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Full text of "The French Revolution of 1830; the events which produced it, and the scenes by which it was accompanied"

THE 



FRENCH REVOLUTION 
OF 1830. 



LONDON : 

JBOTSON AND PALMEB, PRINTERS, SAVOY STREET, STRAND. 




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THE 



FRENCH REVOLUTION 



OF 1830; 



THE EVENTS WHICH PRODUCED IT, 



SCENES BY WHICH IT WAS ACCOMPANIED. 



BY D. TURNBULL, ESQ. 



LONDON : 

HENRY COLBURN AND RICHARD BENTLEY, 

NEW BURLINGTON STREET. 

1830. 



PREFACE, 



In sending this Volume to its public account, 
the Editor relies on some indulgence being ex- 
tended to him in consideration of the double 
disadvantage under which he has been placed, 
in his distance from London, and in the cir- 
cumstance of the despatch that has been solicited 
of him. 

In the course of the narrative the Editor has 
purposely avoided pressing the names of his coun- 
trymen conspicuously forward, as participators in 
the noble struggle which he has undertaken to 
describe. The French people are conscious of 
the sympathy which has been felt in England, 
and still more by the English residents in France, 
for the glorious cause which was at issue in the 



vi PREFACE. 

last week of July, 1830. They are proud of that 
sympathy, from the evidence it bears to the good- 
ness of their cause, on the part of a people who 
have long been habituated to the forms of free- 
dom. This feeling has produced, in all the 
French accounts of the Revolution, so many state- 
ments of the assistance afforded by Englishmen, 
that even to transcribe them would be to claim 
for our countrymen a degree of merit to which 
they cannot be entitled. When uttered by a 
Frenchman, such statements are not unbecoming, 
although tinged with some degree of generous 
exaggeration ; but in an English work it has been 
thought necessary to reject unsparingly whatever 
could not bear the test of cool examination and 
inquiry. 

Among the English sufferers were Mr. Madden, 
resident at Passy, in the neighbourhood of Paris, 
who, after having been dangerously wounded in 
the head, was pursued by one of the lancers, and 
owed his life to one of his own workmen, who 
was fighting by his side, and brought down his 
adversary with a pistol shot. 

At Lawson's Hotel, in the Rue Saint Honore, 
a young Englishman, Mr. Foulkes, was shot in 



PREFACE. vn 

the balcony which overlooks the street, by a party 
of gen-d'armes, on Tuesday afternoon, soon after 
the commencement of the contest. It has been 
said, that Mr. Foulkes had shared in the struggle, 
and had been actively engaged in throwing stones 
from the window. On inquiry, however, it ap- 
pears that this was not the fact, but that stones 
had been thrown on the military from one of the 
adjoining houses, and that the party exposed on 
the balcony had been mistaken for the actual 
assailants. In this hotel there were several 
other casualties ; two of the waiters having been 
wounded, and a shot having passed through the 
hair of one of our fair countrywomen, while sit- 
ting near the window of an apartment overlook- 
ing the street. 

There are a number of English gentlemen of 
the medical profession established in Paris, many 
of whom distinguished themselves by their atten- 
tions to the wounded, and more than one of them 
by assistance of a more hazardous nature. Among 
those most prominent were Dr. Bradley, Mr. 
Shrimpton, of the Rue Vivienne, Mr. Donald- 
son, and Mr. Roberts, of the London Dispensary, 
in the Place Vendome. Mr. Donaldson was one 



viii PREFACE. 

of the party who attacked and carried the Swiss 
barracks in the Rue de Babylone. He was also 
one of the first to enter the Tuileries, and after- 
wards formed part of the extraordinary expe- 
dition to Rambouillet. 

Mr. Smith, the English printer, had long been 
spoken of by the French in terms of respect and 
attachment, from his disinterested services at 
the period of the second restoration, and during 
the occupation of the capital by the Allies. As 
soon as the ordinances appeared, on the 26th of 
July, Mr. Smith shut up his printing-office, dis- 
missed the greater part of his workmen, and en- 
gaged, heart and hand, in the cause of liberty. 
In this he had the more merit, as the success of 
the Revolution was certainly to produce the abo- 
lition of that monopoly which added so materi- 
ally to the value of his licence as a printer. 
Having supplied himself and his workmen with 
arms and ammunition, he assisted in person at 
the construction of the barricades, particularly 
those of the Porte Saint Denis, and the Porte 
Saint Martin. On the 27th and 28th, he acted 
independently as a sharp-shooter on the Boule- 
vards ; but, on the 29th, he joined the main body 



PREFACE. [ x 



in the attack on the Louvre, and was afterwards 
one of the first who entered the Tuileries. Just 
before the capture of that palace, an attempt was 
made to dislodge a party of the Royal Guards, 
who had entrenched themselves in a house at 
the corner of the Rue Saint Nicaise, (which 
communicates between the Rue Rivoli, and the 
Rue Saint Honor e,) from whence they had 
long* been pouring a destructive fire upon the 
people. 

Mr. Smith had for some time assisted in re- 
turning this fire from the opposite corner of the 
street, but, finding that in this position he was 
fighting at great disadvantage, he rushed across 
it, followed by two of his workmen, and two 
friends ; and having burst into the house, as- 
cended the staircase, entered the room, from the 
windows of which the Guards were firing, and, 
with a pistol in each hand, required the party to 
surrender. Finding themselves thus attacked in 
front and rear, the Guards were compelled to 
deliver up their arms, but not until one of Mr. 
Smith's workmen had been killed by his side, and 
one of his friends, M. Leblanc, had been severely 
wounded. Fifty or sixty muskets were thus pro- 



x PREFACE. 

cured, and were immediately handed over to 
such of the citizens as were still unprovided with 
arms, to assist in the final attack on the last 
strong-hold of the royalists. 

It is not intended here to attempt an enume- 
ration of all the instances of British gallantry 
which occurred in the course of this memorable 
struggle. But the names of Mr. Workman, Mr. 
Mac-Cue, the English restaurateur, of the Palais 
Royal, Mr. Goldsmith, the dentist, Mr. Lindo, 
of the house of Orr and Goldsmith, and Mr. 
Cartwright, of the Quartier du Petit Carreau, 
are all mentioned with such applause in the 
French accounts of the Revolution, that it would 
be injustice to withhold their names. 

A full account will be found, in the course 
of this work, of the disorderly retreat of the 
Royalists, after their expulsion from the capital, 
on the 29th of July. A party of the fugitives 
of the Royal Guard, instead of joining the co- 
lumn which retired by the barrier de l'Etoile, 
had concealed themselves for some hours in 
the suburbs, and, about five o'clock in the 
afternoon, entered the house of Mr. Caton, 
clerk to Mr. Sloper, the English solicitor, who 



PREFACE. xi 

resides in the Allee d'Antin, a small street 
connected with the Champs Elysees. They 
were upwards of thirty in number. In their 
flight from their pursuers, they came to ask for 
shelter and protection. Mr. Caton declared 
that he was ready to do all he could for men 
reduced to such an extremity; but that, being 
an Englishman, he was placed in a situation of 
great difficulty, if not of personal danger. He 
added, that if they would deliver up their arms, 
and betake themselves to his cellar, as a place of 
temporary security, he would himself be the 
bearer of their capitulation ; and to prove his 
sincerity, would leave his wife and children 
behind him as hostages for their safety. To 
this proposal the fugitives readily agreed ; and 
their protector, having left the house to execute 
his mission, soon met a strong party of the victo- 
rious citizens, whom he instantly accosted, an- 
nouncing himself as an Englishman and a friend 
to liberty, and stating that a party of the van- 
quished were then his prisoners. " Trusting to 
your generosity," he added, " I have promised 
them their lives, and have left my wife and 
children as hostages for their safety." On this 



xii PREFACE. 

appeal the citizens readily agreed to corroborate 
the pledge which Mr. Caton had given ; and, on 
the prisoners surrendering themselves, provided 
them with coloured clothes in exchange for their 
uniforms, so as to make it safe for them to sepa- 
rate, and return to Paris individually, or pro- 
ceed, if they preferred it, to the provisional 
camp which had already been established at 
Vaugirard, for the reception of deserters from 
the royalist cause. 

It is satisfactory to the Editor to be able to give 
a statement, on the authority of the Minister of the 
Interior, of the total number of sufferers by the 
events in the French capital during the three 
great days of July last. In the nature of things 
the statement can only be an approximation to 
the truth, since the data it is founded upon have 
been obtained only by means of the applications 
made to participate in the fund of seven millions 
of francs, created by the law of the 30th of August 
last, for the purpose of providing a national re- 
compense to the wounded, and to the aged 
parents, the widows, and children of the dead. 

It appears that the number of the wounded 
who have not been so mutilated as to be 



PREFACE. xiii 

rendered incapable of resuming their ordinary 
labour, amounts to three thousand five hundred 
and sixty-four. Those who have suffered ampu- 
tation of a limb, or have been otherwise incapa- 
citated from their usual employments, amount to 
three hundred and eleven. Three hundred old 
men have been found entitled to the benefit of 
the fund, from the loss of sons on whom they 
depended for support. The number of widows 
already admitted is also three hundred ; and of 
orphans, five hundred. The manner in which 
the three last numbers are stated is not so explicit 
as could be wished, but it suffices to show that 
the amount of the causualties has been greatly 
exaggerated in the statements which have been 
published ; since the probability is, that claims 
have been advanced, from one quarter or another, 
in the great majority of cases; and although a sin- 
gle citizen could leave but one widow, it is clear 
that one death might produce a claim, not from 
the widow merely, but from the parents and the 
children of the deceased. The official report 
from which these numbers are taken is dated the 
9th of October, when the whole of the claims, 
arising from the death of relations, amounted to 



xiv PREFACE. 

eleven hundred ; but no means are afforded for 
reducing* this number to its correct amount, in 
consequence of a plurality of claims having- arisen 
from the death of the same individual. 

The widows of the killed are to receive from 
the national fund an annuity of five hundred 
francs ; fathers and mothers, above sixty years of 
age, an annuity of three hundred francs, with 
reversion to the survivor ; orphans under seven 
years of age, an annuity of two hundred and fifty 
francs. Between the ages of seven and eighteen, 
the latter are to be educated at the public expense, 
in special establishments created for that purpose, 
where they are to receive instruction suited to 
their sex, and calculated to insure them their 
means of livelihood. As to the wounded, those 
who have suffered the loss of a limb, or any 
equivalent casualty, are to have the option of 
being admitted into the Hotel des Invalides, or 
of receiving the annuity paid to the out-pen- 
sioners of that institution ; and those who have 
not been permanently disabled, are to receive a 
present payment, as an indemnity, to be fixed 
in each particular case by the committee ap- 
pointed by the Chamber of Deputies. Of the 



PREFACE. xv 

seven millions of francs voted by the Chamber, 
four millions six hundred thousand have been 
applied to the purchase of annuities, and the 
remainder to the payment of these immediate 
indemnities. 

Rue Neuve St. Augustin, No. 59. 
26tk October, 1830. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 



Remarks on the position and conduct of the Bourbon family in 
France; Insincere promises given at the Restoration; Re- 
invasion of France, after the Battle of Waterloo ; Anecdote, ex- 
planatory of the feeling with regard to the Bourbons, among the 
Allies in 1814, and the French people in 1815 ; Summary of the 
course pursued by Louis XVIII. ; Recognition of the Charter, 
the result of prudence, rather than inclination ; Assassination of 
the Duke de Berri, and accession of M. de Villele to the Mi- 
nistry ; Influence of the counter-revolutionary Party ; Its increase 
through the failure of the Insurrection in Spain ; Commence- 
ment of the reign of Charles X. ; The National Guard dis- 
banded ; Machinations against the Liberty of the Press ; Crea- 
tion of new Peerages, for political purposes ; Its effect counter- 
acted by the new Elections to the Chamber of Deputies ; 
Accession of the Martignac Ministry ; Its popularity and over- 
throw ; The Polignac Administration ; Cabals and quarrels ; 
Assembly and Dissolution of the Chambers ; Individual changes 
in the Ministry, with the object of furthering the arbitrary mea- 
sures in contemplation . . . 1 



CHAPTER II. 

Containing at full length the Report of the Ministry, and the 
Royal Ordinances of the 25th July, 1830 . . .22 

b 



xviii CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER III. 

Effects produced among the Parisians by the announcement of the 
obnoxious ordinances in the Muniteur; Conduct variously held 
by the proprietors of the constitutional journals ; Reasons assigned 
for the first hesitation of the influential classes; Prohibitory 
measures adopted by the police ; Protest of the Parisian jour- 
nalists ; Suspension of commercial confidence ; Confluence of 
people at the Palais Royal ; Eccentricities of the Marquis de 
Chabannes; Conduct of the gen-d'armerie; Tumultuous assem- 
bly in the Champs Elysees, and singular escape of the Prince de 
Polignac 40 

CHAPTER IV. 

Condition of affairs in regard to the new Election of Deputies ; 
Meeting of Members at the house of M. Casimir Perier, with 
the Protest issued by them ; Crowd attracted by the occasion ; 
First scene of bloodshed ; Destruction by the Police of the 
printing-presses belonging to the National and the Times ; Anec- 
dote ; Legal proceedings between the printers and the proprietors 
of certain Journals; Affair of Lapelouze and Chatelain versus 
Laguionie ; Command of the Troops assigned to the Duke of 
Ragusa ; Preparations for resistance on the part of the people, 

56 

CHAPTER V. 

Positions occupied by the troops of the line ; Punishment inflicted 
on certain police agents ; Disinclination of the troops of the line 
to act against the people, and causes for this feeling ; Concilia- 
tory messages on both sides ; Assignment to the Royal Guard of 
the station in front of the Palais Royal; Offensive operations 
commenced by them, conjointly with the Lancers ; Anecdotes ; 
The guard-house near the Exchange fired by the people ; Active 
arrangements for defence made by the populace during the night; 
Unpaving and barricading of the streets ; The Marseillois Hymn, 
and its exciting effects . . ' . . . .71 

CHAPTER VI. 

Formidable appearance of Paris on the morning of the 28th of July ; 
Organization of the National Guard, on behalf of the popular 



CONTENTS. xix 

cause; Destruction of various tributes to Royalty; Mean con- 
duct of many retainers of the Court; General extension of the 
conflict ; Proceedings in the Faubourg St. Antoine ; Charge 
made by the Cuirassiers of the Guard, and followed by the ex- 
pulsion of the troops from the Rue St. Antoine ; Desperate con- 
test in the Boulevard du Temple; An illustrative Letter . 8G 



CHAPTER VII. 

Successful mode of annoyance practised against the gen-d'armerie; 
Desperate struggle near the Porte St. Denis ; Heroism of Captain 
Thierri ; Fine trait of coolness and humanity ; Royal Ordinance, 
declaring the capital in a state of siege; The Duke of Ragusa 
takes the command of the soldiery, heads a charge in person, 
and is driven back into the Place des Victoires; Honourable in- 
stances of moderation in the people ; Order issued by the Pre- 
fect of Police ; The veteran hero and the Lancers ; Want of 
provisions among the royal troops ; their growing disinclination 
to the service imposed on them ; Resignation of Count La Tour 
du Pin, captain of the Royal Guard .... 103 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Occurrences on the left bank of the Seine ; Popular organization, 
directed by the pupils of the Polytechnic School; Generous promp- 
titude of the students of law and medicine ; Places of general 
rendezvous; Attack on the Swiss barracks in the Rue de Baby- 
lone ; Letter descriptive of that movement, and its successful 
issue . • • • • • .117 



CHAPTER IX. 

Popular attack on the Island of La Cite ; Destruction of the Archie- 
piscopal Palace ; Sanguinary engagements in the Place de Greve ; 
Obstinate contests for the occupation of the Hotel de Ville; 
Final expulsion of the royalist forces from that position ; Various 
traits of courage ; Conduct of the Duke of Ragusa; Behaviour 
of the troops of the Line, contrasted with that of the Royal 
Guard ; Conciliation of the former to the national cause ; Enthu- 
siastic spirit among the members of the Bar . . . 128 



xx CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER X. 

Proceedings in the vicinity of the Palais Royal ; Amount and distribu- 
tion of Marshal Marmont's force ; Various Attacks on the People ; 
Increase of the National Guard; Difficulties of the Royalists, and 
consequent restriction of their field of operations ; Advantages en- 
joyed by the popular side, contrasted with the destitution of the 
soldiery, as to provisions, treatment of the wounded, &c. ; Move- 
ments of General St. Chamans ; Order of the Day from Marshal 
Marmont; Particulars respecting the state of the King and 
Court at St. Cloud 141 

CHAPTER XL 

Measures connected with the Provisional Government ; Proclama- 
tion signed in the name of the Deputies of France ; Letters on 
that subject ; Unsuccessful Deputation to the Duke of Ragusa : 
Announcement from the Provisional Government ; Detail of the 
Conferences of M Bayeux, the advocate-general, with the Mi- 
nistry and the Duke of Ragusa . 150 

CHAPTER XII. 

Reflections on the preceding events; Renewed efforts of the 
Parisians ; Marmont concentrates his force on the 29th of July, 
and issues a Proclamation without effect ; General Gerard as- 
sumes the command of the popular forces; Attack on the Louvre, 
and dislodgement of the Swiss troops from thence; Hesitation 
manifested among the Royal Guard ; Various anecdotes con- 
nected with the struggle at the Louvre .... 170 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Increased defection of the regular troops ; Success of the final po- 
pular attack on the Tuileries, conducted by General Gerard; 
Causes that facilitated this result; Dislodgment of two regiments 
of the Royalists from the garden of the Tuileries ; Generosity 
shown towards the Royal Guard ; Release of the persons confined 
in the cellars of the Tuileries; Detail of their previous sufferings ; 
Cessation of hostilities ; General appearance of things at this pe- 
riod; Sentiments and conduct of the people . . . 183 



CONTENTS. xxi 



CHAPTER XIV. 



Progress in the re-organization of the National Guard, and the 
arrangement of the Provisional Government; Lafayette's Procla- 
mation and Order of the Day; Manifesto from the Municipal 
Commission ; account of the individuals who signed it; State of 
the Royal Family at St, Cloud; Confused behaviour of Polignac; 
Tardy and useless endeavour at conciliation; Reflections on the 
posture of affairs ; Treatment of Marmont by the Duke D'An- 
gouleme 196 

CHAPTER XV. 

Hasty rally of the Royal forces, previously to their evacuation of 
Paris ; Their departure ; Occupation of the Tuileries by a party 
of the National Guard; Attempts at plunder successfully resisted ; 
Discoveries in the Royal Apartments; Various anecdotes ; Traits 
of female heroism ; incidents connected with the retreat of the 
troops through the Champs Elysees 210 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Proclamation made by the Provisional Government, after the po- 
pular triumph ; Submission of the Royalist troops, in conse- 
quence ; Instances of humane interposition on the part of indi- 
viduals, on behalf of the military ; Fine example of self-sacrifice 
shown by a woman ; Characteristic sayings, produced by the cir- 
cumstances of the Revolution; an illustraton of the feeling 
among the Soldiery; The bombarded house; The interment of 
the dead, with the scenes attendant on that office . . 223 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Proclamation addressed to the troops in the name of Lafayette ; 
Historical sketch of the Life of General Lafayette . 033 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Historical sketch of the Life of Louis Philip, Duke of Orleans 264 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Decree of the Provisional Government ; Invitation to the Duke of 
Orleans to become Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom; Pro- 
clamation in the Moniteur, notifying his acceptance thereof; 



xxii CONTENTS. 

Explanatory details ; Proclamation by those of the Deputies 
who had met in Paris ; Reception of the Duke of Orleans at 
the Hotel de Ville; Singular speech on that occasion by Ge- 
neral Dubourg; Account of the conduct and merits of that indi- 
vidual ; Proclamations for the resumption of the national ban- 
ner, for the discipline of the National Guard, and for the collec- 
tion of the local tax on provisions; General Lafayette's ad- 
_ dress, to announce the opening of the Chamber of Deputies 283 

CHAPTER XX. 

Proceedings at St. Cloud; Alarm prevalent there; Disordered 
flight of the royal party from thence to Versailles ; Arrival of the 
royalist troops, and occupation of the town ; the Dauphin com- 
pelled to join the King at Versailles ; Attachment shown to the 
latter by the pupils of the college of St. Cyr ; Arrival of the King 
and his party at Rambouillet, where they are joined by the Dau- 
phiness ; the Dauphin's proclamation to the troops ; Useless act 
of abdication by the King and the Dauphin, in favour of the Duke 
of Bordeaux ; Various regulations adopted by the Provisional 
Government . . . . • .301 



CHAPTER XXI. 

Announcement of the removal of the crown jewels ; Unsuccess- 
ful return of the Commissioners sent in consequence to Ram- 
bouillet; They are despatched again with an armed force, and 
accomplish their object ; the King and his party compelled to 
set out on the road to Maintenon ; Incidental particulars ; at- 
tachment manifested towards the King in his misfortunes by 
the gardes-du-corps ; the King's escort lessened by the dismis- 
sal of the remaining troops of the lioyal Guard ; Entry of the 
Royal party into Dreux, and dismissal of the artillery ; The 
route continued to Melleraut; Anecdotes of the Royal fugi- 
tives ; Their straitened resources relieved by the Provisional Go- 
vernment ; Inconveniences attendant on the gardes-du-corps 315 

CHAPTER XXII. 

Uncertainty among the attendants of Charles X. as to the course of 
events in Paris ; Intelligence brought to them at Argentan of the 
election of the Duke of Orleans ; Progress of the royal retinue; 
Mysterious conveyance of the Princess de Polignac and her chil- 



CONTENTS. xxiii 

dren; Details connected with the arrest of the Prince de Polig- 
lac; Hazard incurred by Marmont at Conde; Reasons for the 
slow rate of travelling of the royal fugitives; Arrival of the caval- 
cade at Vire ; Order of procession, and enumeration of the suite ; 
Characteristic proneness to desertion among the courtiers ; En- 
try into the town of Saint Lo, contrasted with a former occa- 
sion; Progress of the cortege through Carentan and Valognes; 
Farewell reception of the gardes-du-corpsby Charles X. ; Change 
of costume adopted by some of the fugitive family; Arrival of the 
party at Cherbourg, and embarkation for England ; Disbanding 
of the gardes-du-corps ..... 330 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

Account of the individuals forming the new French Administra- 
tion, with a sketch of their respective lives ; the Duke de Brog- 
lie; M. Dupont de l'Eure : M. Guizot; Count Gerard; Baron 
Louis ; Count Mole ; General Count Sebastiani ; Messrs. Lafitte, 
Casimir Perier, Dupin, aine, Benjamin Constant, and Bignon 

356 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

Convocation of the Legislative Body ; Account of "the ceremony 
observed on the occasion : Cordial reception of the Duke of 
Orleans; his speech to the assembled Peers and Deputies; 
Letter from the Commissioners sent to Rambouillet; Separate 
meetings of the two Chambers ; Proceedings and speeches of 
the members ; The declaration, of rights presented to the Duke 
of Orleans by the deputies ; Enthusiasm manifested on the occa- 
sion • • . . .383 



CHAPTER XXV. 

Small share taken by the Chamber of Peers in the affairs of the 
Revolution ; Their deliberations as to the resolutions passed by 
the Deputies ; Chateaubriand's splendid speech on that occasion ; 
Assent to the declaration of the Deputies, and deputation in 
consequence from the Peers to the Duke of Orleans ; Arrival of 
the Duke de Chartres in Paris; Character of the Duke of Or- 
leans, as described by Paul Louis Courrier .... 405 



xxiv CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

The Duke of Orleans, as King elect of the French, takes the oath 
of Fidelity to the new Constitution ; Particulars of the solem- 
nity ; Speech of the new King ; Concluding remarks, and Copy 
of the new Constitutional Charter 424 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Portrait of Louis Philip I. . . To face the Title-page. 

Plan of the Scene of Action .... page 1 

Portrait of General Lafayette . . • 239 



PARIS IN 1830. 



CHAPTER I. 



Remarks on the position and conduct of the Bourbon family in 
France — Insincere promises given at the Restoration — Re- 
invasion of France, after the Battle of Waterloo — Anecdote, 
explanatory of the feeling with regard to the Bourbons, 
among the Allies in 1814, and the French people in 1815 
— Summary of the course pursued by Louis XVIII — Re- 
cognition of the Charter, the result of prudence, rather 
than inclination — Assassination of the Duke de Berri, and 
accession of M. de Villele to the Ministry — Influence of the 
counter-revolutionary Party — Its increase, through the failure 
of the Insurrection in Spain — Commencement of the reign 
of Charles X. — The National Guard disbanded — Machi- 
nations against the Liberty of the Press — Creation of new 
Peerages, for political purposes — Its effect counteracted by 
the new Elections to the Chamber of Deputies — Accession 
of the Martignac Ministry — Its popularity and overthrow — 
The Polignac Administration — Cabals and quarrels — As- 
sembly and Dissolution of the Chambers — Individual 
changes in the Ministry, with the object of furthering the 
arbitrary measures in contemplation. 

Of Charles X. and his family it may be said, 
with as much truth as of any of their prede- 
cessors of the house of Bourbon^ that in pros- 
perity as in adversity, they learn nothing, and 
they forget nothing. A quarter of a century of 



2 PARIS IN 1830. 

exile and misfortune proved to them a useless 
and unprofitable lesson. Replaced on the throne 
of their ancestors, by a train of extraordinary 
events which no human foresight could antici- 
pate, they brought back with them all the pre- 
judices of the ancien regime, and as little know- 
ledge of their own interests, or those of the 
country they were called to govern, as they 
possessed at the period of their first emigration. 
Driven for the third time into exile by a revo- 
lution which has no parallel in history, it cannot 
be said, that they have fallen into the abyss, pre- 
pared for them by the faction into whose hands 
they had thrown themselves, without due warn- 
ing of their danger. But, in place of listening 
to the voice of public opinion, as declared by 
its organs of the press, or as more solemnly com- 
municated through the legitimate medium of the 
representative chamber, the king, as if to verify 
the words of the poet, 

" Quern Deus vult perdere prius dementat," 

set his seal to those illegal ordinances, which 
suspended the liberty of the press, dissolved a 
legislative body, which had never assembled, and 
formally disfranchised three-fourths of the electors. 
Independently of the principle which, in a con- 
stitutional monarchy, exempts the sovereign from 
all personal responsibility for the acts of his go- 
vernment, the fallen monarch must, in anv sense, 



PARIS IN 1830. 8 

be rather regarded as the instrument than the 
author of the crime committed in his name. 
The princes of this unfortunate family have some 
claim to our commiseration, even when they 
have not entitled themselves to our respect or es- 
teem. We are bound to remember the prejudices 
under which they have been educated. The ob- 
jects, from their cradle, of every species of homage 
and adulation, they grow up, live and die in the 
deepest ignorance of their own situation, and of 
all that is passing around them. They are 
taught to believe that they are the special ob- 
jects of the divine protection ; that their origin 
and their race are superior to those of other 
men. They constantly hear of their rights, 
which are unblushingly exaggerated by a train 
of flatterers and parasites ; but no one ever ven- 
tures to speak to them of their duties. Sur- 
rounded by priests and Jesuits, who have pro- 
verbially neither family nor country, their first 
lesson is to place implicit confidence in their 
clerical advisers, and their last consists in 

" The right divine of kings to govern wrong." 

The military despotism of Napoleon, and the 
apprehension lest his downfall might be suc- 
ceeded by a state of anarchy and confusion, paved 
the way, even more, perhaps, than the arms of 
the allies, for the restoration of the Bourbon 
dynasty. On the re-appearance of the restored 

B 2 



4 PARIS IN 1830. 

princes on the territory of France, their first 
promises were the abolition of the law of con- 
scription, by which the people had been an- 
nually decimated — and of that oppressive and 
inquisitorial system of taxation which, under the 
imperial government, had pressed so heavily on 
the industry of the people. But as soon as they 
found themselves firmly seated on the throne, 
their early promises were forgotten, the con- 
scription and the droits reunis were re-establish- 
ed, or changed but in name ; and the plebeian 
soldier, who might formerly, by risking his life, 
enjoy the prospect of the highest military honours, 
was now condemned to perpetual obscurity ; 
rank was now exclusively reserved for the mem- 
bers of titled families ; the military household of 
the king was exclusively composed of youngs 
noblesse ; the regiments were deprived of their 
historic names ; and the army, which w^as re- 
signed rather than devoted, soon lost all its 
moral power and influence. 

When the first impulse of enthusiasm had 
subsided, after the extraordinary re-appearance 
of Napoleon in 1815, the French people did not 
fail to remember the evils to which he had for- 
merly subjected them ; nor, after proclaiming as 
they had done the sovereignty of the nation, 
were they disposed to endure the assumption of 
the constituent power which he virtually arro- 
gated by the imposition of his celebrated arte 



PARIS IN 1830. O 

additionnel to the constitutions of the empire. 
It was not for the sake of Napoleon, after this 
new usurpation, that the armed population of 
France assembled under his banner ; it was for 
the patriotic purpose of driving from the French 
frontier the foreign armies, by which their terri- 
tory was threatened. 

When France was again invaded, after the 
battle of Waterloo, the Bourbons re-appeared in 
the train of the conquerors, whom they called 
their allies. An anecdote, which was widely 
circulated in France at the period of the Congress 
of Aix-la-Chapelle, and the truth of which, it is 
believed, has never been disputed, throws some 
light on the circumstances which produced this 
restoration ; and confirms the idea, that the 
exiled family were not even thought of by the 
allies in 1814 ; and that they certainly were not 
desired by the nation, on their re-appearance in 
France the following year. 

The Emperor Alexander, during his residence 
at Aix-la-Chapelle, at the time of the Congress, 
had announced his resolution to pay a visit to 
the great woollen manufactory of M. Ludwig, at 
Bois-Pauline, and accepted the dejeune which was 
offered to him by the proprietor. The room in 
which the entertainment was given, was adorned 
with engravings representing the principal events 
in the career of Napoleon. The attention of M. 
Ludwig's illustrious visitor was particularly at- 
tracted by that which exhibited the celebrated in- 



6 PARIS IN 1830. 

terview between the two emperors on theNiemen. 
At that time, it was the fashion to speak of Napo- 
leon in the most abusive terms ; and M. Ludwig 
naturally waited with some anxiety, until his im- 
perial gitest should give some expression to the 
feelings which had evidently been excited by his 
examination of the engraving. " Very true, very 
true," said the emperor, at length ; " but why 
did he not do as much on the Loire in 1815, 
instead of throwing himself into the hands of the 
English ? He might have clone it ; and if he had, 
he would still have been emperor of the French." 

" But the house of Bourbon ?" — interposed 
M. Ludwig. 

" The house of Bourbon! — Yes, you are 
right," the Emperor Alexander replied ; " the 
Bourbons were then an obstacle ; but he might 
have done it in 1814, when they had not been 
thought of in the war." 

Between the two princes of the fallen family, 
who have occupied the throne of France since 
the period of the restoration, the points of con- 
trast are, perhaps, more numerous, than even 
those of resemblance, compared with his sur- 
viving brother. Louis XVIII. was a man of 
talent and intelligence ; he yielded with readi- 
ness and grace to the demand for a constitu- 
tional charter ; and made no attempt, of his own 
motive, to infringe or recall the rights and pri- 
vileges conceded by that charter to the nation. 
The restored throne was soon surrounded, it is 



PARIS IN 1830. 7 

true, by a crowd of emigrant noblesse, who, after 
suffering- the privations of a long exile, were 
employed, endowed, and pensioned at the court 
of the prince with whom, and for whom, they 
had so long been sufferers. But it was in that 
pavilion of the palace of the Tuileries, which 
formed the residence of the Count d'Artois and 
his family, that the party was formed, which was 
known by the name of " the counter-revolu- 
tion" whose maxim it was, that a king of France 
should depend only on God and his sword, 
adopting the favourite device of Louis XIV., 
" Un roi, une loi, unefoi" Louis XVIII. was, 
doubtless, as much attached to the principles of 
arbitrary pow r er as was the heir presumptive to 
the throne ; but, more enlightened, or more pru- 
dent, he did not venture to carry them into exe- 
cution. There was but one member of the royal 
family who was completely free from the in- 
fluence of the apostolical, or counter-revolu- 
tionary faction ; and he, in issuing from a 
theatre in the Rue Richelieu, on the 13th of 
February, 1820, at eleven o'clock in the even- 
ing, fell by the hands of an assassin. 

The assassination of the Duke de Berri was 
speedily followed by the resignation of M. De- 
cazes from the cabinet, and the accession of M. 
de Villele, who till then had only been known by 
his celebrated protest against the charter, and his 
steady opposition to the organization and esta- 
blishment of free institutions in France. 



K PARIS IN 1830. 

Under this new cabinet, which soon acquired 
the title of the deplorable administration, the in- 
fluence of the Congregation and the Camarilla, (as 
the two leading sections of the counter-revolution- 
ary party were variously denominated,) was gra- 
dually increased. At the head of the Camarilla 
was the Prince de Polignac, who earned his title 
to that distinction by the obstinacy with which, for 
two years, he had refused to take the oath to the 
new charter. But the superior tactics of M. de 
Villele enabled him, first, to clear the council of 
all who were not prepared to yield implicit obe- 
dience to its new president, and afterwards to 
secure that compact majority of three hundred 
in the Chamber of Deputies, which the septennial 
act had placed for so many years at his disposal. 

The cry for liberty and independence which 
arose, for the second time, beyond the Pyrenees, 
produced a new triumph for the reigning faction 
in France. Tired of a tyranny, as stupid as it 
was sanguinary, the Spanish liberals raised once 
more the standard of insurrection. A crusade 
was resolved on ; a French army was marched 
against a people who had risen in defence of 
their freedom and their rights ; the Duke d'An- 
gouleme was placed at its head ; and, by the suc- 
cess of his enterprize, a double triumph was ob- 
tained for the faction, whose creature he had 
allowed himself to become. 

For a year before the death of Louis XVIII. 
he had ceased to be the king de facto. Confined 



PARIS IN 1830. 9 

to a sick bed, he had virtually abandoned the 
reins of government, which had been usurped 
by the party of the Pavilion Marsan. In the 
salons of the Faubourg St. Germain it was 
already considered le bon ton to stigmatize the 
dying monarch in the midst of his infirmities, 
with the titles of jacobin and philosopher and 
to such an extremity did the apostolicals carry 
their presumption, that the remains of a mo- 
narch, who, for twenty-eight years, had borne 
the title of his Most Christian Majesty, were 
suffered to be interred without Christian burial. 

On the accession of Charles X., it became a 
serious question, whether the charter, which had 
been granted by his predecessor, should be re- 
cognized and sworn to by the new monarch on 
the occasion of his coronation. The hesitation 
which he then evinced may be regarded as at 
once a proof of honesty and ignorance. The 
party by whom he was surrounded did not feel 
themselves strong enough to advise his refusal. 
The oath prescribed by the charter was solemnly 
pronounced at Rheims ; but, as it now appears, 
with some mental reservation, or with the ad- 
vantage of that plenary indulgence and dispen- 
sation, at the disposal of those who had the 
keeping of the royal conscience. 

One of the first measures of the new reign 
consisted in the arrangements which were made, 
in the first instance, for weakening, and, at 
length, for finally abolishing, the National Guards 



10 PARIS IN 1830. 

which had been re-established in the crisis of 
1814, and had ever since been maintained. The 
chief objection which arose to it, was probably 
found in the ready means it afforded of esta- 
blishing* a system of communication between the 
more respectable inhabitants of the same district, 
or the same commune. The first encroachment 
consisted in the deprivation of the right of the 
privates to elect their own officers : a general 
disorganization of this great national armament 
was the natural and necessary consequence of 
this unpopular arrangement. And, finally, 
about three years ago, the regiments of the ca- 
pital, and of all those departments where the 
remotest danger was to be apprehended, were 
formally disbanded. Although the preliminary 
arrangements adopted by the ministry for the 
attainment of this object had been conducted 
with becoming caution, the manner in which the 
decisive blow was struck was equally sudden and 
unexpected. During the previous reign it had 
been customary for Louis XVIII., on the 3rd of 
May, the anniversary of his public entry into 
Paris, to direct that the service of the Tuileries 
should for that day be exclusively performed by 
the National Guard, in acknowledgment of the 
protection afforded by that body to the royal 
family at the period of the restoration. At the 
accession of Charles X., the day was only changed 
from the 3rd of May, to that on which the 
Count d'Artois had entered Paris, which had 



PARIS IN 1830. 11 

been the 12th of April. On that day in 1827, 
as in previous years, the guard performed the 
duty of the Tuileries ; and, on the 16th of the 
month, a general order was issued by the com- 
mander-in-chief, announcing his majesty's satis- 
faction with their deportment on the occasion. 
By the same general order it was intimated, that 
the king had resolved to evince the good opi- 
nion he entertained of the National Guard of 
Paris, by passing in review the thirteen legions 
of which it was composed, on the 29th of April. 
On that day, accordingly, the Champ de Mars 
presented a display of all the splendour of the 
court, and of all that was brilliant or distinguish- 
ed in the capital and its environs. The king 
was saluted with loud, if not with cordial accla- 
mations. The cries of " Vive le Roi!" " Vive la 
Charts !" were however occasionally interrupted 
by murmurs, not loud, but deep, of " d has les 
ministres — a has les Jesuites !" 

To each legion the king addressed himself in 
terms of approbation. Personally, his majesty 
had been perfectly well received, not only by 
the national troops, but by the assembled popu- 
lation, which was estimated to amount to at 
least 200,000 souls. Some kind friend, however, 
had doubtless pointed out to him the occasional 
and unwelcome cry of "Down with the ministry ;" 
and, on his return to the Tuileries, he observed 
to one of the marshals in attendance on his per- 



12 PARIS IN 1830. 

son, that the business of the day had not passed 
quite so well as he had expected, but that on the 
whole, he was satisfied. On the same day the 
commander-in-chief expressed to the troops on 
the field the king's entire approbation of their ap- 
pearance and deportment ; an order of the day 
to the same effect was forthwith prepared, and, 
after receiving his majesty's concurrence, was 
carried to the office of the Moniteur, for publi- 
cation on the following morning. Within a few 
hours, however, the business assumed a different 
aspect ; the king was made to say, that it was not 
advice, but homage that he had gone to receive ; 
and instead of the royal approbation appearing 
in the Moniteur on the 30th of April, that organ 
of government contained an ordonnance, by 
which the national guard was disbanded. 

The apprehensions entertained by M. de Vil- 
lele and his colleagues on this occasion, were 
strongly evinced by the military preparations 
which had been made on the eve of the review. 
A strong park of artillery had been brought 
from the castle of Vincennes, on the other side 
of Paris, to the Ecole Militaire, which is in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the Champ de Mars. 
The horses of the train remained in harness, and 
the artillerymen stood with lighted matches at 
their guns throughout the morning. The regi- 
ments of the guard were posted in the Bois de 
Boulogne; the courts of the Hotel des Invalides 



PARIS IN 1830. 13 

were filled with Swiss under arms ; even the 
veteran companies were on duty, and nothing- 
was left undone in the way of preparation, to 
convert the Champ de Mars, on a day of cheer- 
fulness and gaiety, into a scene of possible strife 
and slaughter. Such was the last meeting of the 
brave National Guard. 

It was soon after this period, that the ex- 
minister, Peyronnet, who was then a member of 
the Villele administration, brought down to the 
Chamber of peers his celebrated bill for the de- 
struction of the liberty of the press. To this 
measure, which was called in derision, " La loi 
de justice et d'amour," the hereditary chamber 
had the courage, or the presumption, to refuse 
its sanction ; but M. de Villele, who has always 
been so fertile in expedients, thought that by a 
fresh infusion of royalism into the upper house — 
by the creation of a new batch of peers from 
among the retainers of the court, this constitu- 
tional majority might easily be overcome. The 
idea was accordingly carried into effect on the 
1,5th of November 1827, when an ordinance 
appeared in the Moniteur, countersigned by the 
president of the council, by which, on a single 
day, no less than seventy-six new peerages were 
created. 

It is true, that M. de Villele, in the short 
period which had elapsed since the date of the 
restoration, had more than one precedent to 



14 PARIS IN 1830. 

quote for this wholesale process of peer-making. 
In 1814, the hereditary Chamber was limited to 
ninety-one members ; but in the following year, 
it received an addition of eighty-seven. This 
was found necessary, in order to enable the re- 
stored government to controul the original 
ninety-one, most of whom had sitten in the im- 
perial senate, or, as successful soldiers, were at- 
tached to the cause of the revolution. Under a 
new administration, and a new system of govern- 
ment in 1819, it was found that sixty additional 
peers were required to neutralize the influence 
of the last eighty-seven, who, by the unmeasured 
violence of their proceedings, had made the 
Chamber more royalist than Louis XVIII. him- 
self, or the ministry by whose advice he was 
at that time directed. To restore the balance 
which had thus been disturbed, a further creation 
took place in 1824, of twenty-three new peers, 
after the accession of M. de Villele to the ca- 
binet ; but, as the upper Chamber was still found 
to be unmanageable on a question of such vital 
importance as the liberty of the press, the pre- 
mier adopted the bold expedient of adding such 
a number to the peerage, as, with intermediate 
creations, converted the original cypher of ninety- 
one, into the formidable total of three hundred 
and fifty-seven. It will be seen in the sequel, 
that the whole of these intruders have been 
cleared out of the Chamber at one fell swoop, by 



PARIS IN 1830. lo 

a single clause of the new charter, declaring the 
absolute nullity of all the peerages created dur- 
ing the reign of Charles X. 

In the meantime, the plans of M. de Villele 
and of his colleagues de Peyronnet and Corbiere 
were defeated on the dissolution of the Chamber 
of Deputies, by a series of elections which left 
them no chance of retaining that decisive majo- 
rity they had previously been able to command. 
The triumvirate were not yet prepared for the 
consequences of a decisive coup d'etat, and, they 
having retired from office, a new ministry was 
formed of less unpopular materials, in which M. 
Portalis was called to the department of justice, 
M. Martignac to the interior, and M. Roi to the 
Treasury. The war department was nominally 
assigned to M. de Caux, but with the under- 
standing that the patronage should be reserved 
to the Duke d' Angouleme ; and M. de Saint- 
Cricq was entrusted with the portfolio of com- 
merce and the colonies. 

The Villele administration remained longer in 
power than any cabinet which has been formed 
since the restoration. Those by which it was 
preceded were each on an average scarcely a 
year in possession of office, since between 1814 
and 1822 there existed not fewer than eight 
distinct administrations. It was thought that, in 
deference to public opinion, the members of the 
deplorable cabinet would not be distinguished by 



16 PARIS IN 1830. 

any mark of royal favour ; but the public mind 
was speedily disabused of this idea, by the appear- 
ance of two separate ordinances, bearing the 
same date with that which nominated their suc- 
cessors, appointing Villele and Peyronnet, Da- 
mas, Clermont, Tonnerre and Corbiere, minis- 
ters of state, and members of his majesty's privy 
council, and raising to the peerage, with addi- 
tional pensions, the three who had chiefly ex- 
cited the public indignation, viz. Villele, Cor- 
biere, and Peyronnet. 

The Martignac ministry having assumed the 
reins of government, under the auspices of a 
constitutional majority in the representative 
Chamber/ appeared to have adopted the resolu- 
tion of carrying into effect the principles of the 
charter, and pursuing a course in conformity 
with public opinion. In fulfilment of the pro- 
mises which had been admitted into the speech 
from the throne, at the opening of the session of 
the legislature, a law was enacted, which emanci- 
pated the press from the trammels to which it 
had previously been subjected, particularly from 
that regulation which made a preliminary sanc- 
tion indispensable. To this important ameliora- 
tion a series of improvements were added, with 
reference to the law of elections. 

On the retirement of M. de la Ferronnez from 
a situation which he found to be no longer tena- 
ble, a variety of changes took place among the 



PARTS IN 1830. 17 

heads of departments, and an attempt was made 
to restore M. de Villele, the representative of 
the Congregation, to his former office of presi- 
dent of the council. The proposal immediately 
produced the tender of his resignation from 
every member of the cabinet who attached any 
importance to public opinion : and a subsequent 
attempt to bring forward the Prince de Polignac 
and place him at the head of affairs, was prompt- 
ly attended by a similar result. 

The monarch, meanwhile, never suffered the 
affairs of state, or the changes in his ministry, to 
interfere with his ordinary pursuits. His first 
duty in the morning was to hear, or, as some 
have gravely asserted, to say mass in his private 
chapel. After an early breakfast, he would go 
out and kill some hundred head of game, which 
were driven within range of the royal sports- 
man's Manton, by an army of gardes de chasse. 
His ordinary dinner-hour was six, and at eight 
the Duchess de Berri came to him to make one 
of his party at whist, which lasted till ten, when 
he went to say his prayers and to sleep, prepa- 
ratorily to the renewal of the same routine on the 
morrow. 

Thus had matters proceeded in the ordinary 
train, without any external demonstration of what 
was passing in that cabal of absolutism by whose 
inspirations the king was at all times ready to be 
swayed. The dismissal of the Martignac minis- 



18 PARIS IN 1830. 

try had, however, been resolved on by this secret 
council, long before the design had been entrusted 
to the royal ear. On the 7th of August, 1829, 
M. Martignac and his colleagues were received 
by his majesty with every mark of gracious con- 
sideration ; they left the royal presence well 
satisfied with their reception ; but on the follow- 
ing day they were no longer the ministers of the 
crown. 

The Moniteur of the 8th of August con- 
tained the appointment of Polignac and Labour- 
donnaye, Courvoisier and de Rigny, de Montbel, 
de Chabrol, and de Bourmont, as the members 
of the new cabinet. Admiral de Rigny, how- 
ever, refused to act with such colleagues, lest he 
should tarnish the laurels he had gained at Na- 
varin, or make himself the accomplice of what 
was well known to be the result of a court in- 
trigue. He was replaced by M. d'Haussez, who 
although perhaps better fitted by his previous 
administrative functions to conduct the official 
details in the bureau of minister of marine, 
could neither bring to the new ministry the 
popularity they so much needed, nor the know- 
ledge of maritime affairs possessed by M. de 
Rigny. The admiral's resignation was speedily 
followed by that of Viscount de Chateaubriand 
of his embassy at the papal see, and of M. 
de Belleyme of the most valuable in the gift of 
the crown, the important office of prefect of police. 



PARIS IN 1830. 1<) 

But, although the substitution of M. Mangin for 
M. de Belleyme was far from being agreeable to 
the inhabitants of Paris, it was not regarded as 
so open an insult to the good sense and the 
honour of the nation, as the elevation of General 
Bourmont, the deserter of Waterloo, to the head 
of the war department. 

A quarrel at length ensued between Labour- 
donnaye and Polignac, the leaders of the two 
parties into which the cabinet was known to be 
divided. Originally the administration had been 
professedly formed on the principle of perfect 
equality among the heads of the departments of 
which it was composed. The Prince de Polig- 
nac, however, soon evinced a disposition to as- 
sume the rank and authority of premier. To 
this arrangement the Count de Labourdonnaye 
refused to submit ; a dispute arose on some in- 
significant topic ; the prince was asked by his 
colleague, if he was afraid of the revolutionary 
party? "Neither of them, nor of you," was 
the answer. The appointment of M. de Polignac 
as president of the council appeared in next 
morning's Moniteur, and M. de Labourdonnaye 
retired from the ministry. 

In the meantime, the Chambers had assem- 
bled ; and the deputies having voted an address, 
which was far from being palatable either to the 
monarch or his ministers, that Chamber was 

c 2 



20 PARIS IN 1830. 

forthwith prorogued, and soon afterwards dis- 
solved. 

It was still found, that the cabinet was not 
sufficiently self-accordant in its views. It con- 
tained a majority, consisting' of de Montbel 
and Courvoisier, de Chabrol and d'Haussez, 
who were known to be moderate in principle, 
and who were almost disposed to be reasonable 
in action. It was necessary to get rid of such 
of them as entertained some scruples as to the 
measures in contemplation — to the effect, at least, 
of giving a decided preponderance to those who 
were prepared to go all lengths with their chief. 
On the resignation of M. de Labourdonnaye, M. 
de Montbel exchanged the portfolio of public 
instruction, for that of the home department, 
and made way for the elevation of an obscure 
individual, M. Guernon Ranville, to the super- 
intendence of the university, which includes the 
whole system of education in France. The 
changes which arose on the retirement of Cour- 
voisier and de Chabrol were more considerable 
and more important. M. de Montbel, with his 
usual complaisance, passed from the home de- 
partment to the treasury, to make way for the 
Count de Peyronnet, who became minister of the 
interior. M. de Chantelauze — a kind of second 
edition of M. de Ranville — was appointed keeper 
of the seals ; and, to give greater weight to the 



PARIS IN 1830. 21 

party, a new department was created for the 
Baron Capelle, by separating the charge of the 
canals, highways, and public works, from the 
duties of minister of the interior. Courvoisier 
and Chabrol retired. By this arrangement, the 
premier was supposed to have acquired an ac- 
cession of eloquence, in the person of Chante- 
lauze — of dexterity, in the Baron Capelle — and 
of courage, in the Count de Peyronnet. The 
report on which the treasonable edicts pro- 
ceed, may be taken as a specimen of the elo- 
quence of the cabinet, in their collective capa- 
city ; and their dexterity is evinced by the fact, 
that on the 24th of July, at the moment when 
that report, and these ordinances, must either 
have been prepared, or in the act of prepara- 
tion, the sign manual of the king, and the 
countersign of his advisers, were affixed to the 
lettres closes addressed to the peers and the 
deputies, requiring them to attend his majesty, 
at the opening of the session, on the 3d of 
August : and whatever may be said of the other 
qualities possessed by the ministers individually, 
there seems, at least, to have been no want of 
that fatal courage evinced in every line of their 
atrocious ordinances. 



22 



CHAPTER II. 

Containing at full length the Report of the Ministry, and the 
Royal Ordinances of the 25th July, 1830. 

That the ordinances of the 25th of July, 
which were the immediate and exciting cause of 
the glorious revolution, may be placed in that 
conspicuous point of view best fitted to gibbet 
them for future fame, the present chapter is ex- 
clusively reserved for their reception, and for 
that of the Joint report of the cabinet from 
which they proceeded. 



REPORT, &c. 

" Sire, 

u Your ministers would be little worthy of the 
confidence with which your majesty honours them, if 
they longer delayed to place before your eyes a view of 
our internal situation, and to point out to your high 
wisdom the dangers of the periodical press. 



PARIS IN 1830. 23 

" At no time for these fifteen years has this situation 
presented itself under a more serious and more afflicting 
aspect. Notwithstanding an actual prosperity, of which 
our annals afford no example, signs of disorganization 
and symptoms of anarchy manifest themselves at almost 
every point of the kingdom. 

" The successive causes which have concurred to 
weaken the springs of the monarchical government tend 
now to impair and to change the nature of it. Stripped 
of its moral force, authority, both in the capital and the 
provinces, no longer contends, but at a disadvantage, 
with the factions. Pernicious and subversive doctrines, 
loudly professed, are spread and propagated among all 
classes of the population, Alarms, too generally cre- 
dited, agitate people's minds, and trouble society. On 
all sides the present is called upon for pledges of security 
for the future. 

" An active, ardent, indefatigable malevolence, la- 
bours to ruin all the foundations of order, and to snatch 
from France the happiness she enjoys under the sceptre of 
her kings. Skilful in turning to advantage all discon- 
tents, and in exciting all hatreds, it foments among the 
people a spirit of distrust and hostility towards power, 
and endeavours to sow everywhere the seeds of trou- 
ble and civil war ; and already, Sire, recent events have 
proved that political passions, hitherto confined to the 
upper portion of society, begin to penetrate the depths of 
it, and to stir up the popular classes. It is proved also, 
that these masses can never move without danger, even 
to those who endeavour to rouse them from repose. 

" A multitude of facts collected in the course of the 
electoral operations confirm these data, and would offer 
us the too certain presage of new commotions, if it were 
not in the power of your majesty to avert the misfor- 
tune. 

" Everywhere also, if we observe with attention, 



£4 PARIS IN 1830. 

there exists a necessity for order, for strength, and for 
durability ; and the agitations which appear to be the 
most opposed to that necessity, are in reality only the ex- 
pression and the testimony of its existence. 

" It must be acknowledged that these agitations, which 
cannot be increased without great dangers, are almost 
exclusively produced and excited by the liberty of the 
press. A law on the elections, no less fruitful of dis- 
orders, has doubtless concurred in maintaining them; 
but it would be denying what is evident, to refuse to per- 
ceive in the journals the principal focus of a corruption, 
the progress of which is every day more sensible, and the 
first source of the calamities which threaten the king- 
dom. 

"Experience, Sire, speaks more loudly than theory. 
Men who are doubtless enlightened, and whose good 
faith is not suspected, led away by the ill-understood 
example of a neighbouring people, may have believed 
that the advantages of the periodical press would ba- 
lance its inconveniences, and that its excesses would be 
neutralized by contrary excesses. It is not so : the proof 
is decisive, and the question is now settled in the public 
mind. 

"At all times, in fact, the periodical press has been, 
and it is in its natuhe to be, only an instrument of 
disorder and sedition. 

■' What numerous and irrefragable proofs may be 
brought in support of this truth ! It is by the violent 
and incessant action of the press that the too sudden 
and too frequent variations of our internal policy are to 
be explained. It has not permitted a regular and stable 
system of government to be established in France, nor 
any constant attention to be devoted to the introduction, 
into all the branches of the administration, of those ame- 
liorations of which they are susceptible. All the ministries 
since 1814, though formed under divers influences, and 



PARIS IN 1830. 25 

subject to opposite directions, have been exposed to the 
same attacks and to the same licence of the passions. 
Sacrifices of every kind, concessions of power, alliances 
of party — nothing has been able to save them from this 
common destiny. 

" This comparison alone, so fertile in reflections, 
would suffice to assign to the press its true, its invariable 
character. It endeavours, by constant, persevering, 
daily-repeated efforts, to relax all the bonds of obedience 
and subordination, to weaken all the springs of public 
authority, to degrade and debase it in the opinion of 
the people, to create against it everywhere embarrass- 
ment and resistance. 

" Its art consists not in substituting for a too easy 
submission of mind a prudent liberty of examination, 
but in reducing to a problem the most positive truths ; 
not in exciting upon political questions frank and useful 
controversy, but in placing them in a false light, and 
solving them by sophistry. 

" The press has thus excited confusion in the most 
upright minds, — has shaken the most firm convictions, 
and produced, in the midst of society, a confusion of 
principles which lends itself to the most fatal attempts. 
It is by anarchy in doctrine, that it paves the way for 
anarchy in the state. It is worthy of remark, Sire, that 
the periodical press has not even fulfilled its most essen- 
tial condition, — that of publicity ! It is strange, but 
a thing that may be said with truth, that there is no 
publicity in France, taking this word in its just and 
strict sense. In this state of things, facts, when they are 
not entirely fictitious, do not come to the knowledge 
of several millions of readers, except when mutilated 
and disfigured in the most odious manner. A thick 
cloud, raised by the journals, conceals the truth, and in 
a manner intercepts the light between the govern- 
ment and the people. The kings your predecessors, 



26 PARIS IN 1830. 

Sire, always loved to communicate with their subjects : 
this is a satisfaction which the press has not thought fit 
that your majesty should enjoy (!) 

" A licentiousness which has passed all bounds has, 
in fact, not respected, even on the most solemn occa- 
sions, either the express will of the king or the words 
pronounced from the throne. Some have been misun- 
derstood and misinterpreted ; while others have been the 
subject of perfidious commentaries, or of bitter derision. 
It is thus that the last act of the royal power, — the pro- 
clamation, — was discredited by the public, even before it 
was known by the electors. 

" Nor is this all. The press tends to no less than 
subjugating the sovereignty, and invading the powers of 
the state. The pretended organ of public opinion, it 
aspires to direct the debates of the two Chambers ; it is 
incontestable that it brings into them the weight of an 
influence no less fatal than decisive. This domination 
has assumed, especially within these two or three years, 
in the Chamber of Deputies, a manifest character of 
oppression and tyranny. In this interval of time, we 
have seen the journals pursue, with their insults and 
their outrages, the members whose votes appeared to them 
uncertain or suspicious. Too often, Sire, has the free- 
dom of debate in that chamber sunk under the reiterated 
blows of the press. 

" The conduct of the opposition journals during the 
most recent circumstances cannot be characterized in 
terms less severe. After having themselves called forth an 
address derogatory to the prerogative of the throne, 
they have not feared to confirm as a principle, the 
election of the two hundred and twenty-one deputies 
whose work it is : and yet your majesty repulsed the 
address as offensive ; you had publicly planned the re- 
fusal of concurrence which was expressed in it ; you 
had announced your immutable resolution to de- 



PARIS IN 1830. 27 

fend the rights of your crown, so openly compromised. 
The periodical journals have paid no regard to this : on 
the contrary, they have taken it upon them to renew, to 
perpetuate, and to aggravate the offence. Your ma- 
jesty will decide whether this presumptuous attack shall 
remain longer unpunished. 

" But of all the excesses of the press, the most serious 
perhaps remains to be pointed out. From the very be- 
ginning of that expedition, the glory of which throws 
so pure and so durable a splendour on the noble crown 
of France, the press has criticised with unheard-of vio- 
lence the causes, the means, the preparations, the 
chances of success. Insensible to the national honour, 
it was not its fault if our flag did not remain degraded 
by the insults of a barbarian. Indifferent to the great 
interests of humanity, it has not been its fault if Europe 
has not remained subject to a cruel slavery and a shame- 
ful tribute. 

" This was not enough. By a treachery which our 
laws might have reached, the press has eagerly pub- 
lished all the secrets of the armament ; brought to the 
knowledge of foreigners the state of our forces, the 
number of our troops, and that of cur ships; and 
pointed out the stations, the means to be employed to 
surmount the variableness of the winds, and to approach 
the coast. Every thing, even the place of landing, was 
divulged, as if to give the enemy more certain means of 
defence; and, (a thing unheard-of among civilized 
people,) the press has not hesitated, by false alarms as to 
the dangers to be incurred, to cause discouragement in 
the army ; and, to point to its hatred the commander of 
the enterprise, it has, in a manner, excited the soldiers 
to raise against him the standard of revolt, or to desert 
their colours. This is what the organs of a party which 
pretends to be national have dared to do. 

44 That which the party dares to do every day in the 



c 28 PARIS IN 1830. 

interior of the kingdom tends to no less than to disperse 
the elements of public peace, to dissolve the bands of so- 
ciety, and, as it were, to make the ground tremble under 
our feet. Let us not fear to disclose here the whole ex- 
tent of our evils, in order the better to appreciate the 
whole extent of our resources. A system of defamation, 
organized on a great scale, and directed with unequalled 
perseverance, reaches, either near at hand or at a distance, 
the most humble of the agents of the government. None 
of your subjects, Sire, is secure from insult, if he re- 
ceives from his sovereign the least mark of confidence 
or satisfaction. A vast net thrown over France enve- 
lopes all the public functionaries. Placed in a constant 
state of accusation, they seem to be in a manner cut off 
from civil society ; only those are spared whose fidelity 
wavers, — only those are praised whose fidelity gives way: 
the others are marked by the faction to be in the sequel, 
without doubt, sacrificed to popular vengeance. 

" The periodical press has not displayed less ardour 
in pursuing with its poisoned darts religion and her 
priests. Its object is, and always will be, to root out 
of the heart of the people even the last germ of religious 
sentiments. Sire, do not doubt that it will succeed in 
this, by attacking the foundations of the press itself, by 
poisoning the sources of public morals, and by covering 
the ministers of the altars with derision and contempt. 

" No strength, it must be confessed, is able to resist 
a dissolving power so active ; since the press at all times, 
when it has been freed from its fetters, has made an 
irruption and convulsion in the state. One cannot but 
be singularly struck with the similitude of its effects 
during these last fifteen years, notwithstanding the 
change of circumstances, and of the men who have 
figured on the political stage. Its destiny, in a word, 
is to recommence the revolution, the principles of which 
it loudly proclaims. Placed and replaced at various 



PARTS IN 1830. 2!) 

intervals under the yoke of the censorship, it has always 
resumed its liberty only to recommence its interrupted 
work. In order to continue it with the more success, 
it has found an active auxiliary in the departmental 
press, which, engaging in dispute local jealousies 
and hatreds, striking terror into the minds of timid 
men, and harassing authority by endless intrigues, has 
exercised a decisive influence on the elections. 

" These last effects, Sire, are transitory ; but effects 
more durable are observed in the manners and in the 
character of the nation. An ardent, lying, and passion- 
ate spirit of contention, the school of scandal and licen- 
tiousness, has everywhere produced the most import- 
ant alterations : it gives a false direction to people's 
minds : it fills them with prejudices — diverts them from 
serious studies — retards them in the progress of the 
sciences and the arts — excites among us a fermentation, 
which is constantly increasing — maintains, even in the 
bosom of our families, fatal dissensions- and might, by 
degrees, throw us back into barbarism. 

u Against so many evils, engendered by the periodi- 
cal press, law and justice are equally obliged so confess 
their want of power. It would be superfluous to inquire 
into the causes which have weakened the power of re- 
pression, and have insensibly made it an ineffectual wea- 
pon in the hands of authority. It is sufficient to appeal 
to experience, and to show the present state of things. 

" Judicial for ?ns do not easily lend themselves to an 
effectual repression. This truth has long since struck 
reflecting minds; it has lately become still more evident. 
To satisfy the wants which caused its institution, the 
repression ought to be prompt and strong ; it has been 
slow, weak, and almost null. When it interferes, the 
mischief is already accomplished, and the punishment, 
far from repairing it, only adds the scandal of discussion. 

" Judicial prosecutions are wearied out, but the se- 



30 PARIS IN 1830. 

ditious press is never weary. The one stops because 
there is too much to prosecute : the other multiplies 
its strength by multiplying its transgressions. Under 
these divers circumstances the prosecutions have had their 
appearances of activity or of relaxation. But what does 
the press care for zeal or lukewarmness in the public 
prosecutor ? It seeks to find the assurance of multiply- 
ing its successes by impunity. 

" The insufficiency, or rather the inutility, of the in- 
stitutions and of the laws now in force, is demonstrated 
by facts. It is equally proved by facts that the pub- 
lic safety is endangered by the licentiousness of the 
press. 

" Give ear, Sire, to the prolonged cry of indignation 
and of terror which rises from all points of your king- 
dom. All peaceable men, the upright, the friends of 
order, stretch to your majesty their suppliant hands. 
All implore you to preserve them from the return of the 
calamities by which their fathers or themselves have 
been so severely afflicted. These alarms are too real not 
to be listened to — these wishes are too legitimate not to 
be regarded. 

" There is but one means to satisfy them : it is to re- 
turn to the charter. 

" If the terms of the 8th article are ambiguous, its 
spirit is manifest. It is certain that the charter has 
not asserted the liberty of the journals and of periodical 
writings. The right of publishing one's personal opi- 
nions certainly does not imply the right of publishing 
the opinions of others. The one is the use of a faculty 
which the law might leave free or subject to restrictions : 
the other is a commercial speculation, which, like others, 
and more than others, supposes the superintendence of 
the public authority. 

" The intentions of the charter on this subject are 
accurately explained in the law of the 21st of October, 



PARIS IN 1830. 31 

1814, which is, in some measure, the appendix to it : 
this is the less doubtful, as this law was presented to the 
Chambers on the 5th of July — that is to say, one month 
after the promulgation of the charter. In 1819, at the 
time when a contrary system prevailed in the Cham- 
bers, it was openly proclaimed there that the periodical 
press was not governed by the enactments of the 8th 
article. This truth is, besides, attested by the very laws 
which have imposed upon the journals the condition of 
giving securities. 

" Now, Sire, nothing remains but to inquire how this 
return to the charter, and to the law of the 21st of Oc- 
tober, 1814, is to be effected. The gravity of the pre- 
sent juncture has solved this question. 

" We must not deceive ourselves, — we are no longer 
in the ordinary condition of a representative govern- 
ment. The principles on which such has been established 
could not remain entire amidst political vicissitudes. A 
turbulent democracy, the principles of which have pene- 
trated even into our laws, aims at putting itself in the place 
of legitimate power. It disposes of the majority of the 
elections by means of the journals, and by the assistance 
of numerous artifices. It has paralyzed, as far as it 
could do, the regular exercise of the most essential 
prerogative of the crown — that of dissolving the elec- 
tive chamber. By this very fact the constitution of the 
state is shaken. Your majesty alone retains the power 
to replace and to consolidate it upon a firm foundation. 

" The right as well as the duty of assuring its 
maintenance, is the inseparable attribute of the sove- 
reignty. No government on earth could remain stand- 
ing, if it had not the right to provide for its own secu- 
rity. This power exists before the laws, because it is 
essentially in the nature of things. These, Sire, are 
maxims which have in their favour the sanction of time, 
and the assent of all the publicistes of Europe 



3 C 2 PARIS IN 1830. 

" But these maxims have another sanction still more 
positive— that of the charter itself. The 14th article 
has invested your majesty with a sufficient power, not, 
undoubtedly, to change our institutions, but to consoli- 
date them, and render them more stable. 

" Circumstances of imperious necessity do not permit 
the exercise of this supreme power to be any longer 
deferred. The moment is come for recourse to 
measures which are in the spirit of the charter, but 
which are beyond the limits of legal order, the resources 
whereof have been exhausted in vain. 

" These measures, Sire, your ministers, who are to 
secure the success of them, do not hesitate to propose to 
you, convinced as they are, that justice will retain the 
ascendancy. 

" We are, with the most profound respect, Sire, 
your majesty's most humble and most faithful subjects, 
(Signed) " Prince de Polignac. 

" Chaxtelauze. 
" Baron D'Haussez. 
" Count de Peyronnet. 

" MoNTBEL. 

" Count de Guernon Ranville. 
" Baron Capelle. 



ORDINANCES OF THE KING. 

" Charles, &c. 
" To all to whom these presents shall come, health. 
" On the report of our council of ministers, we have 
ordained and do ordain as follows : — 

" Art. 1. The liberty of the periodical press is sus- 
pended . 

" % The regulations of the articles 1st, 2nd, and 9th, 
of the first section of the law of the 21st of October 



PARIS IN 1830. 33 

1814, are again put in force; in consequence of which no 
journal, or periodical, or semi-periodical writing, esta- 
blished, or about to be established, without distinction 
of the matters therein treated, shall appear in Paris or 
in the departments, except by the virtue of an authority 
first obtained from us respectively by the authors and 
the printer. This authority shall be renewed every 
three months. It may also be revoked. 

" 3. The authority shall be provisionally granted and 
provisionally withdrawn by the prefects from journals 
and periodicals, or semi-periodical works, published, or 
about to be published, in the departments. 

" 4. Journals and writings published in contraven- 
tion of article 2, shall be immediately seized. The 
presses and types used in the printing of them, shall be 
placed in a public depot under seal, or rendered unfit 
for use. 

" 5. No writing of less than twenty printed pages 
shall appear, except with the authority of our minister, 
Secretary of State for the Interior at Paris, and of the 
prefects in the departments. Every writing of more than 
twenty printed pages, which shall not constitute one 
single work, must also equally be published under au- 
thority only. Writings published without authority 
shall be immediately seized, the presses and types used 
in printing them shall be placed in a public depot, and 
under seal, or rendered unfit for use. 

" 6. Memoirs relating to legal process and memoirs 
of scientific and literary societies must be previously au- 
thorized, if they treat in whole or in part of political 
matters, in which case the measures prescribed by art. 5 
shall be applicable. 

" 7. Every regulation contrary to the present shall be 
without effect. 

" 8. The execution of the present ordinance shall 
take place in conformity with article 4 of the ordinance of 

D 



34 PARIS IN 1830. 

November 27, 1816, and of that which is prescribed by 
the ordinance of the 18th of January, 1817. 

" 9. Our secretaries of state are charged with the ex- 
ecution of this ordinance. 

" Given at the Castle of St. Cloud, the 25th of July, 
in the year of grace 1830, and the 6th of our reign. 
(Signed) ' k CHARLES. 

(Countersigned) 
" Prince de Polignac, President. 
" Chantelauze, Keeper of the Seals. 
" Baron D'Haussez, Minister of Marine. 
" Montbel, Minister of Finance. 
" Count Guernon Ranville, Minister of 

Ecclesiastical Affairs. 
" Baron Capelle, Secretary of State for Pub- 
lic Works." 



" Charles, 
" To all to whom these presents shall come, &c. 
" Having considered art. 50 of the constitutional 
Charter ; being informed of the manoeuvres which have 
been practised in various parts of our kingdom, to de- 
ceive and mislead the electors during the late operations 
of the electoral colleges ; having heard our council ; we 
have ordained and do ordain as follows : — 

" Art. 1. The Chamber of Deputies of departments 
is dissolved. 

"2. Our Minister Secretary of State of the Interior 
is charged with the execution of the present ordinance. 

" Given at St. Cloud, the 25th day of July, the year 
of grace, 1830, and the sixth of our reign. 

" CHARLES." 
(Countersigned) " Count de Peyronnet, 
Peer of France, Secretary of State for the Interior." 



PARTS IN 1830. 35 



" Charles, 

" To all those who shall see these presents, health. 

" Having resolved to prevent the return of the ma- 
noeuvres which have exercised a pernicious influence on 
the late operations of the electoral colleges, and wishing in 
consequence, to reform according to the principles of the 
constitutional charter the rules of election, of which ex- 
perience has shown the inconvenience, we have recog- 
nized the necessity of using the right which belongs to 
us, to provide, by acts emanating from ourselves, for the 
safety of the state, and for the suppression of every en- 
terprize injurious to the dignity of our crown. For 
these reasons, having heard our council, we have or- 
dained and do ordain — 

"Art. 1. Conformably with the articles 15, 86, and 
30, of the constitutional charter, the Chamber of Deputies 
shall consist only of Deputies of departments. 

" 2. The electoral rate, and the rate of eligibility, 
shall consist exclusively of the sums for which the elec- 
tor and the candidate shall be inscribed individually, as 
holders of real .or personal property in the roll of the 
land-tax, or of personal taxes. 

" 3. Each department shall have the number of de- 
puties allotted to it by the 36th article of the constitu- 
tional charter. 

" 4. The deputies shall be elected, and the Chamber 
renewed, in the form and for the time fixed by the 37th 
article of the constitutional charter. 

" 5. The electoral colleges shall be divided into col- 
leges of arrondissement, and colleges of departments, 
except the case of those electoral colleges of departments 
to which only one deputy is allotted. 

" 6. The electoral colleges of arrondissement shall 
consist of all the electors whose political domicile 

D % 



36 PARIS IN 1830. 

is established in the arrondissement. The electoral col- 
leges of departments shall consist of a fourth part of the 
most highly taxed of the electors of departments. 

" 7. The present limits of the electoral colleges of ar- 
rondissements are retained. 

" 8. Every electoral college of arrondissement shall 
elect a number of candidates equal to the number of de- 
partmental deputies. 

" 9. The college of arrondissement shall be divided 
into as many sections as candidates. Each division shall 
be in proportion to the number of sections, and to the 
total number of electors, having regard as much as 
possible to the convenience of place and neighbourhood. 
" 10. The sections of the electoral college of arron- 
dissements may assemble in different places. 

"11. Every section of the electoral college of arron- 
dissements shall choose a candidate, and proceed se- 
parately. 

" 12. The presidents of the sections of the electoral 
college of arrondissement shall be nominated by the 
prefects from among the electors of the arrondisse- 
ment. 

" 13. The college of department shall choose the 
deputies; half the deputies of departments shall be 
chosen from the general list of candidates proposed by 
the colleges of arrondissements ; nevertheless, if the 
number of deputies of the department is uneven, the 
division shall be made without impeachment of the right 
reserved by the college of department. 

" 14. In cases where, by the effect of omissions, or of 
void or double nominations, the list of candidates pro- 
posed by the colleges of arrondissements shall be in- 
complete, if the list is reduced below half the number 
required, the college of the department shall choose ano- 
ther deputy not in the list ; if the list is reduced below a 



PARIS IN 1830. 37 

fourth, the college of the department may elect the 
whole of the deputies of the department. 

4 15. The prefects, the sub-prefects, and the general 
officers commanding military divisions and departments, 
are not to be elected in the departments where they 
exercise their functions. 

" 16. The list of electors shall be settled by the pre- 
fect in the council of prefecture. It shall be posted up 
five days before the assembling of the colleges. 

"17. Claims regarding the power of voting, which 
have not been authorized by the prefects, shall be de- 
cided by the Chamber of Deputies ; at the same time 
that it shall decide upon the validity of the operations 
of the colleges. 

" 18. In the electoral colleges of departments, the 
two oldest electors, and the two electors who pay 
the most taxes, shall execute the duty of scrutators. 
The same disposition shall be observed in the sec- 
tions of the college of arrondissement, composed, at 
most, of only fifty electors. In the other sections, the 
functions of scrutators shall be executed by the oldest 
and the richest of the electors. The secretary of the 
college or section shall be nominated by the president 
and the scrutators. 

" 19. No person shall be admitted into the college, 
or section of college, if he is not inscribed in the list of 
electors who compose it. This list will be delivered to 
the president, and will remain posted up in the place of 
the sitting of the college, during the period of its pro- 
ceedings. 

" 20. All discussion and deliberation whatever are 
forbidden in the bosom of the electoral colleges. 

" 91. The police of the college belongs to the 
president. No armed force, without his order, 
can be placed near the hall of its sittings. The mi- 



38 PARIS IN 1830. 

litary commandant shall be bound to obey his requisi- 
tions. 

" 22. The nominations shall be made in the colleges 
and sections of colleges, by the absolute majority of the 
votes given. Nevertheless, if the nominations are not 
finished after two rounds of scrutiny, the bureau shall 
determine the list of persons who shall have obtained 
the greatest number of suffrages at the second round. 
It shall contain a number of names double that of the 
nominations which remain to be made. At the third 
round, no suffrages can be given except to the persons 
inscribed on that list; and the nominations shall be 
made by a relative majority. 

" 23. The electors shall vote by bulletins ; every 
bulletin shall contain as many names as there are nomi- 
nations to be made. 

" 24. The electors shall write their vote on the 
bureau, or cause it to be written by one of the scru- 
tators. 

"25. The name, the qualification, and the domicile 
of each elector who shall deposit his bulletin, shall be 
inscribed by the secretary on a list destined to establish 
the number of the voters. 

" 26. Every scrutiny shall remain open for six hours, 
and the result shall be declared during the sitting. 

" 27. There shall be drawn up a proces verbal for 
each sitting. This proces verbal, or minute, shall be 
signed by all the members of the bureau. 

" 28. Conformably with article 46 of the Constitu- 
tional charter, no amendment can be made upon any 
law in the Chamber, unless it has been proposed and 
consented to by us, and unless it has been discussed in 
the bureau. 

" 29- All regulations contrary to the present ordi- 
nance shall remain without effect. 



PARIS IN 1830. 39 

" 30. Our ministers, secretaries of state, are charged 
with the execution of the present ordinance. 

" Given at St. Cloud, this 25th day of July, in the 
year of grace 1830, and 6th of our reign. 

" CHARLES." 

(Countersigned by all the Ministers.) 



40 



CHAPTER III. 

Effects produced among- the Parisians by the announcement of 
the obnoxious ordinances in the Moniteur — Conduct va- 
riously held by the proprietors of the constitutional Journals 
— Reasons assigned for the first hesitation of the influential 
classes — Prohibitory measures adopted by the Police — 
Protest of the Parisian journalists — Suspension of commer- 
cial confidence — Confluence of people at the Palais Royal 
— Eccentricities of the Marquis de Chabannes — Conduct of 
the gen-d'armerie — Tumultuous assembly in the Champs 
Elysees, and singular escape of the Prince de Polignac. 

From the central position and the publicity of 
the Palais Royal, its courts and its garden become 
a ready rendezvous for the population of Paris 
on any emergency of interest or importance. 
In the upper part of the garden, near the Cafe 
of the Rotonde, there are two little pavilions, 
where the public journals are given out for 
perusal at a very moderate rate to the numerous 
loungers who frequent the precincts of the palace 
for the enjoyment of the numerous attractions 
of which it is the focus. It was from these 
little " Cabinets de Lecture" that the first im- 
pulse was given to the revolutionary movement 
of which we now witness the effects. As soon 



PARIS IN 1830. 11 

as it was known that the Moniteur was big with 
such important intelligence, the ordinary course 
of perusal by successive applicants at the bureaux 
in the pavilions was at once abandoned as far too 
slow a process for the impatient crowds who 
gathered rapidly around as the fatal rumour was 
spread through the garden. Every copy of the 
official journal became forthwith a separate 
centre of excitement, if not of attraction. The 
individual who had secured it was compelled 
to mount the chairs with which the garden is 
supplied, and to read it aloud to the groups 
within hearing. When this was accomplished, a 
new audience and a new reader were readily 
found to supply the place of those who, for- 
getting the purposes of pleasure or of business 
which had brought them to the spot, were seen 
hastening from the palace to communicate what 
they had heard to their neighbours and their 
friends. 

The first feeling produced by the appearance 
of these ordinances was a sort of stupefaction 
and surprise, which was speedily roused into 
contempt and indignation. It was some hours, 
however, before a distinct knowledge of the fact 
became general throughout the city. The cir- 
culation of the Moniteur, like that of the Lon- 
don Gazette, to which it is in some degree 
analogous, is in itself extremely limited, being 
almost exclusively confined to the public offices 
of the government, and to a hw of the reading 



42 PARTS IN 1830. 

rooms, and other places of general resort ; and 
as it appears at the same hour with the morning- 
papers, the information it communicates is seldom 
very widely circulated until the following day. 

In the offices of the constitutional journals 
the effect produced was far from being uniform. 
The spirited proprietors of the National, the 
Times, and the Globe, resolved on immediate 
resistance to the arbitrary decree which declared 
the suspension of their professional freedom. In 
the course of the forenoon, second editions of 
these journals were printed and posted through- 
out the city, and, as they contained the obnoxious 
edicts themselves, with an appeal to the people, 
inciting them to resistance, and assuring them 
that obedience was no longer a duty, the vague- 
ness of the rumours which had begun to circulate 
at an early hour in the morning was thus made 
to assume a definite and intelligible form. But 
since the truth must be told in this, as in all the 
parts of our narrative, it must not be concealed 
that the Constitutionnel and the Journal des 
Debats, La Nouvelle France, and several other 
journals, professedly liberal, adopted the more 
prudent course of passive obedience to the 
usurped authority of the government. 

To the English reader it may be necessary to 
say, that these latter journals, but more parti- 
cularly the Constitutionnel and the Debats, are, 
in point of circulation, at the head of the 
daily press of Paris, while the three that ven- 



PARTS IN 1830. 43 

tured to appear, are comparatively of recent 
origin ; so that the risk they incurred by this 
open disregard of the royal authority, was one 
of person rather than of property. This dis- 
tinction is here taken, from the striking analogy 
it bears to all the proceedings of this extraor- 
dinary revolution. It was, in fact, with the 
sa?is culottes of the press, as of the populace, 
that the movement originated. Those who had 
any thing but life to lose, were cautious in ex- 
posing it ; and of such it may truly be said, 
that it was not their " consciences," but their 
property, that made " cowards" of them all. 

If it must be admitted that the richer and 
more influential classes showed some hesitation 
at the outset, in throwing themselves into the 
breach which had been effected by their poorer 
fellow citizens, so neither must it be concealed, 
that several brilliant and redeeming exceptions 
were to be found among the modern monied 
aristocracy, as well as among the old noblesse of 
the country. It is true that the Periers, the 
Lafittes, and the Lafayettes, were not to be seen 
at the first sound of the tocsin ; but it was not 
the fault of these noble-minded individuals that 
they were absent from Paris at the moment 
when the blow was struck. As soon as they 
became aware of the attack which had been 
made on public liberty, they hastened, as if by 
mutual agreement, from various parts of the 
country, to present themselves at the post of 



44 PARIS IN 1830. 

duty and of danger. But — what is believed to 
be perfectly unique in the history of the world 
— they found, on their arrival, that the French 
] revolution of 1830 had already been more than 
half accomplished, by the firmness and resolution 
of the humbler classes of society, without any 
incentive but an innate love of freedom, to 
prompt them to action and to lead them to 
victory. 

The re-appearance of the ordinances, in 
second editions of several of the morning- jour- 
nals, accompanied by comments, of any thing 
but a flattering nature, produced a proclamation 
in the course of the day, from the office of the 
prefecture of police, authorizing the seizure of 
all printed papers which should be sold or dis- 
tributed without the true indication of the 
name, profession, and residence of the author 
and the printer ; and directing the arrest of the 
individuals concerned in the distribution. The 
keepers of reading-rooms and coffee-houses were 
also prohibited from giving out for perusal such 
journals as had been printed in contravention of 
the royal ordinances ; and it was declared that 
they should be prosecuted, as guilty of the mis- 
demeanours committed by the journalists them- 
selves. At the conclusion of M. Mangin's pro- 
clamation, a hint was given at the nature of the 
means to be employed in enforcing it. While 
the principal commissary of the municipal police 
was, with his subordinate officers, directed to 



PARTS IN 18.30. 4,5 

superintend its execution, the colonel com- 
mandant of the royal gen-d'armerie was at the 
same time enjoined to concur with the civil 
functionaries, in so far as the force at his dispo- 
sal was concerned. 

The terms of this proclamation, like those of 
the ordinances themselves, evinced in the 
clearest manner the consciousness of the go- 
vernment, that their proceedings were totally 
unsupported by that moral strength which is 
founded on public opinion. Measures were 
immediately taken, in pursuance of . the threats 
which were thus held out, to prevent, by actual 
violence, the appearance of those journals whose 
conductors had refused to submit to the interdict 
imposed on them. The proprietors of one 
paper, the Journal du Commerce, adopted the 
middle course, between submission and disobe- 
dience, of appealing to M. de Belleyme, the 
president of the civil tribunal of first instance, 
and obtained a judgment from him, as against 
the printer of the paper, declaring that the or- 
dinances were not obligatory on the citizens, 
because they had not yet been published, as pre- 
scribed by statute, in the Bulletin des Lois. The 
ground thus assumed by M. de Belleyme, was 
founded on a technical nicety, more consistent 
with the habits of a lawyer than with the wider 
views of a statesman, or the feelings of an in- 
jured citizen. But whatever may have been its 
basis, the direction which it gave was practically 



46 PARIS IN 1830. 

favourable to the cause of freedom, although in 
the particular instance to which it applied it was 
not attended with the desired effect. 

The business of printing in France is, or rather 
was, like other trades connected with the disse- 
mination of ideas, a strict and close monopoly. 
Up to the date of the ordinances, a printer's 
licence was an object of some value, as may be 
collected from the fact, that in a great capital like 
Paris, the centre of French, if not also of Euro- 
pean literature, the number of these licences was 
limited to eighty. In the case of the Journal du 
Commerce, the printer refused to obey the judg- 
ment of the court of first instance, and took an 
appeal to a higher tribunal, preferring to incur 
the risk of a claim of damages at the suit of the 
journal, rather than to endanger the safety of 
his patent by giving offence to those who were 
still at the head of the government. 

In this emergency the journalists, as a body, 
had the high honour of being the first to com- 
bine their efforts in the preparation of a solemn 
protest against the measures of the government ; 
a translation of which is here subjoined, with the 
names of the subscribers annexed to it. 



PROTEST OF THE PARISIAN JOURNALISTS. 

" It has been frequently announced within the last 
six months that the laws would be violated, that a coup 
d'etat would be struck. The good sense of the public 



PARIS IN 1830. 47 

refused to believe in it. The ministry repelled the sup- 
position as a calumny. The Moniteur, however, has at 
length published these memorable ordinances, in direct 
violation of the laws. Legal order is thus interrupted, 
and that of force is begun. 

" In the situation in which we find ourselves placed, 
obedience has ceased to be a duty. The citizens first 
called to obey, are the writers of the public journals : 
they ought to give the first example of resistance to the 
authority which has divested itself of its legal cha- 
racter. 

" The matters professed to be regulated by the or- 
dinances this day published, are such as are not, con- 
sistently with the charter, within the exclusive province 
of the royal authority. The 8th article of the charter 
declares that Frenchmen shall be bound in matters of 
the press to conform themselves to ' the laws ? it does 
not say to mere ordonnances. The 35th article of 
the charter declares that the electoral colleges shall be 
regulated by the laws; it does not say by royal or- 
donnances. 

" These articles have hitherto been recognized by 
the crown itself; the idea had not been formed of 
arming itself against them either in virtue of a pre- 
tended constitutional power, or of a power falsely as- 
cribed to the 14th article of the charter. 

" Whenever in fact any circumstances, assumed to be 
of a serious nature, have appeared to require any modi- 
fication of the regulations affecting the press or of the 
electoral system, recourse has always been had to the 
legislative chambers. When it was required to modify 
the charter by the establishment of septennial elections, 
and the simultaneous renovation of the whole chamber, 
recourse was had, not to the royal authority, as the 
author of the charter, but collectively to the whole le- 
gislature. 



48 PARIS IN 1830. 

*< The 8th and 35th articles of the charter have thus 
been practically recognized by royalty itself, which, in 
regard to them, has not attempted to arrogate either a 
constituent authority, or a dictatorial power, which does 
not exist. 

" These principles have been solemnly recognized by 
the tribunal to whom the right of interpretation is en- 
trusted. The royal court of Paris and several others, 
have condemned the publishers of the declaration of the 
Brittany association, as the authors of an outrage against 
the government. It was considered an outrage to sup- 
pose that the government would employ the authority 
of ordinances where the authority of law was alone 
admissible. 

" The reasons by which they are supported are such 
as to make a formal refutation unnecessary. 

" The text of the charter, the practice which has 
hitherto been followed by the crown, and the judgments 
of the tribunals, establish the principle that, as regards 
the press and the electoral organization, the laws, or in 
other words, the king, and the two chambers, collec- 
tively, are the sole source of power. 

" Legality has now, therefore, been violated by the 
government. We attempt to publish our papers with- 
out requiring the authorization imposed on us. We 
shall endeavour that for this day, at least, they shall find 
their way to all parts of the kingdom. 

" Such is the duty imposed on us as citizens, and we 
perform it. 

" We have not pointed out its duties to the Chamber 
illegally dissolved. But we may beseech it, in the name 
of France, to maintain itself on its evident right, and to 
resist to the utmost, the violation of the laws. This 
right is as certain as that on which we rely. The 50th 
article of the charter declares, that the king may dissolve 
the Chamber of Deputies ; but to that effect it must 



PARIS IN 1830. 49 

have been assembled and constituted as a Chamber, and 
have assumed the form which made it liable to dissolu- 
tion. But before the meeting and constitution of the 
Chamber, the elections were all that had been accom- 
plished. It is nowhere said in the charter that the king 
may annul the elections. The dissolution is therefore 
illegal, since it is not warranted by the charter. 

" The deputies elected and convoked for the 3rd of 
August are well and duly elected, and convoked. 
Their duty is the same to-day, that it was yesterday. 
That duty France beseeches them not to forget. All 
that they can do, they ought to do, to give effect to 
their right. 

" The government has this day lost the character of 
legality which commands obedience. We resist it in so 
far as we are concerned; it is for France to judge how 
far the resistance should be extended.' 1 

[Here follow the names of the subscribers, in the 
order in which they were attached to this extraordinary 
document.] 

Gafija, editor of the National. 

Thiers, 

Mignet, 

Carrel, 

Chambolle, 

Peysse, 

Albert Stapfe 

Dubochet, 

Rolle, 

Leroua?, editor of the Globe. 

De Guizard, contributor to the Globe. 

Sarrans Jeune^ editor of the Courrier des Electeurs, 

B. Dejean, contributor to the Globe. 

uye , i contributors to the Courrier. 

Monssette, > 

E 



> 



contributors to the National. 



50 PARIS IN 1830. 

Auguste Fabre, editor of the Tribune des Departemens, 

Atxtxte ~i • • i 

„ '. r . J contributors to the Constitutionnel. 
Cauchois Lemaire, 3 

^"* lot the Times. 

Haussmann, 3 

Avenel, of the Courrier Francais. 

Dussard, of the Times. 

Levasseur, of the Revolution. 

Evariste Durnoulin, of the Constitutionnel. 

Alexis de Jussieu, ? T ~ . -r. 

^. , 7 . 5- of the Courrier Francais. 

Chatelam, 3 

^ " ' [ of the Revolution. 
razy, 3 

„ , J of the Times. 

Barbarous, 5 

(Ma*, > of the Times. 

J. Billiard, 3 

Jtfer, of the Tribune des Departemens. 

F. Larreguy, of the Journal du Commerce. 

J. F. Dupont, of the Courrier Francais. 

C/i. c/e Remusat, of the Globe. 

F. c/e Lapelanze, of the Courrier Francais. 

Bohain, | of th e Figaro. 
Roqueplan, 3 

Co ^' ] of the Times. 

J. J. Bande, 3 

#er£, of the Journal du Commerce. 

Jean Plllet, of the Journal de Paris. 

Vaillant, of the Sylphe. 

Although the monied interest were not the 
most forward in lending their personal assist- 
ance to promote the cause of freedom, they were 
far from being callous to the consequences which 
were to be expected from the unconstitutional 



PARTS IN 1830. 51 

proceedings of the Government on the value of 
the public securities. Long* before the hour of 
'change, the speculators, and others interested in 
the public funds, had assembled in crowds at the 
Cafe Tortoni, on the Boulevard des Italiens ; 
where it was soon ascertained, that three per 
cent, stock would not bring* a price within three 
or four francs of what it was worth when the 
market closed on the previous Saturday. As 
soon as the regular hour of business arrived, the 
magnificent building, in which the merchants of 
Paris assemble for the despatch of their pecu- 
niary transactions, became crowded to excess. 
It was observed, that even those whose interests 
were promoted, and whose previous anticipa- 
tions were justified by the state of the market, 
were unable to rejoice at it. The feeling of 
commercial confidence had been suddenly and 
entirely suspended ; the bankers had shut up 
their shops ; there was an end to all dealings 
in merchandise ; and M. Ternaux, the greatest 
manufacturer in France, had already dismissed 
the whole of his workmen, with a payment of 
eight days' wages in advance, as an indemnity 
for the loss they were to suffer by the privation 
of their means of livelihood without any pre- 
vious notice. 

The gardens of the Palais Royal, which in 
the morning had afforded the first facilities to 
the inhabitants, in learning the nature of the 

e 2 



5% PARTS IN 1830. 

outrage which had been committed on them, and 
in spreading the alarm throughout the city, 
became, in the afternoon and evening, a place of 
rendezvous for those who had already begun to 
reflect on the probable consequences of the mea- 
sures of the Government; as well as for another 
class of individuals to be found in every great 
city, ready to avail themselves of any public 
commotion, and to turn it to their own ad- 
vantage. 

The mauvais sujets of this latter class found 
the ready means of agitation and excitement, in 
a shop which had been opened by the mad Mar- 
quis de Chabannes, in the splendid Orleans Gal- 
lery, which traverses- the centre of the building, 
for the purpose of exhibiting the result of his 
labours, in the new career he had chosen of an 
amateur journalist. More royalist than the King, 
or even than the King's Ministers, this poetical 
peer conceived that he had discovered a panacea 
for all the political evils ; and professed, in prose 
and verse, in brochures and in journals, to teach 
the Ministry the means of saving the monarchy. 
Instead of laughing themselves, or leaving the 
public to laugh at the follies of the Marquis de 
Chabannes, the myrmidons of M. Mangin had, 
on Saturday the 24th of July, made an inroad 
on the peer's premises, and a seizure of all the 
trash they contained. Deprived of the means of 
vengeance through the medium of the press, the 



PARES IN 1830. 58 

Marquis resolved to wreak his wrath on the 
Ministry, and on the journalists, who had re- 
fused to notice his lucubrations, by exhibiting* 
them in a series of harmless caricatures, which 
on Monday evening- were posted up in the front 
of his shop, and which some lithographic printer 
had enabled him to multiply. 

As the evening advanced, the cry of " Vive la 
Charte !" was occasionally heard from among the 
crowds assembled in the neighbourhood of the 
Marquis's Boutique : the moment, it appears, was 
thought to be favourable for commencing the 
chastisement prepared for the people. A party 
of gens-d'armes rushed sword in hand into the 
gallery : " Fermez ! fermez !" was heard from 
every shop ; the windows were all closed, but 
instead of taking flight, as a Parisian mob is ac- 
customed to do on the appearance of the armed 
police, the assembled crowd deliberately waited, 
until they were driven out of the gallery at the 
point of the sword — and then only retired into 
the garden. The men formed themselves in 
something like regular order, along the rails of 
the parterre, and the women and children, ad- 
vancing in front of the gens-d'armes, as if to pro- 
voke them to violence, loaded them with the 
most opprobrious epithets ; calling them the 
hired agents of tyranny and oppression. Al- 
though the minions of authority were little ac- 
customed to be thus openly bearded in the exer- 



54 PARIS IN 1830. 

cise of their disreputable functions, they had not 
yet suffered themselves to be provoked to the 
commission of any irreparable act of violence. 
No blood had yet been shed. Instead of driving 
the crowd before them, with their usual inso- 
lence, they lowered the points of their sabres, 
and, in terms of unwonted gentleness, entreated 
the multitude to leave the garden, and dis- 
perse. 

The Champs Elysees, which, on a summer 
evening, present so many joyous groups around 
the bands of itinerant musicians, the jugglers, 
the marionettes, and other sources of amuse- 
ment, so liberally provided for them, presented 
on this evening, and alas ! on more evenings than 
this, a very different spectacle. Deterred from 
indulging in their wonted scenes of gaiety, by 
the subject with which every mind and every 
tongue was occupied, it was suggested by some 
one that the Prince de Polignac, the chief author 
of the calamity which had befallen the nation, 
would be then on his return from the royal resi- 
dence at St. Cloud, and that he must pass through 
the Champs Elysees, to proceed to his hotel on 
the Boulevard des Capucines. It was resolved 
to stop him on his passage, and to punish him 
on the spot, for the treason he had committed 
against the national liberties. While the crowd 
were yet deliberating, a carriage arrived, with 
liveries and armorial bearings, which were mis- 



PARIS IN 1830. 55 

taken for those of the culprit minister. It was 
stopped on the instant ; but while those within 
were endeavouring to prove that they were not 
the enemies of France, the carriage of the prince 
drove rapidly past ; and, for this time at least, 
the president of the council owed his personal 
safety, if not also his life, to the speed of his 
horses, and the dexterity of his coachman. His 
highness's carriage had entered the courts of his 
hotel, before those who pursued it could reach 
the Boulevard de la Madelaine. The gates 
were instantly closed : and the crowd endea- 
voured to indemnify themselves for the disap- 
pointment they had sustained, by breaking all 
the windows exposed to the Boulevard or the 
neighbouring streets, by an attempt to scale the 
garden-wall, and by the imprecations which 
they addressed to him who had just escaped 
from their fury. It is said, that the poor prince, 
in the first access of terror, had descended into 
one of the subterranean passages of his hotel, 
and had there remained concealed, until the ar- 
rival of a strong detachment of troops restored 
him to a state of comparative safety. 

It was in this state of inquietude, that the 
people and their oppressors awaited the events 
of the following day. 



i6 PARIS IN 1830. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Condition of affairs in regard to the new Election of Deputies 
— Meeting of Members at the house of M. Casimir Perier, 
with the Protest issued by them — Crowd attracted by the 
occasion — First scene of bloodshed —Destruction by the 
Police of the printing-presses belonging to the National 
and the Times — Anecdote — Legal Proceedings, between 
the printers and the proprietors of certain Journals — Affair 
of Lapelouze and Chatelain versus Laguionie — Command 
of the Troops assigned to the Duke of Ragusa — Preparations 
for resistance on the part of the people. 

Of the four hundred and thirty deputies who 
form the complement of the representative 
chamber, only thirty-two had arrived in Paris 
at the date when the liberticidal ordinances 
of the 25th of July were proclaimed. The 
general election had just been completed ; the 
returns from the more distant colleges had as 
yet only been communicated by means of the 
telegraph ; and the great majority of the depu- 
ties were still on their estates in distant parts of 
the country, or on their way to the capital to 
attend their parliamentary duties at the com- 



PARIS IN 1830. 57 

mencement of the session, which had been fixed 
by ordinance for the 3rd of August. 

Such of the constitutional deputies as were 
known to be in Paris on the 26th of July, were 
hastily summoned to meet on the evening- of 
that day in the house of M. Ca^iimir Perier, for 
the purpose of taking the measures of Govern- 
ment into consideration. A committee was 
named to prepare a solemn protest against the 
suspension of the liberty of the press, the disso- 
lution of a Chamber which had not been regu- 
larly constituted, and the attempt to form a 
new Chamber in a manner not recognized by the 
charter of the laws. 

On the morning of the 27th, the protest thus 
prepared was submitted to the consideration of 
an adjourned meeting of the deputies, who were 
already doubled in number ; and, as the docu- 
ment, with its interesting signatures, possesses 
an historical value, it seems entitled to a place in 
the present narrative. 

" PROTEST OF THE DEPUTIES. 

" The undersigned, regularly elected to the office of 
deputy conformably to the constitutional charter, and 
to the laws relative to elections, and who are now at 
Paris, 

" Consider themselves as absolutely obliged by their 
duties and their honour, to protest against the measures 
which the advisers of the Crown have lately caused to 



58 PARIS IN 1830. 

be proclaimed for the overthrow of the legal system of 
elections, and the ruin of the liberty of the press. 

" The measures contained in the ordinances of the 
25th of July are, in the opinion of the undersigned, di- 
rectly contrary to the constitutional rights of the Cham- 
ber of Peers, to the public rights of Frenchmen, to the 
attributes and to the decrees of the tribunals, and are 
calculated to . throw the state into a confusion, which 
equally endangers the peace of the present moment and 
the security of the future. 

" In consequence, the undersigned, inviolably faith- 
ful to their oath, protest in concert, not only against the 
said measures, but against all the acts which may result 
from them. 

" And considering, on the one hand, that the Cham- 
ber of Deputies, not having been constituted, could not 
be legally dissolved ; on the other, that the attempt to 
form a new Chamber of Deputies in a novel and arbi- 
trary manner, is directly opposed to the constitutional 
charter and to the acquired rights of the electors; the 
undersigned declare that they still consider themselves 
as the representatives of the people legally elected by 
the colleges of the arrondissements and departments 
whose suffrages they have obtained, and as incapable of 
being replaced except by virtue of elections made ac- 
cording to the principles and forms prescribed by law. 

" And if the undersigned do not effectually exercise 
the rights or perform all the duties which they derive 
from their legal election, it is because they are hindered 
by absolute violence. 

Labbey de Pompiere Audry de Puyraveau 

Sebastiani Andre Gollot 

Mechin Gaetan de la Rochefoii- 

Perier (Casimir) cauld 

Guizot Mauguin 



PARIS IN 1830. 



59 



Bernard 

Voisin de Gartempe 

Froidefond de Bellisle 

Villemain 

Didot (Firmin) 

Daunou 

Persil 

Villemot 

De la Riboissiere 

Bondy (Comte de) 

Dnris-Defresne 

Girod de TAin 

Laisne de la Villeveque 

Delessert (Benjamin) 

March al 

Nau de Champlouis 

Comte de Lobau 

Baron Louis 

Millaux 

Estourmel (Comte d') 

Montguyon (Comte de) 

Levaillant 

Tronchon 

Gerard (le general) 

Lafitte (Jacques) 

Garcias 

Dugas Montbel 



Camille Perier 

Vassal 

Alexandre Delaborde 

Jaques Lefebvre 

Mathieu Dumas 

Eusebe Salverte 

De Poulmer 

Hernoux 

Chardel 

Bavoux 

Charles Dupin 

Hely d'Hoyssel 

Eugene d'Harcourt 

Baillot 

General Lafayette 

Georges Lafayette 

Jouvencel 

Bertin de Vaux 

Comte de Lameth 

Berard 

Duchaffaut 

Auguste de Saint-Aignan 

Keratry 

Ternaux 

Jacques Odier 

Benjamin Constant." 



It soon became known to the inhabitants at 
large, for what purpose the deputies had thus 
assembled at M. Perier's hotel. A party of 
young men having been attracted to the spot, 
for the purpose of learning the decision which 
might be taken, a detachment of gens-d'armes was 
sent to disperse them. On their refusal to obey 



CO PARIS IN 1830. 

the orders of the police, the latter drew their 
swords, and attacked the unarmed citizens. 
Thus the first scene of bloodshed took place 
under the eyes of the assembled deputies, as 
if to prove how clearly the line was drawn be- 
tween the pretensions of royalty and the rights 
of the people ; and at the same time, to remind 
their representatives of the sanguinary nature 
of the measures contemplated by the Govern- 
ment. 

As the constitutional journalists continued to 
disregard both the proclamation of M. Mangin 
and the suspension of their professional freedom, 
which the ordinances had fulminated, strong 
parties of gen-d'armerie were sent on the morn- 
ing of Tuesday the 27th, to occupy the streets 
adjoining the bureaux and printing-offices of 
the most refractory. Under the protection of 
this armed force, the commissaries of police 
made a violent entry into the premises of the 
National and the Times, and intimated to the 
proprietors, that in virtue of an order from the 
prefect, they had come to make a seizure of the 
presses employed in printing the journals, in 
consequence of the refusal which had been 
evinced to submit to the royal ordinances. 
To this it was answered, that the Government 
having exceeded the powers conferred by law 
on the executive, the officers themselves were 
committing an act of rebellion, in becoming 



PARIS IN 1830. 61 

the instruments for enforcing- a mandate incon- 
sistent with the freedom guaranteed by the 
charter ; and it was intimated to them, that the 
seizure they contemplated would be regarded 
as a theft and a burglary ; but that as the pro- 
prietors possessed no adequate force to repel 
the invasion, they could only protest against 
the violence to which they were exposed. 

This protest was, of course, disregarded. 
The printing-presses were dismounted, and 
the levers, and other essential parts of the ma- 
chinery were broken, or rendered unfit for ser- 
vice. The greatest anxiety was displayed to 
discover the copies of the papers which were 
known to have been printed that morning; 
but in this the police were disappointed, from 
their ignorance apparently of the very early 
hour, (not long after midnight,) when the morn- 
ing papers are put to press. Seven thousand 
copies of the National had already been issued, 
and perhaps a still larger edition of the Times • 
but these numbers, although great for journals 
of a few months' standing, are not nearly equal 
to the daily circulation of the Constitutionnel, 
and several others of their senior contempo- 
raries. 

An incident occurred in the course of this 
proceeding, which deserves to be recorded, to 
mark the intelligence and the firmness discovered 
by individuals of the class of artizans in the 



62 PARIS IN 1830, 

French metropolis. The proprietors of the 
Times having refused to open the doors of the 
apartment which contained the printing- presses 
of the establishment, an operative blacksmith of 
the name of Pein was sent for by the commis- 
sary of police, to procure an entrance by forcing 
the locks. The commissary, arrayed in his offi- 
cial scarf, and with the mandate of the prefect in 
his hand, required the blacksmith to execute the 
task he had been sent for to perform. The pro- 
prietors repeated their protest against the threat- 
ened act of violence, and he, taking off his hat 
while they read to him the article of the code on 
which they founded their resistance to the proceed- 
ings of the police, firmly refused to concur in a 
measure which appeared to him to be contrary 
to law. A second, and younger individual was 
then procured from a different workshop, but as 
he refused his ministry with equal courage and 
simplicity, it was at length found necessary to 
procure the assistance of the personage whose 
duty it is to rivet the fetters of convicts, on being 
sent to the galleys. Such was the worthy in- 
strument employed in the perpetration of this 
first attack on the liberty of the press ! such the 
hands by which the crime was consummated! 

During these proceedings, the pressmen and 
compositors, who saw themselves exposed to the 
immediate privation of their means of existence, 
had the rare merit of repressing their feelings 



PARIS IN 1830. 68 

of indignation, in the belief that force and vio- 
lence would not long remain triumphant, when 
opposed to right and justice. In spite of the 
armed force in the neighbourhood, the printing 
offices where these proceedings were conducted, 
were soon filled and surrounded by crowds of 
citizens, who calmly witnessed the operations of 
the police in all their details ; and, without a sug- 
gestion that force should be repelled by force, 
they in general contented themselves with leav- 
ing their names, and places of residence, to ena- 
ble the proprietors to call them as witnesses, 
when the perpetrators of the violence should be 
brought before the tribunal to answer for their 
conduct. 

In the mean time, the courts of justice were 
occupied with the questions which arose between 
the licensed printers, and the proprietors of other 
journals, who had no separate printing establish- 
ment of their own. The former, while they ac- 
knowledged the illegality of the measures adopted, 
refused to lend their assistance in printing such 
journals as had not obtained the sanction of 
the police for their appearance, agreeably to the 
terms of the recent ordinances ; and the latter 
were unable to imitate the example of resistance 
which had been set them by their contemporaries, 
owing to that division of labour which had placed 
in other hands the apparatus of printing. On the 
morning of the 27th, the tribunal of commerce, 



64 PARIS IN 1830. 

under the presidency of M. Gaimeron, was occu- 
pied with the affair of Lapelouze and Chatelain, 
the proprietors of the Courrier Francais, who had 
cited their printer, Lagiiionie, before the court, 
to compel him to proceed in the performance of 
his agreement to print the paper in question. 
The other judges on the bench were MM. 
Lemoine-Tacherat, Gisquet, Bonvaultier, Le- 
fort, and Truelle. Their names deserve to be 
recorded as an honour to the purity and inde- 
pendence of the judgment-seat. 

M. Merilhou appeared as counsel for the pro- 
prietors of the Courrier Francais, and stated "that 
the defendant had entered into an agreement 
with his clients to print their paper, and till 
yesterday he had faithfully fulfilled it ; but he 
had then refused to continue his services, in con- 
sequence of a pretended ordinance of the 25th 
of July, and of an order which had been given 
him by M. Mangin, the prefect of police. But 
the defendant ought to know that the laws of 
France cannot thus be destroyed by ordinances. 
It was true that a handful of factious individuals, 
in an elevated station of society, had, in their 
pride, conceived such a project ; but, insane as 
they were, they must soon suffer the conse- 
quences of their temerity. It must have been 
some illegitimate fancy, some inconceivable ca- 
price which had created, he knew not in what 
mind, those monstrous ordinances which hadap- 



PARTS IN 1830. 65 

peared in the Moniteur, and which had roused the 
indignation of every one who had the heart of a 
citizen in his bosom. They had not contented 
themselves with destroying the liberty of writing, 
but had even attempted to annul the electoral 
operations of the kingdom, and to create a new 
system of election in France. But they would 
not find a single tribunal which would lend the 
aid of its authority to so mad, so sacrilegious a 
proceeding; for the magistracy would execute 
only such ordinances as were consistent with 
law, and not such as were in open violation of 
it. The Royal Court of Paris, by its memorable 
decree of the 1st of April 1830, in the affair of 
MM. Bert and Lapelouze, had declared that 
the mere intention to change the existing elec- 
toral system illegally, or by ordinance, and to 
overturn one of the guarantees which the charter 
had consecrated, was a crime. But that crime 
is this day consummated by the publication of 
the ordinances inserted in the Moniteur. 
Does the defendant rely, then, on a crime to 
relieve him from the execution of his engage- 
ment? To entertain even a doubt on such a 
subject w^ould be an obvious absurdity. The 
decree of the 1st of April is a beacon by which 
all France has been warned and enlightened. 
The tribunal of commerce will add to it the 
weight of its authority : its justice will recoil 
before the sanction of crime." The learned 



66 PARIS IN 1830. 

counsel concluded by moving- that the defendant 
be condemned immediately to print the Courrier 
Francais, or to pay five thousand francs of da- 
mages to the plaintiffs for each day's delay. 

M. Laguionie then appeared at the bar to state 
his defence in person. He said that he regarded 
the letter he had received from M. Mangin as a 
wholesome warning. It enjoined him to desist 
from printing the journal under pain of seeing 
his presses seized and destroyed. The interest 
of the plaintiffs themselves required that he 
should yield to actual violence ; for if he had 
resisted like some of his brethren, his presses 
would have been broken, his types scattered, 
and the very means of publicity destroyed. The 
position of the proprietors, in braving the danger, 
was different from his. All that they compro- 
mised was the good will of the journal ; but he 
had thirty presses at work, and afforded the 
means of support to upwards of one hundred 
families. How then could he be called on to 
sacrifice, not only the interests of his workmen, 
but of two absent co-partners ? He believed 
that he had acted for the benefit of all parties ; 
but if, contrary to his expectation, the decision 
of the tribunal should be against him, he required 
that the proprietors of the . Courrier Francais 
should be held responsible for the consequences 
which might result from it. 

Having heard the statement of the defendant, 



PARIS IN 1830. 67 

the members of the court retired into their 
council-chamber to deliberate on the judgment. 
After a very short consultation, they resumed 
their seats on the bench, and the president having 
directed a doorkeeper to close the windows of 
the court-room, that his voice might be better 
heard amidst the solemn sound of the tocsin, 
and the discharges of musketry and artillery by 
which he was interrupted, proceeded with calm- 
ness and dignity to pronounce the following 
judgment : — 

" Considering that the defendant, Gaultier- 
Laguionie, became bound by a verbal agreement 
to print the journal entitled the Courrier Fran- 
cais - y that agreements legally entered into, ought 
to receive their effect ; that it is in vain that the 
defendant, to relieve himself from his obliga- 
tions, opposes a notice received from the prefect 
of police, containing an injunction to execute an 
ordinance of the 25th of the present month ; 
that that ordinance, being contrary to the con- 
stitutional charter, can neither be obligatory on 
the sacred and inviolable person of the king, nor 
on the citizens whose rights it infringes : — 

" Considering, moreover, that by the very . 
terms of the charter, ordinances can only be 
made in the execution, or for the preservation of 
the laws, and that the ordinance before cited, 
would, on the contrary, produce a violation of 
the provisions of the law of 28th July, 1828 : 

f 2 



( ><S PARTS IN 1830. 

" For these reasons the tribunal ordains that 
the agreement between the parties shall be car- 
ried into effect ; condemns the defendant per- 
sonally, within twenty-four hours, to print the 
journal called the Courrier Francais ; and, in case 
of failure, reserves to the plaintiffs their right to 
insist for the damages, to be afterwards decreed 
for ; ordains the provisional execution of this 
judgment on the instant, notwithstanding any 
appeal which may be entered, and that by the 
ministry of Pigace, the officer of the court in at- 
tendance ; and subjects the defendant to the costs." 

While the representatives of the people, and 
the occupants of the judgment-seat, were thus 
discharging the high functions confided to them, 
in a manner so honourable to their integrity and 
independence, the capital and its environs were 
every instant assuming a more threatening and 
alarming aspect. It was already known that the 
command of the troops of the garrison, consist- 
ing of 12,000 men of the royal French and Swiss 
Guard, the 5th, 50th, and 53rd regiments of the 
line, the 15th regiment of light horse, and a for- 
midable train of artillery, had been placed under 
the command of the Marshal Marmont, Duke 
of Ragusa. On the other hand, the most une- 
quivocal symptoms of a determined resistance 
on the part of the people were everywhere dis- 
playing themselves. In spite of the numerous 
patrols of gens-d'armerie, and of regular troops, 



PARIS IN 1830. 69 

both horse and foot, incessantly parading* the 
streets, the citizens were to be seen in all direc- 
tions, hurrying with arms in their hands, to con- 
cert the means of opposition to the measures of 
the government. For this purpose meetings 
were hastily held in various quarters of the city, 
particularly on the Place de Greve, the Place 
de Chatelet, the quays, the bridges, and the 
boulevards. The students attending the schools 
of law and medicine, and the artizans of the 
neighbouring faubourgs, assembled on the Place 
de l'Odeon and the Place de l'Ecole de Medi- 
cine ; but, at an early hour in the day, the pre- 
caution had been taken of closing the gates of the 
Palais Royal, so that the great thoroughfares 
formed by the Rue St. Honore and the Rue 
Richelieu, with the adjoining streets, were soon 
so encumbered as to have become quite impass- 
able by the crowds of workmen, directed towards 
the interior courts and garden of the palace, as 
to a common centre of attraction. The calm- 
ness, approaching to serenity, with which these 
unpremeditated meetings were held, places the 
character of the working classes in the' French 
metropolis above all praise ; but, to account for 
it, it must be remembered, that although the 
recent ordinances were the immediate and 
exciting cause of this insurrectionary movement 
among the people, their minds were predisposed 
to it by the warnings which for a year before 



70 PARIS IN 1830 

they had been daily receiving*, through the me- 
dium of the periodical press. The ministerial 
journals, particularly the Gazette de France, 
the Quotidienne, and the Drapeau Blanc, had 
been defending, by anticipation, the coups d'etat 
predicted and denounced by their liberal con- 
temporaries, and the discussion which thus 
arose, while it afforded a salutary course of in- 
struction to all classes of the people on the most 
important branches of political knowledge, and 
informed them of the nature of their duties, and 
the extent of their rights, at the same time pre- 
pared men's minds for that firmness of purpose, 
and that promptitude in action, which were most 
nobly evinced when the predicted outrage was 
so signally realized. 



PARIS IN 1830. 71 



CHAPTER V. 

Positions occupied by the troops of the line— Punishment 

inflicted on certain police agents — Disinclination of the 
troops of the line to act against the people, and causes for 
this feeling — Conciliatory messages on both sides — Assign- 
ment to the royal guard of the station in front of the Palais 
Royal — Offensive operations commenced by them, conjoint- 
ly with the Lancers— Anecdotes — The guard-house near 
the Exchange fired by the people— Active arrangements for 
defence made by the populace during the night — Unpaving 
and barricading of the streets— The Marseillois Hymn, and 
its exciting effects. 

While the inhabitants were thus engaged in 
consultation, the gen-d'armerie and the troops of 
the line proceeded in powerful masses to occupy 
the Place de Carrousel, the Place de la Bourse, 
the Place Vendome, and other open spaces in 
various quarters of the city. The more obscure 
agents of the police, employed by M. Mangin to 
watch the proceedings of the citizens, had by 
this time taken the alarm, in consequence of the 
recognition of several of their associates, and the 



7 C 2 



PARIS IN 1830. 



severe chastisement they received at the hands 
of the populace. 

On the other hand, the troops of the line dis- 
covered no anxiety to place themselves in oppo- 
sition to the assembled citizens. It was already 
ascertained, that a certain degree of hesitation 
had been evinced on the part of more than one 
of the regiments of the garrison. Nor, if we re- 
flect for a moment on the constitution of the 
regiments of the French line, and on the man- 
ner in which their numbers are recruited, can 
we feel much surprise at the symptoms of hesi- 
tation which were thus manifested among 
them. 

The law of conscription, introduced under the 
military government of Napoleon, was, with 
certain modifications, maintained in force after 
the Bourbon restoration. It is true, that the 
demand which thus arose on the general popula- 
tion to supply the annual contingent of the 
army, was of small amount during a long pe- 
riod of tranquillity, (interrupted only by the pre- 
parations for the Spanish armament under the 
Duke d'Angouleme, and by the more recent ex- 
pedition to the coast of Africa, under the ex- 
minister Bourmont,) when compared with the 
constant drain of the best blood of the nation 
required to satisfy the wants of an ambitious 
military chief. But the principle was still the 
same ; the conscripts were selected by ballot 



PARIS IN 1830. 78 

from the general mass of the population ; and if 
the army did not latterly include in its ranks the 
representatives of all classes of society, it was 
because, under a great variety of restrictions, 
the principle of serving by substitute had been 
admitted into operation. 

Such, however, were the obstacles to the re- 
cognition of the remplagant, and such the re- 
pugnance to the service among those who had 
themselves escaped from the chance of the bal- 
lot, that the ordinary premium for a substitute, 
with all the necessary qualifications of age and 
personal capacity, has for a long time been 
as high as fifteen hundred francs ; and as the 
principal, after all, continued to be responsible 
for the good conduct of his substitute, as well as 
for his continuance in the service, it will not be 
wondered at if not a few were to be found in the 
ranks of the army who could even have afforded 
to advance a sum, which, although merely equal 
to sixty pounds sterling, is known to be regard- 
ed in France as of very considerable amount. In 
point of fact, it is believed that the proportion of 
those who thus enter the service voluntarily in 
the capacity of substitutes, has not amounted on 
the average to more than fifteen per cent, of the 
aggregate rank and file of the French army ; 
and when it is known that these well-paid sub- 
stitutes are uniformly distinguished as the very 
worst soldiers in their respective regiments, it 



74 PARIS IN 1830. 

will at once be acknowledged that the materials 
out of which the aggregate force is originally 
formed, are decidedly superior, as compared 
with the rest of the population, to the corre- 
sponding elements of the British army. 

Looking upwards from the ranks to the offi- 
cers and sub-officers in the regiments of the 
French line, we shall find that there also a com- 
munity of feeling is maintained, not only as be- 
tween the army and the rest of the population, but 
also between the officers and privates themselves. 
In the French army there is no vestige to be 
found of that aristocratical spirit, which with us 
is perhaps so necessary, from the very constitu- 
tion of our military force, and which perempto- 
rily forbids a soldier bearing his majesty's com- 
mission, to associate with one whom it would be 
infra dig. to call his comrade of the ranks. 
There is nothing either in the manners of the 
country, or in the rules of military discipline, to 
prevent the officer and the private, when not on 
duty, from mixing in the same society, following 
the same pursuits, or enjoying the same amuse- 
ments. This freedom of intercourse among 
each other, restricted, as of course it must be, by 
the accidents of birth and fortune, affords addi- 
tional facilities for extending itself throughout 
the whole population, and drawing closer the 
bands by which the soldier and the citizen are 
previously united. 



PARIS IN 1830. 15 

The barrack system, by which the troops are 
kept apart from the rest of the community, and 
the principle adopted under the restored govern- 
ment of reserving the commissions in the army 
for the families of the old noblesse, had doubtless 
a considerable tendency to counteract the effect 
of what has just been pointed out with reference 
to the constitution of the army, and the habits of 
the individuals composing it. These counter- 
acting influences were not, however, of sufficient 
force to destroy the good understanding which 
happily existed between the people of Paris and 
the troops of the garrison. Some hours before 
any blood had been shed, or any actual collision 
had taken place between the armed force and 
the citizens, innumerable messages of a peaceful 
and conciliatory character had been interchanged 
between the various barracks in which the troops 
were quartered, and their friends and connexions 
in the city. The bearers of these messages were 
generally either women or children ; and it can- 
not be doubted that their effect must have been 
great, beyond the possibility of calculation, in 
alleviating the list of casualties which arose out 
of a struggle of three days' continuance. 

The effect of this interchange of civilities was 
strikingly evinced on the first appearance of one 
of the regiments of the line, on the open space 
in the Rue St. Honore, in front of the Palais 
Royal. The inhabitants had no idea that any 



76 PARIS IN 1830. 

attack would be made upon them without some 
previous warning-. They expected to see the 
commissaries of police, and other civil function- 
aries invested with the attributes of office, and 
to hear the proclamation read by which meetings 
in the street were interdicted, before the com- 
mission of any irreparable act of violence. The 
fact that the troops were not attended by any 
civil officer to sanction the commencement of 
hostilities, had only the effect of inspiring the as- 
sembled populace with fresh confidence. As 
soon as the regiment was drawn up in line, it 
was received with cheers and vivats. In place 
of retreating as the soldiers advanced, a number 
of individuals from the crowd ran up to them, 
hat in hand, and adjured them by all that was 
sacred in honour, liberty, and patriotism, to spare 
their fellow citizens the horrors of a civil war. 
The soldiers evidently understood what was ad- 
dressed to them, and seemed ready to fraternize 
with the people. But the officers, who were not 
prepared for this mode of opening the campaign, 
were at the same time unable to answer with fire 
and sword, the language of peace and friendship, 
addressed to them by an unarmed multitude. 
They sent to their superior officer, General 
Walsh, to represent to him the manner in which 
the troops had been received by the citizens, and 
to take his orders as to the measures to be 
adopted. His orders were, that the troops of 



PARIS IN 1830. 77 

the line should be distributed in patrols, and 
that the ground should be occupied by the 
Royal Guard. 

When the Guards made their appearance, 
they were accompanied by a detachment of 
Lancers, who, throughout the three days of 
civil war, distinguished themselves, on all occa- 
sions, by their unrelenting ferocity. They came 
upon the ground, their trumpets sounding, and 
their drums beating the charge. No halt or 
hesitation was observable in their deportment. 
They marched straight up to the unarmed 
crowd : the guard fired a volley, the Lancers 
made a charge, and, as the inhabitants fell, a 
shout was raised from the ranks, of " T T we le 
Hoi ! five Charles X. !" affording a sad pre- 
sage that henceforward this cry was only to be 
the signal of murder and of civil war. Dis- 
persing on the instant, the crowd did not wait 
for a second volley, and the soldiers were suf- 
fered to pursue their bloody and triumphant 
course. The Lancers struck indiscriminately 
wherever and whomsoever they could reach. 
An old man, who fell mortally wounded in this 
first encounter, was heard to exclaim, as he 
expired, " T r ive la liberie ! J^ive la charte !" 

It was here, too, that a woman about thirty- 
five years of age was killed by a musket-shot, 
which she received in her forehead. A journey- 
man baker, of gigantic stature and herculean 



78 PARIS IN 1880. 

strength, with his arms and his limbs uncovered, 
rushed out of his shop, and, laying hold of the 
dead body, raised it over his head, and carried 
it to the Place des Victoires, shouting vengeance 
as he went. After extending it on the ground, 
at the foot of the statue of Louis XIV., 
he harangued the multitude by whom he was 
surrounded, with an energy which vibrated to 
every heart. He then resumed his burden, and 
carried it towards the guard-house at the en- 
trance of the Bank of France, which is situated 
in the neighbourhood of the Place des Victoires ; 
and, as soon as he had reached the sentinels 
and other soldiers assembled at the gate, he 
threw the corpse at the head of the first he met, 
exclaiming, " See how your comrades are deal- 
ing Avith our wives ! Will you too do the like ?" 
" No," replied one of the soldiers, shaking the 
baker by the hand; "depend upon the Line; 
" but when you come out again, bring arms 
with you." The men whose trade was that of 
blood, looked pale at the sight of a murdered, 
unresisting woman ; and tears were seen to roll 
from the eyes of the officer of the guard. 
When other dead bodies were soon afterwards 
carried past the station, the officer exclaimed, 
" Kill me, kill me! for death is preferable to 
a situation so horrible as this !" 

Another corpse was carried from the front of 
the Palais Royal to the Place de la Bourse. On 



PARIS IN 1830. 79 

seeing it, the indignation of the people there 
assembled was suddenly roused to ungovernable 
fury. They threw themselves at the party 
posted at the Exchange, killed such as offered 
any resistance, and, allowing the others to 
escape, concluded by setting the guard-house 
on fire. 

In the course of the afternoon, it was cur- 
rently reported that M. de Belleyme, the presi- 
dent of the Cour Royale, and M. Ganireron, of 
the tribunal of first instance, had been arrested 
and sent toVincennes, in consequence of the judg- 
ments they had ventured to pronounce in oppo- 
sition to the views of the government, on the 
subject of the press. Although it afterwards 
proved that these rumours were unfounded, the 
temporary credit they obtained was highly 
favourable to that unity and firmness of pur- 
pose which marked the proceedings of the 
people. 

Throughout the day, the shops in all the prin- 
cipal thoroughfares had been closed ; or perhaps, 
to speak more correctly, they had, in general, 
never been opened. In the course of the after- 
noon and evening, the cry became general 
among the crowds traversing the streets, for arms 
and leaders. As nightfall approached, a general 
attack was made on the public lamps of the city, 
which were speedily demolished, for the purpose 
of enabling the inhabitants to pursue the 



80 PARIS IN 1830. 

plans which had already been formed for 
placing* themselves in a better posture of de- 
fence against the attack of disciplined troops. 
Visits were then made to the shops of all the 
gunsmiths and armourers — to the theatres, which 
on Tuesday evening had not been opened for 
public representation — and in short, to every 
quarter of the capital where it was known or 
supposed that arms were to be found. To these 
demands it may be said in general that no re- 
sistance was made. The possessors of weapons 
of offence, of whatever kind, surrendered them 
readily, as soon as an application was made for 
them, accompanied by a reasonable demonstra- 
tion of the power to enforce it. 

The soldiery soon found that they would not be 
in safety in patrolling the streets on this, as they 
had done during the previous night. The arms 
obtained by the citizens were not long left un- 
employed ; before midnight the outposts and 
patroles of the government forces were all driven 
into their principal stations on the Place Vendome, 
the Place de Carrousel, and the Place Louis XVI. 
where their bivouacs were established, so that 
in every other quarter the citizens remained in 
undisturbed possession of the streets, and at full 
liberty to conduct those operations which before 
morning were to effect so extraordinary, so 
magical a change on the general aspect of the 
capital. 



PARIS IN 1830. 81 

The partial engagements which had taken 
place in the course of the afternoon and evening-, 
between the military and the populace, were thus 
suspended till the return of light. But the 
hours of darkness were not attended with their 
ordinary effects of tranquillizing men's minds, or 
even affording them an intermission from their 
labours. 

The uniformity and deliberation with which, 
in every quarter of Paris, the inhabitants applied 
themselves to the construction of those celebrated 
barricades which were in fact the means of in- 
suring them the victory they so soon, and so sig- 
nally achieved, form, without exception or com- 
parison, the most remarkable feature in the 
French revolution of 1830. Although as yet 
there was certainly no council to advise, and no 
chief to direct the people in their proceedings, 
the corner of every street, and the outlet of 
every thoroughfare, became in the course of this 
memorable night a formidable barrier, sufficient 
to daunt the courage of the best troops in the 
world. At first every waggon, diligence, and 
omnibus to be found on the street, was laid under 
contribution, dismounted, and applied to the 
purpose with which all thoughts were occupied. 
These, however, were speedily abandoned, either 
from an idea of their insufficiency, from a con- 
sideration for private property, or in consequence 
of the discovery that the streets themselves af- 

G 



82 PARIS IN 1830. 

forded more suitable and more substantial ma- 
terials than those which had first presented 
themselves. As soon as the idea was started, it 
spread from station to station, and from street to 
street, with the rapidity of lightning*. With so 
many, and such willing hands, the task of un- 
paving the crossing of a street, and of building 
up a barricade was not long in being accom- 
plished. Nor, while thus patriotically occupied, 
were stimulants wanting to prompt them to 
exertion. It was not, however, in the brandy 
cellar or the wine shop that these stimulants 
were sought, but in the inspiring air, and, if 
possible, still more inspiring words, of that hymn, 
the Marseillaise of M. Rouget de Lisle, which, 
in spite of prohibition and proscription had never 
ceased to be a national favourite, and now, when 
it had again become so strikingly applicable to 
existing circumstances, burst forth in chorus from 
young and old, to encourage the labourers in their 
holy and patriotic undertaking. If the intrinsic 
merit of the verses did not of itself entitle them 
to a place in these pages, it would still be neces- 
sary to quote them for the purpose of proving how 
much they, and through them the French people, 
have hitherto been misrepresented in England. 
One of the first acts of the new sovereign of the 
French has been to reward the surviving author 
of this noble production with a suitable annuity 
from his private fortune ; an act of munificence 



PARIS IN 1830. 83 

universally appreciated and applauded. The 
effect produced by his verses on the minds of a 
whole nation affords the best of all evidence that 
the author's reward has not been unmerited. 



LA MARSEILLAISE, 

HYMNE PATRIOTJQUE, 

Par M. Rouget de Lisle. 

Allons, enfans de la Patrie, 

Le jour de gloire est arrive ; 

Contre nous de la tyrannie 

L'etendard sanglant est leve. 

Entendez-vous dans les campagnes 

Mugir ces feroces soldats ? 

lis viennent j usque dans vos bras 

Egorger vos fils, vos compagnes ! 
Aux armes, citoyens ! formez vos bataillons, 
Marchons ! . . . qu'un sang impur abreuve nos sillons. 

Que veut cette horde d'esclaves 

De traitres, de rois conjures ? 

Pour qui ces ignobles entraves, 

Ces fers des long-temps prepares ? 

Francais ! pour nous : ah ! quel outrage ! 

Quels transports il doit exciter ! 

C'est nous qu'on ose mediter 

De rendre a l'antique esclavage ! . . . 
Aux armes, citoyens ! formez vos bataillons, 
Marchons ! . . . qu'un sang impur abreuve nos sillons. 

G 2 



84 PARTS IN 1830. 

Quoi ! des cohortes etrangeres 
Feraient la loi dans nos foyers ! 
Quoi ! ces phalanges mercenaires 
Terrasseraient nos fiers guerriers ! 
Grand Dieu ! par des mains enchainees 
Nos fronts sous le joug se ploiraient ! 
De vils despotes deviendraient 
Les moteurs de nos destinees ! . . . 
Aux armes, citoyens ! formez vos bataillons, 
Marchons ! . . . quun sang impur abreuve nos sillons. 



Tremblez tyrans ! et vous perfides, 
L'opprobre de tous les partis, 
Tremblez ! . . . vos projets parricides 
Vont enfin recevoir le prix. 
Tout est soldat pour vous combattre. 
S'ils tombent, nos jeunes heros, 
La terre en produit de nouveaux 
Contre vous tout prets a se battre ! . . . 
Aux armes, citoyens ! formez vos bataillons, 
Marchons ! . . . quun sang impur abreuve nos sillons. 



Francais, en guerriers magnanimes 

Portez, ou retenez vos coups : 

Epargnez ces tristes victimes 

A regret s'armant contre nous. 

Mais le despote sanguinaire, 

Mais les complices des Bouille, 

Tous ces tigres qui, sans pitie, 

Dechirent le sein de leur mere ! 
Aux armes, citoyens ! formez vos bataillons, 
Marchons ! . . . qu'un sang impur abreuve nos sillons. 



PARIS IX 1830. 85 

Amour sacre de la patrie ; 

Conduis, sontiens nos bras vengeurs ! 

Liber te, Liberte cherie, 

Combats avec tes defenseurs. 

Sous nos drapeaux que la victoire 

Accoure a tes males accens ; 

Que tes ermemis expirans 

Voient ton triomphe et notre gloire. 
Aux armes, citoyens ! formez vos bataillons, 
Marchons ! . . . quun sang impur abreuve nos sillons. 



86 PARIS IN 1830. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Formidable appearance of Paris on the morning of the 28th 
of July — Organization of the National Guard, on behalf 
of the popular cause— Destruction of various tributes to 
Royalty— Mean conduct of many retainers of the Court— 
General extension of the conflict — Proceedings in the Fau- 
bourg St. Antoine — Charge made by the Cuirassiers of 
the Guard, and followed by the expulsion of the troops from 
the Rue St. Antoine — Desperate contest in the Boulevard 
du Temple — An illustrative Letter. 

Had there been any one in Paris unacquainted 
with what was passing around him, during the 
night of the 27th of July, and had such a person 
made his appearance next morning in the streets, 
in any quarter of the city, without an idea of 
the changes produced on their general aspect 
since he retired to his chamber on the evening 
before, he must have found it difficult to per- 
suade himself, that the formidable fortifications 
which everywhere met his eye, were not the 
work of enchantment. After the first feeling of 
surprise had in some degree subsided, his atten- 
tion would be called to less prominent objects. 
At the corner of every street, and wherever any 



PARIS IN 1830. 87 

casual projection afforded a better chance of pub- 
licity, three lines of a notice might be seen posted 
up, some in manuscript, and others in letter- 
press, announcing that the National Guard was 
at that moment organising itself. 

Like the construction of the barricades, these 
notices, conceived in every possible variety of 
language, and assuming every imaginable form, 
appeared to be the result of some secret instinct 
which had been granted to the people for their 
mutual preservation. As yet, no chief had been 
suggested, no leader had shown himself. The 
unity of purpose observable among the people, 
was produced by the feeling, now become uni- 
versal, that the moment had arrived for asserting 
their rights, and for ridding themselves of the 
system of tyranny which had so long been threat- 
ened, and which had at length been carried into 
operation. Already, it is true, the wishes, rather 
than the hopes, of the more reflecting and con- 
siderate, had pointed to the Duke of Orleans and 
his family, as the ultimate dependance of the 
nation, and as affording the only probability for 
the establishment of a constitutional government, 
strong enough to protect itself against internal 
anarchy, and calculated at the same time, to con- 
ciliate and secure the recognition and respect of 
the other great powers of Europe. 

It is known that the city of Paris is divided 
into twelve arrondissements, each of which is 



88 PARIS IN 1830. 

provided with a mayor, and other functionaries, 
who are only subordinate to the prefect as the 
head of the municipal government. The Na- 
tional Guard, when in a state of activity, had 
consisted of thirteen legions, one of cavalry, and 
the other twelve of infantry. The mounted 
legion belonged indiscriminately to all the quar- 
ters of the city, but the infantry were divided 
into arrondissements, a legion being raised in 
each. The legions were subdivided into batta- 
lions, and these again into companies, the indi- 
viduals comprising which were of course perso- 
nally known to each other, from the system of 
local distribution adopted ; and the acquaintance- 
ships which had thus been formed, were strength- 
ened, in place of being broken up, by the jealousy 
evinced by the government, in disbanding a force 
which was felt to be of such vital importance to 
the preservation of the national liberties. 

It was little more than three years since this 
unpopular measure had been carried into effect ; 
so that the officers of companies, the commanders 
of battalions, and finally, the mairies of arron- 
dissements, rather than the mayors themselves, 
(who were in general royalists,) became the ready 
rallying points for the members of the respective 
legions of the Parisian guard. But although the 
reorganization of the whole body was thus greatly 
facilitated, it was no ordinary act of courage on 
the part of the isolated individuals of which it 



PARIS IN 1830. 89 

was composed, thus deliberately to array them- 
selves in the proscribed uniform, and appear 
singly on the streets and boulevards, as a mark 
for the first patrol they might encounter. The 
spirit which prompted to such acts of heroism, 
was too general to admit of distinction. In every 
district, in every street, there was some one to 
take the lead in setting an example, which was 
speedily followed by thousands. The first who 
showed themselves were loudly cheered, as they 
proceeded to their place of rendezvous, with 
shouts of " Vive la brave garde! Vive la Garde 
Nationale !" and the reception they met with 
afforded a fresh indication, if such had been ne- 
cessary, of the perfect unanimity which prevailed 
on the subject of the resistance which was making 
to the measures of the government. 

Another symptom of popular feeling which dis- 
played itself on the morning of the 28th, consisted 
in the obliteration of the various emblems of roy- 
alty exhibited on the sign boards of the tradesmen 
authorized to assume such distinctions by the offi- 
cers of the king's household, and by those of the 
princes and princesses of the royal family. The 
names of the Duke and Duchess d' Angouleme, 
the Duchess de Berri, and the Duke de Bor- 
deaux, were uniformly treated with this mark of 
popular dislike, wherever they were exposed to 
public observation. At this early period, how- 
ever, of the revolutionarv movement, the position 



90 PARIS IN 1830. 

of the Duke of Orleans had not perhaps been 
duly considered. The initials prefixed to his 
royal highness's name, as they suggested his con- 
nexion with the reigning family, were by some 
thought to be sufficient to include him in the ban 
they were disposed to pronounce against the 
whole house of Bourbon. By others it was 
thought sufficient to blot out the obnoxious 
characters representing the words " Son Al- 
tesse Royal," of which there is evidence still 
extant in all the principal streets of Paris ; 
while, with a third class, the respectable private 
character of the Duke of Orleans, still more, 
perhaps, than any idea which at that time ex- 
isted of his being so soon called to occupy the 
vacant throne, protected his name from those 
marks of popular indignation with which every 
other memorial of royalty had been visited. 
When a coat of colour was thought to be insuf- 
ficient to express the resolution of the parties, 
the sign-board or the armorial bearings con- 
demned to destruction, were taken down and 
thrown into the kennel ; and if it occurred in 
a street where carriages were still suffered to 
circulate, the coachmen were directed to pass 
their wheels over the degraded trophy, as an 
expression of the public contempt. 

These proceedings were in general conducted 
with the best possible temper, both on the part 
of the proprietors and of those who witnessed 



PARIS IN 1830. 91 

them. They were adopted as a mere expression 
of the will of the people to repudiate the reign- 
ing monarch and his family. An instance of 
this singleness of purpose was evinced in the 
case of a young man who had appropriated a 
piece of gilded copper, which had formerly 
served to decorate the bureau of a public notary, 
and which had been torn down and defaced 
because it was impressed with the insignia of 
royalty. The culprit was compelled to restore 
the broken metal to its owner, and was severely 
chastised on the spot, for having thus brought 
disgrace on what was doubtless regarded as the 
majesty of the people. 

The re-appearance on the streets of a body so 
justly respected as the National Guard, gave 
fresh confidence to those who had already em- 
barked in the struggle, re-assured the wavering 
and irresolute, and utterly extinguished the 
hopes of such as were still secretly favourable to 
the cause of Charles and his ministers. If the 
latter sentiments were entertained on the 28th 
of July, they were no longer expressed either 
by word or action. Not a single bourgeois or 
housekeeper, not a man with a round hat on his 
head, was to be seen in the ranks of Marshal 
Marmont. Before the appearance of the ordi- 
nances, the retainers of the court never ceased 
to echo the language ascribed to the king and 
the Duke d'Angouleme, that they would mount 



92 PARIS IN 1830. 

their war-horse, and appear in arms, on the first 
call of royalty ; but as the king* himself did not 
verify his threat, his courtiers thought themselves 
justified in following his prudent example. 

To the eternal disgrace of these habitues of 
the court, a number of personages of no mean 
name, who but yesterday were the most forward 
in persuading the adoption of those arbitrary 
measures by which the revolution has been pro- 
duced, and in training on the infatuated monarch 
to his destruction, swearing that they would 
conquer or die for him — are to-day the first to 
turn their backs on their former master, and to 
worship the sun which has just risen on the 
other side of the horizon. The antechambers of 
the Palais Royal are now encumbered with men 
who do not scruple to remind the new king of 
the French, that they had served his predecessor 
with fidelity and devotion, and to assure him, 
with characteristic effrontery, of their readiness 
to serve the present occupant of the throne with 
the same devotion and the same fidelity. Others 
there are, it is true, distinguished for all that is 
virtuous and honourable, who cannot so readily 
change their political principles, or forget their 
attachment to a fallen benefactor. But the 
Noailles, the Chateaubriands, and the Martig- 
nacs, while they shed a redeeming lustre over 
the errors and the crimes of Charles the Tenth, 
by the mode of their retirement from public life, 



PARIS IN 1830. 93 

were not the men to counsel or to approve such 
baneful measures as those which produced their 
royal master's downfall. 

Towards eight o'clock on Wednesday morn- 
ing-, the scene of strife had become general in all 
those quarters of the town which, during the 
previous night, had been occupied by the royal 
forces. 

As the various attacks were almost simulta- 
neous, it is not easy to describe them in the 
chronological order in which they occurred, 
without some risk of confusion. It is proposed, 
therefore, to take up the order of locality, be- 
ginning with the struggle on the Boulevards ; 
from thence proceeding down the centre of the 
city, by the left bank of the Seine, the Place de 
Greve, the Palais Royal, the Place des Victoires, 
and finally, the Louvre and the Tuileries. 

It was said to be in the Faubourg Saint Antoine 
that the first three-coloured banner was exhi- 
bited so early as Tuesday the 27th ; it was by 
the inhabitants of this same faubourg that many 
of the atrocities were committed which sullied 
the history of the revolution of 1789. But, be 
it remembered, that these atrocities were com- 
mitted, not by men who had experienced the 
blessings of liberty, or who had been instructed 
in the rights and the duties which it confers and 
enjoins ; but, as has been so well expressed by 
the eloquent mover of the resolutions at the 



94 PARIS IN 1830. 

meeting lately held in Edinburgh to congratulate 
the French on their triumph, they were the work 
of slaves who had just succeeded in bursting the 
fetters by which they had so long been bound in 
the ignominious thraldom of darkness and igno- 
rance. 

On the morning of the 28th, the national 
standard was again displayed in the upper part 
of the Rue Saint Antoine, supported by the elite 
of the district, in young men and householders, 
in veterans and in national guards. " But where 
are the heroes of your formidable Faubourg ?" 
exclaimed an old man who occupied an open 
window on the neighbouring boulevard, incapa- 
citated by palsy in his limbs from mixing in the 
melee : " are they the men I have seen pass 
this morning, three-fourths of whom were not 
even armed with bludgeons ?" — "What you have 
seen is nothing," replied a person who had just 
come from the upper part of the suburb ; " in 
the course of the morning, you will see the fau- 
bourg Saint Antoine !" 

At that moment the report of musquetry, at 
the distance of two hundred paces, announced 
that an engagement had commenced under the 
eyes of the observer. He could perceive de- 
cided symptoms of commotion in all the neigh- 
bouring lanes which opened into the boulevard. 
The cry was then heard of "fermez vos fenetres !" 
and at the same instant a strong body of troops 



PARIS IN 1830. 95 

made their appearance, marching* in close column 
the whole breadth of the boulevard, and in 
double quick time. The column was preceded 
by a party of tirailleurs, who fired as they ad- 
vanced, sometimes in the air to clear the way on 
their approach, and sometimes at the windows, 
from the fear, no doubt, lest, if open, the inhabi- 
tants should fire from them on the troops. The 
jalousies, or outer window-blinds of the old man's 
chamber had been left open ; and as they were 
fastened to the wall, he was quite unable to rise 
for the purpose of closing them. A soldier of 
the royal guard, mistaking perhaps the crutches 
which stood by him for some instrument of of- 
fence, presented his piece at the window, and 
fired, but missed his object. A regiment of in- 
fantry having thus passed, there followed a 
squadron of lancers, with a detachment of cui- 
rassiers, and several pieces of artillery. They 
were all of the Royal Guard, horse as well as 
foot, and amounted, by the observer's estimate, to 
some two thousand men. They took up their 
position on the Place de la Bastille, and had 
scarcely arrived there when the sound of mus- 
quetry, first in files, and afterwards in platoons, 
announced that the progress of the troops had 
been opposed. In so open a space, and under 
such circumstances, opposition on the part of the 
inhabitants was an unjustifiable act of temerity. 
After considerable loss on both sides, they were 



96 PARIS IN 1830. 

soon obliged to retire before the column, which 
then advanced as far as the angle, formed by the 
carrefour de JRemlly, There the troops of the 
guard received a reinforcement of a battalion of 
infantry, and two additional pieces of cannon, 
from the garrison at Vincennes. 

The upper part of the Rue Saint Antoine was 
still occupied by the inhabitants, who had now 
rallied in considerable numbers. The cuirassiers 
of the guard made a desperate charge upon 
them, and succeeded in compelling the greater 
part to retire. The young man entrusted with 
the popular banner, disdaining to fly, was left 
alone in the middle of the street. With a self- 
devotion, which was worthy of a better fate, he 
deliberately planted his three-coloured ensign in 
the ground, and remained beside it unmoved while 
his companions sought the advantage afforded by 
the steps and pillars of the Protestant church in 
the neighbourhood, and such other shelter as 
they could find from the charge of cavalry with 
which they were threatened. But the cuiras- 
siers of the guard were not to be moved by the 
heroism of the gallant standard-bearer. He was 
instantly sabred and cut down at the post of 
honour he had chosen; and, after depriving him 
of life, the soldiers took a horrible pleasure in 
treading his dead body under the feet of their 
horses. 

An obstinate engagement took place in front 



PARIS IN 1830. 97 

of the houses marked Nos. 79 and 80 in the 
Rue St. Antoine. The workmen of the fau- 
bourg had there entrenched themselves as in a 
citadel, from whence they kept up an incessant 
fire, accompanied by the fall of every species of 
projectile, including paving-stones and house- 
hold furniture, the tiles of the roof, and the 
other materials of the building. Here the 
guards were compelled to retire, leaving behind 
them a considerable number of men in killed, 
wounded, and prisoners. Some of the inhabit- 
ants, exasperated by the slaughter of their rela- 
tives and friends, were disposed to take ven- 
geance on the prisoners, and to sacrifice them 
on the spot ; but the more generous voice of the 
majority prevailed, and the wounded were re- 
ceived into the house of M. Bardol, a retired 
officer of the line, where they met with all the 
care and attention which their circumstances 
required. 

Near the same spot, a bomb- shell having 
fallen through the chimney of the house No. 75, 
the inhabitants succeeded in extinguishing the 
fusee before it had exploded. It was imme- 
diately suspended across the street in the man- 
ner of the public lamps of the city, at the height 
of the third floor windows, where it still 
remains, surmounted by a three-coloured flag, 
and bearing the inscription — 

" Charles X. to his People ?" 

H 



98 PARIS IN 1830. 

On the neighbouring boulevard du Temple, a 
combined attack of infantry, cavalry, and artil- 
lery, produced a dreadful slaughter. The people 
had not yet adopted the resolution of cutting 
down the trees on the boulevards, which were 
. still therefore open to the passage of every species 
of force. As the testimony of an eye-witness is 
of more value than any account which could be 
prepared at second-hand, no apology is necessary 
for introducing the following letter, written, as it 
obviously is, on the inspiration of the moment, 
and coming from a retired officer, whose military 
habits enabled him to be a competent judge of 
what he thus records. 

Paris, 31 July. 
" Sir, 

" Having been an eye-witness of so many 
deeds of heroism during the days, for ever me- 
morable, of the 27th, 28th, and 29th of July, 
I would point out one which seems to call for 
your particular attention. 

" The curiosity of an old soldier made me run 
to the various points of attack, to give the aid of 
my advice to the courageous bands who were en- 
gaged in the defence of our liberties. This was 
the only part which remained for me to play, 
having been deprived of an arm, which I lost at 
Waterloo. 

" During the forenoon of the 28th, I found 



PARIS IN 1830. 99 

myself at the square of the Porte St. Martin, 
where I proceeded to examine the position 
taken up by our treacherous enemy. 1st. The in- 
fantry of the gen-d'armerie were formed in line 
along the Rue du faubourg St. Martin, in com- 
munication with the neighbouring barrack ; the 
cavalry of the same arm were ranged behind 
them. 2d. The cuirassiers of the guard were 
to be seen in similar order on the boulevard 
near the theatre of the Porte St. Martin, from 
whence it was to be inferred that a charge was 
to be executed as soon as any handful of men 
should venture to show themselves. 

" I did not leave the square, as I saw a 
column arrive, not amounting in all to a hun- 
dred-and-fifty men, very badly armed ; and (as I 
was informed by the young man who com- 
manded them) not possessed of more than four 
cartridges a-piece. There was no want of 
courage, however, on their part, as you shall 
judge. I thought it my duty, in virtue of my 
former experience, and of the remarks I had 
just made on the position of our two enemies, 
the gens-d'armes and the cuirassiers, to entreat 
the young chief to call a halt, and to wait for 
reinforcements, before entering on the boule- 
vard, from the street by which he was ad- 
vancing. 

" After listening to what I had to say, he 
thanked me for the information I had given 

h 2 



100 PARIS IN 1830. 

him. I only did what I felt to be a duty, in 
endeavouring* to save them from certain death. 
When I came up to them, they were on their 
way to attack the gen-d'armerie, and were in 
perfect ignorance of the position of the cuiras- 
siers. The young- leader yielded to my advice, 
in so far as to abandon the attack on the gen- 
darmerie ; but as to the waiting for reinforce- 
ments, he would not listen to it. He made no 
account of the imminent danger to which he 
and his followers would expose themselves, by 
appearing with so small a force on the open 
boulevard. Placing himself at the head of his 
men, who were all of the working classes, he 
ordered his drummer to beat the charge, ex- 
claiming, ' La mort ou la liberie I 9 

" I could no longer restrain myself from fol- 
lowing the intrepid little band. Their leader again 
came up to me, and said, ' You have earned a 
quittance from your country ; you have already 
shed your blood in her cause ; to-day it is our 
turn to follow your example. Do not take from 
us this satisfaction : to spill it in so good a cause, 
to die here, is to live eternally.' On this appeal, 
I desisted from my purpose of following him. 

" He arrived with his column on the boule- 
vard, drew it out in line in front of the cuiras- 
siers, and ordered a charge with the bayonet. 
Placing himself at their head, he rushed on the 
cavalry, who fired without quitting their po- 



PARIS IN 1830. 101 

sition. The volley brought down several of 
these brave fellows ; and, after firing, the cuiras- 
siers made a charge, which, however, was not 
attended with much success. This feeble co- 
lumn — I use the word feeble, with reference to 
numbers only — was very slightly shaken. The 
firmness and intrepidity they displayed, made 
them soon triumph over numbers ; and in their 
turn, they killed and wounded with the bayonet, 
and without firing a shot, a great proportion of 
their opponents : others, seeing themselves ex- 
posed to certain death, surrendered to the vic- 
tors. It was then that the leader of this little 
army, and a part of his surviving followers, 
mounted the horses of those who had fallen or 
surrendered, and thus drove back the rest of the 
regiment as far as the quay des Celestins. 

" The number of killed and wounded was 
very considerable on both sides ; and the loss of 
the cuirassiers would have been much greater 
than it was, if, like them, the citizens had been 
disposed to indulge in acts of cruelty. 

" This was all done in the twinkling of an 
eye. I then approached, and begged to know 
the name of the young man who commanded. 
His name and address were given me by one of 
those who fought under his orders. It is Au- 
gustin Thomas, manufacturer of haircloth for 
furniture, No. 28, Rue des Vinaigriers, fau- 



102 PARIS IN 1830. 

bourg Saint Martin. From the extent of his 
workshops, he must employ a considerable num- 
ber of 7ii en, who, for the most part, I under- 
stand, have followed his example. 

" I have the honour to be, &c. 

" Dubourg, ancien Capitaine" 



PARIS IN 1830. 103 



CHAPTER VII. 



Successful mode of annoyance practised against the Gen-d'ar- 
merie — Desperate struggle near the Porte St Denis — 
Heroism of Captain Thierri — Fine trait of coolness and 
humanity — Royal Ordinance, declaring the capital in a 
state of siege — The Duke of Ragusa takes the command of 
the soldiery ; heads a charge in person, and is driven back 
into the Place des Victoires — Honourable instances of mode- 
ration in the people — Order issued by the Prefect of Po- 
lice — The veteran hero and the Lancers — Want of provi- 
sions among the royal troops ; their growing disinclination 
to the service imposed on them — Resignation of Count La 
Tour du Pin, captain of the Royal Guard. 



On that part of the field thus spoken of by Cap- 
tain Dubourg, the victory of the citizens was se- 
cured by means of a diversion which many may 
think inadequate to the result produced by it. 
The leading partners in a great carrying esta- 
blishment, situated in the Rue du Faubourg St. 
Martin, No. 40, Messrs. Levainville and Fas- 
cie, accompanied by their clerks and others in 
their employment, after actively assisting in a 
desperate charge which was made near the 



104 PARIS IN 1830. 

Porte Saint Martin on a regiment of cavalry of 
the guard, returned into their premises, not for 
the purposes of safety or repose, but to co-ope- 
rate more effectually in the promotion of the 
common cause. Provided with an enormous 
quantity of stones, to serve as an auxiliary in 
case of need, they showed themselves in arms on 
the great balcony in front of their establishment, 
and succeeded throughout the day in holding in 
check the gen-d'armerie, both horse and foot, be- 
longing to the neighbouring barrack of Saint 
Martin, who were thus prevented from either 
firing on the citizens, or from attempting to pass 
the house, which, by means apparently so simple, 
had been converted into a respectable fortification. 
Another desperate struggle took place near 
the Porte Saint Denis, where the Royal Guard 
commenced an attack with even more than their 
accustomed ferocity. It was repelled with cor- 
responding vigour. One man in particular, in 
the ordinary working dress of an artizan, had 
posted himself in the outlet of the Passage de 
l'Industrie, and continued without intermission 
to fire on the soldiers until his stock of ammuni- 
tion was exhausted. The courage and coolness 
with which he conducted himself in this insu- 
lated position, astonished every one who had an 
opportunity of observing him. It seemed as if 
the bullets, which were showering around, had re- 
spected the personification of so much energy and 



PARIS IN 1830. 105 

perseverance. Several dead bodies were lying 
close beside him, and within sight a much greater 
number of persons had been wounded ; but in 
the midst of death and bloodshed this bold sharp- 
shooter remained untouched. 

Here, as elsewhere, victory at length declared 
itself on the side of freedom, in spite of all the 
efforts made by the guard to maintain their po- 
sition. Among those who chiefly contributed to 
their defeat, M. Thierry, a retired captain of 
the old army, particularly distinguished himself, 
fighting without relaxation from one o'clock in 
the afternoon till eight in the evening. He did 
not even retire on receiving a musket-ball in his 
right arm. Efforts such as these were at length 
crowned with success, and Captain Thierry had 
the glory and the satisfaction of receiving and 
returning the last shots which were fired. 

In this neighbourhood an instance of courage 
of a different description, but, under the circum- 
stances, not less valuable to the popular cause, 
was evinced by a retired justice of peace from 
the town of Nanci, who, in quietly issuing from 
a house in the Rue du faubourg du Temple, saw 
several individuals wounded by the grape-shot 
fired from some pieces of cannon stationed on 
the boulevard. Deeply agitated by the sight, 
and braving the imminent danger to which he 
was himself exposed, he walked straight up to 
the officer commanding the battery, and ad- 



106 PARIS IN 1830. 

dressed him in the name of his country, and 
of humanity, with so much pathos and effect, 
on the enormity of slaughtering his fellow-citi- 
zens, as to persuade the whole party to cease 
the firing, and to remove the battery. 

In the course of Wednesday morning, a royal 
ordinance was issued from the castle of Saint 
Cloud, declaring the capital in a state of siege. 
As no Moniteur appeared after Tuesday, under 
the authority of the government of Charles X., 
this document has never been officially pub- 
lished ; but it is said to have been conceived in 
the following terms : — 

" Charles, by the grace of God, &c. 

" To all who shall see these presents, health, 

" Having considered the 53d, 101st, 102d, and 103d 
articles of the decree of the 24th December 1811 ; 

" Seeing that the tranquillity of the city of Paris has 
been disturbed by internal sedition, during the 27th day 
of the present month ; 

" And having heard our council : 

" We have ordained, and do ordain, as follows. 

" Article 1st. The city of Paris is put in a state of 
siege. 

" Article 2d. This measure shall be published and 
executed immediately. 

" Article 3d. Our minister, secretary of state for the 
war department, is charged with the execution of the 
present ordinance. 

" Given in our castle of Saint Cloud, the 28th day of 
the month of July, in the year of grace 1830, and of 
our reign the sixth. 

(Signed) " CHARLES." 



PARIS IN 1830. 107 

" By the King's authority ; 
" The president of the council of ministers, charged 
ad interim with the portfolio of the war department. 

" Prince de Polignac." 

The inhabitants of Paris had been suffering all 
the horrors of a siege long before the appear- 
ance of the edict by which it was declared. Its 
preparation was perhaps called for by the Duke 
of Ragusa, as his warrant for assuming the 
command of the troops, and entering the city at 
their head. This he did at ten o'clock on 
Wednesday morning. The column under his 
immediate command consisted of six thousand 
men and eight pieces of cannon. He entered 
the city by the quays on the left bank of the 
Seine, ascended that side of the river, took pos- 
session of the Pont Neuf, and ordered an attack 
on the Hotel de Ville, which was at that time 
occupied by the National Guards. 

But in marching along the quays, the troops 
were still exposed on one side to the attacks of 
the citizens, who did not hesitate to fire on this 
strong bod^ of men, from the windows of their 
houses and from behind the parapets which 
occur in various parts of the route. It is said, 
however, that the men, who had just arrived 
from Sevres, in the neighbourhood of Saint 
Cloud, had there received every species of excite- 
ment to the performance of their murderous 
task. They had been passed in review by the 



108 PARIS IN 1830. 

Duke d'Angouleme, who had caused a distri- 
bution of money, wine, and brandy, to be made 
among them. The money was given in the pro- 
portion of thirty, forty, and fifty francs a man, 
to the privates of the Foot Guards, the Swiss, 
and the Lancers, respectively. Crosses of the 
Legion of Honour were promised to the officers, 
and were actually bestowed on them in great 
profusion, before the departure of the royal 
family for Rambouillet. 

But, to return from this digression to the scene 
of operations on the Boulevards : at the head 
of the Rue Montmartre an affair took place in 
which Marmont commanded in person. During 
some part of the day, the Place des Victoires 
had been occupied by troops, part of whom, con- 
sisting of a detachment of the line, had been 
observed to fraternize with the post of National 
Guards established at the Petits-Peres. About 
two o'clock the Marshal made his appearance on 
the Place des Victoires at the head of fresh troops. 
These he placed in observation at the openings 
of the Rue de Mail, the Rue des Fosses Mont- 
martre, the Rue Croix des Petits-Champs, and 
the Rue Neuve des Petits-Champs. A charge 
was then ordered, which produced a great num- 
ber of casualties on the side of the troops as well 
as of the people. The detachment placed in the 
Rue de Mail was led by Marmont in person. He 
entered the Rue Montmartre, and traversed 



PARIS IN 1830. 109 

some portion of it without much opposition ; but 
having- advanced as far as the Rue Joquelet, the 
resistance offered by the citizens became so obsti- 
nate, and was attended with so much effect, that 
the Marshal and those under his command found 
it necessary to fall back on their former position 
in the Place des Victoires. 

Much has been said of the moderation and 
forbearance evinced by all classes of the people 
during- the period of this memorable struggle. 
The instances which have become the subject of 
general conversation are apparently as numerous 
as the recorded deeds of heroism, but we shall 
only feel warranted in giving a selection of such 
as appear to be the best authenticated. 

At the Bourse, which became successively a 
depot for prisoners, and a hospital for the 
wounded, two men, apparently of the working 
class, had been placed as a guard over a number 
of Swiss, and other household troops, who had 
been disarmed and taken prisoners. On com- 
paring notes, it transpired to the two men on 
guard, when in conversation with each other, 
that neither of them had eaten any thing for 
twelve hours before. They where overheard by 
M. Darmaing, a literary gentleman connected 
with the Gazette des Tribunaux, who offered 
them a five-franc piece, and desired them to go 
and get something to eat while he remained to 
keep their place. Seeing them hesitate, he in- 



110 PARIS IN 1830. 

sisted on their accepting what he offered, saying 
that in a moment like that, it was right that he 
who had anything should share it with those who 
wanted. The two men were thus prevailed on 
to accept the money ; but in a quarter of an hour 
they returned, and insisted on giving back to M. 
Darmaing a balance of fifty-five sous, and then 
quietly resumed their post at the door of the 
apartment in which the prisoners were confined. 

In breaking the public lamps for the purpose of 
securing an advantage to the inhabitants, and of 
discouraging the troops in their movements after 
nightfall, a man was about to break the lantern sus- 
pended under the arcade of the hotel which had for- 
merly been occupied by the Marquis de Pastorel 
before his elevation to the office of Chancellor of 
France ; " No," said one of the party, " let that 
remain ; it belongs to a house where bread is given 
to the poor all winter ;" — and on this appeal the 
lantern was respected. 

The prisons too were visited in the course of 
the day ; but not for the purpose of setting the 
criminals at liberty. The people required only 
that those should be given up to them who had 
been arrested by M. Mangin on the first day of 
the national movement ; a demand which was at 
once complied with by the several jailors and 
governors. 

In the meantime the ministers continued to 
hold their sittings in the Tuileries, and M. Man- 



PARIS IN 1830. Ill 

gin was still in possession of the prefecture of 
police, from whence, in the course of the day, the 
following- order was issued : — 

" We, councillor of state, prefect of police, &c. 

" Since the evening of the day before yesterday, 
serious disturbances have taken place in Paris, in conse- 
quence of seditious assemblages. Plunder, conflagration, 
and assassination, appear to indicate the presence of a 
great number of brigands in the capital. 

" Inhabitants of Paris, keep yourselves at a distance 
from such wretches. 

" Let no indiscreet curiosity induce you to assemble 
in crowds. 

" Remain in your houses. 

" In the evening, place lamps in your windows to 
lighten the streets. 

" Prove, by the wisdom and the prudence of your 
conduct, that you are strangers to those excesses which 
would dishonour you if you took part in them. 

" Measures of severity have already been taken for 
their repression. Measures still more severe must be 
taken hereafter. 

" Take confidence, and be assured that the necessary 
force will always remain in the hands of authority. 

(Signed) " Mangin." 
Paris, July 28, 1830. 

When the people were busily engaged on 
Wednesday morning in cutting down those trees 
which lately shaded and ornamented the Boule- 
vard des Italiens, a party of eighteen or twenty 
Lancers were stopped by the first barricade, 
which had been formed near the Chinese Baths, 



112 PARIS IN 1830. 

at the corner of the Rue de la Michodiere. It 
is stated by the person who communicates this 
incident, that he saw an old man in the midst of 
the barricade waving an Imperial eagle over his 
head, and defying the Lancers with the some- 
what incongruous cry of " T^ive la cliarte !" 
The latter immediately fired upon the eagle, and 
on the man who carried it, but happily without 
effect. The Lancers then retired, and our in- 
formant approached the veteran standard-bearer, 
in whom he was astonished to recognize an old 
sergeant-major of the 108th regiment of the 
Imperial line, whom he believed to have been 
killed at the battle of Waterloo, and with whom 
he had fought in Germany. The old man stated 
that he had carried the eagle about his person, 
sleeping and waking, for the last fifteen years, 
and that he now hoped to see it rise again. 
" But did you not see those awkward fellows ?" 
he added : " although so near their mark, they 
have left me without a scratch." This veteran's 
name is Fayet ; he has long been a book-keeper 
in the house of the widow Grandpre, Rue Saint 
Thomas de Louvre, No. 30. With men like 
him, who had so often confronted death under 
the Imperial banner, the wish was natural that 
the symbol of the glorious battles in which they had 
shared, should once more be raised over the ruins 
of the house of Bourbon. The cry of " Vive Napo- 
leon II. !" " Vive V Empereur !" was accordingly 



PARTS IN 1830. 113 

to be heard occasional!}' on the streets, during 
the first days of the struggle ; but so faintly, and 
so seldom, as to leave no permanent impression ; 
since whenever it was heard, it was immediately 
drowned by the more popular exclamation of 
" Vive la chart e !" 

It appears, that the unexpected obstinacy with 
which the troops had been opposed by the inha- 
bitants of Paris, had prevented the soldiers from 
receiving their regular rations of bread. On 
Wednesday afternoon a letter to this effect had 
been written by the commander-in-chief to his 
Majesty, at Saint Cloud, begging that supplies 
might be immediately forwarded from thence. 
The following answer is known to have been 
received on Wednesday evening : — 

" I have had the honour to lay your letter 
before the King. In consequence of orders re- 
ceived from his Majesty, the chamberlain of the 
household has directed every possible effort to be 
made both at Sevres and Saint Cloud, to prepare 
the bread you require. I have asked for thirty 
thousand rations, but I fear it will be difficult to 
obtain more than half that quantity during the 
night. I have also ordered twenty-five thousand 
rations from Versailles. There is reason to ap- 
prehend, however, that the bread will not reach 
you from either quarter before ten o'clock to- 
morrow morning." 

The remainder of this letter is filled with 



114 PARIS IN 1830. 

military details, with reference to the situation 
of the troops. It affords evidence that the Bar- 
riere des Bons Hommes was no longer in pos- 
session of the military, and that the route of 
communication from Saint Cloud to Marmont's 
head-quarters was in danger of being disturbed. 
It states also, that four companies of the gardes 
du corps were to assemble at Saint Cloud, and 
to proceed towards Paris ; and that the King had 
given orders for the scholars in the college of 
Saint Cyr to be formed into a battalion, and to 
come with six pieces of cannon, to do the duty 
of the palace, and, with the artillery and infantry 
of the guard, to keep possession of the bridges. 
The writer of the letter also intimates to Mar- 
mont, that two squadrons of guards were to be 
placed at Sevres, for the purpose of keeping the 
communications open on the left bank of the 
Seine, and that the squadrons of Saint Cloud would 
communicate by the bridge of Grenelle with 
those at Sevres, and would keep open the Bois 
de Boulogne, the road to Neuilly, and even 
that to Versailles, on each of which it is stated 
that crowds were collected. 

Another letter, bearing the same date, and 
addressed to the Duke of Ragusa, informs him, 
that at half-past twelve, all the posts occupied 
by the Sapeurs-Pompiers had been relieved by 
detachments of infantry, and had been sent to 
receive their further orders at head-quarters. 



PARIS IN 1830. 115 

The author of the letter proposes, that such as 
had been stationed at the prefecture of police, 
the barrack of the Rue Culture Sainte Catherine, 
and at the barrack of the Rue de la Paix, should 
be made to lay down their arms, in consequence, 
probably, of the symptons they had discovered of 
disinclination for the service on which they had 
been employed. 

Such symptoms of disinclination were already 
discoverable among the troops of all arms. The 
Royal Guard, both men and officers, began to 
manifest a generous repentance for the deeds of 
slaughter of which they had been made the in- 
struments. " Let them kill us," they exclaimed ; 
" it is our duty to die at our post ; but let us no 
longer submit to the unworthy task to which we 
have too long been condemned." The following 
letter, particularly when taken in connexion with 
the subsequent conduct of its noble-minded 
author, does equal honour to the head and heart 
of the Count la Tour du Pin. It is addressed 
to the Prince de Polignac. 

" Monseigneur; 

" After a day of massacres and disasters, undertaken 
contrary to all laws, divine and human, and in which I 
have only participated from a feeling of respect with 
which I reproach myself, my conscience forbids me to 
serve a moment longer. 

" My life has afforded proofs of my devotion to the 
King, sufficiently numerous to permit me, without my in- 
tentions being calumniated, to distinguish between what 

12 



116 PARIS IN 1830. 

emanates from him, and the atrocities committed in his 
name. I have the honour then to beg you, Monseigneur, 
to lay before his Majesty my resignation as captain of 
his guard. 

" I have the honour to be, 
" Monseigneur, 

" Your Excellency's most humble and obedient 

" servant, 

(Signed) "Le Conte Raoul de la Tour du Pin. 1 ' 
" July 28th, 1830." 



PARIS IN 1830. 117 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Occurrences on the left bank of the Seine — Popular organiza- 
tion, directed by the pupils of the Poly technic School — Ge- 
nerous promptitude of the students of law and medicine — 
Places of general rendezvous — Attack on the Swiss bar- 
racks in the Rue de Babylone — Letter descriptive of that 
movement and its successful issue. 

On the left bank of the Seine the same spirit of 
determined resistance was equally manifested. 
A large proportion of the population in this 
quarter of the city had additional motives to 
prompt them to action. It is here that the trades 
of printing and bookselling are chiefly carried 
on ; and, in addition to the inroad on public 
freedom to which they were subjected in com- 
mon with their fellow-citizens, the numerous 
classes of paper-makers and printers, bookbind- 
ers and engravers, and all those connected 
immediately or remotely with this important 
branch of commerce, were made painfully sen- 
sible that the existence of themselves and their 



118 PARIS IN 1830. 

families was seriously compromised by the at- 
tack which had been made on the liberty of the 
press. They persuaded themselves that they had 
only to choose between death by starvation, and 
the glorious sacrifice of their lives in the 
cause of their country. In the evening of the 
27th, a number of companies were already 
organized, and an application was made to the 
pupils of the Polytechnic School to assist them 
in vindicating their independence. 

The youth who have been educated at this 
respectable establishment, in spite of the attempts 
which have from time to time been made to re- 
press any ebullition of popular sentiments, have 
always evinced a decided attachment to the 
cause of freedom, and a corresponding hostility 
to arbitrary power. This has doubtless been 
the natural result of the studies to which they 
apply themselves. In the exact sciences and 
their application to the purposes of the architect 
and the engineer, whether civil or military, 
there is something too positive to admit of mysti- 
fication. It was known that the sentiments of 
the pupils were universally national. The school 
Avas soon surrounded by the armed population, 
who, under the conviction of the need thev had 
of leaders who had studied the art of war, came 
to call upon them to assist in the deliverance of 
their country. They hesitated for a moment, 
not from personal fear, but from a far purer 



PARIS IN 1830. 119 

sentiment, which forbade them to be the first to 
light the torch of civil war. But when they 
learned that Paris was already in arms, and that 
the paid soldiers of the government were the 
only supporters of a guilty ministry, they no 
longer hesitated. Scarcely had they passed the 
gates of the establishment, amidst the deafening 
shouts of " Vive la charte /" and " Vive la li- 
berie !" when the warlike crowd acknowledged 
them for chiefs, and received from them their 
orders with submission and docility. 

The students of law and of medicine, although 
less distinguished as military leaders, were not 
less zealous, either as combatants in the common 
cause, or as performers of the important duty of 
administering relief to the wounded. Distinctions 
of rank and station were for the moment laid aside, 
and among the labourers of the faubourgs, the arti- 
zans of the city, and the higher classes of the 
inhabitants, the only spirit evinced was that of 
emulation of each other in courage and self- 
devotion. 

The earliest places of rendezvous were the 
open spaces in front of the theatre de l'Odeon, 
and of the School of Medicine, the Place de 
Saint Michel, and the quays which surround the 
Island of la Cite. It was there that the mer- 
cenary supporters of tyranny first felt the fire of 
an indignant and oppressed people. 

At Montaign, and at the barracks in the Rue 



120 ' PARIS IN 1830. 

de Babylone, they offered a resistance which only 
added greater glory to the success of the con- 
querors. Driven to desperation, the Swiss troops, 
expecting a general massacre, had resolved that 
they would not surrender, but would die at least 
with arms in their hands. In token of this re- 
solution, they hoisted a black flag beside their 
white Bourbon banner, a proceeding which was 
readily understood by those to whom they were 
opposed. 

It was not without reason that this resolution 
was adopted. Isolated by language from the 
rest of the community, and enjoying the invi- 
dious distinction of superior pay to that of the 
other troops of the line, their scarlet uniforms 
pointed them out as an object of aversion to the 
native soldiers as well as to the citizens. 

It was in the Place de l'Odeon that the citi- 
zens were rallied for the attack on the Swiss 
barracks, in the Rue de Babylone. Two 
printers, of the names of Touchart and Vairon, 
were here called to the command ; and, judging 
from the exclamations which proceeded from 
the armed mass, as it proceeded to the attack, 
there was reason to believe that the apprehen- 
sions of these foreigners were not without foun- 
dation. 

In order to facilitate the proposed operations, 
the people were obliged to take possession of 
the house No. 2, Rue des Brodeurs, and to pass 



PARIS IN 1830. * 121 

through it and the adjoining garden, from which last 
the barrack was only separated by a dwarf wall. 
Alarmed at the preparations for the engagement, 
the occupants of the house made a precipitate 
flight, without finding a moment's leisure to 
carry with them or conceal any part of their 
property. A service of gilt silver plate was left 
exposed upon the tables ; but, to their surprise 
and gratification, they found all safe on their 
return, without their having suffered any other 
inconvenience than that which was inseparable 
from their house having been made a thorough- 
fare for a body of armed men. 

Among the instances of disinterested courage 
which occurred in this attack, one has been men- 
tioned of a young man about twenty-four years 
of age, who, with a pistol in one hand, and the 
sabre of a gen-d'arme in the other, had just cut 
down one of the Swiss defenders of the barrack 
wall. Two of the comrades of him who had 
fallen rushed on the young man with fixed 
bayonets, to avenge the death of their country- 
man. One of his assailants the young man 
brought down with his pistol, and the other took 
to flight ; but he who had performed this feat of 
intrepidity retired among the crowd, as if he had 
been engaged in some ordinary transaction ; and 
to this hour his name remains unknown. 

The attack on the Swiss barrack is so well 
described in the following letter of M. Jules 



122 PARIS IN 1830. 

Caron, the commander of the second company, 
that it is here subjoined, with thanks to the 
writer for all its valuable details. 

" Still burning" with the ardour which ani- 
mated the Parisians, those who had been spared 
in the engagement of the previous evening, and 
who had only been driven from the field of 
honour by the approach of night, found them- 
selves, next morning, at the places indicated, 
without any other call than that which was 
afforded by a general understanding among the 
armed citizens. It was to the Place de l'Odeon 
that I proceeded. We soon afterwards dis- 
armed the post of the veterans at the Chamber of 
Peers, and that of the gen-d'armes in the Rue de 
Tournon. The arms which were thus obtained 
increased the number of our defenders ; but we 
were in want of the ammunition which was ne- 
cessary to our enterprize against the barrack in 
the Rue de Babylone. The inhabitants of the 
neighbourhood, it is true, had wrought all night 
in casting thousands of musket balls. This was 
already a great deal ; but what was more essen- 
tial was wanting : the powder could not be 
supplied by the dust of the street, as the balls 
had repeatedly been by the pebbles. 

" Several thousands of us were assembled in 
this painful predicament, when a waggon was 
seen to arrive from the powder-mill of Deux- 
Moulins, which had been courageously carried 



PARIS IN 1830. 



1^3 



the evening- before. This sight inspired ns with 
so much ardour, that there was some difficulty 
in preserving us from an explosion, which might 
so readily have been produced through the rush 
of so many individuals with arms in their hands, 
to the use of which they were but little accus- 
tomed. The eagerness of the multitude was at 
length, however, happily calmed by the promise of 
an equal division. I caused a barrel to be carried to 
the Hotel Corneille, whose numerous inhabitants 
had, I knew, been occupied in the casting of bullets. 
They readily applied themselves to the con- 
structing of cartridges, of which a large supply 
was soon fit for use. Here sentinels were 
placed, as well for the protection of the maga- 
zine as for the preservation of the other stores 
in the guard-house of the Odeon, and in that of 
the Rue Voltaire. While these arrangements 
were in progress, a piece of cannon arrived, 
which was soon followed by another. The dis- 
tribution of the ammunition was at length com- 
pleted, amidst expressions of gaiety and satisfac- 
tion, which were constantly increasing until the 
moment of the commencement of our attack. 

" The masses of people who had thus sudden- 
ly taken up arms were speedily formed into com- 
panies. Composed in part of well-dressed indi- 
viduals, in part of workmen in their ordinary 
habiliments, among whom were interspersed a 
few of those soldiers who had tendered their 



124 PARIS IN 1830. 

submission to the cause of the people, or were 
fugitives from that to which they belonged — the 
variety perceptible in their outward appearance still 
inferred no difference of disposition ; our wishes 
were all the same ; we felt that we were called 
together by one object — the destruction of despo- 
tism. To secure that object, it was necessary to 
fight ; every one was ready ; from all sides the 
same word was heard — Partons ! A former 
student of the Polytechnic School was unani- 
mously invested with the supreme command. 
That of the companies into which the mass was 
divided was, for the most part, entrusted to the 
scholars of that fine establishment, with the addi- 
tion of some of the towns-people, who, by their 
conduct in some of the previous affairs, had 
proved how much the word * pekin 9 had been 
misapplied, when given to the popular leaders by 
some of the military, a short time before. 

"Of the latter class I happened to be one, having 
been called to the command of the 2nd company 
of this new regiment. The chiefs took an oath 
to conquer or die. The cry was repeated by 
such as were willing to submit to our orders. 
The march was beaten, and the line led by the 
brave firemen. 

" On our route, the people received us with 
joy, threw themselves into our ranks, and assisted 
us in removing the obstacles presented by the 
barricades to the passage of our pieces of artil- 



PARIS IN 1830. 125 

lery, without destroying anything which might 
be useful to us in case of retreat, should that be 
necessary. Linen and lint were already pre- 
pared for the use of the wounded. 

" A halt was made at the Rue de Sevres, 
to give time for a parley with the officer in 
command of the barrack. As our emissaries 
did not return, we supposed that they had 
been detained, and sent others to ascertain 
the fact. Soon afterwards the latter returned 
with the former, announcing to us, that such 
was the obstinacy of the Swiss, we must prepare 
for an immediate engagement. On this intelli- 
gence the cry was universal of" Forward!" (" En 
avant /") To close up the different outlets, our 
men were directed to approach the barrack on 
different sides. One company entered by the 
Rue des Brodeurs, while the surrounding streets 
were occupied by others. 

" In the mean time our temporary authority 
was found insufficient to prevent the people from 
breaking open the doors of a convent which was 
said to be a retreat of the Jesuits, and which was 
believed with some reason to contain a collection 
of arms. A nunnery met with the same fate, 
for the purpose of compelling the inmates to 
throw out to us the mattresses required for our 
wounded, because that which was offered by 
others, without being asked, had been by them 



126 PARIS IN 1830. 

refused to us. They had forgotten for a moment 
their usual humanity. 

" Having reached the corner of the Rue des 
Brodeurs, the Rue de Babylone, and others, the 
houses were occupied and the walls scaled ; 
a fire of musketry was begun, and kept up for a 
long time on both sides ; but the fire of the Swiss, 
protected by their mattresses and bedding, proved 
most destructive, and our brave fellows, who 
were for the most part uncovered and unpro- 
tected, could not return it advantageously from 
the roofs and sheds in the neighbourhood. At 
length the idea was started of setting the barrack 
on fire, and was scarcely conceived before it was 
put into execution. The straw intended for 
the wounded was saturated with turpentine, and 
placed in front of the principal entrance. To 
this a match was applied, under a shower of bul- 
lets, by a lad of eighteen. 

" The plan was completely successful. The 
dread of being burnt alive induced the Swiss to 
take to flight, which they did in tolerable order, 
although running at their utmost speed, and ac- 
casionally turning to fire upon their pursuers ; 
but such was the order with which they were 
followed, that many of them fell under the fire 
of our brave companions in arms. If the advice 
had been taken which I offered before engaging 
with the enemy, we should not have missed one 



PARIS IN 1830. 127 

of them. A few hundred men placed in ambush 
at the corner of the boulevard would have taken 
them in flank, and by means of these fresh troops 
the victory would have been complete. But 
whither am I hurrying ? Far be it from me to 
lament the chance which saved the lives of those, 
who, however contemptible for the venality of 
their services, are nevertheless our fellow- 
men ! We are now triumphant ! Alas, that 
our object could not be attained by other means 
than the effusion of blood !" 



128 PARIS IN 1830, 



CHAPTER IX. 

Popular attack on the Island of La Cite — Destruction of the 
Archiepiscopal Palace — Sanguinary engagements in the 
Place de Greve — Obstinate contests for the occupation of 
the Hotel de Ville — Final expulsion of the royalist forces 
from that position — Various traits of courage — Conduct of 
the Duke of Ragusa — Behaviour of the troops of the Line, 
contrasted with that of the Royal Guard — Conciliation of 
the former to the national cause — Enthusiastic spirit among 
the members of the Bar. 

Another column proceeded towards the Island 
of la Cite, a position which the regular forces 
appeared to be resolved to defend with obsti- 
nacy. This column was commanded by M. 
Petit-Jean, a member of the French bar, who 
resides in the Rue l'Echiquier, No. 30. In the 
the course of the forenoon, he had assembled a 
crowd of citizens as courageous as himself, and 
taken the command of them in the midst of the 
melee, wearing a three-coloured scarf, which he 
afterwards hoisted as a flag, with his own victo- 
rious hands, over the towers of Notre Dame. 



PARIS IN 1830. 129 

His company consisted of about three hundred 
men, among whom he distributed five hundred 
cartridges, haranguing them with all that energy 
of feeling, so well calculated, at such a moment, 
to inspire his fellow citizens with the resolution 
to conquer or die. It was in the obstinate en- 
gagement which took place on the Place de 
Greve that this gallant band so nobly distin- 
guished itself. 

In the course of the struggle, the residence of 
M. de Quelen, the Archbishop of Paris, became 
the object of attack on the part of the citizens. 
His eminence was accused of abandoning the 
cause of the people for that of the court ; he was 
reproached with the mandates he had issued to 
his clergy, and with the harangues he had ad- 
dressed to the King, so little in conformity with 
the spirit of the gospel, or with the duties which 
he owed, as a Christian pastor, to his flock. 
Heated by such recollections, and excited to 
frenzy by a rumour, which was doubtless un- 
founded, that the priests had fired on the people 
through the railing of the garden attached to the 
archiepiscopal palace, a number of armed citizens 
attacked the building, and drove out the troops 
by whom it was defended. A quantity of arms 
and ammunition was found in it, which gave 
some countenance to the rumour that had 
previously been circulated ; and exposed the 
valuable property in this sumptuous residence 

K 



130 PARIS IN 1830. 

to reckless destruction, rather than to plunder or 
pillage. The rich furniture of the palace was 
broken in pieces, and thrown out on the street ; 
but the plate and other articles, possessed of an 
intrinsic value which could not be annihilated, 
were either carried for confiscation to the Hotel 
de Ville, or thrown into the river, where, two 
days afterwards, a great part of it was fished up, 
by order of the provisional government. But 
among those who committed these unpardonable 
excesses, it is a fact, which deserves to be re- 
corded to their honour, that not a thief was to 
be found, and that no article of value was known 
to have disappeared. Without attempting to jus- 
tify such an invasion of private property, it may 
be stated, in extenuation of the conduct of an ex- 
cited multitude, that it would certainly never 
have taken place, had the Catholic clergy in ge- 
neral confined themselves to the duties of their sa- 
cred office, and had they not exposed themselves, 
with too much truth, to the imputation of pros- 
tituting their clerical influence to the purposes of 
political partizanship. 

As the Hotel de Ville was a position of con- 
siderable importance, the Place de Greve, and 
the other avenues which lead to it, became the 
scene of several bloody engagements. In the 
course of Wednesday, the 28th, the town-hall 
had been taken and retaken, perhaps ten or 
twelve different times by the National Guard and 



PARIS IN 1830. 131 

the citizens on the one hand, and the regular 
troops on the other ; and, as the resistance was 
as obstinate as the attack was courageous, the 
struggle was necessarily attended with a dreadful 
slaughter. When the people were the assail- 
ants, they rushed out from a number of points 
on the Arcade Saint Jean, the streets De la 
Tixeranderie and De Mouton, the iron bridge, 
and the adjoining quays. The importance of 
this central point was felt on all sides, from the 
great moral influence it would give to the insur- 
gents, through the establishment of a provisional 
government. Every effort was in consequence 
employed, for securing its permanent possession ; 
but, by turns, the chances were favourable and 
unfavourable to the popular cause. It was 
nightfall when the firing was interrupted, and 
then only to be begun again at an early hour on 
Thursday morning. So many efforts of heroism 
were crowned at length with complete success. 
Tired out and disheartened by the constant re- 
newal of the masses opposed to them, the royal- 
ist forces were finally forced to evacuate this dan- 
gerous post; and there also floated the victorious 
colours of the nation. 

In the course of this affair, about three o'clock, 
when the fire was at the hottest, issuing from the 
quay de la Greve, and sweeping the opposite 
quays, from the Pavilion de l'Horloge, on the 
Island of la Cite, to the further extremity of the 

K 2 



132 PARTS IN 1830. 

Isle St. Louis, a party of young men, about 
twenty in number, advanced under the protec- 
tion of the parapet, and occupied and defended 
the outlet of the suspension bridge, which com- 
municates with the Place de Greve. From be- 
hind this rampart, they succeeded in bringing 
down a great number of the Swiss, who were 
here opposed to them. 

Annoyed at their repeated losses, the latter 
thought to unmask the position, and advanced 
on the bridge to the number of fifteen or twenty. 
Far from thinking of flight, the gallant little band 
drew themselves up across the bridge like old 
soldiers, gave the Swiss a volley which killed or 
wounded three or four of them, and compelled 
the others to retire. On this, one of the youth- 
ful combatants ran after the retreating party, 
and coining up to the place where three of the 
Swiss lay dead, or severely wounded, he seized 
their firelocks and their cartridge boxes, ex- 
claiming, " Here is a supply, my boys, of powder 
and shot !" 

The contest for the passage of this bridge 
produced another trait of courage not less worthy 
of notice and admiration. It had already cost 
so many lives, that the proposal for a fresh 
attempt upon it met with some symptoms of 
hesitation. " Follow me !" said a young man, 
addressing his companions, while he advanced 
on the bridge, " and if I fall, remember that 



PARIS IN 1830. 133 

my name is Arcole !" With this the youthful 
hero marched straight upon the enemy, and fell 
at their first volley. But the example was given, 
the blood of a martyr in the cause of liberty 
was not unfruitful, and the victorious column 
advanced on the Place de Greve, amidst tre- 
mendous shouts of " Vive la charte !" and 
" Gloire a d'Arcole /" His dying wish was exe- 
cuted on the instant, the bridge received the 
name of him to whose self-devotion its conquest 
was due, and a few minutes afterwards the 
national flag was flying over the belfry of the 
town-hall. 

The tocsin of Saint Gervais was now made 
to answer to that which was already heard from 
the towers of Notre Dame. At this terrible 
appeal many a stout heart palpitated. Men, 
women, and children, the whole population of 
the district, were instantly in motion — some to re- 
place those who had fallen or been disabled in 
the struggle ; and their wives and mothers, their 
sisters and their sweethearts, to assist in caring 
for the wounded, or in removing the dead. 

In the course of the principal attack on the 
Hotel de Ville, its neighbourhood became the 
scene of subordinate skirmishes and partial en- 
gagements, sufficient of themselves to fill a vo- 
lume. Among the citizens who lay in ambush 
behind the church of Saint Germain PAuxerrois, 
there was a young man from the faubourgs, 



134 PARIS IN 1830. 

possessed of a good musket, but evidently un- 
accustomed to the use of it. A veteran of the 
old army begged the loan of it for an instant, 
and, sheltering himself behind the porch of the 
Cafe Secretaire, he waited the advance of a co- 
lumn of Swiss who were about to enter the 
Place du Chatelet. He instantly fired and 
brought down one of the Swiss ; and, although 
the whole column discharged their pieces in the 
direction of the porch, the veteran escaped un- 
hurt ; then, having reloaded his musket, he fired 
a second time, when his aim proved as true as at 
first. His example was promptly followed by 
the other inhabitants assembled, to the number of 
fifty, who by the precision of their fire soon did 
such execution on the Swiss column, as to put 
them into inextricable confusion, and soon after- 
wards to force them to a disorderly retreat, 
leaving the ground they had occupied encum- 
bered with their dead and wounded. 

In the Rue de la Monnaie, a party of troops 
of the line had levelled their pieces, and were 
about to fire on the people, when one of the 
soldiers fell down in a fainting fit. He had 
recognized his brother in the group at which his 
party had taken aim. Recovering his self-pos- 
session before the confusion produced by the 
accident had allowed his companions the time 
which was necessary to resume their hostile atti- 
tude, he rushed from the ranks and threw him- 



PARIS IN 1830. 135 

self into his brother's arms, never more to return 
to a service which had so nearly produced a 
casualty of so heart-rending a nature. 

It is said, that about one o'clock on Wednes- 
day, the 28th, some hesitation was discoverable 
in the bearing* and deportment of the Duke of 
Ragusa. The officers in command of detach- 
ments had, in more than one instance, been com- 
pelled to act on their own responsibility, because 
they could not obtain the new orders for which 
they had applied. Murmurs were every instant 
becoming louder, and some had even ventured 
to brand their chief with the name of traitor, 
comparing his present conduct with the circum- 
stances under which, as governor of Paris, he 
had fifteen years before surrendered the capital 
to the Allies. But soon rousing himself from his 
temporary apathy, he seemed to feel that the 
decisive moment had arrived, and that it was too 
late to adopt a middle course between the cause 
of humanity and patriotism on the one hand, and 
that of despotism on the other. It was at this 
period that he showed himself in the Place de 
Carrousel, and, placing himself at the head of a 
strong detachment, marched by the Place du 
Palais Royal, and the Rue Croix des Petits 
Champs, towards the Place des Victoires, as no- 
ticed in a previous chapter. 

The national guard of the third arrondisse- 
ment, and the free battalions of the faubourgs 



136 PARIS IN 1830. 

Montmartre, Poissonniere, and Saint Denis, 
with the people of the markets in arms, were at 
this period assembled in the Place des Victoires, 
having detachments in possession of the upper 
part of the Palais Royal, where it joins the Rue 
Vivienne, as well as the Bank of France, the 
Petits Peres, and all that neighbourhood. Be- 
fore Marmont's arrival, a regiment of the line 
had entered into a parley with the patriots, and 
had promised that they would fight no longer. 
The soldiers and the citizens had embraced each 
other, a complete reconciliation had been effected, 
and the popular party had posted a column at 
each outlet of the place, when the Duke of Ra- 
gusa made his appearance, at the head of his 
lancers, followed by a detachment of Swiss and 
several pieces of artillery. 

Before this combined force the citizens retired ; 
and Marmont, having taken possession of the 
Place des Victoires, and assumed the command 
of the regiment which he found there under 
arms, posted his united force in front of the 
Rue de Mail, the Rue des Fosses Montmartre, 
the Rue du Reposoir, the Rue Croix des Petits 
Champs, and the Rue Neuve des Petits Champs, 
and ordered a simultaneous attack to be made 
on all these points. The greater part of the 
citizens retreated on the first shock into the 
Montmartre, and entrenched themselves in the 
Rue de Cadran, the Rue Mandar, the Rue Ti- 



PAULS IN 1830. 137 

quetonne, the cross streets towards the Halle 
aux Bl£s, and the passage de Saumon. There 
an obstinate struggle took place, and a party of 
Swiss, who had ventured too far in pursuit, were 
almost entirely cut off, not so much by the fire 
of musketry, as by the paving" stones and other 
missiles which were thrown upon them from the 
houses. 

Among the citizens who here distinguished 
themselves was M. Boulet, the keeper of a fur- 
nished hotel in the Rue Saint Sauveur, who 
brought down several Swiss, and stripping them 
of their arms, presented these to such of his 
neighbours as were not previously supplied. 

The royalists, tired of this unequal struggle, 
were gradually losing ground, and had left a 
piece of cannon exposed on an open space, which 
could not, however, be approached without 
danger, on account of the fire of musketry by 
which it was still protected. A pupil of the 
Polytechnic School, who had for some time 
directed the popular movement, ran up to the 
piece, and holding it in both his arms exclaimed, 
" It is ours, and I shall die upon it rather than 
give it up!" His friends from behind called 
out to him to return, and not expose himself to 
infallible destruction ; but the young hero would 
listen to no such counsel, and only embraced the 
piece more closely, while the bullets were whist- 
ling around him. Encouraged, or put to shame 



138 PARIS IN 1830. 

by so much intrepidity, the popular party made 
a fresh effort, and advancing" to the spot on which 
the gun had been abandoned, compelled the 
enemy to make good their retreat. 

In this, as in other parts of the struggle, the 
conduct of the troops of the Line was favourably 
contrasted with that of the Lancers, the Swiss, 
and other regiments of the Garde Royale. On 
the commencement of the firing along the various 
lines of street which radiate from the Place des 
Vietoires, a number of unarmed individuals 
sought shelter in the Rue Baillif, in which there 
was a guard-house, at that time occupied by a 
detachment of the 53rd of the Line. These 
brave fellows received the party who sought 
shelter, as brethren, exclaimed against the con- 
duct of the household troops in firing on the 
people, and promised to defend their guests to 
the last extremity. Among the individuals who 
were thus protected, were M. Jouault, of the 
Rue Neuve Saint Eustache, M. Dru, of the 
house of Esnault Pelterie in the same street, M. 
Maldan, of the Rue Thibautode, and M. Vui- 
llette, of the Rue des Lavandieres, Sainte Op- 
pertune. 

The efforts which had been made by the citi- 
zens drove back the Royal Guard and the Swiss 
into the interior of the town, across the streets 
called LaVerrerie des Lombards, LaFerronnerie, 
and Saint Honor e, as well as through all those 



PARIS IN 1830. 139 

adjoining-, by which they are connected with the 
quays. 

It was in the attacks which took place in the 
course of this retreat, in the Rue des Prouvaires, 
that M. Cassonais, a barrister of the royal court 
of Paris, observing that the soldiers of the line 
were pacifically disposed, ran up to them amidst 
the fire which was still maintained, and address- 
ing himself to Captain Marchal, who commanded 
the party, exhorted, beseeched, and at length 
persuaded him to put an end to the hostilities in 
this part of the field. It was not, however, 
until he had three times crossed the fire of the 
belligerent parties, that he succeeded in con- 
cluding the treaty, and in bringing back to his 
friends the word of honour of Captain Marchal, 
and those under his command, that from that 
moment they would cease to fire on the people. 

The arrangement, however, had scarcely been 
completed, when the colonel of the 15th, who 
had heard of it, hastened to the spot, to use his 
influence in breaking the treaty, and instantly 
gave orders to the men to re-commence the 
fire. Seeing them all remain immovable, the 
colonel reproached them with their want of fide- 
lity, and reminded them of the oath of alle- 
giance which they had sworn to the King. " We 
have sworn also allegiance to the nation," was 
the reply ; " and the nation is here to keep us 
to our word, while the King conceals himself, 



140 PARIS IN 1830. 

and calls upon us to cut the throats of our 
brethren." 

The bar of Paris, particularly among its 
younger members, had many other active and 
courageous representatives in various quarters of 
the field. Among those whose names have been 
mentioned, are M. Tardieu, who was wounded 
in an attack on the Louvre ; M. Moulin, who 
took an active part in the firing on the Place de 
Greve ; and MM. Lefio, Disson, Dellequin, and 
Andorre, who, shut up in the Hotel de Ville 
during the whole of Wednesday, the 28th, re- 
mained throughout the day exposed to the fire of 
the Swiss, and of the Garde Royale. 



PARIS IN 1830. 141 



CHAPTER X. 

Proceedings in the vicinity of the Palais Royal — Amount and 
distribution of Marshal Marmont's force —Various attacks 
on the People — Increase of the National Guard — Difficulties 
of the Royalists, and consequent restriction of their field of 
operations — Advantages enjoyed by the popular side, con- 
trasted with the destitution of the Soldiery, as to provisions, 
treatment of the wounded, &c. — Movements of General 
St. Chamans — Order of the Day from Marshal Marmont — 
Particulars respecting the state of the King and Court at 
St. Cloud. 

The district in which the Palais Royal is situ- 
ated was at no period of the day in the enjoy- 
ment of tranquillity. There the danger was 
more imminent than elsewhere, from the double 
cause of its vicinity to the Place du Carrousel — 
which, since the evening- of the 27th, had be- 
come the head-quarters of the Duke of Ragusa, 
his military depot, and the point from whence 
reinforcements were sent to all quarters of the 
city — and likewise from the circumstance of the 
open spaces in front and within the palace being 
the ordinary places of popular rendezvous in 



142 PARIS IN 1830. 

times of public excitement. During" the night 
of the 27th, and afterwards, until the final dis- 
comfiture and retreat of the royalist party, the 
Place du Carrousel presented the appearance of 
a complete military bivouac, encumbered with 
troops of all arms, infantry, cavalry, and artil- 
lery, with their usual train of warlike stores and 
ammunition. 

The following is believed to be an accurate 
statement of the force which had been placed at 
Marmont's disposal: — 

Gen-d'armerie of Paris .... 1,400 men 

Gen-d'armerie des Chasses . . . . 200 — 

1 st and 3d regiments of the Guard . . 3,400 — 

Detachment of the 6th, from St. Denis . . 600 — 

8th regiment of the Guard, Swiss . . 1,700 — 

2d ditto ditto .... 1,700 — 
5th, 50th, and 53d of the Line, and 15th 

Light Infantry 6,000 — 

1st regiment of Horse Grenadiers, 1st regi- 
ment of Cuirassiers, and the regiment of 

Lancers ...... 1,800 — 

A squadron of Carabiniers .... 200 — 

Artillery, 12 pieces, with . . . 200 — 



17,200 _ 

These troops were distributed over the Place 
Louis XV., the Place Vendome, the Place des 
Victoires, the Place du Palais Royal, the Place 
du Louvre, the Place de la Bastille, and the 
Place de l'Hotel de Ville, each point becoming 



PARIS IN 1830. 143 

a separate centre, from which smaller detach- 
ments were sent out to occupy the crossings of 
the principal thoroughfares in its neighbour- 
hood, and sweep the streets with their fire. 

At an early hour in the morning, the Place du 
Carrousel was covered with soldiers under arms. 
At eight o'clock, the Lancers made a charge in 
the Rue Saint Honore, and killed an unarmed 
man in the Passage Delorme, where a number 
of people had taken refuge. At nine, it was the 
turn of the Swiss and the Royal Guard to do 
execution on the citizens ; but, in place of pro- 
ducing the expected intimidation, the excesses 
committed by the satellites of despotism only 
animated the inhabitants with a more determined 
spirit of resistance. 

In the second arrondissement, as in the other 
quarters of the city, the National Guard organ- 
ized itself with astonishing rapidity, and, pro- 
ceeding towards the Palais Royal and the Rue 
Richelieu, at about a quarter to one o'clock, com- 
menced a murderous contest, which suffered no 
intermission till nine in the evening. The 
efforts they made to displace the soldiery were 
not, however, attended with success. The troops 
succeeded in maintaining their position until 
after nightfall, and did not evacuate the Place du 
Palais Royal until the approach of day. 

To make amends for this failure, the citizens, 
on Wednesday evening, had the satisfaction to 



144 PARIS IN 1830. 

see themselves conquerors in every other district 
of the town. At sunset, the royalists, driven 
from their posts, were compelled, especially on 
the right bank of the river, to confine themselves 
within very narrow limits, extending from the 
Louvre to the church of Saint Germain l'Auxer- 
rois ; from thence continuing their line to the 
Palais Royal, and as far along the Rue Saint 
Honore as the bottom of the Rue Richelieu. 
They were also in possession of the Marche des 
Jacobins, from whence they kept their commu- 
nications open with the Place Vendome, by 
means of the Rue Neuve des Petits Champs, re- 
taining the command of the district embraced by 
the Rue de la Paix, the Boulevard de la Made- 
laine, and the Rue Royale, as far as the Place 
Louis XV., the Champs Elysees, and the bridge 
in front of the Chamber of Deputies. 

In so circumscribed a situation, the Duke of 
Ragusa must have felt that the enterprize he had 
undertaken was already hopeless. Himself in a 
state of siege within these narrow limits, and 
master only of the ground on which he stood, 
he was obviously in constant danger of being 
driven from his last stronghold, and compelled 
to make a precipitate retreat. The armed citizens, 
on the contrary, were hourly increasing in num- 
bers, and still more rapidly in a reasonable con- 
fidence in the justice of the cause they had 
undertaken to defend. Never was there a more 



PARIS IN 1830. 145 

striking example of the value of moral influence 
in deciding- the fate of a campaign, than in that 
now exhibited in the ranks of the contending 
parties. The idea and the feeling so happily 
expressed by our own immortal bard, were 
doubtless present to the minds of many a com- 
batant on either side, although the language was 
unknown to them : 

" Thrice is he armed who hath his quarrel just, 
And he but naked, though locked up in steel. 
Whose conscience with injustice is corrupted." 

Nor was the spirit of patriotism and the love 
of liberty, which animated the ranks of the citi- 
zens, confined to those under arms. Every house 
was open for the refreshment or repose of those 
who were struggling in the cause of indepen- 
dence ; they were everywhere treated as sons 
and as brothers, and encouraged in the perform- 
ance of their task by the good offices of all who 
were incapacitated, by age or sex or personal 
infirmity, from engaging more actively in the 
struggle. 

It was very different with the unfortunate 
soldiery. It appeared as if their chiefs had for- 
gotten that the men would be exposed to hunger 
and thirst, and to the common wants of humanity. 
Their improvidence was only equalled by that 
fatal courage which had led to these unhappy 
results. Bread, meat, and wine, were alike 

L 



146 PARIS IN 1830. 

wanting. Brandy, indeed, had been thought of, 
and had at first been supplied in profusion; but 
although well suited to produce that temporary 
excitement which was necessary to determine the 
troops to begin the attack on their countrymen, 
this maddening liquor had no tendency to satisfy 
the wants of men exhausted by the excessive 
heat of the weather, by the cravings of hunger, 
and by the want of needful repose. Their 
wounded too were utterly neglected ; any assist- 
ance they received having been obtained from 
the inhabitants against whom they had been 
directing their fire. 

Harrassed with fatigue and inanition, ex- 
posed alike to moral and to physical evils, and 
involved on all sides in the inexpressible confu- 
sion which pervaded their bivouacs, the regiments 
of the Guards, as well as of the Line, had become 
aware of the state of isolation in which they 
had been left by all classes of the community. 
No king, no dauphin, no grandee of the realm, 
came to countenance their efforts in the cause of 
royalty. The noblesse and the aristocracy stood 
as far aloof in the hour of trial, as did those 
bands of charbonniers who had lately been so 
feted and carressed at Saint Cloud. It was no 
wonder, then, that the troops were discouraged. 
Accused of treason against the laws of the Char- 
ter, or at least of fighting in support of traitors, 
their consciences told them that the accusation 



PARIS JN 1830. 147 

was not unfounded. These feelings of bitter- 
ness and distrust were speedily ripened into a 
resolution, on the part of one entire regiment of 
the Line, to stand neutral between the contending 
parties, and desist from all further acts of vio- 
lence or aggression. The ranks of the other 
regiments were hourly attenuated by desertion ; 
and those who were still restrained from follow- 
ing the example of their comrades, by long habits 
of discipline, were held together by a thread 
which was every instant liable to be broken. It 
was in vain that their officers endeavoured to 
console them with the assurance of reinforce- 
ments and pecuniary gratifications on the morrow. 
Disheartened and dispirited by the events of the 
day, it was already too late to recall those senti- 
ments of loyalty and devotion by which they 
had so lately been animated ; and, piling their 
arms on the ground, or carelessly dropping them 
on the stones, which were to serve them for a 
pillow, they allowed themselves to sink to rest, 
overwhelmed at once with mental anxiety and 
bodily fatigue. 

The column which in the morning had tra- 
versed the boulevard, consisted of a battalion of 
the first regiment of the Guard, six hundred men 
of the sixth, two battalions of the fifth of the 
Line, under the command of General Saint Cha- 
in ans. It was the object of their commanders, in 
entering the Rue Saint Antoine where it meets 

l 2 



148 PARIS IN 1830. 

the boulevard, to have effected a junction with 
the troops which were disputing with the citizens 
the possession of the Hotel de Ville; but, on 
reaching the end of the Rue de Fourcy, they met 
with such a formidable resistance, as to make it 
prudent for them to fall back on the Place de la 
Bastille, from whence they had just advanced. 

The Lancers, with some companies of infantry, 
were then sent to defend the bridge of Austerlitz 
against the citizens of the quarter Saint Marcel, 
who were known to be inarching upon it. The 
citizens were suffered to pass the bridge, to move 
down the quays on the right bank of the river, 
and to join their townsmen of the quarter Saint 
Antoine, without being charged or disturbed 
either by the Lancers or by the infantry of the 
Guard, whose ammunition was already exhausted, 
and who had long been completely destitute of 
provisions or refreshment of any kind. Having 
in his turn passed the bridge in front of the Gar- 
den of Plants, General Saint Chamans resolved 
to avoid the interior of the city, and to retire 
by the outer boulevards on the Hotel deslnvalides 
and the Ecole Militaire, which he accordingly 
reached in the course of the following night. 

The idea of dismounting the white flag, which 
had floated for fifteen years on the towers of 
Notre Dame, and of sounding the tocsin on the 
great bell of the cathedral, first occurred, it is 
said, to a party of students from the schools of 



PARIS IN 1830. 149 

law and of medicine, on their return from an 
interview with M. Cassimir Perier. " A has 
le drapeau blanc !" was their shout as they ap- 
proached the venerable pile ; a few minutes suf- 
ficed to tear down the banner of despotism ; and 
at the same moment the maddening knell of the 
tocsin called all Paris to arms. 

On the evening of the 28th, an order of the 
day was issued, in the name of the Duke of Ra- 
gusa, to the troops under his command, conceived 
in the following terms : 

" The King has charged Marshal Duke of Kagusa 
to testify to the troops of the Guard and of the Line 
his satisfaction at their good conduct during the two 
last days. His Majesty expected no less from the zeal 
and the devotion of his brave troops ; and, in proof of 
his satisfaction, he grants them a month and a half s pay. 
The commanders of corps will prepare their pay lists, 
and present them to-morrow at the general head-quar- 
ters of the Guard, where this gratification will be distri- 
buted. 

For the major-general on service, 
and by his orders, 

the Aide-major-general 

Marquis be Choiseul." 
" Paris, ZSth July, 1830." 

This order throws some light on the views 
entertained by the court as to the state of the 
popular movement on Wednesday, the 28th. 
The money thus paid consisted of two-franc 



150 PARIS IN 1830. 

pieces fresh from the mint, the soldiers of the 
Line receiving* twenty-eight francs, and those of 
the Guard thirty -five francs ; but such was the 
state of the capital on Thursday morning, or such 
the condition of the treasury, that the promises 
thus held out were only partially realized. 

Although the capital was already suffering all 
the horrors of a siege, the court at St. Cloud 
still maintained some appearance of tranquillity. 
The Duchess de Berri, with all the clear- 
sighted apprehension of a mother, was the only 
member of the royal family who discovered any 
symptoms of uneasiness. Her royal highness 
had succeeded, through the Count de Menars, 
in obtaining an exact account of all that had 
taken place in Paris on the Tuesday evening. 
He had not concealed from her the extreme 
exasperation of the people, and the danger which 
must arise if concessions were not speedily made 
for the purpose of restoring tranquillity. On 
receiving this intelligence, the Duchess hastened 
into the presence of the King, to unburthen her 
mind of the load with which it was oppressed. 
As yet, however, his Majesty was not prepared 
to yield a single point, but was resolved to 
show himself, in courtly phraseology, a worthy 
descendant of Louis XIV. and Henry IV. In 
the course of the interview, a young artist was 
announced, who had come from Paris in obedi- 
ence to his Majesty's commands ; the King hav- 



PARIS IN 1830. lol 

ing appointed that morning to sit for his por- 
trait. The young' man entered in a state of ex- 
treme agitation, having had occasion to pass 
through the disturbed districts of the city, where 
the contending forces were actively engaged ; 
and having actually been bespattered with the 
blood and brains of a man whose head had been 
shattered to pieces close beside him. The Duchess 
de Berri, observing him still pale and trem- 
bling, inquired the cause of his emotion, and 
drew from him the recital of whatever he had 
heard or witnessed on that or the previous day ; 
but although his story was told with all the 
freshness of conviction and all the force of truth, 
it did not in the least disturb the monarch's 
equanimity. 

" Ce n'est rien" was the only observation 
which it produced from his Majesty ; " tout cela 
finira ce soir ; ce n'est presque rien. Tenez, 
mon cher, ce que vous avez de mieux a faire, 
c'est de commencer mon portrait." 

The King's features retained their usual self- 
satisfied expression : his whole deportment exhi- 
bited the most unaccountable immobility ; and 
having seated himself in a light and a position to 
suit the purpose he had in view, he waited with 
exemplary patience until the artist should com- 
mence his task. But the old man's nerves were, 
it seems, made of sterner stuff than those of the 
portrait painter, who, after several ineffectual ef- 



152 PARIS IN 1830. 

forts, was obliged to declare his utter inability 
to proceed. 

" Ehbien!" said Charles X. with unruffled com- 
posure, " ce sera pour la semaine prochaine !" 

As soon as the artist had retired, the Duchess 
de Berri gave herself up to an agony of grief. 
The King inquired, with an air of kindness and 
of unfeigned surprise, what could have occurred 
to distress her. The Duchess replied by an allu- 
sion to the disturbances in Paris, and asked if 
they were not sufficient to excite the liveliest 
alarm. " How weak you are," said his Majesty; 
" what signifies the outcry of a handful of jour- 
nalists, or the ill humour of a few hundred ope- 
rative printers ? Will they beat the royal guard, 
think you ? and what chance would they have 
with my faithful Swiss ?" 

" But, sire," interposed the Duchess, " the 
National Guard are flying to arms." 

" That cannot be," rejoined the King ; " they 
are disbanded, and dare not think of re-assem- 
bling. Besides, we have Mangin and Peyron- 
net ; so make yourself easy on that subject; you 
see that I am so." 

Far from being tranquillized by* the King's 
assurances, the Duchess continued to urge on 
his attention the circumstances by which her 
own mind had been so deeply impressed; she 
drew an alarming picture of the state of popular 
effervescence in the capital ; alluded to the want 



PARIS IN 1830. 153 

of firmness displayed by the regiments of the 
Line, and, at length, throwing herself on her 
knees, she conjured the King not to compromise 
the interests of his grandson, the Duke de 
Bordeaux. 

At this the King's temper was ruffled ; he 
treated his daughter-in-law's apprehensions as 
mere weakness and folly ; and, on her persevering 
in her appeal, he ended by desiring her to cease 
her importunity, and to leave the presence. On 
returning to her own apartments, the Duchess 
abandoned herself to excessive grief, and, crying 
bitterly before all her people, gave unrestrained 
utterance to the impulse of terror with which 
she had been visited. 

Soon afterwards her royal highness received a 
visit from the Dauphin, who came by order of 
the King, to re-assure and console her, or, as he 
expressed it, to make her listen to reason. The 
Duke d' Angouleme was as blind as his father 
to their present situation, and could see nothing 
to cause a moment's uneasiness in the momen- 
tary insurrection which had broken out in the 
capital ! 

At two o'clock it was known at St. Cloud 
that the Duke of Ragusa had attacked the in- 
surgents. The report was immediately spread 
that he had obtained a complete victory : so 
readily do we believe what we wish to be true ! 
This delusion continued until the approach of 



15 A PARIS IN 1830. 

night ; but then, although the truth was not per- 
mitted to reach the ears of the royal family, it 
was already whispered in the antechambers of 
the palace. It was known, at least, that the vic- 
tory was not so complete as previous rumour 
had described it ; hints were even hazarded that 
it was little short of a defeat ; that the Guards 
had met with a repulse, and that the whole of 
the royal forces were blocked up in the Louvre 
and the Tuileries. The veil began to fall from 
before the eyes of the members of the household 
and the habitues of the court. It was only now that 
they thought of bestirring themselves, saying that 
an appeal must be made to all good royalists, and 
that each must write to his friends in the capital 
to induce then to rise en masse for the protec- 
tion of the rights of the crown. As to them- 
selves, they could take no part in it ; they could 
not think of leaving the sacred person of the 
King. 

In the meantime, the King continued wilfully 
ignorant of the imminence of the danger to 
which he was exposed. On Wednesday evening 
he played his usual party at whist, and ordered 
a hunting party for the following day. At inter- 
vals, it is true, the general serenity was disturbed 
by the sound of the artillery which thundered 
in the capital ; but on the King it made no im- 
pression, unless we are to believe the too fright- 
ful statement which has found its way into so- 



PARIS IN 1830. 155 

ciety, that at each successive report which an- 
nounced the slaughter of his subjects, his Majesty 
looked up from his game with a smile of satisfac- 
tion, as if to rival his namesake's coolness during 
the horrors of Saint Bartholomew, or to esta- 
blish a parallel to the historical fact that " Nero 
fiddled when Rome was burning.'- 



150 PARIS IN 1830. 



CHAPTER XI. 

Measures connected with the Provisional Government— Pro- 
clamation signed in the name of the Deputies of France — 
Letters on that subject — Unsuccessful Deputation to the 
Duke of Ragusa— Announcement from the Provisional 
Government — Detail of the conferences of M. Bayeux, the 
advocate-general, with the Ministry and the Duke of Ra- 
gusa. 

In detailing* the principal events of the struggle 
on Tuesday and Wednesday, the 27th and 28th 
of July, the narrative has not been interrupted 
by any allusion to the circumstances connected 
with the nomination of a provisional govern- 
ment. The deputies who had put their names 
to the protest inserted in a previous chapter, 
continued to meet and to deliberate on the mea- 
sures to be adopted in the exigency of the mo- 
ment. On Tuesday afternoon, it was resolved 
that a petition or remonstrance should be ad- 
dressed to the King, protesting against the ordi- 



PARIS IN 1830. 159 

nances, and beseeching- his Majesty to maintain 
in their integrity the fundamental compact, and 
the laws of the kingdom. M. Gnizot, the pre- 
sent minister of the interior, M. Villemain, the 
journalist, and M. Dupin, senior, the celebrated 
barrister, were each directed to prepare a sepa- 
rate draft, or projet, of the proposed remon- 
strance. On Wednesday the deputies again 
met at the house of M. Audry de Puyraveau, 
and adopted the draft prepared by M. Guizot ; 
but events had succeeded each other with such 
amazing rapidity, that the resolutions of yester- 
day were quite unsuited to the circumstances of 
to-day. It was already felt that something more 
decisive than mere remonstrance was called for 
by the existing emergency, although no one was 
yet prepared to suggest what that alternative 
should be. 

This feeling was not confined to the members 
of the Chamber of Deputies. Every citizen of 
Paris, who had found a moment's leisure to 
reflect on the events which were passing around 
him, was at once convinced of the urgent neces- 
sity which had arisen for some central point of 
union, around which the inhabitants might 
rally. Suggested, no doubt, by this conviction, 
a proclamation, purporting to be signed by " The 
Deputies of France," was on Thursday morning 
conspicuously posted over all the principal streets 
of the capital, announcing that a provisional 



158 PARIS IN 1830. 

government had been established, consisting of 
General Lafayette, the Duke de Choiseul, and 
Count Gerard, and that these distinguished indi- 
viduals had undertaken the important duties 
assigned to them. This proclamation was con- 
ceived in the following terms : — 



" Brave Citizens of Paris ; 

" Your conduct during these days of disaster is above 
all praise. When Charles X., abandoning his capital, 
had given you up to gen-d'armes and Swiss, you de- 
fended your homes with a courage truly heroic. Let us 
but persevere, and redouble our ardour. Let us but 
put forth a few more efforts, and our enemies will be 
overcome. A general panic has already taken posses- 
sion of them. We have stopped the courier they had 
dispatched to Dijon for reinforcements, and to recom- 
mend the Duchess d'Angouleme not to return. 

" A provisional government is established ; three 
most honourable citizens have undertaken its important 
functions. These are MM. Lafayette, Choiseul, and 
Gerard, in whom you will find courage, firmness, and 
prudence. This day will put an end to all your 
anxieties, and crown you with glory. 

(Signed) " Les Deputes de la France. 11 



The history of this document, which, although 
totally unauthorized even by a single deputy, 
was undoubtedly attended with the very best 
effects, is not a little curious, from the light it in- 
cidentally throws on the manner in which the 
late revolutionary movement was effected. The 



PARIS IN 1830. 159 

following letters on the subject supersede the 
necessity of comment. 

" A Messieurs les habitans de la mile de Paris" 
" Gentlemen ; 

" A proclamation signed by Generals Layfayette and 
Gerard, and the Duke de Choiseul, as members of the 
provisional government, and as having accepted that 
office, was placarded on the 28th of July, and following 
days, over all the walls of Paris. 

44 The result was then uncertain ; the struggle had 
begun ; an imminent danger existed for the subscribers, 
in case the royal army had been victorious : their tri- 
umph would have been followed by our execution. 

" My name had doubtless appeared to be useful. My 
consent had not even been applied for. I did nothing, I 
ordered nothing; the risk was mine, and I remained 
silent : I should have thought it base to have published 
the truth, since my life only was compromised ; and I 
congratulated myself with the reflection, that the kind- 
ness with which my fellow-citizens and the Parisian 
Guard had honoured me, should appear to be of some 
utility. 

" Now that the victory is no longer uncertain, I feel 
myself bound to declare that I never formed a part of 
the provisional government — that the proposition was 
never even made to me. I accepted in silence all the 
danger in the hour of combat; I owe a homage to 
truth in the hour of victory . 

(Signed) " Le Due de Choiseul," 

" Pair de France, ancien Colonel de la l re 
legion, et ex-major de la Garde nationale 
Parisienne." 

" Paris, August 1st, 1830." 



160 PARIS IN 1830. 

The publication of this address produced the 
following letter of explanation : — 



" Monsieur le Due ; 

"Your noble and generous letter, addressed to the 
Parisians, imposes on me the duty of making you ac- 
quainted with the manner in which your name was intro- 
duced among those of the members of the provisional 
government. 

On Tuesday the 27th of July, I happened to be at 
the house of M. Berard, deputy for the department of 
the Seine and Oise, with several of his colleagues, when 
we were told that a meeting was to take place at half- 
past eight at the house of M. Audry de Puyraveau. I 
went thither at nine o'clock ; but very few were there, 
The ordinances, and the blood which had been spilt, 
were the subject of conversation, but no measure was 
adopted. I addressed myself, however, to General 
Lafayette, and asked if he would accept the supreme 
command of the National Guard. He answered, that 
he would not hesitate, if he were required by his fellow- 
citizens. 

" Having returned home, I reflected on what had 
passed, and resolved on saving the cause of the people, 
which I saw would be compromised if thus left to itself. 
They wanted leaders, and it occurred to me to supply 
them, by forming a provisional government among the 
men whose names I had heard spoken of as likely to 
conciliate all parties. I chose those of Generals Lafay- 
ette and Gerard, and yourself. 

" On the 28th, at six o'clock in the morning, I saw at 
the mairie of the seventh arrondissement the Messrs. 
Page, and M. Fessart, a captain of the old National 
Guard, and mentioned my project to them, of which 
they approved. In less than forty minutes about a 



PARIS IN 1830. 161 

hundred and twenty members of the National Guard 
assembled at the residence of the Messrs. Page, in the 
Hotel de Saint Pagnan. I told them that I had assisted 
the evening before at a meeting of the Deputies ; that 
they had named a provisional government, and had 
ordered the re-organization of the National Guard. I 
then gave the orders for its formation. In this I was 
perfectly seconded by all present ; an adequate force 
was sent to take possession of the Hotel de Ville ; a 
committee was named to go to General Lafayette to re- 
ceive his orders ; and I set out to present them to him. 
In passing, I entered the office of the Times Journal, 
and having found there M. Billard, one of its conductors, 
I begged him to accompany us. Having arrived, at 
half past ten, at M. Lafitte's hotel, I sent to General 
Lafayette, to inquire if he would receive a deputation 
of the National Guard, who had come to offer to march 
under his orders, and to proclaim the provisional go- 
vernment. M. Lafayette replied, that he wished to 
consult the Deputies, who were at that moment assem- 
bled with M. Lafitte ; and ten minutes afterwards he 
came himself to receive the committee, saying, that the 
Deputies approved of his nomination as commander-in- 
chief of the National Guard, but that a convenient 
place would be necessary to establish his head-quarters. 
I proposed to him the Hotel de Ville, which was already 
occupied by the National Guard, under the command 
of Captain Fessart, my brother-in-law ; and he went 
thither on the instant with the deputation. 

" All the other arrondissements of Paris were simul- 
taneously informed of the formation of the provisional 
government, and of the order to organize the National 
Guard. M. Billard returned to the office of the Times ; 
I went to those of the other journals ; and the names of 
Generals Lafayette and Gerard, and of the Duke de 
Choiseul, were printed and proclaimed throughout the 

M 



162 PARIS IN 1830. 

city. They inspired the Parisians with new courage, 
and the victory of the people was no longer doubtful. 
It was then that the Deputies began to name provisional 
committees, and that the National Guard was organized. 
In a few hours the Hotel de Ville, the Mont de Piete, 
the Archives, and all the public establishments, were 
under its safeguard. 

" Such, M. le Due, is the whole truth regarding the 
formation of the provisional government. Allow me to 
thank you in the name of my fellow citizens, for the 
silence you so generously preserved. How shall I con- 
gratulate myself on having so well understood your 
noble character ! If the names I selected have been suffi- 
ciently powerful to conquer the evils which threatened 
us, I doubt not that our success would have been still 
more astonishing, if your co-operation had been more 
active. 

" I have the honour to be, &c. 

" Caffin d' Orsigny." 



Although not so prompt in their proceedings 
as M. d'Orsigny would have had them to be, the 
constitutional Deputies were not unmindful of 
the important task which had now devolved on 
them. On Thursday morning they appointed a 
deputation, consisting of General Gerard, the 
Count de Lobau, M. Lafitte, M. Casimir Per- 
rier, and M. Mauguin, to wait upon the Duke 
of Ragusa, and represent to him the frightful 
scenes which were every instant occurring in the 
capital ; to call upon him to put an end to them 
in the name of the assembled Deputies of France, 
and, in case of his refusal, to declare that he 



PARIS IN 1830. 168 

would be personally responsible for the conse- 
quences. The gentlemen of the deputation pro- 
ceeded from the residence of M. Lafitte, in the 
Rue d'Artois, across the fire of musketry, which 
was still continued along- the line occupied by 
the royal forces, to the head-quarters of Marshal 
Marmont ; and having with some difficulty ob- 
tained access to him, they proceeded to execute 
their mission through the medium of M. Lafitte 
as their speaker. Without attempting to justify 
or excuse the atrocities committed by the troops, 
the Marshal seemed to feel that he had been 
personally put on his defence, and immediately 
answered the address of M. Lafitte, by observ- 
ing, " that military honour consisted in obe- 
dience." 

" And civil honour," replied M. Lafitte, " for- 
bids the massacre of the citizens." 

After a moment's reflection, the Duke conti- 
nued : — " But, gentlemen, what are the condi- 
tions you propose ?" 

" We believe we may answer," M. Lafitte 
replied, " that good order will be restored on 
the following conditions: — the recall of the 
illegal ordinances of the 25th of July, the dis- 
missal of the ministers, and the convocation of 
the Chambers for the 3d of August." 

To this the Duke replied, that, as a citizen, he 
might not disapprove, nay, might even parti- 
cipate in the opinions of the Deputies, but that 

m2 



164 PARIS IN 1830. 

as a soldier he had received his orders, and was 
bound to obey them. He undertook to submit 
to the King the proposal which had just been 
communicated ; but added, that if the deputation 
wished to have a conference on the subject with 
M. de Polignac, the Prince was then at hand ; 
and he offered to go to ask him if he could re- 
ceive them. At these words the Duke left the 
apartment, and did not return for a quarter of 
an hour. The altered expression of his counte- 
nance foretold the unsatisfactory nature of the 
message with which he was charged. The 
Prince's answer was, that the conditions pro- 
posed by the Deputies rendered any conference 
useless. 

" Then we have civil war," said M. Lafitte; the 
Duke bowed in silence, and the Deputies retired. 

Having returned to the meeting at the resi- 
dence of M. Lafitte, the deputation reported 
the unsuccessful result of their mission ; and the 
Deputies, having resumed their deliberations, re- 
solved on the immediate appointment of a com- 
mittee to watch over the public interests. An 
extraordinary number of the Moniteur soon 
afterwards appeared with the following announce- 
ment : — 

" PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT. 

" The Deputies present at Paris have found it neces- 
sary to assemble, to remedy the serious dangers with 



PARIS IN 1830. 165 

which the security of persons and property is threatened. 
In the absence of all regular organization, a commission 
has been appointed to watch over the public interests. 

" Messrs. Audry de Puyraveau, Count Gerard, 
Jacques Lafitte, Count de Lobau, Mauguin, Odier, Casi- 
mir Perrier, and De Schonen, compose this commission. 

" General Lafayette is commander-in-chief of the Na- 
tional Guard. 

" The National Guard are masters of Paris at all 
points.' 1 

On the promulgation of the royal ordinance 
of Wednesday, the 28th of July, declaring the 
capital in a state of siege, it had been formally 
communicated to the procureur general, for the 
purpose, no doubt, of intimating that his duties 
as a civil functionary had been suspended. In 
consequence of the absence from Paris of the 
chief law officer of the crown, (the office of pro- 
cureur general in France being equal to that of 
attorney general in England,) the despatch con- 
taining the ordinance was transmitted to M. Ba- 
yeux, the advocate general, whose station may be 
regarded as parallel to that of our solicitor 
general. Immediately on receiving the docu- 
ment, about three o'clock on Wednesday after- 
noon, M. Bayeux attempted, but unsuccessfully, 
to obtain an interview with the Prince de Polig- 
nac, and the other ministers of the crown. On 
Thursday morning he renewed his endeavours, 
and found his way to the Tuileries, across the 
Rue Saint Honore, at the moment when the 



166 PARIS IN 1830. 

Swiss had just entered the houses at the corner 
of the Rue de TEchelle, and were from thence 
directing- a murderous fire on the citizens. 

On reaching the palace, M. Bayeux was in- 
formed that the ministers were then in the 
apartments of M. de Glandeve, the governor of 
the Tuileries. On being introduced to them, 
he found there Messrs. Chantelauze, Peyronnet, 
and d'Haussez. The two first were reclining on 
a couch, M. Peyronnet being without his coat, 
and all appearing as if they had not been in bed. 
M. d'Haussez continued walking about the apart- 
ment, with an air of the deepest agitation. 

M. Chantelauze inquired of M. Bayeux as to 
the state of the capitol. " Admirable," was the 
answer ; " full of tranquillity, firmness, and 
courage." 

" It must be the Federes," observed M. Pey- 
ronnet, " who have kept up their old organiza- 
tion." 

" It is the whole population," M. Bayeux 
replied, " who have armed themselves against 
you. The women carry the paving-stones to the 
upper floors of the houses, and throw them on 
the heads of the soldiers ; while their husbands 
are fighting in the streets." 

This statement having produced some expres- 
sion of doubt from the ministers, M. Bayeux 
added, with greater earnestness than before, that 
in less than two hours the Tuileries would be 



PARIS IN 18^0. 167 

occupied by the citizens ; that the contest was 
so unequal and so hopeless, no resource remain- 
ed but a cessation of hostilities, and a speedy 
retreat ; that the troops of the Line refused to 
fire on the people ; that many of the soldiers 
had even given away their cartridges, and it was 
with the ammunition thus obtained that the citi- 
zens were now fighting. On this, M. d'Haus- 
sez took M. Bayeux apart to one of the win- 
dows, and pointing out to him some battalions 
of the Garde Royale in the Place du Carrousel, 
he said, " You are very right; these are indeed 
our sole defenders, and they have had nothing 
to eat for four-and -twenty hours." 

The ministers, after taking coffee in an ad- 
joining apartment, carried M. Bayeux with 
them to the head-quarters of the commander-in- 
chief, which they reached by means of a subter- 
raneous passage which communicates between 
the governor's residence and the apartments on 
the other side of the Place du Carrousel, where 
Marmont's staff was established. M. Bayeux 
observed, as he passed, that there were prisoners 
in the cellars of the palace. 

On reaching the apartments occupied by the 
staff, with the three ministers, M. Bayeux found 
there M. Guernon de Ranville, M. de Montbel, 
and the Duke of Ragusa. He repeated to them 
what he had already said, but obtained only a 



168 PARIS IN 1830. 

confirmation of his belief that their situation 
was utterly desperate. 

One of the ministers inquired for what hour 
the King had convoked them at Saint Cloud : 
" For eleven o'clock," was the answer. " Then," 
added the individual who had put the question, 
" we must send immediately for our carriages to 
meet us at the Pont-Tournant." 

M. Chantelauze placed an order in the hands 
of M. Bayeux, signed by the Duke of Ragusa, 
requiring the Royal Court of Paris to assemble in 
the castle of the Tuileries. The advocate general 
observed, that it was impossible to obey the 
order ; and that if the minister wished to meet 
the court, he must go to their place of sitting. 
" Sir," said M. de Chantelauze, " you are the 
procureur general ; I give you the mandate, and 
charge you with its execution." 

M. Bayeux then asked that an officer might 
be appointed to go out with him, that he might 
not be fired upon by the soldiers ; observing, 
that he felt himself in no danger from the people. 
He was answered, that that was impossible ; but 
that a passport would be given him. The Duke 
of Ragusa accordingly handed him a written 
permission to pass the military posts at the Tuile- 
ries and the Louvre. M. Bayeux remarked on 
the uselessness of a mere piece of paper for 
parrying the musket shots which the soldiers 



PARIS IN 1830. 169 

were firing from all the floors of the houses ; 
but it was the only protection he could obtain. 

After attempting- unsuccessfully to pass the 
gate which leads to the Pont Royale, M. Bayeux 
returned as he came, by the Rue de l'Echelle, 
convinced that if he escaped the Swiss, the inha- 
bitants of the Rue Traversere, in which he re- 
sided, would not fire upon him. He succeeded 
in reaching his own house in safety ; but an un- 
fortunate fruiterer, surprised to see any one pass 
at such a moment, put his head out of doors, and 
received a mortal wound. 



170 PARIS IN 1830. 



CHAPTER XII. 

Reflections on the preceding events — Renewed efforts of the 
Parisians — JMarmont concentrates his force on the 29th of 
July, and issues a proclamation without effect — General Ge- 
rard assumes the command of the popular forces — Attack 
on the Louvre, and dislodgment of the Swiss troops from 
thence — Hesitation manifested among- the Royal Guard — 
Various anecdotes connected with the struggle at the 
Louvre. 

In looking back at the events of this extra- 
ordinary week, after an interval sufficient for 
calm and quiet reflection, it is obvious to every 
one, that the question which had been raised be- 
tween the King and his people had been irre- 
trievably decided as soon as the royal forces were 
compelled to assume a defensive attitude. 

But it will easily be believed that the feeling 
was very different at the moment when every 
mind was agitated by the scenes of deadly strife 
which had already occurred, and which, to all 
present appearance, were to be renewed on the 
morrow. The strength already opposed to them, 



PARIS IN 1830. 171 

and the reinforcements at the disposal of the 
Duke of Ragusa, were equally unknown to the 
great body of the people. Tranquillity and re- 
pose were as yet therefore out of the question. 

During the night between Wednesday and 
Thursday, the 28th and 29th, the inhabitants 
continued to strengthen their barricades, and to 
sacrifice the stately trees which shaded and 
adorned the Boulevards, for the purpose of mak- 
ing the town, in case of a reverse, completely 
impervious to regular forces. Fresh efforts were 
made to procure arms and ammunition. The 
deserted barracks, and other military stations in 
every quarter of the city, were forced and ran- 
sacked by the populace ; and such was the for- 
midable appearance which the city and its inha- 
bitants presented on Thursday morning at sun- 
rise, that Marmont thought it advisable to con- 
centrate his whole force on the Louvre, the 
Tuileries, and the Palais Royal. 

With these exceptions, every public building 
in the capital was already surmounted by the 
tri-coloured flag ; the head-quarters of the Na- 
tional Guard had been established at the Hotel 
de Ville, and preparations had been made for 
the vigorous commencement of offensive opera- 
tions. An attempt, in the mean time, was made 
by Marmont to conceal his conscious weakness, 
by issuing a proclamation which he had not even 
the means of printing, but which was distributed 



172 PARIS IN 1830. 

in manuscript by the officers at the outposts. It 
was conceived in the following- terms : 

" The Marshal Duke of Ragusa, Governor of Paris, 
Major-General of the Garde Roy ale, commanding 
the city in a state of siege ; 

" Parisians ! 
" The events of yesterday have caused many tears to 
flow ; too much blood has been already shed. For the 
sake of humanity, I consent to suspend hostilities, in 
the hope that all good citizens will return to their own 
homes and resume their business. This I earnestly 
conjure them to do. 

(Signed,) " Le Marechal Due de Rag^e" 

" Head Quarters, Paris 9 29th July, 1830, 



It is needless to say, that the contrivance re- 
sorted to so obviously for the mere purpose of 
gaining time, was totally unsuccessful. General 
Gerard, an officer of known merit, had, with the 
sanction of the assembled Deputies, already 
assumed the command of the popular forces. 
The appearance of General Lafayette at the Hotel 
de Ville, and the belief which had been spread 
by the instrumentality of M. d'Orsigny, that a 
provisional government had already been esta- 
blished, inspired the citizens with new confidence. 
Every arrondissement of the city, every district 
of the faubourgs, produced its mass of armed 
men, who, with a rapidity and precision which 



PARIS IN 1830. L7S 

can only be accounted for by reference to the 
large proportion of old soldiers to be found 
throughout the whole French population, formed 
themselves into formidable columns, and marched 
in good order to the attack. 

General Gerard placed himself at the head of 
that part of the force which advanced towards 
the Louvre by the right bank of the Seine ; but 
the Swiss, who were charged with the defence of 
this compact and substantial building, were at 
the same time disturbed by other columns, who 
approached it from the other side of the river by 
the Pont Neuf, the Pont des Arts, and the Pont 
Royal. In the gardens, courts, and other open 
spaces protected by walls and railings, surround- 
ing or adjoining the Louvre, two regiments of 
the Guard were stationed, with several pieces of 
artillery, while the windows and roofs of the 
building were occupied by the Swiss. After a 
well sustained and murderous fire from these 
strongholds on the one side, and from every 
available opening on the other, the national 
armament at length forced its way by the quays, 
the Rue des Poulies, and all the intermediate 
streets and lanes communicating between the 
Rue de l'Arbresec and the Place de Jena, and 
effected a lodgment in the houses of that place 
and of the court in front of the church of Saint 
Germain PAuxerrois. There also were stationed 
two pieces of artillery which had been taken 



174 PARIS IN 1830. 

the day before from the enemy, and which ma- 
terially contributed to his final defeat. Under 
the protection of the fire from this little battery, 
and of that of the musketry from the windows 
overlooking the Place de Jena, a small party of 
citizens, with a young man of twenty, a pupil of 
the Polytechnic School, at their head, advanced 
to the iron gateway, and, addressing themselves 
to a general officer within, required him to sur- 
render. Instead of answering the call, the 
officer drew a pistol from his belt and fired it on 
the leader of this forlorn hope ; but having 
missed his aim, the demand was coolly renewed. 
Having then no alternative but to open the gate 
or expose himself to certain destruction, he chose 
the more prudent course of admitting the con- 
querors ; and, tearing from his breast the decora- 
tion which he wore, he presented it to the young 
chief by whom the distinction had been so nobly 
earned. In spite of the fire which was still 
poured on the popular party from between the 
pillars of the colonnade over head, the armed 
citizens rushed boldly through the shower of 
musketry, and entering the open gateway, were 
in instant possession of all the principal stair- 
cases. The Swiss, who had previously lost many 
of their best officers, were now compelled to 
surrender at discretion, and in an instant after- 
wards the national colours floated proudly over 
a building, which, from its strength and its posi- 
tion, may be called the citadel of Paris. 



PARIS IN 1830. 175 

As soon as this success had been secured, the 
citizens hastened to turn it to advantage, by di- 
recting their arms against the two regiments of 
the Guard, who had just before been in posses- 
sion of the strong positions under the windows 
of the palace, particularly to the west and the 
south. But the Guards had already taken the 
alarm, and had retired on the Tuileries, some 
finding their way through the great gallery of 
the Louvre, some by the quay to the south of it, 
and some by the Place du Carrousel. The whole 
of the royal troops had now entrenched them- 
selves in the Palace of the Tuileries, with the 
exception of the «50th and 53rd regiments of 
the Line, who, stationed in the Rue Castiglione 
and the Place Vendome at an early hour in 
the morning, had been ordered from thence to 
charge the inhabitants assembled in the Rue 
Saint Honore, and afterwards to retire on the 
Place du Carrousel. It was known that these 
regiments had already shown some hesitation in 
firing on the people ; and when it had transpired 
that this new order had reached them, a party of 
the inhabitants, with a member of the Parisian 
bar at their head, walked up to a group of officers 
engaged in consultation, and exhorted them to 
remember that they had been citizens before being 
soldiers, and that in fighting against the people 
they were destroying their own liberties. The 
answer given to this address by Captain Vernot, 



176 PARIS IN 1830. 

one of the officers of the group, evinces what had 
been the import of their previous consultation : 
" It is thirty years," he said, " since I began to 
fight the foreign enemies of France ; but never 
shall I draw my sword against my countrymen. 
We are soldiers, gentlemen, and not execu- 
tioners." 

In the attack on the Louvre, a man who had 
been wounded, and had his horse shot under him 
not far from the Pont des Arts, had lain for 
some time in the street in great agony, having 
made many unsuccessful attempts to disentangle 
himself from the body of his fallen steed. In 
this awkward predicament he was relieved by the 
boldness and address of three lads of fourteen or 
fifteen years of age. They first approached him 
by scrambling on all fours, under the protection 
of the dwarf wall which supports the outer rail- 
ing of the palace. When in this situation, they 
hesitated for a moment as to which should take 
the lead in venturing into the middle of the 
street, whereupon one of them, taking his nearest 
companion's hat, threw it towards the wounded 
man. All three, as if to recover the hat, ran 
after it in a body, and succeeded in extricating 
the unfortunate horseman from his painful and 
perilous position. 

In contradiction to those who assert that the 
Jews are destitute of patriotism, there are among 
the numerous traits of heroism connected with 



PARIS IN 1830. 177 

this memorable struggle, several well authenti- 
cated instances of Israelites by faith, as well as 
by descent, exposing their lives, and fighting as 
bravely as any of their countrymen, in defence of 
the national liberties. Among this number Levi 
Abraham has been mentioned, a Jew in humble 
circumstances, residing in the Rue des Vieilles- 
Audriettes Saint Martin, No. 9. He left his 
house without any weapon, but supplied himself 
by disarming a wounded lancer, and had the 
honour of being the fifth man who entered the 
Louvre, where he had the good fortune to secure 
a fragment of the Swiss flag. Before returning 
home, this brave fellow went to the mayoralty of his 
arrondissement, the seventh, to deposit his lance. 
There he was offered assistance, which at first he 
refused, saying that he did not fight for money. 
On being urged to accept ten francs to supply his 
immediate wants, he at length consented to re- 
ceive them, on condition of his being allowed to 
apply the amount out of his first earnings to the 
subscription for the orphans and the wounded. 

While the Louvre was exposed to the at- 
tack on the side of the colonnade, which was 
the first to be successful, other bodies of citi- 
zens were approaching it on the side of the 
Rue Saint Honore, by the Palais Royal, and the 
Rue du Coq. One of these bodies was marching 
to the attack, when the last of the royal forces 
were finally retiring from the Palais Royal, to 

N 



178 PARIS IN 1830. 

effect a junction with the troops in the Place du 
Carrousel, and strengthen the defences of the 
Louvre and the Tuileries. In the Place du Palais 
Royal, a piece of cannon belonging to the artillery 
of the Royal Guard became an object of conten- 
tion between the two parties. The popular 
column was led by a cabriolet driver of the name 
of Caillon, who, with a remnant of six or seven of 
his party, was left in possession of the disputed 
gun, the contest for it having cost the lives of no 
less than thirty-five of the inhabitants. After an 
obstinate defence, which had produced so much 
slaughter, the Guards were induced to retire by 
the opportune appearance of another strong body 
of the citizens, who had been called to the spot 
by the report of musketry, which told them that 
their presence might be as useful there as at the 
Louvre, whither they were proceeding. 

In the Rue de Chartres also, which communi- 
cates in a direction almost diagonal between the 
Place du Palais Royal, and the Place du Car- 
rousel, a continuation of this obstinate and bloody 
engagement took place between the advancing 
column of citizens, and the troops retiring from 
the Palais Royal. At the moment when the 
street was strewed with dead and wounded, M. 
Thourel, an advocate, residing at No. 8, in that 
part of the street which faces the chateau of the 
Tuileries, in concert with his porter, whose name 
is Monet, had the courage to throw open the 



PARIS IN 1830. I79 

porte coch^re, or front entrance of his house, and 
to convert the court and stable into a temporary 
hospital. Among the combatants there hap- 
pened to be three students of medicine, who laid 
down their arms while they dressed the wounds 
of such as were brought to them. Upwards of 
fifty individuals were thus lifted from the street 
amidst a shower of musketry, and received such 
attentions as the limited means of the parties 
could bestow; the neighbours throwing to the 
young practitioners from their windows the ne- 
cessary supplies of linen and lint. In this and in 
many similar cases, no distinction of party was 
observed towards the individuals who received 
these attentions. Fifteen or sixteen privates, and 
a captain of the 6th regiment of the Guard, were 
among the number thus relieved in the house of 
M. Thourel ; their wounds being dressed, and 
their cases treated with as much care as the others. 

An instance of disinterestedness in the humbler 
classes of society, is described in the following 
terms by Dr. Fabre Palaprat : 

" I was proceeding," he says, " towards the 
bottom of the Rue Saint Honor e, where a man 
about fifty years of age, carrying in one hand 
a musket, and in the other a bloody sword, fell 
down close beside me. He had an old shoe on 
one foot, and on one only ; he had no coat, 
and the rest of his dress was in tatters, and 
much stained with blood. His linen was of the 

N 2 



180 PARIS IN 1830. 

very coarsest stuff ; and his face, blackened with 
gunpowder, and I know not what besides, pre- 
sented an appearance, and an ensemble so hideous, 
that I shall not attempt to describe it. 

" At first I supposed that he was intoxicated, 
but was soon convinced that he had fallen from 
fatigue and inanition. I was leaning over him 
with a wish to relieve him, when he asked me for 
bread. He had eaten nothing all day. A musket- 
ball had passed through the fleshy part of his left 
leg ; but, in spite of his wound — in spite of heat 
and fatigue — in spite of hunger and thirst, he 
had fought incessantly all the morning. 

" A good lady was kind enough to give me 
her handkerchief, and to bring me some water. 
I dressed his wound, and, thinking that I had 
still a duty to perform, I begged him to accept a 
five franc piece, to procure some food. 

" At these words the man got up in an excess 
of indignation, and seizing his sword, exclaimed, 
' Money ! How dare you offer money to me, a 
Frenchman, a soldier fighting for his country ?' 
He raised his arm, as if to cut me down, but I 
threw myself upon him, embraced him, and wept 
with admiration. Indeed, I know not what I 
did ; but he continued to exclaim, ' De Var- 
gent ! a moi ! a mot F Having at length suc- 
ceeded in making him understand me, he seemed 
to recover his self-possession, and shook me cor- 
dially by the hand. 



PARIS IN 1S30. 181 

" I begged him to come and dine with me ; 
but he would only accept the bread which he 
needed, and a little water, both of which were 
supplied by the lady to whom we were already 
indebted for the handkerchief. I urged him at 
least to take some wine ; but that he refused 
also, saying* that it cost money. On this, he left 
us, without even giving us his name. Is not 
such disinterestedness worthy of all our admira- 
tion ? I shall never forgive myself, that I did 
not follow this patriot soldier ; but I was so be- 
wildered by the occurrence, that I knew not 
what I was doing." 

The splendid picture gallery and museum of 
the Louvre must have been exposed to very im- 
minent danger in the course of this day's pro- 
ceedings. The troops, who retreated in that 
direction, fired on the people from the windows, 
as they passed ; and soon afterwards, when their 
places were occupied by the armed inhabitants, 
it would not have been wonderful if, in the in- 
dignation of the moment, they had committed 
excesses to be afterwards deplored. A great 
proportion of the conquerors must of course 
have consisted of men who had little idea of the 
value of those treasures which they now perhaps 
visited for the first time in their lives ; and the 
discrimination they evinced in the acts of vio- 
lence they were tempted to commit, is therefore 
so much the more remarkable. The great pic- 



182 PARIS IN 1830. 

ture, representing the coronation of Charles X., 
when in the act of taking- the oath to the charter, 
was literally riddled with musket-balls ; more 
than one unpopular monarch was executed in 
effigy, by cutting across the canvas of his por- 
trait, where it represented the throat, or by 
twisting a rope round the neck of his statue. 
But it is creditable to the popular feeling, that 
the portrait of Louis XVIII. was spared, by 
acclamation, expressly on the ground that he 
was the author of the charter. As soon as the 
first rush was past, a number of young artists, 
with M. Prosper Lafaist at their head, placed 
themselves as sentinels on the museum, and 
remained at their post, in the midst of consider- 
able danger, until after the evacuation of the 
Tuileries, and the restoration of the public 
peace. One of these young men was killed at a 
window of the great gallery, which he had im- 
prudently approached, to witness the conclusive 
struggle in the Place du Carrousel. 



PARIS IN 1830. 183 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Increased defection of the regular troops — Success of the tinal 
popular attack on the Tuileries conducted by General 
Gerard — Causes that facilitated this result — Dislodgment 
of two regiments of the Royalists from the garden of the 
Tuileries — Generosity shown towards the Royal Guard — 
Release of the persons confined in the cellars of the Tui- 
leries — Detail of their previous sufferings — Cessation of 
hostilities — General appearance of things at this period — 
Sentiments and conduct of the people. 

Before the fall of the Louvre, the regular 
troops had ceased to act offensively against the 
people. Two regiments had agreed, both men 
and officers, to suspend hostilities, and the third, 
from their manner of obeying the orders they 
received to fire, were obviously but ill disposed 
to the task assigned to them. Pressed on all 
sides by the populace, with cries of " J^ive la 
France ! Vive la liberie !" accompanied by ap- 
peals to their feelings as fellow-citizens : " Vous, 
soldats Francais, tirer contre des Francais!" 
the 5th, following the example of the 50th and 



184 PARIS IN 1830. 

53d, began to fraternize with the people ; while 
the officers took the more decided step of wait- 
ing on M. Lafitte, and taking the oath of fidelity 
to the provisional government. The whole 
regiment then proceeded, amidst the acclama- 
tions of the people, their drums beating, their 
bayonets unfixed, and the muzzles of their mus- 
kets adorned with foliage, to the Hotel de Ville, 
where they placed themselves under the com- 
mand of General Lafayette, and offered to share 
all the future dangers of the brave inhabitants of 
Paris. 

While this scene was taking place at the Hotel 
de Ville, General Gerard was leading on the 
citizens to the final attack on the Tuileries. The 
popular forces advanced simultaneously in sepa- 
rate columns, one by the Rue Rivoli and the 
Place du Carrousel, another through the inte- 
rior of the picture gallery, from which there is a 
communication with the Pavilion de Flore, in the 
south-west corner of the palace ; and a third, 
advancing by the left bank of the river, rushed 
boldly forward along the Pont Royal, in face of 
a shower of musketry from the southern win- 
dows of the pavilion. 

This last column, the most formidable of the 
three, was drawn into an ambuscade at the mo- 
ment of its reaching the quay on the right side 
of the river. As formerly noticed, no combat- 
ant had been seen on the side of the royalists, 



PARIS IN 1830. 185 

who was not attired in some sort of military 
uniform ; so that a round hat on a man dressed 
en bourgeois, was considered, at any distance, 
as a sure indication of the political feelings of 
the party who approached. In issuing from the 
bridge, the third column of citizens was sud- 
denly met by a party of officers and soldiers of 
the French and Swiss Guard, dressed in coloured 
clothes, and armed with pistols and poignards. 
Under this disguise, they were naturally mis- 
taken for the head of one of the columns ad- 
vancing from the other side ; and the citizens 
on the bridge were not undeceived until a 
number of them fell under the weapons of those 
who had resorted to this daring and desperate 
stratagem. Its success was but momentary; 
the advance of the main body was hastened 
rather than retarded by an interruption which 
could not for the moment be accounted for by 
those behind ; the paid assassins of Polignac 
and Ragusa were caught in their own snare, 
and, dead or alive, were thrown into the river, 
to tell the tale of their disasters to their employers 
at Saint Cloud. 

In another instant^ the castle was carried at 
all points. The breach was effected by the three 
different columns, so nearly at the same moment, 
that it has been found impossible to assign the 
priority to any one of them. 

The Tuileries, like the Louvre, presented a 



186 PARIS IN 1830. 

strong position, and, with a force so considerable 
as that assembled in it, might have long held out 
against troops so ill supplied with the materials 
for a siege ; but, demoralized and discouraged 
by the scenes they had witnessed, and the suffer- 
ings and privations to which they had been ex- 
posed, the household troops, in their defence of 
the Tuileries, discovered all that reckless and 
self-immolating desperation to which the folly of 
their leaders had reduced them. 

Many valuable lives were idly sacrificed in 
this hopeless struggle, apparently from very 
shame that disciplined and well-armed troops 
should be compelled to take to flight before a 
motley mob of men and boys, in shirts and 
smock frocks, and every conceivable incongruity 
of arms, apparel, and accoutrement. Beaten in 
the Place du Carrousel and the adjoining court ; 
again, in the interior of the palace ; and finally, 
in the magnificent gardens to the west ; the royal- 
ists, harassed and overcome with hunger and 
fatigue, with shame and despair, were at length 
constrained to retire by the Place Louis XV., 
the only point which now remained open to 
them. 

The victory was now complete. At two 
o'clock on Thursday, the 29th of July, the 
national standard was substituted for the Bour- 
bon banner, which till then had floated over the 
central dome surmounting the Salle des Mare- 



PARIS IN 1830. 187 

chaux. It was immediately saluted by a general 
discharge of musketry and artillery, and by the 
joyful acclamations of the victorious inhabitants. 

Among the more distinguished of those who 
fell in this last attack, were two literary gentle- 
men, M. Farey, of the Globe, M. Ader, of the 
Mirror, and a pupil of the Polytechnic School, 
of the name of Wiemer. 

As no immediate demonstration was made of 
pursuing the fugitives, two regiments had halted 
in the western part of the garden, to take some 
refreshment before proceeding on their march. 
As soon as it was discovered that they had not 
all made good their retreat, a detachment of 
citizens advanced to chase them out of the gar- 
den, and executed the task with which they 
were charged so promptly and effectually, as to 
make prize of the canteens and camp-kettles of 
the royalists, and of their half-eaten dinner. By 
this time, also, the cellars of the Tuileries had 
been ransacked, and several pipes of wine were 
brought out and rolled into the garden. Here 
it was suggested by some one, that the 50th and 
53d regiments of the Line, who the day before 
had refused to fire on the people, must still be 
without provisions, and that the dinner of the 
Guards, and the wine from the cellars of the 
Tuileries, could not be better bestowed than in 
the refreshment of the brave men who had 
shown so much temper and moderation. The 



188 PARIS IN 1830. 

hint was immediately taken ; the provisions and 
the wine were soon removed to the Place Ven- 
dome, where the neutral regiments had remained 
under arms since Wednesday afternoon, and 
where the supply was doubtless abundantly 
acceptable. 

Others there were, it is true, who thought 
it no sin to taste the contents of the royal cellar, 
and to drink to the downfall of tyranny, and to 
the success of the national arms, in the wine 
which had already lost its owner. It is said 
that some excesses were committed on this occa- 
sion ; but if any instances of intoxication oc- 
curred, they were probably occasioned quite as 
much by the delirium of a popular triumph, as 
by the indulgences alluded to ; for if the French 
people have any national virtue more conspi- 
cuous than another, it consists in a degree of 
temperance and sobriety, which, as far as regards 
itself, places them far above their insular as well 
as their continental neighbours. 

In the account which has been given in a pre- 
vious chapter, of the visit which was paid by the 
Advocate General, Bayeux, to the ministers and 
the commander-in-chief at an early hour on Thurs- 
day morning, it was stated, that in passing from 
the governor's apartments to Marmont's head- 
quarters by a subterraneous passage, a number 
of prisoners were observed to be confined in 
the cellars of the palace. Many of these pri- 



PARIS IN 1830. 189 

soners were not relieved from their dismal situ- 
ation until after the expulsion of the royal 
forces, although some of them appear to have 
been liberated at the moment of the retreat. 
One of their number, M. Frederic Largue, de- 
tails the sufferings endured by the prisoners in 
their captivity in the following terms : — 

" On the 28th, I dressed myself in a uniform 
of the National Guard belonging to my brother, 
a wine-merchant in the Rue de la Monnaie, at 
the corner of the Rue Bethisy, and joined a 
strong detachment of the Parisian guard who 
were marching with drums beating towards the 
Louvre. I was placed as a sentinel with one of 
my comrades near the quay. We 'carried arms' 
to several officers of the line, who all returned 
our salute. We expected that a detachment of 
the Royal Guard, who advanced towards us, 
would do the same ; but one of the officers 
ordered his men to seize and disarm us. He left 
us in charge of a party of privates, making them 
answerable for us with their heads. ' Carry 
them,' said he, ' to head-quarters ; say that we 
found them caballing in the street ; and let them 
be taken good care of." As soon as the detach- 
ment had passed, the soldiers called out to us in 
derision, ' Run, now, for your lives, and let us 
have a shot at you !' On our reaching the Place 
du Carrousel, the guard on duty, drawn out in 
line, called out to our escort in a similar spirit : 



190 PARIS IN 1830. 

' Fall back, fall back, and let us shoot them on the 
spot.' We reached head-quarters, however, andan 
officer having" made a proces verbal of our arrest, 
and caused our persons to be searched, reproached 
us with ' our scoundrel uniform. ' We were 
first confined in a small prison attached to the 
guard-house, near the King's stables, where 
eighteen were crowded together. An agent of 
the police here came to examine us. M. Harelle, 
a hatter in the Rue Saint Honore, at the corner 
of the Rue Saint Florentin, an officer of the 
National Guard, was one of the prisoners. He 
had suffered a severe contusion over the eye in 
defending his epaulette, which had been torn from 
his shoulder. 

" From this place we were conducted by 
the commissary of police to a larger apartment, 
where we found that our number had increased 
to twenty-seven. The officer commanding the 
post, who was charged with our safe custody, 
presented himself before us with a drawn sabre 
in the one hand, and a pistol in the other, de- 
claring that he would shoot the first man who 
spoke or moved. The night passed in this situa- 
tion, leaving us ignorant of the fate reserved for 
us, and not a little alarmed at the ferocity of those 
who surrounded us. 

" On the 29th, at daybreak, we were carried 
back to head- quarters, and from thence were 
thrown into a cellar under the gateway, dark as 



PARIS IN 1830. 191 

night, and streaming with moisture. From the 
number of prisoners, and the great want of ven- 
tilation, the air of the cellar soon became taint- 
ed ; and many of ns, overcome with fatigue and 
alarm, and with other miseries incident to onr 
situation, gave utterance to their lamentations 
in such terms as seriously to aggravate the suf- 
ferings of their neighbours. While some were 
giving way to grief and despair, others were ex- 
claiming, across the doorway, for air and nou- 
rishment. At length, about ten o'clock, some 
bread was brought to us, as well as to our com- 
panions in misfortune, confined in a neighbour- 
ing cellar. We were fifty in all, confined in so 
narrow a space that we were unable to alter our 
position ; and, what added greatly to our suffer- 
ings, were not permitted a moment's egress, even 
singly, on any pretext whatever. 

" About one o'clock the commissary of police 
made his appearance, and told us that he was 
about to liberate a party of our number. We 
were then stripped of our uniform ; and had 
scarcely left the place when the Royal Guard 
loaded us with abuse, and even fired upon us. 
On this we were obliged to return, and to beg 
to be conducted to the office of the commissary of 
police, where we were furnished with passports ; 
but the danger would have been as great as before, 
had we not been accompanied by a gen-d'arme, 
who protected us from the rage of enemies, already 



192 PARIS IN 1830. 

defeated at almost every point, and ready to take 
to flight. 

" It is difficult to describe the anguish which 
we endured in our confinement, aggravated as it 
was by our total ignorance of what was passing 
around us." 

Before three o'clock hostilities had altogether 
ceased, and in half an hour afterwards the streets 
were crowded with the more peaceful part of the 
population. The course of business, and the 
business of visiting, resumed their usual activity. 
Shops and warehouses were re-opened, and before 
every porte cochere a circle of chairs was placed, 
and a kind of salon cle conversation established 
for the purpose of interchanging the details, and 
recounting the exploits of the last three days. 
Where every street had its battle, and every 
house its hero, it is more than pardonable if in 
the hour of victory and exultation each told his 
separate tale ; if 

" Thrice lie routed all his foes, 
And thrice he slew the slain." 

To hear the bursts of laughter which enlivened 
these unpremeditated meetings, and the jokes 
and jeux d'esprit which called them forth, it 
would scarcely have occurred to an unconcerned 
observer, who had not been habituated to the 
manners of the people, that these were the sallies 
of men, and of women too, who had shared, or 



PARIS IN 1830. 193 

witnessed such scenes of slaughter as it has been 
the business of these pages to describe, and that 
the individuals who thus indulged in mirth and 
gaiety, were, many of them, the very men who 
truly told what they had seen, and could as truly 
add the assurance 

■ et quorum pars magna fui. 

In the immediate neighbourhood of the scenes 
of actual conflict, less hilarity was no doubt ob- 
servable. There the people were occupied in 
removing the wounded to the hospitals, in paying 
the last duties to the dead, and in weeping with 
those disconsolate families who had to mourn the 
loss of relatives and friends. Every breast was 
agitated in turn by a succession of contending 
emotions ; but the first burst of joy for the com- 
pleted victory, or of commiseration for the suffer- 
ings of those who had so suddenly been bereft of 
fathers and of brothers, of husbands and of sons, 
was soon succeeded by the satisfactory assurance 
that the national liberties had been decisively 
vindicated, and that the rights of the people were 
henceforth unalterably secured. The form which 
the new government was likely to assume, and 
the men by whom it was to be administered, were 
already a subject of universal consideration and 
inquiry. 

The spectacle which Paris presented on the 
evening of the 29th of July was truly an extra- 
ordinary one y — the streets still intersected with 

o 



194 PARIS IN" 1830. 

barricades, and strewed with the missiles which 
had been thrown upon them from above — the 
houses themselves, with their shattered windows, 
and all the other marks of a recent struggle ; and 
the parties of armed men who, though harrassed 
by fatigue, and disturbed with the apprehension 
of a renewal of hostilities on the morrow, were 
still on the alert, and assuring to every one, by 
the firmness and gentleness of their demeanour, 
a safe protection to life and property. It was 
not easy to understand by what secret influ- 
ence the power of these men was so readily re- 
cognized, and the corresponding confidence 
created, or how the principle of good order be- 
came at once predominant, not allowing the 
baser passions even a momentary indulgence, at 
a period when the absence of any constituted 
authority appeared to threaten this great capital 
with all the horrors of anarchy. 

It seemed as if every individual had been 
taught by some secret instinct that the object for 
which they had fought could only be secured by 
this exemplary prudence ; and that, if the people 
did not show themselves equal to the great work 
they had undertaken, the fruits of their victory 
might be torn from them in the moment of frui- 
tion. It was felt, that all Europe were specta- 
tors of the struggle, and that foreign interference 
and hostile occupation might be the consequence 
of those excesses which are wont to follow in 



PARTS IN 1830. 193 

the train of revolution ; and finally and chiefly, 
it was feared that their perjured monarch and 
his dynasty might even now be forced upon 
them by another Holy Alliance. Such were the 
causes which, joined to the advanced state of 
knowledge and information among even the 
humbler classes of the population of Paris, pro- 
duced that respect for the right of property, and 
that moderation in the hour of triumph, which 
have so justly excited the applause and admira- 
tion of the world. 



o 2 



196 PARIS IN 1830 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Progress in the re-organization of the National Guard, and 
the arrangement of the Provisional Government— Lafay- 
ette's Proclamation and Order of the Day — Manifesto from 
the Municipal Commission — Account of the individuals who 
signed it — State of the Royal Family at St. Cloud — Con- 
fused behaviour of Polignac — Tardy and useless endeavour 
at conciliation — Reflections on the posture of affairs — Treat- 
ment of Marmont by the Duke d'Angouleme. 

While the people were engaged in driving the 
ministers and their adherents from the Louvre 
and the Tuileries, General Lafayette, and the 
commissioners appointed by the meeting of De- 
puties, were not less actively occupied in or- 
ganizing the National Guard, and in arranging 
the basis of a provisional government. 

At an early hour in the morning, the follow- 
ing proclamation was issued : 

" The National Guards of Paris are re-established. 
" The colonels and officers are invited to re-organize 
immediately the service of the National Guards. The 



PARIS UN 1830. 197 

sub-officers and privates should be ready to muster at 
the first beat of the drum- In the mean time, they are 
requested to meet at the residences of the officers and 
sub-officers of their former companies, and enter their 
names upon the roll. It is important to re-establish 
good order, and the Municipal Commission of Paris 
relies upon the accustomed zeal of the National Guards 
in favour of liberty and public order. The colonels, or, 
in their absence, the chiefs of battalions, are requested to 
present themselves immediately at the Hotel de Ville, to 
consult upon the first steps to be taken for the good of 
the service. This 29th of July, 1830. 

(Signed) " Lafayette." 
" A true copy, &c. Zimmer." 

Having speedily collected around him a nu- 
merous and respectable staff, General Lafayette 
soon afterwards issued the folllowing 

" ORDER OF THE DAY. 

" The General commanding in chief, on issuing this 
his first order of the day, cannot refrain from expressing 
his admiration of the patriotic, courageous, and devoted 
conduct of the population of Paris. They won their 
freedom in 1789, and France will owe them the same 
obligation in 1830. The commandant in chief con- 
siders it a cause for great satisfaction to the capital and 
himself, that he is aided by the co-operation and counsel 
of General Gerard, whose name alone promises every 
thing for France, and for all Europe; and to 
whom the general in chief feels bound to express his 
personal gratitude for his conduct towards his old friend 
on this important occasion. The generous conduct of 
the citizens of the capital is a sufficient guarantee that 



198 PARIS IN 1830. 

they will maintain that which they have conquered ; but 
the necessary repose must be united with the noble 
efforts which the country and the cause of liberty still 
require from them. The commander in chief is there- 
fore occupied in regulating the duty in such a manner, 
that a part only of the citizens may need to be underarms 
on either day. Orders on this point will be published. 

" My dear fellow-citizens and brave comrades ; — The 
confidence of the people of Paris has once more called 
me to the command of the public forces. I accept with 
devotedness and joy the duties entrusted to me ; and, as 
in 1789, I feel myself strong in the support derived 
from the approbation of my honourable colleagues now 
in Paris. I make no profession of my principles : they 
are already well known. The conduct of the population 
of Paris during the last days of trial, has made me more 
than ever proud of being at their head. Liberty shall 
triumph, or we will all perish together ! 

" Vive la liberie ! Vive la patrie ! 

" July 20/" " Lafayette. '' 

About the same time, a manifesto made its 
appearance from the Municipal Commission of 
the capital, conceived in the following terms : 

" Inhabitants of Paris ! 
" Charles X. has ceased to reign in France. Being 
incapable of forgetting the origin of his authority, he has 
always considered himself as the enemy of our country 
and of its liberties, which he could not understand. 
After having secretly attacked our institutions by every 
means that hypocrisy and fraud furnished him with, 
until he believed himself sufficiently strong to destroy 
them openly, he had resolved to drown them in the blood 
of Frenchmen. Thanks to your heroism, the crimes of 
his power are at an end, 



PARIS IN 1830. 199 

U A few moments have been sufficient to annihilate this 
corrupt government, which has been nothing but a con- 
stant conspiracy against the liberty and prosperity of 
France. The nation alone is stirring, adorned with her 
national colours, which she has won at the expense of 
her blood. She wishes for a government and laws 
worthy of her. 

" What nation in the world deserves liberty better 
than she does ? In the battle you have been heroes. 

" Victory in you has shown us those sentiments of mo- 
deration and humanity, which evidence in so high a de- 
gree the progress of our civilization. 

" Conquerors and deliverers of yourselves, without 
police, without magistrates, your virtue has taken the 
place of all organization ; and never were the rights of 
every individual more religiously respected. Inhabit- 
ants of Paris ! we are proud of being your brothers. In 
accepting, under present circumstances, a mandate so 
grave and difficult, your municipal commission has de- 
sired to associate itself with your devoted efforts. Its 
members want means to express to you the admiration 
and gratitude of the country. 

" Their sentiments, their principles, are yours. In 
place of an authority imposed on you by foreign arms, you 
will have a government which will owe its origin to your- 
selves. Merit is in all classes. All classes have the same 
rights ; these rights are assured to them. ' Vive la 
France ! Vive le peuple de Paris I Vive la liberte P 

" LOBAU, AlJDRY DE PtJYRAVEAU, 

" Mauguin, De Sciionen. 
" The Secretary of the Municipal Commission, 

" Odillon Barrot." 

This document is of so decisive a character, 
that it may be necessary to say something of the 



200 PARIS IN 1830. 

individuals who were bold enough to put their 
names to it. They had all been members of the 
Chamber of Deputies. 

The Count de Lobau is a lieutenant-general 
in the army, and one of the representatives for 
the department of the Meurthe. His character 
has always stood high as that of a man of honour 
and probity ; he has served in the field with the 
greatest distinction, and in the Chamber was not 
less courageous in supporting the principles of 
the charter, and in defending the rights of the 
people. 

M. Audry de Puyraveau, one of the repre- 
sentatives of the department of the Charente In- 
ferior, is a man of extensive property. He was 
first returned by the electors of Rochefort ; and 
during the sessions of 1828 and 1829, he fully 
justified the opinion which his constituents had 
formed of his character. His talents as an orator 
are not of the first order, but he is nevertheless 
a man of great natural shrewdness and discern- 
ment, and has uniformly maintained those de- 
cidedly constitutional principles which suggested 
his nomination as a commissioner, in this na- 
tional emergency. 

M. Mauguin, one of the representatives of the 
Cote d'Or, is a member of the Parisian bar, pos- 
sessed of considerable talents as a public speaker, 
but unhappily impelled by a restless thirst of dis- 
tinction, which renders him constantly unsatisfied 



PARIS IN 1830. 201 

with his present condition. He first brought 
himself into notice by his manner of defending 
the parties charged with political delinquencies 
during the Villele administration. His plead- 
ings became a ready vehicle for the dissemina- 
tion of opinions highly offensive to the ministry ; 
and on his declamations at the bar, and the pro- 
fession which he there made of his political faith, 
he raised a reputation which is supposed to be 
higher than is warranted by the genius or 
judgment of its possessor. His diction is cha- 
racterized by subtlety of language and causticity 
of expression, combined with a certain spirit of 
order and analysis, which is highly favourable to 
the clearness and effect of his argumentative and 
oratorical displays. He was returned in 1828 
for the department of the Deux Sevres, as well 
as for that of the Cote d'Or, when he made his 
option for that which he represents in the pre- 
sent Chamber. 

The Baron de Schonen is one of the repre- 
sentatives of the metropolitan department of the 
Seine, and a councillor in the royal court of 
Paris, distinguished in the Cour Royal for the 
ultra-liberalism of his political opinions. In 
compliance with the custom of the country, he 
pronounced a funereal oration over the tomb of 
his friend Manuel, which it was thought neces- 
sary to denounce before the tribunals. A pam- 
phlet, which he published about the time of his 



202 PARIS IN 1S30. 

marriage with the daughter of M. tie Corcelles, 
bears the following- singular and characteristic 
title : " De la noblesse Francaise selon la 
Charte, et un Mot sur les ordres de Chevalerie, 
par un gentUhomme, qui avant tout est Francais 
et citoyen" M. de Schonen is a person of ac- 
tive and methodical habits, and a firm sup- 
porter' of constitutional opinions, in the Cham- 
ber as well as on the judgment-seat. He sits on 
the extreme left, between M. Demarcay and M. 
Bavoux. 

The scene at Saint Cloud, during the final 
struggle in the capital, was one of confusion, 
agitation, and alarm. Their actual condition 
was, as much as possible, concealed from the fal- 
len monarch and his family. More inquisitive 
than his father, but scarcely less incredulous as 
to the unfavourable result of the contest, the 
Dauphin had obtained more correct information 
as to the progress of the revolutionary move- 
ment, which had already made such rapid ad- 
vances. In spite of the excessive heat of the 
weather, he had remained all the morning in a 
state of listless inactivity, on the terrace at Saint 
Cloud, which commands a distant view of the 
capital, and, with a telescope in his hand, was 
seen, from time to time, to look through it with 
attention, as if inspired with some presentiment 
of the intelligence, so fatal to the hopes of his 
family, which through that medium was to reach 



PARIS IN mo: 203 

him. Soon after two o'clock he once more ap- 
plied the instrument to his eye, and, changing 
colour repeatedly, withdrew it, with the ex- 
clamation, that the troops were defeated, for 
that the three-coloured flag was already flying 
over the palace of the Tuileries ! 

The disastrous intelligence was forthwith com- 
municated to the King, and was speedily spread 
over every quarter of the palace. The ministers 
had arrived some hours before, and the King 
proceeded to interrogate the Prince de Polignac 
more closely than he had yet done, as to the 
state of affairs in the capital ; but the poor Prince 
was already so overwhelmed with the circum- 
stances of his own situation, as to be unable to 
afford his Majesty any intelligible information — 
confounding dates, facts, and places, and twice 
interrupting his royal master, as has been se- 
riously asserted, to call for post-horses. After 
recovering some self-possession, the Prince's only 
idea was how he should justify his own conduct, 
and his only resource, to throw the whole blame 
on the Duke of Ragusa, whom he reproached 
with the adoption of half measures, and with a 
want of decision in his operations. Yet, through- 
out the whole proceeding, the military energies 
of the country, in the absence of General Bour- 
mont, the minister at war, were entirely at the 
disposal of the Prince himself, as provisionally 
charged with the portfolio of that department. 
Before this telegraphic announcement of the 



204 PARIS IN 1830. 

defeat of the troops, a council had been held, at 
which resolutions of a conciliatory tendency 
were adopted, such as two days before might 
have had the desired effect of tranquillizing 
the public mind, and saving the monarchy. 
From this council a communication was trans- 
mitted to the Provisional Government, announc- 
ing the King's readiness to relinquish the high 
ground he had hitherto taken, and to accept the 
terms which had previously been proposed on 
the part of the Deputies, and which had been so 
laconically rejected by the Prince de Polignac. 
Some hours had been lost in the morning, through 
the difficulty of finding the Duke de Mortemart, 
on whom it was proposed to lay the responsibility 
of recognizing the government ; and, before the 
arrival of the despatches from Saint Cloud at 
the Hotel de Ville, the members of the Municipal 
Commission had put their names to the manifesto 
which has already been quoted, and which, per- 
haps, made it impossible for them to recede, even 
on the supposition that, after so much bloodshed, 
the terms were still admissible. 

But it would be unjust to the spirit by which 
the commissioners were guided, to make the 
personal hazard to which they had exposed 
themselves in a crisis of the greatest difficulty 
and danger, a point of doubt in the estimate of 
any part of their conduct. When the emergency 
arose which called for their services, they had 
acted as became them, like honest and courageous 



PARIS IN 1830. 205 

citizens, and had obviously set their lives and 
fortunes on the cast which they had thrown. 
They were already convinced, from what they 
had witnessed during the first two days of the 
struggle, that the crown was absolutely and irre- 
trievably lost for Charles and his family. It is 
very doubtful whether the conditions proposed 
by M. Lafitte and the deputation which accom- 
panied him to the head-quarters of the Duke of 
Ragusa, would have been sanctioned even at 
that early period by the inhabitants at large ; 
but there is no room for hesitation as to the 
judgment which the French people would have 
passed on a capitulation like that proposed on 
Thursday morning, had it then been possible for 
the commissioners to have listened to it. 

It would also be unjust to the fallen monarch 
to withhold the fact, that before the capture of 
the Louvre and the Tuileries, or, which is the 
same thing as regards his feelings on the occa- 
sion, before the fact was known at St. Cloud, a 
proclamation was issued, (and an attempt, at least, 
made to give it publicity,) conceived in the follow- 
ing terms : — 

" Frenchmen ! 
" The misfortunes of yesterday have deeply afflicted 
my heart. 

" I order that the firing do instantly cease. 

(Signed) "Charles." 
" Saint Cloud, July 29." 



QQ6 PARIS IN 1830. 

Like the previous proclamation of the Duke 
of Ragusa, this last was interpreted, and perhaps 
in this instance unjustly interpreted, as a mere 
attempt at deception. To these addresses an 
answer soon appeared. The zeal with which it 
was circulated made it obvious that this reply, 
although it bore no signature, conveyed the true 
sentiments of the great body of the people. 

" Brave Citizens ; 
" Our enemies, alarmed at your courage, endeavour 
to put it to rest by spreading the report that the atro- 
cious measures of a government which no longer exists 
have been recalled. Their object is to make you lay 
down your arms, that they may afterwards take you by 
surprise. Do not believe them ; remain in arms and in 
good order ; follow the brave generals who march at 
your head ; and you will ensure the salvation of the 
country, and the possession of that freedom which cre- 
dulity would lose you for ever. 1 ' 

Throughout these days of trial the hereditary 
Counsellors of the crown displayed a degree of 
backwardness and timidity which it is impossible 
to reconcile with any just idea of the high duties 
attached to the peerage. At no period since the 
restoration, (with the single exception of their 
patriotic interference for the protection of the 
liberty of the press against the project of M. de 
Villele,) had they assumed that dignified and 
energetic attitude prescribed to them alike by 
their place in the constitution, and their elevated 



PARIS IN 1830. 207 

rank in society. At the good pleasure of every 
succeeding administration, they had allowed 
their members to be arbitrarily decimated, and as 
arbitrarily multiplied, with an exemplary degree 
of long-suffering and resignation. 

Charles X. and his family might undoubtedly 
have been saved on Monday the 26th of July, 
had the peers come boldly and generously for- 
ward to protest against the royal ordinances, and 
to declare that they would not ally themselves, 
as a legislative body, with the spurious Chamber 
which these edicts had created. The silence of 
the peers on that occasion will probably prove 
to have been an act of self-destruction. The 
progress of events seems to point very clearly to 
the termination of their hereditary privileges, 
and to the paramount ascendancy of the demo- 
cratic principle in the French constitution. 

In the midst of this general inactivity, a soli- 
tary attempt was made by the Grand Referendary, 
M. de Semonville, to obtain access to the King, 
and to make a candid disclosure of all the infor- 
mation he had obtained, and all the opinions he 
had formed on the subject of passing events. 
But it was Thursday morning before he arrived 
at Saint Cloud, and he was still impressed with 
the erroneous idea that some accommodation was 
practicable. It was he who first suggested the 
double abdication of the King and the Dauphin 
in favour of the Duke of Bordeaux, a measure 



208 - PARIS IN 1830. 

which would not at any time have satisfied the 
nation, and which involved a personal sacrifice, 
for which neither the King nor the Dauphin 
had yet prepared himself. 

While matters were in this situation, the Duke 
of Ragusa made his appearance at Saint Cloud 
after his final expulsion from the capital. He 
was received by the Duke d'Angouleme with 
unequivocal marks of dissatisfaction and displea- 
sure ; and, on his attempting some defence of his 
conduct, the Dauphin demanded, in a tone of 
petulance not very princely or dignified, if he 
knew to whom he addressed himself? 

" A Monseigneur le Due d'Angouleme," was 
Marmont's reply. 

" Au generalissime des troupes de France," 
rejoined the Dauphin, "a un homine qui vous 
connait enfin, vous, traitre a tous les partis, 
miserable ! qui avez vendu la France aux allies, 
et nous a la France." 

To this tirade the Duke of Ragusa made no 
articulate reply, and the Dauphin, losing all com- 
mand of his temper, exclaimed — 

" Rendez-moi votre epee: donnez-moi votre 
epee. 

With these words he seized the sword, and, in 
attempting to break it, inflicted a wound on his 
hand which produced an exclamation loud enough 
to bring to the scene of the interview some of 
the guards in attendance, when his royal highness 



PARIS IN 1830. - 209 

directed that Marmont should immediately be 
placed under arrest. 

The King having been informed of the inci- 
dent, expressed his regret at his son's unseason- 
able violence, and endeavoured to effect a recon- 
ciliation by directing that Marmont's arrest 
should be limited to a single hour, and that a 
cover should be placed for him at the royal table. 
The King's commands having been communi- 
cated to the Duke, he ventured to decline the 
royal invitation, observing to the officer who 
brought it, " that he had lost his appetite !" 



210 PARIS IN 1830. 



CHAPTER XV. 

Hasty rally of the Royal forces, previously to their evacuation 
of Paris — Their departure — Occupation of the Tuileries by 
a party of the National Guard — Attempts at plunder suc- 
cessfully resisted — Discoveries in the Royal Apartments — 
Various anecdotes — Traits of female heroism — Incidents 
connected with the retreat of the troops through the Champs 
Elysees. 

After finally retiring from the gardens of the 
Tuileries, the royal forces rallied on the Champs 
Elysees, to the number of three or four thou- 
sand. At the barriere de l'Etoile, and around 
the unfinished triumphal arch which has had 
so many destinations, a halt was made, which 
created some uneasiness in Paris, and gave rise 
to the report of its being Marmont's intention 
to bombard the capital during the night. It was 
afterwards ascertained, however, that the pause 
was occasioned by the commander's knowledge of 
the fact, that the inhabitants of Neuilly had 
thrown a barricade across their bridge, and had 
risen in arms for the purpose of securing for the 



PARIS IN 1830. 211 

citizens a point of communication, which, in case 
of the continuance of hostilities, would un- 
doubtedly have proved of very great importance 
to the party who might remain in possession 
of it. 

This patriotic proceeding had the effect of 
inducing the royal forces to diverge from the 
avenue de Nenilly, after wantonly firing a num- 
ber of round shot through the village, in the 
direction of the bridge ; and, having entered the 
Bois de Boulogne on the left, they proceeded 
across the royal preserves towards the bridges 
which communicate with Sevres and Saint Cloud. 

As soon as the palace had been evacuated, a 
party of two hundred National Guards, under 
the command of M. Maes, was sent by Colonel 
Zimmer, the chief of Lafayette's staff, to take 
possession of the building, and protect it from the 
excesses which were to be expected in the 
hour of victory. M. Maes, with the assistance 
of M. Brougniard, a pupil of the Polytechnic 
School, after causing all the outer gates to be 
shut, insisted on every individual who left the 
palace being searched and stript of any property 
which might have been unduly appropriated. 

Before the arrival of this party some scenes of 
disorder had already occurred, excited probably 
by such as wished to benefit by the confusion 
which they made it their business to create. 
The ambuscade which had issued from the Pa- 

p 2 



212 PARIS IN 1830. 

villon de Flore, the town residence of the Duke 
and Duchess d'Angouleme, was made a pretext 
for commencing the plunder of their royal high- 
nesses' apartments, and for throwing many articles 
of value from the windows into the garden, and 
on the adjoining quay. The more orderly of 
the citizens resisted these acts of rapine ; on which 
a violent struggle ensued between those who 
wished to plunder, and those who were desirous 
that the popular triumph should not he thus 
dishonoured. In this affray, the friends of good 
order proved victorious, and had already posted 
sentinels at every practicable outlet, to prevent 
the abstraction of the property. 

It is of course impossible to say that no losses 
were sustained ; but it is a fact which deserves to 
be noticed, that a minute or proces verbal was 
prepared at the Bourse of all such articles as 
were afterwards restored, in compliance with a 
suggestion to that effect in the public papers ; and 
from this record it appears that gold and silver 
plate which had belonged to the Duke d'Angou- 
leme, and had been thrown from the windows of 
his apartments, has thus been recovered to the 
amount of 19,800 ounces. 

In the apartments of the Duchess de Berri 
no such violence was committed. It is stated 
that two men of the class of labourers having 
found there a casket of great value, proceeded 
with it directly to the Hotel de Ville, and de- 



PARIS IN 1830. 213 

posited it with the officers of the newly consti- 
tuted government, refusing- even to accept any 
receipt or acknowledgment for the service they 
had performed. 

The tastes and habits of the different mem- 
bers of the royal family were, in some degree, 
discoverable from the state of their places of 
abode. The library of the Duchess de Berri 
contained a collection of all that was interesting 
or important in modern literature ; her residence 
was adorned with a good collection of pictures, 
and of specimens in almost every department of 
modern art. A well-thumbed missal was the 
only book to be found in the apartments inhabited 
by the King himself; and in those of the Duke 
d'Angouleme, the most prominent were a col- 
lection of almanacks, beginning as far back as 
the fifteenth century. 

The appearance which these apartments pre- 
sented after the capture of the palace by the 
populace, afforded a striking example of the 
close alliance which is supposed to exist between 
the sublime and the ridiculous. The royal 
couch was invaded by half a dozen of the ex- 
hausted throng, who, to judge from their rest- 
lessness, did not seem to find it a bed of roses. 
In the chair of state sat a man with a bottle of 
champagne in one hand, and a glass in the other, 
which he distributed to all around him in a style 
of royal munificence, such as no pencil but 



214 PARIS IN 1830. 

that of a Hogarth or a Cruickshank could ade- 
quately represent. But this caricature of ma- 
jesty very readily gave way on the approach of 
a party of young men bearing the body of a 
pupil of the Polytechnic School, who had been 
killed in one of the apartments when the troops 
were making their final retreat. His remains 
were placed on the throne itself, and there conti- 
nued under a covering of crape, until removed 
by his fellow-students for interment. 

Among the notabilites of Paris, M. de Laborde 
was one of the first who on Thursday morning 
accepted a command in the National Guard. 
He placed himself at the head of the second 
arrondissement, and appointed the riding-school 
in the Rue Cadet as the place of rendezvous. 
Three companies were instantly formed, and se- 
lected their old officers by acclamation. In one of 
them there served as privates Monsieur Ferrere 
Lafitte, M. Eugene Lafitte, M. Adolphe Lafitte, 
M. Morlot, M. Bainiere the stockbroker, and 
M. Lareguy the banker. They had been di- 
rected to halt for fresh orders at the entrance of 
the Faubourg Montmartre, and there, in fact, 
two separate orders arrived directly contra- 
dictory of each other. M. de Laborde commu- 
nicated both to the detachment under his com- 
mand, saying : — " Comrades ! you see that on 
the one hand we are required to remain in our 
arrondissement, and to disperse to our several 



PARIS IN 1830. 215 

homes until further orders ; and on the other, 
our assistance is wanted where fighting' is going 
on: which order shall we obey? " An feu ! 
au feu!" was the unanimous answer to this ap- 
peal. The party proceeded to the Theatre Fran- 
£ais, where a reinforcement had been appointed 
to muster, and they reached the Place du Palais 
Royal immediately after some brave fellows had 
succeeded in securing a piece of cannon. The 
victors were riding on it en cheval, the women of 
the neighbourhood had strewed it with flowers, 
and the column of citizens who had come to the 
relief of the captors, were carrying them off in 
triumph. 

M. Alexandre Lefebvre, who commanded a 
post in the Rue des Martyrs, discovered that 
one of his party was a young woman armed with 
sword and pistols, and in masculine attire. It 
was in vain that M. Lefebvre pointed out to 
her the danger to which she was exposing herself. 
" I have no children," she said ; " this is my 
husband beside me : I share all his sentiments, 
and if it be necessary, I am ready to die with 
him." 

It is attested, also, by the officer in command 
of the post at the Tuileries, that among the 
National Guards who conducted themselves in a 
manner the most brilliant and the most coura- 
geous, was a young person, Mademoiselle Jose- 
phine Mercier, by profession an accoucheuse, 



216 PARIS IN 1830. 

residing in the Rue Monsieur le Prince, No. 15. 
She was known in the ranks by the name of 
Victor, and called herself a student of medicine. 
She wore a green frock coat, through the skirts 
of which two bullets had passed. Her com- 
plexion was delicate, so that she looked like a 
boy of fifteen. She was generally the first in 
leading a patrol or a party of observation, and 
often exposed her life in the attentions she paid 
to the wounded. 

Another instance of female heroism is that of 
Madame Laval, of the Rue Saint Denis, No. 
200. The mother of four sons, she had con- 
stantly encouraged them, both by exhortation 
and example, in constructing the barricades. 
When these ramparts were completed, she pro- 
vided them with arms, and went with them 
herself to see them take their place in the 
ranks. 

A young woman of the humblest class, who 
resides in the Rue de l'Odeon, and who became 
known during the days of the revolution by the 
name of the " petite vivandiere" observing the 
sufferings to which the men under arms were 
exposed by the extreme heat of the weather, 
and the thirst and exhaustion produced by it, 
conceived the idea of making herself useful, by 
disposing of her little property, and with the 
proceeds purchasing a supply of wine and brandy, 
and other more substantial means of refreshment. 



PARIS IN 1830. 217 

With her basket on her back, and a pitcher of 
water in her hand, the zealous little commissary 
traversed the ranks of the citizens, distributing 
to one a morsel of bread, to another a season- 
able draught ; stimulating the courage of some, 
and dressing the wounds of others ; and, in 
short, making herself so actively useful, that she 
seemed to be everywhere present. When vic- 
tory had declared for the citizens, they carried 
her in triumph through the town ; but, although 
she had not hesitated to show herself in the 
midst of the carnage, it was evidently with reluc- 
tance that she yielded to a ceremony which made 
her an object of such general attention. 

Of the retreat through the Champs Elysees, 
and along the avenue de Neuilly, the following 
account is given by the Messrs. Crucy, who re- 
side near the barriere de l'Etoile : 

On the approach of the troops, these gentle- 
men had retired into a wooden shed which over- 
looks the avenue, and from thence observed the 
extraordinary appearance presented by the fugi- 
tives. There were horses without riders, and 
soldiers without arms ; foot soldiers on horse- 
back, and lancers of the Guard on foot ; some 
carrying more than one musket, and others half 
naked, and disguised in every conceivable form. 
A young man, without hat or shoes, was mount- 
ed on a magnificent charger ; another had no- 
thing to cover him but a piece of tattered tapes- 



£18 PARIS IJN 1830. 

try ; and not a few were dressed as women. 
In the midst of the crowd were a number of 
Avaggons, very heavily loaded with fugitives 
mounted on them, probably of some note, but 
stripped also of their upper garments, as if afraid 
that their dress should lead to their recognition. 

Soldiers were seen occasionally to leave the 
ranks, as if impelled by rage or despair, and, 
halting at the openings of the adjoining streets, 
would fire on any one they saw either out of 
doors or at the windows. A number of indivi- 
duals were thus killed in the Rue de Montaigne, 
the Rue du Colysee, the Rue d'Angouleme, and 
other parallel streets. 

The Messrs. Crucy were not provided with 
arms, but had collected a store of paving stones 
and other missiles, to throw, if necessary, from 
an elevated position within their premises. They 
were in this situation when a dismounted cuiras- 
sier stopped in front of the shed behind which 
they were concealed, raised his sabre, and laid 
his hand on one of the boards of the building. 
A stone was already raised to crush him, when 
they observed that the poor man was wounded 
in the arm, that he was presenting his sword, 
and begging for life in the name of his poor 
mother. 

" You are deceiving us," said young Crucy ; 
" see where your comrades are firing down the 
opposite streets ; if they see us, they will turn 



PARIS IN 1830. 219 

upon us." — " No," replied the cuirassier, " they 
have fought, as I have done, against their will ; 
it is in their despair that they seek to sell their 
lives, because they know not to whom to surren- 
der, and cannot hope for mercy. They will not 
fire on their protectors." On this frank avowal 
they regarded the wounded cuirassier as a vic- 
tim to the rule of discipline ; and, in spite of the 
danger to which they exposed themselves, they 
opened their gate, took him by the arm, and led 
him into the vestibule, where, with the assist- 
ance of the porter, his wound was dressed, and 
other attentions bestowed on him. 

But a genadier, who had misunderstood this 
generous movement, and thought that they were 
leading in his comrade for the purpose of killing 
him, hastened to the gate, and had levelled his 
piece at the inmates, when he saw the male in- 
habitants surrounding their guest, and the 
women bathing his wound. " Are you, then, 
the friends of the King ?" exclaimed the grena- 
dier. — " No," replied M. Crucy ; " but we are 
willing to succour a Frenchman who has been 
so far misled as to fire on the people." On this, 
the grenadier broke his firelock on the stones, 
and repeated that he too, like the others, had 
fought against his will. He implored an asy- 
lum, which was readily granted, and the door 
was closed after him. 

The protestations of these unhappy men con- 



220 PARIS IN 1830. 

vinced their liberators that others might be with- 
drawn from the cause of tyranny ; and that with 
their muskets and sabres they might arm an equal 
number of well-disposed citizens. As soon as 
this idea was suggested, they threw open their 
folding-doors, and offered an asylum to all 
comers. But terror and distrust prevented the 
fugitives from understanding this generous ap- 
peal. Two others only availed themselves of it, 
at the moment when they were absolutely sink- 
ing with fatigue. 

Soon afterwards, a mounted trooper was stop- 
ped in front of the house. He had drawn his 
sword and struck a citizen, on which the people 
of the neighbourhood threw themselves upon 
him, and were about to dispatch him. The 
blow of a paving-stone had brought down both 
man and horse, and had left him in the ditch be- 
tween the trees of the boulevards. On hearing 
his cries, M. Crucy ran out and begged of the 
group who had gathered around him to have 
mercy on the fallen man. " He can no longer 
hurt us," said M. Crucy ; " and the victory of 
the Parisians is so complete and so noble, that 
we can well afford to be generous. Let us not 
sully it by a murder, however just it may be." 
The idea of vengeance was readily abandoned, 
and M. Crucy, taking the unfortunate horseman 
by the arm, carried him into the house almost 
against his will. 



PARIS IN 1830. 221 

Observing in the vestibule a collection of arms 
and uniforms, he at once formed the idea that 
that they must have belonged to men who had 
been murdered ; and, swearing like a madman, 
he turned towards the door. " If you think 
yourself in any danger," said M. Crucy, " you 
are at liberty to go ; but first go in with us, and 
see your comrades covered with our clothes and 
seated at our table ; and after that you may go 
if you will." Still trembling with rage, he re- 
fused to advance ; but the younger Crucy having 
opened the door of the apartment, enabled him 
to see his companions in misfortune. At this 
sight he asked pardon, and embraced his libera- 
tors. 

These unhappy men, having cut their mousta- 
choes, assisted in making for themselves three- 
coloured cockades. The Messrs. Crucy and 
their neighbour, M. Devis, provided them with 
round hats and coloured clothes, and even the 
porter of the house stripped himself of a vest, a 
smock-frock, and a pair of shoes, to assist in 
providing the poor fellows with disguises. It 
was the porter's wife who bathed the wound of 
the cuirassier. 

On the following day, the men, thus refreshed 
and attired, set out in quest of their connexions 
in the city, leaving their arms and baggage with 
M. Crucy, who gave one of the sabres to a 



222 PARIS IN 1830. 

neighbour setting out on the expedition to Ram- 
bouillet, and delivered the rest of the property 
to the mayor of his arrondissement, as goods be- 
longing to the state. 



PARIS IN 1830. QQ3 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Proclamation made by the Provisional Government, after the 
popular triumph — Submission of the Royalist troops, in 
consequence — Instances of humane interposition on the part 
of individuals, on behalf of the Military — Fine example of 
self-sacrifice shown by a woman — Characteristic sayings, 
produced by the circumstances of the Revolution — An illus- 
tration of the feeling among the soldiery— The bombarded 
house — The interment of the dead, with the scenes attend- 
ant on that office. 

One of the first measures of the Provisional 
Government, after the popular triumph had been 
secured, was to issue the following proclamation, 
addressed to the misguided soldiery : 

" PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT. 

" The troops of the Royal Guard, and of the Line, are 
ordered to present themselves within forty-eight hours at 
the provisional camp established at Vaugirard. 

" We give our word of honour that no harm shall 
befall them, and that every soldier shall be treated as a 
friend and a brother, receiving rations and lodging until 
our farther orders. 

" For the Commander-in-Chief, 

" GERARD, 
" The second in command, PAJOL." 



224 PARIS IN 1830. 

This order was very generally obeyed ; but 
before it had been effectually promulgated, a 
number of soldiers, reduced to a state of despe- 
ration, after throwing away their arms, had endea- 
voured to conceal themselves in the great hotel 
of the minister for foreign affairs on the Boule- 
vard des Capucines. The place of their retreat 
was singularly ill chosen, from its tendency to 
rouse all the hostile feelings of the people, as soon 
as it was known that the residence of the chief 
criminal had become the hiding-place of the in- 
struments of his crime. The hotel was attacked 
by the citizens, whose vindictive feelings had been 
roused by the cruelties they had witnessed. The 
cries of vengeance from without, and of mercy 
from within, had already excited a very serious 
fermentation, when M. Joseph Perier, the bro- 
ther of M. Casimir Perier, and M. Gamier Pe- 
rille of Loigny, rushed among the assailants, at 
great personal hazard, and, by the firmness of 
their demeanour, and the severity of the reproof 
which they administered, succeeded in rescuing 
the unhappy men, who were thus on the point of 
being sacrificed to the popular indignation, from 
the fate which too surely awaited them. 

This is no rare instance of protection afforded 
to the military from the exasperation of the popu- 
lace, by the firmness and humanity of individuals. 
Not far from the Protestant chapel, called the 
Oratoire, in the Rue Saint Honore, a man dressed 



PARTS IN 1830. 2&5 

in coloured clothes was recognized as the officer 
who, on the Tuesday before, had commanded the 
post of gen-d'armes at the prefecture of police. It 
was said so, at least, as he passed ; and the report 
having speedily circulated from mouth to mouth, 
the supposed gen-d'arme was loaded with impre- 
cation and abuse, and some one was heard to ex- 
claim that justice should be done upon him — that 
he ought to be exterminated. Pistols were already 
produced, and naked swords had made their ap- 
pearance, when M. Paul Caife, one of the house 
surgeons of the Hotel Dieu, succeeded in pene- 
trating the crowd which had collected, exclaim- 
ing that there was no more need of victims, and 
that it would be shameful thus to massacre an 
unarmed man. He then pulled a small pistol 
from his pocket, and, seizing the man by the 
collar, declared that he would blow out the brains 
of the first who injured him, adding that he would 
himself carry the prisoner to the Hotel de Ville, 
and ascertain his identity. The crowd were de- 
terred from farther interference by M. Caffe's 
determined attitude ; and a person of superior ap- 
pearance, who had witnessed the transaction, pre- 
sented him with a highly-mounted pistol of larger 
calibre, saying : " Since you make such good use 
of your arms, young man, here is one which will 
better serve your present purpose." It was with 
this weapon that M. Caffe continued to escort 
his protege to the Place de Greve, where the 

Q 



22(3 PARTS IN 1830. 

man was recognized as a retired custom-house 
officer, who had thus so nearly fallen a victim to 
the mistake of an excited populace. 

The following- incident is also stated on M. 
Caffe's authority. He was returning at ten 
o'clock on Tuesday morning from the mairie of 
his arrondissement in the Rue Geoffroy Lasnier, 
when, in passing under the arcade of the Hotel 
de Ville, he met a detachment of gen-d'armerie, 
who had surrendered the post at the Town Hall, 
without resistance, to a large body of citizens, 
most of whom were armed with firelocks. In 
passing along the Place de Greve he found 
there also a strong body of citizens, and, con- 
tinuing his route by the bridge of Notre Dame, 
he saw a party make their appearance of about 
twenty-five grenadiers of the Royal Guard, 
under the command of a lieutenant. M. CafFe 
informed the officer that the post of the Hotel 
de Ville was no longer hi the hands of the royal 
troops, and that if he were so imprudent as to 
go thither, his party would undoubtedly be cut to 
pieces. The officer replied that he knew his 
orders, and that it was no part of his duty to 
obey the first stranger he met. He then gave 
the word " forward" to his men, in a tone 
which forbade any further interference. M. 
Caffe turned back to observe the issue, and shel- 
tered himself within the doorway of the wine- 
shop which forms the corner of the quay, and of 



PARIS IN 1830. W 

the Place de Greve. Scarcely had the soldiers 
of the Guard turned this corner, when the citi- 
zens called out to them to lay down their arms. 
The lieutenant ordered his men to present their 
pieces, and to fire. A murderous discharge im- 
mediately took place on either side : ten of the 
soldiers were killed, and not one of them escaped 
unwounded. The event which M. CafFe had 
anticipated was thus painfully verified. Pro- 
vided with his surgical instruments, he hastened 
to the relief of both parties : the officer he found 
with his thigh broken by a musket-ball, and 
with two bayonet wounds in his breast ; he lived 
only an hour and a half, and repeatedly pressed 
the young surgeon's hand, as if to ask pardon 
for the rudeness with which he had repulsed 
the seasonable advice which had been given to 
him. 

Another party of the Royal Guard, after long 
contending against superior numbers, continued 
to persist in the unequal contest with so much 
resolution, as seriously to try the firmness of 
those opposed to them. At one moment the 
citizens had given way, but having afterwards 
rallied, the detachment of the Guards, who were 
now reduced to ten in number, advanced and 
offered to surrender. " No quarter for these 
cut-throats !" the popular party exclaimed, and 
were about to put their threat in execution, had 
not M. Pelars, a young man who had mixed in 

q 2 



228 PARIS IN 1830. 

the crowd for the purpose of assisting- one of the 
wounded, thrown himself between the two par- 
ties, and turning towards the citizens, exclaimed, 
— " What would you do, spilling more blood ? 
Are they not Frenchmen ? Are they not our 
fellow-citizens, our brothers, and would you be 
so barbarous as to murder them after they have 
laid down their arms ?" " But look, sir !" ex- 
claimed one of the most furious, pointing to a 
bloody corpse on the ground, " that is my bro- 
ther : he fell beside me, and it was these cut- 
throats who killed him. No quarter ! no 
quarter !" and the word was repeated from every 
mouth. " They shall not perish, or I shall die 
the first !" exclaimed the generous young man, 
placing himself in front of the royalists : and, lay- 
ing hold of the fixed bayonet of one of the 
levelled muskets, he called out, " Fire on me if 
you dare." Those whose passions were most in- 
flamed were calmed and disarmed by this heroic 
interference, and the lives of the guardsmen were 
spared. 

An incident which occurred in the Rue Saint 
Honore, at the corner of the Rue de PEchelle, 
where similar heroism was displayed by a woman 
whose name remains unknown, had unhappily 
a very different termination. She had observed 
with what dreadful effect a piece of artillery had 
been fired along this great thoroughfare, and 
conceived the idea of stopping the slaughter, by 



PARIS IN 1830. 229 

appealing to the humanity of the gunners. She 
went up to them, exclaiming : — " Epargnez- 
nous, je vous en supplie : epargnez vos conci- 
toyens : ne tirez plus." Having observed that 
the piece had just been recharged, and that the 
match was ready to be applied to it, she re- 
doubled her supplications, but in vain : — " Eh 
bien," she said, throwing herself before the 
mouth of the gun, " c'est sur moi que vous 
tirerez ! Aurez vous bien le coeur de massacrer 
une fern me qui s'offre a vos coups ?" The 
astonished gunner, taking her by the arm, 
replied : — " Ma petite dame, otez vous que je 
fasse mon devoir : tout ceci ne vous regarde 
pas > vous allez vous faire echarper." But she 
persisted in clinging to the mouth of the gun, 
and embraced it so closely, that she could 
not be removed from it. " Non," she cried ; 
" non, vous ne tirerez pas ; ou bien ce sera sur 
moi." The gunner was deeply affected, and 
hesitated, not knowing what to do ; cursing this 
civil war and all its horrors from the bottom 
of his heart. The officer who commanded, ob- 
serving that the populace were preparing to avail 
themselves of the gunner's hesitation, in order to 
lay hold of the piece, exclaimed, " Malheur eux, 
feu, ou je te passe mon sabre au travers du ventre." 
Either from long habits of obedience, or from 
fear of this menace, the gunner applied the 
match to the piece, and the body of the un- 



230 PARIS IN 1830. 

fortunate woman was scattered in a thousand 
fragments. 

" Voila les precepteurs du peuple !" is the ob- 
servation ascribed to M. de Peyronnet, on the 
first appearance of the artillery. The princes at 
Saint Cloud were soon afterwards regaled with 
this atrocious pleasantry. How sadly must it 
now have lost its relish both for prince and peer ! 

Witticisms of a less offensive character were 
to be heard too on the popular side. On the 
quay de la Greve, at the corner of the Rue des 
Barres, an eight pound bullet is suspended by 
a three-coloured ribbon, surmounted by a large 
cockade, and bearing the inscription, 

" Prune de Monsieur, 28 Juillet, 1830." 

In the Rue Saint Antoine also, a number of 
round shot have been attached, in the style of a 
lady's necklace, to one of the ropes which tra- 
verse the street, and from which the public lamps 
of the city are suspended, with a scroll attached 
to it, whereon is scratched in large characters : 

" Paroles touchantes du bon roi Charles X. 



Among the chronological coincidencies which 
have been observed between the two French re- 
volutions, the Parisians delight to remind you, 
that the 28th of July 1830 corresponds with the 
9th Thermidor in the year three, and that the 



PARIS IN 1830. 231 

fall of Charles X. thus took place on the anni- 
versary of that of Robespierre. 

" They may say what they please," said some 
one, " of the 14th of July," which is considered a 
white day in the French calendar, from its mark- 
ing the fall of the Bastile, " but it will never be 
more than the half of the 28th" 

Almost every great personage in France has 
some clever saying associated with his name. 
That of Charles X. is said to have been uttered 
on his entering Paris at the period of the resto- 
ration : " II n'est qu'un Francais de plus." This 
royal mot has suggested the idea of a song, with 
the burden, 

" Eh bien ! qu'il reparte aussitot ; 
Ce n'est plus qu'un Francois de trop" 

In the Catholic liturgy, the daily prayer for 
the King is " domine, salvum fac regem." A 
cure in the neighbourhood of Paris in reading 
the regular routine from his prayer-book, was 
startled when he came to the word regem, and 
making a pause while he thought of some sub- 
stitute, found his latinity at fault, and at length 
shouted out, amidst the ill-concealed laughter of 
his audience, " domine, salvum fac le gouverne- 
ment provisoire." 

It was Louis XI. who first assumed the title 
of his most Christian Majesty. The people of 
Paris now say that Philippe le Bel was not quite 



232 PARIS IN 1830. 

so good a Christian as Louis XI. ; that Charles 
IX. was a little better ; but that Charles X. 
has surpassed them all. 

A note is said to have been found in the ar- 
chiepiscopal palace, at the time when it was 
entered by the citizens, conceived in the follow- 
ing- terms : — 

"Mon cher archeveque, venez me voir demain; 
nous lirons ensemble le pseaume LX. 

" Charles." 

The following incident is stated on the autho- 
rity of the two associated poets, Barthelemy and 
Mery. 

" On the 28th, at three o'clock, attacks were 
made on all points. A battalion of the National 
Guard had formed itself in the Rue Croix des 
Petits Champs, and on the Place des Vietoires. 
The crowd, thinking that all was finished, were 
mad with joy ; the battalion descended towards 
the Rue Saint Honore. 

" We had entered a neighbouring house to 
take some refreshment, and were congratulating 
ourselves on the success of the Parisians, when an 
alarming fire of musketry burst over the Rue 
Croix des Petits Champs. The volleys of pla- 
toons, which were fired with technical precision, 
led us to suppose that it was a regiment of 
the Guard, which had issued by the Rue Bailliff. 
We descended by the Rue Coquilliere ; the 



PARIS IN 1830. c 233 

smoke was there so dense, that it was impossible 
to distinguish any thing' at the distance of six 
paces. The fire suddenly ceased, and our hearts 
sank within us, when we recognized those troops 
of the Line on whom we had founded such de- 
lightful hopes. On the benches placed at the 
two corners of the street, groups of soldiers were 
seated, quietly smoking their pipes. This was 
their conversation : ' What a rascally trade is 
ours ! I have a mind to send the musket to the 
devil.' c They sent me to the guard-house this 
morning ; they might have let me remain there 
for two or three days : it would have been more 
to my taste.' — ' Ah! 9a,' said the first speaker, 
' and why should we fire on the bourgeois ? 
Do they think we have no bowels?' — ' If this 
lasts,' cried another, I for one shall move my 
camp. I am not engaged for that.' Each of 
these observations, so contrary to all discipline, 
was received with signs of approbation, by the 
soldiers collected around the speaker. We then 
ventured to inquire, why, with such sentiments, 
they had sometimes consented to fire upon the 
towns-people ? The question produced an in- 
describable smile on the rough and masculine 
features of the party ; and a Serjeant said to us, 
' Gentlemen, take the trouble to turn the corner 
of the street, and count your dead !' 

" The street in all its breadth was unstained 



234 PARIS IN 1830. 

with blood : these brave fellows had fired in the 
air !" 

The house which is thought to have suffered 
the most, during- this short campaign, is that 
which is situated in the Grande Rue du Fau- 
bourg Saint Antoine, facing the Rue de Cha- 
ronne, bearing the Nos. 78, 80, and 82. Three 
officers of rank had been killed on the street in 
front of this house ; and that circumstance had 
probably exasperated the artillery-men, who im- 
mediately directed upon it their battery of twelve 
pounders, and two twenty-four inch howitzers. 
The first cannon shot brought down one of the 
great beams of the roof; the second swept 
away the ridge of another ; and a third passed 
through a wall, which supported a great stack of 
chimneys. After so much success, it seemed as 
if they had resolved to demolish the whole 
building, as they then pointed one of the howit- 
zers on the stack of chimnies, which rested on 
the wall. The first shell took the wall at an 
angle, making a considerable breach in it, and 
afterwards, falling on the roof, exploded as it 
sank. The second shell, directed against the 
centre of the wall, traversed three of the chim- 
nies, and falling down through the fourth, de- 
scended to the first floor, where it burst, break- 
ing the windows and looking-glasses, levelling 
the partition-walls, and destroying the furniture. 



PARIS IN 1830. 235 

The proprietor found it necessary, so great was 
the damage, to prop up the exterior walls, in 
consequence of their shattered condition, lest 
more serious accidents should be occasioned by 
its falling into the street. Only one individual 
was killed by this bombardment, and he was a 
stranger, attracted to the spot by curiosity. 

The excellent municipal regulation, which for- 
bids the interment of the dead within the walls 
of Paris, was necessarily departed from on this 
distressing occasion. The excessive heat of the 
weather increased the urgency of the case ; and 
the existence of the barricades created obstacles 
at every step. On the evening of the 29th, and 
the morning of the following day, many a sad 
sight was witnessed on the streets of Paris ; but 
in every case, the most solemn respect, the most 
touching solicitude, attended the victims who 
had fallen on the field of honour. A number of 
individuals were privately interred in courts and 
gardens. The piece of enclosed ground which 
forms the terrace, under the colonnade of the 
Louvre, became a general burying-place. At 
the end next the quay, eighty unclaimed bodies 
were placed in two large pits, between two beds 
of quick lime. It was during this mournful 
operation, that a brother was recognized by his 
brother : his remains were so covered with blood, 
as to make his person almost undistinguish- 
able. The brother threw himself on the body, 



236 PARIS IN 1830. 

with cries and wailing, and would not be sepa- 
rated, until he had cut a lock of his hair. — The 
bodies of the dead received all the honours due 
to soldiers, and to Christians ; discharges of mus- 
ketry were fired over this great tomb, and the 
Abb6 Paravey, of Saint Germain l'Auxerrois, 
dressed in his sacerdotal habit, pronounced a 
benediction on their resting-place, and was recon- 
ducted to the gate of his church by the armed 
men. The ground is marked by a broken column 
covered with flowers and laurels, and three- 
coloured flags, and the whole is surmounted by a 
black cross, inscribed with the legend — 

i 
" Aux Francais morts tour la liberte !" 

On the 30th of July, an equally melancholy 
spectacle was presented to the inhabitants of 
Paris. At the Morgue, a large vessel was moored, 
with a black flag floating over it, to receive 
the bodies of the victims of the previous days. 
They were carried down in hand barrows, some 
in coffins, and others quite naked. In the vessel 
they were ranged in piles, and, after covering 
them with straw, the whole was strewed with 
quick lime, to stay the process of putrefaction. 
In this mass there were old men, women, and 
children of ten or twelve years of age. The 
crowd which occupied the quays and parapets, 
to contemplate the sad embarkation, seemed as 
if frozen with horror ; their silence being from 



PARIS IN 1830. 237 

time to time interrupted by a solitary imprecation 
from among- the throng. Weeping mothers were 
there, indulging in silent grief, while others were 
passionately embracing their infants, as if happy 
to think that they were yet too young to engage 
in these bloody quarrels. " Legitimacy," ex- 
claimed the eloquent M. Bernard de Rennes, 
at the tribune of the Chamber of Deputies — 
" La legitimite etait enter ree sous ces cada- 
vres !" 

The funeral bark was carried to the Champ de 
Mars, where the remains of these patriots were 
interred. 



238 PARIS IN 1830. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



Proclamation addressed to the troops in the name of Lafayette 
— Historical Sketch of the Life of General Lafayette. 



As a happy issue to the revolution, or a pro- 
longation of the horrors of civil war, depended, 
in a great measure, on the disposition of the 
troops, it was resolved, that another proclama- 
tion should be addressed to them, in the name of 
Lafayette, and on the part of the municipal go- 
vernment of Paris. It was conceived in the fol- 
lowing terms : 

" Beaye Soldiers ! 
" The inhabitants of Paris do not make you responsi- 
ble for the orders which have been given to you. Come 
to us ; we will receive you as brethren : come and range 
yourselves under the command of one of those brave 
generals who have so often shed their blood in the de- 



PARIS IN 1830. 239 

fence of the country. The cause of the army cannot 
long be separated from that of the nation and of liberty; 
its glory is our dearest patrimony. But the army will 
never forget, that the defence of our independence, and 
our liberties, ought to be its first duty. Let us then be 
friends, since our interests, and our rights, are the same. 
General Lafayette declares, in the name of the whole 
population of Paris, that no feeling of hostility is re- 
tained towards the soldiers of France : the inhabitants 
are ready to fraternize with all those who will return to 
the cause of the country and of liberty ; and they long 
for the moment, when soldiers and citizens, united by 
the same sentiments, and assembled under the same 
banner, may at length realize the welfare 5 and the glo- 
rious destinies of our common country. 
66 Vive la France ! 

(Signed) " Le General Lafayette." 

The large space which this single-minded in- 
dividual has filled in the revolutionary history of 
France, seems to call for some notice of his long, 
diversified, and honourable career. Marie-Paul- 
Jean-Roch-Yves-Gilbert-Motier, Marquis de La- 
fayette, was born at Chavagnac in Auvergne, on 
the 6th of September, 17 57. The issue of an 
illustrious house, he received an education suited 
to the rank he was destined to hold in society ; 
and when arrived at the age which called on 
him to enter the world, his studies were so far 
advanced, as to enable him to make his election 
between the career of letters and of arms. He 
chose that in which the name of his family had al- 
ready been distinguished, by his celebrated ancestor 



240 PARIS IN 1830. 

the Mareschal Lafayette, by his uncle, who was 
killed in Italy, and by his father, who also died 
gloriously, at the battle of Minden. Already 
also he had lost his mother, when, at the early 
age of sixteen, he was united in marriage to 
Mademoiselle de Noailles, the daughter of the 
Due d'Ayen. By means of this alliance with a 
family at once rich and powerful, and in high 
credit at court, the Marquis de Lafayette might 
have rapidly advanced in the career of honours 
and dignities ; but, disdaining his hereditary and 
adventitious advantages, he refused to avail him- 
self of a distinction, which was not founded on 
personal merit. 

The American colonies of Great Britain had 
risen in insurrection, for the purpose of resisting 
the right of the mother country to levy taxes 
from subjects who were not represented. They 
had created an independent government, had 
published a declaration of rights, and had con- 
stituted themselves into a federative republic. 
Success, however, had not attended their arms ; 
they had lost the battle of Brooklyn, and had 
sustained many serious defeats, when Washing- 
ton was invested with the dictatorship, and 
Franklin was sent to Paris, to ask for the assist- 
ance of Louis XVI. 

The French government had not yet avowed 
their satisfaction at the injury which England was 
suffering in her dearest interests. They had re- 



PARIS IN 1830. 241 

fused all assistance, even indirectly, to the Ame- 
rican insurgents. It was at a moment so dan- 
gerous for Lafayette, that he tore himself from 
the arms of his young wife, and set out to fight 
in the cause of independence. He had begged 
the American envoy to obtain a vessel for him, 
to carry him to the republican army. Franklin 
had the generosity to try to turn him from a 
project, which savoured of temerity, at a mo- 
ment when the insurgents were beaten at all 
points. Disregarding the opposition of the court, 
and the friendly dissuasions of Franklin, he 
freighted a ship at his own expense, and landed 
at George Town, during the summer of 1777, 
carrying with him important dispatches, and a 
supply of arms and ammunition. 

At this period, the American army in New 
Jersey was waiting until some great movement 
on the part of the royalists should discover to 
them the plan of the British ministry. This 
soon became known, by the landing of General 
Howe, the British commander, on the coast of 
Maryland, and the attack which he made on 
Washington, in the neighbourhood of Philadel- 
phia. In this engagement the Americans were 
compelled to yield, and Lafayette was wounded 
in the leg, while endeavouring, by language and 
example, to rally the fugitives. 

It was after the battle of Brandywine, when 
the cause of the confederation was almost des- 



242 PARIS IN 1830. 

perate, that the court of Versailles resolved to 
recognize the independence of the United States. 
Lafayette was then appointed to the command 
of the army of the North ; but being assured that 
his presence there could be attended with no 
useful result, he solicited his recall to the chief 
scene of operations, and resumed his place under 
the orders of Washington. The English troops 
under General Clinton having at length been 
driven out of Philadelphia, by the hatred of the 
population, and the indefatigable activity of Wash- 
ington, were pursued in their retreat, and over- 
taken in the defiles of Freehold, near Monmouth. 
A great battle there took place ; Washington was 
victorious, and Lafayette contributed to the 
triumph, by leading the advanced guard. 

The Count d'Estaing having received orders to 
act against the English, an attack was to be made on 
Rhode Island, and the command of Sullivan's army 
was given to Lafayette ; but the retreat of the 
French squadron on Boston prevented the com- 
bined operations from being carried into effect. 

During the suspension of hostilities, Lafayette 
returned to France, to hasten the dispatch of re- 
inforcements ; and, Avhile a corps of 6,000 men 
was in preparation under the command of Count 
Rochambeau, he proceeded to Spain, and con- 
cluded a treaty of commerce with the court of 
Madrid, which was soon afterwards changed into 
a declaration of war against England. 



PARIS IN 1830. L 2io 

On his return to America he rejoined the 
camp of Washington, and took an active part in 
the operations of the war. Having been ap- 
pointed to the command of the Virginian army, 
he received notice from Washington that the 
English were about to march against him with 
all their forces in Carolina, and he was directed 
to defend the frontier to the last extremity. In 
this critical situation, with a force which scarcely 
amounted to 5,000 men, without funds, without 
clothes, and almost without provisions, he bor- 
rowed money in his own name, and mortgaged 
his estates in Europe, to provide the means of 
carrying on the war. After a five months' strug- 
gle, the object of which was to avoid a general 
engagement with Lord Cornwallis, he succeeded 
by a train of masterly manoeuvres, and some par- 
tial actions, in enclosing that General in a position 
from which it was impossible for him to escape. 
The capitulation of York Town, in October 1781, 
decided the fate of the war ; the joy of the 
Americans was at its height ; and the name of 
Lafayette was mingled in all their rejoicings. 

He returned to France on board an Ameri- 
can frigate, and again applied himself with zeal 
and assiduity to the despatch of fresh succours. 
At his entreaty a great expedition was formed at 
Cadiz under the command of Count d' Estaing, 
which he prepared to join, at the head of 8,000 
men, who were to sail with him from Brest. It 

r 2 



244 PARIS IN 1830. 

was proposed to make a descent on Jamaica with 
an army of 24,000 men, embarked on board a 
French and Spanish fleet of sixty-six sail of the 
line. Lafayette was appointed commander-in- 
chief of the combined forces. From Jamaica he 
was to have proceeded to New York, and with 
6,000 men embarked on the St. Laurence, have 
attempted the revolution of the Canadas. Every- 
thing- was ready for the despatch of the expedi- 
tion, when the treaty of peace was concluded. 
He was the first to communicate the intelligence 
to Congress, and set out himself for Madrid, 
to restore the political relations which had been 
casually interrupted. 

After these important events, Lafayette paid a 
visit to America, where he was received with 
enthusiasm by a liberated people. His name 
was given to two counties, and to a number of 
fortresses ; and, as if in exchange, that of George 
Washington was bestowed on Lafayette's eldest 
son. He refused a splendid offer of territorial 
aggrandizement, and, on his return to Europe, 
the frank and simple manners of the American, 
tempered by the early polish he had acquired in 
the French court, made him an object of univer- 
sal attraction. He traversed the states of Ger- 
many, where he was received with distinction by 
Joseph II. and Frederic the Great. In conjunc- 
tion with Malesherbes, he applied himself to the 
amelioration of the lot of two classes of sufferers, 



PARIS IN 1830. 2A5 

the Protestants of France, and the negroes of the 
colonies. In this last undertaking 1 he was warmly 
seconded by Madame Lafayette ; but unhappily, 
six years afterwards, on the triumph of a faction 
in France, the slaves which he had bought at 
Cayenne for the purpose of emancipation, were 
re-sold and sent back to the thraldom from which 
he had rescued them. 

The state of the Catholics of Ireland, the vic- 
tims of the Barbary states, and an expedition 
against Egypt, successively occupied his attention, 
when the convocation of the Notables of France 
in 1787 and 1788, directed him to objects nearer 
home. In the assembly over which the Count 
d'Artois presided, Lafayette distinguished himself 
by the generous boldness with which he insisted 
on the suppression of state prisons, and of lettres 
de cachet. It was he also who proposed the con- 
vocation of the States General, or, in other words, 
that the people should be represented by manda- 
tories of their own appointment. The second 
assembly of Notables having discovered a disposi- 
tion inconsistent with the general interests of the 
nation, a necessity arose for the convocation of 
the States General. Lafayette was named a de- 
puty, and spoke for the first time on the 8th of 
July 1789, in support of the celebrated motion 
of Mirabeau for the removal of the troops. Dur- 
ing the violent crisis which succeeded the decla- 
ration of rights, Lafayette was named Vice-pre- 



246 PARIS IN 1830. 

sident of the National Assembly, and occupied 
the chair during the two terrible nights of the 
13th and 14th of July. It was then that the re- 
sponsibility of ministers was decreed, and that 
the existence of a representative system received 
its first and most important guarantee. 

On the 15th of July, Lafayette proceeded to 
Paris at the head of a deputation of fifty members 
of the assembly. The taking of the Bastille on 
the day before had left the capital in a state of 
violent fermentation. In the midst of this move- 
ment the idea arose, and for the moment pre- 
vailed, that the liberty which had been thus 
gained, could only be secured by the re-establish- 
ment of public order. This vital principle was 
communicated throughout a mass of at least 
100,000 armed men, like a spark of electri- 
city. Thus the National Guard was created ; 
and when the body was yet deliberating on the 
choice of a leader, a bust which stood by sug- 
gested the name of Lafayette : he was at once 
appointed by acclamation, and under his auspices 
it soon acquired that consistency, regularity, and 
discipline, which, after so many changes, it still 
happily enjoys. His first order, on taking the 
command, was directed to the demolition of the 
Bastille. On the 16th of July this work was 
commenced, and on the 26th, Lafayette, having 
joined the Bourbon lily to the colours of the 
city of Paris, which were red and blue, pre- 



PARIS IN 1830. ^1? 

sented the three-coloured cockade to the assem- 
bled electors, with the prediction, " that it would 
make the tour of the world." 

When more serious disturbances arose, many 
individuals owed their lives to the courage of 
Lafayette, and to the power which his popularity 
had given him. Finding" that he was not strong- 
enough to save those of Foulon and Berthier, 
he resigned his command, but was afterwards 
persuaded to resume it. On the 5th of October, 
after the most dreadful commotion which had 
yet been witnessed, he inarched with the Na- 
tional Guard to Versailles, where the populace 
of Paris had already assembled. On the 6th he 
succeeded in saving the lives of the royal family, 
and brought them in safety to the capital, where 
the Constituent Assembly had already established 
themselves. 

Lafayette was too much devoted to the cause 
of liberty, not to have many enemies at court ; 
but Louis XVI. was also too just to withhold 
from him the most striking tokens of his satis- 
faction. When the Queen was compelled, amidst 
the popular violence to appear on the balcony of 
the Tuileries, first surrounded by her children, 
and afterwards apart from them, Lafayette at 
the decisive moment presented himself before 
her, and, on his appearance, the insulting cla- 
mours of the multitude were suddenly changed 
into shouts of applause. He took the Queen's 



248 PARIS IN 1830. 

hand and respectfully kissed it, as it trembled in 
his : the excited populace was completely dis- 
armed. It was at once the signal and the pledge 
of reconciliation. During the subsequent capti- 
vity of the royal family, the Princess Elizabeth 
repeatedly expressed her belief that all their 
lives had been saved by Lafayette's interposition 
at Versailles, and severally reproached those 
around her who had blamed him as the cause of 
the popular insurrection. 

Although the names of Mirabeau and the Duke 
of Orleans were both compromised in the violent 
proceedings of the 5th and 6th of October, they 
succeeded in freeing themselves from the accusa- 
tion which was brought against them on the 
part of the municipal authorities. But Lafay- 
ette was still convinced of the culpability of the 
Duke of Orleans ; and, at an interview which is 
described by M. de Segur as " tresimperieuse 
d'une part, trestimide de l'autre," he insisted 
on the Prince's immediately quitting the king- 
dom. 

In spite of the opposition which he met with, 
and the blame which was cast upon him, Lafay- 
ette continued to serve the cause of the Revolu- 
tion without departing from those principles of 
justice and moderation which have always dis- 
tinguished his character. In the proceedings 
against Favras, two witnesses deposed that the 
accused had projected the assassination of the 



PARIS IN 1830. 2A9 

Mayor, and the Commander in-chief of the Na- 
tional Guard ; but Lafayette undertook to inva- 
lidate their testimony, and had them both con- 
victed of conspiracy. Soon afterwards he caused 
a man to be released who had fired upon him in 
the Champ de Mars. After refusing the offices 
of Constable, Dictator, and Lieutenant-General 
of the kingdom, he had it decreed that the same 
individual should never command the National 
Guards of more than a single department — at 
the very moment when several millions of these 
Guards were demanding him for their chief. 

When Louis XVI. took to flight, after he had 
pledged his royal word that he would not with- 
draw himself from the constitutional surveil- 
lance, Lafayette was exposed to serious danger 
in consequence of having agreed to answer with 
his head that the King should not leave the 
French territory. In this situation he was sub- 
jected to the double accusation of having con- 
nived at the King's flight, as the Jacobins pre- 
tended on the one hand, and of having him 
arrested, according to the aristocrats, on the 
other. 

The decree which re-established the unfortu- 
nate monarch on his throne, on condition of his 
acceptance of the constitution proposed to him, 
was the cause of a new commotion. Crowds 
had collected on the Champ de Mars to sign a 
petition of a factious nature, but were dispersed 



250 PARIS IN 1830. 

by Lafayette after the proclamation of martial 
law. On the 8th of October 1791, having caused 
the amnesty to be accepted which had been pro- 
posed by Louis XVI., Lafayette resigned his 
command, and took leave of the National Guard. 
As soon as he had retired, an attempt was made 
to bring him back by electing him Mayor of 
Paris in the room of Bailly ; but the Jacobins 
were triumphant, and Petion was appointed. 

It was at this period that the first emigrant 
coalition was formed. Lafayette was appointed 
to the command of one of the three armies 
directed to repel it. He attacked and beat 
the enemy at Philippe ville, Maubeuge, and 
Florennes, and was proceeding prosperously, 
when his success was interrupted by the course 
of events at Paris. A party had been formed 
against him, with Dumouriez and Collot d'Her- 
bois at its head, which soon became irresis- 
tible. He addressed a letter to the Legislative 
Assembly denouncing this counter-revolutionary 
party, and appeared at the bar to support his de- 
nunciation. He was invited to the honours of 
the sitting, and afterwards proceeded to the 
Tuileries, where he received the thanks of the 
King and Queen. 

On the following day the King was to have 
reviewed four thousand of the National Guards. 
Lafayette asked leave to accompany him, and an- 
nounced his intention of addressing himself to 



PARIS IN 1830. c 251 

the armed citizens in such terms as he thought 
calculated to promote the cause of good order 
and constitutional opinions ; but Louis XVI. was 
as usual circumvented, and induced, during the 
night, to countermand the review. Lafayette 
despaired of effecting further good, and, after ad- 
dressing a second letter to the Assembly, rejoined 
the army under his command. 

On the 30th of June, Lafayette had the honour 
of being burned in effigy at the Palais Royal, and 
was formally accused by the Jacobins before the 
Assembly ; but the question was resolved in his 
favour by a decisive majority, amidst the threats 
and exclamations of the galleries. On leaving 
the chamber, the members were assailed with 
sticks, stones, and sabres ; and, on the following 
day, the Assembly declared, almost unanimously, 
that their deliberations were no longer free. An 
appeal to the army was spoken of ; but, in Paris 
at least, even that was too late. Lafayette then 
conceived the idea of a Departmental Congress, 
but in this he was disappointed. The spirit of 
Jacobinism advanced so rapidly, that only a single 
Department consented to concur with him. Find- 
ing the struggle hopeless, he resolved on retiring 
to a neutral territory, taking with him only the 
small number of officers whose lives would be 
compromised by remaining ; but he and his com- 
panions, to the number of twenty-two, having 
fallen upon a post of Austrians, they were carried 



252 PARIS IN 1830. 

before a superior officer, and four of them, La- 
tour- Maubourg, Lameth, Puzy, and Lafayette, 
were sent to Wezel as prisoners of state. From 
Wezel Lafayette was transferred to Magdebourg, 
where he was plunged for a year into a dark, 
damp, and subterranean dungeon. From thence 
he was carried successively to Glatz and Neiss, 
and finally to Olmutz, which became his prison 
when the King of Prussia made peace with 
France. 

Indignant at the unheard-of sufferings which 
Lafayette was made to endure after the Austrians 
became his jailors, a young Hanoverian physician, 
Bollman, and Huger, a young American, the son 
of an officer of Carolina, with whom Lafayette 
had resided after his first voyage to America, re- 
solved to attempt his rescue. They effected a 
communication with the prisoner, and attended 
with horses under the ramparts, at a moment 
when most of his guards were absent from duty. 
He succeeded in disarming the nearest sentinel, 
but not before the man, in the course of the 
struggle, had severely wounded him in the hand 
with his teeth. His generous liberators then placed 
him on horseback, but were so forgetful of their 
own safety, that the other horses had escaped. 
Huger was immediately taken, and sacrificed 
himself with heroic devotion. Lafayette and 
Bollman agreed to separate, the better to evade 
pursuit. Bollman succeeded in reaching the 



PARIS IN 1830. 253 

Prussian territory, but was there arrested and 
given up to Austria. Lafayette was retaken 
within eight leagues of Olmutz, and from that 
moment was treated with increased barbarity, 
being left, while sick, without light, without 
linen, and without the means of external com- 
munication, or assistance of any kind. After 
sixteen months imprisonment in the dungeons of 
Robespierre, his virtuous and affectionate wife 
was at length allowed to come to him, with her 
daughters, to share his captivity. In the British 
parliament a motion was made for an address to 
the crown to interpose the mediation of Great 
Britain with the Emperor of Germany, for the 
purpose of obtaining the liberation of the pri- 
soners of Olmutz ; but, although supported by 
Fox and other parliamentary orators of distinc- 
tion, it was successfully resisted by Pitt and his 
adherents, on the frigid footing of state policy. 
It was equally in vain that the government of the 
United States employed its intercession to termi- 
nate this iniquitous imprisonment. Austria re- 
mained inexorable, and it was not until after five 
years of suffering, that the chances of war pro- 
cured him his deliverance. 

At the period of Lafayette's proscription, Bo- 
naparte was an inferior and unknown officer ; 
but when the public wish, and the voice of the 
Directory were applied with effect to his relief, 
Bonaparte had risen to the supreme command of 



2.54 PARIS IN 1830. 

the army of Italy. When employed in conjunc- 
tion with General Clarke to negotiate the treaty 
of peace, Bonaparte was directed to stipulate for 
the liberation of the prisoners at Olmutz ; but it 
was not until after five months' negotiation that 
this was agreed to. On obtaining their liberty, 
they were carried to Hamburgh ; and, in compli- 
ance with a strange fancy of the Austrian court, 
were there delivered over, not to the French 
ambassador, but to the Consul of the United 
States. 

In the course of these negociations, the 18th 
Fructidor had arrived ; and although Talleyrand, 
their minister for foreign affairs, had written to 
Generals Bonaparte and Clarke to continue, not- 
withstanding the changes in the government, to 
urge the liberation of the prisoners, Lafayette 
refused to adhere to what was passing in Paris. 
He resolved, therefore, to remain on neutral 
ground, and, having mounted the three-coloured 
cockade, he was treated by the republican autho- 
rities, not as an emigrant, or an exile, but as a 
French citizen. 

After some stay in Holstein, he established 
himself at Utrecht, where he remained until 
after the events of the 18th Brumaire, when, 
thinking that the principles of liberty were at 
length to be established in France, he hastened 
to Paris without waiting for the consent of the 
consular government. 



PARIS IN 1830. 255 

On his return to France, Lafayette withdrew 
from public affairs, and lived in retirement in the 
Upper Loire. Although elected to the council- 
general of his department, he spoke but on one 
occasion, and then only to make a declaration of 
principles in opposition to those of the govern- 
ment. 

Before the arrival of the period when Napoleon 
caused himself to be declared Consul for life, La- 
fayette was earnestly entreated to become a mem- 
ber of the senate ; but he steadily resisted the 
application, and when asked to vote for that mea- 
sure, his answer was, that he could not support 
a Consulate for life until he saw sufficient gua- 
rantees for the public liberty. 

After the imperial throne was erected, it was 
an observation of Napoleon's, that all but one 
man in France had abandoned extreme ideas on 
the subject of liberty, and that that man was La- 
fayette. " You see him quiet at present," said 
Napoleon ; " but if an opportunity should arise 
of promoting his favourite chimera, he will re- 
appear more ardent than ever." 

At the period of the restoration in 1814, La- 
fayette presented himself at the Tuileries, and 
was well received by the King and Monsieur ; 
but he had no further communication with these 
princes until the landing of Napoleon from Elba, 
when he caused it to be announced to them, that 
he and his friends were ready to do all in their 



256 PARIS IN 1830. 

power to promote their cause, consistently with 
the principles of public liberty. When a new 
invasion of France was threatened by the allies, 
Lafayette again left his retreat to join his efforts to 
those who prepared to defend the territory and the 
independence of the country. At an interview 
with Joseph Bonaparte, on behalf of Napoleon, it 
was agreed to accept the guarantees which were 
then proposed, as, without believing in his com- 
plete conversion, it was thought that at least 
his cordial co-operation might be relied on 
against invasion and foreign influence ; and 
against any external attempt that might be made, 
to attack the national freedom and independ- 
ence. Lafayette refused the peerage, which 
was offered him, because it was inconsistent 
with his principles ; but, after protesting in his 
commune, and in the electoral college of the 
Seine and Marne, against the constitution of the 
empire, and the acte aclcUtionnel, which destroy- 
ed the sovereignty of the nation, and the indi- 
vidual rights of the citizens, he offered himself 
as a candidate to the constituent body, that he 
might be armed with the powers of a representa- 
tive, in insisting for their popular institutions, 
which he conceived to be indispensable ; as well 
as in giving to the actual chief of the state the 
means which were necessary to defend it against 
foreign invasion. 

These duties he fulfilled conscientiouslv, until 



PARIS IN 1830. 257 

Napoleon's return to Paris, after his defeat at 
Waterloo. It was then feared that he would 
assume the dictatorship, and sacrifice the na- 
tional interests to his personal views. On the 
21st of June, Lafayette ascended the tribune, to 
prepare the means of averting* the anticipated 
evil ; but, on the following day, Napoleon sent 
his abdication to the Chamber. 

An intrigue prevented Lafayette from be- 
coming a member of the Provisional Government. 
It was his intention to have called the whole 
nation to arms, and not to have treated with the 
enemies of the country, until they had been 
driven from the French territory ; but other and 
less wholesome counsel prevailed. It was also 
thought, that the National Guard would have 
chosen him as their chief; or that the choice 
would have been left to the Assembly. That 
chief would, in either case, have been the gene- 
ral, by whom the body had been created twenty- 
six years before. But the Duke of Otranto had 
suggested Massena, by whom France had been 
served at Zurich and at Genoa ; and Lafayette 
at once declared that he was ready to serve in 
the capacity of aide-de-camp. 

The Provisional Government, however, with a 
view to get rid of Lafayette, had him sent as a 
commissioner to the allied powers, to treat for a 
suspension of hostilities. His colleagues and he 
addressed themselves for passports to the Duke 



258 PARIS IN 1830. 

of Wellington, and Field Marshal Blucher ; bnt 
were told that they could not be granted, until 
the principal fortresses in Flanders, along the 
frontiers, including Metz and Thionville, were 
surrendered to the Allies. 

On his return, Lafayette became acquainted 
with the capitulation of the capital, and the 
retreat of the army on the Loire. On the 6th 
of July he gave an account of his mission to the 
Assembly ; but two days afterwards the Deputies 
found the doors of the Chamber shut against 
them, and in the hands of a post of Prussians. 
Lafayette assembled a number of the Deputies at 
his residence, and went with them to the house 
of the president Languinais, where a proces 
verbal was prepared to verify this act of vio- 
lence. 

After this proceeding was adopted, Lafayette 
retired to his property of Lagrange, where he 
continued to reside till proposed as a deputy in 
1817, by the electoral college of Paris. On that 
occasion the obstacles raised by the government 
to the election of this champion of liberty were 
successful. They were again successful in op- 
posing his return at Melun ; but in 1818, in 
spite of all opposition, he was elected by the 
department of the Sarthe. Lafayette then proved 
himself to be what he had always been, the 
steady friend of a wise and rational liberty ; and 
persevered in resisting every attempt to impair 



PARTS IN 1830. 2.59 

it. In 1818 and 1819, lie strenuously opposed 
the attempts Avhich were made to alter the law 
of election. On the 17th of May in the latter 
year, he supported the petition which was then 
presented, for the restoration of the exiles. In 
the discussion on the war budget, on the 3rd of 
June, he recalled the attention of the Chamber 
to the organization of a civic force, the three 
essential conditions of which are, that the whole 
nation be armed — that the armed force be sub- 
ordinate to the civil authority — and that the 
nomination of the officers be reserved to the citi- 
zens themselves. On the 10th of February, and 
2nd of March 1820, he spoke with great force 
against the abuse of the power which was then 
exercised to crush the right of petition ; and on 
the 8th of March, during the debate on the law 
by which individual liberty was suspended, he 
spoke and voted against its re-establishment. It 
was on this occasion that he proclaimed insur- 
rection, under certain circumstances, to be a public 
duty, as in the case of the Vendeans, when de- 
prived of their religious privileges, and of the 
city of Lyons, when exposed to bloodshed and 
massacre. 

From this period he spoke regularly on every 
question of public importance which arose in the 
Chamber, and never without the happiest effect. 
For a year that he was representative of Meaux, 
and five years that he sat for the department of 

s 2 



260 PARIS IN 1830. 

the Sartlie, lie never lost an opportunity of de- 
claring that the smallest violation of the engage- 
ments undertaken by the government would 
have the effect of restoring to the citizens the 
entire independence of their rights and privileges. 
When thus appealing to the patriotism and the 
energy of the people, he has been taxed with a 
desire to put in practice the doctrine of insur- 
rection against arbitrary power ; but that doc- 
trine does not exclude the principle of obedience 
to laws which emanate from the sovereignty of 
the people — a principle which Lafayette has never 
ceased to recognize and maintain. 

In consequence of his open support of these 
doctrines, it has often been attempted to impli- 
cate Lafayette in some plot or conspiracy. This 
attempt was renewed in the proceedings against 
Berton; and when Madame Chauvet was arrested, 
the desire of treating him as a party to the ac- 
cusation was not concealed. In the end, how- 
ever, the minister was compelled to abandon that 
idea, and to content himself with calling Lafay- 
ette as a witness on the trial. The president of 
the court having addressed him as the Marquis 
de Lafayette, he refused to answer the interro- 
gatory, declaring that since 1791 he had re- 
nounced that title ; and would give no reply, 
unless addressed by the simple appellation of the 
Sieur Lafayette. 

The agents of the ministry were, at length, 



PARIS IN 1830. 2G1 

tired of disturbing the repose of this patriarch 
of the constitution ; and he was living in tran- 
quillity on his property of Lagrange, when the 
invitation which, on former occasions, he had 
been obliged to decline, that he should revisit 
the United States, was renewed to him on the 
part of the President and the Congress. He 
would not wait for the ship of war which was 
offered him, but without any suite save his son 
and his friend, embarked as a private individual 
on board the Cadmus, at Havre, for New York, 
on the 13th of July 1824. Between the period 
of his arrival and the 7th of September of the 
following year, when he embarked on board the 
Brandywine frigate to return to Europe, he was 
successively entertained by all the States of the 
Union. The Congress awarded him honours 
which had never been granted to Washington. 
A bill was passed to bestow on him a sum of 
200,000 dollars, in consideration of the services 
he had rendered, and the sacrifices he had made, 
during the war of independence. By the same 
act a territorial grant was made to him of a por- 
tion of the national domains. It was not till 
four years after his return, that M. Levasseur, 
the friend who accompanied him, and who acted 
as his private secretary on the journey, pub- 
lished an account of Lafayette's triumphant pro- 
gress through the various States of the Union — a 
work which has met with great success in France 



262 PARIS IN 1830. 

and America, but which has not yet been pre- 
sented to the English public* 

On his return, after an absence of fifteen 
months, the inhabitants of the neighbouring- 
communes assembled to entertain him, on his 
passage to Lagrange, in spite of the unworthy 
conduct of the authorities, who attempted to 
curb, by means of violence, this expression of 
the public enthusiasm. 

In June, 1 827, Lafayette was returned for the 
third time, to the Chamber of Deputies, by the 
arrondissement of Meaux. In 1829, it was an- 
nounced, that Charles X. was about to make a 
royal progress to the west of France, as he had pre- 
viously done into the eastern departments ; but it 
being feared, probably, that in that part of France 
there might be too open a manifestation of popular 
sentiments, the journey was suddenly counter- 
manded. About that period, Lafayette was on 
his way to Lyons, and orders were immediately 
transmitted to the authorities on his route, to 
stifle, as much as possible, the expression of pub- 
lic opinion. It was intimated by the Mayor of 
Lyons, that serenades and popular meetings 
were punishable by the penal code ; but the in- 
habitants were not to be prevented from ex- 

* Lafayette en Amerique en 1824 et 1825, ou Journal 
d'un Voyage aux Etats-unis : par A. Levasseur, Secretaire du 
General Lafayette pendant son voyage. Deux tomes en 8vo. 
orne de onze gravures et d'une carte. 



PARIS IN 1830. V6o 

pressing their admiration for the character of 
Lafayette, by means of illuminations, entertain- 
ments, and such other manifestations of rejoic- 
ing, as did not subject them or their guest to 
magisterial interference. 

On the 27th of July, 1830, Lafayette an- 
nounced that, if required by his fellow citizens, 
he would not hesitate to place himself at the 
head of the National Guard. On the 28th, the 
command was offered to him, by a deputation of 
that body ; and on the approval of his nomina- 
tion by the Deputies, then assembled at the house 
of M. Lafitte, he immediately proceeded to the 
Hotel de Ville, where he fixed his head quarters. 
France is happily aware of the value of his 
name and character, his wisdom, and his long 
experience, in providing for the future peace and 
security of the country. His known singleness 
of purpose places him far above the suspicion of 
a desire for personal aggrandisement. It has 
been said that, during the late revolution, his 
power might have been perverted to the in- 
jury of public freedom ; but, without stopping to 
repel an insinuated and gratuitous calumny, it 
may be doubted, whether public liberty could 
ever have been endangered by a man whose 
whole influence has arisen from a long life of 
unstained purity. 



264 PARIS IN 1830. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



Historical Sketch of the Life of Louis Philip, Duke of 
Orleans. 



The elevated station to which the Duke of Or- 
leans has been raised, by the events of the late 
revolution, has been thought also to create a 
requisition for some notice of his former his- 
tory. 

Louis Philippe d'Orleans, Due d'Orleans, the 
son of Louis Philippe Joseph d'Orleans, Due 
d'Orleans, was born at Paris, on the 6th October, 
1773. His first title was that of Due de Valois; 
but on the death of his grandfather, he assumed 
that of the Due de Chartres. The first care of 
his infancy was given successively to the Cheva- 
lier de Bonnard, and to Madame De Genlis. 
Nothing was neglected in forming his heart, en- 
lightening his mind, or even in facilitating the 



PARIS IN 1830. 265 

developement of his physical powers. Gym- 
nastic exercises were joined to his intellectual 
labours ; his teachers taking for their rule the 
ancient maxim, 

" Mens sana in corpore sano." 

At the commencement of the revolution of 
1789, the Due de Chartres, then scarcely sixteen 
years of age, adopted the opinions of his father 
with all the enthusiasm of youth. Colonel-pro- 
prietor of the 14th regiment of dragoons, he did 
not hesitate between the choice which was left 
him by the decrees of the Constituent Assembly, 
of giving in his resignation, or of assuming the 
actual command of the regiment. He went into 
garrison at Vendome, where, in various brilliant 
actions, he earned the civic crown which was 
decreed to him. 

In 1791 he set out for Valenciennes, and was 
placed under the command of the celebrated 
General Biron. His first proofs of bravery and 
military talent were given at the battles of 
Boussu and Quaragnon ; and he succeeded in 
rallying the troops which had been suddenly 
seized with a panic in the neighbourhood of 
Quievrain. On the 7th of May in the same 
year, the Due de Chartres received from the 
Count de Grave, then minister at war, his com- 
mission as Major-General. He fought at the 
head of a brigade of dragoons under the com- 



266 PARIS IN 1830. 

mand of Luckner, and assisted in the taking- of 
Courtray. On the 11th of September following, 
he obtained the rank of Lieutenant-General, and 
was appointed to the command of Strasbourg-. 
" I am too young," he replied, " to be enclosed 
in a fortress; and I beg to be allowed to remain 
in active service." The ministry applauded the 
warlike disposition thus evinced, and on the 
20th of the same month the Due de Chartres 
again distinguished himself, by the intrepidity 
with which, throughout the day, he defended a 
difficult position on which the enemy was con- 
stantly directing his efforts. Six days after- 
wards he was appointed second in command of 
the troops of the new levy under General La- 
bour donnaye, by whom they had been organized 
in the northern departments. This promotion 
was not agreeable to him ; he liked better to 
fight in the front of the battle, although in a 
less elevated situation ; and as it had been found 
necessary to replace him in the army of Luckner, 
he passed into that of Dumouriez, who was pre- 
paring for the invasion of Belgium. It was 
then that his name was to be inscribed in inde- 
lible characters in the military annals of France. 
On the 6th of November, at the celebrated battle 
of Jemappes, he preserved the army from a 
serious disaster, and suddenly changed a shame- 
ful flight into a complete triumph, by bringing 
back several fugitive regiments, and with them 



PARIS IN 1830. 267 

renewing the column, afterwards known by the 
name of the battalion de Mons. This brilliant 
day decided the fate of Belgium ; and the army 
having taking up its cantonments, the Due de 
Chartres, in compliance with a letter from his 
father, hastened to Paris, where his sister, who had 
been regarded as an emigrant in consequence 
of her journey to England, was waiting his 
arrival to go into exile, in conformity with 
the orders of the republican government. In 
the performance of this fraternal duty he re- 
mained with the princess at Tour nay for several 
days, and it was there that he was made ac- 
quainted with the decree of banishment which 
the Convention had pronounced against all the 
members of the royal family, without exception. 
His first resolution was to proceed to America, 
and he hastened to state it to his father. But 
the decree having been revoked, in so far as it 
applied to the house of Orleans, the Due de 
Chartres resumed his place on the field of honour, 
and reaped fresh laurels at the siege of Maas- 
tricht, under the command of General Miranda. 
On the 18th of March J 793, the Duke com- 
manded the centre of the French army at the 
battle of Ner winde . Amidst the general disorder 
of the flight, he effected his retreat in good or- 
der, and by the bold countenance he assumed at 
Tirlemont, prevented this great reverse from 



268 PARIS IN 1830. 

being still more disastrous than it proved to the 
French arms. 

It was then that Dumouriez, ashamed of being 
beaten, and preferring, as it is believed, to be 
thought a traitor to the Convention, rather than 
an incapable commander, conceived the idea of 
giving to his defeat the show of connivance with 
the conquerors. He declared himself against the 
sovereign Assembly by which France was then 
governed, and entertained the object, it is said, 
of dissolving the national representation, abolish- 
ing the republican form of government, and re- 
establishing the constitutional monarchy, on the 
basis of that of 1791, in favour of the Due de 
Chartres. 

Whether the prince was acquainted or not 
with the real designs of Dumouriez, it is at least 
certain, that, when in this predicament, he con- 
nected his fate with that of his military chief. 
To this, perhaps, he was in some degree com- 
pelled by the community of interest which the Con- 
vention endeavoured to establish between them, 
and by the contumely which had been heaped 
on a name, brought forward by the accusers 
of Dumouriez in every detail of their grievances. 
The prince proceeded to the head-quarters of 
the Austrians, to ask for passports. It was in 
vain that Prince Charles used every means of 
entreaty to attach the Duke de Chartres to the 



PARIS IN 1830. 269 

service of the Emperor. Still a Frenchman in 
principle, although no longer allowed to fight in 
the service of France, he refused to sully the 
glory he had acquired in the defence of his 
country, by becoming the auxiliary of her ene- 
mies. He retired into Switzerland with Made- 
moiselle d'Orleans, his sister, and Madame de 
Genlis, but could not there find an asylum. 
The Helvetic aristocracy thought that its existence 
would be endangered by the presence of a repub- 
lican General, whose high birth had not preserved 
him from the contagion of constitutional principles. 
The influence of General Montesquieu, then 
living in retirement at Bremgarten, could only 
obtain an asylum for the Princess and her gover- 
ness in the convent of Sainte Claire. " And as 
for you," he said to the Duke de Chartres, " there 
is no choice but to wander among the mountains, 
and to fix yourself in no permanent abode until 
the course of events shall assume a more favour- 
able aspect. Should fortune prove propitious, this 
will be to you a sort of Odyssey, the details of 
which will hereafter be collected with avidity." 

The Duke de Chartres pursued the advice of 
General Montesquieu, and, parting with the com- 
panions of his exile, he traversed on foot the 
various cantons of Switzerland, explored the 
highest ridges of the Alps, and although reduced 
to very limited pecuniary resources, he made 
these laborious journeys subservient to his in- 



c 270 PARIS IN 1830. 

struction, at the same time that he found in them 
the source of numerous enjoyments, with which 
till then he was unacquainted. In the midst of 
his journeyings he received a letter from General 
Montesquieu, proposing to him a professorship 
in the college of Reicheneau. This offer he ac- 
cepted, and obtained the appointment, after un- 
dergoing a preliminary examination. In this 
academy he continued for eight months, under a 
borrowed name, and without being recognized, 
to teach geography and history, the French and 
English languages, and the mathematics. 

It was at the college of Reicheneau that the 
Duke de Chartres was apprised of the death of 
his father. Soon after this tragical event, he 
resigned his professional functions, and, after pay- 
ing a visit to General Montesquieu at Brem- 
garten, he resolved on going to Hamburgh, there 
to embark for America. On his arrival at Ham- 
burgh, he was compelled by the slenderness of 
his pecuniary resources to abandon the idea of 
crossing the Atlantic, and to direct his steps to- 
wards the northern countries of Europe. He 
visited successively Denmark, Sweden, Norway, 
and Lapland, and, after approaching five degrees 
nearer to the pole than Maupertuis, or any former 
French traveller had done, he returned into Ger- 
many in the course of the year 1796. 

He was in the duchy of Holstein when he 
received a letter from his mother through the 



PARIS IN 1830. 271 

medium of the charge d'affaires of the French 
republic to the Hanseatic towns. His mother 
informed him that the Directory would not con- 
sent to alleviate the rigours to which she and her 
family were subjected, as long as her eldest son 
remained on European ground, and she beg- 
ged of him in consequence to give this new proof 
of his devotion to all that was dearest to him on 
earth. The Duke of Orleans hastened to reply : 
" When my dear mother receives this letter, her 
orders will have been obeyed, and I shall have 
set out for America. I shall embark in the first 
vessel which sails for the United States. And 
what would I not do, after the letter I have just 
received ? I shall no longer believe that happi- 
ness is lost to me beyond resource, since I have 
still the means of softening the hardships of a 
mother so justly dear to me, whose situation 
and whose sufferings have so long torn my heart. 
I think myself in a dream when I am told that I 
am so soon to embrace and be united to my 
brothers ; for I can scarcely yet believe what 
but yesterday appeared impossible. It is not, 
however, that I would complain of my destiny. 
I feel too well how much more dreadful it might 
have been. I shall not even think myself un- 
happy, if, after meeting my brothers, I shall find 
that my dear mother is as well as she might be ; 
and if I may still serve my country by contribut- 
ing to its tranquillity, and consequently to its 



227 PARIS IN 1830. 

happiness. There is no sacrifice which would 
be too costly for the sake of France ; and as long- 
as I live, there is none which I shall not be ready 
to make for her." 

The Duke of Orleans left Hamburgh on the 
24th of September 1796, and arrived at Phila- 
delphia on the 21st of October following. His 
two brothers, the Dukes de Montpensier and de 
Beaujolais, joined him there, in the month of 
February 1797« They visited together the va- 
rious states of the American Union, and even 
some of the Indian tribes. In the month of 
December 1797> they set out for New Orleans, 
by the Ohio and Mississippi, and arrived there 
in the month of February 1798. On passing 
over to the Havannah, they found themselves 
exposed to the persecutions of the Spanish go- 
vernment, by whom they were ordered to be 
carried back to New Orleans. But the three 
young Princes refused to return, and succeeded 
in reaching the English West India settlements. 
The Duke of Kent received them there with dis- 
tinction; but his royal highness did not think 
himself at liberty to provide them with the means 
of returning to Europe. 

They then embarked for New York, from 
whence they sailed in an English packet for 
Falmouth. On their arrival in London at the 
beginning of the year 1800, they joined the mem- 
bers of the royal family then in exile in England, 



PARIS IN 1830. 273 

whose political principles they had never adopt- 
ed, but with whom they found themselves con- 
nected by community of misfortune. The Duke 
of Orleans there saw the Count d'Artois, who 
had then, after the death of Louis XVII. as- 
sumed the title of Monsieur, and addressed him- 
self by letter to Louis XVIIL, whose wandering-, 
and almost deserted court, was at that period 
stationed at Miltau. This reconciliation having 
been effected, he set sail for Minorca, for the pur- 
pose of joining- his mother, who had taken refuge 
at Barcelona. Having landed at Mahon, it was 
proposed to him to go into Germany, to serve 
the cause of the emigrants. This he refused to 
do, for the same reasons which induced him, in 
1794, to submit to persecution, and go into 
exile, rather than carry arms against France : 
for although his personal misfortunes in the 
course of the revolution, and the terrible vicis- 
situdes of that stormy period, had brought 
about a reconciliation with the elder branch 
of his family, these considerations were not 
sufficiently powerful to eradicate the sentiments 
of his youth. 

The state of warfare which then existed be- 
tween England and Spain, prevented him from 
landing in Catalonia ; so that he and his brothers 
were compelled to return to London, without 
effecting the object they had in view. They 

T 



2?4 PARIS IN 1830. 

fixed themselves at Twickenham, where they 
lived in retirement, enjoying the respect and 
esteem of the neighbourhood : but their domes- 
tic happiness was painfully disturbed in 1807, by 
the illness of the Duke de Montpensier, who fell 
an early victim to pulmonary consumption. The 
grief which the Duke of Orleans experienced, 
under this distressing bereavement, was greatly 
increased by the fear that the germs of the same 
disease were already implanted in the constitu- 
tion of his younger brother. By the advice of 
his medical attendants, he carried the Duke de 
Beaujolais to Malta ; but, on his arrival in that 
island, the physicians there assured him that the 
climate was unfavourable to consumptive pa- 
tients. He then thought of Mount Etna, and 
immediately wrote to the King of Sicily for 
permission to enter his territories, Before the 
arrival of that prince's answer, the Duke de 
Beaujolais had expired ; and it was at Messina 
that the Duke of Orleans received it, having 
quitted Malta precipitately, as soon as his brother 
had breathed his last. Ferdinand IV. having 
invited him to come to his court, he proceeded 
to Palermo, where he soon conciliated the affec- 
tions of the King and Queen. On observing the 
sentiments which their daughter, the Princess 
Amelia, had inspired in the breast of their guest, 
they did not object to cement the attachment by 



PARIS IN 1830. 275 

marriage ; but, before accomplishing the union, 
the King of Sicily expressed a wish that the 
Duke of Orleans should go with his son Leo- 
pold into Spain, to defend the cause of the 
Bourbons against the family of Bonaparte. In 
that family, the Duke of Orleans saw only the 
oppressors of Europe, and especially of France ; 
and he believed that he was serving the cause of 
his country, in going to oppose the conquests 
of Napoleon. He yielded, therefore, to the 
wish of the King of Sicily, and set sail for a 
Spanish port, but was carried by a British cruizer 
to England. 

The Duke of Orleans then applied to the 
British government for permission to rejoin his 
mother at Figuiera ; and, with his sister, who had 
come to meet him at Portsmouth, set sail for 
Malta, where he landed at the commencement 
of 1809. After many unsuccessful efforts to 
reach the Duchess of Orleans, he returned to 
the court of Palermo, where his marriage was 
decided. Anxious that his mother should be 
present at the marriage ceremony, he solicited 
and at once obtained permission to proceed to 
Mahon, in order to induce the Princess to return 
with him into Sicily. Having effected this ob- 
ject, his nuptials with the Princess Amelia were 
solemnly celebrated on the 25th of November, 
1809. 

About a year afterwards, an envoy from the 

t c 2 



276 PARIS IN 1830. 

regency of Cadiz came to offer him a command 
in Catalonia. Believing- it still to be his duty to 
accept it, he set sail, and landed at Tarragona, 
but was prevented, it is said, by English in- 
fluence, from either penetrating into the interior, 
or proceeding towards Cadiz. Compelled to 
return to the court of Palermo, in the month of 
October following, he there became a father, by 
the birth of the Duke de Chartres. Daring 
his stay in Sicily, he steadily resisted the impa- 
tience of the Queen to attempt the recovery of 
the kingdom of Naples ; and having held himself 
apart from the internal broils between the par- 
liament and the ministry, he hastened, in 1814, to 
avail himself of the revolution which had taken 
place in France, to revisit his native country. On 
the 17th of May he presented himself at the 
Tuileries in the uniform of a lieutenant-general 
of France, and, in the month of July following, 
he took his leave of the King to go to Palermo 
for the Princess. His absence was short : before 
the end of August he had re-entered the Palais 
Royal, and was there enjoying the most perfect 
domestic happiness, when a new political storm 
arose to disturb the reigning dynasty. 

On the 1st of March, 1815, Napoleon landed 
at Cannes from the island of Elba, and marched 
upon Paris. The Duke of Orleans was sent to meet 
him ; but had scarcely arrived at Lyons, when, 
finding resistance impossible, he was obliged to 



PARIS IN 1830. 277 

return to the capital. On reaching Paris, his 
first care was to send off his family to England. 
On the 16th of March he appeared beside the 
King at the royal sitting of the Chambers, and in 
the evening of the same day he set out to assume 
the supreme command of the army of the north, 
then under the orders of Marshal Mortier. He 
traversed the frontier, visited Peronne, and the 
principal fortresses, recommending everywhere 
that private opinions should yield to the exigen- 
cies of the country, that the horrors of civil war 
might be avoided, and that under no pretext 
should foreign troops be admitted into the places 
of strength. 

The arrival of Louis XVIII. at Lille having 
apprised him of the complete success which had 
attended this bold exploit of Napoleon, and the 
King having reached the territory of Belgium 
without the communication of any order to the 
Duke, he found himself again obliged to leave the 
country. On the eve of his departure, he ad- 
dressed the following letter, dated the 24th of 
March, to the Duke de Trevise : 

" I am about, my dear Marshal, to resign into 
your hands the entire command which I have en- 
joyed with you in the Department Du Nord. I am 
too good a Frenchman to sacrifice the interests of 
my country because new dangers compel me to 
leave it. I go to bury myself in retirement. The 
King having left France, I can no longer give you 



278 PARIS IN 1830. 

orders in his name ; and it only remains for me to 
relieve you from the observance of all those I 
have hitherto given you, and to recommend to 
you to do whatever your patriotism and your ex- 
cellent judgment may suggest to you as most 
conducive to the interests of France. Adieu, my 
dear Marshal; my heart beats as I write the 
word. Retain your friendship for me wherever 
fortune may lead you, and reckon always on 
mine. I shall never forget what I have seen of 
you during the too short period we have passed 
together." 

If credit be due to what is stated by M. Fleury 
de Chaboulon in his Memoirs of the Hundred 
Days, the Duke of Orleans did not confine the 
expression of his regret in leaving France to 
the sentiments contained in his letter to the 
Marechal Mortier. To his aide-de-camp, Co- 
lonel Athalin, he stated that he dispensed with 
his passing the frontier, and accompanying him 
in his exile ; and that he would think himself 
happy to remain on the territory of France, 
and resume the glorious emblems which he 
wore at Jemappes. 

Twickenham, however, after so many vicissi- 
tudes, became again the place of his retreat. 
While residing there, certain protestations and 
professions of faith, unworthy of his character, 
were ascribed to him in the English newspapers, 
the truth of which he hastened to disavow. 



PARIS IN 1830. 279 

The battle of Waterloo having replaced the 
Bourbons on the throne, the Duke of Orleans 
left England, and arrived in Paris at the end of 
July. He procured the removal of the seques- 
tration which the imperial government had im- 
posed on his property, and recrossed the channel 
to bring back his wife and children. 

On his return he availed himself of the royal 
ordinance, which authorized the princes of the 
blood to sit in the Chamber of Peers, and de- 
clared himself energetically against the tendency 
to reaction which the majority of the Chamber 
wished to impress on the ministry, by claiming 
the purgation of the public offices, and the pu- 
nishment of political delinquencies : — " Let us 
leave it to the King," exclaimed the Duke of 
Orleans, " to take the necessary constitutional 
measures for the maintenance of public order; 
and let us not make demands which might be 
converted, by a spirit of malevolence, into the 
means of disturbing the tranquillity of the state. 
The judicial functions we may be called on to 
perforin impose on us an absolute silence with 
regard to the parties who may thus be brought 
before us. The anterior expression of our opi- 
nion would infer a prejudication of their case, 
and would subject us to the anomaly of being, 
at once, their accusers and their judges.'' 

The views which he thus expressed, although 
supported by the ministry, were not agreeable to 



280 PARIS IN 1830. 

the party who then assumed the ascendancy. 
The Duke of Orleans determined, in conse- 
quence, on returning to England, where he re- 
mained until after the ordinance of the 5th of 
September. 

Since that period he has lived constantly 
either at Paris, or on his estates. Men of all 
parties, without reference to their political opi- 
nions, have been honoured with the Prince's 
friendship ; and his house has been frequently 
the asylum of the victims of power. He has 
given the grandees of the kingdom a salutary 
example, in preferring a public education for his 
children to the claustral and exclusive system of 
the palace. On one occasion, however, it must 
not be concealed that there was some incon- 
sistency between his conduct and his principles, 
in the course of the proceedings which arose 
between him and the purchaser of certain pro- 
perty which he had lost at the revolution. It 
was generally believed that he had been induced 
by perfidious counsels to challenge, in one in- 
stance, the sale which had been effected of the 
national domains, for the purpose of depriving 
him of the great popularity he deservedly en- 
joyed. But the hopes of his enemies were hap- 
pily defeated by an arrangement of the difference, 
on generous and honourable principles. 

On every change of administration, and on 
the approach of every new political crisis, the 



PARIS IN 1830. 281 

name of the Duke of Orleans had been employed 
as a rallying* point among- the discontented of the 
higher classes. But it may be said of him, as was 
formerly observed of his father, that he has never 
been himself of his own party. It was for de- 
monstrating this truth, in a spirited and argu- 
mentative pamphlet, that M. Cauchois Lemaire, 
under the Villele administration, was subjected 
to fifteen months imprisonment. 

Since that period the name of the Duke of 
Orleans has not been introduced into any poli- 
tical discussion. Living in tranquillity and 
retirement, he has devoted his whole attention 
to the improvement of his extensive property, 
for the purpose of securing a more brilliant in- 
heritance to his numerous family. 

At the opening of the parliamentary session 
in 1829, it was remarked that the King had 
allowed his crown to fall, and that the Duke 
of Orleans, who stood at his left, stooped down 
to pick it up. — The visit of his brother-in-law, 
the King of Naples, to Paris, was for some days 
a source of public attraction. The Duke of 
Orleans entertained their Neapolitan majesties 
with a magnificent fete, to which all the most 
brilliant society of the capital gave their pre- 
sence. An expression, which is said to have 
fallen from M. de Salvandy, on that occasion, 
may now be regarded as a sort of presage of 
what has since occurred. On being challenged 



282 PARIS IN 1830. 

to admire the brilliant illuminations of the Palais 
Royal, and all the splendour of the spectacle, by 
some one who made the observation that it was 
quite " a Neapolitan entertainment :" " No 
doubt," replied M. de Salvandy ; " we are here 
on the brink of a volcano." 



PARIS IN 1830. 283 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Decree of the Provisional Government — Invitation to the 
Duke of Orleans to become Lieutenant-General of the king- 
dom — Proclamation in the Moniteur, notifying his accept- 
ance thereof — Explanatory details — Proclamation by those 
of the Deputies who had met in Paris — Reception of the 
Duke of Orleans at the Hotel de Ville — Singular speech on 
that occasion by General Dubourg — Account of the conduct 
and merits of that individual — Proclamations for the resump- 
tion of the National Banner, for the discipline of the Na- 
tional Guard, and for the collection of the Local Tax on 
Provisions — General Lafayette's address, to announce the 
opening of the Chamber of Deputies. 

Salus populi suprema lea:, was the principle 
recognized and adopted by France, in first calling- 
the Duke of Orleans to the temporary office of 
Lieutenant-General of the kingdom, and in after- 
wards placing him at the head of a constitutional 
monarchy. The first of these measures was called 
for by the members of the Provisional Govern- 
ment themselves, who soon found that they 
wanted that unity of purpose indispensable to the 
efficient exercise of the executive power. This 
became at once apparent, when the necessity 



284 PARIS IN 1830. 

arose for a government in itself so transitory and 
ephemeral, to proceed to the nomination of Pro- 
visional Commissioners to fulfil the urgent duties 
of the ministry in all its various departments. 
More than one version of the decree which this 
urgency created, was put into circulation at this 
period ; but the following has been duly authen- 
ticated : 

" It has been necessary to designate for each branch 
of the public administration, commissioners to replace, 
provisionally, the administration which has just fallen 
with the power of Charles X. 

" The following are appointed Provisional Commis- 
sioners : — 

" For the Department of Justice, M. Dupont de 
PEure. 

" Finance, Baron Louis. 

" War, General Gerard. 

" Marine, M. de Rigny. 

" Foreign Affairs, M. Bignon. 

" Public Instruction, M. Guizot. 

" Interior, and Public Works, Due de Broglie. 
(Signed) " Lobau. A. De Puyraveau. 

" Mauguin. De Schonen. 

" Paris, Hotel de Ville, July 31." 

Before this measure was adopted, the assem- 
bled Deputies had resolved on requesting the 
Duke of Orleans to come to Paris, to discharge 
the duties of Lieutenant-General of the kingdom. 
With this view M. Mechin, fils, had been sent to 
the Prince's residence at Neuilly, about two 
leagues distant from Paris, on the evening of 
Thursday the 29th of July. It is said that on 



PARIS IN 1830. 285 

that day also a detachment of the Royal Guard 
had been sent across the river with orders to carry 
the Prince as a prisoner to Saint Cloud. The 
hostile and the friendly mission were both unsuc- 
cessful. The Prince was from home on Thurs- 
day ; but early on Friday morning- he proceeded 
to the Palais Royal, as some say, on foot ; but at 
this period was so little aware of the important 
nature of M. Mechin's mission, that he had again 
left Paris for Neuilly before the arrival of the 
Deputies, who came in a body to wait upon him. 
An interview at length took place, on the morn- 
ing of Saturday the 31st of July. On being made 
acquainted with the resolution of the Deputies, 
the Prince required only an hour's delay, to afford 
him an opportunity of again consulting his coun- 
cil, and soon afterwards his acceptance was an- 
nounced by the appearance of an extraordinary 
supplement to the Moniteur, which contained a 
proclamation, conceived in the following terms : 

" Paris, July 31, noon. 
" Inhabitants of Paris ! 

" The Deputies of France at this moment assembled 
at Paris have expressed to me the desire that I should 
repair to this capital to exercise the functions of Lieu- 
tenant-General of the kingdom. 

" I have not hesitated to come and share your dan- 
gers, to place myself in the midst of your heroic popula- 
tion, and to exert all my efforts to preserve you from the 
calamities of civil war and anarchy. 

" On returning to the city of Paris, I wear with pride 
those glorious colours which you have resumed, and 
which I myself long wore. 



286 PARIS IN 1830. 

" The Chambers are going to assemble; they will con- 
sider of the means of securing the reign of the laws, and 
the maintenance of the rights of the nation. 

" The charter will henceforward be a reality. 

" Louis-Philippe D'Orleans." 

Some light is incidentally thrown on the history 
of this nomination by the answer of the elder 
Dnpin to the attacks which were made on him in 
some of the public journals, accusing him of some- 
thing like double dealing in his manner of treating 
the individuals who had been the first to stir dur- 
ing the early days of the revolution. After giving 
a detailed and interesting narrative of all his per- 
sonal movements from an early hour on Monday 
morning, when he was consulted by the journal- 
ists as to the legality of their resistance to the 
royal ordinances, up to Friday the 30th, he 
thus proceeds : — 

" The question as to the Duke of Orleans was 
now openly agitated, and it was not for a member 
of his council to institute a commencement. So far 
from that, it is greatly to the Prince's credit, that 
nothing was suggested on his part. The nation 
found him when it called j but neither he, nor 
any one belonging to him, conspired to provoke 
the call : he answered only to the national wish ; 
he took the helm when every one else had quitted 
it ; and who can doubt, amidst the enthusiasm 
excited by this Prince's accession, that I had a 
right to count myself among those who were most 
highly satisfied, and who founded on it the surest 



PARIS IN 1830. 287 

hopes for the welfare of the country ? During" 
twelve years of constant service, I have had the 
means of convincing myself how deeply the love 
of the country is imprinted in the heart of this 
admirable family. On the 30th, at one o'clock, 
I went to the Chamber of Deputies, after return- 
ing from Neuilly, whither I had gone on foot with 
my friend M. Persil. I should have regretted not 
to have accomplished this honourable mission — 
I ought to say this duty. In the secret com- 
mittee of the Chamber, I expressed my opinion 
that, the same evening before we broke up, the 
question as to the form of government should be 
decided. The Lieutenant-General was then ap- 
pointed. On the 31st, at six o'clock in the morn- 
ing, having been sent for to the Palais Royal, 
I had the honour of giving my cockade to the 
King*, in exchange for the three ribbons which 
had been attached to his button-hole by his 
noble sister, at the moment of his departure for 
Paris ; they were my first and my finest decora- 
tion. 

" The Municipal Commission was acquainted 
with all these facts when it did me the honour, 
unknown to me, and without solicitation on my 
part, to name me Provisional Commissioner in 
the department of justice. Why did not my 
enemies then raise their voice ? I did not think 
it my duty to accept that nomination ; and my 
honourable colleague, M. Dupont de l'Eure, has 



288 PARIS IN 1830. 

not forgotten the earnestness with which I urged 
him to accept an office that his modesty alone 
had induced him to refuse." 

Soon after the appearance of the Lieutenant- 
General's proclamation, the following was pre- 
pared by the representatives of the people. 

" PROCLAMATION 

ADDRESSED TO THE FRENCH PEOPLE BY THE DEPUTIES 
OF DEPARTMENTS ASSEMBLED AT PARIS. 

" Frenchmen! — France is free. Absolute power 
raised its standard — the heroic population of Paris has 
overthrown it. Paris, attacked, has made the sacred 
cause triumph, by means which had triumphed in vain 
in the elections. A power which usurped our rights and 
disturbed our repose, threatened at once both liberty and 
order. We return to the possession of order and liberty. 
There is no more fear for acquired rights— no further 
barrier between us and the rights which we still require. 
A government which may, without delay, secure to us 
these advantages, is now the first want of our country. 
Frenchmen ! those of your Deputies who are already at 
Paris have assembled, and, till the Chambers can regu- 
larly intervene, they have invited a Frenchman who has 
never fought but for France— the Duke of Orleans— to 
exercise the functions of Lieutenant-General of the 
kingdom. This is, in their opinion, the surest means 
promptly to accomplish, by peace, the success of the most 
legitimate defence. 

" The Duke of Orleans is devoted to the national and 
constitutional cause. He has always defended its in- 
terests, and professed its principles. He will respect 
our rights, for he will derive his own from us. We shall 
secure to ourselves, by laws, all the guarantees necessary 
to strong and durable liberty : — 



PARIS IN 1830. 289 

" The re-establishment of the National Guard, with 
the intervention of the National Guards in the choice of 
the officers : 

" The intervention of the citizens in the formation of 
the departmental and municipal administrations : 

" The jury for the transgressions of the press ; the 
legally organized responsibility of the ministers, and of 
the secondary agents of the administration : 

" The situation and rank of the military legally se- 
cured. And 

" The re-election of Deputies in the place of those ap- 
pointed to public offices. Such guarantees will, at length, 
give to our institutions, in concert with the head of the 
state, the developments of which they have need. 

" Frenchmen!— The Duke of Orleans himself has 
already spoken, and his language is that which is 
suitable to a free country. 

" « The Chambers,'' he says, « are going to assemble ; 
they will consider of means to insure the reign of the 
laws, and the maintenance of the rights of the nation. 

" ' The charter will henceforward be a reality. ' " 

Before the publication of this address, the De- 
puties proceeded with it to the Palais Royal, 
escorted by the National Guard, and by the band 
of veterans who have been accustomed to act 
as a guard of honour at the chamber. On their 
arrival at the palace, the proclamation was read 
to the Duke by M. Lafitte, one of the vice- 
presidents, in the absence of the president, M. 
Casimir Perier, from indisposition. At its con- 
clusion the Prince asked for a copy of it, and 
declared that it would be the most valuable 
document in his archives. " I am deeply sen- 



290 PARIS IN 1830. 

Bible," he continued, " of this high testimony 
of your confidence and esteem, although I must 
ever deplore the painful circumstances out of 
which it has arisen. As a Frenchman I have 
felt the wrongs by which France has been op- 
pressed — as a Prince, I rejoice in the hope of 
being able to contribute to the reparation of the 
mischief which has been done." 

The Duke, in the uniform of a general officer, 
and wearing the cordon of the Legion of Honour, 
then mounted his horse, and, surrounded by the 
Deputies, passed along the quays to the Hotel de 
Ville. Count Alexandre de Laborde had gone 
before to announce his approach. The mem- 
bers of the Municipal Commission, with Lafayette 
at their head, assembled in the great hall of the 
building, accompanied by a detachment of the 
National Guards, and the pupils of the Poly- 
technic School, and descended to receive the 
Prince at the foot of the staircase. The Duke 
and Lafayette embraced each other, and the 
united procession ascended to the great hall. 
On perceiving the pupils of the Polytechnic 
School, the Duke advanced towards them, and 
expressed to them his admiration of their noble 
conduct. The proclamation of the Deputies 
was then read by M. Viennet, and the Duke re- 
newed his declaration of his entire and unqua- 
lified concurrence in the principles it expressed. 
After several individuals had taken this occasion 



PARTS IN 1830. %9t 

to address the Prince, General Dubourg, an 
officer who had made himself conspicuous on 
more than one occasion in the course of the 
revolutionary movement, stepped forward and 
said : — " We hope you will keep your oaths ; 
should you do otherwise, you know the conse- 
quences. The nation has achieved its liberty 
at the price of its blood, and it well knows how 
to re-achieve it, if the odious example of the 
fallen monarch shall be followed ; and if bad 
men shall attempt to rob them of it." To this 
extraordinary address the Prince replied with 
warmth and dignity : — " General, if you were 
better acquainted with me, you would know that 
threats are not necessary to insure my fidelity. 
I am a Frenchman, and a man of honour. The 
future will prove that I know how to keep my 
engagements." The General was now, per- 
haps, aware that he had advanced a step too far, 
and as soon as the Prince had concluded, he 
was the first to exclaim, " Vive le Due d> Or- 
leans r a cry which was instantly repeated, 
first by the audience in the hall, and after- 
wards by the numerous throng assembled on 
the outside. When the murmurs excited by 
this incident had subsided, the Prince walked 
out on the balcony, where he again embraced 
Lafayette, and, seizing the national flag, waved 
it over his head, in presence of the multitude. 

u 2 



292 PARIS IN 1830. 

He was then reconducted to the foot of the 
great staircase, where, amidst the acclamations 
of the people, he was saluted by discharges 
of musketry, and by two pieces of artillery, 
which had been stationed on the Place de Greve. 
The Prince was carried, rather than conducted, 
back to the Palais Royal, and the Municipal 
Commission resumed its functions, at the Hotel 
de Ville. 

In justice to all parties, it is necessary to state, 
that whatever may have been the views of Gene- 
ral Dubourg, he was certainly one of the first, 
if not the very first individual, with the rank of 
a general officer, who took up arms in the popu- 
lar cause. As early as Wednesday evening, the 
28th of July, he had appeared at the Bourse, in 
company with M. Evariste Dumoulin, and pro- 
ceeded, as he then was, in plain clothes, with a 
number of other citizens, to the scene of action. 
On the following morning, he again appeared at 
the successive attacks on the Louvre and the 
Tuileries, in the uniform of a lieutenant-general, 
a circumstance with which he has been reproach- 
ed, as an act of presumption ; his rank in the 
army having never been higher than that of 
marechal du camp. But for this he had some 
excuse in the hurry and confusion of the mo- 
ment. It is more difficult to explain the procla- 
mation with which the walls of Paris were 



PARIS IN 1830. 293 

covered, in the course of Thursday. It was as 
follows : 

" Fellow Citizens ! 

" You have chosen me, by universal acclamation, to 
be your general. I will be worthy of the choice of the 
noble National Guard of Paris. We fight for our laws 
and liberties. Fellow citizens ! our triumph is certain. 

" I entreat you to respect the orders of the chiefs 
who are to be assigned to you, and to obey them. 

" The troops of the Line have already surrendered ; 
and the Guards are ready to follow their example. The 
traitors who excited this civil war, and who thought to 
massacre the people with impunity, will soon be com- 
pelled to account before the tribunals for their violation 
of the laws, and for the whole of their bloody con- 
spiracy. 

" From the head-quarters on the Place de la Bourse, 
which is the general rendezvous, this 29th of July, 1830. 
(Signed) " Le General Dubourg." 

In this proceeding also, it is probable that 
General Dubourg was already aware that he 
had overshot the mark ; as may be inferred, 
from the following letter, which he soon after- 
wards addressed to General Lafayette : 

" Mon. General, 
" I resign into your hands the command with 
which the citizens invested me by universal ac- 
clamation ; and I give you my word, that from 
this instant I shall not only give no order, but 
that I shall not again wear the uniform which 



294 PARIS IN 1830. 

was brought me by the citizens. I thought, and 
I persist in thinking, my conduct worthy of a 
national reward ; for if I, an obscure individual, 
was raised to the command by the spontaneous 
acclamation of the citizens, because the brave 
fellows saw me in the front rank wherever there 
was danger, it is certain, that if they had seen 
another more forward, they would have given it 
to him. From whence then can these injurious 
suspicions proceed, if not from a sentiment of 
jealousy? I went to Ghent, it is true ; but if I 
had been at Fontainebleau, when Napoleon was 
deserted there, I for one should not have de- 
serted him. I showed sufficiently my contempt 
for cowards and traitors, when, in 1815, I had 
the command of the department of the Pas de 
Calais, and General Bourmont was governor of 
the division. I refused to see him, and quitted 
my command, that I might have no communica- 
tion with the traitor. This example has not, 
as far as I am aware, been very generally imitated. 
I might long ago have been lieutenant-general, if 
I had chosen to follow the court. 

" I am no courtier, and never shall be so. I 
resign the command with which I was invested 
by acclamation ; a sort of appointment which I 
prefer to the marshal's baton which has been 
given to Bourmont. If I am not treated by the 
government as I think that I deserve, I am sure, 
at least, of the friendship and esteem of all the 



PARIS IN 1830. 295 

brave citizens at whose head I had the honour 

and the happiness to march, to the destruction 

of a power, which had made itself hateful to 

every generous heart. 

" Accept, General, the assurance of my utmost 

respect. 

(Signed) " Dubourg." 

" 1st August, 1830." 

The answer of General Lafayette was to the 
following effect : 

" I send you, General, the extract of an order 
of the day, which I have just published. It will 
be with pleasure that I shall see those services re- 
warded as to which I do you this act of justice ; 
and to which, be assured, that I shall myself be 
ready to contribute. 

" Hotel de Ville, 8th August, 1830. 

" ORDER OF THE DAY. 

k ' The General commanding in chief owes to General 
Dubourg the justice to say, that in the moment of dan- 
ger he answered with devotedness the appeal of a num- 
ber of good patriots ; that in these memorable days he 
gave orders in conformity with the generous enthusiasm 
of the people, and with the maintenance of public order ; 
and that I found him established at the Hotel de Ville, 
where he expressed to me the pleasure he had in seeing me 
brought thither by the confidence of my fellow citizens. 
(Signed) " Lafayett e." 



296 PARIS IN 1830. 

The first act of authority performed by the 
Duke of Orleans after his acceptance of the office 
of Lieutenant-General of the kingdom, was to 
announce the resumption of the national banner, 
and to signify his approbation of the ministry 
provisionally appointed by the members of the 
Municipal Commission. Both of these objects 
were accomplished by the following proclama- 
tion : — 

" LIEUTENANCY OF THE KINGDOM. 

" Article 1st The French nation resumes her co- 
lours. No other cockade shall henceforth be worn but 
the three-coloured one. 

" Article 2nd. The commissioners charged provisi- 
onally with the various departments of the ministry, 
shall each, in what concerns him, watch over the execu- 
tion of the present ordinance. 

(Signed) " Louis Philippe d'ORLEANs." 

" Paris, 1st August, 1830. " 

" The commissioner charged provisionally with the 
ministry of the war department, 

(Signed) " Couxt Gerard." 

Measures were also immediately taken for 
placing the National Guard in a respectable state 
of defence, as well as for providing the means of 
subsistence for such of the working classes as had 
been thrown out of employment by the events 
of the revolution. These objects were provided 
for by the two orders which follow. 



PARIS IN 1830. 297 



" MUNICIPAL COMMISSION OF PARIS. 

" General Lafayette and the Municipal Commission 
of Paris have resolved, 

" 1 st. That there shall be formed a moveable Na- 
tional Guard, to consist of twenty regiments, and to be 
employed beyond the walls of Paris for the defence of 
the country. 

" 2nd. Every citizen fit to carry arms is invited to 
enrol himself, and for this purpose to appear at his 
Mairie, where the necessary lists will be opened. 

" 3rd. The moveable National Guard shall receive 
pay, the rate of which shall hereafter be fixed for the 
officers and non-commissioned officers ; for the soldiers 
it shall be thirty sous a day. The pay shall continue 
till the regiments are disbanded, and for fifteen days 
afterwards : they shall be disbanded as soon as the force 
shall be no longer necessary. 

" 4th. The moveable National Guard is placed under 
the orders of General Gerard, who has already the com- 
mand of the troops of the Line ; he will do all that is 
necessary for its formation and organization, and to this 
effect will appoint such a number of officers as he shall 
judge requisite. The lists at the Mairies and the 
Bureau of the National Guard, at the Hotel de Ville, 
are placed at his disposal. 

(Signed) " Lafayette. 

" The members of the commission, 

" LOBAU : AUDRY DE PuYRAVEAU : 
" MAUGUIN : DE SCHONEN. 

" One of the Secretaries of the Commission, 

" Aylies." 
" Hotel de Ville, 31st July 1830." 



298 PARIS IN 1830. 

" NATIONAL GUARD OF PARIS. 

" ORDER OF SERVICE. 

" The General commanding in chief requests the 
chiefs of legions to take all necessary measures for the 
maintenance of public tranquillity. To this effect they 
will appoint numerous patrols, and reinforce the posts 
which are not sufficient for the service. They are each 
directed to send a non-commissioned officer and a party 
of privates to the Hotel de Ville, to receive a supply of 
ammunition. They will attend as soon as possible to 
the designation of the posts, and to the state of the men 
who compose them. 

" The chiefs of legions who have barriers in their 
command, will immediately double the posts at the 
principal barriers, and will direct their several officers 
to take all necessary measures for ensuring the receipt 
of the duties." 

It is known that at the barriers of Paris a tax 
of considerable amount is levied on tlie import of 
vivres (provisions) of all kinds, which cannot fail 
at all times to press severely on the lower classes 
of society. On meat this local burthen amounts 
to three sous a pound, and on wine, without dis- 
tinction as to quality, it is at the rate of five sous 
a bottle. It deserves to be stated to the credit 
of the inhabitants, that although this tax is na- 
turally regarded as an odious burthen, particu- 
larly by those who live in the neighbourhood 
of the barriers ; yet, in place of conspiring 



PARIS IN 1830. 299 

to evade it during the days of commotion, the 
places of the collecting' officers were voluntarily 
supplied by the respectable householders of the 
neighbourhood ; and in point of fact, the amount 
of duty which was levied during the week of the 
revolution, in place of falling below the average, 
was considerably above it. The zeal of the inha- 
bitants was, no doubt, stimulated by the follow- 
ing intimation : — 

" MINISTRY OF FINANCE. 

" To the Citizens, 
" The Provisional Commissioner in the department of 
Finance requests all the authorities to protect the col- 
lection of the taxes legally established. 

" The citizens, by the punctual payment of these 
taxes, will evince their readiness to assist the government 
during the present emergency. 

(Signed) " Le Baron Louis. 11 

The opening of the Chamber was announced 
in the following address of General Lafayette : 

"TO THE CITIZENS OF PARIS. 

" Paris, Slst July, 1830. 
" The deputies now assembled in Paris have commu- 
nicated to the General in Chief the resolution, by which, 
from the urgency of existing circumstances, the Duke 
of Orleans has been appointed Lieutenant-General of 
the kingdom. In three days, the Deputies will be in 
regular session, conformably to the mandate of their 
constituents; and will have applied themselves to their 



300 PARIS IN 1830. 

patriotic duties, rendered still more important and exten- 
sive by the glorious event which has restored the French 
people to the plenitude of their imprescriptible rights. 
Honour to the population of Paris ! 

" It will be then that the representatives of the Elec- 
toral Colleges, with the concurrence of the whole king- 
dom, will assure to the country all the guarantees of 
liberty, equality, and public order, which are called for 
by the sovereign nature of our rights, and the firm de- 
termination of the French people. 

" Under a government which was foreign to us 
alike in its origin and its influence, it was already under- 
stood that the demand for the re-establishment of elec- 
tive, communal, and departmental administrations, the 
formation of the National Guards of France on the 
basis of the law of 1791, the extension of trial by jury, 
the questions on the subject of the law of elections, the 
freedom of education, the responsibility of the agents of 
power, and the mode by which that responsibility was to 
be realized, were each to become the subject of legisla- 
tive discussion before the vote of any pecuniary supplies. 
How much more necessary is it that these guarantees, 
and all others which liberty and equality may require, 
should precede the concession of the definite powers 
which France may judge it right to confer ! In the 
mean time it is known that the Lieutenant-General of 
the kingdom, appointed by the Chamber, was one of 
the young patriots of 1789, and one of the first generals 
who caused the three-coloured flag to triumph. 

" Liberty, equality, and public order, have always 
been my motto : I shall continue faithful to it. 

(Signed) " Lafayette.'" 



PARIS IN 1830. 301 



CHAPTER XX. 

Proceedings at Saint Cloud — Alarm prevalent there — Dis- 
ordered flight of the royal party from thence to Versailles 
— Arrival of the royalist troops, and occupation of the town 
— The Dauphin compelled to join the King at Versailles — 
Attachment shown to the latter by the pupils of the college 
of St. Cyr — Arrival of the King and his party at Rambouillet, 
where they are joined by the Dauphiness — The Dauphin's 
proclamation to the troops — Useless act of abdication by 
the King and the Dauphin, in favour of the Duke of Bor- 
deaux — Various regulations adopted by the Provisional 
Government. 

Saint Cloud was in a constant state of alarm 
during the whole of Friday, the 30th of July. 
A strong- detachment of armed men passed close 
by the palace on their way to Paris, from the 
Ville d'Avray, in the course of the morning, and 
a regiment of the Line, which had been stationed 
at the entrance of the Park, abandoned their 
bivouac, destroyed the greater part of their arms, 
and proceeded towards the bridge of Sevres. 
In the meantime the most preposterous reports 
were propagated, and believed in the palace. It 
was known that the Duke de Montemart had 
been invested with the office of president of the 
council, and it was stated, that he having gone to 



302 PARIS IN 1830. 

Paris to negociate with the inhabitants, the re- 
sult had been that a difference of opinion had 
arisen between the National Guard and the other 
citizens, that the whole town was in a state of 
anarchy and confusion, and that rapine and pil- 
lage were the order of the day. To give more 
consistency to this rumour, it was confidently 
asserted that the King had been heard to say, 
" lis se battent entre eux ; attendons qu'ils nous 
rappellent pour aller mettre l'ordre." 

The Baron Weyler de Navas, one of the mili- 
tary attendants of the royal household, had been 
charged to provide for the subsistence of the 
troops as they arrived. The state of disorgani- 
zation and misery in which the fugitives appeared, 
and the probability that they would soon be fol- 
lowed by the vengeance of the citizens, deter- 
mined the royal family to think of immediate 
flight. At eight o'clock in the evening the 
gardes-du-corps were directed to hold themselves 
in readiness to start at a moment's notice. At 
two o'clock in the morning of the 31st, they 
were ordered to bridle their horses, bring them 
out, and mount without noise ; and it was inti- 
mated to them that the King was about to leave 
Saint Cloud. The whole body was then drawn 
out in line behind the palace, in front of the 
orangery, and at half past three the King, the 
Duchess de Berri, and her two children, entered 
one of the royal carriages, and, followed by a 



PARIS IN 1S30. 303 

numerous train of attendants, and surrounded 
by the garde-du-corps, immediately proceeded on 
the road to Versailles. 

The disorder and confusion of the flight are re- 
presented to have been extreme. At every out- 
let baggage-carts and horses made their appear- 
ance, in defiance of all regularity, and so com- 
pletely blocked up the passage, as for some time 
to interrupt the movement of such of the troops 
as remained faithful to the royal cause. On ar- 
riving at the Ville d'Avray, the ground was 
found strewed with the fragments of arms, which, 
here too, had been destroyed by a disbanded 
regiment of the Line. The sentiments of the 
inhabitants of this village were evinced as they 
had been at Paris, by blotting out of their sign- 
boards every emblem of royalty ; as in the case of 
the auberge " A la Chasse Roy ale," and of the 
wine-shop " du Garde a Pied." With these ex- 
ceptions, there was nothing which occurred on 
the route to disturb the respect that was due to 
the fallen fortunes of Charles X. and his family. 
On arriving at Versailles by the Avenue de 
Saint Cloud, the pupils of the college of St. Cyr, 
who have always distinguished themselves by 
their attachment to the cause of royalty, were 
found drawn up in line near their pieces of artil- 
lery in the Allee de Trianon, and on the left were 
the colours of the 50th regiment of the Line car- 
ried by the Colonel, and escorted only by a few 



304 PARIS IN 1830. 

of the non-commissioned officers who had main- 
tained their fidelity. 

The King established himself provisionally at 
the little palace of the Trianon, in the park of 
Versailles. The troops, as they arrived on their 
retreat, placed themselves in front, with the artil- 
lery at their head, to cover the chateau. It ap- 
peared that the town of Versailles had been in a 
state of insurrection during the whole of Friday, 
but that the commotion had fortunately been 
repressed. This, however, had not been effected 
until after the hotels of the gardes-du-corps, and 
the barracks of the other troops had been carried, 
and, as some say, plundered by the inhabitants. A 
few of the gardes-du-corps, who had been left in 
the depot of their company, owed their lives to 
the intervention of the National Guard, whose 
conduct on the occasion is acknowledged by the 
household troops themselves to have been worthy 
of all praise. On the arrival of General Vincent, 
who presented himself in the course of the insur- 
rection with several squadrons of cavalry, the in- 
habitants refused to open their gates, fearing, 
perhaps, that reprisals might be made upon them 
for the hostility they had displayed towards men 
who, for the last fifteen years, had been regarded 
as members of the community. In the course of 
the evening General Bordesoulle arrived with a 
park of artillery, and one thousand five hundred 
cavalry. After some previous negociation, Ge- 



PARIS IN 1830. 305 

neral Bordesoulle was admitted, the town was 
occupied, and the King- was in safety to pass on 
Saturday morning'. 

The Dauphin had remained at Saint Cloud, 
with a part of the troops, to guard the approaches 
of the bridge ; but about nine o'clock in the 
morning was attacked by the armed peasantry 
from Anteuil, Boulogne, and the adjoining vil- 
lages on the right bank of the Seine. The de- 
parture of the King was already known in Paris, 
from whence an armed force was sent towards 
the bridge of Sevres, which was forthwith aban- 
doned. It was then easy to cut off the commu- 
nication between Saint Cloud and Versailles. 
Firing had already commenced in the town of 
Sevres ; and the Duke d'Esclignac, Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the Lancers of the Guard, was there 
severely wounded. It had previously been the 
Dauphin's intention to maintain himself in his 
position at Saint Cloud, and he had advised the 
King to remain at Trianon ; but this movement 
of the Parisians compelled him to think of re- 
treat, and before mid-day he had joined his father 
in the park of Versailles. 

It was now obvious that the spirit of insur- 
rection was spreading rapidly, and that the whole 
country was flying to arms. Within an hour 
after the Dauphin's arrival, it was resolved to 
proceed immediately to Rambouillet. This 
movement was probably hastened by the occa- 

x 



306 PARIS IN 1830. 

sional firing- of musketry in the faubourgs of 
Versailles ; and by the fact that several bullets 
had fallen in the alleys of the Trianon, within a 
few yards of the royal resting-place. 

In passing the college of St. Cyr, the remains 
of the gen-d'armerie of Paris were drawn out to 
receive the King. The students had offered to 
accompany his Majesty, but after the King had 
stopped to thank them for the zeal they had 
displayed, they returned into their college by his 
Majesty's command, and the cortege proceeded. 
At the Trianon, the King had mounted his horse 
and placed himself at the head of the Luxem- 
bourg company of the body-guard. At nine 
o'clock in the evening he reached Rambouillet, 
where nothing was known of the movement an 
hour before his arrival. The gardes- du-corps 
formed their bivouac in the English gardens which 
surround the chateau, the troops of the guard 
and the artillery in the park, and on the heights 
which command Rambouillet, as far as the village 
of Perey, which was occupied as a military post. 

On Sunday morning, the 1st of August, the 
Dauphiness arrived at Rambouillet, where a 
thousand rumours as to her personal safety had 
preceded her. She had been at the waters of 
Vichy since the commencement of July ; and it 
was at Dijon, on her way to Saint Cloud, that 
she received, at the same moment, the first in- 
telligence of the events of Paris, and of their 



PARIS IN 1830. 307 

disastrous issue. Her journey to Vichy is be- 
lieved to have been involuntary on her part, 
and to have been taken in compliance with an 
order of Charles X., to get rid probably of the 
embarrassment which her presence, and the 
known activity of her disposition, might have 
created during the preparations for the coup 
d'etat of the 25th of July. In spite of the agi- 
tation which prevailed in the town of Dijon at 
the moment of her arrival, her Royal Highness 
persisted in going to the theatre, and remained 
there throughout the performance, amidst the 
tumult excited by her presence. The officers of the 
eleventh regiment of Chasseurs surrounded her 
on her exit, and conducted her in safety to her 
hotel ; but, in the course of the night, finding 
that all Burgundy was in arms, she set out for 
Tonnerre, with three of her retinue, the Count 
de Faucigny Lucinge, M. de Conflans, and Ma- 
dame de Saint Maure. At Tonnerre, the Dau- 
phiness disguised herself as a femme-de-cham- 
bre, and, with a single attendant, M. de Faucigny, 
in the dress also of a domestic, arrived at Fon- 
tainebleau, where the three-coloured flag was al- 
ready displayed ; and where it was, in conse- 
quence, thought unsafe for the Princess to remain. 
Orders were given for the departure of the 
cortege at nine o'clock in the evening ; and, at 
that hour, a carriage set out on the road to 
Orleans, with a strong escort of gen-d'armerie. 

x 2 



308 PARIS IN 1830. 

It was believed in the town, that this carriage 
had contained the Princess, bnt it was filled with 
her female attendants ; and, at a later hour in 
the night, her Royal Highness took the road to 
Paris, without any other precaution but that of 
the strictest incognito. On her arrival at La 
Belle Epine, her carriage took the road from 
Choisy to Versailles. At Bernis, she was in- 
formed of the evacuation of Saint Cloud, and 
the occupation of Versailles by the Parisians. 
She persisted, however, in pursuing her route, 
and, repelling the advice of her companion, she 
gave orders for setting out immediately. On her 
entrance into the town of Versailles, her carriage 
was surrounded by an armed multitude, who re- 
ceived her with shouts of Vive la Charte ! Vive 
la liberte! An officer of the garde-du- corps, 
who had joined her at Bernis, and who sat on 
the box, waved his hat in the air, and repeated 
the popular shout ; but the Princess did not stop 
at the post-house, proceeding with the same 
horses, and waiting for relays on the road to 
Rambouillet. 

In his capacity of generalissimo, the Dauphin, 
on the 1st of August, issued an order of the day, 
which was read at the head of each regiment at 
Rambouillet. It was in the following terms : 

" The King informs the army, in an official manner, 
that he has entered into an arrangement with the Pro- 
visional Government ; and that every thing leads to the 



PARIS IN 1830. 309 

belief that this arrangement is on the point of being 
coneluded. His Majesty communicates this intelligence 
to the army, in order to calm the agitation which some 
regiments have displayed. The army will feel, that it 
ought to remain unmoved, and await the progress of 
events with tranquillity. 

(Signed) " Louis Antojne. 
" By his Royal Highness's command, 

" The assistant Major-General, 

" Baron de Gressot." 

The act of abdication by the King and the 
Dauphin, in favour of the Duke de Bordeaux, 
was dated the 2d of August, and was addressed 
as follows : " To my cousin, the Duke of Or- 
leans, Lieutenant-General of the kingdom." As 
if to account for the king's recognition of the 
Provisional Government, the abdication was pre- 
ceded by a document in the following terms : 

" The King, being desirous to put an end to the dis- 
turbances which exist in the capital, and in a part of 
France, and counting on the sincere attachment of his 
cousin, the Duke of Orleans, appoints him Lieutenant- 
General of the kingdom. 

" The King, having thought proper to recall his ordi- 
nances of the 25th of July, approves of the Chambers 
assembling on the 3d of August ; and he hopes that they 
will establish tranquillity in France. 

" The King will wait here the return of the person 
charged to carry this declaration to Paris. 

" Should the life or liberty of the King or his family 
be attempted, he will defend them to the last extremity. 

" Done at Rambouillet, the 2d of August, 1830. 
(Signed) " Charles: 1 



310 PARIS IN 1830. 

The act of abdication is as follows : 

" RambouiUet, 2 August, 1830. 
" My Cousin, 

" I am too deeply distressed at the evils with which 
my people are afflicted and threatened, not to seek the 
means of removing them. I have therefore resolved to 
abdicate the crown, in favour of my grandson, the Duke 
de Bordeaux. 

" The Dauphin, who shares my sentiments, renounces 
his rights also, in favour of his nephew. 

" You will, therefore, in your capacity of Lieutenant- 
General of the kingdom, cause the accession of Henry V. 
to the crown to be proclaimed. You will take all the 
other measures which concern you, for regulating the 
forms of the government, during the minority of the 
new King. I now confine myself to the communication 
of these arrangements, as the means of avoiding a great 
variety of evils. 

" You will communicate my intentions to the diplo- 
matic body ; and you will take the earliest opportunity 
of making known to me the proclamation by which 
my grandson is recognized as King, under the title of 
Henry V. 

" I charge Lieutenant General Viscount de Foissac 
Latour with this letter to you. He has orders to con- 
sult with you as to the arrangements to be made in fa- 
vour of those persons who have accompanied me, as well 
as those which may be suitable for myself and the rest 
of my family. 

" We shall afterwards regulate the other measures 
which may become necessary in consequence of the 
change of the reign. 

" I renew to you, my cousin, the assurance of the 
sentiments with which I am your affectionate cousin, 
(Signed) " Charles. 

" Louis-^ntoine." 



PARIS IN 1830. 311 

It is known that this conditional abdication 
was ultimately disregarded ; but before we reach 
the period of its arrival in Paris, there are other 
public documents which now require to be no- 
ticed. The first is a decree of the Provisional 
Government, suspending the operation of bills of 
exchange, in consequence of the interruption 
which all pecuniary transactions had suffered by 
the events of the revolution. 

"THE MUNICIPAL COMMISSION OF PARIS, 

" Considering that since the 26th of July the circula- 
tion of letters, and the negociation of commercial bills, 
have in a great measure been suspended ; that since the 
28th of July the sittings of the Tribunal of Commerce 
have been interrupted ; and that the citizens engaged in 
the common defence have been forcibly compelled to 
suspend the ordinary course of their business ; having 
heard the president of the Tribunal of Commerce, and 
considered the urgency of the circumstances ; 

" Ordains, 1st. That commercial bills payable at 
Paris from the 26th of July to the 15th of August, both 
days included, shall become due on the 10th day after 
they are payable in the ordinary course ; bills payable 
on the 26th of July becoming due on the 5th of August, 
and so forth. 

" 2nd. The protests of commercial bills referred to in 
Article 1st shall likewise be suspended. 

" Done at the Hotel de Ville, 31st July 1830. 

" lobau : audry de puyraveau : 
" De Schonen : Mauguin." 

The prefecture of police, which, in the hands 
of M. Mangin, had fallen into such extreme dis- 
repute, does not necessarily require the exercise 



312 PARIS IN 1830. 

of any duty inconsistent with the principles of a 
man of honour. M. Debelleyme had performed 
its functions under the Martignac administration, 
so as to conciliate the respect and esteem of the 
inhabitants of Paris. M. Bavoux was the first 
prefect of police appointed by the Provisional 
Government. His acceptance of office was an- 
nounced by the following proclamation : 

" PREFECTURE OF POLICE. 

" Parisians ! 
" Having been entrusted by the Municipal Commis- 
sion with the duty of watching over your safety, my 
first care has been to take the necessary measures for 
insuring your free intercourse. 

" The sacred cause of liberty is gained. The country 
now appeals to your devotion to her interests. Continue 
your service in the National Guards, and remain at ease 
as to the safety of your property. Public tranquillity, 
and the preservation of those institutions which form the 
bulwark of the liberty which you have won with a 
courage above all praise, will be the reward of your 
generous efforts. 

" The Prefect of Police, Deputy for the Depart- 
ment of the Seine, 

" Bavoux." 

This officer was succeeded by M. Girod de 
l'Ain, who, in entering upon office, announced 
the fact by the following proclamation : 

" Inhabitants of Paris ! 
" The Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom has con- 
fided to me the functions of Prefect of Police, which M. 
Bavoux had consented to exercise provisionally, and of 



PARIS IN 1830. 313 

which he acquitted himself with his well-known zeal and 
patriotism. Listening only to the call of duty, and for- 
getful of my own wishes, I have accepted these functions. 

" Inhabitants of Paris ! — You have known me as 
a deputy, as one of your magistrates, and as an old 
friend of liberty. On these grounds I ask a confidence 
which I shall never betray. 

" After displaying your intrepidity in battle, continue 
to set the example of all the civic virtues ; maintain pub- 
lic order and tranquillity ; preserve with care all your 
means of defence, and even increase them : so that if an 
attempt should be made to wrest from you the fruits of 
your victory, you may still be found such as you were 
in the memorable days of July. 
" The Prefect of Police, 

" A. GlROD DE L'AlN. 

" The Secretary General, 

" P. Malleval." 

The Prefect of the Seine, whose duties in the 
French capital place him at the head of the local 
magistracy, published the following address to the 
inhabitants : — 

"Brave Inhabitants of Paris! — Dear Fellow 
Citizens ! 
" The Municipal Commission, in charging me pro- 
visionally with the Prefecture of the Seine, has assigned 
me a duty at once very agreeable and very difficult to 
perform. Who can flatter himself with deserving the 
rank of first magistrate of a population whose heroic 
conduct has saved France, liberty, and civilization ? — of 
a population which contains all that is distinguished in 
wealth, property, and commerce; in the magistracy, 
the sciences, or the arts? But it was you especially, 
whose eulogium can never be adequately pronounced, 



314 PARIS IN 1830. 

and whose interests cannot be too well protected — indus- 
trious citizens of all professions, it was you whose spon- 
taneous efforts, without guide or plan, found the means 
of resisting oppression, and of gaining the victory, with- 
out sullying it with a single stain. Ingenious and bold 
in danger, benevolent and simple in triumph, believe 
that if / have learned the extent of my duties, it has 
only been by appreciating the extent of your sacrifices. 
A summary of these glorious actions will hereafter be pre- 
pared, as well as of the losses and misfortunes with which 
they have been accompanied. Public beneficence has 
already been engaged in repairing these. Electors of 
Paris, who for the third time have called me to repre- 
sent you in the legislature! may I hope that your suf- 
frages will again support me in the new functions with 
which I am invested ? Inhabitants of the capital! your 
magistrates do not wish to make their presence felt but 
by benefits ; you will doubly honour your triumph by 
the calmness and good order which agree so well with 
success. Assist us yourselves in making you happy : it 
is the only premium, the only recompense which we ask 
for our labours. 

(Signed) " Alex. Delaborde, 

" Charged provisionally with the Prefecture 
of the Seine." 



PARIS IN 1830. 315 



CHAPTER XXI. 

Announcement of the removal of the Crown Jewels — Unsuc- 
cessful return of the Commissioners sent in consequence to 
Rambouillet — They are despatched again with an armed 
force, and accomplish their object — The King- and his party 
compelled to set out on the road to Maintenon — Incidental 
particulars — Attachment manifested towards the King in 
his misfortunes by the gardes-du-corps — The King's escort 
lessened by the dismissal of the remaining troops of the 
Royal Guard — Entry of the Royal party into Dreux, and 
dismissal of the Artillery — The route continued to Melle- 
raut — Anecdotes of the Royal fugitives — Their straitened 
resources relieved by the Provisional Government — Incon- 
veniences attendant on the gardes-du-corps. 

Soon after the royal family had left Saint Cloud, 
it was ascertained that the crown jewels, a na- 
tional property of very great value, had been 
removed from their usual place of deposit. The 
fact was publicly announced in the following 
terms : 

" MUNICIPAL COMMISSION OF PARIS. 

" The Municipal Commission has found it necessary 
to take measures for securing the crown diamonds. The 
usual depositary of this valuable public property has 
declared that it was removed by the Marquis de la 
Bonillerie, whose receipt has been deposited at the mu- 



316 PARIS IN 1830. 

nicipality. The court has left Saint Cloud precipitately. 
It is hoped that the crown jewels will be restored to their 
former place of deposit, as it is a question of personal 
probity, independent altogether of political considera- 
tions, and from which princes are not more exempt than 
private individuals. Moreover, M. de la Bonillerie, who 
has signed the receipt, has made himself personally re- 
sponsible, and all the rigour of the law must be enforced 
against him. 

" Paris, August 2, 1830." 

In pursuance of this announcement, the Mar 6- 
chal Maison, Messrs. Odillon, Barret, and de 
Schonen, were appointed commissioners, with in- 
structions to proceed to Rambouillet, require the 
restoration of the jewels, and offer the King and 
the royal family a safe conduct to the frontiers. 
At this period, however, it appears that the King 
had not yet abandoned the idea of attempting 
to excite some popular movement in La Vendee. 
The commissioners, on their arrival at Rambouil- 
let on Tuesday morning the 3rd of August, 
were refused admission into the royal presence, 
and immediately returned to Paris. 

On their arrival, soon after mid-day, at the 
seat of the Provisional Government, an order was 
instantly issued to each of the twelve legions of 
the National Guard, to furnish five hundred men, 
who were to put themselves in readiness to pro- 
ceed forthwith to Rambouillet. In order to ac- 
celerate this movement, the whole of the hackney 
coaches, and cabriolets, diligences, omnibuses, 
and other public carriages which ply in the streets, 



PARIS IN 1830. 317 

were instantly put in requisition, and carried to 
the Champs Ely sees, which had been appointed 
as the place of rendezvous. But in place of six 
thousand men, the number which had been con- 
sidered sufficient by the Provisional Government 
to accomplish the object in view, before three 
o'clock at least three times that number had as- 
sembled at the place of rendezvous, an*d pro- 
ceeded on the road to Rambouillet. 

The rumour of the approach of this formidable 
column preceded them by several hours, having 
reached Rambouillet by seven o'clock in the 
evening*. 

At eight o'clock the commissioners arrived 
once more at the chateau, and on this occasion 
were treated with more courtesy than on their 
first appearance in the morning. At the ad- 
vanced post they had been readily permitted to 
pass with their three-coloured cockades, and on 
being admitted into the presence of the King, 
they explained to him the serious dangers which 
he and his family would incur by offering any 
resistance to the powerful body of armed men 
who were then on their march to enforce the 
restoration of the national property, and to com- 
pel his Majesty and his family to quit the king- 
dom. The ultima ratio was found effectual ; the 
crown jewels were restored, and at nine o'clock 
the King set out, under the protection of three 
unarmed men, on the road to Maintenon ! 



318 PARIS IN 1830. 

This retreat was precipitated by the King's 
knowledge of the fact that the desertion which 
had been begun in Paris was every instant be- 
coming more extensive, the farther the troops 
were removed from the capital. To complete 
his misfortunes, it was known that his pecuniary 
resources were so nearly exhausted, that the 
common purse of the family, when collected to- 
gether, was found to amount only to 100,000 
francs; and that in the inconvenient form of 
notes of a thousand francs, each. The lives and 
fortunes of so many of his courtiers, which a few 
days before had been at his Majesty's disposal, 
were now so little available, that the plate of the 
royal table was put in pawn to provide the sup- 
plies of meat and flour for the immediate con- 
sumption of his retinue. The bakers of the dif- 
ferent regiments were immediately employed in 
making bread ; but such was the state of starva- 
tion of many of the men, that it was forcibly 
carried off from the ovens before it was half 
baked. 

The village of Perey, about three miles from 
Rambouillet, had been occupied by a regiment, 
which deserted en masse. The whole position 
of the royalists was thought to be compromised 
by this circumstance, as the advanced post was 
now only protected by a single company of 
gardes-du-corps, and a small detachment of 
Swiss. The King was surrounded by a number 



PARIS IN 1830. 319 

of general officers, many of whom had been left 
absolutely without troops. One of these, General 
Vincent, had proceeded to the post at Perey, 
and there met Colonel Poques, an aide-de-camp 
of General Lafayette's, who, it was said, had been 
actively engaged in persuading the troops to re- 
turn to Paris, and take the oath of fidelity to the 
Provisional Government. After some alterca- 
tion between the two officers, the General or- 
dered Colonel Poques to retire, and threatened, 
it is said, to fire upon him if he did not instantly 
comply. Colonel Poques remained where he 
was — the threatened order was given, and was 
immediately obeyed by the Swiss, when Colonel 
Poques, who had calmly crossed his arms, fell 
wounded in the leg. This incident is given on 
the authority of the journal of an ex-garde- du- 
corps, M. Theodore Anne, who states, in pallia- 
tion of General Vincent's conduct, that the dust 
was so dense at the moment, that it was impos- 
sible to tell whether Colonel Poques was or was 
not 'accompanied by an armed force ; and he 
congratulates himself that the deed had not been 
committed by Frenchmen. 

The company of gardes-du-corps under the 
command of Colonel Dupille were ordered to 
make a charge in the direction from which Colo- 
nel Poques had arrived, on which it was ascer- 
tained that he had been wholly unaccompanied. 
When removed on the muskets of the Swiss, the 



320 PARIS IN 1830. 

wounded officer is stated to have expressed no 
concern about his personal sufferings, but to have 
exclaimed, " Quelle atrocite ! des Francais com- 
mettre un pareil acte ! si je gemis, ce n'est pas sur 
moi, mais sur vous, sur la responsabilite terrible 
que vous attirez sur vos tetes : jamais je n' aurais 
cru qu'on osat se porter a cette extremite !" 

On the squadron being relieved, to which M. 
Anne was attached, the King's letter of abdica- 
tion was read to them, accompanied by an order 
of the day by the Duke de Luxembourg, the 
captain of the guard on duty, in which the corps 
was reminded, that whether they considered 
themselves the guards of Charles X., or of 
Henry V., their situation remained unchanged. 

It is creditable to this select body, that, with 
very few exceptions, they remained faithful to 
their royal master in his misfortunes. After 
breaking up their bivouac at Rambouillet, a 
garde-du-corps of the Luxembourg company was 
directed to return for the protection of some 
effects which had been left on the spot wliere 
they had rested. The young man remonstrated 
with his officer, representing the probability of 
an attack being made during the night, and 
urging it as his right and his duty to share the 
dangers of his companions. This remonstrance 
was disregarded by his commanding officer, who 
repeated the order ; but the young garde-du- 
corps had scarcely reached the deserted bivouac, 



PARIS IN 1830. 321 

when, thinking himself dishonoured, he pulled 
his pistol from his holster and blew out his 
brains. 

The Duke de Mouchy, the captain of the com- 
pany de Noailles, understood the point of honour 
differently. At the time of the revolution, this 
officer was not on duty at Saint Cloud, but re- 
joined his company on the 2nd of August at 
Rambouillet. On his arrival he visited the 
bivouac, congratulated his troop on their conduct, 
shook hands with several of the guardsmen, and 
observed that henceforward between them and 
him it was " a la vie, a la mort" Before next 
morning, however, his Excellence had found occa- 
sion to change his views on the subject. At an 
early hour in the morning he passed his troop in a 
post-chaise for Paris, on a mission, it was under- 
stood, from the King to the Chamber of Peers. 
If such were the case, it is certain at least that 
he never returned ; that on his arrival in Paris 
he assumed the three-coloured cockade, and took 
the oath of allegiance to Louis Philippe I., while 
his company, under the command of Lieutenant- 
Major the Marquis de Bonneval, was on its 
march to Cherbourg with the white cockade, to 
do the farewell honours to the King in his mis- 
fortunes. The Duke de Mouchy thought, per- 
haps, to retain his pay as a Lieutenant -General 
in the army ; but in this he has been disappointed. 
His ingratitude to his former master has secured 

v 



322 PARIS IN 1830. 

him no favour at the new court, and his name 
has actually been erased from the army list. 

On the 4th of August, at three o'clock in the 
morning, the King arrived at the residence of 
the Duke de Noailles, where he alighted. The 
troops proceeded to the town of Maintenon, 
where it was announced to them that the King 
was thenceforward to retain only the four com- 
panies of the garde-du-corps, and two pieces of 
artillery. At nine o'clock in the morning, the 
remains of the Royal Guard were drawn out in 
line on the road to Dreux, where they paid the 
last honours, and received the last adieus of their 
royal master. The Colonels of the different 
corps here returned their colours to the King, 
and the royal carriage was surrounded by the 
officers, many of whom broke their swords, and 
swore never to serve any other master. After 
this mournful ceremony, the following order of 
the day was issued by the Duke of Ragusa. 

" Maintenon, August 4th, 1830. 

" Immediately after the King's departure, all the re- 
giments of infantry, artillery of the guard, and gens- 
d'armerie will march on Chartres, where they will receive 
all necessary supplies of provisions. 

" The chiefs of corps, after assembling their respec- 
tive regiments, will declare to them that it is with the 
liveliest sorrow that his Majesty sees himself obliged to 
separate from them ; that they are charged to testify his 
satisfaction with the troops ; and that he will ever retain 
the recollection of their good conduct, and of their con- 



PARIS IN 1830. 323 

stancy and firmness in supporting the fatigues and pri- 
vations with which they have been overwhelmed during 
the late unhappy circumstances. 

" The King, for the last time, transmits his orders to 
the brave troops of the Guard, and to those of the Line, 
who have accompanied him ; they are to proceed to 
Paris, where they are to make their submission to the 
Lieutenant-General of the kingdom, who has taken all 
necessary measures for their safety, and their future wel- 
fare. 

(Signed) "Le Marechal Due de Raguse." 

"The Chief of the Staff, 

" Marquis de Choiseul." 

On breaking up from their bivouac at Ram- 
bouillet, it was understood among the troops 
that the King was to proceed with them to 
Chartres, and from thence, after being joined by 
the troops encamped at St. Omer, towards the 
southern provinces of France. Orders to this 
effect had been communicated at Rambouillet, 
to the gardes-du- corps ; but, after the publica- 
tion of the general order, by which the other 
troops were disbanded, it was announced to 
them, that instead of Chartres, they were to 
proceed to Dreux, where they would sleep on 
the night of the 4th of August. 

After passing Maintenon, the three-coloured 
cockade was frequently observed on the road. 
A number of travellers passed with it indivi- 
dually through the midst of the cortege, which 
was now reduced to eight hundred horsemen 

y 2 



324 PARIS IN 1830. 

of the garde-du-corps ; a few of the officers 
and sub- officers of the Royal Guard ; a small 
party of Chasseurs ; and the carriages of the 
royal family and their suite. 

In the course of the day, the Commissioners 
took the lead, and went forward to Dreux, to pre- 
pare for the King's reception, a halt being made 
about a league outside the town, to wait for their 
return ; during this period a rumour obtained 
currency, that the inhabitants of Dreux had risen 
in arms, to resist their entrance. It had, in fact, 
required some intercession on'the part of the Com- 
missioners, to obtain permission for the King and 
the gardes-du-corps to pass through the town with- 
out dismounting the white colours and the white 
cockade, which were displayed by the royal fugi- 
tives and the suite. The point, however, was at 
length conceded ; and the royal party entered be- 
tween two lines of National Guards, decorated 
with three-coloured ribbons, and three-coloured 
cockades. This was the first occasion that such 
a spectacle had been presented to the cavalcade, 
and must have produced among them the feeling, 
that the King and his family were in the situa- 
tion of prisoners of state ; and that his military 
attendants were a mere guard of honour. The 
National Guard, however, presented arms, on 
the approach of the King ; and the gardes-du 
corps bivouacked on the public promenades of 
Dreux. The artillery of the Royal Guard were 



PARIS IN 1830< 3 C 25 

here dismissed, by order of the Commissioners, 
with the exception of two pieces of cannon, 
which continued to close the march. 

On the 5th of August, the halt for the night 
was at Verneuil, where the population was tran- 
quil, and the only feeling evinced was that of 
curiosity to see the royal fugitives. The next 
day's march was to PAigle, where the gardes-du- 
corps were, for the first time, billetted on the 
inhabitants, six billets being given to every party 
of thirty men. As PAigle is a manufacturing 
town, some disturbance was anticipated ; but the 
principal inhabitants had placed themselves at the 
head of the popular movement. The military 
posts were already occupied by a well-organised 
National Guard ; and a proclamation of the au- 
thorities had enjoined the calmness and quiet 
which was rigidly observed. The crowd was so 
great, as to leave scarcely room for the cavalcade 
to pass ; but although the King must have seen 
very few friendly countenances among them, at 
least he did not hear a single word of insult ; 
nor could he be dissatisfied with the demeanor 
of the populace, unless he misconstrued it into 
a parade of generosity. The National Guards 
again carried arms as the King advanced, and 
the salute was returned on the part of his attend- 
ants, with the usual military honours. 

The column left PAigle at an early hour in 
the morning of the 7th of August, and proceeded 



326 PARIS IN 1830. 

towards Melleraut, which is only seven leagues 
distant. The heat was this day excessive ; and 
its inconvenience was greatly aggravated by the 
clouds of dust, thrown up by a thousand horse- 
men, and a crowd of carriages pressed together, 
as they advanced. 

In the course of the journey, the royal family 
often left their carriages ; the King and the 
Dauphin mounted on horseback, while the Prin- 
cesses and the children proceeded on foot. On 
this day, for instance, the Dauphiness, accompa- 
nied by Madame de Saint Maure, walked at 
least two leagues, speaking as she went to the 
gardes-du-corps, and praising the zeal and the 
good conduct they had displayed. She entered 
also into conversation with the peasantry on 
the road, who were far from recognizing the 
descendant of so many kings in a person so plainly 
attired, and so covered with dust ; who came, 
perhaps, to ask them for a glass of water to 
quench her thirst. In this manner the Dauphi- 
ness passed through two considerable villages, in 
which the tree of liberty had been planted a few 
hours before. The images whieh they presented 
to the mind of this heroine of misfortune, must 
have been sufficiently heart-rending ; but in her 
countenance there was nothing to be seen but an 
expression of becoming resignation. 

At Melleraut, the King was lodged in the 
house of M. de la Roque, a retired garde -du- 



PARIS IN 1830. 327 

corps. His Majesty occupied a single chamber 
on the rez de chaussee, or ground floor ; and the 
porter on duty, in the costume he had worn at 
Saint Cloud, placed himself at the outside of the 
door in the court of M. de la Roque's " petite 
maison de campagne," to introduce such persons 
of the King's suite as were to be admitted to the 
royal presence. On the first floor one bed-room 
was reserved for the Dauphin and Dauphiness \ 
a second for the Duchess de Berri and her 
daughter Mademoiselle ; and the third, and only 
remaining one, for the Duke de Bordeaux and 
his governor. The royal party dined in the 
King's bed-room, and, when dinner was over, the 
King and the Princes were obliged to go out to 
walk through the bivouac, that the servants 
might have an opportunity of preparing the apart- 
ment for its subsequent destination during the 
night. The King condescended to converse with 
several of his guards ; inquired if they were not 
too much fatigued, and if their horses supported 
the journey well, and thanked them for the fide- 
lity and good conduct they had displayed. Dur- 
ing this conversation, two carriages arrived, be- 
longing to the Dauphiness, which had been stop- 
ped by the inhabitants of Tonnerre, and had been 
afterwards sent forward by the Provisional Go- 
vernment. As soon as the Princess heard of 
their arrival, she came down stairs, and observed 
to M. O'Hegerty, the garde -du-corps on duty : 



328 PARIS IN 1830. 

" Je suis tres contente de Parrivee de ces voi- 
tures ; non pour les voitures en elles-memes, qui 
sont lourdes et roulent difficilement ; mais au 
moins a present j'anrai des chemises I" The 
Duchess de Berri was so narrowly lodged, that 
she and her daughter sat for several hours on the 
grass amidst the bivouac of the gardes-du-corps, 
and employed themselves in sewing such articles 
of dress as they required for their immediate use. 
These statements are made on rather better au- 
thority than the preposterous rumours which 
were circulated with so much activity, in Paris as 
well as in London, at the period when this jour- 
ney was performed. 

The military Intendant, Baron Weyler de 
Navas, had left the King at Rambouillet, to go 
to Paris to give the Provisional Government his 
testimony, as an eye witness, to the state of de- 
stitution in which the King and his followers had 
been left. His representations were listened to 
with becoming attention by the Duke of Orleans 
and General Gerard, who readily granted all that 
was asked of them ; and M. de Navas rejoined the 
cortege at Melleraut, bringing with him very 
welcome intelligence for Charles X. as well as for 
his attendants. The pay of the gardes-du-corps 
was greatly in arrear. They had received no 
part of what was due to them for the month of 
July, with the exception of fifty francs each, 
which had been paid on their leaving Saint Cloud, 



PARIS IN 1830. 329 

and ten francs more on their arrival at Melle- 
raut. 

Till this day the weather had been fine ; at least 
no rain had fallen ; but on the night of the 7th it 
rained incessantly, to the great annoyance, no 
doubt, of a corps of gentlemen who were little 
accustomed to sleep 'in an open bivouac, cook 
their own victuals, and dress their own horses, as 
during this journey they had been compelled to 
do. It is mentioned by a member of the corps, 
that, having stopped for an instant at a little au- 
berge to give his horse a feed of oats, the stable- 
boy, who had been carefully observing the column 
as it passed, and had been tired with the sight of 
so many epaulettes, exclaimed with apparent sur- 
prise : 

" Monsieur, dans votre regiment il n'y a done 
pas des soldats ?"— " Non ; chez nous les soldats 
sont officiers."— " Ma foi !" rejoined the stable- 
boy ; " si je l'avais su, j'aurais voulu servir dans 
ce corps la !" 



330 PARIS IN 1830, 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Uncertainty among the attendants of Charles X. as to the 
course of events in Paris— Intelligence brought to them at 
Argentan of the election of the Duke of Orleans— Progress 
of the royal retinue — Mysterious conveyance of the Prin- 
cess de Polignac and her children — Details connected with 
the arrest of the Prince de Polignac — Hazard incurred by 
Marmont at Conde — Reasons for the slow rate of travel- 
ling of the royal fugitives — Arrival of the cavalcade at 
Vire — Order of procession and enumeration of the suite — 
Characteristic proneness to desertion among the courtiers — 
Entry into the town of Saint Lo : contrasted with a former 
occasion — Progress of the cortege through Carentan and 
Valognes — Farewell reception of the gardes-du- corps by 
Charles X. — Change of costume adopted by some of the fu- 
gitive family — Arrival of the party at Cherbourg, and em- 
barkation for England — Disbanding of the gardes- du-corps. 

The Moniteur was forwarded every morning to 
Charles X., but his attendants had little better 
than public rumour to guide them as to the 
events which were taking place at Paris. At 
Melleraut it was believed that hostilities had 
recommenced in the capital, and that the Duke 
of Orleans, at the head of one party, was claim- 



PARIS IN 1830. 331 

ing the crown, while Lafayette, by another, had 
been proclaimed president of the republic. 

On the 8th of August, however, an estafette 
arrived, announcing that the Duke of Orleans 
had been called to the throne, and proclaimed 
by the two Chambers King of the French, under 
the title of Louis Philippe I. 

It was at Argentan that this intelligence was 
brought to the fallen family ; and in the course 
of the day it was known throughout the King's 
retinue by the arrival of a Parisian journal, an- 
nouncing the fact. 

At Argentan, a halt was made for the day, 
the King having resolved on going to hear mass 
in the cathedral. In the course of their stay, it 
was reported in the neighbourhood that the in- 
habitants had been attacked by the gardes-du- 
corps, and that the town had been exposed to 
fire and sword. As the rumour spread over the 
country, the peasantry armed themselves with 
scythes and pitchforks, and hastened to the relief 
of the town's-people. On their arrival, they 
were soon convinced of the public tranquillity, 
and of the good understanding which existed 
between the inhabitants and the royal escort; 
but this popular effervescence had produced the 
greatest alarm among the royal fugitives, from 
whom an order had been three times given in the 
course of the morning, to set out for Guibray, 
and had as often been recalled. 



332 PARIS IN 1830. 

At Argentan, the two pieces of cannon, 
which had hitherto brought up the rear, were 
dismissed by order of the Commissioners. Here 
also a close carriage, which till now had imme- 
diately followed that of the King, under the 
escort of a party of gens-d'armes des chasses, dis- 
appeared from the cortege. It had been ob- 
served always to stop wherever the King lodged ; 
but it had never been opened. After its depar- 
ture, it was known among the King's suite that 
it had contained the Princess de Polignac and her 
children, who had proceeded to the coast in the 
neighbourhood of Valognes, and had there em- 
barked for England. During its stay, the car- 
riage, from the mystery which seemed to hang 
over it, had excited the greatest curiosity among 
the King's retinue, most of whom believed that 
it contained the Prince de Polignac himself. If 
it did not, it is difficult to account for the ex- 
treme circumspection observed in concealing the 
persons of the travellers ; but, on the suppo- 
sition that it did, it is easy to understand why 
the Prince should have thought it safer to em- 
bark near Granville, where he was arrested, than 
at the extremity of the peninsula, where the 
Commissioners must have been made acquainted 
with his presence, and might not perhaps have 
been able to prevent the inhabitants of Cher- 
bourg from laying violent hands on the culprit 
minister. 



PARIS IN 1830. 333 

When the Prince made his appearance at 
Granville, he was disguised as a domestic, and 
formed part of the suite of Madame Lepelletier 
de Saint Fargeau, but maintained his incognito 
so imperfectly as to occupy the best chamber in 
the inn where the party was lodged, to wear 
several rings of great value on his fingers, and 
to make frequent use of a valuable gold snuff- 
box. The hauteur with which he spoke to those 
around him, and the attentions he received from 
the lady whose servant he professed to be, at- 
tracted attention to these other circumstances of 
suspicion ; and, amidst the conjectures which 
his appearance had created, a waggoner, to 
whom he had spoken more haughtily than was 
necessary, exclaimed to some of his companions, 
" If this now should be Polignac !" On this the 
ex-minister was arrested without further evi- 
dence than he had himself afforded by his own 
imprudence. As long as he remained in the 
prison of Saint Lo, to which he was carried 
from Granville, he seemed to have very little 
idea of the serious situation in which he stood. 
On the return of the Commissioners from Cher- 
bourg, he was visted by M. de Schonen, who is 
reported to have said to him : " Eh bien ! Prince, 
vous avez perdu une belle partie." The Prince's 
answer was, " Monsieur, je prendrai ma re- 
vanche." 

While the gardes-du-corps were still at Saint 
Lo, on their return from Cherbourg, waiting the 



334 PARIS IN 1830. 

arrangements which were necessary as preparatory 
to their being* disbanded, a fire broke out in one 
of the quarters of the town not far from the 
prison in which the Prince de Polignac was 
confined. This circumstance gave rise to the 
supposition that it had been raised by the 
gardes-du-corps in the hope of providing for 
the Prince's escape in the confusion which must 
ensue. In this rumour there was certainly not 
a shadow of truth, as is proved by the testimony 
which is borne to the good conduct of these per- 
sons by the Commissioners, and still more by the 
zeal with which they assisted in extinguishing 
the flames ; not less than ten of their number 
having been seriously hurt on the occasion. 

It appears that Madame de Saint Fargeau 
had been resident for a few days before the 
Prince's arrest at the house of Madame Mar- 
temere, in the commune of Duce, at a short 
distance from the town of Granville. A small 
vessel had been hired to convey the fugitive to 
the island of Jersey ; but, having been caught 
by the ebb tide, the Prince had discovered his 
impatience to get away by insisting on imme- 
diate embarkation, although the vessel could not 
possibly sail until floated by the morning tide. 

On his arrest, the suspicion as to his identity 
was strengthened by the extreme anxiety dis- 
played by his pretended mistress, and the con- 
tradictory accounts they mutually gave of each 
other : the lady saying that the Prince had been 



PARIS IN 1830. 335 

but two years in her service, while the latter 
extended it to seven. The following letter, ad- 
dressed by the Prince to the President of the 
Chamber of Peers, seems entitled to a place, from 
the singularity of the circumstances under which 
it was written, as well as from the peculiarity 
of the style : 

Saint Lo, Aug. 17, 1830. 
" Monsieur le Baron, 

" Having been arrested at Granville, at the 
moment when I was flying from the deplorable 
events that have just taken place, and seeking 
an opportunity to retire to the island of Jersey, 
I am detained a prisoner in the hands of the 
provisional commission of the prefecture of the 
department of La Manche ; neither the procu- 
reur du roi for the arrondissement of Saint Lo, 
nor the examining magistrate, having any power, 
according to the terms of the charter, to issue 
a warrant against me, even on the supposition of 
the government, (of which however I am igno- 
rant,) having given orders for my arrest. ' It is 
only by the authority of the Chamber of Peers,' 
says article 29 of the new charter, and which in 
this respect is conformable to the old charter, 
* that a member of the Chamber of Peers can be 
arrested.' 

" I know not what steps the Chamber of Peers 
may take on this subject, or whether it will 
charge me with the lamentable events of the 



336 PARIS IN 1830. 

three days, which I deplore more than any man, 
which came on with a rapidity equalling that of 
the fall of a thunderbolt in the midst of the tem- 
pest, and which no human strength or prudence 
could arrest — since in those terrible moments it 
was impossible to know to whom to listen, or 
to whom to apply ; and all one's efforts were 
required to defend one's own life ! 

" My only desire, M. le Baron, is, that I may 
be permitted to retire to my own home, and 
there resume those peaceful habits of private life, 
which alone are suited to my taste, and from 
which I was torn in spite of myself, as is well 
known to all who are acquainted with me. I 
have seen enough of vicissitudes ; my head is 
whitened with the reverses of a life of storms 
and changes ; but at least, I cannot be reproach- 
ed, in the time of my prosperity, with the vindic- 
tive exercise of power, against those who treated 
me with undue severity, during my adverse for- 
tunes. 

" In what situation should we all be placed, 
M. le Baron, surrounded as we are by the 
changes of the age in which we live 5 if the poli- 
tical opinions of those who are smitten by the 
tempest, were to become crimes or misdemeanors 
in the eyes of those who have embraced a more 
fortunate side of the question ? If I cannot ob- 
tain permission to retire quietly to my home, I 
beg to be allowed to withdraw to a foreign 
country, with my wife and children : or, finally, 



PARIS IN 1830. 337 

if the Chamber of Peers determine to decree my 
imprisonment, I request that the fortress of 
Ham, in Picardy, may be chosen as the place of 
my detention, where I was long- in captivity in 
my youth ; or some other fortress, at once 
spacious and commodious. That of Ham would 
agree better than any other with the state of my 
health, which has been for some time enfeebled, 
and has been greatly injured by recent events. 

" The misfortunes of an honest man should 
meet with some sympathy in France. But, at all 
events, M. le Baron, I may venture to say, that 
it would be barbarous to bring me into the 
capital at a time when so many prejudices have 
been raised against me — prejudices which my 
own unsupported voice cannot appease, and 
which time alone can tranquillize. I have been 
too long and too well accustomed to see all my 
intentions misrepresented, and placed in the most 
odious light. 

" To you, M. le Baron, I have submitted all 
my wishes, not knowing to whom I ought to 
address myself. I beg you to submit the matter 
to the consideration of those to whom the deci- 
sion of right belongs ; and that you will accept 
the assurance of my high consideration. 

(Signed) " The Prince de Polignac." 

" P. S. I beg you may do me the favour to 
acknowledge the receipt of this letter." 



338 PARIS IN 1830. 

As the great fair was to be held at Guibray, 
on the 10th of August, it was resolved by the 
King, and the Commissioners, (who consulted, as 
far as possible, his Majesty's wishes on the sub- 
ject,) to pass through that town, and the neigh- 
bouring one of Falaise, and to double the day's 
march, by proceeding to Conde-sur-Noireau, in 
the hopes of obtaining better accommodation at a 
distance from the fair. At Falaise, the party was 
joined by M. de la Pommeraye, the deputy of the 
department of La Manche, and Colonel Chatry- 
Lafosse, who had been sent by the town of Caen 
to represent to the Commissioners the state of 
irritation which the slowness of the King's jour- 
ney had excited throughout the population of 
Normandy. It was the wish of the Commission- 
ers to have proceeded by Caen, in place of 
Conde, and that some port in the neighbourhood 
of Granville should, in preference to Cherbourg, 
have been the point of embarkation. But his 
Majesty persisted in pursuing the route by 
Conde, which, being filled with a manufacturing 
population, evinced, as the Commissioners had 
probably anticipated, a greater degree of hostility 
than elsewhere, to the King and his retinue. 
At Conde the National Guard did not present, 
or pay any military honours to the King or the 
gardes-du-corps. On the contrary, the appear- 
ance of Marmont excited a serious fermentation 
among them, and preparations had been made, 



PARIS IN 1830. 339 

by a strong party of the armed inhabitants, to 
carry off the Marshal during- the night, as a 
prisoner, from the house in which he was lodged. 
The scheme, however, having been discovered 
by the Commissioners, the assemblage was dis- 
persed by the timely interference of Marshal 
Mai son. From that period the Duke of Ragusa 
ceased to wear the numerous decorations with 
which he was covered, retaining only that of the 
Saint Esprit, and lodging always afterwards in 
the house occupied by the King. 

The impatience manifested by the inhabitants 
of Normandy to get speedily rid of Charles X. 
and his retinue, was probably excited by an idea 
that, their object was to gain the time which 
might be necessary for exciting a royalist insur- 
rection in some other part of the country. It 
is obvious, however, that a sufficient cause ex- 
isted, apart from all other considerations, for the 
moderate speed at which the King travelled, in 
the mere number of his followers, and the con- 
sequent difficulty of finding provender and pro- 
visions for them, in the small towns through 
which they passed. Full rations were never 
procured for the horses ; a truss of hay, and two 
or three handfuls of oats, were in general all 
that could be obtained after a day's journey of 
ten or twelve leagues. The gardes-du-corps 
had attended the Dauphin in his Spanish cam- 
paign in 1823, but they were then provided 

z2 



340 PARIS IN 1830. 

every man with his groom. These gentry, how- 
ever, had all deserted, many of them not with- 
out robbing their masters, at the moment of the 
King's departure. If any remained, they were 
in the service of the superior officers ; and their 
fidelity may be judged of from the fact, that on 
the day when the corps was disbanded, there 
were only fifteen grooms to eight hundred gardes- 
du-corps. 

At Conde-sur-Noireau, the King was lodged 
in the house of a protestant gentleman, because 
it happened to be the best in the town. Pre- 
viously to his arrival, the Mayor had issued a pro- 
clamation, calling on the inhabitants to respect 
the misfortunes of Charles X., and to abstain 
from any exclamations which might hurt the 
feelings of the fallen monarch. The same pre- 
cautions were taken at Vire, where the cavalcade 
arrived on the 11th, and where it was remarked 
by the King that he had seen a greater number 
of three-coloured cockades than any where else 
on his route. The occasion for this remark was 
probably produced by the circumstance of the 
Mayor, in his anxiety to prevent disturbance, 
having assembled an extraordinary national guard 
of some three hundred men, who, being as yet 
without arms, or uniforms, were furnished with 
batons and three-coloured cockades as mere em- 
blems of authority. 

The neighbourhood of Vire, and some districts 



PARIS IN 1830. 341 

in the department of Calvados, had been exposed 
to the dreadful conflagrations by which Nor- 
mandy had been ravaged in the months of April, 
May, June, and July, of the present year. The 
royalist and constitutional parties in France were 
mutually accused by each other of having insti- 
gated the commission of these frightful offences. 
A solemn judicial investigation had failed to dis- 
cover the perpetrators ; but since the overthrow 
of the power of Charles X., and his ministers, a 
woman, who had been previously interrogated 
judicially, but till then had refused to make any 
disclosures, affirmed that she had contributed to 
the work of destruction, and had acted by the 
orders of a Cure, whom she named. The minis- 
try were long ago pointed to as the prime movers 
in this system of devastation; so that in Normandy, 
at this period, the names of Polignac and incen- 
diary had become synonymous terms. 

The royal cavalcade was regularly marshalled 
every morning in the following order : In front 
was an advanced guard, followed at some distanee 
by two of the four companies of gardes-du-corps. 
Then came the carriages of the Princes. In the 
first was the Duke de Bordeaux, with his gover- 
nor the Baron de Damas, his under-governors the 
Marquis de Barbancois and the Count de Mau- 
pas, and M. de Villatte, his first valet-de-chambre. 
In the second was Mademoiselle, with her gover- 
ness the Duchess de Gontaut, and her under- 



342 PARIS IN 1830. 

governess the Baroness de Charette. In the 
third was the Duchess de Berri, with the Count 
de Mesnard, her first equerry, the Count de 
Brissac, her chevalier d'honneur ; and the Coun- 
tess de Bouille, her first lady in waiting*. In the 
fourth was the Duchess d'Angouleme, with Ma- 
dame de Saint-Maure, her first lady in waiting, 
and M. O'Hegerty,^, her first equerry. Behind 
the carriage of the Duchess d'Angouleme rode 
the Duke d'Angouleme on horseback, attended 
by the Duke de Guiche, his premier Menin, and 
the Duke de Levis, his first aide-de-camp. Then 
followed the third company of the gardes-du- 
corps, after which rode the King in his carriage, 
with the Duke de Luxembourg, and the Prince 
de Croi-Solre, two of the captains of his guard. 
The King every morning, about half a league 
from the town at which he had slept, made a 
halt, and, mounting his horse, continued his route 
a chevaly until within half a league of the end of 
the day's march, when he again got into his car- 
riage, and thus entered the town where he was 
to remain for the night. The Duke of Ragusa 
rode on horseback, sometimes behind the King's 
carriage, and sometimes on the flank of the 
column, attended by his aides-de-camp. 

The other persons of note in the royal retinue 
were the Count de Trogoff, one of the King's 
aides-de-camp, and governor of the chateau of 
Saint Cloud ; Lieutenant-General the Count de 



PARIS IN 1830. 



343 



Lassalle, another of the King's aides-de-camp, and 
governor of Compeigne ; the Marquis de Cour- 
bon-Blenac, major of the gardes-du-corps j the 
Marquis de la Maisonfort, aide-major of the 
gardes-du-eorps ; the Baron de Gressot, and the 
Marquis de Choiseul-Beaupre, majors general of 
the royal guard ; Major General Count Auguste 
Larochejaquelein ; Major-General Baron de Cros- 
sart ; Colonel de Fontenilles, of the royal horse 
guards ; the Baron Weyler de Navas, under- 
steward of the King's military household; the 
Duke Armand de Polignac, the King's first 
equerry; the Count O'Hegerty, equerry com- 
mandant ; the Viscount Hocquart, chamberlain 
and maitre-d'otel. To these may be added the 
Count de Chateaubriand, colonel of the 4th chas- 
seurs, who, with one of his sub-lieutenants, were 
the only officers of the line who accompanied the 
King to Cherbourg. In the rear of the fourth 
company of the gardes-du-corps, followed the 
numerous carriages of the suite, escorted by the 
gens-d'armes des chasses, a splendid body of men, 
who, without exception, retained their fidelity to 
the last moment. 

The distinguished individuals, whose names 
are here given, form of course but a very small 
proportion of the regular habitues of the palace. 
The desertion began on the King's moving from 
Saint Cloud ; it was continued at the Trianon, 
and completed at Rambouillet, where there was 



o44 PARIS IN 1830. 

still, perhaps, a hope that some chance might 
turn up in favour of the Duke de Bordeaux. 
The idea which seemed to prevail among 
those who thus hastened to Paris was, that he 
who should first arrive would secure the best 
place ; but, alas ! for the parasites, the new King 
of the French desires no court, and encourages 
no courtiers ; farewell then to the grand equer- 
ries, the chamberlains, and intendants, the grand 
and small menins, and gentlemen of the bed- 
chamber — their occupation in France is gone ! It 
is a sad libel, not on the French court merely, 
but on courtiers in general, that not one of the 
first gentlemen of the bedchamber went further 
than Rambouillet — and scarcely a single represen- 
tative from the leading departments in the civil 
household. The chasse was totally unrepresented, 
as were also the department of the ceremonies, 
and that of the wardrobe. The stables indeed sent 
two of their equerries, and General Vincent, 
ecuyer cavalcador, went as far as Dreux ; but he 
was there dismissed in consequence, it is said, of 
the order he had given, in the neighbourhood of 
Rambouillet, to fire on Lafayette's unfortunate 
aide-de-camp, Colonel Poques. 

On the arrival of the cortege at Vire, the 
King found it necessary to yield to the entrea- 
ties which had been made to him to hasten his 
progress. It was ascertained that two regiments 
of infantry had arrived from Bayeux and Caen, 



PARIS IN 1830. 345 

and had established their bivouac within a quar- 
ter of a league from the line of road by which 
the retinue was to pass ; but whether for the 
purpose of protection, or to accelerate the King's 
movements, was not made apparent. They did 
not come within sight, as a body, but a number of 
the officers made their appearance at the junction 
of the roads to look at the cortege as it passed. 

Instead of stopping at Vire, the King pro- 
ceeded by Thorigny to Saint Lo, where he was 
lodged more commodiously than elsewhere, at 
the hotel of the prefecture of the department. 
The Count d'Estourmel, the prefect of La 
Manche, had already resigned his office, but 
came out accompanied by the Prince de Leo 
and the Count de Bourbon-Busset, to meet the 
King, and conduct him to his hotel. At the 
entrance of the town, the 6th Light Infantry 
made its appearance, and was the first regiment 
which the King had yet seen under the tri- 
coloured flag. — The Duke and Duchess d'An- 
goul£me had visited Cherbourg in 1828 and 
1829, and, in passing on these occasions, they 
had made some stay in the town of Saint Lo, 
where they had been received with all the exter- 
nal marks of popular welcome. On this occa- 
sion they entered amidst the display of three- 
coloured flags, and a disdainful silence, inter- 
rupted only by an occasional cry of Vive la 
Charte ! or Vive la Liberie ! which the local 



346 PARIS IN 1830. 

authorities were unable wholly to repress ; and 
the Dauphiness was heard to exclaim, as she 
passed under the gateway of the hotel, while tears 
ran down her cheeks, " Ah ! mon Dieu ! quelle 
difference !" 

Soon after the King's arrival, it was known 
that in the small town of Carentan, which lay 
on the proposed route, there had assembled a 
strong party of National Guards, to the number, 
it was said, of six or seven thousand, who had 
been made to believe that the King was accom- 
panied by twenty thousand Swiss and forty 
pieces of cannon, and that it was the intention 
of Charles X. to establish himself in the penin- 
sula of Cotentin, of which Carentan is the key, 
and to fix his head-quarters at Cherbourg, which 
was to become the seat of the Bourbon govern- 
ment. This absurd rumour had gained credence 
even at Saint Lo, where the National Guards 
had prepared to join those who had assembled 
at Carentan, there to form a barrier against 
the King's further progress, unless he should 
consent to dismiss his whole escort, and proceed 
to his place of embarkation under the exclu- 
sive protection of the National Guard. 

Although the phantom which had thus been 
created was compelled to disappear, at Saint 
Lo, before the demonstration afforded by the 
King's arrival, it was found extremely difficult 
to eradicate the idea from the minds of the 



PARIS IN 1830. 347 

people assembled at Carentan. After several 
messengers from Saint Lo had failed to induce 
them to separate, the Commissioners found it 
necessary to advance in person, but could only 
succeed in prevailing on the armed inhabitants 
to evacuate the town, in order to march on 
Valognes, a place of greater strength within 
the peninsula, and through which the King 
must also pass on his way to Cherbourg. Their 
idea now was, that the port of Cherbourg was 
to be thrown open to the English, and that a 
royalist insurrection was to be excited in Brit- 
tany. The cortege passed through Carentan on 
the 13th of August, and arrived at six o'clock 
the same evening at Valognes, after a day's jour- 
ney of fourteen leagues, having halted for an 
hour at Saint Cosme, a large village near the 
bridge over the watercourse, called Quatre Ri- 
vieres, which forms the barrier of the peninsula. 
The only demonstration of a feeling of popular 
attachment to the fallen family which occurred 
throughout this melancholy journey, was evinced 
at Montebourg, a considerable village near the 
coast, where the carriage of the Duke de Bor- 
deaux was surrounded by the inhabitants, some 
of whom exclaimed, with tears in their eyes, 
" On nous a bien defendu vous temoigner de 
Pinteret ; mais c'est regal : Vive le Due de 
Bourdeauou ! revenez bientot." 

At Valognes, the royal family were lodged in 



348 PARIS IN 1830. 

the house of M. Dumenildot, and it was resolved 
that they should remain there until the day of 
embarkation, which was fixed for the 16th. Two 
American vessels, the Great Britain and the 
Charles Carrol, which were at Havre at the 
period of the King's departure from Saint Cloud, 
and which were said to be the property of 
Joseph Bonaparte, but which in fact belonged to 
his father-in-law Mr. Patterson, had been char- 
tered for his Majesty's use, and had already 
arrived at Cherbourg fully equipped even for a 
long voyage. 

On the 15th, it was intimated to the gardes- 
du-corps, that the King was to take from thence 
the four white standards which they had hitherto 
retained, and was to receive a deputation con- 
sisting of the officers and the twenty-four oldest 
members of each company, for the purpose of 
giving them a last adieu. They were introduced, 
according to seniority, into the King's apart- 
ment, where the Dauphin and Dauphiness, the 
Duchess de Berri, and her two children, were 
with his Majesty, to assist in the performance of 
this mournful ceremony. The King received 
the standards, and, after embracing the officers 
who carried them, he said " Je reprends vos 
drapeaux ; ils sont sans tache : mon petit-fils 
vous les rendra : je vous remercie de votre de- 
vouement, de votre fidelite et de votre sagesse. 
Je n'oublierai jamais les preuves d' attachement 



PARIS IN 1830. 349 

que vous m'avez donnees, ainsi qu'a ma famille. 
Adieu ! soyez heureux." — In the course of the 
evening a printed copy of the following order of 
the day, was delivered to each member of the 
corps. 

" The King, in quitting the French territory, could 
wish that he were able to give to each of his gardes-du- 
corps, and to every officer and soldier who has accom- 
panied him to his place of embarkation, a proof of his 
attachment and remembrance. 

" But the circumstances by which the King is afflict- 
ed, make it impossible for him to listen to the wish of 
his heart. Deprived of the means of acknowledging a 
fidelity so affecting, his Majesty has caused to be brought 
to him the muster-rolls of the companies of his gardes- 
du-corps, and the lists of the officers, non-commissioned 
officers, and soldiers, who have followed him. Their 
names will be preserved by the Duke de Bordeaux, 
and will remain inscribed in the archives of the royal 
family, to attest for ever the misfortunes of the King, 
and the consolation he has found in so much disinte- 
rested devotion 

" Valognes, 15th August, 1830. 

" (Signed) Chaiiles. 
" The Major-General, 

" Marechal Due de Raguse." 



On the 16th of August, at nine o'clock in the 
morning, the King and the royal family, escorted 
by seven of the eight squadrons of the gardes-du- 
corps, left Valognes for Cherbourg, which is five 
leagues distant. The unfavourable feelings en- 



350 PARIS IN 1830. 

tertained by the inhabitants were evinced by the 
return of two general officers, who had proceed- 
ed to Cherbourg a few hours before, but were 
refused admittance into the town, in consequence 
of their wearing the white cockade. 

Hitherto the King had worn the same style of 
dress to which he had been accustomed since 
his accession to the throne, viz. a blue coat, of a 
military form, with two large gold epaulettes, 
surmounted by the royal crown, the crosses of 
the Legion of Honour, and Saint Louis, and the 
star of the order of the Holy Ghost. On this 
day, however, he had laid aside these insignia, 
and appeared in the ordinary dress of a private 
gentleman. The Dauphin, also, who till then 
had worn, as he had been accustomed to do at 
the Tuileries and Saint Cloud, the uniform of 
his own regiment of cuirassiers, viz. a blue coat, 
crimson collar, white buttons, and silver epau- 
lettes, now appeared like the King, in coloured 
clothes, and with no decoration but a red ribbon 
at his button-hole. Those he had formerly worn, 
were the cross of Saint Louis, the Lily, the 
Brassard of Bordeaux, in commemoration of 
his entrance into that town, on the 12th of March 
1814, the gold cross of the Legion of Honour, 
and the star of the order of the Holy Ghost. 

The Duke de Bordeaux was generally dressed 
in a bluejacket, and white trowsers, with the 
collar of his shirt folded over, a grey hat, and no 



PARIS IN 1830. 351 

decoration. According- to the usage established 
for the elder branch of the royal family, it was 
on the day of his first communion, that the King 
would have presented him with the blue ribbon, 
and the cross of Saint Louis. It was on the previous 
Whitsunday that the prince saw the Duke de Ne- 
mours created a chevalier of the order of the 
Holy Ghost, on attaining his fifteenth year ; and 
he no doubt thought that his turn was approach- 
ing. He had then, certainly, very little idea 
that in three months he was to go into exile, and 
that his place was so soon to be occupied by his 
youthful relative. At Saint Cloud, on Sundays, 
the Duke de Bordeaux was generally dressed in 
the uniform of his regiment, the 3d curassiers, 
dark blue turned up with yellow, and silver epau- 
lettes. But this practice was not observed on the 
journey — not even at Rambouillet, at the period 
when it was proposed that he should be pro- 
claimed King of France by the title of Henry V. 
It has been stated, but incorrectly, that in the 
course of the journey he was addressed as Sire, 
and " Your Majesty :" Charles X. alone was so 
treated, and the Duke de Bordeaux was called, as 
at Saint Cloud, " Your Royal Highness," and 
" Monseigneur." 

On approaching the coast, near the entrance of 
the town, some marks of hesitation were observ- 
able at the head of the column. The leading 



352 PARIS IN 1830. 

company of the gardes-du-corps having halted, 
the whole cortege were obliged to do the same ; 
and the King having inquired with some indica- 
tion of surprise as to the cause of the interrup- 
tion, was answered by the Marquis de Courbon, 
the major of the guards, near the royal person, 
that a considerable crowd had been formed close 
to the beach ; but that as yet no hostile intention 
had been manifested. " Marchez toujours," was 
the King's reply, and M. de Courbon, having 
bowed in acquiescence, addressed himself in a 
low tone to the Duke of Ragusa, who was then 
on horseback at the door of the King's car- 
riage. An apprehension was probably entertained 
that the object of this crowd was to lay violent 
hands on Marmont, who contented himself with 
retiring to his usual position, behind the royal 
carriage, from which he did not stir during the 
passage through the town. 

The 64th regiment of the Line was drawn out 
to receive the King on his entrance into Cher- 
bourg ; the soldiers presented arms to him as 
he passed, and the officers saluted him with their 
sabres. An officer, not on duty, who happened 
to be on the road as the King passed, was ob- 
served to pull off his chako, and conceal it behind 
his person, that the royal family might not see 
the three-coloured cockade with which it was 
decorated ; a movement which must have been 



PARIS IN 1830. 353 

inspired by a sentiment of delicacy highly ho- 
nourable to the individual, who was a captain of 
the 64th of the Line. 

The cortege passed rapidly through the town, 
and entered the naval dock-yard, where a ship 
of the line, which had twice been named the 
King of Rome, and was then known as the Duke 
de Bordeaux, was still on the stocks. The 
royal family alighted in front of the Great Bri- 
tain. The king was the first to embark ; the Dau- 
phin followed, leading the Duke de Bordeaux by 
the hand ; Madame de Gontaut and Mademoi- 
selle were the next in order ; the Duchess de 
Berri took the arm of M. de Charrotte, and the 
Dauphiness that of M. de Larochejaquelein, a 
distinguished royalist, whose brothers, Henry 
and Louis, had fallen in the cause of the Bour- 
bons, the former in 1793, and the latter in 1815. 

The maritime prefect presented Captain Du- 
mont Durville, of the Great Britain, to the 
King. Captain Durville expressed his readiness 
to convey his Majesty to whatever place he chose to 
name ; the latter answered that he wished, in 
the first instance, to proceed to Spithead. After 
paying the last adieus to those officers who had 
entered the Great Britain, and who were not to 
remain, the King and the royal family retired 
into the principal cabin. 

Besides the royal family and their personal 
attendants, there sailed in the Great Britain 

A A 



354 PARIS IN 1830. 

the Duke de Luxembourg and the Duke de 
Ragusa, the governor and two under-governors 
of the Duke de Bordeaux, and the Duchess de 
Gontaut. On board the Charles Carroll were 
the Duke Armand de Polignac, the Count 
O'Hegerty and his son, Madame de Bouille 
and her son, an under-governor of the Duke 
de Bordeaux, and Messrs. de Choiseul, de Cha- 
rette, and de Larochejaquelein. 

At half-past two o'clock, the Great Britain 
and the Carroll got under weigh, escorted by 
the French frigate la Seine, Captain d'Urville, 
and the cutter le Rodeur. 

As soon as the ships were out of sight, the 
gardes-du-corps, who had been drawn up in 
front of the spot where the embarkation had 
taken place, removed the white cockades from 
their hats, and proceeded, without halting at 
Cherbourg, on their return to Carentan, where 
they slept on the 17th, and were next day dis- 
banded at Saint Lo, in terms of the following 

" ORDER OF THE DAY. 

" The Commissioners appointed to accompany King 
Charles X. and his family to Cherbourg, feel them- 
selves called upon, at the termination of their mission, 
to give their testimony to the faithful and honourable 
manner in which the gardes-du-corps have conducted 
themselves on this important occasion. In fulfilling the 
duty which honour and fidelity required of them, they 



PARIS IN 1830. 355 

have perfectly succeeded in reconciling it with the re- 
spect which is due to the established government. It is 
satisfactory to the Commissioners to be able to declare, 
that it is to this sentiment of propriety and reserve that 
they owe, in a great measure, the successful accomplish- 
ment of a mission, the issue of which was of so much 
importance to the honour of France. 

" Saint Lo, August 1830. 

(Signed) " Le Marechal Marquis Maison. 
De Schonen. 
Odillon-Barrot." 



AA'2 



356 PARIS IN 1830. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

Account of the individuals forming the new French Adminis- 
tration, with a sketch of their respective lives — The Duke 
de Broglie — M. Dupont de l'Eure — M. Guizot — Count 
Gerard — Baron Louis— Count Mole — General Count Se- 
bastiani — Messrs. Lafitte, Casimir Perier, Dupin, aine, Ben- 
jamin Constant, and Bignon. 

After the episode in the history of the late 
revolution, which has formed the subject of the 
two last chapters, it is necessary to return to 
the point from which we set out ; but, before 
proceeding to the last scene of the drama, it 
may be well to take some further notice than 
has yet been done, of the men who have been 
called to administer the affairs of the State at 
a period of so much difficulty and importance. 
If there seem any anachronism in introducing the 
notice in this place, it is in some degree re- 
moved by the fact that the same ministry who 
were appointed by the Provisional Government, 
and were recognized by the Lieutenant-General 



PARIS IN 1830. 357 

of the kingdom, have remained in office after 
the accession of the Duke of Orleans to the 
throne. 

The Duke de Broglie, president of the coun- 
cil, and secretary of state in the department of 
Public Instruction and of Worship, was born in 
1785. He is the son of the Prince de Ravel, 
and consequently the grandson of the Marshal 
of that name. His early studies were begun 
at the central school of Paris, and he was only 
nine years of age when his father ascended the 
scaffold. When yet a youth, he applied himself 
with ardour to literary pursuits, and wrote habi- 
tually for the public journals, in a style which 
was characterized by a degree of firmness and 
vigour which arrested the public attention. 
When Napoleon, who sought to sustain his 
power by means of all who recommended them- 
selves through birth, fortune, or talents, called a 
number of young men to the council of state 
in the capacity of auditors, he cast his eyes on 
the Duke de Broglie, and attached him to the 
section of the Interior. 

After fulfilling a variety of administrative 
functions up to the period of the restoration, 
in the countries occupied by the armies of 
France, he amassed a fund of information which 
he now applies to the great social theory of 
government, not without being stigmatized by 
the opponents of his ministry, as being a doc- 



358 PARIS IN 1830. 

trinaire in principle — a term which is nearly 
synonymous with that of theorist in its most 
unfavourable acceptation ; and, as applied poli- 
tically, is placed in opposition to those tastes 
and habits which point to practical, rather than 
to radical reform. 

In the month of June, 1814, the Duke de 
Broglie was raised to the peerage ; but being 
then only in his twenty -ninth year, he was dis- 
qualified from taking part in the deliberations of 
the Chamber. His first public appearance was 
on the occasion of the trial of the unfortunate 
Marshal Ney — an opportunity which he seized, 
with all the enthusiasm of his character, to strug- 
gle, with the courage of conviction, in favour of the 
accused. Soon afterwards, he boldly attacked 
the numerous exceptions of the celebrated act 
of amnesty — those exceptions by which it was in 
fact converted into an act of proscription. 

About this period he obtained in marriage 
the hand of the daughter of Madame de Stael, 
and granddaughter of Necker, the finance 
minister of Louis XVI. This union was con- 
tracted in Italy, the ceremony having been per- 
formed first by a Catholic priest, and after- 
wards by a Protestant clergyman— a circum- 
stance which affords some evidence of moderate 
and tolerant principles in matters of religion. 
The elevation of the Duke de Broglie to the 
office of premier has been regarded with public 



PARIS IN 1830. 359 

satisfaction, much less from his hereditary titles 
and his illustrious descent — advantages which 
are not now regarded in France at more than 
their just value, — than from the rank which he has 
created for himself by his personal merit, and 
from the extent of his acquirements, which pecu- 
liarly fit him for the special department to which 
he has been appointed, including, as it does, the 
superintendence of the University, and the 
general system of education in France. 

M. Dupont de PEure, the keeper of the seals, 
is decidedly the most popular member of the new 
administration. Born at Nieubourg, in 1767* 
Jacques Charles Dupont was admitted as an ad- 
vocate by the parliament of Normandy, in 1789. 
He soon embraced the cause of the people as dis- 
tinguished from that of the privileged classes, and 
asserted their rights with an intrepidity and per- 
severance which fully proved the sincerity of his 
attachment to the interests of public liberty. 
Throughout a life of activity and usefulness, he 
has never failed to conciliate the respect and 
esteem of his fellow-citizens. Appointed in suc- 
cession to the mayoralty of his commune, to the 
administration of the district of Louviers, to the 
office of substitute for the commissioner of the 
executive directory, to that of counsellor in the 
appellant tribunal of Rouen, and finally, to the 
presidency of the criminal tribunal of Evereux ; 
he has proved himself, in every department 



360 PARIS IN 1830. 

through which he has passed, a devoted citizen, 
and a just and faithful functionary. When called 
to the presidency of the imperial court of Rouen, 
the qualities which so eminently distinguish the 
character of M. Dupont — his sound judgment, and 
his severe integrity — were not less conspicuous 
than they had ever been throughout his public 
career. But M. Pasquier, who had himself been 
prefect of police under the government of Napo- 
leon, thought it necessary, at the restoration, to 
remove M. Dupont from the presidency, without 
the smallest pension, after twenty-seven years of 
administrative, judicial, and legislative services. 

Since the year 1817, the esteem of his fellow- 
citizens has secured him a seat in the Chamber of 
Deputies. It was during his first session that he 
so energetically supported the principle which, 
under his auspices, as ministerial head of the 
judicial departments, is now about to be carried 
into effect — that the intervention of a jury should 
be indispensable in the trial of all political 
offences, and particularly of those of the press. 
Faithful to his own duties as a representative of 
the people, Joseph M. Dupont never ceased to 
oppose, with all his energy and influence, the 
arbitrary acts of a ministry whose object, too 
evidently, was to destroy the institutions of the 
country, and to pave the way for the introduc- 
tion of absolute power. He could never witness 
the unconstitutional measures which were so 



PARIS IN 1830. 3G1 

often presented to the consideration of the Cham- 
ber, without mounting the tribune, and, with that 
talent for invective which he so eminently pos- 
sesses, exposing- them, in terms of virtuous indig- 
nation, to the hatred and contempt of his col- 
leagues, and of the nation. To enumerate his 
public appearances would be to refer to every 
occasion when a question of constitutional im- 
portance, or of public interest, was at issue. 
Supported by such men as the venerable Labbey 
de Pompier es, M. Benjamin Constant, and M. 
Mechin, his voice was to be heard in the cause of 
freedom, during a period when the very word 
had become displeasing to a great majority of the 
representatives of the people. 

With the office of keeper of the seals, M. Du- 
pont now holds that of minister secretary of 
state in the department of justice, for the duties 
of which he is peculiarly qualified by his previous 
habits as a judge, a legislator, and an eminent 
publiciste. The situation which he now occupies, 
in place of being regarded as a recompense for 
past services, is held, as it ought to be, an addi- 
tional guarantee for the future prosperity of his 
country. 

The minister of the home department, M. 
Guizot, occupies a very different place in public 
estimation from that of M. Dupont. He was 
born at Nismes, in 1787, and, after applying him- 
self at Geneva to the study of German literature, 



362 PARIS IN 1830. 

he went to Paris, where he became a regular con- 
tributor to several of the public journals, and par- 
ticularly to that of " The Empire." At the period 
of the restoration, he was admitted into office, 
and became the secretary general, or rather the 
director of the Abbe Montesquieu, then minister 
of the interior. He followed the King to Ghent, 
and, after the second restoration, he became 
secretary general in the department of justice, and 
master of requests in extraordinary service. In 
1816, he resigned the office of secretary general 
on being appointed master of requests in ordi- 
nary service ; and, on the re-organization of the 
ministry in 1817, he was raised to the dignity of 
counsellor of state, under the ministry of M. De- 
cazes ; he was appointed a royal commissioner, 
to support, at the bar of the Chamber of Depu- 
ties, the law which was then introduced on the 
subject of the periodical press. The service 
which he then performed to the ministry was 
appropriately rewarded by his appointment to 
the censorship — a circumstance which sufficiently 
accounts for his present want of popularity. 

The retirement of M. Decazes brought with it 
that of his protege, M. Guizot, who applied him- 
self with renewed ardour to his former duties as 
a writer for the public press ; and, for several 
years, under the protection of the faculty of 
letters, he delivered a course of lectures on the 
subject of general history, which were numer- 



PARIS IN 1830. 363 

ously attended, and were well worthy of being 
so. 

M. Guizot is unquestionably a man of talent 
and erudition ; and, like most public men in 
France, lie writes much better than he speaks. 
Independently of his more ephemeral productions, 
his dictionary of synonymes, his lives of the 
French poets of the age, and of Louis XIV., and 
his Essays on the liberty of the press, and on the 
history and present state of public education in 
France, are all well worthy of attention. It is 
understood that for many years M. Guizot has 
renounced his former political heresies ; but the 
sin of the censorship has left a stain on his pub- 
lic character, which is, perhaps, incompatible 
with his strength or efficiency as a minister of 
the crown ; yet such was the opinion which had 
been formed of his political regeneration, when 
returned as a deputy, in 1828, that his election 
was regarded as a triumph for the constitutional 
party. At the date of the revolution he was 
one of the proprietors of the new journal, " Le 
Temps." 

Etienne Maurice, Count Gerard, Marechal 
de France, and minister at war, was born at 
Damvilliers, in the department of the Meuse, on 
the 4th of April, 1773. He is regarded in the 
present cabinet as the representative of the army, 
or rather of those interests which had their origin 
under the reign of Napoleon. In his eighteenth 



364 PARIS IN 1830. 

year he entered as a volunteer in the 2nd bat- 
talion of the regiment which was raised in his 
native department. He soon obtained the rank 
of sub-lieutenant ; and, having been successively 
promoted to a lieutenancy and a captaincy in the 
army of Dumouriez, he so distinguished himself 
at the battle of Fleurus, at the affairs of the 
Sambre-et-Meuse, and especially at the passage of 
the Roer, as to be appointed aide-de-camp to 
General Bernadotte, and colonel and command- 
ant of the Legion of Honour. He accompanied 
Bernadotte in all his campaigns in Italy, and on 
the Rhine ; was general of brigade during the 
war in Prussia ; general of division after the 
Russian campaign; commander of the 11th corps 
of the grand army before the battle of Leipsic ; 
commander-in-chief of the reserves of Paris, to- 
wards the end of 1813 ; inspector general of in- 
fantry before the first restoration ; peer of France ; 
and commander of the army of the Moselle, 
during the hundred days. 

It was at the celebrated battle of the Moskwa, 
and in the subsequent retreat, that General 
Gerard earned his chief title to military re- 
nown. After the death of General Gudin, who 
was killed in the engagement, he succeeded to 
the command of the 2nd division, and gathered 
new laurels at the bridge of Frankfort, on the 
Oder, by the overthrow of a great part of the 
Russian cavalry who attempted to intercept him 



PARIS IN 1830. 365 

on the route to Berlin. Dieuville, Nogent, Nau- 
gis, and Montereau, became the scenes of subse- 
quent exploits ; and at Troyes, where he com- 
manded in 1814, he succeeded in preserving the 
town from conflagration, by the skill he displayed 
in treating with General Wrede, who afterwards 
occupied the place on the part of the Allies. 

On the abdication of Napoleon, General Ge- 
rard took the oath of fidelity to Louis XVIII., 
by whom he was entrusted with the difficult and 
important duty of bringing back into France the 
corps d'armee, which was then at Hamburgh. 
As a reward for its successful execution, he was 
appointed chevalier of Saint Louis, and grand 
cross of the Legion of Honour. 

During the hundred days, he was intrusted 
with the functions of inspector general at Stras- 
bourg, from whence he proceeded to Belfort 
to act as governor of the town. It was after 
he had been appointed to the command of the 
army of the Moselle, that he distinguished him- 
self at the battle of Ligny ; and the defeat of Na- 
poleon at Waterloo is generally ascribed by 
Frenchmen to Marshal Grouchy's neglect of the 
advice which was offered to him by General Ge- 
rard on the morning of the 18th of June. He 
joined the Marshal about eleven o'clock, at the 
village of Walin, where, on hearing the artillery 
in the direction of the forest of Soignies, the 
truth at once occurred to him that a general 



366 PARIS IN 1830. 

engagement had begun, and he proposed to 
Grouchy to proceed to the assistance of the Em- 
peror, from whom they were about three leagues 
distant. These facts having been disputed by the 
friends of Grouchy, have been publicly stated by 
General Gerard himself, in a manner, and accom- 
panied by evidence, which forbid all doubt as to 
their authenticity. 

When Paris had capitulated after the battle of 
Waterloo, General Gerard was one of the gene- 
ral officers appointed by the army to present 
their submission to the King. In 1816 he was 
resident at Brussels, and was then married to 
Mademoiselle de Valence, the grand-daughter of 
Madame de Genlis. On his return to France, 
in 1817, he went to reside on his estate of Vil- 
lers, in the department of the Oise, where he 
lived in retirement until the year 1821, when he 
was elected a deputy by the department of the 
Seine. In 1828 he was re-elected for the two 
departments of the Oise, and the Dordogne, 
between which he took his option of sitting for 
the latter. In the Chamber, General Gerard has 
always taken his seat at the extreme left, and, by 
the late administration, was regarded, with reason, 
as one of their most formidable opponents. It 
was he, however, who, during the hundred days, 
solicited an employment for his predecessor in 
the war department, the too celebrated General 
Bourmont — offering, it is said, to answer with 



PARIS IN 1830. 367 

his head for Bourmont's fidelity. The great man's 
answer to the application, discovered his dis- 
trust : " Mon cher Gerard," he said, " qui a ete 
blanc restera blanc : qui a ete bleu restera bleu ;" 
but he yielded at length to the general's impor- 
tunity, and was doubtless much less surprised 
than Gerard at the base desertion of Bourmont 
on the field of Waterloo. 

The minister of finance, Baron Louis, was 
born at Toul, in the department of the Meurthe, 
in the year 17<55, and was clerk to the parliament 
of Paris at the period of the revolution of 1789. 
Before that period he had evinced his predilec- 
tion for the new order of things, by the consti- 
tutional zeal he displayed in the year 1788, in 
the provincial assembly of Orleans ; and when 
Talleyrand, then the Bishop of Autun, per- 
formed his celebrated mass at the Champ de 
Mars on the 14th of July, 1790, M. Louis 
assisted as a deacon in conducting the cere- 
mony. Soon after this period, he was em- 
ployed by Louis XVI. in several important 
diplomatic missions. At the commencement 
of the reign of terror he retired to England, 
and did not appear again in France until 
Napoleon had established himself in power. 
Under the patronage of Talleyrand, he became 
an employe in the war department, and after- 
wards in the chancellerie of the Legion of Ho- 
nour. At a later period he was appointed 



368 PARIS IN 1830. 

master of requests in the Council of State, and 
in 1810 was named president of the Council of 
Liquidation in Holland. In 1814, before the 
fall of Bonaparte, he was appointed minister of 
finance, and retained the office under the re- 
stored government, where he submitted to the 
Chamber the united budget for the years 1814 
and 1815. 

On the re-appearance of Napoleon, M. Louis 
accompanied the King to Ghent ; and, on the 
second restoration, he resumed his former place in 
the ministry, but retained it only for three 
months, when he was succeeded by M. Corvetto. 
He had then a seat in the Chamber of Deputies, 
as the representative of his native department, 
Meurthe, and consoled himself for his loss of 
office by voting steadily against the administra- 
tion. He returned to place in 1818, but again 
retired from it in the following year ; soon 
after which he was returned to the Chamber 
by the department of the Seine. Since that 
period he has constantly sitten on the benches of 
the left, and has been faithful to the principles 
of the constitutional party. 

The minister for foreign affairs, Louis Mathieu 
Count Mole, was born in I78O. Like several 
other members of the Cabinet, his first public 
appearance was that of a political writer. His 
" Essais de Morale et de Politique " created for 
him a name which secured him the attention of 



PARIS IN 1830. 369 

the Imperial Government, by which he was first 
appointed auditor to the council of state, then 
master of requests, and successively counsellor 
of state, director-general of bridges and high- 
ways, and, (after the retirement of Reigner, 
Duke of Massa,) minister of justice, with the 
title of count and a peerage. He is accused of 
having risen so rapidly by the address with 
which he contrived to flatter the prejudices 
of his imperial master. During the first resto- 
ration, M. Mole had no ministerial employ- 
ment ; but, as a member of the municipal body of 
Paris, he signed the address presented by that 
body to the King a few days before the 20th of 
March, 1815. On the return of Napoleon from 
Elba, he resumed the direction of the bridges 
and highways, and his place in the council of 
state ; but he refused to sign the famous declara- 
tion of the 25th of March, or to take any part 
in the deliberations of that sitting of the council 
— a circumstance which did not hinder Napoleon 
from creating him a peer of France. 

Having withdrawn from public affairs, he re- 
tired to the waters of Plombieres, where he 
remained until after the battle of Waterloo ; but, 
in spite of the delicacy of his health, which had 
been the apology for his retirement, he was one 
of the first in Paris to compliment the King on 
his return. This promptitude did not long re- 
main unrewarded ; his rank as a counsellor of 

B B 



370 PARIS IN 1830. 

state, his former office of director-general of 
bridges and highways, his title and his peerage, 
being immediately secured to him. 

On the trial of Marshal Ney, M. Mole voted 
with the majority. When Mons. Gouvion de Saint 
Cyr became minister of war, Mons. Mole received 
the portfolio of the marine department ; an office 
for which, in popular estimation, he was as little 
fitted as for that of foreign affairs, with which he 
is at present invested. 

The minister of marine, General Count Horace 
Francois Sebastiani, was born in the island of 
Corsica, on the 11th of November, 177^> and is 
related, according to some of the biographers of 
Napoleon, to the Bonaparte family. At an early 
age he embraced the military profession, and 
soon rose to the rank of colonel. The talents 
he displayed in the campaigns of Germany and 
Spain induced Napoleon to employ him, with the 
rank of lieutenant-general, on a diplomatic mis- 
sion to the Levant, the ostensible object of which 
was the re-establishment of a good understanding 
between Sweden and the Regency of Tripoli, 
but with secret instructions to inquire into the 
state of Egypt and Syria, and of the Barbary 
States, at the period when he meditated their 
occupation, as subservient to his views on British 
India. Although this mission was not attended 
with any practical results, it had the effect of 
proving to Napoleon that his agent was as active, 



PARTS IN 1830. 371 

adroit, and intelligent in the mysteries of diplo- 
macy, as lie was able, resolute, and circumspect 
in the field of battle. After the battle of Auster- 
litz, Sebastiani was appointed ambassador to 
Constantinople, where he is said to have saved 
the Turkish capital from the bombardment which 
was prepared for it by an English squadron, 
(which with that view had passed the Dardanelles,) 
by the dexterity with which, under his instruc- 
tions, the Turkish negociations were conducted 
with the British commander. On his return to 
France, he received the rewards which were due 
to him, and was soon afterwards sent to Spain, 
from whence he went to join the army in Ger- 
many, when preparing for the celebrated cam- 
paign in Russia, in the whole of which Sebastiani 
was actively employed. 

He did not enter into the service of the re- 
stored government, but promptly rejoined Napo- 
leon on his return from Elba. It was then that 
he commenced his career as legislator, having 
been elected as the representative of the depart- 
ment of the Aisne ; but the Chamber was dis- 
solved on the approach of the Allies, and he left 
France at the period of the second restoration, 
and remained for a year in England. In 1819, 
he was re-elected a deputy by the electoral col- 
lege of his native island, and since then has never 
ceased to have a seat in the Chamber, where he 
has constantly voted with the party of the cote 

bb2 



37^ PARIS IN 1830. 

gauche. His talents as a statesman undoubtedly 
entitle him to a seat in the cabinet ; and his ap- 
pointment would have been highly popular, but 
for a feeling, which is not unnatural, that the de- 
partment of Marine should have been entrusted 
to a naval officer, such as De Rigny, or Duperre, 
in preference to one who has been educated in a 
service, between which and the navy there is 
supposed to exist a latent feeling of jealousy. 

Besides the ministers entrusted with portfolios, 
there are four other members of the cabinet, who, 
without any active duties, have a voice in its de- 
liberations, and partake in its general responsi- 
bility. 

At the head of these may be placed M. La- 
fitte, the eminent banker, a native of Bayonne, 
where he was born in the year I767. He applied 
himself, at a very early age, to commercial pur- 
suits, having been educated in the house of Per- 
rigaux, the banker, who was not long in giving 
him a personal interest in his business. After the 
death of M. Perrigaux, M. Lafitte continued for 
ten years to take the active management of the 
business, while the son of his former principal be- 
came a sleeping partner in the concern. Under 
his management the business of the house was so 
much increased as to have at length become one 
of the first in Europe. 

M. Lafitte was first elected a deputy in 1815 ; 
and, at the period of the second capitulation of 



PARIS IN 1830. 373 

Paris in that year, when the public treasury was 
exhausted, he advanced from his own resources 
a sum of two millions of francs for the purpose 
of securing- the internal peace of the country by 
facilitating- the retreat of the French army beyond 
the Loire. In 1820, he accepted the office of 
governor of the bank of France, but refused the 
emoluments attached to it — an instance of disin- 
terestedness which was not imitated by his suc- 
cessor the Duke de Gaete. 

Having- risen to the rank which he now holds 
in the state by his own personal merit, M. Lafitte 
has been often assailed by the calumnies of those 
who are jealous of his well-earned reputation. 
He has been accused of employing an abler pen 
than his own in preparing for his public appear- 
ances in the Chamber ; when he performs a good 
or generous action, it is ascribed to unworthy 
feelings of ostentation ; and when his daughter 
was married to the son of Marshal Ney, the insinu- 
ation was not spared, that it was that he might 
atone for his own plebeian origin, by having a 
prince for a son-in-law. But he can well af- 
ford to treat such unworthy imputations with 
contempt, and to throw into the opposite scale his 
unblemished character for integrity and disinter- 
estedness, and the able manner in which he has 
fulfilled the duties of president of the Chamber 
of Deputies, inconsistent as they are with the use 
of those borrowed speeches, which are said, with 



374 PARIS IN 1830. 

some show of probability, to be not unfrequently 
delivered at the tribunes of the French legisla- 
tive Chambers. 

M. Casimir Perier, another member of the 
Cabinet, without any special department, is, like 
M. Lafitte, a banker by profession. He is the son 
of Claude Perier, a rich merchant of Grenoble, 
where he was born in the month of October, 
1777. His first profession was that of arms ; 
having served as an engineer in the Italian cam- 
paigns of 1799 and 1800. He soon afterwards 
abandoned the military profession, and, in con- 
nexion with his brother Scipio, established a 
banking-house in Paris ; but has not confined 
himself exclusively to financial transactions, hav- 
ing engaged extensively in various departments 
of commerce and manufactures, particularly those 
of cotton spinning, glass making, and the refining 
of sugar — a department of industry which is very 
extensively pursued in the neighbourhood of the 
capital. 

In the month of October, 1817, on the very 
day when he became eligible as a deputy, by the 
attainment of his fortieth year, he was chosen by 
the electors of the Seine, as one of their repre- 
sentatives ; since which period, he has boldly and 
steadily opposed the measures of each successive 
cabinet, up to the date of the revolution, and is 
justly regarded as one of the ablest speakers in 
the Chamber to which he belongs. M. Casimir 



PARIS IN 1830. 375 

Perier has three brothers in the Chamber ; Au- 
gustin, who sits for the Isere ; Alexandre, for 
the Loiret ; and Camille, for the Sarthe. He is 
himself the representative of the department of 
the Aube. He was called to the chair of the 
Chamber of Deputies as soon as it was consti- 
tuted, at the period of the revolution, but the 
state of his health compelled him soon after to 
resign — when M. Lafitte was elected by a very 
great majority. 

Andre Marie Jean Jacques Dupin, better 
known by the name of M. Dupin, aine, to dis- 
tinguish him from his younger brothers, was 
born at Varzy, in the department of the Nievre, 
on the 1st of February, 1783. His early educa- 
tion was conducted by his mother, and completed 
under the superintendence of his father, Charles 
Andre Dupin, a member of the first legislative 
assembly, on obtaining his liberation from the 
prisons of the reign of terror. At that unhappy 
period there could not be said to be any thing 
like public education in France. On the re-es- 
tablishment of the schools of law, M. Dupin, 
aine, took his degrees, and, having sustained the 
first thesis as a graduate, found himself, at twenty- 
three years of age, the senior of all the doctors 
of the modern schools. After practising for 
eight years at the bar, he stood as a candidate, in 
1810, for the chairs of several professorships 
which were then vacant ; but although his repu- 



370 PARIS IN 1830. 

tation was already great as an author, as well as 
a lawyer and an orator, he did not succeed in 
these objects of his ambition. In 1812 he was 
proposed to the government by M. Merlin, pro- 
cureur-general, for the office of avocat-general, 
in the Court of Cassation, but was again unsuc- 
cessful, M. Jaubert having obtained the appoint- 
ment, through the influence of M. Fontanes. 
Soon afterwards M. Dupin was added, by the 
grand judge, the Duke de Massa, to the cele- 
brated commission entrusted with the important 
task of arranging and classifying the laws of the 
empire. 

In 1815 he was elected a deputy by his native 
department of the Nievre, and boldly combated 
the opinion of those who proposed to give to 
Napoleon the title of " Saviour of the Country." 
He insisted on the Chamber declaring itself a 
national assembly, opposed the proclamation of 
Napoleon II., and submitted as the formula of 
the oath to be taken by the members of the Pro- 
visional Government — " I swear obedience to 
the laws, and fidelity to the nation." 

After the second restoration, he was appointed 
President of the electoral colleges of Chateau- 
Chinon, and of Clamecy, through the influence 
of the royalist party, with a view to his re-elec- 
tion to the Chamber of Deputies ; but was unsuc- 
cessful in both cases, and was not provided with 
a seat until the year 1827, when he was returned 



PARIS IN 1830. 377 

by three different colleges, those of the depart- 
ment of the Sarthe, and of two of the arrondisse- 
ments of the Nievre. In the mean time, however, 
he was in some degree compensated by his suc- 
cess at the bar, which has been as brilliant as it 
must have been lucrative. He was entrusted 
with the defence of Marshal Ney, of Generals 
Alix, Savary, Gilly, Caulaincourt, and Forest 
de Morvan, and of Messrs. Boyer, Fievee, 
Bavoux, Merillion, de Jouy, Madier, deMontjean 
de Beranger, and de Pradt, all accused of politi- 
cal offences. He was also counsel for Sir Robert 
Wilson, and Messrs. Hutchinson and Bruce, 
when put on their defence for assisting in the 
escape of M. de Lavalette. His superior talents 
induced the ministry of 1819 to offer him the 
office of under secretary of state, in the depart- 
ment of justice, with the title of master of re- 
quests ; but, having refused to connect himself 
with that administration, he was soon afterwards 
appointed by the Duke of Orleans a member of 
his royal highness's council. 

With all his talents, however, (and they are un- 
doubtedly of the very first order,) public opinion 
is far from being unanimous as to his political in- 
tegrity. The royalists think him a concealed Jaco- 
bin, and the liberals regard him as little better than 
a Jesuit ; but he must be a strange Jesuit, who 
thunders against the order like M. Dupin in his 
public declamations ; and as strange a Jacobin, to 



378 PARIS IN 1830. 

walk as he does, uncovered, in the processions of 
the church, and to maintain a private chapel, 
with all its adjuncts, on his estate. Since the 
date of the revolution, M. Dupin has been vio- 
lently attacked by all the liberal journalists, for 
the want of resolution he is supposed to have 
evinced in the first days of the struggle ; and he 
has thought it necessary to publish a defence, 
which, as a piece of special pleading, is ingenious, 
if not conclusive, and well calculated to maintain 
his high character as a lawyer ; although it has 
not certainly been very successful in giving him 
the place which he desires to occupy in public 
estimation, as an unflinching supporter of the 
principles of the revolution. 

Henri Benjamin Constant de Rebecque, the 
president of the committee of legislation, and of 
administrative justice, and one of the members 
of the cabinet, was born at Lausanne, in the 
year I767. He belongs to a family of Protestant 
refugees, who are said to be descended from a 
Baron Augustin Constant, who, after having 
saved the life of Henry IV., abandoned his 
standard, on that Prince declaring himself a con- 
vert to the Catholic religion. After M. Con- 
stant had completed his studies at the universities 
of Gottingen and Edinburgh, he was employed 
for some time at the court of the Grand Duke of 
Brunswick, which he left in 1795, to come to 
Paris, where he became connected with some of 



PARIS IN 1830. 379 

the most distinguished men of the period. His 
first literary production was a work published in 
179(), entitled, " De la force du gouvernement 
actuel de la France, et de la necessite de s'y 
rallier," which procured him the acquaintance of 
Madame de Stael, a friendship which he retained 
until her death. In 1798 he became a member 
of the " club de salut," and continued to oppose 
the successive assumptions of arbitrary power by 
the conqueror of Italy. He was, in consequence, 
sent into exile, which he shared with his illustri- 
ous friend the authoress of Corinna, with whom 
he travelled over various countries of Europe, and 
ended by fixing himself at Gottingen, where, in 
1808, he married a young lady of the family 
of Hardenberg. M. Constant did not return 
to France until the date of the restoration, 
when he published a number of papers favour- 
able to liberty, and consequently hostile to the 
power of Napoleon. After the return of the 
Emperor from Elba, he was induced to accept 
the office of counsellor of state, and is accused 
of having assisted in the preparation of the ce- 
lebrated " Acte additionel aux constitutions de 
l'Empire." On the final overthrow of the power 
of Napoleon by the battle of Waterloo, he re- 
turned first to Brussels, and afterwards to Eng- 
land, where he remained until after the 5th of 
September, 1816, when he returned to France, 
and applied himself to literary pursuits, which 



380 PARIS IN 1830. 

have chiefly been directed to the department of 
politics. In 1819, he was chosen as a deputy by 
the electors of the Sarthe, in spite of all the ef- 
forts of the ministry to defeat his return. In 
1824, he was re-elected by the department of 
the Seine, when his return was opposed by 
M. Dudon, on the ground of his being disqua- 
lified by the place of his birth ; an objection 
which was ultimately over-ruled. 

The personal appearance of M. Constant is far 
from prepossessing. Although not perceptibly 
lame, he uses a crutch in walking, in consequence 
of weakness in his limbs. His hair is red, and he 
wears it so long as to hang down over his shoul- 
ders. He uses spectacles habitually, and, in 
speaking, he is so precipitate, and his voice is 
so rough, that he is not understood without great 
difficulty. Yet with all these disadvantages, his 
countenance is mild, open, ingenuous, and intel- 
ligent ; his manners are those of a man of let- 
ters rather than a man of the world : in conver- 
sation he is lively and unaffected ; and, as Dupin 
has been said to resemble Brougham in the ex- 
tent of his acquirements, although far behind 
his illustrious rival in moral reputation — so 
has Constant been placed by his Parisian con- 
temporaries on a level with Sir James Mackin- 
tosh. 

M. Bignon was born at la Meilleraie, in the 
department of the Seine Inferieure, in 1771- 



PARIS IN 1830. 381 

He is of a distinguished family, and, although 
extremely well educated, he resolved, in 1793, 
to enter the army as a private soldier. He 
found himself in the 128th demi-brigade, under 
the command of General Huet, who soon at- 
tached him to his own person in the capacity 
of private secretary. After five years of mili- 
tary service, he entered on the diplomatic career, 
and in 1799 was appointed secretary to the 
Prussian legation ; after which he became charge- 
d'affaires at Berlin, and, in 1803, was appointed 
minister plenipotentiary at the court of the Elec- 
tor of Hesse Cassel. In 1807, be was named 
military intendant of Berlin ; and afterwards, in 
conjunction with Count Dam, was placed at 
the head of the administration of the armies in 
the Austrian territory. In 1810, he was the 
French resident at Warsaw, having been em- 
ployed by Napoleon to stir up the insurrec- 
tion of the Poles against the Russians, for which 
purpose he proceeded to Wilna as the commis- 
sioner of the Imperial Government. He is said 
to have displayed the greatest talent and intelli- 
gence in the performance of this mission ; but, on 
the retreat of the French army, he was made a 
prisoner at Dresden. 

During the first restoration he remained un- 
employed ; but having been elected a deputy, in 
1815, by the department of the Seine Inferieure, 
he was entrusted, during the hundred days, with 



382 PARTS IN 1830. 

the portfolio of foreign affairs, which he aban- 
doned on the entrance of the Allies into Paris ; 
and he has never since held any official appoint- 
ment. In 1822, M. Bignon lost his seat in the 
Chamber, but in 1827 was re-elected by the 
College of Rouen. He is universally respected 
for the steadiness with which he has maintained 
his constitutional principles ; and, besides being 
an author of some repute, has the honour of 
being exempted from the place which has been 
given to more than one of his ministerial col- 
leagues in the " Dictionnaire des Girouettes." 



PARIS IN 1830. 383 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

Convocation of the Legislative Body — Account of the cere- 
mony observed on the occasion — Cordial reception of the 
Duke of Orleans — His speech to the assembled Peers and 
Deputies — Letter from the Commissioners sent to Rambouil- 
let — Separate meetings of the two Chambers — Proceedings 
and speeches of the Members— The Declaration of Rights 
presented to the Duke of Orleans by the Deputies — En- 
thusiasm manifested on the occasion. 

The 3rd of August was the day originally 
named by Charles X. for the convocation of 
the legislative body. According to former 
usage, the royal sitting should have taken place 
in the palace of the Louvre, which was selected 
as a place where the Peers and the Deputies 
could meet on neutral ground. At ten o'clock 
on the morning of the day thus appointed, the 
meeting accordingly took place ; but, as if 
to indicate fhe ascendancy which had been pro- 
duced by the events of the revolution in favour 
of the representatives of the people, it was not 
at the Louvre, or the Luxembourg, that this 
important meeting was held, but in the tempo- 



384 PARIS IN 1830. 

rary wooden building prepared for the accom- 
modation of the representatives of the people. 

At a very early hour in the morning, the va- 
rious approaches to the Palais Bourbon, where 
this building is situated, were besieged by an 
anxious crowd ; and as soon as the doors were 
opened, the galleries, which are destined for the 
public accommodation, were instantly filled. 
The chair of the president, the table of the se- 
cretaries, and the tribune, from which the mem- 
bers address the Chamber, were, on this occasion, 
removed, to make way for a magnificent chair of 
state, which, with two tabourets for the Princes, 
occupied that portion of the hall. The throne, 
with its splendid canopy of velvet, was the same 
which had formerly been employed at the Louvre ; 
and, as it was adorned with golden fleurs de lis, 
and other distinctions peculiar to the house of 
Bourbon, a number of three-coloured banners 
were so arranged, as to mask the insignia of the 
repudiated family. 

In front of the throne were the two stools of 
privilege ; one for the Duke of Orleans, as 
Lieutenant-General of the kingdom, on the 
right, and the other for the Duke de Nemours, 
his second son, on the left of the throne. The 
chair of the Chancellor of France, covered with 
violet-coloured velvet, was placed on the left of 
the seat appropriated to the Duke de Nemours. 
One of the galleries was reserved for the Duchess 



PARIS IN 1S30. 385 

of Orleans and the Princesses of her family, 
and another for the corps diplomatique. In the 
latter, although no regular accredited ambassador 
appeared, there were five secretaries, two charges 
d'affaires, the one of Denmark, and the other of 
the United States of America, and a great num- 
ber of the attaches to the various embassies. 

Soon after the public galleries had been filled, 
the Deputies, and especially those of the cote 
gauche, began to enter. At a later hour in the 
morning, a small group arrived, including M. 
Berryer, M. Jacquinot Pamplune, M. de Meffrey, 
M. de Conny, M. de Murat, M. de Boisbertrand, 
M. de Belissen, M. Bizien du Lezard, M. d'Aut- 
poul, and M. Roger, who were all that now 
remained to represent the former party of the 
cote droit, now described as the Carlists. 

About twelve o'clock, the Peers began to ar- 
rive ; and among their number were observed 
the Dukes de Mortemart, de Bellune, de Valmy, 
de Choiseul, de Caraman, and de Trevise ; the 
Marechal Jourdan, the Marquis de Dreux Breze, 
and the Viscount de Chateaubriand, Messrs. Por- 
talis, Seguier, Pasquier, Chaptal, de Montalivet, 
de Simonville, Lanjuinais, Roy, and Bastard de 
l'Estang. The costume of the legislative cham- 
bers was not worn on this occasion, either by 
Peers or Deputies ; blue and black were the pre- 
vailing colours : the grand cordon of the Legion 
of Honor was occasionally visible, but the blue 

c c 



386 PARIS IN 1830. 

ribbon had entirely disappeared. M. Lafitte 
and General Lafayette arrived about the same 
moment, and had engaged the general attention? 
when the guns of the Invalides gave notice of the 
approach of the Duke of Orleans. His Royal 
Highness was preceded by the Duchess and her 
daughters, who took their places in the gallery 
reserved for them. On a given signal, the two 
grand deputations from the Peers and the Depu- 
ties, whose names had previously been drawn by 
ballot, went out to receive the Lieutenant-Ge- 
neral of the kingdom at the foot of the principal 
staircase ; the one with M. Lafitte, as vice-pre- 
sident, and the other with M. de Simonville, as 
grand referendary, at its head, in the absence of 
M. Perier, the President of the Chamber of De- 
puties, and of the Chancellor of France, the Pre- 
sident of the Chamber of Peers. The Commis- 
sioners then entrusted provisionally with the 
different departments of the ministry, remained 
with the officers of the Prince's household, at 
the inner entrance of the hall. 

The Duke, on his entrance, was received with 
unanimous acclamations of " Vive le Prince, 
Lieutenant General ! Vive le Due d'Orleans !" 
He was dressed in a military uniform, and, on 
his reaching the tabouret assigned to him, he 
put on his hat — a circumstance which excited 
some criticism at the period — and, addressing 
himself to the two legislative bodies without dis- 



PARIS IN 1830. 387 

tinction, desired them to be seated. The old 
ceremonial consisted in the King's turning round 
to the Chamber of Peers, and saying, " Messieurs, 
asseyez-vous " after which, the Chancellor, ad- 
dressing the Deputies, informed them that his 
Majesty permitted them to take their seats. The 
most perfect silence prevailed within the hall ; 
but the artillery of the Invalides continued to 
peal in salvos while the Prince pronounced the 
following speech : 
" Messieurs les Pairs, et Messieurs les Deputes ! 

" Paris, disturbed in its repose by a deplorable viola- 
tion of the charter and the laws, defended them with an 
heroic courage ! In the midst of this bloody struggle, 
the guarantees of social order no longer existed. Per- 
sons, property, rights, all that is precious and dear to 
men and citizens, were exposed to the most imminent 
danger. 

" In the absence of all public power, the wishes of my 
fellow-citizens have been directed towards me. They 
have deemed me worthy of concurring with them in 
saving the country ; they have invited me to exercise 
the functions of Lieutenant-General of the kingdom. 

" To me their cause hasappeared to be just ; the perils 
immense, the necessity imperative, my duty sacred. I 
hastened into the midst of this valiant people, followed 
by my family, and wearing those colours, which, for 
the second time, have marked among us the triumph of 
liberty. 

" I have come with the firm resolution of devoting 
my efforts to every thing that circumstances might re- 
quire of me, in the situation in which I have been placed, 
to re-establish the empire of the laws, save, protect 
endangered liberty, and render the recurrence impossi- 

cc2 



388 PARTS IN 1830. 

ble of such great evils, by securing for ever the power of 
that charter, whose name, invoked during the combat, 
was repeated after victory. 

" In the fulfilment of this noble task, it belongs to the 
Chambers to guide me. Every right should be sub- 
stantially guaranteed ; all the institutions necessary to 
their full and free exercise should receive the develop- 
ments of which they have need. Attached with my 
whole heart, and from conviction, to the principles of 
a free government, I accept all its consequences before- 
hand. I deem it my duty, even now, to call your at- 
tention to the organization of the National Guards, the 
application of the Jury to offences by the press, the 
formation of departmental and municipal administra- 
tions, and, above all, to the 14th Article of the Charter, 
which has been so odiously interpreted. 

" With these sentiments, Gentlemen, I come to open 
this Session. 

u The past is painful to me ; I deplore disasters 
which I should have wished to prevent; but in the 
midst of this magnanimous excitement of the capital, 
and of all other French cities, at the aspect of order re- 
viving with such astonishing promptitude, after a resist- 
ance free from all excess, a just national pride affects 
my heart, and I look with confidence on the future des- 
tiny of the country. 

" Yes, Gentlemen, this land of France, so dear tome, 
will be happy and free : it will prove to Europe, that, 
solely engaged in promoting its internal prosperity, it 
cherishes peace as much as liberty, and only wishes for 
the happiness and repose of its neighbours. 

" Respect for the rights of all, attention to every in- 
terest, and good faith in the Government, are the best 
means of disarming parties, and of restoring to the pub- 
lic mind that confidence, and to the institutions that 
stability, which are the only sure pledges of the happi- 
ness of the people, and the strength of states. 



PARIS IN 1830. 389 

" Peers and Deputies ! — As soon as the Chambers are 
constituted, I will communicate to you the act of abdi- 
cation of his Majesty King Charles X. ; by the same 
act, his Royal Highness Louis Antoine of France, the 
Dauphin, likewise renounces his rights. This act was 
placed in my hands last night, the 2nd of August, at 
eleven o'clock. This morning, I have ordered it to be de- 
posited among the archives of the Chamber of Peers, and 
to be inserted in the official part of the Moniteur? 

The acclamations with which the Duke had 
been received on his entrance were renewed at 
the conclusion of his speech. On his rising to 
retire, the two grand deputations surrounded 
him, and accompanied him to the outer entrance, 
where he and the Duke de Nemours mounted 
their horses amidst a detachment of the National 
Guards a cheval. The Duchess and her daugh- 
ters followed in an open carriage, drawn by a 
pair of horses, and escorted by a party of young 
men on horseback, wearing three-coloured 
scarfs. The procession returned as it came, by 
the quays, the Pont Royal, and the Place de Car- 
rousel, to the Palais Royal, the band playing the 
favourite airs of the " Marseillaise" and " La 
Victoire est a nous." 

On the following morning, the Prince Lieu- 
tenant-General received the following letter from 
the Commissioners who had been sent to Ram- 
bouillet, communicating the happy and bloodless 
issue of that extraordinary expedition : — 



390 PARIS IN 1830. 

" MONSEIGNEUR, 

" We are happy to announce to you the success 
of our mission. The King has resolved to depart 
with all his family. We shall bring you all the 
incidents and details of the journey with the 
utmost exactness. May it end happily ! We 
take the road to Cherbourg, and are to set out in 
half an hour. All the troops are sent towards 
Epernon, and to-morrow morning it will be de- 
termined which of them shall definitively follow 
the King. 

" We are, with respect and devotedness, Mon- 
seigneur, &c. 

(Signed) " Le Marechal Maison. 
" Odillon-Barrot. 
" De Schonen. 

" Rambouillet, 3d August, 10 o'clock, p. m." 

The publication of this letter, and of the 
speech of the Duke of Orleans at the opening of 
the session, contributed materially to the restora- 
tion of public tranquillity, after the renewal of 
the excitement produced by the obstinacy of 
Charles X. and the measures which had been 
found necessary to hasten his departure. 

On the 4th of August the two legislative 
bodies assembled in their respective chambers. 
The sitting of the Deputies was confined to the 
appointment of committees, and to the arrange- 



PARIS IN 1830. 391 

ment of those preliminary forms required by the 
constitution of the Chamber, for facilitating the 
progress of the business of the session. In former 
years these forms had generally occupied a period 
of eight or ten days ; but on this occasion they 
were completed on the 4th of August, when the 
Chamber adjourned to the 6th, in order to afford 
some interval of preparation for the important 
business which was then to be transacted. 

The Peers, after appointing the Marquis de 
Mont em art, the Duke de Plaisance, Marshal 
Maison, and Count Lanjuinais, secretaries of the 
Chamber, proceeded to ballot for a committee to 
prepare an address in answer to the Lieutenant- 
General's opening speech. In the course of the 
debate which arose on this question, a speech 
was delivered by the Duke de Choiseul, of which 
the following is an abstract. 

" Under the serious circumstances in which 
we are placed, to waver in our conduct would be 
culpable and pusillanimous. We can no longer 
confine ourselves to a mere echo of the phrases 
in the speech from the head of the government ; 
we must express our sentiments with loyalty and 
frankness. It is to things, and not to persons, 
that our attention must hereafter be directed ; 
and I am prepared to say, with M. Cazales, that 
if we must choose between the monarch and the 
monarchy, it is the monarchy alone which ought 
to be regarded. But we are called to the exer- 



392 PARIS IN 1830. 

cise of higher duties — to establish the government 
on a solid basis, and to remove all uncertainty as 
to the exercise of power. The Chamber of 
Peers I conceive to be of incontestable necessity; 
but it must demonstrate that necessity by placing 
itself at the head of public opinion, and by recall- 
ing those glorious and happy days when, instead 
of being dragged in the train of power, this 
Chamber was honoured in public opinion by the 
constitutional opposition which it maintained 
against the measures of a ministry supported by 
a Chamber of Deputies distinguished by the name 
of ' introuvable. 9 The title of Peer of France 
was then synonymous with that of father of the 
country. But times have since changed : I will 
not mention the causes ; they are unfortunately 
too well known. To day I confine myself to the 
proposition, that in preparing the address in 
answer to the speech from the head of the govern- 
ment, the committee should abstain from a ser- 
vile repetition of the phrases of the speech ; that 
it should lay aside those fawning protestations 
which it has been the fashion to introduce ; and 
that it should express itself clearly as to the 
urgency of the measures to be proposed for in- 
suring the stability of the government, and as to 
the importance of the laws which are required 
by the present order of things." 

The committee on the address was composed of 
Counts Mole, Simeon, and d'Argout, Barons de 



PARIS IN 1830. 393 

Barante and Seguier, the Marquises de Marbois 
and Jaucourt : and, after its appointment, the 
Chamber adjourned. 

On the 6th of August, the Deputies having 
assembled under the presidency of M. Labbey 
de Pompieres, the temporary chairman in right 
of seniority, it was announced to the Chamber 
that the Lieutenant-General, in obedience to the 
existing law, had selected M. Casimir Perier as 
president, from the list of candidates prepared by 
the Deputies at their former sitting, but that the 
Lieutenant-General had expressed his wish that 
this might be the last occasion on which such 
a controul should be exercised. 

The chair was then taken by M. Lafitte, as 
one of the vice-presidents, when a letter was read 
from M. Perier, apologizing for his absence, and 
saying that the state of his health would have in- 
duced him to decline the distinguished office to 
which he had been nominated, had not the 
urgency of circumstances rendered it important 
that the proceedings of the Chamber should not 
be delayed by a new ballot. Messrs. Cunin, 
Gridaine, Jacqueminot, Paveede Vandoeuvre, and 
Jars, then took their places as secretaries. 

A proposition to the following effect was read 
from the chair : 

" I accuse of high treason the ex-ministers, 
authors of the report to the King, and subscribers 



394 PARIS IN 1830. 

( contre-signataires ) of the ordinances of the 
26th of July. 

(Signed) " Eusebe Salverte." 

M. Salverte having been called upon to sup- 
port his proposition, stated, that as the Chamber 
had more important business before it, he would 
content himself with moving that it be referred 
to the committees. 

M. Berard then ascended the tribune, and ad- 
dressed the Chamber to the following effect : 

" The people of France were united to their 
monarch by a solemn tie, which has just been 
torn asunder. The violator of the contract can 
have no right to claim its execution. It is in 
vain that Charles X. and his son affect to trans- 
mit a right which no longer belongs to them. 
That right has been dissolved in the blood of 
thousands of victims. The deed of abdication 
communicated to the Legislature is but a new 
act of perfidy ; the semblance of legality with 
which it is clothed, is a mere deception ; it has 
been thrown among us, that it may become a 
brand of discord. We have been called upon by 
the same law of necessity, which placed arms in 
the hands of the citizens of Paris for the resist- 
ance of oppression, to adopt a Prince for our tem- 
porary chief, who is a sincere friend to free insti- 
tutions. We are required by the same necessity to 
adopt, without delay, a permanent chief as the 



PARIS IN 1830. 395 

head of the government. But, however implicit 
the confidence with which this Prince has inspired 
us, the rights we are chosen to defend require 
that we should fix the conditions on which he is 
to be admitted to power. Repeatedly and shame- 
fully deceived, we are warranted in stipulating 
for the strictest terms. In some respects our 
institutions are incomplete, in others they are 
vicious ; it is our duty to extend and purify them. 
The Prince now at our head has already done 
more than we have required of him ; the funda- 
mental principles of popular right have been 
already propounded and acknowledged ; other 
principles, and other rights are equally indispen- 
sable, and will be equally acknowledged, We are 
the chosen of the people ; to us they have con- 
fided their interests and their wants. Their first 
want, their dearest interest, is liberty and repose. 
They have themselves won their liberty from the 
hands of tyranny, by force of arms ; it is for us to 
secure their repose, by giving them a just and 
stable government." 

M. Berard concluded by moving a series of 
resolutions, by the first of which it was proposed 
to declare, " That the throne is vacant, and that 
it is indispensably necessary to make provision 
accordingly." By the succeeding articles it was 
proposed, that in pursuance of the wishes, and in 
furtherance of the interests of the French people, 
the preamble of the constitutional charter should 



396 PARIS IN 1830. 

be suppressed, and its clauses modified in the 
manner detailed in the resolutions submitted to 
the Chamber. The modifications ultimately 
adopted will at once be understood by the com- 
parative view of the old and the new charter, 
which will be found at the end of the volume. 
By the last of M. Berard's resolutions, it was 
proposed, " That in consideration of the accept- 
ance of the conditions proposed, the Chamber of 
Deputies declares, that the universal and urgent 
interests of the French people call to the throne 
his Royal Highness Louis Philippe d'Orleans, 
Due d'Orleans, Lieutenant-General of the king- 
dom, and his descendants for ever, from male to 
male, in the order of primogeniture, to the per- 
petual exclusion of females, and their descendants. 

" That his Royal Highness be therefore invited 
to accept, and swear to the clauses and engage- 
ments expressed in the previous resolutions, and 
to the observance of the constitutional charter, 
with the modifications thus agreed to, and, after 
having taken the oath, in the presence of the 
assembled Chambers, to assume the title of the 
King of the French." 

After this proposition had been made by M. 
Berard, a discussion arose as to the subsequent 
forms of proceeding, in which M. Mathieu Du- 
mas, M. Etienne, and General Demarcay, parti- 
cipated. It was ultimately decided that the pro- 
position should first be referred to the ordinary 



PARIS IN 1830. 397 

committees of the Chamber, and that it should 
afterwards be examined by a special committee, 
in connexion with that appointed to prepare the 
address. When these arrangements had been 
made, an adjournment of the Chamber took place 
until the evening. 

On the arrival of the Deputies about eight 
o'clock, to attend the second extraordinary sitting 
of the Chamber, the avenues which lead to the 
building were already occupied with crowds, 
anxious to learn the result of the day's proceed- 
ings. These crowds were chiefly composed of 
young men belonging to the middle classes of 
society ; and the exclamations in which they in- 
dulged, as the Deputies entered, were for the most 
part directed to the abolition of the hereditary 
peerage, which seems still to be associated in the 
public mind with that system of privilege which, 
under the ancien regime, made the French no- 
blesse an object of popular jealousy and detesta- 
tion. The agitation on the outside was regarded 
by some of the members as an attempt to over- 
awe the deliberations of the Chamber. An ad- 
journment was proposed by M. Augustin Perier; 
and M. Benjamin Constant having gone out to 
address the crowd, in the hope of tranquillizing 
them, the chair was taken by M. Lafitte ; but, as 
the tumult remained undiminished, General La- 
fayette, after consulting with the President, 



398 PARIS IN 1830. 

retired to second the efforts of M. Constant, by 
expostulating with the people on the disturbance 
which was thus created. The General was, as 
usual, received with acclamations by the crowd ; 
and, after complimenting them on their heroism 
during the great week of the revolution, he 
added, " I am entitled, my friends, to your at- 
tention, because the opinions which have induced 
you to come here are my own. I know how to 
support them ; but I fear that you may fall into 
errors. In addition to so many other motives, 
let me beg you to consider my personal feelings. 
I have engaged my honour that no disturbance 
shall interrupt the proceedings of the Chamber. 
Should any interruption take place, and be at- 
tended with any painful occurrence at the doors, 
I shall be regarded as in some degree responsible. 
It is with me a point of honour, and I place my 
honour under the protection of your friendship." 
This address produced the desired effect ; tran- 
quillity was restored, and the sitting was resumed 
at half-past eight o'clock. 

The act of abdication of Charles X. having been 
communicated to the Chamber on the part of the 
government, the question arose, whether its 
reception should be acknowledged ; and whether 
it should be deposited among the archives of the 
Chamber ; both of which were ultimately resolved 
in the affirmative. 



PARIS IN 1830. 399 

On the motion of M. Bavonx, supported 
by M. Berryer, the following* resolution was 
adopted : 

" The Chamber of Deputies votes thanks to 
the city of Paris ; it invites the government to 
erect a monument, for the purpose of transmit- 
ting to the remotest posterity the event which it 
shall be destined to consecrate. It shall bear this 
inscription — A la T r ille de Paris, la patrie re- 
connoissante" 

At ten o'clock the report of the committee 
was brought up by M. Dupin, aine, which, 
with the modifications it received in passing 
through the Chamber, having been ultimately 
embodied in the charter itself, needs not here to 
be repeated. 

After the report had been read, it was moved 
by M. Guizot, after an animated debate as to the 
propriety of proceeding forthwith to its conside- 
ration, in which M. de Corselles, M. de Ram- 
buteau, M. Benjamin Constant, M. Eusebe Sal- 
verte, M. Mauguin, and M. Demarcay, took part, 
" That the report be printed and distributed, and 
that the Chamber do take it into consideration 
to-morrow morning at ten o'clock." This reso- 
lution having been adopted, the Chamber ad- 
journed at the unusually late hour of eleven 
o'clock at night. 

On the following morning, the 7th of August, 
the discussion was opened at the hour appointed. 



400 PARIS IN 1830. 

The most remarkable speech was that of M. cle 
Martignac, when called up by some expressions 
employed in supporting a resolution, " That the 
throne is vacant in consequence of the violation 
of the Charter and the laws." M. Podenas took 
occasion to observe, " that the ex-King was the 
worthy heir of Charles the Ninth's ferocity, but 
that he had not the courage to show himself in 
the hour of danger." " I feel compelled," said 
M. de Martignac, " on behalf of a family plunged 
in misfortune, to raise a voice which defended it 
in the height of its power. I could not hear the 
words which fell from the last speaker without 
the deepest sorrow. Ah, gentlemen ! had you 
known this Prince as I have done, had you been 
admitted to his intimacy, you could not have 
heard him accused of ferocity without indigna- 
tion. No, gentlemen, this man was not ferocious ; 
he has been deceived. It was not his heart 
which dictated these infamous ordinances. 
They were the work of perfidious counsellors, 
whom I freely abandon to you. Let not your 
indignation fall upon him ; but believe me, gen- 
tlemen, believe one who has lived in habits of 
the closest intimacy with him, that his heart was 
animated by the love of his country. I have not 
been astonished at the truly heroic resistance 
called forth by these iniquitous ordinances; but 
I ask again, why words should be uttered, after 
the power which produced them has fallen, which 



PARIS IN 1830. 401 

will be an an additional sting- to a heart already 
overwhelmed with misfortune. I do not know, 
gentlemen, whether in what I have said I have 
followed the dictates of prudence and modera- 
tion ; I have consulted only my heart." 

This speech was repeatedly interrupted by the 
applause of the cote droit, and the murmurs of the 
cote gauche. 

Towards the conclusion of the discussion, 
General Lafayette addressed the Chamber to the 
following effect : 

" In ascending this tribune to speak on a sub- 
ject of such vast importance, I am neither yield- 
ing to the impulse of the moment, nor courting 
an idle popularity, which I shall never prefer to 
the suggestions of duty. It is well known that 
I have all my life professed republican principles ; 
but they have not been such as to prevent me 
from supporting a constitutional throne, created 
by the will of the people. Under existing cir- 
cumstances, whereby it is desirable to raise the 
Prince Lieutenant-General to a constitutional 
throne, I feel myself animated by the same sen- 
timents ; and I am bound to avow, that the more 
I become acquainted with the Duke of Orleans, 
the more perfectly does the choice fulfil my 
wishes. On the subject of an hereditary peerage, 
I do not share the opinion entertained by many 
of my fellow-citizens. I have always thought it 
necessary that the legislative body should be 

D D 



402 PARIS IN 1830. 

divided into two Chambers, differently con- 
stituted ; but I have never seen the utility of 
creating- legislators who, in some cases, become 
judges, invested with hereditary rights. I have 
always thought that aristocracy is a bad ingre- 
dient to introduce into our public institutions. It 
is with great satisfaction, therefore, that I find 
you occupied with a project which meets the sen- 
timents I have all my life professed. My con- 
science now compels me to repeat them, and to 
declare, that I hope shortly to see the hereditary 
peerage suppressed. My fellow-citizens will do 
me the justice to acknowledge, that if I have 
always maintained the principles of freedom, I 
have supported public order with equal uni- 
formity." 

M. Mauguin proposed that the judges should 
cease their functions in six months, if before that 
time they did not receive a new investiture ; and 
thus argued in support of the proposition : — " Do 
not forget, gentlemen, that you are the offspring 
of revolution. It is the revolution yoi* are now 
met to consecrate. A fortnight ago you were 
under the empire of legitimacy and divine right : 
to-day you are under the influence of national 
sovereignty. Do you think, then, that bodies 
which have been formed under the empire of the 
congregation, will support you, or offer you no 
resistance ? No, gentlemen ; the reform must 
descend to the lowest ranks of the magistracy. 



PARIS IN 1830. 403 

To establish it substantially, resistance must 
cease everywhere. The judges, you say, are ap- 
pointed for life 5 but did not that appointment 
originate in the charter of Louis XVIII ? And 
is not that charter destroyed ?" 

The amendment of M. Mauguin, and a sub- 
amendment proposed by M. Eusebe Salverte, 
that the judges appointed during the reign of 
Charles X. should be submitted to a new orga- 
nization, were successively put and rejected. 

As soon as the discussion was concluded, the 
Deputies proceeded in a body, and on foot, to the 
Palais Royal, to present to the Duke of Orleans 
the bill of rights, or declaration of principles, 
which had just been agreed to. The Deputies 
were instantly admitted to his Royal Highness's 
presence, and the resolutions of the Chamber 
having been read by M. Lafitte, the Duke of 
Orleans, surrounded by his family, made the fol- 
lowing reply : 

" I receive the declaration which you now 
present to me, with profound emotion. I regard 
it as the expression of the national will ; and it 
appears to me to be in conformity with the po- 
litical principles I have all my life professed. 

" Impressed with recollections which have al- 
ways made me desire that I might never be des- 
tined to ascend the throne ; exempt from am- 
bition, and accustomed to the peaceful life which 
I lead in my family, I cannot conceal the senti- 

D D<2 



404 PARIS IN 1830. 

merits which agitate my heart in this great con- 
juncture : but there is one which is predominant 
— it is the love of my country. I feel what it 
prescribes to me, and I shall not fail in the per- 
formance." 

In delivering his answer, the Prince was af- 
fected to tears. At its conclusion, he embraced 
M. Lafitte, amidst enthusiastic exclamations of 
" Vive le Roi ! Vive la Reine ! Vive la famille 
Royale I" which burst from all present, and were 
repeated by the thousands collected in the courts 
of the palace. In answer to the call of the peo- 
ple, the Prince appeared on the balcony, accom- 
panied by General Lafayette. They were both 
received with acclamations, which were redoubled 
when the Duchess of Orleans presented her chil- 
dren to the people. Impressed with the unani- 
mity of feeling which was thus manifested, La- 
fayette took the hand of the Duke of Orleans, 
and exclaimed, " We have performed a good 
work ! Here, Gentlemen, is the Prince we 
need! This is the best of Republics l" 



PARIS IN 1830. 405 



CHAPTER XXV. 

Small share taken by the Chamber of Peers in the affairs 
of the Revolution — Their deliberations as to the resolutions 
passed by the Deputies — Chateaubriand's splendid speech 
on that occasion— Assent to the declaration of the Deputies, 
and deputation in consequence from the Peers to the Duke 
of Orleans — Arrival of the Duke de Chartres in Paris- 1 - 
Anecdote — Character of the Duke of Orleans, as described 
by Paul Louis Courrier. 



In the last act of the drama, as at its commence- 
ment, the Chamber of Peers performed a mere 
secondary part. At a late hour on Saturday 
evening, the 7th of August, they assembled at 
their Palace of Luxembourg-, for the professed 
purpose of taking into consideration the resolu- 
tions which had been passed by the Deputies ; 
but, in effect, to register a decision which they 
had no power to controul. The only hesitation 
which they discovered in adopting the resolutions 
of the Representative Chamber, was expressed in 
a vote to the following effect. 

" The Chamber of Peers declares that it can- 



406 PARIS IN 1830. 

not deliberate on that article of the declaration 
of the Chamber of Deputies which provides, that 
all the nominations and creations of peers made 
during- the reign of Charles X. are null and 
void. 

" The Chamber of Peers declares that it leaves 
the decision of this question to the high prudence 
of the Prince Lieutenant-General." 

The sitting was, however, distinguished by a 
splendid speech of the Viscount Chateaubriand, 
which, as no abridgment or analysis could do it 
justice, is here introduced entire, translated from 
a copy submitted to the revision of the noble 
Viscount. 

" Gentlemen! — The declaration which has been 
brought to this Chamber is to me much less com- 
plicated than it appears to those of my noble col- 
leagues who profess an opinion different from 
mine. There is one fact in this declaration which 
appears to me to govern all the others, or rather 
to destroy them. Were we under a regular order 
of things, I should doubtless carefully examine 
the various changes which it is proposed to make 
in the Charter. Many of these changes have 
been proposed by myself. I am only surprised 
that the re-actionary measure, regarding the 
peers created by Charles X., should have been 
proposed to this Chamber. I shall not be sus- 
pected of any fondness for the system by which 
these batches (Jburnees) were created ; and you 



PARIS IN 1830. 107 

know, that when threatened with them, I com- 
bated the very menace : but to make ourselves 
the judges of our colleagues, and to erase whom 
we please from the list of the peerage, whenever 
we find ourselves the stronger party, would seem 
to me to savour of proscription. It is thought 
necessary that the peerage be annihilated. Then 
be it so : it better becomes us to surrender our 
existence, than to beg for our lives. 

" I reproach myself already for the few words 
I have uttered on a point, which, important as it 
is, becomes insignificant when merged in the 
great proposition before us. France is without 
a guide ; and I am now to consider what must be 
added to or cut away from the masts of a vessel 
which has lost its rudder! I lay aside, then, 
whatever is of a secondary interest in the de- 
claration of the Elective Chamber ; and, fixing on 
the single enunciated fact of the vacancy of the 
throne, whether true or pretended, I advance 
directly to my object. 

" But a previous question ought first to be 
attended to. If the throne be vacant, we are 
free to choose the future form of our govern- 
ment. 

" Before offering the crown to any individual 
whatever, it may be well to ascertain under what 
political system the social body is to be consti- 
tuted. Are we to establish a republic, or a new 
monarchy ? 



408 PARIS IN 1830. 

" Does a republic or a new monarchy offer 
sufficient guarantees to France, of strength, dura- 
bility, and repose ? 

" A republic would first of all have the recol- 
lections of the republic itself to contend with. 
These recollections are far from being effaced. 
The time is not yet forgotten, when Death 
made his frightful progress among us, with Li- 
berty and Equality for supporters. When plunged 
again into anarchy, how are you to reanimate 
the Hercules on his rock, who alone was able 
to stifle the monster ? In the history of the 
world, there have been five or six such men. 
In the course of a thousand years, your posterity 
may see another Napoleon ; but as for you, you 
must not expect it. 

" In the present state of our manners, and of 
our relations with surrounding states, the idea of a 
republic seems to me to be wholly untenable. The 
first difficulty would be to bring* the people to a 
unanimous vote on the subject. What right 
has the population of Paris to constrain the 
population of Marseilles to adopt the forms 
of a republic ? Is there to be but oue repub- 
lic, or are we to have twenty or thirty ? And 
are they to be federative or independent ? 

" Let us suppose these obstacles to be re- 
moved, and that there is to be but one repub- 
lic. Can you imagine for a moment, with the 
habitual familiarity of our manners, that a pre- 



PARIS IN 1*30. 109 

sident, however grave, however talented, and 
however respectable he may be, could remain 
for a year at the head of the government, with* 
out wishing or endeavouring to retire from it ? 
Ill protected by the laws, and unsupported by 
previous recollections, insulted and vilified, morn- 
ing, noon, and night, by secret rivals and by 
the agents'of faction, he would not inspire the 
confidence which property and commerce re- 
quire ; he would neither possess becoming dig- 
nity, in treating with foreign governments, nor 
the power which is indispensable to the mainte- 
nance of internal tranquillity. If he resorted to 
revolutionary measures, the republic would be- 
come odious, all Europe would become disturb- 
ed, would avail itself of the divisions which 
would follow, first to foment them, and after- 
wards to interfere in the quarrel ; and the state 
would again be involved in an interminable 
struggle. A representative republic is perhaps 
to be the future condition of the world ; but 
the period for its establishment has not yet 
arrived> 

" I proceed to the question of a monarchy. 
" A king, named by the Chambers, or 
elected by the people, whatever may be done, 
will always be a novelty. I take it for granted, 
that freedom is sought for, and especially the 
freedom of the press ; by which, and for which, 
the people have obtained so brilliant a triumph. 



410 PARIS IN 1830. 

Every new monarchy will, sooner or later, be 
compelled to gag this liberty. Could Napo- 
leon himself admit of it ? The offspring of our 
misfortunes, and the slave of our glory, the 
liberty of the press can only exist, in security, 
under a government whose roots are deeply 
seated. A monarchy, the illegitimate offspring 
of one bloody night, must always have some- 
thing to fear from the free and independent 
expression of public opinion. While this man 
proclaims republican opinions, and that some 
equally Utopian system, is it not to be feared 
that laws of exception must soon be resorted to, 
in spite of the eight words which have been 
expunged from the 8th Article of the Charter ? 

" What, then, will the friends of regulated liberty 
have gained by the change which is now pro- 
posed to you ? You must sink, of necessity, 
either at once into a republic, or into a system 
of legal slavery. The monarch will be surround- 
ed and overwhelmed by factions, or the monar- 
chy itself will be swept away by a torrent of 
democratical enactments. 

" In the first moments of success we suppose 
that every thing is easy ; we hope to satisfy 
every exigency, interest, and humour ; we flatter 
ourselves that every one will lay aside his per- 
sonal views and vanities ; we believe that the 
superior intelligence and the wisdom of the go- 
vernment will surmount the innumerable diffi- 



PARIS IN 1830. 411 

culties with which it is beset ; but at the end of 
a few months, we find that all our theories have 
been belied by the event. 

" I present to you, gentlemen, only a few of 
the inconveniences which must arise from the 
formation of a republic, or of a new monarchy. 
If either has its perils, there remains a third 
course ; and one which well deserves your con- 
sideration. 

" The crown has been trampled on by its 
savage ministers, who have supported, by mur- 
der, their violation of good faith. They have 
trifled with oaths made to heaven, and with laws 
sworn to on earth. 

" Foreigners, who have twice entered Paris 
without resistance, learn the true cause of your 
success ! You presented yourselves in the name 
of legal authority. If you were now to fly to 
the assistance of tyranny, do you think that the 
gates of the capital, of the civilized world, would 
open as readily before you ? The French race 
has grown, since your departure, under the influ- 
ence of constitutional laws ; our children of four- 
teen years of age are a race of giants ; our con- 
scripts at Algiers, and our school-boys at Paris, 
have shown you that they are the sons of the 
conquerors of Austerlitz, Marengo, and Jena — 
but sons strengthened by all that liberty adds to 
glory. 

" Never was a defence more just, or more 



412 PARIS IN 1830. 

heroic, than that of the people of Paris. They 
rose, not against the law, but for the law. As 
long as the social compact was respected, the 
people remained peaceable ; they bore insults, 
provocations, and threats, without complaining. 
Their property and their blood were the price 
they owed for the Charter, and both have been 
lavished in abundance. But when, after a sys- 
tem of falsehood pursued to the latest moment, 
slavery was suddenly proclaimed ; when the con- 
spiracy of folly and hypocrisy burst forth ; when 
the panic of the palace, organized by eunuchs, 
was prepared as a substitute for the terror of the 
republic, and the iron yoke of the empire ; — then 
it was that the people armed themselves with 
their courage and their intelligence. It was then 
found that these shopkeepers could breathe 
amidst the smoke of gunpowder, and that it re- 
quired rather more than "four soldiers and a 
corporal " to subue them. A century could not 
have ripened the destinies of a nation so com- 
pletely as the three last suns which have shone 
over France. A great crime was committed, 
which produced the violent explosion of a power- 
ful principle. Was it necessary, on account of 
this crime, and the moral and political triumph 
which has resulted from it, that the established 
order of things should be overthrown ? Let us 
examine. Charles X. and his son have forfeited, 
or have abdicated, the throne, — understand it 



PARIS IN 1830. 413 

which way you will : but the throne is not 
vacant ; after them came a child, whose inno- 
cence ought not to be condemned. 

" What blood now rises against him ? Will 
you venture to say that it is that of his father ? 
This orphan, educated in the schools of his 
country, in the love of a constitutional govern- 
ment, and with the ideas of the age, would have 
become a king well suited to our future wants. 
The guardian of his youth would have sworn to 
the declaration on which you are about to vote ; 
on arriving at the age of majority, the young 
monarch would have renewed his oath. In the 
mean time, the actual and reigning sovereign 
would have been the Duke of Orleans, as regent 
of the kingdom ; a prince who has lived among 
the people, and who knows, that a monarchy, in 
the present age, can only exist by consent and 
reason. This natural arrangement, as it appears 
to me, would have united the means of re- 
conciliation, and would have presented the pros- 
pect of saving those agitations to France, which 
are too surely the result of all violent changes. 

" To say that this child, when separated from 
his masters, would not have had time to forget 
their very names, before arriving at manhood ; 
to say that he would remain infatuated with cer- 
tain hereditary dignities, after a long course of 
popular education, and after the terrible lesson 



414 PARIS IN 1830. 

which in two nights has hurled two kings from 
the throne, is, at least, not very reasonable. 

" It is not from a feeling of sentimental de- 
votedness, transmitted from the swaddling clothes 
of Saint Louis to the cradle of the young Henry, 
that I plead a cause where every thing would 
again turn against me if it triumphed. I am no 
believer in chivalry or romance. I have no 
faith in the right divine of royalty ; but I believe 
in the power of facts, and of revolutions. I do 
not even invoke the Charter : I take my ideas 
from a higher source ; I draw them from the 
sphere of philosophy, from the period at which 
my life terminates. I propose the Duke de Bor- 
deaux merely as a necessity of a purer kind than 
that which is now in question. 

" I know that, by passing over this child, it is 
intended to establish the principle of the sove- 
reignty of the people ; an absurdity of the old 
school, which proves, that our veteran demo- 
crats have advanced no farther in political know- 
ledge than our superannuated royalists. There 
is no absolute sovereignty anywhere : liberty 
does not flow from political right, as was sup- 
posed in the eighteenth century ; it is derived 
from natural right, so that it exists under all 
forms of government ; and a monarchy may be 
free, nay, much more free than a republic. But 
this is neither the time nor the place to deliver 
a political lecture. 



PARIS IN 1830. 415 

" I shall content myself with observing*, that 
when the people dispose of thrones, they often 
also dispose of their own liberty. I shall remark 
that the principle of an hereditary monarchy, 
however absurd it may at first appear, has been 
recognized, in practice, as preferable to that of 
an elective monarchy. The reasons for it are so 
obvious, that I need not enlarge upon them. 
You choose one king to-day, and who shall hin- 
der you from choosing another to-morrow ? The 
law, you will say. The law? And it is you 
yourselves who make it ! 

" There is still a simpler mode of treating the 
question : it is to say, we repudiate the elder 
branch of the Bourbons. And why ? Because 
we are victorious : we have triumphed in a just 
and holy cause ; we use a double right of conquest. 
Very well. You proclaim the sovereignty of 
might : then take good care of this might ; for 
if in a few months it escapes from you, you will 
have much to complain of. Such is human 
nature ! The most enlightened and the purest 
minds do not always rise above success. Such 
minds were the first to invoke the principles of 
right in opposition to violence ; they supported 
them with all the superiority of talent ; and, at 
the very moment when the truth of what they 
have said has been demonstrated by the most 
abominable abuse of power, and by its signal 
overthrow, the conquerors recur to those arms 



41 G PARIS IN 1830. 

they have broken ! They will find them to be 
dangerous weapons, which will wound their 
own hands without serving their cause. 

" I have carried the scene of war to the terri- 
tory of my adversaries. I do not mean to 
bivouac under the old banner of the dead ; a 
banner which has not been inglorious, but which 
droops by the flag-staff which supports it, because 
no breath of life is there to raise it. When I 
move the dust of thirty-five Capets, I do not 
draw from it an argument which should exclu- 
sively be listened to. The idolatry of a name is 
abolished ; monarchy is no longer a tenet of re- 
ligious belief. It is a political form, which is 
preferable at this moment to every other, because 
it has the greatest tendency to reconcile good 
order with public liberty. 

" Useless Cassandra ! How often have I 
fatigued the throne and the peerage with disre- 
garded warnings! It only remains for me to sit 
down on the last fragment of the shipwreck I 
have so often foretold. In misfortune I acknow- 
ledge everv species of power except that of ab- 
solving me from my oaths of allegiance. It is my 
duty to make my life uniform. After all that I 
have done, said, and written for the Bourbons, 
I should be the meanest of wretches if I denied 
them at the moment when, for the third and last 
time, they are on the road to exile. Fear I leave 
to those generous royalists who have never 



PARIS IN 1830. 417 

sacrificed a coin or a place to their loyalty ; to 
those champions of the altar and the throne who 
lately treated me as a renegade, an apostate, and 
a revolutionist. Pious libellers, the renegade 
now calls upon you ! Come, then, and stammer 
out a word, a single word, with him for the un- 
fortunate master you have lost, and who loaded 
you with benefits. Instigators of coups d'etat, 
and preachers of constituent power, where are 
you ? You hide yourselves in the mire, from 
under which you raised your heads to calumniate 
the faithful servants of the King. Your silence 
to-day is worthy of your language of yesterday. 
Ye gallant paladins, whose projected exploits 
have made the descendants of Henry IV. be 
driven from their throne at the point of the 
pitchfork, tremble now as ye crouch under the 
three-coloured cockade ! The noble colours you 
display will protect your persons, but will not 
cover your cowardice. 

" In thus frankly expressing my sentiments at 
the tribune, I have no idea that I am per- 
forming an act of heroism. Those times are 
past when opinions were expressed at personal 
hazard. If such were now the case, I should 
speak in a tone a hundred times louder. The 
best buckler is a breast which does not fear to 
show itself uncovered to the enemy. No, gen- 
tlemen, we have neither to fear a people whose 
reason is equal to their courage, nor that gene- 

E E 



418 PARIS IN 1830. 

rous rising- generation whom I admire, with 
whom I sympathize with all the faculties of my 
soul, and to whom, as to my country, I wish 
honour, glory, and liberty. 

" Far from me, above all things, be the 
thought of serving the ends of discord in France. 
The spirit of this declaration has been my motive 
for excluding from what I have said every accent 
of passion. If I could convince myself that this 
child should be left in the happy ranks of obscurity, 
in order to procure the peace of thirty -three mil- 
lions of men, I should have regarded every word 
as criminal which was not consistent with the 
wants of the nation. But I do not feel this 
conviction. Had I the disposal of a crown, I 
would willingly lay it at the feet of the Duke of 
Orleans. But all that I see vacant, is— not a 
throne, but a tomb at Saint Denis ! 

" Whatever destiny may await the Lieut e- 
nant-General of the kingdom, I shall never be 
his enemy, if he promotes my country's welfare. 
I only ask to retain my liberty of conscience, 
and the right of going to die where I shall find 
independence and repose. 

" I vote against the declaration." 

The other speakers in the debate were the 
Dukes de Choiseul, de Broglie, de Lorges, and 
Decazes, the Marquis de Verac, the Counts 
Mole, d' Audlau de Bouille, Hocquart, de Ponte- 
coulant, de Grosbois, de Bastard, de Tascher, 



PARTS IN 1830. 419 

de Rouge, de Saint Maure, d'Audigne, and 
Forbin-des-Issart, the Viscount de Castel-Bajae, 
and the Baron de Barante. The total number 
of peers present was one hundred and fourteen, 
eighty-nine of whom voted for the declaration, 
ten against it, and fifteen declined voting. It 
was then decided that the declaration, as adopt- 
ed by the Chamber, should be immediately car- 
ried to the Prince-Lieutenant-General by a 
grand deputation, which any other peer might 
have liberty to join. The deputation was im- 
mediately formed, and, with the Baron Pasquier 
at its head, proceeded to the Palais Royal, at- 
tended by the great body of the Chamber. It 
was ten o'clock in the evening when the discus- 
sion was closed, and some time after that hour 
when the Peers were received by the Duke of 
Orleans. On their being admitted, the follow- 
ing address was delivered by M. Pasquier : 

" The Chamber of Peers are come to present 
to your Royal Highness the act which is to se- 
cure our future destiny. You formerly defended 
in arms our new and inexperienced liberties ; to- 
day you are about to consecrate them by laws 
and institutions. We have the assurance in your 
exalted understanding, in your personal feelings, 
and in the recollections of your whole life, that 
we shall find in you a citizen King. You will 
respect those guarantees which are yours as well 
as ours. The noble family we see around you, 

e e 2 



420 PARIS IN 1830. 

brought up in the love of their country, of jus- 
tice, and of truth, will insure to our descendants 
the peaceable enjoyment of that Charter to the 
maintenance of which you are about to swear, 
and with it the benefits of a government, at once 
firm and free." 

The Duke's answer to this address was to the 
following effect : — 

" By presenting this declaration to me, you 
have testified a confidence with which I am 
deeply affected. Attached, from conviction, to 
constitutional principles, I desire nothing so 
much as a good understanding between the two 
Chambers. I thank you for this assurance that 
I shall not be disappointed. You have imposed 
a great task upon me : I shall endeavour to 
prove myself worthy of it." 

On the following day, the 8th of August, the 
Duke de Chartres arrived in Paris, at the head 
of his regiment, the 1st Hussars. His father, 
and his younger brother, the Duke de Nemours, 
went out to meet him, surrounded by crowds of 
the working classes, in their holiday attire. 
The heat of the day was excessive ; and, as the 
progress of the cavalry was retarded by the state 
of the streets through which they had to pass, 
occasioned by the construction of the barricades, 
the Duke de Nemours was repeatedly heard to 
complain of excessive thirst. One of the work- 
men, engaged in replacing the stones which had 



PARIS IN 1830. 421 

contributed so essentially to the recent victory, 
presented the young Prince with a bottle of wine. 
The latter accepted it eagerly ; and, having 
quenched his thirst, offered the bottle to his 
father, who followed his example, and returned 
it to the worthy paviour, with all that bon-hom- 
mie and affability which agree so well with the 
character of the Duke of Orleans, and which 
have suggested his resembance to his popular an- 
cestor " le bon Henri IV." 

The portrait of Louis Philippe has been so 
admirably drawn by the original and inimitable 
pen of Paul Louis Courrier, that no apology will 
be expected for here introducing it. 

" I love the Duke of Orleans, because, al- 
though born a prince, he condescended to become 
an honest man. He never made any promise to 
me ; but had the occasion occurred, I would have 
trusted in him ; and the compact once made, I 
believe that he would have kept his word, with- 
out any mental reserve or deliberation, and with- 
out consulting with the Jesuits. My reason for 
thinking so is this : — he is of our own time ; he 
belongs to this century, and not to the last, hav- 
ing seen little of what we call the ancien regime. 
He has fought in our ranks, so that our Serjeants and 
corporals are not a bugbear to him. An emigrant 
without his own consent, he never fought against 
us, knowing too well what was due to his native 
soil, and that no one can be right with his coun- 



422 PARIS IN 1830. 

try against him. He knows that, and many other 
things which are not easily found out in the rank 
to which he belongs. It was his good fortune 
which decided that he should descend from that 
rank, and live like ourselves, in his youth. From 
a prince he became a man. In France he fought 
our common enemies ; out of France he laboured 
for his daily bread. Of him it cannot be said, 
" Rien oublie, ni rien appris" He instructed 
foreigners, instead of begging from them. He did 
not beseech a Pitt, nor supplicate a Cobourg to 
avenge the cause of aristocracy, by ravaging our 
fields, and burning- our villages. On his return 
he did not make it his business to found masses, 
and endow convents at our expense ; but, wise in 
his conduct, and respectable in his morals, he has 
given an example which preaches better than the 
missionaries. In a word, he is an honest man. 
I wish, for my part, that all princes were like him ; 
none of them would lose, and we should be 
gainers, by it. If he should ever govern, he will 
put many things in order, not merely by his good 
sense and prudence, but by another virtue which, 
although little celebrated, is not less valuable — I 
mean his economy — a homely, citizen-like quality, 
if you will, which the court abhors in a prince ; 
but which to us, who pay the taxes, is so valu- 
able, so admirable — shall I say so divine ? — that 
with it I should almost pardon him for every 
other want. 



PARIS IN 1830. 423 

" I speak of him as I now do, not because I 
know him better than you, nor perhaps so well, 
having never even seen him. I know only what 
is said of him ; but the public is not so stupid as 
to be unfit to form a correct opinion of princes, 
when they live in public. Neither is it because 
lam his partisan — having- never been of any party. 
I am no man's follower, not seeking- my fortune 
in revolutions and counter-revolutions, which 
some are so dexterous in turning- to their advan- 
tage. One of the people by birth, I remain 
among- them by choice ; and, were I called upon 
to choose, I would still be one of them — a pea- 
sant as I am." 



424 PARIS IN 1830. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 



The Duke of Orleans, as King elect of the French, takes the 
oath of fidelity to the new Constitution — Particulars of the 
solemnity — Speech of the new King — Concluding remarks, 
and Copy of the new Constitutional Charter. 



The 9th of August was the day appointed for 
completing- the great work of the revolution, by 
the oath of fidelity which the Monarch elect was 
then to take to the new constitution, in presence 
of the assembled Chambers. The scene of this 
solemnity, like that at the opening of the session, 
was the temporary structure prepared for the 
accommodation of the Deputies. At an early 
hour in the morning every avenue was crowded, 
and, as soon as the doors were opened, the public 
galleries were filled. The diplomatic tribune was 
chiefly occupied by ladies. The throne was the 
same which had been erected for the opening of 
the session ; but the fleur-de-lis had been removed 



PARIS IN 1830. 425 

from the drapery, and other decorations. Four 
large three-coloured flags were displayed on 
either side of the throne, and in front of it three 
tabourets were placed, one for the monarch elect, 
and the others for the Dukes de Chartres and de 
Nemours. Two seats, similar in form, and 
covered with red silk, were placed in the centre 
of the hall for the Presidents of the respective 
Chambers. The crown, the sceptre, the sword 
of state, and the other insignia of royalty, were 
brought in upon a rich cushion, and placed upon 
a table at the right of the throne, behind which 
stood four of the Marshals of France, the Dukes 
of Tarentum, Trevisa, and Reggio, and the Count 
Molitor. 

The gallery prepared for the reception of the 
royal family was opened at a quarter before two 
o'clock, when all eyes were turned towards it, 
to greet the entrance of her who was to enter 
Duchess of Orleans, and to go forth Queen of the 
French. The Princess was accompanied by Ma- 
demoiselle of Orleans, the sister of the Duke, 
and followed by the Princesses, and the Prince 
de Joinville, and the Duke de Montpensier. 

The number of peers present was sixty-seven, 
among whom were the Baron Pasquier, the pre- 
sident ; Messrs. de Richelieu, de Lanjuinais, de 
Montville, de Montalivet, d'Aligre, Chaptal, Du- 
breton, Dupuis, Bastard de l'Etang, Chateau- 
briand, de Valmy, de Vence, Barbe-Marbois, 



426 PARIS IN 1830. 

d'Osmond, de St. Aulaire, de la Ville Gontier, 
du Coudray, de Boissy, de Plaisance, Dejean, de 
Montmorency, de Montesquieu, de Matlian, de 
Choiseul, de Car am an, Mollien, d'Avaray, de 
Talleyrand, de Castries, Tascher-de-la-Pagerie, 
M. Matbieu, Klein, de Nicolai, Fruguet, Seguier, 
Delaplace, Clement de Ris, Dode de la Brunerie, 
de Cadore, de Praslin, de Montebello, Belliard, 
Simeon, de Louvois, de Montemart, Roy, Cla- 
parede, Portal, Portalis, d'Haussonville, &c. Of 
the deputies of the cote gauche there was a full 
attendance, but the only members of the cote 
droit who made their appearance on this occa- 
sion, were M. Berry er, fils, M. de Lardem- 
elle, M. de Murat, and M. Paul de Chateau- 
Double. 

At half past two o'clock, the Duke of Orleans 
entered the hall, dressed, as at the opening of the 
sessions, in the uniform of Lieutenant-General. 
He was followed by his two sons, the Duke de 
Chartres, in the uniform of the hussars of Char- 
tres, and the Duke de Nemours, in that of the 
chasseurs of Nemours. Attended by the two 
grand deputations, the Prince and his sons ap- 
proached the tabourets in front of the throne, 
amidst the exclamations, from all parts of the 
house, of " Vive le Due d' Orleans ! Vive le 
Prince Lieutenant-General ! Vive sa Famille." 
The Prince, having bowed repeatedly in acknow- 
ledgment of these salutations, sat down on the 



PARIS IN 1830. 427 

stool or tabouret prepared for him, and, having 
desired the members of both Chambers to be 
seated, he put on his hat, as on the former occa- 
sion, and directed the president of the Cham- 
ber of Deputies to read the declaration of the 
Chamber. 

M. Casimir Perier, who appeared at this sit- 
ting, for the first and only time before his resigna- 
tion of the office of president, then rose and read 
the declaration, or bill of rights, which had 
passed the Chamber on the previous Saturday. 
On concluding it, he ascended the steps of the 
platform on which the Prince was seated, placed 
the declaration in his Royal Highness's hands, and 
returned to his seat. The prince then directed 
the President of the Chamber of Peers to bring 
him the act which attested the concurrence of 
the Peers of France in the declaration of the 
Chamber of Deputies. This ceremony was per- 
formed by the Baron Pasquier, with the same 
forms which had been observed by M. Casimir 
Perier. The Prince Lieutenant-General then ad- 
dressed the two Chambers to the following effect : 

"Messieurs les Pairs et Messieurs les Deputes! 

" I have read with close attention the declara- 
tion of the Chamber of Deputies, and the act 
of concurrence by the Chamber of Peers. I have 
weighed and considered all their expressions. I 
accede, without restraint or reserve, to the 



428 PARTS IN 1830. 

clauses and engagements contained in the de- 
claration. I accept the title of King of the 
French, which it confers upon me ; and I am 
ready to make oath to its observance." 

This address was received with shouts of 
" Vive le Roi ! Vive Philippe L !" And the 
Duke, having raised his right hand, pronounced 
the following oath : 

" In the presence of God, I swear faithfully 
to observe the constitutional Charter, with the 
changes and modifications expressed in the de- 
claration of the Chamber of Deputies ; to govern 
by the laws alone, and according to the laws ; 
to cause due and exact justice to be administered 
to every one, according to his right ; and, in all 
things, to act with the sole view of promoting 
the happiness and glory of the French people." 

After pronouncing the words of the oath, the 
King proceeded to the table, and signed the de- 
claration, the act of concurrence, and the for- 
mula of the oath which he had just taken, amidst 
shouts of " Vive le Roi ! Vive la Reine ! Vive 
la Famille Roy ale ! " In the mean time, the 
stool on which he had sitten having been re- 
moved, he ascended the throne, and pronounced 
the following speech : 

" Messieurs les Pairs etMessieursles Deputes ! 

" I have maturely reflected on the important 

duties which are laid upon me ; I trust that I 



PARIS IN 1830. 429 

shall be able to discharge them, by observing the 
compact which has now been entered into. 

" I could have sincerely desired never to 
occupy the throne to which the will of the nation 
has now called me; but I yield to the wish 
expressed by the Chambers, in the name of the 
French people, for the maintenance of the charter 
and the laws. 

" The future happiness and security of France 
are guaranteed by the modifications which we 
have just made in the Charter. Prosperous at 
home, respected abroad, and at peace with 
Europe, the interests of the nation will be more 
and more consolidated." 



Thus the key-stone of the broken arch was 
replaced. Let us hope that the materials em- 
ployed in rebuilding the social fabric may prove 
sound and durable, and reciprocally well adapt- 
ed. It does not enter into the plan of the 
present volume to pursue the subject farther. 
Subjoined is a copy of the new constitutional 
Charter, extracted from the Bulletin des Lois ; 
and, in order to afford the means of comparing 
the new charter with its predecessor of 1814, the 
suppressed clauses, with notices of the other alte- 
rations, will be found in notes at the bottom of 
the pages. 



430 PARIS IN 1830. 

THE NEW CONSTITUTIONAL CHARTER. 

Louis Philip, King of the French. 

To all to whom these presents shall come, greeting ;* 
We have ordained, and do ordain, that the constitu- 
tional charter of 1814, as amended by the two Chambers 
on the 7th of August, and accepted by us on the 9th, 
shall be published anew, in the following terms : — 

PUBLIC RTGHTS OF THE FRENCH. 

Art 1. Frenchmen are eo^ial before the law T , whatever 
may be their titles or their rank. 

* The assertion of a paramount or constitutional power in 
the crown, originating in divine right, and in effect supersed- 
ing the will of the people as the source of the regal authority, 
made the preamble of the former charter particularly objection- 
able. It has accordingly been altogether suppressed. The 
following are the terms in which it was conceived : — 

" Louis, by the Grace of God, King of France, and 
Navarre ; 

a To all who shall see these presents, health ; 

" Divine Providence, by recalling us to our states after a 
long absence, has imposed on us great obligations. The first 
want of our people was peace ; with that subject we have 
been occupied without relaxation ; and the peace which was 
so necessary to France is now concluded. A constitutional 
Charter was required by the present state of the kingdom ; we 
have promised, and now publish it. We have considered, 
that although in France the whole power of the state resides 
in the person of the King, our predecessors have not hesitated 
to modify its exercise according to the difference of the periods; 
that, thus, the communes owed their emancipation to Louis-le- 
Gros; the confirmation, and extension of their rights to Saint 
Louis and Philippe-le-Bel ; that the judicial system was esta- 
blished and developed by the laws of Louis XI., Henry II., 
and Charles IX. ; and that Louis XIV. by various ordinances, 



PARTS IN 1830. 431 

2. They contribute indiscriminately, in proportion to 
their fortune, to the charges of the state. 



which have never been surpassed for wisdom, regulated almost 
all parts of the public administration. 

" We owe it to the example of the Kings our predecessors, to 
appreciate the constant progress of knowledge, the new rela- 
tions which that progress has introduced into society, the 
direction which the public mind has received within the last 
half century, and the serious alterations which have resulted 
from it. We are convinced, that the wish of our subjects for 
a constitutional Charter is the expression of a real want ; but, 
in yielding to this wish, we have taken care that the present 
Charter should be worthy of us, and of the people whom we 
are proud to govern. Wise men, selected from the first bodies 
of the state, have been joined to the commissioners of our 
council, to labour at this important work. 

u At the same time that we acknowledge that a free and 
monarchical constitution ought to fulfil the expectation of en- 
lightened Europe, we ought to remember, that our first duty 
towards our people, was to preserve, for their own interest, the 
rights and prerogatives of our crown. We have cherished 
the hope that, instructed by experience, they would be con- 
vinced that supreme authority alone can give to the insti- 
tutions which it establishes, the strength, the permanence, the 
majesty with which it is itself invested ; that thus, when the 
wisdom of kings is in concord with the wishes of their people, 
a constitutional charter may be of long duration; but that 
when concessions are exacted from the weakness of govern- 
ment, by deeds of violence, public liberty is not less in danger 
than the throne itself. We have sought for the principles of 
this constitutional charter in the French character, and in the 
venerable monuments of past ages. Thus, in the renewal of 
the peerage, we have had regard to a truly national institution, 
which, by uniting ancient with modern times, should unite the 
recollections with the hopes of the nation. 

" By means of the Chamber of Deputies, we have replaced 



432 PARIS IN 1830. 

3. They are all equally admissible to civil and military 
employments. 

4. Their individual liberty is alike guaranteed, no 
one being liable to be prosecuted or arrested, except in 
the cases provided, and in the form prescribed, by law. 

5. Every man professes his religion with equal 
liberty, and obtains for his worship the same protection 

6. * The ministers of the catholic, apostolic, and Ro- 

those ancient assemblies of the fields of March and May, and 
those Chambers of the third estate, which have so often afforded 
evidence of zeal for the interest of the people, of fidelity and 
respect for the authority of the King . By thus endeavouring 
to restore the continuity of the chain of time, which sad events 
have interrupted, we have effaced from our remembrance, as 
we could wish to be able to efface from the page of history, 
all the evils which, during our absence, have afflicted the 
country. Happy to find ourselves once more in the bosom of 
the great family, we have thought that we should best answer 
the affection of which we receive so many testimonies, by pro- 
nouncing the words of peace and consolation. The wish 
dearest to our heart is that Frenchmen should live as brothers, 
and that no bitter recollection should ever disturb the security 
which ought to follow the solemn act which we now grant to 
them. 

" Sure of our intentions, and strong in our conscience, we 
engage, before the assembly which now listens to us, to be 
faithful to this constitutional Charter, reserving to ourselves to 
swear to its maintenance with new solemnity, before the altars 
of Him who weighs kings and nations in the same balance. 

" For these reasons we have voluntarily, and in the free 
exercise of our royal authority, granted, and now grant, and 
make gift and concession of, to our subjects, for ourselves, and 
our successors for ever, the following Constitutional Charter." 



* This article is substituted for the two following in the 
original Charter : — 



PARIS IN 1830. 433 

man religion, professed by the majority of the French, 
and those of other forms of Christian worship, receive 
stipends from the public treasury. 

7. * Frenchmen have the right to publish and print 
their opinions, on conforming themselves to the laws. 
The censorship can never be re-established. 

8. All property is inviolable, without excepting that 
which is called national, the law making no difference in 
this respect. 

9. The state may require the sacrifice of property 
for the sake of the public interest legally proved, but 
with a previous indemnity. 

10. All inquisition respecting opinions expressed, and 
votes given, previously to the restoration, is interdicted. 
The same oblivion is enjoined to the tribunals, and to 
the citizens. 

11. The conscription is abolished. The mode of 
recruiting the land and sea forces is determined by law. 

FORMS OF THE KING^ GOVERNMENT. 

12. The King's person is inviolable and sacred. His 
Ministers are responsible. To the King alone belongs 
the executive power. 



" 6. However, the Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman religion, 
is the religion of the state. 

u 7. The ministers of the Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman 
religion, and those of other forms of Christian worship, alone 
receive stipends from the royal treasury." 



* The corresponding article of the original Charter, was in 
the following terms : 

" 8. Frenchmen have the right to publish and print their 
opinions, on conforming themselves to the laws, which ought to 
repress the abuses of this liberty." 

F F 



434 PARIS IN 1830. 

13.* The King is the supreme head of the state; 
he commands the forces by land and sea, declares war, 
makes treaties of peace, alliance, and commerce, appoints 
to all employments in the public administration, and makes 
the regulations and ordinances necessary for the execu- 
tion of the laws, without ever having the power either to 
suspend the laws themselves, or to dispense with their 
execution. No foreign troops, however, can be admitted 
into the service of the state but by virtue of a law. 

14.f The legislative power is exercised collectively by 
the King, the Chamber of Peers, and the Chamber of 
Deputies. 

15. J The proposition of laws belongs to the King, the 

* The following is the corresponding article in the original 
Charter : — 

" 14. The King is the supreme head of the state ; he com- 
mands the forces by land and sea ; makes treaties of peace, alli- 
ance, and commerce ; appoints to all employments in the public 
administration ; and makes the regulations and ordinances 
necessary for the execution of the laws and the safety of the 
state." 

It will be seen from the ministerial report, on which the 
ordinances of the 25th of July are professedly founded, that 
great reliance was placed on the words which are here sup- 
pressed, as authorizing the coup d'etat which produced the 
late revolution. 

f "15. The legislative power is exercised collectively by 
the King, the Chamber of Peers, and the Chamber of Deputies 
of departments. 

% The two following articles of the original Charter are 
those for which the 15th has been substituted : — 

" 16. The King proposes the law. 

" 17. The proposition of the law is carried, at the King's 
pleasure, to the Chamber of Peers, or to the Chamber of 
Deputies ; except the law of taxation, which must first be 
addressed to the Chamber of Deputies." 



PARIS IN 1830. 435 

Chamber of Peers, and the Chamber of Deputies. 
Nevertheless, every law of taxes must be first voted by 
the Chamber of Deputies. 

16. Every law must be freely discussed, and voted by 
the majority of each of the two Chambers. 

17. # If the proposition of a law has been rejected by 
one of the three powers, it cannot be brought forward 
again in the same session. 

18. The King alone sanctions and promulgates the 
laws. 

19. The civil list is fixed for the whole duration of 
the reign, by the first legislative assembly after the 
King's accession. 

OF THE CHAMBER OF PEERS. 

20. The Chamber of Peers is an essential portion of 
the legislative power. 

21. It is convoked by the King at the same time as 
the Chamber of Deputies. The session of the one com- 
mences and finishes at the same time as that of the 
other. 



* The three following clauses of the old Charter are those 
which have been replaced by the 17th of the new : 

"19. The Chambers have the faculty of petitioning the 
King to propose a law on any subject whatever, and of pointing 
out what, to them, it appears proper that the law should con- 
tain. 

" 20. This application may be made by each of the two 
Chambers, but after having been discussed in secret com- 
mittee. It shall not be sent to the other Chamber, by that 
which shall have proposed it, until after a delay of ten days. 

"21. If the proposition be adopted by the other Chamber, it 
shall be submitted to the King ; if it be rejected, it shall not 
be presented again during the same session." 

FF c 2 



436 PARIS IN 1830. 

22. * Every assembly of the Chamber of Peers, which 
shall be held at a period beyond that of the session of 
the Chamber of Deputies, is illegal, void, and of no 
effect ; except the single case in which it meets as a 
court of justice, and then it can only exercise judicial 
functions. 

23. The nomination of the Peers of France belongs to 
the King. Their number is unlimited. He can vary 
their dignities, create them for life, or render them here- 
ditary, according to his will. 

24. Peers are admissible to the Chamber at twenty- 
five years of age, but have a deliberative voice at thirty 
years only. 

25. The Chancellor of France is President of the 
Chamber of Peers, and, in his absence, a peer nominated 
by the King. 

26. -f- The Princes of the blood are peers in right of 
their birth ; they take their seats immediately after the 
President. 

27-j The sittings of the Chamber of Peers are pub- 
lic, like those of the Chamber of Deputies. 

* "26. (Corresponding to the 22nd.) Every meeting of the 
Chamber of Peers which shall be held at a period beyond that 
of the session of the Chamber of Deputies, or which shall not 
be ordained by the King, is illegal and void." 

f " 30. (Corresponding to the 26th.) The members of the 
royal family, and the princes of the blood, are peers by right 
of birth. They take their seats immediately after the presi- 
dent, but they have no deliberative voice until after their twenty- 
fifth year. 

"31. (Suppressed.) The Princes cannot take their seats 
in the Chamber but by order of the King, expressed each 
session by a message, under pain of the nullity of all which 
shall have been done in their presence." 

t " 32. (Substituted for the 27th.) All the deliberations of 
the Chamber of Peers shall be secret." 



PARIS IN 1830. 137 

28. * The Chamber of Peers takes cognizance of 
crimes against the safety of the state, and of crimes of 
high treason, which shall be defined by law. 

29- No Peer can be arrested but upon the authority 
of the Chamber, nor tried in criminal matters but by that 
Assembly. 

OF THE CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES. 

30. The Chamber of Deputies shall be composed of 
the Deputies elected by the Electoral College, the or- 
ganization of which shall be determined by law. 

31. -f* The Deputies are elected for five years. 

32. % No Deputy can be admitted into the Chamber if 
he be not thirty years of age, and if he do not possess 
the other qualifications prescribed bylaw. 

33. § Nevertheless, if there should not be in the de- 
partment fifty persons of the age specified, paying the 
amount of taxation for eligibility as fixed by law, their 
number shall be completed by those who pay the high- 
est amount of taxes, under the amount of the qualify- 



* " 33. (Answering to the 28th.) The Chamber of Peers 
takes cognizance of crimes of high treason, and attempts 
against the safety of the state, which shall be defined by law." 

-J- The two following articles, which had been previously 
repealed, are replaced by the 31st : 

" 36. Each department shall have the same number of 
Deputies which it has had till now. 

" 37. The Deputies shall be elected for five years, so as 
that the Chamber may be renewed each year by a fifth." 

X " 38. (Answering to the 32nd.) No Deputy can be ad- 
mitted into the Chamber if he be not forty years of age ; and 
if he do not pay direct taxes to the amount of a thousand francs." 

§ " 39. (Answering to the 33rd.) Nevertheless, if there 
should not be fifty persons in the department of the specified 
age, paying at least a thousand francs of direct taxes, their 
number shall be completed by those who pay the highest 



438 PARIS IN 1830. 

mg taxation, and these may be elected in concurrence 
with the former. 

34. * No man is an elector under twenty-five years of 
age, nor without the other qualifications prescribed by 
law. 

*35.f The Presidents of the Electoral Colleges are ap- 
pointed by the electors. 

36. The moiety, at least, of the Deputies, shall be 
chosen from among the persons eligible, who have their 
political residence in the department. 

37. t The President of the Chamber of Deputies is 
elected by the Chamber at the opening of each Session. 

38. The sittings of the Chamber are public ; but on 
the demand of five members, it resolves into a secret 
committee. 

39. The Chamber divides itself into bureau (divi- 
sions or committees) for the discussion of laws which 
have been presented to it on the part of the King. § 



amount of taxes under a thousand francs ; and these may be 
elected in concurrence with the former." 

* " 40. (Answering to the 34th.) The electors who con- 
cur in the nomination of Deputies can have no right of suf- 
frage if they do not pay direct taxes to the amount of three hun- 
dred francs, and if they be under thirty years of age." 

t "41. (Answering to the 35th.) The Presidents of the Elec- 
toral Colleges shall be named by the King, and shall have right 
as members of the College.'' 

t " 43. (Answering to the 37th.) The President of the 
Chamber of Deputies is named by the King from a list of five 
members presented by the Chamber." 

§ "46. (Suppressed.) No amendment of a law can be 
made if it has not been proposed or consented to by the King, 
and if it has not been discussed in committee." (This clause in 
the original Charter immediately followed that which is now 
the 39th.) 



PARIS IN 1830 . 439 

40. No tax can be established or collected if it has not 
been consented to by the two Chambers, and sanctioned 
by the King. 

41. The land tax is only agreed to for one year. 
The indirect taxes may be voted for several years. 

42. The King convokes the two Chambers every 
year. He prorogues them, and may dissolve that of the 
Deputies ; but in this case he must convoke a new one 
within the space of three months. 

43. No bodily constraint can be exercised against a 
member of the Chamber during the session, or within 
the six weeks which shall immediately precede or follow 
it. 

44. No member of the Chamber can, during the ses- 
sion, be prosecuted or arrested for criminal matters, ex- 
cept taken in the fact, until after the Chamber has 
authorized his prosecution. 

45. No petition can be made and presented to either 
of the Chambers but in writing. The law interdicts any 
petitions being carried in person to the bar. 

OF THE MINISTERS. 

46. Ministers may be members of the Chamber of 
Peers or of the Chamber of Deputies. They have, more- 
over, the right of entrance into either Chamber, and 
must be heard when they demand it. 

47. The Chamber of Deputies has the right to im- 
peach Ministers, and send them for trial before the 
Chamber of Peers, which alone has the right of judging 
them.* 

" 47. (Suppressed.) The Chamber of Deputies receives all 
propositions for taxes. It is only after these propositions have 
been admitted, that they can be carried to the Chamber of 
Peers. 

* " 56. (Suppressed.) They cannot be accused but for an 



440 PARIS IN 1830. 

OF THE JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 

48. All justice emanates from the King; it is admi- 
nistered in his name by Judges, whom he appoints and 
institutes. 

49. The Judges nominated by the King are appoint- 
ed for life. 

50. The ordinary courts and tribunals actually 
existing are maintained ; no charge shall be made there- 
in but in virtue of a law. 

51. The existing institution of Judges of Commerce 
is preserved. 

52. The office of justice of peace is likewise preserved. 
Justices of peace, although nominated by the King, are 
not necessarily appointed for life. 

53. No one can be deprived of his natural judges. 

54. # Consequently no extraordinary commissions and 
tribunals can be created under any title or denomina- 
tion whatsoever. 

55. The proceedings in criminal matters shall be pub- 
lic, unless this publicity be dangerous to good order and 
morality ; and in this case the tribunals shall so declare 
it by their judgment. 

56. The institution of juries is preserved. The 
changes which longer experience may show to be neces- 
sary, can only be effected by a law. 

57. The penalty of confiscation of goods is abolished, 
and cannot be re-established. 

58. The King has a right to grant pardon and to 
commute punishment. 

act of treason or exaction. The nature of these offences shall 
be specified by separate laws, which shall determine the form 
of prosecution." (This article follows the 47th.) 

* "63. (Answering to 54th.) Consequently no extraordi- 
nary commissions or tribunals can be created. The prevotal 
jurisdictions are not included under this denomination, if their 
re -establishment shall be judged necessary.'' 



PARIS IN 1830. 1M 

59. The civil code and the laws actually existing, 
which are not contrary to the present Charter, remain in 
force until they be legally repealed. 



SPECIAL RIGHTS GUARANTEED BY THE STATE, 

60. Military men in active service, officers, and pri- 
vates on the retired list, widows, pensioned officers, and 
privates, shall retain their rank, honours, and pensions. 

61. The public debt is guaranteed. Every kind of 
engagement entered into by the State, with its creditors, 
is inviolable. 

62. The ancient noblesse resume their titles, and the 
new retain theirs. The King creates nobles at pleasure ; 
but he only grants them rank and honour, without any 
exemption from the charges and duties of society. 

63. The Legion of Honour is maintained. The King 
shall determine the regulations and decorations. 

64.* The colonies are governed by special laws. 

65.\ The King and his successor shall swear, at their 
accession, in presence of the assembled Chambers, to ob- 
serve faithfully the constitutional Charter. 

66. The present Charter, and all the rights which it 
consecrates, remain entrusted to the patriotism and cou- 
rage of the National Guards, and all French citizens. 

ADDITIONAL ARTICLE. 

67. France resumes her colours. In future, no cock- 
ade shall be worn but the three-coloured. 



* u 73. (Answering to 64th.) The colonies shall be governed 
by special laws and regulations." 

■f- " 74 (Answering to 65th.) The King and his successors 
shall swear, at the solemnity of their coronation, to observe 
faithfully the present constitutional Charter." 



442 PARIS IN 1830. 



SPECIAL PROVISIONS. 

68. All the new nominations and creations of Peers 
made under the reign of Kins; Charles X. are declared 
null and void. The 23rd Article of the Charter shall 
be subjected to a new examination in the session of 
1831. 

69- Provision shall be made in succession, by distinct 
laws, and within the shortest period possible, for the fol- 
lowing objects : — 1st. The application of the jury to 
offences by the press, and political offences ; 2ndly, the 
responsibility of Ministers and other Government agents ; 
3rdly, re-election in place of such Deputies as are appointed 
to public offices, with salaries ; 4thly, the annual vote 
of the contingent of the Army ; 5thly, the organization 
of the National Guard, with the intervention of the 
members in the choice of their officers ; 6thly, provi- 
sions securing, in a legal manner, the situation of the 
officers of the land and sea forces of every rank ; Tthly, 
departmental and municipal institutions, founded upon 
an elective system ; 8thly, public education, and freedom 
of education ; 9thly, the abolition of the double vote, 
and the definition of the qualification to become Elec- 
tors and Deputies. 

70. All former laws and ordinances, so far as they 
are contrary to the provisions adopted for the reform of 
the Charter, are from henceforth, and remain, annulled 
and abrogated. 

We command our courts and tribunals, adminis- 
trative bodies, and all others, to keep and maintain the 
present constitutional Charter, and cause it to be kept, 
observed, and maintained ; and, in order that all persons 
may become acquainted with it, to cause it to be pub- 
lished in all the municipalities of the kingdom, and 
wherever need may be ; and, to the end that it may be 



PARIS IN 1830. 1 13 

a thing firm and stable for ever, we have hereunto affixed 
our seal. 

Given at the Palais Royal, at Paris, the fourteenth 
day of August, 1830. 

Louis Philippe. 

By the King : The Minister Secretary of State for 

the Department of the Interior — 

Guizot. 

Seen and sealed with the great seal : The Keeper of 
the Seals, Minister Secretary of State for the Depart- 
ment of Justice — 

Dupont (De L'IEure.) 



THE END. 



LONDON: 
IBOTSON AxND PALMER, PRINTERS, SAVOY STP.EET, STRAND. 



ERRATA. 

Page 10, line 13, for regiments, read legions. 

16, 3, from the bottom,ybr Ferronnez, read Ferronnays. 

33, 18 and 22, for pages, read sheets. 

50, 22, for Lapelanze, read Lapelouze. 

50, 28, for Jean, read Leon. 

57, 14, for of the laws, read or the laws. 



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