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Mrs. Harold L. Hunter 

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Mrya 5 ayi'f' I'lTTi, fieToj' 7cip ejjycv' vTrep ^acnXelas, imep e\ev6epias, vntp 
evpoias, inrip arapa^ias. ARRIANUS. 

A6yfi.a yap amSiv tIs /nexa/SaAAei ; X'^P'* ^^ SoyntxTccv ^cra^oATjs, Tt fiAAo 
?j SovAei'a aTivdvToiv /coi TreldeaOai irpo(nroiov^iviiiV ; ANTONINUS. 





LONDON : J;i^ f^ g v O- 


C^ »-i-3 ^'^ 



Alle Freiheits-Apostel, sie waren mir immer zuwider ; 

Willkiir suclite doch nur Jeder am Ende fiir sici:. 
Willst du Viele befrein, so wag' es Vielen zu dienen. 

Wie gefahrlich das sey, willst du es wissen? Versuch'sl 





Book I. Septeme::?.. 


The Improvised Commu> 







September in Paris 


A Trilogy 


The Circular 


September in Argonxe 


Exeunt . 



The Deliberative 


The Executive .... 




The Loser pays .... 


Stretching of Formul_\3 


At the Bar ..... 


The Three Votings 


Place de la Revolution 

Book III. The Girondins. 


Cause and Effect 




Growing shrill .... 


Fatherland in Danger . 


Sansculottism accoutred 


The Traitor .... 


In Fight . . . . . 


In Death-Grips . . . . 




Book IV. Terkor. 

I. Charlotte Cord ay 
II. In Civil Vv^ar 
















Retreat of the Eleven .... 




Sword of Sharpness 


Risen against Tyrants 




The Twenty-two 

Book V. Terror the Order of the Day. 


Rushing down 






Carmagnole complete . . . . . 


Like a Thunder-Cloud 


Do thy Duty 



Book VI. Thermidor. 

I. The Gods are athirst 
II. D ANTON, no Weakness 

III. The Tumbrils 


V. The Prisons . 
VI. To finish the Terror 


Book VII. Vendemiaire 

I. Decadent 
II. La Cabarus . 

III. Ouiberon 

IV. Lion not dead 
V. Lion sprawling its last 

VI. Grilled Herrings 
VII. The Whiff of Grapeshot 
VIII. Finis .... 

Chronological Summary 
Index . . . . 









Ye have roused her, then, ye Emigrants and Despots of the 
world ; France is roused ! Long have ye been lecturing and 
tutoring this poor Nation, like cruel uncalled-for pedagogues, 
shaking over her your ferulas of fire and steel : it is long that 
ye have pricked and filliped and affrighted her, there as she sat 
helpless in her dead cerements of a Constitution, you gathering 
in on her from all lands, with your armaments and plots, your 
invadings and truculent bullyings ; — and lo now, ye have pricked 
her to the quick, and she is up, and her blood is up. The dead 
cerements are rent into cobwebs, and she fronts you in that ter- 
rible strength of Nature, which no man has measured, which 
I goes down to Madness and Tophet : see now how ye will deal 
with her. 

This month of September 1792, which has become one of 
the memorable months of History, presents itself under twomosr 

VOL. in B 


diverse aspects ; all of black on the one side, all of bright on 
the other. Whatsoever is cruel in the panic frenzy of Twenty- 
five million men, whatsoever is great in the simultaneous death- 
defiance of Twenty-five million men, stand here in abrupt con- 
trast, near by one another. As indeed is usual when a man, 
how much more v.-hen a Na^tion of men, is hurled suddenly be- 
yond the limits. For Nature, as green as she looks, rests 
everywhere on dread foundations, were we farther down ; and 
Pan, to v/hose music the Nymphs dance, has a cry in him that 
can drive all men distracted. 

Very frightful it is Avhen a Nation, rending asunder its Con- 
stitutions and Regulations which were grown dead cerements 
for it, becomes :(/'anscendentcd ; and must now seek its wild way 
through the New, Chaotic, — where Force is not yet distin- 
guished into Bidden and Forbidden, but Crime and Virtue Avel- 
ter unseparated, — in that domain of what is called the Passions ; 
of what we call the Miracles and the Portents ! It is thus that, 
for some three years to come, we are to contemplate France, in 
this final Third Part of our History. Sansculottism reigning in 
all its grandeur and in all its hideousness : the Gospel (God's- 
message) of Man's Rights, Man's ot/^/z/j- or strengths, once more 
preached irrefragably abroad ; along with this, and still louder 
for the time, the fearfulest Devil's-Message of Man's weaknesses 
and sins ; — and all on such a scale, and under such aspect : 
cloudy ' death-birth of a world :' huge smoke-cloud, streaked 
with rays as of heaven on one side ; girt on the other as with 
hell-fire ! History tells us many things : but for the last thou- 
sand years and more, what thing has she told us of a sort like 
this? Which therefore let us two, O Reader, dwell on willingly, 
for a little ; and from its endless signiiicance endeavour to ex- 
tract what may, in present circumstances, be adapted for us. 

It is unfortunate, though very natural, that the history of this 
Period has so generally been written in hysterics. Exagger- 
ation abounds, execration, wailing ; and, on the whole, darkness. 
But thus too, when foul old Rome had to be swept from the 
Earth, and those Northmen, and other horrid sons of Nature, 
came in, 'swallowing formulas,' as the French now do, foul old 
Rome screamed execratively her loudest ; so that the true shape 
of many things is lost for us. Attila's Huns had arms of such 
length that they could lift a stone without stooping. Into the 
body of tlic poor Tatars cxccrativc Roman History intercalated 


Aug. -Sept. 

an alphabetic letter ; and so they continue Tartars, of fell Tar- 
tarean nature, to this day. Here, in like manner, search as we 
will in these multiform innumerable French Records, darkness 
too frequently covers, or sheer distraction bewilders. One finds 
it difficult to imagine that the Sun shone in this September 
month, as he does in others. Nevertheless it is an indisputable 
fact that the Sun did shine ; and there was weather and work, — 
nay as to that, very bad weather for harvest-work ! An unlucky 
Editor may do his utmost ; and after all require allowances. 

He had been a wise Frenchman, who, looking close at hand 
on this waste aspect of France all stirring and whirling, in ways 
new, untried, had been able to discern where the cardinal move- 
ment lay ; which tendency it was that had the rule and primary 
direction of it then ! But at forty -four years' distance, it is 
different. To all men now, two cardinal movements or grand 
tendencies, in the September whirl, have become discernible 
enough : that stormful effluence towards the Frontiers ; that 
frantic crowding towards Town-houses and Council-halls in the 
interior. Wild France dashes, in desperate death-defiance, to- 
wards the Frontiers, to defend itself from foreign Despots ; 
crowds towards Townhalls and Election Committee-rooms, to 
defend itself from domestic Aristocrats. Let the Reader con- 
ceive well these two cardinal movements ; and what side-cur- 
rents and endless vortexes might depend on these. He shall 
judge too, whether, in such sudden wreckage of all old Autho- 
rities, such a pair of cardinal movements, half-frantic in them- 
selves, could be of soft nature? As in dry Sahara, when the winds 
waken, and lift and winnow the immensity of sand ! The air 
itself (Travellers say) is a dim sand-air ; and dim looming 
through it, the wonderfulest uncertain colonnades of Sand-Pil- 
lars rush whirling from this side and from that, Hke so many 
mad Spinning-Dervishes, of a hundred feet in stature ; and dance 
their huge Desert-waltz there ! — 

Nevertheless, in all human movements, were they but a day 
old, there is order, or the beginning of order. Consider two 
things in this Sahara-waltz of the French Twenty-five millions ; 
or rather one thing, and one hope of a thing ; the ComDiime 
\ (Municipality) of Paris, which is already here; the National Con- 
j vention, which shall in a few weeks be here. The Insurrection- 
ary Commune, which, improvising itself on the eve of the Tenth 


of August, worked this ever-memorable Deliverance by explosion, 
must needs rule over it, — till the Convention meet. This Com- 
mune, which they may well call a spontaneous or ' improvised' 
Commune, is, for the present, sovereign of France. The Le- 
gislative, deriving its authority from the Old, how can it now 
have authority when the Old is exploded by insurrection ? As a 
floating piece of wreck, certain things, persons and interests may 
still cleave to it : volunteer defenders, riflemen or pikemen in 
green uniform, or red nightcap (of bonnet rouge), defile before 
it daily,' just on the wing towards Brunswick ; with the bran- 
dishing of arms; always with some touch of Leonidas-eloquence, 
often with a fire of daring that threatens to outherod Herod, — 
the Galleries, ' especially the Ladies, never done with applaud- 
ing. 'i Addresses of this or the like sort can be received and 
answered, in the hearing of all France ; the Salle de Manage 
is still useful as a place of proclamation. For which use, in- 
deed, it now chiefly serves. Vergniaud delivers spirit-stirring 
orations ; but always with a prophetic sense only, looking to- 
wards the coming Convention. " Let our memory perish," cries 
Vergniaud; "but let France be free!" — whereupon they all 
start to their fe'et, shouting responsive : " Yes, yes, perisse noire 
memoire, ponrvii qiie la France soit libre /"" Disfrocked Cha- 
bot adjures Heaven that at least we may " have done with 
Kings ;" and fast as powder under spark, we all blaze-up once 
more, and with waved hats shout and swear : " Yes, nous le 
jurons J plus de rois !"^ All which, as a method of proclama- 
tion, is very convenient. 

For the rest, that our busy Brissots, rigorous Rolands, men 
who once had authority, and now have less and less ; men who 
love law, and will have even an Explosion explode itself as far 
as possible according to rule, do find this state of matters most 
unofiicial-unsatisfactory, — is not to be denied. Complaints are 
made ; attempts are made : but without effect. The attempts 
even recoil ; and must be desisted from, for fear of worse : the 
sceptre has departed from this Legislative once and always. A 
poor Legislative, so hard was fate, had let itself be hand-g}'ved, 
nailed to the rock like an Andromeda, and could only wail there 
to the Earth and Heavens ; miraculously a winged Perseus (or 
Improvised Commune) has dawned out of the void Blue, and 
cut her loose : but whether now is it she, with her softness and 
* Moore's yournaJ, i. 85. - Hist. Pari, xvii, 467. •'' Ibid. xvii. 437. ', 


Aug. -Sept. 

musical speech, or is it he, with his hardness and sharp falchion 
and cegis, that shall have casting-vote ? Melodious agreement 
of vote; this were the rule ! But if otherwise, and votes diverge, 
then surely Andromeda's part is to weep, — if possible, tears of 
gratitude alone. 

Be content, O France, with this Improvised Commune, such 
as it is ! It has the implements, and has the hands : the time 
is not long. On Sunday the twenty-sixth of August, our Primary 
Assemblies shall meet, begin electing of Electors ; on Sunday 
the second of September (may the day prove lucky!) the Elec- 
tors shall begin electing Deputies ; and so an all-healing Na- 
tional Convention will come together. No marc d'arge?it, or dis- 
tinction of Active and Passive, now insults the French Patriot : 
but there is universal suffrage, unlimited liberty to choose. Old- 
Constituents, Present-Legislators, all France is eligible. Nay 
it may be said, the flower of all the Universe {de V Univers) 
is eligible ; for in these very days we, by act of Assembly, 
' naturalise' the chief Foreign Friends of Humanity : Priestley, 
burnt out for us in Birmingham ; Klopstock, a genius of all 
countries ; Jeremy Bentham, useful Jurisconsult ; distinguished 
Paine, the rebellious Needleman ; — some of whom may be 
chosen. As is most fit ; for a Convention of this kind. In a 
word, Seven-hundred and Forty-five unshackled sovereigns, ad- 
mired of the universe, shall replace this hapless impotency of a 
Legislative, — out of which, it is likely, the best Members, and 
the Mountain in mass, may be re-elected. Roland is getting 
ready the Salle des Cent Su/sses, as preliminary rendezvous for 
them ; in that void Palace of the Tuileries, now void and Na- 
tional, and not a Palace, but a Caravansera. 

As for the Spontaneous Commune, one may say that there 
never was on Earth a stranger Town-Council. Administration, 
not of a great City, but of a great Kingdom in a state of revolt 
and frenzy, this is the task that has fallen to it. Enrolling, pro- 
visioning, judging ; devising, deciding, doing, endeavouring to 
do : one wonders the human brain did not give way under all 
this, and reel. But happily human brains have such a talent of 
taking up simply what they can carry, and ignoring all the rest ; 
leaving aH the rest, as if it were not there ! Whereby somewhat 
is verily shifted for ; and much shifts for itself. This Impro- 
vised Commune walks along, nothing doubting ; promptly mak- 
ing front, without fear or flurry, at what moment soever, to the 

6 SEPTEMBER. book l 

wants of the moment. Were the world on fire, one improvised 
tricolor Municipal has but one life to lose. They are the elixir 
and chosen-men of Sansculottic Patriotism ; promoted to the 
forlorn-hope ; unspeakable victory or a high gallows, this is 
their meed. They sit there, in the Townhall, these astonishing 
tricolor Municipals ; in Council General ; in Committee of 
Watchfulness ide Surveillance, which will even become de Sahit 
Public, of Public Salvation), or what other Committees and Sub- 
committees are needful ; — managing infinite Correspondence ; 
passing infinite Decrees : one hears of a Decree being 'the 
ninety-eighth of the day.' Ready ! is the word. They carry 
loaded pistols in their pocket ; also some improvised luncheon 
by way of meal. Or indeed, by and by, traiteurs contract for 
the supply of repasts, to be eaten on the spot, — too lavishly, as 
it was afterwards grumbled. Thus they : girt in their tricolor 
sashes ; Municipal note-paper in the one hand, fire-arms in the 
other. They have their Agents out all over France ; speaking 
in townhouses, market-places, highways and byways ; agitating, 
urging to arm ; all hearts tingling to hear. Great is the fire of 
Anti-aristocrat eloquence : nay some, as Bibliopolic Momoro, 
seem to hint afar off at something which smells of Agrarian Law, 
and a surgery of the over-swoln dropsical strongbox itself ; — ■ 
whereat indeed the bold Bookseller runs risk of being hanged, 
and Ex-Constituent Buzot has to smuggle him off.'* 

Governing Persons, were they never so insignificant intrin- 
sically, have for most part plenty of Memoir-writers ; and the 
curious, in after-times, can learn minutely their goings out and 
comings in : which, as men always love to know their fellow- 
men in singular situations, is a comfort, of its kind. Not so with 
these Governing Persons, now in the Townhall ! And yet what 
most original fellow-man, of the Governing sort, high-chancel- 
lor, king, kaiser, secretary of the home or the foreign depart- 
ment, ever showed such a phasis as Clerk Tallien, Procureur 
Manuel, future Procureur Chaumette, here in this Sand-waltz of 
the Twenty-five millions now do ? O brother mortals, — thou 
Advocate Panis, friend of Danton, kinsman of Santerre ; En- 
graver Sergent, since called Agate Sergent ; thou Huguenin, 
with the tocsin in thy heart ! But, as Horace says, they wanted 
the saci-ed memoir-writer {sacro vale) ; and we know them not. 
Men bragged of August and its doings, publishing them in high 
* M^moires de Buzot (Paris, 1823), p. 88, 


Aug. -Sept. 

places ; but of this September none now or afterwards would 
brag. The September world remains dark, fuliginous, as Lap- 
land witch-midnight ; — from which, indeed, very strange shapes 
will evolve themselves. 

Understand this, however : that incorruptible Robespierre 
is not wanting, now when the brunt of battle is past ; in a 
stealthy way the seagreen man sits there, his feline eyes excel- 
lent in the twilight. Also understand this other, a single fact 
worth many : that Marat is not only there, but has a seat of 
honour assigned him, a tribtC7ie particuliere. How changed for 
Marat ; lifted from his dark cellar into this luminous ' peculiar 
tribune' ! All dogs have their day ; even rabid dogs. Sorrow- 
ful, incurable Philoctetes Marat ; without whom Troy cannot be 
taken ! Hither, as a main element of the Governing Power, has 
Marat been raised. Royalist types, for we have • suppressed* 
innumerable Durosoys, Royous, and even clapt them in prison, 
— Royalist types replace the worn types often snatched from a 
People's-Friend in old ill days. In our 'peculiar tribune' we write 
and redact : Placards, of clue monitoiy terror ; Aniis-dii-Peiiple 
(now under the name of Journal de la Republiqite) ; and sit 
obeyed of men. 'Marat,' says one,"' is the conscience of the 
H6tel-de-Ville.' Keeper, as some call it, of the Sovereign's Con- 
science ; which surely in such hands will not lie hid in a napkin I 

Two great movements, as we said, agitate this distracted 
National mind : a rushing against domestic Traitors, a rushing 
against foreign Despots. Mad movements both, restrainable by 
no known rule; strongest passions of human nature driving them 
on : love, hatred, vengeful sorrow, braggart Nationality also 
vengeful, — and pale Panic over all ! Twelve-hundred slain Pa- 
triots, do they not, from their dark catacombs there, in Death's 
dumb-show, plead (O ye Legislators) for vengeance ? Such was 
the destructive rage of these Aristocrats on the ever-memorable 
Tenth. Nay, apart from vengeance, and with an eye to Public 
Salvation only, are there not still, in this Paris (in round num- 
bers) ' Thirty - thousand Aristocrats,' of the most malignant 
humour ; driven now to their last trump-card ? — Be patient, ye 
Patriots : our new High Court, ' Tribunal of the Seventeenth,' 
sits ; each Section has sent Four Jurymen ; and Danton, extin- 
guishing improper judges, improper practices Vv^heresoever found, 
is ' the same man you have known at the Cordeliers.' With such 

8 SEPTEMBER. book I. 

a Minister of Justice, shall not Justice be done ? — Let it be swift, 
then, answers universal Patriotism ; swift and sure ! — 

One would hope, this Tribunal of the Seventeenth is swifter 
than most. Already on the 21st, while our Court is but four ■ 
clays old, Collenot d'Angremont, ' the Royalist enlister' (crimp, 
e/nbaucheur), dies by torchlight. For, lo, the great Guillotine, 
wondrous to behold, now stands there ; the Doctor's Idea has 
become Oak and Iron; the huge cyclopean axe 'falls in its 
grooves like the ram of the Pile-engine,' swiftly snuffing-out the 
light of men ! " Mais vous, Gtialches, what have you invented?" 
T/iis ? — Poor old Laporte, Intendant of the Civil List, follows 
next ; quietly, the mild old man. Then Durosoy, Royalist Pla- 
carder, ' cashier of all the Anti-revolutionists of the interior :' he 
Avent rejoicing ; said that a Royalist like him ought to die, of 
all days, on this day, the 25th or St. Louis's Day. All these 
have been tried, cast, — the Galleries shouting approval ; and 
handed over to the Realised Idea, within a week. Besides those 
whom we have acquitted, the Galleries murmuring, and have 
dismissed ; or even have personally guarded back to Prison, as 
the Galleries took to howling, and even to menacing and elbow- 
ing.5 Languid this Tribunal is not. 

Nor does the other movement slacken ; the rushing against 
foreign Despots, htrong forces shall meet in death-grip ; drilled 
Europe against mad undrilled France ; and singular conclusions 
will be tried. — Conceive therefore, in some faint degree, the 
tumult that whirls in this France, in this Paris ! Placards from 
Section, from Commune, from Legislative, from the individual 
Patriot, flame monitory on all walls. Flags of Danger to Father- 
land wave at the H6tel-de-Ville ; on the Pont-Neuf — over the 
prostrate Statues of Kings. There is universal enlisting, urging 
to enlist ; there is tearful-boastful leave-taking ; irregular march- 
ing on the Great Northeastern Road. Marseillese sing their 
wild To arms, in chorus ; which now all men, all women and 
children have learnt, and sing chorally, in Theatres, Boulevards, 
Streets; and the heart burns in every bosom: An.i- amies! 
JSIarciions ! — Or think how your Aristocrats are skulking into 
covert ; how Bcrtrand-Moleville lies hidden in some garret "in 
" Aubry-le-boucher Street, with a poor surgeon who had known 
" me." Dame de Stael has secreted her Narbonnc, not know- 
ing what in the world to make of him. The Barriers are some- 
6 Moore's Journal, i. 159-168, 


August 25th. 

times open, oftenest shut ; no passports to be had ; Townhall 
Emissaries, with the eyes and claws of falcons, flitting watchful 
on all points of your horizon ! In two words : Tribunal of the 
Seventeenth, busy under howling Galleries ; Prussian Bruns- 
wick, 'over a space of forty nriles,' with his war-tumbrils, and 
sleeping thunders, andBriarean 'sixty-six thousand'*^ right hands. 

-commg, commg 

O Heavens, in these latter days of August, he is come I 
Durosoy was not yet guillotined when news had come that the 
Prussians were harrying and ravaging about Metz ; in some four 
days more, one hears that Longwi, our first strong-place on the 
borders, is fallen 'in fifteen hours.' Quick therefore, O ye im- 
provised Municipals ; quick, and ever quicker ! — The impro- 
vised Municipals make front to this also. Enrolment urges itself; 
and clothing, and arming. Our very officers have now ' wool 
epaulettes ;' for it is the reign of Equality, and also of Necessity. 
Neither do men now monsieur and sir one another ; citoyen 
(citizen) were suitabler ; we even say tlioti, as ' the free peoples 
of Antiquity did :' so have Journals and the Improvised Com- 
mune suggested ; which shall be well. 

Infinitely better, meantime, could we suggest, where arms 
are to be found. For the presenf, our Citoyens chant chorally 
To arms J and have no arms ! Ai-ms are searched for ; passion- 
ately ; there is joy over any musket. Moreover, entrenchments 
shall be made round Paris : on the slopes of Montmartre men 
dig and shovel ; though even the simple suspect this to be des- 
perate. They dig ; Tricolor sashes speak encouragement and 
well-specd-ye. Nay finally ' twelve Members of the Legislative 
go daily,' not to encourage only, but to bear a hand, and delve : 
it was decreed with acclamation. Arms shall either be provided ; 
or else the ingenuity of man crack itself, and become fatuity. 
Lean Beaumarchais, thinking to serve the Fatherland, and do 
a stroke of trade in the old way, has commissioned sixty-thou- 
sand stand of good arms out of Holland : would to Heaven, for 
Fatherland's sake and his, they were come ! Meanwhile railings 
are torn up ; hammered into pikes ; chains themselves shall be 
welded together into pikes. The very coffins of the dead are 
raised ; for melting into balls. All Church-bells must down into 
the furnace to make cannon ; all Church-plate into the mint to 
make money. Also, behold the fair sv.'an-bevies of Citoyennes 
* See Toulongeon, Hist, de France, ii. c. 5, 

lo SEPTEMBER. book i. 


that have alighted in Churches, and sit there with swan-neck, 
• — sewing tents and regimentals ! Nor are Patriotic Gifts want- 
ing, from those that have aught left ; nor stingily given : the 
fair Villaumes, mother and daughter, Milliners in the Rue St.- 
Martin, give a ' silver thimble, and a coin of fifteen j^z^j (seven- 
pence halfpenny),' with other similar effects; and offer, at least 
the mother does, to mount guard. Men who have not even a 
thimble, give a thimbleful, — were it but of invention. One 
Citoyen has wrought out the scheme of a wooden cannon ; which 
France shall exclusively profit by, in the first instance. It is to 
be made oi staves, by the coopers ; — of almost boundless calibre, 
but uncertain as to strength ! Thus they : hammering, scheming, 
stitching, founding, with all their heart and with all their soul. 
Two bells only are to remain in each Parish, — for tocsin and 
other purposes. 

But mark also, precisely while the Prussian batteries were 
playing their briskest at Longwi in the Northeast, and our das- 
tardly Lavergne saw nothing for it but surrender, — southwest- 
ward, in remote, patriarchal La Vendde, that sour ferment about 
Nonjuring Priests, after long working, is ripe, and explodes : at 
the wrong moment for us ! And so we have ' eight-thousand 
Peasants at Chatillon-sur-Sevre' who will not be balloted for 
soldiers ; will not have their Curates molested. To whom Bon- 
champs, Larochejac|uelins, and Seigneurs enough of a Royalist 
turn, will join themselves ; with Stoffiets and Charettes ; with 
Heroes and Chouan Smugglers ; and the loyal warmth of a 
simple people, blown into flame and fury by theological and 
seignorial bellows ! So that there shall be fighting from behind 
ditches, death-volleys bursting out of thickets and ravines of 
rivers ; huts burning, feet of the pitiful women hurrying to refuge 
with their children on their back ; seed-fields fallow, whitened 
with human bones ; — ' eighty-thousand, of all ages, ranks, sexes, 
flying at once across the Loire,' with wail borne far on the winds : 
and in brief, for years coming, such a suite of scenes as glorious 
war has not offered in these late ages, not since our Albigenses 
and Crusadings were over, — save indeed some chance Palatinate, 
or so, we might have to ' burn,' by way of exception. The 'eight- 
thousand at Chatillon' will be got dispelled for the moment ; the 
fire scattered, not extinguished. To the dints and bruises of 
outward battle there is to be added henceforth a deadlier in- 
ternal gangrene. 


August 29th. 

This rising in La Vendee reports itself at Paris on Wed- 
nesday the 29th of August ; — just as we had got our Electors 
elected ; and, in spite of Brunswick and Longwi, were hoping 
still to have a National Convention, if it pleased Heaven. But 
indeed otherwise this Wednesday is to be regarded as one of 
the notablest Paris had yet seen : gloomy tidings come succes- 
sively, like Job's messengers ; are met by gloomy answers. Of 
Sardinia rising to invade the Southeast, and Spain threatening 
the South, we do not speak. But are not the Prussians masters 
of Longwi (treacherously yielded, one would say) ; and prepar- 
ing to besiege Verdun ? Clairfait and his Austrians are encom- 
passing Thionville ; darkening the North. Not Metzland now, 
but the Clermontais is getting harried ; flying hulans and hus- 
sars have been seen on the Chalons road, almost as far as Sainte- 
Menehould. Heart, ye Patriots ; if ye lose heart, ye lose all ! 

It is not without a dramatic emotion that one reads in the 
Parliamentaiy Debates of this Wednesday evening ' past seven 
o'clock,' the scene with the military fugitives from Longwi. Way- 
worn, dusty, disheartened, these poor men enter the Legislative, 
about sunset or after ; give the most pathetic detail of the fright- 
ful pass they were in : Prussians billowing round by the myriad, 
volcanically spouting fire for fifteen hours : we, scattered sparse 
on the ramparts, hardly a cannoneer to two guns ; our dastard 
Commandanl Lavergne nowhere showing face ; the priming 
would not catch ; there was no povv'der in the bombs, — ^what 
could we do ? '' Moiirir, Die !" answer prompt voices ;7 and the 
dusty fugitives must shrink elsewhither for comfort. — Yes, Mou- 
rir, that is now the word. Be Longwi a proverb and a hissing 
among French strong-places : let it (says the Legislative) be 
obliterated rather, from the shamed face of the Earth ; — and so 
there has gone forth Decree, that Longwi shall, were the Prus- 
sians once out of it, 'be rased,' and exist only as ploughed 

Nor are the Jacobins milder; as how could they, the flower of 
Patriotism? Poor Dame Lavergne, wife of the poor Commandant, 
took her parasol one evening, and escorted by her Father came 
over to the Hall of the mighty Mother ; and ' reads a memoir 
tending to justify the Commandant of Longwi.' Lafarge, Pri- 
sident, makes answer; " Citoyenne, the Nation will judge La- 
•' vergne ; the Jacobins are bound to tell him the truth. He 
' ' Hist. Pari. xvii. 148. 

12 SEPTEMBER. book I. 

" would have ended his course there [tennine sa carrierc), if he 
" had loved the honour of his country.''^ 


But better than rasing of Longwi, or rebuking poor dusty 
soldiers or soldiers' wives, Uanton had come over, last night, 
and demanded a Decree to search for arms, since they were not 
yielded voluntarily. Let 'Domiciliary visits,' with rigour of 
authority, be made to this end. To search for arms ; for horses, 
— Aristocratism rolls in its carriage, while Patriotism cannot 
trail its cannon. To search generally for munitions of war, ' in 
the houses of persons suspect,' — and even, if it seem proper, to 
seize and imprison the suspect persons themselves ! In the Pri- 
sons their Plots will be harmless ; in the Prisons they will be 
as hostages for us, and not without use. This Decree the ener- 
getic Minister of Justice demanded last night, and got ; and this 
same night it is to be executed ; it is being executed at the mo- 
ment when these dusty soldiers get saluted with Alotirir. Two- 
thousand stand of arms, as they count, are foraged in this way ; 
and some four-hundred head of new Prisoners ; and, on the 
whole, such a terror and damp is struck through the Aristo- 
crat heart, as all but Patriotism, and even Patriotism were it out 
of this agony, might pity. Yes, Messieurs ! if Brunswick blast 
Paris to ashes, he probably will blast the Prisons of Paris too : 
pale Terror, if we have got it, we will also give it, and the depth 
of horrors that lie in it ; the same leaky bottom, in these wild 
waters, bears us all. 

One can judge what stir there was now among the ' thirty- 
thousand Royalists :' hov/ the Plotters, or the accused of Plotting, 
shrank each closer into his lurking-place, — like Bertrand-Mole- 
ville, looking eager towards Longwi, hoping the weather would 
keep fair. Or how they dressed themselves in valet's clothes, 
like Narbonne, and 'got to England as Dr. Bollman's famulus:' 
how Dame de Stacl bestirred herself, pleading with Manuel 
as a Sister in Literature, pleading even with Clerk Tallien ; a 
prey to nameless chagrins \^ Royalist Peltier, the Pamphleteer, 

8 Hist. Pari. xi.x. 300. 

^ De Stael, Considh\itions siir la liiivt'lution, ii. 67-81. 


August 29th. 

gives a touching Narrative (not deficient in height of colouring) 
of the terrors of that night. From five in the afternoon, a great 
city is struck suddenly silent ; except for the beating of drums, 
for the tramp of marching feet ; and ever and anon the dread 
thunder of the knocker at some door, a Tricolor Commissioner 
yith his blue Guards (d/ack-guRvds !) arriving. All Streets are 
vacant, says Peltier; beset by Guards at each end: all Citizens 
are ordered to be within doors. On the River float sentinel 
barges, lest we escape by water : the Barriei's hermetically closed. 
Frightful ! The Sun shines ; serenely westering, in smokeless 
mackerel-sky; Paris is as if sleeping, as if dead: — Paris is hold- 
ing its breath, to see what stroke will fall on it. Poor Peltier! 
Acfs of Apostles, and all jocundity of Leading-Articles, are gone 
out, and it is become bitter earnest instead ; polished satire 
changed now into coarse pike-points (hammered out of railing) ; 
all logic reduced to this one primitive thesis. An eye for an eye, 
a tooth for a tooth ! — Peltier, dolefully aware of it, clucks low ; 
escapes unscathed to England ; to urge there the inky war 
anew ; — to have Trial by Jury, in due season, and deliverance 
by young Whig eloquence, world-celebrated for a day. 

Of ' thirty-thousand' naturally great multitudes were left un- 
molested : but, as we said, some four-hundred, designated as 
'persons suspect,' were seized ; and an unspeakable terror fell 
on all. Wo to him who is guilty of plotting, of Anti-civism, 
Royalism, Feuillantism ; who, guilty or not guilty, has a,n 
enemy in his Section to call him guilty ! Poor old M. de Ca- 
zotte is seized ; his young loved Daughter with him, refusing to 
quit him. Why, O Cazotte, wouldst thou quit romancing and 
Diable Aniotirenx, for such reality as this ? Poor old M. de 
Sombreuil, he of the Invalides, is seized ; a man seen askance 
by Patriotism ever since the Bastille days ; whom also a fond 
Daughter will not quit. With young tears hardly suppressed, 
and old wavering weakness rousing itself once more, — O my 
brothers, O my sisters ! 

The famed and named go ; the nameless, if they have an 
accuser. Necklace Lamotte's Husband is in these Prisons {she 
long since squelched on the London Pavements) ; but gets de- 
livered. Gross de Morande, of the Courricr de VEtirope, hobbles 
distractedly to and fro there : but they let him hobble out ; on 
right nimble crutches ; — his hour not being yet come. Advocate 
Maton de la Varenne, very weak in health, is snatched off from 


mother and kin ; Tricolor Rossignol (journeyman goldsmith and 
scoundrel lately, a risen man now) remembers an old Pleading 
of Maton's ! Jourgniac de Saint-M^ard goes ; the brisk frank 
soldier : he was in the mutiny of Nanci, in that ' effervescent 
Regiment du Roi,' — on the wrong side. Saddest of all : Abbd 
Sicard goes ; a Priest who could not take the Oath, but who 
could teach the Deaf and Dumb : in his Section one man, he 
s,ays, had a grudge at him ; one man, at the fit hour, launches 
an arrest against him ; which hits. In the Arsenal quarter, there 
are dumb hearts making wail, with signs, with wild gestures ; 
he their miraculous healer and speech-bringer is rapt away. 

What with the arrestments on this night of the Twenty- 
ninth, what with those that have gone on more or less, day and 
night, ever since the Tenth, one may fancy what the Prisons 
now were. Crowding and confusion ; jostle, hurry, vehemence 
and terror ! Of the poor Queen's Friends, who had followed 
her to the Temple, and been committed elsewhither to Prison, 
some, as Governess de Tourzelle, are to be let go : one, the pooi 
Princess de Lamballe, is not let go ; but waits in the strong- 
rooms of La Force there, what will betide farther. 

Among so many hundreds whom the launched arrest hits, 
who are rolled off to Townhall or Sectionhall, to preliminary 
Houses of Detention, and hurled in thither as into cattle-pens, 
we must mention one other : Caron de Beaumarchais, Author 
of Figaro J vanquisher of Maupeou Parlements and Goezman 
helldogs ; once numbered among the demigods ; and now — ? 
We left him in his culminant state ; what dreadful decline is 
this, when we again catch a glimpse of him! 'At midnight' (it 
was but the 12th of August yet), 'the servant, in his shirt,' with 
wide-staring eyes, enters your room :— Monsieur, rise, all the 
people are come to seek you ; they are knocking, like to break- 
in the door ! ' And they were in fact knocking in a terrible 
' manner {(V line fa^oii terrible). I fling on my coat, forgetting 
' even the waistcoat, nothing on my feet but slippers ; and say 
' to him' — And he, alas, answers mere negatory incoherences, 
panic interjections. And through the shutters and crevices, in 
front or rearward, the dull street-lamps disclose only streetfuls 
of haggard countenances; clamorous, bristling with pikes: and 
you rush distracted for an outlet, finding none ; — and have to 
take refuge in the crockery-press, down stairs ; and stand there, 

CHAP. ir. DANTON. 55 

August 29th. 

palpitating in that imperfect costume, lights dancing past your 
key-hole, tramp of feet overhead, and the tumult of Satan, ' for 
four hours and more' ! And old ladies, of the quarter, started 
up (as we hear next morning) ; rang for their bomies and cordial- 
drops, with shrill interjections : and old gentlemen, in their 
shirts, ' leapt garden-walls ;' flying while none pursued ; one of 
whom unfortunately broke his leg." Those sixty-thousand stand 
of Dutch Arms (which never arrive), and the bold stroke of 
trade, have turned out so ill ! — 

Beaumarchais escaped for this time ; but not for the next 
time, ten days after. On the evening of the Twenty-ninth he 
is still in that chaos of the Prisons, in saddest wrestling con- 
dition ; unable to get justice, even to get audience ; ' Panis 
scratching his head' when you speak to him, and making off. 
Nevertheless let the lover of Figaro know thatProcureur Manuel, 
a Brother in Literature, found him, and delivered him once 
more. But how the lean demigod, now shorn of his splendour, 
had to lurk in barns, to roam over harrowed fields, panting for 
life ; and to wait under eavesdrops, and sit in darkness ' on the 
Boulevarde amid paving-stones and boulders,' longing for one 
word of any Ministei', or Minister's Clerk, about those accursed 
Dutch muskets, and getting none, — with heart fuming in spleen, 
and terror, and suppressed canine-madness ; alas, how the swift 
sharp hound, once fit to be Diana's, breaks his old teeth now, 
gnawing mere whinstones ; and must ' fly to England ;' and, 
returning from England, must creep into the corner, and lie 
quiet, toothless (moneyless), — all this let the lover of Figaro 
fancy, and weep for. We here, without weeping, not without 
sadness, wave the withered tough fellow-mortal our farewell. 
His Figaro has returned to the French stage ; nay is, at this 
day, som.etimes named the best piece there. And indeed, so 
long as Man's Life can ground itself only on artificiality and 
aridity ; each new Revolt and Change of Dynasty turning up 
only a new stratum of dry-riibbish, and no soil yet coming to 
viev/, — may it not be good to protest against such a Life, in 
many ways, and even in the Figaro way ? 

2 Beaumarchais' Narrative, Mimoires stir les Prisons (Paris, 1823), j, 

l6 SEPTEMBER. book !, 




Such are the last days of August 1792 ; days gloomy, dis- 
astrous and of evil omen. What will become of this poor 
France ? Dumouriez rode from the Camp of Maulde, eastward 
to Sedan, on Tuesday last, the 28th of the month; reviewed 
that so-called Army left forlorn there by Lafayette : the forlorn 
soldiers gloomed on him ; were heard growling on him, " This 
is one of them, ce b — e lc\, that made War be declared. "i Un- 
promising Army ! Recruits flow in, filtering through Ddpot after 
Ddpot ; but recruits merely : in want of all ; happy if they have 
so much as arms. And Longwi has fallen basely ; and Bruns- 
wick, and the Prussian King, with his sixty-thousand, will be- 
leaguer Verdun ; and Clairfait and Austrians press deeper in, 
over the Northern marches : ' a hundred and fifty thousand' as 
fear counts, ' eighty-thousand' as the returns show, do hem us 
in ; Cimmerian Europe behind them. There is Castries-and- 
Broglie chivalry ; Royalist foot ' in red facing and nankeen 
trousers ;' breathing death and the gallows. 

And lo, finally, at Verdun on Sunday the 2d of September 
1792, Brunswick is here. With his King and sixty-thousand, 
glittering over the heights, from beyond the winding Meuse 
River, he looks down on us, on our ' high citadel' and all our 
confectionery ovens (for we are celebrated for confectionery); 
has sent courteous summons, in order to spare the effusion of 
blood ! — Resist him to the death ? Every day of retardation 
precious? How, O General Beaurepaire (asks the amazed Muni- 
cipaHty), shall we resist him ? We, the Verdun Municipals, see 
no resistance possible. Has he not sixty-thousand, and artillery 
without end ? Retardation, Patriotism is good ; but so likewise 
is peaceable baking of pastry, and sleeping in whole skin. — 
Plapless Beaurepaire stretches out his hands, and pleads passion- 
ately, in the name of country, honour, of Heaven and of Earth : 
to no purpose. The Municipals have, by law, the power of 
ordering it ; — with an Army officered by Royalism or Crypto- 
Royalism, such a Law seemed needful : and they order it, as 
pacific Pastry-cooks, not as heroic Patriots would, — To sur- 
render ! Beaurepaire strides home, with long steps : his valet, 

1 Dumouriez, Mdmoires, ii. 383. 


September 2d. 

entering the room, sees liim 'writing eagei'ly,' and withdraws. 
His valet hears then, in few minutes, the report of a pistol : 
Beaurepaire is lying dead ; his eager writing had been a brief 
suicidal farewell. In this manner died Beaurepaire, wept of 
France ; buried in the Pantheon, with honourable Pension to 
his Widow, and for Epitaph these words, He chose Death rather 
than yield to Despots. The Prussians, descending from the 
heights, are peaceable masters of Verdun. 

And so Brunswick advances, from stage to stage : who shall 
now stay him, — covering forty miles of country ? Foragers fly 
far ; the villages of the Northeast are harried ; your Hessian 
forager has only ' three sous a-day :' the very Emigrants, it is 
said, will take silver-plate, — by way of revenge. Clermont, 
Sainte-Menehould, Varennes especially, ye Towns of the Night 
of Spurs, tremble ye ! Procureur Sausse and the Magistracy 
of Varennes have fled ; brave Boniface Le Blanc of the Bi'cis 
d'Or is to the woods : Mrs. Le Blanc, a young woman fair to 
look upon, with her young infant, has to live in greenwood, like 
a beautiful Bessy Bell of Song, her bower thatched with i-ushes; 
catching premature rheumatism.^ Clermont may ring the tocsin 
now, and illuminate itself ! Clermont lies at the foot of its Cotv 
(or Vache, so they name that Mountain), a prey to the Hessian 
spoiler : its fair women, fairer than most, are robbed ; not of 
life, or what is dearer, yet of all that is cheaper and portable ; 
for Necessity, on three half-pence a-day, has no law. At Sainte- 
Menehould the enemy has been expected more than once, — our 
Nationals all turning out in arms ; but was not yet seen. Post- 
master Drouet, he is not in the woods, but minding his Elec- 
tion ; and will sit in the Convention, notable King-taker, and 
bold Old-Dragoon as he is. 

Thus on the Northeast all roams and runs ; and on a set 
day, the date of v/hich is irrecoverable by History, Brunswick 
'has engaged to dine in Paris,' — the Powers willing. And at 
Paris, in the centre, it is as we saw ; and in La Vendue South- 
west, it is as we saw ; and Sardinia is in the Southeast, and 
Spain in the South, and Clairfait with Austria and sieged Thion- 
ille is in the North ; — and all France leaps distracted, like the 
innowed Sahara waltzing in sand colonnades ! More desperate 
[osture no country ever stood in. A country, one would say, 
hich the Majesty of Prussia (if it so pleased him) might par- 
2 Helen Maria Williams, Letters from France (London, 1791-93), iii. 96. 



tition and clip in pieces, like a Poland ; flinging the remainder 
to poor Brother Louis, — \yith directions to keep it quiet, or else 
ife will keep it for him ! 

Or perhaps the Upper Powers, minded that a new Chapter 
in Universal History shall begin here and not farther on, may 
have ordered it all otherwise ? In that case, Brunswick will not 
dine in Paris on the set day ; nor, indeed, one knows not when ! 
— Verily, amid this wreckage, where poor France seems grind- 
ing itself down to dust and bottomless ruin, who knows what 
miraculous salient-point of Deliverance and New-life may have 
already come into existence there ; and be already working 
there, though as yet human eye discern it not ! On the night 
of that same twenty-eighth of August, the unpromising Review- 
day in Sedan, Dumouriez assembles a Council of War at his 
lodgings there. He spreads out the map of this forlorn war- 
district ; Prussians here, Austrians there ; triumphant both, with 
broad highway, and little hinderance, all the way to Paris : we 
scattered, helpless, here and here : what to advise ? The Gene- 
rals, strangers to Dumouriez, look blank enough ; know not 
well v/hat to advise, — if it be not retreating, and retreating till 
our recruits accumulate ; till perhaps the chapter of chances 
turn up some leaf for us ; or Paris, at all events, be sacked at 
the latest day possible. The Many-counselled, who ' has not 
closed an eye for thi-ee nights,' listens with httle speech to these 
long cheerless speeches ; merely watching the speaker, that he 
may know him ; then wishes them all good-night ; — but beckons 
a certain young Thouvenot, the fire of whose looks had pleased 
him, to wait a moment. Thouvenot waits : Voi/d, says Poly- 
metis, pointing to the map ! That is the Forest of Argonne, 
that long strip of rocky Mountain and wild Wood ; forty miles 
long ; with but five, or say even three practicable Passes through 
it : this, for they have forgotten it, might one not still seize, 
though Clairfait sits so nigh ? Once seized ; — the Champagne 
called the Hungry (or worse, Campagne Pouilleuse) on their side 
of it ; the fat Three Bishopricks, and willing France on ours ; 
and the Equinox rains not far : — this Argonne "might be the 
Thermopylae of France !"3 

O brisk Dumouriez Polymetis with thy teeming head, may 
the gods grant it ! — Polymetis, at any rate, folds his map to- 
gether, and flings himself on bed ; resolved to tiy, on the 
s Dumouriez, ii, 391, l 


September 2d. 

morrow morning. With astucity, with swiftness, with audacity ! 

One had need to be a hon-fox, and have kick on one's side. 



At Paris, by lying Rumour which proved prophetic and 
veridical, the fall of Verdun was known some hours before it 
happened. It is Sunday the second of September ; handiwork 
hinders not the speculations of the mind. Verdun gone (though 
some still deny it); the Prussians in full march, with gallows- 
ropes, with fire and faggot ! Thirty-thousand Aristocrats within 
our own walls ; and but the merest quarter-tithe of them yet put 
in Prison ! Nay there goes a word that even these will revolt. 
Sieur Jean Julien, wagoner of Vaugirard.i being set in the Pilloiy 
last Friday, took all at once to crying. That he would be well 
revenged ere long ; that the King's Friends in Prison would 
burst out, force the Temple, set the King on horseback, and, 
joined by the unimprisoned, ride roughshod over us all. This 
the unfortunate wagoner of Vaugirard did bawl, at the top of his 
lungs : when snatched off to the Townhall, he persisted in it, 
still bawling ; yesternight, when they guillotined him, he died 
with the froth of it on his lips. 2 For a man's mind, padlocked 
to the Pillory, may go mad ; and all men's minds may go mad, 
and 'believe him,' as the frenetic v/ill do, 'because it is impos- 

So that apparently the knot of the crisis and last agony of 
France is come ? Make front to this, thou Improvised Com- 
mune, strong Danton, whatsoever man is strong ! Rea,ders can 
judge whether the Flag of Country in Danger flapped soothingly 
or distractively on the souls of men that day. 

But the Improvised Commune, but strong Danton is not 
wanting, each after his kind. Huge Placards are getting plas- 
tered to the walls ; at two o'clock the stormbell shall be sounded, 
fhe alarm-cannon fired ; all Paris shall msh to the Champ-de- 
Mars, and have itself enrolled. Unarmed, truly, and undrilled ; 
p\x\. desperate, in the strength of frenzy. Haste, ye men ; ye 
yery women, off"er to mount guard and shoulder the brown mus- 
ket : weak clucking-hens, in a state of desperation, will fly at 
1 Moore, i. 178. 3 jjist. Pari, xvii. 409. 

20 SEPTEMBER. book I. 


the muzzle of the mastift' ; and even conquer him, — by vehem- 
ence of character ! Terror itself, when once grown tijanscend- 
ental, becomes a kind of courage ; as frost sufficiently intense, 
according to Poet Milton, will burn. — Danton, the other night, 
in the Legislative Committee of General Defence, when the 
other Ministers and Legislators had all opined, said. It would 
not do to quit Paris, and fly to Saumur ; that they must abide 
by Paris ; and take such attitude as would put their enemies in 
{tTiXy—fairepeurj a word of his which has been often repeated, 
and reprinted — in italics. ^ 

At two of the clock, Beaurepaire, as we saw, has shot him- 
self at Verdun ; and, over Europe, mortals are going in for 
afternoon sermon. But at Paris, all steeples are clangouring 
not for sermon ; the alarm-gun booming from minute to minute ; 
Champ-de-Mars and Fatherland's Altar boiling with desperate 
terror-courage : what a miserere going up to Heaven from this 
once Capital of the Most Christian King ! The Legislative sits 
in alternate awe and effervescence ; Vergniaud proposing that 
Twelve shall go and dig personally on Montmartre ; which is 
decreed by acclaim. 

But better than digging personally with acclaim, see Danton 
tfnter ; — the black brows clouded, the colossus figure tramping 
heavy ; grim energy looking from all features of the rugged 
man ! Strong is that grim Son of France and' Son of Earth ; 
a Reality and not a Formula he too : and surely now if ever, 
being hurled low enough, it is on the Earth and on Realities 
that he rests. " Legislators !" so speaks the stentor-voice, as 
the Newspapers yet preserve it for us, "it is not the alarm- 
" cannon that you hear : it is XkvQ pas-de-charge against our ene- 
" mies. To conquer them, to hurl them back, what do we 
" require? // nous faut de Taudace, et encore de I'audace, et 
" toujours de I'audace, To dare, and again to dare, and without 
" end to dare !"■* — Right so, thou brawny Titan ; there is no- 
thing left for thee but that. Old men, who heard it, will still 
tell you how the reverberating voice made all hearts swell, in 
that moment ; and braced them to the sticking-place ; and 
thrilled abroad over France, like electric virtue, as a word 
spoken in season. 

But the Commune, enrolling in the Champ-de-Mars ? But 

3 Biographic des Minislrcs (Bruxelles, 1826), p. 96. 
* Moniteur (in Hist. Pari. xvii. 347). 


September ad. 

the Committee of Watchfulness, become now Committee of 
Public Salvation ; whose conscience is Marat ? The Commune 
em'olling enrolls many ; provides tents for them in that Mars- 
Field, that they may march with dawn on the morrow : praise 
to this part of the Commune ! To Marat and the Committee 
of Watchfulness not praise ; — not even blame, such as could 
be meted out in these insufficient dialects of ours ; expressive 
silence rather ! Lone Marat, the man forbid, meditating long 
in his Cellars of refuge, on his Stylites Pillar, could see salva- 
tion in one thing only : in the fall of ' two-hundred and sixty 
thousand Aristocrat heads.' \Yith so many score of Naples 
Bravoes, each a dirk in his right-hand, a muff on his left, he 
would traverse France, and do it. But the world laughed, 
mocking the severe-benevolence of a People's-Friend ; and his 
idea could not become an action, but only a fixed-idea. Lo 
now, however, he has come down from his Stylites Pillar to a 
Tribune pa7-ticulitre ; here now, without the dirks, without the 
mtiffs at least, were it not grown possible, — now in the knot of 
the crisis, when salvation or destruction hangs in the hour ! 

The Ice-Tower of Avignon was noised of sufficiently, and 
lives in all memories ; but the authors were not punished : nay 
we saw Jourdan Coupe-tete, borne on men's shoulders, like a 
copper Portent, ' traversing the cities of the South.' — What 
phantasms, squalid -horrid, shaking their dirk and muff, may 
dance through the brain of a Marat, in this dizzy pealing of 
tocsin -miserere and universal frenzy, seek not to guess, O 
Reader ! Nor what the cruel Billaud ' in his short brown coat' 
was thinking ; nor Sergent, not yet Agatc-?iQ^x^Q,vi\. ; nor Panis 
the confidant of Danton ; — -nor, in a word, how gloomy Orcus 
does breed in her gloomy womb, and fashion her monsters and 
prodigies of Events, which thou seest her visibly bear ! Terror 
is on these streets of Paris ; terror and rage, tears and frenzy : 
tocsin-miserere pealing through the air ; fierce desperation rush- 
ing to battle ; mothers, with streaming eyes and wild hearts, 
sending forth their sons to die. ' Carriage-horses are seized by 
the bridle,' that they may draw cannon ; 'the traces cut, the 
carriages left standing.' In such tocsin-miserere, and murky 
ewilderment of Frenzy, arc not Murder, Atd and all Furies 
ear at hand ? On slight hint — who knows on how slight ? — 
ay not Murder come ; and, with Iter snaky-sparkling head, 
luminate this murk ! 

22 SEPTEMBER. book i. ^ 


How it was and went, what part might be premeditated, 
what was improvised and accidental, man will never know, till 
the great Day of Judgment make it known. But with a JN'Iarat 
for keeper of the Sovereign's Conscience — And we know what 
the ultima 7'atio of Sovereigns, when they are driven to it, is ! 
In this Paris there are as wicked men, say a hundred or more, 
as exist in all the Earth : to be hired, and set on ; to set on, of 
their own accord, unhired. — And yet we will remark that pre- 
meditation itself is not performance, is not surety of performance ; 
that it is perhaps, at most, surety of letting whosoever wills per- 
form. From the purpose of crime to the act of crime there is 
an abyss ; wonderful to think of. The finger lies on the pistol ; 
but the man is not yet a murderer : nay his whole nature stag- 
gering at such consummation, is there not a confused pause 
rather, — one last instant of possibility for him ? Not yet a 
murderer ; it is at the mercy of light trifles whether the most 
fixed idea may not yet become unfixed. One slight twitch of a 
muscle, the death-flash bursts ; and he is it, and will for Eternity 
be it ; and Earth has become a penal Tartarus for him ; his 
horizon girdled now not with golden hope, but with red flames 
of remorse ; voices from the depths of Nature sounding. Wo, 
wo on him ! 

Of such stuff are we all made ; on such powder-mines of 
bottomless guilt and criminality, — 'if God restrained not,' as 
is well said, — does the purest of us walk. There are depths in 
man that go the length of lowest Hell, as there are heights that 
reach highest Heaven ; — for are not both Heaven and Hell 
made out of him, made by him, everlasting Miracle and Mystery 
as he is? — But looking on this Champ-de-Mars, with its tent- 
buildings and frantic enrolments ; on this murky-simmering 
Paris, with its crammed Prisons (supposed about to burst), 
with its tocsin-miserere, its mothers' tears, and soldiers' fare- 
well shoutings, — the pious soul might have prayed, that day, 
that God's grace would restrain, and greatly restrain ; lest on 
slight hest or hint, Madness, Horror and Murder rose, and this 
Sabbathday of September became a Day black in the Annals 
of men. 

The tocsin is pealing its loudest, the clocks inaudibly strikin'^ 
Three, when poor Abbe Sicard, with some thirty other Noi] 
jurant Priests, in six carriages, fare along the streets, froil ^ 
their preliminary House of Detention at the Townhall, west 


September 2d-6th. 

ward towards the Prison of the Abbaye. Carriages enough 
stand deserted on the streets ; these six move on, — through 
angi-y multitudes, cursing as they move. Accursed Aristocrat 
Tartuffes, this is the pass ye have brought us to ! And now 
ye will break the Prisons, and set Capet Veto on horseback to 
ride over us ? Out upon you, Priests of Beelzebub and Moloch ; 
of Tartuffery, Mammon and the Prussian Gallows, — which ye 
name Mother-Church and God ! — Such reproaches have the 
poor Nonjurants to endure, and worse ; spoken-in on them by 
frantic Patriots, who mount even on the carriage-steps ; the 
very Guards hardly refraining. Pull up your carriage-blinds ? 
— No ! answers Patriotism, clapping its horny paw on the car- 
riage-blind, and crushing it down again. Patience in oppression 
has limits : we are close on the Abbaye, it has lasted long ; a 
poor Nonjurant, of quicker temper, smites the horny paw with 
his cane ; nay, finding solacement in it, smites the unkempt 
head, sharply and again more sharply, twice over, — seen clearly 
of us and of the world. It is the last that we see clearly. Alas, 
next moment the carriages are locked and blocked in endless 
raging tumults ; in yells deaf to the cry for mercy, which answer 
the cry for mercy with sabre-thrusts through the heart.^ The 
thirty Priests are torn out, are massacred about the Prison- 
Gate, one after one, — only the poor Abbd Sicard, whom one 
Moton a watchmaker, knowing him, heroically tried to save and 
secrete in the prison, escapes to tell ; — and it is Night and Orcus ; 
and Murder's snaky-sparkling head has risen in the murk ! — 

From Sunday afternoon (exclusive of intervals and pauses 
not final) till Thursday evening, there follow consecutively a 
Hundred Hours. Which hundred hours are to be reckoned 
with the hours of the Bartholomew Butchery, of the Armagnac 
Massacres, Sicilian Vespers, or whatsoever is savagest in the 
annals of this world. Horrible the hour when man's soul, in 
its paroxysm, spurns asunder the barriers and rules ; and shows 
what dens and depths are in it ! For Night and Orcus, as we 
say, as was long prophesied, have burst forth, here in this Paris, 
from their subterranean imprisonment : hideous, dim-confused ; 
which it is painful to look on ; and yet which cannot, and in- 
j^ deed which should not, be forgotten. 

^ 5 Fdldmhesi (anagram for Mdhee Fils), La Vdrititout entikre sur les vrais 
auteurs de la journ^e du a Septemlre 1792 (reprinted in Hist. Pari, xviii. 
156-181), p. 167. 

24 SEPTEMBER. book i. ( 


The Reader, who looks earnestly through this dim Phan- 
tasmagory of the Pit, will discern few fixed certain objects ; and 
yet still a few. He will observe, in this Abbaye Prison, the 
sudden massacre of the Priests being once over, a strange Court 
of Justice, or call it Court of Revenge and Wild-Justice, swiftly 
fashion itself, and take seat round a table, with the Prison- 
Registers spread before it ; — Stanislas Maillard, Bastille hero, 
famed Leader of the Menads, presiding, O Stanislas, one hoped 
to meet thee elsewhere than here ; thou shifty Riding-Usher, 
Avith an inkling of Law ! This work also thou hadst to do ; and 
then — to depart forever from our eyes. At La Force, at the 
Chdtelet, the Conciergerie, the like Court forms itself, with the 
like accompaniments : the thing that one man does, other men 
can do. There arc some Seven Prisons in Paris, full of Aris- 
tocrats with conspiracies ;— nay not even Bicetre and Salpeiriere 
shall escape, with their Forgers of Assignats : and there are 
seventy times seven hundred Patriot hearts in a state of frenzy. 
Scoundrel hearts also there are ; as perfect, say, as the Earth 
holds, — if such are needed. To Avhom, in this mood, law is as 
no-law ; and killing, by what name soever called, is but work 
to be done. 

So sit these sudden Courts of Wild-Justice, with the Prison- 
Registers before them ; unwonted wild tumult howling all round ; 
the Pi-isoners in dread expectancy within. Swift : a name is 
called ; bolts jingle, a Prisoner is there. A few questions are 
put ; swiftly this sudden Jury decides : Royalist Plotter or not ? 
Clearly not ; in that case, let the Prisoner be enlarged with 
Vive la Nation. Probably yea ; then still. Let the Prisoner 
be enlarged, but without Vive la Nation j or else it may run. Let 
the Prisoner be conducted to La Force. At La Force again 
their formula is. Let the Prisoner be conducted to the Abbaye 
— "To La Force, then !" Volunteer bailiffs seize the doomed 
man ; he is at the outer gate ; 'enlarged,' or 'conducted,' not 
into La Force, but into a howling sea ; forth, under an arch of 
wild sabres, axes and pikes ; and sinks, hewn asunder. And 
another sinks, and another ; and there forms itself a piled heap 
of corpses, and the kennels begin to run red. Fancy the yells 
of these men, tlieir faces of sweat and blood; the crueller shrieks 
of these women, for there are women too ; and a fellow-mortal 
hurled naked into it all ! Jourgniac de Saint-Mdard has seenn 
battle, has seen an effervescent Regiment du Roi in mutiny; buti 


September 2d-6th. 

the bravest heart may quail at this. The Swiss Prisoners, rem- 
nants of the Tenth of August, 'clasped each other spasmodically, 
' and hung back; gray veterans crying : " Mercy, Messieurs ; ah, 
' mercy !" But there was no mercy. Suddenly, however, one of 
' these men steps forward. He had on a blue frockcoat ; he 
' seemed about thirty, his stature was above common, his look 
' noble and martial. "I go first," said he, " since it must be so : 
' adieu !" Then dashing his hat sharply behind him : "Which 
' way?" cried he to the Brigands : "Show it me, then." They 
' open the folding gate; he is announced to the multitude. He 
' stands a moment motionless ; then plunges forth among the 
' pikes, and dies of a thousand wounds. '6 

Man after man is cut down ; the sabres need sharpening, 
the killers refresh themselves from v/ine-jugs. Onward and 
onward goes the butchery ; the loud yells wearying down into 
bass growls. A sombre-faced shifting multitude looks on ; in 
dull approval, or dull disapproval ; in dull recognition that it is 
Necessity. ' An Anglais in drab greatcoat' was seen, or seemed 
to be seen, serving liquor from his own dram-botlle ; — for what 
purpose, 'if not set on by Pitt,' Satan and himself know best! 
Witty Dr. Moore grew sick on approaching, and turned into 
another street.'^ — Quick enough goes this Jury-Court ; and 
rigorous. The brave are not spared, nor the beautiful, nor the 
weak. Old M. de Montmorin, the Minister's Brother, was 
acquitted by the Tribunal of the Seventeenth ; and conducted 
back, elbowed by howling galleries ; but is not acquitted here. 
Princess de Lamballe has lain down on bed : " Madame, you 
are to be removed to the Abbaye." " I do not wish to remove ; 
I am well enough here." There is a need-be for removing. 
She will arrange her dress a little, then ; rude voices answer, 
"You have not far to go." She too is led to the hell- gate ; 
a manifest Queen's-Friend. She shivers back, at the sight of 
bloody sabres ; but there is no return : Onwards ! That fa'r 
hind head is cleft with the axe ; the neck is severed. That 
fair body is cut in fragments ; with indignities, and obscene 
horrors of mustachio grands-lcvres, which human nature would 
fain find incredible, — which shall be read in the original lan- 
guage only. She was beautiful, she was good, she had known 
no happiness. Young hearts, generation after generation, will 

" Feldmhesi, La ViriU tout cnti'crc (ut supra), p, 173. 
' Moore's Jonrval, i. 185-195. 


think with themselves : O worthy of worship, thou king-de- 
scended, god-descended, and poor sister-woman ! why was not 
I there ; and some Sv\^ord B^hnung or Thor's Hammer in my 
hand ? Her head is fixed on a pike ; paraded under the win- 
dows of the Temple ; that a still more hated, a Marie Antoi- 
nette, may see. One Municipal, in the Temple with the Royal 
Prisoners at the m.oment, said, "-Look out." Another eagerly 
whispered, " Do not look." The circuit of the Temple is 
guarded, in these hours, by a long stretched tricolor riband : 
terror enters, and the clangour of infinite tumult ; hitherto not 
regicide, though that too may come. 

But it is more edifying to note what thrillings of affection, 
what fragments of wild virtues turn up in this shaking asunder 
of man's existence ; for of these too there is a proportion. 
Note old Marquis Cazotte : he is doomed to die ; but his young 
Daughter clasps him in her arms, with an inspiration of elo- 
quence, with a love which is stronger than very death : the 
heart of the killers themselves is touched by it ; the old man 
is spared. Yet he was guilty, if plotting for his King is guilt : 
'.n ten days more, a Court of Law condemned him, and he had 
to die elsewhere ; bequeathing his Daughter a lock of his old 
gray hair. Or note old M. de Sombreuil, who also had a 
Daughter : — My Father is not an Aristocrat : O good gentle-' 
men, I will swear it, and testify it, and in all ways prove it ; 
we are not ; we hate Aristocrats ! " Wilt thou drink Aristocrats' 
blood ?" The man lifts blood (if universal Rumour can be 
credited) f the poor maiden does drink. " This Sombreuil is 
innocent, then !" Yes, indeed, — and now note, most of all, 
how the bloody pikes, at this news, do rattle to the ground ; 
and the tiger-yells become bursts of jubilee over a brother saved ; 
and the old man and his daughter are clasped to bloody bosoms, 
with hot tears ; and borne home in triumph of Vzve la Nation, 
the killers refusing even money ! Does it seem strange, this 
temper of theirs ? It seems very certain, well proved by Royalist 
testimony in other instances ;9 and very significant. 

8 Dulaure, Esquisses historlqucs dcs principaux iviiicmcns dc la RdvolU' 
Hon, ii. 206 (cited in Montgaillard, iii. 205). 

8 Bertrand-iMoleviUe {M^m. farticnlicrs, ii. 213), &c. &c. 


September 2d, 



As all Delineation, in these ages, were it never so Epic, 
•speaking itself and not singing itself,' must either found on 
Belief and provable Fact, or have no foundation at all (nor, 
except as floating cobweb, any existence at all), — the Reader 
will perhaps prefer to take a glance with the very eyes of eye- 
witnesses ; and see, in that way, for himself, how it was. Brave 
Jourgniac, innocent Abbd Sicard, judicious Advocate Maton, 
these, greatly compressing themselves, shall speak, each an in- 
stant. Jourgniac's Agony of Tliirty-eight Hours went through 
' above a hundred edition's,' though intrinsically a poor work. 
Some portion of it may here go through above the hundred- 
and-first, for want of a better. 

' Towards seven o'clock' (Sunday night at the Abbaye ; for 
Jourgniac goes by dates) : ' We saw two men enter, their hands 
' bloody and armed with sabres ; a turnkey, with a torch, 
' lighted them ; he pointed to the bed of the unfortunate Swiss, 
' Reding. Reding spoke with a dying voice. One of them 
' paused ; but the other cried, Allons doncj lifted the unfortu- 
' nate man ; carried him out on his back to the street. He 

* was massacred there. 

' We all looked at one another in silence, we clasped each 

* other's hands. Motionless, with fixed eyes, we gazed on the 

* pavement of our prison ; on which lay the moonlight, chequered 
' with the triple stancheons of our windows.' 

' Three in the morning : They were breaking-in one of the 
' prison-doors. We at first thought they were coming to kill 
' us in our room ; but heard, by voices on the staircase, that 
' it was a room where some Prisoners had barricaded them- 
' selves. They were all butchered there, as we shortly gathered.' 

' Ten o'clock : The Abbd Lenfant and the Abbd de Chapt- 
' Rastignac appeared in the pulpit of the Chapel, which was 
' our prison ; they had entered by a door from the stairs. 
' They said to us that our end was at hand ; that we must 
' compose ourselves, and receive their last blessing. An elec- 
' trie movement, not to be defined, threw us all on our knees, 
' and we received it. These two white-haired old men, blessing 

* us from their place above ; death hovering over our heads, on 

28 SEPTEMBER. book I. 


' all hands environing us ; the moment is never to be forgotten. 
' Half an hour after, they were both massacred, and we heard 
' their cries. 'i — Thus Jourgniac in his Agony in the Abbaye : 
how it ended with Jourgniac, we shall see anon. 

But now let the good Maton speak, what he, over in La 
Force, in the same hours, is suffering and witnessing. This 
Resurrection by him is greatly the best, the least theatrical of 
these Pamphlets ; and stands testing by documents : 

'Towards seven o'clock,' on Sunday night, ' prisoners were 
' called frequently, and they did not reappear. Each of us 
' reasoned, in his own way, on this singularity : but our ideas 
' became calm, as we persuaded ourselves that the Memorial I 
' had drawn up for the National Assembly was producing effect.' 

' At one in the morning, the grate which led to our quarter 
* opened anew. Four men in imiform, each with a drawn sabre 
' and blazing torch, came up to our corridor, preceded by a 
' turnkey ; and entered an apartment close to ours, to investi- 
' gate a box there, v/hich we heard them break up. This done, 
' they stept into the gallery, and questioned the man Cuissa, 
' to know where Lamotte' (Necklace's Widower) 'was. Lamotte, 
' they said, had some months ago, under pretext of a treasure he 
' knew of, swindled a sum of three-hundred livres from one of 
' them, inviting him to dinner for that purpose. The wretched 
' Cuissa, now in their hands, who indeed lost his life this night, 
' answered trembling. That he remembered the fact well, but 
' could not tell what was become of Lamotte. Determined to 
' find Lamotte and confront him with Cuissa, they rummaged, 
' along with this latter, through various other apartments ; but 
' without effect, for we heard them say : " Come search among 
' the corpses, thein ; for, itom de Dieu ! we must find where 
' he is." 

' At this same time, I heard Louis Bardy, the Abb^ Bardy's 
' name called : he was brought out ; and directly massacred, 
' as I learnt. He had been accused, along with his concubine, 
' five or six years before, of having murdered and cut in pieces 
' his own Brother, Auditor of the Cliavibrc des Coniptes of Mont- 
' pelier ; but liad by his subtlety, his dexterity, nay his eloquence, 
' outv/ittcd the judges, and escaped. 

' One may fancy what terror these words, " Come search 

1 Jourgniac Saint-Mcanl, Mon Agonic dc ircutc-hni! hciira (reprinted in 
Hist, Pari. .wiii. 103-135). 

Chap. v. A TRILOGY. 29 

September 2d. 

' among the corpses, then," had thrown me into. I saw nothing 

• for it now but resigning myself to die. I wrote my last-will ; 
' concluding it by a petition and adjuration, that the paper 
' should be sent to its address. Scarcely had I quitted the pen, 
' when there came two other men in uniform ; one of them, 

• whose arm and sleeve up to the very shoulder, as well as his 
' sabre, were covered with blood, said. He was as weary as a 
' hodman that had been beating plaster.' 

' Baudin de la Chenaye was called ; sixty years of virtues 
' could not save him. They said, A VAbbaye: he passed the fatal 
' outer-gate ; gave a cry of terror, at sight of the heaped corpses ; 
' covered his eyes with his hands, and died of innumerable 

• wounds. At every new opening of the grate, I thought I should 
' hear my own name called, and see Rossignol enter.' 

' I flung off my nightgown and cap ; I put on a coarse un- 
' washed shirt, a worn frock without waistcoat, an old round 
' hat; these things I had sent for, some days ago, in the fear of 
' what might happen. 

' The rooms of this corridor had been all emptied but ours. 

• We were four together ; whom they seemed to have forgotten : 
' we addressed our prayers in common to tlie Eternal to be 
' delivered from this peril.' 

' Baptiste the turnkey came up by himself, to see us. I took 
' him by the hand^; I conjured him to save us ; promised hint 

• a hundred louis, if he v/ould conduct me home. A noise com- 
' ing from the grates made him hastily withdraw. 

' It was the noise of some dozen or fifteen men, armed to the 
' teeth ; as we, lying flat to escape being seen, could see from 

• our windows. "Up stairs !" said they : " Let not one remain." 

• I took out my penknife ; I considered where I should strike 
' myself,' — but reflected ' that the blade was too short,' and also 
' on religion.' 

Finally, however, between seven and eight o'clock in the 
morning, enter four men with bludgeons and sabres !— ' To one 
' of whom Gerard my comrade whispered, earnestly, apart. Dur- 
' ing their colloquy I searched everywhere for shoes, that I might 
' lay off the Advocate pumps {^pantotifles de Palais) I had on,' 
but could find none. — 'Constant, called Ic Sauvage, Gdrard, and 
' a third whose name escapes me, they let clear off : as for me, 
' four sabres were crossed over my breast, and they led me down. 
' I was brought to their bar ; to the Personage with the scart. 


' who sat as judge there.- He was a lame man, of tall lank 
' stature. He recognised me on the streets and spoke to me, 
' seven months after. I have been assured that he was son of a 
' retired attorney, and named Chepy. Crossing the Court called 
' Dss NouiTices, I saw Manuel haranguing in tricolor scarf The 
trial, as we see, ends in acquittal and resurrecfioii." 

Poor Sicard, from the violon of the Abbaye, shall say but a 
few words ; true-looking, though tremulous. Towards three in 
the morning, the killers bethink them of this little violon j and 
knock from the court. 'I tapped gently, trembling lest the mur- 
' derers might hear, on the opposite door, where the Section 
' Committee was sitting : they answered gruffly, that they had 
' no key. There were three of us in this violon; my companions 
' thought they perceived a kind of loft overhead. But it was 
' very high ; only one of us could reach it by mounting on the 
' shoulders of both the others. One of them said to me, that 
' my life was usefuller than theirs : I resisted, they insisted : no 

• denial ! I fling myself on the neck of these two deliverers ; 
' never was scene more touching. I mount on the shoulders of 

• the first, then on those of the second, finally on the loft ; and 
' address to my two comrades the expression of a soul over- 
' v/helmed with natural emotions. '3 

The two generous companions, we rejoice to find, did not 
perish. But it is time that Jourgniac de Saint-Meard should 
speak his last words, and end this singular trilogy. The night 
had become day ; and the day has again become night. Jourg- 
niac, worn down with uttermost agitation, was fallen asleep, and 
had a cheering dream : he has also contrived to make acquaint- 
ance with one of the volunteer bailiffs, and spoken in native 
Provencal with him. On Tuesday, about one in the morning, 
his Agony is reaching its crisis. 

' By the glare of two torches, I now descried the terrible tri- 
' bunal, where lay my life or my death. The President, in gray 
' coat, with a sabre at his side, stood leaning vv-ith his hands 
' against a table, on which were papers, an inkstand, tobacco- 
' pipes and bottles. Some ten persons were around, seated or 
' standing ; two of whom had jackets and aprons : others were 
' sleeping stretched on benches. Two men, in bloody shirts, 

2 Maton de la Varenne, Ma Rdsjjrrection {in /list. Pari, xviii. 135-156). 
* Abb6 Sicard, Relation adress^e a un de ses amis (in Hist. Pari, xviii, 


September 4th. 

' guarded the door of the place; an old turnkey had his hand on 
' the lock. In front of the President three men held a Prisoner, 
' who might be about sixty' (or seventy : he was old Marshal 
Maille, of the Tuileries and August Tenth). ' They stationed 
' me in a corner ; my guards crossed their sabres on my breast. 
' I looked on all sides for my Provencal : two National Guards, 
' one of them drunk, presented some appeal from the Section of 
' Croix Rouge in favour of the Prisoner ; the Man in Gray ans- 
' wered : " They are useless, these appeals for traitors." Then 
' the Prisoner exclaimed : "It is frightful ; your judgment is a 
' murder." The President answered : " My hands are washed of 
' it ; take M. Maille away." They drove him into the street ; 
' where, through the opening of the door, I saw him massacred. 

' The President sat down to write ; registering, I suppose, 
' the name of this one whom they had finished ; then I heard 
' him say : " Another, A im autre /" 

' Behold me then haled before this swift and bloody judg- 
' ment-bar, where the best protection was to have no protection, 
' and ail resources of ingenuity became null if they were not 

• founded on truth. Two of my guards held me each by a hand, 
' the third by the collar of my coat, " Your name, your profes- 
' sion?" said the President. "The smallest lie ruins you," added 
' one of the Judges. — "My name is Jourgniac Saint-M&rd; I 
' have served, as an officer, twenty years : and I appear at your 
' tribunal with the assurance of an innocent man, who therefore 

• will not he." — " We shall see that," said the President: " Do 
'you know why you are arrested?" — "Yes, Monsieur le Prd- 
' sident ; I am accused of editing the Journal De la Cour et de 
' la Ville. But I hope to prove the falsity" ' — But no ; Jourg- 
niac's proof of the falsity, and defence generally, though of ex- 
cellent result as a defence, is not interesting to read. It is 
longwinded ; there is a loose theatricality in the reporting of 
it, which does not amount to unveracity, yet which tends that 
way. We shall suppose him successful, beyond hope, in prov- 
ing and disproving; and skip largely, — to the catastrophe, 
almost at two steps. 

' " But after all," said one of the Judges, "there is no smoke 
' without kindling ; tell us why they accuse you of that." — " I 
' was about to do so" ' — Jourgniac does so ; with more and 
more success. 

• " Nay," continued I, " they accuse me even of recruiting 

32 SEPTEMBER. book r. 

' for the Emigrants !" At these words there arose a general 
' murmur. " O Messieurs, Messieurs," I exclaimed, raising my 
' voice, " it is my turn to speak; I beg M. le President to have 
' the kindness to maintain it for me ; I never needed it more." 
' — "True enough, true enough," said almost all the Judges 

• with a laugh : " Silence !" 

' While they were examining the testimonials I had produced, 

• a new Prisoner was brought in, and placed before the President. 

• " It was one Priest more," they said, " whom they had ferreted 

• out of the Chapelle." After very few questions : "A la Fo7xe !" 

• He flung his breviaiy on the table ; was hurled forth, and mas- 

• sacred. I reappeared before the tribunal. 

' " You tell us always," cried one of the Judges, with a tone 
' of impatience, " that you are not this, that you are not that ; 
' what are you, then ?" — " I was an open Royalist." — There 
' arose a general murmur ; which was miraculously appeased by 

• another of the men, who had seemed to take an interest in 
' me : " We are not here to judge opinions," said he, " but to 
' judge the results of them." Could Rousseau and Voltaire both 
' in one, pleading for me, have said better ? — " Yes, Messieurs," 
' cried 1, " always till the Tenth of August I was an open 

Royalist. Ever since the Tenth of August that cause has been 
linished. I am a Frenchman, true to my country. I was always 
' a man of honour." ' 

' " My soldiers never distrusted me. Nay, two days before 

• that business of Nanci, when their suspicion of their officers 

• was at its height, they chose me for commander, to lead them 

• to Lundville, to get back the prisoners of the Regiment Mestre- 

• de-Camp, and seize General Malseigne." ' Which fact there 
is, most luckily, an individual present who by a certain token 
can confirm. 

' The President, this cross-questioning being over, took off 
' his hat and said : " I see nothing to suspect in this man : I am 
' for granting him his liberty. Is that your vote ?" To which 
' all the Judges answered : " Oiii, Oitij it is just !" ' 

And there arose vivats within doors and without; 'escort of 
three,' amid shoutings and embracings : thus Jourgniac escaped 
from jury-trial and the jaws of death. ^ Maton and Sicard did, 
either by trial and no bill found, lank President Chepy finding 
' absolutely nothing ;' or else by evasion, and new favour of Moton 
4 Mo7i Agonic (ut supra, Hist. Far!, xviii. 12S). 


September 2d-6th. 

the brave watchmaker, hkewise escape ; and were embraced and 

wept over ; weeping in return, as they well might. 

Thus they three, in wondrous trilogy, or triple soliloquy : 
uttering simultaneously, through the dread night-watches, their 
Night-thoughts,— grown audible to us ! They Three are become 
audible : but the other ' Thousand and Eighty-nine, of whom 
Two-hundred and two were Priests, 'who also had Night-thoughts, 
remain inaudible; choked forever in black Death, Heard only 
of President Chepy and the Man in Gray ! — 



But the Constituted Authorities, all this while ? The Legis- 
lative Assembly ; the Six Ministers ; the Townhall ; Santerre 
with the National Guard ? — It is very curious to think what a 
City is. " Theatres, to the number of some twenty-three, were 
open every night during these prodigies ; while right-arms here 
grew weary with slaying, right-arms there were twiddledeeing 
on melodious catgut : at the very instant when Abbd Sicard was 
clambering up his second pair of shoulders three-men high, five 
hundred thousand human individuals were lying horizontal, as 
if nothing were amiss. 

As for the poor Legislative, the sceptre had departed from 
it. The Legislative did send Deputation to the Prisons, to these 
Street-Courts ; and poor M. Dusaulx did harangue there ; but 
produced no conviction whatsoever : nay at last, as he con- 
tinued haranguing, the Street - Court interposed, not without 
threats ; and he had to cease, and withdraw. This is the same 
poor worthy old M. Dusaulx who told, or indeed almost sang 
(though with cracked voice), the Taking of the Bastille, to our 
satisfaction, long since. He was wont to announce himself, on 
such and on all occasions, as the Translator ofyuvenal. " Good 
Citizens, you see before you a man who loves his country, who 
is the Translator of Juvenal," said he once. — "Juvenal.''" inter- 
rupts Sansculottism : " Who the devil is Juvenal ? One of your 
sacr^s Aristoerates ? To the Lan/erne /" From an orator of this 
kind, conviction was not to be expected. The Legislative had 
much ado to save one of its own Members, or ex- Members, 


3* SEPTEMBER. book i. 

Deputy Jounneau, who chanced to be lying in arrest for mere 
Padiamentary delinquencies, in these Prisons. As for poor old 
Dusaulx and Company, they returned to the Salle de ISIan^ge, 
saying, "It was dark; and they could not see well what was 
going on."i 

Roland writes indignant messages, in the name of Order, 
Humanity and the Law ; but there is no Force at his disposal, 
Santerre's National Force seems lazy to rise : though he made 
requisitions, he says, — which always dispersed again. Nay did 
not we, with Advocate Maton's eyes, see ' men in uniform' too, 
with their ' sleeves bloody to the shoulder' ? Petion goes in tri- 
color scarf; speaks 'the austere language of the law:' the killers 
give up, while he is there ; when his back is turned, recom- 
mence. Manuel too in scarf we, with Maton's eyes, transiently 
saw haranguing, in the Court called of Nurses, Coiir des Nour- 
riccs. On the other hand, cruel Billaud, likewise in scarf, ' with 
that small puce coat and black wig we are used to on him, '2 
audibly delivers, 'standing among corpses,' at the Abbaye, a 
short but ever-memorable harangue, reported in various phrase- 
ology, but always to this purpose : " Brave Citizens, you are ex- 
tirpating the Enemies of Liberty : you are at your duty. A 
grateful Commune and Country would wish to recompense you 
adequately ; but cannot, for you know its want of funds. Who- 
ever shall have worked {travaille) in a Prison shall receive a 
draft of one louis, payable by our cashier. Continue your work."^ 
The Constituted Authorities are of yesterday : all pulling dif- 
ferent ways : there is properly no Constituted Authority, but 
every man is his own King ; and all are kinglets, belligerent, 
allied, or armed-neutral, without king over them. 

'O everlasting infamy,' exclaims Montgaillard, 'that Paris 
' stood looking on in stupor for four days, and did not interfere !' 
Very desirable indeed that Paris had interfered ; yet not un- 
natural that it stood even so, looking on in stupor. Paris is in 
death-panic, the enemy and gibbets at its door : whosoever in 
Paris has the heart to front death, finds it more pressing to do 
it fighting the Prussians, than fighting the killers of Aristocrats. 
Indignant abhorrence, as in Roland, may be here ; gloomy sanc- 
tion, premeditation or not, as in Marat and Committee of Salva- 

1 Motiitcur, Debate of 2d September 1792. 

2 Melide Fils (ut supra, in Hist. Pari. .wiii. p. 1S9). 
8 Montgaillard, iii. lyi. 


September 2d-6th. 

tion, may be there ; dull disapproval, dull approval, and acqui- 
escence in Necessity and Destiny, is the general temper. The 
Sons of Darkness, ' two-hundred or so,' risen from their lurking- 
places, have scojpe to do their work. Urged on by fever-frenzy 
of Patriotism, and the madness of Terror ; — urged on by lucre, 
and the gold louis of wages ? Nay, not lucre ; for the gold 
watches, rings, money of the Massacred, are punctually brought 
to the Townhall, by Killers sans - indispensables, who higgle 
afterwards for their twenty shillings of wages ; and Sergent stick- 
ing an uncommonly fine agate on his finger (fully ' meaning to 
account for it') becomes At^ale-Sergent. But the temper, as we 
say, is dull acquiescence. Not till the Patriotic or Frenetic part 
of the work is finished for want of material ; and Sons of Dark- 
ness, bent clearly on lucre alone, begin wrenching watches and 
purses, brooches from ladies' necks, "to equip volunteers," in 
daylight, on the streets, — does the temper from dull grow ve- 
hement ; does the Constable raise his truncheon, and striking 
heartily (like a cattle-driver in earnest) beat the 'course of things' 
back into its old regulated drove-roads. The Garde-Meuble it- 
self was surreptitiously plundered, on the 17th of the month, to 
Roland's new horror ; who anew bestirs himself, and is, as Sieyes 
says, 'the veto of scoundrels,' Roland veto des coquins.'^ — 

This is the September Massacre, otherwise called ' Severe 
Justice of the People.' These are the Septemberers {SeJ/tembri- 
seitrs) ; a name of some note and lucency,— but lucency of the 
Nether-iire sort ; very different from that of our Bastille Heroes, 
who shone, disputable by no Friend of Freedom, as in Hea- 
venly hght-radiance : to such phasis of the business have we 
advanced since then ! The numbers massacred are in the His- 
torical fantasy, ' between two and three thousand ;' or indeed 
they are 'upwards of six thousand,' for Peltier (in vision) saw 
them massacring the very patients of the Bicetre Madhouse 
' with grape-shot ;' nay finally they are ' twelve thousand' and 
odd hundreds, — not more than that.s In Arithmetical ciphers, 
and Lists drawn up by accurate Advocate Maton, the number, 
including two-hundred and two priests, three 'persons unknown,' 
and ' one thief killed at the Bernardins,' is, as above hinted, a 
Thousand and Eighty-nine, — not less than that. 

A Thousand and eighty-nine lie dead, ' two-hundred and 
sixty heaped carcasses on the Pont au Change' itself ; — among 
* Helen Maria Williams, iii. 27. ^ gge Hist. Fart, xvii. 421, 422, 


which, Robespierre pleading afterwards will * nearly weep' to 
reflect that there was said to be one slain innocent. ^ One ; not 
two, O thou seagreen Incorruptible ? If so, Themis Sansculotte 
must be lucky ; for she was brief! — In the dim Registers of the 
Townhall, which are preserved to this day, men read, with a 
certain sickness of heart, items and entries not usual in Town 
Books : ' To workers employed in preserving the salubrity of 
' the air in the Prisons, and persons who presided over these 
' dangerous operations,' so much, — in various items, nearly seven 
hundred pounds sterling. To carters employed to ' the Burying- 
grounds of Clamart, Montrouge and Vaugirard,' at so much a 
journey, per cart ; this also is an entry. Then so many francs 
and odd sous ' for the necessary quantity of quick-lime' !7 Carts 
go along the streets ; full of stript human corpses, thrown pell- 
mell ; limbs sticking up : — scest thou that cold Hand sticking 
up, through the heaped embrace of brother corpses, in its yellow 
paleness, in its cold rigour ; the palm opened towards Heaven, 
as if in dumb prayer, in expostulation de PfofimJis, Take pity 
on the Sons of Men! — Mercier saw it, as he walked down 'the 
' Rue Saint-Jacques from Montrouge, on the morrow of the Mas- 
' sacres :' but not a Hand ; it was a Foot, — which he reckons still 
more significant, one understands not well why. Or was it as 
the Foot of one spurning Heaven? Rushing, like a wild diver, 
in disgust and despair, towards the depths of Annihilation ? 
Even there shall His hand find thee, and His right-hand hold 
thee, — surely for right not for wrong, for good not evil! ' I saw 
• that Foot,' says Mercier ; ' I shall know it again at the great 
' Day of Judgment, when the Eternal, throned on his thunders, 
' shall judge both Kings and Septemberers.'^ 

That a shriek of inarticulate horror rose over this thing, not 
only from French Aristocrats and Moderates, but from all Europe, 
and has prolonged itself to the present day, was most natural 
and right. The thing lay done, irrevocable ; a thing to be counted 
beside some other things, which lie very black in our Earth's An- 
nals, yet which will not erase therefrom. For man, as was re- 
marked, has transcendentalisms in him; standing, as he does, 

8 Monitcur oi 6i\]. November (Debate -of 5th November 1793). 

7 Etat des somvies payies par la Commwie de Paris ijlist. Pari. xvin. 

8 Mercier, Nouveau Paris, vi. 21. 


September 3d, 

poor creature, every way 'in the confluence of Infinitudes ;' a mys- 
tery to himself and others : in the centre of two Eternities, of 
three Immensities, — in the intersection of primeval Light with the 
everlasting Dark ! — Thus have there been, especially by vehem- 
ent tempers reduced to a state of desperation, very miserable 
things done. Sicilian Vespers, and 'eight thousand slaughtered 
in two hours,' are a known thing. Kings themselves, not in 
desperation, but only in difficulty, have sat hatching, for year and 
day (nay De Thou says for seven years), their Bartholomew 
Business ; and then, at the right moment, also on an Autumn 
Sunday, this very Bell (they say it is the identical metal) of 
Saint-Germain I'Auxerrois was set a-pealing — with effect.9 Nay 
the same black boulder-stones of these Paris Prisons have seen 
Prison-massacres before now ; men massacring countrymen. Bur- 
gundies massacring Armagnacs, whom they had suddenly im- 
prisoned, till, as now, there were piled heaps of carcasses, and 
the streets ran red ; — the Mayor Petion of the time speaking the 
austere language of the law, and answered by the Killers, in old 
French (it is some four hundred years old) : " MatigrS bieu. Sire, 
— Sir, God's mahson on your 'justice,' your 'pity,' your 'right 
reason.' Cursed be of God whoso shall have pity on these false 
traitorous Armagnacs, English ; dogs they are ; they have de- 
stroyed us, wasted this realm of France, and sold it to the Eng- 
lish, "i" And so they slay, and fling aside the slain, to the extent 
of ' fifteen hundred and eighteen, among whom are found four 
' Bishops of false and damnable counsel, and two Presidents of 
' Parlement.' For though it is not Satan's world this that we 
live in, Satan always has his place in it (underground properly) ; 
and from time to time bursts up. Well may mankind shriek, 
inarticulately anathematising as they can. There are actions of 
such emphasis that no shrieking can be too emphatic for them. 
Shriek ye ; acted have they. 

Shriek who might in this France, in this Paris Legislative 
or Paris Townhall, there are Ten Men who do not shriek. A 
Circular goes out from the Committee of Salut Public, dated 
3d of September 1792 ; directed to all Townhalls : a State- 
paper too remarkable to be overlooked. 'A part of the fero- 
' cious conspirators detained in the Prisons,' it says, 'have been 
' put to death by the People ; and we cannot doubt but the 

8 9th to 13th September 1572 (Dulaurc, Hist, de I'aris, iv. 289). 
1" Dulaure, iii. 494. 


' whole Nation, driv^en to the edge of ruin by such endless series 
' of treasons, will make haste to adopt //i/i' means of public sal- 
' vation : and all Frenchmen will cry as the men of Paris : We 
' go to fight the enemy ; but we will not leave robbers behind 
' us, to butcher our wives and children.' To which are legibly 
appended these signatures : Panis ; Sergent ; Marat, Friend of 
the People ;-i with Seven others ; — carried down thereby, in a 
strange way, to the late remembrance of Antiquarians. We re- 
mark, hov/ever, that their Circular rather recoiled on themselves. 
The Townhalls made no use of it ; even the distracted Sanscu- 
lottes made little ; they only howled and bellowed, but did not 
bite. At Rheims ' about eight persons' were killed ; and two after- 
wards were hanged for doing it. At Lyons, and a few other 
places, some attempt was made ; but with hardly any eft'ect, 
being quickly put down. 

Less fortunate were the Prisoners of Orleans ; was the good 
Duke de la Rochefoucault. He journeying, by quick stages, 
with his Mother and Wife, towards the Waters of Forges, or 
some quieter country, was arrested at Gisors ; conducted along 
the streets, amid effervescing multitudes, and killed dead 'by 
the stroke of a paving-stone hurled through the coach-window.' 
Killed as a once Liberal now Aristocrat ; Protector of Priests, 
Suspender of virtuous Potions, and most unfortunate Hot-grown- 
cold, detestable to Patriotism. He dies lamented of Europe ; 
his blood spattering the cheeks of his old Mother, ninety-three 
years old. 

As for the Orleans Prisoners, they are State Criminals : 
Royalist Ministers, Delessarts, Montmorins ; who have been ac- 
cumulating on the High Court of Orleans, ever since that Tri- 
bunal was set up. Whom now it seems good that we should get 
transi"erred to our new Paris Court of the Seventeenth ; which 
proceeds far quicker. Accordingly hot Fournier from Martin- 
ique, Fournier V Americain, is off, missioned by Constituted Au- 
thority ; with stanch National Guards, with Lazouski the Pole ; 
sparingly provided with road-money. These, through bad quar- 
ters, through difficulties, perils, for Authorities cross each other 
in this time, — do triumphantly bring off the Fifty or Fifty-three 
Orl&ns Prisoners, towards Paris ; where a swifter Court of the 
Seventeenth will do justice on them.^" But lo, at Paris, in the 
interim, a still swifter and swiftest Court of the Second, and of 
11 Hist. Pari. xvii. 433. ^- Ibid. xvii. 434. 


September gtli, 

September, has instituted itself: enter not Paris, or that will 
judge you ! — What shall hot Fournier do ? It was his duty, as 
volunteer Constable, had he been a perfect character, to guard 
those men's lives never so Aristocratic, at the expense of his own 
valuable hfe never so Sansculottic, till some Constituted Court 
had disposed of them. But he was an imperfect character and 
Constable ; perhaps one of the more imperfect. 

Hot Fournier, ordered to turn hither by one Authority, to 
turn thither by another Authority, is in a perplexing multiplicity 
of orders ; but finally he strikes off for Versailles. His Prisoners 
fare in tumbrils, or open carts, himself and Guards riding and 
marching around : and at the last village, the worthy Mayor of 
Versailles comes to meet him, anxious that the arrival and lock- 
ing-up were well over. It is Sunday, the ninth day of the month. 
Lo, on entering the Avenue of Versailles, what multitudes, 
stirring, swarming in the September sun, under the dull-green 
September foliage ; the Four-rowed Avenue all humming and 
swarming, as if the Town had emptied itself! Our tumbrils roll 
heavily through the living sea ; the Guards and Fournier mak- 
ing way with ever more difficulty ; the Mayor speaking and ges- 
turing his persuasivest ; amid the inarticulate growling hum, 
which growls ever the deeper even by hearing itself growl, not 
without sharp yelpings here and there : — Would to God we were 
out of this strait place, and wind and separation had cooled the 
heat, which seems about igniting here ! 

And yet if the wide Avenue is too strait, what will the Street 
de Surintendajice be, at leaving of the same ? At the corner of 
Surintendance Street, the compressed yelpings become a con- 
tinuous yell : savage figures spring on the tumbril-shafts ; first 
spray of an endless coming tide ! The Mayor pleads, pushes, 
half-desperate ; is pushed, carried off in men's arms: the savage 
tide has entrance, has mastery. Amid horrid noise, and tumult 
as of fierce wolves, the Prisoners sink massacred, — all but some 
eleven, who escaped into houses, and found mercy. The Pri- 
sons, and what other Prisoners they held, were with difficulty 
saved. The stript clothes are burnt in bonfire ; the corpses lie 
heaped in the ditch on the morrow morning.i"' All France, ex- 
cept it be the Ten Men of the Circular and their people, moans 
and rages, inarticulately shrieking ; all Europe rings. 

13 Pieces officielles relatives au massacre des Prisonniers a Versailles (in 
HUt. Pari, xviii. 236-249). 


But neither did Danton shriek; though, as Minister of Jus- 
tice, it was more his part to do so. Brawny Danton is in the 
breach, as of stormed Cities and Nations ; amid the sweep of 
Tenth-of-August cannon, the rustle of Prussian gallows-ropes, 
the smiting of September sabres ; destruction all round him, 
and the rushing-down of worlds : Minister of Justice is his 
name ; but Titan of the Forlorn Hope, and Ejifant Perdti of 
the Revolution, is his quality,- — and the man acts according to 
that. "We must put our enemies in fear !" Deep fear, is it 
not, as of its own accord, falling on our enemies ? The Titan 
of the Forlorn Hope, he is not the man that would swiftest of 
all prevent its so falling. Forward, thou lost Titan of an En- 
fant Perdjij thou must dare, and again dare, and without end 
dare ; there is nothing left for thee but that ! " Que mon nom 
soitfl^tri, Let my name be blighted :" what am I ? The Cause 
alone is great ; and shall live, and not perish. — So, on the 
»vholc, here too is a Swallower of Formulas ; of still wider gulp 
than Mirabeau : this Danton, Mirabeau of the Sansculottes. In 
the September days, this Minister was not heard of as cooper- 
ating with strict Roland ; his business might lie elsewhere, — 
with Brunswick and the H6tel-de-Ville. When applied to by an 
official person, about the Orldans Prisoners, and the risks they 
ran, he answered gloomily, twice over, "Are not these men 
guilty ?" — When pressed, he ' answered in a terrible voice,' and 
turned his back.^* A thousand slain in the Prisons ; horrible 
if you will ; but Brunswick is within a day's journey of us ; and 
there are Five-and-twenty Millions yet, to slay or to save. Some 
men have tasks,— frightfuller than ours ! It seems strange, but 
is not strange, that this Minister of Moloch-Justice, when any 
suppliant for a friend's life got access to him, was found to have 
human compassion ; and yielded and granted ' always ;' • nei- 
ther did one personal enemy of Danton perish in these days.'^* 

To shriek, we say, when certain things are acted, is proper 
and unavoidable. Nevertheless, articulate speech, not shriek- 
ing, is the faculty of man : when speech is not yet possible, let 
there be, with the shortest delay, at least — silence. Silence, 
accordingly, in this forty-fourth year of the business, and eigh- 
teen hundred and thirty-sixth of an ' Era railed Christian as 
lucus (i n(>n,' is the thing we recommend and practise. Nay, in- 

" BiQgraphie des Ministres, p. 97. I'' Iliid. p. 103, 



stead of shrieking more, it were perhaps edifying to remark, on 
the other side, what a singular thing Customs (in Latin, Mores) 
are ; and how fitly the Virtue, Vii'-tus, Manhood or Worth, 
that is in a man, is called his Morality or Customariness. Fell 
Slaughter, one of the most authentic products of the Pit you 
would say, once give it Customs, becomes War, with Laws of 
War; and is Customary and Moral enough ; and red individuals 
carry the tools of it girt round their haunches, not without an 
air of pride, — which do thou nov/ise blam.e. While, see ! so 
long as it is but dressed in hodden or russet ; and Revolution, 
less frequent than War, has not yet got its Laws of Revolution, 
but the hodden or russet individuals are Uncustomary — O 
shrieking beloved brother blockheads of Mankind, let us close 
those wide mouths of ours ; let us cease shrieking, and begin 



Plain, at any rate, is one thing : that the/^w, whatever of 
fear those Aristocrat enemies might need, has been brought 
about. The matter is getting serious, then ! Sansculottism too 
has become a Fact, and seems minded to assert itself as such ? 
This huge mooncalf of Sansculottism, staggering about, as young 
calves do, is not mockable only, and soft like another calf; but 
terrible too, if you prick it ; and, through its hideous nostrils, 
blows fire ! — Aristocrats, with pale panic in their hearts, fly to- 
wards covert ; and a light rises to them over several things ; or 
rather a confused transition towards light, whereby for the mo- 
ment darkness is only darker than ever. But what will become 
of this France } Here is a question ! France is dancing its 
desert-waltz, as Sahara does when the winds waken ; in whirl- 
blasts twenty-five millions in number ; waltzing towards Town- 
halls, Aristocrat Prisons and Election Committee -rooms ; to- 
wards Brunswick and the frontiers ; towards a New Chapter of 
Universal History ; if indeed it be not the Finis, and winding- 
up of that ! 

In Election Committee-rooms there is now no dubiety; but 
the work goes bravely along. The Convention is getting chosen. 

42 SEPTEMBER. book i. 

— really in a decisive spirit ; in the Townhall we already date 
First year of the Republic. Some Two-hundred of our best 
Legislators may be reelected, the Mountain bodily : Robespierre, 
with Mayor Petion, Buzot, Cm-ate Gregoire, Rabaut, some three- 
score Old-Constituents ; though Ave once had only 'thirty voices.' 
All these ; and along with them, friends long known to Revolu- 
tionary fame : Camille Desmoulins, though he stutters in speech ; 
Manuel, Tallien and Company ; Journalists Gorsas, Carra, Mer- 
cier, Louvet of Faiiblas j Clootz Speaker of Mankind ; Collot 
d'Herbois, tearing a passion to rags ; Fabre d'Eglantine, specu- 
lative Pamphleteer ; Legendre, the solid Butcher ; nay Marat, 
though rural France can hardly believe it, or even believe that 
there is a. Marat, except in print. Of Minister Danton, who 
will lay down his Ministry for a Membership, we need not 
speak. Paris is fervent ; nor is the Country wanting to itself. 
Barbaroux, Rebecqui, and fervid Patriots are coming from Mar- 
seilles. Seven-hundred and forty-five men (or indeed forty-nine, 
for Avignon now sends Four) are gathering : so many are to 
meet ; not so many are to part ! 

Attorney Carrier from Aurillac, Ex-Priest Lebon from Arras, 
these shall both gain a name. Mountainous Auvergne re-elects 
her Romme ; hardy tiller of the soil, once Mathematical Pro- 
fessor ; who, imconscious, carries in petto a remarkable New 
Calendar, with Messidors, Pluvioses, and such-like ; — and hav- 
ing given it well forth, shall depart by the death they call 
Roman. Sieyes Old-Constituent comes ; to make new Con- 
stitutions as many as wanted : for the rest, peering out of his 
clear cautious eyes, he will cower low in many an emergency, 
and find silence safest. Young Saint-Just is coming, deputed 
by Aisne in the North ; more like a Student than a Senator ; 
not four-and-twenty yet ; who has written Books ; a youth of 
slight stature, with mild mellow voice, enthusiast olive-com- 
plexion and long black hair. Feraud, from the far valley D'Aure 
in the folds of the Pyrenees, is coming ; an ardent Republican ; 
doomed to fame, at least in death. 

All manner of Patriot men are coming : Teachers, Hus- 
bandmen, Priests and Ex-Priests, Traders, Doctors ; above all. 
Talkers, or the Attorney species. Man-midwives, as Levas- 
seur of the Sartlie, are not wanting. Nor Artists : gross David, 
with the swoln cheek, has long painted, with genius in a state 
of convulsion ; and will now legislate. The swoln cheek, chok- 



ing his words in the birth, totally disqualifies him as an orator ; 
but his pencil, his head, his gross hot heart, with genius in a 
state of convulsion, will be there. A man bodily and mentally 
swoln-cheekcd, disproportionate ; flabby-large, instead of great ; 
weak withal as in a state of convulsion, not strong in a state of 
composure : so let him play his part. Nor are naturalised 
Benefactors of the Species forgotten : Priestley, elected by the 
Orne Department, but declining ; Paine the rebellious Needle- 
man, by the Pas de Calais, who accepts. 

Few Nobles come, and yet not none. Paul-Frangois Barras, 
' noble as the Barrases, old as the rocks of Provence ;' he is 
one. The reckless, shipwrecked man : flung ashore on the 
coast of the Maldives long ago, while sailing and soldiering as 
Indian Fighter : flung ashore since then, as hungry Parisian 
pleasure-hunter and half-pay, on many a Circe Island, with 
temporary enchantment, temporaiy conversion into beasthood 
and hoghood ; — the remote Var Department has now sent him 
hither. A man of heat and haste ; defective in utterance ; de- 
fective indeed in anything to utter ; yet not without a certain 
rapidity of glance, a certain swift transient courage ; who in 
these times. Fortune favouring, may go far. He is tall, hand- 
some to the eye, ' only the complexion a little yellow ;' but ' with 
•a robe of purple, with a scarlet cloak and plume of tricolor, 
' on occasions of solemnity,' the man will look well.i Lepelletier 
Saint-Fargeau, Old-Constituent, is a kind of noble, and of enor- 
mous wealth ; he too has come hither : — to have the Pain of 
Death abolished f Hapless Ex-Parlementeer ! Nay among our 
Sixty Old-Constituents, see Philippe d'Orleans, a Prince of the 
Blood ! Not now U Orleans : for. Feudalism being swept from 
the world, he demands of his v/orthy friends the Electors of 
Paris, to have a new name of their choosing ; whereupon Pro- 
cureur Manuel, like an antithetic literaiy man, recommends 
Equality, Egalitd A Philippe Egalitd therefore will sit ; seen 
of the Earth and Heaven. 

Such a Convention is gathering itself together. Mere angry 
poultry in moulting season ; v/hom Brunswick's grenadiers and 
cannoneers will give short account of Would the weather, as 
Bertrand is always praying, only mend a little I^ 

1 Dictio7inaire des Homines Marquans, § Barras. 
* Bertrand-Moleville, Mdmoires, ii. 225 

44 SEPTEMBER. book i. 


In vain, O Bertrand ! The weather will not mend a whit : 
nay even if it did ? Dumouriez Polymetis, though Bertrand 
knows it not, started from brief slumber at Sedan, on that morn- 
ing of the 29th of August ; with stealthiness, with promptitude, 
audacity. Some three mornings after that, Brunswick, opening 
wide eyes, perceives the Passes of the Argonne all seized ; 
blocked with felled trees, fortified with camps ; and that it is a 
most shifty swift Dumouriez this, who has outwitted him ! 

The manoeuvre may cost Brunswick 'a loss of three weeks,* 
very fatal in these circumstances. A Mountain-wall of forty 
miles lying between him and Paris : which he should have pre- 
occupied ; — which how now to get possession of? Also the rain 
it raineth every day ; and we are in a hungry Champagne Pouil- 
leuse, a land flowing only with ditch-water. How to cross this 
Mountain-wall of the Argonne ; or what in the world to do with 
it ? — There are marchings and wet splashings by steep paths, 
with j^^/^^;7;z^/z/j' and guttural interjections ; forcings of Argonne 
Passes, — which unhappily will not' force. Through the woods, 
volleying War reverberates, like huge gong-music, or Moloch's 
kettledrum, borne by the echoes ; swoln torrents boil angrily 
round the foot of rocks, floating pale carcasses of men. In 
vain ! Islettes Village, with its church-steeple, rises intact in the 
Mountain-pass, between the embosoming heights ; your forced 
marchings and climbings have become forced slidings and tum- 
blings back. From the hill-tops thou seest nothing but dumb 
crags, and endless wet moaning woods ; the Clermont VacJie 
(huge Cow that she is) disclosing herself'' at intervals; flinging- 
ofif her cloud-blanket, and soon taking it on again, drowned in 
the pouring Heaven. The Argonne Passes will not force : you 
must skirt the Argonne : go round by the end of it. 

But fancy whether the Emigrant Seigneurs have not got 
their brilliancy dulled a little ; whether that ' Foot Regiment in 
red-facings with nankeen trousers' could be in field-day order ! 
In place of gasconading, a sort of desperation, and hydrophobia 
from excess of water, is threatening to supervene. Young Prince 
de Ligne, son of that brave literary De Ligne the Thundergod 
of Dandies, fell backwards ; shot dead in Grand-Pr^, the North- 
most of the Passes : Brunswick is skirting and rounding, labor- 
iously, by the extremity of the South. Four days ; days of a 
rain as of Noah, — without fire, without food ! For fire you cut 
" See Helen Maria Williams, Letters, iii. 79-81. 



down green trees, and produce smoke ; for food you eat green 
grapes, and produce colic, pestilential dysenterj^ oABy.onTo ds Xaoi 
And the Peasants assassinate us, they do not join us ; shrill wo- 
men cry shame on us, threaten to draw their very scissors on 
us ! O ye hapless dulled-bright Seigneurs, and hydrophobic 
splashed Nankeens; — but O, ten times more, ye poor sacker- 
fuentmg ghastly-visaged Hessians and Hulans, fallen on your 
backs ; who had no call to die there, except compulsion and 
three-halfpence a-day ! Nor has Mrs. Le Blanc of the Golden 
Arm a good time of it, in her bower of dripping rushes. Assas- 
sinating Peasants are hanged; Old -Constituent Honourable 
Members, though of venerable age, ride in carts with their hands 
tied : these are the woes of war. 

Thus they ; sprawling and wriggling, far and wide, on the 
slopes and passes of the Argonne ; — a loss to Brunswick offive- 
and-twenty disastrous days. There is wriggling and struggling; 
facing, backing and right-about facing ; as the positions shift, 
and the Argonne gets partly rounded, partly forced : — but still 
Dumouriez, force him, round him as you will, sticks like a rooted 
fixture on the ground ; fixture with many hinges j wheeling now 
this way, now that ; showing always new front, in the most un- 
expected manner : nowise consenting to take himself away. 
Recruits stream up on him : full of heart ; yet rather difficult to 
deal with. Behind Grand-Pr^, for example, Grand-Pr(^ which 
is on the wrong-side of the Argonne, for M^e are now forced and 
rounded, — the full heart, in one of those wheelings and show- 
ings of new front, did as it were overset itself, as full hearts are 
liable to do ; and there rose a shriek oi saiive qui peiU, and a 
death-panic which had nigh ruined all ! So that the General had 
to come galloping ; and, with thunder-words, with gesture, stroke 
of drawn sword even, check and rally, and bring back the sense 
of shame ;* — nay to seize the first shriekers and ringleaders ; 

• shave their heads and eyebrows," and pack them forth into the 
world as a sign. Thus too (for really the rations are short, and 
wet camping with hungry stomach brings bad humour) there is 
like to be mutiny. Whereupon again Dumouriez 'arrives at the 
' head of their line, with his staff, and an escort of a hundred 
' hussars. He had placed some squadrons behind them, the ar- 
' tillery in front ; he said to them : "As for you, for I will neither 

• call you citizens, nor soldiers, nor my men (;«' mes enfans), you 

•♦ Dumouriez, Mt'mcires, iii. 29. 


' see before you this artillery, behind you this cavalry. You have 
' dishonoured yourselves by crimes. If you amend, and grow 
' to behave like this brave Army which you ha,ve the honour of 
' belonging to, you will find in me a good father. But plunderers 
' and assassins I do not suffer here. At the smallest mutiny I 
' will have you shivered in pieces {JiacJicr cii pieces). Seek out 
' the Scoundrels that are among you, and dismiss them your- 
' selves ; I hold you responsible for them." '^ 

Patiefice, O Dumouriez ! This uncertain heap of shriekers, 
mutineers, were they once drilled and inured, will become a pha- 
lanxed mass of Fighters ; and wheel and whirl, to order, swiftly 
like the wind or the whirlwind : tanned mustachio-figures ; often 
bare-foot, even bare-backed ; with sinews of iron ; who require 
only bread and gunpowder : very Sons of Fire, the adroitest, 
hastiest, hottest ever seen perhaps since Attila's time. They 
may conquer and overrun amazingly, much as that same Attila 
did ; — whose Attila's-Camp and Battlefield thou now seest, on 
this very ground f who, after sweeping bare the world, was, with 
difficulty, and days of tough fighting, checked here by Roman 
^tius and Fortune ; and his dust-cloud made to vanish in the 
East again ! — 

Strangely enough, in this shrieking Confusion of a Soldiery, 
which we saw long since fallen all suicidally out of square, in 
suicidal collision, — at Nanci, or on the streets of Metz, where 
brave Bouille stood with drawn sword ; and which has collided 
and ground itself to pieces worse and worse ever since, down now 
to such a state : in this shrieking Confusion, and not elsewhere, 
lies the first germ of returning Order for France ! Round which, 
we say, poor France nearly all ground down suicidally likewise into 
rubbish and Chaos, will be glad to rally ; to begin growing, and 
new-shaping her inorganic dust ; very slowly, through centuries, 
through Napoleons, Louis-Philippes, and other the like media and 
phases, — into a new, infinitely preferable France, we can hope ! — 

These wheelings and movements in the region of the Argonne, 
which are all faithfully described by Dumouriez himself, and more 
interesting to us than Hoyle's or Philidor's best Game of Chess, 
let us nevertheless, O Reader, entirely omit ; — and hasten to re- 
mark two things : the first a minute private, the second a large 
public thing. Our minute private thing is : the presence, in the 
^ Dumouriez, Mdmoires, iii. 55. ^ Helen Maria Williams, iii. 32. 

CHAP. vil. IN ARGONNE. 47 

September 20th. 

Prussian host, in that war-game of the Argonne, of a certain 
Man, belonging to the sort called Immortal; who, in days since 
then, is becoming visible more and more in that character, as 
the Transitory more and more vanishes : for from of old it was 
remarked that when the Gods appear among men, it is seldom 
in recognisable shape; thus Admetus's neatherds give Apollo a 
draught of their goatskin whey-bottle (well if they do not give 
him strokes with their oxrungs), not dreaming that he is the Sun- 
god ! This man's name is Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. He 
is Herzog Weimar's Minister, come with the small contingent of 
Weimar ; to do insignificant unmilitary duty here ; very irrecog- 
nisable to nearly all ! He stands at present, with drawn bridle, 
on the height near Sainte-Menehould, making an experiment on 
the ' cannon-fever ;' having ridden thither against persuasion, 
into the dance and firing of the cannon-balls, with a scientific 
desire to understand vdiat that same cannon-fever may be : ' The 
' sound of them,' says he, 'is curious enough; as if it were com- 
' pounded of the humming of tops, the gurgling of water and the 
' whistle of birds. By degrees you get a very uncommon sen- 
' sation ; which can only be described by similitude. It seems 
' as if you were in some place extremely hot, and at the same 
' time were completely penetrated by the heat of it ; so that you 
' feel as if you and this element you are in were perfectly on a 
' par. The eyesight loses nothing of its strength or distinct- 
' ness ; and yet it is as if all things had got a kind of brown-red 
' colour, which makes the situation and the objects still more 
' impressive on you. '7 

This is the cannon-fever, as a World-Poet feels it. — A man 
entirely irrecognisable ! In whose irrecognisable head, mean- 
while, there verily is the spiritual counterpart (and call it comple- 
ment) of this same huge Death-Birth of the World ; which now 
effectuates itself, outwardly in the Argonne, in such cannon-thun- 
der ; inwardly, in the irrecognisable head, quite otherwise than 
by thunder ! Mark that man, O Reader, as the memorablest of 
all the memorable in this Argonne Campaign. What we say 
of him is not dream, nor flourish of rhetoric, but scientific his- 
toric fact ; as many men, now at this distance, see or begin 
to see. 

But the large public thing we had to remark is this : That 
the Twentieth of September 1792 was a raw morning covered 
' Goethe, Campagm in FrankreUh {Werke, xxx. 73). 

48 SEPTEMBER. book I. 


with mist ; that from three in the morning, Sainte-Menehould, 
and those Villages and homesteads we know of old, were stirred 
by the rumble of artillery-wagons, by the clatter of hoofs and 
many-footed tramp of men : all manner of military, Patriot and 
Prussian, taking up positions, on the Heights of La Lune and 
other Heights ; shifting and shoving, — seemingly in some dread 
chess-game ; which may the Heavens turn to good ! The Miller 
of Valmy has fled dusty under ground ; his Mill, were it never 
so windy, will have rest today. At seven in the morning the 
mist clears off: see Kellermann, Dumouriez' second in command, 
with 'eighteen pieces of cannon,' and deep-serried ranks, drawn 
up round that same silent Windmill, on his knoll of strength ; 
Brunswick, also with serried ranks and cannon, glooming over 
to him from the Height of La Lunc : only the little brook and 
its little dell now parting them. 

So that the much-longed-for has come at last ! Instead of 
hunger and dysentery, we shall have sharp shot ; and then ! — 
Dumouriez, with force and firm front, looks on from a neighbour- 
ing height ; can help only with his wishes, in silence. Lo, the 
eighteen pieces do bluster and bark, responsive to the bluster of 
La Lune ; and thunder-clouds mount into the air ; and echoes 
roar through all dells, far into the depths of Argonne Wood (de- 
serted now) ; and limbs and lives of men fly dissipated, this way 
and that. Can Brunswick make an impression on them ? The 
duUed-bright Seigneurs stand biting their thumbs ; these Sans- 
culottes seem not to fly like poultry ! Towards noontide a can- 
non-shot blows Kellermann's horse from under him ; there bursts 
a powder-cart high into the air, with knell heard over all : some 
swagging and swaying observable ; — Brunswickvvill try! "Cama-' 
rades," cries Kellermann, "Vine la Patrie! Aliens valnc7-e pour 
elle. Come let us conquer for her." " Live the Fatherland !" 
rings responsive to the welkin, like rolling-fire from side to side : 
our ranks are as firm as rocks ; and Bnanswick may ^'^cross the 
dell, ineffectual; regain his old position on La Lime; not unbat- 
tered by the way. And so, for the length of a September day, 
— with bluster and bark ; with bellow far-echoing ! The can- 
nonade lasts till sunset ; and no impressioa made. Till an hour 
after sunset, the few remaining Clocks of the District striking 
Seven ; at this late time of day Brunswick tries again. With 
not a v/hit better fortune ! He is met by rock-ranks, by shout 
of Vive la Fatrie; and driven back, not unbattered. Where- 


September 20th. 

upon he ceases ; retires ' to the Tavern of La Lune ;' and sets 

to raising a redoute lest he be attacked ! 

Verily so, ye dulled-bright Seigneurs, make of it what ye 
may. Ah, and France does not rise round us in mass ; and the 
Peasants do not join us, but assassinate us : neither hanging nor 
any persuasion will induce them ! They have lost their old dis- 
tinguishing love of King and King's-cloak, — I fear, altogether ; 
and will even fight to be rid of it : that seems now their humour. 
Nor does Austria prosper, nor the siege of Thionville. The 
Thionvillers, carrying their insolence to the epigrammatic pitch, 
have put a Wooden Horse on their walls, with a bundle of Hay 
hung from him, and this Inscription: " When I finish my hay, 
you will take Thionville. "^ To such height has the frenzy of 
mankind risen. 

The trenches of Thionville may shut ; and what though those 
of Lille open ? The Earth smiles not on us, nor the Heaven ; 
but weeps and blears itself, in sour rain, and worse. Our very 
friends insult us ; we are wounded in the house of our friends : 
' His Majesty of Prussia had a greatcoat, when the rain came ; 
' and (contrary to all known laws) he put it on, though our two 
' French Princes, the hope of their country, had none !' To which 
indeed, as Goethe admits, what answer could be made?9 — Cold 
and Hunger and Affront, Colic and Dysentery and Death ; and 
we here, cowering redouted, most unredoubtable, amid the ' tat- 
tered cornshocks and deformed stubble,' on the splashy Height 
of La Lune, round the mean Tavern de la Lune ! — 

This is the Cannonade of Valmy ; wherein the World-Poet 
experimented on the cannon-fever ; wherein the French Sans- 
culottes did not fly like poultry. Precious to France ! Every 
soldier did his duty, and Alsatian Kellermann (how preferable to 
old Liickner the dismissed !) began to become greater ; and 
tgaliti Fils, Equality Junior, a light gallant Field-Officer, distin- 
guished himself by intrepidity : — it is the same intrepid individual 
who now, as Louis-Philippe, withoutthe Equality, struggles, under 
sad circumstances, to be called King of the French for a 

8 Hist. Pari. xix. 177. ^ Goethe, xx.^. 49. 


50 SEPTEMBER. book i, 




But this Twentieth of September is otherwise a great day. 
For, observe, while Kellermann's horse was flying blown from 
under him at the Mill of Valmy, our new National Deputies,, 
that shall be a National Convention, are hovering and gather- 
ing about the Hall of the Hundred Swiss : with intent to con- 
stitute themselves ! 

On the morrow, about noontide, Camus the Archivist is 
busy 'verifying their powers;' several hundi'eds of them already 
here. Whereupon the Old Legislative comes solemnly over, to 
merge its old ashes phoenix-like in the body of the nev/ ; — and 
so forthwith, returning all solemnly back to the Salle de Manege, 
there sits a National Convention, Seven-hundred and Forty-nine 
complete, or complete enough ; presided by Pdtion ; — which 
proceeds directly to do business. Read that reported after- 
noon's-debate, O Reader ; there are few debates like it : dull 
reporting Monitciir itself becomes more dramatic than a very 
Shakspeare. For epigrammatic Manuel rises, speaks strange 
things ; how the President shall have a guard of honour, and 
lodge in the Tuileries : — rejected. And Danton rises and speaks ; 
and Collot d'Herbois rises, and Curate Grdgoire, and lame Cou- 
thon of the Mountain rises ; and in rapid Meliboean stanzas, 
only a fev/ lines each, they propose motions not a few ; That 
the corner-stone of our new Constitution is. Sovereignty of the 
People ; that our Constitution shall be accepted by the People 
or be null ; further that the People ought to be avenged, and 
have right Judges ; that the Imposts must continue till new 
order ; that Landed and other Property be sacred forever ; finally 
that ' Royalty from this day is abolished in France :' — Decreed 
all, before four o'clock strike, with acclamation of the world !' 
The tree was all so ripe ; only shake it, and there fall such 
yellow cartloads. 

And so over in the Valmy Region, as soon as the news 
come, what stir is this, audible, visible from our muddy Heights 
of La Lune ?- Universal shouting of the French on their op- 
posite hill-side ; caps raised on bayonets : and a sound as of 
^ Hhl. Pari. xix. 19. ^ William' iii. 71. 

CHAP. viii. EXEUNT. 5 J 

September 29th. 

Rep7ibUqiie : Vive la Rep7iblique borne dubious on the winds ! 
— On the morrow morning, so to speak, Brunswick slings his 
knapsaxks before day, lights any fires he has ; and marches 
without tap of drum. Dumouriez finds ghastly symptoms in 
that camp ; ' latrines full of blood' !■'' The chivalrous King of 
Prussia, — for he, as we saw, is here in person, — may long rue 
the day ; may look colder than ever on these dulled-bright 
Seigneurs, and French Princes their Country's hope ; — and, on 
the whole, put on his greatcoat without ceremony, happy that 
he has one. They retire, all retire with convenient despatch, 
through a Champagne trodden into a quagmire, the wild wea- 
ther pouring on them : Dumouriez, through his Kellermanns 
and Dillons, pricking them a little in the hinder parts. A little, 
not much ; now pricking, now negotiating : for Brunsvi^ick has 
his eyes opened ; and the Majesty of Prussia is a repentant 

Nor has Austria prospered ; nor the Wooden Horse of 
Thionville bitten his hay ; nor Lille City surrendered itself. 
The Lille trenches opened on the 29th of the month; with 
balls and shells, and redhot balls ; as if not trenches but Ve- 
suvius and the Pit had opened. It was frightful, say all eye- 
witnesses ; but it is ineffectual. The Lillers have risen to such 
temper ; especially after these news from Argonne and the East. 
Not a Sans-indispensables in Lille that would surrender for a 
King's ransom. Redhot balls rain, day and night ; • six-thou- 
sand,' or so, and bombs 'filled internally with oil of turpentine 
which splashes up in flame ;' — mainly on the dwellings of the 
Sansculottes and Poor ; the streets of the Rich being spared. 
But the Sansculottes get water-pails ; form quenching-regula- 
tions : " The ball is in Peter's house !" " The ball is in John's 1" 
They divide their lodging and substance with each other ; shout 
Vive la Rcpubliquej and faint not in heart. A ball thunders 
through the main chamber of the H6tel-de-Ville while the Com- 
mune is there assembled : "We are in permanence," says one 
coldly, proceeding with his business ; and the ball remains per- 
manent too, sticking in the wall, probably to this day."* 

The Austrian Archduchess (Queen's Sister) will herself see 
red artillery fired : in their over-haste to satisfy an Archduchess, 
'two mortars explode and kill thirty persons.' It is in vain; 

'^ ist October 1792 : Dumouriez, iii. 73. 

* Bombardement de Lille ^nliist. Pari. xx. 63-71). 


Lille, often burning, is always quenched again ; Lille will not 
yield. The very boys deftly wrench the matches out of fallen 
bombs : ' aman clutches a rolling ball with his hat, which takes 
fire ; when cool, they crown it with a bonnet rouge.' Memor- 
able also be that nimble Barber, who when the bomb burst 
beside him, snatched up a sherd of it, introduced soap and 
lather into it, crying, " Voila inon plat d. barbe, My new shaving- 
dish !" and shaved ' fourteen people' on the spot. Bravo, thou 
nimble Shaver ; worthy to shave old spectral Redcloak, and 
find treasures !— On the eighth day of this desperate siege, the 
sixth day of October, Austria, finding it fruitless, draws off, with 
no pleasurable consciousness ; rapidly, Dumouriez tending thi- 
therward ; and Lille too, black with ashes and smoulder, but 
jubilant skyhigh, flings its gates open. The Plat ct barbe be- 
came fashionable ; 'no Patriot of an elegant turn,' says Mercier 
several years afterwards, ' but shaves himself out of the splinter 
of a Lille bomb.' 

Quid niulta, Why many words ? The Invaders are in flight ; 
Brunswick's Host, the third part of it gone to death, staggers 
disastrous along the deep highways of Champagne ; spreading 
out also into ' the fields of a tough spongy red-coloured clay :' 
— ' like Pharaoh through a Red Sea of mud,' says Goethe ; ' for 
' here also lay broken chariots, and riders and foot seemed sink- 

• ing around. '5 On the eleventh morning of October, the World- 
Poet, struggling Northwards out of Verdun, which he had en- 
tered Southwards, some five weeks ago, in quite other order, 
discerned the following Phenomenon and formed part of it : 

' Towards three in the morning, without having had any 
' sleep, we were about mounting our carriage, drawn up at the 
' door ; when an insuperable obstacle disclosed itself : for there 

• rolled on already, between the pavement-stones which were 
' crushed up into a ridge on each side, an uninterrupted column 
' of sick-wagons through the Town, and all was trodden as into 
' a morass. While we stood v/aiting what could be made of it, 
' our Landlord the Knight of Saint-Louis pressed past us, with- 
' out salutation.' He had been a Calonne's Notable in 1787, 
an Emigrant since ; had returned to his home, jubilant, with 
the Prussians ; but must now forth again into the wide world, 

• followed by a servant carrying a little bundle on his stick.' 

•* Campcii^nc in Frankrcich, p. 103. 


October nth. 

' The activity of our alert Lisieux shone eminent, and on 
' this occasion too brought us on : for he struck into a small 
' gap of the wagon-row ; and held the advancing team back 
' till we, with our six and our four horses, got intercalated ; 
' after which, in my light little coachlet, I could breathe freer. 
' We were now under way ; at a funeral pace, but still under 
' way. The day broke ; we found ourselves at the outlet of 
' the Town, in a tumult and turmoil without measure. All sorts 
' of vehicles, few horsemen, innumerable foot-people, were cross- 
' ing each other on the great esplanade before the Gate. We 
' turned to the right, with our Column, towards Estain, on a 
' limited highway, with ditches at each side. Self-preservation, 

* in so monstrous a press, knew now no pity, no respect of 
' aught. Not far before us there fell down a horse of an am- 
' munition-wagon ; they cut the traces, and let it lie. And now 
' as the three others could not bring their load along, they cut 
' them also loose, tumbled the heavy-packed vehicle into the 
' ditch ; and with the smallest retardation, we had to drive on 
' right over the horse, which was just about to rise ; and I saw 
' too clearly how its legs, under the wheels, went crashing and 
' quivering. 

' Horse and foot endeavoured to escape from the narrow 
' laborious highway into the meadows : but these too were 
' rained to ruin ; overflowed by full ditches, the connexion of 
' the footpaths everywhere interrupted. Four gentleman-like, 

* handsome, well-dressed French soldiers waded for a time be- 
' side our carriage ; wonderfully clean and neat : and had such 
' art of picking their steps, that their foot-gear testified no higher 
' than the ankle to the muddy pilgrimage these good people 
' found themselves engaged in. 

♦ That under such circumstances one saw, in ditches, in 
' meadows, in fields and crofts, dead horses enough, was natural 
' to the case : by and by, however, you found them also flayed, 
' the fleshy parts even cut away ; sad token of the universal 
' distress. 

' Thus we fared on ; every moment in danger, at the small- 
' est stoppage on our own part, of being ourselves tumbled over* 
' board ; under which circumstances, truly, the careful dexterity 
' of our Lisieux cpuld not be sufficiently praised. The same 
' talent showed itself at Estain ; where we arrived tovvai-ds noon ; 

* and descried, over the beautiful well-built little Town, through 

54 SEPTEMBER. book f. 


• streets and on squares, around and beside us, one sense-con- 
' fusing tumult : the mass rolled this way and that ; and, all 
' struggling forward, each hindered the other. Unexpectedly 
' our carriage drew up before a stately house in the market- 

• place ; master and mistress of the mansion saluted us in re- 
' verent distance.' Dexterous Lisieux, though we knew it not, 
had said we were the King of Prussia's Brother ! 

' But now, from the ground-floor windows, looking over the 
' whole marketplace, we had the endless tumult lying, as it were, 
' palpable. All sorts of walkers, soldiers in uniform, marauders, 
' stout but sorrowing citizens and peasants, women and children, 
' crushed and jostled each other, amid vehicles of all forms : 
' ammunition-wagons, baggage-wagons ; carriages, single, double 
' and multiplex ; such hundredfold miscellany of teams, requisi- 
' tioned or lawfully owned, making way, hitting together, hin- 
' dering each other, rolled here to right and to left. Horned- 
' cattle too were struggling on ; probably herds that had been 
' put in requisition. Riders you saw few ; but the elegant car- 
' riages of the Emigrants, many-coloured, lackered, gilt and sil- 
' vered, evidently by the best builders, caught your eye.^ 

'The crisis of the strait, however, arose farther on a little ; 
' where the crowded marketplace had to introduce itself into a 
' street, — straight indeed and good, but proportionably far too 
' narrow. I have, in my life, seen nothing like it : the aspect 
' of it might perhaps be compared to that of a swoln river which 
' has been raging over meadows and fields, and is now again 
' obliged to press itself through a narrow bridge, and flow on 

• in its bounded channel. Down the long street, all visible from 

• our windows, there swelled continually the strangest tide : a 
' high double-seated travelling coach towered visible over the 
' flood of things. We thought of the fair Frenchwomen we had 
' seen in the morning. It was not they, however; it was Count 
' Haugwitz ; him you could look at, with a kind of sardonic 

• malice, rocking onwards, step by step, there. '7 

In such untriumphant Procession has the Brunsv/ick Mani- 
festo issued ! Nay in worse, ' in Negotiation with these mis- 
creants,' — the first news of which produced such a revulsion in 
the Emigrant nature, as put our scientific World-Poet ' in fear 

" ^ze.Hermaniiund Dorothea (also by Goethe), Buch A'lr/.'A/t'. 

' Campagne iiiFraitkreich, Goethe's W'crke (Stutlgiirt, iSjo), xxi;. 133- 


October nth. 

for the wits of several.'^ There is no help • they must fare on, 
these poor Emigrants, angry with all persons and things, and 
making all persons angry in the hapless course they struck into. 
Landlord and landlady testify to you, at iables-d'hote, how in- 
supportable these Frenchmen are : how, in spite of such humi- 
liation, of poverty and probable beggary, there is ever the same 
struggle for precedence, the same forwardness and want of dis- 
cretion. High in honour, at the head of the table, you with 
your own eyes observe not a Seigneur, but the automaton of a 
Seigneur fallen into dotage ; still worshipped, reverently waited 
on and fed. In miscellaneous seats is a miscellany of soldiers, 
commissaries, adventurers ; consuming silently their barbarian 
victuals. ' On all brows is to be read a hard destiny ; all are 
' silent, for each has his own sufferings to bear, and looks forth 
' into misery without bounds.' One hasty wanderer, coming in, 
and eating without ungraciousness what is set before him, the 
landlord lets off almost scot-free. " He is," whispered the land- 
lord to me, " the first of these cursed people I have seen con- 
descend to taste our German black bread,"9 

And Dumouriez is in Paris ; lauded and feasted ; paraded 
in glittering saloons, floods of beautifulest blonde-dresses and 
broadcloth-coats flov/ing past him, endless, in admiring joy. 
One night, nevertheless, in the splendour of one such scene, he 
sees himself suddenly apostrophised bya squahdunjoyful Figure, 
who has come in ?/;«invited, nay despite of all lackeys ; an un- 
joyful Figure ! The Figure is come "in express mission from 
the Jacobins," to inquire sharply, better then than later, touch- 
ing certain things: "Shaven eyebrows of Volunteer Patriots, 
for instance?" Also, "your threats of shivering in pieces?" 
Also, " why you have not chased Brunswick hotly enough ?" 
Thus, with sharp croak, inquires the Figure. — ''Ah, c'est vous 
qiion appelle Marat, You are he they call Marat !" answers 
the General, and turns coldly on his — " Marat !" The 
blonde-gowns quiver like aspens ; the dress-coats gather round ; 
Actor Talma (for it is his house), Actor Talma, and almost the 

8 Campagne in Frankreich, Goethe's Werke, xx.x. 152. 

9 Ibid. p. 210-12. 

10 Dumouriez, iii.- 115.— Marat's account, m^hzDihats des Jacobins -xi^^ 
Journal de la R^publiqm [Hist. Pari. xix. 317-21), agrees to the turning on 
the heel, but strives to inteipret it differently. 

56 SEPTEMBER. book i. 

very chandelier-lights, are blue : till this obscene Spectrum, 
swart unearthly Visual-Appearance, vanish, back into its native 

General Dumouriez, in few brief days, is gone again, to- 
wards the Netherlands ; will attack the Netherlands, winter 
though it be. And General Montesquiou, on the Southeast, has 
driven in the Sardinian Majesty ; nay, almost without a shot 
fired, has taken Savoy from him, which longs to become a piece 
of the Republic. And General Custine, on the Northeast, has 
dashed forth on Spires and its Arsenal ; and then on Electoral 
Mentz, not uninvited, wherein are German Democrats and no 
shadow of an Elector now : so that in the last days of October, 
Frau Forster, a daughter of Heyne's, somewhat democratic, 
walking out of ,the Gate of Mentz with her Husband, finds 
French Soldiers playing at bowls with cannon-balls there. 
Forster trips cheerfully over one iron bomb, with " Live the 
Republic !" A black-bearded National Guard answers : " Eile 
vivra bieii sans vous, It will probably live independently of 
you "^^ 

"^ Johann Georg Forster 's Briefwecksel (Leipzig, 1829), i. 88. 




France therefore has done two things very completely : she 
has hurled back her Cimmerian Invaders far over the marches ; 
and likewise she has shattered her own internal Social Constitu- 
tion, even to the minutest fibre of it, into wreck and dissolution. 
Utterly it is all altered : from King down to Parish Constable, 
all Authorities, Magistrates, Judges, persons that bore rule, have 
had, on the sudden, to alter themselves, so far as needful ; or 
else, on the sudden, and not without violence, to be altered ; a 
Patriot 'Executive Council of Ministers,' with a Patriot Danton 
in it, cmd then a v/hole Nation and National Convention, have 
taken care of that. Not a Parish Constable, in the farthest 
hamlet, who has said De par le Roi, and shown loyalty, but 
must retire, making way for a new improved Parish Constable 
who can say De par la Repiiblique. 

It is a change such as History must beg her readers to 
imagine, ///^described. An instantaneous change of the whole 
body-politic, the soul-politic being all changed ; such a change 
as few bodies, politic or other, can experience in this world. 
Say, perhaps, such as poor Nymph Semeie's body did expe- 
rience, when she would needs, with woman's humour, see her 
Olympian Jove as vciy Jove ; — and so stood, poor Nymph, this 
moment Semele, next moment not Semele, but Flame and a 
Statue of red-hot Ashes ! France has looked upon Democracy ; 
seen it face to face. — The Cimmerian Invaders will rally, in 
humbler temper, with better or worse luck : the wreck and dis- 
solution must reshape itself into a social Arrangement as it can 


and may. But as for this National Convention, which is to 
settle everything, if it do, as Deputy Paine and France generally 
expects, get all finished ' in a few months,' we shall call it a 
most deft Convention. 

In truth, it is very singular to see how this mercurial French 
People plunges suddenly from Vive le Rol to Vive la Repiiblique; 
and goes simmering and dancing, shaking off daily (so to speak), 
and trampling into the dust, its old social garnitures, ways of 
thinking, rules of existing ; and cheerfully dances towards the 
Ruleless, Unknown, with such hope in its heart, and nothing 
but Freedotn, Equality and Brotherhood in its mouth. Is it 
two centuries, or is it only two years, since all France roared 
simultaneously to the welkin, bursting forth into sound and 
smoke at its Feast of Pikes, "Live the Restorer of French 
Liberty" ? Three short years ago there was still Versailles and 
an QEil-de-Boeuf : now there is that watched Circuit of the 
Temple, girt with dragon-eyed Municipals, where, as in its final 
limbo. Royalty lies extinct. In the year 1789, Constituent 
Deputy Barrere 'wept,' in his Break-of-Day Newspaper, at 
sight of a reconciled King Louis; and now in 1792, Conven- 
tion Deputy Barrere, perfectly tearless, may be considering, 
whether the reconciled King Louis shall be guillotined or not ! 

Old garnitures and social vestures drop off (we say) so fast, 
being indeed quite decayed, and are trodden under the National 
dance. And the new vestures, where are they ; the new modes 
and rules ? Liberty, Equality, Fraternity : not vestures, but the 
wish for vestures ! The Nation is for the present, figuratively 
speaking, naked; it has no rule or vesture ; but is naked, — a 
Sansculottic Nation. 

So far therefore, and in such manner, have our Patriot 
Brissots, Guadets triumphed. Vergniaud's Ezekiel-visions of the 
fall of thrones and crowns, which he spake hypothetically and 
prophetically in the Spring of the year, have suddenly come to 
fulfilment in the Autumn. Our eloquent Patriots of the Legis- 
lative, like strong Conjurors, by the word of their mouth, have 
swept Royalism with its old modes and formulas to the winds ; 
and shall now govern a France free of formulas. Free of for- 
mulas ! And yet man lives not except v;ith formulas ; with cus- 
toms, ways of doing and living : no text truer than this ; which 
will hold true from the Tea-table and Tailor's shopboard up to 
the High Senate-houses, Solemn Temples ; nay through all pro- 


September 21st. 

vinces of Mind and Imagination, onwards to the outmost con- 
fines of articulate Being, — Ubi homines sunt modi simt. There 
are modes wherever there are men. It is the deepest law of man's 
nature ; whereby man is a craftsman and 'tool-using animal ;' not 
the slave of Impulse, Chance and brute Nature, but in some 
measure their lord. Twenty-five millions of men, suddenly stript 
bare of their modi, and dancing them down in that manner, are 
a terrible thing to govern ! 

Eloquent Patriots of the Legislative, meanwhile, have pre- 
cisely this problem to solve. Under the name and nickname of 
• statesmen, hommes d'etat,' of ' moderate men, mode'rantins,' 
of Brissotins, Rolandins, finally of Girondins, they shall become 
world-famous in solving it. For the Twenty-five miUions are 
Gallic effervescent too ; — filled both with hope of the unutter- 
able, of universal Fraternity and Golden Age ; and with terror 
of the unutterable, Cimmerian Europe all rallying on us. It is 
a problem like few. Truly, if man, as the Philosophers brag, 
did to any extent look before and after, what, one may ask, in 
many cases would become of him? What, in this case, would be- 
come of these Seven-hundred and Forty-nine men? The Conven- 
tion, seeing clearly before and after, were a paralysed Convention. 
Seeing clearly to the length of its own nose, it is not paralysed. 
To the Convention itself neither the work nor the method of 
doing it is doubtful ! To make the Constitution ; to defend the 
Repubhc till that be made. Speedily enough, accordingly, there 
has been a 'Committee of the Constitution' got together. Sieyes, 
Old-Constituent, Constitution-builder by trade ; Condorcet, fit 
for better things; Deputy Paine, foreign Benefactor of the Species, 
with that ' red carbuncled face and the black beaming eyes ;' 
Hdrault de Sechelles, Ex-Parlementeer, one of the handsomest 
men in France ; these, with inferior guild-brethren, are girt cheer- 
fully to the work ; will once more ' make the Constitution ;' let 
us hope, more effectually than last time. For that the Constitu • 
tion can be made, who doubts, — unless the Gospel of Jean 
Jacques came into the world in vain ? True, our last Constitu- 
tion did tumble within the year, so lamentably. But what then ; 
except sort the rubbish and boulders, and build them up again 
better ? ' Widen your basis,' for one thing, — to Universal Suf- 
frage, if need be ; exclude rotten materials, Royalism and such- 
like, for another thing. And in brief, build, O unspeakable Sieyes 
and Company, unwearied ! Frequent perilous downrushing of 

6o REGICIDE. book ii. 

scaffolding and rubblework, be that an irritation, no discourage- 
ment. Start ye always again, clearing aside the wreck ; if with 
broken limbs, yet with whole hearts ; and build, we say, in the 
name of Heaven, — till either the work do stand ; or else man- 
kind abandon it, and the Constitution-builders be paid off, with 
laughter and tears ! One good time, in the course of Eternity, 
it was appointed that this of Social Contract too should try itself 
out. And so the Committee of Constitution shall toil : with hope 
and faith; — with no disturbance from any reader of these pages. 

To make the Constitution, then, and return home joyfully in a 
few months ; this is the prophecy our National Convention gives 
of itself ; by this scientific program shall its operations and events 
go on. But from the best scientific program, in such a case, to 
the actual fulfilment, what a difference! Every reunion of men, 
is it not, as we often say, a reunion of incalculable Influences ; 
every unit of it a microcosm of Influences ; — of which how shall 
Science calculate or prophesy ? Science, which cannot, with all 
its calculuses, differential, integral and of variations, calculate 
the Problem of Three gravitating Bodies, ought to hold her 
peace here, and say only: In this National Convention there are 
Seven-hundred and Forty-nine very singular Bodies, that gravi- 
tate and do much else ;— who, probably in an amazing manner, 
will work the appointment of Heaven. 

Of National Assemblages, Parliaments, Congresses, which 
have long sat ; which are of saturnine temperament ; above all, 
which are not ' dreadfully in earnest,' something may be com- 
puted or conjectured : yet even these are a kind of Mystery in 
progress, — whereby accordingly we see the Journalist Reporter 
find livelihood: even these jolt madly out of the ruts, from time 
to time. How much more a poor National Convention, of 
French vehemence ; urged on at such velocity ; without routine, 
without rut, track or landmark ; and dreadfully in earnest every 
man of them ! It is a Parliament literally such as there was 
never elsewhere in the world. Themselves are new, unarrangcd ; 
they are the Heart and presiding centre of a Finance fallen 
wholly into maddest disarrangement. From all cities, hamlets, 
from the utmost ends of this France with its Twenty-five mil- 
lion vehement souls, thick-streaming influences storm-in on that 
same Heart, in the Salle de Mandge, and storm-out again: sucli 
fiery venous-arterial circulation is the function of that Pleart. 
Seven-hundred and Forty-nine human individuals, we say, never 


September 21st. 

sat together on our Earth under more original circumstances. 
Common individuals most of them, or not far from common : yet 
in virtue of the position they occupied, so notable. How, in this 
wild piping of the whirlwind of human passions, with death, vic- 
tory, terror, valour, and all height and all depth pealing and 
piping, these men, left to their own guidance, will speak and 

Readers know well that this French National Convention 
(quite contrary to its own Program) became the astonishment 
and horror of mankind ; a kind of Apocalyptic Convention, or 
black Dream become real; concerning which History seldom 
speaks except in the way of interjection : how it covered France 
with wo, delusion and delirium ; and from its bosom there went 
forth Death on the pale Horse. To hate this poor National 
Convention is easy ; to praise and love it has not been found 
impossible. It is, as we say, a Parliament in the most original 
circumstances.' To us, in these pages, be it as a fuliginous 
fiery mystery, where Upper has met Nether, and in such alter- 
nate glare and blackness of darkness poor bedazzled mortals 
know not which is Upper, which is Nether ; but rage and plunge 
distractedly, as mortals in that case will do. A Convention 
which has to consume itself, suicidally ; and become dead ashes 
— with its World ! Behoves us, not to enter exploratively its dim 
embroiled deeps ; yet to stand with unwavering eyes, looking 
how it welters ; what notable phases and occurrences it will suc- 
cessively throw up. 

One general superficial circumstance we remark with praise : 
the force of Politeness. To such depth has the sense of civilisa- 
tion penetrated man's life ; no Drouet, no Legendre, in the mad 
dest tug of war, can altogether shake it off. Debates of Senates 
dreadfully in earnest are seldom given frankly to the world ; else 
perhaps they v/ould surprise it. Did not the Grand Monarque 
himself once chase his Louvois with a pair of brandished tongs ? 
But reading long volumes of these Convention Debates, all in a 
foam with furious earnestness, earnest many times to the extent 
of life and death, one is struck rather with the degree of con- 
tinence they manifest in speech ; and how in such wild ebullition, 
there is still a kind of polite rule struggling for mastery, and the 
forms of social life never altogether disappear. These men, 
though they menace with clenched right-hands, do not clutch one 


another by the collar ; they draw no daggers, except for oratorical 
purposes, and this not often : profane swearing is almost unknov/n, 
though the Reports are frank enough ; we find only one or two 
oaths, oaths by Marat, reported in all. 

For the rest, that there is ' effervescence' who doubts ? Effer- 
vescence enough ; Decrees passed by acclamation today, repealed 
by vociferation tomorrow ; temper fitful, most rotatory-changeful, 
always headlong ! The ' voice of the orator is covered with ru- 
' mours ;' a hundred ' honourable Members rush with menaces 
' towards the Left side of the Hall;' President has 'broken three 
' bells in succession,' — claps on his hat, as signal that the coun- 
try is near ruined. A fiercely effervescent Old-Gallic Assemblage ! 
— Ah, how the loud sick sounds of Debate, and of Life, which 
is a debate, sink silent one after another : so loud now, and in a 
little while so low ! Brennus, and those antique Gael Captains, 
in their way to Rome, to Galatia and such places, whither they 
were in the habit of marching in the most fiei'y manner, had 
Debates as effervescent, doubt it not ; though no Moniteiir has 
reported them. They scolded in Celtic Welsh, those Brennuses ; 
neither were they Sansculotte; nay rather breeches {bracca;, say 
of felt or rough-leather) were the only thing they had; being, as 
Livy testifies, naked clown to the haunches : — and, see, it is the 
same sort of work and of men still, now when they have got coats, 
and speak nasally a kind of broken Latin ! But, on the whole, 
does not Time envelope this present National Convention; as it 
did those Brennuses, and ancient august Senates in felt breeches? 
Time surely: and also Eternity. Dim dusk of Time, — or noon 
which will be dusk ; and then there is night, and silence ; and 
Time with all its sick noises is swallowed in the still sea. Pity 
thy brother, O son of Adam ! The angriest frothy jargon that 
he utters, is it not properly the whimpering of an infant which 
camiot speak what ails it, but is in distress clearly, in the inwards 
of it ; and so must squall and whimper continually, till its Mother 
take it, and it get — to sleep ! 

This Convention is not four days old, and the melodious 
Melibcean stanzas that shook down Royalty are still fresh in our 
ear, when there bursts out a new diapason, — unhappily, of Dis- 
cord, this time. For speech has been made of a thing difficult 
to speak of well : tlie September Massacres. How deal with 
these September Massacres; with the Paris Commune that pie- 


September 21st. 

sided over them ? A Paris Commune hateful-terrible ; before 
which the poor effete Legislative had to quail, and sit quiet. 
And now if a young omnipotent Convention will not so quail and 
sit, what steps shall it take ? Have a Departmental Guard in 
its pay, answer the Girondins and Friends of Order! A Guard 
of National Volunteers, missioned from all the Eighty-three or 
Eighty-five Departments, for that express end ; these will keep 
Septemberers, tumultuous Communes in a due state of submis- 
siveness, the Convention in a due state of sovereignty. So have 
the Friends of Order answered, sitting in Committee, and report- 
ing; and even a Decree has been passed of the required tenour. 
Nay certain Departments, as the Var or Marseilles, in mere 
expectation and assurance of a Decree, have their contingent 
of Volunteers already on march ; brave iVIarseillese, foremost on 
the Tenth of August, will not be hindmost here : ' fathers gave 
' their sons a musket and twenty-five louis,' says Barbaroux, 'and 
' bade them march.' 

Can anything be properer ? A Republic that will found 
itself on justice must needs investigate September Massacres ; 
a Convention calling itself National, ought it not to be guarded 
by a National force.? — Alas, Reader, it seems so to the eye : 
and yet there is much to be said and argued. Thou beholdest 
here the small beginning of a Controversy, which mere logic 
will not settle. Two small v>^ell-springs, September, Depart- 
mental Guard, or rather at bottom they are but one and the 
same small well-spring ; which will swell and widen into waters 
of bitterness ; all manner of subsidiary streams and brooks of 
bittei^ness flowing in, from this side and that ; till it become 
a wide river of bitterness, of rage and separation, — v/hich can 
subside only into the Catacombs. This Departmental Guard, 
decreed by overwhelming majorities, and then repealed for 
peace's sake, and not to insult Paris, is again decreed more 
than once ; nay it is partially executed, and the very men that 
are to be of it are seen visibly parading the Paris streets, — 
shouting once, being overtaken v/ith liquor : "A bas Marat, Down 
with Mara.t !"i Nevertheless, decreed never so often, it is re- 
pealed just as often ; and coiitinues, for some seven months an 
angry noisy Hypothesis only : a fair Possibihty struggling to 
become a Reality, but which shall never be one ; which, after 
endless struggling, shall, in February next, sink into sad rest, 
1 HLt. Pari. xx. 184. 

64 REGICIDE. book ii. 

— dragging much along with it. So singular are the ways of 
men and honourable Members. 

But on this fourth day of the Convention's existence, as we 
said, which is the 25th of September 1792, there Com- 
mittee Report on that Decree of the Departmental Guard, and 
speech of repealing it ; there come denunciations of Anarchy, 
of a Dictatorship, — which let the incorruptible Robespierre con- 
sider : there come denunciations of a certain Journal de la 
R^p7ibliqi(e, once called ^;;zz' ^7^ Peuplej and so thereupon there 
comes, visibly stepping up, visibly standing aloft on the Tri- 
bune, ready to speak, — the Bodily Spectrum of People's-Friend 
Marat ! Shriek, ye Seven-hundred and Forty-nine ; it is verily 
Marat, he and not another. Marat is no phantasm of the brain, 
or mere lying impress of Printer's Types ; but a thing material, 
of joint and sinew, and a certain small stature ; ye behold him 
there, in his blackness, in his dingy squalor, a living fraction 
of Chaos and Old Night ; visibly incarnate, desirous to speak. 
"It appears," says Marat to the shrieking Assembly, "that a 
great many persons here are enemies of mine." — "All! all!" 
shriek hundreds of voices : enough to drown any I'eople's- 
Friend. But Marat will not drown : he speaks and croaks ex- 
planation ; croaks with such reasonableness, air of sincerity, 
that repentant pity smothers anger, and the shrieks subside, or 
even become applauses. For this Convention is unfortunately 
the crankest of machines : it shall be pointing eastward with 
stiff violence this moment ; and then do but touch some spring 
dexterously, the whole machine, clattering and jerking se\;en- 
hundredfold, will whirl with huge crash, and, next moment, is 
pointing westward ! Thus Marat, absolved and applauded, vic- 
torious in this turn of fence, is, as the Debate goes on, prickt 
at again by some dexterous Girondin ; and then the shrieks 
rise anew, and Decree of Accusation is on the point qf passing ; 
till the dingy People's-Friend bobs aloft once more; croaks 
once more persuasive stillness, and the Decree of Accusation 
sinks. Whereupon he draws forth — a Pistol ; and setting it 
to his Head, the seat of such thought and prophecy, says : ' If 
' they had passed their Accusation Decree, he, the People's- 
' Friend, would have blown his brains out.' A People's-Friend 
has that faculty in him. For the rest, as to this of the two- 
hundred and sixty-thousand Aristocrat Heads, Marat candidly 
says, " Cest lei moii avis, Such is my opinion." Also is it not 



indisputable : "No power on Earth can prevent me from seeing 
into traitors, and unmasking them," — by my superior originahty 
of mind?2 An honourable member like this Friend of the 
People few terrestrial Parliaments have had. 

We observe, however, that this first onslaught by the Friends 
of Order, as sharp and prompt as it was, has failed. For nei- 
ther can Robespierre, summoned out by talk of Dictatorship, 
and greeted with the like rumour on showing himself, be thrown 
into Prison, into Accusation ; not though Barbaroux openly bear 
testimony against him, and sign it on paper. With such sancti- 
fied meekness does the Incorruptible lift his seagreen cheek to 
the smiter ; lift his thin voice, and with Jesuitic dexterity plead, 
and prosper; asking at last, in a prosperous manner: "But 
what witnesses has the Citoyen Barbaroux to support his testi- 
mony ?" " MoiJ" cries hot Rebecqui, standing up, striking his 
breast with both hands, and answering " Me !"3 Nevertheless 
the Seagreen pleads again, and makes it good : the long hurly- 
burly, ' personal merely,' while so much public matter lies fallow, 
has ended in the order of the day. O Friends of the Gironde, 
why will you occupy our august sessions with mere paltry Per- 
sonalities, while the grand Nationality lies in such a state ? — The 
Gironde has touched, this day, on the foul black-spot of its fair 
Convention Domain ; has trodden on it, and yet twt trodden it 
down. Alas, it is a well-spring, as we said, this black-spot ; 
and will not tread down ! 



May we not conjecture therefore that round this grand en- 
terprise of Making the Constitution, there will, as heretofore, 
very strange embroilments gather, and questions and interests 
complicate themselves ; so that after a few or even several 
months, the Convention will not have settled everything ? Alas, 
a whole tide of questions comes rolling, boiling ; growing ever 
wider, without end ! Among which, apart from this question of 
September and Anarchy, let us notice three, which emerge ottener 

2 Moniteur Newspaper, Nos. 271, 280, 294, Annee premiere ; Moore's 
Journal, ii. 21, 157, &c. (which, however, may perhaps, as in similar cases, 
be only a copy of the Newspaper). 

3 Moniteur, ut supra : Seance du 25 Septembre. 

VOL. III. » 


than the others, and promise to become Leading Questions : Of 
the Armies; of the Subsistences ; thirdly, of the Dethroned King. 

As to the Armies, Pubhc Defence must evidently be put on 
a proper footing ; for Europe seems coalising itself again ; one 
is apprehensive even England will join it. Happily Dumouriez 
prospers in the North ; — nay, what if he should prove ioo pro- 
sperous, and become Liberticidc, Murderer of Freedom ! — Du- 
mouriez prospers, through this winter season ; yet not without 
lamentable complaints. Sleek Pache, the Swiss Schoolmaster, 
he that sat frugal in his Alley, the wonder of neighbours, has got 
lately — whither thinks the Reader ? To be Minister of War ! 
Madame Roland, struck with his sleek ways, recommended him 
to her husband as Clerk ; the sleek Clerk had no need of salary, 
being of true Patriotic temper ; he would come with a bit of 
bread in his pocket, to save dinner and time ; and munching 
incidentally, do three men's work in a day ; punctual, silent, 
frugal, — the sleek Tartuffe that he was. Wherefore Roland, in 
the late Overturn, recommended him to be War-Minister. And 
now, it would seem, he is secretly undermining Roland ; playing 
into the hands of your hotter Jacobins and September Commune ; 
and cannot, like strict Roland, be the Veto dcs Coquins /^ 

Plow the sleek Pache might mine and undermine, one knows 
not well ; this however one does knov/ : that his War-Office has 
become a den of thieves and confusion, such as all men shudder 
to behold. That the Citizen Hassenfratz, as Head-Clerk, sits 
there in bonnet rouge, in rapine, in violence, and some Mathe- 
matical calculation ; a most insolent, red-nightcapped man. 
That Pache munches his pocket-loaf, amid head-clerks and sub- 
clerks, and has spent all the War-Estimates. That Furnishers 
scour in gigs, over all districts of France, and drive bargains. 
And lastly that the Army gets next to no furniture : no shoes, 
though it is winter ; no clothes ; some have not even arms; 'in 
' the Army of the South,' complains an honourable Member, 
'there are thirty-thousand pairs of breeches wanting,' — a most 
scandalous want. 

Roland's strict soul is sick to see the course things take : 
but what can he do ? Keep his own Department strict ; rebuke, 
and repi-ess wheresoever possible ; at lowest, complain. He can 
complain in Letter after Letter, to a National Convention, to 
France, to Posterity, the Universe ; grow ever more querulous- 
1 Madame Roland, Mhiioircs, ii. 237, &c. 


Sept .-Oct. 

indignant ; — till at last, may he not grow wearisome ? For is 
not this continual text of his, at bottom, a rather barren one : 
How astonishing that in a time of Revolt and abrogation of all 
Law but Cannon Law, there should be such Unlawfulness ? In- 
trepid Veto-of-Scoundrels, narrow-faithful, respectable, methodic 
man, work thou in that manner, since happily it is thy manner, 
and wear thyself away ; though ineffectual, not profitless in it — 
then nor nozv ! — The brave Dame Roland, bravest of all French 
women, begins to have misgivings : The figure of Danton has 
too much of the ' Sardanapalus character,' at a Republican 
Rolandin Dinner-table : Clootz, Speaker of Mankind, proses sad 
stuff about a Universal Republic, or union of all Peoples and 
Kindreds in one and the same Fraternal Bond ; of which Bond, 
how it is to be tied, one unhappily sees not. 

It is also an indisputable, unaccountable or accountable fact, 
that Grains are becoming scarcer and scarcer. Riots for grain, 
tumultuous Assemblages demanding to have the price of grain 
fixed, abound far and near. The Mayor of Paris and other poor 
Mayors are like to have their difficulties. Petion was reelected 
Mayor of Paris ; but has declined; being now a Convention Le- 
gislator. Wise surely to decline : for, besides this of Grains and 
all the rest, there is in these times an Improvised Insurrectionary 
Commune passing into an Elected legal one ; getting their ac- 
counts settled, — not without irritancy ! Petion has declined : 
nevertheless many do covet and canvass. After months of scru- 
tinising, balloting, arguing and jargoning, one Doctor Chambon 
gets the post of honour : who will not long keep it ; but be, as 
we shall see, literally crushed out of it.^ 

Think also if the private Sansculotte has not his difficulties, 
in a time of dearth ! Bread, according to the People's-Friend, 
may be some ' six sous per pound, a day's wages some fifteen ;' 
and grim winter here. How the Poor Man continues living, 
and so seldom starves ; by miracle ! Happily, in these days, 
he can enlist, and have himself shot by the Austrians, in an un- 
usually satisfactory manner : for the Rights of Man. — But Com- 
mandant Santerre, in this so straitened condition of the flour- 
market, and state of Equality and Liberty, proposes, through 
the Newspapers, two remedies, or at least palliatives : Fh'sf, 
that all classes of men should live two days of the week on pota- 
toes ; then, second, that eveiy man should hang his dog. Here- 
* Dktioiinaire dcs Hommcs Marqicans, § Chambon. 

68 REGICIDE. book ii. 

by, as the Commandant thinks, the saving, which indeed he 
computes to so many sacks, would be very considerable. Cheer- 
fuler form of inventive-stupidity than Commandant Santerre's 
dwells in no human soul. Inventive-stupidity, imbedded in 
health, courage and good-nature : much to be commended. "My 
whole strength," he tells the Convention once, "is, day and 
night, at the service of my fellow-citizens : ifthey find me worth- 
less, they will dismiss me ; I will return, and brew beer."' 

Or figure what correspondences a poor Roland, Minister of 
the Interior, must have, on this of Grains alone ! Free-trade in 
Grain, impossibility to fix the Prices of Grain ; on the other 
hand, clamour and necessity to fix them : Political Economy 
lecturing from the Home Office, with demonstration clear as 
Scripture ; — ineffectual for the empty National Stomach. The 
Mayor of Chartres, like to be eaten himself, cries to the Conven- 
tion ; the Convention sends honourable Members in Deputation ; 
who endeavour to feed the multitude by miraculous spiritual 
methods ; but cannot. The multitude, in spite of all Eloquence, 
come bellowing round ; will have the Grain-Prices fixed, and at 
a moderate elevation ; or else — the honourable Deputies hanged 
on the spot ! The honourable Deputies, reporting this business, 
admit that, on the edge of horrid death, they did fix, or affect 
to fix the Price of Grain : for which, be it also noted, the Con- 
vention, a Convention that will not be trifled with, sees good to 
reprimand them.'* 

But as to the origin of these Grain-Riots, is it not most pro- 
bably your secret Royalists again ? Glimpses of Priests were 
discernible in this of Chartres, — to the eye of Patriotism, Or 
indeed may not ' the root of it all lie in the Temple Prison, in 
the heart of a perjured King,' well as we guard him ?5 Unhappy 
perjured King ! — And so there shall be Bakers* Queues by and 
by, more sharp -tempered than ever : on every Baker's door- 
rabbet an iron ring, and coil of rope ; whereon, with firm grip, 
on this side and that, we form our Queue : but mischievous 
deceitful persons cut the rope, and our Queue becomes a ravel- 
ment ; wherefore the coil must be made of iron chain.^ Also 
there shall be Prices of Grain well fixed ; but then no grain 
purchasable by them : bread not to be had except by Ticket 
from the Mayor, few ounces per mouth daily ; after long sway- 

3 Monileur (mHist. Pari. xx. 412). * Hist. Pari. xx. 43r-;i]40. 

* Hist. Pari, xx, 409. ^ Mercier, Nouveau Paris. 


Sept .-Oct. 

ing, with firm grip, on the chain of the Queue. And Hunger 
shall stalk direful ; and Wrath and Suspicion, whetted to the 
Preternatural pitch, shall stalk ; as those other preternatural 
' shapes of Gods in their wrathfulness' were discerned stalking, 
' in glare and gloom of that fire-ocean,' when Troy Town fell ! — 



But the question more pressing than all on the Legislator, 
as yet, is this third : What shall be done with King Louis ? 

King Louis, now King and Majesty to his own family alone, 
in their own Prison Apartment alone, has, for months past, been 
mere Louis Capet and the Traitor Veto with the rest of France. 
Shut in his Circuit of the Temple, he has heard and seen the 
loud whirl of things ; yells of September Massacres, Brunswick 
war-thunders dying off in disaster and discomfiture ; he passive, 
a spectator merely ; waiting whither it would please to whirl 
with him. From the neighbouring windows, the curious, not 
without pity, might see him walk daily, at a certain hour, in the 
Temple Garden, with his Queen, Sister and two Children, all 
that now belongs to him in this Earth. 1 Quietly he walks and 
waits ; for he is not of lively feelings, and is of a devout heart. 
The wearied Irresolute has, at least, no need of resolving now. 
His daily meals, lessons to his Son, daily walk in the Garden, 
daily game at ombre or draughts, fill up the day : the morrow 
will provide for itself. 

The morrow indeed ; and yet How ? Louis asks. How ? 
France, with perhaps still more solicitude, asks. How ? A King 
dethroned by insurrection is verily not easy to dispose of. Keep 
him prisoner, he is a secret centre for the Disaffected, for end- 
less plots, attempts and hopes of theirs. Banish him, he is an 
open centre for them ; his royal war-standard, with what of 
divinity it has, unrolls itself, summoning the world. Put him to 
death ? A cruel questionable extremity that too : and yet the 
likeliest in these extreme circumstances, of insurrectionary men, 
whose own life and death lies staked : accordingly it is said, 
from the last step of the throne to the first of the scaffold there 
is short distance. 

1 Moore, i, 123; ii. 224, &c. 

70 REGICIDE. book ii. 


But, on the whole, we will remark here that this business of 
Louis looks altogether different now, as seen over Seas and at 
the distance of forty-four years, from what it looked then, in 
France, and struggling confused all round one. For indeed it 
is a most lying thing that same Past Tense always : so beauti- 
ful, sad, almost Elysian-sacred, 'in the moonlight of Memory,* 
it seems ; and seems only. For observe, always one most im- 
portant element is surreptitiously (we not noticing it) withdrawn 
from the Past Time : the haggard element of Fear ! Not there 
does Fear dwell, nor Uncertainty, nor Anxiety ; but it dwells 
here J haunting us, tracking us ; running like an accursed 
ground-discord through all the music-tones of our Existence ; — 
making the Tense a mere Present one ! Just so is it with this of 
Louis. Why smite the fallen? asks Magnanimity, out of danger 
now. He is fallen so low this once-high man ; no criminal nor 
traitor, how far from it ; but the unhappiest of Human Solecisms : 
whom if abstract Justice had to pronounce upon, she might well 
become concrete Pity, and pronounce only sobs and dismissal ! 

So argues retrospective Magnanimity : but Pusillanimity, 
present, prospective ? Reader, thou hast never lived, for months, 
under the rustle of Prussian gallows-ropes ; never wert thou por- 
tion of a National Sahara-Avaltz, Twenty-five millions running 
distracted to fight Brunswick ! Knights Errant themselves, when 
they conquered Giants, usually slew the Giants : quarter was 
only for other Knights Errant, who knew courtesy and the laws 
of battle. The French Nation, in simultaneous, desperate dead- 
pull, and as if by miracle of madness, has pulled down the most 
dread Goliath, huge with the growth often centuries ; and can- 
not believe, though his giant bulk, covering acres, lies prostrate, 
bound with peg and packthread, that he will not rise again, man- 
devouring ; that the victory is not partly a dream. Terror has 
its scepticism ; miraculous victory its rage of vengeance. Then 
as to criminality, is the prostrated Giant, who will devour us if 
he rise, an innocent Giant ? Curate Grdgoire, who indeed is now 
Constitutional Bishop Grdgoire, asserts, in the heat of eloquence, 
that Kingship by the very nature of it is a crime capital ; that 
Kings' Houses are as wild-beasts' dens.^ Lastly consider this : 
that there is on record a Trial of Charles First ! This printed 
Trial of Charles First is sold and read everywhere at present :' 

2 Moniteur, Siiance du 21 Septembre, An i^' (1792). 
• yiQOx€% Journal, ii. 165. 


November 6th. 

— Quel Spectacle ! Thus did the English People judge their Ty- 
rant, and become the first of Free Peoples : which feat, by the 
grace of Destiny, may not France now rival ? Scepticism of 
terror, rage of miraculous victory, sublime spectacle to the uni- 
verse, — all things point one fatal way. 

Such leading questions, and their endless incidental ones, — 
of September Anarchists and Departmental Guard ; of Grain- 
Riots, plaintive Interior Ministers ; of Annies, dila- 
pidations ; and what is to be done with Louis, — beleaguer and 
embroil this Convention ; which would so gladly make the Con- 
stitution rather. All which questions, too, as we often urge ot 
such things, are in growth; they grow in every French head ; 
and can be seen growing also, veiy curiously, in this mighty 
welter of Parliamentary Debate, of Public Business which the 
Convention has to do. A question emerges, so small at first ; 
is put off, submerged ; but always reemerges bigger than before. 
It is a curious, indeed an indescribable sort of growth which 
such things have. 

We perceive, however, both by its frequent reemergence and 
by its rapid enlargement of bulk, that this Question of King 
Louis will take the lead of all the rest. And truly, in that case, 
it will take the lead in a much deeper sense. For as Aaron's 
Rod swallowed all the other serpents ; so will the Foremost 
Question, whichever may get foremost, absorb all other ques- 
tions and interests ; and from it and the decision of it will they 
all, so to speak, be born, or new-born, and have shape, physiog- 
nomy and destiny corresponding. It was appointed of Fate 
that, in this wide-weltering, strangely growing, monstrous stu- 
pendous imbroglio of Convention Business, the grand First-Par- 
ent of all the questions, controversies, measures and enterprises 
which were to be evolved there to the world's astonishment, 
should be this Question of King Louis. 



The Sixth of November 1792 was a great day for the Re- 
pubhc : outwardly, over the Frontiers ; inwardly, in the Salle de 

Outwardly : for Dumouriez, overrunning the Netherlands, 


did, on that day, come in contact with Saxe-Teschen and the 
Austrians ; Dumouriez wide-winged, they wide-winged ; at and 
around the village of Jemappes, near Mons. And fire-hail is 
whistling far and wide there, the great guns playing, and the 
small ; so many green Heights getting fringed and maned with 
red Fire. And Dumouriez is swept back on this wing, and swept 
back on that, and is like to be swept back utterly ; when he 
rushes up in person, the prompt Polymetis ; speaks a prompt 
word or two ; and then, with clear tenor-pipe, ' uplifts the Hymn 
of the Marseillese, entonna la Marseillaise,'^ ten-thousand tenor 
or bass pipes joining ; or say, some Forty-thousand in all ; for 
every heart leaps at the sound ; and so with rhythmic march- 
melody, waxing ever quicker, to double and to treble quick, they 
rally, they advance, they rush, death-defying, man-devouring ; 
carry batteries, redoutes, whatsoever is to be carried ; and, like 
the fire-whirlwind, sweep all manner of Austrians from the scene 
of action. Thus, through the hands of Dumouriez, may Rouget 
de Lille, in figurative speech, be said to have gained, miracu- 
lously, like another Orpheus, by his Marseillese fiddle-strings 
{Jidibus canoris), a Victory of Jemappes; and conquered the 
Low Countries. 

Young General Egalitd, it v/ould seem, shone brave among 
the bravest on this occasion. Doubtless a brave Egalitd; — whom 
however does not Dumouriez rather talk of oftener than need 
were ? The Mother Society has her own thoughts. As for the 
Elder Egalit^ he flies low at this time ; appears in the Conven- 
tion for some half-hour daily, with rubicund, preoccupied or im- 
passive quasi-contemptuous countenance ; and then takes himself 
away.2 The Netherlands are conquered, at least overrun. Jaco- 
bin missionaries, your Prolys, Pereiras, follow in the train of the 
Armies ; also Convention Commissioners, melting church-plate, 
revolutionising and remodeling, — among whom Danton, in brief 
space, does immensities of business ; not neglecting his own 
wages and trade-profits, it is thought. Hassenfratz dilapidates at 
home ; Dumouriez grumbles and they dilapidate abroad: within 
the walls there is sinning, and without the walls there is sinning. 

But in the Hall of the Convention, at the same hour with 
this victory of Jemappes, there went another thing forward : Re- 
port, of great length, from the proper appointed Committee, on 
the Crimes of Louis. The Galleries listen breathless ; take 
* Dumouriez, Mimoires, iii. 174. " Moore, ii. 148. 


November 6th. 

comfort, ye Galleries : Deputy Valaz^, Reporter on this occasion, 
thinks Louis very criminal ; and that, if convenient, he should 
be tried ; — poor Girondin Valaze, who may be tried himself, one 
day ! Comfortable so far. Nay here comes a second Committee- 
reporter, Deputy Mailhe, with a Legal Argument, very prosy to 
read now, very refreshing to hear then. That, by the Law of the 
Country, Louis Capet was only called Inviolable by a figure of 
rhetoric ; but at bottom was perfectly violable, triable ; that he 
can, and even should be tried. This Question of Louis, emerg- 
ing so often as an angry confused possibility, and submerging 
again, has emerged now in an articulate shape. 

Patriotism growls indignant joy. The so-called reign of 
Equality is not to be a mere name, then, but a thing ! Try Louis 
Capet? scornfully ejaculates Patriotism Mean criminals go to 
the gallows for a purse cut ; and this chief criminal, guilty of a 
France cut ; of a France slashed asunder with Clotho-scissors 
and Civil war; with his victims 'twelve-hundred on the Tenth of 
August alone' lying low in the Catacombs, fattening the passes 
of Argonne Wood, of Valmy and far Fields ; /le, such chief 
criminal, shall not even come to the bar ? — For, alas, O Patriot- 
ism! add we, it was from of old said, T/ie loser pays I It is he 
who has to pay all scores, run up by whomsoever ; on him must 
all breakages and charges fall ; and the twelve-hundred on the 
Tenth of August are not rebel traitors, but victims and martyrs : 
such is the law of quarrel. 

Patriotism, nothing doubting, watches over this Question of 
the trial, now happily emerged in an articulate shape ; and will 
see it to maturity, if the gods permit. With a keen solicitude 
Patriotism watches ; getting ever keener, at every new difficulty, 
as Girondins and false brothers interpose delays ; till it get a 
keenness as of fixed-idea, and will have this Trial and no earthly 
thing instead of it, — if Equality be not a name. Love of Equality ; 
then scepticism of terror, rage of victory, sublime spectacle tc 
the universe : all these things are strong. 

But indeed this Question of the Trial, is it not to all persons 
a most grave one ; filling with dubiety many a Legislative head ! 
Regicide? asks the Gironde Respectability. To kill a king, and 
become the horror of respectable nations and persons ? But then 
also, to save a king ; to lose one's footing with the decided Pat- 
riot ; the undecided Patriot, though never so respectable, being 
mere hypothetic froth and no footing ? — The dilemma presses 

74 REGICIDE. book ii. 

sore ; and between the horns of it you wriggle round and round. 

Decision is nowhere, save in the Mother Society and her Sons. 
These have decided, and go forward : the others wriggle round 
uneasily within their dilemma-horns, and make way nowhither. 



BtJT how this Question of the Trial grew laboriously, through 
the weeks of gestation, now that it has been articulated or con- 
ceived, were superfluous to trace here. It emerged and submerged 
among the infinite of questions and embroilments. The Veto of 
Scoundrels writes plaintive Letters as to Anarchy ; • concealed 
Royalists,' aided by Hunger, produce Riots about Grain. Alas, 
it is but a week ago, these Girondins made a new fierce onslaught 
on the September Massacres ! 

For, one day, among the last of October, Robespierre, being 
summoned to the tribune by some new hint of that old calumny 
of the Dictatorship, was speaking and pleading there, with more 
and more comfort to himself; till rising high in heart, he cried 
out valiantly : Is there any man here that dare specifically accuse 
me? "Moi/" exclaimed one. Pause of deep silence: a lean 
angry little Figure, with broad bald brow, strode swiftly towards 
the tribune, taking papers from its pocket : " I accuse thee, 
Robespierre," — I, Jean Baptiste Louvet ! The Seagreen be- 
came tallowgreen; shrinking to a corner of the tribune: Danton 
cried, "Speak, Robespierre; there are many good citizens that 
listen ;" but the tongue refused its office. And so Louvet, with 
a shrill tone, read and recited crime after crime : dictatorial 
temper, exclusive popularity, bullying at elections, mob-retinue, 
September Massacres ; — till all the Convention shrieked again, 
and had almost indicted the Incorruptible there on the spot. 
Never did the Incorruptible run such a risk. Louvet, to his dying 
day, will regret that the Gironde did not, take a bolder attitude, 
and extinguish him there and then. 

Not so, however: the Incorruptible, about to be indicted in 
this sudden manner, could not be refused a week of delay. That 
week he is not idle; nor is the Mother Society idle, — fierce- 
tremulous for her chosen son. He is ready at the day with his 
written Speech; smooth as a Jesuit Doctor's ; and convinces some. 


Oct. 29th-Nov. 5th. 

And now? Why now lazy Vergniaud does not rise with Demo- 
sthenic thunder ; poor Louvet, unprepared, can do httle or 
nothing : Barrere proposes that these comparatively despicable 
' personalities' be dismissed by order of the day ! Order of the 
day it accordingly is. Barbaroux cannot even get a hearing ; not 
though he rush down to the Bar, and demand to be heard there as 
a petitioner.! The Convention, eager for public business (with 
that first articulate emergence of the Trial just coming on), dis- 
misses these comparative misires and despicabilities : splenetic 
Louvet must digest his spleen, regretfully forever : Robespierre, 
dear to Patriotism, is dearer for the dangers he has run. 

This is the second grand attempt by our Girondin Friends 
of Order to extinguish that black-spot in their domain ; and we 
see they have made it far blacker and wider than before ! An- 
archy, September Massacre : it is a thing that lies hideous in 
the general imagination ; very detestable to the undecided Pa- 
triot, of Respectability : a thing to be harped on as often as need 
is. Harp on it, denounce it, trample it, ye Girondin Patriots : 
— and yet behold, the black-spot will not trample down ; it will 
only, as we say, trample blacker and wider : fools, it is no black- 
spot of the surface, but a well-spring of the deep ! Consider 
rightly, it is the Apex of the everlasting Abyss, this black-spot, 
looking up as water through thin ice ; — say, as the region of Ne- 
ther Darkness through your thin film of Gironde Regulation and 
Respectability : trample it not, lest the film break, and then — ! 

The truth is, if our Gironde Friends had an understanding 
of it, where were French Patriotism, with all its eloquence, at 
this moment, had not that same great Nether Deep, of Bedlam, 
Fanaticism and Popular wrath and madness, risen unfathomable 
on the Tenth of August ? French Patriotism were an eloquent 
Reminiscence ; swinging on Prussian gibbets. Nay, where, in 
few months, were it still, should the same great Nether Deep 
subside? — Nay, as readers of Newspapers pretend to recollect, 
this hatefulness ofthe September Massacre is itself partly an after- 
thought : readers of Newspapers can quote Gorsas and various 
Brissotins approving of the September Massacre, at the time it 
happened ; and calling it a salutary vengeance. 2 So that the 

1 \.o\x\Qi, Mimoires (Paris, 1823), p. 52; M^wzV^?.;;- (Stances du 29 Oc- 
tobre, 5 Novembre, 1792) ; Moore, ii. 178, &c. 

- See Hht, Pari. .Kvii, 401 ; Newspapers by Gorsas and others (cited 
ibid. 428), 

76 REGICIDE. book ii. 

real grief, after all, were not so much righteous horror, as grief 
that one's own power was departing^ Unhappy Girondins ! 

In the Jacobin Society, therefore, the decided Patriot com- 
I'jlains that here are men who with their private ambitions and 
animosities will ruin Liberty, Equality and Brotherhood, all three : 
they check the spirit of Patriotism ; throw stumbling-blocks in 
its way ; and instead of pushing on, all shoulders at the wheel, 
will stand idle there, spitefully clamouring what foul ruts there 
are, what rude jolts we give ! To which the Jacobin Society 
answers with angry roar ; — with angry shriek, for there are 
Citoyennes too, thick crowded in the galleries here. Citoyennes 
who bring their seam with them, or their knitting-needles ; and 
shriek or knit as the case needs ; famed Tricoteuses, Patriot 
Knitters; Mere Duchesse, or the like Deborah and Mother of the 
Faubourgs, giving the key-note. It is a changed Jacobin Sociey ; 
and a still changing. Where Mother Duchess now sits, authentic 
Duchesses have sat. High-rouged dames went once in jewels 
and spangles; now, instead of jewels, you may take the knitting- 
needles and leave the rouge: the rouge will gradually give place 
to natural brown, clean washed or even unwashed : and Demoi- 
selle Th^roigne herself get scandalously fustigated. Strange 
enough ; it is the same tribune raised in mid-air, where a high 
Mirabeau, a high Barnave and Aristocrat Lameths once thun- 
dered ; whom gradually your Brissots, Guadets, Vergniauds, a 
hotter style of Patriots in bonnet rouge, did displace ; red heat, 
as one may say, superseding light. And now your Brissots in 
turn, and Brissotins, Rolandins, Girondins, are becoming super- 
numerary ; must desert the sittings, or be expelled : the light 
of the Mighty Mother is burning not red but blue ! — Provincial 
Daughter Societies loudly disapprove these things ; loudly de- 
mand the swift reinstatement of such eloquent Girondins, the 
swift ' erasure of Marat, radiation de Mai-at.' The Mother 
Society, so far as natural reason can predict, seems ruining her- 
self Nevertheless she has at all crises seemed so ; she has a 
pretenxdXwx^S. life in her, and will not ruin. 

But, in a fortnight more, this great Question of the Trial, 
while the fit Committee is assiduously but silently working on it, 
receives an unexpected stimulus. Our readers remember poor 
Louis's turn for smith-work : how, in old happier days, a certain 
Sieur Gamain of Versailles was wont to come over and instruct 


November 20th, 

him in lockmaking ; — often scolding him, they say, for his numb- 
ness. By whom, nevertheless, the royal Apprentice had learned 
something of that craft. Hapless Apprentice ; perfidious Mas- 
ter-Smith ! For now, on this 20th of November 1792, dingy 
Smith Gamain comes over to the Paris Municipality, over to 
Minister Roland, with hints that he. Smith Gamain, knows a 
thing ; that, in May last, when traitorous Correspondence was 
so brisk, he and the royal Apprentice fabricated an ' Iron Press, 
Armoire de Fer,' cunningly inserting the same in a wall of the 
royal chamber in the Tuileries ; invisible under the wainscot ; 
where doubtless it still sticks ! Perfidious Gamain, attended by 
the proper Authorities, finds the wainscot panel which none else 
can find ; wrenches it up ; discloses the Iron Press, — full of 
Letters and Papers ! Roland clutches them out ; conveys them 
over in towels to the fit assiduous Committee, which sits hard 
by. In towels, we say, and without notarial inventory ; an over- 
sight on the part of Roland. 

Here, however, are Letters enough : which disclose to a de- 
monstration the Correspondence of a traitorous self-preserving 
Court ; and this not with Traitors only, but even with Patriots 
so-called ! Barnave's treason, of Correspondence with the Queen, 
and friendly advice to her, ever since that Varennes Business, 
is hereby manifest : how happy that we have him, this Barnave, 
lying safe in the Prison of Grenoble, since September last, for 
he had long been suspect ! Talleyrand's treason, many a man's 
treason, if not manifest hereby, is next to it. Mirabeau's trea- 
son : wherefore his Bust in the Hall of the Cpnvention ' is veiled 
with gauze,' till we ascertain. Alas, it is too ascertainable ! His 
Bust in the Hall of the Jacobins, denounced by Robespierre 
from the tribune in mid-air, is not veiled, it is instantly broken 
to sherds ; a Patriot mounting swiftly with a ladder, and shiver- 
ing it down on the floor ; — it and others : amid shouts.'' Such 
is their recompense and amount of wages, at this date : on the 
principle of supply and demand. Smith Gamain, inadequately 
recompensed for the present, comes, some fifteen months after, 
with a humble Petition ; setting forth that no sooner was that 
important Iron Press finished off by him, than (as he now be- 
thinks himself) Louis gave him a large glass of wine. Which 
large glass of wine did produce in the stomach of Sieur Gamain 
the terriblest eftects, evidently tending towards death, and was 
3 Journal des Dibats des Jacobins (in HisC. Pari. xxii. 296). 

78 REGICIDE. book ii. 

then brought up by an emetic ; but has, notwithstanding, en- 
tirely ruined the constitution of Sieur Gamain ; so that he can- 
not work for his family (as he now bethinks himself). The 
recompense of which is ' Pension of Twelve-hundred Francs,' 
and 'honourable mention.' So different is the ratio of demand 
and supply at different times. 

Thus, amid obstructions and stimulating furtherances, has 
the Question of the Trial to grow ; emerging and submerging ; 
fostered by solicitous Patriotism. Of the Orations that were 
spoken on it, of the painfully devised Forms of Process for 
managing it, the Law Arguments to prove it lawful, and all the 
infinite floods of Juridical and other ingenuity and oratory, be no 
syllable reported in this History. Lawyer ingenuity is good : but 
what can it profit here ? If the truth must be spoken, O august 
Senators, the only Law in this case is : V(z victis. The loser 
pays ! Seldom did Robespierre say a wiser word than the hint 
he gave to that effect, in his oration, That it was needless to 
speak of Law ; that here, if never elsewhere, our Right was 
Might. An oration admired almost to ecstasy by the Jacobin 
Patriot : who shall say that Robespierre is iiot a thorough-going 
man ; bold in Logic at least ? To the like effect, or still more 
plainly, spake young Saint-Just, the black-haired, mild-toned 
youth. Danton is on mission, in the Netherlands, during this 
preliminary work. The rest, far as one reads, welter amid Law 
of Nations, Social Contract, Juristics, Syllogistics ; to us barren 
as the East wind. In fact, what can be more unprofitable than 
the sight of Seven-hundred and Forty-nine ingenious men strug- 
gling with their whole force and industry, for a long course of 
weeks, to do at bottom this : To stretch out the old Formula 
and Law Phraseology, so that it may cover the new, contradic- 
tory, entirely 7^;/coverable Thing ? Whereby the poor Formula 
does but crack, and one's honesty along with it ! The thing that 
is palpably Jiot, burning, wilt thou prove it, by syllogism, to be 
a freezing-mixture ? This of stretching out Formulas till they 
crack, is, especially in times of swift change, one of the sorrow- 
fulest tasks poor Humanity has. 


December nth. 



Meanwhile, in a space of some five weeks, we have got to 
another emerging of the Trial, and a more practical one than 

On Tuesday eleventh of December, the King's Trial has 
emerged, very decidedly : into the streets of Paris ; in the shape 
of that green Carriage of Mayor Chambon, within which sits the 
King himself, with attendants, on his way to the Convention 
Hall ! Attended, in that green carriage, by Mayors Chambon, 
Procureurs Chaumette ; and outside of it by Comm_andants San- 
terre, with cannon, cavalry and double row of infantry ; all 
Sections under arms, strong Patrols scouring all streets ; so 
fares he, slowly through the dull drizzling weather : and about 
two o'clock we behold him, 'in walnut -coloured greatcoat, 
redingote noisette' descending through the Place Vendome, 
towards that Salle de Manege ; to be indicted, and judicially 
interrogated. The mysterious Temple Circuit has given up its 
secret ; which now, in this walnut-coloured coat, men behold 
with eyes. The same bodily Louis who was once Louis the De- 
sired, fares there : hapless King, he is getting now towards port ; 
his deploi'able farings and voyagings draw to a close. What 
duty remains to him henceforth, that of placidly enduring, he is 
fit to do. 

The singular Procession fares on ; in silence, says Prud- 
homme, or amid growlings of the Marseillese Hymn ; in silence, 
ushers itself into the Hall of the Convention, Santerre holding 
Louis's arm with his hand. Louis looks round him, with com- 
posed air, to see what kind of Convention and Parliament it is. 
Much changed indeed : — since February gone two years, when 
our Constituent, then busy, spread fleur-de-lys velvet for us ; and 
we came over to say a kind v/ord here, and they all started up 
swearing Fidelity ; and all France started up swearing, and 
made it a Feast of Pikes ; which has ended in this ! Barrere, 
who once 'wept' looking up fi^om his Editors-Desk, looks down 
now from his President's-Chair, with a list of Fifty-seven Ques- 
tions ; and says, dry-eyed : " Louis, you may sit down." Louis 
sits dov/n : it is the very seat, they say, same timber and stuff- 
ing, from which he accepted the Constitution, amid dancing and 

Bo REGICIDE. book n. 

illumination, autumn gone a year. So much woodwork remains 
identical ; so much else is not identical. Louis sits and listens, 
with a composed look and mind. 

Of the Fifty-seven Questions we shall not give so much as 
one. They are questions captiously embracing all the main 
Documents seized on the Tenth of August, or found lately in the 
Iron Press ; embracing all the main incidents of the Revolution 
History ; and they ask, in substance, this : Louis, who wert 
King, art thou not guilty to a certain extent, by act and written 
document, of trying to continue King .'' Neither in the Answers 
is there much notable. Mere quiet negations, for most part ; an 
accused man standing on the simple basis of No: I do not recog- 
nise that document ; I did not do that act ; or did it according 
to the law that then was. Whereupon the Fifty-seven Questions, 
and Documents to the number of a Hundred and Sixty-two, 
being exhausted in this manner, Barrere finishes, after some three 
hours, with his : " Louis, I invite you to withdraw." 

Louis withdraws, under Municipal escort, into a neighbour- 
ing Committee-room ; having first, in leaving the bar, demanded 
to have Legal Counsel. He declines refreshment, in this Com- 
mittee-room ; then, seeing Chaumette busy v.-ith a small loaf 
which a grenadier had divided with him, says, he will take a bit 
of bread. It is five o'clock ; and he had breakfasted but slightly, 
in a morning of such drumming and alarm. Chaumette breaks 
his half-loaf : the King eats of the crust ; mounts the green Car- 
riage, eating ; asks now. What he shall do with the cmmb ? 
Chaumette's clerk takes it from him ; flings it out into the street. 
Louis says, It is pity to fling out bread, in a time of dearth. "My 
grandmother," remarks Chaumette, "used to say to me, Little 
boy, never waste a crumb of bread ; you cannot make one." 
"Monsieur Chaumette," answers Louis, "your grandmother 
seems to have been a sensible woman."i Poor innocent mortal ; 
so quietly he waits the drawing of the lot ; — fit to do this at 
least well ; Passivity alone, without Activity, sufficing for it ! 
He talks once of travelling over France by and by, to have a 
geographical and topographical view of it ; being from of old 
fond of geography. — The Temple Circuit again receives him, 
closes on him ; gazing Paris may retire to its hearths and coffee- 
houses, to its clubs and theatres : the damp Darkness has sunk, 
and with it the drumming and patrolling of this strange Day. 
1 Prudhomme's Newspaper (in Hist Pari. xxi. 31J). 


December 26 th. 

Louis is now separated from his Queen and Family ; given 
up to his simple reflections and resources. Dull he these stone 
walls round him ; of his loved ones none with him. ' In this 
state of uncertainty,' providing for the worst, he writes his Will: 
a Paper which can still be read ; full of placidity, simplicity, pious 
sweetness. The Convention, after debate, has granted him Legal 
Counsel, of his own choosing. Advocate Target feels himself 
'too old,' being turned of fifty-four ; and declines. He had 
gained great honour once, defending Rohan the Necklace-Car- 
dinal ; but will gain none here. Advocate Tronchet, some ten 
years older, does not decline. Nay behold, good old Males- 
herbes steps forward voluntarily ; to the last of his fields, the 
good old hero! He is gray with seventy years: he says, " I was 
" twice called to the Council of him who was my Master, when 
" all the world coveted that honour ; and I owe him the same 
" service now, when it has become one which many reckon dan- 
" gerous." These two, with a younger Des^ze, whom they will 
select for pleading, are busy over that Fifty-and-sevenfold In- 
dictment, over the Hundred and Sixty-two Documents ; Louis 
aiding them as he can. 

A great Thing is now therefore in open progress ; all men, 
in all lands, watching it. By what Forms and Methods shall 
the Convention acquit itself, in such manner that there rest not 
on it even the suspicion of blame ? Difficult that will be ! The 
Convention, really much at a loss, discusses and deliberates. 
All day from morning to night, day after day, the Tribune drones 
with oratory on this matter ; one must stretch the old Formula 
to cover the new Thing. The Patriots of the Mountain, whetted 
ever keener, clamour for despatch above all ; the only good Form 
will be a swift one. Nevertheless the Convention deliberates ; 
the Tribune drones, — drowned indeed in tenor, and even in 
treble, from time to time ; the whole Hall shrilling up round it 
into pretty frequent wrath and provocation. It has droned and 
shrilled wellnigh a fortnight, before we can decide, this shrillness 
getting ever shriller. That on Wednesday 26th of December, 
Louis shall appear and plead. His Advocates complain that it 
is fatally soon ; which they well might as Advocates : but with- 
out remedy ; to Patriotism it seems endlessly late. 

On Wednesday therefore, at the cold dark hour of eight in 
the morning, all Senators are at their post. Indeed they warm 
the cold hour, as we find, by a violent effervescence, such as is 




too comraon now ; some Louvet or Buzot attacking some Tal- 
lien, Chabot ; and so the whole Mountain effervescing against 
the whole Gironde. Scarcely is this done, at nine, when Louis 
and his three Advocates, escorted b)^ the clang of arms and San- 
terre's National force, enter the Hall. 

Deseze unfolds his papers ; honourably fulfilling his perilous 
office, pleads for the space of three hours. An honourable Plead- 
ing, ' composed almost overnight ;' courageous yet discreet ; not 
without ingenuity, and soft pathetic eloquence : Louis fell on his 
neck, when they had withdrawn, and said with tears, " Mon 
pauvre Deseze!" Louis himself, before withdrawing, had added 
a few words, "perhaps the last he would utter to them:" how it 
pained his heai't, above all things, to be held guilty of that blood- 
shed on the Tenth of August; or of ever shedding or wishing to 
shed French blood. So saying, he withdrew from that Hall; — 
having indeed finished his work there. Many are the strange 
errands he has had thither ; but this strange one is the last. 

And now, why will the Convention loiter ? Here is the 
Indictment and Evidence ; here is the Pleading : does not the 
rest follow of itself? The Mountain, and Patriotism in general, 
clamours still louder for despatch ; for Permanent-session, till 
the task be done. Nevertheless a doubting, apprehensive Con- 
vention decides that it will still deliberate first ; that all Members, 
who desire it, shall have leave to speak. — To your desks, there- 
fore, ye eloquent Members ! Down with your thoughts, your 
echoes and hearsays of thoughts ; now is the time to show oneself; 
France and the Universe listens ! Members are not wanting : 
Oration, spoken Pamphlet follows spoken Pamphlet, with what 
eloquence it can : President's List swells ever higher with names 
claiming to speak; from day to day, all days and all hours, the 
constant Tribune drones ; — shrill Galleries supplying, very 
variably, the tenor and treble. It were a dull tone otherwise. 

The Patriots, in Mountain and Galleries, or taking counsel 
nightly in Section-house, in Mother Society, amid their shrill 
Tricoteuses, have to watch lynx-eyed ; to give voice when need- 
ful ; occasionally very loud. Deputy Thuriot, he who was Advo- 
cate Thuriot, who was Elector Thuriot, and from the top of the 
Bastille saw Saint-Antoine rising like the ocean ; this Thuriot 
can stretch a Formula as heartily as most men. Cruel Billaud 
is not silent, if you incite him. Nor is cruel Jean-Bon silent; 



a kind of Jesuit he too; — ^write him not, as the Dictionaries too 

often do, ya77ibo7i, which signifies mere Ham ! 

But, on the whole, let no man conceive it possible that Louis 
is not guilty. The only question for a reasonable man is or was : 
Can the Convention judge Louis ? Or must it be the whole 
People ; in Pi-imary Assembly, and with delay ? Always delay, 
ye Girondins, false homines d'etat I so bellows Patriotism, its 
patience almost failing. — But indeed, if we consider it, what 
shall these poor Girondins do ? Speak their conviction that Louis 
is a Prisoner of War ; and cannot be put to death without in- 
justice, solecism, peril ? Speak such conviction ; and lose utterly 
your footing with the decided Patriot ! Nay properly it is not 
even a conviction, but a conjecture and dim puzzle. How many 
poor Girondins are sure of but one thing : That a man and 
Girondin ought to have footing somewhere, and to stand firmly 
on it ; keeping well with the Respectable Classes ! This is what 
conviction and assurance of faith they have. They must wriggle 
painfully between their dilemma-horns. ^ 

Nor is France idle, nor Europe. It is a Heart this Conven- 
tion, as we said, which sends out influences, and receives them. 
A King's Execution, call it Martyrdom, call it Punishment, were 
an influence ! — Two notable influences this Convention has al- 
ready sent forth over all Nations ; much to its own detriment. 
On the 19th of November, it emitted a Decree, and has since 
confirmed and unfolded the details of it, That any Nation which 
might see good to shake off the fetters of Despotism was thereby, 
so to speak, the Sister of France, and should have help and 
countenance. A Decree much noised of by Diplomatists, Editors, 
International Lawj'ers ; such a Decree as no living Fetter of Des- 
potism, nor Person in Authority anywhere, can approve of! It 
was Deputy Chambon the Girondin who propounded this Decree; 
— at bottom perhaps as a flourish of rhetoric. 

The second influence we speak of had a still poorer origin : 
in the restless loud-rattling slightly-furnished head of one Jacob 
Dupont from the Loire country. The Convention is speculating 
on a plan of National Education : Deputy Dupont in his speech 
says, " I am free to avow, M. le President, that I for my part 
am an Atheist, "3 — thinking the world might like to know that. 

2 See Extracts from their Newspapers, in Hist, Pari, xxi. 1-38, &c. 
• Moniteur, Stance du 14 Ddcembre 1792, 

84 REGICIDE. book ii. 

The French world received it without commentary ; or with no 
audible commentary, so loudvfus France otherwise. The Foreign 
world received it with confutation, with horror and astonishment;* 
a most miserable influence this ! And now if to these two were 
added a third influence and sent pulsing abroad over all the 
Earth : that of Regicide ? 

Foreign Courts interfere in this Trial of Louis ; Spain, Eng- 
land : not to be listened to ; though they come, as it were, at 
least Spain comes, with the olive-branch in one hand, and the 
sword without scabbard in the other. But at home too, from 
out of this circumambient Paris and France, what influences 
come thick-pulsing ! Petitions flow in ; pleading for equal jus- 
tice, in a reign of so-called Equahty. The living Patriot pleads; 
— O ye National Deputies, do not the dead Patriots plead ? 
The Twelve-hundred that lie in cold obstruction, do not they 
plead ; and petition, in Death's dumb-show, from their narrow 
house there, more eloquently than speech ? Crippled Patriots 
hop on crutches round the Salle de Mandge, demanding justice. 
The Wounded of the Tenth of August, the Widows and Orphans 
of the Killed petition in a body; and hop and defile, eloquently 
mute, through the Hall : one wounded Patriot, unable to hop, is 
borne on his bed thither, and passes shoulder-high, in the hori- 
zontal posture.^ The Convention Tribune, which has paused 
at such sight, commences again, — droning mere Juristic Ora- 
tory. But out of doors Paris is piping ever higher. Bull-voiced 
St.-Huruge is heard ; and the hysteric eloquence of Mother 
Duchess ; ' Varlet, Apostle of Liberty,' with pike and red cap, 
flies hastily, carrying his oratorical folding-stool. Justice on the 
Traitor ! cries all the Patriot world. Consider also this other 
cry, heard loud on the streets : " Give us Bread, or else kill 
us !" Bread and Equahty; Justice on the Traitor, that we may 
have Bread t 

The Limited or undecided Patriot is set against the Decided. 
Mayor Chambon heard of dreadful rioting at the Thi^dlre de la 
Nation : it had come to rioting, and even to fist-work, between 
the Decided and the Undecided, touching a new Drama called 
Ami dcs Lois (Friend of the Laws). One of the poorest Dramas 
ever written ; but which had didactic applications in it ; where- 
fore powdered wigs of Friends of Order and black hair of Jacobin 

* Mrs. Hannah More, Letter to Jacob Dupont (London, 1793) ; «S:c. &c. 
^ Hist. Pari. xxii. 131 ; Moore, &c. 

CHAP. vr. AT THE BAR. 85 


heads are flying there ; and Mayor Chambon hastens with San- 
terre, in hopes to quell it. Far from quelling it, our poor Mayor 
gets so 'squeezed,' says the Report, and likewise so blamed and 
bullied, say we, — that he, with regret, quits the brief Mayoralty 
altogether, • his lungs being affected.' This miserable Ami des 
Lois is debated of in the Convention itself; so violent, mutually- 
enraged, are the Limited Patriots and the Unlimited.^ 

Between which two classes, are not Aristocrats enough, and 
Crypto-Aristocrats, busy? Spies running over from London 
with important Packets ; spies pretending to run ! One of these 
latter, Viard was the name of him, pretended to accuse Roland, 
and even the Wife of Roland : to the joy of Chabot and the 
Mountain. But the Wife of Roland came, being summoned, 
on the instant, to the Convention Hall ; came, in her high 
clearness ; and, with few clear words, dissipated this Viard into 
despicability and air ; all Friends of Order applauding.7 So, 
with Theatre-riots, and ' Bread, or else kill us ;' with Rage, 
Hunger, preternatural Suspicion, does this wild Paris pipe. Ro- 
land grows ever more querulous, in his Messages and Letters ; 
rising almost to the hysterical pitch. Marat, whom no power 
on Earth can prevent seeing into traitors and Rolands, takes to 
bed for three days ; almost dead, the invaluable People's-Friend, 
with heart-break, with fever and headache : ' O Pejiple babil- 
' lard, si tu savais agir. People of Babblers, if thou couldst 
' but actr 

To crown all, victorious Dumouriez, in these New-year's 
days, is arrived in Paris ; — one fears for no good. He pre- 
tends to be complaining of Minister Pache, and Hassenfratz 
dilapidations ; to be concerting measures for the spring Cam- 
paign : one finds him much in the company of the Girondins. 
Plotting with them against Jacobinism, against Equality, and the 
Punishment of Louis ? We have Letters of his to the Conven- 
tion itself. Will he act the old Lafayette part, this new victori- 
ous General ? Let him withdraw again ; not undenounced.^ 

And still in the Convention Tribune, it drones continually, 
mere Juristic Eloquence, and Hypothesis without Action ; and 
there are still fifties on the President's List. Nay these Gironde 

6 Hist. Pari, xxiii. 31, 48, &c. 

' Moniteur, Stance du 7 Ddcembre 1792, 

• Dumouriez, Mdmoires, iii. c. 4. 

S6 REGICIDE. book ii. 

Presidents give their own party preference : we suspect they 
play foul with the List ; men of the Mountain cannot be heard. 
And still it drones, all through December into January and a 
New year ; and there is no end ! Paris pipes round it ; multi- 
tudinous ; ever higher, to the note of the whirlwind. Paris will 
'bring cannon from Saint-Denis ;' there is talk of ' shutting the 
Barriers,' — to Roland's horror. 

Whereupon, behold, the Convention Tribune suddenly ceases 
droning : we cut short, be on the List who likes ; and make end. 
On Tuesday next, the Fifteenth of January 1793, it shall go to 
the Vote, name by name ; and one way or other, this great game 
play itself out ! 



Is Louis Capet guilty of conspiring against Liberty ? Shall 
our Sentence be itself final, or need ratifying by Appeal to the 
People ? If guilty, what Punishment ? This is the form agreed 
to, after uproar and ' several hours of tumultuous indecision :' 
these are the Three successive Questions, whereon the Conven- 
tion shall now pronounce. Paris floods round their Hall ; mul- 
titudinous, many-sounding. Europe and all Nations listen for 
their answer. Deputy after Deputy shall answer to his name : 
Guilty or Not guilty ? 

As to the Guilt, there is, as above hinted, no doubt in the 
mind of Patriot men. Overwhelming majority pronounces Guilt ; 
the unanimous Convention votes for Guilt, only some feeble 
twenty-eight voting not Innocence, but refusing to vote at all. 
Neither does the Second Question prove doubtful, whatever the 
Girondins might calculate. Would not Appeal to the People be 
another name for civil war ? Majority of two to one answers 
that there shall be no Appeal : this also is settled. Loud Pat- 
riotism, now at ten o'clock, may hush itself for the night ; and 
retire to its bed not without hope. Tuesday has gone well. On 
the morrow comes. What Punishment ? On the morrow is the 
tug of vv'ar. 

Consider therefore if, on this Wednesday morning, there is 
an affluence of Patriotism ; if Paris stands a-tiptoe, and all De- 
puties are at their post ! Seven-hundred and Forty-nine hon- 


Jan. i6th-i9th. 

ourable Deputies ; only some twenty absent on mission, Duchatel 
and some seven others absent by sickness. Meanwhile expec- 
tant Patriotism and Paris standing a-tiptoe have need of patience. 
For this Wednesday again passes in debate and effervescence ; 
Girondins proposing that a ' majority of three-fourths' shall be 
required ; Patriots fiercely resisting them. Danton, who has 
just got back from mission in the Netherlands, does obtain 
' order of the day' on this Girondin proposal ; nay he obtains 
farther that we decide sans desemparer, in Permanent-session, 
till we have done. 

And so, finally, at eight in the evening this Third stupendous 
Voting, by roll-call or appel nojninal, does begin. What Punish- 
ment ? Girondins undecided. Patriots decided, men afraid of 
Royalty, men afraid of Anarchy, must answer here and now. 
Infinite Patriotism, dusky in the lamp-light, floods all corridors, 
crowds all galleries ; sternly waiting to hear. Shrill-sounding 
Ushers summon you by Name and Department ; you must rise 
to the Tribune, and say. 

Eye-witnesses have represented this scene of the Third Vot- 
ing, and of the votings that grew out of it, — a scene protracted, 
like to be endless, lasting, with few brief intervals, from Wednes- 
day till Sunday morning, — as one of the strangest seen in the 
Revolution. Long night wears itself into day, morning's paleness 
is spread over all faces ; and again the wintry shadows sink, and 
the dim lamps are lit : but through day and night and the vicissi- 
tudes of hours, Member after Member is mounting continually 
those Tribune-steps ; pausing aloft there, in the clearer upper 
light, to speak his Fate-word ; then diving down into the dusk 
and throng again. Like Phantoms in the hour of midnight ; 
most spectral, pandemonial ! Never did President Vergniaud, 
or any terrestrial President, superintend the like. A King's 
Life, and so much else that depends thereon, hangs trembling 
in the balance. Man after man mounts ; the buzz hushes itself 
till he have spoken : Death ; Banishment ; Imprisonment till 
the Peace, Many say, Death ; with what cautious well-studied 
phrases and paragraphs they could devise, of explanation, of 
enforcement, of faint recommendation to mercy. Many too say. 
Banishment; something short of Death. The balance trembles, 
none can yet guess whitherward. Whereat anxious Patriotism 
bellows ; irrepressible by Ushers. 

The poor Girondins, many of them, under such fierce bel- 

88 REGICIDE. book ii. 

lowing of Patriotism, say Death ; justifying, motivant, that most 
miserable word of theirs by some brief casuistry and Jesuitry. 
Vergniaud himself says, Death ; justifying by Jesuitry. Rich 
Lepelletier Saint-Fargeau had been of the Noblesse, and then of 
the Patriot Left Side, in the Constituent ; and had argued and 
reported, there and elsewhere, not a little, against Capital Pun- 
ishment : nevertheless he now says. Death ; a word which may 
cost him dear. Manuel did surely rank with the Decided in 
August last ; but he has been sinking and backsliding ever since 
September and the scenes of September. In this Convention, 
above all, no word he could speak would find favour ; he says 
now. Banishment ; and in mute wrath quits the place forever, — 
much hustled in the corridors. Philippe Egalite votes, in his soul 
and conscience. Death : at the sound of which and of whom, even 
Patriotism shakes its head ; and there runs a groan and shudder 
through this Hall of Doom. Robespierre's vote cannot be doubt- 
ful ; his speech is long. Men see the figure of shrill Sieyes 
ascend ; hardly pausing, passing merely, this figure says, "La 
Mart satis phrase, Death without phrases;" and fares onward 
and downward. Most spectral, pandemonial ! 

And yet if the Reader fancy it of a funereal, sorrowful or 
even grave character, he is far mistaken : • the Ushers in the 
' Mountain quarter,' says Mercier, 'had become as Box-keepers 
' at the Opera ;' opening and shutting of Galleries for privileged 
persons, for ' D'Orldans Egalitd's mistresses,' or other high- 
dizened women of condition, rustling with laces and tricolor. 
Gallant Deputies pass and repass thitherward, treating them 
with ices, refreshments and small-talk ; the high-dizened heads 
beck responsive ; some have their card and pin, pricking down 
the Ayes and Noes, as at a game of Rouge-et-Noir. Farther 
aloft reigns M^re Duchesse with her unrouged Amazons ; she 
cannot be prevented making long Hahas, when the vote is not 
La Mart. In these Galleries there is refection, drinking of wine 
and brandy 'as in open tavern, enpleine tabagie.' Betting goes 
on in all coffeehouses of the neighbourhood. But within doors, 
fatigue, impatience, uttermost weariness sits now on all visages ; 
lighted up only from time to time by turns of the game. Mem- 
bers have fallen asleep ; Ushers come and awaken them to vote : 
other Members calculate whether they shall not have time to 
run and dine. Figures rise, like phantoms, pale in the dusky 
lamp-light ; utter from this Tribune, only one word : Death. 


January 20th, 

• Tout est optique,^ says Mercier, ' The world is all an optical 

• shadow.'^ Deep in the Thursday night, when the Voting is 
done, and Secretaries are summing it up, sick Duchatel, more 
spectral than another, comes borne on a chair, wrapped in 
blankets, in ' nightgown and nightcap,' to vote for Mercy : one 
vote it is thought may turn the scale. 

Ah no ! In profoundest silence, President Vergniaud, with 
a voice full of sorrow, has to say : " I declare, in the name of 
the Convention, that the punishment it pronounces on Louis 
Capet is that of Death." Death by a small majority of Fifty- 
three. Nay, if we deduct from the one side, and add to the 
other, a certain Twenty-six, who said Death but coupled some 
faintest ineffectual surmise of mercy with it, the majority will be 
but One. 

Death is the sentence : but its execution ? It is not executed 
yet ! Scarcely is the vote declared when Louis's Three Advo- 
cates enter ; with Protest in his name, with demand for Delay, 
for Appeal to the People. For this do Deseze and Tronchet 
plead, with brief eloquence : brave old Malesherbes pleads for 
it with eloquent want of eloquence, in broken sentences, in em- 
barrassment and sobs ; that brave time-honoured face, with its 
gray strength, its broad sagacity and honesty, is mastered with 
emotion, melts into dumb tears.^ — Theyreject the Appeal to the 
People ; that having been already settled. But as to the Delay, 
what they call Snrsis, it shall be considered ; shall be voted 
for tomorrow : at present we adjourn. Whereupon Patriotism 
'hisses' from the Mountain : but a ' tyrannical majority' has so 
decided, and adjourns. 

There is still this fourth Vote, then, growls indignant 
Patriotism : — this vote, and who knows what other votes, and 
adjournments of voting ; and the whole matter still hovering hy- 
pothetical ! And at every new vote those Jesuit Girondins, even 
they who voted for Death, would so fain find a loophole ! Pat- 
riotism must watch and rage. Tyrannical adjournments there 
have been ; one, and now another at midnight on plea of fatigue, 
— all Friday wasted in hesitation and higgling ; in r^-counting 

'^M.^iasx, Nouveau Paris,\\. 156-59; Montgaillard, iii. 348-87; Moore, 

2 Moniteur (in Hist. Pari, xxiii. 210). See Boissy d'Anglas, Vie d« 
Malesherbes, ii. 139. 


of the votes, which are found correct as they stood ! Patriotism 
bays fiercer than ever ; Patriotism, by long watching, has be- 
come red-eyed, almost rabid. 

" Delay : yes or no ?" men do vote it finally, all Saturday, 
all day and night. Men's nerves are worn out, men's hearts 
are desperate ; now it shall end. Vergniaud, spite of the bay- 
ing, ventures to say Yes, Delay ; though he had voted Death. 
Philippe Egalit^ says, in his soul and conscience, No. The 
next Member mounting : " Since Philippe says No, I for my 
part say Yes, moi je dis Old." The balance still trembles. Till 
finally, at three o'clock on Sunday morning, we have : No De- 
lay, iDy a majority of Seventy; Death withm foiir-and-twenty 
hours ! 

Garat, Minister of Justice, has to go to the Temple with this 
stern message : he ejaculates I'epeatedly, " Quelle commission 
affreuse, What a frightful function l"^ Louis begs for a Con- 
fessor ; for yet three days of life, to prepare himself to die. The 
Confessor is granted ; the three days and all respite are refused. 

There is no deliverance, then ? Thick stone walls answer, 
None. Has King Louis no friends .'' Men of action, of courage 
grown desperate, in this his extreme need ? King Louis's friends 
are feeble and far. Not even a voice in the coffeehouses rises 
for him. At Meot the Restaurateur's no Captain Dampmartin 
now dines ; or sees death-doing whiskerandoes on furlough ex- 
hibit daggers of improved structure. Mdot's gallant Royalists 
on furlough are far across the marches ; they are wandering 
distracted over the world : or their bones lie whitening Argonne 
Wood. Only some weak Priests ' leave Pamphlets on all the 
bourne-stones,' this night, calling for a rescue : calling for the 
pious women to rise ; or are taken distributing Pamphlets, and 
sent to prison.* 

Nay there is one death-doer, of the ancient Meot sort, who, 
with effort, has done even less and worse : slain a Deputy, and 
set all the Patriotism of Paris on edge ! It was five on Satur- 
day evening when Lepelletier Saint-Fargeau, having given his 
vote. No Delay, ran over to Fevrier's in the Palais Royal to 
snatch a morsel of dinner. He had dined, and was paying. A 

* Biographic dcs Ministrcs, p. 157. 

* See Prudhomme's Newspaper, Rivolutions dc Paris (in Hist, Pari, 
xxiii. 318). 


January 21st. 

thickset man 'with black hair and blue beard,' in a loose kind 
of frock, stept up to him ; it was, as Fevrier and the bystanders 
bethought them, one Paris of the old King's-Guard. "Are you 
Lepelletier ?" asks he. — "Yes." — "You voted in the King's 
Business--?" — " I voted Death." — " Scildrat, take that !" cries 
Paris, flashing out a sabre from under his frock, and plunging 
it deep in Lepelletier's side. Fevrier clutches him : but he 
breaks off; is gone. 

The voter Lepelletier lies dead ; he has expired in great pain, 
at one in the morning; — two hours before that Vote oiNo Delay 
was fully summed up. Guardsman Paris is flying over France ; 
cannot be taken ; will be found some months after, self-shot in 
a remote inn.^ — Robespierre sees reason to think that Prince 
d'Artois himself is privately in Town ; that the Convention will 
be butchered in the lump. Patriotism sounds mere wail and 
vengeance : Santerre doubles and trebles all his patrols. Pity 
is lost in rage and fear ; the Convention has refused the three 
days of life and all respite. 



To this conclusion, then, hast thou come, O hapless Louis! 
The Son of Sixty Kings is to die on the Scaffold by form of Law. 
Under Sixty Kings this same form of Law, form of Society, has 
been fashioning itself together these thousand years ; and has 
become, one way and other, a most strange Machine. Surely, 
if needful, it is also frightful, this Machine ; dead, blind ; not 
what it should be ; which, with swift stroke, or by cold slow tor- 
ture, has wasted the lives and souls of innumerable men. And 
behold now a King himself, or say rather Kinghood in his per- 
son, is to expire here in cruel tortures ; — like a Phalaris shut in 
the belly of his own red-heated Brazen Bull ! It is ever so ; and 
thou shouldst know it, O haughty tyrannous man: injustice 
breeds injustice ; curses and falsehoods do verily return 'alwaj's 
home,' wide as they may wander. Innocent Louis bears the sins 
of many generations : he too experiences that man's tribunal is 

® Hist. Pari, xxiii. 275, 318 ; Felix Lepelletier, Vie de Michel Lepelle- 
tier soil Frire, p. 61, &c. F61ix, with due love of the miraculous, will have 
it that the Suicide in the inn was not Paris, but some double-ganger of his. 


not in this Earth ; that if he had no Higher one, it were not 
well with him. 

A King dying by such violence appeals impressively to the 
imagination ; as the like must do, and ought to do. And yet at 
bottom it is not the King dying, but the man ! Kingship is a 
coat : the grand loss is of the skin. The man from whom you 
take his Life, to him can the whole combined world do more ? 
Lally went on his hurdle ; his mouth filled with a gag, Misera- 
blest mortals, doomed for picking pockets, have a whole five-act 
Tragedy in them, in that dumb pain, as they go to the gallows, 
unregarded ; they consume the cup of trembling down to the lees. 
For Kings and for Beggars, for the justly doomed and the un- 
justly, it is a hard thing to die. Pity them all : thy utmost pity, 
with all aids and appliances and throne-and-scaffold contrasts, 
how far short is it of the thing pitied ! 

A Confessor has come ; Abbd Edgeworth, of Irish extrac- 
tion, whom the King knew by good report, has come promptly 
on this solemn mission. Leave the Earth alone, then, thou hap- 
less King ; it with its malice will go its way, thou also canst go 
thine. A hard scene yet remains : the parting with our loved 
ones. Kind hearts, environed in the same grim peril with us ; 
to be left here / Let the Reader look with the eyes of Valet 
Cldry through these glass -doors, where also the Municipality 
watches ; and see the crudest of scenes : 

' At half-past eight, the door of the ante-room opened : the 
' Queen appeared first, leading her Son by the hand ; then 

• Madame Royale and Madame Elizabeth : they all flung them- 

• selves into the arms of the King. Silence reigned for some 

• minutes ; interrupted only by sobs. The Queen made a move- 
' ment to lead his Majesty towards the inner room, where 
' M. Edgeworth was waiting unknown to them: " No," said the 
' King, "let us go into the dining-room ; it is there only that I 

• can see you." They entered there ; I shut the door of it, which 
' was of glass. The King sat down, the Queen on his left hand, 
' Madame Elizabeth on his right, Madame Royale almost in 
' front ; the young Prince remained standing between his Father's 
' legs. They all lejined towards him, and often held him em- 
' braced. This scene oi wo lasted an hour and three quarters ; 
' during which we could hear nothing ; we could see only that 

• always when the King spoke, the sobbings of the Princesses 


January 21st, 

• redoubled, continued for some minutes ; and that then the 

• King began again to speak.'i — And so our meetings and our 
partings do now end ! The sorrows we gave each other ; the 
poor joys we faithfuUy shared, and all our lovings and our suf- 
ferings, and confused toilings under the earthly Sun, are over. 
Thou good soul, I shall never, never through all ages of Time, 
see thee any more ! — Never ! O Reader, knowest thou that 
hard word ? 

For nearly two hours this agony lasts ; then they tear them- 
selves asunder. " Promise that you will see us on the morrow." 
He promises : — Ah yes, yes ; yet once ; and go now, ye loved 
ones ; cry to God for yourselves and me ! — It was a hard scene, 
but it is over. He will not see them on the morrow. The 
Queen, in passing through the ante-room, glanced at the Cer- 
berus Municipals ; and, with woman's vehemence, said through 
her tears, " Vo7is etes tons des scelerats." 

King Louis slept sound, till five in the morning, when Cle'ry, 
as he had been ordered, awoke him. Cl^ry dressed his hair : 
while this went forward, Louis took a ring from his watch, and 
kept trying it on his finger ; it was his wedding-ring, which he 
is now to return to the Queen as a mute farewell. At half-past 
six, he took the Sacrament; and continued in devotion, and con- 
ference with Abbd Edgeworth. He will not see his Family: it 
were too hard to bear. 

At eight, the Municipals enter : the King gives them his 
Will, and messages and effects ; which they, at first, brutally 
refuse to take charge of: he gives them a roll of gold pieces, a 
hundred and twenty-five louis ; these are to be returned to Males- 
herbes, who had lent them. At nine, Santerre says the hour is 
come. The King begs yet to retire for three minutes. At the 
end of three minutes, Santerre again says the hour is come. 

• Stamping on the ground with his right-foot, Louis answers : 
" Partons, Let us go." ' — How the rolling of those drums comes 
in, through the Temple bastions and bulwarks, on the heart of 
a queenly wife ; soon to be a widow ! He is gone, then, and 
has not seen us? A Queen weeps bitterly; a King's Sister and 
Children. Over all these Four does Death also hover: all shall 
perish miserably save one ; she, as Duchesse d'Angoul^me, will 
live, — not happily. 

At the Temple Gate were some faint cries, perhaps from 
* Clery's Narrative (London, 1798), cited in Weber, iii. 312. 

94 REGICIDE. book ii. 

voices of pitiful women : "Grace/ Grace!" Through the rest 
of the streets there is silence as of the grave. No man not armed 
is allowed to be there : the armed, did any even pity, dare not 
express it, each man overawed by all his neighbours. All win- 
dows are down, none seen looking through them. All shops 
are shut. No wheel-carriage rolls, this morning, in these streets 
but one only. Eighty-thousand armed men stand ranked, like 
armed statues of men ; cannons bristle, cannoneers with match 
burning, but no word or movement : it is as a city enchanted 
into silence and stone : one carriage with its escort, slowly rum- 
bling, is the only sound. Louis reads, in his Book of Devotion, 
the Prayers of the Dying : clatter of this death-march falls sharp 
on the ear, in the great silence ; but the thought would fain 
struggle heavenward, and forget the Earth. 

As the clocks strike ten, behold the Place de la Revolution, 
once Place de Louis Ouinze : the Guillotine, mounted near the 
old Pedestal where once stood the Statue of that Louis ! Far 
round, all bristles with cannons and armed men : spectators 
crowding in the rear ; D'Orleans Egalitd there in cabriolet. 
Swift messengers, Iwquetotis, speed to the Townhall, every three 
minutes : near by is the Convention sitting, — vengeful for Le- 
pelletier. Heedless of all, Louis reads his Prayers of the Dying; 
not till five minutes yet has he finished ; then the Carriage 
opens. What temper he is in ? Ten difierent witnesses will 
give ten different accounts of it. He is in the collision of all 
tempers ; arrived now at the black Mahlstrom and descent of 
Death: in sorrow, in indignation, in resignation " struggling to 
be resigned. " Take care of M. Edgeworth," he straitly charges 
the Lieutenant who is sitting with them : then they two descend. 

The drums are beating : " Taiscz-vous, Silence !" he cries 
' in a terrible voice, d'une voix terrible.' He mounts the scaf- 
fold, not without delay ; he is in puce coat, breeches of gray, 
white stockings. He strips off the coat ; stands disclosed in a 
sleeve-waistcoat of white flannel. The Executioners approach 
to bind him : he spurns, resists ; Abb^ Edgeworth has to re- 
mind him how the Saviour, in whom men trust, submitted to 
be bound. His hands are tied, his head bare ; the fatal moment 
is come. He advances to the edge of the Scaffold, ' his face 
very red,' and says : " Frenchmen, I die innocent : it is from 
the Scaffold and near appearing before God that I tell you so. 
I pardon my enemies ; I desire that Ffance " A General 


January 21st. 

on horseback, Santerre or another, prances out, with uphfted 
hand : " Tambotirs f The drums clrown the voice. "Execu- 
tioners, do j^our duty !" The Executioners, desperate lest them- 
selves be murdered (for Santerre and his Armed Ranks will 
strike, if they do not), seize the hapless Louis : six of them 
desperate, him singly desperate, struggling there ; and bind 
him to their plank. Abbe Edgeworth, stooping, bespeaks him : 
" Son of Saint Louis, ascend to Heaven." The Axe clanks 
down ; a King's Life is shorn away. It is Monday the 21st of 
January 1793. He was aged Thirty-eight years four months 
and twenty-eight days. 2 

Executioner Samson shows the Head : fierce shout of Vive 
la Rcpiiblique rises, and swells ; caps raised on bayonets, hats 
waving : students of the College of Four Nations take it up, on 
the far Quais ; fli-ng it over Paris. D'Orldans drives off in his 
cabriolet : the Townhall Councillors rub their hands, saying, 
" It is done. It is done." There is dipping of handkerchiefs, 
of pike-points in the blood. Headsman Samson, though he after- 
wards denied it,^ sells locks of the hair : fractions of the puce 
coat are long after worn in rings."* — And so, in some half-hour 
it is done ; and the multitude has all departed. Pastry-cooks, 
coffee-sellers, milkmen sing out their trivial quotidian cries : the 
world wags on, as if this were a common day. In the coffee- 
houses that evening, says Prudhomme, Patriot shook hands 
with Patriot in a more cordial manner than usual. Not till some 
days after, according to Mercier, did public men see what a 
grave thing it was. 

A grave thing it indisputably is ; and will have consequences. 
On the morrow morning, Roland, so long steeped to the lips in 
disgust and chagrin, sends in his demission. His accounts he 
all ready, correct in black-on-white to the uttermost farthing : 
these he wants but to have audited, that he might retire to re- 
mote obscurity, to the country and his books. They will never 
be audited, those accounts ; he will never get retired thither. 

It was on Tuesday that Roland demitted. On Thursday 
comes Lepelletier St.-Fargeau's Funeral, and passage to the 

2 Newspapers, Municipal Records, &c. &c. (in Hist. Pari, xxiii. 298- 
349); Deux Amis, ix. 369-373; Mercier, Nouveau Paris, iii. 3-8. 

3 His Letter in the Newspapers [Hist. Pari, ubi supra). 
* Forster's Brie/wechsel, i. 473. 

96 REGICIDE. book ii. 

Pantheon of Great Men. Notable as the wild pageant of a win- 
ter day. The Body is borne aloft, half-bare ; the winding-sheet 
disclosing the death-wound : sabre and bloody clothes parade 
themselves ; a ' lugubrious music' wailing harsh ncEntLB. Oak- 
crowns shower down from windows ; President Vergniaud walks 
there, with Convention, with Jacobin Society, and all Patriots 
of every colour, all mourning brotherlike. 

Notable also for another thing this Burial of Lepelletier : 
it was the last act these men ever did with concert ! All 
Parties and figures of Opinion, that agitate this distracted 
France and its Convention, now stand, as it were, face to face, 
and dagger to dagger ; the King's Life, round which they all 
struck and battled, being hurled down. Dumouriez, conquer- 
ing Holland, growls ominous discontent, at the head of Armies. 
Men say Dumouriez will have a King ; that young D'Orl^ans 
Egalitd shall be his King. Deputy Fauchet, in the yournal des 
Amis, curses his day, more bitterly than Job did ; invokes the 
poniards of Regicides, of ' Arras Vipers' or Robespierres, of 
Pluto Dantons, of horrid Butchers Legendre and Simulacra 
d'Herbois, to send him swiftly to another world than theirs.^ 
This is Te-Deum Fauchet, of the Bastille Victory, of the Cercle 
Social. Sharp was the death-hail rattling round one's Flag-of- 
truce, on that Bastille day : but it was soft to such wreckage of 
high Hope as this ; one's New Golden Era going down in leaden 
dross, and sulphurous black of the Everlasting Darkness ! 

At home this Killing of a King has divided all friends ; and 
abroad it has united all enemies. Fraternity of Peoples, Re- 
volutionary Propagandism ; Atheism, Regicide ; total destruc- 
tion of social order in this world ! All Kings, and lovers of 
Kings, and haters of Anarchy, rank in coalition ; as in a war 
for life. England signifies to Citizen Chauvelin, the Ambassador 
or rather Ambassador's-Cloak, that he must quit the country in 
eight days. Ambassador's-Cloak and Ambassador, Chauvelin 
and Talleyrand, depart accordingly.*^ Talleyrand, implicated 
in that Iron Press of the Tuileries, thinks it safest to make for 

England has cast out the Embassy : England declares war, 
— being shocked principally, it would seem, at the condition of 
the River Scheldt. Spain declares war ; being shocked princi- 

" Hist. Pari, ubi suprt\. ^ Animal Register oi lygjx PP- I14-28. 


Jan .-March. 

pally at some other thing ; which doubtless the Manifesto indi- 
cates.? Nay we find it was not England that declared war first, 
or Spain first ; but that France herself declared war first on 
both of them f — a point of immense Parliamentary and Jour- 
nalistic interest in those days, but which has become of no in- 
terest whatever in these. They all declare war. The sword is 
drawn, the scabbard thrown away. It is even as Danton said, 
in one of his ail-too gigantic figures: "The coalised Kings 
threaten us ; we hurl at their feet, as gage of battle, the Head 
of a King." 

7 23d March (Annual Register, p. i6i). 

* ist February ; 7th March [Moniteur of these dates). 

VOL. 111. 





This huge Insurrectionary Movement, which we Hken to a break- 
ing-out of Tophet and the Abyss, has swept away Royalty, 
Aristocracy, and a King's hfe. The question is, What will it 
next do ; how will it henceforth shape itself? vSettle down into 
a reign of Law and Liberty ; according as the habits, persuasions 
and endeavours of the educated, moneyed, respectable class pre- 
scribe ? That is to say : the volcanic lava-flood, bursting up in 
the manner described, will explode and flov/ according to Giron- 
din Formula and preestablished rule of Philosophy ? If so, for 
our Girondin friends it will be well. 

Meanwhile were not the prophecy rather, that as no external 
force, Royal or other, now remains which could control this 
Movement, the Movement will follow a course of its own ; pro- 
bably a very original one ? Farther, that whatsoever man or 
men can best interpret the inward tendencies it has, and give 
them voice and activity, will obtain the lead of it ? For the 
rest, that as a thing luitlwut order, a thing proceeding from be- 
yond and beneath the region of order, it must work and welter, 
not as a Regularity but as a Chaos ; destructive and self-destruc- 
tive ; always till something that has order arise, strong enough 
to bind it into subjection again ? Which something, we may 
farther conjecture, will not be a Formula, with philosophical pro- 
positions and forensic eloquence ; but a Reality, probably with 
a sword in its hand ! 

As for the Girondin Formula, of a respectable Republic for 
the Middle Classes, all manner of Aristocracies being now sufti- 


February 25th. 

ciently demolished, there seems Httle reason to expect that the 
business will stop there. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, these 
are the words ; enunciative and prophetic. Republic for the 
respectable washed Middle Classes, how can that be the fulfil- 
ment thereof? Hunger and nakedness, and nightmare oppres- 
sion lying heavy on Twenty-five million hearts ; this, not the 
wounded vanities or contradicted philosophies of philosophical 
Advocates, rich Shopkeepers, rural Noblesse, was the prime 
mover in the French Revolution ; as the like will be in all such 
Revolutions, in all countries. Feudal Fleur-de-lys had become 
an insupportably bad marching-banner, and needed to be torn 
and trampled : but Moneybag of Mammon (for that, in these 
times, is what the respectable Republic for the Middle Classes 
will signify) is a still worse, while it lasts. Properly, indeed, it 
is the worst and basest of all banners and symbols of dominion 
among men ; and indeed is possible only in a time of general 
Atheism, and Unbelief in anything save in brute Force and 
Sensualism ; pride of birth, pride of office, any known kind of 
pride being a degree better than purse-pride. Freedom, Equality, 
Brotherhood : not in the Moneybag, but far elsewhere, will Sans- 
culottism seek these things. 

We say therefore that an Insurrectionary France, loose of 
control from without, destitute of supreme order from within, 
will fonn one of the most tumultuous Activities ever seen on this 
Earth ; such as no Girondin Formula can regulate. An immea- 
surable force, made up of forces manifold, heterogeneous, com- 
patible and incompatible. In plainer words, this France must 
needs split into Parties ; each of which seeking to make itself 
good, contradiction, exasperation will arise ; and Parties on Parties 
find that they cannot work together, cannot exist together. 

As for the number of Parties, there will, strictly counting, 
be as many Parties as there are opinions. According to which 
rule, in this National Convention itself, to say nothing of France 
generally, the number of Parties ought to be Seven-hundred and 
Forty-nine ; for every unit entertains his opinion. But now, as 
every unit has at once an individual nature or necessity to follow 
his own road, and a gregarious nature or necessity to see himself 
travelling by the side of others, — what can there be but dissolu- 
tions, precipitations, endless turbulence of attracting and repelling; \ 
till once the master-element get evolved, and this wild alchemy^' 
arransre itself again ? 

loo THE GIRONUINS. book ill. 

To the length of Seven-hundred and Forty-nine Parties, how- 
ever, no Nation was ever yet seen to go. Nor indeed much be- 
yond the length of Two Parties ; two at a time ; — so invincible 
is man's tendency to unite, with all the invincible divisiveness he 
has ! Two Parties, we say, are the usual number at one time : 
let these two fight it out, all minor shades of party rallying under 
the shade likcst them ; when the one has fought down the other, 
then it, in its turn, may divide, self-destructive; and so the pro- 
cess continue, as far as needful. This is the way of Revolutions, 
which spring up as the French one has done ; when the so-called 
Bonds of Society snap asunder; and all Laws that are not Laws 
of Nature become naught and Formulas merely. 

But, quitting these somewhat abstract considerations, let 
History note this concrete reality which the streets of Paris ex- 
hibit, on Monday the 25th of February 1793. Long before day- 
light that morning, these streets are noisy and angry. Petition- 
ing enough there has been ; a Convention often solicited. It 
was but yesterday there came a Deputation of Washerwomen 
with Petition ; complaining that not so much as soap could be 
had ; to say nothing of bread, and condiments of bread. The 
cry of v/omen, round the Salle de Manege, was heard plaintive : 
" Du pain ct dii savon, Bread and soap."^ 

And now from six o'clock, this Monday morning, one per- 
ceives the Bakers' Queues unusually expanded, angrily agitating 
themselves. Not the Baker alone, but two Section Commis- 
sioners to help him, manage with difficulty the daily distribution 
of loaves. Soft-spoken assiduous, in the early candle-light, are 
Baker and Commissioners : and yet the pale chill February 
sunrise discloses an unpromising scene. Indignant Female Pa- 
triots, partly supplied with bread, rush now to the shops, declar- 
ing that they will have groceries. Groceries enough : sugar- 
barrels rolled forth into the street. Patriot Citoyennes weighing 
it out at a just rate of elevenpence a pound ; likewise coffee- 
chests, soap-chests, nay cinnamon and cloves-chests, with 
aquaviia; 7i\\d other forms of alcohol, — at a just rate, which some 
do not pay ; the pale-faced Grocer silently wringing his hands ! 
What help .? The distributive Citoyennes are of violent speech 
and gesture, their long Eumenides-hair hanging out of curl; nay 
in their girdles pistols are seen sticking : some, it is even said, 

1 Moniteiir, &c. {Hist, Pari. xxiv. 332-348). 


February 25th, 

have beards, — male Patriots in petticoats and mob-cap. Thus, 
in the street of Lombards, in the street of Five-Diamonds, street 
of Pulleys, in most streets of Paris does it effervesce, the live- 
long day ; no Municipality, no Mayor Pachc, though he was War- 
Minister lately, sends military against it, or aught against it but 
persuasive-eloquence, till seven at night, or later. 

On Monday gone five weeks, which was tlie twenty-first of 
January, we saw Paris, beheading its King, stand silent, like a 
petrified City of Enchantment : and now on this Monday it is 
so noisy, selling sugar ! Cities, especially Cities in Revolution, 
are subject to these alternations ; the secret courses of civic busi- 
ness and existence effervescing and efflorescing, in this manner, 
as a concrete Phenomenon to the eye. Of which Phenomenon, 
when secret existence becoming public effloresces on the street, 
the philosophical cause and effect is not so easy to find. What, 
for example, may be the accurate philosophical meaning, and 
meanings, of this sale of sugar? These things that have become 
visible in the street of Pulleys and over Paris, whence are they, 
we say ; and whither ? — 

That Pitt has a hand in it, the gold of Pitt : so much, to all 
reasonable Patriot men, may seem clear. But then, through 
what agents of Pitt ? Varlet, Apostle of Liberty, was discerned 
again of late, with his pike and red nightcap. Deputy Marat 
published in his Journal, this very day, complaining of the bitter 
scarcity, and sufferings of the people, till he seemed to get v/roth : 
' If your Rights of Man were anything but a piece of written 
' paper, the plunder of a few shops, and a forestaller or two hung 
' up at the door-lintels, would put an end to such things. '2 Are 
not these, say the Girondins, pregnant indications ? Pitt has 
bribed the Anarchists ; Marat is the agent of Pitt : hence this 
sale of sugar. To the Mother Society, again, it is clear that the 
scarcity is factitious ; is the work of Girondins, and suchlike ; a 
set of men sold partly to Pitt ; sold wholly to their own ambi- 
tions and hard-hearted pedantries ; who will not fix the grain- 
prices, but prate pedantically of free-trade ; wishing to starve 
Paris into violence, and embroil it with the Departments : hence 
this sale of sugar. 

And, alas, if to these two notabilities, of a Phenomenon and 
such Theories of a Phenomenon, we add this third notability, 

"^ Hist. Pari. xxiv. 353-356. 

102 THE GIRONDINS. book ill. 

That the French Nation has believed, for several years now, in 
the possibihty, nay certainty and near advent, of a universal 
Millennium, or reign of Freedom, Equality, Fraternity, wherein 
man should be the brother of man, and sorrow and sin flee away ? 
Not bread to eat, nor soap to wash with ; and the reign of Per- 
fect Felicity ready to arrive, due always since the Bastille fell ! 
How did our hearts burn within us, at that Feast of Pikes, when 
brother flung himself on brother's bosom ; and in sunny jubilee, 
Twenty-five millions burst forth into sound and cannon-smoke ! 
Bright was our Hope then, as sunlight ; red-angry is our Hope 
grown nov/, as consuming fire. But, O Heavens, what enchant- 
ment is it, or devilish legerdemain, of such effect, that Perfect 
Felicity, always within arm's length, could never be laid hold 
of, but only in her stead Controversy and Scarcity ? This set 
of traitors after that set ! Tremble, ye traitors ; dread a People 
which calls itself patient, long-suffering ; but which cannot always 
submit to have its pocket picked, in this way, — of a Millen- 
nium ! 

Yes, Reader, here is the miracle. Out of that putrescent 
rubbish of Scepticism, Sensuahsm, Sentimentalism, hollow Mac- 
chiavelism, such a Faith has verily risen ; flaming in the heart 
of a People. A whole People, awakening as it were to conscious- 
ness in deep misery, believes that it is within reach of a Fraternal 
Heaven-on-Earth. With longing arms, it struggles to embrace 
the Unspeakable ; cannot embrace it, owing to certain causes. 
— Seldom do we find that a whole People can be said to have 
any Faith at all; except in things which it can eat and handle. 
Whensoever it gets any Faith, its history becomes spirit-stirring, 
noteworthy. But since the time when steel Europe shook itself 
simultaneously at the word of Hermit Peter, and rushed towards 
the Sepulchre where God had lain, there was no universal im- 
pulse of Faith that one could note. Since Protestantism went 
silent, no Luther's voice, no Zisca's drum any longer proclaim- 
ing that God's Truth was not the Devil's Lie ; and the Last of 
the Cameronians (Renwick was the name of him; honour to the 
name of the brave !) sank, shot, on the Castle-hill of Edinburgh, 
there was no partial impulse of Faith among Nations. Till now, 
behold, once more, this French Nation believes ! Herein, we 
say, in that astonishing Faith of theirs, lies the miracle. It is a 
Faith undoubtedly of the more prodigious sort, even among 
Faiths ; and will embody itself in prodigies. It is the soul of 



that world-prodigy named French Revolution ; whereat the world 

still gazes and shudders. 

But, for the rest, let no man ask History to explain by cause 
and effect how the business proceeded henceforth. This battle 
of Mountain and Gironde, and what follows, is the battle of 
Fanaticisms and Miracles ; unsuitable for cause and effect. The 
sound of it, to the mind, is as a hubbub of voices in distraction ; 
little of articulate is to be gathered by long listening and study- 
ing ; only battle -tumult, shouts of triumph, shrieks of despair. 
The Mountain has left no Memoirs; the Girondins have left Me- 
moirs, which are too often little other than long-drawn Interjec- 
tions, of Woe is me, and Cursed be ye. So soon as History can 
philosophically dehneate the conflagration of a kindled Fireship, 
she may try this other task. Here lay the bitumen-stratum, there 
the brimstone one ; so ran the vein of gunpowder, of nitre, 
terebinth and foul grease : this, were she inquisitive enough, 
Histor}^ might partly know. But how they acted and reacted 
below decks, one fire-stratum playing into the other, by its na- 
ture and the art of man, now when all hands ran raging, and 
the flames lashed high over shrouds and topmast : this let not 
History attempt. 

The Fireship is old France, the old French Form of Life ; her 
crew a Generation of men. Wild are their cries and their rag- 
ings there, like spirits tormented in that flame. But, on the 
whole, are they not gone, O Reader? Their Fireship and they, 
frightening the world, have sailed away ; its flames and its thun- 
ders quite away, into the Deep of Time. One thing therefore 
History will do : pity them all ; for it went hard with them all. 
Not even the seagreen Incorruptible but shall have some pity, 
some human love, though it takes an effort. And now, so much 
once thoroughly attained, the rest v/ill become easier. To the 
eye of equal brotherly pity, innumerable perversions dissipate 
themselves ; exaggerations and execrations fall off, of their own 
accord. Standing wistfully on the safe shore, we will look, and 
see, what is of interest to us, what is adapted to us. 



Gironde and Mountain are now in fuU quarrel ; their mu- 
tual rage, says Toulongeon, is growing a ' pale' rage. Curious, 

I04 THE GIRONDINS. book in. 

lamentable : all these men have the word Republic on their 
lips ; in the heart of every one of them is a passionate wish for 
something which he calls Republic : yet see their death-quarrel ! 
So, however, are men made. Creatures who live in confusion ; 
who, once thrown together, can readily fall into that confusion 
of confusions which quarrel is, simply because their confusions 
differ from one another ; still more because they seem to differ ! 
Men's v/ords are a poor exponent of their thought ; nay their 
thought itself is a poor exponent of the inward unnamed Mys- 
tery, wherefrom both thought and action have their birth. No 
man can explain himself, can get himself explained ; men see 
not one another, but distorted phantasms which they call one 
another ; which they hate and go to battle with : for all battle 
is well said to be misundersianding. 

But indeed that similitude of the Fireship ; of our poor 
French brethren, so fiery themselves, working also in an eleme7it 
of fire, was not insignificant. Consider it well, there is a shade 
of the truth in it. For a man, once committed headlong to re- 
publican or any other Transcendentalism, and fighting and fana- 
ticising amid a Nation of his like, becomes as it were enveloped 
in an ambient atmosphere of Transcendentalism and Delirium: 
his individual self is lost in something that is not himself, but 
foreign though inseparable from him. Strange to think of, the 
man's cloak still seems to hold the same man : and yet the man 
is not there, his volition is not there ; nor the source of what 
he will do and devise; instead of the man and his volition there 
is a piece of Fanaticism and Fatalism incarnated in the shape 
of him. He, the hapless incarnated Fanaticism, goes his road; 
no man can help him, he himself least of all. It is a wonder- 
ful, tragical predicairvent ;— such as human language, unused to 
deal with these things, being contrived for the uses of common 
life, struggles to shadow out in figures. The ambient element 
of material fire is not wilder than this of Fanaticism ; nor, 
though visible to the eye, is it more real. Volition bursts forth 
involuntary-voluntary ; rapt along ; the movement of free human 
minds becomes a raging tornado of fatalism, blind as the winds; 
and Mountain and Gironde, when they recover themselves, are 
alike astounded to see -where it has flung and dropt them. To 
such height of miracle can men work on men ; the Conscious 
and the Unconscious blended inscrutably in this our inscrutable 
Life ; endless Necessity environing Freewill ! 



The weapons of the Girondins are Political Philosophy, Re- 
spectability and Eloquence. Eloquence, or call it rhetoric, really 
of a superior order ; Vergniaud, for instance, turns a period as 
sweetly as any man of that generation. The weapons of the 
Mountain are those of mere Nature : Audacity and Impetuosity 
which may become Ferocity, as of men complete in their deter- 
mination, in their conviction ; nay of men, in some cases, who 
as Septemberers must either prevail or perish. The ground to 
be fought for is Popularity : farther you may either seek Popu- 
larity with the friends of Freedom and Order, or with the friends 
of Freedom Simple ; to seek it with both has unhappily become 
impossible. With the former sort, and generally with the Au- 
thorities of the Departments, and such as read Parliamentary 
Debates, and are of Respectability, and of a peace-loving 
moneyed nature, the Girondins carry it. With the extreme Pa- 
triot again, with the indigent Millions, especially with the Popu- 
lation of Paris who do not read so much as hear and see, the 
Girondins altogether lose it, and the Mountain carries it. 

Egoism, nor meanness of mind, is not wanting on either 
side. Surely not on the Girondin side ; where in fact the in- 
stinct of self-preservation, too prominently unfolded by circum- 
stances, cuts almost a sorry figure ; where also a certain finesse, 
to the length even of shuffling and shamming, now and then 
shows itself. They are men skilful in Advocate-fence. They 
have been called the Jesuits of the Revolution ;i but that is too 
hard a name. It must be owned likewise that this rude blus- 
tering Mountain has a sense in it of what the Revolution means ; 
which these eloquent Girondins are totally void of. Was the 
Revolution made, and fought for, against the world, these four 
weary years, that a Formula might be substantiated ; that So- 
ciety might become methodic, demonstrable by logic ; and the 
old Noblesse with their pretensions vanish ? Or ought it not 
withal to bring some glimmering of light and alleviation to the 
Twenty-five Millions, who sat in darkness, heavy-laden, till 
they rose with pikes in their hands ? At least and lowest, one 
would think, it should bring them a proportion of bread to live 
on ? There is in the Mountain here and there ; in Marat People's- 
friend ; in the incorruptible Seagreen himself, though otherwise 
so lean and formulary, a heartfelt knowledge of this latter fact ; 
—without which knowledge all other knowledge here is naught, 
1 DumQuriez, Me'moires, iii. 314, 

io6 THE GIRONDINS. book in. 

and the choicest forensic eloquence is as sounding brass and a 
tinkhng cymbal. Most cold, on the other hand, most patronis- 
ing, unsubstantial is the tone of the Girondins towards ' our 
poorer brethren ;' — those brethren whom one often hears of un- 
der the collective name of ' the masses,' as if they were not per- 
sons at all, but mounds of combustible explosive material, for 
blowing down Bastilles with ! In very truth, a Revolutionist of 
this kind, is he not a Solecism ? Disowned by Nature and Art ; 
deserving only to be erased, and disappear ! Surely, to our 
poorer brethren of Paris, all this Girondin patronage sounds 
deadening and killing : if fine-spoken and incontrovertible in 
logic, then all the falser, all the hatefuler in fact. 

Nay doubtless, pleading for Popularity, here among our 
poorer brethren of Paris, the Girondin has a hard game to play. 
If he gain the ear of the Respectable at a distance, it is by in- 
sisting on September and suchlike ; it is at the expense of this 
Paris where he dwells and perorates. Hard to perorate in such 
an auditory ! Wherefore the question arises : Could not we get 
ourselves out of this Paris ? Twice or oftener such an attempt 
is made. If not we ourselves, thinks Guadet, then at least our 
Suppleans might do it. For every Deputy has his Suppliant, 
or Substitute, who will take his place if need be : might not 
these assemble, say at Bourges, which is a cjuict episcopal Town, 
in quiet Berri, forty good leagues off? In that case, what pro- 
fit were it for the Paris Sansculottery to insult us ; our Sup- 
pleans sitting quiet in Bourges, to whom we could run ? Nay, 
even the Primary electoral Assemblies, thinks Guadet, might 
be reconvoked, and a New Convention got, with new orders 
from the Sovereign People ; and right glad were Lyons, were 
Bourdeaux, Rouen, Ivlarseilles, as yet Provincial Towns, to wel- 
come us in their turn, and become a sort of Capital Towns ; 
and teach these Parisians reason. 

*Fond schemes ; which all misgo ! If decreed, in heat of 
eloquent logic, today, they are repealed, by clamour and pas- 
sionate wider considerations, on the mori'ow.^ Will you, 
Girondins, parcel us into separate Republics, then ; like the 
Swiss, like your Americans ; so that there be no Metropolis or 
indivisible French Nation any more ? Your Departmental Guard 
seemed to point that way ! Federal Republic? Federalist? Men 
and Knitting-women repeat FcddraUstc, with or without much 
" Moniteiir, 1793, No. 140, &c. 



Dictionary-meaning ; but go on repeating it, as is usual in such 
cases, till the meaning of it becomes almost magical, fit to de- 
signate all mystery of Iniquity ; and Federaliste has grown a 
word of Exorcism and Apage-Satanas. But furthermore, con- 
sider what 'poisoning of public opinion' in the Departments, by 
these Brissot, Gorsas, Caritat-Condorcet Newspapers! And 
then also what counter-poisoning, still feller in quality, by a 
Plre Duchesne of Hubert, brutalest Newspaper yet published on 
Earth ; by a Roicgiff oi Guffroy ; by the ' incendiary leaves of 
Marat' ! More than once, on complaint given and effervescence 
rising, it is decreed that a man cannot both be Legislator and 
Editor ; that he shall choose between the one function and the 
other.3 But this too, which indeed could help little, is revoked 
or eluded ; remains a pious wish mainly. 

Meanwhile, as the sad fruit of such strife, behold, O ye Na- 
tional Representatives, how, between the friends of Law and the 
friends of Freedom everywhere, mere heats and jealousies have 
arisen ; fevering the whole Republic ! Department, Provincial 
Town is set against Metropolis, Rich against Poor, Culottic 
against Sansculottic, man against man. From the Southern 
Cities come Addresses of an almost inculpatory character ; for 
Paris has long suffered Newspaper calumny. Bourdeaux de- 
mands a reign of Law and Respectability, meaning Girondism, 
with emphasis. With emphasis Marseilles demands the like. 
Nay, from Marseilles there come tzvo Addresses : one Girondin ; 
one Jacobin Sansculottic. Hot Rebecqui, sick of this Conven- 
tion-work, has given place to his Substitute, and gone home ; 
where also, with such jarrings, there is woi-k to be sick of. 

Lyons, a place of Capitalists and Aristocrats, is in still worse 
state ; almost in revolt. Chalier the Jacobin Town- Councillor 
has got, too literally, to daggers -drawn with Nievre-Chol the 
Moderatin Mayor ; one of your Moderate, perhaps Aristocrat, 
Royalist or Federalist Mayors ! Chalier, who pilgrimed to Paris 
• to behold Marat and the Mountain,' has verily kindled himself 
at their sacred urn : for on the 6th of February last, History or 
Rumour has seen him haranguing his Lyons Jacobins in a quite 
transcendental manner, with a drawn dagger in his hand ; re- 
commending (they say) sheer September methods, patience being 
worn out ; and that the Jacobin Brethren should, impromptu, 
3 Hist. Pari. xxv. 25, &c. 

I08 THE GIRONDINS. book in. 

work the Guillotine themselves ! One sees him still, in Engrav- 
ings : mounted on a table ; foot advanced, body contorted ; a 
bald, rude, slope-browed, infuriated visage of the canine species, 
the eyes starting from their sockets ; in his puissant right-hand 
the brandished dagger, or horse-pistol, as some give it ; other 
dog-visages kindling under him : — a man not likely to endAvell! 
However, the Guillotine was not got together impromptu, that 
day, ' on the Pont Saint-Clair,' or elsewhere ; but indeed con- 
tinued lying rusty in its loft :* Ni^vre-Chol with military went 
about, rumbling cannon, in the most confused manner ; and the 
'nine-hundred prisoners' received no hurt. So distracted is 
Lyons grown, with its cannons rumbling. Convention Commis- 
sioners must be sent thither forthwith : if even they can appease 
it, and keep the Guillotine in its loft ? 

Consider finally if, on all these mad jarrings of the Southern 
Cities, and of France generally, a traitorous Crypto-Royalist 
class is not looking and watching ; ready to strike in, at the 
right season ! Neither is there bread ; neither is there soap : 
see the Patriot women selling out sugar, at a just rate of twenty- 
two sous per pound ! Citizen Representatives, it were verily 
well that your quarrels finished, and the reign of Perfect Feli- 
city began. 



On the whole, one cannot say that the Girondins are want- 
ing to themselves, so far as good-will might go. They prick 
assiduously into the sore-places of the Mountain ; from prin- 
ciple, and also from Jesuitism. 

Besides September, of which there is now little to be made 
except effervescence, we discern two sore -places where the 
Mountain often suffers : Marat, and Orleans Egalitd. Squalid 
Marat, for his own sake and for the Mountain's, is assaulted 
ever and anon ; held up to France, as a squalid bloodthirsty 
Portent, inciting to the pillage of shops; of whom let the Moun- 
tain have the credit ! The Mountain murmurs, ill at ease : this 
' Maximum of Patriotism,' how shall they either own him or dis- 
own him ? As for Marat personally, he, with his fixed-idea, re- 
mains invulnerable to such things ; nay the People' s-friend is 
* Hist. Pari. xxiv. 385-93 ; xxvi. 229, &c 



very evidently rising in importance, as his befriended People 
rises. No shrieks now, when he goes to speak ; occasional ap- 
plauses rather, furtherance which breeds confidence. The day 
when the Girondins proposed to ' decree him accused' {dccreter 
d'accHsatio7i, as they phrase it) for that February Paragraph, of 
'hanging up a Forestaller or two at the door-lintels,' Marat pro- 
poses to have thein ' decreed insane ;' and, descending the Tri- 
bune-steps, is heard to articulate these most unsenatorial ejacu- 
lations : " Les cochons, les imbdcilles. Pigs, idiots!" Oftentimes 
he croaks harsh sarcasm, having really a rough rasping tongue, 
and a very deep fund of contempt for fine outsides ; and once 
or twice, he even laughs, nay ' explodes into laughter, rlt aux 
eclats,' at the gentilities and superfine airs of these Girondin 
"men of statesmanship," with their pedantries, plausibilities, 
pusillanimities: "these two years," says he, " you have been 
whining about attacks, and plots, and danger from Paris ; and 
you have not a scratch to show for yourselves. "i — Danton gruffly 
rebukes him, from time to time : a Maximum of Patriotism whom 
one can neither own nor disown ! 

But the second sore-place of the Mountain is this anomalous 
Monseigneur Equality Prince d'Orl&ns. Behold these men, 
says the Gironde ; with a whilom Bourbon Prince among them : 
they are creatures of the D'Orldans Faction ; they will have 
Philippe made King ; one King no sooner guillotined than 
another made in his stead ! Girondins have moved, Buzot 
moved long ago, from principle and also from Jesuitism, that 
the whole race of Bourbons should be marched forth from the 
soil of France ; this Prince Egalite to bring up the rear. Mo- 
tions which might produce some effect on the public ; — which 
the Mountain, ill at ease, knows not what to do with. 

And poor Orleans Egalitd himself, for one begins to pity 
even him, what does he do with them .f" l^he disowned of all 
parties, the rejected and foolishly bedrifted hither and thither, 
to what corner of Nature can he now drift with advantage ? 
Feasible hope remains not for him : unfeasible hope, in pallid 
doubtful glimmers, there may still come, bewildering, not 
cheering or illuminating, — from the Dumouriez quarter ; and 
how if not the time-wasted Orleans Egalite, then perhaps the 
young unworn Chartres Egalite might rise to be a kind of 
King ? Sheltered, if shelter it be, in the clefts of the Moun- 
1 Moniteiir, Seanee du 20 Mai 1793. 


tain, poor Egalit^ will wait : one refuge in Jacobinism, one in 
Dumouriez and Counter-Revolution, are there not two chances ? 
However, the look of him, Dame Genlis says, is grown gloomy ; 
sad to see. Sillery also, the Genlis's Husband, who hovers 
about the Mountain, not on it, is in a bad way. Dame Genlis 
is come to Raincy, out of England and Bury St. Edmunds, 
in these days ; being summoned by Egalitd, with her young 
charge. Mademoiselle Egalite, — that so Mademoiselle might 
not be counted among Emigrants and hardly dealt with. But 
it proves a ravelled business : Genlis and charge find that they 
must retire to the Netherlands ; must wait on the Frontiers, 
for a week or two ; till Monseigneur, by Jacobin help, get it 
wound up. ' Next morning,' says Dame Genlis, ' Monseigneur, 
* gloomier than ever, gave me his arm, to lead me to the car- 
' riage. I was greatly troubled ; Mademoiselle burst into tears ; 
' her Father was pale and trembling. After I had got seated, 
' he stood immovable at the carriage-door, with his eyes fixed 
' on me ; his mournful and painful look seemed to implore pity ; 
' — "Adieu, Madame f said he. The altered sound of his 
' voice completely overcame me ; unable to utter a word, I 
' held out my hand ; he grasped it close ; then turning, and 
' advancing sharply towards the postillions, he gave them a 
' sign, and we rolled away.'^ 

Nor are Peace-makers wanting ; of whom likewise we men- 
tion two ; one fast on the crown of the Mountain, the other not 
yet alighted anywhere : Danton and Barrere. Ingenious Barr^re, 
Old-Constituent and Editor, from the slopes of the Pyrenees, is 
one of the usefulest men of this Convention, in his way. Truth 
may lie on both sides, on either side, or on neither side ; my 
friends, ye must give and take : for the rest, success to the 
winning side ! This is the motto of Barrere. Ingenious, 
almost genial ; quick-sighted, supple, graceful ; a man that 
will prosper. Scarcely Belial in the assembled Pandemonium 
was plausibler to ear and eye. An indispensable man : in the 
great Art of Varnish he may be said to seek his fellow. Has 
there an explosion arisen, as many do arise, a confusion, un- 
sightliness, which no tongue can speak of, nor eye look on ; 
give it to Barrere ; Barrere shall be Committee-Reporter of it ; 
you shall see it transmute itself into a regularity, into the very 

^ Genlis, Mimotres (London, 1825), iv. 118. 



beauty and improvement that was needed. Without one such 
man, we say, how were this Convention bested ? Call him 
not, as exaggerative Mercier does, ' the greatest liar in France :' 
nay it may be argued there is not truth enough in him to make 
a real lie of. Call him, with Burke, Anacreon of the Guillo- 
tine, and a man serviceable to this Convention. 

The other Peace-maker whom we name is Danton. Peace, 
O peace with one another ! cries Danton often enough : Are 
we not alone against the world ; a little band of brothers ? 
Broad Danton is loved by all the Mountain ; but they think 
him too easy-tempered, deficient in suspicion : he has stood 
between Dumouriez and much censure, anxious not to exas- 
perate our only General : in the shrill tumult Danton's strong 
voice reverberates, for union and pacification. Meetings there 
are ; dinings with the Girondins : it is so pressingly essential 
that there be union. But the Girondins are haughty and 
respectable : this Titan Danton is not a man of Formulas, 
and there rests on him a shadow of September. "Your Gi- 
rondins have no confidence in me :" this is the answer a con- 
ciliatory Meillan gets from him ; to all the arguments and 
pleadings this conciliatory Meillan can bring, the repeated 
answer is, "lis ii' out point de confiance."'^ — The tumult will 
get ever shriller ; rage is growing pale. 

In fact, what a pang is it to the heart of a Girondin, this 
first withering probability that the despicable unphilosophic 
anarchic Mountain, after all, may triumph ! Brutal Septem- 
berers, a fifth-floor Tallien, 'a Robespierre without an idea in 
his head,' as Condorcet says, 'or a feeling in his heart :' and 
yet we, the flower of France, cannot stand against them ; be- 
hold the sceptre departs from us ; from us and goes to them ! 
Eloquence, Philosophism, Respectability avail not : • against 
Stupidity the very gods fight to no purpose, 

' Mit der Dumniheit kdmpfen Gotter selbst vergeiens /' 

Shrill are the plaints of Louvet ; his thin existence all acidified 
into rage and preternatural insight of suspicion. Wroth is 
young Barbaroux ; wroth and scornful. Silent, like a Queen 
with the aspic on her bosom, sits the wife of Roland ; Roland's 
Accounts never yet got audited, his name become a byword. 
Such is the fortune of war, especially of revolution. The great 

3 Mdmoires de Meillan, Reprisenta^'t du Peuple (Paris, 1823), p. 51. 



gulf of Tophet and Tenth of August opened itself at the magic 
of 3'our eloquent voice ; and lo now, it will not close at your 
voice ! It is a dangerous thing such magic. The Magician's 
P'amulus got hold of the forbidden Book, and summoned a 
goblin : Plait-il, What is your will ? said the goblin. The 
Famulus, somewhat struck, bade him fetch water : the swift 
goblin fetched it, pail in each hand ; but lo, would not cease 
fetching it ! Desperate, the Famulus shrieks at him, smites 
at him, cuts him in two ; lo, txvo goblin water-carriers ply; and 
the house will be swum away in Deucalion Deluges, 



Or rather we will say, this Senatorial war might have lasted 
long ; and Party tugging and throttling with Party might have 
suppressed and smothered one another, in the ordinary blood- 
less Parliamentary way ; on one condition : that France had 
been at least able to exist, all the while. But this Sovereign 
People has a digestive faculty, and cannot do without bread. 
Also we are at war, and must have victory ; at war with 
Europe, with Fate and Famine : and behold, in the spring of 
the year, all victory deserts us. 

Dumouriez had his outposts stretched as far as Aix-la- 
Chapelle, and the beautifulest plan for pouncing on Holland, 
by stratagem, flat-bottomed boats and rapid intrepidity ; wherein 
too he had prospered so far ; but unhappily could prosper no 
farther. Aix-la-Chapelle is lost ; Maestricht will not surrender 
to mere smoke and noise : the flat-bottomed boats have to 
launch themselves again, and return the way they came. Steady 
now, ye rapidly intrepid men ; retreat with firmness, Parthian- 
like ! Alas, were it General Miranda's fault ; were it the War- 
minister's fault ; or were it Dumouriez's own fault and that of 
Fortune : enough, there is nothing for it but retreat, — well if 
it be not even flight ; for already terror-stricken cohorts and 
stragglers pour off, not waiting for order ; flow disastrous, as 
many as ten thousand of them, without halt till they see France 
again. 1 Nay worse : Dumouriez himself is perhaps secretly 
turning traitor ? Very sharp is the tone in which he writes to 

1 Dumouriez, iv. 1673. 



our Committees. Commissioners and Jacobin Pillagers have 
done such incalculable mischief ; Hassenfratz sends neither 
cartridges nor clothing ; shoes we have, deceptively ' soled 
with wood and pasteboard.' Nothing in short is right. Dan- 
ton and Lacroix, when Lt was they that were Commissioners, 
would needs join Belgium to France ; — of which Dumouriez 
might have made the prettiest little Duchy for his own secret 
behoof ! With all these things the General is wroth ; and 
writes to us in a sharp tone. Who knows what this hot little 
General is meditating ? Dumouriez Duke of Belgium or Bra- 
bant ; and say, Egalitd the Younger King of France : there 
were an end for our Revolution ! — Committee of Defence gazes, 
and shakes its head : who except Danton, defective in suspicion, 
could still struggle to be of hope ? 

And General Custine is rolling back from the Rhine Country ; 
conquered Mentz will be reconquered, the Prussians gathering 
round to bombard it with shot and shell. Mentz may resist. 
Commissioner Merlin, the Thionviller, ' making sallies, at the 
head of the besieged ;' — resist to the death ; but not longer 
than that. How sad a reverse for Mentz ! Brave Forster, 
brave Lux planted Liberty-trees, amid ga-ira-mg music, in the 
snow-slush of last winter, there ; and made Jacobin Societies ; 
and got the Territory incorporated with France ; they came 
hither to Paris, as Deputies or Delegates, and have their 
eighteen francs a-day : but see, before once the Liberty-tree 
is got rightly in leaf, Mentz is changing into an explosive 
crater ; vomiting fire, bevomited with fire ! 

Neither of these men shall again see Mentz ; they have 
come hither only to die. Forster has been round the Globe ; 
he saw Cook perish under Owyhee clubs ; but like this Paris 
he has yet seen or suffered nothing. Poverty escorts him : 
from home there can nothing come, except Job's-news ; the 
eighteen daily francs, which we here as Deputy or Delegate 
with difficulty 'touch,' are in paper assigjiats, and sink fast in 
value. Poverty, disappointment, inaction, obloquy ; the brave 
heart slowly breaking ! Such is Forster's lot. For the rest. 
Demoiselle Theroigne smiles on you in the Soirees ; 'a beau- 
tiful brownlocked face,' of an exalted temper ; and contrives 
to keep her carnage. Prussian Trenck, the poor subterranean 
Baron, jargons and jangles in an unmelodious manner. Thomas 
Paine's face is red-pustuled, ' but the eyes uncommonly bright.' 


tl4 THE GIRONDINS. book ill. 

Convention Deputies ask you to dinner : veiy courteous ; and 
'we all play at pbinipsack.'- ' It is the Explosion and New- 
' creation of a World,' says Forster ; 'and the actors in it, 
' such small mean objects, buzzing round one like a handful of 
' flies.' — 

Likewise there is war with Spain. Spain will advance 
through the gorges of the Pyrenees ; rustling with Bourbon 
banners, jingling with artillery and menace. And England 
has donn,ed the red coat ; and marches, with Royal Highness 
of York, — whom some once spake of inviting to be our King. 
Changed that humour now : and ever more changing ; till no 
hatefuler thing walk this Earth than a denizen of that tyrannous 
Island ; and Pitt be declared and decreed, with effervescence, 
'Lennemi du genre htimain,T\\Q enemy of mankind;' and, very 
singular to say, you make order that no Soldier of Liberty give 
quarter to an Englishman. Which order, however, the Soldier 
of Liberty does but partially obey. We will take no Prisoners 
then, say the Soldiers of Liberty; they shall all be 'Deserters' 
that we take.'' It is a frantic order ; and attended with incon- 
venience. For surely, if you give no quarter, the plain issue 
is that you will get none ; and so the business become as broad 
as it was long. — Our ' recruitment of Three-hundred Thousand 
men,' v/hich was the decreed force for this year, is like to have 
work enough laid to its hand. 

So many enemies come wending on ; penetrating through 
throats of mountains, steering over the salt sea ; towards all 
points of our territory; ratthng chains at us. Nay, worst of all: 
there is an enemy within our own territory itself. In the early 
days of March, the Nantes Postbags do not arrive ; there ar- 
rive only instead of them Conjecture, Apprehension, bodeful 
wind of Rumour. The bodefulest proves true. Those fanatic 
Peoples of La Vendee will no longer keep under : their fire of 
insurrection, heretofore dissipated with difficulty, blazes out 
anew, after the King's Death, as a wide conflagration ; not riot, 
but civil war. Your Cathelineaus, your Stofflets, Charettes, are 
other men than was thought : behold how their Peasants, in 
mere russet and hodden, with their rude arms, rude array, with 
their fanatic Gaelic frenzy and wild-yelling battle-cry of God and 
the King, dash at us like a dark whirlwind ; and blow the best- 

- YoxsiQx's Drirfwechscl, ii. 514, 460, 631. 
^ 5Scc Dainpmartin, Evcncmcns, ii. 213-30. 


March 8th. 

disciplined Nationals we can get into panic and sative-qiii-petit ! 
Field after field is theirs ; one sees not where it will end. Com- 
mandant Santerre may be sent there ; but with non-effect ; he 
might as well have returned and brewed beer. 

It has become peremptorily necessary that a National Con- 
vention cease arguing, and begin acting. Yield one party of 
you to the other, and do it swiftly. No theoretic outlook is 
here, but the close certainty of ruin ; the very day that is pass- 
ing over us must be provided for. 

It was Friday the Eighth oi March when this Job's-post from 
Dumouriez, thickly preceded and escorted by so many other 
Job's-posts, reached the National Convention. Blank enough 
are most faces. Little will it avail whether our Septemberers 
be punished or go unpunished ; if Pitt and Cobourg are coming 
in, with one punishment for us all ; nothing now between Paris 
itself and the Tyrants but a doubtful Dumouriez, and hosts in 
loose-flowing loud retreat ! — Danton the Titan rises in this hour 
as always in the hour of need. Great is his voice, reverberat- 
ing from the domes : — Citizen-Representatives, shall we not, in 
such crisis of Fate, lay aside discords? Reputation: O what is 
the reputation of this man or of that ? ' ' Que mon noni soit fletri; 
que la France soit lib re: Let my name be blighted; let France 
be free !" It is necessary now again that France rise, in swift 
vengeance, with her million right-hands, with her heart as of one 
man. Instantaneous recruitment in Paris ; let every Section 
of Paris furnish its thousands; every Section of France! Ninety- 
six Commissioners of us, two for each Section of the Forty-eight, 
they must go forthwith, and tell Paris what the Country needs 
of her. Let Eighty more of us be sent, post-haste, over France ; 
to spread the fire-cross, to call forth the might of men. Let the 
Eighty also be on the road, before this sitting rise. Let them 
go, and think what their errand is. Speedy Camp of Fifty- 
thousand between Paris and the North Frontier ; for Paris will 
pour forth her volunteers ! Shoulder to shoulder ; one strong 
universal death-defiant rising and rushing ; we shall hurl back 
these Sons of Night yet again ; and France, in spite of the 
world, be free H — So sounds the Titan's voice : into all Section- 
houses ; into all French hearts. Sections sit in Permanence, 
for recruitment, enrolment, that very night. Convention Com- 

4 Monitcur (in Hist. Pari. x.xv. 6). 

li6 THE GIRONDINS. book m. 

missioners, on swift wheels, are carrying the fire-cross from 
Town to Town, till all France blaze. 

And so there is Flag of Fatherland in Danger waving from 
the Townhall, Black Flag from the top of Notre-Dame Cathedral ; 
there is Proclamation, hot eloquence ; Paris rushing out once 
again to strike its enemies down. That, in such circumstances, 
Paris was in no mild humour can be conjectured. Agitated 
streets ; still more agitated round the Salle de Mandge ! Feuil- 
lans-Terrace crowds itself with angry Citizens, angrier Citizen- 
esses ; Varlet perambulates with portable chair : ejaculations of 
no measured kind, as to perfidious fine-spoken Homines d'etat, 
friends of Dumouriez, secret-friends of Pitt and Cobourg, burst 
from the hearts and lips of men. To fight the enemy? Yes, 
and even to ' freeze him with terror, glacer d'effroi :' but first 
to have domestic Traitors punished ! Who are they that, carp- 
ing and quarrelling, in their Jesuitic most moderate way, seek 
to shackle the Patriotic movement? That divide France against 
Paris, and poison public opinion in the Departments ? That 
jyhen we ask for bread, and a Maximum fixed-price, treat us 
^ith lectures on Free-trade in grains ? Can the human stomach 
satisfy itself with lectures on Free-trade ; and are we to fight 
the Austrians in a moderate manner, or in an immoderate ? 
This Convention must be purged. 

" Set up a swift Tribunal for Traitors, a Maximum for 
Grains :" thus speak with energy the Patriot Volunteers, as 
they defile through the Convention Hall, just on the wing to 
the Frontiers ; — perorating in that heroical Cambyses' vein of 
theirs : beshouted by the Galleries and Mountain ; bemurmured 
by the Right-side and Plain. Nor are prodigies wanting : lo, 
while a Captain of the Section Poissonniere perorates with ve- 
hemence about Dumouriez, Maximum and Crypto-Royalist Trai- 
tors, and his troop beat chorus with him, waving their Banner 
overhead, the eye of a Deputy discerns, in this same Banner, 
that the cravates or streamers of it have Royal fleurs-de-lys ! 
The Section-Captain shrieks ; his troop shriek, horror-struck, 
and ' trample the Banner under foot :' seemingly the Avork of 
some Crypto-Royalist Plotter ? Most probable :•'' — or perhaps 
at bottom, only the old Banner of the Section, manufactured 
prior to the Tenth of August, when such streamers were accord- 
ing to rule !6 

^ Choix dcs Raf ports, xi. 277. 8 fjist. Pari. xxv. •}9^ 


March loth. 

History, looking over the Girondin Memoirs, anxious to 
disentangle the truth of them from the hysterics, finds these 
days of March, especially this Sunday the Tenth of March, play 
a great part. Plots, plots ; a plot for murdering the Girondin 
Deputies ; Anarchists and Secret-Royahsts plotting, in hellish 
concert, for that end ! The far greater part of which is hysterics. 
What we do find indisputable is, that Louvet and certain Giron- 
dins were apprehensive they might be murdered on Saturday, 
and did not go to the evening sitting ; but held council with 
one another, each inciting his fellow to do something resolute, 
and end these Anarchists : to which, however, Pdtion, opening 
the window, and finding the night very wet, answered only, 
"lis ne feront rien" and 'composedly resumed his violin,' says 
Louvet ;7 thereby, with soft Lydian tweedledeeing, to wrap him- 
self against eating cares. Also that Louvet felt especially liable 
to being killed; that several Girondins went abroad to seek 
beds : liable to being killed ; but were not. Farther that, in very 
truth. Journalist Deputy Gorsas, poisoner of the Departments, 
he and his Printer had their houses broken into (by a tumult 
of Patriots, among whom redcapped Varlet, American Fournier 
loom forth, in the darkness of the rain and riot) ; had their 
wives put in fear ; their presses, types and circumjacent equip- 
ments beaten to ruin ; no Mayor interfering in time ; Gorsas 
himself escaping, pistol in hand, ' along the coping of the back 
wall.' Farther that Sunday, the morrow, Avas not a workday; 
and the streets were more agitated than ever : Is it a new Sep- 
tember, then, that these Anarchists intend ? Finally, that no 
September came ; — and also that hysterics, not unnaturally, had 
reached almost their acme.^ 

Vergniaud denounces and deplores ; in sweetly turned pe- 
riods. Section Bonconseil, Good-counsel so-named, not Maucon- 
seil or Ill-coiiusd as it once was, — does a far notabler thing : 
demands that Vergniaud, Brissot, Guadet, and other denuncia- 
tory, fine-spoken Girondins, to the number of Twenty-two, be 
put under arrest ! Section Good-counsel, so named ever since 
the Tenth of August, is sharply rebuked, like a Section of Ill- 
counsel :9 but its word is spoken, and will not fall to the 

In fact, one thing strikes us in these poor Girondins : their 

7 Louvet, Mt'moires, p. 72. ^ Meillan, pp. 23, 24 ; Louvet, pp. 71-80. 
» MQniteur (Seance du 12 Mars), 15 Mars, 

Ii8 THE GIRONDINS. book ill. 

fatal shortness of vision ; nay fatal poorness of character, for 
that is the root of it. They are as strangers to the People they 
would govern ; to the thing they have come to work in. For- 
mulas, Philosophies, Respectabilities, what has been written in 
Books, and admitted by the Cultivated Classes : tliis inadequate 
Scheme of Nature's working is all that Nature, let her work as 
she will, can reveal to these men. So they perorate and specu- 
late ; and call on the Friends of Law, when the question is not 
Law or No-Law, but Life or No-Life. Pedants of the Revolu- 
tion, if net Jesuits of it! Their Formahsm is great; great also 
is their Egoism. France rising to fight Austria has been raised 
only by plot of the Tenth of March, to kill Twenty-two oitliem! 
This Revolution Prodigj^, unfolding itself into terrific stature and 
articulation, by its own laws and Nature's, not by the laws of 
Formula, has become unintelligible, incredible as an impossi- 
bility, the ' waste chaos of a Dream.' A Republic founded on 
what they call the Virtues ; on what we call the Decencies and 
Respectabilities : this they will have, and nothing but this. 
Whatsoever other Republic Nature and Reality send, shall be 
considered as not sent ; as a kind of Nightmare Vision, and 
thing non-extant ; disowned by the Laws of Nature and of For- 
mula. Alas, dim for the best eyes is this Reahty ; and as for 
these men, they will not look at it with eyes at all, but only 
through ' facetted spectacles' of Pedantry, wounded Vanity ; 
which yield the most portentous fallacious spectrum. Carping 
and complaining forever of Plots and Anarchy, they will do one 
thing ; prove, to demonstration, that the Reality will not trans- 
late into their Formula ; that they and their Formula are in- 
compatible with the Reality : and, in its dark wrath, the Reality 
will extinguish it and them ! What a man kens he cans. But 
the beginning of a man's doom is, that vision be withdrawn 
from him ; that he see not the reality, but a false spectrum of 
the reality ; and following that, step darkly, with more or less 
velocity, downwards to the utter Dark; to Ruin, which is the 
great Sea of Darkness, whither all falsehoods, winding or direct, 
continually flow! 

This Tenth of March we may mark as an epoch in the 
Girondin destinies ; the rage so exasperated itself, the miscon- 
ception so darkened itself. Many desert the sittings ; many 
come to them armed. 10 An honourable Deputy, setting out after 
i<> Meillan, Mdmoircs, pp. 85, 2.|. 



breakfast, must now, besides taking his Notes, see whether his 
Priming is in order. 

Meanwhile with Dumouriez in Belgium it fares ever worse. 
Were it again General Miranda's fault, or some other's fault, 
there is no doubt whatever but the ' Battle of Ncrwinden,' on 
the 1 8th of March, is lost ; and our rapid retreat has become 
a far too rapid one. Victorious Cobourg, with his Austrian 
prickers, hangs like a dark cloud on the rear of us : Dumouriez 
never off horseback night or day ; engagement every three hours ; 
our whole discomfited Host rolling rapidly inwai'ds, full of rage, 
suspicion and sauve-qui-petit I And then Dumouriez himself, 
what his intents may be ? Wicked seemingly and not charit- 
able ! His despatches to Committee openly denounce a facti- 
ous Convention, for the woes it has brought on France and him. 
And his speeches — for the General has no reticence ! The exe- 
cution of the Tyrant this Dumouriez calls the Murder of the 
King. Danton and Lacroix, flying thither as Commissioners 
once more, return very doubtful ; even Danton now doubts. 

Three Jacobin Missionaries, Proly, Dubuisson, Pereyra, have 
flown forth; sped by a wakeful Mother Society : they are struck 
dumb to hear the General speak. The Convention, according 
to this General, consists of three-hundred scoundrels and four- 
hundred imbeciles : France cannot do without a King. " But 
we have executed our King." "And what is it to me," hastily 
cries Dumouriez, a General of no reticence, " whether the King's 
name be Lndovicus or Jacobus f "Or PJiiUpptis T rejoins 
Proly ; — and hastens to report progress. Over the Frontiers 
such hope is there. 



Let us look, however, at the grand internal Sansculottism 
and Revolution Prodigy, whether it stirs and waxes : there and 
not elsewhere may hope still be for France. The Revolution 
Prodigy, as Decree after Decree issues from the Mountain, like 
creative ^rt:;'^-, accordant with the nature of the Thing, — is shap- 
ing itself rapidly, in these days, into terrific stature and articu- 
lation, limb after limb. Last March 1792, we saw all France 
flowing in blind terror ; shutting town-barriers, boiling pitch for 

I20 THE GIRONDINS. book hi. 

Brigands : happier, this March, that it is a seeing terror ; that 
a creative Mountain exists, which can S2>.y fiat ! Recruitment 
proceeds with fierce celerity : nevertheless our Volunteers hesi- 
tate to set out, till Treason be punished at home ; they do not 
fly to the frontiers ; but only fly hither and thither, demanding 
and denouncing. The Mountain must speak uf^ fiat and new 

And does it not speak such ? Take, as first example, those 
Comites Revobttioniiaires for the arrestment of Persons Sus- 
pect. Revolutionary Committee, of Twelve chosen Patriots, sits 
in every Township of France ; examining the Suspect, seeking 
arms, making domiciliary visits and arrestments ; — caring, gen- 
erally, that the Republic suffer no detriment. Chosen by uni- 
versal suffrage, each in its Section, they are a kind of elixir of 
Jacobinism ; some Forty-four Thousand of them awake and alive 
over France ! In Paris and all Tov/ns, every house-door must 
have the names of the inmates legibly printed on it, ' at a height 
not exceeding five feet from the ground ;' every Citizen must 
produce his certificatory Carte de Civisvic, signed by Section- 
President ; every man be ready to give account of the faith that 
is in him. Persons Suspect had as well depart this soil of 
Liberty ! And yet departure too is bad : all Emigrants are de- 
clared Traitors, their jDroperty become National; they are 'dead 
in Law,' — save, indeed, that for our behoof they shall ' live 
yet fifty years in Law,' and what heritages may fall to them in 
that time become National too ! A mad vitality of Jacobinism, 
with Forty-four Thousand centres of activity, circulates through 
all fibres of France. 

Very notable also is the Tribunal Extraordinaire :^ decreed 
by the Mountain ; some Girondins dissenting, for surely such 
a Court contradicts every formula ; — other Girondins assenting, 
nay cooperating, for do not we all hate Traitors, O ye people of 
Paris ? — ^Tribunal of the Seventeenth, in Autumn last, was swift ; 
but this shall be swifter. Five Judges ; a standing Jury, which 
is named from Paris and the Neighbourhood, that there be not 
delay in naming it : they are subject to no Appeal ; to hardly 
any Lav/-forms, but must ' get themselves convinced' in all 
readiest ways ; and for security are bound ' to vote audibly ;' 
audibly, in the hearing of a Paris Public. This is the Tribunal 
Extraordiiiaire ; which, in few months, getting into most lively 
* Moniteur, No. 70 (du ii Mais), No. 76, &c. 



action, shall be entitled Tribunal Revolutionnaire ; as indeed it 
from the very first has entitled itself: with a Herman or a Du- 
mas for Judge-President, with a Fouquier-Tinvillc for Attorney- 
General, and a Jury of such as Citizen Leroi, who has surnamed 
himself Dix-Aoiit, ' Leroi August-Tenth,' it will become the 
wonder of the world. Herein has Sansculottism fashioned for 
itself a Sword of Sharpness : a weapon magical ; tempered in 
the Stygian hell-waters ; to the edge of it all armour, and de- 
fence of strength or of cunning shall be soft ; it shall mow down 
Lives and Brazen -gates ; and the waving of it shed terror 
through the souls of men. 

But speaking of an amorphous Sansculottism taking form, 
ought we not, above all things, to specify how the Amorphous 
gets itself a Head ? V/ithout metaphor, this Revolution Gov- 
ernment continues hitherto in a very anarchic state. Executive 
Council of Ministers, Six in number, there is : but they, espe- 
cially since Roland's retreat, have hardly known whether they 
were Ministers or not. Convention Committees sit supreme over 
them ; but then each Committee as supreme as the others : Com- 
mittee of Twenty-one, of Defence, of General Surety ; simul- 
taneous or successive, for specific purposes. The Convention 
alone is all-powerful, — especially if the Commune go with it ; 
but is too numerous for an administrative body. Wherefore, 
in this perilous quick-whirling condition of the Republic, before 
the end of March we obtain our small Coniiie de Salut Public j- 
as it were, for miscellaneous accidental purposes requiring 
despatch ; — as it proves, for a sort of universal supervision, and 
universal subjection. They are to report weekly, these new 
Committee-men ; but to deliberate in secret. Their number is 
Nine, firm Patriots all, Danton one of them ; renewable every 
month ; — yet why not reelect them if they turn out well ? The 
flower of the matter is, that they are but nine ; that they sit in 
secret. An insignificant-looking thing at first, this Committee; 
but with a principle of growth in it ! Forwarded by fortune, 
by internal Jacobin energy, it will reduce all Committees and 
the Convention itself to mute obedience, the Six Ministers to 
Six assiduous Clerks ; and work its will on the Earth and under 
Heaven, for a season. A ' Committee of Public Salvation' 
whereat the world still shrieks and shudders. 

If we call that Revolutionary Tribunal a Sword, which Sans- 
2 Moniteur, No. 83 (du 24 Mars 1793), Nos. S6, 98, 99, loo. 


culottism has provided for itself, then let us call the ' Law of the 
Maximum' a Provender-scrip, or Haversack, wherein, better or 
worse, some ration of bread may be found. It is true. Political 
Economy, Girondin free-trade, and all law of supply and de- 
mand, are hereby hurled topsyturvy : but what help ? Patriot- 
ism must live ; the ' cupidity of farmers' seems to have no 
bowels. Wherefore this Law of the Maximum, fixing the high- 
est price of grains, is, with infinite effort, got passed ;3 and shall 
gradually extend itself into a Maximum for all manner oi comes- 
tibles and commodities : with such scrambling and topsyturvy- 
ing as may be fancied ! For now if, for example, the farmer 
will not sell ? The farmer shall be forced to sell. An accurate 
Account of what grain he has shall be delivered in to the Con- 
stituted Authorities : let him see that he say not too much ; for 
in that case, his rents, taxes and contributions will rise propor- 
tionally : let him see that he say not too little ; for, on or be- 
fore a set day, we shall suppose in April, less than one-third of 
this declared quantity must remain in his barns, more than two- 
thirds of it must have been thrashed and sold. One can de- 
nounce him, and raise penalties. 

By such inextricable overturning of all Commercial relations 
will Sansculottism keep life in ; since not otherwise. On the 
v/hole, as Camille Desmoulins says once, "while the Sanscu- 
lottes fight, the Monsieurs must pay." So there come Impots 
Progressifs, Ascending Taxes ; which consume, with fast-in- 
creasing voracity, the ' superfluous -revenue' of men : beyond 
fifty-pounds a-year, you are not exempt ; rising into the hun- 
dreds, you bleed freely ; into the thousands and tens of thousands, 
you bleed gushing. Also there come Requisitions ; there comes 
'Forced-Loan of a MilHard,' some Fifty-Millions Sterling; which 
of course they that Jiave must lend. Unexampled enough ; it 
has grown to be no country for the Rich, this ; but a country 
for the Poor ! And then if one fly, what steads it ? Dead in 
Lav/ ; nay kept alive fifty years yet, for iheii accursed behoof ! 
In this manner therefore it goes ; topsyturvying, frt;-zVrt:-ing ; — 
and withal there is endless sale of Emigrant National-Property, 
there is Cambon with endless cornucopia of Assignats. The 
Trade and Finance of Sansculottism ; and how, with Maximum 
and Bakers' queues, with Cupidity, Hunger, Denunciation and 
Paper-money, it led its galvanic-life, and began and ended, — 
3 Monitcur (du 20 Avri!, &c. to ao Mai, 1793). 



remains the most interesting of all Chapters in Political Econ- 
omy : still to be written. 

All which things, are they not clean against Formula ? O 
Girondin Friends, it is not a Republic of the Virtues we are get- 
ting ; but only a Republic of the Strengths, virtuous and other ! 



But Dumouriez, with his fugitive Host, with his King Ltido- 
vicus or King Philippus? There lies the crisis ; there hangs the 
question: Revolution Prodigy, or Counter - Revolution .? — One 
wide shriek covers that North-east region. Soldiers, full of rage, 
suspicion and terror, flock hither and thither ; Dumouriez, the 
many-counselled, never off horseback, knows now no counsel 
that were not worse than none: the counsel, namely, of joining 
himself with Cobourg ; marching to Paris, extinguishing Jaco- 
binism, and, with some new King Ludovicus or King Philippus, 
restoring the Constitution of 1791!! 

Is wisdom quitting Dumouriez; the herald of Fortune quit- 
ting him ? Principle, faith political or other, beyond a certain 
faith of mess-rooms, and honour of an officer, had him not to 
quit. At any rate his quarters in the Burgh of Saint-Amand ; his 
head-quarters in the Village of Saint-Amand des Boues, a short 
way off, — have become a Bedlam. National Representatives, 
Jacobin Missionaries are riding and running ; of the ' three 
Towns,' Lille, Valenciennes or even Conde, which Dumouriez 
wanted to snatch for -himself, not one can be snatched ; your 
Captain is admitted, but the Town-gate is closed on him, and 
then alas the Prison-gate, and ' his men wander about the ram- 
parts.' Couriers gallop breathless ; men wait, or seem waiting, 
to assassinate, to be assassinated ; Battahons nigh frantic with 
such suspicion and uncertainty, with Vivc-la-Repnblique and 
Saiivc-qiii-pcut, rush this way and that ; — Ruin and Desperation 
in the shape of Cobourg lying enti-enched close by. 

Dame Genlis and her fair Princess d'Orleans find this Burgh 
of Saint-Amand no fit place for them ; Dumouriez's protection 
is grown worse than none. Tough Genlis, one of the toughest 
women ; a v/oman, as it were, with nine lives in her ; whom 

1 Dumouriez, Mhnoires, iv. c. 7-10. 

124 THE GIRONDINS. book in. 

nothing will beat : she packs her bandboxes ; clear for flight in 
a private manner. Her beloved Princess she will — leave here, 
with the Prince Chartres Egalite her Brother. In the cold gray 
of the April morning, we find her accordingly established in her 
hired vehicle, on the street of Saint-Amand ; postillions just 
cracking their whips to go, — when behold the young Princely 
Brother, struggling hitherward, hastily calling ; bearing the 
Princess in his arms ! Hastily he has clutched the poor young 
lady up, in her very night-gown, nothing saved of her goods ex- 
cept the watch from the pillow : with brotherly despair he flings 
her in, among the bandboxes, into Genlis's chaise, into Genlis's 
arms : Leave her not, in the name of Mercy and Heaven ! A 
shrill scene, but a brief one : — the postillions crack and go. Ah, 
whither ? Through by-roads and broken hill-passes ; seeking 
their way with lanterns after nightfall ; through perils, and Co- 
bourg Austrians, and suspicious French Nationals ; finally, into 
Switzerland ; safe though nigh moneyless.- The brave young 
Egalitd has a most wild Morrow to look for; but now only him- 
self to carry through it. 

For indeed over at that Village named of the Mtidbaths, 
Saint-Amand des Boues, matters are still worse. About four 
o'clock on Tuesday afternoon, the 2d of April 1 793, two Couriers 
come galloping as if for life ; Mon General ! Four National 
Representatives, War-Minister at their head, are posting hither- 
ward from Valenciennes ; are close at hand, — with what intents 
one may guess ! While the Couriers are yet speaking, War- 
Minister and National Representatives, old Camus the Archivist 
for chief speaker of them, arrive. Hardly has Moti Gdniral had 
time to order out the Hussar Regiment de Berchigny ; that it 
take rank and wait near by, in case of accident. And so, enter 
War-Minister Beurnonville, with an embrace ot friendship, for 
he is an old friend ; enter Archivist Camus and the other three 
following him. 

They produce Papers, invite the General to the bar of the 
Convention: merely to give an explanation or two. The Gene- 
ral finds it unsuitable, not to say impossible, and that " the ser- 
vice will suffer." Then comes reasoning" ; the voice of the old 
Archivist getting loud. Vain to reason loud with this Dumouriez ; 
he answers mere angry irreverences. And so, amid plumed staff- 

- Genlis, iv, 139. 


April 2d. 

officers, very gloomy-looking; in jeopardy and uncertainty, these 
poor National messengers debate and consult, retire and reenter, 
for the space of some two hours : without effect. Whereupon 
Archivist Camus, getting quite loud, proclaims, in the name of 
the National Convention, for he has the power to do it. That 
General Dumouriez is arrested : "Will you obey the National 
mandate. General !" — " Pas da7ts ee moinent-ci. Not at this par- 
ticular moment," answers the General also aloud ; then glancing 
the other way, utters certain unknown vocables, in a mandatory 
manner; seemingly a German word -of- command.' Hussars 
clutch the Four National Representatives, and Beurnonville the 
War-Minister; pack them out of the apartment; out of the Vil- 
lage, over the lines to Cobourg, in two chaises that very night, 
— as hostages, prisoners ; to lie long in Maestricht and Austrian 
strongholds !•■ Jacta est alea. 

This night Dumouriez prints his ' Proclamation ;' this night 
and the morrow the Dumouriez Army, in such darkness visible, 
and rage of semi-desperation as there is, shall meditate what 
the General is doing, what they themselves will do in it. Judge 
whether this Wednesday was of halcyon nature, for any one ! 
But on the Thursday morning, we discern Dumouriez with 
small escort, with Chartres Egalite and a few staff-officers, 
ambling along the Conde Highway : perhaps they are for 
Conde, and trying to persuade the Garrison there ; at all 
events, they are for an interview with Cobourg, who waits in 
the woods by appointment, in that quarter. Nigh the Village 
of Doumet, three National Battalions, a set of men always 
full of Jacobinism, sweep past us ; marching rather swiftly, — • 
seemingly in mistake, by a way we had not ordered. The 
General dismounts, steps into a cottage, a little from the way- 
side ; will give them right order in writing. Hark ! what 
strange growling is heard ; what ba,rkings are heard, loud 
yells of "Traitors" of ''Arrest T the National Battalions have 
v/heeled round, are emitting shot ! Mount, Dumouriez, and 
spring for life ! Dumouriez and Staff strike the spurs in, 
deep ; vault over ditches, into the fields, which prove to be 
morasses ; sprawl and plunge for life ; bewhistled with curses 
and lead. Sunk to the middle, with or without horses, several 
servants killed, they escape out of shot-range, to General Mack 

3 Dumouriez, iv. 159, &c. 

* Their Narrative, written by Camus (in Toulongeon, iii. app. 60-87). 

126 THE GIRONDINS. book iii. 

the Austrian's quarters. Nay they return on the morrow, to 
Saint-Amand and faithful foreign Berchigny ; but what boots 
it ? The Artillery has all revolted, is jingling off to Valen- 
ciennes ; all have revolted, are revolting ; except only foreign 
Berchigny, to the extent of some poor fifteen hundred, none 
will follow Dumouriez against France and Indivisible Republic: 
Dumouriez's occupation's gone.^ 

Such an instinct of Frenchhood and Sansculottism d-wells 
in these men : they will follow no Dumouriez nor Lafayette, nor 
any mortal on such errand. Shriek may be of Sauve-qui-peut, 
but will also be of Vive-la-Republiqtie. New National Repre- 
sentatives arrive ; nev/ General Dampierre, soon killed in battle ; 
new General Custine : the agitated Hosts draw back to some 
Camp of Famars ; make head against Cobourg as they can. 

And so Dumouriez is in the Austrian quarters ; his drama 
ended, in this rather soriy manner. A most shifty, wiry man ; 
one of Heaven's Sv/iss ; that wanted only work. Fifty years 
of unnoticed toil and valour ; one year of toil and valour, not 
unnoticed, but seen of all countries and centuries ; then thirty 
other years again unnoticed, of Memoir-writing, English Pension, 
scheming and projecting to no purpose : Adieu, thou Swiss of 
Heaven, worthy to have been something else ! 

His Staff go different ways. Bi'ave young Egalite reaches 
Switzerland and the Genlis Cottage ; with a strong crabstick 
in his hand, a strong heart in his body : his Princedom is now 
reduced to that. Egalite the Father sat playing whist, in his 
Palais Egalite, at Paris, on the 6th day of this same month of 
April, when a catchpole entered : Citoyen Egalite is wanted at 
the Convention Committee !*5 Examination, requiring Arrest- 
ment ; finally requiring Imprisonment, transference to Mar- 
seilles and the Castle of If ! Orldansdom has sunk in the 
black waters ; Palais Egalite, which was Palais Royal, is like 
to become Palais National. 



Our Republic, by paper Decree, may be ' One and Indi- 
visible ;' but what profits it while these things are ? Fcderal- 

• Mdmoires, iv. 162-So. ** Sec Monlgaillard, iv, 144. 


April nth. 

ists in the Senate, renegadoes in the Army, traitors everywhere ! 
France, all in desperate recruitment since the Tenth of March, 
does not fly to the frontier, but only flies hither and thither. 
This defection of contemptuous diplomatic Dumouriez falls 
heavy on the fine-spoken high-sniffing Hommes d'etat whom he 
consorted with ; forms a second epoch in their destinies. 

Or perhaps more strictly we might say, the second Giron- 
din epoch, though little noticed then, began on the day when, 
in reference to this defection, the Girondins broke with Danton. 
It was the first day of April ; Dumouriez had not yet plunged 
across the morasses to Cobourg, but was evidently meaning to 
do it, and our Commissioners were off to arrest him ; when 
what does the Girondin Lasource see good to do, but rise, 
and jesuitically question and insinuate at great length, whether 
a main accomplice of Dumouriez had not probably been — 
Danton ! Gironde grins sardonic assent ; Mountain holds its 
breath. The figure of Danton, Levasseur says, while this 
speech went on, was noteworthy. He sat erect with a kind 
of internal convulsion struggling to keep itself motionless ; his 
eye from time to time flashing wilder, his lip curling in Titanic 
scorn. 1 Lasource, in a fine-spoken attorney manner, proceeds : 
there is this probability to his mind, and there is that ; proba- 
bilities which press painfully on him, which cast the Patriotism 
of Danton under a painful shade ; — which painful shade, he, 
Lasource, will hope that Danton may find it not impossible to 

" Les Scelerats r cries Danton, starting up, with clenched 
right-hand, Lasource having done ; and descends from the Moun- 
tain, like a lava-flood : his answer not unready. Lasource's 
probabilities fly like idle dust ; but leave a result behind them. 
" Ye were right, friends of the Mountain," begins Danton, 
" and I was wrong : there is no peace possible with these 
" men. Let it be war, then ! They will not save the Republic 
" with us : it shall be saved without them ; saved in spite of 
" them." Really a burst of rude Parliamentary eloquence this ; 
which is still worth reading in the old Moniteur. With fire- 
words the exasperated rude Titan rives and smites these Giron- 
dins ; at every hit the glad Mountain utters chorus ; Marat, 
like a musical bis, repeating the last phrase." Lasouixe's pro- 

1 Memolres de Rend Levasseur (Bruxelles, 1S30), i. 164. 

2 Seance du i Avril 1793 (in Hist. Part. x.xv. 24-35). 

!28 THE GIRONDINS. book m. 

babilities are gone; bi^t r-.- lion's pledge of battle remains -* 

A third epoch, or scene in the Girondin Drama, or rather 
it is but the completion of this second epoch, we reckon from 
the day when the patience of virtuous Petion finally boiled 
over ; and the Girondins, so to speak, took up this battle- 
pledge of Danton's, and decreed Marat accused. It was the 
eleventh of the same month of April, on some effervescence 
rising, such as often rose ; and President had covered himself, 
mere Bedlam now ruling ; and Mountain and Gironde were 
rushing on one another with clenched right-hands, and even 
with pistols in them ; when, behold, the Girondin Duperret 
drew a sword ! Shriek of horror rose, instantly quenching all 
other effervescence, at sight of the clear murderous steel ; where- 
upon Duperret returned it to the leather again ; — confessing 
that he did indeed draw it, being instigated by a kind of sacred 
madness, " sainte fiireur" and pistols held at him; but that 
if he parricidally had chanced to scratch the outmost skin of 
National Representation with it, he too carried pistols, and 
would have blown his brains out on the spot.^ 

But now in such posture of affairs, virtuous Pdtion rose, next 
morning, to lament these effervescences, this endless Anarchy 
invading the Legislative Sanctuary itself ; and here, being growled 
at and howled at by the Mountain, his patience, long tried, did, 
as we say, boil over ; and he spake vehemently, in high key, 
with foam on his lips; "whence," says Marat, " I concluded he 
had got la rage" the rabidity, or dog-madness. Rabidity smites 
others rabid : so there rises new foam-lipped demand to have 
Anarchists extinguished ; and specially to have Marat put under 
Accusation. Send a representative to the Revolutionary Tribu- 
nal ? Violate the inviolability of a Representative ? Have a 
care, O Friends ! This poor Marat has faults enough ; but against 
Liberty or Equality, what fault ? That he has loved and fought 
for it, not wisely but too well. In dungeons and cellars, in pinch- 
ing poverty, under anathema of men ; even so, in such fight, has 
he grown so dingy, bleared ; even so has his head become a 
Stylites one ! Him you will fling to your Sword of Sharpness; 
while Cobourg and Pitt advance on us, fire-spitting ? 

3 Hist. Pari. xv. 397. 



The Mountain is loud, the Gironde is loud and deaf; all lips 
are foamy. With ' Permanent-Session of twenty-four hours,' 
with vote by roll-call, and a deadlift effort, the Gironde carries 
it : Marat is ordered to the Revolutionary Tribunal, to answer 
for that February Paragraph of Forestallers at the door-lintel, 
with other offences ; and, after a little hesitation, he obeys. * 

Thus is Danton's battle-pledge taken up ; there is, as he said 
there would be, ' war without truce or treaty, ni treve ni compo- 
sitiofi.' Wherefore, close now with one another. Formula and 
Reality, in death-grips, and wrestle it out ; both of you cannot 
live, but only one ! 



It proves what strength, were it only of inertia, there is in 
established Formulas, what weakness in nascent Reahties, and 
illustrates several things, that this death-wrestle should still have 
lasted some six weeks or more. National business, discussion of 
the Constitutional Act, for our Constitution should decidedly be 
got ready, proceeds along with it. We even change our Loca- 
lity ; we shift, on the Tenth of May, from the old Salle de Manage 
into our new Hall, in the Palace, once a King's but now the 
Republic's, of the Tuileries. Hope and ruth, flickering against 
despair and rage, still struggle in the minds of men. 

It is a most dark confused death-wrestle, this of the six weeks. 
Formalist frenzy against Realist frenzy ; Patriotism, Egoism, 
Pride, Anger, Vanity, Hope and Despair, all raised to the frenetic 
pitch : Frenzy meets Frenzy, like dark clashing whirlwinds ; nei- 
ther understands the other ; the weaker, one day, will under- 
stand that // is verily swept down ! Girondism is strong as 
established Formula and Respectability : do not as many as 
Seventy-two of the Departments, or say respectable Heads of 
Departments, declare for us ? Calvados, which loves its Buzot, 
will even rise in revolt, so hint the Addresses ; Marseilles, cradle 
of Patriotism, will rise ; Bourdeaux will rise, and the Gironde 
Department, as one man ; in a word, who will not-x'iSQ, were our 
Rcprhentation Natioiiale to be insulted, or one hair of a Deputy's 
head harmed ! The Mountain, again, is strong as Reality and 
Audacity. To the Reality of the Mountain are not all further- 

* Moniteur (du 16 Avril 1793, et seqq.). 
VOL. Ill, K 

I30 THE GIRONDINS. book iii. 

some things possible ? A new Tenth of August, if needful; nay 
a new Second of September ! — 

But, on Wednesday afternoon. Twenty-fourth day of April, 
year 1793, what tumult as of fierce jubilee is this? It is Marat 
returning from the Revolutionary Tribunal ! A week or more 
of death-peril : and now there is triumphant acquittal ; Revolu- 
tionary Tribunal can find no accusation against this man. And 
so the eye of History beholds Patriotism, which had gloomed 
unutterable things all week, break into loud jubilee, embrace its 
Marat; lift him into a chair of triumph, bear him shoulder-high 
through the streets. Shoulder-high is the injured People's-friend, 
crowned with an oak-garland ; amid the wavy sea of red night- 
caps, carmagnole jackets, grenadier bonnets and female mob- 
caps ; far-sounding like a sea ! The injured People's-friend has 
here reached his culminating point ; he too strikes the stars 
with his sublime head. 

But the Reader can judge with what face President Lasource, 
he of the 'painful probabilities,' who presides in this Conven- 
tion Hall, might welcome such jubilee-tide, when it got thither, 
and the Decreed of Accusation floating on the top of it! A Na- 
tional Sapper, spokesman on the occasion, says, the People 
know their Friend, and love his life as their own ; "whosoever 
wants Marat's head must get the Sapper's first."i Lasource 
answered with some vague painful mumblement, — which, says 
Levasseur, one could not help tittering at." Patriot Sections, 
Volunteers not yet gone to the Frontiers, come demanding the 
"purgation of traitors from your own bosom;" the expulsion, 
or even the trial and sentence, of a factious Twenty-two. 

Nevertheless the Gironde has got its Commission of Twelve ; 
a Commission specially appointed for investigating these troubles 
of the Legislative Sanctuary : let Sansculottism say what it will. 
Law shall triumph. Old-Constituent Rabaut Saint-Etienne pre- 
sides over this Commission : ' it is the last plank whereon a 
wrecked Republic may perhaps still save herself Rabaut and 
they therefore sit, intent ; examining witnesses ; launching arrest- 
ments ; looking out into a waste dim sea of troubles, — the womb 
of Formula, or perhaps her grave ! Enter not that sea, O Reader ! 
There are dim desolation and confusion ; raging women and 

^ Stance du 26 Avril, An 1"=' (in Moniicur, No. 116). 
^ Levasseur, Rfi'inolres, i. c. 6. 



raging men. Sections come demanding Twenty-two ; for the 
number first given by Section Bonconseil still holds, though the 
names should even vary. Other Sections, of the wealthier kind, 
come denouncing such demand; nay the same Section will de- 
mand today, and denounce the demand tomorrow, according 
as the wealthier sit, or the poorer. Wherefore, indeed, the 
Girondins decree that all Sections shall close ' at ten in the 
evening ;' before the working people come : which Decree re- 
mains without effect. And nightly the Mother of Patriotism 
wails doleful ; doleful, but her eye kindling ! And Fournier 
I'Amdricain is busy, and the two banker Freys, and Varlet 
Apostle of Liberty ; the bull-voice of Marquis St.-Huruge is 
heard. And shrill women vociferate from all Galleries, the 
Convention ones and downwards. Nay a ' Central Committee' 
of all the Forty-eight Sections looms forth huge and dubious ; 
sitting dim in the Archevech^, sending Resolutions, receiving 
them : a Centre of the Sections ; in dread deliberation as to a 
New Tenth of August ! 

One thing we will specify, to throw light on many : the 
aspect under which, seen through the eyes of these Girondin 
Twelve, or even seen through one's own eyes, the Patriotism of 
the softer sex presents itself There are Female Patriots, whom 
the Girondins call Megasras, and count to the extent of eight 
thousand ; with serpent-hair, all out of curl ; who have changed 
the distaff for the dagger. They are of 'the Society called 
Brotherly,' Fraternelle, say Sisterly, which meets under the 
roof of the Jacobins. 'Two thousand daggers,' or so, have been 
ordered, — doubtless for them. They rush to Versailles, to raise 
more women ; but the Versailles women will not rise.^ 

Nay behold, in National Garden of Tuileries, — Demoiselle 
Theroigne herself is become as a brown-locked Diana (were 
that possible) attacked by her ewn dogs, or she-dogs ! The 
Demoiselle, keeping her carriage, is for Liberty indeed, as she 
has full well shov/n ; but then for Liberty with Respectability : 
whereupon these serpent-haired Extreme She Patriots do now 
fasten on her, tatter her, shamefully fustigate her, in their 
shameful way ; almost fling her into the Garden-ponds, had 
not help intervened. Help, alas, to small purpose. The poor 
Demoiselle's head and nervous-system, none of the soundest, is 

3 Buzot, Memolres, pp. 69, 84 ; Meillan, Md/noires, pp. 192, 195, 196. 
See Commission dcs Douze (in Choix cUs Rapports, xii. 69-131). 


so tattered and fluttered that it will never recover ; but flutter 
worse and worse, till it crack ; and within year and day we 
hear of her in madhouse and strait -waistcoat, which proves 
permanent ! — Such brown-locked Figure did flutter, and in- 
articulately jabber and gesticulate, little able to speak the ob- 
scure meaning it had, through some segment of the Eighteenth 
Century of Time. She disappears here from the Revolution 
and Public History forevermore.* 

Another thing we will not again specify, yet again beseech 
the Reader to imagine : the reign of Fraternity and Perfection, 
Imagine, we say, O Reader, that the Millennium were struggling 
on the threshold, and yet not so much as groceries could be 
had, — owing to traitors. With what impetus would a man strike 
traitors, in that case ! Ah, thou canst not imagine it ; thou 
hast thy groceries safe in the shops, and little or no hope of a 
Millennium ever coming ! — But indeed, as to the temper there 
was in men and women, does not this one fact say enough : 
the height Suspicion had risen to 1 Preternatural we often 
called it ; seemingly in the language of exaggeration : but listen 
to the cold deposition of witnesses. Not a musical Patriot can 
blow himself a snatch of melody from the French Horn, sitting 
mildly pensive on the housetop, but Mercier will recognise it 
to be a signal which one Plotting Committee is making to an- 
other. Distraction has possessed Harmony herself; lurks in the 
sound of Marseillaise and (^a-irafi Lou vet, who can see as 
deep into a millstone as the most, discerns that we shall be 
invited back to our old Hall of the Manage, by a Deputation ; 
and then the Anarchists will massacre Twenty-two of us, as we 
walk over. It is Pitt and Cobourg ; the gold of Pitt. — Poor 
Pitt ! They little know what work he has with his own Friends 
of the People ; getting them bespied, beheaded, their habeas- 
corpuses suspended, and his own Social Order and strong- 
boxes kept tight, — to fancy him raising mobs among his neigh- 
bours ! 

But the strangest fact connected with French or indeed with 
human Suspicion, is perhaps t,his of Camille Desmoulins. Ca- 
milla's head, one of the clearest in France, has got itself so 

•• Deux Amis, vii. 77-80; Forster, i. 514; Moore, i. 70. She did not 
die till 1817; in the Salpetriere, in the most abject state of insanity; see 
Esquirol, Des Maladies MetUalcs (Paris, 1838), i. 445-30. 

8 Mercier, Nouveau Paris, vi. 63. 

CHAP. viii. IN DEATH-GRIPS. 133 

May 2Sth-30th. 

saturated through every fibre with Preternaturalism of Suspicion, 
that looking back on that Twelfth of July 1789, when the thou- 
sands rose round him, yelling responsive at his word in the 
Palais-Royal Garden, and took cockades, he finds it explicable 
only on this hypothesis. That they were all hired to do it, and 
set on by the Foreign and other Plotters. " It was not for 
nothing," says Camille with insight, "that this multitude burst 
up round me when I spoke !" No, not for nothing. Behind, 
around, before, it is one huge Preternatural Puppet-play of 
Plots ; Pitt pulling the wires. "^ Almost I conjecture that I, 
Camille myself, am a Plot, and wooden with wires. — The force 
of insight could no farther go. 

Be this as it will, History remarks that the Commission of 
Twelve, now clear enough as to the Plots ; and luckily having 
' got the threads of them all by the end,' as they say, — are 
launching Mandates of Arrest rapidly in these May days ; and 
carrying matters with a high hand ; resolute that the sea of 
troubles shall be restrained. What chief Patriot, Section-Pre- 
sident even, is safe ? They can arrest him ; tear him from 
his warm bed, because he has made irregular Section Arrest- 
ments ! They arrest Varlet Apostle of Liberty. They arrest 
Procureur-Substitute Hubert, Pere Duchesne; a Magistrate of 
the People, sitting in Townhall ; who, with high solemnity of 
martyrdom, takes leave of his colleagues ; prompt he, to obey 
the Law ; and solemnly acquiescent, disappears into prison. 

The swifter fly the Sections, energetically demanding him 
back ; demanding not arrestment of Popular Magistrates, but 
of a traitorous Twenty-two. Section comes flying after Section ; 
— defiling energetic, with their Cambyses-vein of oratory : nay 
the Commune itself comes, with Mayor Pache at its head ; and 
with question not of Hubert and the Twenty-two alone, but 
with this ominous old question made new, " Can you save tne 
Republic, or must we do it ?" To whom President Max Isnard 
makes fiery answer : If by fatal chance, in any of those tumults 
which since the Tenth of March are ever returning, Paris were 
to lift a sacrilegious finger against the National Representation, 
France would rise as one man, in never-imagined vengeance, 
and shortly ' the traveller would ask, on which side of the 

6 See Histoire dcs Brissotins, par Camille Desmoulins (a Pamphlet of 
Camille's, Paris, 1793). 

134 THE GIRONDINS. book iii. 

Seine Paris had stood \"^ Whereat the Mountain bellows only 
louder, and every Gallery ; Patriot Paris boiling round. 

And Girondin Valazd has nightly conclaves at his house ; 
sends billets, ' Come punctually, and well armed, for there is 
to be business.' And Megaera women perambulate the streets, 
with flags, with lamentable alleleu.^ And the Convention-doors 
are obstructed by roaring multitudes : fine-spoken Hommes 
d'etat are hustled, maltreated, as they pass ; Marat will apo- 
strophise you, in such death-peril, and say, Thou too art of 
them. If Roland ask leave to quit Paris, there is order of the 
day. What help ? Substitute Hubert, Apostle Varlet, must 
be given back ; to be crowned with oak-garlands. The Com- 
mission of Twelve, in a Convention overwhelmed with roaring 
Sections, is broken ; then on the morrow, in a Convention of 
rallied Girondins, is reinstated. Dim Chaos, or the sea of 
troubles, is struggling through all its elements ; writhing and 
chafing towards some Creation. 



Accordingly, on Friday the Thirty-first of May 1793, 
there comes forth into the summer sunlight one of the strangest 
scenes. Mayor Pache with Municipality arrives at the Tuile- 
ries Hall of Convention ; sent for, Paris being in visible ferment ; 
and gives the strangest news. 

How, in the gray of this morning, while we sat Permanent 
in Townhall, watchful for the commonweal, there entered, pre- 
cisely as on a Tenth of August, some Ninety-six extraneous 
persons ; who declared themselves to be in a state of Insurrec- 
tion ; to be plenipotentiary Commissioners from the Forty- 
eight Sections, sections or members of the Sovereign People, 
all in a state of Insurrection ; and farther that we, in the name 
of said Sovereign in Insurrection, were dismissed from office. 
How we thereupon laid off our sashes, and withdrew into the 
adjacent Saloon of Liberty. How, in a moment or two, we 
were called back ; and reinstated ; the Sovereign pleasing to 
think us still worthy of confidence. Whereby, having taken 

■^ Moniteur, Stance du 25 Mai 1793. 

8 Meillan, Mhnoires, p. 195 ; Buzot, pp. 69, 84. 


May 31st. 

new oath of office, we on a sudden find ourselves Insurrec- 
tionary Magistrates, with extraneous Committee of Ninety-six 
sitting by us ; and a Citoyen Hcnriot, one whom some accuse 
of Septembei'ism, is made Generahssimo of the National Guard; 
and, since six o'clock, the tocsins ring, and the drums beat : — 
Under which peculiar circumstances, what would an august Na- 
tional Convention please to direct us to do ?^ 

Yes, there is the question ! "Break the Insun-ectionary Au- 
thorities," answer some with vehemence. Vergniaud at least 
will have " the National Representatives all die at their post ;" 
this is sworn to, with ready loud acclaim. But as to breaking 
the Insurrectionary Authorities, — alas, while we yet debate, 
what sound is that .'' Sound of the Alarm-Cannon on the Pont 
Neuf; which it is death by the Law to fire without order 
from us ! 

It does boom off there nevertheless ; sending a stound through 
all hearts. And the tocsins discourse stern music ; and Henriot 
with his Armed Force has enveloped us ! And Section suc- 
ceeds Section, the livelong day; demanding with Cambyses-ora- 
tory, with the rattle of muskets. That traitors. Twenty-two or 
more, be punished ; that the Commission of Twelve be irre- 
coverably broken. The heart of the Gironde dies within it ; 
distant are the Seventy-two respectable Departments, this fiery 
Municipality is near ! Barrfere is for a middle course ; grant- 
ing something. The Commission of Twelve declares that, not 
waiting to be broken, it hereby breaks itself, and is no more. 
Fain would Reporter Rabaut speak his and its last words ; but 
he is bellowed off. Too happy that the Twenty-two are still left 
unviolated ! — Vergniaud, carrying the laws of refinement to a 
great length, moves, to the amazement of some, that ' the Sec- 
tions of Paris have deserved well of their country.' Whereupon, 
at a late hour of the evening, the deserving Sections retire to 
their respective places of abode. Barrere shall report on it. 
With busy quill and brain he sits, secluded ; for him no sleep 
tonight. Friday the last of May has ended in this manner. 

The Sections have deserved well : but ought they not to 
deserve better ? Faction and Girondism is struck down for the 
moment, and consents to be a nullity ; but will it not, at another 
favourabler moment rise, still feller ; and the Republic have to 

1 nSafs de la Convention (Paris, 1828), iv. 187-223 ; Moniteur, Nos. 
152, 3, 4, An I". 

136 THE GIRONDINS. book in. 

be saved in spite of it ? So reasons Patriotism, still Perma- 
nent ; so reasons the Figure of Marat, visible in the dim Sec- 
tion-world, on the morrow. To the conviction of men ! — And 
so at eventide of Saturday, when Barrere had just got the thing 
all varnished by the labour of a night and day, and his Report 
was setting off in the evening mail-bags, tocsin peals out again. 
Gendrale is beating ; armed men taking station in the Place 
Vendome and elsewhere, for the night ; supplied with provisions 
and liquor. There, under the summer stars, will they wait, this 
night, what is to be seen and to be done, Henriot and Town- 
hall giving due signal. 

The Convention, at sound oi gindrale, hastens back to its 
Hall ; but to the number only of a Hundred ; and does httle 
business, puts off business till the morrow. The Girondins do 
not stir out thither, the Girondins are abroad seeking beds. — 
Poor Rabaut, on the morrow morning, returning to his post, 
with Louvet and some others, through streets all in ferment, 
wrings his hands, ejaculating, " Ilia suprema dies T'^ It has 
become Sunday the 2d day of June, year 1793, by the old style ; 
by the new style, year One of Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. We 
have got to the last scene of all, that ends this history of the 
Girondin Senatorship. 

It seems doubtful whether any terrestrial Convention had 
ever met in such circumstances as this National one now does. 
Tocsin is pealing ; Barriers shut ; all Paris is on the gaze, or 
under arms. As many as a Hundred Thousand under arms 
they count : National Force ; and the Armed Volunteers, who 
should have flown to the Frontiers and La Vendue ; but would 
not, treason being unpunished ; and only flew hither and thither ! 
So many, steady under arms, environ the National Tuileries and 
Garden. There are horse, foot, artillery, sappers with beards : 
the artillery one can see with their camp-furnaces in this Na- 
tional Garden, heating bullets red, and their match is lighted. 
Henriot in plumes rides, amid a plumed Staff: all posts and 
issues are safe ; reserves lie out, as far as the Wood of Bou- 
logne ; the choicest Patriots nearest the scene. One other cir- 
cumstance we will note : that a careful Municipality, liberal of 
camp-furnaces, has not forgotten provision-carts. No member 
of the Sovereign need now go home to dinner; but can keep rank 

2 Louvet, Mdmoires, p, 89. 



June 2d. 

— plentiful victual circulating unsought. Does not this People 
understand Insurrection? Ye, «(7/ uninventive, Gualches ! — 

Therefore let a National Representation, • mandatories of 
the Sovereign,' take thought of it. Expulsion of your Twenty- 
two, and your Commission of Twelve : we stand here till it be 
done ! Deputation after Deputation, in ever stronger language, 
comes with that message. Barrere proposes a middle course : — 
Will not perhaps the inculpated Deputies consent to withdraw 
voluntarily ; to make a generous demission and self-sacrifice 
for the sake of one's country ? Isnard, repentant of that search 
on which river-bank Paris stood, declares himself ready to de- 
mit. Ready also is Te-Detim Fauchet ; old Dusaulx of the 
Bastille, 'vieux radoteur, old dotard,' as Marat calls him, is 
still readier. On the contrary, Lanjuinais the Breton declares 
that there is one man who never will demit voluntarily ; but 
will protest to the uttermost, while a voice is left him. And he 
accordingly goes on protesting ; amid rage and clangour ; Le- 
gendre crying at last: " Lanjuinais, come down from the Tri- 
bune, or I will fling thee down, ou je te jette en bas /" For 
matters are come to extremity. Nay they do clutch hold of 
Lanjuinais, certain zealous Mountain-men ; but cannot fling him 
down, for he ' cramps himself on the railing ;' and ' his clothes 
get torn.' Brave Senator, worthy of pity ! Neither will Bar- 
baroux demit ; he " has sworn to die at his post, and will keep 
that oath." Whereupon the Galleries all rise with explosion ; 
brandishing weapons, some of them ; and rush out, saying : 
"Allans, then ; we must save our country !" Such a Session is 
this of Sunday the second of June. 

Churches fill, over Christian Europe, and then empty them- 
selves ; but this Convention empties not, the while : a day of 
shrieking contention, of agony, humiliation and tearing of coat- 
skirts ; ilia suprema dies / Round stand Henriot and his Hun- 
dred Thousand, copiously refreshed from tray and basket : nay 
he is ' distributing five francs a-piece,' we Girondins saw it with 
our eyes ; five francs to keep them in heart ! And distraction 
of armed riot encumbers our borders, jangles at our Bar ; we 
are prisoners in our own Hall : Bishop Grdgoire could not get 
out for a bcsoin actuel without four gendarmes to wait on him ! 
What is the character of a National Representative become ? 
And now the sunlight falls yellower on western windows, and 
the chimney-tops are flinging longer shadows ; the refreshed 


Hundred Thousand, nor their shadows, stir not ! What to re- 
solve on ? Motion rises, superfluous one would think. That the 
Convention go forth in a body ; ascertain with its own eyes whe- 
ther it is free or not. Lo, therefore, from the Eastern Gate of 
the Tuileries, a distressed Convention issuing ; handsome Hdr- 
ault Sdchelles at their head ; he with hat on, in sign of public 
calamity, the rest bareheaded, — towards the Gate of the Carrou- 
sel ; wondrous to see : towards Henriot and his plumed Staff. 
" In the name of the National Convention, make way !" Not 
an inch of way does Henriot make : " I receive no orders, 
till the Sovereign, yours and mine, have been obeyed." The 
Convention presses on ; Henriot prances back, with his Staff, 
some fifteen paces, "To anns ! Cannoneers, to your guns !" — 
flashes out his puissant sword, as the Staff all do, and the Hus- 
sars all do. Cannoneers brandish the lit match ; Infantry pre- 
sent arms, — alas, in the level way, as if for firing ! Hatted 
Hdrault leads his distressed flock, through their pinfold of a 
Tuileries again ; across the Garden, to the Gate on the opposite 
side. Here is Feuillans- Terrace, alas, there is our old Salle 
de Mandge ; but neither at this Gate of the Pont Tournant is 
there egress. Try the other ; and the other : no egress ! We 
v/ander disconsolate through armed ranks ; who indeed salute 
with Live the Republic, but also with Die the Gironde. Other 
such sight, in the year One of Liberty, the westering sun 
never saw. 

And now behold Marat meets us ; for he lagged in this 
Suppliant Procession of ours : he has got some hundred elect 
Patriots at his heels ; he orders us, in the Sovereign's name, to 
return to our place, and do as we are bidden and bound. The 
Convention returns. "Does not the Convention," says Couthon 
with a singular power of face, " see that it is free," — none but 
friends round it ? The Convention, overflowing with friends and 
armed Sectioners, proceeds to vote as bidden. Many will not 
vote, but remain silent ; some one or two protest, in words, the 
Mountain has a clear unanimity. Commission of Twelve, and 
the denounced Twenty-two, to whom we add Ex-Ministers Cla- 
vi^re and Lebrun : these, with some slight extempore altera- 
tions (this or that orator proposing, but Marat disposing), are 
voted to be under ' Arrestment in their own houses.' Brissot, 
Buzot, Vergniaud, Guadet, Louvet, Gensonnd, Barbaroux, La- 
source, Lanjuinais, Rabaut, — Thirty-two, by the tale ; all that 


June 2d. 

we have known as Girondins, and more than we have known. 
They, ' under the safeguard of the French People ;' by and by, 
under the safeguard of two Gendarmes each, shall dwell peace- 
ably in their own houses ; as Non-Senators ; till farther order. 
Herewith ends Seance of Sunday the second of June 1793. 

At ten o'clock, under mild stars, the Hundred Thousand, 
their work well finished, turn homewards. Already yesterday, 
Central Insurrection Committee had arrested Madame Roland ; 
imprisoned her in the Abbaye. Roland has fled, no man knows 

Thus fell the Girondins, by Insurrection ; and became ex- 
tinct as a Party: not without a sigh from most Historians. The 
men were men of parts, of Philosophic culture, decent behavi- 
our ; not condemnable in that they were but Pedants, and had 
not better parts ; not condemnable, but most unfortunate. They 
wanted a Republic of the Virtues, wherein themselves should 
be head ; and they could only get a Republic of the Strengths, 
wherein others than they were head- 

For the rest, Barrere shall make Report of it. The night 
concludes with a ' civic promenade by torchlight :'3 surely the 
true reign of Fraternity is now not far ? 

'^ Buzot, Mimoires, p. 310. S>c.e Pieces just ijicatives, of Narratives, Com- 
mentaries, &c. in Buzot, Louvet, Meillan ; Docuincns Compliinentaires, ia 
Hist. Pari, xxviii. 1-78, 




In the leafy months of June and July, several French Depart- 
ments germinate a set of rebellious paper-\ea.\es, named Pro- 
clamations, Resolutions, Journals, or Diurnals, ' of the Union 
for Resistance to Oppression.' In particular, the Town of Caen, 
in Calvados, sees its paper-leaf of Bulletin de Caen suddenly 
bud, suddenly establish itself as Newspaper there ; under the 
Editorship of Girondin National Representatives ! 

For among the proscribed Girondins are certain of a more 
desperate humour. Some, as Vergniaud, Valazd, Gensonn^, 
'arrested in their own houses,' will await with stoical resigna- 
tion what the issue may be. Some, as Brissot, Rabaut, will 
take to flight, to concealment ; which, as the Paris Barriers are 
opened again in a day or two, is not yet difficult. But others 
there are who will rush, with Buzot, to Calvados ; or far over 
France, to Lyons, Toulon, Nantes and elsewhither, and then 
rendezvous at Caen : to awaken as with war-trumpet the re- 
spectable Departments ; and strike down an anarchic Mountain 
Faction ; at least not yield without a stroke at it. Of this latter 
temper we count some score or more, of the Arrested, and of 
the Not-yet-arrested : a Buzot, a Barbaroux, Louvet, Guadet, 
Potion, who have escaped from Arrestment in their own homes ; 
a Salles, a Pythagorean Valady, a Duchatel, the Duchatel that 
came in blanket and nightcap to vote for the life of Louis, who 
have escaped from danger and likelihood of Arrestment. These, 
to the number at one time of Twenty-seven, do accordingly lodge 



here, at the ' Intendance, or Departmental Mansion,' of the town 
of Caen in Calvados ; welcomed by Persons in Authority ; v/el- 
comed and defrayed, having no money of their own. And the 
Bulletin de Caen comes forth, with the most animating para- 
graphs : How the Bourdeaux Department, the Lyons Depart- 
ment, this Department after the other is declaring itself; sixty, 
or say sixty-nine, or seventy-two^ respectable Departments either 
declaring, or ready to declare. Nay Marseilles, it seems, will 
march on Paris by itself, if need be. So has Marseilles Town 
said, That she will march. But on the other hand, that Mon- 
tdimart Town has said, No thoroughfare ; and means even to 
' bury herself under her own stone and mortar first, — of this be 
no mention in Bulletin de Caen. 

Such animating paragraphs we read in this new Newspaper; 
and fervours and eloquent sarcasm : tirades against the Moun- 
tain, from the pen of Deputy Salles ; which resemble, say friends, 
Pascal's Provincials. What is more to the purpose, these Giron- 
dins have got a General in chief, one Wimpfen, formerly under 
Dumouriez; also a secondary questionable General Puisaye, 
and others ; and are doing their best to raise a force for war. 
National Volunteers, whosoever is of right heart : gather in, 
ye National Volunteers, friends of Liberty ; from our Calvados 
Townships, from the Eure, from Brittany, from far and near : 
forward to Paris, and extinguish Anarchy ! Thus at Caen, in 
the early July days, there is a dnimming and parading, a pero- 
rating and consulting : Staff and Army ; Council ; Club of Cara- 
bots. Anti-jacobin friends of Freedom, to denounce atrocious 
Marat. With all which, and the editing oi Bulletins, a National 
Representative has his hands full. 

At Caen it is most animated ; and, as one hopes, more or 
less animated in the ' Seventy-two Departments that adhere to 
us.' And in a France begirt with Cimmerian invading Coali- 
tions, and torn with an internal La Vendue, this is the conclu- 
sion we have arrived at : To put down Anarchy by Civil War ! 
Durum et dumm, the Proverb says, non faciunt muruni. La 
Vendee burns : Santerre can do nothing there ; he may return 
home and brew beer. Cimmerian bombshells fly all along the 
North. That Siege of Mentz is become famed ; — lovers of the 
Picturesque (as Goethe will testify), washed country-people of 
both sexes, stroll thither on Sundays, to see the artillery work 
1 Meillan, pp. 72, 73; Louvet, p. 129. 

142 TERROR. BOOK iv. 

and counterwork ; ' you only duck a little while the shot whizzes 
past. '2 Condd is capitulating to the Austrians ; Royal Highness 
of York, these several weeks, fiercely batters Valenciennes. For, 
alas, our fortified Camp of Famars was stormed ; General Dam- 
pierre was killed ; General Custine was blamed, — and indeed is 
now come to Paris to give 'explanations.' 

Against all which the Mountain and atrocious Marat must 
even make head as they can. They, anarchic Convention as 
they are, publish Decrees, expostulatory, explanatory, yet not 
without severity ; they ray-forth Commissioners, singly or in 
pairs, the olive-branch in one hand, yef the sword in the other. 
Commissioners come even to Caen ; but Avithout effect. Mathe- 
matical Romme, and Prieur named of the Cote d'Or, venturing 
thither, with their olive and sword, are packed into prison : 
there may Romme lie, under lock and key, ' for fifty days ;' and 
meditate his New Calendar, if he please. Cimmeria, La Vendue, 
and Civil War ! Never was Republic One and Indivisible at a 
lower ebb. — 

Amid which dim ferment of Caen and the World, History 
specially notices one thing : in the lobby of the Mansion de 
tlniendance, where busy Deputies are coming and going, a 
young Lady with an aged valet, taking grave graceful leave of 
Deputy Barbaroux.-^ She is of stately Norman figure ; in her 
twenty-fifth year ; of beautiful still countenance : her name is 
Charlotte Corday, heretofore styled D'Armans, while Nobility 
still was. Barbaroux has given her a Note to Deputy Du- 
perret, — him who once drew his sword in the effervescence. 
Apparently she will to Paris on some errand ? ' She was a Re- 
publican before the Revolution, and never wanted energ)'.' A 
completeness, a decision is in this fair female Figure : ' by energy 
' she means the spirit that will prompt one to sacrifice himself 
' for his country.' What if she, this fair young Charlotte, had 
emerged from her secluded stillness, suddenly like a Star ; cruel- 
lovely, with half-angelic, half-daemonic splendour ; to gleam for 
a moment, and in a moment be extinguished : to be held in 
memory, so bright complete was she, through long centuries ! — 
Quitting Cimmerian Coalitions without, and the dim-simmering 
Twenty-five millions within. History will look fixedly at this one 
fair Apparition of a Charlotte Corday ; will note whither Char- 

- Bclagcrung von Mainz (Goethe's Wcrke, .\xx. 278-334). 
' Meillan, p. 75; Louvet, p. 114. 


July 13th. 

lotte moves, how the little Life burns forth so radiant, then 
vanishes swallowed of the Night. 

''^"With Barbaroux's Note of Introduction, and slight stock of 
luggage, we see Charlotte on Tuesday the 9th of July seated in 
the Caen Diligence, with a place for Paris. None takes farewell 
of her, wishes her Good-journey : her Father will find a line left, 
signif>ang that she is gone to England, that he must pardon her, 
and forget her. The drowsy Diligence lumbers along ; amid 
drowsy talk of Politics, and praise of the Mountain ; in which 
she mingles not : all night, all day, and again all night. On 
Thursday, not long before noon, we are at the bridge of Neuilly ; 
here is Paris with her thousand black domes, the goal and pur- 
pose of thy journey ! Arrived at the Inn de la Providence in the 
Rue des Vieux Augustins, Charlotte demands a room ; hastens 
to bed ; sleeps all afternoon and night, till the morrow morning. 

On the morrow morning, she delivers her Note to Duperret. 
It relates to certain Family Papers which are in the Minister of 
the Interior's hands ; which a Nun at Caen, an old Convent- 
friend of Charlotte's, has need of; which Duperret shall assist 
her in getting : this then was Charlotte's errand to Paris ? She 
has finished this, in the course of Friday ; — yet says nothing of 
returning. She has seen and silently investigated several things. 
The Convention, in bodily reality, she has seen ; what the 
Mountain is like. The living physiognomy of Marat she could 
not see ; he is sick at present, and confined to home. 

About eight on the Saturday morning, she purchases a large 
sheath-knife in the Palais Royal ; then straightway, in the Place 
des Victoires, takes a hackney-coach : "To the Rue de I'Ecole 
de Medecine, No. 44." It is the residence of the Citoyen Marat ! 
— The Citoyen Marat is ill, and cannot be seen ; which seems 
to disappoint her much. Her business is with Marat, then ? 
Hapless beautiful Charlotte ; hapless squalid Marat ! P^rom 
Caen in the utmost West, from Neuchatel in the utmost Eas^ 
they two are drawing nigh each other ; they two have, very 
strangely, business together. — Charlotte, returning to her Inn, 
despatches a short Note to Mr>.-at ; signifying that she is from 
Caen, the seat of rebellion ; that she desires earnestly to see 
him, and ' will put it in his power to do France a great service.' 
No answer. Charlotte writes another Note, still more pressing; 
sets out with it by coach, about seven in the evening, herself. 
Tired day-labourers have again finished their Week ; huge Paris 

X44 TERROR. book iv. 

is circling and simmering, manifold, according to its vague wont : 
this one fair Figure has decision in it ; drives straight, — towards 
a purpose. 

It is yellow July evening, we say, the thirteenth of the 
month ; eve of the Bastille day, — when ' M. Marat,' four years 
ago, in the crowd of the Pont Neuf, shrewdly required of that 
Besenval Hussar-party, which had such friendly dispositions, 
" to dismount, and give up their arms, then ;" and became nota- 
ble among Patriot men. Four years : what a road he has 
travelled ;— and sits now, about half-past seven of the clock, 
stewing in slipper-bath ; sore afflicted ; ill of Revolution Fever, 
— of what other malady this History had rather not name. 
Excessively sick and worn, poor man : with precisely eleven- 
pence-halfpenny of ready-money, in paper ; with slipper-bath ; 
strong three-footed stool for writing on, the while ; and a squalid 
— Washerwoman, one may call her : that is his civic establish- 
ment in Medical-School Street ; thither and not elsewhither has 
his road led him. Not to the reign of Brotherhood and Perfect 
Felicity ; yet surely on the way towards that ? — Hark, a rap 
again ! A musical woman's voice, refusing to be rejected : it 
is the Citoyenne who would do France a service. Marat, re- 
cognising from within, cries. Admit her. Charlotte Corday is 

Citoyen Marat, I am from Caen the seat of rebellion, and 
wished to speak with you. — Be seated, mon enfant. Now what 
are the Traitors doing at Caen ? What Deputies are at Caen ? 
— Charlotte names some Deputies. " Their heads shall fall 
within a fortnight," croaks the eager People's-friend, clutching 
his tablets to write : Barbaroux, Pdtion, writes he with bare 
shrunk arm, turning aside in the bath : Petion, and Louvet, and — 
Charlotte has drawn her knife from the sheath ; plunges it, with 
one sure stroke, into the writer's heart. "A nioi, chere amie. 
Help, dear !" no more could the Death-choked say or shriek. 
The helpful Washerwoman running in, there is no Friend of the 
People, or Friend of the Washerwoman left ; but his life with 
a groan gushes out, indignant, to the shades below.,;* ^ 

And so Marat People's-friend is ended ; the lone Stylites 
has got hurled down suddenly from his Pillar, — luhiiherivard 
He that made him knows. Patriot Paris may sound triple and 

^ Moniteur, Nos. 197, 198, 199; Hist. Pari, xxviii, 301-5; Deux Amis, 
X. 368-374. 


July 17th. 

tenfold, in dole and wail ; reechoed by Patriot France ; and the 
Convention, ' Chabot pale with terror, declaring that they are 
to be all assassinated,' may decree him Pantheon Honours, 
Public Funeral, Mirabeau's dust making way for him ; and 
Jacobin Societies, in lamentable oratory, summing up his cha- 
racter, parallel him to One, whom they think it honour to call 
'the good Sansculotte,' — whom we name not here ;5 also a 
Chapel may be made, for the urn that holds his Heart, in the 
Place du Carrousel ; and new-born children be named Marat ; 
and Lago-di-Como Hawkers bake mountains of stucco into un- 
beautiful Busts ; and David paint his Picture, or Death-Scene ; 
and such other Apotheosis take place as the human genius, in 
these circumstances, can devise : but Marat returns no more to 
the light of this Sun. One sole circumstance we have read 
with clear sympathy, in the old Motiiieur Newspaper : how 
Marat's Brother comes from Neuchatel to ask of the Conven- 
tion, ' that the deceased Jean-Paul Marat's musket be given 
him.'S For Marat too had a brother and natural affections ; 
and was wrapped once in swaddling-clothes, and slept safe in 
a cradle like the rest of us. Ye children of men !— A sister of 
his, they say, lives still to this day in Paris. 

As for Charlotte Corday, her work is accomplished ; the 
recompense of it is near and sure. The chere amie, and neigh- 
bours of the house, flying at her, she 'overturns some movables,' 
entrenches herself till the gendarmes arrive ; then quietly sur- 
renders ; goes quietly to the Abbaye Prison : she alone quiet, 
all Paris sounding, in wonder, in rage or admiration, round her. 
Duperret is put in arrest, on account of her ; his Papers sealed, 
— which may lead to consequences. Fauchet, in like manner; 
though Fauchet had not so much as heard of her. Charlotte, 
confronted with these two Deputies, praises the grave firmness 
of Duperret, censures the dejection of Fauchet. 

On Wednesday morning, the thronged Palais de Justice and 
Revolutionary Tribunal can see her face ; beautiful and calm : 
she dates it ' fourth day of the Preparation of Peace.' A strange 
murmur ran through the Hall, at sight of her ; you could not 
say of what character.''' Tinville has his indictments and tape- 

5 See Eloge fuiiklre de Jean-Paul Marat, prononce i Strasbourg (in 
Barbaroux, pp. 125-131) ; Mercier, &c. 
® Sdance du 16 Septembre 1793. 

7 Proch de Charlotte Corday, &c. [Hist, Pari, xxviii. 311-338). 


papers : the cutler of the Palais Royal will testify that he sold 
her the sheath-knife; "All these details are needless," inter- 
rupted Charlotte ; " it is I that killed Marat." By whose in- 
stigation ? — "By no one's." What tempted you, then? His 
crimes. " I killed one man," added she, raising her voice 
extremely {extreme}uent), as they Avent on with their questions, 
" 1 killed one man to save a hundred thousand; a villain to save 
innocents ; a savage wild-beast to give repose to my country. 
I was a Republican before the Revolution ; I never wanted 
energy." There is therefore nothing to be said. The public 
gazes astonished : the hasty limners sketch her features, Char- 
lotte not disapproving : the men of law proceed with their for- 
malities. The doom is Death as a murderess. To her Advocate 
she gives thanks ; in gentle phrase, in high-flown classical spirit. 
To the Priest they send her she gives thanks ; but needs not 
any shriving, any ghostly or other aid from him. 

On this same evening therefore, about half-past seven o'clock, 
from the gate of the Conciergerie, to a City all on tiptoe, the 
fatal Cart issues ; seated on it a fair young creature, sheeted in 
red smock of Murderess ; so beautiful, serene, so full of life ; 
journeying towards death, — alone amid the World. Many take 
off their hats, saluting reverently ; for what heart but must be 
touched ?s Others growl and howl. Adam Lux, of Mentz, 
declares that she is greater than Brutus ; that it were beautiful 
to die with her : the head of this young man seems turned. At 
the Place de la Revolution, the countenance of Charlotte wears 
the same still smile. The executioners proceed to bind her 
feet ; she resists, thinking it meant as an insult ; on a word 
of explanation, she submits with cheerful apology. As the last 
act, all being now ready, they take the neckerchief from her 
neck ; a blush of maidenly shame overspreads that fair face and 
neck ; the cheeks were still tinged with it when the executioner 
lifted the severed head, to show it to the people. ' It is most 
' true,' says Forster, ' that he struck the cheek insultingly ; for 
' I saw it with my eyes : the Police imprisoned him for it. '9 

In this manner have the Beautifulest and the Squalidest come 
in collision, and extinguished one another. Jean-Paul Marat and 
Marie-Anne Charlotte Corday both, suddenly, are no more. 
' Day of the Preparation of Peace' ? Alas, how were peace 
possible or preparable, while, for example, the hearts of lovely 
8 Deux Amis, x, 374-384. » Briefwechsel, i. 508. 

CHAP. 11. IN CIVIL WAR. 147 

July 15th. 

Maidens, in their convent-stillness, are dreaming not of Love- 
paradises and the light of Life, but of Codrus'-sacritices and 
Death well-earned ? That Twenty-five million hearts have got 
to such temper, this is the Anarchy ; the soul of it lies in this : 
whereof not peace can be the embodiment ! The death of 
Marat, whetting old animosities tenfold, will be worse than any 
life. O ye hapless Two, mutually extinctive, the Beautiful and 
the Squalid, sleep ye well, — in the Mother's bosom that bore 
you both ! 

This is the History of Charlotte Corday ; most definite, 
most complete ; angelic -dcemonic : like a Star ! Adam Lux 
goes home, half-delirious ; to pour forth his Apotheosis of her, 
in paper and print ; to propose that she have a statue with this 
inscription. Greater than Brutus. Friends represent his danger; 
Lux is reckless ; thinks it were beautiful to die with her. 



But during these same hours, another guillotine is at work, 
on another : Charlotte, for the Girondins, dies at Paris today ; 
Chalier, by the Girondins, dies at Lyons tomorrow. 

From rumbling of cannon along the streets of that City, it 
has come to firing of them, to rabid fighting : Ni^vre Choi and 
the Girondins triumph ; — behind whom there is, as everywhere, 
a Royalist Faction waiting to strike in. Trouble enough at 
Lyons ; and the dominant party carrying it with a high hand ! 
For, indeed, the whole South is astir ; incarcerating Jacobins ; 
arming for Girondins : wherefore we have got a ' Congress of 
Lyons ;' also a 'Revolutionary Tribunal of Lyons,' and Anarchists 
shall tremble. So Chalier was soon found guilty, of Jacobinism, 
of murderous Plot, ' address with drawn dagger on the sixth of 
February last ;' and, on the morrow, he also travels his final 
road, along the streets of Lyons, ' by the side of an ecclesiastic, 
with whom he seems to speak earnestly,' — the axe now glittering 
nigh. He could weep, in old years, this man, and ' fall on his 
knees on the pavement,' blessing Heaven at sight of Federation 
Programs or the like ; then he pilgrimed to Paris, to worship 
Marat and the Mountain : now Marat and he are both gone ; 
-T-we said he could not end well. Jacobinism groans inwardly, at 

148 TERROR. book iv. 

Lyons ; but dare not outwardly. Chalier, when the Tribunal sen- 
tenced him, made answer : " My death will cost this City dear." 
Mont^limart Town is not buried under its ruins ; yet Mar- 
seilles is actually marching, under order of a 'Lyons Congress;' 
is incarcerating Patriots ; the very Royalists now showing face. 
Against which a General Cartaux fights, though in small force; 
and with him an Artillery Major, of the name of— Napoleon 
Buonaparte. This Napoleon, to prove that the Marseillese have 
no chance ultimately, not only fights but writes ; publishes his 
Supper of Beaucaire, a Dialogue which has become curious.^ 
Unfortunate Cities, with their actions and their reactions ! Viol- 
ence to be paid with violence in geometrical ratio ; Royalism and 
Anarchism both striking in; — the final net-amount of which 
geometrical series, what man shall sum ? 

The Bar of Iron has never yet floated in Marseilles Har- 
bour ; but the body of Rebccqui was found floating, self-drowned 
there. Hot Rebecqui, seeing how confusion deepened, and 
Respectability grew poisoned with Royalism, felt that there was 
no refuge for a Republican but death. Rebecqui disappeared : 
no one knew whither ; till, one morning, they found the empty 
case or body of him risen to the top, tumbling on the salt waves -^ 
and perceived that Rebecqui had withdrawn forever. — Toulon 
likewise is incarcerating Patriots ; sending delegates to Congress; 
intriguing, in case of necessity, with the Royalists and English. 
Montpellier, Bourdeaux, Nantes : all France, that is not under 
the swoop of Austria and Cimmeria, seems rushing into madness 
and suicidal ruin. The Mountain labours ; like a volcano in a 
burning volcanic Land. Convention Committees, of Surety, of 
Salvation, are busy night and day: Convention Commissioners 
whirl on all highways ; bearing olive-branch and sword, or now 
perhaps sword only. Chaumette and Municipals come daily to 
the Tuileries demanding a Constitution : it is some weeks now 
since he resolved, in Townhall, that a Deputation ' should go 
every day,' and demand a Constitution, till one were got;* 
whereby suicidal France might rally and pacify itself ; a thing 
inexpressibly desirable. 

This then is the fruit your Antianarchic Girondins have 
got from that Levying of War in Calvados ? This fruit, we may 
say ; and no other whatsoever. For indeed, before either Char- 
lotte's or Chalier's head had fallen, the Calvados War itself had, 
1 See Hazlitt, ii. 529-41. ^ Barbaroux, p. 29. ^ Deux Amis, x. ^45- 


July 15th. 

as it were, vanished, dreamlike, in a shriek ! With ' seventy- 
two Departments' on our side, one might have hoped better 
things. But it turns out that Respectabihties, though they will 
vote, will not fight. Possession always is nine points in Law ; 
but in Lawsuits of this kind, one may say, it is ninety-and-nine 
points. Men do what they were wont to do ; and have immense 
irresolution and inertia : they obey him who has the symbols 
that claim obedience. Consider what, in modern society, this 
one fact means : the Metropolis is with our enemies ! Metropolis, 
Af other-city; rightly so named: all the rest are but as her chil- 
dren, her nurselings. Why, there is not a leathern Diligence, 
with its post-bags and luggage-boots, that lumbers out from her, 
but is as a huge life-pulse ; she is the heart of all. Cut short 
that one leathern Diligence, how much is cut short ! — General 
Wimpfen, looking practically into the matter, can see nothing 
for it but that one should fall back on Royalism; get into com- 
munication with Pitt ! Dark innuendos he flings out, to that 
effect : whereat we Girondins start, horrorstruck. He pro- 
duces as his Second in command a certain ' Ci-dcvant,' onQCovntQ 
Puisaye; entirely unknown to Louvet; greatly suspected by him. 

Few wars, accordingly, were ever levied of a more insuffi- 
cient character than this of Calvados. He that is curious in 
such things may read the details of it in the Memoirs of that 
same Ci-devant Puisaye, the much-enduring man and Royalist : 
How our Girondin National forces, marching off with plenty of 
wind-music, were drawn out about the old Chateau of Br^court, 
in the wood-country near Vernon, to meet the Mountain Na- 
tional forces advancing from Paris. How on the fifteenth after- 
noon of July, they did meet ;— and, as it were, shrieked mutually, 
and took mutually to flight, without loss. How Puisaye there- 
after, — for the Mountain Nationals fled first, and we thought 
ourselves the victors,— was roused from his warm bed in the 
Castle of Brdcourt ; and had to gallop without boots ; our NtV 
tionals, in the night-watches, having fallen unexpectedly into 
sauve-qiti-peiit : — and in brief the Calvados War had burnt 
priming ; and the only question now was. Whitherward to vanish, 
in what hole to hide oneself !■* 

The National Volunteers rush homewards, faster than they 
came. The Seventy-two Respectable Departments, says Meillan, 
' all turned round and forsook us, in the space of four-and-twenty 
♦ All! moires de Puisaye (London, 1803), ii. 142-67. 

I50 TERROR. book i v. 

hours.' Unhappy those who, as at Lyons for instance, have 
gone too far for turning! ' One morning,' we find placarded on 
our Intendance Mansion, the Decree of Convention which casts 
us Hors la lot, into Outlawry ; placarded by our Caen Magis- 
trates ; — clear hint that we also are to vanish. Vanish indeed : 
but whitherward? Gorsas has friends in Rennes ; he will hide 
there, — unhappily will not he hid. Gaudet, Lanjuinais are on 
cross roads ; making for Bourdeaux. To Bourdeaux ! cries the 
general voice, of Valour alike and of Despair. Some flag of 
Respectability still floats there, or is thought to float. 

Thitherward therefore ; each as he can! Eleven of these ill- 
fated Deputies, among whom we may count as twelfth. Friend 
Riouffe the Man of Letters, do an original thing : Take the 
uniform of National Volunteers, and retreat southward with the 
Breton Battalion, as private soldiers of that corps. These brave 
Bretons had stood truer by us than any other. Nevertheless, at 
the end of a day or two, they also do now get dubious, self- 
divided ; we must part from them ; and, with some half-dozen 
as convoy or guide, retreat by ourselves, — a solitary marching 
detachment, through waste regions of the West.^ 



It is one of the notablest Retreats, this of the Eleven, that 
History presents : The handful of forlorn Legislators retreating 
there, continually, with shouldered firelock and well-filled car- 
tridge-box, in the yellow autumn ; long hundreds of miles be- 
tween them and Bourdeaux ; the country all getting hostile, 
suspicious of the truth ; simmering and buzzing on all sides, 
more and more. Louvet has preserved the Itinerary of it ; a 
piece worth all the rest he ever wrote. 

O virtuous Petion, with thy early-white head, O brave young 
Barbaroux, has it come to this ? Weary ways, worn shoes, light 
purse ;— encompassed with perils as with a sea! Revolutionary 
Committees are in every Township ; of Jacobin temper ; our 
friends all cowed, our cause the losing one. In the Borough 
of Moncontour, by ill chance, it is market-day : to the gaping 
public such transit of a solitary Marching Detachment is sus- 

• Loiwet, pp. 101-37; Meillan, pp. 81, 241-70. 



picious ; we have need of energ)', of promptitude and luck, to 
be allowed to march through. Hasten, ye weary pilgrims ! The 
country is getting up ; noise of you is bruited day af';er day, a 
solitary Twelve retreating in this mysterious manner : with 
every new day, a wider wave of inquisitive pursuing tumult is 
stirred up, till the whole West will be in motion. ' Cussy is 
tormented with gout, Buzot is too fat for marching.' Riouffc, 
blistered, bleeding, marches only on tiptoe ; Barbaroux limps 
with sprained ankle, yet ever cheery, full of hope and valour. 
Light Louvet glances hare-eyed, not hare-hearted : only virtu- 
ous Potion's serenity 'was but once seen ruffled. 'i They lie in 
straw-lofts, in woody brakes ; rudest paillasse on the floor of a 
secret friend is luxury. They are seized in the dead of night 
by Jacobin mayors and tap of drum ; get off by firm counten- 
ance, rattle of muskets and ready wit. 

Of Bourdeaux, through fiery La Vendue and the long geo- 
graphical spaces that remain, it were madness to think : well 
if you can get to Ouimper on the sea-coast, and take shipping 
there. Faster, ever faster ! Before the end of the march, so 
hot has the country grown, it is found advisable to march all 
night. They do it ; under the still night-canopy they plod 
along ;— and yet behold. Rumour has outplodded them. In 
the paltry Village of Carhaix (be its thatched huts and bottom- 
less peat-bogs long notable to the Traveller), one is astonished 
to find light still glimmering : citizens are awake, with rush- 
lights burning, in that nook of the terrestrial Planet ; as we 
traverse swiftly the one poor street, a voice is heard saying, 
"There they are, Les voila qui passent.'"^ Swifter, ye doomed 
lame Twelve : speed ere they can arm ; gain the Woods of Ouim- 
per before day, and lie squatted there ! 

The doomed Twelve do it; though with difficulty, with loss 
of road, with peril and the mistakes of a night. In Ouimper 
are Girondin friends, who perhaps will harbour the homeless, 
till a Bourdeaux ship weigh. Wayworn, heartworn, in agony of 
suspense, till Ouimper friendship get warning, they lie there, 
squatted under the thick wet boscage ; suspicious of the face 
of man. Some pity to the brave ; to the unhappy ! Unhappiest 
of all Legislators, O when ye packed your luggage, some score 
or two-score months ago, and mounted this or the other- leathern 
vehicle, to be Conscript Fathers of a regenerated France, and 

1 Meillan, pp. 1 19-137. 2 lx)uvet, pp. 138-164. 

152 TERROR. BOOK iv. 

reap deathless laurels, — did you think your journey was to lead 
hither? The Quimper Samaritans find them squatted ; lift them 
up to help and comfort ; will hide them in sure places. Thence 
let them dissipate gradually; or there they can lie quiet, and 
write Memoirs, till a Bourdeaux ship sail. 

And thus, in Calvados all is dissipated ; Romme is out of 
prison, meditating his Calendar ; ringleaders are locked in his 
room. At Caen the Corday family mourns in silence: Buzot's 
House is a heap of dust and demolition; and amid the rubbish 
sticks a Gallows, with this inscription. Here dwelt the Traitor 
Buzot, who cofispired against the Republic. Buzot and the other 
vanished Deputies are hors la loi, as we saw; their lives free 
to take where they can be found. The worse fares it with the 
poor Arrested visible Deputies at Paris. 'Arrestment at home' 
threatens to become 'Confinement in the Luxembourg ;' to end: 
where? For example, what pale-visaged thin man is this, jour- 
neying towards Switzerland as a Merchant of Neuchatel, whom 
they arrest in the town of Moulins ? To Revolutionary Com- 
mittee he is suspect. To Revolutionary Committee, on probing 
the matter, he is evidently: Deputy Brissot! Back to thy Ar- 
restment, poor Brissot ; or indeed to strait confinement, — whi- 
ther others are fated to follow. Rabaut has built himself a 
false-partition, in a friend's house ; lives, in invisible darkness, 
between two walls. It will end, this same Arrestment business, 
in Prison, and the Revolutionary Tribunal. 

Nor must we forget Duperret, and the seal put on his papers 
by reason of Charlotte. One Paper is there, fit to breed woe 
enough : A secret solemn Protest against that supreina dies of 
the Second of June ! This Secret Protest our poor Duperret had 
drawn up, the same week, in all plainness of speech ; waiting 
the time for publishing it : to which Secret Protest his signa- 
ture, and that of other honourable Deputies not a few, stands 
legibly appended. And now, if the seals were once broken, 
the Mountain still victorious ? Such Protesters, your Merciers, 
Bailleuls, Seventy-three by the tale, what yet remains of Re- 
spectable Girondism in the Convention, may tremble to think! 
— These are the fruits of levying civil war. 

Also we find, that in these last days of July, the famed Siege 
of Mentz \s Jinished : the Garrison to march out with honours 
of war ; not to serve against the Coalition for a year. Lovers 



of the Picturesque, and Goethe standing on the Chaussde of 

Mentz, saw, with due interest, the Procession issuing forth, in 

all solemnity : 

'Escorted by Prussian horse came first the French Garrison. 
' Nothing could look stranger than this latter ; a column of Mar- 
' seillese, slight, swarthy, parti-coloured, in patched clothes, came 
' tripping on ; — as if King Edwin had opened the Dwarf Hill, 
' and sent out his nimble Host of Dwarfs. Next followed regu- 
' lar troops ; serious, sullen ; not as if downcast or ashamed. 

• But the remarkablcst appearance, which struck every one, 
' was that of the Chasers {Chasseurs) coming out mounted : 
' they had advanced quite silent to where we stood, when their 
' Band struck up the Marseillaise. This revolutionary Te-Dcum 
' has in itself something mournful and bodeful, however briskly 
' played ; but at present they gave it in altogether slow time, 
' proportionate to the creeping step they rode at. It was piercing 
' and fearful, and a most serious-looking thing, as these cava- 
' liers, long, lean men, of a certain age, with mien suitable to 
' the music, came pacing on : singly you might have likened 
' them to Don Quixote ; in mass, they were highly dignified. 

' But now a single troop became notable : that of the Com- 
' missioners or Representans. Merlin of Thionville, in hussar 
' uniform, distinguishing himself by wild beard and look, had 
' another person in similar costume on his left ; the crowd 
' shouted out, with rage, at sight of this latter, the name of a 
' Jacobin Townsman and Clubbist ; and shook itself to seize 
' him. Merlin drew bridle ; referred to his dignity as French 
' Representative, to the vengeance that should follow any injury 
' done ; he would advise every one to compose himself, for this 

• was not the last time they would see him here.''' Thus rode 
Merhn; threatening in defeat. But what now shall stem that 
tide of Prussians setting-in through the opened Northeast ? 
Lucky if fortified Lines of Weissembourg, and impassabilities 
of Vosges Mountains confine it to French Alsace, keep it from 
submerging the very heart of the country ! 

Furthermore, precisely in the same days, Valenciennes Siege 
is finished, in the Northwest : — fallen, under tb« red hail of York ! 
Conde fell some fortnight since. Cimmerian Coalition presses 
on. What seems very notable too, on all these captured French 
Towns there flies not the Royalist fleur-de-lys, in the name of 
3 Belagerung von Mainz (Goethe's Werke, xxx. 315). 

154 TERROR. BOOK iv. 

a new Louis the Pretender ; but the Austrian flag flies ; as if 
Austria meant to keep them for herself ! Perhaps General 
Custine, still in Paris, can give some explanation of the fall of 
these strong-places? Mother Society, from tribune and gallery, 
growls loud that he ought to do it ; — remarks, however, in a 
splenetic manner that ' the Moiisieurs of the Palais Royal' are 
calling Long-life to this General. 

The Mother Society, purged now, by successive ' scrutinies 
or ^ptirations,' from all taint of Girondism, has become a great 
Authority : what we can call shield-bearer or bottle-holder, nay 
call it fugleman, to the purged National Convention itself. 
The Jacobins Debates are reported in the Moniteur, like Par- 
liamentary ones. 



But looking more specially into Paris City, what is this 
that History, on the loth of August, Year One of Liberty, 'by 
old-style, year 1793,' discerns there? Praised be the Heavens, 
a new Feast of Pikes ! 

For Chaumette's ' Deputation every day' has worked out its 
result: a Constitution. It was one of the rapidest Constitutions 
ever put together; made, some say in eight days, by Hcfrault 
Sdchelles and others; probably a workmanlike, roadworthy Con- 
stitution enough ; — on which point, however, we are, for some 
reasons, little called to form a judgment. Workmanlike or not, 
the Forty-four Thousand Communes of France, by overwhelm- 
ing majorities, did hasten to accept it ; glad of any Constitution 
whatsoever. Nay Departmental Deputies have come, the vener- 
ablest Republicans of each Department, with solemn message 
of Acceptance ; and now what I'emains but that our new Final 
Constitution be proclaimed, and sworn to, in Feast of Pikes ? 
The Departmental Deputies, we say, are come some time ago; 
Chaumettc very anxious about them, lest Girondin Mousieurs, 
Agio-jobbers, or were it even Filles dejoie of a Girondin temper, 
corrupt their morals.' Tenth of August, immortal Anniversary, 
greater almost than Bastille July, is the Day. 

Painter David has not been idle. Thanks to David and 
the French genius, there steps forth into the sunlight, this day, 

1 Deux Amis, xi. 73, 


August loth. 

a Scenic Phantasmagory unexampled : — whereof History, so 

occupied with Real Phantasmagories, will say but little. 

For one thing, History can notice with satisfaction, on the 
ruins of the Bastille, a Statue of Nature ; gigantic, spouting 
water from her two inamuiclles. Not a Dream this ; but a fact, 
palpable visible. There she spouts, great Nature ; dim, before 
daybreak. But as the coming Sun ruddies the East, come count- 
less Multitudes, regulated and unregulated ; come Departmental 
Deputies, come Mother Society and Daughters ; comes National 
Convention, led on by handsome H(5rault ; soft wind-music 
breathing note of expectation. Lo, as great Sol scatters his first 
fire-handful, tipping the hills and chimney- heads with gold, 
Hdrault is at great Nature's feet (she is plaster-of-paris merely) ; 
H^rault lifts, in an iron saucer, water spouted from the sacred 
breasts ; drinks of it, with an elocjuent Pagan Prayer, begin- 
ning, "O Nature!" and all the Departmental Deputies drink, 
each with what best suitable ejaculation or prophetic-utterance 
is in him ; — breathings, which become blasts, of wind- 
music ; and the roar of artillery and human throats : finishing 
well the first act of this solemnity. 

Next are processionings along the Boulevards : Deputies or 
Officials bound together by long indivisible tricolor riband ; gene- 
ral 'members of the Sovereign' walking pell-mell, with pikes, with 
hammers, with the tools and emblems of their crafts ; among 
which we notice a Plough, and ancient Baucis and Philemon 
seated on it, drawn by their children. Many-voiced harmony 
and dissonance filling the air. Through Triumphal Arches 
enough : at the basis of the first of which, we descry — whom 
thinkest thou ? — the Heroines of the Insurrection of Women. 
Strong Dames of the Market, they sit there (Theroigne too ill 
to attend, one fears), with oak-branches, tricolor bedizenment; 
firm seated on their Cannons. To whom handsome He'rault, 
making paxise of admiration, addresses soothing eloquence ; 
whereupon they rise and fall into the march. 

And now mark, in the Place de la Revolution, what other 
august Statue may this be; veiled in canvas, — which swiftly we 
shear off, by pulley and cord? The Statue of Liberty / She 
too is of plaster, hoping to become of metal ; stands where a 
Tyrant Louis Quinze once stood. ' Three thousand birds' are 
let loose, into the whole world, v/ith labels round their neck, 
We are free s imitate us. Holocaust of Royalist and ci-devant 

iS6 TERROR. book iv. 

trumpery, such as one could still gather, is burnt ; pontifical 
eloquence must be uttered, by handsome Herault, and Pagan 
orisons offered up. 

And then forward across the River ; where is new enormous 
Statuary ; enormous plaster Mountain ; Hercu\es-Ft;uJ>/e, with 
uplifted all-conquering club ; ' many-headed Dragon of Girondin 
Federalism rising from fetid marsh :' — needing new eloquence 
from Herault. To say nothing of Champ-de-Mars, and Father- 
land's Altar there ; with urn of slain Defenders, Carpenter's- 
level of the Law ; and such exploding, gesticulating and peror- 
ating, that Herault's lips must be growing white, and his tongue 
cleaving to the roof of his mouth. 2 

Towards six o'clock let the wearied President, let Paris Pat- 
riotism generally sit down to what repast, and social repasts, 
can be had ; and with flowing tankard or light-mantling glass, 
usher in this New and Newest Era. In fact, is not Romme's 
New Calendar getting ready ? On all house-tops flicker little 
tricolor Flags, their flagstaff a Pike and Liberty-Cap. On all 
house-walls, — for no Patriot not suspect will be behind another, 
— there stand printed these words : Republic one and indivi- 
sible; Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, or Death. 

As to the New Calendar, we may say here rather than 
elsewhere that speculative men have long been struck with the 
inequalities and incongruities of the Old Calendar ; that a New 
one has long been as good as determined on. Mardchal the 
Atheist, almost ten years ago, proposed a New Calendar, free 
at least from superstition : this the Paris Municipality would 
now adopt, in defect of a better ; at all events, let us have 
either this of Mar^chal's or a better, — the New Era being 
come. Petitions, more than once, have been sent to that 
effect ; and indeed, for a year past, all Public Bodies, Journal- 
ists, and Patriots in general, have dated First Year of the 
Republic. It is a subject not without difficulties. But the 
Convention has taken it up ; and Romme, as we say, has been 
meditating it ; not Mardchal's New Calendar, but a better New 
one of Romme's and our own. Romme, aided by a Monge, 
a Lagrange and others, furnishes mathematics ; Fabre d'Eglan- 
tine furnishes poetic nomenclature : and so, on the 5th of Oc- 
tober 1793, ^fter trouble enough, they bring forth this New 
' Choix des Rapports, xii. 432-42. 


October 5th. 

Republican Calendar of theirs, in a complete state ; and by Law 
get it put in action. 

Four equal Seasons, Twelve equal Months of Thirty days 
each ; this makes three hundred and sixty days ; and five odd 
days remain to be disposed of. The five odd days we will 
make Festivals, and name the five Satisculottidcs, or Days with- 
out Breeches. Festival of Genius ; Festival of Labour ; of 
Actions ; of Rewards ; of Opinion : these are the five Sans- 
culottides. Whereby the great Circle, or Year, is made com- 
plete : solely every fourth year, whilom called Leap-year, we 
introduce a sixth Sansculottide ; and name it Festival of the 
Revolution. Now as to the day of commencement, which 
offers difficulties, is it not one of the luckiest coincidences that 
the RepubHc herself commenced on the aist of September ; 
close on the Autumnal Equinox ? Autumnal Equinox, at mid- 
night for the meridian of Paris, in the year whilom Christian 
1792, from that moment shall the New Era reckon itself to 
begin. Vendemiaire, Briimaij-e, Fritnairc; or as one might 
say, in mixed English, Vintagearious, Fogarious, Frostariotis : 
these are our three Autumn months. Nivosc, Phiviose, Veniose, 
or say, Sttoiuous, Rainoiis, Windons, make our Winter season. 
Germinal, Flordal, Prairial, or Buddal, Floweral, Meadowal, 
are our Spring season. Messidor, Thennidor, Fructido}; that 
is to say {dor being Greek for gift), Reapidor, Heatidor, Frttiti- 
dor, are Republican Summer. These Twelve, in a singular 
manner, divide the Republican Year. Then as to minuter 
subdivisions, let us venture at once on a bold stroke : adopt 
your decimal subdivision ; and instead of the world-old Week, 
or Seennight, make it a Tennight, or Dkade ; — not without 
results. There are three Decades, then, in each of the months, 
which is very regular ; and the D^cadi, or Tenth-day, shall 
always be the ' Day of Rest.' And the Christian Sabbath, in 
that case ? Shall shift for itself ! 

This, in brief, is the New Calendar of Romme and the 
Convention ; calculated for the meridian of Paris, and Gospel 
of Jean Jacques : not one of the least afflicting occurrences for 
the actual British reader of French History ; — confusing the 
soul with Messidors, Meadozvals ; till at last, in self-defence, 
one is forced to construct some ground-scheme, or rule of Com- 
mutation from New-style to Old-style, and have it lying by him. 
Such ground-scheme, almost worn out in our service, but still 

iS8 TERROR. book iv. 

1793 [Year i. 
legible and printable, we shall now in a Note, present to the 
reader. For the Romme Calendar, in so many Newspapers, 
Memoirs, Public Acts, has stamped itself deep into that section 
of Time : a New Era that lasts some Twelve years and odd 
is not to be despised.'' Let the Reader, therefore, with such 
ground-scheme, help himself, where needful, out of New-style 
into Old-style, called also ' slave-style, stile-esdave j" — whereof 
we, in these pages, shall as much as possible use the latter only. 
Thus with new Feast of Pikes, and New Era or New Ca- 
lendar, did France accept her New Constitution : the most 
Democratic Constitution ever committed to paper. How it 
will work in practice ? Patriot Deputations, from time to time, 
solicit fruition of it ; that it be set a-going. Always, however, 
this seems questionable ; for the moment, unsuitable. Till, in 
some weeks, Salut Public, through the organ of Saint-Just, 
makes report, that, in the present alarming circumstances, the 
state of France is Revolutionary ; that her ' Government must 

3 September 22d of 1792 is Vend^miaire ist of Year One, and the new 
months are all of 30 days each ; therefore : 



Vende'miaire . , 

. 21 

September . 

. . 30 


Brumaire . , . 
Frimaire . , , 

. 21 
. 20 


October . . 

. . 31 


Nivose . . . 

. 20 


. • 31 


Pluviose . . . 

. 19 


January . . 

. . 31 


Ventose . . , 
Germinal . . , 

. 18 
. 20 



February . , 
March . . . 

, . 28 
. . 31 


Flor^al . . 

. 19 


April . . . 

. . 30 

Prairial . . , 

. 19 


May , . . 

. • 31 

Messidor . . 

. 18 


June . . . 

. . 30 

Thennidor . 

. iS 

July . . . 

• • 31 

Fractidor . . 

• 17 

August . . 

• • 31 

There are 5 Sansculottides, and in leap-year a sixth, to be added at the end 
of Fructidor. Romme's first Leap-year is "An 4" (1795, not 1796), which 
is another troublesome circumstance, every fourth year, from 'September 
23d' round to ' ^February 29' again. 

The New Calendar ceased on the ist of January 1806, See Choix da 
Rapports, xiii. 83-99; ^"'•"^' ^99- 


Fruct.] Aug. 

be Revolutionary till the Peace.' Solely as Paper, then, and 
as a Hope, must this poor new Constitution exist ; — in which 
sliape we may conceive it lying, even now, with an infinity of 
other things, in that Limbo near the JVIoon. Farther than 
paper it never got, nor ever will get. 



In fact, it is something quite other than paper theorems, it 
is iron and audacity that France now needs. 

Is not La Vendt^e still blazing ; — alas too literally ; rogue 
Rossignol burning the very corn-mills ? General Santerre could 
do nothing there ; General Rossignol, in blind fury, often in 
liquor, can do less than nothing. Rebellion spreads, grows 
ever madder. Happily those lean Quixote-figures, whom we 
saw retreating out of Mentz, ' bound not to serve against the 
Coalition for a year,' have got to Paris. National Convention 
packs them into post-vehicles and conveyances ; sends them 
swiftly, by post, into La Vendde. There valiantly struggling, 
in obscure battle and skirmish, under rogue Rossignol, let them, 
unlaureled, save the Republic, and ' be cut down gradually to 
the last man.'i 

Does not the Coalition, like a fire-tide, pour in ; Prussia 
through the opened Northeast ; Austria, England through the 
Northwest ? General Houchard prospers no better there than 
General Custine did : let him look to it ! Through the Eastern 
and the Western Pyrenees Spain has deployed itself; spreads, 
rustling with Bourbon banners, over the face of the South. 
Ashes and embers of confused Girondin civil war covered that 
region already. Marseilles is damped down, not quenched ; 
to be quenched in blood. Toulon, terror-struck, too far gone 
for turning, has flung itself, ye righteous Powers, into the hands 
of the English ! On Toulon Arsenal there flies a flag,— nay 
not even the Fleur-de-lys of a Louis Pretender ; there flies that 
accursed St. George's Cross of the English and Admiral Hood I 
What remnant of sea-craft, arsenals, roperies, war-navy France 
had, has given itself to these enemies of human nature, ' en- 
nemzs du genre hwnaiii.' Beleaguer it, bombard it, ye Com- 

^ Deux Amis, xi, 147; xiii, 160-92, &c 

i6o TERROR. book iv. 

1793 [Year i, 
missioners Barras, Freron, Robespierre Junior ; thou General 
Cartaux, General Dugommier ; above all, thou remarkable 
Artillery-Major, Napoleon Buonaparte ! Hood is fortifying 
himself, victualling himself; means, apparently, to make a new 
Gibraltar of it. 

But lo, in the Autumn night, late night, among the last of 
August, what sudden red sunblaze is this that has risen over 
Lyons City ; with a noise to deafen the world ? It is the 
Powder-tower of Lyons, nay the Arsenal with four Powder- 
towers, which has caught fire in the Bombardment ; and sprung 
into the air, carrying ' a hundred and seventeen houses' after 
it. With a light, one fancies, as of the noon sun ; with a loar 
second only to the Last Trumpet ! All living sleepers far and 
wide it has awakened. What a sight was that, which the eye 
of History saw, in the sudden nocturnal sunblaze ! The roofs 
of hapless Lyons, and all its domes and steeples made moment- 
arily clear ; Rhone and Soane streams flashing suddenly visible ; 
and height and hollow, hamlet and smooth stubblefield, and all 
the region round ;- — heights, alas, all scarped and counter- 
scarped, into trenches, curtains, redoubts ; blue Artillerymen, 
little Powder-devilkins, plying their hell-trade there through 
the not ambrosial night ! Let the darkness cover it again ; 
for it pains the eye. Of a truth, Chalier's death is costing the 
City dear. Convention Commissioners, Lyons Congresses have 
come and gone ; and action there was and reaction ; bad ever 
growing worse ; till it has come to this ; Commissioner Dubois- 
Crane^, ' with seventy-thousand men, and all the Artillery of 
several Provinces,' bombarding Lyons day and night. 

Worse things still are in store. Famine is in Lyons, and 
ruin and fire. Desperate are the sallies of the besieged ; brave 
Prdcy, their National Colonel and Commandant, doing what 
is in man : desperate but ineffectual. Provisions cut off; no- 
thing entering our city but shot and shells ! The Arsenal has 
roared aloft ; the very Hospital will be battered down, and the 
sick buried alive. A black Flag hung on this latter noble 
Edifice, appealing to the pity of the besiegers ; for though 
maddened, were they not still our brethren ? In their blind 
wrath, they took it for a flag of defiance, and aimed thither- 
ward the more. Bad is growing ever worse here : and how 
will the worse stop, till it have grown worst of all ? Commis- 


Fruct.] Aug. 

sioner Dubois will listen to no pleading, to no speech, save 
this only. We surrender at discretion. Lyons contains in it 
subdued Jacobins ; dominant Girondins ; secret Royalists. And 
now, mere deaf madness and cannon-shot enveloping them, 
will not the desperate Municipality fly, at last, into the arms 
of Royalism itself.? Majesty of Sardinia was to bring help, 
but it failed. Emigrant d'Autichamp, in name of the Two 
Pretender Royal Highnesses, is coming through Switzerland 
with help ; coming, not yet come : Precy hoists the Fleur-de-lys ! 

At sight of which all true Girondins sorrowfully fling down 
their arms : — Let our Tricolor brethren storm us, then, and 
slay r.s in their wrath ; with yoii we conquer not. The famish- 
ing vvomen and children are sent forth : deaf Dubois sends 
them back ; — rains in mere fire and madness. Our ' redoubts 
of cotton-bags' are taken, retaken ; Prdcy under his Fleur-de- 
lys is valiant as Despair. What will become of Lyons 1 It 
is a siege of seventy days.- 

Or see, in these same weeks, far in the Western waters : 
breasting through the Bay of Biscay, a greasy dingy little Mer- 
chant-ship, with Scotch skipper ; under hatches whereof sit, 
disconsolate, — the last forlorn nucleus of Girondism, the Depu- 
ties from Quimper ! Several have dissipated themselves, whi- 
thersoever they could. Poor Riouffe fell into the talons of 
Revolutionary Committee and Paris Prison. The rest sit here 
under hatches ; reverend Pdtion with his gray hair, angry Buzot, 
suspicious Louvet, brave young Barbaroux, and others. They 
have escaped from Quimper, in this sad craft ; are now tacking 
and struggling ; in danger from the waves, in danger from the 
English, in still worse danger from the French ; — banished by 
Heaven and Earth to the greasy belly of this Scotch skipper's 
Merchant-vessel, unfruitful Atlantic raving round. They are 
for Bourdeaux, if peradventure hope yet linger there. Enter not 
Bourdeaux, O Friends ! Bloody Convention Representatives, 
Tallien and suchlike, with their Edicts, with their Guillotine, 
have arrived there ; Respectability is driven under ground ; 
Jacobinism lords it on high. From that R^ole landing-place, 
or Beak of Atnbes, as it were, pale Death, waving his Revolu- 
tionary Sword of Sharpness, waves you elsewhither ! 

On one side or the other of that Bee d'Amb^s, the Scotch 
lipper with difficulty moors, a dexterous greasy man ; with 

2 Deux Amis, xi. 80-143, 

1 63 TERROR. BOOK iv. 

1793 [Year i. 
difficulty lands his Girondins ; — who, after reconnoitering, must 
rapidly burrow in the Earth ; and so, in subterranean ways, in 
friends' back-closets, in cellars, barn-lofts, in caves of Saint- 
Emilion and Libourne, stave-off cruel Death. ^ Unhappiest of 
all Senators ! 



Against all which incalculable impediments, horrors and 
disasters, what can a Jacobin Convention oppose ? The uncal- 
culating Spirit of Jacobinism, and Sansculottic sansformulistic 
Frenzy ! Our Enemies press-in on us, says Danton, bi t they 
shall not conquer us, "we will burn France to ashes rather, 
notts bnVcj-ons la France." 

Committees, of Surdity of Sahit, have raised themselves ' d, 
la harUatr, to the height of circumstances.' Let all mortals raise 
themselves ci la haiiteur. Let the Forty-four thousand Sections 
and their Revolutionary Committees stir every fibre of the Re- 
public ; and every Frenchman feel that he is to do or die. They 
are the life-ciixulation of Jacobinism, these Sections and Com- 
mittees : Danton, through the organ of Barrcre and Saint 
Public, gets decreed. That there be in Paris, by law, two meet- 
ings of Section weekly; also that the Poorer Citizen ho. paid for 
attending, and have his day's-wages of Forty Sous.^ This is 
the celebrated ' Law of the Forty Sous ;' fiercely stimulant to 
Sansculottism, to the life-circulation of Jacobinism. 

On the twenty-third of August, Committee of Public Salva- 
tion, as usual through Barrere, had promulgated, in words not 
unworthy of remembering, their Report, which is soon made 
into a Law, of Levy in Mass. ' All France, and whatsoever it 
contains of men or resources, is put under requisition,' says 
Barrere ; really in Tyrttean words, the best we know of his. 
' The Republic is one vast besieged city.' Two-hundred and 
fifty Forges shall, in these days, be set up in the Luxembourg 
Garden, and round the outer wall of the Tuileries ; to make gun- 
barrels ; in sight of Earth and Heaven ! From all hamlets, 
towards their Departmental Town ; from all Departmental 
Towns, towards the appointed Camp and seat of war, the Sons 
of Freedom shall march ; their banner is to bear : ' Le Peiiple 
2 Louvet, pp. 1S0-199. 1 Moniienr, Sifance dii 5 Septembre 1793. 


Fnict.] Aug. 

' Francais debout contre les Tyrans, The French People risen 
' against Tyrants. The young men shall go to the battle ; it is 
' their task to conquer : the married men shall I'orge arms, trans- 
' port baggage and artillery ; provide subsistence : the women 
' shall work at soldiers' clothes, make tents ; serve in the hos- 
' pitals : the children shall scrape old-hnen into surgcon's-hnt : 
' the aged men shall have themselves carried into public places ; 

• and there, by their words, excite the courage of the young; 
' preach hatred to Kings and unity to the Republic. "2 Tyrtaean 
words ; which tingle through all French hearts. 

In this humour, then, since no other serves, will France rush 
against its enemies. Headlong, reckoning no cost or conse- 
quence; heeding no law or rule but that supreme law. Salvation 
of the People ! The weapons are, all the iron that is in France; 
the strength is, that of all the men, women and children that 
are in France. There, in their two-hundred and fifty shed- 
smithies, in Garden of Luxembourg or Tuileries, let them forge 
gun-barrels, in sight of Heaven and Earth. 

Nor with heroic daring against the Foreign foe, can black 
vengeance against the Domestic be wanting. Life-circulation 
of the Rev'olutionary Committees being quickened by that Law 
of the Forty Sons, Deputy Merlin, — not theThionviller, whom we 
saw ride out of Mentz, but Merlin of Douai, named subsequently 
Merlin Suspect, — comes, about a week after, with his world- 
famous Law of the Suspect : ordering all Sections, by their 
Committees, instantly to arrest all Persons Suspect ; and explain- 
ing withal who the Arrestable and Suspect specially are. ' Are 

• suspect,' says he, ' all who by their actions, by their connexions, 
' speakings, writings have' — in short become Suspect.-^ Nay 
Chaumette, illuminating the matter still farther, in his Muni- 
cipal Placards and Proclamations, will bring it about that you 
may almost recognise a .Suspect on the streets, and clutch him 
there, — off to Committee and Prison. Watch well your words, 
watch well your looks : if Suspect of nothing else, you may grow, 
as came to be a saying, ' Suspect of being Suspect' ! For are 
we not in a state of Revolution ? 

No frightfuler Law ever ruled in a Nation of men. All 
Prisons and Houses of Arrest in French land are getting crowded 

2 Dibats, Stance du 23 Ao<it 1793. 

8 Moniteiir, Stance du 17 Septembre 1793. 

i64 TERROR. book iv. 

1793 [Year 2. 
to the ridge-tile : Forty-four thousand Committees, hke as many 
companies of reapers or gleaners, gleaning France, are gather- 
ing their harvest, and storing it in these Houses. Harvest of 
Aristocrat tares ! Nay, lest the Forty-four thousand, each on 
its own harvest-field, prove insufficient, we are to have an am- 
bulant ' Revolutionary Army :' six-thousand strong, under right 
captains, this shall perambulate the country at large, and strike- 
in wherever it finds such harvest-work slack. So have Muni- 
cipality and Mother Society petitioned ; so has Convention de- 
creed.-* Let Aristocrats, Federalists, Monsieurs vanish, and 
all men tremble : ' the Soil of Liberty shall be purged,' — with 
a vengeance ! 

Neither hitherto has the Revolutionary Tribunal been keep- 
ing holiday. Blanchelande, for losing Saint-Domingo ; ' Con- 
spirators of Orl&ns,' for 'assassinating,' for assaulting the sacred 
Deputy Ldonard-Bourdon : these with many Nameless, to whom 
life was sweet, have died. Daily the great Guillotine has its 
due. Like a black Spectre, daily at eventide glides the Death- 
tumbril through the variegated throng of things. The variegated 
street shudders at it, for the moment ; next moment forgets it : 
The Aristocrats ! They were guilty against the Republic ; their 
death, were it only that their goods are confiscated, will be use- 
ful to the Republic ; Vive la Rdpubliqiie ! 

In the last days of August fell a notabler head : General 
Custine's. Custine was accused of harshness, of unskilfulness, 
pcrfidiousness ; accused of many things : found guilty, we may 
say, of one thing, unsuccessfulness. Hearing his unexpected 
Sentence, ' Custine fell down before the Crucifix,' silent for the 
space of two hours : he fared, with moist eyes and a look of 
prayer, towards the Place de la Revolution ; glanced upwards 
at the clear suspended axe ; then mounted swiftly aloft, ^ swiftly 
was struck away from the lists of the Living. He had fought 
in America ; he was a proud, brave man ; and his fortune led 
him hither. 

On the 2d of this same month, at three in the morning, a 
vehicle rolled off, with closed blinds, from the Temple to the 
Conciergei'ie. Within it were two Municipals ; and Marie-An- 
toinette, once Queen of France ! There in that Conciergerie, in 
ignominious dreary cell, she, secluded from children, kindred, 

* Moniteiir, Seances du 5, 9, 11 Septembre. 
" Deux Amis, xi, 148-188. 


Vend. 23] Oct. 14th. 

friend and hope, sits long weeks ; expecting when the end 
will be.6 

The Guillotine, we find, gets always a quicker motion, as 
other things are quickening. The Guillotine, by its speed of 
going, will give index of the general velocity of the Republic. 
The clanking of its huge axe, rising and falling there, in horrid 
systole-diastole, is portion of the whole enormous life-movement 
and pulsation of the Sansculottic System! — 'Orleans Conspira- 
tors' and Assaulters had to die, in spite of much weeping and 
entreating; so sacred is the person of a Deputy. Yet the sacred 
can become desecrated : your very Deputy is not greater than 
the Guillotine. Poor Deputy Journalist Gorsas : we saw him 
hide at Rennes, when the Calvados War burnt priming. He 
stole, afterwards, in August, to Paris ; lurked several weeks about 
the Palais ci-devant Royal ; was seen there, one day ; was 
clutched, identified, and without ceremony, being already ' out 
of the Law,' was sent to the Place de la R(^volution. He died, 
recommending his wife and children to the pity of the Republic. 
It is the ninth day of October 1 793. Gorsas is the first Deputy 
that dies on the scaffold ; he will not be the last. 

Ex-Mayor Bailly is in Prison ; Ex-Procureur Manuel. Brissot 
and our poor Arrested Girondins have become Incarcerated In- 
dicted Girondins ; universal Jacobinism clamouring for their 
punishment. Duperret's Seals are (5r(7/Cv;;.'' Those Seventy-three 
Secret Protesters, suddenly one day, are reported upon, are de- 
creed accused ; the Convention-doors being ' previously shut,' 
that none implicated might escape. They were marched, in a 
very rough manner, to Prison that evening. Happy those of 
them who chanced to be absent ! Condorcet has vanished into 
darkness ; perhaps, like Rabaut, sits between two walls, in the 
house of a friend. 



On Monday the Fourteenth of October 1793, a Cause is 
pending in the Palais de Justice, in the new Revolutionary Court, 
such as those old stone -walls never witnessed : the Trial of 
Marie-Antoinette. The once brightest of Queens, now tarnished, 

* See Mimoires particuliers de la Captivit6 d la Tour du Temple (by the 
Duchesse d'Angouleme, Paris, ai Janvier 1817). 

1 66 TERROR. book iv. 

1793 [Year 2. 
defaced, forsaken, stands here at Fouquier-Tinville's Judgment- 
bar ; answering for her hfe. The Indictment was dehvered her 
last night. 1 To such changes of human fortune what words are 
adequate ? Silence alone is adequate. 

There are few Printed things one meets with of such tragic, 
almost ghastly, significance as those bald Pages oi i\i& Bullctm 
du Tribiuial Revohitiontiaire, which bear title, Trial of the 
Widoiu Capet. Dim, dim, as if in disastrous eclipse ; like the 
pale kingdoms of Dis ! Plutonic Judges, Plutonic Tinville; en- 
circled, nine times, with Styx and Lethe, with Fire-Phlegethon 
and Cocytus named of Lamentation ! The very witnesses sum- 
moned are like Ghosts : exculpatory, inculpatory, they them- 
selves are all hovering over death and doom ; they are known, 
in our imagination, as the prey of the Guillotine. Tall ci-devant 
Count d'Estaing, anxious to show himself Patriot, cannot escape ; 
nor Bailly, who, v,hen asked If he knows the Accused, answers 
with a reverent inclination towards her, "Ah, yes, I know 
Madame." Ex-Patriots are here, sharply dealt with, as Pro- 
cureur Manuel ; Ex-Ministers, shorn of their splendour. We 
have cold Aristocratic impassivit)-, faithful to itself even in 
Tartarus ; rabid stupidity, of Patriot Corporals, Patriot Washer- 
women, who have much to say of Plots, Treasons, August 
Tenth, old Insurrection of Women. For all now has become 
a crime in her vvho has lost. 

Marie-Antoinette, in this her utter abandonment, and hour 
of extreme need, is not wanting to herself, the imperial woman. 
Her look, they say, as that hideous Indictment was reading, 
continued calm ; ' she was sometimes observed moving her 
fingers, as when one plays on the piano.' You discern, not 
without interest, across that dim Revolutionary Bulletin itself, 
how she bears herself queenlike. Her answers are prompt, 
clear, often of Laconic brevity ; resolution, which has grown 
contemptuous without ceasing to be dignified, veils itself in 
calm words. "You persist, then, in denial.''" — "My plan is 
not denial : it is the truth I have said, and I persist in that." 
Scandalous Hebert has borne his testimony as to many things : 
as to one thing, concerning Marie-Antoinette and her little Son, 
— whei-cwith Human Speech had belter not farther be soiled. 
She has answered Hebert ; a Juryman begs to observe that 
she has not answered as to ill is. " I have not answered," she 
1 Procbs de la Reine (Deux 4mis, xi. 251-381). 


Vend. 23] Oct. 14th. 

exclaims with noble emotion, " because Nature refuses to ans- 
wer such a charge brought against a Mother. I appeal to all 
the Mothers that are here." Robespierre, when he heard of it, 
broke out into something almost like swearing at the brutish 
blockheadism of this Hubert ;- on whose foul head his foul lie 
has recoiled. At four o'clock on Wednesday morning, after 
two days and two nights of interrogating, jury-charging, and 
other darkening of counsel, the result comes out : sentence of 
Death. " Have you anything to say?" The Accused shook 
her head, without speech. Night's candles are burning out ; 
and with her too Time is finishing, and it will be Eternity and 
Day. This Hall of Tinville's is dark, ill-lighted except where 
she stands. Silently she withdraws from it, to die. 

Two Processions, or Royal Progi esses, three-and-twenty 
years apart, have often struck us with a strange feeling of con- 
trast. The first is of a beautiful Archduchess and Dauphiness, 
quitting her Mother's City, at the age of Fifteen ; towards hopes 
such as no other Daughter of Eve then had: 'On the morrow,* 
says Weber an eye-witness, ' the Dauphiness left Vienna. The 
' whole city crowded out ; at first with a sorrow which was 
' silent. She appeared : you saw her sunk back into her car- 
' riage ; her face bathed in tears ; hiding her eyes now with 

• her handkerchief, now with her hands ; several times putting 
' out her head to see yet again this Palace of her Fathers, 

• whither she was to return no more. She motioned her re- 
' gret, her gratitude to the good Nation, which was crowding 
' here to bid her farewell. Then arose not only tears ; but 

• piercing cries, on all sides. Men and women alike abandoned 

• themselves to such expression of their sorrow. It was an au- 
' dible sound of wail, in the streets and avenues of Vienna. The 

• last Courier that followed her disappeared, and the crowd 
' melted away.'^ 

The young imperial IMaiden of Fifteen has now become a 
worn discrowned Widow of Thirty-eight ; gray before her time : 
this is the last Procession : 'Few minutes after the Trial ended, 
' the drums were beating to arms in all Sections ; at sunrise 
' the armed force was on foot, cannons getting placed at the 
' extremities of the Bridges, in the Squares, Crossways, all along 

2 ViUatc, Causes sccriics dc la Rh'oMion dc Thermidor (Paris, 1825), 

p. 179- 

3 Weber, i. 6. 

1 68 TERROR. book iv. 

1793 [Year 2. 
' from the Palais de Justice to the Place de la Revolution. By 
' ten o'clock, numerous patrols were circulating in the Streets ; 
' thirty thousand foot and horse drawn up under arms. At 
' eleven, Marie-Antoinette was brought out. She had on an 
' undress oi piqtie blmic : she was led to the place of execution, 
' in the same manner as an ordinary criminal ; bound, on a 
' Cart ; accompanied by a Constitutional Priest in Lay dress ; 
' escorted by numerous detachments of infantry and cavalry. 
' These, and the double row of troops all along her road, she 
' appeared to regard with indifference. On her countenance 
' there was visible neither abashment nor pride. To the cries 
' of Vive la R^ptiblique and Dowti with Tyratmy, which at- 
' tended her all the way, she seemed to pay no heed. She 
' spoke little to her Confessor. The tricolor Streamers on the 

• housetops occupied her attention, in the Streets du Roule and 
' Saint-Honor^; she also noticed the Inscriptions on the house- 
' fronts. On reaching the Place de la Revolution, her looks 
' turned towards the Jardin National, whilom Tuileries ; her 

• face at that moment gave signs of lively emotion. She mounted 
' the Scaffold with courage enough ; at a quarter past Twelve, 
' her head fell ; the Executioner showed it to the people, amid 
' universal long-continued cries of Vive la R^publique,'* 



Whom next, O Tinville I The next are of a different co- 
lour : our poor Arrested Girondin Deputies. What of them 
could still be laid hold of ; our Vergniaud, Brissot, Fauchet, 
Valazd, Gensonnd ; the once flower of French Patriotism, Twenty- 
two by the tale : hither, at Tinville's Bar, onward from ' safe- 
guard of the French People,' from confinement in the Luxem- 
bourg, imprisonment in the Conciergerie, have they now, by 
the course of things, arrived. Fouquier-Tinville must give 
what account of them he can. 

Undoubtedly this Trial of the Girondins is the greatest that 
Fouquier has yet had to do. Twenty-two, all chief Republicans, 
ranged in a line there ; the most eloquent in France ; Lawyers 
too ; not without friends in the auditory. How will Tinville 

* Deux Amis, xi. 301. 


Brum. 9] Oct. 30th. 

prove these men guilty of Royalism, Federalism, Conspiracy 
against the Republic ? Vergniaud's eloquence awakes once 
more ; ' draws tears,' they say. And Journalists report, and 
the Trial lengthens itself out day after day ; ' threatens to be- 
come eternal,' murmur many. Jacobinism and Municipality 
rise to the aid of Fouquier. On the 28th of the month, He 
bert and others come in deputation to inform a Patriot Conven- 
tion that the Revolutionary Tribunal is quite ' shackled by 
Forms of Law ;' that a Patriot Jury ought to have * the power 
of cutting short, of terminer les debats, when they feel them- 
selves convinced.' Which pregnant suggestion, of cutting short, 
passes itself, with all despatch, into a Decree. 

Accordingly, at ten o'clock on the night of the 30th of Oc- 
tober, the Twenty-two, summoned back once more, receive this 
information. That the Jury feeling themselves convinced have 
cut short, have brought in their verdict ; that the Accused are 
found guilty, and the Sentence on one and all of them is, Death 
with confiscation of goods. 

Loud natural clamour rises among the poor Girondins ; tu- 
mult ; which can only be repressed by the gendarmes. Valazd 
stabs himself ; falls down dead on the spot. The rest, amid 
loud clamour and confusion, are driven back to their Concier- 
gerie; Lasource exclaiming, "I die on the day when the People 
have lost their reason; ye will die when they recover it."i No 
help! Yielding to violence, the Doomed uplift the Hymn of the 
Marseillese ; return singing to their dungeon. 

Riouffe, who was their Prison-mate in these last days, has 
lovingly recorded what death they made. To our notions, it 
is not an edifying death. Gay satirical Pot-pourri by Ducos ; 
rhymed Scenes of Tragedy, wherein Barrere and Robespierre 
discourse with Satan ; death's eve spent in ' singing' and ' sal- 
lies of gaiety,' with 'discourses on the happiness of peoples :' 
these things, and the like of these, we have to accept for what 
they are worth. It is the manner in which the Girondins make 
their Last Supper. Valazd, with bloody breast, sleeps cold in 
death ; hears not the singing. Vergniaud has his dose of poi- 
son ; but it is not enough for his friends, it is enough only for 
himself; wherefore he flings it from him; presides at this Last 
Supper of the Girondins, with wild coruscations of eloquence, 

' ^rifjLocTBevovs fiTrcii'Tos, ' hiroKTivovci ere 'AdT]Paioi, ^aiKiaiv *Av iJLUvuaiV, 
cljre at 8', fw aaxppofwai, — Plut. O//. t. iv. p. 310, ed. Reiske, 1776. 

I70 TERROR. book iv. 

1793 [Year 2. 
with song and mirth. Poor human Will struggles to assert it- 
self ; if not in this way, then in that.- 

But on the morrow morning all Paris is out ; such a crowd 
as no man had seen. The Death-carts, Valaze's cold corpse 
stretched among the yet living Twenty-one, roll along. Bare- 
headed, hands bound ; in their shirt-sleeves, coat flung loosely 
round the neck : so fare the eloquent of France ; bemurmured, 
beshouted. To the shouts of Vive la Repiibliquc, some of them 
keep answering with counter-shouts of Vive la Rcpubligue. 
Others, as Brissot, sit sunk in silence. At the foot of the scaf- 
fold they again strike up, with appropriate variations, the Hymn 
of the Marseillese. Such an act of music ; conceive it well ! 
The yet Living chant there ; the chorus so rapidly wearing 
weak ! Samson's axe is rapid ; one head per minute, or little 
less. The chorus is wearing weak ; the chorus is worn outj — 
farewell forevermore, ye Girondins. Te-Deum Fauchet has be- 
come silent ; Valaze's dead head is lopped : the sickle of the 
Guillotine has reaped the Girondins all away. 'The eloquent, 
the young, the beautiful and brave !' exclaims Riouffe. O Death, 
what feast is toward in thy ghastly Halls ! 

Nor, alas, in the far Bourdeaux region will Girondism fare 
better. In caves of Saint-Emilion, in loft and cellar, the weariest 
months roll on; apparel worn, purse empty; wintry November 
come ; under Tallien and his Guillotine, all hope now gone. 
Danger drawing ever nigher, difficulty pressing ever straiter, 
they determine to separate. Not unpathetic the farewell ; tall 
Barbaroux, cheeriest of brave men, stoops to clasp his Lou- 
vet ; "In what place soever thou findest my Mother," cries he, 
" try to be instead of a son to her : no resource of mine but I 
" will share with thy Wife, should chance ever lead me where 
" she is. "3 

Louvet went with Guadet, with Salles and Valadi ; Barba- 
roux with Buzot and Pdtion. Valadi soon went southward, on 
a way of his ov.'n. The two friends and Louvet had a miserable 
clay and night; the 14th of the November month, 1793. Sunk 
in wet, weariness and hunger, they knock, on the morrow, for 
help, at a friend's country-house ; the fainthearted friend re- 
fuses to admit them. They stood therefore under trees, in the 

- Mciiioiixs dc Rioiije (in Mt'moires sur Ics Prisons, Paris, 1S23), po, 


'^ Louvet, p. 213. 


Therm.] July 1794. 

pouring rain. Flying desperate, Louvet thereupon will to Paris. 
He sets forth, there and then, splashing the mud on each side 
of him, with a fresh strength gathered from fury or frenzy. He 
passes villages, finding ' the sentry asleep in his bo.x in the 
thick rain ;' he is gone, before the man can call after him. He 
bilks Revolutionary Committees ; rides in carriers' carts, co- 
vered carts and open ; lies hidden in one, under knapsacks and 
cloaks of soldiers' wives on the Street of Orleans, while men 
search for him ; has hairbreadth escapes that would fill three 
romances : finally he gets to Paris to his fair Helpmate ; gets 
to Switzerland, and waits better days. 

Poor Guadet and Salles were both taken, ere long ; they 
died by the Guillotine in Bourdeaux ; drums beating to drown 
their voice. Valadi also is caught, and guillotined. Barbaroux 
and his two comrades weathered it longer, into the summer 
of 1794 ; but not long enough. One July morning, changing 
their hiding-place, as they have often to do, ' about a league 
' from Saint-Emilion, they observe a great crowd of country- 
' people :' doubtless Jacobins come to take them ? Barbaroux 
draws a pistol, shoots himself dead. Alas, and it was not 
Jacobins ; it was harmless villagers going to a village wake. 
Two days afterwards, Buzot and Petion were found in a Corn- 
field, their bodies half-eaten by dogs.* 

Such was the end of Girondism. They arose to regenerate 
France, these men ; and have accomplished tJiis, Alas, what- 
ever quarrel we had with them, has not their cruel fate abolished 
it? Pity only survives. So many excellent souls of heroes sent 
down to Hades ; they themselves given as a prey of dogs and 
all manner of birds ! But, here too, the will of the Supreme 
Power was accomplished. As Vergniaud said : ' the Revolu- 
tion, like Saturn, is devouring its own children.' 

* Recherches Historiques sicr les Girondins (in Mimoires de Buzot), p. 107. 




We are now, therefore, got to that black precipitous Abyss ; 
whither all things have long been tending ; where, having now 
arrived on the giddy veige, they hurl down, in confused ruiu ; 
headlong, pellmell, down, down ; — till Sansculottism have con- 
summated itself; and in this wondrous French Revolution, as 
in a Doomsday, a World have been rapidly, if not born again, 
yet destroyed and engulfed. Terror has long been terrible : 
but to the actors themselves it has now become manifest that 
their appointed course is one of Terror ; and they say, Be it 
so. "Que la Terreur soit d, I'ordre dtc Jour." 

So many centuries, say only from Hugh Capet downwards, 
had been adding together, century transmitting it with increase 
to century, the sum of Wickedness, of Falsehood, Oppression 
of man by man. Kings were sinners, and Priests were, and 
People. Open Scoundrels rode triumphant, bediademed, be- 
coronetted, bemitred ; or the still fataler species of Secret- 
Scoundrels, in their fair-sounding formulas, speciosities, respect- 
abilities, hollow within : the race of Quacks was grown many 
as the sands of the sea. Till at length such a sum of Quackery 
had accumulated itself as, in brief, the Earth and the Heavens 
were weary of. Slow seemed the Day of Settlement ; coming 
on, all imperceptible, across the bluster and fanfaronade of 
Courtierisms, Conquering- Heroisms, Most Christian Grand 
Mona)-que-is\\\s, Well-beloved Pompadourisms : yet behold it 
was always coming ; behold it has come, suddenly, unlocked 


Year 2] 1793. 

for by any man ! The harvest of long centuries was ripening 
and whitening so rapidly of late ; and now it is grown white, 
and is reaped rapidly, as it were, in one day. Reaped, in this 
Reign of Terror ; and carried home, to Hades and the Pit ! — • 
Unhappy Sons of Adam : it is ever so ; and never do they 
know it, nor will they know it. With cheerfully smoothed 
countenances, day after day, and generation after generation, 
they, calling cheerfully to one another, Well-speed-ye, are at 
work, sowing the wind. And yet, as God lives, they shall reap 
the whirlwind : no other thing, we say, is possible, — since God 
is a Truth, and His World is a Truth. 

History, however, in dealing with this Reign of Terror, has 
had her own difficulties. While the Phenomenon continued 
in its primary state, as mere ' Horrors of the French Revolu- 
tion,' there was abundance to be said and shrieked. With and 
also without profit. Heaven knows, there were terrors and hor- 
rors enough : yet that was not all the Phenomenon ; nay, more 
properly, that was not the Phenomenon at all, but rather was 
the shadow of it, the negative part of it. And now, in a new 
stage of the business, when History, ceasing to shriek, would 
try rather to include under her old Forms of speech or specula- 
tion this new amazing Thing ; that so some accredited scien- 
tific Law of Nature might suffice for the unexpected Product of 
Nature, and History might get to speak of it articulately, and 
draw inferences and profit from it ; in this new stage, History, 
we must say, babbles and flounders perhaps in a still pain- 
fuler manner. Take, for example, the latest Form of speech we 
have seen propounded on the subject as adequate to it, almost 
in these months, by our worthy M. Roux, in his Histoire Parle- 
mentaire. The latest and the strangest : that the French Revo- 
lution was a dead-lift effort, after eighteen hundred years of 
preparation, to realise — the Christian Religion !i Unity, In- 
divisibility, Brothe7'hood or Death, did indeed stand printed on 
all Houses of the Living ; also on Cemeteries, or Houses of 
the Dead, stood printed, by order of Procureur Chaumette, 
Here is Eternal Sleep :" but a Christian Religion realised by 
the Guillotine and Death-Eternal 'is suspect to me,' as Robes- 
pierre was wont to say, ' in' est suspecte.' 

Alas, no, M. Roux ! A Gospel of Brotherhood, not accord- 
1 Hist. Pari. (Introd.), i, i et seqq. ' Deux Amis, xii. 78, 


1793 [Year 2. 
ing to any of the Four old Evangelists, and calling on men to 
repent, and amend each Ins own wicked existence, that they 
might be saved ; but a Gospel rather, as we often hint, accord- 
ing to a new Fifth Evangelist Jean-Jacques, calling on men to 
amend each the whole world's wicked existence, and be saved 
by making the Constitution. A thing different and distant toto 
ccelo, as they say : the whole breadth of the sky, and farther 
if possible ! — It is thus, however, that History, and indeed all 
human Speech and Reason does yet, what Father Adam began 
life by doing : strive to iiamc'CaG. new Things it sees of Nature's 
producing, — often helplessly enough. 

But what if History were to admit, for once, that all he 
Names and Theorems yet known to her fall short ? That Jiis 
gi^and Product of Nature was even grand, and new, in that it 
came not to range itself under old recorded Laws of Nature at 
all, but to disclose new ones? In that case. History, renounc- 
ing the pretension to naiiie it at present, will look honestly at 
it, and name what she can of it ! Any approximation to the 
right Name has value : were the right Name itself once here, 
the Thing is known henceforth ; the Thing is then ours, and 
can be dealt with. 

Now surely not realisation, of Christianity or of aught 
earthly, do we discern in this Reign of Terror, in this French 
Revolution of which it is the consummating. Destruction 
rather we discern, — of all that was destructible. It is as if 
Twenty-five millions, risen at length into the Pythian mood, 
had stood up simultaneously to say, with a sound which goes 
through far lands and times, that this Untruth of an Existence 
had become insupportable. O ye Hypocrisies and Speciosities, 
Royal mantles. Cardinal plush-cloaks, ye Credos, Formulas, 
Respectabilities, fair-painted Sepulchres full of dead men's 
bones, — behold, ye appear to us to be altogether a Lie. Yet 
our Life is not a Lie ; yet our Hunger and Misery is not a Lie ! 
Behold we lift up, one and all, our Twenty-five million right- 
hands ; and take the Heavens, and the Earth and also the Pit 
of Tophet to witness, that either ye shall be abolished, or else 
we shall be abolished ! 

No inconsiderable Oath, truly ; forming, as has been often 
said, the most remarkable transaction in these last thousand 
years. Wherefrom likewise there follow, and will follow, results. 
The fulfilment of this Oath ; that is to say, the black desperate 


Year 2] 1793. 

battle of Men against their whole Condition and Environment, 
— a battle, alas, withal, against the Sin and Darkness that 
was in themselves as in others : this is the Reign of Terror. 
Transcendental despair v,'as the parport of it, though not con- 
sciously so. False hopes, of Fraternity, Political Millennium, 
and what not, we have always seen : but the unseen heart of 
the whole, the transcendental despair, was not false ; neither 
has it been of no effect. Despair, pushed far enough, com- 
pletes the circle, so to speak ; and becomes a kind of genuine 
productive hope again. 

Doctrine of Fraternity, out of old Catholicism, does, it is 
true, very strangely in the vehicle of a Jean-Jacques Evangel, 
suddenly plump down out of its cloud-firmament ; and from a 
theorem determine to make itself a practice. But just so do all 
creeds, intentions, customs, knowledges, thoughts and things, 
which the French have, suddenly plump down ; Catholicism, 
Classicism, Sentimentalism, Cannibalism : all isms that make 
up Man in France are rushing and roaring in that gulf ; and 
the theorem has become a practice, and whatsoever cannot 
swim sinks. Not Evangelist Jean-Jacques alone ; there is not 
a Village Schoolmaster but has contributed his quota : do v^^e 
not thou one another, according to the Free Peoples of Anti- 
quity ? The French Patriot, in red Phrygian nightcap of Li- 
berty, christens his poor little red infant Cato, — Censor, or 
else of Utica. Gracchus has become Baboeuf, and cdites 
Newspapers; Mutius Sccevola, Cordwainer of that ilk, presides 
in the Section Mutius-Sca^vola : and in brief, there is a world 
wholly jumbling itself, to try what will swim. 

Wherefore we will, at all events, call this Reign of Terror 
a very strange orie. Dominant Sansculottism makes, as it 
were, free arena ; one of the strangest temporary states Hu- 
manity was ever seen in. A nation of men, full of wants and 
void of habits ! The old habits are gone to wreck because 
they were old : men, driven forward by Necessity and fierce 
Pythian Madness, have, on the spur of the instant, to devise 
for the want the way of satisfying it. The Wonted tumbles 
down ; by imitation, by invention, the Unwonted hastily builds 
itself up. What the French National head has in it comes 
out : if not a great result, surely one of the strangest. 

Neither shall the Reader fancy that it was all black, this 
Reign of Terror ; far from it. How many hammermen and 


1793 [Year 2. 
squaremen, bakers and brewers, washers and wringers, over 
this France, must ply their old daily work, let the Government 
be one of Terror or one of Joy ! In this Paris there are Twenty- 
three Theatres nightly ; some count as many as Sixty Places of 
Dancing.3 The Playwright manufactures, — pieces of a strictly 
Republican character. Ever fresh Novel-garbage, as of old, 
fodders the Circulating Libraries.* The ' Cesspool of Agio,' 
now in a time of Paper Money, works with a vivacity unex- 
ampled, unimagined ; exhales from itself ' sudden fortunes," 
like Aladdin-Palaces : really a kind of miraculous Fata-Mor- 
ganas, since you ca7i live in them, for a time. Terror is as a 
sable ground, on which the most variegated of scenes paints 
itself. In startling transitions, in colours all intensated, the 
sublime, the ludicrous, the horrible succeed one another ; or 
rather, in crowding tumult, accompany one another. 

Here, accordingly, if anywhere, the • hundred tongues,' 
which the old Poets often clamour for, were of supreme ser- 
vice ! In defect of any such organ on our part, let the Reader 
stir up his own imaginative organ : let us snatch for him this 
or the other significant glimpse of things, in the fittest sequence 
we can. 


In the early days of November there is one transient glimpse 
of things that is to be noted : the last transit to his long home 
of Philippe d'Orldans Egalite. Philippe was 'decreed accused,' 
along with the Girondins, much to his and their surprise ; but 
not tried along with them. They are doomed and dead, some 
three days, when Philippe, after his long half-year of durance 
at Marseilles, arrives in Paris. It is, as we calculate, the third 
of November 1793. 

On which same day, two notable Female Prisoners are also 
put in ward there: Dame Dubarry and Josephine Beauharnais. 
Dame whilom Countess Dubarry, Unfortunate-female, had re- 
turned from London; they snatched her, not only as Ex-harlot 
of a whilom Majesty, and therefore suspect ; but as having 
' furnished the Emigrants with money.' Contemporaneously 
with whom there comes the wife Beauharnais, soon to be the 
' Mercier, ii. 124. * Monileitr of these months, passim. 


Brum. 16] Nov. 6tli. 

widow : she that is Josephine Tascher Beanharnais; that shall 
be Josephine Empress Buonaparte, — for a black Divineress of 
the Tropics prophesied long since that she should be a Queen 
and more. Likewise, in the same hours, poor Adam Lux, nigh 
turned in the head, who, according to Forster, ' has taken no 
food these three weeks,' marches to the Guillotine for his Pam- 
phlet on Charlotte Corday : he ' sprang to the scaffold ;' said 
* he died for her with great joy.' Amid such fellow-travellers 
does Philippe arrive. For, be the month named Brumaire year 
2 of Liberty, or November year 1793 of Slavery, the Guillotine 
goes always, GiiillotiJie va toujoiirs. 

Enough, Philippe's indictment is soon drawn, his jury soon 
convinced. He finds himself made guilty of Royalism, Con- 
spiracy and much else ; nay, it is a guilt in him that he voted 
Louis's Death, though he answers, " I voted in my soul and 
conscience." The doom he finds is death forthwith ; this pre- 
sent 6th dim day of November is the last day that Philippe is 
to see. Philippe, says Montgaillard, thereupon called for break- 
fast : sufficiency of ' oysters, two cutlets, best part of an excel- 
lent bottle of claret ;' and consumed the same with apparent 
relish. A Revolutionary Judge, or some official Convention 
Emissary, then arrived, to signify that he might still do the 
State some service by revealing the truth about a plot or two. 
Philippe answered that, on him, in the pass things had come 
to, the State had, he thought, small claim ; that nevertheless, 
in the interest of Liberty, he, having still some leisure on his 
hands, was willing, were a reasonable question asked him, to 
give a reasonable answer. And so, says Montgaillard, he leant 
his elbow on the mantel-piece, and conversed in an undertone, 
with great seeming composure ; till the leisure was done, or the 
Emissary went his ways. 

At the door of the Conciergerie, Philippe's attitude was erect 
and easy, almost commanding. It is five years, all but a few 
days, since Philippe, within these same stone walls, stood up 
with an air of graciosity, and asked King Louis, " Whether it 
was a Royal Session, then, or a Bed of Justice ?" O Heaven ! 
— Three poor blackguards were to ride and die with him: some 
say, they objected to such company, and had to be flung in, 
neck and heels v but it seems not true. Objecting or not ob- 

1 Forster, ii. 628; Montgaillard, iv. 141-57. 


1793 [Year 2. 
jecting, the gallows-vehicle gets under way. Philippe's dress is 
remarked for its elegance ; green frock, v/aistcoat oivAnte pique, 
yellow buckskins, boots clear as Warren : his air, as before, en- 
tirely composed, impassive, not to say easy and Brummellean- 
polite. Through street after street ; slowly, amid execrations ; 
— past the Palais Egalite, whilom Palais Royal ! The cruel 
Populace stopped him there, some minutes : Dame de Buffon, 
it is said, looked out on him, in Jezebel headtire ; a^ong the ash- 
lar Wall there ran these words in huge tricolor pn_it. Republic 


Death : National Property. Philippe's eyes flashed hellfire, 
one instant ; but the next instant it was gone, and he sat im- 
passive, Brummellean-polite. On the scaffold, Samson was for 
drawing off his boots : " Tush," said Philippe, " they will come 
better off after j let us have done, depichons-noiis !" 

So Philippe was not without virtue, then ? God forbid that 
there should be any living man without it ! He had the virtue 
to keep living for five-and-forty years ; — other virtues perhaps 
more than Ave know of. But probably no mortal ever had such 
things recorded of him : such facts, and also such lies. For he 
was a Jacobin Prince of the Blood j consider what a combina- 
tion ! Also, unlike any Nero, any Borgia, he lived in the Age 
of Pamphlets. Enough for us : Chaos has reabsorbed him ; may 
it late or never bear his like again! — Brave young Orleans 
Egalite, deprived of all, only not deprived of himself, is gone to 
Coire in the Grisons, under the name of Corby, to teach Mathe- 
matics. The Egalite Family is at the darkest depths of the Nadir. 

A far nobler Victim follows ; one who will claim remem- 
brance from several centuries : Jeanne-Marie Phlipon, the Wife 
of Roland. Queenly, sublime in her uncomplaining sorrow, 
seemed she to Rioufife in her Prison. ' Something more than 
' is usually found in the looks of women painted itself,' says 
Riouffe,- 'in those large black eyes of hers, full of expression 
' and sweetness. She spoke to me often, at the Grate : we 
' were all attentive round her, in a sort of admiration and aston- 
' ishmcnt; she expressed herself with a purity, with a harmony 

* and prosody that made her language like music, of which the 
' ear could never have enough. Her conversation v/as serious, 

• not cold ; coming from the mouth of a beautiful woman, it was 

2 JM^moires {St/r Ics Piiscns, i.), pp. 53 /, 


Brum. i8] Nov. 8th. ' ^ 

• frank and courageous as that of a gi-eat man.* ' And yet her 
' maid said : " Before you, she collects her strength ; but in 
' her own room, she will sit three hours sometimes leaning on 

• the window, and weeping." ' She has been in Prison, liberated 
once, but recaptured the same hour, ever since the first of 
June : in agitation and uncertainty ; which has gradually set- 
tled down into the last stern certainty, that of death. In the 
Abbaye Prison, she occupied Charlotte Corday's apartment. 
Here in the Conciergerie, she speaks Avith Riouffe, with Ex- 
Minister Claviere ; calls the beheaded Twenty-two " Nos amis, 
our Friends," — whom we are soon to follow. During these five 
months, those Memoirs of hers were written, which all the world 
still reads. 

But now, on the 8th of November, 'clad in white,' says 
Rioufife, ' with her long black hair hanging down to her girdle,' 
she is gone to the Judgment-bar. She returned v/ith a quick 
step ; lifted her finger, to signify to us that she was doomed : 
her eyes seemed to have been wet. Fouquier-Tinville's ques- 
tions had been ' brutal ;' offended female honour flung them 
back on him, with scorn, not without tears. And nov/, short 
preparation soon done, she too shall go her last road. There 
went with her a certain Lamarche, ' Director of Assignat-print- 
ing ;' whose dejection she endeavoured to cheer. Arrived at the 
foot of the scaffold, she asked for pen and paper, " to write the 
strange thoughts that were rising in her :"3 a remarkable re- 
quest ; which was refused. Looking at the Statue of Liberty 
which stands there, she says bitterly : " O Liberty, what things 
are done in thy name 1" For Lamarche's sake, she will die 
first ; show him how easy it is to die : " Contrary to the order," 
said Samson. — " Pshaw, you cannot refuse the last request of 
a Lady ;" and Samson yielded. 

Noble white Vision, with its high queenly face, its soft proud 
eyes, long black hair flowing down to the girdle ; and as brave 
a heart as ever beat in v/oman's bosom ! Like a white Grecian 
Statue, serenely complete, she shines in that black wreck of 
things ; — long memorable. Honour to great Nature who, in 
Paris City, in the Era of Noble-Sentiment and Pompadourism, 
can make a Jeanne Plilipon, and nourish her to clear perennial 
Womanliood, though but on Logics, Encyclopedias, and the 
Gospel according to Jean -Jacques ! Biography will long re- 
3 M^moircs de Madaine Rglatid (Introd.), i. 63, 


1/93 f^'ear 2. 
member that trait of asking for a pen " to write the strange 
thoughts that were rising in her." It is as a httle light-beam, 
shedding softness, and a kind of sacredness, over all that pre- 
ceded : so in her too there was an Unnameable ; she too was 
a Daughter of the Infinite ; there were mysteries which Philo- 
sophism had not dreamt of! — She left long w'tten counsels to 
her little Girl ; she said her Husband would not survive her. 

Still crueler was the fate of poor Bailly, First National Pre- 
sident, First Mayor of Paris : doomed now for Royalism, Fay- 
ettism ; for that Red-Flag Business of the Champ-de-Mars ; — - 
one may say in general, for leaving his Astronomy to meddle 
with Revolution. It is the loth of November 1793, a cold bitter 
drizzling rain, as poor Bailly is led through the streets ; howling 
Populace covering him with curses, with mud ; waving over his 
face a burning or smoking mockery of a Red Flag. Silent, un- 
pitied, sits the innocent old man. Slow faring through the 
sleety drizzle, they have got to the Champ-de-Mars : Not there! 
vociferates the cursing Populace ; such Blood ought not to stain 
an Altar of the Fatherland : not there ; but on that dung-heap 
by the River-side ! So vociferates the cursing Populace ; Offici- 
ality gives ear to them. The Guillotine is taken down, though 
with hands numbed by the sleety drizzle ; is carried to the River- 
side ; is there set up again, with slow numbness ; pulse after 
pulse still counting itself out in the old man's weary heart. For 
hours long ; amid curses and bitter frost-rain ! " Bailly, thou 
tremblest," said one. '' Mon ami, it is for cold," said Bailly, 
"c'est de froid." Crueler end had no mortal.* 

Some days afterwards, Roland, hearing the news of what 
happened on the 8th, embraces his kind Friends at Rouen, 
leaves their kind house which had given him refuge ; goes forth, 
with farewell too sad for tears. On the morrow morning, 1 6th 
of the month, ' some four leagues from Rouen, P^ris-ward, near 
Bourg-Baudoin, in M. Normand's Avenue,' there is seen sitting 
leant against a tree the figure of a rigorous wrinkled man ; stiff 
now in the rigour of death ; a cane-sword run through his heart ; 
and at his feet this writing : ' Whoever thou art that findest me 
' lying, respect my remains : they are those of a man who con- 
' secrated all his life to being useful ; and who has died as he 
' lived, virtuous and honest.' ' Not fear, but indignation, made 
* ?*ie c^uit my retreat, on learning that my Wife had been muf. 
* Vie de Bailly (in M^moifes, i.), p. 29, 


Bnimaire] November. 

' dered. I wished not to remain longer on an Earth polluted 

' with crimes.'^ 

Barnave's appearance at the Revolutionary Tribunal was of 
the bravest ; but it could not stead him. They have sent for 
him from Grenoble ; to pay the common smart. Vain is elo- 
quence, forensic or other, against the dumb Clotho-shears of 
Tinville. He is still but two-and-thirty, this Barnave, and has 
known such changes. Short while ago, we saw him at the top 
of Fortune's wheel, his word a law to all Patriots : and now 
surely he is at the bottovi of the wheel ; in stormful altercation 
with a Tinville Tribunal, which is dooming him to die ^P And 
P(ftion, once also of the Extreme Left, and named Petion Vir- 
tue, where is he? Civilly dead ; in the Caves of Saint-Emilion ; 
to be devoured of dogs. And Robespierre, who rode along with 
him on the shoulders of the people, is in Committee of Saint ; 
civilly ahve : uotto live always. So giddy-swift whirls and spins 
this immeasurable tormentiDU of a Revolution; wild-booming; 
not to be followed by the eye. Barnave, on the Scaffold, 
stamped with his foot ; and looking upwards was heard to ejacu- 
late, "This, then, is my reward !" 

Deputy Ex-Procureur Manuel is already gone ; and Deputy 
Osselin, famed also in August and September, is about to go : 
and Rabaut, discovered treacherously between his two walls, 
and the Brother of Rabaut. National Deputies not a few ! And 
Generals : the memory of General Custine cannot be defended 
by his Son ; his Son is already guillotined. Custine the Ex- 
Noble was replaced by Houchard the Plebeian : he too could 
not prosper in the North ; for him too there was no mercy ; he 
has perished in the Place de la Revolution, after attempting 
suicide in Prison. And Generals Biron, Beauharnais, Brunet, 
whatsoever General prospers not ; tough old Liickner, with his 
eyes grown rheumy ; Alsatian Westermann, valiant and dili- 
gent in La Vendee : 7ione of tJicni can, as the Psalmist sings, 
his soul from death deliver. 

How busy are the Revolutionary Committees ; Sections with 
their Forty Halfpence a-day ! Arrestment on arrestment falls 
quick, continual ; followed by death. Ex-Minister Claviere has 
killed himself in Prison. Ex-Minister Lebrun, seized in a hay- 
loft, under the disguise of a working man, is instantly conducted 

' Mhnoires de Madame Roland (Introd.), i. 88. "^ I'orstcr, ii. 629. 


1793 [Year 2. 
to dcath.7 Nay, withal, is it not what Barri^re calls ' coining 
money on the Place de la Revolution' ? For always the ' pro- 
perty of the guilty, if property he have,' is confiscated. To 
avoid accidents, we even make a Law that suicide shall not de- 
fraud us ; that a criminal who kills .imself does not the less 
incur forfeiture of goods. Let the guilty tremble, therefoi-e, and 
the suspect, and the rich, and in a word all manner of Culottic 
men 1 Luxembourg Palace, once Monsieur's, has become a 
huge loathsome Prison ; Chantilly Palace too, once Condi's : — 
And their landlords are at Blankenberg, on the Vv'rong side of 
the Rhine. In Paris are now some Twelve Prisons ; in France 
some Forty-four Thousand : thitherward, thick as brown leaves 
in Autumn, rustle and travel the suspect ; shaken down by Re- 
volutionary Committees, they are swept thitherward, as into 
their storehouse, — to be consumed by Samson and Tinville. 
' The Guillotine goes not ill, La Guillotine ne va pas mal.' 



The suspect may well tremble ; but how much more the 
open rebels ; — the Girondin Cities of the South ! Revolutionary 
Army is gone forth, under Ronsin the Playwright ; six thousand 
strong ; ' in red nightcap, in tricolor waistcoat, in black-shag 
' trousers, black- shag spencer, with enormous mustachioes, 
' enormous sabre, — in carmagnole complete j"^ and has portable 
guillotines. Representative Carrier has got to Nantes, by the 
edge of blazing La Vendue, which Rossignol has literally set on 
lire : Carrier will try what captives you make ; what accom- 
plices they have, Royalist or Girondin : his guillotine goes 
always, va tonjours; and his wool-capped ' Company of Marat.' 
Little children are guillotined, and aged men. Swift as the 
machine is, it will not serve ; the Headsman and all his valets 
sink, worn down with work ; declare that the human muscles 
can no more.2 Whereupon you must try fusillading ; to which 
perhaps still frightfulcr methods may succeed. 

In Brest, to like purpose, rules Jean-Bon Saint-Andre ; with 
an Army of Red Nightcaps. In Bourdeaux rules Tallicn, with 

' Moiiiicur, 11, 30 Deccmbrc 1793; Loiivct, ji. 2S7. 

1 See Louvct, p. 301, " Deux Amis, xii. =.;9-5i. 


Brum.-Frim.] Oct. -Dec. 

his Isabeau and henchmen ; Guadets, Cussys, Salleses, many 
fall ; the bloody Pike and Nightcap bearing supreme sway ; the 
Guillotine coining money. Bristly fox-haired Tallien, once Able 
Editor, still young in years, is now become most gloomy, po- 
tent ; a Pluto on Earth, and has the keys of Tartarus. One 
remarks, however, that a certain Senhorina Cabarus, or call her 
rather Senhora and wedded not yet widowed Dame dc Foiifenai, 
brown beautiful woman, daughter of Cabarus the Spanish Mer- 
chant, — has softened the red bristly countenance ; pleading for 
herself and friends ; and prevailing. The keys of Tartarus, or 
any kind of power, are something to a woman ; gloomy Pluto 
himself is not insensible to love. Like a new Proserpine, she, 
by this red gloomy Dis, is gathered ; and, they say, softens his 
stone heart a little. 

Maignet, at Orange in the South ; Lebon, at Arras in the 
North, become world's wonders. Jacobin Popular Tribunal, 
with its National Representative, perhaps where Girondin Popu- 
lar Tribunal had lately been, rises here and rises there ; where- 
soever needed. Fouches, Maignets, Barrases, Frerons scour 
the Southern Departments ; like reapers, with their guillotine- 
sickle. Many are the labourers, great is the harvest. By the 
hundred and the thousand, men's lives are cropt ; cast like 
brands into the burning. 

Marseilles is taken, and put under martial law ; lo, at Mar- 
seilles, what one besmutted red-bearded corn-ear is this which 
they cut ; — one gross Man, we mean, with copper-studded face ; 
plenteous beard, or beard-stubble, of a tile-colour ? By Nemesis 
and the Fatal Sisters, it is Jourdan Coupe-tete ! Him they have 
clutched, in these martial-law districts ; him too, with their 
' national razor,' their 7'asoir national, they sternly shave away. 
Low now is Jourdan the Headsman's own head ;^low as De- 
shuttcs's and Varigny's, which he sent on pikes, in the Insur- 
rection of Women ! No iTiore shall he, as a copper Portent, b3 
seen gyrating through the Cities of the South ; no more sit 
judging, with pipes and brandy, in the Ice-tower of Avignon. 
The all-hiding Earth has received him, the bloated Tilebeard : 
may v/e never look upon his like again ! — Jourdan one names ; 
the other Hundreds are not named. Alas, they, like confused 
faggots, lie massed together for us ; counted by the cart-load : 
and yet not an individual faggot-twig of them but had a Life and 
History ; and was cut, not Avithout pangs as when a Kaiser dies! 


1793 [Year 2, 

Least of all cities can Lyons escape. Lyons, which we saw 
in dread sunblaze, that Autumn night when the Powder-tower 
sprang aloft, was clearly verging towards a sad end. Inevit- 
able : what could desperate valour and ^-dcy do ; Dubois- 
Crane^, deaf as Destiny, stern as Doom, capturing their ' re- 
doubts of cotton-bags ;' hemming them in, ever closer, with his 
Artillery-lava ? Never would that ci-devant D'Autichamp 
arrive ; never any help from Blankenberg. The Lyons Jaco- 
bins were hidden in cellars ; the Girondin Municipality waxed 
pale, in famine, treason and red fire. Prdcy drew his sword, 
and some P'ifteen Hundred with him ; sprang to saddle, to cut 
their way to Switzerland. They cut fiercely ; and were fiercely 
cut, and cut down ; not lumdreds, hardly units of them ever 
saw Switzerland. 3 Lyons, on the 9th of October, surrenders 
at discretion ; it is become a devoted Town. Abb^ Lamourette, 
now Bishop Lamourette, whilom Legislator, he of the old Baiser- 
V Ainotirette or Delilah-Kiss, is seized here ; is sent to Paris to 
be guillotined : 'he made the sign of the cross,' they say, when 
Tinville intimated his death-sentence to him ; and died as an 
eloquent Constitutional Bishop. But wo now to all Bishops, 
Priests, Aristocrats and Federalists that are in Lyons ! The 
manes of Chalier are to be appeased ; the Republic, maddened 
to the Sibylline pitch, has bared her right arm. Behold ! Re- 
presentative Fouchd, it is Fouchd of Nantes, a name to become 
well known ; he with a Patriot company goes duly, in wondrous 
Procession, to raise the corpse of Chalier. An Ass housed 
in Priest's cloak, with a mitre on his head, and trailing the 
Mass-Books, some say the very Bible, at its tail, paces through 
Lyons streets : escorted by multitudinous Patriotism, by clang- 
our as of the Pit ; towards the grave of Martyr Chalier. The 
body is dug up, and burnt : the ashes are collected in an Urn ; 
to be worshipped of Paris Patriotism. The Holy Books were 
part of the funeral pile ; their ashes are scattered to the wind. 
Amid cries of "Vengeance! Vengeance!" — which, writes 
Foucli(f, shall be satisfied.-* 

Lyons in fact is a Town to be abolished ; not Lyons hence- 
forth, but ' Couimnne Affranchie, Township Freed ;' the very 
name of it shall perish. It is to be razed, this once great City, 
if Jacobinism prophesy right ; and a Pillar to be erected on the 
ruins, with this Inscription, Lyons rebelled against tlie Republic; 

^ Deux Amis, xi. 145. * Mottiteur (du 17 Novembre 1793), &c. 


Brumaire] November. 

Lyons is no tnore. Fouch^, Couthon, Collot, Convention Re- 
presentatives succeed one another : there is worlc for the hang- 
man ; work for the hammerman, not in building. The very 
Houses of Aristocrats, we say, are doomed. Paralytic Couthon, 
borne in a chair, taps on the wall, with emblematic mallet, 
saying, "La Loi te frappe. The Law strikes thee;" masons, with 
wedge and crowbar, begin demolition. Crash of downfal, dim 
ruin and dust-clouds fly in the winter wind. Had Lyons been 
of soft stuff, it had all vanished in those weeks, and the Jaco- 
bin prophecy had been fulfilled. But Towns are not built of 
soap-froth ; Lyons Town is built of stone. Lyons, though it 
rebelled against the Republic, is to this day. 

Neither have the Lyons Girondins all one neck, that you 
could despatch it at one swoop. Revolutionary Tribunal here, 
and Mihtary Commission, guillotining, fusillading, do what 
they can : the kennels of the Place des Terreaux run red ; 
mangled corpses roll down the Rhone. Collot d'Herbois, they 
say, was once hissed on the Lyons stage : but with what sibila- 
tioii, of world-catcall or hoarse Tartarean Trumpet, will ye hiss 
him now, in this his new character of Convention Representa- 
tive, — not to be repeated ! Two-hundred and nine men are 
marched forth over the River, to be shot in mass, by musket 
and cannon, in the Promenade of the Brotteaux. It is the 
second of such scenes ; the first was of some Seventy. The 
corpses of the first were flung into the Rhone, but the Rhone 
stranded some ; so these now, of the second lot, are to be buried 
on land. Their one long grave is dug ; they stand ranked, by 
the loose mould-ridge ; the younger of them singing the Mar- 
seillaise. Jacobin National Guards give fire ; but have again to 
give fire, and again ; and to take the bayonet and the spade, 
for though the doomed all fall, they do not all die ; — and it 
becomes a butchery too horrible for speech. So that the very 
Nationals, as they fire, turn away their faces. Collot, snatch- 
ing the musket from one such National, and levelling it with 
unmoved countenance, says, "It is thus a Republican ought 
to fire." 

This is the second Fusillade, and happily the last : it is 
found too hideous ; even inconvenient. There were Two-hun- 
dred and nine marched out ; one escaped at the end of the 
Bridge : yet behold, when you count the corpses, they are 
Two-hundred and ten. Rede us this riddle, O Collot ? After 


1793 [Year 2. 
long c^uessing, it is called to mind that two individuals, here in 
the Brotteaux ground, did attempt to leave the rank, protesting 
with agony that they were not condemned men, that they were 
Police Commissaries : which two we repui^jd, and disbelieved, 
and shot with the rest P Such is the vengeance of an enraged 
Republic. Surely this, according to Barrere's phrase, is Jus- 
tice " under rough forms, sons dcs formes acej-bes." But the Re- 
pubhc, as Fouch^ says, must "march to Liberty over corpses." 
Or again, as Barrere has it: " None but the dead do not come 
back, // n'y a que les inorts qui ne revienncnt pas." Terror 
hovers far and wide : ' the Guillotine goes not ill.* 

But before quitting those Southern regions, over which 
History can cast only glances from aloft, she will alight for a 
moment, and look fixedly at one point : the Siege of Toulon. 
Much battering and bombarding, heating of balls in furnaces 
or farm-houses, serving of artillery well and ill, attacking of 
Ollioules Passes, Forts Malbosquet, there has been : as yet to 
small purpose. We have had General Cartaux here, a whilom 
Painter elevated in the troubles of iVIarseilles ; General Doppet, 
a whilom Medical man elevated in the troubles of Piemont, 
who, under Craned, took Lyons, but cannot take Toulon, 
Finally we have General Dugommier, a pupil of Washington. 
Convention Rep^'isentans also we have had ; Barrases, Sali- 
cettis, Robespierres the Younger : — also an Artillery Chef de 
brigade, of extreme diligence, who often takes his nap of sleep 
among the guns ; a short, taciturn, olive-complexioned young 
man, not unknown to us, by name Buonaparte ; one of the 
best Artillery-officers yet met with. And still Toulon is not 
taken. It is the fourth month now ; December, in slave-style ; 
Frostarioiis or Frimaire, in new-style : and still their cursed 
Red-Blue Fag flics there. They are provisioned from the Sea ; 
t ley have seized all heights, felling wood, and fortifying them- 
selves ; like the cony, they have built their nest in the rocks. 

Meanwhile Frostarious is not yet become Snoiuous or Niv- 
ose, when a Council of War is called ; Instructions have just 
arrived from Government and Saint Public. Carnot, in Salut 
Public, has sent us a plan of siege : on which plan General 
Dugommier has this criticism to make, Commissioner Salicetti 
has that ; and criticisms and plans are very various ; when that 
young Artillery-Officer ventures to speak ; the same whom we 
^ Deux Amis, xii, 251-62. 


Friniaire] December. 

saw snatching sleep among the guns, who has emerged several 
times in this History, — the name of him Napoleon Buonaparte. 
It is his humble opinion, for he has been gliding about with 
spy-glasses, with thoughts. That a certain Fort I'Eguillette can 
be clutched, as with lion-spring, on the sudden ; whercfrom, 
were it once ours, the very heart of Toulon might be battered ; 
the English Lines were, so to speak, turned inside out, and 
Hood and our Natural Enemies must next day either put to 
sea, or be burnt to ashes. Commissioners arch their eyebrows, 
with negatory sniff: who is this young gentleman with more 
wit than we all ? Brave veteran Dugommier, however, thinks 
the idea worth a word ; questions the young gentleman ; be- 
comes convinced ; and there is for issue, Try it. 

On the taciturn bronze-countenance therefore, things being 
HOW all ready, there sits a grimmer gravity than ever, com- 
pressing a hotter central-fire than ever. Yonder, thou seest, is 
Fort I'Eguillette ; a desperate lion-spring, yet a possible one ; 
this day to be tried ! — Tried it is ; and found ^ood. By strata- 
gem and valour, stealing through ravines, plunging fiery through 
the fire-tempest, Fort I'Eguillette is clutched at, is carried ; the 
smoke having cleared, we see the Tricolor fly on it ; the bronze- 
complexioned young man was right. Next morning. Hood, 
finding the interior of his lines exposed, his defences turned 
inside out, makes for his shipping. Taking such Royalists as 
wished it on board with him, he weighs anchor ; on this 19th 
of December 1793, Toulon is once more the Republic's ! 

Cannonading has ceased at Toulon ; and now the guillotin- 
ing and fusillading may begin. Civil horrors, truly: but at least 
tkat infamy of an English domination is purged away. Let 
there be Civic Feast universally over France : so reports Bar- 
rere, or Painter David ; and the Convention assist in a body.^ 
Nay, it is said, these infamous English (with an attention rather 
to their own interests than to ours) set fire to our store-houses, 
arsenals, war-ships in Toulon Harbour, before weighing; some 
score of brave war-ships, the only ones v/e now had! However, 
it did not prosper, though the flame spread far and high ; some 
two ships were burned, not more ; the very galley-slaves ran 
with buckets to quench. These same proud Ships, Ship r Orient 
and the rest, have to carry this same young Man to Eg)'pt first : 
not yet can they be changed to ashes, or to Sea-Nymphs ; not 
6 Moniteur, 1793, Nos. loi (31 D^cembre), 95, 96, 98, &c 


1793 [Year 2. 
yet to sky-rockets, O ship rOrient j nor become the prey of 
England, — before their time ! 

And so, over France universally, there is Civic Feast and 
high-tide : and Toulon sees fusillading, gio.^- ^shotting in mass, 
as Lyons saw ; and ' death is poured out in great floods, vomie 
a grands Jlots J and Twelve-thousand Masons are requisitioned 
from the neighbouring country, to raze Toulon from the face of 
the Earth. For it is to be razed, so reports Barrere ; all but 
the National Shipping Establishments ; and to be called hence- 
forth not Toulon, but Port of the Moiintaiti. There in black 
death-cloud we must leave it ; — hoping only that Toulon too is 
built of stone ; that perhaps even Twelve-thousand Masons 
cannot pull it down, till the fit pass. 

One begins to be sick of ' death vomited in great floods.' 
Nevertheless, hearest thou not, O Reader (for the sound reaches 
through centuries), in the dead December and January nights, 
over Nantes Town, — confused noises, as of musketry and tu- 
mult, as of rage and lamentation ; mingling with the everlasting 
moan of the Loire waters there? Nantes Town is sunk in sleep ; 
but Representajtt Carrier is not sleeping, the wool-capped Com- 
pany of Marat is not sleeping. Why unmoors that flatbottomed 
craft, that gabarrej about eleven at night ; with Ninety Priests 
under hatches? They are going to Belle Isle? In the middle 
of the Loire stream, on signal given, the gabarre is scuttled ; 
she sinks with all her cargo. 'Sentence of Deportation,' writes 
Carrier, 'was executed vertically.' The Ninety Priests, with 
their gabarre-coffin, lie deep ! It is the first of the Noyades, 
what we may call Drownages, of Carrier ; which have become 
famous forever. 

Guillotining there was at Nantes, till the Headsman sank 
worn out : then fusillading ' in the Plain of Saint-Mauve ;' 
little children fusilladed, and women with children at the breast ; 
children and women, by the hundred and twenty ; and by the 
five hundred, so hot is La Venddc : till the very Jacobins grew 
sick, and all but the Company of Marat cried, Hold ! Where- 
fore now we have got Noyading ; and on the 24th night of 
Frostarioiis year 2, which is 14th of December 1793, vve have 
a second Noyade ; consisting of 'a Hundred and Thirty-eight 
persons. '7 

Or why waste a gabarre, sinking it with them ? Fling them 
' Deux Amis, xii. 266-72; Mouitcur, du 2 Janvier 1794. 


Frimaire] December. 

out ; fling them out, with their hands tied : pour a continual 
hail of lead over all the space, till the last struggler of them be 
sunk ! Unsound sleepers of Nantes, and the Sea-Villages there- 
abouts, hear the musketry amid the night-winds ; wonder what 
the meaning of it is. And women were in that gabarre ; whom 
the Red Nightcaps were stripping naked ; who begged, in their 
agony, that their smocks might not be stript from them. And 
young children were thrown in, their mothers vainly pleading : 
"Wolflings," answered the Company of Marat, "who would 
grow to be wolves." 

By degrees, daylight itself witnesses Noyades : women and 
men are tied together, feet and feet, hands and hands ; and flung 
in : this they call Manage Ripublicain, Republican Marriage. 
Cruel is the panther of the woods, the she-bear bereaved of her 
whelps : but there is in man a hatred cruder than that. Dumb, 
out of suffering now, as pale swoln corpses, the victims tumble 
confusedly seaward along the Loire stream ; the tide rolling 
them back : clouds of ravens darken the River ; wolves prowl 
on the shoal-places : Carrier writes, ' Quel torrent rdvolution- 
naire. What a torrent of Revolution !' For the man is rabid ; 
and the Time is rabid. These are the Noyades of Carrier ; 
twenty-five by the tale, for what is done in darkness comes to 
be investigated in sunlight ■? not to be forgotten for centuries. 
— We will turn to another aspecc of the Consummation of Sans- 
culottism ; leaving this as the blackest. 

But indeed men are all rabid ; as the Time is. Representa- 
tive Lebon, at Arras, dashes his sword into the blood flowing 
from the Guillotine; exclaims, " How I like it !" Mothers, they 
say, by his orders, have to stand by while the Guillotine de- 
vours their children : a band of music is stationed near ; and, 
at the fall of every head, strikes up its (^a-ira.^ In the Burgh 
of Bedouin, in the Orange region, the Liberty-tree has been cut 
down overnight. Representative Maignet, at Orange, hears of 
it ; burns Bedouin Burgh to the last dog-hutch ; guillotines the 
inhabitants, or drives them into the caves and hills. 1° Republic 
One and Indivisible ! She is the newest Birth of Nature's waste 
inorganic Deep, which men name Orcus, Chaos, primeval Night ; 
and knows one law, that of self-preservation. Tigresse Nationale : 

8 Proces de Carrier (4 tomes, Paris, 1795). 

9 Les Horrcurs des Prisons d' Arras (Paris, 1823). 
'* Montgaillard, iv. zoo. 


1793 [Year 2. 
meddle not with a whisker of her ! Swift-rending is her stroke ; 
look what a paw she spreads ; — pity has not entered into her 

Priidhommc, the dull-bhistering Printer and Able Editor, as 
yet a Jacobin Editor, will bee jme a renegade one, and publish 
large volumes, on these matters, Crimes of the Revolution ; add- 
ing innumerable lies withal, as if the truth were not sufficient. 
We, for our part, find it more edifying to know, one good time, 
that this Republic and National Tigress is a New-Birth; a Fact 
of Nature among Formulas, in an Age of Formulas ; and to 
look, oftenest in silence, how the so genuine Nature-Fact will 
demean itself among these. For the Formulas are partly genu- 
ine, partly delusive, supposititious : we call them, in the lan- 
guage of metaphor, regulated modelled shapes j some of which 
have bodies and life still in them ; most of which, according to 
a German Writer, have only emptiness, ' glass-eyes glaring on 
' you with a ghastly affectation of life, and in their interior un- 
* clean accumulation of beetles and spiders !' But the Fact, let 
all men observe, is a genuine and sincere one ; the sincerest of 
Facts ; terrible in its sincerity, as very Death. Whatsoever is 
equally sincere may front it, and beard it ; but whatsoever is 
not f — 



Simultaneously with this Tophet-black aspect, there un- 
folds itself another aspect, which one may call a Tophet-red 
aspect, the Destruction of the Catholic Religion ; and indeed, 
for the time being, of Religion itself. W"e saw Romme's New 
Calendar establish its Tenth Day of Rest ; and asked, what 
would become of the Christian Sabbath ? The Calendar is 
hardly a month old, till all this is set at rest. Very singular, 
as iNIercier obsei'ves : last Corpiis-Christi Day 1 792, the whole 
world, and Sovereign Authority itself, walked in religious gala, 
v/ith a quite devout air ; — Butcher Legendrc, supposed to be 
irreverent, v.'as like to be massacred in his Gig, ns the thing 
went by. A Galilean Hierarchy, and Church, and Church For- 
mulas seemed to flourish, a little brown-lcavcd or so, but not 
browner than oi late years or decades ; to flourish far and wide, 
in the sympathies oi an unsophisticated People ; defying Philo- 


Brum. 20] Nov. lotli. 

sophism, Legislature and the Encyclopddie. Far and wide, alas, 
like a brown-leaved Vallombrosa : which waits but one whirl- 
blast of the November wind, and in an hour stands bare ! Since 
that Corpus-Chn'sti Day, Brunsv/ick has come, and the Emi- 
grants, and La Vendue, and eighteen months of Time : to all 
flourishing, especially to brown-leaved flourishing, there comes, 
were it never so slowly, an end. 

On the 7th of November, a certain Citoyen Parens, Curate 
of Boissise-le-Bertrand, writes to the Convention that he has all 
his life been preaching a lie, and is grown weary of doing it ; 
wherefore he will now lay down his Curacy and stipend, and 
begs that an august Convention would give him something else 
to live upon. 'Mention honorable,' shall we give him ? Or ' re- 
ference to Committee of Finances' ? Hardly is this got de- 
cided, when goose Gobel, Constitutional Bishop of Paris, with 
his Chapter, wiih Municipal and Departmental escort in red 
nightcaps, makes his appearance, to do as Parens has done. 
Goose Gobel will now acknowledge ' no Religion but Liberty ;' 
therefore he doffs his Priest-gear, and receives the Fratemal 
embrace. To the joy of Departmental Momoro, of Municipal 
Chaumettes and Heberts, of Vincent and the Revolutionary 
Army ! Chaumette asks. Ought there not, in these circumstances, 
to be among our intercalary Days Sans-breeches, a Feast of 
Reason ?i Proper surely ! Let Atheist Mare'chal, Lalande, and 
little Atheist Naigeon rejoice ; let Clootz, Speaker of Mankind, 
present to the Convention his Evidences of the Mahometan Re- 
ligion, 'a work evincing the nullity of all Religions,' — with 
thanks. There shall be Universal Republic now, thinks Clootz ; 
and 'one God only, Le Peuple.' 

The French nation is of gregarious imitative nature ; it 
needed but a fugle -motion in this matter ; and goose Gobel, 
driven by Municipality and force of circumstances, has given 
one. What Cure will be behind him of Boissise ; v/hat Bishop 
behind him of Paris ? Bishop Gregoire, indeed, courageously 
declines ; to the sound of "We force no one ; let Gregoire con- 
sult his conscience ;" but Protestant and Romish by the hun- 
dred volunteer and assent. From far and near, all through 
November into December, till the work is accomplished, come 
Letters oi renegation, come Curates who ' are learning to be 
Carpenters,' Curates with their new-wcddcd Nuns : has not the 
1 Moniteur, Seance du 17 Brumaire (7th November), 1793. 


1793 [Year 2, 
day of Reason dawned, very swiftly, and become noon ? From 
sequestered Townships come Addresses, stating plainly, though 
in Patois dialect. That ' they will have no more to do with the 
black animal called Curay, animal noir ap^ele Citray.'^ 

Above all things, there come Patriotic Gifts, of Church-fur- 
niture. The remnant of bells, except for tocsin, descend from 
their belfries, into the National meltingpot to make cannon. 
Censers and all sacred vessels are beaten broad ; of silver, they 
are fit for the poverty-stricken Mint ; of pewter, let them become 
bullets, to shoot the ' enemies du genre humain.' Dalmatics of 
plush make breeches for him who had none ; linen albs will clip 
into shirts for the Defenders of the Country : old-clothesmen, 
Jew or Heathen, drive the briskest trade. Chalier's Ass-Pro- 
cession, at Lyons, was but a type of what went on, in those 
same days, in all Towns. In all Towns and Townships as 
quick as the guillotine may go, so quick goes the axe and the 
wrench: sacristies, lutrins, altar-rails are pulled down; the Mass- 
Books torn into cartridge-papers : men dance the Carmagnole 
all night about the bonfire. All highways jingle with metallic 
Priest-tackle, beaten broad ; sent to the Convention, to the 
poverty-stricken Mint. Good Sainte-Genevi^ve's Chasse is let 
down : alas, to be burst open, this time, and burnt on the Place 
de Gr^ve. Saint Louis's Shirt is burnt ; — might not a Defender 
of the Country have had it ? At Saint-Denis Town, no longer 
Saint-Denis but Franciade, Patriotism has been down among 
the Tombs, rummaging ; the Revolutionary Army has taken 
spoil. This, accordingly, is what the streets of Paris saw : 

' Most of these persons were still drunk, with the brandy 
' they had swallowed out of chalices ; — eating mackerel on the 

• patenas ! Mounted on Asses, which were housed with Priests' 

• cloaks, they reined them with Priests' stoles ; they held clutched 
' with the same hand communion-cup and sacred wafer. They 

• stopped at the doors of Dramshops ; held out ciboriums : and 
' the landlord, stoup in hand, had to fill them thricfe. Next came 

• Mules high-laden with crosses, chandeliers, censers, holy-water 
vessels, hyssops ; — recalling to mind the Priests of Cybele, 

' whose panniers, filled with the instruments of their worship, 
' served at once as storehouse, sacristy and temple. In such 
' equipage did these profaners advance towards the Convention. 
' They enter there, in an immense train, ranged in two rows ; 
^ Analyse du Moniteur (Paris, 1801), ii. 280. 


Bruni. 20] Nov, loth. 

' all masked like mummers in fantastic sacerdotal vestments ; 
' bearing on hand-barrows their heaped plunder, — ciboriums, 
' suns, candelabras, plates of gold and silver. '3 

The Address we do not give ; for indeed it was in strophes, 
sung viva voce, with all the parts ; — Danton glooming con- 
siderably, in his place ; and demanding that there be prose and 
decency in future.'' Nevertheless the captors of such spolla 
opima crave, not untouched with liquor, permission to dance the 
Carmagnole also on the spot : whereto an exhilarated Conven- 
tion cannot but accede. Nay 'several Members,' continues the 
exaggerative Mercier, who was not there to witness, being in 
Limbo now, as one of Duperret's Seventy -three, ' several Mem- 
' bers, quitting their curule chairs, took the hand of girls flaunt- 
' ing in Priests' vestures, and danced the Carmagnole along 
' with them.' Such Old-Hallowtide have they, in this year, once 
named of Grace 1793. 

Out of which strange fall of Formulas, tumbling there in 
confused welter, betrampled by the Patriotic dance, is it not 
passing strange to see a new Formula arise? For the human 
tongue is not adequate to speak what ' triviality run distracted' 
there is in human nature. Black Mumbo-Jumbo of the woods, 
and most Indian Wau-waus, one can understand : but this of 
Procureur Anaxagoras, whilom John-Peter, Chaumette ? We 
will say only : Man is a born idol-worshipper, Jz^/zZ-worshipper, 
so sensuous-imaginative is he ; and also partakes much of the 
nature of the ape. 

For the same day, while this brave Carmagnole-dance has 
hardly jigged itself out, there arrive Procureur Chaumette and 
Municipals and Departmental, and with them the strangest 
freightage ; a New Religion ! Demoiselle Candeille, of the 
Opera ; a woman fair to look upon, when well rouged ; she, 
borne on palanquin shoulderhigh ; with red woollen nightcap ; 
in azure mantle ; garlanded with oak ; holding in her hand the 
Pike of the Jupiter-Z'^w^/^, sails in : heralded by white young 
women girt in tricolor. Let the world consider it ! This, O 
National Convention wonder of the universe, is our New Divin- 
ity ; Goddess of Reason, worthy, and alone worthy of revering. 
Her henceforth we adore. Nay were it too much to ask of an 

^ Mercier, iv. 134. See Moniteur, Seance clu 10 Novembre, 
* See also Moiiitcur, Stance du 26 Novembre. 


1793 [Year 2. 
august National Representation that it also went with us to the 
ci-dcvant Cathedral called of Notrc-Dame, and executed a few 
strophes in worship of her ? 

President and Secretaries give Goddess indeille, borne at 
due height round their platform, successively the Fraternal kiss ; 
whereupon she, by decree, sails to the right-hand of the Presi- 
dent and there alights. And now, after due pause and flourishes 
of oratory, the Convention, gathering its lirnbs, does get under 
way in the required procession towards Notre-Dame ; — Reason, 
again in her litter, sitting in the van of them, borne, as one 
judges, by men in the Roman costume ; escorted by wind-music, 
red nightcaps, and the madness of the world. And so, straight- 
way. Reason taking seat on the high-altar of Notre-Dame, the 
requisite worship or ciuasi-worship is, say the Newspapers, exe- 
ctited; National Convention chanting ' the Hymn to Liberty, 
words by Chdnier, music by Gossec' It is the first of the 
Feasts of Reason J first connuunion-servicc of the New Religion 
of Chaumette. 

' The corresponding Festival in the Church of Saint-Eus- 

• tache,' says Mercier, 'offered the spectacle of a great tavern. 
' The interior of the choir represented a landscape decorated with 
' cottages and boskets of trees. Round the choir stood tables 
' overloaded with bottles, with sausages, pork-puddings, pastries 
' and other meats. The guests flowed in and out through all 

• doors : whosoever presented himself took part of the good 
' things : children of eight, girls as well as boys, put hand to 

* plate, in sign of Liberty ; they drank also of the bottles, and 

* their prompt intoxication created laughter. Reason sat in 
' azure mantle aloft, in a serene manner ; Cannoneers, pipe in 
' mouth, serving her as acolytes. And out of doors,' continues 
the exaggerative man, ' were mad multitudes dancing round the 
' bonfire of Chapel-balustrades, of Priests' and Canons' stalls ; 
' and the dancers, — I exaggerate nothing, — the dancers nigh 
' bare of breeches, neck and breast naked, stockings down, went 
' whirling and spinning, like those Dust -vortexes, forerunners 
' of Tempest and Destruction.'^ At Saint-Gervais Church, again, 
there was a terrible ' smell of herrings ;' Section or Municipality 
having provided no food, no condiment, but left it to chance. 
Other mysteries, seemingly of a Cabiric or even Paphian cha- 
racter, we leave under the Veil, which appropriately stretcheg 

^ Mercier, iv. 127-146. 


Brum. 20J Nov. lotli. 

itself 'along the pillars of the aisles,' — not to be lifted aside by 
the hand of History. 

But there is one thing we should like almost better to under- 
stand than any other : what Reason herself thought of it, all 
the while. What articulate words poor Mrs. Momoro, for ex- 
ample, uttered ; when she had become ungoddessed again, and 
the Bibliopolist and she sat quiet at home, at supper ? For he 
was an earnest man, Bookseller Momoro ; and had notions of 
Agrarian Law. Mrs. Momoro, it is admitted, made one of the 
best Goddesses of Reason ; though her teeth were a little defec- 
tive. — And now if the Reader will represent to himself that such 
visible Adoration of Reason went on 'all over the Repubhc,' 
through these November and December weeks, till the Church 
woodwork was burnt out, and the business otherwise completed, 
he will perhaps feel sufficiently what an adoring Republic it was, 
and without reluctance quit this part of the subject. 

Such gifts of Church-spoil are chiefly the work of the Annc'c 
Revohitionnaite J raised, as we said, some time ago. It is an 
army with portable guillotine : commanded by Playwright Ron- 
sin in terrible mustachioes ; and even by some uncertain shadow 
of Usher Maillard, the old Bastille Hero, Leader of the Menads, 
September Man in Gray ! Clerk Vincent of the War-Office, 
one of Pache's old Clerks, ' with a head heated by the ancient 
orators,' had a main hand in the appointments, at least in the 

But of the marchings and retreatings of these Six-thousand 
no Xenophon exists. Nothing, but an inarticulate hum, of 
cursing and sooty frenzy, surviving dubious in the memory of 
ages ! They scour the country round Paris ; seeking Prisoners ; 
raising Requisitions ; seeing that Edicts are executed, that the 
Farmers have thrashed sufficiently ; lowering Church-bells or 
metallic Virgins. Detachments shoot forth dim, towards re- 
mote parts of France ; nay new Provincial Revolutionary Armies 
rise dim, here and there, as Carrier's Company of Marat, as 
Tallien's Bourdcaux Troop ; like sympathetic clouds in an atmo- 
sphere all electric. Ronsin, they say, admitted, in candid mo- 
ments, that his troops were the elixir of the Rascality of the 
Earth. One sees them drawn up in market-places ; travel- 
splashed, rough-bearded, in carmagnole complete : the first ex- 
ploit is to prostrate what Royal or Ecclesiastical monument, 


1793 [Year 2. 
crucifix or the like, there may be : to pLant a cannon at the 
steeple ; fetch down the bell without climbing for it, bell and 
belfry together. This, however, it is said, depends somewhat 
on the size of the town : if the town cont;..iis much population, 
and these perhaps of a dubious choleric aspect, the Revolution- 
ary Army will do its work gently, by ladder and wrench ; nay 
perhaps will take its billet without work at all ; and, refreshing 
itself with a little liquor and sleep, pass on to the next stage.*' 
Pipe in cheek, sabre on thigh ; in Carmagnole complete ! 

Such things have been ; and may again be. Charles Second 
sent out his Highland Host over the Western Scotch Whigs : 
Jamaica Planters got Dogs from the Spanish Main to hunt 
their Maroons with : France too is bescoured with a Devil's 
Pack, the baying of which, at this distance of half a century, 
still sounds in the mind's ear. 



But the grand and indeed substantially primary and generic 
aspect of the Consummation of Terror remains still to be looked 
at ; nay blinkard History has for most part all but overlooked 
this aspect, the soul of the whole ; that which makes it terrible 
to the Enemies of France. Let Despotism and Cimmerian 
Coalitions consider. All French men and French things are 
in a State of Requisition ; Fourteen Armies are got on foot ; 
Patriotism, with all that it has of faculty in heart or in head, 
in soul or body or breeches-pocket, is rushing to the Frontiers, 
to prevail or die ! Busy sits Carnot, in Sahit Public j busy, 
for his share, in ' organising victory.' Not swifter pulses that 
Guillotine, in dread systole-diastole in the Place de la Revolu- 
tion, than smites the Sword of Patriotism, smiting Cimmeria 
back to its own borders, from the sacred soil. 

In fact, the Government is what we can call Revolutionary ; 
and some men are 'a la hauteur,' on a level with the circum- 
stances ; and others are not a la hauteur, — so much the worse 
for them. But the Anarchy, we may say, has o?ga7tised itself : 
Society is literally overset ; its old forces working with mad ac- 
tivity, but in the inverse order ; destructive and selt-destructive. 

Curious to see how all still refers itself to some head and 
* Deux Amis, xii. 62-5. 


Brum.] Nov. 

fountain ; not even an Anarchy but must have a centre to re- 
volve round. It is now some six months since the Committee 
of Sahit Pitblic came into existence ; some three months since 
Danton proposed that all power should be given it, and 'a 
sum of fifty millions,' and the ' Government be declared Revo- 
lutionary." He himself, since that day, would take no hand in 
it, though again and again solicited ; but sits private in his 
place on the Mountain. Since that day, the Nine, or if they 
should even rise to Twelve, have become permanent, always 
reelected when their term runs out ; Saint Public, SArete Geni- 
rale have assumed their ulterior form and mode of operating. 

Committee of Public Salvation, as supreme ; of General 
Surety, as subaltern : these, like a Lesser and Greater Council, 
most harmonious hitherto, have become the centre of all things. 
They ride this Whirlwind ; they, raised by force of circum- 
stances, insensibly, very strangely, thither to that dread height ; 
— and guide it, and seem to guide it. Stranger set of Cloud- 
Compellers the Earth never saw. A Robespierre, a Billaud, a 
Collot, Couthon, Saint-Just ; not to mention still meaner Amars, 
Vadiers, in Surety Gen^rale : these are your Cloud-Compellers. 
Small intellectual talent is necessary : indeed where among 
them, except in the head of Carnot, busied organising victory, 
would you find any ? The talent is one of instinct rather. It 
is that of divining aright what this great dumb Whirlwind 
wishes and wills ; that of willing, with more frenzy than any 
one, what all the Avorld wills. To stand at no obstacles ; to 
heed no considerations, human or divine ; to know well that, 
of divine or human, there is one thing needful, Triumph of the 
Republic, Destruction of the Enemies of the Republic ! Wiih 
this one spiritual endowment, and so few others, it is strange 
to see how a dumb inarticulately storming Whirlwind of things 
puts, as it were, its reins into your hand, and invites and com- 
pels you to be leader of it. 

Hard by sits a Municipality of Paris ; all in red nightcaps 
since the fourth of November last : a set of men fully ' on a 
level with circumstances,' or even beyond it. Sleek Mayor 
Pache, studious to be safe in the middle ; Chaumettes, Huberts, 
Varlets, and Henriot their great Commandant ; not to speak of 
Vincent the War-clerk, of Momoros, Dobsents and suchlike : 
all intent to have Churches plundered, to have Reason adored, 
Suspects cut down, and the Revolution triumph. Pex'haps 


1793 [Year 2. 
carryinjT the matter too far ? Danton was heard to grumble at 
the civic strophes ; and to recommend prose and decency. 
Robespierre also grumbles that, in overturning Superstition, 
we did not mean to make a religion of Atheism. In fact, your 
Chaumettc and Company constitute a kind of Hyper-Jacobin- 
ism, or rabid ' Faction des Enragh/ which has given orthodox 
Patriotism some umbrage, of late months. To 'know a Suspect 
on the streets ;' what is this but bringing the Law of the Suspect 
itself into ill odour ? Men half-frantic, men zealous over-much, 
— they toil there, in their red nightcaps, restlessly, rapidly, ac- 
complishing what of Life is allotted them. 

And the Forty-four Thousand other Townships, each with 
Revolutionary Committee, based on Jacobin Daughter Society ; 
enlightened by the spirit of Jacobinism ; quickened by the 
Forty Sous a-day ! — The French Constitution spurned always 
at anything like Two Chambers ; and yet, behold, has it not 
verily got Two Chambers ? National Convention, elected, for 
one ; Mother of Patriotism, self-elected, for another ! Mother 
of Patriotism has her Debates reported in the Mojiiiein; as 
important state-procedures ; which indisputably they are. A 
Second Chamber of Legislature we call this Mother Society ; — 
if perhaps it were not rather comparable to that old Scotch 
Body named Lords of the Articles, without whose origination, 
and signal given, the so-called Parliament could introduce no 
bill, could do no work ? Robespierre himself, whose words 
are a law, opens his incorruptible lips copiously in the Jaco- 
bins Hall. Smaller Council of Saint Public, Greater Council 
of Sfirctd Gcneralc, all active Parties, come here to plead ; to 
shape beforehand what decision they must arrive at, what des- 
tiny they have to expect. Now if a question arose, Which of 
those Two Chambers, Convention, or Lords of the Articles, 
was the stronger? Happily they as yet go hand in hand. 

As for the National Convention, truly it has become a most 
" composed Body. Quenched now the old effervescence ; the 
Seventy-three locked in ward ; once noisy Friends of the Gi- 
rondins sunk all into silent men of the Plain, called even ' Frogs 
of the Marsh,' Crapauds du Marais f Addresses come, Revo- 
lutionary Church-plunder comes ; Deputations, with prose or 
strophes : these the Convention receives. But beyond this, 
the Convention has one thing mainly to do : to listen what 
Saint Public proposes, and say. Yea. 


Rnim,] Nov. 

Bazirc followed iDy Chabot, with some impetuosity, declared, 
one morning, that this was not the way ot a Free Assembly. 
"There ought to be an Opposition side, a Colt; Droit," cried 
Chabot : "if none else will form it, I will. People say to me. 
You will all get guillotined in your turn, first you and Bazire, 
then Danton, then Robespierre himself."^ So spake the Dis- 
frocked, with a loud voice : next week, Bazire and he lie in the 
Abbaye ; wending, one may fear, towards Tinville and the 
Axe ; and ' people say to me' — what seems to be proving true ! 
Bazire's blood was all inflamed with Revolution Fever ; with 
coffee and spasmodic dreams. 2 Chabot, again, how happy 
with his rich Jew- Austrian wife, late Fraulein Frey ! But he 
lies in Prison ; and his two Jew-Austrian Brothers-in-Law, the 
Bankers Frey, lie with him ; waiting the urn ot doom. Let a 
National Convention, therefore, take warning, and know its 
function. Let the Convention, all as one man, set its shoulder 
to the work ; not with bursts of Parliamentary eloquence, but 
in quite other and serviceabler ways ! 

Convention Commissioners, what we ought to call Repre- 
sentatives, ' Rcpiesentans on mission,' fly, like the Herald Mer- 
cury, to all points of the Territory ; carrying your behests far 
and wide. In their ' round hat, plumed with tricolor feathers, 
' girt with flowing tricolor taffeta ; in close frock, tricolor sash, 

• sword and jack-boots,' these men are po^verfulcr than King 
or Kaiser. They say to whomso they meet, Do ; and he must 
do it : all men's goods are at their disposal ; for France is as 
one huge City in Siege. They smite with Requisitions and 
Forced-loan ; they have the power of life and death. Saint- 
Just and Lebas order the rich classes of Strasburg to ' strip-ofi 
their shoes,' and send them to the Armies, where as many as 

* ten-thousand pairs' are needed. Also, that within four-and- 
twenty hours, ' a thousand beds' be got ready \^ wrapt in mat- 
ting, and sent under way. For the time presses ! — Like swift 
bolts, issuing from the fuliginous Olympus of Saint Public, 
rush these men, oftenest in pairs ; scatter your thunder-orders 
over France ; make France one enormous Revolutionary thun- 

1 DibaU, du 10 Novembre 1793. 

2 Dictionnaire des Hommei Marquaiis, i. 115. 
8 Monitcur, du 27 Novembre 1793. 


"793-4 [Year 2. 



AccoRniNGLY, alonrjside of these bonfires of Churcli-balus- 
trades, and sounds of fusilladin!^^ and noyading, there rise quite 
another sort of fires and sounds : Smithy-fires and Proof-volleys 
for the manufacture of arms. 

Cut off from Sweden and the world, the Republic must 
learn to make steel for itself ; and, by aid of Chemists, she has 
learnt it. Towns that knew only iron, now know steel : from 
their new dungeons at Chantilly, Aristocrats may hear the 
lustlc of our new steel furnace there. Do not bells transmute 
themselves into cannon; iron stancheons into the white-wea- 
pon iarme blanche), by sword-cutlery r The wheels of Langres 
scream, amid their sputtering fire-halo ; grinding mere swords. 
The stithies of Charlcville ring with gun-making. What say 
we, Charleville ? Two-hundred and fif*^y-eight Forges stand in 
the open spaces of Paris itself; a huiidied and forty of them 
in the Esplanade of the Invalides, fifty-four in the Luxembourg 
Garden : so many Forges stand ; grim Smiths beating and forg- 
ing at lock and barrel there. The Clockmakers have come, 
requisitioned, to do the touch-holes, the hard-solder and file- 
v.ork. Five great Barges swing at anchor on the Seine Stream, 
loud with boring ; llie great press-drills grating harsh thunder 
to the general ear and heart. And deft Stock-makers do gouge 
and rasp ; and all men bestir themselves, according to their 
cunning : — in the language of hope, it is reckoned that ' a 
tliousand finished muskets can be delivered daily.'' ■ Chemists 
of the Republic have taught us miracles of swift tanning :- the 
cordwaincr bores and stitches; — 7ioi of ' Vv-ood and pasteboard,' 
or he shall answer it to Tinville ! The women sew tents and 
coats, the children scrape surgeon's-lint, the old men sit in the 
market-places ; able men are on march ; all men in requisition : 
from Town to Town flutters, on the Heaven's winds, this Ban- 
ner, The French People risen against Tyrants. 

All which is well. But now arises the question : What is 
to be done for saltpetre ? Interrupted Commerce and the 
English Navy shut us out from saltpetre ; and without salt- 
petre there is no gunpowder. Republican Science again sits 
1 Choix des Rapports, xiii, 189. 2 ifji^j ^v. 360. 


Year 2] 1793-4. 

meditative ; discovers that saltpetre exists here and there, 
thougli in attenuated quantity ; that old plaster of walls holds 
a sprinkling of it ; — that the earth of the Paris Cellars holds a 
sprinkling of it, diffused through the common rubbish ; that 
were these dug up and washed, saltpetre might be had. Where- 
upon, swiftly, see ! the Citoycns, with up-shoved bonnet ?-ouge, 
or with doffed bonnet, and hair toil-wetted ; digging fiercely, 
each in his own cellar, for saltpetre. The Earth-heap rises at 
every door ; the Citoyennes with hod and bucket carrying it up ; 
the Citoycns, pith in every muscle, shovelling and digging : for 
life and saltpetre. Dig, my braves j and right well speed ye ! 
What of saltpetre is essential the Republic shall not want. 

Consummation of Sansculottism has many aspects and 
tints : but the brightest tint, really of a solar or stellar bright- 
ness, is this which the Armies give it. That same fervour of 
Jacobinism, which internally fills France with hatreds, suspici- 
ons, scaffolds and Reason-worship, does, on the Frontiers, show 
itself as a glorious Pro pairia mori. Ever since Dumouriez's 
defection, three Convention Representatives attend every Ge- 
neral. Committee of Saint has sent them ; often with this 
Laconic order only : " Do thy duty, Fais ton devoir." It is 
strange, under what impediments the fire of Jacobinism, like 
other such fires, will burn. These Soldiers have shoes of wood 
and pasteboard, or go booted in hay-ropes, in dead of winter ; 
they skewer a bast mat round their shoulders, and are desti- 
tute of most things. What then .'' It is for Rights of French- 
hood, of Manhood, that they fight : the unquenchable spirit, 
here as elsewhere, works miracles. "With steel and bread," 
says the Convention Representative, " one may get to China." 
The Generals go fast to the guillotine ; justly and unjustly. 
From which what inference ? This, among others : That ill- 
success is death ; that in victory alone is life ! To conquer or 
die is no theatrical palabra, in these circumstances, but a prac- 
tical truth and necessity. All Girondism, Halfness, Compro- 
mise is swept away. Forward, ye Soldiers of the Republic, 
captain and man ! Dash, with your Gaelic impetuosity, on 
Austria, England, Prussia, Spain, Sardinia ; Pitt, Cobourg, 
York, and the Devil and the World ! Behind us is but the 
Guillotine ; before us is Victory, Apotheosis and Millennium 
without end I 


1793-4 [Year 2. 

Sec, accordingly, on all Frontiers, how the Sons of Night, 
astonished after short triumph, do recoil; — the Sons of the 
Republic flying at them, with wild Ca-ira or Marseillese Aux 
nrmes, with the temper of cat-o'-mountain, or demon incarnate ; 
which no Son of Night can stand! Spain, which came bursting 
ihrough the Pyrenees, rustling with Bourbon banners, and went 
conquering here and there for a season, falters at such cat-o'- 
mountain welcome ; draws itself in again ; too happy now were 
the Pyrenees impassable. Not only does Dugommier, conqueror 
of Toulon, drive Spain back ; he invades Spain. General Du- 
gommier invades it by the Eastern Pyrenees ; General Miiller 
shall invade it by the Western. Shall, that is the word : Com- 
mittee of Saint Public has said it ; Representative Cavaignac, 
on mission there, must see it done. Impossible! cries Miiller. 
— Infallible ! answers Cavaignac. Difficulty, impossibility, is 
to no purpose. "The Committee is deaf on that side of its 
head," answers Cavaignac, " n' en fend pas de ccttc orcille Id. 
How many wantest thou of men, of horses, cannons ? Thou 
shalt have them. Conquerors, conquered or hanged, forward 
we must."-' Which things also, even as the Representatives 
spa[<e them, were done. The Spring of the new Year sees 
Spain invaded : and redoubts are carried, and Passes and 
Heights of the most scarped description; Spanish Field-officer- 
ism struck mute at such cat-o'-mountain spirit, the cannon for- 
getting to fire."* Swept are the Pyrenees ; Town after Town 
flies open, burst by terror or the petard. In the course of an- 
other year, Spain will crave Peace ; acknowledge its sins and 
the Republic ; nay, in Madrid, there will be joy as for a victory, 
that even Peace is got. 

Few things, we repeat, can be notabler than these Conven- 
tion Representatives, with their power more than kingly. Nay 
at bottom are they not Kings, Able-vien, of a sort ; chosen from 
the Seven-hundred and Forty-nine French Kings ; with this 
order. Do thy duty? Representative Levasseur, of small sta- 
ture, by trade a mere pacific Surgeon-Accoucheur, has mutinies 
to quell ; mad hosts (mad at the Doom of Custine) bellowing 

3 There is, in Pnidhoimne, an atrocity a la Captain-Kirk reported of this 
Cavaignac; which has been copied into Dictionaries oi Homines Alarquatis, 
oi Biographic Universelle, &.C. ; which not only has no truth in it, but, much 
more singular, is still capable of being proved to have none. 

* Deux Amis, xiii, 205-30; Toulongeon, &c. 


Year 2] 1793-4. 

far and wide ; he alone amid tlicm, the one small Representa- 
tive, — small, but as hard as flint, which also cariues /?;'d? in it ! 
So too, at Hondschooten, far in the afternoon, he declares that 
the Battle is not lost; that it must be gained; and fights, him- 
self, with his own obstetric hand ; — horse shot imder him, or 
say on foot, ' up to the haunches in tide-water ;' cutting stoc- 
cado and passado there, in defiance of Water, Earth, Air and 
Fire, the choleric little Representative that he was ! Whereby, 
as natural, Royal Highness of York had to withdraw, — occasion- 
ally at full gallop ; like to be swallowed by the tide : and his 
Siege of Dunkirk became a dream, realising only much loss of 
beautiful siege-artillery and of brave lives.^ 

General Houchard, it would appear, stood behind a hedge 
on this Hondschooten occasion ; wherefore they have since 
guillotined him. A new General Jourdan, late Sergeant Jour- 
dan, commands in his stead : he, in long-winded Battles of 
Watigny, ' murderous artillery-fire mingling itself with sound 
of Revolutionary battle-hymns,' forces Austria behind the Sam- 
bre again; has hopes of purging the soil of Liberty. With hard 
wrestling, with artillerying and qa-ira-m-g, it shall be done. In 
the course of a new Summer, Valenciennes will see itself bc- 
leagured ; Conde belcagured ; whatsover is yet in the hands of 
Austria beleagured and bombarded : nay, by Convention Decree, 
we even summon thcni all ' either to surrender in twenty-four 
hours, or else be put to the sword ;' — a high saying, which, 
though it remains unfulfilled, may show what spirit one is of. 

Representative Drouet, as an Old-dragoon, could fight by a 
kind of second nature : but he was unlucky. Him, in a night- 
foray at Maubeugc, the Austrians took aHve, in October last. 
They stript him almost naked, he says; making a show of him, 
as King-taker of Varennes. They flung him into carts ; sent 
him far into the interior of Cimmeria, to ' a Fortress called 
Spitzberg' on the Danube River ; and left him there, at an ele- 
vation of perhaps a hundred and fifty feet, to his own bitter 
reflections. Reflections ; and also devices ! For the indomit- 
able Old-dragoon constructs wing-machinery, of Paperkite ; 
saws window-bars ; determines to fly down. He will seize a 
boat, will follow the River's course ; land somewhere in Crim 
Tartary, in the Black-Sea or Constantinople region : a la Sind- 
bad ! Authentic History, accordingly, looking far into Cimmeria, 
5 Levasseur, Mimoires, ii. c. 2-7. 


T704 [Y.>ar 3. 
discerns dimly a phenomenon. In the dead night-watches, the 
Spitzberg sentry is near fainting with terror : — Is it a huge 
vague Portent descending through the night-air ? It is a huge 
National Representative Old-dragoon, descending by Paper- 
kite ; too rapidly, alas ! For Drouct had taken with him ' a 
small provision-store, twenty pounds weight or thereby ;' which 
proved accelerative : so he fell, fracturing his leg; and lay there, 
moaning, till day dawned, till you could discern clearly that he 
was not a Portent but a Representative.^ 

Or see Saint-Just, in the Lines of Weissembourg, though 
physically of a timid apprehensive nature, how he charges with 
his 'Alsatian Peasants armed hastily' for the nonce; the solemn 
face of him blazing into flame ; his black hair and tricolor hat- 
taffeta flowing in the breeze ! These our Lines of Weissembourg 
were indeed forced, and Prussia and the Emigrants rolled through : 
but we r^-force the Lines of Weissembourg; and Prussia and the 
Emigrants roll back again still faster, — hurled with bayonet- 
charges and fiery ga-ira-'mg. 

Ci-devant Sergeant Pichegru, ci-devant Sergeant Hoche, 
risen now to be Generals, have done wonders here. Tall 
Pichegru was meant for the Church ; was Teacher of Mathe- 
matics once, in Brienne School, — his remarkablest Pupil there 
was the Boy Napoleon Buonaparte. He then, not in the sweetest 
humour, enlisted, exchanging ferula for musket ; and had got the 
length of the halberd, beyond which nothing could be hoped ; 
when the Bastille barriers falling made passage for him, and 
he is here. Hoche bore a hand at the literal overturn of 
the Bastille ; he was, as we, a Sergeant of the Gardes 
Fran^aises, spending his pay in rushlights and cheap editions 
of books. How the Mountains are bui-st, and many an En- 
celadus is disimprisoned ; and Captains founding on Four parch- 
ments of Nobility are blown with their parchments across the 
Rhine, into Lunar Limbo ! 

What high feats of arms, therefore, were done in these Four- 
teen Armies ; and how, for love of Liberty and hope of Promo- 
tion, lowborn valour cut its desperate way to Generalship ; and, 
from the central Carnot in Salut Public to the outmost drum- 
mer on the Frontiers, men strove for their Republic, let Readers 
fancy. The snows of Winter, the flowers of Summer continue 

• I lis Narrative (in Deux Amis, xiv. 177-S6). 


Prairial 13] June ist. 

to be stained with warlike blood. Gaelic impetuosity mounts 
ever higher with victory ; spirit of Jacobinism weds itself to 
national vanity : the Soldiers of the Republic are becoming, as 
we prophesied, very Sons of Fire. Barefooted, barebacked: but 
with bread and iron you can get to China ! It is one Nation 
against the whole world ; but the Nation has that within her 
which the whole world will not conquer. Cimmeria, astonished, 
recoils faster or slower ; all round the Republic there rises fiery, 
as it were, a magic ring of musket-volleying and ga-ira-ing. Ma- 
jesty of Prussia, as Majesty of Spain, will by and by acknow- 
ledge his sins and the Republic ; and make a Peace of Bale. 

Foreign Commerce, Colonies, Factories in the East and in. 
the West, are fallen or falling into the hands of sea-ruling Pitt, 
enemy of human nature. Nevertheless what sound is this that 
we hear, on the first of June 1794; sound as of war-thunder 
borne from the Ocean too, of tone most piercing? War-thunder 
from off the Brest waters : Villaret-Joyeuse and English Howe, 
after long manoeuvering, have ranked themselves there ; and 
are belching fire. The enemies of human nature are on their 
own element ; cannot be conquered ; cannot be kept from con- 
quering. Twelve hours of raging cannonade ; sun now sinking 
westward through the battle-smoke : six French Ships taken, 
the Battle lost ; what Ship soever can still sail, making off ! 
But how is it, then, with that Vengeur Ship, she neither strikes 
nor makes off? She is lamed, she cannot make off; strike she 
will not. Fire rakes her fore and aft from victorious enemies ; 
the Vengeur is sinking. Strong are ye. Tyrants of the sea ; yet 
we also, are we weak ? Lo ! all flags, streamers, jacks, every 
rag of tricolor that will yet run on rope, fly rustling aloft : the 
whole crew crowds to the upper deck ; and with universal soul- 
maddening yell, shouts Vive la RSpublique, — sinking, sinking. 
She staggers, she lurches, her last drunk whirl ; Ocean yawns 
abysmal : down rushes the Vengeur, carrying Vive la R^pzib- 
lique along with her, unconquerable, into Eternity. 7 Let foreign 
Despots think of that. There is an Unconquerable in man, 
when he stands on his Rights of Man : let Despots and Slaves 
and all people know this, and only them that stand on the 
Wrongs of Man tremble to know it. — So has History written, 
nothing doubting, of the sunk Vengeur. 

7 Compare Barrere (Ckoix des Rafpmts, xvi. 416-21); Lord Howe (An- 
nual Register of 1794, p. 86), &c. 


1794 [Year 2. 

Reader ! Mendcz Pinto, Munchausen, Cagliostro, 

Psalmanazar have been great ; but they are not the greatest. 
O Barrere, Barrere, Anacreon of the Guillotine ! must inquisi- 
tive pictorial History, in a new edition, ask again, ' How is it 
with the Vengeui;' in this its glorious suicidal sinking; and, 
with resentful brush, dash a bend-sinister of contumelious lamp- 
black through thee and it .? Alas, alas ! The Vcngetir, after 
fighting bravely, did sink altogether as other ships do, her cap- 
tain and above two -hundred of her crew escaping gladly in 
British boats ; and this same enormous inspiring Feat, and 
rumour 'of sound most piercing,' turns out to be an enormous 
inspiring Non-entity, extant nowhere save, as falsehood, in the 
brain of Barrere ! Actually so.s Founded, like the World itself, 
on Nothing J proved by Convention Report, by solemn Conven- 
tion Decree and Decrees, and wooden 'Model of the Vengeurf 
believed, bewept, besung by the whole French People to this 
hour, it may be regarded as Barrere's masterpiece ; the largest, 
most inspiring piece of blagtce manulactured, for some centu- 
ries, by any man or nation. As such, and not otherwise, be it 
henceforth memoi'able. 



In this manner, mad-blazing with flame of all imaginable 
tints, from the red of Tophet to the stellar-bright, blazes off 
this Consummation of Sansculottism. 

But the hundredth part of the things that were done, and 
the thousandth part of the things that v/ere projected and de- 
creed to be done, ^vould tire the tongue of History. Statue of 
the Peuple Sotiverain, high as Strasburg Steeple ; which shall 
fling its shadow from the Pont Neuf over Jardin National and 
Convention Hall; — enormous, in Painter David's Head! With 
other the like enormous Statues not a few : realised in paper 
Decree. For, indeed, the Statue of Liberty herself is still but 
Plaster, in the Place de la Rdvolution. Then Equalisation of 
Weights and Measures, with decimal division ; Institutions, of 
Music and of much else ; Institute in general ; School of Arts, 
School of Mars, Eleves de la Pairic, Normal Schools : amid 

8 Carl)'le's MUcellaiiies, § Sinking of the Vengeur. 


Messidor 3] June 26tli. 

such Gun-boring, Altar-buining, Saltpetre-digging, and miracul- 
ous improvements in Tannery ! 

What, for example, is this that Engineer Chappe is doing, 
in the Park of Vincennes ? In the Park of Vincennes ; and on- 
wards, they say, in the Park of Lepelletier Saint-Fargeau the 
assassinated Deputy; and still onwards to the Heights of Ecouen 
and farther, he has scaffolding set up, has posts driven in ; 
wooden arms with elbow-joints are jerking and fugling in the 
air, in the most rapid mysterious manner ! Citoyens ran up, 
suspicious. Yes, O Citoyens, we are signalling : it is a device 
this, worthy of the Republic ; a thing for what we will call Far- 
writi)ig without the aid of post-bags ; in Greek it shall be named 
T^&'gx-di^.—TelegyapJiesacrc! answers Citoyenism : For writ- 
ing to Traitors, to Austria ? — and tears it down. Chappe had 
to escape, and get a new Legislative Decree. Nevertheless he 
has accomplished it, the indefatigable Chappe : this his Far- 
ivritcr, with its wooden arms and elbow-joints, can intelligibly 
signal ; and lines of them are set up, to the North Frontiers 
and elsewhither. On an Autumn evening of the Year Two, Far- 
writer having just written that Conde Town has surrendered to 
us, we send from the Tuileries Convention-Hall this response 
in the shape of Decree : ' The name of Conde is changed to 
' Nord-Libre, North-Free. The Army of the North ceases not 
* to merit well of the country.' — To the admiration of men! For 
lo, in some half hour, while the Convention yet debates, there 
arrives this new answer : ' I inform thee, je t'annonce, Citizen 
' President, that the Decree of Convention, ordering change of 
' the name Condd into North-Free j and the other, declaring 
' that the Army of the North ceases not to merit well of the 
' country , are transmitted and acknowledged by Telegraph. I 
' have instructed my Officer at Lille to forward them to North- 
' Free by express. Signed, Chappe.' 1 

Or see, over Fleurus in the Netherlands, where General 
Jourdan, having now swept the soil of Liberty, and advanced 
thus far, is just about to fight, and sweep or be swept, hangs 
there not in the Heaven's Vault some Prodigy, seen by Austrian 
eyes and spy-glasses : in the similitude of an enormous Wind- 
bag, with netting and enormous Saucer depending from it ? A 
Jove's Balance, O ye Austrian spy-glasses ? One saucer-scale 
of a Jove's Balance ; votir poor Austrian scale having kicked 
1 Choix des Rapports, xv. 378, 384. 


1794 [Year 3. 
itself quite aloft, out of sight ? By Heaven, answer the spy- 
glasses, it is a Montgolfier, a Balloon, and they are making 
signals ! Austrian cannon-battery barks at this Montgolfier; 
harmless as dog at the Moon : the Montgolfier makes its signals ; 
detects what Austrian ambuscade there may be, and descends 
at its ease. 2 — What will not these devils incarnate contrive ? 

On the whole, is it not, O Reader, one of the strangest 
Flame-Pictures that ever painted itself; flaming off there, on 
its ground of Guillotine-black ? And the nightly Theatres are 
Twenty-three ; and the Salons de danse are Sixty; full of mere 
Egalite, Fraternitc and Cannagnolc. And Section Committee- 
rooms are Forty-eight ; redolent of tobacco and brandy : vigor- 
ous with twenty-pence a-day, coercing the Suspect. And the 
Houses of Arrest are Twelve, for Paris alone ; crowded and 
even crammed. And at all turns, you need your * Certificate of 
Civism ;' be it for going out, or for coming in ; nay without it 
you cannot, for money, get your daily ounces of bread. Dusky 
red-capped Bakers'-queues; wagging themselves; not in silence! 
For we still live by Maximum, in all things ; waited on by these 
two. Scarcity and Confusion. The faces of men are darkened 
with suspicion ; with suspecting, or being suspect. The streets 
lie unswept ; the ways unmended. Law has shut her Books ; 
speaks little, save impromptu, through the throat of Tinville. 
Crimes go unpunished ; not crimes against the Revolution.^ 'The 
number of foundling children,' as some compute, ' is doubled.' 

How silent now sits Royalism ; sits all Aristocratism ; Re- 
spectability that kept its Gig ! The honour now, and the safety, 
is to Poverty, not to Wealth. Your Citizen, who would be fash- 
ionable, walks abroad, with his Wife on his arm, in red-wool 
nightcap, black-shag spencer, and carmagnole complete. Aris- 
tocratism crouches low, in what shelter is still left ; submitting 
to all requisitions, vexations ; too happy to escape with life. 
Ghastly chateaus stare on you by the wayside ; disroofed, dis- 
windowed ; which the National Housebroker is peeling for the 
lead and ashlar. The old tenants hover disconsolate, over the 
Rhine with Condc^ ; a spectacle to men. Ci-dcvant Seigneur, 
exquisite in palate, will become an exquisite Restaurateur Cook 
in Hamburg ; Ci-dc7>aiit Madame, exquisite in dress, a succcss- 

^ 26th June 1794 (see Rapport de Giiytpn-Morveau sur les Aerostats, m 
Moniictir du 6 Vendf^miaire, An 2). 

* Mercior, v, 25; Deux Amis, xii. 142-199. 


Year 2] 1794. 

fill Ma>xhande des Modes in London. In Newgate-Street, you 
meet M. le Marquis, with a rough deal on his shoulder, adze 
and jack-plane under arm ; he has taken to the joiner trade ; it 
being necessary to live (fmtt vivre).* — Higher than all French- 
men the domestic Stock-jobber flourishes, — in a day of Paper- 
money. The Farmer also flourishes : ' Farmers' houses,' says 
Mercier, ' have become like Pawnbrokers' shops ;' all manner 
of furniture, apparel, vessels of gold and silver accumulate them- 
selves there : bread is precious. The Farmer's rent is Paper- 
money, and he alone of men has bread : Farmer is better than 
Landlord, and will himself become Landlord. 

And daily, we say, like a black Spectre, silently through 
that Life-tumult, passes the Revolution Cart ; writing on the 
walls its Mene, Mene, Thou art weighed, and found wafiting ! 
A Spectre with which one has grown familiar. Men have ad- 
justed themselves : complaint issues not from that Death-tum- 
bril. Weak women and ci-devants, their plumage and finery all 
tarnished, sit there ; with a silent gaze, as if looking into the 
Infinite Black. The once light lip wears a curl of irony, uttering 
no word ; and the Tumbril fares along. They may be guilty 
before Heaven, or not ; they are guilty, we suppose, before the 
Revolution. Then, does not the Republic ' coin money' of them, 
with its great axe ? Red Nightcaps howl dire approval : the 
rest of Paris looks on ; if with a sigh, that is much : Fellow- 
creatures whom sighing cannot help ; whom black Necessity 
and Tinville have clutched. 

One other thing, or rather two other things, we will still 
mention ; and no more : The Blond Perukes ; the Tannery at 
Meudon. Great talk is of these Perniques blondes : O Reader, 
they are made from the Heads of Guillotined women ! The 
locks of a Duchess, in this way, may come to cover the scalp of 
a Cordwainer ; her blonde German Frankism his black Gaelic 
poll, if it be bald. Or they may be worn affectionately, as 
relics; rendering one suspect?^ Citizens use them, not with- 
out mockery ; of a rather cannibal sort. 

Still deeper into one's heart goes that Tannery at Meudon ; 
not mentioned among the other miracles of tanning ! 'At Meu- 
* don,' says Montgaillard with considerable calmness, ' there 

* See Deux Amis, xv. 189-192; Mimoires de Genlis; Founders 0/ the 
French Republic, See. &c. 

• Mercier, ii, 134. 




1794 [Year 2. 
' was a Tanneiy of Human Skins ; such of the Guillotined as I 
' seemed worth flaying : of which perfectly good wash-leather 
• was made ;' for breeches, and other uses. The skin of the 
men, he remarks, was superior in toughness {consistance) and 
quality to shamoy ; that of the women was good for almost no- 
thing, being so soft in texture!'"' — Histoiy looking back over 
Cannibalism, through Pmxhass Pilgrims and all early and late 
Records, will perhaps find no terrestrial Cannibalism of a sort, 
on the whole, so detestable. It is a manufactured, soft-feeling, 
quietly elegant sort ; a sovi perjide / Alas, then, is man's civili- 
sation only a wrappage, through which the savage nature of 
him can still burst, infernal as ever ? Nature still makes him ; 
and has an Infernal in her as well as a Celestial. 

* Montgaillard, iv, 290. 




What, then, is this Thing called La Revolution, which, like an 
Angel of Death, hangs over Fi-ance, noyading, fusillading, fight- 
ing, gun-boring, tanning human skins ? La Revolution is but 
so many Alphabetic Letters ; a thing nowhere to be laid hands 
on, to be clapt under lock and key : where is it ? what is it ? 
It is the Madness that dwells in the hearts of men. In this 
man it is, and in that man ; as a rage or as a terror, it is in all 
men. Invisible, impalpable ; and yet no black Azrael, with wings 
spread over half a continent, with sword sv/eeping from sea to 
sea, could be a truer Reality. 

To explain, what is called explaining, the march of this 
Revblutionary Government, be no task of ours. Man cannot 
explain it. A paralytic Couthon, asking in the Jacobins, ' What 
' hast thou done to be hanged if Counter-Revolution should 
' arrive ?' a sombre Saint-Just, not yet six-and-twcnty, declaring 
that ' for Revolutionists there is no rest but in the tomb ;' a 
seagreen Robespierre converted into vinegar and gall ; much 
more an Amar and Vadier, a Collet and Rillaud : to inquire 
what thoughts, predetermination or prevision, might be in the 
head of these men ! Record of their thought remains not ; Death 
and Darkness have swept it out utterly. Nay, if we even had 
their thought, all that they could have articulately spoken to us, 
how insignificant a fraction were that of the Thing which real- 
ised itself, which decreed itself, on signal given by them ! As 
has been said more than once, this Revolutionary Government 


1794 [Year 2. 
is not a self-conscious but a blind fatal one. Each man, en- 
veloped in his ambient-atmosphere of revolutionary fanatic Mad- 
ness, rushes on, impelled and impelling ; and has become a 
blind brute Force ; no rest for him but in the grave ! Darkness 
and the mystery of horrid cruelty cover it for us, in History ; 
as they did in Nature. The chaotic Thunder-cloud, with its 
pitchy black, and its tumult of dazzling jagged fire, in a world 
all electric : thou wilt- not undertake to show how that com- 
ported itself, — what the secrets of its dark womb were ; from 
what sources, with what specialties, the lightning it held did, 
in confused brightness of terror, strike forth, destructive and 
self-destructive, till it ended ? Like a Blackness naturally of 
Erebus, which by will of Providence had for once mounted it- 
self into dominion and the Azure : is not this properly the nature 
of Sansculottism consummating itself? Of which Erebus Black- 
ness be it enough to discern that this and the other dazzling 
fire-bolt, dazzling fire-torrent, does by small Volition and great 
Necessity, verily issue, — in such and such succession ; destruc- 
tive so and so, self-destructive so and so : till it end. 

Royalism is extinct ; 'sunk,' as they say, 'in the mud of the 
Loire ;' Republicanism dominates without and within : what, 
therefore, on the 15th day of March 1794, is this? Arrestment, 
sudden really as a bolt out of the Blue, has hit strange victims; 
Hdbert Pcre Duchesne, Bibliopolist Momoro, Clerk Vincent, 
General Ronsin ; high Cordelier Patriots, red-capped Magis- 
trates of Paris, Worshippers of Reason, Commanders of Revo- 
lutionary Army ! Eight short days ago, their Cordelier Club 
was loud, and louder than ever, with Patriot denunciations. 
l\€bQYt Pen' Dnc/tcsne had "held his tongue and his heart these 
" two months, at sight of Moderates, Crypto-Aristocrats, Ca- 
" milles, Sceh'rats in the Convention itself: but could not do it 
" any longer; would, if other remedy were not, invoke the sacred 
" right of Insurrection." So spake Hubert in Cordelier Session; 
with vivats, till the roofs rang again.i Eight short days ago ; 
and now already ! They rub their eyes : it is no dream ; they 
find themselves in the Luxembourg. Goose Gobel too ; and they 
that burnt Churches ! Chaumette himself, potent Procureur, 
Agent National as they now call it, who could ' recognise the 
Suspect by the very face of them,' he hngers but three days ; 

* Moniicur, dii 17 Vcntose (7th March) 1704, 


Veiitose] March. 

on the third day he too is hurled in. Most chopfallcn, bhie, 
enters the National Agent this Limbo whither he has sent so 
many. Prisoners crowd round, jibing and jeering ; "Sublime 
" National Agent," says one, "in virtue of thy immortal Pro- 
" clamation, lo there ! I am suspect, thou art suspect, he is sus- 
" pect, we are suspect, ye are suspect, they are suspect !" 

The meaning of these things ? Meaning ! It is a Plot ; Plot 
of the most extensive ramifications ; which, however, Barrcire 
holds the threads of. Such Church -burning and scandalous 
masquerades of Atheism, fit to make the Revolution odious : 
where indeed could they originate but in the gold of Pitt ? Pitt 
indubitably, as Preternatural Insight will teach one, did hire 
this Eaction of Enragc's, to play their fantastic tricks ; to roar 
in their Cordeliers Club about Moderatism ; to print their Pcre 
Duchesne J worship skyblue Reason in red nightcap ; rob Altars, 
—and bring the spoil to us ! 

Still more indubitable, visible to the mere bodily sight, is 
this : that the Cordeliers Club sits pale, with anger and terror; 
and has 'veiled the Rights of Man,' — without effect. Likewise 
that the Jacobins are in considerable confusion ; busy ' purging 
themselves, sVpuranf,' as in times of Plot and public Calamity 
they have repeatedly had to do. Not even Camille Desmoulins 
but has given offence : nay there have risen murmurs against 
Danton himself; though he bellowed them down, and Robes- 
pierre finished the matter by ' embracing him in the Tribune.' 

Whom shall the Repubhc and a jealous Mother Society 
trust ? In these times of temptation, of Preternatural Insight ! 
For there are Factions of the Stranger, * de T etr anger,' Factions 
of Moderates, of Enraged ; all manner of Factions : we walk in 
a world of Plots ; strings universally spread, of deadly gins and 
falltraps, baited by the gold of Pitt ! Clootz, Speaker of Man- 
kind so-called, with his Evidences of Maliomeian Religion, and 
babble of Universal Republic, him an incorruptible Robespierre 
has purged away. Baron Clootz, and Paine rebellious Needle- 
man lie, these two months, in the Luxembourg ; limbs of the 
Faction dc Ictranger. Representative Phclippeaux is purged 
out : he came back from La Vendee with an ill report in his 
mouth against rogue Rossignol, and our method of warfare 
there. Recant it, O Phdlippeaux, we entreat thee ! Phclippeaux 
will not recant ; and is purged out. Representative Fabre d'Eg- 
lantine. famed Nomenclator o( Romme's Calendar, is purged 

214 THERMIDOR. book vi. 

1794 [Year -2. 
out ; nay, is cast into the Luxembourg : accused of Legislative 
Swindling 'in regard to moneys of the India Company.' There 
with his Chabots, Bazires, guilty of the like, let Fabre wait his 
destiny. And Westermann friend of Danton, he who led the 
Marseillese on the Tenth of August, and fought well in La 
Vendee, but spoke not well of rogue Rossignol, is purged out. 
Lucky, if he too go not to the Luxembourg. And your Prolys, 
Guzmans, of the Faction of the Stranger, they have gone; Per- 
eyra, though he fled, is gone, * taken in the disguise of a Tavern 
Cook.' I am suspect, thou art suspect, he is suspect ! — 

The great heart of Danton is weary of it. Danton is gone 
to native Arcis, for a little breathing-time of peace : Away, black 
Arachne-webs, thou world of Fury, Terror and Suspicion ; wel- 
come, thou everlasting Mother, with thy spring greenness, thy 
kind household loves and memories ; true art thou, were all 
else untrue ! The great Titan walks silent, by the banks of the 
murmuring Aube, in young native haunts that knew him when 
a boy ; wonders what the end of these things may be. 

But strangest of all, Camille Desmoulins is purged out. 
Couthon gave as a test in regard to Jacobin purgation the ques- 
tion, ' What hast thou done to be hanged if Counter-Revolution 
should arrive ?' Yet Camille, who could so well answer this 
question, is purged out ! The truth is, Camille, early in De- 
cember last, began publishing anew Journal, or Series of Pam- 
phlets, entitled the Viaix Cordelier, Old Cordelier. Camille, 
not afraid at one time to ' embrace Liberty on a heap of dead 
bodies,' begins to ask now, Whether among so many arresting 
and punishing Committees, there ought not to be a ' Committee 
of Mercy' ? Saint -Just, he observes, is an extremely solemn 
young Republican, who ' carries his head as if it were a Saint- 
Sacretnent,' adorable Hostie, or divine Real-Presence ! Sharply 
enough, this ^/^ Cordelier, — Danton and he were of the earliest 
primary Cordeliers, — shoots his glittering war-shafts into your 
new Cordeliers, your Heberts, Momoros, with their brawlinj_ 
brutalities and despicabilities ; say, as the Sun -god (for poor 
Camille is a Poet) shot into that Python Serpent sprung of 

Whereat, as was natural, the H^bertist Python did hiss and 
writhe amazingly ; and threaten ' sacred right oi Insurrection ;' 
— and, as we saw, get cast into Prison. Nay, with all the old 
wit, dexterity and light graceful poignancy, Camille, translating 


Germ. 4] March 24th. 

' out of Tacitus, from the Reign of Tiberius," pricks Into the 
La^v of the Suspect itself; making it odious! Twice, in the 
Decade, his wild Leaves issue ; full of wit, nay of humour, of 
harmonious ingenuity and insight, — one of the strangest pheno- 
mena of that dark time ; and smite, in their wild-sparkling way, 
at varous monstrosities, Saint-Sacrament heads, and Juggernaut 
idols, in a rather reckless manner. To the great joy of Joseph- 
ine Beiuharnais, and the other Five-thousand and odd Suspect, 
who fi'l the Twelve Houses of Arrest ; on whom a ray of hope 
dawns ! Robespierre, at first approbatory, knew not at last what 
to thirk ; then thought, with his Jacobins, that Camille must be 
expelled. A man of true Revolutionary spirit, this Camille; but 
with tlie unwisest sallies ; whom Aristocrats and Moderates have 
the ate to corrupt ! Jacobinism is in uttermost crisis and struggle ; 
enmeshed wholly in plots, corruptibilities, neck-gins and baited 
falltiaps of Pitt ennoni dii genfc hicmain. Camille's First Num- 
ber begins with ' O Pitt!' — his last is dated 1 5 Pluviose Year 2, 
3d February 1794 ; and ends with these words of Montezuma's, 
' L(S dieux out soif, The gods are athirst.' 

Be this as it may, the Hdbertists lie in Prison only some 
r.ine days. On the 24th of March, therefore, the Revolution 
Tumbrils carry through that Life-tumult a new cargo : Hdbert, 
Vincent, Momoro, Ronsin, Nineteen of them in all ; with whom, 
curious enough, sits Clootz Speaker of Mankind. They have 
been massed swiftly into a lump, this miscellany of Nonde- 
scripts ; and travel now their last road. No help. They too 
must ' look through the little window ;' they too ' must sneeze 
into the sack,' dfermier datis le sac ; as they have done to others, 
so is it done to them. Sainte-Gtdllotine, meseems, is worse than 
the old Saints of Superstition; a man-devouring Saint? Clootz, 
still with an air of polished sarcasm, endeavours to jest, to offer 
cheering ' arguments of Materialism ;* he requested to be exe- 
cuted last, 'in order to establish certain principles,' — which 
hitherto, I think, Philosophy has got no good of. General Ron- 
sin too, he still looks forth with some air of defiance, eye of 
command : the rest are sunk in a stony paleness of despair. 
Momoro, poor Bibliopolist, no Agrarian Law yet realised, — they 
might as well have hanged thee at Evreux, twenty months ago, 
when Girondin Buzot hindered them. Hebert Fb-e Duchesne 
shall never in this world rise in sacred right of insurrection ; he 

2i6 THERMIDOR. book vi. 

1794 [Year 2. 
sits there low enough, head sunk on breast ; Red Nightcaps 
shouting round him, in frightful parody of his Newspaper 
Articles, " Grand choler of the Pere Duchesne !" Thus perish 
they ; the sack receives all their heads. Through some section 
of History, Nineteen spectre-chimeras shall flit, squeaking and 
gibbering ; till Oblivion swallow them. 

In the course of a week, the Revolutionary Army itself is 
disbanded ; the General having become spectral. This Taction 
of Rabids, therefore, is also purged from the Republicai soil ; 
here also the baited falltraps of that Pitt have been wrenched 
up harmless ; and anew there is joy over a Plot Discovered. 
The Revolution, then, is verily devouring its own childrei ? All 
Anarchy, by the nature of it, is not only destructive bit self- 



Danton meanwhile has been pressmgly sent for from Arcis : 
he mu« return instantly, cried Camille, cried Phclippcaux and 
Friends, who scented danger in the wind. Danger enough! 
A Danton, a Robespierre, chief-products of a victorious Revo- 
lution, are now arrived in immediate front of one another ; must 
ascertain how they will live together, rule together. One con- 
ceives easily the deep mutual incompatibility that divided these 
two : with what terror of feminine hatred the poor seagreen For- 
mula looked at the monstrous colossal Reality, and grew greener 
to behold him ; — the Reality, again, struggling to think no ill 
of a chief-product of the Revolution ; yet feeling at bottom that 
such chief-product was little other than a chief windbag, blown 
large by Popular air ; not a man, with the heart of a man, but 
a poor spasmodic incorruptible pedant, with a logic-formula 
instead of heart ; of Jesuit or Methodist-Parson nature ; full of 
sincere-cant, incorruptibility, of virulence, poltroonery ; barren 
as the eastwind 1 Two such chief-products are too much foi 
one Revolution. 

Friends, trembling at the results of a quarrel on their part, 
brought them to meet. "It is right," said Danton, swallowing 
much indignation, " to repress the Royalists : but we should not 
strike except where it is useful to the Republic ; we should not 
confound the innocent and the guilty." — "And who told you," 


Germ. 11] March 31st. 

replied Robespierre with a poisonous look, " that one innocent 
person had perished?" — " Quoi," said Danton, turning round 
to Friend Paris self-named Fabricius, Juryman in the Revolu- 
tionary Tribunal : " 2?/^/, not one innocent .? What sayest thou 
of it, Fabricius?"! — Friends, Westermann, this Paris and others 
urged him to show himself, to ascend the Tribune and act. The 
man Danton was not prone to show himself ; to act, or uproar 
for his own safety. A man of careless, large, hoping nature ; a 
large nature that could rest : he would sit whole hours, they say, 
hearing Camille talk, and liked nothing so well. Friends urged 
him to ily; his Wife urged him : " Whither fly?" answered he: 
" If freed France cast me out, there are only dungeons for me 
elsewhere. One carries not his country with him at the sole of 
his shoe !" The man Danton sat still. Not even the arrest- 
ment of Friend Hdrault, a member of Saltit, yet arrested by 
Saint, can rouse Danton. — On the night of the 30th of March 
Juryman Paris came rushing in ; haste looking through his eyes : 
A clerk of the Saint Committee had told him Danton's warrant 
was made out, he is to be arrested this very night ! Entreaties 
there are and trepidation, of poor Wife, of Paris and Friends : 
Danton sat silent for a while; then answered, "//j n'oseraient. 
They dare not ;" and would take no measures. Murmuring 
" They dare not," he goes to sleep as usual. 

And yet, on the morrow morning, strange rumour spreads 
over Paris City : Danton, Camille, Phdlippeaux, Lacroix have 
been arrested overnight ! It is verily so: the corridors of the 
Luxembourg were all crowded. Prisoners crowding forth to see 
this giant of the Revolution enter among them. " Messieurs," 
said Danton politely, " I hoped soon to have got you all out of 
this : but here I am myself; and one sees not where it will 
end." — Rumour may spread over Paris : the Convention clusters 
itself into groups ; wide-eyed, whispering " Danton arrested !" 
Who, then, is safe ? Legendre, mounting the Tribune, utters, 
at his own peril, a feeble word for him ; moving that he be 
heard at that Bar before indictment ; but Robespierre frowns 
him down : " Did you hear Chabot or Bazire? Would you have 
two weights and measures ?" Legendre cowers low : Danton, 
like the others, must take his doom. 

Danton's Prison-thoughts were curious to have ; but are not 
given in any quantity : indeed few such remarkable men have 
1 Diociraphic dcs Minislrcs, § Danton. 

2i8 THERMIDOR. book vi. 

1794 [Year 2. 
been left so obscure to us as this Titan of the Revolution. He 
was heard to ejaculate: " This time twelvemonth, I was moving 
the creation of that same Revolutionary Tribunal, I crave par- 
don for it of God and man. They are all Brothers Cain ; Brissot 
would have had me guillotined as Robespien-e now will. I leave 
the whole business in a frightful welter {gdclus epoicvantablc) : 
not one of thcni understands anything of government. Robes- 
pierre will follow me ; I drag dovv'u Robespierre. O, it were 
better to be a poor fisherman than to meddle with governing of 
men." — Camille's young beautiful Wife, who had made him rich 
not in money alone, hovers round the Luxembourg, like a dis- 
embodied spirit, day and night. Camille's stolen letters to her 
still exist ; stained with the mark of his tears." " I carry my 
head like a Saint- Sacrament ?" so Saint-Just was heard to 
mutter : " perhaps he will carry his like a Saint-Denis." 

Unhappy Danton, thou still unhappier light Camille, once 
light Proanxiir de la Lanterne, ye also have arrived, then, at 
the Bourne of Creation, where, like Ulysses Polytlas at the limit 
and utmost Gades of his voyage, gazing into that dim Waste 
beyond Creation, a man does see the Shade of his Mother, pale, 
ineffectual ; — and days when his Mother nursed and wrapped 
him are ail-too sternly contrasted with this day ! Danton, 
Camille, Hdrault, Westermann, and the others, very strangely 
massed up with Bazires, Swindler Chabots, Fabre d'Eglantines, 
Banker Freys, a most motley Batch, ' Four7iee' as such things 
will be called, stand ranked at the Bar of Tinville. It is the 
2d of April 1794. Danton has had but three days to lie in 
Prison ; for the time presses. 

What is your name? place of abode? and the like, Fouquier 
asks ; according to formality. " My name is Danton," answers 
he; "a name tolerably known in the Revolution: my abode 
will soon be Annihilation {dans le Neant) ; but I shall live in 
the Pantheon of History." A man will endeavour to say some- 
thing forcible, be it by nature or not ! Hcrault mentions cpi- 
grammatically that he " sat in this Hall, and was detested of 
Parlementeers." Camille makes answer, " My age is that of the 
ban Sanscidotle Jesus j an age fatal to Revolutionists." O Ca- 
mille, Camille ! And yet in that Divine Transaction, let us say, 

- ..''vvjV" iur Camille Dcsmoullns (in Vicux Cordelier, Paris, 1825), 
pp. 1-29. 


Germ. 13] April 2d. 

there did lie, among other things, the fatalest Reproof ever 
uttered here below to Worldly Right-honourableness ; ' the high- 
est fact,' so devout Novalis calls it, 'in the Rights of Man.' 
Camille's real age, it would seem, is thirty-four. Danton is one 
year older. 

Some five months ago, the Trial of the Twenty-two Gii'on- 
dins was the greatest that Fouquier had then done. But here 
is a still greater to do ; a thing which tasks the whole faculty 
of Fouquier ; which makes the very heart of him waver. For it 
is the voice of Danton that reverberates now from these domes; 
in passionate words, piercing with their wild sincerity, winged 
with wrath. Your best Witnesses he shivers into ruin at one 
stroke. He demands that the Committee-men themselves come 
as Witnesses, as Accusers; he "will cover them with ignominy," 
He raises his huge stature, he shakes his huge black head, fire 
flashes from the eyes of him, — piercing to all Republican hearts : 
so that the very Galleries, though we filled them by ticket, mur- 
mur sympathy ; and are like to burst down and raise the People, 
and deliver him ! He complains loudly that he is classed with 
Chabots, with swindling Stockjobbers ; that his Indictment is a 
list of platitudes and horrors. " Danton hidden on the loth of 
August ?" reverberates he, with the roar of a lion in the toils : 
" where are the men that had to press Danton to show himself, 
that day ? Where are these high-gifted souls of whom he bor- 
rowed energy ? Let them appear, these Accusers of mine : I 
have all the clearness of my self-possession when I demand 
them. I will unmask the three shallow scoundrels," les trois 
plats coquins, Saint-Just, Couthon, Lebas, "who fawn on Robes- 
pierre, and lead him towards his destruction. Let them produce 
themselves here ; I will plunge them into Nothingness, out of 
which they ought never to have risen." The agitated President 
agitates his bell ; enjoins calmness, in a vehement manner : 
"What is it to thee how I defend myself?" cries the other; 
"the right oi dooming me is thine always. The voice of a man 
speaking for his honour and his life may well drown the jingling 
of thy bell !" Thus Danton, higher and higher ; till the lion- 
voice of him ' dies away in his throat :' speech will not utter 
what is in that man. The Galleries murmur ominously ; the 
first day's Session is over. 

O Tinville, President Herman, what will yc do ? They have 
two days more of it, by strictest Revolutionary Law. The Gal« 

220 TIIERMIDOR. book vi. 

1794 [Year 2, 
lerics already murmur. If this Danton were to burst your mcsh- 
work ! — Very curious indeed to consider. It turns on a hair : 
and what a hoitytoity were there. Justice and Culprit changing 
places ; and the whole History of France running changed ! For 
in France there is this Danton only that could still try to govern 
France. He only, the wild amorphous Titan ; — and perhaps 
that other olivc-complexioned individual, the Artillery-Officer at 
Toulon, whom we left pushing his fortune in the South ? 

On the evening of the second day, matters looking not 
better but worse and worse, Fouquier and Herman, distraction 
in their aspect, rush over to Saint riiblic. What is to be done? 
Saint Public rapidly concocts a new Decree ; whereby if men 
' insult Justice,' they may be 'thrown out of the Debates.' For 
indeed, withal, is there not 'a Plot in the Luxembourg Prison'.'' 
Ci-dcvant General Dillon, and others of the Suspect, plotting 
with Camillc's Wife to ^\'s,\.x\S^\\\.q assignats; to force the Prisons, 
overset the Republic ? Citizen Laflotte, himself Suspect but 
desiring enfranchisement, has reported said Plot for us : — a re- 
jiort that may bear fruit ! Enough, on the morrow morning, 
an obedient Convention passes this Decree. Saint rushes off 
with it to the aid of Tinvilic, reduced now almost to extremities. 
And so, Ho7s de Dibats, Out of the Debates, ye insolents ! Police- 
men, do your duty ! In such manner, with a dead-lift effort, 
Saint, Tinville, Herman, Leroi Dix-Aonf, and all stanch jury- 
men setting heart and shoulder to it, the Jury becomes ' suffi- 
ciently instructed ;* Sentence is passed, is sent by an Official, 
and torn and trampled on: Death this day. It is the 5th of 
April 1794. Camillc's poor Wife may cease hovering about 
this Prison. Nay let her kiss her poor children ; and prepare 
to enter it, and to follow ! — 

Danton carried a high look in the Death-cart. Not so 
Camille : it is but one week, and all is so topsyturvied ; angel 
Wife left weeping ; love, riches, revolutionary fame, left all at 
the Prison-gate ; carnivorous Rabble now howling round. Palp- 
able, and yet incredible ; like a madman's dream ! Camille 
struggles and writhes ; his shoulders shuffle the loose coat off" 
them, which hangs knotted, the hands tied : "Calm, my friend," 
said Danton ; "heed not that vile canaille (laissez Id cette vile 
canaille)." At the foot of the Scaffold, Danton was heard to 
ejaculate: " O my Wife, my well-beloved, I shall never see thee 
more, then!" — but, interrupting himself: "Danton, no weak- 


Germ. 21] April loth. 

r.ess !" He said to Hdrault-Sdchelles stepping forward to em- 
brace him: "Our heads will meet there" in the Headsman's 
sack. His last words were to Samson the Headsman himself: 
"Thou wilt show my head to the people; it is worth showmg." 
So passes, like a gigantic mass of valour, ostentation, fury, 
affection and wild revolutionary force and manhood, this Dan- 
ton, to his unknown home. He was of Arcis-sur-Aube ; born of 
' good farmer-people' there. He had many sins ; but one worst 
sin he had not, that of Cant. No hollow Formalist, deceptive 
and self-deceptive, ghastly to the natural sense, was this ; but a 
very Man : with all his dross he was a Man ; fiery-real, from the 
great fire-bosom of Nature herself. He saved France from Bruns- 
wick ; he walked straight his own wild road, whither it led him. 
He may live for some generations in the memory of men. 



Next week, it is still but the loth of April, there comes a 
new Nineteen ; Chaumette, Gobel, Hebert's Widow, the Widow 
of Camille : these also roll their fated journey ; black Death 
devours them. Mean Hubert's Widow was weeping, Camille's 
Widow tried to speak comfort to her. O ye kind Heavens, 
azure, beautiful, eternal behind your tempests and Time-clouds, 
is there not pity in store for all ! Gobel, it seems, was repent- 
ant ; he begged absolution of a Priest ; died as a Gobel best 
could. For Anaxagoras Chaumette, the sleek head now stripped 
of its bonnet rouge, what hope is there ? Unless Death were 
« an eternal sleep* ? Wretched Anaxagoras, God shall judge 
thee, not I. 

Hubert, therefore, is gone, and the PIdbertists ; they that 
robbed Churches, and adored blue Reason in red nightcap. 
Great Danton, and the Dantonists ; they also are gone. Down 
to the catacombs ; they are become silent men ! Let no Paris 
Municipality, no Sect or Party of this hue or that, resist the will 
of Robespierre and Salitt. Mayor Pache, not prompt enough 
in denouncing these Pitt Plots, may congratulate about them 
now. Never so heartily ; it skills not ! His course likewise 
is to the Luxembourg. We appoint one Fleuriot-Lescot Interim- 
Mayor in his stead ; an • architect from Belgium," they say, this 

222 THERMIDOR. book vi. 

1794 [Year 2.. 
Fleuriot ; he is a man one can depend on. Our new Agent- 
National is Payan, lately Juryman ; whose cynosure also is 

Thus then, we perceive, this confusedly electric Erebus- 
cloud of Revolutionary Government has altered its shape some- 
what. Two masses, or wings, belonging to it ; an over-electric 
mass of Cordelier Rabids, and an under-electric of Dantonist 
Moderates and Clemency-men, — these two masses, shooting 
bolts at one another, so to speak, have annihilated one an- 
other. For the Erebus-cloud, as we often remark, is of suicidal 
nature ; and, in jagged irregularity, darts its lightning withal into 
itself. But now these two discrepant masses being mutually 
annihilated, it is as if the Erebus-cloud had got to internal com- 
posure ; and did only pour its hellfire lightning on the World 
that lay under it. In plain words, Terror of the Guillotine was 
never terrible till now. Systole, diastole, swift and ever swifter 
goes the Axe of Samson. Indictments cease by degrees to have 
so much as plausibility : Fouquier chooses from the Twelve 
Houses of Arrest what he calls Batches, ' Fournees,' a score or 
more at a time ; his Jurymen are charged to makey^// defile, 
file-firing till the ground be clear. Citizen Laflotte's report of 
Plot in the Luxembourg is verily bearing fruit! If no speakable 
charge exist against a man, or Batch of men, Fouquier has al- 
ways this: a Plot in the Prison. Swift and ever swifter goes 
Samson ; up, finally, to threescore and more at a Batch. It 
is the highday of Death : none but the Dead return not. 

O dusky D'Espremcnil, what a day is this the 22d of April, 
thy last day ! The Palais Hall here is the same stone Hall, 
where tliou, five years ago, stoodest perorating, amid endless 
pathos of rebcHious Parlemcnt, in the gray of the morning ; 
bound to niarch v^^ith D'Agoust to the Isles of Plicres. The 
stones are tlie same stones : but tlic rest. Men, Rebellion, 
Pathos, Peroration, sec, it has all fled, like a gibbering troop of 
ghosts, like the phantasms of a dying brain. With D'Esprd- 
mdnil, in the same line of Tumbrils, goes the mournfulest med- 
ley. Chapclier goes, ci-devant popular President of the Constitu- 
ent ; whom the Menads and Maillard met in his carriage, on 
the Versailles Road. Thouret likewise, ci-devant President, 
father of Constitutional Law-acts. ; he whom we heard saying, 
long since, with a loud voice, " The Constituent Assembly has 
fulfilled its mission !" And the noble old Malesherbes, who de- 


Flor. 3] April asd. 

fended Louis and could not speak, like a gray old rock dissolv- 
ing into sudden water : he journeys here now, with his kindred, 
daughters, sons and grandsons, his Lamoignons, Chateaubriands ; 
silent, towards Death. — One young Chateaubriand alone is wan- 
dering amid the Natchez, by the roar of Niagara Falls, the 
moan of endless forests : Welcome thou great Nature, savage, 
but not false, not unkind, immotherly ; no Formula thou, or 
rabid jangle of Hypothesis, Parliamentary Eloquence, Constitu- 
tion-building and the Guillotine ; speak thou to me, O Mother, 
and sing my sick heart thy mystic everlasting lullaby-song, and 
let all the rest be far ! — 

Another row of Tumbrils we must notice : that which holds 
Elizabeth, the Sister of Louis. Her Trial was like the rest ; for 
Plots, for Plots. She was among the kindliest, most innocent 
of women. There sat with her, amid four-and-twenty others, a 
once timorous Marchioness de Crussol ; courageous now ; ex 
pressing towards her the liveliest loyalty. At the foot of the 
Scaffold, Elizabeth with tears in her eyes thanked this Mar- 
chioness ; said she was grieved she could not reward her. "Ah, 
Madame, would your Royal Highness deign to embrace me, 
my wishes were complete !" — " Right willingly, Marquise de 
Crussol, and with my whole heart."^ Thus they : at the foot of 
the Scaffold. The Royal Family is now reduced to two : a girl 
and a little boy. The boy, once named Dauphin, was taken 
from his Mother while she yet lived ; and given to one Simon, 
by trade a Cordwainer, on service then about the Temple-Pri- 
son, to bring him up in principles of Sansculottism. Simon 
taught him to drink, to swear, to sing the cmmngnole. Simon 
is now gone to the Municipality : and the poor boy, hidden in 
a tower of the Temple, from which in his fright and bewilder- 
ment and early decrepitude he wishes not to stir out, lies perish- 
ing, ' his shirt not changed for six months ;' amid squalor and 
darkness, lamentably," — so as none but poor Factory Children 
and the like are wont to perish, and not be lamented ! 

The Spring sends its green leaves and bright weather, bright 
May, brighter than ever : Death pauses not. Lavoisier, famed 
Chemist, shall die and not live : Chemist Lavoisier was Farmer- 
General Lavoisier too, and now ' all the Farmers-General are 
arrested ;' all, and shall give an account ol' their moneys and 

1 Montgaillard, iv. 200. 

2 Duchesse d'Angoulfime, dxptiviti <i la Tour du Temple, pp. 37-71. 

224 THERMIDOR. book vi. 

1794 [Year 2. 
incomings ; and die for 'putting water in the tobacco* they sold.^ 
Lavoisier begged a fortnight more of hfe, to finish some experi- 
ments : but " the RepubHc does not need such ;" the axe must do 
its work. Cynic Chamfort, reading these inscriptions o{ Brother- 
hood or Dcatli, says, "it is a Brotherhood of Cain :" arrested, 
then hberated ; then about to be arrested again, this Chamfort 
cuts and slashes himself with frantic uncertain hand ; gains, not 
without difficulty, the refuge of death. Condorcet has lurked 
deep, these many months ; Argus-eyes watching and searching 
for him. His concealment is become dangerous to others and 
himself ; he has to fly again, to skulk, round Paris, in thickets 
and stone-quarries. And so at the Village of Clamars, one 
bleared May morning, there enters a Figure, ragged, rough- 
bearded, hunger-stricken ; asks breakfast in the tavern there. 
Suspect, by the look of him ! " Servant out of place, sayest 
thou ?" Committee-President of Forty-Sous finds a Latin Horace 
on him : "Art not thou one of those Ci-devants that were wont 
to keep servants? Suspect!" He is haled forthwith, break- 
fast unfinished, towards Bourg-la-Reine, on foot : he faints with 
exhaustion ; is set on a peasant's horse ; is flung into his damp 
prison-cell : on the morrow, recollecting him, you enter ; Con- 
dorcet lies dead on the floor. They die fast, and disappear : 
the Notabilities of France disappear, one after one, like lights 
m a Theatre, which you are snuffing out. 

Under which circumstances, is it not singular, and almost 
touching, to see Paris City drawn out, in the meek May nights, 
in civic ceremony, which they call ' Souper Fraternel,' Brotherly 
Supper ? Spontaneous, or partially spontaneous, in the twelfth, 
thirteenth, fourteenth nights of this May month, it is seen. 
Along the Rue Saint- Honord, and main Streets and Spaces, 
each Citoyen brings forth what of supper the stingy Maximtim 
has yielded him, to the open air; joins it to his neighbour's sup- 
per ; and with common table, cheerful light burning frequent, 
and what due modicum of cut-glass and other garnish and relish 
is convenient, they eat frugally together, under the kind stars.* 
See it, O Night ! With cheerfully pledged wine-cup, hobnob- 
bing to the Reign of Liberty, Equality, Brotherhood, with their 
wives in best ribands, with their little ones romping round, the 

' Tribunal Rivolutionnaire Cm 8 Mai 1794 [MoniUur, No. 231). 
• Tableaux de la Kivolution , § Soupers Fraternels ; Mcrcier, ii, i|o. 


Floreal] Ma)'. 

Citoyens, in frugal Love-feast, sit tliere. Night in her wide em- 
pire sees nothing similar. O my brothers, why is the reign of 
Brotherhood not come ! It is come, it shall have come, say 
the Citoyens frugally hobnobbing. — -Ah me ! these everlasting 
stars, do they not look down ' like glistening eyes, bright with 
immortal pity, over the lot of man' ! — 

One lam.entable thing, however, is, that individuals will at- 
tempt assassination — of Representatives of the People. P.epre- 
sentative Collot, Member even oiSalui, returning home, 'about 
one in the morning,' probably touched with liquor, as he is apt 
to be, meets on the stairs the cry " ScdUrat I" and also the snap 
of a pistol : which latter ilashes in the pan ; disclosing to him, 
momentarily, apair of truculent saucer-eyes, swart grim-clenched 
countenance; recognisable as that of our little fellow-lodger, 
Citoyen Amiral, formerly ' a clerk in the Lotteries.' Collot 
shouts Murder, with lungs fit to awaken all the Rue Favart ; 
Amiral snaps a second time ; a second time flashes in the pan ; 
then darts up into his apartment ; and, after there firing, still 
with inadequate effect, one musket at himself and another at 
his captor, is clutched and locked in Prison. ^ An indignant 
little man this Amiral, of Southern temper and complexion, of 
' considerable muscular force.' He denies not that he meant 
to "purge France of a Tyrant ;" nay avows that he had an eye 
to the Incorruptible himself, but took Collot as more con- 
venient ! 

Rumour enough hereupon ; heaven-high congratulation of 
Collot, fraternal embracing, at the Jacobins and elsewhere. And 
yet, it would seem, the assassin mood proves catching. Two 
days more, it is still but the 23d of May, and towards nine in the 
evening, Cecile Renault, Paper-dealer's daughter, a young woman 
of soft blooming look, presents herself at the Cabinet-maker's 
in the Rue Saint-Honoi-^ ; desires to see Robespierre. Robes 
picrre cannot be seen ; she grumbles irreverently. They lay 
hold of her. She has left a basket in a shop hard by : in the 
basket are female change of raiment and two knives ! Poor 
Cdcile, examined by Committee, declares she "wanted to see 
what a tyrant was like :" the change of raiment was "for my 
own use in the place I am surely going to." — " What place ?" 
— " Prison ; and then the Guillotine," answered she.— Such 

" Riouffe, p. 73; Deux Amis, xii. 298-302. 

226 THERMIDOR, book Vl. 

1794 I Year 2. 
things come of Charlotte Corday ; in a people prone to imita- 
tion, and monomania ! Swart choleric men try Charlotte's feat, 
and their pistols miss fire ; soft blooming young women try it, 
and, only half-resolute, leave their knives in a shop. 

O Pitt, and ye Faction of the Stranger, shall the Republic 
never have rest ; but be torn continually by baited springes, by 
wires of explosive spring-guns ? Swart Amiral, fair young Cecile, 
and all that knew them, and many that did not know them, he 
locked, waiting the scrutiny of Tinville. 



• But on the day they call Dicadi, New-Sabbath, 20 Pt atrial, 
8th June by old style, what thing is this going forward in the 
Jardin National, whilom Tuileries Gai'den ? 

All the world is there, in holiday clothes -.^ foul linen went 
out with the H^bertists ; nay Robespierre, for one, would never 
once countenance that ; but went always elegant and frizzled, 
not without vanity even, — and had his room hung round with 
seagreen Portraits and Busts. In holiday clothes, we say, are 
the innumerable Citoycns and Citoycnnes: the weather is of the 
brightest ; cheerful expectation lights all countenances. Jury- 
man Vilate gives breakfast to many a Deputy, in his official 
Apartment, in the Pavilion ci-devant of Flora ; rejoices in the 
bright-looking multitudes, in the brightness of leafy June, in the 
auspicious Z?/.7Zrt''/, or New-Sabbath. This day, if it please Hea- 
ven, we are to have, on improved Anti-Chaumette principles : a 
New Religion. 

Catholicism being burned out, and Reason-worship guillo- 
tined, was there not need of one ? Incorruptible Robespierre, 
not unlike the Ancients, as Legislator of a free people, will now 
also be Priest and Prophet. He has donned his sky-blue coat, 
made for the occasion ; white silk waistcoat broidered with sil- 
ver, black silk breeches, white stockings, shoe-buckles of gold. 
He is President of the Convention; he has made the Convention 
decree, so they name it, dicr^ter the ' Existence of the Supreme 
Being,' and likewise ' ce principe consolateitr of the Immortality 
of the Soul.' These consolatory principles, the basis of rational 

^ Vilate, Causes Secretes de la Rilvolution du 9 Thermidor, 


Prair. 20] June 8lh. 

Republican Religion, are getting decreed ; and here, on this 
blessed Deiixdi, by help of Heaven and Painter David, is to be 
our lust act of worship. 

See, accordingly, how after Decree passed, and what has 
been called 'the scraggiest Prophetic Discourse ever uttered 
by man,' — Mahomet Robespierre, in sky-blue coat and black 
breeches, frizzled and powdered to perfection, bearing in his 
hand a bouquet of flowers and wheat-ears, issues proudly from 
the Convention Hall ; Convention following him, yet, as is re- 
marked, with an interval. Amphitheatre has been raised, or at 
least Monticule or Elevation ; hideous Statues of Atheism, An- 
archy and suchlike, thanks to Heaven and Painter David, strike 
abhorrence into the heart. Unluckily, however, our Monticule 
is too small. On the top of it not half of us can stand ; where- 
fore there arises indecent shoving, nay treasonous irreverent 
growling. Peace, thou Bourdon de I'Oise ; peace, or it may 
be worse for thee ! 

The seagreen Pontiff takes a torch, Painter David handing 
it ; mouths some other froth-rant of vocables, which happily one 
cannot hear ; strides resolutely forward, in sight of expectant 
France ; sets his torch to Atheism and Company, which are 
but made of pasteboard steeped in turpentine. They burn up 
rapidly; and, from within, there rises 'by machinery,' an incom- 
bustible Statue of Wisdom, which, by ill hap, gets besmoked 
a little ; but does stand there visible in as serene attitude as 
it can. 

And then ? Why, then, there is other Processioning, scraggy 
Discoursing, an.d — this is our Feast of the Eire Supreme; our 
new Religion, better or worse, is come ! — Look at it one mo- 
ment, O Reader, not two. The shabbiest page of Human Annals : 
or is there, that thou wottest of, one shabbier? Mumbo-Jumbo 
of the African woods to me seems venerable beside this new 
Deity of Robespierre ; for this is a conscious Mumbo-Jumbo, 
and knows that he is machinery. O seagreen Prophet, un- 
happiest of windbags blown nigh to bursting, what distracted 
Chimera among realities art thou growing to ! This then, this 
common pitch-link for artificial fireworks of turpentine and paste- 
board ; this is the miraculous Aaron's Rod thou wilt stretch over 
a hag-ridden hell-ridden France, and bid her plagues cease? 
Vanish, thou and it ! — "Avec ton Etre Supreme" said Billaud, 

22 8 THERM I DOR. HooK Vt. 

1794 [Year 2. 
" ill coinmenccs liioubctcr : With thy Etn Siipirjiic thou be- 
ginncst to be a bore to me."- 

Catherine Thdot, on the other hand, 'an ancient serving- 
maid seventy-nine years of age,' inured to Prophecy and the 
Bastille from of old, sits in an upper room in the Rue de Con- 
trescarpe, poring over the Book of Revelations, with an eye to 
Robespierre ; finds that this astonishing thrice-potent Maximilien 
really is the Man spoken of by Prophets, who is to make the 
Earth young again. With her sit devout old Marchionesses, ci- 
dcvani honourable women ; among whom Old-Constituent Dom 
Gerle, with his addle head, cannot be wanting. They sit there, 
in the Rue de Contrescarpe; in mysterious adoration: Mumbo 
is Mumbo, and Robespierre is his Prophet. A conspicuous man 
this Robespierre. He has his volunteer Bodyguard of Tappc- 
diirs, let us say Strike-sharps, fierce Patriots with feruled sticks ; 
and Jacobins kissing the hem of his garment. He enjoys the 
admiration of many, the worship of some ; and is well worth 
the wonder of one and all. 

The grand question and hope, however, is : Will not this 
Feast of the Tuileries Mumbo-Jumbo be a sign perhaps that the 
Guillotine is to abate ? Far enough from that ! Precisely on the 
second day after it, Coulhon, one of the ' three shallow scoun- 
drels,' gets himself lifted into the Tribune ; produces a bundle 
of papers. Couthon proposes that, as Plots still abound, the 
Ltm> 0/ tJic Suspect shall have extension, and Arrestment new 
vigour and facility. Farther, that as in such case business is 
like to be heavy, our Revolutionary Tribunal too shall have ex- 
tension ; be divided, say, into P'our Tribunals, each with its 
President, each with its Fouquier or Substitute of Fouquier, all 
labouring at once, and any remnant of shackle or dilatory for- 
mality be struck off : in this way it may perhaps still overtake 
the work. Such is Couthon's Z^tvvrt' of t/ie Twenty-second Prai- 
rial, famed in those times. At hearing of which Decree, the 
very Mountain gasped, awestruck ; and one Ruamps ventured 
to say that if it passed without adjournment and discussion, 
he, as one Representative, "would blow his brains out." Vain 
saying ! The Incorruptible knit his brows ; spoke a prophetic 
fateful word or two : the Law ofPrairial is Law ; Ruamps glad 

- See Vilate, Causes ScrnVts. (Vilate's Narrative is very curious ; but is 
not to be taken as true, without sifting ; being, at bottom, in sjiite of its title, 
not a Narrative but a Pleacling.) 


Prairial] June. 

to leave his rash brains where they arc. Death then, and al- 
ways Death ! Even so. Fouquier is enlarging his borders ; 
making room for Batches of a Hundred and fifty at once ; — 
getting a Guillotine set up of improved velocity, and to work 
under cover, in the apartment close by. .So that Saint itself has 
to intervene, and forbid him : " Wilt thou demoralise the Guil- 
lotine," asks Collot, reproachfully, " ddmoraliscr le stipplice T' 

There is indeed danger of that ; \vere not the Republican 
faith great, it were already done. See, for example, on the 17th 
of June, what a Batch, Fifty-four at once ! Swart Amiral is 
here, he of the pistol that missed fire ; young Cecile Renault, 
with her father, family, entire kith and kin ; the Widow of 
D'Esprdmdnil ; old M. de Sombreuil of the Invalidcs, with his 
Son, — poor old Sombreuil, seventy-three years old, his Daugh- 
ter saved him in September, and it was but for this. Faction 
of the Stranger, fifty-four of them ! In red shirts and smocks, 
as Assassins and Faction of the Stranger, they flit along there ; 
red baleful Phantasmagory, towards the land of Phantoms. 

Meanwhile will not the people of the Place dc la Revolu- 
tion, the inhabitants along the Rue Saint-Honort?, as these con- 
tinual Tumbrils pass, begin to look gloomy? Republicans too 
have bowels. The Guillotine is shifted, then again shifted ; 
finally set up at the remote extremity of the South-east ■? Sub- 
urbs Saint-Antoine and Saint-Marceau, it is to be hoped, if 
they have bowels, have very tough ones. 



It is time now, however, to cast a glance into the Prisons. 
When Desmoulins moved for his Committee of Mercy, these 
Twelve Houses of Arrest held five-thousand persons. Continu- 
ally arriving since then, there have now accumulated twelve- 
thousand. They are Ci-devants, Royalists ; in far greater part, 
they are Republicans, of various Girondin, P'ayettish, Un-Ja- 
cobin colour. Perhaps no lumian Habitation or Prison ever 
equalled in squalor, in noisome horror, these Twelve Houses of 
Arrest. There exist records of personal experience in them, 

«* Montgaillard, iv. 237, 

230 THERMIDOR. book vi. 

1794 [Year 2. 

Memoires sur Ics Prisons; one of the strangest Chapters in the 

Biograpliy of Man. 

Very singular to look into it : how a kind of order rises 
up in all conditions of human existence ; and wherever two or 
three are gathered together, there are formed modes of exist- 
ing together, habitudes, observances, nay gracefulnesses, joys ! 
Citoyen Coittant will explain fully how our lean dinner, of herbs 
and carrion, was consumed not without politeness ^.x\^ place- 
aiix-davics : how Seigneur and Shoeblack, Duchess and DoU- 
Tearsheet, flung pell-mell into a heap, ranked themselves ac- 
cording to method : at what hour ' the Citoyennes took to their 
needlework ;' and we, yielding the chairs to them, endeavoured 
to talk gallantly in a standing posture, or even to sing and 
harp more or less. Jealousies, enmities, are not wanting ; nor 
flirtations, of an eftective character. 

Alas, by degrees, even needlework must cease : Plot in the 
Prison rises, by Citoyen Laflotte and Preternatural Suspicion. 
Suspicious Municipality snatches from us all implements ; all 
money and possession, of means or metal, is ruthlessly searched 
for, in pocket, in pillow and paillasse, and snatched away : red- 
capped Commissaries entering every cell. Indignation, tem- 
porary desperation, at robbery of its very thimble, Alls the gentle 
heart. Old Nuns shriek shrill discord ; demand to be killed 
forthwith. No help irom shrieking ! Better was that of the 
two shifty male Citizens, who, eager to preserve an implement 
or two, were it but a pipe-picker, or needle to darn hose with, 
determined to defend themselves : by tobacco. Swift then, as 
your fell Red Caps arc heard in the Corridor rummaging and 
slamming, the two Citoyens light their pipes, and begin smok- 
ing. Thick darkness envelops them. The Red Nightcaps, 
opening the cell, breathe but one mouthful ; burst forth into 
chorus of barking and coughing. "Qiioi, Messietirs" cxy \h& 
two Citoyens, "you don't smoke ? Is the pipe disagreeable? 
Est-cc que vous ite finncs pas ?" But the Red Nightcaps have 
fled, with slight search: "Votes iiaimcz pas la pipe?" cry the 
Citoyens, as their door slams-to again. 1 My poor brother 
Citoyens, O surely, in a reign of Brotherhood, you are not the 
two I would guillotine ! 

Rigour grows, stiffens into horrid tyranny; Plot in the Pri- 

1 Miihon d' Arret de Pori-Lihc, par Coiltant, &c. (AJd/iui/et sur les 
Friioiii, ii.) 


Prairial] June. 

son getting ever rifer. This Plot in the Prison, as we said, is 
now the stereotype formula of Tinville: against whomsoever he 
knows no crime, this is a ready-made crime. His Judgment- 
bar has become unspeakable ; a recognised mockery ; known 
only as the wicket one passes through, towards Death. His In- 
dictments are drawn out in blank ; you insert the Names after. 
He has his moutons, detestable traitor jackals, who report and 
bear witness ; that they themselves may be allowed to live, — 
for a tinie. His Foiirne'es, says the reproachful Collot, ' shall 
in no case exceed threescore ;' that is his maximum. Nightly 
come his Tumbrils to the Luxembourg, with the fatal Roll-call ; 
list of the Fourncc of tomorrow. Men rush towards the Grate ; 
listen, if their name be in it ? One deep-drawn breath, when 
the name is not in ; we live still one day ! And yet some score 
or scores of names were in. Quick these, they clasp their loved 
ones to their heart, one last time ; v.'ith brief adieu, wet-eyed or 
dry-eyed, they mount, and arc away. This night to the Con- 
ciergerie ; through the Palais misnamed of Justice, to the Guil- 
lotine tomorrow. 

Recklessness, defiant levity, the Stoicism if not of strength 
yet of weakness, has possessed all hearts. Weak women and 
Ci-devants, their locks not yet made into blond perukes, their 
skins not yet tanned into breeches, are accustomed to ' act the 
Guillotine' by way of pastime. In fantastic mummery, witli 
towel-turbans, blanket-ermine, a mock Sanhedrim of Judges 
sits, a mock Tinville pleads ; a culprit is doomed, is guillotined 
by the oversetting of two chairs. Sometimes we carry it far- 
ther : Tinville himself, in his turn, is doomed, and not to the 
Guillotine alone. With blackened face, hirsute, horned, a 
shaggy Satan snatches him not unshrieking ; shows him, with 
outstretched arm and voice, the fire that is not quenched, the 
worm that dies not ; the monotony of Hell-pain, and the What 
hour ? answered by, // is Eternity." 

And still the Prisons fill fuller, and still the Guillotine goes 
faster. On all high roads march flights of Prisoners, wending 
towards Paris. Not Ci-devants now ; they, the noisy of them, 
are mown down ; it is Republicans now. Chained two and 
two they march ; in exasperated moments singing their Mar- 
seillaise. A hundred and thirty-two men of Nantes, for in- 
stance, march towards Paris, in these same days : Republicans, 
2 Montgaillard, iv. 21S; Kioufle, p. -^ji. 

232 THERMIDOR. book vi. 

1794 [Year 2. 
or say even Jacobins to the marrow of the bone ; but Jaco- 
bins who liad not approved Noyading.^ Vive hi R^piibliqiie 
rises from them in all streets of towns : they rest by night 
in unutterable noisome dens, crowded to choking ; one or two 
dead on the morrow. They are wayworn, weary of heart ; can 
only shout : Live tlie Republic; we, as under horrid enchant- 
ment, dying in this way for it ! 

Some Four-hundred Priests, of whom also there is record, 
ride at anchor 'in the roads of the Isle of Aix,' long months ; 
looking out on misery, vacuity, waste Sands of Oleron and the 
ever-moaning brine. Ragged, sordid, hungry ; wasted to sha- 
dows : eating their unclean ration on deck, circularly, in parties 
of a dozen, with finger and thumb ; beating their scandalous 
clothes between two stones ; choked in horrible miasmata, 
closed under hatches, seventy of them in a berth, through night ; 
so that the ' aged Priest is found lying dead in the morning, in 
the attitude of prayer !'^ — How long, O Lord ! 

Not forever ; no. All Anarchy, all Evil, Injustice, is, by 
the nature of it, dragon' s-teelh j suicidal, and cannot endure. 



It is very remarkable, indeed, that since the i^irc-Supieine 
Feast, and the sublime continued harangues on it, which Bil- 
laud feared would become a bore to him, Robespierre has gone 
little to Committee ; but held himself apart, as if in a kind of 
pet. Nay they have made a Report on that old Catherine 
Thdot, and her Regenerative Man spoken of by the Prophets ; 
not in the best spirit. This Thdot mystery they affect to regard 
as a Plot ; but have evidently introduced a vein of satire, of 
irreverent banter, not against the Spinster alone, but obliquely 
against her Regenerative Man ! Barrere's light pen was per- 
haps at the bottom of it : read through the solemn snuffling 
organs of old Vadier of the Sihrtd Gdndralc, the Thdot Report 
had its effect ; wrinkhng the general Republican visage into an 
iron grin. Ought these things to be ? 

•* I'oyagc dc Cent Trcnte-dcvx Nautais (Prisons, ii. 2S8-335). 
* KcLition dc cc qti'oiit soiiffcrt pour la Rdifjon Ics I'rctrcs di'portts en 
179.1, d^ms la rad( dc I'Uc d'Aix (lb, ii. 387-4S5). 


Messidor] July. 

Wc note farther, that among the Prisoners in the Twelve 
Houses of Arrest, there is one whom we have seen before. 
Senhora Fontenai, born Cabarus, the fair Proserpine whom 
Representative TaUien Pluto-like did gather at Bourdeaux, not 
without effect on himself! Tallicn is home, by recall, long 
since, from Bourdeaux ; and in the most alarming position. 
Vain that he sounded, louder even than ever, the note of Jacob- 
inism, to hide past shortcomings : the Jacobins purged him 
out ; two times has Robespierre growled at him words of omen 
from the Convention Tribune. And now h.s fair Cabarus, hit 
by denunciation, lies Arrested, Suspect, in spite of all he could 
do ! — Shut in horrid pinfold of death, the Senhora smuggles 
out to her red-gloomy Tallien the most pressing entreaties and 
conjurings : Save me ; save thyself. Seest thou not that thy 
own head is doomed ; thou with a too fiery audacity ; a Dan- 
tonist withal ; against whom lie grudges .'* Are ye not all 
doomed, as in the Polyphemus Cavern : the fawningest slave 
of you will be but eaten last ! — Tallien feels with a shudder 
that it is true. Tallien has had words of omen, Bourdon has 
had words, Fr^ron is hated and Barras : each man ' feels his 
head if it yet stick on his shoulders.' 

Meanwhile Robespierre, we still observe, goes little to Con- 
vention, not at all to Committee ; speaks nothing except to his 
Jacobin House of Lords, amid his bodyguard of Tappe-dtirs. 
These 'forty-days,' for we are now far in July, he has not 
showed face in Committee ; could only work there by his three 
shallow scoundrels, and the terror there was of him. The 
Incorruptible himself sits apart ; or is seen stalking in solitary 
places in the fields, with an intensely meditative air ; some 
say, 'with eyes red-spotted,'i fruit of extreme bile : the lament- 
ablest seagreen Chimera that walks the Earth that July ! O 
hapless Chimera, — for thou too hadst a life, and heart of flesh, 
— what is this that the stern gods, seeming to smile all the 
way, have led and let thee to ! Art not thou he, who, few 
years ago, was a young Advocate of promise ; and gave up the 
Arras Judgeship rather than sentence one man to die ? — 

What his thoughts might be ? His plans for finishing the 

Terror ? One knows not. Dim vestiges there flit of Agrarian 

Law ; a victorious Sansculottism become Landed Proprietor ; 

old Soldiers sitting in National Mansions, in Hospital Palaces 

' IJCKX Amis, xii. 347-73, 

234 THERM I DOR. book vi. 

1794 [Year 2. 
of Chambord and Chantilly; peace bought by victory ; breaches 
healed by Feast of Eire Supreme j — and so, through seas of 
blood, to Equality, Frugality, worksome Blessedness, Fraternity, 
and Republic of the virtues. Blessed shore, of such a sea of 
Aristocrat blood : but how to land on it ? Through one last 
wave : blood of corrupt Sansculottists ; traitorous or semi- 
traitorous Conventionals, rebellious Talliens, Billauds, to whom 
with my ^trc Supreme I have become a bore ; with my Apo- 
calyptic Old Woman a laughing-stock ! — So stalks he, this poor 
Robespierre, like a scagreen ghost, through the blooming July. 
Vestiges of schemes flit dim. But ivhat his schemes or his 
thoughts were will never be known to man. 

New Catacombs, some say, are digging for a huge simul- 
taneous butchery. Convention to be butchered, down to the 
right pitch, by General Henriot and Company : Jacobin House 
of Lords made dominant ; and Robespierre Dictator.^ There 
is actually, or else there is not actually, a List made out ; which 
the Hairdresser has got eye on, as he frizzled the Incorruptible 
locks. Each man asks himself, Is it I ? 

Nay, as Tradition and rumour of Anecdote still convey 
it, there was a remarkable bachelor's dinner, one hot day, at 
Barrere's. For doubt not, O Reader, this Barrere and others 
of them gave dinners ; had ' country-house at Clichy,' with ele- 
gant enough sumptuosities, and pleasures high-rouged.^ But 
at this dinner we speak of, the day being so hot, it is said, the 
guests all stript their coats, and left them in the drawing-room : 
from the dinner-table Carnot glided out, driven by a necessity, 
needing of all things paper ; groped in Robespierre's pocket ; 
found a list of Forty, his own name among them ; — and tarried 
not at the wine-cup that day ! — Ye must bestir yourselves, O 
Friends ; ye dull Frogs of the Marsh, mute ever since Girondism 
sank under, even you now must croak or die ! Councils arc 
held, with word and beck ; nocturnal, mysterious as death. 
Does not a feline Maximilien stalk there ; voiceless as yet ; 
his green eyes red-spotted ; back bent, and hair up ? Rash 
Tallien, with his rash temper and audacity of tongue ; he shall 
bell the cat. Fix a day ; and be it soon, lest never ! 

Lo, before the lixed day, on the day which they call Eighth 
of Thcrmidor, 26th July 1794, Robespierre himself reappears 
in Convenliuu ; mounts to the Tribune ! The biliary lace 
3 Deux Amis, xii. 350-S. ^ Sec Vilate. 


Therm. 8] July 26tli. 

seems clouded with new gloom : judge whether your Talliens, 
Bourdons, listened with interest. It is a voice bodeful of death 
or of life. Longwinded, unmelodious as the screech-owl's, 
sounds that prophetic voice : Degenerate condition of Repub- 
lican spirit ; corrupt Moderatism ; Suretc, Saint Committees 
themselves infected ; backsliding on this hand and on that ; I, 
Maximilien, alone left incorruptible, ready to die at a moment's 
warning. For all which what remedy is there ? The Guillo- 
tine ; new vigour to the all-healing Guillotine ; death to traitors 
of every hue ! So sings the prophetic voice ; into its Conven- 
tion sounding-board. The old song this : but today, O Heavens, 
has the sounding-board ceased to act ? There is not resonance 
in this Convention ; there is, so to speak, a gasp of silence ; 
nay a certain grating of one knows not what ! — Lecointre, our 
old Draper of Versailles, in these questionable circumstances, 
sees nothing he can do so safe as rise, ' insidiously' or not 
insidiously, and move, according to established wont, that the 
Robespierre Speech be ' printed and sent to the Departments.' 
Hark: gratings, even of dissonance! Honourable Members hint 
dissonance ; Committee-Members, inculpated in the Speech, 
utter dissonance, demand ' delay in printing.' Ever higher 
rises the note of dissonance ; inquiry is even made by Editor 
Fi-eron : "What has become of the Liberty of Opinions in this 
Convention ?" The Order to print and transmit, which had got 
passed, is rescinded. Robespierre, greener than ever before, has 
to retire, foiled ; discerning that it is mutiny, that evil is nigh ! 

Mutiny is a thing of the fatalest nature in all enterprises 
whatsoever ; a thing so incalculable, swift-frightful : not to be 
dealt with \n fright. But mutiny in a Robespierre Convention, 
above all, — it is like fire seen sputtering in the ship's powder- 
room ! One death-defiant plunge at it, this moment, and you 
may still tread it out : hesitate till next moment, — ship and 
ship's captain, crew and cargo are shivered far ; the ship's voy- 
age has suddenly ended between sea and sky. If Robespierre 
can, tonight, produce his Henriot and Company, and get his 
work done by them, he and Sansculottism may still subsist some 
time ; if not, probably not. Oliver Cromwell, when that Agi- 
tator Sergeant stept forth from the ranks, with plea of griev- 
ances, and began gesticulating and demonstrating, as the mouth- 
piece of Thousands expectant there, — discerned, with those 


1794 [Year 2. 
truculent eyes of his, how the matter lay ; plucked a pistol from 
his holsters ; blew Agitator and Agitation instantly out. Noli 
was a man fit for such things. 

Robespierre, for his part, glides over at evening to his Ja- 
cobin House of Lords ; unfolds there, instead of some adequate 
resolution, his woes, his uncommon virtues, incorruptibilities ; 
then, secondly, his rejected screech-owl Oration ; — reads this 
latter over again ; and declares that he is ready to die at a mo- 
ment's warning. Thou shalt not die ! shouts Jacobinism from its 
thousand throats. " Robespierre, I will drink the hemlock with 
thee," cries Painter David, " Je boirai la eigne avec foi j" — a 
thing not essential to do, but which, in the fire of the moment, 
can be said. 

Our Jacobin sounding-board, therefore, does act ! Applauses 
heaven-high cover the rejected Oration ; fire-eyed fury hghts 
all Jacobin features : Insurrection a sacred duty ; the Conven- 
tion to be purged ; Sovereign People under Henriot and Muni- 
cipality ; we will make a new June-Second of it : To your tents, 
O Israel ! In this key pipes Jacobinism ; in sheer tumult of re- 
volt. Let Tallien and all Opposition men make off. Collot 
d'PIerbois, though of the supreme Salut, and so lately near 
shot, is elbowed, bullied ; is glad to escape alive. Entering 
Committee-room oi Salnf, all dishevelled, he finds sleek sombre 
Saint-Just there, among the rest ; who in his sleek way asks, 
"What is passing at the Jacobins?" — "What is passing?" re- 
peats Collot, in the unhistrionic Cambyses vein: "What is 
passing ? Nothing but revolt and horrors are passing. Ye want 
our lives ; ye shall not have them." Saint-Just stutters at such 
Cambyses oratory ; takes his hat to withdraw. That Report he 
had been speaking of, Report on Republican Things in General 
we may say, which is to be read in Convention on the morrow, 
he cannot show it them, at this moment : a friend has it ; he, 
Saint-Just, will get it, and send it, were he once home. Once 
home, he sends not it, but an answer that he will not send it ; 
that they will hear it from the Tribune tomorrow. 

Let every man, therefore, according to a well-known good- 
advice, 'pray to Heaven, and keep his powder dry* ! Paris, on 
tlic morrow, will see a thing. Swift scouts fly dim or invisible, 
all night, from Sih'eU and Salut; from conclave to conclave ; 
from Mother Society to Townhall. Sleep, can it fall on the eyes 
of Talliens, Frcrons. Collots ? Puissant Henriot, Mayor Flcu' 

CHAP. vri. GO DOWN TO. 237 

Therm. 9] July 27th. 

riot, Judge Coffinhal, Procureur Payan, Robespierre and all the 

Jacobins are getting ready. 



Tallien's eyes beamed bright, on the morrow, Ninth of 
Thermidor, ' about nine o'clock,' to see that the Convention had 
actually met. Paris is in rumour : but at least we are met, in 
Legal Convention here ; we have not been snatched seriatim ; 
treated with a Prides Purge at the door. " Allojis, brave men 
of the Plain," late Frogs of the Marsh! cried Tallien with a 
squeeze of the hand, as he passed in ; Saint-Just's sonorous 
voice being now audible from the Tribune, and the game of 
games begun. 

Saint-Just is verily reading that Report of his ; green Ven- 
geance, in the shape of Robespierre, watching nigh. Behold, 
however, Saint-Just has read but few sentences, when interrup- 
tion rises, rapid crescendo j when Tallien starts to his feet, and 
Billaud, and this man starts and that, — and Tallien, a second 
time, with his : " Citoycns, at the Jacobins last night, I trembled 
for the Republic. I said to myself, if the Convention dare not 
strike the Tyrant, then I myself dare ; and with this I will do 
it, if need be," said he, whisking out a clear-gleaming Dagger, 
and brandishing it there ; the Steel of Brutus, as we call it. 
Whereat we all bellow, and brandish, impetuous acclaim. "Ty- 
ranny! Dictatorship! Triumvirate!" And the Sa/ui Committee- 
men accuse, and all men accuse, and uproar, and impetuously 
acclaim. And Saint-Just is standing motionless, pale of face ; 
Couthon ejaculating, "Triumvir.''" with a look at his paralytic 
legs. And Robespierre is struggling to speak, but President 
Thuriot is jingling the bell against him, but the Hall is sounding 
against him like an .(Eolus-Hall : and Robespierre is mounting 
the Tribune-steps and descending again ; going and coming, 
like to choke with rage, terror, desperation : — and mutiny is the 
order of the day \^ 

O President Thuriot, thou that wert Elector Thuriot, and 

from the Bastille battlements sawest Saint-Antoine rising like 

the Ocean-tide, and hast seen much since, sawest thou ever the 

like of this ? Jingle of bell, which thou jinglcst against Robes- 

^ MofiiUiir, Nos. 311, 312; Di'dats, iv. 421-42; Deux Amis, xii. 390-411. 

238 THERMIDOR. book vi. 

1794 [Year 2. 
pierre, is hardly audible amid the Bedlam storm ; and men rage 
for life. " President of Assassins," shrieks Robespierre, "I de- 
mand speech of thee for tlie last time !" It cannot be had. "To 
you, O virtuous men of the Plain," cries he, finding audience 
one moment, " I appeal to you !" The virtuous men of the Plain 
sit silent as stones. And Thuriot's. bell jingles, and the Hall 
sounds like bolus's Hall. Robespierre's frothing lips are grown 
' blue;' his tongue dry, cleaving to the roof of his mouth. " The 
blood of Danton chokes him," cry they. "Accusation ! Decree 
of Accusation !" Thuriot swiftly puts that question. Accusation 
passes ; the incorruptible Maximilien is decreed Accused. 

" I demand to share my Brother's fate, as I have striven to 
share his virtues," cries Augustin, the Younger Robespierre : 
Augustin also is decreed. And Couthon, and Saint-Just, and 
Lebas, they are all decreed ; and packed forth, — not without 
difficulty, the Ushers almost trembling to obey. Triumvirate 
and Company are packed forth, into SabU Committee-room ; 
tlieir tongue cleaving to the roof of their mouth. You have but 
to summon the Municipality ; to cashier Commandant Henriot, 
and launch Arrest at him ; to regulate formalities ; hand Tinville 
his victims. It is noon : the /Eolus-Hall has delivered itself; 
blows now victorious, harmonious, as one irresistible wind. 

And so the work is finished 1 One thinks so : and yet it is 
not so. Alas, there is yet but the first-act finished ; three or 
four other acts still to come ; and an uncertain catastrophe ! A 
huge City holds in it so many confusions : seven hundred thou- 
sand human heads ; not one of which knows what its neighbour 
is doing, nay not what itself is doing. — See, accordingly, about 
three in the afternoon, Commandant Henriot, how instead of 
sitting cashiered, arrested, he gallops along the Ouais, followed 
by Municipal Genda.m\es, ' trampling down several persons !' 
For the Townhall sits deliberating, openly insurgent : Barriers 
to be shut ; no Gaoler to admit any Prisoner this day ; — and 
Henriot is galloping towards the Tuileries, to deliver Robes- 
pierre. On the Quai de la Ferraillerie, a young Citoyen, walking 
with his wife, says aloud : " Gendarmes, that man is not your 
Commandant ; he is under arrest." The Gendarmes strike down 
the young Citoyen with the flat of their swords. 2 

Representatives themselves (as Merlin the Thionviller), who 

2 Pricis des Evinemens du Netcf Thermidor, par C. A. Meda, ancien 
Gendarme (Paris, 1825). 

CiiAl'. VII. GO DOWN TO, 239 

Therm, gj July 27th. 

accost him, this puissant Ileniiot flings into guard-houses. He 
bursts towards the Tuileries Committee-room, "to speak with 
Robespierre :" with difficulty, the Ushers and Tuileries Gen- 
darmes, earnestly pleading and drawing sabre, seize this Hen- 
riot ; get the Henriot Gendarmes persuaded not to fight ; get 
Robespierre and Company packed into hackney-coaches, sent 
off under escort, to the Luxembourg and other Prisons. This, 
then, is the end ? May not an exhausted Convention adjourn 
now, for a little repose and sustenance, ' at five o'clock' ? 

An exhausted Convention did it ; and repented it. The end 
was not come ; only the end of the second-act. Hark, while ex- 
hausted Representatives sit at victuals, — tocsin bursting from 
all steeples, drums rolling, in the summer evening : Judge Coffin- 
hal is galloping with new Gendarmes, to deliver Henriot from 
Tuileries Committee-room ; and does deliver him ! Puissant 
Henriot vaults on horseback ; sets to haranguing the Tuileries 
Gendarmes ; corrupts the Tuileries Gendarmes too ; trots off 
with them to Townhall. Alas, and Robespierre is not in Pri- 
son : the Gaoler showed his Municipal order, durst not, on 
pain of his life, admit any Prisoner; the Robespierre Hackney- 
coaches, in this confused jangle and whirl of uncertain Gen- 
darmes, have floated safe — into the Townhall ! There sit 
Robespierre and Company, embraced by Municipals and Ja- 
cobins in sacred right of Insurrection ; redacting Proclamations; 
sounding tocsins ; corresponding with Sections and Mother 
Society. Is not here a pretty enough third-act of a natural 
Greek Drama ; catastrophe more uncertain than ever.' 

The hasty Convention rushes together again, in the ominous 
nightfall : President Collot, for the chair is his, enters with long 
strides, paleness on his face; claps-on hishat; says with solemn 
tone : " Citoyens, armed Villains have beset the Committee- 
rooms, and got possession of them. The hour is come, to die 
at our post !" " Oui" answer one and all : " We swear it !" 
It is no rodomontade, this time, but a sad fact and necessity ; 
unless we do at our posts, we must verily die. Swift therefore, 
Robespierre, Henriot, the Municipality, are declared Rebels ; 
put Hors la Loi, Out of Law. Better still, we appoint Barras 
Commandant of what Armed-force is to be had ; send Mission- 
ary Representatives to all Sections and quarters, to preach, and 
raise force ; will die at least with harness on our back. 

What a distracted City ; men riding and running, reporting 

340 THERM I DOR. SooK VI. 

1794 [Year 2. 
and hearsaying ; the Hour clearly in travail, — child not to be 
named till born ! The poor Prisoners in the Luxembourg hear 
the rumour ; tremble for a new September. They see men 
making signals to them, on skylights and roofs, apparently 
signals of hope ; cannot in the least make out what it is.'' We 
observe, however, in the eventide, as usual, the Death-tumbrils 
faring Southeastward, through Saint-Antoine, towards their 
Barrier du Tr6ne. Saint-Antoine's tough bowels melt ; Saint- 
Antoine surrounds the Tumbrils; says. It shall not be. O Hea- 
vens, why should it ! Plenriot and Gendarmes, scouring the 
streets that way, bellow, with waved sabres, that it must. C2uit 
hope, ye poor Doomed ! The Tumbrils move on. 

But in this set of Tumbrils there are two other things nota- 
ble : one notable person ; and one want of a notable person. 
The notable person is Licutcnant-General Loiserolles, a noble- 
man by birth and by nature ; laying down his life here for his 
son. In the Prison of Saint-Lazare, the night before last, hurry- 
ing to the Grate to hear the Death-list read, he caught the name 
of his son. The son was asleep at the moment. "I am Loise- 
rolles," cried the old man : at Tinville's bar, an error in the 
Christian name is little; small objection was made. — The want 
of the notable person, again, is that of Deputy Paine ! Paine 
has sat in the Luxembourg since January ; and seemed forgotten ; 
but Fouquier had pricked him at last. The Turnkey, List in 
hand, is marking with chalk the outer doors of tomorrow's 
FoHfiict'. Paine's outer door happened to be open, turned back 
on the wall ; the Turnkey marked it on the side next him, and 
hurried on : another Turnkey came, and shut it ; no chalk-mark 
now visible, the Fotirncc went without Paine. Paine's life lay 
not there. — 

Our fifth-act, of this natural Greek Drama, with its natural 
unities, can only be painted in gross ; somewhat as that antique 
Painter, driven desperate, did the foam. For through this 
blessed July night, there is clangour, confusion very great, of 
marching troops ; of Sections going this way. Sections going 
that; of Missionary Representatives reading Proclamations by 
torchlight ; Missionary Legendre, who has raised force some- 
where, emptying out the Jacobins, and flinging their key on the 
Convention table: "I have locked their door; it shall be Vir- 
tue that reopens it." Paris, we say, is set against itself, rushing 
' Afi'inciixs sitr ks Prisons, ii, 277, 


Therm. loj July 2Sth. 

confused, as Ocean-currents do ; a huge Malilstrom, sounding 
thcrp, under cloud of night. Convention sits permanent on 
tliis liiiiid ; Municipahty most permanent on that. The poor 
prisoners hear tocsin and rumour; strive to bethink them of the 
signals apparently of hope. Meek continual Twilight streaming 
up, which will be Dawn and a Tomorrow, silvers the Northern 
hem of Night; it wends and wends there, that meek brightness, 
like a silent prophecy, along the great ring-dial of the Heaven. 
So still, eternal ! and on Earth all is confused shadow and con- 
flict ; dissidence, tumultuous gloom and glare; and 'Destiny as 
yet sits wavering, and shakes her doubtful urn.' 

About three in the morning the dissident Armed-forces 
have met. Henriot's Armed-force stood ranked in the Place 
de Greve ; and now Barras's, which he has recruited, arrives 
there ; and they front each other, cannon bristling against 
cannon. Citoyens! cries the voice of Discretion loudly enough. 
Before coming to bloodshed, to endless civil-war, hear the Con- 
vention Decree read : ' Robespierre and all rebels Out of Law !' 
— Out of Law ? There is terror in the sound. Unarmed Cito- 
yens disperse rapidly home. Municipal Cannoneers, in sudden 
whirl, anxiously unanimous, range themselves on the Conven- 
tion side, with shouting. At which shout, Henriot descends 
from his upper room, far gone in drink as some say ; finds his 
Place de Grfeve empty ; the cannons' mouth turned towards him ; 
and on the whole, — that it is now the catastrophe ! 

Stumbhng in again, the wretched drunk-sobered Henriot 
announces: "All is lost!" ''Miserable, it is thou that hast 
lost it !" cry they ; and fling him, or else he flings himself, out 
of window : far enough down ; into masonwork and horror of 
cesspool ; not into death but worse. Augustin Robespierre 
follows him ; with the like fate. Saint-Just, they say, called 
on Lebas to kill him ; who would not. Couthon crept under 
a table; attempting to kill himself; not doing it. — On enter- 
ing that Sanhedrim of Insurrection, we find all as good as ex- 
tinct ; undone, ready for seizure. Robespierre was sitting on 
a chair, with pistol-shot blown through not his head but his 
under-jaw; the suicidal hand had failed.* With prompt zeal, 

4 Meda, p. 384. (Mcda asserts that it was he who, with infinite courage 
though in a lefthanded manner, shot Robespierre. Meda got promoted for 
his ser\'ices of this night ; and died General and Baron. Few credited Meda 
in what was other-wise incredible.) 

VOL. lil. R. 

242 THERMIDOR. book vi. 

1794 [Year 2. 
not without trouble, \vc gather these wrecked Conspinitors ; 
lish up even Henriot and Augustin, bleeding and foul ; pack 
them all, rudely enough, into carts ; and shall, before sunrise, 
have them safe under lock and key. Amid shoutings and em- 

Robespierre lay in an anteroom of the Convention Hall, 
while his Prison-escort was getting ready; the mangled jaw 
bound up rudely with bloody linen : a spectacle to men. He 
lies stretched on a table, a deal-box his pillow ; the sheath of 
the pistol is still clenched convulsively in his hand. Men bully 
him, insult him : his eyes still indicate intelligence ; he speaks 
no word. ' He had on the sky-blue coat he had got made for 
the Feast of the fltrc Supreme — O Reader, can thy hard heart 
hold out against that? His trousers were nankeen; the stock- 
ings had fallen down over the ankles. He spake no word more 
in this world. 

And so, at six in the morning, a victorious Convention ad- 
journs. Report flies over Paris as on golden wings ; penetrates 
the Prisons ; irradiates the faces of those that were ready to 
perish : turnkeys and moulons, fallen from their high estate, 
look mute and blue. It is the 28th day of July, called loth of 
Thermidor, year 1794. 

Fouquier had but to identify; his Prisoners being already 
Out of Law. At four in the afternoon, never before were the 
streets of Paris seen so crowded. From the Palais de Justice 
to the Place de la Revolution, for tliither again go the Tumbrils 
this time, it is one dense stirring mass; all windows cramnied; 
the very roofs and ridge-tiles budding forth human Curiosity, 
in strange gladness. The Death-tumbrils, with their motley 
Batch of Outlaws, some Twenty-three or so, from Maximilien 
to Mayor Fleuriot and Simon the Cordwainer, roll on. All ej'es 
are on Robespierre's Tumbril, where he, his jaw bound in dirty 
linen, with his half-dead Brother and half-dead Henriot, lie 
shattered ; their ' seventeen hours' of agony about to end. The 
Gendarmes point their swords at him, to show the people which 
is he. A woman springs on the Tumbril ; clutching the side 
of it with one hand, waving the other Sibyl-like ; and exclaims : 
" The death of thee gladdens my very heart, niciiivre de joic j" 
Robespierre opened his eyes; "Sce'/crat, go down to Hell, with 
the curses of all wi\cs and mothers !" — At the foot ot the scaf- 
fold, they stretched him on the ground till his turn came. Lifted 


Therm. 9] July 27th. 

aloft, his eyes again opened ; caught the bloody axe. Samson 
wrenched the coat off him ; wrenched the dirty linen from his 
jaw : the jaw fell powerless, there burst from him a cry ; — hide- 
ous to hear and see. Samson, thou canst not be too quick! 

Samson's work done, there bursts forth shout on shout of 
applause. Shout, which prolongs itself not only over Paris, but 
over France, but over Europe, and down to this generation. 
Deservedly, and also undeservedly. O unhappiest Advocate of 
Arras, wert thou worse than other Advocates ? Stricter man, 
according to his Formula, to his Credo and his Cant, of probi- 
ties, benevolences, pleasures-of-virtue, and suchlike, lived not 
in that age. A man fitted, in some luckier settled age, to have 
become one of those incorruptible barren Pattern-Figures, and 
have had marble-tablets and funeral-sermons. His poor landlord, 
the Cabinet-maker in the Rue Saint-Honor(5, loved him; his Bro- 
ther died for him. May God be merciful to him and to us ! 

This is the end of the Reign of Terror ; new glorious Revo- 
lution named of Thennidor j of Thermidor 9th, year 2 ; which 
being interpreted into old slave-style means 27th of July 1794. 
Terror is ended; and death in the Place de la Rtfvolution, were 
the ' J}?// of Robespierre' once executed ; which service Fouquier, 
in large Batches, is swiftly managing. 




HoAV Httle did anyone suppose that liere was the end not of 
Robespierre only, but of the Revohition System itself! Least 
of all did the mutinying Committee-men suppose it ; who had 
mutinied with no view whatever except to continue the National 
Regeneration with their own heads on their shoulders. And 
yet so it verily was. The insignificant stone they had struck 
out, so insignificant anywhere else, proved to be the Keystone ; 
the whole arch-work and edifice of Sansculottism began to loosen, 
to crack, to yawn ; and tumbled piecemeal, with considerable 
rapidity, plunge after plunge ; till the Abyss had swallowed it 
all, and in this upper world Sansculottism was no more. 

For despicable as Robespierre himself might be, the death 
of Robespierre was a signal at which great multitudes of men, 
struck dumb with terror heretofore, rose out of their hiding- 
places ; and, as it were, saw one another, how multitudinous 
they were ; and began speaking and complaining. They are 
coqntable by the thousand and the million ; who have suffered 
cru^l wrong. Ever louder rises the plaint of such a multitude ; 
into a universal sound, into a universal continuous peal, of what 
they call Public Opinion. Camille had demanded a 'Committee 
of Mercy,' and could not get it ; but now the whole Nation re- 
solves itself into a Committee of Mercy : the Nation has tried 
S.msculottism, and is weary of it. Force of Public Opinion ! 
^^'hat King or Convention can withstand it? You in vain, 
Ptruggle: the thing thnt is rejected as 'calumnious' today must 


Fructidor] Aug. -Sept. 

pass as veracious with triumph another day: gods and men 
liave declared that Sansculottism cannot be. Sansculottism, on 
that Ninth night of Thermidor suicidally 'fractured its under- 
jaw;' and lies writhing, never to rise more. 

Through the next fifteen months, it is what we may call the 
death-agony of Sansculottism. Sansculottism, Anarchy of the 
Jean-Jacques Evangel, having now got deep enough, is to perish 
in a new singular system of Culottism and Arrangement. Foi 
Arrangement is indispensable to man ; Arrangement, were it 
grounded only on that old primary Evangel of FoiTe, witli 
Sceptre in the shape of Hammer ! Be there method, be there 
order, cry all men ; were it that of the Drill-sergeant ! More 
tolerable is the drilled Bayonet-rank, than that undrilled Guil- 
lotine, incalculable as the wind. — How Sansculottism, writhing 
in death-throes, strove some twice, or even three times, to get 
on its feet again ; but fell always, and was flung resupine the 
next instant ; and finally breathed out the life of it, and stirred 
no more : this we are now, from a due distance, with due brevity, 
to glance at ; and then — O Reader ! — Courage, I see land ! 

Two of the first acts of the Convention, very natural for it 
after this Thermidor, are to be specified here : the first is, re- 
newal of the Governing Committees. Both Snrete G^ndrale and 
Saint Public, thinned by the Guillotine, need filling up : wc 
naturally fill them up with Talliens, Frdrons, victorious Ther- 
midorian men. Still more to the purpose, we appoint that they 
shall, as Law directs, not in name only but in deed, be renewed 
and changed from period to period; a fourth part of them going 
out monthly. The Convention will no more lie under bondage 
of Committees, under terror of death ; but be a free Convention ; 
free to follow its own judgment, and the Force of Public Opinion. 
Not less natural is it to enact that Prisoners and Persons under 
Accusation shall have right to demand some ' Writ ot Accusa- 
tion,' and see clearly what they are accused of. Very natural 
acts : the harbingers of hundreds not less so. 

For now Fouquier's trade, shackled by Writ of Accusation, 
and legal proof, is as good as gone ; effectual only against Ro- 
bespierre's Tail. The Prisons give up their Suspect ; emit them 
faster and faster. Tlie Committees see themselves besieged 
with Prisoners' friends ; complain that they are hindered in their 
work : it is as with men rushing out of a crowded place ; and 

246 VENDEMIAIRE. book Vli. 

1794 [Year 2. 
obstructing one another. Turned are the tables : Prisoners 
pouring out in Hoods; Jailors, Aj'oittoiis ?ynd the Tail of Robes- 
pierre going now whither they were wont to send ! — The Hun- 
■ dred and thirty-two Nantese Republicans, whom we saw march- 
ing in irons, have arrived ; shrunk to Ninety-four, the fifth man 
of them choked by the road. They arrive : and suddenly find 
themselves not pleaders for life, but denouncers to death. Their 
Trial is for acc^uittal, and more. As the voice of a trumpet, 
their testimony sounds far and wide, mere atrocities of a Reign 
of Terror. For a space of nineteen days ; with all solemnity 
and publicity. Representative Carrier, Company of Marat ; 
Noyadings, Loire Marriages, things done in darkness, come 
forth into light : clear is the voice of these poor resuscitated 
Nantese ; and Journals, and Speech, and universal Committee 
of Mercy reverberate it loud enough, into all ears and hearts. 
Deputation arrives from. Arras ; denouncing the atrocities of 
Representative Lebon. A tamed Convention loves its own life : 
yet what help .? Rejiresentative Leijon, Representative Carrier 
must wend towards the Revolutionary Tribunal ; struggle and 
delay as we will, the cry of a Nation pursues them louder and 
louder. Them also Tinville must abolish ; — if indeed Tinville 
himself be not abolished. 

We must note, moreover, the decrepit condition into which 
a once omnipotent Mother Society has fallen. Legendre flung 
her keys on the Convention table, that Thermidor night ; her 
President was guillotined with Robespierre. The once mighty 
Mother came, some time after, with a subdued countenance, 
begging back her keys : the keys were restored her ; but the 
strength could not be restored her ; the strength had departed 
forever. Alas, one's day is done. Vain that the Tribune in 
mid-air sounds as of old : to the general ear it has become a 
I horror, and even a weariness. By and by. Affiliation is pro- 
' hibited : the mighty Mother sees herself suddenly childless ; 
mourns as so hoarse a Rachel may. 

The Revolutionary Committees, without Suspects to prey 
upon, perish fast; as it were, of famine. In Paris the old 
Forty-eight of them are reduced to Twelve ; their Forty sons 
are abolished : yet a little while, and Revolutionary Committees 
are no more. Alaxivmrn will be abolished ; let Sansculottism 
find food where it can.i Neither is there now any Municipality ; 

1 24th I»cc.'ii.bcr i;y.i {M^'uiUiir, No. 97). 

CTiAr. It. LA CABARUS. 247 

Year 2] 1794. 

any centre at the Townhall. Mayor Fleuriot and Company 
perished ; whom wc shall not be in haste to replace. The Town- 
hall remains in a broken submissive state ; knows not well what 
it is growing to ; knows only that it is grown weak, and must 
obey. What if we should split Paris into, say, a Dozen sepa- 
rate Municipalities ; incapable of concert ! The Sections were 
thus rendered safe to act with : — or indeed might not the Sec- 
tions themselves be abolished ? You had then merely your 
Twelve manageable pacific Townships, without centre or sub- 
division -.2 and sacred right of Insurrection fell into abeyance ! 

So much is getting abolished ; fleeting swiftly into the In- 
ane. For the Press speaks, and the human tongue ; Journals, 
heavy and light, in Philippic and Burlesque : a renegade Freron, 
a renegade Prudhomme, loud they as ever, only the contrary 
way. And Ci-devaiits show themselves, almost parade them- 
selves ; resuscitated as from death-sleep ; publish what death- 
pains they have had. The very Frogs of the Marsh croak with 
emphasis. Your protesting Seventy-three shall, with a struggle, 
be emitted out of Prison, back to their seats ; your Louvets, 
Isnards, Lanjuinais, and wrecks of Girondism, recalled from 
their haylofts, and caves in Switzerland, will resume their place 
in the Convention •?• natural foes of Terror ! 

Thcrmidorian Talliens, and mere foes of Terror, rule in this 
Convention, and out of it. The compressed Mountain shrinks 
silent more and more. Modcratism rises louder' and louder : 
not as a tempest, with threatenings ; say rather, as the rushing 
of a mighty organ-blast, and melodious deafening Force of 
Public Opinion, from the Twenty-five million windpipes of a 
Nation all in Committee ot Mercy : which how shall any de- 
tached body of individuals withstand ? 



How, above all, shall a poor National Convention withstand 
it ? In this poor National Convention, broken, bewildered by 
long terror, perturbations and guillotinement, there is no Pilot, 
there is not now even a Danton, who could undertake to steer 
you anywhither, in such press of weather. The utmost a be- 

2 October 1795 (Dulaure, viii. 454-6), ■* Deux Amis, xiii. 3-39. 

248 VENDEMIAIRE. book vti. 

1794-S L^^'ear 2-3. 
vvildered Convention can do, is to veer, and trim, and try to 
keep itself steady ; and rush, undrowned, before the wind. 
Needless to struggle ; to fling helm a-lee, and make 'bout sliip ! 
A bewildered Convention sails not in the teeth of the wind ; 
but is rapidly blown round again. So strong is the wind, we 
say ; and so changed ; blowing fresher and fresher, as from the 
sweet Southwest ; your devastating Northeasters, and wild Tor- 
nado-gusts of Terror, blown utterly out ! All Sansculottic things 
are passing away ; all things are becoming Culottic. 

Do but look at the cut of clothes ; that light visible Result, 
significant of a thousand things which are not so visible. In 
winter 1793, men went in red nightcap ; Municipals themselves 
in sabots J the very Citoyennes had to petition against such 
headgear. But now in this winter 1794, where is the red night- 
cap .'' With the things beyond the Flood. Your moneyed Cito- 
yen ponders in what most elegant style he shall dress himself; 
whether he shall not even dress himself as the Free Peoples of 
Antiquity. The more adventurous Citoyenne has already done 
it. Behold her, that beautiful adventurous Citoyenne : in cos- 
tume of the Ancient Greeks, such Greek as Painter David could 
teach ; her sweeping tresses snoodedby glittering antique fillet ; 
bright-dyed tunic of the Greek women ; her little feet naked, as 
in Antique Statues, with mere sandals, and winding-strings of 
riband,- — defying the frost ! 

There is such an effervescence of Luxury. For your Emi- 
grant Ci-devants carried not their mansions and furnitures out 
of the country with them ; but left them standing here : and in 
the swift changes of property, what with money coined on the 
Place de la Revolution, what with Army-furnishings, sales of 
Emigrant Domains and Church Lands and King's Lands, and 
then with the Aladdin's-lamp of Agio in a time of Paper-money, 
such mansions have found new occupants. Old wine, drawn 
from Ci-dc%iant bottles, descends new throats. Paris has swept 
herself, relighted herself ; Salons, Soupers not Fraternal, beam 
once more with suitable effulgence, very singular in colour. The 
fair Cabarus is come out of Prison ; wedded to her red-gloomy 
Dis, whom they say she treats too loftily : fair Cabarus gives 
the most brilliant soirdcs. Round her is gathered a new Re- 
publican Army, of Citoyennes in sandals ; Ci-dciuvits or other : 
what renmants soever of the old grace survive are rallied there. 
At her right-hand, in this cause, labours fair Josephine the 


Year 2-3] 1794-5. 

Widow Bcauharnais, though in straitened circumstances : in- 
tent, both of them, to blandish-down the grimness of Republican 
austerity, and reciviHse mankind. 

Recivihse, even as of old they were civilised : by witchery 
of the Orphic fiddle-bow, and Euterpean rhythm; by the Graces, 
by the Smiles ! Thermidorian Deputies are there in those 
soirees : Editor Freron, Orateiir du Peiiple j Barras, who has 
known other dances than the Carmagnole. Grim Generals of 
the Republic are there ; in enormous horse-collar neckcloth, 
good against sabre-cuts ; the hair gathered all into one knot, 
'flowing down behind, fixed with a comb.' Among which latter 
do we not recognise, once more, that little bronze-complexioned 
Artillery-Officer of Toulon, home from the Italian Wars ! Grim 
enough ; of lean, almost cruel aspect : for he has been in 
trouble, in ill health ; also in ill favour, as a man promoted, 
deservingly or not, by the Terrorists and Robespierre Junior. 
But does not Barras know him ? Will not Barras speak a word 
for him ? Yes, — if at any time it will serve Barras so to do. 
Somewhat forlorn of fortune, for the present, stands that Artil- 
lery-Officer ; looks, with those deep earnest eyes of his, into a 
future as waste as the most. Taciturn ; yet with the strangest 
utterances in him, if you awaken him, which smite home, like 
light or lightning ; — on the whole, rather dangerous ? A ' dis- 
social' man ? Dissocial enough ; a natural terror and horror to 
all Phantasms, being himself of the genus Reality! He stands 
here, without work or outlook, in this forsaken manner ; — 
glances nevertheless, it would seem, at the kind glance of Jose- 
phine Beauharnais ; and, for the rest, with severe countenance, 
with open eyes, and closed lips, waits what will betide. 

That the Balls, therefore, have a new figure this winter, we 
can see. Not Carmagnoles, rude ' whirlblasts of rags,' as Mer- 
cier called them, ' precursors of storm and destruction :' no, 
soft Ionic motions ; fit for the light sandal and antique Grecian 
tunic ! Efflorescence of Luxury has come out : for men have 
wealth ; nay new-got wealth ; and under the Terror you durst 
not dance, except in rags. Among the innumerable kinds of 
Balls, let the hasty reader mark only this single one : the kind 
they call Victim Balls, Bals ct Victiine. The dancers, in choice 
costume, have all crape round the left arm : to be admitted, it 
needs that you be a Victiine j that you have lost a relative under 

250 VENDEMIAIRE. book vii. 

1794-5 [Year 2-3. 
the Terror. Peace to the Dead ; let us dance to tlieir memory ! 
For in all ways one must dance. 

It IS very remarkable, according to Mercier, under what 
varieties ot figure this great business of dancing goes on. 'The 
' women,' says he, 'are Nymphs, Sultanas; sometimes Minervas, 
' Junos, even Dianas. In lightly-unerring gyrations they swim 
' there ; with such earnestness ot purpose ; with perfect silence, 
' so absorbed are they. What is singular,' continues he, 'the 
' onlookers are as it were mingled with the dancers ; form, as 
' it v/ere, a circumambient element round the different contre- 
' dances, yet without deranging them. It is I'are, in fact, that 
' a Sultana in such circumstances experiences the smallest col- 
' lision. Her pretty foot darts down, an inch from mine ; she 
' is off again ; she is as a flash of light : but soon the measure 
' recalls her to the point she set out from. Like a glittering 
' comet she travels her ellipse ; revolving on herself, as by a 
' double effect of gravitation and attraction.'i Looking forward 
a little way, into Time, the same Mercier discerns Merveilleuses 
in ' flesh-coloured drawers' with gold circlets ; mere dancing 
Houris of an artificial Mahomet' s-Paradise : much too Maho- 
metan. Montgaillard, with his splenetic eye, notes a no less 
strange thing ; that every fashionaljJe Citoycnne you meet is in 
an interesting situation. Good Heavens, every? Mere pillows 
and stuffing ! adds the acrid man ; — such in a time of depopu- 
lation by war and guillotine, being the fashion." No farther 
seek its merits to disclose. 

P>ehold also, instead of the old grini Tappe-durs of Robes- 
pierre, what new street-groups are these .'' Young men habited 
not in black-shag Carmagnole spencer, but in superfine habit 
carr^, or spencer with rectangular tail appended to it ; ' square- 
tailed coat,' with elegant anti-guillotinish specialty of collar; 
' the hair plaited at the temples,' and knotted back, long-flowing, 
in military wise: young men of what they call the Muscadin or 
Dandy species ! Frc'ron, in his fondness, names them yeiinesse 
Doree, Golden or Gilt Youth. They have come out, these Gilt 
Youths, in a kind of resuscitated state ; they wear crape round 
the left arm, such of them as were Victims. More, they carry 
clubs loaded with lead ; in an angry manner : any Tappe-dtir, 
or remnant ot Jacobinism they may fall in with, shall fare the 
worse. They have suffered much : their friends guillotined ; 
1 Mercier, Nouveau Paris, iii. 138, 153. " Montgaillard, iv. 436-42. 

CHAP. ui. OUIBERON. 251 

Year 2-3 J 1794-5. 

their pleasures, frolics, superfine collars ruthlessly repressed : 
'ware now the base Red Nightcaps who did it ! Fair Cabarus 
and the Army of Greek sandals smile approval. In the Theatre 
P'eydeau, young Valour in square-tailed coat eyes Beauty in 
Greek sandals, and kindles by her glances : Down with Jacob- 
inism ! No Jacobin hymn or demonstration, only Thermidorian 
ones, shall be permitted here : we beat down Jacobinism with 
clubs loaded with lead. 

But let any one who has examined the Dandy nature, how 
petulant it is, especially in the gregarious state, think what an 
element, in sacred right of insurrection, this Gilt Youth was ! 
Broils and battery ; war without truce or measure ! Hateful is 
Sansculottism, as Death and Night. For indeed is not the 
'DivnAy culottlc, habilatory, bylaw of existence; 'a cloth-animal; 
one that lives, moves and has his being in cloth' ? 

So goes it, waltzing, bickering ; fair Cabarus, by Orphic 
witchery, struggling to recivilise mankind. Not unsuccessfully, 
we hear. What utmost Republican grimness can resist Greek 
sandals, in Ionic motion, the very toes covered with gold rings?'* 
By degrees the indisputablest new-politeness rises ; grows, with 
vigour. And yet, whether, even to this day, that inexpressible 
tone of society known under the old Kings, when Sin had 'lost 
all its deformity' (with or without advantage to us), and airy 
Nothing had obtained such a local habitation and establishment 
as she never had, — be recovered ? Or even, whether it be not 
lost beyond recovery?* — Either way, the world must contrive 
to struggle on. 



But, indeed, do not these long-flowing hair-queues of a 
Jeunesse Dorce in semi-military costume betoken, unconsciously, 
another still more important tendency ? The Republic, abhor- 
rent of her Guillotine, loves her Army. 

And with cause. For, surely, if good fighting be a kind of 
honour, as it is in its season ; and be with the vulgar of men, 
even the chief kind of honour ; then here is good fighting, in 

3 Montgaillard, Mercier (ubi supra). 

■* De Staiil, Considerations, iii. c. 10, &c. 

252 VEiNDEMIAIRE. ly^oK vii. 

1794-5 L'^'car 2-3. 
good season, if there ever was. These Sons of the RepubHc, 
they rose, in mad wrath, to dehver her from Slavery and Cim- 
meria. And have they not done it ? Through Maritime Alps, 
through gorges of Pyrenees, through Low Countries, Northward 
along the Rhine-valley, far is Cimmeria hurled back from the 
sacred Motherland. Fierce as fire, they have carried her Tri- 
color over the faces of all her enemies ; — over scarped heights, 
over cannon-batteries, it has flown victorious, winged with rage. 
She has ' Eleven hundred-thousand fighters on foot,' this Re- 
public : 'at one particular moment she had,' or supposed she 
had, ' Sevcnteen-hundred thousand.'! Like a ring of lightning, 
they, volleying and qa-ira-xng, begirdle her from shore to shore. 
Cimmerian Coalition of Despots recoils, smitten with astonish- 
ment and strange pangs. 

Such a fire is in these Gaelic Republican men ; high-blaz- 
ing ; which no Coalition can withstand ! Not scutcheons, with 
four degrees of nobility ; but ci-devant Sergeants, who have had 
to clutch Generalship out of the cannon's throat, a Pichegru, a 
Jourdan, a Hoche lead them on. They have bread, they have 
iron ; 'with bread and iron you can get to China.' — See Pichegru's 
soldiers, this hard winter, in their looped and windowed destitu- 
tion, in their 'straw-rope shoes and cloaks of bast-mat,' how 
they overrun Holland, like a demon-host, the ice having bridged 
all waters ; and rush shouting from victory to victory ! Ships 
in the Texel are taken by hussars on horseback : fled is York ; 
fled is the Stadtholder, glad to escape to England, and leave 
Holland to fraternise.- Such a Gaelic fire, vye say, blazes in 
this People, like the conflagration of grass and dry-jungle; which 
no mortal can withstand, — for the moment. 

And even so it will blaze and run, scorching all things ; and, 
from Cadiz to Archangel, mad Sansculottism, drilled now into 
Soldiership, led on by some 'armed Soldier of Democracy' (say, 
that monosyllabic Artillery-Officer), will set its foot cruelly on 
the necks of its enemies ; and its shouting and their shrieking 
shall fill the world! — Rash Coalised Kings, such a fire have ye 
kindled ; yourselves fireless, your fighters animated only l3y 
drill-sergeants, mess-room moralities and the drummer's cat ! 
Howevei-, it is begun, and will not end : not for a matter of 
twenty years. So long, this Gaelic fire, through its successive 

1 Tonlonneon, iii. c. 7 ; v. c. 10 (p. lo.j), 

- iglh J.iiuuiry 1795 (.Monl;;":iilI.uvI, iv. 237-311), 


Year 2^7 1794-5. 

changes of colour and character, will blaze over the face of 
Europe, and afflict and scorch all men : — till it provoke all men ; 
till it kindle another kind of fire, the Teutonic kind, namely ; 
and be swallowed up, so to speak, in a day ! For there is a fire 
comparable to the burning of dry-jungle and grass ; most sudden, 
high-blazing : and another fire which we liken to the burning of 
coal, or even of anthracite coal ; difficult to kindle, but then 
which no known thing will put out. The ready Gaelic fire, we 
can remark farther, — and remark not in Pichegrus only, but in 
innumerable Voltaires, Racines, Laplaces, no less ; for a man, 
whether he fight, or sing, or think, will remain the same unity 
of a man, — is admirable for roasting eggs, in every conceivable 
sense. The Teutonic anthracite again, as we see in Luthers, 
Leibnitzes, Shakspeares, is preferable for smelting metals. How 
happy is our Europe that has both kinds ! — 

But be this as it may, the Republic is clearly triumphing. 
In the spring of the year, Mentz Town again sees itself besieged ; 
will again change master: did not Merlin the Thionviller, 'with 
wild beard and look,' say it was not for the last time they saw 
him there ? The Elector of Mentz circulates among his brother 
Potentates this pertinent query. Were it not advisable to treat 
of Peace ? Yes ! answers many an Elector from the bottom of 
his heart. But, on the other hand, Austria hesitates ; finally 
refuses, being subsidied by Pitt. As to Pitt, whoever hesitate, 
he, suspending his Habeas-corpus, suspending his Cash-pay- 
ments, stands inflexible, — spite of foreign reverses; spite of 
domestic obstacles, of Scotch National Conventions and English 
Friends of the People, whom he is obliged to arraign, to hang, 
or even to see acquitted with jubilee : a lean inflexible man. 
The Majesty of Spain, as we predicted, makes Peace; also the 
Majesty of Prussia : and there is a Treaty- of Bale.'' Treaty 
with black Anarchists and Regicides ! Alas, what help? You 
cannot hang this Anarchy ; it is like to hang you : you must 
needs treat with it. 

Likewise, General Hoche has even succeeded in pacificating 
La Vendee. Rogue Rossignol and his ' Infernal Columns' have 
vanished : by firmness and justice, by sagacity and industry, 
General Hoche has done it. Taking ' Movable Columns,' not 
infernal ; girdling-in the Country ; pardoning the submissive, 
cutting down the resistive, limb after limb of the Revolt is 
2 5th April 1795 (Montgaillard, iv, 319). 

254 VENDEMIAIRE. book vii. 

1794-S [Year 2-3. 
brought under. La Rochejacquelin, Last of our Nobles, fell in 
battle ; Stotiiet himself makes terms ; Georgcs-Cadoudal is back 
to Brittany, among his Chouans: the frightful gangrene of La 
Vendee seems veritably extirpated. It has cost, as they reckon 
in round numbers, the lives of a Hundred-thousand fellow-mor- 
tals ; with noyadings, conflagratings by infernal column, which 
defy arithmetic. This is the La Vendue War.-* 

Nay in few months, it does burst-up once more, but once 
only ; — blown upon by Pitt, by our Ci-devant Puisaye of Cal- 
vados, and others. In the month of July 1795, English Ships 
will ride in Ouiberon roads. There will be debarkation of chival- 
rous Ci-devants, of volunteer Prisoners-of-war — eager to desert ; 
of tire-arms, Proclamations, clothes-chests, Royalists and specie. 
Whereupon also, on the Republican side, there will be x'apid 
stand-to-arms ; with ambuscade marchings by Ouiberon beach, 
at midnight ; storming of Fort Penthievre ; war-thunder ming- 
ling with the roar of the nightly main ; and such a morning 
light as has seldom dawned : debarkation hurled back into its 
boats, or into the devouring billows, with wreck and wail ; — in 
one word, a Ci-devant Puisaye as totally ineffectual here as he 
was in Calvados, when he rode from Vernon Castle without 
boots. ^ 

Again, therefore, it has cost the lives of many a brave man. 
Among whom the whole world laments the brave Son of Som- 
breuil. Ill-fated family ! The father and younger son went to 
the guillotine ; the heroic daughter languishes, reduced to want, 
hides her woes from History : the elder son perishes here ; shot 
by military tribunal as an Emigrant ; Hoche himself cannot 
save him. If all wars, civil and other, are misunderstandings, 
what a thing must right-understanding be ! 



The Convention, borne on the tide of Fortune towards for- 
eign Victory, and driven by the strong wind of Public Opinion 
towards Clemency and Luxury, is rushing fast ; all skill of pilot- 
age is needed, and more than all, in such a velocity. 

■* Histoire de la Guerre de In Voidc'e, par M. le Coiiiic tie Vauban , yW- 
tnoircs de I\Iadame de la Rc-ihcjacaiuliti, 6cc. 

'' Deux Amis, xiv. 94-10O; Puisaye, •Memoires, iii.-vii. 


Germ. 12] April ist. 

Curious to see, how we veer and whirl, yet must ever whirl 
round again, and scud before the wind. If, on the one hand, wc 
re-admit the Protesting Seventy-three, we, on the other hand, 
agree to consummate the Apotheosis of Marat ; lift liis body 
from the Cordeliers Church, and transport it to the Pantheon of 
Great Men, — flinging out Mirabeau to make room for him. To 
no purpose : so strong blows Public Opinion ! A Gilt Youth- 
hood, in plaited hair-tresses, tears down his Busts from the 
Theatre Feydeau ; tramples them under foot ; scatters them, 
with vociferation, into the Cesspool of Montmartre.^ Swept is 
his Chapel from the Place du Carrousel ; the Cesspool of Mont- 
martre will receive his very dust. Shorter godhood had no 
divine man. Some four months in this Pantheon, Temple of All 
the Immortals ; then to the Cesspool, grand Cloaca of Paris 
and the World ! ' His Busts at one time amounted to four thou- 
sand.' Between Temple of All the Immoitals and Cloaca of the 
VV^orld, how are poor human creatures v/hirled ! 

Furthermore the question arises. When will the Constitution 
oi Nine fy-th ICC, of 1793, come into action.? Considerate heads 
surmise, in all privacy, that the Constitution of Ninety-three 
will never come into action. Let them busy themselves to get 
ready a better. 

Or, again, where now are the Jacobins ? Childless, most 
decrepit, as we saw, sat the mighty Mother ; gnashing not teeth, 
but empty gums, against a traitorous Thermidorian Convention 
and the current of things. Twice were Billaud, CoUot and Com- 
pany accused in Convention, by a Lecointre, by a Legendre ; 
and the second time, it was not voted calumnious. Billaud from 
the Jacobin tribune says, "The lion is not dead; he is only 
sleeping." They ask him in Convention, What he means by the 
awakening of the lion ? And bickerings, of an extensive sort, 
arose in the Palais -Egalite between Tappe-diirs and the Gilt 
Youthhood ; cries of " Down with the Jacobins, the Jacoqiims," 
coqiiin meaning scoundrel ! The Tribune in mid-air gave bat- 
tle-sound ; answered only by silence and uncertain gasps. Talk 
was, in Government Committees, of ' suspending' the Jacobin 
Sessions. Ilark, there! — it is in AUhallow-time, or on the 
Hallow-eve itself, month ci-devant November, year once named 
of Grace 1794, sad eve for Jacobinism, — volley of stones dash- 
ing through our wmdov.s, with jingle and execration ! The 
1 Moiiiteur, du 25 Septembrc 1794, du 4 Fcvrier 1795. 

356 VENDEMIAIRE. . book vii. 

1795 [Year 3. 
female Jacobins, famed Tricotcuscs with knitting-needles, take 
flight ; are met at the doors by a Gilt Youthhood and ' mob of 
four thousand persons ;' are hooted, flouted, hustled ;. fustigated 
in a scandalous manner, cotillons retrousse'sj — and vanish in 
mere hysterics. Sally out, ye male Jacobins ! The male Jacobins 
sally out ; but only to battle, disaster and confusion. So that 
armed Authority has to intervene : and again on the morrow 
to intervene ; and suspend the Jacobin Sessions forever and a 
day. 2 — Gone are the Jacobins ; into invisibility ; in a storm of 
laughter and howls. Their Place is made a Normal School, the 
first of the kind seen ; it then vanishes into a ' Market of Ther- 
midor Ninth ;' into a Market of Saint-Honord, where is now 
peaceable chaffering for poultry and greens. The solemn temples, 
the great globe itself ; the baseless fabric ! Are not we such 
stuff, we and this world of ours, as Dreams are made of.? 

Maximum being abrogated, Trade was to take its own free 
course. Alas, Trade, shackled, topsyturvied in the way we saw, 
and now suddenly let-go again, can for the present take no 
course at all ; but only reel and stagger. There is, so to speak, 
no Trade whatever for the time being. Assignats, long sinkihg, 
emitted in such quantities, sink now with an alacrity beyond 
parallel. " Comblcn?" said one, to a Hackney-coachman, "What 
fare ?" " Six thousand livres," answered he : some three hun- 
dred pounds sterling, in Paper-money.^ Pressure of Maximum 
withdrawn, the things it compressed likewise withdraw. ' Two 
ounces of bread per day' is the modicum allotted : wide-waving, 
doleful are the Bakers' Queues ; Farmers' houses are become 
pawnbrokers' shops. 

One can imagine, in these circumstances, with what humour 
Sansculottism growled in its throat "La Cabarusf beheld Ci-de- 
vants return dancing, the Thermidor effulgence of recivilisation, 
and Balls in flesh-coloured drawers. Greek tunics and sandals ; 
hosts oiMiiscadins parading, with their clubs loaded with lead; 
— and we here, cast out, abhorred, 'picking offals from the street;'* 
agitating in Baker's Queue for our two ounces of bread ! Will 
the Jacobin lion, which they say is meeting secretly 'at the 

2 Moniteur, Stances du 10-12 Novembre 1794; Deux Amis, xiii. 43-49. 

3 Mercier, ii. 94. (' ist February 1796: at the Bourse of Paris, the gold 
louis,' of 20 francs in silver, 'costs 5,300 francs in assignats.' Montgaillard, 
iv. 419.) 

Fantin Dcsodoards, Histoire de la Ri'voliilhm, vii. c. 4. 


Germ. 12] April ist. 

ArchcvechL-, in bonnet rouge with loaded pistols,' not awaken .? 
Seemingly, not. Our Collot, our Billaud, Barrerc, Vadicr, in 
these last days of March 1795, are found worthy oi Deporta- 
tion, of Banishment beyond seas ; and shall, for the present, be 
trundled off to the Castle of Ham. The lion is dead ; — or 
writhing in death-throes ! 

Behold, accordingly, on the day they call Twelfth of Ger- 
minal (which is also called First of April, not a lucky day), how 
lively are these streets of Paris once more ! Floods of hungry 
women, of squalid hungry men ; ejaculating, " Bread, bread, 
and the Constitution of Ninety-three !" Paris has risen, once 
again, like the Ocean-tide ; is flowing towards the Tuilerics, for 
Bread and a Constitution. Tuileries Sentries do their best ; but 
it serves not : the Ocean-tide sweeps them away ; inundates the 
Convention Hall itself; howling, " Bread and the Constitution!" 

Unhappy Senators, unhappy People, there is yet, after all 
toils and broils, no Bread, no Constitution. " Dit pain, pas ianf 
de longs discours. Bread, not bursts of Parliamentary eloquence !" 
so wailed the Menads of Maillard, five years ago and more ; so 
wail ye to this hour. The Convention, with unalterable counten- 
ance, with what thought one knows not, keeps its seat in this 
waste howling chaos ; rings its storm-bell from the Pavilion of 
Unity. Section Lepclletier, old Fillcs Saint-T/toinas, who are 
of the money-changing species ; these and Gilt Youthhood fly 
to the rescue : sweep chaos forth again, with levelled bayonets. 
Paris is declared ' in a state of siege.' Pichegru, Conqueror of 
Holland, who happens to be here, is named Commandant, till 
the disturbance end. He, in one day so to speak, ends it. He 
accomplishes the transfer of Billaud, Collot and Company ; dis- 
sipating all opposition 'by two cannon-shots,' blank cannon- 
shots, and the terror of his name ; and thereupon, announcing, 
with a Laconicism which should be imitated, " Representatives, 
your decrees are executed, "5 lays down his Commandantship. 

This Revolt of Germinal, therefore, has passed, like a vain 
cry. The Prisoners rest safe in Ham, waiting for ships; some 
nine-hundred ' chief Terrorists of Paris' are disarmed. Sanscu- 
lottism, swept forth with bayonets, has vanished, with its misery, 
to the bottom of Saint-Antoine and Saint-Marceau. — Time was 

2 Monitetir, Seance du 13 Germinal (2(J April), 1795. 

258 VENDEMIAIRE. book vii. 

179s [Year 3. 
when Usher Maillard with Menads could alter the course of 
Legislation ; but that time is not. Legislation seems to have 
got bayonets ; Section Lepellctier takes its firelock, not for us ! 
We retire to our dark dens ; our cry of hunger is called a Plot 
of Pitt ; the Saloons glitter, the flesh-coloured Drawers gyrate 
as before. It was for " The Cabarns" then, and her Muscadins 
and Money-changers that we fought ? It was for Balls in flesh- 
coloured drawers that we took Feudalism by the beard, and did 
and dared, shedding our blood like water ? Expressive Silence, 
muse thou their praise ! — 



Representative Carrier went to the Guillotine, in De- 
cember last ; protesting that he acted by orders. The Revo- 
lutionary Tribunal, after all it has devoured, has now only, 
as Anarchic things do, to devour itself. In the early days 
of May, men see a remarkable thing : Fouquier-Tinville plead- 
ing at the Bar once his own. He and his chief Jurymen, Leroi 
Atigust-Tcnth, Juryman Vilate, a Batch of Sixteen; pleading 
hard, protesting that they acted by orders : but pleading in 
vain. Thus men break the axe with which they have done 
hateful things ; the axe itself having grown hateful. For the 
rest, Fouquier died hard enough : "Where are thy Batches?" 
howled the people. — "Hungry canaille" asked Fouquier, "is 
thy Bread cheaper, wanting them ?" 

Remarkable Fouquier ; once but as other Attorneys and 
Law-beagles, which hunt ravenous on this Earth, a well-known 
phasis of human nature ; and now thou art and remainest the 
most remarkable Attorney that ever lived and hunted in the 
Upper Air ! For, in this terrestrial Course of Time, there was 
to be an Avatar of Attorneyism ; the Heavens had said. Let 
there be an Incarnation, not divine, of the venatorj' Attorney- 
spirit which keeps its eye on the bond only; — and lo, this was 
it ; and they have attorneyed it in its turn. Vanish, then, thou 
rat-eyed Incarnation of Attorneyism ; who at bottom wert but 
as other Attorneys, and too hungry sons of Adam ! Juryman 
Vilate had striven hard for life, and published, from his Prison, 
an ingenious Book, not unknown to us ; but it Avould not stead : 
he also had to vanish ; and this his Book of the Secret Causes 


Year 3] 1795. 

of Thermidor, full of lies, with particles of truth in it undisco- 
verable otherwise, is all that remains of him. 

Revolutionary Tribunal has done ; but vengeance has not 
done. Representative Lebon, after long struggling, is handed 
over to the ordinaiy Law Courts, and by them guillotined. 
Nay at Lyons and elsewhere, resuscitated Moderatism, in its 
vengeance, will not wait the slow process of Law ; but bursts 
into the Prisons, sets fire to the Prisons ; burns some three- 
score imprisoned Jacobins to dire death, or chokes them ' with 
the smoke of straw.' There go vengeful truculent 'Companies 
of Jesus,' 'Companies of the Sun;' slaying Jacobinism wherever 
they meet with it ; flinging it into the Rhone-stream ; which 
once more bears seaward a horrid cargo. ^ Whereupon, at 
Toulon, Jacobinism rises in revolt ; and is like to hang the 
National Representatives. — With such action and reaction, is 
not a poor National Convention hard bested ? It is like the 
settlement of winds and waters, of seas long tornado-beaten ; 
and goes on with jumble and with jangle. Now flung aloft, 
now sunk in trough of the sea, your Vessel of the Republic has 
need of all pilotage and more. 

What Parliament that ever sat under the Moon had such a 
series of destinies as this National Convention of France ? It 
came together to make the Constitution ; and instead of that, 
it has had to make nothing but destruction and confusion : to 
burn-up Catholicisms, Aristocratisms ; to worship Reason and 
dig Saltpetre ; to fight Titanically with itself and with the whole 
world. A Convention decimated by the Guillotine ; above the 
tenth man has bowed his neck to the axe. Which has seen 
Carmagnoles danced before it, and patriotic strophes sung amid 
Church-spoils ; the wounded of the Tenth of August defile in 
handbarrows ; and, in the Pandemonial Midnight, Egalitd's 
dames in tricolor drink lemonade, and spectrum of Sieyes 
mount, saying. Death sans phrase. A Convention which has 
effervesced, and which has congealed ; which has been red 
with rage, and also pale with rage ; sitting with pistols in its 
pocket, drawing sword (in a moment of effervescence): now 
storming to the four winds, through a Danton-voice, Awake, O 
France, • and smite the tyrants ; now frozen mute under its 
Robespierre, and answering his dirge-voiCe by a dubious gasp. 
Assassinated, decimated ; stabbed at, shot at, in baths, on streets 

} Moniteur, du 27 Juin, du 31 Aofit, 1795^ Dev:^ Amis, xiii. 121-9. 

26o VENDEMIAIRE. book vii. 

1795 [Year 3. 
and staircases ; which has been the nucleus of Chaos. Has it 
not heard the chimes at midnight ? It has dehberated, beset 
by a Hundred-thousand armed men with artillery-furnaces and 
provision-carts. It has been betocsincd, bestormed ; overflooded 
by black deluges of Sansculottism ; and has heard the shrill 
cry, Bread and Soap. For, as we say, it was the nucleus of 
Chaos : it sat as the centre of Sansculottism ; and had spread 
its pavilion on the waste Deep, where is neither path nor land- 
mark, neither bottom nor shore. In intrinsic valour, ingenuity, 
fidelity, and general force and manhood, it has perhaps not far 
surpassed the average of Parliaments ; but in frankness of pur- 
pose, in singularity of position, it seeks its fellow. One other 
Sansculottic submersion, or at most two, and this wearied 
vessel of a Convention reaches land. 

Revolt of Germinal Twelfth ended as a vain ciy; moribund 
Sansculottism was swept back into invisibility. There it has 
lain moaning, these six weeks : moaning, and also scheming. 
Jacobins disarmed, flung forth from their Tribune in mid-air, 
must needs try to help themselves, in secret conclave under 
ground. Lo therefore, on the First day of the month Prairial, 
20th of May 1795, sound of the gStierale once more; beating 
sharp ran-tan, To arms. To arms ! 

Sansculottism has risen, yet again, from its death-lair ; waste, 
wild-flowing, as the unfruitful Sea. Saint-Antoine is afoot: 
" Bread and the Constitution of Ninety-three," so sounds it ; so 
stands it written with chalk on the hats of men. They have 
their pikes, their firelocks ; Paper of Grievances ; standards ; 
printed Proclamation, drawn-up in quite official manner, — con- 
sidering this, and also considering that, they, a much-enduring 
Sovereign People, are in Insurrection ; will have Bread and the 
Constitution of Ninety-three. And so the Barriers are seized, 
and the gdnSrale beats, and tocsins discourse discord. Blatk 
deluges overflow the Tuileries ; spite of sentries, the Sanctuary 
itself is invaded : enter, to our Order of the Day, a torrent of 
dishevelled women, wailing, " Bread ! Bread !" President may 
well cover himself; and have his own tocsin rung in 'the Pa- 
vilion of Unity ;' the ship of the State again labours and leaks ; 
overwashed, near to swamping, with unfruitful brine. 

What a day, once more ! Women are driven out : men storm 
irresistibly in ; choke all corridors, thunder at all gates. De- 


Prair. i] May 20th. 

puties, putting forth liead, obtest, conjure ; Saint-Antoine rages, 
" Bread and Constitution." Report has risen that the ' Conven- 
tion is assassinating the women :' crushing and rushing, clangor 
and furor ! The oak doors have become as oak tambourines, 
sounding under the axe of Saint-Antoine ; plaster-work crackles, 
wood-work booms and jingles ; door starts up ; — bursts-in Saint- 
Antoine with frenzy and vociferation, with Rag-standards, printed 
Proclamation, drum-music : astonishment to eye and ear. Gen- 
darmes, loyal Sectioners charge through the other door ; they 
are re-chai-ged ; musketry exploding : Saint-Antoine cannot be 
expelled. Obtesting Deputies obtest vainly : Respect the Pre- 
sident ; approach not the President ! Deputy Feraud, stretching 
out his hands, baring his bosom scarred in the Spanish wars, 
obtests vainly ; threatens and resists vainly. Rebellious Deputy 
of the Sovereign, if thou have fought, have not we too ? We 
have no Bread, no Constitution ! They wrench poor Fdraud ; 
they tumble him, trample him, wrath waxing to see itself work : 
they drag him into the corridor, dead or near it ; sever his head, 
and fix it on a pike. Ah, did an unexampled Convention want 
this variety of destiny, too, then ? Fdraud's bloody head goes 
on a pike. Such a game has begun ; Paris and the Earth may 
wait how it will end. 

And so it billows free through all Corridors ; within and 
without, far as the eye reaches, nothing but Bedlam, and the 
great Deep broken loose ! President Boissy d'Anglas sits like 
a rock : the rest of the Convention is floated ' to the upper 
benches ;' Sectioners and Gendarmes still ranking there to form 
a kind of wall for them. And Insurrection rages ; rolls its drums ; 
will read its Paper of Grievances, will have this decreed, will 
have that. Covered sits President Boissy ; unyielding ; like a 
rock in the beating of seas. They menace him, level muskets 
at him, he yields not ; they hold up Fdraud's bloody head to 
him, with grave stern air he bows to it, and yields not. 

And the Paper of Grievances cannot get itself read for up- 
roar : and the drums roll, and the throats bawl ; and Insurrec- 
tion, like sphere-music, is inaudible for very noise : Decree us 
this, Decree us that. One man we discern bawling ' for the 
space of an hour at all intervals,' " Je dcinamie V arrestation 
des coquins et des Idches." Really one of the most comprehen- 
sive Petitions ever put up ; which indeed, to this hour, includes 
all that you can reasonably ask Constitution of the Year One, 

262 VENDEMIAIRE. book vii. 

1795 [Year 3. 

Rotten-Borough, Ballot-Box, or other miraculous Political Ark 
of the Covenant to do for you to the end of the world ! I also 
demand arrestment of the Knaves and Dastards, and nothing 
^lore whatever.— National Representation, deluged with black 
Sansculottism, glides out ; for help elsewhere, for safety else- 
where ; here is no help. 

About four in the afternoon, there remain hardly more than 
some Sixty Members : mere friends, or even secret leaders ; a 
remnant of the Mountain-crest, held in silence by Thermidorian 
thraldom. Now is the time for them ; now or never let them 
descend, and speak ! They descend, these Sixty, invited by 
Sansculottism : Romme of the New Calendar, Ruhl of the 
Sacred Phial, Goujon, Duquesnoy, Soubrany, and the rest. 
Glad Sansculottism forms a ring for them ; Romme takes the 
President's chair ; they begin resolving and decreeing. Fast 
enough now comes Decree after Decree, in alternate brief 
strains, or strophe and antistrophe, — what will cheapen bread, 
what win awaken the dormant lion. And at every new decree, 
Sansculottism shouts " Decreed, decreed !" and rolls its drums. 

Fast enough ; the work of months in hours,— when see, al 
Figure enters, whom in the lamp-light we recognise to be 
Lcgendre ; and utters words : fit to be hissed out ! And then 
see, Section Lepelletier or other Muscadin Section enters, and 
Gilt Youth, with levelled bayonets, countenances screwed to 
the sticking-place ! Tramp, tramp, with bayonets gleaming in 
the lamp-light : wliat can one do, worn down with long riot, 
grown heartless, dark, hungry, but roll back, but rush back, 
and escape who can ? The very windows need to be thrown 
up, that Sansculottism may escape fast enough. Money-changer 
Sections and Gilt Youth sweep them forth, with steel besoni, 
far into the depths of Saint- Antoine. Triumph once more ! 
The Decrees of that Sixty are not so much as rescinded ; they 
are declared null and non-extant. Romme, Ruhl, Goujon and 
the ringleaders, some thirteen in all, are decreed Accused. 
Permanent-session ends at three in the morning.- Sansculottism, 
once more flung resupine, lies sprawling ; sprawling its last. 

Such was the First of Prairial, 20th of May 1795. Second 

*hd Third of Prairial, during which Sansculottisiir still sprawled, 

and unexpectedly rang its tocsin, and assembled in amis, availed 

Sansculottism nothing. What though with our Rommes and 

" Deux Amis, xiii. 129-46. 


Year 3] 1795. 

Ruhls, accused but not yet arrested, we make a new ' True 
National Convention' of our own, over in the East ; and put 
the others Out of Law ? What though wc rank in arms and 
march ? Armed Force and Muscadin Sections, aome thirty- 
thousand men, environ that old False Convention : we can but 
bully one another ; bandying nicknames, *^ Alitscadlns" against 
" Blood-drinkers, Buvcurs de Sang." Fdraud's Assassin, taken 
with the red hand, and sentenced, and now near to Guillotine 
and Place dc Greve, is retaken ; is carried back into Saint- 
Antoine : — to no purpose. Convention Sectionarics and Gilt 
Youth come, according to Decree, to seek him ; nay to disarm 
Saint-Antoine ! And they do disarm it : by rolling of cannon, 
by springing upon enemy's cannon ; by military audacity, and 
terror of the Law. Saint-Antoine surrenders its arms ; San- 
terre even advising it, anxious for life and brewhousc. Fdraud's 
Assassin flings himself from a high roof : and all is lost."' 

Discerning Avhich things, old Ruhl shot a pistol through 
his old white head ; dashed his life in pieces, as he had done 
the Sacred Phial of Rheims. Romme, Goujon and the others 
stand ranked before a swiftly-appointed, swift Military Tribunal. 
Hearing the sentence, Goujon drew a knife, struck it into his 
breast, passed it to his neighbour Romme ; and fell dead. 
Romme did the like ; and another ail-but did it ; Roman-death 
rushing on there, as in electric-chain, before your Bailiffs could 
intervene ! The Guillotine had the rest. 

They were the Ultiuil Romanorian. Billaud, Collot and 
Company are now ordered to be tried for life ; but are found 
to be already off, shipped for .Sinamarri, and the hot mud of 
Surinam. There let Billaud surround himself with flocks of 
tame parrots ; Collot take the yellow fever, and drinking a whole 
bottle of brandy, burn up his entrails.-* Sansculottism sprawls 
no more. The dormant lion has become a dead one ; and 
now, as we see, any hoof may smite him. 



So dies Sansculottism, the body of Sansculottism ; or is 
changed. Its ragged Pythian Carmagnole-dance has trans- 

•* Toulongeon, v. 297; Monitciir, Nos. 244, 5, 6. 

* Dictionn a ire des Homines Ma^-quans, §§ Billaud, Collot. 

264 VENDEMIAIRE. book vii. 

1795 [War 3. 
formed itself into a Pyrrhic, into a dance of Cabariis IJalls. 
Sansculotlism is dead ; extinguished by new isms of that kind, 
which were its own natural progeny ; and is buried, we may 
say, with such deafening jubilation and disharmony of funeral- 
knell on their part, that only after some half-century or so does 
one begin to learn clearly why it ever was alive. 

And yet a meaning lay in it : Sansculottism verily was alive, 
a New-Birth of Time ; nay it still lives, and is not dead but 
changed. The soul of it still lives ; still works far and wide, 
llirough one bodily shape into another less amorphous, as is 
the way of cunning Time with his New-Births : — till, in some 
perfected shape, it embrace the whole circuit of the world ! For 
the wise man may now everywhere discern that he must found 
on his manhood, not on the garnitures of his manhood. He 
who, in these Epochs of our Europe, founds on garnitures, 
formulas, culottisms of what sort soever, is founding on old 
cloth and sheepskin, and cannot endure. But as for the body 
of Sansculottism, that is dead and buried, — and, one hopes, 
need not reappear, in primary amorphous shape, for another 
thousand years. 

It was the frightfulest thing ever born of Time? One of 
the frightfulest. This Convention, now grown Anti-jacobin, 
did, with an eye to justify and fortify itself, publish Lists of 
what the Reign of Terror had perpetrated : Lists of Persons 
Guillotined. The Lists, cries splenetic Abbe Montgaillard, 
were not complete. They contain the names of. How many 
persons thinks the Reader }• — Two-thousand all but a few. 
There were above Four-thousand, cries Montgaillard : so many 
were guillotined, fusilladed, noyaded, done to dire death ; of 
whom Nine-hundred were women. ^ It is a horrible sum of 
human lives, M. I'Abbd :— some ten times as many shot rightly 
on a field of battle, and one might have had his Glorious-Vic- 
tory with Td-Dt'uui. It is not far from the two-hundredth part 
of what perished in the entire Seven-Years War. By which 
Seven- Years War, did not the great Fritz wrench Silesia from 
the great Theresa ; and a Pompadour, stung by epigrams, 
satisfy herself that she could not be an Agnes Sorel ? The 
head of man is a strange vacant sounding-shell, M. I'Abbe , 
and stutlies Cocker to small purpose. 

I>ut what if History somewhere on this Planet were to hear 
1 Montgaillard, iv. 241. 



Yoar 3] 1795, 

of .1 Nation, the third soul of whom had not, for thirty weeks 
each year, as many third-rate potatoes as would sustain him ?" 
History, in that case, feels bound to consider that starvation is 
starvation ; that starvation from age to age presupposes much ; 
History ventures to assert that the French Sansculotte of Ninety- 
three, who, roused from long death-sleep, could rush at once 
to the frontiers, and die fighting for an immortal Hope and 
Faith of Deliverance for him and his, was but the secofid-misei- 
ablest of men ! The Irish Sans-potato, had he not senses, 
then, nay a soul ? In his frozen darkness, it was bitter for 
him to die famishing ; bitter to see his children famish. It 
was bitter for him to be a beggar, a liar and a knave. Nay, 
if that dreary Greenland-wind of benighted Want, perennial from 
sire to son, had frozen him into a kind of torpor and numb 
callosity, so that he saw not, felt not, — was this, for a creature ' 
with a soul in it, some assuagement ; or the crudest wretched- 
ness of all ? 

Such things were ; such things are ; and they go on in 
silence peaceably : — and Sansculottisms follow them. History, 
looking back over this France through long times, back to 
Turgot's time for instance, when dumb Drudgery staggered up 
to its King's Palace, and in wide expanse of sallow faces, squalor 
and winged raggedness, presented hieroglyphically its Petition 
of Grievances ; and for answer got hanged on a ' new gallows 
forty feet high,'— confesses mournfully that there is no period 
to be met with, in which the general Twenty-five Millions of 
France suffered /fss than in this period which they name Reign 
of Terror ! But it was not the Dumb Millions that suffered 
here ; it was the Speaking Thousands, and Hundreds, and 
Units ; who shrieked and published, and made the world ring 
with their wail, as they could and should : that is the grand 
peculiarity. The frightfulest Births of Time are never the 
loud-speaking ones, for these soon die ; they are the silent 
ones, which can live from century to century ! Anarchy, hate- 
ful as Death, is abhorrent to the whole nature of man ; and so 
must itself soon die. 

Wherefore let all men know what of depth and of height 

is still revealed in man ; and with fear and wonder, with just 

sympathy and just antipathy, with clear eye and open heart, 

contemplate it and appropriate it ; and draw innumerable in- 

• Report nj the Irish Poor-Law Cojiimissioti, 1836. 

266 VENDEMIAIRE. book vii. 

1795 [Year 3. 
ferences from it. This inference, for example, among the first : 
That ' if the gods of this lower world will sit on their glittering 
' thrones, indolent as Epicurus' gods, with the living Chaos of 
' Ignorance and Hunger weltering uncared-for at their feet, 
• and smooth Parasites preaching. Peace, peace, when there is 
' no peace,' then the dark Chaos, it would seem, will rise ; — 
has risen, and, O Heavens, has it not tanned their skins into 
breeches for itself ? That there be no second Sansculottism 
in our Earth for a thousand years, let us understand well what 
the first was ; and let Rich and Poor of us go and do otherwise. 
— But to our tale. 

The Muscadin Sections greatly rejoice ; Cabarus Balls 
gyrate ; the well-nigh insoluble problem, Rcpiiblic without A?t- 
archy, have not we solved it ? — Law of Fraternity or Death is 
gone : chimerical Obtain-who-need has become practical Hold- 
who-have. To anarchic Republic of the Poverties there has 
succeeded orderly Republic of the Luxuries ; which will continue 
as long as it can. 

On the Pont au Change, on the Place de Greve, in long 
sheds, Mercier, in these summer evenings, saw working men at 
their repast. One's allotment of daily bread has sunk to an 
ounce and a half ' Plates containing each three grilled her- 
' rings, sprinkled with shorn onions, wetted with a little vinegar ; 
' to this add some morsel of boiled prunes, and lentils swim- 
' ming in a clear sauce : at these frugal tables, the cook's grid- 
' iron hissing near by, and the pot simmering on a fire between 
' two stones, I have seen them ranged by the hundred ; consum- 
' ing, without bread, their scant ntesses, far too moderate for the 
' keenness of their appetite and the extent of their stomach.'^ 
Seine water, rushing plenteous by, will supply the deficiency. 

O Man of Toil, thy struggling and thy daring, these six long 
years of insurrection and tribulation, thou hast profited nothing 
by it, then ? Thou consumest thy herring and water, in the 
blessed gold-red evening. O why was the Earth so beautiful, be- 
crimsoned with dawn and twilight, if man's dealings with man 
were to make it a vale of scarcity, of tears, not even soft tears .<* 
Destroying of Bastilles, discomfiting of Brunswicks, fronting of 
Principalities and Powers, of Earth and Tophet, all that thou 
hast dared and endured, — it was for a Republic of the Cabarus 
Saloons? Patience; thou must have patience ; the end is not yet. 
3 Nouvcau Paris, iv. 118, 


Year 3] 1795. 



In fact, what can be more natural, one may say inevitable, 
as a Post-Sansculottic transitionary state, than even this.? Con- 
fused wreck of a Republic of the Poverties, which ended in Reign 
of Terror, is arranging itself into such composure as it can. 
Evangel of Jean-Jacques, and most other Evangels, becoming 
incredible, what is there for it but return to the old Evatigel of 
Mammon ? Conh-at-Social is true or untrue, Brotherhood is 
Brotherhood or Death ; but money always will buy money's 
worth : in the wreck of human dubitations, this remains indubit- 
able, that Pleasure is pleasant. Aristocracy of Feudal Parch- 
ment has passed away with a mighty rushing ; and now, by a 
natural course, we arrive at Aristocracy of the Moneybag. It is 
the course through which all European Societies are, at this 
hour, travelling. Apparently a still baser sort of Aristocracy ? 
An infinitely baser ; the basest yet known. 

In which, however, there is this advantage, that, like An- 
archy itself, it cannot continue. Hast thou considered how 
Thought is stronger than Artillery-parks, and (were it fifty years 
after death and martyrdom, or were it two thousand years) writes 
and unwrites Acts of Parliament, removes mountains ; models 
the World like soft clay ? Also how the beginning of all Thought, 
worth the name, is Love ; and the wise head never yet was, 
without first the generous heart ? The Heavens cease not their 
bounty ; they send us generous hearts into every generation. 
And now what generous heart can pretend to itself, or be hood- 
winked into believing, that Loyalty to the Moneybag is a noble 
Loyalty ? Mammon, cries the generous heart out of all ages 
and countries, is the basest of known Gods, even of known 
Devils. In him what glory is there, that ye should worship 
him ? No glory discernible ; not even terror : at best, detesta- 
bility, ill-matched with despicability ! — Generous hearts, discern- 
ing, on this hand, wide-spread Wretchedness, dark without and 
within, moistening its ounce-and-half of bread with tears ; and, 
on that hand, mere Balls in flesh-coloured drawers, and inane 
or foul glitter of such sort, — cannot but ejaculate, cannot but 
announce : Too much, O divine Mammon ; somewhat too much ! 

268 VENDEMIAIRE. book vii. 

1795 [Year 3. 
— The voice of these, once announcing itself, carries y/^r/ and 
pereat in it, for all things here below. 

Meanwhile we will hate Anarchy as Death, which it is; and 
the things worse than Anarchy shall be hated more. Surely 
Peace alone is fruitful. Anarchy is destruction ; a burning up, 
say, of Shams and Insupportabilities ; but which leaves Vacancy 
behind. Know this also, that out of a world of Unwise nothing 
but an Unwisdom can be made. Arrange it, constitution-build 
it, sift it through ballot-boxes as thou wilt, it is and remains an 
Unwisdom, — the new prey of new quacks and unclean things, 
the latter end of it slightly better than the beginning. Who 
can bring a wise thing out of men unwise ? Not one. And so 
Vacancy and general Abolition having come for this France, 
what can Anarchy do more? Let there be Order, were it under 
the Soldier's Sword ; let there be Peace, that the bounty of the 
Heavens be not spilt ; that what of Wisdom they do send us 
bring fruit in its season ! — It remains to be seen how the quellers 
of Sansculottism were themselves quelled, and sacred right of 
Insurrection was blown away by gunpowder ; wherewith this 
singular eventful History called French Revolution ends. 

The Convention, driven such a course by wild wind, wild 
tide, and steerage and non-steerage, these three years, has be- 
come weary of its own existence, sees all men weary of it ; and 
wishes heartily to finish. To the last it has to strive with con- 
tradictions : it is now getting fast ready with a Constitution, 
yet knows no peace. Sieyes, we say, is making the Constitution 
once more ; has as good as made it. Warned by experience, 
the great Architect alters much, admits much. Distinction of 
Active and Passive Citizen, that is. Money -cjualification for 
Electors : nay Two Chambers, ' Council of Ancients,' as well as 
' Council of Five-hundred ;' to that conclusion have we come ! 
In a like spirit, eschewing that fatal self-denying ordinance of 
your Old Constituents, we enact not only that actual Convention 
Members are reeligiblc, but that Two-thirds of them must be 
reelected. The Active Citizen Electors shall for this time have 
free choice of only One-third of their National A.ssembly. Such 
enactment, of Two-thirds to be reelected, we append to our 
Constitution ; we submit our Constitution to the Townships of 
France, and say. Accept both, or reject both. Unsavoury as this 
appendix may be, the Townships, by overwhelming majority, 


Year 3] 1795. 

accept and ratify. With Directory of Five ; with Two good 
Chambers, double-majority of them nominated by ourselves, one 
hopes this Constitution may prove final. Alarch it will ; for 
the legs of it, the reelected Two-thirds, are already here, able 
to march. Sieyes looks at his paper-fabric with just pride. 

But now see how the contumacious Sections, Lepelletier 
foremost, kick against the pricks. Is it not manifest infraction 
of one's Elective Franchise, Rights of Man, and Sovereignty 
of the People, this appendix of reelecting j/6i;<r Two -thirds ? 
Greedy tyrants, who would perpetuate yourselves ! — For the 
truth is, victory over Saint-Antoine, and long right of Insur- 
rection, has spoiled these men. Nay spoiled all men. Con- 
sider, too, how each man was free to hope what he liked ; 
and now there is to be no hope, there is to be fruition, fruition 
of this. 

In men spoiled by long right of Insurrection, what confused 
ferments will rise, tongues once begun wagging ! Journalists 
declaim, your Lacretelles, Laharpes; Orators spout. There is 
Royalism traceable in it, and Jacobinism. On the West Fron- 
tier, in deep secrecy, Pichegru, durst he trust his Army, is treat- 
ing with Cond^ : in these Sections, there spout wolves in sheep's 
clothing, masked Emigrants and Royalists. 1 All men, as we 
say, had hoped, each that the Election would do something for 
his own side : and now there is no Election, or only the third 
of one. Black is united with white against this clause of the 
Two -thirds ; all the Unruly of France, who see their trade 
thereby near ending. 

Section Lepelletier, after Addresses enough, finds that such 
clause is a manifest infraction ; that it, Lepelletier for one, will 
simply not conform thereto ; and invites all other free Sections 
to join it, 'in central Committee,' in resistance to oppression. 2 
The Sections join it, nearly all ; strong with their Forty-thou- 
sand fighting men. The Convention therefore may look to itself! 
Lepelletier, on this 1 2th day of Venddmiaire, 4th of October 
1795, is sitting in open contravention, in its Convent of Filles 
Saint-Thomas, Rue Vivienne, with guns primed. The Conven- 
tion has some Five-thousand regular troops at hand ; Generals 
in abundance ; and a Fift?en-hundred of miscellaneous perse- 
cuted LTltra-Jacobins, whom in this crisis it has hastily got toge- 

*■ Napoleon, Las Cases {Choix des Rapports, xvii. 398-411). 
* Deux Amis, xiii. 375-406. 

270 VENDEMIAIRE. boor vii. 

1795 [Year 4. 

ther and armed, under the title oi Patriots of Eighty-nine. Strong 
in Law, it sends its General Menou to disarm Lepelletier. 

General Menou marches accordingly, with due summons 
and demonstration ; with no result. General Menou, about 
eight in the evening, finds that he is standing ranked in the Rue 
Vivienne, emitting vain summonses ; with primed guns pointed 
out of every window at him ; and that he cannot disarm Lepel- 
letier. He has to return, with whole skin, but without success ; 
and be thrown into arrest, as 'a traitor.' Whereupon the whole 
Forty-thousand join this Lepelletier which cannot be vanquished : 
to what hand shall a quaking Convention now turn ? Our poor 
Convention, after such voyaging, just entering harbour, so to 
speak, has struck on the bar; — -and labours there frightfully, 
with breakers roaring round it, Forty-thousand of them, like to 
wash it, and its Sieyes Cargo and the whole future of France, 
into the deep ! Yet one last time, it struggles, ready to perish. 

Some call for Barras to be made Commandant ; he con- 
quered in Thermidor. Some, what is more to the purpose, 
bethink them of the Citizen Buonaparte, unemployed Artillery- 
Officer, who took Toulon. A man of head, a man of action : 
Barras is named Commandant's-Cloak ; this young Artillery- 
Officer is named Commandant. He was in the Gallery at the 
moment, and heard it ; he withdrew, some half-hour, to con- 
sider with himself : after a half-hour of grim compressed con- 
sidering, to be or not to be, he answers Yea. 

And now, a man of head being at the centre of it, the whole 
matter gets vital. Swift, to Camp of Sablons ; to secure the 
Artillery, there are not twenty men guarding it ! A swift Adju- 
tant, Murat is the name of him, gallops ; gets thither some 
minutes within time, for Lepelletier was also on march that 
way : the Cannon are ours. And now beset this post, and be- 
set that ; rapid and firm : at Wicket of the Louvre, in Cul-de- 
sac Dauphin, in Rue Saint-Honord, from Pont-Neuf all along 
the north Quays, southward to Pont ci-devant Royal, — rank 
round the Sanctuary of the Tuileries, a ring of steel discipline ; 
let every gunner have his match burning, and all men stand 
to their arms ! 

Thus there is Permanent-sessiort through the night ; and 
thus at sunrise of the morrow, there is seen sacred Insurrection 
once again : vessel of State labouring on the bar; and tumultu- 
ous sea all round her, beating gdnerale, arming and sounding, — 


Vend. 13] Oct. 5th, 

not ringing tocsin, for we have left no tocsin but our own in 
the PaviHon of Unity. It is an imminence of shipwreck, for the 
whole world to gaze at. Frightfully she labours, that poor ship, 
within cable-length of port ; huge peril for her. However, she 
has a man at the helm. Insurgent messages, received and not 
received ; messenger admitted blindfolded ; counsel and coun- 
ter-counsel : the poor ship labours! — Venddmiaire 13th, year 
4 : curious enough, of all days, it is the 5th day of October, 
anniversary of that Menad-march, si.x years ago ; by sacred 
right of Insurrection we are got thus far. 

Lepelletier has seized the Church of Saint-Roch ; has seized 
the Pont-Neuf, our piquet there retreating without fire. Stray 
shots fall from Lepelletier ; rattle down on the very Tuileries 
Staircase. On the other hand, women advance dishevelled, 
shrieking, Peace ; Lepelletier behind them waving his hat in 
sign that we shall fraternise. Steady! The Artillery-Officer is 
steady as bronze ; can, if need were, be quick as lightning. He 
sends eight-hundred muskets with ball-cartridges to the Con- 
vention itself; honourable Members shall act with these in case 
of extremity ; whereat they look grave enough. Four of the 
afternoon is struck.-^ Lepelletier, making nothing by messen- 
gers, by fraternity or hat-waving, bursts out, along the Southern 
Quai Voltaire, along streets and passages, treble-quick, in huge 
veritable onslaught ! Whereupon, thou bronze Artillery-Offi- 
cer — ? " Fire !" say the bronze lips. And roar and thunder, 
roar and again roar, continual, volcano-like, goes his great gun, 
in the Cul-de-sac Dauphin against the Church of Saint-Roch ; 
go his great guns on the Pont-Royal ; go all his great guns ; — 
blow to air some two-hundred men, mainly about the Church 
of Saint-Roch ! Lepelletier cannot stand such horse-play ; no 
Sectioner can stand it ; the Forty-thousand yield on all sides, 
scour towards covert. ' Some hundred or so of them gathered 
'about the Theatre de la Rdpublique ; but,' says he, 'a few 
' shells dislodged them. It was all finished at six.' 

The Ship is over the bar, then ; free she bounds shoreward, 
— amid shouting and vivats ! Citoyen Buonaparte is ' named 
General of the Interior, by acclamation ;' quelled Sections have 
to disarm in such humour as they may; sacred right of Insur- 
rection is gone forever ! The Sieyes Constitution can disem- 
bark itself, and begin marching. The miraculous Convention 
3 Mouiteur, Seance du 5 Octobre 1795. 

372 VENDEMIAIRE. book vir. 

1795 [Year 4, 
Ship has got to land ; — and is there, shall we figuratively say, 
changed, as Epic Ships are wont, into a kind of Sea Nymph, 
never to sail more ; to roam the waste Azure, a Miracle in 
History ! 

' It is false,' says Napoleon, 'that we fired first with blank 
charge ; it had been a waste of life to do that.' Most false : 
the firing was with sharp and sharpest shot : to all men it was 
plain that here was no sport ; the rabbets and plinths of Saint- 
Roch Church show splintered by it to this hour. — Singular : in 
old Broglie's time, six years ago, this Whiff of Grapeshot was 
promised ; but it could not be given then ; could not have pro- 
fited then. Now, however, the time is come for it, and the 
man ; and behold, you have it ; and the thing we specifically 
call French Revolution is blown into space by it, and become 
a thing that was ! — 



Homer's Epos, it is remarked, is like a Bas-Relief sculp- 
ture : it does not conclude, but merely ceases. Such, indeed, 
is the Epos of Universal History itself. Directorates, Consu- 
lates, Emperorships, Restorations, Citizen -Kingships succeed 
this Business in due series, in due genesis one out of the other. 
Nevertheless the First-parent of all these may be said to have 
gone to air in the way we see. A Baboeuf Insurrection, next 
year, will die in the birth ; stifled by the Soldiery. A Senate, if 
tinged with Royalism, can be purged by the Soldiery ; and an 
Eighteenth of Fructidor transacted by the mere show of bayo- 
nets. 1 Nay Soldiers' bayonets can be used a posteriori on a 
Senate, and make it leap out of window, — still bloodless ; and 
produce an Eighteenth of Brumaire.2 Such changes must hap- 
pen : but they are managed by intriguings, caballings, and then 
by orderly word of command ; almost like mere changes of 
Ministry. Not in general by sacred right of Insurrection, but 
by milder methods growing ever milder, shall the events of 
French History be henceforth brought to pass. 

It is admitted that this Directorate, which owned, at its 
starting, these three things, an 'old table, a sheet 01 paper, and 

^ Moniteur, du 4 Scptcmbre 1797. 

2 9th November 1799 {Clwix des Rapporis, .wii. 1-96), 

CHAP. viii. FINIS. 273 

Vend, 13] Oct. sth. 

an inkbottle,' and no visible money or arrangement whatevei', '^ 
did wonders : that France, since the Reign of Terror hushed 
itself, has been a new France, awakened Hke a giant out of 
torpor ; and has gone on, in the Internal Life of it, with con- 
tinual progress. As for the External form and forms of Life, 
what can we say, except that out of the Eater there comes 
Strength; out of the Unwise there comes 7/1?/ Wisdom ! — Shams 
are burnt up ; nay, what as yet is the peculiarity of France, the 
very Cant of them is burnt up. The new Realities are not yet 
come : ah no, only Phantasms, Paper models, tentative Pre- 
figurements of such ! In France there are now Four Million 
Landed Properties ; that black portent of an Agrarian Law is, 
as it were, realised. What is still stranger, we understand all 
Frenchmen have ' the right of duel ;' the Hackney-coachman 
with the Peer, if insult be given : such is the law of Public 
Opinion. Equality at least in death ! The Form of Govern- 
ment is by Citizen King, frequently shot at, not yet shot. 

On the whole, therefore, has it not been fulfilled what was 
prophesied, ex postfacto indeed, by the Arch-quack Cagliostro, 
or another ? He, as he looked in rapt vision and amazement 
into these things, thus spake :■* ' Ha ! What is this ? Angels, 
' Uriel, Anachiel, and ye other Five ; Pentagon of Rejuvenes- 
' cence ; Power that destroyedst Original Sin ; Earth, Heaven, 
' and thou Outer Limbo, which men name Hell ! Does the 
' Empire of Imposture v.-aver? Burst there, in starry sheen, 
' updarting, Light-rays from out of its dark foundations ; as it 
' rocks and heaves, not in travail-throes but in death-throes ? 
' Yea, Light-rays, piercing, clear, that salute the Heavens, — lo, 
' they kindle it ; their starry clearness becomes as red Hellfire ! 

' Imposture is in flames. Imposture is burnt up : one red 

* sea of Fire, wild-billowing, enwraps the World ; with its fire- 
' tongue licks at the veiy Stars. Thrones are hurled into it, 
' and Dubois Mitres, and Prebendal Stalls that drop fatness, 

* and — ha ! what see I ? — all the Gigs of Creation : all aV, ' 
' Wo is me ! Never since Pharaoh's Chariots, in the Red Sea 

* of water, was there wreck of Wheel-vehicles like this in the 

* Sea of Fire. Desolate, as ashes, as gases, shall they wander 

* in the wind. 

3 Bailleul, Exameii critique des Considiratio7is deAIad, de Sta'el, ii. 275, 
* Diamond Necklace (OdTlyle's Miscettafiies). 

274 VENDEMIAIRE. book vii. 

179s [Year 4. 
' Higher, higher yet flames the Fire-Sea ; crackling with 

• new dislocated timber ; hissing with leather and prunella. 
' The metal Images are molten ; the marble Images become 

• mortar-lime ; the stone Mountains sulkily explode. Respecta- 
' EiLiTV, with all her collected Gigs inflamed for funeral pyre, 
' wailing, leaves the Earth : not to return save under new 
' Avatar. Imposture how it burns, through generations : how 
' it is burnt up ; for a time. The World is black ashes ; — 
' which, ah, when will they grow green ? The Images all run 
' into amorphous Corinthian brass ; all Dwellings of men de- 
' stroyed ; the very mountains peeled and riven, the valleys 

• black and dead : it is an empty World ! Wo to them that 

' shall be born then ! A King, a Queen (ah me !) were 

' hurled in ; did rustle once ; flev/ aloft, crackling, like paper- 
' scroll. Iscariot Egalit^ was hurled in ; thou grim De Launay, 
' with thy grim Bastille ; whole kindreds and peoples ; five mil- 
' lions of mutually destroying Men. For it is the End of the 
' dominion of Imposture (which is Darkness and opaque Fire- 
' damp) ; and the burning up, with unquenchable fire, of all the 
' Gigs that are in the Earth.' This Prophecy, we say, has it 
not been fulfilled, is it not fulfilling ? 

And so here, O Reader, has the time come for us two to 
part. Toilsome was our journeying together; not without offence; 
but it is done. To me thou wert as a beloved shade, the dis- 
embodied or not yet embodied spirit of a Brother. To thee I 
was but as a Voice. Yet was our relation a kind of sacred one ; 
doubt not that ! For whatsoever once sacred things become 
hollow jargons, yet while the Voice of Man speaks with Man, 
hast thou not there the living fountain out of ■\\hich all sacred- 
nesses sprang, and will yet spring ? Man, by the nature of 
him, is definable as 'an incarnated Word.' Ill stands it with 
me if I have spoken falsely : thine also it was to hear truly. 


[Drawn-up by " Philo," for Edition 1857.] 


(May 10th, 1774 — October ^th, 1789.) 


Louis XV. dies, at Versailles, May 10th, 1774; of small-pox, after a short illness: 
Great-grandson of Louis XIV. ; age then 64; in the 59th year of his nominal 'reign.' 
Retrospect to 1774 : sad decay of Realised Ideals,' secular and sacred. Scenes about 
Louis XV. 's deathbed. Scene of the Noblesse entering, ' with a noise like thunder,' 
to do homage to the New King and Queen. New King, Louis XVI., was his Pre- 
decessor's Grandson ; age then near 20, — born Atigiist 2.-x,d, 1754. New Queen was 
Marie-Antoinette, Daughter (iith daughter, 12th child) of the great Empress Maria- 
Theresa and her Emperor Francis (originally 'Duke of Lorraine,' but with no territorj' 
there) ; her age at this time was under 19 (born Novejnbcr id, 1755). Louis and she 
were wedded four years ago {May rdt/i, 1770) ; but had as yet no children ; — none till 
177S, when their first was born ; a Daughter known long afterwards as Duchess d'An- 
gouleme. Two Sons followed, who were successively called "Dauphin;" but died 
both, the second in very miserable circumstances, while still in boyhood. Their fourth 
and last child, a Daughter (1786), lived only 11 months. "These two were now Kmg 
and Queen, piously reckoning themselves " too young to reign." 

December 16M, 1773, Tea, a celebrated cargo of it, had been flung out in the har- 
bour of Boston, Massachusetts: June Tth, 1775, Battle of Bunker's Hill, first of the 
American War, is fouzht in the same neighbourhood, — far over seas. 

1774— 1783. 

Change of Administration. Maurepas, a man now 73 years old and of great levity, 
is appointed Prime-Minister ; Vergennes favourably known for his correct habits, for 
his embassies in Turkey, in Sweden, gets the Department of Foreign Affairs. Old 
Parlement is reinstated ; " Parlement Maupeou," which had been invented for get- 
ting edicts, particularly tax-edicts, ' registered,' and made available in law, is dis- 
missed. Turgot, made Controller-General of Finances ("Chancellor of the Exchequer" 
and something more), August 24M, 1774, gives rise to high hopes, being already 
known as a man of much intelligence speculative and practical, of noble patriotic in- 
tentions, and of a probity beyond question. 

There are many changes ; but one steady fact, of supreme significance, continued 
Deficit of Revenue, — that is the only History of the Period. Noblesse and Clergy 
are exempt from direct imposts ; no tax that can be devised, on such principle, will 
yield due ways and means. Meanings of that fact ; little surmised by the then popu- 
lations of France. Turgot aiming at juster principles, cannot : ' Corn-trade' (domestic) 
' made free,' and many improvements and high intentions ;— much discontent at Court 
in consequence; famine-riots withal, and 'gallows forty feet high.' Turgot will tax 
Noblesse and Clergy like the other ranks ; tempest of astonishment and indignation in 
consequence: Turgot dbmissed. May 1776. .^/rt^ snuff-boxes come out, this summer, 
under the name of Tnrgotincs, as being "platitudes" (in the notion of a fashionable 
snuffing public), like the Plans of this Controller. Necker, a Genevese become rich 
by Banking in Paris, and well seen by the Philosophe party, is appointed Controller 
in his stead (1776); — and there is continued Deficit of Revenue. 



For the rest, Benevolence, Tolerance, Doctrine of universal Love and Charity to 
good and bad. Scepticism, Philosophism, Sensualism : portentous ' Electuarj',' of 
sweet taste, into which ' Good and Evil,' the distinctions of them lost, have been 
mashed up. Jean-Jacques, Contrat-Social: universal Millennium, of Liberty, Bro- 
therhood, and whatever is desirable, expected to be rapidly approaching on those 
terms. Balloons, Horse-races, Anglomania. Continued Deficit of Revenue. Necker's 
plans for ' filling up the Deficit' are not approved of, and are only partially gone into : 
Frugality is of slow operation ; curtailment of expenses occasions numerous dismissals, 
numerous discontents at Court : from Noblesse and Clergy, if their privilege of 
exemption be touched, what is to be hoped ? 

American- English War (since April 1775) ; Franklin, and Agents of the Revolted 
Colonies, at Paris (1776 and afterwards), where their Cause is in high favour. French 
Treaty with Revolted Colonies, February 6fh, 1778; extensive Official smugglings of 
supplies to them (in which Beaumarchais is much concerned) for some time before. 
Departure of French "volunteer" Auxiliaries, under Lafayette, 1778. "Volunteers" 
these, not sanctioned, only countenanced and furthered, the public clamour being 
strong that way. War from England, in consequence ; Rochambeau to America, with 
public Auxiliaries, in 1780: — War not notable, except by the Siege of Gibraltar, and 
by the general result arrived at shortly after. 

Continued Deficit of Revenue: Necker's ulterior plans still less approved of; by 
Noblesse and Clergy, least of all. January 1781, he publishes a Compte Rendu 
('Account Rendered," of himself and them), 'Two hundred thousand copies of it sold;' 
— and is dismissed in the May following. Returns to Switzerland ; and there writes 
New Books, on the same interesting subject or pair of subjects. Maurepas dies, 
November ■zist, 1781: the essential "Prime-Minister" is henceforth the Controller- 
General, if any such could be found ; there being an ever-increasing Deficit of Re- 
venue, — a Millennium thought to be just coming on, and evidently no money in its 

Siege of Gibraltar (September i-ith, to middle o{ Novetnber, 1782): Siege futile on 
the part of France and Spain ; hopeless since that day (September i-itli) of the red-hot 
balls. General result arrived at is important: American Independence recognised 
(Peace of Versailles, January 10th, 1783). Lafayette returns in illustrious condition ; 
named Scipio Americanus by some able-editors of the time. 

1783— 1787. 

Ever-increasing Deficit of Revenue. Worse, not better, since Necker's dismissal. 
After one or two transient Controllers, who can do nothing, Calonne, a memorable 
one, is nominated, November 1783. Who continues, with lavish expenditure raised 
by loans, contenting all the world by his liberality, ' quenching fire by oil thrown on 
it ;' for three years and more. " All the world was holding out its hand, I held out 
my hat." Ominous scandalous Affair called of the Diamond Necklace (Cardinal de 
Rohan, Dame deLamotte, Arch-Quack Cagliostro the principal actors), tragically corn- 
promising the Queen's name who had no vestige of concern with it, becomes public 
as Criminal-Trial, 1785 ; penal sentence on the above active parties and others, 3Iay 
31st, 1786: with immense rumour and conjecture from all mankind. Calonne, his 
borrowing resources being out, convokes the Notables (First Convocation of the Nota- 
bles) February iid, 1787, to sanction his new Plans of Taxing; who will not hear of 
them or of him: so that he is dismissed, and 'exiled,' April Zth, 1787. First Convo- 
cation of Notables, — who treat not of this thing only, but of all manner of public things, 
and mention States-General among others, — sat from February ■zzd to May 2sth, 17S7. 


Cardinal Lomenie de Brienne, who had long been ambitious of the post, succeeds 
Calonne. A man now of sixty ; dissolute, worthless ; — devises Tax-Edicts, Stamptax 
(Edit du Timbre, July 6th, 1787) and others, with ' successive loans,' and the like ; 
which the Parlement, greatly to the joy of the Public, will not register. Ominous 
condition of the Public, all virtually in opposition; Parlements, at Paris and else- 
where, have a cheap method of becoming glorious. Contests of Lomenie and Parle- 
rnent. Beds-of-Justice (first of them, August 6th, 1787); Lettres-de-Cachet, and the 
like methods; general 'Exile' of Parlement (Augiist isf^i-, 1787), who return upon 
conditions, September 20th. Increasing ferment of the Public. Lome'nie helps him- 
self by temporary shifts till he can, privately, get ready for wrestling down the rebel- 
lious Parlement 


1788. January — Septe7}iber. 

Spring of 1788, grand scheme of dismissing the Parlement altogether, and nominat- 
ing instead a "Plenary Court {Cour Pl^niere)," which shall be obedient in 'register- 
ing' and in other points. Scheme detected before quite ripe : Parlement in permanent 
session thereupon ; haranguing all night {May yi) ; applausive idle crowds inundating 
the Outer Courts : D'Esprem^nil and Goeslard de Monsabert seized by mihtary in the 
gray of the morning {May ^h), and whirled off to distant places of imprisonment : 
Parlement itself dismissed to exile. Attempt to govern (that is, to raise supplies) by 
Royal Edict simply, — "Plenary Court" having expired in the birth. Rebellion of a! J 
the Provincial Parlements ; idle Public more and more noisily approving and applaud- 
ing. Destructive Hailstorm, yitly i^^tk, which was remembered ne.xt year. Royal 
Edict {Attgitst 8i/i), That States-General, often vaguely promised before^ shall actually 
assemble in May next. Proclamation {Angiist ibih). That 'Treasury Payments be 
henceforth three-fifths in cash, two-fifths in paper,' — in other words, that the Treasury 
is fallen insolvent. Lomenia thereupon immediately dismissed : with immense ex- 
plosion of popular rejoicing, more riotous than usual. Necker, favourite of all the 
world, is immediately {August 24^//) recalled from Sisitzerland to succeed him, and 
be "Saviour of France." 

1788, November — December. 

Second Convocation of the Notables {Novcmher (>th — Decerilcr iiih), by Necker, 
for the purpose of settling how, in various essential particulars, the States-General 
shall be held. For instance. Are the Three Estates to meet as one Deliberative 
Body? Or as Three, or Two? Above all, what is to be the relative force, in deciding, 
of the Third Estate or Commonalty? Notables, as other less formal Assemblages had 
done and do, depart wthout settling any of the points _ in question ; most points 
remain unsettled, — especially that of the Third Estate and its relative force. Elections 
begin everywhere, January 1789. Troubles of France seem now to be about becom- 
ing Revolution in France. Commencement of the "French Revolution," — henceforth 
a phenomenon absorbing all others for mankind, — is commonly dated here. 

1789. May — -yime. 

Assembling of States-General at Versailles ; Procession to the Church of St. Louis 
there. May ^i/i. Third Estate has the Nation behind it ; wishes to be a main element 
in the liuslness. Hopes, and (led by Mlrabeau and other able heads) decides, that it 
must be the main element of all, — and will continue ' inert,' and do nothing, till that 
come about : namely, till the other Two Estates, Noblesse and Clergy, be joined with 
it ; in which conjunct state it can outvote them, and may beconie what it wishes. 
' Inertia,' or the scheme of doing only harangues and adroit formalities, is adopted by 
it ; adroitly persevered in, for seven weeks : much to the hope of France ; to the 
alarm of Necker and the Court. 

Court decides to intervene. Hall of Assembl^is found shot {Saturday Jinie 'ioth) ; 
Third-Estate Deputies take Oath, celebrated "Oath of the Tennis-Court," in that 
emergency. Emotion of French mankind, Monday June iid. Court does intervene, 
but with reverse effect : Seance Royale, Royal Speech, giving open intimation of 
much significance, " If you Three Estates cannot agree, I the King will myself achieve 
the happiness of my People." Noblesse and Clergy leave the Hall along with King; 
Third Estate remains pondering this intimation. Enter Supreme-Usher de Breze, to 
command departure ; Mirabeau's fulminant words to him: exit De Breze, fruitless 
and worse, 'amid seas of angry people.' All France on the edge of blazing out: 
Court recoils ; Third Estate, other Two now joiumg it on order, triumphs, successful 
in every particular. The States-General are henceforth " National Assembly ;" called 
in Books distinctively " Constituent Assembly ;" that is, Assembly met " to make the 
Constitution,"— -perfect Constitution, under which the French People might realise 
their Millennium. 

1789. ytme — Jtily. 

Great hope, great excitement, great suspicion. Court terrors and plans : old Tilare- 
chal Broglio,— this is the Broglio who was young in the Seven- Years War ; son of _a 
Marshal BrogUo, and grandson of another, who much filled the Newspapers in their 
time. Gardes Fra7i{aUes at Paris need to be confined to their quarters ; and cannot 
(Jutie 2(itk). Sunday July iitli, News that Necker is dismissed, and gone home- 
wards overnight : panic terror of Paris, kindling into hot frenzy ;— ends in besieging 



the Bastille ; and in taking it, chiefly by infinite noise, the Gardes Franfatses at 
length mutely assisting in the rear. Bastille falls, 'like the City of Jericho, by sound,' 
Tuesday July xi,th, 1789. Kind of ' fire-baptism' to the Revolution ; which continues 
insuppressible thenceforth, and beyond hope of suppression. All France, 'as Na- 
tional Guards, to suppress Brigands and enemies to the making of the Constitution,' 
takes arms. 

17^9. A ugitsf- — Octot)er. 

Scipio Americanus, Mayor Bailly and ' Patrollotism versus Patriotism* (y}«^«/, 
Septetnber). Hope, terror, suspicion, excitement, rising ever more, to%vards the trans- 
cendental pitch; — continued scarcity of grain. Pi ogress towards Fifth of October, 
called here 'Insurrection of Women.' Regiment de Flandre has come to Versailles 
{September lyi) ; Officers have had a dinner {October ^d), with much demonstration 
and gesticulative foolery, of an anti-constitutional and monarchic character. Paris, 
semi-delirious, hears of it {^u>iday October ^t/t), with endless emotion; — next day, 
some '10,000 women' (men being under awe of 'Patrollotism') march upon Versailles ; 
followed by endless miscellaneous multitudes, and finally by Lafayette and National 
Guards. Phenomena and procedure there. Result is, they bring the Royal Family 
and National Assembly home with them to Paris ; Paris thereafter Centre of the 
Revolution, and October Five i. memorable day. 

1789. October — December. 

'First Emigration,' of certain higher Noblesse and Princes of the Blood; which 
more or less continues through the ensuing years, and at length on an altogether pro- 
fuse scale. Much legal inquiring and procedure as to Philippe d'Orleans and his 
(imaginary) concern in this Fifth of October; who retires to England for a while, and 
is ill seen by the polite classes there. 


(fanuary 1790 — Angtist i2t/i, 1792.) 


. Constitution-building, and its dlificulties and accompaniments. Clubs, Journalisms ; 
advent of anarchic souls from every quarter of the world. February ^th. King's visit 
to Constituent Assembly ; emotion thereupon and National Oath, which flies over 
France. Progress of swearing it, detailed. General "Federation," or mutual Oath 
of all Frenchmen, otherwise called 'Feast of Pikes' {jfuly nth, Aimiversary of Bas- 
tille-day), which also is a memorable Day. Its effects on the Military, in Lieutenant 
Napoleon Buonaparte's experience. 

General disorganisation of the Army, and attempts to mend it. Affair of Nanci 
(catastrophe is August ^ist); called "Massacre of Nanci :" irritation thereupon. 
Mutineer Swiss sent to the Galleys ; solemn Funeral-service for the Slain at Nanci 
{September 20th), and riotous menaces and mobs in consequence. Steady progress of 
disorganisation, of anarchy spiritual and practical. Mirabeau, desperate of Constitu- 
tion-building under such accompaniments, has interviews with the Queen, and con- 
templates great things. 

1 79 1. April — Juty, 

Death of Mirabeau (A^ril icT): last chance of guiding or controlling this Revolu- 
tion gone thereby. Royal Family, still hopeful to control it, means to get away from 
Paris as the first step. Suspected of such intention ; visit to St. Cloud violently pre- 
vented by the Populace {April i^th). Actxial Flight to Varennes {fuite lotli) ; and 
misventures there : return captive to Paris, in a frightfully worsened position, the fifth 
evening after {June ^^th). "Republic" mentioned in Placards, during King's Flight; 
generally reprobated. Queen and Barnave. A Throne held up ; as if ' set on its 
vertex,' to be held there by hand. Should not this runaway King be deposed ? Im- 
mense assemblage, petitioning at Altar of Fatherland to that effect {Sunday July 
lyih), is dispersed by musketry, from Lafayette and Mayor _ Bailly, with extensive 
"hrieks following, and leaving remembrances of a very bitter kind. 


1791, August. 

Foreign Governments, who had long looked with disapproval on the French Re« 
volution, now set about preparing for actual interference. Convention of Pilnitz 
{August ist/i-iTth) : Emperor Leopold II., Friedrich Wilhehn II. King of Prussia, 
with certain less important Potentates, and Emigrant Princes of the Blood, assem- 
bling at this Pilnitz (Electoral Country-house near Dresden), express their sorrow 
and concern at the impossible posture of his now French Majesty, which they think 
calls upon regular Governments to interfere and mend it : they themselves, prepared 
at present to "resist French aggression" on their own territories, will cooperate with 
said Governments in "interfering by effectual methods." This Document, of date 
August 27M, 1791, rouses violent indignations in France ; which blaze up higher and 
higher, and are not quenched for twenty-five years after. Constitution finished ; ac- 
cepted by the King {September nth). Constituent Assembly proclaims ' in a sonor- 
ous voice' {September 3ot/i), that its Sessions are all ended ; — and goes its ways amid 

1791. October — December. 

Legislative Assembly, elected according to the Constitution, the first and also the 
last Assembly of that character, meets October ist, 1791 : sat till September 21st, 1792 ; 
a Twelvemonth all but nine days. More republican than its predecessor ; inferior in 
talent; destitute, like it, of parliamentary experience. Its debates, futilities, stagger- 
ing parliamentary procedure (Book V. cc. 1-3). Court ' pretending to be dead,' — not 
'aiding the Constitution to march.' Suiiday October T.bth, L'Escuyer, at Avignon, 
murdered in a Church ; Massacres in the Ice-Tower follow. Suspicions of their King, 
and of each other ; anxieties about foreign attack, and whether they are in a right 
condition to meet it ; painful questionings of Ministers, continual changes of Ministry, 
— occupy France and its Legislative with sad debates, growing ever more desperate 
and stormy in the coming months. Narbonne (Madame de Stael's friend) made War- 
Minister, Decejiiber -jth; continues for nearly half a year; then Servan, who lasts 
three months ; then Dumouriez, who, in that capacity, lasts only five days (had, with 
Roland as Home-Minister, been otherwise in place for a year or more) ; mere 'Ghosts 
of Ministries.' 

1792. February — April. 

Terror of rural France {Fcbruary-MarcJi); Camp of Jales; copious Emigration. 
Februaryjth, Emperor Leopold and the King of Prussia, mending their Pilnitz offer, 
make public Treaty, That they specially will endeavour to keep down disturbance, 
and if attacked will assist one another. Sardinia, Naples, Spain, and even Russia 
and the Pope, understood to be in the rear of these two. April loth, French Assem- 
bly, after violent debates, decrees War against Emperor Leopold. This is the_ first 
Declaration of War; which the others followed, /rt; and contra, all round, like pieces 
of a great Firework blazing out now here now there. The Prussian Declaration, 
which followed first, some months after, is the immediately important one. 

1792. yune. 

In presence of these alarming phenomena, Government cannot act ; will not, say 
the People. Clubs, Journalists, Sections (organised population of Paris) growing ever 
more violent and desperate. Issue forth {June loth) in vast Procession, the com- 
bined Sections and leaders, with banners, with demonstrations ; marching through 
the streets of Paris, "To quicken the E.xecutive," and give it a fillip as to the time 
of day. Called " Procession of the Black Breeches" in this Book. Immense Proces- 
sion, peaceable but dangerous ; finds the Tuileries gates closed, and no access to his 
Majesty ; squeezes, crushes, and is squeezed, crushed against the Tuileries gates and 
doors till they give way; and the admission to his Majesty, and the dialogue with 
him, and behaviour in his House, are of an utterly chaotic kind, dangerous and scan- 
dalous, though not otherwise than peaceable. Giving rise to much angry commentary 
in France and over Europe. JinLe Twenty henceforth a memorable Day. _ General 
Lafayette suddenly appears in the Assembly; without leave, as is splenetically ob- 
served: makes fruitless attempt to reinstate authority in Paris {Jioie 7.%th); with- 
draws as an extinct popularity. 

1792. July. 

yuly()tk, Reconciliatory Scene in the -^.ssembly, derisively caWtABaiserL' amour' 


ette. ' Third Federation,' jfufy lifth, being at hand, could not the assembling ' Fe» 
derates' be united into some Nucleus of Force near Paris? Court answers, No ; not 
without reason of its own. Barbaroux writes to Marseilles for " 500 men that know 
how to die ;" who accordingly get under way, though like to be too late for the Fede- 
ration. Sunday July ^zid. Solemn Proclamation that the " Country is in Danger." 

July ■z^tk, Prussian Declaration of War ; and Duke of Brunswick's celebrated' 
Manifesto, threatening France ' with military execution' if Royalty were meddled 
with: the latter bears date, Cohlentz, July ■ijik, 1792, in the name of both Emperor 
and King of Prussia. Duke of Brunswick commands in chief: Nephew (sister's son) 
of Frederick the Great ; and Father of our unlucky ' Queen Caroline :' had served, 
very young, in the Seven-Years War, under his Father's Brother, Prince Ferdinand ; 
often in command of detachments bigger or smaller; and had gained distinction by- 
his swift marches, audacity and battle-spirit : never hitherto commanded any wide 
system of operations ; nor ever again till 1806, when he suddenly encountered ruin 
and death at the very starting (Battle of Jena, October ii,th of that year)._ This Pro- 
clamation, which awoke endless indignation in France and much criticism in the world 
elsewhere, is understood to have been prepared by other hands (French-Emigrant 
chiefly, who were along with him in force), and to have been signed by the Duke 
much against his will. ' hisigiie vengeance,' ' militai-y execution,' and other terms of 
overbearing menace : Prussian Army, and Austrians from Netherlands, are advancing 
in that humour. lilarseillese, ' who know how to die,' arrive in Paris (July igtA) ; 
dinner-scene in the ChamJ>s Elysees. 

1792. Aiignst. 

Indignation waxing desperate at Paris : France, boiling with ability and will, tied, 
up from defending itself by "an inactive Government" (fatally unable to act). Secret, 
conclaves, consultations of Municipality and Clubs ; Danton understood to be the. 
presiding genius there. Legislative Assembly is itself plotting and participant ; no- 
other course for it. Angust zoth. Universal Insurrection of the Armed Population of 
Paris ; Tuileries forced, Swiss Guards cut to pieces. King, when once violence was 
imminent, and before any act of violence, had with Queen and Dauphin sought shelter 
in the Legislative-Assembly Hall. They continue there X\\\ August i^th (Friday- 
Mo7tday), listening to the debates, in a reporter's box. Are conducted thence to the 
Temple "as Hostages," — do not get out again except to die. Legislative Assenibly 
has its Decree ready. That in terms of the Constitution in such alarming crisis a 
National Convention (Parliament with absolute powers) shall be elected ; Decree 
issued that same day, August 10th, 1792. After which the Legislative only waits in 
existence till it be fulfilled. 


(August loi/t, 1792 — October i,t7i, 1795.) 

1792. A tigjist — September. 

Legislative continues its sittings till Election be completed. Enemy advancing, 
with armed Emigrants, enter France, Luxembourg region ; take Long%'.'y, almost 
without resistance (August 23^) ; prepare to take Verdun. Austrians besieging Thion- 
ville ; cannot take it. Dumouriez seizes the Passes of Argonne, A ugust 2gt/i. Great 
agitation in Paris. Sunday September zd and onwards till Thursday 6th, September 
Massacres : described Book L cc. 4-6. Prussians have taken Verdun, Septeniber id 
{Sunday, while the Massacres are beginning) : except on the score of provisions and 
of weather, little or no hindrance. Dumouriez waiting in the Passes of Argonne. 
Prussians detained three weeks forcing these. Famine, and torrents of rain. Battle 
or Cannonade of Valmy {September 10th) : French do not fly, as expected. Conven- 
tion meets, September izd, 1792 ; Legislative had sat till the day before, and now 
gives place to it : Republic decreed, same day. Austrians, renouncing Thionville, 
besiege Lille {September iZth — October ?>ih); cannot: 'fashionable shaving-dish," 
the splinter of a Lille bombshell. Prussians, drenched deep in mud, in dysentery and 
famine, are obliged to retreat : Goethe's account of it. Total failure of that Bruns«- 
wick Enterprise. 


1792. December — 1793. January. 

Revolutionary activities in Paris and over France ; King shall be brought t* 
*' trial." Trial of the King (Tuesday December wth — Stinday Ttth). Three Votes 
(January ■L^th-i-jth, 1793) : Sentence, Death .without respite. E.xecuted, Hlotiday 
Jaiinary zisf, 1793, morning about 10 o'clock. English Ambassador quits Paris ; 
Prench Ambassador ordered to quit England (Jamiary z^tk). War between the two 
countries imminent. 

1793. February. 

Dumouriez, in rear of the retreating Austrians, has seized the whole Austrian 
Netherlands, in a month or less (November i^th — id Decejuber last) ; and now holds 
that territory. Febncary isi, France declares War against England and Holland ; 
England declares in return, Febmnry nth: Dumouriez immediately invades Hol- 
land ; English, under Duke of York, go to the rescue : rather successful at first. 
Committee oi Saint Public (instituted Jawtary 2ist, day of the King's Execution) 
the supreme Administrative Body at Paris. 

1793. March — yuly. 

Mutual quarrel of Parties once the King was struck down : Girondins or Limited 
"legal" Republicans versus Mountain or Unlimited : their strifes detailed. Book III. 
CO. 3, 7-9. War to Spain, March jth. Three Epochs in the wrestle of Girondins and 
Mountain : first, March \ath, when the Girondins fancy they are to be " Septem- 
bered" by the anarchic population : anarchic population does demand " Arrestment 
of Twenty-two" by name, in return. Revolutionary Tribunal instituted, Danton's 
contrivance, that same day (March loth). Battle of Neerwinden in Holland (March 
iSt/i) ; Dumouriez, quite beaten, obliged to withdraw homewards faster and faster. 
Second Girondin Epoch, April 1st, when they broke with Danton. General Dumou- 
riez, a kind of Girondin in his way, goes over to the Enemy (April -^d). Famine, 
or scarcity in all kinds : Law of ISIaxiimnn (fixing a price on commodities). May 
10th. Third Girondin Epoch, ^' ilia supre/ua dies," Convention begirt by Armed 
Sections under Henriot (Sunday Jtcne id) ; Girondins, the Twenty-two and some 
more, put "under arrest in their own houses ;" — never got out again, but the reverse, 
as it proved. 

1793. July. 

Revolt of the Departments in consequence, who are of Girondin temper ; their 
attempt at civil war. Comes to nothing ; ends in ' a mutual shriek' (at Vernon in 
Normandy, July ist/i) : Charlotte Corday has assassinated Marat at Paris two days 
before (Saturday Jicly i-^th). Great Republican vengeances in consequence : Girondin 
Deputies, Barbaroux, Petion, Louvet, Gaudet &c. wander ruined, disguised over 
France ; the Twenty-two, Brissot, Vergniaud &c. now imprisoned, await trial ; Lyons 
and other Girondin Cities to be signally punished. Valenciennes, besieged by Duke 
of York since May, surrenders July z6th. 

1793. A iigiist — October. 

Mountain, victorious, resting on the ' Forty-four thousand Jacobin Clubs and 
Municipalities ;' its severe summ.ary procedure rapidly developing itself into a "Reign 
of Terror." Law of the Forty Sous (Sectioners to be paid for attending meetings), 
Danton's Contrivance, Aug7tsi $th. Austrians force the Lines of Weissembourt', 
■penetrate into France on the East side : Dunkirk besieged by Duke of York (August 
■22d) : Lyons bombarded by Dubois-Crance of the Mountain, Powder-Magazine ex- 
■plodes ; Barrere's Proclamation of Levy in Mass, " France risen against Tyrants" 
{A ugjist z-^d). ' Revolutionary Army' (anarchic Police-force of the Mountain), Sep- 
tember c,th-iith. Law of the Suspect, Se^-anber ijth. Lyons, after frightful sufier- 
■ings, surrenders to Dubols-Crance (October gth) : "To be razed from the Earth." 
■Same day Gorsas at Paris, a Girondin Deputy, captured in a state of outlawry, is 
' immediately guillotined' (October gth) : first Deputy who died in that manner. Exe- 
cution of the Queen Marie-Antoinette, Wednesday October \(>th. Execution of the 
Twenty-two, after trial of some length, ' Marseillaise sung in chorus' at the scaflbld 
{October 2isi). — General Jourdan has driven Cobourg and the Austrians over the 
Sambre again, October \(^th (day of the Queen's death) ; Duke of York repulsed from 
Dunkirk, 'like to be swallowed by the tide.' a month before. 


1793. November — Decetnber. 

Reign of Terror, and Terror the Order of the Day. Execution of d'Orl^ans 
Egalite, November tt!i ; of Madame Roland, November Zth; of Mayor Bailly, No- 
vember loth. Goddess of Reason (first of them, at Paris) sails into the Convention, 
same day {November lot/i): Plunder of Churches ; 'Carmagnole complete.' Con- 
vention "Representatives on Mission:" St. Just and Lebon, at Strasburg, "Strip 
off your shoes; 10,000 pairs wanted; likewise 1000 beds, — under way in 24 hours" 
(November i-jtli). Spanish War, neglected hitherto, and not successful ; may become 
important? Toulon, dangerously Girondin in dangerous vicinity. Hood and the Eng- 
lish and even " Louis XVIII." there ; is besieged, Napoleon serving in the Artillery; 
is captured, December igth : "To be razed from the Earth." Carrier at Nantes: 
Noyiidings by night, second of them December 14th ; become "Marriages of the 
Loire," and other horrors. Lebon at Arras. Maignet at Orange. ' Death poured 
out in great floods {vomie a grands _flots).' Lines of Weissembourg 'retaken by SL 
Just charging with Peasants' {ends the Year). 


'Revolution eating its own children ;' the Hebertists guillotined, Anacharsis Cloote 
among them, March ■2\th; Danton himself and the Dantonists (April ^d), which is 
the acme of the process. Armies successful: Pichegru in the Netherlands; defeat 
of Austrians at Moneron, April ■z'jth; of Austrian Emperor at Turcoing, May \%th: 
successes of Dugoramier against Spain (May ■2-3,d), which continue in brilliant series, 
till the business ends, and he ends ' killed by a cannon-shot,' six months hence. 
June isi, Howe's Sea-victory ; and Fable of the Vengeur. General Jourdan : Battle 
of Fleurus, sore stroke against the Austrian Netherlands (Jicne 26ih). 

Conspiracy of Mountain against Robespierre: Tallien and others desirous not to 
be ' eaten.' Last scenes of Robespierre : July i%th (10 Thermidor, Year 2), guillo- 
tined with his Consorts; — which, unexpectedly, ends the Reign of Terror. Victorious 
French Armies : enter Cologne, October 6ih ; masters of Spanish bulwarks (Dugom- 
mier shot), October \-]th: Duke of York and Dutch Stadtholder in a ruinous condition. 
Reaction against Robespierre : ' whole Nation a Committee of Mercy.' Jacobins 
Club assaulted by mob ; shut up, Novejnber ioth-i2th. Law of Maximum abolished, 
December 24///. Duke of York gone home ; Pichegru and 70,000 overrun Holland ; 
frost so hard, 'hussars can take ships.' 


Stadtholder quits Holland, January igih; glad to get across to England : Spanish 
Cities ' opening to the petard' (Rosas first, January $th, and rapidly thereafter, till 
almost Madrid come in ^'iew). Continued downfall of Sansculottism. Effervescence 
of luxury ; La Cabarus ; Greek Costumes ; Jeunesse Doree ; balls in flesh-coloured 
drawers. Sansculottism rises twice in Insurrection ; both times in vain. Insurrection 
of Germinal ('12 Germinal,' Year 3, Ap}-il 1st, 1795); ends by 'two blank cannon- 
shot' from Pichegru. 

1795. April — October, 

Prussia makes Peace of Bale (Basel), April sth ; Spain, Peace of Bale a three 
months later. Armies everywhere successful : Catalogue of Victories and Conquests 
hung up in the Convention Hall. Famine of the lower classes. Fouquier Tinville 
guillotined (May StA). Insurrection of Prairial, the Second attempt of Sansculottism 
to recover power (' i Prairial,' Jlfay 20th) ; Deputy Feraud massacred : — issues in the 
Disarming and Finishing of Sansculottism. Emigrant Invasion, in English ships, 
lands at Quiberon, and is blown to pieces (July z$th-2oth): La Vendee, which had 
before been three years in Revolt, is hereby kindled into a ' Second' less important 
'Revolt of La Vendee,' which lasts some eight months. _ Reactionary "Companies 
of Jesus," "Companies of the Sun," assassinating Jacobins in the Rhone Countries 
(July-Aiignst). New Constitution ; Directory and Consuls, — Two-thirds of the Con- 
vention to be reelected. Objections to th&t clause. Section Lepelletier, and miscel- 
laneous Discontented, revolt against it ; Insurrection of Vendemiaire, Last of the 
Insurrections (' 13 Vendemiaire, Year 4,' October sth, 1795); quelled by Napoleon. 
On which "The Revolution," as defined here, ends, — Anarchic Government, if still 
anarchic, proceeding by softer methods than that of continued insurrection. 


AsiBA\'E, massacres at, iii. 23 ; Jourgniac, 
Sicard, and Maton's account of doings 
there, 27-33. 

Acceptation, grande, by Louis XVI., ii. 

Adam, Father : see St. Huruge, Marquis. 

Agoust, Captain d', seizes two Parle- 
nienteers, i. 90. 

Aiguillon, Duke d', at Quiberon, i. 2 ; ac- 
count of, 3 ; in favour, 3 ; at death of 
Louis XV. , 20. 

AiHtrigu^s, Count d', notice of, i. 102. 

Altar of Fatherland in Champ-de-Mars, 
ii. 47 ; petition and scene at, 162 ; chris- 
tening at, 213. 

Arairal, assassin, iii. 225 ; guillotined, 229. 

Anglas, Boissy d'. President, First of 
Prairial, iii. 261. 

Angouleme, Duchesse d', parts from her 
father, iii. 92. 

Angremont, Collenot d', guillotined, iii. 8. 

AnkarstriJm : see Sweden. 

Antoinette, Marie, splendour of, i. 28 ; 
applauded, 36; compromised by Dia- 
mond Necklace, 50; griefs of, 82, 129; 
her presentiments, > 5 ; weeps, unpo- 
pular, 195; at dinner ot Guards, 215; 
courage of, 239 ; Fifth October, at Ver- 
sailles, 242 ; shows herself to mob, 246 ; 
and Louis at Tuileries, ii. 4; and the 
Lorrainer, 51 ; and Mirabeau, 104, 116; 
previous to flight, 132 ; flight from 
Tuileries, 135 ; captured, 152 ; and Bar- 
nave, 159 ; in dilemma, 188 ; Coblentz 
intrigues, 1S9 ; and Lamotte's Memoires, 
202; during Twentieth June, 221; dur- 
ing Tenth August, 248-250 ; behaviour 
as captive, 257 ; and Princess de Lam- 
balle, iii. 25 ; in Temple Prison, 69 ; 
parting scene with King, 92 ; to the 
Conclergerie, 164 ; trial of, 165 ; on 
quitting Vienna, 166; guillotined, 168. 

Applauders, hired, ii. 189, 197. 

Argonne Forest, occupied by Dumouriez, 
iii. iS ; Brunswick at, 44. 

Aristocrats, officers in French ai-my, ii. 
63 ; number of, in Paris, iii. 7 ; seized, 
13 ; condition in 1794, 208. 

Aries, state of, ii. 183. 

Arms, smiths making, i. 157, 159; search 
for, 157 ; at Charleville, 159 ; at Hotel 
des Invalides, 162-164 > manufacture of, 
ii. 114, 127; in 1794, iii. 200; scarcity 
of, in 1792, 9 ; Damon's search for, 12. 

Army, French, after Bastille, ii. 61-67; 
officered by aristocrats, 63 ; to be dis- 
banded, 67 ; demands arrears, 68, 73 ; 
general mutiny of, 68 ; outbreak of, 68, 
73, 74, 85 ; Nanci military executions, 
84 ; Royalists leave, 89 ; bad state of, 
197, 214; iii. j6, 45; in want, 66; re- 
cruited, 195, 196 ; Revolutionary, 114, 
162, 164, 182 ; fourteen armies on foot, 
204, 252. 

Arras, guillotine at, iii. 189. See Lebon. 

Arrests in August 1792, iii. 13. 

Arsenal, attempt to burn, i. 164. 

Artois, M. d', ways of, i. 29 ; unpopularity 
of, 76 ; memorial by, 103 ; fled, 177 ; at 
Coblentz, ii. 194 ; will not return, 201. 

Assemblies, French, Primary and Se- 
condary, i. 106. 

Assembly, National, Third Estate be- 
comes, i. 139; to be extruded, 140; 
stands grouped in the rain, 141 ; occu- 
pies Tennis-Court, 141 ; scene there, 
141 ; joined by clergy, &c., 142, 145; 
doings on King's speech, 144, 145 ; rati- 
fied by King, 146 ; cannon pointed at, 
147 ; regrets Necker, 161 ; after Bas- 
tille, 174. 

Assembly, Constituent, National, be- 
comes, i. 187 ; pedantic, Irregular 

■ Verbs, 187; what it can do, i8g; Night 
of Pentecost, 191 (and ii. 193); Left and 
Right side, 192 (and ii. 11); dull, 194; 
raises money, 209 ; on the Veto, 210 ; 
Fifth October, women, 226, 233, 236 ; 
in Paris Riding-Hall, ii. 5 ; on deficit, 
assignats, 7 ; on clergy, 8 ; and riot, 15 ; 
prepares for Louis's visit, 30 ; on Fede- 
ration, 42 ; Anacharsis Clootz, 42, 43 ; 
eldest of men, 46 ; on Franklin's death, 
56 ; on state of army, 69, 73 ; thank' 
Bouille, 83 ; on Nanci affair, 84 ; r 
Emigrants, in ; on death of Mirabe; 
121; on escape of King, 139 ; after r 
ture of King, 159, 161; cempletes ( 
stitution, 164 ; dissolves itself, 168; 
it has done, 169. 

Assembly, Legislative, First Frenc 
liament, doings of, iL 171-184; l 
law, quarrel with King, 176; Br 
Lamourette, 177 ; High Court, : 
crees vetoed, 200 ; scenes in, 201 
mands King's ministers, 203; 
out, 204; declares war, 211, 
Clares France in danger, 229, 



instates Petion, 232 ; brayed-glass, 237 ; 
nonplused, Lafayette, 241, 242, 247 ; 
King and Swiss, August Tenth, 249- 
255 ; becoming defunct, 259 ; iii. 4 ; Sep- 
tember massacres, 33 ; dissolved, 50. 

Assignats, origin of, ii. 7 ; false Royalist, 
195; forgers of, iii. 24; coach-fare in, 256. 

Atheism and Dupont, iii. 83. 

Aubriot, Sieur, after King's capture, ii. 

155- ^ T •• 

Aubry, Colonel, at Jales, 11. 199. 

Auch, M. Martin d", in Versailles Tennis- 
Court, i. 142. 

August Tenth, 1792, ii. 242-259. 

Austria, its quarrel with France, ii. 193. 

Austrian Committee, at Tuileries, ii. 191. 

Austrian Army, invades France, iii. 1 1 ; 
unsuccessful there, 51 ; defeated at Je- 
mappes, 72 ; Dumouriez escapes to, 125 ; 
repulsed, Watigny, 203. 

Avignon, Union of, ii. 16S; described, 
178; state of, 179; riot in church at, 
180; occupied by Jourdan, iSi; mas- 
sacre at, 181. 

Baboeuf insurrection, iii. 272. 
Bachaumont, his thirty volumes, i. 49. 
Bailie, involuntary epigram of, ii. 205. 
Bailly, Astronomer, account of, i. 126; 
President of National Assembly, 139; 
Mayor of Paris, 176; receives Louis in 
Paris, 177; and Paris Parlemenl, ii. 8; 
on Petition for Deposition, 163; decline 
of, 204 ; in prison, iii. 165 ; at Queen's 
trial, 166; guillotined cruelly, iSo. 
Baker, hanged, ii. 15. 
Bakers', French in tail at, i. 202 ; ii. 95 ; 

iii. 68, 100, 256. 
Balloons invented, i. 45 ; used as spies, 

iii. 207. 
Barbaroux and Marat, ii. 13; IMarseille^ 
Deputy, 184 ; and the Rolands, 184 ; on 
Map of France, 217 ; demand of, to Mar- 
seilles, 218 ; meets INIarseillese, 238 ; in 
National Convention, iii. 42 ; against 
Robespierre, 64 ; cannot be heard, 75 ; 
the Girondins decl'.Tiing, in ; will not 
demit, 137; arrested, 138; and Char- 
lotte Corday, 143 ; retreats to Bour- 
deaux, 150, 161 ; farewell of, 170 ; shoots 
himself, 171. 
barber, the, at Lille, iii. 52. 
irdy. Abbe, massacred, iii. 28. 
rentin, Keeper of Seals, i. 138. 
•nave, at Grenoble, i. 92 ; member of 
"sembly, 125 ; one of a trio, 193 ; too 
kless, ii. 5 ; Jacobin, 26 ; duel with 
ales, 98 ; escorts the King from Va- 
■es, 157; conciliates Queen, 158; 
imes Constitutional, 159; retires to 
loble, 209 ; treason, in prison, iii. 
pjillotined, 181. 
Paul-Francois, in National Con- 
■n, iii. 43 ; commands in Thermi- 
.39 ; appoints Napoleon in Ven- 
iire, 270. 

Barrere, Editor, i. 206 ; at King's trial, 
iii. 79; peace-maker, no, 135 ; levy in 
mass, 162 ; Anacreon of Guillotine, 206 ; 
gives dinner-partj', plot, 234 ; banished, 

Bartholomew massacre, lii. 37. 

Bastille, Linguet's Book on, i. 49 ; mean- 
ing of, 115; shots fired at, 162; sum- 
moned by insurgents, 165 ; besieged, 
167 ; capitulates, 170 ; treatment of cap- 
tured, 271 ; Queret-Demery, 173 ; de- 
molished, key sent to Washington, 182 ; 
Heroes, 183 ; Electors, displaced, 204 ; 
dance on ruins of, ii. 56. 

Battles, nature of, i. 2ip. 

Bazire, of Mountain, ii. 16, 174 ; impri- 
soned, iii. 199. 

Beam, riot at, i. 92. 

Beauharnais in Champ-de-Mars, ii. 49 ; 
Josephine, imprisoned, iii. 176 ; and 
Napoleon, at La Cabarus's, 249. 

Eeaumarchais, Caron, his lawsuit, i. 38 ; 
his ' Mariage de Figaro,' 52 ; commis- 
sions arms from Holland, iii. 9 ; his dis- 
tress, 14. 

Beaumont, Archbishop, notice of, i. 14. 

Beaurepaire, Governor of Verdvui, shoots 
himself, iii. 16. 

Bed of Justice, i. 72. 

Belief, French, i. 130. 

Bentham, Jeremy, naturalised, iii. 5. 

Berline (see Fersen), towards Varennes, 
ii. 142-146. 

Berthier, Intendant, fled, i. 177 ; arrest- 
ed, 181 ; massacred, i8r. 

Berthier, Commandant, at Versailles, ii. 

Eesenval, Baror , Commandant of Paris, 
on French Finance, i. 56 ; in riot of 
Rue St. Antoine, 114 ; on corruption of 
Guards, 14S, 150; at Champ-de-Mars, 
160 ; apparition to, 163 ; decamps, 174 ; 
and Louis XVL, 194. 

Bethune, riot at, i. 149. 

Beurnonville, with Dumouriez, impri- 
soned, iii. 125. 

Bill-stickers, Paris, ii. 24, 90. 

Billaud- Varennes, Jacobin, ii. 204, 207 ; 
cruel, iii. 21 ; at massacres, Sept. 1792, 
34 ; in Salut Committee, 197 ; and 
Robespierre's Etre Supreme, 227 ; ac- 
cuses Robespierre, 237 ; accused, 255 ; 
banished, 257 ; at Surinam, 263. 

Birmingham riot, ii. 193. 

Blanc, Le, landlord at Varennes, ii. 152 ; 
family take to the woods, iii. 17. 

Blood, baths of, i. 11. 

Bonchamps, in La Vendee War, iii. 10. 

Bonnemere, Aubin, at Siege of Bastille, 
i. 166. 

Bouillc, at Metz, ii. 59, 105 ; account of, 
60 ; character of, 82 ; his troops mu- 
tinous, 67 ; and Salm regiment, 68 : 
intrepidity of, 68, 72 ; marches on 
Nanci, 78 ; quells Nanci mutineers, 79- 
82; at Mirabeau's funeral, 122; expects 



fugitive King, 144 ; would liberate 
Killer, 156 ; emigrates, 156. 

Douille, Junior, asleep at Varennc;, ii. 
151 ; (lies to father, 155. 

Bourileaiix, priests hanged at, ii. 227 ; 
for Girondisni, iii. 130, 151. 

Boycr, duellist, ii. 100. 

Boyer-Fonfrede, notice of, ii. 3S. 

Brennus, reminiscence of, iii. 62. 

Brest, sailors revolt, ii. 85 ; state of, in 
1791, 1S7; Fedcres in Paris, 238; in 
1793, iii. 1S2. 

Breteuil, Home-Secretary, i. 86. 

Breton Club, germ of Jacobins, i. 92. 

Bretons, dtpulationK of, i. gi ; Girondins, 
iii. 150. 

Brozc, Marquis de, his mode of ushering, 
i. 115; and National Assembly, 140, 
144 ; extraordinary etiquette, 144. 

Brienne., Lomenie, anti-protestant, i. 33 ; 
in Notables, 65 ; Controller of Fin- 
ance, Cp3 ; incapacity of, 69 ; edicts by, 
70 ; failure of, 73 ; arrests Paris Parlc- 
ment, 74 ; exasperated, sick, 85 ; secret 
scheme, 86 ; scheme discovered, 87 ; 
arrests two Parlemcnteers, 89 ; bewil- 
dered, 93 ; desperate shifts by, 94 ; 
wi-ihes for Necker, 95 ; dismissed, and 
provided for, 96 ; his effigy burnt, 97. 

Brigands, the, origin of, i. iii ; in Paris, 
Tii, 178; ii. 199; of Avignon, 179. 

Brissac, Duke de, commands Constitu- 
tional Guard, ii. 165 ; disbanded, 202. 

Brissot, edits 'Moniteur,' i. 119; friend 
of Blacks, ii. 10 ; in First Parliament, 
173 ; plans in 1792, 19S ; active in As- 
sembly, 203 ; in Jacobins, 207 ; at 
Koland's, 209 ; pelted in Assembly, 
232 ; arrested, iii. 138, 152 ; trial of, 
168 ; guillotined, 170. 

Brittany, commotions in, i. 12, gi, 108. 

Broglie, Marshal, against Plenary Court, 
i. 93 ; in command, 136, 148 ; in office, 
153; dismissed, 176. 

Bninout, M., among Menads, i. 231. 

Brunswick, Duke, marches on France, 
ii. 214 (iii. 9) ; advances. Proclama- 
tion, 234 ; at Verdun, iii. 16 ; at Ar- 
gonne, 44 ; at Valmy, 48 ; retreats, 

Buftbn, Mme. de, and Duke d'Orleans, 
i. 81 ; at D'Orleans' execution, iii. 17S. 

Burke on French Revolution, ii. 192. 

Buttafuoco, Napoleon's letter to, ii. 65. 

Buzot, in National Convention, iii. 42, 
129 ; arrested, 138 ; retreats to Bour- 
deau.Y, 152, 161 ; end of, 170. 

Ca-ira, origin of, ii. 29. 
Cabanis, Physician to Mirabeau, ii. 119. 
Cabarjs, Mile., and Tallien, iii. 183; im- 
prisoned, urgent, 233 ; her soirees, 247- 


Caen, Gnondms at, in. 140, 152. 
Calendar, Romme's new, iii. 156-150 ; 
comparative ground-scheme 01, 158. 


Calonne, M. de. Financier, character of, 
i. 58 ; suavity and genius of, 59; hii 
difficulties, 62, 63 ; at bay, 64 ; dis. 
missed, 66 ; marriage and after-course, 


Calvados, for Girondism, iii. 129. 
t"ambon, notice of, ii. 175. 
Campan, Rime., Memoirs by, i. 22 n. 
Camus, Archivist, ii. 176 ; in National 

Convention, iii. 50 ; with Dumouriez, 

imprisoned, 125. 
Candeille, Mile., Goddess of Reason, iii. 

Cannon, Siamese, i. 158 ; wooden, iii. 
10 ; fever, Goethe on, 47. 

Cant defined, i. 48. 

Carmagnole, costume, what, iii. 182 ; 
dances in Convention, 192. 

Carnot, Hippolyte, notice of, ii. 174 ; plan 
for Toulon, iii. 186 ; busy, 196 ; dis- 
covery in Robespierre's pocket, 234. 

Carpentras, against Avignon, ii. iSo. 

Carra, on plots for King's flight, ii. io5 ; 
in National Convention, iii. 42. 

Carrier, a Revolutionist, ii. 16 ; in Na- 
tional Assembly, iii. 42 ; Nantes noy- 
ades, 182, 1S8, 189 ; guillotined, 258. 

Cartaux, General, fights Girondins, iii. 
148 ; at Toulon, 1S6. 

Castries, Duke de, duel with Lameth, ii. 
99- . 

Cathehneau, of La Vendee, ii. 185, 198. 

Cavaignac, Convention Representative, 
iii. 202. 

Cazales, Royalist, i. 124 ; in Constituent 
Assembly, 192 ; pathetic, ii. 5 ; duel 
with Barnave, 98 ; in danger, 140 ; emi- 
grant, 194. 

Cazotte, author of ' Diable Amoureu.v,' ii. 
2IO ; seized, iii. 13 ; saved for a time by 
his daughter, 26. 

Cercle Social, of Fauchet, ii. 94. 

Cerutti, his funeral oration on Mirabeau, 
ii. 122. 

Cevennes, revolt of, ii. ig8. 

Chabot, of Moinitain, ii. 174; against 
Kings, iii. 4 ; imprisoned, 199. 

Chabray, Louison, at Versailles, October 
Fifth, i. 231, 236. 

Chalier, Jacobin, Lyons, iii. 107 ; exe- 
cuted, 147 ; body raised, 184. 

Chambon, Dr., Mayor of Paris, iii. 67; 
retires, 84. 

Chamfort, Cynic, i. 102 ; arrested, sui- 
cide, iii. 224. 

Champ-de-Mars, Federation, ii. 41 ; pre- 
parations for, 42, 46 ; accelerated by 
patriots, 47, 50 ; anecdotes of, 49 ; 
Federation-scene at, 52-58 ; funeral- 
service, Nanci, 83 ; riot. Patriot peti- 
tion, 1701, 162; new Federation, 1792, 
231 ; enlisting in, iii. 19. 

Champs Elysces, Menads at, i. 222 ; fes- 
tivities in, ii. 56. 

Chantilly Palace, a prison, iii. iBa. 

Chappe's Telegraph, iii. 207. 




CIiapt-L.astignac, Abbe de, massacred, 
ill. '". 

Charenton, Marseillese at, ii. 238. 

Oiarles, Chemist, improves balloons, i. 
45- . 

Charles I., Trial of, sold m Pans, iii. 70. 

Charleville Artillery, i. 157. 

Chartres, grain-riot at, iii. 6S. 

Chateaiibriands in French Revolution, 
iii. 223. 

Ch^telet, Achille de, advises Republic, 
ii. 140. 

Chatillon sur-Sevre, insurrection at, iii. 

Chaiimette, notice of, ii. 16 (iii. 198) ; 
signs petition, 162 ; in governing com- 
mittee, iii. 6 ; at King's trial, 79 ; his 
grandmother, 80 ; daily demands con- 
stitution, 148 ; on Feast of Reason, igi, 
193 ; arrested, jeered, 212 ; guillotined, 

Cliauvelin, Marquis de, in London, ii. 
170 ; dismissed, iii. 96. 

Chemists, French, inventions of, iii. 200. 

Chenaye, Baudin de la, massacred, iii. 


Chenier, Poet, and Mile. Theroigne, ii. 

Chepy, at La Force in September, iii. 30. 

Chesterfield, Lord, predicts French Re- 
volution, i. 13. 

Choiseul, Duke, why dismissed, i. 3. 

Choiscul, Colonel Duke, assists Louis's 
flight, ii. 134, 143, 144, 151 ; too late at 
Varcnnes, 154. 

Choisi, General, at Avignon, ii. 182. 

Church, spiritual guidance, i. 8; of Rome, 
decay of, 10 ; and philosophy, 3j ; 
Lands sold, ii. 7 ; of Rome, dead m 
France, 127, 132. 

Citizens, French, active and passive, ii. 

Clairfait, Commander of Austrians, iii. 

Claviere, edits ' Moniteur,' i. 119; ac- 
count of, ii. 17 ; Finance Minister, 208, 
258; arrested, iii. 138 ; suicide of, 181. 

Clemence, adopts a Swiss, ii. 254. 

Clergy, Fiench, in States -General, i. 
128 ; conciliators of orders, 135, 138 ; 
joins Third Estate, 136, 13S, 140, 143; 
lands, national? ii. 8, 13 ; power of, 9 ; 
ccrstitutinn for, 9. 

Clermont, flight of King through, ii. 149, 
154 : Prussians near, iii. 17. 

Clcry, valet, on Louis's last scene, iii. 

Clootz, Anacharsis, Baron de, account of, 
ii. 19 ; collects human species, 43 ; dis- 
paragement of, 45 ; in National Con- 
vention, iii. 42 ; universal republic of, 
67 ; on nullity of religion, 191 ; purged 
from the Jacobins, 213 ; guillotined, 
= 15- 

Clevis, in the Cliamp-de-Mars, i. 9. 

Club, Electoral, at Paris, i. 151, 172 ; be- 

comes Provisional Municipality, ijfi ; 

permanent, for arms, &c., 163. 
Club : see Breton, Jacobin, Enraged, 

Cordeliers, Feuillans, Royalist. 
Chilibism, nature of, ii. 94. 
Clubs in Paris, 1788, i. 102, 134; in 1790, 

ii. 25. 
Clugny, M., as Finance Minister, L 41. 
Coblentz, Royalist Emigrants at, ii. 185, 

t88, 194-197. 
Cobourg and Dumouriez, iii. 123, 125. 
Cockades, green, i. 153 ; tricolor, 157 ; 

black, 213, 217; national, trampled, 

215, 217 ; white, 215. 
Coffin hal. Judge, delivers Henriot, iii. 


Coigny, Duke de, a sinecunst, 1. 58. 

CoUot, d'Herbois. See Herbois. 

Commerce, new Noblesse of, i. 13. 

Commissioners, Convention, like Kings, 
iii. 199, 202. 

Committee of Defence, ii. 236 (iii. 121) ; 
Central, 236, 240, 245 ; of Watchful- 
ness, of Public Salvation, iii. 6, 21, 121, 
162, 197, 245 ; Circular of, 37 ; of the 
Constitution, 59 ; Revolutionary, 120 ; 
of Sections, 131 ; Revolutionary, busv, 
iSi. ' 

Committees, Forty -four Thousand, iii. 

CoTiininne, Council General of the, 11. 
258 ; Sovereign of France, iii. 4 ; en- 
listing, 6, 21. 

Communes, of Fiance, iii. 154. 

Conde, Prince de, attends Louis XV., i. 
16 ; emigrates, 176. 

Conde, Town, surrendered, iii. 153. 

Condorcet, Marquis, edits ' Moniteur,' i. 
119 ; Girondist, ii. 173 : prepares Ad- 
dress, 203 ; on Robespierre, iii. m ; 
vanishes, 165 ; death of, 224. 

Conscience, leaders of, i. 10. 

Constitution, French, completed, ii. 164- 
16S ; will not march, 177, 188, 191 ; 
burst in pieces, 255 ; new, of 1793, iii. 
154, 158. 

Constitutions, how built, i. 1S9. 

Contrat Social : see Rousseau. 

Convention, National, in what case to be 
summoned, ii. 167 ; demanded by some, 
201 ; determined on, 257 ; coming, 259 ; 
Deputies elected, iii. s, 11, 42 ; con- 
stituted, 50 ; motions in, 50 ; work to 
be done, 59 ; hated,, efler- 
vescence of, 61 ; on September Mas- 
sacres, 62 ; guard for, 63 ; try the King, 
81 ; debate on trial, 82 ; invite to re- 
volt, 83 ; condemn Louis, 86-00 ; armed 
Gnondins in, 118; power of, 122 ; re- 
moves toTuileries, 129 ; besieged, June 
2d, 1793, extinction ofGirondins, 137, 
138 ; Jacobins and, 153 ; on forfeited 
property, 1S2 ; Carmagnole, Goddess 
of Reason, 193 ; awed to silence, ip8 ;■ 
Representative.s, 199 ; at Feast of Etre 
Supreme, 227 ; to be butchered? 234 ; 



end of Robespierre, 235, 237, 239 ; re- 
trospect of, 258-260 ; Feraud, Germinal, 
Prairial, 260-263 '• finishes, its succes- 
sor, 268. 

Corday, Charlotte, account of, iii. 142 ; 
in Paris, 143 ; stabs Marat, T44 ; ex- 
amined, 145 ; executed, 14C. 

Cordeliers, Club, ii. 28 ; Hubert in, iii. 

Council of Ancients, of Five Hundred, 
iii. 268. 

Court, Chevalier de, and his dagger, ii. 

Court, French Plenary, i. 86, 51, 92. 

Couthon, uf Mountain, in Legislative, ii. 
174 ; in National Convention, iii. 50 ; 
at Lyons, 185 ; in Salut Committee, 
197 ; his question in Jacobins, 214 ; de- 
cree on plots, 2z8 ; arrested, executed, 
238, 242. 

Covenant, Scotch, ii. 36, 41 ; French, 
36, 41- 

Crime, purpose and act of, iii. 22. 

Crussol, Marquise de, guillotined, iii. 223. 

Cuissa, massacred at La Force, iii. 28. 

Curates abolished, iii. 192. 

Cussy, Girondin, retreats to Bourdeau.v, 
iii. isi. 

Custine, General, talces Mentz, &c., iii. 
56; retreats, 113; blamed, 142, 154; 
guillotined, 164 ; his son guillotined, 181. 

Customs and morals, iii. 41. 

Damas, Colonel Comte de, at Clermont, 
ii. 149 ; at Varennes, 154. 

Dampierre, Gener.1l, killed, iii. 142. 

Dampmartin, Captain, at riot in Rue St. 
Antoine, i. 113 ; on state of the Army, 
ii. 65 ; on state of France, 92 ; at Avig- 
non, 182 ; on Marseillese, 230. 

Dandoins, Captain, Flight to Varennes, 
ii. 145-149-. 

Danton, notice of, i. 120 ; President of 
Cordeliers, 207 ; astir, 217 ; ii. 16 ; and 
Marat, 22 ; served with writs, 22 ; in 
Cordeliers Club, 28 ; elected Council- 
lor, 115 ; Mirabeau of Sansculottes, 173 ; 
takes presents, 189 ; in Jacobins, 207 ; 
for Deposition, 228 ; of Committee, 
August Tenth, 236, 241 ; Minister of 
Justice, 258; iii. 7; 'faire peur,' ' de 
I'audace,' 20 ; after September Mas- 
sacre, 40 ; after Jemappes, 72 ; and 
Robespierre, 74 ; in Netherlands, 78 ; 
at King's trial, 87 ; on war, 97 ; re- 
bukes Mflrat, log; peacemaker, no; 
'name be blighted,' 115; and Du- 
mouriez, 119 ; in Salut Committee, 121 ; 
breaks with Girondins, 127 ; his law of 
Forty sous, 162 ; and Revolutionary 
Government, 197 ; and Paris Munici- 
p.alily, 198; suspect, 213; retires to 
Arcis, 214 ; and Robespierre, 216 ; ar- 
rested, 217 ; prison-thoughts, 217 ; trial 
of, 218-220 ; guillotined, 220 ; charac- 
ter, aat. 

David, Painter, in National Convention, 
iii. 42 ; works by, 154, 206, 227 ; hem- 
lock with Robespierre, 236. 

Death, kingly idea of, i. 17. 

Deficit, Mirabeau on, i. 210. 

Democracy, on Bunker Hill, i. 6 ; spread 
of, in France, 40, 41, 103. 

Departments, France divided into, ii. 8. 

Deseze, Pleader, for Louis, iii. 8i, 89. 

Deshuttes, massacred, October Fifth, i. 

DesiUes, Captain, in Nanci, ii. 81. 

Deslons, Captain, at Varennes, ii. 155 ; 
would liberate the King, 156. 

Desmoulins, Camille, notice of, i. 120 ; 
in arms at Cafe de Foy, 153 ; Editor, 
his title, 206 ; on Insurrection of Wo- 
men, 220 ; in Cordeliers Club, ii. 28 ; 
and Brissot, 207 ; in National Conven- 
tion, iii. 42 ; on Sansculottism, 122 ; on 
plots, 132 ; suspect, 212 ; for a commit- 
tee of mercy, 214 ; ridicidcs law of the 
suspect, 215 ; his, 215 ; his 
wife, 218 ; trial of, 219, 220 ; guillotined, 
220 ; widow guillotined, 220. 

Diderot, prisoner in Vincenncs, ii. 109. 

1 dinners, defined, i. 214. See Guard.s. 

] Jirector.ate, feats of, iii. 272. 

Discipline, Army, nature of, ii. 61-63. 

Dodd, Dr., at French races, i. 44. 

Doppet, General, at Lyon.s, iii. 186. 

Douai : .see Parlcment. 

Drouet, Jean P., notice of, ii. 146 ; dis- 
cover.s Royalty in flight, 148 ; raises 
Varennes, 151 ; blocks the bridge, 152 ; 
defends his prize, 154 ; rewarded, 168 ; 
to be in Convention, iii. 17 ; captured 
by Austrians, 203. 

Dubarry, Dame, and Louis XV., i. 2, 3 ; 
flight of, 20 ; imprisoned, iii. 176. 

Dubois-Crance bombards Lyons, iii. 160 ; 
takes Lyons, 184. 

Duchatel, votes, wrapt in blankets, iii. 
89 ; at Caen, 140. 

Ducos, Girondin, ii. 173. 

Duelling, in French Revolution, ii. 98. 

Dugommier, General, at Toulon, iii. 186, 

Duhamel, killed by Marseillese, ii. 240. 

Dumont, on, i. 210; ii. 118. 

Dumouriez, notice by, i. 3 ; account of 
him, ii. 17 ; in Jirittany, 131 ; in dress- 
ing-gown at Nantes, 141 ; in La Ven- 
dee, 185 ; sent for to Paris, 198 ; Foreign 
Minister, 208 ; dismissed, to Army, 216, 
disobeys I/iickner, 228 ; Commander- 
in-Chief, 260 ; army, iii. 16 ; Coun- 
cil of War, 18; seizes Argonne Forest, 
18, 44 ; Grand-Pre, 45 ; and mutineers, 
45 ; and Marat in Paris, 55 ; to Nether- 
lands, 56 ; at Jemappes, 72 ; in Paris, 
85 ; discontented, 96 ; retreats, 112 ; 
traitor? 113, 119 ; beaten, 119 ; will join 
the enemy, 123 ; arrests his arresters, 
I2S ; escapes to Austrians, 126. 

Duperret, Girondin draws sword in Con* 



vention, iii. 128 ; papers sealed, Char- 

lolte Corday, 152. 
IJuporit, Deputy, Atheist, iii. 83. 
Duport, Adrien, in Paris Parlement, i. 

71 ; in Constituent Assembly, one of a 

trio, 193 ; law-reformer, ii. 5. 
Duportail, in office, ii. 105. 
Durosoy, Royalist, guillotined, iii. 8. 
DusauLv, M., on taking of Piastille, i. 183 ; 

notice of, iii. 33 ; will demit, 137. 
Dutertre, in olifice, ii. 105. 

Edgeworth, Abbe, attends Louis, iii. 92 ; 
at execution of Louis, 94. 

Editors, in 17S9, i. 205. 

Eglantine, Fabre d', in National Conven- 
tion, iii. 42 ; assists in New Calendar, 
156 ; imprisoned, 213. 

Election for States-General, i. 106. 

Elie, Capt., at siege of Pastille, i. 169, 
170 ; after victory, 171. 

Elizabeth, Princess, llight to Varennes, 
ii. 138 ; August loth, 251 ; in Temple 
Prison, iii. 69 ; guillotined, 223. 

Emigrants, law against, ii. iii ; errors of, 
195 ; regiment of, iii. 44 ; retreat with 
Prussians, 54. 

Emigration, first French, i. 176, 202 ; se- 
cond, 248 ; ii. 89, 161. 

England declares war on France, iii. 96, 
1 14 ; gains 'i'oulon, 159. 

Enraged Club, the, i. 102. 

Equality, reign of, iii. 9. 

Escuyer, Patriot 1', at Avignon, ii. 180. 

Espremenil, Duval d', notice of, i. 71 ; 
patriot, speaker in Paris Parlement, 
73i 76 '• with crucifi.v, 83 ; discovers 
Pricnne's plot, 86 ; arrest and speech 
of, 87-89 ; turncoat, 128 ; in Constituent 
Assembly, 192 ; beaten by popidace, ii. 
T13 ; guillotined, iii. 222 ; widow guil- 
lotined, 229. 

F.staing, Count d', notice of, i. 212 ; Na- 
tional Colonel, 227, 230 ; Royalist, 231; 
at Queen's Trial, iii. 166. 

Estate, Third, in 1614, i. 102 ; what it is 
in 1788, and will do, 103, 105 ; deputies 
to, 1789, 126; a separate order? 133; 
inertia, 133 ; declares itself ' National 
Assembly,' 139. 

Estate, Fourth, of Editors, &c., i. 205. 

Etanipes : see Simoneau. 

Etiquette, acme of: see Breze. 

Etoile, beginning of Federation at, ii. 36. 

Evil, nature of, i. 32. 

Falsehood, doom of, i. 186. 

Famine, in France, i. 30, 47 ; in 17S8- 
1792, 94, 137, 147, 196, 203; Louis and 
Assembly try to relieve, 235 ; ii. 95,205 ; 
in 1792, and remedy, iii. C7 ; remedy 
by maximum, i^c, 122. 

Fanaticism and Formula, i. 185. 

Fauchet, Abbe, at siege of Pastille, i. 
168 ; famous for Te-Deums, 203 ; his 
funeral harangue on Franklin, ii. 56 ; 

his Cercle Social, 94 : in First Parlia- 
ment, 173 ; motion by, 184 ; strips off 
his insignia, 202 ; King's death, lamen- 
tation, iii. 96 ; will demit, 137 ; trial of, 

Faussigny, sabre in hand, ii. 96. 

Favras, Chevalier, executed, ii. 12. 

Feast, of Reason, iii. 192-195 ; of Etrc 
Supreme, 227. 

Federation, becoming general, ii. 38 ; of 
Champ-de-Mars, 41 ; deputies to, 43, 
50 ; human species at, 44 ; ceremonies 
of, 52-57 ; a new, to be, 1792, 226 ; is 
held, 231. 

Fcraud, in National Convention, iii. 42 ; 
massacred there, 261. 

Fersen, Count, ii. 133 : gets Berline built, 
134 ; acts coachman in King's flight, 

Feudalism, death of, in France, i. 117. 

Feuillans, Club, ii. 28, 161 ; denounce 
Jacobins, i(36 ; decline, 204 ; extin- 
guiiihed, 205 ; Battalion, 215 ; Justices 
and Patriotism, 226 ; Directory, 226. 

Figaro, Mariage de, i. 52 ; iii. 15. 

Finances, bad state of, i. 41, 57, 78, 95 ; 
how to be improved, 71, 78, 85 ; ii. 7. 

Flanders, how Louis XV. conquers, i. 6. 

Flandre, regiment de, at Versailles, i. 
212, 214, 229. 

Flesselles, Paris Provost, i. 151, 156 ; 
shot, 172. 

Fleuriot, Mayor, guillotined, iii. 242. 

Fleury, Joly de. Controller of Finance, i. 


Fontenai, Mme, iii. 183, 233. See Ca- 

Formula, i. 185 ; and Fanaticism de- 
stroyed, 196 ; essential to man, iii. 58. 

Forster, and French soldier, iii. 56 ; ac- 
count of, 113. 

Foiiche, at Lyons, iii. 185. 

Foulon, bad repute of, i. 59 ; nicknamed, 
79 ; advLses grass for the people, 98 ; 
funeral of, 177; alive, judged, massa- 
cred, 180. 

Fournier, and Orleans Prisoners, iii. 38. 

Foy, Cafe de, revolutionary, i. 150, 206, 

France, abject, under Louis XV., i. 4, 
12-14 ; Kings of, 6 ; early history of, 7 ; 
decay of Kingship in, 10 ; on accession 
of Louis XVL, 26 ; and Philosophy, 27, 
29 ; famine in, 177s, 30, 31, 47 ; state of, 
prior Revolution, 32 ; aids America, 39 ; 
in 17S8, 93 ; inflammable, July 1789, 
153; gibbets, general overturn, 211; 
how to be regenerated, ii. 13, 14; riot- 
ousness of, loi ; Mirabeau and, 117; 
after King's flight, 140; petitions against 
Royalty, 161 ; warfare of towns in, iSo ; 
Europe leagues against, 193 : terror of, 
in Spring 1792, 199; decree of war, 211 ; 
country in danger, 229, 233 ; general 
enlisting, 233; rage of, Autumn 1792, 
iii. I, 3 ; Marat's Circular. September, 



37 ; Sansculottic, ;,8 ; ileclamtion of 
war, 97 ; Mountain ami Girondins di- 
vide, 107; communes of, 154; coalition 
against, 159 ; levy in mass, 162 ; prisons 
in 1793, 182; one large 'Committee of 
Mercy,' in 1795, 247 ; state of, since the 
Revolution, 273, 274. 

Franklin, Ambassador to France, i. 39 ; 
his death lamented, ii. 56 ; bust in Ja- 
cobins, 206. 

Fraternity, doctrine of, lii. 175. 

Freedom, mcaninsj of, i. 160. 

French Anglomania, i. 43 ; character of 
the, 51 ; literature, in 1784, 49, 52 ; Par- 
Icments, nature of, 54 ; Mirabcan, type 
of the, i2o; mob, character of, 218; 
Julius Cscsar on the, ii. 92 ; Millennium, 
iii. 102. 

Fre'ron, notice of, ii. 23 ; renegade, iii. 
247 ; Gilt Youth of, 250. 

Freteau, at Royal Session, i. So ; arrested, 
Sr ; liberated, 84. 

Freys, the Jew brokers, ii. 17; impri- 
soned, iii. 199. 

Gallois, to La Vende'e, ii. 185. 

Gamain, Sieur, locksmith, informer, iii. 

Game, 1. 202. 

Garat, Minister of Justice, iii. go. 

Gazette, origin of the terra, ii. 25. 

Genlis, Mme, account of, ii. 21 ; and 
D'Orleans, iii. no; to Switzerland, 123. 

Gcnsonnc5, Girondist, ii. 173 ; to La Ven- 
dee, 185 ; arrested, iii. 138 ; trial of, 168. 

Georges-Cadoudal, in La Vendee, iii. 254. 

Georget, at siege of Bastille, i. i6y. 

Gerard, Farmer, Rennes deputy, 1. 125. 

Gerle, Dom, at Theot's, iii. 228. 

German, meaning of term, ii. 93. 

Germinal Twelfth, First of April 179s, 

»'• 257- , . 

Gibraltar besieged, 1. 40. 

Gifts, patriotic, iii. 10. 

Girondins, origin of term, ii. 173; in Na- 
tional Convention, iii. 62 ; against Ro- 
bespierre, 6s ; on King's trial, 73, 8C-89 ; 
and Jacobins, 74-76 ; formula of, 88 ; 
favourers of, 105 ; schemes of, 106, 117 ; 
to be seized? 117; break with Daiiton, 
127 ; armed against Mountain, 127 ; ac- 
cuse Marat, 128 ; departments, 129 ; 
commission of twelve, 135 ; commission 
broken, 134 ; arrested, 137, 165 ; dis- 
persed, 141 ; war by, 14S ; retreat of 
eleven, 150; trial of, 168; last supper 
of, 169; guillotined, 170. 

Gobel, Archbishop to be, il. 5, 121 ; re- 
nounces religion, ill. 191 ; arrested, 212 ; 
guillotined, 221. 

Goethe, at Aigonne, iii. 47 ; in Prussian 

retreat, 52-55; at Mentz, 153. _ 
Goguclat, Engineer, assists Louis s flight, 

ii. 134, 143-145; intrigues, 189^ 
Gondran, captain of French Guard, i. 

Gorsas, Journalist, pleads for Swiss, iL 
254 ; in National Convention, iii. 42 ; 
his house broken into, 117; guillotined, 
first Deputy that suffers, 165. 

Goujon, Member of Convention, in riot of 
Prairial, iii. 262 ; suicide, 263. 

Goupil, on extreme left, ii. 160. 

Gouvion, Major-General, at Paris, i. 220; 
flight to Varennes, ii. 134, 135, 139 ; 
death of, 214. 

Government, Mauicpas's, i. 35 ; bad state 
of French, 103 ; real, 189 ; French revo- 
lutionary, iii. 196, 211 ; Uanton on, 218. 

Grave, Cliev. de, War- Minister, loses 
head, ii. 211. _ 

Gregoirc, Cure, notice of, i. 128 ; in Na- 
tional Convention, iii. 42 ; dotained in 
Convention, 137 ; and destruction of 
religion, 191. 

Grenoble, riot at, i. 02. 

Grievances, writ of, i. 106. 

Guadet, Girondln, ii. 173 ; cross-questions 
Ministers, 203 ; arrested, iii. 138 ; guil- 
lotined, 171. 

Guards, Swiss, and French, at Reveillon 
riot, i. 114 ; French won't fire, 145, 149 ; 
come to Palais-Royal, 151 ; fire on 
Royal-Allemand, 155 ; to liastille, 159, 
i6p, 171 ; name changed, 173 ; National, 
origin of, 148; number of, 159; Body, 
at Versailles, October Fifth, 232 ; fight 
there, 241 ; fly in Chateau, 243 ; Body, 
and French, at Versailles, 242 ; Na- 
tional, at Naiici, 11. 75 ; French, last 
appearance of, 165 ; National, how 
commanded, 1791, 170; Constitutional, 
dismissed, 202; Filles-St. -Thomas, 215, 
239 ; routed; 240 ; Swiss, at Tullcries, 
244, 251 ; fire, 252 ; ordered to cease, 
destroyed, 253, 254 ; eulogy of, 255 ; 
Departmental, for National Conven- 
tion, ill. 64. 
Guillaume, Clerk, pursues King, ii. 148. 
Guillotln, Doctor, summoned by Paris 
Parlemcnt, i. no ; invents the guillo- 
tine, 125 ; deputed to King, 228, 235 ; 
at Louis's visit to the Assembly, 11. 30. 
Guillotine invented, i. 125 ; described. Hi. 
8 ; in action, 165, 178, 1S2 ; to be im- 
proved, 229 ; number of sufferers by, 

Hassenfratz, in War-office, iii. 66, 71.^ 

Hebert, Editor of 'Pere Duchesne,' ii. 
91 ; signs petition, 162 (see ' Pere Du- 
chesne') ; arrested. Hi. 133 ; at Queen's 
trial, 166 ; quickens Revohitionary Tii- 
bunal, 169; arrested, 212; guillotined, 
215 ; widow, guillotined, 221. 

Henault, President, on Surnames, i. i. 

Heiuiot, General of National Guard, iii. 
133, 137 ; and the Convention, 137 ; to 
deliver Robespierre, 238 ; seized, re- 
scued, 239 ; end of, 242. 

Herbois, Collot d', notice of, ii. 16 ; in 
National Convention, iii. 42 ; at Lyons 



massacre, 185 ; in Salut Committee, 
197; attempt to assassinate, 225; bullied 
at Jacobins, 236 ; President, night of 
Thermidor, 239; accused, 255; banislied, 
257 ; at Surinam, 263. 

Hcriticr, Jerome 1', shot at Versailles, i. 

Heterodoxy and Orthodoxy, ii. 132. 

Heche, Sergeant Lazare, in Bastille time, 
i. 150; General against Prussia, iii. 204: 
pacifies La Vendee, 253. 

Holland, invaded by Prussia, 1787, i. 78. 

Hondschooton, IJattle of, iii. 203. 

Hope and Man, i. 35. 

Hotel des Invalidcs, pkindered, i. 164. 

Hotel de Ville, after Bastille taken, i. 171 ; 
harangues at, 175 ; nearly fired by wo- 
men, 221 ; Louis in, 251. 

Houchard, General, unsuccessful, iii. 159, 
181 ; guillotined, iSi. 

Howe, ]^ord, beats French navy, iii. 205. 

Hugucnin, Patriot, tocsin in heart, ii. 
203 ; 2oth June 1792, 220. 

Hulin, half-pay, at siege of Bastille, i. 

Huns, Attilla's, long arms of, iii. 2. 

Ideals, realised, i. 7. 

Inisdal's, Count d', plot, ii. 103. 

Insurrection, most sacred of duties, i. 
21S ; of Women, 20S-246 ; of August 
Tenth, ii. 242-24S ; difficult, 245 ; of 
Paris, against Girondins, 1793, iii. 134- 
139; sacred right of, 212, 214, 236, 239, 
247, 251, 268, 271 ; last Sansculottic, 
260-262 ; of Babceuf, 272. 

Irish Sans- Potato, iii. 265. 

Isnard, Max, notice of, ii. 38 ; in First 
Parliament, 173 ; on Alinistcrs, 204 ; to 
demolish Paris, iii. 133 ; will demit, 
137 ; recalled, 247. 

Jacob, Jean Claude, eldest of men, ii. 46. 

Jacobins, Society, germ of, i. 92 ; Hall, 
described, and members, ii. 26 ; Jour- 
nal, &c., of, 27 ; daughters of, 28, 93; 
at Nanci, suppressed, 84 ; Club in- 
creases, 93; and Mirabeau, 96, 116; 
prospers, 204 ; ' Lords of the Articles,' 
206 ; extinguishes Feuillans, 206 ; Hall 
enlarged, described, 206 ; and Mar- 
seillese, 238 ; and Lavergne, iii. 11 ; 
message to Dumouriez, 55 ; missionaries 
in Army, 72, iig : on King's trial, 73 ; 
on accusation of Robespierre, 74 ; against 
Girondins, 75, 130; National Convention 
and, 153, 198; Popu'ar Tribunals of, 183 ; 
Couthon's Question in, 2 1 1 ; purges mem- 
bers, 213 ; to become dominant, 234 ; 
locked out by Legendre, 240 : begs 
back its keys, 246 ; decline of, 255 ; 
mobbed, suspended, 255 ; hunted down, 

, 258. 

Jacobinism, spirit of, iii. 201. 

Jales, Camp of, n. 10 ; Royalists at, 199 ; 
destroyed, igg. 

Jaucourt, Chevalier, and Liberty, ii. 174. 

Jay, Dame le, bookseller, ii. 23. 

Jemappes, battle of, iii. 72. 

Jesuitism and Dame Dubarry, i. 14. 

Jokei, French, described, i. 43. 

Jones, Paul, equipped for America, i. 39 ; 
at Paris, account of, ii. 18, 43 ; burial 
of, 232. 

Joiuineau, Deputy, in danger in Septem- 
ber, iii. 34. 

Jourdan, General, repels Austria, iii. 203. 

Jourdan, Coupe-tete, at Versailles, i. 230, 
243 ; leader of Avignon Brigands, ii. 
179 ; costume of, 179 ; supreme in Avig- 
non, 181 : massacre by, 183 ; flight of, 
1S3 : guillotined, iii. 1S3. 

Jourgniac. See St. Meard. 

Journals (see Paris) ; placard, ii. 24, 90. 

Jnlien, Sieur Jean, guillotined, iii. 19. 

June Twentieth, 1792, ii. 221. 

Justice, bed of, i. 72. 

Kaunitz, Prince, denounces Jacobins, ii. 

Kellermann, at Valmy, iii. 48. 
Kings, primitive, i. 8 ; divine right of, 9. 
Kingship, decline of, in France, i, g. 
Klopstock, naturalised, iii. 5. 
Knox, John, and the Virgin, ii. 84. 
Korfti Baroness de, in flight to Varennes, 
ii. 134 ; is Dame dc Tourzel, 138. 

Lacroi.x, of Mountain, ii. 174. 

Lafarge, President of Jacobins, Madame 
Lavergne and, iii. 11. 

Lafayette, bust of, erected, i. 41, 175 ; 
against Calonne, 64 ; demands by, in 
Notables, 69; Cromwell -Grandison, 
127; Bastille time, Vice-President of 
National Assembly, 161, 174 ; General 
of National Guard, 176 ; resigns and 
reaccepts, 182; Scipio - Americanus, 
203 ; thanked, rewarded, 211 ; French 
Guards and, 224 ; to Versailles, 225 ; 
at Versailles, Fifth October, 238 ; 
swears the Guards, 247 ; Feuillant, ii. 
28 ; on abolition of Titles, 44 ; at 
Champ-de-Mars Federation, 53: at 
De Castries' riot, 100 ; character of, 
loi ; in Day of Poniards, no ; difficult 
position of, 112 ; at King's going to St. 
Cloud, 12S ; resigns and reaccepts, 129: 
at flight from Tuileries, 136 ; after es- 
cape of King, 139 ; moves for amnesty, 
168; resigns, 170; decline of, 204; 
doubtful against Jacobins, 214, 217, 
228 ; fruitless journey to Paris, 224 ; 
to be accused? 232; flies to Holland, 

Laflottc, prison -plot, informer, iii. 220, 

Lais, Sicur, Jacobin, with Louis Philippe, 

ii. 28. 
Lally, death of, i. 75. See Tollendal. 
Lamarche, guillotined, iii. 179. 
Lamarck's, Mirabeau sick at, ii. 1x9, 



Lamballe, Princess de, to England, ii. 
143 ; intrigues for Royalists, igi, 209 ; 
at La Force, iii. 14 ; massacred, 25. 

Lambesc, Prince, attacks Bust-proces- 
sion, July I'/Sg, i. 154. 

Lameth, in Constituent Assembly, one of 
a trio, i. 19? ; brothers, notice of, ii. 5 ; 
Jacobins, 26 ; Charles, duel with Duke 
de Castries, 100 ; brothers become con- 
stitutional, 159 ; Theodore, in First 
Parliament, 174. 

Lamoignonj Keeper of Seals, i. 65, 80, 
85 ; dismissed, 98 ; effigy burned, and 
death of, 99. 

Lamotte, Countess de, and Diamond 
Necklace, i. 50 ; in the SalpetriSre, 61, 
82 ; ' Memoirs' burned, ii. 202 : in Lon- 
don, iii. 13 ; M. de, in prison, 13, 28. 

Lamourette, Abbe, kiss of, ii. 177 ; guil- 
lotined, iii. 1S4. 

Lanjuinais, Girondin, clothes torn, iii. 
137 ; arrested, 138 ; recalled, 247. 

Lanterne, death by the, i. 180. 

Laperouse, voyage of, i. 40. 

Laporle, Intendant, guillotined, iii. 8. 

Lariviere, Justice, imprisoned, ii. 226. 

Larochejaquelin, in La Vendee, iii. 10 ; 
death of, 254. 

Lasource, accuses Danton, iii. 127 ; pre- 
sident, and Marat, 130 ; arrested, 138 ; 
condemned, his saying, ifi9._ 

Latour-Maubourg, notice of, ii. 158. 

Launay, ISLirquis de. Governor of Bas- 
tille, i. 162 : besieged, 165 ; unassisted, 
166 ; to blow up Bastille, 170 : mas- 
sacred, 171. 

Lavergne, surrenders Longwi, iii. 10-12. 

Lavoisier, Chemist, guillotined, iii. 223. 

Law, Martial, in Paris, ii. 15, 163 ; Book 
of the, 176. 

Lawyers, their influence on the Revolu- 
tion, i. 13 ; number of, in Tiers Etat, 
126 ; in Parliament First, ii. 172. _ 

Lazare, Maison dc St., plundered, i. 158. 

Lebas at Slrasburg, iii. 199 ; arrested, 

Lebon, Priest, in National Convention, 

iii. 42 ; at Arras, iSp ; guillotined, 259. 
Lebrun, forger of Assignats, ii. 194. 
Lechapelier, Deputy, and Insurrection of 

Women, i. 22J. 
Lecointre, National Major, i. 214, 230 ; 

will not duel, 216 ; active, 233 ; in First 

Parliament, ii. 175. 
Lefevre, Abbe, dislribules powder, i. 172 ; 

ill procession, 176 ; nearly hanged, 221. 
Legendre, Butcher, in danger, ii. 215 ; 

at Tuileries riot, 220 ; in National Con- 
vention, iii. 42 ; against Girondins, 137 ; 

for Danton, 217 ; locks out Jacobins, 

240 ; in First of Prairial, 262. 
Lenfant, Abbe, on Protestant claims, i. 

83 : massacred, iii. 27. 
Lepelletier. See St. Fargeau. Section for 

Convention, iii. 257, 262 ; revolt of, in 

Vendemiaire, 269-271. 

Lettres -de -Cachet, and Parlement ot 
Paris, i. 8i. 

Levasseur in National Convention, iii. 
42 ; Convention Representative, in tide- 
water, 202. 

Limcourt, Duke de. Liberal, i. 127 ; not 
a revolt, but a revolution, 174 ; Royalist, 
in Normandy, ii. 226. 

Liberty, on, ii. 22 ; tree of, 56, 218, 23r; 
and Fijualily, 210 ; Statue of, iii. 155. 

Lies, Philosophism on, i. 13 ; to be cx« 
tinguished, how, 34 ; cant, a double 
power of, 48 ; their doom, 199. 

Ligne, Prince de, death of, iii. 44. 

Lille, Colonel Rouget de, ALarseillese 
Hymn, ii. 231. 

Lille city besieged, iii. 51. 

Linguet, his ' Bastille Unveiled,' i. 49 ; 
returns, ng ; irascible, ii. 202. 

Literature, its influence on the Revolu- 
tion, i. 13 ; in France in 1781-87, 49, 
52, 83. 

Loan, Successive, scheme of,_i. 79. 

Loiserolles, General, guillotined for his 
son, iii. 240. 

Longwi, surrendered, iii. 9-12 ; fugitives 
at Paris, II. 

Lords of the Articles, Jacobins as, iii. 

Lorraine Fedords and the Queen, ii. 51 ; 
state of, in 1790, 67. 

Louis XIV., I'etat c'est moi, i. 9 ; booted 
in Parlement, 79 ; pursues Louvois 
with tongs, iii. 61. 

Louis XV., origin of his surname, i. i ; 
last illness of, i, 13, 14, 16, 20 ; dismisses 
Dame Dubarry, 2 : Choiseul, 3 ; was 
wounded, has small -pox,_ 4, 14 ; his 
mode of conquest, 6 : impoverishes 
France, 13 ; his daughters, 15 ; on 
death, 17 ; on ministerial capacity, ig ; 
death of, 22 ; burial of, 22. 

Louis XVI., at his accession, i. 22 ; good 
measures of, 26 ; temper and pursuits 
of, 28 ; difficulties of, 36, 84 ; com- 
mences governing, 55; and Notables, 
68 ; holds Royal Session, 79-81 ; re- 
ceives States-General Deputies, 115 ; 
in States-General procession, 117, 130; 
speech to States-General, 131 ; Na- 
tional Assembly, 144 ; unwise policy of, 
146 ; dismisses Necker, 152 ; apprised 
of the Revolution, 174 ; conciliatory, 
visits Asseml'ly, 175 ; Bastille, visits 
Paris, 177; deserted, will fly, 195, 212 ; 
languid, 213 ; at Dinner of Guards, 215 : 
deposition of, proposed, 224 : October 
Fifth, women deputies, 231 ; to fly or 
not? 233, 235 ; grants the acceptance, 
236 ; Paris propositions to, 239 ; in the 
Chateau tumult (Oct. 6). 2^4 ; appears 
to mob, 246 ; will go to Pans, 247 ; his 
wisest course, 248 ; procession to Paris, 
249-252 ; review of his position, ii. 1 ; 
lodged at Tuileries, 2 ; Restorer of 
French Liberty, 3 ; uo hunting, lock- 



smith, 3 : schemes, 30 ; visits Assem- 
bly, 30; Federation, 49, 51, 53; He- 
reditary Representative, loi, 130 ; v/ill 
fly, 102 ; and D'lnisdal's plot, 103 ; his 
Aunts fly, 107 ; Mirabeau, 115 ; use- 
less, 116; indecision of, 126; ill of ca- 
tarrh, 128 ; prepares for St. Cloud, 128 ; 
hindered by populace, 128 ; efTect, 
should ho escape, 129 ; prepares for 
flight, his circular, 133 ; flies, 135 ; let- 
ter to Assembly, 139; manner of flight, 
142 ; loiters by the way, 143-146 ; de- 
tected by Droiiet, 147 ; near Varenncs, 
150 ; captured at Varennes, 152 ; inde- 
cision there, 152-155 ; return to Paris, 
157 ; reception there, 158 ; to be de- 
posed ? 159-161 ; reinstated, 164; re- 
ception of Legislative, 176 ; position 
of, i88 ; proposes war, with tears, 211 ; 
vetoes, dissolves Roland Ministry, 216 ; 
in riot of Twentieth June, 221 ; and 
Petion, 225, 243 ; at Federation, with 
cuirass, 232 ; declared forfeited, 240, 
257 ; last levee of, 241 ; Tenth August, 
248, 250 ; quits Tuileries for Assembly, 
251 ; in Assembly, 256 ; sent to Temple 
prison, 258 ; in Temple, iii. 6g ; to be 
tried, 72, 78 ; and the Locksmith Ga- 
main, 77 ; at the bar, 79 ; his will, 81 ; 
condemned, 86-go ; parting scene, 9a ; 
execution of, 93-95 ; his son, 223. 

Louis-Philippe, King of the French, Ja- 
cobin door-keeper, ii. 28 ; at Valmy, 
iii. 49 ; bravery at Jcmappes, 72 ; and 
sister, 123 ; with Dumouriez to Aus- 
trians, 125 ; to Switzerland, 126 ; teaches 
Mathematics, 178. 

Loustalot, Editor, i. 205 ; ii. 23. 

Louvet, his ' Chevalier de Faublas,' i. 
53 ; his ' SentincUes," ii. 24 ; and 
Robespierre, 207 ; in National Conven- 
tion, iii. 42 ; Girondin accuses Robes- 
pierre, 74, III ; arrested, 138; retreats 
jone of Eleven) to i'>ourdeau.\, 151, 
161 ; csc.ipe of, 170 : recalled, 247. 

Liickner, Supreme Gcncial, ii. 60, 214 ; 
and Dumouriez, 2-.!8 ; guillotined, iii. 

Luncvillc, Inspector Malseigne at, ii. 76. 

Lux, Adam, on death of ("harlotte Cor- 
day, iii. 147 ; guillolitn-d, 177. 

I.uxcTnbourg, forges at, iii. 1O2 ; Palace, 
a prison, 1S2. 

Lyons, Federation at, ii. 38 ; disorders in, 
iii. 107 ; Chalier, Jacobin, executed at, 
147 ; bombarded, powder-tower of, iGo ; 
captured, 184 ; massacres at, 185. 

Magnetic vellum, the, ii. 34. 

Mailhe, Deputy, on trial of Louis, iii. 

Maillard, U.sher, at sic.i;e of Bastille, i. 
169, 170 ; Insurrection of Women, 
drum, Champs Klysees, 221, 222 ; en- 
tering Versailles, 226 ; addresses Na- 
lton»l Assembly there, 228 ; signs Dc- 

chcance petition, ii. 162 ; in Septembet 
Massacres, iii. 24. 
Maille, Canip-Mar.shal, at Tuileries, ii. 
243, 244 ; massacred at La Force, iii. 


Mailly, Marshal, one of Four Generals, 
1790, ii. 60. 

Malesherbes, M. de, in King's Council, 
i. 77 ; remaik by, 82 ; defends Louis, 
iii. 81, 8g ; Louis returns money to, 93 ; 
guillotined, 220. 

Malseigne, Army Inspector, at Nanci, 
ii. 74-76 ; imprisoned, 77 ; liberated, 80. 

Man, rights and mights of, i. igi, igS ; 
ii. 192. 

Mandat, Commander of Guards, August 
1792, ii. 243 ; death of, 247. 

Manege, Salle de. Constituent Assembly 
occupies, ii. 5. 

Manuel, Jacobin, slow-sure, ii. 204 ; iu 
August Tenth, 248 ; in Governing Com- 
mittee, iii. 6 ; haranguing at La Force, 
fo ; in National Convention, 42 ; dubs 
)'Orleans, 43 ; motions in National 
Convention, 50 : vote at King's trial, 
88 ; in prison, 165 ; guillotined, 181. 

Marat, Jean Paul, horseleech to D'Ar- 
tois, i. 44 ; notice of, 119; against vio- 
lence, 152 ; at siege of Bastille, 169 ; 
summoned by Constituent, not to be 
gagged, 205; astir, 217; how to re- 
generate France, ii. 13, 91 ; police and, 
22 ; on abolition of titles, 45 ; would 
gibbet Mirabeau, gi ; bust in J.icobins, 
206 ; concealed in cellar.s, 237 ; pulls 
tocsin rope, 244 ; in seat of honour, iii. 
6, 21 ; signs circular, 38 ; elected to 
Convention, 42 ; and Dumouriez, 55 ; 
oaths by, in Convention, 62 ; first ap- 
pearance in Convention, pistol, 64 ; 
against Roland, 85 ; on sufferings of 
People, 101 ; and Girondins, 108 ; ar- 
rested, 128; returns in triumph, 130; 
fall of Girondins, 138 ; sick, his resi- 
dence, 143 ; and Charlotte Corday, 144 ; 
honours to, 145, 255. 

Marat, Company of, iii. 182. 

Marechal, Atheist, Calendar by, iii. 156. 

Marechale, the Lady, on nobility, i. 11. 

Marseilles, lirigands at, i. 147 ; on De- 
cheancc, the bar of iron, ii. 160 ; for 
Girondisni, iii. 129, 141, 148 ; guillotine 
at, 183. 

Marseillese, March and Hymn of, ii. 229, 
231 (iii. 8, 72) ; at Charenton, 238 ; at 
Paris, 238 ; Filles-St. -Thomas and, 239; 
barracks, 241 ; August Tenth, 246, 252- 

Massacre, Avignon, ii. 181 ; September, 
iii. 22-36 ; nimibcr slain in. 35 ; corpse's 
hand, 36 ; compared to Bartholomew, 
37 ; Convention on, 62. 

Maton, Advocate, his ' Resurrection,' iii. 

"T- . . 

Mauconseil, section, on forfeiture of King, 
i' ,i?i ; on Girondins, iii. 417. 



Maupeo'j, under Louis XV., i. 2, 3 ; and 
Dame Dubarry, 3. 

Maurepas, Prime Minister, character of, 
i. 28 ; government of, 35 ; death of, 55. 

Maury, Abbe, character of, i. 128 ; in 
Constituent Assembly, ip2 ; seized emi- 
grating, 249 ; dogmatic, li. 5, 12 ; efforts 
fruitless, 96 ; made Cardinal, 170; and 
D'Artois at Coblentz, 194. 

Mdda, Robespierre's death and, iii. 24in. 

Memmay, M., ofQuincey, explosion of 
rustics, i. 200. 

Menads, the, i. 218-221, 251. 

Menou, General, arrested, iii. 270. 

Mentz, occupied by French, iii. 56 ; scige 
of, 141, 253 ; surrender of, Goethe de- 
scribes, 153. 

Menus, Hall of the, i. 115. 

Mercier, on Paris revolting, i. 148 ; Edi- 
tor^oG ; the September Massacre, iii. 
3^\n\ National ConveiUion, 42 ; King's 
'trial, 89 : dancing, in 1795, 249 ; work- 
men dining, 26'). 

Merlin rif Thionville in Mountain, ii. 174; 
irascible, 203; at Mentz, iii. 153. _ 

Merlin of Douai, Law of Suspect, iii. 163. 

Mesmcr, Dr., glance at, i. 46. 

Miitra the Newsman, ii. 25. 

Metropolis, importance of a, iii. i4g._ 

Mctz, Bouille at, ii. 59 ; troops mutinous 

•it> 67- 

Meudon tanner}', iii. 209. 

Millennium, French idea of, iii. 102. 

Miomandre de Ste. Marie, liodyguard, 
October Fifth, i. 242 ; left for dead, re- 
vives, 243 ; rewarded, ii. 103. 

Mirabeau, Marquis, on the state of France 
in 177s, i. 31; and his son, 50; his death, 

Mirabeau, Count, his pamphlets, i. 61 ; 
the Notables, 63 ; Lettres-de-Cachet 
against, 63 ; expelled by the Provence 
Noblesse, 109 ; cloth-shop, log ; is De- 
puty for Ai.\, no ; king of Frenchmen, 
120 ; family of, 121 ; wanderings of, 121 ; 
his future course, 123 ; groaned at, in 
Assembly, 134 : his newspaper sup- 
pressed, 137 : silences U.sher de Breze, 
144 ; at Bastille ruins, 182 ; on Robes- 
pierre, 193 ; fame of, 193 ; on French 
deficit, 210 ; populace, on veto, 2n ; 
Mounier, October Fifth, 224 ; insight 
of. defends veto, ii. 5; courage, revenue 
of, 6 ; saleable ? 7 ; and Canton, on 
Constitution, 16 ; his female bookseller, 
23 ; at Jacobins, 26 ; his countship, 45 : 
ori state of Army, 66 ; Marat would 
gibbet, 91 ; his power in France, 96 ; 
on D'Orleans, 96 ; on duelling, 98 ; in- 
terview with Queen, 104 ; speech on 
emigrants, the ' trente voix,' in; in 
Council, 115 ; his plans for France, n6 : 
probable career of, n7 ; sickens, yet 
works, nS ; last appearance in Assem- 
bly, 119 ; anxiety of populace for, 1:9 ; 

last sayings of, 120 : death of, 120 ; pub- 
lic funeral of, 122 ; burial-place of, 122 ; 
character of, 123; last of Mirabeaus, 
123 ; bust in Jacobins, 206 ; bust de- 
molished, iii. 77 ; his remains turned 
out of the Pantheon, 255. 

Mirabeau the younger, nicknamed Ton- 
neau, i. 128 ; in Constituent Assembly, 
breaks his sword, 146, 192. 

Miranda, General, attempts Holland, iii. 

Miromcnil, Keeper of Seals, I. 65. 

Mobs, on, i. 218. 

Moleville, Bcrtrand de. Historian, i. gi ; 
ii. 187 : minister, his plan, 189 ; frivo- 
lous policy of, 189 ; and D'Orleans, 
190 ; Jesuitic, 204 ; in despair, 241 ; 
concealed, iii. 8. 

Momoro, Bookseller, agrarian, iii. 6 ; ar- 
rested, 212; guillotined, 215; his Wife, 
Goddess of Reason, 195. 

Monge, Mathematician, in office, ii. 258; 
assists in new Calendar, iii. 156. 

Moniteur, Editors of the, i. 119, 206 ; ii. 

Monsabert, G. de. President of Paris Par- 
lemcnt, i. 86 ; arrested, 88-90. 

Montelimart, covenant sworn at, ii. 37. 

Montesquiou, General, takes Savoy, iii. 

56. . .. 

Montg.Till.-ird, on Queen captive, u. 257 ; 
on September Massacres, iii. 34 : on 
Paris ladies, 250. 

Montgolfier, invents balloons, i. 43. 

Montmartre, trenches at, iii. g. 

Montmorin, War-Secretary, i. 78; his bro- 
ther killed at La Force, iii. 25. 

Moore, Doctor, at attack of Tuilerias, ii. 
253 ; at La Force, iii. 25. 

Morande, De, newspaper by, i. 49 ; will 
return, 119 ; in prison, iii. 13. 

Morellet, Philosophe, i. 205. 

Moucheton, M. de, of King's Bodyguard, 
'. 232. 

Moudon, Abbe, confessor to Louis XV., i. 
15, 20. 

Mounier, at Grenoble, i. 92 ; proposes 
Tennis-Court oath, 142 ; October Fifth, 
President of Constituent Assembly, 223 ; 
deputed to King, 227 ; dilemma of, on 
return, 236 ; emigrates, 24S. 

Mountain, members of the, ii. 174; re- 
elected in National Convention, iii. 42 ; 
Girondc and, 103-106 ; favourers of the, 
105 ; vulnerable points of, 108 ; prevails, 
in : Danton, Duperret, 128 ; after Gi- 
rondc dispersed, 141 ; in labour, 148. 

Midler, General, invades Spain, iii. 202. 

Municipality of Paris, to be abolished, iii. 

Murat, in Vcnde'miaire revolt, iii. 270. 

Mutiny, military, nature of, ii. 61. 

Nanci, revolt at, ii. 10, 71-76 : town de- 
scribed, 71 ; deputation imprisoned, 74; 



deputation of mutineers, 78 ; state of 
mutineers in, 79, So; Bouillc'sfigiit, 81; 
Paris thereupon, S3 ; military execu- 
tions at, S4 ; Assembly Commission- 
ers, 84. 
Nantes, after King's flight, ii. 141 ; mas- 
sacres at, iii. 1S2 ; noyades, 188 ; pri- 
soners to Paris, 231, 246. 
Napoleon Bonaparte studying mathema- 
tics, i. 94 ; pamphlet by, ii. 65 ; demo- 
cratic, in Corsica, 102 ; August Tenth, 
253 ; under General Cartaux, iii. 148 ; 
at Toulon, 160, 186-1S8 ; was pupil of 
Pichegru, 204 ; Jasephine and, at La 
Cabarus's, 249 ; Veude'miaire, 270, 271. 
Narbonne, Louis do, assists flight of 
King's Aunts, ii. 107 ; to be War-Mi- 
nister, 190; demands by, igi ; secreted, 
iii. 8 ; escapes, 12. 
Nature, statue of, iii. 155. 
Navy,LouisXV. on French,!. 40; French, 

rots, ii. 188. 
Necker, and finance, account of, i. 41 ; 
dismissed, 42 ; refuses Brienne, 95 ; re- 
called, 97 ; difficulty as to States-Gene- 
ral, 104 ; reconvokes Notables, 105 ; 
opinion of himself, ii8 ; popular, 145; 
dismissed, 152; recalled, 176; returns 
in glory, 201 ; his plans, 209 ; getting 
unpopidar, ii. 9; departs, with difii- 
culty, S3. 
Necklace, Diamond, J. 50, 61. 
Nerwinden, battle of, iii. ng. 
Netherlands, occupied by French, iii. 72. 
Newspapers in 17S9, i. 206 ; in 1790, ii. 

21-25, 90. 105- 
Nievrc-Chol, Mayor of Lyons, iii. 108. 
Nobles, state of the, under Louis XV., i. 
;i ; new, 13; join Third Estate, 146; 
Emigrant, errors of, ii. 195. 
Notables, Calonne's convocation of, i. 61 ; 
assembled 22d Feb. 17S7, 62; members 
of. 62 ; organed out, 69 ; elTects of dis- 
missal of, 69 ; reconvokcd, 6th Novem- 
ber 1788, 105 : dismis.sed again, 105. 
Noyades, Nantes, iii. 188. 

Oath, of the Tennis-Court, i. 142 ; Na- 
tional, ii. 31. 

October FiAh, 1783, i. 218-221. 

Oge, condemned, li. 187. 

Orlc'ans, High Court at, ii. 200 ; prison- 
ers, massacred at Versailles, iii. 38-40. 

Orle'ans, a Duke d', in Louis XV. 's sick- 
room, i. 16 ; aiiuther, disbelieves in 
death, 17. 

Orle'ans, Philippe (Egalite), Due d:,Duke 
de Chart res (till 1785) i. 62 ; waits on 
Dauphni, Father, with Louis XV,, 16 ; 
not Admiral, 40 : wealth, debauchery,' 
Palars-Royal buildings, 44 ; balloons! 
45; in Notables (Duke d'Orlc.x/is now), 
62 : looks of, Bed-of-Justice, 17S7, 80, 
81: arrested, 81: liberated, 84: pseudo- 
autlior, 103 ; in States-General Proces- 

sion, 127 ; joins Third Estate, 146 ; his 
party, in Constituent Assembly, 193; 
Fifth October and, 249 ; shunned in 
England, ii. 21 ; to be Regent ? Mira- 
beau, 96 ; cash gone, how, 96 ; use of, 
in Revolution, 97 ; accused by Royal- 
ists, 113 ; at Court, insulted, 190; in 
National Convention (Egalite hence- 
forth), iii. 43 ; decline of, in Conven- 
tion, 72, 109 ; vote on King's trial, 88, 
go ; at King's execution, 94 ; arrested, 
itnprisoned, 126 ; condemned, 176 ; po- 
liteness and e-vecution, 177. 

Ormes.sqn, d'. Controller of Finance, i. 
57 : his Uncle, on States-General, 72, 

Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy, ii. 132. 

Pache,, account of, ii. 18 ; Minister 
of War, iii. 66 ; Mayor, 133 ; dismissed, 
reinstated, 134 ; imprisoned, 221. 

Paine, 'Common Sense,' ii. 18 ; that there 
be a Republic, 140 ; naturalised, iii. 5 ; 
in National Convention, 43 ; escapes 
guillotine, 240. 

Palais-Royal, change in use of, i. 44 ; 
spouting at, 137, 148, 176, 2IO. 

Pan, Mallet du, solicits for Louis, ii. 189. 

Pandora's box, ii. 11. 

Panis, Advocate, in Governing Commit- 
tee, iii. 6 : and Beaumarchais, 15 ; con- 
fidant of Danton, 21. 

Pantheon, first occupant of, ii. 122. 

Paoli, General, friend of Napoleon, ii. 

Paper, Age of, uses of, i. 26. 

Parens, Curate, renounces religion, iii. 

„'?'• . . 

Pans, origin of city, i. 7 ; police in 1750, 
12 ; ship Ville-de-Paris, 40 ; riot at 
Palais -de -Justice, 76; beautified, in 
1788, 86 ; election, 17S9, 107 ; troops 
called to, 136 ; military preparations in, 
147 ; July Fourteenth, cry for arms, 
15s. 163 ; search for arms, 157 ; Bailly, 
mayor of, 175 ; trade-strikes in, 207 ; 
Lafayette patrols, 211 ; October Fifth, 
propositions to Louis, 23c) ; Louis in, 
351 ; foreigners flock to, li. 17 ; Jour- 
nals, 23-25, 90, 91, 105 ; bill-stickers, 24, 
90 ; undermined, 47, 109 ; after Champ- 
de-Mars Federation, 56 ; on Nanci 
afiair, 83 ; on death of Mirabeau, 121 ; 
on Flight to Varennes, 139-141 ; on 
King's return, 15S ; Directory suspend* 
Petion,225 : enlisting, 1792, 233 (iii. 19); 
on forfeiture of King, 240 ; Sections, 
rising of, 242 ; August Tenth, prepares 
for insurrection, 242-245 ; Municipality 
supplanted, 245 : statues torn down. 
King and (Jueen to prison, 258 ; Sep- 
tember 1792, iii. 34 : names printed on 
house -door, 120 ; in insurrection, 
Girondins, May 1793, 134, 135 ; Muni- 
cipality in red nightcaps, 197 ; brotherly 



supper, 224 ; like a Mahlstrom, Ther- 
niidor, 241 ; Sections to be abolished, 
247 ; brightened up, 179S, 247-249 ; 
Gilt Youth , 250. 

Paris, Guardsman, assassinates Lepelle- 
tier, iii. gi. 

Paris, friend of Danton, iii. 217. 

Parleraent, Douai, alone registers Edicts, 
i. 91. 

Parlement of Paris, reestablished, i. 26 ; 
patriotic, 55, 73 ; on registering Edicts, 
71 ; against Taxation, 72, 73 ; remon- 
strates, at Versailles, 73 ; arrested, 75 ; 
origin of, 75 ; nature of, corrupt, 75 ; 
at Troyes, yields, 77 ; Royal Session 
in, 79-81 ; how to be tamed, 85 ; oath 
and declaration of, 87 ; firmness of, 87- 
91 ; scene in, and dismissal of, 89 ; 
reinstated, 98 ; unpopular, 102 ; surn- 
mons Dr. Guillotin, in ; abolished, ii. 

Parlements, Provincial, adhere to Paris, 
i. 74, 82 ; rebellious, 84, 8g ; exiled, 92 ; 
grand deputations of, 92 ; reinstated, 
98 ; abolished, ii. 8. 

Past, the, and Fear, iii. 70. 

' Paul and Virginia, hy St. Pierre, i. 53. 

Peltier, Royalist Pamphleteer, iii. 12. 

' Pere Duchesne,' Editor of, ii. gi ; iii. 

Percyra, Walloon, account of, ii. 17 ; im- 
prisoned, iii. 214. 

Perruques blondes, iii. 209. 

Petion, account of, i. 124 ; Dutch-built, 
ii. 5 ; and D'Espremenil, 113 ; to be 
mayor, 115 ; Varennes, meets King, 
157 ; and Royalty, 158, 243 ; at close 
of Assembly, 168 ; in London, 170 ; 
Mayor of Paris, 204 ; in Twentieth 
June, 221 ; suspended, 225 ; reinstated, 
232 ; welcomes Marseillcse, 238 ; Au- 
gust Tenth, in Tuileries, 243 ; rebukes 
Septemberers, iii. 34 ; in National Con- 
vention, 42 ; declines mayorship, 67 ; 
and his violin, 117; against Mountain, 
128 ; retreat of, to Bourdeaux, 150-162 ; 
end of, 171. 

Petion, National-Pique, christening of, 
ii. 213. 

Petition, of famishing French, i. 30 ; at 
Fatherland's altar, ii. 162 ; of the Eight 
Thousand, 215 ; of washerwomen, iii. 


Petitions, on capture of King, ii. i5i ; for 
deposition, &c., 240. 

Phelippeaux, purged out of the Jacobins, 
iii. 213. 

Philosopher in office, 1. 26. 

Philosophes, French, i. 26, 27 ; ii. 20. 

Philosophism, influence of, on Revolu- 
tion, i. 13 ; what it has done with 
Church, 33 ; with Religion, 51 ; disap- 
pointment on succeeding, ii. 21. 

Pichegru, General, notice of, iii. 204 ; in 
Germinal, 257. 

Pikes, fabricated,- -see Arms; Feast of, 
ii. 57 ; in 1793, iii- 154-156. 

Pilnitz, Convention at, ii. 193. 

Pin, Latour du, War-Minister, ii. 73, 83; 
dismissed, 105. 

Pitt, against France, ii. 193 : and Giron- 
dins, iii. loi ; inflexible, 253. 

Placard Journals, ii. 23. 

Plots, of King's flight, i. 212 (ii. 103, 105, 
106, 135-138'); various, of Aristocrats, 
October Fifth, 218-226; Royalist, of Fa- 
vras and others, ii. 12 ; cartels. Twelve 
bullies from Sv/itzcrland, 9S-100 ; D'- 
Inisdal, will-o'- v/isp, 103: Mirabeau 
and Queen, 104; poniards, 110-112 ; 
Mallet du Pan, 189 ; Narbonne's, igo ; 
traces of, in Armoire de Fer, iii. 77 ; 
against Girondins, 117 ; Uesinoulinson, 
132; by Pitt? 213, 226 ; prison, 222, 

Polignac, Duke de, a sinecurist, i. 56 ; 
dismissed, 176 ; at Bale, 195 ; younger, 
in Ham, 195. 

Pompignan, President of National As- 
sembly, i. i6i. 

Poniards, Royalist, ii. 104; Day of, 112. 

Pope Pius VI. excommunicates Talley- 
rand, ii. 131 ; effigy of, burned, 131. 

Prairial First to Third, ISIay 20-22, 1795, 
iii. 260-263. 

Precy, siege of, Lyons, iii. 160, 184. 

Present, the, and Fear, iii. 70. 

Priesthood, costumes thrown off, ii. 202 ; 
costumes in Carmagnole, iii. 192. 

Priestley, Dr., riot against, ii. 193 ; natu- 
ralised, iii. 5; elected to National Con- 
vention, 43. 

Priests, dissident, fustigated, ii. 127 ; 
marry" in France, 200 ; Anti-national, 
hanged, 227 ; thirty killed near the 
Abbaye, iii. 22 ; number slain in Sep- 
tember Massacre, 35 ; to rescue Louis, 
go ; drowned at Nantes, 188 ; four hun- 
dred at anchor, 232. 

Prisons, Paris, in Bastille time, i. 158 ; 
full, August 1792, iii. 14 ; number of, 
in Paris and in France, 182 ; state of, 
in Terror, 229-232 ; thinned after Ter- 
ror, 245. 

Prison, Abbaye, refractory Members sent 
to, ii. 201 ; Temple, I^ouis sent to, 258 ; 
Abbaye, Priests killed near, iii. 22 ; La 
Force, Chatelet, and Concicrgerie, m^LS- 
sacres at, 24-33. 

Procession, of States-General Deputies, 
i. 117 ; of Necker and D'Orleans busts, 
153 ; of Louis to Paris, 250-252 ; again, 
after Varennes, ii. 157 ; of Black 
Breeches, 219-222 ; of Louis to trial, 
iii. 79 ; at Constitution of 1793, 155. 
Proly, Jacobin misslonarj', iii. 72, 119. 
Prophecy and Prodigies, ii. 33. 
Protestants emancipated, 1. 79, 84. 
Provence Noblesse, expel Mirabeau, k 



Prudhomme, Editor, ii. 23 ; on assassins, 

100 ; turncoat, iii. 190; on Cavaignac, 

202 n. 
Prussia, Fritz of, i. 248 ; against France, 

ii. 193 ; army of, ravages France, iii. 

9 ; King of, and French Princes, 49. 
Puisaye, Girondin General, iii. 141, 149 ; 

at Quiberon, 254. 

Quack, unforgivable^ ii. 123. 
Qu^rct-Dc'mery, pri.soner in Bastille, i. 

Quiberon, debarkation at, iii. 254. 

Rabaut, St. Etiennc, French Reformer, 
i. 125 ; in National Convention, iii. 42 ; 
in Commission of Twelve, 130 ; ar- 
rested, 138 ; hides between two walls, 
152 : guillotined, 181. 

Raynal, Abbe, Philosophe, i. 49, 52 ; his 
letter to Constituent Assembly, 205. 

Reason, (Joddess of, iii. 103-195. 

Rebecqui, of Marseilles, li. 183 ; in Na- 
tional Convention, iii. 42 ; against 
Robespierre (' Moi'), 64 ; retires, 107 ; 
drowns himself, 148. 

Reding, Swiss, massacred, iii. 27. 

Religion, Christian, and French Revolu- 
tion, iii. 173; abolished, 190-192; 
Clootz on, 191 ; a new, 193-226. 

Remy, Cornet, at Clermont, ii. 149. 

Renault, Cccile, to assassinate Robes- 
pierre, iii. 225 ; guillotined, 229. 

Rene, King, bequeathed Avignon to 
Pope, ii. 179. 

Rennes, riot in, i. 91. 

Renwick, last of Cameronians, iii. 102. 

Repaire, Tardive! du. Bodyguard, Fifth 
October, i. 242 ; rewarded, ii. 103. 

Representation, double, of Tiers Etat, i. 

Representative, Hereditary, ii. loi. 

Representatives, Paris, Town, i. 204. 

Republic, French, first mention of, ii. 
142 ; first year of, iii. 42, 156 ; esta- 
blished, 50,57 ; universal, Clootz's, 67 ; 
Girondin, 118 ; one and mdivisible, 126 ; 
its triumphs, 251-254. 

Resson, Sieur, reports Lafayette to Ja- 
cobins, ii 224. 

Rt5veillon, first balloon at house of, i. 45 ; 
house beset, destroyed, 113. 

Revolt, Paris in, i. 157 ; of Gardes Fran- 
daises, 159; becomes Revolution, 174 ; 
military, what, ii. 62 ; of Lepellctier 
section, iii. 269-271. 

Revolution, French, causes of the, i. 12, 
32, 51, 84 ; Lord Chesterfield on the, 
13 ; not a Revolt, 174; meaning of the 
term, 184 ; whence it grew, 185 ; gene- 
ral commencement of, 198 ; editors, 
203; prosperous characters in, ii. 15 ; 
Philosophcs and, 20 ; state of army in, 
^.1 : progress of, 88, 95 ; duelling in, 
97 ; Republic decided on, 140 ; Euro- 

pean powers and, 192-194 ; Royalist 
opinion of, 195 ; cardinal movements in, 
iii. 3 ; Danton and the, 40 ; changes 
produced by the, 57 ; and Atheism, 83 ; 
effect of King's death on, 98-100 ; 
Girondin idea of, 106, 117; suspicion 
in, 133 ; like Saturn, 171 ; Terror and, 
172 ; and Christian religion, 173 ; Re- 
volutionary Committees, 120, 163, 181 ; 
Government doings in, 206 ; Robes- 
pierre essential to, 244 ; end of, 272. 

Rheims, in September Massacre, iii. 38. 

Richelieu, at death of Louis XV., i. 16, 
21 ; death of, 100. 

Riquettis, the, i. 121. 

Riot, Paris, in May 1750. i. 12 ; Corn- 
law (in 1775), 30 ; at Palais de Justic* 
(1787), 76; triumphs, qg ; of Rue St. 
Antoine, 113 ; of July Fourteenth 
(1789), and Bastille, 154-174 ; at Stras- 
burg, 201 : Paris, on the veto, 210 ; 
Versailles Chateau, October Fifth (i 789), 
219-246 ; uses of, to National Assembly, 
ii. 15 ; Paris, on Nanci affair, 83 ; at 
De Castries' Hotel, no theft, 100 ; on 
flight of King's Aunts, 107 ; at Vin- 
cennes, 109 : on King's proposed jour- 
ney to St. Cloud, 128 ; in Champ-de- 
Mars, with sharp shot, 163 ; Paris, 
Twentieth June, 1792, 221 ; August 
Tenth, 1792, 243-259 ; Grain, iii. 67 ; 
Paris, at Thc.atre de la Nation, 64 ; 
selling sugar, 100 ; of Thermidor, 1794, 
237-243 ; of Germinal, 1795, 257 ; of 
Prairial, 260 ; final, of Vcndemiaire, 
269-274. _ 

Rioufte, Girondin, iii. 150 ; to Bourdeaux, 
151 ; in prison, 161 ; on death of Giron- 
dins, 169 ; on Mmc. Roland, 178. 

Rivarol, staff of genius, ii. 189. 

Robespierre, Ma.ximilien, account of, i. 
124 ; derided in Constituent Assembly, 
193 ; Jacobin, ii. 26, 96 ; incorruptible, 
on tip of left, 96 ; elected public ac- 
cuser, 115 ; after King's flight, 141 ; at 
close of Assembly, 168 ; at Arras, posi- 
tion of, 170; pl.uis in 1792, 198 ; chief 
priest of Jacobins, 207 ; invisible on 
August Tenth, 244 ; reappears, iii. 7 ; 
on September Massacre, 36 ; in Na- 
tional Convention, 42 , accn.sed by 
Girondins, 64 ; accused by I^ouvet, 74 ; 
acquitted, 75 ; on Mirabeau's bust, 74 ; 
King's trial, 78, 88 ; Condorceton, iit ; 
at Queen's trial, 167 ; in Salut Com- 
mittee, 197 ; and Paris Municipality, 
198 ; embraces Danton, 213 ; Desmou- 
lins and, 215 ; and Danton, 216; Dan- 
ton on, attrial, 219 ; his three .scoundrels, 
2ig ; supreme, 221 : to be assassinated, 
225 ; at Feast of Etrc Supreme, 226- 
228 ; .apocalyptic. Theot, 228, 232 ; on 
Coulhon's plot-decree, 228 ; reserved, 
233 ; his schemes, 233 ; fails in Conven- 
tion, 234 ; apnlaudcd at Jacobins, 336 ; 



accused, 238 ; lescued, 239 ; at Town- 
hall, JeclarcJ out of law, 239 ; half- 
killcJ, 241 ; guillotineJ, 243 ; essential 
to Revolution, 244. 

Robesincne, Augustin, decreed accused, 
iii. 238; fill of, guillotined, 241. 

Rochambeau, one of Four Generals, ii. 
60 ; retires, 214. 

Roclie-Ayinon, Grand Almoner of Louis 
XV., i. 15, 20. 

Rochefoucault, Duke de la, Liberal, i. 
127 ; President of Directory, ii. 226 ; 
killed, iii. 38. 

Rffiderer, Sj'ndic, P'euillant, ii. 218 ; 
' Chronicle of Fifty Days,' 220 ; on 
Federes Ammunition, 242 ; dilemma 
at Tuileries, August Tenth, 244, 250. 

Rohan, Cardinal, Diamond Necklace 
and, i. 50. 

Roland, Madame, notice of, at Lyons, ii. 
39 ; narrative by, 40 ; in Paris, after 
King's flight, 141 ;and P.arbarou.v, 184 ; 
public dinners and business, 208 ; cha- 
racter of, 209 ; misgivings of, iii. 66 ; 
accused, 85 ; Girondin declining, in ; 
arrested, 139; in prison, condemned, 
178 ; guillotined, 179. 

Roland, M., notice of, ii. 39 ; in Paris, 
184 ; Minister (no buckles), 208 ; letter, 
and dismissal of, 216 ; recalled, 258 ; 
decline of, iii. 4 ; on September Mas- 
sacres, 34 ; and Pache, 66 ; doings of, 
67 ; resigns, 95 ; fled, 139 ; suicide of, 

Romme, in l^iTational Convention, iii. 42 ; 
in Caen prison, 142 ; his new Calendar, 
1 56- 1 59 ; in riot of Prairial, 1795, 262; 
suicide, 263. 

Romo:^uf, pursues the King, ii. 142 ; at 
Varennes, 155. 

Konsin, General of Revolutionary Army, 
iii. 182, 195 ; arrested, 212 ; guillotined, 

Rosiere, Thuriot de la, summons Bastille, 

i. 165 ; in First Parliament, ii. 175 ; in 

National Convention, iii. 82 ; President 

at Robespierre's fall, 237. 
Rossignol, in September Massacre, iii. 29 ; 

in La Vendee, 182. 
Rousseau, Jean Jacques, Contrat Social 

of, i. 47 ; Gospel according to, ii. 32, 

169 (iii. 174); burial-place of, 122; 

statue decreed to, 168. 
Roux, ]\L, ' Histoire Parlementaire,' iii. 

Royalists, Club of, extinguished, li. 28 ; 

named ' Blacks,' 9S ; duelling, gS-ioo ; 

poniards, 104, 112 ; staff of genius of, 

189, 197 ; preparations at Coblentz, 

Royalty, signs of demolished, ii. 140, 
258 ; abolished in France, iii. 50. 

Royou, editor of 'Ami du Roi,' ii. 196. 

Ruamps, Deputy, against Couthon, iii. 

Rub!, notice of, ii. 175 ; in riot ofPrairial, 
iii. 262 ; suicide, 263. 

Sabatier de Cabre, at Royal Session, i. 
80 : arrested, 81 ; liberated, 84. 

Sahara, desert, iii. 3. 

St. Antoine to Versailles, i. 225 : War- 
horse supper, 234 ; closes shops, Nanci 
affair, ii. 77 ; at Vincennes, 109 ; at 
Jacobins, 213 ; and Marseillese, 238; 
August Tenth, 249. 

St. Cloud, Louis prohibited from, ii. 128. 

St. Denis, Mayor of, hanged, i. 204. 

St. Domingo, Insurrection in, ii. 10. 

St. Fargeau, Lepellctier, in National 
Convention, iii. 43 ; at King's trial, 88 ; 
assassinated, go : burial of, 95. 

St. Huruge, Man[\iis, cracked, i. 178 ; 
bull-voice, 207; imprisoned, 210; at 
Versailles, 230 ; and Pope's effigy, ii. 
131 ; at Jacobins, 213 ; on King's trial, 
iii. 84. 

St. Just in National Convention, iii. 42 ; 
on King's trial, 78 ; in Salut Committee, 
197 ; at Strasburg, 199 ; repels Prus- 
.sians, 204; on Revolution, 211; in Com- 
mittee-room, Thermidor, 23O ; his re- 
port, 236 ; arrested, 238. 

St. Louis Church, States-General proces- 
sion from, i. 117. 

St. Meard, Jourgniac de, in prison, iiL 
14 ; his ' Agony" at La Force, 27-33. 

Ste. Mcnehould, alarms at, ii. 144, 146, 
149 ; Prussians at, iii. 46. 

St. Mery, Moreau de, 3000 orders, i. 174; 
prostrated, ii. 239. 

St. Pierre's ' Paul and Virginia,' i. 53. 

Salles, Deputy, guillotined, iii. 171. 

Salm, regiment, at Nanci, ii. 68. 

Saltpetie, digging for, iii. 201. 

Salut Publique : see Committee. 

Sansculottism, apparition of, i. 185 ; ef- 
fects of, 202 ; growth of, ii. 2, 14 ; at 
work, n ; origin of term, 104 ; and 
Royalty, 221 ; above theft, iii. 35 ; a 
fact, 41 ; French Nation and, 58 ; Re- 
volutionary Tribunal and, 121 ; how it 
lives, 122; consummated, 172, 175, 189, 
201; fall of, 244; last rising of, 260-263; 
death of, 263. 

Santerre, Brewer, notice of, i. 119 ; at 
siege of Bastille, 168 ; at "Tuileries, ii. 
104 ; June Twentieth, 220; meets Mar- 
seillese, 238 ; Commander of Guards, 
248 ; how to relieve famine, iii. 67 ; at 
King's trial, 79 ; at King's execution, 
93 ; fails in La Vendee, 159 ; St. An- 
toine disarmed, 263. 

Sausse, M., Procureur of Varennes, ii. 
152 ; scene at his house, 154 ; flies from 
Prussians, iii. 17. 

Savonnieres, M. de, Bodyguard, October 
Fifth, temper gives way, i. 231. 

Savoy, occupied by French, iii. 56. 

Sechelles, Herault dc, in National Con* 



vcntion, iii. 59 ; hat on, leads Conven- 
tion out, 138; and new Feast of Pikes, 
154 ; arrested, 217 ; guillotined, 221. 

Sections, of Paris, iii. 115 ; denounce Gi- 
rondins, 150 ; Committee of, 131, 133, 

Sedan JMunicipals, and Lafayette, ii. 259. 

Seigneurs, French, obliged to fly, i. 199 ; 
ii. 90. 

Senses, the outward and inward, i. 6, 13. 

September : see Massacre. Septemberers, 
the, iii. 35. 

Sergent, Agate, Engraver, in Committee, 
iii. 6 ; nicknamed ' Agate,' 35 ; signs 
circular, 38. 

Servan, VVar-Minister, ii. 208, 211 ; plans 
of, 214. ■ 

Sevres, Potteries, Lamotte's ' Memoires' 
burnt at, ii. 202. 

Sicard, Abbe, in prison, iii. 14; in danger 
near the Abbaye, 22 ; account of mas- 
sacre there, 30. 

Side, Right and Left, of Constituent As- 
sembly, i. 192 ; ii. II ; tip of Left, Jaco- 
bins, 96; Right and Left in conflict, 97; 
tip of Left, popular, 115; Right after 
King's flight, 139 ; Right quits Assem- 
bly, 165 ; Right and Left in first Par- 
liament, 174 ; Delilah kiss, 177. 

Sieyes, Abbe, account of, i. 126 ; Consti- 
tution-builder, 127, 187; ii. 5; in Champ- 
de-Mars, 49 ; in Convention, 
iii. 42; ofConstitution Committee, 1790, 
59; vote at King's trial, 88; making new 
Constitution, 268. 

Sillery, Marquis, notice of, ii. 21. 

Simon, Cordwainer, Dauphin committed 
to, iii. 223 ; guillotined, 242. 

Simoneau, Mayor of Etampes, killed, ii. 
186 ; festival for, 21^5. 

Society Fraternelle, iii. 131. 

Soissons, camp to be formed at, ii. 226 ; 
bread poisoned at, 237. 

Solecisms, topheavy, i. 180. 

Sombreuil, Governor of Hotel des Inva- 
lides, i. i6i ; examined, ii. 201 ; seized, 
iii. 13; saved by his daughter, 26; guil- 
lotined, 229 ; son of, shot, 254. 

Sorbonne, the, decay of, i. 10. 

Spain, against France, ii. 193 ; iii. 96 ; in- 
vaded by France, 202. 

Spurs, night of, ii. 135. 

Staal, Dauie de, on libertj', ii. 22. 

Stael, Mme. de, at States-General proces- 
sion, i. 118 ; intrigues for Narbonne, ii. 
190, 209; secretes Narbonne, iii. 8, 12. 

Stanhope and Price, their club and Paris, 
ii. 19. 

States-General, first mooted, i. 6g, 72, 79; 
meeting announced, 94 ; how consti- 
tuted, loi (see Estate, Third) ; one or 
three orders in? 104; Representatives 
to, 149; Parlements against, 110; De- 
puties to, in Paris, T12 ; number of De- 
puties, 115 ; place of assembling, 115 ; 

procession of, 1T7-128 ; installed, 131 ; 
hats on, hats off, 131 ; union of orders? 

Stofflet, of La Vendee, iii. 254. 

Strasburg, riot at, in 1789, i. 201 ; St. 
Just, shoes and beds, iii. 199. 

Snffren, Admiral, notice of, i. 40. 

Sugar, why scarce, ii. 186 ; the remedy, 

SuUeau, Royalist, editor, ii. 196 ; mas- 
sacred, 247. 

Supper, Fraternal, iii. 130. 

Surnames, Henault on, i. i. 

Suspect, Law of the, iii. 163 ; Chaumette 
jeered on, 212. 

Suspicion, in France, 1788, i. iii ; in Re- 
volution, iii. 133. 

Sweden, King of, to assist Marie-Antoin- 
ette, ii. 133; shot by Ankavstrum, 193. 

Swiss Guards at Brest, liberated, feasted, 
ii. 212, 213 ; prisoners at La Force, iii. 


Talleyrand-Perigord, Bishop, notice of, i. 
129; at fatherland's altar, his blessing, 
ii. 54 ; excommiuiicated, 131 ; in Lon- 
don, 170 ; to America, iii. 96. 

Tallien, notice of, ii. 16; editor of 'Ami 
des Citoyens,' 196 ; in Committee of 
lownhall, Augiist 1792, iii. 6 ; in Na- 
tional Convention, 42 ; at Bourdeaux, 
170 ; and Madame Cabarns, 183 ; re- 
called, suspect, 233 ; accuses Robes- 
pierre, 237 ; I'hermidorian, 247. 

Talma, actor, his soiree, iii. S5- 

Tannery of human skins, iii. 209 ; im- 
provements in, 207. 

Tardivet : see Repaire. 

Target, Advocate, declines King's de- 
fence, iii. 81. 

Tassin, M., and black cockade, i. 215. 

Tax, Ascending, iii. 122. 

Telegraph invented, iii. 206. 

Tennis-Court, National Assembly in, i. 
141 ; Club of, and procession to, ii. 43 ; 
master of, rewarded, 168. 

Terray, Abbe, dissolute financier, i. 3, 26. 

Terror, consummation of, iii. 172 ; reign 
of, designated, 174; number guillotined 
in, 264. 

Thcatins Church, granted to Dissidents, 
ii. 127. 

Theot, Prophetess, on Robespierre, ilL 
228, 232. 

Thermidor, Ninth and Tenth, July 27 and 
28, 1794, iii. 237-243. 

Theroigne, Mdlle., notice of, i. it8: in 
Insurrection of Women, 221 : at Ver- 
sailles (October P'ifth), 330; in Austrian 
prison, ii. 157 ; in Jacobin tribune, 207 ; 
accoutred for insurrection (August 
Tenth), 243, 247; keeps her carriage, iii. 
113; fustigated, insane, 131. 

Thionville besieged, iii. ii ; iiege raised, 



Thoiiret, Law-reformer, ii. 5 ; dissoK'es 

Assembly, 168 ; guillotined, iii. 222. 
Thouvenot and Dumouriez, iii. 18. 
Tinville, Fouquicr, revolutionist, ji- ^16 ; 
Jacobin, 26 ; Attorney-General in Tri- 
bunal Revolutionnaire, iii. 121 ; at trial 
of (^ueen, 166 ; at trial of Girondins, 
168 ; brutal, at trial of Mme. Roland, 
179 ; at trial of Danton, 21S, 219 ; and 
Salut Public, 220; his prison-plots, 
220, 231 ; his batches, 22S ; the prisons 
under, mock doom of, 229-232 ; at trial 
of Robespierre, 242 ; accused, guillo- 
tined, 258. 
Tithes, titles, &c. abolished, i. 191 ; ii. 

ToUendal, Lally, pleads for father, 1. 
75; in States - General, 127; popular, 
crowned, 175. 
Tome, Bishop, and Costumes, ii. 202. 
Toulon, Giro'ndin, iii. 148 ; occupied by 
English, 159 ; besieged, 186 ; surren- 
ders, 187. 
Toulongeon, Marquis, notice of, ii. 5 ; on 
Earnave triumvirate, 160 ; describes 
Jacobins Hall, 205. 
Tournay, Louis, at siege of Bastille, i. 

Tourzelle, Dame de, escapes, iii. 14. 
Trenck, Baron, in Paris, ii. 18. 
Tribunal Extraordinaire, iii. 121 ; Re- 
volutionnaire, doings of, 164 ; extended, 
Tricolor cockade, i. 157. 
Tronchet, Advocate, defends King, iii. 

8r, 89. 
Truth and Falsehood, i. 186. 
Tuileries, Louis XVL lodged at, ii. 2 ; 
a tile-field, 4 ; Twentieth June at, 219 ; 
tickets of entry, ' Coblentz,' 237 ; Mar- 
seillese chase Filles-Saint-Thomas to, 
241 ; August Tenth, 242, 249 ; King 
quits forever, 251 ; attacked, 251 : cap- 
tured, 253 ; occupied by National Con- 
vention, iii. 129. 
Turgot, Controller of France, i. 26 ; on 
Corn-law, 30 ; dismissed, 37 ; death of, 

Tyrants, French People risen against, in. 
162, 200. 

United States, assert Liberty, i. 6 : em- 
bassy to Louis XV!., 39; aided by 
France, 39 ; of Congress in, 194. 

Ushant, sea-fight, i. 40. 

Valadi, M.arquis, notice of, i. 119 ; Gardes 
Frangaises and, 130; guillotined, iii. 

Valazi;, Girondin, ii. 173 : on trial of 
Louis, iii. 73 ; plots at his house, 134 ; 
trial of, 168 ; stabs himself, 169. 

Valenciennes, besieged, iii. 142 ■ surren- 
dered, 153. 

Valmy, action at, iii. 48. 

Varenne, Maton de la. Advocate, his ex- 
periences in September, iii. 13. 

Varennes, described, ii. 150-154 ; Prus- 
skins occupy, iii. 16. 

Varigny, Bodyguard, massacred, October 
Fifth, i. 242. 

Varlet, ' Apostle of Liberty,' iii. 84, loi, 
ii5 ; arrested, 133. 

Vendee, La, Commissioners to, ii. 185 ; 
state of, in 1792, 198 ; insurrection in, 
iii. 10 ; war, after King's death, 114, 
159; on fire, 182 ; pacificated, 253. 

Vendemiaire, Thirteenth, Oct. 4, 1795, 
iii. 269-271. 

Vengeur, sinking of the, iii. 205. 

Verbs, Irregular, National Assembly at, 
i. 187. 

Verdun, to be besieged, iii. 11, 16 ; sur- 
rendered, 17. 

Vergennes, M. de. Prime Minister, i. 55 ; 
death of, 65. 

Vergniaud, notice of, ii. 173 ; too languid, 
203; during August Tenth, 221 ; ora- 
tions of, iii. 4 ; President at King's 
condemnation, 87 ; in fall of Girondins, 
135 ; trial of, 1G8 ; at last supper of 
Girondins, 1C9. 

Vermond, Abbe de. Queen's reader, i. 


Versailles, death of Louis XV. at, 1. 2, 
22; Tennis -Court, 142; in Bastille 
time. National Assembly at, 161, 175 : 
troops to, 212 ; march of women on, 
221 ; of French Guards on, 225 ; halt 
of women near, 226 ; insunection scene 
at, 22S ; the Chateau forced, 241 ; Or- 
leans prisoners massacred at, iii. 39. 

Veto, question of the, i. 210; ii. 200, 218, 
221 ; eluded, 226. 

Viard, Spy, Mme. Roland and, iii. 85. 

Vilate, Juryman, guillotined, iii. 258 ; 
book by, 258. 

Villaret - Joyeuse, Admiral, beaten by 
Howe, iii. 205. 

Villaumes, milliners, their patriotic gift, 
iii. 10. 

Villequier, Duke de, emigrates, ii..ii3- 

Vincennes, Castle, to berev>a>">-d, li. 108 ; 
riot at, 109 ; saved by T^afayette, iii. 

Vincent, of War-Office, iii. 195 ; arrested, 
212 ; guillotine^'' 215. 

Voltnire, at£a»», described, i. 37; bunil- 
place 01, ii. 122. 

War, civil, manual and lingual, ii. 13 ; 
French, becomes general, 81. 

Washington, key of Bastille sent to, i. 
1S2 ; formula for Lafayette, 127 ; ii. 259. 

Watigny, Battle of, iii. 203. 

Weber, Queen's foster-brother, in Insur- 
rection of Women, i. 240, 251 ; in Na- 
tional Guard, ii. 226; Queen leaving 
Vienna, iii. 167. 

Weissembourg, lines of, iii. 204. 

Westermann, in August Tenth, ii. 249 ; 



214 i 


pureed out of the Jacobins, iii. 
trieii, guillotined, 218. 
Winipfen, Giiondin General, iii. 

Women, patriotic gifts by, i. 209 ; revo- 
lutionary speeches by, 216 ; Insurrec- 
tion of, 21S; at H6tel-de-VilIe, 219 ; 
march to Versailles, 221 ; deputation of, 
to Assembly, 2j8 ; to King, 229 ; cor- 
rupt the Guards, 230 ; would hang their 

deputy, 231 ; in fight, at Versailles, 241 ; 
selling sugar, cry of soap, iii. loo ; 
' Megaeras,' 131 ; Herault and Hero- 
ines, 155. 

York, Duke of, besieges Valenciennes, 

iii. 142 ; Dunkirk, 203. 
Young, Arthur, at French Revolution, i. 

Youth, Gilt, iii. 250, 263. 



DC Carlyle, Thomas 

161 The French Revolution