Skip to main content

Full text of "Fridtjof Nansen, his life and explorations"

See other formats


^^^m: 






1 

1 04459 9504 


3176 






/ j\rthur Bain 




FRUnjOl. NANSEN, SCIENTIST AND EXTLORER, 






FRIDTJOF NANSEN 



1bi6 Xife aiit) lEyploration^, 



C BY 

C ARTHUR BAIN, ,- , . 

AUTHOR OF "the NANSENS" (" IDLER," MARCH, 1896) ; " FRW RANSEN " 

("strand magazine," NOVEMBER, 1896) ; "a TALli^ WITH 

DR. NANSEN "(" STRAND MAGAZINE," CHRISTMAS. 1896). 

I 

abrtUgeU from Ujr iargev asaorfe. 



SECOND EDITION. TENTH THOUSAND. 



LONDON 

S. W. PARTRIDGE & CO 

8 & 9 Paternoster Row 

1897. 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/fridtjofnansenhiOObainuoft 




CHRISTIAMA. 



PREFACE. 



THE only cure for the Arctic fever is the 
discovery of the North Pole, A goal at 
once so definite and so encompassed with 
mystery is sure to command human effort 
until it shall be reached, and never was man- 
kind nearer to this consummation than at the present 
time. The operations of Arctic heroes, beginning 
with Sebastian Cabot and ending with Fridtjof 
Nansen, have gradually broken down the barriers 
that have stood for ages between restless man and 
his ambition. For many years Great Britain has 
stood foremost in the history of Arctic exploration, 
but Norway has lately proved a formidable rival in 
the person of Fridtjof Nansen, whose crossing of the 
great Greenland plateau in 1888 drew attention for 
the first time to the fertility of resource possessed by 
this strong-nerved Scandinavian. 



VI PREFACE. 

Only the Arctic explorer himself is able to explain 
the source of the attraction that lures men to the icy 
north. However greatly opinions may differ as to 
the feasibility of the plans of the majority of the 
explorers ; as to the practical results which may 
accrue to navigation or commerce ; or as to the 
benefits to be derived by science from their observa- 
tions in these regions, it will not be denied that the 
men who, in face of a terribly rigorous climate and of 
fearful bodily risks, sail northward with a fixed 
determination to wrest from Nature her most closely- 
guarded secret, are worthy of admiration. 

In this record I intend to place before my readers 
not only the life and history of a brave man who has 
early in life eclipsed the performances of many of his 
predecessors, but to present it in such a manner as to 
allow the ordinary reader to draw a parallel between 
the doings of Fridtjof Nahsen and those of the men 
who have gone before him in the path which he has 
himself chosen. 

In comparison with the journeys of Dr. Nansen 
and his companions, all other Arctic ventures of 
recent years fall into the shade. No explorer of the 
Arctic regions since Franklin, no traveller indeed 
save Columbus, has gained so great a hold upon the 
imagination of his contemporaries. As in his journey 
across Greenland, so in his attempt to find the North 
Pole— he modestly but fearlessly confronted danger 
with the full knowledge that to fail was most probably 
to die. 

There is much in Nansen to inspire respect and 
confidence. His character and bearing are unmis- 
takably those of the man who achieves greatness. 



PREFACE. Vll 

Without fear on the one hand or vanity on the other, 
he spoke of his purpose with simple candour exag- 
gerating nothing, making h'ght of nothing, not greatly 
concerned as to what the world might think of his 
project, except to let men see that he had excellent 
reasons for the birth and growth of the faith that was 
in him. Amid the many discouragements he met 
with, none stung him so much as the implied censure 
of the people who said that the risk was needless ; 
that neither time, money, nor life ought to be 
expended on his quest ; that its only reward could 
be, if successful, a trivial gain of knowledge ; and 
that the only result of failure would be the death of 
the explorer and his companions. To these he once 
made a famous answer — an answer that deserves to 
ring throughout the ages in the ears of the doubters 
and faint-hearted : — " Man wants to know ; and when 
man no longer wants to know, he will no longer be 
man." 

The unprecedented public interest which Nansen's 
record has aroused in this land proves that to-day, as 
much as ever, the heart of the British public warms to 
great deeds. And hardly the less so, be it remem- 
bered to our credit as a nation, when the doer of them 
is a foreigner, and the laurels he wins are for another 
brow than Britannia's. 

In conclusion, I wish to acknowledge the kindness 
of Fru Nansen and Alexander Nansen, to whom I am 
indebted for much of the information contained in my 
earlier chapters ; of Messrs. Longmans, Green & Co., 
for their prompt permission to make extracts from 
" The First Crossing of Greenland," the " Life of 
Nansen," etc. ; of Mrs. Alec B. Tweedie ; of the 



vm PREFACE. 

proprietors of The Illustrated London News ; of the 
editor of The Strand Magazine ; of Sir Clements R. 
Markham, F.R.S., President of the Royal Geogra- 
phical Society ; of Dr. John Murray ; and numerous 
others who so readily granted me leave to enlarge on 
my own information by quoting from their publica- 
tions and writings. 

The large excerpts from Dr. Nansen's address, due 
to the courtesy of the editors of the Proceedings of the 
Royal Geographical Society, are rendered desirable by 
the numerous canards afloat at the present time 
regarding his plan in the polar expedition of 1893- 
1896. 

J. ARTHUR BAIN. 



Nansen House, Millhouses, 
Sheffield, April, 1897. 




a^. NANSKN IN FURS. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

SCHOOL LIFE AND PASTIMES, .11 

CHAPTER n. 

SCIENCE, SPORT, AND EXPLORATION, . . . .21 

CHAPTER III. 

FIRST CROSSING OF GREENLAND, 34 

CHAPTER IV. 

FRU NANSEN, 43 

CHAPTER V. 

NANSEN'S HOME, -52 

IX 



X CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VI. 

PAGE 

HOW TO CROSS THE NORTH POLAR REGION, . . . 6o 

CHAPTER VII. 

NANSEN'S ARCTIC SHIP, 79 

CHAPTER VIII. 

"we are THIRTEEN ALL TOLD," 97 

CHAPTER IX. 

THE DEPARTURE, II4 

CHAPTER X. 

THREE YEARS' SILENCE, I23 

CHAPTER XI. 
A TALK WITH DR. NANSEN, SEPTEMBER, 1 896, . . 130 

CHAPTER XII. 

CONCLUSION, 155 





'" ^>^m^H 



^KII.ol;^I^■G. 



1j''i' , .KLii 



FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 



CHAPTER I. 



SCHOOL LIFE AND PASTIMES. 

I^HE earliest ancestor of whom Nansen has trust- 
worthy records was one Ewart, of the same 
surname, a merchant of Flensburgin, Schleswig- 
Holstein, who died in 1613. Ewart Nansen's 
son, Hans, went with his uncle on a merchant ship 
to Russia ; afterwards became Russian interpreter 
at the Court of the King of Denmark ; and, later, a 
special Danish envoy to the Czar. Subsequently, as 
chairman of the Icelandic Trading Society, he made 
many voyages to Iceland and Russia, and wrote, in 
Danish, a "Compendium Cosmographicum Danicum," 
which had many editions (1633 46) — a comi)iIation 

1 1 



12 FRIDTJOF NANSEN, 

much affected by seamen until comparatively recent 
times. The Nansens of to-day are traced from these 
ancestors, one of the first of whom thus showed a 
bent for travelling, and for writing on his travels. 
Indeed, the family has been distinguished for its 
soldiers, sailors, lawyers, and administrators, who 
have done good service for their native land. From 
his mother Nansen inherits a strong mind in a healthy, 
body. As a young lady his mother was noted as a 
snow-shoe runner, and that at a time when ladies were 
not encouraged in outdoor sport. " Her will-power 
and love of activity, her intrepidity, her practical and 
resolute nature have descended to her son." His gift 
of thoroughness he owes to his father — a refined 
gentleman of the old school, and a distinguished 
advocate, who has been followed in this direction 
by his younger son, Alexander, now in practice in 
the Norwegian capital. 

Fridtjof Nansen was born at Froen, two miles and 
a-half from Christiania, on the loth of October, 1861. 
He began his career as a skilober at the tender 
age of four. He himself tells the story of his first 
snow-shoes, and his first great leap : — " I am not 
speaking of the very first pair of all ; they were pre- 
cious poor ones, cut down from cast-off snow-shoes 
which had belonged to my brothers and sisters. They 
were not even of the same length. But Mr, Fabritius, 
the printer, took pity upon me : ' I '11 give you a pair 
of snow-shoes,' he said. Then spring came, and then 
summer, and with the best will in the world one 
couldn't go snow-shoeing. But Fabritius's promise 
sang in my ears, and no sooner had the autumn come 
and the fields begun to whiten with hoar-frost of a 



SCHOOL LIFE AND PASTIMES. 1 3 

morning, than I placed myself right in his way where 
I knew he would come driving by. 

" ' I say ! What about those snow-shoes ? ' 
" ' You shall have them right enough,' he said, and 
laughed. But I returned to the charge day after day : 
' What about those snow-shoes ? ' 

" Then came winter. I can still see my sister 
standing in the middle of the room with a long, 
long parcel which she said was for me. I thought 
she said, too, it was from Paris. But that was a 
mistake, for it was the snow-shoes from Fabritius — 
a pair of red-lacquered ash snow-shoes with black 
stripes. And there was a long staff, too, with shining 
blue-lacquered shaft and knob. I used these snow- 
shoes for ten years. It was on them I made my first 
big jump on Huseby Hill, where at that time the 
great snow-shoe races were held. We boys were not 
allowed to go there. We might range all the other 
hills round about, but the Huseby Hill was forbidden. 
But we could see it at Froen, and it lured us day by 
day till we couldn't resist it any longer. At first 
I started from the middle of the hill, like most of the 
other boys, and all went well. But presently I saw 
there were one or two who started from the top ; so 
of course I had to try it. Off I set, came at frantic 
speed to the jump, sailed for what seemed a long 
time in space, and ran my snow-shoes deep into a 
snow-drift. We didn't have our shoes fastened on in 
those days, so they remained sticking in the drift, 
while I, head first, described a fine arc in the air. 
I had such way on, too, that when I came down again 
I bored into the snow up to my waist. There was 
a moment's hush on the hill. The boys thought I had 



14 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

broken my neck. But as soon as they saw there was 
life in me, and that I was beginning to scramble out, 
a shout of mocking laughter went up ; an endless 
roar of derision over the entire hill from top to 
bottom. 

" After that, I took part in the Huseby Hill races, 
and won a prize. But I didn't take it home ; for 
I was put to shame on that occasion as well. It was- 
the first time I had seen the Telemarken peasants 
snow-shoeing, and I recognised at a glance that I wasn't 
to be mentioned in the same breath with them. They 
used no staff ; they simply went ahead and made the 
leap without trusting to anything but the strength of 
their muscles and the firm, lithe carriage of their bodies. 
I saw that this was the only proper way. Until I had 
mastered it, I wouldn't have any prize."* 

He made rapid progress in outdoor pastimes, and 
soon became famous as one of the most accomplished 
skaters, skilobers, and sportsmen in Norway. He 
and his brother, Alexander, used their ski in the 
winter in their daily journey to and from their school 
at Christiania, and many a storm was braved by the 
brothers in order that they might not miss their 
studies. During the interval, therefore, between 
Fridtjof's fourth and his eighteenth year, while he 
was attending school at Christiania, he was steadily 
cultivating his capacity for physical endurance. His 
upbringing was of the homely, Spartan kind that 
prevails in Norway, distinguished only by extra 
hardihood and by an utter carelessness as to the 
comforts of life. Long fishing excursions, in which 

* " Life of Nansen " (Longmans, Green & Co.). 



SCHOOL LIFE AND PASTIMES. 1 5 

he forgot about food, or hazardous ascents of snow 
mountains, were his principal relaxations from the 
monotony of home and school life. 

In the first two sporting meetings at which Nansen 
competed he won several cups, medals, and cham- 
pionship races. Thus unconsciously he prepared 
himself for the dangers and the strain upon his 
physical powers that were to come in later years. 

Nansen himself writes in " The First Crossing of 
Greenland " : — " I have myself been accustomed to 
the use of ski since I was four years old. ... I know 
of no form of sport which so evenly develops the 
muscles; which renders the body so strong and 
elastic ; which teaches so well the qualities of 
dexterity and resource ; which in an equal degree 
calls for decision and resolution, and which gives the 
same vigour and exhilaration to mind and body 
alike, . . . Nor can there be many lands so well 
fitted as ours for the practice of skilobning and its 
full development as a sport. From our childhood 
onwards we are accustomed to use our ski, and in 
many a mountain valley, boys, and girls too, for 
that matter, are by their very surroundings forced to 
take to their ski almost as soon as they can walk." 

The hills about Froen witnessed Nansen's first ski 
runs ; on the frozen ponds in Vestre Aker he found 
his first inland ice ; and it was to the heights of 
Tryvand and Nordmarken that he went to prepare 
himself for the work of Arctic exploration. 

At a ski run which took place in February, 1882, 
he distinguished himself by carrying off a cup, which 
was offered by his father as a prize to the best 
skilober around Christiania. This trophy, the Ladies' 



1 6 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

Cup, is the subject of an annual competition at 
Christiania, which attracts thither the fleetest skil- 
obers that Norway possesses, the hills and forest 
paths where the races take place being overcrowded 
with those anxious to witness the keen contests. 

It has been said that as a skater Nansen also took 
high rank. When he was only sixteen years old he 
took the first prize in the great annual skating match 
near Christiania, and a few years later was second in 
a most important skating competition, the "King 
Skater," King Ajel Paulsen, carrying off the principal 
honours after a supreme effort. 

Very early in his boyhood Fridtjof showed a high 
spirit of courage, a fondness for the invigorating 
sports of his own country, a love of outdoor recrea- 
tions and trials of physical strength, and he gloried 
in the excitement and dangers of the chase. 

As a schoolboy he was industrious, and passed out 
of the intermediate school at the age of sixteen with 
distinction. In his teens much of his spare time 
was taken up with sport, and he used to pass weeks 
at a time alone in the forests. He himself writes 
of those days : — " I disliked having an outfit for 
my excursions. I managed with a crust of bread, 
and broiled my fish on the embers, I loved to live 
like Robinson Crusoe up there in the solitudes."* 

"There was one thing that used to annoy his 
snow-shoeing cronies in those days, and that was his 
total carelessness as to creature comforts. If" he 
happened to look from the tower on Tryvand's 

* " Life of Nansen " (Longmans, Green & Co.). 



L 



SCHOOL LIFE AND PASTIMES. 17 

Height away over to Stubdal, twenty miles off, a 
whim would all of a sudden seize him, and nothing 
would serve but he must set off without taking a 
crumb of food with him. On one occasion he 
descended upon a farm in Stubdal so ravenously 
hungry that the people did not forget his visit for 
many a day."* 

It was on these long winter journeys that he 
learned to love nature with a depth of love seldom 
shown by boys. He early recognised that there 
were " no gains without pains," and, alike in sport 
and study, he put his whole soul into his task. He 
was a muscular as well as a handsome young fellow 
— tall, well-formed, and manly, which made him a 
hero among the lads who shared his sports. There 
was no recreation in which he did not take part 
with keenest ardour, and did not soon become an 
adept. He was a born leader of boys, as of men, 
and a rival he could not brook. Rivalry for the 
leadership was apt to make him brusque and irritable. 

On many an early summer morn he was wont 
to follow the Frogner river, which wound its way 
past the front door at Froen, with angler's hook and 
line. In this stream he bathed summer and winter, 
frequently breaking the ice in winter to procure his 
dip. 

He never tired of boating and sailing, nor of 
boarding the sealing or whaling vessels as they lay 
in Christiania Harbour. The rough, weather-beaten 
sailors took a strong fancy to the stalwart, inquisitive 
lad, who listened with open mouth and dilated 

* " Life of Nansen" (Longmans, Green & Co.). 

B 



1 8 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

pupils to their doings in the land of the seal, the 
walrus, and the whale, and to the surmises about the 
unknown regions beyond. 

That the boy makes the man is perhaps more 
evident in Nansen's up-growing than in most cases. 
He was ever a studious youth ; perhaps over-much 
given, in his schoolmaster's eyes, to finding out the 
why and wherefore of things. From early childhood 
his thoughts were more to him than his meals ; and 
when he was absorbed in anything he was oblivious 
to his surroundings. His brothers and sisters were 
frequently provoked at his everlasting " What 's 
that?" "But how can that be?" He would forget 
his appointments, and when they went in search of 
him would find him in the usual "brown study." 
" There 's the duffer at it again," they would angrily 
exclaim. " You '11 never come to any good, you 're 
such a dawdler." 

" In the upper school," write his biographers, 
"it is possible that sport and a thousand and one 
private preoccupations absorbed too much of his 
time. In any case, we find a heartfelt sigh going 
up from the half-yearly report of his masters, Aars 
jind Voss, in 1879: — 'He is unstable, and in several 
subjects his progress is not nearly so satisfactory as 
might have been expected.' It is true that their 
expectations were probably rather high in the case of 
a boy who astonished his teacher of mathematics by 
giving a geometrical solution of a problem in 
arithmetic."* Nansen was, however, conscious of 
powers which only required development to secure 

* " Life of Nansen " (Longmans, Green & Co.). 



SCHOOL LIFE AND I'ASTLMKS. 



19 



unbounded success ; but he was too wise to muse 
over useless ambition, and turning to the work that 
lay nearest his hand he did it with all his might, 
contented to bide his time. Thus early in life he 
took to natural science and original research, and 
showed that he was compounded of intense curiosity, 
utter indifference to personal comfort, all engrossing 
ambition, and a resolution as hard as aJam.ant. 

Nansen was a reckless climber — at times utterly 
regardless of life and limb — and his escapes from 
death can only be accounted for by his fine 




Style uf I'cleniarkun Ski (with two grooves in the bottom), .'iiid 
Finmarkcn Ski (plain or one yroove). 




physique, and that immortality which attends men 
whose work is not yet done. The story of how 
he crossed Vosseskavlen by night, in the dead of 
winter, has been told by himself His daring made 
the peasants, on whom he unexpectedly called for 
something to eat, stand aghast with fright when they 
heard of his intention. Not even the best skilobcr 
in the district would dare the same feat. As ski 
formed so important a feature in the Arctic work of 
Dr. Nansen, a descri[)tion of these articles and their 
uses may prove of interest. 



20 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

In " The First Crossing of Greenland " Nansen 
says : — " Ski are long narrow strips of wood, those 
used in Norway being from three to four inches in 
breadth, eight feet, more or less, in length, one inch in 
thickness at the centre under the foot, and bevelling 
off to about a quarter of an inch at either end. In 
front they are curved upwards and pointed, and they 
are sometimes a little turned up at the back end too. 
The sides are more or less parallel, though the best 
forms have their greatest width in front, just where 
the upward curve begins, but otherwise they are quite 
straight and flat, and the under surface is made as 
smooth as possible. The attachment consists of a 
loop for the toe, made of leather or some other sub- 
stance, and fixed at about the centre of the ski, and a 
band which passes from this round behind the heel of 
the shoe. The principle of this fastening is to make 
the ski and foot as rigid as possible for steering 
purposes, while the heel is allowed to rise freely from 
the ski at all sides." 

The ski are driven forward, they are not lifted. 
With the snow in good condition, the rate of progress 
is surprising, and without great effort a speed of from 
eight to nine miles an hour may be kept up on ski 
for a considerable time — 70 or 80 miles a-day being 
no unusual achievement. 



<-^fl.-5*!ft!4sr.a-^ 




CHAPTER II. 



SCIENCE, SPORT, AND EXPLORATION. 



IN 1880 Nansen matriculated with credit, proving 
that distractions had not seriously interfered 
with his studies. He got a first-class in all 
natural science subjects, mathematics, and 
history; and when, in December, 1881, he went up 
for his second examination he was classed as 
laudabilis proe ceteris. 

It was shortly after this that he finally decided to 
take up zoology as a special study. In 1880 he had 
entered the University of Christiania, the only insti- 
tution of the kind in Norway, where he had manifested 
a strong scientific bent. He was specially fond of 
zoology, and soon became known at the University 
as an enthusiastic zoologist. 

In 1882, at the age of twenty-one, and at the 
advice of Professor Collett, he went as a passenger to 
the polar seas in a Norwegian sealing steamer named 
the Vikings for the purpose of increasing his zoologi- 



22 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

cal knowledge, and likewise to train himself for 
zoological research. 

The vessel was ice-bound for twenty-four days off 
the mysterious and fascinating east coast of Green- 
land, in latitude 66° 50' N. In " The First Crossing 
of Greenland " the young explorer states : — " Many 
times a-day from the maintop were my glasses turned 
westward, and it is not to be wondered at that a young 
man's fancy was drawn irresistibly to the charms and 
mysteries of this unknown world." 

This cruise occupied nearly six months, and served 
a double purpose. It enabled Nansen to add con- 
siderably to his knowledge of zoology, and he received 
his first lessons in ice navigation. His party were 
frozen in off the east Greenland coast at the end 
of June. He complains that this was the more 
deplorable as it was the best time for seal catching. 
The young explorer consoled himself for the dis- 
appointment by bear shooting and by scientific 
research. Everything he captures — animals, birds, 
and insects — he conscientiously examines. He carries 
out the instructions given him by his professors with 
great faithfulness, and proves by the work done that 
he was an ardent zoologist 

On his return he contributed articles to both 
scientific and sporting journals. In the former he 
showed that he was the fortunate possessor of keen 
receptive and perceptive faculties, his chapters on 
the habits of the seal and polar bear being especially 
worthy of remark. In the latter he gave a number of 
demonstrations in rifle firing. During his enforced 
stay on the Greenland coast, he shot more than five 
hundred seals and fourteen polar bears, many of 



SCIENCE, SPORT, AND EXPLORATION. 23 

whose skins now adorn his study at Lysaker. His 
descriptions have both animation and insight, and 
call up with clearness the scenes of his exploits. He 
owes much to the fact that he could use both pen and 
gun with equal facility at an early age. 

The following entry is from his diary of the voyage, 
dated the 28th of June, and gives a glowing account 
of the perils and delights of his first bear hunt in 
high latitudes : — " As I lay peacefully this morning 
dreaming of bears which I never got hold of, I was 
awakened by a whisper in my ear, * You had better 
turn out, for we have got a bear right under the ship's 
side.' Hardly had I heard the word ' bear ' before I 
sprang up, rubbed my eyes, gazed with astonishment 
at the second mate, who continued whispering, as if 
the bear were outside the cabin door, ' You must look 
sharp ; ' and look sharp I did, for I was up and on 
deck in a moment with rifle and cartridges. Quite 
right ; there was the bear within range, quietly and 
reflectively walking backwards and forwards, and 
stopping now and then to sniff the air and scrutinise 
the ship, which was evidently a novelty. There is 
no hurry, I thought ; I can very well wait and enjoy 
the sight of this splendid, proud animal till the captain 
comes. But why does he not come ? Yes, there he 
is at last ; and I was just burning to speak to him 
when I heard a report. As if stung by a serpent I 
rushed up, in order that I, too, might at least send a 
shot after the bear on his journey. But no. Undis- 
turbed by such trifles, he still walked quietly about, 
although the bullet had struck the snow close beside 
him. The shot was from one of the seal-shooters, 
who could no longer restrain himself. It was there- 



24 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

fore best to make our way on to the ice without 
further delay. Once down I crept along, and was 
soon within range, but the bear had meanwhile caught 
sight of me, and had gone up on to a hummock or 
crag of ice to reconnoitre. It was a pretty sight. 
I aimed just behind the shoulder — one does not shoot 
in the head for fear of spoiling the skull and skin — 
pulled the trigger of my rifle, and — it missed fire. 
It was fatal, and to make everything complete, the 
cartridge stuck fast, so that I nearly tore all my 
nails off in getting it out. At last, however, it slipped 
out, and I was ready to begin again. Luckily the 
bear, instead of running away as I had expected, 
approached and showed me his broad breast. I aimed 
straight into the whirl of white fur, and this time 
there was a report. Bruin did not like his reception ; 
he growled, bit the ground, fell over, but jumped up 
again directly, and started off. I put another cart- 
ridge into my rifle, and sent a bullet into his hind- 
quarters, which were now the only visible parts of 
him. A new growl, and a still more hasty retreat, 
I followed him from floe to floe, but at last they 
became too far apart for him to jump, and he had to 
take to the water. In this way I gained on him, and 
put a bullet between the shoulder-blades, just as he 
was climbing up the other side of a large piece of ice. 
He was done for now, and fell back into the water, 
looking at me furiously out of his small, fiery, black 
eyes, but could do no more. Another bullet, and his 
sufferings were at an end."* 

On this journey Nansen sighted Jan Mayen and 

* Longmans Magazine^ Ju^yj 1894. 



SCIENCE, SPORT, AND EXPLORATION. 2$ 

Spitzbergen, and spent some time in Iceland, where 
he afterwards landed previous to his crossing of 
Greenland. 

One of his finest trophies at Lysaker is a skin of 
one of the largest bears shot by the party. This 
lies under his writing-table, and Nansen jocularly 
remarked concerning it : — " I can truly say that I sit 
with my foot on the neck of my enemy ! " 

The bladder-nose seal is the largest and strongest 
seal to be found in Arctic waters. Such is its 
immense power it can readily jump out of the sea, 
describe a curve in the air, and plump down on the 
edge of a floe that stands six or seven feet above the 
surface. Nansen, on his first voyage, was attacked 
by a fierce-looking male bladder-nose that leapt over 
the gunwale of his attacking boat. "He struck at 
me," says Nansen, " with his teeth, missed me, but 
caught the woodwork, on which he left deep marks." 

Nansen tells us that seal shooting is excellent 
practice, and tends to make one a cool and steady 
rifle-shot, " for the thing is to hit the seal only in the 
head, or, at worst, in the neck. . . . To hit him else- 
where is worse than missing him clean, as if shot in 
the body he takes to the water at once." 

Although from the point of view of excitement and 
scientific research this, his first Arctic cruise, was a 
success, so far as the sealing was concerned it was a 
failure, for by the time the ice gave way the sealing 
season was over, and they had nothing better to do 
but set their course homeward. Nansen ends the 
account of the journey thus : — " Lightly the Viking 
sped over the waves as fast as wind and steam could 
carry her, and great was the joy on board when the 



26 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

weather-beaten peaks of dear old Norway appeared 
in sight, rising from the sea." 

What the Arctic regions are like, as also something 
of Nansen's power of vividly describing them, may 
be gathered from the following extract : — " To give 
those who have not seen this world of ice an idea of 
what it looks like is not easy, as it is so different from 
anything else. It is a strange thing with this region 
that when you are there you think it sometimes 
monotonous perhaps ; but when you are away from 
it you long to get back again to its white, vast 
solitude. 

" When you approach the ice-fields of the polar sea 
you hear them afar off by the noise of the breakers 
against the floes ; it sounds like the strange roar 
of a distant earthquake or thunderstorm. Over the 
horizon to the north you will also see a strange light ; 
this is the white reflection which the ice throws on the 
sky above. When you sail on you will after a while 
begin to meet the white floes riding on the dark 
water. It is along the margin of this ice that the 
sealer hunts for the seal ; between these tremendous 
floes he forces his way with his strong ship to his 
prey. But many a hard struggle he has to fight here 
when the elements are in tumult. Nothing more 
foaming wild than a tempest in the winter-night in 
the north can easily be imagined. When the storm 
whistles over sea and ice, lashes snow and foam in your 
face, and seizes you so that you cannot stand on 
deck; when the waves rise into huge water-moun- 
tains, between which the ship disappears, and is all 
in foam ; when sea and ice meet, and the waves rise 
like towers and break in over the floes like greenish- 



SCIENCE, SPORT, AND EXPLORATION. 27 

yellow waterfalls, and the huge floes are thrown 
against each other and crushed into dust, while the 
water foams and ice-blocks are thrown high against 
the dark sky — then it may happen that you will feel the 
wild horror of the polar sea. No stars, no northern 
lights, no light of any kind over this furious uproar. 
Heavy storm-charged clouds fly across the sky ; all 
around you is blackness and darkness, noise and 
tumult. It is the wild demons of nature in fight. 
It thunders and roars, it hisses and whistles in every 
direction — it is the Ragnarok which is coming ; the 
world is shaking to its foundations. 

" But in the middle of this wild fight of the sea and 
the demons, between these tower-like waves, a small 
frail work of man is riding, a ship with living men on 
board. Woe to them if they now make a single 
mistake; woe to them if they come too near one 
of these floes or put the ship's bow between them 
at the moment they strike together ; in the next 
instant they will be crushed and disappear! But 
through the noise words of command can be heard ; 
punctually they are obeyed ; the sealer steers quietly 
his way out into the sea. He is accustomed to such 
a turmoil, and he knows that the world will still last 
a while. 

" But there is not only storm in the polar sea ; 
indeed, it can be just as mild and peaceful there as a 
day in spring at home, with bright sunshine and 
glittering snow. When you come some distance into 
the ice it is so as a rule, and that which most often 
comes before my memory when I think of the polar 
regions is not the storms, not the hardships, but this 
strange peace, so far from the vortex of the world, 



28 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

when from the bright blue sky the sun is pouring its 
flood of h'ght over the white, snow-covered ice, out- 
ward and outward to the horizon. It gHtters in the 
snow and sparkles in the deep blue water ; it gleams 
and glitters everywhere around, while cold blue tints 
are reflected from the sides of the floes, and border 
them with all tints of blue and green, clear as the 
clearest crystal, far down into the cold, transparent 
water. And in the sunshine the seals are lying in 
thousands and thousands on the floes, enjoying life. 
Some of them sleep, others are busy with their 
toilette, and prune and scratch themselves ; others 
again are playing, whilst some are in the water and 
dive up and down, and the sun is shining on their 
wet heads. The whole is a picture of the most 
perfect, charming peace, and the memory never 
wearies of recalling it to view. 

"But when you penetrate farther into ice, and 
farther northward, the open water gradually dis- 
appears, and the sea is totally covered by immense 
drifting ice-floes ; the whole world becomes one field 
of white, snow-covered ice ; only now and then 
between the floes a narrow strip of dark water can be 
seen. Soon all life also disappears ; no seals any 
longer — such as those keep near open water ; neither 
any birds ; the only animal which you may perhaps 
meet is a single lonely polar bear, but soon he also 
disappears, and there is nothing left except yourself 
and the endless ice in constant drift across the sea 
towards the south, towards warmth and sun, where it 
is soon destroyed. So extends the polar sea north- 
ward and northward to the Pole. 

" In the summer the sun is shining all day and 



SCIENCE, SPORT, AND EXPLORATION. 29 

night, and circulates round and round in the sky, and 
never disappears until the autumn comes ; but then 
begins the long, dark winter night, which at the Pole 
itself lasts six months. Then the stars are constantly 
shining over the desolate snow-fields. When the 
moon comes it circulates round the sky and shines 
day and night until it disappears again. But some- 
times the northern lights begin their play, this great 
mystery of the north ; then there comes life ; it 
scintillates and burns ; sparkling lights and rays are 
running to and fro over the whole sky, until they 
disappear again, leaving the scene quiet and desolate 
as before. 

" In this dead, frozen world it is that the polar 
explorer has to live. There he roams with sledge and 
dogs in summer, and from thence he sends longing 
thoughts in the dark winter night southward to the 
dear ones at home, over whom the same stars are 
twinkling in their cold peace." * 

When ice-bound off East Greenland on this journey 
of 1882, he brooded over plans for reaching and 
exploring the mysterious coast which so many had 
sought in vain, and he even asked the captain's 
permission to be allowed to take a boat and attempt 
to cross the intervening floes. This, however, the 
captain could not permit, as he was out for sealing, 
not exploring. The idea of penetrating inland also 
crossed his mind about this time ; but it was not until 
the autumn of 1883 that he conceived the idea of 
crossing from shore to shore. In "The First Cross- 
ing of Greenland " he tells us : — " One autumn even- 



* The Strand Magazine, December, 1893. 



30 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

ing in the following year, that is to say, 1883 — I 
remember it still, as if it were only yesterday — I was 
sitting and listening indifferently as the day's paper 
was being read. Suddenly my attention was roused 
by a telegram which told us that Nordenskiold had 
come back safe from his expedition to the interior 
of Greenland ; that he had found no oasis, but only 
endless snowfields, on which his Lapps were said 
to have covered on their ski an extraordinarily long 
distance in an astonishingly short time. The idea 
flashed upon me at once of an expedition crossing 
Greenland on ski from coast to coast. Here was 
the plan in the same form in which it was afterwards 
laid before the public and eventually carried out." 

In the autumn of 1882, Nansen was appointed cura- 
tor of Bergen Museum, and soon enhanced his reputa- 
tion by the publication of many scientific pamphlets. 

During this curatorship he made numerous journeys 
up the Hardanger and Sogne Fjords, which lie on 
either side of Bergen. Around these, the two most 
celebrated fjords of Norway, the grandest scenery 
which that country possesses is to be seen. The 
voyager up or down these magnificent fjords will 
see hills towering skywards, and adamantine cliffs 
descending sheer down into the clear blue sea. 
Indeed, "for the lover of scenery, the yachtsman, 
the sportsman, the student of archaeology, geology, 
natural history, and botany, or for the tourist, pro- 
bably no portion of northern Europe contains more 
of general interest than the fjords and the fjelds of 
the Hardanger."* 

♦" In the Northman's Land" (Sampson Low, Marston & Co.). 



SCIENCE, SPORT, AND EXPLORATION. 3 1 

In the winter of 1886, Nansen crossed the moun- 
tains from Christiania to Bergen, frequently passing 
the night in a snowdrift. When nearing his destina- 
tion he fell down some precipitous crags, and bruised 
himself severely. In the following year an earnest 
request reached him from the inhabitants of a village 
near Bergen to " come and hunt some bears which 
are carrying off our cattle." 

In his various excursions carried on for science 
and sport Nansen became very familiar with the 
vast stretches of woodland, of rocky mountains, of 
lakes, of rivers, of glaciers, and of snowfields that 
go to make up his dear Norway. In winter he 
could be seen on ski or skates, and in summer he 
spent all spare hours in boating and shooting excur- 
sions. 

A friend of his tells me that Nansen spent three 
summers in a little country place on the coast near 
Bergen, examining the animals on the bottom of the 
sea there. 

In 1885, Nansen won the Bergen Museum gold 
medal for a paper entitled " Contributions to a 
Knowledge of the Anatomy and Histology of the 
Myzostomida" (Bergen, 1885). 

A memoir on the same subject was contributed in 
1887 to the Jena Zeitschrift fiir Naturwissenschaft, 
Band XXL 

It was in 1887 that Nansen obtained his degree 
as Doctor of Philosophy for his treatise on " The 
Structure and Combination of the Histological 
Elements of the Central Nervous System." 

The biological work of Nansen is little known 
outside the circle of specialists, and yet before he 



32 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

set out on his attempt to cross Greenland he had 
done good scientific work. When settled down at 
Bergen he began the histological study of some 
lower orders, which constitutes his claim to scientific 
recognition. He commenced his research here with 
an attempt to trace the secondary variations in the 
myzostoma, a group of parasitic worms, by a close 
microscopic examination of their structure and 
organs. From this he took up the nervous system 
of the invertebrates and subvertebrates on a broader 
scale, and, in the course of his inquiries, visited in 
the spring of 1886 the renowned marine laboratory 
at Naples. Nansen frequently stated that he was 
quite prepared to put up with the simplest of living 
to enable him to get funds to prosecute his scientific 
studies. In 1885, as we have seen, he had been 
awarded the Joachim Friele gold medal for his 
work on the myzostoma ; but he had actually taken 
the medal in copper, and applied the value of the 
gold to the furtherance of his travels and his task 
at the Naples laboratory. This visit added greatly 
to his scientific knowledge, and his country was 
benefited by his travels, for so much was he im- 
pressed with the importance of this, the first in- 
stitution of its kind, that on his return home one 
of his earliest tasks was to moot the establishment 
of similar stations along the Norwegian coast, a work 
that was carried out several years later. 

Nansen next worked out and demonstrated the 
law of the bifurcation of sensitive nerve roots, an 
important contribution to histological science, which 
gave him a prominent place among biologists. 

Great, however, as was his devotion to science, 



SCIENCE, SPORT, AND EXPLORATION. 



33 



Nansen was alive to other and more tender attrac- 
tions, and when his tiipe came could go out to 
conquer in that sphere also. Early in 1889, on a 
ski expedition among the hills around Christiania, 
he met Miss Eva Sars, the young lady who after- 
wards became his wife, was engaged to her in August, 
and they were married in September of the same 
year. 





NANSBN IN HIS KAVAK. 



CHAPTER III. 

FIRST CROSSING OF GREENLAND. 

NANSEN held his appointment at Bergen 
Museum until 1888, when, after six years* 
deliberation, he started on his memorable 
journey over the Greenland ice platfeau, and 
traced on the map of that country a dotted line 
which will never be erased. His great feat of cross- 
ing the island from east to west established his 
reputation as an explorer and scientist of the first 
rank. Nansen was fully alive to the dangerous 
nature of his expedition. He knew that the European 
press had denounced his scheme as that of a mad- 
man's ; that they prophesied for him and all who 
accompanied the expedition a horrible and lingering 
death from starvation among the ice-floes, or on the 
snow-covered wastes of the inland ice : yet, in the 
face of all opposition, he went, accompanied by 
chosen men. Much ridicule was centred on his effort. 
One Norwegian comic paper published the following 
34 



FIRST CROSSING OF GREENLAND. 35 

advertisement: — "Notice. — In the month of June 
next, Curator Nansen will give a snow-shoe display, 
with long jumps, on the ice of Greenland. Reserved 
seats in the crevasses. Return ticket unnecessary." 

The first half of the year 1888 was perhaps the 
busiest six months Nansen ever faced. "At the 
beginning of December, 1887, he is back in Bergen. 
At the end of January, 1888, he goes on snow-shoes 
from Eidfjord in Hardanger, by way of Numedal, to 
Kongsberg, and thence to Chrijtiania. In March he 
is in Bergen again, lecturing on nature and life in 
Greenland. One day, or rather night, we find him 
camping on the top of Blaamanden, near Bergen, 
to test his sleeping-bag, and a week later he is on the 
rostrum in Christiania giving his first trial lecture for 
his doctor's degree, on the structure of the sexual 
organs in the myxine. On April 28th he defends 
his doctorial thesis, * The Nerve Elements : their 
Structure and Connection in the Central Nervous 
System ; ' and on May 2nd he sets off for Copen- 
hagen, on his way to Greenland." * 

Nansen and his five companions — Sverdrup, 
Dietrichson, Trana, Balto, and Ravna ; the first three 
being Norwegian, and the other two " River-Lapps " 
— all famed skilobers — were the first to cross the 
inland ice, and his book, "The First Crossing of 
Greenland," translated into many languages, made his 
name famous throughout the world. In it, when we 
at last get to his own work, we have a graphic 
description of his perilous journey over the drift- 
ing ice-floes off the east coast in his attempt to 

♦ " Life of Nansen " (Longmans, Green & Co.). 



36 



FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 



reach land, and details of the daring and heroic 
crossing to the west coast, over boundless snowfields, 
till the party finally reached Godthaab. During the 
journey on the inland ice the cold was so intense 
that even the woollen socks upon their feet were 
frozen solid. They were storm-bound for days 
together, and frequently the tempests racked their 




SVERDRUP. DIETRICHSON. NANSEN. 

COOKING UNDER DIFFICULTIES IN THE FIRST CROSSING 

OF GREENLAND. 

tents to pieces ; on the march the sledge ropes burnt 
their shoulders, but, in spite of all opposition, " west- 
ward" was the only order. There was fortunately no 
choice of routes. It was death — or the west coast of 
Greenland. At Godthaab they had to winter, owing 
to the last vessel being unable to wait for them, 
although opportunity was given them to send two 



FIRST CROSSING OF GREENLAND. 37 

letters home — one from Nansen to Herr Gam^l, of 
Copenhagen, the other from Sverdrup to his father. 
Nansen says : — " These two letters brought to Europe 
the first news of our having reached the west coast of 
Greenland, and contained all that was known of our 
journey for six months. In one respect they hold, per- 
haps, a somewhat unusual position, for their postage 
came to no less than £17." It was the ship Fox, of 
McClintock fame, that brought the letters to Europe. 

They all returned to Norway in June, 1889, in the 
best of health, a high tribute, indeed, to Nansen's 
intelligent judgment. 

As a writer, Nansen's treatment of his subject is 
fascinating. This, " The First Crossing of Greenland," 
and his later important anthropological book, " The 
Eskimo," which has been translated into English by 
Mr. William Archer, sufficiently show. The latter 
publication is the outcome of his winter's residence at 
Godthaab, for he spent much of his time in wandering 
amongst the natives, dwelling in their huts, taking 
part in their dangerous hunting excursions on land 
and sea, and becoming a proficient " kayaker " and 
sledge driver. At considerable inconvenience and 
sacrifice of his sensibilities — for the stench which 
arises from the filthy surroundings of the Eskimo is, 
to a refined European, appalling — Nansen lived their 
life in his endeavour to obtain an accurate knowledge 
of their habits. The Greenlanders are an extremely 
interesting people, and in this book Dr. Nansen not 
only gives an account of his own wanderings and 
observations, but a general account of the life, 
manners, morals, and numerous superstitions which 
have survived the introduction of Christianity. 



38 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

His journey produced a treasure-house of scientific 
fact and thrilling adventure, and revealed to the world 
this unparalleled and heroic feat, besides showing the 
possibilities to come in the event of this brave servant 
of science continuing his schemes of exploration. 

On their triumphant return they became the heroes 
of the day. Every town in Europe united in paying ' 
tribute to Dr. Nansen and his brave comrades for the 
indomitable pluck and perseverance shown through- 
out their hazardous and dangerous journey. 

Nansen subsequently visited France, Germany, 
and Great Britain, where he lectured to intensely 
interested audiences on his adventures in the crossing 
of the vast icy continent. He is well known to the 
British public, and his striking figure was one of the 
most prominent objects in the streets and drawing- 
rooms of London in the summer of 1889. He visited 
England again in 1892, and made many friends 
wherever he went On his return from Greenland, 
he became a member of a host of geographical and 
scientific societies, and received many gold medals 
and other distinctions. In the Proceedings of the 
Royal Geographical Society (1891, page 294) we learn 
that the Victoria medal of that Society was conferred 
upon him in 1891 for the following reasons: — "The 
Patrons of the Victoria medal, to Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, 
for having been the first to cross the inland ice of 
Greenland, a perilous and daring achievement, entail- 
ing a journey of more than three months ; thirty- 
seven days of which were passed at great elevations, 
and in the climate of an Arctic winter, obliging him 
to lead a forlorn hope with the knowledge that there 
could be no retreat, and that failure must involve the 



FIRST CROSSING OF GREKNI.AND. 39 

destruction of himself and his companions, and call- 
ing forth the highest qualities of an explorer ; for 
having taken a series of astronomical and meteoro- 
logical observations, under circumstances of extreme 
difficulty and privation, during a march which required 
exceptional powers of strength and endurance and 
mental faculties of high order, as well as the qualities 
of a scientific geographer for its successful accomplish- 
ment ; and for his discovery of the physical character 
of the interior of Greenland, as well as for other 
valuable and scientific results of his expedition." 
This aptly expresses Nansen's reasons for his crossing 
of Greenland. Needless to remark the attempt was 
not made for commercial purposes. 

Dr. Nansen is an exceptionally accomplished 
linguist, speaking several languages fluently. English 
he both speaks and writes. During twenty-nine 
lectures he delivered in the provincial towns of Great 
Britain in the spring of 1892, and also in his forty 
lectures on his voyage of 1893-96, delivered in the 
months of February and March, 1897, he seldom 
referred to his notes. " I have the MSS. beside me," 
he remarked, "because delivering the same lecture so 
often I am apt to forget if I have touched on all points. 
This would be the same if I lectured in Norwegian. 
I really do not find it much more difficult to lecture 
in luiglish than in my own tongue." Indeed, he has 
a positive affection for English Ufc, which is fostered 
by his love of ICnglish literature. In his library are 
the works of Shakespeare, Tennyson, Huxley, J. S. 
Mill, Herbert Spencer, and Darwin ; but his English 
literary sympathies are by no means restricted to 
these representatives of imagination and science, for 



40 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

he will tell you that he is a great admirer of the 
novels of George Eliot and George Meredith. He 
will end, perhaps, by saying that, " If I were not a 
Norwegian, I would be an Englishman rather than 
belong to any other nation," 

Dr. Nansen's visits to England have been many, but 
his stay has always been of short duration. 

He is, of course, a zealous student and collector of 
works on Arctic exploration, boasting, in fact, that he 
has read all that has been published in the way of 
first-hand information on this subject. He is also an 
artist and photographer of no mean order, and his 
collection of photographs taken in Greenland was the 
subject of universal admiration during the lecturing 
tour that followed his Greenland journeyings. 

After this it will not sound surprising to say that 
" a man so various " is also a keen politician. To this 
aspect of his nature he has many opponents, the fact 
that his views are democratic by no means diminish- 
ing their number ; but, whether in or out of opposi- 
tion, Nansen is a man to command respect. 

Nansen makes friends wherever he goes. He left 
many sad hearts among the Eskimo at Godthaab 
when he departed homeward. In " The First Cross- 
ing of Greenland " he relates : — 

" The day before we started, one of my best friends 
among the Eskimo, in whose house I had often been, 
said to me, ' Now you are going back into the great 
world from which you came to us ; you will find much 
that is new there, and perhaps you will soon forget 
us. But we shall never forget you.' " 

Balto, the irrepressible Lapp, who accompanied 
Nansen in the crossing of the inland ice, writes of his 



FIRST CROSSING OF GREENLAND. 41 

first meeting with the doctor : — " It was a most glori- 
ous and wonderful thing to see this new master of 
ours, Nansen. He was a stranger, but his face shone 
in our eyes like those of the parents whom we had 
left at home, so lovely did his face seem to me, as 
well as the welcome with which he greeted us." 

In explaining his fascination it would be idle to 
ignore the physical splendour of the man. 

A gentleman who met Nansen in 1888 says : — " I 
had the good fortune to meet Dr. Nansen when he 
was stopping in London as the guest of Professor 
Fowler, Director of the Museum of Natural History 
at South Kensington. This was not long after his 
return from his walking tour in Greenland. The 
impression he makes on one is that of youth, health, 
strength, vigour, and enthusiasm. A student, and 
devoted to science ; in physique, he is best described 
as a good-natured, flaxen-haired, blue-eyed giant. 
The tight-fitting suit of rough grey cloth he wore set 
off his noble figure to advantage." 

Seven years later the same writer remarks : — 
" There could not in these modern days be a man of 
more pronounced Viking type than Dr. Nansen. His 
very name, Fridtjof, conjures up memories of the days 
when the Vikings were the terror of Europe. Who 
does not know Fridtjof's Saga, the great poem that 
has so often been translated into English ? " 

Nansen is thirty-six years of age, but he looks older 
than his years, doubtless owing to the hardships he 
endured in crossing the ice plateau of Greenland, He 
is over six feet in height, and by constant physical 
training he has made his muscular frame one of the 
finest and most equably developed that any man of 



42 



FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 



science ever possessed ; for it must not be forgotten 
that in this athlete, whom few men could challenge 
with success in his favourite sports, the habit of 
scientific research is equally well developed. His 
contributions to zoology and histology have earned 
him a name, independently of his Arctic explorations. 
He wears his fair hair falling straight back from his 
high forehead. He has the deep blue Norwegian eye. 
His firm mouth is surmounted by a small, fair 
moustache. He is so tall and straight and well- 
made that people turn round to look at him in the 
street. Quickness and determination characterise the 
man. The name that he gave to his ship, Frain 
(forward), is his own motto. He made up his mind 
not to look backward and count upon escape. He 
did the same when he crossed Greenland in 1888-89. 
He broke off all means of retreat. The men who 
knew Greenland best said success was impossible. 
He dared the deed and accomplished it. 

On his return from Greenland, Nansen was appoin- 
ted curator at Christiania University, which appoint- 
ment he held until he set off on his polar voyage. 





CHAPTER IV. 



FRU NANSEN. 



EVA SARS NANSEN is a member of one of the 
best families in Norway. She is the youngest 
daughter of the late Professor M. Sars, a 
Norwegian naturalist of great eminence, and 
was born in Christiania in 1858. It would, indeed, 
be a matter of difficulty to find a more interesting 
and distinguished family in the Scandinavian penin- 
sula than that of the Sars. ¥vu Nansen's father was 
the talented author of " P'auna Littoralis Norwegiae." 
He devoted much attention to natural history, and 
was the discoverer of a crinoid in the North Sea be- 
longing to a species that was supposed to be extinct. 
F"ru Nansen's mother, the best storj'-tellcr in 
Norway, is a sister of the Norwegian poet, \Vclha\cn, 
a contemporary of Vergeland. The Sars' sa/o// is a 
centre of the intellectual world of the Norwegian 
capital, whether artistic, scientific, or political, remind- 

43 



44 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

ing one of the Parisian centres of talent and wit in 
the days of Louis Quatorze. The family consists of 
four, two brothers and two sisters. Ernest, the eldest, 
has won distinction in literature. He is classed 
among Norway's most celebrated historians, and he 
and the famous Bjornstjerne Bjornson are the chief 
Radical leaders in Norway. Ossian, the younger 
son, has trodden in his father's footsteps, is looked 
upon as an authority in matters relating to natural 
history, and is the present professor of zoology at the 
University of Christiania. Fru Nansen's sister, like 
herself, is endowed with great musical taste, and is 
the wife of the well-known singer and teacher of 
singing, Herr Lammers. 

The musical training of Fru Nansen was the work 
of Herr Lammers and his wife. For five years she 
was an apt pupil, and when she went to Berlin to 
continue her studies her artistic education was already 
far advanced. For a whole winter she studied in the 
German capital with Madame Artot, and gave special 
attention to the title-parts in the operas of Mignon 
and Carmen. Yet she never became an operatic 
singer, as she was shy of making an appearance on 
the stage in that capacity. On her return to Chris- 
tiania she commenced to teach singing, and this useful 
employment still occupies part of her time. 

Her musical talent is great. She frequently appears 
at concerts, and her assistance, highly appreciated 
and frequently solicited as it is, is given readily, and 
with a winning grace that enhances the charm of the 
favour. Her first public appearance out of Norway 
was in Stockholm in November, 1895, and from that 
day her success as a public singer was assured. She 




FRU NANSEN. 
The principal Concert Singer in Norway. 



FRU NANSEN. 47 

felt she must make a career for herself during the 
doctor's absence — that she must place herself on an 
equal footing with him — and she has already suc- 
ceeded in her desire. The tours which she has 
taken through Sweden and Denmark (1895 and 
1896) have been attended by conspicuous success. 
The series of concerts she gave in Stockholm, 
Copenhagen, Christiania, Bergen, and other towns in 
the winter of 1895-96, were a splendid triumph. 
Her charming manner, and the courage evinced at 
her lonely lot, won the hearts of all, who felt for the 
woman whose husband was risking his life in the 
cause of science. 

In manner Fru Nansen is more French than 
Scandinavian, but at heart she is a thorough Nor- 
wegian. She sings by choice the songs of her native 
country, and their composers, Jansen and Grieg, are 
among her warmest friends. 

Like most Norwegian ladies, Mrs. Nansen works 
hard. When not touring she employs her leisure in 
music. Before marriage, Dr. Nansen and his fiancee 
agreed that the modes of life of neither should be 
materially changed ; that he should not abandon his 
scheme of exploration, and that she should continue 
her teaching. 

In one respect they have leanings in common. 
Mrs. Nansen is not only a distinguished singer, but 
she is perhaps the most skilful lady skilober in 
Norway. She has accompanied her husband in many 
of his winter runs in the mountains and valleys of 
their beloved Norway, and in many of his winter and 
summer sports. 

In "A Winter's Jaunt in Norway," Mrs. Alec B. 



48 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

Tweedie writes : — " What a strange contrast the 
Nansens are ! He is a great, big, tall, fair Norwegian, 
with all the strength of the Viking race in his manly 
bearing and earnest face. She is a jolly, bright little 
woman, with dark hair, and all the merriment and 
warm colouring of a more southern people, although 
she, too, is pure Norwegian. She is able to accom^ 
pany Nansen on all his sports. She is very fond of 
sailing, of which they do a great deal in the summer, 
for the fjord of Christiania almost surrounds the 
house, which is built on a promontory. In winter 
they ski together, for Nansen thinks no sport or 
anything else perfect unless accompanied by his wife. 
He is very fond of joking and chaffing her too, and 
when speaking about a visit we contemplated up 
Nora Fjeld, on ski, a mountain about five thousand 
feet above the sea, and lying between Christiania and 
Bergen, he said, ' My wife knows Nora Fjeld well, 
because there it was that I saw her dead-beat for the 
first and only time.' " 

It is not surprising to find that Mrs. Nansen should 
have sought to accompany her husband in his great 
polar expedition. The perils of the Arctic regions 
had no terrors for her, and up to the time of the 
launching of the Fram, Dr. Nansen's polar vessel, it 
was actually the intention of the explorer to allow his 
wife to form one of the party. At the last moment, 
however, he was petitioned by Captain Sverdrup not 
to do so. The other members of the crew, although 
having every belief in Fru Eva's ability to withstand 
the voyage, joined Sverdrup in his petition, and 
accordingly Dr. Nansen deemed it prudent to leave 
his wife behind. He was guided in his decision by 



FRU NANSEN. 49 

the possibilities of a nip in the ice, followed by a long 
sledge journey, and by the consideration that a 
woman, however courageous, could not but retard 
the progress of the whole party. Eventually Fru 
Nansen, too, became reconciled, and recognised that 
" home " was woman's first concern. 

The position of Fru Nansen during the doctor's 
absence was not an enviable one. Month after 
month, year after year passed without certain 
information. Rumour after rumour came to hand. 
One felt keenly for her during March, 1896, when 
every mail from the northern frontier of Russia 
might have brought accurate tidings of good or 
evil. But she worked hard for herself and her 
husband, her correspondence alone being a labour 
of great magnitude. She has a staunch heart ; and 
this, coupled with an inherent hatred of idleness, 
will stand her in good stead when the time again 
arrives for her spirit to be put to the test. 

She has the courage that does not fly at an idle 
rumour, and which enables her to reason even against 
hope. That, at least, we glean from the jottings of 
an irrepressible interviewer, whose article in the 
Lokalanzeiger is quoted in the Daily News. He 
says : — 

" I asked Madame Nansen what impression the 
news received had made on her — the rumour of 
Nansen's successful return in March, 1896 — whether 
she was overcome with astonishment, hope, or joy. 
' No, not at all,' was the answer, ' for I did not 
believe it. I regarded it as a canard, and it left me 
perfectly composed and cool.' ' Do you not believe 
in your husband's success, then ? ' ' Oh, I am per- 

D 



50 



FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 



fectly convinced that he will reach his goal and come 
back, but that it would take place so quickly, so 
easily, and so smoothly, this I did not believe.' ' It 
would be most interesting to hear your precise 
opinion,' I said. ' I am stormed with telegrams and 
letters, but, to tell the truth, I understand nothing 
about these difficult questions. I leave it to the 




MY COMl'ORT AND MY JOV. 



geographers and men of science, and I don't like 
speaking about it. Only this much I can tell you. 
I believe in my husband's return, but not now. It is 
too soon. Besides, the statements are so vague. 
There is nothing positive and decided in them. 
They are all unauthentic reports. How could I 
place any hopes in them ? ' Mrs. Nansen said this 



FRU NANSEN, 5 1 

in the most decided tone, and in her beautiful eyes 
there sparkled such confidence that I can quite 
understand this woman waiting for years without 
losing hope and faith. I speak of the admiration 
which the whole civilised world shows for her hus- 
band, ' Yes, I know that great sympathy is felt for 
him,' she answers, ' and this makes me strong. It is 
my comfort, my greatest joy.' We are sitting at the 
window, from which one has a magnificent view of 
the lake, the fir woods, and the high mountains which 
appear in the distance in a blue haze. I speak of the 
exquisite scenery. * It is now rather monotonous,' 
she answers in a sad voice, looking across the ice- 
bound fjord ; * but in summer, when the lake is open, 
you should see it then ! ' At this moment a lovely 
little girl, of some five or six summers, enters the 
room — Nansen's only daughter, Liv (life) — and looks 
at me rather suspiciously for keeping her dinner 
waiting. Her mother draws her to her, and strokes 
her golden curls. ' This is also my comfort and my 
joy during the long absence of my husband,' said 
Madame Nansen, her eyes beaming with love and 
pride." 





NANSEN S HOME AT LYSAKER. 



CHAPTER V. 

nansen's home. 



IN 1893, I had the pleasure of receiving an invita- 
tion to visit Mrs. Nansen at Lysaker. It is 
situated on Christiania Fjord. Here Dr. and 
Mrs. Nansen have been visited by many Arctic 
enthusiasts from all parts of Europe. The courtesy 
of Mrs. Nansen is proverbial. My own experience 
of it grew out of our kindred interests. 

Our way to the house lay through beautiful 
meadows and an odorous pine wood. The day was 
perfect. As we lingered on the way, and wandered 
from the path in wood and meadow, we wondered 
at the doctor's leaving such a scene as this to 
court unknown dangers. After practising our 
amateur Norsk on the wayfarers, Godthaab Villa 
was pointed out to us. 
52 



XANSEN S TIOAIE. 53 

Our view gives but a faint idea of the lo\clincss 
of its situation. The house is situated at the foot 
of a hill, uniquely set in the midst of a wood, and 
the promontor)- upon which it stands juts boIdI\- out 
into the fjord. The selection of the site was made 
by the doctor, who had a picturesque log-hut built, 
and named it Godthaab Villa, to express his 
gratitude for finding a haven of rest on the west 
coast after his perilous journey across Greenland. 
It was constructed after the old Norwegian stjde of 
brown pine wood in trunks, and both the house and 
furniture are carved in characteristic old dragons and 
serpents' heads. 

Fru Nansen received us most graciously, her 
smiling face immediately dispelling any feeling of 
strangeness. Apologising for her bad English 
(quite unnecessarily, as we subsequently discovered), 
she led the way to the drawing-room, a most original 
and artistic apartment, filled with exquisite art 
beauties and curiosities from all parts of the globe. 
The whole house, indeed, is full of trophies and relics 
from Nansen's Greenland and other expeditions. 
From the window of this room we had a magnifi- 
cent view down the fjord and right out to the sea. 
It was a splendid day, and our hostess remarked that 
she had seldom seen the view to better ad\"antage. 

Crossing the drawing-room and passing along an 
alcove, we were ushered into Dr. Nansen's room. 
His study is a charming spot, and at once affords an 
index to his tastes. It is furnished in thorough old 
Norwegian style down to the very chairs and 
hangings. The arms of the carved wooden chairs 
are formed by the old Norse serpent twist. It 



54 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

would be difficult in all Norway to find a more 
typically Norwegian room. His beloved books were 
still on the shelves — sacred to his own use. There 
are relics from barbarous and semi-barbarous 
countries on walls and floor. 

One's interest centred in the polar bear skins, 
victims of Nansen's gun when in the east Greenland 
seas, and in the grand piano standing in the middle 
of the apartment, on which Fru Nansen played to 
her husband in the few hours that he devoted to 
recreation. Perhaps the most surprising thing was 
the enormous table, which was in harmony with the 
large proportions of the study. This article, which 
was made to the order of the explorer, resembles 
a huge bench, except that its legs and sides are 
curiously ornamented. The doctor when at home 
requires it all for his papers. He is very systematic 
— a desirable trait in the character of the leader 
of an Arctic expedition — and confusion is altogether 
absent from his study. 

In one corner of the room was a quaint three- 
cornered fireplace, quite in keeping with the walls 
and furniture. As is the custom in Norway, the 
Nansens use wood as fuel, coal being accounted a 
luxury. Several oil paintings from the brushes of 
Dr. and Mrs. Nansen adorn the walls, and the 
original drawings and engravings used in " The First 
Crossing of Greenland " have a prominent place. 

In the alcove adjoining the drawing-room we saw 
a fine life-size crayon portrait of Dr. Nansen, just 
completed by a leading Norwegian artist. 

We soon learned that it did not depress Fru 
Nansen in the slightest degree to talk of her absent 



nansen's home. 57 

husband. She pointed out to us the place where she 
had last seen him, and showed us two instantaneous 
photographs taken at the time of his departure, the 
first depicting Dr. Nansen gazing through a pair 
of glasses at his wife from the bridge of the Fram 
as the vessel steamed slowly down the fjord on 
its way to the sea ; the second showing him in the 
act of waving his hat to her in a last farewell. 
These, as may be imagined, were so precious to her 
that she would not on any account allow them to 
leave her possession. 

Dr. Nansen for his part had a souvenir of a most 
enjoyable kind, in the shape of phonograms of several 
songs sung by his wife, and the childish prattle of 
his fair-haired child. These sounds, the offerings of 
science to a scientific mind, would be a solace to him 
in his dreary exile, reminding him of the loved ones 
whom he had left. 

" How long," we asked, "do you think your husband 
will be away ? " 

" Captain Sverdrup says two and a-quarter years if 
good fortune attends him. They are provisioned for 
six. . . . You should have seen the ship's deck," she 
resumed ; " it was covered with provisions." 

" It will be seen from the photograph," Fru Nansen 
resumed, " how well they are stocked with provisions. 
If the crew can only stick to the ship as she drifts 
with the ice or current, they need have no fear of 
starvation for five or six years to come." 

We asked, " Where will the doctor write you from ? " 

Fru Nansen replied, "From the New Siberian 
Islands, if he touches there. I am not sure, however, 
that they will obtain and forward his letter." 



58^ FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

Then she resumed, " Not for a moment do I doubt 
his return. Why, if I had not indeed the greatest 
confidence in his success I should never have been 
foolish enough to let him go. The Fram may be 
crushed, but they have special boats in case of that 
disaster. If they, too, are lost, then they have their 
lighter boats and strong, portable silk tents and 
sleeping-bags to place on the ice, in which to live as 
they drift on or travel over the ice on their ski, for 



a. 



9^ v^. 



^^"-^ -?--*** (k.^^ .eZ^*A ^ 

'»'C^ Ot.^^ ^tr^J *AJU .yy^u^y%, 
■TiT ^A** A-^Coi. ^?t/iv KJ^^uJ^ 



^.iX. 2L' Z2 r^ 



FRU NANSEN'S acknowledgment of "LONDON STREET ARABS." 

(as in the crossing of Greenland) these will form 
a special feature of locomotion should the ship be 
deserted." 

We then dwelt upon his triumphant return, and 
she seemed pleased indeed when we compared it to 
the return of Stanley after the finding of Emin Pasha. 
We spoke of the kindly interest that the people of 
Great Britain were taking in the expedition, and of 



NANSEN'S HOME. 59 

the rush there would be for copies of his promised 
book. 

Then, after a pause, she proceeded, " I love your 
England. I was there for a few weeks on my 
wedding tour, and I should like to go again to learn 
the language perfectly." 

We informed her of Mrs. Stanley's artistic talent, 
and she was greatly pleased by a description of that 
lady's work. Such interest did she manifest, that on 
reaching England we sent to her Mrs. Stanley's 
book, " London Street Arabs," which contains a 
collection of pictures from original drawings by the 
author, and in reply, Fru Nansen expressed her 
delight on receiving that " most charming book." 

For a time Fru Nansen took up painting, and 
studied under the well-known artists, Bergslien and 
Eilif Peterssen. " But," she remarked, " I did not 
continue my lessons, for I felt I would never make a 
great painter." 

Perhaps the most animated portion of our conversa- 
tion was on the subject of languages. We remarked 
that Norsk was readily learned, and Fru Nansen 
rejoined, " I find German the easiest to learn, and 
English next, but French ! — oh ! it is so very difficult 
to me." 

Fru Nansen is a fit companion, mentally and 
physically, for the Viking who went to seek fame 
in the chill North. 

We left Godthaab Villa, its hostess and child, with 
regret, and thought of the long, dreary, anxious days 
of suspense before Mrs. Nansen, and of the inexpres- 
sible, intoxicating joy of the moment when the news 
reaches her of her husband's safe return. 




NANSEN S LARGE BOAT. 



CHAPTER VI. 

HOW TO CROSS THE NORTH POLAR REGION. 

THIS was the question that Dr. Nansen discussed 
before an over-crowded meeting of the mem- 
bers of the English Royal Geographical Society 
in London, on the evening of the 14th of 
November, 1892. 

In his speech he first dealt with the scientific value 
of Arctic and Antarctic exploration, and, after touch- 
ing on past expeditions to the Arctics, he asked : — 
" Why have all previous attempts failed ? " 

" The reason is simple enough," he replied ; " the 
expeditions were everywhere, at a greater or less 
distance from the Pole, stopped by drifting floe-ice 
which formed immense impenetrable masses, and in 
most cases was carried down against the ships by 
currents from the north. It was impossible to pene- 
trate the ice, and to walk over it was almost equally 
impossible, since it is moved by constant currents 
from the north ; there was no choice left but to 
60 



HOW TO CROSS THE NORTH POLAR REGION. 6l 

return. If we could only discover a land stretching 
to the Pole the chances would be favourable enough. 
The difficulties of reaching it would not then be much 
greater than those of crossing Greenland. But we 
know of no country which is likely to have such an 
extension to the north. Greenland seems to end not 
very far north of the latitude already reached, and 
Franz Josef Land is probably only a group of islands. 

" Many people think that the North Pole can be 
reached by balloons or balloon ships, and that it will 
be so reached one day. I do not deny the possibility 
of this ; on the contrary, I regard it as very probable. 
But the only way at present would be to entrust one's- 
self wholly to the wind, and this is an uncertain way 
so long as we have no knowledge of the wind-currents 
of these regions. To go in a submarine boat under 
the ice would be rather risky so long as submarine 
navigation is as little developed as it is at present. 

" But is there no other way to reach the North 
Pole? 

" I believe that if we take careful notice of the forces 
which nature herself places at our disposal, and 
endeavour to work with them, and not against them, 
we shall find, if not the shortest, at all events the most 
certain route. We have already seen that most polar 
expeditions have been stopped by irresistible currents 
from the unknown north, carrying immense masses of 
thick floe-ice. From this fact we seem entitled to 
draw a very simple conclusion, namely, that if cur- 
rents run from these regions, currents must also some- 
where run into them, and that if expeditions have 
been carried by the ice southward from the unknown 
regions, others may be floated northward into these 



62 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

regions if they can only strike the currents on the 
right side. Thus, then, we have the way already 
indicated ; the problem is to find the right place. 

" If we consider the experience of whalers and 
sealers who have sailed for a long series of years 
in the Arctic seas on both sides of the Pole, one 
singular circumstance must strike us at once, namely,' 
that ships caught in the ice on this side of the Pole, 
near the Greenland Sea, are carried southward, and 
that the crews run, as a rule, no great risk. Not so 
on the other side of the Pole, north of Behring Strait; 
ships caught in the ice there drift northward and often 
disappear, some with few and others with many men 
on board ; most of them probably are destroyed in 
high unknown latitudes. These facts must lead the 
thoughtful observer to the conclusion that there are 
differences in the sea currents which may be utilised 
in favour of a polar expedition. Let us, therefore, 
examine the question more closely. 

" The most important polar current is, without 
doubt, that which runs southward along the east 
coast of Greenland. This has a considerable speed, 
and carries an immense quantity of water out from 
the polar basin. It fills the whole opening between 
Greenland and Spitzbergen, with the exception of a 
narrow belt along the coast of the latter, and it runs 
over the deepest known bottom in the Arctic regions ; 
there are ascertained depths of 2600 fathoms. The 
depth of the actual current itself cannot, however, be 
so much. I do not think that we are entitled to 
assume that there is any current of importance deeper 
than 300 fathoms ; and in order to be within the 
mark, let us say only 200 fathoms. It might be 



HOW TO CROSS THE NORTH POLAR REGION. 63 

expected that under this polar current another cur- 
rent was running northward. From what we know 
of the water, we seem, however, to be fully entitled to 
say such cannot be the case. On the contrary, water 
at a much greater depth probably comes from the 
unknown north. The breadth of the polar current on 
the surface is 250 nautical miles, and at the depth 
mentioned it seems to be about 170 nautical miles. 
To calculate the average speed of the current is very 
difficult ; it probably runs more rapidly at the surface 
than in its deeper parts, and, on the other hand, the 
speed is nowhere constant during the whole year. 
Sometimes, especially in the summer months, it is 
very rapid, but at other times it seems to have a 
much slower course. Taking everything into con- 
sideration, I do not think we are entitled to estimate 
the average speed of the whole current for the year 
at more than two nautical miles a-day. By this cal- 
culation we arrive at the conclusion that the polar 
current between Greenland and Spitzbergen carries 
southward betiveen 80 and 120 cubic miles of water 
every twenty-four hours. 

" Whence is all this water derived ? It cannot 
originate at the Pole itself; the place of the water 
that flows out from the polar basin must be supplied 
by water running in. It is also evident that the 
influence of a current so considerable as this cannot 
be limited to a small area ; it must affect the polar 
basin like an immense pump, sucking the water even 
from the shores of Siberia and Behring Strait. This 
is the more certain as the polar basin is found to be 
unusually shallow wherever it has been sounded. 
There are only a few currents known which run into 



64 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

the polar basin. A small branch of the Gulf Stream 
is known to run northward along the west coast of 
Spitzbergen. This current is, however, too insignifi- 
cant to be of much value in this connection ; to some 
extent it certainly also rounds the north coast of 
Spitzbergen, and returns southward again towards its 
eastern coast. The main body of the Norwegian" 
Gulf Stream passes eastward to the north of Norway, 
and enters the polar basin north of Novaya Zemlya. 
This current is considerable ; our knowledge of it is, 
however, not sufficient to enable us to form any 
certain idea about the quantity of water which it 
carries along ; but according to the calculation of 
Professor H. Mohn, in his important memoir on the 
Northern Ocean, and according to information from 
the sealers, I think we may assume that it carries at 
least 60 to 70 cubic miles of water every twenty-four 
hours into the polar basin. A third current running 
into the polar sea is that which runs northward 
through Behring Strait. This cannot be of great 
importance, as the Strait is so narrow and shallow ; 
but from the latest descriptions of the current we are 
perhaps entitled to assume that at least 10 or 14 cubic 
miles of water are here running northward daily. 

" The currents certainly furnish the most important 
supplies of water to the polar current along the east 
coast of Greenland. Another addition comes from 
the American, and especially from the Siberian rivers 
that run into the polar sea. The drainage area of all 
these rivers is very considerable, embracing nearly the 
whole of Northern Asia, or Siberia, besides the prin- 
cipal part of Alaska and British North America. 
The rain and snow of this region are not, however, 



HOW TO CROSS THE NORTH POLAR REGION. 65 

very considerable ; and the whole quantity of moisture 
falling over Siberia I have calculated to be no more 
than about 626 cubic miles in one year, if the Russian 
meteorological data on Siberia are correct. On 
account of evaporation we cannot assume that more 
than a certain part of this water reaches the polar 
sea; perhaps not more that one cubic mile daily 
during the year. This is not much, compared with 
the size of the ocean currents ; but this addition is of 
special importance, as it consists of fresh and com- 
paratively warm water, which principally runs out 
into the basin during the summer, and which for a 
very long time keeps at the surface of the sea on 
account of its lightness, and thus produces surface 
currents running northwards from the Siberian coast. 
This is also the reason why there is so much open 
water along this coast every summer. To this stream 
of fresh water the evaporation from the melting of 
ice in the polar sea contributes very little. The 
moisture of the air over the area draining into the 
polar sea must consequently originate mainly in the 
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This constant addition 
of fresh water must evidently be the principal reason 
why the water of the polar current between Green- 
land and Spitzbergen contains somewhat less salt, 
even at considerable depths, than the water of the 
North Atlantic seas. 

" We thus see that the polar basin is daily receiving 
a large inflow of water. As little evaporation takes 
place from its ice-covered surface, there must neces- 
sarily be a corresponding outflow, and the most 
natural outlet is the broad and deep opening between 
Spitzbergen and Greenland. According to what has 

E 



66 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

already been said, the water running out here seems 
very nearly to correspond in quantity to the inflow 
mentioned. 

" Currents also run southward through Smith 
Sound, Jones Sound, and Lancaster Sound, in the 
Arctic Archipelago of North America ; but as these 
sounds are very narrow and shallow, the body of' 
water which their currents carry off is of little import- 
ance in this respect. The current running southward 
between Spitzbergen and Franz Josef Land is also 
insignificant when compared to the east Greenland 
current. By considering the contributions of water 
already referred to which this last current probably 
receives, it may be possible to form some idea of the 
approximate course of this current through the 
unknown regions. The waters of the North American 
rivers form, very likely, a portion of the currents 
through the Arctic Archipelago of North America ; 
a small part of the current through Behring Strait, 
perhaps, runs also in this direction. We have left 
then, for the formation of the east Greenland polar 
current, the Novaya Zemlya current, the Siberian 
rivers, a part of the current through Behring Strait, 
and the moisture falling over the polar basin. 

" It seems quite natural that these sources should 
converge, and to some extent unite to form the 
Greenland current. We must expect, therefore, to 
find the main body of the current which is formed 
in this way lying somewhere to the north of the 
middle of that extended area from which it receives 
its converging sources, and this place must conse- 
quently be somewhere in the neighbourhood of the 
New Siberian Islands. Here we also have the mouth 



HOW TO CROSS THE NORTH POLAR REGION. Qj 

of the Lena River, which carries a considerable body 
of comparatively warm water northward into the 
polar sea. From this region the current must natur- 
ally run in a northerly direction by the shortest route 
to the outlet between Spitzbergen and Greenland, and 
this must be to the north of Franz Josef Land, and 
near to or across the North Pole. But the direction 
of the current may perhaps, to some extent, be dis- 
turbed by the winds. Unfortunately, we do not 
know much of these in the Arctic regions ; from the 
little we know it would appear, however, that the 
winds should be favourable for such a current, and 
that their average direction during the year is very 
nearly the same as that which we have assumed for 
the latter. This we can also conclude from the 
observations made during the drift of the Jeannette. 

" I have tried to convince you that from what we 
know about the ocean currents and the winds along 
the 'threshold of the unknown regions,' we are 
entitled, in fact are obliged, to assume that these 
regions are traversed by an ocean current. But is 
there no direct evidence of the existence of such a 
current? I think there is."* 

Dr. Nansen here laid down the following facts as 
supporting his theory : — 

(i.) The course taken by the American vessel 
Jeannette, which was caught in the ice to the 
east of Herald Island (north of Behring Strait) 
on the 6th of September, 1879, and drifted to 
the north-west until she was crushed on the 



* Extracted by gracious permission of the Royal Geogra- 
phical Society. 



68 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

13th of June, 1 88 1, north of the New Siberian 
Islands, where she sank. 

(2.) The finding on an ice-floe near Julianehaab, 
on the south-west coast of Greenland, just 
three years after ihe. Jeannette had sunk, of a 
number of objects belonging to her or her 
crew. 

(3.) The finding of a " throwing-stick " or " harpoon- 
thrower" of a peculiar shape (a handle used 
by the Eskimo for throwing darts), on the 
west coast of Greenland, near Godthaab, 
which must have drifted from the west coast 
of Alaska, the only place where throwing- 
sticks of a similar kind occur ; also the amount 
of Siberian driftwood which every year reaches 
the coasts of Greenland. 

(4.) The thickness of the ice carried southward 
along the east coast of Greenland. 

(5.) The samples of mud and dust taken from 
ice-floes between Iceland and Greenland, on 
being microscopically examined, lead to the 
conclusion that they are partly mud carried 
into the sea by the great Siberian rivers. 
The diatom flora of some samples showed the 
presence of species only to be found at Cape 
Wankarema, near Behring Strait. 

(6.) By examination of a great many specimens 
of pumice found on the shores of Norway, 
Spitzbergen, and Greenland, Backstrom, a 
Swedish geologist, comes to the conclusion 
that they consist of the group of minerals 
called Andesites, and must have been carried 
southward by the polar current, having most 



HOW TO CROSS THE NORTH POLAR REGION. 69 

probably originated from unknown volcanoes 
in the polar regions, or from the great Andesitic 
volcanic regions near the Behring Sea, 

" From all these facts," continued Dr. Nansen, " we 
seem fully entitled to draw the conclusion that a 
current is constantly running across the polar region 
to the north of Franz Josef Land, from the sea 
north of Siberia and Behring Strait, and into the 
sea between Spitzbergen and Greenland, and as we 
have seen, the floe-ice is constantly travelling with 
this current in a fixed route between these seas. 
Since such is the case, the most natural way of 
crossing the unknown region must be to take a 
ticket with this ice, and enter the current on the side 
where it runs northward — that is, somewhere near 
the New Siberian Islands — and let it carry one 
straight across those latitudes which it has prevented 
so many from reaching. 

" There are two methods of trying to attain the 
result I long for. First, to build a strong ship, so 
constructed that it can withstand the pressure of the 
ice, and, living in this ship, to float across with the 
ice ; or, second, to take only boats along, encamp on 
an ice-floe, and live there while floating across. My 
plan is based on the use of both these methods. . . . 

" Our first goal will be the New Siberian Islands 
or the mouth of the Lena River. I have been 
uncertain whether I will go through the Kara Sea, 
or will prefer the route from the side of Behring 
Strait ; but think now that I shall take the former. 
When we have reached the sea north of the Lena 
Delta we shall have to wait for the right moment 
to go northward along the western coasts of the 



70 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

New Siberian Islands, and try to reach the farthest 
possible point north in open water. This will 
probably be in August or the first days of Sep- 
tember, 1893. The current caused by the warm 
water from the Lena River will certainly be a great 
help to us, as it seems to be of great influence during 
the summer, producing an extensive open sea, in- 
which one of the boats from the Jeannette was even 
wrecked. To be able to navigate the ship properly 
through the ice I thought of using captive balloons. 
By help of these we could easily in clear weather get 
a splendid view over the surroundings, and see where 
there is ice, and in what direction there is open 
water ; we could then in a moment see what direction 
to take as clearly as if we had it traced on a chart, 
and should lose no time by trying in a wrong 
direction. The great difficulty is that there is very 
much fog in this region just on account of the warm 
Lena water ; but a good clear day with balloon work 
would then be the more valuable, and would make up 
for a great many others with fog. A still greater 
difficulty is, however, that the balloon equipment, 
especially the steel cylinders with the compressed 
hydrogen, are so heavy that I fear it would be 
too difficult to carry them in our small ship, and 
as they are also very expensive, I fear I shall have 
to give them up. 

" When we can get no farther we shall have nothing 
left but to run into the ice at the most favourable 
spot, and from there trust entirely to the current 
running across the polar region. The ice will perhaps 
soon begin to press, but it will only lift our strong 
ship. While drifting we shall have plenty of time and 



HOW TO CROSS THE NORTH POLAR REGION. 7 1 

excellent opportunity to make scientific observations. 
Probably we shall in this way, in the course of some 
years, be carried near the Pole, or across it, and into 
the sea between Spitzbergen and Greenland, where 
we shall get into open water again, and be able to 
return home. 

" There is, however, a possibility that the ship, in 
spite of all precautions, may be crushed in the ice ; 
but if this happens the expedition will have another 
resource. It will now be time to use the ice as 
quarters instead of the ship, and we shall have to 
remove all our provisions, coal, boats, etc., to an ice- 
floe, and camp there. Besides the light, ordinary 
boats, I have built two big boats for this purpose, 
20 feet long, 9 feet broad, with flat bottom, and so 
deep that we can sit and lie comfortably inside them. 
They have a deck, and are so big that the whole crew 
can live even in one of them. These boats will be 
placed side by side on the ice, will be covered with 
thick warm tents and snow, and will give us two good 
warm saloons. Thus we can continue our journey. 
There is certainly no reason why one should not be 
able to live comfortably enough in this way if one is 
only prepared for it. The only difference will be that 
we have now got two small ships standing on the ice 
instead of the big one lying between the floes. When 
we emerge into open water on this side the Pole there 
will not be any great difficulty in returning home in 
our boats ; such a thing has been done many times 
before. 

" It is my convictiqn that the only difficulty will be 
to get duly into the current north of Siberia ; when 
this is fortunately done, we must be carried some- 



72 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

where northward. There is no case in which a ship 
has been nipped in the pack-ice without being carried 
in some direction. Whether we will succeed or not, 
I feel convinced that this is the way in which the un- 
known regions will some day be crossed. To travel 
in this manner is certainly no new fashion ; it has 
been tried many times before. I need only remind - 
you of Sir Leopold McClintock's drift with the Fox 
during eight months in the winter of 1857-58, when 
he drifted 1200 miles from the northern part of 
Baffin's Bay down towards Labrador. Several years 
later (1872) a party from the Polaris expedition 
drifted on an ice-floe even a longer distance very 
nearly along the same route. Along the east coast of 
Greenland many such ice-drifts have occurred. I 
may remind you of the whole fleet of whalers — about 
twenty-eight in number — which in June, 1777, were 
nipped between latitude 74° and 75° N., and which 
drifted in the ice southward along the whole east 
Greenland coast. The last ship was crushed in 
October in latitude 61° 30' N., after having drifted a 
distance of 1250 miles in one hundred and seven 
days. Some of the men continued the drift on the 
ice, rounded Cape Farewell, and reached at last the 
Danish settlements on the west coast, the whole drift 
being about i6cxd miles or more. In the winter of 
1869 and 1870 the Hansa crew drifted on an ice-floe, 
as you will remember, along the same coast, very 
nearly the same route and the same distance as the 
whalers in 1777, until they, after nine months, arrived 
safely at a settlement west of Cape Farewell. During 
our attempt to land on the east coast of Greenland, in 
1888, we also, as will be known, had some little 



HOW TO CROSS THE NORTH POLAR REGION. 73 

experience in this drifting, and in 1882 I also tried a 
little of it with a Norwegian sealer. 

" In the sea between Novaya Zemlya and Franz 
Josef Land the Austro-Hungarian expedition in the 
Tegetthoff ^x\{\&6. for a period of one year and a-half ; 
but as I have already mentioned, a striking difference 
between this drift and those above-mentioned is that 
it had no southern direction ; it went north-east, norths 
and north-westward. In this respect the drift of the 
Jeannette during two years from a point to the north 
of Behring Strait is also most remarkable, as it went 
in a north-westerly direction. 

" It will thus be seen that drifting in the ice is no 
new mode of travelling in the Arctic regions, neither 
is it new to make discoveries in this way. During the 
drift of the Tegetthoff \k\& most important Arctic dis- 
covery of recent times was made — viz., Franz Josef 
Land, and during the drift of the Jeannette several 
islands were discovered. The only new feature in my 
plan will be that I wish to be drifted, while these 
previous expeditions drifted against their will. 

" There is a possibility that we may be stopped by 
unknown lands near the Pole, or that we may strike 
an eddy or a side current, but we hardly run any great 
risk in any of these cases. If, in the former case, we 
should fail to get our ship afloat again, we should have 
to leave her and strike out for the nearest current to 
drift on again, or return homeward travelling over the 
ice. When we only take care to travel with the 
current and not against it there will certainly be no 
special difficulty in doing this ; and if the distance 
should be too great, we should leave all boats, taking 
only light sledges, with necessary provisions, etc., 



74 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

beside canvas for boat-making, walk on until we reach 
Spitzbergen or any other land where there is open 
water. Here we would make boats of canvas, or, if 
possible, of the skins of seals or walruses, like that we 
made when we reached the west coast of Greenljand. 
If we are caught by a side current this must at last 
bring us somewhere ; it cannot for ever run in a ring- 
round the Pole ; and wherever we come near the 
coasts of the polar sea, we shall have no difficulty in 
returning home. It may be possible that the current 
will not carry us exactly across the Pole, but tJie 
principal thing is to explore the unknown polar regions^ 
not to reach exactly that mathematical point in 
which the axis of our globe has its northern ter- 
mination. 

" The only experience which can give us some 
idea as to the time the current will require to drift 
the expedition across is the drift of the relics from 
the Jeannette, If we assume that they required one 
year for the drift southward along the east coast 
of Greenland from latitude 80° N., only two years 
remain for the rest of the journey, and this requires 
a speed of- no more than two nautical miles daily. 
This does not seem too high a rate when we remem- 
ber that the Jeannette drifted at the same speed 
the last half-year of her drifting. It cannot, there- 
fore, be considered improbable that we should reach 
open water on this side of the Pole within two years 
after our start from the Siberian side. One cannot, 
however, expect that the course will be one straight 
line forward during all this time. There will cer- 
tainly come periods during which the drift is quite 
stopped, or when we may even be carried back- 



HOW TO CROSS THE NORTH POLAR REGION. 75 

ward, and the route and time can thus be easily 
lengthened ; but when we, as already mentioned, 
take provisions for five or six years, we may consider 
that we have an ample margin. This may, perhaps, 
seem to many to be a long time, but there is a great 
advantage in this route, and that is, that when the 
expedition is once well begun, there will not be much 
help in looking backwards ; our hope will lie on the 
other side of the Pole, and such a knowledge is a 
good help to got f ram, or forward. 

" There are a great many things in our equipment 
which ought also perhaps to be mentioned ; but, as 




HANSEN'S SKI SLEDGE (LOADED). 

this paper has already become so long, I shall only 
mention a few of the most important points. 

" To get fresh food we will shoot as much as 
possible, and for this purpose we will carry light 
sealing boats, as also Eskimo kayaks. ' The use of 
these excellent light craft I learnt to appreciate in 
Greenland ; they are very good to shoot and fish 
from, can easily be carried long distances over the 
ice, and can be used wherever there is a little 
open water. 

" To make excursions over the ice in case we shall 
meet with land — which, of course, is very likely — we 
will take dogs, sledges, ski, and snow-shoes with us, 
besides full equipment for sledge travelling. I hope 
to spend a great deal of time in this way by making 



y6 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

excursions in all directions where anything of import- 
ance may be expected. For entertainment during the 
long winter nights, as well as for all kinds of scientific 
work, a good library will naturally form a most 
important part of our equipment. 

" Our scientific equipment will be chosen with the 
greatest care, and the best instruments accessible wilt 
be taken. I shall not, however, tire you with an 
enumeration of them ; they will naturally, to a great 
extent, be much like what other Arctic expeditions 
have had. I may only mention that I have also 
got a pendulum apparatus and the necessary astro- 
nomical universal instrument, in the hope that we 
may get some opportunity of making pendulum 
observations on northern latitudes, which is, of course, 
of the greatest interest. 

" One of the greatest difficulties we will have to 
overcome will perhaps be the scurvy. It has been 
very bad on many previous expeditions, and during 
the long time we expect to be away, it is not 
impossible that it might occur. I do no^t, however, 
consider this to be very probable. I am examining 
the question very closely, and all possible precautions 
are being taken to avoid it. In our time science 
ought to be able to produce an equipment as regards 
provisions which will make scurvy an impossibility. 
It is a ghastly enemy, that is true, as we do not know 
its nature and origin. But it seems as if it almost 
never occurs except in connection with badly-pre- 
served meat, and especially salted meat, and I cannot 
understand why, then, we should take such a thing 
with us; there is plenty of other things to choose 
from. Alcoholic drinks will, of course, not be taken. 



HOW TO CROSS THE NORTH POLAR REGION. 'J^ 

" To live a healthy life in all respects is naturally 
very important. Two of the principal conditions to 
keep one's health are heat and light. In order to 
produce the necessary heat, we live together in a 
small room during the coldest season. We will 
also have good warm clothes. Woollen ones I regard 
as best for indoors, but in the open air skin or 
canvas suits to put outside the woollen clothes 
are necessary to protect one against the biting 
wind and the snow-drift. To heat our saloon there 
will certainly not be much wanted, even during the 
severest cold. A few paraffin lamps or a small 
paraffin stove will certainly be sufficient. There 
will, of course, also be care taken to get good 
ventilation. We thus run no risk, I think, of suffer- 
ing from want of heat. With the light it is, however, 
worse. Almost no organism can exist without that, 
and therefore various illnesses occur during the long 
Arctic nights. This it would seem difficult to avoid 
in regions where the darkness lasts six months. I 
believe, however, that we shall be able to overcome 
this difficulty also by help of the wonderful electric 
light. We shall have a dynamo for producing 
electricity. Many will perhaps ask how we shall get 
the necessary power to make it work. This cannot, 
however, be difficult. On one hand we have the 
wind. The meteorologists are certainly of opinion 
that this will not, as a rule, be very strong in the cold 
over the polar sea ; but a little we must find there 
also, and if the sails of our windmill are made 
sufficiently big, we do not want much to turn them. 
But even when there is no wind at all we will be able 
to produce power. We are thirteen men, strong, and 



78 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

well picked, as I hope, and when a capstan is 
arranged on deck we will be able to do work similar 
to that which a horse does in its horse-mill on land. 
In this capstan four men take their turn at a time ; 
thus we will obtain good and regular exercise — some- 
what monotonous perhaps — and will at the same time 
be useful by producing electricity, so that we can' 
have an electric arc-lamp burning eight hours a-day. 
Everybody will understand what a blessing that must 
be when one is surrounded by constant darkness. 
When the sun begins to sink, to disappear behind the 
horizon in the south for the last time, we begin to 
walk in a ring in the darkness on the deck of our 
ship, in order to produce a new sun. In this way we 
will slowly move forward. I hope that you, ladies 
and gentlemen, will sometimes send us a kind 
thought while we go round in our mill there far 
north in the solemn silence of the long polar 
nisht." 





CHAPTER VII. 

nansen's arctic ship. 



As soon as the Storthing in 1890 agreed to aid 
Nansen, he made arrangements for the con- 
struction of a suitable vessel. After several 
models had been submitted to him by Mr. 
Colin Archer, of Laurvik, he finally decided as to the 
build. The work was proceeded with at once, and at 
the expiration of over two years the vessel was ready 
for sea. 

The Fram {anglic^, forward) is the strongest vessel 
of her size that has ever been built for Arctic explora- 
tion. She was launched at Laurvik, a seaport of 
Norway at the head of a small fjord on the east side 
of Christiania Fjord, ninety-eight miles by rail, S.S.W. 
of the capital, on the 26th of October, 1892, and was 
christened by the doctor's wife, amid great acclama- 

79 



8o FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

tion from the friends and sightseers who had gathered 
from afar to see this strange ship begin her career. 
Those who were present at the launch say it was a 
moment of deep emotion when, amid the booming of 
guns and the cheers of the assembled people, the 
curious vessel plunged into the waters of Rcekevik 
Bay and rose again, slowly but proudly, to ride thern 
in its freedom. 

Two men deserve great praise in the construction 
of the Fram — the designer, Mr. Colin Archer, and the 
shipbuilder, Mr. Anders Olsen. Hardly any other 
man in Norway could better guarantee a solid and 
careful finish of the polar vessel according to the 
approved model than Mr. Colin Archer. As a 
designer of ships he has done much. A Norwegian 
paper, speaking of his life's work, says : — " His is a 
name of known and dear sound to pilots and yachts- 
men all round the country. His life's aim has 
especially been to improve the pilot boats during the 
last twenty-five years. For what he has done in this 
direction we owe him great thanks, in spite of inherited 
Norwegian antipathy to anything new." 

Mr. Archer is of Scotch descent. His youth was 
passed in Laurvik, to which place his father removed 
in 1827. When young he went to England, and, 
later, to Australia, where he lived some time. For 
the last twenty-eight years Laurvik has again been 
his home. 

The larger portion of this chapter is quoted by kind 
permission of the Royal Geographical Society from 
Nansen's lecture, " How can the North Polar Regions 
be Crossed ? " A few additions and alterations were 
necessary, as further light was thrown on the expedi- 



naxsf.n's arctic ship. 83 

tion after it started, although in the main the extracts 
are strictly accurate. After dealing at some length 
with his drift theory, the doctor continued : — 

" I have built a wooden ship as small and as strong 
as possible ; it is just big enough to carry provisions 
for thirteen men for five or six years, besides the 
necessary fuel ; her size is about 600 tons displace- 
ment, with light cargo. She shall have an engine of 
160 indicated horse-power, which will give her a 
speed of six knots, with a consumption of 2^- tons of 
coal in twenty-four hours. With sails alone she will 
likely attain a speed of eight or nine knots under 
favourable circumstances. She will consequently be 
no fast vessel, nor a good sailer ; but this is of 
relatively little importance on an expedition like ours, 
where we shall have to depend principally on the 
speed of the current and the ice-movement, and not 
on that of the ship. A ship's ability to break her 
way through the pack-ice does not at all depend on 
her speed, but on her steam power and her shape ; 
for it is naturally the thing of importance to get a 
strong ship, and the most important feature in her 
construction is that she shall be built on such lines as 
will give her the greatest power of resistance to the 
pressure of the ice. Her sides must not be perpendic- 
ular, as those of ships generally are, but must slope 
from the bulwarks to the keel ; or, to use a sailor's 
expression, her ' dead rise ' must be made great, so 
that the floes shall get no hold of her when they are 
pressed together, but will glide downward along her 
sides and under her, thus tending to lift her out of the 
water. The sides of most ships used in the Arctic 
seas have been almost straight up and down, in spite 



84 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

of which defect they have stood the pressure of the 
ice pretty well, and many of them have even been 
lifted completely out of the water, and have for 
longer or shorter times stood dry on the ice without 
being damaged. This practically happens very often 
with the small sealing vessels from the north of 
Norway which catch seals and walrus in the sea- 
round Novaya Zemlya and Spitzbergen. . . . Though 
the Jeannette had a shape which in this respect was 
very bad, and though she was an old and not very 
strong ship, she managed to withstand the ice-pressure 
for nearly two years (twenty-one months). It will 
consequently be understood that a very slight altera- 
tion of shape will give us a very strong ship, and one 
which can scarcely be crushed by the floe-ice if it is 
properly handled. For the same reason the vessel 
ought to be as small as possible, as the lighter she is 
the more easily she will be lifted by the ice, and the 
less pressure there will be on her sides ; it is also 
easier to make a small ship strong than a big one. 
A small ship has other advantages, as it is more 
convenient to navigate and to handle in the ice, and 
it is easier to find good and safe places for it between 
the floes. 

"As great length is a weakness during the pressure 
and twisting of the pack-ice, the ship ought also to be 
as short as her necessary bearing capacity will allow. 
The result of this in connection with the very sloping 
sides is that our ship is disproportionately broad 
compared with her length. Her breadth is about 
one-third of the latter. Flat sides are avoided as 
much as possible near the places which will be most 
exposed to the attack of the ice, and the hull has 



nansen's arctic ship. 85 

plump and rounded forms. There are no sharp, 
projecting corners ; every edge is broken and rounded. 
Even the keel does not project very much ; it is 
almost covered by the planking, and only three 
inches are visible outside the ice-skin, and the sharp 
edges are quite rounded. On the whole the ship will, 
I hope, leave no place for the ice to catch hold of 
Round and slippery like an eel, she will escape 
its cold and strong grasp. 

" The ship will be pointed at both ends, and on the 
whole she resembles very much a Norwegian pilot- 
boat, or, as I am told, a Scotch buckie boat, only that 
she of course is carvel-built, and that the keel and 
the sharp bottom are cut off. Her bottom is near the 
keel, comparatively flat, in order that she shall have 
something to rest on without being capsized in case 
she should be completely lifted on to the ice. Both 
stem and stern are considerably curved in order that 
the ice shall get no hold there. The stem is also 
much sloped, because it will then more easily force 
the ice-floes under her when she is breaking her way 
through the ice. 

" The screw can be raised when necessary, and 
protected from damage in a well. It can also easily 
be changed if it is broken, and for that purpose we 
shall carry two reserve screws. This is, as will be 
known, an usual arrangement in modern sealers or 
whalers ; but besides this, the rudder can also easily 
be unshipped and raised through a well. This is, 
I think, a fortunate and ingenious idea of the ship- 
builder, Mr. Colin Archer, and is a very simple 
arrangement. The rudder is, moreover, placed so 
low that it will be entirely submerged even when the 



86 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

ship is lightly loaded. This is so arranged in order 
that the ice shall not be able to strike it, and thus 
break it by even a sudden pressure or movement ; it 
will, instead, meet the strong stern. The latter is the 
Achilles heel of the sealers and whalers, where the ice 
may very easily damage them by breaking the rudder. 
During my last voyage with the Jason to the east 
coast of Greenland we had such an accident, showing 
how easily it may happen. When the rudder, then, 
is not so arranged as in our ship, it takes a long time 
to have it unhooked and another put on, especially 
when you have no great crew. Our stern is, as usual, 
furnished with two perpendicular stern posts, one a 
propeller post, the other a rudder post, made of big 
oak timbers about 27 in. broad. On both sides of 
these are bolted very big and strong curved oak 
timbers, running along the sloping stern upwards to 
the deck, thus forming, in a way, a double stern. 
Between them are the wells, through which the 
screw and rudder can be lifted. This stern construc- 
tion is very simple, and certainly exceedingly strong. 
" The stem is, of course, also made very strong. 
It is composed of three big oak baulks, one inside 
the other, so that the thickness of solid oak is 50 in. 
Inside the stem big and strong breasthooks of oak 
and iron are placed to connect the ship's sides with 
each other and with the stem. From these breast- 
hooks stays go to the pawl-bit in order to strengthen 
the stem and divide the pressure. Outside this 
wooden stem comes an iron one, and outside this 
again come transverse iron bars and plates, which go 
some small distance backwards on each side to pro- 
tect the wood against the ice. 



nansen's arctic ship. 87 

" Both the stem and the stern posts are, of course, 
carefully attached to the keel by strong cross and 
longitudinal iron clamps and wooden knees. When 
I add that the stern is also protected by an iron 
sheeting, it will, I hope, be understood that the two 
extremities of our ship are pretty well protected. 

" The keel is made of two big baulks of American 
elm, 14 in. square. As is already mentioned, it will 
be almost covered by the outer planking, so that 
there will only be a projection of a few inches. 
Above the frame timbers are placed two keelsons, 
one ly in. and the other 12 in. in height, both bolted 
together to the timbers and keel. 

" The frame timbers are made of selected Italian 
oak, which is very hard. Only naturally-curved 
timbers are used ; such are much stronger than those 
curved by the help of the axe. These timbers were 
originally meant for some man-of-war, and were 
thirty years ago bought for the Norwegian navy ; 
they may thus be said to be well seasoned. The 
thickness of the frame timbers is about 10 in. to 
12 in. ; they are ranged in couples, squared, and 
bolted together, all joints being bound with iron. 
The pairs of frames are placed almost close together, 
leaving only a space of i in. to 2 in. between each. 
These spaces were left in order to give the very dry 
timbers a little room in case they should swell when 
they came into the water ; the spaces are, however, 
filled with a mixture of pitch, tar, and sawdust, so 
that if the outer plankings were shaved away the 
vessel would still remain nearly water-tight. 

"The ceiling consists of pitch-pine planks alter- 
nately 4 in. and 8 in. in thickness. £t is twice care- 



88 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

fully caulked with oakum to make it tight. The 
planking consists of three layers : first, a 3 in. oak 
layer, over which another of 4 in., and, finally, an 
outer planking, or ' ice-sheathing,' of greenheart, 
which increases in thickness from the keel towards 
the water-line from 3 in. to 6 in. Greenheart is, as . 
you will know, a very hard, strong, and slippery 
wood, well fit to protect the hulk against the damage 
of the ice, its only fault being that it is so heavy that 
it sinks in water. Each layer was carefully caulked 
with oakum and pitch in the ordinary way before the 
next skin was placed on to it. 

" The whole thickness of the sides of the ship is 
thus 28 in. to 32 in. — a solid mass of pitch-pine, oak, 
and greenheart, with a little pitch in between. It 
will easily be understood that a ship's side of such 
dimensions and material will alone have a great 
power of resistance to the pressure of the ice. But 
this power is, to a very essential degree, increased by 
the many beams, stays, and strengthenings of every 
kind placed inside the vessel. There are two decks, 
an upper and lower one, each of 4 in. red pine. The 
deck beams are of oak and pitch-pine, 10 in. or 11 in. 
square. Numerous upright stanchions and stays are 
placed as supports to the beams and the sides ; they 
unite the beams of the two decks to each other and 
to the ship's side. The principle of arrangements of 
the stays is that they shall be placed as perpendicular 
in the ship's side as possible, in order to strengthen 
these against pressure from the outside, and to divide 
the latter. For this purpose the perpendicular stays 
between the beams of the two decks, and between 
the lower deck beams and the keelsons, are also very 



k 



nansen's arctic ship. 89 

well fitted. . . . The whole is like one coherent mass, 
and the ship may almost be considered as if built of 
solid wood. 

"The beams of the lower deck are placed some- 
what under the water-line, where the pressure of the 
ice will be worst. In the after-part, above the engine, 
we were obliged to raise the deck a little, in order to 
give room for engine and boilers ; but instead the 
beams are here supported by two sloping stanchions 
on each side instead of one, so that also this part 
must be considered as very strong. As the lower 
deck was raised, we were also obliged to lift the 
upper one in order to give room for cabins. These 
are thus covered by a half-deck or poop, three or four 
feet in height. 

" The whole ship is divided into three rooms or 
divisions, by two water-tight wooden bulkheads, so 
that if the vessel, in spite of all, should happen to 
spring a leak, there will still be two water-tight 
divisions left to keep her floating. She is also fur- 
nished with pumps, one of which will be a great 
centrifugal pump, which may be driven by the 
engine, and put into communication with all the 
divisions, and thus empty the vessel in a short time 
in case she should leak. 

" The most important feature in the rig of a polar 
vessel ought to be that it is as simple and as strong 
as possible, and at the same time it should be light, 
and make little resistance to the wind when the 
vessel is steaming. For these reasons we have 
chosen to rig her as a three-masted fore-and-aft 
schooner, the sails of which are very easy to handle 
from the deck, which also is of some importance 



go FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

when you have a small crew not consisting of first- 
rate sailors only. On the foremast there will also be 
two loose yards for a square foresail and topsail. 
The area of her sails will be about 650 sq. yds. The 
undermasts are rather high and strong; the main- 
mast is 82 ft. in length, and the topmast is 50 ft 
On the top of this is the crow's-nest, which will thus 
be at a height of about 105 ft. above the water. It 
is of importance that the crow's-nest be placed as 
high as possible, in order to get a wide view over the 
ice. 

" The quarters for officers and crew are so arranged 
that the saloon is in the middle, on all sides sur- 
rounded by the cabins, the galley, and the bunkers ; 
thus, by help of these rooms, the saloon is well pro- 
tected against the cold and moisture arising from 
the ship's side. One of the greatest difficulties with 
the life on board the vessels of most polar expedi- 
tions has been that the moisture of the warm air in 
the small cabins was condensed on the cold sides of 
the ship, and was there frozen to ice. The mat- 
tresses in the berths in these walls were therefore 
very often transformed into as many lumps of ice. 
To avoid a repetition of this has of course been of 
importance to us. We have therefore located the 
saloon as described in order that we may all live 
there night and day, in case it should be necessary, 
during the most severe cold. We shall thus follow 
the same principle as the Eskimo, living many people 
in a small room to make it warm ; we shall certainly 
not then want much to heat it. 

" But besides this, every precaution is taken to 
isolate the walls and make them warm, and to pre- 



nansen's arctic ship. 91 

vent the moisture being condensed on them. The 
ship's sides are, on the inner side, covered with tarred 
felt ; then comes a thick layer of cork ; inside this a 
wooden wainscot ; then a layer of felt a few inches 
thick ; next comes a nearly air-tight layer of painted 
canvas or linoleum ; and then another wainscot. 
The air-tight canvas is there in order to prevent the 
warm and moist air from inside penetrating into the 
layers of felt and cork, and giving off moisture there, 
thus transforming them into ice. This principle we 
have followed, on the whole, also in the roof The 
walls between the cabins and the saloon are made in 
a similar way, and the roof and floor are very thick, 
consisting of many layers. In the roof there is a 
layer of reindeer hair a couple of inches thick, which 
I think must be very effective as a heat insulator, 
as the reindeer hairs are so very porous and elastic. 
On the floors and walls may, of course, also be laid 
bear-skins and carpets, to make them still warmer. 
I hope you will get the impression that everything 
is made to give us a snug and comfortable saloon 
and cabin, fit for a climate such as we may expect. 

"The principal dimensions of the vessel are as 
follows : — Length of keel, 10 1 ft. ; length of water- 
line, 113 ft. ; length over all, 128 ft. ; beam at water- 
line amidships, excluding the * ice-sheathing,' 33 ft.; 
greatest beam, excluding the ' ice-sheathing,' 36 ft. ; 
depth moulded, 17 ft; the draught with light cargo 
is 12 ft; the displacement is then about 530 tons, 
but when, with heavy cargo, the draught is 15I ft, 
the displacement will be about 800 tons. Her free- 
board will then be only 3^ ft Such will probably be 
the case when we leave the last place where we can 



92 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

get coal, as we will, of course, then load her with as 
much as she can carry. We will soon burn a good 
deal in the engines and she will be gradually lifted 
again. 

"The hull, with boilers filled, weighs about 420 
tons. With a displacement of 800 tons, she has 
consequently a bearing capacity for 380 tons of coal 
and cargo. Our equipment and provisions will not 
likely weigh much more than 60 or 70 tons ; thus 
300 or 320 tons bearing capacity will be left for coal 
and fuel, and this is enough for about four months' 
steaming with full speed. We shall not, however, 
likely be able to make use of our engines more than 
two months after we have been loaded with coal for 
the last time. A great quantity will thus be left for 
heating and cooking during the winters. For heating 
purposes we shall also carry petroleum, which has the 
advantage of giving light besides. For the cooking 
we shall carry alcohol. . . . Fram will certainly be 
the strongest vessel ever used in the Arctic regions. 
She is built with great care, and I feel certain that 
she can be crushed only in a quite extraordinary 
combination of circumstances." 

From the saloon you get direct to the berths. 
Nansen (who occupies without a doubt the smallest, 
darkest, and least comfortable), Sverdrup, Scott- 
Hansen, and Dr. Blessing have each a separate 
berth, while the remainder have two larger berths 
between them. 

Dr. Nansen said, " Let us have gay colours ; " and 
gay they certainly were. Above the surface of the 
water the Fram was painted grey, the gunwale is 
green, the poop and great tanks for water and 



nansen's arctic ship. 



93 



petroleum were painted scarlet Red, white, and 
green, like a Heligoland flag, were the prevailing 
colours on deck. The crow's nest is white, the 
saloon is also white, the doors, etc., tastefully picked 
out with red and green. Across the saloon, between 
the two doors by which it is entered, is a wooden 
couch, in shape and possibilities of comfort remind- 



^ "^. x' 


lU^ 




1 


-ilk 


" ■■ r 


.'Wj^^fi 




;* 




■1 


r' 



SALOON OF THE "FRAM." 



I 



ing one of the old-fashioned settle, and at each end 
there are projecting sides carved to represent dragons* 
heads, in the same style as that used by the Vikings 
for the decoration of their ships and houses ; these 
heads are artistically decorated with white, red, and 
gold ; but, as if to bring one back to the realms 
of utility, a large and practical-looking table stands 



94 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

in front of the couch. To the left is a harmonium, 
which can readily be turned into an organ and 
played by turning a handle. Around the mizzen- 
mast, which ascends through the middle of the 
cabin, is arranged a settle, and there is also a stove 
heated by steam. Several paintings, Norwegian 
landscapes and portraits, by well-known artists, 
have been given to the expedition, and are to be 
seen in the saloon. An admirable portrait of Fru 
Nansen and her daughter, by Werenskiold, the 
celebrated Norwegian artist, is also hung on the 
walls, while within the cabins are to be seen scenes 
of " home life " and portraits of dear friends. 

The expedition was fitted out most thoroughly. 
Everything was carefully thought out during eight 
years previous to sailing, and over ;^2 5,000 was 
expended upon the ship and its outfit, the vessel 
alone costing nearly ;^io,ooo. In all his equipment 
Nansen showed a freshness of thought and skill in 
arrangement that argued well for success. 

That Dr. Nansen spared no energy to make every- 
thing as nearly perfect as possible has been frequently 
demonstrated, and I call to mind his remarks in 
" The First Crossing of Greenland " regarding the 
testing of the adaptability of his sledges. He 
writes : — "I made numerous experiments and 
changes, and even undertook a journey on ski over 
the mountains from Bergen to Christiania before 
I finally adopted the pattern we used." Such dili- 
gence deserved to meet a due reward. 

The Norwegian National Assembly granted a 
considerable sum, the remainder needed being con- 
tributed by private individuals, and amongst those 



nansen's arctic ship. 95 

whose liberality secured the admirable outfit were 
King Oscar, ]\Ir. Fearnley, and ]Mr. Dick. 

Dr. Nansen would not start until everything was 
paid. 

With reference to the grant of money made by 
the Government to his expedition, Dr. Xansen 
remarked, previous to sailing : — " M)- countrymen 
are poor, but tney have been miost generous to me. 
If I had made the expedition an international affair, 
I could have obtained much money very quickly. 
I even had money offered. But I was anxious to 
make the expedition a national one. I thoroughly 
believe in my power to accomplish my object, and 
is it not natural that I should wish to give my 
countrymen the first thought and the honour accruing 
to a triumphant expedition ? Our success will be 
due to their generous enterprise.' 

Polar exploration, it might be well to explain 
here, means far more than the facing of grave 
danger or mapping out of the route. The leaders 
of expeditions such as those of Nansen, Jackson, 
Peary, and others, require a close acquaintance with 
all the various and delicate instruments used for 
thorough geographical survey work, and practical 
knowledge of their use. " It is required of such 
expeditions," says Mr. Herbert Ward, "to furnish, 
in addition to a popular account of the voyage 
with its attendant incidents, such accurate and 
practical information as can be recorded by scien- 
tists. The temperature of the soil, snow, and ice, 
both on the surface, and at various depths, evapora- 
tion, terrestrial magnetism, galvanic earth currents, 
hydrographical and pendulum observations, records 



96 



FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 



of observations on atmospheric electricity, the growth 
and structure of the ice, the physical properties of 
the sea-water, besides collections of specimens in 
the departments of zoology, botany, and geology — 
such are the subjects of inquiry and the nature of 
the information required of a polar expedition. In 
addition to compiling exhaustive data, the leader 
in his reports has to conform to the accepted mode 
of expressing the geographical facts that may be 
acquired."* 

* English Illustrated Magazine^ November, 1896. 







1 




b^^Jtfsa^"" 






■V-,' 

'^^h:^'-^^ 


^^^jpfc*^^" 


^^am^ 1^1 




Mfc^fsagg?^ _ 




-*asn 1 " """ 1 



FIRST MEETING WITH THE ICE. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

"WE ARE THIRTEEN ALL TOLD." 



DR. NANSEN dedicates " The First Crossing of 
Greenland " to his " five comrades, in token of 
gratitude and good fellowship." In the intro- 
duction he says : — " My chief thanks are 
nevertheless owing to my five comrades, to whose 
combined efforts the successful result of our under- 
taking is, of course, mainly due. Every one who has 
conducted an expedition will know how ready the 
world is to do the great injustice of heaping the 
whole praise or blame for its success or failure on the 
shoulders of the leader alone. And this injustice is 
greater than usual in the case of an expedition like 
ours, in which each member serves as one of a team 

97 G 



98 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

of draught cattle, and the result of which cannot, 
therefore, be dependent on the efforts of a single 
individual. My comrades, too, I must thank for the 
terms of good fellowship on which we lived, and for 
the many pleasant hours we spent together in spite 
of uncongenial surroundings. On these hours I have 
often dwelt with peculiar fondness in the course of' 
my narrative. I have once more called to life many 
a little incident which to others indeed may seem 
trivial, but which has a special value to us." 

The same spirit was shown by Nansen to his 
companions on board the Fram. 

At the conclusion of a great public banquet held 
in honour of Nansen and his companions in the 
Freemasons' Hall, in Christiania, a week before sail- 
ing, Professor Mohn in an effective speech said : — 
"Fridtjof Nansen and his brave companions will 
all share the one cabin on the Fram; they will 
all share the same dangers and hardships of the 
voyage ; and when they all return, as I firmly 
believe they will, they will all share equally the 
honours and reward which their success will war- 
rant." 

Nansen himself remarked previous to sailing : — 
" My object is a serious one. I would serve science. 
I would show the world that my countrymen are not 
behind any other nationality in courage and endur- 
ance. My comrades are fine, honest men, all of them. 
They are sailors ; they have the same spirit in this 
enterprise as I myself have. We all leave wives 
behind us, except our physician, and none of us will 
gain riches." 

Every one of his companions is a noted skilober. 






tramn. . Vtttnin. 

3lfRog»nie i Jlonlpofeftrtim. 
SOME OF NANSEN's COMPANIONS. 



WE ARE THIRTEEN ALL TOLD. 



lOI 



and much of the success of the expedition was based 
upon this form of locomotion if the Frain had to be 
deserted. 

" We are thirteen all told," wrote Nansen. 



"The Lucky Thirteen." 



Fridtjof Nansen, . 
Otto Neumann Sverdrup, . 
Sigurd Scott-Hansen, . 
Henrik Grave Blessing, 
Theodor Claudius Jacobsen, 
Peder Leonard Hendriksen, 
Frederik Hjalmar Johansen, 
Ivar Otto Irgens Mogstad, . 

Bernhard Nordahl, 

Anton Amundsen, . 
Lars Pettersen, 
Adolf Juell, . 
Bernt Bentsen, 



Leader. 

Captain. 

Scientist. 

Physician. 

Mate. 

Harpooner. 

Fireman. 

Carpenter. 
( Electrical Assistant 
\ and Engineer. 

Engineer. 

Engineer. 

Steward &" Sailor. 

Sailor. 



These men had the one saloon in common, where 
all meals were taken and leisure hours spent. An 
excellent library was on board containing mental 
food for all sorts of readers — scientific, literary, or 
otherwise. They had cards which, judging from 
their besmeared appearance on their return, were 
much in vogue, chess, draughts, and other games in 
great quantity ; an organ, violin, and other musical 
instruments. It was the officer's duty to make the 
men comfortable and happy in the dark days. After 
work, concerts, theatricals, readings, and lectures on 
the work of the expedition, helped to keep their 
thoughts off their solitary position, and from home, 
and thus enabled them to pass the three dreary, dark 



102 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

six months' winters in comparative comfort and 
happiness. 

As the Fram steamed away from Christiania shouts 
of farewell reached her crew on all sides : — 

" Long live our brave Nansen ! " 

"Hurrah for Nansen's comrades ! Hurrah !" 

" Come home again to us, all of you ! " 

All Europe echoed that cry, and trusted that the 
Pram's crew might return in health and safety to 
their homes. 

Nansen's companions in his arduous undertaking 
were all Norwegians. The applications from abroad 
to accompany the expedition were rejected. Among 
the applicants were a French lady, tired of life, 
and a little Swedish boy thirteen years old. But 
the honour was to be Norway's only ! Some one 
said (may he be forgiven !) it was a pity no 
Swedes accompanied them, as should the ship run 
short of provisions they might have been found 
useful. 

Conspicuous even among the taller and more 
commanding figures in the party is Sverdrup, round- 
shouldered, red-bearded ; indomitable will written on 
his face ; the proved friend and comrade of Nansen. 
Of all the crew he was the only one who took part 
in the first crossing of Greenland. The two Lapps 
of that expedition, Balto and Ravna, are reported to 
be dead. 

Otto Neumann Sverdrup was the captain of the 
Fram, and Dr. Nansen's right-hand man. He was 
born on the 31st of October, 1855, at his father's farm, 
Haarstad, in Bindalen, Helgeland. Accustomed to 



WE ARE THIRTEEN ALL TOLD. 



103 



ski from early childhood in his wanderings in the 
forests and over the mountains around his home on 
all sorts of errands, he soon became an active and 
accomplished skilober. He was taught at home by 
a private tutor, but a student's life was distasteful to 




OTTO NEUMANN SVERDRUP, 
The Captain of the Fram. 



him, and at the age of seventeen he went to sea, and 
led an active and a roving life in Norwegian and 
American vessels. In 1878 he obtained a mate's 
certificate, and a couple of years afterwards was 
wrecked in a vessel on the west coast of Scotland, 



104 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

when, chiefly owing to his bravery and presence of 
mind, the crew were saved. In 1888 he joined 
Nansen's party on its trans-Greenland journey, and 
Nansen says of him : — " We never found him wanting 
in either coolness or resource." 

When Dr. Nansen finally decided on undertaking 
the voyage to the Arctic regions — the two of them' 
had frequently discussed the subject en route over 
Greenland — Sverdrup willingly accepted the command 
of the vessel, and devoted great thought and care to 
its equipment. 

His coolness in the face of danger was admirably 
illustrated in his " night-watch " on the drifting ice- 
floe off the east coast of Greenland, previous to that 
historic crossing. They were rapidly drifting to the 
open sea. The swell was so great that when down 
in the hollow nothing could be seen but the blue sky. 
Floes crashed together, breaking and splitting, and 
large pieces of ice were thrown on to the floe, gliding 
dangerously near to the boats and tent, which had 
to be held down to keep them from being swept into 
the sea. But although death stared them in the face, 
Nansen ordered all to bed to rest, and prepare for a 
final emergency. Sverdrup, as the most experienced 
and cool-headed among them, was to take the first 
watch, and turn the others out at the critical moment. 
In two hours he was to be relieved. But faithful, 
unselfish Sverdrup let his comrades sleep on through 
the night, and in the midst of ever-increasing dangers. 
The floe was swirled out to sea, rocking up and 
down like a vessel in a storm. A huge wave 
dashed on the floe, splitting it and threatening to 
engulf the party ; Sverdrup stood ready to arouse 



"WE ARK THIRTEEN ALE TOED. I05 

the sleepers, but the danger was once more averted, 
and the solitary "watch" again resumed his vigil. 
When things got to the worst and death seemed 
imminent, the iloe was suddenly seized by a counter 
current, and they were fortunately hurried in towards 
the land and safety. 

That Dr. Nansen knew Sverdrup to be a capable 
leader is illustrated by the fact that he left the Fravi, 
in the midst of many perils, in the full charge of this 
man, well knowing that if anything went wrong 
with the vessel or her crew his own honour was at 
stake. The safe return of the Fraiii, piloted yet 
further north after Dr. Nansen left her in March, 
1895, shows a consistenc}', courage, and skill which 
has won for Sverdrup, in the minds of Arctic experts, 
laurels but little second to those gained by his able 
and accomplished chief 

Next comes Lieutenant Sigurd Scott- Hansen, 
leader of the meteorological, astronomical, magnetic, 
and geodetic observation departments, in all of which 
subjects he has had a special training. He was born 
on the 24th of July, 1868, at Leith, Scotland, and is 
a son of the Rev. Andreas Hansen, then chaplain to 
the Scandinavian Seamen's Church, Edinburgh. He 
was the youngest member of the expedition, }-et his 
observations will vie in importance with an\- other 
work executed during this remarkable vo\-age of 
discovery. In 1873 he moved with his parents to 
Norwa)-, his father being appointed to the living of 
Etnc, Sondhordland, and subsequently, in 18S0, to 
the perpetual curacy of Trinity Church, Christiania. 
Sigurd was educated at Gjertsen's High School, 
Christiania, and the Royal Naval College at Morten. 



I06 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

He joined the latter institution in October, 1886, 
after twenty-one months' service afloat. He was 
appointed second lieutenant in the Royal Norwegian 
Navy in 1889, promoted to first lieutenant in 1892, 
and during his brief career has shown a remarkable 
aptitude for scientific research. He is of small build 
and of dark complexion, with a pair of blue, sparkling' 
eyes, ever bright with intelligence and good nature. 

Dr. Henrik Grave Blessing was physician and bot- 
anist to the Fram. He is a native of Drammen, 
where he was born on the 29th of September, 1866, 
his father being at that time perpetual curate of 
Stromso Church, and subsequently vicar of Sunde, 
Telemarken. Young Henrik's education was under- 
taken by his father until 1879, when he joined the 
High School at Stavanger. In 1885 he proceeded 
to the University at Christiania, which he entered as 
a medical student, and, after passing his examinations, 
he was appointed assistant in the skin diseases depart- 
ment of the National Hospital in the capital. He 
took the degree of M.D. in 1893. As a university 
student he made a special study of botany, and subse- 
quently of diseases of the skin, the knowledge of 
which is of especial value in the Arctics, where the 
dread disease of scurvy often breaks out, and with 
fatal effect. From youth upwards Dr. Blessing 
devoted all spare hours to skilobning, and, though of 
short build, he is remarkably strong and healthy. In 
bidding Mr. Herbert Ward good-bye as the Fram 
left the Norwegian capital, Dr. Blessing said : — " This 
is the greatest day of my life. The world is all before 
me for the first time. ... I am as happy as I can 
be. Good-bye." 



"WE ARE THIRTEEN ALL TOLD. IO7 

The mate of the Fram, Theodor Claudius Jacobsen, 
was born on the 29th of March, 1855, at Tromso, 
where he was educated until the age of sixteen, when 
he went to sea. Three years afterwards, having 
passed the examinations of the School of Navigation, 
he joined the merchant service, and served in various 
ships — among others, the English ship, Hawarden 
Castle, which he left in New Zealand. There he 
remained for two years, engaged as a workman, but 
not liking his employment, he again took to the sea. 
He first proceeded to New South Wales, thence to 
San Francisco, and joined the United States gunboat, 
Curwen. In 1883 he returned home, and has since 
been chiefly employed in Arctic waters and sealing 
expeditions as master of vessels belonging to the 
British Vice-Consul at Hammerfest, Mr. George 
Robertson. During the summers of 1891 and 1892 
he served as ice-master, pilot, and harpooner to 
H.R.H. Prince Henri de Bourbon in the cutter, 
Fleur-de-lis, and the steam yacht of that name. On 
his leaving the Prince's service the latter gave him 
his own valuable gold watch in recognition of his use- 
fulness and trustworthiness during their seal hunting 
and other sporting tours in Spitzbergen and Novaya 
Zemlya waters. Jacobsen proceeded on this expedi- 
tion (1893-96) as ice-master and chief officer, and the 
principal duties of navigation when among the ice- 
floes fell on his experienced shoulders. His task was 
a most difficult one, but the safe return of the Fram 
shows how ably he seconded Sverdrup in piloting it 
through such dangerous waters. 

Peder Leonard Hendriksen, the harpooner of the 
expedition, is a native of Balsfjord, near Tromso. 



I08 FRTDTJOF NANSEN. 

From early life he was engaged in the fisheries, until 
at the age of nineteen he proceeded to the Arctic 
regions, where he has been constantly employed as 
harpooner in walrus and seal expeditions, and of late 
years as master of a sealer. For fourteen summers 
he was constantly engaged in hunting the seal, 
walrus, and whale, and at times the polar bear. 
How many of these creatures have fallen by his 
hand it would be difficult to say. He became 
renowned as the best hunter in the fleet, and over 
fifty polar bears have fallen to his gun. He is a tall, 
square-built man of exceptional physical powers, 
which have often been severely tested. When off 
Novaya Zemlya, in 1888, the schooner Enigheden, 
of Christiansund, on which he was harpooner, be- 
came a total wreck. The storm continuing, he was 
compelled to remain on deck for several days, during 
which he was literally encased in ice. He at last 
managed to crawl ashore, and, report says, " was 
able to thaw and dry his clothes." His herculean 
strength has enabled him to endure all hardships, 
and he entered on his latest voyage with an iron 
constitution and strong resolve. His harpoon and 
gun were the means of procuring fresh meat for the 
explorers, which did much to keep scurvy at bay. 
He has been described as " a giant in stature, with 
immense broad shoulders and a jolly, round face." 
He left a wife and four children at home, and very 
warm indeed was the welcome he received on his 
return to Norway. 

Frederik Hjalmar Johansen was engaged as fire- 
man and general utility man. As stoker, sailor, 
hunter, land surveyor, etc., he acted the part of a 



"WE ARK THIKTKEN ALL T(JLI)." lOQ 

veritable jack-of-all-trades. No matter the task, 
Johansen performed it well and good-humouredly, 
diffusing good-fellowship on board the Fraiii, which 
was, in the dreary Arctic winter months, accounted 
a blessing. He was born on the 15th of May, 1867, 
at Skien (the birthplace of Ibsen), where his father 
was keeper of the Law Courts, and where he himself 
was first educated. In 1886 he matriculated, and 
in the following year passed the philosophical 
examination at the University of Christiania. He 
studied jurisprudence, and on his father's death 
returned to Skien, filling the vacancy in the Courts 
for a year, after which he entered the High Sheriffs' 
and Police office in the same town. Johansen has 
also passed the University College, and is a reserve 
lieutenant in the Norwegian Army. He has devoted 
much time to athletics, and is known throughout 
Norway and France as the winner of several medals 
for gymnastics. In Paris, competing in a celebrated 
gymnasia, he made a clean somersault over forty-two 
men, and alighted on his feet as right as possible, for 
which remarkable feat he was presented with a gold 
medal. He also holds gold and silver medals for 
skilobning and marksmanship. He is a good- 
tempered, handsome, muscular man, whose place in 
Nansen's estimation is proved by his being chosen 
as the leader's sole companion on the now famous 
sledging journey taken on leaving their Arctic home 
to reach the " farthest north." 

Ivar Otto Irgens Mogstad v/as the carpenter, and 
hails from Aure, Nordmore, where he was born on 
the 7th of June, 1856. He passed an examination 
with honours in P^orestry, and from 1882 until 



no FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

embarking on the Fram, was head-keeper at the 
Ganstad Asylum. He became quite an expert with 
the rifle, and when only sixteen, shot his first bear. 
In 1 88 1 he went as "huntsman" to Spitzbergen. 
He is a most intelligent mechanic, and has devoted 
much time to patents. When but a youth he took 
out a patent for a time-machine, a device for register-' 
ing the days of the year. Later, he invented a 
mechanical potato-digger ; but his most useful patent 
is the tourist's boat, a craft so constructed of sail- 
cloth that it can be folded up and carried under 
one's arm. 

His employers give him most excellent testi- 
monials. He is quick-witted, fearless, and full of 
resource, just the man for emergencies. He is, 
besides, a splendid violinist, and in that direction 
alone was invaluable to his companions during their 
voluntary but ofttimes monotonous exile. 

Bernhard Nordahl was the electrical assistant and 
fireman. He was born in Christiania on the 4th of 
March, 1862. When fourteen years old he joined 
the naval service as ship's boy, and advanced to the 
rank of constable. Then he went to America and 
worked in a mechanical factory for a year. In 1886 
he got employment in the Norwegian Electrical 
Bureau, where he remained for six years. Latterly 
he was foreman of Hezerdahl & Co.'s electrical 
department. Nordahl is an enthusiastic athlete, and 
is a noted gymnast and skilober, and his face tells 
you that he is beaming over with good health. He 
left a wife and five children behind. Like Johansen, 
he adapted himself to all tasks, and Nansen found in 
him a man on whom he could place the utmost reliance. 



"WE ARE THIRTEEN ALL TOLD. Ill 

The chief engineer on board the Fram was Anton 
Amundsen. He was born at Horten in 1854, where 
he was educated, until at the age of fourteen he joined 
the Naval Mechanical Engineering Works as appren- 
tice, and as such, served with Corvette Nornen and 
the Monitor Mjolner. In 1872 he served as fireman 
and 3toker in the Navy, and in 1874 joined the 
Technical School, and obtained his certificate as 
engineer in the following year. Since that time he 
has served in the various grades of engineer on board 
numerous gun-vessels and torpedo-boats, full as they 
are of intricate machinery, until 1891, when he was 
promoted to the situation of chief engineer. In the 
winter of 1892-93 he passed through the Naval 
Engineering College, and quitted the naval service 
" on leave " to take part in Nansen's Arctic Ej:pedition. 
He is specially adapted for the important position he 
had to fill on board the Fram, and plenty of employ- 
ment, scientific and otherwise, was found for him 
apart from that in the engine-room. His wife and 
five children awaited his return in fear and trembling 
through the dreary three years' absence, and as hope 
became dim, the telegram announcing the Fram's 
return and her crew's safety brought overwhelming 
joy to their hearts. 

The second engineer was Lars Pettersen, whose 
birth took place at Lund, Sweden, of Norwegian 
parents, in May, i860. He was educated at Lund 
until 1875, when he was apprenticed to a smith at 
Malmo, subsequently joining the engineering works 
and locomotive factory at Trolhcetta. After serving 
there and on the Swedish State railways for some 
years, he came to Norway, and joined the sealing ship 



112 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

Herta, of Sandefjord, proceeding with her to the 
Arctic regions, north of Jan Mayen in 77° N. Since 
1888 Pettersen has been employed in the torpedo 
department of the Naval Arsenal at Horten. Voyag- 
ing to the Arctic agreed with him so well that he 
longed and longed. to go there again, and great was 
his joy on becoming engaged as engineer to the' 
Fram ; and meanwhile his situation at Horten was 
left open for him. He is a married man, and left a 
wife and two children at home. 

The victualling manager was Adolf Juell. His 
position would have been an extremely delicate one 
had provisions run short on board the Fram. 
Fortunately they returned to Norway with still three 
years' provisions left, which they disposed of by 
auction later on — mementoes of this unparalleled 
journey. A stouter type of an Easterling than Adolf 
Juell it would be difficult to find. He has beautiful 
blue eyes, an open countenance, and a moustache 
which any military officer would be proud of. He is 
well-built and of a lively disposition — and such a 
talker ! With his ready wit and good spirits, he had 
all the conditions requisite to faithfully fill his position 
as purser and steward on the Fram. He smilingly 
remarked previous to sailing that he had got the 
hottest job on board. He was born on the 26th of 
December, i860, at the Farm, Braato, near Kragero, 
and is the son of Claus Neilsen, shipowner and ship- 
builder. He was instructed at home by a tutor, and 
joined the merchant service in 1876. After gaining 
a mate's certificate, he joined the United States 
merchant service, and served for some time on the 
lakes. In the autumn of 1880 he joined the Chicago 



"WE ARE THIRTEEN ALL TOLD." II3 

Small-pox Hospital, where he rendered valuable 
service during the dreadful epidemic of 18S0-81. 
Going- to sea again, he joined the l^ritish steamer, 
Ahena, of the Atlas Line, as third mate. In 1885 
he obtained command of a ship at Stockholm, which 
he resigned, after two \-cars, to manage his mother's 
estate and business at Kragero. He caiicelled the 
name Xeilsen, and adopted that of Juell on obtaining 
his certificate as master. He left a wife and four 
children, who v.-elcomed him back in the best of health 
and spirits — none the worse for his three years' 
Arctic service. 

Last on the list, and the last to join the FravK 
comes a thoroughly typical Norwegian sailor, Bernt 
Hentsen, a native of Tromsd, who was to kee[) the 
Franis decks in good order, and take his spell at the 
" wheel." He has had varied experiences — plenty of 
ups and downs, which have made him a man of ready 
resource in mom.ents of danger. He joined the Fraui 
at the last moment, intending only to go as far as 
Khabarova, but was there hired as the thirteenth of 
the expedition. He is a man in his best years, a 
strong and active sailor, with a good knowledge 
of tlie caprices of the northern seas, and a ver)- 
amiable comrade. 

From a picked crew such as this — trul)- a " band of 
brothers" — and under such a leader, much might be 
hoped ; nor is it a matter for sur[)risc that the result" 
achieved have even bettered expectation. 



11 




CHRISTIANIA. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE DEPARTURE. 

OF a deeply sanguine temperament is Norway's 
celebrated traveller, Dr. Nansen, who at half- 
past twelve o'clock on the 24th of June, 1893, 
set off to find the North Pole. This task, 
which has baffled the most courageous explorers, he, 
at the time of starting on his difficult mission, 
expected to accomplish in three years ; but at the 
same time told his friends and well-wishers not to 
be anxious concerning his welfare if he did not 
return within twice that period. 

As Nansen left Christiania, Dr. John Murray, the 
well-known authority on Arctic and Antarctic explora- 
tion, bade him good-bye, and said : — " I expect within 
two years to welcome you on your return from the 
Arctic ; " but he expressed some doubt if he should 
again see the Fram. " I think you are wrong," was 
Nansen's reply. "I believe you will welcome me on 
this very deck, and, after my return from the Arctic, 
114 



THE DEPARTURE. II5 

I will go to the South Pole, and then my life's work 
will be finished." To another enthusiast he ex- 
claimed : — " Ah ! they say we will never come back. 
They say I am a dreamer, and that I shall fail. 
Well, we shall see. I can say nothing in answer to 
them. I would only ask people to give me time. 
Nothing has surprised me more than the interest and 
sympathy that have been shown to my expedition by 
English people." We feel that this is the spirit which 
deserves and is most likely to command success. 

Dr. Nansen, on the morning of his departure, 
telegraphed to the Times as follows : — 

\To the Editor of the Times.] 
"Sir, — We are just about to sail. Please grant 
me the opportunity of publicly expressing our warm 
appreciation for all the generous sympathy which 
English people have displayed towards our expedi- 
tion. — Yours faithfully, 



" Christiania, 

'* 24M /««(?, 10.50 A.M." 



"Fridtjof Nansen. 



From the King and Queen of Norway and 
Sweden, Nansen received the following telegram at 
the hour of sailing : — 

" Pray receive, at the moment of your departure, 
the Queen's and my own most sincere wishes for luck 
on the voyage, which, if the result turns out as we 
hope, will be a unique feat, and in any case will 
show Norwegian men's courage. Our best wishes 
to all on board." 

To this Nansen replied : — " All of the expedition 
send your Majesties their most humble thanks as 



Il6 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

they depart for their polar voyage, determined on 
doing their utmost for its success." 

The departure is so well told by an eye-witness 
that I cannot refrain from quoting his description 
of what was truly a red-letter day in the history 
of Norway and of the world : — " The day was 
characterised by a cloudy sky, with cold wind and 
drizzling rain — a sudden but very welcome contrast 
to the tropical heat and drought which have existed 
here for many weeks past. At an early hour 
several members of Dr. Nansen's crew, all looking 
remarkably fresh and cheerful, rowed off to their 
ship, the Fram, which lay at anchor in a little bay 
of the fjord, alongside an old barque-rigged training 
ship, within 200 feet of the shore. Between seven 
and eight o'clock the bay became crowded with 
ferry steamers conveying passengers to business. 
Each steamer in succession, in drawing near to the 
FratHy slowed down ; hats and umbrellas were 
waved, and volleys of hearty cheers greeted the 
crew, who were all steadily at work in different 
parts of the ship coiling ropes and clearing the 
running gear. Towards eleven o'clock, the published 
hour of departure, all was in readiness, but Dr. 
Nansen had not yet arrived. The Arctic ship was 
now surrounded by a host of small boats of every 
description — kayak canoes, and shoe-shaped craft, 
miniature gondolas, racing skiffs, naval gigs, yachts' 
dinghys, and steam launches ; all more or less 
decorated with bunting and with branches of silver 
birch. Upon the quay, and by the shore, several 
thousand spectators had gathered to witness the 
sailing of the expedition. It was evident, by their 



THE DEPARTURE. II7 

earnest attention, that no sluggish indifference 
clouded their imagination. As they gazed intently 
at the bluff, broad - beamed Fram, it appeared as 
though a thousand varied pictures of the vessel's 
aspect in the barren ice-field a few months hence, and 
of the thirteen venturesome Northmen, toiling and 
enduring, passed before their eyes. As the time 
passed, and the city clocks struck the hour of noon, 
and there was still no sign of Dr. Nansen, the 
murmuring crowd of spectators became silent. It 
was clearly evident that their hearts were in 
sympathy with the actors of an invisible scene, 
wherein the bitter pangs of parting with wife and 
babe formed the pathetic theme. 

" Suddenly all eyes were directed towards a tiny 
petroleum launch which came speeding towards the 
Fram. There were two occupants ; in the bow stood 
a sailor, boat-hook in hand ; in the stern sat Dr. Nansen. 
A few moments later, when the launch dashed along- 
side the Fram, and Dr. Nansen, looking haggard and 
half-dazed, climbed upon his vessel, there was a dead 
silence among the spectators ; no voice was raised 
to greet or cheer him. A more impressive tribute 
than this sympathetic silence could not have been 
rendered. 

" A few minutes after Dr. Nansen's arrival on board, 
the anchor was weighed, and the Fram actually started 
upon her voyage, followed by several yachts and 
steam launches bearing numbers of Dr. Nansen's 
friends, who were anxious to accompany the expedi- 
tion upon the first few miles of the journey. As the 
Fram steamed slowly down the fjord, three gun 
salutes were fired from the various batteries, all of 



Il8 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

which were promptly acknowledged by the defiant 
barking of Dr. Nansen's favourite sledge dog. Half 
an hour's slow steaming down the fjord brought the 
Fram abreast of Dr. Nansen's home at Lysaker ; apd 
here, for the first time, the sun beamed through a 
rift in the dark rain clouds, and shone radiantly upon 
the distant shore, revealing the figure of Mrs. Nansen, 
clad in white, standing upon the rocks by the water 
side. 

" Almost immediately after passing Lysaker the 
rain commenced to fall in torrents, and, in fact, it 
continued to pour during the remainder of the day. 
When about five-and-twenty miles from Christiania, 
most of the steam launches took leave of the Fram, 
amid a storm of hearty cheers and shrill steam- 
whistles."* 

A course was set for Laurvik, where the ship 
arrived on Sunday evening, and after taking on board 
the two large covered boats to be used in case of 
disaster to the Fram, resumed her voyage. The next 
port touched at was Bergen, at which place the doctor 
had many friends. 

Nansen wrote anent the departure : — " On the 
24th of June we started on our expedition from 
Christiania, and sailed northward along the beautiful 
Norwegian coast. Everywhere people came from the 
most distant places in order to see the strange ship 
and her crew. Whenever we stopped in some little 
place the deck was at once crowded with people who 
wanted to see everything." 

Off Melo, in longitude 13° 20' E., and latitude 

* The Illustrated London News, 8th July, 1893. 



TIIK nKPAKTT'RE. II9 

66° 48', the Fram was sighted by the s.s. RoIIo, of 
the Wilson h'ne, which carried a contingent of one 
hundred and sixt\- passengers on a trip to the North 
Cape. As the Rollo got even with the Frani, rockets 
were fired off, and the foghorn blown., while the pas- 
sengers from all parts of the ship again and again 
cheered lustily. This had the effect of bringing 
Dr. Nansen from below on to the deck, and then to 
the bridge of his ship, where he returned those kindl}- 
salutes by raising his hat, and afterwards by firing 
two shots. He seemed much gratified by this hearty 
farewell, the last he received, from English " lands- 
men." 

On the 2 1st of July the FraDi left Vardo, their 
last harbour in Norwa}-, and sailed eastward across 
the Barents Sea. Nansen himself wrote to The Strand 
Magazine : — " We are now (as I write this) steering 
eastward across the sea from Norway to Novaya 
Zemlya, through fog, and against the wind. Yester- 
day we had a short, sunn}- glimpse of Goose Land on 
Novaya Zemlya, and were just steering in there when 
the fog came again and shut us out from the world 
around us. We were obliged to steer out to sea 
again, and make for Yugor Strait, the most southern 
strait which separates Nova}-a Zeml\-a, or rather 
W'aigats, the most southern Island, from the Con- 
tinent. Ilcrc we expect to meet a small vessel, 
which 1 have sent from Norwa)', with fift\- tons of 
coals. .\t: Khabarowi, in Yugor .Strait, a l\u.s;i;ui, 
Tronthcim, is also waiting us, with more than thirt\- 
sledge dogs. He had to tra\el from 'I'iunicn, in 
Siberia, last winter to the Ostjaks to buy these dogs, 
and had then to travel the long way from Siberia, 



120 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

through the north of Russia to Pechora, and from 
there he travelled with the dogs to Yugor Strait in 
company with the Samoyedes, who go north in the 
spring. I hope we shall find the dogs in good con- 
dition, as well as Trontheim himself, who will possibly 
accompany us on the expedition. 

" When we have got our dogs and coal, and if the 
Strait and the Kara Sea are open, we shall make our 
way eastward along the Asiatic coast as quickly as 
possible. The first part of the way through the Kara 
Sea will perhaps be the worst, as the ice is often very 
bad there. More easterly the water running out from 
the rivers generally forces the ice a little from the 
coast, leaving an open passage along the shore. We 
shall have to pass Cape Chelyuskin, the most northern 
point of the Continent, which has only once before 
been passed by any vessel — viz., the Vega, on Nor- 
denskiold's famous expedition. If we still find open 
water, we shall go on eastward along the coast until 
we reach the mouth of the Olenek River, to the east 
of the Lena Delta. If we have time, I shall go in 
there to take twenty-six sledge dogs which are wait- 
ing for us. The reason why I want to get dogs 
there also is that the dogs from East Siberia are 
stronger and better than the West Siberian ones ; 
therefore Baron Toll, who is now travelling in Siberia, 
proposed this, and has now kindly arranged this depdt 
for me ; it is he also who arranged with Trontheim 
about these other dogs. If we get too many dogs, 
it is of course easy to pick out the best ones of 
the whole lot."* 

* The Strand Magazine, December, 1893. 



THE DEPARTURE. 121 

Later, Nansen sent a telegram to the Times from 
Novaya Zemlya, which contained more definite infor- 
mation : — " The passage from Norway to Novaya 
Zemlya was good, except for wind and fog. Goose 
Land in Novaya Zemlya was sighted in the fog on 
July 25th, and the vessel turned south, meeting 
the first ice on the 27th, in latitude 69° 50' N., longi- 
tude 50° E., about ten miles north of Kolguef Island. 
We forced our way through, the Fram proving a 
splendid ship in the ice, and arrived at Yugor Strait, 
a distance of 250 miles from the point where the ice 
was encountered, on July 29th. The vessel sent 
out with coal has not arrived, but we have sufficient 
coal, and we sail into the Kara Sea to-night. We 
have got thirty-four splendid sledge dogs from Siberia 
on board. The Yugor Strait has been open since 
July 3rd, and there seems to be little ice in the 
southern part of the Kara Sea, a favourable wind 
having carried it northward. I consider our prospects 
very favourable, and we shall make our way eastward 
most rapidly along the coast. Unless the ice prove 
unfavourable, we hope to reach the New Siberian 
Islands before the end of August, and if this should 
be accomplished, I look on our success as almost cer- 
tain. If there is time, we shall call at the Olenek 
River, and probably be able to send news from there. 
— Nansen." 

He arrived at Khabarova, on the Kara Sea, as we 
have seen, on the 29th of July, and stayed there until 
the 3rd of August. In the interval he employed his 
time in completing the outfit and in observing the 
conditions of the ice. 

Nansen had a struggle to get through the Kara Sea, 



T22 



FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 



which had much ice in it. The ship, according to 
reports received from the Samoyedes, was twice driven 
back by the enormous weight of ice in the sea, but 
when last seen it was steaming full speed ahead into 
the great unknown. 





CHAPTER X. 



THREE YEARS SILENCE, 



IN a letter to his brother, Alexander, dated the 
17th of July, 1893, Dr. Nansen acknowledged 
freely his inability to state the time required to 
effect his purpose. " I certainly do not know 
how long I may be absent," he writes, " but, candidly 
speaking, I do not consider that there is any chance 
of our returning home in two years, provided we do 
not return this coming autumn on account of the 
unfavourable ice conditions. I do not think that 
we, in any case, will get home in less than three 
years, possibly four years may pass, or even five, 
but you may depend upon it that return we will ; 
of this there is not the shadow of a doubt, for no 
expedition has ever been fitted out as ours. There 
is, certainly, a possibility that we will not reach the 
islands of New Siberia this year, but pass the winter 
at some spot on the coast of Asia, in which case an 
entire year will be lost, besides which it is ilbt easy to 

123 



124 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

calculate the length of time the drift will occupy, but 
that in itself will take at least two years, of that I am 
certain." 

The last letter sent home was dated the 3rd 
of August, and Nansen's first anxiety was to get 
through the ice-laden Kara Sea and round the^ 
dreaded Cape of Chelyuskin, the northernmost 
point of Asia, and which had but once before 
been passed by the celebrated Arctic voyager, Baron 
Nordenskiold, on his famous journey through the 
north-east passage. 

The following statement was made to a representa- 
tive of Reuter's Agency on the 29th of December, 
1893, by Dr. John Murray, in regard to the pro- 
bable position of the Fram and her crew. He 
said : — " In all probability we shall not hear any more 
of Nansen for a long time to come. The last news 
from him clearly indicates that he was able to push 
his way through the Kara Sea early in August. By 
the time he arrived in the Nordenskiold Sea he most 
probably found the dogs an intolerable nuisance on 
board his small ship, and very likely he had made up 
his mind that they would be of little use to him 
except in the improbable event of him finding a large 
stretch of land towards the North Pole. Supposing 
the expedition to be all well off Cape Chelyuskin, 
there seems no reason why it should go south to 
Olenek. Nansen had no intention of going as far 
east as the New Siberian Islands, supposing an 
opportunity offered of penetrating the ice to the 
north-east of Cape Chelyuskin, and all reports tell of 
open water in this direction during the past season. 
The charges are that he is now fixed in the ice some- 



THREE years' SILENCE. 1 25 

where between the longitudes 120 and 130' E., and 
latitudes 78' and 80' N. If so, he is then in the 
most favourable position for progress next summer. 
During the winter it is not likel\- that any great 
advance will be made, but in the s[jring and 
summer months it is believed that the drainage 
from the Siberian rivers, and the v^-ind pressure on 
the surface of the ice-floes, combine to set the 
currents and ice from opposite the mouths of the 
Lena across the Pole and down into the Norwegian 
Sea between Spitzbergen and Greenland. If the 
Frani is carried through the polar basin without 
being crushed among the ice-floes she will have an 
extraordinary run of good luck. It is possible, but 
not probable, for I have no great faith in her being 
lifted upon the ice, should she come in for a 'nip.' 
But, supposing the vessel be crushed, Xanscn's 
expedition is not at an end. In all probability he 
will be able to save his boats, transfer his stores 
to the ice-floes, and there construct comfortable 
quarters. Should his supplies fall short, he will 
always be able to fish up from underneath the ice 
plenty of food in the form of minute crustaceans, by 
means of two nets let down through holes in the ice. 
Once, when frozen in between Spitzbergen and 
Greenland, I procured enormous numbers of animals 
in this wa}', which made an excellent soup. I pre- 
sented the Nansen expedition with a large number 
of silk nets for this purpose. Nansen may be five or 
many more years in passing across the Arctic basin ; 
he may fail altogether, but I shall be disappointed if 
he be not heard of to the north of Spitzbergen during 
the summer after next." 



126 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

In the beginning of 1895, feeling anxious about the 
Nansen expedition, I wrote to this great oceano- 
grapher on the probable whereabouts of Dr. Nansen, 
and in answer that renowned expert sent the follow- 
ing most interesting reply, under date of the 28th 
of February, 1895 : — 

" From all I know of the physical conditions of the 
north polar basin and of Nansen 's intentions, I should 
think the probabilities are all in favour of the view 
that he is at the present time comfortably housed on 
board the Fram, or on ice-floes, somewhere within 
100 miles of the Pole. He may possibly be heard of 
during the latter part of the coming summer ; it is 
more probable that nothing will be heard of him till 
the summer of 1896. Should nothing be heard of 
him by the close of the year 1897, I might then, but 
not till then, entertain the idea that some disaster 
may have overtaken the expedition. — Yours truly, 
"(Signed) JOHN MURRAY." 

Hardly a month of 1895 passed without rumours 
of success or failure being bruited about. 

First, considerable excitement was caused in March 
by the report that a balloon from Nansen was sighted, 
travelling in a south-easterly direction, near Langfjord, 
in the north of Norway. But this balloon was entirely 
a " mystery." 

Next came the rumour from the Paris Figaro, on 
the 15th of April, 1895. It appeared as follows in 
most of our English newspapers : — 

REPORTED DISCOVERY OF THE NORTH POLE. 
"The Paris Figaro publishes a rumour that Dr. 
Nansen has succeeded in his search for the North 



THREE YEARS' SILENCE. 1 27 

Pole. It is stated that he discovered that the Pole is 
situated in a chain of mountains, and that he planted 
the Norwegian flag there to mark the spot. The 
temperature was two degrees above zero centigrade. 
These statements, it is added, are confirmed in a 
despatch received by the Crown Prince of Norway 
and Sweden." 

Though on the face of it a canard^ yet this rumour 
caused much popular excitement and discussion for a 
short period. 

The first seriously considered report came from the 
east of Greenland in July, 1895, ^.nd appeared in the 
European Press as follows : — 

" The steam sealer Hertka, of Sandefjord, Norway, 
arrived home on the 17th August, from the Danish 
colonial port, Angmansalik, in east Greenland, which 
she left three weeks previously, and her master 
reports that the director there informed him of the 
Eskimo having seen a three-masted vessel, with a 
short or broken foremast, drifting in the ice on two 
different occasions. She was first observed towards 
the close of July last (1895) by a party of natives 
some thirty miles off" the Sermiligak Fjord in latitude 
65° 45' N., longitude 36° 15' W,, and subsequently by 
other Greenlanders off" Sermilik in latitude 65° 20' N., 
longitude 38° W. No smoke or signs of life could be 
observed. A report of this nature has naturally 
caused great excitement in Norway, the general 
belief being that it must be the Fram with or without 
the expedition on board." 

From this date until the 13th of February, 1896, 
the Press allowed the subject as to the whereabouts of 
Nansen to rest. 



128 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

Suddenly, the appearance of a telegram reporting 
that Nansen was sighted in the vicinity of the New 
Siberian Islands, on his return from the Pole, caused 
the most intense excitement throughout the civilised 
world. The startling rumour, emanating from an 
obscure Russian source, was at first received in all 
good faith ; but as each successive day passed without 
bringing further news or confirmation, the truth in 
the report here given {Tunes, 14th February, 1896) 
became relatively less. 

Dr. Nansen and the North Pole. 

"St. Petersburg, February, 13th. 

"A telegram from Irkutsk states that a Siberian 
trader named Kuchnareff, who has acted as agent for 
Dr. Nansen in Siberia, has informed the Prefect of 
Kolimsk (northern Siberia) that he has received 
intelligence that Dr. Nansen has reached the North 
Pole, that he has found land in that region, and that 
he is now on his way back. 

" Later. 

"The report that Dr. Nansen had reached the 
North Pole was received by the Oriental Revieiv at 
Irkutsk from the trader Kuchnareff through M. 
Kandakoff, a police official of Kolimsk, who was 
a member of M. Sibiriakoff's expedition. The intelli- 
gence was sent by letter to Yakutsk and thence to 
Kirensk. It was then forwarded by telegraph. A 
more complete account has just been received from 
Irkutsk, according to which it appears that the news 
originally came from Ust Yansk, at the mouth of the 
Yana. — Renter. 



THREE YEARS SILENCE. 1 29 

" Christiania, February 13th. 

" The geographical authorities here do not consider 
the news received from Irkutsk that Dr. Nansen had 
reached the North Pole improbable, for the reason 
that if the explorer is really on his way home, 
Kolimsk would probably be the first station reached. 
The relatives of Dr. Fridtjof Nansen have requested 
the Norwegian News Agency to state that they 
attach no credence to the Irkutsk telegram announc- 
ing Dr. Nansen's discovery of the North Pole. — 
Renter. 

"Lloyd's agent at Bergen telegraphed yesterday 
evening as follows : — ' St. Petersburg wires Dr. Nansen 
reached North Pole, found land, now returning.' " 

The first true news announcing the return of Dr. 
Nansen and Lieutenant Johansen was received in 
Christiania, on the 13th of August, 1896, and from 
the information that has since been published, it is 
abundantly evident that Nansen must for ever be 
regarded as one of the greatest of Arctic travellers. 




RBTURN OF THE "fRAM." ARRIVAL AT TROMSO, 20TH AUGUST, 



18^6. 



CHAPTER XI. 

A TALK WITH DR. NANSEN, SEPTEMBER, 1 896. 

THE landing of Dr. Nansen at Christiania is now 
a matter of history, and very few words will 
suffice concerning it. The Fram was met, far 
down Christiania Fjord in the early hours of 
the morning of the 9th of September, by a flotilla of 
seventy passenger steamers and a small squadron of 
the navy, which escorted the paintless Fram up the 
fjord amidst the booming of the guns and the deafen- 
ing hurrahs of the usually sober Norsemen. The 
Fram having been moored in the Piperviken, Dr. 
Nansen and his comrades were rowed in small boats 
by the boys of the training ship, Christiania, to the 
ship bridge, where the explorers were welcomed by 
the representatives of the city amidst the deafening 
cheers of the vast multitude. In acknowledging the 
address of welcome presented by the Mayor of the 
capital, Dr. Nansen made a characteristic speech, 
130 



A TALK WITH DR. NANSEN, SEPTEMBER, 1 896. 13I 

every word of which was listened to with rapt atten- 
tion : — " It is very difficult to express the feelings 
which fill the hearts of my comrades and myself. 
. . . We have done what we set out to do. . . . The 
plans I made myself, but it is due to my brave com- 
rades that these plans have been carried out Long 
live Norway ! May it often be able to send out such 
men as accompanied me." 

Then came the triumphal progress to the Royal 
Palace, when Dr. Nansen and his companions were 
welcomed by the King and Crown Prince. Here 
the explorer saw for the first time since she was six 
months old his little daughter Liv, now over three 
and a-half years old, who had been staying in the 
palace by special invitation of the King. A grand 
banquet closed the first day's proceedings, but the 
festivities were prolonged over several days, perhaps 
the most notable demonstration being that on Sun- 
day, the 13th of September, which was set aside for 
the Folkesfesten (the people's feast), about which 
nothing has appeared in the English papers. It was 
on this occasion that the great Norwegian novelist, 
Bjornson, made a thrilling speech, filled with patriotic 
sentiments and bristling with wit, which provoked 
Dr. Nansen to one of the best oratorical efforts of th6 
celebration. 

Speaking of his departure from Norway, the 
doctor said : — " I know we felt a responsibility 
nearly too heavy to be borne. I well remember the 
evening when we steamed northwards along our 
beautiful coast ; there lay a couple of fishing boats 
out on the sea, rocking themselves in the sunset on 
the bright surface — an ideal scene of peace and com- 



132 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

fort The fishermen raised themselves, bared their 
heads reverently, and looked after the curious ship 
which disappeared northward. It was then we felt 
how near we were to the hearts of the Norwegian 
people. We felt that we had taken part of their 
heart with us on board, and if we betrayed our duty^ 
then we also betrayed the love which the Norwegian 
people had given us to be with us on our voyage. 
When I sent the last message to the Storthing pre- 
vious to our departure — * That so far as our strength 
reached, so far should it be used to the honour of 
Norway ' — I did not tell more than the truth ; my 
comrades would have fought as long as strength 
lasted, as long as life was with them, for Norway's 
honour ; and this also I will say, that the Norwegian 
people have no need to be ashamed of the men they 
sent with me. A more daring set of fellows have 
never stood shoulder to shoulder. I say fearlessly 
that no men have ever acted with greater faithfulness 
and love to their fatherland, no men have ever more 
faithfully discharged the duties which they took upon 
themselves than those who went with me in the 
Fram north of the polar circle." 

Dr. Nansen then proceeded to speak of the single- 
ness of purpose by which the crew of the Fram had 
been actuated, declaring that only one wish prevailed, 
and that was to justify the confidence and affection 
which the Norwegian people had manifested at their 
departure. He concluded : " I am certain of this, 
that the more the distance grew between us and the 
people of Norway, the greater became our love, the 
deeper our respect for our country, and the stronger 
our feeling of patriotism to Norway." 



A TALK WITH DR. NANSEN, SEPTEMBER, 1896. 1 33 

When Nanseo sat down, and the ringing cheers 
of the assembled company had been with difficulty 
silenced by repeated signs from Bjornson, the 
president of the meeting, his companions were 
called upon one after another to receive testimony 
of the appreciation of the people for their splendid 
work. It would be difficult to find a group better 
suited for the special and arduous work, and equally 
difficult to convey to the English mind the adequate 
representations of the scene amid which this people's 
banquet closed. 

Next morning I had an interview with Dr. Nansen 
at Lysaker. 

When I arrived at Godthaab Villa the doctor 
appeared, and after a hearty hand-shake, led me 
into his drawing-room. He appeared in perfect 
health, despite his three years' sojourn in the icy 
north. He was a trifle paler than when I saw him 
in 1893. He assured me, however, that the trials 
and dangers he had gone through had but strength- 
ened his physique. 

"Are you pleased with the result of your journey ?" 
was the first question I put 

" Oh, yes ! " he replied with a smile. " The scientific 
results, I believe, will be acknowledged of great value. 
Professor Mohn and other scientific friends who are at 
work tabulating my material are quite enthusiastic 
over the observations made during our three years' 
wanderings." Dr. Nansen then proceeded to talk 
with me briefly on the main features of the voyage of 
the Fram and of his walk when he left the ship, 
and accompanied only by Lieutenant Johansen, he 
attempted to penetrate farther north. 



134 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

The plan of the expedition is divisable into three 
parts : — (i) The journey in the Fram from Christiania 
until March, 1895, when Nansen left her to go pole- 
wards ; (2) Nansen and Johansen's wonderful 
attempt to reach the Pole, and their heroic journey 
south to Franz Josef Land ; and (3) The continued- 
voyage of the vessel in charge of Sverdrup, and the 
adventures of her crew from March, 1895, until reach- 
ing home in August, 1 896. After leaving Vardo the 
Fram had a good passage to Novaya Zemlya. She 
first met the ice in latitude 60° 50' N., longitude 50° 
E., about ten miles north of Kolguef Island, but 
forced her way through in splendid style, and 
arrived at Yugor Strait on the 29th of July. On the 
evening of the 3rd of August they weighed anchor 
and soon entered the dreaded Kara Sea. On the 6th 
of August they were stopped by ice off Yalmal, and 
went ashore for botanical and geological purposes. 
Two Samoyedes here boarded the vessel, and these 
were the last human beings the Franks crew saw until 
the return home. 

" Are you superstitious ? " was the next question I 
put to the Doctor. 

" No, not a bit of it ; but why do you ask ? " he said. 

" Well," I replied, " there are thirteen in your crew 
all told, and people look upon that as an ill-omen, and 
some superstitious folk prophesied ill of your expedi- 
tion because it consisted of thirteen. Moreover, the 
false news of your expedition being homeward bound 
was telegraphed from Irkutsk on a thirteenth (13th 
February, 1896)." 

" It certainly was a lucky number for us," he 
replied. " None of my men were ill at any stage of 



^. I 




1 



A TALK WITH DR. NANSEN, SEPTEMBER, 1 896. 1 37 

the voyage, none of them gave me a moment's 
anxiety ; besides, I arrived home on the 1 3th 
August, 1896, and it was upon the 13th of the same 
month that my ship escaped from the clutches of the 
ice. So you see thirteen has no perils for me." 

" Has any photograph of the thirteen men been 
published ? " I asked. 

"No, not yet," he replied. "The thirteenth man, 
Bentsen, joined us at the last moment, and he is 
superstitious to the extent that he manifests a strong 
aversion to having his photograph taken." 

I was, however, able afterwards to obtain a photo- 
graph of the whole crew, from which the picture on 
page 135 is taken; but it is singular to note that 
though Bentsen consented to be one of the group 
he did his best to prevent the photographer from 
securing his features. 

" The three years' hardships seem to have told but 
little on you or your companions," I said. 

" No," he replied ; " they are fine, strong men, 
accustomed to ice work, and all have returned home 
in perfect health, some indeed being stouter than when 
they left home. We owe our thanks, however, to 
Dr. Blessing for his patience, skill, and care, especially 
in the winter months of darkness." 

The men were glad to get home after the third 
winter in these weird regions. They had had quite 
enough of the darkness, the results of which were 
shown in sleepless nights and shaky legs. They were 
not absolutely ill, but felt weak and languid — full of 
lassitude — and Dr. Blessing became very anxious 
about their mental state. When the return of the sun 
took place it was like a day of resurrection, and they 



138 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

never looked behind from the moment its rays first 
brightened their surroundings. 

" Will you come to England to lecture ? " I asked 
the Doctor. 

" Yes ; but I cannot say when," replied Nansen. 
"The secretary of your Royal Geographical Society, 
has invited me to lecture to its members, and I have 
consented, but I have not yet fixed a date." 

Mrs. Nansen told me afterwards that she would 
accompany her husband on his lecturing tour in 
England, where she spent part of her honeymoon. 

" I love your England, and so does my husband," 
she exclaimed with some fervour. 

" What will become of the Fram ?" I asked the 
Doctor. 

" She will probably be kept at Horten ; I may 
require her again soon, and cannot possibly have a 
better ship for Arctic or Antarctic work." 

" Will you again attempt to reach the North Pole ? " 
I queried. 

" I cannot possibly say yet," he replied ; " I think 
so. But perhaps I shall endeavour to discover the 
South Pole first, and then make a renewed attack on 
the North Pole on my return from Antarctic regions. 
I must, however, finish my work in connection with 
the records of my recent expedition before making 
definite plans for another voyage." 

Continuing his brief narrative of the voyage. Dr. 
Nansen spoke of the journey from Yugor Strait 
through the Kara Sea, in the northern portion of 
which they were fortunate in discovering an island, 
on their eastern voyage, to the mouth of the Olenek 
River, They reached this point on the 15th of 



A TALK WITH DR. NANSEN, SEPTEMBER, 1 896. 1 39 

September, but the shallowness of the water and the 
lateness of the season kept them from going in. As 
the winter was rapidly approaching they decided not 
to call for the sledge dogs, as arranged, lest the ice 
should close in and ^imprison them for the whole 
winter. Three days later they were steaming along 
the west of the New Siberian Islands. 

On the 22nd of September Nansen and his com- 
panions took a ticket with the ice, or, in other words, 
made the Fram fast to a floe in latitude 78° 50' N., 
longitude 133° 37' E., and a few days later the ice 
closed round and the ship was frozen in for the 
(_, winter, for failure or success. What must Nansen's 
feelings have been as he watched the ice-pack close 
around his ship, bearing him perhaps to an early 
grave, or, worse still, back to ignominy and the scorn 
of his fellow-men ? Surely for this devotion to science 
the names of Nansen and his faithful companions will 
ever be set up as beacon lights to every youth whom 
danger awaits or duty calls. They saw no land after 
leaving the New Siberian Islands, but drifted north 
and north-west during the autumn and winter. 
Towards evening on Christmas day, 1894, latitude 83° 
was reached in longitude 105° E., and, several days 
later, latitude 83° 24' N., the most northerly latitude 
until then reached by any explorer. It was during 
this slow and tortuous drift that Dr. Nansen made his 
greatest discovery of the voyage — the existence of a 
wide, deep sea towards the Pole, having a relatively 
warm temperature in its depth, a continuation of the 
Arctic Sea, situated between Greenland on the one 
hand, and Norway and Spitzbergen on the other. It 
was previously supposed that the north polar sea was 



140 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

a shallow basin with icy-cold water from top to 
bottom. Dr. Nansen's voyage has not only upset this 
theory, but has astonished the scientific world by 
the remarkable discovery regarding its depth and 
temperature. 

The pressure upon the Fram during this drifting 
was most severe, and I was allowed by a special 
permit from Dr. Nansen, who had refused scores of 
applications from curious sightseers, to make a close 
examination of the ship as she lay in the Piperviken, 
and can testify to the fact that she looks little the 
worse for the expedition, except that the paint upon 
her hull is now an unknown quantity. The way in 
which she successfully withstood the ice-pressure has 
naturally delighted the heart both of Dr. Nansen and 
her builder. The crew felt " as safe as in a fortress ; " 
and were sheltered within from the severity of the 
Arctic winter. Twice only were they alarmed ; once 
before Dr. Nansen left, and again a short time after 
his departure. On the first occasion the ice-pressure 
was most severe ; to use Dr. Nansen's words, " she 
was firmly frozen in ice of more than 30 ft. measured 
thickness." This floe was over-ridden by great ice 
masses, which pressed against her port side with a 
force which threatened to bury and crush her. Boats, 
sledges, kayaks, and provisions were placed upon a 
neighbouring floe in readiness for the worst, but " the 
Fram was stronger than our faith in her," said 
Dr. Nansen in his address to the Royal Geographical 
Society (8th February, 1897), and the shout that went 
up from the vast multitude testified to their apprecia- 
tion of Nansen's foresight in constructing such a 
vessel. The only disagreeable experience was the 



A TALK WITH DR. NANSEN, SEPTEMBER, 1 896. I4I 

crashing, creaking, and grinding of the ice as it closed 
around the ship. The 'Fram; as previous chapters 
explain, was so constructed as to rise in resistance 
to the ice-pressure and thus escape damage, and it so 
successfully accomplished this work that at times the 
crew came on deck to find the ship lifted from nine 
to twelve feet, and her bottom could be distinctly 
seen resting upon the ice. 

In my visits to the Fram I was fortunate enough 
to meet several members of the crew, and I had a 
long chat with the gallant skipper, Sverdrup, with 
Jacobsen, and with Lieutenant Johansen, fair- haired, 
clean-shaven, with a bright, good-humoured face. 
As Johansen recounted Dr. Nansen's and his own 
ice-tramp, his comrades crowded round and listened 
with interest to all he told me ; one and all envied 
him for being the chosen companion of Dr. Nansen 
for that daring excursion. I also met Lieutenant 
Scott- Hansen, the boy scientist, and Dr. Blessing, 
who told me that, apart from his medical duties, 
which were fortunately light, he aided Dr. Nansen 
and Scott-Hansen in the scientific work, and took 
some part in observing the Aurora and deep sea 
observations. Although quite a young man, he is a 
scientist and botanist of no mean order ; a man of 
many parts. He employed some of his leisure in 
occupations so diverse as stoking the furnace and 
conducting an investigation into the action of the 
blood. He was the only unmarried member of the 
crew, and a romantic incident connected with him is 
not without interest. Dr. Blessing had been engaged 
to a fair Norwegian maiden before he became one of 
Dr. Nansen's party. After his departure the young 



142 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

lady naturally became very anxious to communicate 
with her future husband, but although love laughs at 
locks and bolts, it is not easy for Cupid to send his 
messages to the ice-bound regions of the north, and 
for a time even feminine resource was unequal to the 
task of despatching a letter to Dr. Blessing, some^ 
where near the North Pole. One day, however, the 
lady read of M. Andr^e's proposition for a balloon 
voyage to the Pole, and she approached him with a 
request that he would take a love missive in the 
hope that it would reach the object of her choice. 
Gallantry prevented M. Andr^e from refusing the 
request of the young lady, and he took charge of the 
letter, in the full belief that he would meet the 
vessel, and be able to deliver the note to Dr. Blessing. 
When finally the projected balloon voyage had to be 
given up in consequence of the failure of favourable 
southerly winds, M. Andree handed the letter to 
the captain of a whaling vessel that was going 
northwards, on the off-chance that it might fall in 
with the expedition. Singularly enough the vessel 
did encounter the Fram, with Dr. Blessing on board ; 
the letter was delivered, and thus some time before 
reaching the Norwegian coast, the young physician 
saw the hand-writing of his fiancee, and read her 
written protestations of love. 

One afternoon, on board the Fram, I spent in 
company with Hendriksen, the harpooner of the 
expedition, a veritable giant, with broad shoulders, 
and a pleasant, round, determined-looking face, and 
whose exceptional physical powers were severely 
tested on more than one occasion. He led the way 
to the Frams saloon, and showed me through the 



A TALK WITH DR. NANSEN, SEPTEMBER, 1 896. I45 

cabin where the explorer slept during the voyage. 
All the crew shared the saloon in common. He 
displayed to my wondering gaze the rifles, hunting 
knives, harpoons, and other implements, and I was 
somewhat amused at the number of empty medicine 
bottles in the physician's berth, showing that he had 
not spared physic to the crew on the least sign of 
indisposition. Ascending past the galley upstairs we 
entered Dr. Nansen's and Captain Sverdrup's work- 
rooms, furnished with an elaborate stock of scientific 
and other instruments, and looked into the forehold, 
yet filled with provisions. 

Nansen had written to The Strand Magazine on 
his outward journey: — " Of provisions we have plenty, 
and in great variety ; much more so, I believe, than 
most previous expeditions in the Arctic. Variety of 
food is the most important thing in order to avoid 
scurvy, which has destroyed so many well-equipped 
expeditions. We have, of course, tinned meats in all 
possible forms ; boiled, roast, and corned beef, ditto 
mutton, rabbits, collops, Oxford sausages, cutlets, 
pork, ham, bacon, etc. ; tinned fish and roe in various 
forms ; tinned fruits, dried fruits, jams, marmalades, 
blanc-mange, Bird's custard powder, ^%'g powder, 
and baking powder; concentrated lime juice from 
Rose & Co. ; rizine, peas, pea soups, lentil soup, bean 
soup, Frame Food, Bovril, dried vegetables, biscuits ; 
Cadbury's chocolate, steam-cooked and dried meal 
and flour of various kinds, dried fish, dried potatoes ; 
preserved milk, with sugar and without sugar ; com- 
pressed tea, cheese, sugar, etc. ; and, above all, butter, 
which is most important in the cold, where you 
especially want fat. We carry six tons of butter. 

K 



146 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

"For sledge expeditions we have, of course, 
specially concentrated and light foods, principally 
consisting of dried meat with fat The Bovril Co. 
has, on my suggestion, made a special food consisting 
of these materials which is highly concentrated ; they 
have called it ' emergency food.' For sledge expedi- 
tions we shall also use biscuits and butter, steam- 
cooked meal for porridge, milk, chocolate, dried fish, 
dried fruits, dried cranberries, sugar, a little com- 
pressed tea, and also some biscuits, to which I have 
added a quantity of a German product called 
Aleuronat powder, which principally contains albu- 
men. I have added about thirty per cent, of this to 
the biscuits, so that a certain number of them, with a 
suitable quantity of butter, will be sufficient for one 
man per day ; I believe a pound and a-half of 
biscuits, or a little more, and half-a-pound of butter 
will be an appropriate ration. For drinking we shall 
have nothing except water, which we shall get by 
melting snow. This water we may, however, mix 
with lime juice and sugar, or with milk, or make tea, 
chocolate, or soup of it, and thus we shall have 
pleasant drinks. A good drink is also water mixed 
with oatmeal. Spirituous drinks will not be allowed ; 
tobacco will be distributed in very moderate rations 
on board ship ; on sledge expeditions no tobacco, or 
very little, will be allowed." 

As to dress Nansen writes : — " Out of doors in the 
winter when the winds are blowing we shall wear 
weather-proof suits, made of light canvas, gabar- 
dine, or similar stuff, which protects against the 
snow-drift. When it is very cold we shall wear 
fur suits, made principally of wolf and reindeer 



A TALK WITH DR. NANSEN, SEPTEMBER, 1 896. 1 47 

fur. To sleep in the snow or in our tents dur- 
ing the sledge expeditions we have also sleeping- 
bags made of the same material, in which we can 
easily, and with comfort, stand a temperature of one 
hundred degrees below zero. 

" Our tents are made of raw silk and are exceedingly 
light. Lightness is, of course, of the highest import- 
ance, when everything must be carried on the sledges. 
The tent floor is, however, of a somewhat heavier 
stuff, as that has to keep out the moisture which is 
easily formed when you sleep on the snow, with 
nothing under you except a thin canvas or calico 
layer. It is also well to have the tent floor rather 
strong, as it can then be used as a sail on the sledge 
when you have a favourable wind." 

In the forehold Hendriksen showed me the sledges, 
kayaks, ski, and cooking apparatus used by Dr. Nansen 
and Lieutenant Johansen on their dangerous ice- 
journey. The sleeping bag used by them on their 
tramp was a particularly attractive novelty. It was 
made from the skin of a polar bear shot by Dr. Nansen, 
the fur being inside, and it must have been a warm 
berth with the two men packed inside it. All the 
Arctic equipment bore evidence of having been 
severely tested in actual use ; the sledges especially 
bore traces of hard pulling, being patched with much 
care in many places. Their kayaks are about five 
yards long, made of skins many times mended. In 
these canoes they slept, breathing through air-holes. 
Beside them lies the head of the walrus which pierced 
one of the kayaks right through, also the skin of the 
polar bear which nearly hugged Johansen to death. 
There are, besides, the two ice-sledges on which the 



148 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

kayaks and luggage were drawn ; the snow shoes, 
quite black and worn out ; the bamboo sticks, the 
saucepan, with the remains of the horrible soup ; and, 
most important of all, a little box containing the 
diaries. 

I had some conversation with Captain Sverdrup 
on the bridge of the Frain, and he assured me that 
the three years he spent on board their " Arctic 
home " were comparatively comfortable ones. Nansen 
and Johansen had, in his opinion, the worst of it. 
" An expedition like ours," he said, " is never free from 
excitement or grave danger, and we had our share. 
Our principal duties were to take regular scientific 
observations, and this was an onerous and responsible 
task, and we found plenty of physical exercise in 
endeavouring to keep the ship free from ice. That 
the dreaded Arctic disease, scurvy, did not show itself 
is attributed to the nutritious food we had and the 
readiness of all to partake of bear and seal flesh when 
caught." 

One night when most of the ship's company were 
snug below, the dogs were suddenly heard barking 
furiously. It was ship's carpenter Mogstad's watch, 
so he went up on deck to see if anything unusual was 
going on, but as he could see nothing he went down 
below again, concluding that the dogs were just 
barking for the sake of barking, as is their wont. 
However, the noise was repeated at intervals, so he 
went up on deck again, and taking a lantern saw 
that several of the animals had disappeared and that 
some others were overboard on the ice. Mogstad 
called out for Hendriksen, and they both let them- 
selves down on to the ice from the deck of the 



A TALK WITH DR. NANSEN, SEPTEMBER, 1 896. I49 

ship, which at the time was high above the ice sur- 
face. 

They walked off a little distance from the ship, to 
see if they could find any tracks. As they wrere 
searching about with no more formidable weapon 
than a small lantern between them, all at once a polar 
bear sprang up before them. Then there was a race 
between the three, the two men and the bear, to the 
ship. Mogstad, a bit more light-footed than his mate, 
reached the Fram first, but fell down twice on to the 
ice as he was climbing up her side. At the second 
fall he could not help muttering to himself, " Now the 
bear 's got you, my friend ! " But despair steadied 
his nerves, and be managed to hoist himself safely up 
behind the ship's bulwarks. He had hardly got on 
board, however, when he heard his comrade call out 
and saw that the bear had got hold of him, and had 
bitten him. But Hendriksen, a big, powerful, resolute 
fellow, dealt his assailant such a blow on the head 
with the lighted lantern he was carrying that the 
brute, half stunned and half scared, let go his prey, 
and Hendriksen seized the opportunity to skip up the 
ship's side. The bear revenged itself by carrying off 
several of the dogs. 

In a private letter from Lieutenant Johansen we 
find a lively account of the feelings he and his fellows 
experienced during their long isolation. "Although 
far from all human kind," he says, " shut up in the 
desolate polar ice, miles and miles away from any 
secure port, and sometimes so crushed by the ice that 
we thought of forsaking the ship, we had still in the 
Fram a refuge free from care and full of quiet con- 
templation. . . . We felt untroubled and free as rarely 



150 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

before in all our lives. Once a polar bear, probably 
plagued with ennui, paid us a visit. This queer, 
restless animal, who wanders ceaselessly by night and 
day, is a remarkable creature, and we valued its flesh 
as an agreeable change from the monotonous tinned 
meats." 

"In what did your scientific work consist?" I 
enquired of Dr. Nansen. 

"That requires a little consideration," said the 
Doctor. Then after a pause, "It consisted of exact 
observations, and my expedition will be chiefly a gain 
to meteorology and oceanography. We had to take 
magnetic and meteorological observations on sea and 
land, when we found any land. We had to observe 
the temperature of the ocean at all depths and seasons 
of the year, to sound, trawl, and dredge, and to study 
the character and distribution of marine organism. 
Yes, I hope our expedition will enrich the records of 
astronomy, geology, botany, zoology, and kindred 
subjects. During the whole drift I spent most of my 
time in taking a series of exact observations in the 
above subjects, but I was ably seconded in the work 
by Lieutenant Scott- Hansen and Dr. Blessing, and 
when I left the Fram the former took charge of the 
scientific work." The depth of the sea along the track 
of the ship ranged between 2000 and 2500 fathoms. 

Dr. Nansen added that his favourite subject was 
biology, which he studied earnestly during the first 
.series of Arctic voyages, for he loved science first 
and exploration second. He did not, however, have 
much chance of biological research during the recent 
voyage. 

Lieutenant Johansen, who volunteered and was 



A TALK WITH DR. NANSEN, SEPTEMBER, 1896. 151 

chosen to accompany Nansen, told mc in regard to 
their ice-journey, when it was decided that the Doctor 
and himself should leave the vessel to explore the 
north of their route and reach the highest possible 
latitude, that they tried to start three times. The 
first time, the sledge broke down at a short distance ; 
the second start occupied three days, after which they 
had to return and complete their stock of necessary 
provisions. Their final start was on the 14th of 
March, 1895, when the Fravi was at latitude 83° 59' 
N., longitude 102° 27' E. 

Nansen and Johansen had, in starting, twenty-eight 
dogs, three sledges, and two kayaks for use in open 
water. Dog food was calculated for thirty days, and 
their own provisions for one hundred days. They 
found travelling at first easy, and hope was bright, 
and on the 22nd of March they reached latitude 
85° 10' N. ; but the farther north they reached the 
rougher the ice became, and the drift at times set 
back their work, while the sledge dogs did not prove 
as serviceable as they had hoped. On the 25th of 
March, after great labour, they had but reached 
latitude 85' 19' N., and four days after, latitude 
85' 30' X. It was fatiguing work to drag the heavily- 
laden sledges across the high, hummocky ice, with 
the floes in constant movement, crushing and grinding 
against each other. But these two brave men pressed 
onward against increasing odds, on through blinding 
snow-storms, and frequently face to face with death. 
But the time came when human endurance could push 
no farther, and on the 7th of April the ice became so 
much worse that Nansen considered it unwise to 
continue their course polewards, and they therefore 



152 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

decided to go south to Spitzbergen, via Franz Josef 
Land, where there was every possibility of a ship 
being met with. They were then at latitude 86° 14' 
N., and before finally turning south the doctor made 
a long run on ski to see if there was any possibility 
of finding smoother ice, but, as far as eye could reach 
there stretched hummock beyond hummock " like a 
sea of breakers." 

On the return journey, in a south-westerly direction, 
they travelled 430 miles in four months, and the only 
land they found on the way consisted of a few ice- 
capped islands, a little to the north-east of Franz 
Josef Land. On the 26th of August they reached 
land in latitude 81° 13' N., longitude 56° E., well 
suited for wintering, and there they dwelt for 267 
days, living on the blubber of the polar bear, seal, and 
walrus, and utterly unaware that less than one hun- 
dred miles away to the south-south-west there lay the 
headquarters of the Jackson-Harmsworth expedition, 
containing men who would have been delighted to 
welcome them to their comparatively comfortable 
home. 

Dr. Nansen's winter hut was somewhat different 
from Jackson's. It was built of turf, covered with 
walrus skins. The roof was also of walrus skins, 
supported on logs of driftwood. A bear skin served 
for the door, and of another bear skin they made a 
sleeping-bag. Although they spent their time sleep- 
ing much and took little exercise, they were never at 
all unwell. The temperature in the hut was seldom 
below freezing point, and this was a comfortable 
temperature to our explorers. 

Of that memorable journey much has been written. 



A TALK WITH DR. NANSEN, SEPTEMBER, 1 896. 1 53 

Their escapes were almost miraculous, and danger 
constantly stared them in the face. On one occasion, 
while dragging their sledges along a narrow path, 
the travellers were suddenly confronted by a polar 
bear, but Johansen, who is a man of exceptional 
physical strength, caught the intruder by the throat 
and held him at arm's length while Dr. Nansen 
despatched him with his rifle. On another occasion, 
after an excursion inland, they returned to see their 
canoes drifting from land with all their necessaries on 
board. To reach the boats was a matter of life or 
death, but without a moment's hesitation Dr. Nansen 
sprang into the ice-cold water and swam after the 
drifting canoes. He was chilled to the bone, but he 
succeeded in his object, and brought the canoes 
safely to the spot where his anxious comrade stood 
watching the incident. 

I cannot conceive a more daring act of courage 
than that of Nansen's and Johansen's in leaving the 
Fram with the certainty of remaining in the inhospit- 
able regions for a year, perhaps two, and of never 
regaining the ship. They had no winter clothing, 
and provisions only for one hundred days. Yet they 
departed cheerfully, laden with an exhaustless stock 
of hope and charged with loving messages to wives 
and to friends if those on board the vessel should 
perish in the far north. The numerous messages 
which Dr. Nansen brought back to Norway from 
those on board the Fram were written on a single 
sheet of paper in a microscopic hand, so as to 
economise weight and space. Day after day, month 
after month passed, and still they toiled on. The 
little stock of food was almost exhausted and the 



154 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

dogs were starving. And here a touching trait 
of Dr. Nansen's character shows itself. He dared 
not expend a cartridge in shooting one of the poor 
beasts to make food for the other dogs, and some- 
times for his companion and himself, and as he could 
not bring himself to kill his own faithful dunxb 
followers in cold blood, he killed Johansen's sledge 
dogs, whilst Johansen killed his. In this manner 
they struggled on until the dogs were all slaughtered. 
Fortunately open water was reached soon after, and 
bears, seals, walruses, and, at times, Arctic bears were 
found, which furnished food until Dr. Nansen and his 
comrade met the Jackson- Harms worth party. 

The story of how Nansen and his comrade met 
Mr. Jackson (17th June, 1896) is one of the most 
dramatic incidents recorded in the romance of history. 
It was a fortunate meeting, which Dr. Nansen 
declares he shall ever regard with feelings of grati- 
tude ; but had he not come across Mr. Jackson his 
original plan of proceeding to Spitzbergen would 
probably have been carried out with nothing more 
than a few more hardships and a little longer delay. 

Some think Nansen's work over-praised. May 
I point out that during a period of two hundred and 
eighty years previous to Nansen's departure the 
efforts of a vast host of Arctic explorers — the bravest 
of the brave — succeeded only in piercing 150 miles 
nearer the Pole. Dr. Nansen, in less than two years 
from the start, distanced all these previous explorers 
efforts by 2CXD miles {reaching his farthest north on the 
^th of April, 1895), and covering the last 150 miles in 
six weeks. Such a deed speaks for itself 



CHAPTER XII. 

CONCLUSION. 

" T T OME safe, after a fortunate expedition," ran 
I — I the first telegram announcing Dr. Nansen's 
-*- -*, return. 

It is a popular fallacy that Dr. Nansen 
started out solely to reach the North Pole. If this 
had been so, no doubt the criticisms of those who say 
that the voyage was a failure would be justified ; 
but that view is inaccurate and unjust to Nansen, 
What he went out to do was to explore the Arctic 
basin, and, if possible, settle certain problems con- 
nected with it. He said this in so many words in 
his address to the English Geographical Society in 
1892. Here is a typical sentence, and the italics are 
Nansen's : — "It may be possible that the current will 
not carry us across the Pole, but the principal thing is 
to explore the unknown polar regions, not to reach 
exactly that mathematical point in which the axis of 
our globe has its northern termination." Bearing this 

^1% 



156 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

in mind, it is impossible to pronounce the expedition 
a failure, even if there were no other discovery than 
that of the deep sea in the polar regions. 

Before leaving in 1893 Dr. Nansen made three 
predictions regarding his venture. The first was 
that 1896 would probably be the first year in which 
it would be heard of The second was that if the 
Frain were deserted the party would come home 
by Franz Josef Land. The third was that if they 
stuck to the ship she would, by the aid of the 
drift, bring them out between Spitzbergen and East 
Greenland. This is precisely what has happened. 
Dr. Nansen has vindicated his theory of the polar 
drift, though disappointed somewhat as to its 
northerly limit, and discomfited those who main- 
tained that in trusting to what they styled " supposed 
currents," he was throwing away the lives of himself 
and his party. All other performances pale in com- 
parison with this feat of the Norwegian explorer. 
It is not merely that he has gone some 200 miles 
nearer the Pole than any of his predecessors, or 
that he has made one of the most daring journeys 
on record, but it is that he has established the truth 
of his theory of Arctic currents, and has brought 
back valuable scientific information. Its organiser 
passed over an enormous part of the girth of the 
eastern polar sea — covered almost the widest area 
of the earth's surface that can be covered in a like 
voyage, and they travelled at a pace which permitted 
them to mark upon the chart accurately all the 
districts traversed. There was no line of retreat, no 
going back afid covering the same ground twice, as has 
been the case in nearly every previous Arctic voyage. 



CONCLUSION. 157 

Nansen has made this unparalleled journey in 
consequence of his simple plan of not opposing, but 
siding with, the Arctic currents and floes. The result 
is a most magnificent victory of science, and a proof 
that scientific training, no less than courage, persever- 
ance, and physical endurance, is necessary in an 
Arctic explorer. This splendid success was owing, 
as Professor ^lohn stated, " to the fact that Nansen 
is a man of science, who, with his mastery of all that 
had been done and the penetration of his genius, 
could gain an insight into the unknown ; and that, 
with unsurpassed practical sense, he knew how to 
make the arrangements necessary to secure that his 
journey, from beginning to end, should be a unique 
success." 

Nansen depicts the experiences and sufferings 
met with in narratives which are notable both for 
their accuracy and modesty. He treats as ordinary 
incidents the freezing in of the Fravi ; her years 
of solitude in the grip of the ice ; the fact that 
he and Johansen, on their ski journey, were without 
furs for several months in a temperature which 
sank, at times, to the inconceivable cold of 62" 
below zero (F.) ; and that for ten months they lived, 
like the Eskimo and the Samoyedc, on blubber. 
As for the task of gaining land by clambering 
from one small ice-floe to another for thirteen con- 
tinuous days, he merely mentions it ; and of the 
severe winter spent at Franz Josef Land, he remarks 
that it " passed well, and we were both in perfect 
health." And when he was absolutely cut off from 
any hope except the desperate one of getting south, 
he points out the moral advantage of having " )io line 



158 FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

of retreat." Of such stuff indeed are heroes made. 
For his immense courage and fortitude, for his in- 
calculable patience and scientific gifts, Nansen 
deserves a place in the front rank of Arctic ex- 
plorers. When I say this I do not forget the great 
services rendered to mankind by Hudson, Davis, 
Baffin, the Rosses, Franklin, Kane, McClintock, 
Nordenskiold, Nares, Markham, Greeley, and the 
rest of the great Arctic explorers, whose doings 
aroused emulation in the mind of Fridtjof Nansen, 
and who showed him the way through the pack-ice 
to success and glory. 

Dr. Nansen's work is admirably summarised in 
the preface which Mr. William Archer contributes to 
his own translation of the biography of Nansen : — 
" What Nansen has done, in the teeth of scepticism 
and discouragement harder to face, perhaps, than 
the Arctic pack-ice and the month-long night, is to 
lead the way into the very heart of the polar fast- 
nesses, and to show how, with forethought, skill, 
and resolution, they can be traversed as safely as 
the Straits of Dover. While other explorers have 
crept, as it were, towards the Pole, each penetrating, 
with incredible toil, a degree or two farther than the 
last, Nansen has at one stride enormously reduced 
the unconquered distance, and has demonstrated 
the justice of his theory as to the right way of 
attacking the problem. Nor is this the crown of 
his achievement. As the Duke of Wellington 
' gained a hundred fights, and never lost an English 
gun,' so Nansen has now come forth victorious from 
two campaigns, each including many a hard-fought 
fray, and has never lost a Norwegian life. We have 



CONCLUSION. 159 

only to read the tragic record of Arctic exploration 
in the past to realise the magnitude of this exploit. 
It is in no way lessened by the fact that Nansen has 
profited by the hard-earned experience of his pre- 
decessors. On the contrary, it is the chief glory of 
this expedition that absolute intrepidity went hand 
in hand with consu<mmate intelligence." * 

A very charming glimpse into the home of Nansen, 
such as it represented on the day (13th August) when 
the telegram arrived which told of Nansen's safety, 
is given by a friend and neighbour of Dr. and Fru 
Nansen : — " Yesterday evening, about seven, my wife 
and I were walking along the private path leading 
to our own and the Nansen's houses, and which 
belongs to them and us together. Little four-year- 
old Liv Nansen met us, and chattered, * Mamma 
has gone to town. Papa is coming home.' On 
inquiries I learnt that Fru Nansen had just had 
a telegram from her husband, telling her of his 
arrival at Vardo. She started at once for Christiania 
to tell her mother, and to hear more. I jumped 
on my bicycle and went after her. The Karl- 
Johannes Gade swarmed with people. The great- 
est enthusiasm prevailed. All the cafes were crowded, 
and in front of the newspaper offices, where the 
telegrams were shown against the walls as they 
arrived, the masses were fighting for a place whence 
they could read them. Groups were parading the 
streets singing national songs and shouting ' Hurrah.' 
I was not in time to find Fru Nansen, but on return- 
ing to my cottage near the fjord I noticed a procession 

* "Life of Nansen" (Longmans, Green & Co.). 



l6o FRIDTJOF NANSEN. 

of fishing boats sail close to the shore. The fishermen 
bared their heads, and shouted ' Hurrah ' three times 
three. 

"Below the balcony of my studio two children 
are playing. It is little Liv and my five-year-old 
Hjalmar. The two are inseparable. They are -in 
love with each other as in the days of old were 
Fridtjof and Ingebord. I can hear their discussion. 
' My papa is as strong as a bear,' says Hjalmar. 
' My papa is as strong as ' — the little girl hesitates 
— *he is the strongest man in the world,' she says 
with strong conviction. Little Liv's words contain 
more truth than she is aware of 

" My wife has just been telling me that she has 
had a talk with Fru Nansen. She had gone across 
to congratulate the hero's wife. Fru Nansen said, 
' I was sitting at home yesterday afternoon, and 
thought things very dull. A telegram was brought 
to me. At first I hardly cared to open it.' ' Why ? 
Were you afraid of bad news ? ' ' Oh, no ; but 
I have had so many telegrams, and again and 
again they contained nothing. One gets indifferent' 
' Well ? ' ' Well, finally I opened it, of course, and 
before I had realised what it contained I recognised 
his style. To-morrow I start on my journey to meet 
him.' ' What a wonderful thing it is for you, after 
three anxious years ! ' ' Well, to tell the truth, I never 
doubted that he would return ; and then there is 
always so much to make life here interesting.' Her 
eyes wandered to the golden head of little Liv, who 
clung affectionately to her mother." 



LORIMER AND GILLIES, PRINTERS, EUINBURGH. 



CATALOGUE 

OF 

S. W. PARTRIDGE & CO.'S 






CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO PRICES. 



NEW BOOKS ARE MARKED WITH AN ASTERISK. 

5sm eachm 

Jiy O. MANriLLE FENN. 

Illustrated by W. Rainey, R.I., F. W. BuRTON, etc. 

*In Honour's Cause : A Tale of the Days of Cieorge the 
First. By George Manville Fenn, Author of " Cormorant Crag," 
etc. Lar<;e Crown 8vo. Illustrated. Cloth extra, gilt top. 

Cormorant Crag : A Tale of the Smuggling Days. I^rgc 

Crown 8vo. Illustrated. Cloth extra, gilt top. 

First in the Field : A Story of New South Wales. Large 

Crown Svo. Illustrated. Cloth extra, gilt top. 

Steve Young; or, The Voyage of the " Hvalross" to the 

Icy Seas. Large crown Svo. P'ully Illustrated. Cloth extra, gilt top. 
Grand Chaco (The) : A Boy's Adventures in an Unknown 
Land. Large Crown Svo. Fully Illustrated. Cloth extra, gilt top. 

Crystal Hunters (The) : A Boy's Adventures in the 
Higher Alps. Crown Svo. P'ully Illustrated. Cloth extra, bevelled 
boards, gilt edges. 

3sm 6 dm eachm 

♦The Two Henriettas. By Emma Marshall, Author of 

" Eaglehurst Towers," etc. Illustrated. Large Crown Svo. Cloth 
extra, gilt top. 

•The White Dove of Amritzir : A Romance of Anglo- 
Indian Life. By Eliza F. Pollard, Author of " Roger the Ranger," 
etc. Large Crown Svo. Illustrated. Cloth extra, gilt top. 

*Yictoria : Her Life and Reign. By Alfred E. Knight, 

Author of " Tobiah Jalf," etc. With numerous full-page and other 
Illustrations from historical paintings, etc. Large crown Svo. Cloth 
extra, gilt top. 

•In Battle and Breeze. Sea Stories by Geo. A. Iletity, 

G. M. Fenn, and W. Clark Russell. Illustrated. Large Crown Svo. 
Cloth extra, gilt top. 

•The Adventures of Don Lavington. By George 

Manville Fenn, Author of " Cormorant Crag," etc. New Edition. 
Illustrated by W. Rainey, R.I. Large Crown Svo. Cloth extra, giJt top. 

Gathered Grain : Consisting of Select Extracts irom tne 
Best Authors. Edited by E. A. II. Fourth Edition. Crown Svo. 
Cloth. (Not illustrated.) 

Hymn Writers and their Hymns. By Rev. S. W. 

Christophers. 390 pages. Crown Svo. Cloth extra. (Nol illustrated.) 



S. W. PARTRIDGE 6^* CO:S 



38m Bdm Oach {continued). 

More Precious than Gold. By Jennie Chappell, 

Author of " Her Saddest Blessing," etc. With Illustrations. Crown 
8vo. Cloth extra, gilt edges. 

'Neath April Skies ; or, Hope Amid the Shadows. By 

Jennie Chappell, Author of " Ailsa's Reapins;," " Wild Byronie," "Her 
Saddest Blessing,"etc. Illustrated. Crown 8vo. Cloth extra, gilt edges. 

Pilgrim's Progress (The). By John Bunyan. Illustrated 

with 55 fuU-page and other Engravings, drawn by Frederick Barnard, 
J. D. Linton, W. Small, and engraved by Dalziel Brothers. Crows 
4to. Cloth extra, 3s. 6d. (Gilt edges, 5s.) 

Romanoe of liinooln's Inn (A). By Sarah Doudney, 

Author of " Through Pain to Peace," " Louie's Married Life," " When 
We Two Parted," etc. Crown 8vo. Illustrated. Cloth boards. 

Six Stories by "Pansy." Imperial 8vo. 390 pages. 

Fully Illustrated and well bound in cloth, with attractive coloured 
design on cover, and Six complete Stories in each Vol. Vols, i, 2, 
3, 4, and 5, 3s. 6d. each. 

Story of the Bible (The). Arranged in Simple Style 
for Young People. One Hundred Illustrations. Demy 8vo. Cloth 
extra, 3s. 6d. (Gilt edges, bevelled boards, 4s. 6d.) 

Vashti Savage. By Sarah Tytler. Illustrated by Robert 
Barnes. Crown 8vo. Cloth extra, gilt edges. 

2sm Gdm eachm 

Brought to Jesus: A Bible Picture Book for Little 
Readers. Containing Twelve large New Testament Scenes, printed 
in colours, with appropriate letterpress by Mrs. G. E. Morton, Author 
of "Story of Tesus." Size, 13^ by 10 inches. Handsome coloured 
boards with cloth back. 

Bible Pictures and Stories. Old and New Testament. 

In one Volume. Bound in handsome cloth, with eighty-nine full-page 
Illustrations by Eminent Artists. 

Idght for liittle Footsteps ; or, Bible Stories Illustrated. 
By the Author of " Sunshine for Showery Days, " " A Ride to Picture 
LAnd," etc. With beautiful coloured Cover and Frontispiece. Full 
of Pictures. 

Potters : Their Arts and Crafts. Historical, Bio- 
graphical, and Descriptive. By John C. Sparkes (Principal of the 
Royal College of Art, South Kensington Museum), and Walter 
Gandy. Crown 8vo. Copiously Illustrated. Cloth extra, 2s. 6d. ; art 
linen, gilt edges, 3s. 6d. 

Story of Jesus. For Little Children. By Mrs. G. E. Morton, 
Author of "Wee Donald," etc. Many Illustrations. Imperial i6mo. 

Sunshine for Showery Days: A Children's Picture- 

Book. By the Author of " A Ride to Picture Land," " Light for Little 
Footsteps," etc. Size. I5i by ii inches. Coloured Frontispiece, and 
114 full-page and other Engravings. Coloured paper boards, with 
cloth back. 

Spiritual Grasp of the Epistles (The) ; or, an Epistle 

a-Sunday. By Rev. Charles A. Fox, Author of " Lyrics from the 
Hilis," " Anlde Deep ; or. The River of Pentecostal Power," etc. 
SmaU Crown 8vo. Cloth boards. (Not illustrated.) 



CATALOGUE OF NEW <^ POPULAR WORKS. 3 

2Sm 6dm each {contmutd). 

THE "RED MOUNTAIN" SERIES. 

CroTtm 8va. 320 Pages. Jllustrated. Handsomely bound 
in cloth boards. 2s. 6d. each. 
•The Slave Raiders of Zanzibar. By E. Harcourt 

Burrage, Author of '• Gerard Mastyn," " Whither Bound ? " etc. 

*Manco, The Peruvian Chief. By W. H. G. Kingston. 

New Edition. Illustrated by Launcelot Speed. 

*England's Navy : Stories of its Ships and its Services. 

With a Glance at some Navies of the Ancient World. By F. M. 
Holmes, Author of ** Great Works by Great Men," " Four Heroes 
of India," etc. 

By Sea- Shore, Wood, and Moorland: Peeps at 

Nature. By Edward Step, Author of " Plant Life," etc. 

Eaglehurst Towers. By Emma Marshall, Author of 

" Fine Gold," etc. 

Eagle Clifif (The) : A Tale of the Western Isles. By R. M. 

Ballantyne, Author of "Fighting the Flames," "The Lifeboat," etc. 
Edwin, The Boy Outlaw ; or, The Dawn of Freedom in 

England. A Story of the Days of Robin Hood. By J. Frederick 

Hodgetts, Author of " Older England," etc. 

Green Mountain Boys •■ The) : A Story of the American 

War of Independence. By Eliza F. PolL-tid, Author of "True unto 
Death," " Roger the Ranger," etc., etc. 

Great Works by Great Men : The Story of Famous 

Engineers and their Triumphs. By F. M. Holmes. 
Grace Ashleigh; or, His Ways are Best. By Mary D. R. 
Boyd. With Eight full-page Engravings by Robert Barnes. 

Lady of the Forest iThe). By L. T. Meade, Author of 

" Scamp and I," " Sweet Nancy," etc. 

Leaders Into Unknown Lands : Being Chapters of 

Recent Travel. By A. Montefiore, F.G.S., F.R.G.S. Maps, etc. 

Lion City of Africa (The) : A Story of Adventure. By 

Willis Boyd Allen, Author of " The Red Mountain of Alaska," etc 

Olive Chauncey's Trust. By Mrs. E. R. Pitman, Author 

of " Lady Missionaries in Foreign Lands " 
Roger the Ranger : A Story of Border Life among the 
Indians. By Eliza F. Pollard, Author of " Not Wanted," etc 

Red Mountain of Alaska (The). By Willis Boyd 

Allen, Author of " Pine Cones," " The Northern Cross," etc. 

Spanish Maiden (The) : A Story of Brazil. By Emma 

E. Hornibrook, Author of *' Worth the Winning," etc. 

True unto Death : A Story of Russian Life and the 

Crimean War. By Eliza F. Pollard, Author of " Roger the Ranger " 

Whither Bound? A Story of Two Lost Boys. By Owen 

Landor. With Twenty Illustrations by W. Rainey, R.I. 

Young Moose Hunters (The) : A Backwoods-Boy'a 

Story. By C. A. Stephens. Profusely Illustrated. 



S. IV. PARTRIDGE &> CO:^ 



THE HOME LIBRARY. 2Sm each. 

Crown 6vo. ;^2o J>ages. Jiandsoine Cloth Cover. Illustrations. 

By " RAN ST.' 



Ruth Erskine'B Crosies. 

Ester Ried. 

Ester Kled Tet Speaking. 

Julia RIed. 

Tbe Man of the House. 



Chrtssy'a Endeavour. 

Tliree People. 

four Girls at Chautaaqaa. 

An Endless Chain. 

The Chautauqua Girls at Home. 

Wise and Otherwise. 

*A Woman at Bay. By Marie Zimmermann. 

*Toin Sharman and His College Chums. By J. 

O. Keen, D.D. 

^Jacques Hamon ; or, Sir Philip's Private Messenger. 

By Mary E. Ropes. 
•Dr. Cross ; or, Tried and True. By Ruth Sterling. 
*Gerald Thurlow; or, The New Marshall. By T. M. 

Browne. 

'Cousin Mary. By Mrs. Oliphant, Author of " Chronicles 

of Carlingford," etc. 
Avlce : A Story of Imperial Rome. By Eliza F. Pollard. 
Ben-Hur. By L. Wallace. 
Better Part (The). By Annie S. Swan. 
Brownie ; or, The Lady Superior. By Eliza F. Pollard. 
Bunch of Cherries (A). By J. W. Kirton. 
Dorothy's Training ; or, Wild-Flower or Weed ? By 

Jennie Chappell. 
Edith Os"vyald ; or, Living for Others. 224 pages, "j By 
Florence Stanley ; or, Forgiving, because Much \ Jane M. 

Forgiven. J Kippen. 

For Honour's Sake. By Jennie Chappell. 

Gerard Mastyn ; or. The Son of a Genius. By E. 

Harcourt Barrage. 

Household Angel (The). By Madeline Leslie. 
Her Saddest Blessing. By Jennie Chappell. 
Living It Doivn. By Laura M. Lane. 
Louie's Married Life. By Sarah Doudney. 
Madeline ; or. The Tale of a Haunted House. By Jennie 

Chappell. 

Morning Dew-Drops. By Clara Lucas Balfour. 
Mark Desborough's Yotht. By Annie S. Swan. 
Mick Tracy, the Irish Scripture Reader. By the Authoi 

of " Tim Doolan, the Irish Emigrant." 
Naomi ; or, The Last Days of Jerusalem. By Mrs. Webb. 
Pilgrim's Progress (The). By John Bunyan. 416 

pages. 47 Illustrations. 

Strait Gate (The). By Annie S. Swan. 
Uncle Tom's Cabin. By Harriet Beecher Stowe. 
Without a Thought ; or, Dora's Discipline. By Jennie 
Chappell. 

Way in the Wilderness (A). By Maggie Swan. 

Owr 300,000 0/ these volumes have already been sold. 



CATALOGUE OF NEW b' POPULAR WORKS. 5 

2Sm OaCh (continued). 

Anecdotes in Natural History. By Rev. F. O. 

Morris, B.A. With numerous Illustrations. Fcap. 4to. Cloth extra. 

Animals and their Young. By Harland Coultas. 

With Twenty-four full-page Illustrations by Harrison Weir. Fcap 410 

Cloth gilt, bevelled boards. 
Dogs and their Doings. By Rev. F. O. Morris, Author 

of " A History of British Birds," etc. With numerous Illustrations. 

Fcap. 4to. Cloth extra. 
Domestic Pets : Their Habits and Treatment. Anecdotal 

and Descriptive. Full of Illustrations. Fcap 4to. Cloth extra. 

Natural History Stories. By Mary Howitt. With 

Thirty-two full-page Engravings by Harrison Weir, L. Huard, etc., 
and numerous smaller Illustrations. Fcap. 4to. Cloth gilt, bevelled 
boards. 

Our Dumb Companions. By Rev. T. Jackson, M.A. 

One Hundred and Twenty Illustrations. Fcap. 4to. Cloth extra. 

Sunny Teachings. (New Series). A Bible Picture 
Roll containing Twelve beautifully Coloured Scripture Pictures 
selected from the New Testament. Mounted on roller. 

Young Folk's Bible Picture Roll (The). Contains 

Twelve beautifully Coloured Pictures of Bible Subjects. Printed oa 
good paper, and mounted on roller, with cord for hanging up. 
Bible Picture Roll. Containing a large Engraving of a 
Scripture Subject, with letterpress for each day in the month. 

Natural History Picture Roll. Consisting of Thirty- 
one Illustrated Leaves, with simple large-type Letterpress, suitable to 
hang up in the Nursery, Schoolroom, etc. 



ISm 6dm each. 

THE "WORLD'S WONDERS" SERIES . 

A Series of Popular Books treating of the present-daywonders of Scienct 
and Art. Well written, printtd on good paper, and f idly illustrated. 
Crown Svo, 160 pages. Handsome Cloth Cover. 

•Miners and their Works Underground. By F. 

M. Holmes. 
•Triumphs of the Printing Press. By Walter Jerrold. 
Astronomers and their Observations. Bv Lucy 

Taylor. With Preface by W. Thynne Lynn, B.A. , F.R.A.S. 

Celebrated Mechanics and their Achievements. 

By F. M. Holmes. 

Chemists and their "Wonders. By F. M. Holmes. 
Engineers and their Triumphs. By F. ^L Holmes. 
Electricians and their Marvels. By Walter Jerrold. 
Musicians and their Compositions. By J. R. Griffiths. 
Naturalists and their Investigations. By George 

Day, F.R.M.S. 



S. W. PARTRIDGE &' CO.'S 



By 
> Jesse 



tSm 6dm oachm 

WEW SEHIE8 OP MISSIONARY BI00R*PHIE8. 

Crown 2>vo. i(>o pages. Cloth extra. Fully Illustrated. 

Amid Greenland Snows; or, The Early' 

History of Arctic Missions. 

Among the Maoris ; or, Daybreak in New 

Zealand. A Record of the Labours of Samuel Marsden, . „ 
Bishop Selwyn, and others. I -^ ^^• 

Bishop Patteson, the Martyr of Melanesia, j 
Congo for Christ (The) : The Story of the Congo Mission. 

By Rev. J. B Myers (Association Secretary of the Baptist Missionary 
Society), Author of "William Carey," etc. 

David Brainerd, the Apostle to the North 

American Indians. By Jesse \ age. 

Griffith John, Founder of the Hankow Mission, 

Central China. By William RoLson, of the London Missionary 
Society. 

Henry Martyn : His Life and Labours — Cam- 
bridge, India, Persia. By Jesse Page, \uthor of " Samuel 
Crowiher," etc. 

Japan : Its People and Missions. By Jesse Page. 

John Williams, the Martyr Missionary of Poly- 
nesia. By Rev. James J. Ellis. 

James Calvert; or. From Dark to Dawn in Fiji. 

By R. Vernon. 

James Chalmers, Missionary and Explorer of 

Rarotonga and New Guinea. By William Robson. 
Lady Missionaries in Foreign Lands. By Mrs. £. 

R. Pitman, Author of " Vestinas M-artyrdom," etc. 

Madagascar : Its Missionaries and Martyrs. By 

William J. Townsend, Author of " Robert Morrison, ' etc 

Missionary Heroines in Eastern Lands. By Mrs. 

E. R. Pitman, Author of " Lady Missionaries in Foreign Lands." 

Robert Morrison, the Pioneer of Chinese 

Missions. By William John Townsend. 

Reginald Heber, Bishop of Calcutta, Author of 

" From Greenland's Icy Mountains." By A. Montefiore, F.R.G.S. 

Robert Moffat, the Missionary Hero of Kuruman. 

By David J. Deane. 

Samuel Crowther, the Slave Boy who became 

Bishop of the Niger. By Jesse Page. 



CATALOGUE OF NEW ^ POPULAR WORKS. 7 



/s. Bdm oachm 

MISSIONARY BIOGRAPHIES (continued). 

Thomas Birch Freeman, Missionary Pioneer to 

Ashanti, Dahomey, and E^ba. By Rev. John Miium, F.R.G.S. 
Thomas J. Comber, Missionary Pioneer to the 

Congo. By Rev. J. B. Myers, Association Secretary, Baptist Mis- 
sionary Society. 

William Carey, the Shoemaker who became the 

Father and Founder of Modern Missions. By Rev. j. B.Myers. 

NEW POPOLAR BIOGRAPHIES. 

Crown %vo. 160 pages. Maps and Illustrations. Cloth extra. 

*General Gordon, the Christian Soldier and 

Hero. By G. Barnett Smith. 

*William Tyndale, the Translator of the 

English Bible. By G. Barnett Smith. 

^Heroes and Heroines of the Scottish Covenant- 
ers. By J. Meldrum Dryerre, LL.B., F.R.G.S., Author of "The 
Last Earl Grahame," " Lily Laidlaw," etc. 

Canal Boy who became President (The). By 

Frederic T. Gammon. Twelfth Edition. Thirty-fourth Thousand. 

David Livingstone : His Labours and His Legacy. 

By Arthur Montefiore, F.G.S., F.R.G.S. 

Four Heroes of India : Clive, Warren Hastings, Have- 
lock, Lawrence. By F. M. Holmes. 

Florence Nightingale, the Wounded Soldier's 

Friend. By Eliza F. Pollard. 

Gladstone (W. £.) : England's Great Commoner. 

By Walter Jerrold. With Portrait and thirty-eight other Illustrations. 

John Knox and the Scottish Reformation. By G. 

Barnett Smith. 

Michael Faraday, Man of Science. By Walter Jerrold. 
**One and All." An Autobiography of Richard Tangye, 

of the Cornwall Works, Birmingham. With Twenty-one Original 

Illustrations by Frank Hewett. (192 pages.) 

Sir John Franklin and the Romance of the 

North-West Passage. By G. Barnett Smith. 

Slave and. His Champions (The) : Sketches of 

Granville Sharp, Thomas Clarkson, William Wilberforce, and Sir T. 
F. Buxton. By C. D. Michael. 

Stanley (Henry M.), the African Explorer. By 

Arthur Montefiore. F.G.S., F.R.G.S. 
Spurgeon (C. H.) : His Life and Ministry. By Jesse Page. 
Two Noble Lives: JOHN WICLIFFE, the Morning 

Star of the Reformation ; and MARTIN LUTHER, the Reformer. 
By David J. Deanc. (208 pages.) 

Through Prison Bars : The Lives and Labours of John 
Howard and Elizabeth Fry, the Prisoner's Friends. By William H. 
Render. 

Ovtr 350,000 of thtu popular volumts havt alrtady bttn sold. 



S. W. PARTRIDGE (Sr* CO:S 



tsm Gdm oachm 

ILLUSTRATED REWARD B00K8. 

Crown 8vo, i6o pages. Cloth extra. Fully Illustrated. 

*Claire ; or, A Hundred Years Ago. By T. M. Browne, 

Author of "Jim's Discovery," etc. 

♦The Minister's Money. By Eliza F. Pollard, Author 

of " True unto Death," etc 

•Nobly Planned. By M. B. Manwell, Author of 

" Mother's Boy," etc. 
Aileen; or, "The Love of Christ Constraineth Us." By 

Laura A. Barter, Author of *' Harold ; or. Two Diedfor Me." 
Best Things (The). By Dr. Newton. New Edition. 
Duff Darlington; or, An Unsuspected Genius. By 

Evelyn Everett-Green. With six Illustrations by Harold Copping. 

Everybody's Friend ; or, Hilda Danvers' Influence. By 

Evelyn Everett-Green, Author of " Barbara's Brtoher," etc. 
Fine Gold; or, Ravenswood Courtenay. By Emma 

Marshall, Author of " Eaglehurst Towers," etc. 
Her Two Sons. A Story for Young Men and Maidens. 

By Mrs. Charles Garnett, Author of " Mad John Burleigh," etc. 
Hilda ; or, Life's Discipline. By Edith C. Kenyon. 
Jack's Heroism. A Story of Schoolboy Life. By Edith C. 

Kenyon. 
Lads of B[ingston (The). By James Capes Story. 
Marigold. By L. T. Meade, Author of "Lady of the 

Forest," etc. 

Nature's Mighty Wonders. By Rev. Dr. Newton. 

New Series. 
Nella ; or. Not My Own. By Jessie Goldsmith Cooper. 
Our Duty to Animals. By Mrs. C. Bray, Author of 

'• Physiology for Schools," etc. Intended to teach the young kindness 
to animals. Cloth, is. 6d. ; School Edition, is. 3d. 

Prue's Father; or. Miss Prothisa's Promise. By Ethel 

F, Heddle, Author of " Martin Redfern's Oath," etc 

Raymond and Bertha : A Story of True Nobility. By 

L. Phillips, Author of" Frank Burleigh ; or, Chosen to be a Soldier." 
Rag and Tag. A Plea for the Waifs and Strays of Old 
England. By Mrs. E. J. VVhittaker. 

Rose Capel's Sacrifice ; or, A Mother's Love. By Mrs. 

Haycraft, Author of '" Like a Little Candle," '* Chine Cabin," etc 

Rays from the Sun of Righteousness. By Dr. 

Newton. New Edition. 

Safe Compass, and How it Points (The). By Rev, 

Dr. Newton. New Series. 
Satisfied. By Catherine M. Trowbridge. 



CATALOGUE OF NEW a' POPULAR WORKS. 9 

/s- 6dm oachm 

ILLUSTHtTED REWARD BOOKS (^continued). 

Sisters-in-Love. By Jessie M. E. Saxby, Author of 
" Dora Coyne," " Sallies Boy," etc. Illustrated by W. Rainey, R.I. 

Ted's Trust ; or, Aunt Elmerley's Umbrella. By Jennie 
Chappell, Author of 'Who was the Culprit?" "Losing and Finding." 

Thomas Hcward Gill : His Life and Work. By Eliza 

F. Pollard, Author of " Florence Nightingale," etc. 

Tamsin Rosewarne and Her Burdens : A Tale of 

Cornish Life. By Nellie Cornwall. 

Through Liife's Shadows. By Eliza F. Pollard, Author 

of " Not Wanted," etc. 



AWIMAli PICTURE-BOOKS. 

^Anecdotes of Animals and Birds. By Uncle John. 

With 57 full-page and other Illustrations by Harrison Weir, etc. 
Fcap. 4to. 128 pages. Handsomely bound in paper boards, with Animal 
design in lo colours, varnished. (A charming book for the Young.) 

'^^Storles of Animal Sagacity. By D. J. D. A com- 
panion volume to " Anecdotes of Animals." Numerous full-page 
Illustrations. Handsomely bound in paper boards, with Animal subject 
printed in 10 colours, varnished. 

_— —^——^^ ————.— ^—^ ' 

fsm oachm 

ONE SHILLING REWARD BOOKS. 

Fully Illustrated, 96 pages. Crotvn 8wo. Cloth extra. 

♦Carol's Gift ; or, " What Time I am Afraid I will Trust in 
Thee." By Jennie Chappell, Author of " Without a Thought," " The 
Man of the Family," " led's Trust," etc, 

*Iiady Betty's Twins. By E. M. Waterworth, Author of 

" Master Lionel," " Twice Saved," etc. 
♦Raymond's Rival; or, Which will Win? By Jennie 

Chappell, Author of " Losing and Finding," " Carol's Gift," etc. 

Always Happy ; or, The Story of Helen Keller. By 

Jennie Chappell, Author of " Ted's Trust ; or, Aunt Elmerley's 
Umbrella," "Without a Thought," etc. 

Arthur Egerton's Ordeal ; or, God's Ways not Our 

Ways.. By the Author of " Ellerslie House," etc. 

Birdie and her Dog, and other Stories of Canine 

Sagacity. By Mi.ss Phillips. 

Birdie's Benefits ; or, A Little Child Shall Lead Them. 

By Ethel Ruth Boddy, Author of "Two Girls; or, Seed Sown 
Through the Post." 

Band of Hope Companion (The). A Hand-book for 

Band of Hope Members : Biographical, Historical, Scientific, and 
Anecdotal. By Alf. G. Glasspool. 



S. W. PARTRIDGE &> CCS 



tsm oachm 

REW'RD BOOKS (eontinutd). 

Brave Bertie. By Edith Kenyon, Author of "Jack's 

Heroism," •* Hilda ; or, Life's Discipline," etc 

Babes in the Basket (The) ; or, Daph and Her Charge. 

With Ten Illustrations. 

Children of Cherry holme (The). By M.S. Haycraft, 

Author of " Like a Littl« Candle," " Chiac Cabin," etc. 
Cared For ; or, The Orphan Wanderers. By Mrs. C E. 
Bowen, Author of " Dick and his Donkey," etc 

Chine Cabin. By Mrs. Haycraft, Author of " Red Dave," 

" Little Mother," etc 
Dulcie Delight. By Jennie Chappell, Author of " Her 

Saddest Blessing," " For Honour's Sake," etc. 

Frank Burleigh; or, Chosen to be a Soldier. By L. 

Phillips. 

Frank Spencer's Rule of Life. By J. W. Kirton, 

Author of " Buy Your Own Cherries." 

Grrannie's Treasures, and How They Helped 

Her. By L. E. Tiddeman. 

Hazelbrake Hollow. By F. Scarlett Potter, Author of 

" Phil's Frolic," etc. Illustrated by Harold Copping. 
Harold ; or, Two Died for Me. By Laura A. Barter. 
How a Farthing Made a Fortune ; or, " Honesty is 

the Best Policy." By Mrs. C. E. Bowen. 

How Paul's Penny became a Pound. By Mrs. 

Bowen, Author of " Dick and his Donkey." 

Jack the Conqueror ; or, Difficulties Overcome. By the 

Author of " Dick and his Donkey." 

Jemmy Lawson ; or, Beware of Crooked Ways. By E. 

C Kenyon, Author of "Jack's Heroism." 

Jenny's Geranium ; or, The Prize Flower of a London 

Court. 

Jim's Discovery; or, On the Edge of a Desert. By 

T. M. Browne, Author of " Dawson's Madge," etc. 

liittle Bunch's Charge ; or, True to Trust. By Nellie 

Cornwall, Author of " Tamsin Rosewame," etc. 

Losing and Finding; or, The Moonstone Ring. By 

Jennie Chappell, Author of "Who was the Culprit ?" etc. 

Little Woodman and his Dog Caesar (The). By 

Mrs. Sherwood. 

Little Bugler (The) : A Tale of the American Civil War. 

By George Munroe Royce. New Edition. 
Marjory; or, What Would Jesus do? By Laura A. Barter, 

Author of " Harold ; or. Two Died for Me." 

Marion and Augusta; or. Love and Selfishness. By 
Emma Leslie, Author of " EUerslie House," " The Five Cousins," etc. 



CATALOGUE OF NEW &* POPULAR WORKS, ii 
ISm oaohm 

REWARD BOOKS {continiud). 

Mother's Chain (The) ; or, The Broken Link. By Emma 

Marshall, Author of " Fine Gold ; or, Ravenswood Courtenay," etc. 
Nan ; or, The Power of Love. By Eliza F. Pollard, Author of 

" Avice," " Hope Deferred," etc. 
Old Goggles ; or, The Brackenhurst Bairns' Mistake. By 

M. S. Haycraft, Author of " The Children of Cherryholme," etc. 
Our Den. By E. M. Waterworth, Author of " Master 

Lionel, that Tiresome Child." 

Ronald Kennedy ; or, A Domestic Difficulty. By Evelyn 

Everett-Green, Author of " Everybody's P>iend," etc. 

Recitations and Concerted f*ieces for Bands of Hope, 

Sunday Schook, etc. Compiled by James Weston, Author of " Bible 
Pictures and Stories," " Sunny Hours," etc. 

Sweet Nancy. By L. T. Meade, Author of " Scamp and 

I," " A Band of Three," etc. 
Twice Saved ; or, Somebody's Pet and Nobody's Darling. 
By E. M. Waterworth, Author of " Our Den,' " Master Lionel," etc. 

Temperance Stories for the Young. By T. S. 

Arthur, Author of " Ten Nights in a Bar Room." 

Three Runaways. By F. Scarlett Potter, Author of 

•• Phil's Frolic," " Hazelbrake Hollow," etc. 

Una Bruce's Troubles. By Alice Price, Author of 

" Hamilton of King's," etc. Illustrated by Harold Copping. 

Under the Blossom. By Margaret Haycraft, Author 

of " Like a Little Candle ; or, Bertrand s Influence," etc 

Wait till it Blooms. By Jennie Chappell, Author of 

" Her Saddest Blessing," etc. 
Who was the Culprit 7 By Jennie Chappell, Author 
of " Her Saddest Blessing," " The Man of the Family," etc. 



POPOLAR SHILLING SERIES. 

Crown 8f o, well printed on good paper ^ and bound in attractive and 
tasteful coloured paper covers. Fully Illustrated, 

Louie's Mappied Life. By 

Sarah Doudnev. 

Living: it Down. By Laura M. 

The Stpait Gate. 
The Bettep Part. 
Mapk Desbopoughs 



By 
Annie 
Vow. ~ / S. 

Grandmothep's Child, I Swan. 

and Fcr Lucy's Sake. 



A Way in the Wilderness. 

By Maggie Swan. 
Cousin MaPy. By Mrs. Oliphant. 
Easrlehupst Toweps. By Mrs. 

Emma Marshall. 

Without a Thought. ) Ry.^ 
Hep Saddest Blessing. |c)^p"peu 

Fine Gold ; or, Ravenswood 
Courtenay. By Emma Marshall, 



Tht above can also be had in fancy chth, pric* I*. 6d. 



S. W. PARTRIDGE &* CO.'S 



tsm oachm 

PICTURE BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG. 

Fcap, ifto. With Coloured Covers, and Full of Illustrations. 

*FolIovir the Drum : Pictures and Stories for Cheerful and 
Glum. By Uncle Jack, Author of " Bright Beams and Happy Scenes," 
etc. Four full-page coloured and numerous other illustrations. 

*Ofr and Auray : Pictures and Stories for Grave and Gay. 
By C. D. M., Author of " Brightness and Beauty," etc. Four full-page 
coloured, and numerous other Illustrations. 

Bible Pictures and Stories. Old Testament. By D. J. D., 

Author of " Pets Abroad," etc. With Forty-four full-page Illustrations. 
Coloured paper boards, is. ; cloth gilt, is. 6d. 

Bible Pictures and Stories. New Testament. By 

James Weston and D. J. D. With Forty-five beautiful full-page 
Illustrations by W. J. Webb, Sir John Gilbert, and others. New 
Edition. Fcap, 4to. Illustrated boards, is. ; cloth, extra, is. 6d. 

Bright Beams and Happy Scenes: A Picture 

Book for Little Folk. ByJ. D. Four full-page coloured and numerous 
other Illustrations. Coloured paper cover, is. ; cloth, is. 6d. 

Brightness and Beauty : A Picture Story Book for the 

Young. By C. D. M. Four full-page coloured and many other 
Illustrations. Coloured paper cover, is. ; cloth, is. 6d. 

Holiday Hours in Animal Land. (New Series.) 

By Uncle Harry. Four full-page coloured and numerous other 

Illustrations. Coloured paper cover, is. ; cloth, is. 6d. 
Merry Moments. A Picture Book for Lads and Lasses. 

By C. D. M. Four full-page coloured and many other Illustratioos. 

Coloured paper cover, is.; cloth, is. 6d. 
Mirth and Joy : A Picture Story Book for Little Readers. 

By J. D. Four full-page coloured and numerous other Illustrations. 

Coloured paper cover, i s. ; cloth, i s. 6d. 

BOOKS BY REV. DR. NEWTOV. 

New and Cheap Edition. 1 60 pages. Crown '6vo. Prettily bound in 
cloth boards, is. each. 

Bible Jewels. | Bible Wonders. 

Rills from the Fountain of Life. 
The Giants, and How to Fight Them. 

Specially suitable for Sunday School Libraries and Rewards, 

CHEAP REPRINTS OF POPULAR STORIES FOR THE YOUNQ. 

Crown ?ivo. 160 pages. Illustrated. Cloth boards, ta. each. 

Ellerslie House : A Book for Boys. By Emma Leslie. 
Manchester House : A Tale of Two Apprentises. 

By J. Capes Story. 

Like a JLittle Candle; or, Bertrand's Influence. 

By Mrs. Haycraft. 

Violet Maitland ; or, By Thorny Ways. By Laura M. Lane. 
Martin Redfern's Oath. By Ethel F. Heddle. 
Dairyman's Daughter (The). By Legh Richmond. 



CATALOGUE OF NEW ^ POPULAR WORKS. 13 

Sttm oach. 

NINEPENNY SERIES OF ILLU8TRATHD BOOKS. 

^ pages. Small Crown 8vo, lUusirated. Handsome Cloth Covers. 

•Paul, A Little Mediator. By Maude M. Butler, Author of 

"The Story of Little Hal," etc. 
*A Flight iflrith the Sisralloiars. By Emma Marshall* 

Author of " The Mother's Chain," etc. 

Boy's Friendship (A). By Jesse Page. 

BeFs Baby. By Mary E. Ropes, Author of " Talkative 
Friends," etc. 

Benjamin Holt's Boys, and What They Did for 

Him. By the Author of " A Candle Lighted by the Lord." 
Ben's Boyhood. By the Author of " Jack the Conqueror," 

etc. 
Ben Owen : A Lancashire Story. By Jennie Perrett. 
Cousin Bessie : A Story of Youthful Earnestness. By 

Clara Lucas Balfour. 

Dawson's Madge ; or. The Poacher's Daughter. By T. 

M. Browne, Author of " The Musgrove Ranch," etc 

Five Cousins (The). By Emma Leslie. 

Foolish Chrissy ; or, Discontent and its Consequences. By 

Meta, Author of " Noel's Lesson," etc. 

For Lucy's Sake. By Annie S. Swan. 

Giddie Garland; or, The Three Mirrors. By Jennie 
Chappell. 

Grandmother's Child. By Annie S. Swan. 

Into the Light. By Jennie Perrett. 

Jean Jacques : A Story of the Franco-Prussian War. By 

Isabel Lawford. 

John Oriel's Start in Life. By Mary Howitt. 

Little Mother. By Margaret Haycraft. 

Left with a Trust. By Nellie Hellis. 

Letty ; or. The Father of the Fatherless. By H. Clement, 
Author of " Elsie's Fairy Bells." 

Love's Golden Key; or, The Witch of Berryton. By 

Mary E. Lester. 

Master Lionel, that Tiresome Child. By E. M. 

Waterworth. 

Man of the Family (The). By Jennie Chappell. 
Mattie's Home ; or, The Little Match-girl and her Friends. 
Rosa; or, The Two Castles. By Eliza Weaver Bradburn. 
Sailor's Lass (A). By Emma Leslie. 



14 



S. W. PARTRIDGE &* CO.'S 



6dm oaohm 

WEW SERTE9 OF SIXPENNY PI0TORE-B00K8. 

Crtmm quarto. Fully Illustrated. Handsomely bound in paprr boards, 
with design printed in Eight colours. 

*Under the Uinbrella,Piotures and Stories for Rainy Days. 

^Rosie Dimple's Pictures and Stories for Tiny 

Folk. 
^Playful Pussies' Book of Piotures and Stories. 
^Little Snowdrop's Bible Pioture-Book. 

This Ntvo Series of Picture Books surpasses, in excellence of illustration 
and careful printing, all others at the price. 



THE "RED DAYE" SERIES. 

New and Enlarged Edition, with Coloured Frontispieces. Hand' 
sotnely bound in cloth boards. 

Mother's Boy. By M.B.Manwell. 

A Great Mistake. By Jennie 

Chappell. 

From Hand to Hand. By C. 

J. Hamilton. 
That Boy Bob. By Jesse Page. 

Buy Youp Own Cheppies. By 

J. \V. Kirton. 

Owen's Foptune. By Mrs. F. 

West. 

Only Milly ; or, A Child's King- 
dom. 
Shad's Christmas Gift, 
(ipeyeliffe Abbey. 

Red Dave ; or, What Wilt Thou 

have Me to do ? 

Happy's Monkey: How it Helped 
the Missionaries. 



SnOWdPOps ; or. Life from the 

Dead. 

Dick and his Donkey ; or, How 

to Pay the Rent. 

Hepbept's First Year at Bram- 

ford. 

Lost in the Snow; or, The 

Kentish hisherman. 

The Peaply Gates. 

Jessie Dyson. 

Maude's Visit to Sandybeaeh. 

Fpiendless Bob, and other Stories. 

Come Home, Mothep. 
Sybil and hep Live SnowbalL 
Only a Bunch of Cheppies. 
Daybpeak. 

Bpight Ben : The Story of a 
Wotner's Boy. 



THE MARiaOLn SERIES. 

An entirely new and unequalled series of standard stories, printed on 
good laid paper, /mperialivo. 12^ pages. Illustrated covers with 
vignetted design printed in EIGHT colours. Price 6d. each, nett. 



•Pride and Prejudice. By 

Jane Avsten. 

*From Jest to Earnest. By E. 

p. Roe. 



•The Wide, Wide World. 

Susan Warner. 



By 



CATALOGUE OF NEW &* POPULAR WORKS. 15 



4-dm oaohm 

MEW rOURPEMMY SERIES 

»f Cloth-bound Books for tJu Young, With Coloured Frontispieets. 



64 pajits. Well Illustrated. 

Poppy; or, School Days at 
bamt Bride's. 

Carrie and the Cobbler. 
Dandy Jim. 
A Troublesome Trio. 
Peppy's Pilgrimagre. 

Nlta ; or, Among the Brigands. 

THE TINY UBRARY. 

Books printed in 
Little ChPissle, and other Stories. 

Harry Carlton's Holiday. 
A Little Loss and a Big 

Find. 

What a LiUle Cripple Did. 

Bobby. 

Matty and Tom. 



Handsonu Cloth Covers. 

The Crab's Umbrella. 
Sunnyside Cottage. 
Those Barringrton Boys. 
Two Lilies. 
The Little Woodman and 

His Dog Caesar. 

Robert's Trust. 



for 



large type. Cloth. 

The Broken Window. 
John Madge's Cure 

BelflshnesB. 

The Pedlar's Loan. 
Letty Young's Trials. 
Brave Boys. 
Little Jem, the Rag Merchant. 



CHEAP "PANSY" SERIES. 



Ifnperial 2ivo. 
Five Colours. 



64 pages. Many Illustrations. Cover printed in 



*Spun From Fact. 
♦A Sevenfold Trouble. 
*A Young; Girl's Wooing. 
From Different Standpoints. 
Those Boys. 

Echoing and Re-echoing. 
Christie's Christmas. 
Wise to Win ; or, The Master 
Hand. 

Mrs. Solomon Smith Looking 

On. 



Links In Rebecca's Life. 

Chrissy's Endeavour. 

Three People. 

Interrupted. 

The Pocket Measure. 

Little Fishers and their Nets 

A New Graft on the Family 

Iree. 

The Man of the House. 
Tip Lewis and His Lamp. 



Also la others uniform in style and price. Full list on application. 



3dm oaohm 

THE PRETTY " OIFT-BOOK " SERIES. 

With Coloured Frontispiece, and Illustrations on every page. Paper 
boards, Covers printed in Five Colours and Varnished, ^d. ; cloth 
boards, 4</. each. 

My Pretty Picture Book. 
Birdie s Picture Book. 
Baiby's Delight. 



Mamma's Pretty Stories. 
Tiny Tot's Treasures. 
Papa's Present. 



Pretty Bible Stories. 

Baby'^s Bible Picture Book. 

Ethel's Keepsake. 

Out of School. 

Pictures for Laughing Eyes. 

Cheerful and Happy. 



i6 S. W. PARTRIDGE 6- CO:S CATALOGUE. 

ILLUSTRA TED MONTHLY PER IODICALS. 

Threepence Monthly. 
THE OSBORNE. 

An Entirely New Magazine of tact and Kiction for General Home Reading. 
Stories and Articles by S. R. Crockett, Lady J tune, Sarah Doudney, John Strange 
Winter, Mary Beaumont, C. J. Mansford, L. T. Meade, Evelyn Everett-Green, 
H. D. Lowry, Marv Kernahan, Dr. A. H. japp, Isabella Fyvie Mayo, A. E. Bonser, 
\V. Jerrold, etc. Illustrated by the best artists. First number ready October asrd. 



One Penny Monthly. 
THE BRITISH WORKMAN. 

An Illustrated Paper containing brightly-written Articles and Stories on 
Religion, Temperance, and Thrift, short Biographical Sketches of Selt-made 
Men, etc. 

The Yearly Volume, with Coloured paper boards, clcth back, and full of 
Engravings, is. 6d. each ; cloth, zs. 6d. 



One Halfpenny Monthly. 
THE BAND OF HOPE REVIEW. 

The Leading Temperance Periodical for the Young, csntaining Serial and 
Short Stories, Concerted Recitations, Prize Competitions, etc 

The Yearly Volume, with Coloured Cover and full of Engravings, cloth 
back, IS. ; cloth gilt, as. each. 



One Penny Monthly. 

THE CHILDREN'S FRIEND. 

The Oldest and Best Magazine for Children. Excellent Serial and Short 
Stories, Prize Competitions, Puzzles, Music, etc. A charming Presentation Plate, 
in colours, is given away with the January number. 

The Yearly Volume, Coloured paper boards, cloth back, is. 6d. ; cloth, as. ; 
gilt edges, zs. 6d. 



One Penny Monthly. 

THE INFANTS' MAGAZINE. 

Full »f charming Pictures and pleasant Rhymes to delight the little ones. 
Printed in large type. A splendid Coloured Presentation Plate given away with 
the January number. 

The Yearly Volume, in Coloured paper boards, cloth back, is. 6d. ; cloth, 
2S. ; gilt edges, 3s. 6d. 



One Penny Monthly. 
THE FAMILY FRIEND. 

A beautifully Illustrated Magazine for the Home Circle, containing Serial and 
Short Stories by the leading ^Titers of the day. Also crisply-written Articles on 
popular subjects, Notes on Dressmaking, etc. 

The Y^early Volume, with numerous Engravings, Coloured paper boards, 
cloth back, is. 6d. ; cloth, as. ; gilt edges, as. 6d. 



i 



One Penny Monthly. 

THE FRIENDLY VISITOR. 

AN ILLUSTRATED GOSPEL MAGAZINE FOR THE PEOPLE. 
Contains striking Gospel Stories and Articles, in large type, beautifully 
Illustrated. An invaluable help to District Visitors, Mission worlcers, etc 
The Yearly Volume, Coloured Cover, cloth back, is. td. ; cloth, as. ; gilt 
edges, as. 6d. 



8 6-9, PATERNOSTER ROW, E.C.