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Ia^^' "/^ 

The French Refugees 
at the Cape 


{Of the Cape Archives). 





1HAVE endeavoured in the following pages to give a brief 
account of the arrival and settlement of the French 
Refugees at the Cape in the seventeenth century. Their 
coming was of some importance to the Colony, especially 
with regard to farming operations. They brought with them 
a knowledge of viticulture which in no small measure helped 
to promote and advance the prosperity of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Further, they were an aid to the general colonization 
of the place. The Refugees came when there was a want 
of men with a knowledge of the manufacture of wine and 
brandy and of the cultivation of olives. The Dutch East 
India Company had no definite scheme of colonizing its 
various possessions, but an exception was made as regards 
the Cape. Emigrants were sent out from time to time during 
the seventeenth century, and Netherlanders came here at the 
same time as the French. With regard to the latter, I have 
dealt in the following pages with matters relating to their 
settlement at Drakenstein, their church and their language, 
and have added a list of names of those who came out from 
1688 onwards. It is hoped that this list will throw some 
fresh light on some of those who found a new home here. It 
has been compiled from a variety of sources, and has taken 
some years of careful research to complete. A little while 
ago my attention was drawn to a paper read in 1895 to the 
Huguenot Society in London by Captain W. H. Hinde, R.E., 
on " The Huguenot Settlement at the Cape of Good Hope." 
Annexed to the publication is a list of Huguenot families of 
the Cape compiled by the late Mr. C. C. de Vilhers. Upon 
comparing it with my list I was pleased to see what I had 
gathered was in many respects in more detail, especially as 
to the place of origin and the ships in which some of the 
Refugees came out. However, a debt of gratitude is due to 
the late Mr. de Villiers for what he has done for the student 
jnterested in genealogical studies of this country. 

None but those who have undertaken the task of framing 
such a list can appreciate the labour expended. Every 
conceivable class of record which might throw some light 
on the enquiry was examined. The result was often fruitless, 


iv The French Refugees at the Cape. 

whereas most unlikely sources produced a great deal of 
information. The late Dr. Theal, in his " History of South 
Africa," has mentioned that the list of those Refugees who 
came out in the Company's ships the Boissenburg and Zuid 
Beveland, are wanting both in the Archives at the Hague 
and the Cape. I have been so fortunate as to discover from 
odd sources in the Cape Archives the names of some of the 
passengers in the latter, as well as of those who came out in 
the Schelde, which is not mentioned. Reference to these is 
made further on. Mention of the arrival of some batches of 
Refugees in other vessels has also been made, and I have 
not yet seen these in print. Of the forty emigrants that 
sailed in 't Wapen van Alkmaar, I have been able to trace 
only one name, that of Antonie Martin. I have considered 
that the list of baptisms in the French Church at Drakenstein 
(now Paarl) should be included in this book. The original is 
in the handwriting of Paul Roux, the first French parish clerk 
and schoolmaster. It covers the period 1694 to 1713, and 
is the only existing church record kept in French. The early 
registers before the close of the seventeenth century, which 
no doubt were also in that language, are wanting. 

The last chapter has been devoted to extracts from some 
of the more important original documents in the Cape Archives 
dealing with the subject of this book. An English version of 
these has been given. It is hoped that the originals placed 
before the reader will prove helpful to the student unable to 
examine the records himself, and will also indicate the style 
of document and language of the period. 

I am indebted to Mr. A. H. Cornish-Bowden, Surveyor- 
General of the Cape Provdnce, for permitting Mr. P. Alton, of 
his staff, to reproduce the illustrations. It gives me pleasure 
to acknowledge Mr. Alton's help and interest taken in the 
preparation of the maps. 

Cape Town, 

September, 1919. 


List of the principal documents consulted and list of 
^^1 j! abbreviations .. .. ■• •• •• vi 

Chapter i 



Introduction . . . . • . • • i 

The arrival of the Refugees at the Cape . . 6 

The Cape at the end of the 17th Century 15 

Their settlement, church and language 23 

The Refugees in other countries and 
those who came to the Cape 

6. List of French Refugees who arrived from 

1688 .. 

7. Extract of baptisms in the Drakenstein 

Church, 1694-1713 ; Register of 
members of the Drakenstein Congre- 
gation, 1715 ; Land Grants issued 
to the French Refugees 

8. Extracts from the principal documents 

relating to the Refugees . . 







1. Map shewing thi-: extent ok the Colony in 1688 ... 21 

2. Facsimiles ok Signatures ok some ok the French 

Rekugees 59 

3. Map shewing position ok Farms granted to P'rench 

AND Dutch Settlers up to 1700 124 

vi The French Refugees at the Cape. 


Cape Archives. 

{a) Letters Received and Despatched by the Cape to the 
authorities in Holland and Batavia. Some of these 
will be found printed in H. C. V. Leibbrandt's Precis 
of the Archives, e.g., " Letters Received 1695-1708 " ; 
" Letters Despatched, 1696-1708." The context and 
reference to some of the correspondence will also be 
found in his " Rambles through the Archives." 

Journal or " Dag Register," a diary of daily events kept 
in the Castle of Good Hope. The period 1699-1732 
will be found in Leibbrandt's Precis. 

Resolutions of the Council of Policy. These contain the 
debates and resolutions of the Cape Government. 

" Requesten " or Petitions sent to the Government. Letters 
A-0 printed in Leibbrandt's Precis. 

Orphan Chamber Records. The principal documents 
referred to were wills, death registers, inventories and 
vendu rolls. They are invaluable as regards genea- 
logical information. 

Muster Rolls of Freemen. A yearly roll of all burghers in 
the Colony was compiled and sent to Holland. Ver- 
batim copies have been made for the Cape Archives. 

Court of Justice Records. Several interesting facts were 
obtained from these. 

" List of persons who sailed from Zeeland and appear on the 
roll of those granted Letters of Freedom 1718-1791." 
Verbatim copy in Cape Archives. Several names of 
those who came out in ships of which the passenger 
lists are wanting are to be found in this volume. 

Resolutions of the Lords Seventeen. Those between 1685- 
1688 relate to the Refugees. Verbatim copy. 

{h) In the Stellenbosch section are to be found several series 
of records which are very helpful. 

Wills passed before the Secretary of the District. 

Contracts passed before the Secretary of the District. 

Docunicnls Consitlled. vii 

Proceedings of petty cases before the Heemraden. 
Burgher Muster Rolls. 

Deeds Office. Original Land Grants. 

Church Documents. The various baptismal and marriage 
registers of the Dutch churches at Cape Town and 
Drakenstein (now Paarl) were inspected. The 
" Register of Members " was also very useful, dates 
of deaths and removals to other centres being recorded. 

Printed Books. 

Those who are unable to consult the original manuscripts in 
the Cape Archives will find in Leibbrandt's volumes an 
Enghsh precis of some of the documents as referred to above. 

Dr. G. McC. Theal's " History of South Africa." 

Francois Leguat : " A new voyage to the East Indies and 
his Companions." London, 1708. 

Pieter Kolbe : " Naaukeurige beschrijving van de Kaap de 
Goede Hoop." Amsterdam, 1727. 

Francois Valentyn : " Beschrijving van Oost Indien." 
Dordrecht and Amsterdam, 1726. Volume five contains 
a section dealing with the Cape. 

Rev. C. Spoelstia : " Bouwstoffen voor de geschiedenis der 
Nederduitsche Gereformeerde Kerken in Zuid Afrika." 
Amsterdam, 1906. Very useful source regarding the 
congregation and church of Drakenstein. Contains 
correspondence with the Classis of Amsterdam, extracts 
from the church minutes of the various congregations, 
and in volume two are verbatim extracts relating to the 
French Refugees. 

Leo Fouche, Ph. et Litt. D. : " The Diary of Adam Tas, 
1705-1706." London, 1914. The diary itself is of 
great value as showing the social life of the people, a 
picture of the farming community, and is an aid in 
the study of the causes of the discontent amongst the 
farmers during the rule of Governor Willem Adriaan 
van der Stel. The appendix, which deals with the 
" van der Stel troubles," has much information of the 
farming community of which the French Refugees 
formed no small portion. 

viii The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Elisee Briet : " Le Protestantisme en Brie et Basse Cham- 
pagne." Paris, 1885. Gives an interesting account 
of the Tailleferts of Chateau Thierry. 

R. L. Poole : " Huguenots of the Dispersion." 1880. 

Samuel Smiles : " The Huguenots in England and Ireland." 

Captain W. H. Hinde, R.E. : " The Huguenot Settlement 
at the Cape of Good Hope." Lymington, 1895. Con- 
tains the interesting " Notes on Huguenot families at 
the Cape of Good Hope," by the late Mr. C. C. de 

The Huguenot Society of London : Of the various publica- 
tions issued by this Society the following were found helpful : 

" Letters of Denization and Acts of Naturalization of Aliens 
in England, 1509-1603." Edited by W. Page, F.S.A. 

" Registers of the Protestant Church at Guisnes (France), 
1668-1685." Edited by William Minet, F.S.A.. and 
William Chapman Waller, F.S.A. 1891. This has 
been useful as a help in finding out particulars of some 
of the famihes who came to the Cape. 


Resolutions of the Council of Policy designated as Res. 

Resolutions of the Lords Seventeen, designated as Res. XVII. 

" Bouwstoffen voor de geschiedenis der Nederduitsche 
Gereformeerde Kerken in Zuid Afrika," C. Spoelstra, 
designated as Spoelstra. 

The reference to Letters Received and Letters Despatched 
to and from the Cape, Holland and Batavia, and other 
volumes in the Cape Archives, referred to by letter C, 
the number following being the volume. 


THE coming of the French Refugees to the Cape is one 
of the most important and interesting episodes in tlie 
history of South Africa. The late Dr. George McCall 
Theal, in his " Histor}^ of South Africa," has presented us with 
a vivid picture of the Refugees, but some additional facts 
will, it is hoped, prove not uninteresting to all who are desirous 
of knowing something about this particular chapter in our 
history. At the time of the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes, when thousands of fugitives from France were 
seeking an asylum in various parts of Europe, the Dutch 
East India Company seized the opportunity of offering to 
send out some of the Refugees with other emigrants who 
were willing to settle at the Cape. The Directors of the 
Company, or Seventeen, as they were usually termed, saw 
that the expenses of the Cape government were growing 
heavy, but that the agricultural prospects were gradually 
becoming favourable. It was not the policy of the Company 
to carry out a general scheme of colonization of its possessions, 
but an exception was made as regards the Cape. It had 
undertaken by its own farming operations to supply the 
passing ships with grain, meat and vegetables, but had found 
this expensive and unsatisfactory. These undertakings could 
be better carried out by a farming population. At a meeting 
of the Seventeen held on the 3rd October, 1685, it was resolved 
to send more colonists to the Cape to earn their livehhood 
by agriculture, trade and other industries.^ Amongst these 
were to be included French Refugees of the reformed religion. 
It is clear from the despatches to the Cape that among the 
objects which the Company had in view in sending out the 
Refugees were first, the increase of the population, resulting 
in the subsequent reduction of the numbers in the garrison 
necessary for defence ; and second, the promotion of agricul- 
ture and trades. Even after the main batch had arrived in 
1688 we find in 1696 and 1699 such expressions in connection 
with their departure for the Cape as " French Refugees who 
have been sent out with the object of populating the Colony 

'Res. XVII. C.200, Archives. For copy vide p. 125. 

2 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

and . . . maintain themselves by their trades and 
handiwork," " in order to carry on agriculture under your 
directions," and " to settle as agriculturists." Governor 
Simon van der Stel when he heard of their coming expressed 
the hope that he would find amongst them men who had a 
knowledge of the vinestock and the planting of olive trees. 

The idea of sending out emigrants was no new one, as this 
had been suggested by Commissioners who had come out to 
examine into the Company's affairs. Between 1671 and 
1685 several families had come, and the attempt to induce 
women to settle, especially orphan girls, had not quite met 
with the success anticipated, as only a few arrived. Amongst 
the Refugees to be sent in 1685 were to be those who could 
make vinegar and distil brandy. They had to produce 
certificates of honesty from their consistories and consider 
themselves born Netherlanders. Regulations, subsequently 
amended, were drawn up. But the response just then was 
not encouraging, as only two or three expressed their readiness 
to go. No serious steps were taken in the matter until two 
years later when on the ist October, 1687, the Directors 
appointed as a General Committee three members from the 
Amsterdam Chamber, two from the Zeeland Chamber and 
one from each of the other Chambers, all of whom were 
members of the Directorate. This Committee had to decide 
whether it was to the interest of the Company to send to the 
Cape, and to their other possessions, some French Piedmontese 
and fugitives, who professed the reformed religion, and, if so, 
on what footing and conditions. On the 6th October the 
Committee sent in their report,^ upon which it was resolved 
that the decision of the 3rd October, 1685, should remain in 
force with certain amendments. 

Amongst the French were to be included some exiled 
Piedmontese or " men of the valleys our co-religionists " 
(de uytgeweecken Piedmontoisen off dalluyden onse geloofs- 
verwanten). Those who wished to go to the Cape were to 
present themselves at the Amsterdam and Zeeland Chambers, 
and if accepted as suitable emigrants were to be accommodated 
on the outgoing ships of the Company. They were promised 
a French minister to hold divine service for them. Both 
the regulations, which were to guide them, and the oath of 
allegiance which they were obliged to take, were translated 
into the French language. ^ 

The agreement and regulations' drawn up provided for a 
free passage in their ships to all those who wished to come 

' For extract from this report vide p. 126. 
* Ibid. ' Vide p. 130. 

Jntroducticn. 3 

out as colonists. They were only allowed such luggage as 
was necessary for their use, and that was to be according 
to the discretion of the Seventeen. They were permitted to 
take as much specie as they liked, and were to earn their 
living at the Cape by agriculture, trade or any industry. 
As agriculturists they were to be given as much land in owner- 
ship as they could till, and such implements and cattle as 
they might require, but the price of these was to be refunded 
to the Company in corn or otherwise. Those going, whether 
married or single, were to remain in their new settlement 
for five years, which period could be reduced by special 
request to the Directorate. Those wishing to return to 
Europe after the five years were to pay their own passages.^ 
Pecuniary assistance towards procuring an outfit was to be 
given to each one according to whether he were married 
or single.^ 

The oath of allegiance which they were required to take 
was as follows' : — 

Serment, Oath, 

Que doivent prester les Per- To be taken by the Free- 

sonnes libres & estant hors le men not in the service of the 

service de la Compagnie, qui Company, proceeding to the 

vont au Cap de Bonne Esper- Cape of Good Hope before set- 

ance avant que de partir de ce ting out from this country, 

Je promets et jure d'estre I promise and swear to bear 

soumis et fidelle a leurs true and faithful allegiance to 

hautes puissances les Estats their High Mightinesses the 

Generaux des Provinces Unies, States General of the United 

nos Souverains Maistres et Provinces our Sovereign 

' Ordre en reglement, waer op de kameren zuUen vermogen eenige 
Luyden en Familien, daer onder mede begrepen Fransche Vluchte- 
lingen, soo oock uytgeweeckene Piemontoisen of Dalluyden, haer 
voorkomende, te transporteren en over te brengen nae de Cabo de 
Bonne Esperance. Annexure to Letter 19. 12. 1687 from Delft to Cape. 
C.512. For text vide p. 130. 

==The amounts advanced to all the settlers at the Cape were entered 
in a book specially kept by the Company, and in 1719 a list of such 
as were still debtors, with the amount of their debt, was compiled. 
In proportion to the number of French Refugees who came out and 
did receive assistance from the Company,, not many of their names 
appear on this list. No doubt the greater number had managed by 
their industry to wipe out their obligations. A list of the debtors is 
given on p. 128. 

'Unsigned printed copy in the French language in Cape Archives* 
Printed in Spoelstra's ' Bouwstoffen," vol. 2, p. 644; also in the 
early series of the Z.A. Tijdschrift. 

The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Seigneurs, a Son Altesse, 
Monseigneur le Prince 
d' Orange, comme Gouverneur, 
Capitaine et Amiral General, 
et ail Directeurs de la Com- 
pagnie Generale des Indes 
Orientales de ce pais, Pareille- 
ment au Gouverneur General 
des Indes, ainsi qu'a tons les 
Gouverneurs Commandants, 
et autres qui durant le Voyage 
par Mer et ensuite par terre 
auront commandement sur 
nous. Et que j'observeray et 
executeray, fidellement, et 
de point en point, toutes les 
loix et ordonnances, faites ou 
a faire tant par Messieurs 
les Directeurs, par le Gouver- 
neur General et par les Con- 
seillers, que par le Gouverneur 
ou Commandant du lieude ma 
residence, et de me gouver- 
ner et comporter en toutes 
choses comme un bon et 
fidelle sujet. 

Ainsi Dieu M'aide. 
Fait et arrest e dans I'assem- 
blee des Dix Sept. le 20 
Octobre, 1687. 

On the i6th November, 1687, the Directorate wrote to 
Commander Simon van der Stel and told him of their decision 
to send out the fugitives with a clergyman. Amongst them, 
he was informed, he would find wine farmers and brandy 
distillers who might thus supply the wants so much com- 
plained of by him. They instructed the Commander to 
supply the new arrivals with the necessaries for their sub- 
sistence until such time as they were settled and able to 
earn for themselves. They were to be treated on the same 
footing as the Dutch emigrants who had been sent out from 
time to time. These fugitives, they said, were destitute of 
everything, but were industrious and easily satisfied.^ 

This closed the preliminary' arrangements for the emigration 
of the largest batch of French settlers which came out before 

Masters and Lords, to His 
Highness the Lord Prince of 
Orange, as Governor, Captain 
and Admiral General, and to 
the Directors of the General 
Chartered Company of the 
East Indies in the said lands, 
likewise to the Governor-Gen- 
eral of India, as well as to the 
Governors, Commandants and 
others who may be placed 
over me during the voyage by 
sea and afterwards on land. 
That I will observe and exe- 
cute faithfully, in every re- 
spect, all the laws and ordin- 
ances made or to be made by 
the Lords Directors, the 
Governor General and Coun- 
cillors or Commandant of the 
place of my abode, and 
moreover, to regulate and 
behave myself in ever}' sense 
as a good and faithful subject. 
So help me God. 
Done and registered at the 
meeting of the Seventeen on 
October 20th, 1687. 

'Letter, 16. 11. 1687, from Chamber of Amsterdam. C.512. 
extract of this vide p 133. 


Introduction. 5 

the close of the seventeenth century. There was httle delay 
in getting the families and single persons allotted to the 
various ships in which they were to sail. Many, no doubt, 
had a heavy feeling at their heart as they received the final 
order of the Company to embark. While still in Europe they 
were near to their dear ones and the land of their birth. To 
go six thousand miles away, to meet hidden dangers by land 
and sea, would, even in this twentieth century, make a stout 
heart beat with excitement and maybe fear. We shall read 
later on of the great mortality which took place during a sea 
voyage in those far off days. This was only too well known 
to the intending emigrants. One batch for whom all arrange- 
ments of transport had been made changed their minds at 
the last moment and refused to go. They gave as one of 
their excuses " their aversion to the sea and long ^voyage. "^ 

Vide extract from letter, 2 1.7. 1688, p. 143. 



IT is a difficult matter to realise what a voyage must have 
been two hundred years ago when we think of our large 
modern liners plying between Europe and South Africa. 
To-day the distance is covered within seventeen days, then it 
took anywhere from four to six months ; to-day the food is 
kept in ice chambers, then the meat had to be salted and 
cured. The ships then were small, and living and sleeping 
space was limited ; some of the vessels were no longer than 
one hundred and fifteen feet. Not only were the people 
faced by the danger of tempestuous seas, stranding or fire, 
but they also ran the risk of capture by pirates or a 
foreign enemy. 

Death was of frequent occurrence during the voyage, and 
the means for combatting it limited. The want of fresh food, 
vegetables and a limited allowance of water caused scurvy. 
This played havoc with a great number, and it often ended 
fatally. Water was a precious thing on board, and every 
precaution was taken to preserve it. To eke out the fresh 
water as long as possible, the meat and salt pork were cooked 
in the salt water and thus consumed by those on board. 
Water was given out on short allowance, but one or two 
glasses of wine were distributed to make up for it.^ 

Poor people, what agonies they must have suffered some- 
times, especially when passing through the tropics ! Such, 
however, were the risks and discomforts which the French 
Refugees who ventured to leave their country had to run 
before they found an asylum in the southern hemisphere. 

The ships of the Dutch East India Company that brought 
out the first batches of Refugees were the Voorschooten, 
Borssenburg, Oosterlandt, Berg China, Schelde, Zuid Beveland, 

' " Nader consideratie off bedenckinge op eenige poincten der 
remonstratie door Sr. Leendert Jansz : overgelevert wegen ' t project 
van een fortresse ende plantagie te begrypen aen Cabo de Boa Esperance 
ende wes meer aldaer bij tijt ende wijse ten meesten diensten van de 
Compe. te verhopen." — Jan van Riebeeck. — Juni 165 1. €.505. 

Arrival of Refugees. 7 

and 't Wapen van Alkmaar. An extract from the resolutions 
of the Seventeen on the ist April, 1688. giving the number of 
Refugees from each Chamber is given on page 135. The 
Voorschooten was the first ship to leave Holland, and sailed 
on the 31st December, 1687. On the 13th April following 
she was obliged to drop her anchors in Saldanha Bay on 
account of a strong south-east wind, although her destination 
was Table Bay.' Her officers considered it necessary to 
remain in the bay to effect some repairs. When the Com- 
mander at the Castle was informed of her arrival, he 
despatched the cutter Jupiter from Table Bay with fresh 
provisions. On her return she brought the Refugees safely 
to the Cape.2 

The Voorschooten was a flute of one hundred and thirty feet 
(Dutch) long.' Twenty-two French emigrants were on board.* 
Amongst them were Charles Marais of Plessis, his wife and 
four children, Philippe Fouche with wife and three children, 
also eight young bachelors, amongst whom were the brothers 
Jean and Gabriel le Roux of Blois, and Gideon Malherbe. 
Jacques Pinard and his wife Esther Fouche had been 
married previous to the sailing of the Voorschooten from 

The Oosterlandt left Middelburg on the 29th January, 1688, 
and reached Table Bay on the 26th April, 1688, after a 
most successful voyage of two months and ten days.^ She 
was a much larger built ship than the Voorschooten, measuring 
one hundred and sixty feet. She brought out twenty-four 
Refugees.' One of them was Jacques de Savoye of Aeth, 
a wealthy merchant. Jean Prier du Plessis of Poitiers, who 
had practised as a surgeon, and Isaac Taillefert of Chateau 
Thierry, a hatmaker, were also on board ; they all brought 
out their wives and children. 

Another of the boats to have a most successful voyage 
was the flute Borssenburg, which left Texel on the 6th January, 
1688. She was the smallest of the ships, as she was only one 

' Letter, 3.5.1688, to Batavia, €.755, p. 131. Letter, 26.4.1688, to 
Chamber Delft, C.755, p. 99. 

-' Letter, 14.4. 1688, et seq. from Capt. Fs.Villerius, of the Voorschooten 
in Saldanha Bay. C.513. 

^ For measurements of the vessels and the number of souls they 
carried, vide. Letter, 16. 11. 1687, from Chamber of Amsterdam. Letter, 
14.4. 1688, from Captain of the Voorschooten, gives the total as 160 
men and 32 others. 

* Names to be found in list given on p. 137. 

'" For lists of those who came out in the Voorschooten, Oosterlandt 
and Ber^ China, vide pp. 137-140. 

"Letter, 26.4.1688, to Chamber of Middelburg. C.755, P- 96- 

' Names given on p. 137. 

8 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

hundred and fifteen feet in length. She cast anchor in the 
Bay on May 12th, having suffered no deaths amongst the 
passengers or crew during the voyage, and landed all those 
on board in a healthy condition at the Cape. Among her 
passengers was a party of " French Piedmontese fugitives."^ 
The list of names is wanting. I have been unable to trace 
any particular individual who came out in her. 

A most exciting voyage was experienced by the Schelde, a 
boat of one hundred and forty feet long. She brought out 
twenty-three French Refugees, men, women and children. 
Seven or eight days out at sea a terrible storm sprang up, 
and the skipper was compelled to put into St. Jago. On her 
arrival at Porto Prayo, he was told that on the previous day 
an English pirate ship had captured three ships belonging to 
the English, Portuguese and Dutch respectively. She sailed 
away almost immediately, and when five days from the Cape 
ran into another storm. ^ On board were several members 
of the des Pres family. 

On the 4th August, 1688, there arrived in Table Bay the 
Berg China, which had left Rotterdam on the 20th March 
previously. The Berg China was of the same dimensions as 
the Oosterlandt. There were thirty-four French fugitives^ on 
board when she set sail, but the greater portion of the thirty 
who died on the voyage were Refugees."* 

When the Zuid Beveland, a vessel as big as the Voorschooten, 
sailed from Holland on the 22nd April, 1688, she had on 
board twenty-five Refugees, eleven men, four women and 
ten children. Amongst them was an important person whose 
arrival had been eagerly looked forward to by those who had 
come earlier to the Cape shores. This person was the Revd. 
Pierre Simond of Embrun in Dauphine, lately minister at 
Zirikzee. He was to play an active part in the early history 
of the French community at Drakenstein. Reverend Simond, 
whose name has been perpetuated to-day in the Drakenstein 
Valley by the place Simondium, was accompanied by his 
wife, Anne de Berault. Amongst the soldiers on board 
belonging to the Dutch East India Company was Sergeant 
Louis de Berault, brother of the minister's wife. In October, 
1688, Sergeant de Berault accompanied an expedition to 
Rio de la Goa to search for some wrecked seamen of the ship 
Stavinisse. He afterwards settled down as a burg?ier. 

'Letter, 14.5. 1688, to Batavia. C.755, p. 148. 

-Letter, 14. 6.1688, to Chamber of Middelburg. C.755, P- I94- 

■' Names given in the list on p. 140. 

^Letter, 16.8. 1688. to Batavia. C.7S5, pp. 219-220, 

Arrival of Refugees. 9 

After a run of nearly four months the Zuid Beveland 
dropped anchor in Table Bay on the 19th August, but it was 
too late that day for anyone to come ashore. Between eight 
and nine o'clock next morning the first boat shoved off for land, 
but a squall of wind suddenly sprang up and upset the boat. 
Soon everyone was floundering in the sea. Several of the 
occupants were drowned, including Mr. Cornelis Moerkerke, 
who was on his way to Malacca to take up his appointment 
as Fiscal. 1 Both the Schelde and Zuid Beveland lost a number 
of the French Refugees by death during the voyage. The 
lists of Refugees who came out in these two vessels are not 
to be found in the Archives at the Cape nor in Holland. 
From other documents, however, the names of some are 
found mentioned as having arrived with her. For instance, 
the Schelde brought out Charles Prevot, wife and three 
children, Hercules des Pres with wife and four children, and 
Abraham Bleuset, which makes a total of twelve out of the 
twenty-three who embarked. In the Zuid Beveland came 
Rev. Simond and his wife, Jean le Tong, wife and two 
children, Estienne Viret. Salomon de Gournay and David 
Senecal, eight souls out of the number of twenty-five known 
to have embarked. From the number of Refugees who had 
sailed by the ist April, 1688, it is seen that more men than 
women came out. After the Zuid Beveland had left, sixty- 
seven men, thirty-three women and fifty-one children had 
embarked in the various boats, ^ but, as we find upon com- 
paring the lists of those we know set sail and those who 
landed here, several of them died on the voyage or shortly 
after their arrival. 

About forty Refugees set sail from Texel on the 27th July, 
1688, on board 7 Wapen van Alkmaar, commanded by 
Captain Carel Goske, and arrived six months after, i.e., the 
27th January, 1689. They lost thirty-seven persons by death 
and brought one hundred and four sick ones, the latter being 
placed immediately in the Company's hospital at Cape Town. 
The French emigrants were sent into the country to their 
new homes on the ist February, after they had been given 
all the necessaries to carry on their agricultural pursuits.' 
The only name I have been able to trace of those who sailed 
in the Alkmaar is that of Antonie Martin. 

It will be necessary to explain how it came about that 
these fugitives were sent out in 7 Wapen van Alkmaar 

'Letter, 2.9.1688, to Batavia ; vide also Res. 2.9.1688 and Attes- 
tation 23.8.1688. 

''Res. XVII, C.200. For extract, vide p. 135. 
'Journal, 27.1 and 1.2. 1689. 

10 . The French Refugees at the Cape. 

About one thousand souls represented by two hundred 
famihes, Piedmontese and Vaudois refugees, had taken refuge 
in Nuremberg. Their number included agriculturists, ex- 
perienced tradesmen, and four ministers ; they all expressed 
a wish to go to any of the Colonies of the Dutch East or 
Dutch West India Companies, but on condition that they be 
allowed to settle close to each other and exercise their own 
religion.' Commissioners, appointed by the Chamber of 
Seventeen, enquired into the matter, and meanwhile the 
French and Vaudois fugitives presented a petition asking 
that certain other conditions be allowed. The petitioners had 
deputed Jean Pastre Marchand as their spokesmen, who 
stated that he had been requested by the Refugees at Erlagh 
and the Vaudois near Nuremberg to plead their cause.^ 

A kindly and compassionate view was taken of the matter 
by the Seventeen, who decided to settle these people at the 
Cape of Good Hope, and provide them with free passages 
and money, and to supply them with building materials on 
credit. They were to be given provisions and treated on 
the same footing as the Dutch emigrants. It was thought 
that after the aged, lame and sick persons had been deducted, 
there would be between six and seven hundred souls who 
would be prepared to emigrate.^ Arrangements were made 
for sending out two or three hundred Waldenses or Vaudoisen 
in the Company's ship the Schielandt, but afterwards in 
't Wapen van Alkmaar. Everything was in readiness, but 
the emigrants declined to go, and the Seventeen wrote to 
the Cape that " these people, being averse to the sea and 
long voyage, had changed their minds and settled in Germany, 
and that forty French Refugees bred to agriculture were being 
sent out in 7 Wapen van Alkmaar."^ 

The above ships brought out the greater portion of the 
French emigres to the Cape between 1688 and 1700, and 
after the former date we find them arriving in small batches. 
The other ships which brought some of them out were the 
Zion, Vosmaar, Westhoven, Donkervliet and Driebergen. In 
the Zion, which left Holland on the 8th January, 1689, and 
arrived on the 6th May following, came three brothers, 
Pierre, Abraham and Jacob de Villiers. Writing to the Cape 
on the i6th December, 1688, the Chamber at Delft said of 
them : " With this ship (the Zion) we have again permitted 
the following French Refugees to sail to the Cape and earn 

' Res. XVII, C.200. - Res. XVII, gedateerd 23 Maert 1688. 

'Res. XVII, gedateerd 25 Maert 1688. 

* Letter, 2 1. 7. 1688, from Chamber of Amsterdam. €.513. An extract 
is given on p 143. 

Arrival of Refugees. 11 

their living as freemen, Pierre de Villiers, Abraham de Villiers 
and Jacob de Vilhers, all three brothers born near la Rochelie. 
We are informed that these persons have a good knowledge 
of laying out vineyards and managing the same, and thus 
we hope that the Company' will acquire their good service. 
You are recommended to give them a helping hand."i 

To-day the name of de Villiers is to be found throughout 
the sub-continent, and descendants of Pierre de Villiers have 
given us some of the cleverest men in the legal profession, 
one of whom was the late Baron de Villiers of Wynberg, 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Union of South 

A sad fate overtook the ten men and women Refugees who 
sailed from Holland in April, 1696, in the Vosmaar. The 
voyage had been most disastrous. When she arrived in 
October she had lost ninety-three persons by death, five of 
whom were of the French emigrants. Of the rema'mder of 
two hundred and thirty-six persons who were mostly sick 
and in a weak condition, only four were left in a good state 
of health. 2 The Middelburg Chamber wrote to van der Stel 
that at the request of these French Refugees they had been 
given permission to proceed to the Cape, and that the Com- 
pany in granting this did so with the object of populating 
the Colony. The Directors expressed the hope that they 
would not be a trouble to the Colony, but that each one 
would be able to maintain himself honestly by his trade or 
handicraft. To enable them to do so the}' were to be given 
as much help as the orders of the Seventeen required.^ 

Of the five survivors who arrived in the Vosmaar the only 
name to be found is that of Jacques Bisseux of Picardy, who 
became a baker. 

The Donkervliet and Westhoven both came out in 1699 and 
arrived on the 20th July and i6th June respectively.-* On the 
25th May, 1698, the Driebergen, in command of Captain 
Martin de Jeugd, destined for Batavia, left Holland. On 
board were five French refugees who, upon their arrival at the 
Cape on the 3rd September, 1698, settled at Drakenstein as 
agriculturists. When north of the Canary Islands the 
Driebergen encountered a pirate vessel, which she took to be 
Turkish although the boat flew an English flag, and after 
Captain de Jeugd had warned her to keep oft he fired a 
broadside and shattered her sails. She left the pirate without 

' Letter, 16. 12. 1688. from Chamber of Delft. 

-Journal, 17. 10.1696. 

'Letter, 25.4.1696, from Chamber of Middelburg. C.S18, p. 1273. 

* Journal. 

12 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

damage.^ A despatch, dated 7th May, 1698, from the 
Chamber at Delft mentioned the names of the five fugitives 
sent out with the Driebergen : 

Louwys de Ryck alais Louis le Riche, 
Pieter Cronier alias Pierre Crosnier, 
Stephen Cronier alias Estienne Cronier, 
Jean van het tichelje alias Jean du Tuillet 
PhiUp van Kenan alias PhiHppe Drouin.^ 

When the newcomers landed everything had been arranged 
to receive and convey them to their new homes along the 
Berg River in the Drakenstein Valley. In 1687 this beautiful 
and fertile valley had been named by Commander Simon 
van der Stel after one of the family seats in Holland of the 
High Commissioner, Hendrik Adriaan van Reede, Lord of 
Mydrecht, who had come out to the Cape in 1685 to inspect 
the Company's affairs. In the same year twenty-three farms 
along the Berg River were marked out, each measuring 60 
morgen in extent, and given to a like number of agriculturists.^ 
Six wagons were supplied b}^ the Burgher Councillors of the 
Cape and six by the Heemraden of Stellenbosch, to transfer 
the new arrivals and their baggage to Drakenstein. The 
Company supplied provisions which would last them for a 
few months, and planks to build temporary shelters. 

When the farms were allotted care was taken to scatter 
the French among the Dutch farmers already settled there 
and those arriving at the same time. Some were given 
ground in the Stellenbosch district, but the greater number 
were at Drakenstein and French Hoek. This intermingling 
of the Dutch and French caused dissatisfaction among the 
latter. The Landdrost and Heemraden of Stellenbosch were 
requested to receive the Reverend Simond with the respect 
and reverence which his office and position demanded, and 
to assist him, as much as lay in their power, in erecting a 
house for himself. Upon his arrival he was conveyed to his 
destination in comfort and ease. 

The majority of the Refugees to the Cape possessed little or 
nothing when they landed. Many had escaped with only their 
lives. They erected shelters which could be put up rapidly, 
and did not waste time upon buildings of an elaborate nature. 
It is reasonable to suppose that the first structures which 
they built were of a primitive nature, and none would have 
been of the class so general during the eighteenth century. 

' Journal, 3.9.1698. 

-Letter, 7.5.1698, from Chamber of Delft. €.519, pp. 786-787. 
•Letter, 26.4.1688, to Chamber of Middelburg. C.755, pp. 40-41. 
One Cape morgen = 2.11^54 English acres. 

Arrival of Refugees. 13 

What pioneer in a strange land has ever built his first house 
with all the comforts and architectural beauty in which he 
indulges when he has made headway and reaped the good 
results of his work ? 

We must look back upon the time, two centuries ago, and 
imagine these Refugees arriving in a beautiful, extensive and 
wooded valley, where wild animals such as lions and tigers 
made their lair, where Hottentots in their wild state roamed 
about ready to plunder the homestead. Under such condi- 
tions and with little money or material, only simple and 
small dwellings would have been erected. Later on, however, 
when the Colony expanded and the emigrants saw the good 
fruits of their labours, they built themselves better houses 
with many lofty and spacious rooms. 

Not long after their coming a subscription list was sent 
round on their behalf among the older settlers of the Colony 
and Company's servants. This was readily responded to by 
contributions of money, cattle and grain. The fund was 
given to Reverend Simond and the deacons of the Stellenbosch 
church for distribution.' The records in referring to this 
collection say that it did the older colonists credit and was 
most acceptable to the Refugees. 

Two years later pecuniary assistance from quite a different 
source was given to the Huguenots. On the 22nd April, 
1689, Commander van der Stel wrote to the Batavian Govern- 
ment and complained of the extreme poverty of the French 
Refugees, who, he said, would not be able to enjoy the fruits 
of their work for three or four years to come ; they were being 
supported by the Company and from such means as were 
available from the poor fund.^ The settlers had no easy task 
in preparing their land for cultivation. The ground, which 
had never been tilled since the world began, was overgrown 
with bush and roots, and it would take several years to 
produce some return. Their life at first was full of trials ; 
tools and implements had to be obtained from the Company, 
to whom they became debtors. He asked that a collection 
might be made for these poor people ; this would relieve the 
Company of supporting them. The petition was not in vain. 
Although a collection was not made, a bill of exchange for 
6,000 rixdollars, or £1,250, was immediately sent over. This 
bill was drawn on the Cape Government in favour of the 
Reverend Pierre Simond, the pastor of the French congrega- 
tion at Drakenstein.^ 

' Letter, 1 5.4.1689, to Chamber of Middelburg. C.755, pp. 320-321. 
^Letter, 22.4.1689, to Batavia. C.755, P- S^S- 

'Letter, 30.12.1689, from Batavia to which is annexed the original 
bill of exchange. C.S13. A copy is given on p. 144. 

14 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

The money had been in the Batavian Treasury for many 
years, and represented the poor fund of a church at Formosa, 
one of the Dutch possessions which had been seized by the 
Chinese pirate Coxinga, who had compelled the Dutch to 
evacuate it. This money was taken away and placed in the 
treasury at Batavia.^ On the i8th and 19th April, 1690, 
the Cape Government distributed the amount amongst the 
French community, who were greatly pleased with a present 
so welcome in their dire distress.^ Another surprise was in 
store for them the next day ; they received from the Com- 
mander, through the Landdrost of Stellenbosch, a present of 
oxen. They returned to their homes highly pleased, after 
having thanked the Commander for his kindly feeling and 
thought for them.3 

' Letter, 24.5.1690, to Chamber of Amsterdam. C.755, p. 608. Vide 
Valentyn beschrijving van Oost Indien, Vol. 4, p, ^S, and chap. 7, on 
Zaken van Jayouan of Formosa. 

' Journal 19.4. 1689. The Ust of names of those who were recipients 
of this money is given in Theal. It is useful as it indicates those 
Refugees who arrived in the ships the passenger lists of which are 

"Journal, 20.4.1690. 


17th century. 

THE countn^ to which the French Refugees had come 
was in the hands of a Chartered Company. The Dutch 
East India Company had estabhshed itself here in 1652 
solely with the object of having a refreshment station to 
supply fresh victuals to its ships passing to and from India. 
There was no idea of colonizing the Cape, for colonization, 
as we understand it to-day, was not included in the policy 
of the Company. Its primary object in the Indies and 
sub-stations was trade. But thoughts of sending out emi- 
grants to its different possessions had entered the minds of 
some of its higher officials. Settlers were sent out at various 
periods. The results were not satisfactory, not because 
there w^as no chance of making colonization a success, but 
because of the half-hearted manner in which one endeavour 
after another was made. As early as 1627 Governor-General 
Coen, of Batavia, seriously considered this subject, and thought 
of setting up colonists in the Indies. His colonies were, 
however, to be of a purely trading nature, and if they were 
to prosper he thought the trade should be handed over to 
the colonists. He was also anxious to start agricultural 
colonies where the work was to be performed by slaves and 
the superintendence by Hollanders. Joan Maetsuyker was 
also one of the defenders of European colonization, and one 
or two other Governors-General of Batavia spoke in favour 
of it. Maetsuyker (Governor-General, 1653-1677) said that 
the colonists would increase the revenue and decrease the cost 
of keeping up a large garrison.^ While in general no coloni- 
zation was attempted in the possessions of the Company, the 
Cape was an exception, for there it had been encouraged by the 
authorities. At the Cape the first colonists to settle here 
were discharged servants of the Company who had been 
given their freedom in 1657. They had come out during the 
early days of van Riebeeck to serve their period of five years 

' Geschichtlicher Ueberblick der Nederlandisch-Ostindischen Com- 
pagnie," G. C. Klerk de Reus, 1894. 

16 The Prench Refugees at the Cape. 

according to their contract. At first the Company considered 
that it could supply its ships in the bay with fresh meat, 
vegetables and grain by its own undertakings, but this was 
found to be very unsatisfactory and expensive. In the course 
of time colonists were encouraged to settle here, and help 
was given them in setting up for themselves. By the 
beginning of the i8th century a fair number of burghers 
had settled at the Cape, most of whom were engaged in 
farming. Between 1671 and 1685 a few families from Holland 
settled in South Africa as colonists, and a few years after 
several orphan girls arrived. But one of the largest batches of 
emigrants to come out at one time were the French Refugees. 

Throughout the rule of the Dutch Company there were two 
classes of Europeans, the servants of the Company and the 
burgher population. 1 The latter consisted of servants who had 
obtained their freedom and emigrants who had come out, and 
included the children of both of these. The broad distinction 
between the two was that a burgher was able to practise the 
usual trades of an artisan, such as carpentry, bootmaking, 
smithing, etc., carry on farming operations, and could hold 
landed property which he could transmit to his heirs. The 
servant could neither trade nor hold propertj^ and was 
liable to be removed to any of the possessions of the Company 
in the East Indies. An order of 1717 laid down that if he 
obtained landed property by inheritance or marriage he was 
bound to choose between keeping it and retiring from the 
service or giving it up and retain his position. The Letters 
of Freedom (Vrijbrieven) granted to a Company's servant on 
his discharge gave him all the burgher privileges. The Com- 
pany had no fixed idea of making this country a colon}', but 
their primary object was to maintain a refreshment station 
at the Cape. During the course of two or three generations 
it became apparent that by the gradual extension and pros- 
perity of the land it was being converted into an agricultural 
country. The change was imperceptible and no doubt, how- 
ever much it was a.gainst the wishes and expectations of the 
founders, it was bound to come. When it was decided to send 
out the French Refugees the colonists were in a fair way to 
prosperity. About one-third of them were married, and 
endeavours were being made to obtain female immigrants. As 
we shall see presently, more male than female French Refugees 
came out. This preponderance of males over females was 
just the thing the Cape Commander had complained of 

' See interesting letter, 7.6.1816, from Chief Justice Truter to the 
Deputy Colonial Secretary. Colonial Office .\rchives. 

Cape at the end of 17th Century. 17 

At the Cape the Commander was the head of the Company's 
affairs and the burgher population. His rank was changed in 
1691 to Governor. With his council — the Council of Pohcy — 
of which he was president, he exercised executive and legis- 
lative functions. This Council consisted of the Governor, 
the Vice-Governor, the two military officers highest in rank, 
the Fiscal, the Treasurer, the Chief Salesman and the Garrison 
Bookkeeper. It had been enlarged to this extent in 1685 
by High Commissioner Hendrik Adriaan van Reede. It 
made laws for the Colony, levied taxes, appointed servants 
of the Company to civil situations, granted lands in freehold 
and gave them out on lease. Its proceedings were subjecv 
to the veto of the authorities in Holland and Batavia. It 
might be observed here that the burghers of the Colony 
never sat as members of this Council, a grievance they referred 
to a century later. But where they did have representation 
was in the administration of justice. There were both 
superior and inferior courts. The Court of Justice established 
in 1656 sat in Cape Town, which was not known by this 
designation until a century after, but was referred to as 
De Kaap. In 1686 this court consisted of the Governor, 
the Vice-Governor and eight members, two of whom were 
Burgher Councillors. The latter were first appointed in 1657 
and represented the burgher community when matters 
affecting them came before the court. The Court of Justice 
tried civil actions and was the only tribunal which judged 
criminal cases. It was also a court of appeal to the judgments 
of the inferior courts, and from its sentences an appeal could 
be made to the High Court at Batavia. To relieve it of petty 
civil cases an inferior court was established in 1682, and this 
had power to settle causes where the amount in dispute was 
less than £20 i6s. 8d. Here also the burghers were repre- 
sented, for two of them sat as magistrates together with two 
of the Company's servants. This court was called the Court 
of Petty Cases. The Matrimonial Court also sat in the 
capital, and consisted of a like number of members. It was 
established in 1676 and examined persons desiring to get 
married as to there being no legal impediment. It issued a 
certificate to this effect, after which the banns of marriage 
were published in the parish to which the couple belonged. 
While the extent of the Colony was still small this involved 
no hardship. During the following century it certainly did, 
for it was the only court of its kind, and whether the parties 
lived twenty miles or two hundred miles away they were 
obliged to come up to obtain the necessary certificate. The 
only district bej'ond the Cape was that of Stellenbosch and 
Drakenstein. Stellenbosch had been founded in 1679 by 

18 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Simon van der Stel, after whom it was called, and in 1682 
a Board of Heemraden was established to settle trivial disputes 
between the inhabitants. In 1685 an officer called a Land- 
drost was appointed to preside over this body. Its jurisdic- 
tion did not extend to questions involving sums greater than 
£2 IS. 8d., when its judgment was final ; but where the amount 
in dispute was beyond this and not more than £10, an appeal 
could be laid before the Court of Justice. Four Heemraden 
constituted this court, and they were chosen from the leading 
inhabitants of the place. In all these inferior courts nomina- 
tion lists of members were submitted to the Council of Policy, 
from which the new members were chosen. The burgher 
representatives received no salary, but undertook the work 
in an honorary capacity. 

The little town in Table Valley was not very large at the 
close of the seventeenth century. It extended on one side 
to the present Burg Street, and on the other to Plein Street. 
The gardens of the Company came down to where Long- 
market Street is to-day, but terminated on the other side 
where the Avenue does at present. Down the two principal 
streets, the Heerengracht (Adderley Street), and Keizersgracht 
(Darling Street) ran a canal. Each dwelling had a garden 
attached to it, and around the whole was a low wall. The 
houses, the walls of which by statute had to be built not 
less than 20 feet high, were made of stone and brick, and 
covered with thatch. Most of the houses consisted of a 
single storey. Inside the rooms were lofty and spacious, 
and the " voorhuis " was as a rule tiled either with baked 
tiles or blue stone quarried at Robben Island. To maintain 
order and peace at night time the inhabitants were protected 
by the Rattle Watchmen, who were appointed from the 
biu'gher community and paid from a tax levied on each 
household. The first Rattlewatch was appointed in 1686. 
They patrolled the streets and after 10 p.m. called out the 
hours, and in case of fire, murder or any other unusual occur- 
rence sprang their rattles and raised the alarm. In 1696 the 
Burgher Watch or Guard was raised in order to patrol the 
town at night time " to prevent arson, robbery and other 
acts of violence," or such irregularities as might be caused by 
fugitive slaves and wandering rogues. The Cape burghers 
had to form themselves into six companies of thirty men each, 
and when their time for duty came round, had to parade at 
four o'clock in the afternoon and be on guard until next 
morning. This they had to do without any monetary recom- 
pense, as it was one of the several duties which they as citizens 
had to perform. So that the sleeping citizens were protected 
by the Burgher Watch and Rattlewatch, in addition to which 

Cape at the end of 17th Century. 19 

the military had patrols out. To control the working of the 
fire engines at a fire a Board of Firemasters was appointed 
in 1691 from amongst the burghers, and in 1680 a Firemaster 
had already been appointed from one of the retiring Burgher 
Councillors. Each firemaster had a staff of office, on which 
was engraved the Company's arms, and this he used as his 
authority when directing operations or keeping the onlookers 
in order. The Burgher Councillors, of whom mention has 
been made, saw to matters of a municipal nature. They 
looked after the cleanliness of the town, kept the streets, roads 
and bridges in order and collected the taxes payable by the 
citizens. They had not been granted a charter, but by the 
appointment of the first Councillor in 1657 to represent the 
burgher community in the Court of Justice, they had been 
looked upon as representing the people. They advised the 
Government on matters relating to the town and its people. 
The townspeople were to a great extent dependent for their 
livelihood upon the keeping of public and lodging houses 
and the sale of goods to passing foreign ships. They were a 
community in themselves, and had little in common with the 
farming people. 

The country' people led a different life from those in the 
town. Their pursuits were growing grain, cultivating the 
vine, and raising stock. The market for their produce was 
restricted. The Company wished to maintain rigidly its 
principle of monopoly, and jealously guarded against any acts 
which would in the least degree deprive it of any portion of 
that monopoly. The Compan\^ controlled all trade, and 
whatever the burghers had to sell or required to buy had to 
be sold or purchased from it, at prices fixed by the authorities. 
When the Company's requirements had been satisfied, 
the colonists could dispose of their produce to anyone they 
chose, after permission had been received from the Governor. 
The colonists frequently complained against the want of free 
trade, and from time to time some relief was granted them, 
but this did not alter the general position. In course of time, 
as previousty mentioned, the Company gave up their agricul- 
tural undertakings, in both corn-raising and cattle breeding, 
and looked to the colonists for their grain, meat and wine. 
In 1699 the farmers were further encouraged by being allowed 
to carry on cattle barter with the natives, a trade they had 
been most strictl}- prohibited from practising since the early 
days of the Colony. In the same 3'ear they were also given 
the right of supplying fresh meat for the Company's establish- 
ment. ^ But shortly after the whole aspect seemed changed. 

' Regarding the monopoly of the Company, vide " Diary of Adam 

20 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

The Company's officials, from the Governor downwards, 
entered into competition with the farmers, although orders 
had been issued by the authorities prohibiting officials from 
engaging in farming operations. This caused a great amount 
of dissatisfaction amongst the burgher farmers, and in 1705 
the position became acute. The supply was in excess of the 
demand. The farmers took steps to have their grievances 
redressed, and this led to the episode in South African history 
known as " the van der Stel troubles," a full account of 
which is to be found in Professor Fouche's edition of Adam 
Tas' Diary. 

The majority of farms held during the 17th and i8th 
centuries were on loan tenure. A good pasturage was 
selected by the grazier, and he applied to the Government 
for permission to settle there for a year. If the place was 
suitable he had to renew his licence annually, but if it proved 
unsuitable he would abandon it in course of time and seek 
fresh pastures further afield, applying again for a new licence. 
The constant migration of the stock farmers gradually led 
to the extension of the Colony's boundaries. The rights of 
the farmer in respect of the ground were those of a lessee ; 
he had no dominium in the ground and could not sell it, but 
was entitled to dispose of the buildings (opstal) which he had 
erected thereon. The Government, if it so wished, had the 
right of resuming occupation of the land or of not renewing 
the lease, in which case it would pay him out for the value 
of the opstal. This uncertainty of tenure did not as a rule 
perturb the farmer, whose lease as a general practice was 
always renewed. Another form of tenure was that of free- 
hold, and during the eighteenth century that of quitrent was 
introduced. The land given out to the Refugees along the 
Berg River was granted in freehold, which allowed them to 
sell or transmit it to their heirs.' 

In the country district the services of the people were 
impressed for carrying out road-making and other public 
works. The records of the Court of Landdrost show that 
several times delinquents were fined for failing or refusing 
to perform work of this nature, one for not having firewood 
carried for the clergyman, another for not transporting 
hay, etc. All males between the ages of sixteen and sixty 
had to enrol themselves in the Burgher Militia, and to come 
up annually for a certain number of days for training. In 
order to call the country burghers to arms signal cannon 
were discharged from various high points in the surrounding 

' See "Early Cape Land Tenure," by the writer, in S.A. Law Journal, 
May and August, 1919. 



Cape at the end of 17th Century. 21 

The Secretary of the District performed the clerical work 
connected with the Court of Landdrost and Heemraden, and 
in his presence were passed legal documents such as wills, 
contracts, powers of attorney, a similar duty being performed 
in the town for the Cape district by either the Secretary of 
the Council of Policy or the Secretary of the Court of Justice. 
In order that the laws issued from time to time should not be 
transgressed by those living away from the town, a Veldwachter 
(Field Guard) was appointed in 1680, ^ who was to report to 
the Fiscal all non-observances of the same, and for each 
conviction he enjoyed one half of the fine imposed. Later, 
in 1693, two men were appointed to prevent smuggling, 
killing of game in the country, and all acts contrary to the 
laws.2 Complaints by or disputes between farmers were laid 
before the Landdrost at Stellenbosch, and two Heemraden 
were commissioned to enquire into the matter and see whether 
it could not be settled amicably by them. If not, the case 
was brought before the full court. Often disputes relating 
to boundaries or water rights were settled in this way, and 
the judgment remained binding on both parties. The Court of 
Landdrost and Heemraden acted as a district council, and its 
functions were in the country what the Burgher Councillors 
were in the town. Persons removing from one district to 
another had to obtain permission to do so, and this had to 
be exhibited to the authorities of the new district in which 
they had come to reside. 

The revenue raised by Government was derived from 
leasing the rights to sell wines, spirits, bread, meat and other 
articles. These were put up to public auction and knocked 
down to the highest bidder, who, by the conditions of the 
lease, could only sell at the prices fixed and was thus unable to 
profiteer. This system was introduced in 1673 and remained 
the general practice during the rule of the Company. It was 
one of the principal sources of revenue. Other sources of 
revenue were derived from the tithes or tenths of the land 
produce, and from a transfer duty on all immovable property. 
The latter was introduced in i686,3 as it had been found that 
many people disposed of their land shortly after it had been 
granted them, and, since they had paid nothing for it, managed 
to make a profit. If the land was sold within three years of 
its being granted, no transfer could be effected unless a duty 
of ten per cent, on the purchase amount had been paid, five 
per cent, if within ten years, and after this period 2^ per cent. 
The laws in force at the Cape were the local statutes passed 

'Res. 8.4.1680. "Res. 13.1.1693. 

^ Ibid, 1 6. 1. 1 686, and Placaat, 21. 1.1686. 

22 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

by the Governor-in-Council. These were published by the 
Secretary (after 1688 in both the Dutch and French languages) 
from the balcony of the Council Chamber within the Castle. 
The bell was rung three times to summon everyone. Copies 
were posted up at various places where the people generally 
congregated or on the church door. Both in the town and 
country they were at times published from the pulpit as well 
as by the parish clerk from the door steps. This was the 
only means the people had of learning the local law, and it 
frequently happened that wind and rain or some malicious 
person destroyed the copies, which necessitated many laws 
being annually renewed. The other laws observed were the 
Statutes of Batavia, the Groot Placaat Boek and the common 
law of Holland. The Statutes of Batavia comprised the 
laws passed by the Governor-General and Council at Batavia, 
and the laws of the States-General and Directors of the 
Dutch East India Company, and were first codified in 1642. 


ONLY those who have been to the beautiful valley where 
the first Frenchmen settled can realise what a well- 
selected spot it was. The choice was good for produc- 
tive purposes, while its scenic beauty gives pleasure to the eye. 
Nothing could have charmed the French pioneers more than 
the vast expanse of country surrounded by mountains whose 
peaks the sun lit up with all its glory and radiance. If to- 
day its beauty is so enchanting as to call forth words of 
praise and admiration from all, how much more delightful 
must it not have appeared to the Refugees, arriving after a 
tedious voyage and while the sense of the great gulf between 
them and their native land was still strong in their minds. 
How refreshing to have seen the Berg River running its 
course through the Drakenstein Valley, to have noted the 
fine trees growing in abundance on the mountain slopes and 
along the river banks, to have observed the tall peaks standing 
like sentinels over the valley! 

With what thankfulness must they not have lifted up 
their eyes and with their voices praised the One Being who 
had brought them in safety through perils to a land free 
from religious persecutions, to a place where they could openly 
confess their faith before man! Yet, like pioneers in all ages, 
they must have felt the dangers which they would have to 
encounter on all sides, perils of wild animals and natives. 
At this time the border of the Colony did not extend very far 
from where they were settled ; and for some years after the 
settlement had been established at Drakenstein, even the 
corpses buried in the open fields were scratched out by wild 

To-day the same part of the country is easily recognised 
as being the earh' settlement of the French Refugees. The 
names of the inhabitants and of many of the very old farms 
show this. In choosing names for their homesteads at 
Drakenstein and French Hoek they did not forget the land 
of their birth. Many of the early land grants prove that 

'Letter, 26.3.1713, from the Kerkenraad of Drakenstein to Classis 
Amsterdam. Spoelstra, 1.129. 

24 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

they named them in honour of the towns and provinces in 
which they were born. Some of these farms still bear their 
original names, and are owned by the descendants of the 
early French Refugees. Dauphine, la Cotte, Cabriere, la 
Motte, Champagne, Rhone and Languedoc are only a few 
of the names still familiar. Cabriere was granted in 1694 
to Pierre Jourdan, and Pierre Joubert gave the name of 
La Provence to his farm granted in the same year. E-^tienne 
Niel called his place Dauphine.^ The early grants of land 
issued to the French show that they were settled along the 
Berg River, and occupied the present areas of French Hoek 
(at first known as Oliphant's Hoek), Groot Drakenstein, Dal 
Josaphat, township of Paarl and the surrounding country of 
Wellington. A study of the map at page 124, which shows 
the extent of the Settlement in 1700, will indicate how the 
Refugees were scattered amongst the Dutch and other 
settlers and not allocated to one particular portion. No 
fairer or more fertile land could have been given these people. 
From the " Paarl Rock," which towers over the town at 
its base, a magnificent panoramic view of the area from 
Wellington to the entrance to the Drakenstein Valley is 
obtained. The Berg River winds its way through this, 
and is overlooked by the high rugged mountain peaks which 
at times are lit up in glorious radiance by the setting sun. 
The whole portion was known as the Drakenstein Colony, 
as distinguished from the Stellenbosch Colony, but came 
under the jurisdiction of the Landdrost of the latter. 

The emigres had not been settled many months when 
they requested the Commander to be allowed a schoolmaster 
to teach their children. On the 8th November, 1688, the 
Company took Paul Roux into its service as parish clerk 
(voorleser) and schoolmaster to the French community at 
Drakenstein. He was given a salary of 25s. per month and 
I2S. 6d. ration allowance. Mr. Roux came from Orange and 
had arrived with one of the early batches of Refugees. He 
was chosen for the post on account of his good conduct and 
proofs of ability. 2 He died on the 7th February, 1723, having 
filled the post for thirty-five years. There are many of his 
descendants hving in the Union. 

When he died there were still between twenty-five and 
twenty-six members of the Drakenstein congregation who 
were of the original arrivals and did not understand Dutch. 
The Church Council or Consistory, therefore, asked that 
another person be appointed to fill the vacancy. On the 

' Vide list of land grants, p. 117. 

■•'Res. 8.1 1. 1688. Extract given on p. 145. 

Settlement, Church, Language. 25 

23rd February, 1723,^ the Council of Policy decided that 
for the present the place of the late Mr. Roux was not to 
be filled, but that the Directors would be communicated 
with. They knew the latters' intention was that services 
in Dutch only should be conducted at Drakenstein, in order 
that the people could become accustomed to that tongue.^ 
The Amsterdam Chamber, in reply to the Council's letter, 
said, "... and although we are not much inclined to 
encourage the observance of the French language in India, 
and it would be better that the French colonists should make 
every effort to accustom themselves to the Dutch tongue, 
yet this time, however, it shall be allowed once more that 
a French parish clerk be appointed at Drakenstein in the 
place of the late one, but this u not to be considered a pre- 
cedent for the future, since the very small number of those 
who do not understand Dutch (twenty-six persons in all) 
barely merits the expense of supporting a French parish 
clerk. "^ The Council decided not to appoint another French 
parish clerk as Mr. Hermanns Bosman, the Dutch parish 
clerk of the congregation, knew French and it would be an 
unnecessary expense to appoint two clerks.* Bosman was 
married to a daughter of the French Refugee Abraham de 
Villiers, who had a great influence with the people. 

In 1700 it was felt that a sickcomforter-^ and schoolmaster 
were necessary to minister to the Dutch section of the Draken- 
stein congregation, as many did not understand the French 
language. Jacobus de Groot of Haarlem, then on his way to 
Europe from Galle, received the first appointment from the 
Government in April, 1700. Mr. de Groot was well versed 
in the French tongue, and had for three and a half years 
diligently discharged the duties of sickcomforter at Galle.^ 
Seven years later the post of sickcomforter was vacant, and 
on the 8th June, 1707, the Council of Policy decided to 
appoint Mr, Hermanus Bosman, sickcomforter on board the 
Company's ship Ovenyp, lying in the Bay. 

Mr. Bosman's appointment was made upon the represen- 
tations of the Reverend Engelbertus Franciscus le Boucq,^ 

' Res. 23.2.1723. 

-Letter, 20.3.1723, to Chamber of Amsterdam. C.767, p. 241. 
Vide p. 148 for extract. 

'Letter, 23.6.1724, from Chamber of Amsterdam. C.539, p. 30. 
Copy of original given on p. 159. 

* Letter, 10.4. 1725, to Chamber Amsterdam. C.768, p. 1095. 

* Or sick visitor. 

•Letter, 3.4.1700, to Landdrost and Heemraden of Drakenstein ^ 
C.759, pp. 876-7. 
' Res. 8.6.1707. 

'26 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

who at that time was causing some trouble to the clergy and 
government. He (le Boucq) had been appointed minister 
of Drakenstein, but when he found that there was no church , 
parsonage or Dutch parish clerk he refused to take up his 
duties. The Government wrote to the Seventeen that they 
had appointed Mr. Bosman " in order to avoid new quarrels 
and cause no untimely commotion. "^ After this Bosman 
conducted the services in Dutch and Mr. Roux in French, 
at the houses of different farmers, except when Reverend 
Beck came over from Stellenbosch, for at this time the 
congregation was without a permanent clergyman. 

An incident which happened while Mr. Bosman was in 
office is worthy of note, for it shows how strictly the Com- 
pany's servants were tied down to fixed rules and regulations. 
To transgress these often meant immediate dismissal or 
disrating of office. The duties of the various officials were 
carefully laid down, and no one who wished to perform 
them satisfactorily dared go beyond them. In the days 
of Commander Jan van Riebeeck the sickcomforter, Mr. 
Willem Barents Wylant, addressed his congregation in his 
own words instead of reading from a printed sermon as he 
was obliged to do. This came to the ears of the Batavian 
authorities as well as to the clergy there. The Fxclesiastical 
Court thereupon addressed the Governor-General and Council 
on the matter. The latter forthwith asked van Riebeeck to 
prohibit such irregular proceedings. ^ 

The Ecclesiastical Court also wrote to the Cape Commander 
and expressed their displeasure that Mr. Wylant had trans- 
gressed the instructions laid down, and that he had conducted 
m the manner only permitted to a minister. " He ought to 
know that he may not strike his sickle in another's harvest, 
or usurp those functions which do not belong to him in con- 
sequence of his not having the legal status ; this we under- 
stand to be the will and commandment of our Lord Jesus,"' 
they wrote. 

"... sulckx verstaande dat nu en dan in 't eene en andere daar 
van is afgeweeken en den dienst, so als 't een praedicant toecoms 
waargenomen, ' t behoorde hem wel bekent te syn synen sickel in eenet 
anderen oogst niet te staan noch aen sich die eere te trecken, die tot 
noch toe, by manquement van eene wettelycke beroupinge, hem nies 
toe en comt, verstaande dat sulckx is den wille ende het gebodt onset 
Heeren Jesu." 

Mr. van Riebeeck remonstrated with the sickcomforter and 
instructed him not to continue the practice any longer. In 

' Letter, 18.4.1708, to Chamber of Amsterdam. C.762, p. 590. 

-Letter, 8.3.1654, from Batavia, No. 39. €.505. 

"Letter, 10.3. 1654, from the Consistory at Batavia. C.505. 

Settlement, Church, Language. 27 

his reply to the Consistory the Commander pleaded justifi- 
cation for the action, saying that Mr. Wylant had exciised 
himself on account of his bad eyesight, which had obliged 
him to learn the lessons by heart in order not to break 
down during the service ; and thus he repeated the sub- 
stance of the discourse.^ 

Mr. Bosman, however, had overstepped his duty in quite 
another direction. In 1725 he appeared before the Council 
of Pohcy and in the name of the Drakenstein Consistory 
asked that, in view of the Reverend van Aken's death, the 
Reverend Petrus Craan might be appointed in his place. 
The appointment, said he, would please the Drakenstein 
congregation very much. The Council did not hesitate to 
show their absolute displeasure at the interference by Bosman, 
and informed him that his procedure was improper and 
disrespectful, there being no evidence to show that the 
church had authorised him. They upbraided him for com- 
municating with Reverend Craan without their knowledge. 
They had no power to detain ministers here who were destined 
for India. He was told that as a Company's servant measures 
might be taken against him for his action. The Drakenstein 
Consistory asked the pardon of the Council for what had 
taken place, and after some correspondence the matter 

After the arrival of the French Refugees the first church 
arrangements made were that Reverend Simond should 
preach at Stellenbosch and Drakenstein on alternate Sundays 
until such time as a church could be built. Stellenbosch had 
an established Consistory of its own, and the Refugees, 
therefore, did not feel satisfied to form a portion of that 
congregation. In November, 1689, they approached Simon 
van der Stel and his Council with the request for permission 
to have a separate congregation. Before leaving Holland 
they had been promised their own clergyman. From this 
they had presumed that they were to have their own con- 
gregation. According to the resolutions of the Council of 
the 28th of that month, it is clear that this petition was 
not well received. During the debate van der Stel spoke 
with impatience and some vehemence. " What," said he, 
" here are men who have fled from France on account of 
the religious persecutions in that country and who have 
sought refuge in other countries, especially in Holland ; 
men, who, that they might lead lazy and indolent lives under 

' Letter, 14.8,1654, to the Reverend Tessemaker (Secy, to Consistory,) 
Batavia. C.746. 

-Res. 4. 1. 1725, 23. 1. 1725 and 6.2.1725. 

28 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

the cloak of being zealots, members and supporters of the 
Protestant faith, obtained a passage to the Cape in the 
Company's ships that they might earn their living as agri- 
culturists and by other industry ; who have been treated 
with every kindness by us, yea ! even better than our own 
nation. Not only wiU they want their own church, but they 
will be wanting their own magistrate, Commander-in-Chief 
and Prince." 

After due dehberation the Council decided to reprimand 
the petitioners and bring them to their senses by advising 
them to do their duty, so that their impertinences might be 
checked and their plots prevented in time. The deputation was 
composed of Rev. Simond, as spokesman, Jacques de Savoye, 
David de RueUe, Abraham de Villiers and Louis Cordier. 
They had waited outside the Council Chamber while the 
debate was in progress, and were now called in. The Governor 
asked the pastor to read to the deputation the oath of alle- 
giance, which every Cape freeman had to take. Before 
dismissing them he strictly warned them to conduct them- 
selves in accordance with their oath, and in future not to 
trouble him with such impertinent requests, but to be satisfied 
with the Consistory at Stellenbosch.^ 

The Reverend Simond had some time before this addressed 
a letter to the Directorate regarding the French congregation, 
but no reply could, as yet, have been received. A favourable 
view was, however, taken by the supreme authorities, for 
they wrote to the Cape on the 17th December, 1690, and 
referred to Reverend Simond's letter and the deputation of 
the 28th November. They approved of a separate church 
being established at Drakenstein on the following conditions : 
A Church Council or Consistory {Kerkenraad) was to be 
established composed of the French people, elders and deacons 
were to be elected and — if such could be found — they were 
to be those versed in the Dutch and French languages. A 
yearly list of names was to be submitted to the Council of 
Policy for approval. 

One or two Political Commissioners were to be appointed 
to take session in the French Consistory, and any matters 
of importance, which could not very well be dealt with at 
Drakenstein, should be laid before the Consistory at the 
Fort or Castle, in which case deputies from Drakenstein were 
to have session. The Consistory of Drakenstein was to have 
control of and distribute the poor fund of the church, but 
any contributions coming from any outside source {eenige 

' Re3. 28.1 1. 1689. A copy of this resolution is given on p. 149. 

Settlement, Church, Language. 29 

sithsidien van huyten sotiden vwgen inkomcn) were to be 
distributed by the combined Consistory {Grote Kerkenraet), 
which was to see that proper account books were kept and 
an annual statement rendered, as was the practice at Batavia. 
With regard to schools; schoolmasters were to be appointed 
at Stellenbosch and Drakenstein, to instruct the children 
of both French and Dutch parents. They were to be men 
who understood both langiaages, and were to endeavour to 
teach the French children to read and understand the Dutch 
language, so that they might more readily be assimilated 
into the Dutch nation. To obtain this end van der Stel 
was instructed not to settle the French and Dutch in separate 
localities, but to mix them up together and allow them to 
live among one another both at Drakenstein and Stellen- 
bosch. By these means, said the Seventeen, the public 
schools will have more effect for the children of both nation- 
alities, and be maintained at a lesser cost.^ 

On the 30th December, 1691, the first Consistory of the 
French congregation at Drakenstein was constituted. The 
office-bearers appointed were Claude Marais, Louis de Berault 
and Louis Cordier as elders, Abraham de Villiers, Pierre 
Meyer, Pierre Beneset and Pierre Rousseau as deacons. 
Claude Marais had already held office as deacon of the Stellen- 
bosch Church the previous year, 2 and de Berault retired as 
deacon from the Cape Town Church at the same time.' 

From its early inception the congregation at Drakenstein 
had felt the want of having a church and parsonage. For 
some years divine services were held in a deserted cottage, 
and afterwards in a room lent by some farmer until their 
minister, Pierre Simond, obtained a piece of ground. Here 
a primitive church building was erected by the members of 
the congregation, and this was more of a barn^ than a place 
of worship {daar wij selfs een hokie timmerde). Services were 
still held here in 1713. In 1694 the Government gave them 
a grant of land of forty-eight morgen, the situation of which 
will be found indicated on the map at page 124. The church 
was erected not far from the farm of Willem van Zijl, who 
did a good business in the sale of various goods to the people 
when they came to church, and who preferred to buy from him 
rather than go the distance to the Cape. The growth of the 

' Letter, 17. 12. 1690, from Chamber of Amsterdam. C.514, pp. 841- 
843. For copy of this vide p. 152. 

-Journal, 14. 12. 1690. 

' Spoelstra, 2.267. 

* Cf . Kolbe, 2.1 19, "... deze kerk beter na een schuur dan na 
een kerk gelijkt." 

30 The frcnch Refugees at the Cape. 

congregation made the little church too small, and a church 
and parsonage were necessary. In 1713 the Kerkenraad wrote 
to the Classis of Amsterdam that they had been without a 
permanent clergyman for six years, and complained of the 
want of a church, parsonage and minister, as a result of which 
they said, " this flourishing community, which now totals 
about seven hundred souls, children and adults, is daily 
becoming more unruly and degenerate, and if it continues so 
will deteriorate into Hottentots." They said that the church 
had become ruinous and would not stand another j^ear. 
The Classis was asked that a minister be appointed who 
could speak French, and even if he might not preach in 
both languages, that at least he be allowed to admonish and 
comfort the older members of the congregation, many of 
whom did not understand Dutch, in the French tongue. As 
regards the children, these were instructed in Dutch and 
would in course of time learn the word of God in that lan- 
guage. ^ 

The condition of the church building and surroundings does 
not appear to have been much better some years before this. 
When the Revd. le Boucq was appointed to take charge 
of the Drakenstein congregation he refused to go there, and 
wrote to the Classis of Amsterdam on the 14th April, 1707, 
saying that he had held a consistory meeting at Drakenstein, 
and, after producing his credentials, enquired about the 
school and church, but learnt to his regret that there was no 
parsonage, sickcomforter, Dutch parish clerk or proper grave- 
yard.2 The Reverend Francois Valentyn, who visited the 
Cape at different times between 1685 and 1714, mentions the 
church at Drakenstein, which he says was badly built both 
inside and outside and more like a barn than a church.^ In 
1708 the Cape wrote to the Seventeen at Amsterdam for 
authority to build, if not a church, at least a respectable 
place of worship and likewise a decent house for the clergy- 
man. " The services are at present conducted in a shed 
or barn of very homely appearance," is the description 
which they give of the place of worship at Drakenstein 
{en werd thans de godsdienst daar in een hok of schuur van 
zeer sober aansien nog verrigt)^ 

In October, 1716, severe rains and winds passed over the 
country districts and caused the church at Drakenstein to 

' Letter, 26.3. 1713, Kerkenraad of Drakenstein to Classis of Amster- 
dam. Spoelstra, 1. 128-129. 

•^ Letter, 14.4. 1707, Rev. E. F. le Boucq to the Cla.ssis of Amsterdam. 
Spoelstra, 1.39. 

'Valentyn, 5.36. 

* Letter, 18. 4. 1708, to Chamber of Amsterdam. C.762, p 621. 

Settlement, Church, Language. 31 

become ruinous. The congregation was obliged to hold its 
services in the old house of the minister.^ It was then 
decided to break down the old building that had done service 
as a church. The Consistory approached Government with 
regard to the erection of a new building. Plans were sub- 
mitted by the Reverend van Aken and the churchwardens, 
and they received the approval of the Council of Policy in 
March, 1717.^ In June a piece of ground, on which the 
present church at the Upper Paarl stands, in extent 5 
morgen 150 square feet, was surveyed by Mr. Evert Walraven 
Cochins, the Government engineer and surveyor. It extended 
on the north to the Drakenstein parsonage, east to the Berg 
River, south to the place of David SenechaP and west to 
the wagon road, now the main street of that place.^ 

A churchyard was marked off in the form of a square, 
each side of which measured 35 square roods, and in the 
middle it was decided to build the church, lengthwise to the 
north and south. ^ On the 6th September, 1718, the first 
stones were laid by Monsieur du Toit, who was followed by 
the churchwardens and two Heemraden, Fran9ois du Toit 
and Jacob Theron ; then the ex-elders Pieter de Villiers, 
Claude Marais and Pieter Rousseau, as well as the ex-deacons 
Paul Roux, Hercules des Pres and Pieter Taillefert. The 
building was consecrated in June, 1720.^ 

Before the church was completed it was found that there 
were not enough pews for the ladies, as it was customary 
for the men and women to sit apart during divine service. 
It was therefore decided that each lady was to bring her 
own seat, and in order to prevent any disputes the first row 
nearest the pulpit was to be set aside for the wives of church- 
wardens and Heemraden in office ; the next row for the 
wives of ex-churchwardens and Heemraden and then, if there 
was not enough room, they were to be placed in the third row 
in which the old ladies and the respectable persons sat. AU 
others were to be placed in order by the sexton as they were 
brought in, and each chair was to have the name of the owner 
distinctly marked on it.' Four shillings and twopence was paid 
for each chair placed in the care of the sexton, half of which 
went towards repairs and the other to the sexton. 

' Spoelstra, 2.431, Res. 5.10.1716. 

* Res. 30.3.1717. 

* One of the Refugees. 

* Vide original grants. Deeds Ofi&ce. 

* Spoelstra, 2.435. 

* Spoelstra, 2.436. 

' Some of the chairs with names on the back are to be found in 
many private residences to-day. 

32 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

The windows of the new church were put in by the Com- 
pany's glazier, Willem Dampers of Middelburg. There was 
no wooden floor, but the ground was hardened and kept 
clean by sand being strewn on it before every service. Up 
to 1720 beer glasses and a slop basin had been used for a 
communion service and a christening font, respectively, but 
after this a silver service was authorised to be made.^ About 
a year after the consecration of the church severe storms 
caused a portion of the northern gable and a corner twenty 
feet in extent to fall in, carrying the roof with it, which ruined 
the pulpit and churchwardens' pews. In 1723 a new teak 
pulpit, on the pattern of the old one, was built. 

By a resolution of the Drakenstein Consistor}'^ in 1726, the 
duties performed and the emoluments enjoyed by the sexton 
were laid down. Every Saturday he had to go to the house 
of the minister to receive instructions for Sunday, and was 
not to leave his home during the night without informing 
the clergyman or one of the elders where he was to be found. 
Directions were given regarding the cleaning of the church 
and preserving all that it contained. He was to see that 
the chairs of the ladies were placed according to their order 
of rank, and to show the respectable members, ladies and 
gentlemen, especially strangers, to the seats. He was pro- 
hibited from burying anyone on Sunday. He was given a 
house and garden free, and at New Year or at marriages or 
baptisms could accept any fees given. ^ 

In January, 1791, an organ, built by Johannes Ludwig 
Hodderson, of Cape Town, and erected upon a gallery, was 
inaugurated in the Paarl Church. Mr. Helmoet Luttig, son 
of the sexton, was appointed organist with a salary of ;f20 
per annum and a free house. The ornaments on the organ 
were executed by " the renowned sculptor Anreith."^ The 
name of this sculptor, which is always associated with the 
well-known Frenchman, Louis Michel Thibault, Captain of 
Engineers, was a native of Frieburg. He served the Company 
for some years as a modeller, and on obtaining his discharge 
started business on his own account. Anreith was responsible 
for the carved pulpits in the Dutch Reformed Church, 
Adderley Street, and in the Dutch Lutheran Church, Strand 
Street, Cape Town, and for several other masoned ornaments 
on public buildings. 

In 1799 the authorities of the Paarl Church considered 
that their church was not well shaped, and built of bad 
bricks. They obtained expert opinion about its condition 

' Spoelstra, 2.438. * Spoelstra. 2.446. * Spoelstra, 2.470. 

Settlement, Church, Language. 33 

and decided later to bnild a new church and ask Captain 
Thibault to design a plan.^ On the 28th April, 1805, the 
Reverend Serrurier consecrated the new church at the Paarl. 
The organ and pulpit from the old building were removed 
to the new one, which was built not very far from it. The 
pulpit in the old church formerly stood where the burial 
vault of the Reverend Aling is to be seen to-day. The day 
following the consecration, the old building was put up for 
sale on condition that the purchaser demolished it within 
one year and caused no damage to the new church. ^ 

For the first century and a quarter from its foundation, 
the Drakenstcin, or, as it afterwards came to be known, the 
Paarl congregation, had about twelve ministers who preached 
the gospel there. Amongst them were the Reverends Pierre 
Simond, Henricus Beck, Petrus van Aken, Fran9ois le Sueur, 
Robert Nicolaas Aling and Jean Guillaume Louis Gebhard, 
several of whom could speak the French language well. 
Mention has already been made of the Reverend Simond of 
Embrun in Dauphine, the first minister. In March, 1701, 
the Seventeen at Amsterdam were informed by the Cape that 
the Reverend Simond had asked for his discharge from his 
duties at Drakenstein, as he was anxious to return to Europe. 
The congregation was not desirous that he should leave them, 
and as the term of his contract had not yet expired, the 
Governor was obliged to withhold his authority.^ In reply, 
the Seventeen said they were sending out a successor to 
Reverend Simond, who was not to leave until he had arrived.^ 

Reverend Simond had already sold all his property, chattels, 
cattle, slaves, etc., and had preached his farewell sermon. 
He had prepared a new version of the Psalms which had been 
eagerly looked forward to by the French churches in Europe 
during the preceding three years, and was desirous of sub- 
mitting it to the Synod of the French churches there.' Not 
long after, the Drakenstein Consistory was informed that the 
Reverend Beck had been sent to replace their minister, and 
the Governor had ordered them to accept him as such and to 
respect him in his office. 

For a considerable time before Reverend Petrus van Aken 
was appointed (1714) the congregation had been without a 
pastor. Reverend van Aken was born at Utrecht, where 

' Spoelstra, 2.475. ' Spoelstra, 2.482. 

'Letter, 14.3.1701, to Chamber of Amsterdam. C.760, p. 119. 
* Letter, 20.9. 1701, from Chamber of Amsterdam. C.522, p. 392. 
*|Letter, 20.3.1702, to Chamber of Amsterdam. C.760, p. 428. 
•Letter, 17. 5. 1702, to Landdrost, Heemraden and Kerkenraad. 
C.760, p. 622. 

34 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

his father Mr. Arnoldus van Aken hved. His wife Anna 
Margaretha Bolwerk was related by marriage to the family 
of Governor Maurits Pasques de Chavonnes, who, with 
several members of his family, came to the Cape Governor 
de Chavonnes was a member of an old Huguenot family, and 
several members of that family stood sponsors to the Reverend 
van Aken's children. In 1724 Rev. van Aken fell into ill- 
health, and on the 19th December of that year passed away 
at Cape Town, where he was buried in the Dutch Reformed 
Church. 1 

One of the clergymen of the congregation who had some- 
what of a varied career was the Reverend Lambertus Sliclier, 
of Middelburg. He arrived at the Cape in the same year as 
Reverend van Aken, but in a totally different capacity. 
Before coming out he had served for six years as chaplain 
of the garrison at Lillo. Owing to differences and animosit}' 
amongst his congregation, he voluntarily resigned and entered 
the service of the Dutch East India Company as a midshipman 
on board the ship 't Vaderland Getrouw. In this capacity he 
arrived at the Cape.^ Slicher was a man well versed in the 
Latin, Greek and Hebrew languages, and was shortly after 
appointed Rector of the High School at Cape Town, which 
had just been established ; he took in pupils as boarders at 
his house. Reverend Slicher held good testimonials from 
the ministers of the different places where he had officiated.* 
In 1 72 1, while still Rector, he obtained permission from the 
Seventeen, through the intercession of the Cape Governor 
and his Council, to preach now and again in the church at 
Cape Town.* In February, 1723, he was formally inducted 
as second clergyman of that place, and in July, 1725, was 
sent to Drakenstein.° For nearly five years Reverend 
Slicher served at the Paarl, where he died on the 2nd June, 

Reverend Robert Nicolaas Aling was appointed in 1784, 
at a time when peace reigned among the congregation. A 
few years previously there had been some dissension. In 
1772 Thomas Arnoldus Theron was elected as elder ; this was 
objected to by certain members of the church on the ground 
that he was not properly qualified.^ The strife between the 
parties became so strong that four members were excommuni- 

' Vide wills of the Orphan Chamber, Archives, Baptismal register of 
Drakenstein Church, and Journaal of Dutch Reformed Church, 
Adderley Street, Cape Town. 

' Res. 21.3. I7IQ. ^ Spoelstra, 1.142-143. 

* Res. 25.11.1721. ''Ibid. 16.2. 1723. 

• He married Sophia v. d. Byl, born at the Cape 1690. 

' Vide papers in case Theron vs. Roos and three others. 

Settlement, Church, Language. 35 

cated by the Consistory, and many refused to attend service. 
A deputation of two was sent to Holland, but the Directors 
refused to interfere and the Classis of Amsterdam tried to 
conciliate the parties. Reverend Aling died at Paarl on 
the 24th April, 1800, and was buried in front of the pulpit 
in the old church. 

For about seven years after his death the congregation 
was without a minister, when the post was filled for only 
six months. In June, 1810, the Reverend Jean Guillaume 
Louis Gebhard was appointed to the vacancy. He was born 
at Mannheim in 1757, and went over to England from Heidel- 
berg. On the 14th July, 1805, he became pastor of the 
Walloon Church of Norwich, having received a certificate 
from Monsieur Mercier, minister of the French church in 
London. On being assigned to the congregation at Draken- 
stein, he resigned his charge on the ist December, 1809.^ 
He died at Cape Town on the 12th October, 1825, and by 
his will left a legacy to the London Missionary Society and 
the French Poor of the Walloon Congregation at Mannheim. ^ 

In closing this chapter, a word regarding the dying out of 
the French language at the Cape is necessary. For the first 
few years after the arrival of the Refugees, there appears to 
be no prohibition as to the use of their language. On the 
12th June, i6go, van der Stel wrote to the Seventeen that 
the number of French Refugees who had arrived totalled 
one hundred and fifty men, women and children, and that 
they were living in the Cape and Stellenbosch districts, but 
chiefly at Drakenstein. He said he had had them scattered 
amongst the Dutch farmers so that each might learn some- 
thing from the other and so improve agriculture. For this 
reason, too, they had been permitted to have their divine 
services alternately at Drakenstein and Stellenbosch. ^ A 
year later he again wrote that the Refugees on their arrival 
had mostly been settled at Drakenstein and a few at Stellen- 
bosch amongst the Dutch inhabitants. This had been 
done in order that they might learn the Dutch language and 
customs and be incorporated with the Dutch. " We find," 
he said, " that their fickle (wispeltuurige) nature still clings 
to them, and that they are like the children of Israel, who, 
fed by the hand of God in the wilderness, longed for the 

" The Walloon Church of Moiwich, its Registers and History." 
Edited by W. J. C. Moens, F.S.A., vol. i, part i, pp. 138 and 243. 
Publication of Huguenot Society. 

' Vide Records of Orphan Chamber. 

* Letter, 12.6.1690, to Chamber of Amsterdam. C.755, p. 690. 
Extract given on p. 154. 

36 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

onion pots of Egypt {en dat se de kinderen Israels slagien, 
dewelke door Gods hand in de noestijne gespijsd na de uije 
potten van Egiptcn verlangden)."'^ 

In the year that the French were given their own con- 
gregation, directions were issued that only schoolmasters 
who knew both the Dutch and French languages were to 
be appointed. But the Cape officials had feared that by 
allowing the closer settlement of the Refugees, they would 
be encouraging them to remain French, whereas by inter- 
mingling them with the Dutch, they hoped to ensure the 
ready assimilation of the French into the Dutch nation. 
The French felt this amalgamation as a cause for a grievance 
against the authorities and endeavoured to keep themselves 
apart from their Dutch neighbours. The position became 
strained, and many of the latter ceased to have communica- 
tion with the French, and some were even reported to have 
said that they would rather give bread to a Hottentot or 
to a dog than to a Frenchman. ^ The French had resolved 
not to intermarry with the other colonists, but all these 
differences were forgotten in the course of time, and the 
fusion of the two sections was gradually effected as shall be 
shown further on. 

In 1701 a surprise awaited the French congregation at 
Drakenstein. Now quite a different tone appears in the 
letters from Holland. A direct restriction was placed on the 
open use of their language in church. On the 20th September, 
1701, the Directors forbade the Drakenstein minister to preach 
in the French language, and wrote to the Governor that 
" in order that in course of time the French language may 
die out and be, as it were, banished from the place, and 
with this object in view, the schools are to give in future 
no other or further instruction than is necessary to assist 
the youth to learn to read and write our language."^ 

A reply was sent to this, which read : "We shall further see 
to it that by the use of Dutch in the church and school there 
(Drakenstein) the French tongue will fall into disuse amongst 
the inhabitants of that community, and afterwards, in course 
of time, die out ; and this will the more readily take place 
inasmuch as there are no French schools."^ In 1703 two- 
thirds of the Drakenstein congregation could not follow a 
Dutch sermon.^ Nothing daunted, the Refugees sent in 

' Letter, 29.6. 1691, to Chamber of Amsterdam. C. 756, p. iii. 
- Theal, " History of South Africa before 1795," 2.347. 
'Letter, 20.9.1701, from Chamber of Amsterdam. C.522, p. 393. 
Extract given on p. 155. 

* Letter, 20.3.1702, to Chamber of Amsterdam. C.760, p 428. 
Extract given on p. 158. 

* Letter, 4.4.1703, Drakenstein to Classis, Amsterdam. Spoelstra, 

Settlement, Church, Language. 37 

several petitions to the Governor to permit the Reverend 
Beck to preach in their own tongue, as they felt the severity 
of the order from Holland. These were referred to the 
Directors, who replied that they could not permit the request 
unless there were contrary reasons why they should be 
granted. Nevertheless, they left the matter in the hands 
of the Governor to act as circumstances warranted.^ He 
wrote back that the settlers had declared that they 
found it impossible to learn the Dutch language as they 
lived one, two, three or more hours from each other, and 
asked that they might be allowed, if only once a fortnight, 
to have the services in their own language.^ In 1709 the 
Drakenstein clergyman and church officers were told that in 
future they were to address their letters to the Government 
and nomination lists for office bearers in the Dutch lan- 
guage and not, as had been the case hitherto, in French.' 

But >|Vas the order of 1701 rigidly enforced ? There is 
certainly evidence that French services were held at Draken- 
stein many years subsequent to this. The church minutes 
of 1715 show that the French service was to commence at 
half-past eight on Sunday mornings and the Dutch service 
at ten o'clock.* In 1718 it was decided that the Dutch 
service was to start at 9 a.m., and that it was to be imme- 
diately followed by one for the French, " al waar het 00k 
voor een of twee menschen." But at the quarterly com- 
munion the latter was to commence at half-past eight, before 
the other.^ After the removal in 1707 of Reverend Beck from 
Drakenstein to Stellenbosch, the Cape Church Council wrote 
to the Classis at Amsterdam on the 26th March, 1710, and 
said that the former congregation was still badly in want of 
a clergyman, as the services were being conducted by a sick- 
comforter. The reply was that the Seventeen had been 
approached, and five ministers had been allowed them for 
foreign service. Amongst them, however, were none who 
could satisfy the special requirements of Drakenstein by 
having a knowledge of French.^ Permission was given in 
1719 to Francois Louis Migault of Embden, who came out 
in 1713 and no doubt was of Huguenot stock, to open a 

'Letter, 24.7.1704, from Chamber of Middelburg. C.524, p. 1188. 
Extract given on p. 156. 

= Letter, 28.3.1705, to Chamber of Middelburg C.751, p. 513. 
Extract given on p. 157. 

•Res. 10.12.1709, p 495. 

* Spoelstra, 2.427. 
' Ibid. 2.436. 

• Ibid. 1. 124 ; 2.31. 

38 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

school at the Cape to teach Dutch and French. ^ In 1730 
Jeremias Roux, son of the old parish clerk, Paul Roux, was 
also permitted to open a school to teach the youth in the 
French language. 

In an article written by Professor J. J. Smith, of 
Stellenbosch University, he gives an account of the dying 
out of the French language.^ He makes use of the 
official papers and points out that with the amalga- 
mation of the Dutch and French nations the language of the 
latter by degrees lost its sway. Their language was that of 
the minority. At no time did the Refugees exceed in 
number one-sixth of the burgher population, or one-eighth 
of the whole European community, the Company's servants 
included. Many of them on their arrival here were well 
acquainted with Dutch, as they had lived in Holland for 
some years. For instance, at Middelburg there had been 
le Febres since 1574, at Leiden de Lanoys since 1648, du Toits 
since 1605, Jouberts since 1645, Malans since 1625, Mesnards 
since 1638; at Utrecht Nels had resided since 1644, 
Cordiers at Haarlem since 1627 and Malherbes at Dordrecht 
since 1618. The departure of Reverend Simond, says Pro- 
fessor Smith, hastened the dying out of the language. 

It would, therefore, seem that while there was a wish 
expressed by the Directors that the French language should 
be superseded by the Dutch, and that as soon as possible, 
it was some considerable time after this that mention of the 
use of the language in public disappears from the records. 
It is clear that French services were still held in 1718 ; and 
even in 1724, when Mrs. Jacob Naud6 died, a " service in 
the French language was held in the church " at her funeral.* 
When Paul Roux died in 1723 the Council of Policy was 
asked by the Consistory to appoint another sickcomforter 
in his place. At that time there were still living about 
twenty-five or twenty-six of the old people who did not 
understand Dutch. The Council replied that they would 
not do anything without the authority of the Seventeen, 
to whom the matter had been referred. It was resolved 
that this be announced to the people, " which we can perceive 
will give our French congregation no satisfaction " ; and 
further, that they be asked whether they would maintain 
a French parish clerk at their own expense.^ The Directors. 

1 Vide " Requesten," C A. 

* Res. 9.5.1730. 

^ " De Goede Hoop," Nov. and Dec, 1915 

* Vide Garde — List of Refugees, p. 69. 

* Minutes of Kerkenraad, 28.2.1723, Spoelstra, 2.442. 

Settlement, Church, Language. 39 

although " not inclined to the preservation of the French 
language in India" (the Indies and its dependencies), again 
permitted the appointment of another French parish clerk. 
As Mr. Bosman the sickcomforter understood both languages. 
it was an unnecessary expense to appoint two parish clerks, 
and the Cape Council decided not to appoint another.' In 
1726 the ex-sexton, Jeremias Roux, was informed by the 
Drakenstein Consistory that in future he was not to take the 
services in the French language as he had previously done. 
After this there appears to be no further reference in the 
church minutes to the French services. 

After the first quarter of the eighteenth century the 
language appears to have begun to die out, and later on the 
grandchildren of the original arrivals knew only Dutch. 
Travellers who visited the Cape and left us a record of their 
stay give some impressions of the Refugees. It is interesting 
to see how far the question of the language is referred to by 
some of them. John Ovington, who was here in 1693, says 
that they " acknowledge the happiness of their transporta- 
tion," and that their misfortunes had been turned into 
happiness since they had been blessed with peaceful dwellings 
and kind accommodations. Francois Leguat, himself a 
Huguenot of noble blood, was here in i6gi and i6g8, and 
speaks of the kindnesses and means of subsistence given 
them by the Company. Taking it on the whole, he remarks, 
the Cape was a suitable haven of refuge for the poor French 
Protestants, and they lived in harmony with the Dutch. 
These two persons were here before any orders regarding 
the language were issued, and thus one finds no remark on 
this subject. The Abbe de la Caille, who was here in 1752, 
wrote that they had preserved the French language and had 
taught it to their chidlren. The latter, however, were obliged 
to speak Dutch in order to transact business with the Dutch 
and Germans who spoke that language, and also because 
they had intermarried with the Dutch and Germans and 
did not teach French to their children. 

He found that only the children of the original Refugees, 
of whom there were no longer any living, spoke French. 
They were all aged, and no one under forty years of age 
that he met spoke French unless he had come from France. 
He was informed by those who spoke the language that 
within twenty years there would be no one in Drakenstein 
who would be able to speak it. Other writers make no 
remark as to the language being suppressed. Barrow wrote 
that " the descendants of French families are now so inter- 

' Letter, 10.4.1725, to the XVII. 

40 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

married with those of the original settlers, that no distinction, 
except the names, remains. And it is a remarkable fact that 
not a word of the French language is spoken or understood 
by any of the peasantry, though there be many still living 
whose parents were both of that nation. Neither is a French 
book of any kind to be seen in their houses. It would seem 
as if these persecuted refugees had studied to conceal from 
their children their unfortunate history and their country's 
disgraceful conduct." 

At first the feeling between the Dutch and French was not 
one of trustfulness. Events in Europe had brought this about, 
for the two nations had been at war for many years, and at 
the Cape there was a feeling that their sympathies and help 
would be for the French should they attack the Cape. Simon 
van der Stel no doubt had a feeling of distrust against them 
when they petitioned to have their own congregation, as he 
feared they might develop into an opposing body and menace 
the peace of the country. In 1705 they were told by the 
Landdrost of Stellenbosch that he would not doubt but that 
they would join arms with the French if they attacked the 
Cape.i But time softened this feeling, and by the beginning 
of the eighteenth century there was a state of conciliation 
which was hastened and strengthened by the troubles in 
1706 against Governor Willem Adriaan van der Stel, when 
the country burghers took steps to have their grievances 
redressed. Professor Leo Fouche in his edition of Tas' Diary, 
has made some very pertinent remarks in this connection 
and with reference to the Refugees. I have considered them 
so illustrative of the relations between the two races and their 
ultimate fusion that I quote them here at length. " The 
farmers in the year 1705," he says, " were no more disposed 
to submit to injustice than the original farmers in 1658. 
Their settlement within the territory of the Company did 
not involve the surrender of their rights as Netherlanders. 
Were it impossible to obtain justice at the hands of the 
Directors, they would appeal, without hesitation, to the 
States General. They were chiefly Dutch, either immigrants 
from the Netherlands or natives of the Cape, but with the 
numerous Low Germans and Fre)ich Refugees they formed a 
community the heterogeneous elements of which had not 
yet been fused into a whole. The French Refugees, whose 
arrival had been an event of primary significance for the 
future of the country, formed a very considerable element 
amongst the farming population ; the sterling quahties which 

' " Historische Reizen door d' Oostersche Deelen van Asia, enz." 
Abraham Bogaert, Amsterdam, 1711, p. 515. 

Settlement, Church, Language. 41 

they had brought with them from oversea, and the fact that 
they had all been settled upon the land, both contributed to 
enhance their influence. The relations between French and 
Dutch were originally none too cordial. France was the arch 
enemy of the Republic, and for thirty years the two powers 
had been engaged in a life and death struggle. The Cape 
had repeatedly been threatened by French squadrons cruising 
in the neighbourhood. As late as 1705 Starrenburg says to 
the Refugees of Drakenstein, " I am assured that so the 
French ships did fall upon the Cape ye should hold to the 
Frenchman against the Company." The officials at the Cape 
were distinctly apprehensive that the French colonists were 
likely to remain French. It was precisely for this reason that 
they had been scattered amongst the other farmers in such 
a way as to facilitate their assimilation. The French had 
resented this summary amalgamation, and had done their 
best to hold themselves aloof. But by the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, after twenty years of living the same 
life and figthing the same hardships as the older population, 
they had gradually lost their first feeling of mistrust and 
aloofness. To hasten on the fusion of the races, to make 
Frenchmen and Dutchmen stand shoulder to shoulder, it 
only required a common cause, a common danger to confront. 
The misgovernment of van der Stel, the " intolerable yoke " 
which he had imposed upon the farmers, provided such an 
occasion. The most conspicuous feature of the movement 
is the solidarity amongst the farming community. The* 
difference of race is completely forgotten, and the French 
and Dutch face the tyrant as one man. Of the sixty-three 
signatories to the Memorial thirty-one are French, the rest 
are Dutch, both home-born and colonial. Kolbe remarks 
upon the coincidence that of the nine colonists banished for 
their share m the conspiracy, three were Hollanders, three 
were French and three were South Africans. He also points 
out as a smgular fact that of the three who died during the 
persecution one was a Hollander, one a Frenchman and one 
a South African. Coincidences so striking were of special 
significance for the contemporary observer ; they symbolised 
the unanimity with which the colonists had entered upon the 
struggle, and the feeling of brotherhood which characterised 
their conflict with the tyrant. It was a happy augury for 
the future. Henceforth, distinction of nationality should 
form no barrier between the Cape farmers who had stood so 
loyally by each other. The Diary of Adam Tas furnishes 
unmistakable evidence of how mutual respect and regard 

' Setting forth their grievances to the XVII. 

42 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

are developed in the face of danger. At first Tas speaks of 
" the French " with some measure of indifference. But later, 
when he sees how faithfully the French stand by him in his 
perilous task, how in the dead of night they bring him in- 
telligence as to the progress of events, how du Toit upbraids 
the Governor to his face with his misgovernment, his tone 
becomes more cordial, BleuseP is now " true heart," du Toit 
" a patriot," the Refugees are " our French brethren." No 
other factor contributed so much to the fusion of the races 
as the tyranny of van der Stel."* 

In concluding these remarks on the amalgamation of the 
French Refugees with the other settlers of the Cape, it is 
interesting to note what took place in America. Mr. Poole, 
in his " Huguenots of the Dispersion," in referring to the 
settlement of the fugitives in America, writes : " In a country 
of so mixed a race as New England, and of a bent so identified 
with Calvinistic traditions, the Huguenots became readily 
absorbed into the older population."^ 

With regard to any influence which the French language 
may have had on the Dutch language of this country, it 
would seem to have been very negligible. Very few traces 
of that language are found if one excepts the place and 
family names to be found in the Paarl district to-day. Even 
the latter are not always recognizable as being of French 
origin when spoken or read in Dutch. For instance, while 
the name de Villiers is still so spelt it is pronounced as 
Vielje by the Dutch-speaking community, and is a form 
of speUing found in the official records less than five years 
after the arrival of the Refugees."* Names such as Nortje 
for Nourtier, Minnaar for Mesnard, Gous and Gouws for 
Gaucher and Terblans for Terre Blanche are only a few 
examples. If some of the farm names in Drakenstein are 
mentioned to-day with their proper French accent they 
would not be understood by many of the inhabitants. In 
the Afrikaans there are several French words, as affaire, 
hordes, different, kapabel, passabel, seur (from monsieur), etc.. 
but these were not obtained from the Refugees but from the 
Dutch people, who in the Middle Ages were under strong 
French influence.^ The Refugees brought in some new words, 
but there was no change in the language through that medium.® 

' Abraham Bleuset, vide p. 60. 
' " The Diary of Adam Tas." 

'P- 97- 

* ^ide Muster Rolls of Freemen . 

'■ Professor J. J Smith in "De Goede Hoop. " 

• "Het Afrikaansch." by J. J. Hesseling, 



IT is not within the province of this book to deal with the 
religious persecutions in France which had caused such 
an upheaval in Europe during the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, as that forms a portion of the general 
history of the Huguenots. There is a great deal of literature 
dealing with this subject. This book only pretends to give 
a brief account of the migration to the Cape of a small number 
of the many thousands who fled from France and sought 
safety in many parts of Europe. But it might be helpful to 
the reader to take a brief survey of the general position of 
the period when the Cape Refugees were seeking a place of 
safety. Before the close of the sixteenth century fugitives 
from Flanders were taking refuge in England. Few of them 
brought any property ; the greater number were entirely 
destitute ; but many brought with them intelligence, skill, 
virtue and the spirit of independence which money could 
not buy, and which made them all the more valuable to the 
countries of their adoption. Many of the best citizens of 
Antwerp had fled to Holland and England. After the sack of 
that town in 1585, one-third of the remaimng merchants and 
workers in silks, damasks and other stuffs left their countr\' 
for good. Many of the Flemish Huguenots settled in London 
and Norwich. In France matters were no better, for the 
memorable night of St. Bartholomew in August, 1572, wit- 
nessed the striking of a blow at the very heart of the nation, 
the first step in a succession of events of nmrder, persecution 
and proscription. The Edict of Nantes, passed in 1598, gave 
comparative liberty of conscience and freedom of worship. 
By the revocation of this Edict in October of 1685 these 
privileges were taken away once more, and it meant the 
death knell of the Huguenots. 

WTiat did the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes involve ? 
The demolition of all the remaining Protestant churches 
throughout France, the proscription of the Protestant religion, 
the prohibition of private worship under penalty of confisca- 
tion of body and property, the banishment of Protestant 

44 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

pastors from France within fifteen days, the closing of Protes- 
tant schools, and the prohibition forbidding parents to instruct 
their children in the Protestant faith. Children had to be bap- 
tised by the parish priest under penalty of a fine of 500 livres, 
and to be brought up in the Roman Catholic faith. The pro- 
perty and goods of Protestant refugees who failed to return to 
France within four months were to be confiscated. It meant 
the galleys for life to all men and imprisonment for life to all 
women detected in the act of attempting to escape from 
France. These provisions were rapidly and vigorously put into 
effect, and were followed by other edicts still more severe. 

" The year 1685 is fitly identified with the depopulation of 
France. And yet, with a blindness that appears to us in- 
credible, the Government refused to believe in the desire for 
or the possibility of escape. The penalties attached to capture 
on the road — the galleys or the nunnery, — the vigilant watch 
at the frontier, the frigates cruising by every coast, all these 
difficulties seem to have persuaded Louvois that few would 
persist in risking flight. What these measures actually 
effected was doubtless to diminish the exodus, but in no 
marked degree. At length it came to be thought that the 
emigration was due to its prohibition, as though the Huguenots 
must do a thing from mere perverseness. The watch was 
relaxed, and a result unlooked for ensued. It was the signal 
for the greatest of the emigrations, that of 1688."^ Where 
did they seek havens of safety ? In Switzerland, Germany, 
Holland, England and America. To the latter place few 
sailed direct from French ports, but most went to London 
where they received letters of denization or naturalisation ; 
or they went into Germany, or, as in the case of the Cape 
Refugees, into Holland before they sailed to America. Many 
of these places received them well. Brandenburg sent 
invitations to them to come and settle there, and promised 
them libert}'' of worship, protection and hospitality. This 
province had been devastated by the Thirty Years' War, 
and the men driven from France were just the sort of men 
to be desired by a country whose trade and manufactures 
had been destroyed and its population diminished. Mr. 
Poole, in his " Dispersion of the Huguenots," has given an 
interesting account of the various places in Germany where 
the fugitives settled and also their places of origin in France. 
This is of interest to the descendants of the Refugees to 
South Africa ; for one finds that in some cases the ancestois 
of Cape families came out from Germany, although they bore 

' " A History of the Huguenots of the Dispersion." R. L. Poole, 
London, 1880, p. 28. 

Refugees in Europe and Cape. 45 

French names. They were the children or grandchildren of 
the original fugitives from France, who fied to Germany. 
For instance, there is the family of Serrurier from Hanau, 
Migault from Embden and Naude from Berlin. In England 
large numbers of Refugees landed at Dover, Rye, Southamp- 
ton and Plymouth, and sought out London, Canterbury and 
Norwich and other places. But some of these were more 
or less temporary places of settlement, and were a means of 
thoroughfare by which some of them went on their way to 
some known colony. ^ Several families in Ireland can trace 
their origin through a Huguenot ancestor who had settled 
there before the close of the seventeenth century. Many of 
the Refugees found safety at Dublin, Cork, Lisburn and other 
places. Holland proved a welcome asylum to the persecuted 
fugitives. The}' were given several privileges and " they 
owned the privileges, more than the privileges, of natives. 
In some places they were relieved of all 'extraordinary 
burthens and taxes,' and in others of the town excise 
Collections were ordered for their wants, master-workers were 
declared free of guilds, admissable, but not compelled to 
enter, advances of money were promised, and an agreement 
to purchase the produce of their manufactures was entered 
mto until they were established, and lastly ministers were 
allowed to such places where they were greatest in numbers.* 

The benefits which these various countries derived from 
this exodus from France is well known to those who have 
studierl the history of the Huguenots. With their ingress 
into these places they brought the knowledge of their manu- 
factures, trade and agricultural pursuits. Of those who 
went over to England, the bulk were manufacturers, and 
those who sought out Germany and the less populated 
districts of Holland were agriculturists. " If the agricultural 
classes came in small numbers to England, they more than 
made up the deficiency by the great proportion they formed 
among those who crossed over to the continent of America." 
In Brandenburg the Refugees scattered over the Uckermark 
had several colonies in groups, and grew hemp and flax, 
while the cultivation of the tobacco plant was carried on with 
such success that it was exported, and this added to the 
revenue of the country. Even Denmark derived benefit 
from the influx of some of the Refugees, most of whom were 
husbandmen and busied themselves in the cultivation of 
potatoes, of the tobacco plant, which they introduced, and 
of wheat which they improved. In 1679 Charles II. of 
England had sent out two shiploads of Refugees to plant 

' Ibid. ^ Ibid. 

46 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

vines and olives in South Carolina. A party of Refugees 
which left France in 1684 or 1685 was well received at Boston. 
Some of them were granted land where the village of Oxford 
is now situated. " They quickly changed the wilderness 
assigned them into an orchard of pear trees and a garden 
of roses and currant bushes."^ These references to the 
influence on agriculture are interesting in the study of the 
Cape Refugees, who we saw were sent out here because of 
their knowledge of viticulture, the making of wine and 
vinegar, and the distilling of brandy. 

It is interesting to compare the names of some of those 
who went over to Great Britain with the names of some 
who arrived at the Cape. The name of Barre is now found 
as Barry in Ireland, and appears during the latter half of 
the seventeenth century. The first of that name was Peter 
Barre, who became an Alderman of Dublin, where he had 
a large business as a linen draper. In 1702 a David Buisson 
witnessed the marriage in the same city between Jacques 
Buis and Marguerite Moulles ; upon comparison with the 
list of those who came to the Cape it is seen that there was 
a Louis Barre, David du Buisson and Jean du Buis. The 
name of Jourdan was also known in that city before 1700, 
as well as in Norwich during the first quarter of the seven- 
teenth century. In Norwich a daughter of Guillaume du Toit 
was baptized in 1596 ; a Guillaume du Toit came here in 
1686. In the same place the name of des Pres is found be- 
tween the years 1595 and 1647, and a des Pres, a woolcomber 
from Flanders, and his wife were registered as strangers in 
Norwich. John Cordier, born in Rhone, had been in England 
in 1544 for thirty years. There are Malans in England 
to-day who derive their ancestry from the Refugees. 

Many of the French Protestants before their escape from 
France were under stress of persecution and compelled to 
abjure their religion. They pretended in some way to 
conform to that of the Roman Catholic faith. A great 
number of those who landed at Dover were anxious to atone 
publicly for this, and were probably received into the Church 
with some kind of ceremony when they expressed their 
sorrow and regret. This was entered into the Church books 
and the entry called a reconnaisance. Amongst the persons 
making reconnaisance in 1686 we find Jean de Villiers of 
Guisnes, who had four children, Jacques le Febure of Clermont 
en Beauvassis and his wife, Gabriel le Roux of Guisnes, his 

' For the agricultural pursuits carried on by the Refugees in these 
countries, vidt< Poole, pp. 151, 152, 67, 97. 

Refugees in Europe and Cape. 47 

wife Ester Genel and their children Anne, Jacques and Marie. 
A Gabriel le Roux came out in 1688. 

In 1544 Anthony Seneshall {vide Senechal), a labourer 
aged seventy years, born in Normandy, who had been in 
England for twenty-one years, was granted Letters of 
Naturalization as a British subject. Several members of 
the Durand family from Dauphine officiated in the French 
churches in England. Jean Mesnard, one of the pastors 
of the Protestant church at Charenton at Paris, fled to 
Holland ; his brother Philip Mesnard, pastor of the church 
of Saintes, became minister of the Chapel Royal of St. James 
in 1700. A Jean Mesnard and his son Philippe arrived at 
the Cape in 1688. 

When the fugitives arrived in a new country many of them 
changed their names to correspond with the equivalent of 
the language of that country. Thus L'Oiseau became Bird 
in England and Vogel in Holland ; du Bois, Wood and van 
den Bosch ; La Croix, Cross and van der Cruyse ; le Roi, 
King and de Koning ; Suavage, Savage, Wild and de Wilde ; 
le Blanc, White and de Witt, and so many other names in 
Holland to-day were originally French : du Jardin became 
Bogaard, des Champs, v. d. Velde, Chevalier, Ruyter, du Pre 
van der Weyde, Dumont, van den Berg and Dupont, Ver- 
brugge. Some names were strangely altered in their con- 
version from the French, thus le Cocq was WTitten Laycock, 
Bourgeois as Burgess, Drouett Drewitt and D'Aeth became 
Death ; many others were vulgarised as Chappuis into 
Shoppee, De Moulius into Mullins, Millechamps into Melkkan, 
and so forth. 

It is not, therefore, surprising to see how the names at 
the Cape have been altered. This was no doubt caused 
through the intercourse with the Dutch-speaking section 
of the Colony. Many of the original French Refugees signed 
their names correctly, but their descendants at the Cape 
took the new form of spelling. To-day the name of Crosnier 
or Cronier is only known throughout South Africa as Cronje, 
Mesnard as Minnaar, de la Porte as Delport, Gaucher as 
Gous and Gouws, Niel as Nel, Terreblanche as Terblanche 
and Terblans ; Vivier is hardly recognisable as Beeweeje or 
Weeweeje ; the name of dc Villiers is found before 1700 as 
Vielje, the way it is pronounced by many people to-day. 

Of the emigres who came to the Cape several were surgeons, 
while most were farmers and tradesmen. We find Jean 
Durand, born at la Motte in Dauphine about the year 1669. 
amongst the surgeons. He settled at Drakenstein, where he 
carried on farming operations and at the same time practised 

48 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

surgery. He also found time to exercise the duties of a 
member of the Court of Landdrost and Heemraden, and died 
in 1727. It would be interesting to know whether he was a 
member of a cadet branch of the noble family of Durand of 

A family well known throughout South Africa is that of 
du Plessis, which can claim as its ancestor Jean Prieur du 
Plessis, a surgeon of Poitiers, born in 1638. He arrived at 
the Cape in 1688 with his wife Madeleine Menanto. On the 
voyage a son was born to them, and was baptised on board 
the ship in Table Bay.^ He was named Charles, and was 
evidently apprenticed to his father, for we find him some 
years later bringing an action before the Court at Stellenbosch 
for the recovery of fees for medical services rendered. Upon 
the death of his wife Madeleine Menanto, du Plessis married 
Maria Buisset at the Domkerk, Amsterdam. She was born 
at Sedan on the French frontier in 1678, and after the death 
of her husband married Mr. Dirk Snith in 171 1, also a 
surgeon. She practised as a qualified midwife while her 
husband practised surgery. 

Midwives during the Dutch occupation of the Cape were 
either appointed by the Directorate of the Dutch East India 
Company and sent out from Holland to the Cape, or were 
admitted to practise here after due examination by two of 
the chief Government surgeons. Mrs. Snith must have had 
some knowledge of surgery, for in 1721 she produced before the 
Court of Justice at Cape Town a surgical certificate which 
she had signed. In it she set forth the result of her inspection 
of a slave girl who had been stabbed with a knife. This 
certificate was accepted as evidence, and the criminal who 
had committed the deed was found guilty and sentenced 
to be flogged and put in chains for two years.' 

Among the entries of baptisms of the Reformed church at 
Nogentel appear the names of children of Paul le Febure, 
a surgeon of Chaurry. On the ist April, 1674. his son Jean 
was baptised, and had as sponsors Isaac Taillefert and Jeanne 
le Page, and in 1676 a daughter, Anne, was baptised. Paul 
le Febure had married Marie Taillefert, daughter of Jean 
Taillefert, an apothecary at Chateau Thierry. After the 
Revocation he sacrificed his position and joined the Dutch 
East India Company, eventually coming to the Cape,^ settling 

' Doop Register, Cape Town Dutch Reformed Church. 

" Vide Records of Court of Justice, Crim. proces stukken and Sententien, 
1721, case of Anthony of Goa. Archives. 

' " Le Protestantisme en Brie et Basse Champagne," par Elis6e 
Briet, Paris, 1885, p. ii8. 

Refugees in Europe and Cape. 49 

at French Hoek. A daughter of his, by his second wife, 
baptised at Drakenstein in 1699 Marie Madeiene, married 
David Taillefert, and another daughter, born at Goes in 
Zeeland, was the wife of Jac. Benoist.^ Le Febure, his wife 
and two children returned to Europe in 1705. 

Another surgeon who practised at Drakenstein was Gideon 
le Grand, whose name is found in 1698 as resident at Stellen- 
bosch. He died in 17T0, leaving no heirs at the Cape, and 
only a brother, Abraham le Grand, who lived at Haarlem, 
le Grand also filled the position of Burgher Councillor of 
Drakenstein. What appears to have been a sort of day book 
of his for the year 1710 is preserved in the Archives, or rather 
a fragmentary portion of it. Interspersed here and there are 
what appear to be clinical notes. The writing is not always 
easy to make out, and is, of course, in an archaic form of 
French, but a few interesting items niay be noted. 

One notices that, when medicine is entered, there is 
constantly the note " envoye," with very often " par son 
ordre " added, and sometimes the name of the slave or other 
messenger. It seems clear that the old gentleman le Grand 
was taking no chances of his accounts being disputed, and 
regularly put on record, not only the prescription, but also 
the name of the messenger and the fact of having received a 
distinct order. Journeys or even visits seem to have been rare, 
most of the entries clearly referring to medicine sent out on a 
message. In one place we have recorded, in connection with 
one Jacob de Villiers, " reduit la luxation du poignet droit. 
Le radius etoit luxe. Mis seux farine et argile p.p." It 
looks as if the surgeon of those days was in the habit of 
putting up dislocations with a prototype of the modern gum 
and chalk beloved of Guy's men. The charge for this was one 
something or other, apparently one rixdollar. Cinnamon, 
terebinth, crocus, ginger, piper and " oli suce" (sweet oil) 
figure largely in le Grand's pharmacopseia. There is one very 
pathetic note in this old day-book, showing that, as to- 
day, the humane doctor had not infrequently, not only to 
supply his services free, but also to pay out-of-pocket expenses 
as well. Here it is : " J'^' paye so nourriture a mes frais et 
depans." There is an entry, " pour remede et nourriture," 
but no sum is affixed. Probably the surgeon knew that it 
might as well be done pro dec. In one place there is quite 
an extensive clinical note, which, as far as it can be de- 
ciphered, reads thus, " donne tons les gours fleur de souphre 

' Doop Boek, Drakenstein. 

'Diverse correspondentie. Letter, 15. 8. 1780, to C. L. Neethling. 

50 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

prepare," and further on, " bon efet pour rume et courtc 
haleine mal rle polmon et enflaere de pieds." 

Although not numbering among the early batches of French 
fugitives who came to the Cape, we find the name of another 
French surgeon who lived at the Cape in the first quarter of 
the eighteenth century ; we can surmise that he had left France 
on account of his Protestantism. Renault Berthault de St. 
Jean was born in 1692 at Sanoere, in the province of Berry, 
France, and at the age of twenty became a surgeon in the 
service of the Dutch East India Company. Seven years 
later he landed at the Cape, being joined later on by his 
wife, Anne Fourdinier and son. Mr. St. Jean became chief 
surgeon of the Government hospital in Cape Town, and 
died on the nth March, 1763, having married a second 
time Martha Sollier, daughter of Durand SoUier. The 
family of de St. Jean is still represented in South Africa 
through the female line of the family of van der Riet. 

Among the agriculturists and vinedressers are to be found 
the names of Josue Cellier of Orleans, who was also a car- 
penter, Jean du Buis of Calais, Jean and Jacques Nourtier, 
and Jacques de la Porte of Lille. Daniel Hugo and Andre 
Gaucher were blacksmiths, Durand Sollier and Jean Cloudon, 
shoemakers ; whilst Jacques Pinard and Daniel Nourtier were 
carpenters. Of those sent out in the Oosterlandt appear the 
names of Jacques de Savoye of Aeth, his wife Marie Madelene 
le Clercq of Tournay, and her mother Antonette Carnoy, 
widow of Philippe le Clercq, a merchant of Doornik, de 
Savoye was accompanied also by his children. Marge aged 
17 years, Barbere 15, and Jacques 9 months. He had 
been a merchant at Ghent, and on account of his religious 
views had drawn upon himself the hatred and vengeance 
of the Catholics, who had brought many law suits against 
him and attempted to murder him. These persecutions 
obliged him to leave Ghent in 1687 and go to the Northern 

Reverend Fran9ois Simond, minister of the Reformed 
Church in Flanders, gave good testimony of de Savoye's 
honesty and zeal for his religion, and declared " that his 
life seemed a worthy example of purity and holiness as nmch 
as it could be in the place in which he was, where idolatry 
reigned supreme." In writing to the Chamber of Delft, 
Commander van der Stel mentioned that by their virtues 
and laborious zeal Jacques de Savoye and his family were 
examples to all the fugitives and exiles, and that on account 
of his abilities and knowledge of the Dutch and French 
languages he had been appointed a Heemraad. In 1712 

Refugees ill Europe and Cape. 51 

he and his wife returned to Europe, tmt they were then poor 
and allowed to pay only half the ordinary passage money for 
the voyage. His son, Philippe Rudolph de Savoye, was 
baptised at Drakenstein in 1694, and entered the Company's 
service, in which he held several official positions at the Cape. 
The family of de Savoye is represented through the female 
branch in the Cape families of Snyman, Villion or Viljoen, 
and Meyer. Margaretha or Marge, who came with lier 
parents in 1688, married first Christoffel Snyman, and after 
his death Henning Villion, son of Fran9ois Villion of Clermont 
and the Cape ; Aletta de Savoye, baptised at the Cape in 
1689, niarried Pierre Meyer of Dauphine. who settled at 
the Cape as a French Refugee. 

Allied by marriage to the Surgeon Paul le Febure, of whom 
mention has been made, was the family of Taillefert. On the 
6th February, 1678, Paul le Febure had stood sponsor to 
Suzanne, daughter of Isaac Taillefert and Suzanne Brief at 
the church of Nogentel. In the seventeenth century there 
was a large family of the name of Taillefert in the church of 
Nogentel. At Nogentel lived Pierre Taillefert, a merchant 
and elder of the church ; at Chateau Thierry resided Jean 
Taillefert, an apothecary and elder of the church ; at 
Monneaux, Jean, plastrier (plasterer), Paul, a vinedresser, 
Claude, ci Brasles. The apothecary Jean Taillefert, v/ho was 
married to Ester Jordin, had several children, Nathaniel, 
Ehsee, Jeanne, Marie (the wife of Paul le Febure), and 
Isaac. After the Revocation of the Edict all of these left 
the kingdom in succession. Isaac Taillefert, who was married 
to Suzanne Brief of the Valley of Essomes, had established 
himself as a master hatter at Chateau Thierry. 

Through his wife he possessed some vineyards at Monneaux, 
and after the Revocation he went to live with her family. 
His last child, born in France and named Marie, was baptised 
by the monks of the church at Essomes in January, 1687. 
A year later Isaac, his wife and six children left Monneaux 
and retired to La Rochelle. The baptismal entries of the 
five children appear in the registers of the Protestant church 
at Nogentel. The Revocation caused the Tailleferts to 
disappear, and it was a family entirely lost by the Reformed 
Church of Lower Champagne. Isaac, his wife and six children 
all embarked on board the Dutch East India Company's ship 
Oosterlandt in 1688, bound for the Cape.^ His eldest daughter, 
Elisabeth Taillefert, married Pierre de Vilhers of La Rochelle, 
one of the three brothers who arrived here in 1689 in the 

' " Le Protestantisme en Brie et Basse Champagne," par Elisee 
Briet, Parir, 1885, pp. 116 and 226 et seq. 

52 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Zion. Pierre was the ancestor of the late Baron de VilHers 
of Wynberg. 

The family of Taillefert appears to have died out in South 
Africa. Francois Leguat mentions Isaac Taillefert, and 
speaks of his beautiful garden, in which nothing was lacking ; 
an inner yard in which aviaries containing all kinds of birds 
were to be seen. Those who visited him, he says, were well 
received and treated. His wine was the best in the country 
and as near as possible to the inferior champagne of France. 
In 1691 Isaac Taillefert received the grants of the land upon 
which the farms of Normandy and Picardy stand to-day. 
It is interesting to note that there were Tailleferts in the 
Company's service ; in 1767 Louis Taillefert was promoted 
to the rank of Councillor Extraordinary of India. 

After 1690 the names of two brothers, Jacques and Nicolaas 
La Bat, appear in the records as burghers at Drakenstein. 
They were the sons of Jacques La Bat and Susanna Laurent, 
and were born at Fontenay le Comte in Poitou, France. 
Jacques was the elder of the two. They were followed by 
Paul La Bat, Jean La Bat (died about 1696), and Catharina 
(died in 1689). In the marriage entry in the Drakenstein 
church on the 13th June, 1717, of Ehsabeth Vivier to Nicolaas 
La Bat, he is described as a bachelor of Pointrie. His wife 
was the daughter of the Refugee Abraham Vivier. Nicolaas 
died on the 30th December, 1717. Some years later his 
brother Jacques, who had left the Cape and was settled as 
a sword cutter in the parish of St. Martin's in the Fields, 
Westminster, county Middlesex, appointed Sieur Fran9ois 
Guillaumet.i at the Cape, to apply to the Government for 
the inheritance from his brother's estate. A document, 
drawn up on the 12th October, 1724, before Mr. Jean de 
Brisac, notary public of St. Martin's Lane, London, and signed 
by Jean Hudel, Minister, Daniel Pain, Daniel Traipain, 
Daniel Paillon and Benjamin Brocquet, stated that these 
persons were all formerly residents of Fontenay le Comte, 
and that they knew Jacques La Bat, who was born there, 
his parents, then dead, and his brothers and sister. Two 
notaries, Messrs. Isaac Delpeeh and Sam du Puy, testified 
to the fact of de Brisac being a duly admitted notary. The 
power of attorney in favour of Guillaumet requested that the 
amount received be remitted to Jean Barbesorre, merchant 
of Amsterdam.2 

In mentioning those Refugees who were at the Cape at 
this time, it may not be irrelevant to write a few lines about 

'Came from Languedoc as superintendent of the silk i ndustry at 
the Cape. See page 94. 
* Read Res. of 28.2.1727. 

Refugees in Europe and Cape. 53 

a young French lad, Guillaume Chenut who, though his stay 
in South Africa was not very long, had experienced during 
that time great hardships. Guillaume Chenut of Chalzac, 
said to be aged fifteen years in 1688, was of noble birth 
{edele geboorte and also referred to as edelman). On account 
of misfortune and his love for the religion, he fell into the 
deepest adversity, and about 1685 sailed on board a ship 
going to Madeira. While there the Governor wanted him 
to abjure his faith. Rather than do this, he engaged himself 
to an English captain who sailed to the Indies. On the 
voyage they came to a coast unknown to them. This was 
along the Kaffir coast of South Africa, Nine men (among 
whom was Guillaume Chenut) set out in a boat for the land, 
to ascertain where they were. They were attacked by a 
party of savages and all were murdered except the French 
boy. He remained a year with them, living in the same 
manner as they did. 

In February, 1686, one of the Dutch East India Company's 
ships, the Stavenisse, when on her return voyage from India 
to Europe, was wrecked on the coast of Africa, about seventy 
miles south of the bay of Natal. Those who were saved held 
a consultation and decided to march overland to Cape Town. 
After some days a few of them, unable to continue the long 
march, returned to the wreck. When, more than a year later, 
the latter arrived at the Cape in a boat which they had built, 
assisted by some wrecked mariners from two other ships 
who had joined them, no news of the first party had 
been heard, A party was sent out in this ship, which the 
mariners had built, and on the 8th February, 1688, when 
near the Coffin or Cove Rock, they fell in with three naked 
white men on a raft. These men told them that they formed 
part of the crew of the Stavenisse, and that there were eighteen 
others 011 shore besides a French lad, who was the only 
survivor of a boat's crew that had landed on the coast. 

This French lad was no other than young Chenut, who 
had come across the men of the Stavenisse. On his arrival 
it was said that he had indentured himself to a Dutch captain 
for three years. In the same year the Chamber of Seventeen 
was approached by one of the members of the Government 
at Amsterdam requesting that a letter addressed to the boy 
might be handed to him at the Cape ; that he be sent home 
with the first opportunity, and that no pains be spared. 
Guillaume's eldest brother at this time held an honourable 
position, being Equerry to Her Highness the Princess of 
Anhalt, and he bound himself to defray the costs of releasing 
his brother from his indentures and bringing him back to 

54 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Europe.^ The letter addressed to the lad was fluly handed 
over to him, and he sailed for Europe in the Spierdyh. In 
informing the authorities of this the Cape Governor wrote 
and said that Chenut was found as a sailor on board the 
Noord in the Company's service, and had behaved himself 

Having spoken of their arrival, settlement, church and 
language, and mentioned something about one or two of 
the fugitives, let us look at them as a community. That they 
had come out at an opportune time, that they had brought 
with them a knowledge of viticulture which had promoted 
the advancement of the country, and that they had been 
an aid to the general colonisation of the Cape has been 
recorded in previous chapters. When we look, however, 
at the correspondence between the Cape Government and 
the Directors we are somewhat disappointed in this respect. 
In some instances the opinion given of them by the Governor 
is not too flattering. It is only right, therefore, that both 
sides of the question should be laid open, to allow the reader 
to judge for himself whether the statements recorded against 
them were justifiable, or whether there was any under- 
lying current of animosity which induced the Governor to 
misrepresent these exiles. 

At the time of their arrival the Refugees were received 
in a kindly spirit. The readiness to convey them to their 
new homes, the good subscription raised in the Colony, and 
the appeal to Batavia for pecuniary assistance show a fellow 
feeling for the exiles on the part of the Dutch. We find, 
however, an earty outburst of anger by the Commander 
upon their seeking his permission to establish their own 
congregation. This must be carefully weighed if it is to be 
accepted as evidence that he was against them. In March, 
1689, news had reached the Cape that all Dutch ships in 
French harbours had been seized, and that the November 
previous France had declared war against Holland. During 
the next two months Commander van der Stel had seized 
two French ships in Table Bay, the Normande and Coche. 
A year previous the King of France had presented him with 
a gold chain and medallion containing a portrait of that 
Sovereign as a token of gratitude for the kindness which he 
had always shown towards the French. On accepting the 
gift from the commander of the French man-of-war, he told 
him he would inform the Directors of the fact, and ask 

' Annexure to Letter, 15.12.1688, from the Chamber of Amsterdam. 

' I<etter, 20.6.1689. to Middelborg. 

Refugees in Europe and Cape. 55 

their permission to keep the present.^ He felt that, as 
France was at war with the Netherlands, it would be wise 
to obtain the consent of his superiors, who might otherwise 
construe his action as revealing a tendency on his part to 
favour the French cause were he to retain the presenta- 
tion without referring the matter to them. When we 
consider the caution he displaj'ed in the above instance, 
we may well imagine that he probably took the request of 
the Refugees as having some pohtical significance, and 
feared that the new arrivals meditated forming themselves 
into an opposing force, intending, when opportunity offered, 
to help the French nation should they conceive the idea of 
taking the Cape. We see this view expressed even in 1705, 
for Landdrost Starrenburg of Stellenbosch, in speaking to 
some of the Refugees, remarked that he was sure that if 
the French ships did attack the Cape they would support 
them against the Company. ^ Tlie matter of granting the 
petitioners a separate congregation lay only in the power 
of the Directors, and as the French had agreed to consider 
themselves born Netherlanders, they were bound by the 
same laws and regulations as the other colonists at the Cape. 

During the first year or two after the arrival of the French 
settlers, the letters to Holland about them were in a friendly 
strain. In 1688 the Commander wrote to the Seventeen, 
when he heard of their being sent out, and said, " We are 
heartily glad that some of the French and other fugitives 
are about to come out with their minister. We shall, as 
far as lies in our power, receive them with love and kindly 
feeling and unsparingly lend them a helping hand."^ He 
further expressed the opinion that, if they conducted them- 
selves as honestly and industriously as those who had 
settled there a while ago, they would wonderfully establish 
and strengthen the colony and generally arouse the greater 
emulation of the Netherlanders. On the same day he wrote 
to Delft that a helping hand and proofs of Christian love 
would be given to them. He promised to provide them 
with two French bibles and ten Psalm books. 

Not many years after this the Commander wrote and 
asked the Seventeen not to send out the wrong stamp of 
agriculturists, who would be out of their element here, and 
not fit for the hard life of the farmer. He wished no French 
cadets or persons of quality to be sent out, but industrious 
and well-behaved farmers and tradesmen, amongst whom 

' Letter, 14.6.1688, to Chamber of Middelburg. C.755, p. 193. 
' " Historische Reizen," Bogaert, p. 515. 
Letter, 26.4.1688, to Chamber of Middelburg. C.755, pp. 62-65. 

66 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

the Dutch and Germans seemed to surpass all others here. 
This shows that van der Stel was more partial to Dutch 
settlers, and treasured the hope of keeping this purely as a 
Dutch colony.^ His son, Wilhelm Adriaan van der Stel, 
his successor as Governor of the Cape, also appears to have 
desired that agriculturists from Holland should be sent out 
to cultivate the land. When he wrote to the Chamber of 
Middelburg and informed them of the safe arrival of some 
French Refugees in the Wesihoven, he said that too many 
of that sort were at the Cape already, and that some had 
conducted themselves badly and did not possess much 
knowledge of agriculture, exerting themselves little about 
it, which had caused poverty amongst them. They were 
likely to be a burden to the Company and poor fund. 
Some were old and decrepit, and would be able to do nothing. 
He would like in future to see that the Cape was not burdened 
with such fugitives, but rather that Zeeland farmers of an 
industrious type and well versed in agriculture be sent. 
Should such feel inclined to come, they would be more 
suitable and of more service and value to the Colony.^ 

Now Wilhelm Adriaan van der Stel had only been settled 
a few months at the Cape when he wrote this, and one would 
conclude that unless he had made a very special enquiry 
into the conduct of the Refugees and their modus operandi, 
he must have drawn his facts from some other source. 
Each retiring Governor gave to his successor " Instructions " 
which set forth such facts as to the work that had been 
carried on in general during his term of office, and thus each 
succeeding Governor profited by the experience of his 
predecessor. To this were added some points of advice. 
The Instructions of Simon van der Stel to his son are dated 
the 30th March, 1699, and in several places bear reference 
to the settlers at Drakenstein. He advised his son to be 
careful in discharging any of the Company's servants in 
order to allow them to live as burghers. They should be 
of the reformed religion, subjects of the States General or 
members of such Germanic nations as were not engaged 
in sea traffic, lest the Government should be exposed to a 
revolution. Should other nationalities populate the colony, 
each one would adhere to his own nation, and thus the 
defensive arrangements and precautions of the Government 
would become useless. In this respect, he said, those of the 

•Letter, 29.6. 1691, Chamber of Amsterdam. C.756, p. 114. 
* Letter, 2.7.1699, to Chamber of Middelburg. C.759, p. 497. 
Extract given on p. 160. 

Refugees in Europe and Cape. 57 

French nation, although they are settled here and well 
received, are to be the least trusted.^ 

There should be some evidence in the records to justify 
the statements made against the French emigrants or there 
should be some proof to show that such are wrong or weak, 
and do not hold a sinister meaning. Poverty and old age 
come to the very best. While some are prosperous, others 
are the reverse through no fault of their own. It could 
not be expected that everyone would be successful, especially 
as they were working under totally different conditions 
from what they had been accustomed in Europe. The 
surgeon du Plessis had tried his best at his profession, as 
well as at farming, and was obliged to give it up in despair. 
As he could not earn a living he returned to Europe in 1693, 
with his wife and two children, but came back to South Africa 
some years later. Mr. de Savoye, the gentleman who had 
been a merchant at Ghent and had held public appointments 
at the Cape, returned to Europe with his wife in 1712, and 
on account of his poverty could not pay the full passage 
money. Both these men, who had no doubt been looked 
up to by their fellow countrymen at Drakenstein, did not 
suffer poverty through their indolence. Pierre Batte, who 
received assistance from the Batavian Fund in 1690, was 
able to pay his passage and return to Europe in 1696, and the 
following Refugees, who also received help in 1690, returned 
to Europe after being able to pay their full ship money : 
Louis Barre in 1705, Pierre Beneset in 1700, Pierre Sabatier 
in 1700, and Daniel Bouvat or Couvat in 1708. These men 
must have been industrious enough to put money by to 
enable them to go back. 

Black sheep will be found in every flock, and this was no 
exception in the case of the French fugitives. In looking 
d(5wn the list of names appearing in the criminal sentences 
of the Court of Justice^ before 1700, it is gratifying to note 
few names of the Refugees. In 1694 one of their number 
was prosecuted for using his knife against a neighbour.^ 
The following year a Frenchman, Jean du Seine, was sen- 
tenced to banishment to Mauritius for using seditious language, 
du Seine was 25 years of age and born at Grison on the Italian 
border. He had come to the Cape in 1691 on board the 

' Instructien, 1686-1722 C.920. p. 582. Cape Archives. 
" De f ranee Natie daar omtrent alhoewel hier geseeten en wel onthaalt 
werdende minst van alien te vertrouwen " 

^ The Court of Justice was the only court for trying criminal cases, 
and the records of these are complete in the Archives. 

" " Crimineele proces stukken, 1694." Records of the Court of Justice. 

58 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

L'Hirondelle, belonging to Admiral the Marquis due Quesne, 
and, with several others, had been left on the Island of Diego 
Rodrignes in proof of having taken that place. From here 
he deserted to the Cape, and had been allowed by the Govern- 
ment to live among the burghers. In 1695 he resided with 
Pierre Rochefort at Stellenbosch. One day in June, 1695, 
while conversing with the Refugees Pierre Meyer, Jacques 
Theron, Pierre Vivier and Jacques La Bat, he had spoken 
his mind rather freely, and expressed the wish that the 
French were there. If they did come he would say, " Vive 
plus fort." ^ As this was a time of unrest at the Cape, and an 
attack from the French was anticipated, it was wrong to speak 
in this strain to men who, although they had taken the oath 
of allegiance to Holland, were nevertheless born Frenchmen. 
The following year further reference to du Seine is found. 
A price was put upon his head, £20 if alive and £10 if dead. 
He and another soldier, commonly known as the Polish 
Nobleman or Baron {in de wandelinge genaamt den Poolsen 
Edelman oft Baron), were described as notorious rascals for 
whose capture a reward was offered.^ 

In 1696 a burgher living at Drakenstein and born at Bortel 
in Switzerland was charged with illicit cattle-bartering with 
the natives, one of the gravest offences against which repeated 
placaaten had been published.^ He was also banished to 
Mauritius. It is possible that Simon van der Stel had 
some of these cases in mind when he wrote his Instructions 
of the 30th March, 1699, and spoke of some of the agricul- 
turists who had wandered from farm to farm and become 
vagabonds. These were made use of by the ill-disposed 
for the purpose of cattle-trading with the natives. Perhaps 
these cases had also been cited to his son when he wrote 
his letter of the 2nd July, 1699. 

' Res. 2.2.1696. 

-Records of the Court of Justice, " Crimineele proces atufiken and 

y of 












Index to Signatures. 


2. Pierre Vivier. 
3.G. leroux. 

4. Jacques Pinard. 


6. Jaques Therono. 


8. Estienne Viret. 

9. jacob de villiers. 

10. E. NlEL. 


12. P. MEYER. 

13. D. D. BUISSON. 



16. David SENEGAL. 

17. Claude MARAis. 
18. 1. Taillefort. 

19. salomon degournay. 





24. Hercules Despres. 

25. Gi. Sollier. 

26. Pierre Simond >i> 

27. Jean Durand. 

28. Pierre Cronie. 

29. gedeon le grand. 


30. Jean Garde. 


32. Estienne Cronier. 

33. Jean leroux. 

34. J. MALAN. 

35. Louis de Berault. 






40. JACOB NOUTIE [.ounin.] 







47. J. DE Bus. 

48. jean gardiol. 

49. Pierre Jourdan. 

50. danijel hugot. 

51. paul couvret 

52. daniel de ruelle. 

53. Jacques de Porte. 

54. Paul Roux. 

f (jo)"" 

fr9/fch fiefug^as. 

rmy0i- Gtnmm/s O/Fica, C^y>» 



THE CAPE BETWEEN 1688 & 1700. 

(Those marked with an asterisk received pecuniary assistance from the Batavian 
Fund in 1690. The list of recipients is printed in Theal's " History of 
South Africa before 1795," vol. 2, pp. 342-343.] 

Note. — Names commencing with des, du, la, le, arranged under these prefixes. 

AnthOI13rd6| Marie, mother-in-law of Louise Corbonne or her 
husband Jean Mesnard, q.v., sailed in the Berg 
China in 1688, then aged 64 ; probably died 
on the voyage. 

'Arni6l| IVIatthieu, received assistance for himself, wife 

and two children. An agriculturist at French 
Hoek, he was married to Jeanne Mille, born in 
Provence in 1633 (died 17th March, 1731). He- 
died in November, 1719, and, by the joint will in 
1718 of himself and wife, left legacies to (i) the 
Poor Fund of Drakenstein, (2) Susanna Fracasse, 
daughter of Matthieu Fracass6, q.v. living with 
her cousin Francois Ree in Amsterdam, (3) Jan 
Roy (Roi ?), son of the agriculturist in French 
Hoek, Jan Roy, q.v. After the death of the 
survivor they appoint Jan Roy, Jr., heir after 
his father's death. 

Avic6, or 
Avic6, or 

Bache, or 

Sara of d'Chateau d'un, a spinster, sailed in 1688 
in the Oosterlandt ; probably did not reach Cape. 

Marie, living at Drakenstein in 1692 ; was then 
the wife of Claude Marais of Plessis, q.v. She 
died before 172 1, and does not appear to have 
left issue. 

Marguerite, a spinster, sailed in the Voorschooten 
in 1688, then aged 23. In the Stellenbosch 
Church books is the entry of baptism of Lysbeth 
daughter of Hans Pieter van Malcheer and Mar- 
garita Basse on 3rd August, 1692. See also 
entry of baptism on 29th August, 1694, at 
Drakenstein, page 10 1. 


The French Refugees at the Cape. 


la Bat, 

Bleuset, or 

*Benes8t, or 

de Berault 


de Bereau), 
de Berault 


de Bereau), 

Pierre, with his wife, Dina van Soetermeer, did 
not require assistance from the 1690 Fund. In 
1692 they were hving in the Cape district, and 
eight years after she is described as a widow. 

Louis, on 26th February, 1700, Revd. Pierre 
Simond, q.v., granted a power of attorney in 
Barre's favour to recover certain money. He 
returned to Europe in 1705. 

Pierre, returned to Europe in 1696. 
See Labat. 

Abraham of Calais, born 1665; came in the Schelde 
in 1688, in 1692 was Hving in the Cape 
district unmarried, and in 1700 in Stellen- 
bosch. An agriculturist, he married Elizabeth 
Posseaux of Paris, q.v., widow of Jacob Bisseux, 
q.v. He died on 25th July, 1735, and was 
buried near his wife. In his will, filed in 1735, 
he signs himself Bleuset, and is described as 
" compagnon " in farming with Jean Manier, 
q.v. His wife died in September, 1726, and was 
buried in the churchyard at Cape Town. She 
appears to have had children by her first hus- 
band only. 

Pierre, one of the first deacons of the French 
congregation at Drakenstein in 1691, unmarried. 
Returned to Europe in 1700. 

Anne, wife of Revd. Pierre Simond, q.v. 

Louis, brother of above, arrived in the Zuid 
Beveland in 1688 with Rev. Simond and party, 
although he was at the time a sergeant in the 
service of the Dutch East India Company. He 
accompanied the first expedition of the Noord 
in October, 1688, to Rio de la Goa in search of 
the wrecked men of the Stavenisse. He subse- 
quently left the service and became a " freeman " 
or free burgher at the Cape, and in 1690 was 
deacon of the Cape Town Church ; the following 
year he was one of the first elders of the newly- 
formed French congregation at Drakenstein. 
Although described in 1690 as married with 

List of Arrivals from 1688. 




three children,' his wife and children must have 
died, for in his will, drawn up at Stellenbosch 
in 1698, he makes his sister Anne his heiress, 
and states that for eight or ten years he had not 
heard from his friends. In 1682 Alexandrina 
Maxwell, a spinster, was resident at the Cape, 
and in a list of 1685 she appears as the wife of 
Lodewyk Brureau, probably intended for Louis 
de Berault. 
Francina of Meerbrakel, Oudenaarden, married 
here in 1700 to Jacob Mouton, q.v. 



Joost, born at Brakel, as above, about 1684, 
brother of Francina Bevernage ; arrived as a 
" freeman " in 1700 in the Helmeet, and died on 
30th September, 1738. An agriculturist at 
Drakenstein, he was married to Anna van der 
Wey, of the Cape, born about 1687. 

TheuniS, born at Meerbrakel in 1691, and brother 
of Joost ; apparently did not marry. After 
leaving, by will dated 1724, a legacy to his 
sister Francina, he instituted his brother Joost 
as his heir. Will filed in 1736. 

Jacques of Picardy, came in the Vosmaar in 1696 
as " freeman," and died on iith June, 1723, and 
was buried in the churchyard at Cape Town. 
In 1720 he is described as a baker. His son 
Pieter, by his first wife Marie le Febre (died 1700), 
is described in 1729 as from " Middelburg in Zee- 
land," and appears to have left no issue. Pieter 
died in 1735. Jacques Bisseux remarried Eliza- 
beth Posseaux of Paris, born 1682, q.v., and their 
daughter, Elisabeth, married Albertus Bergh, 
son of Captain Olof Bergh ; they also had a 
son, Johannes Bisseux. 
BOUrbOUnaiS, Jacob of Mons, a sailor in the service of the Dutch 
East India Company ; in 1692 entered the 
service of Pierre le Febre, a burgher of Stellen- 
bosch, and two years later went over to Pierre 
Rochefort, q.v. In 1712 he appears on the list 
of burghers of Drakenstein. 

Daniel, see Couvat. 


Paul, did not require assistance in 1690 ; two 
years later was living in Cape district. 

' See Distribution List in Theal's " History of South Africa before 1795," 
vol. 2, p. 343 (1909 edition). In his " History of South Africa 1486-1691 " 
(1888 edition), p. 350, he gives amongst those who did not require assistance 
the names of " Louis de Pierron, with wife and three children." 


The French Refugees at the Cape. 



Bruwer and 


*(le Buys, or 
du Buis 

(now found 
as Buys), 


Suzanne, see Taillefert. 

Estienne of Blois, arrived in i688 in the Voor- 
schooten ; then a bachelor, aged 23 years, and 
described as a wagonmaker. In the 1690 Fund 
he appears as " Estienne Bruere and his espoused 
Esther de Ruelle," a daughter of Daniel de 
Ruelle, q.v. Estienne Bruere signed himself as 
Bruere. He remarried at Stellenbosch, on 19th 
February, 1702, Anne du Puis of Amsterdam, 
q.v. Descendants. 

Maria, born at Sedan on the French frontier in 
1678 ; married in January, 1700, at the Dom- 
kerk, Amsterdam, ' to Jean Prieur du Plessis of 
Poitiers, q.v., surgeon before his second arrival 
at the Cape. By him she had Maria, born 1702, 
Anna, 1704 and Pieter, August, 1708. On the 
death of du Plessis, she married Dirk Snith of 
Nieuwburg, surgeon, in 1711, who died about 
1725. She died subsequently about 1751. 
Maria Buisset practised in Cape Town as a 
quaUfied midwife. In the church entry of 
Anna's birth in 1704 the names of the sponsors 
are Christoffel Buisset and Maria Buisset. 

Jean of Calais/Paris, arrived in 1688 in the Ooster- 
landt as an agriculturist ; married Sara Jacob 
of Calais, daughter of the Refugee Pierre Jacob, 

Antoinette, widow of Phillipe de Clercq, merchant 
of Doornik, and mother-in-law of Jacques de 
Savoye of Aeth, q.v., merchant ; arrived in 1688 
in the Oosterlandt. In 1698 she signed a power 
of attorney in favour of Jean Bourla, merchant 
of Amsterdam. 

CaUCheteUX, see Costeux. 






JOSUe of Orleans, born 1667, an agriculturist, 
vinedresser and carpenter ; arrived in 1700 in 
the Reygersdaal, with his wife Elizabeth Couvret, 
born 1676 at Orleans. His farm was " De 
Orleans " at Drakenstein, where he died in 
October, 172 1, leaving five sons and five 
daughters. Descendants. 

Information from de Villiers' list in Hinde. 

List of Arrivals from 1688. 


de Clercq, 
de Clercq, 


de Klerk, 

de Clercq, 


de Klerk, 

Cochet, or 




found now 

Costeux, or 

Marie Madeleine of Tournay, daughter of Phillipe 
de Clercq and Antoinette Carnoy ; was married 
to Jacques de Savoye, q.v. 

Abraham of Straaskerke alias Serooskerke, Wal- 
cheren Island, son of Pieter de Clercq and Sara 
Cochet, arrived in 1688 in the Oosterlandt, in the 
service of the Dutch East India Company ; 
married at Stellenbosch, 12th May. 1709, to 
Magdalena Mouton of Middelburg. 

Jeanne, sister of above, married Andre Gaucher, 

Jean of Cond6, a shoemaker, came in 1688 in the 
Oosterlandt ; appears on roll of Drakenstein 

inhabitants in 1700 ; unmarried. 

Sara of Oosterhoebrugh, Walcheren, widow of 
Pieter de Clercq ; living in 1687 at Serooskerke, 
when she came out to the Cape to marry Guil- 
laume du Toit, q.v. See de Clercq above. 

Louis, arrived in 1688 in Berg China, aged 20, then 
described as a bachelor and cousin of Pierre 
le Grange ; died 1700. 

Louise, wife of Jean Mesnard, q.v. 

Louis, with his wife Francoise Martinet and four 
children, received assistance in 1690 ; was an 
agriculturist, and one of the first elders of the 
French congregation at Drakenstein ; died in 
1702. They must have arrived about 1688, 
for the next year their son, Jacques Cordier, 
was baptised, and in his will, dated 1713, the 
latter states his age as 25 years. 

This family came from Marcq, or Marck, near Calais, 
and their names are found in the Registers of 
the Protestant church at Guisnes. On the 13th 
November, 1672, Esaye Caucheteux, labourer, 
aged 25, son of the late Anthoine Caucheteux 
and late Elizabeth Chnquemeur (she died at 
Marcq, 14th June, 1672, aged 69), was married 
to Suzanne Albert, aged 22, daughter of Pitre 
Albert and the late Noelle de Bus. The follow- 
ing baptisms of their children ,are noted : 

Esaye Caucheteux, born 23rd September, 
1673, at Fort Brule (sponsor Isaac Car- 
penter and Sara Albert) ; 


The French Refugees at the Cape. 


Suzanne Caucheteux, born i8th October, 

1676, at Marcq ; 
Pierre Caucheteux, born 21st May, 1679, at 

Marcq ; 
Jean and Marie Caucheteux, twins, born 7th 

December, 1682, at Marcq (Marie died 


*C0St6IJX, Esaias, ^ Children of Esaias Costeux and Susanne 

Jean, y Albert, French Refugees from Marcq, 
Susanne, j near Calais. In the 1690 list Esaias and 
Susanne are described as two orphans now living 
with Nicolaas Kleef (or Cleef). Esaias became 
an agriculturist in Stellenbosch district, and 
died in 1708, leaving a widow Anna van Marse- 
veen (van Marcevene) but no issue, his brother 
and sister being his heirs in 1709. The widow 
married Abraham Prevot of Calais, g.v. Susanne 
Costeux married (before 1694) Gerrit Meyer 
(probably a Refugee) and died about 1714. 
Jean, like the foregoing, was born at or near 
Calais, 1682, and married at Cape Town, 22nd 
May, 1712, Anna Gildenhuys of the Cape, born 
1699 ; he was buried in June, 1713, in the 
churchyard at^ Cape Town. He returned to 
Europe in 1718 ; signed Costeux. 

Marie of Soudiere in Dauphine, see Pierre Lombard. 

Daniel. The names Daniel Bouvat and Daniel 
Couvat are met with in the records. I am of 
opinion they refer to the same person, and I 
have treated them as such. Described as a 
French Refugee. Given permission in 1708 to 
return to Europe. In 1702 he entered into a 
contract with Pierre Rousseau, and is described 
in the body of the document as " Daniel Boat, 
free agriculturist living at Drakenstein " ; he 
signs it D. Bouvat. In 1694 also described as 
French Refugee Daniel Boat. 

COUVfet, Paul, arrived in 1700 in the Reygersdaal with his 

wife Anne Vallete, born at Bazoze near Orleans, 
and a little child Anna Ehzabeth. He lived at 
Paarl and was an agriculturist, a vinegrower 
and shoemaker, and in 1712 returned to Europe 
with wife and four children. 

COllVret, Elizabeth of Orleans, wife of Josue Cellier, q.v. 

She was probably a sister of Paul. She and her 
husband also arrived in the Reygersdaal. 

List of Arrivals from 1688. 





*des Pres, 
du Pre, now 
du Preez, 

des Pres, 
du Pre, now 
du Preez, 

*des Pres, 
du Pre, now 
du Preez, 

des Pres, 
du Pre, 
du Preez, 

des Pres, 
du Pre, 
du Preez, 

Estienne and Pierre of Normandy, two brothers, 
who came out in 1698 in the Driebergen. Estienne 
an agriculturist, owned the farms " Champagne " 
and " Olyvenhout," in Wagonmakers Valley. 
He died, unmarried, 2nd September, 1724. 
Pierre, born in 1671, married Susanna Taillefert 
(died 13th February, i724),widowof Jean Garde, 
q.v.,a.nd daughter of the Refugee Isaac Taillefert, 
q.v. Pierre Cronier died 2nd September, 1718, 
and left issue, who were the heirs of his brother. 
His son Pierre, from whom the South African 
Cronje descends, married Susanna Roi. 

Cecilia, see Dumont and des Pres. 

See de la Porte. 

Hercule of Cortryk, now Courtrai, arrived in 1688 
in the Schelde with his wife Cecilia D'Atis and 
four children. In 1690 he received help for 
himself and five children. He must have died 
about 1695. In the inventory of his deceased 
estate he is stated to have left six children. The 
widow remarried Pierre Dumont, q.v. Descen- 
dants of Hercule des Pres. The children were : 

Hercule of Courtrai, a member of the Court of 
Landdrost and Heemraden of Stellenbosch and 
Drakenstein, and Captain of the Burgher 
Cavalry, died 9th May, 1721. He married (i) 
Marie le Febre, by whom he had issue, (2) 
Corneha Vilhon (Viljoen). He signed himselJf 
as des Pres. He took an active part in the 
movement against Governor Willem Adriaan 
van der Stel. 

Elizabeth of Courtrai. She was sponsor on 24th 
May, 1688, to Charles Prevot, baptised on the 
Schelde. She married Pieter Jansz van Marseveen 
(van Marcevene), who died 1728, and by him 
left (i) Anna, married Abraham Prevot, (2) 
Cecilia, married Charles du Plessis, (3) Pieter. 

Marie Jeanne, described in her will as of Bethune, 
married Jacques Theron of Nismes, q.v. 

Philippe of Courtrai, an agriculturist, married 
Elizabeth Prevot, born 1683 at Marcq, near 
Calais, daughter of Charles Prevot, q.v. They 
had a large family. 


The French Refugees at the Cape. 

des Ruelles, 

""du Buis, 
du Buisson, 


^du Plessis, 

See de Ruelle. 

Phillipe, came m the Driebergen in 1(398, and two 
years later was living as an agriculturist in the 
Stellenbosch district. His will, proved 29th 
September, 1702, instituted as his heir the 
Refugee Gideon Malherbe " for his true friend- 
ship shown to me." On the 7th December, 
1701, the Directors of the Dutch East India 
Company wrote to the Cape Government and 
said : " JP.S. — Henri Rou, refugee minister, has 
given us a bag marked P.D.X.X. containing 
/ 142 : 10 to be delivered to the French fugitive 
Philip Drouin of the Cape. We could not refuse 
to accede to this pious request, as it was an 
inheritance sent to us out of his father's estate, 
who had died in France." This money was 
handed over to the Cape Orphan Chamber, 
which paid it to Gideon Malherbe as heir. 

See de Buys. 

David of Rochelle, married in August, 1707, to 
Claudine Lombard, daughter of the Refugee 
Pierre Lombard, q.v. In 1716 he was living in 
Hottentots Holland, and died in 1722. He was 
schoolmaster to the children of Pierre Joubert. 

Pierre [Robert], an agriculturist at Drakenstein, 
in 1700 married Cecilia D'Atis, widow of Hercules 
des Pres, Sr. She died 15th November, 1720, and 
was then living on the farm "Soetendal" in 

Jean Prieur, born at Poitiers in Poitou in 1638, a 
surgeon, arrived in 1688 in the Oosterlandt with 
his wife Madelaine Menanteau, or Menanto, of 
Poitiers. In 1694 he returned to Europe with his 
wife and two children in the ship Sir Jansland, as 
he could earn very little either by his profession 
or as a farmer. His wife must have died in 
Europe, for in January, 1700, at the Domkerk, 
Amsterdam, he married Maria Buisset of 
Sedan, q.v., with whom he returned to the Cape. 
By the first wife he had Charles du Plessis, 
born 1688, Jean Louis du Plessis, born 1691. 
According to his will with Maria Buisset, the 
names of their children are given as Marie, 
born 1702, Anne, 1704, and Pieter, 1708. There 
was a Judith du Plessis, who in her will stated 

List of Arrivals from 1688. 


du Preez, 

du Puis, 
du Puys, 

du Puys, 
du Puys, 

she was born in Ireland, probably a daughter 
born on the return voyage to South Africa. 

du PiGSSiS, Charles, son of the above, born on the Oostcrlandt 
and baptised on board in Table Bay on the i8th 
April, 1688 ; married in 1712 Cecilia Marcevene 
(or van Marseveen), and died i8th September, 
1737. On 5th Januar5% at Drakenstein, his 
widow married Wynand Louw, bachelor, sur- 
geon in the Hospital. Charles du Plessis was 
probably apprenticed to his father, as we find 
him practismg as a surgeon. 

See des Pres. 

Anne Martin, widow of Jean du Puis, by whom 
she had Anne Madeleine and Susanna. She 
remarried Salomon de Gournay, q.v. (see will in 
Stellenbosch Archives made out in her name 
and that of her second husband). 

Anne Madeleine of Paris, daughter of above, mar- 
ried David Seneschal, or Senecal, of Dieppe, q.v. 

Susanna, sister of Anne Madeleine, married 19th 
February, 1702, to Estienne Bruere of Blois, q.v. 
In 1695 she stood sponsor at Drakenstein to a 
child of David Senecal. 

In the Guisnes Church Register there are several 
references to the family of du Puis. In 1668 
Daniel des Ruelles, who came to the Cape, was 
present at the marriage of Jean du Puy and 
Marie Facon. In 1679 Marie du Puy died, and 
the entry of her death was witnessed by Suzanne 
and Anne du Puis. 

^QllfQIld Jean of La Motte Chalan9on in Dauphine, born 

about 1669, a surgeon and farmer at Draken- 
stein, died March, 1727 ; was heir of Jean 
Parisel, q.v. He was a member of the Court 
of Landdrost and Heemraden, and married (i) 
at Cape Town, 29th February, 1702, Anna Ver- 
meulen of the Cape, born 1686, (2) Wilhelmina 
van Zijl of Haarlem. Descendants. 

Durier, Marie Catarina, widow of Guillaume de Haas, 

lived at French Hoek ; her will, dated nth 
August, 1718, was witnessed by Jean Gardiol 
and Andre Huibaux. 

du TuillGt, Jean, arrived in 1698 in the Driebergen. He was 
an agriculturist at Drakenstein. 

68 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

FOUChe, Gasper, sailed in the Voorschooien in 1688, aged 21 

3'ears ; probably he died on the way out. 

*FOllChe, Philippe, arrived 1688 in the Voorschooien with 

his wife Anne Fouche and children, Anne, aged 
6, Esther, 5 and Jacques, 3. In 1690 he received 
assistance for himself, wife and two children, 
and in 1692 had four children. Descendants 

FOUrie, Louis, an agriculturist in the Wagonmakers 

Valley, where, in 1699, he received a grant of 
land and called it Slange Rivier ; here he lived 
until his death, which must have been about 
1750, when an inventory in his estate was filed. 
In terms of his will this place was to devolve 
upon his son Louis Fourie, who waived his right, 
and it was purchased at auction by Gabriel 
Rossouw. He owned another place, Zeekoe- 
drift, on the Gouritz River. Louis Fourie, sen. 
married (i) Susanna Cordier. daughter of the 
Refugee Louis Cordier, q.v. ; she died about 
1715, and he married (2) Anna Jourdan, 
daughter of Pierre Jourdan, q.v. At his death 
he left five children or representatives by the 
first wife and eight children by the second. 

^Fr&CaSSe, Matthieu of Provence, born 1662, agriculturist 

at Drakenstein, arrived 1688 in Berg China ; 
married Jeanne Cordier, daughter of the Refugee 
Louis Cordier, q.v. He had a son Jean Fracasse, 
baptized 27th July, 1698, and a daughter 
Elizabeth, baptized 15th May, 1701 (probably 
died young). His third child was Susanna, 
who was living in Amsterdam in 1718, having 
been left a legacy by Matthieu Arniel, q.v. 
Matthieu Fracasse must have returned to 
Europe before 17 13, as his brother-in-law 
Jacques Cordier refers to him as being in 

Furct, Jean, sailed in 1688 in Berg China, a bachelor, aged 

18 ; probably died on the way out. 

*G3rd6, Jean, an agriculturist at Drakenstein ; at the 

distribution in 1690 he was then unmarried, 
being in partnership with Jean Durand. In 
1691 he received a grant of land, on which the 
farm Rhone is. He married Susanna Taillefert, 

List of Arrivals from 1688. 


daughter of the Refugee Isaac Taillefert, q.v. 
In 1704 her name appears on the hst of inhabi- 
tants of the Cape district as his widow. She 
remarried before 1710 the Refugee Pierre 
Cronier, q.v., and after his death in 1718 she 
married Jacob Naude, q.v. p. 95. Jean Garde had 
two children, Jean, born I70i,and Susanna, 1703, 
who married Josue Joiibert, son of the Refugee 
Pierre Joubert, q.v. Jean died 27th January, 
1784, unmarried, having bought in 1724 the 
farm Versailles from the estate of his mother. 
It is interesting to note that attached to the 
inventory of Mrs. Naude's estate in 1724 is a 
document of monies due written in French, and 
that in connection with her funeral expenses 
this statement appears, " for the service in the 
church in the French language, 3 rixdollars." 

GsrCllOl, Jean. His name appears on the burgher roll of 

Drakenstein for 1690, when he was living at 
Drakenstein, and is mentioned as "compagnon" 
with the three brothers de Vilhers. In 1700 he 
was livmg in the Stellenbosch district, being 
unmarried. At first one is inclined to associate 
him with the previous name, Jean Garde, and 
conclude he is one and the same as suggested in 
a footnote to de Vilhers' hst,^ but this cannot 
be. Jean Garde died before 1704, as his widow's 
name appears on list of inhabitants of the Cape 
district, when that of Jan Gardiol is given as a 
resident of Drakenstein. We find the signature 
of Jean Gardiol as witness to an inventory in 
1722, and in 1725 his name appears amongst 
the church members of Drakenstein. He died 
in 1738. Probably the following two were his 

Gardiol, Marguerite of Provence, born 1674, married before 

1695 Jacob de Villiers, q.v., died at Drakenstein 
in 1716. 

Gardiol, Susanne, sister of above, born at de la Coste, 

Provence ; married in 1689 Abraham de Vilhers 
of la Rochelle, q.v., who died 31st March, 1720. 
She married secondly Claude Marais, q.v., with 
whom she entered into an antenuptial contract 
on the 13th October, 1721. 

' Information from de Villiers' List in Hinde. 


The French Refugees at the Cape. 






^Gournai, or 
de Gournay, 


Andre of Languedoc, came out in the Spierdyk in 

1690 to earn his Hving as a blacksmith and 
agriculturist ; married at the Cape, 19th August, 

1691 (then a widower), to Jeanne le Clair 
(de Clercq) of Zeeland. In 1690 he required no 
assistance from the Fund. Jeanne le Clair or 
le Clercq (she signed du Klerk) was the daughter 
of Sara Cochet, q.v., then the wife of Guillaume 
du Toit and formerly married to Pieter le Clercq. 
Jeanne was probably also born at Straaskerke 
in Walcheren Island, where her brother Abraham 
q.v. was born. Andre Gaucher had been pre- 
viously married before coming out, for in 1698 
monies from his deceased estate were paid 
into the Orphan Chamber on behalf of his 
children, Steven (Estienne) aged 14, described 
as being a child of a former marriage. Pieter 5, 
Sara, 3 and Andries, 6 weeks. Pieter and Andries 
left descendants. 

Steven of Geneva, son of above, married here in 
1719 and left descendants. 

Paul, born 1666, arrived in the Voorschooten in 
1688 ; died at Dal Josaphat, Drakenstein, 1699. 
[Le Maire de la Rochelle en 1627 etait Jean 
Godefroy aine Sr. de Richard.] 

Pierre, sailed in 1688 in the Berg China with his 
wife Francoise Rousse ; he was then aged 30 
and she 28 years ; they apparenth'^ died on the 

Salomon, came in the Ziiid Beveland in 1688, an 
agriculturist at Drakenstein ; in 1694 was 
granted by Governor van der Stel the farm 
Salomon's Valley at Drakenstein. He married 
Anna Martin, widow of Jean du Puis (du Puys), 
and had a child in 1693. His eldest brother, 
Jean de Gourna3', was living in 1712 in London, 
where Salomon returned in 1718. He held the 
office of elder in the Drakenstein congregation. 
Signed himself as de Gournay. 

Marie, wife of Gideon Malherbe, q.v. 

List of Arrivals frotti 1688. 


Hanseres, or 


HugOt, now 

Gerard, born at St. Omer in Artois 1652, son of 
Lyvin Hanseres and Francoise de Beavois, 
citizens of St. Omer (both died there). Gerard 
was a mason at Stellenbosch, and married 
Gabrilla Waerand (or Wavrant, dead in 1702). 
They had Jan Joseph, born at St. Omer 1684, 
and Maria Gabrilla, also born there, 1679, both 
children living at their birthplace in 1702. By 
a will which he made in 1712, only Maria Gabrilla 
appears to be living. He left legacies to the 
following people residing at St. Omer : Anna 
Gassier, widow, 300 guldens ; Nicolaus Dannel. 
Master mason and his " compeer," Omes du Bois, 
Master Mason, each a like sum, and 70 guldens 
to Jan la Mory, Potter. In 1718 he left for 

Daniel, born 1663-5, a smith, his name found m 
the Stellenbosch records on 6th August, 1689. 
On ist August, 1691, received grant of the land 
on which is the farm Sion, Drakenstein, where 
he carried on agricultural pursuits. Daniel 
Hugo, who signed himself Hugot, was a member 
of the Court of Landdrost and Heemraden. He 
married Anna, daughter of the Refugee Pierre 
Rousseau, q.v., and died 1724-5. Descendants. 
See Blignault in list further on. 

Jean,^ bom at Nismes, Languedoc, an agriculturist 
at Drakenstein, received grant of land of farm 
Languedoc, along the Palmiet River. He died 
1723, and instituted as his heir Pierre Joubert 
of Provence, agriculturist at Drakenstein, in 
recognition of faithful services rendered. He 
does not appear to have married. 

Pierre of Calais, with wife and three children, 
received assistance in 1690. In the registers of 
the Protestant church at Guisnes will be found 
the baptismal entries of the children of a Jacob 
and his wife Suzanne de Vos ; several of them 
died in Europe. He arrived here before 1690 with 
his wife and three children, Daniel, Sara and 
Suzanne. Pierre Jacob died before 1698. and 
his widow married Nicolas de Lanoy, q.v.. and 
in the inventory of her estate in 1708 she gives 

It seems that he was taken to be a Joubert, de Villiers' List and Theal's 


* Jacob, now 
Jacobs and 



The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Jacob, now 
Jacobs and 


Jacobs and 


Jacob, now 
Jacobs and 


Jacob, now 
Jacobs and 





the names of her three children as above. 
Descendants. The following three were his 

children : 

Daniel of Calais, born 14th September, 1673, at 
Vieille Eglise, not far from Calais, son of above. 
A farmer at Drakenstein, he married Louise 
Cordier, daughter of the Refugee Louis Cordier, 
q.v. Their son Pieter was baptised at Draken- 
stein on 14th October, 1703. According to the 
inventory in his estate in 1713 he left six children. 

Sara of Calais, born 7th October, 1677, at Vieille 
Eglise. Married (i) Daniel Terrier, q.v. ; three 
children baptised at Drakenstein, a son Pierre 
in 1699 ; no descendants in male line. (2) Jean 
du Buis, q.v. 

Suzanne of Calais, married Gerrit van Vuuren, 
and died about 1696. 

Elsie. An Elsie Jacob stood sponsor at a baptism 
in Drakenstein church on 9th March, 1697, and 
on several occasions thereafter. 

Pierre of de la Motte d'Aigues in Provence, born 
1663,-1665, arrived in the Berg China in 1688 
with his wife Isabeau Richard of Provence, born 
1668-1670 According to Captain Hinde he 
married, on ist February, 1688, Susanne Reyne 
de la Roque, of d'Autheron in Provence, " tous 
deux embarquirent dans le vaisseau le Mont de 
Sinai faissant voile pour le Cap de Bonne 
Esperance . . ." He suggests that the wife was 
the same as Susanne Rene, q.v., who must have 
died in Holland or on the voyage, as he arrived 
with Isabeau Richard. He was an agriculturist 
and possessed many farms at Drakenstein. 
Pierre Joubert died 31st June, 1732, and his 
widow 1748. The farms owned at the time of 
her death were Bellingham, granted in 1695, 
Lamorin, La Roche, La Motte, La Provence 
and De Plaisante, the latter being at Waveren 
(Tulbagh). Descendants. 

Jean of Cabriere, born 1660, arrived 1688 in Berg 
China, son of Jeanne Marthe widow Jourdan, 
q.v. He married Elizabeth (or Isabeau) le Long, 
and died before January, 1699, when he was 

List of Arrivals from 1688. 














stated to have possessed the farm La Motte. He 
left five minor children. His youngest daughter 
was baptised after his death, see p. 105. 

Jeanne Marthe, widow, sailed in the Berg China in 

1688, aged 60 years, probably died on way out. 

Marie, a widow, aged 40 in 1688, when she sailed 
in Berg China with her daughters Jeanne Rousse 
(Roux), aged 15, Marie Rousse, 10 and Marguerite, 
7. The mother and Jeanne probably died on 
the voyage. For Marie and Marguerite, see 
under Roux. 

Paul, born 1666, a bachelor, sailed in the Berg 
China in 1688, apparently died on board. He 
was 'cousin germain' to Pierre Jourdaan 
and Andre Pelanchon q.v. 

Pierre. In the Berg China two Pierres Jourdan, 
both bachelors and both aged 24 years, sailed 
from Holland and arrived at the Cape, both 
appearing on the distribution list of i6go, and 
in 1692, in a list of inhabitants of Drakenstein, 
appear the names of Pierre Jourdan in partner- 
ship with Louis Barre and Pierre Jourdan of 
Cabriere. Of the latter the following particulars 
are found. He was the son of the widow Jeanne 
Marthe and married Anna Fouche, who died 
about 1713, leaving children Anna, aged 15, 
Joseph, 12, Susanna, 16. He next married Maria 
Verdeau, daughter of the Refugee Hercule 
Verdeau, q.v. In the joint will of these two, 
executed in 1719, he described himseLf as 
between 56-57 and she as 19 years of age. He 
lived on the farm Cabriere, which came to his 
son Joseph, in whose deceased estate it is 
recorded that two silver spoons and one silver 
fork were given to his children "in remembrance 
of their grandfather." Pierre Jourdaan died 
28th October, 1723. 

Jacques, born at Fontenay le Comte, Poitou, son of 
Jacques Labat and Susanne Laurent; his name on the burgher rolls at the Cape in 1693 ; 
in 1605 he was described as from Bordeaux. See 
page '52. 


The French Refugees at the Cape. 


la Batte, 

la Grange, 
Lanoy, or 
de Lanoy, 

"^Lanoy, or 
de Lanoy, 

Lanoy, or 
de Lanoy, 

de ia Ports, 







le Fsbre, or 
le Febure, 

Nicolas, brother of above, married at Drakenstein, 
13th June, 1717, to Elizabeth Vivier, when he is 
described as of Poinetri. His name appears in 
1692. and he died 30th December, 1717. 

Jeanne of Saumur, born 1663, wife of Guillaume 

Niel or Nel, q.v. 

See le Grange. 

Marie of Auhs (died 1704), married at Stellenbosch 
in 1698 to Hans Hendrik Hatting of Spyer. 
Another (probably same) Marie Lanoy married 
Hary Lecrevent, Lescervain or Lekervain. It 
seems that his name was corrupted into Ary 
Lekkerwyn, for in the inventory of his estate in 
1697 Marie de Lanoy is described as his widow. 
Their first child, baptised i8th January, 1696 : 
Marie Lanoy, mentioned as sponsor on 22nd 
April, 1695. See Drakenstein baptisms. 

Nicolas, MattSlieu, his brother and their mother re- 
ceived assistance in 1690. Nicolas married in 1698 
to Susanne de Vos, widow of Pierre Jacob, q.v., 
and she died in 1708, leaving no issue by him. 

Susanne, was sponsor in 1696 to son of Daniel 

Nortier at Drakenstein. 

Jacques of Ryssel (now Lille), arrived in 1699 in 
the Cattendyk with his wife Sara Vitu or Vitout, 
q.v. He was an agriculturist at Drakenstein, 
and died on the 9th December, 1739, his wife 
having predeceased him in 1724. In the 
Drakenstein (Paarl) church register the follow- 
ing appears : " Jacque de porte et Sara Vitout 
il on presante eux meme un petit enfant que 
dieu Leur a donne, au saint bapteme le 4 
Octobre, 1699." For reference to the Vitu 
family see under that name. Several descen- 
dants living. 

Nicolaas, likely meant for Nicolas Labat ? 

see Loret. 

Jean of Champagne, came as a freeman in the 
Agatha in 1693, a burgher at Drakenstein ; 
returned to Europe in 1716. 

Paul, a surgeon of Chaurry, married firstly Eliza- 
beth Taillefert, daughter of Jean Taillefert, 

List of Arrivals from 1688. 


apothecary at Chateau Thierry, from where 
Isaac Taillefert, q.v., came. Paul arrived in the 
service of the Dutch East India Company, and 
practised as a surgeon at Stellenbosch. He 
married secondly EHzabeth Sezille (Sisilha), 
and two children of this marriage were baptised 
at the Cape in 1699 and 1701 respectively. In 
1705 with his wife and two children he returned 
to Europe. 

le FevrG, IVIarle of Marcq, near Calais, daughter of David 

• le Fevre and Elizabeth le Bleu, married (i) 
Charles Preuost or Prevot, q.v., (2) H. Eekhofl[, 
(3) Louis de Perrone, q.v. 

le Grand, Gideon, a surgeon, in 1698 was living in the 
Stellenbosch district, and died in 1710, leaving 
no heirs at the Cape but a brother, Abraham 
le Grand, living at Haarlem. He was a Heem- 
raad of Drakenstein. 

*Ie Grange, Pierre of Cabrlere in Provence, born circa 1664, 
arrived in 1688 in Berg China ; married on i6th 
November, 1704, Margaretha Kool of Amster- 
dam, born circa 1690. Descendants. 

le Long, Charles, son of Jean le Long, q.v., arrived in 1688 

in the Zuid Beveland as a freeman, see pp. 9 & 91 . 

le Long, Elizabeth, wife of Jean Jourdan, q.v., and Jacques 

Malan, q.v. 

*le Long Marie. When she received assistance in 1690 was 

married to Adriaan van Wyk. 

le Riche Louis, arrived in 1698 in the Driebergen, married 

' Susanna Fouche ; died 8th October, 1732. 

*le ROUX Jean of Normandy, married to Maria de Haase of 

Ryssel (Lille). He signed himself as le Roex, 
mentioned in Stellenbosch records in 1690. 

*le ROUX, Jean of Blois, born 1667, arrived in 1688 in the 

Voorschooten, and was married to Jeanne Mouy. 
On the 8th November, 171 1, a posthumous son 
of his, Daniel, was baptised in the Drakenstein 
church. He left three sons and one daughter. 

*le ROUX, Gabriel of Blois, born 1671, brother of the above, 

arrived in 1688. He married Maria Catherina 
le Febre. When Daniel le Roux was baptised, a 
posthumous son of Gabriel was also christened 
Gabriel on the same day. At his death he left 
five minors. 

76 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

^Lombdrd, Pierre of Pointais (Pontaix) in Dauphine, born 
1658; in the 1690 distribution described as 
" a sick man with wife and one child." He 
married Marie Couteau of Soudiere in Dauphine, 
born 1659, who died ist April, 1718. He was 
an agriculturist at Drakenstein. Descendants. 

Loret, Guillaume of Nantes, born 1671, came out in 1695, 

died at Drakenstein 5th January, 1718 ; married 
Elisabeth Joubert, daughter of the Refugee 
Pierre Joubert. On i8th May, 1696, he signed 
a power of attorney in favour of Revd. Petrus 
de Joucourt, minister of the French congregation 
at Middelburg. He left only daughters. In a 
letter in 1707 to Governor W. A. van der Stel, 
the Rev. Beck refers to Loret as a French 
Refugee who nine years previous was a Roman 
Catholic, but had made public confession of 
the reformed religion. See Spoelstra's " Bouw- 
stoffen," vol. i, pp. 50-52. 

Antoine, sailed in the Berg China in 1688 with his 
wife Elisabeth Verdette and daughter. He was 
38 and she 23 years and their child ten months. 
All three probably died on the voyage. 

Jean, was made a deacon of the French congrega- 
tion in 1698, and elder in 1700. See Manier. 

Jacques, married Elizabeth le Long, widow of 
Jean Jourdan. He lived at Hottentots Holland, 
and was a member of the Court of Landdrost 
and Heemraden of Stellenbosch. She died in 
1736, and at her death the estate possessed 
farms " De Faisante Kraal " on the Bot River 
and one in Hottentots Holland. In 1713 
Jacques Malan was given in freehold the farm 
La Motte, which he had held since 1694. See 
Roux, Pierre. Descendants. 

^IVIalherbe, Gideon, bom 1663, arrived in 1688 in the Voor- 
schooten ; was then a bachelor ; in the 1690 
distribution hst he is described " with wife," 
who was Marie Grillion. Gideon Malherbe was 
an agriculturist, and died in 1723, leaving issue. 
Two farms mentioned in his deceased estate 
were " De Groene Fonteyn " and " Hexenberg," 
vide Drouin. Descendants. 


* Magnet, 

* Malan, 

List of Arrivals from 1688. 









Jean, born at Calais, an agriculturist in partner- 
ship with Abraham Bleuset at Dal Josaphat. 
His name is found on 15th March, 1688, and 
in his will made jointly with Bleuset in 1704, 
and witnessed by Pierre Rousseau and Jacques 
Therond, he gave his age as 55 years. In 1700 
he stood sponsor to a child of Theron. Is it 
probable that Jean Magnet and Jean Manier 
are the same ? 

Zacharie. In his will, dated 1720 and filed 22nd 
August, 1731, he is described as an old man. 
having no relatives or friends, and leaves his 
property to the Drakenstein church on condition 
they support him during his lifetime. 

Charles of Plessis, arrived in 1688 in the Voor- 
schooien with his wife Catherine Taboureux and 
four children, Claude, aged 24, Charles, 19, Isaac, 
16 and Marie, 6. In April, 1689, he was mur- 
dered at Drakenstein by a Hottentot. His 
widow and four children received help from 
the Fund. Descendants. 

Claude of Plessis Marie, near Paris (the name given 
to the farm where the Marais family first settled) 
was one of the first elders chosen for the French 
congregation in 1691. In 1692 the name of 
his wife is given as Maria Avice, q.v., and on the 
13th October, 1721, he executed an antenuptial 
contract with Susanna Gardiol, q.v., born at de la 
Coste in Provence, widow of Abraham de Villiers. 
She died about 1729, at which time Claude 
Marais possessed the following property : a house 
in Cape Town and the farms Meerlust, Lekker- 
wyn, Plessis Marie and Wei van Pas. 

Charles of Plessis, son of Charles Marais, died 7th 
August, 1735 ; married Anne de Ruelle of 
Guisnes, daughter of the Refugee Daniel de 
Ruelle, q.v. Many descendants of Charles Marais 

Marie, who describes herself in 1716 in her will 
with her first husband, Estienne Niel, as aged 
34 years and born at " Hierpoix," probably 
Hurepois, south of Paris ; she was the daughter 
of Charles, and married secondly Pierre Taillefert, 
and thirdly, in 1734, Pieter Booysen. 

Ignace or Ignatius, married at Cape Town on 7th 
February, 1706, to Susanna van Vuuren, spinster 


The French Refugees at the Cape. 



''^ Martin, 






* Meyer, 

of the Cape. In the marriage entry he is said 
to be a widower and of Calabria. In 1707 he 
was granted permission by Governor van der 
Stel to hve at Drakenstein. Descendants. 

Jeanne, widow Jourdan, sailed in Berg China in 
1688 ; was then 60 years old ; died on the voyage. 

Anne, married Jean du Puis, q.v., and Salomon 
de Gournay. 

Antonie, bom at Uzes (d'Uses) in Languedoc about 
1664, arrived in 't Wapen van Alkmaar in 1688, 
and lived at Drakenstein. Inventory in his 
deceased estate dated 1699. He had only one 

Michel, living at Drakenstein in 1690 and working 
in partnership with Pierre Rousseau, Jean 
Cloudon and Francois Retief. 

Francoise, wife of Louis Cordier, q.v. 

Madeleine, wife of Jean Prieur du Plessis, q.v. 

Jean of Provence, born circa 1659, arrived in 
Berg China 1688 with his wife Louise Corbonne 
and six children, Jeanne, 10, George, 9, Jacques, 
8, Jean, 7, Phillippe, 6, and a baby of five 
months. In 1690 he was a widower with four 

Philippe of Provence, son of above ; only one to 
marry and leave issue ; married in 1712 Jeanne 
Mouy. Descendants. 

Pierre of Dauphine, born 1668, arrived in 1688.^ 
One of the first deacons of the French congre- 
gation ; married Aletta de Savoye, daughter 
of Jacques de Savoye of Aeth, q.v. Descendants. 

Jeanne of Provence, see Arniel. 

Jacques of Steenwerk (Steenwerck), near Ryssel 
(Lille), arrived in 1699 in the Donkervliet ; was 
an agriculturist at Drakenstein, and married 
(i) Catherine I'Henriette, by whom he had Jacob, 
Antonie and Marie (she remained in Europe 
and married Pierre le Roy) ; (2) Maria de Villiers, 
(3) Francina de Bevernage, q.v. He settled on 
the farm Steenwerp. Descendants. 

' Bogaert 548. 

List of Arrivals from 1688. 





Niel, now 

*Nlel, now 








Pierre of St. Amant, arrived as a freeman in 1699 
in the Donkervliet ; an agriculturist at Draken- 
stein ; died 31st July, 1735. 

Jeanne, wife of (i) Jean le Roux, q.v., (2) Philippe 

Marie, born 1685, wife of Francois Retif or Retief , q.v. 
[Probably these two were daughters of Pierre.] 


Estienne, born in Dauphine, 1669, a soldier in the 
service of the Dutch East India Company in 
1693, and later lived at Drakenstein and 
described as an agriculturist. He married 
Marie (Maria Magdalena) Marais, q.v., of Hier- 
poix, born in 1673. He died in 1738 and she on 
7th July, 1716. When he made his will in 1736 
he was living at Rondebosch on the farm Roden- 
berg, belonging to his son-in-law, Andries Grove. 
The will states that it was read over to him in 
the Dutch language, which he understood and 
spoke well. He left issue, but his only son left 
a daughter. Signed his name as Niel. 

GuilEaume of Rouen, born 1663-4 .' received 
assistance in 1690 for himself, wife and two 
children. He married Jeanne la Batte, q.v., of 
Saumur, born 1663. It is probable (?) that he 
was a brother of Estienne Niel. When he and 
his wife executed their will in 1734, filed in same 
year, they were living in the Cape district. 

Daniel, a carpenter, arrived in the Oosterlandt in 
1688 ; received assistance for himself, wife and 
child. He married Maria Vitout. He signed 
himself Daniel Nourtier. Maria Vitout re- 
married Matthys Michiels, and at her death in 
1711 left Elizabeth Nortier, aged 20, Anthony 
Nortier, 18, Jonas, 16 and Jean, 14. Descendants. 

Jacob of Calais, an agriculturist, arrived in 1688 
in the Oosterlandt; died 20th September, 1732. 
Married at Drakenstein on 8th August, 1717, 
to Margaretha Mouton of the Cape. 

Jean, arrived as above. All three Nortiers are 
described as " domestiques " of Jacques de 
Savoye, when they came out. Jean Nortier 
obtained a grant of land in 1694. 


The French Refugees at the Cape. 






de Perrone, 
de Pirrone, 



The three brothers came from near Calais. In the 
register of the Protestant church at Guines there 
are several entries of Nourtiers being sponsors 
at baptisms : 

Sept. 1676. Eve Dupont, agee 46-47 ans, femme 
de Jean Nourtier, dec: a St. Blaize par de 
Guisnes le 23. T. Daniel Nourtier. 
Oct. 1671. Jean Nourtier was sponsor to a 

daughter of Jean Francomme. 
Jean Nourtier was witness in 1674 to the death 
of a son of Nicolas de la Haye ; in November, 
1669, to death of Marie Selingue, wife of 
Anthoine Coutteau ; and was present at the 
marriage in 1668 of Jean Liennard and 
Jeanne Six. 
On 14th October, 1677, Jean Nourtier " veuf 
maitre carpentier," aged 46, " demte. a 
St. Blaize par Guines, married Anne de Sainne, 
Jean, according to his will dated 13th May, 1707, 
born at Willebeck, about three hours from 
Paris, arrived in 1688 in the Oosterlandt. An 
agriculturist, he instituted as his heir the 
agriculturist Jean Durand, q.v., of Drakenstein. 
Jean, sailed in the Voorschooten in 1688 ; was then 
aged 25 years and a bachelor. As he is not 
mentioned in the 1690 list, he probably died 
before then or never reached the Cape. 
Andre, arrived in the Berg China in 1688, then aged 
15 years ; cousin germain of Pierre and Paul 

Louis of Nazareth (Mazeres ?), a burgher at 
Drakenstein, married at Stellenbosch, 19th 
October, 1692, Maria le Fevre, previously 
married to Charles Prevot, q.v., and Hendrik 
Eekhof. de Perrone died in 1696. See reference 
under L. de Berault. 

Marguerite, a widow, with her two children 
received assistance in 1690. 

Jacques, born 1665, a carpenter, arrived in 1688 
with his wife Esther Fouche, born 1667, whom 
he married when the- ship Voorschooten sailed 
from Holland. In 1690 he and his wife received 
assistance. He remarried Martha le Febre and 
left two children, Pieter, born 1690 and Jacques 

List of Arrivals from 1688. 




Potier, now 



1692, by his first wife, who died about 1697, and 
five others by his second wife. He died before 
1714. Descendants. 

Elizabeth of Paris, born 1682, arrived at Cape in 
1700 in the Reygersdaal ; married (i) Jacob 
Bisseux, q.v., (2) Abraham Bleuset, q.v. She 
died about 1726. 

Jacques of Moukron (or Moecroon) in Flanders, 
arrived in 1699 as a soldier in the Westhoven. 
In 1704 he became a burgher, and lived at 
Drakenstein. He married in 1705 and died 
23rd February, 1739. As his heir he insti- 
tuted Andries du Toit. 

Daniel, mentioned as a " French Refugee, in 1694. 
(Crim. Process Papers, 1694, in re Antony 
Martin — declaration by latter dated 9th October. 
1694.) May be meant for Bouvat or Couvat, q.v. 

Cliarles of Calais, his wife Marie le Fevre, born 1651, 
with their three children Abraham, Anne and 
Ehzabeth Pr^vot, arrived from Amsterdam in 
1688 in the Schelde. On the arrival of the latter 
in Table Bay a son (baptised on board Charles) 
was born, one of his sponsors being Elizabeth 
des Pres. Charles Prevot was deceased in July, 
1688, as there is an entry then of the widow 
of " Carel Provo." In 1690 his widow remarried 
in 1688 to Hendrik Eekhoff of Essen received 
assistance for herself and four children. She 
married for the third time Louis de Perrone, 
q.v., by whom she had two children. From the 
register of the Protestant church at Guisnes the 
following particulars of this family are drawn : 
On the 8th October, 1673, Charles Preuost, 
" maitre charon," aged 23, son of Henry Preuost 
and Jeanne de Viffe (de Vief ?) ," natif de Dombroy 
pre de I'llle et demte. a Dunquerque," was married 
to Marie le Fevre, aged 22, daughter of the late 
David le Fevre and Elizabeth le Bleu, " natiue 
de Marcq, et demte. aussi Dunquerque." The 
children born were : 
David Pruvost, born at Marcq, March, 1675, 

died 1685 ; 
Abraham Pruvost, born at Marcq, May, 1679 ; 
Anne Pruvost, born at Marcq, February, 1681 ; 
Elizabeth Pruvost, born at Marcq, November, 


The French Refugees at the Cape. 





*Retif, now 




Abraham, son of above, married at Stellenbosch 
on I2th May, 1709, to Anna van Marseveen 
(Marcevene), widow of Esaias Costeux. They 
left two daughters. 

Anne, married Schalk Willem van der Merwe. 
They hved on their farm Wittenberg at Paarl, 
and left a very large family, from which a great 
number of the v. d. Merwe family is descended. 
She died about 1740. 

Elizabeth, married Philippe des Pres of Courtrai, 

q.v., and by him had a large family. 

Susanne, a spinster, sailed in 1688 in the Berg 
China, then aged 20. See Joubert. 

Francois, an agriculturist at Drakenstein, born 
1663, died 24th September, 1721 ; married in 
1700 Marie Mouy, born 1685, died 21st Sep- 
tember, 1758. 

Isabeau, wife of Pierre Joubert, q.v. 

Pierre, born at Grenoble, Dauphine, son of Sieur 
Eduard Arnout and Virgine Chevalier, citizens 
of Grenoble, who died there (both dead in 1702). 
He received the grant of land on which the farm 
Vlottenburg stands, in the Stellenbosch district. 
In 1708 he was a deacon of the Stellenbosch 

Jean of Provence, died 1720 ; married in 1712 
Maria Catherina le Febre, widow of Gabriel 
le Roux. Matthieu Arniel, q.v., left his estate 
to Jan Roy (Roi ?), son of above. 

Jan of Morsselen (Monsnay), born about 1673, 
arrived at the Cape in 1699 as a soldier in the 
Zion, became a free burgher 13th October, 1711 ; 
died on 22nd May, 1724. He married (i) 
Willemina Willems, (2) Margaretha Harmse 

see under Rousseau. 

Francoise, see Goiraud and also Roux. 

List of Arrivals from 1688. 


* Rousseau, 

(now found 




Pierre of Mer or Menars-la-ville (about four hours 
north-east of Blois), born about 1666 ; received 
assistance in 1690 for himself, wife and one 
child. Was at the Cape in 1688, as in that 
year he witnessed the will of Jean Manier, q.v. 
He was one of the first deacons of the French 
congregation at Drakenstein, and was a Heem- 
raad for Drakenstein. He died in 1719, having 
married (i) Anne Retief (died 1710) and (2) 
Geertruy du Toit. Pierre Rousseau lived on 
his farm " De Boog van Orleans." 

Maria. There is a joint will, dated 1702, of Maria 
Rossar of Blois and her husband, Jan Jansz. 
van Eden of Oldenburg. She is stated to be 
43 years of age. They married in June, 1688. 
She remarried Cornelis Joosten van Dalen of 
Cleverskerck, Zeeland. See joint will in 1711, 
Stellenbosch Archives. 

Jean, born at la Morin (or Lormarin), Provence, 
in 1665, was an agriculturist at Drakenstein, 
and in 1694 was living at Dal Josaphat. On 
the 17th February, 1705, he made his will and 
instituted his father, Philip Roux, then living 
at la Morin and aged 68, as heir to half his 
estate, and the Drakenstein Poor Fund heir to 
the other half. He does not appear to have 
married, and his will is filed in 1738. 

Jeanne, aged 15 1 Sailed in the Berg China in 
Marie, aged 10 I 1688 with their widowed 
Marguerite, aged 7 j mother, Marie Jourdan. The 
mother and Jeanne died on the voyage. In 1690 
Marie and Marguerite, described as " two little 
orphans," received assistance from the Batavian 
Fund. Before 1697 Marguerite Roux married, 
Estienne Viret ^ of Dauphine, q.v., and in their 
joint will, dated 14th August, 1726, she describes 
herself as aged 44 years and coming from Pro- 
vence. In 1690 Daniel Hugo became indebted 
to " Mary Rou, a minor daughter of the late 
Jan Rouw" to the sum of 140 guldens. This 
amount was paid in 1700 and acknowledged by 
Estienne Viret. Probably their father Jan Roux 

' According to the Cape Town Church Register, Estienne Viret and Mar- 
gareta Rousse his wife and two others are sponsors when PhiHppe Rudolph 
de Savoye was confirmed on 15. 9.1 716, but on 22.9. 171 8, when she stood 
sponsor with her husband, her name is spelt Roux. 


The French Refugees at the Cape. 



*cle Ruelle 


des Ruelles, 

and Jean Roux of Provence above named were 

Paul of Orange, arrived in 1688, the first teacher 
and " Voorlezer " of the French congregation, 
died at Drakenstein 7th February, 1723. He 
married (i), before 1694, Claudine Seugnet of 
Saintonge ; (2) Elizabeth Couvret, widow of the 
Refugee Josue Cellier. He did not require 
assistance in 1690. On 7th June, 1696, he 
passed a power of attorney in favour of Rev. 
Salomon Bernard, minister of the French 
congregation, and Nathaniel Goutier, merchant 
of Amsterdam. 

Pierre of Cabriere. The church register of Draken- 
stein states he came from Amsterdam, and on 
9th November, 1725, a certificate of membership 
was granted to him on his proceeding to Batavia. 
In 1700 a Pieter Roux had been allowed by the 
Cape Government to go to Europe. In his will, 
dated 17th September, 1739, drawn up at 
"Morgenster" in Hottentots Holland, the farm 
of the Heemraad Daniel Malan, Pierre Roux 
states he has no parents or friends to whom he 
is indebted, and appoints the said Malan as his 
heir on condition that he maintains him for the 
remainder of his life. 

Daniel of Guisnes. Between the years 1668 and 
1681 the name of Daniel des Ruelles appears in 
the church registers of Guisnes. On the 12th 
July, 1671, he was married there to Anne 
Goudalle. The children of this marriage were 
the following, all of whom were born at Guisnes ; 
Ester, born 6th November, 1672 ; 
Anne, born loth November, 1673 ; 
Daniel, born 26th October, 1675, died in infancy ; 
Daniel, born 14th March, 1677 ; 
Pierre, born 6th February, 1681, died in infancy; 
he was born at Guemps, near Calais. 

It is probable that Daniel des Ruelles, his wife 
and three remaining children set out for the Cape, 
but this is not certain. It is also probable that 
the wife Anne Goudalle and Daniel the son died 
on the way out, or maybe they were deceased 
before he left Europe. However, the names of 
the two daughters are recorded at the Cape, and 
in 1690 the father, described as a widower with 

List of Arrivals from 1688. 


de Ruelle, 


des Ruelles, 
de Ruelle, 


des Ruelles, 
de Ruelle, 


des Ruelles, 

de Savoye, 

one child — no doubt, Anne — received assistance 
from the Fund. Ester had already married the 
Refugee Estienne Bruere of Blois, q.v. Daniel 
de Ruelle was apparently here in 1688, as he 
obtained land in Dal Josaphat but did not get 

Daniel des Ruelles appears in 1700 on the list 
of Stellenbosch inhabitants with his wife 
Catharina Taboureux (the widow of Charles 
Marais, q.v., who had been murdered in 1689), 
and he died on the 3rd October, 1726. 

Anne of Guines, born 1673, married Charles Marais, 
son of the Refugee Charles Marais, q.v. 

Ester of Guines, born 1672, married about 1690 
Estienne Bruere of Blois, French Refugee, q.v. 

Pierre of Massiere (Mazeres) in Languedoc, arrived 
in 1688 in the Voorschooten, a bachelor, then 
aged 22. Settled as an agriculturist at Draken- 
stein and returned to Europe in 1700. 

Jacques of Aeth, born 1636, arrived in the Ooster- 
landt in 1688 with his wife Marie Madeleine 
le Clercq of Tournay, daughter of Philippe 
le Clercq and Anthoinette Carnoy, and three 
children. His mother-in-law also came with him. 
The children were Marguerite de Savoye, then 
17 years old, Barbere, 15 years, and Jacques, nine 
months. In writing about his departure from 
Europe, the Seventeen informed the Cape 
Governor that de Savoye had been for many 
years an eminent merchant of Ghent, where he 
had been persecuted by the Jesuits to such an 
extent that his life had even been threatened. 
In order to escape, he had decided to end his 
days beyond their reach, and to take with him 
various Flemish farmers of the reformed rehgion 
who had also suffered persecution, and had also 
resolved to leave their Fatherland for the same 
reason as de Savoye. Amongst his party were 
the three brothers Nourtier, who are described 
as his " domestiques." 

'See Requesten No. 108 for 1768. 


The French Refugees at the Cape. 

de Savoye, 

de Savoye, 





He, with wife and two children, did not require 
help in 1690. de Savoye became a member of 
the Court of Landdrost and Heemraden, and in 
1712 he and his wife and her mother returned 
to Europe. On the 17th July, 1689, a daughter, 
Aletta, was baptised at Cape Town, and married 
Pierre Meyer of Dauphine, q.v. On the 29th 
August, 1694, a son, Philippe Rudolf, was bap- 
tised at Drakenstein. The latter does not appear 
to have married ; in his will, filed in 1741, he 
institutes his nephews and nieces Meyer as his 
heirs. He joined the service of the Dutch East 
India Company, and was a junior merchant and 
"Keldermeester" at the Cape, where he died in 
1741 and was buried in the church. Jacques 
de Savoye was buried October, 17 17. His widow 
buried May, 1721. 

Marguerite, married before 1690 to Christoffel 
Snyman (in the Drakenstein register, Senay- 
ment), descendants still living ; (2) Henning 
Vilhon or Viljoen, son of the Refugee Villion, q.v. 

Barbere, married (i) Christiaan Eelers, (2) Elias 

David of Dieppe, Normandy, arrived in Zuid Beve- 
land in 1688, an agriculturist ; before 1694 
married Marie Madeleine du Puis of Paris, and 
died i6th July, 1746. 

Anthoine, sailed in Berg China in 1688, then aged 
19, a bachelor ; probably died on the voyage. 

Glode-Glaudine, "j Probably three sisters from 
Susanne, \ Saintonge, were admitted mem- 

Jeanne, j bers of the church at Stellen- 

bosch in April, 1689, having brought attesta- 
tions from Amsterdam. Glaudine married Paul 
Roux of Orange before 1694, q.v., and Susanne 
married Francois du Toit of Ryssel about 1690, 

Pierre of Embrun, Dauphine, arrived in 1688 in 
the Zuid Beveland with his wife Anne de Berault. 
Was the first minister of the French congrega- 
tion at Drakenstein. He had been pastor of the 
Refugee congregation at Zirikzee. His children 
were Catherine, baptised in Cape Town 17th 

List of Arrivals from 1688. 


March, 1689, one of her sponsors being Com- 
mander Simon van der Stel ; Pierre, Jacques, 
Cleophas, Marie and Lydia, born at Drakenstein. 
In the 1690 Distribution he is described as 
" with wife and one child," and did not require 
assistance. He returned with wife and family 
to Europe in 1702, being succeeded by Revd. 
Henricus Beck. Anne de Berault, living in 
London in 1726, was at that time described as 
his widow. In 1700 Revd. Simond passed a 
power of attorney in favour of Advocate 
Johannes Bodaan, Burgomaster and Director of 
the Dutch East India Company at Middelburg, 
and Revd. Petrus de Joucourt, minister of the 
French congregation at the same place. 

SOllicri Durand, a shoemaker at Drakenstein ; on 4th 

October, 1697, he and his wife became members 
of the Dutch church at Cape Town. He died 
in September, 1739, and was buried in the Dutch 
church, Cape Town. In 1702 his name is found 
as married to Martha Petel, who died in 1715. 
In 1719 he was an elder of the church at Cape 
Town. Their only daughter Martha married 
Renault Berthault de St. Jean of Sanoere, a 
surgeon, q.v., who came to the Cape. Represen- 
tatives of this family in the family van der Riet. 

Sollier, GilliS, brother of Durand, had been a burgher at 

the Cape since 1697. In 1718 he was permitted 
to return to Europe with his wife Anna Rouhn 
and son David. In 1731 he returned to the 
Cape with his wife Anna Roulin, his stepson 
Hendrik Melet, and his sister's daughter. In the 
list of enrolled members of the Dutch Church, 
Cape Town, Gillis and his wife are entered on 
15th December, 1731, with attestation from 
Montfort. Amongst the inhabitants of the Cape 
district in 1731 is Durand Sollier (probably his 
son) and wife Ehzabeth de Villiers. 

TabOUreUX, CatherHie, wife of (i) Charles Marais, q.v.. (2) 

Daniel des Ruelles, q.v. 

*Tai liefer, or Isaac of Chateau Thierry, in province of Brie, a 

Taillefert hatmaker and agriculturist, arrived in 1688 in 

* the Oosterlandt with his wife Suzanne Brief and 

six children. Isaac was the son of Jean Taillefer, or 

Taillefert, an apothecary and elder of the church 

at Monneaux, and his wife Ester Jordin. Isaac 


The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Taillefer married Suzanne Briet of the valley of 

the Essomes, and had established himself as a 
hatmaker at Chateau Thierry. In the church 
registers of Nogentel, not far from the latter 
place, are to be found the entries of the baptisms 
of his several children. His six children who 
came with him in 1688 were : 

Elizabeth, aged 14 ; 

Jean, baptised at Nogentel, September, 1680 ; 

Isaac, aged 7 ; 

Pierre, aged 5 ; 

Suzanne, aged 2| ; 

Marie, aged i, baptised by the monks of the 
church at Essomes in January, 1687. 

He lived for some time at Monneaux, where 
his wife possessed some vineyards, and after 
1685 went to live with her family. In 1690 he 
received assistance for himself, wife and four 
children, and in 1691 he obtained grants of land 
upon which the farms Normandy and Picardy 
stand. He died about 1699, leaving four 
children, Elizabeth, aged 26, Jean, 22, Pierre, 16, 
Suzanne 13. 

TaillGfcrt Elizabeth, married the Refugee Pierre de ViUiers, 
q.v. Numerous descendants, from which the 
late Baron de Villiers was descended. 

TaillOfCrt, Jean, apparently died unmarried. 

Taillefcrt, Pierre, married Marie Marais, widow of Estienne 
Niel. He died March, 1726. Descendants in the 
female line ; one daughter married Pieter van 
Niekerk, one Hendrik Albertus Gildenhuys, and 
the youngest Eduard Christian Hauman. 

Taillefert, Susanne, married (i) Jean Garde, q.v., (2) Pierre 
Cronje, q.v., (3) Jacob Naude, q.v. 

TerreblanChGi Estienne of Toulon ; his name appears in the 





church books of Drakenstein in 1703 ; in 1713 
married Martha la Febre, widow of Jacques 
Pinard, q.v. 

Daniel, married Sara Jacob of Calais, daughter of 
the Refugee Pierre Jacob, q.v. 

List of Arrivals from 1688. 






*de Villiers, 

*de VUners, 

*de Villiers, 

Jacques of Nismes. Laiiguedoc, arrived in the 
Oosterlandt in 1688 as a soldier in the Company's 
service ; on 31st May, 1688, he became a free 
burgher. He married Marie Jeanne des Pres 
of Bethune, q.v., daughter of the Refugee 
Hercule des Pres, and died 2nd December, 1739, 
aged 71 years 6 months. Jacques Theron was 
a member of the Court of Landdrost and Heem- 
raden, and owned the farm Languedoc. 

Anne, wife of Paul Couvret, q.v. 

Hercule, born 1672, arrived in 1688 in the Berg 
China, died at Drakenstein in 1722 ; married 
Maria Catharina Huibeaux, born 1675. They 
left only daughters. The widow Verdeau died 
about 1752, in which year an inventory in her 
deceased estate was filed. 

Jacques, born 1668, brother of above, arrived in 
1688 ; probably died shortly after, as he is not 
mentioned in the 1690 Distribution List. 

Elizabeth, wife of Antoine Madan, q.v. 

Abraham of la Rochelle, arrived on 6th May, 1689, 
in the Sion with his two brothers Pierre and 
Jacob. He married 5th October, 1689, Susanne 
Gardiol of de la Cost6, Provence, and died on 
31st March, 1720. The brothers had been sent 
out on account of their knowledge of the culti- 
vation of the vine. Abraham was one of the 
first deacons of the French congregation, a 
Heemraad and Captain of the Burgher Cavalry 
Corps at Drakenstein. He left only daughters. 
In the letter from Holland to the Cape in 1688 
the three are described as being from " near 
la Rochelle." 

Jacob, stated in his will in 17 19 to be of " Bor- 
gondien," and aged 58 ; married Margaretha 
Gardiol of Provence, born 1674. He died on 
17th May, 1735, and inventory in her estate filed 
in June, 1749. [Pierre deVilliers, Jacque and Paul 
sortirent du royaume France. lis etirent fils de 
Pierre de Villiers (Archives de la Rochelle).] 

Pierre, married (before 1699) Elizabeth Taillefert, 
daughter of the Refugee Isaac Taillefert, q.v. 
Numerous descendants from the two brothers 


The french Refugees at the Cape. 

Jacob and Pierre. Pierre de Villiers died 
22nd January, 1720, and her will is filed in 
1735. In his will, dated 3rd February, 
1714, Johannes Guillaume de Grevenbroek, 
Secretary to the Government during the days of 
Governor Simon van der Stel, bequeathed " to 
the French Refugee Pierre de Villiers, living 
with wife and children at the foot of the Paarl 
Mountain at Drakenstein, my gold ring set with 
garnets, in acknowledgment of the kindness 
formerly received from his co-religionists in 
France." It is probable that Pierre de Villiers 
had known his wife when her parents and family 
had left Monneaux in 1688 and gone to live at 
la Rochelle, see p. 51. 

Viret Jean, a bachelor, sailed in the Berg China in 1688, 

aged 18 ; died on the voyage. 

* Viret Estienne of Dauphine, born circa 1662-64, arrived 

in the Zuid Beveland ; married Marguerite Roux 
of Provence, q.v., born 1682. He died 29th 
October, 1726, and was buried in the churchyard 
at Cape Town ; she died 8th November, 1759. 
He had five sons, who do not appear to have 
left descendants in the male line. On 14th 
September, 1699, a son Estienne was baptised. 

VitOUt, or Marie, arrived in 1688 with her husband, Daniel 
y|{;ij Nourtier, q.v. 

VitOUt, or Sara, arrived in 1699 with her husband, Jacques 

Yl^ll de la Porte, q.v. 

' In the church registers of Guisnes there are 

a number of entries referring to the Vitu family. 
There were three brothers, Pierre, Jean and 
Eustache Vitu. There was a Marie Vitu, wife 
of Jean Goudalle, relation of the wife of Daniel 
des Ruelles, q.v. As the Nourtiers came from 
near Calais, it is possible that the Vitu also 
originated from there. 

*Vivier, Abraham, ^ Three brothers, who received assis- 

Jacob, [ tance in 1690, farmers at Drakenstein. 

Pierre. j In 1695 the name of Pierre is found 
as having come from Normandy. In 1714 there 
are three separate inventories of the deceased 
estates of the three brothers, signed by Jacque- 
mina du Pree( des Pres), the widow of Abraham, 
who was the only one of the three to marry. He 

List of Arrivals from 16S8. 91 

left three sons and live daughters. Abraham, 
the eldest son, died unmarried about 1743 ; 
Isaac, the second son, also died without marry- 
ing, but Jacob left issue. On the 13th January, 
1714. a posthumous daughter of Abraham and 
Jacquemina du Pree was baptised Anna at 

List of those who came to the Cape before 1688 
and after 1700. 

*dU Toit, Francois of Ryssel (Lille) arrived in 1686 in the 

Vryheit ; became a member of the Court of 
Landdrost and Heemraden of Stellenbosch and 
Drakenstein, and died in October, 1731. He 
married Susanne Seugnet of Saint onge, q.v., at 
Cape Town, on 12th February. 1690, Descen- 
dants of this couple living. 

*dU Toit, Guillaume of Ryssel, brother of the above. He 

probably came out at the same time, i.e., in 1686, 
as we find that on the 3rd December, 1687, he 
was granted a licence by the Governor to shoot 
game. His fiance, Sara Couchet, widow of Peter 
de Clercq, q.v., who came from Oosterhoebrugh, 
Walcheren Is., was given a passage out to the 
Cape to join him in 1688. She was then living 
at Serooskerke, Walcheren Island. They were 
married on the i6th May. 1688, and she died 
in 1714. he having predeceased her. Guillaume 
du Toit was also a member of the Court of 
Landdrost and Heemraden. The two brothers 
du Toit took a prominent part in later scenes 
connected with the van der Stel troubles. This 
couple left no surviving male issue. 

*le Febre, Pierre, came to Cape in 1683 with wife and child, 

and in 1690 he received assistance for himself, 
wife and two children. In 1700 he was living 
in the Cape district with his wife Maria de Graaf 
(or de Grave) and three daughters. 

*IC Long, Jean, with his wife and two children, received 

assistance in 1690, and two years later had 
only one child. He lived at Drakenstein, and 
died August, 1721, having married Maria Coche. 
Jean le Long must have been one of those few 
Refugees who accepted the first offer of the 


The French Refugees at the Cape. 





Company to settle here in terms of their resolu- 
tion of 1685. In the title deed of his farm 
Bossendal, Drakenstein, granted in 1713, it is 
stated that the land had been given to him in 
1685 and 1686. See also page 75. 

Jean of Lausane. On 26th April, 1688, he was 
allowed by the Cape Government a passage out 
for his wife Preyntje or Tryntje Dekker, then 
living at Middelburg. He was a free burgher 
living at Stellenbosch, and in 1694 received the 
grant of land of the present Stellenbosch com- 
monage, which he had held since 1687. In 1692 
he appears on the burgher list with wife, son 
and daughter. 

Amand of Malines, or Mechelen, not far from 
Antwerp, arrived in the Bosweyk in 1687, a 
soldier in the Dutch East India Company ; 
became a burgher 28th November, 1690. On 
1st February, 1699, he was granted the farm 
St. Omer in Dal Josaphat, Drakenstein, and 
died on 12th September, 1723. He is stated 
to have been born at St. Thomas, and at his 
death in 1723 was 62 years of age ; left no wife 
or child. 

Francois of Clermont, arrived in 1671, married in 
1676 Cornelia Campenaar of Middelburg. In 
the registers the name is spelt Signon before 
1678, afterwards VilUon. He was dead in 1692, 
as in the list of inhabitants appears " the widow 
of Francois Villion, with two children." 
Descendants of this couple. The eldest son, 
Henning Villion, married a daughter of the 
Refugee de Savoye, q.v. On 28th June, 1690, 
the widow, then married to Wemmer Pasman, 
passed before the Secretary of Stellenbosch an 
obligation in favour of the Orphan Masters for 
the inheritance of her six minor children 
" Filion," by name Pieter, Anna, Henning, Jan, 
Cornelia and Francina. 

WibSaUX, see Huibaux on page 95. 

List of Arrivals from 168S. 


Names of those who were no doubt of Huguenot origin 
and arrived after 1 700. 






David of Amsterdam, arrived at the Cape in 1713, 
joined the Dutch East India Company in 1717, 
and became junior Merchant and bookkeeper. 
Probably the following two were his brothers. 

Jean of Amsterdam, arrived at the Cape in 1708. 
In 1696 he was living at Haarlem with his wife 
Johanna de Potter, daughter of David de Potter 
and Susanna d'Ailly. She joined him later at 
the Cape, and died about 1718, leaving by him 
David, born 1705, and Jan Benjamin, born 
about 1717. The latter joined the Dutch East 
India Company, and in 1803 his grandson, also 
Jan Benjamin, asked the Government for a 
farm, and in his petition referred to his ancestors 
who had been persecuted in France, the land 
of their birth, and had fled to Holland where 
they had found " powerful help, comfort and 
support " in their oppression and banishment. 
He speaks of the names of his ancestors w^ho had 
filled various Government offices at the Cape, 
and mentions " the distinguished family from 
which he is descended." 

Johannes Godefridus, arrived at the Cape in 1708, 
after a voyage of more than eight months. He 
came out to assume the office of minister to the 
Cape congregation, and died here in June, 1726. 
He married Alida de Lange, widow of the 
Surgeon Francois Guto, but appears to have 
had no issue by her. She died about 1733. 

Jean of Amsterdam, arrived in the Company's 
service in 1723, son of Pieter Blignault and 
Elisabeth Desbordes. In 1725 he married Anne 
Rousseau, widow of the Refugee Daniel Hugo, 
and by the union became possessed of much 
landed property. At the baptism of their first 
child, Jean Blignault's mother, Ehzabeth 
Desbordes, stood sponsor. He was a Heemraad 
of Drakenstein. Died about 1752, leaving two 
sons and three daughters. He was possessed of 
seven farms, most being in Drakenstein ; some 
of these were Bethel, where he evidently lived ^ 

94 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Sion and Vleesbank. It is stated Daniel Hugot 
sent for Jean Blignault from Europe to come 
out and teach his children, the two having 
known each other before coming to the Cape. 

BrOUSSOn, see Rousselet. j 

Faure, Antoine, bom at Orange in 1685, arrived at the 

Cape in 1714, son of Pierre Faure and Justina 
Pointy, who fled to Holland on account of 
religious persecutions. Pierre had been a 
merchant at Orange, where he returned in 1689, 
and died there. Antoine Faure arrived in the 
Company's service, and in 1719 was appointed 
" voorlezer " and schoolmaster at Stellenbosch. 
In 1714 he married Rachel de Villiers, daughter 
of the Refugee Abraham de Villiers, and left 
male issue. He must have died in 1736, in 
which year their joint will is filed, as his widow 
applied in 1750 for a piece of ground at 

Gtlilliaum^, Francois, sent out to the Cape in 1726 to superin- 
tend the silk culture, which post he held for 
some years. He came with his wife Claudine 
Cloy, or Cloi, and family. On the 25th Novem- 
ber, 1726, both were inscribed as members of 
the Dutch Church at Cape Town, upon presen- 
tation of their certificate from the French church 
at Amsterdam. In 1735 he informed the 
Government that he intended to remain at the 
Cape as a burgher. 

Guilliaume, Matthieu or Matthys, born at Berlin in 1711, to 
which place his father Fran9ois had no doubt 
fled. He married on ist June, 1738, at Draken- 
stein, Susanna Radyn, and left male issue. The 
name Giliomee and Guillome was known in the 
Cape Colony fifty years ago. 

Guilliaume, Anna, Johanna and Marie, all of Languedoc, no 
doubt daughters of Francois (Marie, at least, 
gives her parents' names as Francois Guilliaume 
and Claudine Cloy). Johanna married (i) Jan 
Engelbrecht, ancestor of the Cape family, (2) 
Jacobus Louw, Jacob's son. Marie married, on 
1 8th October, 1739, Louis Jourdan. 

List of Arrivals from 1688. 





le Sage, 




Andre. Before 1725 his signature is found to 
several documents. Andries Wiebaux (who, I 
am of opinion, is one and the same person as 
Andre Huibaux) came in 1706 in the Blots from 
Middelburg, became free burgher 1715. and 
died 31st July, 1727. 

Maria Catharina, born 1075, married Hercule 
Verdeau, q.v. 

Jean of Dieppe, married at Drakenstein on 31st 
October, 1717, Margaretha de ViUiers. Died 
about 1720. 

Francois Louis of Embden, arrived at the Cape in 
1713 ; married, 5th March, 1719, Maria Magda- 
lena Niel. He was allowed to open a school for 
teaching the youth Dutch and French. 

Jacob, born at Berlin circa 1696, arrived here in 
1710 ; in 1722 married Suzanne Taillefert' of 
Chateau Thierry, daughter of the Refugee Isaac 
Taillefert, q.v., and widow of Pierre Cronier. His 
parents were Philippe Naude and Anna Isnard, 
who lived at Berlin. When he joined the 
Drakenstein church in 1718 he brought a 
certificate of church membership from Hanover. 
It would be interesting to know what relation 
he was of Philippe Naude, the theologian and 
mathematician, born at Metz 28th December, 
1654, and died at Berlin in March, 1729. 

Philippe Jacob, of Berlin, son of the Revd. Roget 
David Naude, professor at the French College 
and minister of the French church at Berlin, 
and Elizabeth Borrel. He arrived here in 1754 
in the Company's service, and in 1766 received 
his discharge and went to reside at Drakenstein. 
On 4th August, 1774, he married Johanna 
Elizabeth du Plessis. In 1772 he passed a 
power of attorney in favour of David Naud6, 
astronomer, and Revd. Louis Ancillon, minister 
of the French Reformed Monastery Church, both 
of Berlin, to receive from the Burgomasters of 
that city monies due to him from the estates of 
his late father and mother. 

Martin. His name appears on the Stellenbosch 
burgher roll of 1685. In 1692 he is described 

' Re her death and fnneral, see under Jean Garde. 


The French Refugees at the Cape. 

as with wife and three children, and was buried 
at Cape Town, January, 1713. 

ROUSSelet Daniel Rousselet Brousson of Amsterdam, where 
his father Jan Rousselet was a merchant ; he 
married at the Cape, in 1744, Mariana, daughter 
of Andries Grove and Anna Niei, or Nel. 

St. Jean, Jean, born at Bordeaux, Gascony, a burgher at 

Stellenbosch in 1687. 

dC St. Jean, Renault Berthault, born 1692 at Sanoere, province 
of Berry, was the son of Marie Done, living in 
1726 at Sanoere. In 1712 he became a surgeon 
in the service of the Dutch East India Company, 
and arrived at the Cape in 1719 in that capacity. 
His wife Anna Fourdinier and son, who had been 
left behind in Holland, joined him later on. In 
1726 he was chief surgeon of the Company's 
hospital at Cape Town, where he died on nth 
March, 1763. His second wife was Martha, born 
1702, only daughter of the Refugee Durand 
SoUier, q.v. 

Serrurier, Johannes Petrus of Hanau, minister of the Dutch 
church at Cape Town, married 9th November, 
1760, Margaretha Elisabeth Timmendorf. He 
died 3rd February, 1819, aged 84 years and 28 

Serrurier, Jan of Hanau, son of Louis Serrurier and Ester 
de Vis of Hanau ; married at the Cape, 5th 
November, 1747, Catharina Krygsman. He 
became a Burgher Councillor of Cape Town, 
and was the owner of Alphen at Wynberg. In 
1753 he passed a power of attorney in favour of 
his brother, Revd. Daniel Serrurier, minister at 
Leiden, and Hendrik van Alphen. 

List of Arrivals from 168S. 


The following names are a few taken from the roll of men in the 

service of the Dutch East India Company. Most have a French 

appearance and it is probable several were refugees who had fled to 

Holland for safety. 

dcChaVOnneS, Dominiques, Captain and Head of the Cape 
Garrison 1687-1689 ; he left for the East Indies. 
He married Maria Lamy. 

de ChaVOnneS, MauritS Pasques of the Hague ; Lt.-Colonel and 
Governor of the Cape, 1714-1724. 

deChaVOnneS, Pieter Rocques, member of the Orphan Chamber 
1717 ; Dispenser in 1720. 

Pieter of Berne, a soldier in 1697. 
Boniface, a soldier in 1694. 
Jan of Leiden, a soldier in 1692. 



de Ba Fon- 

de Lormel, 








Jacques of Geneva, a soldier in 1693. 
Pierre of Dieppe, a soldier in 1693. 
Pierre, a soldier in 1693. 
Pieter of Montcallier, a soldier in 1696. 
Jan of Lausaune, a soldier in 1693. 
Jean of Beme, a soldier in 1695. 
Jean Baptist, ex corporal, 1705. 
Willem of Berne, a soldier in 1698. 
Jean of Valenciennes, a soldier, 1694-1696. 


The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Statement showing known places of origin in France and 
Flanders, family names and members of those who sailed 
for the Cape. Those under eighteen years of age have been 
placed in the column " Children." The latter have been 
put down as having come from the same place as their parents, 
and where the place of origin of one of several brothers or 
sisters is known they have all been regarded as having come 
from the same place. 





Family Name 
of Refugee. 

« 1 


S ^ 




Anjou . . 


la Batte 


Aunis . . 

La Rochellr- 

du Buisson 
de Villiers 



Nantes . . 





or Province 
Chateau Thierry 

Clermont (W. of 

Cond6 . . 



Briet . . 

le Febre, Paul . . 


Villion .. 


Sedan . . 

Buisset . . 



or Province. 

Embrum, or Am- 

la Motte, Cha- 

Pointaix. or Pon- 

taix • . 
Soudiere (perhaps 


S.E.of Poin- 

Meyer . . 
Niel, E. 

Simond . . 




taix) . . 




1 sle de France . . 

Paris, or near to 

du Puis. . 


Parisel . . 






AuUs (Aulas in 


Nimes . . 



de la Noy 
de Perrone 
Imbert . . 
Theron . . 
Martin . . 



* 1 have taken i 

\nne du Puis as of Pari 

5, although described of 



t Although Steven Gaucher is described as of Geneva, I have taken him as coming from 
the place of origin of his father. 

List of Arrivals from 1688. 





Family Name 

u ^ 

of Refugee. 




5 ^ 


Dieppe . . 

Cronier . . 
le Roux 
Vivier . . 




Rouen . . 

Niel, G. 




Blois . . 

Bruere . . 
le Roux 



Menars la Ville 

(N.W. of Blois) 



Orleans . . 

Cellier . . 





Vallete .. 






Calais or near, as 

Bleuset . . 


Guines, Marcq, 




and V i e i 1 1 e 

des Ruelles 




du Buis 


Jacob . . 



le Fevre, M. . . 

Manier . . 




Pr6vot . . 






Poitou . . 

Poitiers . . 

du Plessis 




Fon t en ay le 

Comte to N. of 

la Rochelle . . 

Labat . . 











Mille . . 



Roux widow and 




la Grange 


la Coste, 




la Morin, or 

Gardiol (included 


Roux, Pierre . . 





Orange . . 

Roux, Paul 


Toulon . . 


Terreblanche . . 




Sain ton ge 









} I have assumed that Jean Gardiol came from Provence on the basis that he was probably 
brother of Marguerite and Susanna, each one of whom married one of the three brothers de 
Villiers, described as in partnership with Jean. 

S Not far from each other (S.E. of Avignon.) 


The French Refugees at the Cape. 

1 <= 1 





Family Name 
of Refugee. 






Cortryk, or Cour- 

de Savoye 



trai . . 

des Pres 




Doornik, see 


Lille, see Ryssel. 

Malines . . 

Veron . . 



see Monsnay. 






>Potier . . 




j Bourbonnais 



Rosier . . 


Ryssel . . 

du Toit 



de Haase 



de la Porte 


St. Amant 

Mouy . . 



St. Omer 







Carnoy . . 
de Clercq 








31 3 








Total . 


38 4 




Extract of Baptisms in the Drakenstein Church, 

I694-I7I3. Register of Members of Drakenstein 

Congregation, 1715. Land Grants issued to the 

French Refugees. 

Extract of Baptisms 1694-1713, from the Register kept 
IN French in the Church at Drakenstein (now 
Paarl), by Paul Roux. 

Le livre de Registre des enfans qu'on a' Baptize dans 
Notre eglise fran^oise de drakestein du depuis le 
29 a' oust lannee 1694. 

le 29 Aoust 1694. — Philippe Rodolf fils de monsieur jacque 

de Savoye et madame leclair ; le temoins et Rodolf 

passemant et sa famme. >'• f'v 

Jan fils de jan ha'ance et Marguerite bachet ont fait 

Baptizer leur enfant le ii desembre 1694 le pere et 

la mere sont leur temoins. 
Le 25 Decembre 1694. — Anne roux fille de paul roux et glaudine 

Seugnete le temoins et franfois du toijt et Anna 

Le 22 Avril 1695. — Anna Caterina fille de hemes frederik 

Waltre et Caterina Le temoins et hansel Verbat 

et Marie La Noy. 
Le 8 Maj 1695. — Laina fille de fran^ois dutoij et Susanne 

Seugnet Le temoins et pierre Sabatie, et sara 

Le 25 juin 1695. — Marie fille de daniel Terrier et de Sara 

Jacob Le temoins jean debuze et marie janne 

Le 22 julliet 1695. — Christina fille de christoffle Senaymant^ 

et de Marguerite, Savoye. Le temoins et jacobus 

Vanas et Laina basson. 
Le 8 Scptembrc 1695. — Anne fille de pierre L'ombart et de 

Marie Couteau Le temoins et daniel Ugot et Anne 

Le 25 Septembre 1695. — Paul fils de jean jourdan et a Elizabet 

Longue. Le temoins paul roux Lecteur et Ellizabet 


' Snjonan. 

102 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

plus Le 25 ditau. — Janne fille dos handris gauch janne Le Clair 

la mere Le temoins guillaume du toijt et Susanne 

plus Le 25 ditau. — Pierre fils de jedeon Mallerbe de marie 

grillion Le temoins et pierre Rous et Marie a Vis. 
Le 16 Octobre 1695. — David fils de David Senecal et de Made- 

laine dupuit Le temoins et daniel de Ruel et Anne 

Le 14 Novemhre 1695. — Marie Elizabet fille de Jacob Villiers 

et La Mere, marguerite gardiol et Le temoins jean 

gardiol et Marie Ellizabet taillefert. 
Le 7 Decembre. — Jean fils de pierre jaubert et la mere Ellizabet 

Richar Le temoins et jean durand et fran9oise 

Le 14 decembre. — Ily a eut deux enfans baptize I'un de louis 

peront & T autre de Cobus Vandray, je nay point 

eut de billiet ny des vris. ny des autres pour Le 

Mettre a Notisse dans mon livre. 
Le 26 decembre Lannee 1695. — Pierre fils de pierre Villiers et 

a Marie Elizabet Taillefert le temoins et Jacob 

Villiers et Susanna gardiol. 
Lannee 1696. — Jonas fils de daniel nortie et de marie Vitout 

Le temoins et jean nortie et Susanne Lanoy, 
Lannee 1696. — Le 28 May il y a eut un enfant Baptize du 

beau fils de Wellem Escalk van den Merven.^ 
Du 18 juin Lannee 1696. — Nicolas fils de harijs Lecrivent' Le 

temoins et Nicolas lanoy et Susanne devos. 
Le 14 Octobre Lannee 1696. — Ellizabet fille de pierre Rousseau 

et hanna Retif, Le temoins et fran^ois Retif et 

marie hanna. 
Le 14 ditau. — Joseph fils de paul roux Lecteur a drakestein 

et glaudine Seugnet Le temoins et pierre benezet 

et Marie Grillion. 
Le 21 ditau Lannee 1696. — II y a eut deux enfans quil sont 

ete baptize L un de jacobus vanas et L' autre de 

Mathis Grif^ je nay point eut de billiet de ce personne. 
Le 4 Septembre Lannee 1696. — francoise fille de Louis florit 

et Susanne Cordie le temoins et louis Cordie et 

francoise martinet. 
Le 25 Novembre Lannee 1696.— Hendrik fils de Conra Klout 

a ete presante au saint bapteme pour Monsieur 

jaque de Savoye la marraine ne se point presantee, 

il sont venu sans donner un billiet. 

' Willem Schalk van dcr Merwe. 
■'Generally known as Arv Lckkerwyn. 
' Matthvs Greeff. 

Baptisms: 1694—1713. 103 


Le 10 januier Lannec ibgy. — Susanne fiUe de daniel terrier et 

Sara Jacob, Le temoins Salomon Gournay et Susanne 

Le 9 mars Lannee 1697. — Elsy fille de geert Janse elle a ete 

baptizee et le temoins et haandris beaumons et Elsij 

Jacob, je nay point aussy eut de billiet de ce personnes. 
Le 24 ditau Lannee 1697. — Pierre fils de frangois dutoij et 

Susanne Seugnet Le temoins et guillaume dutoij et 

Sara Le Clair. 
Le 13 Avril Lannee 1697. — Justina fille de Nicolas kief et 

barbara Lefevre, Le temoins et hercules de pret et 

Marie Lefevre. 
du 15 julliet Lannee 1697. — Louis fils de jean jourdan & de 

Elizabet Longue le temoins et louis barret et Marie 

Le premier de Septembre Lannee 1697. — Jeremie roux fils de 

paul roux et glaudine Seugnet Le temoins et pierre 

jourdan de Cabriere et marie aVis. 
Le premier d'aoust Lannee 1697. — Elsij fille de Christoffle 

Sgniman et de marguerite Savoy e, Le temoins et 

hercules depret et Elsij Jacob. 
Le 25 ditau. — Elizabet fille de Etienne Viret et de Marguerite 

rous Le temoins Etienne niel et Marie Elizabet. 
Le 25 ditau Lannee, 1697. — Lidie fille de Monsieur pierre 

Simond ministre a Drakestein et de Mademoiselle 

hanna de beurau, le temoins et Isac Taillefer & Marie 

Le 25 ditau 1697. — Helsijs fille de Skal Willems van den 

Merves & de hanna prevot. 
Le 15 Septembre Lannee 1697. — Jean fils de daniel Nortie et 

Marie Vitou. Le temoins et Ercules depre, & marie 

Le 6 Octobre Lannee 1697. — Janne fille de Jacob Villiers et de 

Marguerita Gardiol, Le temoins et Abrahaam de 

ViUiers et Mademoiselle Le fevre. 
Le 6 ditau Lannee i6()'j. — Salomon fils de david Senecal et de 

Madelaine dupuit Le temoins et Salomon Gournay 

et Susanne Seugnet. 
Le II Novembre Lannee ditau. — Francoise fille de pierre 

jaubert et de Elijzabet Richarde, Le temoins sont 

paul le fevre Metre Sirurgien et Elyzabet Taillefer. 
Le II Novembre Lannee ditau. — Geertru fille de Corneillis 

Corpenant et de Le temoins sont geert 

jaanse et marie heeims. 

104 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Le 24 Novembre Lannee" i6gy. — Susanneffille d abraam de 
Villiers et de Susanne Gardiol, Le temoins sont Jean 
Gardiol et Susanne taillefer. 

Le premier de Decemhre, 1697 elle ete a ete haptizee. — Elizabet 
fille de jedeon Mallerbe & de Marie Grillion, le 
temoins jacque, Mallant, et Elizabet Richard. 

Le 8 ditau Lannee 1697. — Anna EUizabet fille de Monsieur 
Ara'am Dimmes &c ; sans avoir eut aucun billiet 
pour Le nom de la mere ny pour Le temoins. '>-^ 

Le 8 ditau Lannee 1697. — Geertru fille d'un beau fils de la 
Venue ; de haandris Kelbeers ; Le temoins et piter 
van der bil, et la marraine cela gran mere de la'nfant. 

Le 15 ditau Lannee, 1697. — Harijs fils de la venue de marie 
lanoij famme de Harijs Lekervain ; Le temoins 
Christoffle C'nayman et Marguerite Savoye. 


Le 12 Fevrier Lannee 1698. — Elizabet fille d Abraam Vivret & 

Jaqueminne de pree, Le pere a ete Le temoin Elizabet 

de pree. 
Le 8 juin Lannee, 1698. — Daniel, fils de Charle Marais et Anne 

de Ruel pour temoins daniel de Ruel ; et catherinne 

Tabourdeux ; 
Le 10 Aoust Ian. 1698. — Johannes fils de Classe Raas et de 

marie van Staden, Le temoins et Marthe van Staden, 

et la marraine Caterina Wellems. 
Le 17 ditau Lannee, 1698. — Hendris Willems fils de Eskal 

Wellems van de Meriiven, Anne prevot pour Temoins 

piter Ro'obeers et une fille Willems Eskal. 
Le 27 Julliet Lannee 1698. — Marthe, fille de pierre Rousseau 

et de hanne Retif pour temoins Monsr. pierre Simond, 

ministre du saint Evangile a drakestein, et 

mademoiselle hanna de beiireau. 
Le 27 ditau 1698. — Jean fils de Matthieu frachas^ et de janne 

Cordie, pour temoins Jedeon legrand: et Susanne 

Le 24 Aoust Lannee 1698. — Pierre fils pierre Marcevene, et de 

Ehzabet de pres, Le temoins et pierre dumon et 

Sisijlha de pres pour marainne. 
Le 24 ditau. — Marie fille de jacque teront et de Marie janne, 

Le temoins et hercules de pret et jaquemine, de pres 

pour maraine. 
Le 21 Septemhre Lannee 1698. — Erassemus fils de piter Ras- 

semus et de Marie Elizabet Le temoins et beeme 

piter blom & Caterina blom pour maraine. 

' Fracasse 

Baptisms: 1694—1713. 106 

Le 26 Octobre Lannee ditau. — Marie fille de louis florij et de 
Susanne Cordie pour temoins Jacob Cordie et sa 
Soeur Cordie pour maraine. 

Le 26 ditau Lannee i6g8. — Philippe, fils de Louis Cordie et de 
frangoise Martinet Le temoins et monsieur pierre 
Simond ministre du Saint E V.g. et Mademoiselle 
Anne de beureau. 

Le 30 decemhre Lannee ditau .-~Chdix\e , fils de Eska'al Wellems 
et de Anna pruost pour temoins Wellems Eska'al van 
den Merve et Elsijs Jacob. 

Le 30 desemhre 1698. — Anne fille de pierre jourdan de Cabriere 
et Anne fauche. le pere de lanfant luy a Seruy de 
temoin et la gran mere, pour Maraine. 


Le 18 januier Lannee 1699. — Janne fille de izabeau Longu^ 

venu6 du defunt jean jourdan pour temoins Jacque 

Mallant et hanne fauche, pour marraine. 
Le 12 Fevrier de Lannee 1699. — Jacob fils de Escalk Wellems 

et de Anne prevost Le temoins et piter Ro'obres et 

sa famme, pour marraine, baptize a drakestein pour 

monsieur pierre Simond ministre du Saint E.V.G. 
Le 15 Mars Lannee 1699. — Francina fille de fran^ois bastians 

la mere marie Anne ; pour temoins jan Eskeppein 

et jaapis Wellems pour Marraine. 
Le 16 Avril Lannee ditau. — Marie Madelaine fille de paul 

le fevre et de pour temoins piter Robeers et sa 

famme pour marraine. 
Le 3 May Lamiee ditau. — Eva fille de pierre L'ombart et de 

Marie Couteau Le temoins sont le fils et la fille de 

monsieur pierre Simond mais monsr. et mademoiselle 

Simond il on — Repondu pour leurs enfans. 
Le 3 May Lannee 1699. — Jacobus fils de hance handris et de 

Marie Lanoy pour temoins jean Durand et Marie 

Le 22 Avril Lannee ditau. — Jean fils de paul roux et de 

glaudine Seugnet pour temoins Charle Marais et 

hanne de Ruel. 
Le 29 Avril Lannee ditau. — Pierre fils de piter beeme blom 

et de Caterina blom pour temoins piter Rassemus 

et la mere de lanfant a repondu pour marraine. 
Le 14 juin Lannee 1699. — hanneta fille de be^rne Lubeck et 

de Warna vandenbren, pour temoins Jacobus brand- 

enbeur, et hanneta pour Marraine. 
Le 14 juin. — Marie fille de philippe de pres et de Elizabet 

prevost, pour temoins pierre Dumond et marie le feve 

pour marraine. 

106 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Le 14 diiau Lannce 1699. — Jacobus fils de konra ge'er klout et 

de Marthe pour temoins beerne Beurger 

et Marthe Wellems pour marraine. 
Le 28 juin Lannee 1699. — frangois fils de frangois dutoij et de 

Susanne Seugnet, pour temoins et Jedeon Legrand 

et Lena dutoit pour Marraine. 
Le 28 ditau. — Jean fils de pierre Villiers et Marie Elizabet 

taillefer pour temoins jean Taillefer et Ge'ertru 

dutoy pour marraine. 
Le 28 ditau. — Corneillijs fils de handris Norman et la mere 

de lanfant Long presante au Saint bapteme. 
Le 23 A'oust Lannee 1699. — Marthe fille de jacque pinar et 

De Marthe Le feve Le temoins Gabriel Le rous et 

barbara Le feve, pour Marraine. 
Le 14 Septbre Lannee 1699. — Jacobus fils de Jacob VilHers et 

de Marguerite Gardiol pour temoins Abra'am VilUers 

et isabeau Richar pour Marraine. 
Le 14 ditau. — Etienne fils d etienne Viret et de Marguerite reus 

il ont presante Leur Enfant au Saint bapteme eux 

Le 20 Septembre 1699. — Jean fils d Abraam Villiers et de 

Susanne Gardiol, Le temoins et Jacob Villiers et 

Marguerite Gardiol pour marraine. 
Le 4 Octobre Lannee 1699. — Pierre fils de Daniel Terrie et de 

Sara Jacob, Le temoins et Louis barret et Susanne 

Seugnet pour Marraine. 

Jacque de port6 et Sara Vitout il on presante eux 

meme un petit enfant que dieu Leur a donne, au 

saint bapteme Le 4 Octobre 1699. 
Le 4 Octobre 1699. — Anne marie fille hance Jacob, a ete pre- 

sant^e au Saint Bapteme Le temoins et han hance 

et Anne Marie pour Marraine. 
Le 25 Octobre 1699. — -Marie hanna fille de pierre Rassemus et 

de Marie EHzabet Le temoins et pierre Christiaans 

de ja'ager Jremena de jaager Wal. 
Le 25 ditau 1699. — -Janne fille de Christoffie Senayment et de 

Marguerite Savoije le temoins et Christians de bacre 

et marie delanoy pour Marraine. 
Le 6 Decembre 1699. — Louise fille de pierre jaubert et de 

izabeau Richard, Le temoins et fran^oise dutoij et 

marie madelaine — pour Marraine, — 
Le 6 ditau Lannee 1699. — Pierre fils de pierre jourdan de 

Cabriere et de Anne fauche, Le temoins et pierre 

Rous et Susanne Seugnet pour Marraine. 
Le 27 Jauuier 1700. — Jean fils de David Senecal Et de Anne 

Madelaine dupuit le temoins le pere et la mere de 

Lanfant il on repondu. 

Baptisms: 1694— ]71S. 107 

Le 7 Mars Lannee 1700. — Jean lils de Charle Marais et de 

Anne de Ruel, le temoins et Abram Bluze et Marie 

Marais pour marraine. 
Le 3 May 1700. — Pierre fils de pierre Rousseau et de Anne 

Retif Le temoins et gabriel Lerous et marie Elisabet 

taillefer pour Marraine. 
Le 10 May 1700. — Jean fils de Christoffle Extreux le pare et 

la mere Long presente au Saint Bapteme, sans point 

de billiet. 
Le 4 Julliet 1700. — Susanne fille de Jedeon Mallerbe, et de 

Marie Grillion Le temoins et fran^ois Retif et la 

mere de Lanfant, marraine. 
Le 4 ditai'i 1700. — Christian fils de classe Ra'as et de Marie 

van Staden, Le temoins et Marthines van Staden et 

Gasparde van Staden pour Marraine. 
Le 22 Aoust 1700. — Marie fille d abraam Viviet et de Jaque- 

mine depret Le temoins Jacob Viviet et Marie Janne 

depret, pour marraine. 
Le 22 ditai'i 1700. — Jacque fils de Jacque Teron et de Marie 

Janne depret Le temoins et Jean Maniet et Elizabet 

d?prest pour marraine. 
Le 2 Janvier 1701. — Josue fils de Josue Sellie et de Elizabet 

Couvret Le temoins et Claude Marais et Caterine 

Tabourdeux, pour marraine. 
Le 27 Mars 1701. — Marthe, fille de Louis fourij et de Susanne 

Cordie Le temoins et Louis Cordie et francoisse 

Martinet, pour marraine. 
Le 10 Avril 1701. — hercules fils de Philippe depret, et de 

Elizabet prevost Letemoins Hercules depret et la 

granmere Sysillia depre pour marraine. 
Le 15 May 1701. — Elizabet fille de Matthieu frachas et de 

Janne Cordie Le temoins et Jacob Cordie ; et Elizabet 

Villiers, pour marraine. 
Le 8 Julliet 1701. — Ellaina fille de beerne beurger et de Martha 

Eskal Le temoins et frangois du toit et Susanne 

Seugnet pour marraine. 
Le 24 Julliet 1701. — Philippe fils de Christoffle Senaiman et 

de Marguerite Savoye, Le temoins et philippe Rodolf 

et Alleta Savoye, mais Claude marais a Repondu 

pour Le garson et la mere Repondu sa fille. 
7 Aoiist 1701. — Marie fille de pierre Villiers et de Elizabet 

Taillefer, Le temoins et pierre Taillefer, et Elizabet 

de Villiers pour marraine. 
Le 14 ditau. — Gabriel, fils de Pierre Rousseau et de Anne 

Retif, Le temoins et pierre Villiers et Susanne 

Seugnet pour marraine. 

108 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Le 14 ditati 1701. — Anne Madelaine fille de David Senecal et 
de Anne Madelaine dupuit, le pere a Repondu pour 
son enfant et Susanne dupuit pour marraine. 

Le 21 ditau 1701. — Gedeon fils de paul Lefevre et de Elizabet 
Sisillia ; Le temoins et Gedeon Le gran, et Susanne 
briet pour marraine. 

Le 28 ditau 1701. — Jean fils de Jean garde, et de Susanne 
Taillefer, Le temoins et paul Lefevre, et Susanne 
briet, pour marraine. 

Le 23 Octobre 170 1. — Willems fils de Eskal Willems et de 
Anne prevot Le temoins beerne beurger, et Marthe 
Escalk pour marraine. 

Le 30 Octobre 1701. — Joseph fils de pierre jourdan de Cabriere 
et de Anne fauche, Le temoins et Louis barret 
Eizabeau long, pour marraine. 

Le 4 Novembr: 1701. — Marthe fille de frangois dutoit et de 
Susanne Seugnet Le temoins et beerne beurger et 
Marthe Escalk pour marraine. 

Le 27 ditau 1701. — Anne fille de paul Couvret, et de Anne 
Wallete, Le temoins et jean Taillefer et Elizabet 
Couvret pour marraine. 

Le II Novembre 1701. — Sara fille de jean de buz, et de Sara 
Jacob Le temoins et frangois dutoit et Anne Retif 
pour marraine. 

Tous ces enfans quil sont cy dessus ecrit il sont 
ete baptize dans Leglise de Drakestein pour Monsr. 
pierre Simond Ministre du Saint Evangile, en registre 
pour paul Roux ; autant quil ma ete possible de puis 
Lannee 1694 jusques a lannee 1701. 

Le 21 Septembre 1709. — Marie fille de frangois dutoit, et de 
Susanne Seugnet, Le temoins et pierre Rousseau et 
marie janne depret quil 1 on pressantee. au saint 
bapteme, Le same dit 21 Septembre dans Lannee 
1709. Baptize pour monsieur daillie ministre du 
Saint E.V.g. au Cap et ces enfans quij sont cy dessus 
ecrit sont ete, baptize dans Leglise de drakestein. 

Le 21 Septembre Lannee 1709. — Abra'am fils de josu6 Selliet, 
et Elizabet Couvret il on fait pressanter au saint 
Bapteme pour etr6 Baptize pour Monsr. Daillie 
ministre du Saint E.V.g. Le temoins et Abraam 
Villiers Le fils, et Ester Roux, pour marraine, a 

A' Drakestein Le 22 Septembre 1709.' — Susanne fille de Louis 
Le riche et de Susanne fauche il ont fait presanter 
au saint bapteme Le dimanche 22 ; dudit mois, 
monsieur Daille, il a aussi baptized cette fille Le 
temoins et frangois dutoit, et Susanne Seugnet pour 

Baptisms: 1694—1713. 109 

Le 22 ditau 1709. — Jacque ; fils de Charle marais, et de Anne 
De Ruel, il on pressante au saint Sacrement du 
bapteme, baptize pour Monsieur Daillie ministrc du 
Saint E.V.g. Le temoins et Charle marais, et Anne 
Roux pour marraine a drakestein Le 22 Septembre. 

Ls 22 ditau 1709. — Jean, fils de jean debuz, et de Sara Jacob, 
pour le presanter au saint sacremens du Saint 
bapteme, Le temoins et daniel Jacob, et marthe 
le fevre pour marraine cet enfant a Aussy Receu 
Le saint Sacremens de mains de monsieur Daillie 
a Leglise de drakestein. 

Le 22 ditau 1709. — Pierre fils de jacque Teron ; et de marie 
janne depre, il on pressente au saint bapteme et 
Monsieur daillie ministre La baptize Le dimanche 
22 Septembre, — dans Leglise de Drakestein, Le 
temoins et fran9ois dutoit et Corneillia Villion pour 

Le 22 ditau 1709. — Wellem, fils de piter Wellem Van herden 
et de Makel Eskal, il on presante au Saint bapteme, 
et Monsr. Daillie Ministre La aussi baptize Le meme 
Jour du 22 Septembre, dans Leglise de Drakestein, 
Letemoins et beerne beurger et Johanna famme de 
geert basson pour Marraine. 

Le 22 Septembre 1709. — Jean fils de david du buisson et de 
glaudine L'ombart, il on pressante son enfant au 
Saint bapteme pour etre baptize Le Dimanche 22 
Septembre, Le temoins et Ja'an Elberst et Sophia 
hapel pour marraine. 

Tout ce huict enfans sont ete baptize pour mon- 
sieur Daillie ministre du Saint E.V.G. Dans Leglise 
de drakestein Le 22 Septembre. 

EUeeinee Le6 Fevrier Lannee 1711. — EHsabet fille d' abra'am 
prevost et de hanna marcevene, elle a ete presant^e 
au saint bapteme, Le 17 may. Letemoins et piter 
hance van Marcevene et Elisabet depre, pour mar- 
raine, baptizee pour monsieur beck ministre du 
Saint E.V.g dans Leglise de drakestein. 

// et ne Le 15 Avril Lannee 1711. — Isac fils de la Venue, du 
defunt Charle marais il a ete, presante, au saint 
Bapteme Le 17 may, Le temoins et Etienne marais, 
et Elizabet Villiers et a ete Baptize pour Monsr. 
beck ministre du Saint E.V.g dans Leglise de 

Le 5 Mam Lannee 1713. — hanna fille de L'aupretorijs et de 
marie Rousseau elle a ete presantee au saint bapteme, 
dans Lamaison d' Abra'am Villiers et Monsieur 
Camper ministre du Saint evangele, etant de Retour 

110 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

de son voyage des indes oriantales il a baptize cete 
fille Letemoins et pierre Rousseau et^Geertru dutoit 
pour marraine. 
Le 5 Mars Lannee 1713. — Marie fille de koenra'ad sckeper et 
de marie bota ; elle a ete presantde, au saint sacre- 
mant du Bapteme dans La maison d Abra'am de 
Villiers et Monsr. Camper ministre du Saint E.V. 
gille a Aussy baptize cette petite fille et Le temoins 
et jacobus bota, et Catherina bota poiu" marraine. 

Church Members: 1715. 





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Extract uit de Resolutien van de Vergadering der 
Heeren Zeventienen, gedateerd 3 October 1685.^ 

Gehoort S5mde net rapport van de Heeren Commissarissen 
volgens en uyt crachte van de resolutie commissoriael van 
den 18 August! lestleden gebesoigneert hebbende over 't 
werck van de Caap, mitsgaders de resumtie van de brieven 
van daer ontfangen, is goet gevonden en geresolveert dat 
men tot voortsettinge van den Lantbouw aldaer, waer toe 
de apparentien sich van tydt tot tydt meer favorabel comen 
op te doen, en de Cornp® in die swaere lasten van 't guarnisoen 
wat te soulageren, mitsgaders voor te wesen dat men 't selve 
niet sal behoeven jaerlijcks van rijs te provideren, meerder 
aantal Coloniers derwaerts sal beschicken, mits dat het 
geschikte Luyden sijn en van die verwachtinge dat sy met 
het geene van haer industrie, wetenschap, of hantwerk is en 
wel voornamentlyck den Lantbouw haer sullen cunnen 
erneren, om 'twelcke te doen en t' effectueren de Cameren 
bij desen werden geauthoriseert, verstaande op soodanigen 
reglement mitsgaders eedt by deselve te presteren als hier 
vervolgens is geinscreert. Dat men onder de voors : Colo- 
niers mede sal mogen nemen Fransche Vluchtelingen van de 
gereformeerde religie, voornaementlyck te becomen synde 
eenige wyngaerdiniers en die haer op het maecken van as)^ 
en het disteleren van Brandewijn verstaan, mits een getuy- 
genisse van de consistorie met haer brengende, dat het 
eerlijcke Luyden sijn die dan mede als nederlanders sullen 
werden geconsidereert. Dat inmiddels by de resp : Cameren 
derwaerts sullen werden gesonden 48 jonge dochters off 
meijden en daer onder wel bijsonderlijck soodanige die haer 
op het bouwwerck verstaen off daerin opgevoeth sijn, nae- 
menthjk — 

by de Camer van Amsterdam . . . . 24 

By Zeelant . . . . . . . . . . 12 

En bij de andere Cameren ieder drie , . 12 

Maekende te saemen . . . . 48 

En sal voort het voors : reglement soo als het hier nae volcht 
werden eredruckt : — 


[See further resolution.] 

Printed in Spoelstra's " Bouwstoffen." 2-599. 

126 The h'rench Refugees at the Cape. 

Extract from the Resolutions of the Assembly of 
THE Seventeen, dated 3rd October, 1685. 

Having heard the report of the Commissioners appointed and 
empowered in accordance with the Commissorial Resolution 
of i8th Aug. last, dealing with the work being done at the 
Cape, together with letters received from that settlement, it 
has been agreed and resolved as follows : 

That, in order to encourage farming, which, according 
to all reports, seems to be flourishing there more and more 
as time goes on, and thus to reduce somewhat the heavy 
expenses incurred by the Company in connection with the 
upkeep of the garrison, a larger number of Colonists 
be sent out, who, provided they are capable men, will soon 
do away with the necessity of supplying the garrison yearly 
with rice from India. It is further expected that they will 
be able to subsist by means of their industry, knowledge, 
or handicraft. In order to effect the necessary emigration 
the Chambers are hereby authorised to act according to 
the following Regulation, provided always that the oath has 
been administered ; and to include among those chosen as 
colonists French Refugees of the reformed religion, especially 
those understanding the cultivation of the vine, the making of 
vinegar and the distilling of brandy, on condition that they 
bring with them a member of the Consistory who can testify 
to their honesty, upon which they shall be considered as 
Netherlanders. Also that at the same time 48 young women 
or maids shall be sent out, particularly several who under- 
stand farming or have been brought up on a farm ; namely 
From the Chamber of Amsterdam . . . . 24 

From Zeeland . . . . . . . . . . 12 

And from the other Chambers three from each 12 

Making in all . . . . . . 48 

And further the above Regulation as well as that following 
shall be printed : — 

[See further resolution.] 

Extract uit de Resolutien van de Vergaderingen 
der Heeren Zeventienen, gedateerd 6 October 
1687 :— 

Gehoort synde het rapport van de Heeren Commissarissen 
ingevolge van de resolutie commissoriael van den i deses 
maents gebesoigneert hebbende over het werck van de uyt- 
geweecken pimontoisen off dalluyden, naementlyck off en 
hoedaenigen getal men daer van soude cunnen als vrije- 
luyden laeten gaen nae de Cabo de bonne Esperance, heeft 

Principal Documents. 127 

de vergaederingh nae lecture en resumtie van de rcsolutie 
van den 3 October 1685 op diergelijck subject genomen, 
verstaen deselve resolutie als noch te blyven inhereren. 
gelijk als die wort geinhereert by desen doch met die am- 
pliatie, dat dewyle daar by alleenlyck wort gesproocken van 
Fransche Vluchtelingen, dat het selve mede sal plaets hebben 
uit reguarde van de uytgeweecken piemontoisen off dal- 
luyden, onse geloofs verwanten, sulcx dat die daer onder 
mede sullen werden verstaen te syn begrepen, dat tot dien 
eynde eenige van de selve de Cameren van Amsterdam en 
Zeelant voorcomende, off haer genegentheyt toonende om 
derwaerts getransporteert te worden, op de Schepen die 
althans in equippagie leggen, sullen werden geplaetst tot 
soodanighen getal toe als de selve schepen bequamelyck 
sullen cunnen overvoeren. Dat soo haest de vordere eqxiip- 
pagie van Schepen vastgestelt, nader sal worden geresolveert 
op het verder getal daermede by de resp'' Cameren afi te 
senden en waer toe deselve by desen mede werden geauthori- 
seert, en dat onder toeseggingh dat men haar een frans 
predicant sal bestellen. Dat het reglement den voors. 3 
October 1685 gearresteert voor de vrijeluyden nae de 
Caap gaende, en daer onder de voors : fransche vluchtelingen, 
mitsgaders dalluyden, als nu mede gereeckent, soo oock den 
eedt daer achter aen volgende, beyde in de fransche taele 
sullen werden getranslateert, doch met die veranderingh, 
dat in plaetse dat der selver verbant aldaar is gestelt op 
vyftien jaeren, dat het selve voortaen sal wesen alleen voor 
vyf jaeren, en dat noch met die modificatie dat bij aldien 
iemant sigh daer by soude mogen vinden beswaert daer over 
alsdan aen de vergaderingh van de Seventiene sigh sal mogen 
adresseren, om mede vercortinge van die tijd te versoecken, 
die oock redenen daer toe dienende sal werden geaccordeert, 
luydende dienvolgende het voors : reglement soo en in voegen 
't selve op een nieuw is vastgestelt om als is geseyt te werden 
gedruckt oock in de fransche taele overgeseth als volght : — 

[See page 3.] 

Extract from the Resolutions of the Assembly of 
THE Seventeen, dated 6th October 1687. 

The Report of the Commissioners appointed according to 
the instructions of the Commissorial Resolution of ist of 
this month, concerning the question of the Piedmontese or 
Dalluyden^ Refugees, namely, how many of them might be 

Men of the Valleys. 

128 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

permitted to go to the Cape of Good Hope as freemen, having 
been heard, the Assembly, after the reading of the resolution 
of the 3rd October 1685 on the same subject, understands it 
to be still of force and it is hereby made effective, but with 
this amplification, that while in the first place only " French 
Refugees " are mentioned, the same treatment be accorded 
to the Piedmontese or Dalluyden, our co-religionists, so that, 
it is understood that they be included in the above. Thus 
should any of them appear at the Chambers of Amsterdam 
and Zeeland or show their desire to be transported to the 
Cape in the ships at present fully manned, passages shall be 
given to as many as the vessels are able to carry. 

That as soon as progress in manning the vessels is com- 
plete, it shall be further determined how many more shall 
be sent off from each Chamber, and where they shall be 
authorised to go, with the concession that they shall be 
provided with a French minister. 

That the Regulation passed on Oct. 3rd 1685, in connection 
with the Freemen going to the Cape, (among whom the above 
French Refugees and Dalluyden are to be included,) as well 
as the oath to be taken by them, be translated into French, 
with this further alteration that the engagement stated as 
for fifteen years be in future changed to five years only ; 
and with this modification, that should anyone during that 
time be in difficulties on account of this obligation, he appeal 
at once to the Assembly of Seventeen to shorten the period. 
The regulation, therefore, and any new one confirming it, if 
there be any, is to be translated into and printed in French, 
and reads as follows. . . . 

[See page 3.] 

Extract uit de Resolutien 21.11.1719. 

De volgende namen zijn uit een lijst genomen van diegenen 
in het boek van " Vrije lieden " verschenen en waren aan de 
Compagnie schuldig. De biezonderheden hier gegeven zijn 
met betrekking tot de naam, geboorte plaats, in wezen of 
overleden, woonplaats, en hoeveel zij aan de Compagnie 
schuldig zijn : — 

" Estienne Bruere is in wesen, woond over de Bergh Rivier 
omtrent de Wagemakers Vallije, en in staad om jaar- 
lijx iets aftedoen . . . . . . • • / 357 ^^ ^ 

Francois Bastiaansz van Armentiers is overleden, dogh 
desselfs wed® hertrouwt met Guddert Jansz van 
Keulen, en in staad jaarlijx iets afteleggen / 207 15 o 

Princif>al Documents. 129 

Hendrik Mantje is in wesen, woond aan de Zoute Rivier 

agter 't fort, en rijd klippen . . . . / 89 12 8 

Jan de Bus is in wesen, gaat bij de buy ten luij arbeijden, 

en in staad jaarlijx iets afteleggen . . / 90 o o 

Gabriel le Roux is overleden, dogh desselfs wed leeft en 

word van de diaconij onderhouden . . / 328 5 o 
Jan Roux is overleden, dogh desselfs wed« hertrouwt met 

Philip Menaer en in staad jaarlijx iets aftedoen 

/ 189 17 o 
Charles le Longh is in wesen, dogh arm en buijten staad, 

en gaat bij de luijden voor de cost arbeijden 

/ 153 4 10 
Jacob Nortje is in wesen heeft vrouw en kinders, en gaat 

bij dese en geene om de kost te winnert , . / 144 o o 
Jan Talifer de Jonge is in wesen, en heeft het nevenst* 

in 7 ber (September) in cassa voldaan . . / 48 o o 

De volgende personen sijn insolvent, gestorven, 
gefugeert en onbekent bevonden als : 
Charles Provo v Calis overleden . . . . / 119 17 8 

Jan Hardie v Niemes onbekent . . . . / 371 8 5 

Nicolaas de Lanoij overleden . . . . / 421 19 6 

Pieter Imbert onbekent . . . . / 67 o 14 

Johannes Jurgens v Cortryk onbekent . . / 119 12 6 
Pieter Jacobsz v Calis overleden . . . . / 552 i 8 

Daniel Jacobsz overleden . . . . / 42 o o " 

Extract from Resolutions 21.11.1719, 

The following names have been extracted from a list of 
those who appeared in the book of " free persons " and were 
indebted to the Company. The particulars given refer to 
the name, place of origin, whether alive, where residing and 
amount of indebtedness. 

" Estienne Bruere is alive, lives beyond the Bergh River, in 
the neighbourhood of Wagonmakers Valley, and is 
able to pay off something yearly . . / 357 10 o 

Francois Bastiaansz of Armentiers is dead, but his widow 
is married to Guddert Jansz of Keulen, and in a 
position to pay off something annually . . / 207 15 o 
Hendrik Mantje is alive, lives on the banks of Salt River 
behind the Fort, and drives wagon loads of stones, 

/89 12 8 

Jan de Bus is alive, works for the country people, and 

is in a position to pay something annually / 90 o o 

Gabriel le Roux is dead, but his widow is ahve and is 

supported by the Diaconate Fund [Poor Fund] 

/528 5 o 

130 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Jan Roux is dead, but his widow is married to Philip 
Menaer and is able to pay something annually 

/ 189 17 o 

Charles le Longh is alive but poor and not in a position 

to pay anything ; he works for his food . . / 153 4 10 

Jacob Nortjes is alive, has a wife and children, and does 

odd jobs here and there to earn enough for their food, 

/ 144 o o 

Jan Talifer the Younger is alive, and paid the following 

amount into the treasury last September / 48 o o 

The following persons have become insolvent, died, 

fled or are unknown : — 

Charles Provo from Calais, deceased .. / 119 17 8 

Jan Hardie from Niemes, unknown . . / 371 8 5 
Nicolaas de Lanoy, deceased . . • • / 421 19 6 

Pieter Imbert, unknown . . . . . . / 67 o 14 

Johannes Jurgens, from Cortrijk, unknown / 119 12 6 
Pieter Jacobsz, from Calais, deceased . . / 552 I 8 
Daniel Jacobsz, deceased .. .. .. / 42 o o 


December 1687 van de Kamer Delft. 
Ordre en Reglement.i 

Ter Vergaderingh van de Seventiene, de Generale Nederlantse 
Geoctrojeerde Oost-Indische Compagnie representerende 
gearresteert, waer op de Kameren sullen vermogen eenige 
Luyden en Familien, daer onder mede begrepen Fransche 
Vluchtelingen, soo oock uytgeweecken Piemontoisen of 
Dalluyden, haer voorkomende, te transporteren en over te 
brengen nae de Cabo de Bonne Esperance. 

Die geene die alleen of met syn FamiUe nae de Caap soeckt 
te gaen, sal tot dien eynde passagie derwaerts op een van 
de Schepei? van de Compagnie werden geaccordeert, en buyten 
kosten of lasten overgebracht, mits doende den Eedt van 
getrouwigheyt aen de gemelte Compagnie. 

Des sal geen andere of verdere Bagagie mogen mede nemen 
als tot noodigh gebruyck onderwegen van doen sal hebben, 
en dat ter discretie van de Bewinthebberen daer hy sal komen 
uyt te varen, verstaende buyten Contanten, alsoo hem sal 
vry staen die mede te nemen. 

Voorts sal hij hem aen de Cabo de Bonne Esperance 
moeten te neder stellen, om hem aldaer te erneren, 't zy 
met de Landt-bouw, of met het geene van syn Industrie, 
Wetenschap, Handt-werck of Ambacht, soude mogen wesen. 

' Printed in Spoelstra, 2-641 . 

Principal Documents. 131 

Die sich met den Landt-bouw sal soecken te gedoen, sal 
soo veel Landt in eygendom werden gegeven als hy sal 
kunnen beheeren, aen dewelcke des nooth synde, ter Leen 
sullen mede werden verstreckt alle noodige Bouwgereet- 
schappen, Zaet-Koorn en Bestiael, om dat weder aen de 
Compagnie met Koorn, en anders na gelegenheyt goet te doen. 

Die als vooren dervvaerts aengaet 't sy alleen of met syn 
vrouw en kinderen, of wel jonge Dochters mede alleen, 
sullen gehouden zyn daer te Lande te verblyven den tydt 
van vyf jaeren, met dien verstande nochtans dat by aldien 
iemand sigh by die tydt van vyf jaeren nogh soude mogen 
vinden beswaert, dat hy sigh aen de Caep zynde, daer over 
aen de gemelte Vergaderinge van de Seventiene by requeste 
sal vermogen te addresseeren, en verkortinge versoecken, 
die oock, redenen daer toe dienende, sal werden geaccordeert. 

Die na expiratie van de voorsz. vyf jaeren weder na dese 
Landen sal soecken te gaen, sal voor transport en Kost-geldt 
betaelen als volght, alle Mans en Vrouws-Persoonen twaelf 
jaeren en daer boven oudt zynde voor haer transport yeder 
Hondert en vyftigh gulden, en die beneden de twaelf jaeren 
oudt zyn, vyf en seventigh guldens, en daer en boven voor 
Kost-geldt, de Mans-Persoonen die in de Cajuyt sullen kunnen 
worden geaccommodeert dertigh stuyvers, die in de Hut, 
achtien stuyvers, en by 't gemeene Volck negen stuyvers, 
de Vrouws-Persoonen boven de twrelf jaeren oudt zynde, 
die in de Cajuyt sullen eeten eene gulden, in de Hutte twaelf 
stuyvers, en by 't gemene Volck negen stuyvers 's daegs, 
suUende de voorsz. betalinge werden gedaen voor den tydt 
van vier Maenden, volgens Recepisse daer van te verleenen, 
onder die conditie en toesegginge nochtans, dat indien eenige 
van deselve op de reyse souden mogen komen te overlyden, 
ter Kamer aen dewelcke de Schepen geconsigneert gaen, aen 
der selver Erfgenamen of recht verkregen hebbende sal werden 
gerestitueert, soo veel by of van wegen de selve nae advenant 
de voorseyde vier Maenden van haer vertreck af, tot haer 
afsterven toe gereeckent, 't over of te veel betaelt soude mogen 
wesen, sonder datse nochtans sullen vermogen eenige Koop- 
manschappen met haer van daer te brengen, oock geen 
andere ommeslagh van goedercn als tot haer lyf en anders is 
behoorende, sullende alle 't overige, als by haer tegen de ordre 
overgebraght, hier te Lande ten profyte van de Compagnie 
werden aengehouden, maer 't geene Zy-luyden daer te Lande 
souden mogen hebben geprospeert, sullen sy gehouden zyn 
in geldt te converteeren ; en 't selve aen de Compagnie op 
wissel te tellen, om haer hier te Lande geldt om geldt met 
de ordinaris advance van 4 per Cento weder te werden goet 

132 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Letters Received 1685-1687 Annexure to Letter dated 
19TH December 1687 from Chamber Delft. 

Rules and Regulations 

of the Assembly of the Seventeen, representing the General 
Netherlands East Indies Chartered Company, whereby it is 
enacted that the Chambers be empowered to transport and 
ship to the Cape of Good Hope certain persons and their 
families, among whom may be included French Refugees 
as well as emigrant Piedmontese or Dalluyden, who may 
appear suitable to them. 

Those who desire to go to the Cape, either alone or accom- 
panied by their families, will be given a free passage there 
on one of the ships of the Company, and be taken over free 
of all expense whatsoever, on condition that they take the 
oath of allegiance to the Company referred to above. 

That no further luggage is to be taken besides what 
will be needed during the voyage, and that which the dis- 
cretion of the Directors consider sufficient for their needs, 
understanding that they shall be allowed to take specie free. 

Further, they must settle at the Cape of Good Hope and 
earn a living there either by farming or with the fruits of 
their industry, knowledge, handiwork or trade. 

Those who decide to go in for farming will be given as much 
land in freehold as they are able to cultivate, in addition to 
which all necessary articles for farming will be lent to them 
as need arises, such as seed for corn, or oxen, and these may 
be paid for in corn or anything else as occasion offers. 

Those who, as stated, sail for the Cape either alone or 
accompanied by wives and children, or in the case of young 
women, alone, will be bound to remain there for a period of 
five years, with the understanding that if, during that time, 
anyone should find himself in difficulties at the Cape, he be 
entitled to address a request to the Seventeen to reduce the 
length of this period, and this request will be granted if good 
cause be shown for making it. 

Those who, after the expiration of the five years, wish to 
return to these shores, shall be allowed to return on pa-ying 
for their passage and for their food on board, as follows : 

All men, and women twelve years of age and older, one 
hundred and fifty guilders^ (£13 15 o) for passage ; 
those under twelve, seventy-five guilders {£6 17 6). 

' One guilder equals is. lod. 

Principal Documents. 133 

For food on board, per day : 
Men : — 

Those accommodated in the saloon, 30 stuivers (2/6). 
Those accommodated in the stern, 18 stuivers (1/6). 
Those accommodated with the common folk, 9 stuivers 
Women : — 

Over twelve years of age : — In saloon, i guilder (i/io) ; 
in stern, 12 stuivers (i/-) ; with common folk, 9 
stuivers (gd.). 
These charges are to be paid in advance for four months, 
and a receipt to show this will be handed over by the 
Company, on this condition, however, that should any 
passenger die on the voyage the heirs or legal possessors of the 
estate would be refunded by the Chamber to which the vessel 
was consigned the proportional amount paid in excess, after 
the length of time between the commencement of the voyage 
until the person's death had been taken into consideration ; 
that no merchandise from the colony being allowed in their 
luggage, all that which was not personal property would be 
seized and sold for the Company's profit as having been 
brought contrary to the Company's orders ; but that what- 
ever they saved here they ought to convert into money, which 
they should then exchange with the Company, when they 
would, on arrival in the Netherlands, receive not only their 
own money, but also additional commission of four per cent. 

Extract uit brief gedateerd 16 November 1687 van 


. . . Alleenlyk sal dese dienen om U.E. bekent te maken, 
dat wy geresolveert hebben U.E. neffens andere vryeluyden 
mede te laeten toekomen eenige Fransche en Piemontoise 
Vlughtelingen en dat op soodanigen voet en conditien als het 
reglement dienaengaende gemaeckt, waer van eenige exem- 
plaeren soo in de Nederlants als Fransche taelen hier neffens 
werden gesonden breder dicteert, alle van gereformeerde 
religie, tot oeffeningh van welcke wij haer mede een predicant 
hebben g'accordeert, die met een van schepen van Camer 
van Zeelant staet aftegaen. Onder deselve sullen U.E. mede 
vinden wyngardeniers, mitsgrs. die haer op 't maken van 
Brandewijn en azyn verstaenen waermede wy houden dat 
het gebreck waer over U.E. dienaengaende klaegen met eenen 
zal wesen voldaen. 

De voorsz. Luyden sullen U.E. als van alles ontbloot synde 
op haer aenkomste de hant moeten bieden en furneren 't 
geene tot haere subsistentie sal nodigh wesen tot datse 
geseten sullen syn en haer eygen kost kunnen winnen arbeijt- 

134 Tlic French Refugt'cs at the Cape. 

saeme menschen sijnde en die haer met weijnigh laeten 
vernoegen, en sullen U.E. daermede wyders hebben te 
handelen, gelyk wij U.E. voor dese in 't reguarde van vrye- 
luyden van onse natie hebben aengeschreven en geordonneert. 
Wanneer de voorsz : vrijeluyden wat meerder ingetale 
sullen aengewassen wesen, sal het strecken tot een groote 
ontlastinge van t Guarnisoen dat wij tot nogh toe tot sulcke 
sware lasten en kosten van Comp^ doen hebben onderhouden. 
Als men sonde uijtreeckenen wat en hoeveel ons de Caep 
die tot nogh toe alleen often principalen gedient heeft tot 
een verversch plaets voor de gaende en komende schepen 
heeft gekost soude dat een emensi somme importeren en daer 
om sal men op middelen moet dencken komen die ons voor- 
taen min costen sal kunnen doen vallen. 

Letters Received : Extract from Letter dated i6th 
Nov. 1687. From the Seventeen to the Cape. 

. , . This is solely to inform you that we have resolved 
to send you, besides other freemen, some French and Pied- 
montese Refugees and that they are to be placed upon such 
a footing and under such conditions as the Regulations 
concerning them lay down, of which several copies in the 
Dutch and French languages are sent herewith, and will 
explain more fully. They are all Protestants, and we have 
granted them a minister so that they may enjoy the exercise 
of their religion. He is to take passage on one of the ships 
of the Chamber of Zeeland. Among them your Honours 
will find vine cultivators as well as those who understand 
the manufacture of brandy and vinegar, so that we hope 
that the lack of these articles so frequently deplored by you 
will now be supplied. 

These people are now destitute, and on their arrival they 
are to be welcomed by you and supplied with whatever is 
necessary for their subsistence until they have settled down 
and are able to earn their own living. They are industrious 
people, satisfied with little, and your Honours are to give 
them the same treatment as is laid down by us for freemen 
of our own nation at the Cape. 

As soon as the freemen referred to have increased numeri- 
cally, the result will be that the garrison at the Cape may be 
diminished, as it has always been a heavy tax on the Com- 
pany's resources. If it were to be calculated how much the 
Cape has cost, although until now it has served solely, or 
principally, as a refreshment station for passing vessels to 
or from India, it would amount to an immense sum, and 
therefore such measures as are likely to reduce the expendi- 
ture for the future must be considered. 

Principal Documents. 


Extract uit de Resolutien van de Vergadering der 
Heeren Zeventienen, gedateerd I April 1688. 

Voort synde het rapport van de Heeren Commissarissen 
naegesien, en geexamineert hebbende de Lysten vervattende 
de naeraen en 't getal dergenen die met de laetste schepen 
nae Indien syn afgegaen, om haar als Coloniers aen Cabo de 
bonne Esperance te erneren, breder in 't 8^ point van be- 
schryvinge vermelt, is bevonden deselve in soo veel en 
soodaenige persoonen te bestaen, als in de hieronder gestelde 
notitie, die de vergaderingh goet gevonden heeft dat in de 
notulen sal werden geinsereert, staen vervath. 

L5^te van t getal der geener die met de laest vertrocken 
Schepen by de volgende Cameren nae Indien syn afgegaen 
om haer als Coloniers aen de Cabo de Bonne Esperance ter 
neder te setten, 

Fransche Vlugtelingen. 
By Zeelant mans personen . . . . • • 15 

By Amsterdam „ . . . . . . 6 

By Delft „ 12 

By Rotterdam „ . . . , • • 15 

By Hoorn „ . . . . 8 

By Zeelant vrouws personen 
By Amsterdam „ 

By Delft 

By Rotterdam „ 

By Hoorn „ 

By Zeelant 
By Amsterdam 
By Delft 
By Rotterdam 
By Hoorn 



- 56 








— 41 

fransche als piemontoisen 


saemen soo 

Noch staen met Zuyt Bevelani van de Camer van 
Zeelant aff te gaen 
Mans personen 
Vrouws personen . . 
Kinderen, soo Jongens als Doghten- 

En Sulx in alles te saemen, personen 



— 25 

[Afgeschreven van'n kopie door Dr. G. McC. Theal van het origineel 
in de Archief aan den Haag. Kaapse Archief, C200. j 


The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Extract from the Resolutions of the Assembly of 
THE Council of Seventeen, dated April ist, 1688. 

Further the report of the Commissioners was scrutinized, 
and it was found upon examination that the Hsts containing 
the names and numbers of those who sailed for India with 
the last boats in order to earn a living as Colonists at the 
Cape of Good Hope, more fully notified in the 8th point of 
the letter, contained so many and such persons' names as 
are contained in the notice given below, which the Assembly 
are satisfied should be inserted in the minutes. 

List of the numbers of those who left with the last vessels 
for India from the following Chambers, in order to settle as 
colonists at the Cape of Good Hope. 

French Refugees. 

From Zeeland 


.. 15 

From Amsterdam 

j> . . . 

.. 6 

From Delft 

„ . . . 

.. 12 

From Rotterdam 

,, . . , 

.. 15 

From Hoorn 

„ . . . 

.. 8 

From Zeeland 


.. 9 

From Amsterdam 


.. 6 

From Delft 


.. 4 

From Rotterdam 


.. 6 

From Hoorn 


.. 4 

From Zeeland 


.. 23 

From Amsterdam 

,, . . . 

• 3 

From Delft 


.. 6 

From Rotterdam 


.. 7 

From Hoorn 



- 56 

— 29 

— 41 

Totalling French and Piedmontese refugees 


The following number still remains to proceed with the 
Zuid Beveland from the Chamber Zeeland : 

Men II 

Women . . . . . . . . 4 

Children, boys and girls . . . . 10 

— 25 

Making altogether . . 151 persons. 

[Copy of a copy made from the original in the Hague Archives by 
Dr. G. McC. Theal (Cape Archives, Reference C200).] 

:der selver kinderen 

Principal Documents. 137 

Extract uit brief 19 December 1687 van de Kamer 
Delft. C.512. 

Met dit schip^ staen mede van hier te gaen de volgende 
persoonen, die om de vervolginge tegens de waere gerefor- 
meerde Religie in Vrankrijk bij ons sijn overgekomen, die 
nu volgens Resolutie van de vergaderingh der Heeren 17 
en 't reglement aen de Caep moeten werden geplaetst en als 
vrije luijden tot den lantbouw en andere hantwercken ge- 
bruijkt, wij recommandeeren U : E : deselve in alles behulp- 
saem te wesen waer aen de Compe in 't particulier en de 
kercks godsdienst sal geschieden — ^namentlijk 

Charles Marais uijt plessis in Vrankrijk 
Catarina Taboureux sijn huijsvrouw 
Claude Marais out 24 jaeren' 
Charles Marais 19 jaeren 
Isaac Marais 10 jaeren 

Marie Marais 6 jaeren_ 

Philippe Fouche 
Anne Fouche sijn huijsvrouw 
Anne Fouche 6 jaeren^j 

Esther Fouche 5 jaeren I haere kinderen 3 
Jacques Fouche 3 jaeren j 
Marguerite Basche jonge dogter out 23 jaeren 
Estienne Bruere jonghman oud 23 jaeren is een wagen- 

Jacques Pinard, oud 23 jaer Is 

een timmerman. 
'Esther Fouche out 21 jaeren 

jonge dogter 
Pierre Sabatie, out 22 "de Massiere jongman 
Jean Leroux out 21 jaeren jonghman 
Gedeon Malherbe 25 jaeren jonghman. 
Jean Paste 25 jaeren jongman 
Panel Godefroy 22 jaeren jongman 
Gasper Fouche 21 jaeren 
Gabriel Le roux out 17 jaeren 

Letters Received : Extract from Letter dated 19TH 
Dec. 1687. From the Chamber of Delft, 

Of those who came over to us on account of the persecution 
of the Reformed Religion in France, the following persons 
are proceeding to the Cape on this vessel (Vocrschooten) in 
accordance with the Resolution and Regulation of the 
Seventeen at Amsterdam, namely, that they are to be settled 

' Voorschooten. 

Dese 2 sijn alhier voor 
haer vertreck te sa- 
men getrouwt 

138 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

as freemen at the Cape, and to pursue the farming industry 
or whatever other handicraft they are skilled in, and we 
recommend your Honours to assist them in every way 
possible, particularly in connection with the Company and 
in the matter of Church services : — 

Charles Marais from Plessis in France. 

Catarina Taboureux, his wife. 

Claude Marais 24 years old 

Charles Marais IQ „ i /-t u r ^, , 

Isaac Marais 10 „ >Children of the above. 

Marie Marais 6 „ 

PhiUppe Fouche 

Anne Fouche his wife 

Anne Fouche 6 years old 

Esther Fouche 5 „ 

Jacques Fouche 3 „ 

Marguerite Basche, spinster, 23 years old. 

Estienne Bruere, bachelor, 23 years old, and is a wagon 


These two were"! , t>- j u t 

Jacques Fmard 23 years old. Is a 

B carpenter. 

Esther Fouche 21 years old. Spinster. 

Pierre Sabatie 22 years old. Bachelor, " de Massiere." 

Jean Leroux 21 years old. Bachelor. 

Gedeon Malherbe 25 years old. Bachelor. 

Jean Paste 25 years old. Bachelor. 

Pauel Godefroy 22 years old. Bachelor. 

Gasper Fouche 21 years old. 

Gabriel Le roux 17 years old. 

Namen van de fransche gereformeerde vluchtelinge toe 
gestaen op het reglement en Eedt als vrije luijde te ver- 
trecken naer de Cabo de bonne Esperance met het schip 
Oosterlant : 

Jacques de Savoije van Aeth 

Maria Magdalena le Clerck van tournay syn huijsvrouw 

Anthonette Camoij van tournay : de schoonmoeder van 

Jacques d'Savoije. 
Margo out 17 jaren \ 

barbere out 15 ren 1- AUe kinderen van Jaecques 
Jacques out 9 maendenj de Savoije 

JeanNortie \ y t 1 "d 1 
JacobNortieJ ^ ^ j^Domistique van 

Daniel Nortie boere timmerm. C Jacques d'Savoije. 
Maria Vijtou zyn huijsvrouw J 

married here 
before leaving 
for the Cape. 

AUe kinderen van Isaach talifer 
en Susanna briet 

Principal Documents. 139 

Jan Prieur du plessy van portieers is een chirurgijn van 
syn stijl heeft op St. Christoffel gewoont. 

Magdaleena Menanto van portieers zijnne huijsvrouw 

Isaach talifer de Chateau tirrij en brie is een wijngar- 
dinier : en hoedemaecker 
Susanna briet d' Chateau : tirrij zij huijsvrouw 

Elyasbet out 14 jaren 

Jean out 12 jaren 

Isaach out 7 jaren 

Pierre out 5 jaren 

Susanna out 2i jaren 

Maria out i jaer 

Sara Avice d'Chateau dun : jongedochter 

Jan Cloudon van Conde is een schoenmaecker van syn 

Jan de buijse van Calais lantbouwer 

Jan parisel van paris lantbouwer 

En hebbe alle dese voorenstaende mans persoonen gedaen 
den Eedt in hande van de heer galernis tresel als schepe 
binnen deser stadt Middelb. op de 8 Januar : Ao 1688. 

Names of the French Protestant Refugees permitted to 
depart for the Cape of Good Hope as " freemen " in the 
ship Oosterlant according to the regulation and oath. 

Jacques de Savoije of Aeth. 
Maria Magdalena le Clerck of Tournay, his wife 
Margo 17 years old ^ ^jj ^^^^^^^ ^^ 

barbere 15 years old jaecques de Savoije 

Jacques 9 months old ) 
Jean Nortie ^ r- . 
Jacob Nortie/^°^"*^y™^" 
Daniel Nortie Farm carpenter 
Maria Vijtou, his wife 
Jan Prieur du plessy of Portieers is a surgeon by pro 

fession ; lived at St. Christopher. 
Magdaleena Menanto of Portieers, his wife. 
Isaac talifer of Chateau tirrij en brie is a vinegrower 

and hatter. 
Susanna briet of Chateau tirrij, his wife. 

Elysabet 14 years old 

The servants of 
Jacques d'Savoije. 

Jean 12 years old 
Isaach 7 years old 
Pierre 5 years old 
Susanna 2-| years old 
Maria i year old 
Sara Avice of Chateau dun : spinster. 

All children of Isaach talifer 
and Susanna briet. 

140 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Jan Cloudon of Conde is a shoemaker b}^ trade. 
Jan de buijse of Calais. A farmer. 
Jan parisel of Paris. A farmer. 

All the above men have taken the oath before Mr. Galemis 
Tresel, magistrate in this town of Middelburg on the 8th Jan. 
Anno 1688 

Extract uit brief 23 December 1687 van de Kamer 

. . . de volgende mans en vrouw persoonen voorgekomen 
cm pr t schip China over te varen, en hun aldaer tot den 
landtbouw en oeffinge in den wijngaert ter neder te setten, 
en waer toe UE de selve de behulpsame handt gelieven te 
bieden met soodanige onderhoudt en anders te doen als de 
selve nodig mochten hebben, tot dat zij hun selfs konnen 
generen, en waer toe UE : haer ten eersten aenwijsinge gelieven 
te doen, om aent werck te geraeken, alles volgens de ordre 
en reglement UE : desen aangaande toegesonden by de heeren 
17, hier onder zijn luijden die hun op den wijngaert culture 
verstaen, en die den Comp* en haer zelven inder tijdt voor- 
deel souden kunnen doen, wij siin van gevoelen na die dese 
menschen haer klynelyck weten te behelpen dat se haer aen 
de Caep oock wel sullen kunnen schicken tot haer, werck 
alshaer nu onder een sachter handt gerust vindende en van 
hare geledene vervolginge bewrijdt zien t gunt de tydt sal 
leeren, de namen van de voorn : gereformeerde vlugtelinge 
en die van yders familie zyn als volgt 

I Jean Mesnart oudt 28 jaren en de 

I Louise Corbonne out 30 jaren zijn vrouw 

I Marie Anthonarde haer schoonmoeder out 64 

jaren - i^ - 

6 kinderen van de voorenstaende persoonen Jean 

Mesnard en zyn vrouw, met namen 

Jeanne jongedochter van 10 jaren 

George jongen . . 9 

Jaques jongen . . 8 

Jean jongen . . . . 7 

Philippe jongen . . 6 
— Andre jongkint van 5 maenden 
t zamen 9 personen in dese familie 

I Anthoine Madan out 38 jaren en Elisabeth 

I Verdette zijn vrouw out 23 jaren 

I dochterken genaamt out 10 maenden 

Sa 3 in dese familie 

Principal Documents. 141 

I Jeanne Marthe wed : van Jourdan out 60 jaren 

I Jean Jordan haer zoon out 28 jaren 

I Pierre Jourdan idem 24 do. 

I Marie Jourdan wed. out 40 jaren 

I Jeanne Rousse haer dochter out 15 jaren 

I Marie Rousse haer dochter out 10 jaren 

I Margarete Rousse haer dochter 7 jaren 

Sa 7 personen in dese famihe 

I Pierre Malan out 23 jaren met zijn vrouw 
I Isabeau Richarde out 20 jaren 

Sa 2 personen in dese familie 

I pierre goiraud out 30 jaren met 

I francoise Rousse sijn vrouw 28 jaren 

Sa 2 personen 

I Jaques Verdeau jongman out 20 jaren 

1 Arcule Verdeau zijn breeder 16 jaren 

2 personen 

I pierre Grange jongman out 23 jaren 

1 Louise Corbon jongman zijn cousin 20 jaren 

2 personen 

I Susanne Resue jongedochter out 20 jaren 

I pierre Jourdaan jongman out 24 jaren 
I Paul Jourdan jongman 22 do. 

I Andre pelanchon 15 Go- 

alie cousins germain 

3 personen 

I Mathieu frachasse jongman out 26 jaren 

I Jean Furet jongman out 18 jaren 

I Anthoine Scaet jongman out 19 jaren 

't zamen uijtmakende vier en dertig 
personen jongh en out. 

142 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Letters Received : Extract from a letter dated 23RD 
Dec. 1687 FROM the Chamber of Amsterdam. 

The following men and women presented themselves to 
take passage on the ship China, in order to settle (at the Cape) 
and cultivate land and plant vineyards. Your Honours are 
requested to render them all the assistance in your power 
with such subsistence or any other necessity which they may 
require, until such time as they are able to earn a livelihood, 
and your Honours are further requested to advise them at 
first how to get to work, according to the orders and regula- 
tions sent to you by the Seventeen. Among these there are 
men who understand vine-growing, who will be of value to 
the Company and themselves in the future. We are of 
opinion, since these people are able to help themselves 
in a small way, that at the Cape they will be able to adapt 
themselves to the work, as finding themselves settled under 
a lenient Government, and feeling free from past persecution. 
This time alone can effect. 

The following are the names of the Protestant Refugees 
referred to, with those of each ones family : 

I Jean Mesnart 28 years old, and 

I Louise Corbonne, his wife, 30 years old. 

I Marie Anthonarde, her mother-in-law. 

6 children belonging to the above persons, Jean 

Mesnard and his wife, named 

Jeanne, girl, 10 years old. 

George, boy, 9 

Jacques, „ 8 ,, 

Jean, „ 7 

Philippe, ,, 6 ,, 
— Andre. Infant of 5 months. 

Altogether 9 persons in this family. 

I Anthoine Madan 38 years old, and Elisabeth 
I Verdette, his wife, 23 years old. 
I girl, named , 10 months old. 

Altogether 3 in this family. 

I Jeanne Marthe, widow of Jourdan 60 years 

of age. 
I Jean Jordan, her son, 28 years old. 
I Pierre Jourdan, idem 24 years old. 
I Marie Jourdan, widow 40 years old. 
I Jeanne Rousse, her daughter, 15 years old. 
I Marie Rousse ,, 10 

I Margarete Rousse, ,, 7 

Altogether 7 persons in this family. 

Principal Documents. 143 

I Pierre Malan 23 years old, and his wife 
I Isabeau Richarde 20 years old. 

Altogether 2 persons in this family. 

I pierre goiraud 30 years old, with 

I francoise Rousse his wife 28 years old 

Altogether 2 persons in this family. 

I Jaques Verdeau, bachelor, 23 years old. 
I Arcule Verdeau, his brother, 16 years old. 

Altogether 2 persons in this family. 

I pierre Grange, bachelor, 23 years old. 
I Louise Corbon, bachelor, his cousin, 20 years 
— old. 

Altogether 2 persons. 

I Susanne Resue spinster 20 years old. 

I pierre Jourdaan, bachelor, 24 years old. 
I Paul Jourdan, „ 22 „ 

I Andre pelanchon, „ 15 „ 

All cousins german 
Altogether 3 persons. 

I Mathieu frachasse, bachelor, 26 years old. 

I Jean Furet, bachelor, 18 years old. 

I Anthonie Scaet, bachelor, 19 years old. 

Making altogether 34 persons young and old. 

Extract uit Brief 21 Juli 1688 van de Kamer 

Wij 't Wapen van Alcmaer in plaetse van Schielant souden 
acnleggen, en daermede wel apparent tot U.E. oversenden 
tusschen de twee a drie honderd verdrevene Waldensen uyt 
de valeyen van Sayoyen en Piemont, daer nae syn die luyden, 
tegens de zee en verre reyse aensiende, van gedaghten verran- 
dert, en hebben haer in Duytslant ter nedergeslagen, hier 
tegens hebben wy op dit schip gestelt omtrent veertigh 
zielen Fransche Vlughtelingen in den lant bouw opgevoet, 
die de hant aenstonts aen de Ploegs en wyngaert kunnen 
slaen, en waer toe U.E. haer lant, Saet kooren, en wat meeris, 
conform de ordre sullen hebben aen te wysen. . . . 

144 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Letters Received : Extract from a letter dated 2ist 
July 1688 from the Chamber Amsterdam. 
, . . We are equipping the Wapen van Alkmaar in place 
of the Schielant, and instead of sending you, as promised, 
200 or 300 exiled Waldenses, from the valleys of Savoy and 
Piedmont, who, at the thought of the sea and the long voyage, 
changed their minds and settled in Germany, we are sending 
forty French Refugees on this ship, who have a good know- 
ledge of farming, are able to plough or plant a vineyard, 
and are to be supplied by your Honours with land, seed 
corn, and whatever else they require, in accordance with 
the instructions sent you. . . . 

Inkomende Brieven 1688-1689. Bylage aan brief 30 
December 1689 ^^^ Batavia. 

Eerste Wissel Brieff 

De Heer Commandeur Sijmon van der Stel mitsgaders 
den Raad aan de Caap de Goede Hoop ; laten desen onsen 
eersten wissel, (de twede onbetaalt zijnde) ten behoeve der 
france vlugtelingen voldoen ; aan den predicant Pierre 
Simont ; en de voornaamste uijt deselve in qualite van 
besorgers, de somma van ses duj^ent rijxd' a 48 sware 
stuyvers ider ; sijnde soo veel de broeders diaconen desen 
stede ; alhier in s Comp' Cassa hebben geteld, in gelijcke 
munt ; en waar voor 't Comptoir Generaal behoorlijck is 
gecrediteert ; ten eijnde door deselve predicant en besorgers 
in presentie van twee gecommitteerdens uijt de politie ge- 
distribueert te werden; onder vorengen**" france vlugte- 
lingen, resideerende aan de Caap boven gemelt. 

Batavia In 't Casteel adij 23en Xbr 1689. 

Joan Camphuys. 
Zegge rijx'*^ 6000 
Bs. lanoij;: 

Letters Received 1688-1689. Annexure to Letter 
DATED 30TH December 1689 from Batavia. 

First Bill of Exchange. 

To the Commander Simon van der Stel and Council at 
the Cape of Good Hope ; pay upon demand this our first 
bill of exchange (the second being unpaid) in favour of the 
French Refugees ; to the minister Pierre Simont ; and the 
more important of the Refugees in the office of controllers, 
the sum of six thousand rixdollars at 48 stuivers (heavy) 
each ; being the amount paid into the Company's exchequer 

Principal Documents. 145 

here by the brother deacons of this town in the same coin ; 
with which the Receiver-General has been duly credited ; 
in order that the money may be distributed among the 
French Refugees mentioned above residing at the Cape as 
stated, by the minister and controllers in the presence of 
two Commissioners from the Council of Policy. 

In the Castle, Batavia, on 23rd Dec. 1689. 

Joan Camphuijs. 
Say Rix"!* 6000 
Bs lanoij : 

Resolutien 1686-1699. C.5. 

Maandag den 8 Novemb': 1688. In 
iegenwoordigheid van alle de Leden 
behalven den E. Capitain Dominique De 
Chavonnes en S"" Ludoviq van der Stel.^ 

Omme den Eerwaarde D. Petrus Simond Bedienaar des 
Goddelijken woords in de franse taal sijn ampt gevoeglijxt 
en op 't spoedigste des doenlijk waar te doen neemen ; so is 
eenpaariger stemme verstaan, hem seker stuq lands tusschen 
Draikestein en Stellenbosch gelegen, en voor so veel hi] sal 
konnen beheeren in eijgendom te vergunnen; en gemerkt 
d' E, Comp : de handen thans vol eigen werkx heeft, en dat 
't haar ongelegen komt op haar kosten an Drakestein of 
Stellenbosch t' sijnen verdoen een bekwaame woning op te 
regten, en dat hij in onvermogen is om sig selvs van huijs- 
vesting te konnen versien, en egter het hoognodig is, hij so 
haast 't immers mogehjk zij onder 't dak geholpen werde; 
oversulx sal hem de behulpsame hand 's Comp^: wegen 
geboden, en ter leen gegeeven werden een wagen met ses 
trek ossen en sijn toebehooren, mitsg^: een rij-paard nevens 
tvre timmerluijden, om in de naast gelegene bosschen 't 
vereijschte timmerhout te kappen, en uijt 't selve een propre 
woning op te regten, waar toe hem de weinige nodige 
materialen, mitsg^ enige verdere klenigheden uijt 's Comp» 
pakhuijs sullen gegeeven werden. 

En angesien de franse so wel an Stellenbosch als Drakestein 
geseten zijn, en om alle misnoegen te beneemen 't welk uijt 
't gemak om ter preke te gaan mogte rijsen, so sal sijn opge- 
melde eerwaarde wisselinx d' eene sondag an Stellenbosch 
en d' andere an Drakestein praediken, guns in de kerk, hier 
in 't best gelege en bekwaamste vriimans huijs, ten tijde toe 
dat God middelen en gelegenheid tot 't bouwen van sijn huijs 
sal verleenen. 

' Printed in Spoelstra, 2-599. 

146 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

En gehoord hebbende de goede getuijgenissen, ook genomen 
proevender bekwaamheid van den Vrijman Paul Roux, word 
deselve in 's Comp^ dienst als voorleeser en schoolmeester in 
de franse taal tot / 15 p"^ m** en drie realen kostgeld aange- 

Verders is verstaan dat de meergemelde Eerwaarde D. 
Petrus Simond sessie in Kerken-raade an Stellenbosch sal 
hebben, gelijk mede hier in 't Consistorie an de Caab, ten 
tyde als sig hier ter plaatse bevinden sal. 

d' Eerw. D. Job*: van Andel ten vierendeel Jaars een 
keer na Stellenbosch doende ten einde om aldaar den Gods- 
dienst en de H : H : Sacramenten t' administreren, sal ten 
huijse van den Landdrost in een kamer gelogeerd werden, 
en sal deselve kamer ook ten alien tyde ten dienste van sijn 
ampt genot den Eerw D. Simond wesen ; die gehouden sal 
zijn hier ter plaatse den Godsdienst waar te neemen terwijl 
dat den Eerw: D. van Andel dien an Stellenbosch betragt, 
suUende hem t'elkens geduurende sijn verblijv an de Caab 
ten huijse van de Praedicant een kamer en keuke ingeniijmd 

Nog is goed gevonden dat 't register van de collecte ten 
profijte der armen onlangs gedaan den Eerw : D. Simond 
voorn. : en Diakonen sal ter hand gesteld worden, om d' 
almosen van diegene die geteikend hebben in te samelen, en 
daar van ter behoorlijke plaatse rekenschap te geven, suUende 
hem en de Diakonie an Stellenbosch d' opsigt over 't vee 
uijt de voors. Collecte procederende anvertrouwt worden 
om uijt desselvs anteel de jegenwoordige en nog verwagte 
armen die des benodigd en begeerig mogten zijn t' adsisteren. 

Aldus gearresteerd en besloten in 't Casteel de Goede Hoop 
ten dage en jaare als boven. 

S. v. D. Stel 
A. DE Man 


Jacob Rootsteen 


J. G. Blum 

Me praesente 

J. G. DE Grevenbroek 


Principal IJociiiitents. 147 


Monday, November 8th, 1688. In the 
presence of all the members, excepting 
the Hon. Captain Dominique De 
Chavonnes and Monsieur Ludoviq 
van der Stel. 
In order to assist the Rev, Dr. Petrus Simond, minister 
of the word of God in the French language, as soon and as 
speedily as possible, it has been resolved unanimously that 
he be given a strip of land between Drakenstein and Stellen- 
bosch, and as much land in freehold as he is able to manage ; 
and bearing in mind all the following facts, namely, that 
the Company has its hands full attending to its own affairs 
at present; and that it is inopportune for them to build 
at their expense a suitable house for his use either at 
Stellenbosch or Drakenstein ; and further, that as it is re- 
cognised that he is not able to provide himself with a house, 
though it is very necessary that he should be given one of 
some sort as soon as possible, the Company will therefore assist 
him to achieve this by giving him the loan of a wagon and 
six oxen with the necessary equipment, a riding-horse and 
two carpenters to chop down the wood required for the house 
from a neighbouring forest, as well as any further small 
articles required, which, togetlier with the few additional 
materials necessary, may be obtained from the Company's 

And taking into account the fact that the French are 
settled at Stellenbosch as well as Drakenstein, in order to 
remove all cause for dissatisfaction likely to arise should 
those in one settlement be able to attend divine service more 
easily than those in the other, the Reverend Simond shall 
preach alternately, one Sunday at Stellenbosch, the next at 
Drakenstein, in the latter in the Church, in the former in 
the most convenient and suitable house belonging to a 
burgher, until such time as God gives opportunity and means 
for the building of His house. 

And having heard the good testimony given and the proofs 
made of his ability, it is resolved that the Freeman Paul 
Roux be taken into the service of the Company as parish 
clerk and schoolmaster in the French language at the rate 
of / 15 per month and 3 reals for his food. 

That it be further understood that the Reverend Petrus 
Simond shall have Session in the Church Council at Stellen- 
bosch, in the same way as in the Consistory held at the Cape, 
and conducted at the same time. 

That the Rev. Johs. van Andel, who goes to Stellenbosch 
once a quarter in order to conduct divine service and ad- 

148 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

minister the holy sacraments, be given a room at the Land- 
drost's house, and that this room be always at the disposal 
of his fellow-minister, the Rev. Simond, who shall hold the 
service here whenever the Rev. v. Andel is conducting it at 
Stellenbosch, and during his stay at the Cape a room and 
kitchen shall be placed at his service in the minister's house. 

It is resolved that the register of the collections made for 
the poor a short while ago, shall be handed over to the Rev. 
Simond and the deacons, that the alms be collected from 
those who signed their names and an account be given of the 
monies received to the proper quarter ; that the care of the 
cattle bought with the proceeds of the above collections be 
entrusted to Rev. Simond and the deacons of Stellenbosch 
in order that such of the present and future poor as are 
desirous or in need of assistance may obtain it from the 
increase derived from the cattle. 

Thus resolved and passed in the Castle the Good Hope on 
the day and in the year above. 

S. V. D. Stel 
A. DE Man 


Jacob Rootsteen 


J. G. Blum 

In my presence 

J. G. Grevenbroek 


Extract uit brief 20 Maart 1723 aan de Kamer 


Den predicant en kerkenraad van drakenstijn ons versoek 
gedaen hebbende dat vermits het overleijden van den f ranee 
voorleeser, die plaatse met een ander subject mogt werde 
vervult, geconsideert sig 25 a 26 oude menschen onder haar 
district bevonden die de neederduytsche tale niet wel ver- 
staande, bij mancquement van sulx van de oeffeninge der 
openbaere france gods dienst verstooken sonde syn ; so hebben 
wij considereerende het geringh getal en daar en boven dat 
de ordres en Intentie van uwel. Edele hoog agtb° is, dat de 
godsdienst daar ter plaatse in de neederduijtsche tale ge- 
oeffent werd, omme dus de Ingesetenen daar aan te gewennen, 
best gedagt daarinne niet te treeden, maar sulx ter dispositie 
te laten van uwel. Edele hoog agtb", weshalven wij onder- 
danig versoeken deesen aangaande met u wel Edele hoog 
agtb"". g'eerde beveelen te mogen werden voorsien. 

Principal Documents. 149 

Letters Despatched : Extract from a letter dated 
20TH March 1723 to the Chamber of Amsterdam. 

. . , The Minister and Church Council of Drakenstein 
have sent us a request to the effect that, on account of the 
death of the French Parisli Clerk, another person should be 
chosen to fill the post, as there are some 25 or 26 old people 
in their district who do not understand Dutch very well, 
and on that account would be deprived of the public divine 
services in French. Taking into consideration the small 
number, and above all the orders and intentions of your 
Excellencies to have the religious services there conducted 
in the Dutch language, so as to teach it to the settlers, we 
decided not to agree to this request, but to place the matter 
before your Excellencies, with regard to which we humbly 
desire to be informed of your honoured commands. 

Resolutien 1686-1699. C5. 

Maandag 28 Novemb'" 1689^ ten sel- 
vigentijde als de nevenstaande Resolu- 
tie In iegenwoordigheid van alle de 
Leden behalven S"" Corn" Linnes 

d' Ed'^ Heer Commandeur heeft ter vergadering bekend 
gemaakt het bekommerlijk nadenken en de veelvoudige 
moeijelijkheden hem door enige franse gewaande vlugtelingen 
hier gegeeven, dewelke onder schijn van den geloovs-dwang 
hares Konings t' ontgaan, haar na dat 't sig liet ansien, uijt 
Vrankrijk elders been en voornamelijk na Holland hadden 
begeeven, ten einde om onder den denkmantel als ijveraars, 
ledemaaten en voorstanders van 't Protestantsche geloov een 
Leuij en vaddig leven te leiden ; en d' E. Comp : onse Heeren 
en Meesters an enige van dien passagie met haar Schepen 
herward vergund hebbende om deselve hier bij den Landbouw 
en 't gunt verders van hun industrie sonde mogen weesen 
te Laaten erneeren, maar dat sij weinig of geen wijs daar op 
stelden, en dat sij, den goeden niet te na gesproken an de 
verwagting die d' E. Comp : van haar hadde niet voldeden. 
Dat sij nauwelyx thien a twaalf hier stark, en wel onthaald 
en nevens ja beter dan onse eige natie gehandeld en van alle 
behoevtigheden om-se ter seet te helpen rijkelijk vcrsorgd 
zijnde, sij haar hier en daar en selvs by hem Commandeu 
hadden Laaten verluijden, dat-se bij d' ankomst van haar 
verwagte Praedicant en meerder getal barer Landsluijden 
wel gesind souden zijn hun eigen Magistrat, Opperhoofd en 

' Printed in Spoelstra, 2-600. 

150 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Prince van den Landde te kiesen en hun also de gehoorsam- 
heid die-se an d' E. Comp: schuldig waren t' onthrekken. 
Dat sij ten dien einde schenen van hem Command'' versogt 
te hebben om bij malkanderen en niet an Stellenbosch nog 
Drakestein en vermengd met Duijtsche Natien te mogen 
woonen. Dat-se eindelijk omtrent 150,, koppen so mannen 
als vrouwen jong en oud stark geworden zijnde, onderstonden 
selvs tegens 't gevoelen van haar Praedicant den Eerw : D. 
Simond een bijsonderen kerkenraad voor haar te versoeken, 
hun niet vergenoegende met dien dewelke voor Langs an 
Stellenbosch is opgeregt, hebbende sij ten dien einde uijt 't 
midden van haar en onder 't geleide van den voors : Eerw : D. 
Simond herward, en an hem Commandeur en den Achtb : 
Raad gedeputeerd vier personen te weeten Jacob de Savoije, 
Daniel de Ruelle, Abraham de Villiers, en Louijs Courtier 
met versoek om een aparten Kerkenraad voor haar te mogen 

Waarop na rijpe raadspleging eenpariger stemme is ver- 
staan en ten meesten dienste van d' E. Comp : besloten om 
der frangoisen impertinentien inteteugelen, en alle com- 
ploterie in tijds voor te komen, haar door een welgeraison- 
neerde bestraffing hun sijdgangen ter Vergadering voor oogen 
te houden, en haar seer ernstelijk te vermaanen hun pligt na 
te komen ; waarop sij binnen staande en d' Eerw : D. Simond 
uijt haar naam en t' haren versoeke syn propositie ten fine 
voors: om een aparte en bijsondere Kerkenraad uijt 't midden 
van de haare te mogen stellen gedaan, en 't gedrukte formulier 
van den Eed bij alle Caabse Vrijluijden gepraesteerd bij syn 
Eerw: opgemeld geleesen zijnde, zijn-se gedimitteerd, onder 
gants serieuse waarschouwing hun stiptelijk na 't formulier 
voors : te dragen en hun te wagten in 't toekomende den 
Commandeur en Raad met diergelijke impertinente versoeken 
meer lastig te vallen, en haar met den kerkenraad an Stellen- 
bosch geetablisseerd te vergenoegen. 

Aldus gearresteerd en besloten in 't Casteel de Goede Hoop 
ten dage en Jaare als boven. 

S. V. D. Stel 
And* de Man 
W. Padt 
L. V. D. Stel 

Me praesente 

J. G. DE Grevenbroek 


Principal Documents. iSl 

Resolutions 1686-1699. C5. 

Monday 28th November 1689. At the 
same time as the Resolution below. 
In presence of all the members except 
Monsieur Corn'* Linnes. 

The Hon. Commander made known to the Assembly the 
anxious deliberations and many difficulties which he has been 
occasioned by certain supposed French Refugees here, who, 
under the appearance of having left their King on account 
of religious oppression, escaped from France to other countries 
and especially to Holland in order that, under the guise of 
zealous and staunch adherents of the Protestant religion they 
might lead lazy and indolent lives; and the Hon. Company, 
our Lords and Masters, having allowed some of them a passage 
here in their ships in order that they might earn their living 
by agriculture or any other industry, they have shown little 
or no prudence therein, and, without reference to the 
better ones, have not come up to the expectations of the 
Company. That they were barely ten or twelve strong, and 
well entertained, even better treated than our own 
people, and were fully provided with every necessary to 
assist them in settling down, when they made known to the 
Commander and to various other persons that upon the 
arrival of their minister and a larger number of their fellow- 
countrymen they were of a mind to have their own Magistrate, 
Commander and Prince to be chosen from the people, to 
whom they proposed transferring the obedience at present 
paid to the Hon. Company. And that to accomplish this 
aim, they appealed to the Commander to allow them to 
settle all together, and not among the Dutch people at 
Stellenbosch and Drakenstein. That at length when they 
were 150 strong, men and women of all ages, they made a 
bold attempt to obtain a separate Church Council, against 
the wish of their minister. Rev. Simond, as they were not 
satisfied with the one established at Stellenbosch ; in order 
to accomplish this they sent four delegates, namely, Jacob 
de Savoije, Daniel de Ruelle, Abraham de Villiers, and Louijs 
Courtier, under leadership of the Rev. Simond, as a deputa- 
tion to the Commander and the Council with the request 
that they might be granted a separate Church Council. 

Whereupon, after mature deliberation, it was agreed 
unanimously, as of the greatest service to the Company to 
check the impertinences of the French, to render all plots 
ineffectual in good time, to make public their subterfuges 
to the Assembly by a reasonable punishment, and to admonish 
them to do their duty to the Company. Whereupon when 

152 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

they had entered (the Council Chamber), in their name and 
on their behalf, Revd. Simond read their proposal, in fine, 
that they should have a separate Church Council appointed 
by themselves from their midst, and when the printed form 
of the oath taken by all Cape Freemen had been read by him, 
they were dismissed with a very strong warning to conduct 
themselves strictly in accordance with the oath above, and 
in the future to abstain from troubling the Commander and 
the Council with similar impertinent requests ; while for the 
future they were to be content with the Church Council 
established at Stellenbosch. 

Thus resolved and passed in the Castle the Good Hope on 
the day and in the year above. 

S. V. D. Stel 
And*, de Man 
W. Padt 
L. V. D. Stel 

In my presence 

J. G. DE Grevenbroke, 

Inkomende Brieven : Extract uit een Brief van de 
Kamer Amsterdam, gedateerd 17 Decemb. 1690. 

Op het versoeck door de fransche Predicant Simon aen 
ons gedaen hebben wy geconsenteert gehjck wy doen by 
desen dat een Kerckenraed off consistorie uyt de fransche 
gemeynte sal mogen werden opgereght, naementlyk een 
Soodaenige die sal wesen gecomposeert uijt Ouderlingen en 
Diaconen, dewelcke, te vinden wesende, beyde de fransche 
en duijtse taele verstaen, Des dat die ouderlingen en Diaconen 
jaerlycx aen te stellen off te veranderen telckens aen u E. 
Sullen moeten werden gepresenteert, om te werden geappro- 
beert soo geen redenen ter Contrarie souden mogen dienen, 
oock sullen UE. een off twee persoonen hebben te commit- 
teren off aen te stellen, om als politicque Commi-ssarisen in 
die consistorie plaets te nemen, en daer in te Compareren 
wanneer en soo dickmaels deselve dat sullen goetvinden, en 
soo daer saecken van gewighte off questien souden mogen 
voorkomen die de Voorsz. Commissaris off Commissarisen 
souden verstaen dat daer niet en kunnen nogh behooren 
geventileert off gedisputeert, veel min getermineert te worden, 
sullen deselve moeten werden gebraght voor den kerckenraet 
van het fort off Casteel, in de welcke haer als dan mede 
sullen laten vinden eenige Gedepud^ uijt de Voorsz : Kercken- 
raed van de fransche gemeijnte en in deselve haer Sessie 
nemen, om te saemen te Composeren de grote Kerckenraet. 

Principal Documents. 153 

by de welcke die saecken en verschillen als dan affgedaen, 
en uyt de weegh geleijt sullen worden, en sal deselve tot 
dien e3'Tide byeen komen off vergaderen op soodaenige tyden 
en dagen als dat convenabelst sal werden geoordeelt, Voort 
sal de Voorsz. franse Consistorie off de Ouderlingen en dia- 
conen van deselve in den haeren vermogen te disponeren 
over de Aelmoessen die aen off ten behoeve van de Armen 
souden mogen gegeven worden, en de distributie daer van 
aen de behoeftige doen, maer in gevalle eenige Subsidien van 
buijten souden mogen inkomen sal het employ en distributie 
daer van staen aen de Voorsz. grote Kerckenraet, die oock 
sal moeten versorgen dat van alles behoorlyck boeck en 
reeck. werd gehouden, om daer uijt jaerlijcx een reeck. 
opgestelt en gedaen te worden op de wyse gelijck als dat 
tot Batavia gebruijckelyk is. Aaengaende de Scholen, daer 
van de Voorii. Predicant Simon mede vermaen doet, sullen 
wy UE. traghten te bestellen eenige schoolmeesters beyde 
de talen fransch en Duijts spreeckende, om aen Stellenbosch 
en Draeckensteijn resp*" geplaest te worden, en de kinderen 
of jeught soo wel van fransche als Nederlantsche Ouders te 
Leeren en te instrueren, des sullen de voorsz. Schoolmeesters 
daer toe hebben te arbeyden om die kinderen van fransche 
Ouders gebooren voor alle de Nederduijtsche tale te doen 
leeren lesen en verstaen, om door dat middel onse natie te 
meer te werden ingelijft. Tot dien eijnde sullen U.E. de 
Coloniers aldaer soo fransche als Nederlanders niet ieder 
Natie byeen maer onder malkanderen gemelleert doen woonen 
off plaetsen beyde aen Stellenbosch en Draeckensteijn, waer 
door de voorsz. gemeene School en voor beijde die Neder- 
landse en fransche Kinderen oock te bequaemer, en met 
minder kosten sullen kunnen gehouden werden. . . . 

Letters Received : Extract from letter dated 17TH 
Dec. 16901 from the Chamber Amsterdam. 
.... In accordance with the request made to us by the 
French Minister Simon, we have consented and hereby 
do consent to the establishment of a Church Council 
or Consistory for the French Community, such a 
one, namely, as shall consist of Elders and Deacons, 
who, if there are any such to be found, should 
be able to understand both the French and Dutch 
languages ; that these elders and deacons should be ap- 
pointed annually or else frequently changed, and their names 
submitted to your Excellencies for approbation should there 
be no reason against their holding office. You further have 

' Resolution of 6.12.1690 of the XVII. printed in Spoelstra, 2-601. 


154 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

the right to elect or appoint one or two members to act as 
PoHtical Commissioners in the Consistory, to appear at the 
meeting whenever and as often as is necessar}' ; and should 
there be any matters or questions of importance, which the 
Commissioner or Commissioners do not consider ought to be 
ventilated or discussed and still less decided, these matters 
must be brought before the Church Council of the Fort or 
the Castle, when they will be represented by several deputies 
from the said Church Council of the French congregation, 
and have Session there, together forming a Great Church 
Council to settle all such questions and differences, and 
remove them out of the way. And this Great Church Council 
shall assemble together for the purpose stated above on such 
occasions and days as shall be considered most convenient. 
Further, the French Consistory mentioned, or rather the 
elders and deacons thereof, shall have it in their power to 
decide upon the recipients of the alms money, given to the 
poor or for their use, and shall see to its distribution among 
the needy ; but in case any subscriptions should come from 
outside, its use and distribution must be placed in the hands 
of the Great Church Council, which must also see to the 
keeping of a proper ledger and accounts from which may be 
made an annual statement similar to that of the Church Coun- 
cil at Batavia. Concerning the schools, as we have been 
advised to do by the Rev. Simon, we shall endeavour to 
supply you with several schoolmasters who can speak both 
Dutch and French, to be stationed at Stellenbosch and 
Drakenstein respectively, in order to teach and instruct the 
children and young people of both Dutch and French parent- 
age, and in particular these schoolmasters will have to teach 
the children of French descent to read and understand the 
Dutch language, in order to unite our nation by this means. 
In order to attairr this purpose you are to settle the Colonists 
already there (at the Cape), French as well as Dutch, not 
each separately in one place, but to make them live among 
one another, or place them side by side both at Drakenstein 
and Stellenbosch, by which means the public schools for both 
Dutch and French children may be supported more efficiently 
and yet at the same time more cheaply. . . . 

Extract uit brief gedateerd 12 Juni 1690 aan de XVII. 
VAN de Kaap. 
De franse vlugtehngen onlangs met uwer Ed. Ho : Agtb^ 
schepen hier angeland, en in alles met wijv en kinderen 
honderd en in de vijftig koppen uijtmakende zijn ten deele 
onder t Caabse district, andere an Stellenbosch dog meest 

Principal Documents. 155 

an Drakestein geplaatst, alwaar sij haar soo sij best komen 
bij den Landbouw en t gunt van hun Industrie is generen, 
zijnde ons oogmerk haar met onsen landaard te vermengen, 
op dat d' een van den anderen 't gunt van ieders kennis is 
mag leeren — en soo doende den landbouw beter voort setten, 
ten welken einde wij ook raadsamst g'oordeeld hebben, haar 
godsdienst alternatie d' eene Sondagh an Stellenbosch en d' 
andere an Drakestein in de kerk en nevens de duijtsche te 
laten plegen. 

Letters Despatched : Extract from Letter dated i2TH 
June i6go, despatched by the Cape to the Seven- 
teen AT Amsterdam. 
The French Refugees brought here a short time ago by 
your Excellency's ships, and in all, men, women and children 
numbering about 150, are settled partly in the Cape, some 
at Stellenbosch, but most of them in the Drakenstein district, 
where they gain a livelihood as best they can by agricultural 
farming, or by means of other industries ; our object being 
to let them intermingle with our own country folk, so that 
each may learn something from the other, and thereby 
improve the farming industry ; and for this reason, too, we 
have considered it most advisable to allow them to hold 
their rehgious services, alternately in the Church at Draken- 
stein one Sunday and in Stellenbosch the next, in addition 
to the Dutch services held there. 

Extract uit brief 20 September 1701 van de Kamer 

... en waar mede UE oock staat toe te komen een 
predikant in plaatse van den franschen predikant Pierre Simon 
die volgens UE. schrijven soude trachten weder herwaarts 
te komen, dogh wiens tijt nogh niet sijnde geexpireert, sulcx 
bij UE : nogh wel en te recht is uytgestelt. Gevolghlyck 
verstaen wij dat hij in allengevalle van daer niet sal hebben 
te vertrecken voor en alleen hij door een andere predikant sal 
sijn vervangen, die UE : tot dien eijnde door de Camer van 
Amsterdam sal werden toegesonden, namentlyck een die 
volgens UE voorstel en versoeck beijde de Nederlantsche en 
fransche talen verstaat niet om gelijck als wij dat begrypen 
in de laeste te prediken, maar alleen om de bejaarde Coloniers 
dewelcke onse tale niet kennen door besoeckingen, verman- 
ningen en vertroostingen te kunnen dienen, en dat om door 
dat middel die taal metter tijt te krijgen gemortificeert en 
als van daar gebannen, tot welcken eijnde mede voortaan 
de schoolen niet anders nogh verder sullen mogen sijn nogh 
strecken als om de jeught onse tale te laeten leeren lesen en 


156 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Extract from letter dated 2oth September 1701 from 
THE Chamber Amsterdam 

. . . and which {Huiste Byweg) will convey to you a 
minister in place of the French minister Pierre Simon, who, 
according to your letter is endeavouring to return here, but 
as his term of service has not yet expired, you were right 
in delaying his departure. Therefore, we understand, that 
in any case, he will not leave (the Cape) before and unless he 
is relieved by another minister who will be sent out for this 
purpose by the Chamber Amsterdam, that is, one who in 
accordance with your proposal and request understands both 
Dutch and French, not as we take it to preach in the latter 
language, but only to be of service to the aged colonists who 
do not know our language, so that he may visit, admonish 
and comfort them, in order that in the course of time the 
French language may die out, and be, as it were banished 
(from the Cape) ; and with this object in view, the schools 
are to give in future no other or further instruction than is 
necessary to let the youth learn to read and write our language. 

Extract uit brief 24 Juli 1704 van de Kamer 


In het versoeck van die van de fransche gemeijnte aen 
Drakesteijn aen ons gedaen, ten eijnde den predicant Becq, 
in beijde de Talen van Nederduijts en frans ervaren, in laest 
gemelte Tale mede aldaer moght predicken, kunnen wij 
cm redenen bij ons schrijvens van 20 September 1701 ge- 
allegeert, daer wij alsnogh bij persisteren niet goetvinden te 
consenteren, immers niet voor alsnogh, ten ware UE : be- 
vonden daer omtrent soodanigh redenen te militeren waerom 
't voorsz. versoeck behoorde te werden ingewillight, 't welck 
aen UE : wert gedefereert gelaeten, om hierinne te doen en 
laeten, soo als UE : ten meeste dienst van de Comp : sullen 
oordelen te behooren, ondertusschen wilden wij van UE : 
gedaghten daer omtrent, en van de nootsaekelyckheyt van 
dit versoeck wel naeder gedient wesen, die wij dan in ant- 
woort deses 't sijner tijt sullen te gemoet sien, om alsdan 
daerop naeder te disponeren. 

Principal Documents. 157 

Letters Received : Extract from letter dated 24TH 
July 1704. From the Chamber of Middelburg. 

... In the request sent to us by the French community 
at Drakenstein, we are asked to allow the minister, Becq, 
who is conversant with both the Dutch and French languages, 
to preach through the medium of the latter. We are unable 
as yet, for reasons .alleged by us in our letter of Sept. 20th, 
1701, and to which we still adhere, to consent to this at 
present, at any rate, not until you send us good reasons for 
granting this request ; which request is deferred to your 
Honours, to act as you think most advantageous for the 
Company, while we await your opinion on this matter and 
desire further enlightenment as to the necessity for this 
request. In the meantime, we await your reply to this letter 
when we shall be more fitted to arrive at a further decision in 
the matter. 

ExTR.\CT uit brief 28 Maart 1705 aan de Kamer 

Dat Uwel, Ed''' hoog agtb : in het versoek van de fransse 
gemeijnte tot Drakensteijn aan haar, door ons gedaan, ten 
eijnde die Eerw : predicant Bek, in beijde de taale, als neder- 
duijts en frans aldaar mogt prediken, niet had kunnen goed 
vinden, om de redenen bij^Uwel Edle hoog Agtb : g' eerde 
missive van 20" Septemb 1701 g'allegeerd, en dat daar bij 
als nog belief de te blijven persisteeren, egter dat hetselve 
aan ons gedefereerd belief de te laaten, soo als wij, ten meesten 
dienst van d E Comp : sullen oordeelen, te behooren. 

Wat belangt onse gedagten, betreffende de noodsaakelijk- 
heijd van dit versoek, en dat Uwel Ed''= hoog. Agtb : van ons 
daar van, wel nader geliefde gediend te weesen, kunnen wij 
in geen nader antwoord dienen, als het geene bij onse ver- 
biedige missive van de 24" Junij 1703 ? met de nascheepen 
versonden, omtrent die periode, largo staat aangetoogen, en 
waar aan wij, ons als nog eerbiedigst gedragen, eenlijk daar 
bij voegende, dat geseijde gemeente iterative vereijse voorsz : 
haar versoek na dato bij ons hebben gerenoveerd, en ver- 
klaard dat het voorhaar een onmogelijkheijd was, de neder- 
duijtse taalen te leeren, ter oorzaake dat meest alle i, 2, 3. 
en meer uuren, van den anderen zijn woonende, biddende 
al wast maar om de 14 daagen in haar taale, in de Godsdienst 
geoffend te mogen werden. 

158 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

Letters Despatched : Extract from a letter dated 
28th Mar. 1705 to the Chamber of Middelburg. 

. . . That your Excellency's reply to the request of the 
French community at Drakenstein, to the effect that you 
were not prepared to accede to this that their minister, the 
Rev. Bek should preach there in both languages, for reasons 
alleged in yours of the 20th September 1701 and to which 
you still adhere, and further that the matter had been placed 
by you in our hands, to act as we think most advantageous 
to the Hon. Compan}^ 

With regard to our opinion respecting the necessity for 
this request, and what information we can give you, we are 
unable to state matters more fully than we have already done 
in our respectful letter of 24th June 1703 ? sent off at that 
time too late, wherein we reluctantly gave expression to 
opinions which we respectfully continue to hold. We desire 
to state further that the above community repeatedly 
renewed their request to us from that date, and declared 
that it was impossible for them to learn the Dutch language, 
en account of the fact that they lived, one, two, three or 
more hours from each other, and praying that their religious 
services might be conducted in their own language at least 
once a fortnight. 

Uitgaende Brieven 1701-1703 BL. 427-428. Br. 20.3.1702 
AAN de Kamer Amsterdam. 

. . . Mitsg''-'' ook u wel Ed'<^ Hoog Agtb''^ positive ordres 
van den 20° Septembr 1701 vermeld, aan de Eerw° franse 
predicant Pierre Simond, aangaande desselfs vertrek na 't 
patria, inhoudende dat niet van hier sal hebben te vertrecken, 
voor en al eer hij door een ander predikant sal zijn vervangen, 
terwijle deselve tot dien eijnde p'' het voorsz : huyste Beijwegh, 
door haar Ed'« Groot Agtb''*^ de Heeren Bewindhebberen ter 
Camer Amsterd"", staat overgesonden te werden ; sullende 
wij verder ook besorgen, dat door het gebruijk van de Neder- 
landse taal, in de Kerke en Schoole aldaar, de franse spraak 
onder de inwoonderen van die gemeinte in ongewoonte 
komen, en vervolgens metter tijd soo doende gemortificeert 
werde ; dat ook te bekawmer sal konnen geschieden, door 
dien aldaar geen franse schoolen sijn. ... 

van den Eerw franse predicant Pierre Simond, mitsgrs. aangaande sijn 
vertrek, off verblijff. 

Principal Documents. 159 

Letters Despatched 1701-1703, page 427-428. Letter 
20.3.1702 to Chamber Amsterdam. 

. . . Likewise your Excellencies' positive orders of the 
20th September 1701, to the French minister Rev. Pierre 
Simond, regarding his departure to Patria to be delayed until 
the arrival of his successor who will sail in the ship mentioned, 
the Htcyste Byweg, to be sent by the Chamber Amsterdam, we 
shall further see to it that by the use of Dutch in the church and 
school there, the French tongue will fall into disuse amongst 
the inhabitants of that community, and afterwards, in course 
of time die out ; this will take place more easily because there 
are no French schools. . . . 

Inkomende Brieven 1725-1726 BL. 30. Extract uit Br. 


.... En alhoewel wij niet seer geinclineert zijn voor de 
onderhouding van de fransse taal in Indien, en daerom beter 
was dat de fransse Coloniers werk maakten van sig aan de 
Nederlantse taal te gewennen, soo sullen wij insgelijks voor 
deese reijse nogmaals toestaan dat er op Drakensteijn, in 
plaats van de overleeden Franssen voorleeser, een ander in 
desselfs plaats worde aangesteld, het geen nogtans niet in 
Consequentie zal mogen getrokken worden voor het aan- 
staande, nademaal het gering aantal van omtrent 26 Menschen 
die de Nederlandse taal niet en verstaan naeulijks meriteert 
de onkosten van een voorleeser daar op te houden. . . . 

Letters Received 1725-1726, p. 30. Extract from Letter 
DATED 23RD June 1724 from Ch.^mber Amsterdam. 

.... and although we are not much inclined to encourage 
the observance of the French language in India, and it would 
be better that the French colonists should make every effort 
to accustom themselves to the Dutch language, yet this 
time it shall be allowed once more that a French parish clerk 
be appointed at Drakenstein in place of the late one, but this 
is not to be considered a precedent for the future, since the 
very small number of those who do not understand Dutch 
— twenty-six in all — barely merits the expense of supporting 
a French parish clerk there. 

160 The French Refugees at the Cape. 

UlTGAANDE BrIEVEN 1699-I7OO BL. 497. Br. 2.7.1699 AAN 

DE Kamer Middelburg. 

. Mitsg*' de daar mede overgekomen franssen Refugiees, 
die haar alhier, met de Landbouw soeken te erneren, volgens 
de ordre van de E : Comp*' : ten dien eijnde 00k ter seet 
helpen ; maar terwijle men bereets, alhier soo veel van dat 
slag heeft, en sommige haar soo qualijk komen te gedragen, 
en daar en boven ook niet veel kennisse van de Landbouw 
hebben, en die oversulks weijnig behartigen, dat reets veel 
armoede onder die natie causeert, en welke dan d' E. Comp" : 
en diaconie, staan tot laste te komen, te meer terwijl nu 
onder dese oude, en bij na afgeleefde menschen zijn, die hier 
weijnig of niet sullen kunnen uijtrigten, soo sagen wij liever, 
so het van U. Ed*^ groot Agtb : believen was, dat wij in 't 
toekomende, met diergelijke vlugtelingen, niet meer mogten 
beswaart werden ; maar wel met Zeeuse boeren, van een 
arbeijtsamen aard sijnde, en haar op de bouvv^erije wel ver- 
staande, ingevalle sommige inclineerden over te komen 
omme de culture alhier te helpen voortsetten, die veel be- 
quaamer en dese Colonie vrij dienstiger en nutter sou den 
zijn. . . . 

Letters Despatched 1699-1700, p. 497. Letter dated 
2.7.1699 to Chamber Middelburg. 

With reference to the French Refugees who came over 
here with the intention of earning their living by farming, 
we assisted them as far as possible to settle down, in accord- 
ance with the instructions of the Hon. Company. But there 
are already many of that kind settled here, some of them 
ill-behaved, while, more important, they have a limited 
knowledge of farming, and exert themselves little about it, 
thus causing much poverty among themselves, so that, in 
the end, they are likely to become burdensome to the Com- 
pany and the poor fund, especially as at present there are 
many old people among them who have not many more 
years to live, and are not able to earn much, if anything at 
all. So that we would rather, if it please your Excellencies, 
not be burdened with such refugees for the future ; but would 
prefer to have sent out to us farmers from Zeeland, of an 
industrious type, who have a thorough knowledge of farming, 
and who happen to be inclined to make the voyage here in 
order to improve our farming methods. These v;ould be far 
more suitable for this country, and would be of much more 
service and value to the Colonv- 

The Ftcuch Refugees at llie Cape. IQOa 


During a visit to Europe in 1920-1921 I was able to gather 
from the records a few facts regarding some of the Cape 
Refugees. This does not in any way affect the statements 
made in the text, but adds some genealogical data. 

(i) From a list of provisions, materials and building 
implements supplied to the French Refugees from the 
Company's stores, and which is to be seen in the Archives at 
The Hague, we are able to ascertain in what year the names 
of certain persons appear as having been at the Cape. I have 
only recorded below those of whom no certain information 
was available when first compiling my book. The names of 
the following appear as being here in 1688 : — 

Matthieu Arniel ; Louis Barre ; Pierre Benezet ; Louis 
Fourie ; Anton ie Gros ; Daniel Hugod ; Pierre Jacob ; 
Nicolas Labat ; Nicolas Lanoy ; Pierre Lombard ; Jacques 
Malan ; ]\Iichel Martineau ; Francois Retif ; Pierre Rochefort; 
Pierre Rousseau ; Jean Roux ; Pierre Roux ; Daniel de 
Ruelle ; Daniel Terrier ; the three brothers Abraham, Jacob 
and Pierre Vivier. 

The names of the follov/ing appear as being here in 1689 : — 

Pierre Batte ; Jean Durand ; Jean Joubert ; Zacharie 

(2) When at Geneva in 1920 I was fortunate in finding in 
the State Archives the entry of the marriage of Andre Gauch 
(now Gous or Gouws) at the church at Celigny. 

Le samedy 13 Janvier 1683 ont espouse Andre fils de feu 
Pierre Gauch du Pont de Monvers aux Sevenes et Jaqueline 
f ille de feu Louis Deere de Sauverni. 

(3) I am indebted to my friend Dr. J. de Huller, of the 
State Archives, The Hague, for the information that Retif 
came from Mer, near Blois, in Orleans. 

(4) The following data regarding the Naude family I was 
able to gather from a book by Dr. Beringuier^ in the Walloon 
Library, Leiden. On page 95 of this book I have raised the 
question of the relationship between Jacob Naude and the 
-well known Philippe Naude (1654-1729). According to 
Jacob's own statement in the Cape Archives and the 
genealogical tree by Dr. Beringuier he was the son of Phillippe 
Naude, although Dr. Beringuier does not include him on the 

' Die Stammbaume der Mitglieder der Franzosischen Colonic in 
Berlin. Herausgegeben von Dr. R. Beringuier, Berlin 1887, 

160& The French Refugees at the Cape. 

list. Philippe Jacob Naude, born 1736, and also referred to 
on page 95, was the grandson of the noted Philippe Naude 
and a nephew of Jacob. 

Philippe Naude, born 1654, died 1729, having by his wife 
Anne Isnard, died 1738, aged 75 years, the following children : 

1 Philippe, died 1745, aged 60. 

2 Jeanne, 1692-1759. 

3 Roger David, 1694-1766, Minister and Professor at the 

French College ; married Marie Elizabeth Borel, 
who died 1741, aged 46, 

They had — 
Anne Marie. 
Pierre David. 

Frederic Auguste. 

Philippe Jacob, born 1736, came to South 

4 Judith, 1705-1780, married to Rev. Frederic Auguste 

Ancillon, of Basel. 

5 Jacob, who came to South Africa in 1710. 

(5) From various records in The Hague Archives the 
following particulars were obtained : — 

Daniel Couvat, or Bouvat, came from Dauphine in 1688 

as a soldier in 't Wapen van Alkmaar. 
Jean Gardiol came from Provence. 
Louis Fourie came from Dauphine. 

(6) The " Societe de I'Histoire du Protestantisme Fran^ais," 
Paris, has published interesting material relating to : 

The family of Louis Francois Migault in " Journal de Jean 
Migault, Maitre d'ecole " (1681-1688), by N. Weiss 
and H. Clouzot. 

In its " Bulletin," 1921, will be found the experiences ot 
Guillaume Chenut as related by himself (see p. 53 
of this volume). ' 


Note. — Names commencing with des, du, la, le, arranged under these 
prefixes. The names appearing in the hst of baptisms on pages 
loi to no and Church members at Drakenstein on pages iii to 
ii6 are not included in this index. 

Aeth, those who came from, loo. 

Afrikaans, French words in, 42. 

Agriculture, undertaken by Company, 15 ; pursuits of the people 

in, 19 ; how land held, 20 ; agriculturists amongst Refugees, 45, 

d'Ailly, 93. 
VAN Aken, Revd., 33. 
Albert, 63. 
Aling, Revd., 34. 
America, Refugees become absorbed into older population, 42 ; 

Refugees flee to, 44, 46. 
Ancillon, 95. 
Anjou, 98. 
Anreith, 32. 
Anthonarde, 59. 
Arniel, 59, 68, 117. 
Arnout, 82. 

Aulis (Aulas), those who came from, 98. 
Aunis, 98. 
AvxcE, or Avis, 59. 

Bachk, 59. 

Baptisms in Drakenstein, Church, loi. 

Barbesorre, 52. 

Barill!;, 60. 

Barrk, 46, 57, 60, 73, 117. 

Barry, 46. 

Baschi?;, 59. 

Basse, 59. 

Bat.avia, pecuniary help from, 13 ; Governor-General's suggestions 

re colonization of, 15 ; Statutes of, 22. 
Battk, 57, 60. 
DE Beavois, 71. 
Beck, Revd. H., 33, 37, 87. 
Beeweeje (see Vivier). 
Beluse, 60. 

Beneset, or Benezet, 29, 57, 60, 117. 
Benoist, 49. 

DE Berault, or de Bereau, 8, 29, 60, 87. 
Berg China, 8. 

Berg River, farms along, 12. 
Bergh, 61. 
Bernard, 84. 

Bevernage, or Bevernagie, 61, 78. 
BissEUX, II, 60, 61, 122. 
Bleusel, 42. 
Bleuset, 9, 60, 77. 
Blignault, 93. 

162 Index. 

Blois, those who came from, 99. 
Bluse (see Bleuset). 
Boat (see Couvat). 

BODAAN, 87. 

Borssenbui'g, 7. 

BORREL, 05. 

BOSMAN, 25, 27, 39. 

Boston, Relugees in, 46. 

BOURLA, 62. 

BouvAT (see Couvat). 

Brandy, those sent out who could make. 2. 

Brandenburg invites Refugees, 44. 

Brasier, 61. 

Bretagne, 98. 

Briet, 51, 88 (see Taillefert). 

Brisac, 52. 

Broquet, 52. 

Brousson (see Rousselet). 

Brukre, 62, 117, 123. 

Brureau, 61. 

Bruwel, or Bruwer (see Brur-re). 

BUISSET, 48, 62. 

Buisson, 46. 

Burgher Councillors, sit as judges, 17 ; constitution and duties, ig. 

Burgher Militia, 20. 

Burghers, distinction between and Company's servants, 16 ; repre- 
sentation on local boards, 17 ; military and other duties, 18, 20 ; 
means of sustenance, 19. 

Burgher Watch patrol the streets, 18. 

DE Bus, 63. 

DE Buys, or Buys (.see du Buis). 

Cabrikre, those who came from, 99. 

Calais, those who came from, 99. 

Campenaar, 92. 

Cape, idea of sending out emigrants, 2 ; refreshment station, 15 ; 
first colonists, 15 : becomes an agricultural colony, 16 ; ad- 
ministration of D.E.T. Company at, 17 ; town in Table Valley, 
18 ; extent of French settlement in 1700, 24 ; Refugees living in 
1690 in district of, 35 : farms and land issued in district of, 122. 

Cape Town, known as de Kaap, 17 • description of, 18 ; administra- 
tion at, 18 ; Burgher Councillors of, 19. 

Carnoy, 62, 63, 85. 

Cassier, 71. 

Cattle, trade allowed, 19 ; charge of illicit barter, 58. 

Caucheteux (see Costeux). 

Cellier, Celliers or Cillie, 50, 62, 123. 

Champagne, those who came from, 98. 

Chateau Thierry, those who came from, 98. 

DE Chavonnes, Governor, 34, 97. 

DE Chavonnes, Captain D., 97. 

Chenut, 53. 

Chevalier, 82. 

Church, first arrangements, 27 ; building described, 29 ; new one 
built, seating accommodation! 31 ; communion service, sexton, 
new organ, 32 ; services, time of, 37. 

Index. 163 

CiLLiE (see Cellier). 

DE Clercq, 63, 123. 

Clergy to strictly observe regulations, 26. 

Clermont, those who came from, 98. 

Clinquerneur, 63. 

Cloudon, 50, 63, 78, 117. 

Cloy, 94. 

COCHET, 63. 

CocHius, 31. 

Colonization, no scheme of D.E.I.C., i ; early suggestions for, 15 : 

first colonists at Cape, 15. 
Colony, extent of in 1688, 24. 
Communion, service at Drakenstein first used, 32. 
Company fsee Dutch East India Company). 
CoNDE, those who came irom, 98. 
Corbonne, 59, 63, 78. 

CoRDiER, or Cortje, 28, 29, 38, 46, 63, 68, 72, 117, 123. 
Cork, Refugees find safety in, 45. 
CoRTRYK (see Courtrai). 
COSTEUX, 63, 64, 82. 
CoucHET, 91 (also see Cochet). 

Council of Policy, constitution of, 17 ; secretary of, 21. 
Court of Justice, 17, 19; Secretary, 21. 
Court of Landdrost, and Heemraden, 20. 
Court of Matrimony, 17. 
Courtrai, those who came from, 100. 
Couteau, 64, 76. 
coutteau, 80. 

COUVAT, 57, 64. 
COUVRET, 64, 84. 

Craan, Revd., 27. 

Cronier, or Crosnier, Cronje, 12, 47, 65, 69, 95, 117. 

van Dalen, S3. 

Dal Josaphat, French settle there, 24. 

Dannel, 71. 

Datis (see Dumont and des Pres). 

Dauphine, those who came from, 98. 

Dekker, 92. 

Delpeeh, 52. 

Delport (see de la Porte). 

Dempers, glazier, 32. 

Denmark, Refugees flee to, 45. 

Desbordes, 93. 

DES Pres, 9, 31, 46, 65, 66, 81, 82, 91, 118, 123. 

DES Ruelles (see de Ruelle). 

Dieppe, those who came from, 99. 

Don/:, 95. 

Donkerviiet, 10, 11. 

Doornik (see Tournai). 

Drakenstein, so named 1687, 12, 23 ; description of Colony at, 24 ; 
state of, 26 ; separate congregation formed, 28 ; first con- 
sistory' and church, 29 ; in 17 13, community totals 700, con- 
dition of members, 30 ; condition of church, 30 ; new church 
built, 31 ; sexton of church, at, 32 ; new organ, 32 ; new church 
in 1805, 33 ; clergymen who officiated there, 33 ; dissension 
amongst congregation, 34 ; in 1690 Refugees mostly living at, 35; 
extract of baptisms in church, loi ; list of members of congre- 
gation in 1 7 15, III : grants of land issued, 117. 

1 64 Index. 

Drakenstein, Groot, French settle there, 24. 

Driebergen, 10, 11, 12. 

Drouin, 12, 66, 117. 

Dublin, Refugees find safety in, 45. 

Du Bois, 71. 

DU Buis, 46, 50, 62, 72, 117. 

DU BuissoN, 46, 66. 

DUMONT, 66. 

DU Plessis, 7, 48, 62, 66, 67, 95. 

DUPONT, 80. 

DU Pr^ and du Preez (see des Pres). 
DU Puis, du Puy or du Puys, 62, 67, 70, 78. 
Durand, 47, 67, 68, 118. 

DURIER, 67. 

DU Seine, 57. 

Dutch, emigrants, 4 ; services, 25 ; mixing with French, 12, 29, 36 ; 
language in schools, 36 ; French obliged to speak, 39 ; feeling 
between French and, 40. 

Dutch East India Company, no scheme for colonization, i ; de- 
cision to send out Refugees, I ; colonization of, 15 ; servants of, 
16; administration at Cape, 17; look to farmers to supply 
corn and cattle, 19 ; monopoly to compete with farmers, 20 ; 
laws of observed, 22. 

DU ToiT, 31, 38, 42, 46, 63, 70, 81, 83, 86, 91, 118, 123. 

du tuillet, 12, 68, 1 1 8. 

Van Eden, 83. 

Edict of Nantes, i, 43. 

Eekhoff, 75, 81. 

Eelers, 86. 

Embrum, those who came from, 98. 

Emigration, to Cape, 2 ; thoughts on by D.E.I. C, 15, 16. 

Engelbrecht, 94. 

England, Refugees flee to, 43, 44, 45. 

Erlagh, 10. 

Facon, 67. 

Farms, mostly held on loan, 20 ; granted to the Refugees, 117 et seq. 

Faure, 94. 

Ferne, 97. 

Ferrier, 97. 

Field Guard, appointed 1680, 21. 

Fire, Board of Firemasters, 19. 

Flanders, Cape refugees who came from, 100. 

FoNTENAY, le Comte, those who came from, 99. 

FoucHE, 7, 68, 73, 75, 80, 118. 

Fourdinier, 50, 96. 

FouRiK, 68, 1x8. 

Fracass^, 59, 68, 118. 

France, places of origin of refugees in, 98. 

Francomme, 80. 

French Hoek, French settle at, 12; farms at, 23 ; formerly Oliphants 
Hoek, 24. 

French Language, regulations and oath translated into, 2 ; laws pub- 
lished in, 21 ; dying out of, 35 ei seq.; prohibition to have French 
services, 36 ; letters to Government to be written in Dutch, 37 ; 
referred to by travellers, 39 ; influence upon Dutch language, 42. 

French Refugees, decision to send out to Cape, i ; object of sending 
them, 2 ; to include Piedmontese, 2 ; regulations to guide them. 

Index. 165 

2 ; Cape advised of decision, 4 ; oath of allegiance, 3 ; instruc- 
tions to supply their needs, 4 ; a party change their minds, 5 ; 
ships and numbers that sailed, 7 ; exciting voyage of Schelde, 8 ; 
Rev. Simond's arrival, 8 ; some Piedmontese and Vaudois 
express desire to come out but change their minds, 10 ; fate of 
those who sailed in Vosmaar, 11 ; arrangements for the new 
arrivals, 12 ; French and Dutch intermingled, 12 ; subscription 
raised, 13 ; preponderance of female Refugees over male, 16 ; 
tenure of land given to, 20 ; map shewing extent of Colony in 
1688, 21 ; settle along Berg river, 23 ; give French names to 
their farms, 23 ; extent of settlement in 1700, 24 ; first parish 
clerk, 24 ; request a schoolmaster, 24 ; number in 1723, 24 ; 
French language not to be encouraged, 25 ; sick comforter 
and schoolmaster for Dutch section appointed, 25 ; first church 
arrangements, 27 ; wish to form a separate congregation, 27 ; 
opposed by Cape but granted by XVII., 28 ; instructions to 
intermingle Dutch and French, 29 ; first consistory, want of 
church and parsonage felt, 29 ; condition of congregation, 
30 ; new church built, 31 ; seating accommodation, 31 ; com- 
munion service, sexton, new organ built, 32 ; new church built, 
33 ; clergymen who officiated, 33 ; mixing of Dutch and French 
35 ; dying out of French language, 35 ; number of refugees in 
1690, 35 ; authorities hope that French will be assimilated into 
Dutch nation, 36 ; prohibition to preach in French, 36 ; letters to 
Government to be written in Dutch, 37 ; evidence of French 
services held after order of 1701, 37 ; number who did not under- 
stand Dutch in 1723, 38 ; what travellers have remarked re 
Refugees, 39 ; feeling between French and Dutch, 40 ; the van der 
Stel movement, 41; infiuence upon Dutch language, 42 ; position 
in Europe when Refugees came out, Edict of Nantes, revoked, 
43 ; places where Refugees sought safety, 44 ; comparison 
between names of those wlao went to Great Britain and those who 
came to Cape, 46 ; reconnatsance, 46 ; change in form and spelling 
of names, 47 ; reference to special Refugees to Cape, 48 et seq.; 
day book of Surgeon le Grand, 49 : agriculturists and vine 
dressers, 50; the Tailleferts, 51; La Bats, 51; Guillaume 
Chenut, 53 ; the Refugees as a community, 54 ; friendly letters 
to Holland by the Governor, 53 ; van der Stel's opinion of them, 
56 ; black sheep in every flock, 57 ; those who returned to 
Europe, 57 ; signatures of some of the French Refugees, 58 ; 
list of Refugees who came out between 1688 and 1700, 59 et seq.; 
list of those who came before 1688 and after 1700, 91 ; names 
of those who are no doubt of Huguenot origin and arrived after 
1700, 93 ; French names in Company's service, 97 ; places of 
origin in France and Flanders, 98 ; extract of baptisms in 
Drakenstein church, loi ; list of members of the Drakenstein 
congregation in 1715, iii ; grants of land at Drakenstein 
issued before 1700, iii ; miscellaneous land grants, 122 ; map 
shewing position of farms granted to French and Dutch settlers 
up to 1700, 124 ; extracts from principal documents relating 
to, 125 et seq. 

Funeral, Service held in 1724 in French language, 38. 

FURET, 68. 

Gabrilla, 71. 
Gard6, 65, 68, 118. 
Gardiol, 67, 69, 118. 
Gaucher, 42, 47, 50, 63, 70. 

166 Index. 

Gebhard, Revd., 35 

Genel, 47. 

Germany, Refugees in, 10, 44, 45. 

GiLDENHUYS, 64, 88. 

Godefroy, 70. 

GOUDALLE, 84, 90. 

GouRNAi, de Gournay, 9, 70, 78, 118. 
Gous, Gouws (see Gaucher). 

Grenoble, those who came from, 98. 


Grillion, 70, 76. 

DE GrOOT, 25, 92. 

Gros, 70. 
GROvic, 79, 96. 


DE Haas, 67. 

DE HaASE, 75. 

Hanseres, or Hanseret, 71, 123. 

Harting, 82. 

Hauman, 88. 

Heemraden, estabUshed 1682, 18 ; Secretary of Court of, 20 ; cases 

before, 21 ; place in church for wives of, 31. 
Holland, laws of observed, 22 ; Refugees flee to, 4, 45. 
HucEBos, Hucibos, Huibaux (see Huibeaux). 
HuDEL, 52. 

Hugo, Hugod, Hugot, 50, 71, 83, 93, 118, 123. 
Huibeaux, 67, 89, 95. 

Imbert, 71, 118. 

Ireland, Refugees flee to, 45. 

Isle de France, Refugees who came from, 98. 

IsNARD, 95. 

Jacob, or Jacobse, 62, 71, 72, 88, 119, 123. 


Jordaan (see Jourdan). 

JoRDiN, 51, 87. 

Joseph, 71. 

Joubert, 24, 71, 72, 76, 118, 124. 

DE JoucouRT, Revd., 76, 87. 

Jourdan, 24, 46, 68, 72, 73, 78, 80, 83, 94, 118, 122. 

Justice, administration of at Cape, 17 ; (see also Court of Justice). 

KiNA, 86. 

DE Klerk (see de Clercq). 

KooL, 75. 

Krygsman. 96. 

La Bat, La Batte, 52, 73, 74. 

DE Labuscagne, 124. 

DE LA Caille, Abbe, 39. 

LA CosTK, those who came from, 99. 

DE LA Fontaine, 97. 

LA Grange (see le Grange). 

DE LA Haye, 80. 

LA MoRiN (see Lomarin). 

Index. 167 

LA MORV, 71. 

LA MoTTE, ChalanQon, those who came from, gS. 

LA MoTTE d'Aigues, those who came from, 99. 

Lamy, 97. 

Land, measure of, 12 ; held by Company's servants, 16 ; tenure at 
Cape, 20 ; disputes re, 21 ; tithes and transfer paid on, 21 ; 
grants of land at Drakenstein issued before 1700, 117; mis- 
cellaneous land grants, 122. 

Landdrost, appointed 1685, 18; Secretary of Court of Landdrost 
and Heemraden, 21 ; Drakenstein under jurisdiction of, 24. 

Language, publications in Dutch and French, 21 ; dying out ol, 35 
et seq. See also French language and Dutch. 

Languedoc, those who came from, 98. 

DE Lanoy, 38, 71, 74, 119. 

DE la Porte, 47, 50, 74. 

La Rochelle, those who came from, 98. 

DE LA Rogue, 72. 

LA Tatte, 74. 

Laurent, 52, 73. 

Lauret, 74. 

Laws of Cape, 21 ; how published, 22. 

LE Bleu, 75, 81. 

LE Bouco, Revd., 25, 30. 

Lecheret, 74. 

LE Clair, 70. 

LE Clercq, 50, 70 (see also de Clercq). 

LECRt^VENT, 74, 119. 

LE Febre, 38, 46, 61, 65, 74, 75, 80, 82, 88, 91, 92, 124. 

LE FeBURE, 46, 48, 51, 74. 

LE Fevre, 75, 81. 

Legeret, (see Lecheret). 

LE Grand, 49, 75. 

LE Grange, 75, 122. 

Leguat, Remarks about Refugees, 39, 52. 

LE Henriette, 78. 

Lekkerwyn (see Lecrevent). 

LE Long, 9, 72, 75, 76, 91, 119. 

LE Page, 48. 

LE RiCHE, 12, 75, 119. 

LE ROI, 47. 

LE ROY, 78. 

LE ROUX, 7,46, 75, 82, 119, 122. 

LE Sage, 95. 
Leseret (see Lecheret). 
LE Sueur, 33. 
Levett, 97. 

LlENNARD, 80. 

Lille (see Ryssel). 

LiSBURN, Refugees find safety in, 45. 

LoMARiN, those who came from, 99. 

Lombard, 62, 76, 119. 

Loret, 76. 

de lormel, 97. 

Louw, 67, 94. 

Luttig, 32. 

Madan, 76. 
Maetsuyker, 15. 
Magnet, 76. 

168 Index. 

Malan, 38, 46, 76, 84, 119. 


Malherbe, 7, 38, 66, 76, 119. 

Malines, those who came from, 100. 

Manier, Manie, Manje, 60, 77, 119. 

Mantior, 77. 

Marais, 7, 29, 31, 59, 77, 79, 88, 119. 

VAN Marcevene (see van Marseveen). 

Marchand, 10. 

Marcq, those who came from, 99. 

Mar6, Marees, 77, 122. 

Margra, 92, 124. 

VAN Marseveen, 64, 65, 67, 82. 

Marthe, 72, 73, 78. 

Martin, 9, 70, 78, 81. 

Martineau, 78. 

Martinet, 63, 78. 

Matrimonial Courts, 17. 

Maxwell, 61. 

Mazeres, those who came from, 98. 

Mechelen (see Monsnay). 

Medical, surgeons who came out, 48 et seq. ; day book of Surgeon 

le Grand, 49. 
Meerbrakel, those who came from, 100. 
Melet, 87. 
Menanto, 48, 66, 78. 

Menars la Ville, those who came from, 99. 
Mercier, French Minister in London, 35. 


Mesnard, 38, 42, 47, 59, 78, 79. 

Meyer, 29, 31, 58, 64, 78, 119, 122. 

MiCHiELS, 79. 

Midwives, how appointed at Cape, 48. 

MiGAULT, 37, 45, 95. 

Military, Burghers to do mihtary duty, 20. 

MiLLE, 59. 

MiNNAAR (see Mesnard). 

MoECROON, those who came from, 100. 


MoNS, those who came from, loo. 
MoNSNAY, those who came from, loo. 
MoREL, 97. 


MOUTON, 61, 63, 78,; 124. 

MouY, 75, 78, 79, 82, 124. 
Mysal, 79. 

Names, change in form and speUing of, 47. 

Nantes, those who came from, 98. 

Naudi?:, 38, 45, 95. 

Nel, Niel, 24, 38, 47, 74, 77, 79, 95. 96, 120, 124, 

VAN Niekerk, 88. 

NiMES, those who came from, 98. 

NoGENTAL. entries of baptisms in Reformed Church at, 48. 

Normandy, those who came from, 99. 

Norwich, 35. 43. 

NouRTiER, Nortier, Nortje, 42, 50, 79, 80, 120. 

Nuremberg, 10. 

Index. 169 

Oath of allegiance taken by Refugees, 3. 

Olives, planting of, 2, 45. 

Olivier, 97. 

Oosterlandt, 7. 

Orange, those who came from, 99. 

Orleannais, 99. 

Orleans, those who came from, 99. 

Otte, 97. 

OviNGTON, Revd., remarks on Refugees, 39. 

Paarl, township of, 24; see also Drakenstein. 

Paillon, 52. 

Pain, 52. 

Paris, those who came from, 98. 

Parisel, 80, 120. 

Pasman, 92. 

Paste, 80. 

Pelanchon, 73, 80. 

Petel, 87. 

DE Perrone, 80. 

Perrotit, 80. 

PiCARDY, those who came from, 99. 

Piedmontese, 2, 8, 10. 

Pienaar, Pinard, 7, 50, 80, 120. 

PoGEAU (see Posseaux). 


Pointaix, those who came from, 98. 

Poitiers, those who came from, 99. 

Poitou, 99. 

Posseaux, 60, 61, 81. 

Potier, Potje, 81, 124. 

DE Potter, 93. 

PouissEON, 95, 122, 124. 

PouvoiR, 81. 

Pr£vot, 9, 64, 65, 81, 82, 124. 

Provence, those who came from, 99. 

Provo, Provost, Pruvost (see Prevot). 

Radyn, 94. 
Rattlewatch, 18. 
Reconnaisance, entries of, 46. 
Ree, 59. 

VAN REEDE, 12, 17. 

Regulations, drawn up to guide refugees, 2. 

VAN Renan (see Drouin). 

Rkn6, Resine, 82. 

Retief, Retif, 78, 82, 83, 120, 124. 

Revenue, 21. 

Richard, 72, 82. 


van der Riet, 87. 

Rochefort, 61, 82, 124. 

Roi, 65, 82, 120 (see also Roy). 

Rosier, 82. 

RossAux (see Rousseau). 

Rossouw, 68. 

Rouen, those who came from, 99. 

ROULIN, 87. 

RoussE, 82. 

170 Index. 

Rousseau, 29, 31, 64, 71, 77, 78, 83, 93, 120. 124. 

rousselet, 96. 

Roux, 24, 26, 31, 38, 83, 84, 120. 

Roy, 59. 

de ruelle, 28, 62, 67, 77, 84. 

DE Ryck (see le Riche). 

Ryssel, those who came from, 100. 

Sabatier, 57, 85. 

DE Sainne, 80. 

St. Amant, those who came from, 100. 

St. Jean, 6. 

DE St. Jean, 50, 96. 

St. Omer, those who came from, 100. 

Saintonge, those who came from, 99. 

Saumur, those who came from, 98. 

DE Savoye, 7, 28, 50, 57, 62, 63, 79, 85, 86, 120. 

Schelde, 7, 9. 

Schielandt, 10. 

Schools, first schoolm.aster, 24 ; Dutch schoolmaster, 25 ; instruc- 
tions, re, 29 ; High School at the Cape, 34 ; use of Dutch in, 36. 

Sedan, those who came from, 98. 

Selingue, 80. 

Sellier (see CelUer). 

Senegal, Senechal, Senekal, Seneschal, 31, 47, 67, 86, 120. 

Senet, 86. 

Serrurier, 33, 45, 96. 

Seugnet, Seugnete, 84, gi. 

Sexton, duties and emoluments, 32. 

Sezille, 75. 

Ships that brought out Refugees : Berg China, Borssenbur^, Voor- 
schooten, Oosterlandt, Schelde, Zuid Beveland. 't Wapen van 
Alkmaar, Zion, Vosmaar, Westhoven, Donkeruliet, Driebergen. 

SiMOND, Rev. P., 8, 9, 12, 28, 29, 33, 86, 120. 

SiMOND, Rev. F., 50. 

Simondium, 8. 

Six, 80. 

Slicker, Revd., 34. 

Snith, 48, 62. 

Snyman, 51, 86. 

VAN Soetermeer, 6o. 

SOLLIER, 50, 87, 122. 

Soudiere, those who came from, 98, 

SOUTER, 97. 

South Carolina, refugees sent to, 46. 

Statutes of Batavia, observed at Cape, 22. 

Steenwerck, those who came from, 100. 

Van der Stel, Simon, Commander, informed that Refugees are 
being sent to Cape, 4 ; how he received the French deputa- 
tion, 27 ; instructions re mixing of French and Dutch settlers, 
29, 35 ; writes to Holland in friendly strain about French, 55 ; 
changed opinion, hoped to keep Cape a Dutch settlement, 56 ; 
instructions to his son, 56. 

Van der Stel, Willem Adriaan, Governor, " troubles " of, 20 ; 
movement against, 41 ; opinion of the Refugees, 56. 

Stellenbosch, some Refugees settled at, 12 ; founded 1687, 17 ; 
Colony of, 24 ; Refugees do not wish to form part of congregation, 
27 ; schools and schoolmasters, 29 ; services at, 35 ; farms and 
lands issued in, 122. 

Subscription raised for Refugees, 13. 

Index. 171 

Switzerland, 44. 

Taboureux, 77, 85, 87. 

Taillefert, 7, 31, 48, 51, 65, 68, 74, 77, 87, 88, 89, 121. 

Tas, 41. 

Terreblanche, Terblanche, Terblans, 42, 47, 88. 

Terrier, 72, 88. 

Theron, Therond, 31, 34, 58, 65, 77, 89, 121, 124. 

Thibault, Capt. L. M., 32 

Timmendorf, 96. 

Toulon, those who came from, 99. 

TouRNAi, those who came from, 100. 

Trade controlled by Company, 19. 

Traipain, 52. 

Transfer Duty, 21. « 

Troullat, 97. 

UzES, those who came from, 98. 

Valentyn, Revd. F., description of church, 30. 

Vallkte, 65, 89. 

Vaudoisen, some offer to go to Cape, 10. 

Verdeau, 73, 89. 

Verdette, 76, 89. 

Vermeulen, 66. 

Veron, 92, 121. 

ViELLE Eglises, tliose who came from, 99. 

de Viffe, 81. 

de Villiers, 10, 25, 28, 29, 31, 42, 46, 47, 49, 51, 69, 78, 89, 94, 95, 121. 

Villion, Viljoen, 51, 65, 92, 124. 

Vinedressers, 50. 

Vinegar, those sent out who could make, 2. 

Vines, planting of, 2, 46. 

ViRET, 9, 90. 

ViTOUT, Vitu, 74, 79, 90. 

ViviER, or Viviers, 47, 52, 58, 90, 121, 122. 

Vooleser, first appointment, 24. 

Voorschooten, 7. 

De Vos, 71. 

Vosmaar, 10, 11. 

Voyage taken two centuries ago, 6. 

van Vuuren, 72, 77. 

Waerand, 71. 

Waldenses, some offer to go to Cape, 10. 

't Wapen van Alkmaar, 7, 9, 10. 

Water disputes, 21. 

Wavrant (see Waerand). 

Weeweeje (see Vivier). 

Wellington, refugees settle near present town of, 24. 

Westhoven. 10, 11. 

Van der Wey, 61. 

Wiebeaux (see Huibeaux). 

Willems, 83. 

VAN Wyk, 75. 

Wylant, 26. 

VAN ZijL, 29, 66. 

Zion, 10. 

Zviid Beveland, 7, 9. 

Printed by the cape times limited, Cape Town. 


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