters and their Sounds": pp. 1-12. Pho- 
netic transcriptions at the bottom of the pages.) 

Storm, J. Englische Philologie. 2 vols. Leipzig (Reisland), 1892. 
(See vol. I, Allgemeine Phonetik and the portion deaHng with 
P. Passy:pp. 158-188.) 

Sweet, Henry. A handbook of phonetics. Oxford (Clarendon Press), 
1890. (A standard work.) 

Ta.ssi.s, S.A. Guide du correcteur et du compositeur . Paris (Firmin- 
Didot), 1856. (Despite the age of this httle guide, in-16 (90 
pages), "donnant la solution dcs principales difficultes pour 
I'emploi des lettres majuscules et minuscules dans I'dcriture et 
I'impression," nothing has been found by the compiler of this 
list to equal it in its way. It is sui generis unique.) 

Te.sson, Louis. Le frangais fonetique. Revue trimestrielle. Paris 
(Ch. Amat), 1909-'1(>-'11. 

. Le verbe frangais raisonne. I bide7n, 1909. 

. Le livre de lecture fonetico-ortogrnfique. Ibidem, 1909. (In 

each of these three publications, the author uses a simple 
method of indicating pronunciation which has the advantage 
that it can be printed by the ordinary printing-press.) 

Thieme and Effinoer. A French grammar. New York (Macmil- 


Ian Co.), 1908. (The I. P. A. transcription is used throughout, 
and very effectively as far as appearance on the page is con- 

Thurwanger, Camille. Musical diction. Boston, s. d. [1911]. 
New England Conservatory of Music. (Although written for 
students of singing, it contains many good points for others as 
well as most usefid examples.) 

. Phonetically anjiotaled songs in foreign langtuiges, enabling 

any one to sing correctly in French, Italian, and German. 
Ibidem., 1912. (An effective exemplification of the practical 
utility of phonetic notation according to the system of the 
I. P. A. 

TucKERMAN, Juhus. Sim-pUcite . A reader of French pronunciation. 
New York (American Book Co.), 1908. (Pedagogically this man- 
ual in its first edition far surpassed its scientific worth. The later 
editions, however, have made amends in the latter respect.) 

ViETOR, Wilhelm. Elemenie der Phonetik und Orihoepie des 
Deutschen, Englischen und Franzosischen. 5. Auflage. Leipzig, 
1904. (A standard work.) 

. Kleine Phonetik. 8. Auflage. Leipzig, 1912. (A simple and 

practical condensation of the preceding Elements, etc.) 

Vreeland and Koren. Lessons in French syntax and composition. 
New York (Holt), 1907. (Pp. 98-102 useful hints in regard 
to conventional forms used in letter- WTiting.) 

Whitney, W. D. A practical French grammar. New York (Holt), 
1886. ("Pronunciation": pp. 1-26. Like the Bocher's Otto's 
grammar mentioned above, the Whitney holds well its own with 
the newcomers. The examples are numerous and well chosen.) 

Yersin, M. and J. The Yersin phono-rhythmic method of French pro- 
nunciation, accent, and diction. French-Enghsh. Philadelphia 
(Lippincott), 1897. (Contains the teaching experience of two 
teachers remarkably successful in imparting an excellent pro- 

ZuND-BtTRGUET, Adolphe. Methode pratique, physiologique et com- 
paree de prononciation. Paris (Gymnase de la Voix), 1902. 
(Showing especially how sounds are produced, their position by 
means of the artificial palate, the mechanism of the subject.) 


1 Key to pronunciation. As the sounds of French and 
Enghsh are rarely identical, it is impossible to give exact 
equivalents taken from both. Nevertheless so similar are 
in many cases the sounds respectively of either language 
that it is often possible to get quickly a more adequate 
idea of nearly corresponding sounds by comparison than 
in any other way. Spelling in French, although not so 
irregular and inconsistent as in English, offers many dif- 
ficulties. This must necessarily be so, for in French 
there are thirty-seven sounds, exclusive of minor distinc- 
tions, and only twenty-six letters to express them. The 
advantage, therefore, in a treatise on French pronuncia- 
tion, of having an alphabet in which one letter or s>Tnbol, 
and only one, shall represent each sound, is at once ap- 
parent. Such an alphabet has for many years been used 
at home and abroad. It is known as the International 
Phonetic Alphabet. Twenty-four of the characters used 
to indicate pronunciation are those of the ordinary al- 
phabet and consequently are familiar to the student: [a], 
[a], [b], [d], [e], [f], [g], [h], [i], [j], [k], [1], [m], [n], [o], [p], 
[r], [s], [t], [u], [v], [w], [y], [z]. 

2 Symbols to be noted. Of the thirteen remaining 
symbols, which are unlike the characters of the alphabet, 
five represent oral vowel sounds: [o], [v], [o], [oe], [0]; four 



represent nasal vowel sounds: [ci], [e|, [5], [oe]; one repre- 
sents a semi-vowel or semi-consonant sound: [q]; and 
three represent consonant sounds: [ji], [$], [5]. 

Of the symbols just noted, [0] and [q] are respectively 
inverted e and h; the open [e] is "the Greek epsilon"; [0] 
is an open 0; [0], a Danish letter representing approxi- 
mately the vowel sound in English hwrt; [oe], so written 
in French, is the union of the letters o and e, about as in 
English pup; [a], [e], [5], [oe] are simply the oral vowels 
[a], [e], [0], [oe] nasalized; [ji] is pictorial for the union of 
g and n, a sound somewhat like that in English pinion; 
[$] is an old English s, used for the sh sound in English 
s/iall; and [3] represents the corresponding voiced sound 
heard in English pleasure. 

3 Open and closed. In speaking of the vowels, 
the terms "open" and "closed" are frequently used. 
"Open" applied to the symbols [a], [e], [0], [oe], shows pic- 
torially that these symbols, having a break or opening 
somewhere about their contour, are "open" compared 
respectively with their "closed" correspondents [a], [e], 
[o], [0], which are closed in. In pronouncing "open" and 
"closed" vowels, these terms may be the better fixed 
in the memory if it be remembered that "open" and 
"closed" appUed to the sounds indicate, in a general 
way, that the mouth is to be opened wider when pro- 
nouncing an "open" vowel than when pronouncing its 
"closed" correspondent. 


4 Table of French sounds, with approximate EngHsh 







pctte, pert 



bout, robe 



pas, pate 



dent, rude 



en, tante 



/ort, neu/ 



ete, deja 



^ant, dof/ue 

frigate ^ 


tait, tete 



/2onte, o/io 



vfn, temte 



car, coq 



de, crever 



long, seuZ 



nj, pire 



mot, dame 



pot, cote 



ni, ane 


robe, tort 



regner, pei^ne 



blond, trompe 



/>as, ta/»e 


peu, creuse 



rare, drap 



seu\, peuT 



si, danse 



un, humble 



c/jat, hac/ie 



tout, tour 



<as, pa«e 



pu, pur 

(German ii) 


vent, riue 



yeux, bfen year 
huile, nuage sweet 


zele, rose 
7ean, rouje 
sign of length 



oui, poele 


1 Approximately as in the New England pronunciation of wan, want; not 
with the vowel in law which is more widely in use elsewhere. More accurately the 
sound is a in mar, nasalized. 

' For those who pronounce hount and all similar words (cf. note 1) with a 
nasal vowel (as in law somewhat nasalized), that sound would be nearer. Tha 
New England vowel of want, haunt, daunt, etc., enjoys a very limited use in tho 
United States. 

• The vowel sound meant in hurt is that of the standard English of England 
and that of New England. West of the Hudson, and generally in New York 
City, one hears the "cerebral r." It may be said as regards parallelism of 
sound between <fr and the vowel in hurt, and between ce and the vowel in pi/p, 
hut, cup, that in the speech of those who pronounce no r in hurt, a parallel 
exists between the vowel in this word aa compared with that of hut, and the 
French vowels </> and ce. <i> is sensibly more tense than ce. 


5 Vowel differences in English and French. The 
vowels in English frequently begin with one sound and 
end with an entirely different one. If the first letter of 
the English alphabet a be pronounced, and the sound 
prolonged, and then allowed gradually to die away, it will 
be found that the vowel begins with the letter a and ends 
with English e. If the letter i be pronounced in the same 
manner, it will be found that the vowel begins with an 
English ah sound and ends with the sound of English e. 
If in a like manner be pronounced, the vowel will be 
found to begin with o and end with the sound of oo in 
English boo. The approximate French sounds correspond- 
ing to the English first letter of the alphabet a and to the 
letter o are e and 6 respectively. If these French vowels 
be properly pronounced, no such sliding scale of transi- 
tion as occurs in English will appear. The beginning, 
middle and end of the French sound will be identical. 

6 The respective differences of these two English 
vowels and their corresponding French approximates e 
and 6 may be graphically shown thus: 

English vowel sounds a, o French approximates e, 6 

Therefore in the above Table the vowel sound in 
English fate incorrectly represents the vowel sound in 
ete, because the former sound is a diphthong, while the 
latter is a pure vowel. The same is true of pot, cote. 


The vowel sound in English note is a diphthong, while 
the sound in French pot and cote is a simple, uniformly 
even utterance throughout. It is of the utmost impor- 
tance at the start to realize and to observe this vocalic 
difference between the two languages. 

7 Consonant differences in English and French. 
Nearly every English consonant is more or less unlike its 
French approximate. In general the transition in Eng- 
lish from consonant to vowel is slower than in French. 
Such words in English as pear, coat, tour, when forcibly 
pronomiced, suggest something like an h sound inserted 
between the stopped consonants p, c, t, and the following 
vowel. The French words pere, cote, tour, though similar 
to English pear, coat, tour, lack any such suggestion, nor 
have they that hardness which is apt to be noticeable in 
a beginner's pronunciation. The transition from p, c, t 
to the following vowel is abrupt, short and quick. If the 
two consonants d in English don't and d in French don 
be compared, something similar as regards sound effect is 
noticeable. The French d, l^eing pronounced farther for- 
ward in the mouth than the English d and nearer the 
English th position, is softer and pleasanter than the Eng- 
lish d, which, as at times in the word don't, may be very 

8 In the above Table it will be noticed that the key- 
words given to illustrate approximately the correspond- 
ing French consonants p, b, t, d, k, g are piper, harbor, 
entry, needy, rocket, rugged. In each case, the consonant 
in question occurs as medial. In this position these con- 


sonants lack a certain kind of explosiveness that they have 
when initial. When medial they are a nearer approxima- 
tion to the respective French correspondents. For anal- 
ogous reasons, jolly, steamer, many, error are selected to 
illustrate the liquids I, m, n, r. It is essential to avoid 
coming down too hard upon the French consonants, the 
effect of which is un-French. Consonant differences, to be 
discerned by observation as here suggested, are no less 
important to observe and realize than are the fundamen- 
tal vowel differences pointed out above. 

9 Stress. A third important general difference is that 
of stress in the two languages. Stress, in the sense of 
emphasis upon one syllable rather than on any other, a 
characteristic of English pronunciation, is in the same 
sense non-existent in French. The syllables of a French 
word receive, one about as much emphasis as the other, 
all being very evenly pronounced. It is true that when 
slightly more stress can be observed upon one syllable 
rather than upon another, that that syllable is usually 
the last, not counting a final e mute syllable. 

10 French words are largely of Latin origin; Latin 
words have the stress, as a rule, on the penult, which in 
French usually became the last syllable : L. a-ma'-re = Fr. 
ai-mer; L. ho-ni-ta' -tern = Fr. bon-te; L. ca-mi'-num = ¥r. 
che-min. It is convenient in French to apply the term 
"stressed" or "accented" syllable to the last, care being 
taken to avoid stressing or accenting the syllable forcibly 
as in English. It should be remembered that written ac- 
cents have nothing to do with stress, which applies merely 


to the force with which one syllable is pronounced com- 
pared with another syllable in the word. 

11 Quantity. By quantity is meant the length of a 
vowel or syllable as regards the time taken in pronounc- 
ing it. As it is possible to dwell more or less time on any 
vowel sound, there may be many degrees of quantity. 
But for practical purposes it is sufficient to distinguish 
two degrees of length, long and short. 

12 Long vowels occur only in the stressed, or last 
pronounced, syllable: ar-ri-ve [a-riiv] arrives; fou-ge-re 
[fu-5C!r] fern; fro-ma-ge [fro-mais] cheese; tra-vail-le 
[tra-va;j] works. 

13 Any vowel in the stressed syllable before the sounds 
[J], [v], [z], [3] and [r] final (or followed by silent conso- 
nants) is regularly long: seu-il [soe:j] threshold; tra-va-il 
[tra-va:j] work; a-che-ve [a-^eiv] finishes; ca-ve [kaiv] 
cellar; gaz [gciiz] gas; ro-se [ro:z] rose; pla-ge [plais] 
beach; pha-re [fair] lighthouse; ver [veir] worm; ci-re [si:r] 
wax; port [poir] port; dur [dyir] hard. 

14 The vowel sounds [a] [o] [0] and the nasal vowels in 
the stressed syllable when followed by a pronoimced con- 
sonant are long: es-pa-ce [cs-pais] space; flam-me [flnim] 
flame; mi-ra-cle [mi-ru:kl] miracle; i-dio-me [i-djo:m] 
idiom; to-me [to:m] volume; zo-ne [zom] zone; creu-se 
[kr0:z] hoUotr; gueu-se [gOiz] hegg(ir-ic(»n<in ; meu-te [m^it] 
pack (of houndsj; tan-te [U'l'A] aunt; pen-te [pu:t] incline; 
sem-ble [saibl] seems; min-ce [mc:s] thin; crain-dre 


[kreidr] to fear; fein-te [feit] feint; poin-te [pweit] point; 
fon-te [foit] fount; lon-gue [l5:g] loyig; son-ge [sois] 
dream; de-fun-te [de-fdeit] deceased; em-prun-te [a-prdeit] 
borrows; hum-ble [deibl] humble. 

15 Vowels with a circumflex accent in the stressed syl- 
lable, except vous etes [vuz et] you are, and the preterit 

,. f-a-mes [am], -i-mes [im], -ii-mes [ym]l 
enaings[_._^^^ [at], -i-tes [it], -u-tes [yt] J ' ""'^ 
usually long: ta-che [ta:S] task; ble-me [bleim] wan; 
a-bi-me [a-biim] abyss; pole [po:l] pole. 

16 Short vowels, occurring both in stressed and un- 
stressed syllables, predominate in French, as long vowels 
occur only in the final or stressed syllable. All vowels 
in unstressed syllables are short: de-vi-ner [d9-vi-ne] to 
guess; me-na-cer [ma-na-se] to threaten; mi-li-tai-re [mi- 
H-teir] ftiilitary; mor-ta-li-te [mor-ta-li-te] mortality; u-ni- 
ver-si-te [y-ni-ver-si-te] university. 

17 Vowel and nasal sounds when final are regularly 
short: pas [pa] not; ete [e-te] been; fait [fp] done; de [da] of; 
ni [ni] neither; pot [po] pot; peu [p0] little; tout [tu] all; tu 
[ty] thou; en [a] in; vin [ve] wine; blond [bio] blond; un [de] 

18 Vowels followed by a double consonant are regu- 
larly short: pat-te [pat] paw; det-te [det] debt; lis-se [lis] 
smooth; don-ne [don] gives; mous-se [mus] moss; lut-te 
[lyt] struggle. 


19 Vowels that are long in final syllables are, as a 
rule, half as long in the penult : 

pa-le [pa:l] pale pa-leur [pa-loe:r] paleness 

rou-ge [ru!5] red rou-geur [ru-5oeir] redness 

part [pair] part par-tir [par-ti:r] to leave 

ta-che [ta:5] task ta-cher [ta-^e] to try 

fi-nir [fi-niir] to finish fi-ni-rons [fi-ni-ro] (we) shall 


20 The vowel [e] is the only vowel that may be either 
long or short before the same consonant: rei-ne [rem] 
queen; ren-ne [ren] reindeer; Sei-ne [scm] Seiyie (river); 
te-te [te:t] head; tet-te [tct] teat. In these cases the length 
alone of the vowel serves to differentiate the words. 

21 Exercise I on the sounds. In the Table it will 
be noticed that two examples are given to exemplify 
the sound of the vowel. In each case (excepting [e] and 
[a], the two vowels which are always short) the quantity 
varies, being short in the first example and long in the 
second. The quality of the sixteen French vowels remains 
unchanged. A useful exercise to acquire quality and 
((uantity distinctions will be to write the thirty-two 
e-xamples, illustrating the sounds of the sixteen French 
vowels, using the key alphabet, and to pronounce each 
word aloud, trying to account for differences. 

22 The French alphabet has the same letters as the 
English; but k and w are used only in words taken from 



other languages: ki-lo-me-tre [ki-lo-metr] ; wa-gon 
The older and more common names of the letters 








































double V 





[te] , 
[y] ' 


[dubl ve] 

23 In this enumeration the letters f, h, 1, m, n, r are 
generally of the feminine gender, the remaining letters 
being masculine. When a letter is named by itself, it is 
given as above indicated, with whatever orthographic 
sign it may have. The French word re-com-pen-se may 
be spelled: erre-e accent aigu = re; ce-o-emme = com, re- 
com; pe-e-enne = pen, re-com-pen; esse-e = se, re-com- 

24 But in reading and spelling, it is now common in 
many French schools to name each consonant by its own 
sound, followed by the so-called mute e [a]. The new 
names then are: 













ke se 

[k9] [so] 
















double V 

[dubl va] 






[ksa] [gza] 

gue je 

[&A [33] 












25 In this enumeration, all of the letters are of the 
masculine gender. The French word in-com-pre-hen-si- 
bi-li-te would be spelled : i-ne = in ; ke-o-me = com, in-com ; 
pe-re-e = pre, in-com-pre; he-e-ne = hen, in-com-pre-hen ; 
se-i = si, in-com-pre-hen-si ; be-i = bi, in-com-pre-hen-si- 
bi; le-i = li, in-com-pre-hen-si-bi-li ; te-e = te, in-com-pre- 

26 Orthographic marks. There are three orthographic 
marks which constitute a necessary part of the written 
form of French words. These marks are called accents. 
They are the acute ('), the grave C), and the circumflex 


27 The acute accent, ac-cent ai-gu [ak-sdit e-gy], as in 
e-te [e-te] been, is used only over the vowel e, which then 
has the sound heard in English fate, but without the van- 
ish or glide described in 6: de-si-re [de-zi-re] desired; 
e-cla-te [e-kla-te] burst. 

28 The grave accent, ac-cent gra-ve [ak-sa graiv], as 
in fre-re [frcir] brother, is used mostly over e which then 
has nearly the sound heard in English met, there: me-ne 
[men] leads; pe-re fprir] father; re-pe-te [re-prt] repeats. 
It is also used sometimes over a and u to distinguish 
words otherwise spelt alike: a [a] has and a [a] to; ga. [sa] 
there and fa [sa] that; des [dr] sirice and des [dr] (also 
[de]) of the; ou [u] where and ou [u] or; also over the a in 
de-ja [de-5a] already and ja [3a] (rarely used now) already. 

29 The circumflex accent, ac-cent cir-con-fle-xe [ak-sa 
sir-k3-flcks], may occur over any vowel, which is usually 


then long: a-ge [0:5] age; te-te [ted] head; di-me [di(!)m]; 
c6-te [ko!t] coast; sur [syir] sure. In most cases it indi- 
cates the loss of an s written formerly after the vowel 
now circumflexed, as in old French teste for modern tete ; 
maistre for mai-tre [meitr] master. Such an s sometimes 
still remains in the English word taken originally from 
the old French, as in English forest, modern French fo- 
ret [fo-re] ; EngUsh isle, modern French i-le [i(!)l]- In other 
cases it shows contraction has taken place: a-ge instead 
of older aa-ge) siir instead of older seur. It also serves 
to distinguish such words as du [dy] owed from du [dy] of 
the; mur [myir] ri-pe from mur [my:r] wall; su:r [syir] sure 
from sur [syr] upon; although in point of fact du, mur and 
sur are examples of contraction of the corresponding old 
French forms deii, meiir, seiir. 

30 When the vowels are written with a capital letter, 
it is not customary to put on the accents, except on the 
letter e: les theatres = les the-a-tres [le te-aitrj. These 
so-called "accents" have nothing whatever to do with 
stress; in general they serve to distinguish the vowel 
sounds. It is quite as much a fault to omit the accent, 
or to use it wrongly, as to spell the word incorrectly. 

31 Other orthographic marks are ra-pos-tro-phe [1 a- 

pos-trof] (') to indicate the omission of a final vowel be- 
fore a word beginning with a vowel (or silent h) (383) : 
"la a-me" becomes I'a-me [1 aim] the soul; " je ai" becomes 
j'ai [3 e] / have; "si il" becomes s'il [s il] if he. The vowel 
ehded is almost always e; a is elided only in the article or 
pronoun la [la] the, her, it; i is elided only in si [si] if, be- 


fore il [il] he, it, or ils [il] they. No elision takes place be- 
fore on-ze [oiz] eleven; on-zie-me [5-zjem] eleventh; oui 
[wi] yes; huit [qi(t)] eight; hui-tie-me [qi-tjem] eighth (382 
et seq.). 

32 The cedilla, la ce-dil-Ie [la se-di:j] C) is placed under 
c to give it the sound of s before a, o, u : fa-f a-de [fa-sad] 
front; gar-fon [gar-s5] hoy; re-fu [ro-sy] received. 

33 The dieresis, le tre-ma [b tre-ma] (") is placed over 
the second of two vowels to show that it does not unite 
with the first vowel but, on the contrary, begins a new 
syllable: ha-ir [a-iir] to hate; na-if [na-if] artless; Noel 
[no-rl] Christmas. It is also put over final mute e to show 
that the gu preceding is a syllable by itself and that the 
u is not merely the sign of " hard" g (196) : ai-gu-e [e-gy] 
sharp; the last e being completely mute; without the 
dieresis, the word would be pronounced [eg]; cf. fi-gue 

34 The h}T)hcn, le trait d'u-nion [lo tre-dy-nj5] (-), is 
used between the parts of a compound word; arc-en-ciel 
[ar ka sjrl] rainbow; beau-frere [bo fre:r] brother-in-lnw; 
and to join words that are closely connected: a-vez-vous 
[a-ve vu] have you? e-tes-vous [et vu] are you? 

35 Division of syllables. When divided into syllables 
for the purpose of spelling and pronouncing, and quite 
generally also for writing and printing (but not invaria- 
bly, see 38^4) the syllal>les in the body of a French 
word most frequently end with a vowel and begin \\\W\ 


a consonant: e-ga-li-te [e-ga-li-te] equality; e-le-ver [el-ve] 
to raise; mo-ra-li-te [mo-ra-li-te] morality; po-pu-la-ri-te 
[po-py-la-ri-te] popularity. It is essential in pronouncing 
these words not to divide them according to Enghsh cus- 
tom: e-qual-i-ty, nio-ral-i-ty , pop-u-lar-i-ty . In pronounc- 
ing it is necessary carefully to avoid such divisions of 
syllables as in the English tab-leau, trip-le. 

36 A vowel in the body of a word sometimes begins 
a syllable, in which case the vowel is always preceded 
by another vowel which ends the preceding syllable: 
a-e-rer [a-e-re] to ventilate; a-e-ros-tat [a-e-ros-ta] air- 
halloon; e-blou-ir [e-blu-iir] to dazzle; jou-ir [swiir] to 
enjoy; Na-po-le-on [na-po-le-5] ; o-a-sis [o-a-zi(!)s]; o-be- 
is-san-ce [o-be-i-sa:s] obedience. 

37 If a single consonant is followed by 1 or r (except 
rl, as in par-lait), both are united with the following 
vowel: mai-grir [me-griir] to grow thin; of-frir [o-friir] to 
offer; ou-vrier [u-vri-je] workman; per-dront [per-dr5] 
(they) will lose; ta-bleau [ta-blo]; tri-ple [triplj; vain-cre 
[ve:kr] to conquer; vi-tre [vitr] pane of glass. 

38 Other groups of two or more consonants, when 
pronounced, are generally so divided that the first goes 
with the preceding syllable, the second and third with the 
following: ad-mi-rer [ad-mi-re] to admire; cer-cler [ser- 
kle] to circle; con-somp-tion [k5-s5p-sj3] consumption; es- 
ca-lier [es-ka-lje] stairway; es-pe-ran-ce [es-pe-ra:s] hope; 
in-stant [es-ta]. In the last example, as shown, the two 
consonants s and t are, as usual, divided in the middle, 


the s going over and being pronounced with the nasal 
vowel in = [e], and the t with the nasal vowel an=[a]. 
The written syllable division in-stant is simply etjaiiolog- 
ical; in-stni-ment [es-tr^Mnci]; mar-tyr [mar-ti:r]; par- 
fnm [par-foe] perfume; per-drons [prr-dro] (we) shall lose; 
pol-tron [pol-tro] coward; res-pec-ter [rt's-prk-te] to re- 
spect; res-pi-rer [res-pi-re] to breathe; res-ter [res-te] to 
remain; sug-ge-rer [syg-5e-re] to suggest. 

39 A silent h is not recognized in the pronunciation 
of a French word, yet when written the h apparently 
begins a syllal)le. The following words when written 
are divided thus: bon-heur, in-ha-bi-le, in-ha-bi-ta-ble, 
in-hos-pi-ta-ble, in-hu-main, mal-heur, but when pro- 
nounced, the principle which ol^tains, throughout the 
pronunciation of French words is carried out, that is, of 
ending the syllable with a vowel and beginning it with 
a consonant. These words therefore are pronounced: 
[bo-noeir], [i-na-bil], [i-na-bi-tabl], [i-nos-pi-ta-bl], [i-ny-me], 

40 A group of two consonants, but forming one sound 
only, is treated as a single consonant. Such combina- 
tions are ch, ph, th, gn: a-che-ver [a^-ve] to finish; a-the- 
nien [a-te-iijr] Athenian; di-gni-te [di-jii-te]; in-co-gni-to 
[C-kj-pi-to] ; pho-no-gra-phe [fj-no-grafj. 

41 X, which is equivalent to gz before vowels, ks be- 
fore consonants, is treated in pronouncing like gz and ks, 
but when written the x always goes with the first vowel: 
ex-a-men [rg-za-mr] examination; ex-em-ple [eg-zapl] 


example; ex-ac-te [eg-zakt]; ex-cel-lent [ek-se-lu]; ex-pres 
[eks-prr] on purpose; ex-pri-mer [eks-pri-me] to express; 
ex-tra-or-di-nai-re [eks-tra-or-di-neir] extraordinary. In 
the three last cases four consonants come together k, s, 
p or t, r. As usual in combinations of sp, st, the s goes 
with the first syllable both in written and spoken forms. 

42 Double consonants (146, 148, 166, 168) when writ- 
ten, are divided between the two, but are pronounced 
like single consonants. Therefore when between vowels 
they begin the second syllable like a single consonant. 
This applies especially to the older and commoner words: 
al-ler [a-le] to go; as-sez [a-se] enough; dom-mage [do-mai5] 
injury; don-ner [do-ne] to give; bb, pp, tt, dd are rarely, if 
ever, doubled in pronouncing a French word : ab-be [a-be] 
abbot; rap-port [ra-po:r] report; bat-tu [ba-ty] beaten; ad- 
di-tio-nel [a-di-sjo-nel] additional. 

43 In newer and less popular words, showing generally 
obvious Latin derivation, double consonants are pro- 
nounced rather longer than single consonants. This ap- 
plies particularly to 1, m, n, r. This lengthening is 
generally noted, in indicating pronunciation, bj' retaining 
the two consonants instead of only one : il-let-tre [il-le-tre] 
illiterate; il-li-si-ble [il-li-zibl] ; im-me-diat [im-me-dja]; 
im-mon-de [im-m5:d] unclean; in-ne [in-ne] inborn; in- 
nom-bra-ble [in-n5-brabl] innumerable; ir-ri-ta-ble [ir-ri- 
tabl]; ir-ri-te [ir-ri-te] irritated. 

44 In the written language, obvious composition of the 
word nullifies in many cases the principle of word divi- 
sion, that is, of ending syllables, whenever possible, with a 


vowel and beginning them with a consonant; but in the 
actual pronunciation this basic principle remains intact. 
The \\Titten division of the following words together ^\ath 
the figured division and pronunciation as actually uttered 
will illustrate the written and spoken usage: at-mo- 
sphe-re [at-mos-fcirj; bon-heur [bo-ncBir] happiness; con- 
spi-rer [kos-pi-re] to conspire; in-e-gal [i-ne-gal] unequal; 
in-ex-act [i-neg-zakt] ; in-no-cen-ce [i-n.>sa:s]; in-nom- 
bra-ble [i-n5-lorabl] innumerable; in-spi-rer [es-pi-re]; in- 
stant [es-taj; in-strui-re [es-trqiirj; in-u-ti-le [i-ny-til]; 
mal-heur [ma-kpir] ill luck; sub-or-don-ner [sy-bor-do-ne]. 

45 Nasal vowels, being merely oral vowels followed by 
m or n in the same syllable, are treated like ordinary 
vowel sounds in the division of syllables, the following 
consonant beginning the next syllable: an-cien [a-sje]; 
domp-ter [do-te] to master; en-chan-ter [d-^o-te]; im-po- 
sant [£'-po-zu]; in-con-stant [r,-kos-ta]; pen-dant [j)d-(lu] 
during; tins-siez [te-sjel (you) might hold; vins-sions 
[v8-sj5] (we) might come. 

46 The WTitten and spoken forms vary particularly, 1 " 
When e mute occurs at the end of a word or of a syllable 
in a word: bel-le [bf^lj fine; fa-ble [fa-bl]; fon-te [f5:t] melt- 
ing; on-cle [3:kl] uncle; pat-te [pat] paw; pen-te [pdit] in- 
cline; pour-pre [purpr] purple; promp-te [pro:!]; qua-tre 
[katr]/o/«-; ro-he[Yd{\)\)\dress; ro-che\\\)l\rock ; tan-te[tdit] 
aunt. 2° When e mute occurs at the end of a syllable in 
a word. By the dropping of e mute, a new combination 
of consonants is formed which are divided in the way 
consonants usually are: ap-pe-ler [ap-lc] to call; ca-le- 


fon [kal-s5] pair of drawers; cha-pe-lier [Sa-plje] hatter; 
cha-pe-ron [$a-pron] hood; ci-me-tiere [sim-tje:r] cemetery; 
e-le-ver [ol-ve] to raise; lai-te-rie [le-tri] dairy; ma-de- 
moi-selle [mad-mwa-zel] ; re-ve-nir [rav-niir] to come back; 
sou-ve-nir [suv-ni:r]; sou-ve-rain [suv-re] sovereign; tel- 
le-ment [tel-mci]. 3° When y = [j], or ill = [j]: cray-on 
[kiT-j3] pencil; pay-er [pe-je] to pay; roy-al [rwa-jal]; 
tuy-au [ty-jo] tube; ba-tail-le [ba-taij] battle; fa-mil-le 
[isL-mi',]] family ; tra-vail-le [tra-vaij] works. 

47 The principle of syllable division of French words, 
of beginning the syllable, whenever possible, with a con- 
sonant and ending it with a vowel, is equally applicable to 
phrases, which are divided up in the same way into stress 
groups: bon a rien [bo-na-rje] good-for-nothing; bout a 
bout [bu-ta-bu] end to end; de haut en bas [da-o-ci-ba] 
from top to bottom; de temps en temps [da-tci-za-ta] from 
time to time; mot a mot [mo-ta-mo] literally; nuit et jour 
[ni[i-te-5U!r] night and day; pas a pas [pa-za-pa] step by 
step; pe-tit a pe-tit [pa-ti-ta-pa-ti] little by little; pot a 
I'eau [po-ta-lo] water-pitcher; six ou sept [si-su-set] six or 
seven; tot ou tard [to-tu-tair] sooner or later. 

48 The principle of syllable division, which is that also 
of phrase division, namely, that a single consonant be- 
tween vowels belongs to the following syllable, is of 
fundamental importance. It is the basis upon which ac- 
quiring a reasonably good pronunciation of French de- 

Exercise II. Write the following words, dividing them into syl- 
lables, and pronounce them aloud: agneau, ananas, aimer, animal, 
attaque, Canada, canal, camaraderie, capital, cataracte, classe, era- 


vate, ecole, fidelite, gar^on, geographie, griae, mandat, marcher, 
morceau, Panama, paragraphe, passage, partir, poete, regardez, 
salade, salle, simple, union. 

Supplement AHT Exercise. Write, dividing into syllables as 
heard ordinarily in spoken French, these same words, using the key 
alphabet, thus comparing the spoken and written forms. 


49 a = [a] a ouvert, or open a, written a, a and excep- 
tionally in verb-endings a; approximately like the a in 
English cat, fat, pat, but pronounced with the mouth 
wider open so that the sound is between the a in car and 
the a in bat. This vowel, the commoner of the two va- 
rieties of French a, is generally short as in a [a] to; la 
[la] the; ma-da-me [ma-dam], pat-te [pat] paw, but may al- 
so be long as in: ca-ge [ka\-,\; ra-re [ra:r]. It may easily 
be recognized at once in the few cases where it occurs 
with a written accent. 

50 As final with the grave accent: a [a] to; ga. [sa] here; 
de-fa [do-sa] oji this side; de-ja [de-5a] already; ho-la [y-la] 
ho there!; la [la] there; voi-la [v^va-la] see there. 

51 In the verbal endings -am-es, -at-es, -at of the 
first conjugation where the a has the circumflex accent: 
nous ai-ma-mes [nuz e-mam] ire loved; vous ai-ma-tes 
[vuz c-mat] you. loved; qu'il ai-mat [k il f-ma] that he might 
love; nous par-la-mes [nu par-lam] wc Kpokc; vous par- 
lates [vu par-iat] you spoke; qu'il par-lat [k il par-la] that 
he might speak. 


52 [a] occurs regularly when final, at the end of a 
word, or of a syllable in a word, when the next syllable 
does not begin with an s or z sound: ac-ca-pa-ra [a-ka- 
pa-ra] to seize wpon; ac-cla-ma [a-kla-ma] acclaimed; 
a-mal-ga-ma [a-mal-ga-ma] amalgaynated; ag-gra-va [a- 
gra-va] aggravated; a-mar-ra [a-ma-ra] moored; a-ta-qua 
[a-ta-ka] attacked; ba-var-da [ba-var-da] gossiped. 

53 When preceding^any final silent consonant, except 
s or z: a-chat [a-$a] -purchase; al-ma-nach [al-ma-na]; drag 
[dra] cloth; es-to-mac [cs-to-ma] stomach; plat_[pla] fiat; rat 
[ra]; sol-dat_ [sol-da] soldier; ta-bac [ta-ba] tobacco. ~ 

54 Before any pronounced consonant other than s or 
z at the end of a word: Am-ster-dam [am-ster-dam] ; bac 
[bak] ferry-boat; cap [kap] cape; car [ka(!)r] for; che-val 
[S9-val] horse; fat [fat] fop; Is-lam [is-lam] ; lacs [lak] lakes; 
snares; ma-ca-dam [ma-ca-dam] ; mal [mal] evil; paf [paf] 
bang!; or at the end of a syllable in the body of a word: 
al-ma-nach [al-ma-na]; An-na [an-na]; cal-me [kalm]; 
gar-fon [gar-s5] boy; can-ne [kan] cane; gam-me [gam] 
scale; nap-pe [nap] cloth, tablecloth; pat-te [pat] paw. 

55 Special cases. The sound [a] is heard in the French 
adverb ending -enunent [a-mci] -ly; ar-dem-ment [ar- 
da-ma] ardently; pru-dem-ment [pry-da-ma] prudently; 
and in the following words: cou-en-ne [kwan] rind; cou- 
en-neux [kwa-n0] pertaining to rind; fem-me [fam] woman; 
fem-me-lette [fam-let] silly woman; hen-nir [a-niir] to 
neigh; in-dem-ni-ser [e-dam-ni-ze] to make good; in-dem- 
ni-te [e-dam-ni-te] compensation; nen-ni [na-ni] no; so- 
len-nel [so-la-nel] solemn. 


56 [a] is the sound usually heard in the common end- 
ings -oir [wa:r], -oi-re [wa:r]: mi-roir [mi-rwa:r] mirror; 
soil [swair] evening; boi-re [bwa:r] to drink; poi-re [pwair] 
year; vic-toi-re [vik-twair] victory; in a number of com- 
mon words ending in oi (or oi+ silent consonant) not pre- 
ceded by r (see 62) : bolt [bwa] drinks; doigt [dwa] finger; 
fois [fwa] time; loi [Iwa] law; moi [mwa] me; sol [swa] one- 
self; sole [swa but also swci] silk; toi [twa] thee; and gen- 
erally in words written with oy: Fon-te-noy [fot-nwa]; 
foy-er [fwa-je] hearth; loy-er [Iwa-je] rent; loy-al [Iwa-jal]. 

57 The letter a is usually silent in aout [u] August, 
but may also be pronounced: [au]; the final t is sounded 
by many: [ut] [aut]; a is silent in Caen [ka]; Cu-ra-fao 
[ky-ra-so]; Sao-ne [som] (103); taon [ta] (old [to] 103) 
gadfly; toast [tost]. 

Exercise III on [a,]. Write and pronounce aloud the following 
words, dividing those of two or. more syllables as usually divided in 
writing and i)rinting: baba, barbe, battre, boite, chat, dame, declare, 
donnat, droitc, fonmio, gage, hennir, la, lac, lave, loi, ma, madame, 
Malaga, menage, moi, noir, papa, parla, patte, poison, prudemment, 
rat, recemment, soi, syllabe, ta, valse. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write and pronounce aloud these 
Bame words using the key alphabet and dividing them as ordinarily 
heard in spoken French. 

58 a=[(i] a ferme or closed a; written a, a; about as 
in English palm; pronounced with the mouth quite wide 
open. This sound is easily recognized whenever the a 
has the circumflex accent (except in the endings -ames, 
-ates, -at (noted vmder 51): bat [])a] saddle; bla-me 
[blaim]; gra-ce [gr(i:s]; mat [mo] most; pa-le li)a:l]; pa-te 
[pa:t] dough; pla-tre [plaitr] plaster; ta-che [tasS] task. 


59 a = [a] whenever before a silent final s (except in 
bras [bra] arm, and in -as verb endings: don-nas [do-na] 
gave); bas [ba] low; cas [ka] case; cou-te-las [kutla] cut- 
lass; da-mas [da-ma] damask; fra-cas [fra-ka] crash; las 
[la] tired; ma-te-las [mat-la] mattress; pas [pa] step; tas 
[ta] pile; ver-glas [ver-gla] glazed frost. Derivatives of 
such words usually retain the a quality when passing 
from the stressed to an unstressed syllable: da-mas-ser 
[da-ma-se]; las-ser [la-se]; pas-ser [pa-se]; tas-ser [ta-se]. 
In proper names the rule of a = [a] before a silent final s 
is equally regular : Co-las [ko-la] ; Du-gas [dy-ga] ; Du-mas 
[dy-ma]; Ju-das [sy-da]; Lu-cas [ly-ka]; Ni-co-las [ni-ko- 
la]; Pri-vas [pri-va] ; Tho-mas [to-ma] ; Vau-ge-las [vo3-la]. 

/^60 a = [a] before a final pronounced s as in as [a:s] ace; 
at-las [at-la(!)s]; he-las [elais] alas!; before a final pro- 
nounced z as in gaz [gaiz] gas; and frequently before the 
sounds of s and z in the endings -as-se [as], -as-sion 
[a-sjo], -a-tion [a-sjo], -a-se [az], -a-sion [a-zj5], -a-zon 
[a-zo]. -as-se [a is] in the words bas-se [bais] low; cas-se 
[ka:s] breaks; clas-se [klais] class; gras-se [gnus] fat; pas-se 
[pais] passes, -as-sion [a-sj5] in pas-sion [pa-sj5] and 
derivative com-pas-sion [ko-pa-sjo]; -a-tion [o-sjo] in a 
numerous group of words like for-ma-tion [for-ma-sj5]; 
na-tion [na-sj5], sta-tion [sta-sj5]. Nevertheless, the usage 
varies in regard to this ending -a-tion and the authorities 
differ, -a-se [aiz] in ba-se [baiz]; ca-se [kaiz] house; 
ga-ze [gaiz] gauze; ja-se [saiz] prates; va-se [vaiz]. -a-sion 
[azj5] in e-va-sion [e-va-zj5]; in-va-sion [e-va-zjo]; oc-ca- 
sion [o-ka-zjo]. Here again, however, as in the words in 
-a-tion, usage and the authorities differ, -a-zon [a-z5] 


in bla-zon [bla-z5] coat of arms; e-cra-sons [e-kra-z5] let us 
crush; but here written -a-sons = spoken [a-z5]; ga-zon 
[ga-z5] turf. 

61 a = [a] frequently in the termination -ail-le [a:j] in 
a number of words: ba-tail-le [ba-taij] battle; e-cail-le 
[e-ka:j] scale; li-mail-le [U-maij] filings; mail-le [ma:j] 
mesh; man-geail-le [ma-5a:j] eatables; mi-trail-le [mi- 
tra:j] grape-shot; pail-le [paij] straw; tail-le [taij] shape; 
trou-vail-le [tru-va:j] finding; Ver-sail-les [ver-saij]. Here 
again must be noted that in nearly all, if not all, of these 
cases, usage varies and the authorities differ. It may be 
convenient to regard as exceptions to the list of words in 
-ail-le just given: fail-le [fa:j] be necessary; me-dail-le 
[me-da:jj medal; tra-vail-le [tra-vaij] works; vail-le [va:j] 
be worth, and words ending in -ail [aij] as in be-tail [be- 
ta:]] cattle; de-tail [de-ta:j]; gou-ver-nail [gu-vcr-naij] 
helm; tra-vail [tra-vaij] work. 

62 a = [a] in the ending -oi (or -oi+silent consonant) 
in a few common words (156) : bois [bwa] wood; mois 
[mwa] month; noix [nwa] nut; poe-le [pwad] stove; pois 
[pwa] pea; poids [pwa] weight. Frccjuently, when r pre- 
cedes oi, the sound heard is [aj: croi-re [krwair] to believe; 
croix [krwa] cross; e-troi-te [e-trwat] narrow; froid [frwa] 
cold; roi [rwa] king; but here again, in these cases, usage 

63 a = [(i], quite generally, in the following words: ac- 
ca-bler [a-k(i-ble] to overwhelm; ah [u:J; ca-dre [kdulr] 
frame; dam-ner [do-iic] to condemn; fa-ble [f(i-l)l|; flam-me 
[fla:m] flame; ga-gner [gu-pe] to earn; grail-Ion [gra-j5j 


scraps; hail-Ion [a-j5] rag; na-vrer [na-vre] to luound; ra- 
cier [ra-kle] to-scrape; rail-le [ra:j] rails; rail-le-rie [raj-ri] 

64 a = [a] frequently in the following rather common 
words, although usage and the authorities differ: bail-le 
[baij] gives; boi-se [bwa-ze] wooded; ca-da-vre [ka-da-vr] 
dead body; cli-mat [kli-mci] climate; de-cla-mer [de- 
kla-me] to declaim; de-la-brer [de-la-bre] to decay; dia-ble 
[dja-bl] devil; en-flam-mer [u-fla-me] to inflame; es-cla-ve 
[es-klaiv] slave; es-pa-ce [es-pais] space; ja-dis [5a-di(s)] 
already; la-cet [la-se] lacing; ma-?on [ma-s5] mason; ma- 
su-re [ma-zj'ir] ruins; mi-ra-cle [mi-ra-kl]; nas-se [na:s] 
net; noi-set-te [nwa-zet] filbert, nut; o-ra-cle [o-ra-kl]; 
pou-lail-ler [pu-la-je] poidtry-yard; pro-cla-mer [pro-kla- 
me] to proclaim; sa-ble [sciibl] sand; sa-bre [sa-br] saber; 
sole [swa] .s;7A-; tail-leur [ta-joeir]; to-pa-ze [to-pa:z]; vole 
[vwa] way. 

65 Summary. The variety in usage, as furnished by 
the examples, shows the division line between [a] and [a] 
to be loosely drawn. Under identical or similar condi- 
tions, either variety of a may be heard. In the fono\\ing 
pairs : ta-ble and fa-ble ; tra-vail-le and trou-vail-le ; pla-ce 
and es-pa-ce; chas-se and clas-se; pas-sif and pas-ser; 
mas-se and tas-se, the same authority gives the a of the 
first word in each pair as [a] and of the second as [a]. In 
general, from what precedes, it may be said that in Paris 
[a] is apt to be heard before silent s and before the 
sounds of s and z (except in verb-endings), and that 
under other conditions [a] is the sound usually heard. 


Exercise FV on [a]. Write and pronounce aloud, dividing into 
8\^llables as usual in WTiting and spelling, the following words: ame, 
bataille, blame, cable, classe, damner, degat, diable, ecraser, enflam- 
mer, fable, flamme, fracas, gaz, gaze, gazon, generation, haillon, 
hate, helas, magon, matelas, nation, pas, pate, paille, poele, raillerie, 
roi, sable, tas, tasse, tatons, Thomas. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write and divide these same words 
as spoken, using the key alphabet and pronouncing them aloud when 

66 e = [9] e muet, or so-called e mute, written e as in 
de, crever; about as in English villa, occurring 1° as final 
in monosyllables. In this position it sounds much like e 
in English the when spoken quickly as in the man, the 
woman, the child; ce [so] this; de [do] pf; je [50] I ; le [la] 
the, him, it; me [ma] me; ne [no] not; que [ko] that; se [so] 
oneself; te [to] thee. 

67 2° e = [a] as final in the first syllable of a word of 
two or more syllables: cre-ver [kra-ve] to burst; de-moi- 
sel-le [da-mvva-zel] young lady; de-ve-nir [dav-nisr] to he- 
come; fe-ra [fo-ra] will do; fre-don-ner [fro-do-nc] to hum; 
le-ver [lo-ve] to raise; me-ner [ino-ne] to lead; re-ve-nir 
[rav-ni:r] to comeback; te-na-ci-te [ta-na-si-te] tenacity; te- 
nir [ta-ni:r] to hold. When preceded by two consonants 
as in cre-ver and fre-don-ner, the [a] is rather more dis- 
tinctly pronounced than in other cases (392). 

68 3'^ e = [al exceptionally in des-sous [d(o)-su| below; 
des-sus [dfoj-syl nlxwc; fai-sait |fo-zr] was making; and in 
derivatives of fai-re (frirj to make, as in re-fai-sant [ra- 
fa-zd] remaking; mon-sieur [ma-sj0] sir; res-sem-bler [ro- 


sa-ble] to resemble; res-sen-tir [ra-sa-tiir] to experience; 
res-sor-tir [ra-sor-tiir] to go out again. 

69 e silent elsewhere, as: 1° When final at the end of a 
word, either after a vowel or consonant: ai-je [ei 3] have I? ; 
a-ne [am] ass; ar-bre [ar-br] tree; bar-be [barb] heard; 
ca-ma-ra-de [ka-ma-ra(i)d] comrade; clas-se [klais] class; 
fa-ci-le [fa-sil] easy; faus-se [fo:s] false; mal-le [mal] 
trunk; pa-trie [pa-tri] fatherland; rue [ry] street; suis-je 
[siiiis] am If; ta-ble [ta-bl]; vie [vi] life. However, in 
many cases like the above, for various reasons, as for ver- 
sification or for singing, the e mute is distinctly sounded. 
Frequently after b d g v it may be heard slightly: bar-be 
[bar-ba], whereas after p, t, k, f it is silent e-ta-pe [e-tap] 
stage. Also it may be heard slightly when final and pre- 
ceded by two consopants as in ar-bre [ar-bre]; lors-que 
[brs-kg] when; pres-que [pres-ka] nearly; puis-que [pqis-ka] 
since; ta-ble [ta-blo]. 

70 2° e is silent at the end of a syllable preceding the 
stressed or final syllable: a-che-ter [a^-te] to buy; al-le- 
mand [al-ma] German; ap-pe-ler [ap-le] to call; bon-ne- 
ment [bon-ma] simply; bul-le-tin [byl-te]; cau-se-rie 
[koz-ri] talk; ci-se-lu-re [siz-lyir] carving; con-ve-na-ble 
[kov-nabl] seemly; de-ve-nir [da-vniir] to become; e-le-ver 
[el-ve] to bring up; em-pe-reur [cip-roeir] emperor; ma-de- 
moi-sel-le [mad-mwa-zel] ; ma-te-lot [mat-lo] sailor; na- 
ive-te [na-iv-te] simplicity; ra-me-ner [ram-ne] to bring 
back; re-je-ter [ras-te] to reject; sa-Ie-te [sal-te] dirt; sa- 
me-di [sam-di] Saturday; sou-te-nir [sut-ni:r] to sustain; 
sou-ve-rain [suv-re] sovereign. 


71 e = [a]. It will be noticed in the above examples 
just given, in all of which the e mute is not heard, that 
the group of consonants brought together by the omis- 
sion of the e, is easy to pronounce. But when, by omit- 
ting the e mute, a group of consonants is brought together 
forming a combination harsh to the ear and difficult to 
pronounce, then, to avoid such a result, the e mute is 
heard as in the following cases: An-gle-ter-re [d-gb-te:r] 
England; a-que-duc [a-ko-dyk] aqueduct; a-pre-te [a-pro- 
te] asperity; ar-que-bu-se [ar-ka-byiz] arquebus; a-te-lier 
[a-t,)-ljp] sfiidin; au-tre-fois [o-tro-fwa] formerly; au-tre- 
ment [o-tro-ma] otherwise; ba-te-lier [ba-to-lje] boatman; 
chan-ce-lier [^d-so-lje] chancellor; cou-te-lier [ku-to-lje 
cutler; cha-me-lier [^a-mo-lje] camel-driver; cha-pe-lier 
[5a-jx)-lje] hatter; Char-le-ma-gne [^ar-b-map] ; Charles- 
Quint LSar-b-ke] Charles the Fifth {of Spain and Germany) ; 
chas-te-te [^as-to-te] cJiastitj/; com-pre-nons [ko-pra-no] 
hi us understand; con-si-de-ra-ble-ment [k.l-si-de-ra-bla- 
ind] considerably; ex-ac-te-ment [rg-zak-ta-ma] exactly; 
par-ve-nu [par-^^)-ny] upstart; qua-tre-temps [ka-tr^-ta] 
Ktuherdaijs; ra-te-lier [ra-to-ljo] rack; Ri-che-lieu [ri-^a- 
lj0]; sif-fle-ra [si-flo-ra] will whistle; Six-te-Quint [siks- 
t.>ke] Sixtus the Fifth. 

72 e silent, e is not pronounced when followed only*^ 
by the silent s of the plural noun, or of verb-endings, or 
by the -nt of the tliird person plural of ver])s: ai-mes [nm] 
(thou) lovest; ai-ment [r:m] (they) love; don-nent [d.)n] 
fthoy) give; don-nes [d.)n] (thou) givest; fa-ces \itis] faces; 
fre-res [frrni l)nith( rs; ma-la-des [tiui-la(:)d] patients; par- 
ies [parlj (thou) speakest. But the e before the nt of parts 


of speech other than verbs is sounded: con-tent [ko-tu] 
content; ex-cel-lent [rk-sc-la] excellent; the verb-forms of 
these two words, of which the speUing is identical with 
the adjective forms, are: con-tent [koit] (they) relate; ex- 
cel-lent [ek-sel] (they) excel. 

73 e silent. In general e is dropped whenever it is 
possible to do so to facilitate rapid utterance. This hap- 
pens when the preceding consonant can be pronounced 
with the vowel before it, as in je le don-ne [38 1 don] I 
give it, or with one that comes after it in the next sylla- 
ble or word, as in no-ble ar-deur [no-bl ar-dcEir] noble ar- 
dor. The syllable containing [g], bearing no stress itself, 
is pronounced as though forming a part of the preceding 
or following stressed syllable, according to the conditions; 
thus the e mute in the examples that follow is silent; 
what immediately precedes it is pronounced as one syl- 
lable: beau-coup de mon-de [bo-kud moid] lots of people; 
je le crois [59 1 krwci] I believe it; je le don-ne [39 1 don] / 
give it; nous le sa-vons [nu 1 sa-vo] we know it; tout le 
mon-de [tu 1 moid] everybody; voi-la le fac-teur [vwa-la 1 
fak-toeir] there's the postman; vous le di-tes [vu 1 dit] you 
say so; and in the following examples, what immediately 
comes after the e mute is pronounced as one Syllable with 
the consonants just preceding the e mute: un et-re ac-tif 
[den 8-tr ak-tif] an active being; qua-tre en-ne-mis [ka- 
tren-mi] four enemies; no-ble a-ni-ma-tion [no-bl a-ni- 
ma-sjo]; pau-vre a-ni-mal [po-vr a-ni-mal] poor animal; 
a vo-tre ai-se [a vo-treiz] at your ease; no-tre on-cle 
[no-tr o-kl] our uncle. 


74 e silent and e = [8]. In a word beginning with a 
syllable ending in a so-called mute e, like pe-tit, the e is 
not sounded if it is preceded by a pronounced syllable, 
but is sounded if preceded l)y a syllable ending with e 
mute: men pe-tit [mo pti] little fellow; but u-ne pe-ti-te 
[yn po-tit] a little (girl); mon-sieur Le-blanc [rao-sj0 
1-bla], but ma-da-me Le-blanc [ma-dam lo-bla] (393, 394). 

75 When several e mutes follow each other in succes- 
sion, it is usual to omit the sound [d] in every alternate 
syllable, the first, third, fifth and so on, being sounded: 
de ce que je ne te le de-man-de pas [dos kas not lad 
ma:d pa] because I do not ask you; or the second, fourth, 
sixth: par-ce que je ne me le de-mande pas [pars ka3 
nom lod muid jxi] because I do not propose it to myself. 
The syllable que is the one most frequently distinctly 
pronounced. As to whether an e mute is sounded or not 
depends upon so many circumstances, including often the 
good taste of the speaker, that the rules are simply very 
general guides to current usage. 

76 e final. The chief value of the e final at the end of 
a word after a consonant is to make the otherwise silent 
consonant sounded: fort [fo:r], but for-te [fort] strong; 
laid [le], but lai-de [Irul] hotndy; mau-vais [mo-vr], but 
mau-vai-se [nio-vr:z] })(i(l; pe-tit [p.)-ti], l)ut pe-tite [po-tit] 
little; port [po:r] port, but por-te [port] door; pris [prij, but 
pri-se [pri:z] taken. 

77 e silent and merely used as a sign is written before 
a, o, u, when preceded by g, to show tliat the g has the 
sound regularly heard before e and i [5], instead of that 


heard before a, o, u, [g]: ga-geu-re [ga-syir] wager; geai 
[56] and [5e] jay; Geof-froy [s^f-frwu]; geo-lier [30-lje] 
jailer; Geor-ges [sors]; nous man-geons [nu ma-35] we 
eat; nous man-gea-mes [nu ma-5am] we ate; pi-geon [pi-35]. 

78 e is silent in Jean [5a] and in Jean-ne [sam] and 
throughout the forms of the verb a- voir [a-vwa:r] to have: 
eu [y] had; eu-mes [y(i)m] (we) had (116). 

Exercise V on e mute = [9], Write, dividing into syllables and 
pronouncing aloud the following words, in aU of which the e mute 
is sounded: ameublement, Angleterre, ateher, autrefois, bedeau, 
chancelier, chapeUer, chargera, Charlemagne, comprenons, crever, 
dessous, dessus, exactement, faisait, fleur de lis, fredonner, guenille, 
grenuoille, lever, lorsque, menu, menuisier, parvenu, peser, pres- 
que, puisque, regi-ets, reUeur, ressemble, Richelieu, serions. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write and divide these words as 
spoken, pronouncing them aloud, and using the key alphabet. 

Exercise VI on silent e. Write and divide into syllables, as 
written and printed, the following words, in all of which the e mute 
is silent, and pronounce them aloud: acheter, achever, appeler, bul- 
letin, causerie, ciselure, devenir, elles aiment, etape, forte, George, 
ils content, ils excellent, Jean, Jeanne, je louerai, je paierai, laide, 
Lamennais, maUe, meres, naivete, pate, patte, peres, petite, porte, 
prise, ramener, rejeter, samedi, souverain, tu donnes, tu paries. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write and divide into syllables as 
spoken, these same words, using the key alphabet and pronouncing 
them aloud. 

79 e = [e] written e, e, ai; e ferme, or closed e, as in 
e-te [e-te] been, de-ja [de-sa] already; about as in Eng- 
hsh fate, late. Care must be taken not to make a diph- 
thong of the vowel as in English day [de'j, fate [fe't], late 
[le't], and like English sound correspondents, e is never 


long, occurs mostly as final at the end of a word or syl- 
lable. It is the only vowel over which the acute accent 
is written, enabling the sound to be then easily recog- 
nized: ce-le-bre [se-le-bre] celebrated; de-ce-de [de-se-de] 
deceased; de-ge-ne-re [de-5e-ne-re] degenerate; pre-fe-re 
[pre-fe-re] preferred; re-gne [re-jie] reigned; re-pe-te [re- 
pe-te] repeated. 

80 e without written accent = [e] occurs usually before 
the final silent consonants d, f, r, z; or, stated more gen- 
erally, before silent final consonant except t: as-sez [a-se] 
enough; ca-hier [ka-je] copy-hook; chez [^e] at the house of; 
clef [kle] key; fer-mez [fer-me] shut; je m'as-sieds [59 
m a-sje] / sit down; nez [ne] nose; pied [pje] foot; rez [re] 
on a level. The sound remains the same when silent s of 
the plural is added, as in ca-hiers, clefs, pieds, or in cases 
like tu t'as-sieds. It occurs exceptionally in the con- 
junction et [e] and, and is heard in a few foreign words: 
te de-um [te de-om]; re-qui-em [re-kqi-jnn]; re-vol-ver 
[re-vol-veir]; ve-to [ve-toj. 

81 e without written accent = [c] in the prefixes des+s, 
ef+f, es + s. 1° des+s: des-sai-sir (except dessus, etc., 
see 68) [de-sr-ziir] to let go; des-sel-ler [de-sr-le] to im- 
saddle; des-se-cher [de-se-Se] to dry up; des-sein [de-se] de- 
sign; des-ser-rer [de-sc-re] to unfasten; des-sert [de-seir]; 
des-ser-vir [dc-srr-viir] to clear away; des-sil-ler [de- 
.si-j(| to open; des-sou-der [de-su-de] to unsolder. 2" ef+f: 
ef -fa-re [e-fa-re] troubled; ef-fe-mi-ne [e-fe-mi-ne] effemi- 
tidtc; ef-fet [c-fr] ('ffect; ef-fleu-re fc-flcx'-rc] (jrnzcd : 
ef-fi-ca-ce [e-fi-kas] efficacious; ef-fort [e-fjirj; ef-fra-yer 


[e-fre-je] frightened; ef-fre-ne [e-fre-ne] unbridled; ef-froi 
[e-frwa] fright; ef-fron-te-rie [e-fro-tri] shamelessness. 
3" es+s: es-sai [e-se] trial; es-sor [e-soir] flight; es-souf- 
fle [e-su-fle] out of breath; es-suie-main [e-sqi-me] towel; 
es-suie-plu-me [e-sqi-plym] pen-wi'per; es-su-yer [e-sqi-je] 
to wipe. 

83 [e], written ai, is the sound regularly heard in the 
verb-ending -ai: j'ai [50] I have; j'al-lai [3 a-le] I went; 
j'au-rai [3 o-re] I shall have; je man-geai [58 ma-3e] / ate; 
je vien-drai [39 vje-dre] / shall come; je ver-rai [30 ver-re] 
I shall see; (not in words like vrai [vre] true). Also in the 
verb-forms je sals, tu sais, 11 salt [3a se, ty se, il se] I 
know, you know, he knows; and in the words gal [ge] gay; 
geai [36] jay; qual [ke] quay (124) ; although in all of these 
words, save gal, authority for the ai = [8] may be found. 

83 [e] is the sound heard in a few words derived from 
Greek or Latin, and written oe. Some of the commoner 
examples are: oe-cu-me-nl-que [e-ky-me-nik] ecumenical; 
CE-di-pe [e-dip] OEdipus; oe-so-pha-ge [e-zo-fa!3] esopha- 
gus; foe-tus [fe-tys]; Phoe-be [fe-be]. 

Exercise VII on [e]. Write, dividing into syllables and pro- 
nouncing aloud, the following words: assez, assieds, cahiers, chez, 
clef, desseller, dessert, desservir, dessin, effet, effroi, essai, essor, 
essuyer, essuie-main, essuie-plume, eternite, foetus, gai, il salt, je 
donnerai, je parlerai, je sais, nez, Phosbe, pied, prefere, repete, re- 
volver, te deum, tu sais. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write and pronounce aloud these 
same words, dividing them into syllables as they are spoken, using 
the key alphabet. 


84 e = [e] written e, e, e, ei, ey, ai, ai, ay; e ouvert, or 
open e, as in fait, [fe] done; te-te [test] head; about as in 
English met, el^h, and varying in openness to the sound of 
e heard in EngUsh there, where, as pronounced in England 
and generally in New England. When occurring just be- 
fore a final syllable ending in a mute e, it is long and quite 

85 The sound may easily be recognized when the e has 
over it a circumflex accent: ap-pre-te [a-prr:t] gets ready; 
be-le [bf'il] bleats; be-te [bnt] animal; ca-re-me [ka-* 
re:m] lent; fe-ne-tre [fo-nr:tr] ivindow; fe-te [hii] festival; 
gre-le [grcilj hail; gue-pe [ge:p] ivasp; he-tre [v\tv] beech- 
tree; me-le [me:l] mingles; me-me [meim] same; pre-te 
[preit] lends; pre-tre [prc:tr] priest; re-ve [re:v] dream; 
ve-te [vet] dresses. 

86 When occurring before a final syllable that is not 
mute, the e is about half as long as in the preceding cases: 
ap-pre-ter [a-pre-te] to get ready; be-ler [be-le] to bleat; 
em-be-ter [a-be-te] to bother; fe-ter [fe-te] to entertain; 
gre-ler [gre-le] to hail; me-ler [me-le] to mingle; pre-ter 
[pre-te] to lend; re-ver [re-ve] to dream; ve-tir [ve-ti:r] to 

87 The sound [e] may also be easily recognized when 
noted by e (with a grave accent). This occurs before 
final mute syllables, precisely as it does in the cases above 
when having the circumflex accent: a-che-te [a-^et] buys; 
ce-de [seid] yields; ce-le |sel| hides; che-vre lliieivrj goat; 
co-le-re [ko-le:r] anger; col-le-ge [ko-leis]; ge-le [5e(i)lJ 


freezes; le-ve [leiv] rises; lie-ge [Ijeis] corh; me-ne [m8(;)n] 
leads; me-re [meir] mother; pe-re [pe:r] father; pie-ce 
[pjes]; re-me-de [ra-me(!)d] remedy; sys-te-me [sis-te:m] 

88 When occurring in the body of a word the e is usu- 
ally shorter than when before a final mute e : a-che-te-rai 
[a-$e-tre] (I) shall buy; ce-de-rai [se-dre] (I) shall yield; 
ce-le-rai [sel-re] (I) shall conceal; e-le-ve-rais [e-lev-re] 
(I) should raise; ge-le-rais [sel-re] (I) should freeze; me- 
ne-rez [men-re] (you) will lead; mo-de-le-rai [mo-del-re] 
(I) shall model; a-me-ne-rions [a-men-rjo] (we) shall lead; 
pos-se-de-ra [po-se-dra] (he) will possess. It will be 
noticed that ce-de-rai and pos-se-de-ra, although con- 
ventionally written with an e acute before the mute syl- 
lable, nevertheless have that e pronounced like almost all 
other e's before a final mute syllable, that is [e]. So with 
don-ne-je [do-nei 5] do I give? 

89 Exceptions. To the important rule that e has reg- 
ularly the sound [e] before a syllable ending in a mute e, 
there are a few apparent exceptions: e-cre-vis-se [e-kro- 
vis] shrimp; e-le-ver [el-ve] to raise; e-gre-ner [e-gro-ne] 
to shell; e-pe-ron [e-pro] spur; e-ve-ne-ment [e-ven-ma] 
event; de-ve-lop-per [dev-lo-pej to develop; me-de-cin 
[meVse] and [met-se] doctor; me-de-ci-ne [met-sin] and 
[met-sin] medicine. Even among these apparent excep- 
tions, the forms [e-ven-ma] [met-se] [met-sin] indicate 
well the tendency of the genius of the language which is 
for [e] in closed syllables, that is syllables ending in a 
consonant, in which position [e] is out of place and regu- 
larly does not belong. Cases like the following also oc- 


cur: ai-mee [e-me] loved; creee [kre-e] created; nee [ne] 
born; rap-pe-lee [ra-ple] recalled. 

90 The sound [v] besides being written e and e is also 
written ai (except in verbs, 82) ai, aie, ay, ei, ey. ai: 
ba-lai [ba-le] broom; mai [me] May; vrai [vre] true, ai: 
fai-te [feit] summit; trai-ne [trein] sled; trai-neau [trc-no] 
sleigh, aie: baie [be] berry; craie [kre] chalk; que j'aie 
[k9 3 e] that I m,ay have, ay: cray-on [kre-jo] pencil; pay-er 
[pe-je] to pay; ray-on [re-jo] shelf; Douay [due], ei: nei-ge 
[neis] snow; sei-gle [se-gl] rye; vei-ne [ve:n] vein, ey: as- 
se-yez [a-se-je] be seated; gras-se-yer [gra-se-je] to speak 
in the throat; Ney [ne] (125 and 159). The most usual 
endings in which ai appears are -ais, -ait: don-nais 
[do-ne] was giving; ja-mais [sa-me] never; par-lait [par-le] 
was speaking. Words in ai-gu- have [e] and [ej: ai-guil-le 
[e-gi(i!J] and [e-giiiij] needle. 

91 e without written accent = [e] occurs at the end of 
a word or syllable, before a final pronounced consonant; 
generally c, f, 1 or r. 1° At the end of a word: a-vec 
[a-vek] urith; bel [bel] fine; bee [bek] beak; chef [^ef] chief; 
cher [5e!r] dear; ciel [sjel] sky; mer [meir] sea; net [net] 
clean. 2° At the end of a syllable: bel-le [bel] fine; ber- 
ger [ber-5e] shepherd; cel-le [sel] that one; det-te [det] 
debt; es-pe-rer [es-pe-re] to hope; her-be [erb] grass; 
mer-le [inerl] blackbird; mes-se [rnes] mass; per-te [i)ert] 
loss; res-ter [res-te] to remain; ver-te [vert] green. 
S'' Before the semi-vowel [j] written -11, -ill: con-seil [k.l- 
se:j] council; som-meil [s.)-me:j] sleep; a-beil-le [a-beij] 
bee; veil-leu-se [ve-jjijz] night-lamp. 


92 e without accent = [e] in the final endings -et, -ect 
(and their phirals in s) in which the t is silent: as-pect 
[as-pe]; ba-quets [ba-ke] buckets; de-cret [de-kre] decree; 
gi-let [si-lr] waistcoat; pa-quets [pa-kc] parcels; pro-jet 
[pro-5e] project; res-pect [rr-spr]; som-mets [so-me] sum- 
mits. The conjunction et [e] and, forms an exception to 
the above; the verb-form est = is, is pronounced [e] and 
the noun est = east [est]. 

93 e without accent =[e] in the monosyllables ending 
with silent s: ces [se] these; des [de] of the, some; les [le] 
the, them; ses [se] his, hers; tes [te] thy. Nevertheless, 
there is usage and authority sanctioning [e] in all of these 

Exercise VIII on [e]. Write and divide into syllables as ordinari- 
ly written, pronouncing aloud, the following words : achete, acheterai, 
ai-je, asseyez-vous, avec, careme, chaine, chantait, chene, ciel, colere, 
dette, eleve, esperer, eveil, faite, fete, feter, fenetre, grasseyer, herbe, 
jamais, mer, modele, modelerai, Ney, objet, pretre, pretrise, reve, 
rever, revetrr, reine, rene, renne, respect, scene, Seine, soleil, som- 
meiller, tete, tette, veiUeuse, verte, vrai. 

StrppLEMENTARY ExERCiSE. Write, pronouncing aloud as you 
write, and dividing into syllables as spoken, these same words, using 
the key alphabet. 

94 i= [i]; written i, i, y; as in ni [ni] neither; pi-re [piir] 
worse, about as in English pok'ce, keen. Care should be 
taken to keep [i] tense and uniform throughout, avoiding 
the sound heard in English b'ttle, it, fmny. [i] occurs as 
either long or short, under the usual quantity conditions 
(see 11); before r it is frequently quite long. Long i is 
heard in che-ti-ve [Se-ti:v] wretched; cri-se [kriiz] crisis; 



di-re [di:r] to say; fil-le [fi:j] girl; mi-re [miir] aim; pi-re 

[piir] worse; ri-ve [riiv] bank; ti-ge [tiis] stem. Short i in 

li-tre [litr]; pis-te [pist] trace; si [si] if; tris-te [trist] sad; 
vie [vi] life; vif [vif] lively. 

95 i = [i] as in a-bi-me [a-bi:m] abyss; ci-git [si-5i] here 
lies; di-me [difOni] tenth part; gi-te [5i(:)t] lair; i-le [i(:)l] 
isle; nous di-mes [nu di(!)ni] we said; qu'il finit [k il fi-ni] 
that he might finish; qu'il fit [k il fi] that he might do; qu'il 
pu-nit [k il py-ni] that he might punish. 

96 y = [i] in hy-po-cri-te [i-po-krit] hypocrite; ly-re [li:r]; 
mys-te-re [mis-trir] mystery; phy-si-que [fi-sik]; sty-le 
[stil]; syl-la-be [si-la (i)b] or [sil-la(i)b] syllable. 

Exercise IX on [i]. Write and divide into syllables as usually- 
divided in writing, pronouncing aloud the syllables as you write 
them, the following words: ablme, cirque, denii, difficile*, dime, dis- 
cipline, filigrane, fini, grise, ici, illisible, iniite, initiative, limites, 
midi, milice, militaire, niille, ministre, minuit, Paris, priniitif, pyra- 
mide, sire, timidity, tirelire, tranquille, Venise, ville, vitrine. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, dividing into syllables, as 
heard in spoken French, pronouncing aloud the syllables as you 
write them, these same words, using the key alphabet. 

97 o = [o], written o, 6, eau, au; o ferme or closed o as 
in pot [po], c6-te [ko:t] coast; about as in English note, but 
avoidinjr the vanish or glide which suggests a diphthong. 
o ferme is easily rec<jgnized wlien written 6, and is th(>n 
almost always long: cho-me (^o:ni| (he is) oid of ivork; 
c6-te [koit] coast; di-pl6-me [di-i)lo:in] diploma; le no-tre 
[lo noitr] ours; le v6-tre [lo voitr] yours; 6-te [o:tJ takes 


away; tro-ne [troin] throrie; ro-le [roil]. Exceptions to 
6 = [o] are the three words ho-pi-tal [o-pi-tal], ho-tel [o-tel], 
ro-ti [ro-ti] roast, in all of which 6 = [o]. 

98 Half length. As with a and e, when occurring just 
before the stressed syllable of a French word, so 6 in a 
like position is half as long as when stressed: cho-mer 
[$o-me] to be out of work; c6-te-le [kot-le] ribbed; di-pl6- 
mer [di-plo-me] to certificate; en-ro-ler [a-ro-le] to enroll; 
6-ter [o-te] to take away; tro-ner [tro-ne] to bear sway. 

99 o without accent mark=[o] when final or before 
silent final consonants: bra-vo [bra-vo]; du-o [cly-o]; ca- 
chet [ka-^o] dungeon; e-cho [e-ko] ; in-di-go [e-di-go] ; mots 
[mo] words; pia-no [pja-no]; ze-ro [ze-ro]. The word trop 
too much is pronounced [tro] and [tro]. 

100 o without accent mark = [o] when before the sound 
of s in a few cases: dos-sier [do-sje] brief, and derivatives 
of dos (en-dos-ser [a-do-se] to put on); e-mo-tion [e-mo- 
sjo]; fos-se [fois] grave; derivatives of fosse have both [o] 
and o] (fos-set-te [fo-set] and [fo-S8t] dimple); gros-sier 
[gro-sje] coarse, and derivatives of gros excepting gros-se 
which has both [o] and [o] [grois] and [gros] large; lo-tion 
[Io-sj5]; po-tion [po-sj5]. But the tendency, particularly 
in the unstressed syllable, is to pronounce [o] rather than 
[o] before the sound of s. Both varieties of o are sanc- 
tioned by usage and authority in the following: com-mo- 
tion, de-vo-tion, fos-set-te, gros-se, mo-tion, no-tion. 

101 o without accent mark = [o] regularly before the 
sound of z (represented usually by s between vowels) : 


cho-se [So!z] thing; com-po-se [k5-po:z] composes; glo-se 
[gloiz] glosses; ho-san-na [o-za-na]; o-ser [o-ze] to dare; 
o-seil-le [o-zeij] sorrel; po-se [poiz] places; po-si-tion [po- 
zi-sj5]; pro-se [pro:z] ; ro-se [ro!z]; ro-sier [ro-zje] rose-bush. 
Such a pronunciation as [ro-zje] shows the continual ten- 
dency of the closed o in the stressed syllable to become 
open o in the unstressed. 

10^ ferme [o], \\Tittcn au and eau, occurs frequently, 
more especially in stressed syllables: au-be [o:b] dawn; 
au-tel [o-tel] altar; aux [o] to the; cau-tion [ko-sj5]; e-me- 
rau-de [em-ro:d] emerald; e-pau-les [e-poil] shoidders; 
pau-vre [po:vr] poor; sau-ce [so:s]; sau-cis-se [so-sis] sau- 
sage; sau-cis-son [so-si-s3] a large sausage; saus-saie [so-se] 
tDilloiv plot; sau-ter [so-te] to jump, eau: beau [bo] fine; 
eau [o] water; ga-teau [gci-to] cake; mar-teau [mar-to] 
hammer; peau [po] skin; veau [vo] veal. 

103 is silent in faon [fa] faim; Laon [Id] ; paon [pd] pea- 
cock; taon [ta] (old [to]; 57) horse-fly. The name of the 
river Saone is pronounced [som] (57). 

Exercise X on [o]. Write and divide into syllaliles, as usually 
done in writing, pronouncing aloud each syllable when written, the 
following words: autel, bravo, chovaux, chose, compose, cote, cy- 
clone, diplome, dos, dossier, duo, eau, emotion, flot, fosse, notre, 
oser, 6ter, pauvre, pose, positif, position, potion, role, rose, Saone, 
sauce, sceau, saut, tableau, t6t, veau, zone. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write and divide into syllables, as 
ordinarily pronounced in spoken French, these same words, pronoun- 
cing aloud the syllables and words as you write them and using the 
key alphabet. 


104 o = [o], o ouvert or open o, ^\Titten o, au; as in 
ro-be [ro(!)b]; tort [toir] wrong; about as in English nor, 
the New England pronunciation of "short o" as dis- 
tinguished from the vowel in law. It occurs more fre- 
quently than o ferme. It is not as open as the English 
open in the noun object, as can be perceived by com- 
paring Enghsh o'hject and French objet. 

105 o = [o] occurs regularly before final sounded con- 
sonants (except s = [z]), especially r: a-bord [a-boir] land- 
ing; a-lors [a-loir] then; bloc [blok] block; dot [dot] dowry; 
ef-fort [e-foir]; es-sor [e-soir] flight; fol [fol] crazy; pore 
[poir] pig; roc [rok] rock. 

106 o = [o] occurs regularly before consonants (other 
than s = [z]) followed by final e mute (but final -ome and 
-one are treated together, 111): e-co-le [e-kol] school; 
e-po-que [e-pok]; for-te [fort] strong; lo-ge [10:3] theater 
box; no-ble [no-bl]; no-ce [nos] wedding; no-tre [no-tr] 
our; por-te[port] door; pos-te [post] posi-q^ce;ro-be[ro(!)b] 
dress; vo-tre [vo-tr] your. 

107 o = [o] before double consonants (excepting some 
cases of o+ss, 100): bon-ne [bon] good; bros-se [bros] 
brush; e-tof-fe [e-tof] stuff; fol-le [fol] crazy; gos-se [gos] 
youngster; pom-me [pom] apple; sot-te [sot] foolish. 

108 o = [o] at the beginning or in the body of a word, 
within a syllable: oc-to-bre [ok-to-br] October; hos-ti-le 
[os-til]; om-ni-po-tent [om-ni-po-ta] ; or-fe-vre [or-fe:vr] 


109 o = [o] in the body of a word at the end of a sylla- 
ble: a-bri-co-tier [a-bri-ko-tje] apricot-iree ; au-to-mo-bi-le 
[o-to-mo-bil], also [o-to-mo-bil] (112); bon-heur [bo-noeir] 
happiness; ga-lo-per [ga-b-pe] to gallop; po-teau [po-to] 
post; ro-man-ce [ro-maisj; to-tal [to-tal]. 

110 o = [o] before the sound of s (written s, c, ti), quite 
frequently in unstressed syllables. Such cases of [o] be- 
ginning the word, within or at the end of syllables not 
final of a word, are among the most frequent (see, how- 
ever, some identical [o] cases together with [o] (100) : o-ce- 
an [o-se-a]; hos-pi-ce [os-pis] refuge; mos-quee [mos-ke]; 
nos-tal-gie [nos-tal-5i] homesickness; pos-ti-che [pos-ti$] 
artificial; quo-tient [ko-sjci]; ros-si-gnol [ro-si-jiol] nightin- 
gale; so-cial [so-sjal]; so-cie-te [so-sje-te]; tos-te [tost] 

111 -ome, -one. In regard to the pronunciation of 
the o in the endings -ome, -one, usage varies, the ten- 
dency being rather towards open o than towards closed o. 
The four words a-ro-me [a-roim] aroma, cy-clo-ne [si- 
klom]; i-dio-me [i-djomi] idiom; zo-ne [zom] have closed 
o, as indicated. The two words e-co-no-me [e-ko-nom] 
economical; mo-no-to-ne [mo-no-ton] monotonous, have 
ofM'n o, as do foreign words: Ba-by-lo-ne [l)a-])i-lon]; Her- 
mi-one [fr-mj.^nj; Ro-me [r,)inj. The following words, 
although here noted with the open o, are also pronounced 
with closed o: A-ma-zo-ne [a-ma-zon]; a-to-me [a-t.)m]; 
a-to-ne [a-ton]; au-mo-ne [o-iii.)ii] alms; car-bo-ne [k;ir- 
l).)n]; hex-a-go-ne [c-gza-gonl and |r-gza-gon]; hip-po- 
dro-me [i-p.j-dr.ini|; ma-jor-do-me [iiia-5.)r-d.)m]; o-zo-ne 


[o-zon] and [o-zon]; te-le-pho-ne [te-le-fon]; to-me [torn] 
volume. In newly formed words from foreign sources 
the tendency towards [o] is plain, as shown by the 

113 au = [o] regularly before r, and in a few isolated 
cases as the following examples will show: Auch [0$]; au- 
rai [o-re] (I) shall have; au-rais [o-re] (I) should have; (the 
closed is also heard in these two verb-forms) : au-re-o-le 
[o-re-ol] and [o-re-ol]; au-gus-te [o-gyst] also [o-gyst]; au- 
to-ri-te [o-to-ri-te] and [o-to-ri-te] ; Au-xer-re [o-seir]; cen- 
tau-re [sa-toir]; Lau-re [bir]; lau-rier [lo-rje] laurel; 
Fau-re [foir]; Mau-re [moir] Moor; mau-vais [mo-ve] and 
[mo-ve] bad; Paul [pol]; res-tau-rant [rcs-to-ra]; sau-rai 
.[sD-re] / shall know; sau-rais [so-re] I should know. Both 
of these verb-forms parallel to au-rai and au-rais have 
also the closed o. The tendency to replace the o ferme by 
o Guvert is seen in such popular words as aurai, aurais, 
saurai, saurais, mauvais, restaurant (126); all words be- 
ginning with au-to have the open rather than the closed 
o: au-to-mo-bi-le [o-to-mo-bil] (109). Particularly in un- 
stressed syllables au tends generally to become open o. 

113 o GUvert [o] is the sound regularly heard in the 
ending of a few common foreign words mostly from the 
Latin: al-bum [al-bom]; a-lu-mi-nium [a-ly-mi-njom]; 
a-qua-rium [a-kwa-rjom]; er-ra-tum [er-ra-tom]; ge-ra- 
nium [se-ra-njom]; lau-da-num [lo-da-nom]; max-i-mum 
[mak-si-mom] ; me-dium [me-djom]; mi-ni-mum [mi-ni- 
mom]; mu-se-um [my-ze-om]; pen-siun [pe-som] task; 
rhum [rom] rum, 


Exercise XI on [o]. Write and divide into syllables as ordi- 
narily done in writing and printing the following words, pronounc- 
ing aloud the sj-llables and the entire words as 3'ou ^\Tite them: 
album, aurai, aurais; aureole, automobile, bloc, bonne, bord, brosse: 
comme, dot, essor, Faure, force, geranium, golfe, hopital, hospice, 
hostile, hotel, ignorant, Laure, loge, majordome, maximum, mauvais, 
minimum, objet, ocean, octobre, omnipotent, orgue, quotient, restau- 
rant, robe, roc, Rome, roti, saurai, saurais, sort, sotte, tdlephone. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write and divide into syllables ac- 
cording to the spoken usage, these same words, pronouncing aloud 
the syllables and words as you wTite them and using the key alpha- 

114 eu = [0], written eu, eu, oeu (cf. 127); eu ferme as 
in peu [p0] little, creu-se [kr0!z] hollow; no very exact 
efiuivalent in English, l)ut somewhat hke the vowel sound 
in English hurt (cf. 4, note 3). eu = [0] occurs, 1° regu- 
larly as final, or before silent final consonants: bleu [bl0] 
blue; dieu [dj0] god; feu [f0] fire; lieu [lj0] place; queue 
[k0] tail; final in the first part of a compound word: bleu- 
a-tre [bl0-a:tr] bluish; bleu-et [bl0-e] cornflower; jeu-di 
[30di] Thursday; lieu-te-nant [lj0t-na]; Neu(f)-cha-tel 
[n0-5a-tfl]; before silent final consoniuits: ceux [s0] those; 
creux [kr0] hollow; dieux [dj0] gods; heu-reux [oe-r0] happy; 
pieux [pj0] pious; yeux [j0] ey/c.9, ^written oeu and eu:. i 
boeufs [b0] oxen; oeufs [0] eggs; voeux [v0] vows; jeu-ne Jf\^ 
[50:n] /a.s-;//?g; jeu-ner [50-ne] to fast; the sound [0] is heard 
in meu-nier [m0-nje] miller, and also not infrequently in 
de-jeu-ner [de-50-ne] to breakfast (118)^ 

115 2" in the endings - eu-se [ 0!z1, -eu-te [0t], -eu-tre 
(0:tr]: dan-seu-se [da-s0!z] dancer; glo-rieu-se [gl.)-rj0izl 
glori-ons; heu-reu-se f(r-r0:z] happy; meu-te [m0!t] pack 
(of houndsj; feu-tre [f0-tr]/t7<; neu-tre [n0-trj neutral. 



116 Special cases, eu = the French u sound [y] is 
heard in the forms of the verb a-voir [a-vwa:r] to have, 
wherever eu or eu is written: eue [y] had; nous eu-mes 
[nuz y(i)m] we had; qu'ils eus-sent [k ilz ys] that they might 
have. For cases like ga-geu-re [ga-syir] and eu [y], 
eu-mes [y(!)m], cf. 77-78. Eu-ge-ne and Eu-ge-nie are 
pronounced [0-5e!n] or [y-sem], [0-5e-m] or [y-5e-ni]. 

Exercise XII on [0]. Write, dividing into syllables, when pos- 
sible, as ordinarily written, the following words pronouncing aloud 
each syllable when written: berceuse, brodeuse, calfeutre ceux, 
cieux, creux, danseuse, dieu, feu, feutre, feux, gueuse, heureuse, 
jeudi, jeunesse, Heu, lieue, lieux, merveilleuse, 
meuniere, Meuse, meute, neutre, neuvieme, 
nceud, oeufs, peureux, pieux, precieuse, queue, veux, vieux, vceu. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, pronouncing aloud each sjd- 
lable when written and dividing into syllables as spoken, these same 
words, using the key alphabet. 

117 eu = [oe], written eu, ceu, ue (cf. 127); open eu as 
in seul [soel] alone; peur [poeir] /ear; no very exact equiva- 
lent in English, but somewhat like the vowel sound heard 
in English hut or sir (cf. 4, note 3). When distinctly 
pronounced, eu ouvert differs perceptibly from eu ferme 
in being more open. 

118 eu ouvert = [ce] occurs regularly before pronounced 
consonants (other than s ( = z) and t) , particularly before 
r, il, ill: beur-re [boeir] butter; de-jeu-ner [de-3oe-ne] break- 
fast (cf. 114); deuil [doeij] mourning; feuil-le [foe.'j] leaf; 
fleu-ve [flceiv] river; jeu-ne [seen] young; meu-bles 
[mcebl] furniture; neuf [noef] nine; Neuil-ly [noe-ji]; peu- 
ple [poepl] people; seuil [sce(:)j] threshold; sieur [sjoeir] Mr., 

ORAL yo"WT:Ls 45 

the said. oeu = [ce]: boeuf [boef] ox; cceur [koeir] heart; 
moeurs [moers] customs; oeuf [oef] egg; CEu-vre [oe:vrj work; 
soeiir [soeir] sister. ue = [oe]: ac-cueil [a-koej] reception; 
or-gueil [3r-goe(:)j] -pride; re-cueil [ra-k(E(:)j] collection. 

Exercise XIII on [ce]. Write, dividing into syllables when pos- 
sible, as ordinarily done in wTiting and printing, the following 
words, pronouncing aloud the syllables as you write them: ai- 
greur, accueil, aveugle, bonlieur, chceur, cceur, couleuvre, deuil, 
ccueil, farceur, fleurs, fieuve, grosseur, heure, hauteur, heurter, 
jeune, largeur, leur, mallieur, (il) meurt, meurtre, neuf, odeur, a'il, 
ceillet, oeuf, oeuvre, orgucil, pecheur, peuple, peupUer, peur, i)laidcur, 
preuve, serviteur, seuil, soeur, veuve. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them into syllables as spoken, pronouncing the sj'Uables aloud as 
you WTite them, using the key alpha})et. 

119 ou = [u] written ou, ou (and ou in the word ou = 
where) (128); as in tout [tu] all; tour [tuir] tower; about 
a.s in English food, keeping tlie sound uniformly close 
throughout, ou occurs as long usually under the ordi- 
nary conditions, that is, before the voiced fricatives [j], 
[v], [z], [5] and [r] (13): a-mour [a-mu:r] love; en-tou-re 
[a-tu!r] surrounds; e-pou-se [c-pu:z] wife; jour [sum] ddij; 
lou-ve [Iu:v] she-wolf; rou-ge [ruis] red. ou elsewhere is 
usually short: bouc [buk] txid:; bou-che [bu^j nioulJi; gout 
[gu] taste; loup [luj wolf; pou-ce [pus] thumb; tous-se [tusj 

Exercise XIV on [u]. Writr; and divide when possible into syl- 
lables, a.s ordinarily done? in writing and j)rinting, the follf)wing 
w(»rfls, pronouncing aloud the; .syllables as you write tlicin: amour, 
aoCit, bijou,, chou, coup, courez, (il) coute, convert, degoAt, 
doux, douze, <>poux, epoase, fou, foulard, froufrou, houx, jaloux, 
jajouae, joujou, jour, laboureur, loup, lounl, J/OurdcH, louve, rnou. 


mousse, nouveau, ou, oil, pouls, roux, sou, sofil, sourd, sourde, tout 
au bout, tous, (il) tousse, toute, toux, trou. 

SUPPI.EMENTAKY ExERCiSE. Write these same words and divide 
them into syllables as heard in spoken French, pronouncing aloud 
the syllables as you WTite them, using the key alphabet. 

120 u = [y], wTitten u and u, as in pu [py] been able; 
mur [myir] ripe; pur [py:r] pure; has no English equiva- 
lent; about like the German ii. An approach to the 
French sound may be got by trying to pronounce i = [i] 
with the lips rounded out in a position for whistling. 

121 u or u = [y] occurs as long usually before [j], [v], [z], 
[5] and [r]; elsewhere usually as short, or shorter than be- 
fore the voiced fricatives and r: a-mu-se [a-myiz]; cuil- 
le-re [ky-jeir] spoon; cu-ve [kyiv] tvb; ju-ge [syis] judge; 
mur-mu-re [myr-myir] murmurs; but [by] ai7n; fut [fy] 
cask; ru-de [ryd]; turc [tyrk] Turk; u-ne [yn] one. 

Exercise XV on u = [y]. Write the following words, dividing 
them, when possible, into syllables as usual in writing and printing, 
and pronounce aloud the sj'Uables as you wTite them: allure, azur, 
calcul, culbute, (j')eus, (qu'il) etit; figure, futur, gageure, juste, lec- 
ture, lu, lune, menu, mu, multitude, mur, murmure, piqure, prune, 
revenu, rupture, su, succursale, sucre, supputer, sur, sure, tube, tu- 
bulaire, tuUe, tumulte, Ursule, utile, vu. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them into syllables as usually pronounced in spoken French, using 
the key alphabet. 



122 Vowel combinations representing simple sounds: 
ai (ay, ai), ei (ey, ei), au (eau), eu (oeu, ce, ue), ou (ou, 
ou). As the sounds themselves which these vowel com- 
binations respectively represent, namely: [e] or [e], [e], [o] 
or [d], [0] or [oe] and [u] have received detailed treatment, 
it only remains here briefly to sununarize the subject for 
convenience of reference. These combinations are kno^vn 
as digraphs and trigraphs, 

123 ai (ay), except as noted immediately below in 124, 
are pronounced [e]. The sound occurs especially in the 
combinations: aie, air, aire, ais, aise, aisse, aix, as in 
craie [krr] chalk; chair [^eir] flesh; tai-re [teir] to he 
silent; chan-tais [Sa-te] was singing; chai-se [Sciz] chair; 
grais-se [greis] fat; paix [pe] peace (84). 

134 ai is pronounced [e] in the auxiliary form j'ai [5 e] 
/ have; in the imperative forms a-yez [e-je] /?at'e, anda-yons 
[e-jo] let us have; whenever final, as in the verb-endings: 
je chan-tai [39 5a-te] / was singing; in the forms of the 
verb savoir: je sais [50 se] I know; tu sais [ty so] thou 
knowesl; il salt [il so] he knows; m a few words ending in 
ai: gai [ge] gay; geai [5c]; quai [kc] quay (82). Else- 
where the coml)ination ai is pronounced [v] as indicated 
in the preceding section. 

125 ei (ey, ei) are regularly pronounced [r] wherever 
they occur; and y between vowels-^^i+i: as-sey-er = " as- 


sei-ier" [a-se-je] to sit down; gras-sey-er = " gras-sei-ier " 
[gra-se-je] to pronounce r with the uvula, a throat r (cf. 159); 
ba-lei-ne [ba-l8( On] whale; nei-ge [neis] snow; pa-reil-le [pa- 
re (i)j] equal; pei-ne [pe(:)n] trouble; rei-tre [reitr] German 
horse-soldier ; Sei-ne [sein]; sei-ze [seiz] sixteen (90). 

126 au (eau) are regularly pronounced o : au [o] to the; 
aus-si [o-si] also; beau [bo] fine; ca-deau [ka-do] gift; eau 
[o] ivater; nou-veau [nu-vo] new (cf . 102) . Before r, au is 
regularly pronounced as open o [o]: Lau-re [lo:r]; lau-rier 
[lo-rje] laurel; Mau-re [moir] Moor; res-tau-rant [res-to- 
ra]; also in the proper name Paul [pol]. In the future and 
conditional forms of avoir, j 'aural and j'aurais, usage dif- 
fers: [3 ore], [3 ore], and [3 ore], [3 ore] (112). 

137 eu (eu, oe, oeu, ue after c, q and g) simply repre- 
sent the closed sound of eu = [0] (cf. 114), or the open 
sound of eu = [oe] (cf. 117). eu has regularly the closed 
sound when written eu, as in jeu-ne [50m] fasting; when 
final or followed by final consonants; also, usually, before 
s [ = z] or t within the syllable of a word; dan-seu-se [da- 
s0!z] dancer; feu-tre [f0!tr] felt; heu-reux [oe-r0] happy; 
lieux [lj0] places; neu-tre [n0-tr] neuter; noeud [n0] knot; 
peu [p0] little; pre-cieu-se [pre-sj0!z] precious; voeux [v0] 
voivs. Elsewhere, as before pronounced final consonants, 
and before il or ille = [j], the sound is that of open eu = [oe], 
which is less frequent than the closed eu = [0]: ac-cueil 
[a-koe(:)j] welcome; a-veu-gle [a-voe-gl] blind; boeuf [beef] 
ox; jeu-ne [3a3n] young; meu-ble [moe-bl] furniture; neuf 
[noef] new; ceil [oe(!)j] eye; oe-il-let [oe-je] pink; or-gueil [or- 
gce(!)j] pride; peu-ple [poe-pl] people; veu-ve [vceiv] widow. 


128 ou (ou) = [u] regularly (119): bout [bii] end; 
e-cou-tez [e-ku-te] listen; gout [gu] taste; jou-jou [511-5U] 
plaything; loup [lu] wolf; Lour-des [lurd]; tous-se [tus] 

Exercise XVI on vowel combinations (digraphs and trigraphs) 
representing simple sounds. Arrange the following words in groups, 
each group illustrating by its examples one of the sounds [e], [e], [o], 
[j], [0], [oe], [u]: abbaye, (j')ai, anglais, artichaut, asseyez, aurai, 
aurais, aui-oi-c, aveugle, banlieu, Bcaumarchais, begayer, brouter, 
cadeau, chaine, choeur, clouer, ca-ur, (je) conduii-ai, coiiter, cueiUir, 
dcblaj^r, defaut, dcgout, dcsormais, enjeux, enseigne, filleul, fran- 
9ais, frayeur, gai, grasseyer, gucuse, gueux, haleine, honneur, (j')irai, 
jeudi, jeuner, jeuneur, jeuneuse, jouter, Laure, manoeuvre, marais, 
Meaux, meuble, moeurs, noeud, ceil, orgueiUeux, Paul, peuple, queue, 
Rabelais, restaurant, reltre, rougeaud, (il) sait, traine, trou, vaux. 

Exercise XVII. Write and divide into syllables, whenever 
possible, as usually done in writing and printing, the above words, 
pronouncing aloud each syllable or word as you write it. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write and divide into syllables as 
ordinarily pronounced in spoken French, the above words, pronoun- 
cing aloud the syllables and words as you write them, and using the 
key alphabet. 

IV NASAL VOWELS [n], [e], [5], [oe] 

129 Wh{>n m or n occur as final they lose their value 
as consonants, and form a nasal sound with the preceding 
vowel. Likewise when ending a syllable, and before a con- 
sonant other than m or n, tiiey arc not jjronounccd, but 
serve simply to nasalize tlie preceding vowel. In tiiese 
nasal sounds n(!ither m nor n slnjuld be heard. 


130 There are four nasal sounds in French, each of 
which is represented by several combinations of letters. 
The symbols for each of the nasals are [a], [e], [5], [oe]. 
As may be inferred from these symbols, the nasals are 
simply the oral vowels [a], [e], [o], [oe] nasalized; that is, 
the breath, instead of passing entirely through the mouth, 
is partly turned aside through the nose passage. This 
produces a nasal intonation. 

131 [a], written an, am, en, em, as in en [a] in, tan-te 
[tci'.t] aunt; about as in English want (but see 4, note 1), 
an: an-cien [ci-sje] ancient; banc [ba] bench; en-fant 
[a-fd] child; es-pe-ran-ce [es-pe-ra:s] hope; franc [fru] 
frank; Fran-ce [frais]; man-chet-te [ma-$et] cuff; quan- 
ti-te [ka-ti-te]; sang [sd] blood, am: am-bu-lan-ce [fi-by- 
la!s]; am-ple [d-pl]; cam-pe-ment [kdp-md] camping; 
cham-bre [Sd-br] chamber; cham-pa-gne [Sd-paji]; flam-ber 
[fld-be] to blaze; jam-be [sdib] leg; lam-pe [Idip] lamp; 
ram-pant [rd-pd] crawling, en: en-crier [d-kri-je] ink- 
well; en-sem-ble [d-sd-bl] together; en-trer [d-tre] to enter; 
gran-de-ment [grdd-md] greatly; pa-rent [pa-rd]; pre- 
sen-ce [pre-zd:s]; ten-tu-re [td-tyir] hangings; ven-dre-di 
[va-dra-di] Friday; vio-len-ce [vjo-ldis]. em: em-pe-cher 
[d-pE-$e] to hinder; em-pi-re [d-piir]; en-sem-ble [d-sd-bl] 
together; rem-plir [rd-pliir] to fill; sem-blant [sd-bld] ap- 
pearance; sep-tem-bre [srp-tdib] September; tem-pe-te 
[td-pe;t] tempest; temps [td] ti7ne; trem-per [trd-pe] to dip. 

132 Special cases, -am, usually final, in most foreign 
names (235) is not nasal: A-bra-ham [a-bra-am] (but 
A-dam [a-dd]); A-gram [a-gram]; Am-ster-dam [am-ster- 
dam] ; Pri-am [pri-am] ; Rot-ter-dam [ro-ter-dam] ; Wagram 


[va-gram]. am in dam-ner, to condemn, and derivatives, 
is not nasal: [da-ne]. am, in other words before n, is 
pronounced [am] as in am-nis-tie [am-nis-ti] amnesty. 

133 en final in some foreign words (240) is not nasal: 
Bee-tho-ven [be-to-vcn] ; hy-men [i-mcn] ; spe-ci-men [spe- 
si-men]. en in the following words is nasal, although the 
n (or nn) precedes a vowel : en-i-vrer [a-ni-vre] to intoxi- 
cate; en-no-blir [ti-no-bliir] to ennoble; en-nui [d-niii] te- 
diousness; en-or-gueil-iir [d-nor-goe-jiir] to make proud. 

134 em final in foreign words (235) is not nasal : i-dem 
[i-dem]; Je-ru-sa-lem [se-ry-za-k-m]. emm, initial, is 
pronounced [uni]: em-me-ner [dm-ne] to lead aicay; em- 
ma-ga-si-ner [d-ma-ga-zi-ne] to store, emm and enn, in a 
few words, are pronounced [am] and [an] respectively: 
fem-me [fam] woman; hen-nir [a-niir] to neigh; nen-ni 
[na-ni] by no means; so-len-nel [so-la-ncl] solemn. Ad- 
verbs ending in -em-ment are likewise pronounced with 
the sound [am]: ar-dem-ment [ar-da-nid] ardently; pru- 
dem-ment [pry-da-md] prudently; re-cem-ment [re-sa-niu] 

Exercise XVIII on an, am, en, em = [a]. Write the following 
words, dividing thorn, when possible, into syllables as usual in writ- 
ing and printing, pronouncing aloud the syllables as you write them: 
Adam, blanc, blanche, camp, cancan, centre, champ, changcant, 
chanter, dans, dansant, dent, empire, emploi, en, enfant, entendant, 
entrant, flambeau, franc, gcndic, grande, Jean, lampe, lente, nian- 
gcant, mernbre, patience, plante, prendre, quand, ramj)e, sang, as- 
Hcinblant, s'en, sens, terni)Ic. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, when possibh,-, into syllaliles as usually pronounced in spoken 
I'rench, using the key alphabet. 


135 [e], written in, im, yn, ym, ain, aim, ein, eim; and 

en, when final, or followed by s of the plural after i or 
y, likewise in forms from tenir and venir, as in vin [ve] 
wine; tein-te [teit] color; about as in English anger, 
avoiding the g sound, in: in-stinct [es-te]; lu-trin [ly-tre] 
reading-desk; re-din-go-te [rg-de-got] frock coat, im: im- 
be-ci-le [e-be-sil]; lim-bes [leib] limbo; sim-ple [seipl]. jm: 
la-rynx [la-re iks]; sjm-ta-xe [se-taks]; S5m-the-se [se-teiz] 
synthesis, jrm: nym-phe [neif]; sym-pa-thie [se-pa-ti] 
sym-pathij; thym [tt] thyme, ain: main-te-nant [mgt-na] 
now; pain [pr] bread; vain-crez [v8-kre] (you) will conquer. 
aim: daim [de] deer; es-saim [e-se] swann; faim [fe] hun- 
ger, ein: cein-tu-re [se-tyir] belt; des-sein [de-se] draw- 
ing; pein-tu-re [pg-tyir] -{minting, eim: R(h)eims [rc:s]. 
en, when final, or followed by s of the plural, after i or y : 
chiens [5je] dogs, lien [Ije] bond; rien [rje] nothing; Tro-yen 
[trwa-je] Trojan, en in forms from tenir and venir: tient 
[tje] (he) holds; viens [vje] come. 

Note, ien when not final, and not occurring in the forms of tenir 
and venir, has in many cases the sound [ja], as in cli-ent [kh-ja]; 
con-sci-ence [k5-sja:s]; o-be-dience [o-be-dju:s]; o-rient [^rja]; pa- 
tience [pa-sju:s]; science [sja:s]. 

136 Special cases. The sound [e] is heard: in the sec- 
ond part of the diphthongs een (ien and yen, as just 
stated above under en, when final, etc.), oin, uin. een: 
eu-ro-pe-en [ce-ro-pe-e] European; ly-ce-en [li-se-e] stu- 
dent at a lycee; ven-de-en [va-de-e] of the department of the 
Vendee, oin: coin [kwc] corner; join-dre [sweidr} to join; 
poin-tu-re [pwg-ty:r] size, uin: juin [5qe] June; quin-tu- 
ple [k£-ty-pl] fivefold; suin-ter [sqc-te] to ooze, sweat. 


137 [e], written en, is the sound heard in a number of 
foreign words: A-ben-ce-ra-ge [a-l)?-se-rai5]; a-gen-da 
[a-58-da] memorandum-book; ap-pen-di-ce [a-pe-dis] ap- 
pendix; Ben-gale [be-gal]; ben-ga-li [be-ga-H] of Bengal; 
Ben-ja-min [be-5a-m£]; ben-zi-ne [be-zin]; com-pen-dium 
[ko-pe-djam]; ex-a-men [eg-za-me] examination; ex-ten-so 
[cks-t8-so] (in) extenso; Ma-gen-ta [ma-5e-ta]; Ma-ren-go 
[ma-re-go]; Mem-phis [me-fi:s]; pen-sum [pg-som] task; 
Penn-syl-va-nie [pe-sil-va-ni] (270); rho-do-den-dron [ro- 
do-de-dro]; Ru-bens [ry-ljeis]. 

138 Initial in, inn, im, imm, l^efore a vowel (or silent 
h) is not nasal, in: in-a-per-fu [i-na-per-sy] unperceived; 
in-er-te [i-nert] iyierl; in-ha-bi-le [i-na-bil] incapable, inn: 
in-ne [in-ne] inborn; in-no-cent [i-no-sa]; in-nom-bra-ble 
[i-no-bral)]] innumerable, im: i-ma-ge [i-mai.s] ; i-mi-ta-ble 
[i-mi-ta-bl] ; and when not initial, also, as iu li-mon [li-in:)] 
shaft, imm: im-ma-cu-le [i-ma-ky-le] immaculate; im- 
men-se [i-niuis]; im-mi-gra-tion [i-mi-gro-sj5]. 

139 im or imm final in foreign words is not nasal: 
E-phra-im [c-fra-im]; Grimm [grim]; Se-lim [se-lim]. 

140 ymn is pronounced [imn]: gym-na-se [3ini-n(i!z] 
gymna.'iium; hym-ne [inni] hymn; Po-lym-nie [p,)-lini-ni]. 

Exercise XIX on in, im, yn, ym, ain, aim, ein, eim and en (inal 
after i or y, all cciuivalont to the sound [c]. Write the followiiiK 
words, dividing tliem, when poHsil)le, into syllables as usual in writ- 
ing and printing, pronouneing aloud the syllables or words when writ- 
ten: ainsi, anK'Ticain, anden, bien, chien, coquin, crin, daini, faini, 
feindre, fin, foin, frein, index, joindre, juin, lin, linipide, loin, lynx, 
mainte, niaintien, niarin, Martin, moins, moyen, nyrnphe, Oiynipe, 


pain, peinture, pin, rein, R(h)eims, Rhin, soin, sain, sein, simple, 
tient, viens. 

SuppLEMENTABT ExERCisE. Write these same words, dividing 
them, when possible, into syllables as usually pronounced in spo- 
ken French, using the key alphabet. 

141 [5], written on, om, as in blon-de [bloid] blond; 
trom-pe [troip] horn; about as in English song, avoiding 
the g sound. The sound [5] should be pronounced with 
the lips nearly closed, on: an-non-ce [a-nois] announce- 
ment; ac-tion [ak-sjo]; cir-con-stan-ce [sir-kos-ta:s] cir- 
cumstance; chan-son [^a-so] song; con-te [koit] story; 
on-cle [5-kl] uncle, om: comp-te [koit] account; comp- 
tons [ko-to] let us count; plomb [pl3] lead; sur-nom [syr-n5] 
surname; tom-be [t3:b] tomb; trom-per [tro-pe] to deceive. 

142 Special cases. [3] is the sound heard in foreign 
words which are written with un, as in Bruns-wick [br5s- 
vik]; de pro-fun-dis [de pro-fo-dis]; Dun-can [d5-ka]; 
Dun-kerque [do-kerk]; Gun-ther [go-teir]; punch [p5:5]; 
se-cun-do [so-go-do]; and in foreign words written with 
um (not final, see 235) as in lum-ba-go [lo-ba-go]; Hum- 
bert [o-beir]; re-sump-tion [re-zop-sj3]. 

on = [9] in mon-sieur [nid-sj0] sir. 

143 om is not nasal (234, 237) when followed by n: au- 
tom-nal [o-tom-nal] autumnal (but in au-tom-ne the m is 
silent [o-ton] autumn); ca-lom-nie [ka-lora-ni] calumny; 
om-ni-bus [om-ni-bys]; om-ni-po-tent [om-ni-po-ta] ; om- 
ni-science [om-ni-sjais]; om-ni-vo-re [om-ni-voir] om- 
nivorous; som-nam-bu-le [som-na-byl] somnambulist; 
som-no-lent [som-no-lci]. 


Exercise XX on on, om = [3]. Write the following words, di- 
viding them, when possible, into sj'Uables as usual in writing and 
printing, pronouncing aloud the syllables or words when WTitten: 
bonte, Chalons, Colomb, comble, comptons, conge, conte, demon, 
dompter, Domremy, Fenelon, fonction, fond, font, legon, Londrcs, 
longue, monte, ombrelle, ombre, onclc, onction, onze, plonger, 
pompe, promptitude, pronom, prononciation, rompre, il rompt, 
ronde, savon, surnom, tombeau. 

SuppLEAfENTARY ExERCisE. Write these same words, dividing 
them, when possible, into syllables as usually pronounced in spoken 
French, using the key alphabet. 

144 [de], written un, um, eim, as in chacun, humble, a 
jeun; about as in English sung, avoiding the g sound. 
un: au-cun [o-kce] no one; brun [brcc] brown; com-mun 
[ko-mde] common; de-funt [de-fce] deceased; em-prun-te 
[d-proe:t] loan, um: hum-ble-ment [oc-blo-ma] humblij; 
par-fum [par-foe] -perfume, eun: a jeun [a 5de] fasting; 
Meung [mce]. For un and um in foreign words = [5], 
see 142. 

145 In a few words, mostly Latin, and in quite general 
use in French (235), final um is pronounced cm with- 
out nasality, that is [.)m] : ad li-bi-tum [ad li-bi-t.)m] ; al- 
bum [al-bom]; com-pen-dium [k5-pe-djom]; de-co-rum 
[dc-ko-rom]; max-i-mum [uiak-si-ni.)iii]; mi-ni-mum [lui-]; mu-se-um |niy-zc-om]; pen-sum [pf--s.jni] extra 
task (at school); post-scrip-tum [p.)st-skrip-t.Mn]; o-pium 
[o-pj;)m]; rhum [rjnij rum; Te Deum [te de-Jin]; va-de- 
me-cum [va-de-ine-k;)in]. 

Exercise XXI on un, um, eun. \\ rile the followiiif^ words, divid- 
ing them, when possible, iiilo .syllables as usual in wiitiiif!; ami print- 


ing, pronouncing aloud the syllables or words as you write them: 
alun, Autun, brun, chacun, conimun, defunt, d'un, emprunt, em- 
prunter, les Huns, humble, humblement, importun, a jeun, Lauzun, 
I'un, lundi, Melun, Mehung, Meung, parfum, quelqu'un, qu'un. 

Supplementary Exercise A. Write these same words, dividing 
them, when possible, into syllables as usually pronounced in spoken 
French, using the key alphabet, and pronouncing aloud each syllable 
or word as you write it. 

Supplementary Exercise B, on the four nasals [a], [e], [5], [de]. 
Pronounce aloud the following words or nasal sounds: anse, pince, 
onze, unze*;i ban, bain, bon, bun*; bande, binde, bonde, bunde*; 
camp, qu'in, qu'on, qu'un; campe, quinte, conte, qu'unze*; dent, 
daim, don, d'un; en, in, on, un; fend, fin, fond, fun*; gant, gain, 
gond, gun*; Jean, geindre, jonc, jeun; I'an, lin, Ton, I'un; langue, 
linge, longe, leunge*; m'en, main, mon, Meung; Nantes, nain, non, 
nun*; pende, pain, pont, pun*; rang, rein, rond, run*; sang, sainte, 
sonde, sun*; tante, teinte, tondre, Autun; vende, vin, vont, vun*. 

Supplementary Exercise C. Write out these same words, in- 
dicating their pronunciation by means of the key alphabet, and pro- 
nouncing them aloud as you write them. 

146 Whenever an, in, on, un, or the combinations 
forming the nasal sounds, precede a vowel, or whenever 
the m or n is doubled, these combinations do not then pro- 
duce nasal sounds. In such cases the n or m goes with 
the following vowel to begin another syllable: an-nee 
[a-ne] year; bon-ne [bon] good; en-ne-mi [rn-mi] enemy; 
e-tren-nes [e-trcn] gifts; hon-ne-te-te [o-net-te] honesty; 
ho-no-ra-ble [o-no-ra(!)bl];.in-a-ni-me [i-na-ni-me] inani- 
mate; in-at-ten-tif [i-na-td-tif] inattentive; in-no-cent 
[i-no-sa]; im-mi-gra-tion [i(m)-mi-gra-sj5]; pa-no-ra-ma 
[pa-no-ra-ma] ; pro-chai-ne [pro-^cn] next. 

1 The starred forms are not real words. 


147 To the above important principle, a few words 
form exception. Those most frequently heard are: em- 
ma-ga-si-ner [a-ma-ga-zi-ne] to store; en-i-vrer [a-ni-vre] 
to intoxicate, and derivatives; en-or-gueil-lir [a-nor-gcE-jiir] 
to make proud; en-nui [a-nqi] tediousness, and derivatives. 

148 Although such words as the examples given in 146 
are divided, when written and printed, as shown, neverthe- 
less, when pronounced, they are divided on the principle 
that, whenever possible, each syllable begins with a con- 
sonant and ends with a vowel; and that double conso- 
nants are, as a rule, the same as though single (35). 

Exercise XXII on words containing n or m, in which the n or 
m preserves its own sound and therefore does not unite with a pre- 
ceding vowel to form a nasal sound. Write the following words, di- 
viding them into syllables as written and printed, pronouncing aloud 
the syllables and words as you write them : abonn6, ananas, Anna, 
annales, annoter, annuel, amateur, canne, Emma, Emmanuel, curo- 
peenne, homme, image, imminent, immodeste, inne, innocemment, 
innover, inodore, inoui, lunatique, mienne, monarque, moyenne, 
onereux, sommite, sonnette, unaninie. 

SuppLEMENTAKY ExEKCiSE. Write thcsc same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as pronounced in spoken 
French, using the key alphabet. 

V THE SEMI-VOWELS [j], [w], [m1 

149 Wiicn any one of tlie vowels i (y), o, u, or the group 
ou stands immediately before another vowel, the quality 
of these vowels, by coalescing with the following vowel, 
is slightly changed, and instead of a simple vowel sound, 


there results what is called a semi-vowel, known also by 
the terms semi-consonant and diphthong. 

150 The French somids are not real diphthongs, such 
as are heard in the English words time, loud, noise. In 
all so-called French "diphthongs" (except vowel +il, 111 = 
[j]) it is the second element that bears the stress; that 
is, the so-called French "diphthongs" are rising, unlike 
the genuine English diphthongs, as in the words just 
cited, which are falling. Semi-vov/els, in the French 
sense of the term as here used, exist in English. The 
first element in English year is an example of a semi- 
vowel, being about halfway between vocalic ear and con- 
sonantal jeer. 

151 The way in which the semi-vowels occur may be 
seen at a glance by citing examples illustrating the most 
usual combinations in which each of the French vowels 
i (y), 0, u and group ou combine Avith a vowel immedi- 
ately following. In these combinations the voice rests 
upon the second element, the first being pronounced 
quick and short. 

153 The semi-vowel [j] is represented in French by i+ 
vowel in the combinations written: ia, iai, ie, ie, ie, io, 
iau, ieu, iu and y before a vowel, as in the following ex- 
amples: ia, ya = [ja]: fia-cre [fja-kr] hack; hya-cin-the [ja- 
S8!t]; pia-no [pja-no]; so-cial [so-sjal]. iai = [je]: liai-son 
[Ije-zo] linking; niais [nje] silly; re-mer-ciait [ro-mer-sje] 
thanked; ves-tiai-re [vcs-tjeir] cloak-room, ie, ie = [je]: 
a-mi-tie [a-mi-tje] friendship; frui-tier [frqi-tje] fruit-sel- 


ler; lier [Ije] to bind; pied [pje] foot; pi-tie [pi-tje] pity. 
ie, ie = [je]: hier [jc:r] yesterday; lie-vre [Ijcivr] hare; 
nie-ce [njes]. ieu = [j0]: dieu [dj0] god; lieu [Ij0] place; 
mon-sieur [ma-sj0] sir. iau = [jo]: miau-ler [mjo-le] to 
mew; piau-ler [pjo-le] to whine. io = [j.)]: i-dio-te [i-djot] 
idiot; myo-pe [mjop] near-sighted; vio-let-te [vjo-lrt] niolet. 
iu = [jy]: re-liu-re [ra-ljj-ir] binding; sciu-re [sjyir] saw- 

153 As the examples show, every i (y) followed by a 
vowel is pronounced [j]. Thus the adverb y [i] there be- 
comes [j] when preceding a word beginning with a vowel: 
fa y est [sa j e] that's it ; il y a [il j a] there is; il y en a [il j d na] 
there are some; ou y a-t-il? [u j a t il] where are there? But 
when the i is preceded l)y two or more consonants in a 
group, as bl, br, gl, gr, pi, pr, tl, tr, then the i may pre- 
serve its full vowel quality before another vowel, or may 
have the [j] sound: fa-bli-au [fa-})li-o] medieval tale (in 
verse); fe-vri-er [fe-vri-e] February; pri-er [pri-e] to pray; 
qua-tri-e-me [ka-tri-em] fourth : sem-bli-ez [sd-bli-e] (j'ou) 
seemed; tri-a-ge ftri-a:^] sorting. Under these circum- 
stances it is ol)viuusly not so easy to pronounce [j]. 

154 y l)cfore vowels usually represents the sound [j]: 
hya-cin-the [ja-sfit]; yeux [jo] eyes; Yo-lan-de [j.)-lu:d]; 
yo-le [j.)l]. y between vowels is equivalent to i+i: 
payer, to pay = "pa\-\or" [pc-je], the first i, when united 
with the preceding a, forming simply a digraph rejircsent- 
ing the simple sound [v], and the second retaining its 
consonantal value of [j], the result being [pr-je]. Like 
cases are: cray-on [kn:-j5] pencil; doy-en [dwa-jt] dean; 


es-say-er [e-se-je] to try; foy-er [fwa-je] hearth; moy-en 
[mwa-je] means; voy-el-le [vwa-jel] vowel. Exceptions in 
which no digraph with the preceding a is formed occur 
in a few proper nouns or adjectives therefrom: Ba-yeux 
[ba-j0]; Ba-yon-ne [ba-jon]; La Fa-yet-te [la fa-jet]; Fa- 
yen-ce [fa-jais]; Ma-yen-ce [ma-juis]; ma-yon-nai-se [ma- 

155 il after a vowel, at the end of a word, as in tra- 
vail [tra-vaij] work; and ill within a syllable, or before a 
final mute e, as in ba-tail-lon [ba-ta-j5] hatallion; ba- 
tail-le [ba-taij] battle, represent the sound [j]. These 
cases are taken up under so-called "liquid 1," which rep- 
resents the sound of English y in year (225). 

Exercise XXIII on the semi-vowel [j], written la, iai, ie, ie, ie, 
10, iau, ieu, iu, and y before a vowel. Write the following words, di- 
viding them, when possible, into syllables as ordinarily done in 
writing and printing, and pronouncing aloud the syllables or words 
as you write them: aieul, alUer, bestiaire, baionette, bien, canaille, 
cerisier, chien, diete, effrayer, enthousiasme, entier, entiere, espion- 
nage, famille, fier, hier, hygiene, liasse, Her, loyal, mediocre, miette, 
mieux, milieu, negociait, pieu, pioche, rayon, rien, violon, yacht, 
yeux, yole. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as pronounced in spoken 
French, using the key alphabet, and pronouncing aloud the words 
or syllables as you write them. 

156 The semi-vowel [w], which sounds like the English 
w in won, though more tense, results from vowel* combina- 
tions written: oi, oi, oy, oe, oe, oua, oua, oue, cue, oui, 
oueu, ua. The following examples illustrate common 
cases under each combination: oi, oi, oy = [wa]: boi-te 


[bwa:t] box; e-toi-le [e-twal] star; ci-toy-en [si-twa-je] citi- 
zen; moi [mwa] me; moy-en [mwa-jr] means; toi [twa] 
thee; soi [swa] oneself; voi-sin [vwa-ze] ncighhor. oi, oe, 
oe = {wa]: a-droi-te [a-drwat] skilful; bois [bvva] wood; 
croix[krwa] cross; frois-se [frwas] crumples; moel-le [mwal] 
marrow; mois [mwa] month; pa-rois-se [pa-rwas] parish; 
poe-le [pwail] stove. As to the quality of the a sound in 
words in oi, whether [a] or [a], there is no absolute rule, 
the conditions being those for [a] and [a], usage varying 
considerably (cf . 62) . oua, oua -= [wa] : bi-vouac [bi-vwak] ; 
doua-ne [dwan] custom-house; goua-che [gwaS] body-color; 
loua-mes [Iwam] (we) praised; oua-te [wat] wadding. 
cue, cue = [we]; ba-fouer [ba-fwc] to baffle; jouer [3we] to 
play; lone [Iwe] hired. oue = [wr]: chouet-te [Swet] owl; 
jouet [5wr] plaything; rouet [rwr] spinning-wheel. oui = 
[\vi]: en-fouir [u-fwiir] to bury; e-va-nouir [e-va-nwiir] to 
vanish; Louis [Iwi]; Loui-se [Iwiiz]; ouir [wiir] to hear; 
rejouir [re-swiir] to rejoice. oueu = [w0]: boueux [bw0] 
muddy; joueu-se [5W0:z] player; noueux [iiw0] knotty. 
oueu = [wa']: joueur [swcnr] player; loueur [lwce:r] one 
who praises. ua = [wa] after q in a number of words, 
some of the commoner of which are: a-de-quat [a-de-kwa] 
adequate; a-qua-ti-que [a-kwa-tik] aquatic; a-qua-rel-le 
[a-kwa-rcl]; a-qua-rium [a-kwa-^-jom]; e-qua-teur [e-kwa- 
t(i":r] equator; e-qua-tion [e-kw(i-sj.j]; quartz [kwarts]; 
squa-re [skwair]; also ua = [wa] after g in a few words, 
mostly foreign: al-gua-zil fal-gwa-zil] constable; Gua-dal- 
qui-vir [gwa-d:il-ki-vi:rj; Gua-de-lou-pe [gwad-lup]; gua- 
no [gwa-no]; Gua-te-ma-la [gwa-te-ma-la] ; lin-gual [\l- 
gwal]; — but note that this does not apply to French 
verb-endings as in fa-ti-gua [fa-ti-ga] (he) fatigued; con- 


ju-guant [ko-5y-ga] conjugating; dis-tin-gua [dis-te-ga] 

(he) distinguished. 

157 w and wh = [w] in some English words : sand-wich 
[sa-dwitS]; tramway [tra-mwe]; whis-key [wi-ske]; whist 

Exercise XXIV on the semi-vowel [w], written oi, oi, oy, oe, oe, 
oua, oua, cue, cue, oui, oueu, ua in some words after q and g, and w 
in a few words from English. Write the following words, dividing 
them, when possible, into syllables as ordinarily done in WTiting and 
printing, pronouncing aloud the syllables or words as you WTite them : 
aboyer, aquarelle, aquatique, bafouer, bois, coin, croyez, (il) doua, 
douane, Edouard, cpanouir, equation, cvanoui, foi, fouace, foyer, 
fouet, joindre, jouai, joueur, lingual, loin, louange, loyer, Louis, 
Louise, moelleux, moellon, mois, nettoyer, noire, noix, noyau, ouate, 
oui, poelee, poelette, poeher, poids, poix, quadrupede, roi, royal, 
royaume, sandwich, territoire, trois, troyen. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as pronounced in spoken 
French, pronouncing aloud the words or syllables as you write them, 
using the key alphabet. 

158 The semi-vowel [xj], written only u, as in buis [bqi] 
boxwood; cuir [kqiir] leather; fruit [frqi] is the result of 
the vowel combinations written ua, ua, ue, ue, ue, ui 
(uy), ueu. [ii] is a French u lightly pronounced, just as 
[j] is an i lightly pronounced, and [w] an ou lightly pro- 
nounced. But with the vowels u, i, ou, it is the vocalic 
quality of the vowel which predominates, while in the 
case of their fricative correspondents [\\], [j], [w], owing 
to the narrowing of the air passage, it is the fricative 
quality that is noticeable. The sound [\\] is one of the 
most difficult of the French sounds to acquire. Begin by 


pronouncing first the vowel u and then the following 
vowel, which accompanies and makes up the semi-vowel 
[q], slowly, and with equal emphasis, as in lui [liji] to him; 
increase the speed, and finally pronounce both quickly, 
resting lightly on the u and placing the emphasis on the 
following vowel i. 

159 Distinguish carefully between French Louis [Iwi] 
and lui [Iqi] to him; and avoid such English pronuncia- 
tions as "Bossway" for French Bos-suet [bo-sqc], and 
"poui" for French puis [pqi]. Moreover, as y between 
vowels = i+i (see 125), care should be taken to pronounce 
words like ap-puy-er = [a-pqi-je] to lean upon (not a-pqi-e), 
and in like manner es-suy-er should be pronounced 
[e-sqi-je] (and not e-sqi-e); that is, the presence of the 
semi-vowel in ui+i in such words should be heard just 
before the second i and not simply the semi-vowel ui 

160 Examples of [q] resulting from the vowel combina- 
tions ua, ua, ue, ue, ue, ui (uy), ueu follow: ua, ua = [qa]: 
ar-gua-mes [ar-gqam] (we) argued; nua-ge [nqais] cloud; 
sua [sqo] (he) suraied; sua-ve [sqaiv]. ue, ue = [qe]: nuee 
[nqe] cloud; puer [pqej to Mink; tuer [tqe] to kill, ue, ue = 
[qr]: muet [mqe] mute; ruel-le [rqrl] la7ie; sue-rent [sqeir] 
(tlicy) sweated, ui (uy) = [qi]: buis [bqi] bo.rrrood; es- 
suy-er [e-sqi-je] to wipe; lui [iqi] to Jiim; pluie [plqi] rain; 
tuy-au [tqi-jo] tube; sui-vre [sqi-vr] to follow. ueu = [q0]: 
rueu-se frqt5:z] kicker; tueu-se ftqOiz] slayer. ueu = [q(p]: 
lueur [liia'ir] (jlinnner; sueur [sqceir] sweat; tueur [tqa'ir] 


Exercise XXV on the semi-vowel [q], written ua, ua, oeue, ue, ue, 
ui (uy), ueu. Write the following words, dividing them, when pos- 
sible, into syllables as ordinarily done in writing and printing, pro- 
nouncing aloud the syllables or words as you write them : annuaire, 
annuel, appuyer, bruine, bruire, buis, cuir, cuisine, cuivre, duel, 
^cuelle, effectuerent, essuyer, fruit, fruitier, huile, huissier, lui, man- 
su6tude, mue, puis, puisque, ruade, rue, ruelle, rueuse, ruine, ruis- 
seau, Stuart, sua, suaire, suave, sueur, tua, tueirr, tueuse, tuile, 
tuileries, tuyau. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as usual in spoken French, 
pronouncing aloud the syllables or words as you write them. 

161 The semi-vowels [j], [w], [q] combine with the nasal 
vowels [a], [e], [5], [ce] to form the so-called French nasal 
diphthongs. Otherwise stated: The nasal vowels an, in, 
on, un — or in whatever other way they may be written 
• — coalesce with a preceding i (y), o, ou, u (the vowels 
that may begin a so-called diphthong in French, 149), 
and form nasal diphthongs written: ian, ien, ion, oin, 
ouan, Guen, ouin, ouon, uan, uin, uon. 

162 ian and ien (not final nor in the forms of tenir 
and venir, 135 and Note) : con-fian-ce [ko-fjciis] confidence; 
e-tu-diant [e-ty-dja] student; ne-go-ciant [ne-go-sja] mer- 
chant; o-rient [o-rjci]; pa-tien-ce [pa-sjais]; scien-ce [sjais]. 
ien, yen=[je] final and in the forms of tenir and venir: 
an-cien [a-sjg] ancient; bien [bje] well; com-bien [ko-bje] 
how much; gar-dien [gar-djc] guardian; main-tien [me-tje] 
support; moy-en [mwa-je] means; pa-ri-sien [pa-ri-zje] 
Parisian, ion = [jo]: ac-tion [ak-s]5] (before ion, t is 
usually sounded like s); con-so-la-tion [k5-so-la-sj5]; fac- 
tion [fak-sj5]; por-tion [por-sjo]. oin = [we]: be-soin [ba- 



zwe] need; foin [fwf] hay; loin [Iwe] /ar; poing [pwe] fist. 
ouan, ouen = [wa]: E-couen [e-kwu]; louan-ge [Iwais] 
praise. oum = [we]: ba-bouin [ba-bwe] baboon; ba-ra- 
gouin [ba-ra-gwf] gibberish; mar-souin [mar-swe] porpoise. 
ouon = [w5]: jouons [5w5] let ns play; louons [hv3] let us 
hire; nouons [nw3] let us tie. uan = [\\u] : huant [i^ci] hooting; 
re-muant [r.wniiu] stirring; tuant [tqa] killing. uin=[n£-]: 
chuin-ter [^qe-te] to pronounce [5] instead of [z] and [5] in- 
stead of [s]; juin [51(8] June; suin-ter [sqe-te] to ooze. 
uon = [q3]: dis-tri-buons [di-stri-bq3] let us distribute; 
suons [sqo] let us sweat; tuons [tqS] let us kill. 

Exercise XXVI on the French nasal diphthongs. Write the fol- 
lowing words, dividing them, whenever possible, into syllables aa 
usual in writing and printing, pronouncing aloud the syllables and 
words as you %\Tite them: audience, au moins, avions, bddouin, be- 
soin, chouan, chr6tient6, conscience, douons, embrj'on, fiance, in- 
gredient, itaUen, jouant, lion, mendiante, muant, nuance, pingouin, 
pointe, quintette, Quintihen, quintuple, rejoindre, remuons, Rouen, 
Saint-Ouen, ecientifique, suant, tuons, viande, viendra, vouons. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as pronounced in ordinary 
spoken French, pronouncing aloud the syllables and words as j'ou 
write them, using the key alphabet. 


163 For general distinctions between French and 
English consonants, see 7. 

164 Final consonants, whether there be one or several, 
are usually silent. After nasal vowels this rule is particu- 
larly applicable: champs {"^nl fields; coup [ku] stroke; doigts 


[dwo] fingers ; dos [do] hack; franc [fra]; in-stinct [e-ste]; lit 
[li] bed; long [13]; nez [ne] nose; pieds [pje]/cef; prompt [pro]; 
rond [ro] round; vaincs [ve] (I) conquer. Exceptions to the 
general rule wdll be found under the respective consonant. 

165 Final c, f, 1, q, r (the consonants, barring q, in the 
English word careful) are usually pronounced: a-vec 
[a-vek] with; bal [bal] bcdl; car [ka(!)r] for; cinq [sf ik] five; 
chef [5ef] chief; coq [kok] cock; froc [irok] frock; peur [poeir] 
fear; sauf [sof] except; vil [vil] vile. IMoreover, in the few 
cases, mostly words of foreign origin or proper names, in 
w^hich b, k, m and n (when not nasalizing the preceding 
vowel) occur as final, they are usually pronounced. 

166 In groups made up of r+ consonant, usually r 
alone is sounded: bord [boir] edge; clerc [kleir] clerk; corps 
[koir] body; marc [ma:r] grounds (of coffee); nord [noir] 
7iorth; pore [pair] pork; sort [so:r] lot; tiers [tjeir] third; 
vers [ve:r] verse; vert [veir] green. 

167 Double consonants (42) are in general sounded 
as though single: ab-be [a-be] abbey; ar-ri-ver [a-ri-ve] to 
arrive; cas-ser [ka-se] to break; col-ler [ko-le] to glue; cou- 
ron-ne [ku-ron] crown; frap-per [fra-pe] to strike; frot-ter 
[fro-te] to rub; gref-fier [grc-fje] bailiff; ter-ri-ne [te-rm] 
earthen pan. 

168 In some cases, double consonants, if not actually 
heard as two separate consonants, are distinctly longer 
than single consonants. This happens: 1° In the future 
and conditional of cou-rir [ku-riir] to run; mou-rir [mu- 
ri:r] to die; que-rir [ke-riir] to seek. 2° In a number of 


words beginning with ill-, imm-, irr-. 3° In a few 
other cases. Cases of bb, dd, pp, tt, are rare. Some com- 
mon cases of doubling or lengthening are: je cour-rai [5a 
kur-re] I shall run; vous mour-rez [vu mur-re] ijou will 
die; lis quer-ront [il krr-ro] they will seek; il-le-gal [il- 
le-gal] illegal; il-li-mi-te [il-li-mi-te] illiniited; il-lu-sion 
[il-ly-zj5]; il-lus-tre [il-lystr] illustrious; im-ma-nent [im- 
ma-nci]; im-men-se [im-mciis]; im-mo-bi-le [im-mo-bil] im- 
viovable; im-mu-ne [im-myn]; ir-ra-tion-nel [ir-ra-sjo-nel]; 
ir-re-pa-ra-ble [ir-re-pa-rabl] ; ir-ri-tant [ir-ri-ta] irritating; 
ir-rup-tion [ir-ryp-sj5]; al-le-go-ri [;d-lc-go-ri] allegory; al- 
le-guer [al-Ie-ge] to allege; am-mo-nium [am-mo-njom] am- 
monia; an-na-les [an-nal] records; an-na-lis-te [an-na-list] 
recorder; hor-ri-ble [jr-ribl]; in-ne [in-ne] inborn; syl-la-be 
[sil-la(:)b] syllable. 

169 The distinction practically is of no great import- 
ance. Outside of a few cases such as the above, it is 
hardly perceptible, and even in such cases usage varies. 
Compare the following, which are examples in very com- 
mon words of the normal usage: al-ler [a-le] to go; a-mol- 
lir [a-ma-liir] to soften; an-neau [a-no] ririg; an-nee [a-nc] 
year; ar-rie-re [a-rjeir] behind; ar-ri-ve [a-ri-ve] arrival; 
ar-ro-ser [a-ro-ze] to water; car-re [ka-rc] square; ter-ri- 
ble [tc-ribl]. 

170 b (bb) = [b] as in bout [bu] end; ro-be [ro(:)b] dress; 
ab-be [a-be] abbot; about as in English harbor, bnvbar. 
[b] is regularly represented in French by b; but before 
the voiceless consonants s or t, b beccjines unvoiced (cf. 
240) and sounds like p: ab-sent [ap-suj; ab-sin-the [ap- 


seit] wormwood; ab-so-lu-ment [ap-so-ly-mu] absolutely; 
ab-so-lu-tion [ap-so-Iy-sjo]; ab-sol-vons [ap-sol-vo] let us 
absolve; ab-sou-dre [ap-sudr] to absolve; abs-te-nir [aps- 
ta-nisr] to abstain; abs-ti-nen-ce [aps-ti-nais]; ob-ser-ver 
[op-ser-ve] to observe; ob-sta-cle [op-stakl]; ob-te-nir [op- 
to-niir] to obtain; bb, as shown by the examples, is simply 
treated as b. 

171 b final is usually silent (339): Co-lomb [ko-l5]; 
plomb [plo] lead, but in some proper nouns, and in a 
few words of foreign origin, is sounded : A-chab [a-kab] ; cab 
[kab]; Ca-leb [ka-leb]; club [klyb]; Ja-cob [sa-kob]; Jo-ab 
[30-ab]; Job [50b]; na-bab [na-bab] nabob; ra-doub [ra- 
dub] refitting; rumb [roib] rhomb. 

112 b is silent in the following words: Doubs [du]; 
Fab-vier [fa-vje]; Le-feb-vre [lo-fevr]. 

Exercise XXVII on b (bb) = [b]. Write, dividing into syllables 
as ordinarily done in writing and printing, pronouncing aloud the 
syllables and words as you write them, the following: abbesse, baba, 
babel, babiche, babiller, babine, balbutier, bambou, barbare, barbier, 
bebe, bibelot, biere, bobine, bobo, bombe, brebis, bubon, gibbosite, 
gobbe, rabbin, sabbat. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them as in spoken French, pronouncing aloud syllables and words, 
using the key alphabet. 

173 c has two sounds: 1° that of [k]; 2° that of [s]. 
1° c (cc) before a, o, u = [k], unless the c is marked with 
a cedilla, c: car [kar] for; cor [koir] horn; cu-re [ky:r] 
rectory; e-co-le [e-kol] school, cc: ac-cord [a-koir]; sac- 
ca-der [sa-ka-de] to jolt; suc-cu-lent [sy-ky-lu]. 


174 Special cases. c = g in se-cond [so-go] and de- 
rivatives. c = g in rei-ne-clau-de [rcn-gloid], but also 
pronounced [ren-klo:d] greengage. In the word czar and 
derivatives c has the sound of g [gzairj; but these words 
are now more usually written wdth ts and so pronounced 
[tsair] or [tzair]. 

Exercise XXVIII illustrating c (cc) before a, o, u. Write, di- 
vide as ordinarily written, and pronounce aloud the following words: 
academic, accabler, accaparer, accoter, acolyte, acoustique, acumine, 
cacao, calice, cantique, caricature, Caucase, caustique, cuve, raccroc, 
raccrocher, raccommoder, saccade, saccager, saccharin. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in spoken French, 
and pronounce aloud these same words, using the key alphabet. 

175 2" c, before e, i (y) = [s]: ce-ci-te [se-si-te] blind- 
ness; ces-sion [sr-sj3]; cy-gne [,siji] swan; Cyr [si:r] (proper 
name); re-ce-voir [ras-vwair] to receive; so-cial [so-sjal]. 

Remark, c, in the combination sc, before e, i (y), is silent: 
sce-le-rat [se-le-ra] rascal; sce-ne [sc:n] scene; scien-ce [sja:s]; 
Scy-thes [sit] Scythians. 

176 c, written g, before a, o, u = [s]: de-gu [de-sy] de- 
ceived; gar-Qon [gar-s5] hoy; ma-fon [ma-sr)] also [ma-s3] 
mason; perga [per-sa] jnerced; pla-ga [pla-sa] placed, cc 
before a, o, u = c with the value of [k] as stated under 
173; but cc before e, i = [ks]: ac-cent [ak-sa]; ac-ci-dent 
[ak-si-da]; suc-ces-seur [syk-sc-.sce:r]. 

Exkucike XXIX on c, before e, i (y) = [s]. Write, divide as 
ordinarily written, and pronounce aloud tlie followng words: acc6- 
lerer, acc;ei)tfr, acces, accident, aper^-u, covi, cela, cent, certain, ciel, 
oil, cimetitirc, cire, coinmengons, congu, cymbalc, cypres, douce, 


encens, facade, fa?on, frangais, legon, pergait, percevoir, proces, 
recent, reciter, recipient, successeur, succion. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in spoken French, 
and pronounce aloud these same words, using the key alphabet. 

177 c before a consonant (other than h, 182-185) = 
[k]: ac-teur [ak-toeir] actor; ac-tion [ak-sj5]; es-clan-dre 
[es-kla-dr] scandal; es-cla-ve [es-klaiv] slave; pros-crire 
[pros-kriir] to proscribe. 

178 c final is usually pronounced (165, 340) and is 
then sounded as [k]. This occurs particularly in monosyl- 
labic words and in compounds of which they form the final 
part: a-que-duc [a-ko-dyk] or [ak-dyk] aqueduct; arc [ark]; 
bac [bak] ferry-boat; bee [bek] beak; bloc [bbk] block; bouc 
[buk] buck; choc [^ok] shock; co-gnac [ko-jiak]; crac [krak] 
crack!; due [dyk] duke; es-toc [rs-tok] rapier; ha-mac 
[a-mak] hammock; saint Marc [se mark] (340, 341). 

Exercise XXX, illustrating c, before consonants, = [k] ; and c 
final sounded as [k]. Write, divide when possible as ordinarily writ- 
ten, and pronounce aloud the following words: avec, bivouac, es- 
claffer, esclavage, esclavon, escrime, facteur, faction, frac, froc, grec, 
lac, muse, obstacle, Pandectes, pare, Quebec, reaction, roc, saint Luc, 
sanctifier, sanctuaire, sec, stuc, sue, tact, tac, tic, tocsin, tric-trac, 
true, vindicte, zinc. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in spoken French, 
and pronounce aloud these same words, using the key alphabet. 

179 c is silent when preceded by a nasal vowel (cf. 
164): blanc [blci] white; flanc [fla] flank; franc [fru] frank; 
jonc [50] rush; tronc [tro] tru7ik; vaincs [ve] (I) conquer; 
but zinc = [zeik]. 


180 c final, though usually sounded, as shown by the 
examples under 178, is nevertheless silent in a number of 
words, of which some common examples are the follow- 
ing: ac-croc [a-kro] hitch; broc [bro] pitcher; ca-out-chouc 
[ka-ut-^u]; clerc [kleir] clerk; eric [kri] jack-screw; croc 
[kro] hook; es-croc [es-kro] swindler; es-to-mac [es-to-ma] 
stomach; lacs [la] snares; marc [mair] grounds; pore [po:r] 
pig; ta-bac [ta-ba] tobacco. 

Exercise XXXI, illustrating examples of c silent in the combi- 
nation sc (175 Remark); and showing examples of silent finale (179, 
180). Write, divide, when possible, as ordinarily written, and pro- 
nounce aloud the following words: ajonc, arc-boutant, aspect, 
convaincs, cotignac, Ducroc, joucr aux cchecs, ferblanc, instinct, 
Leclerc, raccroc, sceau, sceller, scicleratesse, scenario, scenique, scep- 
ticisme, sceptique, sceptre, scie, scientifique, scier, sciemmcnt, scin- 
tillant, scion, sciure, succinct, il vainc. 

181 The word done, denoting a conclusion and gen- 
erally when bearing emphasis, is pronounced [dSik]; 
otherwise, without the k sound: [do]. The following 
words are pronounced with or without a final k sound: 
ar-se-nie [ars-ni(k)] arsenic; cir-eon-spect [sir-k3-spe(k)] 
circumspect; e-chee [e-Se(k)] check; re-speet [re-spe(k)]; 
sus-pect [sys-pe(k)]. 

182 eh = [5], as in English machine, is the usual value 
of this combination: ca-che [ka^] hiding-place; eham-bre 
[Sailer] chamber; chat [^a] cat; Chi-ne [^iCOn] China; chose 
[$o:z] thing; fa-eheux [fa-50] son-y; la-che [la:$] coward; 
pro-chain [pr.j-^f-] ndghbor. 

183 eh = [5] in words ])oginning with ar-chi- [ar-^i] arch 
(except ar-chi-e-pis-co-pal [ar-ki-e-pis-kj-pal] and ar- 


chi-e-pis-co-pat [ar-ki-e-pis-ko-pa] archiepiscopate) : ar- 
chi-diacre [ar-^i-djakr] archdeacon; ar-chi-duc [ar-Si-dyk] 
archduke; ar-chi-fou [ar-^i-fu] archfool; ar-chi-pel [ar-^i- 
pel] archipelago; ar-chi-pre-tre [ar-Si-preitr] archpriest; 
ar-chi-tec-te [ar-^i-tekt] architect. 

184 ch = [5] in some words of learned origin that have 
become quite common, among them: ar-che-ve-che 
[ar-Sa-ve-Se] archbishopric; ar-che-ve-que [ar-^a-veik] 
archbishop; che-ru-bin [^e-ry-bf] cherub; chi-mie [^i-mi] 
chemistry; chi-rur-gien [Si-ryr-5Je] surgeon; pa-tri-ar-che 
[pa-tri-ar$] patriarch. 

Exercise XXXII on ch = [5]. Write, divide as ordinarily writ- 
ten and pronounce aloud the following words: Achille, archiduche, 
archiduchesse, archifolle, architecture, architrave, archives, archi- 
viste, champ, chant, chasse, chevalier, chien, Chih, chimere, chirur- 
gie, choquer, chuchoter, dechu, f6tichisme, Michel, monarchie, 
monarchique, pecheur, psyche, Rachel, rachitique, revanche, tachy- 
graphe, vache. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in spoken French, 
and pronounce aloud the same words, using the key alphabet. 

185 ch = [k] in many words of foreign origin, especially 
Greek. This is regularly the case when ch precedes a 
consonant and when final: chre-tien [kre-tje] Christian; 
Christ [krist]; chro-no-lo-gie [kro-no-lo-5i] chronology; 
chry-san-the-me [kri-za-teim] chrysanthemum; E-noch 
[e-nok]; Mo-loch [mo-lok]; tech-no-lo-gie [tek-no-b-3i] 
technology. In al-ma-nach, ch is silent [al-ma-na]. 

186 ch = [k], often before a vowel (occurring in words 
of foreign origin) : A-chab [a-kab]; An-tio-chus [a-tjo-kyisj; 


cha-os [ka-o]; choeur [koe:r] choir; e-cho [e-ko]; or-ches- 
tre [or-kcstr] orchestra. 

Remark, sch is rare, occurring in learned words, and then gen- 
erally pronounced sh [S]: schis-me [Sism] schism; schis-te [^ist] s^tt/e; 
but in a few others sch = sk: scho-lai-re [sko-le:r] academic; scho- 
las-ti-que [sko-las-tik] school-man; scho-lie [skj-h] scholium (both 
words now usually spelt without the /()• 

Exercise XXXIII, illustratmg examples of ch = [k] in words of 
foreign origin, and occurring both before consonants and vowels, 
and also when final. Write, divide as ordinarily written, and 
pronounce aloud the following words: anachorete, archaique, archeo- 
logue, archoute, Bacchus, Baruch, Chaldee, Cham, Chanaan, chao- 
tique, Charybde, Cheops, chirologie, chiromancie, cholera, chronique, 
fuchsia, hchen, loch, Machiavel, Metternich, Michel-Ange, Munich, 
orchide, orchestral, orchestration, patriarchal, Saint-Roch, techno- 
logic, Zacharie, Zurich. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in spoken French, 
and pronounce aloud these same words, using the key alphabet. 

187 d (dd) = [d], about as in English needy, is regularly 
represented in French by d: da-me [dam] lady; de-dier 
[dc-djc] to dedicate; con-dui-re [ko-dqiir] to conduct; fi- 
de-le [fi-dflj faithful; per-dre [i)i:rdr] tu lose. 

188 dd. Although dd; like double consonants in 
general (107), is treated like a simple consonant, never- 
theless in a few cases, as in the following words, some 
authorities indicate the pronunciation of a rather more 
prolonged sound than for a siini)k' d by writing dd: ad-di- 
tion [ad-di-sj5]; ad-den-da [ad-df--da]; ad-duc-teur [ail- 
dyk-t(JC!r] adductor; ad-duc-tion [ad-dyk-sj.")]; red-di-tion 
[rtd-di-sj'jj restitution; quid-di-te [kid-di-tej quiddUy. 


189 d final, or in a final group, is regularly silent: bord 
[boir] border; chaud [^o] warm; E-douard [e-dwair]; froid 
[frwa] cold; grand [gra] great; Saint-Cloud [se klu]. 

190 d final (363) is sounded in sud [syd] south, and in 
some proper nouns and foreign words: Al-fred [al-fred]; 
le Cid [la sid]; Da-vid [da-vid]; e-phod [e-fod]; Le-o-pold 

Exercise XXXIV, illustrating examples of silent d when occur- 
ing at the end of a word, or in a final consonantal group. Such ter- 
minations are frequently: nd, nds, rd, rds, aid, and, aud, auld, end, 
ends, end, ends. Write, divide as ordinarily written and pronounce 
aloud the following words: allemand, Ai-chambauld, Arnaud, j'as- 
sieds, Bayard, Berthauld, je confonds, elle coud, couvre-pieds, Ed- 
mond, Eginhard, epinard, Gounod, Greenland, La Rochefoucauld, 
Madrid, milord, je mords, nord, on perd, Oxford, Pharamond, poids, 
Ponsard, Renaud, je repands, Reynauld, Richard, rond, sourd, tard, 
tu tords, Vaud, vieillard. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in spoken French, 
and pronounce aloud these same words, using the key alphabet. 

Exercise XXXV, illustrating examples of d sounded in the body 

of a word, or when final. Write, divide as ordinarily written, and 
pronounce aloud the following words: Adda, ad hoc, adjoint, ad rem, 
Arnold, Bagdad, Carlsbad, Christiansfeld, Christiansand, Nemrod 
Conrad, Edda, Ethelrcd, Fould, Friedland, Galaad, George Sand, 
Harold, Jenny Lind, Joad, Port-Said, Rothschild, Sandwich, le 
Sund, Talmud. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as ordinarily pronounced in 
spoken French, pronouncing aloud the syllables and words as you 
write them, using the key alphabet. 

191 f (fif, ph) = [f], about as in English /ee. [f] is rep- 
resented in French by f, ff and ph. f : bref [bref] brief; 


de-fai-re [de-feir] to undo; fa-ci-le [fa-sil] easy; fils [fis] son; 
neuf [noef] new. ph: n3an-phe [neif] nymyh; pha-re [fair] 
lighthouse; phi-lo-so-phe [fi-b-zof] philosopher. & has the 
value of f, although, as indicated by some authorities, in 
a few words beginning vnih eff, it may be somewhat 
longer than f: ef-flo-res-cent [ef-flo-re-sd] ; ef-fluent [ef- 
flyd]; ef-flu-ve [ef-fiy:v] effluvium. 

19? f final is regularly sounded (165) : bceuf [beef] ox; 
brief [brief]; ca-nif [ka-nif] penknife; chef [lvi\ chief; juif 
[si^if] Jew; neuf [noef] new; oeuf [oef] egg; sauf [sof] except; 
soif [swaf] thirst. 

193 f final is silent in cerf [se:r] stag; clef (cle) [kle] key; 
nerf [nnr] nerve; f preceding s of the plural is silent in 
bceuf s [b0] oxen; cerfs [seir] stags; clefs [kle] keys; nerfs 
[neir] nerves; oeufs [0] eggs, f is silent in some proper 
nouns and in a few common words and expressions: 
Neuf-bourg [no?-l)u:r]; Neuf-Bri-sach [noe bri-zak]; Neuf- ^ 
cha-teau [nee Sa-to] ; Neuf-cha-tel [noe Sa-tcl] ; le boeuf ' j I 
gras [lo bee gvo] fatted ox, carnival; du boeuf sa-le [dy bcc 
sa-le] salted beef; cerf-vo-lant [srr v.)-lu] kite; chef-d'oeu- 
vre [5e dccivr] masterpiece; nerf de boeuf [ne:r da boef] 
cowhide; un oeuf dur [ce noe dy:r] a hard-boiled egg; un 
ceuf frais [ce nee in] a fresh egg. 

194 Neuf, the number iiine, is pronounced [noef] when 
the word occurs as final: 11 y en a neuf [il j Tm a noef] there 
are nine; tren-te-neuf [trfutnccf] thirty-nine; and also 
when giving the date of the month: le neuf de-cem-bre 
[Id noef de-su:br] the ninth of December. It is pronounced 


[noe] before a consonant or aspirate h: neuf li-vres [noe 
li:vr] nine hooks; neuf ho-mards [noe o-mair] nine lobsters. 
It is pronounced [ncEiv] before a vowel or silent h: neuf 
en-fants [noe-va-fd] nine children; neuf hommes [noe-vom] 
nine men. 

Exercise XXXVI, illustrating examples of pronounced f (ph, 
ff) = [f], in the body of a word or final. Write, divide, whenever 
possible, as ordinarily written, and pronounce aloud the following 
words: affaire, Alphonse, biffer, boeuf a la mode, chef-heu, difficile, 
fieffe, grief, if, motif, naif, nef, le neuf aoiit, le neuf fevrier, le neuf 
de pique, page soixante-neuf, Pont-Neuf, souUers neufs, en voila 
neuf, ODuf a 'la coque, un oeuf gate, Phedre, recif , des bas reUefs, ros- 
bif, serf, soif ardente, suif a vendre, tarif, turf, veuf, vif-argent. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as ordinarily pronounced in 
spoken French, pronouncing aloud the syllables and words as you 
write them, using the key alphabet. 

Exercise XXXVII, illustrating examples of silent f, either in 
the body of a word or final. Pronounce aloud the following expres- 
sions: de beaux boeufs, un cerf dix-cors, regardez les cerfs-volants, 
crise de nerfs, les nerfs dfe la guerre, neuf cents francs, neuf hameaux, 
cent neuf hiboux, neuf mille, neuf personnes, ceufs d'autruche. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same expressions, pro- 
nouncing the words aloud as you write them, using the key alpha- 

195 g (gg, gu) = [g], about as in English rugged. The 
sound [g] is represented in French by g before a, o, u, 
or a consonant (except n in cases where gn=[ji], see 
207). g: an-gle [a-gl]; gar-fon [gar-s5] hoy; ga-te [ga-te] 
spoiled; gloi-re [glwan] glorij; gout [gu] taste; grand [gra] 
tall, gg (rarely occurs): ag-glo-me-rer [a-gb-me-re] to 
agglomerate; ag-glu-ti-ner [a-gly-ti-ne] to agglutinate; 


ag-gra-ver [a-gra-ve] to aggravate, gu (before e, i, y): 
an-guil-le [a-giij] eel; be-guin [be-ge] child's cap; bri-guer 
[bri-ge] to scheme; gue [ge] ford; gui-de [gi(!)d] ;Gui-se [gi:z] ; 
Gui-zot [gi-zo]; Guizot and his family pronounced the 
name [gwi-zo]; Gu-yot [gi-jo]. 

196 gu = [g]. The only use of the u in the examples 
last cited is to show that the g has the somid in English 
go; without the insertion of the u, the g would here 
have, before e, i, y, the sound heard in English azure, 
'pleasure (202). 

197 guer = [ge]. In a number of verbs in -guer, the u 
remains throughout the entire conjugation, even before a 
and 0, where, of no use whatever, it is simply orthographic. 
The following verb-forms of some of the commonest of 
such verbs, in which the u before a and o is retained, 
show where the retention occurs: nous bri-guons [nu 
bri-g5] we scheine; je con-ju-guais [50 k5-5y-gc] / was con- 
jugating; je dis-tin-guai [50 dis-tC-ge] / distinguished; 
vous di-va-gua-tes [vu di-va-gat] ijoii ramhle; 11 ex-tra- 
va-guait [il tks-tra-va-gc] he ivas talking wildly; tu fa-tl- 
guas [ty fa-ti-ga] you fatigued; 11 ha-ran-gua [il a-ra-ga] he 
harangued; nous 11-gua-mes [nu li-gani] «'e hound; vous 
na-vl-gua-tes [vu na-vi-gat] you navigated; pro-mul-guant 
[pra-myl-go] promulgating; que tu sub-ju-guas-ses [ko ty 
syb-5y-gas] that you might subjugate; qu'il vo-guat [k il 
vo-ga] that he might row. The verlj ar-gu-er [ar-gq-c] to 
argu£, forms an exception to the above, the u being pro- 
nounced throughout all the tenses: j'ar-gue [5 ar-gy] / 
argue. The dieresis over the e shows that the e and u 


are not to be pronounced together as in drogue [drog] 
drug, but separated from each other in order to give the 
u its entire sound: tu ar-gues [ty ar-gy] thou arguest. 

198 gu, before i, in a few words = [gLii], that is, a 
diphthong, not unhke the sound heard in Enghsh sweet: 
ai-guil-le [e-gLii(i)j] needle; ai-guil-lon [e-gqi-jo] goad; ai- 
gui-ser [e-gqi-ze] to sharpen; am-bi-gui-te [a-bi-gqi-te] 
ambiguity; con-san-gui-ni-te [ko-sa-gqi-ni-te] also [ko-sa- 
gi-ni-te] consanguinity; con-ti-gui-te [ko-ti-gqi-te] prox- 
imity; ex-i-gui-te [eg-zi-gqi-te] scantiness; lin-guis-te 
[le-gqist] linguist. Although ambiguite, contiguite and 
exiguite are spelled with a dieresis, the pronunciation, 
nevertheless, is as indicated, that is, [qi] a diphthong 
and not [yi], two separate vowel sounds. 

199 gu = [gw] only before a [gwa], and even then, with 
few exceptions, only in Spanish, Portuguese and Italian 
words: al-gua-zil [al-gwa-zil] police agent; Gua-da-la- 
xa-ra[gwa-da-la-ksa-ra]; Gua-dal-qui-vir [gwa-dal-ki-viir]; 
Gua-da-lu-pe [gwa-da-lyp] ; Guam [gwam]; Guar-da 
[gwar-da], La Guarda, city of Portugal; Gua-ri-ni [gwa- 
ri-ni]; Gua-te-ma-la [gwa-ta-ma-la] ; Gua-ya-kil [gwa-ja- 
kil]; lin-gual [Ic-gwal]. 

200 gn = [gn] ; that is, g and n are sounded separately in 
some words, mostly of Greek and Latin origin, instead of 
forming the usual combination [ji] (207); some of the 
more common of such words are: cog-ni-tion [kog-ni-sj5]; 
diag-nos-ti-que [djag-nos-tik] diagnosis; gno-me [gnoim]; 
gnos-ti-ques [gnos-tik] gnostics; gnou [gnu] horned horse; 


in-ex-pug-na-ble [i-ncks-pyg-na-bl] impregnable; mag- 
ni-fi-cat [mag-ni-fi-kat] ; mag-no-lier [mag-no-lje] and 
[ma-no-lje]; Prog-ne [prog-ne]; phy-siog-no-mo-nie [fi- 
zj.3g-no-mo-ni] physiognomy; re-cog-ni-tion [re-kog-ni-sjo]; 
stag-nant [stag-nu]; stag-na-tion [stag-na-sj5]. 

Exercise XXXVIII, illustrating examples of g before a, o, u, or 
a consonant = [g]. Write the following words, dividing them, when- 
ever possible, into syllables as usual in writing and printing, 
pronoimcing aloud the syllables and words as you write them: 
agglomeration, agglutinative, aggravation, aigu, anguiUe, digue, 
distinguons, drogue, eglogue, En-ghien, enigme, flegme, gai, gan- 
grene, gant, gargotte, gargouille, gogo, gomme, gonfler, Gonzague, 
Gringoire, guenille, guepe, gu6rir, gueiTe, guet, guide, guitare, gut- 
tural, Guy, naguere, narguant, sangUer, vigoureux, voguons. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as pronounced in ordinary 
spoken French, pronouncing aloud the syllables and words as you 
write them, using the key alphabet. 

201 g ])ofore e, i, y = [5], about as in English azvYc; the 
sound regularly denoted by French j, as in jau-ne [son] 
yellow; jeu [50] game; jo-li [50-li] pretty (217). Common 
examples of g before e, i, y are: a-gir [a-siir] to act; bou- 
gie [bu-5i] taper; gens [50] people; gi-te [y\t] lair; gym- 
nas-te [sim-nast] </yw7?a.s/;[o-ra-geux [o-ra-30] stormy. 

202 ge before a, o, u. Just as silent u is inserted after 
g, before e and i to produce the "hard" g sound (190), 
so silent e is inserted before a, o, u to produce the "soft" 
g sound: ga-geu-re fga-^yirl irager; geo-le [50:!] jail; geo- 
lier (50-lje] jailer; Geor-ges [5.)r5l; na-gea [na-5a] swam; 
plon-geons [plrj-so] let vs plunge. In such cases g never 
has the sound of English g in George. 


203 gg before e = [gs] ; that is, the first g has the "hard " 
sound and the second the "soft": sug-ge-rer [syg-5e-re] 
to suggest; sug-ges-tion [syg-5es-tj5]. 

204 g in the body of the following words is silent: 
Brog-lie [bro-ja]; Clug-ny [kly-ni]; im-brog-lio [e-bro-ljo] 
confusion; Reg-nard [ra-nair]; Reg-naud [ra-no] ; sang-sue 
[sa-sy] leech; sig-net [si-ne] and [si-jir] book-mark. 

205 g, final (365) or in a final group, is usually silent 
in French words and in proper names ending in bourg 
and berg: bourg [buir] (authority can be found for [bunk] 
in the singular and [buir] in the plural) borough (365); 
Cher-bourg [5er-bu:r]; doigt [dwa] finger; E-dim-bourg 
[e-dc-buir]; Ham-bourg [a-bu:r]; legs [le] legacy; Saint- 
Pe-ters-bourg [se pe-terz-buir]; vingt [ve] twenty; Wur- 
tem-berg [vyr-td-beir]. 

206 g final is sounded in most foreign words: grog 
[grog]; joug [ju(i)g] yoke (365); las-ting [las-teig] lasting, 
Denmark satin; Lie-big [li-big]; pou-ding [pu-deig] pud- 
ding; Schles-wig [Slez-vig]; Za-dig [za-dig]; zig-zag [zig- 

Exercise XXXIX, illustrating examples of g before e, i, y = [5]. 
Write the following words, dividing them, whenever possible, into 
syllables as usual in WTiting and printing, pronouncing aloud the 
syllables and words as you write them: agenda, arrangeons, change- 
ment, effigie, gageons, gageure, geindre, gele, gemir, gentiment, 
Georges, gerce, germaine,- Gertrude, gestes, gibeciere, gibier, gigan- 
tesque, Gigogne, gigot, gilet, gingembre, girouette, gite, gymnase, 
gymnastique, mangeons, ncgligeons, neige, orage, partageons, pigeon, 
rouge, voyageur. 


SupPLEMEXTART ExERCisE. Write tliese same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as pronoimced in ordinary 
spoken French, pronouncing aloud the sjllables and words as you 
write them, using the key alphabet. 

207 gn=[j-i], as in pei-gne [prji] comb; re-gne [itji] 
reigyi, resembling the sound heard in English mig/ionette, 
o»/on, u7u'on, but pronounced as a single sound, and not 
as two successive sounds. The sound [p], knowoi as 
liquid n or n mouille is represented by gn. The cases 
given under 200, in which gn = g+n, that is, two separate 
consonants, are mostly rather rare learned or foreign 
words. The usual sound value of gn is [ji], a single sound, 
although closely related to ni, the successive sounds 
heard in the English words above cited (omon, union), as 
well as to ni in French pa-nier [pa-nje] basket. Examples 
of gn=[ji] are: ba-gne [l)aji] convict prison; cham-pa-gne 
[5u-paji]; cam-pa-gne [kd-paji] country; cy-gne [siji] swan; 
li-gne [liji] line; sei-gneur [se-pojir] lord. 

Exercise XL, illustrating gn = [p], the words to be \\Titten, di- 
vidoii and pronounced aloud a.s usual: agneau, Allemagne, baignoire, 
Charlemagne, cogne, compagnon, d<5daigneux, digne, Eloigner, en- 
seigner, ejjargner, gagner, Gascogne, grognon, hargneux, ignoble, 
ignorant, lorgnon, nuignanime, magnifique, niagnesie, magnet isme, 
montagnard, monfagneux, poignet, n'gnait, Regnard, refrogne, 
rognon, signal, vergogne. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, as usual, the above words, 
using the key aljihabet. 

208 h is silent in French. It is called mute or aspirate. 
The mute or silent h has no effect whatever ui)on the; 
pronunciation. It is jjurcly conventional, often recalling 
Latin etymology, and treated as though non-existent: 


I'ha-bit [1 a-bi] the coat; les ha-bits [le za-bi] the coats; aux 
ha-bits [o za-bi] to the coats; des ha-bits [de za-bi] of the 
coats; I'heu-re [1 oeir] the hour; les heu-res [le zoeir] the 
hours; aux heu-res [o zoeir] to the hours; des heu-res [de 
zcEir] of the hours; I'hom-me [1 om] the man; les hom-mes 
[le zom] the men; aux hom-mes [o zom] to the men; des 
hom-mes [de zom] of the men. In these cases, as shown 
by the figured pronunciation, the words are pronounced 
as though written I'abit, les abits, aux abits, des abits; 
I'eure, les eures, aux eures, des cures; I'om, les ommes, 
aux ommes, des ommes. 

309 h mute may also occur in the middle or at the end 
of words. Here, again, it is as though it were not there: 
al-lah [al-la] the God; al-ma-nach [al-ma-na] almanac; 
a-rith-me-tique [a-rit-me-tik] arithmetic; ca-hier [ka-je] 
copjj-hook; ca-the-dra-le [ka-te-dral] cathedral; dah-lia 
[da-lja]; in-ha-bi-le [i-na-bil] incapable; mal-heur [ma- 
loeir] misfortune; the [te] tea. The English th sound does 
not exist in French; th = [t]. 

210 h aspirate is no longer aspirate. It was once so 
pronounced in certain words and the name aspirate is re- 
tained. Unlike mute h, aspirate h affects the pronuncia- 
tion of a word by preventing elision with a preceding 
vowel and linking with a preceding consonant, such as 
regularly occurs in the examples given under 208. Thus 
neither elision nor linking occur in the following: le ha- 
ri-cot [b a-ri-ko] the bean; les ha-ri-cots [le a-ri-ko] the 
beans; aux ha-ri-cots [o a-ri-ko] to the beans; des ha-ri- 
cots [de a-ri-ko] of the beans; le he-ros [h e-ro]; aux he-ros 
[o e-ro] to the heroes; des he-ros [de e-ro] of the heroes. 



If the h were not aspirate in these cases, the words would 
be pronounced [la-ri-ko], [le-za-ri-ko], [o-za-ri-ko], [de-za- 
ri-ko]; [1 e-ro], [1 e-ze-ro], [o-ze-ro], [de-ze-ro], particularly 
distasteful to the French ear. 

211 Whether the h be a mute h or an aspirate h, it may 
be regarded in either case as absolutely silent. There are 
some four hundred words that have the aspirate h, a large 
part of them of German origin. They are usually indi- 
cated in vocabularies and dictionaries by a star (*h) or 
an apostrophe ('h). Observation and practice alone will 
enable them to be recognized. Some of the more com- 
mon of these words are: 

ha-che [a^], ax 
ha-chis [a-Si], hash 
ha-gard [a-ga:r] haggard 
haie [c], hedge 
hail-Ions [a-jj] rags 
hai-ne [en] fuitred 
ha-ir [a-i:r] lu hale 
ha-ler [a-le] to haul 
ha-Ier [u-le] lo tan 
ha-le-ter [al-to] to pant 
halle [al] market-place 
hal-Iier [al-jc] thicket 
hal-te [alt] luilt 
ha-mac [a-mak] hammock 
Ham-bourg [a-bii:r] Hamburg 
ha-meau [a-inoj hamlet 
han-che [m^] haunch 
han-gar jri-gair) shed 
han-ne-ton [an-t3] June-bug 
han-ter [d-to] lo haunt 
ha-ran-gue [a-ru-g] 

ha-ras-ser [a-ra-se] to harass 

har-des [ard] apparel 

har-di [ar-cU] hardy 

ha-reng [a-ra] herring 

har-gneux [ar-jio] cross 

ha-ri-cot [a-ri-ko] bean 

har-nais [ar-ne] harricss 

har-pe [arp] harp 

har-pon [arp5] harpoon 

hart [a:r] tvilhe 

ha-sard [a-za:r] hazard 

ha-te [(i:t] haste 

hau-bert [o-beir] hauberk 

haus-ser [o-se] to raise 

haut [()] high 

ha-ve |u:v] iran 

Ha-va-ne [a-van] Havana 

Ha-vre ((i:vr, a:vr] Havre 

ha-vre-sac [uvrosak, avrosak] 

la Haye [la c] tlic Hague 



hen-nir [a-ni:r] to neigh 
Hen-ri [a-ri] Henry 
he-raut [e-ro] herald 
he-ron [e-r5] heron 
he-ros [e-ro] hero 
he-tre [e:tr] beech-tree 
heur-ter [oer-te] to bump 
hi-bou [i-bu] owl 
hi-deux [i-do] hideous 
hie-rar-chie [je-rar-^i] hierarchy 
his-ser [i-se] to hoist 
Hol-lan-de [o-la:d] Holland 
ho-mard [o-ma:r] lobster 
Hon-grie [5-gri] Hungary 
hon-te [5:t] shame 
ho-quet [o-ke] hiccough 
hors [o:r] outside 

hors d'ceu-vre [or da3vr] side- 
hors li-gne [or liji] extraordinary 
hou-blon [u-blo] hop 
hou-il-le [u:j] pit-coal 
hour-ra [u-ra] hurrah 
hous-se [us] covering 
houx [u] holly 
hu-che [yS] bin 
Hu-go [y-go] 
hu-gue-not [yg-no] 
huit [qit] eight 
hup-pe [yp] tuft 
hur-Jer [jT-le] to howl 
hus-sard [y-sa:r] hussar 
hut-te [yt] hut 
hya-cin-the [ja-SE:t] hyacinth 

Exercise XLI. Pronounce aloud the words in the above list, 
comparing carefully as you do. so the written forms with those of 
the key notation. 

212 Special cases. The h of Henri [a-ri] Henry is mute 
in familiar expressions: le chapeau d'Henri; le cheval 
d'Henri; but in more elevated language usually not: 
((jusqu'a la mort de Henri IV)) (Michelet), ujitil the death 
of Henry I V. 

213 h in huit [i^it] eight, hui-tai-ne [qi-ten] about eight, 
hui-tie-me [qi-tjem] eighth (317), hui-tie-me-ment [v\i- 
tj em-ma] eighthly, is aspirate when these words are not 
preceded by dix [dis] ten, vingt [ve] twenty, soi-xan-te-dix 
[swa-sait dis] seventy, and qua-tre-vingt-dix [ka-tra ve 
dis] eighty: le huit mars [b qit mars] the eighth of March. 


214 h is aspirate in he-ros (le he-ros [h e-ro] the hero) 
but silent in its derivatives: he-ro-i-ne, he-ro-i-co-mi- 
que, he-ro-i-que, he-ro-i-que-ment, he-ro-isme: I'he-ro- 
i-ne [1 e-ro-in], etc. It is supposed that le he-raut the 
herald, by analogy, caused the aspirate h in le he-ros. 

215 A few words beginning with a vowel are treated, 
with regard to elision and linking, as though they began 
with an aspirate h: le on-ze [lo o:z] the eleventh; le on- 
zie-me [lo 5-zjfm] the eleventh; la oua-te [la wat] ivadding; 
le oui [b va] the yes (370, 390). 

216 h = [h]. It is possible, at times, to discern a slight 
aspiration when certain words are forcibly pronounced: 
a-ha [ci-ha] aha!; la ha-che [la ha^i] the ax; o-he [o-he] 
hallo; also in hiatus an aspirate, much weaker than the 
English h, can sometimes be heard: le fle-au [lo flc-ho] 
the scourge; le pre-au [1.) pre-ho] the yard. In cases where 
it may not b(? possible to distinguish any aspiration, there 
is often a slight pause before an h aspirate: la haie [la e] 
the hedge; les har-des [Ic ard] apparel; la har-pe [la arp] 
the harp; le he-ros [lo e-ro]; la hon-te [la ait] the shame. 

217 j = [5], about as in English azure, mea.swrc, yet 
slightly more resonant, j, wlicrever it occurs, is pro- 
nounced [5]: ja-mais [3a-me] never; Jean [5a] John; jet [^v] 
jet (of water); jeu-ne [.vrn] young; jou-jou [.su-.^u] play- 
thing; jus-te [^yst] just; re-jouir [rc-5\vi:r| to rejoice. In 
such cases j never has the sound heard in English John. 
j never occurs as final. As shown und(!r 201, this same 
sound [5] is represented by g before e, i, y. 


Exercise XLII, illustrating j = [5]. Write, divide as in wTiting, 
pronouncing aloud as you write, the following words : a jeun, Anjou, 
Jacques, j'ai, jais, jardin, jars, jatte, Jesus, joindre, joint, jonc, jon- 
quille, Joseph, Josephine, jouer, journee, joute, joyeux, Juif, juin, 
Jules, jumelles, Julien, jute, rejoindre. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in speaking, pro- 
nouncing aloud as you write, these same words, using the key al- 

218 k = [k], about as in English rocfcet, kick, occurs 
only in foreign words: bif-teck [bif-tek] beefsteak; co-ke 
[kok]; joc-key [50-ke]; ke-pi [ke-pi] widress military cap; 
ki-lo [ki-lo] kilogram; ki-lo-gram-me [ki-lo-gram] ; ki-lo- 
me-tre [ki-b-metr] kilometer; kios-que [kjosk] small news- 
stand; Nec-ker [ne-keir]; sha-ko [Sa-ko] infantry cap. 

219 [k] is also represented by c before a, o, u, or a con- 
sonant, except h (173); by a final c (177); by ch in many 
learned words (185) ; by c in the first element of the com- 
bination cc before e, i, y (176); by q in cases hke cinq, 
coq (252) ; by qu, the u being silent, in cases like quand, 
que, qui (254). 

230 1 (11) = [1] about as in English jolly, lean, avoiding 
a hollow vocalic sound sometimes heard in such words 
as English bell, tell. Pronounce French 1 clearly and dis- 
tinctly wdth the tongue well forward. [1] is represented by 
1 and 11: col-ler [ko-le] to glue; in-tel-li-gent [e-te-li-3a] ; 
la [la] the; li-vre [li-vr] book; lu-ne [lyn] moon; pul-lu-ler 
[py-ly-le] to swarm. 

221 1 final is usually pronounced (165, 344) : bel [bel] 
fine; cal-cul [kal-kyl] calculation; che-val [^s-val] horse; 


con-sul [k5-syl]; fol [fol] foolish; No-el [no-el] Christmas; 
nou-vel [nu-vel] new; Ra-oul [ra-ul] Ralph; sel [sel] salt; 
seul [sceI] alone; tel [tel] such. 

Ill -le final after a consonant. Special care should 
be taken not to pronounce French final -le after a con- 
sonant as a distinct syllable as in the cognate English 
words ending in -le. The French final -le does not form 
a separate syllable by itself as in English, but the 1 goes 
with the preceding consonant, receiving only a light 
whispered pronunciation, not infrequently disappearing 
in colloquial French: ai-gle [e(!)gl] eagle; bou-cle [bukl] 
buckle; peu-ple [poepl] people; ta-ble [tabl]. 

223 1 is silent in proper names ending in -auld, -ault, 
-aulx; also in a few common words: Ar-nauld [ar-no]; 
aulx [o] pi. garlic; Bel-fort [be-foirj; cul [ky] posterior; 
fauQ)x [fo] scythe; fils [fis] son; [fi] ((vieilli)) may some- 
times be heard; Gi-rault [si-ro]; He-rault [e-ro]; La Roche- 
fou-cauld [la r,o$-fu-ko]; pouls [pu] pulse; Per-rault [pe-ro]; 
Qui-nault [ki-no] ; Saulx [so] ; soul [su] fill. 

ExERCiSK XLIII, illustrating I (11) =[!]. Write, divide as in writ- 
ing, pronouncing aloud as you write, the following words: alleluia, 
bol, colonel, cellule, fatal, follicule, gouleux, intelligence, la, lait, I'an, 
la.s, I'eau, leger, leur, lien, lin, lit, local, loge, long, louche, loueur, 
loyal, lueur, niiel, mobile, pelhcule, soulever, volaiUe. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in speaking, pro- 
nouncing aloud as you write, these same words, using the key alpha- 

224 il, ill, known as liquid I or 1 mouillee = [j]. ill in 
the middh; of a word and il at the end are generally pro- 


nounced [j], that is, like the semi-consonant in English 
yes, year; nevertheless after a consonant the 1 of final il 
is apt to be pronounced: cil [sil] eyelash; fil [fil] thread; mil 
[mil] one thousand; Nil [nil] the Nile. L mouillee is repre- 
sented by 11 after i and by il and ill after any other 
vowel (but not when i and 1 are in different syllables). 
Thus the word for William would be divided in writing 
and printing Guil-laume, but phonetically would be pro- 
nounced and symbolized [gi-joim]; pail-lasse [pa-jas] 
straw mattress; se-rail [se-raij] harem. This sound has 
already received attention under the semi-vowel y (154). 
The difference between French y and 1 mouillee is that y = 
two i's (i+i), as in pay-e = «pai-ie)) [pe-je]; while 1 mouille 
= merely [j] alone, as in paille [puij] not [peij]. 

225 The term liquid, like aspirate, is still used, al- 
though no longer applicable. It applied formerly to 
words having ill in the middle or il at the end. The 
sound was about Hke that heard in English Wi^^iam. If 
Willia7n be pronounced ((wee-yum)) [wi-jom] it will illus- 
trate quite well the change which the ill or il sound origi- 
nally liquid, underwent. In general, it is necessary to 
consider il final or ill medial, simply as signs representing 
the sound of y in English year; and to disassociate them 
entirely from the preceding vowel or combination of 
vowels. Thus tra-vail-ler (cf. 46, 3°) was formerly pro- 
nounced [tra-val-je] ])ut now [tra-va-je]; and tra-vail was 
pronounced [tra-valj], now [tra-va!J]. Thus, as shown, 
the a and the i do not go together as the ay in the first 
syllable of pay-e, making a single sound [r], but constitute 
the two parts of the diphthong a+i = [a:j] or [a:j]. 


3^6 il and ill [j], that is, the so-callecl 1 mouillee, com- 
bines ordinarily with a preceding vowel or digraph as 




























[y:j] and [iti:j 

ail: ail garlic; bail [l)aij] lease; e-ven-tail [e-va-taij] 
fan. ail-le : ba-tail-le [ha-t(i:j] hatllc; trou-vail-le [tru-v(i:j] 
find; vo-lail-le [vj-lu:j] puidlry. eil: con-seil [k5-sf:j] 
council; pa-reil [pa-re ij] equal; so-leil [so-le:j] sun. eil-le: 
a-beil-le [a-br:jl bee; cor-beil-le [kor-beij] basket; o-reil-le 
[o-rt'ij] ear. ieil: vieil [vjr:jj old. ieil-le: vieil-le [vjcijj 
old. euil: deuil [dci'ij] mourning; e-cu-reuil [e-ky-roejj] 
squirrel; fau-teuil [fo-toe:j] armchair, euil-le: feuil-le 
[fa'ij] leaj; Neuil-ly [ncc-jij; veuil-le [voeij] wish, oeil: ceil 
[oe:j] eye; oeil de boeuf [02 !J do boef] bull's-eye; oeil de chat 
[a-:] (I) 5a] cat's-cye, agate, oeil-le : oeil-la-de [ce-jad] glance; 
oeil-le-re [ui-jcirj blinder; oeil-let [di-jv] pink, ueil (after 
c and g, ue is substituted for eu before il and ill) : ac-cueil 
[a-ka'!J] reception; e-cueil [c-kcc:j] breaker; or-gueil 
[.>r-ga':j| pride. ueil-le: ac-cueil-le [a-kocij] receires; 
re-cueil-le [ro-koeij] gathers; or-gueil-leux [,)r-g(r-j0l 
hanghty. (ijil and fijil-le, that is, in cases when tlie vowel 
of the syllable is i, 1 or 11 must necessarily be written in 
place of il and ill. il: gre-sil [gre-zi;j], also [gre-zi| and 
[grc-zil] slccl; mil [iui:,)l also [mil J millet; cases like the 


two last cited where the l = [j] are rare, ill: an-guil-le 
[a-gi:j] eel; be-quil-le [be-ldij] crutch; fil-le [fiij] girl. 
oail-le: joail-le-rie [5waj-ri] jewelry; joail-lier [swa-je] 
jeweler, ouil: fe-nouil [f8-nu!J]/emieZ. ouil-le : ci-trouil-le 
[si-truij] pmnpkiri; gre-nouil-le [grQ-nuij] frog ; notice this 
word is pronounced [gro-nu:j] and not [gro-nwi], the semi- 
vowel ill or il being the only one that may follow a vowel; 
mouil-le [muij] liquid, uil-le: ai-guil-le [e-gnui]] needle; 
cuil-ler (cuil-lie-re) [ky-je:r] or [kqi-jeir] or [kyl-jeir] 
spoon; juil-let [^y jc(fe )] or [^l^^] or [3iii-J8(t)] July; 
[kqi-jeir] and [sqi-je] are most commonly heard. 

Exercise XLIV, illustrating il or ill (the so-called liquid 1) = [j]. 
Write, dividing, whenever possible, into syllables according to the 
usage in writing and printing, the following words, pronouncing 
aloud the syllables or words as you wi-ite them: ail, barbouiller, 
bataiUe, bequilles, betail, billet, bouteille, bouvreuil, bredouiller, 
brouillard, caiUe, cercueil, chenille, cheville, conseiller, deraille, deuil, 
fauteuil, feuille, groseiUe, habiUons, ceil, orteil, oreiUe, orgueilleux, 
quadriUe, soleil, sommeil, vanille, veilleuse, vermeil, Versailles, 
veuille, vieiUard, vieiUir. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write the above words, dividing 
them as in the spoken language, pronouncing them aloud, using the 
key alphabet. 

227 il and ill = [il]. As stated under 225, it is necessary, 
in general, to consider ill in the middle of a word and il at 
the end simply as signs representing the sound of y in 
English year. The sound 1 mouillee is represented by 11 
(after i) ; by il and ill after any other vowel (the i and the 
1 being in the same syllable). Nevertheless there are 
many cases where the il and ill have their natural sound 
Of [il]. 


228 il final, not preceded by a vowel = [il] or [i] or [j]; 
that is, il not preceded by a vowel is pronounced in three 
different ways: with the 1, without the 1, and as liquid 1, 
or strictly i+liquid 1 [i:j]. The cases of final il = [i!J] are 
quite rare and tend to disappear. Authority may easily 
be found for three pronunciations [il], [ij] and with silent 
1 [i] of the foUoudng words: a-vril [a-vril] or [a-vriij] or 
[a-vri] April; ba-bil [ba-bil] or [ba-bi!J] or [ba-bi] prattle; 
gre-sil [gre-zil] or [gre-ziij] or [gre-zi] sleet. The following 
words have two pronunciations [il] and [iij]: cil [sil] or 
[si:j] eyelash; mil [mil] or [mi:j] millet; pe-ril [pe-ril] or 
[pe-ri:j], although this latter pronunciation is uncom- 
mon; and the following may also be pronomiced in two 
ways, with silent 1 and with liquid 1 : fe-n il^ [fa-ni] or [fa- 
ni:j] hay-loft; tril (more conmionly trille) [tri] or [triij] 

229 il final, not preceded by a vowel = [il], that is, 
cases where 1 of the ending il has its normal value. Be- 
sides the words avril, babil, cil, gresil, mil, peril, the last 
syllable of which, as noted above under 228, is oftentimes 
pronounced with a sounded normal 1, that is [il], the fol- 
lowing are some of the more common words that have 
the [il] pronunciation, which is generally the usual one 
after a consonant: a-nil [a-nil] indigo plant; be-ryl [be-ril] 
emerald; ci-vil [si-vil]; ex-il [eg-zil] exile; fil [fid] thread; il 
[il] he, and, before a consonant, popular [i]; le Nil [lo nil] 
the Nile; langue d'o-fl [la:g d .)il] language of oil (oui), 
northern France; pis-til [pis-til]; pro-fil [pro-fil] side-view; 
pue-ril [pije-ril] boyish; vil [vil] vile; vo-la-til [vj-la-til] 


230 il = [i], that is, in cases where the 1 of the ending 
-il is silent. Besides the words fenil [fo-ni] and tril [tri] 
mentioned under 228 the following have silent 1: ba-ril 
[ba-ri] barrel; che-nil [^o-ni] kennel; cou-til [ku-ti] tick- 
ing; frai-sil [fre-zi] charcoal-dust; four-nil [fur-ni] bake- 
house; fu-sil [fy-zi] gun; gen-til [sa-ti] nice; but notice 
gen-til-homme [sd-ti-jom] nobleman, and the plural form 
gen-tils-hom-mes [su-ti-zom] noblemen; gril [gri] gridiron; 
me-nil [me-ni] habitation; nom-bril [no-bri] navel; ou-til 
[u-ti] tool; per-sil [pcr-si] parsley; sour-oil [sur-si] eyebrow. 

231 ill initial = [il] that is, the ordinary sound of i+1, 
or [ill], that is, i+1+1 (42 and 168); il-le-gal [i(l)-le-gal]; 
il-li-si-ble [i(l)-li-zi-bl] illegible; il-lus-trer [i(l)-lys-tre] to 

233 iH not initial, in certain other words, which only 
practice makes known, has also the usual sound of 1: 
A-chil-le [a-Sil]; bil-lion [bi-ljo]; co-di-cil-le [ko-di-sil] codi- 
cil; De-m-le [de-lil] ; dis-til-ler [di-sti(l)-le] to distil; i-dyl-le 
[i-dil] idyl; im-be-cil-li-te [e-be-si(l)li-te] imbecility; in-stil- 
ler [e-sti(l)-le] to instil; Lil-le [lil] ; max-il-lai-re [mak-si-leir] 
maxillary; mil-le [mil] thousand; mil-liard [mi-ljair] thou- 
sand millions; mil-lion [mi-ljo]; myr-til-le [mir-til] myrtle; 
os-cil-ler [o-si-le] to oscillate; pu-pil-le [py-pil] loard; pu- 
sil-la-ni-me [py-zi(l)-la-nim] pusillanimous; scin-til-ler 
[sg-ti(l)-le] to sparkle; si-byl-le [si-bil] sibyl; Tal-ley-rand 
[ta(l)-le-ru]; ti-til-ler [ti-ti(l)-le] to tickle; tran-quU-le 
[tru-kil] tranquil; va-cil-ler [va-si-le] to waver; vau-de- 
vil-le [vo-dvil] ballad; vil-le [vil] city; vil-la-ge [vi(l)-lai5]; 
Vill-main [vil-me]. 


233 m (mm), as in mot [mo] word; da-me [dam] ladij, 
about like the m in English steamer, has its consonantal 
value when beginning words or syllables in which the m 
precedes a vowel, as in the two examples just given; and 
elsewhere, excepting the cases (129) where the m after 
a vowel at the end of words or syllables (and before the 
consonants, most frequently p, b, t), makes nasal the pre- 
ceding vowel and is itself not pronounced (373). Other- 
wise stated, m retains its consonantal value when double, 
or between two vowels or a vowel and a silent h. m = [m] : 
la-me [lam] blade; ma-man [ma-mu] and [mu-mu] mama; 
re-su-me [re-zy-me] summary. mm = [m]: fem-me [fam] 
woman; gram-mai-re [gra-meir] grammar; hom-me [om] 

234 m when followed by n (132, 143) is not nasal 
but retains its consonantal value: am-nis-tie [am-nis-ti] 
amnesty; au-tom-nal [o-tom-nal] autumnal; ca-lom-nie 
[ka-bm-ni] calumny; gym-nas-ti-que [sim-nas-tik] gym- 
nastics; in-dem-ni-te [f-dam-ni-tc] indemnity; in-som-nie 
[e-som-ni] insomnia; om-ni-po-tent, [;)ni-ni-po-td]; om-nis- 
cient [om-ni-sja]; som-n^mi-bu-le [som-na-byl] somnam- 

235 m is usually pronounced at the end of foreign 
words after a vowel, and also at the end of syllables 
(cf. 132, 134, 139) in such words: al-bum [al-bom]; Am- 
ster-dam [am-strr-dani] ; Beth-le-em [brt-lc-nnj; de-cem- 
vir |(lc-srm-vir]; E-phra-im |('-fra-ini]; Ep-som l('])-s.)iii]; 
Her-cu-la-num [|; i-dem [i-drm]; in-te-rim 
[t-tc-riiiij; i-tem [i-tniij; Je-ru-sa-lem [50-ry-za-li iiij; 


Krem-lin [krem-le]; Nem-rod [nem-rod]; o-pium [o-pjom]; 
Pri-am [pri-am]; re-quiem [re-kqiem]; rhum [rom]; Rot- 
ter-dam [ro-trr-dam] ; Se-lim [se-lim]; tri-um-vir [tri-om- 
vi:r]; Tus-cu-lum [tus-ky-lom]. 

236 When foreign words ending in m become galli- 
cized, then the m, following French analogies, nasalizes 
the preceding vowel: Ab-sa-lom [ap-sa-l5]; A-dam [a-da]; 
Sam-son [sa-s5]. 

237 m is silent in au-tomne [o-ton] autumn; dam-ner 
[da-ne] to damn; and in the derivatives con-dam-na-ble 
[ko-da-na-bl] blamable; con-dam-na-tion [ko-da-na-sjo] 
condemnation (cf. 143). 

338 mm = [m] or [(m)m] (168). The cases where two 
m's, or a somewhat lengthened m, may be heard, like 
those of two sounded I's or two sounded r's, are practi- 
cally of no great importance. They usually occur in 
words beginning with imm: im-mo-ral [i(m)-mo-Tal], but 
may occur elsewhere: gram-ma-ti-cal [gra(m)-ma-ti-kal]. 

Exercise XLV, illustrating the nasal consonant m = [m] or mm 
= [(m)m]. Write, divide as in written French, pronouncing syllables 
and words as you write, the following words : amitie, calomnie, dia- 
deme, dilemme, diligemment, Emma, Emmanuel, gemme, grammati- 
calement, immense, immacule, immortel, macadam, mahnener, 
mammifere, mammouth, marmite, marmotter, medire, memement, 
memoire, milieu, modele, momerie, monument, murmure, omnibus, 
post-scriptum, sciemment, soumission. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as when spoken, pro- 
nouncing aloud syllable and word when written, these same words, 
using the key alphabet. 


239 n (nn) = [n], as in ni [ui] neither, a-ne [a:n] ass, about 
as in English many, occurring before any vowel (except 
in the prefix en (133) where the n, as a rule, nasalizes 
the preceding vowel), n: a-ni-mal [a-ni-mal]; in-a-ni-me 
[i-na-ni-me] inanimate; o-no-ma-to-pee [o-no-ma-to-pe] on- 
omatopaia; e-nor-me [e-norm] enormous; na-nan [na-nu] 
candy; u-ni-for-me [y-ni-form] uniform, nn: an-na-les 
[a(-n)-nal] annals; an-neau [a-no] ring; don-ner [do-ne] 
to give; hon-neur [o-noeir] honor; in-no-cen-ce [i-no-sais]; 
in-ne [in-ne] innate. 

240 n, like m, when following a vowel in the same 
syllable, simply serves to nasalize the vowel (131). 

- 241 n final is sounded in proper names and in a few 
foreign words: ab-do-men [ab-do-men]; A-den [a-den]; 
a-men [a-men]; Bee-tho-ven [be-to-ven]; E-den [e-den]; 
hy-men [i-men]; li-chen [li-ken]; pol-len [po-lcn]; spe-ci- 
men [spe-si-men]. 

242 n in in of some common Latin terms is sounded: 
in-oc-ta-vo [i-nok-ta-vo] 8vo; in pa-ce [in pa-se]; in par- 
ti-bus [in par-ti-bys]; in pet-to [in pet-to]; in pla-no 
[in pla-no]; in sta-tu quo [in sta-ty kwo]; in ex-ten-so 
[i-neks-te-so] ; in ex-tre-mis [i-neks-tre-mis]. 

243 in = [e] generally in expressions giving the size of 
books: in-dou-ze [e duiz] 12nio; in-fo-lio [f fo-ljo]; in- 
quar-to [t- kwar-to] 4to; in-sei-ze [b sciz] IGmo. 

244 n is disregarded in the -ent, third person plural of 
verbs, and this entire ending is absolutely silent: lis ai- 


ment [ilz E:\m]the7j love; ils ai-me-rent [ilz r-mp:r] they loved; 
ils chan-tent [il 5a:t] they sing; ils chan-te-rent [il $a-te!r] 
they sang; ils fi-nis-sent [il finis] they are finishing; ils 
fi-ni-rent [il fi-niir] they finished. 

Exercise XLVI, illustrating the nasal consonant n = [n] or nn 
= [(n)n]. Write, divide as in written French, pronouncing syllable 
and word as you -m-ite, the following words: Annibal, le Bcarn, ca- 
liner, carnaval, comprencz, ennobUt, flanelle, hennir, hymen, inac- 
tion, inhabile, inherent, innombrable, Narbonne, nenni, nominatif, 
nonante, nonnain, nonobstant, pinacle, provenir, prune, scenario, so- 
lermite, sonore, souvenir, vinaigre. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as when spoken, pro- 
nouncing aloud syllable and word when wi'itten, these same words, 
xising the key alphabet. 

Exercise XLVII, illustrating the distinction between nasal vow- 
els (129) and oral vowels followed by consonantal m or n. Write, 
divide as in written French, pronouncing syllables and words as you 
write, the following words: aimable, amitie, amoureuse, an, anato- 
mic, ane, arrondir, banane, bon, bonne, brun, brune, calamite, 
calembour, Damon, dilemme, diligemment, Emma, emmagasiner, 
emmaiUoter, Emmanuel, emmenager, ils entendent, faim, femme, 
fin, fine, flambeau, flanelle, gene, gens, gemme, grammatical, imma- 
c\i\6, immense, immeuble, immoler, immortel, innovation, instinct, 
lundi, lune, malmener, maman, mammelle, mammifere, mammouth, 
marmite, memement, memoire, momerie, monument, murmure, om- 
nibus, post-scriptum, sciemment, soumlssion, Siam. 

245 p (pp) = [p], as in pas, tape, about as in English 
taper, is regularly represented by p: cap [kap] cape; de- 
pot [de-po] deposit; e-clip-se [e-klips], pa-pier [pa-pje] 
paper; prin-temps [pre-ta] spring; su-per-be [sy-pcrb] 
superb, pp: ap-pe-tit [a-pe-ti] appetite; nap-pe [nap] 
cloth; sup-plice [sy-plis] punishment. 


246 [p] may, however, be represented by b before a 
voiceless consonant, as explained under 170. ab-sent 
[ap-sa], ab-surde [ap-syrd] absurd, ob-te-nir [op-to-niir] 
to obtain, are examples of the sound of p represented by 
a written b. 

247 p is silent in a number of words, some of the 
commonest of which are: bap-te-me [ba-teim] baptism; 
bap-ti-ser [ba-ti-ze] to baptize; Bap-tis-te [ba-tist] ; bap-tis- 
te-re [ba-tis-teir] baptistry; comp-te [kjit] account; corps 
[ka:r] body; domp-ter [do-te] to subdue; domp-teur [do- 
toe:r] tamer; ex-empt [eg-zu] free; ex-emp-ter [cg-zd-tc] to 
exempt; prompt [pro]; promp-ti-tude [pro-ti-tyd] ; romps 
[r5] break; sept [set] seven; sculp-teur [skyl-toeir]; sculp- 
tu-re [skyl-tyir]. 

248 p is pronounced in other words under identical or 
similar conditions: ab-rupt [ab-rypt]; as-somp-tion [a- 
sop-sj.")] assumption; con-somp-tif [k5-s5p-tif] consump- 
tive; con-somp-tion [ko-sop-sjj] using up; ex-emp-tion 
[eg-zap-sj5]; im-promp-tu [c-prop-ty]; laps [laps] lapse; 
pe-remp-toire [ix'-rup-twair] peremptory; pre-emp-tion 
[prc-np-sj.")]; pre-somp-tif [pre-zop-tif] presumptive; pre- 
somp-tion [pre-zop-sj3] presumptuousness ; pr^-somp-tueux 
[prc-zr)p-ti{0] presumptuous; rapt [rapt] carryimj ojj; re- 
demp-teur [re-dn(p)-toc;r] redeemer; re-demp-tion [re- 
dri(pj-sj:)l; re-lap-se [r,)-lai)s]; reps [rrps] rep; sep-tem-bre 
[srp-triibrl; sep-tua-ge-nai-re [stp-tita-se-nrir] scplua(jcna- 
rian; sep-ten-trion [.sep-tu-trjo] north; symp-to-me [sfp- 
toim] symptom. 


249 p final is generally silent: beau-coup [bo-ku] 
much; can-ta-loup [ku-ta-lu] cantaloup; coup [ku] stroke; 
drap [dra] cloth; ga-lop [ga-lo] gallop; loup [lu] wolf; si-rop 
[si-ro] sirup; trop [tro] and [tro] too much. 

250 p final is sounded in a few instances: cap [kap] 
cape; cep [sep] vine-stock; croup [krup]; ha-nap [a-nap] 
large cup; ja-lap [sa-lap] (jalap) ; ju-lep [sy-lep] julep. 

251 p and ph (191) followed by n, s, t are sounded 
at the beginning of words: pneu-ma-ti-que [pn0-ma-tik] 
hicycle tire; pneu-mo-nie [pn0-mo-ni] pneumonia; psal- 
mo-dier [psal-mo-dje] to chant psalms; psal-mis-te [psal- 
mist] psalmist; psau-me [psoim] psalm; psy-che [psi-^e] 
cheval-glass; psy-cho-lo-gie [psi-ko-lo-si] psychology; psy- 
co-lo-gue [psi-ko-log] psychologist; Pto-le-mee [pto-le-me] 
Ptolemy; pht(h)i-sie [fti-zi] phthisis; pht(h)i-si-que [fti- 
zik] consumptive. 

Exercise XLVIII, illustrating p (pp) = [p]. Write, dividing, 
whenever possible, as in written French, pronouncing aloud syllables 
and words as you wTite, the following words : acception, apoplexie, 
apte, captieux, consomption, coupe, epopee, hippopotame, Lesseps, 
palper, palpitant, pampre, papa, pape, papillon, parapluie, peremp- 
toire, pion, pipe, presomptif, pneu, pneumatologie, pompe, relapse, 
septentrional, symptome, transept. 

Cases of [p], that is, sounded p = written French b: absoudre, 
abstinence, absurde, observer, obstacle, obtenir. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide, as in spoken French, 
and pronounce aloud the above words, using the key alphabet. 

252 q and qu = [k]. q is regularly followed by u except 
in cinq [seik] five and coq [kok] cock, where the final q has 
the k sound. 


253 qu has three sounds: [k] which is the most usual, 
the u being entirely silent; [kw], usually before a; and 
[kq] usually before e and i. 

254 qu = [k] in the majority of cases, especially in 
older and commoner words of the language: ac-que-rir 
[a-ke-ri:r] to acquire; Saint Tho-mas d'Ac-quin: [se to-mci 
da-ke]; an-ti-quail-le [a-ti-ka:j] old curiosity; a-qui-lin 
[a-ki-le] aquiline; a-qui-lon [a-ki-l5] north wind; con- 
que-rir [ko-ke-riir] to conquer; en-que-te [a-keit] inquest; 
e-qui-ta-ble [e-ki-ta-bl] ; e-qui-va-lent [e-ki-va-lci] ; e-qui- 
vo-que [e-ki-vok] equivocal; fa-bri-que [fa-brik] fabric; 
in-quiet [e-kjr] anxious; li-que-fier [li-ke-fje] to liquefy; 
li-queur [li-kojir] liquor; lo-que [bk] shred; nu-que [nyk] 
nape; quand [ka] when; quart [kair] quarter; Saint Quen- 
tin [sf kci-te]; quar-te [kart] fourth; qua-si [ka-zi] almost; 
qua-tre [katr] four; qua-train [ka-trf] four verses; que-te 
[krit] quest; queue [k0] tail; quil-le [ki:j] keel; quin-cail- 
le-rie [k£-kaj-ri] hardware; quin-te [keit] fifth; quin-quet 
[ke-kr] Argand lamp; quin-teux [ke-t0] whimsical; Char- 
les-Quint [^ar-lo kc] Charles V; qui-pro-quo [ki-pro-ko] 
blunder; vain-quis [vg-ki] (I) conquered; vain-quons [ve- 
k5] lei us conquer. 

255 The sound [k], as already shown (174, 185, 186, 
219), may under certain conditions be expressed by c, cc, 
ch, k. As seen in such examples as those cited under 
254: li-que-fie, quin-te, etc., the sound [k] must be 
written qu before e and i, and may be so written before 
a, o: qua-li-te [ka-li-tc] quality; vain-quons [vr-ko] let us 
conquer. But before re and before consonants [k] is 


written c. This occasions certain variations, according 
to the forms, in the spelhng of words: ca-duc [ka-dyk] 
decrepit; ca-du-que [ka-dyk]; pu-blic [py-bhk]; pu»-bli-que 
[py-bHk]; turc [tyrk] Turk; tur-que [tyrk]; vain-cre 
[veikr] to conquer; vain-cu [ve-ky] conquered; vain-quant 
[v8-ka] conquering; vain-quez [ve-ke] conquer; vain-quis 
[ve-ki] (I) conquered. 

356 qu = [kw] before a: a-qua-rel-le [a-kwa-rel] water- 
color; a-qua-rium [a-kwa-rjom]; a-qua-ti-que [a-kwa-tik] 
watenj; a-de-qua-te [a-de-kwat]; e-qua-teur [e-kwa-toeir] 
equator; e-qua-tion [e-kwa-sj5]; in-quar-to [e kwar-to]; 
lo-qua-ce [lo-kwas] and [lo-kas] loquacious; qua-dran-gle 
[k(w)a-dra:gl]; qua-dru-pe-de [k(w)a-dry-ped] quadruped; 
qua-dru-pler [k(w)a-dry-ple] to quadruple; quar-to [kwar- 
to]; quartz [kwairts]; qua-tuor [kwa-tqoir] quartet; squa-le 
[skwal] dogfish; squa-re [skwair]. 

257 qu = [kii] before e and i, particularly in the prefix 
equi [o-k(i])i] meaning equal; de-li-ques-cen-ce [de- 
li-k(q)e-sas]; e-ques-tre [e-k(q)estr] equestrian; e-qui- 
dis-tant [e-k(ii)i-dis-ta]; e-qui-ta-tion [e-k(ii)i-ta-sj5]; 
o-bli-qui-te [o-bli-k(Li)i-te] obliquity; ques-teur [kqes- 
tceir] questor; ques-tu-re [kqestyir] questorship; qui-e-tu-de 
[kqi-e-tyd] ; Quin-te-Cur-ce [kqet kyrs] Quintus Curtius; 
Quin-ti-lien [kqg-ti-lje]; re-quiem [re-kniem]; u-bi-qui-te 
[y-bi-ki{i-te] ubiquity. 

358 As shown by the examples in 256 and 257, the 
pronunciation of qu is not always easy to determine. In 
a general way it, may be said tliat for the older and es- 


tablished words of the language the pronunciation [k] is 
quite safe; while for the newer and more learned forms, 
brought into the language after 1550 approximately, the 
pronunciation of qu is either [kw] or [kq]. The same con- 
fusion exists with regard to gu (195-199) and the prin- 
ciples governing the pronunciation of the latter follow 
closely those of qu. 

ExBRCiSE XLIX, illustrating the- three values of qu: 1" [k]; 2" 
[Ivw]; 3° [kq]. Write, divide as in written French, pronouncing 
aloud syllables and words as you write them, the following in which 
qu has the value of [k]: acquit, equivalent) equitable, equivoque, 
quadrille, quai, quarante, quasi, quatre-tomps, quel, queassi-queu- 
mi, queue, quillon, quinquina, quotient; the following in which qu 
= [kw] : aquareUiste, aquatinta, equation, exequatur, Uquation, qua- 
dragenaire, quadrat(e), quadrupler, sine qua non, squale; and the 
following in which qu = [kq] loquelc, (quibus),^ (quiddite), quie- 
tisme, quietude, (quintette), (quintuple), a quia, (quintidi), quin- 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide and pronounce aloud 
as in spoken French these same words, using the key alphabet. 

259 r = [r]; rr = [(r)r], as in rare [ra:r]; rend [ro] round; 
cour-rai [kur-re] (I) shall run; about as in English error. 
Two r's are g(nierally rolknl or trilled more than a single 
r. Thus in words beginning with irr (H)8) and in the 
future and conditional of courir, mourir, querir, the 
double r is distinctly hoard and serves to difforentiate 
these verb-forms from those of the imperfect indic^ative 
which have but one r. In either case, whether there be 
one or two r's, the r should make itself distinctly felt. 
Not sounding the r is usually the most noticeable defect 

• The wonis in parenthesis iiavc uIho [k|. 


of English-speaking students, a defect which mars appre- 
ciably the spoken word, a-ri-de [a-rid] arid; au-ront 
[o-ro] (they) will have; er-rer [er-re] to err; er-reur [er-rce:r] 
error; se-ra [sa-ra] (he) will be; ter-ri-ble [te-ri-bl]. 

260 -re final at the end of a word after a consonant is 
precisely parallel to -le final at the end of a word after a 
consonant (222). The group consonant +re should not 
be pronounced as a distinct syllable, but, just as in the 
case of the group consonant +le, should be pronounced 
slightly whispered and as though forming but one syllable 
with what precedes: a-cre [a-kr] tart; ai-gre [e:gr] sour; 
ar-bre [arbr] tree; cen-tre [sa!tr];no-tre [notr] our; or-dre 
[ordr] order; per-dre [perdr] to lose. 

261 r final is regularly sounded (165): coeur [koe:r] 
heart; dor-toir [dor-twa:r] dormitory; fi-nir [fi-niir] to 
finish; leur [loeir] their; mur [myir] wall; peiir [poeir] 
fear; plai-sir [ple-ziir] pleasure; te-nir [ta-ni:r] to hold; 
trot-toir [tro-twa:r] sidewalk. 

262 But final r (347-349) is usually silent in the end- 
ing -er of words of more than one syllable. In such cases 
-er = [e]: ai-mer [e-me] to love; Be-ran-ger [be-ra-se]; 
ber-ger [ber-3e] shepherd; bou-cher [bu-^e] butcher; cour- 
rier [ku-rje] messenger; cui-si-nier [kqi-zi-nje], cook; dan- 
ger [da-3e]; e-pi-cier [e-pi-sje] grocer; fer-mier [fer-mje] 
farmer; jar-di-ner [sar-di-ne] to garden; le-ger [Ie-3e] 
light; of-fi-cier [o-fi-sje] officer; par-ler [par-le] to speak; 
Ro-ger [ro-3e]; ver-ger [v8r-3e] orchard. When an s is 
added to form the plural of nouns the singular of which, 


as in the above list, ends in -er, the pronunciation of the 
word remains unchanged: ber-gers [ber-se]. 

263 r final in monosyllables in -er, and in a few words 
of more than one syllable, and in proper names mostly of 
foreign origin, is sounded: cher [^cir] dear; fer [feir] iron; 
fier [fje:r] proud; hier [jc:r] yesterday; mer [meir] sea; 
ver [ve;r] worm. Words of more than one syllable and 
proper names: a-mer [a-meir] bitter; as-ter [a-ste:r] aster; 
Au-ber [o-beir]; can-cer [ka-sc:r]; cuil-ler [kqi-jeir]; ei- 
der [e-dc:r] eider; en-fer [ci-feir] hell; Es-ther [es-te:r]; 
e-ther [e-teir]; hi-ver [i-veir] winter; Ju-pi-ter [sy-pi- 
te:r]; Kle-ber [kle-beir]; Lu-ther [ly-te:r]; ma-gis-ter 
[ma-3is-teir] village schoolmaster; Nec-ker [ne-keir]; pa- 
ter [pa-te:r] paternoster; part-ner [part-neir]; re-vol-ver 
[re-vol-ve:r]; Schil-ler [5i-lc:r]; sta-bat ma-ter [sta-bat 

264 r is regularly pronounced in words ending in r 
-|- consonant ; in such cases the final consonant is always 
silent: ac-quiers [a-kjr:r] acquire; An-vers [a-veirj; clerc 
[kleir] clerk; con-quiert [kS-kjeir] (he) conquers; de-sert 
[de-znr]; en-vers [a-veir] towards; fort [fo:r] strong; 
Thiers [tjnr]; tiers [tjcir] third part; u-ni-vers [y-ni-vnr] 
universe; vers [vc:r] verse. 

265 r is pronounced in gars [ga:r] lad; [ga] is a familiar 
form, [gair] is more literary; it is not pronounced in mon- 
sieur [mo-sj0] sir; mes-sieurs [me-sj0] gentlemen. 

ExEuciSK L, illuHtruting pronounced r, that is, r = [r], rr = [(r)r]. 
Write, dividing iis in written French, i)ronouncing aloud sylhibh'H 
and words im you write them, the following: Albert Diirer, arriere. 


Auber, barbare, Bernard, brancard, brocard, carte, Chartres, cour, 
Eclair, Ferrare, garnir, irraisonnable, irreconciliablc, ii-regulier, irrup- 
tion, meurtre, Niger, Oder, peur, plaisir, pretre, Quimper, raidir, ra- 
rete, regard, remarque, rempart, rendre, rire, ronron, rural, rustre, 
Ruyter, stathouder, le steamer, le tendei', thaler, Weser. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in spoken French, 
and pronounce aloud the above words, using the key alphabet. 

266 s = [s], as in French si, danse, about as in English 
miss. The sound is more sharply hissed than the English 
s, as can easily be perceived by comparing initial s of 
EngUsh six with that of French six. 

267 s = [s] is represented by s, ss, c, before e, i, y (175), 
f (176), t (in ti+ vowel in many cases), x, z. s = [s] (com- 
monly as initial, or before or after any consonant in a 
word): ab-strait [ap-stre] abstract; cris-tal [kris-tal] crys- 
tal; es-clave [es-klcisv] slave; ob-ser-ver [op-ser-ve] to 
observe; pos-te [post] jjost; sus-pen-se [sys-pais]. ss: cas- 
ser [ka-se] to break; frois-ser [frwa-se] to crumple; pas- 
ser [pa-se] to pass, c before e, i, y = [s]: ce [so] this; cent 
[sa] one hundred; sce-ne [sem]; (for c silent in the com- 
bination sc before e, i, y, see 175, Remark) ; ce-ci [sasi] this; 
ci-vil [si-vil]; scien-ce [sjais]; cy-clo-ne [si-klom]; cy-lin- 
dre [sileidr] cijlinder; Scyl-la [sil-la]. f : fa-ga-de [fa-sad] 
front; gar-gon [gar-so] boy; re-fu [ra-sy] received, t (in ti 
+ vowel): i-ni-tial [i-ni-sjal]; na-tion [na-sjo]; par-tiel 
[par-sjel] partial, x: dix [dis] ten; six [sis] six (i.e. when 
dix and six do not precede and modify a noun, see 372) ; 
soi-xan-te [swa-sait] sixty; and in a number of proper 
nouns and adjectives derived from them. ALx [eks] and 
[es] (ville de Provence) ; Aix-la-Cha-pel-le [es la ^a-pel] ; 



Aix-les-Bains [eslebe]; Au-xer-re [o-seir]; au-xer-rois 

[o-sc-rwa] {pertaining to Auxerre); but Saint-Germain- 
1' Au-xer-rois is pronounced [se ser-me lok-ser-wa] ; Au-xois 
[o-swa] (a portion of the Cote-d'Or); Au-xon-ne [o-son]; 
Be-a-trix [be-a-tris]; Bru-xel-les [bry-sel]; bru-xel-lois 
[bry-sc-hva] pertaining to Brussels; Ca-dix [ka-dis] and 
[ka-diks]; Lu-xeuil [ly-soe:j]; U-xel-les [y-sel]; Xer-xes 
Igzer-se:s]. s = [s] and represented by z in: Cor-tez [kor- 
tes]; eau de Seltz [o da sels] Seltzer water; Metz [meis]; 
Suez [sqes]; Ve-las-quez [ve-Las-kes]. 

368 s between vowels = [z]: ce-ri-se [sa-riiz] cherry; 
des-ha-bil-ler [de-za-bi-je] to undress; des-hon-neur [de- 
zo-noe:r] dishonor; frai-se [freiz] strawberry; mai-son [nie- 
zo] house; mi-se-re [mi-ze:r] misery; ro-se [roiz]; ru-se 
[ryiz]; tre-sor [tre-zo:r] treasure (366). 

269 s has its own sound [s], even when between vowels, 
when beginning the second part of a compound word; 
and, according to some authorities, in all the parts of 
the verb ge-sir [se-ziir] to lie (except the infinitive): 
an-ti-sep-ti-que [ci-ti-scp-tik] ; an-ti-so-cial [a-ti-so-sjal]; 
bi-sul-fa-te [iM-syl-fat]; co-si-nus [k.)-si-nys] cosine; de- 
sue-tu-de [de-sqe-tyid] disuse; dy-sen-te-rie [di-sa-tri] 
dysentery ; en-tre-sol [a-tro-sol] ; mo-no-syl-Ia-be [mo-no- 
si-lab] ; pa-ra-sol [pa-ra-sol]; po-ly-syl-la-be [po-li-si-lal)]; 
pre-se-an-ce [pre-se-u:s] precedence; pre-sup-po-ser [pre- 
sy-po-ze]; tour-ne-sol [tur-no-sol] sunflower; vrai-sem-bla- 
ble [vrr-sn-bla-bl] likely; gi-sons [ji-so] (we) lie buried. 
The Uniform International Dictionary gives gi-sons [^i- 
zo]; gi-sent [5i:z]. The Michaelis-Passy gives gi-sent 
[5iiz] and gi-sant [si-zu]. 


370 s = [z] (always when "linked," 366); in words 
beginning with trans before a vowel: trans-ac-tion [tra- 
zak-sjo]; trans-at-lan-ti-que [tra-zat-lci-tik] transatlajiiic; 
tran-si-ger [tra-zi-5e] to come to terms; tran-sit [tra-zi(t)] 
(299); tran-si-tif [tra-zi-tif ] ; tran-si-tion [tra-zi-sj5]. Ex- 
ceptions are tran-sir [tra-si:r] to become numh; tran-si 
[tra-si] benumbed; tran-sept [trd-s8(pt)] 299; Tran-syl-va- 
nie [tra-sil-va-ni]. The word Pen-syl-va-nie is analagous 
to Tran-syl-va-nie, and is pronounced [pe-sil-va-ni], 
although you can hear on the railway oftentimes [pen- 
sil-va-ni] (137). 

271 s = [z] in some other words, of which the most 
common examples are: Al-sa-ce [al-zas]; as-bes-te [az- 
best] asbestos; As-dru-bal [az-dry-bal] ; bal-sa-mi-ne [bal- 
za-min]; bal-sa-mi-que [bal-za-mik] balmy; Dres-de 
[dre-zd] Dresden; Is-ra-el [iz-ra-el]; Jer-sey [ser-ze]; Lis- 
bon-ne [liz-bon]; pres-by-te-re [prez-bi-tnr] parsonage; 
Ra-tis-bon-ne [ra-tiz-bon] ; Saint-Pe-ters-bourg [se pe- 
terz-buir]; Stras-bourg [straz-bu:r]. 

272 s within a proper name which has preserved the 
ancient spelling is almost always silent when followed by 
another consonant: Ais-ne [em]; As-nie-res [a-njeir]; 
Chas-les [Sad]; Des-car-tes [de-kart]; Des-mou-lins [de- 
mu-le]; Du-gues-clin [dy-ge-kle]; Du-quesne [dy-kem]; 
Es-pi-nas-se [e-pi-nas]; Es-tien-ne [e-tjen] Stephen; Je- 
sus-Christ [se-zy kri] and [5e-zy krist] ; an-te-christ [a-te- 
kri] and [a-te-krist], which form tends to establish itself. 
Before a consonant s is silent in est [e] is; des-quels [de- 
kcl] of which; les-quels [le-kel] who, which; mes-da-mes 


[me-dam]; mes-de-moi-sel-les [med-mwa-zel] ; Nes-le 
[ne:!]; Pras-lin [pru-lf]; Ros-ny [ro-ni]; Vos-ges [yo\-,]. 

273 s final as a rule is silent: bas [ba] low; (pain-)bis 
[pe bi] brown bread; bras [bra] arm; cas [ka]; dos [do] 
back; jus [57] juice; las [la] tired; (fleur de) lis [floeir dd li] 
lily (as an emblem); nos [no] our; pas [pa] step; puis [pqi] 
then; puits [pqi] icell. 

274 s final is usually pronounced in foreign proper 
names and in some French names: A-do-nis [a-do-ni:s]; 
Ar-ras [a-rais]; Du-cis [dy-siis]; Fre-jus [fre-5y:s]; Gil Bias 
[silblais]; Les-bos [lrs-bo:s]; Mem-phis [me-fiis]; Mens 
[mSis]; Pu-vis de Cha-van-nes [py-vi d ^a-van] (exception); 
R(h)eims [rt-:s]; Ro-mu-lus [ro-my-ly:s] ; Saint-Gau-dens 
[se go-de:s]; Sie-yes [sje-jrs]; Ve-nus [ve-nyis]. 

275 s final (313) is pronounced in quite a number 
of common French words which only familiarity with 
the language will make knowm: al-ba-tros [al-ba-trois]; al- 
bi-nos [al-bi-n.):s]; a-lo-es [a-l)-es] ; an-ge-lus [a-5e-ly(0s]; 
as [u:s] ace; at-las [at-la:.s]; bis [bi:s] twice, encore; blo-cus 
[l)b-ky:s] blockade; cas-sis [ka-sis] black currant; cens 
[sa:s] quit-rent; cho-rus [ko-ry:s]; cor-tes [kor-tcs] cortes 
(in Spain); es [f^'s] in the; fils [fis] son; gens [jUis] and [5a] 
'people; gra-tis [gra-ti:s] gratuitously; he-las [e-lais]; hia-tus 
[ja-ty:s]; i-bis [i-})i:s]; i-ris [i-ri:s]; ja-dis [sa-dis] of old; 
laps [laps] lapse; lis [li:s] lily; ma-is [ma-is] maize; mars 
[mars] March; me-ri-nos [me-ri-nais] merino; me-tis [me- 
tiis] hnlf-hrced; moeurs [maTs] morals, also [moe:r]; o-a-sis 
[o-a-zi:s]; om-ni-bus [.>m-ni-l)y:s]; os [.)s] boiw; ours [urs] 


hear; pa-thos [pa-to!s]; plus [plys], so pronounced when 
emphatic and also when meaning plus or some more, 
otherwise it is usually pronounced [ply]; pros-pec-tus 
[pro-spek-tyis]; re-bus [re-by:s]; re-laps [r9-laps]; rhi-no- 
ce-ros [ri-no-se-ro!s]; sens [sais] except in the expressions 
le bon sens [b bo sa] and le sens comun [b sa koma] ; 
en-sus [a-sys] over and above; tous [tuis] all, so pronounced 
when emphatic, used as a pronoun, and not when stand- 
ing immediately before a noun, in which case it is pro- 
nounced [tu]; ty-phus [ti-fyis]; us [yis] and [y] usages; 
va-sis-tas [va-zis-tais] transom; vis [vis] screw. 

276 sc = [sk] before a, o, u and consonants: es-clan-dre 
[es-kla:dr] /racas; fis-cal [fis-kal]; Pas-cal [pas-kal]; pros- 
cri-re [pros-kri:r] to proscribe; scan-da-le [ska-dal]; scar- 
la-ti-ne [skar-la-tin] ; sc(h)o-lai-re [sko-lc:r] academic; 
scni-tin [skry-te] ballot; sculp-teur [skyl-toeir] sculptor. 

277 sc = [s] before e, i, y: sce-le-rat [se-le-ra] villain; 
scep-ti-cis-me [sep-ti-sism] ; scep-tre [sep-tr]; scie [si] 
saw; scin-til-le [s8-ti:j] spar A;; Scyl-la [sil-la]. 

278 sch. This combination has two values according 
to the pronunciation of ch (182 and 185). sch = [sk] in a 
very few words: sche-ma [ske-ma] scheme; sc(h)o-lai-re 
[sko-leir]; sc(h)o-las-ti-que [sko-las-tik]. Sch = [S] also in 
a very few words: kirsch [kir^] kirschwasser ; schis-me 
[Sism]; schis-te [^ist] slate. 

Exercise LI, illustrating s, ss, sc = [s]. Write, divide as in writ- 
ing and printing, pronouncing aloud the syllables and words, the 
following: anse, assassinat, biceps, cassation, concession, crocus, dis- 


penser, estime, express, gibus, hermcs, lapis, lotus, Madras, motus, 
myosotis, nonsens, omniscience, penser, persuader, plus-que-parfait, 
rasibus, science, tandis que. Illustrating s between vowels = [z]: 
base, bise, blouse, chaise, deshabiller, deshomieui-, lesion, misere, 
muse, raison, raser, rose, ruse. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
as in the spoken language, pronouncing aloud the syllables and 
words as you write them, using the key alphabet. 

379 t, tt, th = [t], as in tas [ta] pile; pat-te [pat] paw, 
about as in English en^ry. t: chut [^yt] and [^it] hush; e-te 
[e-te] been; lan-ter-ne [la-trrn]; moi-tie [mwa-tje] half; 
ques-tion [kes-tjo]; temps [tu] weather, tt: net-te [net] 
clean; sot-te [sot] foolish; trot-toir [tro-twa:r] sidewalk, th: 
sym-pa-thie [se-pa-ti]; the-i-tre [te-a:tr]; the-me [te:m]. 

280 ti. The group ti, followed by a vowel, is pro- 
nounced si [sj] in many words and especially the endings: 
-tie, -tial, -tiel, -tieux, -tieuse, -tion; -tien (in proper 
names); -tient (not in verbs); in patience and derivatives; 
-tium. But when any one of these terminations is pre- 
ceded by s or x, as in ques-tion [kes-tjo]; mix-tion [mis- 
tjo] mixture, the group ti has the value of [tj]. 

281 -tie. t has the sound of [s] in the ending -tie when 
following a vowel: -atie, -itie, -otie, -utie: ar-gu-tie [ar- 
gy-si] quibble; a-ris-to-cra-tie [a-ris-to-kra-si] ; la Be-o- 
tie [la be-o-si]; cal-vi-tie [kal-vi-si] baldness; Dal-ma-tie 
[dal-ma-si]; de-mo-cra-tie [de-mo-kra-si] ; di-plo-ma-tie 
[di-pl,)-ma-si]; fa-ce-tie [fa-se-si] witticism; mi-nu-tie [mi- 
ny-si] trifle; pe-ri-pe-tie [pc-ri-pe-si] vicissitude; pro-phe-tie 
[pro-fe-si] prophecy; the-o-cra-tie [te-o-kra-si]. It will be 


noticed that the English correspondent to these French 
words ends in cy or tia. But in the feminine terminations 
-tie and -ties of past participles, and in all parts of the 
verb cha-tier, ti has its normal value of [ti]: a-pla-tie 
[a-pla-ti] flattened; a-ver-tie [a-ver-ti] warned; tu cha- 
tie-ras [ty ^a-ti-ra] thou wilt punish; also the words ro-tie 
[ro-ti] toast; so-tie [so-ti] farce, retain the t; e-pi-zo-o-ti 
has [e-pi-zD-o-si] and [e-pi-zo-o-ti] epizooty. 

382 -tial. t==[s]: im-par-tial [e-par-sjal]; i-ni-tial [i-ni- 
sjal]; nup-tial [nyp-sjal]; mar-tial [mar-sjal]; par-tial [par- 
sjal] biased; par-tia-li-te [par-sja-li-te]. 

283 -tiel. t = [s]: con-fi-den-tiel [ko-fi-da-sjel]; es-sen- 
tiel [e-sa-sjel]; par-tiel [par-sjel]; po-ten-tiel [po-ta-sjel]; 
pro-vi-den-tiel [pro-vi-da-sjel]; sub-stan-tiel [syp-sta-sjel]. 

284 -tieux. t = [s]: am-bi-tieux [a-bi-sj0]; cap-tieux 
[kap-sj0]; de-vo-tieux [de-vo-sj0]; fac-tieux [fak-sj0]; mi- 
nu-tieux [mi-ny-sj0]. For the feminine -tieuse forms, 
simply add [iz] to the masculine: [a-bi-sj0iz]. 

285 -tion. t = [s]: fonc-tion [fok-sjo]; na-tion [na-sjo]; 
por-tion [por-sjo]; ra-tion [ra-sjo]; sta-tion [sta-sjo]; su-je- 
tion [sy-se-sjo] subjection. 

286 -tien. t = [s] in proper names : Be-o-tien [be-o-sje] ; 
Ca-pe-tien [ka-pe-sje]; Di-o-cle-tien [di-o-kle-sje]; Do-mi- 
tien [do-mi-sjej; E-gyp-tien [e-5ip-sje]; Hel-ve-tien [el-ve- 
sje]; Ho-ra-tien [o-ra-sje]; Li-li-pu-tien [li-li-py-sje]; Ti-tien 
[ti-sje]; Ve-ni-tien [ve-ni-sje]. 


287 -tient. t = [s] (not in verbs) in pa-tient [pa-sja], 
and the derivatives patiemment, patience, patienter, im- 
patiemment, impatience, impatient, impatientant, im- 
patienter; also in quo-tient [ko-sjci]. 

288 -tium. t = [s]: Ac-tium [ak-sjom]; La-tium [la- 
sjom]; stron-tium [stro-sjom] a yellow metal. 

289 ti. The group ti, followed by a vowel, in other 
cases, may be said in general to have its own value [tj]. 
A brief smnmary of the principal cases follows. 

290 ti+vowel = tj when preceded by s (or x, of which 
mix-tion [mis-tj5] mixture; mix-tion-ner [mis-tjo-ne] to 
mix appear to be the only available examples). The 
examples of ti-j- vowel, preceded by s, are numerous: 
bas-tion [bas-tjj]; bes-tlal [bes-tjal]; com-bus-tion [k5- 
bys-tjo]; con-ges-tion [kj-5Fs-tj3]; di-ges-tion [di-3es-tj5]; 
dy-nas-tie [di-uas-ti|; hos-tie [os-tij consecrated host; ques- 
tion [kes-tjo]; sug-ges-tion [syg-ses-tjo]; ves-tiai-re [vcs- 
tjr:r] dressing-room. 

291 ti+ vowel = tj in the verb-endings -tions, -tiez of 
the first conjugation: por-tions [par-tjo] (we) were carnj- 
ing; (but the noun por-tions, meaning portions, parts 
o/=[por-sjo]); por-tiez [por-tje] (you) were carrying; no- 
tions [no-tjo] (we) were noting; no-tiez [no-tje] (you) were 

292 -tie preceded by a consonant = [ti]: a-ne-an-tie 
[a-ne-u-ti] annihilated; ga-ran-tie [ga-rd-tij guaranty; 


or-tie [or-ti] nettle; par-tie [par-ti] portion; sor-tie [sor-ti] 
exit. But the words in-ep-tie [i-nepsi] inept, in-er-tie 
[i-ner-si] inertia have the s sound. 

293 ti+vowel = [tj] in the endings -tie, -tier, -tiers 
and in tie in -tie-me and -tie-me-ment : a-mi-tie [a- 
mi-tje] friendship; cen-tie-me [su-tjem] one hundredth; 
cen-tie-me-ment [sa-tj em-ma] in the hundredth place; 
chan-tier [^a-tje] wood-yard; char-pen-tier [^ar-pa-tje] car- 
penter; cha-tier [Sa-tj e] to chastise; en-tier [a-tje] entire; 
en-tie-re [d-tjeir] entire; fron-tie-re [fro-tjeir]; frui-tier 
[frqi-tje] fruit-hearing; frui-tie-re [frqi-tjeir] fruit-bearing; 
in-i-mi-tie [i-ni-mi-tje] unfriendliness; moi-tie [mwa-tje] 
the half; pe-nul-tie-me [pe-nyl-tjem] penult; pi-tie [pi-tje] 
pity; Poi-tiers [pwa-tje]; por-tier [por-tje] doorkeeper; 
por-tie-re [por-tje ir] doorkeeper; quan-tie-me [ka-tjem] 
day (of the month) ; quar-tier [kar-tje] quarter; sep-tie-me 
[se-tjem] seventh; tiers [tjeir] third; ving-tie-me [ve-tjem] 
twentieth; vo-lon-tiers [vo-l5-tje] willingly. But the 
words bal-bu-tier [bal-by-sje] to stajnmer (and the deriva- 
tive bal-bu-tie-ment [bal-by-si-mci] ; dif-fe- 
ren-tier [di-fe-ra-sje] to differentiate; in-i-tier [i-ni-sje] to 
initiate (and derivative in-i-tia-tion [i-ni-sja-sj5]); sa- 
tie-te [sa-sje-te] satiety; trans-sub-stan-tier [tra-syp-sta- 
sje] transuhstantiate have the s sound. 

294 ti = [tj] in the groups tia, tien, tienne, tio making 
up the following words: an-tien-ne [a-tjen] anthem; Chre- 
tien [kre-tje] Christian; chre-tien-ne [kre-tjen] Christian; 
E-tien-ne [e-tjen] Stephen; e-tiez [e-tje] (you) were; e-tio- 
ler [e-tjo-le] to make pale; e-tions [e-tjo] (we) were; 


ga-li-ma-tias [ga-li-ma-tja] gibberish; main-tien [me-tje] 
bearing; sou-tien [su-tje] support; tia-re [tjair] tiara; tien 
[tje] thine; tien-ne [tjen] thine. 

295 t final (350-352) is regularly silent: af-fut [a-fy] 
gun-carriage; ban-quet [l^ci-ke]; de-troit [de-trwa] strait; 
e-tat [e-ta] state; ha-bit [a-bi] coat; he-raut [e-ro] her- 
ald; im-pot [e-po] tax; in-te-ret [e-te-re] interest; nuit 
[niii] 7iight; ren-fort [rd-fo:r] reenforcement; saut [so] 
leap; sou-hait [swc] wish. 

296 t final is pronounced in some words ending in ct: 
corn-pact [ko-pakt]; con-tact [k5-takt]; cor-rect [ko- 
rckt]; di-rect [di-rekt]; ex-act [eg-zakt] ; in-cor-rect [e-ko- 
rekt]; in-di-rect [g-di-rckt]; in-ex-act [i-neg-zakt] ; in-fect 
[e-fekt]; in-tact [c-takt]; tact [taktj; strict [strikt]. 

297 t final is pronounced in some words ending in st: 
bal-Iast [ba-last]; Brest [brest]; Christ [krist]; Er-nest 
[er-nest]; est [est] east; nord-est [nord-est] norf/ieas<; nord- 
ouest [nord-west] northircst (363); ouest [west] it/'esf; sud-est 
[sy-dest] southeast; sud-ouest [syd-west] southwest; toast 
[tost]; whist [wist]; zest [zest] nonsense! presto. 

298 t final is pronounced after a vowel in some words 
of which the following are quite common: but [byt] or 
[by] end, object; brut [bryt] gross; chut [^yt] hush; dot [dot] 
dowry; fat [fat] fop; huit [\\\i\ eight (except before the 
initial consonant of a word numbered by it) ; lut [lyt] lut- 
ing (chemistry); mat [mat] dull, checkmated; net [net] 



299 t (or th, h always silent) is pronounced in quite a 
number of loan words and proper names such as the fol- 
lowing: ab-rupt [ab-rypt]; a-co-nit [a-ko-nit]; Belt [belt]; 
bis-muth [bis-myt]; co-balt [ko-balt]; de-fi-cit [de-fi-sit]; 
E-li-sa-beth [e-li-za-bet] ; et cae-te-ra [et se-te-ra] ; ex- 
e-at [eg-ze-at]; gra-nit [gra-nit] and [gra-ni]; in-dix-huit 
[e di zqit]; in-dult [e-dylt]; Ja-phet [sa-fet]; Ju-dith [sy- 
dit]; knout [knut] scourge; Loth [lot]; luth [lyt] lute; malt 
[malt]; mam-mouth [ma-mut]; oc-ci-put [ok-si-py(t)]; 
o-piat [o-pia(t)]; pre-te-rit [pre-te-ri(t)]; rapt [rapt] 
seizure; Seth [set]; Soult [suit]; spalt [spalt]; su-bit [sy- 
bi(t)] sudden; tran-sept [tra-sc(pt)] (270); tran-sit [tra- 
zi(t)] (270); ver-mouth [ver-mut]; ze-nith [ze-nit]; zest 
[zest] nonsense! 

300 Special cases. As may be discerned from some of 
the preceding examples, usage as regards pronouncing or 
not final t in learned words of relatively recent formation 
varies. Moreover such is the difference of opinion, that 
in order to illustrate it without bias, it seems expedient 
merely to quote what those who have been and are con- 
sidered good authority indicate. Teachers and educated 
Frenchmen, for obvious reasons, are apt to have decided 
preferences, and these are worthy the student's careful 
consideration. Five authoritative works are here cited 
as vouching for the pronunciation of the words in the 
following list: Hatzfeld, Darmesteter et Thomas, Die- 
tionnaire (H); Michaelis-Passy, Dictionnaire phonetique 
(P); Rousselot, Precis de pro7io7iciation (R); Victor, Ele- 
mente der Phonetik (V) ; Lesaint, Traite de la prononciation 
frangaise (L): ab-ject [ab-3ekt] H, L, R, V; [ab-3e(kt)] 


P; as-pect [as-pe] H, P; [as-pek] L, V; but [by] end, object, 
H, L; [by(t)] P; "the t is sounded when the word occurs 
at the end of a sentence," V; «on hesite pour un certain 
nombre de mots: [by] et [byt], [fa] et [fat], [ne] et [net])) R; 
cir-con-spect [sir-ko-spck] H, L; [sir-ko-spe] P; [sir-k5-spe] 
[sir-ko-sprk] [sir-ko-sprkt] R; dis-tinct [dis-teikt] or [dis- 
te]P; [dif>-ti-:kt] H, R; [dis-te] ((vicilli)), R, H; [dis-tf-kt] 
[dis-tck] [dis-t£] L. The forms distinctif, distinction and 
distinctement sound both c and t as in [(Us-tf :kt]; de-fi-cit 
[de-fi-sit] H, L; [de-fi-si(t)] P; dis-trict [dis-tri] P; [dis- 
trikt] H; [dis-tri] ((vieilli)) H; [dis-trik] L; ex-act [eg-zakt] 
or [eg-za] P; [eg-za] R; [eg-zakt] ((vieilli)) R; [eg-zakt] H; 
[eg-za] ((vieiUi)) H; fat [fat] P, H, L; [fat] or [fa] R; fait 
(substantive) [fe] or [fet] deed, P, R; [fe] H, L; [fet] V; 
gent [5a] or [5a :t] P; [50] H, L; the word means race or 
nation: (da gent trotte-menu,)) for rats and mice; gra-nit 
[gra-nit] or [gra-ni] H, R, P; [gra-nit] L; net [net] clean, 
plain, P, H, L; [net] or [ne] R; sot (substantive) [so] fool, 
P, R, H, L, [sot] V; sometimes [sot] in the provinces; post- 
scrip-tum [pos(ts)krip-tom] P; [post-skrip-tom] H; re- 
spect [re-spe] P; [re-spek] H; [re-spe] ((vieilli)) H; [re-spekt] 
[rr-spek] [re-si)el R; su-bit [sy-bij sudden, H, P; [sy-bit] L; 
suc-cinct [syk-se] H, P, L; [syk-sekt] or [syk-se] R; sus- 
pect [sys-pekt] H; [sys-pekt] or [sys-pek] L; [sys-pckt] 
[sus-pek], [sys-p{-] R; soit! [swat] he it so, P; [swat] or [swa] 
R; [swa] L; ver-dict [ver-di(k)] P, R; [ver-dikt] H; [ver- 
dik] L; vi-vat [vi-va] P, R; [vi-vat] H. 

As in the case of the educated Frenchman, so, un- 
doubtedly, the educated teacher will have formed a de- 
cisive opinion iu regard to the more usual form prevailing 


where several may be heard. Therefore, in order to avoid 
confusion, not only under this particular case of the 
treatment of final t, but for usage in general as to pro- 
nunciation, the student will do well to rely on his teacher's 
judgment until such time as he may be able to judge for 
himself by comparing authorities as regards the usage 
in the manner above outlined, and thus form his own 
opinion. It remains to be added that much divergence 
of opinion exists in regard to what works pass as current 
authority. Here again the experienced teacher will best 
serve the student's purpose by differentiating for him 
the point of view of the respective French "authorities." 

301 t is silent in the following words: Je-sus-Christ 
[5e-zy-kri] although sounded in the word Christ [krist] 
when used alone; Goth [go]; Os-tro-got(h) [os-tro-go]; 
Vi-si-got(h) [vi-zi-go]; as-thme [asm] asthma; is-thme 
[ism] isthmus; cent un [sci ce ] one hundred and one. 

303 t before a vowel (cf. 350 et seq.) is sounded in sept 
[set] seven; huit [qit] eight; vingt [veit] twenty, as in the 
examples: sept arbres [set ar-br] seven trees; huit heu-res 
[qit oe:r] eight o'clock; vingt hom-mes [vet om] tumity men; 
also when final at the end of a phrase : 11 y en a sept, huit, 
vingt [il j a na set, \]\t, veit] there are seven, eight, twenty of 
them. And when sept, huit, vingt are equivalent to an 
ordinal: le sept mai [lo set me] the seventh of May; le huit 
jan-vier [b qit sfi-vjej; le vingt juin [lo vet 3qe] the twen- 
tieth of June. Otherwise the t is silent: sept pom-mes 
[se pom] seven apples; huit poi-res [qi pwa:r] eight pears; 
vingt sol-dats [ve solda] twenty soldiers. 


303 t is sounded in the numerals from twenty-one to 
twenty-nine: vingt et un [ve te de] twenty-one; vingt-deux 
[vetd0]; vingt-trois [vet trwa] twenty-three; vingt-neuf 
[vet na'f] twenty-nine; but in the numerals from eighty 
to ninety-nine inclusive the t is silent: qua-tre-vingt-un 
[ka-tra ve de] eighty-one; qua-tre-vingt-dix-huit [ka-tra ve 
di-zqit] ninety-eight. 

Exercise LII, illustrating t and th = [t]. Write, dividing when- 
ever possible, as in WTiting and printing, pronouncing aloud the syl- 
lables and words as you write, the following: antipathie, apathie, 
apte, brut, centieme, chrestomathie, chretien, Christ, nous contrac- 
tions, deficit, dot, dynastie, frontiere, nous gations, granit, inimitie, 
nos intentions, Poitiers, portier, quartier, repartie, rotie, sortie, 
soutien, suggestion, sympathie, tact, Veniat, vingtieme. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
and pronouncing aloud the syllables, whenever possible, as in spo- 
ken French, making use of the key alphabet. 

Exercise LIII, illustrating t = [s]. Write, dividing the syllables 
as in written French, pronouncing word and syllable aloud as you 
write, the following: balbutier, conditionnel, differentier, egyptiaque, 
essentiel, facetieux, Horatius, impartiaUte, ineptie, inertie, initier, 
liliputien, martial, nation, patience, plenipotentiaire, primatie, pro- 
ph<;tie, propitiatoire, rationnel, satiete, substantiel, suprematie, 
tertio, Titien, trans.substantier. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them as in spoken French, pronouncing aloud as you write them, 
syllables and words, using the key alphabet. 

Exercise LIV, illustrating silent t: Write, dividing, whenever 
po.ssible, as in writing and printing, pronouncing aloud the syllables 
and words as j'ou write them, the following: aout, app(''tit, art, billet, 
carat, d(^'gdt, dt'ijot, doigt, 6cart, et, 6tat, fort, haut, h6raut, inade- 
quat, manuscrit, mets, odorat, pavot, pot, quart, rat, rempart, 
rcnfort, r^sultat, rets, sabbat, sort, souhait, urgent, vert. 


Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them as in spoken French, pronouncing aloud the syllables and 
words, using the key alphabet. 

304 v=[v] as in vent, rive, about as in English e?;er. 
It does not occur as final: le Ha-vre [baivr]; veu-ve 
[voeiv] widow; vi-va-ce [vi-vas] long-lived; voir [vwair] to 
see; vou-loir [vu-lwair] to wish; vrai [vre] true. 

305 [v] is represented by f in the word neuf [noef] nine 
when the latter is linked over before a vowel: neuf en- 
fants [noe vci-fu] 7iine children; neuf heures [noe voeir] 
nine o'clock. Neuf is linked when, as in these cases, be- 
fore a word it multiplies (342). 

306 [v] is represented by w (307) in many names, 
especially foreign words; such, at least, seems to be the 
unstudied natural French usage. The cases where a iv, 
as in English, is heard, indicate English influence: Crom- 
well [krom-vel]; War-wich [var-vik]; Wa-ter-loo [va- 

Exercise LV, illustrating v. Write, divide as in written French, 
pronouncing aloud the sj'llables and words: active, raviver, revol- 
ver, seve, valet, valu, valve, vent, Versailles, verveine, vienne, vi- 
lain, vivant, vivre, vont, votre, votre. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, divide 
them as in spoken French, pronouncing aloud the syllables and 
words, using the key alphabet. 

307 w = [v], as a consonant, occurs only in a very 
small number of foreign words, and is usually pronounced 
like an Enghsh v (cf . 306) ; naturally the better the French- 


man knows English, the more hkely is he to pronomice as 
in EngUsh and the less likely to follow the French system. 
Bruns-wick [broz-vik]; tram-way [tram-we]; wa-gon [va- 
go] ; Wa-gram [va-gram] ; Wal-ter Scott [val-ter skot] ; 
wa-ter-proof [va-ter-pruf ] ; Wash-ing-ton [va-zeg-t3] ; We- 
ber [ve-be:r]; Wi-si-goth [vi-zi-go]. 

308 w = [w] like the English w in well; that is, u+ vowel : 
rail-way [rel-we]; sand-wich [sand-wit^]; wig-wam [mg- 

309 wh = [w] that is, the h is absolutely silent: Whig 
[wig]; whist [wist]; whis-k(e)y [wis-ki]. 

Exercise LVI, illustrating w = [v]. Write, divide as in writing 
and printing, and pronounce aloud the following words: Walker, 
Wallon, A\'alpole, warrant, Watteau, Wellington, Weimar, Weser, 
Wiesbaden, Winkelmann, Wissenbourg, woKrani, Worms. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in spoken French, 
and pronounce aloud these same words, using the key alphabet. 

310 X has five sounds: [ks], [k], [gz], [s], [z]. 

X = [ks], the usual value, I*' in the prefix, ex- or 
hex- initial followcnl by a consonant: ex-cla-ma-tion 
[t:(k)s-kla-mu-sj3]; ex-pa-trier [f(k)s-pa-tri-(']; ex-pe-dier 
[e(k)s-pe-dje]; ex-plo-rer [e(k)s-plo-re]; ex-tir-per [r(k)- 
stir-pe]. The [k] in popular ])ronunciation in such words 
is not sounded. Tiiis popular Tnaniicr of speech need not 
be imitated. It is not uncommon in tlie language of the 
street and is not infrciiucntly observed and noted. 2° In 
the body of words: A-lex-an-dre [a-irk-su:dr]; dex-tre 
[dc(k)-str] right luind and ricjhl-handcd; cf. the remarks 


just made in regard to the popular elimination of k in 
the combination ks = x by the uneducated. Mex-i-co 
[mek-si-ko]; six-te [sikst] sixth; ox-y-ge-ne [ok-si-3En]; 
tex-te [tekst]. 3° at the end of a number of words: A-jax 
[a-3aks] ; bo-rax [bo-raks] ; Dax [daks] ; Fe-lix [fe-liks] ; Fox 
[foks]; in-dex [e-deks]; la-rynx [la-rciks]; lynx [leiks]; 
o-nyx [o-niks]; Pol-lux [po-lyks]; pre-fix [pre-fiks]; sphinx 
[sfeiks]; si-lex [si-leks]; tho-rax [to-raks]. 

311 x = k(+s). x sounds as [k] in initial ex followed by 
ce, ci, and s: ex-ce-dant [ek-se-dti] surplus (not [eks] in 
one syllable, as in the cases under 1° 310, but the x is 
represented by [k] while the [s] represents the c of the 
second syllable); ex-ces [ek-se]; ex-ces-sif [ek-se-sif]; ex- 
cep-tion [ek-sep-sjo]; ex-ci-ser [ck-si-ze] to cut off; ex-ci- 
tant [ek-si-ta] exciting; ex-su-der [ek-sy-de]^o perspire. 

313 X = [gz] in the prefix ex- or hex- before a vowel or 
silent h and in Greek proper names: ex-a-men [eg-za-me] 
examination; [eg-za-men] may still be heard in the south 
of France, due to the Latin pronunciation of the word; 
ex-empt [eg-za] constable; ex-er-ci-ce [eg-zer-sis] ; ex-hi- 
bi-tion [eg-zi-bi-sj5]; ex-hor-ter [eg-zor-te]; ex-i-ger [eg- 
zi-3e] to exact; ex-i-ler [eg-zi-le] ; hex-a-go-ne [eg-za-gon] or 
[eg-za-goin] or [ek-sa-goin]; hex-a-me-tre [eg-za-me-tr]. 
Greek proper names : Xan-thus [gza-tys] ; Xan-tip-pe [gza- 
tip]; Xa-vier [gza-vje]; Xe-no-phon [gze-no-fon] ; Xer-xes 
[gzer-seisj; Xan-the [gzuit]. 

313 X = [s] when final in a few words, mostly proper 
nouns (cf. 267) : Aix [eks] and [es] ville de Province; Aix-la- 


Chapelle [es-la-Sa-pel] ; Aix-les-Bains [es-lc-be]; Au-xer-re 
[o-seir] and [o-seir]; Au-xois [o-swa]; Au-xon-ne [o-son] 
and [o-son]. Also initial x in Xain-trail-les = [s] [se-traij]; 
Be-a-trix [be-a-tris]; Bru-xel-les [bry-sel]; Ca-dix [ka-dis] 
and [ka-diks]; dix [dis] ten; six [sis] six (when these 
numerals come at the end of a phrase or do not precede 
and modify a noun) ; soi-xan-tai-ne [swa-sa-ten] ; soi-xan- 
te [swa-su:t] sixty; U-xel-les [y-sel]; Xer-xes [gzer-seis]. 

314 x = [z] in deu-xie-me [d0-zjem] second; dix-huit 
[di-zqit] eighteen; dix-hui-tie-me [di-zqi-tjem] eighteenth; 
di-xie-me [di-zjem] tenth; dix-neuf [diz-noef] nineteen; 
dix-neu-vie-me [diz-noe-vjcm] nineteenth; si-xain [si-zc] 
six-line stanza; si-xie-me [si-zjcm] sixth; and the deriva- 
tives in -ment of the numerals here noted. 

315 X final is regularly silent (but see 313) : aux [o] to 
the; ceux [so] those; che-vaux [^o-vo] horses; choux [$u] 
cabbages; creux [kr0] hollow; croix [krwa] cross; cru-ci-fix 
[kry-si-fi]; deux [d0] two; flux [fly] flow; heu-reux [a3-r0] 
happy; paix [pv] peace; per-drix [per-dri] partridge; prix 
[pri] price; toux [tu] cough; voix [vwa] voice, x is silent in 
six, dix (cf. 313) before a consonant or h aspirate: six 
pom-mes [si pjin] six apples; dix sol-dats [di sol-da] ten 
soldiers; six h6-ros [si-ero] six heroes. 

Exercise LVII, illustrating the various values of x. Writo, di- 
viilp, pronoun(!ing aloud syllables and words as you write thciii, the 
following: 1" x = [k,s]: ox-ca-va-tion, cxclamer, exclure, excursion, 
expansif, expat rier, Halifax, plienix, leStyx. 2° x = [k]: excddcr, ex- 
cellence, exceller, excepts, exception, excitation, exsangue. 3° x = 
[gz]: exact, ex<5cuter, exemple, exhorter, exhumer, exiger, exiler, 
exoliquo. 4" x = (h|: Bruxelles, il en a dix, dix-sept, dix-sejjtic^me. 


Luxeuil, c'est le six, soixantieme, six-huit, six-quatre. 5° x=[z]: 
deuxieme, deuxiemement, dix-huit, dixieme, dix-neuf, sixain, si- 
xiSme. X silent: Citeaux, courroux, faux, houx, jaloux, tu peux, je 
prevaux, taux. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these words, dividing them 
as in spoken French, pronouncing aloud syllables and words, using 
the key alphabet. 

316 z = [z] as in ze-le [ze(!)l] zeal; ro-se [roiz], about as 
in English co^y : a-zu-re [a-zy-re] azure color; ba-zar [ba- 
zair]; vi-zir [vi-ziir]; ze-ro [ze-ro]; zo-ne [zo:n]; gaz [gaiz] 
gas; Suez [sqeiz]. 

317 [z] is regularly represented by s between vowels 
(268): ro-se [roiz]; and in deu-xie-me and the other 
numerals noted in 314 is represented by x. 

318 z final is regularly silent: al-lez [a-le] go; as-sez 
[a-se] enough; Du-mou-riez [dy-mu-rje]; Du-prez [dy-pre]; 
Ge-ru-sez [se-ry-ze]; nez [ne] nose; por-tez [por-te] carry; 
riz [ri] rice; ve-nez [va-ne] come. 

319 z final (357-359) is pronounced in gaz [gaiz] gas, 
and in a few proper names; the sound is usually [z] after 
vowels and [s] after consonants: Aus-ter-litz [os-ter-lits] ; 
Ber-lioz [ber-ljaizj; Biar-ritz [bja-rits]; Bu-loz [liy-biz]; 
Diaz [djaiz]; Fritz [frits]; Metz [mes]; Ve-ra-Cruz [ve-ra 

Exercise LVIII, illustrating z = [z] and [s]. Write, divide, pro- 
nouncing aloud as you write syllable and word, the following: 1° z 
= [z] gazon, Sanchez, Suzanne, suzerain, topaze, zebre, zigzag. 2° z 
= [s] Aranjuez, Cortez, eau de seltz; Goritz, Leibnitz. 


Stjpplementart Exercise. Write, divide as in spoken French, 
pronouncing aloud as you vrrite syllable and word, these same words, 
using the key alphabet. 

Examples of s = [z] written s, and regularly so when 
between vowels, but also in a few other words (see 270) : 
Alsace, amuser, apaiser, Asie, des oeufs, des oignons, 
ecraser, lisible, oser, raser, resoudre, ruse. Examples of 
x = [z] and written x (see 313): deux enfants, deuxieme, 
dix-huit, dix-neuf, six amis. Thus, as shown above, the 
sound [z] is represented by the letters z, s between vowels 
and X. 


320 Vowel combinations representing simple sounds: 
ai, aie, ay = [e] (90); ei, ey = [v] (90); au, eau = [o] (102); 
au l>efore r, etc., = [o] (112); eu (ue after c and g), oeu, 
oe = [oe] (118) or [0] (114); ou = [u] (119). These combi- 
nations merely represent simple sounds and receive atten- 
tion under the respective sound as indicated by the 
reference. They are here briefly summarized: 

321 ai, aie, ay, except as noted immediately below, 
where the value is [e], are pronounced [v]. This occurs 
especially in the combinations aie, air, aire, ais, aisse, aix: 
chair [^eir] flesh; chai-se [Seiz] chair; je chan-tais [50 Sa-te] 
I was sinfjimj; craie [krr] chalk; grais-se |fi;rr:s] f<if; j'i-rais 
[5 i-rr] / should (jo; paix [pr] peace; je par-le-rais [5,) ])arl- 
rf] / should speak; pay-er [lu-jcj to pay; tai-re [ttir] to be 


333 ai is pronounced [e] in the auxiliary: j'ai [3 e] I 
have; wherever it is final in the verb-endings: je chan-te- 
rai [39 S&t-re] / shall sing; j'i-rai [3 ire] I shall go; je par- 
lai [39 par-le] / spoke; in the forms of the verb savoir 
[sa-vwair] to knoio: je sais [39 se] I know; tu sais [ty se] 
thou knowest; il salt [il se] he knows; and in a few words: 
gai [ge] gay; geai [36] jay; quai [ke] quay (82). ay = [e] in 
a-yez [e-je] have (ye); a-yons [e-j5] let us have. Elsewhere, 
as noted in 320, these combinations have the sound of 
e, that is [e]. 

333 ei and ey are regularly pronounced e, that is 
[e], wherever they occur: as-sey-ez-vous [a-se-je vu] be 
seated; ba-lei-ne [ba-len] whale; gras-sey-er [gra-se-je] 
to pronounce r ivith the uvula; nei-ge [ne!3] snow; pa-reil-le 
[pa-r8!j] equal; pei-ne [pen] pain; Sei-ne [sem]; sei-ze 
[setz] sixteen. 

334 au and eau are regularly pronounced [o] : au [o] to 
the; aus-si [o-si] also; beau [bo] beautiful; ca-deau [ka-do] 
present; eau [o] water; nou-veau [nu-vo] new. 

335 au before r is pronounced as open o, that is [0]; 
also in the proper name Paul [pol]. In j'au-rai and j'au- 
rais the usage varies [3 o-re, 3 o-re] and [3 o-re, 3 o-re]. 
Lau-re [loir]; lau-rier [lo-rje] laurel; Mau-re [mo:r] Moor; 
res-tau-rant [res-to-ra]. 

336 eu (ue after c and g), oeu, oe simply represent the 
open sound of eu, that is [oe], or the closed eu, that is [0]. 
eu has regularly the closed sound [0] when final or fol- 


lowed by silent final consonants; also usually before s = [z] 
or t within the syllable of a word: dan-seu-se [da-s0!z] 
dancer; e-meu-te [e-m0!t] riot; feu-tre [f0:tr] felt; heu-reux 
[oe-r0] happy; lieiix [lj0] places; neu-tre [n0itr] neuter; 
noeud [n0] knot; peu [p0] little; pre-cieu-se [pre-sj0:z] 
precious; voeux [v0] vows. 

327 eu elsewhere, as before pronounced final conso- 
nants, and before il, ille = [j] has the sound of the open eu, 
that is [oe], which is less commonly heard than the closed 
eu = [0]: accueil [a-koe:j] reception; a-veu-gle [a-voegl] 
blind; boeuf [boef] ox; jeu-ne [seen] young; meu-ble [moebl] 
piece of furniture; neuf [noef] new, nine; ceil [oe:j] eye; 
oeil-let [oe-je] pink; or-gueil [or-goeij] pride; peu-ple 
[poe-pl] people; veu-ve [voeiv] widow. 

328 ou = [ul regularly: bout [bu] end; e-cou-tez [e-ku- 
te] listen; jou-jou [5U-5U] plaything; loup [lu] ivolf; lou-pe 
[lup] magnifying glass; Lour-des [lurdj; tous-se [tus] 


329 Consonantal combinations. Like the vowel 
combinatiou.s or so-called digraplis and trigraphs, a num- 
ber of consonant combinations represent simple sounds. 
They will be found treated in more detail under the re- 
spective sections to which they belong, as indicated by 
the reference: ch = [S] as in chas-se [^as] hunt (182); 
l = [j] as in gen-til-hom-me [5u-ti-j.)m] nobleman (230); 


il, ill = [j] as in bail [baij] lease; pail-le [paij] straw (225); 
gn = [ji] in re-gne [rcji] kingdom (207); ph = f as in phi-lo- 
so-phe [fi-lo-zofj philosopher (191); double consonants in 
general (167), as ss = [s] as in as-sez [a-se] enough (267); 
sc = [s] as in sce-ne [sv:n] (277); sch = [5] as in schis-me 
tSism] schism (278); gu = [g] as in gue [ge] ford (195); qu = 
[k] as in qui [ki] who (253); th = [t] as in the-a-tre [te- 
aitr] (279); wh = [w] as in whist [wist] (309). 


330 In general. When two or more words are closely 
connected, as with a hyphen, or as an article or adjective 
with its noun, a subject or object-pronoun with its verb, 
a preposition with its object, an adverb with the word it 
modifies, the two words are then regarded as a unit sound 
group and not as two separate words. In such cases the 
final consonant, whether silent or sounded, before a word 
beginning with a vowel or silent h, is carried over to it in 
pronouncing the group : 

331 Article and adjective with qualifying noun: les 
en-fants [le za-fa] the children; les bons en-fants [le bo- 
za-fa] the good children; un char-mant hom-me [oe $ar-ma- 
tom] a char?ning man; ai-ma-bles a-mis [e-mabl-za-mi] 
amiable friends. 

332 Subject or object pronoun with the verb: nous 
ai-mons [nu-ze-mo] we love; il nous ai-me [il nu-zeim] he 
loves us; di-sait-on [di-ze-to] said they; don-nez-en [do- 
ne-za] give some; dort-elle [dor-tel] does she sleep f 


333 Auxiliaries and verbs; words connected with a 
h5T3hen: vous avez eu [vu-zave-zy] you have had; je dois 
al-ler [50 dwa-za-le] I 77n(st go; il faut e-cri-re [il fo-te- 
kriir] it is necessary to write; veuil-lez en-trer [voe-je- 
za-tre] please come in; arc-en-ciel [ar-ka sjel] rainhow; 
pied-a-terre [pje-ta teir] temporary lodging. 

334 Verb with ol^ject or predicate complement: nous 
at-ten-dons une let-tre [nu-za-ta-d5-zyn letr] ; il e-crit 
u-ne re-pon-se [i-le-kri-tyn re-p3:s] he writes a reply; 
nous som-mes a ta-ble [nu som-za ta-bl] we are at the 
table; ce-la m'est e-gal [so-la me-te-gal] that is all the same 
to me. 

335 Preposition (except se-lon, 378) and object: chez 
eux [Se-zc)] at their house; sous un toit [su-zoe twa] under a 
roof; dans u-ne ten-te [dd-zyn ta'.tj in a tent. 

336 Adverb with modifying word: beau-coup ai-me 
[bo-ku-pc-me] much loved; fort in-struit [for-te-striiij well 
instructed; res-tez en-co-re [rcs-te-zd-koir] stay longer; 
tres ha-bi-le [trr-za-bil] very able; trop en a-vant [tro-pa- 
na-vu] too far forward. 

337 Words so closely related as to represent but a 
single group or idea: bon a ri^ [b3-na rje] or [bo-na rje] 
good for nothing; mot a mot [mo-ta mo] word hy word; pas 
a pas fpfi-za[)(i] step hy step; pe-tit a pe-tit fpo-ti-ta po-ti] 
little hy liUlr; plus ou moins |ply-zu mwt] more or less; 
pret a par-tir [prt-ta p.'ir-1i:r| ready to leave; de temps en 
temps |<l.) iri-zu Ui] from time to time. 


338 The letters j and v do not occur as final, hence the 
question of linking does not occur. The letters b, c, f 
(but see 194 and 342), k, 1, p, q, r, t, z are carried over 
without change of sound. 

339 b final is rare, and is usually silent (171); con- 
sequently it is seldom linked, save where difficult to avoid 
linking: Ja-cob est ve-nu [sa-ko-be v9-ny] Jacob has come; 
Jo-ab e-tait ne-veu de Da-vid [30-a-be-te n8-v0 da da- 
vid] Joab was David's neyhew. But in the commonest 
cases where b occurs as final, as in a-plomb [a-pl5] assur- 
ance; Chris-to-phe Co-lomb [kris-tof ko-l5] ; plomb [pl5] 
lead; sur-plomb [syr pl5] overhanging, it is not linked. 

340 c final (178) when silent, is not usually linked, as 
in the words: ac-croc [a-kro] hitch; a-jonc [a-55] furze; 
al-ma-nach [al-ma-na]; banc [ba] bench; ca-out-chouc [ka- 
ut-Su] rubber; clerc [kleir] clerh; eric [kri] jackscrew; croc 
[kro] hook; es-croc [es-kro] swindler; fer-blanc [fer bla] 
tin; franc [fru] twenty-cent piece; jonc [50] reed; marc 
[mair] mark {coin); rac-croc [ra-kro] lucky hit; tronc [trS] 
trunk; le lion de Saint-Marc [b lj3 da se mair] Saint 
Mark's lion; la pla-ce Saint-Marc a Ve-ni-se [la plas se 
ma-ra va-niiz] Saint Mark's square in Venice; marc d'ar- 
gent [mair d ar-3a] (ancient French money); du marc 
de ca-fe [dy mair da ka-fe] coffee-grounds; Saint-Marc 
Gi-rar-din [se mair 3i-rar-de]; banc a dos [ba a do] seat 
with a back; es-croc in-tel-li-gent [ts-kro e-te-li-5a] in- 
telligent knave; le marc et le franc sont des pie-ces d'ar- 
gent [I9 ma-re la fra so de pjes d ar-5a] the rnark and the 
franc are silver coins. 


341 c final is linked in croc-en-jam-be [kro-ka 5a ib] 
iriyping up; du blanc au noir [dy blci-ko ivnuw] from black 
to white; de clerc a mai-tre [da kler-ka meitr] from clerk 
to master; franc al-leu [fra-ka-l0] freehold; franc e-tour-di 
[fra-ke-tur-di] giddy-headed fellow ; franc et net [fra-ke net] 
frank and plain; a franc e-trier [a frci-ke-tri-je] full speed; 
Marc An-toine [mar-ka-twan] ; Marc Au-re-le [raar-ko- 
rrl] (cf. with preceding examples of marc 340); il est done 
ar-ri-ve [i-le d3-ka-ri-ve] he has then arrived. 

342 f when linked, except in the word neuf nine (305), 
retains its proper value. Even in neuf, when linked, the 
V pronunciation is giving way to the normal f : neuf en- 
fants [ncc-fa-fd] nine children; neuf a table [noc-fa ta-bl] 
nine at table. Thus the f of neuf is following the analogy 
of the ordinary cases like vif e-clat [vi-fe-kla] loud report; 
oeuf a la coque [a'-fa la kok] egg in the shell; veuf en se-con- 
des no-ces [voc-fa s9-g5:dnDs] vndower marrying a second 

343 k final, whether before a vowel or a consonant, is 
sounded: le co-peck est u-ne mon-naie rus-se [lo ko-pp- 
ke-tyn mo-nc rys] the copeck is a Russian coin. 

344 1 final (221), whether before a vowel or a conso- 
nant, keeps its own value. Being silent in the following 
words, no linking takes place: a-nil, ba-ril, che-nil, cour- 
til, cou-til, four-nil, frai-sil, fu-sil, nom-bril, ou-til, per- 
sil, pouls, soul, sour-cil. lieing sounded in the following 
words, the Unking before a vowel occurs naturally: bel 
hom-me [bc-bmj fine man; fil u-ni-que [fi-ly-nikj only 


thread; fol es-poir [fo-les-pwarr] foolish hope; nou-vel an 
[nu-ve-ld] new year; seul ha-bit [soe-la-bi] only coat. 

345 p final is rarely linked; it may however be heard 
not infrequently in the adverbs beau-coup and trop be- 
fore a vowel: beau-coup e-tu-die [bo-ku-pe-ty-dje] much 
studied; trop e-cla-tant [tro-pe-kla-ta] too bright. 

346 q = [k] (252) . Notice the f ollo\Aang : le cinq mars 
[la seik mars] the fifth of March, the final consonant being 
so pronounced when the cardinal nmneral is equivalent 
to an ordinal; cinq en-fants [se-ka-fa] five children; cinq 
hom-mes [se-kom] five men; but cinq li-vres [se livr] five 
hooks; cinq he-ros [se e-ro]. 

347 r final (262) of an adjective is linked only before 
a noun: le pre-mier en-fant [b pra-mje-ra-fa] the first 
child; notice [pra-mje] but [pra-mje-rd-fa], e becoming e 
under the opening influence of r; son der-nier a-vis [s5 
der-nje-ra-vi] his last counsel; but: il est le-ger et e-tour-di 
[i-le le-5e e e-tur-di] he is flighty and thoughtless; le pre- 
mier et le deu-xie-me [la pra-mje e la d0-zjcm] the first 
and the second. 

348 r of infinitive endings in er may be linked; and 
in reading, especially verse, usually is: ai-mer a chan-ter 
[e-me-ra S&-te] to love to sing. 

349 r final, when silent in nouns, is not linked: le 
sen-tier es-car-pe [la sa-tje es-kar-pe] the steep path; 
mon-sieur Er-nest [ma-sj0 er-nest]; im bou-lan-ger in- 
tel-li-gent [ce bu-la-5e e-te-li-sci] an intelligent baker. 


350 t final (295-298) of adjectives, verbs, participles 
and adverbs, though silent in the words themselves, is 
almost always linked : un ex-cel-lent homme [de nek-se- 
lu-tom] an excelhnt man; el-le est fort en pei-ne [e-le 
for-ta pen] she is very much troubled; 11 faut es-say-er 
[il fo-te-se-je] it is necessary to try; en al-lant a pied [a-na- 
la-tapje] i?i going on foot. 

351 t final of verb-endings -ent, -lent, although silent, 
is linked: il tient a cela [il tje-ta sa-la] he holds to that; 11 
vlent a temps [il vje-ta ta] he comes in time; el-les se- 
raient in-vi-tees [el sa-re-te-vi-te] they would be invited. 

352 t final of the adjectives court and fort is only 
linked with the vowel of a following noun: un court es- 
pa-ce [(jb kur-tes-pu:s] a short space; un fort a-thle-te [oe 
fjr-tat-let] a strong athlete; but: le che-mln est court et 
fa-cl-le [la $8-me e kuir e fa-si 1] the road is short and easy; 
11 est fort et blen ba-tl [i-le fan- e bje ba-ti] he is strong and 
well built. 

353 ect. Words ending in ect, ab-ject, cor-rect 

(800), in which l;oth c and t are sounded, link over l)ef()re 
a vowel, naturally, the t. — The four words as-pect, clr- 
con-spect, re-spect, sus-pect link over the c ( = k) ordi- 
narily, akliouii,!) the usage; varies: as-pect ad-mi-ra-ble 
[as-pe-kad-ini-r;ibl], also [as-pe ad-nii-rabl]; cir-con-spect 
en tout [sir-kj-spr-kfi-lu], also [sir-kj-sprk-tfi-tu]; man- 
quer de re-spect a quelqu'un [mu-kc d.) n-si){-ka kti-kd'], 
also [ma-ke do rc-spe a kel-kde] ; 11 est sus-pect a son par-tl 
[i-le sys-pe-ka sij par-ti], also [i-le sys-pe a s3 par-lij he is 


an object of suspicion to his party; re-spect hu-main is al- 
ways pronounced [re-spe-ky-me]. 

354 Although the t final of nouns is usually silent, 
nevertheless in the following common expressions it is 
linked: ac-cent ai-gu [ak-sa-te-gy] ; au doigt et a I'oeil 
[o dwa-te a loeij] at beck and call; de point en point [do 
pwe-ta pwe] in detail; bout a bout [bu-ta bu] end to end; 
d'un bout a I'au-tre [dob bu-ta lotr] from one end to the 
other; du haut en bas [dy o-ta ba] from top to bottom; d'un 
mo-ment a I'au-tre [d de mo-ma-ta lotr] from one moment 
to another; doit et a- voir [dwa-te a-vwa:r] debit and credit; 
le fait est re-con-nu [lo fc-te ra-ko-ny] the fact is recog- 
nized; nuit et jour [nqi-te 5u:r] night and day; par-le-ment 
an-glais [parl-ma-tu-gle] English parliament; point ex- 
cla-ma-tif [pwe-teks-kla-ma-tif] exclamation point; point 
in-ter-ro-ga-tif [pwe-te-te-ro-ga-tif] interrogation point; 
pot a fleur [po-ta floeir] flower-pot; pot a eau [po-ta o] 
water-pot; pot au lait [po-to le] milk-pitcher; pot au feu [po- 
to f0] boiled beef and broth; pot aux roses [po-to ro:z] pot 
of face-powder; mystery. 

355 t final of cent un [sa ce] a hundred and one, and of 
cent onze [sa oiz] a hundred and eltven, is never linked. 
The t of the conjunction et is never linked: fort et ac-tif 
[fo!r e ak-tif] strong and active; Paul et Alice [po-le a-lis]. 

356 t final in the endings -at, -art, -ert, -eurt, -ort, 
-ourt (380) of verbs, nouns, some adverbs and preposi- 
tions is not linked, but the r is sounded just as though it 
were the final letter: il se-rait bon qu'il ar-ri-vat aujour- 


d'hui [il sa-re bo ki-la-ri-va o-^ur-dni] it would he well for 
him to arrive to-dny; a part elle et vous [a pair c\ e vu] 
aside from her and you; elle part a regret [el pair a ra-gre] 
she leaves with regret; il s'est of-fert a le soi-gner [il sc-to- 
fcir a lo swa-jie] he offered to take care of him; le de-sert 
a-ri-de [b de-zeir a-rid] the arid desert; il meiirt a-vec 
cou-ra-ge [il mopir a-vek ku-rai5] he dies courageously ; a 
tort et a tra-vers [atoir e a tra-veir] at random; il court 
au feu [il kuir o f0] he runs to the fire. 

357 z final (319) of the second person plural of verbs 
is regularly linked: vous ai-mez a li-re [vu-ze-me-za liir] 
you like to read; vous al-lez a Pa-ris [vu-za-le-za pa-ri] 
you are going to Paris. 

358 z final of as-sez, chez, is regularly linked: as-sez 
ai-ma-ble [a-se-ze-mabl] kind enough; chez eux [Se-z0] at 
their house. 

359 z final of nez nnd riz is never linked: du riz au lait 
[dy ri o Ir] rice cooked icith milk; nez a-qui-lin [no a-ki-le] 
aquiline nose; nor is z linked in the ex])rcssions: por-tez 
ar-mes [por-tc arm] carry arms; pre-sen-tez ar-mes [pre- 
za-te arm] 'present arms. 

360 As may be seen from the above examples just 
cited, final consonants that are regularly silent like p, q 
or c = k, t, z are carried over without change of sound 
just as are those usually [jronounccd c, f, 1, r. Ncver- 
tiieless the linking of silent consonants of singular nouns 
is usually av(jided: mot an-glais [nio fi-glr] English word; 


es-prit al-le-mand [es-pri al-mri] German wit; ob-jet im- 
por-tant [ob-3t' e-por-ta] iinporfnnt object. Common ex- 
pressions: de temps en temps, pas a pas, etc., enumerated 
in 337, form an exception. 

361 d, g, s, X, when linked, have respectively the sound 

L* At 2j Li, 

362 d = [t] : quand i-rez-vous? [kai-ti-re vu] when will 
you go?; pied-a-ter-re [pje-ta teir] momentary lodging; re- 
pond-elle [re-po-telj she replies; le froid et le chaud [b 
frwci-te b $0] the cold and the heat; un froid ac-cueil [defrwa- 
ta-koeij] a cool reception; un grand hom-me [oe gra-tom] a 
great man; de pied en cap [do pje-td kap] from, head to foot; 
com-prend-il [k5-pra-til] does he understand f; en-tend-on 
[a-ta-to] does one hear?; perd-il [per-til] does he lose? 

363 The linking of d = [t] is most usual in cases of an 
adjective followed by its noun as in the example just 
above cited: un grand hom-me; or as in: laid a-ni-mal 
[le-ta-ni-mal] an ugly animal; se-cond e-ta-ge [sa-go- 
te-ta!5] third story; but if the word following the ad- 
jective is not a noun, the d is silent: le se-cond et le 
troi-sie-me [l.i so-g.") e b trwa-zjpm] the second- and the 
third; grand et bien fait [gra e bje fe] tall and well inade; 
es-prit pro-fond en tout [es-pri pro-fo a tu] mind deep 
in everything, d is linked as d in nord-est [nord est] 
northeast and nord-ouest [nord west] northwest (297). 

364 d final of the endings -ard, -ord, -curd (380) is not 
usually linked over, but the preceding r is linked to the 
vowel of the following word: un vieil-lard in-firme [de vje- 


ja:r e-firm] an infirm old man; le re-nard et la ci-go-gne 
[la ra-nair e la si-gop] the fox and the stork; lourd et indi- 
geste [luir e 8-di-5est] heavy and indigestible. 

365 g when linked = k, in long [15]; rang [ra] rank; 
sang [sa] blood; long hi-ver [l5-ki-vc:r] longM)inter; rang 
e-le-ve [ru-kcl-vej JugJc station; rang in-fi-me [rci-ke-fini] ra)ik; sang im-pur [sa-kr-p}:rj impure blood; sang 
hu-main [su-ky-mg] human blood. This usage, however, 
is more literary than colloquial. Ordinarily, in these 
cases, the g may be silent: long hi-ver [l5ive:r]; rang 
e-le-ve [rael-ve]; sang im-pur [sae-pyir]; sang et eau 
[sd e o] bhxid and icater. Elsewhere g final, except in 
joug and bourg, where according to some authorities 
(but not generally, see 205 and 206) it has the sound of 
k ])efore vowels and consonants, it is silent: le fau-bourg 
ex-te-rieur [lo fo-buir cks-te-rjoejr] the outer suburb; I'e- 
tang est tout pres [le-ta e tu pre] the pond is quite near; 
le coing est un fruit [lo kwe et de frqi] the quince is a fruit. 

36G s when linked = z, the most frequent of the link- 
ings, l>ecuuse occurring so often between closely related 
words (330). This linking of s, sounded as z, occurs 
in many expressions in whicii the s of the individual word 
is silent: de plus en plus [do ])ly-zu ])Iy] more and more; 
de temps en temps [do tTi-zu tu] from time to time; dos a 
dos [do-za iV)\ back to back; les en-ne-mis en fuite [le-zen- 
mi-zu fqit] ///r mruiics in. Jlighl ; pas a pas [pa-za ]mi] step 
by step; plus ou moins [|)ly-zu niwr) m<n-e or less; tiers 
e-tat (tjr!r-z<!-tal third estate; un suc-ces i-nat-ten-du [Cn 
syk-se-zi-iKi-tu-dy] an unexpected success. 


367 s of final cs, rs is silent in plural of nouns and of 
compound words: arcs-en-ciel [ar-ka sjrl] rainboivs; bees 
Auer [bc-ko-eir] Auer burners; des dues et pairs [de dy-ke 
pe:r] dukes and peers; des pores-epies [dc por-ke-pik] por- 
cupines. In these and the following cases, the linking of 
s, not being-pleasant to the French ear, is avoided, while 
the c or the r is linked over : des vers a sole [de ve-ra swa] 
silkworrns; des mai-tres es arts [ds mc-tre-za:r] masters 
of arts; corps a eorps [ko-rako:r] hand to hand {fight); 
ehars a banes [Su-ra bu] jaunting cars; vers un en-droit 
[ve-rde-(n)a-drwa] towards a place; en-vers et con-tre tous 
[a-veir-e ko-tra tuis] towards and against all. 

368 s final of a proper noun is silent: Geor-ges est 
ri-ehe [sor-se ri$] George is rich; la ca-the-drale d'A-miens 
est ma-gni-fi-que [la ka-te-dral d a-mje-(n)8 ma-pi-fik] 
the Amiens Cathedral is magnificent; Pa-ris est u-ne bel-le 
vil-le [pa-ri e-tyn bel vil] Paris is a beautiful city. 

369 s final is not sounded in un a-vis im-por-tant 
[de-na-vi e-por-td] an important advice; vers les une 
heu-re [ver le yn cb ir] towards one o^ clock; and the s of 
vo-lon-tiers [vo-lo-tje] ivillingly is never sounded; vo-lon- 
tiers a mes or-dres [vo-l5-tje a me-zordre] willingly to my 

370 Certain expressions contain the sound most often 
heard in linking [z] represented by s, x or z; and this 
sound may occur twice in a short phrase. To avoid such 
repetition the linking is made but once: dix heu-res un 
quart [di-zceir-ce ka:r] instead of [di-zoeir-zde kair] quarter 


past ten; six heu-res et de-mie [si-zoe:r-e da-mi] half past 
six; ai-dez-vous les iins aiix au-tres [e-de vu le-zoe o-zotr] 
help one another; les lar-mes aux yeux [le lar-mo-zj0] tears 
in the eyes. 

371 Neither linking nor elision occurs before huit, hui- 
tie-me (213) (excepting dix-huit and dix-hui-tie-me), onze, 
on-zie-me, oua-te, oui, oui-di-re (215, 390) : le huit du 
mois [lo qit dy mwu] the eighth of the month; le on-zie-me 
[lo o-zjem] the eleventh; la on-zie-me heu-re [la 3-zjem 
oe:r] the eleventh hour; le on-ze [lo 5iz] the eleventh {day of 
the month); qua-tre-vingt-on-ze [ka-tra ve oiz]; la oua-te 
[lawat] wadding; des oui-di-re [dewidiir] hearsay; les 
on-ze en-fants [Ic 3:-zd-fu] the eleven children. Notice 
the following: des man-teaux oua-tes [de ma-to wa-te] 
lined cloaks; le uh-lan [U ylu] (Jernian lancer; les uh- 
lans [le yla] ; met-tez le un avant le deux [nir-te lo db a-va 
lo d0] put the one before the two; hut un un mal-fait [ce- 
nce mal fe] a one badly made; trois un de sui-te [trwci-zde 
do suit] three consecutive ones; cent un [su de] one hundred 
and one; cent un [sd-tde] one hundred times one; sur les 
une heure [syr 1l- ynoe;r] about one o'clock; vers les une 
heure [vtr Ic ynceir] towards one o'clock (some ellipsis, 
such as about or towards the minutes preceding or fol- 
lowing one o'clock, seems to be implied); quatre-vingt-un 
[katro v£ ce] ei(jhty-one; le yacht [lo jak(t)] (the word is 
also pronounc(;d «a I'anglaise)) [jot] Ijy those familiar with 
English); la yole [la j.)l] small boat or canoe. 

372 X wIhii linked z: aux ar-mes [o-zanii] to arms; 
des prix eleves [dj; pii-/,cl-vc| high prices; deux a deux 


[d0-za d0] hvo hy tuio; dix en-fants [di-za-fa] ten children; 
paix u-ni-ver-sel-le [pt'-zy-ni-ver-sel] universal peace; six 
hom-mes [si-zom] six inen. Before consonants, x final 
follows the general rule and is silent : six sol-dats [si sol- 
da] six soldiers; dix pom-mes [di pom] ten apples. 

373 m usually has no other function after a vowel 
than to nasalize it, the m itself not being sounded (283). 
Therefore in such cases no Rnking is heard: A-dam et 
E-ve [a-dci e eiv]; u-ne faim ex-ces-si-ve [yn fe ek-s8- 
siiv] excessive hunger; un nom il-lus-tre [de no il-lystr] 
an illustrious name; un par-fum ex-quis [oe par-foe eks-ki] 
an exquisite perfume. 

374 But when m does occur as a final pronounced con- 
sonant, then it is naturally linked over like any other 
final pronounced consonant: Je-ru-sa-lem est vain-cu 
[SG-ry-za-le-me vt-ky] Jerusalem is conquered; le ha-rem 
at-tray-ant [lo a-re-ma-tre-jd] the attractive harem. 

375 n like m after a vowel has the function of nasaliz- 
ing that vowel (129, 239). It differs in this case from m4n 
that while m nasalizing the preceding vowel is never linked 
over, n may be when the tv/o words are so inseparably 
connected as to form but one word, group or idea. Then 
the nasalized vowel usually retains its nasal quality and 
the n is carried over as a consonant: au-cun ou-vra-ge 
[o-kce-nu-vra:3] wo work; bien ai-ma-ble [bje-ne-mabl] 
very kind; bon a-mi [bo-na-mi] good friend; bon en-fant 
[bo-na-fa] good fellow; un an-cien a-mi [ce-na-sje-na-mi] 
a former friend; bien heu-reux [bj£--noe-r0] very happy; 


rien ac-cep-ter [rje-nak-spp-te] to accept nothing; en plein 
air [u-plc-nc:r] in the open air. Another pronunciation 
in such cases and rather common in colloquial usage is 
to denasalize the vowel, retaining its oral quality, linking 
the n over as a consonant in the usual way. Simply 
removing the sign of nasality over the vowel in the pre- 
ceding examples will illustrate the second method of pro- 
nunciation in such cases; or: men a-mi [mo-na-mi] my 
friend, instead of [mo-na-mi]; un enfant [oe-na-fa] a child, 
instead of [oe-na-fa]. 

376 But when n appears simply as a pure consonant, 
it is then linked over to the following vowel just as m is 
or any other consonant : I'hy-men ac-tuel [1 i-me-nak-tiiel] 
the actual marriage; spe-ci-men a-de-si-rer [spe-si-me- 
na de-zi-rc] desirable specimen. 

377 n final of the nasal vowel of a noun is not linked: 
ce bien est a men f re-re [sa })jg e-ta-mo freir] this prop- 
erty is my brother' f^; Jean est pe-tit [5a e po-ti] John is 
little; le vin et I'eau [lo v£ e 1 o] the wine and water; le bon 
et le mau-vais [lo b3 e b mo-vr] tlie good and the had. 

378 n final in the following common expressions is 
not linked: c'est bon a manger [s 8-b3 a ma-5e] it is good 
to eat; se-lon eux [so-l.") p] according to them (335); il se 
con-duit bien en clas-se [il so-k.l-dqi bje a klais] he he- 
haves himself well in the class; com-bien y en a-t-il? [k")- 
bje i a-na-til] how many of them are there* I'un ou I'au-tre 
[1 d' u 1 otr] one or the other. 

371) h. Neither linking nor elision takes place before 
an .■i-|)ir;i(c h. Care should be laken not to aspirate this 


written (but unsounded) h as in English. Simply detach 
the word preceding from that beginning with h : la hon-te 
[la 3:t] shame; le ha-sard [lo a-za:r] chance; le cri des hi- 
boux [b kri de i-bu] the owls' cry; les hut-tes des sau-va- 
ges [le yt de so-vais] the Indians' huts. 

380 Special cases. Consonants after r are not usually 
linked. This applies to the endings of many words in 
-ard, -ord, -curd, -art, -ert, -eurt, -ort, -ourt (356): 
dard ai-gu [dair-e-gy] sharp dart; bord a bord [boir-a boir] 
alongside; lourd et fort [luir-e foir] heavy and strong; el-le 
part au-jourd'hui [el pair-o-sur-dqi] she leaves to-day; il 
con-quiert une pro-vince [il k-l-kjeir-yn-pro-veis] he con- 
qners a -province; elle meurt ex-pres [el moejr-eks-pre] she 
dies on purpose; fort et grand [foir-e gra] strong and tall; 
on ac-coiirt aus-si-tot [3-na-ku:r-o-si-to] they run imme- 

381 Exceptions to the general rule that consonants 
after r are not usually sounded may be noticed in the 
flexional s which follows r: des re-gards ai-ma-bles [de 
ro-gair-ze-mabl] kind attention; in the final t or d after r 
of verbs before a pronoun: perd-il [peir-til] does he lose? 
sert-il [seir-t il] is he of use ? in fort used as an absolute 
superlative, that is, in the sense of very: fort ai-ma-ble 
[foir-te-ma(:)bl] very amiable; but fort et dur [fo:r-e dyir] 
strong and hard. 

382 In the expressions de part en part [da-pair-ta par] 
right through; de part etd'au-tre [do pair-te dotr] on all 
sides; I'art o-ra-toi-re [lair-to-ra-twair] oratorical art, the 
final t is linked over. 


Exercise LIX. Linking occurs in the expressions throughout 
this exercise. Read carefully, pronouncing aloud the following: 1. A 
neuf heurea precises. 2. Attendez un instant. 3. Beaucoup aime. 
4. Bien ennuyeux. 5. Bloc enorme. G. C'est un enfant tres eveille. 
7. C'est un franc ctourdi. 8. Cheval ombrageux. 9. Cinq heures. 
10. Comprend-il ce qu'on dit? 11. De fond en comble. 12. Des 
cheveux epais. 13. Des histoires ctonnantes. 14. De part en part. 
15. D'exceUcnts exercices. 16. Du blanc au noir. 17. En avez- 
vouseu? 18. Enete. 19. En hiver. 20. lis etudicnt bien. 21. lis 
se rendent en classe deux a deux. 22. II y a cinq ans. 23. Le 
bourg est en fete. 24. Le grand ocean. 25. Le nabab est un richard. 
26. Les empereurs Marc Aurele et IMarc Antoine. 27. Nous u-ons 
ensemble. 28. (Euf a la coque. 29. Onenaassez. 30. Parler franc 
et net. 31. Perd-il son temps? 32. Quand irez-vous? 33. Qu'en- 
tend-on? 34. Repond-eUe. 35. S'il en est ainsi. 36. Tres habile. 
37. Trop ctroit. 38. Un arc-en-ciel. 39. Un fort argument en sa 
faveur. 40. Un joug intolerable. 41. Un pore-epic. 42. Vousavez 
ete au pare. 43. Vous en avez assez. 

Exercise LX, illustrating examples in which Unking is to be 
avoided. Read carefully the following expressions, pronouncing 
them aloud: 1. AUez-vous-en avec cux. 2. Arcs-en-ciel. 3. A-t-on 
6te aimable? 4. Bees Auer. 5. Bordeaux est une belle ville. 6. C'est 
le huit. 7. Colomb a erre longtemps. 8. Combien en demande- 
t-il? 9. Do demain en huit. 10. Du plomb argon tifere. 11. Du riz 
au lait. 12. Enfin on arriva. 13. Envers cux. 14. II est grand ct 
beau. 15. Jean et Alexis. 10. Le loup court encore. 17. Le 
second et lo troisiome. 18. Le surpkjmb en est visible. 19. Le 
trente et un octobre. 20. Mais oui. 21. Mario coud a merveille. 
22. Nez a nez. 23. Paris est la capitalo. 24. Quatre-vingt-onze. 
25. Quatre-vingt-sc-pt. 26. Saint-Marc k Vonise. 27. Sourd k 
toutes les demandos. 28. Sourd et muet. 29. Trop hardi. 30. Un 
banc k dos. 31. Une faim excessive. 32. Un et deux font trois. 
33. Un gargon indolent. 34. Un nom anglais. 

Exercise LXI. State briefly tli(! i)rin(i|)lo by rea.son of which 
linking takes place in each example given in Exercise LIX and 
doc8 not take place in each of the examples given in Exercieo LX. 



383 Elision, or the dropping of the final vowel of a 
monosyllable before the initial vowel of the next word, 
is indicated by the apostrophe (31). In certain cases the 
letters e, a, i, the vowels undergoing elision, are entirely 
silent. The monosyllables ehding final e are de, le, ne, 
que; the pronouns je, ce, le, me, se, te when followed by 
a verb, by en or by y. 

384 Elision of e : I'e-co-le [1 e-kol] the school; d'un en- 
fant [d de-na-fa] of a child; n'est-ce pas [n es pa] is it not 
so? j'ai-me [5 F:m] / love; c'est [s e] it is; il I'a [i-1 a] he has 
it; m'a-t-elle vu [m a-tel vy] has she seen me f il s'en va 
[il s a va] he goes away; qu'a-vez-vous [k a-ve vu] what is 
the matter with you ? tu t'y es mis [ty ti e mi] you have put 
yourself there; en-voy-ez-1'y [u-vwa-je 1 i] send him there. J 

385 The vowels of the pronouns ce, je, la, le are not 
elided when these monosyllables come after the xevh: 
est-ce vrai [ts vre] is it true? ai-je rai-son [e:3 rc-zo] atn I 
right? fai-tes-le [fet b] do it; voy-ez-le [vwa-je h] see 

386 The final e of jusque is elided in jus-qu'a [5ys-k a] 
up to; jus-qu'a-lors [5ys-k a-loir] up to that time; jus-qu'en 
[sys-ku ] up to; jus-qu'i-ci [sys-k i-si] up to this time; the 
final e of lorsque, puisque, quoique is also elided, but only 
before elle, il, on, vm: lors-qu'il [lors-k il] when he; puis- 
qu'el-le [pqis-k el] since she; quoi-qu'on [kwa-k 5] although 


387 A few words, generally ha\nng quelque, entre or 
presque in their composition, elide final e: quel-qu'un 
[kcl-kde ] some one; en-tr'ac-te [a-tr akt] interval between 
the acts; pres-qu'i-le [pres-k il ] peninsula; also au-jour- 
d'hui [o-5ur-d qi] ] to-day. 

388 Elision of a. a is only elided in the article or 
pronoun la before the verb: I'a-me [1 aim] the soul; I'his- 
toi-re [1 is-twair] the story; 11 I'aime [i-1 eim] he loves her; 
but ai-mez-la [c-me la] love her. 

389 Elision of i. i is elided only in the conjunction si 
before il or ils : s'il va [s il va] if he goes; s'ils vien-nent 
[s il vjcn] // they come. 

390 Elision does not take place before the aspirate h, 
nor before on-ze, on-zie-me, oui, oui-di-re, oua-te (371, 
215), oh que oui [o ka wi] wJiy yes; la on-zie-me [la 5-zjcm] 
the eleventh. 

391 While the preceding examples illustrate elision as 
shown by the apostrophe, the great majority of cases 
may be said to occur where no apostrophe marks the 
suppression of an e mute before a word beginning with a 
vowel or silent h. In fact e is silent at tlie end of most 
words (but cf. 8i)o): pla-ce [plus]; pren-dre [pruidr]; ta-ble 
[ta(:)bl]; (except where the e itself is the only vowel in the 
worfl, as in le, me, te): in verbal endings -es, -ent (tu 
ai-mes [ty cim]; ils ai-ment |il-zr:m]); and after a vowel 
that just precedes the finiil e: rue [ry] .street. 

392 In very many instances, two or more words are 

pronounr-ed just as though i)arts of one entire word, that 


is, together in one breath, just as though each formed a 
component part of one entire word. The final e in such 
cases is absolutely mute and the preceding consonant is 
linked over with the initial vowel of the following word: 
fa-ci-le a li-re [fa-si-la liir] easy to read; la guer-re e-cla-te 
en-tre eux [la gP!-re-kla-ta-tr0] war breaks out between 
them; la ro-be est rou-ge [la ro-be ruis] the dress is red; 
I'ex-er-ci-ce o-ral [1 eg-zcr-si-so-ral] the oral exercise; u-ne 
an-cien-ne e-le-ve [y-na-sje-ne-leiv] a former pupil; u-ne 
au-tre an-nee [y-no-tra-ne] another year. 

393 Compare the following pairs of words, in the 
former of which the e is elided and in the latter (70, 71) 
it is not: Allemagne and Angleterre; bulletin and porte- 
feuille; causerie and brusquerie; joyeusement and triste- 
ment; legerete and fermete; logement and appartement; 
longuement and largement; maintenant and autrefois; 
mugissement and hurlement; salete and proprete; samedi 
and vendredi. 

394 Compare again in the same manner the following 
pairs, each of which is composed of two or more words 
(cf. 74). In the first group composing the pair, the e is 
not pronounced; in the second it is: A de-main and pour 
demain; au-dessus and par-dessus; je ne sais pas and il 
ne sait pas; la demande and leur demande; la petite and 
eette petite; la semaine and une semaine; les cheminees 
and une cheminee; le velours and quel velours; mademoi- 
selle and une demoiselle; monsieur De Vire and madame De 
Vire; on recommence and elle recommence; roi de France 
and reine de France; sa fenetre and cette fenetre; sans le 


chien and avec le chien; sous le pont and sur le pont; un 
demi-litre and une demi-livre; un pot de biere and un 
verre de biere; vin de Champagne and biere de Munich. 

Exercise LXII. A most useful exercise may be had by writing 
the two pairs above given in 393 and 394, first as usual in ordinary 
writing and printing of French, dividing them into syllables and pro- 
nouncing aloud each syllable and word; secondly, performing the 
same operation and using, in so doing, the key alphabet. 

395 The following sentences illustrate the usual 
elision of e when occurring in ordinary phrases. The 
elided e is italicized: 1. Cette phrase est facile a lire et 
a comprendre. 2. Elle raconte encore une histoire ab- 
surde. 3. Elise a une autre idee en tete. 4. La balle 
^tait derriere une chaise au salon. 5. La campagne est 
belle et agreable en juin. 6. Laissez la porte et la fe- 
netre ouvertes. 


396 Capitals are used as in English to begin a sen- 
tence, quotation or a proper name : Les oiseaux chantent, 
The birds are .nnging. II m'a dit: «Faites-le toujours.)) 
He said to me: "Keep on doing it.'^ Felix Faure. 

397 Small letters, contrary to English usage, are used 
to begin the pronoun je = English /.• Eh, bien, je m'en 
vais, Well, Fm going away. Enfin, j'y suis, j'y reste, 
In short, Fm here, Fm going to stay here; and in writing 
the interjection 6 = English oh or 0: — 6 Dieu, Heavens! 
6 douleur, grirf! 6 ma jeunesse, imj youth! 


398 Small letters are used to begin the names of the 
days of the week and of the month: C'est aujourd'hui 
lundi le dix aout, To-day is Monday the tenth of August; 
n est venu vendredi le trois mars, He came Friday the 
third of March. 

399 Small letters are used to begin adjectives derived 
from proper nouns: un noble venitien, a Venetian noble- 
man; un savant allemand, n German scholar; le rivage 
troyen, the Trojan shore; le chant gregorien, the Gregorian 
chant; 11 etudie le franpais, he studies the French language; 
also in writing the expressions: catholique, lutherien, 
mahometan, protestant, puritain, pharisien, voltairien; 
also catholicisme, christianisme, judaisme. But when the 
adjective is used substantively, then it is treated as a 
proper noun: le Frangais, the Frenchman; im Irlandais, 
on Irishman; un riche Americain, a rich American; les 
Asiatiques, the Asiatics; les Europeens, the Europeans; 
im illustre Parisien, an illustrious Parisian. v 

400 When to a product or object of manufacture, the 
name of the town or locality of production or fabrication 
is given, this name is treated like a proper adjective and 
begins with a small letter: un metre d'angleterre; une 
statue en carrare ; un bel angora ; une bouteille de cognac ; 
fumer du maryland; une robe de florence; une robe de 

401 In titles of books, companies, associations and 
the like, but one word usually begins with a capital, 
generally the first noun, unless preceded by a preposi- 


tion: Dans les gardes frangaises, la Jerusalem delivree, 
le Malade imaginaire. la Mare au diable, le Paradis 
perdu, Pour la couronne, les Precieuses ridicules. 

403 If an adjective (or numeral) precedes the noun, 
instead of following it as in the above examples, then 
both adjective (or numeral) and noun begin with a cap- 
ital: I'Ancien Testament; les Deux Sceurs; la Divine 
Comedie; les Fausses Confidences; la Jeune Femme 
colere ; la Nouvelle Heloise ; la Petite Fadette ; Un beau 
mariage ; Un Mariage dans le monde. The article (defi- 
nite) when u.sed as the first word of the title, as in these 
examples, is written with a capital only when it begins 
the sentence. 

Notice the usage in the following titles of literary 
works: le Vieux celibataire; le Vieux fat; les Vieux gar- 
50ns; Une Vieille maitresse; le Vieux neuf; la Vieille 
roche; la Vieille tante. 

403 When the title of a word is accompanied by the 
author's name, both title and name are written with a 
capital: la Biographie Didot; les Coramentaires de Cesar; 
le Dictionnaire de I'Academie; I'Encyclopedie de Diderot; 
les Essais de Montaigne; la Geographie de Crozat; le 
Glossaire de du Cange. 

404 When two substantives figure as the title of a 
puhlication, a society or order, the sc^cond substantive 
being merely th(^ complement of the first, tlu^n the first 
only is written with a (•a|)ital: Bulletin des lois; Cours 
d'astronomie ; Dialogue des morts; Elements de phy- 


sique; Essai sur les moeurs; Histoire des croisades; 
Voyage autour du monde; I'Academie des sciences; le 
Conservatoire de musique; le Conservatoire des arts et 
metiers; I'Ecole des chartes; I'ordre de I'Aigle de fer; 
I'ordre de la Legion d'honneur ; I'ordre de la Toison d'or. 

405 Nevertheless, it frequently happens that when two 
substantives figure in the title of a book, society or 
order, that it is the second that is written with a capital 
while the first is written with a small letter. This is so 
because in such cases the second word characterizes and 
epitomizes more appropriately the entire title : le cap des 
Tempetes; la cour des Miracles; la fontaine des Inno- 
cents; I'hotel des Ambassadeurs ; Pile de la Reunion; les 
montagnes de la Lune; le quai aux Fleurs, meaning a 
particular quay in Paris where flowers are sold; while 
quai aux fleurs designates a quay given over to the sale 
of flowers in any city, 

406 Occasionally it happens that two words in the 
title of a publication or association are written with a 
capital : Memoires de la Societe nationale des antiquaires 
de France; Memoires de la Societe de linguistique ; la 
Critique de I'Ecole des femmes; Defense du Genie du 
christianisme ; Observations sur I'Esprit des lois; Journal 
des Savants. In such cases two titles are considered as 
combined in one, or the two words are of such importance 
that it appears inappropriate to write either with a small 

407 Capitals are used in writing the title of a fable, 
comedy or farce, the characters of which appear in the 


title and are considered as personified: le Chene et le 
Roseau; la Genisse, la Chevre et la Brebis; le Flatteur 
et I'Envieux; le Maitre et le Valet. 

408 Two capitals are necessary in a compound proper 
noini joined by a h^-phen, as: les Anglo-Saxons; les Gallo- 
Grecs; les Moldo-Valaques; and the name of a dynasty, 
when preceded by that of the race over which the dynasty 
ruled, is written -with a capital: les Francs Merovingians; 
les Turcs Osmanlis ; but not when the name of the dynasty 
is used adjectively, as: la dynastie merovingienne ; la 
dynastie napoleonienne ; likewise ecriture anglo-norman- 
nique; ecriture nonnanno-saxonne. 

409 The word saint before its noun begins with a 
small letter: saint Denis, saint Francois, saint Martin; 
but when used as a part of a proper name with a noun to 
which it is joined by a hyphen, it is never abbreviated 
and is always written with a capital: le due de Saint- 
Simon; I'eglise Saint-Germain-des-Pres ; I'eglise Sainte- 
Marie-aux-Neiges ; I'eglise Sainte-Marie-des-Fleurs ; (in 
the three cxamijles ju-<t cited tlie two last hyphens in 
each example are sometimes omitted, but the more com- 
mon usage appears to be in favor of connfrtiufj; all the 
parts with hyphens); I'eglise de Saint-Pierre; le mont 
Saint-Michel; la porte Saint-Martin; but if the entire 
expression is merely used as a name to indicate, for ox- 
ample, a prison or a theater, the usage is: les prisonniers 
du Mont-Saint-Michel, le theatre de la Porte-Saint- 


410 The names of avenues, boulevards, qviays, squares, 
streets, etc., are written with a capital, but the word for 
avenue, boulevard, square, street, etc., is written with a 
small letter: allee de I'Observatoire ; avenue des Champs- 
Elysees; avenue de I'Opera; barriere de rEtoile; boule- 
vard Montparnasse; carrefour de 1' Abattoir; chaussee 
des Mmimes ; cour des Fontaines ; place de la Concorde ; 
quai de I'Horloge ; rue de Rivoli. 

Small letters are used in writing the articles le, la, les, 
du, de la, des before the name of a town or of a person: 
le Cairo, Cairo; la Havana; le Havre; le Mans; le Puy; 
la Rochelle; la Bruyere; le Camoens; le Cid; la rue de la 
Bruyere; la rue de I'Ecluse; le comte de la Guiche; le 
prince de la Pak; Peveril du Pic; le Tintoret; Bar-le- 
Duc; Choisy-le-Roy; Foulenay-aux-Roses ; Villeneuve- 
le-Comte. Also in writing adjectives not joined to the 
noun by a hyphen, as: la basse Bretagne, le bas Canada; 
but les Basses-Pyrenees, la Haute-Marne. 

411 Small letters are used to begin titles before proper 
nouns: le president Fallieres; le prince de Galles; le roi 
Alfonse; le czar Nicholas; lord Ruthven; le comte de 
Monte-Cristo; le general Boulanger; le roi d'Angleterre ; 
le professeur Croizet; I'abbe de I'Epee; le due d'Enghien; 
I'empereur de la Chine, le docteur Allard; I'archeveque 

412 Titles of honor, being considered as proper names, 
whether in speaking to or of the honored personage, are 
wTitten with a capital: Votre Majeste; Vos Majestes; Sa 
Majeste; Ses Majestes; Sa Saintete, in speaking of the 


Pope; Son Eminence, in speaking of a cardinal; Sa Gran- 
deur, in speaking of a bishop; Son Altesse, in speaking of 
a prince of the royal line. 

413 Capitals, therefore, are used in the following cases 
for the titles and small letters for the common names, 
king, queen, emperor, czar, etc.: Sa Majeste le roi; Sa 
Majeste la reine; Sa Majeste imperiale; Son Altesse 
royale; Sa Majeste I'empereur Napoleon III; Sa Majeste 
la reine d'Angleterre ; Sa Majeste le czar, I'autocrate de 
toutes les Russies; Sa Majeste le sultan Abdul Medjid; 
Sa Saintete le pape Pie IX ; Son Eminence le cardinal de 
Retz; Sa Grandeur I'eveque de Marseille; Son Altesse 
I'electeur de Saxe. 

414 Capitals are used on the al)Ove principle when the 
title is extended: Sa Majeste Catholique, la reine d'Es- 
pagne; Sa Majeste Fidele, le roi de Portugal; Sa Majeste 
Britannique, la reine d'Angleterre. 

415 Small letters are used to write the titles monsieur, 
madame and mademoiselle when not beginning the 
sentence, although not infrequently capitals are used. 
These words are generally abbreviated, M. being written 
for monsieur, English Mr., MM. (with a full stop) for 
messieurs; M""^ for madame, luiglish Mrs.; and M"« for 
mademoiselle, I'jiglish Ml.s.^. M. Blondel, monsieur 
VAuiuM; M'"*-- Blondel, madame Blondel; M''^ Blondel, 
mademoiselle lilondd. Tlicy avr more convenient terms 
than their English ( (|ui\;il(nls, licing used with equal 
apj)roi)riat('ness with oi' wilhoiil the namc^: oui, made- 
moiselle; oui, madame; oui, monsieur. In wiiting the 


abbreviated forms, usually printed M"^ and M"e, no punc- 
tuation whatever is used; and this is the customary usage 
in French in writing abbreviations which include the final 
letter as Me^ = monseigneur, D'^=docteur. No stop is 
used after Roman numerals with names of sovereigns or 
divisions of a book: Louis XTV et Charles X celebrant 
. . . Voir tome III, chapitre IV de I'ouvrage. 1st, 2d, 
3d, 4th, etc., are usually written P^, IP, Ule^ lye^ etc. 

416 Small letters are used to begin names designating 
political, religious and monastic schools: les republicains, 
les legitimistes, les orleanistes, les socialistes ; les calvi- 
nistes, les catholiques, les jansenistes, les lutheriens, 
les voltairiens, les benedictins, les cordeliers, les do- 

417 The name of the order itself, being considered a 
proper noun, is written with a capital: I'ordre de Saint- 
Benoit; la congregation de Saint-Lazare ; I'ordre du 
Mont-Carmel; I'ordre de I'lncarnation ; I'ordre de la 
Visitation ; I'ordre de la Jarretiere ; la reforme de Samte- 
Therese. The word order, congregation, etc., is often 
understood, as in prendre le voile (de I'ordre) de Sainte- 
Claire ; prendre I'habit (de I'ordre j de Saint-Frang ois. 

Exercise LXIII. Note the following giving practice on the use 
of capitals; the words and expressions appear here according to 
recognized standard usage: anabaptiste, gentil (Gentile), hussite, 
malthusien, pythagorien; bouddhisme, islamisme, paganisme; carme, 
chartreux, cordelier; bey, calif e, consul, due, pacha, schah; druide, 
mage, pontife, pythonisse; les bacchanales, les saturnales; une 
dryade, un faune, un satyre, une su-ene, un triton; un missel; Con- 
siderations sur I'histoire de France; Discours sur I'histoire universelle 
(only one capital here in each instance is used, as but one work is really 


comprised in each title) ; I'esplanade des Invalides, faubourg Poisson- 
niere, passage des Panoramas, place de I'Estrapade; I'aigle de Meaux 
(Bossuet); I'aigle de Patmos (saint Jean), I'ange des tenebres (le 
diable), le pere du mensonge (Satan), le pere de misericorde (Dieu), 
I'Ange de I'ecole (saint Thomas d'Aquin), I'Oint du Seigneur (Jesus- 
Christ), rOrateur romain (Ciceron), le Sage (Salomon); un arabe, 
un cajaque, une megere, un mentor, un tartufe {originally proper 
nouns, frequent usage has caused them to be regarded simply as common 
nouns); un dedale, un hermes, du mithridate, un phaeton; des Cal- 
lots, des Elzevirs, des Plines {meaning editions of Elzevir and Pliny, 
and collections of Callot) ; empire frangais, empii'e des Perses, princi- 
paut6 d'Orange, repubhque romaine; Tambassade tui'que a Paris, 
I'amirautee de Londi'es, la chancellerie de la Legion d'honneur, la 
chambre des pairs, la chambre des lords, le consulat de SmjTne, 
I'hotel de ville de Paris, la legation russe a Berlin, la musee de Ver- 
sailles, le parlement d'Angloterre, le senat de Rome; I'Arsenal, bi- 
bUotheque de Paris, la Bastille, ancienne prison d'Etat, le Chatelet, 
ancien tribunal de Paris, le Cirque, theatre de Paris, la Tom* de 
Londres, prison d'Etat; la tour de Babel {thai is, de la Confusion), 
la tour des Vents a Athenes, la vallee de la Vision; I'administration 
des postes, des monnaies, des douanes, des domaines, le comptoir 
d'escompte, la caisse d'opargne, le couvent des dominicains, I'eglise 
des penitents gris, la halle aux bles, aux cuirs, aux draps, aux pois- 
Bons, le marche au charbon, aux fleurs, le ministere de I'interieur, 
le ministere des finances, le palais de justice, la regie des tabacs; il 
est alI6 aux Arts et metiers, a 1' Instruct ion pubhque, a la Monnaie 
{instead of saying: il est alle a I'administration des Arts ct metiers, de 
rinstruction publique, de la Monnaie) ; le Capitole a Toulouse trans- 
form6 en hotel de ville, le Louvre en musee, le Luxembourg en senat, 
le Palais-Royal en tribunal; ce temple des protestants s'appelle le 
Temple des protestants, cet hotel de ville s'appelle I'llotel de ville, 
cette prison militaire s'appelle la Prison militaire, ce palais de jus- 
tice s'appelle le Palais de justice, ce musee s'appelle le Musee. 

418 WhothcT a capital ])c used or not depends on the 
sense of the expression. For instance, cote d'or may 
mean any fine coad renowneil fur its vineyards; la cote 



d'Or is a name applied particularly to a region near 
Dijon; la Cote-d'Or is the name of one of the French 


419 The same marks of punctuation are used in French 
as in English. The most commonly used are: 

le point 

full stop 


la vir-gu-le 



le point et vir-gu-le 



le deux points 



le point d'in-ter-ro-ga-tion 



le point d'ex-cla-ma-tion 



le trait d'u-nion 

hyphen \ 


le ti-ret (de se-pa-ra-tion) 



les points sus-pen-sifs 

three dots 

les guil-le-mets 

quotation marks 

« » 

la pa-ren-the-se 



les cro-chets 









la croix de ren-voi 



420 In general it may be said that French punctua- 
tion is more subject to the caprice of the individual 
writer than is the case in English. The following points 
deserve notice: 1° In a case like the following: 7ne7i, 
women, and children, where good usage may be found 
sanctioning the comma before the conjunction, no comma 
is used in French: les hommes, les femmes et les enfants. 
2° The colon, le deux points (notice the form of the 


article), is rather more freely used than in English, not 
infrequently replacing the comma before phrases which 
explain, amplify or resume the subject-matter: de la 
deux sortes de devoir : les uns negatif s . . . consequently 
two kinds of duty, the one negative ... 3° Quotation 
marks, le guillemet ouvrant, le guillemet fermant, are 
less common than in English, a. In giving the text of a 
letter they ate used precisely as in English, h. If a 
quotation extends through several paragraphs, the marks 
are used at the beginning of every paragraph, and at the 
end of the last. c. In the interior of a paragraph, the 
marks are used as in English, d. If the quotation coin- 
cides with the paragraph, no quotation marks are used, 
the paragraph usually beginning with a dash. The 
writer's aim is to try to put each short quotation into a 
separate paragraph, each beginning with a dash (see 
the example under 421). e. Single quotation marks 
(' ') are not used at all. 

421 The dash, tiret as just indicated, serves in dialogue 
to note a change of speaker, and is often used where 
quotation marks would be used in English. It also 
serves to replace the words: re-pon-dit-il, dit-il: 

— Allons, ton dernier mot, bonhomme! 

— F'aut-ii vous parler clair? 

— Oui. 

— C'est que je garde mon moulin. 

To denote incompleteness or interruption three dots 
(. . .) are used oftener than the dash: Enfin, comment 
vous dire . . . nous avons peur! 


423 The hyphen, le trait d'union, is used between two 
names forming an indivisible whole: les Etats-Unis; le 
Nouveau-Bnmswick ; la Nouvelle-Ecosse ; la Nouvelle- 
Orleans; les Pays-Bas; le Royaume-Uni de Grande- 
Bretagne et (d')Irlande, Terre-Neuve (see 409 for more 
diversified examples). 

Exercise LXIV, for general practice. Words apt to be badly 
pronounced: agneau, aigue, aiguille, aiguiser, album, Allemagne, al- 
manach, Alsace, amen, amer, Angleterre, anguille, aotit, appendice, 
archange, Asie, aspect, athee, atlas, atome, autocratic, autographe, 
automate, automne, Auxerre, avril, ayant, ayez, ayons, baionette, 
balbutier, bapteme, baptiser, baril, bataille, Bengale, benzine, bille- 
vesee, bloc, bceuf, boeufs, broc,- Bossuet, Bruxelles, calvitie, capi- 
taine, cauchemar, cent un, chef, chef-d'oeuvre, cher, Christ, chut, 
cinq, le cinq mars, Cinq-Mars, cinq robes, clerc, Colomb, compter, 
consequenunent, consciemment, conscience, coq, correct, croc, croup, 
crucifix, cuiller, damner, David, decemment, des haricots, dessous, 
dessus, diplomatic, distiller, distinct, dix, le dix avril, dix chevaux, 
dix-huit, dix-neuf, dix-sept, dix sous, dot, Duguesclin, echecs, Eden, 
elever, eloquemment, eminemment, emmener, enfer, en haut, enno- 
blir, ennui, equinox, essentiel. Test, escroc, est-ce, Estienne, estomac, 
eteint, ether, eurent, examen, exempt, exempter, excellent (adj.), 
excellent (verb), facetie, faience, faim, je faisais, faisons, faon, fat, 
femme, fier (adj.), fier (verb), fini, fleur de lis, flux, gageur, galop, gen- 
til, gratis, grenouille, guerilla, gueule, gueux, hair, ils haissent, helas, 
hennir, heureux, hiatus, hier, hiver, huit, huit jours, le huit mai, 
huit enfants, hymen, hymne, idylle, immense, immeuble, immobile, 
immodeste, immoler, immoral, incroyable, initial, inne, innombrable, 
innovation, inoui, inutile, isthme, jadis, Jesus, Jesus-Christ, joug, 
legs, lendemain, linguiste, lis, lui, magnifique, mais, mangeant, mar- 
tial, mars, mauvais, mayonnaise, messieurs, merinos, Michel-Ange, 
mille, minutie, minutieux, moelle, monsieur, moyen, murmurer, mu- 
seum, myosotis, nef, nerf, nerfs, net, neuf, neuf ans, le neuf du mois, 
neuf francs, neuf heures, neuf soldats, nuptial, observer, obtenir, 
ceil, oeuf, oeufs, oignon, un os, osciller, ouest, paille, paon, partial, par- 


tiel, patient, payer, pays, peine, pensum, peril, peripetie, persuader, 
philosophe, poignard, poison, poisson, post-scriptum, pouls, prece- 
demment, prompt, prudemment, puis, punch, pupille, pusillanime, 
quatre-vingt-cinq, quatre-vingt-six, quatre-vingt-un, quelques-uns, 
quotient, R(h)eims, reserve, resignation, respect, ressembler, res- 
sentir, ressource, rosbif, je romps, science, sculpteur, second, sens, 
bon sens, sens commun, sept enfants, le sept mai, sept plumes, 
eignifie, simple, six chaises, six et dix, six heures, le six mars, soleil, 
Bongea, specimen, Strasbourg, sud, suggerer, suprematie, tabac, tact, 
tandis, temps, thym, tient, tilleul, toast, tous, tranquille, travail, 
vasistas, veille, vendetta, vieille, vingt, le vingt aoUt, vingt-deux, 
vingt chevaux, le vingt-sept mars, vingt-huit, vingt-neuf . 


423 Address on the envelope. It is now customary to 
write out the words Monsieur, Madame and Made- 
moiselle. Sometimes the following ex})ressions are em- 
ployed on the outside of a letter or missive: Envoi de 
(Monsieur Dupee), Sent by (Mr. Dupeo); Recommandee 
or Chargee, Registered; aux soins de or chez, care of; 
(Priere de) faire suivre (Please) forward; Faire parvenir, 
Send on. The following are specimen superscriptions: 

Monsieur Georges Pelletier 
chez Madame Laforet 

31, place de la Republiquo 

Paris, France 

Madame Henri de la Tour 
aux Boins de Monsieur Loubet-Andrc 

26, boulevard Saint-Michel 

Paris, France 


Monsieur le Professeur Georges Blondel 
7, rue Carnot 

Priere de faire suivre France 

Mesdemoiselles Longuemare 

16, rue Montmartre 
Faire parvenir Paris, France 

424 Business houses. In addressing firms, such ad- 
dresses as the following are usual: Messieurs Favreau et 
Delrue; Messieurs Larousse & C'^; Madame V^^ La- 
foret et Fils; Messieurs L. Tremblay Freres; Monsieur 
le Directeur du Credit Lyoimais. 

Instead of prefixing Monsieur, Messieurs, sometimes 
other general names are employed: Maison Chagnon- 
Asselin, Firm of C.-A.; Librairie Gamier Freres, Messrs. 
Gamier Brothers, Publishers {Booksellers) ; Etablisse.tnents 
Archambault-Belanger, The A.-B. Business Houses. 

425 Dates. With the exception of le premier, the 
cardinal nmnbers are used for the days of the month. 
The name of the month itself is written with a small 
letter (398). In commercial letters, September, October, 
November and December are frequently abbreviated: 
7bre^ 8'"'®, 9^"^^, lO'"'®. The following examples illustrate 
current usage, the article before the date being sometimes 
omitted. Sometimes ce is used: Marseille, le 1^*^ mars 
1912; Toulon, 7, rue Saint-Georges, le 18 aout 1911; 
Londres, 19 juillet 1910; Bruxelles, ce 13 fevrier 1908; 
Bourges, le 1 1 mai 1909 ; Ce vendredi matin. 

426 Forms of address. The following illustrate the 
ordinary usage in addressing friends : Cher Georges, Dear 


George; Mon cher Jean, My dear John; (Mon) cher ami, 
{My) dear friend ; Mon cher Delille, My dear DeliUe; 
Cher Monsieur Belisle, Dear Mr. Belisle; Monsieur et 
cher confrere, My dear colleague. Monsieur, Sir, is more 
formal than Cher Monsieur, (My) dear Sir. It should be 
noted that «Mon cher Monsieur)) is generally avoided 
when used without the noun; like «Ma chere Madame)) 
it is redundant. 

In addressing ladies, the adjective chere is not usual 
except among relatives and very intimate friends: Madame, 
Dear Mrs.; Mademoiselle, Dear Miss. 

427 Endings of letters. INIuch variety exists in the 
conclusion of French letters. This depends on the age, 
rank, sex of the person addressed, as well as on circum- 
stances. Much used familiar forms are the following: 
Bien a vous or Tout a vous, Sincerely yours; A vous de 
tout coeur, Ever sincerely yours; Une poignee de main, 
Yours most sincerely; Votre ami sincere (fidele). Yours 

faithfully {sincerely); Je vous serre cordialement la main, 
^lost sincerely yours; Salut amical, -4.s- ever, yours; Votre 
tout devoue, Faithfully yours; Croyez a ma vive et sin- 
cere amitie, Believe me, as ever, sincerely yours. 

428 More formal (^x]iressions corresponding to Very 
tridy yours, but ill adapted to translation: Agreez, Mon- 
sieur, mes cordiales salutations; Veuillez agreer. Mon- 
sieur, I'assurance de mes sentiments distingues; Recevez, 
Monsieur, les meilleures amities de votre bien devoue; 
Agreez, Monsieur, mes salutations amicales. 

Notice tlic follo\\in<i: Je vous prie d'agreer I'expres- 
sion de ma consideration distinguee. Haute (parfaite) 


consideration is frequently used in closing a letter among 
equals, while Consideration alone is generally not used 
except to inferiors. Je vous prie de croire a I'expression 
de mes meilleurs sentiments ; Veuillez agreer, cher Mon- 
sieur, avec tous mes remerciements, I'assurance de mes 
sentiments bien devoues. 

429 In addressing ladies : Veuillez accepter, Madame, 
mes salutations respectueuses ; Veuillez accepter, Ma- 
dame, I'assurance de ma parfaite et affectueuse con- 
sideration; J'ai I'honneur d'etre, Madame, votre tres 
devoue et respectueux ami; Je vous prie, Madame, 
d'agreer I'expression de mes hommages respectueux. 
A lady addressing a lady friend might write: Toute a 
vous; Je vous embrasse tendrement (affectueusement) ; 
Votre amie affectionnee ; Votre bien sincere. 

430 The following expressions are much used in clos- 
ing a letter: Agreez mes civilites empressees. Accept my 
kind regards; Dites bien des choses de ma part a . . ., 
Please remember me to . . .; Je vous souhaite une bonne 
et heureuse annee, / wish you a Happy New Year; 
Joyeu'se Noel, Merry Christmas; Mes amities chez vous, 
My regards to your family; Mille amities. Kind regards; 
Une bonne annee, A Happy New Year; Veuillez me 
rappeler au bon souvenir de . . ., Please remember me 
to . . . 

431 Note the following: Ci-inclus, Trois cents francs. 

Value, Three hundred francs; Echantillons sans valeur. 
Patterns (Samples) of no value; E. V. ( = En ville), Local; 
Imprimes, Book-post or Printed tnatter; Papier d'affaires. 



Commercial papers; Personnelle or En mains propres, 
Private or Personal (to he hancltnl over to addressee in 
person); Poste restante, To he called for (Poste Restante); 
Urgent or Presse, Urgent or Important. 


a. c. 

annee courante 



av. J.-C. 

avant Jesus- 






c. a. d. 

c'est a dire ' 

p. p. c. 

pom- prendre conge 

C. (0°"=) 


p. r. V. 

pour rendre visite ' 



R. S. V. P 

. Ropondez,s'ilvous plait 

Cie (C«) 


S. A. R. 

Son Altesse Royale 

Qmfetre (cm.) 


s. d. 

sans date 

ct. (crt.) 

courant ' 


sous-entendu ' 



S. Exc. 

Son Excellence 


et ca?tera 

S. G. 

Sa Grandeur 

fr(3) (f.) 

franc (s) 

s. 1. n. d. 

sans lieu ni date 



S. M. 

Sa Majeste 

ib. (ibid.) 






s. s. 

Sa Saintete 



S. (S*) 








S^ (]<>) 

lo Sieur (for Monsieur) 









M*» (pi. M-"") 

maitre (a //;»•- 

S. V. p. 

s'il vous plait 

yrr's title) 

f liin. 




t. s. V. p. 

fournez s'il vous plait 

M"" (rl- M "'''') 


V (Vvo) 

veuve ' 

M""* (pi. Nr") 




m""" (m") 

maison ^ 

Y tfssc 





Exercise LXV, on proper names. For the pronunciation, con- 
sult the Passy-Hempl, Uniform International Dictionary, Lesaint's 
Traite complet de la prononciation frangaise, or Miiller's 
Worterbuch: Achab, Acheron, Achille, Azores, Adam, Agamemnon, 
Abruzze, Abyssinie, Adriatique, Agnes, Aix-Ia-Chapelle, Ajaccio, 
Alger, Algerie, Algesiras, Alpes, Alsace, Apennins (les), Aristophane, 
Aristote, Asie, Athenes, Atlantique, Australie, Autriche, Bade, Bale, 
Baptiste, Barcelone, Barthelemy, Beatrice, Beatrix, Bengale, Ben- 
jamin, Berlin, Boulogne, Bresil, Bretagne (la), Bruxelles, Buenos- 
Ayres, Caen, Cain, Caire (le), Calabre (la), Camille, Camoens, 
Campagne, Castille (la), Caucase (le), Cayenne, Cesar, Ceylan, 
Chambery, Champagne (la), Chanteclair, Charlemagne, Charles, 
Charon, Charybde, Cherboui'g, Chili (le), Chretien, Ciceron, Cleo- 
patre, Colomb, Crimee (la), Danemark (le), Dcmosthene, Denis, 
Dieppe, Diogene, Dordogne (la), Doubs(le), Douvres, Dresde, Dubhn, 
Dunkerque, Edimbourg, Egj'pte d'), Equateur, Europe, Faust, Fer- 
rare, Fiesque, Finlande (la), Franche-Comte (la), Friedland, Galaad, 
Galatee, Galilee (la), Gahlee, Gascogne (la), Gaule (la), Glascow, 
Gracques (les), Greenland (le), Guadalquivir (le), Guadeloupe (la), 
Guernesey, Guyana (la), Guyenne (la), Hambourg, Havana (la), 
Hawai, Himalaya, Hudson, Hugues, Hyacintha, Hymen, Islande 
(1'), Leipsick, Lydie, Luxembourg, Lys, Machiavel, Madrid, Maas- 
tricht, Mandchourie, Marango, Marseille, Michel-Ange, Millet, 
Miltiade, Munich, Niger, Nuremberg, Regnauld, Reims (Rhaims), 
Roch, Saint-Roch, Rubens, Ruisdael, Saint-Gaudans, Saona (la), 
ScyUa, Titian, Versailles, Vosges, Washington. 

Exercise LXVI, on words apt to be mispronounced. Abbaye, 
abdomen, accessit, accroc, agenda, albumen, aluminium, ananas, 
angelus, antipathic, aout, aquarelle, aquarium, archeologie, aristo- 
cratic, as, bas-relief. Bayard, Bayonne, bayonetta, bis, blocus, bourg, 
bourgmastre, Bruxelles, Cadix, calcium, cantaloup, caoutchouc, cap, 
carf-volant, chaos, chat-huant, chef-lieu, chiromancie, chrysantheme, 
circonspect, clef, condamner, congres, credo, cric-crac, czar, demo- 
cratic, depens, De profundis, desert, dessert, direct, doigte, dompter, 
Dumas (A.), echec, echo, equateur, equation, equestre, equinoxe, 
Equitation, equivalent, equivoque, examen, exempt, exemptar, faix, 


fils, flanc, foyer, franc, fret, fuchsia, fusil, gentilhomme, gentils- 
hommes, geolicr, geranium, gigot, Goethe, Gounod, gi-anit, grief, 
gril, guet-apens, guichet, Guizot, haine, hennir, heros, hiatus, honte, 
idem, immediat, in-douze, ineptie, inertia, in-octavo, in-quarto, in- 
stinct, Jeanne, juillet, Lafayette, laudanum, loquace, Madrid, mil- 
lion, maeurs, INIoise, monarchie, Montreal, New-York, omnibus, 
orchestre, os (pi.), pcrsil, plomb, poele, preterit, prospectus, qua- 
druple, quai, quatuor, quinine, quotidien, reflux, revolver, rez-de- 
chaussee, rhum, sculpter, Sinai, sourcil, succinct, sud, Suez, suspect, 
tournevis, vermout, vis, vis-a-vis, volubiUs, Vosges (les), Wagner, 
Weber, zinc. 

Exercise LXVII. Pronounce aloud the following words, in re- 
gard to which there may be a difference of opinion: aspect, but, fat, 
granit, hennir, jadis, legs, immediat, nenni, ours, Cadix, subit, exact, 
cresson, fils, hclas, hennissement, joug, hnccul, moems, obus, peril, 
Boulier, soit, fait. 


Arabic numerals refer to the paragraph sections; Roman numerals 
to the exercises. As regards quantity, only full length is indicated by 
two dots (:), thus: rouge [ru!3], r&L It wU be remembered (19) 
that a vowel, either nasal or oral, long in the final syllable, as in 
rouge [ru:5], demands [damaid], when occurring in the penult, is 
usually half as long, as in rougeur [ru'3oc:r], redness; demander 
[damu-de], to ask. Therefore half length is not indicated. 

Variations not noted in the text may frequently be found in the 

aboime [abone] n p. 57 xxn 
^ abord [abo:r] o 105 

aboyer [abwaje] oy p. G2 xxrv 
Abraham [abraam] am 132 
abricotier [abrikotjo] o 109 
abrupt [alirjTt] p. 248; t 299 
Abnizze [abry:z] e p. 162 Lxrv 
Absalom [:q)sal.")] ?« 236 
absent [apso] b 170, 246 
absinthe [ai).st:t] b 170 
absolument [apsolyniu] b 170 
absolution [apsolysj 5] b 170 
absolvons [aps.)lv5] b 170 
absoudre [apsu(:)dr] b 170, p. 98 


abstenir [apstoni:r] b 170 

• Prepared by the Boston University 1913 CUisr in Phonetics, under the general 
direction of Miss Man,' Camiel Fox, candidate for the desrec of A.M. and especially 
aided by the followinj? candidates for the degree of A.Ti.: Miss A. M. Gorman, 
MisHR. K. .Jolmston, Miss M. Metcaif, Miss I.. M. Pahiier, Miss E. M. Robin- 
son. These aids were jLssisU-d l)y .Miss A. E. Fisher, A.R., and by the following 
camlidates for the degree of A.B.: Miss G. H. Kennedy, Miss C. E. Macom- 
»>er. Miss .M. .1. .Mahoney, Mr. F. B. Mitchell, .Miss .M. M. Mitchell, E. H. 
.Mosher, Mr. F. H. Peterson, .Mr. B. Stinclifield, 11. T.. Stone, Mi.s8 M. B. 
Sullivan, Mi.s» J. M. Thornell, Miss M. ('. Whitaker, Miss H. A. Williams. 


a [a] 22, 24; [a] 28; elision 383, 

a [a] 28, 49 
a [a] 58, 98 
abbaye [abo(j)i] ay p. 49 xvi, 

p. 162 Lxvi 
abbe [abc] bh 42, 167, 170 
abbesse [tibcs] bb p. 68 xxvii 
abdomen [al)d.)iiun] n 241, p. 

I(i2 LXVI 

abeille [:il)r:j] '^ 91; «7fc 226 
Abencerage [abcserais] en 137 
abime [.ihiim] i 15, 95, p. 37 ix 
abject [:il)3r(kt)] t 3fK), 353 



abstinence [apstinais] b 170, p. 

98 XLviii 
abstrait [apstre] s 267 
absurde [apsyrd] b 246, p. 98 


Abyssinie [abisini] p. 162 lxv 
academie [akademi] c p. 69 


accabler [akable] a 63; cc p. 69 


accapara [akapara] a 52 
accaparer [akapare] cc p. 69 


accelerer [akselere] cc p. 69 xxix 
accent [aksa] 27; cc 176 
accent aigu [aksat egy] t 27, 354 
accent circonflexe [aksa sirko- 

fieks] 29 
accent grave [aksa graiv] 28 
accepter [aksepte] cc p. 69 xxix 
acception [aksepsjS] pp. 98 


acces [akse] cc p. 69 xxix 
accessit [aksesit] t p. 162 lx\t 
accident [aksida] cc 176, p. 69 

acclama [aklama] a 52 
accolade [akala(:)d] 419 
accord [ako:r] cc 173 
accoter [akote] cc p. 69 xxviii 
accroc [akro] c ISO, 340, p. 162 


accueil [akoe:j] ueil 226; eu 118, 

127, 327, p. 45 xiii 
accueille [akoe:j] ueille 226 
Achab [akab] b 171, p. 162 Lxv; 

ch 186 

achat [a^a] a 53 

Acheron [akero] ch p. 162 lxv 

achete [a^et] e 87, p. 36 viii 

acheter [a^te] e 70, p. 30 vi 

acheterai [a^etre] e 88, p. 36 vin 

acheve [a^eiv] e 13 

achever [a^vc] ch 40; e p. 30 vi 

Achille [a^il] ch p. 72 xxxii; iU 

232, p. 162 LXV 
acolyte [akolit] c p. 69 xxviii 
aconit [akonit] t 299 
Afores [aso:r] p. 162 lxv 
acoustique [akustik] c p. 69 

acquerir [akeriir] qu 254 
acquiers [akjerr] r 264 
acquit [aki] qu p. 101 xux 
acre [u:kr] re 260 
acteur [aktoeir] c 177 
action [aksjo] on 141; ion 162; 

c 177 
actium [aksjom] t 288 
active [akti:v] v p. 118 lv 
acumine [akymine] c p. 69 xx\aii 
Adam [ada] am 132, p. 51 xviii, 

p. 1G2 Lxv; m 236 
Adam et Eve [ada e eiv] w 373 
Adda [ada] A p. 74 xxxv 
addenda [addcda] dd 188 
addition [addisjo] dd 188 
additionnel [ad(d)isJ3nel] d 42 
adducteur [addyktceir] dd 188 
adduction [addyLsjo] dd 188 
a demain [a dme] e 394 
Aden [aden] n 241 
adequat [adekwa] ua 156 
adequate [adekwat] qu 256 



ad hoc [ad ok] d p. 74 xxxv 

adjoint [adswe] d p. 74 xxxv 

ad libitum [ad libit om] wot 145 

admirer [admire] 38 

Adonis [adoni:s] s 274 

ad rem [ad rem] dp. 74 xxxv 

Adriatique [adriatik] p. 162 lxv 

adroite [adrwat] oi 156 

aerer [aere] 30 

aerostat [aerosta] 36 

affaire [afc:r]/ p. 76 xxxvi 

affut [afy] t 295 

a franc etrier [a fruk etrije] c 

Agamemnon [agamemno] em p. 

162 Lxv 
age [(1:5] [a:3] a 29 
agenda [aseda] en 137, p. 162 

Lxvi; ge p. 80 xxxrx 
agglomeration [agbmerasjo] gg 

p. 79 xxxviii 
agglomerer [aglomore] gg 195 
agglutinative [aglytinatiiv] gg p. 

agglutiner [aglytinc] gg 195 
aggrava [agrava] a 52 
aggravation [agrava.sjj] gg p. 79 


aggraver [agravc] gg 195 

agir [a3i:r] g 201 

agneau (ajio] p. 18 11, p. 81 xl, 

p. 156 Lxiv 
Agnes [aju:s] gn p. 1()2 lxv 
Agram [agram] dm 132 
Agreez mes civilites empressees 

[agri'f iiic si\ ililcz nprrsf] 130 
Agreez, Monsieur, mes cordiales 

salutations [agree, masje, me 
kordjal saMasjo] 428 

Agreez, Monsieur, mes saluta- 
tions amicales [agree, mosjo, 
me salytasjoz amikal] 428 

ah [a:] a 63 

aha [aha] h 216 

-ai [e] [e] 82, 84, 90, 122-124, 

-ai [e] [e] 84, 90, 122 

aidez-vous les ims aux autres 
[ede \'u lez de oz otr] s 370 

-aie [e] 90, 123, 320, 321 

aieul [ajoL'l] i p. 60 xxiii 

aigle [8(:)gl] le 222 

aigre [eigr] re 260 

aigreur [egroeir] eu p. 45 xiii 

aigu [eg}-] [egy] 27, 90; gu p. 79 


aigue [egy] gue 33; e p. 156 lxiv 

aiguille [egqi(:)j] [egqi(:)j] ai 90; 

gid 198; uille 226; u p. 156 


aiguillon [egqijo] [egqijj] gui 198 
aiguiser [eg(;q)ize] [eg(ii)ize] gui 

198; u p. 156 LXIV 
ai-je [c:5] p. 36 viii; c 69 
ai-je raison [e:3 rcz5] e 385 
-aU [a:j] a 61; il 226, p. 90 


-aille [a:j]a61; i« 226 

-aim [e] 135 

aimable (cnui(:)bl] [ema(:)I)l] m 

]). 9() XLVII 

aimables amis [tinahlz ami] s 331 
aimee [niic] [cine] 6 89 
aiment [run] e 72 



aimer [erne] [erne] 10, p. 18 ii; r 

aimer a chanter [emer a Sate] r 

aimes [e:m] e 72 
aimez-la [eme la] a 388 
-ain [e] 135 

ainsi [esi] ain p. 53 xix 
-air [f:r] ai 84, 123, 321 
-aire [e:r] ai 84, 123, 321 
-ais [e] ai 84, 90, 123, 321 
-aise [e:z] ai 84, 123 
Aisne [e:n] s 272 
-aisse [e:s] ai 84, 123, 321 
-ait [e] 90 

-aix [e] 84, 123, 321 
Aix [cks] [es] x 267, 313 
Aix-la-Chapelle [es la Sapel] x 

267, 313, p. 162 lxv 
Aixjles-Bains [es le be] x 267, 

Ajaccio [asaksjo] c p. 162 lxv 
Ajax [asaks] x 310 
a jeiin [a 3oe] eun 144, p. 56 xxi; 

j p. 86 XLii 
ajonc [asa] c 340, p. 71 xxxi 
a la Momiaie [a la mane] M p. 

153 Lxiii 
albatros [albatrais] s 275 
Albert Diirer [albeir dyreir] r p. 

103 L 
albinos [albinais] s 275 
albtun [albam] u 113, p. 43 xi, 

p. 156 Lxiv; um 145; m 235 
albumen [albymen] n p. 162 


Alexandre [aleksaidr] x 310 

Alfred [alfred] d 190 
Alger [al3e] r p. 162 lxv 
Algerie [alseri] p. 162 lxv 
Algesiras [alsezirais] s p. 162 

alguazil [algwazil] ua 156; gua 

& I'Instruction publique [a 1 es- 

tryksja pyblik] / p. 153 lxiii 
allah [alia] h 209 
allee de I'Observatoire [ale d9 

1 apserv'atwair] O 410 
allegori [allcgari] II 168 
alleguer [allege] II 168 
alleluia [alelqija] [alelyja] I p. 

87 XLiii 
AUemagne [almaji] e 393; p. 156 

Lxiv; gn p. 81 xl 
allemand [alma] e 70; d p. 74 

aller [ale] II 42, 169 
allez [ale] z 318 
Allez-vous-en avec eux [alevuz 

5 avek 0] n p. 141 lx 
allier [alje] ie p. 60 xxiii 
allure [aly:r] up. 46 xv 
ahnanach [almana] a 53; c/j 185, 

p. 156 lxiv; /i 209; c 340 
aloes [aloes] s 275 
alors [alair] 105 
Alpes [alp] 6- p. 162 lxv 
Alphonse [alf5:s] -ph p. 76 xxxvi 
Alsace [alzas] s 271, 319, p. 156 

LXIV, p. 162 lxv 
aluminium [alyminjam] u 113, 

li. 162 LXVI 
alun [aide] un p. 56 xxi 




-am [a] 131; [am] am 132 
amalgama [anialgama] a 52 
amarra [amara] a 52 
amateur [amatcjcir] in p. 57 xxri 
Amazone [amazon] [amazoin] o 

ambiguite [dbigqite] gu'i 198 
ambitieux [cihisjo] t 284 
ambulance [abylu:s] am 131 
ame [n:m] 31; a p. 25 iv 
amen [amen] [onieu] n 241 ; en p. 

156 Lxiv 
amenerions [amenrj5] e 88 
amer [anie:r] r 203, p. 1.56 Lxrv 
americain [amerike] ain p. 53 


-ames [am] d 15, 51, 58 
ameublement [amocblama] e p. 

30 V 
amitie [amitje] ie 152; ti 293; m 

p. 94 XLv, p. 9G XLVii 
ammonium [anmi.>nj.)m] mm 168 
amnistie [amiiisti] am 132; m, 

amollir [am.)li:r] // 169 
amour [amu:r] ou 119, p. 45 xiv 
amoureuse [amuroiz] rn p. 96 


ample [n:\>]] am 131 
Amsterdam [airLsterdam] a 54; 

am 132; rn 235 
amuse [aiiiy:z] u 121 
amuser [amyzt!] .s 319 
an [u] n p. % xlvii 
-an [fi] 131, 161; [an] 146 
anabaptiste [anabatiat] a p. 152 


anachorete [anakoret] ch p. 73 


ananas [anana] [anana] p. 18 ii; 

71 p. 57 XXII ; s p. 162 lx\t 
anatomic [anatami] n p. 96 xlvii 
ancien [asje] an 45, 131; ien 162; 

en p. 53 xix 
ancienne prison d'Etat [asjen 

prizo deta] E p. 153 LXiii 
ancien tribunal de Paris [asje 

tribj-nal da pari] P p. 153 


ane [a:n] n 4, 239, p. 96 xlvii; e 

aneantie [ancati] tie 292 
a neuf heiu-es precises [a noev 

a':r prosi:z]/p. 141 lix 
angelus [u5ely:s] s 275; e, s p. 162 


anglais [figlr] ai p. 49 x\i 

angle [u:gl] ,7 195 

Angleterre [ugloteir] e 71, 393, p. 

30 V, p. 156 LXIV 
anguille [dgi(:)j] gu 195, p. 79 

xxxviii; ill 226, p. 156 lxiv 
anil [anil] il 229; I 344 
animal [animal] n 239; p. 18 

anjou [("1511] j p. 86 xlii 
Anna [ana] a 54; n p. 57 xxii 
annates [a(n)nal] nn 168, 239; n 

p. 57 xxii 
annaliste [annalLst] nn 168 
anneau [ano] nn 169, 239 
annee [ane] nn 146, 169 
annee courante [ane kuru:t] p. 

161 XIV 



Annibal [anibal] nn p. 96 xlvi 
annonce [an5:s] on 141 
annoter [anote] n p. 57 xxii 
annuaire [anijeir] ua p. 64 xxv 
annuel [anqel] n p. 57 xxii; ue 

p. 64 xxv 
anse [a:s] an p. 56 xxi B; s p. 

108 LI 
antechrist [atekri] [atekrist] s 

antienne [utjen] ti 294 
Antiochus [atjoky:s] ch 186 
antipathic [atipati] th p. 117 lii; 

h p. 162 Lxvi 
antiquaille [citikaij] qu 254 
antiseptique [atiseptik] s 269 
antisocial [utisosjal] s 269 
Anvers [dve:r] r 264 
aout [u] [ut] [au] [aut] a 57; oil p. 

45 xiv; a, t p. Ill liv; p. 156 

LXIV, p. 162 LXVI 

apaiser [apeze] s 319 

a part elle et vous [a pair el e vii] 

apathie [apati] th p. 117 lii 
Apennins (les) [apene] en p. 162 


aperfu [apersy] f p. 69 xxix 
aplatie [aplati] t 281 
aplomb [apl5] b 339 
apoplexie [apopleksi] p p. 98 


apostrophe [apostrof] 31 
appartement [apartomu] e 393 
appeler [aple] e 46, 70, p. 30 vi 
appendice [aptidis] [apedis] en 
137, p. 156 LXIV 

appetit [apeti] pp 245; t p. 117 


apprete [apreit] e 85 

appreter [aprete] e 86 

appuyer [apqije] uy 159, p. 64 

aprete [aprate] e 71 
apte [apt] p p. 98 xlviii; t p. 117 


aquarelle [akwarel] ua 156, p. 62 
xxiv; qu 256; up. 162 lxvi 
aquarelliste [akwarelist] qu p. 

101 XLES 

aquarium [akwarjora] u 113, p. 

162 lxvi; ua 156; qu 256 
aqxmtinta [akwat£ta] qu p. 101 


aquatique [akwatik] ua 156, p. 62 

xxiv; qu 256 
aqueduc [akadyk] e 71; c 178, 

340, 341 
a quia [a kqia] qu p. 101 xlix 
aquilin [akile] qu 254 
aquilon [akilo] qu 254 
Aranjuez [aragqes] z p. 122 lviii 
arbre [arbr(9)] e 69; re 260 
arc [ark] c 178, 340, 341 
arc-boutant [arbuta] c p. 71 xxxi 
arc-en-ciel [ark asjel] 34; c 333 
archaique [arkaik] ch p. 73 xxxiii 
Archambauld [arSfibo] d p. 74 


archange [arkais] ch p. 156 lxiv 
archeologie [arkeobsi] ch p. 162 


archeologue [arkeolo(:)g]c/i"p. 73 




archeveche [arSaveSe] ch 184 
archeveque [ar^aveik] ch 184 
archi- [ary] ch 1S3 
archidiacre [ar^idjakr] ch 183 
archiduc [ar^lidyk] ch 183 
archiduche [ar^idySe] ch p. 72 


archiduchesse [arJidySes] ch p. 72 


archiepiscopal [arkiepiskopal] ch 

archiepiscopat [arkiepiskopa] ch 

archifolle [ar^ifol] ch p. 72 xxxii 
archifou [ar^ifu] ch 183 
archipel [ar^iprl] ch 183 
archipretre [ar^iprcitr] ch 183 
architecte [ar^tckt] ch 183 
architecture [arSitektyir] c/i p. 72 


architrave [ar^itraiv] ch p. 72 


archives [ar^iiv] ch p. 72 xxxii 
archiviste [arSivist] ch p. 72 


archonte [ark5:t] ch p. 73 xxxiii 
arcs-en-ciel [ark u sjel] s 367, p. 

141 LX 

-ard [a:r] 356, 364, 380 
ardetnment [ardamu] e 55; em 

arguames [argqam] ud 160 
arguer |arKM<'] yn 197 
argutie [arKysi] I 2S1 
aride [.iriil] r 25!) 
aristocratie (aristakrasi] < 281, p. 

102 Lxvi 

Aristophane [aristofan] p. 162 


Aristote [aristot] o p. 162 lxv 
arithmetique [aritmetik] h 209 
Amaud [arno] d p. 74 xxxiv 
Amauld [arno] I 223 
Arnold [arnold] d p. 74 xxxv 
arome [aro:m] o 111 
arquebuse [arkaby:z] e 71 
arrangeons [arasS] ge p. 80 

Arras [ara:s] s 274 
arriere [arje:r] rr 169; r p. 103 l 
arrive [ari:v] i 12 
arrive [arive] rr 169 
arriver [arive] rr 167 
arrondir [arodiir] n p. 96 XLVii 
arroser [aroze] rr 169 
arsenic [ars(9)ni(k)] k 181 
art [a:r] t p. 117 liv 
-art [a:r] t 356, 380 
artichaut [arti^o] au p. 49 xvi 
as ((i:s] a 60; s 275, p. 162 lxvi 
asbeste [azht-st] s 271 
Asdrubal [azdrj-bal] s 271 
-ase [(i:z] a 60 
Asie [azi] s 319, p. 156 lxiv, p. 

162 lxv 
-asion [azj5] a 60 
Asnieres [anjr:r] s 272 
aspect [a.spe(k)] e 92; eel 353, p. 

156 lxiv; c p. 71 xxxi; t 300, 

p. 163 Lxvii 
aspect admirable [anpck adiiii- 

rahl] \nspv adinirahl] eel 353 
assassinat [asasina] .s p. 108 n 
-asse [a:s] a (50 



assemblant [asabla] em, an p. 51 


asseyez [aseje] ey 90, 125, 159, 

p. 49 XVI 
asseyez-vous [aseje vu] ey 323, 

p. 36 VIII 
assez [ase] s 42; e 80; z 318; ss 

267, 329; e p. 32 vii 
assez aimable [asez emabl] z 

assieds [asje] e p. 32 vii 
-assion [asjo] a 60 
assomption [asopsjo] p 248 
aster [aste:r] r 263 
asterisque [asterisk] 419 
asthme [asm] [azm] t 301 
-at [a] d 51, 58; < 356, 380 
ataqua [ataka] a 52 
atelier [atslje] e 71, p. 30 v 
-ates [at] a 15, 51, 58 
athee [ate] th p. 156 Lxrv 
Athenes [atein] h p. 162 lxv 
athenien [atenje] th 40 
-atie [asi] / 281 
-ation [asjo] a 60 
Atlantique [atlatik] p. 162 lxv 
atlas [atla(:)s] a 60, p. 156 lxiv; 

atmosphere [atmosfe:r] 44 
atome [atom] [atonn] o 111, p. 

156 Lxiv 
atone [aton] [atom] o 111 
A-t-on-ete aimable [a t 5 ete 

ema(:)bl] n p. 141 lx 
a tort et i travers [a to:r e a tra- 

ve:r] t 356 
attaque [atak] p. 18 ii 

Attendez xxn instant [atadez den 

esta] z, n p. 141 lix 
-au [o] 97, 102, 112, 126, 320, 

324; before r etc. [o] 104, 112, 

126, 320, 325 
aube [o:b] au 102 
Auber [obe:r] r 263, p. 104 L 
au bout [o bu] ou p. 46 xiv 
Auch [oS] Au 112 
auctm [okde] un 144 
aucim ouvrage [okojn uvra!5] n 

au-dessus [o dsy] e 394 
audience [odju:s] icn p. 65 xxvi 
au doigt et a I'oeil [o dwat e a 

1 oe:j] t 354 
auguste [ogyst] [ogyst] au 112 
aujourd'hui [osurd \\\\ 387 
-auld [o] I 223 
-ault [o] I 223 
-aulx [o] I 223 
au moins [o mwe] oin p. 65 


aimione [omon] [omom] o 111 
aurai [ore] [ore] au 112, 126, p. 

43 XI ; au, ai p. 49 xat 
aurais [ore] [ore] au 112, 126, p. 

43 XI ; au, ai p. 49 xvi 
aureole [oreol] [oreol] au 112; au, 

o p. 43 XI 
aiu-ont [oro] [oro] r 259 
aurore [oro:r] an p. 49 xvi 
Australie [ostrali] au p. 162 lxv 
aussi [osi] au 102, 126, 324 
Austerlitz [osterlits] z 319 
autel [otel] au 102, p. 39 x 
auto- [oto] au 109, 112 



autocratie [otokrasi] au, t p. 156 


autographe [otograf] au p. 156 


automate [atomat] au p. 156 


automnal [otjnal] [jtonal] om 

143; in 234 
automne [oton] [otjn] om 143; 

vi 237; au, m p. 156 lxiv 
automobile [atomabil] [otomobil] 

o 109; au 112; o p. 43 xi 
autorite [otorite] [otorite] au 112 
autrefois [otrofwa] e 71, 393, p. 

30 V 
autrement [otroma] e 71 
Autriche [otriS] au p. 162 lxv 
Autim [otre] wn p. 56 xxi B 
aux [o] 102; x 315 
aux armes [oz arm] x 372 
Auxerre [ase:r] [] Au 112; 

X 2G7, 313, p. 156 lxiv 
auxerrois [oscnva] x 267 
aux habits [oz abi] h 208 
aux haricots [o ariko] h 210 
aux heros [o cro] /t 210 
aux heures [oz u.':r] h 208 
aux hommes [oz am] /i 208 
Auxois [oswa] x 267, 313 
Auxomie [osjn] [json] x 267, 313 
aux soins de [o swe do] 423 
avant Jesus-Christ [ava 3czy kri] 

p. 161 XIV 
avec [avck] c 91, j). 36 viii; c 165, 

p. 70 XXX 
avec le chien [avtk b SJ^l « 


Avenue de 1' Opera [avny da 

1 opera] 410 
Avenue des Champs-Elysees 

[avny de 5&zelize] C, E 410 
avertie [averti] t 281 
aveugle [ava?gl] eu 127, 327, p. 

45 XIII, p. 49 XVI 
avez-vous [ave vu] 34 
avions [avj5] ion p. 65 xxvi 
avoir [avwa:r] 78, 112, 116, 126 
a votre aise [a votr e:z] e 73 
A vous de tout coeur [a vu da tu 

k(t:r] 427 
avril [avril] [avriij] [avri] il 228; I 

p. 156 LXIV 
-ay [e] [e] 84, 90, 122-124; 225; 

ayant [t:ja] [eja] ay p. 156 lxiv 
ayez [(>je] [eje] ay 124, 322, p. 

156 lxiv 
ayons [ej5] [cj5] ay 124, 322 
-azon [az5] o 60 
azur [azy:r] u p. 46 XV 
azure [azyre] z 316 


b [be] [ba] 22, 24; final [b] 165, 
171, 338, 339, 342; [p] 170, 
246; silent 172 

baba [baba] a p. 21 in; h p. 68 


babel [babel] h p. 68 xxvii 
babiche [babiSJ h p. 68 xxvii 
babil [habil] [babi:j] [babi] il 228 
babiller [baljijc] h p. 68 xxvii 
babine [babiu] b p. 68 xxvii 



babouin [babwe] ouin 162 
Babylone [babibn] o 111 
bac [bak] a 54; c 178, 340, 341 
Bacchus [bakky:s] ch p. 73 xxxiii 
Bade [bad] a p. 162 lxv 
bafouer [bafwe] oue 156, p. 62 


Bagdad [bagdad] d p. 74 xxxv 

bagne [baji] gn 207 

baie [he] aie 90 

baignoire [bejiwair] gn p. 81 xl 

baU [ba:j] ail 226; il 329 

bailie [bciij] a 64 

bain [be] ain p. 56 xxi B 

baionette , [bajonet] io p. 60 

XXIII ; p. 156 LXiv 
bal [bal] I 165 
balai [bale] at 90 
balbutiement [balbysima] ti 293 
balbutier [balbysje] ti 293; h p. 

68 XXVII ; t \). 117 liii, p. 156 


Bale [bail] a p. 162 lxv 
baleine [bale(:)n] ei 90, 125, 323 
ballast [balast] t 297 
balsamine [balzamin] s 271 
balsamique [balzamik] s 271 
bambou [babu] h p. 68 xxvii 
ban [ba] an p. 56 xxi B 
banane [banan] n p. 96 xlvii 
banc [ba] an 131; c 340 
banc a dos [ba a do] c 340 
bande [bu:d] an p. 56 xxi B 
banlieu [baljo] eu p. 49 xvi 
banquet [bake] t 295 
bapteme [bate:m] p 247, p. 156 


baptiser [batize] p 247, p. 156 


Baptiste [batist] -p 247, p. 162 

LXV ■f 

baptistere [batisteir] p 247 
baquets [bake] e 92 
baragouin [baragwe] ouin 162 
barbare [barbair] h p. 68 xxvii; 

r p. 104 L 
barbe [barb(a)] a p. 21 iii; e 69 
barbier [barbje] b p. 68 xxvii 
barbouiller [barbuje] ill p. 90 


Barcelone [barsalon] o p. 162 


barU [bari] il 230; I 344, p. 156 


Bar-le-Duc [ba:rbdyk] B, D 

barriere de I'Etoile [barjsir da 

1 etwal] E 410 
Barthelemy [bartelmi] e p. 162 


Baruch [baryk] ch p. 73 xxxiii 
bas [ba] a 59; s 273 
base [bu:z] a 60; s p. 109 li 
bas-relief [ba raljef] / p. 162 


basse [ba:s] a 60 

bastion [bast j 5] ti 290 

bat [ba] a 58 

bataille [bata(:)j] [bata(:)j] e 46, 

a 61, p. 25 iv; aille 155, 226; 

ill p. 90 XLiv; p. 156 lxiv 
bataillon [batajS] ill 155 
batelier [batalje] e 71 
battu [baty] tt 42 



bavarda [bavarda] a 52 

Bayard [bajair] a p. 162 Lxvi; d 

p. 74 XXXIV 
Bayeux [bajo] y 154 
bayonette [bajonet] a p. 162 


Bayonne [bajon] a p. 162 lxvi; 

y 154 
bazar [baza:r] z 316 
bb [!)] 42, 16S, 170 
Beatrice [beatri.s] p. 162 Lxv 
Beatrix [beatris] x 267, 313, p. 

162 LXV 
beau [bo] au 102, 126, 324 
beaucoup [boku] p 249 
beaucoup aime [bokup erne] p 

336, p. 141 Lix 
beaucoup de monde [boku d 

ni5:d] e 73 
beaucoup etudie [bokup etydje] 

■p 345 
beau-frere [])o frr:r] 34 
Beaumarchais [ijomar^e] au, ai 

p. 49 XVI 
bebe [bebe] b p. 68 xxvai 
bee [btk] e91;c 178, 340, 341 
bees Auer [bek oe:r] s 367, p. 141 


bedeau [bado] e p. 30 v 
bedouin [borlwC] ouin p. 65 xxvi 
Beethoven [bctovcn] en 133, 241 
begayer Ibf-Kcjc] ay p. 49 xvi 
beguin [bcKt] gu 195 
bel [bt:l] e 91; I 221 
bele (bi::ll 6 85 
beler (bdcl ^ 86 
Belfort |b(;f.j:rl I 223 

bel homme [bel om] I 344 

belle [l)d] c 46, 91 

Belt [belt] t 299 

Bengale [begal] en 137, p. 156 

LXIV, p. 162 LXV 

bengali [begali] en 137 
Benjamin [besame] en 137, p. 

162 LXV 
benzine [bezin] en 137, p. 156 


Beotien [beosje] [beasje] t 286 
bequille [beki:j] ill 226 
bequilles [beki(:)j] ill p. 90 xliv 
Beranger [berase] r 262 
berceuse [bersoiz] eu p. 44 xii 
-berg [be:r] in proper names 
♦. 205 

berger [brrso] e91; r 262 
bergers [l^-r^o] r 262 
Berlin [hrrlt] p. 162 lxv 
Berlioz [hcrljoiz] z 319 
Bernard [bcrna:r] r p. 104 l 
Berthauld [bcrto] d p. 74 xxxiv 
beryl [beril] il 229 
besoin [bozwe] oin 162, p. 65 


bestiaire [bestjrn-] ini p. 60 xxiii 
bestial [l)rstja,I] l 290 
betail [l)ofa:j] a 61, il p. 90 xliv 
bete [bfit] e 85 
Bethleem [betleem] m 235 
beurre [b(t:r] eu 118 
bey [be] /; p. 152 lxiii 
Biarritz [bjarits] z 319 
bibelot [biblo] h p. 68 xxvii 
bibliotheque de Paris [bil>li.)- 
tc(!jk d.> pari] P p. 153 lxiii 



biceps [biscps] s p. 108 li 

bien [bje] en p. 53 xix; ie 4, p. 

60 xxin; ien 162 
bien aimable [bjcn f mabl] n 375 
Bien a vous [bjcn a vu] 427 
bien ennuyeux [l^jen anqo] n p. 

141 LIX 
bien heureux [bjen cero] n 375 
biere [bjpir] h p. 68 xxvii 
biere de Munich [bjeir da mynik] 

biffer [bife]/p. 76 xxxvi 
bifteck [biftek] k 218 
bijou [biju] oil p. 45 xrv 
billet [bi(:)je] ill p. 90 xliv; t p. 

117 LIV 
billevesee [bilvoze] ill p. 156 Lxrv 
biUion [bi(l)j5] ill 232 
binde [bt:d] in p. 56 xxi B 
bis [biis] s 275, p. 162 lxvi 
bise [bi:z] s p. 109 li 
bismuth [bismyt] Ih 299 
bisulfate [bizylfat] s 269 
bivouac [bivwak] oua 156; c p. 

70 XXX 
blame [bkism] d 58, p. 25 iv 
blanc [bla] c 179; an p. 51 xviii 
blanche [blai^i] an p. 51 xviii 
blason [blazo] n 60 
bleme [ble:m] e 15 
bleu [bio] eu 114 
bleuatre [bloaitr] eu 114 
bleuet [bloe] eu 114 
bloc [blok] c 178, 340, 341; o 105, 

p. 43 xi; c p. 156 lxiv 
bloc enorme [bbk enorm] c p. 

141 LDC 

blocus [bloky:s] s 275, p. 162 


blond [bl5] on 4 

blonde [bl5:d] on 141 

blouse [blii:z] on p. 45 xiv; s p. 

109 LI 
bobine [bobin] 6 p. 68 xxvii 
bobo [bobo] b p. 68 xxvii 
boeuf [boef] « 118, 127, 327; / 

192, p. 156 LXIV 
boeuf a la mode [boef a la mod] / 

p. 76 XXXVI 
boeufs [b0] eu 114;/ 193, p. 156 


boire [Ijwair] oi 56 

bois [bwa] oi 62, 156, p. 62 xxiv 

boise [bwcize] oi 64 

boit [bwa] oi 56 

boite [bwait] [bwa:t] oi 156, p. 21 

bol [bol] I p. 87 XLiii 
bombe [bSib] h p. 68 xxvii 
bon [bo] on p. 56 xxi B; n p. 96 


bon ami [ban ami] n 375 

bon a rien [bon a rje] [bon a rje] 

47; n 337 
bonde [bo:d] on p. 56 xxi B 
bon enfant [bon afa] n 375 
bonheur [bonceir] o 109; eu p. 45 


bonne [lion] o 107, p. 43 xi; nn 

146, p. 96 XLVII 
bonnement [bonma] e 70 
bon sens [bo sa:s] s p. 157 lxiv 
bonte [bSte] 10; on p. 55 xx 
borax [boraks] z 310 



bord [bo:r] d 189; r 1G6; o p. 43 


bord a bord \\y.y.v a bo:r] d 3S0 
Bordeaux est une belle ville 
[bordoet yn bel vil] x p. 141 lx 
Bossuet [bosqe] ue 159, p. 156 


bouc [buk] ou 119; c 178, 340, 

bouche [bii^] on 119 
boucher [bu^o] r 262 
boucle [bukf] Ic 222 
bouddhisme [budisni] [budizm] 

h p. 152 Lxiii 
boueux [bwo] oueu 156 
bougie [buji] g 201 
boulevard Montpamasse [bul- 

va:r m.lijariias] M 410 
Boulogne [biil.jji] gn p. 162 lxv 
bourg [hu:r] [l)ur:k] g 205, 365, 

p. 162 Lxvi 
-bourg [bu:r] in proper names 

Bourges, le 11 mai 1909 [burs, 1^ 

5:z mc diz noef so nri'f] 425 
bourgmestre [Ijiirfttnistr] g j). 

162 I A- VI 
bout |l)u] h 4, 170; ou 128, 328 
bout a bout [but a bu] 47; / 354 
bouteille [bulj:j] ill [). 90 xuv 
bouvreuil [l)uvrii:j] il p. 90 

brancard |bruku:r] r j). 101 l 
bras [bra] n 59; « 273 
bravo [bravo] o 99, p. 39 x 
brebis [bntl^i] h p. 6S xxvii 
bredouiller [brodujc] /// p. 90 x i,i v 

bref [l)ref] / 191 

Bresil [l)rpzil] I p. 162 lxv 

Brest [brcst] t 297 

Bretagne (la) [brotap] gn p. 162 


brief [l)ricf]/192 
briguer [iirigc] gu 195 
broc [l)ro] c ISO, p. 156 lxiv 
brocard [brokair] r p. 104 l 
brodeuse [brodo:z] eu p. 44 xii 
Broglie [brjjo] g 204 
brosse [liros] o 107, p. 43 xi 
brouillard [brujair] ill p. 90 xliv 
brouter [brute] ou p. 49 xvi 
bruine [brqin] ui p. 64 xxv 
bruire [bnpir] ui p. 64 xxv 
brun [brd'] un 144, p. 56 xxi; n 

p. 96 XLVii 
brune [bryn] n p. 96 xLvn 
Brunswick [brSsvik] iin 142; w 

brusquerie [bryskori] c 393 
brut [bryt] t 298, p. 117 lii 
Bnixelles [brysel] x 267, 313, p. 

121 Lvii, p. 156 LXiv, p. 162 


Bruxelles, ce 13 fevrier 1908 

[brysfl, so trc:z fovrie diz nouf 

so qit] 425 
bruxellois [l)iysrl\va] x 267 
bubon (l)ybr)] b p. 68 xxvii 
Buenos-Ayres [bqenjz t:r] p. 162 


buis [l)qi] u 158; ui 160, p. 64 

bulletin [l)ylte] e 70, 393, p. 30 




Bulletin des lois [bylte de Iwo] B 

Buioz [byb:z] z 319 
bun [bob] wn p. 56 xxi B 
bunde [boeid] un p. 56 xxi B 
but tby(t)] t 298, 300; u 121; t p. 

163 Lxvii 

c [se] [so1[ka]22, 24; 91; 110; 127; 
300; [k] [s] 165, 173-175, 177, 
178, 181, 219, 255, 267, 311, 
340; 341; [g] 174; sUent 164, 
175 Remark, 179-181 • 

S [s] 176, 267 

ga. [sa] d 28, 50 

cab [kab] b 171 

cable [ka:bl] d p. 25 rv 

cacao [kakao] c p. 69 xxvm 

cache [ka^] ch 182 

cachot [ka^o] o 99 

cadavre [kadavr] [kadavr] a 64 

cadeau [kado] an 126, p. 49 xvi; 
eau 324 

Cadix [kadis] [kadiks] x 267, 313, 
p. 162 Lxvi, p. 163 LXVII 

cadre [kaidr] a 63 

caduc [kadyk] c 255 

caduque [kadyk] qu 255 

Caen [ka] a 57; e p. 162 lxv 

cage [ka:3] a 49 

cahier [kaje] e 80; h 209 

cahiers [kaje] e 80, p. 32 vii 

caille [ka(:)j] ill p. 90 xliv 

Cain [kae] p. 162 lxv 

Caire (le) [ke:r] ai p. 162 lxv 

Calabre (la) [kalabr] p. 162 lxv 
calamite [kalamite] 7n p. 96 

calcium [kalsjom] u p. 162 lxvi 
calcul [kalkyl] I 221; u p. 46 


Caleb [kaleb] b 171 

calef on [kalsS] 46 

calembour [kalabuir] m p. 96 

calfeutre [kalfoitr] eu p. 44 xii 
calice [kalis] c p. 69 xxviii 
calif e [kalif] c p. 152 lxiii 
caUner [kaline] n p. 96 xlvi 
calme [kalm] a 54 
calomnie [kalomni] om 143; to 

234, p. 94 XLV 
calvitie [kalvisi] t 281, p. 156 


camarade [kamara(i)d] e 69 
camaraderie [kamaradri] p. 18 ii 
CamiUe [kamiij] ill p. 162 lxv 
Camoens [kamoeis] s p. 162 


camp [ka] am p. 51 xviii, p. 56 

campagne [kapap] gn 207, p. 162 


campe [ka:p] a7n p. 56 xxi B 
campement [kapma] am 131 
Canada [kanada] p. 18 ii 
canaille [kana(:)j] ill p. 60 xxiii 
canal [kanal] p. 18 ii 
cancan [kaka] an p. 51 xvm 
cancer [kase:r] r 263 
canif [kanif] / 192 
canne [kan] a 54; n p. 57 xxii 



cantaloup [katalu] p 249, p. 162 


cantique [katik] c p. 69 xxviii 
caoutchouc [kaut^u] c ISO, 340; 

t, c p. 162 LXVI 
cap [kap] a 54; p, 245, 250 p. 162 


Capetien [kaposje] t 286 
capitaine [kapiten] ai p. 156 


capital [kapital] p. 18 ii, p. 161 

captieux [kapsjo] I 284; p p. 98 


car [ka(:)r] c 4, 173; a 54; r 165 
carat [kara] < p. 117 liv 
carbone [karbon] [karboin] o 111 
careme [kare:m] e 85, p. 36 viii 
caricatiu-e [karikaty:r] c p. 69 


Carlsbad [karlsbad] d p. 74 xxxv 
carme [karm] c.p. 152 lxiii 
camaval [kamaval] n p. 96 xlvi 
carre [kure] rr 169 
carrefour de I'Abattoir [kunu:r 

do 1 abat\va:r] A 410 
carte [kart] r p. 104 l 
cas [ko] a 59; s 273 
case (k(i:z] a 60 
cassation [k:usQsj5] s p. 108 li 
casse [ku:.s] a 60 
casser [kase] ss 167, 267 
cassis [ka.sis] s 275 
Castille (la) [kasti:j] ill p. 162 

cataracte [katarakt] p. 18 ii 
cathedrale [katcdral] h 209 

catholicisme [katalisism] [kato- 

li.sizm] c 399 
catholique [katalik] c 399 
Caucase (le) [koka:z] c p. 69 

xxviii; a p. 162 lxv 
cauchemar [ko^mair] [koSmair] 

au, e p. 156 lxiv 
causerie [kozri] e 70, 393, p. 30 


caustique [kostik] c p. 69 xxviii 

caution [kosjo] au 102 

cave [ka:v] a 13 

Cayenne [kajen] ay p. 162 lxv 

fa y est [sa ] e] y 153 

CO [k] 173, 176, 219; [ks] 176 

ce [so] e 66; c 267; 383, 385, 425 

ce bien est a mon frere [so bje et 

a m3 fre:r] n 377 
ceci [sosi] c 267, p. 69 xxix 
cecite [sesite] c 175 
cede [se(:)d] e 87 
cederai [scdre] e 88 
cedille [swliij] 32 
ceintirre [sety:r] ein 135 
cela [s(o)Ui] c p. 69 xxix 
cela m'est egal [sola m et egal] t 

cele [scl] e 87 
celebre [sok;brc] e 79 
celerai [scire] e 88 
celle [scl] c 91 
cellule [sclyl] I p. 87 xliii 
ce musee s'appelle le Musee [so 

myzo s apcl lo myzc] M p. 153 


cens [su:s] s 275 

cent [sa] c 267; p. 69 xxix 



centaure [sato:r] au 112 
centieme [satjem] ti 293, p. 117 


centiemement [satjrmma] ti 293 
centime [scitim] p. 161 XIV 
centimetre [satim8(:)tr] p. 161 

cent neuf hiboux [sa noev ibu] / 

p. 76 XXXVII 
cent onze [su 5:z] t 355 
centre [saitr] re 260; en p. 51 


cent un [sa ce] t 301, 355, 371, p. 

156 Lxiv 
cep [sep] p 250 
ce palais de justice s'appelle le 

Palais de justice [sa pale da 

3ystis s apel la pale da 3ystis] 

P p. 153 Lxiii 
cercler [serkle] 38 
cercueil [serkoeij] il p. 90 xliv 
cerf [seir] / 193 
cerfs [se-.r] / 193 
cerf-volant [servolu]/193, p. 162 


cerise [sariiz] s 268 

cerisier [sarizje] ie p. 60 xxiii 

certain [serte] c p. 69 xxix 

ces [se] [se] e 93 

Cesar [sesa:r] r p. 162 lxv 

cession [sesjS] c 175 

c'est [s e] 384 

c'est a dire [s et a di:r] p. 161 

c'est aujourd'hui lundi le dix 

aout [s et osurdqi fcedi la dis u] 

I, a 398 

c'est bon a manger [s e b5 a 

mase] n 378 
c'est le huit [s e la qit] e p. 141 


c'est le six [s e la sis] x p. 122 


c'est im enfant tres eveille [s et 
cen ofa tres evcje] t, n, s p. 141 


c'est un franc etourdi [s et ob frak 
eturdi] t, c p. 141 lix 

ce temple des protestants s'ap- 
pelle le Temple des protes- 
tants [sa ta:pl de protest a s apel 
la ta:pl de protesta] T p. 153 


cet hotel de viUe s'appelle I'Ho- 
tel de ville [s et otel da vU 
s apel 1 otel da vil] H p. 153 


cette fenetre [set faneitr] e 394 
cette petite [set patit] e 394 
cette phrase est facile a lire et k 

comprendre [set fra:z e fasil a 

li:r e a kopruidr] c 395 
cette prison militaire s'appelle 

la Prison militaire [set prizo 

militeir s apel la prizo milite:r] 

P p. 153 LXIII 
ceux [s0] eu 114, p. 44 xii; x 315 
Ce vendredi matin [sa vadradi 

mate] 425 
Ceylan [selu] y p. 162 lxv 
ch [k] 185, 186, 219; [S] 182-184, 

329; silent 185 
chacun [^akde] un 144, p. 56 




chaine [Se:n] at p. 36 vju, p. 49 


chair [Sc:r] ai 84, 123, 321 
chaise [Se:z] ai, 84, 123, 321; s p. 

109 LI 
Chaldee [kaldo] ch p. 73 xxxiii 
Chalons [Stilo] on p. 55 xx 
Cham [kam] ch p. 73 xxxin 
Chambery [Sdbcri] p. 162 lxv 
chambre [^aibr] am 131; ch 182 
chamelier [^amaljcO e 71 
champ [^u] am p. 51 xviii; ch p. 

72 xxxii 
champagne [Stipaji] ayn 131; gn 

207, p. 162 LXV 
champs [^a] ps 164 
Chanaan [kanaa] ch p. 73 xxxiii 
chancelier [ylsolje] e 71, p. 30 v 
changeant ['^fi^a] an p. 51 xviii 
changement [^asmu] ge p. SO 


chanson [Susj] on 141 
chant ["^u] ch p. 72 xxxii 
chantais (Sute] ai 84, 123 
chantait [Sate] ait p. 36 viii 
Chanteclair [^fitklcir] e p. 162 


chanter {^<iio] an p. 51 xviii 
chantier IS'-itj'-] ti 293 
chaos [kao] ch 186; s p. 162 lxvi 
chaotique lka.)tik] ch p. 73 xxxiii 
chapelier ISapIjc] 46; c 71, p. 30 v 
chaperon ISapr.")) 46 
chargee ISar.vl 423 
chargera l^ar^.tra] c p. 30 v 
Charlemagne [^arlomap] « 71, p. 
30 v, ]). 162 LXv; gn p. 81 xl 

Charles [^arl] s p. 162 lxv 
Charles-Quint [^arlo ke] e 71; qu 

Charon [kar5] ch, a p. 162 lxv 
charpentier [^arpatje] ti 293 
chars a bancs [^ar a ba] s 367 
Chartres [^artr] r p. 104 l 
chartreux [^artro] c p. 152 lxiii 
Charybde [karibd] ch p. 73 

xxxiii, p. 162 LXV 

Chasles [^a-A] s 272 

chasse [Sas] a 65; ch 182, 329, p. 

chastete [^astate] e 71 
chat [Sa] ch 4, 182; a p. 21 iii 
chat-huant [^a qa] t p. 162 lxvi 
chatier [Satjc] r281; ti 293 
chaud [So] d 189 
chaussee des Minimes [^ose de 

minim] .1/ 410 
chef [Sef] e 91;/ 165, 192, p. 156 

chef-d'oeuvre [^e d oe:vr] / 193, p. 

156 Lxiv 
chef-lieu \^d Ijo] / p. 76 xxxvi, 

p. 162 LXVI 
chemin [S(o)me] 10 
chene [Sc:n] c p. 36 viii 
chenil IS^'ni] I 344 
chenille [S;>ni:j] ill p. 90 XLiv 
Cheops [k('.)p.s] ch p. 73 xxxiil 
Cher [Sc:r] e 91; r 263, p. 156 


Cherbourg [Srrbiiir] g 205, p. 162 


chere [Sr:rl 426 

Cher Georges [5c:r 3.)r5] 426 



Cher Monsieur [^c:r mosjo] 426 
Cher Monsieur Belisle [^eir 

mosj0 beli(:)l] 426 
cherubin [^erybe] ch 184 
chetive [Seti:v] i 94 
cheval [Saval] a 54; Z 221 
chevalier [S(a)valje] ch p. 72 


cheval ombrageux [Saval obraso] 

I p. 141 LIX 

chevaux [^avo] [S(3)vo] x 315; au 

p. 39 X 
cheville [Savi:j] ill p. 90 xliv 
chevre [^eivr] e 87 
Chez [Se] e 80, p. 32 vii; 423 
chez eux [^ez 0] z 335, 358 
chien [^je] en p. 53 xix; ie p. 60 

xxiii; ch p. 72 xxxii 
chiens [$J8] en 135 
Chili (le) [Sill] c/i p. 72 xxxii; p. 

162 Lxv 
chimere [^imeir] ch p. 72 xxxii 
chimie [Simi] ch 184 
Chine [Si(:)n] ch 182 
chirologie [kirobsi] cA p. 73 


chiromancie [kiromasi] ch p. 73 

XXXIII, p. 162 Lxvi 
chirurgie [^iryrsi] c/i p. 72 xxxii 
chirurgien [Siryr3Je] ch 184 
choc [Sok] c 178, 340, 341 
choeur [kceir] ch 186; eu p. 45 xiii 

ceu p. 49 XVI 
Choisy-le-Roy [^wazi la rwa] C, 

72 410 
cholera [kolera] ch p. 73 xxxiii 
chome [Soim] 6 97 

chomer [Some] 6 98 

choquer [Soko] ch p. 72 xxxii 

chorus [kory:.s] s 275 

chose [So:z] o 101, p. 39 x; ch 

chou [Su] 07/ p. 45 xiv 
chouan [^wa] ouan p. 65 xxvi 
chouette [Swet] oue 156 
choux [^u] X 315 
chrestomathie [krestDmati] <, th 

p. 117 LII 

Chretien [kretje] ch 185; fo" 294; t 

p. 117 Lii; en p. 162 lxv 
chretienne [kretjen] ti 294 
chretiente [kretjete] ien p. 65 

Christ [krist] ch 185; t 297, 301; 

st p. 156 Lxiv; < p. 117 lii 
christianisme [krist janism] [kris- 

tjanizm] c 399 
Christiansand [kristjasaid] d p. 

74 XXXV 
Christiansfeld [kristjasfeld] d p. 

74 XXXV 
Christophe Colomb [kristof kol5] 
• h 339 
chronique [kronik] ch p. 73 


chronologie [kronobsi] ch 185 
chrysantheme [krizate:m] ch 185; 

h p. 162 LXVI 
chuchoter [SySote] ch p. 72 xxxii 
chuinter [Sqete] uin 162 
chut [Syt] [S:t] t 279, 298; u p. 156 


ci [si] 311 

Ciceron [sisero] p. 162 lxv 



ciel [sjel] e 91, p. 36 viii; c p. 69 

cieux [sjo] eu p. 44 xn 
ci-git [si si] t 95 
Ci-inclus, Trois cents francs 

[si ekly, inva sa fra] 431 
cU [sil] [siij] il 224, 228; c p. 69 


cimetiere [simtjeir] 46; c p. 69 

cinq [se:k] q 165, 219, 252, p. 156 


cinq enfants [sek afa] q 346 
cinq heros [se cro] q 346 
cinq heures [sek oe:r] q p. 141 lix 
cinq hommes [stk om] q 346 
cinq livres [se livr] q 346 
cinq-mars [se ma:r] q, s p. 156 


cinq robes [se r.}('.)b] q p. 156 


circonflexe [sirkSfieks] 29 
circonspect [sirkospek] [sirkSspe] 

[sirkSspekt] ct 181, p. 162 

Lxvi; t 300; ect, 353 
circonspect en tout [sirkospek a 

tu] [.sirkrjsi)ekt u tu] cct 353 
circonstance [sirk5stu:s] on 141 
cire [siirj i 13; c p. 69 xxix 
cirque [sirk] i p. 37 ix 
ciselure |sizly:r] c 70, p. 30 vi 
Citeaux [sito] x p. 122 lvii 
citoyen [sitwaje] oy 156 
citrouille |sitni(:)jl ouille 226 
civil [sivii] il 229; c 267 
classe [klu:s] [kla«] a 60, 65; c 69; 

p. 18 ii; a p. 25 IV 

cle [kle] 193 

clef [kle]/ 193, p. 162 lxvi; e p. 

32 VII 
clefs [kle] e 80 
Cleopatre [kleopaitr] d p. 162 


clerc [kle:r] r 166, 264; c 180, 340, 

p. 156 LXIV 
client [klijd] ien 135 
climat [klima] [klima] a 64 
clouer [klue] on p. 49 xvi 
club [klyb] b 171 
Clugny [kl>Tii] g 204 
cobalt [kobalt] t 299 
codiciUe [kodisil] ill 232 
coeur [k«?:r] eu 118, p. 45 xiii; r 

261; CBU p. 49 xvi 
cognac [kojaak] c 178, 340, 341 
cogne [kjjie] gn p. 81 xl 
cognition [kogiiisjo] gn 200 
coin [kwe] in 136; oi p. 62 xxiv 
coke [k.)k] k 218 
Colas [kola] a 59 
colere [kole:r] e 87, p. 36 vin 
college [kolers] e 87 
coller [kole] U 167, 220 
Colomb [k,)l5] b 171, p. 156 

LXiv, p. 162 Lxv; om p. 55 xx 
Colomb a erre longtemps [kolo a 

ere lota] b p. 141 lx 
colonel [kolonel] I p. 87 xliii 
combien [kol)je] icn 162 
combien en demande-t-il [kobjC 

u doinuid t il] n p. 141 LX 
combien y en a-t-il [kobje i an 

a I il] Ii 37S 
comble [ko:l)l] om p. 55 xx 




combustion [kobystjo] ti 290 
comme [kom] o p. 43 xi 
commenfons [komuso] q p. 69 


commotion [komosjo] [kamosjS] 

commun [komde] un 144, p. 56 


compact [kSpakt] t 296 
compagnie [kapajii] p. 161 XIV 
compagnon [kSpajiS] gn p. 81 xl 
compassion [kopasjo] a 60 
compendium [kopedjom] [k5pa-] en 137; um 145 
compose [kopoiz] o 101, p. 39 x 
comprend-il [kSprat il] d 362 
comprend-il ce qu'on dit [ko- 

prat il sa k 5 di] d p. 141 lix 
comprenez [kSprane] n p. 96 


comprenons [koprano] e 71, p. 

30 V 
compte [k5:t] om 141; p 247 
compter [kote] p p. 156 kxiv 
comptons [kotS] om 141; om, on 

p. 55 XX 
concession [kosesjo] s p. 108 li 
congu [kosy] g p. 69 xxix 
condamnable [kodanabl] m 237 
condamnation [kodanasjo] m 237 
condamner [kodane] am p. 162 


conditionnel [kodisjonel] i p. 117 


conduire [k5dqi:r] d 187 
confiance [k5fju:s] ian 162 
confidentiel [kSfidasjel] t 283 

conge [k53e] on p. 55 xx 
congestion [k538stj5] ti 290 
congres [kogre] s p. 162 lxvi 
conjuguant [kosyga] ua 156 
conquerir [kokeriir] qu 254 
conquiert [kokJ8:r] r 264 
Conrad [korad] d p. 74 xxxv 
consanguinite [kosugqinite] [k5- 

suginite] gui 198 
consciemment [kSsjama] em p. 

156 Lxiv 
conscience [kSsjurs] ien 135, p. 

65 xxvi; p. 156 lxiv 
conseU [kossij] e 91; eil 226 
conseiUer [koseje] ill p. 90 xliv 
consequemment [kosekama] em 

p. 156 lxiv 
considerablement [kosiderabla- 

ma] e 71 
consideration [k5siderasj5] 428 
Considerations sur I'histoire de 

France [kosiderasjo syr 1 is- 

tvv-a:r da fra:s] C, F p. 152 lxiii 
consolation [kosolasj5] t 162 
consomptif [kSsoptif] p 248 
comsomption [k5s5psj5] 38; p 

248, p. 98 XLViii 
conspire [kospire] on 44 
consul [kosyl] I 221; c p. 152 


contact [kotakt] t 296 

conte [k5:t] on 141, p. 55 xx, p. 

56 XXI B 
content adj. [k5ta] e 72 
content verb [koit] e 72 
contiguite [katigqite] giii 198 
convaincs [k5ve] c p. 71 xxxi 



convenable [kjvnabl] e 70 

coq [kok] q 4, 165, 219, 252, p. 

156 Lxiv 
coquin [kake] in p. 53 xls 
cor [ko:r] c 173 
corbeille [korbe:]] eillc 226 
cordelier [kordolje] c p. 152 


corps [k.):r] r 166; p 2-17 
corps a corps [kor a ko:r] s 367 
correct [kjrrkt] [korrekt] t 296, 

300, 353; ct p. 156 lxiv 
cortes [kortes] s 275 
Cortez [kortes] z 267, p. 122 lviii 
cosinus [kosinyis] s 269 
cote [ko:t] 6 4, 6, 29, 97, p. 39 x; 

cote d'or [kot d o:r] c, o 418 
cotele [kotlo] 6 98 
cotignac [kotijia] c p. 71 xxxi 
couenne [kuan] e 55 
couenneux [kwano] e 55 
couleuvre [kulceivr] eu p. 45 xiii 
coup [ku] p 164, 249; ou p. 45 xiv 
coupe (kup] /; p. 98 XLViii 
cour [kuir] r p. 101 l 
courant [kurfi) p. 161 XIV 
cour des Fontaines [ku:r de fS- 

tf;(:)n] /-' 110 
courez [kurc] ou p. 45 xiv 
courir [kuriir] 168 
couroime [kiir.>n] nn 167 
courrai [kiirrc] rr 259 
courrier |kiirj(-] r 262 
courroux [kiirii] x p. 122 lvii 
Cours d'astronomie [ku:r d as->iiiij C 101 

court [ku:r] t 352 

courtil [kurti] il 230; I 344 

coutelas [kutki] a 59 

couteUer [kutalje] e 71 

couter [kute] ow p. 49 xvi 

coutil [kuti] I 344 

couvert [kuve:r] ou p. 45 xiv 

couvre-pieds [kuvropje] d p. 74 


crac [krak] c 178, 340, 341 
craie [krc] ni 84, 123; aie 90, 321 
craindre [kre:dr] ain 14 
cravate [kravat] p. 18 ii 
crayon [krej5] 4:6; ay 90; y 154 
credo [kredo] e p. 162 lxvi 
creee [kree] e 89 
cresson [krasS] [kresS] e p. 163 


creuse [kroiz] eu 4, 14, 114 
creux [kro] eu 114, p. 44 xii; x 

crever [kr^ve] e 4, 66, 67, p. 30 v 
eric [kri] c 180, 340 
cric-crac [krik krak] c p. 162 


Crimee (la) [krime] p. 162 lxv 

crin |kre] in p. 53 xix 

crise |kri:z] i 94 

crise de nerfs [kri:z do ne:r] / p. 

cristal [krlstal] ,s 267 
croc [kro] c ISO, 340, p. 156 lxiv 
croc-en-jambe [kr.)k d 3d:b] c 341 
crochets [kro^t] 419 
crocus |kr.)ky:.s] .s ]). 108 li 
croire |kr\V(i:r] |kr\va:rj a 62 
crois [krwii] oi 156 



croix [krwa] [krwa] a 62; x 315 
croix de renvoi [krwa da ravwa] 

CromweU [kromvel] w 306 
croup [krup] p 250, p. 156 lxiv 
croyez [krwcije] oy p. 62 xxiv 
Croyez a ma vive et sincere ami- 
tie [knvaje a ma viv e ses8:r 

amitje] 427 
crucifix [krysifi]x 315, p. 156 lxiv 
ct final 296 

cueillir [koeji:r] ue p. 49 x\T 
cuiller (cuilliere) [kyjeir] [kqi- 

ie:r] [kyljcir] u 121, uill 226; r 

263; p. 156 lxiv 
cuir [kqiir] u 158; ui p. 64 xxv 
cuisine [kqizin] ui p. 64 xxv 
cuisinier [kqizinje] r 262 
cuivre [kqi:vr] ui p. 64 xxv 
cul [ky] I 223 

culbute [kylbyt] u p. 46 xv 
Curasao [kyraso] a 57 
cure [ky:r] c 173 
cuve [kyiv] u 120; c p. 69 xxviii 
cyclone [sikloin] o HI, p. 39 x; c 

cygne [siji] c 175; gn 207 
cylindre [sileidr] c 267 
cymbale [sebal] c p. 69 xxrx 
cypres [sipre] c p. 69 xxix 
cyr [si:r] c 175 
czar [gza:r] [tsa:r] [tza:r] c 174, 

p.- 162 Lxvi 

d [de] [da] 22, 24; [d] 190; [t] 
362-364, 381 

dahlia [dalja] h 209 

daim [de] aim 135, p. 53 xrx, p. 

56xxi B 
Dalmatie [dalmasi] t 281 
damas [dama] a 59 
damasser [damase] a 59 
dame [dam] m 4, 233; d 187; a p. 

21 III 
damner [dane] a 63, p. 25 iv, p. 

156 lxiv; a?n 132; m 237 
Damon [dam 5] m p. 96 xlvii 
Danemark (le) [danmark] e, k 

p. 162 Lxv 
danger [da3e] r 262 
dans [da] an p. 51 xviii 
dansant [dasa] an p. 51 xviii 
danse [duis] s 4, 266 
danseuse [dasoiz] eu 115, 127, 

326, p. 44 XII 
Dans les gardes frangaises [da 

le gard fruseiz] D 401 
dans ime tente [daz yn ta:t] s 335 
dard aigu [da:r egy] d 380 
David [david] d 190; a, d p. 156 


Dax [daks] a; 310 

dd [d] 42, 168, 187, 188 

de [do] e 4, 17, 66, 383 

de beaux boeufs [da bo bo] /p. 76 


deblayer [debleje] ay p. 49 xvi 
dega [dasa] a. 50 
decede [desede] e 79 
decembre [desaibr] 425 
decemment [desama] em p. 156 


decemvir [desemvi:r] m 235 




de ce que je ne te le demande 

pas [do 8 ka 3 no t lo cbnuid pa] 

e 75 
dechu [de$y] ch p. 72 xxxii 
declamer [deklome] [deklame] 

a 64 
declare [dokla:r] a p. 21 iii 
de clerc a maitre [do klerk a 

me:tr] c 341 
decorum [dekorom] um 145 
decret [dckre] et 92 
defu [desy] f 176 
dedaigneux [dedejio] gn p. 81 xl 
de demain en huit [do dame a 

qit] n J). 141 lx 
dedier [dodjo] d 187 
defaire [defc:r] / 191 
defaut [dcfo] au p. 49 xvi 
Defense du Genie du christia- 

nisme [dofu:s dy 3eni dy kris- 

tjanism] D, G 406 
deficit [defisi(t)] t 299; c, < 300; 

p. 117 LII 

de fond en comble [do fot a 

k5:bl] p. 141 Lix 
defunt [dof(L'] un 144, p. 56 xxi 
defunte [doftErt] un 14 
degat [dega] d p. 25 iv; t p. 117 


degenere [dcsenere] e 79 
degout [dcgu] oH p. 45 xiv, p. 49 


de haut en bas [do o a ha] 47 
deja [dcsa] 6-4, 79; d 28, 50 
dejeuner [flcsunc] cu 114; [do- 

3a'nc] t;u 1 18 
dela [dola]fi, Z 410 

delabrer [dclaljre] [delabrc] a 64 
de la deux sortes de devoir: les 

uns negatifs [do la do sort do 

dovwair: Icz re negatif] 420 
Delille [delil] ill 232 
deliquescence [delik(q)esa:s] qu 

demi [d(o)mi] i p. 37 ix 
democratic [demokrasi] t 281, p. 

162 Lxvi 
demoiselle [domwazel] e 67 
demon [demS] on p. 55 xx 
Demosthene [demostein] h p. 

162 Lxv 
Denis [doni] s p. 162 lxv 
dent [da] (/ 4; e/i p. 51 xviii, p. 

56 XXI B 
de part en part [do pa:rt u pa:r] 

t 382, p. 141 LIX 
de part et d'autre [do pa:rt e 

d otr] t 382 
depens [dcpd] s p. 162 lxvi 
de pied en cap [do pjet a kap] d 

de plus en plus [do plyz u ply] s 

de point en point [do pwCt a pwe] 

t 354 
depot [dcpo] p 245; « p. 117 Liv 
de profundis [de prof5di(:)s] un 

142, p. 162 lxvi 
deraille [dnraje] ill p. 90 xliv 
des [df] [do] e 28, 93; d 410 
des [drj ;• 28 
des bas reliefs [de ba roljrf) / p. 

76 xxxvi 
desCaUotstdekalo]C'p. 153 lxiu 



Descartes [dekart] s 272 

des cheveux epais [de Savoz epe] 

a; p. ]41 Lix 
des dues et pairs [de dyk e peir] 

des Elzevirs [dez elzeviir] E p. 

153 Lxiii 
desert [dezeir] r 2G4; s p. 1G2 


deshabiller [dezabije] s 2GS, p. 


des habits [dez abi] h 208 

des haricots [de ariko] h 210, p. 

15G Lxiv 
des heros [de ero] h 210 
des heixres [dez cp:r] h 208 
des histoires etonnantes [dez 

istwarrz etonfct] s p. 141 lix 
des homines [dez om] h 208 
deshoimeiir [dezonoe:r] s 268, p. 

109 LI 
desire [dezire] e 27 
des maitres es arts [de me:tr ez 

a:r] s 3G7 
des manteaxix ouates [de mato 

wate] 371 
Desmoulins [demule] s 272 
des oeufs [dez o] s 319 
des oignons [dez ajio] s 319 
desormais [dezorme] ais p. 49 xvi 
des oui-dire [de wi di:r] 371 
des Plines [de plin] P p. 153 


des pores epics [de pork epik] s 

des prix eleves [de priz elve] x 


desquels [dekel] [dekel] s 272 
des regards aimables [de ragairz 

emabl] s 381 
dessaisir [desezi:r] e 81 
desseeher [dese^e] e 81 
dessein [dese] e 81; ein 135 
desseller [desele] e 81, p. 32 


desserrer [dcsere] e 81 

dessert [deseir] e 81, p. 32 vii; 

ss p. 162 LXVI 
desservir [deserviir] e 81, p. 32 


dessiUer [desije] e 81 
dessin [dese] e p. 32 viz 
dessouder [desude] e 81 
dessous [d(o)su] [tsu] e 68, p. 30 

v, p. 156 LXIV 
dessus[d(o)sy] [tsy] e 68, 81, p. 30 

V, p. 156 LXIV 
desuetude [desqetyid] s 269 
des vers a soie [de ve:r a swa] s 

detail [deta:j] a 61 
de temps en temps [da tuz a ta] 

47;s337, 360, 366 
detroit [detrwa] t 295 
dette [det] e 18, 91, p. 36 viii 
deuil [doe:j] eu 118, p. 45 xiii; 

euil 226; p. 90 xliv 
deux [do] .r 315 
deux a deux [doz a do] x 372 
deux enfants [doz afa] x 319 
deuxieme [dozjem] x 314, 317, 

319, p. 122 LVii 
deuxiemement [d0zjem(m)a] x 

p. 122 Lvii 



detix-points [do pwe] 419 
developper [devbpe] e 89 
devenir [da\^ni:r] c G7, 70, p. 30 


deviner [davine] 16 
devotietix [devosjo] t 284 
devotion [devosjo] [devosj5] o 

d'excellents exercices [d ekse- 

iQz egzersis] s p. 141 lix 
dextre [dc(k)str] x 310 
diable [dju:bl] [dja(:)bl] a 64, p. 

25 IV 
diademe [djade:m] ni p. 94 xlv 
diagnostique [djagn.jstik] [djag- 

no.stik] (jii 200 
Dialogue des morts [djab(i)g de 

mjir] D 404 
Diaz [dja:z] z 319 
Dieppe [djep] p. 162 lxv 
diete [dje(:)t] ie p. 60 xxiii 
dieu [djo] ieu 152; cu p. 44 xu 
dieux [djo] eu 114 
differ entier [difcrasjc] li 293; t 

p. 117 LIII 

difficile [difisil] i p. 37 ix;/ p. 76 


digestion [discstjO] ti 290 
digne |diji] (/n p. 81 XL 
dignite [dijiitc] gn 40 
digue [di(:jg] f/'* p- 79 xxxviii 
dilemme Idiltm] iitiu p. 94 xlv; 

III [). 96 XLV II 
diligemment [dilisamu] mm p. 

94 xLv; 7ft p. 9() XLVii 
dime (dif:jrri] i 29, 95, |). 37 ix 
Diocletien [di.>kl(;.sjt;J I 286 

Diogene [dio3e:n] p. 162 lxv 
diplomatic [diplomasi] t 281, p. 

156 Lxiv 
diplome [diploim] 6 97, p. 39 x 
diplomer [dipk)me] 6 98 
dire [di:r] i 94 
direct [direkt] t 296; ct p. 162 


disait-on [dizet 5] s 332 
discipline [disijilin] t p. 37 ix 
Discours sur I'histoire univer- 

selle [diskuir sjt 1 istwair yni- 

vcrstl] D p. 152 lxiii 
dispenser [dispose] s p. 108 li 
distUler [disti(l)le] ill 232, p. 156 


distinct [disteikt] [diste] t 300; 

ct p. 156 lxiv 
distinctement [distektma] c, t 

distinctif [distektif] c, t 300 
distinction [disttksjS] c, t 300 
distingua [distega] ua 156 
distinguons [distegS] gu p. 79 


distribuons [distribt[5] oun 162 
district [distri] [distrikt] cl 300 
Dites bien des choses de ma 

part a [dit bje dc 5o:z da ma 

I)a:rt a] 430 
dit-U [dit il] 421 
dito [dito] p. 161 XIV 
dix [di.s] X 213, 267, 313, 315, 

372, J). 156 lxiv 
dix chevaux [tli S('>)vo] x p. 156 


dix enfants [diz ufu] x 372 



dix heures un quart [diz oeir de 

ka:r] s 370 
dix-huit [diz qit] x 314, 319, 371, 

p. 122 Lvii, p. 150 Lxiv 
dix-huitieme [diz qit jem] x 314, 

dixieme [dizjcm] x 314, p. 122 


dix-neuf [diz noef] x 314, 319, p. 

122 LVII, p. 156 LXIV 
dix-neuvieme [diz noevjem] x 

dix pommes [di pom] x 372 
dix-sept [dis set] x p. 121 lvii, p. 

156 LXIV 
dix-septieme [dis setjem] x p. 

121 LVII 

dix soldats [di solda] x 315 

dix sous [di su] x p. 156 lxiv 

docteur [doktoeir] 415 

dogue [dog] g 4 

doigt [dwa] oi bQ; g 205; f p. 117 


doigte [dwate] g p. 162 lxvi 

doigts [dwa] gts 164 

doit et avoir [dwat e avwair] t 

Domitien [domisje] t 286 
dommage [doma:3] m 42 
dompter [dote] om 45, p. 55 xx; 

p 247, p. 162 LXVI 
dompteur [dotoeir] p 247 
Donu"emy [dorami] om p. 55 xx 
don [do] dl; on \i. 56 xxi B 
done [do] [d5:k] c 181 
donnais [done] ais 90 
donnas [dona] a 59 

donnat [dona] & p. 21 iii 
donne [don] o 18 
doime-je [doneis] e 88 
doiment [don] e 72 
dormer [done] n 42; nn 239 
donnes [don] e 72 
doimez-en [donez a] z 332 
Dordogne [dordoji] gn p. 162 


dort-elle [dort el] t 332 
dortoir [dortwair] r 261 
dos [do] o 100, p. 39 x; s 164, 273 
dos a dos [doz a do] s 366 
dossier [dosje] o 100, p. 39 x 
dot [dot] 105, p. 43 xi; f 298, 

p. 117 Lii, p. 156 LXIV 
doua [dwa] ona p. 62 xxiv 
douane [dwan] oua 156, p. 62 

Douay [due] mj 90 
Doubs [du] 6 172; fes p. 162 lxv 
douce [dus] c p. 69 xxrx 
douons [dwo] ouon p. 65 xxvi 
Douvres [du:vr] p. 162 lxv 
doux [du] ou p. 45 xiv 
douze [du:z] ou p. 45 xiv 
doyen [dwaje] 7/154 
drap [dra] r 4; a 53; p 249 
Dresde [drezd] s 271, p. 162 lxv 
drogue [dro(:)g] gue 197; gu p. 

79 xxxviii 
droite [drwat] oi p. 21 iii 
druide [drqi(:)d] d p. 152 lxiii 
du [dy] u29;d 410 
du [dy] iL 29 
du blanc au noir [dy blak o 

nwa:r] c 341, p. 141 nx 



Dublin [flyblf] p. 162 lxv 

du bceuf sale [dy boe sale] / 193 

due [dyk] c 178, 340, 341; d p. 

152 Lxiii 
Duels [d}-si:s] s 274 
Dueroe [dykro] c p. 71 x30j:i 
duel [dqcl] ue p. 64 xxv 
Dugas [dyga] a 59 

Du Guesclin [dy geklf] s 272, p. 

156 Lxiv 
du haut en bas [dy ot a ba] t 354 
du marc de cafe [dy ma:r do 

kafo] c 340 
Dumas [dynid] a 59, p. 162 lxvi 
du mithridate [dy mitridat] m p. 

153 LXIII 
Dumouriez [dj^murje] z 318 
d'un [d d] un p. 56 xxi B 
d'un bout a I'autre [d d> but a 

1 otr] / 354 
Duncan [djka] un 142 
d'un enfant [d dm ufu] 384 
Dunkerque [dJkerk] un 142, p. 

162 i^xv 
d'un moment a I'autre [d cje 

mama a 1 otr] t 354 
duo [dyo] 99, p. 39 x 
du plomb argentifere [dy pl5 

ar^fitifiir] /* i). 141 lx 
Duprez [dyprc] z 318 
Duquesne [flykcin] s 272 
dur |dy:r| // 13 
du riz au lait [dy ri o Ii] z 359, p. 

141 LX 

dynastie [dina,sti] li 290; t p. 117 


dysenteric [di.sdfri] s- 269 


e [e] [a] 22, 24; mute [a] 66-71, 
89; 155; silent 72, 73, 77, 78; 
before a, o, u 202; silent and 
mute 74, 75; final 76; without 
written accent [e] 80, 81; [e] 
91-93; elision 384-387, 393- 

e ferme [e] written e, e, ai 79 

e [e] 84-88 

e [f] 84-86, 98 

e 197 

eau p. 39 X 

-eau [o] 97, 102, 112, 126, 320, 

eau de Seltz [o da sels] z 267, p. 
122 Lviii 

eblouir [cljluiir] 36 

ecaille [ekuij] a 61 

ecart [oka:r] t p. 117 liv 

Echantillons sans valeur [e^atijo 
su valocir] 431 

echee [eSe(k)] c 181, p. 162 lxvi 

echecs [e5e(k)] c p. 156 lxiv 

echo [cko] o 99; ch 186, p. 162 


eclair [ckleir] r p. 104 l 
eclate [cklate] e 27 
eclipse [('khi)s] p 245 
ecole [ck.)!] o 106; c 173, p. 19 ii 
econome [ck.injm] o 111 
Ecouen [ckwu] oucn 162 
ecoutez [ckute] ou 128, 328 
ecraser (ckruzc] s 319; a p. 25 xv 
ecrasons [ckruza] a 60 
ecrevisse [okrovis] e 89 



ecriture a n g 1 o-n ormannique 

[ckrityir agio nonnimik] a, n 

ecriture normanno-saxonne 

[ckrityir normano sakson] n, s 

-ect 92, 353 
ecueil [ekoe:j] veil 226; ue p. 45 


ecuelle [ekijcl] ue p. 64 xxv 
ecureuil [ekyrocij] euil 226 
Edda [edda] (/ p. 74 xxxv 
Eden [eden] n 241, p. 156 kxiv 
Edimbourg [edebuir] ^205, p. 162 


Edouard [edwa:r] d 189; oua p. 

62 XXIV 
Edmond [edmo] d p. 74 xxxiv 
-een [ee] en 136 
effare [efare] e 81 
effectuerent [efektiisir] ue p. 64 

effemine [efemine] e 81 
effet [efc] e 81, p. 32 vii 
efficace [efikas] e 81 
efiigie [efisi] gi p. 80 xxxix 
effleure [efloere] e 81 
efflorescent [effloresa] ff 191 
effluent [efflyfi] ff 191 
effluve [efflyiv] ff 191 
effort [efo:r] e SI; o 105 
effrayer [efreje] e 81; y p. 60 


effrene [efrene] e 81 
effroi [efrwa] e 81, p. 32 vn 
efifronterie [efrotri] e 81 
egalite [egalite] 35 

Eginhard [esinair] d p. 74 xxxiv 
eglogue [egbg] gl, gu p. 79 


egrener [ograne] e 89 
Egypt {!') Hipt] p. 162 LXV 
egyptiaque [e3ipsjak] t p. 117 


Egyptien [esipsje] t 286 

Eh bien, je m'en vais [e bje 53 

m a ye] E 397 
-ei [e] 84, 90, 122, 125, 320, 323 
-ei [e] 122, 125 
eider [edcir] r 263 
-eU [e:j] il 226 
-eUle [r:j] ill 226 
-eim [c] 135 
-ein [e] 135 
Elements de physique [elema da 

fizik] E 404 
eleve [elciv] e p. 36 viii 
elever [elve] 35; e 46, 70, p. 156 

Lxiv; e 89 
eleverais [elevre] e 88 
EUsabeth [elizaliet ] th 299 
Elise a une autre idee en tete 

[eli:z a ya. otr ide a teit] e 395 
eUe [el] 386 

elle coud [cl ku] fZ p. 74 xxxiv 
elle est fort en peine [el e fort a 

pen] / 350 
elle meurt expres [el moe:r eks- 

pre] / 380 
elle part a regret [el pair a ragre] 

t 356 
elle part aujourd'hui [el pa:r 

05urdqi] t 380 
Elle raconte encore une histoire 



absurde [cl rak5:t akoir jn 

istwair apsyrd] e 395 
elle recommence [el rakomais] e 

elles aiment [elz e:m] e p. 30 vi 
elles seraient invitees [el saret 

evite] / 351 
eloigner [clwajio] gn p. SI xl 
eloquemment [ebkama] em p. 

156 LXiv 
-em [u] 131; [em] 134, 235 
embeter [abeto] e 86 
embryon [ubriS] yon p. 65 xx\t; 
emeraude [emroid] au 102 
emeute [omoit] eu 326 
eminemment [eminama] em p. 

156 LXIV 
emm- [um] 134 
-emm- [am] 134 
Emma [emma] m p. 57 xxn, p. 

96 XLVii; mm p. 94 lxv 
emmagasiner [amagazine] em 

134; m p. 96 XLVii; mm 147 
emmailloter [amajote] m p. 96 


Emmanuel [emanqel] vim p. 57 

XXII, p. 94 XLv; m p. 96 xlvii 

emmenager [f"imcna5f] m p. 96 


emmener [umnf] em 134, p. 156 


-emment [anifi] c 55; em 134 
emotion [crnosjo] o 100, p. 39 X 
empecher [dpeSe] em 131 
empereur [dpnjL'ir] c 70 
empire [api:r] em 131, p. 51 


empire des Perses [api:r de pers] 

P [). 153 lociii 
empire franf ais [api:r frase] / p. 

153 Lxiii 
emploi [uplwa] em p. 51 xviii 
emprunt [aprce] un p. 56 xxi 
emprunte [dprteit] un 14, 144 
emprunter [ai)rcete] un p. 56 xxi 
en [d] 4, 17, 131, 383, p. 51 xviii, 

p. 56 XXI B 
-en [e] 135; [en] 133, 240 
en allant a pied [dn aldt a pje] t 

en avez-vous eu [on ave wlz y] 

n, s p. 141 Lix 
encens [dsdis] [dsu] c p. 70 xxix 
enchanter [d^dte] en, an 45 
encrier [dkrije] [dkrie] en 131 
endosser [ddose] o 100 
en ete [dn cte] n p. 141 lix 
enfant [ufd] an, en 131, p. 51 

enfer [dfe:r] r 263, p. 156 Lxrv 
Enfin, comment vous dire . . . 

nous avons peur! [dfe, komu 

vii di:r . . . nuz av.! pcrir] 421 
Enfin, j'y suis, j'y reste [dfe, 5 i 

sqi, :-, i rest] E 397 
Enfin on arriva [dfe on ariva] n p. 

1 1 1 LX 

enflammer [dflamc] [dflamc] a 

M, p. 25 IV 
enfouir [df\vi:r] oui 156 
Enghien [dgt] ien p. 79 xxxviii 
en haut [d o] /i p. 156 lxiv 
en hiver [dn ive:r] n p. 141 i-ix 
enigme [ciiiKin] (jm ]>. 79 xxxviii 



enivrer [anivre] en 133, 147 

enjeux [fiso] eu p. 49 xvi 

En mains propres [a me propr] 

-enn [an] 134 
enneml [emni] n7i 146 
ennoblir [anobliir] en 133, p. 156 

ennoblit [anobli] n7i p. 96 xlvi 
ennui [ciniii] en 133, p. 156 lxiv; 

nn 147 
Enoch [enok] ch 185 
enorgueilUr [onorgcejirr] en 133, 

enorme [enorm] ?i 239 
en plain air [a plen e:r] ?i 375 
enquete [akc:t] qii 254 
enroler [arole] 6 98 
enseigne [aseji] ci p. 49 xvi 
enseigner [asejie] gii p. 81 xl, 
ensemble [usaibl] en, em 131 
ensus [cisys] s 275 
-ent of verbs t 351 ; e 391 
entendant [atfida] an, en p. 51 


entend-on [atat 5] d 362 
enthousiasme [utuzjasm] [atu- 

zjazm] m p. 60 xxiii 
entier [atje] ti 293; ie p. 60 xxiii 
entiere [atje:r] li 293; ie p. 60 


entoure [atu:r] ou 119 

entr'acte [atrakt] 387 

entrant [atra] an, en p. 51 xviii 

entre [a:tr(9)] e 387 

entrer [aire] en 131 

entresol [atrssol] s 269 

envers [aveir] r 264 

envers et centre tous [av8:r e 

kStro tu:s] s 367 
envers eux [aveir o] s p. 141 


En vUle [a vil] 431 

Envoi de [avwa da] 423 

en voila neuf [a vwala ncef] / p. 

envoy ez I'y [avwaje 1 i] 384 
epanouir [epanwi:r] oni p. 62 


epargner [eparjie] gn p. 81 xl 

epaules [epo:l] au 102 

eperon [epro] e 89 

ephod [efad] d 190 

Ephraim [efraim] im 139; m 235 

epicier [episje] r 262 

epinard [epinair] d p. 74 xxxiv 

epizooti [epizoosi] [epizooti] t 281 

epopee [epope] p p. 98 xlviii 

epoque [epok] o 106 

epouse [epuiz] ou 119, p. 45 


epoux [epu] ou p. 45 xiv 
Epsom [epsom] m 235 
equateur [ekwatoeir] ua 156; qu 

256; u p. 162 lxv, lxvi 
equation [ekwasjo] ua 156, p. 62 

XXIV ; qu 256, p. 101 xlix; u, 

a, t p. 162 LXVI 
equestre [ek(q)estr] qu 257; u p. 

162 LXVI 
equi- [ek(q)i] qu 257 
equidistant [ek(q)idista] qu 257 
equinoxe [ekinoks] u p. 156 

LXIV, p. 162 LXVI 




equitable [ekitabl] qu 254, p. 101 


equitation [ek(q)itasj5] qu 257; 

u, a, t p. 162 Lxvi 
equivalent [ekivala] qu 254, p. 

101 XLIx; U p. 162 LXAT 

equivoque [ckivak] qu 254, p. 101 

XLix; u p. 162 LXVI 
-er [e] r 262, 347-349; final [er] 

Ernest [emest] t 297 
erratum [e(r)ratom] u 113 
errer [crre] r 259 
erreur [erroeir] r 259 
-ers [e] 262 
-ert [8:r] I 356, 380 
-es 391 
es [es] s 275 
escalier [eskaljc] 38 
esclaffer [csklaf (f)e] c p. 70 xxx 
esclandre [eskludr] c 177; sc 276 
esclavage [csklava:5] c p. 70 xxx 
esclave [eskluiv] [esklaiv] a 64; 

c 177; s 267 
esclavon [e.sklav5] c p. 70 xxx 
escrime [cskrim] c j). 70 xxx 
escroc [e.skro] c 180, 340, p. 150 


escroc intelligent [cskro etelisu] 

c 340 
espace [cspais] [csi)a.s] a 14, 64, 

esperance [t.spcrui.s] 38; an 131 
esperer [cspere] e 91, p. 36 vin 
Espinasse [fpina-s] .s 272 
espionnage [(•H[)j.;na:3] iu p. 60 


esprit allemand [espri almu] t 

esprit profond en tout [espri 

profo a tu] d 363 
essai [ese] e 81, p. 32 vii 
essaim [ese] aim 135 
Essai sur les moeurs [ese sy:r le 

mccrs] E 404 
essayer [eseje] y 154 
essentiel [esasjel] t 283, p. 117 

Liii; c p. 156 LXIV 
essor [esoir] [eso:r] e 81, p. 32 vii; 

o 105, p. 43 XI 
essouffle [esufle] e 81 
essuie-main [esqimc] e 81, p. 32 


essuie-plume [esqi plym] e 81, p. 

32 VII 
essuyer [csqije] e 81, p. 32 vii; 

laj 159, 160, p. 64 xxv 
est [e] 92; s 272; [est] 92; t 297 
est-ce [e:s] e p. 156 lxiv 
est-ce vrai [e s vre] e 385 
Esther [este:r] r 263 
Estienne [etjen] s 272, p. 156 


estime [estim] s p. 109 li 
estoc [estok] c 178, 340, 341 
estomac [estjma] a 53; c 180, p. 

156 LXIV 
et [e] e 80, 92; t 355, p. 117 liv 
-et 92 
fitablissements Archambault- 

Belanger [etablisma ar^abo 

hrla.v] 424 
etape [etap] c 69, p. 30 vi 
etat [eta] I 295, p. 117 liv 



et caetera [et setcra] t 299, p. 161 

ete [ete] c 4, 6, 17, 27, 79; t 279 
eteint [ete] cin p. 156 lxiv 
eternite [etemite] e p. 32 vii 
etes [et] e 15 
etes-vous [et vu] 34 
Ethelred [etelred] d p. 74 xxxv 
ether [ete:r] r 263, p. 156 lxiv 
Etienne [etjeii] ti 294 
etiez [etje] ti 294 
etioler [etjole] li 294 
etions [etjo] ti 294 
etoffe [etof] o 107 
etoile [etwal] oi 156 
etrennes [etren] nn 146 
etroite [etrwcit] [etrwat] oi 62 
etudiant [etydja] ian 162 
-eu [y] e 78, 116; [0] [oe] 114, 115, 

117, 118, 122, 127, 320, 326; 

+ final pronounced consonant 

[oe] 327; +il, ille [oe] 327; +s, 

t [0] 115, 326 
-eu [y] e 116; [0] [cc] 114, 117, 127 
Eugene [osein] [y3e.'n] Eu 116 
Eugenie [03eni] [y3eni] Eu 116 
eue [y] eu 116 
-euil [oe:j] 226 
-euUle [oe:j] 226 
eumes [y(:)m] e 78, 116; eH 77, 

78, 116. 
-eun [&] eun 144 
eurent [y:r] c p. 156 lxiv 
Europe [oerop] Eu p. 162 lxv 
europeen [oeropee] en 136 
europeenne [oeropeen] n p. 57 


-eurt [oe:r] t 356, 380 

-euse [0:2] eu 115 

-eute [ot] eu 115 

-autre [oitr] e« 115 

evanoui [evanwi] oui p. 62 xxiv 

evanouir [evanwi:r] oui 156 

evasion [evasjo] a 60 

eveil [eve(:)j] c p. 36 viii 

evenement [evenmu] e 89 

eventail [evutaij] ail 226 

ex- [eks] and popular [es] 310; 

initial followed by ce, ci, s 

[k(+s)]311; before vowel, etc. 

[egz] [egz] 312 
exact [cgza(kt)] [egzakt] t 296, 

300, p. 121 Lvii; ct p. 163 lxvii 
exacte [egzakt] [egzakt] x 41 
exactement [egzaktoma] [egzak- 

tonia] e 71, p. 30 V 
examen [egzame] [egzame] [egza- 

men] [egzamen] x 41, 312; en 

137, p. 156 lxiv, p. 162 lxvi 
excavation [ekskavasjS] x p. 121 

excedant [ekseda] a; 311 
exceder [eksede] x p. 121 lvii 
excellence [ekseluis] x p. 121 

excellent adj. [eksela] x 41; e 

72; X p. 156 lxiv; verb [eksel] 

e 72; X p. 156 lxiv 
exceller [eksele] x p. 121 lvii 
excepte [eksepte] x p. 121 lvii 
exception [eksepsjS] x 311, p. 121 

exces [ekse] x 311 
excessif [eksesif] x 311 



exciser [eksize] x 311 
excitant [eksita] x 311 
excitation [eksitasjj] x p. 121 LVii 
exclamation [e(k)skl.imasj5]x 310 
exclamer [eksklame] x p. 121 lvii 
exclure [eksklyir] x p. 121 lvii 
excursion [ekskyrsjo] x p. 121 


exeat [pgzeat] [egzeat] t 299 
executer [egzekyte] [egzekyte] x 

p. 121 LVII 

exemple [cgzupl] [egzapljx 41, p. 

121 LVII 

exempt [egzfi] [egza] -p 247; x 

312; -pt p. 15G Lxiv 
exempter [egzate] [egzate] p 247, 

p. 150 LXIV, p. 162 Lxvi 
exemption [egzapsjS] [egzapsjo] 

p 248 
exequatur [egzakatyir] <ia p. 101 


exercise [egzersis] [egzersis] x 312 
exhibition [egzibisja] [egzibisj5] x 

exhorter [egzorte] [egzorte] x 312, 

J). 121 LVII 

exhumer [egzymc] [pgzyme] x p. 

121 LVII 

exiger [rgzise] [egziso] x 312, p. 

121 LVII 

exiguite |fgzigtptc] [("gzigqite] gui 

exil [cgzil] [cgzill U 229 
exiler (egziU-] [ogzik;] x 312, p. 

121 LVII 

exotique |{gz.)tik] [cgz.jtik] x p. 

121 LVII 

expansif [ekspasif] x p. 121 lvii 
expatrier [e(k)spatrie] x 310, p. 

121 LVIII 

expedier [e(k)spedje] x 310 
explorer [e(k)splore] x 310 
expres [ekspre] x 41 
express [eksprcs] [espres] s y>. 

109 LI 
exprimer [fksprimo] x 41 
exsangue [cksaig] x p. 121 lvii 
exsuder [cksyde] x 311 
extenso [rksteso] en 137 
extirper [c(k)stirpe] x 310 
extraordinaire [ekstraordine:r], 

old [ckstrordineir] x 41 
-ey [e] 84, 90, 122, 125, 320, 323 


f [if] [fo] 22, 24; [f] 91; final [f] 

Kif), 342; [v] 30') 
fable [fdhl] 46; a 63, 65, p. 25 iv 
fabliau [fal)li()] [fal)ljol [fublio] 

[f(il)lj()] i 153 
fabrique [fabrik] qii 254 
Fabvier [favje] h 172 
facade [fasa(:)d] q 32, 267, p. 70 


faces [fas] e 72 

facetie [fasesi] t 281, p. 156 


facetieux [fasosjo] t p. 117 liii 
facheux [fu^o] ch 1S2 
facile |f;isi]] <■ 69;/ 191 
facile a lire [fasil a li:r] e 392 
fagon Ifas.')] f p. 70 xxix 
facteur (fak<(r:r] c p. 70 xxx 



factieux [faksjo] t 284 

faction [faksj5] t 162; c p. 70 xxx 

faience [fajais] a p. 156 lxiv 

faille [faij] a 61 

faim [fe] aim 135, p. 53 xix, p. 

156 lxiv; m p. 96 xlvii 
faire [fe:r] ai 68 

Faire parvenir [fe:rparv9ni:r] 423 
faisait [faze] a 68; ai p. 30 v 
faisons [fazo] ai p. 156 lxiv 
fait [fe] [fe] ai 4, 17, 84, p. 163 

Lxvii; [fe(t)] t 300 
faite [feit] at 90, p. 36 viii 
faites-le [fet la] e 385 
faix [fe] X p. 162 lx\t 
famille [famiij] ill 46, p. 60 xxiii 
faon [fa] o 103, p. 156 lxiv 
farceur [farsoeir] eu p. 45 xiii 
fat [fat] [fa] a 54; t 298, 300, p. 

156 LXIV, p. 163 Lxvii 
fatal [fatal] I p. 87 xliii 
fatigua [fatiga] ua 156 
faubourg Poissonniere [fobu:r 

pwasonje:r] P p. 153 lxiii 
faulx [fo] I 223 

Faure [foir] au 112, p. 43 xi 
fausse [fo:s] e 69 
Faust [foist] aw p. 162 lxv 
fauteuil [fotoeij] euil 226; il p. 90 


faux [fo] X p. 122 LVii 

Fayence [fajais] y 154 

feindre [feidr] ein p. 53 xix 

feinte [fe:t] ein 14 

Felix [feliks] x 310 

Felix Faure [feliks fo:r] F 396 

femme [fam] e 55; em 134, p. 21 

III, p. 156 LXiv; m p. 96 xlvii; 

mm 233 
femmelette [famlet] c 55 
fend [fu] en p. 56 xxi B 
Fenelon [fen(a)l5] on p. 55 xx 
fenetre [f (8)ne:tr] e 85, p. 36 viii 
fenil [foni] [faniij] il 228 
fenouil [fanuij] ouil 226 
fer [feir] r 263 
fera [fara] e 67 
ferblanc [ferbla] c 340, p. 71 


fermete [fermate] e 393 
fermez [ferme] e 80 
fermier [fermje] r 262 
Ferrare [fe(r)ra!r] r p. 104 l, p. 

162 LXV 
fete [feit] e 85, p. 36 viii 
feter [fete] e 86, p. 36 viii 
fetichisme [fetiSism] ch p. 72 


feu [fo] eu 114, p. 44 xii 
feuille [foeij] eu 118; euille 226; 

ill p. 90 XLIV 
feutre [fo:tr] eu 115, 127, 326, 

p. 44 XII 
feux [fo] eu p. 44 xii 
fevrier [fe\Tie] [fevrje] i 153 
ff [f] 191 

fiacre [fjakr] ia 152 
fiance [fjfise] ian p. 65 xxvi 
fidele [fidcl] d 187 
fidelite [fidelite] p. 19 ii 
fieffe [f jcfe] / p. 76 xxxvi 
fier adj. [fje:r] r 263, p. 156 

lxiv; verb [fje] ie p. 60 xxiii, 

r p. 156 LXIV 



Fiesque [fjesk] ie p. 162 LXV 

figue [fig] giie 33 

figure [figj'ir] u p. 46 xv 

fil [fil] / 224; a 229 

filigrane [fUigran] i p. 37 rx 

fiUe [fil,:)j] i 94; ill 226 

filleul [fijoel] eu p. 49 x\z 

fils [fi(:)s], old [fi]/191; 1223; s 

275, p. 163 Lx\i, LX\^I 
fil unique [fil jiiik] I 344 
fin [fc] in p. 53 xix, p. 56 xxi B; 

n p. 96 xLVii 
fine [fin] n p. 96 xlvii 
fini [fini] i p. 37 ix, p. 156 lxiv 
finir [fini:r] i 19; r 261 
finirons [finiro] i 19 
Finlande (la) [ftla:<l] p. 162 lxv 
fiscal [fi.-^kiil] .sc 276 
flambeau [ffubo] am p. 51 x\aii; 

m p. 96 XLVII 
flamber [flabe] am 131 
flamme [flaim] a 14, 63, p. 25 iv 
flanc [fla] c 179, p. 163 lxvi 
flanelle [flanel] n p. 96 XL^^, 

flegme [flcgm] ffm p. 79 xxxviii 
fleur de lis [flft:r do li] e p. 30 v; 

s 273, p. 156 LXIV 
fleurs [fla-ir] eu p. 45 xiii 
fleuve [flcje:v] eu 118, p. 45 xiii 
flot [flo] o p. 39 x 
flux [tty] X 315, p. 156 lxiv 
foetus (fcty(:)s] ce 83, p. 32 vii 
foi [fwd] [fwa] (ri j). 62 xxiv 
foin [fvvf] (rin 162, p. 53 xix 
fois [fwa] (ti 56 
fol [f.>l] r22I; i) 105 

fol espoir [fol espwarr] I 344 
foUe [fol] 107 
follicule [folikyl] I p. 87 xliii 
fonction [foksjo] t 285; on p. 55 


fond [f5] on p. 55 xx, p. 56 xxi B 
font [fo] on p. 55 xx 
fonte [fo:t] on 14, 46 
Fontenoy [fotnwa] oy 56 
force [fors] o p. 43 xi 
foret [fore] e 29 
formation [formcisjS] a 60 
fort [fo:r] / 4; 76; r 264; I 352, p. 

117 LIV 

fort aimable [fo:rt 8ma(:)bl] 

[fo:rt ema(:)bl] t 381 
forte [fort] e 76, p. 30 \t; o 106 
fort et actif [fo:r e aktif] i 355 
fort et dur [fo:r e dy:r] t 381 
fort et grand [fo:r e gra] t 380 
fort instruit [fort estrqi] i 336 
fosse [fois] o 100, p. 39 x 
fossette [foset] [foset] o 100 
fou [fu] ou p. 45 XIV 
fouace [fwas] oua p. 62 xxiv 
fouet [fwc] [fwa] owe p. 62 xxiv 
fougere [fu5f:r] e 12 
foulard [fiil:i:r] ou p. 45 xiv 
Fould [fuld] (I p. 74 xxxv 
Foulenay-aux-Roses [fulene o 

roiz] /-', R 410 
foumU [furni] il 230; I 344 
Fox [fok.s] X 310 
foyer [fwaji^] oy 56, p. 62 xxiv, 

J). 163 lxvi; y 154 
frac [frak] c p. 70 xxx 
fracas [frakci] a p. 25 IV 



fraise [freiz] s 268 

fraisU [frezi] il 230; I 344 

franc [fru] an 131, p. 51 xviii; c 

164, 179, 340, p. J 63 lxvi 
franc(s) [fra] p. 161 XIV 
frangais [frase] ais p. 49 xvi; f 

p. 70 XXIX 
franc alleu [frak alo] c 341 
France [frd.-s] an 131 
franc et net [frak e net] c 341 
franc etourdi [frcik eturdi] c 341 
Franche-Comte [fraS kSte] p. 162 


f rapper [frape] pp 167 
frayeur [fiTJa^ir] eu p. 49 xvi 
fredonner [frodone] e 67, 392, p. 

30 V 
frein [fre] ein p. 53 xix 
Frejus [fre3y:s] s 274 
frere [freir] e 28 
freres [freir] e 72 
fret [fre] t p. 163 lxvi 
Friedland [friedlaid] d p. 74 

XXXV ; ie p. 162 lxv 
Fritz [frits] z 319 
froc [frok] c 165, p. 70 xxx 
froid [fi-wa] [frwa] oi 62; d 189 
froisse [frwas] oi 156 
froisser [frwase] ss 267 
fromage [framais] a 12 
frontiere [frotjeir] lih 293; i p. 117 


f rotter [frote] it 167 
froufrou [frufru] oa p. 45 xiv 
fruit [frqi] u 158; ui p. 64 xxv 
fruitier [frqitje] ie 152; tie 293; ui 
p. 64 xxv 

fruitiere [frqitje:r] tie 293 
fuchsia [fyksja] ch p. 73 xxxiii, 

p. 163 LXVI 
fumer du maryland [fyme dy 

mariluid] m 400 
fun [foe] un p. 56 xxi B 
fusU [fyzi] il 230; I 344, p. 163 


fut [fy] u 121 

future [fytyir] u p. 46 xv 

g [5e] [5a] [go] 22, 24; 127; before 
a, o, u or consonant [g] 195; be- 
fore e, ^, 2/ [3] 77, 201; final [k] 
[g] 205, 206; 365; silent 204, 
gage [ga:5] a p. 21 iii 
gageons [gaso] ^c p. 80 xxxix 
gageur [gasceir] e p. 156 lxiv 
gageure [ga3y:r] eu 77, 116; geu 
202; u p. 46 xv; ge p. 80 


gagner [gajie] a 63; gn p. 81 xl 
gai [ge] ai 82, 124, 322, p. 32 vii, 

p. 49 xvi; ga p. 79 xxxviii 
gain [ge] ain p. 56 xxi B 
Galaad [galaad] dp. 74 xxxv, p. 

162 LXV 
Galatee [galate] p. 162 lxv 
Galilee (la) [galile] p. 162 lxv 
galimatias [galimatja] [galiinatja] 

ti 294 
galop [galo] p 249, p. 156 lxiv 
galoper [galope] o 109 
gamme [gam] a 54 




gangrene [gugren] ga, gr p. 79 


gant [ga] g 4; an p. 56 xxi B; ga 

p. 79 xxxviii 
garantie [g:irut i] lie 292 
gargon [garso] f 32, 176, 267; a 

54; g 195 
gardien [gardjf] ieri 162 
gargotte Igargjt] ga, go p. 79 

gargouille [gargu(:)j] ga, go p. 79 


gamir [garni :r] r p. 104 L 

gars [ga:r] [gci] r 265 

Gascogne [gji-skoji] gn p. 81 xl, 

p. 162 Lxv 
gate [gate] g 195 
gateau [gato] cau 102 
Gaule (la) [go:l] au p. 162 lxv 
gaz [ga:zj a 60, p. 25 iv; z 316, 

gaze [ga:z] a 13, 60, p. 25 iv 
gazon [guz3] a 60, p. 25 iv; z p. 

122 Lviii 
ge before a, o, u [3] 202 
geai [5e] [3c] e 77; ai 82, 124, 

geindre [3r:flr] cin p. 56 xxi B; 

gf p. SO XXXIX 
gele [5c(:;l] e 87; -(/c ]). 80 xxxix 
gelerais [sflrr] b 88 
gemir [3emi!r] ge p. 80 xxxix 
gemme [3iin] Ttun j). 94 xlv; hi 

p. 96 xi-vii 
gendre Isrndr) en p. 51 xviii 
gene Lv :ii] « p. 9() xi.vii 
generation (5ciier(i.<j:)| <i p. 25 iv 

gens [3d] [3a:s] 3 201; s 275; n p. 

96 XLVii 
gent [3u] [5a:t] t 300 
gentil [3ati] il 230; g p. 152 lxiii; 

/ p. 156 Lxiv 
gentilhoniine [3atijom] il 230; I 

230, 329, p. 163 lxvi 
gentilshommes [scitizom] [3ati- 

jjiii] il 230; I, s p. 163 lxvi 
gentiment [scitimu] ge p. SO 


Geoffrey [3offrwa] e 77 
geographie [seografi] p. 19 11 
geole [50:]] geo 202 
geolier [jolje] 77, p. 103 lxvi; 

gco 202 
George [3or3] e p. 30 vi 
Georges [sors] e 77; Gco 202, p. 

George Sand (sjrs sa:d] d p. 74 


Georges est riche [5jr5 e ri^] s 

geranium [3('ranj,)ni] u 113, p. 

43 XI, p. 163 LXVI 
gerce [smse] gc p. SO xxxix 
germaine Istrmcn] ge p. 80 xxxix 
Gertrude [sntryd] Ge p. 80 


Gerusez [serj^ze] z 318 

gesir [5('zi:rj s 269 

gestes (3t\st] ge p. 80 xxxix 

gg Ig] 195; before e [g3] 203 

gibbosite [sibozite] bb p. 08 

X X \ 1 1 

gibeciere [jip.'^ji::!"] gi p. SO 




gibier [sibje] ^' p. 80 xxxix 
gibus [3iby:s] s p. 109 li 
gigantesque [sigatesk] gi p. 80 


Gigogne [sigoji] Gi p. 80 xxxix 
gigot [sigo] gi p. 80 xxxix; t p. 

163 Lxvi 
Gil Bias [5il bla:s] s 274 
gilet [sile] et 92; gi p. 80 xxxix 
gingembre [sesfubr] gi, ge p. 80 


Girault [siro] I 223 

girouette [sirwet] gi p. 80 xxxix 

gisant [sizci] s 2G9 

gisent [3i:z] s 269 

gisons [siso] [3izo] s 269 

gite [5i(:)t] i 95; g 201; gi p. 80 


Glascow [glazko] s p. 162 lxv 
gloire [glwair] g 195 
glorieuse [gbrjo:z] eu 115 
glose [gloiz] 101 
gn [ji] 195, 207, 329; [gn] 200, 

gnome [gnoim] [gno:m] gn 200 
gnostiques [gnostik] gn 200 
gnou [gnu] gn 200 
gobbe [gob] 66 p. 68 xxvii 
Goethe [goit] p. 163 lxvi 
gogo [gogo] ^0 p. 79 XXXVIII 
golfe [golf] p. 43 XI 
gomme [gom] go p. 79 xxxviii 
gond [go] on p. 56 xxi B 
gonfler [gofle] go p. 79 xxxviii 
Gonzague [gozag] Go p. 79 


Goritz [gorits] z p. 122 lviii 

gosse [gos] 107 
Goth [go] t 301 
gouache [gwa^] oua 156 
gouleux [gulo] I p. 87 xliii 
Gounod [guno] d p. 74 xxxiv, p. 

163 LXVI 
gout [gu] ou 119, 128; g 195 
gouvernail [guvernaij] a 61 
grace [gra:s] d 58 
Gracques (les) [grak] p. 162 lxv 
graiUon [graj5] a 63 
graisse [gre:s] ai 84,. 123, 321 
grammaire [grameir] mm 233 
grammatical [gra(m)matikal] 

?nm 238; m p. 96 xlvii 
grammaticalement [gramatikal- 

ma] 7nm p. 94 xlv 
grand [gra] c? 189; gr 195 
grande [gru:d] an p. 51 xviii 
grandement [grfidma] en 131 
grand et bien fait [gra e bje fe] d 

granit [granit] [grani] t 299, 300, 

p. 117 LII, p. 163 LXVI, lxvii 

grasse [gru:s] a 60 

grasseyer [graseje] ey 90, 125, 

159, 323, p. 36 viii, p. 49 xvi 
gratis [grati:s] s 275, p. 156 lxiv 
grave [gra:v] 28" 
grec [grek] c p. 70 xxx 
greffier [grefje] ff 167 
grele [gre:l] e 85 
greler [grele] e 86 
grenouille [granuij] oidlle 226; 

e p. 30 v; p. 156 lxiv 
gresil [greziij] [grezi] [grezil] il 

226, 228, 229 



grief [grief] / p. 76 xxx\a, p. 163 


gril [gri] il 230, p. 163 Lxvi 
Grimm [grim] imm 139 
Gringoire [gregwair] p. 79 


grise [gri:z] p. 19 ii; i p. 37 ix 
Greenland [groela], popular 
[groenlu] d p. 74 xxxiv; p. 162 


grog [gro(:)g] g 206 

grognon [grojio] gn p. 81 XL 

gros [gro] o 100 

groseille [groze:j] ill p. 90 xliv 

grosse [gro:s] [gros] o 100 

grosseur [grosceir] cu p. 45 xiii 

grossier [grosje] o 100 

gu l)cfore e, i, ij [g] 195, 196, 329; 

before i [gip] 198; before a [gw] 

Guadalaxara [gwadalaksara] (hia 

Guadalupe [g\vad;ilyp] Gua 199 
Guadalquivir [gwadalkivi:r] ua 

156; p. 162 LXV 
Guadeloupe [gsvadlup] vxi 156, 

]). 162 LXV 
Guam [gAvam] Giia 199 
guano [gwano] ua 156 
Guarda [gwarda] Grm 199 
Guarini [gwarinij Gua 199 
Guatemala [gwatemala] lui 156; 

(ilia 19'.) 
Guayaquil [gwajakil] Giui 199 
gue Ige] (ja 195, 329 
guenille [gimi(!)j] e p. 30 v; gu j). 

79 xxxviii 

guepe [gc:p]e85; gup. 79 xxxviii 
-guer [ge] u 197 
guerilla [gerilla] ill p. 156 lxiv 
guerir [geri:r] gu p. 79 xxxviii 
Guemesey [gernze] e p. 162 lxv 
guerre [ge:r] gu p. 79 xxxviii 
guet [ge] gu p. 79 xxxviii 
guet-apens [get apa] t p. 163 

gueule [goel] [go:!] eu p. 156 lxiv 
gueuse [go:z] eu 14, p. 44 xii, p. 

49 XVI 
gueux [go] eu p. 49 xvi, p. 156 

guichet [gi^e] t p. 163 lx\t: 
guide [gi(:)d] gu 195, p. 79 

Guillaume [gijo:m] ill 224 
guillemets [gijme] 419 
Guise [gi:z] gu 195 
guitare [gita:r] gu p. 79 xxxviii 
Guizot [gizo] [gwizo] gu 195, 

p. 163 LXVI 
gun [g(t'] un p. 56 xxi B 
Gunther [g5te:r] un 142 
guttural [gytyral] gu p. 79 


Guy [gi] Gu p. 79 xxxviii 
Guyane [gqijan] uy p. 162 lxv 
Guyenne (laj [gqijen] uy p. 162 

Guyot [gijo] gu 195 
gymnase IsiiniuKz] ijmn 140; gij 


gymnaste [^iiima-sl] g 201 
gymnastique [simnastik] m 234; 
gij p. SO XXXIX 



As neither h aspiree nor h muette are pronounced (210), they are 
absent phonetically. But as neither elision nor linking take place 
before h aspiree, this fact is shown by writing all words" containing h 
aspiree with an inverted comma before the h, thus 'h. 

Nevertheless an h more or less aspirate may be heard: 1° In cer- 
tain interjections: ha! halte! han! hop la! hue! ohe! oho! 2o In 
words of an onomatopoetic origin, particularly when expressive of 
violent emotion : haleter, Han d'islande, heler, hennir, hurler. 3o In 
emphatic utterance: une haine effroyable; la houle s'enfle; c'est une 
honte! 4° Even in some words where no h is written: Baal [bahal]; 
fleau [fleho]; geant [sehu]; monstrueux [mostryho], and sometimes in 
le onze [la ho:z] most probably due to analogy of la honte. But such 
cases do not appear to represent normal usages. Cf. Kr. Nyrop: 
Maiiuel phonetique dufrangais parle,2'' ed., traduite et remaniee par 
Emmanuel Philipot, Paris, 1902. 

h [aS] [(h)a] 22, 24; [h] 210, mute 
and aspirate 208-215; 309, 
312, 379, 390, 391 

habillons [abijo] ill p. 90 xliv 

habit [abi] t 295 

'hache [a^] c/i 4; /i 211 

'hachis [a^i] h 211 

'hagard [aga:r] A 211 

'haie [v] h 211 

'haillon [a jo] a 63, p. 25 iv 

'haillons [cijo] h 211 

'haine [en] /i 211, p. 163 lxvi 

'hair [ai:r] 33; /i 211; i p. 156 


haleine [al8(:)n] ei p. 49 xvi 

'haler [ale] h 211 

'haler [ale] h 211 

'haleter [alte] A 211 

'Halifax [ahfaks] x p. 121 lvii 

'halle [al] /i211 

'haUier [alje] h 211 

'halte [ah] /i 211 

'hamac [amak] c 178, 340, 341; 

A 211 
'Hambourg [abu:r] ^205; H 211 

g p. 162 Lxv 
'hameau [amo] h 211 
'hanap [anap] p 250 
'hanche [5^] h 211 
'hangar [aga:r] h 211 
'hanneton [ant5] h 211 
'hanter [ate] A 211 
'harangue [ara:g] A 211 
'harasser [arase] h 211 
'hardes [ard] A 211 
'hardi [ardi] h 211 
'hareng [ara]/( 211 
'hargneux [arjio] h 211; gn p. 81 


'haricot [ariko] h 211 
'harnais [arne] h 211 
'Harold [arold] d p. 74 xxxv 
'harpe [arp] h 211 
'harpon [arp5] h 211 



•hart [a:r] h 211 

'hasard [aza:r] h2ll 

'hate [dit] /i 211; d p. 25 iv 

'haubert [obe:r] /t 211 

'hausser [ose] /i 211 

'haut [o] h2ll] t p. 117 liv 

'Haute (parfaite) consideration 

[o:t (parfet) k5sidcrasj5] 428 
'hauteur [ota?:r] eu p. 45 xiii 
'Havane [avan] // 211; a p. 162 


'have [a:v] h 211 

'Havre [u:vr] [a:vr] H 211 

'havresac [avrasak] [a\'Tasak] 

/t 211 
'Hawai [awai] p. 162 lxv 
'helas [clu:s], old [elci] a 60, p. 25 

IV ; s 275; p. 163 lxvii; a, s p. 

156 LXiv 
Helvetien [elvesje] t 286 
'hennir [ani:r], popular [eni:r] e 

55; en 134, p. 21 in, p. 156 

LXiv, p. 163 Lxvi; h 211; nn 

p. 96 XLVi 
'hennissement [anismu], popular 

(tnisinri] en j). 163 Lxvii 
'Henri (aril 7/211 
Herault [cro] / 223 
'heraut (heraut j [cro] /t 21 1 ; < 2'J5, 

p. 117 Liv; 
herbe [rrb] c 91, p. 36 viii 
Herculanum [crkylanam] m 235 
hermes [( Tmt(:)s] « j). 109 Li 
Hermione |(;niij.>ii] o 111 
heroicomique |fT.)ik.)iiiik) k 214 
heroine |ir.)iii| It 211 
heroique |ir.)ik| // 21 1 

heroiquement [eroikmu] /i 214 

heroisme [eroism] [eroizm] h 214 

'heron [er5] /i 211 

'heros [ero]/i211,214, p. 163lxvi 

'hetre [e:tr] e 85; h 211 

heure [oe:r] eu p. 45 xiii, p. 161 

heureuse [a-roiz] eu 115 
heureux [cxto] [oro] [are] eu 114, 

127, 326, p. 44 xii, p. 156 

Lxiv; X 315 
'heurter [oert e] /i 21 1 ; cm p. 45 xiii 
hex- 310, 312 
hexagone [ogzagon] [egzagoin] 

[egzagon] [egzagoin] [eksago:n] 

o 111; X 312 
hexametre [cgzametr] [egzametr] 

[eksainctr] x 312 
hiatus [jaty:s] s 275, p. 156 lxiv, 

J). 163 Lxvi; linking or elision 

'hibou [ibu] h 211 
'hideuse [idoiz] eu p. 44 xii 
'hideux [i.lo] h 211 
hier [jt;:r] [i(j)e:r] ie 152, p. 60 

XXIII ; r 263, j). 156 lxiv; link- 
ing or elision optional 
'hierarchie [jerar^i] h 211 
Himalaya [inialaja] p. 162 LXV 
hippodrome [ipodrom] [ipodronn] 

o \\\ 
hippopotame [ip;)pjtani] ;; p. 98 


'hisser [isc] h 211 

Histoires des croisades (istwa:r 

(If krw(iza(:)(l] // 101 
hiver (ivt:r] r 2(>3, p. 150 lxiv 



*hoia [ola] a 50 
•HoUande [ola:d] ff 211 
'homard [oma:r] h 211 
homme [om] mm 233 ; in p. 57 xxii 
•Hongrie [5gri] H 211 
honnetete [onette] nn 146 
honneur [onoeir] nn 239; ew p. 49 


honorable [onora(:)bl] n 146 

'honte [5:t] h 4, 211, p. 163 lxvi 

hopital [opital] 6 97, p. 43 xi 

'hoquet [oke] h 211 

Horatien [orasje] t 286 

Horatius [orasjys] t p. 117 liii 

horrible [orribl] rr 168 

'hors [o:r] h 211 

*hors d'oeuvre [or d oe:vr] h 2\l 

'hors ligne [or liji] h 211 

hosanna [oza(n)na] o 101 

hospice [ospis] o 110, p. 43 xi 

hostie [osti] ti 290 

hostile [ostil] o 108, p. 43 xi 

hotel [otel] 6 97, p. 43 xi 

'houblon [ublo] h 211 

'houille [u:j] h 211 

'hourra [ura] /i 211 

'housse [us] /i 211 

*houx [u] h 211; ou p. 45 xiv; 

X p. 122 LVii 
'huant [ija] wan 162 
'huche [ySl h 211 
Hudson [ytso] d p. 162 lxv 
'Hugo [ygo] // 211 
'huguenot [ygno] /i 211 
'Hugues [yg] p. 162 lxv 
huile [iii(:)l] ui 4, p. 64 xxv 
huissier [qisje] mi p. 64 xxv 

♦halt [qit] h 31, 211, 213, 371; t 

298, 302; p. 156 lxiv 
'huitaine [ijiten] h 213 
*huit enf ants [qit afa] I p. 156 lxiv 
'huit heures [qit a'lr] t 302 
'huitieme [qitjem] h 31, 213, 215, 

317, 371, 390 
'huitiemement [qitjemma] h 213 
'huit jours [qi suir] t p. 156 lxiv 
'huit poire s [qi pwa:r] t 302 
Humbert [5be:r] um 142 
humble [de:bl] um 4, 14, 144, p. 

56 XXI 
humblement [oebbma] um 144, 

p. 56 XXI 
'huppe [yp] /i 211 
'hurlement [yrbma] e 393 
'hurler [yrle]/i211 
'hussard [ysa:r] h2\l 
'hussite [ysit] h p. 152 lxiii 
'hutte [yt] h 211 
'hyacinthe [jase:t] ?/a 152; ?/ 154; 

'Hyacinthe [jaseit] p. 162 lxv 
hygiene [i3Je:n] ih p. 60 xxiii 
hymen [imen] [ime] en 133; n 

241, p. 96 XLVi, p. 156 lxiv, 

p. 162 lxv 
hjonne [imn] ymn 140, p. 156 


hypocrite [ipokrit] y 96 

i [i] 22, 24; 94, 120; [j] 153; 383, 

i [i] 94, 95 



-ia [ja] 152 

-iai [je] 152 

-ian [ja] 161, 162 

-iau [jo] 152 

ibidem [ibidem] p. 161 XIV 

ibis [ibi:s] s 275 

ici [isi] i p. 37 ix 

idem [idem] em 134, p. 163 Lxvi; 

p. 161 XIV; m 235 
idiome [idjomi] o 14, 111 
idiote [id jot] io 152 
idyUe [idil] ijll 232, p. 156 lxiv 
-ie, -ie [je] [je] 152 
-ieil [je:j] il 226 
-ieille [jeij] iU 226 
-ien [je] en 135, 136, 161, 162; 

[ja] en 135, Note 
-lent of verbs ^351 
-ieu [jo] 152 
if [if]/ p. 76 XXXVI 
ignoble [iji,)bl] (jn p. 81 XL 
ignorant [ijura] gn p. 81 xl; o p. 

(i)il [(i)j] il 226 
(i)ille [(i)j] ill 226 
U [il] [i] 31, 386, 389 
-il [j] [il] 01, 118, 127, 150, 155, 

224-227, 329; final [il] [i] [j] 

il conquiert une province |il 

kr)kj(:r yn i)r.)vf:.s] / MSO 
il court au feu [il kii:r o fo] I 356 
(ilj coiite [(ilj kiit] on j). 45 xiv 
ile |ir:jl) i 29, 95 
il ecrit une reponse [il ckrit yn 

rop.ji.s] I 334 
il en a dix [ilrmadi.s] J- p. 121 i-\ii 

il est alle aux Arts et metiers [il 
et ale oz a:rz e metje] A p. 153 


il est done arrive [il c dok arive] 

il est fort et bien bati [il e fo:r e 

bje buti] t 352 
il est grand et beau [il e gra e 

bo] (/ p. 141 LX 
il est leger et etourdi [il e le5e e 

eturdi] /• 347 
il est suspect i son parti [il e 

sj'spek a so jjarti] [il c sj'spc a 

s5 parti] ccl 353 
il est venu vendredi Ie trois mars 

[il 8 vany vadrodi la trwa 

mars] v, m 398 
il etudie Ie franfais [il etydi la 

frase] / 399 
il extravaguait [il ckstravage] 

(]\i(i 197 
il faut ecrire [il fot ekrin] t 333 
il faut essayer [il fot eseje] t 350 
il harangua [il araga] gua 197 
m- [il] 232 
-m [j] [il] 42, 168; 91, 118, 127, 

150, 155, 224-227, 232, 329 
il I'a [i 1 a] 384 
il I'aime [il e:m] 388 
illegal [illegal] II 168; ill 231 
illettre [ilictre] I 43 
illimite [illimite] II 108 
illisible [i(ljlizi(:)bl] I 43; ill 231; 

i p. 37 IX 
illusion [illyzjo] II 168 
illustre [illystr] II 168 
illustrer [idjiysire] ill 231 



n m'a dit: «Faites-le toujours)) 

[il ni a di: ((fct lo tu3u:r»] 7, F 

(il) meurt [(il) mcc:r] eu p. 45 xiii 
il meurt avec courage [il moe:r 

avck kuniis] t 356 
il ne salt pas [il na se pa] e 394 
il nous aime [il nuz e:m] s 332 
il rompt [il r5] om p. 55 xx 
ils [il] [i] 31, 389 
ils aiment [ilz c:m] n 244; e 391 
ils aimerent [ilz emeir] n 244 
il salt [il se] [il se] ai 82, 124, 322, 

p. 32 VII, p. 49 XVI 
ils chantent [il yi\\] n 244 
ils chanterent [il ^uteir] n 244 
ils content [il k5:t] e p. 30 vi 
ils haissent [il ais] i p. 156 lxiv 
il se conduit bien en classe [il 

S9 k.xlqi bj£ a kla:s] n 378 
ils entendent [il utu:d] n p. 96 


il s'en va [il s u va] 384 

il serait bon qu'il arrivat au- 

jourd'hui [il sare b5 k il ariva 

03urdqi] t 356 
ils se rendent en classe deux a 

deux [ilsora:dta klaisdoz ado] 

d, X p. 141 Lix 
il s'est offert a le soigner [il s et 

ofe:r a b swajie] t 356 
ils etudient bien [ilz etydi bje] s 

p. 141 LIX 

ils excellent [ilz eksel] e p. 30 vi 
ils finirent [il fini:r] n 244 
ils finissent [il finis] n 244 
ils querront [il kerro] rr 168 

il tient a cela [il tjet a sala] t 351 

il vainc [il ve] c p. 71 xxxi 

il vient a temps [il vjet a tu] t 

il y a [il j a] ?/ 153 
il y en a [il j un a] y 153 
H y a cinq ans [il j a sek a] q p. 

141 LIX 

il y en a neuf [il j dn a ncef] / 194 
il y en a sept, huit, vingt [il j u 

a set, qit, veit] t 302 
im [e] 135; [im] 138 
image [ima:5] im 138; m p. 57 


imbecile [ebesil] im 135 
imbecillite [ebesi(l)lite] ill 232 
imbroglio [ebroljo] g 204 
-imes [im] i 15 
imltable [imitabl] im 138 
imite [imite] i p. 37 ix 
imm- [im] 138, 168, 238 
immacule [iinakyle] imm 138; 
7nm, p. 94 xlv; m p. 96 xlvii 
immanent [immana] mm 168 
immediat [i(m)medja] m 43; im, 

p. 163 LXVI, LXVII 

immense [imu:s] imm 138; mm 

168, p. 94 xLv; m p. 96 xlvii; 

im. p. 156 lxiv 
immeuble [i(m)moe(:)bl] m p. 

90 xlvii; im p. 156 lxiv 
immigration [imigrasjo]Mnm 138, 

imminent [i(m)mina] mm p. 57 


immobile [immobil] m.m 168; iin 
p. 156 LXIV 



immodeste [i(m)mod8st] mm p. 

57 XXII ; im p. 156 lxiv 
hmnoler [imolo] m p. 96 xlvii; 

im p. 156 LXIV 
immonde [immoid] m 43 
immoral [i(m) moral] mm 168, 

238; im p. 156 lxiv 
immortel [i(in)mortel] mm p. 94 

XLv; m p. 96 xlvii 
immune [immyn] mm 168 
impartial [t-parsjal] I 282 
impartialite [eparsjalite] t p. 117 


impatiemment [epasjama] t 287 
impatience [fpasjuis] t 287 
impatient [epasja] t 287 
impatientant [fpasjata] I 287 
impatienter [r-pasjuto] t 287 
importun [fi).)rt(l'] un p. 56 xxi 
imposant [r-poza] im 45 
impot [v]io] I 295 
Imprimes [rprime] 431 
impromptu [r-pr5i)ty] p 248 
in l£i 135, 243, p. 56 xxi B; 161; 

[in] 138, 146, 242 
inaction [inaksj")] n p. 96 xlvi 
inadequat [inadckvva] p. 117 liv 
inanime [iniiniriic] n 146, 239 
inaper^u [iiiaprrsy] in 138 
inattentif (inatfitif] /( 146 
incognito |rk.)jiito] (jii 40 
incomprehensibilite [rk.lprcd- 

.sil)ilit(l 25 
inconstant [ek.lstu] in 45 
incorrect Irkarfkt] t 296 
incroyable [tkrwaja(:)bl] oij [). 

156 LXIV 

indemniser [edamnize] e 55 
indemnite [cdamnite] c 55; m 234 
index [cdeks] x 310; in p. 53 xix 
indigo [edigo] o 99 
indirect [edirekt] I 296 
in-dix-huit [e diz qit] t 299 
in-douze [£ du:z] in 243, p. 163 


indult [edylt] t 299 

inegal [inegal] in 44 

inerte [inert] in 138 

ineptie [incpsi] ti 292; t p. 117 

Liii; in, t p. 163 lxvi 
inertia [incrsi] ti 292; t p. 117 liii; 

in, t p. 163 LXVI 
inexact [inegzakt] in 44; t 296 
inexpugnable [ine(k)spygna(:)bl] 

(jn 200 
in extenso [in rksteso] n 242 
in extremis [in ekstremis] n 242 
infect [tfekt] / 296 
in-folio [ffjljo] in 243, p. 161 

ingredient [igredju] ien p. 65 


inhabile [inabil] h 39, 209; in 138; 

n p. 96 XLVI 
inhabitable [inahitahl] h 39 
inherent liiicra] n p. 96 xlvi 
inhospitable [inospitahl] h 39 
inhumain [iiiyniC] h 39 
inimitie [iiiiniiljc] ti. 293; / p. 117 


initial linisjai] t 267, 282; in, I p. 

156 lxiv 
initiation |ini.sja.sj5] ti 293 
initiative |illi^jati:v] i p. 37 ix 



initier [inisje] ti 293; t p. 117 liii 
inn- [in] 138 

inne [inne] n 43; inn 138, 168; 

nn 239, p. 57 xxii, p. 156 lxiv 

innocemment [inosama] n p. 57 


innocence [inosais] in 44; nn 239 
innocent [inosa] inn 138; «n 146 
innombrable [innSbrabl] n 43; 

in 4A, p. 156 lxiv; inn 138; nn 

p. 96 XL VI 
innovation [inovasjo] n p. 96 

XLVii; in p. 156 lxiv 
innover [innove] nn p. 57 xxii 
in-octavo [inoktavo] n 242; in p. 

163 lxvi 
inodore [inodo:r] n p. 57 xxii 
inoui [inwi] n p. 57 xxii; in p. 

156 LXIV 
in pace [in pase] n 242 
in partibus [in partibys] n 242 
in petto [in petto] n 242 
in piano [in piano] n 242 
in-quarto [ekwarto] in 243; qu 

256; in, u p. 163 lxvi 
inquiet [ekje] qu 254 
in-seize [ese.:z] in. 243 
insomnie [esomni] m 234 
inspirer [espire] in 44 
instant [esta] in 38, 44 
in statu quo [in staty kwo] n 

instiller [esti(l)le] il 232 
instinct [este] in 135; ct 164, p. 

163 lxvi; c p. 71 xxxi; n p. 

96 XLVii 
instruire [estrijiir] in 44 

instrument [estryma] 38 

intact [ttakt] t 296 

intelligence [etelisais] I p. 87 


intelligent [etelisa] II 220 
interet [etere] t 295 
interim [eterim] m 235 
inutile [inytil] in 44, p. 156 


invasion [evasjS] a 60 

-io [jo] 152 

-ion [j5] 161, 162 

iris [iri:s] s 275 

irr- initial [irr] rr 168, 259 

irraisonnable [i(r)rezona(:)bl] r 

p. 104 L 
irrationnel [irrasjonel] rr 168 
irreconciliable [i(r)rek5silja:bl] r 

p. 104 L 
irregulier [i(r)regylje] r p. 104 l 
irreparable [irreparabl] rr 168 
irritable [irritabl] r 43 
irritant [irrita] rr 168 
irruption [irrypsjS] rr 168; r p. 

104 L 
Islam [islam] a 54 
islamisme [islamism] i p. 152 


Islande (1') [isla:d] s p. 162 Lxv 

Israel [izrael] s 271 

isthme [ism] t 301; th p. 156 


italien [italje] ien p. 65 xxvi 
item [item] m 235 
-ites [it] i 15 
-itie [isi] t 281 
-iu [jy] 152 



j [31] [39] 22, 24; [5] 217, 338 

Jacob [sakob] b 171 

Jacob est venue [sakob e vanj^] 

6 339 
Jacques [5a:k] j p. 86 xlii 
jadis [3adi.s] [3adis], old [3adi] 

[3adi] a 64; s 275, p. 156 lxiv, 

p. 163 Lxvii 
j'ai [5 e] 31; ai 82, 124, 322, p. 49 

x^^; J p. 86 xlii 
J'ai rhonneur d'etre, Madame, 

votre tres devoue et respec- 

tueux ami [5 v 1 jna'ir d e:tr, 

madam, voir tre devwe e re- 

spektq0z ami] 429 
j'aime [3 e:m] 384 
jais [5c] j p. 86 XLII 
jalap [5alap] p 250 
j'aUai I5 ale] ai 82 
jalouse [3alu:z] ou p. 45 xrv 
jaloux [5alu] ou p. 45 xiv; x p. 

122 Lvii 
jamais [3ame] ais 90; j 217; ai p. 

36 VIII 
jambe [30 :b] am 131 
Japhet isafct ] t 299 
jardin [3ardf] j p. 86 xlii 
jardiner [sardine] r 262 
j'argue I5 argy] gw; 197 
jars [3a:r] j p. 86 xlii 
jase [3'i:zJ a 60 

j'assieds I3 asje] d p. 74 xxxiv 
jatte l3at] j p. 86 xlii 
jaune l3o:ii] .;' 201 
j'aurai [3 .jre] I3 ore] ai 82; au, 

112, 126, 325 

je [39] e 66; 383, 385, 397 
Jean [5a] i 4, 217; e 78, 116, p. 

30 ^t; an p. 51 xviii, p. 56 

Jean est petit [3U e pati] n 377 
Jean et Alexis [3a e aleksi] t p. 

141 LX 

Jeanne [30:11] e 78, 116, p. 30 vi; 

ca p. 163 Lxvi 
je chantai [3a Sate] ai 124, 321 
je chanterai [3a Satre] ai 322 
je conduirai [3a kodqire] ai p. 49 


je confonds [3a kofo] d p. 74 

je conjuguais [5a kosyge] gua 197 
je courrai [3a kurre] rr 168 
je distinguai [3a distege] gua 197 
je dois aller [3a dwaz ale] s 333 
je donnerai [3a donre] ai p. 32 


je faisais [30 faze] ai p. 156 lxiv 
je le crois [3a 1 krwa] e 73 
je le donne [3a 1 don] e 73 
je louerai [3a lure] e p. 30 vi 
je mangeai [3a ma3e] ai 82 
je m'assieds [3a m asje] e 80 
je mords [3a m,):r] d p. 74 xxxiv 
je ne sais pas [3a n se pa] c 394 
Jenny Lind [3cni lind] [senni 

lind] d p. 74 XXXV 
je paierai [3a pejre] e p. 30 vi 
je parlai [3a parle] ai 322 
je parlerais [3a parlrc] ai 321, 

p. 32 VII 
je prevaux [30 prcvo] x p. 122 




je repands [59 repa] d p. 74 


je romps [59 r5] p p. 157 lxiv 

Jersey berze] s 271 

Jerusalem [seryzalem] em 134, 

Jerusalem est vaincu [seryzalem 

e veky] m 374 
je sais [3a se] [30 se] ai 82, 124, 

322, p. 32 VII 
Jesus [3ezy(:s)] j p. 86 xlii, p. 

156 lxiv 
Jesus-Christ [5ezy kri] [5ezy 

krist] s 272; < 301; s, st p. 156 

lxiv, p. 161 XIV 
jet bd j 217 

jeu [50] j 201 ; eu p. 44 xii 
jeudi [30di] eu 114, p. 44 xii, p. 

49 XVI 
jeun [3*] eun p. 56 xxi B 
jeune [30011] eu 118, 127, 327, p. 

jeune [30:11] eu 114, 127 
jeuner [50ne] eH 114, p. 49 


jeunesse [scenes] eu p. 44 xii 

jeuneur [30noe:r] eH p. 49 xvi 

jeuneuse [30n0!z] etl p. 49 xvi 

(j')eus [3y] u p. 46 xv 

je verrai [53 verre] ai 82 

je viendrai [50 vjSdre] ai 82 

Je vous embrasse tendrement 

(affectueusement) [39 vuz 

ahras tcidroma (af8ktii0zmu)] 

Je vous prie d'agreer I'expres- 

sion de ma consideration dis- 

tingue e [30 vu pri d agree 
1 ekspresjo da ma kosiderasjS 
distege] 428 

Je vous prie de croire a I'expres- 
sion de mes meilleurs senti- 
ments [■59 vu pri dd krwair a 
1 ekspresjo do me mejocir su- 
tima] 428 

Je vous prie, Madame, d'agreer 
I'expressionde meshommages 
respectueux [33 vu pri, ma- 
dam, d agree 1 ekspresjo da 
mez oma:3 respektqo] 429 

Je vous serre cordialement la 
main [39 vu se:r kordjalina la 
me] 427 

Je vous souhaite une bonne at 
heureuse annee [39 vu swet yn 
bon e oer0:z anc] 430 

j'irai [5 ire] ai p. 49 xvi 

j'irais [3 ire] ai 321, 322 

Joab [3oab] b 171 

Joab etait neveu de David [scab 
cte novo da duvid] b 339 

Joad [3oad] d p. 74 xxxv 

joaillerie [swajri] oaille 226 

joaillier [5wajc] oaille 226 

Job [30b] b 171 

jockey [soke] [soke] k 218 

joindre [sweidr] in 136, p. 53 xix 
oi p. 62 xxiv; j p. 86 xlii 

joint [swe] j p. 86 xlii 

joli [3oli] [3a-li] j 201, 217 

jonc [30] c 179, 340; on p. 56 xxi 
B;j p. 86 XLII 

jonquille [s^kiCOj] j P- 86 xlii 

Joseph [sozef] j p. 86 xlii 



Josephine [sozefin] j p. 86 xlii 
jouai [3we] oua p. 62 xxrv 
jouant [5\va] ouan p. 65 xxvi 
jouer [5we] oue 156, p. 62 xxiv; 

j p. 86 XLII 
jouer aux echecs [5we oz c^e] c 

p. 71 XXXI 
jouet [5\\t] oue 156 
joueur [5\va?:r] oueii 156 
joueuse (5\vo:z] oiieu 156 
joug (5u] [5u(:)g] g 205, 206, 365, 

p. 156 LXiv, p. 163 Lxvii 
jouir f5\vi:r] 36 
joujou [5U5U] on 128, 328, p. 45 

jouons [5w5] ouon 162 
jour \yr.r\ on 1 10, p. 45 xiv 
Journal des Savants [suriial dc 

savul ./, .S 406 
joumee [surne] j p. 86 xlii 
joute [sut] j p. 86 xlii 
jouter [suto] on p. 49 xvi 
joyeusement [swajozma] e 393 
Joyeuse Noel [3wajo:z noel] 430 
joyeux (swajit] _; p. 86 xlii 
judaisme [sydaisin] [^ydaizm] ./ 

Judas (,syd(i] (I 59 
Judith l.sydil) Ih 299 
juge " 1-0 
juif l^qifl / 192; j \). 86 xlii 
juillet (syjfftjl [3yljt-(t)l (z'li- 

jcftj] uille 226, p. 1()3 lxvi 
juin \^\\£\ in 136, p. 53 xix; %dn 

162; ./ 1). 86 XLii 
julep l.iylcpl i> 250 

Jules l.yVl]./ p. SC) XI-! I 

Julian [syljc] j p. 86 xlii 

jumelles [symel] j p. 86 xlii 

Jupiter [3ypitc:r] r 263 

jus [3y] s 273 

jusqu'a [3ysk a] 386 

jusqu'a la mort de Henri IV 

[3y,sk a la mo:r d ari katr] // 

jusqu'alors [3ysk al.iir] 386 
jusque [] e 386 
jusqu'en [5ysk a] 386 
jusqu'ici [3\'sk isi] 386 
juste [s.yst] j 217; u p. 46 xv 
jute [3yt] j p. 86 xlii 

k [ka] [ko] 22, 24; [k] 218, 255; 

final [k] 165, 343 
kepi [k(>pi] k 218 
kilo [kilo] k 21s . 
kilogramme [kibgram] k 218 
kilometre [kibmctr] 22; k 218 
kiosque [kj.)sk] k 218 
kirsch Ikir^] .sc/i 278 
Kleber [klchfir] r 263 
knout lUnut] / 299 
Kremlin [krcinlf] m 235 

1 |fl] [b]22, 24; 91; final [1] 165, 
221, 344; liquid [j] 155, 224- 
228, 329; .silent 223, 230 

la llal a 31, 49, 385, 3S8, p. 21 
III, p. S7 xLHi; I 220; 110 

la llal // .")() 



La balle etait derriere une chaise 
au salon [la bal ete derjeir yn 
5e:z o sal3] e 395 

la basse Bretagne [la bas brataji] 
5 410 

la BastiUe [la basti(:)j] B p. 153 


I'abbe de I'Epee [1 abe da 1 epe] 

la Beotie [la beosi] t 281 
la Biographle Didot [la biografi 

dido] B, D 403 
laboureur [laburoc:r] on p. 45 


la Bruyere [la bryjc:r] B 410 
lac [lak] a p. 21 iii; c p. 70 xxx 
I'Academie des sciences [1 aka- 

demi de sjciis] .4 404 
la caisse d'epargne [la ke:s 

d eparji] c, e p. 153 lxiii 
La campagne est belle et agre- 

able en juin [la kapaji e bel e 

agrea(:)bl a 3we] e 395 
la cathedrale d' Amiens est ma- 

gnifique [la katedral d aniji(n) 

e majiifik] s 368 
lacet [Inse] [lase] a 64 
la chambre des lords [la 5a:br de 

b:r] I p. 153 lxiii 
la chambre des pairs [la Su:br de 

pe:r] p p. 153 lxiii 
la chancellerie de la Legion 

d'honneur [la ^us^lri da la 

le5J5 d onoe:r] L p. 153 lxiii 
lache [la:S] ch 182 
la Chevre et la Brebis [la Se:vr e 

la brobi] C, B 407 

la congregation de Saint-Lazare 

[la kogregasjo da se laza:r] S, 

la cote d'Or [la kot d oir] c, O 418 
la cour des Miracles [la ku:r de 

miraikl] M 405 
la Critique de I'Ecole des 

femmes [la kritik da 1 ekol de 

fam] C, E 406 
lacs [lak] a 54; c 180 
la demande [la dma:d] e 394 
la Divine Comedie [la divin ko- 

medi] D, C 402 
I'administration des domains 

[1 administrasjo de dome(!)n] 

p. 153 lxiii 
I'administration des douanes 

[1 administrasJD de dwan] p. 

153 lxiii 
I'administration des monnaies 

[1 administrusj5 de mone] p. 

153 lxiii 
I'administration des postes [1 ad- 

ministrasjS de post] p. 153 

la dynastie merovingienne [la 

dinasti merovesjen] d, m 408 
la dynastie napoleonienne [la 

dinasti napoleonjen] d, n 408 
La Fayette [la fajet] y 154; ay p. 

163 Lxvi 
la fontaine des Innocents [la 

f5te(:)n dez inosa] / 405 
la Genisse [la genis] G 407 
la Geographie de Crozat [la seo- 

grafi da kroza] G, C 403 
La Guar da [la gwarda] Gua 199 



la guerre eclate entre eux [la 

geir eklat atr o] e 392 
la hache [la aS) h 216 
la haie [la e] h 216 
la halle aixx bles [la al o ble] h 

p. 153 Lxiii 
la halle aiix cuirs [la al o kqi:r] 

h p. 153 LXIII 
la halle aux draps [la al o dra] 

h p. 153 LXIII 
la halle aux poissons [la al o 

pwaso] h p. 153 lxiii 
la harpe [la arp] h 21Q 
la Haute-Mame [la o:t mam] 

H, M 410 
la Havane [la avan] // 410 
laHaye [la e] 7/211 
la honte [la 5:t] h 210, 379 
laid [It] c 76 

laid animal [kt animal] d 363 
laide [le:d] c 76, p. 30 vi 
I'aigle de Meaux (Bossuet) 

[1 e(:)gl da mo (bosqe)] M, B 

p. 153 LXIII 
I'aigle de Patmos (saint Jean) 

[1 e(:)gl do patmjs {av. 3uj] /-", 

J p. 153 LXIII 
Laissez la porte et la fenetre 

ouvertes [ la port e la fnc:tr 

uvert] e 395 
lait [Ic] I p. 87 XLiii 
laiterie [ktri] 46 
la Jeune Femme colere [la 5(111 

faiFi koU:r| ./, F 402 
la legation russe k Berlin [la 

ic(^(isjo rys a btrlt] r p. 153 


la Mare au diable [la ma:r o 
dja(:)bl] [la ma:r o dja:bl] M 

Tambassade tiirque a Paris 
[labasa(:jd tyrk a pari] t p. 
153 LXIII 

lame [lam] ;« 233 

I'ame [I aim] 388 

Lamennais [lamne] e p. 30 \t: 

I'amirautee de Londres [1 ami- 
rote da lo:dr] L p. 153 lxiii 

lampe [lu:p] am 131, p. 51 x^^II 

la musee de Versailles [la myze 
do ^■tTsu:j] V p. 153 lxiii 

I'an [1 a] an p. 56 xxi B; I p. 87 


I'Ancien Testament [1 usje tes- 

taiim] A, T 402 
I'Ange de I'ecole (saint Thomas 

d'Aquin) [1 0:3 do 1 ok,)l (sc 

t JUKI d akt-)] -1, T p. 153 lxiii 
I'ange des tenebres (le diable) 

[1 ("1:5 de tene(:)br (lo dja:bl)] I 

]). 153 lxiii 
langue [ld:g] ayi p. 56 xxi B 
langue d'ofl [la:g d ail] [la:g 

d j(:)j] (7 229 
la Nouvelle-Ecosse [la nuvtl 

ckos] 422 
la Nouvelle Heloise [la nuvel 

(■l.)i:z] .V, // 402 
la Nouvelle-Orleans [la nuvel 

orlc'u] 422 
lanteme [lot em] t 279 
Laon |lu] o 103 
la onzieme [la ozjnn] 390 
la ouate [la wat] 215, 371 



la petite [la ptit] e 394 

la Petite Fadette [la patit fadet] 

P, F 402 
lapis [lapiis] s p. 109 li 
la place Saint-Marc a Venise [la 

plas semair a vaniiz] c 340 
la porte Saint-Martin [la jaort sg 

iiiarte] S 409 
laps [laps] p 248; s 275 
I'archeveque Blanchet [1 ar^svek 

blaSe] B 41 1 
la reforme de Sainte-Therese [la 

reform da se:tterE:z] S, T 417 
la regie des tabacs [la resi de 

taba] r, t p. 153 lxiii 
la reine d'Angleterre [la rem 

d agbteir] .4 414 
la reine d'Espagne [la rem d es- 

paji] E 414 
largeraent [larsama] c 393 
largeur [lar3oe:r] eu p. 45 xiii 
la robe est rouge [la ro(:)b e 

ru:5] c 392 
La Rochefoucauld [la rj^fuko] I 

223; d p. 74 xxxiv 
la RocheUe [la roSel] i? 410 
I'Arsenal [1 arsonal] A p. 153 


I'art oratoire [1 a:rt oratwa:r] t 

la rue de la Bruyere [la ry da la 

l)ryje:i] B 410 
la rue de I'Ecluse [la ry da 

1 ekly:z] E 410 
larynx [lareiks] yn 135; x 310 
las [la] a 59; s 273; I p. 87 xliii 
la semaine [la sme(:)n] e 394 

lasser [Icise] a 59 

lasting [laste:g] g 206 

Latium [lasjom] t 288 

la tour de Babel (c'est a dire, de 

la Confusion) [la tu:r da babel 

(s et a di:r da la kofyzj5)j B, C 

p. 153 Kxiii 
la toty de Londres [la tuir da 

l5:dr] L p. 153 lxiii 
la tour des Vents a Athene [la 

tu:r de vaz a atem] V, A p. 

153 lxiii 
laudanimi [lodanom] u 113; um 

p. 163 Lxvi 
Laure [b:r] au 112, 126, 325, p. 

43 XI, p. 49 XVI 
laurier [brje] au 112, 126, 325 
I'autocrate de toutes les Russies 

[1 ot jkrat do tut le rysi] /? 413 
Lauzun [lo3fJe] un p. 56 xxi 
la vallee de la Vision [la vale da 

la vizjo] V p. 153 lxiii 
lave [la:v] a p. 21 iii 
la Vieille roche [la vje(:)j ro^] V 

la Vieille tante [la vje(:)j ta:t] V 

la yole [la jol] 371 
le [la] e 66, 383, 385, 391; I 410 
-le final 222, 260 
I'eau [1 o] I p. 87 xliii 
le bas Canada [la ba kanada] C 

le Beam [ijeair] n p. 96 xlvi 
le bceuf gras [la boe graj / 193 
le bon et le mauvais [la bo e la 

move] n 377 



le bon sens [lo bo sci] s 275 

le bourg est en fete [lo bmrk et 
u fc:t] g p. 1-11 Lix 

le Caire [lo ke:r] C 410 

le Camoens [lo kamotis] C 410 

le cap des Tempetes [lo kap de] T lOr, 

le Capitole a Toulouse trans- 
forme en hotel de ville [la ka- 
pitol a tulu:z trusforme an 
otel do vil] C, T p. 153 lxiii 

le chant gregorien [b $& gre- 
gorjt] ;/ :i\}{) 

le chapeau d'Henri [b Sapo d dri] 
H 212 

le Chatelet [lo ^dtk-] C p. 153 


le chemln est court et facile [lo 

Some e ku:r e fat^il] I 352 
le Chene et le Roseau [lo $t:n e 

lo rozo] C, R 407 
le cheval d'Henri [lo 5<^o)val 

(luril // 212 
le Cid [lo si(:jd] d 190; (' 410 
le cinq mars (lo sf:k mcirs] q 346; 

7, .s ]). 150 LXiv 
le Cirque [lo sirk] C p. 153 lxiii 
Leclerc [lokIc:r| c p. 71 xxxi 
le coing est un fruit [lo kwe ct (b 

frqi] (/ 3(55 
I'ecole [1 ckol] 3.S4 
I'Ecole des chartes [1 <kol di; 

Sarlj A' 101 
le comptoir d'escompte |li k.">- 

t \va:r d »sk."»:l | c, r \>. 153 LXiii 
le comte de la Guiche [lo ko:t do 


le comte de Monte Cristo [la 

koit do mote kristo] M, C 411 

lefon [l(o)s5] on p. 55 xx; f p. 70 


le Conservatoire de musique [lo 

kof:crvatwa:r do myzik] C 404 

le Conservatoire des arts et me- 
tiers [lo koservatwair dez a:rz 
c metje] C 404 

le consulat de Smyrna [la kSsyla 
do smirn] .S p. 153 lxiii 

le copeck est une monnaie russe 
[lo koi)fk ft yii inonc rys] k 343 

le couvent des dominicains [b 
kuvd de dominike] c, d p. 153 


le cri des hibottx [lo kri de ibu] h 

lecture (Iikl\':r] u p. 46 xv 
le czar Nicholas [b tsa:r nik,)ki] 

X 411 
le desert aride [lo dezeir arid] t 

le deux points [1.) do pwP] le 420 
le Dictionnaire de I'Academie 

[lo diksjoueir do 1 akadt'iiii] I), 

A 403 
le dix avril [lo dis avri(l)J x j). 

156 LXIV 
le docteur -Allard [I o dokt(i:r 

ala:r] .1 411 
le due d'Enghien (l> dyk d ugi] 

A' J 1 1 
le due de Saint-Simon [1 > dyk do 

sf- .siiii:)] S 109 
le fait est reconnu [lo ft t e ro- 

k.iny] L 354 



le faubourg exterieur [h fobuir 

eksterjoe:r] g 365 
Lefebvre [lofevr] 6 172 
le Flatteur et I'Envieux [b fla- 

ta?:r e 1 avjo] F, E 407 
le fleau [b fleho] /i 216 
le Franfais [lo frdse] F 399 
le froid et le chaud [b frwat e b 

So] d 362 
le general Boulanger [b 3eneral 

bulase] fi 411 
leger [lese] r 262; Z p. 87 XLiii 
legerete [leserte] e 393 
I'eglise de Saint-Pierre [1 cgliiz 

cb se pje:r] S 409 
I'eglise des penitents gris [1 egliiz 

de penita gri] e, p, g p. 153 


I'eglise Saint-Germain-des-Pres 
I [1 egliiz se serme dc pre] *S' 409 
I'eglise Sainte-Marie-aux-Neiges 

[1 egli:z se:t mari o ne.'s] >S' 409 
I'eglise Sainte-Marie-des-Fleurs 

[1 egliiz S8:t mari de flceir] *S' 

le Glossaire de du Cange [b 

gbseir d3 dy ka:3] G, C 403 
Le grand ocean [b grat osea] d 

p. 141 LIX 
legs [Ic] [le(:)g] g 205, p. 156 lxiv, 

p. 163 Lxvii 
le guillemet fermant [b gijme 

ferma] 420 
le guillemet ouvrant [b gijme 

uvra] 420 
le harem attrayant [la arem 

atreja] m 374 

le haricot [b ariko] h 210 
le hasard [b aza:r] h 379 
le Havre [b a:vr] [b a:vr] v 304; 

H 410 
le heraut [b ero] h 214 
le heros [b ero] h 210, 214, 216 
le huit du mois [lo ijit dy mwa] 371 
le huit Janvier [b ijit savje] t 302 
le huit mai [b ijit me] t p. 156 


le huit mars [b qit mars] h 213 
Leibnitz [lebnits] z p. 122 lviii 
Leipsick [Icpsik] i p. 162 lxv 
le Jerusalem delivre [b 3ery- 

zalem delivre] [b zerysalem 

deli\Te] J 401 
le lion de Saint-Marc [la lj5 da 

se mair] c 340 
Le loup court encore [la lu ku:r 

akair] t p. 141 lx 
le Louvre en musee [la lu:vr a 

myze] L p. 153 lxiii 
le Luxembourg en senat [b lyk- 

sabu:r a sena] L p. 153 lxiii 
le Maitre et le Valet [b me:tr e 

la vale] M, V 407 
le Malade imaginaire [b malad 

imasineir] M 401 
le Mans [la ma] M 410 
le marc et le franc sont des 

pieces d'argent [la ma:r e b 

fra so de pjes d arsa] c 340 
le marche au charbon [b mar^e 

o 5arb5] ?n p. 153 lxiii 
le marche aux fieurs [b mar^e 

o floeir] m p. 153 lxiii 
le ministre de I'interieur [b mi- 



nistr da 1 eterjoeir] m, i p. 153 


le ministre des finances [la mi- 
nistr de finais] m, / p. 153 


le mont Saint-Michel W^ m3 se 

mijcl] .S 409 
I'empereur de la Chine [1 uproeir 

dohiSicjn] r 411 
Le nabab est un richard [lo nabab 

ft (Je ri\;a:i] h, t p. 141 lix 
TEncyclopedie de Diderot [1 asi- 

kljpcdi da didrol E, D 403 
lendemain [ladmC] [lanme] p. 

15tj LXIV 

le neuf aout [la ncrf u] / p. 76 


le neuf decembre [la nccf do 

sa:br] / 194 
le neuf de pique [la na'f da pik] 

/ p. 70 XXXVI 
le neuf du mois [la ncef dy mwa] 

/ p. 156 LXIV 
le neuf fevrier [la ncef fevric] / 

p. 76 xxxvi 
le Nil [la nil] il 229 
le notre (la no:tr] 6 97 
le Nouveau-Brunswick [la nuvo 

Imlzvikl 422 
lente [lu:t] en p. 51 xviii 
le onze [la .iiz) 215, 371 
le onzieme (la azjcm] 215 
Leopold (lcop.)ldl d 190 
le oui (la wi) 215 
le palais de justice (la j)alc da 

3y.stis[ /(, j \). 153 LXIII 
le Palais-Royal en tribunal [la 

palerwajal a tribynal] P, R 

p. 153 LXIII 
le Paradis perdu [la paradi perdy 

le parlement d'Angleterre [la 

parlania d aglateir] A p. 153 


le pere de misericorde (Dieu) 
[la i)c:r da mizerikord (djo)] 
D p. 153 LXIII 

le pere du mensonge (Satan) [la 
peir dy mas5:3 (sata)] S p. 153 


le preau [la preho] h 216 

le premier [la pramje] 425 

le premier enfant [la pramjer 

fifd] r :!47 
le premier et le deuxieme [la 

prainjc v la dozjcin] r 347 
le president Fallieres [la prezida 

faljtir] f'411 
le prince de Galles [la pre:s da 

gal] G'411 
le prince de la Paix [la preis da 

la i.t] P 410 
le professeur Croizet [la i)r.)fe- 

s(i>:r krwazr] C 411 
le Puy jla pqi] P 410 
le quai aux Fleurs [la ke o flcEir] 

/'' 405 
le renard et la cigogne [la rana:r 

e la sigaji] d 364 
le rivage troyen [la riva:3 trwaje] 

/ 399 
le roi Alfonse (la rwu alfais] A 41 1 
le roi d'Angleterre [la rwu d ugla- 

tcir] A 411 



le roi de Portugal [b rwa do por- 

tygal] P 414 
le Royaume-Uni de Grande- 

Bretagne et (d')Irlande [la 

rwajoim yni do gru:d brotaji 

e d irlaid] 422 
les [le] [le] e 93; Z 410 
le Sage (Salomon) [b sa:3 (sa- 

lomo)] .S' p. 153 Lxiii 
les Anglo-Saxons [lez agio sakso] 

A, S 408 
les Asiatiques [\vz azjatik] A 399 
les bacchanales [le bakanal] b 

p. 152 LXIII 
les Basses-Pyrenees [le bas pi- 

rene] B, P 410 
les benedictins [le benedilcte] b 

les bons enfants [le boz ufa] s 

Lesbos [lesbo:s] s 274 
les calvinistes [le kalvinist] c 416 
les catholiques [le katolik] c 416 
les cheminees [le ^mine] e 394 
les Commentaires de Cesar [le 

komateir da sezair] C 403 
les cordeliers [le kordalje] c 416 
les Deux Soeurs [le do scE:r] D, 

S 402 
les dominicains [le dominike] d 

le second et le troisieme [b sagS 

e b trwazjem] d 363, p. 141 lx 
Les empereurs Marc Aurele et 

Marc Antoine [lez aproe:r 

mark orel e mark atwan] s, c, I 

p. 141 LIX 

le senat de Rome [b sena da 

r.)in] R p. 153 lxiii 
les enfants [lez ufa] s 331 
les eimemis en fuite [lez enmiz a 

fqit] s 366 
le sens comun [la sa komoe] s 

le sentier escarpe [la satje es- 

karpe] r 349 
le sept mai [b set me] t 302, p. 

157 Lxiv 
les Essais de Montaigne [lez ese 

da m5te:ji] E, M 403 
les Etats-Unis [lez etaz yni] 422 
les Europeens [lez a^ropee] E 399 
les Fausses Confidences [le fos 

kofidcKs] F, C 402 
les Francs Merovingiens [le fra 

meravesje] F, M 408 
les Gallo-Grecs [le gab grek] G 

les habits [lez abi] h 208 
les hardes [le ard] /i 216 
les haricots [le ariko] h 210 
les heures [lez oe:r] h 208 
les hommes [lez am] h 208 
les hommes, les femmes et les 

enfants [lez om, le famz, e lez 

ufa] 420 
les Huns [le re] im p. 56 xxi 
les huttes des sauvages [le yt de 

sova:.,] h 379 
le Sieur [b sjce:r] p. 161 XIV 
lesion [lezja] s p. 109 li 
le six mars [b sis mars] x p. 157 


les jansenistes [le sasenist] j 416 



les larmes aux yeux [le larm oz 

jo] s 370 
les legitimistes [le lesitimist] I 

les lutheriens [k lytcrje] I 416 
les Moldo-Valaques [le moldo 

vahik] M, V 40S 
les montagnes de la Lune [le 

motaji <lo la lyii] L 405 
les nerfs de la guerre [le ne:r da 

la gc:r] / p. 7G xxxvii 
Les oiseaux chantent [lez wazo 

Sa:t] L 396 
les onze enfants [le 5:z afu] 371 
les orleanists [lez jrlcanist] o 416 
les Pays-Bas [le poi ha] 422 
I'esplanade des Invalides [1 es- 

])laiiaf:jd dez fvali(:jd] / p. 

153 LXiii 
les Precieuses ridicules [le pre- 

sjo:z ridikyl] P 401 
les prisonniers du Mont-Saint- 
Michel [le priz.jiije dy m5 se 

iiii\elj ,S' 409 
lesquels [lekei] [lekel] s 272 
les republicains [le ropyblike] r 

les saturnales [le satymal] s p. 

152 LXIII 
Lesseps [Icseps] p p. 98 XLViii 
les socialistes [le] s 416 
Test [1 est] .st p. 156 LXiv 
le steamer [I.t stiifidir] rp. 104 l 
les Turcs Osmanlis [le tyrk 

jsinfilis] T, 408 
le Styx |l.» stiks] x p. 121 lvii 
les uhlans [le yld] 371 

le Sund [b soe:d] d p. 74 xxxv 
le surplomb en est visible [b 

sjTplj un e vizibl] h p. 141 lx 
les Vieux gargons [le vjo garso] 

y 402 
les voltairiens [le volterje] v 416 
I'etang est tout pres [1 etu e tu 

jire] (J 365 
le tender [lo tadeir] r p. 104 l 
le theatre de la Porte-Saint- 
Martin [lo tea:tr do la pjrt se 

martc] S 409 
le Tintoret [lo tetore] T 410 
le trente et un octobre [la tru:t 

e (I> oktobr] I, n p. 141 lx 
le uhlan [lo yla] 371 
leunge [kris] eun p. 56 xxi B 
leur [l(X':r] r 261; eu p. 45 xiii; I 

p. 87 XLiii 
leur demande [loer damuid] e 394 
leve [le:v] e 87 
le velours [lo vlu:r] e 394 
lever [love] e 67, p. 30 v 
le Vieux celibataire [la vjo scli- 

hate:ii V 402 
le Vieux fat [lo vjo fat] V 402 
le Vieux neuf [lo vjo na3f] V 402 
le vin et I'eau [lo ve c 1 o] n 377 
le vingt aout [lo vet u] t p. 157 


le vingt juin [lo vet 3ne] t 302 
le vingt-sept mars [b ve set mars 

t ]). 157 LXIV 
le v6tre [lo vo:tr] 6 97 
I'exercice oral [I cgzersis oral] c 

le yacht [lo jak(t)] [lo jot] 371 



I'habit [1 abi] h 208 

I'heure [1 CE:r] h 208 

I'histoire [1 istwa:r] 388 

rhomme [1 om] h 208 

I'hotel des Ambassadeurs [1 otel 

dez abasadcEir] A 405 
I'hotel de ville de Paris [1 otsl da 

vil d9 pari] P p. 153 lxiii 
I'hymen actuel [1 imen aktiiel] n 

liaison [IjezS] iai 152 
liasse [Ijas] ia p. 60 xxiii 
Librairie Gamier Freres [libreri 

garnje freir] 424 
lichen [liken] n 241; ch p. 73 


Liebig [libig] g 206 

liege [lje:3] e 87 

lien [Ije] en 135; I p. 87 xun 

lier [Ije] ie 152 

lieu [1J0] eu 114, p. 44 xii; ieu 152 

lieutenant [Ijotna] eu 114 

lieux [1J0] eu 127, 326, p. 44 xii 

lievre [Ijeivr] ie 152 

ligne [liji] gn 207 

I'ile de la Reunion [1 i(:)l da la 

reynjo] R 405 
Liliputien [lilipysje] t 286, p. 117 


Lille [lil] ill 232 
limaille [lima:j] a 61 
limbes [le:b] mw 135 
limites [limit] i p. 37 DC 
limon [lim5] irn 138 
limpide [lepiid] im p. 53 xix 
lin [Ie] in p. 53 xix, p. 56 xxi B; 
I p. 87 XLiii 

linceul [lesoe(:)j] [lesoel] I p. 163 


linge [le:3] in p. 56 xxi B 
lingual [legw'al] uu 156, p. 62 

XXIV ; gua 199 
linguiste [legiiist] gui 198, p. 156 


lion [lj5] ion p. 65 xxvi 
liquation [lik(w)asj5] qu p. 101 


liquefie [likefje] qu 255 

liquefier [likefje] qu 254 

liqueur [likoeir] qu 254 

lis [li:s] s 275, p. 156 LXiv 

Lisbonne [lizbon] s 271 

lisible [lizi(:)bl] s 319 

lisse [lis] i 18 

lit [li] n64; Z p. 87 xliii 

litre [litr] i 94 

livre [li:vr] I 220 

11 [1] 43, 220 

local [lokal] I p. 87 xliii 

loch [lok] ch p. 73 xxxiii 

loge [10:3] 106, p. 43 xi; I p. 87 


logement [bsma] e 393 

loi [Iwa] [Iwa] oi 56, p. 21 iii 

loin [Iwe] oin 162; in p. 53 xix; 

oi p. 62 XXIV 
I'Oint du Seigneur (Jesus- 
Christ) [1 we dy sepcEir (3ezy 
kri)] 0, S, J, C p. 153 lxiii 
Londres [l5:dr] on p. 55 xx 
Londres, 19 juillet 1910 [l5:dr, 
diz noef 3iiiJE diz noef sa dis] 
long [I5] 1 4, p. 87 xliii; g 164, 365 



longe [13:5] on p. 56 xxi B 
long hiver [lok ive:r] [I5 iveir] g 

longue [loig] on 14, p. 55 xx 
longuement [l5gma] c 393 
loquace [lokwas] [lokas] qu 256; 

u p. 163 Lxvi 
loque [lok] ^m 254 
loquele [lokqcl] qu p. 101 xlix 
I'Orateur romain (Ciceron) [1 ora- 

ta':r rome (sisero)] 0, C p. 153 


I'ordre de I'Aigle de fer [1 ordr da 

I e(:)gl da ff :r] A 404 
I'ordre de la Jarretiere [1 ordr 

da la 3artjr:r] ./ 417 
I'ordre de la Legion d'honneur 

|1 ordr do la k'sjod on(r:r] L404 
I'ordre de la Toison d'or [1 ordr 

do la twazo d o:r] T 404 
I'ordre de la Visitation [1 ordr do 

la vizitdsjo] V 417 
I'ordre de I'Incamation [1 ordr 

do 1 rkarmisjo] 7 417 
I'ordre de Saint-Benoit [1 ordr 

do .sC hoiiwa] ,S', B 417 
I'ordre du Mont-Carmel [1 ordr 

dy iiio kannrll M, C 417 
lord Ruthven |lo:r rytven] 72 411 
lorgnon [lorfio] qn p. 81 xl 
lorsque [lorH(ojk(a)] e 69, 386, 

f). 30 V 
lorsqu'il (lor«k 11] 386 
Loth [lot] III 299 
lotion [loHJJ] o 100 
lotus [lotyi.s] s p. 109 u 
I'on (lo] on p. 56 XXI li 

louames [Iwam] ond 156 
louange [hvais] ouan 162; oic p. 

62 XXIV 
louche [luS] I p. 87 xliii 
loue [Iwe] one 156 
loueur [lwoe:r] oneu 156; I p. 87 


Louis [l^i] Old 156, 159, p. 62 


Louise [Iwiiz] oui 156, p. 62 xxiv 
Louis XIV et Charles X celS- 

brent [hvi katorz e Sari dis se- 

lc(:)br] 415 
louons [hv5] ouon 162 
loup [lu] OM 119, 128, 328, p. 45 

XIV ; p 249 
loupe [lup] ou 328 
lourd [lu:r] ou p. 45 xiv 
Lourdes [lurd] ou 128, 328, p. 45 


lourd et fort [hi:r e fj:r] d 380 
lourd et indigeste [lu:r e cdisest] 

,1 364 
louve [lu:v] ou 119, p. 45 xiv 
loyal [Iwajal] ay 56; y p. 60 xxiii; 

/ p. 87 XLIII 
loyer [hvajo] oy p. 62 xxiv 
lu [ly] u {). 46 XV 
Lucas [lykd] a 59 
lueur [Iqtt'ir] ueu 160; I p. 87 XLiil 
lui [Iqi] ui 158, 159, 160, p. 64 

XXV, p. 156 Lxiv 
lumbago [lobago] um 142 
I'un [1 <li] tin p. 56 xxi B 
lunatique [lynatik] n p. 57 xxix 
lundi [IcLdij un p. 56 xxi; n p. 96 




lune [lyn] I 220; u p. 46 xv; n 

p. 96 xLvii 
I'un ou I'autre [1 re u 1 otr] n 378 
lut [lyt] t 298 
luth [h-t] th 299 
Luther [lyte:r] r 263 
lutherien [lyterje] I 399 
lutrin [l>i:re] in 135 
lutte [lyt] u 18 
Luxembourg [lyksabu:r] g p. 162 


LuxeuU [lysoe:]] x 267, p. 122 


lyceen [lisee] en 136 

Lydie [lidi] p. 162 lxv 

lynx [le:ks] x 310; yn p. 53 xix 

lyre [li:r] y 96 

Lys [li:s] s p. 162 lxv 


m [em] [ma] 22, 24, [m] 129, 132, 
134, 139, 143, 233, 236, 373 
final [m] 165, 233, 373, 374 
followed by n 132, 143, 234 
silent 237 

ma [ma] a p. 21 iii 

macadam [makadam] a 54; m p. 
94 XLV 

Ma chere Madame [ma Se:r ma- 
dam] 426 

Machiavel [makjavel] ch p. 73 
XXXIII, p. 162 LXV 

magon [mas5] [maso] a 64, p. 25 
iv; f 176 

madame [madam] o 49, p. 21 iii; 
415, 423, 426, p. 161 XIV 

madame Da Vire [madam da viir] 

c 394 
madame Lebianc [madam labia] 

<' 74, 393, 394 
Madame V^e Laforet et Fils 

[madam voe:v lafore e fis] 424 
mademoiselle [m a d m w a z 8 1 ] 

[mamzfl] 46; e 70, 394; m 

415, 423, 426, p. 161 XIV 
Madras [madrais] s p. 109 li 
Madrid [madri(d)] d p. 74 xxxiv, 

p. 162 lxv, p. 163 lxvi 
Maestricht [mastrik] e, t p. 162 


mage [mais] m p. 152 lxiii 
Magenta [maseta] en 137 
magister [ma^isteir] r 263 
magnanime [majianim] gn p. 81 


magnesie [majiezi] gn p. 81 xl 
magnetisme [majietism] gn p. 81 


magnificat [magnifikat] gn 200 
magnifique [majiifik] gn p. 81 xl, 

p. 156 LXiv 
magnolier [magnolje] [manolje] 

gv. 200 
mahometan [maameta] m 399 
mai [mc] ai 90 
maigrir [megriir] 37 
maille [maij] a 61 
main [me] ain p. 56 xxi B 
mainte [me:t] ain p. 53 xix 
maintenant [metna] ain 135; e 

maintien [metje] ien \&1; ti 294; 

ain, en, p. 53 xix 



mais [mais] s 275, p. 156 Lxrv 
maison [mez5] s 268, p. 161 XIV 
Maison Chagnon-Asselin [mezo 

Sajio lusle] 424 
Mais oui [ine wi] s p. 141 lx 
maitre [msitr] i 29; p. 161 XIV 
majordome [inasordom] [ma- 

3orfl():m] o 111, p. 43 xi 
mal [inal] a 54 
malades [mala(:)d] e 72 
Malaga [inalaga] a \). 21 in 
malheur [mulopir] h 39, 209; Ih 

44; eu p. 45 xiii 
malle [mal] e 69, p. 30 \t 
malmener [malmone] m p. 94 

XLV, p. 96 XLVII 

malt [malt] t 299 

malthusien [maltyzjc] m p. 152 


maman [mama] [mama] m 233, 

p. (Hi XLVII 

mammelle [inamel] m p. 96 xlvii 
mammifere [ma(m)mifc:r] nun 

p. 94 XL\-; m p. 96 xlvii 
mammouth [mamut] Ih 299; mm 

p. 94 xLv; m p. 96 xlvii 
manchette [muSct] aii 131 
mandat [mrifjo] p. 19 ii 
Mandchourie [mrit^uri] d p. 162 


mangeaiUe [mrivi:jl " 61 
mangeant [ma^a] (tn p. 51 xviii; 

' p. i5r) Lxiv 
mangeons Imd^.l] ga p. 80 xxxix 
manoeuvre [mainrivr] au p. 49 


manquer de respect k quelqu'un 

[make da respek a kelkde] 

[make da respe a kelkde] ect 

mansuetude [masi[et3'(:)d] we p. 

64 XXV 
manuscrit [manyskri] t p. 117 

Liv, p. 161 XIV 
marais [mare] ais p. 49 x\t 
marc [ma:r] r 166; c 180, 340 
Marc Antoine [mark atwan] c 

340, 341 
Marc Aurele [mark orcl] c 341 
marc d'argent [ma:r d arsu] c 340 
marchand [mar^u] p. 161 XIV 
marcher [marSe] p. 19 ii 
Marengo [marego] en 137, p. 162 


Marie coud a merveille [mari 
ku a merve(:)j] d p. 141 lx 

marin [marf] in p. 53 xix 

marmite [marmit] p. 94 xlv; m 
]). 96 XLVII 

marmotter [marmote] m p. 94 


mars [mars] s 275, p. 156 LXiv 
Marseille [marse:j] i p. 162 LXV 
Marseille, le l^' mars 1912 [mar- 

isc(:)j, la pnimje mars diz noef 

sa du:z] 425 
marsouin [marswe] oiiin 162 
marteau [marto] cau 102 
martial [marsjal] t 282, p. 117 

LI II, p. 156 LXIV 

Martin [riiartr] in p. 53 xix 

martyr [inartiir] 38 

masse [miis] a 65 

masure jiiifizyir] [mazy:r] a 64 



mat [mat] / 298 

mat [ina] d 58 

matelas [mathi] [matla] a 59, p. 

25 IV 
m'a-t-elle vu [mat c\ vy] 384 
matelot [matlo] e 70 
Maure [mair] au 112, 126, 325 
mauvais [move] [move] au 112, 

126, p. 43 XI, p. 156 LXiv 
mauvaise [move:z] [move:z] e 76 
Mayence [maja:s] y 154 
mayomiaise [majoneiz] y 154, p. 

156 LXIV 
maxillaire [maksileir] ill 232 
maximimi [maksimom] u 113, 

p. 43 XI ; um 145 
M.Blondel [masjo blodel] M 415 
me [ma] e 66; 383, 391 
Meaux [mo] eau p. 49 xvi 
medaille [meda:j] a 61 
medecin [metse] [mctse] 6 89 
medecine [metsin] [metsin] e 89 
mediocre [medjokr] io p. 60 


medire [mediir] m p. 94 XLV 

medium [medjjm] ti 113 

Mehung [mce] p. 56 xxi 

mele [me:l] e 85 

meler [mele] c 86 

Melun [malde] un p. 56 xxi 

membre [ma:br] p. 51 xviii 

meme [me:m] e 85 

memement [memma] m p. 94 

XLV, p. 96 XLVII 

memoire [memwair] m p. 94 xlv, 

J). 96 XLVII 
Memoires de la Societe de lin- 

guistique [memwair da la so- 
sjete do legqistik] M, S 406 
Memoires de la Societe natio- 
nale des antiquaires de France 
[memwair da la sosjete nasja- 
nal dez atike:r da frais] M, S 
Memphis [mefiis] em 137; s 274 
m'en [m 5] en p. 56 xxi B 
menacer [manase] 16 
menage [mena:3] a p. 21 iii 
mendiante [mddjait] ian p. 65 


mene [me(!)n] e 28, 87 

mener [mane] e 67 

menerez [menre] e 88 

menil [meni] il 230 

menu [many] e p. 30 v; u p. 46 xv 

menuisier [manqizje] e p. 30 v 

mer [me:r] 91, p. 36 viii; r 263 

mere [me:r] e 87 

meres [me:r] e p. 30 vi 

merinos [merina(:)s] s 275, p. 156 


merle [merl] e 91 

merveilleuse [mervejoiz] eu p. 

44 XII 
Mes amities chez vous [mez 

amitje $e vu] 430 
mesdames [medam] [medam] s 

mesdemoiselles [medmwazel] 

[medmwazel] s 272 
messe [mes] e 91 
messieurs [mesJ0] [mesjo] r 265, 

415, 424; e, r p. 156 lxiv, p. 

161 XIV 



Messieurs Favreau et Delrue 
[mesJG favro e dolry] 424 

Messieurs Larousse & C'^ [mesjo 
lams e kopajii] 424 

Messieurs L. Tremblay Freres 
[mesjo el trable fre:r] 424 

metis [meti:s] s 275 

mats [me] t p. 117 liv 

Mettemich [metemik] ch p. 73 


mettez le un avant le deux [mete 

1<) (0 avu 1.) do] 371 
Metz [me:s] z 267, 319 
meuble [moebl] eu 127, 327, p. 

49 XVI 
meubles [mcebl] eu 118 
meunerie [monri] eu p. 44 xii 
Meung [moe] eun 144, p. 56 xxi 

meunier [monje] eu 114, p. 44 xii 
meuniere [monjeir] eu p. 44 xii 
meurtre [moertr] eu p. 45 xiii; r 

p. 104 L 
Meuse [moiz] eu p. 44 xii 
meute [moit] eu 14, 115, p. 44 


Mexico [mek.siko] x 310 
miauler [mjolc] iau 152 
Michel [irii^el] ch p. 72 xxxii 
Michel-Ange [mikcl 0:3] ch p. 73 
xxxiii, p. 156 Lxiv, p. 162 


midi [niidi] i p. 37 ix 
miel [nijel] I p. 87 XLiu 
mienne [mjcn] n p. 57 xxii 
miette [rnjct] ie p. 60 xxili 
mieux [mjo] ieu p. 60 xxia 

mil [mi:j] [mU] I 224; il 226, 228 

milice [milis] i p. 37 ix 

milieu [miljo] [mijo] ieii p. 60 

XXIII ; m p. 94 xlv 
militaire [miLite:r] 16; i p. 37 ix 
mille [mil] iU 232, p. 156 lxiv; i 

p. 37 IX 
Mille amities [mil amitje] 430 
Millet [mile] ill p. 162 lxv 
milliard [milja:r] ill 232 
million [miljo] ill 232, p. 163 


milord [mib:r] d p. 74 xxxiv 
Miltiade [milsjad] t p. 162 lxv 
mince [me:s] in 14 
TninimiiTTi [minimom] u 113, p. 

43 XI ; um 145 
ministre [ministr] i p. 37 rx 
minuit [ininqi] i p. 37 ix 
minutie [minj'si] t 281, p. 156 

minutieux [minysjo] t 284, p. 156 


miracle [mirakl] [mirakl] a 14, 64 

mire [mi:r] i 94 

miroir [inir\va:r] oi 56 

misere [mizcir] s 268, p. 109 li 

mitraille [mitraij] o 61 

mixtion [mistjo] [mikstj.)] t 280; 

a 290 
mixtionner [mistjone] [mikstjone] 

/(• 290 
M^^ Blondel [madmwazcl bl5- 

(h:l] .U 115 
mm [fmjiii] 43, 146, 168, 233, 238 
M™* Blondel [madam blSdclj 




mobile [mobil] I p. S7 xliii 
modele [mode(:)l] e p. 36 viii; 

m p. 94 XLV 
modelerai [modelre] e 88, p. 36 


moelle [mwal] [niwel] oe 156, p. 

156 Lxiv 
moelleux [mwalo] oe p. 62 xxiv 
moellon [mwal5] oe p. 62 xxiv 
mceurs [mcers] [moeir] oeii 118; s 

275, p. 163 Lxvii; oeu p. 49 xvi 
moi [mwa] oi 56, 156, p. 21 in 
moins [mwe] in p. 53 xix 
mois [mwa] [mwa] oi 62, 156, p. 

62 XXIV 
Moise [nioiiz] p. 163 lxvi 
moitie [mwatje] t 279; ti 293 
Moloch [mobk] ch 185 
momerie [inomri] ?n p. 94 xlv, 

p. 96 XLVii 
mon [ni5] on p. 56 xxi B 
mon ami [mon ami] [mon ami] 7i 

monarchic [monar^i] ch p. 72 

xxxii, p. 163 Lxvi 
monarchique [monar^ik] ch p. 72 

monarque [monark] n p. 57 xxii 
(Mon) cher ami [(mo) Se:r ami] 

Mon cher DeliUe [mo Se:r dalil] 

Mon cher Jean [mo 5c:r 3a] 426 
Mon cher Monsieur [mo ^cir 

masjo] 426 
monosyllabe [monosilab] s 269 
monotone [monoton] 111 

mon petit [mo pti] e 74 

Mons [m5:s] s 274 

monseigneur [moscjioeir] 415 

Monseigneur [m5sepoe:r] p. 161 

monsieur [m(o)sJ0] [moesjo] on 
68, 142; ieu 152; r 265; m 415, 
423, 424, 426; on, r p. 156 lxiv 

Monsieur [m(o)sJ0] p. 161 XIV 

monsieur De Vire [masjo d vi:r] 

monsieur Ernest [masjo ernest] 
r 349 

monsieur et cher confrere [ma- 
sjo c 5e:r kofreir] 426 

monsieur Leblanc [mosjo 1 bla] 
e 74, 393, 394 

Monsieur le Directeur du Cre- 
dit Lyonnais [masJ0 la direk- 
toe:r dy kredi Ijone] 424 

montagnard [motajia:r] gn p. 81 


montagneux [mStape] gn p. 81 xl 
monte [mo:t] on p. 55 xx 
Montreal [moreal] t p. 163 lxvi 
monimient [monyma] m p. 94 

XLV, p. 96 XLVII 

morceau [morse] p. 18 11 

mortaUte [mortalite] 16 

mosquee [moske] o 110 

mot [mo] m 4, 233 

mot a mot [mot a mo] 47; t 337 

mot anglais [mo agle] t 360 

motif [motif] / p. 76 xxxvi 

motion [mosjo] [mosj5] o 100 

mots [mo] 99 

motus [moty:s] s p. 109 li 



mou [mu] OH p. 45 xiv 
mouille [mii:j] oiiille 226 
moiirir [muri:r] 168 
mousse [mus] ou 18, p. 46 xiv 
moyen [inwaje] y 154; oy 156, 
p. 156 Lxiv; yen 162; en p. 53 


moyenne [mwajen] n p. 57 xxii 
mu [my] u p. 46 xv 
muant [mqa] uan p. 65 xx\T 
mue [mqe] ue p. 64 xxv 
muet [mqc] uc 160 
mugissement [mysisma] e 393 
multitude [myltityd] u p. 46 xv 
Munich [mjTiik] ch p. 73 xxxiii, 

p. 162 Lxv 
mur [my it] u 29, p. 46 xv; r 261 
mur [my:r] u 29, 120 
miuTnure [mymiy:r] u 121, p. 46 

XV ; m p. 94 xlv, p. 96 xlvii 
murmurer [myrmyre] p. 156 lxiv 
muse [mysk] c p. 70 xxx 
muse [niy:z] s p. 109 li 
museum [myzeain] u 113; um 

145, p. 156 LXIV 
myope [mjop] yo 152 
myosotis [mjoz.^ti:s] s p. 109 li, 

p. 156 LXIV 
myrtille [inirtil] ill 232 
mystere [luistt.T] y 96 


n [en] [no] 22, 21; [n] 129, 210; 
final [n] 129, 165, 234, 241, 
37.5-378; niouillo [ji] 207; si- 
lent in -enl 244 

nabab [nabab] b 171 
nagea [na.^a] gen 202 
naguere [nage:r] gu p. 79 xxxviii 
naif [naif] l 33; / p. 76 xxxvi 
naln [ne] ain p. 56 xxi B 
naivete [naivte] e 70, p. 30 vi 
nanan [nana] [nuna] n 239 
Nantes [na:t] an p. 56 xxi B 
Napoleon [napoleo] 36 
nappe [naj)] a 54; pp 245 
Narbonne [narbon] nn p. 96 


narguant [narga] gu p. 79 xxxviii 

nasse [na:s] [na:s] a 64 

nation [nasjo] [nasjS] t 267, 285, 

p. 117 Liii; a p. 25 iv 
navrer [navre] a 63 
ne [no] e 66, 383 
Necker [neke:r] k 218; r 263 
nee [nc] e 89 
nef [iitf] / p. 76 xxx^^, p. 156 


negligeons [nogli55] ge p. 80 


negociait [negosje] iai p. 60 xxiii 
negociant [negosja] ian 162 
neige [ne:5] ei 90, 125, 323; ge p. 

SO xxxix 
Nemrod [nrmrod] m 235; d p. 74 

nenni [nani], popular [neni] en 

55, 134; p. 163 lxvii; nn p. 96 


nerf [nc:r] [ntrf]/ 193, p. 156 lxiv 
nerf de bceuf [nr:r do btuf] / 193 
nerfs |ii(:r] / 193, p. 156 lxiv 
Nesle [rit:lj .s 272 



n'est-ce pas [n e s pa] 384 

net [nrl] [ne] e 91; t 298, 300, p. 

15G Lxiv 
nette [net] tt 279 
nettoyer [netwaje] [netwaje] 07j 

p. 62 XXIV 
neuf [ncEfJ/4, 191, 192, 305, 342, 

p. 156 lxiv; eu 118, 127, 327, 

p. 45 XIII 
neuf ans [noev a] / p. 156 lxiv 
neuf a table [nocf a tabl] / 342 
Neufbourg [na-biiir] / 193 
Neuf Brisach [noe brizak] / 193 
neuf cents francs [noe sa fra] / p. 

Neufchateau [noeSato] / 193 
Neu(f)chatel [noSatel] [noeSatel] 

eu 114;/ 193 
neuf enfants [noev afa] / 194, 305; 

[nctf afd] 342 
neuf francs [noe fru] / p. 156 


neuf hameaux [noev amo] / p. 

neuf heures [noev oeir] / 305, p. 

156 LXIV 
neuf homards [noe omair] / 194 
neuf hommes [noev om] / 194 
neuf livres [noe liivr] / 194 
neuf mille [na- mil] /p. 76 xxxvii 
neuf personnes [noe person] / p. 

76 xxxvii 
neuf soldats [noe solda] / p. 156 


Neuilly [noeji] eu 118; euil 226 
neutre [n0:tr] eu 115, 127, 326, 
p. 44 xii 

neuvieme [ncpvjem] eu p. 44 xii 
New-York [nee jork] ew p. 163 


Ney [ne] ey 90, 125, 159, p. 36 viii 
nez [ne] e 80, p. 32 vii; z 164, 318, 

Nez a nez [ne a ne] z p. 141 lx 
nez aquilin [ne akile] z 359 
ni [ni] i 4, 94; w 4, 239 
niais [nje] iai 152 
Nicolas [nikola] a 59 
niece [njes] ie 152 
Niger [niseir] r p. 104 l, p. 162 


Nil [nil] I 224 

nn [n] 43, 239 

noble [nobl] o 106 

noble animation [nobl animasja] 

noble ardeur [nobl ardoeir] e 73 
noce [nos] o 106 
Noel [noel] e 33; I 221 
noeud [no] eu 127, p. 44 xii; oeu 

326, p. 49 XVI 
noir [nwair] oi p. 21 iii 
noire [nwa:r] oi p. 62 xxiv 
noisette [nwazet] [nwazet] oi 64 
noix [nwa] oi 62, p. 62 xxiv 
nombril [nobri] il 230; I 344 
nominatif [nominatif ] n p. 96 XLVi 
non [no] on p. 56 xxi B 
nonante [nonciit] n p. 96 xlvi 
nonnain [none] n p. 96 xlvi 
nonobstant [nonopstfi] n p. 96 

nonsens [nosa] [nosais] s p. 109 




nord [no:r] r 166; d p. 74 xxxiv 
nord-est [nor(d) est] t 297; d 

nord-ouest [nor(d) west] t 297; 

nos [no] s 273 
nos intentions [noz etasjo] t p. 

117 LII 

nostalgic [nostalsi] o 110 
notiez [notje] ti 291 
notion [nosjo] [nosjo] o 100 
notions [notjj] ti 291 
notre [notr] o 106; re 260 
notre [no:tr] o p. 39 x 
Notre-Dame [natr dam] p. 161 

notre oncle [notr 5:kl] e 73 
Notre-Seigneur [notr sejioe:r] p. 

161 XIV 
noueux [nwo] oueu 156 
nouons [nw5] ouojt, 162 
nous aimames [nuz emam] d 51 
nous aimons [nuz pm5] s 332 
nous attendons une lettre [nuz 

atdd.lz yn Iftr] « 334 
nous briguons [nu brigo] giw 197 
nous contractions [nu kotraktjS] 

t p. 1 17 LII 

nous dimes [nu di(:)m] i 95 
nous eiimes [nuz y(:)m] eu 116 
nous gitions [nu gat jo] t ]). 117 


nous irons ensemble [iniz iroz 

risrnhl] .s- p. 141 Lix 
nous le savons [nu 1 savo] c 73 
nous liguimes [nu ligam] (jud 


nous mangeames [nu masam] e 

nous mangeons [nu masS] e 77 
nous parlames [nu parlam] d 51 
nous sommes a table [nu somz a 

tabl] s 334 
nouveau [nuvo] can 102, 126, 

324; ou p. 46 xiv 
nouvel [nuvel] I 221 
nouvel an [nuvel a] I 344 
novembre [novaibr] 425 
noyau [nwajo] oy p. 62 xxiv 
nuage [ni^ais] ua 4, 160 
nuance [nqfus] uau p. 65 xx\T 
nuee [nqe] we 160 
nuit [nqi] t 295 

nuit et jour [nqit e 5u:r] 47; t 354 
numero [nymero] p. 161 XIV 
nun [nob] tin p. 56 xxi B 
nuptial [nyijsjal] t 282, p. 156 


nuque [nyk] q 254 

Nuremberg [nyrubeir] g p. 162 


nymphe [ne:f] ym 135, p. 53 xix; 

ph 191 


[n]22, 24; [n] [o] 97-113; silent 

6 [o] 97, 98; [o(:)] 397; [o] 97 
-oaille [\vu:j] ail 226 
oasis [oazi(:),s] [oazi(:).s] 36; s 

obedience [obcdjdis] icn 135 
obeissance [obeisuis] 36 



objet [obsc] o 104; p. 43 xi; e p. 

3(j VIII 

objet important [obse eporta] t 

obliquite [.)blik(q)ite] qu 257 
Observations sur I'Esprit des 

lois [opservasjo syw 1 espri de 

Iwci] 0, E 406 
observer [opserve] h 170, p. 98 

xLviii, p. 156 Lxiv; s 267 
obstacle [opstakl] [opstciikl] h 

170, p. 98 XLVIII ; c p. 70 xxx 
obtenir [optaniir] h 170, 246, p. 

98 XL^^^, p. 156 lxiv 
obus [oby(:)s] [oby(:)s] s p. 163 


occasion [okasjo] a 60 
occiput [oksipy(,t)] t 299 
ocean [jsea] o 110, p. 43 xi 
octobre [okto(:)br] o l08, 425, p. 

43 XI 
Oder [ode:r] r p. 104 l 
odeur [odoeir] eu p. 45 xiii 
6 Dieu [o dj0] 6 397 
odorat [odo:ra] t p. 117 liv 
6 douleur [o duloeir] 6 397 
-oe [e] 83; [o] [a-] 114, 117, 118, 

122, 127, 320, 326; [wa] 156 
-oe [wa] 156 

oecumenique [ekj^menik] 83 
oedipe [odip] 83 
ceU [ce(:)j] ce 127, 327, p. 45 

XIII, p. 49 XVI ; il 226, p. 90 

XLIV, p. 156 LXIV 

-ceU [a-:j] il 226 

ceil de boeuf [oeij da beef] aeil 226 

ceil de chat [ce:j da Sa] aeil 226 

oeillade [cpjad] oeill 226 

-oeUle [ce:j] ill 226 

ceillere [ct-jrir] cdl 226 

oeiUet [ccje] eu 127, 327, p. 45 

xiii; ceil 226 
cesophage [ezofa:3] ce 83 
-oeu [o] [oe] 114, 117, 118, 

122, 127, 320, 326 
oeuf [cef] oeu 118, p. 45 xiii;/ 192, 

p. 156 LXIV 
oeuf a la coque [cef a la kak] / 

342, p. 76 XXXVI, p. 141 lix 
oeufs [o] oeu 114, p. 44 xii; / 193, 

p. 156 lxiv 
oeufs d'autruche [0 d otry$] / p. 

76 xxxvii 
ceuvre [a3:vr] eu 118, p. 45 xiii 
officier [ofisje] r 262 
offrir [ofri:r] 37 
ohe [ohe] /t 216 
oho [ohodj] h 4 
oh que oui [o ka wi] 390 
-oi [wa] [wa] 62, 156 
-oi [wa] 156 

oignon [jjio] i p. 156 lxiv 
-oin [we] 136, 161, 162 
-oir [wa:r] oi 56 
-oire [wa:r] oi 56 
Olympe [jleip] ym p. 53 xix 
-om [5] 141, p. 55 xx; [om] 143, 

234, 237 
6 ma jeimesse [o ma scenes] u 

ombre [5:br] arn p. 55 xx 
ombrelle [Sbrel] om p. 55 xx 
-ome [o:m] [om] 106, 111 
omnibus [omnibys] om 143; s 



275, p. 163 lx\t; m p. 94 xlv, 

p. 96 XLV II 
omnipotent [omnipota] o 108, p. 

43xi; om 143; m 234 
omniscience [omnisjais] om 143; 

s p. 109 LI 
omniscient [amnisja] m 234 
omnivore [omnivjir] om 143 
-on [5] [on] 141, 146, 161; [a] 

142 * 
on [5] 386; p. 56 xxi B 
on accourt aussitot [5n aku:r osi- 

to] t 380 
oncle [5:kl] 46; on 141, p. 55 


onction [5ksj5] on p. 55 xx 

-one lo:nl [on] 106, 111 

on en a assez [5n an a ase] n p. 

141 LIX 
onereux [.mero] n p. 57 xxii 
onomatopee [ononiatope] n 239 
on perd [o pe:r] d p. 74 xxxiv 
on recommence [5 rkomuis] e 

onyx [jniks] x 310 
onze (5:z] 31, 215, 371, 390; on 

p. 55 XX, p. 56 XXI B 
onzieme iSzjem] 31, 215, 371, 

opiat [.)pja(t)] 1299 
opium [.tpjjm] um 145; m 235 
oracle [omkl] [orakl] a 64 
orage [ira:.-^! ye p. 80 xxxix 
orageux l.tni^o] r; 201 
orchestra [orkcstr] cfi 186 
orchestral [orkcstnil] ck j). 73 

x \ \ 1 1 1 

orchestration [orkestrasjo] ch p. 

73 xxxiii 
orchestre [orkestr] ch p. 163 


orchide [orkid] ch p. 73 xxxiii 

-ord [o:r] 356, 364, 380 

ordre [ordr] re 260 

oreille [ore:j] ill 226, p. 90 XLiv 

orfevre [orfe:\T] o 108 

orgue [org] op. 43 xi 

orgueil [orgoe(:)j] ue 118, 127, 

327, p. 45 XIII ; il 226 
orgueilleux [orgcejo] ill 226, p. 

90 XLiv; ue p. 49 x\T 
orient [orjci] ten 135, 162 
-ort [o:r] t 356, 380 
orteil [orte:j] il p. 90 xliv 
ortie [orti] ti 292 
OS [os] [o:s] s 275; (pi.) [o] [o:s] 

s p. 163 lxvi 
osciller [osile] [osije] ill 232, p. 

156 Lxiv 
oseille [oze(:)j] o 101 
oser [ozf] o 101, p. 39 x; s 319 
Ostrogoth [ostrogo] t 301 
ote [o:t] 6 97 
oter [ote] 6 98, p. 39 x 
-otie [osi] t 281 
ou [u] p. 40 XIV 
-ou [u] 28, 119, 122, 128, 320, 

328; [w] 158 
oft [u] 28, 119, 122, p. 46 xiv 
-oft [u] ou 119, 122, 128 
-oua [\v:i] 15() 
-ouan [\v("i] 161, 162 
ouate [vv!it| oua 156, 215, 371, 

390, 1). 62 XXIV 



-oue [wc] 156 

-oue [we] 156 

-ouen [wa] 161, 162 

ouest [west] t 297, p. 156 lxiv 

-oueu [wo] [woe] 156 

oui [wi] 4, 31, 156, 215, 371, 390, 

p. 62 XXIV 
oui-dire [wi di:r] 215, 371, 390 
-ouil [u:j] il 226 
-ouille [u:j] ill 226 
oui, madame [wi madam] ?n 

oui, mademoiselle [wi madmwa- 

zel] m 415 
oui, monsieur [wa masjo] ?« 415 
-ouin [we] 161, 162 
ouir [wi:r] oui 156 
-ouon [w5] 161, 162 
-ourd [u:r] 356, 364, 380 
ours [urs], old [u:r] s 275, p. 163 


-ourt [u:r] t 356, 380 
outU [uti] il 230, 344 
ouvrier [uvrije] 37 
oil y a-t-il [u j a t U] ?/ 153 
Oxford [oksfoir] d p. 74 xxxiv 
oxygene [oksisen] x 310 
-oy [wa] 56, 156 
ozone [ozon] [ozom] [ozon] [ozo:n] 

p [pe] [pa] 22, 24; [p] 245, 248; 
final 249, 250; 345; followed 
by n, s, i 251; silent 247 

pacha [pa^a] p p. 152 lxiii 

paf [paf] a 54 

paganisme [paganism] [paga- 

nizm] p p. 152 lxiii 
page soixante-neuf [pa:3 swa- 

sat noef] /p. 76 xxxvi 
paillasse [pajas] ill 224 
paille [pa(!)j] a 61, p. 25 iv; ill 

224, 225, 329, p. 156 lxiv 
pain [pe] ain 135, p. 54 xix, p. 

56 xxi B 
(pain-)bis [pe bi] s 273 
paix [pe] ai 84, 123, 321; x 315 
paix universelle [pez yniversel] 

X 372 
pale [pa:I] a 19, 58 
paleur [paloeir] d 19 
palper [palpe] p p. 98 xlviii 
palpitant [palpita] p p. 98 xlviii 
pampre [pu:pr] p p. 98 xlviii 
Panama [panama] p. 19 ii 
Pandectes [padekt] c p. 70 xxx 
panier [panje] [pajie] ni 207 
panorama [panorama] an 146 
paon [pa] o 103, p. 156 lxiv 
papa [papa] a p. 21 iii; p p. 98 

pape [pap] p p. 98 xlviii 
papier [papje] p 245 
Papier d'affaires [papje d afeir] 

papillon [papij5] p p. 98 xlviii 
paquets [pake] ets 92 
paragraphe [paragraf] p. 19 ii 
parapluie [paraplqi] p p. 98 


parasol [parasol] 5 269 

pare [park] c p. 70 xxx 

parce que je ne me le demande 



pas [pars ka 3 no m la dma:d 

pa] e 75 
par-dessus [par dasy] e 394 
pareil [pare:j] eil 226 
pareiUe [pare(:)j] ei 90, 125, 323 
parent [para] en 131 
parenthese [parate:z] 419 
parfum [parfde] 38; um 144, p. 

5G' XXI 
Paris [pari] i p. 37 ix 
Paris est la capitale [pari 8 la 

kapital] s p. 141 lx 
Paris est une belle ville [pari 8t 

yn hel vil] s 368 
parisien [parizje] icn 162 
parla [parla] a p. 21 iii 
parlait [park] 37; ail 90 
parlement anglais [parhnat agle] 

/ :i.-)4 
parier [parlc] r 262 
parler franc et net [parle frak e 

net] c p. 141 Lix 
paries [pari] e 72 
paroisse [panN'ae] oi 156 
part [pa:r] a 4, 19 
partageons [partasS] ge. p. 80 

partial [parsjal] I 282, p. 15(5 


partialite [parsjalitc] I 282 
partie [parli] lie. 292 
partiel [parsjf;!] / 267, 283 
partir (parti:r] a 19, p. 19 11 
partner [paHnr:r] r 263 
parvenu [|)arv;»nyj c 71, |). 30 v 
pas [pa] II 4, 245; a 4, 59, p. 25 
iv; s 273 

pas a pas [paz a pa] 47; s 337, 

360, 366 
Pascal [paskal] sc 276 
passage [pasa.'s] p. 19 11 
passage des Panoramas [pasa:3 

de panorama] P p. 153 lxiii 
passe [pa:s] a 60 
passer [pase] a 59, 65; ss 267 
passif [pasif] a 65 
passion [pasjo] a 60 
pate [pa:t] & 4, 58, p. 25 iv; e p. 

30 VI 
pater [pateir] r 263 
pathos [patois] s 275 
patiemment [pasjama] t 287 
patience [pasjciis] ien 135, 162; 

/ 280, 287, p. 117 Liii; en p. 

patient [pasja] I 287, p. 157 lxiv 
patienter [pasjdto] t 287 
patriarchal [patriarkal] ch p. 73 


patriarche [patriar^] ch 184 
patrie [i)atri] e 69 
patte [pat] It 279; e p. 30 VI 
Paul [pol] au 112, 126, 325, p. 

49 XVI 
Paul et Alice [pol e alls] t 355 
pauvre [poivr] un 102, p. 39 x 
pauvre animal jpovr animal] e 

pavot [pavo] i p. 117 uv 
paye [pcjo] [peje] y 224 
payer [ptjc] [peje] 46; mj 90, 321, 

p. 157 i.xiv; y 154 
peau [po] cii\i 102 
pecheur [pc^cjuir] cu p. 45 xiil 



pecheur [pp^fi'ir] ch p. 72 xxxii 

peigne [\w]\] gn 4, 207 

peine [pcCOnj ei 90, 125, 32.3, p. 

\')7 LXIV 

peinture [pety:r] ein 135, p. 54 xix 
pellicula [pclikyl] I p. 87 xliii 
pendant [pada] e7i 45 
pende [pa:d] en p. 56 xxi B 
Peimsylvanie [pesilvani] [pasil- 

vani] en 137; s 270 
penser [pose] s p. 109 li 
pensum [pesom] u 113; en 137; 

7im 145; en, um p. 157 lxiv 
pente [pa:t] en 14; 46 
penultieme [penyltjem] ti 293 
perga [pcrsa] f 176 
per? ait [perse] g p. 70 xxix 
percevoir [persavwa:r] ce p. 70 


perd-il [pert il] d 362, 381 
perd-il son temps [pert il s5 to] 

(/ p. 141 LIX 
perdre [perdr] d 187; re 260 
perdrix [perdri] x 315 
perdrons [perdrS] 38 
perdront [perdro] 37 
pere [pe:r] p 7; e 28, 87 
peremptoire [peraptwair] p 248, 

p. 98 XLViii 
peres [pc:r] e p. 30 vi 
peril [peril] [periij] il 228, 229; 

I p. 157 LXIV, p. 163 Lxvii 
peripetie [peripesi] t 281, p. 157 


Perrault [pero] I 223 

persU [persi] il 230; I 344, p. 163 


Personnelle [personel] 431 
persuader [jiersqade] s p. 109 li; 

]). 157 LXIV 
perte [pert] e 91 
peser [paze] e p. 30 v 
petit [p(3)ti] e 74, 76 
petit a petit [patit a poti] t 47, 

petite [patit] e 76, p. 30 vi 
peu [pa] eu 4, 17, 114, 127, 326 
peuple [poejil] eu 118, 127, 327, 

p. 45 xiii, p. 49 XVI ; le 222 
peur [poe:r] eu 4, 117, p. 45 xiii; 

r 165, 261, p. 104 l 
peureux [j)tTer0] eu p. 44 xii 
Peveril du Pic [pevaril dy pik] P 

ph [f] 191, 329; followed by n, s, 

Pharamond [faramo] dp. 74 

phare [fa:r] a 13; ph 191 
pharisien [farizje] p 399 
Phedre [fe:dr] Ph p. 76 xxxvi 
phenix [feniks] x p. 121 lvii 
philosophe [filozof] ph 191, 329, 

p. 157 LXIV 
Phoebe [febe] ce 83, p. 32 vii 
phonographe [fonograf] ph 40 
pht(h)isie [ftizi] ph 251 
pht(h)isique [ftizik] ph 251 
physiognomonie [fizjognomoni] 

gn 200 
physique [fisik] y 96 
piano [pjano] o 99; ia 152 
piauler [pjole] iau 152 
piece [pjes] e 87 



pied [pje] e 80, p. 32 vii; ie 152 
pied a terre [i)jet a te:r] d 333, 

pieds [pje] e 80; ds 164 
pieu [pjo] iea p. 60 xxiii 
pieux [pjo] eu 114, p. 44 xii 
pigeon [pi55] c 77; gc p. 80 xxxix 
pin [pe] in p. 54 xix 
pinacle [pinakl] n p. 96 xlvi 
pince [pe:s] in p. 56 xxi B 
pingouin [pegwc] ouin p. 65 xxvi 
pioche [i)joS] io p. 60 xxiii 
pion [pjj] p p. 98 XLViii 
pipe [pii)] p p. 98 xlviii 
piqure (i)iky:r] xi p. 46 xv 
pire [pi:r] i 4, 94 
piste [pist ] i 94 
pistil [i)i.stil] il 229 
pitie [pitjc] ie 152; ti 293 
pla^a [plasa] f 176 
place [pla-s] a 65; e 391 
place de I'Estrapade [plaa da 

Irstrapad] E, \). 153 LXiii 
place de la Concorde [plaa d.j la 

k:>k.jr<l] (• 410 
plage (pla:5] a 13 
plaideur [phdceir] eu p. 45 xiii 
plaisir (]»kzi:r] r 261, p. 104 l 
plante [i»lu:t] an p. 51 xviii 
plat li)la] a 53 
piatre [pl(i:fii d 5S 
plenipotentiaire (plciiip,jtdsjr:r] 

L p. 1 17 Mir 
plomb [pl.i] om 111; h 171, 339, 

plongeons [pl.j^.')] (jco 202 
plonger [plj3<'] on j». 55 xx 

pluie [plqi] id 160 

plus [pl\'s] [ply] s 275 

plus ou moins [plyz u mwe] s 337, 

plus-que-parfait [plys ka parfe] 

&• p. 109 LI 
pneu [pno] p p. 98 xlviii 
pneumatique [pnomatik] p 251 
pneumatologie [pnomatobsi] p 

p. 98 XLVIII 
pneumonie [pnomoni] p 251 
poele, poUe [p\va:l] [pwa(:)l] 4; oi, 

oi 62, 156, p. 25 iv, p. 163 Lxvi 
poelee [pwale] oe p. 62 xxiv 
poelette [pwcilet] oe p. 62 xxiv 
poelier [pwalje] oe p. 62 xxiv 
poete [poe:t] p. 19 ii 
poids [pwa] [pwa] oi 62, p. 62 

xxiv; dp. 74 xxxiv 
poignard [pwajia:r] [pojiair] oi p. 

157 Lxiv 
poignet [pwajie] [pojie] gn p. 81 


poing [p\v£] oin 162 

point [pwf] 419 

point d'exclamation [pwe d eks- 

kiaiiKisj.-)] 419 
point d'interrogation [pwe d e- 

<c(r)r.JK(i'^Jj] 419 
pointe [p\vi;:(] oin 14, p. 65 xxvi 
point et virgule [pwe c virgyl] 419 
point exclamatif [i)wet ekskla- 

iiKilif) i 351 
point interrogatif [pwet eteroga- 

\i[\l 354 
points suspensifs [pwe eyspasif] 




pointure [pwety:r] in 136 

poire [pwa:r] oi 56 

pois [pwa] oi 62 

poison [pwazo] oi p. 21 iii, p. 157 


poisson [pwas5] oi p. 157 lxiv 
Poitiers [] ti 293; t p. 117 


poix [pwa] oi p. 62 xxiv 

p61e [po!l]-o 15 

pollen [polen] n 241 

Pollux [polyks] X 310 

poltron [poltro] 38 

Polymnie [polimni] ymn 140 

polysyllabe [polisilab] s 269 

pomme [pom] o 107 

pompe [p5:p] om p. 55 xx; p p. 

98 XLviii 
Ponsard [p5sa:r] d p. 74 xxxiv 
pont [p5] on p. 56 xxi B 
pontife [p5tif] p p. 152 lxiii 
Pont-Neuf [p5 noef]/p. 76 xxxvi 
popularite [pjpylarite] 35 
pore [po:r] o 105; r 166; c 180 
port [pair] o 13; 76 
porte [port] c 76, p. 30 vi; o 106 
porte-feuiUe [porta foe(:)j] e 393 
portez [porte] z 318 
portez armes [porte arm] z 359 
portier [portje] ti 293; i p. 117 


portiere [portje:r] ti 293 
portiez [portje] ti 291 
portion [porsjS] t 162, 285; ti 291 
Port- Said [po:r said] dp. 74 


pose [po:z] 101, p. 39 x 

positif [pozitif] o p. 39 x 
position [pozisjo] o 101, p. 39 x 
possedera [posedra] e 88 
poste [post] o 106; s 267 
Poste restante [post restait] 431 
postiche [posti^] o 110 
post-scriptiun [pDs(ts) kxiptom] 

um 145; t 300; m p. 94 xlv, p. 

96 XLvii; t, u p. 157 lxiv 
pot [po] o 4, 6, 17, 97; « p. 117 liv 
pot a eau [pot a o] t 354 
pot a fleur [pot a flceir] t 354 
pot a I'eau [pot a lo] 47 
pot au feu [pot o fo] I 354 
pot au lait [pot o le] t 354 
pot aux roses [pot o ro:z] i 354 
poteau [poto] o 109 
potentiel [potasjcl] t 283 
potion [posjo] o 100, p. 39 x 
pouce [pus] ou 119 
ponding [pudeig] g 206 
poulailler [pulaje] [pulaje] a 64 
pouls [pu] 1 223, 344, p. 157 lxiv; 

ou p. 46 XIV 
pour demain [pu(:)r dame] c 394 
Pour la couronne [pu(!)r la ku- 

ron] P 401 
pour prendre conge [pu(:)r pra:dr 

ko3e] p. 161 XIV 
pour rendre visite [pu(:)r ra:dr 

vizit] p. 161 XIV 
pp [p] 42, 168, 245 
Praslin [iirule] s 272 
precedeniment [presedama] em 

p. 157 LXIV 
precieuse [presjoiz] eu 127, 326, 

p. 44 xin 



preemption [preapsjS] p 248 
prefere [prefere] e 79, p. 32 vir 
prefix [prefiks] x 310 
prendre [praidr] e 391; en p. 51 


prendre le voile (de I'ordre) de 
Sainte-CIaire [pra:dr b vwal 
da 1 ordr do se:t klc:r] S, C 417 
prendre I'habit (de I'ordre) de 
Saint-Franfois [pra:dr 1 abi 
da 1 ordr da se fraswa] S, F 417 
presbytere [prezbiteir] s 271 
preseance [preseais] s 269 
presence [prezais] en 131 
presentez armes [prezate arm] z 

presomptif [prezaptif] p 248, p. 

presomption [prez.ljisja] p 248 
presomptueirx [proz5ptq0] p 248 
presque [preska] e 69, 387, p. 30 v 
presqu'ile [presk il] 387 
Presse [prcse] 431 
presupposer [presypoze] s 269 
pret a partir [pret a partiir] t 337 
pr§te [prc:t] e 85 
preter [prcte] S 86 
preterit [preteri(t)] t 299, p. 163 


pretre [pre:tr] e 85, p. 36 viii; r 

p. 104 L 
pretrise [prctriiz] e p. 36 viii 
preuve [i)r(L':v| eii p. 45 xiii 
Priam [j)riam] am 132; m 235 
prier (pric) [prjf] i 153 
(Priere dej faire suivre [pricir 

da fc:r sqi:vr] 423 

primatie [primasi] t p. 117 liii 
primitif [primitif] i p. 37 ix 
principaute d'Orange [presipote 

d Jra:5] Op. 153 lxiii 
printemps [preta] p 245 
pris [pri] 76 

prise [pri:z] e 76, p. 30 vi 
prison d'Etat [priza d eta] ^ p. 

153 Lxiii 
Privas [priva] a 59 
prix [pri] x 315 
proces [i)rase] c p. 70 xxix 
prochain [pra^e] ch 182 
prochaine [pra^en] in 146 
proclamer [praklame] [praklame] 

a 64 
profil [prafil] il 229 
Progne [pragne] gn 200 
pro jet [prase] et 92 
prompt [pra] pt 164, p. 157 lxiv; 

prompte [pr5:t] 46 
promptitude [pratityd] p 247; 

oni )). 55 XX 
promulgnant [pramylga] gua 197 
pronom [prana] om p. 55 xx 
prononciation [pranasjasja] on 

J). 55 XX 
prophetie [prafcsi] t 281, p. 117 


propitiatoire [prapi.sjat\va:r] t p. 

117 LIII 

proprete [prai)raie] e 393 
proscrire [praskriir] c 177; sc 276 
prose [pro:/,] o 101 
prospectus [pra.spektyis] s 275, 
p. 163 LXVI 



protestant [protesta] p 399 
provenir [])rjvni:r] n p. 96 xl\t 
providentiel [i)r.)vi(lasjcl] / 283 
prudemment [prydama] e 55; em 

134, p. 21 III, p. 157 LXiv 
prune [pnni] u p. 46 xv; n p. 96 


psalmiste [psalmist] p 251 
psalmodier [psalmodje] p 251 
psaume [pso:m] p 251 
Psyche [psi^e] p 251; ch p. 72 


psycologie [psikobsi] p 251 
psycologue [psikolog] p 251 
Ptolemee [ptoleme] P 251 
pu [py] u 4, 120 
public [pyblik] c 255 
publique [pyblik] qu 255 
puer [pqe] ue 160 
pueril [pqeril] il 229 
puis [pqi] ui 159, p. 64 xxv; s 

273; p. 157 lxiv 
puisque [pi[isk(8)] e 69, 386, p. 

30 v; ui p. 64 xxv 
puisqu'elle [pijisk el] 386 
puits [pqi] s 273 
puUuler [pylyle] II 220 
pun [pre] un p. 56 xxi B 
punch [po:^] un 142, p. 157 lxtv 
pupille [pypil] ill 232, p. 157 


pur [py:r] u 4, 120 
puritain [pyrite] p 399 
pusillanime [pyzi(l)lanim] ill232, 

p. 157 LXIV 
Puvis de Chavannes [pyvi d Ja- 

van] s 274 

pyramide [pirami(:)d] y, i p. 37 


pythagorien [pitagorje] p p. 152 


pjrthonisse [pitonis] p p. 152 


q [ky] [kg] 22, 24; [k] 127, 219, 
252, 254, 346; final 165 

qu [k] [kw] [kq] 252-258, 329; be- 
fore a [kw] 256; before a, o, u 
[k] 255; before e and i [k] 255; 
[kq] before e and i 257 

quadragenaire [k(w)adra5en8:r] 
q>i p. 101 XLix 

quadrangle [k(w)adra:gl] qu 256 

quadrat [k(\v)adra] qu p. 101 


quadrille [kadri:j] ill p. 90 xliv; 

qu p. 101 XLIX 
quadrupeds [k(w)adrj'pe(:)d] qu 

256; ua p. 62 xxiv 
quadruple [kadrj'pl] u p. 163 


quadrupler [k(w)adryple] qu 256, 

p. 101 XLIX 

quai [ke] [ke] ai 82, 124, 322, p. 

163 Lxvi; qu p. 101 xlix 
quai aux fieurs [ke o floe:r] 405 
quai de I'Horloge [ke da 1 orlois] 

H ilO 
qualite [kalite] qu 255 
quand [ka] qu 219, 254; an p. 51 


quand irez-vous [kat ire vu] d 
362, p. 141 Lix 



quantieme [katjem] ti 293 
quantite [katite] an 131 
quarante [kara:t] qu p. 101 xlix 
quart [ka:r] qu 254; t p. 117 liv 
quarte [kart] qu 254 
quartier [kartje] ti 293; t p. 117 


quarto [kwarto] qu 256 
quartz [kwairts] ua 156; gn 256 
quasi [kazi] qu 254, p. 101 xllx 
quatrain [katrc] qu 254 
quatre [katr] e 46; qu 254 
quatre ennemis [katr enmi] c 

quatre-temps [katro ta] e 71; qu 

p. 101 XLIX 

quatre-vingt-cinq [katr ve st:k] 

t, q 1). 157 LXiv 
quatre-vingt-dix [katro ve dis] 

quatre-vingt-dix-huit [katr ve 

dizqit] I 303 
quatre-vingt-onze [katro ve 5:z] 

371; t p. 141 Lx 
quatre-vingt-sept [katro ve set] 

t p. 141 LX 

quatre-vingt-six [katr ve sis] t, x 

p. 157 LXIV 
quatre-vingt-un [katro ve <!•] t 

303, 371, p. 157 LXiv 
quatrieme [kalriein] [katrjrm] i 

quatuor [kwatq.):r] qu 250, p. 

163 Lxvi 
qu'avez-vous [k avc vu] 384 
que [ko] e 06, 75, 383; qu 210, 


Quebec [kebek] c p. 70 xxx 
que j'aie [ko 3 e(:)j] [ko 5 e] aie 

quel [kel] qu p. 101 xlix 
quelque [kclk(o)] e 387 
quelques-uns [ke(l)k(o)z de] p. 

157 LXiv 
quelqu'un [kelk ce] 387; un p. 56 


quel velours [kel volu:r] e 394 
qu'entend-on [k atat 5] d p. 141 


querir [keri:r] 168 

questeur [kqestoeir] qu 257 

question [kcstjo] t 279, 280, 290 

questure [kqestyir] qu 257 

quete [kc:t] qu 254 

que tu subjuguasses [ko ty syb- 

Sygas] (jua 197 
queue [ke] cu 114, p. 44 xii, p. 

49 XVI ; qu 254, p. 101 xlix 
queussi-queumi [kosi kemi] qu 

\). 101 XLIX 

qui [ki] qu 219, 253, 254, 329 
quibus [k(q)ibys] qu p. 101 xlix 
quiddite [k(q)i(lditc] dd 188; qu 

p. 101 XLIX 

quietisme [kqiotism] qu p. 101 


quietude [kqiclyd] qu 257, p. 101 


qu'il aimat [k il ema] d 51 
(qu'il) efit [k il y] u p. 46 XV 
qu'il finit [k il fini] i 95 
qu'il fit |k il fi] i 95 
quille |ki:jl (ju 254 
quillon [kij.'}] qu p. 101 xlix 



qu'il parlat [k il parla] (i 51 
qu'il punit [k il pyni] i 95 
qu'ils eussent [k ilz ys] eu 116 
qu'il voguat [k il voga] gud 197 
Quimper [kepeir] r p. 104 L 
qu'in [kf] in p. 56 xxi B 
Quinault [kino] I 223 
quincaillerie [kekajri] qu 254 
quinine [kinin] m p. 163 lxvi 
quinquennal [kqekqenal] qu p. 

101 XLIX 

quinquet [keke] qu 254 
quinquina [kekina] qu p. 101 


quinte [ke:t] qu 254, 255; in p. 

56 XXI B 
Quinte-Curce [kqet kyrs] Qu 

quintette [k(ij)etet] uin p. 65 

XXVI ; qu p. 101 XLIX 
quinteux [keto] qu 254 
quintidi [k(q)etidi] qu p. 101 


Quintilien [kqctilje] Qu 257; uin, 

ien p. 65 xxvi 
quintuple [k(ii)8typl] in 136; uin 

p. 65 xxvi; qu p. 101 xlix 
quiproquo [kiproko] qu 254 
quoique [kwak(9)] e 386 
quoiqu'on [kwak 3] 386 
qu'on [k 3] on p. 56 xxi B 
quotidian [kotidje] up. 163 lxvi 
quotient [kosja] o 110, p. 43 xi; 

t 287, p. 157 LXiv; qu p. 101 


qu'un [k de] un p. 56 xxi B 
qu'unze [k de:z] p. 56 xxi B 

r [er] [rs] 22, 24 ; [r] 91, 94, 105, 
112, 118, 126, 259, 265, 356, 
380, 381; +consonant 166, 
264; final 165, 261, 262, 295- 
298, 347-349 
rabbin [rabe] bb p. 68 xxvii 
Rabelais [rable] ai p. 49 xvi 
raccomoder [rakomode] cc p. 69 

raccroc [rakro] c 340, p. 71 xxi; 

cc p. 69 XXVIII 
raccrocher [ralo-oSe] cc p. 69 


Rachel [ra^el] ch p. 72 xxxii 
rachitique [ra^itik] ch p. 72 xxxii 
racier [rcikle] a 63 
radoub [radub] 6 171 
raidir [redi:r] r p. 104 l 
raille [ra:j] a 63 
raillerie [rujri] a 63, p. 25 iv 
railway [relwe] [relwe] lo 308 
raison [rezo] [rezo] s p. 109 li 
ramener [ramne] e 70, p. 30 vi 
rampant [rapa] am 131 
rampe [ra:p] am p. 51 xviii 
rang [ra] g 365; an p. 56 xxi B 
rang eleve [rak elve] [ra elve] g 

rang infime [rak efim] g 365 
Raoul [raul] I 221 
rappelee [raple] e 89 
rapt [rapt] p 248; t 299 
rare [ra:r] [ra:r] r 4, 259; a 49 
rarete [rarte] r p. 104 l 
raser [raze] s 319, p. 109 li 



rasibus [razibys] s p. 109 li 
rat [ra] a 53, p. 21 iii; t p. 117 


ratelier [nitoljo] e 71 

ration [rasjo] I 2S5 

rationnel [rasjoncl] t p. 117 liii 

Ratisbonne [ratizbon] s 271 

raviver [ravive] v p. 118 lv 

rayon [rej5] ay 90; y p. 60 xxiii 

-re final 260 

reaction [reaksjo] c p. 70 xxx 

rebus [rebj'is] s 275 

recemment [rcsama] em 134, p. 

21 III 
recent [rcsa] c p. 70 xxix 
Recevez, Monsieur, les meil- 
leures amities de votre bien 
devoue [rosve, masjo, le me- 
ja-irz amitje do voir bje de- 
vwe] 428 
recevoir [ros(a)v\va:r] c 175 
recif [resif] / p. 76 xxxvi 
recipient [resipja] c p. 70 xxix 
reciter [rcsite] c p. 70 xxix 
recognition [r('k.)p;nisj.l] gji 200 
Recommandee [rokoinddo] 423 
recompense [rokapuis] 23 
recu [rosy] f 32, 267 
recueil [roka'(:)j] ue 118 
recueille [rokn-ij] ueille 226 
reddition [rcd<lisj.>] dd 188 
redempteur [rfdri(j))t<L':r] /; 248 
redemption [rcdrifijjsj')] p 248 
redingote [r.)drn.)t] in 135 
refaisant,[r.if.izri) ai 68 
reflux Ir.tfiy] x p. 163 lxvi 
refrogne [rofrjjif] gn p. 81 xl 

regard [rogair] r p. 104 l 
regardez [rogarde] p. 19 ii 
regardez les cerfs-volants [r9- 

garde Ic servola]/p. 76xxxvii 
regnait [repc] gii p. 81 xl 
Regnard [roiiair] g 204, p. 81 XL 
Regnaud [rono] g 204 
Regnauld [rojio] e, I p. 162 lxv 
regne [rejie] e 79 
regne [reji] gn 207, 329 
regner [rejie] gn 4 
regrets [rogre] c p. 30 v 
Reims sec Rheims 
rein [re] ein p. 54 xix, p. 56 xxi 

reine [n-.n] ei 20, p. 36 viii 
reineclaude [rengloid] [reiilcloid] 

c 174 
reine de France [rem do frais] e 

reitre [r?:tr] ci 90, 125, p. 49 xvi 
rejeter [rostc] e 70, p. 30 vi 
rejoindre [ro3we:dr] oin p. 65 

XXVI ; j p. 86 XLii 
rejouir [ro3wi:r] otii 156; j' 217 
relaps [rolajw] « 275 
relapse [rolaps] p 248, p. 98 


relieur [roljccir] e p. 30 v 
reliure [roljyir] in 152 
remarque [r.tiiiark] r p. 104 l 
remede [r.)nie(:)d] (' 87 
remerciait [rotiirrsjc] uii 152 
rempart [r("ii)a:r] r p. 104 l; t p. 

117 i.iv 
remplir [mi)li:rl cui 131 
remuant [rjiuqu] uan 162 



remuons [remq")] uon p. 65 xxvi 
Renaud [rono] dp. 74 xxxiv 
rendre [ra:dr] r p. 104 l 
rene [rc:n] c p. 36 viii 
renfort [rafo:r] t 295, p. 117 Liv 
renne [ren] e 20, p. 36 viii 
repartie [raparti] t p. 117 lii 
repete [repet] e 28 
repete [repete] e 79, p. 32 vix 
repond-elle [repot el] d 362, p. 

141 LIX 
Repondez, s'il vous plait [repSde, 

s il ^1l pie] p. 161 XIV 
repondit-il [repodit il] 421 
reps [reps] p 248 
republique romaine [repj'blik 

roinen] r p. 153 lxiii 
requiem [rekni(j)cm] e 80; wi 235; 

qu 257 
reserve [rezerve] p. 157 lxiv 
resignation [rezijiasjo] a p. 157 


resoudre [rezu(:)dr] s 319 

respect [respe(k)] [respekt] ect 
92, 253, 353, p. 157 lxiv; ct 
181; t 300; e p. 36 viii 

respecter [respekte] 38 

respect humain [respek yrae] ect 

respirer [respire] 38 

ressemble [rasaibl] e p. 30 v 

ressembler [rosuble] e 68, p. 157 


ressentir [rasutiir] e 68, p. 157 


ressortir [rasortiir] e 68 
ressource [rasurs] e p. 157 lxiv 

restaurant [restora] [restaru] au 
112, 126, 325, p. 43 xi, p. 49 


rester [reste] 38; e 91 
restez encore [restez akoir] z 336 
resultat [rezylta] t p. 117 liv 
resume [rezjTne] yyi 233 
resumption [rezapsjo] um 142 
rets [re] t p. 117 liv 
revanche [r(a)va:$] ch p. 72 xxxii 
reve [re:v] e 85, p. 36 viii 
revenir [ravniir] 46; e 67 
revenu [r(9)vny] u p. 46 xv 
rever [reve] e 86, p. 36 viii 
revetir [r(8)v8ti:r] e p. 36 viii 
revolver [revolve:r] e 80, p. 32 

VII ; r 263; v p. 118 lv; e, r p. 

163 i^vi 
Rejmauld [reno] d p. 74 xxxiv 
rez [ro] e SO 
rez-de-chaussee [retSose] z p. 

163 LX\T 

R(h)einis [re:s] eim 135, p. 54 
xix; s 274; p. 157 lxiv, p. 162 


Rhin [re] in p. 54 xix 
rhinoceros [rinoserois] s 275 
rhododendron [rododedro] en 137 
rhum [rom] u 113; um 145; m 

235; p. 163 lxvi 
Richard [ri^air] d p. 74 xxxiv 
Richelieu [ri^aljo] e 71, p. 30 v 
rien [rje] en 135; ie p. 60 xxiii 
rien accepter [rjen aksepte] n 375 
rire [ri:r] r p. 104 l 
rive [ri:v] v 4; i 94; v 304 
riz [ri] z 318, 359 



robe [ro(:)b] o 4, 104, 106, p. 43 

xi; 6 4, 46, 170 
roc [rak] o 105, p. 43 xi; c p. 70 


Roch [r,)k] ch p. 162 lxv 

roche [roS] 46 

Roger [rj5c] r 262 

rognon [rojio] gn p. 81 xl 

roi [nva] [rwa] oi 62, j). 25 iv, p. 

62 XXIV 
roi de France [rwa d fra:s] e 394 
role [ro:l] u 97, p. 39 x 
romance [ramu:s] o 109 
Rome [rjm] o 111, p. 43 xi 
rompre [r5:pr] orn p. 55 xx 
romps [ra] p 247 
Romulus [romyl}-:s] s 274 
rond [r5] d 164, p. 74 xxxiv; r 

259; o/i p. 56 XXI B 
ronde [rj:d] on p. 55 xx 
ronron [rora] r p. 104 l 
rosbif [rasbif] [razljif] / p. 76 

XXXVI ; s p. 157 lxiv 
rose [ro:z] s 4, 268, 316, 317, p. 

109 Li; 13, 101, p. 39 x 
rosier [rozjc] o 101 
Rosny [roni] a 272 
rossignol [rasijial] o 110 
Rothschild [rot^ild] d j). 74 xxxv 
roti (rati] <> 97, p. 43 xi; I 281, p. 

117 i.ii 
Rotterdam [r.ttrnhun] am 132; 

vt 235 
Rouen Irwfi] oum \). 65 xxvi 
rouet [rwt) one 156 
rouge [ruij] gc 4, p. 80 xxxix; 

oa 19, 119 

rougeaud [1-1130] ou p. 49 xvi 

rougeur [rujoe:/] 19 

roux [ru] ou p. 46 xiv 

royal [rwajal] 46; o?/ p. 62 xxiv 

royaume [rwajoim] oy p. 62 xxiv 

rr [(r)r] 43, 168, 259 

made [rqa(:)d] ua p. 64 xxv 

Rubens [rj'beis] en 137; s p. 162 


rude [ry(:)d] d 4; u 121 

rue [ry] c 69, 391 

rue [rqe] ue p. 64 xxv 

rue de Rivoli [ry do rivali] R 410 

ruelle [rqcl] ae 160, p. 64 xxv 

rueuse [rqo:z] ucu 160, p. 64 xxv 

mine [rqin] id p. 64 xxv 

Ruisdael [rqizda:!] s, e j). 162 lxv 

misseau [rqiso] ui p. 64 xxv 

nmib [ra:b] b 171 

run [r<I"] un \). 56-xxi B 

rupture [rypty:r] u p. 46 xv 

rural [ryral] r p. 104 l 

mse [ry:z] s 268, 319, p. 109 Li 

rustre [rystr] r p. 104 l 

Rujrter [rqitfrr] r p. 101 L 

s [cs] [so] 22, 24; [s] 92, 93, 100, 
110, 170, 266, 2()7, 269, 274, 
280, 381; final [s] 275; silent 
272, 273, 368, ;J69; of final cs, 
rs 367; [z] 101, 105, 106, 118, 
268, 270, 271, 317, 319, 366, 370 

sabbat [sal)a] bb p. 68 xxvii; t p. 
117 LIV 

sable [su:bl] [8a(:)bl] a 64, p. 25 iv 



sabre [sabr] [sa'or] a 64 
saccade [8aka(:)f 1 cc p. 69 xxviii 
saccader [sakade] cc 173 
saccager [sakase] cc p. 69 xxviii 
saccharin [sakare] cc p. 69 xxviii 
sa fenetre [sa fneitr] e 394 
Sa Grandeur [sa grada;:r] S, G 

412, p. 161 XIV 
Sa Grandeur I'eveque de Mar- 
seille [sa grddd'ir 1 evcik da 

marse:j] S, G, M 413 
sain [se] ain p. 54 xix 
saint [se] s 409; p. 161 XIV 
Saint-Cloud [se klu] d 189 
saint Denis [se doni] s 409 
sainte [se:t] ain p. 56 xxi B; p. 

161 XIV 
saint Francois [se fraswa] s 409 
Saint-Gaudens [se gode:s] s 274, 

p. 162 Lxv 
Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois [se 

5erme 1 okservva] x 267 
saint Luc [se lyk] c p. 70 xxx 
saint Marc [se mark] c 178, 340, 

Saint-Marc a Venise [se mair a 

v(3)ni!z] c p. 141 LX 
Saint-Marc Girardin [se ma:r 

.^irarde] c 340 
saint Martin [se marte] s 409 
Saint-Ouen [set wu] ouen p. 65 


Saint-Petersburg [se peterzbuir] 

g 205; s 271 
Saint-Quentin [se kate] qu 254 
Saint-Roch [se rok] ch p. 73 

XXXIII, p. 162 LXV 

saints [se] p. 161 XIV 

Saint Thomas d'Aquin [se tDma 

d ake] qu 254 
salade [sala(:)d] p. 19 n 
salete [salte] e 70, 393 
salle [sal] p. 19 ii 
Salut amical [salyt amikal] 427 
samedi [samdi] e 70, 393, p. 30 


Sa Majeste [sa maseste] S, M 

412; p. 161 XIV 
Sa Majeste Britannique [sa ma- 

Seste britanik] .S', M, B 414 
Sa Majeste CathoUque [sa ma- 

3este katolik] ;S', M, C 414 
Sa Majeste Fidele [sa maseste 

fidel] S, M, F 414 
Sa Majeste imperiale [sa ma- 

Seste eperjal] *S, M -413 
Sa Majeste la reine [sa maseste 

la rem] ;S', M 413 
Sa Majeste la reine d'Angleterre 

[sa ma3estc la rem d agbteir] 

S, M, A 413 
Sa Majeste le czar [sa maseste 

b tsa:r] aS, M 413 
Sa Majeste I'empereur Napo- 
leon III [sa maseste 1 aproeir 

napoleo trwa] S, M, N 413 
Sa Majeste le roi [sa maseste b 

rw(i] S, M 413 
Sa Majeste le sultan Abdul 

Medjid [sa maseste b syltci 

abdyl medjid] S, M, A 413 
Samson [saso] m 236 
Sanchez [sajes] [sa^ez] z p. 122 




sanctifier [sakiifje] c p. 70 xxx 
sanctuaire [saktqeir] c p. 70 xxx 
sandwich [sudwit^], £''i<7?is/i [sand- 

witS] w 157, 308, p. 62 xxiv; 

d p. 74 XXXV 
sang [su] an 131, p. 51 xviii, p. 

56 XXI B; g 365 
sang et eau [sa e o] g 365 
sang humain [sdk yme] g 365 
sang impur [sak epyir] [sa epyir] 

g 365 
sanglier [suglie] j;/ p. 79 xxxviii 
sangsue [sQsy] g 204 
sans date [sa dat] p. 161 XIV 
sans le chien [su 1 5jc] c 394 
sans lieu ni date [su Ijo ni dat] 

p. 161 XIV 
Saone [so:n] a 57, p. 162 lxv; ad 

103, p. 39 x 
Sa Saintete [sa sette] S 412; p. 

161 XIV 
Sa Saintete le pape Pie IX [sa 

settc k) pap pi na-f] S, P 413 
satiete [sasjcte] li 293; t p. 117 


sauce [so:s] au 102, p. 39 x 
saucisse [sosis] a a 102 
saucisson [sosis5] au 102 
sauf jsof] / 165, 192 
saurai [s.)rc] [sore] au 112, 126, 

p. 43 XI 
saurais [sore] [sore] au 112, 126, 

J). 13 XI 
saussaie [] au 102 
saut [so] / 295; au p. 39 x 
sauter [sotc] nu 102 
savoir [savwairj 124, 322 

savon [sav5] 07i p. 55 xx 

sc [s] c 175, 277, 329; before e, i, 

y [s] 277; before a, o, u and 

consonants [sk] 276 
scandale [skudal] sc 276 
scarlatine [skarlatin] sc 276 
sceau [so] eau p. 39 x; sc p. 71 

scelerat [selera] c 175; sc 277 
sceleratesse [selerates] sc p. 71 

sceller [sele] sc p. 71 xxxi 
scenario [scnarjo] sc p. 71 xxxi; 

ri p. 96 XLVi 
scene [se:n] c 175, 267; sc 277, 

329; e p. 36 viii 
scenique [sonik] sc p. 71 xxxi 
scepticisme [septisism] [septi- 

sizm] .sc 277, p. 71 xxxi 
sceptique [septik] sc p. 71 xxxi 
sceptre [septr] sc 217, p. 71 xxxi 
sch [Sj [sk] 182, 185, 186, 278, 32.9 
schah [Sa]-s p. 152 lxiii 
schema [skema] sch 278 
Schiller [^ilcir] r 263 
schisme [Sism] [Sizm] sch 186, 

27S, 329 
schiste [^isf] sch 186, 278 
Schleswig [yrzvig] g 206 
sc(h)olaire [skale:r] sch 186, 278; 

sc 276 
sc(h)oIastique [skjlastik] sch 

ISO, 278 
scholie [skoli] sch 186 
scie [si] .sc 277, p. 71 xxxi 
sciemment [sjamd] sc p. 71 xxxi; 

mill ]). 94 XLV 



science [sja:s] ien 135, 162; c 175, 
267, p. 157 Lxiv; s p. 109 li 

scientifique [sjatifik] ien p. 65 
XXVI ; sc p. 71 XXXI 

scier [sje] sc p. 71 xxxi 

scintillant [setijQ] sc p. 71 xxxi 

scintille [setiij] sc 277 

scintiller [seti(l)le] [setije] ill 

scion [sjo] sc p. 71 xxxi 

sciure [sjy.-r] iu 152; sc p. 71 


scrutin [skiyte] sc 276 
sculpteur [skyltcBir] sc 276; p 

247, p. 157 LXIV, p. 163 lxvi 
ScyUa [silla] c 267, p. 162 kxv; 

Scythes [sit] c 175 
se [so] e 66, 383 
sec [sek] c p. 70 xxx 
second [sago] [zg5] c 174, p. 157 


second etage [sagot etai3] d 363 

secundo [sagodo] un 142 

seigle [se(:)gl] ei 90 

seigneur [sejioeir] gn 207 

sein [se] ein p. 54 xix 

Seine [se:n] ei 20, 90, 125, 323, 

p. 36 viii 
seize [se:z] ei 90, 125, 323 
sel [sd] I 221 

Selim [selim] im 139; m 235 
selon eux [sala 0] n 335, 378 
semblant [sabla] em 131 
semble [sa:bl] em 14 
sembliez [sablie] [sabljo] i 153 
s'en [s a] en p. 51 xviii 

sens [sa] [sa:s] s 275, p. 157 

lxiv; en p. 51 xviii 
sens commun [sa komde] s p. 157 


sept [set] p 247; < 302 
sept arbres [set arbr] t 302 
septembre [se(p)ta:br] em 131; p 

248, 425 
sept enfants [set ufa] pt p. 157 


septentrion [se(p)tatrj5] p 248 
septentrional [se(p)tatrjanal] p 

p. 98 XLViii 
septieme [setjem] ti 293 
sept plumes [se pljon] t p. 157 


sept pommes [se pom] t 302 
septuagenaire [septqaseneir] p 

sera [sara] r 259 
serail [sera:j] il 224 
serf [serf] / p. 76 xxxvi 
serions [sarjo] e p. 30 v 
sert-il [seirt il] t 381 
serviteur [scrvitceir] eu p. 45 xiii 
ses [se] [se] e 93 
Ses Majestes [se maseste] S, M 

Seth [set] th 299 
seuU [sa3(:)j] eu 13, 118, p. 45 

seul [inA] ew4, 117; Z 221 
seul habit [soel abi] I 344 
seve [se:v] «; p. 118 lv 
shako [5ako] A; 218 
si [si] s 4, 31, 266; i 4, 94, 389 
sibylle [sibil] ill 232 



sieur [sjcEir] eu 118; p. 161 XIV 
Sieyes [sjejes] s 274 
sifflera [siflara] e 71 
signal [sijial] gn p. 81 XL 
signet [sine] [sijit] g 204 
signifie [sijiifi] [sinifi] gn p. 157 


s'U [s il] 31 

s'il en est ainsi [s il an ei esi] I, n, 

t p. 141 LIX 
silex [silfks] x 310 
s'ils viennent [s il vjcn] 389 
s'U va [s il va] 3S9 
s'il vous plait [s il \u pie] j). 161 

simple [se:pl] im 135, p. 19 ii, p. 

54 XIX, p. 157 LXIV 
Sinai [sinai] p. 163 lxvi 
sine qua non [sine kwa non] qu 

p. 101 XLIX 

sire [si:r] i p. 37 ix 

sirop [siro] ]) 249 

six [sis] s 266; x 267, 313, 315, 

sixain [size] x 314, p. 122 lvii 
six amis [siz ami] x 319 
six chaises [si Se:z] x j). 157 lxiv 
six et dix [sis e dis] x p. 157 lxiv 
six heros [si ero] x 315 
six heures [siz (cir] x p. 157 lxiv 
six heures et demie [siz a:r e 

(i.tiiii] .s- 370 
six hommes [siz jiii] x 372 
six-huit [sis qit] x \). 122 lvii 
sixieme jsizjcin] x 311, \). 122 


six ou sept [sis u set] 47 

six pommes [si pom] x 315 

six-quatre [sis katr] x p. 122 lvii 

six soldats [si solda] x 372 

sixte [sikst] x 310 

Sixte- Quint [siksto kg] e 71 

social [sosjal] o 110; ia 152; c 175 

societe [sosjete] o 110 

soeur [s(p:r] eu 118, p. 45 xiii 

soi [swa] oi 56, 156, p. 21 iii 

sole [s\v(i] [swa] oi 56, 64 

soif [swaf] / 192 

soif ardente [swaf ardait] / p. 76 

soin [swe] in p. 54 xix 
soir [swa:r] oi 56 
soit [swat] [swa] t 300, p. 163 


soixante [sw;isa:t] x 267, 313 
soixantaine [swasatcn] x 313 
soixante-dix [swasa:t dis] 213 
soixantieme [swasatjem] x p. 

122 LVII 
soldat [s,)lda] a 53 
soleU [s.)le(:)j] eil 226, p. 157 

lxiv; ei p. 36 viii; il p. 90 


solennel [sjlanel] c 55; en 134 
solennite [solanite] nri p. 96 


sommeil [s.)ine:j] c 91; il \). 90 


sommeiller [sjmrjc] ri j). 36 viii 
sommets |s.)iiir] (7.s 92 
sommite [sjiiiitc] m j). 57 xxii 
somnambule [sjiniirihyl] om 143; 

III 231 
somnolent |s.)mii.)]ri] oin 143 



Son Altesse [son altes] S, A 412 
Son Altesse I'electeur de Saxe 

[son altes 1 elektceir da saks] S, 

A 413 
Son Altesse royale [son altes 

rwcijal] S, A 413; p. 161 XIV 
sonde [s3:d] on p. 56 xxi B 
son dernier avis [so dernjer avi] 

r 347 
Son Eminence [son eminais] S, E 

Son Eminence le cardinal de 

Retz [son emina:s la kardinal 

da res] S, E, R 413 
Son Excellence [son ekseluis] p. 

161 XIV 
songe [30:3] 071 14 
songea [so3a] e p. 157 lxiv 
sonnette [sonet] n p. 57 xxii 
sonore [sono:r] n p. 96 xlvi 
sort [so:r] r 166; o p. 43 xi; ^ p. 

117 LIV 

sortie [sorti] tie 292; t p. 117 lii 

sot [so] [sot] t 300 

sotie [soti] t 281 

sotte [sot] 107, p. 43 xi; tt 279 

sou [su] ou p. 46 XIV 

souhait [swe] t 295, p. 117 liv 

soul [su] I 223, 344; ou p. 46 xiv 

soulever [sulve] I p. 87 xliii 

Soulier [sulje] p. 163 lxvii 

souliers neufs [sulje ncef] / p. 76 

Soult [suit] t 299 
soumission [sumisjo] m p. 94 xlv 
sourcil [sursi] il 230; I 344, p. 

163 Lxvi 

sourd [su:r] ou p. 46 xiv; d p. 74 

sourd a toutes les demandes 

[su:r a tut le damciid] d p. 141 


sourde [surd] ou p. 46 xiv 
sourd et muet [suir e mqe] d p. 

141 LX 

sous-entendu [suz atudy] p. 161 

sous le pont [su 1 po] e 394 
sous un toit [suz de twa] s 335 
soutenir [sutni:r] e 70 
soutien [sutje] ti 294; t p. 117 lit 
souvenir [suvni:r] e 46; n p. 96 


souverain [suvre] e 46, 70, p. 30 


spalt [spall] t 299 

specimen [spesimen] [spesime] 

€71 133; 71 241, p. 157 lxiv 
specimen a desirer [spesimen a 

dezire] n 376 
sphinx [sfe:ks] x 310 
squale [skwal] qu 256, p. 101 


square [skwa:r] va 156; qu 256 

ss [s] 267, 329 

St final 297 

stabat mater [stabat mate:r] r 

stagnant [stagna] gn 200 
stagnation [stagnasjo] g7i 200 
stathouder [statudeir] r p. 104 l 
station [stasjo] a 60; t 285 
Strasbourg [strazbuir] s 271; s, g 

p. 157 LXIV 



strict [strikt] I 296 

strontiviin [strosjom] t 288 

Stuart [stqa:r] ua p. 64 xxv 

stuc [styk] c p. 70 xxx 

style [stil] y 96 

su [sy] u p. 46 XV 

sua [sqa] ho 160, p. 64 xxv 

suaire [sqt:r] ua p. 64 xxv 

suant [sua] nan p. 65 xxvi 

suave [sqa:v] ua 160, p. 64 xxv 

subit [sybi(t)] t 299, 300, p. 163 


subordonner [syborcbne] h 44 
substantiel [syp,std.sjL-l] t 283, p. 

117 LIII 

sue [sj'k] c p. 70 xxx 
successeur [syksesoeir] cc 176, p. 

70 XX IX 
succinct [sykse] [syksekt] t 300; 

c p. 71 XXXI, p. 163 Lxvi 
succion [syksjo] cc p. 70 xxix 
succulent [sykyla] cc 173 
succursale [sykyrsal] u p. 46 xv, 

[). 161 XIV 
Sucre [sykr] u j). 46 xv 
sud [.sy(:)d] d 190, p. 157 lxiv, 

p. 163 LXVI 
sud-est [syfi est ] I 297 
sud-ouest (syd west] I 297 
suerent [.sqr:r] it'c 160 
sueur [.squ-'ir] uc.u 160, p. 04 xxv 
Suez [sqcs] [sqciz] z 316, p. 163 


suggerer (.syK^r-re] |Hyg3cre] 38; 

f/f/ 20:'>, p. 157 LXiv 
suggestion [svK.vstjr)] gg 203; li 

290; l\i. 117 I.I I 

suif a vendre [sqif a va:dr] / p. 

suinter [sqete] uin 136, 162 
suis-je [sqi:5] e 69 
suivant [sqiva] p. 161 XIV 
suivre [sqiivr] id 160 
sujetion [sy5e.sj5] t 285 
sun [see] un p. 56 xxi B 
suons [sq5] uon 162 
superbe [sj^^erb] p 245 
supplice [syplis] pp 245 
supputer [s>T3j^e] u p. 46 xv 
suprematie [sypremasi] t p. 117 

LIU, ]). 157 LXIV 

sur [sy:r] u p. 46 xv 

sure [sy:r] up. 46 xv 

sur le pont [syr la p5] e 394 

sur les une heure [syr le >ti a?:r] 

sumom [syrno] ot)i 141, p. 55 


sur-plomb [syr plo] b 339 
suspect [syspekt] [syspek] [syspe] 
ct 181; I 300; eel 353; p. 163 


suspense [sysi)u:s] s 267 
Suzanne [syzan] z \y. 122 lviii 
suzerain [syzrf:] z p. 122 lviii 
syUabe [sila(:)b] [silla(:)b] ?/ 96; 

// KiS; a p. 21 iii 
sympathie [sfjjati] yvi 135; Ih 

279, I). 117 Lii 
symptome [sfi)to:in] p 248, p. 98 


syntaxe (sf-faksl yn 135 
synthese [.sftrsz] yn 135 
systeme [si.stt:in] c 87 



t[te][to]22, 24;92;118; 170; [t] 
[s] 162, 267, 279-303; final 
295-303, 350-356, 381, 382; 
silent 295, 300-303, 350-356 

ta [ta] a p. 21 iii 

tabac [taba] a 53; c 180, p. 157 


table [ta(:)bl] a 65; e 69, 391; le 

tableau [tablo] bl 37; eau p. 39 x 
tac [tak] c p. 70 xxx 
tache [ta:S] d 15, 19, 58 
tacher [tu^e] d 19 
tachygraphe [takigraf] ch p. 72 


tact [takt] c p. 70 xxx; t 296, p. 

117 Lii, p. 157 LXIV 
taUle [ta:j] a 61 
tailleur [tajoeir] [tajoeir] a 64 
taire [te:r] ai 84, 123, 321 
TaUeyrand [ta(l)leru] ill 232 
Talmud [talmyd] d p. 74 xxxv 
tandis [tddi] s p. 157 lxiv 
tandis que [tadi(s) k(o)] s p. 109 


tante [ta:t] an 4, 14, 131, p. 56 

XXI B; e 46 
taon [ta] [t5] a 57; o 103 
tape [tap] p 4, 245 
tard [ta:r] d p. 74 xxxiv 
tarii [tarif] / p. 76 xxxvi 
tas [ta] a 59, p. 25 iv; < 4, 279 
tasse [ta:s] a 65, p. 25 iv 
tasser [tuse] a 59 
tatons [tato] d p. 25 iv 

taux [to] X p. 122 LVii 
te [to] c 66, 383, 391 
technologie [teknobsi] ch 185, 

p. 73 xxxiii 
te deum [te deom] e 80, p. 32 vii; 

um 145 
teinte [te:t] ein 4, 135, p. 56 

tel [tel] I 221 
telephone [telefon] [telefoin] o 

111, p. 43 XI 
tellement [tehna] 46 
tempete [tdpeit] em 131 
temple [taipl] em p. 51 xviii 
temps [ta] em 131; t 279; ps p. 

157 LXIV 
tenacite [tonasite] e 67 
tenir [taniir] e 67; r 261 
tenture [tcityir] en 131 
Terre-Neuve [teir noeiv] 422 
terrible [ttribl] rr 169; r 259 
terrine [terin] rr 167 
territoire [teritwair] oi p. 62 


tertio [tersjo] t p. 117 liii 

tes [tc] [te] e 93 

tete [te:t] e 4, 20, 29,84, p. 36 viii 

tette [tet] e 20, p. 36 viii 

texte [tekst] a; 310 

th [t] h 209, 279, 329 

thaler [talc:r] r p. 104 l 

the [te] h 209 

theatre [teaitr] e, d 30; th 279, 

theatre de Paris [tea:tr do pari] 

P p. 153 LXiii 
theme [te:m] th 279 



theocratie [teokrasi] I 281 

Thiers [tjr:r] r 264 

Thomas [toma] a 59, p. 25 iv 

thorax [toraks] x 310 

thym [te] ym 135, p. 157 lxiv 

-ti [sj] [tj] [ti] 110, 280, 281, 289- 

291, 293, 294 
-tia [tja] ti 294 
-tial [sjal] t 280, 282 
tiare [tja:r] ti 294 
tic [tik] c p. 70 XXX 
-tie [si] [ti] t 280, 281, 292 
-tie [tje] t 293 
-tie [tje] < 293 
-tiel [sjrl] t 280, 283 
-tieme [tjem] ti 293 
-tiemement [tjemma] ti 293 
tien [tje] ti 294 

-tien [sjt-] t 280, 286; [tje] I 294 
tienne [tjcn] ti 294 
tient [tje] en 135, p. 54 xix, p. 

157 Lxiv 
-tient [sje] I 280; [sju] 287 
-tier [tjo] t 293 
tiers [tjc:r] r 166, 264 
-tiers [tje] t, ti 293 
tiers etat [tjc:rz eta] s 366 
-ties [ti] < 281 
-tieuse [sjosz] t 280, 284 
-tiez [tje] ti 291 
tige [ti:^] i 94 
tilleul [tijdlj I p. 157 lxiv 
timidite [timidito] i p. 37 ix 
tinssiez [tfsjc] in 45 
-tie [f j.)] li 294 
-tion [sjj] I 280, 285 
-tions [tj3] li 291 

-tium [sjom] t 280, 288 
tirelire [tirliir] i p. 37 ix 
tiret [tire] 421 
tiret (de separation) [tire da se- 

parosjo] 419 
Titien [tisje] t 286, p. 117 liii; 

t, en p. 162 lxv 
titiller [titi(l)le] ill 232 
toast [tost] [to:st] 57; t 297; a p. 

157 lxiv 
tocsin [tokse] c p. 70 xxx 
toi [twa] oi 56, 156 
tombe [t5:I)] om 141 
tombeau [tobo] om p. 55 xx 
tome [to:m] o 14, 111 
tondre [toidr] on p. 56 xxi B 
topaze [topa:z] [toparz] a 64; z p. 

122 Lviii 
tort [to:r] a 4, 104 
toste [tost] o 110 
tot [to] 6 p. 39 X 
total [total] o 109 
tot ou tard [tot u ta:r] 47 
Toulon, 7, rue Saint-Georges, le 

18 aout 1911 [tulo, set, ry se 

3or3, la diz qit u diz ncef sa 5:z] 

tour [tu:r] ou 4, 119; < 7 
tournesol [turnosol] s 269 
tournevis [turnovis] e, s p. 163 


tournez s'il vous plait [turne s il 

vu pic] p. KH XIV 
tous [tu(:)s] [tu] .s- 275, p. 157 

LXIV, ou p. 46 XIV 
tousse [tus] ou 119, 128, 328, p. 

46 XIV 



tout [tu(t,)] OM 4, 17, 119, p. 46 


Tout a vous [tut a vu] 427 

toute [tut] ou p. 46 xiv 

tout le monde [tu 1 moid] e 73 

toux [tu] X 315; on p. 46 xiv 

traine [trcui] cd 90, j). 49 xvi 

traineau [treno] ul 90 

trait d'uuion [tre d ynjo] 34, 419, 

tramway [tramwe] [tramwe] w 

ITu, 307 
tranquille [trakil] ill 232, p. 157 

Lxiv; i p. 37 IX 
trans before a vowel [traz] 270 
transaction [trazaksjo] s 270 
transatlantique [trazatlatik] s 

transept [trase(pt)] s 270; t 299; 

p p. 98 XLViii 
transi [trasi] s 270 
transiger [trazi3e] s 270 
transir [trasiir] s 270 
transit [trazi(t)] s 270; t 299 
transitif [trazitif] s 270 
transition [trazisjo] .s 270 
transsubstantier [trasypstasje] 

ti 293; Z p. 117 Liii 
Transylvania [trasilvani] s 270 
travail [trava(!)j] a 13, 61; il 155, 

225; ail p. 157 lxiv 
travaille [travaij] a 12, 61, 65; e 

travailler [travaje] ill 225 
trema [trema] 33 
tremper [trape] em-131 
trente-neuf [trait noef] / 194 

tres habile [trez abil] s 336, p. 

141 LIX 
tresor [trezoir] s 268 
triage [triai5] [trijai3] i 153 
tric-trac [trik trak] c p. 70 xxx 
tril [tri] [triij] il 228 
trimestre [trimestr] p. 161 XIV 
triple [tripl] 37 
triste [trist] i 94 
tristement [tristoma] e 393 
triumvir [triamviir] [trijomviir] 

m 235 
trois [trwa] oi p. 62 xxiv 
trois un de suite [trwaz oe da 

sqit] 371 
trompe [troip] om 4, 141 
tromper [trope] om 141 
tronc [tro] c 179, 340 
trone [troin] 6 97 
troner [trone] 6 98 
trop [tro] [tro] o 99; p 249 
trop eclatant [trop eklata] -p 345 
trop en avant [trop an ava] p, n 

trop etroit [trop etrwa] p p. 141 


trop hardi [tro ardi] p p. 141 lx 
trottoir [trotwair] r 261 ; it 279 
trou [tru] ou p. 46 xiv, p. 49 xvi 
trouvaille [truvaij] a 61, 65; aille 

troyen [trwojS] oy p. 62 xxiv 
Troyen [trwaje] en 135 
true [tryk] c jx 70 xxx 
tt [t] 42, 168, 279 
tu [ty] ull 
tua [tqa] ua p. 64 xxv 



tu aimes [ty e:m] e 391 

tuant [tqa] uan 162 

tu argues [ty argy] gue 197 

tube [t>-b] 1/ p. 46 xv 

tubulaire [tybyk:r] u p. 46 xv 

tu chatieras [ty ^citira] t 281 

tu donnes [\\ don] c p. 30 vi 

tuer [tqe] ue 160 

tueur [tqcBir] ueu, 160, p. 64 


tueuse [tqo:z] ueu 160, p. 64 


tu fatiguas [ty fatiga] gua 197 
tuile [tqi(:)l] ui p. 64 xxv 
tuileries [tqilri] ui p. 64 xxv 
tulle [tyl] u p. 46 xv 
tumulte [tyniylt] u p. 46 xv 
tuons [tqo] uon 162, p. 65 xx\t: 
tu paries [ty pari] e p. 30 vi 
tu peux [ty p0) X p. 122 lvii 
turc [tyrk] a 121; c 255 
turf [tyrf] / p. 76 xxx\t 
turque [t>Tk] qu 255 
tu sais [ty so] [ty se] ai 82, 124, 

322. p. 32 VII 
Tusculum [tyskyl.)in] m 235 
tu tords [ty t.):r] d p. 74 xxxiv 
tu t'y es mis [ty t i c mi] 384 
tuyau [Iqijo] [tyjo] 46; uij 160, 

p. (>4 xxv 
tjrphus [tify:s] s 275 

u [y] 22, 24; [q] 158; pronoiincc<l 
after g 197; silent after g 197; 
Bilcnt 202 

t [y] j2 120, 121 

-ua [wa] 156; -ua [qa] 158, 160 

-uan [qci] 161, 162 

ubiquite [ybikqite] qu 257 

ue [a-] [o] 117, 118, 122, 127; [qe] 

[qc] 158, 160; after c and g [oe] 

[o] 320, 326 
-ue [qe] 158, 160 
-ue [qc] 158, 160 
-ueU [oc:j] il 226 
-ueille [(e:j] ill 226 
-ueu [qo] [qa^] 158, 160 
-ui [qi] 158, 160; +i [qij] 159 
-uille [y:j] [qi:j] ill 226 
-uin [qe] 136, 161, 162 
-urn [5] 142; [&] 144; [om] 145, 

-umes [yni] ii 15 
un [re] 4, 17, 144, 146, 161, 386, 

p. 56 XXI B 
-un [5] 142, 161; [oe] 144; [on] 

un ancien ami [d>n asjen ami] n 

unanime [N-naniim] n p. 57 xxii 
un arabe (cen ara(:)b] a p. 153 


im arc-en-ciel [ten ark u sjrl] n, 

c p. Ill LIX 
un avis important [d-n avi eportd] 

s 3(59 
im banc a dos [<e l)d a do] c yt. 

141 i.x 
un beau mariage [d- bo marja:^] 

I ' 102 
un bel angora [<e bel ug.jra] a 




un boulanger intelligent [Cv bu- 

l("i50 etelisfi] r 349 
un cerf dix-cors [d> seir di k.):r] / 

1). 7G XXXVII 
un charmant homme [te Sarmat 

om] t 331 
un cosaque [(» kozak] c p. 153 


un court espace [de kurt espa:s] t 

un dedale [de dedal] d p. 153 


un demi-litre [ce dmi litr] e 394 

une [yn] u 121 

une ancienne eleve [>ti Tisjen 

ekiv] e 392 
une autre annee [jti otr ane] e 

Une bonne annee [>ti ban ane] 

une bouteille de cognac [jti bu- 

te:j do kojiak] c 400 
une cheminee [j-n Nomine] e 394 
une demi-livre [jti dami li:vr] e 

une demoiselle [jti damwazel] e 

une dryade [j-n dria(:)d] d p. 152 


une faim excessive [jti fe ekse- 

si:v] m 373, p. 141 lx 
une megere [>ti me3e:r] m p. 153 


un enfant [oen ufu] n 375 
une petite [yn pot it] e 74, 393, 394 
Une poignee de main [yn pwajie 
(pope) da me] 427 

une robe de florence [yn ro(:)b 

do flora :.s] / 400 
une robe de madras [yn ro(:)b 

do madra:s] 7n 400 
une semaine [yn same(:)n] e 394 
une sirene [yn sire(:)n] s p. 152 


une statue en carrare [yn staty 

a karair] c 400 
un et deux font trois [de e do f5 

trwa] n p. 141 lx 
im etre actif [cSn e:tr aktif] e 73 
Une VieUle maitresse [yn vje(:)j 

metres] V 402 
un excellent homme [den ekselat 

om] t 350 
un faime [de fo:n] / p. 152 lxiii 
im fort argument en sa faveur 

[& fo:rt argymat a sa favoeir] 

t p. 141 LIX 

xm fort athlete [de fart atlet] t 352 
un froid accueil [cb frwat akoe:j| 

d 362 
im garfon indolent [de gars5 

edola] n p. 141 lx 
un grand homme [de grat om] d 362 
un hermes [den erme(:)s] h p. 153 


uniforme [yniform] n 239 

un illustre Parisien [den ilystr 

]iarizje] P 399 
union [jaijo] p. 19 ii 
un Irlandais [den irlade] I 399 
univers [jiiivcir] r 264 
universite [yniversite] 16 
im joug intolerable [de 3uk eto- 

lera(:)bl] g p. 141 lix 



Un Manage dans le monde [de 

marja:3 da b moid] M 402 
un mentor [de meto:r] in p. 153 


im metre d'angleterre [de me(:)tr 

d aglote:r] a 400 
un missel [de miscl] m p. 152 


un noble venitien [de nobl ve- 

nisjf] V 399 
im nom anglais [de n5 agle] m 

p. 141 LX 

\m nom illustre [ce n5 illj'str] m 

un ceuf dur [(En oe dy:r] / 193 
un oeuf frais [den oe frc] / 193 
im ceuf gate [den cef gate] / p. 76 


un OS [den o:s] [den os] s p. 156 


un parfimi exqxiis [de parfde ek- 

ski] m 373 
un phaeton [de faet5] p p. 153 


im pore-epic [(Je pork epik] c p. 

141 ux 
un pot de biere [de po d bje:r] e 

un riche Americain [cL ri^ ame- 

rike] A 399 
un satyre [d' sati:r] s- p. 152 lxiii 
un savant allemand [ffe sava 

idmri) II :',9<) 
un succes inattendu [de sykscz 

iriatridy] a 300 
un tartufe [(h tartyf] / p. 153 


un triton [de trit5] t p. 152 Lxin 
im un mal fait [cen de mal fe] 371 
im verre de biere [de ve:r da 

bjc:r] e 394 
un vieillard infirme [de vjejair 

efirm] d 364 
imze [de:z] iin p. 56 xxi B 
-uon [qj] 161, 162 
Urgent [}T3a] 431; t p. 117 ltv 
Ursule [yrsyl] t< p. 46 xv 
us [y:s] [y] s 275 
-utes [yt] H 15 
-utie [ysi] t 281 
utile [j'til] u p. 46 xv 
UxeUes [ysd] x 267, 313 
-uy [qi] 158, 160 

V [ve] [va] 22, 24; [v] 304, 338 
vache [vaS] ch p. 72 xxxii 
vaciller [vasile] ill 232 
vade-mecum [vade mekom] um 

vaille [va:j] a 61 
vaincre [vf :kr] cr 37; c 255 
vaincrez [vtkre] ain 135 
vaincs [vc] cs 164, c 179 
vaincu [vCkj^] c 255 
vainquant [vcka] qu 255 
vainquez [vtko] qu 255 
vainquis [vfki] qn 254, 255 
vainquons [vtko] qu 254, 255 
valet jvalii v p. 118 LV 
valse [vals] a p. 21 iii 
valu [valy] v p. 118 LV 
valve [valv] v p. 118 lv 



vanille [vani(:)j] ill p. 90 xliv 

vase [vcftz] a 60 

vasistas [vazistuis] s 275, p. 157 


Vaud [vo] d p. 74 xxxrv 
vaudeville [vodvil] ill 232 
Vaugelas [voski] a 59 
vaux [vo] au p. 49 xvi 
veau [vo] eau 102, p. 39 x 
veille [ve(:)j] ill p. 157 lxiv 
veilleuse [vejoiz] e 91; ei p. 36 

VIII ; ill p. 90 XLiv 
veine [vc:n] ci 90 
Velasquez [velaskes] z 267 
vende [va:d] en p. 56 xxi B 
vendeen [vadee] en 136 
vendetta [vedetta] en p. 157 


vendredi [vadradi] en 131; c 

venez [vane] z 318 
Veniat [van j at] t p. 117 iii 
Venise [voniiz] i p. 37 ix 
Venitien [venisjc] t 286 
vent [vu] V 4, 304, p. 118 LV 
Venus [venyis] s 274 
ver [vc:r] e 13; r 263 
Vera Cruz [vera kry:z] z 319 
verdict [v8di(k)] [verdikt] t 300 
verger [verse] r 262 
verglas [vergla] a 59 
vergogne [vergoji] gn p. 81 xl 
vermeil [verme(:)j] H P- 90 xliv 
vermput(h) [vermut] th 299; t p. 

163 Lxvi 
vers [ve:r] r 166, 264 
Versailles [versa:j] a 61; ill p. 90 

XLiv; V p. lis Lv; aill p. 162 


vers les una heure [ver le yn ceir] 

s 369, 371 
vers un endroit [ver ce(n) adrwa] 

vert [veir] r 166; t p. 117 liv 
verte [vert] e 91, p. 36 viii 
verveine [ver\^e(:)n] v p. 118 lv 
vestiaire [vestjeir] iai 152; ti 290 
vete [ve:t] e 85 
vetir [vetiir] e 86 
veto [veto] e 80 
veuf [vccf] / p. 76 XXXVI 
veuf en secondes noces [voef a 

sagSid nas] / 342 
veuille [voe:j] euille 226; ill p. 90 


Veuillez accepter, Madame, I'as- 
surance de ma parfaite et af- 
fectueuse consideration [voe- 
jez akscpte, madam, 1 asjTais 
do ma parfet e afektqoiz kosi- 
derasjo] 429 

Veuillez accepter, Madame, mes 
salutations respectueuses [voe- 
jez aksepte, madam, me saly- 
tcisjo respcktqoiz] 429 

Veuillez agreer, cher Monsietir, 
avec tous mes remerciements, 
I'assurance de mes sentiments 
bien devoues [voejez agree, 
Seir masjo, avek tu me romer- 
sima, 1 asyrais da me satima 
bje devwe] 428 

Veuillez agreer. Monsieur, I'as- 
surance de mes sentiments 



distingue s [vcpjez agree, mas- 
jo, 1 asyruis do me satima dis- 
tege] 428 
veuillez entrer [va>joz dtrr] z 333 
Veuillez me rappeler au bon sou- 
venir de [vtt'je mo raple o ba 
suvniir do] 430 
veuve [vcr:v] eu 127, 327, p. 45 

XIII ; V 304; p. 161 XIV 
veux [vo] eu p. 44 xii 
viande [vjQid] ian p. 65 xxvi 
vicomte [vik3:t] p. 161 XIV 
vicomtesse [vikotes] p. IGl XIV 
victoire [viktwair] oi 50 
vie [vi] e 69; i 94 
vieil [vjc:j] ieil 226 
viellard [vjejair] d p. 74 xxxiv; 

// p. 90 XLiv 
vieille [vje:j] eille 226; ill p. 157 


vieillir [vjejiir] ill p. 90 xliv 
viendra [vjedra] ien p. 65 xxvi 
vienne [vjen] v p. 118 lv 
viens [vjc] en 135, p. 54 xix 
vif [vif] i 94 

vif-argent [vif arsa]/ p. 76 xxxvi 
vif eclat [vif ckhi] / 342 
vigoureux [viguro] go p. 79 


vU [vil] I 165; il 229 
vilain [vili:] v p. 118 LV 
village [vil(l)a:5l ill 232 
ville [vill ill 2:52; i p. 37 ix 
Villeneuve-le-Comte [viliia-.-v lo 

k.-):!] I', (' 410 
Villmain [vilmrj ill 232 
vin [vc] in 17, 135, p. 56 xxi H 

vinaigre [vineigr] n p. 96 xlvi 
vin de Champagne [ve d Sapaji] 

vindicte [vtdikt] c p. 70 xxx 
vingt [vf] g 205, 213; t 302; gt p. 

157 LXiv 
vingt chevaux [ve Sovo] t p. 157 


vingt-deux [vet do] t 303, p. 157 


vingt et un [vet e oe] i 303 
vingt hommes [vet am] t 302 
vingt-huit [vet qit] i p. 157 lxiv 
vingtieme [vetjem] li 293; t p. 

117 LII 

vingt-neuf [vet na'f] t 303, p. 

157 LXIV 
vingt soldats [ve solda] t 302 
vingt-trois [\'ti trwa] t 303 
vinssions [vesjo] in 45 
violence [vj.)lu:s] en 131 
violette [vjolct] io 152 
violon [vjolo] io p. 60 xxiii 
virgule [virgyl] 419 
vis [vifs] .s 275, p. 163 Lxvi 
vis-i-vis [viz a vi] s p. 163 lxvi 
Visigoth [vizi^o] t 301 
vitre [vitr] 37 
vitrine [vitriii] i p. 37 ix 
vivace [vivas] v 304 
vivant [vivu] v p. llS lv 
vivat [viva] [vivat] t 300 
vivre [vi:vr] v p. 118 LV 
vizir [vi/,i:r] z 316 
vcBu [v(i] eu p. 44 XII 
voeux [vo] <(/. 114, 127; tni 326 
voguons [v.)g.')] gii p. 79 xxxviii 



voila [\Tvala] a 50 

voila le facteur [vwala 1 faktceir] 

voir [v\va:r] v 304 

Voir tome III, chapitre IV de 
I'ouvrage [v-wair to:m trwa, 
Sapitr katr do 1 u\Ta:3] 415 

voisin [vwaze] oi 156 

voix [\'wa] X 315 

volaille [volaij] aille 226; Z p. 87 


volatil [volatil] il 229 
volontiers [volotje] li 293 
volontiers a mes ordres [vol5tje 

a mez ordra] s 369 
voltairien [volterje] v 399 
volubilis [vjlybili:s] 5 p. 163 


vont [v5] on p. 56 xxi B;v p. 118 


Vosges [vo:3] [vo:3] s 272, p. 162 

LXV, p. 163 LXVI 

Vos Majestes [vo maseste] V, M 

votre [votr] ol06;z;p. 118lv 
votre [vo:tr] v p. 118 lv 
Votre amie aflfectionnee [votr ami 

afeksjone] 429 
Votre ami sincere (fidele) [votr 

ami seseir (fidel)], 427 
Votre bien sincere [votr bje se- 

seir] 429 
Votre Majeste [votr maseste] V, 

M 412 
Votre tout devoue [votr tu 

devwe] 427 
vouloir [vulwair] v 304 

vouons [vwo] oiion p. 65 xxvi 
vous aimates [\niz ematj d 51 
vous aimez a lire [vuz emez a 

li:r] 2 357 
vous allez a Paris [\'tiz alez a 

pari] 2 357 
Vous avez ete au pare [vuz avez 

ete o park] s, z p. 141 ldc 
vous avez eu [vuz avez y] s, z 333 
vous divaguates [vu divagat] 

gud 197 
Vous en avez assez [vuz on avez 

ase] s, n, z p. 141 lix 
vous etes [\aiz et] 15 
vous le dites [vu 1 dit] e 73 
vous mourrez [vii murre] rr 168 
vous naviguates [vu navigat] gvA 

vous parlates [vu parlat] d 51 
Voyage autour du monde [vwa- 

ja:3 otu:r dy moid] V 404 
voyageur [vwajasoeir] ge p. 80 


voyelle [vwajel] y 154 

voyez-le [vwaje b] e 385 

vrai [vre] ai 82, 90, p. 36 viii; v 

vraisemblable [vresablabl] s 269 
vu [vy] u p. 46 XV 
vun [vde] un p. 56 xxi B 


w [dubl ve] [dubl va] 22, 24; [v] 

306, 307; [w] 157, 308 
Wagner [vagne.-r] w, r p. 163 




wagon [vag5] 22; w 307 
Wagram [vagram] am 132; TF 307 
Walker [valke:r] IF, p. 119 lvi 
Wallon [valo] W p. 119 l\t 
Walpole [valpol] W p. 119 l\t 
Walter Scott [valtrr skat] W 307 
warrant [vara] ic p. 119 l\t: 
Warwick [vanik] W 306 
Washington [vazcgto] [wo^inton] 

ir307; p. 162 lxv 
Waterloo [vaterlu] W 306 
water-proof [vater pruf] w 307 
Watteau [vato] TF p. 119 lvi 
Weber [vcbe:r] TF 307; r p. 163 


Weimar [vemair] IF p. 119 l\t 
Wellington [veltgto] TF p. 119 


Weser [vcaeir] r p. 104 h; w p. 

119 LVI 

wh [w] 157, 309, 329 

Whig [wig] Wh 309 

whiskey [wiske] [wiski] wh 157, 

whist [wist] wh 157, 309, 329; t 

Wiesbaden [visbaden] IF p. 119 


wigwam [wigwam] w 308 
Winkelmann [vektlnian] TF p. 

119 LVI 

Wisigoth [vizigo] TF 307 
Wissenbourg [vistburr] W p. 119 


wolfram [v.)lfrain] w p. 119 lvi 
Worms [v.jriiis] m p. 119 lvi 
Wurtemberg (vyrtubcir] y 205 


X [iks] [ks9] [gza] 22, 24; 41; [ks] 
[k] [gz] [s] [z] 267, 280, 310- 
315, 317, 372; sUcnt 315 

xaintrailles [setraij] x 313 

xanthe [gza:t] x 312 

Xanthus [gzatyis] x 312 

Xantippe [gzatip] X 312 

Xavier [gzavjo] A'' 312 

Xenophon [gzcnafon] X 312 

Xerxes [gzerseis] x 267, 312 

y [igrek] [i] 22, 24; [i] 94, 96; 383; 
[j] 152-154; i+i [j] 125, 159, 
224; between vowels=i+i 154 

-ya [ja] 152 

yacht [jak(t)] [jot] 371; y p. 60 


-yen [jf] 136, 162 

yeux [jo] y 4, 154, p. 60 xxiii; 

cu 114 
-ym [v] 135 
-jmin [iinn] 140 
-yn [e] 135 
Yolande [j.jlaid] y 154 
yole [}.)\] y 154, p. 60 xxiii 

z [zr.l] [/,.,] 4; 22, 24; [s] 267; [z] 
31(;; final (z][sl 318, 319, 357- 

Zacharie [zak:iri] ck p. 73 xxxiii 



zadig [zadig] g 206 
zebre [zebr] z p. 122 lviii 
zele [zc(:)l] z 4, 316 
Zenith [zenit] th 299 
zero [zero] o 99; z 316 
zest [zest] t 297, 299 

zigzag [zigza(:)g] g 206; z p. 122 


zinc [ze:k] [ze:g] c 179, p. 70 xxx, 

p. 163 Lxvi 
zone [zoin] o 14, 111, p. 39 x; z 316 
Zurich [zyrik] ch p. 73 xxxiii 

Besides Nyrop's Manuel phoneiique, mentioned in the Index under 
the letter H, the following useful books bearing on the subject here 
treated were received during the preparation of the present work: 

DtTMViLLE, Benj. Elements of French pronunciation and diction. 
London (Dent & Sons), 1912. 

ScHOLLE and Smith. Elementary phonetics: English, French, Ger- 
man; 2d edition. London (Blackie & Son), 1907. 


General Editor: Raymond Weeks, Ph.D. 

Professor of theRomance Langiiages& Literatures in Columbia Uni-ucrsity 

A History of French Literature. 

By Prof. C. H. C. Wright, Harvard University. 

This is a convenient and comprehensive history of 
French Literature, written in English, tracing the 
literary development of the French people from the 
Middle Ages to the present day. Prof. Wright has 
produced a work which might truly be called "a 
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much light on many old themes in a bright and 
unconventional way. There is a very complete 
bibliography and index. 
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"Has not been surpassed in lOnglish." 

• — Prof. Colbert Searlcs,Leland Stanford Junior University. 


General Editor: Raymond Weeks, Ph.D. 

Processor of the Romance Lattguages and Literatures in Columbia Unl-versity 

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" The annotation especially is abundant, accurate and stimu- 
lating — very different from the ordinary commonplace notes." 

— Prof. W. P. Shepard, Hamilton College. 

In Active Preparation 

Abdallah, ou Le Trefle a Quatre Feuilles. 

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By James Geddes, Jr., Ph.D., Professor of Romance 
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