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Full text of "The fresh-water fishes of Mexico north of the isthmus of Tehuantepec"

590.5 
FI 

v .5 

1904 

C.2 



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PUBLICATION 



OF THE 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM 



ZOOLOGICAL SERIES 
VOL. V. 




CHICAGO, U. S. A. 
1904 



THE 



FRESH-WATER FISHES 



OF 



MEXICO NORTH OF THE 
ISTHMUS OF TEHUANTEPEC 



BY 



SETH EUGENE MEEK, PH.D. 
Assistant Curator of Department 



ZOOLOGICAL SERIES 
VOL. V. 




CHICAGO, U. S. A. 

I ^Wt/^D 

SEP 23 1904 



5 

PREFACE 
2 



The following paper is based largely on two collections of fishes, 
the first being made by the writer and Mr. F. E. Lutz, of the Carnegie 
Station for Experimental Evolution, Cold Spring Harbor, in the 
spring of 1901, and the other by the writer during February, March, 
April, and May, 1903. Through the courtesy of Dr. Barton W. 
Evermann, assistant in charge of Scientific Inquiry, United States 
Bureau of Fisheries, I have had at my disposal two small collections 
made by Mr. E. W. Nelson, one from the Rio Balsas and the other 
from the Rio Soto la Marina. Dr. W. L. Tower, of the University 
of Chicago, also placed at my disposal a collection of fishes made by 
him at Rio Verde, San Luis Potosi. In January, 1903, in Washing- 
ton, D. C., Dr. Richard Rathbun, Assistant Secretary of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, and Mr. B. A. Bean, Assistant Curator of fishes 
U. S. National Museum, permitted me to examine a large collection 
which formed a portion of the Mexican fish exhibit at the Columbian 
Exposition. I have included only a small portion of this collection in 
the following list because of the doubtful character of the localities 
given. To have included the entire collection would have very much 
confused our study of geographical distribution. 

An account of the collection made by Mr. F. E. Lutz and myself 
is published in Vol. III. of the Zoological Series of the Field Colum- 
bian Museum, Pub. 65, pages 63 to 128, plates 14 to 31. The results 
of the second expedition are (1903) included in this paper. 

For assistance while making the collection of fishes in 1903, 1 wish, 
on behalf of the Museum, to acknowledge my indebtedness to the 
following gentlemen: Mr. C. R. Hudson and Mr. A. V. Temple, 
of the Mexican Central R, R. ; Mr. D. W. Harvey, of the Mexican 
R. R.; Mr. R. B. Pegram, Mr. F. M. Ames, and Mr. A. Joy, 
of the Vera Cruz & Pacific R. R.; Mr. W. B. Ryan and Mr. 
Newbury, of the Tehuantepec R. R. ; Mr. W. L. Morkil and 
Mr. E. A. White, of the Interoceanic R. R. ; Mr. James Parkyn, 
Treasurer of the Motzorongo Plantation; Gaham & Hudson, 
Forlon, Tamaulipas; Mr. D. W. Hedrick, Superintendent of the 
Midland Bridge Company; Mr . P. H. Kilpatrick, a contractor 
on the Vera Cruz and Pacific R. R. ; Mr. George Greenwood, 
Superintendent of the Jalapa Electric Light Company; Mr. R. G. 
Ransom, of the Westinghouse Air Brake Company; and the officials 
of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R. I would especially men- 
tion Mr. E. A. White for the personal interest he took in this work, 



vi FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

and for his many courtesies which resulted in considerable substantial 
aid. I would also mention Mr. D. W. Hedrick, who was superin- 
tending the construction of the bridges along the Vera Cruz & 
Pacific R. R. Mr. Hedrick gave me the freedom of the bridge 
camps, which proved to be excellent stopping places in that country. 
The superintendents of these camps were very helpful to me in my 
work while there. At Perez I met Mr. Julius Freisser, formerly a 
taxidermist in Chicago, who assisted me in making collections of 
fishes at Perez, Obispo, and El Hule. In general the railroad and 
other employees of the organizations mentioned above were very 
courteous and helpful to me in my work. 

Dr. Barton W. Evermann and Mr. Barton A. Bean have assisted 
me in examining material in the U. S. National Museum. Dr. G. A. 
Boulenger and Mr. C. T. Regan have done the same in the British 
Museum, Dr. D. S. Jordan in Stanford University, and Mr. Henry 
W. Fowler in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Dr. 
Theo. Gill, Washington, D. C., has kindly called my attention to 
a few important references which I would have otherwise omitted. 
Hon. Geo. M. Bowers, United States Commissioner of Fish and Fish- 
eries, kindly loaned the Museum thirty-one original drawings of fishes 
for use in illustrating this work. Four other drawings were kindly 
loaned by Dr. Richard Rathbun. To Dr. Evermann I am under 
obligations for superintending the making of blocks from these draw- 
ings, and also for reading the proof sheets while this work was 
going through the press. Dr. Wm. Owen, of the University of Chi- 
cago, and Prof. H. N. Hoffman, of Indiana University, also rendered 
me valuable service in correcting the misspelled names of Rafinesque 
and others. Dr. Frederick Starr, of the University of Chicago, has 
also kindly revised the proof sheets of this paper with regard to the 
spelling of geographical names. I also desire to acknowledge the 
many courtesies I received from Hon. Powell Clayton, U. S. Minister 
to Mexico, while doing field work in Mexico in 1901 and 1903. In 
making these acknowledgments I wish to assume responsibility for 
whatever errors this volume may contain. 

In the present paper it has been my purpose to give a descriptive 
list of the fresh -water fishes of Mexico, and keys to assist in identifying 
the same. It is impossible to draw an arbitrary line separating the 
fresh-water fishes from those of the salt water. A few of the species 
of Pomadasys, Achirus, Gobius, and the like, included in this work, 
are properly salt-water fishes. I have listed them here rather as fishes 
found in fresh water. 

In the preparation of this publication I have examined every 
paper to which I have had reference and access that throws light on 



PREFACE. vii 

the subject in question, and I have drawn from these material suited 
to my purpose. In the sequence of the orders and families I have fol- 
lowed Jordan and Evermann in Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus. The 
sequence of genera and species has been changed whenever, in the 
light of new information, it appeared necessary. I have also 
made free use of the publication above mentioned for material 
in the characterization of orders and families. A special effort has 
been made to bring together, in as useful a form as possible, our pres- 
ent knowledge of the fresh-water fishes of Mexico north of the Isthmus 
of Tehuantepec. The study of this group of animals in this region 
is of especial interest, for between these two lines is the meeting place 
of the northern and the tropical faunas. In this respect these boun- 
dary lines are in a measure natural ones, because very few species of 
tropical fishes reach the northern line, and but few northern repre- 
sentatives are found farther south than the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. 
In addition the subject presents very interesting material for a study 
in geographical distribution. 



ERRATA. 

Page v, line 33, Gaham should read Graham. 

Page xviii, line g, Steindachner should read Poey. 

Page xix, line 5, Steindachmer should read Steindachner. 

Page xix, line 6, Salmonoides should read solmonoides. 

Page xxxi, line 49, Cousius should read Couesius. 

Page xxxiii, line 14, CARMAN should read CARMEN. 

Page xxxix, line 20, macularis should read macularius. 

Page Hi, line 15, Gruelin should read Gmelin. 

Page Iviii, line 34, after OR^DKRS into, insert FAMILIES, FAMILIES into. 

Page 65, line 28, after 1896 .insert , 264. 

Page 139, 5th line from bottom, i should read if. 

Page 147, line 2j,formostis should read formosa. 

Page 162, line 25, Sygnathus should read Syngnathus. 

Page 169, bottom line, after 1900 insert , 152. 

Page 193, line 26, elder should read older. 

Page 196, line 12, Ethostotnatinae should read Etheostomatinae. 

Page 206, line 30, D. xvi should read dorsal spines 16. 

Page 216, line 12, after depth insert of caudal peduncle. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Preface v 

Introduction xxv 

General Topography and Hydrography of Mexico xxv 

Recent Geological Changes in Mexico and their General Effect on 

the Fish Fauna xxvii 

List of Localities in Mexico where Collections of Fishes were Made 

by F. E. Lutz and the Author in 1901 xxviii 

List of Localities in Mexico where Collections of Fishes were Made by 

the Author in 1 903 xxix 

The River Systems of Mexico and a List of Fishes Known from Each . xxx 

Rio Grande System xxx 

Rio Grande and its Present Tributaries in Mexico xxxi 

Rio Casas Grandes xxxii 

Rio Santa Maria xxxiii 

Rio Carmen xxxiii 

Rio Sauz xxxiii 

Lago de Castillos xxxiii 

Rio Nazas xxxiii 

Rio Conchas System xxxiv 

Rio Soto la Marina System xxxiv 

Rio Panuco System xxxvi 

Rio Mezquital System xxxvii 

Rio Presidio System xxxviii 

Rio Yaqui System xxxviii 

Rio Sonora System xxxix 

Colorado River System xxxix 

Lower California xxxix 

Rio Grande de Santiago System xxxix 

Valley of Mexico ' xli 

Rio San Francisco System xli 

Las Lagunas near Vera Cruz , . . xlii 

Boca del Rio System xlii 

Rio Blanco System xliii 

Rio Otopa System xliii 

Rio Papaloapam System xliv 

Rio San Geronimo System xlv 

Rio Tehuantepec System xlv 

Rio Verde System xlv 

Rio Balsas System xlv 

List of Fishes from Various Localities not Referable to any of 

the River Systems Named Above xlvi 

Geographical Distribution of Fresh-Water Fishes of Mexico xlvi 

Shore Fishes which have Become More or Less Established in the 

Fresh Waters of Mexico lii 

Game Fishes of Mexico lii 

Food Fishes qf Mexico . v liii 

ix 



x FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

PAGE 

Fish Culture in Mexico liii 

Common Names of Mexican Fresh-Water Fishes Iv 

Definitions and Explanations of Terms used in the Descriptions of 

Fishes in this Work Iv 

Definition of the Two Classes of Fishes or Fish-like Vertebrates 

Inhabiting the Fresh Waters of Mexico Ix 

Artificial Key to the Families of Mexican Fresh- Water Fishes Ix 

CLASS I. MARSIPOBRANCHII i 

ORDER I. HYPEROARTII i 

Family I. Petromyzontidac i 

Genus I. Lampetra Gray i 

1. spadicea Bean 2 

CLASS II. PISCES 3 

ORDER II. RHOMBOGANOIDEA 4 

Family II. Lepidosteidae 4 

Genus 2. Lepidosteus Lacepede 5 

Subgenus Lepidosteus Lac6pede 5 

2. osseus (Linnaeus) 5 

[Subgenus Cylindrosteus Rafinesquc] 6 

[platystomus Rafinesque] ' 6 

Subgenus Atractosteus Rafinesque 6 

3. tristcechus (Bloch & Schneider) 6 

[tropicus (Gill)] .' 7 

ORDER III. NEMATOGNATHI 8 

Family III. Siluridae 8 

Subfamily Tachysurinae 9 

. Genus 3. Galeichthys Cuvier & Valenciennes 9 

4. aguadulce Meek 9 

Subfamily Ichthyaelurinae 10 

Genus 4. Ichthyaelurus Rafinesque 10 

5. furcatus (Le Sueur) 10 

6. punctatus (Rafinesque) 1 1 

7. meridionalis (Gunther) . . u 

Genus 5. Amiurus Rafinesque 12 

Subgenus Haustor Jordan & Evermann 13 

8. australis Meek 13 

9. lupus (Girard) 14 

10. dugesi Bean 14 

1 1 . mexicanus Meek 15 

12. pricei (Rtitter) 15 

Subgenus Amiurus Rafinesque 16 

13. natalis (Le Sueur) 16 

Genus 6. Istlarius Jordan & Snyder 17 

14. balsanus Jordan & Snyder 17 

Genus 7. Leptops Rafinesque 18 

15. olivaris (Rafinesque) 18 

Subfamily Pimelodinaa 19 

[Genus Conorhynchus Bleeker] 19 

[nelsoni Evermann & Goldsborough] 19 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. xi 

PAGE 

Genus 8. Rhamdia Bleeker 20 

1 6. oaxacae Meek , 20 

17. laticauda (Heckel) 21 

18. brachyptera (Cope) 21 

[wagneri (Gunther)] 22 

19. hypselura (Gunther) 22 

ORDER IV. PLECTOSPONDYLI 24 

Family IV. Catostomidas 24 

Subfamily Ichthyobinae 25 

Genus 9. Carpiodes Rafinesque . 25 

20. meridionalis (Gunther) 26 

21. tumidus Baird & Girard 26 

2 2 . microstomus Meek 27 

23. elongatus Meek 28 

24. labiosus Meek 29 

Subfamily Catostominas 30 

Genus 10. Pantosteus Cope 30 

25. plebeius (Baird & Girard) 30 

Genus 1 1 . Catostomus Le Sueur 31 

26. sonorensis Meek 32 

27. bernardini Girard 32 

28. conchos Meek 33 

Genus 12. Xyrauchen Eigenmann & Kirsch 33 

29. cypho (Lockington) 33 

Genus 13. Myzostoma Rafinesque 34 

30. congestum (Baird & Girard) 34 

3 1 . austrinum Bean 35 

Family V. Cyprinidae 36 

Subfamily Campostomatinae 40 

Genus 14. Campostoma Agassiz 40 

32. ornatum Girard . 41 

33. anomalum (Rafinesque) : 42 

34. formosulum Girard 42 

Subfamily Chondrostomatinas 43 

Genus 15. Xystrosus Jordan & Snyder 43 

35. popoche Jordan & Snyder 43 

Genus 16. Algansea Girard 44 

36. tincella (Cuvier & Valenciennes) 44 

37. dugesi Bean 45 

38. rubescens Meek .' 46 

39. lacustris Steindachner 47 

Genus 17. Hybognathus Agassiz 48 

40. episcopus (Girard) 48 

41 . rasconis (Jordan & Snyder) 50 

Genus 18. Pimelocephales Rafinesque 50 

42. confertus (Girard) 51 

Subfamily Mylopharodontinag 51 

Genus 19. Stypodon Garman 51 

43 . signifer Garman . . 5 * 

Subfamily Leuciscinas 52 

Genus 20. Ptychocheilus Agassiz 52 



xii FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

PAGE 

44. lucius Girard 52 

Genus 2 1 . Gila Baird & Girard 53 

45. elegans Baird & Girard 53 

46. minaca? Meek 54 

Genus 22. Leuciscus Cuvier 55 

47. nigrescens (Girard) 55 

[intermedius (Girard)] 56 

Genus 23. Abramis Cuvier 56 

48. chrysoleucus (Mitchill) 57 

Genus 24. Cochlognathus Baird & Girard 57 

49. ornatus Baird & Girard 58 

Genus 25. Falcula Jordan & Snyder 58 

50. chapalae Jordan & Snyder 58 

Genus 26. Aztecula Jordan & Everma'nn 59 

51. vittata (Girard) 59 

52. lermas (Evermann & Goldsborough) 60 

53. mexicana Meek 61 

Genus 27. Nototropis Rafinesque 62 

Subgenus Alburnops Girard 65 

54. calientis Jordan & Snyder 65 

.55. braytoni (Jordan & Evermann) 65 

56. robustus Meek 66 

57. chihuahua Woolman 67 

58. boucardi (Gunther) 67 

Subgenus Codoma Girard 68 

59. ornatus (Girard) 68 

Subgenus Orcella Jordan & Evermann 69 

60. orca Woolman 69 

61. nazas Meek 70 

> Subgenus Moniana Girard 70 

62. forlonensis Meek 70 

63. lutrensis (Baird & Girard) 71 

64. macrostomus (Girard) 72 

65. garmani (Jordan) 73 

66. santamarias Evermann & Goldsborough 74 

67. formosus (Girard) 74 

68. frigidus (Girard) ' 75 

Subgenus Nototropis Rafinesque 75 

69. santarosaliae Meek 75 

Genus 28. Phenacobius Cope 76 

70. scopifer (Cope) 76 

Genus 29. Evarra Woolman 77 

7 1 . eigenmanni Woolman 77 

72. tlahuacensis Meek 78 

Genus 30. Rhinichthys Agassiz 79 

73. simus Garman 79 

Genus 31. Agosia Girard 79 

74. oscula (Girard) 80 

75. chrysogaster Girard 80 

Genus 32. Hybopsis Agassiz 80 

76. aestivalis (Girard) 81 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. xiii 

PAGE 

77. altus (Jordan) 81 

Genus 33. Couesius Jordan 82 

78. adustus Woolman 82 

Subfamily Plagopterinae 83 

Genus 34. Plagopterus Cope 83 

79. argentissimus Cope . 83 

Family VI. Characinidae 83 

Subfamily Tetragonopterinae 84 

Genus 35. Tetragonopterus Cuvier 84 

80. mexicanus Filippi 85 

81. aeneus Gunther 86 

Genus 36. Hemigrammus Gill 87 

82. compressus Meek 87 

Subfamily Characinag 88 

Genus 37. Roeboides Gunther 88 

83. guatemalensis (Gunther) 88 

ORDER V. SYMBRANCHIA 89 

Family VII. Symbranchidas 89 

Genus 38. Symbranchus Bloch 89 

84. marmoratus Bloch 89 

ORDER VI. APODES 90 

. Family VIII. Anguillidas 90 

Genus 39. Anguilla Shaw . . . 90 

85. chrysypa Rafmesque 90 

ORDER VII. ISOSPONDYLI 92 

Family IX. Dorosomatidae . . . t * 92 

Genus 40. Dorosoma Rafinesque 92 

86. anale Meek 93 

87. exile Jordan & Gilbert '94 

Genus 41. Signalosa Evermann & Kendall 94 

88. mexicana (Gunther) 94 

Family X. Salmonidae 95 

Subfamily Salmoninas 95 

Genus 42. Salmo (Artedi) Linnaeus 95 

89. irideus Gibbons : 96 

ORDER VIII. HAPLOMI 98 

Family XI. Pceciliidas '. 98 

Subfamily Fundulinae 101 

Genus 43. Cynodonichthys Meek 101 

90. tenuis Meek i o i 

Genus 44. Fundulus Lacpede 102 

Subgenus Fundulus 103 

[guatemalensis Gunther] 103 

[punctatus Gunther] 104 

9 1 . oaxacag Meek 104 

92. vinctus Jordan & Gilbert 105 

93. similis (Baird & Girard) 105 

heteroclitus (Linnasus) 106 

grandis Baird & Girard 107 



xiv FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

PAGE 

[labialis Gunther] 107 

Subgenus Fontinus Jordan & Evermann 108 

96. extensus Jordan & Gilbert 108 

97. zebrinus (Jordan & Gilbert) 108 

Genus 45. Lucania Girard 109 

98. venusta (Girard) 109 

Genus 46. Zoogoneticus Meek 109 

99. cuitzeoensis (B. A. Bean) no 

100. dugesi (Bean) in 

[pachycephalus (Giinther)] 112 

101 . robustus (Bean) 112 

102. maculatus Regan 113 

103. diazi Meek 114 

104. miniatus Meek 115 

Genus 47. Girardinichthys Bleeker 115 

105. innominatus Bleeker 116 

Subfamily Oristiinae 118 

Genus 48. Characodon Gunther 1 18 

106. multiradiatus Meek 119 

107. eiseni Rutter 119 

108. variatus Bean 1 20 

109. lateralis Gunther 121 

no. garmani Jordan & Evermann 121 

in. furcidens Jordan & Gilbert 122 

Genus 49. Chapalichthys Meek 123 

112. encaustus (Jordan & Snyder) 123 

Genus 50. Cyprinodon Lac6pdde 1 24 

113. eximius Girard 125 

114. elegans Baird & Girard 125 

115. macularius Baird & Girard 126 

1 16. latifasciatus Garman 126 

Subfamily Gambusiinae 127 

Genus 51. Pseudoxiphophorus Bleeker 127 

117. bimaculatus (Heckel) 127 

Genus 52. Gambusia Poey 128 

1 18. fasciata Meek * 129 

119. gracilis (Heckel) 130 

1 20. affinis (Baird & Girard) 130 

121. infans Woolman 131 

122. bonita Meek .- 132 

Genus 53. Paragambusia Meek 133 

123. nicaraguensis (Gunther) 133 

Genus 54. Glaridichthys Garman 134 

124. latidens (Garman) 134 

Genus 55. Belonesox Kner 135 

125. belizanus Kner 135 

Subfamily Anablepinae 135 

Genus 56. Anableps (Artedi) Bloch 135 

1 26. dovii Gill 136 

Subfamily Goodinae 136 

Genus 57. Goodea Jordan 136 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. xv 

PAGE 

127. whitei Meek 137 

128. toweri Meek 138 

129. luitpoldi (Steindachner) 139 

130. atripinnis Jordan 140 

Genus 58. Skiffia Meek 141 

131. multipunctata (Pellegrin) 141 

132. lermae Meek 142 

133. variegata Meek 143 

134. bilineata (Bean) ' 144 

Subfamily Poeciliinas 144 

Genus 59. Platypoecilus Gunther 144 

135. maculatus Gunther 145 

136. variatus Meek 146 

137. nelsoni Meek 147 

Genus 60. Heterandria Agassiz 147 

138. pleurospilus (Gunther) 148 

139. lutzi Meek 148 

Genus 61. Poecilia Bloch & Schneider 149 

140. occidentalis (Baird & Girard) 150 

141. latipunctata Meek 150 

142. butleri Jordan 151 

143. presidionis Jordan & Culver 152 

144. couchiana (Girard) 152 

145. sphenops Cuvier & Valenciennes 153 

Genus 62. Mollienesia Le Sueur 154 

146. formosa (Girard) 155 

147. latipinna Le Sueur 155 

Genus 63. Xiphophorus Heckel 156 

148. lalapas Meek 156 

149. helleri Heckel 157 

1 50. montezumas Jordan & Snyder 158 

ORDER IX. SYNENTOGNATHI 160 

Family XII. Belonidag 160 

Genus 64. Tylosurus Cocco 160 

151. marinus (Walbaum) 160 

ORDER X. LOPHOBRANCHII 162 

Family XIII. Syngnathidae 162 

Genus 65. Siphostoma Rafmesque ' 162 

152. brevicaudum Meek 163 

1 53. starksi Jordan & Culver 163 

ORDER XI. ACANTHOPTERI 164 

Family XIV. Atherinida; 165 

Genus 66. Chirostoma Swainson 166 

Subgenus Eslopsarum Jordan 169 

154. jordani Woolman 169 

155. mezquital Meek 170 

1 56. arge (Jordan & Snyder) 171 

157. bartoni Jordan & Evermann 172 

158. attenuatum Meek 172 

159. labarcse Meek 1 73 



xvi FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

PAGE 

160. patzcuaro Meek 174 

161. zirahuen Meek 174 

Subgenus Chirostoma Swainson 175 

162. humboldtianum (Cuv. & Val.) 175 

163. chapalae Jordan & Snyder 176 

164. grandocule Steindachner 176 

165. promelas Jordan & Snyder 177 

Subgenus Lethostole Jordan & Evermann 177 

166. sphyraena Boulenger 177 

167. lucius Boulenger 178 

1 68. lermae Jordan & Snyder 179 

169. ocotlanae Jordan & Snyder 180 

170. estor Jordan . . 180 

Genus 67. Menidia Bonaparte 181 

171. sallei (Regan) 181 

172. lisa Meek 182 

Genus 68. Melaniris Meek 183 

173. balsanus Meek 183 

Genus 69. Thyrina Jordan & Culver 184 

[evermanni Jordan & Culver] 184 

174. crystallina (Jordan & Culver) 184 

Family XV. Mugilidae 185 

Subfamily Mugilinae 185 

Genus 70. Mugil (Artedi) Linnaeus. 185 

175. cephalus Linnaeus 186 

Subfamily Agonostominae 186 

Genus 71. Agonostomus Bennet 186 

Subgenus Dajaus Cuvier & Valenciennes 186 

176. monticola (Bancroft) 186 

Genus 72. Neomugil Vaillant 187 

177. digueti Vaillant 188 

Genus 73. Joturus Poey 188 

178. pichardi Poey 188 

Family XVI. Centrarchidae 189 

Subfamily Lepidopominas 190 

Genus 74. Lepidopomus Rafinesque 190 

Subgenus Apomotis Rafinesque 191 

179. cyanellus Rafinesque 191 

Subgenus Lepidopomus Rafinesque 192 

180. occidentalis Meek 192 

181. haplognathus Cope 192 

182. pallidus (Mitchill) 193 

Genus 75. Eupomotis Gill & Jordan 193 

183. heros (Baird & Girard) 194 

Subfamily Micropterinae 194 

Genus 76. Micropterus Lacpede 194 

184. salmonoides (Lac6p6de) 195 

Family XVII. Percidae 196 

Subfamily Etheostomatinae 196 

Genus 77. Etheostoma Rafinesque 196 

Subgenus Torrentaria Jordan & Evermann 197 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. xvii 

PAGE 

185. australe (Jordan) 197 

Subgenus Rafinesquiellus Jordan & Evermann 197 

1 86. pottsii (Girard) 197 

Subgenus Oligocephalus Girard 198 

187. lepidum (Baird & Girard) 198 

Family XVIII. Centropomidse . 198 

Genus 78. Centropomus Lacep6de 199 

188. mexicanus Bocourt 199 

Family XIX. Haemulidae 199 

Genus 79. -Pomadasys Lac6pede 200 

Subgenus Rhonciscus Jordan & Evermann 200 

189. starri Meek 200 

190. bayanus Jordan & Evermann 201 

191. templei Meek 201 

Family XX. Sciaenidas 102 

Subfamily Haploidonotinas 202 

1 Genus 80. Haploidonotus Rafinesque 202 

192. grunniens Rafinesque 203 

Family XXI. Cichlidas 204 

Genus 81. Cichlasoma Swainson 204 

193. mento (Vaillant & Pellegrin) 207 

194. salvini (Gunther) 207 

195. hedricki Meek 208 

196. pavonaceum (Garman) 209 

197. beani (Jordan) 210 

198. steindachneri Jordan & Snyder 210 

199. bartoni (Bean) 211 

200. istlanum (Jordan & Snyder) 212 

201. evermanni Meek 214 

202. heterodontum (Vaillant & Pellegrin) 215 

203. cyanoguttatum (Baird & Girard) 215 

204. rectangulare (Steindachner) 216 

205. mojarra Meek 217 

206. octofasciatum (Regan) 218 

207 . parma (Gunther) 218 

208. melanurum (Gunther) 219 

209. eigenmanni Meek 220 

2 10. nebulifer (Gunther) 220 

Genus 82. Neetroplus Gunther 221 

211. carpintis Jordan & Snyder 221 

Genus 83. Thorichthys Meek 222 

212. helleri (Steindachner) 223 

213. ellioti Meek . . 223 

Family XXII. Gobiidas 225 

Subfamily Eleotridinas 226 

Genus 84. Philypnus Cuvier & Valenciennes 226 

214. dormitor (Lac6p6de) 226 

Genus 85. Dormitator Gill 227 

215. maculatus (Bloch) 227 

Genus 86. Eleotris Bloch & Schneider 228 

216. pisonis (Gmelin) 228 



xviii FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

PAGB 

217. pictus Kner & Steindachner 229 

Subfamily Gobiinae 229 

Genus 87. Gobius Linnasus 229 

Subgenus Ctenogobius Gill 230 

218. parvus Meek 230 

Subgenus Gobionellus Girard 231 

219. claytoni Meek 231 

220. microdon Gilbert 23 1 

Genus 88. Chonophorus Steindachner 232 

221. nelsoni (Evermann) 232 

222. taiasica (Lichtenstein) 233 

223. mexicanus (Gunther) 233 

Genus 89. Gillicththys Cooper 234 

224. detrusus Gilbert & Scofield 234 

Family XXIII. Soleidae 234 

Subfamily Achirinae 235 

Genus 90. Achirus Lac6pde 235 

Subgenus Baiostoma Bean 235 

225. mazatlanus (Steindachner) 235 

226. fonsecensis (Gunther) 236 

Subgenus Achirus Lace'pdde] 236 

227. fasciatus Lac6p6de 236 



LIST OF FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PLATE PAGE 

Map of Mexico, showing Fish Faunal Areas. xlvii 

I. Goodea luitpoldi (Steindachner) . .Photograph by C. H. Carpenter 1 
II. Ovary of Goodea luitpoldi (Stein- 

dachmer) Photograph by C. H. Carpenter 1 

III. Large-mouth Black Bass, (Micropterus Salmonoides Lac6pede) 

showing parts referred to in descriptions of fishes Ivi 

IV. Galeichthys aguadulce Meek Photograph by C. H. Carpenter 9 

V. Rhamdia oaxacas Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 20 

VI. Catostomus sonorensis Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 32 

VII. Catostomus conchos Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 33 

VIII \ Skiffia lermae Meek (<j) Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 142 

< Skiffia lermag Meek (?) Drawing by W. D. Douglas. . . . 142 

IX. Platypcecilus maculatus Gunther .Photograph by C. H. Carpenter 145 

-v- ( Platypoecilus variatus Meek Photograph by C. H. Carpenter 146 

( Xiphophorus helleri Heckel Photograph by C. H. Carpenter 157 

XI. Xiphophorus jalapae Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 156 

XII. Lepidopomus occidentalis Meek. .Drawing by W. D. Douglas. . . . 192 

XIII. Pomadasys starri Meek Photograph by C. H. Carpenter 200 

XIV. Pomadasys templei Meek Photograph by C. H. Carpenter 201 

XV. Cichlasoma parma (Gunther) . . . .Photograph by C. H. Carpenter 218 

XVI. Cichlasoma eigenmanni Meek . . . .Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 220 

"X"VTT \ Gobius parvus Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. . . . 230 

' ( Gobius claytoni Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. . . . 230 



LIST OF TEXT ILLUSTRATIONS. 



FIG. PAGE 

. Lampetra spadicea Bean Drawing by H. L. Todd 2 

2. Istlarius balsanus Jordan & Snyder . . .Drawing by Mrs. C. L. Starks. . 17 
f Conorhynchus nelsoni Evermann & 

3. ] Goldsborough Drawing by A. H. Baldwin. ... 19 

' Embryo of Conorhynchus nelsoni . . .Drawing by A. H. Baldwin. ... 19 

4. Carpiodes microstomus Meek Drawing by Howard Stebbins. . . 27 

5. Carpiodes elongatus Meek Drawing by Howard Stebbins. . 28 

6. Carpiodes labiosus Meek Drawing by Howard Stebbins. . 29 

7. Xystrosus popoche Jordan & Snyder. Drawing by Mrs. C. L. Starks. . 43 

8. Algansea dugesi Bean Drawing by A. H. Baldwin. ... 46 

9. Algansea rubescens Meek. Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 46 

10. Hybognathus rasconis (Jordan & Sny- 

der) : . . . Drawing by Mrs. C. L. Starks . . 50 

11. Gila minacas Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 54 

12. Falcula chapalse Jordan & Snyder.. . .Drawing by Mrs. C. L. Starks. . 58 

13. Aztecula vittata (Girard) Drawing by A. H. Baldwin .... 60 

14. Aztecula lermae (Evermann & Golds- 

borough) Drawing by A. H. Baldwin .... 6 1 

15. Aztecula mexicana Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 62 

1 6. Nototropis calientis Jordan & Snyder Drawing by Mrs. C. L. Starks. . 65 

17. Nototropis robustus Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 66 

18. Nototropis chihuahua Woolman Drawing by A. H. Baldwin. ... 67 

19. Nototropis nazas Meek Drawing by 'Howard Stebbins. . 70 

20. Nototropis forlonensis Meek Drawing by Howard Stebbins. . . 71 

21. Nototropis santamariae Evermann & 

Goldsborough Drawing by A. H. Baldwin .... 74 

22. Nototropis santarosaliae Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 76 

23. Evarra eigenmanni Woolman Drawing by A. H. Baldwin. ... 77 

24. Evarra tlahuacensis Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 78 

25. Hemigrammus compressus Meek Drawing by Howard Stebbins. . 87 

26. Dorosoma anale Meek .-. Drawing by Howard Stebbins. . 93 

27. Cynodonichthys tenuis Meek Drawing by Howard Stebbins. . 102 

28. Fundulus oaxacse Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 104 

29. Zoogoneticus cuitzeoensis (B. A. Bean) . Drawing by A. H. Baldwin 1 1 1 

30. Zoogoneticus dugesi (Bean) Drawing by H. L. Todd 112 

31. Zoogoneticus robustus (Bean) Drawing by A. H. Baldwin. ... 113 

32. Zoogoneticus diazi Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 114 

33. Zoogoneticus miniatus Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 115 

34. Characodon variatus Bean $ Drawing by H. L. Todd 120 

35. Characodon variatus Bean 5 Drawing by H. L. Todd 120 

36. Chapalichthys encaustus (Jordan & 

Snyder) Drawing by Mrs. C. L. Starks . . 123 

37. Gambusia fasciata Meek Drawing by Howard Stebbins. . 129 

38. Gambusia infans Woolman Drawing by A. H. Baldwin. . . . 132 

39. Gambusia bonita Meek Drawing by Howard Stebbins . . 132 

40. Goodea whitei Meek Drawing by Howard Stebbins . . 137 



xxii FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

FIG. PAGE 

41. Goodea toweri Meek Drawing by Howard Stebbins. . 138 

42. Goodea luitpoldi (Steindachner) Drawing by Mrs. C. L. Starks. . 139 

43. Goodea atripinnis Jordan . . . ., Drawing by Mrs. C. L. Starks. . 140 

44. Skiffia variegata Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 143 

45. Skiffia bilineata (Bean) Drawing by W. S. Haines 144 

46. Platypoecilus nelsoni Meek Photograph by C. H. Carpenter 14^ 

47. Heterandria lutzi Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 149 

48. Poecilia latipunctata Meek Drawing by Howard Stebbins. . 150 

49. Poecilia sphenops Cuvier & Valenciennes 

Drawing by W. S. Atkinson .... 153 

50. Xiphophorus montezumae Jordan & 

Snyder Drawing by W. S. Atkinson .... 158 

51. Siphostoma brevicaudum Meek Drawing by Howard Stebbins. . 163 

52. Chirostoma jordani Woolman Drawing by A. H. Baldwin. ... 170 

53. Chirostoma mezquital Meek Drawing by Howard Stebbins. . 170 

54. Chirostoma arge (Jordan & Snyder) ..Drawing by Mrs. C. L. Starks. . 171 

55. Chirostoma attenuatum Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 173 

56. Chirostoma patzcuaro Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 174 

57. Chirostoma zirahuen Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas .... 174 

58. Chirostoma chapalae Jordan & Snyder Drawing by Mrs. C. L. Starks. . 176 

59. Chirostoma sphyraena Boulenger Drawing by Mrs. C. L. Starks. . 178 

60. Chirostoma lucius Boulenger Drawing by Mrs. C. L. Starks. . 179 

61. Chirostoma lermae Jordan & Snyder ..Drawing by Mrs. C. L. Starks. . 179 

62. Chirostoma ocotlanae Jordan & Snyder Drawing by Mrs. C. L. Starks . . 180 

63. Menidia lisa Meek Drawing by Howard Stebbins. . 182 

64. Melaniris balsanus Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 183 

65. Haploidonotus grunniens Rafinesque .Drawing by Miss J. Gloetzner.. 203 

66. Cichlasoma hedricki Meek Drawing by Howard Stebbins. . 209 

67. Cichlasoma steindachneri Jordan & 

Snyder Drawing by Mrs. C. L. Starks . . 211 

68. Cichlasoma bartoni (Bean) Drawing by A. H. Baldwin. ... 212 

69. Cichlasoma istlanum (Jordan & Sny- 

der) Drawing by Mrs. C. L. Starks ... 213 

70. Cichlasoma evermanni Meek Drawing by W. D. Douglas. ... 214 

7 1 . Cichlasoma mojarra Meek Drawing by Howard Stebbins . . 217 

72. Thorichthys ellioti Meek Drawing by Howard Stebbins. . 224 



LIST OF GENERA AND SPECIES WHICH APPEAR AS NEW 
IN THE PRESENT WORK. 



NEW GENERA. P AGE 

Cynodonichthys 101 

Paragambusia 133 

Thorichthys 222 

NEW SPECIES. 

Galeichthys aguadulce 9 

Amiurus australis 13 

Amiurus mexicanus 15 

Carpiodes microstomus 27 

Carpiodes elongatus 28 

Carpiodes labiosus 29 

Nototropis nazas 70 

Nototropis forlonensis ~. 70 

Hemigramnrus compressus 87 

Dorosoma anale ^93 

Cynodonichthys tennis 101 

Characodon multiradiatus 119 

Gambusia fasciata ' 129 

Gambusia bonita 132 

Goodea whitei 137 

Goodea toweri 138 

Platypoecilus variatus 146 

Platypoecilus nelsoni 147 

Poecilia latipunctata 150 

Siphostoma brevicaudum 160 

Chirostoma mezquital 170 

Menidia lisa 182 

Pomadasys starri . . .- 200 

Pomadasys templei 201 

Cichlasoma hedricki 208 

Cichlasoma evermanni 214 

Cichlasoma mojarra 217 

Thorichthys ellioti 223 



NTRODUCTION. 



GENERAL TOPOGRAPHY AND HYDROGRAPHY OF MEXICO. 

The greater portion of Mexico is a plateau ranging in elevation 
from 3,000 to 8,000 feet above the sea. The northern portion is the 
lower, and the slope to the northeast, especially of that portion drained 
by the Rio Grande and its tributaries, is more gentle than of any other 
portion. The eastern border of this plateau is formedjby the eastern 
range of the Sierra Madre Mountains, leaving to the east a plain vary- 
ing in width from about 150 miles east of Monterey to less than 50 
miles west of Tampico and Vera Cruz. This plain north of Tampico 
is chiefly drained by three rivers : the Rio Conchas and the Rio Soto 
la Marina, which flow into the Gulf; and the Rio Forlon, a tributary 
of the Rio Panuco. None of these streams drain any portion of the 
central plateau. Two of the tributaries of the Rio Panuco, the Rio 
San Juan and the Rio Tula, have their origin on the central plateau, 
and reach the main river through a gap in the mountains by a series 
of cascades and falls. South of Tampico this narrow plain is drained 
by a number of small streams which are wholly confined to the eastern 
slope. South of Vera Cruz and in the southern portion of the State 
of Oaxaca this eastern range of the Sierra Madre meets the southern 
range, the Sierra Madre del Sur, the two forming the low water shed 
of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The northern portion of this Isthmus 
is drained by the Rio Coatzacoalcos. Between this river and the City 
of Vera Cruz is a rather broad, low plain on which from 10 to 15 feet 
of rain falls each year. This plain is mostly drained by the Rio 
Papaloapam and its tributaries, the Rio Tonto, the Rio Quiotepec, 
the Rio Tesechoacan, and the Rio San Juan Evangelista. Owing to 
the great rainfall in this region, these rivers are very large as com- 
pared with the area they drain. The Sierra Madre del Sur extends 
parallel to the coast as far as Colima, where it becomes the western 
range of the Sierra Madre. Between the Sierra Madre del Sur and 
the zone of recent volcanoes which extends west -of Puebla and forms 
the watershed between the Rio Balsas and the Rio Lerma is a con- 
siderable plateau drained by the Rio Balsas, the second largest river 
in Mexico, which flows into the Pacific Ocean. North of the Rio 
Balsas basin the central plateau is drained by the Rio Lerma, which, 
after it leaves Lago de Chapala, is known as the Rio Grande de San- 
tiago, the two forming the longest river wholly within the republic. 
The Rio Santiago reaches the sea by a series of cascades and falls. 



xxvi FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

The Valley of Mexico is an independent drainage basin, though judg- 
ing from the nature of its fish fauna, .at some previous time its waters 
probably flowed into the Rio Lerma. The northern limit of the 
basin of the Rio Lerma is at Zacatecas. 

A glance at any map of Mexico reveals the fact that the largest 
western rivers north of the Rio Grande de Santiago rise to the east of 
the central range of the Sierra Madre Mountains, or in the western 
portion of the Central plateau. The western Sierra is exceedingly 
rough and its western slope very steep. To such an extent is this 
the case that of the seven railroads which have western terminals 
not one has yetlreached the Pacific coast. 

The rainfall in Mexico is variable, the greatest precipitation being 
in the State of Vera Cruz. On the Isthmus of Tehuantepec the rains 
begin about the first of May, and continue into December, though 
there are occasional rains until about the first of February. In the 
neighborhood of the City of Mexico and the Lerma Valley the rains 
begin the first of May and continue until about the first of November; 
between Tampico and Monterey they begin about the last of May 
and continue until October. In northern Mexico, in the State of 
Chihuahua, the rainy season commences the last of June and ceases 
in September. The rainfall in southern Mexico is much more abun- 
dant than in the northern part. Where the wet season is much longer 
than the dry season the larger rivers contain a good supply of water 
during the entire year. In the height of the wet season many of 
them overflow, forming, in depressions, shallow lakes, bayous, and 
ponds; these later become dry, causing the destruction of a great 
many fishes. The same conditions hold in the dryer portions, but 
here many of the streams also become partially dry. On the plateau 
the water in the dry season in many streams is confined to a portion 
of the upper part of its course, and such streams usually contain a 
small number of species of fishes. During the wet season many of 
the isolated streams in northern Mexico form at their mouths lakes 
of considerable size, such as Lago de Guzman at the mouth of the Rio 
Casas Grandes, Lago de Patos at the mouth of the Rio Carmen, etc., 
etc. From the upper part of these river courses the lakes into which 
they flow become stocked with fishes. There is considerable alkali 
in the beds of these lakes which the water takes up in solution. As 
the dry season comes on the lakes gradually become smaller and the 
water in them more alkaline. When each lake is reduced to about 
three-fourths of its original size the water becomes so charged with 
alkali that the fishes die in great numbers. During the latter part of 
the dry season there is very little water in the Rio Casas Grandes 
below Terrasas, more than half of its bed being dry. What is true 



INTRODUCTION. xxvii 

of this river is also true of many other rivers in the dryer portions 
of Mexico, and especially so of those streams whose waters never 
reach the sea. 

RECENT GEOLOGICAL CHANGES IN MEXICO AND THEIR 
GENERAL EFFECT ON THE FISH FAUNA. 

Geologically speaking, within more recent times the climatic and 
hydrographic conditions of Mexico have been less stable than in the 
Mississippi Valley. The central portion of Mexico has been subject 
to considerable volcanic disturbances which have continued to within 
recent times. The northern portion has evidently at some former 
time been much better watered than it is now. Such streams as the 
Rio Casas Grandes, Rio Santa Maria, Rio Carmen, the Rio Nazas, 
and many others in this region whose waters never reach the sea were, 
perhaps, formerly tributaries of the Rio Grande. This supposi- 
tion is based on the character of their fish faunas and the 
general topography of the country. Dr. O. C. Farrington, of the 
Department of Geology of this Museum, suggests that the reduced 
size of these streams is due largely to the fact that most of the moun- 
tain drainage of this part of Mexico is now to the west ; and that the 
portions of the western rivers which are east of the Sierra Madre 
Mountains were formerly the upper tributaries of the streams which 
flow to the east. According to this view the western streams have 
cut their way back, captured the head-waters of the eastern streams, 
and with them their portion of the eastern fish fauna. Mr. A. V. 
Temple, who has traveled extensively over this region for the past 
thirty-five years, informs me that there is much less water in this por- 
tion of Mexico now than when he first visited it. Many lakes have 
become entirely dry, though occasionally one, as La Laguna in Chi- 
huahua, which has been dry for years, may be partially filled by a heavy 
rain. When the Mexican Central Railroad built its line from El Paso 
to the City of Mexico it was extended across the dry bed of this lake. 
About seven years ago a heavy rain submerged this portion of the 
track and delayed traffic until the road could lay its present line some 
distance to one side of the lake. Since then, La Laguna has grad- 
ually become smaller and is likely soon to return to a dry basin again. 
Disturbances of the kind noted above have their influence on the 
aquatic life of the country. Any change in environment means that 
animals affected by it must change physically to meet the new con- 
ditions ; those that are unable to change to suit these conditions sooner 
or later disappear, while new varieties, and, if the time is long enough, 
new species, come into existence. 



xxviii FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Thus, in a measure at least, species of fishes in Mexico are under- 
going changes, and the process of making species or varieties is still 
actively in progress. There is in general more individual variation 
in species of Mexican fresh-water fishes than among the species which 
inhabit the Mississippi Valley. To define properly the species and 
subspecies of fishes in the country in question a much more extended 
study of each is necessary, and for this reason I have not recognized 
any subspecies in the present paper. 

A few species, as Hybognathus episcopus (Girard), have a wide dis- 
tribution, besides this they range from near sea level to an altitude of 
6,000 or 7,000 feet. If in this case we recognize any subspecies at 
all, we must recognize one for each important stream in which the 
species occurs. In such cases I have recognized one species and noted 
the important, though slight, differences in the specimens from the vari- 
ous localities from which I have material. For examples of extreme 
individual variation of color markings, I would refer to Platy- 
pcecilus maculatus Gunther, and Platypcecilus variatus Meek. The 
student of Mexican fresh-water fishes must be constantly on the out- 
look for these variations. In defining species it is certainly better to 
rely on structural differences rather than on differences in color. On 
many of the tropical fishes, especially in the streams of the lower 
lands, there are black blotches which appear more like stains than 
markings. These are not at all definite in outline, or in position; 
some may be large, others small, and their position without regularity. 
An example of this kind is seen in Xiphophorus helleri Gunther, of 
which a variety noted by Dr. A.Giinther, because of these black blotches, 
was later for the same reason regarded as a distinct species* by Jordan 
& Evermann. Many of the Pceciliida have these blotches, although 
they are not uncommon in other species. Unless an apparently new 
species is very different from its nearest relative, it is quite as well 
not to describe it as new unless a large amount of material is at hand 
for comparison. I am not certain that I have properly followed this 
rule myself, still a careful examination of my material will, I believe, 
show that I have not materially departed from it. 

LIST OF LOCALITIES IN MEXICO WHERE COLLECTIONS 
OF FISHES WERE MADE IN 1901 BY MR. F. E. LUTZ 
AND THE AUTHOR. 

Colonia Juarez, Chihuahua; Rio Casas Grandes, June 26. 
Guzman, Chihuahua; spring near railroad station, June 25. 
Santa Maria, Chihuahua; springs and ponds near clubhouse, June 24. 
San Jose, Chihuahua; spring at San Jose ranch, June 21. 

*Xiphophorus guntheri Jordan & Evermann. 



INTRODUCTION. xxix 

Ahumada, Chihuahua; a large irrigating ditch, June 22. 

Chihuahua, Chihuahua; Rio Chihuahua, June 19. 

Santa Rosalia, Chihuahua; Rio Noavaco, June 10. 

Jimenez, Chihuahua; Rio Conchos, June 9. 

San Andres, Chihuahua; Rio Santa Cruz, June 17, 1 8. 

Bustillos, Chihuahua; Lago de Castillo, the lake was dry except a few small holes, 

June 14. 

Minaca, Chihuahua; Rio Paphigochic, June 16, 17. 
Aguas Calientes, Aguas Calientes; Rio Verde, June 7. 

Lagos, Jalisco; tributary of the Rio Verde, and small lake near the city, June 6. 
La Barca, Jalisco; Rio Lerma, June 5. 

Ocotlan, Jalisco; Rio Grande de Santiago and a few bayous, June 2 and 3. 
Celaya, Guanajuato; small stream tributary to the Rio Lerma, May 28. 
Acambaro, Guanajuato; Rio Lerma, May 27. 
La Palma, Michoacan; Lago de Chalco, May 30, 31. 
Huingo, Michoacan; Lago de Cuitzeo, May 26. 
Patzcuaro, Michoacan; Lago de Patzcuaro, May 18 to 22. 
Zirahuen, Michoacan; Lago de Zirahuen, May 24. 
San Juan del Rio, Queretaro; Rio San Juan, May 16. 
Chalco, Mexico; Lago de Chalco, April 30, May i. 
Texcoco, Mexico; Lago de Texcoco, May 13. 
Puente de Ixtla, Morelos; Rio Ixtla, April 24 to 26. 
Balsas, Guerrero; Rio Balsas and Rio Cocula, April 22 and 23. 
Venta Salada, Puebla; Rio Tehuacan, May 6, 1901. 
Cuicatlan, Oaxaca; Rio Quiotepec, May 5, 1901. 
Oaxaca, Oaxaca; Rio Verde, May 4, 1901. 
Jalapa, Vera Cruz; Rio Sordo, May 9. 
La Antigua, Vera Cruz; Rio San Francisco, May 10. 

LIST OF LOCALITIES IN MEXICO WHERE COLLECTIONS 
OF FISHES WERE MADE BY THE AUTHOR IN 1903. 

Sauz, Chihuahua; Rio Sauz, May 29. 

Lerdo, Durango; Rio Nazas, May 21. 

Santiago Papasquiaro, Durango; Rio Nazas, May 25. 

Labor, Durango; a small spring brook with no outlet from the sea; a small col- 
lection received in June from Mr. H. Douglas, conductor on Interna- 
tional Railroad. 

Durango, Durango; Rio Mezquital, and a spring near the city, May 23. 

Monterey, Nuevo Leon; Spring in the city, May 20. 

San Juan, Nuevo Leon; Rio San Juan, May 19. 

Mpntemorelos, Nuevo Leon; Rio Pilon, May 18. 

Linares, Nuevo Leon; Rio Camacho, May 16. 

Linares, Nuevo Leon; Rio Pabillo, May 17. 

Garza Valdez, Tamaulipas; Rio Pilon, May 15. 

La Cruz, Tamaulipas; Rio de Purification, May 13. 

Santa Engracia, Tamaulipas; Rio de Santa Engracia, May 12. 

Victoria, Tamaulipas; Rio de San Marcos, May n. 

Forlon, Tamaulipas -, Rio Forlon, May 9. 

Valles, San Luis Potosi; Rio Valles, May 7. 

Rascon, San Luis Potosi; Tributary of the Rio Valles, May 6. 



xxx FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V 

Rio Verde, San Luis Potosi; Rio Verde, collection made by W. L. Tower, 

August. 

Lerma, Mexico; Rio Lerma, March 17 and 18. 
City of Mexico, Mexico; Viga canal, March 20. 
Chalco, Mexico; Canals, April 19. 
Cuautla, Morelos; Rio Cuautla, March 25. 
Yautepec, Morelos; Rio Yautepec, March 27. 
Jojutla, Morelos; Rio Apatlaco, March 28. 
Puebla, Puebla; Rio Atoyac; April 4 and 18. 
Atlixco, Puebla; tributary of the Rio Atoyac, April i. 
Matamoras, Puebla; Rio Atila, April 2. 
Chietla, Puebla; Rio Coetzala, April 3. 
Jalapa, Vera Cruz; Rio Sordo, March 13. 
Xico, Vera Cruz; Rio Texcolo, March 12. 
San Francisco, Vera Cruz; Rio San Francisco, March 10. 
Vera Cruz, Vera Cruz; small creek north of the city, March 9. 
Boca del Rio, Vera Cruz; Boca del Rio, March 7. 
Cordoba, Vera Cruz; Rio Blanco, April 6. 
Rio Blanco, Vera Cruz; Rio Blanco, March 5. 
Otopa, Vera Cruz ; Rio Otopa, March 4. 
Motzorongo, Vera Cruz; Rio Motzorongo, April 9. 
Refugio, Vera Cruz; Rio Tonto, April 10. 
El Hule, Oaxaca; Rio Papaloapam, April 22. 
Obispo, Oaxaca; Rio Obispo, April 24. 

Perez, Vera Cruz; Rio Tesechocan, March i and 2, and April 23. 
San Juan Evangelista, Vera Cruz; Rio San Juan Evangelista, Feb. 27. 
Sanborn, Vera Cruz; tributary of Rio Coatzacoalcos, February 22. 
San Geronimo, Oaxaca; Rio San Geronimo, February 26. 
Tehuantepec, Oaxaca; Rio Tehuan tepee, February 25. 

THE RIVER SYSTEMS OF MEXICO AND A LIST OF FISHES 
KNOWN FROM EACH. 



RIO GRANDE SYSTEM. 

From El Paso, Texas, east to the Gulf of Mexico the Rio Grande 
forms the boundary between Mexico and the United States, therefore 
only this portion of the river and its southern tributaries are con- 
cerned in the drainage of Mexico. In the Rio Grande system 
is included the numerous small independent streams and lakes east of 
the Sierra Madre Mountains in Chihuahua and Durango, for these 
were, no doubt, at some former period tributaries to the Rio Grande. 
This portion of the Mexican plateau in general is a treeless plain with 
a scant vegetation. The yucca, the mesquite, various species of 
cacti, sage brush, a few stunted cedars and the like, together with a 
sparse growth of various species of grasses, comprise the larger part 
of the vegetation of this region. During the rainy season, and a 
short time after it, there is promise of a luxuriant growth of plant 



INTRODUCTION. xxxi 

life; but after a few months of exposure to the piercing rays of the 
tropical sun the character of the country changes, assuming the ap- 
pearance of a parched desert. The rivers, which are large in the 
rainy season, become very small by the end of the long dry season. 
Many of the lakes in this region become dry and the streams which 
flow into them contain little water except in the upper part of their 
courses where they are fed by mountain springs, and streams of this 
character contain but few species of fishes. 

RIO GRANDE AND ITS PRESENT TRIBUTARIES IN MEXICO. 

Below is a list of fishes known from this drainage area: 

Lepidosteus osseus (Linnaeus) : Santa Rosalia; San Juan. 

Ichthyaelurus furcatus (Le Sueur) : Brownsville. 

Ichthyaelurus punctatus (Rafinesque) : El Paso. 

Amiurus lupus Baird & Girard: San Juan; Montemorelos. 

Amiurus natalis (Le Sueur) : Brownsville. 

Leptops olivaris (Rafinesque): El Paso; Santa Rosalia. 

Carpiodes tumidus (Girard): Ft. Brown; Brownsville. 

Carpiodes microstomus Meek: Santa Rosalia; Jimenez. 

Carpiodes elongatus Meek: San Juan; Montembrelos. 

Pantosteus plebeius (Baird & Girard) : San Andres. 

Catostomus conchos Meek: Jimenez. 

Myzostoma congestum (Baird & Girard): Monterey; Santa Rosalia; San Juan; 
Montemorelos; El Paso. 

Campostoma ornatum Girard: Chihuahua; San Andres; Santa Rosalia; Jimenez. 

Campostoma anomalum (Rafinesque): Cadereita; Acapulco; San Juan; Monte- 
morelos. 

Campostoma formosulum Girard: Brownsville. 

Hybognathus episcopus (Girard): Chihuahua: Jimenez; Comanche Spring; Sal- 
tillo; Monterey; Cadereita; Montemorelos; Ft. Brown; Brownsville; Buena 
Vista; Guajuco. 

Pimelocephales confertus (Girard): San .Andres; Chihuahua; Santa Rosalia; 
Jimenez; Brownsville. 

Leuciscus nigrescens (Girard): Chihuahua; San Andres; Saltillo. 

Abramis chrysoleucus (Mitchill) : Brownsville. 

Cochlognathus ornatus Baird & Girard; Brownsville. 

Nototropis braytoni (Jordan & Evermann) ; Cadereita; San Juan; Montemorelos. 

Nototropis robustus Meek: Santa Rosalia; Jimenez. 

Nototropis chihuahua Woolman; Chihuahua; San Andres; Santa Rosalia; Jim- 
enez. 

Nototropis ornatus Girard: Chihuahua; Jimenez; San Andres. 

Nototropis orca Woolman; El Paso. 

Nototropis lutrensis (Baird & Girard): China; Cadereita; Monterey; Acupulco; 
Chihuahua; Santa Rosalia; San Andres; Jimenez; Brownsville. 

Nototropis macrostomus (Girard): China; San Juan; Montemorelos. 

Nototropis santarosaliae Meek: Santa Rosalia. 

Phenacobius scopifer (Cope) : Brownsville. 

Rhinichthys simus Garman: "Coahuila"; Santa Rosalia; Montemorelos. 

Hybopsis aestivalis (Girard): Cadereita; El Paso; San Juan. 

Cousius adustus Woolman: Chihuahua. 



xxxii FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Tetragonopterus mezicanus Filippi: Chihuahua; Santa Rosalia; Jimenez; Mon- 
terey; San Juan; Montemorelos; Brownsville; Comanche Spring; Mon- 
clova. 

Anguilla chrysypa Rafinesque: Matamoras; Brownsville; San Juan. 

Dorosoma exile Jordan & Gilbert: San Juan. 

Fundulus similis (Baird & Girard) : Brownsville. 

Fundulus zebrinus (Jordan & Gilbert) : Brownsville. 

Lucania venusta (Girard) : Matamoras. 

Cyprinodon eximius Girard: Chihuahua; San Andres; Jimenez; Santa Rosalia. 

Cyprinodon elegans Baird & Girard: Comanche Spring. 

Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard): Comanche Spring; Chihuahua; Cadereita; 
Matamoras; Jimenez; San Andres; Santa Rosalia; Monterey; Monclova. 

Glaridichthys latidens (Garman) : Chihuahua. 

Poecilia couchiana (Girard): Monterey; Cadereita. 

Poecilia sphenops Cuvier & Valenciennes; San Juan; Monterey. 

Mollienesia formosa (Girard) : Palo Alto. 

Mollienesia latipinna Le Sueur: Brownsville; Matamoras. 

Lepidopomus cyanellus Rafinesque: Eagle Pass; Brownsville. 

Lepidopomus occidentalis Meek: Jimenez; Santa Rosalia. 

Lepidopomus haplognathus Cope: Monterey. 

Lepidopomus pallidus (Mitchill) : Brownsville; Cadereita. 

Eupomotis heros (Baird & Girard) : Cadereita. 

Micropterus salmonoides (Lac6pede) : San Juan; Montemorelos. 

Etheostoma australe (Jordan): Chihuahua; San Andres; Jimenez; Santa Rosalia. 

Etheostoma pottsii (Girard): Chihuahua; San Andres; Santa Rosalia; Jimenez. 

Etheostoma lepidum (Baird & Girard) : Brownsville. 

Haploidonotus grunniens Rafinesque: Matamoras. 

Cichlasoma pavonaceum (Garman) : Monclova. 

Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum (Baird & Girard): Brownsville; Fort Brown; Mata- 
moras; Cadereita; San Juan; Montemorelos; Monterey. 

Neetroplus carpintis Jordan & Snyder: San Juan. 

Philypnus dormitor (Lac6pede) : Brownsville. 

Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) : Brownsville. 

RIO CASAS GRANDES. 

This is a small mountain stream in northern Chihuahua which 
flows into Lago de Guzman. By the end of the dry season the lake 
becomes nearly or entirely dry, and there is very little water in the 
river below Terrasas. 

Below is a list of the fishes known from this river and its trib- 
utaries : 

Amiurus pricei (Rutter) : San Diego. 

Pantosteus plebeius (Baird & Girard): Rio Mimbres; Riojanos; Colonia Garcia; 

San Diego; Casas Grandes; Colonia Juarez. 
Campostoma ornatum Girard: Colonia Garcia; Colonia Juarez. 
Pimelocephales confertus (Girard): Colonia Juarez ; Guzman. 
Leuciscus nigrescens (Girard): Riojanos; Boca Grande; Rio Mimbres; Colonia 

Juarez; San Diego. 

Nototropis formosus (Girard): Rio Mimbres; Colonia Juarez. 
Cyprinodon elegans Baird & Girard: Colonia Juarez; Guzman; San Diego. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxiii 

RIO SANTA MARIA. 

This stream is parallel to the Rio Casas Grandes and flows into 
Lago de Santa Maria about 10 miles southeast of Lago de Guzman. 
These lakes are separated by a comparatively low ridge, but so high 
that their waters have not been connected for a considerable time. 
The fishes of this stream are but little known. The following is a list 
of those known from it at present : 
Pimelocephales confertus (Girard) : Santa Maria. 
Leuciscus nigrescens (Girard) : Santa Maria. 
Nototropis lutrensis (Baird & Girard) : Santa Maria. 
Nototropis santamariae Evermann & Goldsborough : Santa Maria. 
Nototropis frigidus (Girard) : Santa Maria. 
Cyprinodon elegans Baird & Girard: Santa Maria. 

RIO CARMAN. 

This is a small river east of the Rio Santa Maria and flows into 
Lago de Patos. This lake becomes dry by the end of the dry season, 
and there is no water in the river for some distance above Ahumada. 
The few fishes known from this river basin were taken from an irrigat- 
ing ditch near Ahumada, and from a spring at San Jose. 
Pantosteus plebeius (Baird & Girard:) Ahumada. 
Leuciscus nigrescens (Girard) : Reported above Ahumada. 
Nototropis lutrensis (Baird & Girard) : Ahumada; San Jose. 
Cyprinodon eximius Girard: Ahumada. 

RIO SAUZ. 

This is a small stream about fifteen miles in length, situated a 
short distance north of the City of Chihuahua. At Sauz, about the 
middle of its course, it contains a small amount of running water 
during the dry season. 

The following four species of fishes are known to occur there : 
Pantosteus plebeius (Baird & Girard) : Sauz. 
Nototropis lutrensis (Baird & Girard) : Sauz. 
Cyprinodon eximius Girard: Sauz. 
Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard) : Sauz. 

LAGO DE CASTILLOS. 

This small mountain lake is situated on the divide between the 
head waters of a tributary of the Rio Grande and of the Rio Yaqui. 
It becomes nearly dry by the last of June. There are a number of 
springs in this region which are said to contain small fishes. The fol- 
lowing is the only species I obtained in a pond left by the drying up 
of this lake: 
Leuciscus nigrescens (Girard) : Bustillos. 

RIO NAZAS. 

This is a river of considerable size in central Mexico. It rises in 
the Sierra Madre Mountains and flows into Lago de Mayran. By the 



xxxiv FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

end of the dry season there is no water in its bed and little or none 
in the river below Lefdo. The Rio Nieves is south of the Rio Nazas 
and flows into Lago de Parras, which is only a few miles south of Lago 
de Mayran. It is very probable that at some former time these two 
streams united near here, and flowed north into the Rio Grande near 
the border line between the States of Chihuahua and Coahuila. 

Below is a list of the fishes known from these rivers: 
Amiurus price! (Rutter) : Lerdo. 
Carpiodes tumidus Baird & Girard: San Pedro. 

Pantosteus plebeius (Baird & Girard) : Lerdo; Santiago Papasquiaro; Rio Nazas. 
Campostoma ornatum Girard: Santiago Papasquiaro. 
Hybognathus episcopus (Girard) : Parras. 
Stypodon signifer Garman: Lago de Parras. 

Leuciscus nigrescens (Girard) : Lerdo; Santiago Papasquiaro; Rio Nazas; Parras. 
Nototropis ornatus (Girard) : Santiago Papasquiaro. 
Nototropis nazas Meek: Santiago Papasquiaro. 

Nototropis garmani (Jordan): Parras; Lerdo; Santiago Papasquiaro. 
Tetragonopterus mexicanus Filippi: Lago del Muerto; Lerdo; Santiago Papas- 
quiaro. 

Characodon garmani Jordan & Evermann: Parras. 
Cyprinodon latifasciatus Garman : Parras. 
Etheostoma pottsii (Girard) : Santiago Papasquiaro. 

RIO CONCHAS SYSTEM. 

This river drains only a small area east of the Sierra Madre 
and south of the lower portion of the Rio Grande. The city of 
Linares is situated between two branches of the stream ; both of these 
branches contain, by the end of the dry season, only a small amount 
of water. The following is the list of fishes known from this river 
system. Amiurus lupus (Girard) and Neetroplus carpintis J. & S. 
were taken only in the stream north of the city ; all the other species 
were taken in both streams. 

Amiurus lupus (Girard) : Linares. 
Carpiodes elongatus Meek: Linares. 
Myzostoma congestum (Baird & Girard) : Linares. 
Nototropis lutrensis (Baird & Girard) : Linares. 
Hybopsis aestivalis (Girard) : Linares. 
Tetragonopterus mexicanus Filippi: Linares. 
Fundulus similis (Baird & Girard) : Linares. 
Poacilia sphenops (Cuvier & Valenciennes) : Linares. 
Micropterus salmonoides (Lacepede) : Linares. 
Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum (Baird & Girard) : Linares. 
Neetroplus carpintis Jordan & Snyder: Linares. 

RIO SOTO LA MARINA SYSTEM. 

This river and its tributaries drain a comparatively small area 
east of the Sierra Madre Mountains and between the Rio Conchas and 



INTRODUCTION. xxxv 

the Rio Panuco. I visited the tributaries of this river where they are 
crossed by the railroad. 

At Garza Valdez most of the river bed was dry, the water being 
confined to deep holes. The bed of the stream was covered with large 
waterworn rocks, indicating a rapid current during the wet season. 
Along the banks were many large cedar trees. 

The tributary at La Cruz contained at the time of my visit a con- 
siderable amount of clear, swiftly running water. This is the largest 
river between Tampico and Monterey, and it no doubt contains many 
more fishes than any other of the streams in this region. Big large- 
mouthed black bass, catfish, trucha, cichlids, and suckers could be 
seen in abundance from the bank. 

At Santa Engracia there was but little running water in the river. 
Above a dam near the railroad bridge the water in the channel was 
in many places over six feet deep and very clear. This stream also 
contained many large-mouthed black bass, a few of which I captured. 
So far as known this is the southern limit of this species. Along the 
banks of the stream are also many large cedar trees. The trucha, 
or trout of the natives, was also abundant, but I was unable to capture 
any of them. 

The stream at Victoria is small, and I found but little water in it. 
Of the eighteen species known from this river system, twelve* are 
northern forms and six are tropical. 
*Ichthyaelurus furcatus (Le Sueur) : Rio Soto la Marina. 
*Amiurus lupus (Girard) : Garza Valdez; La Cruz. 
*Carpiodes tumidus Baird & Girard: Garza Valdez. 
*Carpiodes elongatus Meek: La Cruz. 

*Myzostoma congestum (Baird & Girard) : Garza Valdez; Victoria. 
*Nototropis braytoni (Jordan & Evermann) : Garza Valdez; La Cruz; Santa En- 
gracia; Victoria. 
Tetragonopterus mexicanus Filippi: Garza Valdez; La Cruz; Santa Engracia; 

Victoria. 

*Anguilla chrysypa Rafinesque: La Cruz. 
*Fundulus similis (Baird & Girard) : Victoria. 

*Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard): Garza Valdez; La Cruz; Santa Engracia. 
Platypcecilus variatus Meek: Garza Valdez; Santa Engracia; Victoria. 
Poecilia sphenops Cuvier & Valenciennes: Garza Valdez; La Cruz; Santa En- 
gracia; Victoria. 

*Mollienesia latipinna Le Sueur: La Vega. 

*Micropterus salmonoides (Lac6pede) : La Cruz; Santa Engracia. 
*Haploidonotus grunniens Rafinesque: La Cruz. 
Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum (Baird & Girard): La Cruz; Garza Valdez; Santa 

Engracia; Victoria. 
Neetroplus carpintis Jordan & Snyder: Garza Valdez; La Cruz; Santa Engracia; 

Victoria. 
Philypnus dormitor (Lacepede) : Santa Engracia; La Vega. 



xxxvi FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

RIO PANUCO SYSTEM. 

The Rio Panuco is a very large stream flowing into the Gulf at 
Tampico. Some of its upper tributaries drain a portion of the central 
plateau, from which it reaches the main river through a gap in the 
mountains by a series of cascades and falls. Near the mouth of the 
Rio Panuco are several large salt or brackish water lagoons. The tide 
backs up into the river and lagoons to some distance above the city 
of Tampico. There have been only a few collections of fishes made 
in this river basin. 

The Rio Forlon, which at Forlon is a small stream in the dry 
season, flows over a rocky and gravelly bed. 

The Rio Valles at Valles is a broad and rather sluggish stream 
flowing past the city over a rocky bed ; for some distance above it is 
deep and has a muddy bottom. 

A tributary of the Rio Valles at Rascon has a more rapid current, 
and its water is very clear. It flows through a narrow valley in which 
is a dense forest of palms, mesquite, and thickets of canes, ferns, and 
vines. 

The Rio San Juan, at San Juan del Rio, becomes nearly dry in the 
dry season, as does also the Rio Tula at Tula. I spent one day at San 
Juan del Rio in May, 1901, collecting fishes. I found here but three 
species,* which properly belong to the fauna of the Rio Lerma. 

Dr. W. L. Tower made a small collection in 1904 in the Rio Verde 
at Rio Verde. Except a few fishes taken by Dr. A. Dug6s in Huas- 
teca Potosina in northeastern Guanajuato, collections of fishes have 
been made in this river basin only at the places mentioned above. 

Of the thirty-two species recorded from this river basin, fifteenf 
belong to the northern fauna, the others are tropical. 

Below is given a list of the fishes known from the Rio Panuco and 
its tributaries: 

fLepidosteus osseus (Linnaeus): Forlon; Valles; Tampico. 
tLepidosteus tristoechus (Bloch & Schneider): Tampico; "Tamaulipas." 
tlchthyaelurus furcatus (Le Sueur) : Tampico. 
flchthyaelurus punctatus (Rafinesque) : Forlon. 
fAmiurus australis Meek: Forlon. 
tAmiurus mexicanus Meek: Rio Verde; Rascon. 
fCarpiodes tumidus Baird & Girard: Forlon; Tampico. 
tCarpiodes labiosus Meek: Valles. 

*Algansea tincella (Cuvier & Valenciennes) : San Juan del Rio. 
fHybognathus rasconis (Jordan & Snyder) : Rio Verde; Rascon; Valles; Forlon. 
*Aztecula mexicana Meek: San Juan del Rio. 
fNototropis forlonensis Meek: Forlon; Valles. 

Tetragonopterus mexicanus Filippi: Rascon; Valles; Forlon; Rio Verde; Tam- 
pico. 
fDorosoma exile Jordan & Gilbert: Forlon; Valles. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxvii 

Signalosa mexicana (Gunther) : Valles. 

fFundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus) : Tampico. 

fCyprinodon eximius Girard: Tampico. 

tGambusia affinis (Baird & Girard): Forlon; Valles; Tampico. 

Goodea toweri Meek: Rio Verde. 

*Goodea atripinnis Jordan: San Juan del Rio. 

Platypoecilus variatus Meek: Forlon; Valles; Rascon. 

Poecilia latipunctata Meek: Forlon. 

Poecilia sphenops Cuvier & Valenciennes; Forlon; Valles; Rascon; Tampico. 

fMolienesia latipinna Le Sueur: Tampico. 

Xiphophorus montezumse Jordan & Snyder: Rascon. 

Pomadasys templei Meek: Valles. 

Cichlasoma steindachneri Jordan & Snyder: Rascon; Valles; Forlon. 

Cichlasoma bartoni (Bean) : Rio Verde; Huasteca Potosina. 

Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum (Baird & Girard): Forlon; Rascon. 

Neetroplus carpintis Jordan & Snyder: Forlon; Valles; Tampico. 

Philypnus dormitor (Lacepede) : Tampico; Forlon; Valles; Rascon. 

Chonophorus taiasica (Lichtenstein) : Valles. 

RIO MEZQUITAL SYSTEM. 

The Rio Mezquital rises east of the central range of the Sierra 
Madre Mountains and empties into the Pacific Ocean a short distance 
north of the mouth of the Rio Grande de Santiago. I visited this 
river at Durango where it is a rather small stream with a sluggish 
current. The collection of fishes made here is of especial interest 
because all of them, except three,* belong to the fauna of the 
Rio Grande. Characodon jurcidens J. & G., is known from this river 
only near its mouth. Of the eleven species from this river Chara- 
codon garmani J. & E., Characodon furcidens J. & G., and Chirostoma 
mezquital Meek, are the only ones that can properly be ascribed to 
the southern or tropical fauna. 

The fishes of the upper portion of the river certainly indicate that 
it was at some former time a portion of the Rio Grande system. 

Characodon garmani Jordan & Evermann is very abundant in a 
large spring in the city of Durango. 

Near Labor, about eight miles from Durango, is a large spring 
from which was taken three species of fishes. The following is a list 
of fishes known from this river system 

Amiurus price! (Rutter) : Durango. 

Pantosteus plebeius (Baird & Girard) : Durango. 

*Myzostoma austrinum Bean: Durango. 

Hybognathus episcopus (Girard): Durango; Labor. 

Leuciscus nigrescens (Girard) : Durango. 

Nototropis ornatus (Girard) : Durango. 

Characodon garmani Jordan & Evermann: Durango; Labor. 

*Characodon furcidens Jordan & Gilbert: Tuxpan. 

Cyprinodon latifasciatus Garman: Labor; Durango. 

*Chirostoma mezquital Meek: Durango. 

Etheostoma pottsii (Girard) : Durango. 



xxxviii FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 
RIO PRESIDIO SYSTEM. 

The Rio Presidio is a short stream on the western slope of the 
Sierra Madre Mountains. The only collection of fishes known from 
this river basin was made by Dr. D. S. Jordan at Presidio, a short 
distance above its mouth. Here the stream flows with consider- 
able current over a sandy and gravelly bed. 

The following is a list of the species taken at this place : 

Poecilia butleri Jordan: Presidio. 
Pcecilia presidionis Jordan & Culver: Presidio. 
Siphostoma starksi Jordan & Culver: Presidio. 
Thyrina crystallina Jordan & Culver: Presidio. 
Agonostomus monticola Bancroft: Presidio. 
Cichlasoma beani (Jordan) : Presidio. 
Philypnus dormitor (Lacep^de) : Presidio. 
Dormitator maculata (Bloch) : Presidio. 
Eleotris pictus Kner & Steindachner: Presidio. 
Chonophorus taiasica (Lichtenstein) : Presidio. 
Achirus mazatlanus (Steindachner) : Presidio. 
Achirus fonsecensis (Gunther) : Presidio. 

RIO YAQUI SYSTEM. 

This river, like the Rio Mesquital, has its origin east of the Sierra 
Madre Mountains, and the fish fauna of its upper tributaries is essen- 
tially that of the Rio Grande. Very little is known concerning the 
fishes in the lower part of this river. The northern tributaries, or 
those which rise near the head waters of the Rio Gila, contain at least 
a few Colorado river fishes. Of the fourteen species listed below, 
four* properly belong to the Rio Colorado fauna ; twof are known 
only from this basin ; the remaining eight belong to the Rio Grande 
fauna. 

Amiurus price! (Rutter) : Mifiaca: "San Bernardino Creek." 

Pantosteus plebeius (Baird & Girard) : Mifiaca. 

tCatostomus sonorensis Meek: Mifiaca. 

tCatostomus bernardini Girard: San Bernardino Creek; Sonora. 

Campostoma ornatum Girard: Rucker Caflon. 

Pimelocephales confertus (Girard) : Mifiaca. 

*Gila minacae Meek: Mifiaca. 

Leuciscus nigrescens (Girard): Mifiaca; Morse Cafion; Opsura. 

Nototropis ornatus Girard: Mifiaca. 

Nototropis lutrensis (Baird & Girard) : Mifiaca. 

*Agosia chrysogaster Girard: Morse Cafion; Rucker Cafion; "near summit of 
Sierra Madre." 

Cyprinodon elegans Baird & Girard; Mifiaca. 

*Pcecilia occidentalis (Baird & Girard) : San Bernardino Creek; Opsura. 

*Salmo irideus Gibbons: Reported by Mr. Jno. Ramsey to be abundant in head- 
waters of Rio Yaqui. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxix 

RIO SONORA SYSTEM. 

Concerning the fishes of this river very little is known. The two 
or three species known from it indicate that its fauna is that of the 
Rio Colorado. 

Ptychocheilus lucius Girard: Northern Sonora. (River basin doubtful.) 

Agosia chrysogaster Girard: Hermosillo. 

Pcecilia occidentalis (Baird & Girard) : Hermosillo. 

COLORADO RIVER SYSTEM. 

This river drains but a very small portion of Mexico. I have here 
included only those fishes found between Yuma and the Gulf of 
California. I am uncertain as to whether the two species of Agosia 
should be credited to the Rio Colorado or to the Rio Yaqui. The 
Rio Santa Cruz may possibly belong to the Rio Sonora. 
Xyrauchen cypho (Lockington) : Yuma; Horseshoe Bend. 
Ptychocheilus lucius Girard: "Northern Sonora"; Yuma; Horseshoe Bend. 
Gila elegans Baird & Girard: Yuma; Horseshoe Bend. 
Agosia oscula (Girard) : Rio Santa Cruz ; Sonora. 
Agosia chrysogaster Girard: "Rio Santa Cruz." 
Plagopterus argentissimus Cope: Yuma. 
Cyprinodon macularis Baird & Girard: Lerdo. 
Gillichthys detrusus Gilbert & Scofield: Horseshoe Bend. 

LOWER CALIFORNIA. 

There are only a few streams in Lower California, and but little 
is known concerning the fishes which inhabit them. Mr. Heller 
found but one species, Salmo irideus Gibbons, in the streams of the 
northern part of this peninsula. Three species have been taken from 
either La Paz or Cape San Lucas, most likely from the former place. 
The other species known from the, fresh waters of this region were 
taken in the Rio San Jose, near San Jose del Cabo. 

Salmo irideus Gibbons: San Antonio. 

Fundulus vinctus Jordan & Gilbert: La Paz; or Cape San Lucas. 
Fundulus extensis Jordan & Gilbert: La Paz or Cape San Lucas. 
Characodon furcidens Jordan & Gilbert: La Paz or Cape San Lucas. 
Siphostoma starksi Jordan & Culver: San Jose del Cabo. 
Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft) : San Jose del Cabo. 
Neomugil digueti Vailliant: Sierra de las Cacachilas de Santa Cruz. 
Pomadasys bayanus Jordan & Evermann: San Jose del Cabo. 
Philypnus dormitor (Lacpede) : San Jose del Cabo; Cape San Lucas. 
Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) : San Jose del Cabo. 
Eleotris pictus Kner & Steindachner: San Jose del Cabo. 
Chonophorus taiasica (Lichtenstein) : San Jose del Cabo. 

RIO GRANDE DE SANTIAGO SYSTEM. 

The Rio Grande de Santiago and its largest tributary form the 
longest stream in Mexico, draining a considerably elevated plateau 



xl FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

on which are a number of fresh-water lakes; one of these, Lago de 
Chapala, is the largest fresh-water lake in Mexico. 

A number of lakes in this drainage basin have no outlet, and in 
some, as Lago de Patzcuaro and Lago de Cuitzeo, the water is quite 
brackish. The fishes of this drainage basin are quite distinct from 
those of the neighboring rivers. The Valley of Mexico was no doubt 
formerly a portion of this river basin. The fishes found in the Rio 
San Juan at San Juan del Rio indicate that the head waters of that 
river were also at one time a tributary of the Lerma. 

The following is a list of fishes known from this river system : 

Lampetra spadicea Bean: Guanajuato; Tanganzicuaro; Chapala. 

Amiurus dugesi Bean: Turbio; Guanajuato; Salamanca; La Barca; La Palma; 

"Estado de Jalisco"; Ocotlan; Chapala. 
Myzostoma austrinum Bean: Piedad; Salamanca; Aguas Calientes; Ataquiza; 

Ocotlan; La Palma. 

Xystrosus popoche Jordan & Snyder: Chapala; Ocotlan; La Palma. 
Algansea tincella (Cuvier & Valenciennes): Salamanca; Aguas Calientes; Lagos; 

Celaya; Acambaro; "Estado de Jalisco." 
Algansea dugesi Bean: "Lago de Yuriria." 
Algansea rubescens Meek: Ocotlan. 
Algansea lacustris Steindachner: Patzcuaro. 

Falcula chapalae Jordan & Snyder: Chapala; Ocotlan; La Barca; La Palma. 
Aztecula lennae (Evermann & Goldsborough) : Lerma. 

Nototropis calientis Jordan & Snyder: Aguas Calientes; Ocotlan; Acambaro. 
Hybopsis altus (Jordan) : Tupataro; Salamanca; Rio Cuitzeo; Lagos; Aguas Cal- 
ientes; Acambaro; Celaya. 

Zoogoneticus cuitzeoensis (B. A. Bean): Cuitzeo; Ocotlan; La Barca. 
Zoogoneticus dugesi (Bean): Guanajuato; Patzcuaro; Lagos. 
Zoogoneticus robustus (Bean) : Chapala; Cuitzeo; Ocotlan; Patzcuaro; Zirahuen; 

"Guanajuato." 

Zoogoneticus maculatus Regan: Rio Santiago. 
Zoogoneticus diazi Meek: Patzcuaro; Zirahuen. 
Characodon multiradiatus Meek: Lerma. 
Characodon eiseni Rutter: Tepic. 
Characodon variatus Bean: Salamanca; Aguas Calientes; Lagos; Ocotlan; 

Huingo; Celaya; "Guanajuato." 
Characodon lateralis Gunther: "Estado de Jalisco." 
Chapalichthys encaustus (Jordan & Snyder): Chapala; Ocotlan; La Barca; La 

Palma; "Estado de Jalisco;" 
Gambusia infans Woolman: Salamanca; Celaya; Ocotlan; La Barca; Huingo; 

"Lago de Zacoalco." 
Goodea luitpoldi (Steindachner): Patzcuaro; Ocotlan; La Barca; La Palma; 

"Lago de Zacoalco." 
Goodea atripinnis Jordan: Aguas Calientes; Celaya; Acambaro; Huingo; Leon; 

Lagos. 

Skiffia multipunctata (Pellegrin) : Ocotlan; Jalisco (Estado). 
Skiffia lermae Meek: Celaya; Patzcuaro. 
Skiffia variegata Meek : Zirahuen. 
Skiffia bilineata (Bean): Huingo; "Rio Lerma, Guanajuato." 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

Poecilia occidentalis (Baird & Girard) : Tepic. 

Chirostoma jordani Woolman: Salamanca; Cuitzeo; Aguas Calientes; Lagos; 

Ocotlan; Acambaro; Huingo. 

Chirostoma arge (Jordan & Snyder) : Aguas Calientes; Lagos. 
Chirostoma bartoni Jordan & Evermann: Lerma; "near Guanajuato." 
Chirostoma attenuatum Meek: Patzcuaro. 
Chirostoma labarcae Meek: La Barca; La Palma. 
Chirostoma patzcuaro Meek: Patzcuaro. 
Chirostoma zirahuen Meek: Zirahuen. 
Chirostoma humboldtiamim (Cuvier & Valenciennes) : La Laguna; Lago de Juan- 

acatlan; Patzcuaro. 
Chirostoma chapalse Jordan & Snyder: Chapala; Ocotlan; La Palma; "Estado 

de Jalisco." 

Chirostoma grandocule Steindachner: Patzcuaro; Ocotlan; La Palma. 
Chirostoma promelas Jordan & Snyder: Chapala; Ocotlan; La Palma; "Estado 

de Jalisco." 

Chirostoma sphyraena Boulenger; Chapala. 

Chirostoma lucius Boulenger: Chapala, Ocotlan; La Palma; La Barca. 
Chirostoma lermae Jordan & Snyder: Chapala; Ocotlan; La Palma. 
Chirostoma ocotlanse Jordan & Snyder: Ocotlan; La Palma; "Estado de Jalisco." 
Chirostoma estor Jordan: Patzcuaro; Chapala. 
Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft); Rio Santiago. 
Cichlasoma beani (Jordan) : Tepic. 

VALLEY OF MEXICO. 

The Valley of Mexico was formerly a part of the . Lerma drainage 
system, though it has no t natural outlet to the sea. The following 
is a list of the fishes known to this valley. All of these species except 
five* have been taken in the basin of the Lerma, and but one of these, 
Aztecula vittata (Girard) , in the basin of the Rio Balsas. 

Algansea tincella (Cuvier & Valenciennes) : Chalco; Texcoco; Viga Canal. 

*Aztecula vittata (Girard) : Chalco; Texcoco; Xochimilco; Viga Canal. 

*Evarra eigenmanni Woolman: Tlahuac; "Valley of Mexico." 

*Evarra tlahuacensis Meek: Tlahuac. 

*Zoogoneticus miniatus Meek: Chalco. 

*Girardinichthys innominatus Bleeker: Chalco; Texcoco; Xochimilco; Viga Canal. 

Skiffia variegata Meek: Chalco. 

Chirostoma jordani Woolman: Chalco; Texcoco; Xochimilco; Viga Canal. 

Chirostoma humboldtianum (Cuvier & Valenciennes) : Chalco ; Xochimilco ; 

Viga Canal. 
Chirostoma estor Jordan: Xochimilco. 

RIO SAN FRANCISCO SYSTEM. 

At La Antigua and San Francisco the Rio San Francisco is a broad 
stream with a gravelly or a sandy bottom; the former place is just 
above tide-water. At San Francisco the stream is quite rapid. I 
.made a small collection of fishes at these two places, also one at Jalapa 
and one at Xico. The stream at Jalapa is small, and from it were taken 
only two species. .. 



xlii FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

At Xico there is a waterfall of 260 feet, which is used for power 
to generate electricity for lighting several cities in this region. I 
found but one species of fish above these falls. The streams at Perote 
and at Tezuitlan contain no fishes, and it is probable that none are 
found in this region at a greater altitude than Xico, or not exceeding 
6,000 feet. 

The following is a list of species known from the Rio San Fran- 
cisco and its tributaries: 

Dorosoma exile Jordan & Gilbert: La Antigua. 

Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel): Jalapa; Xico. 

Poecilia sphenops Cuvier & Valenciennes: La Antigua. 

Xiphophorus jalapae Meek: Jalapa. 

Tylosurus marinus (Walbaum) : San Francisco. 

Centropomus mexicanus Bocourt: San Francisco. 

Cichlasoma parma (Giinther) : La Antigua; San Francisco. 

Philypnus dormitor (Lacepede) : San Francisco; La Antigua. 

Gobius parvus Meek: La Antigua. 

Gobius claytoni Meek: La Antigua; San Francisco. 

Chonophorus taiasica (Lichtenstein) : La Antigua; San Francisco. 

LAS LACUNAS, NEAR VERA CRUZ. 

Near the city of Vera Cruz are a large number of sand dunes, 
among which are ponds, swamps, and small lakes (Las Lagunas) con- 
taining fresh water. These usually have an outlet to the sea. One 
of these, about two miles north of the city, was visited, and from it 
the following species of fishes, except one,* were taken: 

*Symbranchus marmoratus Bloch: Vera Cruz. 
Pcecilia sphenops Cuvier & Valenciennes: Vera Cruz. 
Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft): Vera Cruz. 
Cichlasoma hedricki Meek: Vera Cruz. 
Cichlasoma parma (Giinther) : Vera Cruz. 
Cichlasoma melanurum (Giinther) : Vera Cruz. 
Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) : Vera Cruz. 
Eleotris pisonis (Gmelin) : Vera Cruz. 
Gobius parvus Meek: Vera Cruz. 
Gobius claytoni Meek: Vera Cruz. 

BOCA DEL RIO SYSTEM. 

The river at Boca del Rio is broad and its water brackish. A 
short distance above the city it is quite fresh, but the fishes are mostly 
salt-water forms. 

Below is given a list of the species taken which I have included 
as fresh-water fishes: 

Paragambusia nicaraguensis (Gunther) : Boca del Rio. 
Belonesox belizanus Kner: Boca del Rio. 
Pcecilia sphenops Cuvier & Valenciennes: Boca del Rio. 
Siphostoma brevicaudum Meek: Boca del Rio. 



INTRODUCTION. xliii 

Centropomus mexicanus Bocourt: Boca del Rio. 
Cichlasoma parma (Gunther) : Boca del Rio. 
Philypnus dormitor (Lace"pde) : Boca del Rio. 
Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) : Boca del Rio. 
Eleotris pisonis (Gmelin) : Boca del Rio. 
Gobius parvus Meek: Boca del Rio. 
Gobius claytoni Meek: Boca del Rio. 

RIO BLANCO SYSTEM. 

The Rio Blanco rises at the foot of Mt. Orizaba and flows into the 
Gulf about thirty miles south of Vera Cruz. I visited this river at Rio 
Blanco and one of its tributaries at Cordoba. The upper part of its 
course is a mountain torrent. The tributary at Cordoba was nearly 
dry, the water being confined to holes among the huge boulders along 
its bed. This stream becomes a mountain torrent in the rainy season. 
At Rio Blanco the banks were so steep and although the current is 
sluggish, it was impossible to use a seine here with any success. The 
fish fauna of this river is certainly much greater than the present 
list would indicate. 

Amiurus australis Meek: Rio Blanco. 
Rhamdia oaxacae Meek: Rio Blanco; Cordoba. 
Rhamdia brachyptera (Cope) : Orizaba. 
Tetragonopterus aeneus Gunther: Cordoba. 
Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel) : Orizaba; Cordoba. 
Gambusia gracilis (Heckel) : Orizaba. 
Xiphophorus helleri Heckel: Cordoba. 
Chonophorus taiasica (Lichtenstein) : Orizaba. 

RIO OTOPA SYSTEM. 

The River Otopa is a small stream about 35 miles south of Vera 
Cruz. When visited the water was very low, and the river consisted 
of a few deep holes with very little running water between them. 
The bottom was sandy. At Otopa the railroad bridge is a single span 
of about 75 feet. 

The following fishes were taken at this place : 

Ichthyaelurus meridionalis (Gunther) : Otopa. 
Rhamdia oaxacae Meek: Otopa. 
Tetragonopterus aeneus Gunther: Otopa. 
Dorosoma anale Meek: Otopa. 
Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel) : Otopa. 
Paragambusia nicaraguensis (Gunther) : Otopa. 
Belonesox belizanus Kner: Otopa. 
Heterandria lutzi Meek: Otopa. 
Pcecilia sphenops Cuvier & Valenciennes: Otopa. 
Xiphophorus helleri Heckel: Otopa. 
Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft): Otopa. 
Cichlasoma melanurum (Gunther) : Otopa. 
Thorichthys helleri (Steindachner) : Otopa. 



xliv FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 
RIO PAPALOAPAM SYSTEM. 

The Rio Papaloapam and its tributaries drain nearly all of the 
eastern slope of Mexico between the Rio Blanco and the Isthmus of 
Tehuantepec. Owing to the abundance of rainfall in this region this 
river and its principal tributaries are much larger than their drainage 
area would indicate. 

The largest bridge in the republic crosses the Papaloapam at El 
Hule. The portion of the bridge which crosses the main channel is 
1,100 feet in length. Much of this drainage area is a dense jungle of 
palms, various other species of trees, shrubs, and vines. 

The following is a list of the known fishes from this river system; 
all except three* properly belong to the tropical fauna. 

Galeichthys aguadulce Meek: Perez. 

Rhamdia oazacae Meek: Cuicatlan; Motzorongo; El Hule; Obispo; Perez. 

Rhamdia brachyptera (Cope) : Motzorongo. 

*Carpiodes meridionalis (Giinther) : Perez. 

Tetragonopterus mexicanus Filippi: Cuicatlan; Venta Salada. 

Tetragonopterus aeneus Gunther: Motzorongo; Refugio; El Hule; Obispo; Perez; 
San Juan Evangelista. 

Hemigrammus compressus Meek: El Hule; Obispo. 

*Dorosoma anale Meek: El Hule; Perez; San Juan Evangelista. 

*Dorosoma exile Jordan & Gilbert: Cademaco. 

Signalosa mexicana (Gunther): Obispo; El Hule; Perez. 

Cynodonichthys tenuis Meek: El Hule. 

Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel) : Motzorongo; El Hule; Obispo; Perez. 

Gambusia bonita Meek: Motzorongo; Refugio. 

Paragambusia nicaraguensis (Gunther): El Hule; Obispo; Perez. 

Belonesox belizanus Kner: El Hule; Obispo; Perez. 

Platypcecilus maculatus Gunther: El Hule; Obispo; Perez. 

Heterandria lutzi Meek: Cuicatlan; Venta Salada; El Hule; Perez; Motzorongo. 

Poecilia sphenops Cuvier & Valenciennes: El Hule; Obispo; Perez; San Juan 
Evangelista. 

Xiphophorus helleri Heckel: Motzorongo; Refugio; El Hule; Obispo. 

Tylosurus marinus (Walbaum) : Perez. 

Menidia lisa Meek: Refugio; El Hule. 

Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft): Cuicatlan; Motzorongo. 

Centropomus mexicanus Bocourt: El Hule; Perez. 

Pomadasys starri Meek: Perez. 

Pomadasys templei Meek: Perez. 

Cichlasoma salvini (Gunther): Motzorongo; Refugio; El Hule; Obispo; Perez. 

Cichlasoma hedricki Meek: El Hule; Obispo; Perez. 

Cichlasoma par ma (Gunther): Obispo; Perez. 

Cichlasoma melanurum (Gunther): Cuicatlan; Motzorongo; Obispo; Perez. 

Cichlasoma eigenmanni Meek: Venta Salada. 

Cichlasoma nebulifer (Gunther) : San Juan Evangelista. 

Thorichthys helleri (Steindachner) : El Hule; Obispo; Perez; San Juan Evan- 
gelista. 

Thorichthys ellioti Meek: Motzorongo. 



INTRODUCTION. xlv 

Philypnus dormitor (Lac6pede) : Motzorongo ; Obispo; Perez. 
Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) : El Hule; Obispo; Perez. 
Chonophorus taiasica (Lichtenstein): Perez. 
Achirus fasciatus Lacepede: Perez. 

RIO SAN GERON1MO SYSTEM. 

This stream was visited at San Geronimo. It is a small river 
flowing with considerable current over a sandy bottom. 

The following is a list of the species taken from it: 
Tetragonopterus aeneus Giinther: San Geronimo. 
Roeboidesf guatemalensis (Giinther) : San Geronimo. 
Gambusia fasciata Meek: San Geronimo. 
Heterandria pleurospilus (Giinther) : San Geronimo. 
Pcecilia sphenops Cuvier & Valenciennes: San Geronimo. 
Siphostoma starksi Jordan & Culver: San Geronimo. 
Cichlasoma mojarra Meek: San Geronimo. 
Cichlasoma melanurum (Giinther) : San Geronimo. 

RIO TEHUANTEPEC SYSTEM. 

I visited this river at Tehuantepec. Its water was low, flowing 
over a sandy bed with a moderate current. 

The following fishes are known to occur in this river: 

Tetragonopterus aeneus Giinther: Tehuantepec. 
Gambusia fasciata Meek: Tehuantepec. 
Anableps dovii Gill: Tehuantepec; Tequisistlan. 
Heterandria lutzi Meek: Tehuantepec. 
Pcecilia sphenops Cuvier & Valenciennes: Tehuantepec. 
Mugil cephalus Linnaeus: Tehuantepec. 
Cichlasoma evermanni Meek: Tehuantepec. 
Philypnus dormitor (Lacepede) : Tehuantepec. 

RIO VERDE SYSTEM. 

The Rio Verde is a small Pacific coast stream heading a short dis- 
tance above Oaxaca. When we visited this stream near Oaxaca it 
was nearly dry; its bed being broad and covered with sand. A few 
holes in the bed contained a few small fishes belonging to two species. 

Tetragonopterus aeneus Gunther: Oaxaca. 
Fundulus oaxacae Meek: Oaxaca. 
Heterandria lutzi Meek: Oaxaca. 

RIO BALSAS SYSTEM. 

The Rio Balsas is the second largest river in Mexico, which flows 
into the Pacific Ocean. It drains most of the area between the zone 
of recent volcanoes, which forms the water-shed between it and the 
Rio Lerma, and the Sierra Madre del Sur. The water in all the trib- 
utaries examined by me is clear and flows over a sandy or rocky bot- 
tom. In comparison to the size of this river the number of species 
of fishes known from it is small. 



xlvi FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Istlarius balsanus Jordan & Snyder: Cuautla; Jojutla; Puente de Ixtla; Balsas. 

Aztecula vittata (Girard) : Puebla. 

Nototropis boucardi (Giinther) : Puente de Ixtla; Balsas; Cuernavaca; Cuautla, 
Yautepec; Jojutla; Atlixco; Matamoras; Chietla. 

Tetragonopterus mexicanus Filippi: Puente de Ixtla; Balsas; Cuautla; Yautepec; 
Jojutla; Atlixco; Chietla; Cuernavaca; Matamoras. 

Gambusia gracilis (Heckel) : Puente de Ixtla; Balsas; Cuautla; Yautepec; Jo- 
jutla; Chietla. 

Goodea white! Meek: Cuautla; Yautepec. 

Platypcecilus nelson! Meek: Papayo. 

Pcecilia sphenops Cuvier & Valenciennes: Jojutla; Puente de Ixtla; Balsas. 

Melaniris balsanus Meek: Balsas. 

Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft): Balsas; Puente de Ixtla; Cuautla; Jojutla. 

Cichlasoma istlanum (Jordan & Snyder): Puente de Ixtla; Balsas; Yautepec; 
Jojutla; Chietla; Papayo. 

Chonophorus taiasica (Lichtenstein) : Puente de Ixtla; Balsas; Cuautla. 

LIST OF FISHES FROM VARIOUS LOCALITIES NOT REFERA- 
BLE TO ANY OF THE RIVER SYSTEMS NAMED ABOVE. 

Tetragonopterus aeneus Gunther: Sanborn, Vera Cruz. 

Symbranchus marmoratus Bloch: Santa Maria, Vera Cruz. 

Characodon furcidens Jordan & Gilbert: Colima. 

Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel) : Sanborn, Vera Cruz ; Mirador, Vera 

Cruz. 

Pcecilia butleri Jordan: Salina Cruz, Oaxaca. 
Poecilia sphenops Cuvier & Valenciennes: Santa Maria, Vera Cruz. 
Xiphophorus helleri Heckel: Sanborn, Vera Cruz. 
Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft): Ixtapa, near the Bay of Banderas, Jalisco; 

Maria Magdalena Islands; Maria Cleofa Islands; Santa Maria. 
Joturus pichardi Poey : Misantla. 

Cichlasoma mento (Vaillant & Pellegrin) : Rio Negro, Southern Mexico. 
Cichlasoma beani (Jordan) : Rosario, Sinaloa. 

Cichlasoma heterodontum (Vaillant & Pellegrin) : Isthmus of Tehuantepec. 
Cichlasoma melanurum (Gunther) : Santa Maria, Vera Cruz. 
Ethorichthys helleri (Steindachner) : Santa Maria, Vera Cruz ; Santo Domingo 

de Guzman. 

Philypnus dormitor (Lacpede) : Dominica and Santa Maria, Vera Cruz. 
Gobius microdon Gilbert: San Juan Lagoon, north of Rio Ahome. 
Chonophorus nelson! (Evermann): Rosario, Sinaloa. 
Chonophorus mexicanus Gunther: Santa Maria. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF FRESH -WATER FISHES 

OF MEXICO. 

In the study of the distribution of fishes over any particular area 
it is necessary to consider the origin of the fauna or faunas represented, 
the means and routes of travel, and the significance of the barriers 
along these routes. None of the fishes in Mexico are able to travel 
overland, their only highways of travel being the streams and lakes. 



INTRODUCTION. xlvii 

It is often argued that fishes are taken accidentally by water birds 
from one body of water to the other. We have no positive evidence 
that this has ever been done, but we have enough negative evidence 
to warrant us in doubting its possibility. Without going into the 
discussion of this subject I will mention an example bearing upon it 
which is at least suggestive. When Shoshone and Lewis lakes in the 
Yellowstone Park were discovered, there were no fishes in them, 
while only a few miles distant were lakes and streams quite abun- 
dantly supplied. These streams and lakes were stocked through 
Two-Ocean Pass* from the head waters of the Snake River, but the 
falls in the Lewis River prevented the fishes from entering Lewis and 
Shoshone lakes. If water birds were at all active agents in the dis- 
tribution of fishes, these two lakes would have undoubtedly been well 
stocked. 

As shown by the foregoing lists, there are in Mexico four quite 
distinct fish faunas. Two of these have migrated or resulted through 
migrations from the north, one from the south, while the other had its 
origin within the country. The fish fauna of northern Mexico is 
essentially that of the Rocky Mountains and eastern United States. 
The two large rivers which have furnished highways through which this 
portion of Mexico became stocked with fishes are the Colorado and the 
Rio Grande. The former flows into the Gulf of California, the latter 
into the Gulf of Mexico. In their upper courses these two rivers are 
near each other, but their fishes are not the same. The only fish 
common to both river basins is a small dace, Rhinichthys dulcis (Gir- 
ard), which is also found in the head waters of the Arkansas, the 
Missouri, and the Columbia rivers. From the Colorado River thirty- 
two species of fishes are known, twenty-two of which are thus far 
peculiar to this basin. Only four or five species of Colorado River 
fishes are at present known from the Rio Sonora and the Rio Yaqui ; 
however the lower courses of these two rivers, where we would expect 
Colorado river fishes, have been but little explored. 

There are in all about eighty-seven species known from the Rio 
Grande Basin; and according to Dr. Evermann and Dr. Kendall,! 
twenty-three of these are found in the Wabash River in Indiana. 
In the Rio Grande Basin in Mexico there are seventy species. It is 
interesting to note that eight of these have been found in the head 
waters of the Rio Yaqui, and eight in the head waters of the Rio 
Mezquital. In fact, the fish fauna of the head waters of these two 
streams is essentially that of the Rio Grande. 



*Evermann, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1891, 24. 
U. S. Fish Comm., 1892, 57-126. 



xlviii FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

The presence in the Rio Yaqui of so many fishes from the Rio 
Grande basin can be thus interpreted: The head waters of the Rio 
Paphigochic, a tributary of the Rio Yaqui, lie east of the central range 
of the Sierra Madre. That portion of this stream no doubt formerly 
had its outlet into the Rio Conchos and in this way became stocked 
with fishes from the Rio Grande. The fact that the fauna of the Rio 
Yaqui is so much like that of the isolated river basins in northern 
Mexico rather strengthens this belief, though its ultimate proof 
must depend on the geologist. The same is probably true concerning 
that portion of the Rio Mezquital which lies east of the central range 
of the Sierra Madre. It would be interesting to compare the fauna 
of the upper with that of the lower portion of these rivers. No col- 
lection of fishes has been made in the head waters of the Pacific Coast 
streams between the Rio Yaqui and the Rio Mezquital, but we may 
reasonably suppose that the portions of those streams east of the main 
range of the Sierra Madre contain Rio Grande fishes. From the Rio 
Presidio, which flows into the Pacific Ocean near Mazatlan, a col- 
lection of fishes was made (at Presidio) a short distance from its 
mouth by Dr. D. S. Jordan. Of the twelve species taken here, not 
one belongs to the northern fresh-water fauna. Two species* are 
brackish water fishes, onef belongs to the tropical fresh-water fauna, 
while the other species J are salt-water forms which have become more 
or less established in fresh water. The fishes listed from the lower por- 
tion of the Rio Presidio are much the same as those from the Rio San 
Jose in lower California. It is quite probable that the list of fishes 
from these two places fairly well represent the fish fauna of the lower 
portion of all of the Pacific Coast streams between the Rio Yaqui and 
the Rio Grande de Santiago. As mentioned before, it is probable that 
the portions of the upper tributaries of these rivers which lie east of the 
main range of the Sierra Madre have in them fishes belonging to the 
Rio Grande fauna, and this fauna has been obtained by capturing 
upper tributaries of the Rio Grande. All of these Pacific slope 
streams reach the sea evidently in a long series of cascades and falls 
which are sufficient barriers to prevent fishes from migrating in either 
direction. Fishes are limited in their ability to ascend falls, and we 
have reason to believe, as stated below, that they are unable to go 
over any considerable falls and become established below them. The 
Falls of the Yellowstone is the dividing line between the fauna of the 
Missouri River and that of the Upper Yellowstone. The Shoshone 

*Paecilia butleri Jordan, Pcecilia presidionis Jordan & Culver. 
\Cichlasoma beani (Jordan). 

lAgonostomus monticola (Bancroft), Philypnus dormitor (Lac6pede), and 
Chonophorus taiasica (Liechtenstein) are found only in fresh or brackish water. 



INTRODUCTION. xlix 

Falls is also the dividing line between the fauna of the upper Snake 
River and of that portion of it below the falls. In both of these in- 
stances fishes belonging to the fauna above the falls have not become 
established below them. 

It is quite probable that along the middle course of these Pacific 
slope rivers in Mexico there are no fishes, or possibly a few species 
of PoeciliidcB or of some brackish or salt water form which was asso- 
ciated with the rivers in their formation. Many fishes no doubt go 
over falls and cascades, but not in quantities sufficiently large to 
enable the survivors to become established below them. A study of 
the fishes along the courses of these Pacific coast streams would be 
very interesting indeed. 

The southern portion of the Mexican plateau is drained by two 
rivers; the one to the east, the San Juan del Rio, is a small stream 
which flows into the Rio Panuco ; the other, the Lerma, is a tributary 
of the Rio Grande de Santiago, which flows into the Pacific. Judging 
from the nature of its fish fauna, the Valley of Mexico was formerly 
a part of the Lerma drainage system. The fish fauna of this region 
is very different from that either to the north or the south. From 
the area which includes the valley of Mexico the head waters of the 
San Juan del Rio and the Lerma basin, there are at present fifty-four 
species of fishes known, only two of which, Myzostoma austrinum 
Bean, and Aztecula vittata (Girard), have been taken in any other 
river basin. These fifty-four species belong to twenty-one* genera, 
eight of which are peculiar to this region. 

Of the genera found elsewhere and which occur on the plateau, 
Characodon is represented in southern Mexico, central America, and 
Lower California ; Gambusia comprises a number of small viviparous 
fishes usually inhabiting swamps and springs all the way from 
southern Illinois to Panama ; Goodea is represented in the Rio Panuco 
and the Rio Balsas, and Aztecula in the Rio Balsas; one species of Cki- 
rostoma is found in the Rio Mezquital; Lampetra, Amiurus, Myzostoma, 
Nototropis and Hybopsis are northern genera, and all except Noto- 
tropis are not represented by any species farther south than the Rio 
Lerma. Thirty-six of the fifty-four species found in this region belong 
to two families, twenty to Pceciliidce (the killifishes), and sixteen to 
AtherinidcB (the silversides). It is curious to note here that all of 
the killifishes are viviparous, yet only two species, Gambusia infans 



*The genera in italics are peculiar to this region. 

Lampetra i, Amiurus i, Myzostoma i, Xystrosus i, Algansea 4, Falcula i, 
Aztecula 3, Nototropis i, Evarra 2, Hybopsis i, Zoogoneticus 6. Girardinichthys 
i, Characodon 4, Chapalichthys i, Gambusia i, Goodea 2, Skiffia 4, Poscilia i, 
Chirostoma 16, Agonostomus i, Cichlasoma i. 



1 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Woolman and Pcecilia occidentalis (Baird & Girard), have the anal fin 
of the male placed well forward and modified into an intromittent 
organ sueh as is characteristic of Heterandria, Pcecilia and the like. 
In the other species the anal fin of the male has its normal position 
and size, but it is slightly modified by the shortening of the first five 
or six rays, and their slight separation from the rest of the fin by a 
shallow notch. This modification was first noticed by Gunther in 
Characodon later alis Gunther. It was also described by Bean in 
Zoogoneticus robustus (Bean), and by Jordan and Snyder in Goodea 
atripinnis Jordan, but no significance was attached to it. Just 
what part this fin plays in fertilizing the eggs in the body of the 
female is not known, but it evidently plays a prominent part in this 
operation. 

I was so fortunate as to collect these fishes during the breeding 
season and thus their viviparity was easily proved. The largest 
killifish known from the Lerma basin reaches a length of 8 or 10 inches. 
The accompanying figure was made from a photograph of the largest 
female of this species I was able to obtain. The ovary consists of a 
membranous sack with a number of infolded partitions. Removing 
a portion of one side shows the ovary full of quite well developed 
young. The little fishes are not arranged in any definite order. 

The spawning time of these fishes is near the close of the dry season. 
At this time the water is more concentrated, as is also the food on 
which the young must feed. The aquatic insects, crustaceans and 
small fishes which would feast on the eggs if deposited then are also 
more concentrated, so that depositing the eggs at this time would 
mean considerable destruction to the species. As it is, the young 
are born in a well-developed stage, and reach some size before the wet 
season sets in. They are then perhaps in the best condition to become 
widely distributed as the volume and area of water increases. As 
the dry season approaches again, and the small streams and ponds 
become dry, some of these small fishes perish. They are, however, 
present everywhere to establish themselves in any body of water 
which may carry them through the next rainy season. 

The gestation of many tropical fishes presents some strange pecu- 
liarities. Some of the catfishes carry the eggs in the mouth till hatched, 
while a few others are thought to be viviparous. Viviparity among 
the tropical killifishes seems to be the rule rather than the exception. 
It would seem that in the tropical fresh waters of America there is 
much more provision made for the care of the young than in the cooler 
waters of the northern continent. 

It is rather surprising to find such a large number of Chirostoma 



INTRODUCTION. li 

in the Lerma basin; indeed, no other river in North America has so 
large a proportion of its fishes belonging to a salt-water* family. It 
is probable that when this basin is more thoroughly explored the 
number will be considerably increased. I had seen but few speci- 
mens of Chirostoma before going to Mexico, and thus had never had 
an opportunity to study these fishes. And while I was careful to pick 
up specimens of all species observed, yet my unfamiliarity at that 
time with the group caused me, no doubt, to overlook some species. 
Again, there are a number of small isolated lakes which have never 
been visited. It is known that some of these lakes, as Patzcuaro 
and Zirahuen, have in them one or more characteristic species, and 
no doubt most of the others also have. The Lerma River system is 
far from being thoroughly explored, but apparently its fishes are quite 
as distinct and characteristic as if the fauna were insular. This area 
has been in a center of distribution. 

The Rio Balsas is one of the largest rivers in Mexico. It is south- 
east of the Lerma, and drains about an equal area; and though these 
two rivers are so near each other, only one species is known to be 
common to them. But one species of silversides and four of killi- 
fishes are known from the Rio Balsas, yet these two families comprise 
two-thirds of the fishes of the Lerma basin. Only the upper and 
northern tributaries of the Rio Balsas have been explored ; however, 
enough has been done to indicate the nature of its fauna and that 
it' contains comparatively few species of fishes. 

The South and Central American faunas prevail largely as far 
north as the City of Mexico. The few forms which extend farther 
north apparently keep to the lowland streams; especially is this true 
on the Pacific side. The most northern representative of the south- 
ern American fauna, one of the Cichlids, is found at Mazatlan. On 
the east coast this family has a representative in Texas. 

Mexico in general is not a well watered country. Nearly all of the A 
small streams and many of the large ones become much reduced in 
size by the end of the long dry season, and such streams never sustain/ 
a large number of species of fishes. On the Mexican plateau the 
largest and most important lakes are found in the Lerma basin ; Lake 
Chapala, being the largest and the only one which has a river outlet 
and inlet, sustains the largest fish fauna. Patzcuaro, a large lake 
with no inlet nor outlet, does not have so varied a fauna, but supports 
a large number of individuals. In view of the fact that more species 
of fishes belong to tropical Mexico than to a like area farther north, 



*The Chirostoma are the only fishes belonging to a salt-water family found 
on the Mexican plateau. 



Hi FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

it seems strange that a great river like the Balsas which lies wholly 
within the tropics should contain so few species. This river is fed 
by many mountain streams, and even in the dry season contains an 
abundance of clear water. Collections of fishes have been made at 
eight places in this river basin, and in all only twelve species of fishes 
have been taken, a number much fewer than one would expect. 

SHORE FISHES WHICH HAVE BECOME MORE OR LESS 
ESTABLISHED IN THE FRESH WATERS OF MEXICO. 

There has been a tendency in this as in other countries for salt- 
water fishes to become established in fresh water. Some of these 
may properly be considered as fresh water species.* The others are 
properly shore fishes found in fresh water, and usually at a consider- 
able distance from the sea. Below is given a list of these species : 

Tylosurus marinus (Walbaum) . Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) . 

Thyrina crystallina (Jordan & Culver). Eleotris pisonis (Gruelin). 

Menidia lisa Meek. Eleotris pictus Kner & Steindachner. 

Mugil cephalus Linnaeus. Gobius parvus Meek. 

*Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft). Gobius claytoni Meek. 

Neomugil digueti Vaillant. Chonophorus nelsoni (Evermann)-. 

Joturus pichardi Poey. *Chonophorus taiasica (Liechtenstein) . 

Centropomus mexicanus Bocourt. Chonophorus mexicanus (Gunther). 

Pomadasys templei Meek. Gillichthys detrusus Gilbert & Scofield. 

Pomadasys starri Meek. Achirus mazatlanus (Steindachner). 

*Haploidonotus grunniens Rafinesque. Achirus fonsecensis (Giinther). 

*Philypnus dormitor Lac6pede. Achirus fasciatus Lacepede. 

The species of Chirostoma belong to a salt-water family; they are, 
however, confined to the Mexican plateau, and cannot be regarded 
as shore fishes, and so are not included in the foregoing list. 

GAME FISHES OF MEXICO. 

The large-mouthed black bass which is abundant in the streams 
of northeastern Mexico as far south as the Rio Soto la Marina, and 
the trout in the mountain streams of the Pacific slope in Sonora Chi- 
huahua and Durango are the only fishes in northern Mexico which 
can properly be called game fishes. Each of these species is confined 
to a rather small area. In the streams of southern Mexico there are 
no game fishes. The Cichlids are abundant, but will not take the 
hook in a manner that would best please the professional angler. 
There are in these southern streams a species of Centropomus and two 
of Pomadasys, usually called by the natives Roballo, which are 
regarded as game fishes. They are not properly fresh-water fishes, 



INTRODUCTION. liii 

although they are found in the rivers at a considerable distance 
from the sea ; it is quite probable that these are not abundant enough 
to make them of importance to the angler. 

FOOD FISHES OF MEXICO. 

Many of the fresh-water fishes of Mexico are used for food by the 
natives. Of these the trout and the black bass are probably the best. 
There are several species of the catfish family which are large enough 
for the market. In the Valley of Mexico, and in the basin of the Rio 
Lerma are several species of Chirostoma, known as Pescados B Ian cos 
(whitefishes) , which are excellent food fishes, but none of these will 
take the hook. The smaller species of the whitefishes are dried in 
large quantities in this region and shipped to different parts of the 
republic. 

The Trucha, or trout (Agonostomus monticola Bancroft), is a first- 
class food fish, but it is found nowhere in any considerable numbers. 
The Cichlids, which much resemble our sunfishes in form and general 
habits, are only fair food fishes. They are very abundant in all of the 
rivers of southern Mexico, and in the Atlantic coast streams north 
to Texas. Most of the fishes seen in the markets of the City of Mexico 
are brought from Vera Cruz, and are salt-water forms. A few 
whitefishes are shipped from Lago de Chapala to the City of Mexico, 
and some are brought in from the neighboring lakes. Many buffalo 
fishes are eaten in the region where found, but these are regarded as 
considerably inferior to the catfishes. Tamales are made of the 
Juilis, Algansea tincella (C. & V.), taken from the lakes in the Valley 
of Mexico. The species of garpike found in the Rio Panuco find a 
ready sale in the markets of Tampico. It is quite probable that the 
flesh of these fishes, like that of the fresh-water drum (Haploidonotus 
grunniens Raf.), improves in southern waters. In the Great Lake 
region of North America the drum is quite worthless for food, but in 
Louisiana it is an important market fish. The negroes along the 
lower portion of the Arkansas river eat many garpike and consider 
them as good for food as the catfishes. The larger species of the killi- 
fishes, Pceciliidce, in the basin of the Rio Lerma, some of which in this 
region reach a length of eight inches, are quite important food fishes. 

FISH CULTURE IN MEXICO. 

Very little has been done in Mexico in regard to stocking streams 
with fishes not native to the country. Goldfish and carp are quite 
abundant in the lakes in the Valley of Mexico, and also in some of the 



liv FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

tributaries of the Rio Lerma. I was not aware until March 18, 1903, 
that any effort had ever been made in Mexico to hatch trout, at which 
time I made a trip from the city of Mexico to Lerma, the head waters 
of the river of the same name, to collect fishes there. The station 
agent kindly directed me to a German, Mr. Vincente Richter, living 
some six miles distant, whom he said had many fishes. On arriving 
at Mr. Richter's house I was much surprised to see a quite well regu- 
lated fish hatchery, which has been in existence for about fifteen years, 
in full operation. It is on the hacienda owned by Senor Eduardo Gon- 
zales, to whom the government pays a fixed annual sum for its main- 
tenance. One-half to one million of eggs of the rainbow trout are 
hatched here annually. Several large springs form the source of the 
Rio Lerma at this place, and from these an abundance of water is 
obtained for the hatchery. The temperature of the water at its 
source is about 55 F., and its volume is so great that the temperature 
is not more than one or two degrees higher when it reaches the hatch- 
ing troughs. Considering the great abundance of water, and the 
facility for making suitable ponds at only a moderate expense, the 
abundance of small Crustacea, insect larvae, and the like, which are 
excellent food for the young trout, Mr. Richter is certain that trout 
can be raised here for the markets of the City of Mexico with profit. 
There are native trout in the Pacific streams of Mexico as far south 
as Durango. The experience of Mr. Richter indicates that trout will 
flourish as far south as the Rio Lerma. On the Atlantic slope near 
Jalapa are many mountain streams flowing through dense forests in 
which I believe trout would flourish. In many of these streams there 
are few or no fishes. The fact that there are no fishes in some of these 
streams, is, however, no indication that fishes will not live in them. 
Fishes are evidently not there because they have not been able to 
ascend the many falls and cascades, and at the head waters it is quite 
evident that there has been no center of distribution. 

One of the most promising fields for the introduction of food and 
game fishes is in the Lerma Basin, for in this region are many streams 
and lakes in which many species of small fishes abound which would 
furnish an abundant supply of food for the larger introduced species. 

In introducing fishes into a country the conditions should be 
carefully studied in order to avoid the selection of unsuitable species. 
The lakes in the Lerma basin should in my opinion be an ideal place 
for the large-mouth black bass. The rainbow trout would probably 
do quite as well and not disturb the present fish fauna as much as 
would the black bass. 



INTRODUCTION. Iv 

COMMON NAMES OF MEXICAN FRESH-WATER FISHES. 

Many common names applied to the fresh -water fishes of Mexico 
are used in a collective sense, and so do not apply to any particular 
species. Below are given some of these names and the names of the 
fishes to which they are applied. 

The garpikes and the needle fishes are known by the name Muj a.* 
Bagre is the name generally applied to catfishes. I heard no other 
name applied to these fishes south of the City of Mexico. For the 
catfishes in the streams north of Tampico several names are used, 
and rather indiscriminately, and I am uncertain in my distribution 
of them. Besugo is probably applied to Leptops olivaris Raf., and to 
dark-colored individuals of Amiurus. Petonte is applied to the chan- 
nel cats and to Amiurus lupus (Girard) , which much resemble them. 
Metalote is a buffalo fish, this name being applied to all of the species 
north of Tampico. Lisa is applied to Myzostoma congestum (B. & G.), 
to species of the genus Mugil, and to Menidia lisa Meek, a species of 
silverside. Nototropis boucardi (Gth.) is known as Salmichi. Algansea 
tincella (C. & V.) is called Juilis. The other species of minnows are 
known as Sardina. The name Sardina is commonly used for silvery col- 
ored fishes as the Dorosomatids or gizzard shads. Anguilla is the 
name of the eels. Mixpapatl is applied to Goodea whitei Meek. 
Roballo is the name of the black bass ; this name is also used for Cen- 
tropomus mexicanus (Boc.) . The black bass is sometimes called Besugo. 
The fresh-water drum and the species of Pomadasys in the Rio Panuco 
are known as Dorado. Mojarra is applied to the Cichlids and some of 
the larger PceciliidcE where Cichlids are not found. Metapil is applied 
only to Philypnus dormitor Lac. Trucha is the name of Agonostomus 
monticola (Bancroft) and Bobo is Joturus pichardi Poey. 

DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS OF TERMS USED IN THE 
DESCRIPTION OF FISHES IN THIS WORK. 

In order to be able to identify a fish, or rather to know just what 
species any particular fish may be, there are some things regarding its 
anatomy that should be known. In the accompanying figure of the 
large-mouth black bass the important parts of the external anatomy 
are indicated by name. All of the parts represented on this fish do not 
occur on all fishes, and so it will require some care to make out those 
that are present. A careful study of this figure, and the following 
definitions and explanations, will enable one to easily use the keys 
and descriptions in this work. A little practice will make the iden- 
tification of most of the species comparatively easy. 

*I will not vouch for the correct spelling of some of these names. 



Ivi FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

1. Head. 13. Spinous portion of dorsal fin. 

2. Snout. 14. Soft portion of dorsal fin. 

3. .Eye. 15. Base of dorsal fin. 

4. Premaxillary. 16. Pectoral fin. 

5. Maxillary. 17. Anal fin. 

6. Supplemental maxillary. 18. Ventral fin, 

7. Mandible, or lower jaw. 19. Base of caudal fin (last vertebra). 

8. Symphysis. 20. Caudal fin. 

9. Cheek. 21. Lateral line. 

10. Preopercle, 1 22. Depth of the fish. 

11. Opercle, } Gill covers. 23. Depth of caudal peduncle. 

12. Subopercle, J 24. Caudal peduncle. 

The PROFILE of the fish, -unless otherwise mentioned, is the curve 
from the highest point on the back- to the tip of the snout. The 
ORIGIN of the DORSAL or ANAL FIN is the insertion of its first spine 
or ray. 

Fishes in general, and especially those treated of in this work, 
breathe by means of GILLS, which are fine hair-like projections 
(BRANCHIAE) usually supported on the outer curves of cartilaginous 
or bony arches known as GILL ARCHES ; in the true fishes the normal 
number on each side is four. The GILL RAKERS are a series of bony 
appendages variously formed along the inner edge of the anterior gill 
arch. 

The GILL MEMBRANES usually serve to attach the GILL COVERS 
to the ISTHMUS, which is the thick, fleshy projection between the gill 
openings. The BRANCHIOSTEGAL MEMBRANES are attached to the 
lower posterior portions of the gill covers; the cartilaginous or bony 
supports of this membrane are the BRANCHIOSTEGAL RAYS. 

The PSEUDOBRANCHLE are small or imperfectly developed gills 
on the inner side of the opercle, near its junction with the preopercle. 

The PHARYNGEAL BONES are behind the gills and at the beginning 
of the (ESOPHAGUS; in true fishes they represent a fifth gill arch. 

In general the TEETH of fishes are conical and pointed; frequently 
some are INCISOR or MOLAR-LIKE. Occasionally, as in some of the 
killifishes (Characodon, Goodea, and Skiffia, etc.), the incisor-like teeth 
are BICUSPID or (Cyprinodori) TRICUSPID. The upper teeth of fishes may 
be attached to one or more of the following bones: PREM AXILLARY, 

MAXILLARY, PREFRONTAL, VOMER, PALATINE, PTERYGOID, and UPPER 
PHARYNGEALS; lower, to the MANDIBLE, TONGUE, and LOWER PHARYN- 

GEALS. In some fishes treated of in this work, as the Large-mouth 
Black Bass, teeth are present on nearly all of the parts of the mouth 
and pharynx as above mentioned; in the suckers and minnows teeth 
are present only on the pharyngeal bones. Fishes do not masticate 
their food ; the teeth are used chiefly for catching, holding, and break- 



INTRODUCTION. Ivii 

ing the objects used for food in pieces which will admit of being swal- 
lowed. 

The fins of fishes are composed of SPINES and RAYS, the former 
being stiff, bony structures usually connected by a thin membrane; 
the rays are rather weak, jointed cartilaginous structures and are also 
connected by a thin membrane. SPINES are present on one or more 
fins of all of the spiny rayed fishes. The dorsal and the pectoral fins 
of some of the soft rayed fishes, as the Carp and the Catfishes, are 
preceded by a spine which is only the modification of one or more of 
the soft rays. Most fishes, except Catfishes, are covered with SCALES. 
A CYCLOID SCALE has its posterior margin smooth; such scales are 
usually found on soft rayed fishes. A CTENOID SCALE has its posterior 
margin rough or toothed ; such scales are characteristic of the spiny 
rayed fishes. 

The LENGTH of the FISH is measured from the tip of the upper jaw 
to the base of the caudal fin or end of last vertebra, the TOTAL LENGTH 
from extreme ends of the fish. The LENGTH of the HEAD is measured 
from tip of upper jaw to the posterior edge of the opercle, the LENGTH 
of SNOUT from tip of upper jaw to anterior margin of the orbit. The 
DEPTH of the BODY is measured at its deepest part, none of the fins 
being included; the DEPTH of CAUDAL PEDUNCLE is measured at its 
narrowest part, its length from base of last anal ray to end of last 
vertebra. Only fully developed fin rays are counted, the rudimentary 
dorsal and anal rays when closely adnate to the first ray is counted 
as one; when the last ray is double and the two parts have the same 
base it is counted as one ray. The SCALES in the LATERAL SERIES are 
counted from upper edge of opercle to base* of caudal fin, the TRANS- 
VERSE SERIES from the dorsal fin to ventrals or origin of anal, which- 
ever is nearest the middle of the body. In making the transverse 
count the scale on the lateral line, when it is present, is counted with 
those on upper part of body. The LENGTH of the DORSAL and ANAL 
FINS is measured along their BASES, the HEIGHT is the length of their 
spines or rays. The length of the other fins is measured from attach- 
ment to the body to the tips of longest rays. 

Substantially the same order is followed in all descriptions. The 
comparative measurements which best indicate the general form of 
the fish are given first; the number of spines and rays of the dorsal 
and anal fins next, and the numrJer of scales in the lateral and trans- 
verse series last. These are followed by a general remark on the form 
of the fish, and then other important specific points are given in detail. 
The description of the color is given last. 

In order to abbreviate, the following expressions are used: "HEAD 



Iviii FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

4" or "HEAD 4^" indicates that the head of the fish is contained 4 
times or 4% times in the distance from the tip of the snout to the end 
of the last caudal vertebra; "DEPTH 4" that the greatest depth (none 
of the fins being included) is contained 4 times in the same distance ; 
" D. 8," indicates that the fish has a single dorsal fin which is composed 
of 8 soft rays; " D. iv, 9," that the dorsal fin is single and is composed 
of 4 spines and 9 soft rays; "D. iv-9," that there are two dorsal fins, 
the first one composed of 4 spines and the other of 9 soft rays. Spines 
are always indicated in roman letters, soft rays by figures. The ab- 
breviations used in the count of other fin rays and spines are similarly 
explained. The diameter of the eye, the length of the snout, and 
many other short measurements are compared with the length of the 
head. "EYE 3 IN HEAD," "SNOUT 3 IN HEAD," indicate that each 
is contained 3 times in the length of the head. In these particular 
cases " % of the length of the head " would mean the same thing. 

All of these measurements are so far as possible intended to apply 
to mature fish of average size; a certain amount of allowance must, 
however, be made for age and individual variation. Young fishes 
usually have larger eyes, shorter snout, smaller mouth, and longer fin 
rays than adults of the same species; more often they are also deeper, 
but this is not always true. 

At the close of each description the approximate length of the 
adult of the species is given. The size of fishes is more dependent 
on environment than in case of any other group of vertebrates. 
Fishes in large bodies of water grow much more rapidly and larger 
than the same species under other conditions. If food is plentiful 
and easily obtained the fish will eat oftener than where less favored. 
It is not necessary for a fish to eat as much as one meal each day ; he 
may eat once each week, or even once each month, without appar- 
ently experiencing the evil effects of hunger, but in such cases his 
growth will be somewhat retarded. 

For convenience in classification, and to afford an expression of 
relationship, fishes, or fish-like vertebrates, are divided into classes, 
each class into ORDERS, ORDERS into GENERA, and each GENUS com- 
prises one or more SPECIES. 

The catfish of the Rio Balsas is classified as follows : 
Class, PISCES. 

Order, NEMATOGNATHI. 

Family, SILURID^E. 

Genus, ISTLARIUS. 

Species, BALSANUS. 

Each of these divisions may be divided into sub-groups. 



INTRODUCTION. lix 

The scientific name of a fish is a combination of the name of the 
genus and the species. The large catfish (Bagre) found in the Rio 
Balsas belongs to the genus IStlarius and its specific name is balsanus. 
Its scientific name is Istlarius balsanus. The scientific names as they 
are usually written, and as they appear in this work, are followed by 
the name of the person or persons who first described the fish and 
proposed the specific name for it. The name referred to above is 
properly written Istlarius balsanus Jordan & Snyder. 

Under the description of each order, family, and genus a key is 
given to facilitate the identification of the species. These keys are 
arranged as far as possibtaon the alternative basis. To use the key, 
examine the fish in hand and read the first statement lettered "a"; 
either that or its alternative, lettered "aa," is true. Next read the 
lettered statement below "a" or "aa" as the case may be, and con- 
tinue until a letter is reached under which there are no subdivisions, 
when you will be brought to an order, family, generic, or specific name. 
The page indicated by the figure following this name contains the 
description" of the family, genus, or species, as the case may be, to 
which your fish belongs. If a family, read the key to the genera, then 
to the species, which will refer you to the description of the species 
of the fish in question. 

In order to find at once the family to which the specimen in hand 
belongs it is better to use the artificial key to the Families of Fishes 
on the following page. 

In all of the keys in this work, except this one, the sequence of 
the orders, families, genera and species, as the case may be, is the same 
as the descriptions. It must be borne in mind that this work treats 
only of fishes known to inhabit the fresh waters of Mexico north of 
the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. 

Reference is made under each genus to the original description, 
and the type of the genus. No other reference is given unless the 
synonym is based on forms found in Mexico or is deserving of 
subgeneric rank. Under the name of each species the first reference 
is to the original description and the type locality ; references are also 
made to Dr. Giinther's Catalogue of Fishes of the British Museum (i), 
to his Fishes of Central America (2), to Prof. Garman's Cyprinodonts 
(3), and to Jordan & Evermann's Synopsis of Fishes of North and 
Middle America (4). All other references relate only to Mexican 
fresh-water fishes. For aid in geographical study all known local- 

(1) Giinther, Catalogue, Fishes British Museum, 8 vols. 1859^0 1870. 

(2) Gunther, Fishes of Central America, i vol. 1869. 

(3) Garman, The Cyprinodonts, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. xix, 1895. 

(4) Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus. 4 vols. 1896 to 1900. 



Ix FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

ities from which Mexican fishes have been taken are given with each 
reference. The names of places mentioned in parentheses preceding 
each description are localities from which the species was taken by 
me in 1903. In many cases the localities of the early authors are very 
indefinite. Frequently "Mexico" only is mentioned. A few of the 
definite localities as given which appear to be wrong are discussed 
under the species in question, it being intended that some one may 
be able to either verify these or to correct them. 

DEFINITION OF THE TWO CLASSES OF FISHES OR FISH- 
LIKE VERTEBRATES INHABITING THE FRESH 
WATERS OF MEXICO. 

The fresh- water fishes, or fish-like vertebrates of Mexico, belong 
to two classes: the Marsipobranchii, Lampreys, hag-fishes, and the 
like; and Pisces, the sharks, skates, and the true fishes. The former 
is represented by a single species of lamprey known at present only 
from the Lerma River Basin; the latter is represented by a large 
number of species of true fishes. Sharks and skates often ascend 
streams far above tide-water, but at present we have no evidence 
that any of these forms are permanent residents of the rivers of 
Mexico. 

The fishes, or fish-like vertebrates, may be defined as cold- 
blooded vertebrates adapted for life in the water, breathing by means 
of gills, which are persistent throughout life, and having the limbs, 
if present, developed as fins, never with fingers and toes. The cere- 
bral hemispheres are smaller than the optic lobes. 

The two classes of fish-like vertebrates may be briefly defined as 
follows : 
CLASS I. MARSIPOBRANCHII (THE LAMPREYS). 

Skull imperfectly developed, without true jaws; gills purse- 
shaped, not attached to cartilaginous arches; a single 
median nostril; body eel-shaped. 
CLASS II. PISCES (THE FISHES). 

Skull well developed, and with jaws; gills attached to 
arches; nostrils not median, in one or more pairs. 

ARTIFICIAL KEY TO THE FAMILIES OF , MEXICAN 
FRESH-WATER FISHES. 

a. Mouth subcircular, without true jaws; 7 gill PAGE 

openings on each side; no paired fins Petromyzontida i 

aa. Mouth normal, with true jaws; one gill open- 
ing on each side. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixi 



b. Ventral fins present, abdominal. 
c. Adipose fin on dorsal region present, 
d. Body without scales; 4 to 8 long barbels 
about the mouth and nostrils; a single 

spine in each pectoral and dorsal fin 

dd. Body with scales, mouth without barbels; 

pectoral and dorsal fin without spines, 
e. Mouth large; teeth all conical ; body elon- 
gate, depth 3^ to 5^"; anal rays 10 to 12. 
ee. Mouth smaller; teeth incisor-like or else 
rudimentary; body deep, compressed, 
depth 1% to 3>, anal rays more than 18 
cc. Dorsal region without adipose fin. 
f. Tail heterocercal ; scales rhomboidal, very 

hard, ganoid 

ff. Tail not heterocercal; scales normal, thin, 
g. Dorsal fin single, composed of soft rays 

only. 

h. Jaws toothless, head without scales, 
i. Ventral region without bony serrae; body 

elongate, not much compressed, 
j . Mouth usually inferior ; lips thick, fleshy 
with plicae or papillae ; pharyngeal teeth 
very numerous, in a row like the teeth 
of a comb; dorsal of more than 10 rays, 
jj. Mouth usually terminal, lips thin, not 
fleshy, without plicae or papillae; phar- 
yngeal teeth few, fewer than 8; dorsal 
fin with less than 10 rays (except in the 

carp) 

ii. Ventral region with bony serrae, body 

deep, much compressed 

hh. Jaws with teeth ; head more or less scaly, 
k. Lateral line wanting or represented by 
a few imperfect pores; jaws not pro- 
duced into a long beak 

kk. Lateral line present, running as a fold 
along side of belly; both jaws produced 

into a beak 

gg. Dorsal fins 2, the first composed of spines, 

the second of soft rays. 
1. Anal spines 3 ; dorsal spines strong, 4 .... 



PAGE 



. Silurid& 8 



. .Salmonida 95 
.Characinida 83 
, Lepidosteidcz 4 



. .Catostomidce 24 



. . .Cyprinidoe 36 
Dorosomatidce 92 

. . . .Poeciliidcz 98 



.Belonida 160 



Mugilida 185 



Ixii FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

11. Anal spines single; dorsal spines slender, PAGE 

3 to 8 ..." Atherinidce 165 

bb. Ventral fins present, thoracic or jugular, 
m. Ventral fins each composed definitely of 
one spine and 5 soft rays; eyes symmet- 
rical, one on each side of the head, 
n. Ventral fins completely united; gill mem- 
branes joined to the isthmus; no lateral 

line Gobiidcs 225 

nn. Ventral fins separate. 
o. Nostril single on each side; lateral line in- 
terrupted; anal spines 3 to n Cichlidce 204 

oo. Nostril double on each side; lateral line 

not interrupted. 

p. Lateral line extending on caudal fin. 
q. Anal spines 3, the second very strong, 
r. Porsal fins two, separate; preopercle 
with two margins, the posterior one 

strongly toothed Centropomida 198 

rr. Dorsal fins connected; preopercle with 

one margin Hcemulidce 199 

qq. Anal spines i or 2 Scicenida 202 

pp. Lateral line, if present, not extending on 

caudal fin. 

s. Dorsal fins separate or scarcely con- 
nected, 
t. Anal spines 3; the second very strong; 

body elongate, compressed Hamulida 199 

tt. Anal spines i or 2 ; body usually slender, 

never much compressed, 
u. No lateral line; ventral fins with the 
inner rays the longest; dorsal spines 

8 or less Gobiidce 225 

uu. Lateral line present ; ventral fins with 
the outer rays the longest; dorsal 

spines 8 or more Percida 196 

ss. Dorsal fin single, the spinous and soft 
portions being connected; body usually 
deep and much compressed, 
mm. Ventral fins each not composed definitely 
of one spine and 5 soft rays; eyes unsym- 
metrical, both being on the same side of the 
head Soleida 234 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixiii 



bbb. Ventral fins wholly wanting, pectorals us- 
ually present. 

v. Snout not tubular with the small mouth at its 
end; body not covered with bony plates, 
eel-shaped. 

w. Gill openings lateral and vertical; snout 
conic, the jaws not very heavy ; gape longi- 
tudinal; lips thick; lower jaw projecting; 
teeth in cardiform bands on jaws and 

vomer 

ww. Gill openings horizontal, inferior, very 
close together, apparently confluent; pos- 
terior nostrils in front of eye Symbranchidce 89 

vv. Snout tubular, bearing the small mouth at 
its end; body angular, covered with bony 
plates, not truly eel-shaped Syngnathidce id 2 



.Anguillidce 90 



CLASS I. MARS1POBRANCHH. 

\ 
THE LAMPREYS. 

Skeleton cartilaginous; skull not separate from the imperfectly 
segmented vertebral column; no true jaws; no limbs; no shoulder 
girdle; no pelvic elements, and no ribs; gills purse-shaped, without 
gill arches; 6 or more gill openings on each side; nostril single, on 
top of the head; heart without arterial bulb; alimentary canal 
straight, simple, without ccecal appendages, pancreas, or spleen; 
naked, eel-shaped animals. 



Order I. Hyperoartii. 



Nasal duct a blind sac not communicating with the palate; 
mouth nearly circular, suctorial. 

Family I. Petromyzontid&e. 

THE LAMPREYS. 

Body eel-shaped, somewhat compressed posteriorly; mouth nearly 
circular, suctorial, and armed with horny, tooth-like tubercles which 
are simple or multicuspid ; those just above and below the oesophagus 
more or less specialized ; gill openings 7 on each side of the chest ; lips 
fringed. 

The lampreys undergo a metamorphosis; the young are toothless, 
have rudimentary eyes, and live buried in the sand. In the larval 
state they are white, and evidently feed upon small Crustacea, insect 
larvae, and the like. In the adult state the lamprey attaches itself 
to a fish by means of its suctorial mouth, rasps off the flesh, and 
feasts upon the blood and lymph of the victim. 

1. Lampetra Gray. 

Lampetra Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1851, 235. (Type, Petro- 
myzon ftuvialilis Linnaeus.) 

Dorsal fin in two parts, the second part continuous with the low 
anal fin around the tail; supraoral lamina broad, forming a crescentic 
plate, with a large, bluntish cusp at each end; lingual teeth small; 
buccal plate small, its few teeth bicuspid and tricuspid; lips fringed. 
Lampreys of small size, inhabiting the brooks of Europe and North 
America. 



2 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

1. Lampetra spadicea Bean. 

Lampetra spadicea Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1887, 374; Guana- 
juato: Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1892, 283; Tanganzicuaro : 
Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 13. 




FIG. 1. LAMPETRA SPADICEA Bean. 

No. 38005, U. S. National Museum. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. , 

Infraoral lamina with 9 cusps, the outer largest; lingual teeth 
with about 20 pectinae; 4 teeth on each side of buccal disk, one or 
more being tri cuspid, the others bicuspid; dorsal fins separate, the 
interspace .equaling half length of snout; second dorsal a little 
higher than the first, its origin near middle of body. 

Color chestnut brown, somewhat lighter on the belly; basal por- 
tion of second dorsal pale; the remaining portion somewhat like the 
body. Length about 8 inches. 

This species is probably distributed throughout the Lerma Basin. 
Dr. Duges has collected several specimens in the upper waters of the 
Lerma near Guanajuato. It has also been taken by E. W. Nelson 
in Lago de Chapala. 



CLASS II. PISCES. 

THE FISHES. 

Skeleton more or less ossified; skull separate from the segmented 
vertebral column; mouth with true jaws; limbs, shoulder girdle, 
and pelvic bones usually present ; gills attached to imperfect skeletal 
arches, usually less than 6 gill openings on each side; nostrils one or 
more pairs; heart with arterial bulb; alimentary canal variable in 
form, and with pancreas and spleen. 

KEY TO THE ORDERS OF PISCES. 

a. Tail heterocercal ; vertebras opisthoccelian (con- 'PAGE 
cavo-convex) ; air bladder cellular ; scales rhom- 
bic, enameled plates Rhomboganoidea 4 

aa. Tail not heterocercal; vertebrae amphiccelian 

(double concave); air bladder, if present, not 

cellular; scales, if present, of the ordinary sort. 

b. Anterior vertebras (about 4) much modified, 

co-ossified, and provided with ossicula audi- 

tus; ventral fins, if present, abdominal and 

without spines. 

c. Maxillary bone imperfect, forming the base 
of a conspicuous barbel ; no subopercle ; no 

scales Nematognathi 8 

cc. Maxillary bone perfect (rarely wanting), 
never entering into the base of a barbel; 
subopercle present; scales usually present. 

Plectospondylii 24 

bb. Anterior vertebrae unmodified, similar to the 
others or more elongate, separate and with- 
out ossicula auditus. 

d. Body eel-shaped; vertebras numerous (100 
to 250); scales minute or wanting; no ven- 
tral fins ; pectorals usually present ; gill open- 
ings restricted ; four pairs of gill arches. 

e. Premaxillary, maxillary, and palatine bones 
well developed and distinct from each 
other as in ordinary fishes; pectoral and 
ventral fins wanting; gill openings con- 
fluent Symbranchia 89 



4 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

ee. Premaxillary atrophied or lost; maxillaries PAGE 

lateral, more or less confluent with the 

palatines Apodes 90 

dd.Body not truly eel-shaped; vertebrae in 
moderate number (14 to 100); ventral fins 
usually present; gill openings not restricted, 
f . Ventral fins, if present, abdominal; fins with- 
out spines. 

g. Body stout, not covered with bony plates; 
gills laminated; ventral fins present, ab- 
dominal, without spines, 
h. Mesocoracoid well developed ; pectoral fins 

inserted low Isospondyli 9 2 

, hh. Mesocoracoid always wanting; head scaly ; 

dorsal and anal fins without spines, 
i. Lateral line none, or imperfectly devel- 
oped ; air bladder with a persistent duct ; 

lower pharyngeals separate .Haplomi 98 

ii. Lateral line developed, concurrent with 

the belly ; air bladder without duct in the 

adult; lower pharyngeals fully united . . Syncntognathi 160 

gg. Body elongate, covered with bony plates 

which are firmly connected, forming a 

carapace; gills tufted; no ventral fins; 

gill openings small Lophobranchia 162 

ff . Ventral fins usually anterior in position ; 

spines usually present in the fins Acaiithopttri 164 

Order II. Rhomboganoidea, 

THE GARPIKES. 

This order comprises one family of living fishes. Tail hetero- 
cercal; vertebrae connected by ball and socket joints, the concavity 
of each vertebra being posterior; air bladder lung-like, but connecting 
with the dorsal side of the oesophagus. 

Family II. Lepidosteidre. 

THE GARPIKES. 

Body elongate, subcylindrical, covered with hard rhombic ganoid 
scales or plates which are imbricated in oblique series running down- 
ward and backward; premaxillary forming most of the upper jaw; 
jaws long, spatulate or beak-like; teeth on jaws, vomer, and palatines; 



FAMILY II. LEPIDOSTEID.E. 5 

some of the teeth in the jaws large and canine-like; tail heterocercal, 
the vertebrae extending into the upper lobe of the tail; an accessory 
gill on inner side of the opercle; spiral valve of intestines rudimentary. 
This family is represented in North America by four species; 
three of these have been taken in Mexico, the other one is found in 
southeastern Texas, and probably occurs in the lower tributaries of 
the Rio Grande. The fishes of this family are especially interesting, 
because they are the last living relations of a laYge group of ganoid 
fishes now extinct. 

2. Lepidosteus Lace"pede. 
THE GARPIKES. 

Lepisosteus Lace"pede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., v, 331, 1803. (Type, 

Lepisosteus gavialis Lac6pede= Esox osseus Linnaeus.) 
AtractosteusR.afinesq\ie, Ich. Ohiensis, 72, 1820. (Type, Lepisosteus 
ferox"R.afi.nesque= Lepidosteus tristcechtis Bloch & Schneider.) 
Cylindrosteus Rafinesque, Ich. Ohiensis, 72, 1820. (Type, Lepisosteus 

platostomus Rafinesque.) 

Jaws with one or more series of teeth, some being enlarged and 
fitting into a depression in the opposite jaw; usually some of the 
anterior teeth movable ; teeth on vomer and palatines ; in the young 
the anterior teeth are often enlarged. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF LEPIDOSTEUS. 

a. Large teeth of upper jaw in a single row on PAGE 

each side. 

b. Jaws long and slender; snout more than 

twice length of rest of head osseus 5 

bb. Jaws shorter and broader, little longer than 

rest of head [platystomus] 6 

aa. Large teeth of upper jaw in two series on 
each side; jaws short and broad, not longer 
.than rest of head. 

c. Scales 60 in the lateral series; dorsal rays 8 tristoechus 6 

cc. Scales 53 in the lateral series; dorsal rays 6 [tropicus] 7 

Subgenus Lepidosteus Lac6pede. 

2. Lepidosteus osseus (Linnaeus). LONG-NOSED GARPIKE; COMMON 

GARPIKE. 

Esox osseus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. x, 313, 1758; after Acus 
maxima squamosa viridis of Artedi. 



6 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Lepidosteus osseus Giinther, Cat., vin, 330, 1870; North America. 

Lepisosteus osseus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U.S. Nat. Mus., 
1896, 109: Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1900, 
117; Tampico: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 72; Santa 
Rosalia. 

Great Lakes to the Carolinas and Mexico as far south as Tam- 
pico. (San Juan; Valles; Forlon.) 

Head 3; depth 12; D. 8; A. 9; scales about 62. Body elongate, 
cylindrical; jaws long and slender, beak-like; snout more than twice 
length of rest of head, its least width 15 to 20 in its length; 
large teeth of the upper jaw in a single row on each side; ventral 
fins with 6 rays. 

Color olivaceous, pale, somewhat silvery below; vertical fins and 
posterior part of the body with round black spots, which are more 
distinct in the young; very young with a black lateral band. Length 
about 3 feet. 

The most southern record of this species is Valles, in the 
Rio Panuco Basin. I saw quite a number in a deep sluggish creek 
at Forlon, but was unable to capture any of them. This species 
seldom exceeds a length of 3 feet, and except on the Arkansas River, 
I have never seen it used for food. It is easily distinguished from 
the other members of the family by its exceedingly long, narrow, 
beak-like jaws. 

Subgenus Oylindrosteus Rafinesque. 

Lepidosteus platystomus Rafinesque. SHORT-NOSED GARPIKE. 

Lepisosteus platostomus Rafinesque, Ichth. Ohiensis, 72, 1820; Ohio River. 

Lepidosteus platysiomus Gunther, Cat., vin, 329, 1870: Jordan & Evjrmann, 
Bull. 47, U.S. Nat. Mus., 1896, no. 

Mississippi Valley south to the Rio Pecos in Texas, ranging as far east as 
Florida. 

Head 3^; depth 8; D. 8; A. 8; scales about 56. Body elongate, cylindrical; 
jaws broad, beak-like; snout usually about one-third longer than rest of 
head, its least width 5 to 6 in its length; large teeth of upper jaw in a single 
row on each side. 

Color similar to the preceding, but usually darker. Length 2 or 3 feet. 

This species probably occurs in northeastern Mexico. 

Subgenus Atractosteus Rafinesque. 

3. Lepidosteus tristoechus (Bloch & Schneider). ALLIGATOR GAR- 
PIKE; MANJUARI. 
Esox tristoechus Bloch & Schneider, Syst. Ichth., 395, 1801 ; Cuba; 

after Manjuari of Para. 
Lepidosteus berlandieri Girard, Pac. R. R. Sur., 353, 1858; 

Tamaulipas. 

Atractosteus lucius Dumeril, Hist. Nat. Poiss., n, 364, 1870; 
Tampico, Mexico. 



FAMILY II. LEPIDOSTEID^E. 7 

Lepidosteus tropicus Gtinther, Fishes, Cent. Amer., 490, 1866; 

Huamuchal. 
Lepidosteus viridis Gxinther, Cat., vm, 329, 1870; Huamuchal; 

Mexico. 

Lepisosteus tristcechus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896,111: Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1900, 117; Tampico. 

Rio Panuco north to the mouth of the Missouri River, south and 
east to Cuba. (Tampico.) 

Head 3/^; D. 8; A. 8; scales about 60. Body elongate, cylin- 
drical; jaws beak-like; snout usually shorter than rest of head, its 
least width 3^ times its length; 18 to 20 scales in oblique series 
from ventrals to middle of dorsal fin; ventral fin with 6 rays. 

Color greenish, pale below; the adult usually not spotted. Length 
10 to 12 feet. 

I saw quite a number of this species in the Tampico markets 
where it was regarded as a very good food fish. This fish is reported 
to be quite abundant in the large river channels and the lagoons 
about Tampico. It is one of our largest fresh-water fishes. 

Lepidosteus tropicus (Gill). TROPICAL GARPIKE. 

Atractosteus tropicus Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 172; streams 
near Panama. 

Lepisosteus tropicus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 
in: Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1902, 139; 
Montecristo and Teapa, Tabasco. 

Central America and southern Mexico, south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. 

Head 3^; depth 9; D. 5; A. 7; scales 53. Body cylindrical, rather short and 
stout; snout short and broad, its length less then half that of head; upper jaw 
the longer; teeth sharp, those of upper jaw in two lateral rows; enlarged teeth of 
lower jaw in one row; eye small; origin of dorsal fin slightly behind that of anal; 
pectoral rays 12 ; ventral rays 6. 

Color leaden silvery above, white on belly; a few spots on posterior part of 
body; rays of dorsal, caudal, and anal dusky; the membranes pale; pectorals and 
ventrals pale. Length 2 feet, possibly much larger. 

This species has not been recorded farther north than Montecristo, on the 
Rio Usumacinta, and Teapa on the Rio Teapa, both places being in the State of 
Tabasco. Its southernmost range is the Isthmus of Panama. It is very closely 
related to the preceding species. 



Order in. Hematognathi, 

THE CATFISHES. 

Fishes with the four anterior vertebrae co-ossified, and with ossicula 
auditus; maxillary rudimentary, forming the base of a conspicuous 
barbel; no subopercle; body naked, or more or less covered with 
bony plates. A large order comprising several families, only one 
of which is represented in Mexico. 

Family III. Siluridae. 

Body more or less elongate, naked or covered with bony plates; 
no true scales; anterior portion of the head with two or more barbels, 
the base of the longest pair formed by the small or rudimentary 
maxillary; margin of the upper jaw formed by the premaxillaries 
only; subopercle absent; opercle present; dorsal fin usually short, 
opposite to or in front of ventrals; adipose fin present; anterior 
rays of dorsal and pectoral fins spinous; air bladder usually present, 
large, and connected with the organ of hearing by means of auditory 
ossicles; lower pharyngeals separate. 

The catfishes of Mexico allied to those found in the United States, 
have representatives known as far south as the Rio Usumacinta in 
Guatemala. None of the South. American forms have yet been 
taken farther north than Cordoba and . Orizaba. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF SILURID/E. 

a. Adipose fin small, its posterior margin free. PAGE 

b. Nostrils close together, neither with a barbel, 

the posterior with a valve; teeth on palate . . . .Galeichthys 9 
bb. Nostrils remote from each other, 
c. Posterior nostril with a barbel; barbels 8, the 
longest reaching past eye ; teeth on the lower 
jaw well developed. 

d. Premaxillary band of teeth truncate behind,, 
not produced backward at the outer angles. 
e. Supraoccipital bone continued backward 
from the nape , its notched tip receiving the 
bone at base of dorsal spine, so that a con- 
tinuous bony bridge is formed under the 

skin from snout to base of dorsal Ichikyaelurus ro 

ee. Supraoccipital bone not reaching inter- 
spinal bones ; the bridge incomplete Amiurus 1 2 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM. 



PLATE IV, ZOOLOGY. 




m 





GALEICHTHYS AGUADULCE Meek. 



FAMILY III. SILURID^;. 9 

dd. Premaxillary band of teeth with a lateral PAGE 

backward extension on each side, 
f. Lower jaw shorter than the upper; head 

not much depressed; anal rays 21 to 24 htlarius 17 

ff. Lower jaw longer than the upper; head 

much depressed; anal rays 12 to 15 Leptops 18 

cc. Posterior nostril without a barbel; barbels 
6 , the longest not reaching eye ; teeth in the 

lower jaw very weak Conorhynchus] 19 

aa. Adipose fin long, its posterior margin adnate 

to the back Rhamdia 20 

Subfamily Tachysurinse. 
3. Galeichthys Cuvier & Valenciennes. 
Galeichthys Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., v, 28, 1840. 

(Type, Galeichthys jeliceps Cuv. & Val., etc.) 

Body more or less elongate; head armed with a bony shield above, 
behind which is an occipital shield; skull with a fontanelle; mouth 
rather small, the upper jaw the longer; villiform or granular teeth 
in each jaw; teeth on vomer and palatines; barbels 6, none at nostrils; 
adipose fin small, its posterior margin free ; caudal fin deeply forked. 
A large group of marine catfishes, especially numerous on sandy 
shores in tropical seas. It is not known to what extent these fishes 
enter fresh water. 

4. Qaleichthys aguadulce sp. nov. BAGRE. 

Type, No. 4678, F. C. M., n^ inches in length; Perez, Vera Cruz. 

Basin of the Rio Papaloapam. 

Head 3f ; depth 4^; D. i, 6; A. 17. Body elongate, moderately 
compressed posteriorly; head long and slender, narrow forward, its 
greatest width i^ m its length, not much depressed; mouth rather 
small, its width 3 in head; upper jaw the longer; teeth in jaws in 
villiform bands; vomerine teeth in two large patches, slightly separate 
from each other, and without backward projection; snout 2^ in 
head; diameter of eye 5^ in head; -tip of maxillary barbel reach- 
ing slightly past base of pectoral, outer mental barbel to gill opening; 
gill membranes broadly connected to isthmus, their hinder margin 
free ; top of head posterior to orbits granular ; occipital process longer 
than broad; posterior margin of fontanelle midway between tip of 
snout and base of dorsal spine, the fontanelle extending as a groove 
nearly to occipital process; dorsal spine rather slender, its length \% 
in head; anterior margin of dorsal spine nearly smooth, its posterior 
margin slightly serrate; anterior margin of pectoral spine smooth, 



io FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

the posterior finely denticulate; length of pectoral spine if in head; 
caudal fin deeply forked, the upper lobe the longer. 

Color dark bluish above, much lighter below; the dark color 
on lower half of sides and on fins made up of small dark punctula- 
tions; ventral and pectorals and distal half of anal nearly black; 
caudal and dorsal with tips of rays black; belly white. 

One specimen (type) from Perez. 

Subfamily Ichthyeelurinse. 
4. IchthywluruH Rafinesque. 

CHANNEL CATS; BAGRES. 
Ictalurus Rafinesque, Ichth. Ohiensis, 61, 1820. (Type, Pimelodus 

maculatus Rafinesque = Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque.) 
Body elongate, slender, compressed posteriorly; head slender and 
conical; supraoccipital bone or process prolonged backward, its 
emarginated apex receiving the accuminate anterior point of the 
second interspinal, thus forming a continuous bony ridge from the 
head to the dorsal spine; mouth small, terminal, the upper jaw the, 
longer; teeth, in a short band in each jaw; dorsal fin with one spine 
and usually 6 soft rays; adipose fin short, with free posterior margin 
opposite posterior margin of anal fin; anal fin long, 25 to 35 
rays; pectoral spine strong, retrorse-serrate within; caudal fin elon- 
gate, deeply forked. 

The fishes of this genus live chiefly in river channels. As food 
fishes they are superior to other members of the catfish family in 
North America. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF ICHTHY^ELURUS. 
a. Anal fin very long, its base nearly % its body, PAGE 

its rays 3 2 to 3 5 furcatus i o 

aa. Anal fin shorter, its rays 25 to 29. 
b. Barbels long, extending considerably beyond 

gill opening; anal rays about 26. punctatus n 

bb. Barbels short, the longest only reaching gill 

opening; anal rays 28 or 29 meridionalis 1 1 

5. Ichthyaelurus furcatus (Le Sueur). CHUCKLE-HEADED CAT. 

Pimelodus furcatus Le Sueur, in Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. 

Nat. Poiss., v, 136, 1840; New Orleans. 
Pimelodus affinis Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

1854, 26, Rio Grande: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 32, pi. xvi, 1859; 

mouth of the Rio Grande, at Brownsville, Texas. 
Amiurus furcatus Giinther, Cat., v, 103, 1864. 



FAMILY III. SILURID^;. u 

Amiurus affinis Giinther, Cat., v, 103, 1864. 

Ictalurus furcatus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1896, 134: Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 1900, 
171 ; Rio Tamesin, Tampico. 

Rio Panuco north to Iowa and Ohio. 

Head 4%; depth 4 (in adults) to 5^ (in young); D. i, 6; A. 32 
to 35. Body elongate; profile from snout to dorsal somewhat con- 
cave, especially in adults; head small; eye small, the middle of the 
head being behind its posterior margin; pectoral spine rather long; 
humeral spine stout, shortish, not reaching middle of pectoral spine; 
anal fin long, its base about 3 in body, its rays 32 to 35. 

Color silvery, plain or somewhat spotted. Length about 4 feet. 

A specimen of this species, which was reported to have been 
caught in the Rio Tamesoe, was purchased by Dr. Jordan in 1899 
in the Tampico Markets. This species is known to reach a weight 
of 150 pounds, being the largest catfish known in American waters. 
It lives in clear running streams, and is an excellent food fish. Dr. 
Evermann informs me that this species was taken by E. W. Nelson 
.in the Rio Soto la Marina, Tamaulipas. 

6. Ichthytelurus punctatus (Rafinesque). CHANNEL CAT; WHITE CAT. 

Silurus punctatus Rafinesque, American Monthly Magazine, 1818, 
359; Ohio River. 

Ictalurus punctatus Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 1894, 56; 
Rio Grande, El Paso, Texas: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 134. 

Rio Panuco and streams tributary to the Gulf of Mexico, north in 
the Mississippi Valley to the rivers of the Great Lake region. (Forlon.) 

Head 4; depth 5; D. i, 6; A. 25 to 30. Body elongate, slender, 
back little elevated; head rather small, narrow, convex above; 
eye large, a little anterior of middle of head; mouth small; 
barbels long, the maxillary barbel reaching more or less be- 
yond gill opening; humeral process long and slender; more 
than y z length of pectoral spine; pectoral spine strongly serrate 
behind. 

Color light bluish above, the sides pale or silvery, and almost 
always with irregular, small, round dark spots; fins often with dark 
edgings. Length about 3 feet. 

This fish, though smaller, is very similar in appearance and 
habits to the preceding species. 

7. Ichthyaslurus meridionalis (Giinther). TROPICAL CATFISH; BAGRE. 

Amiurus meridionalis Giinther, Cat., v, 102, 1864; Rio Usuma- 
cinta. 



12 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Ictahirus meridionalis Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 135. 

Large streams on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Tehuan- 
tepec. (Otopa.) 

Head 4 to ^%\ depth 5 ; D. i, 6; A. 28 to 29. Body elongate; 
head }4 to y$ longer than broad; snout obtusely rounded, the upper 
jaw longer than the lower; premaxillary teeth in a band, 5 or 6 
times as broad as long; maxillary barbels reaching to end of 
head; outer mandibular barbels reaching to posterior margin 
of gill membranes; distance of origin of dorsal fin from tip of 
snout 2 to 2% in its distance from caudal fin, its spine finely 
retrorse-serrate on posterior margin; length of base of adipose 
fin equaling that of dorsal, the fin short; pectoral spine strongly 
retrorse-serrate on inner margin, its length i^ i n head, the spine 
stronger and a little shorter than the dorsal spine ; pectoral fin longer 
than ventral, i^ in length of head; ventral extending to origin 
of anal fin; caudal fin deeply forked. 

Color brownish above, with steel blue reflections; lower half of 
body silvery, with a reddish tinge and finely punctulate with dark 
dots. Length of adults not known. 

One specimen 5^ inches in length was taken in the Rio Otopa 
at Otopa. 

5. Amiurus Rafinesque. 
THE HORNED POUTS. 

Ameiurus Rafinesque, Ichth. Ohiensis, 65, 1820. (Type,Pimelodus 
cnpreits Rafinesque = Pimelodus natalis LeSueur.) 

Haustor Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 
135. (Type, Qadus lacustris Walbaum.) 

Body moderately elongate, robust anteriorly, the caudal peduncle 
much compressed; head large, wide; supraoccipital extended back- 
ward, terminating in a more or less acute point, which is entirely 
separate from the second inter-spinal buckler; skin covering the 
bones usually thick; mouth large, the upper jaw in most species the 
longer; teeth in broad bands on the premaxillaries and dentaries; 
band on upper jaw convex in front, of equal breadth and without 
backward prolongation; adipose fin short, its hinder margin free; 
anal fin of 15 to 35 rays; caudal fin usually short, truncate or 
deeply forked; lateral line usually incomplete; all Mexican species 
so far known, except one (Amiurns natalis}, with a deeply 
forked caudal fin. 



FAMILY III. SILURIDJE. 13 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF AMIURUS. 

a. Caudal fin lunate or forked. PAGE 

b. Base of anal fin longer than head, its rays 24 
or more; upper jaw the longer. 

c. Head very broad, not narrowed forward; 
dorsal spine 2^ in head; pectoral spine 2?, 

its inner margin rough, but without teeth .australis 13 

cc. Head less broad, and narrowed forward; 
dorsal spine long, its length if in head; 
pectoral spine i^ in head, its hinder margin 

with 7 to 9 retrorse teeth lupus 14 

bb. Base of anal fin equal to or shorter than the 
head; anal rays about 20. 

d. Dorsal spine long, 134 to if in head; pec- 
toral spine weakly serrate on inner margin. 

e. Pectoral spine strong, its length 2 in head; 
caudal fin deeply forked, its inner rays less 

' than half its outer dugesi 14 

ee. Pectoral spine moderate, its length 2f in 
head; caudal fin moderately forked, its 

inner rays i^ in the outer mexicanus 15 

dd. Dorsal spine short, 2% in head; pectoral 
spine short and strong and strongly serrate 

on its inner margin, its length 2| in head pricei 15 

aa. Caudal fin truncate, or very slightly lunate; 

anal rays 24 to 27 natalis 16 

Subgenus Haustor Jordan & Evcrmann. 

8. Amiurus australis sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4474, F. C. M., 17.7 inches in length; Forlon, Tamauli- 
pas. 

Rio Panuco to the Rio Blanco in Southern Vera Cruz. (Forlon; 
Rio Blanco.) 

Head 3^; depth 5^; D. i, 6; A. 26. Body elongate, head 
broad and much depressed, its greatest width i^ in its length; 
interorbital 2^; eye father small, 6^ in head; upper jaw consid- 
erably the longer; teeth on jaws in bands, and without backward 
projections; maxillary barbels long, their tips reaching middle of 
pectoral fin; dorsal spine 2| in head; pectoral spine rather strong, 
2^ in head, its inner margin rough, but without teeth; anal fin long, 
its base slightly longer than head; caudal fin forked, but less so than 
in species of Ickthy&lurus; least depth of caudal peduncle 3 in head. 



14 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Color dark slaty blue, belly white, somewhat marbled with 
brownish; all of the fins very dark. 

.While in the Midland Bridge Company's Camp at Rio Blanco, 
one of the men caught a catfish 25 inches in length, which I identify 
with this species. The following are some of the notes made con- 
cerning it: total length, 25 inches; length to base of caudal 21^ 
inches; length of head 5^ inches; depth 5^ inches; length of base 
of anal 6 inches; bridge from snout to dorsal fin not complete; max- 
illary teeth without backward extension; caudal fin forked, but not 
sharply, its lobes rounded; inner margin of pectoral fin but slightly 
serrate; body marked with dark blotches. Large catfish are reported 
from all of the large rivers which I visited south of Vera Cruz, but 
the specimen noted above is the only large one I saw. 

9. Amiurus lupus (Girard). BAGRE; PETONTE. 

Pimelodus lupus Girard, Pac. R. R. Sur.,x, 211, 1858; Rio Pecos. 

Amiurus lupus Gimther, Cat., v, 101, 1864. 

Ameiurus lupus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1896, 137. 

Rivers of northeastern Mexico and southeastern Texas. (San 
Juan; Montemorelos ; Linares; La Cruz; Garza Valdez.) 

Head 3^; depth 4^" to 4^! D- *, 6; A. 23 or 24. Body elongate, 
moderately compressed; head flat above, narrowed forward; upper 
jaw the longer; interorbital area 2^3 in head; snout 2^3 in head; diam- 
eter of eye 3 /^ in head ; maxillary barbel reaching almost to tip of pec- 
toral spine; outer mandibulary barbels reaching to base of pectoral; 
origin of dorsal nearer tip of snout than adipose fin; dorsal spine 
rather long and slender, its length i in head, weakly serrate on 
hinder margin; pectoral spine strong, with 7 to 9 retrose teeth on 
hinder margin (these becoming somewhat smaller in specimens 12 
inches in length) ; pectoral spine i ^ in head ; base of anal fin longer 
than head, $% to 3^ in body; caudal fin deeply forked. 

Color slaty brownish above, lighter below; sides finely punctulate; 
occasionally a few black spots on side made up of dots; fins dusky 
with more or less orange base; margin of vertical fins black. Length 
about 1 8 inches. 

This species very much resembles in color and form Ichthycelurus 
punctatus, from which it differs in having a somewhat less forked tail, 
larger eye, and a shorter anal. The supraoccipital is entirely separate 
from the interspinal buckler which makes it a true Amiurus. This 
species is abundant in the streams of northeastern Mexico. It lives 
mostly in river channels. 



FAMILY III. SILURID^E. 15 

10. Amiurus dugesi Bean. BAGRE. 

Amiurus dugesi Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 304; Rio 
Turbio, Guanajuato: Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1894, 61; Rio Lerma, Salamanca, Guanajuato: Jordan & 
Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 138: Jordan & 
Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1900, 117; Lago de Chapala 
& Guadalajara market: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 
73; Ocotlan; La Barca; La Palma. 
Amiurus catus Pellegrin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1901, 204; 

Estado de Jalisco. 

Rio Lerma, and in Lago de Chapala, but does not occur in the 
lakes about the City of Mexico, nor in Lago de Patzcuaro. 

Head 3f; depth 5; D. i, 6; A. 20. Body rather elongate; head 
moderate, flattish above; interorbital 2%', eye 5^; upper jaw slightly 
the longer; maxillary barbels reaching slightly beyond base of pec- 
toral; pectoral spine strong, its length i^ in head, weakly serrate 
behind; base of anal 43^ in body, shorter than the head; caudal fin 
deeply forked, its inner rays less than half length of outer rays. 

Color light steel blue above, lighter below; margin of vertical fins 
black; body without black spots. Length 2 to 3 feet. 

As a food fish, this is one of the most important in the region where 
found. 

11. Amiurus mexicanus sp. nov. BAGRE. 

Type, No. 4507, F. C. M., n^ inches in length; Rascon, San 
Luis Potosi. 

Basin of the Rio Panuco. (Rio Verde; Rascon.) 

Head 3f ; depth 5^; D. i, 6; A. 20 or 21. Body elongate, com- 
pressed behind; head flat, considerably depressed; interorbital 2^ 
in head; upper jaw somewhat the longer; mouth wide, its width if 
in head; eye 6 in head; snout 3; dorsal spine moderate, its length 2% 
in head; pectoral spine nearly smooth on hinder margin (slightly 
serrate in young specimens), its length 2^ in head; base of anal 
considerably shorter than head, 4^ in body; caudal fin forked, but 
much less so than in Amiurus lupus; maxillary barbels reaching 
slightly beyond base of pectorals ; outer mandibular barbel not reach- 
ing to gill opening. 

Color dark steel blue, lighter below; sides of body without black 
spots; skin very rough, with fleshy hair-like projections. Length 
12 to 1 8 inches. 

I secured one large and one small specimen of this species at 
Rascon, and Dr. Tower collected three specimens at Rio Verde. It 
is probably one of the smaller catfishes of Mexico. 



:6 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

12. Amiurus price! (Rutter). BAGRE DE SONORA. 

Villarins pricei Rutter, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1896, 257; San 
Bernardino Creek, a tributary of the Rio Yaqui in southern 
Arizona: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1900, 2799. 

Ameiurus dugesi Bean, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1898, 168; 
Rio Verde, near San Diego, Chihuahua. 

Ameiurus pricei Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 73; Minaca. 

Streams of the Sierra Madre Mountains in Chihuahua, Sonora 
and Durango. (Lerdo; Durango.) 

Head 3$; depth 5; D. i, 6; A. 19. Body elongate, head rather 
narrow; lower jaw the shorter; interorbital width 2^ in head; eye 
small, 6 in head; maxillary barbels reaching slightly beyond gill 
openings; pectoral spine smooth in front, strongly retrose-serrate 
behind, its length 2% in head; base of anal 1% in head, 4^ in body; 
caudal fin deeply forked, its inner rays about one-half the length 
of outer ones. 

Color bluish above, lighter below; a few dark spots on the 
body; lobes of caudal edged with black. Length probably 2 feet or 
more. 

All specimens of this species which I have seen were less than 12 
inches in length. Mr. C. M. Barber, who has traveled extensively 
in Chihuahua and Sonora, informs me that there is a large catfish in 
the upper tributaries of the Rio Yaqui. It is quite likely that this is 
the species, and that it grows to a length of 2 feet or more. 

Subgenus Amiurus Rafinesque. 

13. Amiurus natalis (Le Sueur). YELLOW CAT. 

Pimelodus natalis Le Sueur, Mem. Mus., v, 1819, 154; North 

America. 
Ameiurus natalis Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 

1896, 139. 
Amiurus natalis antoniensis Jordan, Bull. U. S. Geol. Sur., 

1878, 405; Brownsville, Texas. 

Northeastern Mexico to the Great Lake region, and east to Vir- 
ginia. 

Head 3^ to 4; depth 4 to 5; D. i, 6; A. 24 to 27. Body not 
much elongate, usually rather deep and chubby ; head wide and flattish, 
not much longer than broad, the mouth very wide; jaws equal or the 
lower the shorter; pectoral spine with a few teeth on its inner margin, 
its length about 2 in head; anal fin very long, its base about 4 in 
body; caudal fin truncate or slightly notched. 



FAMILY III. 



Color yellowish, greenish, or blackish, very variable. Length 12 
to 1 8 inches. 

The most southern record for this species is the Rio Grande at 
Brownsville, Texas. It is the only member of the family found in 
Mexico which does not have a decidedly forked tail. 

6. Istlarius Jordan & Snyder. 

Istlarius Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1900, 118. 
(Type, Istlarius balsanus Jordan & Snyder.) 

Body elongate, somewhat compressed; teeth in villiform bands 
in both jaws, the one in the upper jaw with an angular posterior ex- 
tension on each side; band of teeth in lower jaw with a median divi- 
sion growing narrow and pointed posteriorly ; gill rakers long and slen- 
der, 1 7 on first gill arch ; barbels 8 ; skin completely covering the head ; 
supraoccipital bone widely separated from interspinal; humeral 
process short, almost hidden ~by the skin; adipose fin with its pos- 
terior margin free. 

14. Istlarius balsanus Jordan & Snyder. BAGRE DEL BALSAS. 

Istlarius balsanus Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1900, 118; Rio Ixtla, Puente de Ixtla, Morelos: Jordan & Ever- 
mann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3138: Meek, Field Col. 
Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 72; Puente de Ixtla; Balsas. 
1 Basin of the Rio Balsas. (Cuautla; Jojutla.) 





FIG. 2. JAWS SHOWING TEETH OF ISTLARIUS BALSANUS Jordan & Snyder. 

Head 4; depth 4^3; D. i, 6; A. 24. Body oblong, deep, some- 
what compressed; head narrow, not greatly depressed; upper jaw 
the longer; eye small, 5> in head; distance from tip of snout to origin 
of dorsal fin 2 y^ in body; tips of maxillary barbels reaching slightly 
past base of pectoral ; pectoral spine slightly serrate on inner margin ; 
anal fin long, its base equaling length of head; caudal fin forked, the 
lobes equal; caudal peduncle robust, its least depth 2^3 in the head. 



i8 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Color bluish slate above, light silvery below; a few small dark 
spots on head and sides; fins dusky. Length 3 feet or more. 

This is the only member of the catfish family yet known from 
the basin of the Rio Balsas, where it lives in the clear deep water of 
the main stream and its larger tributaries. It is an excellent food fish. 

7. Leptops Rafinesque. 
MUD-CATS. 

Leptops Rafinesque, Ichth. Ohiensis, 64, 1820. (Type, Silurus vis- 
cosus Rafinesque Silurus olivaris Rafinesque.) 

Body elongate, slender, much depressed anteriorly; head large, 
very wide and depressed; skin very thick, entirely concealing the 
skull ; supraoccipital bone entirely free from the head of second inter- 
spinal; eyes small; mouth very large, the lower jaw always project- 
ing beyond the upper; teeth in broad villiform bands on premaxil- 
laries and dentaries; band on the upper jaw .convex anteriorly, and 
at insertion of the maxillaries, proceeding backward as an elongated 
triangular extension; premaxillary band of teeth slightly divided at 
the symphysis; lower band of teeth attenuated at the corners of the 
mouth; branchiostigals 12; adipose fin large, its posterior margin free; 
dorsal and pectoral each with a spine-like ray; anal fin small; caudal 
oblong and truncate. 

15. Leptops olivaris (Rafinesque). MUD-CAT; BAGRE; BESUGO. 
Silurus olivaris Rafinesque, Amer. Monthly Mag., 1818, 355; 

Ohio River. 

Amiurus punctulatus Gtinther, Cat., v, 101, 1864. 
Leptops olivaris Woolman, Bull. U.S. Fish Comm., 1894, 56; Rio 
Grande, El Paso, Texas: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. 
S. Nat. Mus., 1895, J 43 : Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 
74; Santa Rosalia. 

Northeastern Mexico, north of the Rio Panuco, and streams of 
the southern United States and the Mississippi Valley. 

Head 3^; depth 6; D. i, 7; A. 12 to 15. Body slender, depressed 
forward, the head extremely flat; lower jaw projecting; snout 3?^ in 
head; barbels short, maxillary barbels reaching slightly beyond base 
of pectoral; eye small, 7 in head; dorsal spine very weak, 2 in height 
of the fin ; anal fin short, its base 6^ in the body ; humeral process short ; 
pectoral spine strong, serrate on both edges, its length 3 in head; 
caudal fin slightly emarginate. 

Color yellowish, much mottled with brown and greenish, whitish 
below. Length 3 to 4 feet. 



FAMILY III. SILURID^E. 19 

This species is not recorded south of Santa Rosalia, but may be 
expected to range as far south as the Rio Panuco. It is one of the 
largest in the family, reaching a weight of 75 pounds, and is a much- 
used, excellent food fish. 

Subfamily Pimelodinse. 

Coiiorliynclms Bleeker. 

Conorhynchus Bleeker, Nederl. Tydschr. Dierk, 102, 1863. (Type , Pimelodus 
conirostris Cuvier & Valenciennes.) 

Body elongate, nearly r terete anteriorly, compressed posteriorly; snout 
pointed ; mouth narrow; barrels 6 ; teeth in the upper jaw minute, the lower with 
very weak teeth or none; no teeth on palate. 

Conorhynchus nelson! Evermann & Goldsborough. 

Conorhynchus nelsoni Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 

1902, 140, fig. i; Rio Usumacinta, Montecristo, Chiapas. 
Atlantic streams from Chiapas to Brazil. 




FlG. 3. CONORHYNCHUS NELSONI Evermann & Goldsborough. 
No. 50001, U. S. National Museum. 
Large figure about K natural size. 
Small figure, embryo, natural size. 



Head 3^; depth 5; D. i, 6; A. 17. Body elongate, nearly terete, becoming 
somewhat compressed posteriorly; head conical, about as wide as deep; a gran- 
ular saddle over occipital region, extending anteriorly to posterior portion of 
eye ; a small granular saddle at base of front of dorsal ; fontanelle long and nar- 
row, extending an equal distance in front of and behind eye; a narrow transverse 
bridge equal to diameter of pupil just back of posterior border of eye; snout 
very long and pointed; mouth small, nearly circular; upper jaw the longer; 
barbels all very short; maxillary barbel not nearly reaching eye, its length 2 in 
snout ; other barbels shorter ; no teeth on vomer and palatines ; teeth on upper jaw 
confluent in one broad patch, concave posteriorly; teeth in lower jaw very weak; 
buccal cavity very large; origin of dorsal midway between tip of snout and 
posterior base of anal; dorsal spine z\ in head, its upper posterior third roughly 
serrate; adipose fin large; pectoral spine 2^ in head, its posterior edge very 
strongly serrate; caudal deeply forked, the upper lobe the longer. 

Color light brown above lateral line with bluish reflections, silvery below, 
becoming pale on the belly; dorsal pale dusky; spine darker in front; inner edge 
of caudal lobes black. (Evermann & Goldsborough.) 

The male of this species carries the eggs in his mouth during the period of 
gestation, during which time he is unable to eat any food. This peculiar cus- 
tom, concerning which but little is known, is practiced by some South American 
catfishes. 



20 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

8. Rhamdia Bleeker. 

Rhamdia Bleeker, Ichth. Arch. Ind. Siluri., 1858, 197. (Type, Pime- 
lodus quelen Quoy & Gaimard.) 

Body more or less elongate; head not especially widened; oc- 
cipital process small or wanting, not reaching the dorsal plate; 
fontanelle variously developed, not continued backward beyond 
the eye, except in the young; young usually with two bony bridges 
across the fontanelle, the one behind the eye the other in front of 
the occiput ; in old specimens the entire fontanelle becoming obliter- 
ated; adipose fin very long, adnate for its entire length to the back; 
posterior nostril without a barbel; barbels 6. 

Several species of this genus are recorded from Mexico, but the 
most of them probably occur south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. 
This group of fishes is not well known. 

. . KEY TO THE SPECIES OF RHAMDIA. 

P ALrE 

a. Head 3^ in length of body; anal rays 10 oaxacce 20 

aa. Head 4 to 5 in length of body, 
b. Head 4 to 4^ m length of body, 
c. Anal rays 12, or 13; adipose fin 3^ in body; 

eye 2^ in interorbital area; head 4^ laticaiida 21 

cc. Anal rays 9 or 10. 

e. Eye large, 5^3 in head brachyptera 21 

ee. Eye small, 7^ to 8 in head .- . . [wagneri] 2 2 

bb. Head 5 ; depth 6; anal rays 13 ,: hypselura 22 

16. Rhamdia oaxacas Meek. BAGRE. 

Rhamdia oaxaca Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 74; Cuicatlan. 

Streams of Mexico on the Atlantic side south of Vera Cruz. (Otopa ; 
Cordoba; Rio Blanco; Motzorongo; El Hule; Obispo; Perez.) 

Head 3^; depth 5^; D. i, 6; A. 10. Body slender, stout ante- 
riorly, compressed posteriorly; head large, flat, narrowed forward; 
interorbital space 3 in head ; eye high up, small, its diameter 6 % in head ; 
occipital process 4^ in -head; width of mouth 2 in head; teeth in 
jaws in bands; maxillary barbel reaching to middle of base of adipose 
fin (slightly shorter in largest specimens, 6^ inches in length) ; mental 
barbel reaching f distance to base of pectoral; postmental to just 
past base of pectoral ; humeral spine extending to about ^3 length of 
pectoral fin, covered with a membrane; gill rakers 3 + 7; origin of 
dorsal fin slightly nearer tip of snout than first anal ray, its margin 
rounded; origin of adipose fin at tips of dorsal rays, when fin is deflexed 
and extending to opposite tips of depressed anal fin ; origin of anal 



FAMILY III. SILURID^E. 21 

midway between base of caudal and base of next to last dorsal ray; 
caudal fin forked, its lower lobe broad and round, its upper pointed; 
fontanelle reaching middle of orbit ; dorsal fin slightly higher than long, 
its base if in head; dorsal spine weak, flexible, its length \% in base 
of fin; pectoral fin small, its spine strong, with small teeth on its 
outer margin, the largest being near its tip, the inner margin ser- 
rate, except the portion nearest tip opposite the large teeth on 
outer margin; pectoral spine 2f in head; length of adipose fin 2f in 
body; ventrals inserted opposite last dorsal ray. 

Color uniform dull brownish, slightly lighter on the lower half of 
the body ; a narrow black lateral band ; dorsal fin with a light cross- 
band occupying the second fourth of the fin from base ; no dark dots. 

This species reaches a length of about 18 inches. It is very 
abundant in the streams of Mexico south of Vera Cruz. 

17. Rhamdia laticauda (Heckel). 

Pimelodus laticaudus Heckel, in Kner, Sitz. Wien, Ac., xxvi, 

420, 1857; Mexico: Giinther, Cat., v, 127, 1864. 
Rhamdia laticauda Jordan & Evermann., Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 1896, 152. 

Head 4%', D. i, 6; A. 13. Body elongate; head covered with soft 
skin above; occipital process short; lower jaw the shorter; the eyes 
situated somewhat before the middle of the head, their diameter f 
width of interorbital ; pectoral spine only half as long as rays; base 
of adipose 3^ m body; caudal peduncle nearly as deep as body; 
caudal fin subtruncate. (Kner.) 

We know this species only from the abpve account. 
% 

18. Rhamdia brachyptera (Cope). 

Pimelodus brachypterus Cope, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., 1866, 404; 
Orizaba, Mexico. 

Rhamdia brachyptera Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 151. 

Mountain streams of the south central portion of Vera Cruz. 
(Motzorongo.) 

Head 4|; depth 5; D. i, 7; A. 10. Body rather elongate, robust 
anteriorly, compressed posteriorly; back slightly elevated; head 
elongate, rather narrow, flattened with rather steep sides; snout 
little broader than long, its length aj in head; eye small, high up on 
head, directed outward and upward; diameter of eye 5^ in head; 
width of mouth 2 l / 3 ; teeth small, sharp, conic; interorbital 2%; 
maxillary barbel short, its tip reaching base of ventral; outer mental 
barbel extending to the tip of the humeral process; fontanelle extend- 



22 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

ing from internasal space to scarcely beyond the posterior margin of 
the eyes; opercle with fine radiating striae; humeral spine extending 
for about the first third of its length of the pectoral fin, covered with 
a thin membrane; origin of dorsal fin nearly midway between the 
tip of the snout and origin of anal, its margin rounded; origin of 
adipose fin near dorsal and extending to tips of depressed rays of 
anal ; origin of anal a little nearer base of the caudal than the dorsal ; 
caudal fin deeply emarginate, its lobes pointed; pectoral fin small, 
reaching a little over half-way to the base of ventrals, its com- 
pressed spine about two -thirds its length; ventrals inserted below 
the posterior base of the dorsal fin, reaching about Y% of its distance 
to the anal. 

Color uniform dull russet brown; the upper half a little darker 
than the lower; a pale shade on dorsal. Length 6J/& inches. 

The above description was taken by Mr. Henry Fowler from the 
type which is in the Museum of the Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 
This species is known only from this and one other specimen, n 
inches in length, collected by the writer at Motzorongo. 

Rhamdia wagneri (Gimther). 

Pimelodus wagneri Gtinther, Fishes Cent. Amer., 474, 1869; Atlantic and 
Pacific Rivers of Panama. 

Rhamdia wagneri Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 150: 
Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1902, 146; Teapa 
and Frontera, Tabasco. 

Southern Mexico to Panama. 

Head 4 to 4%', depth 5 to 5X1 D. i, 6; A. 9 or 10. Body elongate, tapering 
backward from head and much compressed posteriorly; head broad and flat, 
slightly longer than wide, covered with soft, smooth skin ; interorbital width 2% 
in head; eye small, high up on the head, its diameter 7^ to 8 in head; mouth 
moderate, jaws equal; teeth in broad cardiform bands on each jaw; maxillary 
barbel reaching adipose fin; mental barbel reaching beyond base of pectoral; 
occipital process narrow, reaching about half-way to dorsal spine ; base of adipose 
fin 2 % to 3 in body, reaching slightly farther than anal; fontanelle not continued 
beyond the eye. 

Color brown, lighter below; many dots over the body; a dark lateral band; 
base of dorsal pale. Length probably about 18 inches. Specimens described 
are from Teapa and Frontera. 

This species was taken at Teapa and Frontera, Tabasco, by Mr. E. W. 
Nelson. So far this is the most northern record we have of it. The largest 
specimen collected by Mr. Nelson is 14% inches in length. 



19. Rhamdia hypselura (Giinther). 

Pimelodus hypselurus Gunther, Cat., v, 126, 1864; Mexico. 
Rhamdia hypselura Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 

1895- i5 2 - 

Head 5; depth 6; D. I, 6; A. 13. Body elongate, apparently quite 
slender; lower jaw the shorter, the band of teeth in the upper jaw 
about five times as broad as long; eyes near middle of head, their 
diameter being ^ width of interorbital space ; head covered with soft 



FAMILY III. SILURID^E. 23 

skin; occipital process triangular, rather short; dorsal fin with a 
weak spine, the fin higher than long; base of adipose fin 4 in body; 
pectoral spine 2 in body; the posterior anal rays, if the fin is deflexed, 
extending nearly to the vertical from the end of the adipose fin; 
caudal peduncle deeper than long; caudal fin forked, with both 
lobes rounded. 

Color uniform blackish (Gunther). 

We know this species only from the above account. 



Order iv. Plectospondyli. 

THE CARP-LIKE FISHES. 

The anterior vertebrae modified as in the preceding order; oper- 
cular bones all present; maxillary developed, not entering into the 
base of a barbel; body covered with ordinary scales, rarely naked; 
ventral fins abdominal. 

KEY TO THE FAMILIES OF PLECTOSPONDYLI. 

a. Braincase produced between the orbits; jaws PAGE 

toothless ; no adipose dorsal fin ; lower pharyn- 
geal b.ones falciform. 

b. Pharyngeal teeth numerous, pectinate; max- 
illary forming part of the margin of the upper 

jaw . '. C ' atostomidce 24 

bb. Pharyngeal teeth few; margin of the upper 

jaw formed by the premaxillaries only Cyprinidce 36 

aa. Braincase not produced between the orbits; 
jaws usually with teeth; adipose fin usually 
present Characinida 83 

Family IV. Catostomidae. 

THE SUCKERS. 

Body oblong or elongate, usually more or less compressed; head 
more or less conical; mouth usually protractile and with fleshy lips; 
margin of the upper jaw formed in the middle by the small premaxil- 
laries and outside by the maxillaries ; jaws toothless; lower pharyn- 
geal bones falciform, armed with a single row of numerous comb- 
like teeth ; branchiostegals 3 ; gill membranes more or less united to 
the isthmus ; gills 4 ; pseudobranchiae present ; scales cycloid ; lateral 
line usually present; ventrals abdominal; alimentary canal long; no 
pyloric cceca; air bladder in two or three parts. Fishes inhabiting 
the fresh waters of Eastern Asia and North America. The buffalo 
fishes are much used for food, but the other members of the family 
are of little value for this purpose. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF CATOSTOMID^E. 

a. Dorsal fin elongate, with 25 to 50 rays, its PAGE 

first 6 or 8 rays much longer than the others Carpiodes 25 

aa. Dorsal fin short, with 10 to 18 rays. 

24 



FAMILY IV. CATOSTOMID^E. 25 

b. Scales small, more than 55 in the lateral PAGE 

series; air bladder in two parts, 
c. Scales very small, more than 80 in the lateral 
series; jaws with hard sheathes; under lip 
very broad and deeply incised; fontanelle 

wanting, or very small in the young Pantosteus 30 

cc. Scales moderate, less than 80 in the lateral 
series; fontanelle present in the adult. 

d. Nuchal region without a hump Catostomus 31 

dd. Nuchal region developed in a high sharp- 
edged hump Xyrauchen 33 

bb. Scales large, less than 45 in the lateral series; 

air bladder in 3 parts ; lateral line complete .... Myzostoma 3 4 

Subfamily Ichthyobinae. 
9. Carpiocles Rafmesque. 

Carpiodes Rafinesque, Ichth. Ohiensis, 56, 1820. (Type, Catostomus 
. cyprinus Le Sueur.) 

Head comparatively short and deep, its upper surface always 
rounded; mouth small, horizontal and inferior; suborbital bones well 
developed; fontanelle present; lips thin or moderately thick, more or 
less plicate; pharyngeal bones very thin; teeth compressed, nearly 
equally thin all along the length of the bone, forming a fine, comb- 
like crest of minute serratures; gill rakers slender and stiff above, 
becoming reduced downward ; caudal peduncle rather short and deep ; 
scales large, about equal all over the body; lateral line well developed, 
nearly straight; dorsal fin long, with 23 to 30 rays; caudal fin forked, 
lobes about equal. The fishes of this group reach a large size. They 
inhabit the larger streams of the Mississippi Valley, extending as far 
south as the Rio Usumacinta in Guatemala. 

KEY TO SPECIES OF CARPIODES. 

a. Tips of pectoral fins reaching nearly or quite PAGE 

to base of ventrals; lips moderate, 
b. Dorsal rays 28 or 30; scales 40 in the lateral 
series; depth 2|; lower lip slightly thicker 

than the upper meridionalis 26 

bb. Dorsal rays 24; scales 36 in the lateral series; 

depth 2f tnmidus 26 

aa. Tips of pectoral not nearly reaching base of 
ventral; distance from tip of pectoral to base 
of ventral about half the length of pectoral fin. 



26 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

c. Lips thin; mouth small; lower lip about twice PAGE 

as thick as upper, 
d. Body robust, its depth 2^ to 3 in length 

of body; head large, 3$ microstomus 27 

dd. Body elongate, its depth 3)^ to $% in 

length of body; head rather small, 4^ elongatus 28 

cc. Lips very thick; mouth large; lower lip 
about as thick as upper; lips strongly papil- 
lose; body very slender, its depth 3^ labiosus 29 

20. Carpiodes meridionalis (Giinther). 

Sclerognathus meridionalis Giinther, Cat., vn, 23, 1868; Rio Usu- 
macinta, Guatemala. 

Ictiobus meridionalis Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 164. 

Large rivers of Mexico south of the City of Vera Cruz and of the 
east slope of Guatemala. (Perez.) 

Head 3^; depth 2^; D. 28 to 30; A. 9; scales 9-40-6. Body 
elongate, compressed, dorsal region elevated; head small; mouth in- 
ferior; lips moderately thick, papillose, the lower slightly the thicker; 
hinder margin of lower lip rounded, the lobes not forming an angle; 
snout short, blunt, its length 4 in head; diameter of eye 4 in head; 
opercles striate ; origin of dorsal fin midway between tip of snout and 
base of caudal ; dorsal fin falcate, its longest rays shorter than the head ; 
base of dorsal 2% in head; tips of pectorals not reaching base of 
ventrals by a distance equaling % length of the fin; pectoral i^ in 
head; ventral i^; least depth of caudal peduncle 2 in head; caudal 
fin forked, the lower lobe the broader and the shorter. 

Color brownish olive above, below silvery. Length 2 feet or more. 

The most southern range of this species, so far as known at pres- 
ent, is the Rio Usumacinta in Guatemala. This fish is reported to 
reach a weight of 20 to 30 pounds. It was very abundant in isolated 
ponds near Perez. None of the specimens taken by me exceeded a 
length of 12 to 14 inches. 

21. Carpiodes tumidus Baird & Girard. METALOTE; BUFFALO. 
Carpiodes tumidus Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

1854, 28; Rio Grande, Ft. Brown, Tex.: Jordan, Bull. U. S. 

Geol. Sur., 1878, 404, 666; Brownsville, Texas: Jordan & Snyder, 

Bull. U. S. Fish Comm.,1900, 119, lagoons near Tampico. 
Ictiobus tumidus Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 34, pi. xix, figs. 1-4, 1859; 

Rio Grande, Ft. Brown, Texas. 
Ichthyobus tumidus Garman, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1881, 89; 

Rio Nazas, San Pedro, Coahuila. 



FAMILY IV. CATOSTOMID^E. 27 

Carpiodes velifer, in part, Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 167. 

Lowland streams from the Rio Panuco to the Rio Grande. (Garza 
Valdez; Forlon.) 

Head 3^4; depth 2f; D. 24; A. 8; scales 9-36-5. Body deep, 
compressed, back considerably arched ; head broad, convex ; interorbital 
2^" in head; eye 5; snout 3^; mouth moderately large, inferior; lips 
rather thick, the lower plicate, each plication broken into two or 
three parts; upper lip papillose, the greatest diameter of papillae at 
right angles to mouth ; opercles faintly striate ; origin of dorsal slightly 
nearer tip of snout than base of caudal; dorsal fin falcate, tips of its 
longest rays reaching beyond middle of fin ; longest ray i y* in base of 
fin, which is 2^ in body; tips of pectorals reaching base of ventrals; 
length of pectoral i% in head, and slightly longer than ventrals; tips 
of ventrals reaching ^3 of distance between its base and origin of 
anal; caudal peduncle deep, its least depth nearly equal to* its length 
and 1 2^ in length of head ; caudal fin forked, the two lobes about equal. 

Color light plumbeous above, lighter below; fins plain, rather 
darker in the larger specimens. Length probably 18 inches to 2 feet. 

Longest specimen seen by me 12^ inches, taken at Forlon. A 
large, rather dark colored buffalo fish inhabiting the larger rivers of 
northeastern Mexico. 

22. Carpiodes microstomus sp. nov. 

Type, No. 3542, F. C. M., 4^2 inches in length; Santa Rosalia, Chi- 
huahua. 

Carpiodes tumidus Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 74; Santa 
Rosalia; Jimenez (not Carpiodes tumidus Girard). 

Basin of the Rio Conchos in Chihuahua. 




FIG. 4. CARPIODES MICROSTOMUS Meek. 



28 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 



Head 3$ ; depth 2^ to 3; D. 24 to 26; A. 8; scales 7-38 to 41-6. 
Body robust, compressed, back arched; head moderately large; lips 
very thin papillose, the long diameter of papillae at right angles to 
mouth, giving the lips a plicate appearance; opercle strongly striate; 
lower lip slightly broader than upper, lobes somewhat u -shaped; 
interorbital convex, 2^ in head; snout 3^3 in head; dorsal fin falcate, 
tips of longest rays when deflexed reaching past middle of its base; 
longest rays i % in its base ; origin of dorsal slightly nearer tip of snout 
than base of caudal ; distance between tip of pectoral and base of ven- 
tral 2 in length of pectoral; pectoral if in head; ventral i>; caudal 
peduncle deep, its least depth i% in its length; caudal fin forked, its 
lobes about equal. 

Color light brownish, silvery below; middle of each scale silvery, 
forming indistinct silvery lines along rows of scales; these more con- 
spicuous on lower half of body. Length about 10 inches. 

A small species inhabiting the tributaries of the Rio Grande, on the 
Mexican Plateau. 

23. Carpiodes elongatus sp. nov. METALOTE. 

Type, No. 4425, F. C. M., 9 inches in length; Linares, Nuevo 
Leon. 

Rivers of northeastern Mexico between the Rio Panuco and the 
Rio Grande. (San Juan; Montemorelos ; Linares; La Cruz.) 




FIG. 5. CARPIODES ELONGATUS Meek. 



Head 4 to 4^3 ; depth 3^ to 3^3 ; D. 23 to 26; A. 7; scales 8-38-5. 
Body elongate, not much compressed, back little elevated; head 
small; interorbital convex, its width 2f in head; diameter of eye 3^ 
to 4 ; snout 3 % ; mouth small ; lips thin , the lower about twice as thick 
as the upper; lips papillose, the papillae with long diameter at right 
angles to the mouth, giving the lips a plicate appearance; opercles 



FAMILY IV. CATOSTOMID^;. 29 

strongly striate; dorsal fin falcate, the tip of first rays when deflexed 
reaching past middle of the base of fin ; base of dorsal 2 in body ; 
origin of dorsal fin nearer tip of snout than base of caudal by a distance 
equal to the length of the snout; length of pectoral i^ in head; dis- 
tance from tip of pectoral to base of ventral 2 in length of pectoral; 
ventrals 1^3 in head; caudal peduncle long and slender, its least 
depth 1^2 in its length (measured from last dorsal ray) ; caudal forked, 
the lobes about equal; lateral line decurved anteriorly. 

Color light brownish above, lighter below, silvery; fins all plain. 
Length about 12 inches. 

This species is more slender and has thicker lips than the preced- 
ing, which it most resembles. 

24. Carpiodes labiosus sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4492, F. C. M., T.O I /^ inches in length; Valles, San 
Luis Potosi. 

Basin of the Rio Panuco. (Valles.) 




FIG. 6. CARPIODES LABIOSUS Meek. 

Head $%; depth 3! ; D. 23; A. 9; scales 10-43-6. Body rather 
elongate, moderately compressed; back not much arched; head 
rather small; mouth large, overhung by the rather blunt snout; lips 
very thick, papillose, resembling those of Catostomus; eye 4 in head; 
snout 2; opercles not striate; dorsal fin falcate, when deflexed the 
tips of longest rays reaching ^ distance to base of last ray ; origin of 
dorsal fin midway between base of caudal and tip of snout, slightly 
in advance of ventrals ; base of dorsal fin 3^ in length of body ; dis- 
tance from last dorsal ray to base of caudal i/^ in the base of the 
dorsal fin; caudal peduncle slender, its least depth i in distance 
from last dorsal ray to base of caudal; pectoral fin i ^ in head, its tips 
not reaching base of ventrals by a distance equal to ^3 of their length ; 
ventrals i in head, their tips not reaching origin of anal fin. 



30 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Color silvery plumbeous on upper half of body, lower white ; middle 
of each scale more silvery than the margin, forming indistinct silvery 
lateral stripes along the rows of scales. 

This species is easily distinguished by being more slender than any 
other member of the genus and having thick papillose lips like the 
species of Catostomus. One large (type) and one small (i l / inches) 
specimen were taken at Valles. 

Subfamily Catostominee. 

1O. Pantosteus Cope. 

MOUNTAIN SUCKERS. 

Pantosteus Cope, Lieut. Wheeler's Expl. W., looth Mer., v., 673, 
1876. (Type, Minomus platyrhynchus Cope.) 

Body rather elongate, not much compressed; head rather small; 
suborbital bones narrow; bones of the head rather thick; the parietal 
bones in the adult more or less uniting, partly or wholly obliterating 
the fontanelle; mouth large, entirely inferior; each jaw with a devel- 
oped cartilaginous sheath; upper lip broad, papillose, with a rather 
broad free margin, and two or more series of tubercles; lower lip largely 
developed, the broad deep margin deeply incised behind; pharyngeal 
bones and teeth essentially as in Catostomus; isthmus broad; scales 
small, 80 to over too in lateral series; lateral line well developed, nearly 
straight; fins rather small; caudal short, emarginate; air bladder in 
two parts. 

25. Pantosteus plebeius (Baird & Girard). 

Catostomus plebeius Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

1854, 28; Rio Mimbres, a tributary of Lago de Guzman. 
Minomus plebeius Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 173; 

Rio Janos, tributary of Lago de Guzman: Girard, Mex. Bd. 

Sur.,38,pl. xxn, figs. 1-4, 1858; Rio Mimbres. 
Catostomus guzmaniensis Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 

173; Rio Janos, tributary of Lago de Guzman. 
Acomus guzmaniensis Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 39, pi. xxm, figs. 

i-io, 1858; Rio Janos, tributary of Lago de Guzman. 
Catostomus nebuliferus Garman, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1881, 

vin, 89; Rio Nazas, Coahuila. 
Pantosteus plebeius Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 

1896, 171: Bean, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1898, 167; San 

Diego, Chihuahua: Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. U. S. Fish 

Comm., 1902, 146; Rio Piedras, Colonia Garcia and Rio Casas 

Grandes, Casas Grandes, Chihuahua: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 

65, 1902, 75; Colonia Juarez; Ahumada; San Andres; Minaca. 



FAMILY IV. CATOSTOMID^E. 31 

Streams and lakes on the plateau in northern Mexico, ranging as far 
south as the headwaters of the Rio Mezquital in Durango, and the 
Rio Nazas. (Sauz; Lerdo; Santiago Papasquiaro; Durango.) 

Head 4^ to 4^3 ; depth 4^ ; D. 9 to 1 1 ; A. 8 ; scales 14-85 to 100- 
14. Body elongate, rather stout, little compressed; upper surface of 
head convex, mouth inferior; lips papillose, papillae on upper lip in 
about six rows; free margin of lower lip incised, the incision reaching 
about half-way to margin of jaw; interorbital convex, its width 2\ in 
head; eye small, high up on the head, its diameter about from 5-6^ 
in head; snout 2\ in head; origin of dorsal nearer tip of snout than 
base of caudal; dorsal low, its margin convex, its longest ray about if 
in head; base of dorsal 2^ in head; pectorals moderate, i 1 /?, in head, 
and slightly more than the space between their tips and base of caudal ; 
ventral fins i| in head, their tips reaching half-way to base of anal; 
caudal peduncle somewhat compressed, its least diameter 2^ in head; 
caudal fin very short, emarginate, its longest rays i^ in head; scales 
small, those on anterior half of body smaller than those on posterior 
half, or on ventral surface; about 50 scales in a series between nape 
and dorsal fin. 

Color dark brown, the sides mottled with darker; in small speci- 
mens a dark lateral band; in large males in life, the side has a bright 
orange band. Length 12 to 18 inches. 

This species is easily recognized on account of the small scales, 
hard cartilaginous lips, and short fins, and especially by the short 
caudal fin. It is usually very abundant where found, and seldom ex- 
ceeds 12 inches in length. 

11. Catostomus Le Sueur. 
FINE-SCALED SUCKERS. 

Catostomus Le Sueur, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1817, 89. (Type, 
Cyprinus catostomus Forster.) 

Body elongate, terete anteriorly, not much compressed; mouth 
rather large, inferior; upper lip thick, papillose; lower lip greatly 
developed, with broad, deeply incised free portion; scales small, those 
on anterior half of the body much reduced in size; pharyngeal teeth 
compressed vertically, rapidly diminishing in size upward; lateral line 
nearly straight, well developed; air bladder in two parts; vertebrae 45 
to 47. Species chiefly North American. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CATOSTOMUS. 
a. Scales large, 60 to 75 in the lateral series; not 
more than 35 in a series between nape and 
dorsal fin. 



32 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

b. Scales in the lateral series 65; 30 scales in a PAGE 

series between nape and dorsal fin sonorensis 32 

bb. Scales in the lateral line 75; 31 scales in a 

series between nape and dorsal fin bernardini 32 

aa. Scales in the lateral line 80; about 45 scales in 

a series between nape and dorsal fin conchos 33 

26. Catostomus sonorensis Meek. 

Catostomus sonorensis Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 75; 
Minaca. 

Upper tributaries of the Rio Yaqui. 

Head 4; depth 4%; D. 12; A. 7; scales 11-65-10. Body robust, 
profile very convex; top of head flattish, broad; interorbital 2% in 
head; lips thick, papillose, the papillae on upper lip in 8 or 9 rows; 
lower lip very broad, from anterior to posterior margin 4^ in head; 
the two halves meeting at a very obtuse angle; dorsal fin as high as 
long, its base i| in head; origin of dorsal fin slightly nearer base of 
caudal fin than tip of snout ; margin of dorsal fin slightly convex ; base 
of ventrals under middle rays of dorsal fin; pectoral fin if in head; 
distance from tip of pectoral to base of ventral i in pectoral fin; 
ventrals if in head, their tips nearly reaching anal fin; lateral line 
slightly decurved anteriorly; no fontanelle; caudal fin deeply emar- 
ginate; lobes equal; scales on anterior half of body much reduced. 

Color steel blue to brownish, white below; young specimens have 
the dark lateral blotches. Length about 12 inches. 

27. Catostomus bernardini Girard. 

Catostomus bernardini Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 
175; San Bernardino Creek, tributary of Rio Huagui, west of 
Sierra Madre Mts., Mexico: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 40, xxin, figs. 
1-5, 1858; San Bernardino Creek: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 178: Rutter, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1896, 
258; Rio Yaqui, Sonora: Bean, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
1898, 166, Sonora. 
Pacific slope streams in Sonora. 

Head \ l /t ; depth about 4^ I D. 1 2 ; A. 7 ; scales 75. Body elongate, 
rather slender; head small; lips broad, the lower deeply incised; eye 
large, 4 in head ; origin of the dorsal fin slightly nearer tip of snout than 
base of caudal ; margin of dorsal fin subconvex ; base of dorsal a little 
less than length of longest ray; pectorals about \\ in the head; scales 
on anterior half of the body much reduced in size, 31 in a series be- 
tween nape and first dorsal ray; fontanelle large. 

Color uniform, purplish black and yellowish white beneath. This 
species probably reaches a length of 1 2 inches. 



FAMILY IV. CATOSTOMID^E. 33 

28. Catostomus conchos Meek. 

Catostomus conchos Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 75 ; Jimenez. 

Basin of the Rio Conchos, in Chihuahua. 

Head 4^; depth 4%; D. 9; A. 7; scales 13-80-13. Body robust, 
terete, not much compressed, except posterior third; profile convex; 
head broad; interorbital area convex, its width 2% in head; lips thick, 
papillose, the papillae on the upper lip in about 9 rows; lower lip broad, 
4^ in head from anterior to posterior margin ; lower lip deeply incised, 
its lobes meeting at a very obtuse angle; dorsal fin as high as long, 
its base i.K in head; origin of dorsal fin nearer tip of snout than base 
of caudal by a distance equaling ^3 head ; margin of dorsal fin slightly 
convex ; base of ventrals under seventh dorsal ray ; pectoral fin i X in 
head; distance from tip of pectoral to base of ventral 2 in pectoral fin; 
ventral fins if in head, their tips not reaching anal; lateral line slight- 
ly decurved anteriorly; no fontanelle; caudal fin not deeply emarginate 
the lobes about equal. 

Color light steel blue on back, shading into dark olive; sides 
lighter below, especially on posterior half of body where the line be- 
tween the light and dark color is very marked ; on anterior half of the 
body the colors gradually merge into one another; young with the 
black lateral blotches. Length 1 2 inches or more. 

At present this species is known only from the type locality. 

12. Xyraucheii Eigenmann & Kirsch. 
RAZOR-BACK SUCKERS. 

'Xyrauchen Eigenmann & Kirsch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1888, 
556. (Type, Catostomus cypho Lockington.) 

Body rather elongate, compressed; nuchal region with a large 
sharp-edged hump, formed by a singular development of the inter- 
neural bones, otherwise as in Catostomus. 

29. Xyrauchen cypho (Lockington). RAZOR-BACK SUCKER. 

' Catostomus cypho Lockington, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1880, 
237 ; Colorado River at mouth of the Gila, Arizona: Gilbert & 
Scofield, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 491; Colorado River at 
Yuma, and Horseshoe Bend. 
Basin of the Colorado River. 

Head 4; depth 4; D. 13 or 14; A. 7; scales 14-72 to 77-13. Body 
stout, compressed; the head small, low, the profile ascending to the 
prominent nuchal hump, which is largest in adults; anterior edge of 
hump straight, sharp, and without scales; mouth wide, inferior; upper 
lip with two rows of papillae; lower lip deeply divided, with 8 rows; 



34 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

dorsal fin low, long, with concave edge; caudal fin broad and strong, 
with numerous rudimentary rays; pectorals moderate. 

Color plain, olivaceous. Length 2 feet or more. 

A very peculiar Sucker, known only from the basin of the Colorado 
River. It reaches a weight of 8 to 10 pounds. 

13. Myzostoma Rafinesque. 
RED-HORSE SUCKERS. 

Moxostoma Rafinesque, Ichth. Ohiensis, 54, 1820. (Type, Catos- 
tomus anisurus Rafinesque.) 

Body more or less elongate, nearly terete- usually more or less 
compressed posteriorly; suborbital bones very narrow; fontanelle 
present; mouth inferior; lips plicate, the lower not deeply incised; 
jaws without cartilaginous sheath; opercular bones moderately devel- 
oped, nearly smooth; isthmus broad; gill rakers weak, rather long; 
pharyngeal bones rather weak; teeth compressed, the lower 5 or 6 
stronger than the others, which rapidly diminish in size upward, each 
with a prominent internal cusp. Scales large, nearly equal in size 
over the body and not especially crowded anywhere; lateral line de- 
veloped, slightly curved anteriorly, fins all developed; caudal forked; 
anal fin short and high; air bladder with three chambers. A group of 
large-scaled suckers chiefly inhabiting the streams of United States 
east of the Rocky Mountains. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF MYZOSTOMA. 

a. Distance from tips of pectorals to base of ven- PAGE 

trals sX m the length of the pectoral fin. congestum 34 

aa. Distance from tips of pectorals to base of ven- 

trals 2^ in length of pectoral austrinum 35 

30. Myzostoma congestum (Baird & Girard). LISA. 

Catostomus congestus Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

1854, 27; Rio Salada, Texas. 
Ptychostomus albidus Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 

172; Rio San Juan, Monterey, Nuevo Leon; near Monterey. 
Moxostoma congestum Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 
56; Rio Grande, El Paso, Texas: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 192: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 
1902, 76; Santa Rosalia. 

Basin of the Rio Soto la Marina north to the Rio Grande and west 
to the upper tributaries of the Rio Conchos in Chihuahua. (San 
Juan; Montemorelos ; Linares; Garza Valdez; Victoria.) 



FAMILY IV. CATOSTOMID.E. 35 

Head 4f; depth 4; D. n; A. 7; scales 7-45-5. Body elongate, 
terete; head large; interorbital area flat, its width 2 in the length of 
the head; eye 4^; snout 2>; origin of dorsal fin midway between tip 
of snout and tip of last anal ray; about 16 scales in a series before 
dorsal fin; margin of dorsal- fin slightly concave, the length of its first 
rays i % in head , its base i % ', shortest dorsal ray 2 X ! caudal fin forked , 
its lower lobe slightly the larger; longest caudal ray 1% in head; 
length of pectorals equals the length of the head ; distance from tip of 
pectorals to base of ventrals 5^ in length of pectoral; ventrals if 
in head, their tips reaching ^ distance to anal fin; least depth of 
caudal peduncle 2^ m head. 

Color light olivaceous above, lighter below; middle of each scale 
silvery, forming faint longitudinal stripes along rows of scales; dorsal 
membranes blackish; other fins plain. Length 12 to 14 inches. 

This species has not been taken in the Rio Nazas or in other iso- 
lated bodies of water in northern Mexico. 

31. riyzostoma austrinum Bean. 

Myxostoma austrina Bean, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 302; La 

Piedad in Morelia, Michoacan. 

Moxostoma austrinum Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 
61; Rio Lerma, Salamanca, Guanajuato: Jordan & Evermann, 
Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1876, 192: Jordan & Snyder, Bull. 
U. S. Fish. Comm., 1900, 120; Rio Verde, Aguas Calientes; 
Rio Santiago, Ataquiza, Jalisco: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 
1902, 76; Ocotlan; La Palma. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma and headwaters of the Rio Mezquital. 
(Durango.) 

Head 4^ to 4$; depth 4; D. n ; A. 6; scales 7-44 to 48-6. Body 
rather stout; head rather small; interorbital area 2% in head; eye 4^2 
to 6 ; snout 2 % ', origin of dorsal fin midway between tip of snout and 
base of last anal ray; 16 scales in series before dorsal fin; margin of 
dorsal fin slightly concave, its longest ray i in head; base of dorsal 
1 1 in head; shortest dorsal ray 2> in head; caudal fin forked, lobes 
about equal ; the length of the pectorals equals the length of the head ; 
distance from tip of pectoral to base of ventrals 2^ in length of pec- 
toral; ventrals if in head, their tips reaching % distance to vent; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 2^\ in head. 

Color light brown above, lower parts yellowish white; dorsal mem- 
brane blackish, other fins plain.. Length about 15 inches. 



36 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Family V. Cypriiiiclse. 

THE MINNOWS. 

Body elongate, more or less compressed; mouth large or small, ter- 
minal or subinferior; margin of the upper jaw formed by the premaxil- 
laries; no teeth in the jaws; pharyngeal bones well developed, falci- 
form, and nearly parallel with the gill a,rches, each provided with i to 
3 rows of teeth, usually 4 to 7 in the main row; fewer in the other rows 
if present ; barbels usually none, never more than 2 to 4 ; belly rounded, 
rarely compressed to an edge, and never serrate; gill membranes 
broadly joined to the isthmus; branchiostegals always 3; gills 4; 
pseudobranchiae usually present; ventral fins abdominal; air bladder 
large, usually in two lobes; stomach without appendages. 

This family comprises many small fresh -water fishes. A few of 
our western forms reach a large size. On this continent the south- 
ernmost limit of this family is in the Balsas basin in southern Mexico. 

This large group of small fishes which so much resemble each other 
in form, size and coloration is one of the most difficult in which to dis- 
tinguish genera and species. Before one can make much progress in 
the study of these species, careful attention must be given to the 
teeth, as the genera are based largely on dental characters. The teeth 
are confined to the pharyngeal bones which are just back of the gill 
openings on either side of the oesophagus. In American species the 
teeth on each pharyngeal bone are in one large row of 4 or 5, in front 
of which is usually a smaller row of one or two teeth. The pharyn- 
geal bones must be removed with great care to avoid breaking the 
teeth from them. It is best to clean the teeth by tearing away the 
flesh with a needle or other sharp-pointed instrument, after which 
they are easily examined with a hand lens. The herbivorous species 
have teeth usually not hooked and with a flat or concave surface. 
In the carnivorous species they usually have a sharp cutting or a ser- 
rated edge and hooked tips. Their number is indicated by a dental 
formula. Thus "teeth 4-4," indicates that only the principal row is 
present. "Teeth 2, 4-5, 2," indicates the principal row on one side 
contains four teeth, the other five, while the lesser row on each side 
contains two each, and so on. 

During the breeding season the males are more or less covered with 
tubercles, outgrowths of the epidermis. Usually these are, confined 
to the head, but often are found over the entire body. The lower 
parts of the body and the fins are often highly colored ; the prevailing 
color being red, although in some genera it is satin white, yellow, or 
black. In some cases the males are deeper than the females. Young 
examples are always difficult to identify; these are usually more 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID/E. 37 

slender and have a larger eye than the adults. Often the young have 
a lateral band and a dark caudal spot which the adults do not possess. 
In the following descriptions the rudimentary rays of the dorsal and 
anal fins are not counted. Besides the native species here mentioned, 
two other species* from Europe and Asia have been introduced into 
some of the streams and lakes of Mexico, where they have become quite 
abundant, especially so in the Rio Lerma and the lakes in the Valley 
of Mexico. Both of these species are offered for sale in the markets 
in the City of Mexico. They are easily distinguished from the native 
fresh-water fishes by the long dorsal fin which is preceded by a serrated 
spine. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF CYPRINID^E. 

a. Dorsal fin short, without developed spine. PAGE 

b. Air bladder surrounded by many convolutions 
of the long alimentary canal; pharyngeal 
teeth 4-4, or i, 4-4, o, with oblique grinding 
surface, the tips slightly hooked; peritoneum 
black Campostoma 40 

*Dorsal fin elongate, its rays 18 or more; dorsal and anal fins each preceded 
by a serrated spine; teeth molar. PAGE 

a. Barbels 4 ; teeth i , .1 , 33 , i , i Cyprinus 3 7 

aa. Barbels none ; teeth 4-4 Carassius 3 7 

Genus Cyprinus (Artedi) L. 

Body deep, robust; mouth moderate, terminal, with 4 long barbels; snout 
blunt, rounded; pharyngeal teeth i, i, 3-3, i, i, molar-like; dorsal fin very 
long, with a stout spine, serrate beMnd; lateral line complete; scales large. 
Large fishes of the fresh waters of Asia. 

Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus'. CARP; CARPA. 

Dorsal in, 20; A. in, 5; scales 5-38-5. Body stout, more or less com- 
pressed, heavy anteriorly; color silvery. Length 3 feet. 

This species was introduced into Europe and America from Asia. The carp 
is normally covered with large scales; in domestication several varieties have 
arisen, the prominent ones being the " Leather Carp," having no scales, and the 
"Mirror Carp," with a few series of very large scales. 

Genus Carassius Nilsson. 

Body oblong, compressed and elevated; mouth terminal, without barbels; 
teeth 4-4, molar- like, but compressed; dorsal fin very long, with a stout spine 
which is serrate behind; anal short with a similar spine; ventrals well forward. 
Large fishes of the fresh waters of Asia. 

Carassius auratus (Linnaeus). GOLD-FISH. 

Dorsal n, 18; A. n, 7; scales 26; teeth 4-4. Body rather robust, much 
compressed; lateral line complete. 

Color olivaceous, orange, or variegated in domestication. Length about 
1 8 inches. 

The streams of China and Japan are the native homes of this species. Owing 
to its bright coloration it has been introduced everywhere as an aquarium fish, 
where it has taken on numerous and strange variations. In the lakes in the 
Valley of Mexico it has become quite an important food fish. 



38 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

bb. Air bladder not surrounded by alimentary PAGE 

canal. 

c. Intestinal canal elongate, usually more 
than twice the length of the body, and with 
several convolutions; peritoneum usually 
black. 

d. Scales small, more than 55 in the lateral 
series ; lateral line complete. 

e. Gill rakers long and slender, more than 

60 on the first gill arch Xystrosus 43 

ee. Gill rakers short, less than 60 on the 

first gill arch Algansea 44 

dd. Scales large, 35 to 45 in the lateral series. 

f. First (rudimentary) ray of dorsal fin 
slender, and attached firmly to the first 

developed ray Hybognathus 48 

ff. First (rudimentary) ray of dorsal fin blunt, 
enlarged and connected to first dorsal ray 

by a membrane Pimelocephales 50 

cc. Intestinal canal short, less than twice 
length of the body, and with usually one 
convolution; peritoneum usually pale, 
g. Teeth in the main row 5-5 or 4-5 (3-3 in 
Stypodori) ; usually 2 teeth in the lesser 
row. 

h. Abdomen behind ventral fins transversely 
rounded, the scales passing over it, the 
edge not forming a scaleless ridge; base 
of anal fin generally short; body little 
compressed; lateral line but slightly be- 
low axis of the body. 

i. Teeth subconical, scarcely hooked, sharp 
edged, wide apart; the long limb of the 
pharyngeal bone elongate ; body elongate ; 
mouth large. 

j. Teeth 3-3, scales 35 Stypodon 51 

jj. Teeth 2, 4-5, 2 ; scales 80 to 90 Ptychocheilus 52 

ii. Teeth compressed, strongly hooked; the 

pharyngeal bones of the usual form, 
k. Caudal peduncle slender and elongate; 
the caudal fin forked, its basal rudi- 
ments much developed; scales very 
small, 83 to 87 in lateral series; head 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID^E. 39 

depressed in the adult; anal rays 9 or PAGE 

10 Gila 53 

kk. Caudal peduncle stout, basal rudiments 
but little developed ; scales 60 to 75 ; 

anal rays 8 Leuciscus 5 5 

hh. Abdomen behind ventral fins compressed 
to a sharp edge over which the scales do 
not pass; abdomen in front of ventrals 
rounded; anal basis elongate, its ray 12 
to 14; dorsal fin posterior; teeth 5-5; 
body much compressed; the lateral line 

much below axis of body Abramis 56 

jg. ' Teeth in the main row 4-4, usually absent 
in the lesser row, rarely one or two being 
present. 

1. Maxillary without barbels, 
m. Scales large, 30 to 60 in' the lateral 

series. 

n. Jaws each with a hardened sheath; 
the first dorsal ray spine-like, con- 
nected by a membrane to the first 

developed ray; teeth 4-4 Cochlognathus 57 

nn. Jaws without bony sheath, being 

normally formed. 

o. Lower jaw with the lip thin, not de- 
veloped as a fleshy lobe on each side 
at base. 

p. Fins high; longest dorsal ray as long 
as head; tips of pectorals reaching 
middle of base of ventrals; scales 50 
in the lateral series ; teeth 4-4 ; origin 
of dorsal much nearer snout than 

base of caudal Falcula 58 

pp. Fins moderate; longest dorsal ray 
less than the length of the head ; tips 
of pectorals not reaching base of ven- 
trals; origin of dorsal fin about in 
middle of body. 

q. Scales small, 47 to 60 in the lateral 
series; body robust; teeth 44; 
about 23 to 30 scales in a series 
between dorsal fin and nape Aztecula 59 



40 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

qq. Scales larger, 30 to 45 in the lateral PAGE 

series ; less than 20 scales between 
nape and dorsal fin; teeth 4-4 in 
the main row, occasionally one or 

two in smaller row Nototropis 62 

oo. Lower jaw with the lip developed as 
a fleshy lobe on each side ; teeth 4-4 ; 

scales 43 to 45 Phenacobius 76 

mm. Scales small, 80 to 100 in the lateral 
series ; body long and slender, subterete ; 
mouth small, the upper jaw little pro- 
tractile ; teeth 4-4 Evarra 7 7 

11. Maxillary with a small barbel at or near its 

extremity. 

r. Premaxillaries not protractile, the frenum 
very broad; teeth 2, 4-4, 2 or i ; scales 

small, 60 in the lateral series Rhinichthys 79 

rr. Premaxillaries protractile, rarely joined 

to the forehead by a narrow frenum. 
s. Scales very small, 60 to 90 in the 
lateral series; lateral line often incom- 
plete; dorsal fin posterior Agosia 79 

ss. Scales large, 35 to 55 in the lateral 
series ; dorsal median ; lateral line com- 
plete. 

t. Teeth 4-4, or 1,4-4, i or o; the lesser 
row with never more than one ; scales 

35 to 45 Hybopsis 80 

tt. Teeth 2, 4-4, 2 or i ; scales more 

than 50 in the lateral series Couesius; 82 

aa. Dorsal fin short, posterior, with a strong spine; 
body without scales; teeth 2, 4-4, 2; maxillary 
with a barbel Plagoplerus 83 

Subfamily Campostomatinae. 
14. Campostoma Agassiz. 

Campostoma Agassiz, Amer. Jour. Sci. Arts, 1855, 218. (Type, Ru- 
tilus anomalus Rafmesque.) 

Body moderately elongate, little compressed; mouth rather small, 
the jaws with thick lips and the rudiment of a hard sheath; premaxil- 
laries protractile; no barbel; pharyngeal teeth 4-4, or i, 4-4, o, with 
oblique grinding surface, and a slight hook on one or two teeth; air 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID^E. 41 

bladder suspended in the abdominal cavity, and entirely surrounded 
by many convolutions of the long alimentary canal, which is 6 to 9 
times the length of the body; ovaries similarly inclosed by the ali- 
mentary canal ; peritoneum black ; pseudobranchiae present ; lateral line 
present ; anal fin short ; dorsal nearly over ventrals. 

The surrounding of the air bladder by many convolutions of the 
alimentary canal is peculiar to this group of fishes. During the breed- 
ing season, which occurs in the spring, the males are covered with 
large tubercles, those on the head being the largest. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CAMPOSTOMA. pAGE 

a. Scales small, about 70 to 75 in the lateral series. . . .ornatum 41 
aa. Scales larger, about 40 to 55 in the lateral series. 

b. Scales in the lateral series, about 53 anomalum 42 

bb. Scales in the lateral series, about 46 formosuJum 42 

32. Campostoma ornatum Girard. 

Campostoma ornatum Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 
176; Rio Chihuahua, Mexico: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 4, pi. xiv, 
figs. 1-4, 1858; Rio Chihuahua, Mexico: Giinther, Cat., vn, 
183, 1868: Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 57; Rio 
Chihuahua, Chihuahua: Woolman, Ibid., 1894, 61; Rio Lerma, 
Salamanca, Guanajuato (there is some mistake in regard 
to this reference, for it is quite evident that this species does 
not occur in the Lerma Basin): Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 
47, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 205: Rutter, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 
1896, 259; Rucker Canon, trib. Rio Yaqui, Chiricahua Mts., 
Arizona: Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1902, 146; Colonia Garcia, Chihuahua: Meek, Field Col. Mus. 
Pub. 65, 1902, 77; Colonia Juarez; Chihuahua; San Andres; 
Santa Rosalia; Jimenez. 

Campostoma pricei Jordan & Thoburn, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1896, 205; Rucker Canon, tributary of Rio Yaqui, Chiricahua 
Mts., southern Arizona. 

Rivers of northern Mexico in the headwaters of the Atlantic and 
Pacific coast streams, its southern range being the headwaters of the 
Rio Nazas. (Santiago Papasquiaro.) 

. Head 3^ to 3^; depth 4 to 4>; D. 8; A. 8; scales 10-72 to 75-9. 
Body rather stout, not much compressed; head rather large, the snout 
projecting and somewhat acute; mouth small, the maxillary not 
reaching to vertical from anterior margin of orbit ; length of snout 2 2 / z 
in head; diameter of eye 4^ in head; origin of dorsal fin midway be- 
tween base of caudal and anterior margin of eye; 35 to 40 scales in a 



42 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

series between nape and dorsal fin; longest dorsal ray if in head; 
pectoral i% in head; ventrals i| in head; caudal forked; lateral line 
nearly complete, usually absent on about last 10 scales; males in the 
spring with large tubercles on head and body. 

Color brownish with a brassy luster above ; the scales more or less 
mottled with dark; sides much and irregularly mottled with darker; 
small specimens with a fairly well developed lateral band, and an in- 
distinct caudal spot ; a broad black band across the base of the dorsal 
fin; all other fins plain. Length about 4^ inches. 

Ovaries in females, taken the latter part of May, not enough 
developed to give a definite idea as to the time of spawning. One 
specimen taken at Santiago Papasquiaro. 

33. Campostoma anomalum (Rafinesque). STONE-ROLLER. 
Rutilus anomalus Rafinesque, Ichth. Ohiensis, 52, 1820; Licking 

River, Kentucky. 

Campostoma nasutum Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 
176; Cadereita and Acapulco, Nuevo Leon. 

Campostoma dubium Gunther, Cat., vn, 183, 1868. 

Campostoma anomalum Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 205. 

Rivers of the Mississippi Valley south to the Rio San Juan in 
northeastern Mexico. (San Juan; Montemorelos.) 

Head 4 to 4^; depth 4f ; D. 8; A. 7 or 8; scales 7-53-8. Body 
stoutish, moderately compressed, the antedorsal region becoming 
swollen and prominent in large specimens; head moderate; the snout 
moderately decurved and pointed, its length 2% in head; diameter 
of eye 4^ in head; maxillary not reaching vertical from anterior 
margin of orbit; 22 to 25 scales in a series between nape and dorsal 
fin; longest dorsal ray \y 2 in head; length of pectoral 1^3 in head; 
ventral if in head; caudal fin forked; lateral line complete; males 
in the spring with tubercles on snout and body. 

Color brownish, much mottled with darker; a broad black band 
across the base of the dorsal fin;, other fins plain; small specimens 
have a well-defined lateral band and a small black caudal spot. 
Length 6 to 8 inches. 

34. Campostoma formosulum Girard. 

Campostoma jotmosulum Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1856, 176; Rio Sabinal, near San Antonio, Texas: Jordan, 
Bull. U. S. Geol. Sur., 1878, 401; Rio Grande, Brownsville, 
Texas: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 
206. 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID.E. 43 

Rio Grande to the Rio Sabinal in Texas. 

Head 4; depth 4^; D. 8; A. 7 ; scales 46. Head short and blunt, 
with broad, projecting snout. 

Color grayish above, whitish below; sides more or less marmorate; 
a black patch at base of caudal fin and one on the dorsal. 

A little-known species. 

Subfamily Chondrostomatinse. 

15. Xystrosus Jordan & Snyder. 

EL POPOCHE. 

Xystrosus Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 1889, 123. 
(Type, Xystrosus popoche Jordan & Snyder.) 

Body elongate, compressed; interorbital space low and flat; 
mouth terminal, very oblique, jaws about equal; premaxillary pro- 
tractile; no barbels; no pseudobranchiae ; gill rakers very long and 
slender, about 66 on first gill arch; teeth 4-4, hooked, with developed 
grinding surface; alimentary canal about twice as long as body, 
peritoneum dusky. 

35. Xystrosus popoche Jordan & Snyder. POPOCHE. 

Xystrosus popoche Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 
123; Lago de Chapala, Ocotlan, Jalisco: Jordan & Evermann, 
Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1902, 3142; Meek, Field Col. Mus. 
Pub. 65, 1902, 85; Ocotlan; La Palma. 
Basin of the Rio Lerma. 




FlG. 7. XYSTROSUS POPOCHE Jordan & Snyder. 
No. 61^1, Leland Stanford Jr. University. 

Head 3%; depth 4^; D. 8; A. 7; scales 15-61-7. Body rather 
robust, compressed; head large, flattish above, interorbital width 
2\ in head; snout pointed, 4 in head; mouth large, very oblique, 
end of maxillary reaching vertical from anterior margin of orbit; 
diameter of eye 4 to 4^ m head; origin of dorsal midway between 



44 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

tip of snout and base of caudal; base of dorsal 2f in head; longest 
dorsal ray i$ in head; pectoral i> in head; ventral i in head; 
caudal fin rather short, forked; caudal peduncle robust, its least 
depth 2 l /s in head; lateral line decurved anteriorly, complete; gill 
rakers long, longest about y$ diameter of eye, about 66 on first gill 
arch; alimentary canal elongate, with about 5 convolutions; peri- 
toneum black. 

Color light brownish, lighter below; no distinct lateral band; on 
smaller specimens (less than 4 inches) a dark caudal spot; fins all 
plain. Length about 12 inches. 

This species is so far known only from Lago de Chapala, where 
it is quite abundant and is much used for food. Ovaries of females 
taken the last week of May are quite mature. The spawning season 
is probably in June. 

16. Algaiisea Girard. 

Algansea Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 182. (Type, 
Leuciscus tincella Cuv. & Yal.) 

Body robust, not much compressed; mouth moderate, terminal, 
oblique; no barbels; caudal peduncle strong; fins very small; eyes 
small; scales small, 60 to no in the lateral series; gill rakers short, 
from 15 to 23 on first gill arch; intestinal canal moderate, % to 2 
times the length of the body, folded on the right side; peritoneum 
black; teeth 4-4; vertebrae 20+17 = 3 7" 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF ALGANSEA. 

a. Scales large, 57 to 70 in the lateral series. PAGE 

b. Gill rakers short and blunt, 15 to 19. 
c. Gill rakers 3 + 12; dorsal fin inserted over 

ventrals tincella 44 

cc. Gill rakers 4-4-15; dorsal fin inserted slightly 

before ventrals dugesi 45 

bb. Gill rakers long and slender, 22 or 23 on the 

first gill arch; scales 65 in the lateral series.- . . . .rubescens 46 
aa. Scales small, 85 to 95 in the lateral series lacustris 47 

36. Algansea tincella (Cuvier & Valenciennes). JUILIS. 

Leuciscus tincella Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., 323, 

1844; City of Mexico. 
Algansea tincella Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 183; 

City of Mexico: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 46, pi. xxvn, figs. 

1-4, 1858; City of Mexico: Woolman, Bull. U. S. FishComm., 

1894, 61; Rio Lerma, Salamanca, Guanajuato: Jordan & 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID^;. 45 

Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 211: Jordan & 
Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1900, 120; Lago de Chalco, 
Valley of Mexico; Rio Verde, Aguas Calientes: Pellegrin, Bull. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1901, 205 ; Estado de Jalisco: Meek, Field 
Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 77; Aguas Calientes; Lagos; Celaya; 
Acambaro; San Juan del Rio; Lago de Chalco; Texcoco. 
Ceratichthys sall&i* Gunther, Cat., vn, 1868, 484; Cuernavaca, 

Mexico. 
Algansea sallczi Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 

1896, 212. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma, the Valley of Mexico and the head- 
waters of the Rio San Juan to tributary of the Rio Panuco. (Chalco ; 
Viga Canal.) 

Head 3^ to 4; depth 3^ to 4; D. 8; A. 8; scales 17-65 to 70-13. 
Body very stout, moderately compressed; head moderate; snout 
rather pointed ; mouth terminal, oblique ; teeth 4-4 ; maxillary scarcely 
reaching vertical from anterior margin of orbit; maxillary 3%" in 
head; snout 3^ m head; eye small, 6 in head; interorbital area very 
convex, 2^ in head; origin of dorsal fin in advance of ventrals and 
midway between tip of snout and base of caudal fin; about 35 scales 
between nape and dorsal fin; longest dorsal ray i^ in head; base of 
dorsal 2! in head; pectoral very short, rounded, i^ in head; ventrals 
2^ in head; caudal fin forked, its length i^ in head; caudal fin of 
specimens from lakes about the City of Mexico slightly shorter, and 
the fish slightly more robust than those from the Lerma Basin; gill 
rakers very short, 15 on gill arch; lateral line somewhat decurved, 
complete; vertebrae 20+17 =37- 

Color dark reddish brown, gradually becoming lighter below; 
smaller specimens have a faint lateral band which usually ends in 
a black caudal spot. This caudal spot is not very evident on speci- 
mens 6 or more inches in length. Length about 10 inches. 

37. Algansea dugesi Bean. 

Algansea dugesi Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1892, 283, pi. XLIV, 
fig. i; Lago de Yuriria, Guanajuato: Jordan & Evermann, 
Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 212. 

*This is the only record of a species of this genus occurring in the basin of 
the Rio Balsas. I did not find it south or east of Cuernavaca. I am inclined 
to believe that the specimen on which the description of Ceratichthys sallcei 
was based was secured in the markets of the City of Mexico. It is quite prob- 
able that the pond in the famous Borda Garden was partially stocked with 
fishes from the lakes near the City of Mexico, and the specimen now in the 
British Museum was taken from it. This pond is said by Dr. W. L. Tower, who 
saw it last summer, to be about 400 feet long, 200 feet wide, and the water in it 
to be 6 to i o feet deep. It contains a large number of fishes from 4 to 8 inches 
in length. The scales on the type are given by Dr. Boulenger as 57 to 60. 



46 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V: 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. 





FIG. 8. ALGANSEA DUGESI Bean. 
No. 41818, U. S. National Museum. 

Head 4; depth 4; D. 7 ; A. 6; scales 18-69 to 7 2 ~ J 3- Body robust; 
snout rather pointed, its length 3^ m head; mouth rather large, 
maxillary reaching to vertical from anterior margin of orbit; lower 
jaw slightly included; teeth 4-4; dorsal fin inserted somewhat before 
ventrals; midway between tip of snout and base of caudal; longest 
dorsal ray 1^2 in head; about 30 scales in a" series between nape and 
dorsal fin; length of pectoral fin i> in head; ventral i|; lateral 
line decurved, complete; gill rakers 4+15 on first gill arch. 

Color dusky brown; sides of head silvery; a faint dusky spot at 
base of caudal; upper fins dusky, unmarked. (Bean.) Length about 
6 inches. Known only from the type locality. 

38. Algansea rubescens Meek. 

Algansea rubescens Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 78; 

Ocotlan. 
Lago de Chapala and neighboring region. 




FIG. 9. ALGANSEA RUBESCENS Meek. 

No. 3653. Field Columbian Museum. 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID^E. 47 

Head 4; depth 4 to 4^; D. 8; A. 7; scales 16-65-10. Body 
elongate, rather robust; snout rather blunt, 4 in head; mouth oblique; 
lower jaw short included; maxillary scarcely reaching vertical from 
anterior of eye,, its length 3^ in head; interorbital convex, 2^ in 
head; eye 5 in head; origin of dorsal midway between tip of snout 
and base of caudal; longest dorsal ray i^ in head; base of dorsal 
2^ in head; 33 scales in a series between nape and dorsal fin; pectoral 
if in head; ventral 1^3 in head; caudal fin forked, its length about 
i^\ in head; gill rakers long and rather slender, 22 or 23 on the 
first gill arch; lateral line complete, decurved. 

Color reddish, becoming lighter below, not much silvery; a very 
faint lateral band on posterior half of body; a black caudal spot, 
which is rather faint in specimens over 6 inches long. Length 6 to 
10 inches. 

Spawning time about the middle or last of June. 

39. Algansea lacustris Steindachner. 

Algansea lacustris Steindachner, Einige Fisharten, Mexico, 1895, 
10, pi. in, figs, i-ib; Lago de Patzcuaro: Jordan & Evermann, 
Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3140: Meek, Field Col. Mus. 
Pub. 65, 1902, 78; Patzcuaro. 

Algansea tarascorum Steindachner, ibid., figs. 2-2c; Lago de Patz- 
cuaro, Michoacan: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1898, 2796. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma; very abundant in Lago de Patzcuaro. 
Head 3^3 to 4; depth 3^ to 4; D. 8; A. 7 or 8; scales 24-85 to 
100-15. Body rather stout, head moderate; snout rather pointed; 
mouth oblique, terminal, maxillary scarcely reaching vertical from 
anterior margin of orbit; snout rather pointed, 3^ m head; eye 
small, 5 to 6 in head; interorbital area moderately convex, 2^ in 
head; origin of dorsal fin in advance of ventrals, midway between 
base of caudal and nostril; longest dorsal ray i^ in head; base of 
dorsal fin 2^ in head; pectoral i% in head; ventral 2^" in head; 
caudal fin forked, its length 1^3 in head; gill rakers moderately long 
and slender, about 22 on first gill arch; lateral line complete, some- 
what decurved. 

Color light reddish above, lighter with a silvery tinge below. 
The young have a very faint lateral band which ends in a caudal 
spot. This spot is very obscure in specimens of 6 inches or over. 
Length about 8 inches. 

This species is easily distinguished from the others of the genus 
by its very small scales. Spawning time the last of May or early 
in June. 



48 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

17. Hyboffiuithus Agassiz. 
THE SILVERY MINNOWS. 

Hybognathus Agassiz, Amer. Jour. Sci. Arts, 1855, 223. (Type, 
Hybognathus nuchalis Agassiz.)* 

Dionda Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 177. (Type, 
Dionda episcopa Girard.) 

Algoma Girard, 1. c., 180. (Type, Algoma amara Girard.) 

Body elongate, somewhat compressed; mouth small, horizontal 
or oblique; the jaws normal, sharp-edged; lower jaw with a slight, 
hard protuberance on anterior margin; no barbel; upper jaw pro- 
tractile; teeth 4-4, with grinding surface, little if any hooked; alimen- 
tary canal elongate, three or more times length of body; peritoneum 
black; scales large, about 40 in lateral series; dorsal fin 'in advance 
of ventrals; anal fin short. Small fishes usually inhabiting streams 
with considerable current. 

' KEY TO THE SPECIES OF HYBOGNATHUS. 

a. Body robust, depth less than 4 in body; no well PAGE 

defined lateral band; eye small, 3^ in head episcopus 48 

aa. Body rather slender, depth 4 in body; a well de- 
fined lateral band and a distinct caudal spot; 
eye large, 2^ to 3 in head rasconis 50 

40. Hybognathus episcopus (Girard). SILVERY MINNOW. 

Dionda episcopa Girard, P.roc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 177; 

Comanche Spring, a tributary of the Rio Grande. 
Dionda melanops Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 178; 

Buena Vista, Coahuila: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 44, pi. xxvi, 

figs. 17-20, 1859; Buena Vista, Coahuila. 
Dionda couchi Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 178; 

Guajuco, Monterey, and Cadereita, Nuevo Leon: Girard, Mex.. 

Bd. Sur., 44, pi. xxvi, figs. 1-4, 1859; Guajuco, Monterey and 

Cadereita, Nuevo Leon. 
Algoma amara Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 180; 

Lagoon near Ft. Brown, Texas: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 45, pi. 

xxvii, figs. 17-20, 1859; Ft. Brown, Texas. 
Algoma fluviatilis Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. 'Sci. Phila., 1856, 181; 

near Monterey, Nuevo Leon: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 45, pi. 

xxvii, figs. 17-20, 1859; Monterey, Nuevo Leon. 
Dionda amara Jordan, Bull. U. S. Geol. Sur., 1876, 401; Browns- 
ville, Texas. 

Hybognathus serenus Jordan, Bull. Geol. Sur., 1878, 401; Browns- 
ville, Texas: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 

1896, 214. 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID^E. 49 

Hybognathus melanops Jordan, Bull. U. S. Geol. Sur., 1878, 402; 
Brownsville, Texas: Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 
59; Rio Conchos, Chihuahua: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 217: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 
1902, 77; Chihuahua, Jimenez. 

Hybognathus punctifer Garman, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1881, 
89; Parras, and Spring near Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. 

Hybognathus civilis Cope, Trans. Amer. Phila. Soc., 1884, 167; 
Monterey, Nuevo Leon. 

Hybognathus episcopa Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 214. 

Hybognathus amara Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 215. 

Southern Texas and northern Mexico south to the Rio Mezquital 
in Durango, and the Rio San Juan, in Nuevo Leon. (Labor; Durango; 
Monterey; Montemorelos.) 

Head 4; depth 3! ; D. 8; A. 7; scales 7-38 to 45-5. Body rather 
stout, moderately compressed; head moderate, flattish above; snout 
bluntish, $}/i,', interorbital width 2 in head; eye 3^; mouth small, 
oblique; maxillary reaching about half-way to vertical of front of 
eye; margin of upper lip on a level with lower margin of pupil; 
pharyngeal teeth 4-4, grinding surface not hooked, sometimes the 
distal portion blackish; origin of dorsal midway between base of 
caudal and nostril; longest dorsal ray i^ in head; base of dorsal 2 in 
head ; length of pectoral i y$ in head ; ventral i ^ in head ; lateral 
line slightly decurved, occasionally missing on a few scales; caudal 
peduncle rather strong, its least width about 2 in head (caudal 
peduncle in Durango specimen is about 2\ in head and in Chihuahua 
specimens about 2 in head) ; alimentary canal about three times the 
length of the body; peritoneum black. 

Color dark to light brownish (specimens from Montemorelos con- 
siderably paler), lighter below; edges of scales darker, forming dark 
lines along their rows; in darker specimens a dark lateral band 
ending in a dark caudal spot; in paler specimens this band and spot 
very faint; fins all plain. Length about 3 incjies. Southern Texas 
and northern Mexico, south to the Rio Mezquital, Durango, and 
the Rio San Juan, Montemorelos. 

This species is very variable. I have compared many specimens 
from various localities in Mexico and regard all as belonging to the 
same species. The specimens taken at Durango and Monterey are 
much darker than those from Montemorelos; the color of specimens 
from other localities represent various shades between these extremes. 
Spawning time the last of May and first part of June. 



50 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

41. Hybognathus rasconis (Jordan & Snyder). 
, Notropis rasconis Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1900, 
121; Rio Verde, near Rascon, San Luis Potosi: Jordan & 
Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3141. 
Basin of the Rio Panuco. (Forlon; Valles; Rascon; Rio Verde, 
Dr. W. L. Tower.) 




FIG. 10. HYBOGNATHUS RASCONIS (Jordan & Snyder). 
No. 61:3 (Notropis rasconis Jordan & Snyder), Leland Stanford Jr. University. 

Head 4; depth 4; D. 8; A. 8; scales 736 to 42-5. Body rather 
elongate, aspect of Nototropis heterodon; head small, convex above, 
interorbital width 2> to 3 ; eye 2% to 3 ; snout $%; teeth 4-4; mouth 
moderate, the maxillary nearly reaching vertical from anterior margin 
of orbit; mouth oblique, more so than in preceding species; origin 
of dorsal fin midway between base of caudal and tip of snout ; longest 
dorsal ray i> in head; base of dorsal a| in head; pectorals i% in 
head; ventrals iX m head; lateral line decurved, occasionally missing 
on a few scales. 

Color dark olivaceous above, lighter below; sides with a well- 
defined' lateral band ending in a black caudal spot. Length about 
2^ inches. 

18. Pimelocephales Rafinesque. 
FLAT-HEAD MINNOWS. 

Pimephales Rafinesque, Ichth. Ohiensis, 52, 1820. (Pimephales 
promelas Rafinesque). 

Body rather robust, little compressed; head short and rounded; 
mouth small, inferior; upper jaw. protractile; no barbels; teeth 4-4, 
with oblique grinding surface, usually but one of the teeth hooked; 
dorsal fin opposite ventrals, its first (rudimentary) ray separated 
from the rest by a membrane, and not adnate to the first developed 
ray, as is usual in minnows (most distinct in adult males, in which 
the skin of the first ray is thickened); anal base short; alimentary 
canal elongate, about 2% times the length of the body; peritoneum 
black; lateral line complete or missing on some scales. A small group 
of minnows inhabiting streams east of the Rocky Mountains and 
south to Chihuahua. 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID^E. 51 

42. Pimelocephales confertus (Girard). 

Hyborhynchus confertus Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 

179; Hurrah Creek, tributary of the Rio Pecos, Texas. 
Pimephales promelas Jordan, Bull. U. S. Geol. Sur., 1878, 402; 

Brownsville, Texas. 

Pimephales confertus Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 
57 ; Rio Chihuahua, Chihuahua: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 217: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 
1902, 79; Colonia Juarez; Guzman; Santa Maria; Chihuahua; 
San Andres; Santa Rosalia; Jimenez; Minaca. 
Tributaries of the Rio Grande and the Rio Yaqui in northern 
Mexico and southwestern Texas. 

Head 4; depth 3^; D. 7; A. 7; scales 12-52 to 55-8. Body 
robust, head flat above; interorbital width 2^ in head; snout blunt, 
4 in head ; diameter of eye 3 > in the head ; teeth 4-4 ; origin of dorsal 
midway between base of caudal fin and nostril; longest dorsal ray 
i% in head; pectoral i in head; ventral i/4', scales on anterior 
and upper part of body very small, about 35 in a series between nape 
and dorsal fin; lateral line decurved, complete; caudal fin forked; 
intestinal canal 2^ times length of body. 

Color light olivaceous to nearly black; the very black males have 
a light vertical bar from base of pectoral to back ; a second light bar 
from first dorsal rays to base of ventrals; pectoral fins black; middle 
portion of ventral and anal fins very dark; caudal with a dark bar 
across its middle; all of the fins in the light colored specimens pale. 
Length about 2^ inches. 

Subfamily Mylopharodontinee. 

19. Stypodoii Garman. 
Stypodon Garman, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vm, 1881,90. (Type, 

Stypodon signifer Garman.) 

Body oblong, compressed, covered with large deciduous scales; 
mouth small, terminal; premaxillaries protractile; fold of lower lip 
not crossing the symphysis; lower jaw trenchant, without horny 
covering; no barbels; pharyngeals strong; teeth 3-3, more or less 
cylindrical, with rounded grinding surface, the posterior more slender 
and subconical; lateral line complete, decurved; gill rakers short; 
dorsal and anal fins short. 

43. Stypodon signifer Garman. 

Stypodon signifer Garman, Bull. Comp. Zool., 1881, 90; Lago de 
Parras, Coahuila: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 220. 



52 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Head 3^3 ; depth 3^; D. 8; A. 8; scales 6-35-20. Body oblong, 
compressed; dorsal and ventral outlines similar; snout short, less 
than diameter of eye; mouth oblique, the maxillary not reaching 
vertical from front of eye; lower jaw the longer; pectorals not reach- 
ing ventrals; the latter to anal. 

Color brown, silvery below; a broad brown lateral band bordered 
above by a narrow silvery line. (Garman.) 

A small fish, known only from the above account. 

Subfamily Leuciscinse. 
2O. Ptychoeheilus Agassiz. 

Ptychocheilus Agassiz, Amer. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1855, 229. (Type, 
Ptychocheilus gracilis Agassiz.) 

Body elongate, little elevated, the caudal peduncle not contracted; 
head long and slender, pike-like; mouth nearly horizontal, widely 
cleft, the maxillary extending below the eye; the margin of the upper 
lip rather lower than the inferior margin of the eye; lower jaw in- 
cluded ; no barbels ; lips thick ; scales small ; mostly longer than deep : 
lateral line decurved; gill rakers very short; dorsal fin some- 
what behind ventrals; anal base short; caudal fin strong; intestinal 
canal short; teeth 2, 5-4, 2; the straight limb of the pharyngeal 
bone extremely long and slender, its teeth wide apart; teeth sub- 
conical, scarcely compressed and but slightly curved at the tip; no 
grinding surface. Minnows of very large size. 

44. Ptychocheilus lucius Girard. WHITE SALMON OF THE COL- 
ORADO RIVER. 

Ptychocheilus lucius Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 
209; Rio Colorado: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 225: Bean, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1898, 
165; Northern Sonora: Gilbert & Scofield, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1898, 492; Colorado River at Yuma and Horseshoe 
Bend, near its mouth. 

Sonora and the Colorado River Basin, north to the Uncompagre 
River at Delta, Colorado. 

Head 3X5 depth 5X1 D. 9; A. 9; scales 83 to 87. Body slender, 
elongate, with long, slender, depressed head; eye small, 2^ in the 
snout, 7 in head; mouth large; maxillary 2f in head, its tip reaching 
past vertical from anterior margin of eye ; teeth 2 , 4-5 , 2 ; lateral 
line strongly decurved; fins moderate. 

Color plain, darker above; the young always with a caudal spot 
and a faint pale lateral line below a darker one. .Length about 4 feet. 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID.E. 53 

This is the largest member of the American Cyprinida, reaching 
a weight of 80 pounds. It has been taken in northern (probably 
in the Rio Sonora or Rio Yaqui) Sonora; otherwise known only from 
the Colorado Basin. 

21. Grila Baird & Girard. 

Gila Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1853, 368. 
(Type, Gila robusta Baird & Girard.) 

Body elongate, little compressed; the back arched, especially in 
the adult; the caudal peduncle extremely long, slender, contracted, 
much narrower than the base of the caudal fin which is widely forked, 
with its basal fulcra very much developed; head broad, more or less 
depressed, its profile concave; mouth large, horizontal and over- 
lapped by the broad snout; dorsal fin behind the middle of the body, 
slightly behind ventrals; anal base short; intestinal canal short; 
peritoneum dusky; scales very small, longer than deep, especially 
posteriorly; no barbels; teeth 2, 5-4, 2, closely set, compressed and 
hooked, without grinding surface; vertebrae 42 to 46. Minnows of 
large size, known only from the Colorado, Gila, and Yaqui rivers. 
These fishes are easily distinguished from others of the family by 
the long, slender caudal peduncle. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF GILA. 
a. Head short, 5 in the length; anal rays 10; PAGE 

caudal peduncle long and slender, as broad as 

deep; tips of pectorals reaching % distance to 

base of ventrals elegans 53 

aa. Head longer, 3^ in the length; anal rays 8; 

caudal peduncle more robust ; tips of pectorals 

reaching to base of ventrals minaca 54 

45. Gila elegans Baird & Girard. BONY-TAIL; GILA TROUT. 

Gila elegans Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1853, 
369; Zuni, Colorado, and Gila rivers: Jordan & Evermann, 
Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 226: Gilbert & Scofield, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 492; Colorado and Gila rivers, at 
Yuma and Horseshoe Bend. 
Channels of the Colorado and Gila rivers. 

Head 5; depth 5; D. 9; A. 10; scales 23-85-10. Body elongate, 
somewhat compressed, the region before the dorsal elevated, forming 
a sort of hump; head short, broad; the snout depressed and broadly 
rounded; the anterior part of the head from behind the eyes broad 
and depressed, the posterior part high, so that the profile forms a 



54 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V 

concave arch; mouth rather large, nearly horizontal, the upper lip 
on the level of the inferior margin of eye; lower jaw included; skin 
of the lower jaw hard; teeth 2, 4-5, 2; eye small, 5 in head; gill 
rakers rather weak; fins all long and falcate; pectorals reaching 
ventrals; caudal deeply forked. 

Color bluish above, pale below. Length about 12 inches. 

46. Qila minacge Meek. BONY-TAIL. 

Gila minaccB Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 80; Minaca. 
Headwaters of the Rio Yaqui. 




FlG. 11. GlLA MINAC/ Meek. 
No. 3573, Field Columbian Museum. 

Head3f; depth 4| ; D. 9; A. 8; scales 24-90-11. Body elongate, 
back not arched; snout bluntish; mouth terminal, rather large; 
maxillary not; reaching anterior margin of pupil, its length 3^ in 
head; snout 3^; diameter of eye 4^; body completely scaled; origin 
of dorsal fin slightly behind base of ventrals, midway between base 
of caudal and anterior margin of orbit; base of dorsal 2 in head, its 
longest ray i> in head; the tips of the dorsal rays fall together 
when the fin is defiexed and fall opposite to the middle of the base 
of the anal fin; ventrals iX m head, their tips reaching vent; caudal 
fin forked, its upper lobe the larger; lateral line complete, decurved, 
its lowest portion over space between tip of pectorals and ventrals, 
reaching axis of the body on posterior half of caudal peduncle; a 
row of pores from nostril to nape; a second row on sides of head 
under eye to near upper angle of opercle; caudal peduncle very 
slender, nearly terete, its least depth 3^2 in the head. 

Color light olivaceous; a faint dark band from base of caudal 
to opposite first dorsal rays; fins all plain ; a faint caudal spot. Length 
of type 4.46 inches. 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID^;. 55 

22. Leuciscus Cuvier. 
DACE. 

Leuciscus (Klein) Cuvier, Regne Animal, Ed. i, 194, 1817. (No 
type mentioned, Cyprinus leuciscus Linnaeus, understood.) 

Body oblong, robust, compressed or nearly terete, caudal pedun- 
cle rather strong; mouth usually large, terminal and oblique; no 
barbels; scales large or small, 36 to 100 in the lateral series; dorsal 
fin usually behind the ventrals; intestinal canal short; teeth (in 
American species) 2, 5-4, 2, to i, 4-4, i, hooked, with a narrow 
grinding surface or none; lateral line decurved, complete or not; anal 
fin composed of, from 7 to 22 rays. A very large genus of very 
variable fishes, of which only two species are known from Mexico. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF LEUCISCUS. 

a. Body rather slender; head 4| in length of PAGE 

.body; depth 4 nigrescens 55 

aa. Body elongate, heavy forward; head 3^; 

depth 4 [intermedius] 56 

47. Leuciscus nigrescens (Girard). PESCADITO; CHUB OF THE Rio 

GRANDE. 
Tigoma nigrescens Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 207; 

Boca Grande and Rio Janos, Chihuahua: Girard, Mex. Bd. 

Sur., 64, pi. xxxii, figs. 1-4, 1859; Boca Grande and Rio 

Janos, Chihuahua. 
Tigoma pulchella Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 206; 

Rio Mimbres, tributary of Lago de Guzman, Chihuahua: 

Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 62, pi. xxxiv, figs. 5-8, 1859; Rio 

Mimbres, Chihuahua. 
Tigoma pulchra Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 207; 

Rio Chihuahua, Chihuahua. 
Gila conspersa Garman, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1881, 91; Rio 

Nazas. 
Cheonda modesta Garman, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1881, 92; Rio 

Salinas, Saltillo, Coahuila. 
Cheonda nigrescens Garman, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1881, 92; 

Parras, Coahuila. 
Leuciscus nigrescens Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Co mm., 1894, 

57; Rio Chihuahua, Chihuahua: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 

47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 233: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 

65, 1902, 80; Colonia Juarez; Santa Maria; Chihuahua; Bus- 

tillos; San Andres; Miftaca; Ahumada. 



56 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Tigoma conspersa Garman, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1896, 234; 
Rio Nazas, Coahuila. 

Leuciscus purpureus Rutter, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1896, 260; 
Morse Canon and the Rio Yaqui east of Opsura. 

Leuciscus niger Bean, Bull. Amer. Mus., 1898, 166; San Diego, 
Chihuahua. 

Northern Mexico, headwaters of the Rio Yaqui, to the head- 
waters of the Rio Mezquital, the Rio Nazas, and east to \ Saltillo, 
Coahuila. (Lerdo; Santiago Papasquiaro; Durango.) 

Head 3$ to 4^; depth 4 to 4-; D. 8; A. 8; scales 15 to 18-60 
to 75-8 to 10. Body rather slender, little compressed; head rather 
long and pointed; snout 3! in head; mouth moderate, oblique, 
terminal; the jaws equal, the maxillary about reaching front of eye; 
eye rather small, 5 to 6 in head; origin of dorsal fin midway between 
base of dorsal and nostril, its longest ray i^ in head; base of dorsal 
fin 2 in head; pectorals reaching about ^ distance to ventrals, 1^3 
in head; ventrals if in head; lateral line decurved, complete; caudal 
fin forked ; least depth of caudal peduncle 2 1 in head ; teeth 2 , 4-5 , i , 
hooked, and with narrow grinding surface. 

Color dusky above, silvery below; some larger specimens with 
a reddish tinge; young specimens usually have a dark lateral band 
and a black caudal spot ; the band and caudal spot disappearing with 
age, being quite absent on specimens over 8 inches in length. Length 
about 12 inches. A very abundant and variable species. 

Leuciscus intermedius (Girard). 

Tigoma intermedia Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 206; Rio San 
Pedro, tributary of the Gila, Arizona. 

Leuciscus intermedius Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 
235: Gilbert & Scofield, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 493 (see this ref- 
erence for synonymy) . 

Leuciscus niger Jordan & Evermann, ibid., 235. 

This species has been taken in Arizona, near the Mexican border. It may 
occur in northern Sonora. 

Head 3^; depth ^ to 4; D. 8; A. 8 or 9; scales 15-65 to 80-9. Body elon- 
gate, heavy forward; head long, rather pointed, broad above, depressed over 
the eye; interorbital 4^ in head; mouth large, oblique, the jaws equal, the 
maxillary just reaching vertical from the eye; dorsal fin slightly behind origin of 
ventrals; pectorals long, nearly reaching ventrals, 1^3 in head; ventrals 2 in 
head; lateral line decurved; teeth 2, 5-4, 2. 

Color dusky, paler below; small specimens with a dark lateral band; fins all 
dusky. Southwestern Arizona in basin of the Gila River. 

In size and appearance this species is very much like the preceding. 

23. Abramis Cuvier. 
BREAMS. 

Abramis Cuvier, Regne Animal, Ed. I, in, 1817. (Type, Cyprinus 
brama Linnaeus.) 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID^;. 57 

Notemigonus Rafinesque, Jour. Phys. Chem. et Hist. Nat. Paris, 
1819,421. (Type, Notemigonus auratus Rafinesque =Cyprinus 
crrysoleucas Mitchill.) 

Body sub-elliptical, strongly compressed; dorsal and ventral out- 
lines similar; belly behind ventral fins forming a keel over which 
the scales do not pass; head small, conic; mouth small, oblique; no 
barbels; dorsal fin inserted behind ventrals; anal fin long, its rays 
(American species) 9 to 18; lateral line complete, much decurved, 
concurrent with ventral outline; alimentary canal short, a little 
longer than the body; teeth 5-5, edges crenate. 

48. Abramis chrysoleucus (Mitchill). GOLDEN SHINER; BREAM. 

Cyprinus crysoleucas Mitchill, Rept. Fish. N. Y., 23, 1814; New 
York. 

Notemigonus chrysoleucus Jordan, Bull. U. S. Geol. Sur., 1878, 
404; Brownsville, Texas. 

Abramis americanus Giinther, Cat., vn, 305, 1868. 

Abramis crysoleucas Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 250. 

Mouth of the Rio Grande north to the Dakotas and Nova Scotia. 

Head 4%; depth 3; D. 8; A. 12 to 14; scales 10-46 to 55-3. Body 
moderately elongate, strongly compressed; head short, sub-conic, 
compressed, the profile somewhat concave; mouth small, oblique, 
the upper lip on a level of upper part of pupil; the maxillary not 
reaching vertical from anterior margin of the orbit. 

Color greenish above; sides silvery with golden reflections; fins 
yellowish, the tips of the lower fins sometimes slightly orange in 
spring males. Length about 12 inches. 

The most southern known locality of this species is the mouth 
of the Rio Grande at Brownsville, Texas; from here it ranges north 
to Dakota and Nova Scotia. It lives mostly in bayous and ponds 
where there is much vegetation. 

24:. Cochlognathus Baird & Girard. 

Cochlognathus Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, 
158. (Type, Cochlognathus ornatus Baird & Girard.) 

Body elongate; head rather large; jaws each provided with a hard 
cutting plate, the sharp, bony edge being surrounded by the usual 
lip; teeth 4-4, with grinding surface, the tips slightly hooked; first 
dorsal ray spine-like and separate from the next ray by a membrane ; 
alimentary canal short; anal fin small. 



58 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

49. Cochlognathus ornatus Baird & Girard. HARD-JAW MINNOW. 
Cochlognathus ornatus Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

1854, 158; Brownsville, Texas: Girard, Proc. Acad. Sci. Phila., 
1856, 181; Brownsville, Texas: Girard, Mex: Bd. Sur., 46, 
pi. xxv, figs. 12-17, 1859; Brownsville, Texas: Giinther, Cat., 
vn, 187, 1868: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1896, 252. 

Head 4; depth 4^; D. 8; A. 6; scales 40. Body moderately elon- 
gate; head long; dorsal fin over ventrals, rather high; caudal fin short. 
Color dusky, yellowish; a dusky lateral band; dorsal fin with a 
black spot near the base in front and a dusky blotch behind ; caudal 
fin with a dusky median band, preceded and followed by a pale 
area; snout tuberculate in the spring during the breeding season. 
Length about three inches. Known only from the type locality. 

25. Falcula Jordan & Snyder. 

Falcula Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1899, 124. 
(Type, Falcula chapalce Jordan & Snyder.) 

Body elongate, compressed; caudal peduncle slender; mouth 
large; lips thin, premaxillary protractile; no barbels; teeth 4-4, 
hooked, with grinding surface; gill rakers few, short, far apart; alimen- 
tary canal short; peritoneum light; fins high. 

50. Falcula chapala? Jordan & Snyder. SARDINA. 

Falcula chapala Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1900, 
125, fig. 6; Lago de Chapala, Jalisco: Jordan & Evermann, 
Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3143: Meek, Field Col. Mus. 
Pub. 65, 1902, 85; Ocotlan; La Palma; La Barca 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. 




FlG. 12. FALCULA CHAPAL/E Jordan & Snyder. 
No. 6152, Leland Stanford Jr. University. 

Head 3^ to 4; depth 4 to 4^; D. 8; A. 8; scales 8-50-5. Body 
elongate, compressed, back little arched; head long, narrowed for- 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID^E. 59 

wards; interorbital broad, convex, 3 in head; snout very slightly 
bluntish, 3^4 in head; eye 3^ to 4^ in head; mouth large, oblique; 
maxillary reaching vertical from anterior margin of orbit; origir^' 
dorsal nearer tip of snout than base of caudal; base of dorsal 2^" r ?fT 
head; its longest ray 1% in head; pectoral long and slender, its length 
i ^ in head ; ventral i J/ in head ; base of anal 2 % in head ; caudal fin 
long and pointed; caudal peduncle rather slender, its least depth 2 
in head; lateral line decurved, complete. 

Color light brownish; a faint plumbeous band on side; no caudal 
spot; the fins all plain. Length about 10 inches. 

This species is known only from the region about the lake whose 
name it bears, and where it is abundant. Spawning time the mid- 
dle or the latter part of June. This fish is much used for food. 

26. Aztecula Jordan & Evermannn. 

Azteca Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 

258. (Type, Notropis aztecus Woo\ma,n = Codoma vittata Girard.) 

Aztecula Jordan & Evermann, ibid., 1898, 2799; substitute for 

Azteca, which is preoccupied in Entomology. 

Body very robust; moderately compressed; head rather large; 
snout decurved; mouth terminal, oblique, rather small; fins small; 
scales small; origin of dorsal slightly behind ventrals; teeth 4-4, no 
grinding surface, tips slightly hooked; intestinal canal short, about 
equal to the length of the fish ; gill rakers very short, about 9 on first gill 
arch; vertebrae 18+16=34. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF AZTECULA. 

a. Scales large, about 50 in the lateral line; about PAGE 

23 scales between nape and dorsal fin. 
b. Eye large, its diameter 3%" in the head ; caudal 

peduncle robust, its least depth 2 in head vittata 59 

bb. Eye smaller, its diameter 5 in the head; 
caudal peduncle slender, its least depth 2% 

in head lermcs 60 

aa. Scales small, about 59 in the lateral line ; about 

30 scales between nape and dorsal fin mericana 61 

51. Aztecula vittata (Girard). 

Codoma vittata Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 195; 

Valley of Mexico: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 53, pi. xxix, figs. 

1 8-2 1, 1859; Valley of Mexico. 
Notropis aztecus Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 63 ; Canals 

about the City of Mexico: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 1896, 258; City of Mexico. 



60 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Aztecula azteca Meek, Field Col. Mtis. Pub. 65, 1902, 81; Texcoco; 

Chalet 

'c Mexico and hea<".water& of the Rio Balsas at Puebla 

v . - & L. wa^ai, Chalco; Puebla. Xochimilco.) 




FIG. 13. AZTECULA VITTATA iGirard). 

No. 43569 (Notropis aztectts Woolman), U. S. National Museum. 

Head 4; depth 3^ to 4; D. 8; A. 8; scales 7-50-5. Body robust, 
back moderately arched, the highest point over pectorals; snout 
bluntish, 4^ in head; mouth small, oblique; maxillary scarcely 
reaching vertical from front of eye, 3^ in head; teeth 4-4; eye small, 
4^2 in head; origin of dorsal midway between base of caudal and eye; 
about 23 scales in a series between nape and dorsal t fin; pectoral fin 
short, 1 1 in head ; ventral if; caudal fin forked ; caudal peduncle rather 
stout, its least depth 2 in head; lateral line decurved. wavv, complete. 

Color dark brown above, lighter below; a dark lateral band more 
distinct on posterior half of body ; the band more prominent in young 
examples; caudal spot very indistinct. 

This species is very abundant in the lakes and canals about the 
City of Mexico. I also took six specimens of this species from the 
river at Puebla and a number of small ones from a pond near by. Its 
appearance in the Balsas basin was rather unexpected. There is 
a quite deep artificial pond at Santa Maria, near Puebla, in which 
are fishes of this species which were probably brought from the lakes 
near the City of Mexico, and have escaped into the river near by. 

52. Aztecula lermae (Evermann & Goldsborough). 

Notropis lermcB Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1902, 147, fig. 3; Lago de Lerma, Mexico. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. (Lerma.) 

Head 3^; depth 3^; D. 9; A. 8; scales 7-47-5. Body stout, 
deep, not much compressed, the dorsal region gently elevated; head 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID.E. 61 

rather heavy; snout short and rather blunt; mouth small, oblique, 
the lower jaw included; the maxillary scarcely reaching vertical from 
anterior margin of the eye, 3^3 in head; eye 5 in head; snout 3^; 
teeth 4-4; hooked, and with crenate edges; origin of dorsal fin midway 




FlG. 14. AZTECULA LERM/ (Evermann & Goldsboroughi. 
No. 50003, U. S. National Museum. 

between base of caudal and nostril; about 23 scales in a series be- 
tween nape and dorsal fin; pectoral i| in head; ventral 2 ; lateral line 
decurved, not wholly complete, an occasional scale without any pore; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 2^ in head. 

Color grayish olivaceous on back and upper part of side, the scales 
profusely covered with dark punctulations ; a broad dark plumbeous 
lateral band ending in an indistinct black spot at base of caudal; 
pectoral, caudal, and dorsal fins dusky; the ventrals and anal pale. 
Length about 2>^ inches. 

This species is closely related to the preceding, from which it differs 
chiefly in the more slender peduncle, the larger eye, less rounded snout 
and coloration. Spawns late in summer. At present this species is 
known only from Lerma, from which place a few specimens were taken 
by me. 

53. Aztecula mexicana Meek. 

Aztecula mexicana Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 81; San 
Juan del Rio. 

Basin of Rio San Juan on the Mexican Plateau. 

Head 4; depth 3^ to 4; D. 8; A. 7; scales 9-59-7. Body robust, 
back slightly elevated, its highest point over pectoral fin and some- 
what in advance of the dorsal; snout bluntish; mouth small, oblique, 
terminal, lower jaw the shorter; snout 4 in head; teeth 4-4, hooked, 
no grinding surface; interorbital area 3 in head; eye small, 4^ i n 
head; origin of dorsal fin midway between base of caudal and the eye; 
about 30 scales in a series between nape and dorsal fin; pectoral fins 
short, 1 3 in head; ventrals 2 in head; caudal fin rather short, forked; 



62 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 




FlG. 15. AZTECULA MEXICANA Meek. 
No. 3606, Field Columbian Museum, 

caudal peduncle slender, its least depth 2^ in head; lateral line 
decurved and wavy, complete or missing on a few scales. 

Color dark brownish above, lighter below; a faint lateral band, 
most conspicuous on last half of the body; the faint caudal spot 
more prominent in the young. 

This species differs from the preceding in having smaller scales. 
Length about 3 inches. 

27. Nototropis Rafmesque. 
THE SHINERS. 

Notropis Rafmesque, Amer. Monthly Mag., n, 1818, 204. (Type, 

Notropis atherinoides Rafmesque.) ' 
Codoma Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 194. (Type, Co- 

doma ornata Girard.) 

Alburnops Girard, 1. c.,i94. (Type, Alburnops blennius Girard.) 
Moniana Girard, 1. c., 199. (Type, Leuciscns lutrensis Baird & 

Girard.) 
Graodus Giinther, Cat., vn, 485, 1868. (Type, Graodus nigrotania- 

tus Giinther = Leuciscus boucardi Gunther.) 
Orcella Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 289. 

(Type, Notropis orca Woolman.) 

Body elongate, more or "less compressed; mouth normal, mostly 
terminal and oblique, or subinf erior ; no barbels; teeth 4-4, or o, i or 
2, 4-4, i or 2, sharp-edged or with narrow grinding surface; scales 
usually large, 30 to 55 in the lateral series; lateral line complete or 
not, in some species not extending beyond base of ventrals; coloration 
more or less silvery; males usually in the breeding season with much 
red on body and fins, and with tubercles on head and body. The 
fishes belonging to this group are all small, most of them less than 3 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID.E. 63 

inches in length, seldom do any of them exceed 5 inches; in color and 
form most of the species are very variable. 

This genus contains a large number of species of small fishes in- 
habiting the streams of the United States east of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, ranging south into Mexico to the Rio Panuco and west to the 
headwaters of the Rio Yaqui, and south on the Pacific side to the Rio 
Balsas. They are among the most feeble of our fresh-water fishes. 
None of them are of any value as food for man, but are of great impor- 
tance as food for larger fishes. Very few of the species inhabit river 
channels, nearly all being confined to the smaller streams and ponds, 
from which they probably migrate only very short distances. So far 
as known, the species all spawn in the spring, at which time the males 
are more or less highly colored, some being red, or with red fins, while 
others are white or entirely black, and the head and often the entire 
body is covered with tubercles, an outgrowth of the epidermis. 

All of the species of this group are quite variable, many being 
difficult to determine. Their food consists largely of small crus- 
taceans and insect larvae. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF NOTOTROPIS. 

a. Body subterete, not much compressed; snout PAGE 

bluntish. 

b. Scales large, less than 40 in the lateral series. 

c. Sides of body without dark vertical bars; 

depth of body $% to 4 ; least depth of caudal 

peduncle 2 to 2^ in head. 

d. Lateral line incomplete, usually on from 3 

to 10 scales, not extending beyond base of 

ventrals calientis 65 

dd. Lateral line complete or very nearly so. 
e. Head large, 3^ to $% in body; about 14 
or 1 5 scales before dorsal fin. 

f. Eye large, 3 in head; dorsal rays 8; anal 
rays 7; origin of dorsal fin midway be- 
tween tip of snout and base of caudal fin braytoni 65 

ff. Eye smaller, 3^2 in head; dorsal rays 9; 
anal rays 8; origin of dorsal fin midway 

between base of caudal and nostril robustus 66 

ee. Head shorter, 4 in body; about 16 scales 
before dorsal fin. 

g. Caudal peduncle slender, its least depth 
2 1 in head; a narrow dark lateral band; 
upper half of body with many spots, 

each about the size of pupil chihuahua 67 



64 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

gg. Caudal peduncle strong, its least depth PAGE 

2 in head; a broad, dark lateral band; 

no spots on upper half of body boucardi 67 

cc. Sides of body with 8 to 10 dark vertical bars ; 
body very robust; caudal peduncle strong, 

\^ in body; depth of body 3 in its length ornatus 68 

bb. Scales small, more than 40 in the lateral series, 
h. Origin of dorsal fin nearer snout than base 

of caudal; scales 8-42-4; depta 5 orca 69 

hh. Origin of dorsal fin midway between pos- 
terior half of eye and base of caudal fin; 

depth 4*4 nazas 70 

aa. Body much compressed, snout pointed, 
i. Scales deeper than long; body usually deep, 

its depth 3 to 4 in its length, 
j . Lateral line decurved, below the middle of the 
body ; 6 to 9' rows of scales above (including 
lateral line) lateral line, 2 or 3 rows below it. 
k. Scales large, less than 40 in the lateral 
series; less than 20 scales in a series before 
dorsal fin. 

I. Lateral line complete, or nearly so. 

m. Origin of dorsal fin midway between 
base of caudal and nostril; anal fin 
long, its base i^ to 2 in head. 

n. Eye large, 3 in head; anal rays ; 9 forlonensis 70 

nn. Eye small, 3^ to 3^ in head; anal 

rays 8. 
o. Lateral band on the posterior portion 

of the body only lutrensis 7 1 

oo. Lateral band extending from eye to 

base of caudal macrostomus 7 2 

mm. Origin of dorsal fin midway between base 
of caudal and pupil ; anal base lorig, i ^ 
in head; caudal peduncle slender, its 
least depth 2^ in body garmani 73 

II. Lateral line incomplete, on n to 13 scales; 
anal rays 9; lateral line much decurved; 

scales 9-38-2 santamarice 74 

kk. Scales small, more than 40 in the lateral 

series; about 24 scales before dorsal fin formostis 74 

jj. Lateral line on or above the middle of the 

body; scales 5-35-6; head 4; depth 4^ frigidus 75 

ii. Scales not deeper than long; body slender, 

its depth 4}^ in head; anal rays 10 . . santarosalicz 75 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID.E. 65 

Subgenus Alburnops Girard. 
54. Nototropis calientis Jordan & Snyder. 

Notropis calientis Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1900, 
Rio Verde, Aguas Calientes: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3197: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 
1902, 83; Aguas Calientes; Oeotlan; Acambaro. 
Basin of the Rio Lerma. 




FlG. 16. NOTOTROPIS CALIENTIS Jordan & Snyder. 
No. 6193, Leland Stanford, Jr. University. 

Head 3^ to 4; depth 3^ to 3^ ; D. 8; A. 7 ; scales 6-33 to 35-3. 
Body oblong, rather stout, not much compressed, back little elevated; 
snout bluntish, 4 in head; mouth small, maxillary scarcely reaching 
vertical from anterior margin of orbit; eye small, 4 in head; teeth 
4-4, hooked, with narrow grinding surface; origin of dorsal fin mid- 
way between tip of snout and base of caudal, base of dorsal 2 in 
head; longest dorsal ray i^ in head; pectoral i^ in head; ventral 
1^2 in head; base of anal fin 2^" in head; caudal fin forked, its lobes 
rather rounded; caudal peduncle moderate, 2^ in head; lateral line' 
decurved, incomplete, usually only on the first three to ten scales, 
seldom reaching as far as opposite origin of ventrals; vertebrae 
20 -f 18 = 38. 

Color rather dark brownish, lighter below; an indefinite dark 
band on middle of sides; no black caudal spot. Length 2^ inches. 

This species spawns during the first half of June. 

55. Nototropis braytoni (Jordan & Evermann). 

Moniana nitida Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 20; 
Cadereita, Nuevo Leon: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 58, 1858; 
Cadereita, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
Notropis braytoni Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 

1896; name a substitute for Moniana nitida, preoccupied. 
Streams in northeastern Mexico between the Rio Panuco and 
the Rio Grande. (San Juan; Montemorelos ; Garza Valdez; La Cruz; 
Santa Engracia; Victoria.) 

Head 3^; depth 4; D. 8; A. 7; scales 6-36-3. Body elongate, 
robust, not much compressed; head stout, rather broad; snout blunt; 



66 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 



mouth rather large, little oblique, tip of maxillary reaching vertical 
from front 9f eye; snout $}4; interorbital width 2$ in head; eye 
large, its diameter 3 in head; origin of dorsal fin midway between 
tip of snout and base of caudal fin ; about 1 5 scales in a series between 
nape and dorsal fin; longest dorsal ray i^ in head; base of dorsal 
2 in head; pectorals i in head; ventrals ijA\ base of anal 2 l / z in 
head; lateral line decurved, complete; caudal fin forked; caudal 
peduncle stout, its least depth nearly half head. 

Color straw, lighter below; a faint lateral band on posterior half 
of body, ending usually in a black caudal spot. Length about 3 
inches. 

56. Nototropis robustus Meek. 

Notropis robustus Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. '65, 1902, 82; Santa 

Rosalia; Jimenez. 
Upper tributaries of the Rio Conchos in Chihuahua. 




FIG. 17. NOTOTROPIS ROBUSTUS Meek. 

No. 3548, Field Columbian Museum. 



Head 3X1 depth 4; D. 9; A. 8; scales 6-37-4. Body robust, back 
little arched, its highest point being just in front of dorsal fin; snout 
blunt, its length 3^3 in head; mouth large, nearly terminal, slightly 
oblique; maxillary 3^ in head, its tip reaching vertical from pupil; 
teeth 4-4, the tips slightly hooked; eye large, its diameter 3^ in 
head; interorbital space 3 in head; origin of dorsal midway between 
base of caudal and nostril; 15 scales in a series between nape and 
origin of dorsal fin; pectoral fins long, nearly reaching ventrals, 1^2 
in head; ventrals 2 in head. 

Color olivaceous, a dark lateral band from snout to base of caudal 
fin, ending in a small caudal spot; chin white. Spawning time the 
latter part of June. 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID.E. 67 

57. Nototropis chihuahua Woolman. 

Notropis chihuahua Woolman, Amer. Nat., March, 1892, 260; Rio 
Conchos, Chihuahua: Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 
58; Rio Conchos, Chihuahua: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 265: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub., 65, 
1902, 83; Chihuahua; San Andres; Santa Rosalia; Jimenez. 
Headwaters of the Rio Conchos in Chihuahua, where it is very 
abundant. 




FIG. 18. NOTOTROPIS CHIHUAHUA Woolman. 

No. 44151, U. S. National Museum. 

Head 4; depth 4; D. 8; A. 7; scales 6-33 to 37-3. Body rather 
robust, little compressed, the back little elevated; head large; snout 
blunt, its length $% in -head; mouth slightly oblique, the maxillary 
scarcely reaching vertical from anterior margin of the eye; eye 3^ 
in head; origin of the dorsal midway between tip of snout and base 
of caudal ; about 1 6 scales in a series between nape and dorsal fin ; 
base of dorsal fin 2 in head, its longest ray i/^ in head; base of anal 
2 in head; caudal fin forked; caudal peduncle slender, its least 
depth af in head; lateral line nearly straight, complete. 

Color light brown ; scales above dark edged ; numerous round dark 
dots on upper half of the body, the largest sometimes nearly the size 
of pupil; the spots unequal and irregularly placed; a plumbeous 
lateral band from eye through snout, ending in a black caudal spot; 
fins plain. Length about 2% inches. 

One of the most conspicuously marked species in the genus. 
Spawning season the last of June and the early part of July. 

58. Nototropis boucardi (Gtinther). SALMICHI. 

Leuciscus boucardi Giinther, Cat., vn, 485, 1868; Cuernavaca. 
Rutilus boucardi Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1896, 247. 



68 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Graodus nigrotaniatus Giinther, Cat., vn, 485, 1868; Atlixco, 
Mexico. 

Notropis nigrol&niatus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 264: Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm. 
1900, 121; Rio Ixtla, Puente de Ixtla, Morelos: Meek, Field 

1 Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1962; Balsas; Puente de Ixtla. 

Basin of the Rio Balsas. (Cuautla; Yautepec; Jojutla; Atlixco; 
Matamoras; Chietla.) 

Head 4; depth 4; D. 8; A. 8; scales 7-36 to 38-4. Body elongate, 
very robust, not much compressed, back little elevated; head large; 
snout blunt, 3% in head; mouth moderate, maxillary reaching to 
vertical from anterior margin of orbit; teeth 4-4; eye 3 to 4 in head; 
origin of dorsal slightly nearer tip of snout than base of caudal; base 
of dorsal 2 in head; longest dorsal ray i> in head; about 16 scales 
in a series between the nape and dorsal fin; pectorals i^" in head; 
ventrals i % ; base of anal 2 % ; caudal forked ; caudal peduncle rather 
robust its least depth 2 in head; lateral line complete, slightly de- 
curved. 

Color dark brownish above, much lighter below; sides with a 
dark lateral band, more prominent on smaller specimens and on 
posterior half of body, ending in a black caudal spot; fins plain. 
Length about 3%" inches. 

Mr. C. Tate Regan, of the British Museum, London, has kindly 
examined the types of Leuciscus boucardi and Graodus nigrotceniatus-, 
and he considers both to be the same"" species. This decision agrees 
with the result of my study of the minnows of the Balsas Basin. 
This species is in North America the most southern member of the 
family to which it belongs. Specimens taken at Yautepec on March 
26th have the ovaries well developed, indicating the spawning season 
to be in April. 

Subgenus Codoma Girard. 

59. Nototropis ornatus (Girard). 

Codoma ornata Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 195; 
Rio Chihuahua: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 59, pi. xxix, figs. 
22-25, I ^S9'' Ri Chihuahua and its tributaries. 
Notropis ornatus Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 58, Rio 
Conchos, Chihuahua: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 27: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 83; 
Chihuahua; San Andres; Jimenez; Minaca. 

Headwaters of the Rio Mezquital and the Rio Nazas, in Durango, 
to the upper tributaries of the Rio Yaqui and the Rio Conchos,' in 
Chihuahua. (Santiago Papasquiaro; Durango.) 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID.E. 69 

Head 3^ to 4; depth 3; D. 8; A. 7; scales 8-40-4. Body very 
stout and moderately compressed, the back arched; the head very 
blunt, thick, and rounded; mouth small, somewhat oblique; the cleft 
mostly anterior; the jaws equal; teeth 4-4; snout 3^ in head; eye 
small, 3^ to 4 in the head; origin of dorsal midway between tip 
of snout and base of caudal; base of dorsal 2 in head, its longest ray 
\ l /t in head; 18 scales in a series between nape and dorsal fin; pec- 
torals 1% in head; ventrals if in head; base of anal 2> in head; 
caudal fin forked; caudal peduncle very stout, its least depth i^ 
in head; males in breeding season with prickles on head and body; 
lateral line complete. 

Color dark, lighter below; sides with about 8 to 10 more or less 
conspicuous cross-bars; fins with the middle parts dusky or black. 
The smaller specimens do not have as prominent bars as the larger 
ones, but they have a more prominent caudal spot. A few males 
are black with a white vertical band on preopercle behind eye; all 
of the fins are black with light margins. Length about 2^ inches. 
Spawning time apparently the first part of June 

Subgerms Orcella Jordan & Evermanii. 

60. Nototropis orca Woolman. 

Notropis orca Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 56; Rio 
Grande, El Paso, Texas: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 1896, 289. 

Rio Grande at El Paso, Texas. 

Head 4^2', depth 5; D. 7; A. 8; scales 8-42-4. Body robust, 
little compressed, with broad back; dorsal outline somewhat elevated; 
head heavy; snout blunt, decurved; mouth subinferior, little oblique; 
lower jaw slightly included; maxillary scarcely reaching vertical from 
pupil; top of head transversely rounded so that the eye is as near 
the lower as the upper profile of the head; interorbital space very 
wide and very convex, equals distance from tip of snout to pupil; 
origin of dorsal fin a little nearer snout than base of caudal; longest 
dorsal ray i-J in head; pectorals slightly falcate, about reaching 
ventrals, ij^ in head; ventrals 2 in head; caudal deeply forked; scales 
rather large, thin; lateral line somewhat decurved. 

Color pale; side with a broad distinct silvery band as broad as 
length of snout, bordered above by a narrow plumbeous line; back 
sparsely covered with fine dark punctulations ; median line of back 
with a faint plumbeous band; top of head darkish; fins pale. Length 
about 3> inches. (Jordan & Evermann.) 



70 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

61. Nototropis nazas sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4375, F. C. M., 2> inches in length; Santiago Papas- 
quiaro, Durango. 

Headwaters of the Rio. Nazas in Durango. 




FIG. 19. NOTOTROPIS NAZAS Meek. 

Head 4%; depth 4^ to 4$; D. 8; A. 8; scales 10-49 to 54-5. 
Body elongate, not much compressed; top of head flattish, the eye 
being' much nearer the upper than the lower profile of the head; 
snout rather pointed, slightly overhanging the mouth, 3 % in head; 
mouth large, maxillary about reaching vertical from anterior margin 
of pupil; maxillary 3 in head; teeth 4-4, hooked and with grind- 
ing surface quite well developed; pharyngeal bones and teeth very 
small; eye 3^3 in snout; origin of dorsal fin about midway between 
base of caudal and anterior margin of eye; about 30 scales in a series 
between nape and* dorsal fin ; base of dorsal i ^ in head ; its longest 
ray i^ in head; pectoral i^ in head, its tips reaching about $ 
distance from its base to base of ventrals; ventrals nearly reaching 
anal, if in head; base of anal 2 in head; caudal fin deepjy forked; 
caudal peduncle slender, its least depth 3^ in head; scales small, 
smaller on upper anterior part of the body; lateral line complete. 

Color light brownish, lighter below; a narrow dark lateral band, 
which ends in a faint caudal spot, on base of caudal rays; back finely 
punctulate with dark dots, many being grouped to form larger dots. 
Length about 2^ inches. Spawning time the latter part of May. 
(Nazas, name of the river from which the type was taken.) 

Subgenus Moniana Girard. 
62. Nototropis forlonensis sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4478, F. C. M., 2 inches in length; Forlon, Tamaulipas. 

Basin of the Rio Panuco. (Forlon; Valles.) 

Head 3^ to 4; depth 3*; D. 8; A. 9; scales 6-35-3. Body 
elongate, considerably compressed; dorsal ?nd ventral outlines about 
equal; snout pointed, 4 in head; mouth terminal, oblique; end of 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID^;. 71 

maxillary reaching vertical from anterior margin of orbit; eye large, 
3 in head; teeth 4-4, hooked, with narrow grinding surface; origin 
of dorsal fin midway between base of caudal and nostril; base of 
dorsal 2^ in head; its longest ray i-f in head; pectoral pointed, 




FlG. 20. NOTOTROPIS FORLONENSIS Meek. 

i in head; ventral i% in head; base of anal i^ in head; caudal 
peduncle rather slender, its least depth 2^ in head; scales rather 
deeper than long; lateral line decurved, complete. 

Color rather light brownish, with a lateral plumbeous band, 
ending in a very faint caudal spot. Length about 2 inches. 

This species resembles Nototropis lutrensis, differing, however, from 
it in having a better developed lateral band, a faint caudal spot, 
and a larger eye. Spawning time the latter part of May. (Forlon, 
name of the river from which the type was taken.) 

63. Nototropis lutrensis (Baird & Girard). 

Leuciscus lutrensis Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

1853, 391; Otter Creek, tributary of the North Fork of Red 

River, Arkansas. 
Moniana couchi Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 201; 

China, Nuevo Leon: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 57, pi. xxx, figs. 

21-24, 1859; China, Nuevo Leon. 
Moniana rutila Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 201, 1856; 

Cadereita, Nuevo Leon: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 57, pi. xxx, 

figs. 1-4, 1859; Cadereita, Nuevo Leon. 
Moniana -gracilis Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 201, 1856; 

Monterey, Nuevo Leon: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 59, 1859; 

Acapulco, near Monterey, Nuevo Leon. 
Moniana gibbosa Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 1859, 59; Brownsville, 

Texas. 
Cyprinella bubalina Jordan, Bull. U. S. Geol. Sur., 1878, 403; 

Brownsville, Texas. 

Cliola montiregis Cope, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 1884, 168; Mon- 
terey, Nuevo Leon. 



72 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Notrofns lutrensis Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., i&g^, 58; 
Rio Chihuahua, Chihuahua: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 271: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 
1902; Santa Maria; Ahumada; Chihuahua; Santa Rosalia; 
Jimenez; San Andres; Minaca. 

Small streams from the Rio Conchos in Chihuahua, north and 
east to South Dakota. (Sauz; Linares.) 

Head 3^ to 4; depth 3 to 4; D. 7 or 8; A. 8; scales 6 or 7, 36-3. 
Body elongate, compressed; head rather large; snout slightly bluntish; 
mouth moderate, oblique; snd of maxillary reaching vertical from 
anterior margin of orbit; teeth 4-4, or i, 4-4, o, i or 2; eye small, 
about equal to snout, 3^4 to 4 in head; origin of dorsal fin midway 
between base of caudal and nostril; about 14 to 19 scales in a series 
between nape and dorsal fin; base of dorsal i^ in head, its longest 
ray i^ in head; pectorals i^ in head; ventrals if in head; base of 
anal 2 in head; caudal fin forked; caudal peduncle moderate, its 
least depth 2 in head ; scales deeper than long ; lateral line consid- 
erably de curved. 

Color bluish above, lighter below; on darker specimens a dark 
vertical bar behind gill opening followed by a pale vertical bar which 
in life is red; in males, which have the body entirely covered with 
tubercles, the body in life is tinged with red, the pectorals, ventrals, 
and anals a bright red; small specimens with a very faint lateral 
band on posterior half of body; no caudal spot. Length about 3 
inches. ' 

A very variable and widely distributed r species. Spawning time 
the last half of May. 

64. Nototropis macrostomus (Girard). 

Cyprinella macrostoma Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 
198; Devil's River, Texas; China, Nuevo Leon: Girard, Mex. 
Bd. Sur., 54, pi. xxxi, figs. 5-8, 1859; China, Nuevo Leon. 

Notropis macrostomus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 274. 

Streams tributary to the Rio Grande, in northeastern Mexico. 
(San Juan; Montemorelos.) 

Head 3$; depth 3^"; D. 8; A. 8; scales 7-35-2. Body rather 
elongate, . moderately compressed; head conical; snout bluntish; 
mouth rather large, terminal, the maxillary reaching vertical from 
front of orbit; eye equal to length of snout, 3^ in head; origin of 
dorsal fin midway between tip of snout and base of caudal; dorsal 
fin short, its base 2 in head; pectoral i^ in head; ventrals reaching 
vent, 1^2 iv head; base of anal 2*4 in head; least depth of caudal 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID^E. 73 

peduncle 2^ in head; lateral line above pectoral considerably de- 
curved. 

Color olivaceous; a silvery band from eye to base of caudal, with 
a narrow light line above it. Length about 2.25 inches. 

The males of this species are much the darker, with the lateral 
band very faint; tubercles on head and nape. Females with well- 
developed eggs. This species resembles Nototropis lutrensis, but is 
more slender than that species, and the lateral band is more promi- 
nent on anterior half of the body; the mouth is also larger. 

65. Nototropis garmani (Jordan). 

Cyprinella mbripinna Garman, Mus. Comp. Zool., 1881, 91; Lago 
del Muerte, near Parras, Coahuila. 

Notropis^ garmani Jordan, Cat. Fishes N. Amer., 1885,813; name 
a substitute for rubripinna, preoccupied: Jordan & Ever- 
mann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 281. 

Basin of the Rio Nazas. (Lerdo; Santiago Papasquiaro.) 

Head 3^" to 4; depth 2%" to 4; D. 9; A. 10 to 12; scales 7-36-3. 
Body elongate to very deep, much compressed, the back somewhat 
arched; head rather small; snout bluntish, 4 in head; mouth small, 
oblique, terminal, the lower jaw included when mouth is closed; the 
tip of maxillary reaching vertical from anterior margin of the orbit; 
teeth 4-4, narrow grinding surface, tips hooked; eye 33/2 in the head; 
origin of dorsal fin midway between base of caudal and pupil; about 
18 scales between nape and dorsal fin; base of dorsal i^ in head, 
slightly less than length of longest ray; fins all large, the tips of the 
pectorals, in the deeper specimens, reaching base of ventrals; pectorals 
i in head; ventrals i^ in head; base of anal equals length of 
longest anal ray, i^ in head; scales rather large, deeper than long, 
especially on deepest specimens ; caudal fin forked ; caudal peduncle 
very slender, its least depth 2^ in head; vertebrae 16 + 17 = 3 3- 

Color bluish above, lighter below; a dark band on middle of the 
body on posterior half; no caudal spot; fins plain; males in breeding 
season with much red on body and fins, and tubercles on body; old 
males with tubercles over the entire body. Length about 3 inches. 

This species is very variable in form and color; it differs chiefly 
from Nototropis lutrensis, which it most resembles, in having larger 
fins and a much more slender caudal peduncle. The specimens from 
Lerdo are very much compressed, appearing much like half -starved 
fish; dark olivaceous, not much silvery. The large males are very 
red in life, with a dark bar followed by a lighter one just back 
of head. 

This species may possibly prove to be a variety of Nototropis 
lutrensis. Spawning time the latter part of May and in June. 



74 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

66. Nototropis santamariae Evermann & Goldsborough. 

Notropis santamarics Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. U.S. Fish 

Comm., 1902, 147; Lago de Santa Maria, Chihuahua. 
Basin of the Rio Santa Maria. 




FlG. 21. NOTOTROPIS SANTAMARIXE Evermann & Goldsborough. 
No. 50003, U. S. National Museum. 

Head 4; depth 3^; D. 8; A. 9; scales 9-38-2. Body short, deep, 
and compressed; head short, obtuse; mouth rather small, oblique; 
jaws subequal, the lower slightly included; maxillary scarcely reach- 
ing eye; its length 6 in head; interorbital 6 in head; eye large, 3^3 
in head; origin of dorsal fin over ventrals, midway between base of 
caudal and anterior margin of the orbit; scales large, loose, and 
closely imbricated, the exposed portions of the anterior ones deeper 
than long; about 15 scales between nape and dorsal fin; longest 
dorsal ray i in head; pectorals short, pointed, i% in head, not 
reaching base of ventrals; ventrals barely reaching origin of anal; 
lateral line greatly decurved and incomplete, only n to 13 pores; 
fins all small; teeth 4-4, slightly hooked; caudal peduncle moderate, 
its least depth 2$ in head. 

Color olivaceous, paler below; back and upper part of side with 
numerous small dark specks ; the edges of the scales dark ; an obscure 
dark lateral band, plainest on caudal peduncle; median line of back 
dark; top of head dark; snout somewhat dusky; dorsal and caudal 
fins dusky, other fins pale. Length about 2 inches. Known only 
from the type locality. 

67. Nototropis formosus (Girard). 

Moniana formosa Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 201; 
Rio Mimbres, Chihuahua: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 58, pi. 
xxx, figs. 5-8, 1859; Rio Mimbres, Chihuahua. 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID.E. 75 

Notropis formosus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1896, 271: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 84; Colonia 
Juarez. 

Basin of the Rio Casas Grandes. 

Head 3^; depth 3^ to 3^; D. 9; A. 8; scales 10-42 or 48-5. 
Body elongate, much compressed; head large; snout pointed, 4 in 
head; mouth moderate, end of maxillary reaching to vertical from 
anterior margin of eye; teeth 4-4, narrow grinding surface, tips little 
hooked; eye small, 3^ in head; origin of dorsal fin midway between 
base of caudal and nostril; about 24 scales in a series between nape 
and dorsal fin; base of dorsal i^ in head; longest ray i> in head; 
pectoral i% in head; ventral 1^2 in head; caudal fin forked; caudal 
peduncle 2 in head; lateral line decurved, complete or absent on a 
few scales. 

Color dark bluish, much lighter below; a dark band on middle 
of posterior part of body ; no caudal spot ; vertical fins darkish ; outer 
margin of first pectoral ray dark. Length 2 inches. 

This species is abundant in the basin of the Rio Casas Grandes. 
It has not been taken elsewhere. 

68. Nototropis frigidus (Girard). 

Montana frigida Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 200; 
Rio Frio, Texas: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 271. 

Notropis frigidus Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. U. S. Fish 
Comm., 1902, 148; Lago de Santa Maria, Chihuahua. 

Northern Chihuahua to Texas. 

Head 4; depth 4^; D. 7 ; A. 9; scales 5-35-6. Body slender, 
compressed; head small; mouth small, oblique, lower jaw slightly 
included; scales thin, deciduous; fins small; origin of dorsal slightly 
behind base of ventrals. 

Color pale yellowish or straw color; a few dark punctulations 
along the median line of back. Length about 2 inches. 

A single specimen 2 inches long from a pool near Lake Santa 
Maria, Chihuahua, seems to be this species, though too badly muti- 
lated to enable us to identify it with certainty. (Evermann & Golds- 
borough.) 

Subgenus Nototropis Rafinesque. 

69. Nototropis santarosaliae Meek. 

Notropis santarosalice Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 85; 

Santa Rosalia. 
Basin of the Rio Conchos in Chihuahua. 



;6 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Head 4; depth 4^; D- 8; A. 10; scales 6-37-3. Body elongate, 
rather slender ; snout pointed, short; 4 in head; mouth large, terminal, 
oblique; jaws about equal; end of maxillary reaching to middle of 
the pupil; margin of upper lip on level with center of eye; eye large, 




. FIG. 22. NOTOTROPIS SANTAROSALI/C Meek. 

No. 3535, Field Columbian Museum. 

3 in head; origin of dorsal fin midway between base of caudal and 
anterior margin of the orbit; 18 scales in a series before- dorsal fin; 
base of dorsal fin 2^ in head, its longest ray iX m head; pectorals 
iX m head; ventrals if; lateral line decurved, complete; the lateral 
line about one scale-width below the lateral band. 

Color light olivaceous, with a broad dark lateral band from snout 
through eye to base of caudal, rnore prominent on the posterior 
half of the body, not ending in a black caudal spot; fins all plain. 
Length about 2 inches. 

28. Pheiiacobius Cope. 

Phenacobius Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, 96. (Type, 

Phenacobius teretulus Cope.) 
Sarcidium Cope, Hayden's Geol. Sur. Wyom., 1870 (1871), 440. 

(Type, Sarcidium scopiferum Cope.) 

Body elongate, little compressed; head moderate, subterete; 
mouth inferior, the lower lip thin mesially, but enlarged into a 
fleshy lobe on each side toward the angle of the mouth, resembling 
a cut lip ; upper lip with a callous covering within ; dentary bones 
distinct, except at the symphysis; no barbel; upper jaw protractile; 
teeth 4-4, without grinding surface; scales small; lateral line present; 
isthmus wide; alimentary canal short; peritoneum white. 

70. Phenacobius scopifer (Cope). 

Sarcidium scopiferum Cope, Hayden's Geol. Surv. Wyo., 1870 
(1871), 440; Missouri River near St. Joseph, Missouri. 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID.E. 77 

Phenacobius scopifer Jordan, Bull. U. S. Geol. Sur., 1878, 666; 
Brownsville, Texas: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 302. 

Mouth of the Rio Grande north to St. Joseph, Missouri. 

Head 4 to 4^; depth 4^; D. 8; A. 7; scales 6-43-5. Body 
moderately slender; head short; snout rather blunt; mouth small; 
dorsal fin in front of ventrals. 

Color olivaceous, a silvery lateral band, and a black caudal spot; 
edges of scales' with dark edgings, which sharply define their outlines. 
Length about 3 inches. 

29. Evarra Woolman. 

Evarra Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 64. (Type, Evarra 
eigenmanni Woolman.) 

Body very elongate, slender, subterete; head small; snout bluntish; 
mouth small, terminal, oblique; no barbels; the lips thickish; upper 
jaw protractile; lateral line complete; dorsal fin low ; teeth small 4-4 ; 
alimentary canal about as long as body. 

To this genus belong 2 species which are known only from the 
lakes and canals near the City of Mexico. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF EVARRA. 

a. Anal fin short, with about 7 rays; scales about PAGE 

88 in the lateral series eigenmanni 7 7 

aa. Anal fin long, with 14 rays; scales 95 in lateral 

series tlahuacensis 78 

71. Evarra eigenmanni Woolman. 

Evarra eigenmanni Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 64; 

City of Mexico: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 1896, 304: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 86; 

Tlahuac. 
Valley of Mexico. 




FIG. 23. EVARRA EIGENMANNI Woolman. 

No. 45571, U. S. National Museum. 



78 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Head 4^"; depth 5^; D. 8; A. 7; scales 17-88-10. Body elon- 
gate, subterete; head small; the snout bluntish, 3^ in head; inter- 
orbital area broad and flattish; mouth small, the maxillary not 
reaching vertical from eye; lips somewhat thickened; lateral line 
decurved anteriorly, complete; fins all very small; dorsal inserted 
slightly behind origin of ventrals. 

Color olivaceous, silvery below; sides with a faint plumbeous 
lateral band, ending in a small caudal spot; a dark dorsal stripe; 
fins all plain. Length about 3 inches. 

72. Evarra tlahuacensis Meek. 

Evarra tlahuacensis Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 85; 

Tlahuac. 
Valley of Mexico. 




FIG. 24. EVARRA TLAHUACENSIS Meek. 

No. 3681, Field Columbian Museum. 



Head 4; depth 5^; D. 8; A. 14; scales 95. Body elongate, rather 
slender; snout blunt, its length 3^ in head; upper jaw protractile; 
teeth 4-4, tips hooked, grinding surface fairly developed; mouth 
little, oblique, tip of maxillary reaching margin of orbit; diameter 
of eye 3^ in head; origin of dorsal fin midw.ay between base of 
caudal and posterior margin of eye; about 38 scales in a series before 
dorsal fin; first dorsal ray reaching beyond tip of the last ray, when 
the fin is defiexed; lateral line complete, decurved above the pec- 
torals; gill membranes connected to isthmus; peritoneum black; 
the length of the alimentary canal equals distance from eye to tip 
of caudal fin. 

Color dark olive, white below, the line between the colors very 
distinct and extending from below eye to one-quarter distance. from 
ventral surface of caudal peduncle; a dark vertebral and a dark 
lateral band. Length about 2% inches. 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID^. 79 

3O. Khiiiichthys Agassiz. 

BLACK-NOSED DACE. 
Rhinichthys Agassiz, Lake Superior, 353, 1850. (Type, Cyprinus 

atronasus Mitchill.) 

Body elongate, not .much compressed; mouth small, subinferior; 
the upper jaw not protractile; the upper lip continuous with the 
skin of the forehead, forming a very broad frenum; a small barbel 
on end of maxillary; scales very small; lateral line complete; teeth 
2, 4-4, 2 or i, hooked, and without grinding surface ; intestinal canal 
short. Species few, inhabiting springs and running water. 

73. Rhinichthys simus Garman. SOUTHERN DACE. 

Rhinichthys simus Garman, Science Observer, 1881, 61; Coahuila: 
Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 307: 
Meek, Field Col. Mus., Pub., 65, 1902, 86; Santa Rosalia. 

Tributaries of the Rio Grande in northern Mexico. (Monte- 
morelos:) 

Head 3$; depth 4$; D. 8; A. 8; scales 12-62-8. Body elongate, 
little compressed; head depressed; snout blunt, its length 2^ in 
head; mouth inferior; lips thick; eye small, 5^" in head; interorbital 
area 3^ in head; origin of dorsal fin midway between base of caudal 
and nostril; pectoral fin large, nearly, reaching ventrals, its length i% 
in head; ventrals i% in head; caudal fin forked; caudal peduncle 
strong, its least depth 2% in head; lateral line complete, nearly 
straight. 

Color light brownish; young with a dark lateral band and small 
caudal spot, disappearing in the largest specimens. Length about 
3 inches. Spawning time the last of May and early in June. 

31. Agosia Girard. 
Agosia Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 186. (Type, 

Agosia chrysogaster Girard.) 
Apocope Cope, Hayden's Geol. Sur. Mont., 1871-4, 472. (Type, 

Apocope carringtoni Cope.) 

Body elongate, not much compressed; head long; snout blunt; 
maxillary with a terminal barbel; premaxillaries protractile; scales 
small, 60 to 90 in the lateral series; teeth 4-4, i, or 2, 4-4, i or 2 ; intes- 
tinal canal short. A genus which much resembles Rhinichthys. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF AGOSIA. 
a. Teeth i, 4-4, i; body elongate, its depth 4^ PAGE 

in the body oscula 80 

aa. Teeth 4-4, body rather deep , its depth 4 in body . . chrysogaster 80 



8o FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

74. Agosia oscula (Girard). 

Argyreus osculus Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 186; 

Babocomori Creek, a tributary of the Rio San Pedro, Arizona. 

Argyreus notabilis Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 186; 

Rio Santa Cruz, a tributary of the Gila, Sonora: Girard, Mex. 

Bd. Sur.,47, pi. xxvn, figs. 5-8, 1859; Rio Santa Cruz, Sonora. 

Agosia oscida Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 

1896, 309. 

Tributaries of the Gila River in Arizona and Sonora. 
Head 4; depth 4^; D. 8; A. 7; scales 18-89-15. Body rather 
elongate, the caudal peduncle stout; snout obtuse, but narrowed 
anteriorly, not overhanging the mouth; maxillary barbels small; eye 
small, 4 in head. 

Color dusky olive above ; a blackish lateral band ; male with axils 
of pectorals and ventrals scarlet; a scarlet patch above gill openings 
and one on side- of snout. Length about 3 inches. 

75. Agosia chrysogaster Girard. 

Agosia chrysogaster Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 
187; Rio Santa Cruz, Sonora (Gila Basin): Girard, Mex. Bd. 
Sur., 49, pi. xxvin, figs. 5-8, 1859; Rio Santa Cruz, Sonora: 
Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 313: 
Rutter, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1896, 260; Morse Canon; Rucker 
Canon, Yaqui Basin; Hermosillo: Evermann & Goldsborough , 
Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1902, 148; near summit of Sierra 
Madre. Chihuahua. 
Northern Sonora and Chihuahua. 

Head 4; depth 4; D. 8; A. 7; scales 88. Body fusiform; head 
rather heavy; snout conical; maxillary barbel small; mouth terminal, 
the upper jaw the longer; maxillary reaching about vertical from 
outer margin of orbit; eye small, 4 in head; fins long. 

Color dark iron gray above, sometimes spotted; a darker band 
of same along the side above lateral line, extending from end of 
snout to middle of caudal; males with the belly yellow or orange. 
Length about 3 inches. 

32. Hybopsis Agassiz. 
HORNY HEADS. 

Hybopsis Agassiz, Amer. Jour. Sci. Arts, 1854, 358. (Type, 
Hybopsis gracilis Agassiz = Rutilus amblops Rafinesque.) 

Yuriria Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 321. 
(Type, Hudsonius altus Jordan.) 



FAMILY V. CYPRINID^E. 81 

Body robust or elongate; mouth terminal or inferior, with a 
barbel present and terminal on maxillary; a second barbel some- 
times present on each side; premaxillaries protractile; teeth 4-4 or 
i, 4-4, i or o, hooked, with narrow grinding surface; scales rather 
large, 35 to 60 in the lateral line; lateral line complete; males usually 
with tubercles on snout in breeding season, and sometimes flushed 
with red. A small group of fishes usually inhabiting river channels. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF HYBOPSIS. 

a. Body slender, 5^ in, in length; scales 36 in PAGE 

the lateral series; mouth moderate, inferior; 
the snout projecting and rather pointed ; color 
silvery, everywhere sprinkled with dark dots astivalis 81 

aa. Body more robust, 3%" to 4^; mouth large 
oblique, terminal, the lower jaw slightly in- 
cluded; scales 45 in the lateral line; color sil- 
very without dark dots altus 81 

76. Hybopsis sestivalis (Girard). 

Gobio (Estivalis Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 189; 
Rio San Juan, near Cadereita, Nuevo Leon: Girard, Mex. 
Bd. Sur., 49, pi. LVII, figs. 17-29, 1859; Rio San Juan near 
Cadereita, Nuevo Leon. 

Hybopsis cestivalis Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish. Comm., 1894, 56; 
Rio Grande, El Paso, Texas: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 316. 

Northeastern Mexico north to the upper tributaries of the Rio 
Grande in New Mexico, and to the Arkansas River in Arkansas. 
(San Juan; Linares.) 

Head 3^; depth $%; D- 8; A. 8; scales 6-36-4. Body slender, 
with long caudal peduncle, the back scarcely elevated; head long 
and slender; the snout much projecting and rather pointed; mouth 
moderate, inferior, the maxillary reaching posterior nostril; barbels 
long, nearly as long as snout, about 3 in head; each maxillary with 
single barbel; eye small 4 to 4^ m head; fins rather long, the caudal 
deeply forked, its lobes subequal; origin of dorsal over ventrals 
nearer tip of snout than base of caudal. 

Color silvery, everywhere sprinkled with small black dots; fins 
plain. Length about 3 inches. This species spawns during the latter 
part of June. 

77. Hybopsis altus (Jordan). PESCADA BLANCA. 

Hudsonius altus Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 301; Lago 
deTupatara, Guanajuato: Bean, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1896,322. 



82 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Hybopsis altus Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 61; 
Rio Lerma, Salamanca, Queretaro : Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 
47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 322: Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. 
Fish Comm., 1900, 125; Rio Verde; Aguas Calientes: Pellegrin, 
Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris, 1901, 205 ; Estado de Jalisco: Meek, 
Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 86; Acambaro; Celaya; Aguas 
Calientes; Lagos. 
Notropis altus B. A. Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 539; Rio 

Cuitzeo, Michoacan. 
Basin of the Rio Lerma. 

Head 3^3 to 4; depth 3^ to 4; scales 9-46-4. Body rather 
elongate, compressed, back elevated; head low, rather long; snout 
bluntish; mouth terminal, large; end of maxillary reaching slightly 
beyond vertical from anterior margin of orbit, its length 3 > in head; 
snout 3^i in head; jaws equal; teeth 4-4, with grinding surface and 
tips slightly hooked; maxillary barbel rather small; eye 4^ in head; 
origin of dorsal fin slightly nearer tip of snout than base of caudal; 
pectoral fins pointed, i% in head; ventrals if- in head: caudal fin 
forked; caudal peduncle strong, its least depth 2% in head; lateral 
line complete, slightly decurved. 

Color light olivaceous, lighter below; sides above lateral line with 
a more or less plumbeous lateral band; no caudal spot. Length about 
10 inches. 

This species is usually found in clear running water. It is quite 
abundant in the upper tributaries of the Rio Lerma, from which 
streams only, it is known. Sexual organs of specimens taken the third 
week of May not developed. Evidently it spawns late in the summer. 

33. Couesius Jordan. 

Couesius Jordan, Bull. Hayden's Geol. Sur. Terr., iv, 785, 1878. 
(Type, Nocomis milneri Jordan.) 

Body elongate; head normal, not depressed; the profile convex; 
mouth terminal, normal; a well-developed barbel on the anterior 
side of the maxillary, just above its tip; teeth 2, 4-4, 2, hooked, with- 
out grinding surface; scales rather small; lateral line complete. 

78. Couesius adustus Woolman. 

Couesius adustus Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 57; Rio 
Conchos, Chihuahua: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 1896, 325. 
Rio Conchos in Chihuahua. 

Head 4% ', depth 4^3 ; D. 8 ; A. 7 ; scales 13-58-8. Body moderate- 
ly compressed, the back little elevated, the anterior profile rather 



FAM. V. CYPRINID^;. FAM. VI. CHARACINID^E. 83 

convex; snout rather long, slightly pointed; its length 3! in head; 
mouth low, terminal, oblique; the jaws subequal, the maxillary 
opposite posterior nostril; barbel evident in young, inconspicuous 
in the adult, its position not quite terminal; interorbital space broad, 
flattish; eye 3^ in head; preorbital broad; origin of dorsal inserted 
over or a little behind ventrals, the latter reaching to vent. 

Color olivaceous, dusky above; sides silvery; a narrow plumbeous 
lateral band ending in a small caudal spot in young individuals; fins 
all plain. Length about 4 inches. 

This species is known only from the type locality. 

Subfamily Plagopterinae. 
34. Plagopterus Cope. 

Plagopterus Cope, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. Phila., 1874, 301. (Type, 
Plagopterus argentissimus Cope.) 

Body slender; mouth terminal; a barbel at the extremity of the 
maxillary; teeth 2, 5-4, 2, hooked, without grinding surface; body 
without scales; dorsal fin short, posterior, with a strong spine 
composed of 2 spines, the posterior one being received into a longi- 
tudinal groove of the anterior; inner border of ventral fins adherent 
to the body. 

79. Plagopterus argentissimus Cope. 

Plagopterus argentissimus Cope, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. Phila., 
1874, 130; San Luis Valley, Colorado: Jordan & Evermarin, 
Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 329: Gilbert & Scofield, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 496; mouth of Rio Gila at Yuma. 
Colorado River Basin in Colorado to Ft. Yuma, Arizona. 
Head 4; depth 6; D. n, 7; A. 10. Body slender; head rather 
broad, the muzzle slightly depressed, overhanging the rather small, 
horizontal mouth; lips thin; maxillary reaching front of eye; eye 
moderate, 4^ in head; dorsal fin entirely behind ventrals, the first 
spine curved, longer than the second; soft rays of dorsal thickened, 
ossified at base; lateral line complete, slightly deflexed. 

Color silvery; back dusky, with minute black dots. Length about 
2% inches. A singular little fish. 

Family VI. Cliaracinidse. 

THE CHARACINS. 

Body usually rather elongate, compressed and covered with cycloid 
scales; head naked; margin of the upper jaw formed mesially by 
the premaxillaries and laterally by the maxillaries; no barbels ; pre- 



84 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

maxillaries protractile; teeth various, often incisor-like, often wanting; 
branchiostegals usually 3; gill membranes united to the isthmus or 
not; no pseudobranchiae; gills 4, a slit behind the fourth; lower 
pharyngeals more or less curved, armed with small, sometimes villi- 
form, teeth ; adipose fin present (occasionally wanting) ; air bladder 
transversely divided into two portions; anterior vertebrae coalesced 
and modified. 

A large family of fishes inhabiting the fresh waters of South 
America and Africa. A few species inhabit the streams of southern 
Mexico, ranging as far north as the United States. All of the mem- 
bers of this family in Mexico are small, none reaching a length of 
over six inches. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF CHARACINID/E. 

a. Scales large, less than 50 in the lateral series; PAGE 

anal fin short, with less than 35 rays, 
b. Anterior teeth strong, incisor-like; premax- 
' illary teeth in a double series, those on man- 
dible in a single series; less than 40 scales 
in the lateral series ; lateral line complete . . Tetragonopterus 84 
bb. Anterior teeth weaker, more or less conical 
and with lateral cusps; more than 40 scales 
in the lateral series; lateral line incomplete. Hemigrammus 87 
aa. Scales small, more than 60 in the lateral series; 

anal fin long, with more than 40 rays Rceboides 88 

Subfamily Tetragonopterinae. 
35. Tetragonopterus Cuvier. 

Tetragonopterus Cuvier, Regne Animal, Ed. i, Vol. n, 166, 1817. 
(Type, Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier.) 

Astyanax Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, 26. 
(Type, Astyanax argentatus Baird & fiirard.) 

Body oblong or elevated, compressed, covered with moderate 
scales; belly rounded; mouth rather small; anterior teeth strong, 
incisor-like; lateral teeth small; premaxillary and mandibular teeth 
about equal in size, with a compressed, notched crown, the former 
in a double, the latter in a single series; nostrils of each side close 
together, separated by a valve only; lower pharyngeals very slender, 
curved, armed with a single series of slender, hooked teeth; gill 
openings wide; gill membranes not connected, free from the isthmus; 
origin of the dorsal fin about midway between tip of snout and base 
of caudal. 



FAMILY VI. CHARACINID^E. 85 

The species of this genus, which inhabit the streams of Mexico, 
are extremely variable. In the collections studied by me, I am 
unable to recognize more than two species. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF TETRAGONOPTERUS. 

a. Anal fin short, its rays 18 to 23 mexicanus 85 

aa. Anal fin longer, its rays 24 to 27 aneus 86 

80. Tetragonopterus mexicanus Filippi. 

Tetragonopterus mexicanus Filippi, Guerins Rev. Mag. Zool., 1853, 
1 66; Mexico: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1896, 335: Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1900, 
125; Rio Ixtla, Puente de Ixtla, Morelos: Meek, Field Col. 
Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 86; Puente de Ixtla; Balsas; Cuicatlan; 
Venta Salada. 

Astyanax argentatus Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1854, 27; Comanche Spring and Brownsville, Texas: Girard, 
Mex. Bd. Sur., 74, pi. vin, figs. 5-9, 1859; mouth of the Rio 
Grande: Giinther, Cat., v, 380, 1864: Garman, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 1881, 92; tributaries of Lago del Muerto and 
spring near Monclova. 

Tetragonopterus fulgens Bocourt, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool., ix, 1868, 
62; Province of Cuernavaca: Vaillant & Pellegrin, Bull. Mus. 
Hist. Nat. Paris, 1904, 325; Cuernavaca. 

Tetragonopterus argentatus Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1894, 60; Rio Chihuahua, Chihuahua: Jordan & Evermann, 
Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896: Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. 
Fish Comm., 1900, 125; Rio Verde, near Rascon, San Luis 
Potosi; Rio Tamesin, Tampico: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 
65, 1902, 86; Chihuahua; Santa Rosalia; Jimenez. 
Tetragonopterus nitidus Vaillant & Pellegrin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 

Paris, 1904, 324; Cuernavaca. 

Rio Balsas and Rio Tehuacan to the Rio Grande. (Lerdo ; Santiago 
Papasquiaro; Monterey; San Juan; Montemorelos ; Linares; Garza 
Valdez ; La Cruz ; Santa Engracia ; Victoria ; Rio Verde ; Forlon ; Valles 
Rascon; Cuautla; Yautepec; Jojutla; Atlixco; Matamoras; Chietla.) 

Head 3^ to 4; depth 2%" to 3; D. 9 or 10; A. 20 to 23; scales 
8-34 to 37-6. Body elongate, compressed, the dorsal and ventral 
outlines similar; head rather small; snout bluntish; mouth terminal, 
small ; the free straight portion of the maxillary 3 X m head ; snout 
3 to 3^; eye 3 to 3^! origin of dorsal fin about midway between 
tip of snout and base of caudal fin (in most specimens nearer tip of 
snout); base of dorsal i> in its longest ray, 2 in head; pectorals 



86 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

nearly or quite reaching ventrals, i^ in head; ventrals to vent, i^ 
in head ; base of anal equals the length of the head ; origin of adipose 
fin over the last ray of the anal; caudal fin forked, the lobes equal; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 2% in head; lateral line complete, 
nearly straight; gill rakers short, rather slender, about 17 on the first 
gill arch; vertebrae 16 + 17=33. 

Color light olivaceous above, silvery below; a broad bluish silvery 
band becoming darker posteriorly from upper edge of gill opening to 
base of caudal fin ; an oblong black caudal spot extending on the mid- 
dle rays of caudal fin ; a dark humeral blotch. Length about 4 inches. 

This species is very abundant and variable. Specimens from the 
Rio Nazas, the upper waters of the Rio Conchos and from the Rio 
Panuco average a little deeper than those from the other localities. 
Those found in streams where vegetation is the most abundant are 
the darker in color. The females are full of eggs, indicating that 
the spawning season is the latter part of May and early in June. 
Eggs small, the diameter of each .035 inch. 

81. Tetragonopterus aeneus Giinther. 

Tetragonopterus ceneus Giinther, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1860, 
319; Oaxaca, Mexico: Gunther Cat., v, 326, 1864; Oaxaca: 
Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 333. 

Tetragonopterus oaxacanensis Bocourt, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool., ix, 
1868, 62; Oaxaca. 

Lowland streams south of the city of Vera Cruz and of the Rio 
Balsas. (Otopa; Cordoba; Motzorongo; Refugio; El Hule; Obispo; 
Perez; Sanborn; San Juan Evangelista; San Geronimo; Tehuantepec.) 
Head 3^ to 4; depth 2% to 3; D. 10; A. 24 to 27; scales 8 or 9,35 
to 38-6. Body elongate, or rather deep, compressed; head short; 
mouth small; in some of the larger specimens the outer cusps of the 
upper teeth protrude through the skin of the upper lip; snout short, 
blunt, 4 in head; eye 2f ; maxillary rather slender, its posterior por- 
tion nearly vertical and about ^ diameter of the eye; no teeth on 
maxillary; origin of the dorsal fin midway between tip of snout and 
base of caudal, or slightly near the snout; longest dorsal ray slightly 
longer than the head; tip of pectorals reaching ventrals; pectoral i 
in head; tips of ventrals not quite reaching anal; lateral line complete, 
slightly decurved; caudal fin deeply forked. 

Color light olivaceous, a silvery band on sides, ending in an oblong 
caudal spot extending on middle rays of the caudal fin ; this band 
is darker in dark colored specimens; a black humeral spot with trace 
of a second one behind it. Length about 4 inches. Streams south of 
Cordoba and south of the Rio Balsas. 



FAMILY VI. CHARACINID^. 87 

In form this species is very variable, usually the deeper specimens 
are more compressed than the more elongate ones. The darker speci- 
mens are from Refugio and Motzorongo, the lighter from San Juan 
Evangelista. The former were taken in a shady stream, the latter 
on the edge of a sand-bar. This species is very abundant in the 
lower portions of all streams examined by me south of Vera Cruz. 

36. Hemigrammus Gill. 

Hemigrammus Gill, Ann. N.Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., 1858,420. (Type, 
Hemigrammus unilineatus Gill.) 

Body elongate, much compressed; belly before ventrals rounded; 
head moderate; snout pointed; teeth in both jaws uniserial, pointed, 
with one to three cusps ; teeth on maxillary 0-5 ; gill membranes not 
connected, free from the isthmus; gill rakers long and slender, nu- 
merous; lateral line incomplete. 

82. Hemigrammus compressus sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4641, F. C. M., i^i inches in length; El Hule, Oaxaca. 
Basin of the Rio Papaloapam. (El Hule; Obispo.) 




FIG. 25. HEMIGRAMMUS COMPRESSUS Meek. 

Head z^A', depth 2^; D. u; A. 25 or 27; scales 45 to 48. Body 
deep, much compressed; ventral region rounded before and behind 
ventrals; mouth moderate; maxillary slender, its tip reaching vertical 
from pupil, its length 2% in head; teeth in jaws in one series, con- 
ical; snout short, its length slightly more than y z diameter of eye; 
dorsal fin high, its longest ray slightly more than length of head, 
its base i^ in head; origin of dorsal fin -midway between base 
of caudal fin and anterior margin of eye; pectorals i^ in the head, 
their tips reaching slightly past base of ventrals ; ventral fins slightly 
shorter than pectorals; caudal peduncle very slender, its least depth 



88 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

3 in base of anal fin; base of anal fin 3^ in body; anal fin falcate, its 
longest rays equaling the length of the head; the lateral line incom- 
plete, on 4 to 10 anterior scales; caudal fin widely forked. 

Color light olivaceous, body and fins sprinkled with black dots, 
being more numerous on dorsal region and region near anal fin; basal 
half of anterior dorsal rays black; anal fin with many dark dots. The 
largest specimen obtained is 1.75 inches in length. 

Subfamily Characinse. 
37. Rceboides Giinther. 

Rceboides Giinther, Cat., v, 347, 1864. (Type, Epicyrtus microlepis 
Rheinhardt.) 

Body oblong, rather elevated, covered with small scales; belly 
rounded in front of ventrals ; pectoral and ventral fins near each other ; 
humerus dilated or produced into a process before pectoral fin ; mouth 
wide, with conical .teeth in the premaxillary, maxillary, and mandible; 
those on the mandible uniserial, on the upper jaw uniserial or biserial; 
front of jaws with short, conical, tooth-like processes directed forward; 
no teeth on palate; nostrils close together, separated by a membrane 
only; gill openings wide, the membranes separate and free from the 
isthmus; gill rakers slender lanceolate; adipose fin present; verte- 
brae i2-f 22 =34. 

83. Roeboides guatemalensis (Giinther). 

Anacyrtus guatemalensis Giinther, Cat., v, 347, 1864; Rio Chagres; 
Huamuchal: Giinther, Fishes Cent. Amer., 479, pi. 82, fig. 
4, 1869; Huamuchal. 

Rceboides guatemalensis Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 338. 

Rivers of the Pacific slope of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and Cen- 
tral America. (San Geronimo.) 

Head 3^; depth 3; D. 9; A. 50; scales 86. Body elongate, profile 
rather gibbous at the nape; head small, subconical; mouth large; 
maxillary long and slender, its tips reaching vertical from posterior 
margin of the pupil, its length z in head; snout equaling diameter of 
eye, 3^ in head; origin of dorsal fin slightly nearer tip of snout than 
base of caudal fin; ventrals long and slender, i in head, their tips 
reaching anal ; ventrals i y$ in head ; caudal fin deeply forked ; lateral 
line straight, complete. 

Color olivaceous; sides with a silvery band; a faint" dark blotch 
above lateral line over middle of pectoral ; a larger blotch below lateral 
line above origin of anal; a faint caudal blotch; no markings on the 
fins. Length about 3 inches. 

One specimen 3 inches in length was taken by me at San Geronimo. 



Order v. Symbranchia. 

THE SYMBRANCHOID EELS. 

Body eel-shaped; premaxillary, maxillary, and palatine bones 
well developed and distinct from each other; no paired fins; vertical 
fins rudimentary, reduced to folds of the skin; gill openings confluent 
in a single slit; no air bladder; vertebrae numerous, the anterior ones 
not modified. 

Family VII. Symbrancliidre. 

THE SYMBRANCHOID EELS. 

Body eel-shaped, naked, the abdomen very long, longer than the 
tail; snout short; eyes small, anterior; teeth small; palatine teeth in a 
band; gill openings confluent in a narrow slit; 4 gill arches; gills 
well developed ; gill membranes free from the isthmus ; no accessory 
breathing sac ; shoulder girdle attached to the skull by a well-developed 
bifurcate post-temporal. 

38. Symbraiiclms Bloch. 

Symbranchus Bloch, Ichthyologia, ix, 87; 1795. (Type, Symbranchus 

marmoratus Bloch.) 
The description of the genus is included in that of the family. 

84. Symbranchus marmoratus Bloch. 

Symbranchus marmoratus Bloch. Ichth., ix, 87, pi. 418, 1795 ; Trop- 
ical America: Gunther, Cat., vm, 15, 1870; Mexico; Vera Cruz: 
Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 342: B. 
A. Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 539; Santa Maria. 
Tropical streams from Vera Cruz to the Amazon. 
Body elongate; snout short, rounded or pointed; eyes small, rather 
close to the end of the snout; gill opening narrow, not extending to the 
edge of the ventral surface, generally transverse, arched, frequently 
appearing as a longitudinal slit unless drawn out; vertebras 79 + 57 = 
136. 

Color brownish, variously marbled, sometimes immaculate. 
Length 3 to 5 feet. 



Order VI. Apodes, 

THE EELS. 

Body eel-shaped; premaxillaries atrophied or lost, the maxillaries 
lateral; vertebras numerous, no to 250, the anterior ones not mod- 
jfied; no ventral fins; tail isocercal; gill openings comparatively 
small, lateral. To this order belong the larger number of our eel- 
like fishes. 

Family VIII. Angiiillidre. 

Body elongate, eel-shaped; skin covered with rudimentary em- 
bedded scales, usually linear in form, arranged in small groups, and 
placed obliquely at right angles to those of neighboring groups; pec- 
toral -and vertical fins well developed, the latter confluent around the 
tail; gill openings lateral and vertical; teeth in cardiform bands on 
jaws and vomer. 

39. Aiiguilla Shaw. 
COMMON EEL; ANGUILLA. 

Anguilla Shaw, General Zoology, iv, 15, 1804. (Type, Murczna 
anguilla Linnaeus.) 

Body elongate, compressed posteriorly; head long, conical, moder- 
ately pointed, the rather small eye well forward and over the angle of 
the mouth; teeth small, subequal in bands on each jaw and a long 
patch on the vomer; lower jaw the longer; gill openings rather small, 
slit-like, and partly below pectorals; lateral line well developed; nos- 
trils well separated, the anterior with a slight tube; dorsal fin con- 
fluent with anal around tail ; pectorals well developed. 

85. Anguilla chrysypa Rafinesque. COMMON EEL; ANGUILLA; 

FRESH-WATER EEL. 

Anguilla. chrysypa Rafinesque, Amer. Mon. Mag. & Crit. Rev., 
1817, 120; Lake George; Hudson River; Lake Champlain: 
Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 348. 
Anguilla tyrannus Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 75, pi. XL, 1859; Mata- 

moras; mouth of the Rio Grande. 

This species is quite abundant in all streams east of the Rocky 
Mountains from Canada to Tampico; it is also common in salt and 
brackish water along the adjacent coasts, and in the West Indies. 
(San Juan.) 

90 



FAMILY VIII. ANGUILLID^E. 91 

Head 2 to 2^ in trunk; the fin rays and scales very numerous. 
Body elongate, rather robust; distance from origin of dorsal to vent 
i % to 2 in head. 

Color brown above, nearly plain, often tinged with yellowish, paler 
below, the color very variable. Length 4 to 5 feet. 

This species is apparently abundant in the streams of Mexico 
north of Tampico. Two specimens were taken by me in the river at 
San Juan. 



Order vii. Isospondyli. 

THE ISOSPONDYLOUS FISHES. 

Anterior vertebrae simple; opercular bones distinct; ^haryngeal 
bones not falciform; jaws well developed, the maxillary broad, always 
distinct from premaxillary, and forming part of margin of upper jaw; 
no barbels ; gills 4 ; ventral fins abdominal. 

KEY TO THE FAMILIES OF ISOSPONDYLI. 

a. Adipose fin none; no lateral line; ventral sur- PAGE 

face compressed to an edge which is armed 

with bony serratures; stomach short, mus- . 

cular, like the gizzard of a fowl; last ray of 

dorsal fin produced into a filament Dorosomatida 92 

aa. Adipose fin present; lateral line present; ven- 
tral surface rounded; stomach siphonal, not 

gizzard-like ; last ray of dorsal fin not produced 

into a filament Salmonidcc 95 

Family IX. DorosomatidaB. 

THE GIZZARD SHADS. 

Body short and deep, strongly compressed, covered with thin 
deciduous cycloid scales ; belly compressed to an edge which is armed 
with bony serratures; head rather small, without scales; no lateral 
line; gill membranes not united, free from the isthmus; pseudo- 
branchia large; dorsal fin short, its last ray produced into a long fila- 
ment; anal fin long and low; stomach short, muscular, like the 
gizzard of a fowl. Mud-eating fishes of warm regions. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF DOROSOMATID^E. 

a. Maxillary short, in two pieces, with ,a notch PAGE 

on outer margin Dorosoma 9 2 

aa. Maxillary long, curved, in three pieces, and 

without a notch on its outer margin Signalosa 94 

4O. Dorosoma Rafinesque. 
THE GIZZARD SHADS. 

Dorosoma Rafinesque, Ichth. Ohiensis, 39, 1820. (Type, Dorosoma 

noiata Rafinesque = Megalops cepedianum Le Sueur.) 
Body short, deep, and strongly compressed; dorsal and ventral 
outlines similar; head rather small; snout blunt, overlapping the small 

92 



FAMILY IX. DOROSOMATID^;. ~ 93 

inferior oblique mouth; maxillary narrow and short, with a single 
supplemental bone, not extending to opposite middle of the eye; 
maxillary with a notch on outer margin; caudal peduncle slender. 
Mud-eating fishes, having no value as food. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF DOROSOMA. 

a. Scales small, 69 to 73 in lateral series; anal .PAGE 

rays 36 to 38 "..... anale 93 

aa. Scales larger, 56 to 60 in lateral series; anal 

rays 30 to 34 exile 94 

86. Dorosoma anale sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4637, F. C. M., 7^ inches in length; El Hule, Oaxaca. 

Atlantic streams of Mexico south of the city of Vera Cruz. (Otopa; 
El Hule; Perez; San Juan Evangelista.) 

Head 3^ to 4>(; depth 2^ to 3; D. 12; A. 36 to 38; scales 25-69 




FIG. 26. DOROSOMA ANALE Meek. 

to 73. Body much compressed, deep, profile with a slight angle at nape ; 
dorsal region elevated; eye large with a well-developed adipose eyelid, 
its diameter 3^ in head; snout very short, its length. about one-half 
diameter of eye ; origin of dorsal slightly nearer tip of snout than base 
of caudal; ventral scutes i8-f-io; least depth of caudal peduncle 2f. 

Color brownish on upper third of body, light silvery below; a 
black spot on shoulder; fins all plain. Length about 12 inches. 

All of the specimens collected by. me have a long anal fin. The 
specimen recorded from Montecristo by Evermann & Goldsborough 
Dr. Evermann informs me has 32 rays in the anal fin. The smaller 
scales of this species readily distinguishes it from the next one. 



94 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

87. Dorosoma exile Jordan & Gilbert. GIZZARD SHAD; HICKORY 

SHAD. 

Dorosoma cepedianum exile Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1882, 585; Galveston, Texas: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 
47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 416. 

Dorosoma mexicanum B. A. Bean, Proc. US. Nat. Mus., 1899, 
539; Lago de Cademaco, south of Vera Cruz: Jordan & Ever- 
mann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 416: Meek, Field Col. 
Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 87; La Antigua. 

Lowland streams which flow into the Gulf of Mexico north of the 
city of Vera Cruz. (San Juan; Forlon; Valles.) 

Head 4%', depth 2^ to 3; D. 12; A. 30 to 34; scales 29-56 to 60. 
Body deep, compressed, the back elevated; ventral scutes i8-f-n; 
origin of dorsal fin midway between tip of snout and opposite tips of 
last anal ray; dorsal fin slightly behind ventrals, its filamentous ray 
about as long as head ; least depth of caudal peduncle 2f m head. 

Color bluish brown above, silvery below; a black spot on the 
shoulder. Length about 1 2 inches. 

41. Signalosa Evermann & Kendall. 

Signalosa Evermann & Kendall, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1897 
(Feb. 9, 1898) 127. (Type, Signalosa atchafalayce Evermann & 
Kendall Chatoessus mexicanus Giinther.) 

Body short, deep and compressed, the form somewhat elliptical; 
ventral outline more strongly curved than the dorsal; mouth small, 
terminal, oblique, the lower jaw scarcely included; maxillary in three 
pieces, broad and curved and without notch in outer margin; bran- 
chiostegals 5; pseudobranchiae large; gill rakers short and very nu- 
merous, about 340 in number ; no teeth ; adipose eyelid present ; last ray 
of dorsal filamentous. 

88. Signalosa mexicana (Giinther). 

Chatoessus mexicanus Gunther, Cat., vn, 409, 1868; Mexico and 

Central America. 
Dorosoma mexicanum Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 1896, 416. 
Signalosa atchafalaya Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 1898, 2809. 

Louisiana to Central America, in lowland streams which empty 
into the Gulf of Mexico. (Valles; Obispo; El Hule; Perez.) 

Head 3^ to 4; depth 2^ to 3; D. n or 12; A. 24 to 26; scales 
15-42. Body rather deep, compressed; mouth terminal, rather large; 
no teeth ; maxillary reaching vertical from anterior margin of pupil, 



FAMILY X. SALMONID^;. 95 

its length 3 to 3 in head; origin of dorsal fin midway between tip 
of snout and tip of last anal ray ; last ray of dorsal 3 in body ; pectoral 
1^3 in head, reaching base of ventrals; ventrals' 23^; base of anal fin 
equaling length of head; scutes well developed, 15 or 16 + 9; scales 
large, thin, deciduous; caudal fin forked; least depth of caudal pedun- 
cle 2>^ in head. 

Color brownish above, light silvery below, the opercles and ad- 
joining region with considerable yellowish; a black humeral spot; fins 
all plain. Length about 6 inches. 

Mr. C. Tate Regan, of the British Museum, has kindly reexamined 
the types of Chatoessus mexicanus Giinther, and he informs me that 
Signalosa atchajalayce Evermann & Kendall is the same species. 

Family X. Sal HI on Ida". 

THE SALMON FAMILY. 

Body elongate, covered with cycloid scales; head naked; mouth 
terminal, large or small, the maxillary forming its lateral margin; 
maxillary with a supplemental bone; premaxillaries not protractile; 
teeth various, sometimes wanting; pseudobranchiae present; gill 
membranes not connected, free from the isthmus; branchiostegals 
10 to 20; no barbels; dorsal fin small, placed near the middle of the 
body, its rays 9 to 15; adipose fin present; caudal fin forked; lateral 
line present; abdomen rounded in outline; air bladder large; stomach 
siphonal; pyloric cceca numerous; ova large, falling into cavity of the 
body before exclusion. 

The fishes which belong to this family are confined to the northern 
regions, one species ranging as far south as Durango. 

'Subfamily Salmoninae. 
4:2. Salmo (Artedi) Linnaeus. 

SALMON AND TROUT. 
Salmo (Artedi, Genera Piscium) Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. x, 302, 

1758. (Type, Salmo salar Linnaeus.) 

Body elongate, somewhat compressed; mouth large; jaws, pala- 
tines, and tongue toothed; vomer flat, its shaft not depressed, a few v 
teeth on chevron of the vomer, behind which is a somewhat irregular 
single or double series of teeth (in migratory forms deciduous with 
age); scales small, more than 100 in the lateral series; dorsal and 
anal fins short, of 10 to 12* rays each; sides and median fins black 
spotted. 

The species of this genus are confined to the colder portions of the 
northern hemisphere. Of the three species on the Atlantic side of 



96. FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

North America, one Salmo salar Linnaeus is anadromous, while the 
other two, Salmo scbago Girard and Salmo ouananiche McCarthy, are 
land-locked ; those in the Rocky Mountains and western streams with 
few exceptions remain in fresh water, the exceptions comprise a few 
species which usually inhabit the streams near the sea, and which 
spend a portion of their time in salt water. All of the species are 
very variable and difficult to distinguish. ' The almost infinite varia- 
tions of these fishes are dependent on age, sex, sexual development, 
food, and the properties of the water." The young are barred. 
The size of these fishes seems to depend largely on the extent of 
water and the abundance of food. The water also has a marked 
influence on colors. Trout found in shaded streams with clear rapid 
water are brightly colored, and profusely spotted with black; those 
which spend considerable time in brackish or salt water are silvery 
and with few or no spots. 

89. Salmo irideus Gibbons. RAINBOW TROUT. 

Salmo irideus Gibbons, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1855, 36; San Leandro 
Creek, Alameda Co., California: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 
47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 500. 

Headwaters of Pacific coast streams of Durango north to Wash- 
ington. 

Head 4; depth 3^3 ; D. 10; A. 9; scales 135. Body rather robust; 
head moderate; mouth large; maxillary reaching posterior margin of 
eye, its length 2% in head; diameter of eye 3?; length of mandible 
if; origin of dorsal fin .slightly nearer tip of snout than base of 
caudal ; length of pectoral i ^ in head ; ventral i ? ; least depth of 
caudal peduncle 2^ in head; branchiostegals 10. 

Color olive brown, darker above; sides with a few scattered dark 
blotches; a few small black spots on upper and posterior part of 
caudal peduncle; dorsal fin with black spots, none on other fins; basal 
YT, of anal dark; ventrals with a dark shade; specimens 3 inches in 
length with 9 or 10 pale marks on the side, the dorsal fin black spotted, 
but no spots on other fins. 

Four specimens collected June, 1902, by Mr. E. Heller at San 
Antonio, Lower California, the longest specimen 5 .80 inches in length. 
This species reaches a weight from ]/?. (in small mountain brooks) to 
6 pounds. 

There is a species of trout found in the streams on the Pacific 
slope of the Sierra Madre Mountains in Chihuahua and Durango. I 
have not seen any specimens of this trout and so, provisionally at 
least, regard it as this species. Mr. John Ramsey, General Manager of 
the R.-G., S.-M. & P. R. R., informs me that a trout is quite abundant 



FAMILY X. SALMONID.E. 97 

in the upper tributaries of the Rio Yaqui. Mr. A. V. Temple also 
told me trout were found in the Pacific coast streams west of the city 
of Durango. In the American Naturalist, 1886, 735, I quote the fol- 
lowing from Prof. E. D. Cope: "The most southern salmon. I owe 
to' my friend, Professor Lupton, two specimens of a black-spotted 
trout from a locality far south of any which has hitherto yielded 
Salmonidae. They are from streams of the Sierra Madre, of Mexico, 
at an elevation of between 7,000 and 8,000 feet, in the southern part of 
the State of Chihuahua, near the boundaries of Durango and Sinaloa. 
The specimens are young, and have teeth on the basihyal bones, as 
in Salmo purpuratus, which they otherwise resemble." 



Order VIII. Haplomi. 

THE PIKE-LIKE FISHES. 

Anterior vertebrae simple; mesocoracoid wanting; the coracoids 
normally developed; opercular bones, well developed; ventral fins 
abdominal; pectoral fins placed low; dorsal fin more or less posterior, 
the first ray sometimes stiffened and spine-like; no adipose fin; head 
usually covered with cycloid scales like those on the body ; mouth with 
teeth. Fishes chiefly inhabiting fresh water. 

Family XI. Poeciliidw. 

THE KILLIFISHES. 

Body elongate, or deep and compressed behind, depressed forward, 
and covered by rather large cycloid scales; head scaly, at least 
so above; mouth terminal, small, lower jaw usually the longer; pre- 
maxillaries extremely protractile ; teeth conical, or incisor-like, usually 
confined to the jaws, sometimes on vomer; lower pharyngeals separ- 
ate, with cardiform, rarely molar teeth; gill membranes somewhat 
connected, free from the isthmus; gill rakers very short and thick; 
branchiostegals 4 to 6; pseudobranchiae none; dorsal fin single, behind 
the middle of the body; caudal fin not forked; ventral fins abdominal, 
rarely absent; air bladder, if present, simple. 

The species of this family are usually of small size, some are ovip- 
arous, others viviparous. In the oviparous forms, the males and 
females are more nearly alike in size and color, and the anal fin of 
both sexes is similar in form and position. In many of the viviparous 
species the anal fin of the male is placed well forward and modified 
into an intromittent organ, and the male is about half the length of 
the female. In other viviparous forms the anal fin of the male has 
the same position as that in the female, but differs from it in having 
the first five or six rays short and stiff, and separated from the rest of 
the fin by a shallow notch ; the sexes differ in color, but are of about the 
same size. In some species the alimentary canal is about as long as 
the fish; in others it is several times as long. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF PCECILIIDvt. 

a. Intestinal canal comparatively short, little 
convoluted, usually less than one and one-half 
times the total length of the body (2 in Chap- 
alichthys) ; teeth little movable ; dentary bones 
firmly united; species chiefly carnivorous. 

98 



FAMILY XI. POECILIID.E. 99 

b. A few of the anterior teeth in each jaw much PAGE 

enlarged, canine-like Cynodonichthys 101 

bb. Anterior teeth in each jaw subequal, none 

canine-like. 

, c. Outer series of teeth enlarged, pointed, or a 
few of the anterior' ones compressed, incisor- 
like, none of them notched, bicuspid or tri- 
cuspid. 

d. Anal fin of the male similar to that of the 
female; pharyngeal bones and teeth not 
enlarged; species oviparous. 

e. Teeth in more than one series, usually a 
larger outer 'series, behind which is a band 
of smaller teeth; no caudal ocellus; body 
oblong; dorsal fin variable in size and in- 
sertion F-undulus 102 

ee. Teeth arranged in a single series; dorsal 
fin inserted in advance of anal, its rays 9 

to 13 . . . Lucania 109 

dd. Anal fin of the male with its first five or six 

>* 

rays short and stiff, and slightly separated 
from the rest of the fin by a shallow notch ; 
species viviparous, the young usually of 
large size at birth. 

f. Dorsal and anal fin each of less than 18 
rays; body elongate, not much com- 
pressed Zoogoneticus 109 

ff. Dorsal and anal fins each of 19 or more 

rays ; body compressed Girardinichthys 115 

cc. Outer series of teeth incisor-like, bicuspid 
or tricuspid. 
g. Outer series of teeth bicuspid with a 

band of villiform teeth behind them, 
h. Intestinal canal about i^in total length 

of body; the teeth very firmly attached . .Characodon 118 
hh. Intestinal canal about 2 in total length 

of body; teeth less firmly attached. . . .Chapalichthys 123 
gg. Outer series of teeth tricuspid, no villi- 
form teeth behind them; dorsal fin short, 
of 10 to 12 rays, the first ray slender 

and rudimentary Cyprinodon 124 

ddd. Anal fin of the males placed well forward 
and modified into a sword-shaped intro- 



ioo FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

mittent organ; teeth all pointed, arranged PAGE 

in bands; species viviparous, the young of 
moderate or large size at birth. 
i. Eye normal, the pupil not divided by a 
partition; dorsal fin inserted more or less 
behind the front of the anal. 
j. Jaws not produced into a beak; lower 
jaw prominent, longer than the upper; 
the males much smaller than the females, 
k. Dorsal fin long, of 14 to 16 rays; anal 

short Pseudoxiphophorous 127 

kk. Dorsal fin short, of 6 to 10 rays; anal 
fin short. 

I. Alimentary canal less than twice length 
of body. 

m. Anal fin not falcate, its first three 

rays not produced, the longest being 

less than the length of head Gambusia 128 

mm. Anal fin falcate, its first three rays 

much produced, the longest longer 

than the head Paragambusia 133 

II. Alimentary canal more than twice the 

length of the body Glaridickthys 134 

jj.Jaws produced into a moderate beak; 

dorsal and anal short, each of 9 to n rays . .Belonesox 135 
ii. Eye divided into two portions by a hori- 
zontal cross partition; vertical fins short, 

of 9 to ii rays Anableps 135 

aa. Intestinal canal elongate, usually coiled on 
ventral and right side, with numerous convolu- 
tions ; dentary bones loosely joined ; teeth mov- 
able; species chiefly mud-eating, 
n. Outer series of teeth bicuspid, with villi- 
form teeth behind them ; anal fin of the male 
with first five or six rays of anal fin short 
and stiff and separated from the rest of the 
fin by a notch; species viviparous, the young 
of large size when born. 

o. Body robust, oblong, depth 3 to 4 in length 
of body; gill rakers long and slender, 35 to 
40 on the first gill arch; vertebrae 19 + 17 
= 36 Goodea, 136 



FAMILY XI. POSCILIID^E. 101 

oo. Body deep, compressed, depth 2^3 to 3^ m PAGE 

length; gill rakers rather short, stiff, about 

20 on the first gill arch; vertebrae 16+18=34 Skiffia 141 

nn. Outer series of teeth pointed : anal fin of the 
male placed well forward and modified into an 
intromittent organ; species viviparous, 
p. Teeth in a single series. 

q. Dorsal fin inserted in advance of the anal . . .Platypcecilus 144 
qq. Dorsal fin inserted more or less behind the 

front of the anal Heterandria 147 

pp. Teeth in more than one series; dorsal fin in- 
serted over or in advance of anal, its rays 
much elevated in the male, 
r. Dorsal fin short, of less than 7 to n rays; 

teeth of the inner series in both jaws entire Pcecilia 149 

rr. Dorsal fin long, of 12 to 1 6 rays, 
s. Caudal fin normal, alike in both sexes, or 
with the lower angle merely sharp in the 

male Mollienesia 154 

ss. Caudal fin in the males with its lower lobe 

much produced and sword-shaped Xiphophorus 156 

Subfamily Fundulinae. 
43. Cyiiocloiiichthys gen. nov. 

Type, Cynodonichthys tennis Meek. 

Body elongate, depressed anteriorly, compressed posteriorly; 
head broad and flat; lower jaw the longer; teeth in villiform bands, 
a large canine-like tooth on each side in front of upper jaw; a few 
smaller and similar teeth in front of lower jaw; dorsal fin posterior, its 
origin over posterior third of anal; margins of caudal fins formed by 
tips of short basal rays; head entirely scaled. A very peculiar fish, 
quite unlike any other member of the family, /ovw? dog, nd(>\> tooth, 
r/8u<; fish. 

90. Cynodonichthys tenuis sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4643, F. C. M., 1.6 inches in length; El Hule, Oaxaca. 

Head 3^; depth 4^; D. 8; A. u; scales 10-38. Body elongate, 
depressed anteriorly, compressed posteriorly; head broad, much de- 
pressed; interorbital flat, 2 in head; snout short, 4 in head; upper jaw 
the longer; teeth in jaws in villiform bands, upper jaw with a well- 
developed canine-like tooth on each side ; some of anterior teeth of 
lower jaw canine-like; eye small, 37^ in head; premaxillary pro- 



iO2 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL V. 

tractile, its exposed part very small, with a short, fleshy, blunt-like 
protuberance on each side; gill membranes not connected, free from 
the isthmus; head entirely covered with scales; 30 scales in a series 
from snout to origin of dorsal fin; dorsal fin posterior, its origin 




FIG. 27. CYNODONICHTHYS TENUIS Meek. 

over posterior third of anal; origin of dorsal fin slightly nearer tip 
of caudal than origin of pectoral fin ; base of dorsal 3 in head ; base of 
anal 2 ; pectoral i > ; ventrals very short, 3^2 in head, their tips nearly 
reaching anal fin; caudal fin rounded, its first outer rays short, and 
gradually increasing in length, forming the margins of the fins. 

Color dark brownish, pectoral fins dark; dorsal fin with about 3 
narrow cross-bars made up of small faint dark spots; lower margin 
of caudal fin light. 

One specimen only of this species was taken. 

While collecting at El Hule this specimen was taken in one of the 
early hauls of the seine. I saw it was quite different from any other 
fish I had collected in Mexico and made an extra effort to secure more 
of them, but was unable to do so. I also spent one day afterwards 
collecting at Perez and one at Obispo, but was unable to secure more 
specimens of this fish. A short siege of fever, and the hard rains 
made it impossible for me to do further collecting then in that region. 

44. Fuuclulus Lacepede. 

KlLLIFISHES. 

Fundulus Lace"pede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., v, 37, 1803. (Type, Fundulus 
mudfish Lace"pede.) 

Fontinus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 
633- (Type, Fundulus seminolis Girard.) 

Body rather elongate, compressed behind; mouth moderate, the 
lower jaw projecting; jaws each .with two or more series of pointed 
teeth, usually forming a narrow band; bones of the mandible firmly 
united ; scales moderate ; gill opening not restricted above ; preopercle 
preorbital and mandible with mucous pores; dorsal and anal fins 
similar, small; origin of the dorsal fin either in front of, above, or 



FAMILY XI. PcECiLiiDyE. 103 

behind that of the anal ; ventrals well developed ; air bladder present ; 
intestinal canal short, i to i> times the length of the body; anal fin 
of male not modified, it being similar in size and position to that 
in the female; oviparous. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF FUNDULUS. 

a. Scales large, 31 to 38 in the lateral series. PAGE 

b. Body without cross-bars; anal rays 13 to 16. 
c. Body rather slender; depth 4 to 4^; dorsal 
rays 12 or 13; scales 34 or 35. 

d. Anal rays 14 to 16; depth 4 [guatemalensis] 103 

dd. Anal rays 13 ; depth 4^ [punctatus] 104 

cc. Body rather robust, head 3^; depth 3%"; 
dorsal rays 14; anal rays 15; scales 11-30; 
origin of dorsal midway between tip of cau- 
dal and orbit oaxacaz 104 

bb. Body with cross-bars; anal rays' 9 to n. ; 
scales large, 30 to 33 in the lateral series, 
f. Body with about 23 narrow undulating 
silvery bars, narrower than the inter- 
spaces; fins nearly plain; scales 10-31 vinctus 105 

ff. Body with 7 to 15 narrow, dark, vertical 
bars X to ^3 as wide as interspaces, and 

not very dark; scales 11-33 similis 105 

aa. Scales small, 35 to 48 in the lateral series, 
g. Dorsal rays 10 to n ; anal rays 9 to n ; depth 

3* to 4 #. 
h. Scales 35 to 38 in the lateral series ; depth 

3t to 3f heteroclitus 106 

hh. Scales 41 to 46 ; depth 4 to 4^3 grandis 107 

gg. Dorsal rays 1 3 to 15; anal rays 1 3 to 17; depth 

4X to s 2 A- ^ 
i. Scales in lateral series 37 to 39; dorsal rays 

13 or 14; anal rays 16 or 17 [labialis] 107 

ii. Scales in lateral series 47 to 60. 

j. Scales in the lateral series 47; depth 5^ extensus 108 

j j . Scales in the lateral series 6 o ; depth 4 % to 4 %" zebrinus 1 08 

Sub'genus Fundulus Lac6pede. 

Fundulus guatemalensis Gunther. 

Fundulus guatemalensis Gunther, Cat., vi, 321, 1866; Lago de Duenas; Lago 
de Amatitlan; Rio Gujalote (all in Guatemala): Gunther, Fishes Cent. 
Amer., 483, pi. 86, figs. 3 and 4, 1869; Lago de Duefias; Lago de Ama- 
titlan ; Rio Guacalate (all in Guatemala) . 

A dini a guatemalensis Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U.S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 660. 

Zoogoneticus guatemalensis Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 94. 



104 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Guatemala. 

Head 4; depth 4; D. 12 or 13; A. 14 to 16; scales 12-32 to 35. Body moder- 
ately elongate; head thick and broad; interorbital area broad, slightly convex, 
its width being a little less than half its length; snout broad, obtuse, lower jaw 
slightly projecting beyond the upper; mandible longer than eye; diameter of eye 
about equaling length of snout, 4 in head; origin of dorsal fin midway be- 
tween tip of caudal and posterior margin of orbit, slightly in advance of anal; 
dorsal fin of male higher than that of female; basal half of caudal fin scaly. 

Color brown above and on sides; pale below; females with a very indistinct 
dark band along the side; fins plain; anal with a light margin. (Giinther.) 
Length about 3^ inches. 

Two years ago I suggested that this species and also Fundulus labial-is 
Gunther, probably belonged to Zoogoneticus . Mr. C. Tate Regan* has since 
reexamined the types and finds that both species belong to Fundulus. 

Fundulus punctatus Gunther. 

Fundulus punctatus Gunther, Cat.,vi, 230, 1866, Chiapas: Gunther, Fishes 
Cent. Amer., 482, pi. 86, fig. 5, 1869; Chiapas: Jordan & Evermann, 
Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 637. 

Guatemala and southern Mexico. 

Head 4; depth 4^; D. 12; A. 13; scales 12-34. Body little elongate; head 
broad, interorbital area slightly convex, its width 2 in head; snout broad, 
obtuse, much depressed, the lower jaw scarcely projecting beyond the upper; 
mandible longer than eye; upper lip of moderate breadth; eye small, 4^ in 
head; origin of dorsal slightly nearer extremity of caudal than orbit, over the 
i gth scale in the lateral series ; dorsal fin slightly in advance of anal ; pectoral fins 
not reaching base of ventrals, shorter than head (without snout) ; caudal fin 
subtruncate, scaly on its basal half. 

Color brownish olive, paler below; each scale, especially those on the tail, with 
a vertical dark purplish violet spot on the center; dorsal with 3 or 4 series of 
blackish dots, anal with a whitish margin. Length about 3^ inches. 

Through the courtesy of Dr. B. W. Evermann, of the Bureau of Fisheries, I 
have been permitted to examine a number of specimens of this species, which 
were collected by Dr. Gustav Eisen in July, 1902, in Lake Atitlan, Guatemala, 
at an altitude of about 4,500 feet. These specimens agree very well with the 
description given by Dr. Gunther, except in the absence of spots on the dorsal 
fin. 

91. Pundulus oaxacas Meek. 

Fundulus oaxaccs Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 90; 

Oaxaca. 
Basin of the Rio Verde in Oaxaca. 




FIG. 28. FUNDULUS OAXAC/C Meek. 

No. 3721, Field Columbian Museum. 



*Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 1904, 257. 



FAMILY XL PCECILIID^E. 105 

Head $ l /; depth 3^; D. 14; A. 15; scales 11-30. Body robust, 
profile from nape slightly concave; top of head broad, slightly convex; 
snout not much depressed, 3^3 in head; lower jaw slightly the longer; 
teeth pointed, in a band in both jaws, the outer series the larger; 
eye small, 4^ in head; interorbital space 2! in head; origin of the 
dorsal fin slightly in advance of the anal, midway between tip of 
caudal fin and posterior margin of the eye; base of dorsal 2^3 in head, 
its height slightly more than half the head; pectoral ij in head; 
ventral 2 l / 2 in head; caudal fin subtruncate; peritoneum black; 
alimentary canal shorter than the total length of the fish. 

Color brownish olive, a dark spot in the middle of each scale; 
these spots more prominent on the posterior half of the body 
of males from i% to i ^ inches in length ; males usually with a row 
of spots on base of the dorsal and anal fins ; young with a few faint 
dark cross bars on the sides, becoming a faint dark lateral band in 
the larger females. Length about 2^ inches. 

This species is so far known only from the type locality. Time 
of spawning about the third week in May. A female 2.05 inches 
in length contained 100 eggs. 

92. Fundulus vinctus Jordan & Gilbert. 

Fundulus vinctus Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 
355; Cape San Lucas, Lower California (probably from pools 
about La Paz) : Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 637. 

Southern portion of Lower California. 

Head 3^; depth 4^3'; D. 12; A. n; scales about 10-31. Body 
little elongate, compressed posteriorly; head large, very broad and 
somewhat depressed above; mouth moderate; teeth in narrow bands, 
the outer much enlarged ; interorbital space 2 in head ; dorsal fin a 
little in advance of the anal, its origin midway between base of caudal 
and occiput; pectoral 1^3 in head; caudal i^; scales comparatively 
large. 

Color olivaceous, with about 23 narrow silvery bars with undulat- 
ing edges, the bars narrower than the darker interspaces; fins all 
plain. (J. & G.) Length about 2^ inches. 

This species is known only from the type locality, which is prob- 
ably La Paz instead of Cape San Lucas, as given in the original 
description. (Jordan.) 

93. Fundulus similis (Baird & Girard). SAC-A-LAIT. 
Hydrargyra similis Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1853, 389; Indianola, Texas: Jordan, Bull. U. S. Geol. Sur., 
1878, 400; Rio Grande, Brownsville, Texas. 



io6 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY,' VOL. V. 

Fundulus similis G-iinther, Cat., vi, 323, 1866: Jordan & Ever- 
man, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 638. 

Brackish and fresh waters along the gulf coast from Florida to 
Mexico north of the Rio Panuco. (Linares ; Victoria.) 

Head 3^; depth 3%" to 4f; D. n to 13; A. 10; scales 11-33. 
Body slender, the outlines scarcely arched; adults deeper than young; 
head very narrow and long, narrowed forward; snout 3 in head; 
mouth small, maxillary not reaching vertical from anterior nostril; 
teeth very small, in villiform bands, the outer series not at all en- 
larged; eye small, 4 to 5 in head; origin of dorsal midway between 
tip of caudal fin and eye, slightly in advance of anal; pectoral i% 
in head ; ventrals 3 X m head ; caudal subtruncate. 

Color of male olivaceous, lighter below; sides with 10 to 15 narrow 
dark bars y$ to y$ as wide as interspaces; a large, diffuse, dark, 
humeral spot; dorsal dusky, a small occellated spot on last dorsal 
ray in the young; female olivaceous, sides paler, with metallic 
luster; white below; 7 to 15 very narrow black bars on sides not ex- 
tending on the back, scarcely broader than pupil. Length about 
3^ inches. 

The largest specimen taken by me is 3.75 inches in length. Spawn- 
ing time not known. 

94. Fundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus). KILLIFISH. 

Cobitis heteroclitus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. xn, 500, 1766; 
Charleston, South Carolina. 

Fundulus heteroclitus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 640: Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1900, 126; Lagoons, Tampico: Evermann & Goldsborough, 
Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1902, 149; Progreso. 

Abundant in lagoons and brackish waters along the coast from 
Tampico to Maine. It probably does not enter fresh water. 

Head 3 to 3^; depth 3! to 33; D. n; A. 10 or u; scales 13-35 
to 38. Body short and deep; anteriorly broad, posteriorly com- 
pressed, the back 'elevated, the caudal peduncle robust; head rather 
short, broad, and flat on top; snout bluntish, 3> in head; teeth in 
bands, the outer series enlarged; eye small, 4 to 5 in head; origin 
of dorsal midway between tip of caudal and tip of snout (3) or eye 
(?); caudal fin truncate; least depth of caudal peduncle 2 in head; 
pectorals i^ in head; ventrals 2^. 

Color of males dull dark green above, more or less orange below; 
sides with numerous, quite narrow, ill defined silvery spots, most 
distinct posteriorly, and with conspicuous white or yellow spots 



FAMILY XI. PCECILIID^E. 107 

irregularly scattered; vertical fins dark, with numerous small round 
pale spots ; dorsal often with a blackish spot on its last ray ; females 
nearly plain olivaceous above, lighter below; sides often with about 
15 dark cross-bars or shades, more definite in the young. Length 
about 6 inches. 

95. Fundulus grandis Baird & Girard. 

Fundulus grandis Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
l8 S3. 3 8 9'. Indiaiiola, Texas: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 69, pi. 
xxxvi, 1859: Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. U. S. Fish 
Comm., 1901, 149; Progreso. 

Fundulus heteroclitus grandis Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 1896, 641. 

Fresh and brackish water lagoons of coast of Gulf of Mexico. 

Read 3; depth 4 to 4^; D. 10 or n; A. 9 or 10; scales 14 or 15 
40 to 46. Body rather robust, compressed posteriorly ; interorbital 
broad, 3 in head; eye 5^ to 6; snout 3> to 3^; longest dorsal ray 
(3) 2 to (?) 2 y z . 

Color males dark green above, paler posteriorly; sides with many 
small, round, pearly spots, some of them often in vertical series; pos- 
terior y traces of 8 or 9 narrow, pale cross-bars alternating with broader, 
faint, dusky ones; belly yellowish; base of caudal with numerous small 
white spots ; dorsal olive with many small, white spots ; female olive 
and silvery, with minute speckles below; sides usually with traces of 
12 to 15 narrow, silvery, vertical bars, less than half as wide as the 
dusky interspaces ; no white spots on body or fins ; fins mostly dusky 
olive, nearly plain. Length about 6 inches. 

This species has been taken on the coast of Texas and of Yucatan, 
and no doubt occurs in fresh water and brackish lagoons along the 
eastern coast of Mexico. 

Fundulus labialis Gunther. 

Fundulus labialis Gunther, Cat., vi, 319, 1866; Rio San Geronimo, Guate- 
mala; Yzabel: Gunther, Fishes Cent. Amer., 48, 1869, Rio San Geronimo; 
Yzabel: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 644. 

Guatemala. 

Head 4 to 4^3 ; depth 4^; D. 13 or 14; A. 16 or 17; scales 15-37 to 39- Body 
rather slender, head broad, slightly convex, its width being less than half of 
the head; snout broad, obtuse, depressed; jaws equal in front; mandible very 
short; upper lip well developed, broad, extending to the angle of the mouth; 
diameter of the eye less than the length of the snout, about 4 in the head; origin 
of dorsal fin midway between tip of caudal fin and eye, opposite anal fin; caudal 
fin truncate, its basal third scaly. 

Color uniform brownish olive above, paler below; sometimes irregular, 
cloudy markings on the tail ; fins plain ; the anal fin in male black at the base and 
bright yellow on its marginal half; upper margin of dorsal fin of male yellow- 
ish. (Gunther.) 

Known onlv from the above account. 



io8 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Subgenus Fontinus Jordan & Evermann. 

96. Fundulus extensus Jordan & Gilbert. 

Fundulus extensus Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 
355; Cape San Lucas (probably from La Paz), Lower Cali- 
fornia: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896,646. 

Coast of Lower California. 

Head 3^; depth 5^; D. 15; A. 13; scales 12-47. Body usually 
elongate, moderately compressed, head slender, not very broad, the 
interorbital width i\ in head; mouth rather large; the teeth moder- 
ate in a band, the outer considerably enlarged; eye large, 3^" in 
head; origin of dorsal fin in front of anal, midway between eye and 
base of caudal; pectoral 1^3 in head; caudal fin truncate; caudal 
peduncle much longer than head. 

Color plain, somewhat translucent, with no markings anywhere, 
except traces of some very narrow dark bars on the sides; fins low 
and plain. (Jordan & Gilbert.) Known only from the types. 

97. Fundulus zebrinus (Jordan & Gilbert). 

Hydrargyra zebra Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 60; 

tributaries of Rio Grande, between Fort Defiance and Fort 

Union, New Mexico: Gunther, Cat., vi, 324, 1866: Jordan, 

Bull. U. S. Geol. Sur., 1878, 664; Brownsville, Texas. 

Fundulus zebrinus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U.' S. Nat. 

Mus., 1896, 646. 

Streams from the mouth of the Rio Grande north to western 
Kansas, Dakota, Iowa, and Kentucky. 

Head 3^ to 3^; depth 4^ to 4^; D. 14 or 15; A. 13 or 14; scales 
21-60. Body long and slender; head moderate; snout not much 
elongate, its length 3^ in head; teeth in bands, the external series 
much enlarged; eye 4 to 4% in head; interorbital width 2^ in head; 
origin of dorsal fin midway between tip of snout and tip of caudal 
fin; a little more anterior in the males; origin of dorsal fin opposite 
that of anal in males, a little in advance in females; caudal fin trun- 
cate; in males the margins of the scales are rough, with minute 
tubercles. 

Color greenish above, side's and below silvery white, the sides 
tinged with sulphur yellow; sides with 14 to 18 dusky bars from 
back to ventral region, occasionally meeting on the ventral line; 
these bars varying much in width, being rather narrower in females, 
and with half bars usually between them; the interspaces as wide 
as the bars or usually wider; fins usually dusky, plain. Length 
about 3 inches. 



FAMILY XI. PGECILIID^E. 109 

45. Lucaiiia Girard. 

Lucania Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 118. (Type, 
Limia venusta Girard.) 

Body oblong, compressed; mouth moderate, its cleft short and 
very oblique; lower jaw prominent; each jaw with a single series of 
conical teeth; scales large, usually less than 30 in the lateral series; 
gill openings not restricted ; the dorsal fin above or slightly in advance 
of the anal; anal fin of male like that of female, not modified into an 
intromittent organ nor with first rays short and stiff. 

98. Lucania venusta (Girard). 

Limia venusta Girard, U. S. Mex. Bd. Sur., ^ I) pi. xxxix, figs. 
20-23, 1859; Indianola, Texas. 

Lucania affinis Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 118; 
Matamoras, Tamaulipas. 

Lucania venusta Giinther, Cat., vi, 310, 1866: Jordan & Ever- 
mann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 665. 

Lagoons and inlets along the gulf coast of Mexico, north of Tam- 
pico. 

Head 3%', depth 3^/2', D. n or 12; A. 9 or 10; scales 8-26. Body" 
rather strongly compressed, the dorsal and ventral outlines about 
equally arched; head narrow, compressed, flattened above the eyes; 
snout compressed, short, and vertically rounded, its height greater 
than its width; movith very small, protractile forward, the lower 
jaw much projecting in open mouth; mandible heavy, short, and 
strongly convex; less than diameter of orbit; teeth small, firm and 
conical in a single series; eye large, 3 in head; origin of dorsal fin 
nearly midway between tip of snout and base of caudal; origin of 
anal fin opposite middle of dorsal; pectorals i^ in head; ventrals if; 
caudal fin slightly rounded; caudal peduncle long and slender, its 
least depth about 2 in head. 

Color of male light olive, pale on the belly; sides with some silver 
luster and with indistinct trace of an obsolete dusky lateral stripe. 
Length about 2 inches. 

46. Zoogoiieticus Meek. 

Zoogoneticus Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 91. (Type, Pla- 
typcecilus quitzeoensis B. A. Bean.) 

Body little elongate, rather deep, somewhat compressed; mouth 
moderate, the lower jaw projecting; jaws each with bands of pointed 
teeth, the outer series the larger; scales moderate; gill openings not 
restricted; dorsal fin usually large, of more than 12 rays; anal fin of 



no FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

male with its first 5 or 6 rays short and stiff and separated from 
the rest of the fin by a shallow notch; dorsal fin of male higher than 
that of female; viviparous. The ovary is a strong membranous sack, 
with several infolded partitions; in this the young develop and 
reach a comparatively large size when they are born, which is during 
May and June. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF ZOOGONETICUS. 

a. Four to six black spots about as large as eye PAGE 

on lower half of caudal peduncle; 2 similar 
black spots at base of caudal ................ cuitzeoensis no 

aa. No black spots on lower half of caudal pedun- 
cle ; not more than one black spot at base of 
caudal. 
b. Sides of body with 7 to 9 well defined black 

bars each about as wide as the interspaces ......... dugesi in 

bb. Sides of body without well-defined cross-bars. 
c. Anal fin longer than the dorsal; dorsal rays 

12 to 14; anal rays 14 to 17. 
d. Scales large, 32 to 35 in the lateral series; 
head very thick and broad, 3^ m length; 
dorsal rays 13 or 14; anal rays 1 5 ; scales 
1 2-3 5 ............................. . [pachycephalus] 112 

dd. Scales smaller, 37 to 39 in the lateral series. - 
e. Origin of dorsal fin midway between tip 
of caudal fin and tip of snout; head large, 
3 ^ in length ; depth 3 ; dorsal rays 14 ; anal 
rays 16 ; scales 16-38 ....................... robustus 112 

ee. Origin of dorsal fin midway between tip 

of caudal fin and opercle ................... maculatus 113 

cc. Anal fin shorter than the dorsal; dorsal rays 

17; anal rays 14. 

f . Origin of dorsal fin midway between base of 
caudal and posterior margin of opercle ; head 
324 ; depth 3^ ................................. diazi 114 

ff. Origin of dorsal fin midway between base 
of caudal and preopercle; head 3^; depth 

winiatus 115 



99. Zoogoneticus cuitzeoensis (B. A. Bean). 

Platypcecilus quitzeoensis B. A. Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1898, 540, fig. i; Lago de Cuitzeo, Michoacan: Jordan & 
Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 2873. 



FAMILY XI. PCECILIID.E. in 

Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 91; 

Ocotlan; La Barca. 
Basin of the Rio Lerma. 




FIG. 29. ZOOGONETICUS CUITZEOENSIS (B. A. Bean). 

No. 48209 (Platypeecilus quifzeoensis B. A. Bean), U. S. National Museum. 

Head 3^; depth 3 to 3^; D. 13 or 14; A. 13 to 15; scales 11-30. 
Body compressed, the back somewhat arched; usually in larger 
specimens an angle at the nape; head rather small; interorbital space 
flattish, its width 2% in head; mouth moderately large, chin promi- 
nent; lower jaw projecting; outer series of teeth large; snout 4^3 in 
head; eye 3f; origin of dorsal fin midway between tip of caudal and 
tip of snout, and in advance of ventral; pectoral fin if in head; 
ventral 2; caudal fin truncate; caudal peduncle rather deep, its least 
depth 1^3 in head. 

Color light brownish tinged with red; on the middle of sides of 
female to opposite tip of pectoral usually with three faint dark 
spots, also four to six dark bars on lower half of caudal peduncle, 
and a dark spot on upper portion of caudal peduncle above last bar; 
color of the males more uniform and much darker than that of the 
females ; the spots or bars so conspicuous on the females being scarcely 
noticeable on the male; dorsal and anaj. fins tipped with yellow; the 
caudals and tips of ventrals blackish; pectorals light; fins of the 
female pale. Length 2^ inches. 

100. Zoogoneticus dugesi (Bean). 

Fundulus dugesii Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1887, 373, pi. 
xx, fig. 5; Guanajuato: Garman, Memoirs Mus. Comp. Zool., 

1895, 101. 

Adinia dugesii Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 

1896, 661. 

Zoogoneticus dugesii Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 92; 
Lagos; Patzcuaro. 



112 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 



Basin of the Rio Lerma. 

Head 3^; depth 3; D. 17; A. 13; scales 12-29. Body rather 
robust anteriorly, compressed posteriorly; back little arched; head 
rather large; interorbital area flattish; its width 2^ in head; mouth 




FlG. 30. ZOOGONETICUS DUGESI (Bean). 
No. 37831, U. S. National Museum. 

rather large; upper series of teeth large; lower jaw the longer, chin 
prominent; length of snout 4^ in head; diameter of eye 4; origin of 
dorsal slightly in advance of origin of anal, midway between tip of 
caudal fin and posterior margin of eye; pectoral fin T.% in head; 
ventral 2%; caudal peduncle short, its least depth 2 in head. 

Color light brownish; sides with about 8 dark cross bands, about 
equal to the interspaces; the bars not always of equal width. Length 
about 2>2 inches. . 

The young are born about the last week of May. 

Zoogoneticus pachycephalus (Giinther). 

Fundulus pachycephalus Giinther, Cat., vi, 321, 1866; Guatemala: Giinther, 
Fishes Cent. Amer., 483, pi. 86, fig. 6, 1869; Guatemala. 

A dinia pachycephalus Jordan &Evermann, Bull. 47, U.S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 660. 

Zoogoneticus pachycephalus Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub., 65, 1902, 94. 

Guatemala. 

Head 3^3 ; depth 3^ to 3*; D. 13 or 14; A. 15; scales 12-35. Body rather 
deep, head very thick and broad; interorbital space very broad, slightly convex, 
its width 2 in head; snout broad, obtuse; lower jaw slightly projecting beyond 
upper; mandible longer than eye; eye 4 in head; origin of dorsal fin slightly 
in advance of anal, midway between tip of caudal and posterior margin of the 
orbit; caudal fin subtruncate. 

Color brownish above and on sides, each scale darker on tip; an indistinct 
dark band along middle of tail ; fins plain, anal fin with the lower margin whitish. 
(Giinther.) 

Known only from the above description. 

101. Zoogoneticus robustus (Bean). 

Fundulus robustus Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1892, 285, pi. 
XLIV, fig. 2; Guanajuato: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 1896, 644: Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish 
Comm., 1900, 126; Lago de Chapala: B. A. Bean, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 1898, 541; Lago de Cuitzeo, Michoacan. 



FAMILY XI. POSCILIID^;. 113 

Zoogoneticus robustus Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 9.2; 

Ocotlan; Patzcuaro; Zirahuen. 
Basin of the Rio Lerma. 




FIG. 31. ZOOGONETICUS ROBUSTUS (Bean). 

No. 43760, U. S. National Museum. 

Head 3 to 3^; depth 3 to 3^/3'. D- 13 or 14; A. 14 to 16; scales 
15-38. Body robust anteriorly, compressed posteriorly; head broad, 
interorbital area nearly flat, its width 2^ in head; mouth rather 
large; lower jaw the longer; chin prominent; snout 3^ in head; eye 
4 to 4 y* in head; origin of dorsal fin slightly in front of anal and mid- 
way between tip of caudal fin and tip of snout; pectoral fin i^ in 
head ; ventral fin 2 ^ in head ; caudal fin truncate ; least depth of caudal 
peduncle 2 in head. 

Color light brownish, much speckled and variegated with darker; 
on young specimens a tendency to form a narrow dark lateral band 
on posterior half of body; fins all plain. Length about 5^ inches. 

This species is the largest member of the genus on the Mexican 
Plateau. Females 4^ to 45-3 inches in length, contain from 20 to 38 
young, each from .67 to .75 inches in length. The' young are born 
in May. 

102. Zoogoneticus maculatus Regan. 

Zoogoneticus maculatus Regan, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 1904, 
256; Rio Santiago, Mexico. 

Head 3 (in total length); depth 3^ to 3^; D. 13 or 14; A. 15; 
scales 36 to 38; mouth moderate, the lower jaw prominent; length 
of snout equaling diameter of eye, 4 to 4^ m head; interorbital 2^ 
to 2^; origin of dorsal fin about midway between posterior edge of 
preopercle and base of caudal, its longest ray a little longer than 
the base of the fin, 2 in head (or less) ; origin of the anal a little behind 
that of dorsal, the first 6 rays in male, short, stiff, and of equal 



ii4 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

length ; pectoral fin to */$ the length of the head ; ventrals reaching 
vent ; caudal truncate ; caudal peduncle i ^3 to 2 times as long as deep. 

Color brownish above, silvery below, with dark spots which are 
most conspicuous posteriorly; fins immaculate; total length 84 mm. 

Three specimens from the Rio Santiago, Mexico. (Regan.) 

103. Zoogoneticus diazi Meek. 

Zoogoneticus diazi Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 93; 

Patzcuaro; Zirahuen. 
Basin of the Rio Lerma. 




Fie. 32. ZOOGONETICUS DIAZI Meek. 

No. 3618, Field Columbian Museum. 

Head 3^3; depth 3^; D. 17; A. 14; scales 13-34. Body elongate, 
robust, compressed; back much elevated, forming a prominent angle 
at the nape; top of head slightly convex; interorbital width 2^ in 
head; snout bluntish, 4 in head; mouth large, teeth conical in a band 
in each jaw. the outer series being the larger; lower jaw 'the longer; 
chin very prominent; eye moderate, 3^ in head; dorsal fin slightly 
in advance of the anal, its origin midway between base of caudal 
and posterior margin of opercle; base of dorsal ig in head, its height 
2 (in male if) in head; pectoral fin if in head; ventral 2f ; alimentary 
canal scarcely as long as .the body; peritoneum pale. 

Color light olivaceous, young much mottled with darker; the 
darker in form of irregular cross-bars on the sides; many of the 
larger specimens in life with a reddish tinge over the body, fading 
to nearly a uniform light olive ; fins all plain ; the males a little duller 
and of a more uniform color than the females. Length about 3 
inches. 

Abundant where found. One female 3 inches in length contained 
28 young, each .60 inches in length. A second female 3.15 inches 
in length contained 47 young, each .43 inches in length. The young 
are born the last of May and early in June. 



FAMILY XL PCECILIID^E. 115 

104. Zoogoneticus miniatus Meek. 

Zoogoneticus miniatus Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 94; 

Chalco. 
Vallev of Mexico. 




FIG. 33. .ZOOGONETICUS MINIATUS Meek. 

No. 3680. Field Columbian Museum. 



Head 3^; depth 3%', D. 17; A. 14; scales 14-32. Body elongate, 
compressed ; head rather narrow, interorbital width 3 in head ; mouth 
rather large; lower jaw slightly the longer; teeth conical .in a band, 
the outer series being the larger; snout 4^ m head; eye 2^3 in head; 
dorsal fin slightly in advance of anal, its origin midway between base 
of caudal fin and the middle of preopercle; intestinal canal short, 
about as long as oody. i 

Color olivaceous, much mottled with darker; no distinct lateral 
band; sides with irregular dark blotches, the last one forming an 
indistinct black caudal spot. Length about i^ inches. Known only 
from the type locality. 

47. G-irarcliiiichthys Bleeker. 

Girardinichthys Bleeker, Cyprin., 481,1860. (Type,Girardinichthys 
innominatus Bleeker.) 

Limnurgus Giinther, Cat., vi, 309, 1866. (Type, Limnurgus varie- 
gatus Giinther = Girardinichthys innominatus Bleeker.) 

Body robust; mouth small, its cleft nearly vertical; teeth small, 
pointed, in one or more series in each jaw; dorsal and anal fins long, 
the former slightly in advance of the latter; intestinal canal on left 
side, not coiled, about the length of the body; peritoneum spotted, 
not wholly black; gill membranes partly united, free from the isthmus; 
anal fin of the male with its first 6 to 8 rays short and stiff and sepa- 
rated from the rest of the fin by a shallow notch; viviparous. 



n6 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

105. Girardinichthys innominatus Bleeker. 

Lucania sp. Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 118; City 

- of Mexico. 
Girardinichthys innominatus Bleeker, Cyprin., 484, 1860; City of 

Mexico. 

Limnurgus variegatus Giinther, Cat., vi, 309, 1866; City of Mexico. 
Girardinichthys innominatus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, 

U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 666: Garman, Memoirs Mus. Comp. 

Zool., 1895, 39. pl- J t fig- U (teeth); City of Mexico: Meek, 

Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 95; Chalco; Texcoco; Xochi- 

milco. 
Characodon geddesi Regan, Ann. & Mag., Nat. Hist., 1904, 257; 

Texcoco, Mexico. 

Valley of Mexico. Abundant in the lakes, canals, and ditches. 
(Viga Canal.) 

Head 4; depth 3 to 3^3 ; D. 1 8 to 23; A. 20 to 26; scales 16-40 to 44. 
* Body rather robust, deep, compressed, back not much elevated; 
head flat above; usually in larger specimens an angle at the nape; 
interorbital 2 in head; snout 4; eye 4; mouth small, lower jaw the 
longer, chin prominent; teeth rather strong, conical, in a band rather 
than in a single series; origin of dorsal fin midway between base of 
caudal and posterior half of opercle (?) or eye (6\ and slightly in 
advance of origin of anal fin ; the fins all small ; pectoral i % in head ; 
ventrals 3 ; caudal fin rounded ; least depth of caudal peduncle i ^ 
in head; gill rakers short and stiff, about 15 on first gill arch. 

Color grayish to dark brownish, some males being almost entirely 
black; sides variegated with darker, usually in the form of indefinite 
bars; young specimens usually with a dark spot slightly in advance 
and a little above anal; the color of this species is extremely variable. 
Length about 2^ inches. 

My attention has been called by Dr. Theo. Gill to the fact that 
the viviparity of this fish was noticed as early as 1769, a published 
account of it appearing in 1772. The reference to this account, 
and a translation of it by Dr. Theo. Gill, appears in his Bibliography 
of the Fishes of the Pacific United States, Bull. 1 1, U. S. Nat. Museum, 
1882, 8, which I here quote in full. 

" 'Voyage en Californie pour 1'observation du passage de Ve"nus 
sur le disque du soleil, le 3 juin, 1769; contenant les observations 
de ce phe"nomene at la description historique de la route de 1'auteur 
a travers le Mexique. Par feu M. Chappe d'Auteroche 
Re'dige' et public" par M. de Cassini fils . . . A Paris : chez Charles- 
Antoine Jombert. 1772." (4, half title, title, 170 (2) pp., plan, and 
2 pl. Sabin.)' 



FAMILY XI. PCECILIIDVE. 117 

"Translated as follows : 

"A voyage to California, to observe the Transit of Venus. By 
Mons. Chappe d'Auteroche. With an historical description of the 
author's route through Mexico, and the natural history of that prov- 
ince. Also, a voyage to Newfoundland and Sallee, to make experi- 
ments on Mr. Le Roy's timekeepers. By Monsieur de Cassini. 
London: Printed for Edward and Charles Dilly, in The Poultry. 
1778. (8, 4p. i., 315 pp., with 'plan of City of Mexico.') 

"Extract of a letter from Mexico addressed to the Royal Academy 
of Sciences at Paris, by Don Joseph Anthony de Alzate y Ramyrez, 
now a correspondent of the said academy, containing some curious 
particulars relative to the natural history of the country adjacent 
to the City of Mexico. Pp. 77-105. 

" It is undoubtedly this work that is meant in the statement that 
has so largely gone the rounds of the periodical press, to the effect 
that the Californian viviparous fishes were observed during the voyage 
for the observation of the transit of Venus, to Lower California, 1769. 
A perusal of the accounts given, however, renders it evident that the 
fishes in question were not Embiotocids, but rather Cyprinodontids, 
probably of the genus Mollienesia. The account by Don Alzate 
(pp. 89-9 1 } is as follows: 

' 'I send you some viviparous scaly fishes, of which I had formerly 
given you an account. What I have observed in them this year is, 
'If you press the belly with your fingers, you force out the fry before 
their time, and upon inspecting them through the microscope, you 
may discern the circulation of the blood, such as it is to be when the 
fish is grown up.' If you throw these little fishes into water, they 
will swim as well as if they had been long accustomed to live in that 
element: The fins and tail of the males are larger and blacker than 
those of the females, so that the sex is easily distinguished at first 
sight. These fish have a singular manner of swimming; the male 
and the female swim together on two parallel lines, the female always 
uppermost and the male. undermost they thus always keep at a con- 
stant uniform distance from each other, and preserve a perfect 
parallelism. The female never makes the least motion, either side- 
ways or towards the bottom, but directly the male does the same.' 

"To this account is added a footnote (p. 90) containing the following 
additional information : 

"'Don Alzate has sent those fishes preserved in spirits; their skin 
is covered with very small scales; they vary in length from an inch 
to eighteen lines, and they are seldom above five, six, or seven lines 
in the broadest part. They have a fin on each side near the gills, 



n8 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

two small ones under the belly, a single one behind the anus, which 
lies between the fin and the single one; the tail is not forked; lastly, 
this fish has a long fin on the back, a little above the fin which is 
under the belly. 

" 'We know of some viviparous fishes in our seas, such as loach, 
etc. ; most of these have a smooth skin without any scales. The 
needle of Aristotle is viviparous, and yet covered with broad and hard 
scales. I have caught some that had young ones still in their womb. 
As to these viviparous fishes, it is a particular and new sort, and we 
are obliged to Don Alzate for making us acquainted with it. It breeds 
in a lake of fresh water near the City of Mexico.' 

"This is, so far as known, the earliest notice of the viviparity of 
Cyprinodontids. The mode of consorting together (exaggerated in 
the account) is common to a number of representatives, of the family, 
and is alluded to by Prof. Agassiz in a name (Zygc^iectes , i. e., swim- 
ming in pairs) conferred on one of the genera of the family." 

Subfamily Orestiinse. 
48. Characodoii Giinther. 

Characodon Gunther, Cat., vi, 308, 1866. (Type, Characodon 
lateralis Gunther.) 

Body rather deep, compressed; mouth small; teeth small, fixed, 
the outer series bicuspid, with a villiform band behind them; origin 
of dorsal fin nearly opposite that of the anal ; anal fin with its first 5 or 
6 rays short and stiff and separated from the rest by a shallow notch ; 
alimentary canal short, i to 1% times the total length of the fish; 
species viviparous. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CHARACODON. 
a. Dorsal and anal fins very long, each of more PAGE 

than 20 rays multiradiatus 119 

aa. Dorsal and anal rays shorter, each of less than 

20 rays. 

b. Scales large, 30 to 35 in the lateral series, 
c. Dorsal fin slightly in advance of origin of 
anal, its origin about midway between tip of 
caudal and tip v of snout, 
d. Anal rays 13 ; scales 30 to 32 ; about 9 teeth 

in the upper jaw and about 14 in the lower ei^eni 119 

dd. Anal rays 15 or 16; scales 35; about 14 
teeth in the upper jaw and about 16 to 18 
in the lower . . .variatus 120 



FAMILY XI. PCECILIID^. 119 

cc. Dorsal fin slightly behind origin of the anal, PAGE 

about midway between tip of caudal fin and 
opercle 
e. Head 3)^; dorsal rays 10 or n; anal rays 

13 to 16; scales 12-35 later alis 121 

ee. Head 3 to 3^; dorsal rays 12; anal rays 12 

or 13 ; scales n or 12-32 garmani 121 

bb. Scales small, 50 in the lateral series, origin of 
dorsal fin midway between base of caudal 
and base of pectoral, anal fin inserted below 
seventh ray of dorsal furcidens 122 

106. Characodon multiradiatus sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4523, F. C. M., 1.50 inches in length; Lerma, Mexico. 

Girardinichthys innominatus Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. 
U. S. Fish Comm., 1902, 149; Lago de Lerma, Mexico. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. (Lerma.) 

Head 3^ to 4; depth 2^ to 3^; D. 26 to 30; A. 26 to 30; scales 
about 45. Body moderately elongate, somewhat compressed; head 
small, mouth moderate; jaws with incisor-like bicuspid teeth; diameter 
of eye slightly greater than the length of the snout, 3^ in head; dorsal 
fin long, its base equaling length of head (?) to ^ longer (<3) ; origin 
of dorsal in advance of anal, midway between base of caudal and 
eye (?) to nearer tip of snout than base of caudal ($) ; pectoral fin 
small, its length i}4 in head; ventral 2 in head; gill rakers short, 
less than diameter oi the eye, about 15 on first gill arch. 

Color dark olivaceous, the darker markings with a tendency to 
form crossbars ; a dark blotch on side above space between ventral and 
anal fins; margins of median fins on male black. Length about 1.80 
inches. 

This species in general form and color resembles Girardinichthys 
innominatus Bleeker, with which it has been previously identified. 

107. Characodon eiseni Rutter. 

Characodon eiseni Rutter, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1896, 266; Rio 
Santiago, Tepic: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1898, 2831; Tepic. 
Lowland streams of Jalisco and Tepic. 

Head 3,^; depth 3><; D. n to 13; A. 13; scales 12-30 to 32. Body 
rather deep, somewhat compressed; mouth almost vertical when 
closed; anterior teeth bicuspid, the villiform teeth not developed; 
about 9 teeth in the upper jaw and 14 in the lower; eye 3 in head; in- 
sertion of the dorsal in the middle of the total length; origin of anal 



I2O 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 



under the fourth ray of -the dorsal; caudal fin broad, truncate; depth 
of caudal peduncle 2 in head. 

Color, male with a broad indefinite lateral band; female with dark 
blotches on sides usually forming distinct cross bands (J. & E.). 
Length about i ^ inches. Known only from the type locality. 

108. Characodon variatus Bean. 

Characodon variatus Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1887, 370, pi. xx, 

fig. 10; Guanajuato: Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1892, 286; 

Guanajuato: Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 62; 

Rio Lerma. Salamanca, Queretaro: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 

47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 669: Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. 

Fish Comm., 1900, 126; Rio Verde, Aguas Calientes: Meek, 

Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 96: Aguas Calientes: Lagos. 

Ocotlan; Celaya; Huingo. 
Characodon ferrugineus Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1887, 372, 

pi. xx, figs. 3 and 4. Guanajuato. 
Basin of the Rio Lerma. 




FIG. 34. CHARACODON VARIATUS Bean, 

No. 37?>o8, U. S. National Museum. 




FIG. 35. CHARACODON VARIATUS Bean. 5 

No. 37810 (Characodon ferrugineus Bean), U. S. National Museum. 



FAMILY XI. PCECILIID^;. 121 

Head 3^; depth 3; D. 13 or 14; A. 15 or 16; scales 15-35. Body 
elongate, somewhat compressed; head broad, usually a slight angle at 
the nape; mouth small, lower jaw projecting; chin prominent; snout 
3^ m head; teeth fixed, outer series bicuspid; eye 3^2 in head; origin 
of dorsal fin midway between base of caudal and middle of opercle 
(?) or posterior margin of eye (6), slightly in advance of origin of 
anal ; pectoral fin i y 2 in head ; ventral fin 2 ]/$ ; caudal fin emarginate ; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 2 in head. 

Color light brownish, the male with a more or less prominent dark 
lateral band usually broken into blotches ; dorsal and caudal fins black 
with a light yellow border ; scales of upper part of body with dark cen- 
ters forming lateral stripes along the rows of scales; color of female 
more variegated ; sides with spots and blotches ; a row of black spots 
on the lower half of the caudal peduncle ; fins all pale ; young specimens 
spotted and much resembling the young of Zoogoneticus robustus 
(Bean), but with larger spots. Length about 3^ inches. 

The most abundant and the best known species in the genus. 
The young are born the last of May. The alimentary canal in some 
specimens is scarcely the length of the fish, in others about 1% times 
its length. One female 2,20 inches in length contained n young, each 
.55 inch in length; a second one 2.50 inches in length contained 23 
young, each .46 inch in length; a third 2.70 inches in length contained 
37 young, each .40 inch in length. 

109. Characodon lateralis Gunther. 

Characodon iaterali S, Gunther, Cat., vi, 308, 1866; Central America: 

Gunther, Fishes of Cent. Amer., 480, pi. 82, fig. 2, 1869: Jordan 

& Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 668: Pellegrin, 

Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1901, 205; Estado de Jalisco. 

Lowland streams from Central America north to the State of Jalisco. 

Head 3^; depth 3; D. 10 or n; A. 13 (?) to 15 or 16 (<$), scales 

12-35. Body elevated, the neck somewhat arched; head thick and 

broad, the snout obtuse, as long as the eye; about 20 teeth in each jaw, 

their tips indistinctly notched ; eye 4 in head ; origin of the dorsal fin 

a little nearer end of caudal than of occiput, a little behind anal; 

caudal fin small, truncate or slightly convex. 

Color brownish olive with a darker band running from eye to the 
root of the caudal ; this band sometimes broken up into a more or less 
regular series of brownish spots. (Gunther.) 

110. Characodon garmani Jordan & Evermann. 

Characodon lateralis Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., xix, 1895, 36, 
pi. i, fig. 9 (not Characodon lateralis Gunther) ; Parras, Coahuila, 
Mexico. 



122 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Characodon garmani Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1898, 2831. 

Spring and headwaters of the Rio Mezquital near Durango, spring 
at Labor and the Rio Nazas at Parras. (Durango; Labor.) 

Head 3^; depth 2^ to 3; D. 13; A. 13; scales 13-33. Body 
robust, somewhat compressed; snout short, 4 in head; lower jaw the 
longer, chin prominent; diameter of eye 3^3 ; interorbital area 2^ in 
head ; origin of dorsal to base of caudal about 2 ^ in its distance from 
tip of snout; origin of anal slightly in advance of that of dorsal; pec- 
toral fin 2 in head; ventrals 3^; caudal fin rounded; least depth of 
caudal peduncle 2 in head. 

Color olive reddish to light brownish; males uniform or with bars 
on caudal peduncle, sides of females more or less barred or blotched 
and lighter in color than males ; usually on sides a dark broad lateral 
band, more broken up in bars on females than on males; on males the 
dorsal and caudal fins with a dark band near tip bordered with lighter ; 
in life the larger males red, occasionally males with only one or two 
black blotches on the sides; the color very variable. Length about 
i^ inches. 

The young are born early in June. It is quite probable that the 
specimens described by Prof. Garman are from Durango instead of 
Parras. 

111. Characodon furcidens Jordan & Gilbert. 

Characodon furcidens Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. 

1882 , 354 : Cape San Lucas, Lower California : Garman, Memoirs, 

Mus. Comp. Zool., xix, 1895, 3^ 5 Cape San Lucas (probably from 

the lagoons at La Paz) : Jordan & Evermann. Bull. 47, U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 1896, 670; Cape San Lucas; Colima: Pellegrin, Bull. 

Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1901; Rio San Pedro, Tuxpan, Jalisco. 

Lowland streams of Jalisco and Colima and the southern portion 

of Lower California. 

Head 4; depth s; D. 15 to 17; A. 13; scales about 15-50. Bodv 
comparatively elongate, not much compressed, the head rather low 
and broad, depressed, interorbital area slightly more than two in head, 
anterior teeth large, firmly fixed and bicuspid ; a band of minute teeth 
behind them; eye rather large, 3^ m head, origin of dorsal fin mid- 
way between base of caudal and pectoral : origin of anal under seventh 
dorsal ray : pectoral fin i % in head ; ventral fin 2 : caudal fin obliquely 
truncate, very slightly emarginate; caudal peduncle comparatively 
long and slender. 

Color of males profusely mottled with darker; sometimes nearly 
plain; vertical fins each with several brownish bars or blotches and 



FAMILY XL PCECILIID^;. 123 

each with a dusky subterminal bar; a narrow dark line along middle of 
each row of scales on the back ; females with several short dark bars on 
the posterior halt of the body; some dark specks on caudal peduncle. 
(Jordan & Evermann.) 

49. Chapaliclithys Meek. 

Chapalichthys Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 97. (Type, 
Characodon encaustus Jordan & Snyder.) 

Body rather deep, compressed; caudal peduncle long and slender; 
about half to three-fourths of the dorsal fin in front of oiigin of anal; 
origin of dorsal fin midway between base of caudal and anterior 
margin of the orbit ; dorsal fin of male higher than that of female; anal 
fin with its first five or six rays short and stiff and separated from the rest 
of the fin by a shallow notch; teeth in 2 series, the outer enlarged, 
bicuspid and firmly attached; the inner series small, and in small 
patches; alimentary canal elongate, convolute or irregularly in 3 coils 
on the right side, its length nearly twice the length of the fish; peri- 
toneum black, caudal fin truncate; gill rakers long and slender; verte- 
brae 18-1-19=37; viviparous. 

This genus has the long alimentary canal of Goodea and the firm 
bicuspid teeth of Characodon; the dorsal fin is considerably more ad- 
vanced in this genus than either Goodea or Characodon. 

112. Chapalichthys encaustus (Jordan & Snyder). 

Characodon cncaustus Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1900, 126, fig. 7, Lago de Chapala, Ocotlan, Jalisco: Jordan & 
Evermaim, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1901, 3150; Pellegrin, 
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1901, 205; Estado de Jalisco. 

Chapalichthys enraiistus Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 97; 
La Barca; Ocotlan; La Palma. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. 




FIG. 36. CHAPALICHTHYS ENCAUSTUS (Jordan & Snyder). 

No. 6163, Leland Stanford Jr. University. 

Head 3^ to 3$; depth 3^ to 3^; D. 16; A. 15 or 16, scales 13- 
34 or 35. Body oblong, compressed; head moderate; interorbital area 
nearly flat, its width 2f in head; lower jaw the longer; chin promi- 



124 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

nent; outer series of teeth enlarged, firm, and bicuspid; snout 4 in 
head; eye 3; dorsal fin high, its origin slightly nearer base of caudal 
than tip of snout ; about half of the fin in front of origin of anal ; pec- 
toral fin i^ in head; ventral fin 1^4, caudal peduncle long and 
slender, its least depth 2 in head;. the caudal fin slightly emarginate. 

Color light brownish with 8 or 9 spots along the middle of the sides, 
occasionally forming short bars, each sometimes broken in the middle, 
forming two bars; usually a large black spot about the size of pupil 
above and a little forward of the origin of the anal; fins all plain. 
Length about 4 inches. 

One female 2.70 inches in length contained 21 young, each .40 inch, 
in length. The young are born the latter part of May. 

5O. Cypriiiocloii Lacepede. 
PURSEY MINNOWS. 

Cyprinodon Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., v, 486, 1803. (Type, 
Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede.) 

Prinodon Rafinesque, Analyse de la Nature, 1815, 88. (Type, 
Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede.) 

Body very short and stout, the dorsal region elevated; mouth 
small; teeth incisor-like, tri cuspid, in a single series; scales large, 
dorsal fin inserted in advance of anal; ventrals small or wanting; gill 
openings restricted; the opercle above adnate to shoulder girdle: ali- 
mentary canal little longer than the body. Oviparus. Spawning 
time June and July. 

This genus comprises a group of small chubby fishes inhabiting 
fresh or brackish waters. They are found living in small springs and 
isolated bodies of water in the desert regions of southwestern United 
States and northern half of Mexico, where no other fishes are found. 
The species are very variable. It would perhaps be quite as well to 
regard the species listed below as varieties of Cyprinodon clegans. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CYPRINODON. 

a. Color markings on the side with a tendency to PAGE 

form cross-bars, 
b. Scales 28 in'the lateral series; dorsal rays 8 or 

9; anal 8 to 10. 
c. Dorsal fin yellow; caudal fin light, much 

speckled with darker eximins 125 

cc. Dorsal fin dark, or with anterior half yel- 
lowish; caudal fin plain, not speckled with 
darker * elegans 125 



FAMILY XI. PCECILIID.E. 125 

bb. Scales 24 or 25 in the lateral series; dorsal PAGE 

rays 9 to n ; anal 10 or 1 1 macularis 126 

aa. Color markings on side with a tendency to form 

longitudinal bands latijasciatus 126 

113. Cyprinodon eximius Girard. 

Cyprinodon eximius Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 158: 
Rio Chihuahua, Chihuahua: Woolman, Bull U. S. Fish Coinm.. 
1894, 59, Rio Chihuahua, Chihuahua: Jordan & Evermann, 
Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 673 ; Rio Chihuahua, Chihuahua. 
Cyprinodon elegant Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 59; 
Rio Chihuahua, Chihuahua: Garman, Memoirs, Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 1895, 23; Rio Grande; Rio Chihuahua: Jordan & Sny- 
der. Bull. U. S Fish Comm., 1900, 127; lagoons near Tam- 
pico: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 97 (in part); Chihua- 
hua, San Andres; Santa Rosalia; Jimenez; San Jose; Ahumada. 
North, central, and northeastern Mexico, from the Rio Panuco to 
the Rio Grande. (Sauz.) 

Head 3^; depth 2^/3 ; D. 8 or 9; A. 9 or 10; scales 11-28. Body 
deep, compressed; head small; snout bluntish; interorbital convex, 
2)^ in head; diameter of eye equals snout 3^ in head; origin of dorsal 
fin midway between base of caudal and anterior margin of the orbit; 
base of dorsal fin i^ in head, pectoral fin 1^3 in head; ventral fin 2^ ; 
caudal fin truncate; least depth of caudal peduncle i ^ in head. 
Color of adult male dark brownish; sides with about 5 indistinct 
dark bars, much wider than the inter-spacing; dorsal and anal fins 
nearly white; caudal light, much variegated with black and with a 
broad dark margin; tips of anal and pectoral black; females lighter, 
variegated with darker with a tendency to form vertical bars , last 
rays of dorsal with a black blotch ; caudal fin of female variegated or 
speckled with black. Length about 2.% inches. 
Spawning time in July. 

114. Cyprinodon elegans Baird Girard. 

Cyprinodon eh^ans Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
I 853, 3 8 9; Comanche Spring, Texas: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 
66, pi. xxxvii, figs. 1-7, 1859; Comanche Spring, Texas: Jordan 
& Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 675: Evermann 
& Goldsborough, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1902, 149; Lago de 
Santa Maria, Chihuahua: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65', 1902, 
97 (in part); Colonia Juarez; Guzman; Santa Maria; Minaca. 

Cyprinodon eximius Bean, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1898, 168; 
San Diego, Chihuahua. 



126 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Northern Mexico, in the basin of the Rio Grande. 
. Head $]/$', depth 2 to 2^3; D. 9; A. 8 or 9; scales 12-28. Body 
deep, compressed; snout bluntish; interorbital convex, 2*^ in head; 
eye equals length of snout, 3% in head, origin of dorsal midway be- 
tween base of caudal and preorbital ; base of dorsal i V z in head ; pec- 
toral iy$ in head; ventral 2^; caudal fin truncate; least depth of 
caudal peduncle i^ in head. 

Color of males dark brownish with from 6 to 10 rather indistinct 
vertical bars ; caudal plain with a black margin ; anterior half of dorsal 
yellowish, its last rays dark; pectorals, ventrals, and anal tipped 
with black; females lighter, marbled with darker, which has a ten- 
dency to form cross-bars, and also an indefinite lateral band ; dorsal and 
anal with a black spot on last rays. Length 2.50 inches. 

This species spawns in July. 

115. Cyprinodon macularius Baird & Girard. 

Cyprinodon macidarius Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Sci. Phila., 
1853, 389; Rio San Pedro, Arizona: Gilbert & Scofield, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 498; spring-fed pond at Lerdo. Mexico. 

Basin of the Rio Colorado. 

Head 3 to 3^; depth 2 to 2g ; D. 9 to n ; A. 10 or n ; scales 24 or 
25. Body of adults deep, the young more slender; length of snout 
about equaling diameter of eye, about 3^3 in head; origin of dorsal fin 
midway between base of caudal and occiput. 

Color variable; males with back and sides uniformly dusky, the 
lower parts lighter; all of the fins in most brightly colored individuals 
broadly margined with black ; females with the lower half of the sides 
as well as belly lighter, often silvery white ; the sides crossed by black 
bars, which are wide along the middle of the body, but becoming much 
narrower than the interspaces on the lower half of the sides, these 
bars varying in number and size and often alternating with narrower, 
fainter, and shorter ones; fins light; the dorsal either with or without 
a black blotch on its posterior ravs; the males sometimes show dusky 
bars. (Gilbert.) 

116. Cyprinodon latifasciatus Garman. 

Cyprinodon latiiasciatus Garman, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1881, 
92 ; Pairas, Coahuila, Mexico: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. 
S Nat. Mus., 1896, 676. 

Rio Nasas and the headwaters of the Rio Mezquital. (Labor; 
Durango.) 

Head 3^; depth 2^3 ; D. 9; A. 9 or 10; scales 11-26. Body robust, 
deep, moderately compressed; head short, snout bluntish; mouth 



FAMILY XI. PCECILIID.E. 127 

small, terminal, interorbital slightly convex, 2^ in head; eye small, 
equaling the length of the snout. 3/^3 in head; origin of dorsal fin mid- 
way between base of caudal and anterior margin of orbit; base of 
dorsal 2 in head; pectoral 1^3 in head; ventral 3 in head; caudal fin 
rounded; least depth of caudal peduncle r^ in head. 

Color of adult males very dark to light brownish; caudal fin plain 
with a narrow black band at tip; ventrals and anal plain, tipped with 
black; dorsal fin dark; females are much lighter, the larger ones much 
speckled with small dark dots; faint dark bands on middle of side 
along rows of scales; a black blotch on last rays of dorsal and anal; 
the smaller females more or less blotched with darker, but much less 
than in the preceding species. Length about 2.55 inches. The fe- 
males taken are full of quite mature eggs. 

The specimens from Labor average larger than those taken in the 
river at Durango. Professor Garman gives dorsal rays 12'; anal rays 
ii. No doubt he counted the rudiments as well. There is some 
doubt as to whether or not Prof. Garman's specimens really came from 
Parras, Coahuila I am inclined to believe the types of this species, 
also the types of Characodon garmani Jordan & Evermann came from 
near Durango. 

Subfamily Gambusiinse. 

51. Pseudoxipliophorus Bleeker. 

Pseudoxiphophorus Bbeker, Irhthvol. Ind. Prod. Cupr., 483, 1860. 
(Type, Xiphophorus bimaculatus Heckel.) 

P'vcilioides Steindachner, Sitzgsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1863. 176. 
(Type. Xiphophorus bimaculatus Heckel.) 

Body elongate, robust; head flat, depressed forward; dorsal fin 
long, its base about one-half longer than head; anal fin of male 
modified into an intromittent organ; teeth conical, in a band on each 
jaw, the outer series enlarged; gill rakers short and stiff, about 16 on 
first arch those on upper portion of the arch the longer; alimentary 
canal short, less than the length of the body; vertebra? 18 + 14=32. 
One species known, viviparous. 

117. Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel). 

Xiphophorus bimaculatus Heckel, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1848, 
196; Mexico. 

Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculalus Gunther, Cat., vi, 333, 1866: Gar- 
man, Memoirs, Mus. Comp. Zool., xix, 1895, 81, pi. in, fig. 6 
(teeth), pi. vni, fig. 9 (male) ; Mexico: Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish 
Comm. 1894, 65; Rio Blanca, Orizaba: Jordan & Evermann, 



128 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Bull. 47, U. S. Nat Mus., 1896, 678: B. A. Bean, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus. 1898, 541; Mirador: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65. 
1902, 98; Jalapa. 

Pseudoxiphophorus pauciradiatus* Regan, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 
1894, 256; Orizaba, Vera Cruz. 

Streams of the eastern slope of Mexico from Jalapa to the Isthmus 
of Tehuantepec. ''Jalapa ; Xico ; Cordoba ; Otopa : Motzorongo ; El Hule ; 
Obispo; Perez; Sanborn.) 

Head 4; depth 3^ to 4; D. 13 to 15 ; A. 8 or 9; scales 9-30. Body 
elongate, rather robust, not much compressed; head depressed for- 
ward; interorbital nearly flat, i in head; snout 2^ to 3; eye 3^; 
origin of dorsal fin in advance of anal (?), midway between base of 
caudal and tip of snout, or slightly nearer base of caudal; the base of 
the dorsal very long, about y* longer than the head ; pectoral fin short 
and broad, 1^3 in head; ventral fin 2 in hea.d; caudal fin rounded ; 
caudal peduncle robust, 1% in head. 

Color dark brownish; posterior margin of each scale black, making 
prominent outlines on scales ; a large black blotch on upper y$ of base 
of caudal ; some black on membrane of dorsal fin ; a black band across 
middle of anal. Length about 3% inches. 

This species is very variable, and is quite plentiful in all streams 
of Vera Cruz from Jalapa to Sanborn. At Xico, the highest point 
from which I made collections, it was the only species taken. The 
largest specimens collected are from Cordoba, the longest being about 
3.50 inches. One female from Cordoba, 3.35 inches in length, con- 
tained 45 eggs, each .115 inch in diameter. The young are probably 
born in May. 

52. (rambusia Poey. 

GUAZACONES. 

Gambusia Poey, Memorias, i, 382, 1855. (Type, Gambusia punctata 

Poey.) 

Body elongate, more or less compressed; mouth moderate, the 
lower jaw projecting; each jaw with a band of pointed teeth, the outer 

*Mr. C. T. Regan admits two species in this genus. He says: "It 
(Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus Heckel) differs from Pseudoxiphophorus pauci- 
radiatus Regan in having a longer head and longer snout, and in the dorsal fin 
with 14 to 1 6 rays commencing midway between tip of snout and base of 
caudal, its base about ^ of the total length. P. pauciradiatus Regan has D. 
ii to 13, origin of dorsal nearer base of caudal than to tip of snout, the length 
of its base about 4 times in the total length." 

The species is very variable. In some specimens in the museum collection 
from Cordoba the base of the dorsal fin is longer than head, in others equal to 
or shorter, the number of rays in dorsal fin is 13 to 15, very seldom 12 or 16. 
This species ranges from about 6,000 feet to sea level. 



FAMILY XL PCECILIID.E. 129 

ones being the larger ; teeth not movable ; scales large ; dorsal and anal 
fins usually small, the dorsal in advance of the anal ; anal fin of male 
much advanced, and modified into an intromittent organ which is 
about as long as head ; alimentary canal short, usually about the length 
of the body; branchiostegals 6; vertebrae about 32. 

This genus comprises a group of small fishes living in swamps, 
ponds, and small streams of southern United States, Cuba, Mexico, 
and Central America. They are viviparous and feed on insects, seeds, 
and crustaceans. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF GAMBUSIA. 

a. Body with from 2 to 6 narrow, dark vertical PAGE 

bars from medial line of dorsal to or below 

axis of the body fasciata 129 

aa. Body without narrow dark vertical bars on its 

upper half. 

b. Side with a broad dark interrupted band, 
made up of short vertical bars ; origin of dorsal 
fin to base of caudal 2 in its distance to tip of 

snout gracilis 130 

bb. Side with a narrow dark continuous band or 

streak, 
c. Scales in the lateral series 30 or more; head 

3/4 to 3^4 i n the body affinis 130 

cc. Scales in the lateral series 26 to 28; head 4^ 

in the body \ infans 131 

bbb. Sides without band or streak except on 

middle of caudal peduncle ; scales 8-3 2 bonita 132 

118. Gambusia fasciata sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4715, F. C. M., 2.1 inches in length; San Geronimo, 
Oaxaca. 

Pacific slope streams of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. (San 
Geronimo; Tehuantepec.) 




FIG. 37. GAMBUSIA FASCIATA Meek. 



130 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Head 4^4', depth 3! to 4; D. 7 ; A. 7 ; scales 8-32. Body elongate, 
not much compressed; head small, flat above; interorbital 2 in head; 
mouth small; jaws about equal; teeth in jaws in a band, the outer 
series enlarged; all of the teeth conical; snout 3^ in head; eye 3 in 
head ; origin of dorsal to base of caudal i K m its distance from tip of 
snout, about midway between base of caudal and middle of pectoral fin ; 
anal fin (?) in advance of dorsal; pectoral fin i% in head; ventral 2% ; 
caudal fin truncate; least depth of caudal peduncle \% in head; ali- 
mentary canal i| times total length of the fish; peritoneum black. 

Color light brownish ; a dark vertebral streak ; side with from 3 to 5 
narrow vertical bars which extend from dorsal region to middle of side, 
occasionally one or two bars reaching ventral region ; a black spot on 
first two dorsal rays near their base ; region in front of anal and basal 
half of first rays black; iris black; a dark line on under side of 
caudal peduncle. Length 2 inches. 

One female contained 27 eggs, young quite well developed. 

119. Gambusia gracilis (Heckel). 

Xiphophorus gracilis Heckel, Sitzgsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1848, 
300; Orizaba, Mexico. 

Gambusia gracilis Garman, Memoirs, Mus. Comp. Zool., xix, 1895, 
85; Mexico and Central America: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 
47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 683: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 
1902, 99; Puente de Ixtla; Balsas. 

Streams on both sides of the divide south of the City of Mexico. 
(Cuautla; Yautepec; Jojutla; Chietla.) 

Head 4; depth 3^3 to 3; D. 6; A. 9; scales 8-30. Body rather 
slender, not much compressed; head small, mouth small, lower jaw 
the longer, teeth in the outer series enlarged; snout pointed, 3^ in 
head; diameter of eye 3 > ; origin of dorsal fin (?) behind that of anal, 
its distance from base of caudal i ^ in distance from tip of snout ; pec- 
toral fin i % in head ; ventral 2 ; caudal fin rounded ; least depth of 
caudal peduncle if in head; peritoneum dark; alimentary canal 
shorter than the length of the fish. 

Color dark brownish, each scale with light edgings; no spots on the 
fins ; a broad dark lateral band more or less broken up into short ver- 
tical bars; iris black. Length about 2 inches. 

The young are probably born early in May. 

120. Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard). 

Heterandria affinis Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1853, 390; Rio Medina and Rio Salada, Texas. 

Heterandria nobilis Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1853, 390; Comanche Spring, Rio Grande. 



FAMILY XL PCECILIID.E. 131 

Gambusia nobilis Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 71, pi. xxxix, figs. 
8 ii, 1859; Comanche Spring: Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish 
Comm., 1894, 60; Rio Chihuahua, Chihuahua. 
Gambusia speciosa Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 121; 
Rio San Diego, a tributary of Rio San Juan near Cadereita, 
Nuevo Leon. 
Gambusia gracilis Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 121; 

Matamoras. 
Gambusia senilis Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 122; 

Rio Chihuahua, Chihuahua. 

Gambusia patruelis Garman, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1881, 93; 
Monclova, Mexico: Garman, Memoirs, Mus. Comp. Zool., 1895, 
84; Mexico. 

Gambusia affinis Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1896, 680: Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1900, 127; lagoons near Tampico: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 
65, 1902, 98; Jimenez; Santa Rosalia; Chihuahua; San Andres. 
Lowland streams of the south Atlantic states and Gulf coasts to 
the Rio Panuco and to the Rio Conchos in Chihuahua. (Sauz; Mon- 
terey; Garza Valdez; La Cruz; Santa Engracia; Forlon; Valles.) 

Head 3^ to 4; depth 3^ to 4; D. 7 or 8; A. 8; scales 9-32. Body 
rather robust, not much compressed; head rather large, flat .above, 
interorbital 2 in head; snout 3 in head; lower jaw the longer; teeth in 
jaws in bands, the outer series enlarged; diameter of eye 3 in head; 
origin of dorsal fin o\nr middle of last ray of anal, its distance from 
base of caudal i % in its distance to tip of snout ; pectoral i % in head ; 
ventrals 2% in head; caudal fin truncate; least depth of caudal 
peduncle iX m head; alimentary canal about as long as the body; 
peritoneum dusky. 

Color light olive, edges of scales dark; a faint dark lateral streak or 
dusky band on sides ; sides and belly dusted with black dots ; a narrow 
band downward and backward from eye; occasionally some dark on 
anal fin; other fins plain. Length about 2 inches. 

One female 1.6 inches in length, collected the last week in May, 
contained 22 eggs, eye spots not formed. 

121. Gambusia infans Woolman. 

Gambusia infans Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 62, pi. 2, 
fig. 3; Rio Lerma, Salamanca, Guanajuato: Jordan & Ever- 
mann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 680: Meek, Field Col. 
Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 99; Celaya; Ocotlan; La Barca; Huingo. 
Gambiisia affinis Pellegrin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1901, 205; 
Lago de Zacoalco, Estado de Jalisco. 



132 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM -ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. 




FIG. 38. GAMBUSIA INFANS Woolman. 

No. 45570. U. S. National Museum. 

Head 4^; depth 3^"; D. 7 ; A. 7; scales 8-28. Body robust, 
moderately compressed; head small, flat above, its interorbital width 
2 in head; snout 4 in head; mouth small, lower jaw the longer; teeth in 
jaws in bands, outer series the larger; diameter of eye 3 in head; origin 
of dorsal over last anal rays, its distance from base of caudal 1^3 in 
distance from tip of snout ; pectoral i l /^ in head ; ventral 2 ^ ; caudal 
fin truncate; least depth of caudal peduncle i^ in head; alimentary 
canal about i X times the length of fish ; peritoneum dusky, 

Color light olivaceous ; edges of scales darker ; a narrow dark stripe 
on body; belly and sides not punctulate with dark dots; fins all plain. 
Length about 2 inches. 

The young of this species are born about the middle of June. 

122. Gambusia bonita sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4630, F. C. M., 2.5 inches in length; Refugio, Vera 
Cruz. 

Upper tributaries of the Rio Papaloapam. (Motzorongo; Refugio.) 




FIG. 39. GAMBUSIA BONITA Meek. 



FAMILY XL PceciLiiDyE. 133 

Head 3^ ', depth 3^ ; D. 7 or 8; A. 9 ; scales 8-32. Body elongate, 
somewhat compressed, profile from tip of snout to origin of dorsal a 
straight line; head moderate, mouth rather large, oblique; the lower 
jaw the longer; teeth conical, in a band, the outer series enlarged; 
snout 3^4" m head; eye 3 in head; origin of dorsal to base of caudal \% 
in its distance from tip of snout, about midway between base of caudal 
and base of pectoral fin; anal (an females) well in advance of dorsal; 
pectoral 1% in head; ventral 2%; caudal fin slightly rounded, least 
depth of caudal peduncle if in head; alimentary canal shorter than 
length of fish; peritoneum black; vertebrae 15 + 16=31. 

Color dark olivaceous above, white below; on darker portion of the 
body each scale has a light margin forming lateral stripes along the 
rows of scales; caudal fin usually tipped with black; a narrow dark 
streak on middle of caudal peduncle, this more prominent on the 
males; iris black. Length about 2^ inches. 

One female 2.36 inches in length contained 38 partially hatched 
eggs. 

The young, are probably born in May. 

53. Paragambusia gen. nov. 

Type, Gambusia nicaraguensis Giinther. 

Anal fin falcate, its first 3 rays much produced, longer than 
head, otherwise essentially as in Gambusia. 

123. Paragambusia nicaraguensis (Giinther). 

Gambusia nicaraguensis Giinther, Cat., vi, 336, 1866; Lake of 
Nicaragua: Gunther, Fishes Cent. Amer., 483, pi. 82, fig. 3, 
1869; Lake of Nicaragua: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 682. 

Southern Mexico and Central America. (Otopa; Boca del Rio; El 
Hule; Obispo; Perez.) 

Head 3^; depth 2^; D. 6; A. 10; scales 10-26. Body rather 
robust, much compressed; head small, depressed; interorbital flat, i^ 
in head; snout wedge-shaped, 3^ in head; teeth pointed; diameter of 
eye 3 in head ; origin of dorsal fin (?) almost entirely behind anal, its 
distance from base of caudal 2 in its distance from tip of snout; anal 
fin of female with its first 3 or 4 rays produced and falciform, the longest 
ray equaling distance from tip of snout to base of pectoral fin ; pectoral 
fin equals length of head; ventral 2 in head, one of its rays slightly 
produced; caudal fin rounded; least depth of caudal peduncle i^ in 
head ; peritoneum black ; alimentary canal less than length of the fish. 



134 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Color light brownish; dorsal and caudal fins spotted with black 
dots ; in the larger females the produced anal rays are black ; a dark bar 
downward and backward from eye. Length about 2 inches. 

Female 1.20 inches in length, collected last week of April, con- 
tained 1 8 eggs in which only the eye spots were shown. 

54. Glaridichthys Garman. 

Glaridodon Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zoology, xix, 1895, 40. 
(Type, Girardinus uninotatus Poey.) 

Glaridichthys Garman, Amer. Nat., 1896, 232 (substitute for Glari- 
dodon; preoccupied). 

Body moderately elongate, compressed; caudal peduncle of mod- 
erate depth; head depressed, slightly arched; snout short, blunt; chin 
steep; mouth directed upward; lower jaws the longer, firmly united; 
an outer series of broad, cusped, hooked teeth firmly set in each jaw, 
behind these a band of smaller ones, sharp, pointed, expanded and 
hooked near the apex; anal fin in advance of dorsal; intestine long; 
scales large. (Garman.) 

124. Glaridichthys latidens (Garman). 

Glaridodon latidens Garman, Memoirs, Mus. Comp. Zool., xix, 1895, 
42, pi. v,vfig. ii (teeth); Chihuahua. 

Head about 3^; depth about 3>^; D. 8; A. 10; scales 28 to 30. 
Body moderately elongate, compressed; snout short, blunt, rounded; 
chin very steep; mouth rather wide, arched transversely, directed 
upward; teeth chisel-shaped, hooked and strong in the outer series; 
inner teeth in bands, pointed, commonly expanded near the apex as if 
2 or 3 cusped; eye large, longer than snout, 3 in head; dorsal origin a 
little behind the middle of the total length, above middle of the base of 
the anal; ventrals Very small, not reaching anal; pectorals moderate, 
reaching behind bases of ventrals; caudal as long as head, subtruncate 
or convex ; vertebrae 13-4-19=32. 

Color light olivaceous, darker on back, silvery on opercles; throat 
and belly apparently somewhat lighter along the middle of the flank ; 
narrow brown vertical bars on the sides, more distinct behind the ab- 
domen, one of them situated below the extremity of the base of the 
dorsal ; fins clouded with brownish ; top of head dark ; a dark line from 
anal to caudal; in cases a smaller line on the middle of the side; the 
brown color in punctulations, sometimes arranged toward the edges 
of the scales. (Garman.) 

I do not know this species, and I am inclined to think there is some 
mistake in the locality given for it. I do not believe this genus is 
represented in northern Mexico. 



FAMILY XI. PCECILIID^E. 135 

55. Beloiiesox Kner. 

Belonesox Kner, Sitzgsber. Akadi. Wiss. Wien, 1860, XL, 419. 
(Type, Belonesox belizanus Kner.) 

Body elongate, not much compressed; head broad, flat; jaws 
much produced; mouth large; premaxillaries forming an elongate 
triangular plate, but not ankylosed; mandible long, somewhat prom- 
inent; each jaw with a broad band of cardiform teeth; anal fin before 
dorsal; anal fin of male modified into an intromittent organ. 

125. Belonesox belizanus Kner. 

Belonesox belizanus Kner, Sitzungsber. Wiss. Wien, 1860, 419, 
Balize: Giinther, Cat., vi, 33, 1866, Mexico; Lago de Peten: 
Garman, Memoirs, Mus. Comp. Zool., xix, 1895, 80; Mexico: 
Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 684. 

Southern Mexico and Central America. (Boca del Rio; Otopa; 
El Hule; Obispo; Perez.) 

Head 2 to 3 ; depth 5 to 6; D. 8 or 9; A. 10; scales 18-56 to 63. 
Body elongate, not much compressed; head long, slender, and much 
depressed forwards; interorbital area 3^ in head; upper surface of 
premaxillary plate 3 in head; snout 2 in head; eye 5 to 5>; origin of 
dorsal fin about opposite' last ray of anal, its distance from base of 
caudal af in its distance to tip of snout ; pectoral 2-^ in head ; ventral 
3 T *Q; caudal peduncle slightly compressed, its least depth 3 in head; 
caudal fin rounded. 

Color light brownish, almost uniform above and below; the scales 
on upper half of sidev each usually with a black center, forming dark, 
interrupted lateral stripes 1 , a black spot at base of caudal. Length of 
females about 8 inches; the males less than half as large as females 

One female 7^ inches in length, taken at Obispo, contained 129 
young, each .85 inch in length; a second female 4.35 inches in length 
contained 26 eggs in which the eye spots and outline of the young were 
formed. With the possible exception of Goodea luitpoldi, this is the 
largest member of the family in Mexico. 

Subfamily Anablepinae. 
56. Anableps (Artedi) Bloch. 
FOUR-EYED FISHES; CUATRO Ojos. 
Anableps (Artedi) Bloch, Ichthylogia, vm, 7, 1795. (Type, Ana- 

bleps tetropthalmus Bloch =Cobitis anableps Linnaeus.) 
Body elongate, depressed anteriorly, compressed posteriorly; head 
broad and depressed, with the supraorbital part very much raised; 
cleft of mouth horizontal, of moderate width; both jaws armed with a 



136 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

band of villiform teeth, those of the outer series being largest and 
somewhat movable; the integuments of eye divided into an upper 
and lower portion by a dark colored transverse band of conjunctiva; 
pupil also incompletely divided into two pair of lobes projecting from 
each side of the iris; nasal opening produced into a short tubule 
depending from each side of the mouth ; dorsal fin behind anal ; anal 
fin of male modified with a thick and long scaly conical organ with 
an orifice at its extremity; alimentary canal but little convoluted; 
vertebrae about 46. 

126. Anableps dovii Gill. FOUR-EYES; CUATRO Ojos. 

Anableps dowei Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, 4; Panama. 

Anableps dovii Giinther, Cat., vi, 338, 1866: Jordan & Evermann, 
Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 685; Chiapam, Guatemala: B. A. 
Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 541; Tequisistlan, 40 miles 
from the sea: Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. U. S. Fish 
Comm., 1901, 150; Tehuantepec River at Tehuantepec. 

Rio Tehuantepec to the Isthmus of Panama. 

Head 4; D. 9; A. 10; scales 65 to 70. Body elongate, head flat, de- 
pressed. 

Color blackish brown, with a well-defined broad golden band along 
the sides from axis of pectoral to the base of the caudal; fins pale. 
Length 7 or 8 inches. 

According to Mr. E. W. Nelson, the individuals of this species 
swim always at the surface and in little schools arranged in platoons 
or abreast. They swim headed against the current and feed upon 
floating matter which the current brings them. They may make 
slight headway up stream or may gradually float down stream at a 
speed less than that of the current. They are easily frightened, and 
when a school becomes scattered, and after the cause of their fright 
has disappeared, the individuals will soon rejoin each other. The 
species is viviparou's. A female 7 inches in length, collected in April, 
was examined by Dr. Evermann, who found it to contain 9 young, 
each 1.5 inches in length. 

Subfamily Goodinse. 

57. G-ooclea Jordan. 

Goodea Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 299. (Type. Goodea 

atripinnis Jordan.) 

Xenendum Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1899, 127. 

(Type, Xenendum caliente J. & S. =Goodea atripinnis Jordan.) 

Body elongate to rather robust ; dorsal fin posterior, about over anal 

fin ; anal fin of males with its first 5 or 6 rays short and stiff and sepa- 



FAMILY XI. PCECILIID^;. 



137 



rated from the rest of the fin by a shallow notch; teeth in two series, 
the outer very loose and bicuspid ; intestinal canal long, coiled on right 
side, about four times the length of the body; peritoneum black; gill 
rakers numerous, about 40 on first arch. 



a. 



aa. 



bb 



cc 



KEY TO THE SPECIES OF GOODEA. 

Dorsal fin longer than the anal; dorsal rays 
15; anal rays 12; scales small, more than 40; 
about 19 in a cross series; body elongate, its 
depth 3^ to 4; scales 20-55 ; a prominent dark 

lateral band; vertical fins with black bars 

Anal fin equal to or longer than the dorsal; 
scales larger, less than 50 in the lateral line; 
no prominent dark lateral band ; no black bars 
on vertical fins. 

Body rather slender, its depth 3% in. length; 
scales moderate, 15-45; dorsal rays n; anal 
rays 15; caudal peduncle slender, its least 

depth if in head 

. Body rather deep, its depth 3 to 3^ in body; 
scales large, 35 to 44; dorsal rays 13; anal 
rays 14; caudal peduncle deep, its least depth 
about 2 in head. 

Dorsal fin slightly in advance of anal, its 
origin to base of caudal if in its distance 

from tip of sno-it . 

Dorsal fin slightly behind ventrals, its origin 
from base of caudal 2 in its distance from 
tip of snout 



.whitei 137 



.toweri 138 



. .luitpoldi 139 
.atripinnis 140 



127. Qoodea whitei sp. nov. MIXPAPATL. 

Type, No. 4547, F. C. M., 2.8 inches in length; Yautepec.Morelos. 
Upper tributaries of the Rio Balsas. (Cuautla; Yautepec.) 




FIG. 40. GOODEA WHITEI Meek. 



138 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Head 4^; depth 3^ to 4; D. 14 to 16; A. 12; scales 18-55. Body 
rather elongate, not much compressed, back not much elevated; inter- 
orbital space slightly convex, its width 2 in head; snout 3^ in head; 
diameter of eye 3 ; origin of dorsal in advance of anal midway between 
tip of caudal and tip of snout ; distance from origin of dorsal to base of 
caudal if in its distance to tip of snout; fins rather large; pectorals 
i % in head ; ventrals 2 ; caudal fins slightly emarginate ; caudal pe- 
duncle slender, its least depth 2 in head. 

Color brownish above, the posterior portion of each scale darker, 
giving a finely speckled appearance; a narrow blackish lateral band 
extending from above the opercle nearly to base of caudal, the pos- 
terior portion of the band more distinctly defined posteriorly ; beneath 
this band the body is mostly straw color with a variable number of 
small brown specks; dorsal dusky, with a submarginal line of black, 
the margin plain; base of caudal fin dotted with several transverse 
rows of dark dots and usually a clearly defined narrow black sub- 
marginal band, the tips plain; anal with a central short black bar; 
ventrals usually plain, sometimes with black tips. I take pleasure 
in 'naming this fish for Mr. E. A. White, of the city of Mexico, in recog- 
nition of many favors received through his courtesy. 

128. Qoodea toweri sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4519, F. C. M., 2.38 inches in length; Rio Verde, San 

Luis Potosi. 
Upper tributaries of the Rio Panuco. (Rio Verde.) 




FlG. 41. GOODEA TOWERI Meek. 

Head 4; depth 3^; D. n; A. 13; scales 15-45. Body elongate, 
moderately compressed, back little elevated; head rather small; inter- 
orbital flat, 2 in head; snout 4 in head; mouth rather small; the an- 
terior series of teeth bicuspid ; eye 3 in head ; origin of dorsal fin behind 
ventrals, midway between tip of caudal and middle of opercle; the 
distance from origin of dorsal to base of caudal 2j J in its distance to 
tip of snout; fins small; pectoral if in head; ventrals 2; the dorsal 



FAMILY XI. PCECILIID^E. 



139 



fin in the male higher than in the female, and its position slightly more 
forward; caudal fin slightly truncate; caudal peduncle slender, its 
least depth if in head. 

Color dark brownish above, lighter below; where the light and 
dark colors meet the side more or less speckled; a narrow dark shade 
on middle of caudal peduncle. Length about 3 inches. Named for 
its discoverer, Dr. W. L. Tower, of the University of Chicago. 

129. Goodea luitpoldi (Steindachner) . 

Characodon luitpoldi Steindachner, Einige Fischarten, Mex., 1895, 
12, pi. 3, figs. 3~3b.; Lago de Patzcuaro, Michoacan: Garman, 
Memoirs Mus. Comp. Zool., 1895, 37: Jordan & Evermann, 
Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 2832: Pellegrin, Bull. Mus. 
Hist. Nat. Paris, 1901, 205 ; Lago de Zacoalco, Estado de Jalisco. 

Xenendum xaliscone Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1900, 128, fig. 9; Lago de Chapala, Ocotlan, Jalisco: Jordan & 
Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3153. 

Goodea luitpoldi Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 101 ; Ocotlan; 
La Barca; La Palma; Patzcuaro. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. 




FlG. 42. GOODEA LUITPOLDI (Steindachner). 
No. 6148 (Xenendum xaliscone), Leland Stanford Jr. University. 

Head 4^ to 4^"; depth 3 to 3^; D. 12 or 13; A. 14 or 15; scales 
17-40 to 42. Body rather robust, much compressed posteriorly; head 
small; interorbital area slightly convex, if in head; snout 3^; eye 
3 y* ; origin of dorsal fin midway between tip of caudal and posterior 
margin of eye, in advance of ventrals; distance from origin of dorsal 
to base of caudal equals if distance to tip of snout; fins rather large; 
pectorals i % in head ; ventrals i ^ ; caudal fin slightly rounded ; caudal 
peduncle deep, much compressed, its least depth i in head. 

Color dark brownish above, lighter below; -fins all plain. Length 
about 8 inches. 

One female 5.15 inches in length from Patzcuaro contained 31 
young, of about equal length, longest 1.14 inches. There was no 



140 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

modification of the anal fin in any of these young, as found in the adult 
male. This modification of the anal fin is probably found with the 
development of the sexual organs. The young are born the last of May. 

130. Goodea atripinnis Jordan. 

Goodea atripinnis Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 299; Leon, 
Guanajuato: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1896, 685.' 

Xenendum caliente Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1900, 127, fig. 8; Rio Verde, Aguas Calientes: Jordan & Ever- 
mann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3152. 

Goodea calientis Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 100; Aguas 
Calientes; Lagos; Celaya; Acambaro; Huingo; San Juan del Rio. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma, and of the Rio San Juan, a tributary of 
the Rio Panuco on the Mexican plateau. 




FIG. 43. GOODEA ATRIPINNIS Jordan. 

No. 6147 (Xenendum caliente }. & S.), Leland Stanford Jr. University. 

Head 3^ to 4; depth 2^ to 3 ; D. 13; A. 14; scales 13 or 14-35 to 3^. 
Body rather robust, much compressed posteriorly; interorbital space 
slightly convex, i^ in head; snout 4 in head; eye 3 ^ to 4 in head; 
origin of dorsal fin midway between tip of caudal and nape; distance 
from base of caudal to origin of dorsal 2 in distance from the latter 
point to tip of snout ; origin of dorsal slightly behind that of anal fin ; 
fins rather large ; pectorals i y in head ; ventrals 2 in head ; the caudal 
fin slightly rounded at tip; caudal peduncle deep, much compressed, 
its least depth if in head. 

Color dark olive brown, lighter below, each scale with a dark 
angular band, giving the fish a somewhat speckled appearance; the 
young are slightly mottled in color; fins all plain; color of the sexes 
practically alike. Length about 4 inches. 

One female 3.50 inches in length contained 44 young, each .53 inch 
in length. The young are born during the last half of May. 



FAMILY XL PCECILIID.E. 141 

58. Skiflia Meek. 

Skifjia Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 102. (Type, Skiffia 
lermcB Meek.) 

Body compressed, deep ; dorsal fin in advance of the anal, its middle 
over anal; teeth loose, outer series large, bicuspid, followed by a band 
of small villiform teeth; alimentary canal elongate, its length 2 to 3^ 
times the length of the body; peritoneum black; gill rakers long, 
rather stiff, about 20 on the first arch; vertebrae about 16 + 18=34; 
anal fin of male with its first 5 or 6 rays short and stiff, and separated 
from the rest of the fin by a shallow notch; dorsal fin of male higher 
than that of female. 

A group of small fishes with much compressed bodies. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF SKIFFIA. 

a. A black bar at base of caudal (inconspicuous PAGE 

in some males of lermce, which have a uniform 
coloration and a very dark head) . 

b. Body light olivaceous in females; a dark spot 
on hinder margin of each scale on upper half 
of the body, these spots forming lines along 
the rows of scales; dorsal fin usually black, 
margined with yellow; D. 16; A. 15; scales 

12-33 multipunctata 141 

bb. Body light olivaceous in females, mottled 
with dark, nearly plain on lower half of body; 
males nearly pMm; head usually quite dark; 

D. 13; A. 14; scales 14-37 lermaz 142 

aa. No black bar at base of caudal. 

c. Body much variegated; no dark lateral band; 
D. 14 or 15; A. 13 or 14; scales 13-34; ali- 
mentary canal 3 times total length of the 

body variegata 143 

cc. Color uniform with a dark lateral band bi- 
furcated on the anterior third of body; D. 
16; A. 16; scales 11-32; alimentary canal 2 
to 2% times total length of body; origin of 
dorsal fin midway between base of caudal 
and nape bilineata 144 

131. Skiffia multipunctata (Pellegrin). 

Xenendum multipunctatum Pellegrin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 

1901, 205; Estado de Jalisco. 

Skiffia multipunctata Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 103; 
Ocotlan. 



142 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. 

Head 4; depth 2^ ; D. 16; A. 15; scales 12-32. Body deep, much 
compressed; interorbital slightly convex, 2 in head; snout short, 
rather pointed, 4 in head; mouth small, lower jaw slightly the longer; 
eye large, 3 in head; dorsal fin slightly in advance of the anal, its origin 
midway between base of caudal and eye; base of dorsal i^ in head; 
height (in female) 1%, somewhat higher in the male; anterior portion 
of dorsal shortened as in Skiffia lermaz; pectoral i }/$ in head ; ventral 2 ; 
alimentary canal coiled on right side, its length 3^ times total length 
of the fish; peritoneum black; gill rakers long and rather stout; 20 on 
the first gill arch; vertebrae 16-1-18=34. 

Color of female light olivaceous; a dark spot on hinder margin of 
each scale on upper half of body, forming lines along the rows of scales 
much as in species of Mollienesia; a prominent black bar at base of 
caudal fin; male nearly uniform in color, with the anal and dorsal fins 
black, margined with yellow; black caudal bar indistinct. Length 
about 2^4 inches. 

This species reaches a length of 2.50 inches, and is known only 
from the Lerma basin, near Ocotlan. The young are born during the 
latter half of May. 

132. Skiffia lermae Meek. 

Skiffia lermce Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 102; Celaya; 
Patzcuaro. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. 

Head 4; depth 2^ to 3^; D. 13; A. 14; scales 14-37. Body deep, 
much compressed; head small; snout pointed, 4 in head; mouth small, 
the lower jaw the longer; eye large, 3 in head; interorbital slightly con- 
vex, its width 2^4" in head ; dorsal fin slightly in advance of anal, mid- 
way between base of caudal and posterior margin of the orbit ; base of 
dorsal 2 in head, its height in females i>> slightly higher in the males; 
pectoral 1^3 in head; ventrals 2 in head; gill rakers stout, 20 on the 
first arch; alimentary canal coiled on right side, its length 3^" times 
the total length of the body; peritoneum black; vertebras 16-1-18=34. 

Color of females light olivaceous above, much mottled with darker, 
nearly plain on lower half of the body ; young with a few faint brownish 
bars on lower half of caudal peduncle ; a narrow dark lateral band and 
a prominent black bar at base of caudal ; the color of the males nearly 
uniform dark-olivaceous, the anterior half of some specimens being 
nearly black ; the black caudal bar much less conspicuous than on the 
females; a dark line on the under side of the caudal peduncle in both 
sexes. Length about 2.50 inches. 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM. 



PLATE VIII, ZOOLOGY. 




SKIFFIA LERM/E Meek. ' 
No. 3623. Field Columbian Museum. 




SKIFFIA LERM/E Meek. $ 

No. 3622, Field Columbian Museum. 



FAMILY XI. PCECILIIDVE. 143 

This species probably occurs throughout the Lerma basin. One 
female taken about May 20 contained 30 young, each of which was 
about .34 inches in length. 

133. Skiffia vuriegata Meek. 

Skiffia variegata Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 104; Zira- 

huen; Chalco. 
Basin of the Rio Lerma. 




FIG. 44. SKIFFIA VARIEGATA Meek. 

No. 3612, Field Columbian Museum. 



Head 3! ; depth 2|; D. 14; A. 13; scales 13-34. Body deep, 
compressed; top of head convex; interorbital 2% in head; mouth 
small, lower jaw the longer; dim rather prominent; snout 4 in head; 
eye large, 3 in head; origin of dorsal slightly in advance of anal; its 
origin midway between base of caudal and posterior margin of orbit; 
base of dorsal .fin i% in head; height (in male) T.% in head, being 
somewhat lower in the female; anterior dorsal rays short, increasing 
gradually to the eighth or ninth ; pectoral i ^3 in head ; ventral 2 ; 
caudal fin truncate; alimentary canal coiled on the right side, its 
length 3 times total length of the body ; peritoneum black. 

Color olivaceous, much mottled; an indistinct dark lateral band, 
more or. less broken in some specimens ; four or five light brownish 
spots on the lower portion of the caudal peduncle, the under surface 
dark; color of the male more uniform and darker than that of the 
female; no black bar at base of caudal; chin black. Length about 
2.25 inches. 

The young of this species are born about the middle of May. A 
female about two inches in length will give birth to about 20 young, 
each being about .50 inch in length. 



144 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 



134. Skiff ia bilineata (Bean). 

Characodon bilineatus Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1887, 371, pi. 

20, fig. 2; Rio Lerma, Guanajuato: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 

47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 668. 

Skifjia bilineatus Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902; Huingo. 
Basin of the Rio Lerma. 




FIG. 45. SKIFFIA BILINEATA Bean. 

No. 37832, U. S. National Museum. 

Head 3%; depth 3; D. 16; A. 16; scales 11-32. Body robust, 
dorsal region somewhat elevated; head broad, depressed; interorbital 
space nearly flat, 2 in head; snout short; outer series of teeth bicuspid, 
loose, but less so than in other species of the genus; origin of dorsal 
fin in advance of anal, midway between base of caudal and the nape ; 
opercle connected by a membrane to the shoulder ; pectoral fin i X m 
head; ventral 2 ; alimentary canal elongate, slightly less than 2> times 
the total length of the body ; peritoneum black. 

Color brown above, lighter below; a dark lateral band divided on 
anterior third of body, the posterior half more or less broken into 12 
to 15 short, irregular bars, a few extending almost to dorsal fin; the 
upper half of the body with a few fine punctulations. Length about 
i. 60 inches. 

A female 1.50 inches in length contained 27 young, white and very 
slender, each being .32 inch in length. The young of this species are 
evidently born the last of May and early in June. 

Subfamily Pceciliinse. 
59. Platypoecilus Gunther. 
Platypcecilus Gunther, Cat., vi, 350, 1866. (Type, Platypaecilus 

maculatus Gunther.) 

Body deep, compressed; dorsal fin slightly in advance of anal; 
teeth loose, movable, in a single series in each jaw; alimentary canal 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM. 



PLVTE IX, ZOOLOGY. 














PLATYPCECILUS MACULATUS Gi'mther 



FAMILY XI. PCECILIID^. 145 

long, coiled on the right side ; anal fin of the male modified into an intro- 
mittent organ; gill rakers short, about equal to diameter of pupil; 
vertebrae 26 to 28; sexes similar in size and color. This genus com- 
prises, so far as known at present, three species. They are small 
fishes, none exceeding 2 inches in length. The two species taken in 
eastern Mexico live in ponds or bayous among water-plants ; to collect 
them successfully the net must be heavily leaded so as to rake well 
the bottom. 

So far as color markings are concerned these fishes are more va- 
riable than any others known to me. Viviparous. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF PLATYPCECILUS. 

a. Body deep, .compressed, its depth 2> to 2^. PAGE 

b. Caudal peduncle deep, its least depth 3^ in 

the length of the body; depth of body 2% maculatus 145 

bb. Caudal peduncle slender, its least depth 5 in 
the length of the body; depth of body 2% 

to 2$4 variatus 146 

aa. Body slender, elongate, its depth 3^ . nclsoni 147 

135. Platypoecilus maculatus Gunther. 

Platypcecilus maculatus Gunther, Cat., vi, 350, 1866, Mexico: Gar- 
man, Memoirs, Mus. Comp. Zool., 1895, 48; Mexico: Jordan & 
Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 686. 

Lowland streams of Mexico which empty into the gulf south of 
the city of Vera Cruz. (El Rule ; Ob'spo ; Perez.) 

Head 3^; depth 2%; D. 10; A. 7; scales 9-23. Body deep, com- 
pressed; profile from tip of lower jaw to dorsal fin a straight line, the 
highest point at origin of dorsal fin; head rather small; interorbital 
area flat, its width 2 in length of head; lower jaw slightly the longer; 
eye 3 in head; snout 3^ in head; teeth loose, small, conical, in a single 
series in each jaw; dorsal fin slightly in advance of anal, its origin 
midway between base of caudal and posterior margin of the eye; 
longest dorsal ray (?) i^/z in the head to (3) 1^3 in head; caudal 
peduncle very deep, its least depth 3^3 in the length of body; dis- 
tance between the last dorsal ray and base of caudal slightly less than 
the least depth of the caudal peduncle; caudal fin rounded; anal fin 
with falcate margin, its first rays (?) iX m the head; tips of pectorals 
reaching middle of ventrals, 1^3 in head; ventrals reaching past anal, 
1% in the length of head; intestinal canal elongate, coiled on the 
right side in 10 or 12 coils; gill rakers short, the longest about equal 
to diameter of the pupil ; vertebras 14+12=26; anal fin of the male 
modified into an intromittent organ, its length i>^ in the length of 
the head. 



146 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Color olivaceous, some specimens blotched with black; others with 
i to 3 black spots about y$ size of the eye on the sides; occasional 
specimens with a large black blotch on side behind shoulders; some 
with a large black spot at base of caudal fin; this spot very small in 
others and in some specimens wanting; a broad black crescent on base 
of caudal rays; often the spot or crescent or both wanting; occa- 
sionally these markings reduced to the tips of the crescent or to the 
base of marginal rays of the caudal fin ; dorsal fin black ; anal and ven- 
tral rays'with black tips; pectorals light. Length about i^ inches. 

The color markings of this species are very variable, more so than 
of any other species I have examined. 

136. Platypoecilus variatus sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4501, F. C. M., 1.35 inches in length; Valles, San Luis 
Potosi. 

Basins of the Rio Panuco and Rio So to la Marina, in 'owland 
streams. (Garza Valdez; Santa Engracia; Victoria; Forlon; Valles; 
Rascon.) 

Head 3^; depth 2^ to 2^; D. 10; A. 6 or 7 ; scales 9-25. Body 
oblong, compressed ; profile from front of dorsal to tip of snout slightly 
convex, the highest point at origin of dorsal fin; interorbital area flat, 
its width 2 in head; lower jaw slightly the longer; eye 2^ in head; 
snout 4 in head; teeth loose, conical, in a single series; dorsal fin in 
advance of anal, its origin midway between base of caudal and pupil ; 
longest dorsal ray in both sexes, iy m head; caudal peduncle mod- 
erately compressed, its least depth 5 in length of the body; distance 
from last dorsal ray to base of caudal y$ greater than least depth of 
caudal peduncle; caudal fin slightly rounded; anal fin with a slightly 
convex margin; longest anal ray (in ?) 1% in head; tips of pectorals 
reaching slightly past base of ventrals; length of pectoral fin i in 
head; tips of ventrals reaching origin of anal, if in head; alimentary 
canal coiled on right side as in the preceding species; gill rakers 
1 5 , the longest equaling diameter of pupil ; vertebrae 14+14 = 28; anal 
fin modified into an intromittent organ, its length if in the head. 

Color olivaceous, the upper half or two-thirds of the body much 
mottled with darker; some specimens with a black caudal spot, in 
some specimens large, in others very small. Length about 2 inches. 

The color markings of this species vary greatly. The black cres- 
cent and the black caudal spot may both be present or one or the 
other or both may be absent. One large male, the largest taken, 
1.87 inches, has four distinct black vertical bars on the middle of the 
sides of the body; it also has the black blotch and crescent at base of 
caudal fin; a second large male (1.70 inches), has the black bars on 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM. 



PLATE X, ZOOLOGY. 




f, ,- 








PLATYPCECILUS VARIATUS Meek. 

No. 4486, Field Columbian Museum. 

XlPHOPHORUS HELLERI Gunther. 
No. 4668, Field Columbian Museum. 



FAMILY XL PCECILIID.E. 147 

sides, but has neither the black caudal spot nor the crescent ; the fourth 
black bar on left side is bifurcate in its lower half; dorsal fin with a 
black band across its middle and another at the tips ; tips of anal rays 
black; ventrals and pectorals plain. 

137. Platypoecilus nelson! sp. nov. 

Type, No. 51484, U. S. National Museum, iX inches in length; 

Papayo, Guerrero. 
Basin of the Rio Balsas. 




FIG. 46. PLATYPCECILUS NELSONI Meek. 

Head 3$-; depth 3-^; D. 7; A. 6; scales 10-28. Body elongate, 
moderately compressed; head large, snout pointed, 3^ m head; inter- 
orbital slightly convex, 2 in head; mouth small; teeth close set, conical, 
their tips bent slightly backward; diameter of eye 3^; origin of the 
dorsal fin midway between base of caudal and posterior margin of the 
opercle ; pectoral i % in the head ; ventrals 2 ; caudal fin rounded ; least 
depth of caudal peduncle if in head; no lateral line, many of the 
scales with pore-like depressions ih their centers. 

Color olivaceous, with a few faint vertical bars on posterior half of 
body ; center of each scale lighter, the margins making faint longitu- 
dinal stripes along rows of scales. One specimen has two ink-like spots 
at base of caudal; a second specimen has only the upper one, the other 
two have none. Longest specimen 1.86 inches. 

The only specimens of this species known were collected by E. 
W. Nelson at Papayo, Guerrero, on April 20, 1903, and were kindly 
loaned to the Museum by Dr. B. W. Evermann. 

6O. Heteraiiclria Agassiz. 

Heterandria Agassiz, Amer. Jour. Sci. & Arts, 1853, 135 (Limia 

r ormosus Girard). 

B^ody rather slender ; mouth very small; the lower jaw short, its 
bones not united; snout short; both jaws with a single series of slender, 



148 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

movable teeth ; scales large ; dorsal fin inserted behind anal ; anal fin of 
male placed well forward and modified into an intromittent organ ; 
alimentary canal elongate, convoluted, not in definite coils, its length 
about iX times the length of the fish. 

A group of small fishfes found in ditches and swamps of the warmer 
parts of America. Viviparous. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF HETERANDRIA. 

a. Origin' of dorsal fin nearer base of caudal than PAGE 

base of pectoral fin; spots on sides about as 

large as orbit pleurospilus 148 

aa. Origin of dorsal fin midway between base of 

caudal and posterior margin of opercle ;. spots 

on sides about as large as pupil lutzi 148 

138. Heterandria pleurospilus (Giinther). 

Girardinus pleurospilus Giinther, Cat., vi, 355, 1866; Lago de 
Duenas: Giinther, Fish. Cent. Amer., 486, pi. 77, fig. i, 1869; 
Lago de Duenas, Guatemala. 
Heterandria pleurospilus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 1896, 688. 

Southern Mexico and Central America, in west coast streams. (San 
Geronimo.) 

Head 4%; depth 3^; D. 7 or 8; A. 7 or 8; scales 8-28. Body 
rather robust, compressed posteriorly; head broad; interorbital area 
'nearly flat, 1% in head; snout 4 in head; eye 3; origin of dorsal fin 
slightly behind that of anal, nearer base of caudal than base of pec- 
toral fin; pectoral equals length of head; ventral if in head; caudal 
fin slightly truncate; caudal peduncle rather deep, its least depth i^ 
in head. 

Color light brownish, sides with 8 to 1 1 black spots on sides, each 
about as large as eye ; some being broken up in two or more spots ; a 
few specimens with a partial second row; fins all plain. Length about 
2X inches. 

A well marked species. 

139. Heterandria lutzi Meek. 

Heterandria lutzi Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 106; Oaxaca; 
Cuicatlan ; Venta Salada. 

Rivers of southern Mexico on both sides of the divide. (Motzorongo ; 
Otopa; El Hule; Perez; Tehuantepec.) 

Head 4^; depth 3^; D. 7; A. 8; scales 8-29. Body elongate, 
rather slender; head depressed anteriorly, giving it a wedge-shaped 



FAMILY XI. PCECILIID.E. 



149 




FIG. 47. HETERANDRIA LUTZI Meek. 

No. 3718, Field Columbian Museum. 

appearance; snout 3^ in head; eye large, 3^ in head; teeth movable, 
in one series, conical, curved backward at the tips; origin of dorsal 
slightly behind that of anal in females, midway between base of caudal 
fin and posterior margin of opercle ; base of dorsal 3 in head ; its height 
i Y* ; pectoral i y ; ventral 2 ; caudal fin truncate ; caudal peduncle 
slender, its least depth i^ in head; alimentary canal much convoluted, 
not in definite coils, its length about 1^2 times the total length of the 
fish; peritoneum black. 

Color olivaceous, a narrow dark lateral band broken into small 
round or oblong spots, each scarcely as large as pupil; iris black; a nar- 
row dark streak on under side of caudal peduncle; a faint vertebral 
streak, more conspicuous in the young. Length about 3,K inches. 

One female 2.59 inches in length contained 40 young; each about 
.35 inch in length. The males are about half as large as the females. 

61. Poecilia Bloch & Schneider. 

Pcecilia Bloch & Schneider, Syst. Ichthy. ,452,1801. (Type, Pcecilia 
vimf>ara Bloch & Schneider.) 

Body oblong, often rather deep; mouth small, transverse, with 
weak jaws; teeth small, in narrow bands, the outer teeth enlarged, 
curved, and movable; scales large; dorsal fin small, of 7 to n rays; anal 
fin short, in female nearly opposite dorsal, in males advanced and 
modified into a sword-shaped intromittent organ ; alimentary canal long ; 
vertebrae about 28. Sexes about e.qual in size. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF P(KCIL1A. 

a. Anal rays 9 or 10; sides with a black lateral PAGE 

stripe as wide as eye ; scales 8-29 occidentalis 150 



150 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

aa. Anal rays 6 to 8. PAGE 

b. Side with a black band made up of more or 
less distinct spots about as large as eye ; dorsal 

rays 9; anal rays 6; scales 9-28 latipunctata 150 

bb. Side without black band. 
c. Origin of dorsal nearer tip of caudal than tip 
of snout ; dorsal rays 7 to 9 ; anal rays 6 to 8 ; 
scales 9-24 to 28. 

d. Head large, 3^ to 3^ in body; depth 2^ 

to 3 % butleri 151 

dd. Head small, 4^ in body ; depth 3 1 / to 4^ presidionis 152 

cc. Origin of dorsal nearer tip of snout than tip 
of caudal. 

e. Least depth of caudal peduncle 6 in length 
of the body ; head 4 ; depth 3^ ; dorsal rays 

8 or 9 ; anal rays 6 or 7 couchiana 152 

ee. Least depth of caudal peduncle 5 in the 
length of the body; head 3^; depth $y z ; 
dorsal rays 9 ; anal rays 8 sphenops. 153 

140. Poecilia occidentalis (Baird& Girard). 

Heterandria occidentalis Baird & Girard, Proc Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1853, 390; Rio Santa Cruz, Tucson, Arizona: Jordan & 
Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 689. 
Girardinus occidentalis Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 73, pi. xxxix, fig. 
16-19, 1859; Rio Santa Cruz: Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1859, 119; Rio Santa Cruz, Tucson, Arizona. 
Girardinus sonorensis Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 

120; San Bernardino Creek, tributary of the Rio Yaqui. 
Poecilia occidentalis Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1894, 61; 
San Bernardino Creek, Arizona: Rutter, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 
1896, 261; Opsura (Rio Yaqui); Hermosillo: Rutter, ibid., 267; 
Rio Santiago, Tepic. 

Rivers of Sonora and southern Arizona. 

Head 3>; depth 3^ to 4; D. 7 or 8; A. 9 or 10; scales 8-29. Body 
deep, elevated in front of dorsal; origin of dorsal nearer base of caudal 
than tip of the snout, slightly in advance (?) of anal. 

Color brownish above, dotted with black ; silvery below ; with a black 
lateral stripe as broad as eye from shoulder to caudal ; a narrow black 
line along lower margin of tail; fins plain, without spot or blotch. 

141. Poecilia latipunctata sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4484, F. C. M., 2% inches in length; Forlon, Tamaulipas 
Basin of the Rio Panuco. (Forlon.) 



FAMILY XL PCECILIID.E. 




FlG. 48. PCECILIA LATIPUNCTATA Meek. 



Head 3^; depth 3.^; D. 9; A. 6; scales 9-28. Body elongate, 
moderately compressed; head rather small, depressed; interorbital 
flat, iX m head; snout equals diameter of eye, 3^ in head; mouth 
small; teeth small, outer series not much enlarged; origin of dorsal mid- 
way between base of caudal and posterior margin of the orbit ; pectoral 

1 ^ in head ; ventral 2 ; caudal fin' rounded ; least depth of caudal 
peduncle i> in head. 

Color olivaceous ; a black band on sides made up of spots about as 
large as pupil; iris black; dorsal and caudal fins on largest specimens 
(?) with dark dots. Longest specimen 2.15 inches. 

A female 1.75 inches contained 16 eggs with outline of young; 
about one-half of the egg was absorbed. 

142. Poecilia butleri Jordan. 

Pcecilia butleri Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1888, 330; Rio 
Presidio, near Mazatlan: Jordan, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1895, 
412; Rio Presidio, Mazatlan: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 691: Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. 
U. S. Fish Comm., 1902, 151 ; salt water in Gulf of Tehuantepec, 
Salina Cruz. 

Fresh and brackish waters of Pacific coast from Mazatlan to 
Isthmus of Tehuantepec. 

Head 3^ to 3^; depth 2^ (adult) to 3^ (young); D. 9; A. 6 to 
8; scales 9-24 to 26. Body rather deep, compressed, the straight an- 
terior profile rising considerably above the dorsal; interorbital width 

2 in head; snout equals diameter of the eye, 3 in head; teeth in two 
series, well separated, the inner series smaller and more closely set; 
origin of dorsal midway between base of caudal and front of eye; 
longest dorsal ray i^ ($), i% (?) in head; pectoral i% in head. 

Color of males, green with a pale blue spot on each scale, sur- 
rounded by bronze shades; no dark cross-bars except in the young; 



152 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

dorsal and anal pale orange, with many small round black dots; lower 
fins, pale; color of female similar to male, but paler; no cross bands; 
a faint dark spot behind pectoral ; caudal nearly plain ; dorsal and anal 
less spotted than in the male. Length about 3 inches. 

143. Poecilia presidionis Jordan & Culver. 

Pcecilia presidionis Jordan & Culver, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1895, 
413, pi. 29; Rio Preside, Sinaloa: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 
47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 697 ; Rio Presidio, Sinaloa. 

Fresh and brackish waters of Sinaloa. 

Head 4^; depth 3^ to 4^; D. 7 or 8; A. 7; scales 9-28. Body 
rather elongate, the profile scarcely rising in front of the dorsal fin; 
interorbital space broad, 2 in head; diameter of the eye equals the 
length of the snout, 3^ in head; teeth small, in two well separated 
series; those of the inner row small, close set; origin of dorsal fin nearer 
tip of caudal than tip of snout ; middle of dorsal over origin of anal (?) ; 
fins all low and short; longest dorsal ray iX in head; pectoral iX m 
head; caudal truncate. 

Color (?) green sh above ; sides with violet sheen ; 3 or 4 black 
cross-bars usually very distinct, sometimes obsolete in large examples; 
one or two oblong spots before these in the place of other bars; last 
ray of the dorsal with a trace of a dark ocellus; fins otherwise plain; 
males without cross-bars and with the lower fins reddish. 

144. Poecilia couchiana (Girard). 

Limia couchiana Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 116; 
Rio San Juan at Cadereita, near Monterey, Nuevo Leon. 

Poecilia couchiana Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1896, 695. 

Headwaters of the Rio San Juan, near Monterey, very abundant 
in a large spring in the city of Monterey. (Monterey.) 

Head 3f; depth 3; D. 9; A. 7 or 8; scales 10-27. Body robust, 
moderately compressed; back moderately elevated, head small, inter- 
orbital if in head; teeth loose, in one series; snout 3X1 eve 3; origin 
of dorsal fin much in advance of anal, midway between base of caudal 
and eye; pectoral fin T.% in head; ventral if in head; caudal fin 
rounded; caudal peduncle iX m head; alimentary canal elongate, 
coiled on the right side. 

Color dark brownish on upper two-thirds of body; below white, 
with a few black specks; each scale on upper half of body with light 
centers. Length about i^ inches. 

One female 1.75 inches in length contained 22 eggs. The young 
are probably born early in June. 



FAMILY XI. PCECILIID^E. 153 

145. Poecilia sphenops Cuvier & Valenciennes. 

Pcecilia sphenops Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., xvm, 

130, 1836; Vera Cruz: Garman, Memoirs Mus. Comp. Zool., 

1895, 59, pi. iv, fig. 13; Mexico and Central America: Jordan 

& Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 694. 

Molienesia fasciata Muller & Troschel, Mon. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 

1844, 36; Mexico. 
Gambusia modesta Troschel, Muller's Reise in Mexico, in, 639, 

1865 ; Mexico. 

Gambusia plumbea Troschel, ibid., in., 640, 1865; Mexico. 
Pcecilia mexicana Steindachner, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien., 1863, 
178; southern Mexico: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 692: B. A. Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898; 
Santa Maria, Vera Cruz. 

Pcecilia limantouri Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1900, 129, fig. 10; Rio Tamesin, Tampico: Jordan & Ever- 
mann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3153: Meek, Field Col. 
Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 106; Puente de Ixtla; Balsas; La Antigua: 
Fowler, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1903, 320; Victoria, Ta- 
maulipas. 

Lowland streams of eastern Mexico, from Monterey to the 
Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and in the Rio Balsas, Rio Tehuantepec 
and Rio San Geronimo. (Monterey; San Juan; Linares; Garza 
Valdez; La Cruz; Santa Engracia; Victoria; Forlon; Valles; Rascon; 
Jojutla; Vera Cruz; Boca del Rio; Otopa; El Hule; Obispo; Perez; 
S.an Juan Evangelista; San Geronimo; Tehuantepec.) 




FlG. 49. PCECILIA SPHENOPS Cuvier & Valenciennes. 
No. 6165 (Pcecilia limantouri J. & S.), Leland Stanford Jr. University. 

Head 3^ to, 4; depth 33^; D. 9 or 10; A. 8 or 9; scales 9 or 10- 
25 to 27. Body robust, compressed; back not much elevated ; head 
moderate; interorbital area nearly flat, i^ in head; snout 3^ in head; 
eye 3 to 3X1 teeth in 2 series in both jaws, the outer series a single 



154 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

row, small, pointed, and loosely attached; dorsal fin in advance of 
anal, midway between base of caudal and posterior margin of eye; 
the dorsal fin in old males extremely high, its longest rays a half 
longer than head; pectoral i i-io in head; ventral i^', caudal fin 
rounded, in old males much expanded and fan -like; caudal peduncle 
very deep, i in head in females to about equaling length of head 
in old males ; alimentary canal very elongate, coiled on the right side. 

Color light brownish above, belly a shade lighter; the edges of the 
scales usually light, forming more or less indistinct lateral stripes 
along the rows of scales. Length about 3 inches. 

In general coloration this species is very variable. In some 
specimens nearly half the scales on the side have black centers ; males 
usually have light vertical bars, and the dorsal and caudal fin with 
many black spots arranged in regular rows, the fins being transversely 
barred, and the edges are light yellowish, sometimes with a narrow 
dark border. The caudal and dorsal fins of males may have dark 
blotches. Some of the males may have dark blotches scattered over 
the side of the body and caudal and dorsal fins; occasionally these 
blotches may be so numerous as to form the body-color of the fish. 
The color of the females is more uniform than that of the males. -A 
very variable and widely distributed species. It is probable that a few 
of the Pcecilia described from Central America belong to this species. 

62. Mollieiiesia Le Sueur. 
Mollienisia Le Sueur, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1821, 3, pi. in. 

(Type, Mollienisia latipinna Le Sueur.) 

Body rather stout; mouth small; mandible very short, its bones 
united, the dentary being movable; outer edge of both jaws with a 
narrow band of small teeth, the outer series long, slender, and 
movable, with tips curved and slightly compressed; dorsal fin over 
or in advance of the anal (in female); the anal fin of the male 
placed forward and modified into an intromittent organ ; lower angle 
of caudal in the male slightly produced; alimentary canal elongate, 
with numerous convolutions; dorsal fin of male very high; vertebrae 
17 + 13=30. 

Small mud-eating fishes of swamps near the coasts from North 
Carolina to Mexico. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF MOLLIENESIA. 
a. Head large, 3^ in body; dorsal rays 12 or 13; PAGE 

origin of dorsal fin over that of anal in females formosa 155 

aa. Head 3 % to 4 in body; dorsal rays 13 to 16; 

origin of dorsal fin in advance of anal in female .... latipinna 155 



FAMILY XI. PCECILIID^;. 155 

146. Mollienesia formosa (Girard). 

Limia formosa Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 115; 
Palo Alto, Mexico. 

Mollienesia formosa Gunther, Cat., vi, 1866, 349. 

Mollienisia formosa Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 699. 

Northeastern Mexico. 

Head $J4> depth 3^; D. 12 or 13; A. 10. Body rather stout; 
snout short; dorsal in male longer than high, its first ray about 
opposite anal; female with dorsal nearly as high as long, the anal 
opposite its front. 

Color olivaceous; scales with brown spots; dorsal fin with trans- 
verse series of blackish spots; other fins plain. (Girard.) 

147. Mollienesia latipinna Le Sueur. 

Mollienisia latipinna Le Sueur, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1821, 
3; New Orleans: Garman, Memoirs Mus. Comp. Zool., 1859, 
50, pi. v, fig. i, teeth; pi. vm, fig." 12: Jordan & Evermann, 
Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 699: Jordan & Snyder, Bull. 
U. S. Fish Comm., 1900, 131; Lagoons near Tampico. 
Pcecilia lineata Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 70, pi. xxxv, figs. 9-11, 

1859; Rio Grande, near Brownsville, Texas. 
Limia matamorensis Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 

116; Matamoras, Tamaulipas. 

Lowland streams and lagoons, from Yucatan to South Carolina. 
(La Vega, Tamaulipas, E. W. Nelson.) 

Head 3^ (?) to 4 (3); depth 2^ (?) to 3 (<$); D. 13 to 16; 
A. 8; scales 9 or 10-26. Body oblong, much compressed in males, 
nearly of equal height from dorsal backward ; greatest height of body 
about % more than that of caudal peduncle; females with a more 
distended abdomen and more slender caudal peduncle; head very 
small, depressed, not narrowed forward; mouth very small, vertical; 
teeth small, movable, in a band, the outer series the larger; eye 3^ to 
3X in head; dorsal fin in males enormously high; the longest ray 
2^2 in body; dorsal in females low, longest ray about 1% in head; 
origin of dorsal in front of that of anal, its origin to base of caudal 
2 l s times to tip of snout; anal fin ($) very small, that of male 
modified into an intromittent organ; caudal fin rounded; intestinal 
canal elongate, about 2^2 times the length of the fish. 

Color of male, light olive green marbled with darker and spotted 
with pale green ; each scale on back and sides with an oblong, blackish 
spot, these forming continuous lengthwise stripes; head dusky above; 



156 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

opercle and cheek minutely speckled; an orange stripe above opercle; 
lower parts of head mostly orange ; dorsal with about 5 series of linear 
blackish, horizontal spots forming interrupted lines; a large roundish 
dark spot above middle of fin or membrane between each pair of 
rays ; many round brown spots between these and above them ; caudal 
with a narrow black margin; dorsal and caudal fins of females oliva- 
ceous, with indistinct narrow cross bands formed by a series of smalfr 
dark dots or rays. Length about 3 inches. 

The male of this species with his highly colored dorsal fin is a 
fish of remarkable beauty. 

63. Xiphophorus Heckel. 

Xiphophorus Heckel, Sitzgsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1848, i, pt. 
3, 163. (Type, Xiphophorus helleri Heckel.) 

Body elongate, not much compressed; dorsal fin in advance of 
the anal in females; teeth in two series, the outer enlarged, loose; 
the lower rays of the caudal fin of the male produced into a long, 
sword -shaped filament; anal fin of male placed forward and modified 
into an intromittent organ; alimentary canal in about four coils on 
right side, its length about twice that of the fish; vertebrae 16 + 14 
= 30- 
KEY TO THE SPECIES OF XIPHOPHORUS. 

a. Anal fin long, with 8 or 9 rays; edges of scales PAGE 

on upper part of body not especially dark, very 
faint, 
b. Body slender, its depth 3^"; least depth of 

caudal peduncle 2]^ in head jalapa 156 

bb. Body more robust, its depth 3^ to 3 ; least 

depth of caudal peduncle 2^ in head lielleri 157 

aa. Anal fin short, with 7 rays ; edges of scales on 
upper part of body very dark, making their 
outlines very distinct montezuma 158 

148. Xiphophorus jalapre Meek. 

Xiphophorus jalap Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 107; 
Jalapa. 

Streams of Central Vera Cruz, at an altitude of about 5,000 feet. 
(Jalapa). 

Head 4; depth 3^; D. 13; A. 9; scales 8-28. Body elongate, 
not very robust, but with a deep caudal peduncle; head flattish, de- 
pressed forward, being wedge-shaped; interorbital broad, convex, 2 
in head; mouth rather small, lower jaw the longer; outer series of 



FAMILY XL PCECILIID^E. 157 

teeth pointed and loose, followed by a band of smaller conical pointed 
teeth, eye large, 3 in head; origin of dorsal fin well in advance of the 
anal, midway between base of caudal fin and middle of snout; base 
of dorsal i| in head; longest dorsal ray if (?) to if (5) in head; 
pectoral if in head; ventrals i^; caudal sub-truncate; caudal 
appendage of male pointed, its length if in the length of the body; 
caudal peduncle slender, its least depth 2^ in head; modified anal 
of the male short and thick, its length i^ in head, a notch on under 
side near its tip. 

Color of female olive brown above, nearly plain white below, a 
narrow lateral band passing around snout on upper half of the body ; 
each scale with a dark center, giving faint brownish lines on the sides ; 
dorsal fin with two rows of black spots near the base; other fins plain; 
color of male similar to that of the female, except the dark lateral 
band extending on caudal fin and forming the upper black margin 
of caudal appendage; a second lateral band from lower angle of 
pectoral to origin of the anal fin, and a dark streak on ventral surface 
of caudal peduncle, forming the lower black margin of caudal appen- 
dage ; in life the middle of the caudal appendage and the lighter portion 
of lower half of the body is a bright yellow; dorsal fin of both sexes 
spotted. Length about 4 inches. 

This species is smaller than X. helleri; it is more slender and the 
male has the second lateral band from angle of pectoral to origin of 
the anal fin. Known only from the type locality, where it is abundant. 

149. Xiphophorus helleri Heckel. 

Xiphophorus helleri Heckel, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wen, 1898, 163; 
Rio Chisoy; Cordoba: Gunther, Fishes Cent. Amer., 485, pi. 87, 
figs. 2-6, 1869; Rio Chisoy: Garman, Memoirs Musi Comp. 
Zool., 1895, 68, pi. iv, fig. 14, teeth, pi. vm, fig. 4; Mexico 
and Central America: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 1896, 701. 
Xiphophorus helleri Var. g Giinther, Cat., vi, 350, 1866; Rio 

Chisoy, Guatemala. 
Xiphophorus guntheri Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 1896, 702. 

Lowland streams of southern Mexico and Guatemala, which 
empty into the Gulf of Mexico. (Cordoba; Otopa; Motzorongo; 
Refugio; El Hule; Obispo; Sanborn.) 

Head 4f to 4f; depth 3 to 3^ ; D. 12 or 13; A. 8 or 9; scales 
9-30. Body elongate, compressed; head small; interorbital slightly 
convex, if in head; snout 3^ in head; eye 3^3 in head; origin of 
dorsal fin slightly nearer tip of snout than base of caudal, about > 



158 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

of the fin in advance of origin of anal ; pectoral fin i % in head ; ventrals 
(6) i to (?) i^a in head; modified anal fin of male with a hook 
near its tip, the length of the fin i> in head; caudal appendage 
pointed, i% to 2 in body; caudal peduncle deep, much compressed, 
least depth i in head. 

Color light brown, lighter below; the lower half of the body in 
life a bright yellow, which extends to the tip of the caudal filament. 
The caudal filament is bordered above and below with black; a dark 
lateral band from snout to upper third of caudal fin forming the black 
on the upper part of the caudal filament; some specimens with from 
2 to 4 vertical bars on the side near the tip of the pectoral fin ; dorsal 
fin in both sexes much spotted with black. Length about 5 inches. 

Some of these fishes have large black blotches on sides and on 
fins, which appear like large ink stains. This peculiar blotching 
forms the basis of the description of the nominal species of Xipho- 
phorus guntheri Jordan & Evermann. 

Eggs of females taken the last week of April have the eye spots 
and the outline of the body formed. 

150. Xiphophorus montezumae Jordan & Snyder. 

Xiphophorus montezumce Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1900, 131, fig. ii ; Rio Verde, near Rascon, San Luis Potosi: 
Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3156. 
Basin of the Rio Panuco. (Rascon.) 




X 

FlG. 50. XIPHOPHORUS MONTEZUM/E Jordan & Snyder. 
No. 6145, Leland Stanford Jr. University. 

Head 4 to 4^ ; depth 3 to 3,^ ; D. 1 1 to 13 ; A. 7 ; scales 9-27 to 29. 
Body robust, deep, compressed, dorsal region somewhat elevated; 
head broad; interorbital space slightly convex, 2 in head; snout $%', 
eye 3 ; origin of dorsal midway between tip of snout and base of caudal ; 
pectoral (3) equaling length of head to (?) i% in its length; origin of 
anal fin under middle of dorsal; caudal appendage pointed, its length 
almost equal to length of body. 



FAMILY XI. PCECILIID^E. 159 

Color yellowish olive; a rather faint lateral band extending from 
snout to upper third of caudal fin, above this a light band ; the scales 
on upper fourth of body with dark edges, forming stripes along the 
rows of scales; specimens occasionally With a dark caudal spot, and 
some have a few dark blotches on the side ; caudal appendage bordered 
above and below with black; dorsal fin with black spots, the other 
fins plain. Length about 2^ inches. 

Females taken May 6th with developed eggs. One specimen 1.74 
inches in length contained 16 eggs. 



Order ix. Synentognathi, 



Lower pharyngeal bones fully united; ventral fins abdominal, 
without spine; no mesacorocoid ; lateral line concurrent with the 
belly, peculiar in structure; air bladder without duct in the adult; 
vertebrae numerous, the abdominal ones much more numerous than 
the caudal. 

Family XII. Belonidre. 
THE NEEDLE FISHES. 

Body elongate, very slender, little compressed, covered with 
small thin scales; both jaws produced in a beak, the lower the longer, 
very much so in the young; each jaw with a band of small sharp 
teeth ; no finlets ; dorsal and anal fins opposite each other ; air bladder 
present; pectoral fins on axis of body; vertebrae numerous. 

This family comprises a group of voracious carnivorous fishes 
which bear considerable resemblance in form to the Garpikes. They 
are found in all warm seas, a few species entering fresh water. 

t>4. Tylosurus Cocco. 

Tylosurus Cocco, "Lettere in Giornale Sci. Sicilia, xvn," 18, 1829. 
(Type, Tylosurus cantrainii Cocco.) 

Body elongate, very slender, not much compressed; both jaws 
prolonged into a beak; each jaw armed with a band of small, sharp 
teeth, besides which is a series of longer, wide-set, sharp, conical, 
unequal teeth; no teeth on vomer or palatines; lateral line running 
along the side of the belly, becoming median on caudal peduncle; 
ventral fins small, inserted behind the middle of the body; caudal 
fin lunate or forked. 

> i Species numerous, chiefly American, the following one entering 
the eastern rivers of Mexico south of Vera Cruz. 

151. Tylosurus marinus (Walbaum). GAR FISH; NEEDLE FISH. 
Esox marinus Walbaum, Artedi Piscium, in, 88, 1792 (after the 

Sea Snipe of Schopf ) ; Long Island. 
Belone truncata Gunther, Cat., vi, 244, 1866. 
Tylosurus marinus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 1896, 714. 

Very abundant on our Atlantic coast from Cape Cod to Yucatan; 
often ascending rivers far above tide water. (San Francisco; Perez.) 

160 



FAMILY XII. BELONID^;. 161 

Head 3; depth about 18; D. 14; A. 15; scales about 300. Body 
slender, not compressed; snout 4|; interorbital slightly concave, 
its width 2^3 in posterior part of head; upper jaw from center of eye 
twice the length of the rest of the head; lateral line passing into a 
slight keel; caudal peduncle depressed. 

Color greenish, sides silvery; a dark silvery lateral band; a dark 
bar on anterior part of opercle. Length about 4 feet. A very good 
food fish. 



Order x. Lophobranchii, 

THE LOPHOBRANCHS. 

Body elongate, covered with bony plates, which are firmly con- 
nected forming a carapace; gills tufted, composed of small, 
rounded lobes attached to the gill arches; gill openings small; snout 
produced, bearing the small, toothless mouth at its end; pectoral 
fins elevated ; ventrals wanting. An interesting group of small fishes 
found in warm seas. 

Family XIII. Syngiiathidw. 

THE PIPE FISHES. 

Body elongate, usually slender, covered with bony plates, which 
are firmly connected; head slender, the snout long, tube-like, bearing 
the short, toothless jaws at the end; gill openings small; tail long, 
provided with a small caudal fin; males with an egg pouch usually 
placed on the underside of the tail, sometimes on the abdomen; 
dorsal fin single, nearly median, of soft rays only; pectorals small or 
wanting; ventrals none; anal fin small. 

The egg pouch of the male is formed of two folds of skin which 
meet on the median line of the ventral surface. The eggs are received 
into this pouch and retained until sometime after hatching, when the 
pouch opens and the young fishes escape. Very few species of this 
family are found in fresh water. 

65. Siphostoma Rafinesque. 

Siphostoma Rafinesque, Caratteri Nuovi Generi, 18, 1810. (Type, 
Sygnathus pelagic^ Osbeck.) 

Body elongate, very slender, 6 or 7 angled, not compressed, 
tapering into a very long tail ; the dorsal keels of the trunk not con- 
tinuous with those of the tail; snout long and slender; jaws short and 
toothless; caudal fin present, small; pectorals present, short and 
broad; ventrals none; anal small; the females deeper than the males, 
with a more robust trunk and a more distinct ventral keel. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF SIPHOSTOMA. 

a. Tail shorter than the body; body rings 19-1-24; PACE 

dorsal rays 44 brevicauda 1 63 

aa. Tail twice as long as the body; body rings 

14 -f- 37 or 38; dorsal rays 38 starksi 163 

162 



FAMILY XIII. SYNGNATHID.E. 163 

152. Siphostoma brevicaudum sp. nov. PIPE FISH. 
Type, No. 4586, F. C. M., 5.9 inches in length; Boca 

del Rio, Vera Cruz. 

Head $ l /$\ depth 23; D. 44, on 2 + 7 rings; body rings 
18 or 19 + 24. Body rather robust; snout slender, with 
a low median and two lateral keels on upper surface and 
a deep groove on under side; distance from gill opening 
to anterior margin of the orbit \% in the snout; diameter 
of eye 2 in postorbital part of head; a prominent ridge 
across middle of opercle; body with 7 keels, those -on mid- 
dle of sides reaching the dorsal keels below just back of 
vent; a second short lateral keel begins opposite origin of 
dorsal fin, meeting the one above it opposite posterior end 5 
of dorsal fin; base of dorsal fin equals distance from tip w 
of snout to posterior margin of orbit; shields without 
spines; body longer than the tail; total length 5.9 inches; j 
length of tail 2.5 inches. 

Color olive brown, head darker; two rows of black | 
spots of four each on under side of snout. Length about CD 
6 inches. 5 

Three specimens of this species were taken in brackish > 

water at Boca del Rio. 

~s. 

S 

153. Siphostoma starksi Jordan & Culver. 

Siphostoma starksi Jordan & Culver, Proc. Cal. Acad. 
Sci., 1895, 416, pi. xxx ; Rio Presidio, Presidio: 
Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1896, 771: Rutter, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1896, 263; 
San Jose del Cabo, Lower California. 
Pacific coast streams, Rio Presidio to Rio San Geroni- 
mo. (San Geronimo.) 

Head 10%', depth 21; D. 38, on o + 10 or n rings; 
body rings 14 + 37 or 38. Body rather stout; head 
scarcely carinate above; snout very short, with a slight, 
smooth keel; no keel on opercle; belly slightly keeled; 
two lateral keels on body confluent into one behind; tail $$ 

twice as long as the body. 

Color dark olive, much mottled with darker, but without distinct 
markings; belly yellowish. Length about 6 inches. 

A small species entering fresh waters. One specimen taken by 
me at San Geronimo is 4.2 inches in length. 



Order XI. AcanthopteH. 

THE SPINY-RAYED FISHES. 

Anterior vertebrae unmodified; one or more fins with spines; 
ventral fins usually placed anterior, normally attached to the pelvis 
and typically with one spine and five soft rays, sometimes fewer or 
wanting, sometimes without spine or with many rays, or otherwise 
modified; gill openings normal, large; scales usually ctenoid. 

KEY TO THE FAMILIES OF ACANTHOPTERI. 

a. Eyes symmetrical, one or more fins with spines; PAGE 

dorsal fin short, its combined spines and rays 
less than 30. 
b. Lateral line present; ventral fins not close 

together, the outer rays the longer. 
c. Dorsal fins 2, well separated, the first of 3 to 
8 spines; no well developed lateral line; 
some scales often with rudimentary mucus 
tubes. 

d. Anal fin with one weak spine ; dorsal spines 
3 to 8, flexible; stomach not gizzard-like; 

alimentary canal short; species carnivorous. .Atherinidce 165 
dd. Anal spines, 2 or 3 ; dorsal with 4 stiff 
spines, the last one being much shorter 
than the others; stomach gizzard -like ; 

alimentary canal long Mugilida 185 

cc. Dorsal 'fin single, or, if 2 fins, the spinous 
slightly separated from the soft portion; 
lateral line more or less developed. 

e. Lateral line not interrupted; nostrils 2 on 
each side. 

f. Maxillary not sheathed by the preorbital, 
or only partially covered by its edge ; ven- 
tral with its accessory scale very small, or 
wanting, 
g. Anal spines 3 to 9 ; dorsal fins confluent ; 

body usually much compressed Centrarchidce 189 

gg. Anal spines i or 2; dorsal fins 2 , slightly 

separate; body but slightly compressed Percidce 196 

ff. Maxillary slipping for most of its length 
under the edge of the preorbital, which 

164 



FAMILY XIV. ATHERINIDJE. 165 

forms a more or less distinct sheath; PAGE 

ventral with an accessory scale; lateral 
line usually extending on the caudal fin. 
h. Anal spines 3, the second long and very 

strong. , 

i. Vomer and palatines with teeth; pre- 
opercle with 2 margins, the posterior 

one strongly toothed Centropomida 198 

ii. Vomer and palatines without teeth; pre- 

opercle with single margin Hcemulida 199 

hh. Anal spines 2 ; lateral line extending on 

the caudal fin Scianidce 202 

ee. Lateral line interrupted, usually ceasing 
opposite the posterior part of the dorsal, 
and then recommencing lower down on 
the caudal peduncle; anal fin with 3 or 
more spines; dorsal fin single, the spinous 
portion usually longer than the soft por- 
tion. Cichlidce 204 

bb. No lateral line; ventral fins close together, 
separate, or fully united, the inner rays the 

longer Gobiida 225 

aa. Eyes unsymmetrical, both on same side of the 
head ; fins without spines ; dorsal fin very long, 
of more than 40 rays Soleida 234 

Family XIV. Atheriiiidse. 

Body elongate, somewhat compressed, covered with scales of 
moderate or small size, and usually cycloid; no lateral lines; some 
scales often with rudimentary mucus tubes; mouth moderate, ter- 
minal; premaxillary usually protractile; opercle without spines or 
serrations; gill openings wide, the membranes not connected; free 
from the isthmus; gills 4, a slit behind the fourth; pseudobranchiae 
present; dorsal fins 2, well separated, the first of 3 to 8 slender flexible 
spines, the second of soft rays; ventral fins small, abdominal, of one 
spine and 5 soft rays: pectorals inserted high; air bladder present; 
no pyloric cceca. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF ATHERINID^E. 

a. Belly before ventrals not compressed to an 
edge ; pectoral fin equal to or shorter than the 
head. 



i66 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

b. Origin of spinous dorsal in front of origin of PAGE 

. the anal fin ; base of the anal usually shorter 

than head '. Chirostoma 1 66 

bb. Origin of spinous dorsal over or behind origin 
of anal fin. 

c. Scales cycloid; iris silvery Menidia 181 

cc. Scales with crenate edges; iris black Melaniris 183 

aa. Belly before ventrals compressed to an edge; 

pectoral fin much longer than head Thyrina 184 



66. Chirostoma Swainson. 
Chirostoma Swainson, Class'n Fishes, etc., 243, 1839. (Type, 

Atherina humboldtiana Cuv. & Val.) 

Atherinoides Bleeker, Verhand. Batav. Gen., Japan, xxv, 40, 1853. 
(Type, Atherina vomerina Cuv. & Val. = Atherina humboldt- 
iana Cuv. & Val.) 
Atherinichthys Bleeker, 1. c., 40. (Type, Atherina humboldtiana 

Cuv. & Val.) 
Heterognathus Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, 198. 

(Type, Atherina humboldtiana Cuv. & Val.) 
Lethostole Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 792. 

(Type, Chirostoma estor Jordan.) 
Eslopsarum Jordan & Evermann, Check-list Fishes, 330, 1896. 

(Type, Chirostoma jordani Woolman.) 

Body elongate, slightly compressed; mouth more or less oblique, 
terminal; the upper jaw curved near its middle; premaxillaries very 
protractile; spinous dorsal near middle of the body, in advance of 
origin of anal fin; gill rakers rather long and slender, 14 to 27 on first 
gill arch; peritoneum black; alimentary canal short, shorter than total 
length of the body; vertebrae 36 to 44. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CHIROSTOMA. 

a. Scales large, less than 45 in the lateral series; PAGE 

edges of scales entire (occasionally crenate in 
bartoni) ; vertebras usually less than 40 ; species 
of small size. 

b. Mouth small, very oblique; snout short, 4 in 
length of head; base of anal equal to or 
slightly longer than head; anal rays 16 to 18; 
teeth very minute; scales with entire edges, 

37 or 38 in the lateral series jordani 169 

bb. Mouth larger, less oblique; snout longer, 2% 
to 3^3 in head. 



FAMILY XIV. ATHERINID^E. 167 

c. Base of anal much longer than head, its ray PAGE 

19 to 21 ; scales 40; origin of spinous dorsal 

nearer tip of snout than base of caudal fin mezquital 170 

cc. Base of anal equal to or shorter than head, 
d. Origin of spinous dorsal over tips of ven- 
trals, midway between base of caudal and 
nostril. 

e. Body robust, its depth 4^ in the length 
of the body; base of anal i-J- in the head, 
its rays 16 or 17; scales 11-38 to 40; teeth 
large, sharp, in two definite rows in each 
jaw; gill rakers long and slender, 3 + 11 to 

14 on first arch arge 171 

ee. Body slender, its depth 6 in the length of 
the body; scales 10-42; anal rays 15; gill 
rakers long and slender, 4+17 on the first 

arch bartoni 172 

dd. Origin of spinous dorsal over middle of ven- 
trals, being nearer tip of snout than base of 
caudal by a distance equal to the diameter 
of the eye; base of anal if in the head, its 
rays 13 or 14; gill rakers 4 + 18=22; teeth 

very small attenuatum 172 

ddd. Origin of spinous dorsal over space between 
tips of ventrals and origin of anal fin, mid- 
way between base of caudal and posterior 
margin of orbit ; base of anal fin equaling 
length of the head, its rays 20; teeth large, 
in a single row, except near tip of upper 
jaw; few anterior teeth large, canine-like 

scales 12-42 ; gill rakers 4+13 labarca 173 

aa. Scales smaller, more than 45 in the lateral 
series; edges of the scales usually crenate; 
vertebrae more than 40. 

f. Scales entire ; base of anal about if in length 
of head, its rays 13 to 19; snout 3 to 3^ in 
length of head, 
g. Origin of spinous dorsal nearer tip of snout 

than base of caudal fin. 

h. Anal rays 17; gill rakers 4+21 =25; scales 
12-48; body light, translucent, sl'ghtly 
compressed; depth 5^; origin of spinous 



i68 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

dorsal s ightly nearer tip of snout than PAGE 

base of caudal patzcuaro 174 

hh. Anal rays 13 or 14; gill rakers 4 + 17=21; 
scales 54-12; body dark, opaque, scarcely 
compressed; depth 6%; origin of spinous 
dorsal nearer tip of snout than base of 
caudal by a distance greater than diam- 
eter of eye zirahuen 174 

gg. Origin of spinous dorsal midway between 
base of caudal fin and anterior margin of 
orbit, or nostril; anal rays 17 to 19; scales 
15-54; gill rakers 4-1-15=19; species of large 

size humboldtianum 175 

ff. Scales with crenate edges; origin of spinous 
dorsal nearer base of caudal than tip of the 
snout; anal rays 18 to 24. 

i. Snout short, 3^ in length of the head, being 
equal to or shorter than the diameter of 
the eye; species of small size. 
j. Scales in lateral series 49, transverse 13; 
anal base equals the length of the head, its 

rays 21 chapaltz 176 

jj. Scales in the lateral series 62, transverse 14; 
base of anal fin i^ in the length of the 

head, its rays 19 grandocule 176 

ii. Snout long, 2^ to 25^ in the length of the 
head; diameter of eye 4 % to 5^ in head; spe- 
cies of large size. 

I. Upper jaw decidedly longer than the lower, 
mandible 2% in the head; tip of snout 
black; base of anal fin iX in the head, its 
rays 19 or 20; scales 15-53 to 56; teeth 
large, not in definite rows; snout 2% in 

head ; diameter of eye 5 Y$ ; gill rakers 5 + 19 prome'.as 177 

II. Lower jaw decidedly longer than the upper; 
mandible if to 2^ in the head; tip of jaws 
not black (dusky in some specimens) . 

m. Scales between dorsal fins very small, 
more than 20 in a series between the 
fins; scales 22-60 to 70 ; gi 1 rakers ?+23 ; 
teeth large anteriorly, canine-like, not 
arranged in definite rows; mandible 2 in 
head sphyr&na 177 



FAMILY XIV. ATHERINID.E. 169 

mm. Scales in the region of dorsal fins larger, PAGE 

less than 15 in a series between the two 
fins. 

n. Scales in the lateral series 54 to 60. 
o. Lower jaw projecting but little beyond 

the upper, mandible about 2^ in head, 
p. Teeth weak, in patches, not arranged 
in definite rows; gill rakers 4+23; 
scales 18-56 to 60; mandible 2% in 

head Lucius 178 

pp. Teeth large and strong, in two definite 
rows, the larger teeth on inner row of 
upper jaw and outer row on lower; 
mandible 2^ in head; gill rakers 

5 + 20; scales 2058 lermce 179 

oo. Lower jaw projecting much beyond 
the upper; mandible if in the head; 
teeth on jaws small, in bands; scales 
19-54 to 57; gill rakers 5 + 20; base of 

anal fin 1% in head, its rays 20 ocotlana 180 

nn. Scales in the lateral series 70, transverse 
18; teeth on jaws large and numerous, 
not arranged .in definite rows; usually 
i to 3 large teeth on vomer ; base of anal 
-ifA in head, its rays 18 to 19 estor 180 

Subgenus Eslopsarum Jordan. 
154. Chirostoma Jordan! Woolman. 

Chirostoma brasiliensis Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 299; 
Lago de Chapala. 

Chirostoma jordani Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 62; 
Rio Lerma, Salamanca, Guanajuato, and 64, City of Mexico: 
Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 793 : B. A. 
Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 540; Lago de Cuitzeo, 
Michoacan: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 112; Chalco; 
Texcoco ; Xochimilco ; Aguas Calientes ; Lagos ; Ocotlan ; Acam- 
baro; Huingo. 

Atherinichthys brevis Steindachner, Anz. der Kais. Akad. vViss., 
Wien, 1894, 149; Lago de Cuitzeo, Michoacan. 

Eslopsarum jordani Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1900, 133; Rio Verde, Aguas Calientes: Jordan & Evermann, 
Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 3157: Evermann & Goldsbor- 
ough, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1900; Yautepec, Morelos; these 



170 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

specimens were gotten in the markets, having been sent there 
from the Lerma basin. 
Basin of the Rio Lerma and the Valley of Mexico. (Viga Canal.) 




FIG. 52. CHIROSTOMA JORDANI Woolman. 
No. 45572, U. S. National Museum. 

Head 3$ ; depth 4,5/3'; D. iv, 8 or 9; A. 16 to 18; scales 37 or 38. 
Body elongate, moderately compressed; snout short, its length 4 in 
head; mouth small, very oblique, the maxillary scarcely reaching an- 
terior margin of the eye; teeth minute; diameter of eye 3^ in the 
head ; origin of spinous dorsal midway between base of caudal and 
anterior margin of the orbit ; anal fin long, its base slightly longer than 
head ; scales with entire edges ; pectoral fin i ^ in the head ; ventral i g ; 
scales at the nape not much reduced in size. 

Color light olivaceous ; a narrow blue stripe on sides ; edges of scales 
on upper half of body with black dots. Length about i 1 /* inches. 

This species is smaller, more abundant, and more widely distributed 
than any other member of the genus. It, with the other small species 
and the young of the larger ones, is dried and shipped in large quan- 
tities to the larger cities, where it is used for food. 

155. Chirostoma mezquital sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4389, F. C. M., 2^ inches in length; Durango, Du- 
rango. 




FIG. 53. CHIROSTOMA MEZQUITAL Meek. 



FAMILY XIV. ATHERINID^;. 171 

Head 4.K; depth 5^; D. iv-io; A. 19; scales 11-40 to 42. Body 
elongate, not much compressed; snout short, its length 3^ in head;- 
mouth small, quite oblique; maxillary scarcely reaching vertical from 
front of eye; jaws equal; teeth small, in one series in each jaw; eye 
large, 3 in head; interorbital 3 in head; origin of spinous dorsal over 
middle of ventrals, about a distance equal to diameter of eye nearer 
tip of snout than base of caudal ; anal fin long, its base nearly one-half 
longer than head; scales with entire edges; pectoral i^ in head; ven- 
trals i ^3 ; a few scales at the nape reduced in size. 

Color light olivaceous, a narrow blue strip on the side; edges of 
scales on upper half of body with black dots; very few dark dots on 
scales on lower half, except near base of anal fin. Length about 3 
inches. 

This species is more nearly related to the preceding than to any 
other; it is more slender, and the spinous dorsal has a more forward 
position. At present it is the only member of the genus in Mexico 
known outside of the Lerma basin. A few specimens were taken 
from the Rio Mezquital near Durango. 

156. Chirostoma arge (Jordan & Snyder). 

Eslopsarum arge Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1900, 

113, fig. 12; Rio Verde, Aguas Calientes: Jordan & Evermann, 

Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3158. 
Chirostoma arge Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65 ? 1902, 112; Aguas 

Calientes; Lagos. 
Basin of the Rio Lerma. 




FlG. 54. CHIROSTOMA ARGE (Jordan & Snyder). 
No. 6154, Leland Stanford Jr. University. 



Head 4%; depth 4%; D. iv-8; A. 16 or 17; scales 11-38 to 41. 
Body rather robust, deepest part just anterior to base of ventrals; 
mouth rather large, oblique; lower jaw projecting slightly beyond the 
upper; snout pointed, its length 3 in head; teeth large, sharp, in 
two definite rows on each jaw, none on vomer or palatines; maxillary 
reaching vertical from anterior margin of the orbit ; diameter of eye 2% 



172 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

in head ; origin of spinous dorsal midway between base of caudal and 
nostril; pectoral ij/2 in head; ventral 2$; anal fin moderate, its base 
i in the head; lateral line represented by a few partly developed 
pores on fifth row of scales; gill rakers long and slender, 14 on first 
arch; vertebrae i8-f 18 =36. 

Color silvery ; a dark lateral band, not prominent in pectoral region ; 
scales edged with dark dots; snout, top of head, and upper part of eye 
dusky; dorsal and caudal dusky. Length about 2^ inches. 

157. Chirostoma barton! Jordan & Evermann. 

Chirostoma humboldtianum Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 

299 (not of C. & V.) ; Rio Lerma, near Guanajuato. 
Chirostoma bartoni Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1896, 793; Rio Lerma, near Guanajuato: Evermann & Golds- 
borough, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1902, 152; Rio Lerma, near 
Lerma, Mexico: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 112; 
Lerma. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. (Lerma.) 

Head 4; depth $% to 6; D. iv-io; A. i, 13 to 15; scales 11-41. 
Body elongate, moderately compressed, the back rounded; snout 
pointed, 3f in head; mouth moderate, oblique, the lower jaw slightly 
projecting; the mandible 2-^ in the head; maxillary 3^; diameter of 
eye 4 in head ; origin of dorsal fin slightly nearer tip of snout than base 
of caudal; pectorals if in head; ventrals 2; base of anal if; scales 
cycloid or occasionally crenate, a few on nape reduced in size; gill 
rakers slender, 21 on first gill arch. 

Color silvery, with scattered punctulations ; a narrow dark lateral 
band. Length about 4 inches. 

A few specimens were taken at the fish hatchery near Lerma. 
This species was first described from specimens taken in the Rio Lerma 
near Guanajuato. 

158. Chirostoma attenuatum Meek. 

Chirostoma attenuatum Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 112; 
Patzcuaro. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. 

Head 4^; depth $}4; D- V-Q; A. 13; scales 11-42. Body rather 
slender, not much compressed; lower jaw slightly the longer; mouth 
small, oblique; maxillary reaching vertical from front of orbit; teeth 
very small, numerous in both jaws, those in the upper jaw mostly in 
two series, in a band in lower jaw; snout pointed, 3^ m the head; 
mandible 3 ; interorbital space 3 ; origin of spinous dorsal over middle 
of ventrals and nearer tip of snout than base of caudal by a distance 



FAMILY XIV. ATHERINID^;. 173 

greater than diameter of eye; eye 3|; length of pectoral fin i> in 
head; ventral 2^; base of anal if; caudal peduncle long and slender; 
scales large, with entire edges, those on the nape slightly reduced in 
size; gill rakers 4+18=22; vertebrae 23 + 20=43. 




FIG. 55. CHIROSTOMA ATTENUATUM Meek. 

No. 3631, Field Columbian Museum. 

Color light olivaceous, translucent; smallest specimens (2^ inches 
in length) darker, more opaque; silvery band on sides narrow, incon- 
spicuous under the pectoral fin, being widest on anterior part of the 
caudal peduncle. Length about 4 inches. 

Common in Lago de Patzcuaro, not taken elsewhere. 

159. Chirostoma labarcx Meek. 

Chirostoma labarca Meek, Field Qol. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 113; La 
Barca; La Palma. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. 

Head 3$; depth 4%', D. iv-io; A. 20 or 21; scales 11-41. Body 
slender, compressed; snout rather long, pointed, its length 2$ in 
head; lower jaw slightly the longer; eye $% in head; interorbital 3; 
mouth moderate, not very oblique, maxillary reaching slightly 
beyond anterior margin of the eye; length of the mandible 2 l / z 
in head; a single series of large teeth in each jaw, a few smaller 
teeth behind these, a few near tip of jaws large and canine-like; scales 
large, with edges entire, those on the nape very slightly reduced in 
size; origin of spinous dorsal over vent, midway between base of 
caudal and pupil; base of anal fin equals length of head; length of 
pectoral fin 134 in head; ventral fins 2 in head; gill rakers 4 + 13 =17. 

Color light olivaceous, translucent; a few dark dots on margins of 
scales on upper half of body; lateral band narrow, the portion under 
the edge of the pectoral indistinct and made up of a few dark dots. 
Length about 4 inches. 

Apparently not abundant, known only from a few specimens taken 
at La Barca and La Palma. 



J74 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 



160. Chirostoma patzcuaro Meek. 

Chirostoma patzcuaro Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 113; 

Patzcuaro. 
Basin of the Rio Lerma. 





FIG. 56. CHIROSTOMA PATZCUARO Meek. 

No. 3628, Field Columbian Museum. 

Head 4%; depth 5^; D. v-io; A. 17 ; scales 12-48. Body slender, 
moderately compressed; mouth oblique; snout short, pointed, its 
length 3 ^in length of head ; lower jaw slightly projecting beyond upper 
mandible, 2% in head; diameter of eye 3%" in the head; teeth small, 
numerous, in a narrow band on anterior part of each jaw, becoming 
laterally, in two series ; origin of spinous dorsal slightly nearer tip of 
snout than base of caudal ; base of anal fin i % in length of the head ; 
pectoral 1^2', ventral 2^"; scales moderately large, edges entire, those 
at the nape slightly reduced in size; gill rakers 4+21 = 25. 

Color light olivaceous, translucent; lateral band narrow. Length 
about 4 inches. 

This species resembles Chirostoma chapala, from which it differs 
in having a less oblique mouth, a shorter anal fin, and a less com- 
pressed body. At present it is known only from Lago de Patzcuaro, 
where it is apparently scarce. 

161. Chirostoma zirahuen Meek. 

Chirostoma zirahuen Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 114; 

Zirahuen. 
Basin of the Rio Lerma. 




FIG. 57. CHIROSTOMA ZIRAHUEN Meek. 
No. 3609, Field Columbian Museum. 



FAMILY XIV. ATHERINID/E. 175 

Head 4^; depth 5^3 ; D. v-io; A. 13; scales 12-54. Body elon- 
gate, nearly terete, less compressed than in any other Chirostoma; 
mouth moderately oblique, lower jaw slightly the longer; length of 
snout equal to diameter of eye, 3X m length of the head; interorbital 
broad, 3 in head; teeth very small, in a narrow band in each jaw; 
origin of the dorsal fin nearer tip of snout than base of caudal by a 
distance greater than diameter of eye; base of anal fin i^ in head; 
pectoral i y$ ; ventral 2 ; scales with entire margins ; caudal peduncle 
long and slender; gill rakers 4 + 17 = 21; vertebrae 23 + 18 = 41. 

Color dark olivaceous above, lighter below; opaque. This species, 
characterized by its dark opaque color, its terete body, the backward 
position of the dorsal fin, and the short anal, is one of the darkest 
found in the Lerma basin. Length about 4 inches. It is the most 
abundant species in Lago de Zirahuen. 

Subgenus Ohirostoma Swainson. 

162. Chirostoma humboldtianum (Cuv. &Val.). PESCADA BLANCA. 
Atherina humboldtiana Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., x, 

479> J 835; lake near City of Mexico. 
Atherina vomerina Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1. c. ; lake near City of 

Mexico. 

Atherinichthys humboldtianus Giinther, Cat., in, 404, 1861. 
Chirostoma humboldtianum Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U, S. 
Nat. Mus., 1896, 793: Evermann, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 
1898, 2; Laguna de Juanacatlan, Jalisco: Jordan & Snyder, 
Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1900, 134; Lago de Chalco: Evermann 
& Goldsborough, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1902, 152 ; La Laguna, 
Jalisco: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 114; Chalco; 
Xochimilco; Patzcuaro. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma and the Valley of Mexico. (Viga Canal; 
Xochimilco.) 

Head 3^; depth 4%" to 5^; D. iv-n to 13; A. 17 to 20; scales 
15-54. Body elongate, rather robust, not much compressed; snout 
pointed, 3 in head; mouth moderate, lower jaw projecting; mandible 
2 1- in head; teeth in jaws in bands, the outer slightly enlarged; occa- 
sionally i to 3 canine teeth on vomer; eye 4 to 4^ in head; origin of 
spinous dorsal midway between base of caudal and anterior margin of 
eye or nostril; pectoral if; ventral 2^; scales usually cycloid, oc- 
casionally more or less crenate; gill rakers long and slender, about 20 
on the first gill arch; vertebrae 23 + 19=42. 

Color brownish olive, sometimes quite translucent; a narrow dark 
silvery lateral band; specimens from lakes with much vegetation are 
very dark. Length about 12 inches. 



176 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

This is one of the largest species in the genus. It is very abundant 
in the lakes near the City of Mexico, and in this region is the most im- 
portant food fish. By far the larger number of white fishes (Pescadas 
blancas) offered for sale in the markets of the City of Mexico belong 
to this species. 

163. Chirostoma c ha pa hi- Jordan & Snyder. 

Chirostoma chapalce Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm. 

1900, 135, fig. 13; Lago de Chapala, Ocotlan, Jalisco: Jordan 

& Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3159: Pellegrin, 

Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1901, 205; Estado de Jalisco: 

Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 115; Ocotlan; La Palma. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. 




FIG. 58. CHIROSTOMA CHAPAL/E Jordan & Snyder. 

No. 6155, Leland Stanford Jr. University. 

Head 4; depth 5^! D. iv-io; A. 21; scales 13-49. Body slender, 
compressed, its deepest part below first dorsal; snout pointed, its 
length 3 ; mouth oblique, the lower jaw slightly the longer; maxillary 
not quite reaching vertical from anterior margin of the orbit; teeth 
minute, in bands, not arranged in definite rows; no teeth on vomer or 
palatines; diameter of eye 3$ in head; origin of spinous dorsal mid- 
way between base of caudal and nostril ; pectoral i % in head ; ventrals 
2^; base of anal fins equals the length of the head; lateral line on 
eighth row of scales, not well defined; scales with crenate edges, the 
scales on nape and before pectorals reduced in size; the others quite 
uniform; gill rakers long and slender, 30 on first gill arch; vertebrae 
24+20 = 44. 

Color silvery, translucent; a dark lateral band; scales on dorsal 
region edged with dark dots. Length about 4 inches. 

Very abundant in Lago de Chapala and neighboring region. 

164. Chirostoma grandocule Steindachner. 

Chirostoma grandocule Steindachner, Anzeiger der Kais. Akad. d. 
Wiss. Wien, 1894, 149; Lago de Patzcuaro, Michoacan: Jordan 
& Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 2839: Meek, 
Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 115; Ocotlan; La Palma; Patz- 
cuaro. 



FAMILY XIV. ATHERINID^E. 177 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. 

Head 3 f-; depth 5^ : D. v-n; A. 19; scales 14-62. Body elongate, 
compressed; snout pointed, 3 in head; lower jaw slightly the longer; 
mandible 2% in head; mouth rather small, oblique; teeth in jaws in 
narrow bands, none canine-like; no teeth on vomer or palatines; eye 
3^ in head; origin of dorsal fin slightly nearer base of caudal than tip 
of snout ; pectoral i y z in head ; ventral 2 % in head ; base of anal i y^, ; 
scales small, edges slightly crenate, those in nape and before pectoral 
fin much reduced; gill rakers slender, about 27 on first gill arch; verte- 
bras 23 + 20=43. 

Color light brownish, translucent; a dark silvery lateral band; 
scales with few dark punctulations. Length about 5 inches. 

This is the most abundant member of the genus in Lago de Patz- 
cuaro. It is probably quite widely distributed throughout the Lerma 
basin. 

165. Chirostoma promelas Jordan & Snyder. 

Chirostoma promelas Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1900, 136, fig. 14; Lago de Chapala (market of Guadalajara): 
Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3160: 
Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1902, 182; 
Lago de Chapala: Pellegrin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1901, 
205; Estado de Jalisco: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 
115; Ocotlan; La Palma. 
Basin of the Rio Lerma. 

Head 3f; depth 4f; D. iv-n; A. 19 or 20; scales 15-53 to 56. 
Body elongate, compressed; head slender, triangular; mouth large, 
very little oblique; snout pointed, 2> in the head, upper jaw the longer; 
maxillary reaching vertical from anterior margin of the orbit; teeth 
large, not arranged in definite rows, none on vomer or palatines';-diam- 
eter of eye 5 y$ in head ; origin of spinous dorsal midway between base 
of caudal and nostril ; pectorals i ^ in head ; ventrals 2 % ; base of anal 
\y% in head; scales with crenate edges, those on nape and in front of 
pectorals much reduced in size; gill rakers slender, 24 on first gill arch. 
Color silvery, translucent, a distinct dark lateral band; scales on 
upper part of the body with dusky edges ; snout and jaws black. Length 
about 7 inches. 

This is the only member of the group which has the upper jaw de- 
cidedly longer than the lower. Only a few specimens known. 

Subgenus Lethostole Jordan & Evermann. 

166. Chirostoma sphyrasna Boulenger. 

Chirostoma sphyrcena Bonlenger, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 1900, 55; 
Lago de Chapala: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 116. 



178 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Chirostoma diazi Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1900, 
137, fig. 15; Lago de Chapala (Guadalajara market): Jordan & 
Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3161. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. 





FIG. 59. CHIROSTOMA SPHYR/ENA Boulenger. 

No. 6157 (Chirostoma diazi J. & S.). Leland Stanford Jr. University. 

Head 3^; depth 5; D. v-n; A. 20; scales 20-63 to 70. Body 
elongate, moderately compressed; head large; upper jaw the longer; 
snout 2^ in head; mouth large; teeth large anteriorly, growing grad- 
ually smaller posteriorly, some canine-like, not arranged in definite 
rows, no teeth on vomer or palatines; origin of spinous dorsal midway 
between base of Caudal and eye; scales crenate, those on the dorsal 
region very small, about 20 in a series between the dorsal fins; base of 
anal if in head. 

Color light silvery, translucent; a narrow dark silvery lateral band. 
Length about 8 inches. 

The small scales between the dorsal fins easily distinguishes this 
species from those most nearly related to it. 

167. Chirostoma lucius Boulenger. 

Chirostoma lucius Boulenger, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 1900, 54; 
Lago de Chapala: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 15; La 
Barca; Ocotlan; La Palma: Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. 
U. S. Fish Comm., 1902, 152; Lago de Chapala, Guadalajara 
market. 

Chirostoma crystallinum Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1900, 139, figs. 16 and 17; Lago de Chapala, and Guadala- 
jara: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U.S.Nat. Mus., 1900, 3162. 
Basin of the Rio Lerma. 

Head 3^"; depth 4$; D. -13; A. 23 or 24; scales 17-56. Body 
elongate, compressed; head pointed; snout 2f ; mouth large, the lower 
jaw projecting; mandible 2% in head; teeth in bands in each jaw, all 
small, none canine-like; no teeth on vomer or palatines; eye 5^ in 
head; origin of spinous dorsal midway between base of caudal and 



FAMILY XIV. ATHERINID.E. 



* 
179 




FIG. 60. CHIROSTOMA LUCIUS Bouienger. , 

No. 6159 (Chirostoma crystallinum }. & S.), Leland Stanford Jr. University. , 

anterior margin of orbit ; pectoral i ^ in head ; ventral 2^ ; base of anal 
i^s in head; scales large, a few at nape and pectoral region reduced, 
the edges of all slightly crenate; scales between dorsal fins very large; 
gill rakers long and slender, 27 on first gill arch. 

Color light silvery, translucent; a dark lateral silvery band; scales 
on upper part of body with few dark dots. Length about 10 inches. 

Known at present only from Lago de Chapala and its environs. 

168. Chirostoma lermae Jordan Snyder. 

Chirostoma lermaz Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1900, 
142, fig. 19; Lago de Chapala: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3163: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 
1902, 1 1 6; La Palma; Ocotlan. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. 




FIG. 61 . CHIROSTOMA LERMXE Jordan & snyder. 

No. 6159, Leland Stanford Jr. University. 

Head 3 y% ; depth 5 ^ ; D . i v or v-i o to 1 2 ; A. 19 to 22; scales 1 8-5 6 . 
Body elongate, slender, not much compressed; snout long and pointed; 
mouth large, the lower jaw slightly projecting; mandible 2^ in head; 
teeth large and strong, in definite rows : the larger teeth on the inner 
row of the upper jaw and the outer row of the lower; origin of dorsal 
fin midway between base of caudal fin and eye; pectoral i^ in head; 
ventral 3 ; scales with crenate edges, those in region of nape and pec- 
toral fin much reduced. 

Color light silvery, a dark silvery lateral band; few punctulations 
on scales on dorsal region. Length about 12 inches. 

This species is easily recognized on account of its strong dentition. 
Known only from Lago de Chapala. 



i8o FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

169. Chirostoma ocotlanse Jordan & Snyder. 

Chirostoma ocotlana Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1900, 140, fig. 18; Lago de Chapala, Ocotlan: Jordan & Ever- 
mann, Bull. 47, U S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3163: Pellegrin, Bull. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1901, 205; Estado de Jalisco: Meek, 
Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 116; Ocotlan; La Palma. 

Basin of the Rio Lerma. 




FIG. 62. CHIROSTOMA OCOTLAN/E Jordan & Snyder. 

No. 6160, Leland Stanford Jr. University. 

Head 3/4', depth 4%', D. v-i2; A. 20 to 24; scales 17 to 19-54 to 57. 
Body elongate, somewhat compressed; head broad, profile with slight 
angle at nape; mouth large, the lower jaw much projecting; mandible 
1 1 in head; teeth small, in bands in both jaws; no teeth on vomer or 
palatines; eye 4^ to 4^ in head; origin of dorsal fin midway between 
base of caudal and anterior margin of the eye ; pectorals i % in head ; 
ventrals 2^; base of anal fin iX m head; scales with crenate edges, 
those on nape and about base of pectoral fin much reduced in size; 
gill rakers long and slender, about 25 on first gill arch; vertebrae 44. 

Color light silvery, translucent; sides with a narrow dark silvery 
band; scales on upper part of body with few punctulations. Length 
about 12 inches. 

This species is easily recognized because of its much projecting 
lower jaw. 

170. Chirostoma estor Jordan. 

Chirostoma estor Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 298; Lago 

de Chapala: Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1900, 

141. 
Atherinichthys albus Steindachner, Anzeiger de Kais. Akad. Wiss. 

Wien, 1894, 148; Lago de Patzcuaro, Michoacan. 
Lethostole estor Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 

1896, 792, and 1900, 3165. 
Chirostoma album Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 

1900, 3165. 
Basin of the Rio Lerma and the Valley of Mexico. (Xochimilco ) 



FAMILY XIV. ATHERINID.E. 181 

Head^f; depth 5; D. v-i2; A. 18 to 20; scales 19-75. Body 
elongate, compressed; snout rather depressed, its length 2^ in head; 
mouth large, lower jaw slightly the longer; mandible 2| in head; 
teeth in a band, not close set, some slightly enlarged, canine-like; 
occasionally a few canine-like teeth on vomer; eye 5 to 5^ m head; 
origin of dorsal fin midway between base of caudal fin and nostril; 
pectoral i% m head, ventral 2^ ; base of anal fin if in head; scales 
small, with crenate edges, those on nape and breast much reduced; 
lateral line represented by a few pores; gill rakers slender, about 26 
on first arch; vertebrae 23 + 20=43. 

Color light brownish, translucent; a dark silvery lateral band; 
individuals taken in lakes with much vegetation very dark with 
anterior half of head often black. Length about 12 inches. 

Of the larger fishes of this group this one is the most widely dis- 
tributed. It is one of the most important market fish in the regions 
where found. 

67. Meiiidia Bonaparte. 

Menidia Bonaparte, Fauna Italica, about 1836. (No type indicated, 
Atherina menidia Linnaeus probably intended.) 

Body elongate, more or less compressed; head compressed; belly 
before ventrals more or less rounded, not compressed to an edge; 
mouth small, the gape. curved, very oblique, the maxillary quite or 
entirely slipping under preorbital; teeth in jaws in band or in more 
than one series, none on vomer or palatines; premaxillaries freely 
protractile ; dorsal fins short ; first dorsal over or in front of anal fin ; 
no scales on dorsal and anal fins. 

A large group of small fishes belonging to salt or brackish water, 
a few species entering fresh water. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF MENIDIA. 

a. Anterior rays of soft dorsal and anal produced, 

longest anal rays equaling depth of body; pec- PAGE 

toral fin as long as head sallei 181 

aa. Anterior rays of soft dorsal and anal scarcely 

produced, longest anal ray less than depth of 

body; pectoral fin shorter than length of head lisa 182 

171. Menidia sallei (Regan). 

Atherinichthys sallei Regan, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1903, 60; 
Mexico. 

Distribution not known. 

Head 5 (in total); depth less than length of head; D. iv-i, 8; A. n, 
19; scales 10-43. Diameter of eye greater than length of snout, 2f 



182 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 



in head; interorbital width equaling postorbital part of head, 2f in 
length of head; lower jaw somewhat shorter than upper; maxillary 
extending to vertical from anterior margin of eye; origin of spinous 
dorsal above that of anal ; anterior rays of soft dorsal and anal pro- 
duced, longest anal rays equaling depth of body; pectorals falcate, 
as long as head; origin of ventrals midway between posterior oper- 
cular margin and first anal ray; caudal emarginate. 

A sharply defined silvery lateral band as broad as a scale. One 
specimen 75 mm. in total length from Mexico (Regan). 

It is quite probable that this species is a resident of salt water. 

172. Menidia lisa sp. nov. LISA. 

Type, No. 4633, F. C. M., 2.1 inches in length; Refugio, Vera 
Cruz. 

Basin of the Rio Papaloapam. (Refugio; El Hule.) 




'i 'v \ A \ \ x \ ^ > \ ^ ^ ^ ^ Y v Y"T vS i vS^v^ 

r^^^^g 





FIG. 63. MENIDIA LISA Meek. 



Head 3^ to 4; depth 4^ to 5; D. iv or y-i, 8 or 9; A. i, 19 to 21 ; 
scales about 42. Body elongate, compressed, belly rounded; snout 
pointed, margin of upper lip on level with upper edge of pupil; mouth 
moderate, very oblique; premaxillary curved, very protractile; teeth 
in two series in each jaw, the outer series the larger; snout very short, 
3^ m head; the maxillary reaching about vertical below pupil; 
eye large, 2^ in head; origin of dorsal fin midway between base of 
caudal and anterior margin of eye, over or slightly behind origin of 
anal; base of anal longer than head, 3^ in body; pectoral high, its 
length iX in head; ventrals 2 in head; scales thin, deciduous, cycloid 
(on all specimens in our collection there are scales on posterior half of 
body, on belly, and a band on dorsal region; as the specimens are all 
scaled alike it is probable a larger part of the anterior part of the body 
is naked) ; caudal fin forked ; caudal peduncle slender ; gill rakers 
slender, 15 on first gill arch; vertebrae 17+22=39. 

Color light silvery; a narrow dark lateral stripe; spinous dorsal 
profusely covered with black dots; iris silvery. Length about 2^ 
inches. 



FAMILY XIV. ATHERINID.E. 
68. Melaniris Meek. 



183 



Melaniris Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1892, 117. (Type, Melaniris 
balsanus Meek.) 

Body elongate, slender; lower jaw rounded; origin of spinous dorsal 
fin behind that of the anal; caudal peduncle short; peritoneum black; 
alimentary canal shorter than total length of the fish ; iris black ; ver- 
tebrae 17 + 19 = 36. 

173. Melaniris balsanus Meek. 

Melaniris balsanus Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 117; 

Balsas. 
Basin of the Rio Balsas; not taken above the falls and cascades. 




FIG. 64. MELANIRIS BALSANUS Meek. 

No. 3706, Field Columbian Museum. 

Head 4^"; depth 5^; D. 111-9; A. 21; scales 10-39. Body elon- 
gate, slender, not much compressed; snout rounded laterally ; mouth 
small, lower jaw slightly the longer; outer row of teeth large, canine- 
like, wide apart, behind these a band of small villiform teeth; gijl 
rakers 4+13 = 17; vertebras 17-}- 19 = 36; scales large, with entire mar- 
gins; caudal peduncle very short ;',' dorsal fins posterior; origin of 
spinous dorsal considerably behind origin of anal fin, and midway 
between base of caudal fin and posterior margin of opercle ; base of 
anal % longer than head, its rays varying from 20 to 23; dorsal 
spines 2 to 4, usually 3 ; pectoral fin high on sides of body, its length 
iX in head; ventrals 2^- 

Color olivaceous, rather opaque, dorsal region finely punctulate 
with black; a well defined silvery band on sides. Length about 3 
inches. 

This species is very abundant in the Rio Cocula and the Rio Balsas 
at Balsas, It has not been taken elsewhere. It probably spawns in 
Mav. 



184 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

69. Thyriua Jordan & Culver. 

. Thyrina Jordan & Culver, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1896, 419. 
(Type, Thyrina cvermanni Jordan & Culver.) 

Body elongate, compressed, the abdominal region before ventrals 
compressed into a bluntish edge or keel; pectoral fin falcate, longer 
than the head; anal fin very long, its origin in advance of spinous 
dorsal; scales cycloid. 

To this genus belong only the two following species : 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THYRINA. 

a. Anal rays about i, 24; base of anal fin 2%" in PAGE 

body ; pectoral 3 X in body ; ventral fins pale .... [evermanni] 1 84 

aa. Anal rays about i , 21; base of anal fin 3 in 

body ; pectoral 4 >^ in body ; ventral fins black crystalline, 184 

Thyrina evermanni Jordan & Culver. 

Thyrina evermanni Jordan & Culver, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1895, 419; 
Mazatlan: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 804. 

Brackish water near Mazatlan. 

Head 4^; depth 4^ to 5; D. iv-i, 7; A. i, 23 to 25; scales 9-36. Body 
elongate, much compressed; the belly sharp-edged, concave on each side below 
pectorals, the edge almost carinate; back narrow; mouth small, terminal, 
jaws curved; teeth moderate, those in the upper jaw the longer; snout 3! in 
head; eye 2%; origin of spinous dorsal over about 6th anal ray, midway be- 
tween base of caudal and edge of preopercle; pectoral fin % longer than head; 
anal fin long; its base 2^ in body; gill rakers long and slender, numerous; 
scales cycloid. 

Color light green, much dotted above, translucent below; a dark lateral 
stripe; no black on dorsal fin. Length about 3 inches. 

This species known only from the estuary at Mazatlan, its type locality. 

174. Thyrina crystallina (Jordan & Culver). 

Atherinella crystallina Jordan & Culver, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1895, 
420; Rio Presidio, below Presidio, Sinaloa. 

Thyrina crystallina Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1895, 804; Rio Presidio, below Presidio, Sinaloa. 

Basin of the Rio Presidio. 

Head 4^; depth 4^ to 5; D. iv-i, 8; A. i, 21; scales 11-40. Body 
rather deep, compressed, the belly sharp-edged; mouth small, ter- 
minal; jaws curved; teeth rather strong, the outer curved, those in the 
upper jaw the longer; snout 3X m head; eye 2^; origin of spinous 
dorsal behind anal, midway between gill opening and base of caudal; 
base of anal one-half longer than head, 3 in body; pectoral | longer 
than head; gill rakers numerous, long and slender; scales cycloid. 

Color translucent green, with considerable dusky dottings; a dark 
silvery lateral stripe; first dorsal and base of anal dusky. Length 

inches. 

Known only from the type locality. 



FAMILY XV. MUGILID.E. 185 

Family XV. Mugilidse. 

THE MULLETS. 

Body oblong, more or less compressed, covered with rather large 
cycloid scales; no lateral line, but the furrows often deepened on the 
middle of each scale forming lateral streaks; mouth small, the 
jaws with small teeth or none; premaxillaries protractile; gill rakers 
long and slender; gills 4, a slit behind the fourth; two dorsal fins well 
separated, the anterior one of 4 stiff spines, the last one of which is 
much shorter than the others; air bladder large, simple; alimentary 
canal long; peritoneum usually black; vertebrae 24. 

A large family of fishes inhabiting the coasts of warm seas, a few 
entering fresh water. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF MUGILID^. 

a. Stomach muscular, gizzard-like; front of low- 
er jaw angular Mugil 

aa. Stomach not gizzard-like; front of lower jaw 

not angular. 

b. Teeth small, conical, in villiform bands on 
jaws, vomer and palatines ; mouth with lateral 
cleft, not overhung by the blunt tumid snout. 

c. Anal spines 2 Agonostomus 186 

cc. Anal spine single . .Neomugil 187 

bb. Teeth coarse, broad, truncate, incisors with 
their free edges serrate; smaller teeth on 
vomer, none on palatines; mouth small, in- 
ferior; lower jaw forming a sharp soft edge ....... .Joturus 188 

Subfamily Mugllinae. 
7O. 3Iugil (Artedi) Linnaeus. 

Mugil (Artedi) Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. x, 3161, 758. (Type, Mugil 
cephalus Linnaeus.) 

Body oblong, somewhat compressed, covered with large scales; 
head large, convex, scales above and on sides; mouth small, subin- 
ferior, the lower jaw aiigulate; jaws with one or a few series of short, 
flexible, ciliform teeth; no teeth on vomer or palatines; eye large, with 
an adipose eyelid little developed in the young; stomach muscular, 
like the gizzard of a fowl. 

The species of this group run in large schools along the shores and 
in brackish lagoons of all warm regions. They feed on organic matter 
contained in the mud. 



i86 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

175. Mil. nil cephalus Linnaeus. 

Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, Sys. Nat., Ed. x, 316, 1758; Europe: 

Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 811. 
Tropical and temperate seas of America, southern Europe, and 
northern Africa. (Tehuantepec.) 

Head 3$; depth 3$; D. iv-i, 8; A. in, 8; scales 12-40. Body 
elongate, compressed; head broad, depressed; interorbital slightly 
convex, its width 2\ in head; mouth terminal, oblique; jaws about 
equal; teeth minute; snout rounded laterally; adipose eyelid well 
developed; diameter of eye about 4 in head; origin of spinous dorsal 
midway between tip of snout and base of caudal; about 20 scales in a 
series from tip of snout to origin of spinous dorsal; first dorsal spine 
1 2^ in head; pectoral fin nearly reaching front of dorsal, if in head; 
ventrals reaching half way to anal fin, i^ in head; caudal forked; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 2> in head. 

Color bluish brown above, silvery below; dark stripes along the 
rows of scales, most prominent on the middle of the sides; fins more or 
less dusky, with a yellowish tinge on the ventrals, anal, and caudal; a 
black bar at base of pectorals; soft dorsal and anal fins naked. 

A salt-water fish which ascends rivers to a considerable distance 
above tide-water. One specimen 5 inches in length was taken by me 
at Tehuantepec. 

Subfamily Agonostominse. 
71. Agonostomus Bennet. 
Agonostomus Bennet, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc., 1830, 166. (Type, 

Agonostomus telfairii Bennet.) 
Dajaus Cuv. & Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., xi, 164, 1836. (Type, Mugil 

monticola Bancroft.) 

Body elongate, compressed posteriorly; mouth with lateral cleft 
extending to opposite anterior margin of eye; snout bluntish, lower 
jaw the shorter, included; edge of lower lip rounded, not sharp as in 
Mugil; stomach not gizzard-like ; anal spines 2 , the first soft ray slender 
and spine-like; villiform teeth on jaws, vomer, and palatines in Amer- 
ican species. A small group of fishes inhabiting streams of mountain- 
ous regions in tropical countries. 

Submenus Dajaus Cuvier & Valenciennes. 

176. Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft). TRUCHA. 

Mugil monticola Bancroft, Griff. Anim. King. Fishes, 367, pi. 36, 

1836. 
Agonostoma monticola Giinther, Cat., in, 464, 1861 ; Mexico: B. A. 

Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 540; Santa Maria. 



FAMILY XV. MUGILID^;. 187 

Agonostomus monticola Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 1896, 819. 

Agonostoma nasutum Gunther, Cat., in, 463, 1861; Rio Geronimo. 
Agonostomus nasutus Jordan, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1895, 424;. Rio 
Presidio, Sinaloa: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 819: Rutter, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1896,. 263; San 
Jose del Cabo, Lower California: Evermann, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash., 1898, 2; Ixtapa (12 miles above the Bay of Banderas); 
Maria Magdalena Island, 2,500 feet above tide-water; Maria 
Cleofa Island, off Jalisco: Pellegrin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
1901, 205; river below Lago de Chapala, Estado de Jalisco: 
Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 118; Balsas; Puente de 
Ixtla; Cuicatlan. 

Fresh waters of the West Indies and the Atlantic and Pacific 
streams of Mexico and Central America. (Cuautla; Jojutla, Vera 
Cruz; Otopa; Motzorongo.) 

Head 3|to 4^; depth 4^ to 4X1 D. iv-i, 8; A. 11, 9; scales 12-42. 
Body elongate, not much compressed; head rather conical, somewhat 
decurved in specimens 9 or more inches in length; interorbital convex, 
its width 2f^in head; snout blunt in large examples, more pointed in 
the young; lips very thick in adults, thin in young specimens 2 to 4 
inches long; maxillary reaching vertical from front of eye, entirely 
hidden when the mouth is closed; diameter of eye about equal to 
length of snout, 4 in head; origin of spinous dorsal nearer tip of snout 
than base of caudal ; tip of pectoral reaching nearly to spinous dorsal ; 
soft dorsal over the last ^ of the anal fin, without scales; anal spines 
weak; pectorals inserted above the axis of the body. 

Color brownish above, silvery below; each scale with a darker mar- 
gin; a silvery band from base of pectoral to caudal fin; very conspic- 
uous on fishes in the water; back and sides with many black or dark 
colored scales scattered about, making irregular spots; these most 
abundant on small specimens from Vera Cruz, and least so on speci- 
mens from Jojutla. 

There seems to be but little difference in the descriptions of A. 
monticola and of A . nasutus; the difference is mainly in the thick and 
thin lips, a character much modified by age. In this paper I regard 
the specimens from western Mexico ascribed to A. nasutus as being 
the adult of the present species. 

72. Neomugil Vaillant. 

Neomugil Vaillant, Bull. Soc. Philom., iv, 1893-4, 72. (Type, Neo- 
mugil digueti Vaillant.) 



i88 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Body elongate, not much compressed; mouth widely cleft; maxil- 
lary extending beyond anterior edge of orbit; small teeth in many 
series in each jaw, the outer series on intermaxillary most developed; 
teeth on vomer and palatines; stomach siphonal; walls very thin in 
pyloric region; one large and one small pyloric ccecum; pseudo- 
branchiae .present. 

177. Neomugil digueti Vaillant. 

Neomugil digueti Vaillant, Bull. Soc. Philom., iv, 1894, 73; torrent 
in the Sierra de las Cacachilas de Santa Cruz, Lower California : 
Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3165. 

An inhabitant of mountain streams of Lower California south of La 
Paz. 

Head 3; depth 4; D. iv-i, 8; A. i, 9; scales 3-43-11. Body elon- 
gate, not much compressed; interorbital 2^ in head; eye 6 in head; 
entire head covered with ctenoid scales; mouth deeply cleft; upper 
jaw the longer; no adipose eyelid; origin of first dorsal at middle of the 
body; origin of anal in advance of soft dorsal. Length about 8 inches. 
(Vaillant.) 

73. Joturus Poey. 
THE BOBOS. 

Joturus Poey, Memorias, n, 263, 1861. (Type, Joturus pichardi 
Poey.) 

Body elongate, not much compressed; head large, snout blunt and 
projecting beyond the small, inferior mouth; mouth broad, with little 
lateral cleft; lower lip very thick, its edges forming a soft sharp-edged 
fold, its outline very obtuse; teeth coarse, blunt incisors, with serrated 
edges, arranged in broad patches on jaws and vomer. 

178. Joturus pichardi Poey. BOBO. 

Joturus pichardi Poey, Mem. n, 263, 1861, Cuba. 

Agonostoma globiceps Gtinther, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 1874, 370; 
Misantla, Vera Cruz: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 821. 

Fresh-water streams of Cuba, and southern Mexico to Panama, in 
swift currents and mountain torrents. 

Head 4^ ; depth 3$ ; D. iv-ig; A. in, 9; scales 13 or 14, 42 to 45. 
Body elongate, rather robust, a little compressed behind; head large, 
gibbous above and anteriorly; snout thick, broad, and blunt, consid- 
erably overhanging the small inferior mouth, and entirely below the 
level of the eye; maxillary reaching posterior margin of the eye, 2% 
in head; mouth broad, but without much lateral cleft; lower jaw in- 



FAM. XV. MuoiLiDjE. FAM. XVI. CENTRARCHID^E. 189 

eluded; upper lip thick, slipping beneath the snout; lower lip very 
thick, its anterior edge forming a sharp-edged fold ; outline of lip very 
obtuse; no teeth in the palatines; nostrils roundish, close together, in 
front of the small round eye; eye nearer the angle of the mouth than 
level of top of head; no adipose eyelid ; all of the fins, including spinous 
dorsal, covered with small scales; gill membranes broadly united, free 
from the isthmus; caudal forked. 

Color dull olivaceous above, without distinqt markings, paler 
below. Length about 2 feet. 

Family XVI. Centrarchidse. 

THE SUNFISHES. 

Body more or less shortened, compressed; head compressed; mouth 
terminal, large or small; teeth in villiform bands, the outer slightly 
enlarged; no canines; teeth present on premaxillaries, lower jaw and 
vomer, usually on palatines, also sometimes on tongue, pterygoids and 
hyoid ; premaxillaries protractile ; preopercle entire or slightly serrate ; 
opercle ending in two flat points or prolonged in a black flap at its 
angle; gill membranes separate, free from the isthmus; cheeks and 
opercles scaly ; ventral fin with one spine and 5 soft rays ; dorsal spines 
6 to 13; anal spines 3 to 9; vertebrae 28 to 35. Fresh-water fishes of 
North America. All are voracious and gamy and are good food 
fishes. A few species are found in northern Mexico, the most south- 
ern range for the family. 

KEY TO THE GENERA* OF CENTRARCHID^E. 

a. Body comparatively short and deep, the depth PAGE 

usually more than f of the length ; dorsal fin 
not deeply emarginate. 

b. Lower pharyngeals narrow, the width in the 
length of toothed portion about 3 in adults; 
lateral margin straight or slightly inbent from 
tip of posterior spur to anterior extremity of 
bone; teeth on lower pharyngeals long and 
slender and more or less acuminate ; no red on 

margin of opercular flap Lepidopomus 1 90 

bb. Lower pharyngeals broad, the width in the 
length of toothed portion about 2 in adults; 
outer margin a double curve, moderately in- 

*For an account of the genera Lepidopomus and Eupomotis, see R. E. 
Richardson in Bull. 111. Lab. of Nat. Hist., vol. vn, article in, pages 27 to 35. 
The characterization of these two genera and the keys relating to them and 
their species are largely taken from that paper. 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

bent posteriorly in front of spur, and more PAGE 

or less decidedly rounded anteriorly as the 
margin of a lateral ledge-like prominence; 
a red spot on lower posterior margin of 

opercular flap Eupomotis 193 

aa. Body comparatively elongate, the depth in the 
adult about X of the length ; dorsal fin low and 
deeply emarginate Micropterus 194 

Subfamily Liepidopominae. 
74. Lepidopomus Rafinesque. 

Lepomis Rafmesque, Journ. de Physique, Paris, 1819, 402. (Type, 
Labrus auritus Linnaeus.) 

Apomotis Rafmesque, Journ. de Physique, Paris, 420, 1819 
(Lepomis cyanellus Ra fines que). 

Body variously elongate, elliptical, or short and deep, most of the 
species being rather robust, the others thin and compressed; mouth 
usually rather -large; supplemental maxillary bone well devel- 
oped, rudimentary or wanting, best developed in species with largest 
mouth; teeth on palatines usually present; lower pharyngeals narrow 
and weak, flattened or hollowed out underneath, its width in length 
of toothed portion about 3. in adults; inner angle 120 to 140, outer 
margin straight or slightly inbent from tip of posterior spur to an- 
terior extremity of bone; pharyngeal teeth always long and slender 
and more or less acuminate; brilliant colors on posterior margin of 
opercular flap, if present, always blending with the adjacent paler 
or darker color and not forming a definitely localized spot as in Eupo- 
motis; gill rakers well developed, long, stiff, and rough to rather slen- 
der, or very soft and weak ; pectorals not longer than head ; dorsal 
spines usually low. 

This genus is represented in the waters of North America by about 
twelve species. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE GENUS LEP1DOPOMUS. 

a. Opercle more or less stiffened posteriorly, its 
osseous portion always distinctly differen- 
tiated from a posterior fleshy or membranous 
margin, partly or wholly of paler color than 
the osseous portion, to which the black of 
the opercular spot is entirely or for the most 
part confined; a well developed supplemental 



FAMILY XVI. CENTRARCHID.E. 191 

maxillary bone ; body oblong, depth 2 to .2^" PAGE 

in length; scales small, 42 to 50 in lateral series . . . cyanellus 191 
aa. Opercle not composed of well differentiated 
osseous and membranous portions, the bone 
becoming gradually thinner posteriorly and ter- 
minating in a flexible osseo-membranous flap; 
flap usually considerably produced in adults, 
sometimes exceedingly so, and entirely black, 
or with only a very narrow pale edging; sup- 
plementary maxillary bone very rudimentary 
or entirely wanting. 

b. Dorsal spines low, the longest but slightly 
more than length of snout; gill rakers short 
and weak; body very robust anteriorly; 
head large ; wavy blue lines on cheeks faint or 

absent occidentals 192 

bb. Dorsal spines higher, the largest almost equal- 
ing or greater than snout and eye ; gill rakers 
rather slender and firm, 
d. Eye large, 2^ to 3 in head; no dusky spot 

on posterior dorsal or anal rays haplognathus 192 

dd. Eye smaller, 3 K to 4 in head; dorsal and 
anal not large, blotch of dusky near base of 
last rays pallidus 193 

Subgenus Apomotis Rafinesque. 
179. Lepidopomus cyanellus Rafinesque. BLUE-SPOTTED SUNFISH; 

GREEN SUNFISH/ 

Lepomis cyanellus Rafinesque, Jour, de Physique, 1819, 420; Ohio 
River: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 
996. 

Pomotis aquilensis Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 7, pi. in, 1-8, 1858; 
Eagle Pass, Texas: Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1853, 388; Eagle Pass. 
Apomotis cyanellus Jordan, Bull. U. S. Geol. Sur., 1878, 398; Rio 

Grande at Brownsville, Texas. 
Northeastern Mexico to the Great Lakes. 

Head 3; depth 2^; D. x, n; A. in, 9; scales 6 or 7-42 to 5016. 
Body rather elongate, becoming deeper with age; head moderately 
large ; mouth large ; maxillary nearly reaching vertical from middle of 
eye, broad, with a well developed supplemental bone; lower jaw the 
longer; opercle more or less stiffened posteriorly, its black osseous 
portion always distinctly differentiated from the posterior fleshy, or 



192 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

usually paler colored membranous margin; dorsal spines low, the 
longest 3 to 4 in head; pectorals short, not reaching anal, \y* in head; 
ventrals not reaching anal. 

Color greenish with brassy luster on sides; each scale with a blue 
spot, these forming pale lateral streaks; a conspicuous dark spot on 
posterior base of dorsal and anal; cheeks with narrow blue stripes. 
Length about 7 inches. 

A very variable and widely distributed species; ranging from 
Mexico to the Great Lakes; not found east of the Alleghenies. 

Subgenus Lepidopomus Rafinesque. 

180. Lepidopomus occidentalis Meek. WESTERN SUNFISH. 
Lepomis occidentalis Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 118; 

Jimenez; Santa Rosalia. 

Rio Conchos and its tributaries in Chihuahua. 

Head 2^; depth 2; D. x, n; A. in, 9; scales 7-37-14. Body oval, 
compressed, the dorsal outline more arched than the ventral; profile 
convex, nearly straight in small specimens, in larger concave above 
eyes and convex at nape; mouth moderate, the maxillary reaching 
vertical from pupil, its length 3 in head; no supplemental maxillary 
bone; lower jaw slightly the longer; eye small, 4^ in head; i^ in 
interorbital space; opercle not composed of well differentiated 
osseous and membranous portions, the bone becoming gradually 
thinner posterior and terminating in a flexible osseo-membranous flap ; 
flap usually very long; gill rakers short, 8 on lower part of arch; 
dorsal fin rather low, its fourth spine 3^ in head; pectoral short, 
rounded, not extending to anal; caudal fin very short, its lobes rounded 
and of equal size, its length 1%^ in head. 

Color olivaceous above, lighter below, each scale with a light mar- 
gin, forming longitudinal lines along the rows of scales; no black mark- 
ings on the fins; no blue lines on the cheeks, a few dusky brown ones 
being present; opercular flap with a narrow pale border. Length 
about 6 inches.' 

This species ranges farther southwest than any other member 
of the sunfish family. Lepidopomus haplognathus and Micropterus 
salmonoides, which occur farther east, range a little farther south. 
Spawning time the last of July. 

181. Lepidopomus haplognathus Cope. 

Lepomis haplognathus Cope, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 1884 (1885), 
168; Monterey, Neuvo Leon: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 1004. 

Tributaries of the Rio Grande near Monterey, Nuevo Leon. 
(Monterey.) 



FAMILY XVI. CENTRARCHID^. 193 

Head 2^ to 3; depth 2>; D. x, 10; A. in, 9; scales 7-38-13. Body 
elongate, compressed; profile convex; head large; mouth moderate; 
maxillary reaching past vertical from anterior margin of pupil, its 
length 3^3 in head; no supplemental maxillary; snout short, 3^ to 4 
in head; eye very large, 2^ to 3 in head; gill rakers rather strong, 
short, about 8 in lower part of angle; opercular flap moderate, without 
pale margin; pectoral fin short, not reaching first anal spine, its 
length iJ/3 in head; ventral i^; dorsal spines moderate, longest 2^ 
in head. 

Color uniform greenish, the center of each scale darker; no mark- 
ings on fins ; a few bluish bands on cheeks. Length about 6 inches. 

This species at present is known only from Monterey, its type 
locality. Four specimens were taken by me in a spring in Monterey. 

182. Lepidopomis pallidus (Mitchill). BLUE GILL; BLUE SUNFISH. 
Labrus pallidus Mitchill, Trans. Lit. & Phil. Soc. N. Y., 1815, 407; 

New York. 

Pomotis speciosus Girard, Pac. R. R. Sur., 23, 1858; Brownsville, 
Texas; Cadereita, Nuevo Leon: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 5, 
pi. iv, figs. 5-8, 1859; Cadereita, Nuevo Leon. 

Lepomis pallidus Jordan, Bull. U. S. Geol. Sur., 1878, 397; Rio 
Grande, Brownsville, Texas: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 1896, 1005. 

Eupomotis pallidus Boulenger, Cat., i, 1896, 9. 
Rio Grande to Florida and the Great Lakes. 

Head 2^ to 3^; depth if to 2 1 /,; D. x, n or 12; A. in, 10 or n; 
Body comparatively short and deep, compressed (the young more 
slender than the elder); head moderate, profile usually forming an 
angle above eye; mouth small, the jaws subequal, the maxillary 
scarcely reaching vertical from anterior margin of the eye; opercular 
flap rather short, and without pale edge; gill rakers moderate, n to 13 
on lower portion of gill arch; dorsal spines high, the longest 2 in 
head, and usually longer than snout and eye ; pectoral fin about as long 
as head, its tip reaching past origin of anal. 

Color greenish olive; sides often with chain-like transverse green- 
ish bars, which disappear in adult; no blue stripes on cheeks; a dark 
blotch on base of posterior rays of dorsal and anal fins ; opercular flap 
without pale edge. Length about 12 inches. 

75. Eupomotis Gill & Jordan. 

Eupomotis Gill & Jordan, Field and Forest, 1877, 190. (Type, 

Spar us aureus Walbaum.) 

Body deep, more or less compressed, the back elevated; mouth 
rather small; no supplemental maxillary bone and no teeth on pala- 



194 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

tines; gill rakers always short .sometimes very much reduced; pectoral 
fins always longer than head, sometimes extending past middle of anal ; 
dorsal spines rather high; lower pharyngeal deep and broad, with 
inferior and lateral prominences, never flattened or hollowed under- 
neath, width in length of toothed portion about 2 in adults, inner 
angle 95 to 111, outer margin a double curve, moderately inbent 
posteriorly in front of spur, and more or less decidedly rounded 
anteriorly as the margin of a lateral ledge-like prominence; teeth on 
lower pharyngeals short and heavy, their upper surfaces very bluntly 
rounded or paved ; red or orange on posterior portion of opercular flap 
definitely marked off from the paler or blackish portions adjacent, 
and not blended with them as in the preceding genus. 

183. Eupomotis heros (Baird & Girard). 

Pomotis heros Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, 
25; Rio Cibolo, Texas: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 6, pi. n, figs. 
1-4, 1859; Rio San Juan, Cadereita, Nuevo Leon. 

Eupomotis heros Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1896, 1007: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 47, 1900, 13. 

Northeastern Mexico in lowland streams, north to southern Illinois. 

Head 2-f-; depth 2\; D. x, 12; A. in, 10; scales 6-40-13. Body 
moderately elongate, compressed; anterior profile slightly concave 
about eyes, slightly convex at nape; head rather small; mouth small, 
maxillary scarcely reaching vertical from anterior margin of the pupil, 
its length equaling length of snout, 3^ m head; diameter of eye 4 in 
head; opercular flap short, in life a red spot at its lower posterior angle, 
the margin pale; dorsal spines strong, the last one 2% in head; pec- 
toral fin very long, its tip reaching base of second anal ray, the fin 
slightly longer than the head; ventral short, iK i n head; 5 rows of 
scales on the cheeks; caudal fin emarginate. 

Color light olivaceous with silvery reflections, some of the scales 
with darker centers forming indistinct lateral streaks along the rows 
of scales; cheeks without blue stripes. Length about 12 inches. 

Subfamily Micropterinae. 

76. Micropterus Lace"pede. 

BLACK BASS. 

Micropterus Lace"pede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., iv, 325, 1802. (Type, 
Micropterus dolomieu Lace"pede.) 

Body oblong, compressed, the back not much arched; head ob- 
long, conic; mouth very large, its gape extending to near vertical from 
posterior margin of eye ; teeth on jaws, vomer and palatines ; preopercle 



FAMILY XVI. CENTRARCHID.E. 195 

entire; dorsal fin divided by a deep notch, the spines low and not very 
strong; scales small, ctenoid. 

This genus includes two species found only in North America, 
both being among the best of our game fishes. One species only is 
found in Mexico. , 

184. Micropterus salmonoides (Lacepede). LARGE -MOUTHED BLACK 
BASS; BESUGO. 

Labrus salmoides Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., in, 716, 1802; South 
Carolina. 

Dioplites nucensis Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 3, pi. i, 1859; San Juan 
River, Nuevo Leon. 

Grystes nuecensis Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1854, 25; Rio San Juan, Nuevo Leon. 

Micropterus salmonoides Boulenger, Cat., i, 16, 1896. 

Micropterus salmoides Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 1012. 

Mexico from Tampico to Florida and north to the Great Lakes 
and Red River of the north. (San Juan; Montemorelos ; Linares; La 
Cruz; Santa Engracia.) 

Head 3 to i, l /Z\ depth 3 to 3X1 D. x, 12 or 13; A. in, 10 or n ; scales 
7-65 to 70-18. Body ovate-fusiform, moderately compressed; head 
large; mouth large, the maxillary broad and with a well developed 
supplemental bone, its tip reaching vertical from posterior margin of 
eye; gill rakers longer than gill fringes, 7 or 8 on lower portion of gill 
arch ; scales on cheeks in about 10 rows. 

Color dark green above, below greenish silvery; a black lateral 
band which disappears in the adult; 3 dark oblique stripes across 
cheeks and opercles; a few dark spots above and below the lateral 
band which breaks up and grows fainter as the fish grows older. 
Length about 18 inches. 

This species prefers bayous, lakes, and sluggish water. It is not 
regarded as good a game fish as the small-mouthed black bass, which 
prefers rapid and cooler waters. The angler often finds considerable 
difficulty in distinguishing these species, because of the slight differ- 
ences between them, and he usually finds less difference in their 
fighting qualities. 

This species is abundant in the streams of Mexico north of Santa 
Engracia. I saw many specimens over a foot in length here and in 
the river at La Cruz. So far as known the river at Santa Engracia is 
its southernmost range. 



196 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Family XVII. Percidse. 
THE PERCHES. 

Body more or less elongate, terete, or moderately compressed; 
mouth terminal or inferior, small or large; the premaxillaries pro- 
tractile; teeth usually villi^orm, on jaws, vomer and palatines (occa- 
sionally they are absent on vomer and palatines) ; scales usually small, 
ctenoid ; opercle usually ending in a flat spine ; branchiostegals 6 or 7 ; 
gill membranes free or connected; lateral line usually present, never 
extending on the caudal fin ; dorsal fins 2 , the first composed of 6 to 15 
spines; ventral fins thoracic, each with one spine and 5 soft rays; 
caudal fin truncate, lunate, or rounded. 

Subfamily Ethostomatinae. 
77. Etheostoma Rafmesque. 

Etheostoma Rafinesque, Journ. de Phys. etc., Paris, 1819, 419. 

(Type restricted by Cope & Jordan to Etheostoma flabellare P_af.) 

Oligocephalus Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 67. 

(Type, Boleosoma lepida Baird & Girard.) 
Torrentaria Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Fish Comm., 1896, 

1080. (Type, Etheostoma australe Jordan.) 
Rafinesquiellus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Fish Comm., 

1896, 1082. (Type, Aplesion pottsii Girard.) 

Body robust or rather elongate, somewhat compressed; mouth 
terminal or subinferior; premaxillaries not protractile; teeth rather 
strong, usually present on vomer and palatines; gill membranes 
separate, or more or less broadly connected; scales moderate or small, 
ctenoid; no scales on top of head; scales on belly persistent, of the 
ordinary sort ; dorsal spines 7 to 15; anal spines i or 2 ; vertebrae us- 
ually 33 to 39. 

The darters comprise a large group of small, highly colored fishes 
inhabiting the streams of North America east of the Rocky Moun- 
tains; one species, Etheostoma pottsii, occurs in a Pacific coast stream. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF ETHEOSTOMA. 
a. Anal spine single; gill membranes connected; PAGE 

scales in the lateral series 58 to 66 australe 197 

aa. Anal fin with two spines; gill membranes not 

connected, 
b. Head rather large, 3^ to 3% in the body; 

scales in the lateral series 44 to 50 pottsii 197 

bb. Head smaller, 4% in the body; scales in the 

lateral series 48 to 54 lepidum 198 



FAMILY XVII. PERCID^E. 19? 

Subgenus Torrentaria Jordan & Evermann. 

185. Etheostoma australe (Jordan). 

Aplesion fasciatus Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 101 

(not Catonotus fasciatus Girard); Chihuahua River, Mexico. 
Etheostoma australe Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1884, 362; Chi- 
huahua River, Mexico: Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1894, 60; Chihuahua: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47. u - s - 
Nat. Mus., 1896, 1080: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 
119; San Andres; Santa Rosalia; Chihuahua; Jimenez. 
Etheostoma scovelii Woolman, Amer. Nat., 1892, 261; Rio de los 

Conchos, Chihuahua, Mexico. 
Headwaters of the Rio Conchos in Chihuahua. 
Head 3>^ to 3 2< ; depth 4^ to 4^ ; D. x to xn, 9 to 1 1 ; A. i, 7 or 
8; scales 6-58 to 66-n. Body elongate, not much compressed; 
mouth small, the lower jaw -the shorter; maxillary reaching front of 
pupil; eye small, 3^ in head; snout bluntish, 4 in head; premaxillary 
not protractile; gill membranes moderately connected, free from the 
isthmus; pectorals large, nearly as long as head; ventrals close to- 
gether, \y z in head; head, breast and nape naked; lateral line incom- 
plete. 

Color light olivaceous, sides with about 10 dusky cross-bars, these 
more prominent in the males; the pale interspaces red in life; the 
dusky bars alternate with. the pale blotches on the sides; soft dorsal 
and anal with dark cross-bars ; spinous dorsal with a dark base and 
dark tips, otherwise pale; a dark bar downward and one forward from 
the eye. Length about 2>< inches. Spawning time the latter part 
of May and in June. 

Subgenus Eafinesquiellus Jordan & Evermann. 

186. Etheostoma pottsii (Girard). 

Aplesion pottsii Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1888, 289; 

tributary of the Rio Chihuahua. 

Etheostoma micropterus Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1888, 289; 
Chihuahua, Mexico: Woolman, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1894, 
60; Rio Chihuahua, Chihuahua. 

Etheostoma pottsii Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1896, 1083; Chihuahua: Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 
119; San Andres; Chihuahua; Santa Rosalia; Jimenez. 
Headwaters of the Rio Conchos, Rio Nazas, and Rio Mezquital, 
in Chihuahua and Durango. (Santiago Papasquiaro; Durango.) 

Head3K to 3 ^ ; depth 3 < tO4^;D. ix to xi, 10 to 12; A. n, 7 or 
8; scales 5-44 to 50-10. Body moderately elongate, not much com- 



198 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

pressed; head small, mouth rather large, oblique, the maxillary 
reaching past anterior margin of the eye; snout bluntish, 4^ in head; 
premaxillary not protractile; gill membranes not united, free from the 
isthmus; pectorals large, almost as long as the head; ventrals close 
together, 1^3 in head; preopercle entire; sides of head, breast, and nape 
naked; lateral line straight, incomplete. 

Color light olive, sides tesselated with darker; 6 to 9 dark cross-bars 
on back, traces of about an equal number on the sides ; a black humeral 
spot; a dark streak downward and one forward from eye; soft dorsal 
and caudal barred; spinous dorsal with some small dark dots. Length 
about 2.10 inches. Females taken May 23 at Durango full of eggs, 
evidently about spawning time. 

So far as known at present, this is the only darter found in a Pacific 
coast stream. Its range is farther south than any member of the 
family to which it belongs. 

Subgenus Oligocephalus Girard. 
187. Etheostoma lepidum (Baird & Girard). 

Boleosoma lepida Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

1853, 338 ; upper tributaries of the Rio Nueces, Texas. 
Pcecilichthys lepidus Jordan, Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey, 1878, 663; 

Brownsville, Texas. 
Etheostoma lepidum Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 

1896, 1089. 

Lower Rio Grande and the streams of Texas, Indian Territory, and 
Arkansas. 

Head 4^; depth 4^; D. ix, n to 13; A. n, 6 to 8; scales 6-48 
to 54-8. Body rather stout, compressed, tapering backward; head 
sub-conical; mouth moderate, the jaws equal; maxillary reaching 
vertical from anterior margin of the orbit; eyes large; first dorsal 
rather low and somewhat connected to soft dorsal; no scales on head, 
breast, or nape; lateral line incomplete; gill membranes not connected. 
Color olivaceous, with some dark blue bars; scales dusky at base, 
sometimes a slight trace of a humeral spot ; dorsal and caudal mottled 
or barred. Length 2^ inches. 

Family XVIII. Out ropomnhr. 

THE ROBALOS. 

Body elongate, compressed; dorsal region elevated; abdominal 
region straight to angulated base of anal; head depressed, pike-like, 
the lower jaw projecting; villiform teeth in bands on jaws, vomer, and 
palatines; no teeth on tongue; maxillary broad, truncate behind, with 



FAM. XVIII. CENTROPOMID.E. FAM. XIX. H^EMULID^E. 199 

a strong supplemental bone; preopercle with a double ridge, the 
posterior margin strongly serrate ; opercle without true spines ; scales 
ctenoid; lateral line conspicuous; dorsal fins well separated, the first 
with 8 spines; anal spines 3, the second strong, the third long and 
slender; these fins moving in scaly sheathes; air bladder well devel- 
oped; branchiostegals 7. Species all American, one species found in 
the rivers of southeastern Mexico far above tide-water. 

78. Centropomus Lace"pede. 

ROBALOS. 

Centropomus Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., iv, 248, 1802. (Type re- 
stricted by Cuvier & Valenciennes to Scicena undecemalis Bloch). 
Characters of the genus are included in the description of the family. 

188. Centropomus mexicanus Bocourt. ROBALO. 

Centropomus mexicanus Bocourt, Ann. Sci. Nat. Paris, 1868, 90; 
Gulf of Mexico: Vaillant & Bocourt, Miss. Sci. Mex., 1875, 23, 
pi. i, fig. 2: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1896, 1121. 

Both coasts of Mexico, ascending rivers to a considerable distance 
above tide-water. (San Francisco; Boca del Rio; El Hule; Perez.) 

Head 2^; depth 4 to 4^; D. vm-i, 10; A. in, 6; scales 11-69 
to 72-16. Body elongate, moderately compressed; mouth large, maxil- 
lary reaching nearly to posterior margin of pupil ; preopercle with 
sharp teeth on its posterior limb, the two at the angle larger than 
the others ; 2 spines at angle of anterior limb ; diameter of eye 5 % in 
head; third dorsal spine the longest, 2 in head; second anal spine 
very strong, if in head; lateral line well developed; caudal fin forked. 

Color olivaceous, lighter below; lateral line blackish; tips of dorsal 
and caudal blackish. Length 12 inches or more. 

Family XIX. Hfemulidse. 

THE GRUNTERS. 

Body oblong, more or less elevated, covered with moderate sized 
scales, usually ctenoid; lateral line concurrent with the back, usually 
not extending on caudal fin ; head large ; no suborbital stay ; premaxil- 
laries protractile; maxillary without supplemental bone, for the most 
of its length slipping under edge of preorbital; preorbital usually 
broad ; no barbels ; no teeth on vomer or palatines ; ventral fin thoracic, 
its rays 1.5; pyloric ccecae few; vertebra? usually 10+14 = 24; alimen- 
tary canal short. Mostly shore fishes, a few entering fresh water. 



200 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

79. Pomadasys Lace"pede. 
BURROS. 

Pomadasis Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., iv, 516, 1803. (Type, Pom- 
adasis argentalus Lacepede.) 

Rhoncisciis Jordan & Evermann, Check-List, Fishes 387, 1896. 
(Type, Pristipoma crocro Cuv. & Val.) 

Body oblong, somewhat compressed; mouth rather small, ter- 
minal, low, maxillary scarcely reaching eye; premaxillaries protrac- 
tile; teeth on jaws only, in villiform bands; cheeks and opercles scaly; 
preopercle serrate, the serrae below not turned forward; suprascapula 
serrate; scales large, those above lateral line in series parallel with it; 
dorsal fin emarginate; second anal spine very strong. 

Some of these fishes when taken from the water make a loud, snore- 
like sound very much like the noise of a burro or donkey . 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF POMADASYS. 

a. Second anal spine not reaching tip of soft rays, PAGE 

its length i^ in head"; mouth large, maxillary 
reaching to pupil, af in head. 

b. Scales small, 65 in the lateral series starri 200 

bb. Scales larger, 56 in the lateral series bayanus 201 

aa. Second anal spine reaching beyond tips of soft 
rays, its length i^ in head; mouth small, max- 
illary not reaching to anterior margin of orbit, 
its length 3^3 in head templei 201 

Subgenus Rhonciscus Jordan & Evermann. 
189. Pomadasys starri sp. nov. BURRO. 

Type, No. 4693, F. C. M., \\ l /z inches in length; Perez, Vera Cruz. 

Head 3; depth 3$-; D. xm, 1.2; A. in, 7; scales 9-65-17. Body 
elongate, compressed; ventral outline nearly straight; back arched; 
profile slightly concave above the eyes, convex at nape; head pointed; 
snout bluntish; mouth rather large, low, its gape horizontal; jaws sub- 
equal; maxillary reaching slightly past vertical from anterior margin 
of pupil, its length 2^ in head; teeth villiform, a few in upper jaw 
enlarged; eye large, its diameter 4^ in head; snout 3 in head; pre- 
opercle strongly serrate; origin of dorsal slightly behind origin of 
pectoral; dorsal fin deeply notched, longest dorsal spine 2^ in head; 
second anal spine strong, its tip not reaching to tips of soft rays, its 
length i^ in head; caudal fin emarginate, the upper lobe the longer; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 3^ in the head; soft dorsal and anal 



FAMILY XIX. H^EMULID^E. 201 

scaly at base; head, except portion in front of nostrils, scaly; scales 
through ctenoid. 

One specimen, i iX inches in length taken at Perez. Named for 
Dr. Frederic Starr, who more than any one else has studied the 
native Indians of Mexico. 

190. Pomadasys bayanus Jordan & Evermann. 

Pristipoma humile Kner & Steindachner, Sitsgber. Akad. Wiss. 
Munch, 1863, 222; Rio Bayano, near Panama. 

Pomadasis bayanus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1898, 1331 ; name a substitute for humile, preoccupied: Gilbert 
& Starks, Fishes of Panama Bay, 109, 1904; San Jose del Cabo, 
Lower California. 

Pacific coast streams, from Cape San Lucas to Panama. 

Head 3^5; depth 3^; D. xn, 12; A. in, 7; scales 8-56-20. Body 
elongate, elliptical, compressed somewhat, elevated at the nape; an- 
terior profile straight from nape to the end of the snout; snout pro- 
duced, blunt, rounded, its length 3 to 3 % in head; mouth large, the 
maxillary reaching to anterior third of eye, its length 2f in head; 
diameter of eye 5 in head; preorbital 6^; dorsal fin deeply notched, 
its longest spine about 2^ in head; second anal spine long and 
strong, its length i^ in head; soft dorsal and anal sca'ly at the base. 

Color uniform olivaceous above, silvery below; fins plain. 

The two specimens mentioned by Gilbert & Starks are probably 
different species, the smaller one from San Jose del Cabo being appar- 
ently closely related to Pomadasys templei. The material I have at 
hand does not indicate that the very long second anal spine is charac- 
teristic of the young. 

191. Pomadasys templei sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4504, F. C. M., 6^ inches in length; Valles, San Luis 
Potosi. 

Head 3^; depth 3^'. D- xm-i2; A. in, 6; scales 7-57-16. Body 
elongate, compressed, the ventral outline nearly straight, back arched; 
profile from tip of snout to the origin of dorsal nearly straight; head 
pointed; snout bluntish; mouth moderate; the maxillary scarcely 
reaching vertical from anterior margin of the eye, its length 3^ in 
head; mouth little oblique, the margin of the upper lip below the level 
of lower margin of eye; snout 3 in head; eye large, 3^ in head; pre- 
opercle strongly serrate; a large toothed scale-like process just above 
angle of opercle; origin of dorsal over origin of pectoral, its first spine 
very short, the spines gradually increase in length to the fourth, which 
is longest, if in head; the next to the last spine is 3^3 in head; pec- 



202 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

totals 1 1 in head; ventrals produced in a short filament, iX m head; 
second anal spine very strong, t% in head, its tip reaching opposite 
base of caudal ; caudal fin emarginate ; least depth of caudal peduncle 
3 in head; scales on base of caudal fin, a few on base of anal, but none 
on dorsal; head, except a portion anterior to nostrils, scaly; scales 
strongly ctenoid. 

Color light brownish, silvery, lighter below; body with a few faint 
longitudinal bands; opercle with an indistinct black blotch; tips of 
vertical fins dark. Length about 12 inches. 

The longest specimen in the collection of the Museum is 6 inches. 
This species was taken by me at Valles and Perez. Named for Mr. 
A. V. Temple, who has played an important part in the industrial and 
commercial development of Mexico. 

Family XX. Sciwnidse. 

THE CROAKERS. 

Body more or less elongate, compressed ; scales rather thin, ctenoid ; 
head prominent and covered with scales ; bones of the skull cavernous ; 
mouth small or large; teeth conical, in one or more series, those of the 
outer one being sometimes enlarged ; maxillary slipping under the free 
edge of the preorbital; no teeth on tongue, vomer, or palatines; pre- 
maxillaries protractile; nostrils double; gill membranes separate, free 
from the isthmus; lower pharyngeals broad, with enlarged conical or 
molar teeth ; opercle usually ending in two flat points ; spinous portion 
of dorsal fin smaller than the soft portion ; anal fin with i or 2 spines ; 
ventral fins thoracic, i spine and 5 soft rays. 

A large family of fishes mostly inhabiting the sandy shores of all 
seas, a few species living in fresh water; most of the species reach a 
large size. 

Subfamily Haploidonotinse. 

8O. Haploicloiiotus Rafinesque. 

RIVER DRUMS. 

Aplodinotus Rafinesque, Jour, de Phys., 1819, 418. (Type, 
Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque.) 

Body oblong, the back elevated and compressed; mouth rather 
small, low, horizontal, the lower jaw included; snout blunt; teeth in 
villiform bands, the outer above scarcely enlarged; no barbels; gill 
rakers short and blunt; lower pharyngeals very large, united, and 
with coarse, blunt paved teeth; second anal spine very strong; pyloric 
ccecae 7; vertebrae 10 + 14 = 24. 



FAMILY XX. 



203 



192. Haploidonotus grunniens Rafinesque. FRESH-WATER DRUM; 

GASPERGOU. 
Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque, Jour, de Phys., 1819, 88; Ohio 

River. 
Amblodon neglectus Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1858, 167; 

Rio Grande: Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 12, pi. v, fig. 6-10, 1859; 

mouth of the Rio Grande; Matamoras, Tamaulipas. 
Corvina oscula Gunther, Cat., u, 297, 1860. 
Aplodinotus grunniens Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 1896, 1484: Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. U. S. Fish 

Comm., 1902, 154, fig. 4; Rio Usumacinta, Montecristo. 
Larger streams and lakes of the Mississippi Valley and Great Lake 
region, south to Chiapas. 




FIG. 65. HAPLOIDONOTUS GRUNNIENS Rafinesque. 

No. 2364, U. S. Fish Commission. 

Head 3^; depth 2^ to 3^; D. x, 30; A. n, 7; scales 9-55 to 60-12 
or 13. Body oblong, the back much elevated and compressed; the 
profile long, steep, and not much convex; head slightly compressed; 
mouth moderate, subinferior, low; maxillary reaching to the vertical 
from the middle of the eye ; snout 4 in head ; eye 4^ ', interorbital 3> ; 
dorsal fins connected; ventral with its first ray produced into a fila- 
ment; caudal fin truncate; gill rakers short, thickish, 20 on the first 
gill arch. 

Color grayish silvery, dusky above, with indications of two or three 
darker bands over the shoulder ; a dark blotch on opercle ; dorsal and 
caudal fins same as the body, the upper half of the membranes darker; 
other fins pale. 

This species is a member of a large family inhabiting the sandy 
shores of all seas, and is the only member of the family to which it 



2O4 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

belongs confined entirely to the fresh waters of North America. It 
reaches a weight of 50 pounds; as food fish it is of little value north, 
though of quite good quality south, where it is an important market 
fish. 

Family XXI Cichlidae. 

THE CICHLIDS; "MOJARRAS." 

Body elevated, oblong or elongate, covered with rather large 
ctenoid scales; lateral line interrupted, usually ceasing opposite the 
end of dorsal fin, then recommencing farther down on middle of caudal 
peduncle; mouth terminal; teeth in jaws usually conical, sometimes 
lobate or incisor-like ; no teeth on vomer or palatines ; nostril single on 
each side; premaxillaries freely protractile; maxillary slipping under 
the broad preorbital; gill membranes often connected; dorsal fin single, 
the spinous portion usually longer than the soft portion ; anal fin with 
3 or more spines, the soft part similar to soft dorsal; lower pharyngeal 
bones united into a triangular piece with a median suture; bran- 
chiostegals 5 or 6; no pseudobranchiae ; air bladder present; caudal 
fin lunate or rounded. 

This family comprises a large number of fresh-water fishes inhab- 
iting the rivers of tropical America and Africa. In form, size, appear- 
ance and habits they bear a close resemblance to the sunfishes of the 
United States. The species known in Mexico are not regarded as 
first class game fishes, though as food fishes they are very good. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF CICHLID^E. 

a. Caudal fin rounded, or truncate, its outer rays PAGE 

not produced into filaments; pectoral fin short, 
rounded, its length ij^ to 1% in the head; no 
black blotch on the subopercle. 
b. Teeth of the outer series all conic; anal spines 

4 to 1 1 Cichlasoma 204 

bb. Teeth of the outer series more or less com- 
pressed, incisor-like; anal spines 5 to 8 Neetroplus 221 

aa. Caudal fin lunate or slightly forked, some of 
its outer rays produced into a filament; pec- 
toral fin long and pointed, its length about 
equal to or longer than the head; a black 
blotch on subopercle Thorichthys 222 

81. Cichlasoma Swainson. 

Cichlasoma Swainson, Nat. Hist. Class'n Fishes, etc., 230, 1839. 
(Type, Labrus punctatus Bloch.) 



FAMILY XXI. CICHLID.E. 205 

Heros Heckel, Arin. Wiener Mus., 1840, 362. (Type, Heros severus 
Heckel, etc.) 

Herichthys Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, 
2 5- (Type, Herichthys cyanoguttatus Baird & Girard.) 

Body oblong or deep, much compressed; mouth rather small, 
terminal, low; premaxillary moderately protractile; lower lip with or 
without a frenum; jaws with a single series of rather stout conical 
teeth, behind which is a narrow band of villiform teeth; gill mem- 
branes slightly connected, free from the isthmus; dorsal spines 14 
to~i8; anal spines 4 to n; caudal fin subtruncate or rounded, the 
outer rays never produced into a filament; pectoral fin short, its 
length less than that of head. 

The species of this genus are very difficult to capture with a 
seine. They are more skillful in dodging a net, running around the 
end or jumping over it, than are any other fishes I have ever collected. 
They live in clear, running water, coming out in shallow places in 
the sunshine. As any one approaches they hasten at once to deep 
water, and hide among roots of trees or under overhanging banks. 
After a few minutes they cautiously come out and again proceed 
to the shallow water. The adult males are provided with a large 
hump of adipose tissue between the nape and the spinous dorsal. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CICHLASOMA. 
a. Mouth large, terminal, the lower jaw very PAGE 

strong. 

b. Anterior teeth in outer series much enlarged, 
canine-like; lower lip with a frenum; anal 

spines 5 ' mento 207 

bb. Anterior teeth in outer series not canine-like, 
scarcely, if at all, larger than the lateral ones, 
c. Anal spines 7 to 9 ; preorbital 4 in head ; post- 
orbital 2-j 1 ^. 

d. Lower jaw strong, mandible 2 in head; 
anal spines 7 or 8 ; lower lip without trace 

of a frenum salvini 207 

dd. Lower jaw less strong, mandible 2> in the 
head; anal spines 9; lower lip with an in- 
complete frenum hedricki 208 

cc. Anal spines 4 to 6. 
f. Body elongate, depth 2^3" to 2^. 
g. Sides with 4 to 7 ocellated, vertically 
expanded black spots below dorsal fin ; 
depth 2% pavonaceum 209 



2o6 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

gg. No ocellated black spots on sides. PAGE 

h. Lower lip without trace of a frenum, 

sides without dark vertical bars beani 210 

hh. Lower lip with a frenum, or the an- 
terior portion not as free as the 
lateral. 

i. Lower lip with a well developed frenum; 
tips of ventral fins not reaching first 
anal spine. 

j. Sides with 9 or 10 dark vertical bars; 
dorsal spines low, the eighth 3^3 in 
head, the last one 2^; bases of ver- 
tical fins with a few dark spots steindachneri 210 

jj. Sides with about 6 dark vertical bars; 
dorsal spines higher, the eighth 2| 

in head, the last one 2^ bartoni 211 

ii. Lower lip without developed frenum, 
the lip not as free anteriorly as later- 
ally; tips of ventrals reaching second 
anal spine; sides with 7 dark vertical 

bars istlanum 212 

ff. Body deep, its depth 2 to 2% in the length, 
k. Lower lip without a frenum; dorsal rays 

13 to 15; sides with about 6 dark verti- 
cal bars evermanni 214 

kk. Lower lip with a frenum. 

I. Head 3^ in body; depth 2; dorsal spines 

14 or 15; teeth in outer series dissimi- 
lar, some being bluntly conic heterodontum 215 

II. Head 3 to 3^; D. xvi; teeth in outer 
series similar, pointed. 

m. Anal spines 5, soft rays 8 or 9, dorsal 

fin with i o or 1 1 soft rays cyanoguttatum 215 

mm. Anal spines 4; soft rays n; dorsal 

rays 13 rectangulare 216 

aa. Mouth smaller, low or subinferior; lower jaw 

moderate or weak; maxillary 3 to 4 in head, 
n. Mouth terminal, the jaw oblique; jaws sub- 
equal, 
o. Anal spines 8; tip of ventrals reaching 4th 

anal spine, 
p. Lower lip without a frenum; a few anterior 

teeth canine-like; preorbital 4^ in head. mojarra 217 



FAMILY XXI. CICHLID^;. 207 

pp. Lower lip with a frenum; preorbital 6 in PAGE 

head octo fas datum 218 

oo. Anal spines 5 or 6; lower lip with a frenum, 

or its anterior margin slightly free, 
q. Body deep, its depth 2 to 2%; sides with 
7 dark vertical bars ; lateral band faint or 

none parma 218 

qq. Body elongate; depth 2^ to 2%"; sides 
with 7 dark vertical bands, and a con- 
spicuous dark lateral band melanurum 219 

nn. Mouth very small, subinferior; maxillary 3^ 
to 4 in head ; lower lip with a broad frenum ; 
tips of ventral fins not reaching anal fin; 
depth 2%. 

r. Preorbital 3/4 in head; soft dorsal of 14 rays . .eigenmanni 220 
rr. Preorbital 2^ in head; soft dorsal of 10 or 

1 1 rays nebultfer 220 

193. Cichlasoma mento (Vaillant & Pellegrin). 

Heros mento Vaillant & Pellegrin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
1902, 87; Rio Negro, Southern Mexico. 

Head 3; depth 2% to 2|; D. xvi-io; A. v, 7 or 8; scales 6-29-12. 
Body rather elongate; lower jaw very strong and prominent; the 
outer series of teeth in each jaw large, the anterior ones forming 
true canines; lower lip without frenum; eye small, 4^ in head, i% 
in interorbital area ; eye nearer snout than posterior margin of opercle ; 
6 or 7 rows of scales on the cheeks ; dorsal spines increase to the fifth ; 
middle rays of dorsal and anal produced ; the fifth anal spine longer 
and stronger than the last dorsal; base of median fins scaly; caudal 
rounded; pectoral rounded, 2 /^ length of head. 

Color olivaceous, traces of da k punctulations on soft parts of 
unpaired fins. Length about 7 inches. (Vaillant & Pellegrin.) 

Known only from the type locality. 

194. Cichlasoma salvini (Gunther). 

Heros salvini Gunther, Cat. iv., 294, 1862; Rio de Santo Isabel, 
Guatemala: Gunther, Fish. Cent. Amer., 460, pi. 73, fig. 3, 
1869: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 
1528. 

Southern Mexico and Guatemala. (Motzorongo; Refugio; El 
Hule; Perez; Obispo.) 

Head 2%; depth 2! to 2%; D. xvu, 10 or n; A. vii or vm, 
9; scales 6-29-10. Body rather deep, compressed; anterior half of 



208 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

profile concave, the rest convex; snout rather pointed, the lower jaw 
very strong and longer than the upper; mouth large, maxillary 2^ 
in head; a few of the teeth very strong and canine-like; lower lip 
without trace of a frenum; preorbital 4 in head; postorbital 2j\ in 
head; diameter of eye 4^ in head; mandible 2 in head; eighth 
dorsal spine 4 in head, the last 3 in head; middle rays of dorsal 
and anal produced, nearly reaching tip of caudal fin in specimens 
6 inches long ; about to middle of caudal in specimens 3 inches in 
length; pectoral if in head; ventral with tips somewhat produced, 
about reaching base of 4th anal, i^ in head; soft dorsal and anal, 
scaly at the base; cheeks with 5 rows of scales; caudal fin rounded; 
caudal peduncle 2^ in head, its length i^ in its depth. 

Color light brownish, side with a dark lateral band, more or less 
broken into blotches on posterior half; about five indefinite dark 
bars on posterior half of body, the region just below dorsal fin some- 
what reticulated; a dark blotch on middle of base of caudal fin; two 
indefinite bais across profile between nape and dorsal; a dark streak 
at upper and one at lower margin of interorbital area; a dark streak 
under eye forward to mouth; a few small dark dots on soft dorsal, 
anal and caudal fins; a black blotch on middle of side above end of 
pectoral and where the first definite bar on side crosses lateral band. 
Length about 8 to 10 inches. 

Two specimens from Motzorongo have the cheeks reticulated 
with blue lines and spots. The dorsal fin is very much produced on 
a specimen 5 inches long from Obispo, tip of dorsal fin almost reach- 
ing tip of caudal. In a few smaller specimens (2 to 4 inches) the 
dorsal rays are little produced, scarcely reaching past base of anal; 
individuals from El Hule are the lightest in color, those from Motzo- 
rongo the darkest. Specimens less than 3 inches deep have a black 
blotch on middle of side. 

195. Cichlasoma hedricki sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4673, F. C. M., 6.25 inches in length; Obispo, Vera 
Cruz. 

Abundant in the large rivers of Mexico south of Vera Cruz. 
(Vera Cruz; El Hule; Obispo; Perez.) 

Head 2^; depth 2^; D. xvn or xvm, 10; A. ix, 8; scales 
7-34-12. Body rather elongate, compressed; profile nearly straight 
to nape, from nape to first dorsal spine evenly convex; interorbital 
convex, 2$ in head; lips thick, the lower with a frenum, not quite 
reaching the margin of the lip; lower jaw slightly projecting; 
outer series of teeth not much enlarged, far apart; preorbital 4 in 
head; postorbital 2^ 6 in head; cheeks with 5 rows of scales; diameter 



FAMILY XXI. CICHLID.E. 



209 



of eye 4^ in the head; dorsal spines rather low; eighth spine 3;? 
in head, the last spine 2^ in head; middle rays of soft dorsal produced, 
their tips in specimens 3 inches in length reaching about y$ from base 
of caudal, in ^pecimens 7 inches in length to or past middle of caudal; 




FlG. 66. ClCHLASOMA HEDRICKI Meek. 



few scales on base of soft dorsal and anal fins; pectoral fin if in 
head; ventral with the tips produced, reaching to base of fifth anal 
spine; ventral if in head; caudal fin much rounded; least depth of 
caudal peduncle 2^ in head, its length i> in depth. , 

Color dark greenish olive, sides with 8 dark vertical bars, the 
first at front of -spinous dorsal, the first three bars with indefinite 
outlines; middle of opercle black; a dark lateral band little wider 
than eye on side, seldom extending beyond end of pectoral fin; a 
dark bar from eyes across snout, one on interorbital region, and 2 
others between nape and origin of dorsal fin; soft dorsal and anal 
and caudal fins profusely spotted with black; a dark band along 
middle of spinous dorsal, a second band above this from tenth spine 
to soft dorsal; ventrals dusky, a black ocellated spot at base of 
caudal above lateral line. Length about 12 inches. 

Named for Mr. D. W. Hedrick, who superintended the construction 
of the large railroad bridges between Vera Cruz and Santa Lucretia, 
in recognition of the favors received through his courtesies. 

196. Cichlasoma pavonaceum (Garman). 

Her os pavonaceus Garman, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1881, 93; 
Spring near Monclova, Coahuila: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 
47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 1538. 
Known only from the type locality. 

Head 2^; depth 2>^; D. xvi, 12; A. v, 8; scales 5-32-12. Body 
rather elongate; head as deep as long; eye large, wider than pre- 



2io FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

orbital, its front behind tip of maxillary; jaws equal; 5 rows of scales 
on the cheek; fifth dorsal spine the highest; soft dorsal and anal 
reaching caudal; tip of pectorals reaching vent. 

Color dark brown flecked with pale; 4 to 7 ocellated, vertically 
expanded black spots on side below dorsal fin; an ocellated black 
spot on base of tail above lateral line; side with 10 or 12 faint dark 
cross bands. (Garman.) 

197. Cichlasoma beani (Jordan). 

Heros beani Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1888, 332; Rio Presidio, 
near Mazatlan: Jordan, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1895, 473; Rio 
Presidio: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1898, 1539: Evermann, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 1898, 2; Rosario, 
Sinaloa. 

Lowland streams of Sinaloa and Jalisco. 

Head 3; depth 2*^; D. xv, n; A. v, 8; scales 5-29-11. Body 
oblong, compressed; head small, profile depressed at interorbital 
area, which is flat or slightly concave, its width 2^ in head; snout 
rather pointed; lower jaw the longer; mouth moderate, maxillary 
3 in head; outer series of teeth enlarged, those in front on upper 
jaw canine-like; preorbital 4 in head; postorbital 2^; lips rather 
thin, the lower without a frenum; scales on cheeks in about 5 rows; 
spinous dorsal low, the eighth spine 3^ in head, the last 2^; middle 
rays of dorsal and anal much produced, their tips reaching nearly 
to tip of caudal fin; pectorals i^ in head; ventrals with rays pro- 
duced, their tips reaching base of third anal spine; caudal fin rounded; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 2^ in head, its length i?4 in its least 
depth. 

Color light olive, the scales with light margins, giving the fish 
a spotted appearance; round brownish spots on dorsal, caudal, and 
anal fins; ventrals dusky, the pectorals pale; a light line obliquely 
downward and forward to maxillary. Length about 12 inches. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. B. A. Bean, I have been pernrtted 
to examine 5 specimens of this species, which were taken at Tepic, 
December, 1902. It is reported to be an excellent food fish. 

198. Cichlasoma steindachneri Jordan & Snyder. 

Cichlasoma steindachneri Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish 
Comm., 1900, 143, fig. 20; Rio Verde, Rascon, San Luis Potosi: 
Jordan'& Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3173. 
Basin of the Rio Panuco. (Forlon; Valles; Rascon.) 
Head 2^; depth 2%; D. xv or xvi, 10; A. v, 7; scales 6-32-11. 
Body rather elongate, compressed; profile convex, not steep; head 



FAMILY XXI. CICHLID^E. 211 

pointed, upper jaw slightly the longer; lips thick, the lower with a well 
developed frenum; outer series of teeth enlarged, canine-like; mouth 
rather large ; maxillary 3 % in head ; mandible 2 ; preorbital 3 % to 4 ; 
postorbital 2*^; snout 2^"; interorbital very convex, 3^ in head; 




FlG. 67. ClCHLASOMA STEINDACHNERI Jordan & Snyder. 
No. 6164, Leland Stanford Jr. University. 

cheeks with about 7 rows of scales ; dorsal spines rather low, the eighth 
3> in head, the last 2^ ; dorsal and anal rays not produced, their tips 
scarcely reaching past base of caudal fin; pectoral fin iX in head; 
ventral with rays not produced, their tips not reaching first anal spine; 
no scales on base of soft dorsal and anal fins; caudal fin slightly 
rounded; least depth of caudal peduncle 2^ in head, its length equal 
to its depth. 

Color light brownish; sides with about 9 or 10 vertical dark bars; 
a dark, irregular band from upper edge of opercle to base of caudal ; 
this band more or less broken between the bars ; a black spot on middle 
of base of caudal; sides of head usually profusely speckled with dark 
dots ; a few of these dots on the lower half of the body ; an indefinite 
oblong blotch on middle of spinous dorsal ; base of vertical fins with a 
few dark spots. Length about 8 inches. 

199. Cichlasoma bartoni (Bean). 

Acara bartoni Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1892, pi. XLIV, fig. 3, 

286; Huasteca Potosina, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 
Cichlasoma bartoni Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 

1896, 1515. 
Heros labridens Pellegrin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1903, 120; 

Huasteca Potosi. 

Basin of the Rio Panuco. (Rio Verde.) 

Head 2^; depth 2^2 ; D. xv or xvi, loor n ; A. v, 9; scales 7-30-11. 
Body elongate, rather deep, compressed; profile convex, not very 



212 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 



steep, snout pointed; jaws equal; lips thick, the lower with a distinct 
frenum; mouth rather small, maxillary 3^ in head; mandible 2$ ; 
snout 2%; preorbital 4 in head; postorbital 2^ in head; interorbital 
convex 3^ in head; diameter of eye 4 in head; eighth dorsal spine 




FlG. 68. ClCHLASOMA BARTONI Bean. 

2^ in head, last dorsal spine 2^ in head; middle rays of dorsal fin 
not produced, their tips reaching slightly beyond base of caudal fin; 
pectoral fin i % in head ; ventral rays not produced ; length of ventral 
1^3 in head, tips not reaching first anal spine; caudal fin rounded; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 2^; its length i>6 in its depth. 

Color dark brownish, sides with about 6 dark indistinct vertical 
bars; no lateral band, or a very faint one; a dark caudal spot, sides of 
head usually with small dark dots, these sometimes forming reticula- 
tions on sides of head and above it ; very few or no dark dots on soft 
dorsal, anal, or caudal fins. Length about 8 to 10 inches. 

This species is more robust and has a less pointed snout than 
Cichlasoma steindachneri, which it most resembles. It has coarse, 
blunt pharyngeal teeth. A number of specimens examined by me 
were taken in the Rio Verde at Rio Verde by Dr. W. L. Tower of the 
University of Chicago. 

200. Cichlasoma istlanum (Jordan & Snyder). 

Heros istlanus Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm. 1900, 144, 
fig. 21 ; Rio Ixtla, at Puente de Ixtla: Jordan & Evermann, 
Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 3174: Meek, Field Col. Mus. 
Pub. 65, 1902, 120; Rio Ixtla; Puente de Ixtla, Morelos; Rio 
Balsas. Balsas Guerrero. 

Basin of the Rio Balsas. (Yautepec; Jojutla; Chietla; Papayo, 
Guerrero, collected by E. W. Nelson.) 



FAMILY XXI. CICHLIDVE. 



213 



Head 2^; depth 2^ to 2%"; D. xv or xvi, 10 or u; A. v or vi, 7 
or 8. Body elongate, compressed; head large, mouth large and 
strong; maxillary 2% in head; the lower jaw the longer; teeth in the 
outer series of both jaws enlarged, not numerous; lips thick, no frenum 




FlG. 69. ClCHLASOMA ISTLANUM (Jordan & Snyder). 
No. 6150, Leland Stanford Jr. University. 

in some specimens, a partial one in others; mandible i\ in head; 
snout 3f; interorbital convex, 2^ in head; preorbital 3^! post- 
orbital 2^; diameter of eye 4%', cheeks with about 6 rows of scales; 
eighth dorsal spine 3^3 in head; the last spine 2^ to 3 ; middle rays of 
dorsal and anal produced, sometimes reaching past middle of caudal 
fin; pectoral fin if in head; ventral fins with rays produced into a 
filament in larger specimens, the tips reaching second anal spine; in 
specimens where the rays are not produced the tips of the caudal fin 
do not reach origin of the anal; caudal fin rounded, the least depth of 
caudal peduncle 2^ in head, its length slightly less than depth. 

Color nearly black to a light brownish, each scale with an oblong 
dark spot in the center; traces on the smaller and lighter individuals 
of about 7 dark vertical bars ; smaller individuals (less than 4 inches) 
have a black spot on middle of the side, one at base of caudal and one 
at upper edge of gill opening; dorsal, caudal, and anal fins spotted with 
black; in some specimens the spots on scales very prominent, forming 
longitudinal lines on lower half of the body. Length about 1 2 inches. 

This species is very abundant in the Balsas Basin, and at present 
is the only member of the family known from it. It is quite variable 
in color, some specimens from Yautepec being nearly black on the lower 
half of the body, or with scattered black blotches. The nuchal hump 
is developed quite well in males 7 inches in length. In the speci- 
mens from Yautepec the ovaries are little developed and give no 



214 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 



evidence of approximate spawning time. This species and the large 
catfish found in the Balsas Basin are the most important food fishes 
of that region. 

201. Cichlasoma evermanni sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4227, F. C. M., 5.25 inches in length; Tehuantepec, 
Oaxaca. (Tehuantepec.) 

Rio Tehuantepec. (Tehuantepec.) 




FIG. 70. CICHLASOMA EVERMANNI Meek. 



Head 2^; depth 2%; D. xiv or xv, 13 to 15; A. v, 8 or 9; scales 
7-32-12. Body deep, compressed; the profile rather steep, its an- 
terior half slightly concave, the posterior half convex; mouth rather 
large, the maxillary 3,^ in head, its tip not quite reaching vertical 
from anterior margin of the eye; jaws equal; teeth in each jaw in a 
band, the anterior row slightly enlarged; lips moderately thick, the 
lower with no distinct frenum, though not quite so free at the sym- 
phisis as laterally; preorbital broad, 3% in head; postorbital 2^; 
interorbital 2 ^ ; diameter of eye 3 ^ to 4 in head, ; cheeks with 5 rows 
of scales; origin of dorsal to tip of snout 2^3 in the body; dorsal 
spines gradually increasing in size to about fifth, longest (eighth) 3 in 
head; in the largest specimens (5 inches in length) the middle rays of 
the dorsal are produced, their tips reaching past the middle of the 
caudal fin; in smallest specimens (4 inches in length) tips of dorsal 
and anal rays reach slightly past base of anal; pectoral fin i in 
head ; ventral with the tips produced in the larger individuals ; tips in 
the young scarcely reaching base of first anal spine, in adults to fourth 
anal spine; caudal fin truncate; caudal peduncle deep, its least 
depth 2 in head, its length i^ in its least depth. 



FAMILY XXI. CICHLID^E. 215 

Color dark olivaceous, sides with 6 dark vertical bars, each 
wider than the interspaces, the first bar across opercle, the second 
one begins at base of fourth anal spine; no lateral band, or a very 
indistinct one ; no definite blotches on sides ; a small black caudal spot 
just above lateral line; vertical fins with some small black spots, or 
none on darker specimens; fins all dusky; no bars on profile; many 
scales have dark centers. Length about 8 inches. Several specimens 
taken at Tehuantepec. 

Named for Dr. Barton W. Evermann, in recognition of his services 
to American Ichthyology. 

202. Cichlasoma heterodontum (Vaillant & Pellegrin). 

Heros heterodontus Vaillant & Pellegrin, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Paris, 1902, 85; Isthmus of Tehuantepec. 

Isthmus of Tehuantepec. 

Head 3-^; depth 2; D. xiv-xv, 12; A. v, 9; scales 6-28-14. Body 
deep; jaws subequal; lower lip with a frenum; the teeth in outer series 
dissimilar, few cylindro-conical, the others simply cylindrical, with 
worn tips, being intermediate between this genus and Neetroplus; 
eye 3X m the head, i% in interorbital space, 1^2 to 1^5 in the length 
of the snout; cheeks with 5 rows of scales; dorsal spines gradually 
increase to the fifth ; the last anal spine is as long and stronger than 
the last dorsal spine; caudal fin rounded; base of soft parts of un- 
paired fins scaly; pectoral more than ^ length of the head. 

Color brownish, with traces of 6 dark transverse bands and a dark 
caudal spot; the fins dark with some darker punctulations. Length 
about 5 inches (Vaillant & Pellegrin). 

203. Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum (Baird & Girard). 

Herichthys cyanoguttatus Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila., 1854, 25; Rio Grande, Brownsville, Texas: Girard, Mex. 

Bd. Sur., 30, pi. iv, figs. 9-12, 1859; Laguna, Ft. Brown, Texas; 

Matamoras, Mexico; Rio San Juan, near Cadereita and Cader- 

eita, Nuevo Leon. 
Heros cyanoguttatus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus. 

1896, 1537: Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1900, 

144; lagoons at Tampico. 
Heros temporatus Fowler, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1903, 321; 

Victoria, Tamaulipas. 

Atlantic coast rivers from Texas to the Rio Panuco and Tabasco. 
(Monterey ; Montemorelos ; San Juan ; Linares ; La Cruz ; Garza Valdez ; 
Santa Engracia; Victoria; Forlon; Rascon.) 

Head 3; depth 2^; D. xvi, 10 or n ; A. v, 8 or 9; scales 7-3312. 



2i6 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Body deep, compressed; profile with a quite even curve, except in 
males with the nuchal hump; mouth moderate; maxillary 2^ in 
head ; mandible 2% ', jaws equal, or the lower the longer in males ; outer 
series of teeth conical, enlarged; lips moderately thick, the lower with 
a f renum ; preorbital 2 g in head ; postorbital 2 1 / ; interorbital very 
convex, 2^ in head; diameter of eye 4% in head; cheeks with 5 rows 
of scales; eighth dorsal spine 2| in head; last dorsal spine 2-j l ; the 
middle rays of dorsal and anal produced, reaching in the male slightly 
past the middle of the caudal fin, in female to about middle of caudal 
fin; pectoral fin 2% in head; ventral with their rays produced, their 
tips reaching third anal spine ; ventrals slightly longer than the head ; 
caudal fin rounded; least depth i| in head; length of caudal pe- 
duncle 1 1 in the depth. 

Color olivaceous, 5 indistinct dark bars on the posterior half of the 
body; a black caudal spot, slightly more than half above the lateral 
line; many small white spots on sides, being most numerous on head 
ventral surface, head and caudal peduncle; white spots on vertical 
fins, being most numerous on the base of soft dorsal and anal, and on 
caudal fin; ventrals black or very dark; pectorals light. Many half 
grown and adult individuals with posterior half of body and ventral 
region below base of pectoral fin black. Males of this species, 7 
inches long and over, have a well developed nuchal hump. Length 
about 12 inches. 

At La Cruz I succeeded in catching a large number of adults of 
this species. Many of the smaller males and all of the females had no 
nuchal hump. All of the larger males had the hump more or less 
developed. The sexual organs of the males were undeveloped. The 
ovaries of the females of some specimens were a little more developed 
than in others, but none were at all near the spawning period, and 
there was no evidence that would indicate the approximate time of 
spawning. 

204. Cichlasoma rectangulare (Steindachner). 

Acara rectangularis Steindachner, Chromiden Mexnos, 1864, i ; 
Mexico. 

Cichlasoma rectangulare Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1896, 1515. 

Distribution unknown. 

Head $%; depth 2f ; D. xvi, 13; A. iv, n; scales 21-33. Body 
moderately elongate, the back considerably arched; profile depressed 
before the eye , which is in the middle of the head ; maxillary reaching 
front of eye ; outer teeth large, somewhat canine-like ; lower lip with a 
f renum; eye 4| in head; preorbital 3^ in head; 7 rows of scales on 



FAMILY XXL CICHLID^;. 217 

the cheek; dorsal spines rather low and strong; soft dorsal and anal 
moderately high and pointed; ventrals longer than pectoral, i-^ in 
head ; soft dorsal and anal with small scales at base ; caudal fin rounded. 

Color dark brown; a narrow brown vertical streak on each scale 
posteriorly; a broad blackish band beginning behind eye running 
backward along body to opposite first soft ray of anal, then turn- 
ing abruptly to base of caudal; soft dorsal and caudal with alte nate 
rows of yellow and dirty blue spots on the membranes; fins mostly 
bluish, dotted with black. Length 7^ inches (Steindachner). 

Known only from the above account. 

205. Cichlasoma mojarra sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4718, F. C. M., 2.35 inches in length; San Geronimo, 
Oaxaca. 




FIG. 71. CICHLASOMA MOJARRA Meek. 

Head 2f ; depth 2>^; D. xvi, 10; A. vm, 7; scales 8-32-12. Body 
elliptical, compressed; profile with a slight angle between eyes, and 
slightly convex from nape to dorsal fin; mouth moderate, maxillary 
3 in head; snout 3^ in head; lips rather thick, the lower without trace 
of a frenum; jaws equal; mandible 2^ in head; teeth conical, a few 
in front canine-like; preorbital narrow, 4^ in head; postorbital 2% 
in head; interorbital 3^ in head; cheeks with 5 rows of scales; opercles 
scaly; diameter of eye 2| in head; origin of dorsal to tip of snout 2^" 
in the body; the first four dorsal spines low, the fourth about f the 
length of the fifth, longest (eighth) dorsal spine 2 in head; dorsal 
rays not produced, the longest if in head; tip of dorsal opposite tips 
of anal when the fins are deflexed; the dorsal and anal rays reaching 
about y distance to base of caudal fin; pectorals i-f in head; ventrals 



218 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

i/4 m head, their tips slightly produced and reaching base of fourth 
anal spine; caudal fin rounded; caudal peduncle deep, its least depth 
2^3 in head; length of caudal peduncle about iX in its least depth. 

Color light brownish, sides with 7 dark vertical bars, each wider 
than the interspaces, the first bar across nape ending in a dark humeral 
spot about y$ size of eye, the second bar at base of first four dorsal 
spines, the last bar on caudal peduncle; a dark ocellated spot at base 
of caudal slightly above middle; a dark spot on fourth caudal bar 
below lateral line ; tips of ventrals and anal blackish ; interorbital area 
dark; a dark bar on napoin front of the one ending in a humeral spot. 

206. Cichlasoma octofasciatum (Regan). 

Heros cyanoguttatus Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. U. S. Fish 
Comm., 1902, 157 ; Montecristo, Tabasco. 

Heros octofasciatus Regan, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Geneva, 1903, 417, 
pi. 13, fig. i; Mexico. 

Southern Mexico to Honduras. 

Head i\ ; depth 2; D. xvn to xix-8 to 10; A. vin to x-8 to 10; 
scales 5-29-12 to 14. Body deep, compressed; snout short, about as 
long as diameter of eye; lower lip with afrenum; eye large, 3 (young) 
to 4 Ys in head, and equaling interorbital width; preorbital straight, 
its width ^ to f diameter of eye ; dorsal spines gradually increasing 
to the seventh, the others subequal; pectoral i^ in head; tips of ven- 
trals reaching fourth anal spine; caudal peduncle short, its depth i^ 
to 2^ times its length. 

Color, seven obscure dark bands on sides, another at base of caudal 
fin ; a black spot on third band just below lateral line ; a similar but 
smaller spot on upper half of base of caudal ; soft parts of unpaired 
fins obscurely spotted; usually some light blue spots on the head, 
and one on each scale of. side of body. Length 5 inches. (Regan.) 

207. Cichlasoma par ma (Giinther). 

Heros parma Giinther, Cat., iv, 285, 1862; Mexico and Guate- 
mala: Giinther, Fishes Cent. Amer., 449, 1869; Guatemala. 
Cichlasoma parma Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Fish 
Comm., 1896, 1519: Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. U. S. 
Fish Comm., 1902, 156; Montecristo: Meek, Field Col. Mus. 
Pub. 65, 1902, 120; La Antigua. 

Large rivers of Mexico which empty into the Gulf south of Vera 
Cruz. (San Francisco; Vera Cruz; Boca del Rio; Obispo; Perez.) 

Head 3; depth 2 to 2>; D. xvi or xvn, 12 or 13; A. vi, 8 or 9; scales 
7-33-12. Body rather deep, compressed, profile steep; mouth rather 
small, the maxillary not reaching vertical from anterior margin of the 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM. 



PLATE XV, ZOOLOGY. 





ClCHLASOMA PARMA (Giinthep. 
No. 4570, Field Columbian Museum. 



FAMILY XXI. CICHLID^;. 219 

orbit; maxillary 3^3 in head; mandible 2^3 to 3; jaws equal; lips 
moderately thick, the lower with a frenum in large specimens (in small 
specimens, 5 inches or less s , the frenum not complete) ; preorbital 4 
in head; postorbital 2|; diameter of eye 4^; dorsal spines rather 
high, the eighth spine 2^ in head, the last one i ; anal and dorsal rays 
not much produced, their tips reaching slightly beyond base of caudal 
fin; pectoral fin i^ in head; ventral 1%, its rays slightly produced, 
the tips of longest reaching to first anal spine ; least depth of caudal 
peduncle 2% in head, its length i% in its depth; caudal fin rounded. 

Color olivaceous with 7 dark vertical bars; an indistinct longitu- 
dinal band from opercle to base of caudal, ending in a dark spot at base 
of caudal fin; fins dusky. Length about 14 inches. 

This species resembles C. melanurus. It is deeper and does not 
have a prominent lateral band. One of the most abundant species 
of Cichlids in southern Mexico. 

208. Cichlasoma melanurum (Giinther). 

Heros melanurus Giinther, Cat., iv, 1862, 228; Lago de Peten, 
Guatemala: Giinther, Fish. Cent. Amer. 450, pi. 72, fig. 3, 
1869; Lago de Peten, Guatemala. 
Heros fenestratus B. A. Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1892, 541; 

Santa Maria, Vera Cruz. 

Cichlasoma melanurum Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U.S. Nat. 
Mus. 1896, 1523: Evermann & Goldsborough, Bull. U. S. Fish 
Comm., 1902, 157; Montecristo, Teapa: Meek, Field Col. Mus. 
Pub. 65, 1902, 120; Cuicatlan. 

Large rivers of tropical America south of the city of Vera Cruz and 
Tehuantepec. (Vera Cruz; Otopa; Motzorongo; Obispo; Perez; San 
Geronimo.) 

Head 3^; depth 2^" to 2%; D. xvm, 10; A. vi or vn; scales 6-34- 
ii. Body elongate, moderately compressed, profile rather steep; 
head short; mouth moderate, the maxillary not reaching to vertical 
from anterior margin of the pupil, 3^ in head; lips thick, a broad 
frenum in adult specimens, a shallow groove in young; upper jaw 
slightly the longer ; preorbital 3 % in head ; postorbital 2 l /$ ; snout 2 % ; 
mandible 2-f to 3 ; diameter of eye 4^ ; seventh or eighth dorsal spine 
3^ in head, last spine 2^ ; dorsal and anal rays not much produced, 
their tips scarcely reaching past base of caudal; pectoral fin i^" in 
head; tips of ventrals not reaching anal, i% in head; caudal fin 
rounded; least depth of caudal peduncle 2% in head, its length i> in 
its least depth. 

Color dark olivaceous; sides with about 7 black vertical bars, each 
narrower than the interspaces, sometimes the bands are not all dis- 



220 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

tinct ; a broad lateral band running from just above pectoral to middle 
of caudal peduncle ; no black caudal spot ; fins dusky, unicolor. Length 
about 15 inches. 

This species resembles Cichlasoma parma, but it is more slender, and 
the dark lateral band is much more prominent. 

209. Cichlasoma eigenmanni Meek. 

Cichlasoma eigenmanni Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 119; 
Venta Salada. 

Upper tributaries of the Rio Papaloapam. 

Head 3^"; depth 2^; D. xvn,'i4; A. v, 10; scales 6-33-11. Body 
elongate; profile convex, not very steep; mouth small, low, terminal; 
jaws subequal; maxillary not reaching anterior margin of orbit; its 
length 3;? in head; mandible 3^ in head; preorbital 3^3 in head; 
postorbital 2%', snout 2^; lips thin, the lower with a broad frenum; 
eighth dorsal spine 2^ in head, the last spine 2^; dorsal and anal 
rays not produced, their tips scarcely reaching base of caudal; pec- 
toral 1^3 in head; ventral if, their tips not reaching vent; least depth 
of caudal peduncle z\ in head, its length being about \ greater than 
its depth. 

Color brownish, six indistinct dark bands on sides; a dark lateral 
band which ends in a black spot at base of caudal; fins all plain. 
Length 7 inches or over. 

210. Cichlasoma nebulifer (Giinther). 

Chromis nebulifer Giinther, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1860, 318; 
Mexico. 

Her os nebulifer Gunther, Cat., iv, 297, 1860; Mexico. 

Cichlasoma nebuliferun Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1898, 1524. 

Eastern lowland streams of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. (San 
Juan Evangelista.) 

Head 3! ; depth 2%; D. xvn or xvm, 10 or n; A. vi, 8 or 9; scales 
6-36-11. Body elongate, much compressed; profile much curved, its 
anterior half very steep ; mouth small, subinferior, maxillary 4 in head ; 
mandible 3^; lips moderately thick, the lower with a broad frenum; 
jaws equal, the anterior teeth rather strong; about 5 rows of embedded 
scales on the cheeks; preorbital 2^ in head; postorbital 2^; inter- 
orbital very convex, 2 % in head ; diameter of eye 4 in head ; dorsal spines 
rather high, eighth 2^ in head, the last spine 2^5 ; middle rays of dor- 
sal not produced, their tips reaching base of caudal; pectoral \\ in 
head; ventral rays not produced, their tips not reaching to first anal 
spine ; ventral i ^ in head ; caudal fin truncate ; least depth of caudal 
peduncle 2^ in head, its length about % greater than its depth. 



FAMILY XXI. CICHLID^;. 221 

Color light olivaceous, sides with about 6 indistinct vertical bands; 
side with a dark lateral band on middle of side, ending in a large black 
caudal spot; fins rather dark and without spots or any markings. 
Length about 14 inches. 

NOTE. The two following descriptions are too brief to indicate 
their position in the preceding list. 

Cichlasoma deppii (Heckel). 

Herosdeppii Heckel, Brasil. Fluss-Fische, 382, 1840; Mexico: Gunther, Cat., 
iv, 29, 1862. 

Cichlasoma deppii Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 1524. 

Head 3^; depth 3; D. xvn, 10; A. vi, 8; scales 17-30. Lower lip with a 
frenum; 6 rows of scales on the cheek; dorsal spines 4 in head. 

Color brownish; tail with 6 obsolete dark cross bands, the last with a black 
spot. (Heckel.) 

Cichlasoma montezuma (Heckel). 

Heros montezuma Heckel, Brazil. Fluss-Fische, 1840, 383; Mexico: Gunther, 

Cat., iv, 296, 1862. 
Cichlasoma moniezuma Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Fish Comm., 

1896, 1518. 

D. xvi, ii ; A. v, ?; scales 30. Lower lip with a frenum; 5 rows of scales on 
the cheek; body with 6 dark cross bands, the last around root of caudal and 
marked with a black spot. (Heckel.) 

82. Neetroplus Gunther. 

Neetroplus Gunther, Fish. Cent. America, 469., 1869. (Type, Neetro- 
plus nematops Gunther.) 

This genus differs from Cichlasoma chiefly in having anteriorly a 
row of flat, incisor-like teeth, behind which is a band of villiform teeth. 

In the numerous specimens of Neetroplus carpintis examined by 
me, the incisor-like teeth are not always evident, which indicates 
some doubt as to the validity of the genus. 

211. Neetroplus carpintis Jordan & Snyder. 

Neetroplus carpintis Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1900, 146, fig. 22; Laguna de Carpinte, Tampico; Rio Verde 
Rascon: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 



Lowland streams of northeastern Mexico, Rio Panuco to the Rio 
Grande, abundant. (San Juan; Linares; Garza Valdez; La Cruz; 
Santa Engracia; Victoria; Forlon; Valles.) 

Head 3; depth if to 2; D. xvi, 10; A. v, 8 or 9; scales 7-33-12. 
Body deep, much compressed; profile convex, quite steep; interorbital 
convex, 2^" in head; mouth moderate, maxillary 3^ in head; man- 
dible 2%; preorbital 2|; postorbital 2^; snout 2f; diameter of eye 
4% in head; jaws equal; outer series of teeth enlarged, some being 
more or less incisor -like ; lips thick, the lower with a narrow, well devel- 
oped frenum; cheeks with about 5 rows of scales; eighth dorsal spine 



222 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

2 in head, the last spine i^; middle rays of dorsal and anal fins pro- 
duced, their tips in females reaching about middle of caudal, in 
the larger males to within y^ of tip of caudal; pectoral fin !> in 
head ; ventral fins produced, their tips reaching base of third anal spine, 
the fin being slightly longer than the head; caudal fin rounded; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 2 in head, its length i^ in its depth. 

Color dark brownish, about 5 dark vertical bands on posterior 
half of the body; a black caudal spot about % of which is above the 
lateral line ; soft dorsal, soft anal and caudal fin with some transparent 
blotches; a few dark spots about X si ze f pupil on upper anterior 
half of body, a few smaller dark dots on cheek and preorbital areas; 
under side of head, breast, base of pectoral and ventrals nearly black. 

The larger males (9 inches in length) have a well developed nuchal 
hump. Length about 12 inches. 

83. Thorichthys gen. nov. 

Type, Thorichthys ellioti Meek. 

Body deep, much compressed; mouth rather small; caudal fin 
lunate, its outer rays produced into a filament; pectoral fin long and 
pointed, about as long or longer than head; subopercle with a black 
blotch, otherwise as in Cichlasoma. (0pwffxa> y to leap, ^0^?, fish.) 

On all specimens of this group collected by me there is no trace of 
a nuchal hump. Individuals of the two species here listed from 
southern Mexico are not large, as none of those collected by me exceeds 
a length of 6 inches. These two species are very variable, though 
they represent a quite distinct type of Cichlids. The following species 
from Mexico and Central America apparently belong to this group : 

Thorichthys aureus (Gunther), Rio Motagua and at Yzabel, Guate- 
mala. 

Thorichthys afjinis (Gunther), Lake Peten, Guatemala. 

Thorichthys fredrichsthali (Heckel), Rio San Juan, Nicaragua. 

Thorichthys rostratus (Gill & Bransford), Lake Nicaragua. 

Thorichthys longimanus (Gunther), Lake Nicaragua. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THORICHTHYS. 

a. Dorsal spines high, longest i to 2 in head; PAGE 

cheeks with small blue spots. helleri 223 

aa. Dorsal spines lower, the longest 2f in head; 
cheeks with black spots, some of which are 
large as pupil ellioti 223 



FAMILY XXI. CICHLID^;. 223 

212. Thorichthys helleri (Steindachner). 

Heros helleri Steindachner, Chromiden Mexicos, 1864, 8; Rio Teapa, 
Tabasco, Mexico. 

Cichlasoma helleri Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1896, 1521. 

Heros maculipinnis Steindachner, Chromiden Mexicos, 1864, 13; 
Rio Zanopa, Mexico: B. A. Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1892, 
541; Santa Maria, Vera Cruz: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 1529. 

Lowland streams of Mexico which empty into the Gulf south of the 
city of Vera Cruz. (Otopa ; El Hule ; Obispo ; Perez ; San Juan Evan- 
gelista.) 

Head 2^; depth 2 to 2^; D. xvi or xvii, 9; A. vn or vin-y or 8; 
scales 6-30, 12. ' Body rather deep, much compressed; mouth mod- 
erate, maxillary 3^3 in head ; lips rather thick, the lower with a frenum ; 
jaws equal, outer series of teeth little enlarged; preorbital 3 to 3^ in 
head; postorbital 2%; interorbital 3; diameter of eye 3> in head; 
cheeks with about 5 rows of scales; eighth dorsal spine 2^ in head; last 
dorsal spine if to 2; middle rays of soft dorsal and anal produced 
into a filament which extends about to or past middle of caudal fin; 
pectoral fin long and slender, pointed, its length equal to that of 
head; ventrals with their tips produced, reaching base of sixth anal 
spine, their length slightly more than the length of head; caudal fin 
lunate, the tips of outer rays produced into short filaments; least 
depth of caudal peduncle 2$ in the head; its length if in its depth; 
gill rakers short, about 12 on first gill arch. 

Color light olivaceous, sides with 6 rather indistinct dark cross-bars; 
a black blotch on third band below lateral line and at extremity of 
pectoral fin ; a black blotch on opercle in front of pectoral fin ; side of 
head with a few small blue spots, occasionally a few dark dots with 
blue centers; blue spots on soft dorsal, soft anal, and caudal fin; mem- 
brane of spinous dorsal slightly lighter near its tip. Length about 6 
inches. 

These little fishes are exceedingly numerous in small isolated 
ponds, especially where there is a considerable amount of vegetation. 
They are attracted by anything which enters the water and will jump 
out of it in an apparently playful mood. Where abundant they are 
easily caught in the hand, for as soon as your fingers touch the water 
they will come leaping toward you. 

213. Thorichthys ellioti sp. nov. 

Type, No. 4727, F. C. M., 5^ inches in length; Motzorongo, 
Vera Cruz. 



224 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 



Head 2f ; depth 2^ to 2>; D. xvi or xvn, 8; A. vii to ix, 6 or 7 ; 
scales 7-30-13. Body rather elongate, compressed; profile nearly 
straight to nape, more curved from nape to first dorsal spine; mouth 
rather small, maxillary 3^3 in head; jaws equal, outer series of teeth 




FIG. 72. THORICHTHYS ELLIOTI Meek. 



little enlarged; lips thick, the lower with a frenum; preorbital 3 in 
head; postorbital 2J^; diameter of eye 3$ in the head; eighth dorsal 
spine 2^ in head; last spine 2 ; middle rays of dorsal produced in 
adults, their tips reaching to or past middle of caudal fin; pectoral 
long and rather slender, its length i% in head; ventral with its rays 
produced, their tips reaching sixth anal spine; length of ventral ij 
in head; caudal fin lunate, its outer ray usually produced into a short 
filament; least depth of caudal peduncle 2f in head, its length 
slightly less than its depth; gill rakers very short, about 12 on first gill 
arch. 

Color dark olivaceous, sides with 6 indistinct cross-bars; a black 
blotch on side below lateral line at extremity of pectoral fin ; no black 
caudal spot; a black blotch on opercle just in front of pectoral fin; 
cheeks with black spots, some of which have blue centers; some of 
these spots as large as the pupil; many of the scales on lower half 
of the sides have dark centers forming lateral stripes along the rows of 
scales; a few transparent spots on the soft dorsal, soft anal, and caudal 
fin; a light stripe near tip of spinous dorsal, a similar one on anal. 

This species differs from Thorichthys helleri chiefly in having a 
darker color, and in having the large black spots on the side of the 
head; the dorsal fin is also lower, and the fish is more elongate. 



FAM. XXI. CICHLID^E. FAM. XXII. GOBIID^E. 225 

Named for Professor D. G. Elliot, Curator of the Department of 
Zoology, Field Columbian Museum, whose kind interest and coop- 
eration have much aided and encouraged the writer in the preparation 
of this paper. 

Family XXII. Gobiidse. 
THE GOBIES; "ABOMAS." 

Body oblong or elongate, naked or covered with ctenoid or cycloid 
scales; teeth usually small; premaxillaries protractile; suborbital 
without bony stay; opercle unarmed; preopercle unarmed or with a 
short spine; pseudobranchiae present; gills 4, a slit behind the fourth; 
gill membranes united to the isthmus ; no lateral line ; dorsal fins con- 
nected or not; ventral fins close together, separate, or completely 
united, when united forming a sucking disk, a cross fold of skin at 
their base completing the cup ; no pyloric cceca ; usually no air bladder. 
Carnivorous fishes usually of small size living on the bottoms near 
shores in warm regions ; some live in fresh water. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF GOBIIDyE. 

a. Ventral fins separate, the rays 1,5; body scaly. PAGE 

b. Vomer with a broad patch of villiform teeth; 

skull above with conspicuous ridges Philypnus 226 

bb. Vomer without teeth, skull without crests, 
c. Body short, rather deep; scales large, less 

than 40 in the lateral series Dormitator 227 

cc. Body long and slender; scales small, more 

than 40 in the lateral series Eleotris 228 

aa. Ventral fins united, forming a sort of disk 

which is free from the belly, 
d. Maxillary normal, not produced behind the 
oval opening; supraoccipital and temporal 
. ridges continuous; scales ctenoid; dorsal 

spines 6. 
f . Inner edge of shoulder girdle without fleshy 

dermal flaps; preorbital region short Gobius 229 

ff. Inner edge of shoulder girdle with 2 or 3 

dermal flaps; preorbital region very long. .Chonophorus 232 
dd. Maxillary much produced backward, ex- 
tending beyond gill opening in the adult; 
supraorbital and temporal crests not con- 
tinuous; scales cycloid Gillichthys 234. 



226 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Subfamily Eleotridinse. 

84. Phily pirns Cuvier & Valenciennes. 

METAPIL. 

Philypnus Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., xn, 255, 1837. 
Type, Gobiomorus dormitor Lacepede. 

Body elongate, terete anteriorly, compressed posteriorly; head 
elongate, much depressed above; mouth large, lower jaw much pro- 
jecting; teeth in jaws small, slender, recurved, the outer scarcely 
enlarged; teeth on vomer villiform.in a broad, crescent-shaped patch; 
gill openings extencrmg forward to below posterior angle of mouth; 
the isthmus very narrow; scales ctenoid, covering most of the head; 
no preopercular spine; ventral fins separate, the rays 1,5. 

214. Philypnus dormitor (Lacepede). METAPIL. 

Gobiomorus dormitor Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., n, 599, 1798; 

Martinique. 

Eleotris dormitatrix Giinther, Cat., in, 119, 1861; Mexico. 
Philypnus dormitor Girard, Mex. Bd. Sur., 29, pi. xn, fig. 13, 1859; 
mouth of the Rio Grande: Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1860, 122; mouth of the Rio Grande: Jordan & Evermann, 
Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 2194: Jordan & Snyder, Bull. 
U. S. Fish Comm., 1900, 147; lagoons near Tampico: Meek, 
Field Col. Mus. Pub., 65, 1902, 120; La Antigua. 
Philypnus lateralis Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, 123; 
Cape San Lucas: Jordan, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1895, 493; Rio 
Presidio and Astillero: Rutter, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1896, 264; 
fresh water at San Jose del Cabo, Lower California; Jordan & 
Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 2195; Rio Presidio, 
near Mazatlan, Mexico. 
Gobiomorus donyitator B. A. Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 

542; Dominica and Santa Maria, Vera Cruz. 

Fresh water streams of tropical America, from Tamaulipas and 
Sonora to Panama, not found on the Mexican plateau. (Santa Engracia ; 
Forlon; Valles; Rascon; San Francisco; Boca del Rio; Motzorongo; 
Obispo; Perez; Tehuantepec; La Vega, Tamaulipas [Evermann]). 

Head 2f to 3; depth 5 to 5^; D. vi-io; A. 1,9; scales 50 to 60. 
Body elongate, compressed posteriorly; head long, much depressed; 
mouth large, lower jaw projecting; interorbital area nearly flat, its 
width 4 in head; maxillary 2f to 2^ in head, its tip reaching vertical 
from pupil; teeth on jaws in a band, depressible; diameter of eye 6 to 
7 in head; distance from tip of snout to origin of dorsal 2^4 in body; 
pectoral 1^3 in head; ventral 2% in head; scales on entire body except 



FAMILY XXII. GOBIID^;. 227 

end of snout; those on anterior part of the body smaller than those 
on the posterior part. 

Color dark brownish above, lighter below; an interrupted dark 
lateral band, in specimens a foot or more in length obsolete; anal and 
ventral fins pale, the other fins dusky and distinctly mottled ; spinous 
dorsal margined with blackish; head often with dark spots. Length 
2 feet or more. 

Philypnus lateralis is said to differ from Philypnus dormitor in 
brighter color and the more distinct lateral band ; young specimens in 
our collection from La Antigua have as distinct a lateral band as do 
specimens of the same size from Tehuantepec. 

85. Dormitator Gill. 

PUNECAS. 

Dormitator Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, 240. (Type, 
Dormitator gundlachi Gill.) 

Body robust, somewhat compressed; head broad and flat above; 
mouth little oblique, lower jaw little projecting; teeth in jaws, none 
on vomer; lower pharyngeal teeth stiff and blunt, the bones with a 
broad, flexible, and lamelliform rudimentary gill filament; scales large, 
ctenoid ; no preopercular spine ; supraoccipital crest low. 

215. Dormitator maculatus (Bloch). GUAVINA; PUNECAS; PARGETA; 

LA PAPEQUE. 

Sciczna maculata Bloch, Ichth., pi. 299, fig. 2, 1790, West Indies. 
Eleotris sima Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., 232, 1837; 

Vera Cruz. 

Eleotris maculata Gunther, Cat., in, 112, 1861. 
Eleotris somnolentus Girard, Proc. Acad. .Nat. Sci. Phila., 1858, 169; 

near the mouth of the Rio Grande. 

Dormitator maculatus Jordan, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1895, 493 i Ri 
Presidio, near Mazatlan: Rutter, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1896, 
265 ; Rio San Jose, San Jose del Cabo, Lower California : Jordan 
& Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 2196. 
West Indies, both coasts of America from South Carolina and Cape 
San Lucas to Panama and Para. (Boca del Rio; El Hule; Obispo; 
Perez.) 

Head 3^"; depth 3^; D. vn-i, 8; A. i, 9 or 10; scales 10-30. 
Body robust, somewhat compressed, profile much decurved; head 
broad, interorbital nearly flat, if in head; snout bluntish; mouth 
terminal, oblique, maxillary reaching vertical from anterior margin 
of orbit; teeth in jaws villiform, in bands; no teeth on vomer; eye 4 



228 FI^LD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

in head; origin of dorsal fin slightly nearer last ray of soft dorsal, 2^ 
in body; pectoral nearly equaling length of head; ventral ij/j in head; 
caudal fin rounded; least depth of caudal peduncle ig in head. 

Color brownish; sides with 8 or 9 light irregular bars running 
downward and slightly forward; a dark humeral blotch; a dark bar 
on base of pectoral ; a dark streak below eye to posterior angle of the 
mouth ; 2 to 4 dark bands from eye and below eye to posterior margin 
of preopercle; vertical fins more or less spotted with darker; haired 
fins without blotches. Length i to 2 feet. 

This species usually inhabits salt or brackish water. 

86. Eleotris Bloch & Schneider. 

Eleotris Bloch & Schneider, Syst. Ichth., 65, 1801. (Type, Gobius 
pisonis Gmelin.) 

Body elongate, slender, compressed posteriorly; head long, flat- 
tened above, without spines or crests, and almost entirely scaly ; mouth 
large, oblique, the lower jaw projecting; lower pharyngeals rather 
broad, the teeth small, bluntish; preopercle with a small concealed 
spine below, its tip hooked forward; eyes small, high, anterior; isthmus 
broad ; ventral fins separate, rays 1,5; scales moderate, mostly ctenoid, 
45 to 60 in the lateral series; vertebra? about 26. 

A small group of fishes inhabiting warm seas; a few enter fresh 
water. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF ELEOTRIS. . 
a. Teeth subequal, those of the inner or outer series PAGE 

enlarged; scales all ctenoid pisonis 228 

aa. Teeth all equal; scales of dorsal and ventral 

regions cycloid, those on sides ctenoid pictus 229 

216. Eleotris pisonis (Gmelin). GUAVINA TETARD; SLEEPER. 

Gobius pison is Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1206, 1788 (based on Eleotris 
capite plagioplateo of Gronow; after Marcgrave & Piso, Hist. 
Brasil., iv, 166, 1648; Brazil). 
Eleotris pisonis Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 

1898, 2200. 

Streams of the West Indies and of Tropical America, from southern 
Florida to Brazil. (Vera Cruz; Boca del Rio.) 

Head 3 to 3^; depth 4^; D. vi-i, 8; A. i, 8; scales 60. Body 
elongate, not much compressed; head depressed, flat; interorbital 
area 3 in head; mouth large, maxillary reaching vertical from the 
pupil ; lower jaw projecting; snout 5 in head; jaws with bands of villi- 
form teeth, none on vomer and palatines; eye 5K m head; top of 
head, opercle, and cheeks covered with scales; a stout, concealed spine 



FAMILY XXII. GOBIID^;. 229 

projecting downward on edge of preopercle; distance from origin of 
dorsal to tip of snout 2^ in the body. 

Color brownish; fins with dark spots and wavy lines; ventrals 
dusky; two dark stripes behind orbit. Length 6 or 7 inches. 

217. Eleotris pictus Kner & Steindachner. GUAVINA. 

Eleotris pictus Kner & Steindachner, Abh. Wiss. Wien, 1864, pi. 
3, fig. i ; Rio Bayano, near Panama. 

Culius cequideus Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1881, 
461 ; Rio. Presidio, near Mazatlan. 

Eleotris pictus Rutter, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1896, 265 ; fresh waters 
at San Jose del Cabo, Lower California: Jordan & Evermann, 
Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 2201. 

Streams of the Pacific coast from Sonora to Panama. 

Head 3 to 3^; depth 6; D. vi-i, 7 or 8; A. i, 7 or 8; scales 60. 
Body elongate, depressed anteriorly; head especially very broad and 
flat; mouth large, broad, very oblique; the maxillary reaching nearly 
or quite 'to opposite posterior margin of the eye, its length 2^ to 2^ 
in head; lower jaw considerably projecting; teeth in jaws equal, in 
broad bands, the outer series not all enlarged; eye small, anterior, 6 
in head; scales on head mostly cycloid, very small, covering cheek 
and opercles and upper part of the head to the eyes ; scales on dorsal 
and ventral regions cycloid, those on sides mostly ctenoid; preoper- 
cular spine well developed, strong, compressed, directed downward 
and forward. 

Color dark, dull olivaceous brown, paler below; young mottled 
with bluish and speckled with brown; sides without longitudinal 
stripes; fins dusky, all of them finely mottled and speckled with 
darker, the dark markings on dorsal and anal forming undulated 
dark bars. Length about 18 inches. (Jordan & Evermann.) 

Subfamily Gobiinse. 
87. Gobius Linnasus. 

Gobius Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. x, 262, 1758. (Type, Gobius niger 

Linnaeus.) 
Gobionellus Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1858, 168. (Type, 

Gobionellus hastatus Girard.) 
Ctenogobius Gill, Fish. Trinidad, 374, 1858. (Type, Cienogobius 

fasciatus Gill.) 

Body oblong or elongate, compressed behind; head oblong, more 
or less depressed; mouth moderate; teeth conical, on jaws only, in 
several series, the outer row enlarged; no canines; eyes high, an- 



230 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

terior, and close together; opercles without spines; isthmus broad; 
shoulder girdle without fleshy flaps; scales ctenoid, covering the body; 
cheeks usually without scales; ventral fins completely united, not 
adnate to the belly; skull depressed, abruptly widened behind the 
eyes, and without median keel. 

A large group of small fishes usually found along the shores in salt 
or brackish water, few species entering fresh water. 
/ 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF GOBIUS. 

a. Scales large, less than 45 in the lateral series. PAGE 

b. Scales large, 30 in the lateral series; soft 

dorsal rays 1 1 ; anal rays 12 - . parvus 230 

bb. Scales smaller, 42 in the lateral series; soft 

dorsal rays 12 ; anal rays 13 claytoni 231 

aa. Scales very small, 62 in the lateral series; soft 

dorsal rays 13 ; anal rays 14 microdon 231 

Subgenus Otenogobius Gill. 

218. Qobius parvus Meek. SMALL GOBY. 

Gobius parvus Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 121; La An- 
tigua. 

Brackish water near the city of Vera Cruz. (Vera Cruz ; Boca del 
Rio.) 

Head 4; depth 4^ ; D. vi-n; A. 12; scales 30. Body short, 
robust; head large; snout blunt, rounded, 4^ m head; mouth sub- 
inferior, little oblique, its gape extending to vertical from pupil; inter- 
drbital area narrow, its width less than half the diameter of the eye ; 
eye small, partly superior, 3K m head; dorsal fins not connected, the 
spinous dorsal of females low, longest spine a little more than half 
head; in male the dorsal spine % to % longer than head; caudal fin 
long and pointed, its length 3 (5) to 3^ ($) in body; pectoral 
slightly less than length of head ; ventral i \ in head ; scales ctenoid. 

Color dark olivaceous, mottled with darker; a dark bar on dorsal 
region from base of posterior half of spinous dorsal, followed by three 
others from base of soft dorsal and one on caudal peduncle; 5 or 6 
narrow dark streaks on lower half of sides, extending downward and 
forward to base of anal ; two black spots at base of caudal fin ; dorsal 
fins of both sexes barred; caudal fin of females with narrow dark 
bars; none on males; anal fin with dark margin. Length about 3.50 
inches. 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM. 



PLATE XVII, ZOOLOGY. 




GOBIUS PARVUS Meek. 
No. 3738, Field Columbian Museum. 




GOBIUS CLAYTONI Meek. 
No. 3740. Field Columbian Museum. 



FAMILY XXII. GOBIID^;. 231 

Subgenus GrobionellllS Girard. 

219. Gobius claytoni Meek. CLAYTON'S GOBY. 

Gobius claytoni Meek, Field Col. Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 121; La 
Antigua. 

Fresh and brackish waters on coast of Vera Cruz. (Vera Cruz; San 
Francisco; Boca del Rio.) 

Head 3^3; depth 5^; D. vi-i2; A. 13; scales 15-42. Body elon- 
gate, subterete, and tapering to caudal; head moderate; snout very 
blunt; mouth terminal, broad, its gape horizontal; interorbital width 
less than half diameter of the pupil ; diameter of eye equaling length of 
snout, 3% in head; no scales on dorsal surface between spinous dorsal 
and nape; spinous dorsal low, the longest spine about 2 in head; 
caudal fin long and pointed, its middle rays the longest, about % 
longer than head; pectoral i% in head; ventral i^'. scales ctenoid; 
breast and region under ventrals without scales. 

Color light olivaceous, somewhat reticulated above; side with 5 
oblong dark blotches, the last and smallest one forming a black caudal 
spot; spinous and soft dorsals barred; caudal fin barred; the middle 
portion of the ventrals, except a small central light patch, blackish; 
some black on posterior half of anal fin ; a narrow dark curved streak 
at base of pectoral fin ; a dark stripe on cheek and one downward and 
'forward from eye. Length about 3 inches. 

220. Gobius microdon Gilbert. 

Gobius microdon Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1891, 554; San 
Juan Lagoon, north of Rio Ahome, Mexico: Jordan & Ever- 
mann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 2227. 

Known only from the type locality. 

. Head 4%', depth 5; D. vi-i3; A. 14; scales 62. Body and head 
compressed, everywhere deeper than wide; snout blunt; mouth low, 
terminal, nearly horizontal; the lower jaw very weak, broadly rounded 
anteriorly; maxillary reaching vertical from hinder margin of pupil, 
about 2 in head ; teeth minute, those in the upper jaw in a single series ; 
teeth in lower jaw in two series, the outer somewhat enlarged; inter- 
orbital space narrow, less than diameter of the pupil; isthmus wide, 
the gill openings extending but little below the base of the pectorals ; 
scales small, cycloid anteriorly and on belly, becoming larger poste- 
riorly ; scales ctenoid on sides behind middle of spinous dorsal ; belly 
wholly scaled; nape scaled forward nearly to orbits, but with a narrow 
median naked streak running back to front of dorsal ; breast and sides 
of head naked ; dorsal fins not connected, first 4 spines filamentous, the 
longest longer than the head; soft dorsal and anal similar, not high. 



232 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Color nearly uniform light olive, with minute darker punctulations, 
which sometimes form darker margins to the scales ; an oblique dusky 
streak on opercle ; 3 or 4 oblique obscure dark cross-bars on spinous 
dorsal and 4 or 5 on caudal peduncle; ventral with white pigment. 
Length about 2 inches. 

88. Choiiophorus Poey. 

Chonophorus Poey, Memorias, n, 274, 1861. (Type, Gobius taiasica 
Lichtenstein.) 

Body elongate, compressed posteriorly; head large, preorbital 
region very long; mouth large, nearly horizontal; inner edge of 
shoulder girdle with 2 or more conspicuous dermal flaps; premaxillary 
and maxillary strong; lips thick; scales small, ctenoid; interorbital 
groove with a conspicuous median crest; ventrals united, not adnate 
to the belly. 

A group of fishes which inhabit the fresh waters of Tropical Amer- 
ica and the Hawaiian Islands. Some of the species reach a large size. 
I recognize with some doubt three species of this genus in Mexico. 

"KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CHONOPHORUS. 

a. Scales large, 60 to 75 in the lateral series. PAGE 
b. About 15 scales in a series between second 

dorsal and base of anal nelsoni 232 

bb. About 21 scales in a series between second 

dorsal and base of anal .-..-. taiasica 233 

aa. Scales smaller, 24-76 to 80 mexicanus 233 

221. Chonophorus nelsoni (Evermann). 

Awaous nelsoni Evermann, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 1898, 3; fresh 
water pools at Rosaria, Sinaloa: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1896, 2235. 

Streams of Sinaloa. 

Head 3>; depth 6; D, vi-n; A. n; scales about 63. Body 
oblong, compressed; head large, flat above; maxillary reaching ver- 
tical -from posterior margin of pupil; teeth on bands in jaws, some of 
the outer a little enlarged; eyes moderate, 5^ in head; scales small, 
ctenoid, crowded on anterior part of the body; about 15 scales in a 
series between soft dorsal and anal fin; caudal fin rounded. 

Color grayish; head mottled and blotched with dark; side with 7 
or 8 black blotches, the largest under the middle of the pectoral fin; 
dorsals pale, crossed by several lines of black spots; caudal pale, with 



FAMILY XXII. GOBIID^;. 233 

6 or 7 dark cross-bars; ventral, anal, and pectorals pale. Length 
about 4 inches. (Evermann. ") 

222. Chonophorus taiasica (Lichtenstein). ABOMA DE Rio; LA 

PUJEQUE; MUCHURA. 

Gobius taiasica Lichtenstein, Berl. Abhandl., 1822, 166; Brazil. 
Gobius dolichocephalus Cope, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. Phila., 

1869, 403 ; near Orizaba, Mexico. 

Awaous taiasica Jordan, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1895, 494'- Ri 

Presidio, Mazatlan; San Jose del Cabo, Lower California: 

Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 2236: 

Rutter, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1896, 265 ; Rio San Jose, San Jose 

del'Cabo, Lower California: Jordan & Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish 

Comm., 1900, 147; Rio Ixtla, Puente de Ixtla: Meek, Field Col. 

Mus. Pub. 65, 1902, 121 ; La Antigua; Balsas; Puente de Ixtla. 

Streams of the West Indies and of the American continent from 

Vera Cruz and Mazatlan to Panama and Brazil. It does not occur 

on the Mexican plateau. (Cuautla; Valles; San Francisco; Perez.) 

Head 3%', depth 5^; D. vi-n; A. n; scales 60 to 75. Body 
elongate, not much compressed; snout much decurved; interorbital 
very narrow, somewhat convex, its width less than diameter of the 
eye; preorbital deep, about 3 in head; mouth large; premaxillary 
scarcely reaching vertical from anterior margin of orbit; teeth small, 
in bands on jaws; gill membranes broadly united to the isthmus; 
branchiostegals 4; origin of dorsal to tip of snout 2% in body; pec- 
torals long, 1^3 in head; scales small, ctenoid, those on anterior ^ of 
body much smaller than on rest of the body; caudal fin rounded. 

Color olivaceous, with irregular dark blotches along middle of the 
sides; rest of body above reticulate with darker; lower third of body 
nearly plain ; dorsal fins and caudal barred ; other fins plain ; two blue 
streaks from eye to maxillary and two or more small ones on cheek. 
Length about 12 inches. 

A food fish of considerable local importance. 

223. Chonophorus rnexicanus (Gunther). 

Gobius mexicanus Gunther, Cat., in, 61, 1861; Mexico. 

Awaous mexicanus Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1898, 2237. 

Distribution not known. 

Head 4; depth 6f ; D. vi-i ; A. n; scales 24-76 to 82. Head as 
broad as deep, flat above; snout elongate, upper profile oblique; mouth 
horizontal, lower jaw included; maxillary reaching to below anterior 
margin of the eye; teeth of outer series enlarged; scales small, those 



234 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

on the nape and on anterior part of the body very small ; head naked ; 
dorsal fins lower than depth of body; caudal fins rounded. 

Color yellowish olive, back and sides reticulate with darker; head, 
dorsal, caudal and pectoral fins dotted with blackish; 6 cross series of 
dots on caudal ; an irregular, small blackish spot on upper part of base 
of pectoral (Gunther.) 

This species is known only from the above description. 

89. Gillichthya Cooper 

Gillichthys Cooper, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1863, 109. (Type, Gil- 
licktnys mirabilis Cooper.) 

Body moderately elongate, compressed, covered with small 
cycloid embedded scales; belly and head naked; scales in the young 
more or less ciliated; eyes almost superior; gape wide, the maxillary 
in the adult inordinately developed, prolonged backward to the base 
of the pectorals, its posterior part a cartilaginous expansion connected 
to an expansion of the skin of the lower jaw, thus forming a channel 
backward from the mouth; teeth small, even, and in broad bands; 
pectorals large; isthmus broad. 

224. Gillichthys detrusus Gilbert & Scofield. LONG-JAWED GOBY. 

Gillichthys detrusus Gilbert & Scofield, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1897, 
498, pi. 38; Horseshoe Bend, mouth of Colorado River: Jordan 
& Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898, 2251. 

Known only from the lower portion of the Colorado River. 

Head 3^; depth 5; D. vi-i3; A. n; scales about 25-75. Body 
robust, somewhat compressed posteriorly; head large, depressed; 
mouth very large, the maxillary 1^3 in head; mandible 1^3 ; snout 4; 
interorbital 5^; eye small, 7 in head; dorsal fins not connected, the 
space between them equaling half length of spinous portion ; pectoral 
1 2^ in head; the post frontals small, projecting very little; least depth 
of caudal peduncle 2^3 in head. 

Color a very pale olive, some with dark punctulations about the 
head and fins ; the pale coloration probably due to their life in shallow 
water on the bottom of pale sand. Length about 5 inches. 

Family XXIII. SoleicUe. 
THE SOLES. 

Body oblong or elongate, usually scaly; mouth very small, more 
developed on eyed side; teeth in bands, very small or obsolete; edge of 
preopercle adnate, concealed by the skin and scales; gill openings 
narrow, the membranes adnate to the shoulder girdle above ; paired 



FAMILY XXIII. SOLEID^E. 235 

fins small or wanting. The species of this family are very numerous 
in the warm seas, a few enter brackish, and still fewer inhabit fresh 
waters. 

Subfamily Achirinse. 
9O. Achirus Lace"pede. 

Achirus Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., iv,659, 1803. (Type, Achirus 
fasciatus Lace"pede.) 

Baiostoma Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 413. (Type, Baiostoma 
brachiale Bean.) 

Body broad, bluntly rounded anteriorly; head small; eyes small, 
close together; eyes and color on the right side; mouth small, mostly 
developed on the right side; teeth small, on blind side only; gill open- 
ings narrow ; scales ctenoid ; some scales on head and anterior part of 
the body enlarged, some of those on blind side with hair-like projec- 
tions; lateral line straight, simple; dorsal fin beginning on snout; 
ventral rays 3 or 4, the fin on colored side connected with the anal by 
a membrane. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF ACHIRUS. 

a. Pectoral fin of right side only present. PAGE 
b. Pectoral fin with 4 rays; depth of body i% 

in its length; scales 70 in lateral series mazatlanus 235 

bb. Pectoral fin with 2 rays; depth of body if 

in its length; scales 85 in the lateral series fonsecensis 236 

aa. Pectoral fins wholly wanting; scales 66 to 75 fasciatus 236 

Subgenus Baiostoma Bean. 
225. Achirus mazatlanus (Steindachner). MEXICAN SOLE. 

Solea mazatlana Steindachner, Ichth. Notizen, ix, 23, 1869; 

Mazatlan. 

Solea pilosa Peters, Berliner Monalsber., 1869, 709; Mazatlan. 
Achirus mazatlanus Jordan, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1895; Rio Pre- 
sidio, Sinaloa: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1898, 2698; Rio Presidio, Sinaloa. 
Streams of Mexico which empty into the Pacific Ocean. 
Head 3^3 ; depth i^; D. 56; A. 42; scales 70. Body broad, oval; 
eyes small, the upper in advance of the lower; diameter of eye 7^ m 
head; interorbital % diameter of the eye; nostril in a tube, placed just 
above the middle of the mouth; pectoral developed on the eyed side 
only, with about 4 rays; origin of dorsal on tip of snout; scales of right 
side with numerous black hair-like appendages. 



236 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

Color brownish, with 8 or 9 narrow vertical black bars; fins dark 
without distinct markings. 

226. Achirus fonsecensis (Giinther). 

Solea fonsecensis Giinther, Cat., iv, 475, 1862; Gulf of Fonseca. 

Achirus fonsecensis Jordan, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1895, 230; Rio 
Presidio, Sinaloa: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1898, 2699; Rio Presidio, Sinaloa. 

Pacific coast of tropical America, entering rivers. 

Head 3X1 depth if; D. 58; A. 44; scales about 85. Body oval; 
eyes small, the upper in advance of the lower; interorbital space less 
than diameter of eye; no trace of pectoral on left side, the one on 
right side small, of about 2 rays; ventral of right side composed of 
5 rays, continuous with anal fin; scales on the nape twice or thrice as 
large as those on the body; the left anterior part of the head with 
numerous tentacles; the right lower lip with distinct slender fringes; 
caudal fin rounded, as long as head. 

Color brownish olive, with six pairs of deep brown vertical lines, 
extending on dorsal and anal fins. 

Subgenus Achirus Lacepede. 

227. Achirus fasciatus Lacepede. 

Achirus fasciatus Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., iv, 659, 662, 1803; 
Charleston: Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1898, 2700. 

Solea achirus Giinther, Cat., iv, 476, 1862. 

Atlantic and gulf coasts from Cape Ann to the Isthmus of Tehuan- 
tepec; ascending rivers to a considerable distance above tide-water. 
(Perez.) 

Head 4; depth if; D. 50 to 55 ; A. 37 to 45 ; scales 66 to 75. Body 
broad, elliptical; mouth small, reaching past front of lower eye; lower 
lip on right side fringed; eyes very small, the upper slightly in ad- 
vance of the lower; interorbital space with scales; head and body 
covered with strongly ctenoid scales : on blind side many scales on and 
near head with hair-like appendages; lateral line straight; origin of 
dorsal fin on tip of snout; no pectoral fins. 

Color, eyed side dusky, more or less mottled, with 7 or 8 narrow 
dark vertical streaks; fins with black spots, blind side white. Length 
about 5 or 6 inches. 



INDEX. 



VOLUME V. 



PAGE 

Aboma de Rio 233 

Abomas 225 

Abramis 56 

Abramis americanus : . 57 

Abramis chrysoleucus 57 

Abramis crysoleucas , 57 

Acanthopteri 164 

Acara bartoni 211 

Acara rectangularis 216 

Achirinse 235 

Achirus 235, 236 

* Achirus fasciatus 235, 236 

Achirus fonsecensis 236 

Achirus mazatlanus 235 

achirus. (Solea) 236 

Acomus guzmaniensis 30 

Adinia dugesii in 

Adinia guatemalensis 103 

Adinia pachycephalus 112 

adustus. (Couesius) 82 

asneus. (Tetragonopterus) 86 

aequidens. (Culius) 229 

aestivalis. (Gobio) 81 

aestivalis. (Hybopsis) 81 

affinis. (Amiurus) 1 1 

affinis. (Gambusia) 130, 131 

affinis. (Heterandria) 130 

affinis. (Lucania) 109 

affinis. (Pimelodus) 10 

affinis. (Thorichthys) ' 222 

Agonostoma globiceps 188 

Agonostoma monticola . . . ' 186 

Agonostoma nasutum 187 

Agonostominae 186 

Agonostomus 186 

Agonostomus monticola 186, 187 

Agonostomus nasutus 187 

Agonostomus telfairii 186 

Agosia 79 

Agosia chrysogaster 80 

Agosia oscula 80 

aguadulce. (Galeichthys) 9 

albidus. (Ptychostomus) 34 



PAGE 

album. (Chirostoma) 180 

Alburnops 62, 65 

Alburn ops blennius 62 

albus. (Atherinichthys) 180 

Algansea 44 

Algansea dugesi 45 

Algansea lacustris 47 

Algansea rubescens. . 46 

Algansea sallasi 45 

Algansea tarascorum 47 

Algansea tincella 44 

Algoma amara . 48 

Algoma fluviatilis 48 

Alligator Garpike 6 

altus. (Hudsonius) 80, 81 

altus. (Hybopsis) .81, 82 

altus. (Notropis) 82 

amara. (Algoma) 48 

amara. (Dionda) 48 

amara. (Hybognathus) 49 

Amblodon neglecttis 203 

amblops. (Rutilus) 80 

Ameiurus 12 

Ameiurus dugesi 1 6 

Ameiurus lupus 14 

Ameiurus natalis 16 

Ameiurus pricei 1 6 

americanus. (Abramis) 57 

Amiurus 12, 14, 16 

Amiurus affinis 1 1 

Amiurus australis 13 

Amiurus catus 15 

Amiurus dugesi 15 

Amiurus furcatus 10 

Amiurus lupus 14, 1 5 

Amiurus meridionalis 1 1 

Amiurus mexicanus 15 

Amiurus natalis 16 

Amiurus natalis antoniensis 16 

Amiurus pricei 16 

Amiurus punctulatus 18 

Anablepinae 135 

Anableps ._ 135 



2 37 



238 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 



HACK 

Anableps dovii 136 

Anableps dowei 136 

Anableps tetropthalmus 135 

anableps. (Cobitis) 135 

Anacyrtus guatemalensis 88 

anale. (Dorosoma) 93 

Anguilla 90 

Anguilla chrysypa 90 

Anguilla tyrannus 90 

anguilla. (Muraena) 90 

Anguillida? 90 

anisurus. (Catostomus) 34 

anomalum. (Campostoma) 42 

anomalus. (Rutilus) 40, 42 

antoniensis. (Amiurus natalis) ... 16 

Aplesion pottsii 196 

Aplodinotus 202 

Aplodinotus grunniens 202, 203 

Apocope 79 

Apocope carringtoni 79 

Apodes 90 

Apomotis 190, 191 

Apomotis cyanellus 191 

aquilensi", (Pomotis) 191 

arge. (Chirostoma) 171 

arge. (Eslopsarum) 171 

argentatus. (Astyanax) 84, 85 

argentatus. (Pomadasis) 200 

argentatus. (Tetragonopterus) ... 85 
argenteus. (Tetragonopterus) .... 84 
argentissimus. (Plagopterus) .... 83 

Argyreus notabilis 80 

Argyreus osculus 80 

Astyanax 84 

Astyanax argentatus 84, 85 

atchafalayas. (Signalosa) 94, 95 

Atherina hvfrnboldtiana 166, 175 

Atherina menidia 181 

Atherina vomerina 166, 175 

Atherinella crystallina 184 

Atherinichthys 166 

Atherinichthys albus 180 

Atherinichthys brevis 169 

Atherinichthys humboldtianus . ... 175 

Atherinichthys sallei 181 

Atherinidae 165 

Atherinoides 166 

atherinoides. (Notropis) 62 

Atractosteus 5,6 

Atractosteus lucius 6 

Atractosteus tropicus 7 



PAGE 

atripinnis. (Goodea) 136, 140 

atronasus. (Cyprinus) 79 

attenuatum. (Chirostoma). 172 

auratus. (Carassius) 37 

aureus. (Sparus) 193 

aureus. (Thorichthys) '. 222 

auritus. (Labrus) 190 

australe. (Etheostoma) 196, 197 

australis. (Amiurus) 13 

austrina. (Myxostoma) 35 

austrinum. (Moxostoma) 35 

austrinum. (Myzostoma) 35 

Awaous mexicanus 233 

Awaous nelsoni ' . . . 232 

Awaous taiasica 233 

Azteca 59 

azteca. (Aztecula) 60 

Aztecula 59 

Aztecula azteca 60 

Aztecula lermag 60 

Aztecula mexicana 61 

Aztecula vittata 59 

aztecus. (Notropis) 59 

Bagre 9, 10, n, 14, 18 

Bagre del Balsas 17 

Baiostoma . 235 

Baiostoma brachiale 235 

balsanus. (Istlarius) 17 

balsanus. (Melaniris) '. 183 

bartoni. (Acara) 211 

bartoni. (Chirostoma) 172 

bartoni. (Cichlasoma) 211 

Bass, Black 194 

bayanus. (Pomadasis) . 201 

beani. (Cichlasoma) 210 

beani. (Heros) 210 

belizanus. (Belonesox) 135 

Belone truncata 160 

Belonesox I3S 

Belonesox belizanus 135 

Belonida? 160 

berlandieri. (Lepidosteus) 6 

bernardini. (Catostomus) 32 

Besugo 1 8, 195 

bilineata. (Skiffia) 144 

bilineatus. (Characodon) 144 

bimaculatus. (Pseudoxiphophorus) 

127, 128 

bimaculatus. (Xiphophorus) 127 

Black Bass 194 



INDEX, VOL. V. 



PAGE 

Black-nosed Dace 79 

blennius. (Alburn ops) 62 

Bobos 1 88 

Boleosoma lepida 196, 198 

bonita. (Gambusia) 132 

Bony-tail 53-54 

boucardi. (Leuciscus) 62, 67, 68 

boucardi. (Nototropis) 67 

boucardi. (Rutilus) 67 

brachiale. (Baiostoma) 235 

brachyptera. (Rhamdia) 21 

brama. (Cyprinus) 56 

brasiliensis. (Chirostoma) 169 

braytoni. (Nototropis) 65 

braytoni. (Notropis) 65 

Bream 56, 57 

brevicaudum. (Siphostoma) 163 

brevis. (Atherinichthys) 169 

bubalina. (Cyprinella) 71 

Buffalo 26 

Burros 200 

butleri. (Poecilia) 153 

caliente. (Xenendum) 136, 140 

calientis. (Goodea) 140 

calientis. (Nototropis) 65 

calientis. (Notropis) 65 

Campostoma 40 

Campostoma anomalum 42 

Campostoma dubium 42 

Campostoma formosulum 42 

Campostoma nasutum 42 

Campostoma ornatum 41 

Campostoma pricei 41 

Campostomatinas 40 

cantrainii. (Tylosurus) 160 

Carassius 37 

Carassius auratus 37 

Carp 37 

Carpa 37 

carpintis. (Neetroplus) 221 

carpio. (Cyprinus) 37 

Carpiodes 25 

Carpiodes elongatus 28 

Carpiodes labiosus 29 

Carpiodes meridionalis 26 

Carpiodes microstomus 27 

Carpiodes tumidus 26, 2 7 

Carpiodes velifer 27 

Carp-like Fishes 24 

carringtoni. (Apocope) 79 



239 
PAGE 

Cat, Channel 10, 1 1 

Cat, Chuckle-headed 10 

Cat, White 1 1 

Cat, Yellow 16 

Catfishes 8 

Catfish, Tropical 1 1 

Catonotus fasciatus 197 

Catostomidc-e 24 

Catostominag 30 

Catostomus 29, 30, 31, 33 

Catostomus anisurus 34 

Catostomus bernardini 32 

Catostomus conchos 33 

Catostomus congestus 34 

Catostomus cypho 33 

Catostomus cyprinus 25 

Catostomus guzmaniensis 30 

Catostomus nebuliferus 30 

Catostomus plebeius 30 

Catostomus sonorensis 32 

catostomus. (Cyprinus) 31 

catus. (Amiurus) 15 

Centra.chi6.se 189 

Centropomidae 198 

Centropomus 199 

Centropomus mexicanus 199 

cephalus. (Mugil) 185, 186 

cepidianum. (Dorosoma) 94 

cepidianum. (Megalops) 92 

Ceratichthys sallaei 45 

Channel Cat 10, 1 1 

chapalas. (Chirostoma) 176 

chapalae. (Falcula) 58 

Chapalichthys 123 

Chapalichthys encaustus 123 

Characinae 88 

Characinidas 83 

Characins 83 

Characodon 118, 123 

Characodon bilineatus 144 

Characodon eiseni 119 

Characodon encaustus 123 

Characodon ferrugineus 120 

Characodon furcidens 122 

Characod6n garmani 121, 122, 127 

Characodon geddesi 1 1 6 

Characodon lateralis 118,121 

Characodon luitpoldi 139 

Characodon multiradiatus 119 

Characodon variatus 120 

Chatoessus mexicanus 94. 95 



240 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

PAGE PAGE 



Cheonda modesta -. 55 

Cheonda nigrescens 55 

chihuahua. (Nototropis) 67 

chihuahua. (Notropis) 67 

Chirostoma 166, 175 

Chirostoma album 180. 

Chirostoma arge 171 

Chirostoma attenuatum 172 

Chirostoma bartoni 172 

Chirostoma brasiliensis 169 

Chirostoma chapalae 176 

Chirostoma crystallinum 178 

Chirostoma diazi 178 

Chirostoma estor 166, 180 

Chirostoma grandocule 176 

Chirostoma humboldtianum ... 172, 175 

Chirostoma jordani 166, 169 

Chirostoma labarcae 173 

Chirostoma lerrnae 179 

Chirostoma lucius 1 78 

Chirostoma mezquital 170 

Chirostoma ocotlanse 180 

Chirostoma patzcuaro 174 

Chirostcaia promelas 177 

Chirostoma sphyraena 177 

Chirostoma zirahuen 174 

Chondrostomatinae 43 

Chonophorus 232 

Chonophorus mexicanus 233 

Chonophorus nelsoni 232 

Chonophorus taiasica 233 

Chromis nebulifer 220 

Chrysogaster. (Agosia) 79. 80 

chrysoleucus. (Abramis) 57 

chrysoleucus. (Notemigonus) .... 57 

chrysypa. (Anguilla) 90 

Chub of th*e Rio Grande 55 

Chuckle-headed Cat 10 

Cichlasoma 204, 221, 222 

Cichlasoma bartoni 211 

Cichlasoma beani 210 

Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum 215 

Cichlasoma deppii 221 

Cichlasoma eigenmanni 220 

Cichlasoma evermanni 214 

Cichlasoma hedricki 208 

Cichlasoma helleri 223 

Cichlasoma heterodontum 215 

Cichlasoma istlanum 212 

Cichlasoma melanurum 219 

Cichlasoma mento 207 



Cichlasoma mojarra 217 

Cichlasoma montezuma 221 

Cichlasoma nebulifer 220 

Cichlasoma octofasciatum 218 

Cichlasoma parma 218, 220 

Cichlasoma pavonaceum 209 

Cichlasoma rectangulare 216 

Cichlasoma salvini 207 

Cichlasoma steindachneri 210 

Cichlidae 204 

Cichlids 204 

civilis. (Hybognathus) 49 

claytoni. (Gobius) 231 

Clayton's Goby 231 

Cliola montiregis 71 

Cobitis anableps 135 

Cobitis heteroclitis 106 

Cochlognathus 57 

Cochlognathus ornatus 57, 58 

Codoma 68 

Codoma ornata 62, 68 

Codoma vittata 59 

Common Eel 90 

Common Gar Pike 5 

compressus. (Hemigrammus) .... 87 

conchos. (Catostomus) 33 

confertus. (Hyborhynchus) 51 

confertus. (Pimelocephales) 51 

confertus. (Pimephales) 51 

congestum. (Moxostoma) 34 

congestum. (Myzostoma) 34 

congestus. (Catostomus) 34 

conirostris. (Pimelodus) 19 

Conorhynchus 19 

Conorhynchus nelsoni 19 

conspersa. (Gila) 55 

conspersa. (Tigoma) 56 

Corvina oscula 203 

couchi. (Dionda) 48 

couchi. (Moniana) 71 

couchiana. (Limia) 152 

couchiana. (Poecilia) 152 

Couesius 82 

Couesius adustus " 82 

Croakers 202 

crocro. (Pristipoma) . . : 200 

crysoleucas. (Abramis) 57 

crysoleucas. (Cyprinus) 57 

crystallina. (Atherinella) 184 

crystallina. (Thyrina) . : 184 

crystallinum. (Chirostoma) 178 



INDEX, 

PAGE 

Ctenogobius . 229, 230 

Ctenogobius fasciatus 229 

Cuatro Ojos 135, 136 

cuitzeoensis. (Zoogoneticus) no 

Culius sequidens 229 

cupreus. (Pimelodus) 12 

cyanellus. (Apomotis) 191 

cyanellus. (Lepidopomus) 191 

cyanellus. (Lepomis) 190, 191 

cyanoguttatum. (Cichlasoma) ... 215 
cyanoguttatus. (Herichthys) .205,215 

cyanoguttatus. (Heros) 21 5, 218 

Cylindrosteus 5,6 

Cynodonichthys 101 

Cynodonichthys tenuis 101 

cypho. (Catostomus) 33 

cypho. (Xyrauchen) 33 

Cyprinella bubalina 71 

Cyprinella macrostoma 72 

Cyprinella rubripinna 73 

Cyprinidae 36, 53 

Cyprinodon 124 

Cyprinodon elegans 124, 125 

Cyprinodon eximius 125, 126 

Cyprinodon latifasciatus 126 

Cyprinodon macularius 126 

Cyprinodon variegatus 124 

Cyprinus 37 

Cyprinus atronasus 79 

Cyprinus carpio 37 

Cyprinus catostomus 31 

Cyprinus crysoleucas 57 

Cyprinus brama 56 

Cyprinus leuciscus 55 

cyprinus. (Catostomus) 25 

Dace 55 

Dace, Black-nosed 79 

Dace, Southern 79 

Dajaus 186 

deppii. (Cichlasoma) 221 

deppii. (Heros) 221 

detrusus. (Gillichthys) 234 

diazi. (Chirostoma) 178 

diazi. (Zoogoneticus) 114 

digueti. (Neomugil) 187, 188 

Dionda 48 

Dionda amara 48 

Dionda couchi 48 

Dionda episcopa 48 

Dioplites nuecensis 195 



VOL. V 241 

PAGE 

Diplesion fasciatus 197 

dolichocephalus. (Gobius) 233 

dolomieu. (Micropterus) 194 

Dormitator 227 

Dormitator gundlachi 227 

Dormitator maculatus 227 

dormitator. (Gobiomorus) 226 

dormitatrix. (Eleotris) 226 

dormitor. (Philypnus) 226, 227 

dormitor. (Gobiomorus) 226 

- Dorosoma 92 

Dorosoma anale 93 

Dorosoma cepedianum 94 

Dorosoma exile 94 

Dorosoma mexicanum 94 

Dorosoma notata 92 

Dorosomatidas 92 

dovii. (Anableps) 136 

dowei. (Anableps) 136 

Drum, Fresh-water 203 

Drums, River 202 

dubium. (Campostoma) 42 

dugesi. (Algansea) 45 

dugesi. (Ameiurus) 16 

dugesi. (Amiurus) 15 

dugesi. (Zoogoneticus) in 

dugesii. (Adinia) in 

dugesii. (Fundulus) in 

dugesii. (Zoogoneticus) 111 

Eel, Common 90 

Eel, Fresh-water 90 

Eels 90 

Eels, Symbranchoid 89 

eigenmanni. (Cichlasoma) 220 

eigenmanni. (Evarra) 77 

eiseni. (Characodon) 119 

elegans. (Cyprinodon) 124, 125 

elegans. (Gila) 53 

Eleotridinae 226 

Eleotris 228 

Eleotris dormitatrix 226 

Eleotris maculatus 227 

Eleotris pictus 229 

Eleotris pisonis 228 

Eleotris sima 227 

Eleotris somnolentus 227 

ellioti. (Thorichthys) 222, 223 

elongatus. (Carpiodes) 28 

encaustus. (Chapalichthys) 123 

encaustus. (Characodon) 123 



242 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 



Epicyrtus microlepis 

episcopa. (Dionda) 

episcopa. (Hybognathus) . . . 
episcopus. (Hybognathus) . . 

Eslopsarum 166 

Eslopsarum arge 

Eslopsarum jordani 

Esox marinus 

Esox osseus 

Esox tristcechus 

estor. (Chirostoma) 166 

estor. (Lethostole) 

Etheostoma 

Etheostoma australe 196, 

Etheostoma flabellare 

Etheostoma lepidum '..... 

Etheostoma micropterus 

Etheostoma pottsii 196, 

Etheostoma scovelii 

Etheostomatinae 

Eupomotis 189, 190, 

Eupomotis heros 

EupomoUs pallidus 

Evarra 

Evarra eigenmanni 

Evarra tlahuacensis 

evermanni. (Cichlasoma) 

evermanni. (Thyrina) 

exile. (Dorosoma) 

eximius. (Cyprinodon) 125, 

extensus. (Fundulus) 

Falcula 

Falcula chapalae 

fasciata. (Gambusia) 

fasciata. (Molienesia) 

fasciatus. (Achirus) 235, 

fasciatus. (Aplesion) 

fasciatus. (Catonotus) 

fasciatus. (Ctenogobius) 

feliceps. (Galeichthys) : 

fenestratus. (Heros) 

ferox. (Lepisosteus) 

ferrugineus. (Characodon) 

Fine-scale Suckers 

Fishes 

Fishes, Carp-like 

flabellare. (Etheostoma) 

Flat-head Minnows 

fluviatilis. (Algoma) 

fluviatilis. (Petromyzon) 



PAGE 
88 
48 

49 
48 
, 169 

171 
169 
1 60 

5 
6 

, 180 
1 80 
196 

,iQ7 

196 
198 

197 

, 197 

197 
.196 

, 193 
194 

i93 
77 
77 
78 
214 
184 

94 
1 26 
1 08 

58 
58 
129 

153 
236 

197 
197 
229 

9 
219 

5 

120 

3 1 
3 

24 
196 

5 



PAGE 

fonsecensis. (Achirus) 236 

fonsecensis. (Solea) 236 

Fontinus 102, 1 08 

forlonensis. (Nototropis) 70 

formosa. (Limia) 155 

formosa. (Mollienesia) 155 

formosa. (Mollienisia) 155 

formosa. (Moniana) 74 

formosulum. (Campostoma) 42 

formosus. (Limia) 147 

formosus. (Nototropis) 74 

formosus. (Notropis) 74 

Four-eyed Fishes 135 

Four-eyes 136 

fredrichsthali. (Thorichthys) .... 222 

Fresh-water Drum 203 

Fresh-water Eel 90 

frigida. (Moniana) 75 

frigidus. (Nototropis) 75 

frigidus. (Notropis) 75 

fulgens. (Tetragonopterus) 85 

Fundulinse 101 

Fundulus 102, 103 

Fundulus dugesii in 

Fundulus extensus 108 

Fundulus grandis .- . 107 

Fundulus guatemalensis 103 

Fundulus heteroclitus 106 

Fundulus heteroclitus grandis .... 107 

Fundulus labialis 104, 107 

Fundulus mudfish 102 

Fundulus oaxacae 104 

Fundulus pachycephalus 112 

Fundulus punctatus 104 

Fundulus robustus 112 

Fundulus seminolis 102 

Fundulus similis 105, 106 

Fundulus vinctus 105 

Fundulus zebrinus 108 

furcatus. (Amiurus) 10 

furcatus. (Ichthyaelurus) 10 

furcatus. (Ictalurus) 1 1 

furcatus. (Pimelodus) 10 

furcidens. (Characodon) 122 

Gadus lacustris 12 

Galeichthys 9 

Galeichthys aquadulce 9 

Galeichthys feliceps 9 

Gambusia 128, 133 

Gambusia affinis 130, 131 



INDEX, 

PAGE 

Gambusia bonita 132 

Gambusia fasciata 129 

Gambusia gracilis 130 

Gambusia infans 131 

Gambusia modesta 153 

Gambusia nicaraguensis 133 

Gambusia nobilis 131 

Gambusia patruelis 131 

Gambusia plumbea 153 

Gambusia punctata 128 

Gambusia senilis 131 

Gambusia speciosa 131 

Gambusiinae 127 

Gar Fish 1 60 

garmani. (Characodon) ..121,122,127 

garmani. (Nototropis) .. . .' 73 

garmani. (Notropis) 73 

Garpike, Alligator 6 

Garpike, Short-nosed 6 

Garpike, Tropical 7 

Garpikes . . 4, 5 

Gaspergou 203 

gavialis. (Lepisosteus) 5 

geddesi. (Characodon) 116 

gibbosa. (Moniana) 71 

Gila 53 

Gila conspersa 55 

Gila elegans 53 

Gila minacae 54 

Gila robusta 53 

Gila Trout 53 

Gillichthys 234 

Gillichthys detrusus 234 

Gillichthys mirabilis 234 

Girardinichthys 115 

Girardinichthys innominatus 

115. "6, 119 

Girardinus occidentalis 150 

Girardinus pleurospilus 148 

Girardinus sonorensis 150 

Girardinus uninotatus 134 

Gizzard Shad 92 

Glaridichthys 134 

Glaridichthys latidens 134 

'Glaridodon 134 

Glaridodon latidens 134 

globiceps. (Agonostoma) 188 

Gobies 225 

Gobiidas 225 

Gobiinae 229 



VOL. V. 243 

PAGE 

Gobiomorus dormitator 226 

Gobiomorus dormitor 226 

Gobionellus 231 

Gobionellus hastatus 229 

Gobio aestivalis 81 

Gobius 229 

Gobius claytoni 231 

Gobius dolichocephalus 233 

Gobius mexicanus 233 

Gobius microdon . 231 

Gobius niger 229 

Gobius parvus 230 

Gobius pisonis 228 

Gobius taiasica 232, 233 

Goby 230 

Golden Shiner 57 

Gold-fish 37 

Goodea 123, 136 

Goodea atripinnis 136, 140 

Goodea calientis 140 

Goodea luitpoldi 135, 139 

Goodea toweri 138 

Goodea whitei 137 

Goodinae 136 

gracilis. (Gambusia) 130 

gracilis. (Hybopsis) 80 

gracilis. (Moniana) 71 

gracilis. (Ptychocheilus) ........ 52 

gracilis. (Xiphophorus) 130 

grandis. (Fundulus) 107 

grandis. (Fundulus heteroclitus) . 107 

grandocule. (Chirostoma) 176 

Graodus 62 

Graodus nigrotasniatus 62, 68 

grunniens. (Aplodinotus) . . . .202, 203 

grunniens. (Haploidonotus) 203 

Grunters 199 

Grystes nuecensis 195 

guatemalensis. (Adinia) 103 

guatemalensis. (Anacyrtus) 88 

guatemalensis. (Fundulus) 103 

guatemalensis. (Roeboides) 88 

guatemalensis. (Zoogoneticus) ... 103 

Guavina 227, 229 

Guavina Tetard 228 

Guazacones 128 

gundlachi. (Dormitator) 227 

guntheri. (Xiphophorus) 157, 158 

guzmaniensis. (Acomus) 30 

guzmaniensis. (Catostomus) 30 



244 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

PAGE 



Haemulidae 199 

haplognathus. (Lepidopomus) ... 192 

haplognathus. (Lepomis) 192 

Haploidonotinas 202 

Haploidonotus 202 

Haploidonotus grunniens 203 

Haplomi 98 

Hard-jaw Minnow 58 

hastatus. (Gobionellus) 229 

Haustor 12, 13 

hedricki. (Cichlasoma) 208 

helleri. (Ciolilasoma) 223 

helleri. (Heros) 223 

helleri. (Thorichthys) 223, 224 

helleri. (Xiphophorus) 156, 157 

Hemigrammus 87 

Hemigrammus compressus 87 

Hemigrammus unilineatus 87 

Herichthys 205 

Herichthys cyanoguttatus 205, 215 

Heros 205 

Heros beani 210 

Heros cyanoguttatus 215, 218 

Heros deppii 221 

Heros fenestratus 219 

Heros helleri 223 

Heros heterodontus 215 

Heros istlanus '. 212 

Heros labridens 211 

Heros maculipinnis 223 

Heros melanurus 219 

Heros men to ' 207 

Heros montezuma 221 

Heros nebulifer 220 

Heros octof asciatus 218 

Heros parma 218 

Heros pavonaceus 209 

Heros salvini 207 

Heros severus 205 

Heros temporatus 215 

heros. (Eupomotis) 194 

heros. (Pomotis) 194 

Heterandria 147 

Heterandria affinis 130 

Heterandria lutzi . 148 

Heterandria nobilis 131 

Heterandria occidentalis 150 

Heterandria pleurospilus 148 

heteroclitus. (Cobitis) 106 

heteroclitus. (grandis, Fundulus) . 107 



heteroclitus. (Fundulus) 106 intermedius. (Leuciscus) 56 



PAGE 

Heterognathus 166 

heterodon. (Nototropis) 50 

heterodontum. (Cichlasoma) .... 215 

heterodontus. (Heros) 215 

Hickory Shad 94 

Horned Pouts 12 

Horny Heads 80 

Hudsonius altus 80, 81 

humboldtiana. (Atherina) . . . . 166, 175 

humboldtianum. (Chirostoma) . 172, 175 

humboldtianus. (Atherinichthys) . 175 

humile. (Pristipoma) 201 

Hybognathus 48 

Hybognathus amara 49 

Hybognathus civilis 49 

Hybognathus episcopa 49 

Hybognathus episcopus 48 

Hybognathus melanops 49 

Hybognathus nuchalis 48 

Hybognathus punctifer 49 

Hybognathus rasconis 50 

Hybognathus serenus 48 

Hybopsis 80 

Hybopsis aestivalis 81 

Hybopsis altus 81, 82 

Hybopsis gracilis So 

Hyborhynchus confertus . . . 51 

Hydrargyra similis 105 

Hydrargyra zebra 108 

Hyperoartii I 

hypselura. (Rhamdia) 22 

hypselurus. (Pimelodus) 22 

Ichthyaelurinae 10 

Ichthyaelurus 10, 13 

Ichthyaelurus furcatus 10 

Ichthyaslurus meridionalis 1 1 

Ichthyaelurus punctatus 11,14 

Ichthyobinae 25 

Ichthyobus tumidus 26 

Ictalurus 10 

Ictalurus furcatus 1 1 

Ictalurus meridionalis 12 

Ictalurus punctatus 10, 1 1 

Ictiobus meridionalis 26 

Ictiobus tumidus 26 

infans. (Gambusia) 131 

innominatus. (Girardinichthys) . . 

15. "6, 119 

intermedia. (Tigoma) 56 



INDEX, VOL. V. 



PAGE 

irideus. (Salmo) 96 

Isospondyli 92 

Isospondylous Fishes 92 

istlanum. (Cichlasoma) . 212 

istlanus. (Heros) 212 

Istlarius 17 

Istlarius balsanus 17 

jalapa?. (Xiphophorus) 156 

jordani. (Chirostoma) 166, 169 

jordani. (Eslop^arum) 169 

Joturus 188 

Joturus pichardi 188 

Juilis 44 

Killifish 106 

Killifishes 98, 102 

labarcae. (Chirostoma) 173 

labialis. (Fundulus) 104, 107 

iabiosus. (Carpiodes) 29 

labridens. (Heros) 211 

Labrus auritus 190 

Labrus pallidus 193 

Labrus punctatus 204 

Labrus salmoides 195 

lacustris. (Algansea) 47 

lacustris. (Gadus) 12 

Lampetra i 

Lampetra spadicea 2 

Lampreys i 

lateralis. (Characodon) 118, 121 

lateralis. (Philypnus) 226, 227 

laticauda. (Rhamdia) 21 

laticaudus. (Pimelodus) 21 

latidens. (Glaridichthys) 134 

latidens. (Glaridodon) 134 

latifasciatus. (Cyprinodon) 126 

latipinna. (Mollienesia) 155 

latipinna. (Mollienisia) 154, 155 

latipunctata. (Pcecilia) 150, 151 

lepida. (Boleosoma) 196, 198 

Lepidopominae 190 

Lepidopomus 189, 190, 192 

Lepidopomus cyanellus 191 

Lepidopomus haplognathus 192 

Lepidopomus occidentalis 192 

Lepidopomus pallidus . 193 

Lepidosteidae 4 

Lepidosteus 5,6 



245 
PAGE 

Lepidosteus berlandieri 6 

Lepidosteus osseus 5 

Lepidosteus platystomus 6 

Lepidosteus tristoechus 5,6 

Lepidosteus tropicus 7 

Lepidosteus viridis ' 7 

lepidus. (Poecilichthys) . . 198 

lepidum. (Etheostoma) 198 

Lepisosteus 5 

Lepisosteus ferox 5 

Lepisosteus gavialis 5 

Lepisosteus osseus 6 

Lepisosteus platostomus 5,6 

Lepisosteus tristoechus 7 

Lepisosteus tropicus 7 

Lepomis 190 

Lepomis cyanellus 190, 191 

Lepomis haplognathus 192 

Lepomis occidentalis 192 

Lepomis pallidus 193 

Leptops 1 8 

Leptops olivaris 18 

lermag. (Aztecula) 60 

lermae. (Chirostoma) 179 

lermas. (Notropis) 60 

lermas. (Skiffia) 141, 142 

Lethostole 166, 177 

Lethostole estor 180 

Leuciscinas 52 

Leuciscus 55 

Leuciscus boucardi 62, 67, 68 

Leuciscus intermedius 56 

Leuciscus lutrensis 62, 71 

Leuciscus niger 56 

Leuciscus nigrescens 55 

Leuciscus purpureus 56 

Leuciscus tincella 44 

leuciscus. (Cyprinus) 55 

limantouri. (Poecilia) 153 

Limia couchiana 152 

Limia formosa 147, 155 

Limia matamorensis 155 

Limia venusta 109 

Limnurgus 115 

Limnurgus variegatus 115,116 

lineata. (Poscilia) 155 

Lisa 34, 182 

lisa. (Menidia) 182 

longimanus. (Thorichthys) 222 

Long-nosed Garpike 5 

Lophobranchii 162 



246 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY. VOL. V. 



PAGE 

Lophobranchs 162 

Lucania 109, 1 16 

Lucania affinis 109 

Lucania venusta 109 

lucius. (Atractosteus) 6 

lucius. (Chirostoma) 178 

lucius. (Ptychocheilus) 52 

luitpoldi. (Characodon) 139 

luitpoldi. (Goodea) 135, 1 39 

lupus. (Ameiurus) 14, 15 

lupus. . (Amiurus) 14 

lupus. (Pimelodus) 14 

lutrensis. (Leuciscus) 62, 71 

lutrensis. (Nototropis) 7 1 * 73 

lutrensis. (Notropis) 72 

lutzi. (Heterandria) 148 

macrostoma. (Cyprinella) 72 

macrostomus. (Nototropis) 72 

macrostomus. (Notropis) 72 

macularius. (Cyprinodon) 126 

maculata. (Sciaena) . 227 

maculatus. (Dormitator) 227 

macula las. (Eleotris) 227 

maculatus. (Pimelodus) 10 

maculatus. (Platypoecilus) ... 144, 145 

maculatus. (Zoogoneticus) 113 

maculipinnis. (Heros) 223 

Manjuari 6 

marinus. (Esox) 160 

marinus. (Tylosurus) 160 

marmoratus. (Symbranchus) 89 

Marsipobranchii. . i 

matamorensis. (Limia) 155 

mazatlana. (Solea) 235 

mazatlanus. (Achirus) 235 

Megalops cepedianum 92 

Melaniris 183 

Melaniris balsanus 183 

melanops. (Hybognathus) 49 

melanurum. (Cichlasoma) 219 

melanurus. (Heros) 219 

Menidia 181 

Menidia lisa 182 

Menidia sallei 181 

menidia. (Atherina) 181 

mento. (Cichlasoma) 207 

mento. (Heros) 207 

meridionalis. (Ameiurus) 1 1 

meridionalis. (Carpiodes) 26 

meridionalis. (Ichthycelurus) .... n 



PAGE 

meridionalis. (Ictalurus) 12 

meridionalis. (Ictiobus) 26 

meridionalis. (Sclerognathus) ... 26 

Metalote 26,28 

Metapil 226 

Mexican Sole 235 

mexicana. (Aztecula) 61 

mexicana. (Poecilia) 153 

mexicana. (Signalosa) 94 

mexicanum. (Dorosoma) 94 

mexicanus. (Amiurus) 15 

mexicanus. (Awaous) 233 

mexicanus. (Centropomus) 199 

mexicanus. (Chatoessus) 94, 95 

mexicanus. (Chonophorus) 233 

mexicanus. (Gobius) 233 

mexicanus. (Tetragonopterus) ... 85 

mezquital. (Chirostoma) 170 

microdon. (Gobius) 231 

microlepis. (Epicyrtus) 88 

Micropterinas 194 

Micropterus 194 

Micropterus dolomieu 194 

Micropterus salmoides 195 

Micropterus salmonoides 192, 195 

micropterus. (Etheostoma) 197 

microstomus. (Carpiodes) 27 

milneri. (Nocomis) 82 

minacae. (Gila) 54 

miniatus. (Zoogoneticus) 115 

Minnow, Hard-jaw 58 

Minnows 36, 48 

Minnows, Flat-head 50 

Minnows, Pursey 124 

Minomus platyrhynchus 30 

Minomus plebeius 30 

mirabilis. (Gillichthys) 234 

Mixpapatl 137 

modesta. (Cheonda) 55 

modesta. (Gambusia) 153 

mojarra. (Cichlasoma) 217 

Mojarras 204 

Mollienesia 117. 142, 154 

Mollienesia fasciata 153 

Mollienesia formosa 155 

Mollienesia latipinna 155 

Mollienisia 154 

Mollienisia formosa 155 

Mollienisia latipinna 154, 155 

Moniana 62, 70 

Moniana couchi 71 



INDEX, VOL. V. 



PAGE 

Moniana formosa 74 

Moniana frigida 75 

Moniana gibbosa 71 

Moniana gracilis 71 

Moniana nitida 65 

Moniana rutila 71 

montezuma. (Cichlasoma) 221 

montezuma. (Heros) 221 

montezumae. (Xiphophorus) .... 158 

monticola. (Agonostoma) 186 

monticola. (Agonostomus) ...186,187 

monticola. (Mugil) 186 

' montiregis. (Cliola) 71 

Mountain Suckers 30 

Moxostoma 34 

Moxostoma austrinum 35 

Moxostoma congestum 34 

Muchura 233 

Mud-cat 1 8 

mudfish. (Fundulus) 102 

Mugil 185 

Mugil cephalus 185, 186 

Mugil monticola 186 

Mugilidas, 185 

Mugilinag 185 

Mullets 185 

multipunctata. (Skiffia) 141 

multipunctatum. (Xenendum) . . 141 

multiradiatus. (Characodon) .... 119 

Muraena anguilla 90 

Mylopharodontinae 51 

Myxostoma austrina 35 

Myzostoma 34 

Myzostoma austrinum 35 

Myzostoma congestum 34 

nasutum. (Agonostoma) 187 

nasutum. (Campostoma) 42 

nasutus. (Agonostomus) 187 

natalis. (Ameiurus) 16 

natalis. (Amiurus) 16 

natalis antoniensis. (Amiurus) ... 16 

natalis. (Pimelodus) 12,16 

nazas. (Nototropis) 70 

nebulifer. (Chromis) 220 

ncbulifer. (Cichlasoma) 220 

nebulifer. (Heros) 220 

nebuliferus. (Catostomus) 30 

Needle Fishes 160 

Neetroplus 215, 221 

Neetroplus carpintis 221 



247 
PAGE 

Neetroplus nematops 221 

neglectus. (Amblodon) 203 

nelsoni. (Awaous) 232 

nelsoni. (Chonophorus) 232 

nelsoni. (Conorhynchus) 19 

nelsoni. (Platypoecilus) 147 

Nematognathi 8 

nematops. (Neetroplus) 221 

Neomugil 187 

Neomugil digueti 187, 188 

nicaraguensis. (Gambusia) 133 

nicaraguensis. (Paragambusia) . . . 133 

niger. (Gobius) 229 

niger. (Leuciscus) ". . 56 

nigrescens. (Cheonda) 55 

nigrescens. (Leuciscus) 55 

nigrescens. (Tigoma) 55 

nigrotagniatus. (Groadus) 62, 68 

nigrotseniatus. (Notropis) 68 

nitida. (Moniana) 65 

nitfdus. (Tetragonopterus) 85 

nobilis. (Gambusia) 131 

nobilis. (Heterandria) 131 

Nocomis milneri .' 82 

notabilis. (Argyreus) 80 

notata. (Dorosoma) 92 

Notemigonus 57 

Notemigonus chrysoleucus 57 

Nototropis 62, 75 

Nototropis boucardi 67 

Nototropis braytoni 65 

Nototropis calientis 65 

Nototropis chihuahua 67 

Nototropis forlonensis 70 

Nototropis formosus 74 

Nototropis frigidus 75 

Nototropis garmani 73 

Nototropis heterodon 50 

Nototropis lutrensis 71, 73 

Nototropis macrostomus 72 

Nototropis nazas 70 

Nototropis orca 69 

Nototropis ornatus 68 

Nototropis robustus 66 

Nototropis santamaria? 74 

Nototropis santarosalias 75 

Notropis 62 

Notropis altus 82 

Notropis atherinoides 62 

Notropis aztecus 59 

Notropis braytoni ,65 



248 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 



PAGE 

Notropis calientis 65 

Notropis chihuahua 67 

Notropis formosus 74 

Notropis frigidus 75 

Notropis garmani 73 

Notropis lermae 60 

Notropis lutrensis 72 

Notropis macrostomus 72 

Notropis nigrotaeniatus 68 

Notropis orca 62, 69 

Notropis ornatus 68 

Notropis rasconis 50 

Notropis robustus 66 

Notropis santamariae 75 

Notropis santarosalias 75 

nuchalis. (Hybognathus) 48 

nuecensis. (Dioplites) 195 

nuecensis. (Grystes) 195 

oaxacas. (Fundulus) 104 

oaxacae. (Rhamdia) 20 

oaxacanensis. (Tetragonopterus) . 86 

occidentalis. (Girardinus) 150 

occidentalis. (Heterandria) 150 

occidentalis. (Lepidopomus) .... 192 

occidentalis. (Lepomis) 192 

occidentalis. (Pcecilia) 150 

ocotlanas. (Chirostoma) 180 

octofasciatum. (Cichlasoma) 218 

octofasciatus. (Heros) 218 

Ojos, Cuatro 135, 136 

Oligocephalus 196, 198 

olivaris. (Leptops) 18 

olivaris. (Silurus) 18 

orca. (Nototropis) 69 

orca. CNotropis) 62, 69 

Orcella 62, 69 

Orestiinae 118 

ornata. (Codorna) 62, 68 

ornatum. (Campostoma) 41 

ornatus. (Cochlognathus) 57, 58 

ornatus. (Nototropis) 68 

ornatus. (Notropis) 68 

oscula. (Agosia) 80 

oscula. (Corvina) 203 

osculus. (Argyreus) 80 

osseus. (Esox) 5 

osseus. (Lepidosteus) -. 5 

osseus. (Lepisosteus) 6 

ouananiche. (Salmo) 96 

pachycephalus. (Adinia) 112 



PAGE 
112 



pachycephalus. (Fundulus)... 

pachycephalus. (Zoogoneticus) . . 112 

pallidus. (Eupomotis) 193 

pallidus. (Labrus) 193 

pallidus. (Lepidopomus) 193 

pallidus. (Lepomis) 193 

Pantosteus 30 

Pantosteus plebeius 30 

Paragambusia 133 

Paragambusia nicaraguensis 133 

Pargeta 227 

parma. (Gichlasoma) 218, 220 

parma. (Heros) 218 

parvus. (Gobius) 230 

patruelis. (Gambusia) 131 

patzcuaro. (Chirostoma) 174 

pauciradiatus. (Pseudoxiphoph- 

orus) 128 

pavonaceum. (Cichlasoma) 209 

pavonaceus. (Heros) 209 

pelagicus. (Syngnathus) 162 

Perches 196 

Percidas 196 

Pescada Blanca 81 

Pescadito 55 

Petonte 14 

Petromyzon fluviatilis i 

Petromyzontidae i 

Phenacobius 76 

Phenacobius scopifer 76, 77 

Phenacobius teretulus 76 

Philypnus 226 

Philypnus dormitor 226, 227 

Philypnus lateralis 226, 227 

pichardi. (Joturus) 188 

pictus. (Eleotris) 229 

Pike-like Fishes 98 

pilosa. (Solea) 235 

Pimelocephales 50 

Pimelocephales confertus 51 

Pimelodinas 19 

Pimelodus affinis 10 

Pimelodus brachypterus . 21 

Pimelodus conirostris 19 

Pimelodus cupreus 12 

Pimelodus furcatus 10 

Pimelodus hypselurus 22 

Pimelodus laticaudus 21 

Pimelodus lupus 14 

Pimelodus maculatus 10 

Pimelodus natalis 12,16 



INDEX, 

PAGE 

Pimelodus quelen 20 

Pimelodus wagneri 22 

Pimephales 50 

Pimephales confertus 51 

Pimephales promelas 50, 51 

Pipe Fishes 162 

Pisces 3 

pisonis. (Eleotris) 228 

pisonis. (Gobius) 228 

Plagopterinae 83 

Plagopterus 83 

Plagopterus argentissimus 83 

platostomus. (Lepisosteus) 5,6 

Platypcecilus 144 

Platypoecilus maculatus 144, 145 

Platypoecilus nelsoni 147 

Platypoecilus quitzeoensis no 

Platypoecilus variatus 146 

platyrhynchus. (Minomus) 30 

platystomus. (Lepidosteus) 6 

plebeius. (Catostomus) 30 

plebeius. (Minomus) '. 30 

plebeius. (Pantosteus) 30 

Plectospondyli 24 

pleurospilus. (Girardinus) 148 

pleurospilus. (Heterandria) 148 

plumbea. (Gambusia) 153 

Poecilia 149 

Pcecilia butleri 150 

Poecilia couchiana 152 

Pcecilia latipunctata 150, 151 

Poecilia limantouri 153 

Pcecilia lineata 155 

Pcecilia mexicana 153 

Pcecilia occidentalis' 153 

Poecilia presidionis 152 

Poecilia sphenops 153 

Pcecilia vivipara 149 

Pcecilichthys lepidus 198 

Pceciliidae 98 

Pceciliinae 144 

Pcecilioides 127 

Pomadasis argentatus 200 

Pomadasis bayanus 201 

Pomadasys 200 

Pomadasys bayanus 201 

Pomadasys starri 200 

Pomadasys templei 201 

Pomotis aquilensis 191 

Pomotis heros 194 

Pomotis speciosus 193 



VOL. V. 249 

PAGE 

Popoche 43 

popoche. (Xystrosus) 43 

pottsii. (Aplesion) 196 

pottsii. (Etheostoma) 196, 197 

Pouts, The Horned 12 

presidionis. (Poecilia) 152 

pricei. (Ameiurus) 16 

pricei. (Amiurus) 16 

pricei. (Campostoma) 41 

pricei. (Villarius) 16 

Prinodon 124 

Pristipoma crocro 200 

Pristipoma humile 201 

promelas. (Chirostoma) 177 

promelas. (Pimephales) 50, 51 

Pseudoxiphophorus 127, 

Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus 

127, 128 

Pseudoxiphophorus pauciradiatus.. 128 

Ptychocheilus 52 

Ptychocheilus gracilis 52 

Ptychocheilus lucius 52 

Ptychostomus albidus 34 

Pujeque 233 

pulchella. (Tigoma) 55 

pulchra. (Tigoma) 55 

punctata. (Gambusia) 128 

punctatus. (Fundulus) 104 

punctatus. (Ichthyaslurus) n, 14 

punctatus. (Ictalurus) 1 1 

punctatus. (Labrus) 204 

punctatus. (Silurus) 1 1 

punctifer. (Hybognathus) 49 

punctulatus. (Amiurus) 18 

Punecas 227 

purpuratus. (Salmo) 97 

purpureus. (Leuciscus) 56 

Pursey Minnows 124 

quelen. (Pimelodus) 20 

quitzeoensis. (Platypcecilia) 109 

quitzeoensis. (Platypoecilus) .... no 

quitzeoensis. (Zoogoneticus) .... in 

Rafinesquiellus 196, 197 

Rainbow Trout 96 

rasconis. (Hybognathus) 5 

rasconis. (Notropis) 50 

Razor-back Suckers 33 

rectangulare. (Cichlasoma) 216 

rectangularis. (Acara) 216 



25 



FIELD COLUMBIAN 



Red-horse Suckers 34 

Rhamdia 20 

Rhamdia hypselura 22 

Rhamdia laticauda 21 

Rhamdia oaxacae 20 

Rhamdia wagneri 22 

Rhinichthys 79 

Rhinichthys simus 79 

Rhomboganoidea 4 

Rhonciscus 200 

River Drums 202 

Robaio 198, 199 

robusta. *Gila) 53 

robustus. (Fundulus) 112 

robustus. (Nototropis) 66 

robustus. (Notropis) 66 

robustus. (Zoogoneticus).ii2, 113, 121 

Rceboides 88 

Roeboides guatemalensis 88 

rostratus. (Thorichthys) 222 

rubescens. (Algansea) 46 

rubripinna. (Cyprinella) 73 

rutila. (Moniana) 71 

Rutilus amblops 80 

Rutiius anoaialus 40, 42 

Rutilus boucardi 67 

Sac-a-Lait 105 



salar. (Salmo) 95. 96 

sallaei. (Algansea) 45 

sallaei. (Ceratichthys) 45 

sallei. (Atherinichthys) 181 

sallei. (Menidia) 181 

Salmichi 67 

Salmo 95 

Salmo irideus 96 

Salmo ouanahiche 96 

Salmo purpuratus 97 

Salmo salar 95. 96 

Salmo sebago 96 

salmoides. (Labrus) 195 

salmoides. (Micropterus) 195 

Salmon 95 

Salmon* White 52 

Salmonidse 95 

Salmoninae 95 

salmonoides. (Micropterus) ..192,195 

salvini. (Cichlasoma) 207 

salvini. (Heros) 207 

santamaria;. (Nototropis) 74 

santamarise. (Notropis) 74 



MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 

PAGE PAGE 

santarosaliae. (Nototropis) 75 

santarosaliae. (Notropis) 75 

Sarcidium 76 

Sarcidium scopiferum 76 

Sardina 58 

Sciaena maculata 227 

Sciaena undecimalis 199 

Scisenidae 202 

Sclerognathus meridionalis 26 

scopifer. (Phenacobius) 76, 7 7 

scopiferum. (Sarcidium) 76 

scovelii. (Etheostoma) 197 

sebago. (Salmo) 96 

seminolis. (Fundulus) 102 

senilis. (Gambusia) 131 

serenus. (Hybognathus) 48 

severus. (Heros) 205 

Shad, Gizzard 92, 94 

Shad, Hickory 94 

Shiner, Golden 57 

Shiners 62 

Short-nosed Garpike , . 6 

Signalosa 94 

Signalosa atchafalayse 94. 95 

Signalosa mexicana 94 

signifer. (Stypodon) 51 

Siluridae 8 

Silurus olivaris 18 

Silurus punctatus 1 1 

Silurus viscosus 1 8 

Silvery Minnows 48 

sima. (Eleotris) . . .< 227 

similis. (Fundulus) 105, 106 

similis. (Hydragyra) 105 

simus. (Rhinichthys) 79 

Siphostoma 162 

Siphostoma brevicandum 163 

Siphostoma starksi 163 

Skiffia 141 

Skiffia bilineata 144 

Skiffia lermae 141, 142 

Skiffia multipunctata 141 

Skiffia variegata 143 

Sleeper 228 

Solea achirus 236 

Solea fonsecensis 236 

Solea mazatlana 235 

Solea pilosa 235 

Soleidae 234 

Soles 234 

somnolentus. (Eleotris) 227 



INDEX, 

PAGE 

sonorensis. (Catostomus) 32 

sonorensis. (Girardinus) 150 

Southern Dace 79 

spadicea. (Lampetra) 2 

Sparus aureus 193 

speciosa. (Gambusia) 131 

speciosus. (Pomotis) 193 

sphenops. (Poecilia) 153 

sphyrasna. (Chirostoma) 177 

Spiny-rayed Fishes 164 

starksi. (Siphostoma) 163 

starri. (Pomadasys) 200 

steindachneri. (Cichlasoma) 210 

Stone-roller 42 

Stypodon 51 

Stypodon signifer 51 

Suckers 24 

Suckers, Fine-scaled 31 

Suckers, Mountain 30 

Suckers, Razor-back 33 

Suckers, Red-horse 34 

Sunfish 192 

Sunfishes 189 

Symbranchia 89 

Symbranchidag 89 

Symbranchoid Eels 89 

Symbranchus 89 

Symbranchus marmoratus 89 

Synentognathi 160 

Syngnathidae 162 

Syngnathus pelagicus 162 

Tachysurinae 9 

taiasica. (Awaous) 233 

taiasica. (Chonophorous) 233 

taiasica. (Gobius) 232, 233 

tarascorum. (Algansea) 47 

telfairii. (Agonostomus) 186 

templei. (Pomasys) 201 

temporatus. (Heros) 215 

tenuis. (Cynodonichthys) 101 

teretulus. (Phenacobius) 76 

Tetard, Guavina 228 

Tetragonopterinae 84 

Tetragonopterus 84 

Tetragonopterus aeneus 86 

Tetragonopterus argenteus 84 

Tetragonopterus argentatus 85 

Tetragonopterus fulgens 85 

Tetragonopterus mexicanus 85 

Tetragonopterus nitidus 85 



VOL. V. 251 

PAGE 

Tetragonopterus oaxacanensis .... 86 

tetropthalmus. (Anableps) 135 

Thorichthys 222 

Thorichthys affinis 222 

Thorichthys aureus 222 

Thorichthys ellioti 222, 223 

Thorichthys fredrichsthali 222 

Thorichthys helleri 223, 224 

Thorichthys longimanus 222 

Thorichthys rostratus 222 

Thyrina 184 

Thyrina crystallina 184 

Thyrina evermanni 184 

Tigorna conspersa 56 

Tigoma intermedia 56 

Tigoma nigrescens 55 

Tigoma pulchella 55 

Tigoma pulchra 55 

tincella. (Algansea) 44 

tincella. (Leuciscus) 44 

tlahuacensis. (Evarra) 78 

Torrentaria 196, 197 

toweri. (Goodea) 138 

tristoechus. (Esox) 6 

tristoechus. (Lepidosteus) 5,6 

tristoechus. (Lepisosteus) 6 

Tropical Catfish 1 1 

Tropical Garpike 7 

tropicus. (Atractosteus) . 7 

tropicus. (Lepidosteus) 7 

tropicus. (Lepisosteus) 7 

Trout 95 

Trout, Gila 53 

Trout, Rainbow 96 

Trucha 186 

truncata. (Belone) 160 

tumidus. (Carpiodes) 26, 27 

tumidus. (Ichthyobus) 26 

tumidus. (Ictiobus) 26 

Tylosurus 160 

Tylosurus cantrainii 1 60 

Tylosurus marinus 160 

tyrannus. (Anguilla) 90 

undecimalis. (Sciama) 199 

unilineatus. (Hemigrammus) 87 

uninotatus. (Girardinus) 134 

variatus. (Characodon) 120 

variatus. (Platypoecilus) 146 

variegata. (Skiffia) 143 



2 5 2 



FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. V. 



PAC;E 

variegatus. (Cyprinodon) 124 

variegatus. (Limnurgus) 115,116 

velifer. (Carpiodes) 27 

venusta. (Limia) 109 

Villarius price! 16 

vinctus. (Fundulus) 105 

viridis. (Lepidosteus) 7 

viscosus. (Silurus) : . 18 

vittata. (Aztecula) 59 

vittata. (Codoma) 59 

vivipara. (Poecilia) 149 

vomerina. (Atherina) 166, 175 

wagneri. (Pimelodus) 22 

wagneri. (Rhamdia) 22 

Western Sunfish 192 

White Cat 1 1 

White Salmon 52 

whitei. (Goodea) 137 

xaliscone. (Xenendum) 139 

Xenendum 136 

Xenendum caliente 136, 140 

Xenendum multipunctatum 141 

Xenendum xaliscone 139 

Xiphophorus 156 

Xiphophorus bimaculatus 127 

Xiphophorus gracilis 130 



PAGE 

Xiphophorus guntheri 157, 158 

Xiphophorus helleri 156, 157 

Xiphophorus jalapae 156 

Xiphophorus montezumae 158 

Xyrauchen 33 

Xyrauchen cypho 33 

Xystrosus 43 

Xystrosus popoche 43 

Yellow Cat 16 

Yuriria . . 80 



zebra. (Hydrargyra) 108 

zebrinus. (Fundulus) 108 

zirahuen. (Chirostoma) 174 

Zoogoneticus 104, 109 

Zoogoneticus cuitzeoensis no 

Zoogoneticus diazi 114 

Zoogoneticus dugesi in 

Zoogoneticus dugesii . in 

Zoogoneticus guatemalensis 103 

Zoogoneticus maculatus 113 

Zoogoneticus miniatus 115 

Zoogoneticus pachycephalus ...:.. 112 

Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis . in 

Zoogoneticus robustus 112, 113, 121 

Zy gonectes 118