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Koi vroXXa /icV ycXoia fi ft- 

irctf, TToXXa dc cnrovdaw. Rati. 3S9. 






ilt>. Sis 




APC is. 1941 



J. HOUGH a ctirtuin chaia and connexion of ideas brings 
the " Clouds'" and " Frogs'" of Aristophanes in some ruspects in 
close proximity to each other, and consequently justifies the 
editor in making the one un immediate subject for examina- 
tion after the oth«'r, notliing eouM bo wider apart in other 
respects. Many a year and many an event had passed be- 
tween the two, lioys had beeome men, girls had changed 
into mothers, and of the thousands who had commen(le<l or 
found fault wjtli the Bret production, many hundreds had 
gone where morriment and objurgation arc alike unknown, 
before the second was perfonucd. Two things, however, re- 
mained as before : war, tiie temble Pel open nesian war, was 
atill raging without the walls of Athens, and the genius of 
Aristophanes — alike poweiful for anmsement andinwti'uction — 
was imparting its annual lessons within. Never had that 
geniuH manifested itself more powerfully thaik oit the present 
occasion, and whether politics or religion, literature or science 
were concerne<l, never was there a call upon that genius for 
greater energy and decision. 

Of that fatal compact, silently but not the less effectually 
made between Pericles and the Athenian people — the one 
bargiiining for anmsement, [►ay, outward splendour, and nomi- 
nfd sovereignty, the other contenting himsoll' with the posees- 
sion of unostentatious but real power, and secretly no doubt 
reserving to himself the right of transmitting that power 
under a more subst^mtial title to his children — the extrinsic 
<lecoi'ation was gradually wearing off, and the real deformity 
daily developing itself. The compact itself having been seoloil 

>y an act of the grossest spoliation and robbery, the nature 


of which we have fully explained in preceding volumes, the 
scourges of the gods, who then as now made scoui*g60 of 
men'^s pleasant vices to punish them withal, had fallen on the 
two contracting parties, while the wax was almost hot upon 
their parchments. War without and pestilence within were 
doing their work with both ; the children of Pericles sank 
beneath the latter, the father soon followed, leaving to the 
partners in his public guilt such legacy as their united folly 
and wickedness deserved. What the state of things was in 
Athens under his immediate successors, Cleon and Hyperbolas, 
former productions of Aristophanes have shewn us: these men, 
it is true, had disappeared : but what then f the vice was in the 
system — " another and another still succeeded,'" and to demo- 
cratic Athens " the last knave was welcome as the first."" At 
the period of which wo now write, the legitimate suoceasor 
of these two pestilent demagogues was a person of the name of 
CtBOPHON. Originally a maker of musical instruments, deariy 
not of true Attic origin (infr. 649.), and perhaps not even 
speaking the language con*ectly, the innate vices of the Athe- 
nian constitution had placed this man at the head of public 
af&irs ; and for a time at least, the life and fortunes of every 
man in Athens might bo said to hang upon his nod. What 
the state of those affairs was under such a domination is best 
learned from the pages of Xenophon, and the legal speeches 
of Isocrates and Lysias. Violent party-spirit — heart-burnings 
and jealousies— the disruption of all family and social ties — 
treacheries — commotions — exile — assassination and massacre 
— all the worst features of disorganized society meet us at 
every turn. How the case stood in regard to religious mat- 
ters, the play to which we now invite attention will be our 
best guide; but before examining it for that purpose, we 
must previously take a brief but general view of some of those 
departments of literature, which have thrown such a prestige 
over the name of Athens, and which to thoughtless minds 
seem to oiler a full equivalent for the many real evils whioh 
beset her. 


Oratory had evidently fallen from her high oAtato. That 
the clo<^uence of Cleophon waa of ua infoiior order, (and liis 
commanding position in the Cieneral Assembly necessarily 
obliges ns to look first to him,) is clear from tho little notice 
taken of it by contomponir}' writers. Without any pretence 
to the thunders and lightnings which Pericles had tlu'own 
into his addresses to the people, the eloquence of Cleophon 
soems to have been inferior even to tJie fluent and powerful 
oratory of Cleon. Of the other orators, Alcibiadcs had 
been and was in exile. Antiphon (if still living), Isocrates, and 
Lysias, were writing speeches for others, rather than delivering 
speeches thomselves ; and when they did deliver them, the law- 
courts rather than tho Assembly wore their scone of opera- 
tion. That Philosophy ha<l been making progress among tho 
lower classes of society, is evident from frequent allusions 
in the following play. The dramas of Euripides, who delighted 
to throw into his tragedies all his book-learning on these 
matters, (and besides what he luul learned orally from Anaxa- 
gorafl and Archelaus, his collection of '^treatises on philosophi- 
cal subjects nmst have put the whole science of the times 
pretty nearly at his command,) had taught much scientific 
mischief from the stage, while his follow-student Socrates waa 
still to be found, lis at the tinie <»f the Clouds'-exhibition, in 
every public place of Athens, imparting gratuitously to those 
who chose to be his auditors that kuowledge, which in tho 
higher classes of society was bought of foreign sophists at so 
high a price. Little mention is made of that remarkablo 
peraon in the onsuing drama, but in the little that does 
occur, it is observable that after a lapse of nearly ^ twenty 
years, his philosophy is still characterised as puerile and 
tritling, and more reumrkable for isuhtilt^ than any real in- 
atructinn. And happy had it been for the name of Socrates 
in [^articular, and of Philosophy in general, had the epithets of 

» Cf. infr. V. 1377. 

^ The '* Clouds'* were exhibiieil D. C. 4J3 : Uie 


Fmgi" D.C. 405. 


triflmg and mperfidcd been the only ones that could be with 
truth applied to it. It must have been at this very period, 
however, that he had been orally propounding those opinions, 
which his disciple Plato soon afterwards thought proper to 
reduce to writing, opinions so extraordinary, and we may even 
add, so atrocious, that whatever sway the word Philosophy 
may have over vulgar and credulous minds, men of sense will 
carefully observe and consider what is recommended to them 
under that specious name, before they give it their sanction 
or support. Why Aristophanes should have made those 
opinions the subject of merriment and satire in a play, which 
among our present remains of him follows the " Frogs^ 
in point of time, without naming either the philosopher who 
originated, or the philosophic pupil who took the trouble to 
hand them down to posterity, it will be time to inquire, when 
that play, or rather some portions of it, (the nature of the 
satire rendering the whole of it inadmissible into the present 
publication,) come before us for consideration. 

If oratory and philosophy wore no very attractive garb at 
Athens, when the exhibition of the Aristophanic " Frogs" 
took place, it was still worse with the drama, at least with 
that graver department of it, from some scanty portions of 
which many readers derive their whole notions of Attic policy 
and Attic manners. Of the great Three, who had hitherto 
supported it in such extraordinary splendour, JSschylus had 
been gathered to his fathers about half a century before, and 
his two successors had very recently gone to that world of spirits, 
where intellectual as well as adventitious greatness has to 
answer for the use or otherwise of what has been entrusted to 
both for the sole benefit of fellow-men. Their departure seems 
to have been a signal for all the unfledged coxcombs of Athens 
to rise in a body and say, " Let us write for the « stage !" What 
debauches were committed on the public mind at Athens by 

c Cf. infr. 86, iq. 



detached individuals under the iiifluonot! of such a spirit, we 
aro little concerned to inquire : our business is to see what 
effect this eollectivo folly had upou the mind of Aristophanes. 
To broak such buttorilies upon a wheel, was of course a task 
unworthy of that pectus talents; but tins sudden decadence 
of dramatic power — a deca<lence as striking as its ori^nal 
outburst ha<i been — naturally led Ins thouglits to by-gone 
days, and the result was — the production before us. To bring 
the mighty dead before his countrymen, as the living offered 
no attractions for that purpose — to contrast past and present 
dramatic schools in the persons of ^Eschylus and Euripides — 
to dis])el prejudices and misconceptions, and to settle finally 
in the minds of his oountr}inen where in such productions 
they might look not only for the soundest intellectual enjoy- 
ment, but also for the best guides in political and religious 
knowledge, were evidently among the primary objects, which 
gave birth to the comedy known to us by the title of the 
'• Frogs :*" and at first sight n<>thing further seems re<|uired for 
a full enjoyment of tliat drama, than a general knowledge of the 
productions of the two contending parties, the subjects on which 
those productions were founded, the characters which predo- 
minated in them, the seutinveiit^ which pervaded them, and such 
outer forms of diction, metre, and music, as clothe the dia- 
logue or choral odes. Hut a little further acquaintance with 
the play itself will shew that this is far from satisfying oil 
the phenomena of the piece, and tliat an under-current is 
perpetually at work, which it becomes necessary to account 
for, as well as that which lies upon tlie surface. To an expla- 
nation of that under-current we now uddi'ess ourselves, and 
offer such elucidations as our ability will a<lmit. 

Whatever knowledge of ancient worship and divinities other 
works of antiquity may require for their due understanding and 
enjoyment, a general acquaintance with the rites of Ceres and 
Bac4;huB is indispensably necessary, before we can in any way 
appreciate the Frogs of Aristophanes, Without some know- 
ledge of the outer forms of both, many single expressions of 




the poet will be whollj enigmatical to as, and without a strong 
feeling of the inward and widelj different genius of both, it 
will be impossible to comprehend thoroughly, why in the dra- 
matised i^schylus and Euripides, as they exhibit thomselvefl 
in the following play, the name of the first is by every pos- 
sible contrivance connected with the sacred and mysterious ritee 
of Eleusis, while the latter is made the favourite, and, as it 
were, immediate prot^g^ of the wine-god in his own proper 
person. Before we proceed therefore to an examination of 
the play itself, it will be necessary to advert more or less 
lai^ly to the two worships themselves — to the necessities or 
causes out of which they grew — the countries which gave them 
birth — and a knowledge of their general natures and diversi- 
ties : and finally we must examine, whether at the time the 
" Frogs^ was exhibited, proceedings in regard to both these wor- 
ships had been in operation, which divided the little world of 
Athens as much in regard to religious as to theatrical opinions. 
When we consider how close a veil antiquity tlirew over 
most of these ^points — the severe penalties which awaited 
any open profanation of s mysterious rites, and the jealousy 
with which the remotest allusion to them was viewed, it can- 
not be supposed that at this time of day we can unravel all 

f Hence (and some opinions of the learned Creuzer, to which attention will be 
hereafter called, make it necessary to impress the passages on the reader^s mind) 
Aristophanes, when speaking of £/nmman, Euripides, when speaking of Baechia 
mysteries, observe : 

Xo. oS tr40€U ip^fffrtov Upw, Xmt 
fivara^Kos Z6fios 
h TcArruir oyuui Ayo^c^ovroi. 

Arist. Nub. 30s. 

no*. r& V 6py^ itrrl rtr' A/ev ffx"*^ "' 1 
Ai. ippijT* ^Saxxcfirouriv tUidvai ^poratp. 
HcK. fx*^ ^ Smjarar rourt B^wrly rtni ; 
Ai. oh 0i/us iumvfftd a*, (ari S* &^i* tW4ptu. 

Eurip. Bacch. 471, 
t Astnmger proof of this cannot he given than in the well known case of Alci- 
biades. As this incident in Attic history is illustrative of Arislophanic Comedy 
in more points than one, a full account of it will, if possible, be given io the 
Appendix (A.) 


thoir difficulties; but onough, wo think, can bo oolJocted to 
throw Bomo additional light, and conaequently some additional 
interest, upon this valuable drama^ and also evince that in the 
part whirh Aristophanes took, when tho religious inU'rests of 
his country were at stakt\ ho is as much entitled to our 
rospoot and admiration, aa in tho side which ho joined in re- 
gartlto her political institutions. Even as concoms that little 
interlude, which gave a name to the following play, and which 
no doubt is uppermost in a readcr^s mind tho moment the 
play it>8oir is named, something perhaps may result from our 
infjuiricH to shew, that it is less nf an extravagance, and has 
nioro reference to the actual business of the drama, than ha*t 
been usually supposed; but much and far more important 
business must be discussed, before we come to a matter com- 
paratively so trifling. 

*' The more 1 investigate the ancient history of tho world," 
Bays tho excellent Schlogel, " tho more I am oonvinoed 
that the civilised nations set out from a juxro woi-ship of the 
Supreme Being ; tliat tho magic power of nature over the 
imagination of tho suocessivo human races, first, at a later 
period pnxluced polytheism, and Rnally, altogether obscured 
the more spiritual religious notions in the popular holief ; while 
tho wise alone ]>rc8erve<l within tho sanctuary the primeval 
secret. Hejice mythologj' appears to me the last developed, 
and most changeable part of the old religion."" (SSMpel guot^id^ 
Quart, Rev. No. CXXV. p. 124.) 

In which of two forms the first departure from a spiritual 
worship of tho Deity would make its appearance, a little re- 
flection will easily tell us. The idea of real Deity being once 
obliterated, the feelings and appetit<'fi of mankind, as Virgil ha8 
intimato<l, would naturally become aa deities to them ; and of 
these the two most urgtmt were necessarily those which con- 
cern the support and prGi«ervation of human life. Hence on 
anxious and reverential look to that earth, from which pro- 
ooodcd tho materials for tho craving wants of nature, and 
to those skyey influences, which from some mysterioua cause 


seemed as operative in bringing the parturient labour of 
the soil into complete birth. That this feeling should first 
have embodied itself in an Egyptian divinity, equivalent to the 
Demeter, or Mother^Earth of Greece (^ Herodot. II. ^9.). might 
be expected from the manner in which the land of Egypt was 
supplied with her chief article of subsistence ; but from literary 
reasons, which it is unnecessar}' to specify more minutely, it is 
to the soil of Greece that we are to look for a fuller developer 
ment than the Egyptian Isis affords, of the feeling connected 
with the entire subject, viz. that death of nature, which during 
a certain period of the year prevails in every country more or 
less, and that rejuvenescence, when all again seems to revive 
from the transient dissolution into which it has been thrown. 
In conformity with this theory, (and the earlier scenes of 
the present drama, utterly unintelligible Without a perfect 
understanding of it, must be our apology for entering into it), 
the Grecian Demeter appears, and not merely in poetry, as the 
mother of two children, the one representative of the joyous, 
the other of the mournful principle of nature; the first 
hanging at a maternal breast, swoln with the full tide of 
■life, and drinking largely at its fount; the latter lost for a 
time to that mother'^s love, buried in the depths of earth, and 
consequently an object to her of deep solicitude and anxiety. 
The mournful principle has long been, or rather ought to have 
been long known to us, under the name of *f Persephone : — how 
long is the joyous one of Iacciius to be confounded with the 

1> Add the invocation of Uie Egyptian chonu in jEschylus : 
fia Fa, /ia Fa, 0ow 
^04pbv ifw6Tp«w€. Suppl. 866. 875. 
So also the Orphic verse quoted by Diodonu (1. 1 2.) : F^ fiip^p irdvTwVf Arin^fmjp 

i At gemiiia et mammosa, Ceres est ipsa ab laccho. Lucret. IV. 1162. Cf. 
Suidas in roc. Creuzer*s Symbol. III. 337^-9. 

k Tl€part^yij {tp4pttP 4)6¥0¥), death-bringer. Our unfurtunate habit of express- 
ing heathen divinities by Ronum instead of Grecian namot, (and it L* not the only 
evil of making the stxidy of Latin authors anterior to that of Greek authors,) makes 
uSj while using the tenn Proserpine, lose sight of the meaning which ought Ut 
aUadi to the word. 



name of a deity, with whom ho originally had nothing in com- 
mon, and from wliom, if we wisli to have correct notions of 
antiquity in general, and of the proceedings of Aristophanes 
in tile following dnima in particular, we nmst loam to sepor 
rate him wi<ie aa the poles 'apart t 

1 Hov aod why lacchtu is tlinuc out of His proper place in the following ode 
of the Bacchic RuHpiiles, the ruider will lietter undeniUiitd, when the rvligioiis 
opinions nnd oliji*clH <if that piiet have l>een fully laid Itcrorc him. The ode, 
inoKt lieiiutifiil it tniut lie ailinitted in itsulf, mxiint tti the poctN * Helen,* having 
little or i»o reference either to what preci*di'a or fiillows it, hiiU ovideutly thnist in 
to MTVc Brttne pitrpoK* of thn day. Ueeply iUiistmting, however, ur it do«» the fnre- 
going theory ofu dmiMu prindple in exlertiul nmlurc — the winter death, and the 
vt'nml nsurrection — we insert aa Diiich of it as hiis referenee to our present view, 
leaving the renuunder to be (viil>odie>l, where it will find a moro nppropriute 

'Op«(a irori ipOfjjUi tctiKtf 

iuf' vAavra vdnj 

fiap^&po^iSv rt KVfi cLAiop 

iiftfrtrrov ito^^pas- 

Btfpwv ihf ^uylovs 
^f^^offa Btk irar/vat , 

XOpttv /{or vapOtvimy 
fttrdi KovfKH d«AA($ir(f8fr 
& fiir r^ots ^ApT*fitt, a S* 
'*' ^X'* fopT* irdvcnrAoi* 
«tiy6.(wf T V{ oitptwtuv 

fiAAoV (KHptV txptUP*. 

udnip (waufft •K^pmr, 
fta/rrtvauffa iripovs 
Btfyarphs ii(nra'fat SoXfuus, 
Xiofo$p4ntA»i'ds y' iitipcko* 
'JSoiov Hvn^v OKonids' 

wirpwa Kari ipia iroAiwi^fa* 
fiportnat 8* &x^'"^ wtita yat 
oil itapniiova' ifiAron 


But the case of a double principle, a joyous and a mournful 
one, did not end in Greece with the mere external changes of 
nature. The inner world of man was found to have its varia- 
tions, as well as the outward frame of nature round him. 
The being, late so gay, suddenly droops, and medical skill 
cannot tell why. Dreadful visions haunt his couch, and the 
earth, which late had fostered him as a mother, now borrows 
a 1° fury-form, and seems anxious to shake him from her bosom. 
What has occasioned this dreadful change ? The sting of guilt 
is at his heart, the wrath of an avenging power has been 
awakened : " And are there no means,*" the sufferer asks him- 
self, " of appeasing an offended Deity, or will another life con- 
tinue the torments which have so terribly begun in this T The 
Being, who framed the heart to ask these questions of itself, 
did not leave them to be asked in vain even in the heathen 

iro(/ivai5 8' o&x ^*' ^aXtpiiS 
fioaicas fv^^Wuv iKbtwf 
voXtfMv 8* Aw4\«twf 0iof, 
ohV ^BOf 9*&¥ 0vtriai, 
fivftois T* &^Affirroi v^Aaiw** 
mryds T* ^wa^tt Upoatpits 
KtuKipv 4it&a\tiy vHdruw 
v/v0ffi irouSits dAiicrrcvp. 
iwfl S' iwaw^ tiXiswiwas 
Btots ^pvrtUf Tc yivttf 
Zf^f fitt?Jaffctv ffrvylous 
fien-phs ofyyiu 4y4mi, 

^'noi BvtM<rafi4y^ 
\6iray dXAii^aiT' ii\aXf, 
MoMTof d' Sjuvouri X**P^' 

Ti^araya Xd$rrt ffupeortrri.** 
KoAAftrra rArt wp&ra puutipmv 
KvTTpis yiKoffi r* Bth 
8/{aT<i T* fij x*P**' 
$etp'&0pofior a^A&F 

Tcp^9(iir* &AaAa7/i^. Helen, i.pi, sq. Cf. infr. p. 77. 
m The Demeter-Erinnvn, 

world, at all events in that portion of it with which we aru beat 
acquainted : and tho same three imaginary Deitiea, whom Attic 
poets introduced to explain the changes of the external world, 
Attic prioBtsand logislators called in to satisfy tho more fear- 
ful uialudioB of the moral world. Leaving it to other writers 
to describe more minutely the nine days'* rites and ceremo- 
nii'8 which took place annually at Athenfi or at Kleusis for 
tl^is "pui-posL", we content oorselvos with observing gene- 
rally, that those of thu first five were each as a soul 111 at 
cose, and anxious to reconcile itself with an offended Deity, 
found to be the beet adapted to tlie purpose — fasting, sacri- 
fico, and pniyer — lustrol rites by tiro and water — and, it 
may be, confession of sins. But the sixth day arrives, and 
all is changed : tho expiatory rites are over — the load of pre- 
sent guilt and sorrow is removed — the glad name of I^l-chub 
resounds from mouth to mouth — the joyous procession is 
formed, wliich with the image of iacchus preceding, transports 
so large a body of worshipjx'rs from Athens to Eleusis, feast 
and dance consuming the hours there, till night arrives, and 
solemn rovelntioua assure tho Usteners not only that sins, <luly 
expiated, ore forgiven, but that a new life and luippier 
scenes await the departed "good, and that consetjuently whe- 
ther death or a futiu'e and eternal life are in their thoughts, 
those thoughts might rest in peace and ° hope. 

B) 8t. CrcMx, nfyit^rcsdti Pngnnwme, !• 31 >■ iq. Creuwr's Synibolik IV. 514, sq. 
n C'f. inrr.431 — 433. Aud ftdd ihe tieaiictfiil rrogment In S«)])hoclMt 

muni ^poTMr, ol ravra Ztpx^ifrtt WAii 

/t^AiMf' it "At^v TourS* y^ fidrota /«■« 

{pf ^(ttI, roi% S' &AAouri wdjrr* ^k*T Koxd* 

(fr. 719. ap. Dind) 
'• Ttii' iHifMJip.* of iMicTiiteK, in whirl) Utti nentirncfit occun, 1% almivt tiMi weH 
known to Deed iiinvticm. A^nnrpof yd^p a^imn^mis tis r^f x^h*^* ^* ^Atu^^fil 
Tijj Kti^t apwatr^tioTis, Jtai wpiti raitt wpoy^ifovi i}fi£y lA^rvolf 9iaT«6(i(n)s rf« tw 
tiftpytffmy At o&x °^^^ '"'* AaAoic 4 to^> fiffivrtfidvoit hca^tp, frol Hoo^t 8»^c&f oTvcp 
firytirrat rvy\^MOviTi¥ o^cu, roi/i rr xofwuitt, a\ rov ^.^ tTi^iwSwt i^v i^m«* afrwM 
yryAwvai, nm TTf** ttKvr^p, ^s ol firrafTx^'^*^ **P^ ''^ '^r tw j3fopT«A«rr^t jccb tow 
<rvfiwayTai o/wi'dt ^Si'ui/i toi MvfSor txovaw, k. r. i. Istrc. Puiieg. 46, a. F«r the 
expreM»iuri rov cv^-wx^yrvf aiifos, rompure Ivk, 50, h. 1 3K, b. 3 18, c. 




That many of the outward ceremonies connected with Eleu- 
fiinian rites came to Athens from Egypt, there can be little 
doubt; whether the higher revelations just commemorated, 
(and for which alone, be it observed, we have positive and 
satisfactory testimony, all the rest that learned men have said 
upon the subject, being mere conjecture,) we take not at 
present upon ourselves to say. In terming this worship of 
Eleusis, as we shall frequently be found to do in the follow- 
ing notes, the aristocratic worship of Athens, nothing more 
is meant than this : that though we can never get at an 
accurate knowledge of what those rites contained, yet enough 
of them has transpired to shew, that they propagated doc- 
trines, which any body of men, on whom the responsibi- 
lities of government, and consequently the maintenance of 
good morals lay, were bound studiously to maintain ; an elec- 
tive aristocracy, because, as the very name implies, they had 
been selected from those, by supposition the best and most 
virtuous, for such very purposes ; an hereditary aristocracy, 
because in addition to the demand for the performance of 
the same solemn duty, there was the superadded obligation of 
gratitude for privileges conferred rather for ancestral merits, 
than for actual merits of their own. Why Aristophanes has 
in the following play made the poet ^^E^hylus the apparent 
representative of this aristocratic worship, it will be time to 
consider when the pfyjhahle as well as actually known revela- 
tions of these mysteries come to be investigated, as also some 
peculiar circumstances in the poet's birth, his position in 
society, and the tendency of his writings in reference to this 
point. (Appendix F.) 

If the opening scenes of the following drama required this 
brief notice of Eleusinian rites, those which follow oblige us to 
enter into much larger details respecting a worship of a widely 
different nature, a worship highly democratic in its character, 
and which, in the true spirit of its parent, we shall find, if 
we are not mistaken, eventually thrusting itself into ground, 
where it ought never to have been allowed to place its foot. 



Though far from sharing in tliat profound admiration whicli 
many evidently feel for Egj'ptian wistloni, (and our reasons 
we could largely give if necessary,) we love, like others, to 
linger along its mystic stroaui ; and to efifoct that puq>08e, 
(but not without the strictest attention to the general illusti'a- 
tion of the following drama, which wo arc bound ever to keep 
in view,) wo hero venture to take a step in chorography, 
which wo cannot presume to think that the D'Anvilles of tho 
day will much approve. 

Taking tho common map of CoUarius, which stands as the 
twenty-eighth in his collection, and is headed, " Oriens, Per- 
sia, India, &o." we venture to place in its south-western 
comer as much of ancient Egypt as reache<l to its " hundred- 
gated'' Thebes, and consequently to two hills contiguous to 
the Nile, the one on its eastern, the other on its western 
bank. (Synosius do Provid. p. 94.) And now what does our 
imaginary map present ? On tho northern part we have that 
great mount;iin-chain, whit-li rmder the names of Caucasus or 
the Himalayas lias of hiU* ud<l<.'d so much to our geograpliical 
knowledge, but where at present we must bo content to see 
nothing more than tho ancient Mem, or that portion of tho 
mountain-chain, which antiquity considered as the p birthplace 
of (Jm Grecian wine-god with whom we f*hall have to deal so 
largely in the following pages. In oiu- southern boundary 
we are confined to an equally narrow view. Of tho two 
hills, which we have established there, ami the nival and 
sacerdotal ceremonies which took place upon *ithem, our 
limits oblige us merely to say that they derived their origin 
from that Osiris, who as a 8un-gu<l and a Nile-god (Cr. 
Symb. I. 289. 290-1, &c.) is confessedly the same with 
the Grecian ' Dionysus ; the latter deity, though more 

P Cmixer'i SyintwL J. 5.U' 583-4* nJ.98. 121-2. Kju%A. Dinn]*s. jk 94. 
<l For ft brief but interf*tiiig Account of thoo cercinonirA, see Creu&er** Cuni- 
meni. in Herotlot. p. 97. 
r Uerodol. H. 42. 144. 

ira) Atyvwr lov Atot^ov 

Nonn. INonyB. IV. i6g. 



ooiBiiKnily considered as the great emblem of * fluidity, and 
more particularly of the vinous fluid, appearing not 1«m 
frequently in ancient poetry as the principle of solar 'heat. 
Nor do we lose sight of these two corresponding deities 
on the eastern or western sides of our imaginary map. 
On the former run those four great nvers, on the banks <^ 
which, as well as those of the Nile, is found the mystic and 
° homed moon-bride of the Egyptian god, (the Indian Bhavani 
BO closely reminding us there of the Egyptian Isis,) while the 
latter carries us along a geographic lino, having at its top 
that Colchis, from which came the sun-children, of whom we 

Bacchus et afflictis requiem monalibus affert, 

Crura licet dura oompede pulsa «onent. 
Non cibJ sunt tristes cune, iu9C luctus, Osiri, 
Sed dionis, et cantus, et leris aptus amor. 

TibuU. I. 7.41. 
For other proofs of ideutity between the two, as both being intermediate qarit% 
or gods bom in the flesh, both sun-signs, both possessing in common the iry, the 
^yrsus, &c. see Creuzer*s Symb. I. 297. III. 91. 139. 137. CreuE. Comment, ia 
Herodot. 19. 356-7, &c: 

• PluC de Isid. et Osirid. p. 495. "Ori tA ob {Uvov rov oXvmi Aufitwor, hXXk ml 
vdffi}t wypfii ^titrcwf "EAXijvcf ifyovprm k.t. i. IWd. 493. Kal yAp'ZXktfwts — rir 
Aufyivov *Yf;p itaXowrw &s itiiptop Tris intpSa ^^cwr, o^ irtpor Atrra tov 'Otrtpu 
9os, See also Creuzer*s Symbol. III. 87. 96-7. 102, sq. 124. Bionys. 150. The 
following passage from Bochart is left for the reader to set his own ralue upon. 
The learned writer, when considering the numerous names of nations, citJea, 
rivers, &c. which the Oredu borrowed from the Phomidan language and adiqtted 
to their own, obeerres : " Ita ex JIfopA feoere Memp/un, ex Botra Byrtamy . . . 
ex torrente Jabok Jobaechum, &c** De Phoenicum coloniis, p. 346. On Osiris, 
as a principle of fluidity, see Creuzer^s Dionysus, 1 1 3, sq. : as a sun-god, Czeu~ 
ser*8 Symbfd. I. 379, sq. Comment, in Herodot. p. 123. 

*■ Henoe the language of the Orphic remains ; *HAi0t, tw AUiwrow MicX^nm 
KoXiowriv, sajnone fragment of the remains of that poet, (Macrob. Satur. I. x8.) 
ikiAvwros S* hrtitK-fiByiy \ t^txa Jtafterai KVt' iurtlpopa fjuucphy^OXvfiworf says anotiiflr 
fragment, (Macrob. ibid.) ETs Zths, tls 'AtJhiSf tit 'HKios, *Ts At6rwros, aaya a 
third. Hoioe too in the Orphic Hymns, among the many epithets ascribed to 
Bacchus, not a few are derived, as might be expected, from the beeve — '* bull- 
faced"—" bun-foreheaded"— " bull-homed"—" horn-bearing," &c.— the epithet! 
themselves being evidently derived from astronomical causes. Hh. 30. 45. 5a. 53. 
Cf. Eur. Bacch. 100. 618. 918-20, &c. See also Creuzer's Dionys. 4a Syxobol- 

" Creuzer's Symbol. 1. 613, sq. See also IV. 15. 70. 96. 179. 227-8-9. 930^ 
1-3-9. '4^* Among the most curious and interesting myths relating to this 
subject may be mentioned that of the ^ryptim king Mycerinus (Herodot. IL 
129— 133.^ and the Cretan PasiphaP,&c. both referable to the cow as the emUon 
of moon-wonhip, as the boll was of scdar-worship. 



Ahall presently briefly epeak; in its oouti-e exhibiting that 
double luountaln-cliain, wliich in its emblematic naniu of Tau- 
rus refers equally to a god of wino and a god of solar * hoat, 
and terminating in a counti^, which we whall f^ub«t><|ucntly 
liavo to oontemphvto as the verj' hot-bed where uU the vicee, 
produced by their joint worship, grew in rank and foul 
luxuriance. But before we come to the picture's darker 
side, let us bo allowed to dwell for a moment on it« brighter 

If a bridal bed were sought for the first of the four "«iored 
marriages" whicli antiquity was wont to celebrate, that of 
Uranus and Cliea, or Heaven and Eartli, that bed is surely 
found in the glowing scene wc have just ilisplayed : but our 
business is less with the wedded pair, ttian with that luminary 

» It wvn\d he to vrnte a roluine. not « note, tn eot^r fully upon tliift qiiesiion^ 
and fthenr how tbrmighout rarioui rdigioru of ihe old world, the tieer was the 
embUin of n sun-god, ti gwl of ivini*, and oocwioimlly of a Venus, or f^deu of 
liirr. After f^ivlng one or two explanations of the meaning of this mjnh, wc must 
content minielvea with graetml referrnctst. llciTniai in Pinion. I'ha^r. : yttiatrnt 
TOf {Ti^/^AoF^Tat'/wr.Cnnix.Coninienuin llerodnt. p. 145. " MRlurnautem vere* 
fjuando renasopntia vita> plena sunt mnnla, in hovin Hiderei dnniicilio vil lunic cupu* 
Ixtnr; unde reruoi semiaa ivduudant in terrani. Nihil igitur mmiro, ubi sta- 
tionis rim spoctea, iinednre iotelligi, qui fiat, ut in vetcrum n'ii^DnibiiM bos «t 
ram sidereorum etiain artucntonini grej^mque agmina diu%rr dirantur. See 
further Crras. Symbol. I. 585, 709. 744-6-7-8. 750-1. 7'>4-5. 780. 11. 66. 301. 
III. 87. 9.V4. 104 ii3-'4- '7»-7- 3'>)-<o* 34^7-**- 36'- 37J-^' 4!!0-!-2_6. 
466-7. IV. 17.37. 55. 70. 107. III. M0-1-7-S-9. 154. aaS. 29i_3_4-7. 300. 
Creiia. Dionrii. 7. 9. 11. m. 10. 7f,o. 167. t'^-S. 182. Creux. Comment, in tie* 
rodot. 113. 114. 1-23-5, '44-5* '5'" Clem. Alex. Siroin. V.671. Among thwe 
numerou!) refereneei wtt ahouM he unpardonable, if wc did not particularixo the Pcr- 
«iaii \Vurid-»tteer Abudad, ** otit nf whtvc horns grew fniiis, out of his htood^ 
ffrapcs, and out of hin tail five and twenty spedps of com, t^ say nothing of various 
kinds of garlic which came from bis nose." (Creuz. Synib. 1.74^).) Among the works 
of art illuicru live of this subject may be mentioned the beautiful VMe,(Vaaede Dor- 
say, in Um Imperial Museum at Paris,) on which Ba4t-hun appears with the steer- 
head and steer^feeC, armed with a club, and leading one of the Pleiades, the 
olbcr liateni follnwing in order. See also the plate in (Jrruzer't Dionysus, where 
ft femaJe is placing a rhAplot on the broil of tho IlAcrhns-l tplMin^ or the atear waiik 
hurann * face. 

* Though ilie »teer is the oonstellation, in which Cwxbua 
appears in Grecian poetry, yet occasionally he is found inochersignaof t2k« ZodiM> 
Hence in tlie DaccJue of Lunpides, 1015 : ^drrr&i raii^r, ^ iroA^Kpayoi /Sfr**— 
S^xUwr, 1} vvpt/^K^^v I 6pfuT0a.i \4tiv. Cf. Cretiz. SymU I. 783. III. 309-10. 
Dion. 973. iX. aSi. C<nQment. in Herodot. 356-7. 



who neoessarily stood paranymph on the occasion. Bel, 
Baal, Osuia, Horus, Mithras, Melek, Adrammelech, Sohid, 
Eorschid, Ehora Mezdao, ' King," ' Lord," ' Illustrious Sove- 
reign,' ' Lord of the variegated robe,** ' Beautiful,' ' Heavenly 
of heavenlles,' — ^his titles sufficiently indicate in what estinui- 
tion he was held in those glowing regions. All about them 
savours of reference to him. Cities of the sun, cities of light, 
cities of fire, meet us at every turn ; and if among them is 
found a city of y lilies, it has no more right to draw us from 
solar ideas by its white petals, than the white steeds which 
crowded the royal studs of the same metropolis, and wliidh 
for their beauty might no doubt have been as well hameased 
to the chariot of the god of day as those celestial steeds whidi 
poetry has assigned him. (Ovid. Metaph.) The ^'land of light,'* 
as one portion of it was more particularly z named, what should 
the children of this favoured portion of the globe be in ttiea 
immediate appellations, or in the mythical tales connected with 
them ! Her sons ore heroes, " who open the gates of day ;'* 
(Creuz. Symb. IV. 59.) her daughters children of Aurora and 
the dawn, — iEthra, Phano, Lampo, Telephassa the far-shining, 
Phsedra the bright, Leucothea*, of the atmospheric dawn, 
Ariadne or i> Aridela, the ray-emitling. The land of light, on 
what should the golden rays of light fall but on the same pre- 
cious metal, or myths which remind us of it — cities of gold and 
soils of cgold — ^golden fleeces and golden streams — fathers of 

7 Sasa, the Shuthan of the Bible, to called frcna the number of lUiea 
grev thne. Creuz. Symb. 1. 461. 

■ Penia. " Pabs oder Pares war ja sdbst das Lxcutlakd, die heOe und 
retne Pronnz, und Parsi telbst heiait der Ki^&z, so wie ZonMSter der OoU- 
strahlende." Creuz. Symb. 1. 713. 743. 

' The Matuta, or mormag-^dess of the Romans. (Grid. Fast. VI. 545.) 
For the suppoeed origin of ^e Rmnan ladies excluding all femate domcatios tram 
her ritea, except one, who paid for her admission by having her ears wdl boond, 
see Creuzer*s Symb. IV. 30. 

^ Aridela, accxnrding to Hesychius (1. 539. Albert), was the Cretan name of dns 
favourite mistress of Bacchus. The name appears to allude to the golden crow% 
set with Indian gems, which darted light through the Cretan labyrinth, and 
enabled Theseus to find his way out of it. 

c The reader may consult MiUin*8 Magaz. Encyd. an. IX. T. VI. 47a 
where the Egyptian Canobua is explained by Silvestre de Sacy as KA*HNOUB, 
(Cah Annnb) the golden aoU, 



gold, (Crouz. Sytnb. IV. 45.) and races of gold (Ibid.), from 
him of tho golden •* sword to her of tho golden shower — from 
Anubis the golden dog (Oreuz. I. 364.) to Zerdusht tho golden 
fitar(1.667.); from sun-cups of *^ gold, to ^sun-tablesof tho same, 
(Herodot. III. 18.) It is a golden dagger which in tho hand 
of Dschemschid there splits the oarth to make it fruitful 
(Creuz. I. 750. 792. 11.233. IV. 58. 66.): it is in clouds of gold 
that the gods take cognizance of what is passing on its surface ; 
and if we except the mode in which the smaller divisions 
of time were marked out by the beautiful but shy gazelle 
(Oreuz. 1,368.), its larger divisions seem to have scorned a 
less noble reference. The seven golden planetary lamps traced 
out the Oriental week : the period of twenty-five years was 
marked by the golden flash which fell from heaven to im- 
^ pregnate the mystic mother of the future Apis (Oreuz. I. 
437-) ' * golden circle, 365 yards in circumference, and bear- 
ing the royal name of Osymandyas, marked out the progress 
of the solar year (Ibid.) ; while tho bird of the sun, the golden- 

'' On the Chrysaor, or man of tlie golden mrord, «eo Creuz. Symb. II. 433, 
■q. 719. IV. 65. 995>6. On the Ceres of the gtriden sword, IVt 190. 

■ The funoiiR eAittem fUR'.cup, tieariog the nune of Gi&m, and implying a globe 
or looking-gUss, na well a.t cupt and anigned Co all great men of the Kut, ai 
Jmephi Solomon, DBchem, Alexander the Great, leems Co hare had iu rise 
from the dirintog^up of Joseph. On the iuhject of this ciip, (which C'nMizer 
evidently conttders as in no ttlight degree connected with Boechin ritei,) see 
HerbeJot, Bibliotfa. Orient, s. v. Giam. Cretixer*» Dionysus, pp. 27. 35. 41. 2^4- 
15. 336. 367. 389. Symbol. IU. 434-5-7-8-9. 441.463-4. IV. 61. Zo^gn(li Bns- 
urilie^'i antirh. sect. 1. nr. 8.) exhibtta (apparently from umc ■aroophagiu) the 
Bacchic cup carried triumphantly on a car, the lynxea being led by a femnle 
%tire, whom he luppme* to he ^fethA, or Pninkenne&i^ and the car holding, he- 
•iden the cup, a captive Ilind<io. Two uUjti follow, Urnding nn elepliant, on 
which is seated another o^itive Hindoo. 

' " Qiind Aiitetn ante conjee! de sperulo et cratere Liber! patrii ah ultima India 
usque ad Onecoa traducto, firmatur en fUfpido fubiiln quadam Indies apnd Paul- 
liniUD a S. fiortholom. in Systpm. Brahman, p. 103. qun sic hubeC: In sacro illo 
Deonun monto Uahameru (Mero) duaiiciJiuin consUluiue Deiun Ischwnnun, 
(qtti alibi et Sdilwa et Deraniihi, quod nomen ad hiiwcov proxisne accedere Paul- 
Uno videturj) aim tabtUa gemmii raripguta, in qna mcdin lotus, innnto trianguin, 
unde omnia gignantur, quaoimque hiK renun nntnra cnntineal, &c. &c.** Crenr.. 
Dion. p. 94. This lun-tabte appeoni to Oorres to have found its way into some 
of tlie oldeal of German legendary poetry. A fen* spcciTOens in proof will be found 
in ilie w<H-k Just qunteil. 


feathered plia>nix, shewed by his arrival at the solar temple, 
that the great period of 1461 years was expired (lb. 438. 
441.). and that the solemn conflagration was about to tales 
place, when the old state of things would be dissolved, and 
a renewal of universal nature succeed. (lb. 370.) 

Though the intimate connexion between a sun-god and a 
wine-god in the same person, (the reader must not forget that 
in the following drama the two are brought before him in 
separate persons, the one directly in tliat of Bacchus, the 
other less directly in that of s Hercules,) though this inti- 
mate connexion might excuse us for dwelling still longer <m 
a solar god, yet as our more immediate business lies with 
tliat deity whose peculiar gift bears singularly enough nearly 
the same name throughout the ^ world, we quit, though not 
in company which we altogether approve, this glowing p<Mr- 
tion of the world for regions of heat still more intense. 
The reader must now suppose himself in the six upper signs 
of the Zodiac ; and what does he find there ? If the new 
Platonists are to be believed, — but we open not our ears so 
widely to their tales as the learned Creuzer is apt to do, and 
for reasons which we shall afterwards explain, — he is among 
myriads of celestial spirits, who, as men of poetic minds will 
instantly surmise, could have no other task but that of ** help- 
ing Hyperion to his horses.'" Had such been the case, the 
Grecian Bacchus would have had a sinecure office, far more in 
character with him than the troublesome functions which Pro- 
clus and Plotinus, and other such learned fabulists, have pro- 
vided for him. But before we install our wine-god in the 
functions thus assigned him, we must furnish him vnth the 

e Gn the Som-Herciilea, as the personification of the year.cyc]e of 365 daya, 
and his connexion with solar worship, see inter alia Creux. Symb. I. 363, 436. 
II- 33-4- ni. 56. 86. IV. 79. 96-8. 100. 168. 171. a-M- IMon. 141. On A* 
Hercules Sandacus, nee Symbol. 1. 3S^' See also Creuzer'i Pionys. I4«. 

h Heb. p, Greek olyos, Lat. oinum, ItaL and Span. vino> French pm, Celtic «r 
Welsh, Gtrin, Cimbric Uin, Gothic Weiih old German Vuinj Danish vim, 
Dutch toiin, Saxon )>in. Juniu8*B Etym. Anglic, in Wine. For an opinion of 
the learned (?) Goropius Becanus, why the word Mdir, or wallet containing food, ia 
also found in so many languages, see WiMnuui*s Lectures, 1. 19. 



adjuQcta of that oflBce ; viz. a looking-gluKs and a puir of 
cups, and theeo for tho following purposes. Tho spirits, to 
a portion of whom the reader has just been introduced, were 
of three classes. To ono class belong spirits newly ci*eated, 
and such as were to bo invested with bodies, in ordor that 
the earth's stock might bo kept np; a second class were 
to be invested with bodies and sent to lower repons, in 
order to expiate crimes formerly committed ; the third clas.s, 
with whom we propose exclusively to deal, were those whom 
their own inclinations led to this downward descent. But 
what gave birth to the inclination itself? It was, first, a glanoo 
into that looking-glass which wo recently put into the hands 
of our Grecian Bacchus, and secondly, a draught from ono 
of those two' cup3 with which we at the same time ]>rovidod 
him. ])y tho help of this inspection and this draught, the 
being, late a denizen of air, is now a tonant of this nether 

" And no great miiicluef done,^ some philosopher will perhaps 
exclaim : " with desiree worthy of an immortul sonl, he de- 
scended no doubt to investigate the theory of human life, and 
had I been living at the time, itj? whole theoi-y should have been 
explainod to liim, from tho gcnethhac tables hung about tho 
cradle of the new-born infant, to tho List operation in the art 
of mummy-making, when the intestines wore extracted and 
committed to tho waters of the Nile, with an address to tho 
sun, which 1 do not consider the less authentic, because it 
rests upon the testimony of such a man as Porphyry." AVIien 
we whispor into the reader^s ears such namen as V^enus Urania, 
kiho liabylonian Mylitta, tho Armenian Anuitis^ the Peruiau 
W ^Mitra, iho Arabian Alitta, and remind him of tho licentious 

I I The roBdcr, who wbhe* to enter more fully iiitn the iib<ne luhjrct, ami uy 

I «li«t)i«r thr nature of hit own mmiI U of a flri^ nr kv/ tcntpenuuL*nt — whethrr 

I wbeii it came lu the Barchtc vii|» betrtcvn CAiiccr nml Lc», it wuiild Iw iiicliin^d 

I to tlrink, nr, keeping n steadfast e)'e on its Itciter geniiifi) wouJd uvoij ilic* (nttd 

m dniight— will ninxult, amorij^ mher puMUgw, Cmiiu Syinb. MI. 40S. ^ic-ii. 427- 

■ R^. 4,10, (ic, Fivr a pictoriHl re)irc»t'nintion, or «upt"'M«l ruprnt'itutioo uf a Zo- 

^- di«ca) Html alxnit (u qunlTthc aip orforKPifulnrM, mm III. p.£oo. 
^B ^ Bctirveii the Persian Mitru ami Alitlira^ there waa the mne omncrtton aa 


worahips connected with those names, he will doabtleM feel 
that something else was seen in that fatal mirror than whal 
our philosopher has imagined, some of those fair faces, iniiiflii, 
as they have seduced the wisest among ourselvee from the 
path of duty, so the new Platonists no donbt considered tbem 
as fittest agents to draw immortal e^irits trcm Uie seats 
which had been provided for them. How long the lapsed 
soul remiuned in this terrestrial world, and by what means 
it regained the blissful seats above, we forbear to record; 
first, because the details are inconsistent with oar present 
limits ; and secondly, because they would oblige us to |daee 
a ^eup o/toisdom as well as a cup of forgetfv^/Mt» in the hands 
of the Grecian wine-god ; and as we never found the fonnw 
there except in the writings of Creuzer and the new Platomsti^ 
we require some better testimony to be assured that it ever 
was there : why we so think, the graver details, into whidi 
we must now enter, will sufficiently demonstrate. 

Till the settlement of our countrymen in India, and the 
subsequent opening of Hindoo literature, the authoritiea <» 
which the learned were commonly wont to rely for reference 
to Bacchic worship and its presiding deity, were a few pan- 
graphs in Herodotus, the Bacchse of Euripides, tbe Bionj* 
siacs of Nonnus, a scattered passage here and there in tiie 
Greek dramatists, and a few notices in Athemeus. Thai 

between Bui and Buld% Odrii and lais, Eewan and Isi| Schiva and Panrati, 
and perhapa f Bagon and Deroeto or Athargatu. Aa a future opportimitf wfll 
occur for entering largely into the doalistic and androgynous worship of dts 
ancients, we do not enlarge upon the subject here^ 
1 Creuzer*s Symbol. III. 44s, sq. 

t Dagon from :i^,^A;Atergatis(Pliny, Nat. Hist.V. 43/ Ibi—HierapoKa in Sy- 
ria — ^prodigiosaAteigates,GnM3&aotemI>eroeCodicta,ooUtur*)fnxn*t?C>f iVhufiioai, 
and 31, jifA. Though the radical wozd here denotes great producHvensMt^ and dini 
makes the Jith the same emblematic sign in waters, which the buil waa in tiis 
Zodiac and on earth ; yet when we read the prophetic, legislative, and other 
powers ascribed to the Assyrian fish-god Cannes, and the Gredc. GlaucuSy vre caa 
hardly doubt that ^be worship was gradually induced from rererentialleeliiipliar 
the two regraierators of mankind after the flood. For some acoounta 
with fish-wonhli^ see Symb. III. 434-5-9. 440. 



Sianscrit litemture has opened much to ub on the subject of 
Bacchua, which is not to bo found in classic authors, cannot bo 
doubted ; but tho forgeries practised bj the Brahmins on Euro- 
pean literati (and the interpolations now confessed toliave been 
inserted in the Hindoo •" Vedas, are, we beheve, but copies of 
tricks practised with tho Persian Saddero and Zendavesta, for 
similar purposes) make it so dangerous to appeal to their au- 
thority, that we prefer in the first instance to take the great 
father of history as our principal first guide on Bacchic rites, — 
to make our stand on one of the two grounds which he pointa 
out as those where they first had their rise, — and finally to 
mako use of Euripides, and less important authorities, for 
such further investigations of the subject, as may enable the 
reader not merely to understand better tho Aristophanic play 
about to be submitted to him, but to comprehend generally 
why from long usage the Old Comedy presented appearances 
so strange, and not unfrequently so revolting to modem 

The general assertion of Herodotus is, that with some few 
alterations, which he does not specify, the Bacchic worship 
was introduced into Greece, partly from Egypt, partly from 
Pheeuicia ; the greater part, however, of that worship, (and, I 
think, by implication, its most revolting distinction, tho Phallic 
rite,) being derived by liim rather from the latter than tho 
former country. (II. 48. 49.) lu all which this extraordinary 
umn profesBoe to have seen with his own eyes, or heard with his 
own ears, we believe his testimony tu bo deserving of ahnost 
OB much credit as Holy Writ itsi-li"; nnd in an attempt to 
probe his testimony on this particular subject by that Writ, 
it will bo noooBsary to define as strictly as |>ossibIe some 
of the terms which wo shall employ. 

ni iSee Dr. AV^iiemairK I<ecttiri'», It. 29. .^7. Those who after die almve^Ltitiun 
may clionM to iDveatigHte Uiu Schivn, ur UintIcK) Biu'cliuft, aiul more imrticularly 
Hs (vncx'rus piiallic urul lingmin ritis, will find the fulkming refenfiiivs of u»7 : 
Crttiz. Symltol. 1.564-5^. 575^-7. sS^M-^- 605-68. 11. 83-4. III. 118-19 
I20-3. 130-1-4. TjO. Dionytui la. 19. 63. 94 758. 360. ' 

" Bmcker, dc Philoso)thu ChuldiPoruat el Prmmim 



And first, what is to be understood by the word Phoenicis 
itself! In its strictest sense, and that in which we ahaO 
chiefly employ it, the word Phoenicia implies that slip of land 
on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, which beginning 
at the Syrian passes (Pyke) extends southward to mount 
Carmel and Ptolemais: the larger meaning, which oanies 
it on to Pelusium in Egypt, would involve us with a wid^ 
different people, of whom, however, we may have incidentaUj 
to speak hereafter. From whence did the people, inhabit^ 
ing this slip of land, come? (their etymology we shaU not at 
present trouble ourselves with.) The learned Bochart, in 
conjunction with Herodotus (I. i. VII. 89.), derives them 
from the Bed Sea ; modem investigations tend to bring them 
across the Euphrates from the Persian gulf. (Creoz. Symb. 
II. 12.) Which ever theory we adopt, we are doubtleas to 
consider them as a branch of the great Semitic family ; why 
otherwise do we find them speaking the same, or nearly the 
same language as the Hebrew! (Bellormann Bemerk. iiK 
Phonicisch. Mlinzeu.) Was the possession of this land by 
the Phoenicians one of original occupation, or was it acquired 
by force and right of conquest I The inference from language 
entitles us, I think, to say the latter. The principal town of 
this slip, bearing the name of Sidon, shews clearly that it 
had been previously in the hands of the eldest son of Ca- 
naan, in whose mouth we have no more right, I imagine, to 
find a Semitic dialect, than we have in that of the Egyptian 
Mizraim, and consequently the violent occupation of it by a 
Semitic family must have been among the earliest acoom- 
plishments of that great post-diluvian prediction, which de- 
clared that in all ages this particular branch of the descend- 
ants of Ham should be more or less in subjection to the other 
two branches of the family of <>Noah. I say among the firrt 
accomplishments, because besides another fulfilment of thia 
prediction, to which we shall presently advert, our earlioat 

o How wgnally this gre»t predictioa bu been fulfilled, see Bishops Newton 
^nd Horsley. 



[uaintance with the Sacred Writings obliges us, I tlxink, 
account for the appearance of another Semitic race in 
TBry heart of Canaan, a raco evidently in full ejccrcise of 
it Worship, which waa to be the peculiax distinction of the 
Semitic family, and under the dominion of a person of 
more than ordinary sanctity and importance. (Genes, xiv. 
18.) A fourth (luefrtion now occurs — and it will hereafter 
bo found in closu connexion with tliat inquiry, which is lead- 
ing ua to search for the earliest traces of Bacchic worship 
in Greece, as well as in Asia^^what became of the people 
thus dispossessed by the Phopnicians? They must either, like 
the Sidonian queen, so fauiihar to classic readers, have be- 
taken them to their sliips in quest of new settlements, or they 
must have fallen bacli upon the kindred races, who inhabited 
the interior of the country. Supposing the latter to have 
been the case, where are wo at present t We are among a 
variety of kindred nations, each perhaps having its separate 
language (though on this point wo would by no means insist), 
— each its separate modes of worship (and in one or more of 
these modes of worship it will speedily be our object t-o look for 
the closest approximation to Grecian IJacchic rites), and, it 
may be, each ite separate lit<'rature, but all in scriptural lan- 
guage bearing the common name of Canaan. The word Ca- 
naan, of which Fhcenicia was perhaps merely a translation 
into the aboriginal language of Greece, when Cadnms, or 
settlers prior to him, first arrived there, in the Hebrew and 
Phoenician language implies a m^erchaut; and whether the 
name was pi^jleptically given, when " the Most High divide<l 
to tho nations their inheritance'' (Ueut. xxxii, 8.), to tliat mem- 
ber of Noah^s family, who his prescience knew would more par- 
ticidarly so occupy himself, or whether when Moses wrote the 
Pentateuch, this title of occupation had nup*5rHeded a more 
original name, is of little purpose to inquire* : — whether we 
look to tho great intenial a» well as external traffick carrietl 
on by this indefatigable people, and to the means possessed by 
them for such a traffick — noble forests — a soil of unexampletl 


fortuity^ — mineral treiuures of the highest value, and, oos- 
jecturing from what we see in some of their colonies, an earij 
knowledge how their mines might be woriced to the greatett 
advantage — ^it cannot be doubted, that though the term 1Fm#- 
land is the one, which we for our own special pnrpoaes ahonld 
be disposed to apply to this peculiarly favoured region, we an 
by etymology as well as actual facts obliged to see in her the 
great f Merchant-land of antiquity. And as such we moat for 
a moment or two consider her, in order to place the whole of 
our subject on its proper footing. • 

In tracing the IJacchic worship from Phoenicia into Greeoe, 
the subject is liable, I think, to be narrowed by three aeverai 
modes of dealing with it : by confining the subject more ex- 
clusively to Athens, — by brining too low the periods at v^iich 
such transplantation took place, (the arrival of Cadmns finom 
Tyro being the one generally selected for the purpose,} — and 
finally, by taking too confined a view of the settlers, whom 
that famous person brought with him. It must be ranem- 
bered that in the consideration of this question of Baochie 
worship, we have in strictness to look to the earlier states 
of Sicyon and Argos before wo cast our eyes on Athens. Of 
that most ancient of Grecian establishments, the kingdom of 
Sicyon, little is now known ; but, singularly enough, what is 
known, bears almost entirely upon somoSntoUigence respecting 
Bacchic worship, which is excessively difficult to deal with, but 
which will be found narrated at full in Herodotus. (V. 67. 
68.) With Argos and the Argive Lema, our attention is still 
more called to the subject. Great as was the oppoeition 
made everywhere by the purer worship of Apollo to the intro- 
duction of Bacchic rites, nowhere was that opposition greater 
than at Argos; and when we mention that opposition as 
taking place in the fabulous age of Perseus, it is obvious that 

P See GeseniiiB in voc jta. It it olMervable that the first Canaanite or Phoe- 
nician, whom we meet with in profane literature (Odyss. XIV. 288.}^ia a hmt- 
chant, a trader in hunuin flesh (cf. Ezekiel xxvii. 13.), and so fluent and ready of 
speech as nearly to overreach Ulysses himadf, the Greek exemplar of all that by 
betwixt wisdom and cunning. 



wo want an earlier supply of settlere, bringing with tliem the 
elements of this worship, than that which tho Tynan Cadmus 
furnishes. For this we early provided by the probable ex- 
pulsion of a Canaanitish tribe, and the supposed po^isibility of 
their expatriation in consequence. But this by no means meets 
the whole of tlie case. It ia impossible to look to the numerous 
colonies which Bochart represents tliis country as sending 
forth, (there is not wanting proof that our owti sister isle was 
among tho Mrest,) without asking how it was possible for such 
a mere slip of soil to send forth such a train of foreign settlers! 
Bochart has supplied no answer to the question, as far as I 
am aware ; but a little further reference to the Sacred Writ- 
ings, and the application of a little common sense, will, I 
think, tend to solve the difficulty. 

Wo adverted in a former page to two Semitic families in the 
land of Canaan, both apparently possessed of what they held 
by force, and consequently offering in such possession the fiil- 
Hlmcnt of a preceding prediction. Of a tliird fulfilment of 
that prediction there can be no doubt ; for the same sacred 
Volume, which makes us acquainted with the destmies of the 
family of Canaan, exhibits to us at a very early period one 
of the finest portions of their countr}', >'iz. the rich vale of 
Siddim, as in subjugation to that branch of the family of 
Shem which had established itself in Elam. (Genesis xiv.). 
War, then, and all those cruelties and miseries, which lead 
men to floo their country, had hero been in evident operation ; 
the rebellion which succeeded necessarily put in operation 
similar motives for abandonment of country, and where, ex- 
cept in Phuenician ports, were the fugitives in either case to 
seek for the means of so doing f But was tlus a peculiar case ? 
Were no similar commotions, foreign or intestine, at work 
in tho neighbouring soils of Assyria, Armenia, Persia, and 
other places ; or even supposing these absent, was tliere no 

4 For prooTi of Phoenician cotoaiM having readied Ireland, see Bochart aiid 
Parkhunt : tlic latter obMrrea, Heb. L^x. p. 75. tlt&t Bol, Bat, or Ikal, was tlie 
nanuj [of tlie chitf deity of the ancient IriMi. Of Pluriilcia]! cuiiiiexion tvith 
Cornwall^ abundant proof, I believe, still remain. 


straitening for room, or other causes of emigration ! Look at 
the desolating conflicts which we know to have taken plaoe be- 
tween the aboriginal Egyptians and the Hyk-Shos or shepherd- 
race. Were there no occasions during these conflicts, when 
the Nile, had she doubled her mouths, would have found suffi- 
cient fugitives to disgorge, had Egypt possessed the means of 
so doing ? But did she possess these means ? I know nothing 
in antiquity, which justifies us in supposing that Egypt ever 
possessed any thing like a nmrine ; and it appears theref(»« 
that her resource, like tlmt of all the adjoining countries, must 
have been to seek in the maritime country of Phoenicia those 
means of transportation which she did not possess in her 
own; aSidonianvcs8el,perhaps, in many instances consistuig of 
little more than a crew of natives, while the passengers were 
a medley assembly, widely distinct in language, manners, and 
religious habits from each other. By this mo<le of argument 
we gain three advantages : we are able to account for that 
variety and extent of apparently Phcenician settlements 
which so often meet us in antiquity : wo shall have the mefuu 
of accounting for a syncretistic worship in one of the ear- 
liest of Phoenician colonies, where the prosecution of our 
researches will hereafter oblige us to make some stay, and 
above all we arc at liberty to transport Bacchic rites at any 
period, however early, into Greece, supposing the point inti- 
mated by Herodotus first establishe<l, that these rites ori- 
ginated in Phcenicia or Canaan, it being now of little conse- 
quence, whether we discriminate nicely between these two 
terms or consider them as almost convertible. To the con- 
sideration of this point of origin we now exclusively address 
ourselves ; and our first step must be to dispossess the reader^s 
mind of an idea which may perhaps have taken some hold 
of it, and upon which we intrude with no small reluctance. 

^' Crod,^ says one of the noblest of English poets, '^ made 
the country, man nmdo towns ;" and the impress of these 
respective creations has ever been visibly stamped on both ; 
the latter being generally found the abodes of misery and 
vice, the former acknowledged to bo the best nurse of tho 


domestic affections and manly virtues. It is doubtless with 
a view of fostering such feelings, that the Sacred Volume 
opens with the most beautiful scenes of ^pastoral life, dwell- 
ing much upon the fortile plains of Canaan, while her cities, 
which, guest^ing from some few hints that escape, and from 
the usual style of early post-diluvian architecture, no doubt 
towered in true Cyclopean grandeur above thciu, are left 
comparatively unnoticed. It is no doubt for similar reasons, 
that though equally a land *^ of the flock, the floor, and the 
wine-press^' (Deut. xv. 14.), the vines of Canaan are for some 
time so much kept out of sights and the eye so much more 
directed to the fonner two, as containing what was better 
formed to nurse " the growing sense of wisdom,'' that wo are 
apt to forget what was the most distinguished prwluction 
of that matchless soil. But the rich grapes of Eahcol 
nt lost make their appearance, and from the moment the He- 
brew peo[)le are located in their promised settlements, the 
language of psalmists and prophets reminds us that wo are 
indeed in the land where men *' drank the pure blood of the 
•grape*" (Deut. xxxii. 14.) : all that is beautiful in poetry 

r It is ol«ervabIe that while the Sacred M'ritlngi delight to picture the age oC 
Abraham a« one almost exclusively of pttstonU life, tlie amirate iiifjuirieii of such 
men &% Heervn, Bentley, Tod, Windischmaiiii, and others, have fixed an this ai 
the period when tlie AuyriAii, Fgyptinn, Chinese, aiid ilindoo nioiiarrhiea were 
in tlieir first state of something like high civilimliun. The absiinliUes and extra- 
vagmndn of BuUy^ Sir W. Dnimmond^ and others, on these points, have long 
beni disposed of. It Is only oeoessary to n^ientioii the (siippOHrd) Zodiac of 
Deadera to covvr phUosophie Astronomy with inextingiii&lmhlc ritticiile. 

* Achilles Tatius (lib. q.), afUu- observing that tlie Tyriuris daim UaochiiSr Oie 
inventor of wiue, for their countryman, adds a trmditiirn of their*, that Uacchua, 
having been hospitably entertained by a Tyrian shepherd, drank to him in wine, 
which afu*r the shophurd had qiiuiTed, be asked. '^ AVheiice dUI you get this swvet 
blofMl ?** To which Bacchus replied, " This is the Wood of grap«," M'ho doea 
not reen^iise the Scripture Canaan in the description given by Hiiripidi-« of tlt« 
land fnnii whidi Am Bacchus onmes ? 

'Pfi hi ydXaKTi v^r, j6ff7 V olyy, ^7 M pttKtwuF 
f/irra^, lupfoi B' in \i$difov Kam>Af. Bacrh. 14 j. 

And again in the occniuitionB of hii Baccliants: 

jmI rpSfl K^nvc /{oKi^K* e&ov Btin «. r. I. 705. 


and Inxuriant in imagery, all that u tender in dedaratioii, or 
lofty in < prediction, being conveyed in metaphors derived 
from the wine-preas and the vine. It eeema not without rea- 
son, therefore, that Herodotus has fixed upon this ooimtrj as 
the place where a wine-god^s rites first began ; and our next 
business is to ascerUun what further corroboration to tliis 
efiect we find in names as well as things. 

The name used for the Grecian wine-god in the following 
drama is the word Dionysus: names more familiar to the 
English reader as connected with his ntes, are doubtless those 
of Bacchus and of Comus, What is the meaning of the first 
of these three words ? When Herodotus and the Egyptian 
priests talked over the subjects of their respective religions, 
they came to an agreement, or rather the latter detennined 
the question, that the Grecian Dionysus was equivalent to the 
Egyptian Omris ; consequently, whatever was the meaning of 
the latter -term, should be the general signification of the 
former. In Egyptian mythology Osiris is, as we have already 
seen, a Sun-god and a Nile-god, the joint principle of sc^ar 
worship and fiuidity ; and though when Herodotus read his 
histoiy at the Olympic games, we may conceive a smile to have 
passed over the face of some of his hearers, when this close 
connexion between an Egyptian uxUer-god and their own tnme- 
god was announced to them, yet in general reasoning they 
certainly were the same. As no one, however, has yet given 
a satisfactory explanation of the name Osiris, so all attempts 
to give a satisfactory explanation of the word Dionysus, and 
more particularly, as Bochart and Siokler have attempted, 

' Such if preeminently that Bubh'me prediction, which in our renion of the Bible 
•lands as the first six rerses of the Ixiiird chapter of Isaiah. It ought, howerer, ■■ 
Bishop Ixnrth intimates, to stand singly by itself, baring no immediate connexkn 
with what goes before, or with what follows. For a noble version of the predictiaa 
itself, and its probable meaning, see the same learned prelate. Those acquainted 
with the pro[diet*s usual style will not be surprised to see the whole poem asaum- 
ing the form of a dialogue between a Chorus and the Messiah. For other 
similes or allegories derived from the vine, see Psahn tzxx. Isaiah v. Jeraniiah 
ii. 31. Eiekiel xvit 6. &c Ac. 


XX \i 

from tho Hebrew language, must bo uneatiefactory ; and that 
for tho following reason. In adopting names of pianos or 
poraons from Eg)*pt or Phccnicia, the earliest inhabitants of 
Greece must necessarily have adopted one of throe modes: 
they must havo received the name implicitly as it was deli- 
vered to them, or they must have changed and modified it 
according to tho genius of their own languagt>, or, disliking 
these two processes, they nnist have translated the general 
idea (names and ideas being then almost convertible terms) 
into their own tongue. (Cf. Creuz. Symb. If. — ) That 
tho first course was not pursued when the Attic Pelasgi, 
in conformity with tho oracle delivered at Dodona, agreed 
to adopt the names of Egyptian deities, and consequently 
that of Osiris among the rest (Herodot. II. 51, 5'2.)» is 
obvious enough ; and for tho translated sense, unless we 
can call ilp an old Pclaagian, and question liim as to his 
native tongue, wo must bo content to remain in ignorance as 
to whether by tho word Dionysus is meant a fluid-god or a 
flun-god, or botli. Tho word IJocchus may be brought nearer 
to the Hebrew language than the word Dionysus, but that 
fiochart is corroct in affirming the Grecian Bacchus to be 
Bar Chus^ i. e. the son of Clms, and consequently the Nimrod 
of antiquity, is at all events open to a doubt- In tho Sacred 
Writings (Genes, x. 8.) that person is separated from the 
other sons of Cush, and commemorated for two reasons : first, 
as being tho earliest specimen of those distinguished persons 
in antiquity, who rendered their fellow-creatures important 
benefits by ridding them of the noxious animals which pressed 
upon them ; and secondly, as being tho first who ventured to 
disturb that partition of the earth, which was made in the 
days of Peleg (Gen, x. 25.), about a hundred years after 
tho flood, and which taking place apparently under the imme- 
diate direction of tho Deity (Dcut. xxxii. 8.) had of coiu-so 
been done upon principles as wise as they wore solemn. 
The invasion itself waw upon that rich plain, bearing tho 
name of Shinaar, which lay along tho Tigris, and which from 


its vioinity to the spot where the terrestrial Paradiae hu 
been satisfaotorily shewn to have been "situated, wonld of 
itself imply that it was a land of particular fertility. That itf 
soil, however, was more favourable to the growth of tht 
grape than to purposes of pasturage, nowhere appears. On 
what then is Bochart^s reasoning for this etymology fouoded! 
That as Nimrod was a preeminently mighty 'hunter, bo the 
Grecian Bacchus bearing among his other titles that <^ a 
hunter (viz. Zagreus)« the two persons were necessarily th« 
same. The Bacchus-Zagreus is a myth of too much diffiouHj 
and intricacy for us to enter upon here ; the best place for 
considering it is the isle of Crete, and whenever we can get 
space for the purpose, nothing will be easier than to shew 
that the Bacchus-Zagreus, and the Theban Bacchus, with 
whom we are at present concerned, had little or nothing in 
common. The learned writer's reference to the w6rd ** Bao- 
chse,'" as appearing in the tomb-inscription of the Assyria! 
Ninus, who is so closely connected with Nimrod, proves, we 
think, nothing. That inscription is known to us only througk 
the medium of a Colophonian writer named Phoenix (Athea 
XII. 550.) ; but who can say what the writer found in the 
original to justify such a translation, or in fact how he came 
by the inscription itself ? 

Of the three names connected with the Grecian wine-god, 
one only now remains for consideration, and of that Boohaii 
has taken no notice. That the word Comus is latinized from the 
Greek form K&yjos^ need scarcely be mentioned : that the latter 
bore closely upon the Bacchic rites at Athens is evident, not 
only from the private nocturnal revelries with which the tens 
is connected, and which have been explained in more than 
one preceding >play, but also from the place which it bore in 
the public Dionysiac ^festivals, though its specific nature has 

n See the lomewhat old-fashioned, but not the leu v&iuable rolumee on thi 
Geography of the Old and New Tuttament by Dr. Welk. 

X Or, in the idiomatic language of the original, * a mighty hunter b^cr€ Ai 
Lord: See Oeseniut. Ueb. Lex. p. 38* 

r Achamenaei, p. 906. See also Thier«di*i Plutus, p. s 14. 

a That the KMtMt occupied a place in the public Dtonyiiac feativals, is eriteit 


XXXI 11 

not, &» far as I ara awaro, ever been explained by the leamod. 
la there any thing in this name which brings ua nearer to a 
Canoanitish wino-god t for to suoh among their many idol- 
fomis we must now look, if wn wish to investigate thoroughly 
the declaration of Herodotus. 
^P When the Egyptian lais, as we are t^Id*, undertook to in- 
r struct her son Horus in the ori^n of thhips, the goddess, 
L well aware how dry a subject she was *?ntoring upon, by 
H^way of encouragement first ga\'e him a draught of ambro- 
^Mia : ought less than a double draught to be adniinisterod 
ty us, who shall have so much tu say, not on the origin of 
things, but on a subject far more dry, the origin of tcord^f 
We are well aware of the ridicule generally thrown upon 
all etymological researches, and we also well know in whose 
works that ridicule is first leamod. AVo have read perhaps 
a« much of the writings of Voltaire as most men, and, where 
their nature would admit, with perhaps as keen a sense of 
their merits ; but to see a man with scarcely a schoolboy*'* 
learning attempting to laugh down a branch of literature, 
on which only men of the greatest erudition are qualified 
to decide, is among those exhibitions of folly, on which. If 
it had been manifested in any other pei'son than his own. 
this acut*? writer would have poui'ed all the sliafts of his 
poignant ridicule. An authority like this being far t<)o 
slender to deter us from a sober application of et^'mology, 
(its extravagances arc fair subjects of ridicule with those 
whose knowledge entitles them to apply it,) we shall, after 
explaining the simplest of its ndes as regards the two most 
ancient languages with which we are acquainted, proceed to 
apply that rule to the case more immediately before us. 
\Vhen I say that the Hebrew word ChfTn/jsh, and the Gr(X?k 


from the foUnwinfr pnsaaigv in the upoech of Deinmtlwnos iigwn«t Miiltiu : ZMrr«- 

KoX ^ M Aii'vly Tofiw^ vaJ al TfwyySol iraJ ol «rtftfydot, ncu ro'a i¥ Aarti Aurvir/nif 
A wofiw^Koi ot watStt Koi 6 icw^oi Hal ot Hmnit^ai kcU al rpay^ol ., /iif 4iuvm» 

• PMaido-Hermn Truuncfpfttus aji, Stolwiun Ilecrrn'ft wJ. t III. 916. 




wonl Comos, may originally have been one and the Bameijr 
may at first appear to be playing tricks either with the eyes 
or oars of my readers : but 1 aiu doing neither. The vowels 
in the first of these two words aro merely conventional signs, 
invented long after the Jewish captivity, and intended tO' 
supply that tlefect in the pronunciation of the original tongue, 
which had been lost during the long residence in l^abylon or 
its neighbourhood. Wheu CiKlmus first brought his coun- 
try's gods and eouiitry's dialeet to Grooco, it is by no means 
improbable that both words, the mere aspirates omitted, were 
one and the same. The more important question ooours, 
do the two words assimilate in other particulars, and had the 
land of Canaan a wino-god as well as Groeoo i Without abso- 
lutely making siich an assertion, I um cutitled to say tluit a 
deity is found in that part of the former country, which from 
the nature of it^ soil was most likely to have possessed such a 
deity, and that his introduction into the purer Jowsh worship 
takes place under circumstances wliioh may almost logically ac- 
count for that introduction. Kich in grapes as the favoured 
land of Canaan was throughout all its borders, the richest per 
tion was unquestionably that southern part through which rtm^ 
the thirty -second degree of latitude. On the western point o 
this line we find the to\^ii of Oath. The name itself, which i 
equivalent to winc-pt'em (Qeeon. Lox. p. 136.) indicates enough 
It was one of the five lordships belonging to the Philistim 
the forefather of whom being among the grandsons of Mil 
raim (Gen. x. 14.)* they most probably had their origiiui 
portion in Egypt, their irruption into the border-land of C» 
nmm being as probably occaHi»jned by a wish to possess them 
selves of more generous liquors tluiu Eg} pt poHsessed, a oour 
ti7 in which even i>alm-wine was not of ''plentiful growth, an 
where the usual beverage was water, or the juice exproase 
from ^barley. Our geographical line, pursued eastward, nei 


^ Far the single oootHOit on which much wiim wu onnsuiiusd in Egy] 
Ilcrodot. II. 60. 

c Hence the MirciixiM' rxpreuimi of ttie Argive kiug in ;£iohyliia, when oonow 
ing GrBuks and Egyjiliiuu. Siippl. 9,1 1. (Wdl. t*d.) 



VHI us through the heart of the tribe of Judah : of what 
Judoh ? Of that Judah, whose * eyes'werc in prophetic language 
' to be red with wine' — of that Judali, who wa« * to bind his 
foal unto the vine, and his asaa colt unto the choice vine; 
who wa« ' to wash his garmentfi in wine, and his clothes in 
the blood of gi-apes.' (Grenes. xlix. la:) Leaving the rich vale 
of Siddini, of wIuL-h we Hlmll have to speak liereafter, we cross 
the Asphaltic lake, and find ourselves among a people* wlio 
from their deity, and the fervent adoration evidently paid to 
him, ore not unfrerjuently termed in Scrij)tural language, the 
sons or people of Chemo^li, (Jer. xlviii. 46.) What the naturt* 
of that deity of the Moabites was, can hardly be doubted, when 
wo observe the metaphoric language in which the eventual 
doom of the nation itself is denounce<!, the denunciation of 
that doom being the principal cause which brings her name 
into the Sacred Writings. How speaks the most pathetic of 
the three great prophetic writers \ * Moab,' says the meta- 
phoric text, ' hath been at ease from his youth, and he liath 
settled on his lees, and bath not been emptied from vessel to 
vessel, neither hath ho ^one into captivity : therefore his tasti? 
remained in him, and his scent is not changed.'' (Jer. xlviii. 1 1.) 
' Ovine of Sibumh,*" observes the same plaintive strain, ' I will 
weep for thee, with the weeping of Jazer : thy plants are gone 
over the sea, they reach even to the sea of Jazer : the spoiler 
is fallen upon thy summer fruits and upon thy vintage."* (xlviii. 
3a.) So also the evangelical prophet: 

The vine of Sibmah langTiisheth, 

Whose gcnertnis shoots overpowered the mightr lords of the nations: 

And joy and gladness is taken away from the fruitful field : 

And in the vineyards tliey shall not sing, they shall not shout : 

In Ihc vats the treader shall not tread out the wine ; 

An end is put to the shouting. I^wth's Isaiah, xvi. B-io. 

We could multiply passages to the same effect, but it is unnc- 

Eoessar)-. Whether any tcndencytothe worflhipof thisMoabitish 
deity among the Jews had exhibited itself before the days of 
that monarch, whose earlier and later years differed so widely 


from each other, we are not aware ; but whoever looks at the 
general establiBhment of the court of Solomon, will not wond» 
that the introduction of the worship of a queen of love was 
soon followed by the introduction of a god of wine ; and that 
the two were precursors of a deity (i Kings xi. 33.)9 whoM 
name has become proverbial for the cruelties practised an hu 
<1 abhorred rites ; the latter consequence being one almost of 
necessity : when did lasciviousness aud cbriety long prevafl 
either in nations or individuals, and cruelty and ferocious- 
ness not soon follow ? If the reader should not be satisfied 
with this appearance of a Phoenician wine-god in an individn^ 
capacity, we are not without means of finding him in a cor- 
porate one ; but eastern manners require that some attentioii 
should previously be paid to the Grecian wine-god^0 mother. 

It need scarcely be observed, that in the by-gone- days ct 
antiquity, nothing was more common than for the names o( 
deities, or something near akin to them, to enter into the 
appellations by which royal or great persons were known* 
Thus Baal be ffra>ciom to me^ was the name of the gresi 
Carthaginian general Hannibal; as hagtm, B€tal, and Baal 
he^ Am, were the origin of tlio terms Asdrubal, and Ma- 
herbal: (the intimate relation between Phoenicia and Car- 
thage, and a probable coincidence of practice in this re- 
spect, need not be pointed out.) So again we find the 
Cuthite idol Nergal entering directly into the appellations ol 
Babylonish princes (Jerem. xxxix. 3.): the idol Merodadi 

d A milder form of Moloch wonhip is still, aooording to Sonnermt, ob aer red Ifl 
India, at the great annual festival held in honour of Darma Rajah, *:^ ltrf tbt 
FEAST OF FIRE. On the eighteenth day of this festiral, thoae who haw defulrf 
thanselvet to the morn solemn performance of it * assemble on the sound of in- 
struments, their heads cronmed with flowers, the body bedaubed with saffron, vd 
fdlow in cadence the figures of Darma Rajah, and of Dobreda his wifis, who an 
Gained in procession. When they oome to the lira, they stir it to *"'n iatii iti 
intensity, and take a little of the ashes, with which Uiey rub their forehead, ani 
when the gods hare been three times round it, they walk either fast or tknr, ao> 
cording to thar xeal, over a rery hot fire, extending to abo>it fifty feet in Wtg^fc- 
Some carry children in their arms, and others lances, sabres, and standarda. Tim 
most ferrent devotees walk several times over the fire.* Sonnerat's TrKw^M, t, 54. 



(Jerem. !. 2.) forms part of the name of Assyrian monarclw, as 
Merodach-Bala<laii, Evil-Merodacli, &c., while the Syrian idol 
Iladad is found in Benhadad, Hadadezer, Syrian kings . Waa 
the family of the TvTian Cadmue to be an exception to such a 
rule, and more particularly ae concerned the mother of the fu- 
ture Bacchus? That an idol-name approximating to the word 
Semele is not to be found in the English translation of the Biblo, 
we readily a^lmit; hut is that any reason why 8omething like 
it should not he found in the original? How frequrntly tho 
names of idoldeities are there entirely omitted, or rendered 
by the mere term uloly any one who haw had occasion to 
cxamin<» tlie original is well aware. Where is the Ciinaanitish 
deity of goo<l-fortune, Gtid? (Gesen. Lex. 1 14.) Where is 
their deity of Meni, api)arently that of Destiny? (Lowth''8 
Iwiish, Ixv. II, Gesen. 427.) Where do wc find the Syrian 
Adad, or Achad, and his rites? (Lowtlfn Isiiiah, Ixvi. 17.) 
Why are the words AsAera and Atfhcrlm always termed proves^ 
where in several eases^ if we wish to avoid an abKunlity, they 
must be rendered by idols of some kind, and in all cases, we 
should say, are more satisfactorily so rendered than by the 
word ^/ro^rr jr ? (but of this hereafter.) It was no little satisfac- 
tion to tlie present writer, after examining the two or three 
places (and I Ixslieve they do not exceed that number) in which 
tlie word Se7nel occurs in the Hebrew text, to find the learned 
Hate and rarkhurst coming to the same conclusion lis himself, 
viz. that this word implied not merely ^a car\'ed Image,^ but 
tluit an actual idol was to be understood under that name, 
and that the idol itself in nature as well as a]>pellation, bore 
strong marks of agreement with the Semele, or Theban mo- 
ther of ISacchus. This conclusion, as affecting the testimony 
of Hermlotus, is of some little consequen^ie : but a right un- 
(lerstJinding of one at least of the texts in which this word 
mours, being of far more consefjuence, we shall bo excused 
for <lijvcting a moments attention to it. Passing over then 
the oeurrenco of the woi-d Semel in Deut<.Tonomy (iv. 16.), we 
come to its appearance in 2 Ohnm. xxxiii. 7, the i»arallel to the 


xxxviii INTUODrCTION. 

passage beiug 2 Kings xxi. 7. In thesu two chapters, where 
the various idolatries introduced or re-eetablished by the io- 
famous Mfinasseh are detailed, he is said in the former to 
have *' set a carved image, the idol which he had made^ in the 
house of God," &o. while in the latter it is observed, 'And 
ho set a graven image of the grove that he had made in the 
house, of which the Lord said to David/ &c. The first of these 
passages is not very clear, and the second, for reaflons which 
will be explained hereafter, is almost unintelligible. But 
let us attend to the original. In tho passage last quoted, the 
word translated ^ graven image"* is in the original pe$ely which, 
etymologically considered, seems tu imply on idol formed of 
stone, rather than of wood. The ^carved image'* of the 
Chronicles bears, on tho contrary, when the vowel-points are 
omitted, the name of Semel, a word so closely approximating 
to the word Scmele, that their identity can hardly be mis- 
taken, and that identity will not be less apparent, when we 
come to consider the word grove under its proper idol-fonn 
of Aihera. The anxiety manifested by the monarch in his 
subsequent hour of punishment and affliction, to remove thii 
particular idol from the house of God, though it gives no 
clue as to what the nature of the idol was, evinces the 
great guilt of its introduction there. Something like a doe 
may, however, be found, I think, in the prophet EzekieL 
In that striking chapter (viii.) where four abominationa or 
idolatries are spoken of, each rising in guilt above the 
other, and three out of the four relating, apparently, to 
solar ^worship, (that worship between which and the Bao- 

• The ' creejtiDg things and abmnuuble beasts/ to which the ' wevtaxXy meo d 
the ancients of the house of Israel/ that is, the Sanhedrim, are offisring inoanN 
(ver. 1 1.), are most probably die animals composing sodiacal constdlatioiUy an^ 
which as such were more or less objects of adoration throughout the East 
The Tammuz, for whom the women's tears are failing (rer. 14.), bdongizy 
equally in solar myths, as Creuzer has shewn (Dionys. 180-1.), to the Oredsa 
Bacchiu, and the Syrian Adonis, adds strength to the supposition of the SeoMl 
1«ing in both capacities what we imagined her to be. The five and twenty wij^m 
worshipping the sun towards the east, requires no illustration, except ■• to the 
numerical amotmt of the worshippers. Li^tfoot, if ! remember right, aeea ia 



chic there \s always found su cluao an identityO ^^ ^i^^ ^><> 
Soniol occupying tho foremost [ilaoo« and stigiimtized aa the 
image ■■ pn»voking to joalousy.' (vct, 3.) Though tliu two 
loamcd wriUjrs, thorcforo, to wliom I havo junt rofoiri'd, agree 
to see in this female idol a goddess of love and pleasure, 
(jin idea hy no means improbable, as we shall hereafter glicw,) 
vt't from the context generally, iw well as from the phu^e 
where tln' deification of Senielc- took phwe in (ireece, and Ironi 
other circumstances connpcted with her 'riteg, sho appears 
to me to belong as much to solar as to aphrodisiac worship, if 
indexed any wide distinction is to be made between tho two ; 
th»' rites of a eun-go<l, a wint»-god, and a goddess of pleasure, 
ahnoHt necessarily running the one into the other. 

We now turn to another view of the subjinrt ; and if 
in the prosecution of that in(]uir)', the conclusions to which 
we come seem comparatively insignificant when compared 
with tho lengthened previous reaearchcfl into which that ii> 
i|uiry will lead us, it must bo remembered, that as the Her- 
cules and IJin'cluiH, who occupy so large a space in the follow- 
ing drama, belong in an eminent degree to the ancient world 
of demonology, some partial explanations on the subject 
would nccffssarily b(> required of us, and that what we had 
to sny might as well Ix) otfcTtnl here as elsewhere. 

Hesides one or two places in tho Now Testament, to which 
We Mhall subHcquently refer, the ti*an8lators of the English 
Hible have thought fit in four places of the Old Testament to 
render some of the Canaanittsh idols by the word demit. 
Thus Levit.xvii. 7. 'They shall no more offer their sacrifices 
to ili-riU.'' Deut. xxxii. 17. 'They sacrifice*! to lUvihy not 
to tlod/ INalm cvi. 37. ' They sacrificed their «ons and daugh- 
ters tor//»p*7(t.' 1 Chron. xi. 15, ' And ho (Jerobojtm) orduine<l 
him priests for the high places, and for the rf*Ti7*, and for the 

1)11111 the twcnty-fiiur cmiriek of )>ri«tih with the high prnM at their hnwl ; thn* 
luvoiving th« wbola nation, monarch and pco|ilci, otNmcil luul ]tri««lh(KMl, in iilolk> 
trotu worth ip. 

f Creuaur't Synilio]. III. 57. 



cailves, which lie had made/ Tu go with any effect through 
the Grecian demonology, or worid of intermediate sinritfl, 
(a task which will better suit a future occasion,) we should 
have to carry the reader through the poems of Hemod, 
through the valuable fragments left us on the subject by 
the philosophers Heraclitus and Empedocles, through the 
schools of Orpheus, Pythagoras, Plato, XenoorateSy and 
Chrysippus, and through the writings of Plutarch; bring- 
ing up tlie rear with such inquiries as the new Platonistt 
were pleased to institute on the subject after their pecu- 
liar fashion ; as for instance, how many years demons lived, — 
in what manner they contrived to talk with men, seeing 
that they were without a tongue, — whether by a proper 
exertion of theurgic power, a human being may attain not 
merely to demonship, but even to godship, Sec. &c. At pre- 
sent we content ourselves with two observations on the sub- 
ject ; first, that the real Platonic doctrine established s 
demon (and we are by no means to use the word exdo- 
sively in a bad souse) to be a something between god and 
man; (Plat. Conviv. 202, d.) and secondly, that while in 
this intermediate being, the Eastern nations generally wwe 
inclined to see a divine power forsaking the higher regions, 
and becoming for a time visible in human form, the Greeki 
were disposed to take the reverse view, viz. to recognise 
in these middle beings (as in the Hercules of the following 
play) a half-deity, (Crouz. Symb. III. 36.) bom as it were in 
the flesh, rising gradually from the heroic to the demon state, 
and from that intermediate state to one of pure divinity. To 
say, as Voltaire has said, and as the learned Creuzer, I think, 
insinuates, that the Jewish writers knew nothing of this doc- 
trine of intermediate spirits, till they acquired it in the Baby- 
lonian captivity, ia, with submission to two such names, not 
merely incorrect, but to reverse the very order of things. 

If there is any point in intellectual history, of which wo 
may s|)cak with certainty, it is, I think, that the oldest book 
now in oxietence is that historical drama, or dramatised his- 



tory, known to us as the book of R Job. Whore or by whom 
tills most venerable of books was uTitten —when, by whom, 
and for what purponc, it was inserted in the Sacred Canon — 
that insertion alone, if other proof were *> wanting, being a 
voucher for its inspiration — is foreign to our present business, 
that business being to hasten as rapidly as we can to the in- 
ti*miediate spirit-s of whom it treats — viz. that adversary of 
mankind, who makes his appearance at the commencement 
of the work — that Avenging and Redeeming Spirit, who is in- 
troduced in such striking terms into the body of it — that ' in- 
terposing angeP (xxxiii. 23.), who if he is not seen in our im- 
perfect version of the poem, certainly apfM?ars in the original 
itself — to say nothing of that m'gbt-rision (iv. 15.), which 
must over remain as one of the most remarkable instances 
of sublimity of description to us, however the irritated Job 
may in his contemptuous indignation terra it ' loathsome fooi!,** 
and * the mere spittle of 'dreams."* But many preliminary 
observations are necessary before we can possibly arrive at 
our purpose. 

If any jKirson, previously acquainted with nothing moro 
than the proverbial term, which has made the name of Job 
and patient i^ubmisKion almost synonymous terms, if such a 
person should suddenly come to tlie perusal of this most in- 
teresting volume, what would be the astonishment of his first 
impressions ! Instoad of a jwrsou bowing meekly to the will of 
his CVoator, he finds an angry rebel, cursing in almost frantic 
LiDguoge the day of liis birth, and in language almost as frantic 
caUing for death to close his sufferings. As this first temi>eBt 

K For aiithoritie* on thii nihj«ct,Me Uoma's Introduction to the Bible, Mmgee 
an tti« At<»itemeiit, and Sir Georgo Rote's ' Scriptural ReMArchev' Aa these 
constitute all the reading, be«idn the original, which the present writu- cnulil 
command on the subject uf the ImdhIc i^ Jtilr, he i» unonntciotu whethn- tht> line of 
argument, wliJcb he has adopted, has been anticipated by any preceding writer. 

h Such pnx>f, howerer, is not wanting. When St. Paul qiiotni the boiik, ft 
III in thai fonnula, whidi plaresit at oncenmong inspired wriiirigi^* y4yp«rrui^ 
' it ift trriUtH.' 

■ Fur these inlerpreutions of expreaslons utterly witliout meaning in die 
KiifcliKh version (vi. 6, 7.), sue Parkhimt in viir-. Df^t, Gewn. invnc. *n. 


of the passions breaks off, and the <lusire of life agaut begiiui to 
niinglo with the unnatural wish for death, the langaa^ of the 
complainant does not much improve ui>on us. With vehe- 
niont protestations of general innocence, are mixed bitter re- 
flections on the reward which that innocence has met witii, and 
almost blasphemous reproaches of the Immortal Being, who^ 
instead of providing that that innocence should stand dear m 
the eyes of his fellow-men, seems to * find occasions'* against its 
professor, and ' to count him for an enemy.'* Even when this 
second fervour has in some measure worn off, and the speaker, 
taking a calm and solemn review of the transactiona of hit 
whole life, abides by the declaration that it was ^ clean without 
transgression,'' what is the feeling finally pervading his mind! 
Apparently a sullen persuasion, that if his Almighty advenwy, 
disrobing himself of that *■ thunder of his power,'* which enables 
him to decide the controversy as he pleases, would write his 
'• bill of indictment^ (xxxi. 35.), and appoint ^a daysman' 
(ix. 33.) or umpire between them, the cause would upon tlw 
whole go against the Creator, and a conviction follow that He 
had subjected the complainant to a harder trial than he had 
dcscrvcil or than human nature was calculated to bear. Snch. 
with an occasional ''acknowledgment by the complainant of the 
guilty expressions into which the vehemence of his feolings had 
led him, seems no unfair representation of the language of Job. 
And now — passing over the intermediate parte of the 
drama — ^the angry remonstrances of the well-known three 
friends, and the adjustment of the argument by a fourth pe^ 
son, evidently speaking under the immediate effects of 'inspi- 

■> The composition being of a dramadc character, we are to attend in thb m 
well an in all other performances of a similar kind, to what is iisually toraiad tk 
stage-play. J imagine therefore, that at chap. vii. 30, Job, after his vdMncat 
outcries for death, and indignant entreaties to be let alone ' for a moment,* or, n 
Orieutal phrase, ' till he has swallowed down his spittle,* becomes suddnd; 
sensible of the guilt of such language, and exclaims after a pause, ' I have ■innei: 
what shall I do unto thee, O thou preserver of men ?' && 

I In what manner the process of inspiration took place, must r«nain as sraats 
secret to us, as the means by which tlie first preachers of Christianity 



ration, and most prububly the author of tlie book iteolf, — how 
arc those observations HnuUy mot by the great Being to whom 
they are a<hlre88ed ; By the singular declaration, (for singular 
at first sight it certainly appears,) that in the discourses of 
Job, wild aud frantic as they at first appear, expressions 
had dropped, so iiiiinitely moro speaking of that Being ' the 
thing that was right,^ than what had proceeded from the 
three friench^ who at first appear to speak in a manner so 
luuch more becoming, that Job himself is dismissed with a 
mild rebuke, while sacrifice and prayer are required for his 
three rebukers, lest the Almighty *■ sliould deal with tliem 
aft(T their folly* in what they had utteretl. The finger of 
tho Deity having thus, as it were, pointed at a something, 
which was meant to be tho scopm dramatis \\\ this invaluable 
<li>cuiuent — a document necessarily obscure from its extreme 
antiquity— from the (>eculiarity of its literature — |>erhaps from 
some corruptions in the text, and certainly from many errors 
in the translation, — it becomes our duty to endeavour to ascer- 
tain what tltat something was, and why its promulgation on 
the part of Job, conspiring with the blameless tenor of his 
life, allows the Deity to pass over so easily the present ^ sin of 
his lips/ 

That on many points connected with the Deity, — His omni- 
potence — the utter impossibility that any created being should 
stand altogether piu% in His sight — the great doctrine of re- 
pentance, when transgression of any kind has been committed 
— that on these and other such solemn topics, the three friends 
speak vrith as much propriety and dignity of language as Job 
himself, there can be no doubt : — in what then did the supe- 
riority of tho latter consist ? It consisted, I think, in far superior 
views of a general Providence — views which for reasons after- 
wards to be explained, rather escape from the speaker in the 

•fast Uiey had the ptjwer of n'orkiiifc » miracle; fur Uink they could work Uimi 
•t will is not Co t« iiupp(tM>«l. The language in whkh the proeeuu ilflM'rihcHi i\s 
tjikiiig place o» Elihu, is nsul with more ndv&nti^ in the origimU lluin in tlie 
£nglith tnrudation. The learned reader will do wefl to oonnilt OeaeniusV Leatioun 
^enernlly on the unhjecl, pp. 8i, 82. 376. 5J5. 7:6. (Lw** traruJation.) 


whiil| of his paasions, thui are fully brought out by him — k 
(ieclarationa that this world is one of probation and trial — 
*■ a warfare'^ (vii. i. marginal reading) — ' a hireling'*8 d&j,^ the 
wages for which are to bo looked for at its close'* (xiv. 6.) — » 
stage, on which *■ the Lord performcth for every man the thing 
that is appointed him,^ (xxiii. 14.) — a furnace, in which assay- 
ment only con make us come forth as gold (xxiii. Jo.) : — ^that 
consequently temporal blessings and temporal calamities an 
no proof in themselves either of the uprightness or iniquity of 
those to whom they are allotted ; and that a future judgment 
will decide on all these points, the Being to whom that pro- 
vince is assigned being designated by that veiy peculiar term 
of Eastern jurisprudence, which allows us to consider the 
Goel of Job (xix. 25.) as ' the redeemer of nuin from death 
and the grave — the ree&verer for him of the eternal inherit- 
ance — and his atmiger on that Satan, who is his spiritnal 
enemy and "» murderer."* 

On none of these grand admissions do the speeches of the 
friends of Job^ I believe, once touch ; and so far from admit- 
ing the great doctrine of probation and trial, and the oonae- 
qucnt indifference of prosperity or atlversity as tests of pro- 
bity or the contrary in this world, the whole tenour of thdr 
argument is the reverse : — ^to be prosperous is with them to be 
virtuous — to be afflicted is to be vicious. A brief review of 
the conduct of these friends is necessary, because neither the 
Language of Job himself, the conduct of the Almighty^ or the 
scope of the drama can be thoroughly understood without it 
That their first appearance in this composition is calculated to 
create a great impression in their favour, there can bo no doubt. 
The rent garment — the uplifted voice — the dust sprinkled on 
their heads — all this apparently marks the greatest grief for 
their fallen friend ; but after all, these were little more ftm « 
usual marks of Eastern sorrow, familiar to them, though some- 

m Parkhunt in toc. So. 8ee also Uuhop UI<mifidd*i * Dissortation upon the 
tradiUonal knowledge of a prooiited Redeemer, which lubsUted before the ad- 
vent of tnir IJaviour.* ch^. 7. 



rhat oxtroordinar}^ to us. They sit on the ground with their 
iend for seven days and seven nights, * and none Bpake a woni 
him.^ Hut though they say nothing, do they hoi nothing ? 
\o their malignant eyes forbear to si>eak what the malignant 
»nguea of all three so promptly deliver, when convornation 
ts fairly commenced, viz. that the basest of hypocrites is bo- 
►re them I (vUi. 13. xv. 34. xx. 5,) that all the virtues of his 
►rmcr life wore a pi-etencc. a falsehood — why else the cola^ 
ities that have thus euddeidy overtaken him I Ihit it is 
inecessary to follow these ' miserable comforters* tliroiigh 
le whole of their career, stringing fine sentences together, 
:e eastern pearls, and which would have been as eiwtem 
•Is, but for the anmu^ which dictated them: — it is un- 
lecessary to follow them from their first sneer to their last 
imiise — from the gentle hint at 8Ui)posed tnmsgression in 
\ib or his children, to the self^oinplauent exliortation, which, 
iking his guilt for granted, calls upon him to practise the 
luties of repentance, — from the night-vision and fabricated 
Ipirit, under cloak of whom the first attack upon their fullon 
iend is made with some appearance of decency, down to the 
»8o]utc mendacities by which tins most muiiificont and cha- 
ritable of men is dechired to be '^ of wicke<lness great and 
iniquities infinite/ who had ^ taken a pleilge of his bi'othor 
For nought, and stripped the clothes of the miked/ (xxii. 5. 6.) 
IWe turn to the wretohe<i sufferer himself. 

He had been ' the greatest man of the East/ in whose pre- 
ico ' princes refrained talking :'" in iiis own pathetic lan- 
ho now called for his senant, and ho gave him no 
iwer, though he entreated him with his mouth/ (xix. 16,) : 
his substance had been of more than usual Eastern magni- 
tudti — the whole ha<l departed from him : he had been the 
parent of a numerous and beloved family — all of them wero 
dead. * Skin after skin''*' (ii. 4.) had been drawn from him, iw 

n T)io prcAcnt writer hu in diii anil two or three other pauages deriated Truni 
le ftuthorized vtrkioii, but never without what he contiderrd fluflinfnt Aiithoritj\ 


the tempter, who had been allowed to inflict those miseries 
admits, and admits in a motaphoric expression indicative of the 
acutest pain which tlio human frame can endure ; • skin after 
skin^ had been drawn from him till bare animal life wa^ left, yet 
Job opened not his lips, nor * attributed folly to God/ (i. aa.) 
Could aught further be a<Ided to drug a cup already eo embit- 
tered I Yes, there wa« a still more fiery trial to be endured, 
but one which presupposes a degree of perfection in our- 
selves which none of us possess, to understand its full in- 
tensity. That trial was to have led a hfe of spotless purity 
— to have had that purity hitherto acknowle<lged by all 
aromid — to find its truth suddenly called in question by a 
series of calamitit's so new and so severe, as ahnost to jus- 
tify the suspicion, that all tliis exterior uprightness had been 
mere hypocrisy, and to find that Being, who aJone in his 
Omniscience could set the matter right, drawing back as it 
were, and rijfusing testimony in the 8ufferer"'8 favour. It is 
unquestionably tlie greatest trial to which human nature 
oan be subjected ; but it is the trial to which this * perfectly 
upright man," as the Deity himself acknowledges him to bo, is 
now eubjecteii, and his conduct under which we must now 
consider. Whfthor before the a]>pearance of the three friends 
any such construction had been put upon the fallen fortunes of 
Job, does not appear : that he himself ha<l not been without 
apprehensions of anoh a construL-tioiu even before the loots of 
his comfortera had taught him their feeling on the matter, 
may, I think, bo collected from the closing versos of Lhe 
thinl chapter of this eventful history. ' 1 was greatly in fear/ 
as the sense of those verses seems to be, ' that some such 
imputation as this would come upon mo, and it has come: 
my former state grew out of the unusual circumstances of my 
situation — I was ^ittllf, Ltifc not from fear, for I knew that I 
had done no wrong — 1 was not at ease: how could I 
under such accumulated calamities ? but pain, anguish, 

Her Oneniiu in vr. Efrq^ rfrp. 




agony, never came till now/ And now oommenoes the most 
intense of human trials: will Job under such circumstances 
justify himself rather than hie Maker? Will he in his im- 
patience expect the Omniscient instantly to clear impending 
doubts, or will he wait till it may pleasu Him in his own gooil 
time to remove this darkest of clouds, and give his innocence 
a noonilay's cleai-noss ? That Job, in this last and mont 
fiery of probations, should rather dwell upon being ' trierl 
every moment' (vii. i8.)« than upon the doctrine of prolwition 
itself, — that he should for a moment " darken the counsels of 
God,' i. e. place them in a disadvantageous point of \new. 
because the dospemtion of the moment suggests tliat his own 
life and conduct havo not been placed in their proper point 
of view, wa^ under all circumstances so natural, that the 
Duity himself readily accepts the Rrst atonement made for the 
impatience exliibited under such a trial. 

But if the doctrine of a probationary state could not so 
thoroughly be bix>ught out tlirough the lips of a person so in- 
tensely suffering as Job himself, all that defic'iuncy is 8U]>pliod 
on tin* part of another. The inspired Elihu is evidently 
commissioned, not only to place the doctrine itself upon a firm 
footing (xKxiv. ii. xxxvi. H. lO. xxxvil. 7.)i but to trace its 
whole o|>eratiou and con8e<|uenees — from the present afflictions 
of which it is the parent, to that ' P interposing angel,' who 
*• by showing man his ^duty' (xxxiii. 33.), and by ^ otfering on 
atonement' (ibid.) when tliat duty has been violatwl, places 
the treapasNcr again in a state of acceptance with his Maker, 
and must necessarily therefore be the same with that Ke- 

» Few jicrsoiis have read the Sicrtnl M'ritinR* with more ott^ntinn than ihv 
autlior (>f the * ikn\tUmi Researclies' &n<i U was therefore no sntaJl RHUsfaeiiim 10 
the preitmC itiiler tu tind an iitteqtretation which he hjul adoplAd fnmi fieaenius 
fLcxic. p 375), bnmght tmt fully aixl dearly in thowt Rvseardin. (Article Job) 
Hy thi<t interpretation, aitd ihr adoption of tlie niarj^nal vrniion in the Kriglitth 
Bible, the reader will, with .1 liule other help, get a clear text, pprfcctly in liar- 
motiy with some <if t)u> moat important Scriptural doctrines, and free frrnn tliat 
oh»»nirity which runs lliroufch tht* whule of the niitliorizrd version. 

'I rf. r^eseninA in vac. '^- 


deeming Spirit, to whom wo before adverted, and who could 
have been known to Job only through anoe«tral tradition, or 
by immediate revelation. 

We trust that wo are not growing tedious upon a theme 
80 solemn, and shall soon como to the purpose for which it 
was instituted, candidly acknowledging that it has carried ni 
somewhat further than we originally intended. If we be- 
lieve that thero is a Being, who through a series of izupired 
writings has condescended to communicate to us some portioa 
of His purposes, I know nothing which may so reasonably be 
supposed to have stood at the head and front of those com- 
munications as the venerable document which wo have thin 
far BO imperfectly considered : a befitting Prologue to that 
mighty drama, which has now been nearly 6000 years in opera- 
tion, and which a very few more centuries will most probahlj 
bring to a close. All the purposes of such a Prologue it dis- 
tinctly supplies. It explains — ^not in set and regular form, (for 
such set explanations the Scriptures never give,) but in teniu 
sufficiently clear — the probationar}* purposes for which thu 
world was made, (and what other solution will this otherwiie 
strange enigma around us admit !) ; it places before us a human 
being, in his strength and in his weakness, subjected to the most 
trying of all such processes ; and having put the whole of hit 
conduct under it on tho most fair and equitable footing, it 
closes the argument in a strain of poetry, as lofly ia in>nT, 
as unparalleled in magnificence of language, shewing that 
beyond this insight into our condition, any further attempt to 
pry into ' the secret things which belong unto the Almighty,* 
will leave the inquirer grovelling in the dust, and with w 
answer upon liis lips, but that which one of the best and 
wisest of men is here constrained to give : ' Behold, I am 
vile (i. e. worthless in the argument) : — once have I spoken, 
but I will not answer ; yea twice, but I will proceed no tap 
ther.'' And as by a little process of reasoning and inductioD. 
this earliest of divine communications informs us of the object 
of the world in which wo live, so with still more eleaauom, 



and in an exordium most atriking lor pictorial roproscntation, 
it plooos before us the Evil Spirit to whom this probationary 
prooeas is committed. As nothing can to human imaginations 
be more solemn or magnificent than the picture of an eartldy 
monarch, sitting among the highest of hie scfvants, distri- 
buting ofRccs of bonovolenco to some, to others commisifiions of 
justice or severity, so in condescension to our imperfect facul- 
ties, tlio King of Heaven is here reproeonted as holding ouo 
of those courts, in which the enemy of mankind is obliged 
to make his appearance, aa well as the better sons of the 
Almighty, there to receive His Sovereign's mandates but 
stripped as we are assured of power, cither througlt himself 
or agents, to go a hairbreadth beyond the commands which 
ho is commiseionod to execute. To descend from lofty specu- 
lations tike those to mere individuals, or oven to a single 
nation, is not very agreeable ; but enough has now pcrluipa 
been said to shew, that it was not from the Babylonian 
people, that the Jews first acquired their notions of a world 
of intermediate spirits, but that such doctrines had been 
familiar to them from the eailiest period of their theocracy, 
the book of Job having been, perhaps, ailmitted by Mose^ 
(Script. BeMardios, Art. Job) into the Sacred Canon for that 
very purpose ; and tliat it is to an early knowledge of the 
ttbme veuerabie book that we are to look for those antagonist 
principles of good and evil, light and darkness, a Tj'i>hon and 
<ui Osiris, an Ahriman and an Ormusd, which from very early 
periods prevailed more or loss throughout the Eo^t. And 
here the preliminary view, wliich the term used by our transla- 
tors in three or four texts of the Old Testament obliged us to 
*take, necessarily closes. 

That this qEvil Spirit, who from his general animosity to 

q Flow thu Kril Spirit cxmiM to be )«ft out in that farm of pmyf^r, whic^ wt* 
f ordered iltuly to repeat, and fnnn whicli iieitlittr Jen-ish nxMltni uf Uiliiking, 
r Oret^ idiom allow it to lie absent, it i» not for nir to aay. Th&t tlif wiinU 
4k toD wwntpov in that solemn and moct cumprehenaivo of {uvyen do not nuwii 
from ffPtl, hut/rom the Evil Otif, see ibe moct eminmt lexicoi^raphcrs, Schlrtisnir, 
J'vkhiiml, nrrtKhiifid^r, Wnhl, Jkr. 



man, bears in the Hebrew tongue the name of 8akm^ and mbo 
from his tempting first and accusing afterwards, bean in tb 
Greek language that meaning which we express by the word 
Devil^ that such a being and his agents should have bees 
much in the minds of the translators of the Bible, oannoC 
excite surprise ; but that this mode of translation does not 
always tend to a right understanding of that Sacred Book, ii 
beyond a doubt. When the great apostle of the Gtentiles ii 
made to tell his converts (i Cor. x. 21 .) that they cannot * drink 
the Lord'^B cup and the cup of devils,'* what can an Engbl 
reader possibly understand by such an expression ! A adiohr 
knows that it is equivalent to saying, that a man cannot at onv 
be a Christian and an idolater ; that he cannot partake of tk 
Eucharistio cup, and those libations which were ofifored to 
heathen gods, and nowhere less than in those Baoohio rit« 
which we have been endeavouring to illustrate. When tb 
same Apostle in another place (i Tim. iv. i.) foretella tht 
' in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, gnnf 
heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils,^ the 'Ex^^ 
reader must again be at a loss to know what he La to undcc. 
stand. But when with Bishop Newton we translate ' giriil 
heed to erroneous spirits, and doctrines concerning demom^ a 
intermediate spirits, we get a sense not only reconoilaUi 
^th Greek construction, but which, coupled with what tie 
lows, bears — it may be upon Gnostic and other ancient opinios 
— but certainly on some of the leading doctrines of that RonMl 
Catholic church, to which thoy have been so frequently if 
plied. (Newton on the Prophecies. Dissert. XXIII.) 

We have now to examine the word deeils^ as it appean > 
the four above-cited places of the Old Testament, and, as 
before observed, we shall not dwell long on this part of ik 
subject, the preliminary inquiry being of far more importaiMi 
than the bare probability, that in all those four cases, the i(U 
worship there implied had more or less reference to Baoolii 
rites. In the first two of the four examples the original w<»dl 
D''79 (sAwrfim), in the other two skegnirim. Reminding A 



reader of what was previously aaid on Hebrew vowela, and of 
that vale of Siddim^ which we found in a part of Canaan most 
famonfl for it« vines, and obsening fiirther that this suhBtnr.- 
tive is derived from a Hebrew word signifying t4> poar out 
or $h^^ the cupbearer, who poured out wine at feasts, bearing 
A nearly similar name (Parkh. Heb. Lex. p. 720.), we think 
we come to no unfair conchision, when we assert that those 
tiUw^ND, or pouT^r 9- forth, were not merely, as the learned Park- 
hurst imagines, emblems ' of the great agents of nature, or the 
heavens, considered as giring raia^'' but as agents giving a 
more generous liquor ; in other words, that they were among 
the prototypes of that Grecian wine-god an<l his attendants, 
whom the pages of Herodotus taught us to look for in 
this portion of the eastern 9 world. That the word fhemtirim 
approaches still more closely to the Bacchic crew, will be evident 
from the senses which Gesenius's Lexicon aiHxos to its sin- 
gular and plural forms : " "1"*ll2?, ^ hairy, rou^h: ^a hiekf a 'h^- 
poaif an object of idolatrous worship (as among the Egj'pt- 
ians). Plur. D^^yto, inhabitants of unfrequented sohtary 
placea, represented as dancing, and calling to each other; 
perhaps, according to a popular notion, WW inen in t^te/onn 
•fke-^oaUy similar to the Greek* satyrs.'''' Of all this Bacchic 
retinne* the two of most importance here to be traced would 
be the Bacchic *Silenu8 and the god Pan ; but the investiga- 

Q Uo«r fkrthe Becchua LobnittS, or pourer fortht of the Sabines (Plul. Qrivtt. 
Roci. CIV. p. 3S9. A. p. 181, Wytienb.) ootnca under ihU category, I leave 
oChen to decide. 

r In this form Boochits himself not unfruquetiily nppeai-s in die ancient 
Grade vayth.%. (ApoUodor. III. 4.3. Nonn. DionyiL XIV. i^S-) 

• S«»l«oB^mrt. I.e. 18. LowtliV Uaiah, c. XIH. 11. XXXIV.14 Parkh. 
Ddk LcK. 759. On the satyr-crew of the Indian Bacchun, see Cretiz. S^-mb.I.GoB. 

t AfDOdg th« nxn« ciiriouR iuvesttKationi connected with SileniLS the tutor, ni 
wwlX ■■ caai]Muiion of the Grecian wlne^od. not the Icnat airious would be to we 
m wh&l m&nner that ass (un which his repreHentAtive Xiinthias mftken his appear. 
man in tlse opening of the ftUlnwin^ dnuna) is connected nnth a general belief nf 
th« heathen worid, a belief in whirh even so gmvo an histi>rian as Tacitn^t thnred, 
tlutt an Btt'i head stond in thf> Holy of Holie* of the temple at JeniMiIein, to 
vhich tlw JevK puid religionii honour. For one ttolntion of the difficnlty, see 
Phrkhunc in voo. pITVV 



tion would ueceasarily be such aa to carry us &t beyond our 
present limits. 

If the reader is disposed to consider the foregoing instances 
aa somewhat fanciful and visionary, (and he is at full liberty 
80 to do,) we now come upon matter which leaves no doubt, I 
think, of what is perhaps rather inikplied than declared by 
Herodotus, that the worst parts of the Bacchic worship, as 
well as \U general a<ljuncta, came from Phoenicia or Canaan, 
rather than from Egypt. In proportion, however, a^ our 
proofs of this become more clear, so much the more cautious 
do wo feel it necessary to become in what we say, the gross- 
nessea wliich have come under our notice in the investiga- 
tion of this part of the subject being of such a nature, that 
we shall avoid th© chance of liurting the reader''8 feelings 
by giving even a roferenoo to some of them. It is under the 
influence of such feelings that we pass over as rapidly as poa- 
Biblo tbo mention of that idol, which induced the righteous 
Asa to depose the queen-mother from her dignity, though the 
nature of tlmt idol, when closely examined, would justify the 
father of history in all that wo suppose Iiim to have said. 
The name of the idol itself (1 Kings xv. 13. 2 Chron. rv, 16.) ia 
]^2J7DD. In laying down our firHt rule of etymology, wo 
purposely abstained from saying any thing about suffixes 
and affixes, or those initial and torniinal lottoi-s, which tho 
Hebrew language added for purposes of gender or construc- 
tion, and to get rid of the of and the to, tho in and tho 
from, with which our own language is encumbered. Stripped, 
however, of these artificial adjuncts, the three radical letters 
which remain of this iilol present the identical word jphaUm^ 
so well known in Bacchic rites, and the etymological meaning 
of (he word, unintelligible in ihe Greek language, becomes 
plain enough when referred to the Hebrew verb from which 
it is derived. What that meaning is, we forbear to say; and 
except by "references, we wish to say nothing further of the 

a Consult Herodot. 11. 48-9. 51; and 10 referenom given by Parkhurat, 
(Heb. Lex. p. 580), add Creuxcr's Sjmibol. I. 362. 372-8. 193 (note]. 309-10. 



extent to which as an ohject of worship the phallus prevailed 
dirough the east, or of the still more offensive appearance 
which another representation of productive nature assumed, 
more imrticulurly anioug the people of India. 

In the two paesages of the Sacred Writings to which we 
iuiVL- just referred, the queen-mother Maachuh is said to have 
hwn removed from her royal dignity, * because she had made 
a [phallic] idol in [addition to] a grove.^ To the general 
tnin»laticin of the latter word, an ohjeciion was made in a 
fonner ^Kiragniph ; and to ascerLiin the deep guilt of this royal 
outrun, (for her guilt is not, I think, to he measured by 
the introduction of the Priapean idol, to wliidi we have just 
referred, and who pcrhnps was in Canaanitish idolatry as much 
(b« son of the wine-god Chemosh, as Priapus himself was 
ill Grecian mythology the son of Bacchus,) we must go into a 
little further examination of the word so frequently rendered 
grove in our English Bible : but to retievc the dryness of ety- 
mological research, we hazard a few preliminary observations. 

It can only be to younger students in divinity that we 
address ourj*elves, when we observe that the Jewish ]X)lity was 
instituted under two covenants; the one given by the Deity 
himself at moimt Iloreb; the other, under permission of the 
Deity, by their human legislator, when the forty-years"* sojoum- 
ng in the wilderness having terminated, the Jews were to 
BWi the Jortlan, and enter the pnmnsed land. It is to the 
document containing the latter of these two covenants, that 
wc now propose briefly to udvori, a document written when 
lU autlmr was I20 years old, and well aware that its coni- 
pofidoti and recitation would be the closing acts of his life. 
There are few works of standard literary eminence, either in an- 
drat or modern languages, which, if the present writer may be 
permiited to say it, have not at some period, or other come 
under his perusal ; but he can truly say, that seldom, if 

i;6_-. 59> II. 53-8. 8j-5. 319. III. la 1-1-3 U^-S-**. 155- '64. 224. 367. 
IV. 5f. fmtt. Dion>Ti. 532-3-4-7-8-11. Comnwnl- ia Hcrodoc 146 (do««) 7. 
Sa alio Larrlwr** Hcrudotus. 




ever» did such emotions cotne over him, as when reading 
for the present purpose, and in a continued form, this 
venerable piece of composition. The solemnity of its charges 
and adjuraiioHE; — the affectionate earnestness of its ad- 
dresses — the legislative wisdom, and, it may be added, the 
legislative benevolence which it displays, that benevolence 
descending even to a forgotten sheaf (Deut. xxiv, 19,) 
and a nested bird (xxii. 6.). — the ceremonies solemn and 
imposing beyond any thing which history records of similar 
transactions, as to the mode in which this second covenant 
was to be taken, — and above all that overwhelming and im- 
perishable strain of prophecy^ in which the future fortunes of 
the exlraordinary people to whom the document is addressed 
are wrapped up, to the truth of which prediction all past his- 
tory has borne so deep a testimony, and portions of which 
are still us visibly acting before us, as if the ink, which com- 
memorated them, were yet wet upon the paper : — all this will 
easily account for the creation of such feelings as have been 
just alluded to. Our present business, however, lies almost ex- 
clusively with that portion of the prophetic strain relating 
to the idolatries, which were finally to e^ecl the Jewish peo- 
ple from the possessions now about to be consigned to them, 
and scjitter them to the four winds of heaven. With the same 
exact prescience, which enabled the inspired writer to trace 
the general history of the people for whom this document 
was written, he describes that particular period in their civil 
polity, when an infatuated populace would be induced to 
prefer a regal to a theocratic government; and with equal 
distinctness the very monarch is pointed out» who by mul- 
ti]>lying to himself silver and gold, horses and wives, would 
commence the long series of royal apostasies. Nothing re- 
mained but to leave such apostasies without a shadow of 
excuse, and as far as human foresight and enactments could 
go, nothing was omitted in order to accomplish this. That nei- 
ther monarch, people, or priest might be without the know- 
ledge of their great Icgislator'^s last act, it was his dying com- 



ntxid, that this sacred document should be laid with the first 
cvvenaDt in the ark ; that a transcript of it should be made 
by every king on his accession to the throne, that no day 
tlKnild pass without the monarches perusing a portion of it, and 
that every seventh year it should l>e read to the assembled [>eoplc 
by the Levites. Though the consequences of obedience or 
lience to this covenant had been laid down in tcnns as 
as human language coufd devise, yet that nothing 
might be wanting, a ancred hymn, written by the hand of the 
Deity himself, and from its contents, called ' the testifying 
hjrmn/ was subjoined ; thus adding the force of divine to mere 
human injunction. But all was insufficient. With whom the 
first neglect of the daily perusal of this sacred document 
would commence, we can easily conceive. Could the once 
wisest of mankind see his own case so clearly pointed out, and 
daily read his own self-condemnation? That his idolatrous 
•oocessors would not only neglect the perusal, but even the 
tnuKcript of this book, and that they would finally prevent the 
LcvitcB from rehearsing in the ears of the people, what they 
did not trust their own eyes to look at, followed as a matter 
of oourse; and hence in the reign of the excellent Josiah, the 
very knowledge of this document, or the place of its deposit, 
Mems to have been lost^. Hut we must now turn from the 
book itself to the idolatries which its writer had evidently fore- 
seen aa what would bring down the anger of an offended Deity 
upon the people to whom he, their earthly leader, had been so 
devotedly attached. In the first or divine covenant (Exod. 
xxxiv. 13.) three species of Canaanitish idolatries had been 
particularly pointed out as most offensive to the Deity — idtars 
diffcnDg from those, the materials and fashion of which He 
himself had specifically ordereil, the erection of certain groves^ 

> s Kln^ xzii. 8->o. That this venorahle rlocurrwnt khoiild have niffend in 
«n» degree from ihii trcMUDnit wu naturally to Ik? i?x|iMJt«d. Iti ch. x. per. 6, 
whor* iIm Atuh ot Aaron ia mentioned, ihrre U aii evident <KniMion in the 00m- 
nOB llebtvw tFxt, which in tlw Hebrew-SamHritan, or olii Ilehrt'w text, in tilled 
B^i that hanDoniring tlie occount.witli that given in Numb. xx. 33, uj. xxxiii. 




and the setting up of certain ypiiiars. We shall confine our- 
selves to the last two, as they alone have reference to the subject 
at present under examination, and as they are the two, to 
which the second or Mosaic covenant more particularly refers. 
In that covenant, besides another reference, to which we shall 
subsequently allude, it is said, ' Thou shalt not plant thee a 
grove of any trees near unto the altar of the Lord thy God, 
which thou shalt make thee : neither shalt ihou set thee up any 
image (pillar), which the Lord thy God hateth.'' (Deut. xvi, 
ai, 22.) The word grove is in the original ashera, as a sin- 
gular noun; ashe rim, as a plural. In the numerous places 
where this word occurs in the Old Testament, the general 
reasoning of Gesenius is, I think, to the effect, that in all they 
imply an idol. Parkhursl, startled by the word plant in the 
above cpiotation, thinks, ihough admitting the word a^hera 
generally to imply an iilol of some kindj that in this instance, 
at least, a grove must be meant. But why so ? The Ashera 
was most commonly a wooden image— the stone-Ashera or 
Senicl of Manasseh being an evident exception to the common 
rule — hence more easily burnt, (Deut. xii. 3), and mndedust of 
{2 Chron. xxxiv. 4); which latter operation, however, could 
also be perfonncd on niolten images. In the original the 
Mord translated frees is a noun singular, and the passage 
may therefore be rendered as an order not to set up an 
Ashera of any kind of ^ wood, (and of what and how many 
kinds of wood the ancient idols were made, the reader may 
consult Isaiah (xliv. 14. 19.) xlv. 20. Hahak. {ii. 19.). When 
it is said, (Genes, xxi. ^^,) that 'Abraham planted a grove 
in Beer-sheba, and called there on the name of ihe Lord,"* 
a widely-different word, viz. the word e.shd, is used, that 

y Here aud elsewhere in the aathorized ver»ion(a Kings xxiii. 14. Mkah v. 13, 
&C.) mistranslated imager, 

' yv ^9' tMinicihing like this idiom occurs in n difficult [Hissnge of Exckiel 
(xiii. r8}, where by ' ptUmrs to all ann-holeti' is rather meant ' cushioas to the 
dbow-joiuts of females of every age :* by ' kerchiefs upon the head of every sta- 
ture,' tM meant 'kerchiefs,' or rather veils, * upon the head of females of eiery 
size.* Cf. Gesen. t^ex. p. 69,1. 



vord implying, not a grove, but some kind of tamarisk, or fig- 
tree (Gcsen. in voc.) : and when we find it said of Saul, (i Sam. 
xxii.6}thailiea/Hx2t'in Gibcah under a tree of this kind, 'having 
a spear in his hand, and all his servants standing about him/ 
nothing more probably is meant^ than that such trees were 
o o wo iialiy set up, like Mamrc''s oak, to mark a residence. 
* To plant a grove near the altar of God,^ supposing that 
altar liypethral, would involve no absurdity: but when, in 
addition to a former example quoted, we read of Josiah ' brings 
ing out the grove from the house of the Lord, without Jeru- 
rtJem, unto the brook Kidron^and stamping it smalt to [>owdcr 
(a Kings xxiii. 6), and also of the children of Judah * remem- 
bering their altars and their groves by the green trees upon 
the high hills/ (Jeremiah xvii. 2), we certainly see in all these 
passages no small difficulty in rendering the word Ashera 
by that term which the authorized version assigns to 
it. But supposing the Ashera an idol, of what nature was 
•7, or rather they^ for the plural term so frequently used, un- 
less it be what the grammarians term a pluralh cxccUenticp, 
seems to admit of more than one variety ? That it had a 
atrong connection with solar worship may, I think, be inferred 
from several passages^ in which we find the word sometimes 
joined wiih Baal, or the solar fire (Judge? iii. 7. 1 Kings xvi. 
31. ^^. xviii. 19), sometimes with Baal, and the host of heaven 
(2 Kings xvti. 16. xxi. 3. xxiii. 4. 2 Chron.xxxiii. 3.). That 
this connexion, however, of the Asherim with solar rites 
docs not exclude them from a connexion with Bacchic, or 
rather that the two worships were closely connected together, 
and both in their worst forms, will be cvidetit as well from 
the explanation which must now be given of the word piliars, 
as from otlier considerations. 

The word pillar occurs at least under four forms in the 
Sacred Writings; as the ordinary prop to support a building of 
any kind {giutmuii)x as that pillar of salt-stonc (uHz'tb vidach) 
into which the lingering wife of Lot was converted; and lastly, 
in two forms of a more peculiar kind, ckauminim and maizebotk. 



to which we must now call attention. Whether the ehautmniin 
were solar pillars or solar statues, does not, I think, clearly 
appear. Gesenius renders the word both ways. Parkhursi, 
referring to 2 Chmn. xxxiv. 4, considers them as images dedi- 
cated to the sun or solar fire, placed on high above the altars; 
and as the images of Baal were of the beevc kind, he considers 
these sun-images to have been the same. Lowth, in his 
Isaiah, xvii. 8, where the ckauminim are found in conjunction 
with the Ashera, translates solar statues. At xxvii. 9, where 
the same conjunction also occurs, he translates images. Other 
passages for considering the word occur in Levit. xxvi. 30. 
Ezekiel vi. 4. 6. 2 Chron. xxxiv. 7. That the fourth of these 
words did not necessarily imply an idolatrous or offensive 
form, seems clear from the proceedings of the patriarch Jacob, 
(Genes, xxviii. 18. 22. xxxi. 13.45. xxxv. 14. 20.) That, on 
the contrary, in the usages of the Canaanites, (and, most proba- 
bly, by an addition, which I forbear to state,) it assumed a most 
revolting character, is evident from two circumstances; first, 
that among the kings, whether of Israel or Judah, who are 
particularly stigmatized for their idolatrous guilt, the crime of 
sotting up these Asherim, or these pillars, but far more com- 
monly the two in conjunction, is invariably put forth as the 
principal feature of their guilt (i Kings xiv, j^. 23. xvi. 31 — 3. 
3 Kings xxi. 7, 11); and secondly, because in both covenants 
made with the Jewish people, by their divine as well as 
earthly legislator, the express command given to Lhem was, to 
break and hew down these two particular objects of diviue 
jealousy (Exod. xxxiv. 13. Deut. vii. 5. xvL 31, 33)- What 
then were these pillars? Before we answer that question, it 
would be necessary to enter more fully into the probable nature 
and worship of the Ashera idol, and that, for various reasons, 
we decline to do. When It is seen what Herodotus does say of 
the alximinations connected with Egyptian worship (ii. 46, 47), 
and when we afterwards find him declining to enter into further 
particulars, not from those reli^ous scruples, which he so fre- 
quently pleads as a reason for silence, but from the pain which 



would be done to hfs feelings by further disclo&ures, we may 
eamly csonceive that in what was evidently the worst of Canaan- 
itish poJlulions, there might be that which is wisely hidden 
lirtrni our sight, and into which it can be of no benefit lo ex- 
plore too minutely. By closely siding, however, the account 
given in Lucian^s remains, or what are edited as such, of ' the 
Syrian goddess;"* hy comparing those accounts with what Taci- 
tus (HiM. II. 3.) says of the goddess worship|x»d in Cyprus 
under the name* of Aeria, (and the name, considering the im- 
mediate vicinity of Cyprus to Phtenicia, and the transmutations 
which the name may have undergone in })assing from Phcenivia 
to Cyprus, and from Cyprus to Rome, differs not widely 
n that of the idol now under consideration) ; and, finally, 
ough the Sacred Writings maintain a guarded sitenc!c as lo 
naanitish beth^y or temples, yet by comparing some of the 
Jewish laws evidently directed against the practices of those 
betka (Deut. xxiii. i. ij, ^iS. cf i Kingsxiv. 23, 4. 2 Kings 
xxiii. 6, 7.) with what is said in ancient writers of the Baby* 
Ionian Mylitta, (Herodot. I. 199. Slrabo XVI. p. 1081.) and 

■ At I bara hitlierto presMd no etymology 011 the reader, in which thingt u 
wd M wonir did not seem to coinddt*, I mny be here foi^ven for calhng^ attention 
toiOnw uuaent idoU, where similarity oS ttp[iellAtion seems to imply »oni#thin^ like 
amilarity vt iror^ip. On the Athima, or idol of the men of Hamath (a Kingt 
xr'n. 30), MP what ta Ukid by Oewniuft, Lex. pp. 6i. 140. Parkh. 45 : and rf. Crcu& 
Sjmb. I. 34J. On the idol Azara, AstliHra, or Atliara, or Athor, lee Creiiz«r*i 
S^fant. IL 6^^ sq. rV'. 101. S31-1-3-6-7. a47~H. The leaAt offeniuve i^tprMoh 
to the Aahen worihip, whidi we get at in the Sacred WntingS} occurs perhaps 
la » dJKflcuU puiage of Ezekiel (xili. 16, »q.), where the propheteaaes ipoken of 
Man fit flompiuiiona for the prophets of the Afthera, * who eat at JeieberB table,* 
dw hmr name, a* well aa that of her father EthbwU, king of the Zidonians, niA- 
dfldlf Ittdkating what uprciea of idolatries fthe would bring with her a* her dowry. 
TW kuuriou* piJlowf affixed to the elbow.jnint«, the veil upon the head (cf. 
xxzriii. 14), like metoiiymic term f4 hunting (cf. Pn^rerbe ri. 16.), 
iirituital apftenr&Jice of Lhe word tmUM^ »fl a plural moMouHne (furptuhim), 
the flower-gardens (we Pmrkhurst Jn voc mC) into which these male- 
to be fednnvl, all mitfitnetitly indicate, th«t something licstdes divination 
pan of the nccti|>at)c>n of these prvpbeteises, and ttini femali« of every age 
10 aaaist in their purposes. 
* Tlis wt>rd tnuialated liere dog is in ilie original 3>^, purr moiiU, $eortum virik. 
8w Geaen. in roc. 

j^OoBea, T 
^^^k iiritui 
^Kd the I 




the Armenian Anaitisi,(Crcuz.Syiiib. II. 26), strong conclusions 
muy be derived not only as to the nature of Ashera worship 
generally, hut as to the guilty sources which in Canaan as well 
ns other Eastern places — Comana, Cabira, Zela, Pessinus, &c. 
— furnished a numerous priesthood with splendid temples, rich 
domains around, and multitudes of sacred slaves {lfp6bov\oC) of 
liolh sexes to cullivaLc tlicm. But the causes which induce 
us to observe much caution in regard to the Ashera idol, oblige 
us to maintain similar caution as to the nature of pillars con- 
nected with that worship; if, however, the Ashera of Scripture 
and the Syrian go<ldess of Lucian be in main points the same — 
and such I believe them to be, with this exception, that the 
first was the gf>ddess in her palmy, the second the same goddess 
in her declining state — the document of Lucian, to which I have 
just referred, and which beai*s on its face the unmistakeable 
evidence of truth, will serve equally well to demonstrate the 
nature of Cannaniiish pillars, while the prominent part occu- 
pied by Bacchus in that document evinces timt in taking this 
brief view of the scriptural Ashera, we have by no means 
lost sight of that Grecian wine-god, who, from the post which 
he fills in Grecian dramatic littrtUure generally, and more 
particularly in the drama with which we are more immediately 
concerned, deserves all the illustration, and from every quarter, 
which we can possibly throw upon him. 

Wc have trespassed too long upon the reader's [>alience, in 
endeavouring 10 trace out from the Sacred Volume some larger 
points of Grecian Bacchic worship, and too wide a field of 
inquiry on ihe same subject yet lies before us, to allow us 
to dwell upon minor points connected with it, and which might 
be more or less illustratc<l from the same source — the ^choral 
dance — the fawn-skin, which habited the body of Bacchic 
** worshippers, — the ^ ivy which decked their thyrsus or their 

<* See P«rkJhur8t'» Lex. in voc ij-o. 
Ihid. in voc— Cf. Cmizer's 8ymljol. III. 45J. 

^ CpBuzer (S)-niI, III. ijy.) speaks of coint of ihc Phncuirinn Sidan, baring 
on Ib«ni a head «f Baoohus with wn iv^ crown, la not Uic Sidtmian Bnochkl 



hair — the mode of trimming the hair in Dionysiac rites 
(Tarkh. 570) — the close identity of place of worship in the 
two countries, viz. *■ the high hill antl every green ^ tree,** — 
these, and even the prophetic powers ascribed by historian:^ 
«nd poets to the Grecian t^ wine-god, might all, if time allowed, 
reci^ive additional light from the Sacred Writing!* ; but we 
are obliged to hapten to more important matters. 

If, as the father of history assures us, almost every thing 
connected with Bacchic worship came into Greece through 
the Tyrian Cadmus, it follows as a matter of course, that 
two of the most im|3ortant features connected with that wor- 
ship in Greece, should have previously existed in the lautl 
froin which Cadmus came : viz. esoteric doctrines, or the 
practice of mystic rites, for the more thinking portion of the 
oomntunity ; and for the less thinking, the establishment of one 
or more vintage-feasts, with such aeeonipaniments to them as we 
fiod in Grecian Athens ; music, revelry, the song, the dance, and 
rnic exhibition, the last three partaking more or less of a liecn- 
>us character : are evidences of all these to be found in 

ntber formed of the teretinth, ' a higti tree, whidi » comniun i)i PaU-a- 
, viUi €*iT-green icttvo, and fruit growiUK tUie K^apM ?' (Gt-sen. lleh. Lex. 

I CL Cunp. Baodi. .^R. 116. [65. S14, &c 
Creuzer and uOxen have giren rarious reaaotu for the aicription of prophetic 

to a wiiiei^od : but does nut the whule onginutc in tliiitterrilile pccdiction 
accompanied the tint pn»of of uhat mi^hleiiAuu fnnn drinkitifr uf the fniH 
of the rinc, instead of fating its fntit, as liad tiithiTto hei'n dune: a prrdietiun 
vhidit with the tmnsaction chut caused it, niuit have bevii a xviuiutM'«»ce of ev«r> 
Iting oambuuukta in the family of Hain * ? 

* Parkbunt (apparently with a view of saving the character of tlie fp'eat pn- 
vtecb) luM fiven a venion of the paaaage which neiiber the text nor like coutexi 
iriUf I Uiink, admit. According to this learned and pioua writer, who. howm'ur, 
uftcn exhilfits more fancy tliaii judgmeat, Noah * teas niicovereti^ or rolli*t him*e(f 
in tie miiist o/{noi hid, but) the tent, i. e.pfOte tml or t(U>cmw:k (V)n(tecraicd Ut 
tjud*i wurvttijs whither, after drinking the wine, he had retired in expectJUiim of 
^prophetic dream.' Tut the fulfilment of the pr^iction hx\U see one of tliuM 
c^leodid icrmona, in which Iloraley combtnei as unio] the erudition of 11 jihilolo- 
^b^ lb* doae naaooiog of a mathematidan, and the glowing miud and imuger)' 
tim foH and rheCoridaii. 



chose writings, to which the pages of *» Herodotus first directed 
lis to look for them; or if any of them are wanting, can 
they be traced in nations so closely connected with Phfrnicia 
by migration or descent, that what is found in the first may 
with fair probability be assumed as having originated in 
the second ; a fair reason being at the same lime assigned, 
why, while sufficient information is given, or may be infcren- 
tially collected from the Sauretl Writings on some of these 
points, a silence that baffles us is obscr\'ed as to others? 

The writer who here starts these questions cannot too 
openly acknowledge, that he is not the person from whom full 
information on many of them can be expected ; his knowledge 
of the Hebrew language is but small; his divinity-reading 
very limited ; and of the book which would doubtless have 
been his best guide on this as well as many preceding points, 
Selden'^s Treatise on ihe Syrian Gods, he has not been able to 
procure a copy. Such little information, however, as his own 
inquiries can furnish, he readily communicates. 

That the land of Canaan had its seats of learning, as well 
as its commercial towns, its Kirjath-sepher, or ^cih/ of booksj 

h It may M first wem extraordinary^ that a man of ao inquisitire a mttid u 
Herodotui Ahmilrl have been himnelf at Tjtp {II. 44)^ and not have )>enetnit«(l 
fartlier into a otuntry, of whose history and Sacred M''miiigs it miglit have t>t-en 
thought tliat enough would have esaip«d even from I'l^'iman {iriests to have 
excit«d hift iibnost curiosity. But it miut be remeralitired, that tlie ItistoHan had 
his own private affairs to atland to, as well an other men ; and might he not bare 
been inflitenoedbyihem ? Judging frocn the iniporlaiit political part which bcpla)*ed 
on, his return to his native island, it seems reasonable to conjecture, that he was a 
person of no small influence there before he left it, and who can say what poUdcal 
information had reached him, pressing liis immediai^ return, and thiu defeociiig 
other purposes which he might bare contemplfttMl ? It must further be remon* 
bered, thai whate\'er splendour might in a former nge have actadied to the name 
of Jurlfpa, a seventy years* raptifity had in a manner expunged her from the map 
of nations, and that though ptii-tially re5tured al>otit the time of Herodotus> visit, 
her polity was in too infant a state to excite much rtiriositv. There is a thh-d 
reason, on which I forbear to enlai^; it might have been His will, under wboae 
direction are the least, as well as the moftt momentous concerns of the world, that 
minute information on these matters sbnuld not be communicated to us. 

'Joshua XV. 15. It also bore the names o( DelAr, and Kirjath-Stinnahy both 
terms implying tnteUectual eraioeoce. Cf. Docbart's Phoenicia, 1. 1. c 1. Gesen. 
Iteada. 708. 



wdl as it a Hebron* or city of war, the reader is perliaps 
■ware; but as we cannot call up one of the Chemarim, or 
sacerdotal professors in those seals of learning, to answer our 
inquiries, we must be content to offer a few general remarks, 
and some conjectures, as to what formed the mystic or esoteric 
doctrines of Conaanitish priests ; candidly admitting, that as 
those conjectures are here almost exclusively derived from 
etymology, we place less reliance upon this portion of our la- 
bours, than when we were able to corroborate etymologies by 
facts ; and that in the aids derived from a writer, often so fan- 
ciful as Parkhurst, we should have put little confidence, had 
ve not found his positions in some degree supported by a testi- 
mony of which he was not aware. 

Throughout the whole of our preceding remarks, we have 
seen a sun-god and a wine-god either actually united in the 
same person, or if not, so closely trenching one upon the other, 
that it is difficult to say where the first begins, and where the 
second ends. And why this should be the case, is not difficult 
to imagine. The same glosving luminary, which in its vernal 
ooDBtellatiuD gave renewed warmth and brightness to soutliern 
or eastern lands, gave ripeness and richness to the grapes which 
formed the glory of such lands. Hence the beeve or bull 
as the common emblem of both deities, and hence the ne- 
cetnty which existed at the outset of this inquiry, for shewing 
that the Dionysus of Greece was in ancient writings not un- 
frequcntly spoken of as a solar god^ ihougfi liis more common 
designation is unquestionably that of a god of wine. But 
whatever were his mystic rites in Greece considered as the latter^ 
it is ID a Bolar, rather than a wine capacity, that he must have 
po«ses8e<l, if he ever did possess, such rites or esoteric dfxtrines 
to the Merchant-land ; but before we inquire into their nature 
there, a few words must be premised as to the places in which 
such doctrines would be communicated, or such rites practised, 
asalaoof the persons to whom one or both Avould be committed. 

Comparing the general language of scripture respecting the 
Und of Canaan, with whnt we arc able to trace from other 



soiircesy of the practiceR of adjoining countnes, we do not tliiuk 
ourselves mistaken, when we say, that at the period of the great 
Hebrew invasion, that land, besides its ^g(K>dly bouses,** and 
cities ' fenced up lo heaven,' was studded with large and costly 
structures, each provided with its peculiar divinity, and each 
maintaining a large establishment of priests and sacred slaves. 
In scriptural language these buildings are termed Bcth^^ the 
name of the idol to which they belonged being generally 
attaclied to them, as Beth-aram, Beth-ahittah, Beth-akan, 
Stc. &c. That these 6c(hs were notliing more than sacred 
inclosures, like the Grecian Tftxiinjf as Parkhurst imagines, 
(Lexic. p. 88.) I cannot for a moment believe. Is it likely 
that a land, which by internal and external traffic drew into 
itself all the wealth and commodilies of the known world, 
should have been less mugnificenL In its religious structures, or 
less numerous in its sacerdotal establishments, than such places 
aa Comana» Pessinus, &c.P That the word beUi in strict 
meaning iinpltL'S a hottsc, makes nothing ngntnsl this argument. 
The prodigious structure at Jerusalem, justly ranked among 
the wonders of the world, is as often termed the hon^e of God 
as His iempU ; and we have only to look to the magnitude of 
the first building projected after the flood, and lo the nature of 
Pelasgic remains in Atht-ns, Myccnie, and Crete, to be [ler- 
suaded that as well before as immediately after the flooil, 
architecture had been upon a most prmligious scale. 

The priests, lo whom the care of these structures, and conse- 
quently the religious superintcmlence and instruction of the 
Canaaniti^h people were committed, bear in the prophetic and 
oihcr scriptures ihe name of ^'^Chemnrtm^ and whether the term 
be one of derision or actual appellation, it gives us some 
insight, coupled with other scriptural notices, as to what 
formed the two principal objects of worship in these splendid 

m *' Chemarim (2 Kings xjuii. 5. Uos. x. 5. Zeph. i. ^.), fraiii -rs^^ tv hs 
hunieJ, scorrfkfti." Oespn. " Tlie faithful [among the] Jew* teenx tn have cmUed 
them Chumirim in contempt, a» being continually $(vrched hy their Buer^ficved 
and fumi^atiny fires.** Parkh. in roc 



buildings. Tliese were tlie worship of the (leavens generally^ 
and more particularly the sun: and of the extent to which 
the first of these two worships was carried, tlje philosophical 
tiety of investigation in which it originatet! or to wliich it 

ve birth, and the nicety of language occasionally exhibited 
in dificriminating points connected with it, those unacquainted 
h the Sncre<l Writings, except through the medium of trans- 
lion, can hardly lie aware. Engaged as we are rather in the 
iDvcstigalion of Bacchic tliau of heavenly or stilar worship, it 
is impossible to enter into any lengthened details on this im- 
portant subject ; but calculated as it is to throw some light 
on that Dook^ with which it becomes us all to be intimately 
acquainted, a few details may be perliaps permitted us. 

To l»egin then with the heavens themselves, considered as 
^inilies, and consequently as an object of worship. At first 
flght nothing seems wider apart than the Greek word Oeol^ 
tt godSf and the Hebrew D^?^' ^' ^' f'^ovena; yet in radical 
^derivation, and it may be therefore in actual meaning, both 
we substantially the same; the two taken in conjunction af- 
fording proof of that process of translation, by wliich a mean- 
ing originally Plicenician transfused itself into a word origi- 
nally Pela.Hgic or Grecian. In this their first and great desig- 
nation, then, the heavens appear to have Ikcd worshipped prin- 
cipally as distributors of things into their respective sorts, 
placet. Sec. ; and this first point established, and a scientific 
fo0t\og l^ned, the Cansanitish philosophers pushed thv'ir 

I TIm nebnm* HubMftndve U denvud fnmi u verif whidi ttignilint tu jtiticr^ to put ; 
■b4 dHU Um* Creek snbaUuilivt* is in the uine way ilerivml from die verb tiO/#«j, 
tt ^haff« to ptU, i» evul^rit from the two nillawin^ iiuotationa : Uerodot. II. 51. 
'lUsm l« wdrra (omniito) irp6r«pov ol Tlthaoyol Ottilat iwtux^fuyoi^ wt iyii itf A»- 
tAr$ aCW attowraf iwmrufiiTjv 8i o£5* irofui iwouvrro oi^vl avTuv' ov ydp Junjxij- 
tf4r «w. dEOTS ii wpQWv6fi<LBiM ir^«tu airh tdu roioiVrmr, Sn ii4trfitf OENTCS rtk 
nbra g^^lfiwf" kaJ vdffos voftat <7x«v. PhnrmituH : " The anctmils turik thuMf fur 
|l4i whom tbry fuuiitl to inu%-c iii ik c(*rtain i-r^ibir manner, thinking Uicm to be 
A* OiiMHft of the changes of tlic air, nnH cf the oinsen-aiioii of the utiivfrap. 
1W* tWn *f« poda (0«ol)i whirh an* the fintptmrrM (Oatq^ct) antl framers of aU 
t." Cf. P«rhh. p. 745- 



mystic doctrines still further. As projecting, impelling, and 
pushing forwards the planetary orbs in their courses, the heavens 
assumed under their scientilic hands^ at least as far as etymo- 
logy will allow us to decide, another form of reli^ous worship, 
bearing in that form the name of "* D*^Jl (Jram) ; a Beth, 
with of course a corresponding sacerdotal establishment, being 
provided for the maintenance of the worship. As causing the 
earth^s decUnation, and thereby the successive variations of the 
seasons, a third form of heavenly worship comes before us, with 
another temple established for its support, the joint names of 
Beth-Shittah (Judges vii. 2a. Parkh. 730.) implying both. 
As reiterating years and seasons, and thereby producing, 
ripening, casting off and consuming the earth'^s flowers and 
fruits, and so renewing and changing the face of the earth, 
a Beth rose to •them under the title of Shan, i. e. the ckan^r^ 
renewer, or reiterator. (i Sam. xxxi, 10. a Sam. xxi. 12. 
Parkh. p. 754.) The starry heavens (and these few specimens 
must suffice for the present portion of the subject) bore the 
name of Nimrah (Numb, xxxii. 36.), the idol apparently 
wearing a leopard's skin (Parkh. p. 450.), and thus, by garb 
at least, reminding us of the Grecian wine-god Bacchus, 
as well as an Amoritish divinity of heaven. With clouds and 
cloudmongers we do not propose to deal, though much curious 
matter might be elicited on both. As the celestial fluid sub- 
sisted, according to Canaanitish philosophy, in the three condi- 
tions of Arc, light, and spirit, or gross mr, other fields of spe- 
culation, and other objects of worship were off*ered by the 
Chemarim to their hearers. Was the solar fire or light to be 
considered as causing the revolution of the earth, and by that 
means the return of the morning light upon it P the idol bore 
the name of ^NergtU, Was the strong projection or reflexion of 

m Josh. xiii. 97. Parich. Lexic. p. 687. 

n Nerga], (a Kings xriL 30.) being an idol of the men of Cnth, doM not strictly 
belong to our present oatalogne : it has been introduced beoauae the emblem of 
this idol, vis. a cook {Parkh, in roc. p. 478.), throws light upon an expression of 



kiminous matter rather to l>e brought under consideration r* the 
idoUgod was Rimmon, and the idol-emblem the pomegranate, 
the worshippers or mysts which ever thi-y might be, being re- 
mifxled by its star-Hko flower with six leaves or rays at the 
lop of ihe fruit, to whom their adoration was to be particu- 
larly addressed. Passing over a variety of inferior idols con- 
nected with heavenly or Rolar worship, lloghih, Ute re- 
mUc^r (Josh, xviii. 19. Parkh. 193). Ziir, (he nughty one 
(Joah. XV. 5R. Parkh. 625.)» Gaumul, i^e rrtril/utor (Jcrem. 
xlviii. 23. Parkh. ii4.)> Sheniesh, ihe solar light (Josh. xv. 
to. 2 Kings \xiii. u.) — which deity we find in the latter text 
with his horses and his chariots Hke the (ireciaii A]x>llo — 
wc conte to the more common and popular Canaanitish deity. 
lihe "Lord of heaven, the miglity Haal. That Haal as an object 
of worship meant the solar JiiCy appears by his being distin- 
guished (2 Kings xxiii. 5.) from Shcmesli, or the vsoUtr ligftt 
just tncnlioncd, and from timl remarkable contest between 
Elijah and the prophets of Baal, when aufdver'iug hi/ fire 
was to determine the sujx^riority of Uaul or Jehovah. That 
ibc idol-emblem was of the nbeevc kind, is decided from 
a pMsage in one of the apocryphal writers, where men- 
ttod, as Parkhurst observes, is made of family-sacrifice done 
ij BtioX T^ Aa^Xci. (Tobit i. 5.), a gminniatical form, 
vidcb will surprise no one acquainted with the dualistic or 
■■droigjMKws divinities of the ancients, where we often find 

Jbdkyku (Suppl. 309.), and iJih) ui>uii Uie Gn»k wurd &A/irro«p, derived, h 
IteUmnt thiuks, from the Heb. IW rchn, the atminff <\f the tiffhr, of which that 
IMgiim Kuch miiJirkiiKlo notice, 
o tettilMnuilhon ap. Kucoh. Pnppamt. L T. ea]>. to tovtov dth¥ (rhf 

Mitpnta oCpatftfV, Id tlie Punic or Carthaginian Unguage the word Mksunwi tlie 
tmm cf Bahuxum^ iT'lauc PiBuulutt, act. V. »c.?.) 

pFartfabaiidffCfaernice distinctitiriK aitiong theCaniuinitctnktosvlariiRd hinar 

Vgklv «■ Parkbont under tlir wonls Srs, rrsn, ny, m3% oor, &r. 

4 Aa MBnng: other C-uuuuiiuah f'eth4 we tiuJ (i ^am. vii. 1 1.) a l>oth.C«r, or 

I thixik it iiirt iniprobublv tliot ttie veriiid >iui was designolctt hy 

Imaidw the turr, in orHpr to ihew llu< pnif^'iias iif tltat jnyocia 

O 3 



the snme deity sometimes in a masculine, sametimes in a femi- 
nine form. To enter into all the varieties of BanJim, from 
Baal-Tumar, or Baal of tlie palm-tree, to Baal-Zcbiib, or Baal 
with llie 'fly-cinblem, — from liim wiili the artiHciul sky above 

I *' fhi!il-zel>ul) nj^ewv to Imvp li<wti one or tlie me^iirnf idoU of tite Ekronitca; 
and BA HhuI tlenoies th« tUHt no Uie nttnl>uu> Zt->biil> M\inr< u> ini|mrt his power m 
maitiitg U'liUT ti> tpmh out of eArtli, nitd in pri)iiu>tiii^ ihp/tiiklU^ iiiut dtir' ititrfuiTge 
of tltp jiiicCK nntl htihhl in VL<{;etalileH, niitrimU, uiiil iiifii, ami tltcrrl'V euntiiiRing 
or re^torifi^ th»'ir firftith an*\ vipour. And tm Jtim^ fmni the manner i»f thnr 
uming from their hnli*», were no iiiiproiHT enddenis o( /tuiflM tpighintj forth ^ 
hence the ppiUiet Zc'liuh mukcs it prolmlile thnc B^y nun pitrt of the imagery of Uv 
Sunt RC Ekron, or ilint a Jiy nccomimniwl tlie httll ur other iiiiitf^, u we an in 
many inftUinrcs pntdiu'ed by Aloiufatit'on/* Parkh. p. 169. How fur the Ekron- 
ite prieiU wtrre guided by nucJi philnnophical reguoninfrs nn thewi, tlie rpAder it 
left Ut judge ; much aiinpl«r CAtiM>« might douhtleu be found for the fly •Baal : 
iHit n Ahnrt notice of thfw idolntroiis emMemn may not be withoot their i-alue lo 
ttie hihlical Btudent. As Rual here appearg with a fty, mi Kiinnum w« have seen 
hud a pmnfgratiate aa his etiiblern : Moloch, when the gorgeous rolie, indi- 
cative of tJi<* 8|Hingied heavenit, was thniwn uvrr him, appears to hate assuiiwd 
the ninre of Adrominelech; nhvn an nrtifinHl vloiid i*t<KMl above liim, hu waa 
AnaiiiuiL'lech. A star in found in aiirient cuijm niispendetl over the head of n\on 
than otte of ancient * idols. 


• What Egyptian or Canaanili»li idol (the text ratlicr restricts xi* to die forroer) 
it meant by Uie Kciiiplianj wliom St. Stephen (AcL^ vii. 43.) aiibstitutea for the 
Ckiun of AinoA (v. 16.), has Itcen a subject of \{rvti\. duubt among oommentstore. 
From Kirchcr tn Tawnsead, the prevailing; opinion has ttcen, tluit the ancient god 
Saturn is meant. That tliin opiniim is incorrect, I do not venture to albrm, biu 
many proofit (and Um KUir-eJiibletn amung the rent) might, I think* he brought to 
ikhew time the goil Pan, one oi xlw. ciglit elder divinities of ("^"pt (Herodot. Fl* 
46. 145-6.), and whoM* appeuruniv in ibo Dacd^iii: retinue I have before ail- 
verted to as deferring attention, is more proluitily intrndcd. Instead of entering, 
however, into debates, which involve little more than a pnint of learned cu- 
riosity, a few moments may be more profitubly devoted to the considemiiun of 
some oniihhionji and okistakes into which n rerejit eilitor of the New TeKtaineut 
has fallen in disriiising this most intoresting jwrtion of Holy Writ. l*hat a 
writer, evidently more qualified to make his way ilirough the tliomy patJu nS 
ancient lileruture, than co feel or appreciate its elegancies, should have missed the 
dramafie licauties, if I mny so ttpeak, which per\'ade tlie whole of the transuction 
and narrativo connected with the death of the first martyr, was not much to be 
wnndorcd nt ; but we had a ngbt to expect that l>r. DIoouifield should have un- 
derstood whni. Tit, well from what he does say, ns from what he does not ny, 
(cf. Bloonif. Acts xxii. 5. Lightfoot, Vlll. 450.), it is pretty clear he does not 
understand, the constiiutit^i of the iribunul before whidi the proto- martyr was 
arraigned, the place where that tribunal held its sittingn, und the mode in which 
its decrees, at least where hipjdation was ojuoerned, were carrieit Into execution. 



Ins heftd (Baui-/ephon), to him of ihc purifying-fire (BaaUbe- 

Vttboat entering miimtdy into ilui omstiiutloa of the Jewish Sanhcdriiu, the 
^■aSfications rv«juirci] for lieinK a memlivr uf it, lh« inude aiid ilines of iu titliiiff, 
^crnnei which fell uwler iu cognizance, nnd ita four modes uf capit:U puntah- 
■■nt. It will be >uHirituiK fur t)ie piv«enc pur|»oi« to otMerve, chat the court cuiuisted 
tl byinm, «» veD u " prioiiii** of the meA of Aaron, und ** Miriltes** of the trilw of 
I«vl; Che lay portion of thi& ujieniMy U>ing generally undmtnotl by the word 
**ddm.'* (U^cfoiK, 111. 197. IV. 213. IX. 33S.) Of die two ^aCM in which 
iti Mttingi were held during the time uf the first t4'nip)c<, it is liere uuiMxv&Miry to 
lyarit ; at the time uf St. Stephen's death, (the well knunii ten **nittiiif;8" uf thi» as- 
MoUf baring not yet ooiiinicmvd,) it« judgineiU& took pinoc in the huilding (iozith, 
{f0 mlfaii from the neutly wrouf^lit stone of whirti it was couipuiH<d,) tlie room itaeU* 
Uof fat cheoounof the temple ncnr (he altar, or as the Oemarivisexpieislt, ^neu* 
dkrJWiiir |trv«e-u?e^" whii-h tlu-y itup{>09efl dwelt upon the idtar. nnd l<K»ke«l on them 
bov llufy Bcted in jud^nent. (Id. 111. 30. VI. 3<i(|. .178.] Within the rcrgv of 
this omrt uo oue might kit, lM^dt>fi it* actual memlrerH, " i-ioept it be one of the 
y^V of cli« biMiiie of David" (Id. IX 338.) L'nleai lheref«>i-u ul* fiupiHne a 
moll to have hri»ken through all i^imruon niles, nothing ran )w warv 
than l)r. Ulooinfield** supponition of an " infuriute ninltitude" being 
|SV0il Uiuing the trial of tlie proto-martyr, and that to iliiii ninlttcude his ipeech 
«Mi addroMsl. The proceM o( Jewidi Xi9o$o\{aj or <iloite-aiittiiif;, as far aa tlw 
very high authorities, may be trusted, was in its simplest forms as 
<^i cxHiiing U} the place tif execution, tlie mniinall was stiipjM'd of Iur 
aiu] thnrwn upui liis l>ack. In thiv stale, tite ftrsl of the two depoi^ing 
dashed a bea^'y stone upon his licurt ; tliis not killing him, Uiu 
KBOod v^iUMna did tlie same; ami if the sufTervr still survivf<l, then stoning 
V tha whole populace took phw-e. (Id. VIII. 43S-9. XI. 416.) To do tlieir 
«Bffk mian cdToctually, llie witnesses generally laid aside their upper ^innent; 
■■4 it b only nacanary to rmnemher at whojw feet t)m (^mienls of the two 
vitDiBta agauut 8l Stephen were laid, to l»e apprised as to who had Itcett the 
fviudpal iiutruuienl in raising this sudden storm agiunst him. (Id. IX. J40.) 
Aad thTra far for the leuriied edilor'a misrejiresentations, or ratlier want of clear 
oHnrv^Um" on this ■uhjiTt. Let us nowvome to hixomiuions. I'ltut the intermp- 
liaa ia tlw martyr's speech, at v. 50, took place, not as Dr. U. with Doddrittge und 
KiImmI Mippos«r, froui ** open tumult and rlauumr fur the death of the jiriiwiner," 
but Cram indignant \iKk» or whis|H.'rings untoug the Sauhe<lrini, follows of n»un)t! 
from chr oinstiiuii<m and privac)* of the court: hut to say nutlilng of tlie want of 
•ay notice as to nhat partiiitlar point it was in tlie chain of St. Stephen's reasoning, 
«4udi aorasiuuM the interruption, why is no notice taken of the singularly idioRi> 
•tic cvprvastiHi *' unrirL*tuncisrtl in ears," and tite illusiniiiun whith it might have 
nnattA frvai a piwage in Jeremiah ? (vi. 10.) But alxive all, why is no notice 
taken a( the wonl tvtdmv (v. -43), a word jirrgnant, it appears to me, with meiui- 
h^^ and withofit • full wnse of which neitlier theohject of ttifi|niftali<rii fnun Amon, 
l«r tli# gexienil naliirv of the tiprakrr'H reaanning, nor what was before tcnued the 
^mmmi^ rliaracter of the wlioir tranwH-timi, stamping upon the narrative every 
•Mrli of kidlspiieaTdp truth, can lie well appreciated ? 'Die reader will }terha|n 
Iw with far fitr a moment, while I endeavour to throw a littU' light on lhi« ]tart 
•if th« tabjact. 'Va every tiling in llib wmnwdwo bcnn the nwrk of suddenness, 




riih'), would carry us far beyond our liuiils. Bui one or iwo 

bftste^ and violence, so in Si. Stephen himself we e%-ideatly toe n speaker Uken by 
iiir])riH>, arnrnging in haste the to\acA of a diticuune, which fae meant to be long 
and olaborau;, but which is »udUtnUy intemipted by one oocurremie, and by an- 
other brought to a mpid conclusion . As the chief gnnnid of accusation against the 
arraigned was the having spoken words of li)iw|themy againnt Mosca And the 
Wm^t it hehorcd him ti> direct his first dufence to tliese two topics. M'ith the 
history of Oieir great legislator Si. Steplion shews himself per£pctly ac^taiated, 
and nuihiiig appears lo hnvo droppc-d (nnn him on that subject calculated Co give 
udditional offence. Not so with the temple. Beautiful as the "tabeniack of 
witness" was in itself, it was nuihing iu uplcndoiir compared with ilie temple of St. 
Steplicfi's day, and ilic idlusions to the humbler dwelling, out of which this pride 
of Jewisli slnirtures hud grudufdly gmwn, were ill caJnilntnl to oonciliaie his 
bearers. Tbc (luotation frvm Amo« (i/ which nioro praseiitly) was siill further 
udctilat«d to irritate, and the final quoiatiim from Isaildi, which, in reference to 
spiriiiiHlity of worsliip, put this luagnificeiit structure on little liighcr footiug than 
heftthen .Ntnictures of a similar kind, evidently threw the auditors into a state of 
phreusy. Hence that gimshiiig of their teeth, niid the consequent taunt on the part 
of Sl Stephen, tlmt those who coukl not listen to stKh a spiritual truth, were a* 
mud) lieitthens iit tliesr hearts as in their ears. Hut wc are hwing sight of the 
word, for n right understnoding of wlijch we have entered into these previous de« 
tails. That more idolatry pmiiiled during the forty years* sojourning in the mtU- 
darness tlian the author of the Pcniaieticli has choiigbi fit to record, is evident, 
■OC only firom this passage of Amm, but from other passages of Scripture (Psalm 
bcxriii. 40. Exek. xx. 13 tq.). This, however, did not, I imagino, oonsiA so much 
in overt acts uf apostasy, as in a miserable dinging Ut what they had fur years 
(might I not say for centuries?) seen prnctisnl in Egypt, and tlicace to idolatrous 
adaptations of the two great diMtnctlons in tlicir own new religious worship. And 
what were tb(%e distinctions ? The first was that" tubemade of witness," to which 
we befure adverted, and which, as bisltop liorsley eloquently obaerres, " with its 
statdy snp]tort of nprighl pillars resting on silrrr sockets, and transverse beams 
overbid with gold ; its gorgeous hangings witliin uf purple linen, blue and scartel, 
with tliu button of gold; its noble covering witbout, of tlioduiggy hkins of goats; 
its rich furnitiin.', the sL>ven -branched candlestick, tlie altars, and the imidemeuts 
of saciifice, aU of brass or gokl, pure or overlaid ; the ark, containing tlic tables of 
the law, with the merry-seat oversiiadowed by tlie wings of the cherubim, was 
surely a distinction of no ordinary kind.** (IlorsleyV Serm. 17.) Theseunnd, and 
&r above this in splendour and mipnrtanco, was ** the glorious tight which filled 
the sacred [vaviliun, tlie symbol of .rehnvah's presence." (Ibid.) To tlieae what 
did the n-anderera in Oie wilderncass as llic prophet and tlio martyr bitterly re- 
proach them, prefer? Instead of lieiiig conieutetl with the first, tliey must needs 
moke OS t^jjes of it those nhrincs or portable receptacles in which the idul-fonos of 
Egyptian divinities were cArried altout ; inst^iul of the latter, lliey preferred to nise- 
the sur enibleni which stood nbove the ( Buochic ?) Kcmplian of tlielr late mastcn. 
Homer teJU tib, that whr^n a man loses his frocdoni, he loses at the same lime half 
his virtues ; to know in what manner more than Unit the utteUect amy be loat b; 
the some pmoms, it is only neoeaiory to call to mind what the Jewish people were 
in tlie wildemeM, and consequently what Egyptian bondage — that "fiery fumacr»*^ 



motie particularly connected with our present inquiries may bo 
»{i^fied. Such wa& the Boal-shalishn, (3 Kings iv. 42.) whic}i 
ling ctyinologv for a guide, I should imagine to be a triple 
il (cf.Ge^n. 810.), combining solar fire, solar ligiit, and fluid 
nmllcr, thus containing in iis three forms two of the three in 
lich the Egyptian Osiris and Greek Dionysus have been 
ind ; the llaal-hamon, where with etymology again as our 
gijide, and the further consideration that here the vineyards of 
Soloinou were situated, (Cant. vili. ii.)^ all the ^ noise and 
luutult of an Attic vintage-feast seem entitled to burst upon 
our ears, — and lastly, tlie Baal-peor, the nature of whose wor- 
ship, whether solar or Baccliic, wc do not care to specify too 
clearly cither from etymology or facts. If instead of the bits and 
morselft here presented to him respecting the heavenly and solar 
vorahip of ancient Canaan, the reader should wish to read some- 
thing like a continuous lecture by one of her Cheraanm, he is 
referred, (and it was in the confidence that such a reference 

• te il MtMCune* termed — nuui have proviouily tieen, to cniiEhr audi n comiption 
undmciiixlinK. As Oie tendency uf the fmt |iaK of St. Stephen*^ 
bfllure Uie Sanhedrim wan e\'idenUy tu exposu ilie infatnatiun tif iheir 
MXncokUirt^ in tinis iinng a paltry idol-nhrine ns a lyp^ "f* ^'>e iK'niUtftd ta- 
of H-tin«9Hs w ntay ttoogine tti wlwl lungiiat^p «f irony nri<l rnnti''mpt he 
Vauld tuve insuuni tlw ttiil greater infutiialJon, which rould Itutk Ui the 5tar- 
nUom pf a wnetchod idul liko Rvinphiiii, as a reprcM;n(atiuii of tlmt diviiiv glory 
vUch fiOcd tile sacred pavilion. In wliat manner and fur wliat cauien the 
ffttkar** linit Mibjert wiis Itmuftht tnan atmipt conclusion, we have already wan— 
IbvImi mMincr die Acitud apitefiniiioe of the divine glury siipt^raeded the very 
HHta^m upon the uYond intenilt!*! hi-aiich of hiti oration, it is iinnecetJUkry 

* Parkliurnt, I«x. |h 61. Oncnius oompam the Uoal-herith, or Baaio/tfte co- 
wmm$t w he terms it, to the Ztht 'Of>icior of the Gredcs. Though Otiseiiius aa n 
fcnR^ anthoHty — not always, howmpr, nuc to he received with iiupUcil *tnui, — 

to I'aj'khiirxl, — yet uji Uie explnnaiiuii of Piirkhuntl lirinf:{!i os nearer 
ttifyiiig riles l*y fire, it iit here, I tlilnk, t^i Im- preferreil. Itaal>/e|iban 
I* - ' ■ - I 1 l<y <*netiiuit u cijuivaWMt to lliv lugyptuui IlciUtjioiUj su railed froni 
^t Ste l»«een. I<ex. iu voo. pon. 

• Is this ino inm4i to viy uf a lexicographer, who on a uwre gnunnialica) nicely 
•BWM>rt«il with ilie nr-t>rrvv word ^oV> (^uinh liii. 8.; — u niuety which htts since 

sJirwTi n*»t lo w«, (Wiseman IT. 504.) — inidc»ivmirs u\ "pply in a f»illectiT« 
iihet U i'^'idtnitly imnut Uy he iindentood in an individnal one, aiul thua 
aaMta Ut destroy a predictiim which foruia a ver)' koy-«tone of I'hristianity ? 




could be given, that wc have indulged in much of the above 
speculations,) to thai curious fragment of the Armenian Her, 
preserved by Plato, and more particularly to the concluding 
part, where the planets and their courses are so enigmatically 
spoken ^of. The reference is given with more confidence, be- 
cause the intercourse between the ancient Armenia and Canaan 
was so close and intimate, that wluit is said of one country 
may pretty nearly be said of the bother, and (unless the reader 
should here consider us as more than ordinarily fanciful) because 
the very name of this Armenian leads us to those Chasdim 
(children of Chesed) or Chaldeans, of whose two cities, among 
the few known to us in Scripture, the one is evidently by name 
connected with solar liglil*, the other apparently >wiih those 
dwarf gods of Phoenicia, about which so much learned contro- 
versy has existed, aud which from etymology I cannot but 
think had reference to the sun in its autumnal decline, one of 
the two great points of consideration among the ancients, which 
gave birth to so many of their myths. 

The question, however, still remains unanswered: are the 
above — and much more might be added, did circumstances 
admit — to be considered as esoteric doctrines delivered by the 
philosophic priests of Canaan to more favoured pupils, or as 
portions of mystic information, authorized by the slate? If words 
might decide the question, we should certainly say the latter; 
the very word my^Uryy and consequently all belonging to it. 

tt Plal. de Rrp. X. 616, d. m^. 

" Stralm (T. 70) r>!>6erve», that the ArmenJiing, Syrians, i. e. PhoMiiciaas, Hnd 
Arabians, preserve muiy proofs of a common race, in their bmguagc, modes of 
life, &c. &C. 

%■ Ut in the Ilehrew toiigim dentites Vight^ and so may be token to denote the 
eetest'ial luminaries ur lightnj \, e. nnn, moon, and stars. And hence tlie plaix<r 
mherc tim (Jhnsdim livfd might l»e called fV of tfte C/tOMdimj from their studying' 
there the motions of the snid Uglils or tuminiu-ies." M'l'Us'k /ieography, I. 1 35. 

y Uaran, or Charr«n, hein^ at nu great distance from Vt, the reli^ous wor- 
ship of the two places may be presumed to have l>een in some degree the aaiae. 
The Temphim of LaLiant therefore, may be BUpp>0!)ed to luivfi Iiud ^nne coiinexiMi 
wiili solar wunthip, Imic nhether of the exact nature indicated tii the text, would 
l>e to open the ahnoet endless question of dwarf-gods, Patsci, Anaces, Tritop^- 
tores, Cabin, Dioscuri, &c. &c. But of. Parkburtt in voc nrx 



ng, as the 'etymologists assure us, dcriveJ- from the lan- 
guage of the country, where we have been so long remaining. 
If again we consider that the Mosaic covenant (the injunc- 
tions of which generally had so much reference to the rcligpous 
monicA of Canaan) — if we consider that that covenant among 
hs many curses lays its first on the man, wlio, after making a 
ven or molten image, ' putteih it in a secret place' (Deul. 
vii. 15.); and if to this we add the picture given by the 
prophet Ezekiel, where the seventy elders in their * painted 
chambers' so closely resemble a myslic confraternity, the opinion 
thai mystic rites did in Canaan receives additional strength; 
but the subject is altogether too new, and the capacity of the 
present writer for the full management of it too imperfect, 
10 allow him to give any thing like a decisive opinion on the 
matter. Hut it is more than time lo iiirn from ihe few who 
think, — and for whom alone speculations like the above were 
much calculated, — lo the many whoj^r/, and for whose wants, 
piivsical and intellectual, the stated returns of Cnnaaniiish 
vinlage feasts reijuircd provisions of a widely different kind. 
And what were these? — the feast, the revelry, and the intoxi- 
cillng dratighi, — poetry, music, the dance, the song, and 
iomethin<! like a drama. That of all these tlie last four or 
five — and to them alone we si)all confine ourselves — were em- 
ed to grace, or it may be to disgrace a Canaanilish vintage- 
Bi, may I think be ass^-rled witli some confidence, though 
direct evidence to that effect can be derived from the Sacred 
ritings. Was the border-country of the land of Job to be 
hout its poetry, and that of no ordinary kind ; and is it a 
Stttter of no importance to the last of these four points, 
Usai the |x>etry connected with that most venerable of names, 

t ^Tc, tit Mde^ coneeai. Derir. With a prefixed, Or. Mucr^pto^t whence 
XaaL migwttrj/. The oM Frrnch mgtiticr, whciicH KngL mutery, mid fomwrXy 
fc." Parkh. If thin be true, i^lils i»nd L-ivic coriwratioiw are now 
Eletkai* itnd Ijerim once wen*, tuid tlte iinrit* nt ^ifArrrri is rv|>n-M.'nli>d hy 
A or i?, ulume cmTt itnd miktery Mipplica us wiih ibe ouiiuiUMteAl arti- 
flf itnBft, (ockI, furniliirr, &r. &c. 


is found invested in a dramatic form P But if do direct proof 
can be derived from the Sacred Writings, that poetry and even 
a band of Muses existed in the land of Canaan, and it may be, 
very long before the great Hebrew invasion, there b indirect 
proof to that effect in other sources, of which we can avail our- 
selves, and to those sources wc now turn : the silence of the 
Sacred Volume u|X)n these points we shall endeavour to account 
for hereafter. 

If there be one place in the andent world where we should 
least look for a band of Muses, it is the Grecian Boeotia. Ex- 
cellently adapted by her climate as well as by her soil, to rear 
up a stout body of agriculturists, as well as men qualified to 
handle the spear and target, the pen and plectrum seem of all in- 
struments the least suited to her sons. Whence then a Helicon 
and band of Muses in such a place? If the reader looks to 
Bochart's map of Boeotia, and finds that map swarming with 
Phoenician names, and the name of Helicon among the rest, 
the enigma is pretty nearly solved. What the Tynan Cadmus 
had left in the hill-country of his father-land, he naturally 
endeavoured to re-establish in the land to which his destinies 
had carried him; with what success poetic annals have too well 
recorded. A gestation of many centuries gave birth to the 
Ascrean Hcsiod ; another throe of centuries, and fortli came 
the Theban Pindar ; with these and the birth of the poetess 
Corinna, the poetic history of Boeotia is begun and ended. 

That these were names sufficient to immortalize any country 
which gave their owners birth, is readily admitted ; but the 
question is, do they cover the cost of such an establishment as 
we have found upon mount Helicon ? Evidently not : the deities 
indigenous to such a land as we have seen Boeotia to be, were 
unquestionably the two who come before us in the following 
drama — a wine-god and a table-god — a bibulous Bacchus, .'md 
a devouring Hercules (infr. p. 24.) ; and if in addition to the 
harp-strains occasionally heard at Thebes in the worship of 
the Isnienian Apollo, we allow her a liberal supply of flute- 



maaicTy and such approaches to a mental cntcrtainmcni as a 
Bacchic KiafAos might supply, wc have perhaps allowed the 
lUftr-land of Greece as roucli of iutellectual enjoymcDt as slie 
n fajrij cntidcd to. 

Having ventured to transfer a band of Muses from a coun- 
try where tliey by no means appear at home, to one where 
thov seem more germane to the soil ; (and a ntore accurate 
knowledge of Phu^nieiau language than the present writer 
posKseeSy would, he has little doubt, entitle him to declare 
that the very names of this illustrious sisltrliood, as well col- 

K lively as individually, are of Phtenician growth ',) the reader 
kfl to form his own notions as to the nature and extent of 
|Biiitish poetry ; but we must again remind him, that the 
magnificent strains not unfrcquenily found in the two earliest 
books with which wc arc acquainted, the Pentateuch and the 
book of Job, leave us no right to suppose that the poetry of 
Canaan itself would be of a very inferior order. Having sup- 
plied, and ne think on no unfair supjtositions, xhe great 
Merchant-land of antiquity with a body of poetry, we advance 
whhln a very few days' ^sail of her coast, to furnish her with 
(be adjuncts which such poetry, when applied to the pur])oses 
of a DJonysiac or Chcmosh festival, (and we arc beginning to 
\ook upon the two as almost synonymous,) would require; 

r Far ilm extent to which rtute-miuic prcv&iletl in Bceotia, see Btfltiger^ ele- 
fKCtl UmUae, * I'Ler die KrHndiiiig drr FluU-.' 

s Siooe the ftbove was wrtttvn, I fiinl frunt a note in Cmii«r (Svmb. Iir. 
169;, thai tins has been partly done by i»irklrr in liis * Cultrius/ As the nut1ior*s 
s — ooing upon th« subject !» nut a lliile ntetaphviik-iJ, nt well as etymoldgical, 
I think It l«st to give it in hi> on-n words, or as Crtfuxer gives it for hint. 
'Sdtke Sm Kadnum, p. 88. leice Koiaa, Motkro, Miwro, voin KbrKischeu MCO 
VoflAO her, der ArsbPRUcii, SpBucn. und dann der Oesano iw dass es bedeute 
then Avanrmvcn^ dai Resitltat eivch lyTCLLCCTUELLEM Kratti daa 
<Ue Bikhtifcen Krsdieinniigen in der Zeit, d. e. die Ciedankcu, zurllckzulialten 
Vadilaim xur Kuodn xit g^lten bestimmt ist. Dies sey in der drtHmal drey hei- 
%nZaU vorgcstfJlt, ubgleich nrtprQnglich es mir in dvr dnfachcren lieiligen 
X^iAbJiI grdarht wnnlon «f>}Tt mugr ; raientt &In Krrifiv von ;:n) &U dn FrsT- 

kLTJCjr ; rm-eitrfift ah 'AojSjjr (;i*h vini ;t) bIs ein M'issen ; drittens uls Mt\4nt 
»Do rff^) WoET, 8i>iiLLHr HcDr^' 

• llnoMfV (Od. XIV. 157) nlUms five days fur sailing from Crete to Egypt. 


music — song — dance^ and if not an absolute drama, yet sucli 
an approximation to it, as might contxdn the germ of what 
afterwards constituted the imperishable fame of Grecian 
Athens. But before we set foot upon the island where 
we propose to look for all these, and to which, indepen- 
dently of the present inquiry, the business of the following 
drama would oblige us more than once to cast our eyes (cf. 
infr. 813. 1321, &c.), we must again trouble the reader with 
our wearisome etymologies, prcliminanly reminding him, that 
here as elsewhere we depend not on words merely, but on 
words sufficiently borne out by facts, and that none of our 
etymologies, numerous as they have been, will be found at 
variance with the more modem science of ethnography, which 
professes rather to group languages into families, than to trace 
them by afBliation, and which if it has its strong points, has, 
like etymology, its weak ones also. 

In several places of the Sacred Volume, but for the present 
we restrict ourselves to three (( Sam. xxx. 14. Ezek. xxv. 16. 
Zeph. ii. 5), a people meet us, bearing the name of Cheretl^ 
iUSy or Cherethim, Who and what were they? The texts 
before us sufficiently indicate, that they formed part of the 
Fhilistim, and consequently inhabited that portion of the Mer- 
chant-land, where we found the vine growing in particular luxu- 
riance, and where consequently we had the greatest right to look 
for the worship of a Canaanitish wine-god. That the Hebrew 
word ^tyy^ does not widely differ from the Greek word Kp^cs, 
the eye and ear alike bear testimony ; and when we find the 
LXX. and the Syriac version, in all the foregoing verses, ren- 
dering the first term by the second, it is clear proof that from 
the earliest periods, a close connexion was supposed to subsist 
between the two, the only serious question among etymologists 
l>eing, whether the inhabitants of ancient Crete sprang from 
the Philistim, or the Philistim from Crete. This may safely 
be left to the learned Bochart, who gives his testimony, as 
might be expected, in favour of that side of the question 
which tends to derive the progress of mankind from cast to 



west, ond consequently de<UicGS the Cretans from the southern 
shores of Canaan, and not the reverse. Further corrobora- 
tions of a close identity lx>lween the two countries in point 
tif mere names, ats in the Cretan Itanus, and biblical Etan nr 
Ethan, — Cydon, the founderof that ancient part of Crete called 
CvdoMta, and in name so nearly resembling Sidou, — the Philis- 
liau Dietrop<^li3, which we somciinies find termed Ga/a, some^ 
lime^ Minoa, from the early Cretan monarch Minos, these, wiih 
other such subsidiary illustrations, we jjass over. Was there a 
close identity of things as well as names between the two? this 
also is not wanting. The climate and productions of the two 
countries, as we shall hereafter see, were nearly similar: both 
were equally given to trade and colonizing : both were equally 
warlike, and perhaps nowhere is tlie identity l>elween the two 
more complete, than in the weapons which both peculiarly used 
for warfare, — the arrow and the bow. On the celebrity of the 
ancient Cretans in this re&}xx:t it is needless to quote ^author- 
ities ; Injt as the Sacred Writings are read for higher purposes 
than the knowledge of such niinutia*, and sucli iiiinutiu.' may 
consequently have escajwd the reader''s observation, one or two 
prools of Philisiian or Chcroihite skill in the use of these 
weapons may not be superfluous. In the fatal battle of 
Gilboa, which brought the fii'st occupant of the Isruclitish 
ihfone to an untimely death, the foe opposed to him are 
sitemately termed Phi listi nes and n rchers, as if t he two 
were almost convertible terms (i Sam. xxxi. i — 3.]; nor are 
ihtre wanting th«we, says the learned Bochart, who arc of 
opinion, that in memory of this, the place where Saul was 
ilaoi) bon-a ftcrwards the name of the Valley of the archer. 
SoKnsible was his royal successor of the destructive power of 
these weapons in the hands of his Philistine neighbours, that 
ooeof his first steps on mounting the throne appears to have 

k i'4. inf. I j:i. Sec ulw Stnib. 1. 10. Diudur. L V. J.ii* Thcophr. 11. Plant, 
•.fc ri. PHn. I. XVI. c. 36. Lucan. 11. ji. 7. 


been that of having his subjects instructed in tlieir <^use, 
and protecting his own person with a bodj-giiard of such 
Cherethites or ^archers. But we must hasten on from words to 

The identity of Crete, not merely with Canaan, but with 
that portion of it, where the investigation of a wine-god*s 
origin would make us most anxious to find it, being thus 
established, the path seems clear for looking after the three 
or four things, which we considered as almost necessary 
adjuncts to such a worship; but before this is done, a 
few preliminary observations must be allowed us on the re- 
ligious worship of Crete generally. Though the tendency 
of previous remarks has been to derive the earliest settlers 
in the modern Candia from one particular portion of the 
Phoenician coast, nothing was further from our thoughts than 
to derive them exclusively from that portion of the Mer- 
chant-land. If any doubt existed as to the mtsceUaneout 
nature of a Phoenician band of emigrants, as we formerly 
advanced, that doubt would be removed by the variety of 
inhabitants, the mixture of languages, and the quick succes- 
sion or amalgamation of religious worships which we find from 
the earhest periods prevailing in the isle of Crete. In the 
time of Homer not less than five distinct races are named as 
settled there, (Od. XIX. 172 sq.) each apparently speaking a 
different language, and each, it may be, in the possesion of a 
different religious faith. That the two earliest of Cretan wor- 
ships came from Canaan, and bore a close relation to the two 
most predominant there, viz. the solar and the Bacchic, the 
names of the two deities pre^ding over them, and the myths 

c 1 Sam. I. 18. < Also he (David) tmde them teach the children of Judah 
ihe u$e qf the bow : behold it is written in the bode of Jasher,* i. e. Yrritten in 
authentic records, vix. die writings or books laid up in the temple. Cf. Paridi. 
and Geaen. in voc. 

d H^ice in such pauages as the following {2 Sam. viit. 78. xv. 18. xx. 7. 
I Kings i. 38. 44.) the word Clierethites is rendered by the Chaldee interpreter, 
archers. The Pelethites appear to have been royal courien. 



njODe^tcd with tlieir histories, give siiificiciu indicntiun. Whnt 
WW ibc *diild-dcvouring Cwtan Cronus, but another niothfi- 
cation of the horrid Moloch-idol ? or what outward cliarac- 
tovticfi do hiii ministering Titans bear but those of priests 
«f ■ religion si> terrible!' The name of his consort Hhea, 
which elymologically imports a principle of fluidity^ would l>e 
of itself sufficient to cstablisli a close identity between her, the 
Canaanilisli Shc<lini, and the Grecian Bacchus, did not Phry- 
Ipan myths step in to help out this association, by placing this 
Rhea before us as the actual foster-nurse of the Thcban wine- 
^pd. (Non. Dion. I. 8.) Merely dropping this hint, to be 
taken up hereafter, we procetnl with our general view of 
Cretan religions. That an island so circumstanced in regartl 
10 settlers should have remained long without great religious 
coQvul&ions, was not to be expected. The earliest or Iwst 
known came in the jjcrson of the Idean Zeus: and the difficulties 
coanected with that revolution are clearly seen by the cautious 
miflOCT in which it was brought about — the infant revolu- 
iKHitst being shifted from mount to mount, and cave to 
cave, his Cureles or priests ostensibly conforming to the wild 
nusic and orgtc tumults of the Cronus-rites, till their schemes 
hoag fully ri|x* for execution, the Jovian dynasLy was able to 
flll|l|daDt that of 'Cronus. And what was the new worship of 
ibc Zeus Cretagcnes or Idcan Jove? VVIicn we look to 
the general character of the Curetes, the original intro- 
ducers of that worship — to such monarchs as Minus and 
Rhadomanthus, who favouretl and fostered it, (the aspersions 
thrown upon tJic former by Grecian writers and dramatists, 
and the motives for such aspersions are too wclU known to 

* Porplu de Ab«tin. II. lOt* 'larpos, iv Tp irvrayttyp tvv KfnjriKai^ Bva-tAv, 
^fri ra^f K^wpi^at rb vaAoiii' ry Kp4rif Bi/tu^ iraTSoj. The fublcn uf Uic ^MintK 
umr, ibe tHliulc deauukded of Athens, &c. all (enil tu the tanie effect. 

f Hmoe perhaps the expreMioii ol\a, in Callimachus's bymu to Jtipiter, whlrli 
with the Schntiut, render* iryitiyut. 

r<l^ia wrwA^yoms, &c. 

H. Ut Jov. J 2. 

Kaeaifo Stnbo X. 715. 728, &c. 

C Plato in Miooc Pluurrh. in The»«(> r. 16. 


need commemoration here) ; when we look to such beautiful 
characters as the Homeric Sarpedon and Idomeneus, the one 
third in descent from Minos, the other, though a leader of 
Lycian bands, yet by birth a Cretan, and according to some 
accounts, actual brother to the Cretan Minos; when we fur- 
ther consider in what manner this Zeus appears in Hellenic 
poetry, to the utter exclusion of the preceding dynasties of 
Uranus and Cronus, I cannot but persuade myself, that this 
purest form of Cretan worship, however speedily corrupted, 
came originally from Semitic settlers, the Cretan Zeus tlius 
bearing some faint resemblance to the Jehovah of the Jewish 
people. Had the naval power of Minos (the first thalattocracy 
which the history of the world supplies) remiuned in full opera- 
tion, this worship would no doubt have better developed itself 
as well in Crete, as in the numerous adjoining isles depending 
on her ; but the same fatal Sicilian expedition, (Herodot.VII. 
169, 17c.) which broke the political power of Minos, broke 
also his means of enforcing or extending that worship of 
Idean Zeus, which he professed and favoured, and a syn- 
crctistic religion, adapted to accommodate various faiths, 
appears speedily to have^ followed, the consequences of 

li Of this Byncretiidc tendency in Cretan vonihip, we liave ■ curioui proof in 
the fragment of the Euripidean Kp^cs, preserved by Porphyry. The chorus of 
that piece was evidently composed of priests ; in the fragment here referred to^ 
their corypheeus, addressing himsdf to Minos, observes, 

hytfhy 8i Biof rtUtopMv, i^ 0% 

Ktd witTi'r6\ov Zaypdcts Buniis 
rds T* ufjLo^>dyovs Sorro} rcX^irat, 
5. iiTfTpl r* 6pt(if SfSoT iawx^j 
Kol Kovp^uv 
Bdicxos iic\'fi0tiy 6ffue6§ls. 
irdWcvKa 8* tx^*' A/iara ^^ym 
yiv€<rlv tc fiporuy koI y€$epo$iiicris 
10. 06 ■xp^f»in6it.*voSf rffv t' /juif^MV 
fipArof iStffriir xf^i/Atfy/tai. 

Besides the multiplicity of deities* whom Uiis speaker contrives to serve, bis 
Orphic clothing* and liis esdiewal of puerperal and funeral occurrences, (v. 9), are 
not to be passed m'er without observation. 



which* aa far as the person of a wine-gud is concerned^ we now 
prooeed Co truce. 

Between the Homeric Sarpedon and the time when *the 
Fwog& of Aristophanes waa exhihited^ no name of greater 
Aote occurs in Cretan hit>tory tlian that of Epinienides^ a con- 
temporary of the Grecian Solon, and consequently of Pisistra- 
tus. And how had Cretan character fared in the itucrhu? 
In&tcad of the warlike bearing, the moral virtues, and high 
ffhgious feeling, which Homer evidently took pleasure in 
delineating as pecuharly belonging to the Cretan name, a wide 
tDcl distressing change comes l>efore us. " Incessant liars, 
nil beastBf slow bellies,'" are the titles wfiich this Cretan poet 
bestows ufion his countrymen. As the pevBon using these 
harsli epithets was, as we have bhewn in a preceding < play. 
If an imfMJSlor of the 6rst grade, little attention would 

vc been \mi\ to such a declaration coming froni sucli a 
i|uarter, liad not one of the inspired writers set his seal upon 
the ^ declaration, and confiw|uently given it a certain authen- 
ticity. And what had occasioned this deterioration in Cretan 
character? I know nothing so likely as the progress of that 
Bacchic worship, which I Jind every where the parent of si- 
Bttiar circumstances; but to exhibit this fully, we must retrace 
OOr steps a little. That the worship of Ideaii Zeus (supposing 
that woDihip to have originated from Semitic settlers) had de- 
generated Ix'fore the reign of Minos, is evident fmm the mytlis 
cmmected with the name of Cadmus. In those myths the 
Cretan Jove has already become a steer or solar gml, seeking 
10 the person of Europa, and from the great idol-land, (Creuz. 
Synib. H.) an Ashera or an Aslarte, a moon, a vinous, or, it 
may be, a pleasure-goddess, to share his religious throne. 


• Pn^wv to Clmids. 

k Wm mrr iruUhieti to St. Piu! (Ep»t. md Tit. i. M.)> who appt-an to have 
q( thr Cireek dranuitiNis (i <3or. xv. 33) m well as (ireck ]Mwtry 

If (AcU xtii. 2h.), for the prcaen-atioii of tlji» )u>ii»mvter frnguHfiit of 

Vy*l) 1x4 iniprotMil>ly on-urrrd ia the poi'iii on Mimn and RhadaiuiuiUittSf which 
L«rrtiut ucritm to Eptnieaides, (1. 113.) 




How so intelligent and upright a monarch as the Cretan 
Minos might have rectified all this, it is now impossible to 
say; — the syncretistic form of worship Piad already com- 
menced, and did our limits admit, it would now become our 
business to observe at full length ttiat portion of it, which 
connected the Idean Zeus with the IJocchus^Zagrcus. 

Difficult OS the Cretan myths are in general to solve, (and 
when we consider ihe various |XH>ples settled in that island, 
the extensive tmfhc and distant colonization pursued by them) 
the variety of religious opinions thus necessarily imbibed 
abroad, and all necessarily mixing, more or less, with the 
many religious faiths at home, the difficulty is easily accounted 
for,) that of the 'Hacchus-Zagreus is confessedly among the 
most difficult, because in addition to the difficulties already 
stated, those of secret and mystic worship begin here appa- 
rently to operate upon us ; I say apparently, because though 
the Euripidean fragment just quoted would entitle us to 
afBrm that mvstic rites conimcnced in (^rctc with the wor- 
ship of Idean Jove, (its mode of introduction, as we have 
described it, almost necessarily engendering secret worship,) 
yet it may be that the dramatic poet has transferred to the 
times of Minos the Cretan myslerics of his own day. 

The consideration of this, however, and many other matters 
connected with the Bacchus-Zagreus, would draw us too far 
from the practical matters connecletl with another Bacchus, to 
which we are hastening; and if we have drawn attention to the 

I In Mythic lure the Bocchus-i^ngretui is tlie >uii of Uie CreCau Jupte«r by 
PersephoaO, and his history as follows. While yet an infant, and while the 
Curetes, or priests of .Fupiter, are dancing round him, the Titans cotue stealthily 
Upon the child ^ put into his bands some toys and pbiythings; and while bis 
attention is taken up with thes4^ triAta, contrire to t«Ar him in pieces. The 
guivffritifi heart la taken from the l>ody by Athene, who thenoeforth obtains the 
name of Pallas (inrh tov irttAAciv) ; the rest uf the limhs are put into a caMmn by 
the Titans and boiled. The smell of the Acsh thnti boiled atlracu the actendon 
of Jupiter, who dcstro>-s tlie assassins with his tlnrndcrbulta, at tlie same time 
giving ilie roang'led limbs of Zagreiu to Apollo for burial. The latter execuiM 
the office assigned him hy burying them mi mount Pamaasua. Clem. Alexand. 
Protrept. p. 15. Nann. Dionys. VI. 1 74, »q. 




wl^ect at all, it is chiefly for the purpose of adverting to cer- 
tain views taken up by the learned Creuzer (Symlxjl. III. 
381 9q.) in relation to Bacchic mystic rites, in which, if 
I may be penniltcd to say so generally without entering 
into prcxifs, this eminent scholar does not appear to distin- 
gakh so accurately as he should have done between the 
Thehan Bacchus and the Cretan Zagreus. If the Idcan Jove 
wrre what we have supposetl him to be, an offshoot fronj 
Semitic worship, I can easily conceive that amidst the esoteric 
or mystic doctrines of the Bacchus-Zagreus whichever of the 
they were, much might have Ijoen contained of that noble 
lofty character, whicli this great scholar professes to 
in the mysteries of the Theban or Attic Bacchus; but 
that the latter did contain them, neither the nature of the 

ihorities on which the learned symbolist relies, as will be 
cr explained, nor the general character of a Grecian 
•ine-god, will allow us for a moment to suppose. Quitting 
then iW speculative Bacchus, as the Cretan Zagreus may well 
be termed, we turn to a Bacchus of a less abstruse nature, and 
to the Usual entertainments connected with his worship. 

How soon a wine-god found his way into the mcKlern 

Caodia, we are not exactly prepared to say. In the earliest of 

Cretan worship we found a goddess bearing a name, which in 

kself bore crvcry outward mark of a fluid principle, and which 

10 the myths of a country closely connected with Crete made 

ber the winc-god^s foster-mother. Was the god himself likely 

to lie long absent under such circumstances? Where in fact 

Aottld a Chemosh more readily have transplanted him- 

•etf ? In deliciousness of climate and general fertility of 

•oil, in all proofs of abundant fniitfulness, corn, wine, oil, 

miU, and honey, tin* testimony of ""antiquity gives us reason 

to belkfve, that the isle of Crete was only inferior to the land 

of Canaan itself. That a wine-god, whenever he did make 

bis way into Crete, speedily superseded the Deity, considered 

• flam. Od. XIX. 173. Theoph. H. PI. HI. 17. 6. fX. 16. j. Pliuy XXV. 
8. M*rti*l XIII. io> Alfaen. X. 440- f- 




most native to the place, many conspiring circumstances allow 
us to suppose. Place such a gud, instead of the Zeus Creta- 
gcnes, on the loftiest of Cretan mountains ; and far or near, — 
in adjoining isles, or in the bosom of liis own, — in persons, 
places, products, myths, ivhat does he find but more or less rela- 
tion to himself? Does his eye turn northward? he beholds the 
i&le of Naxos, and bethinks hini of the dearest of his many loves. 
Does tiiat eye advance still further north? it beholds the oiT- 
spring of those loves swaying the fruitful fields of the welt- 
known Chios, and in the name of CEnopion, giving clear proof 
who was his sire. StaphyUis, Feparethus, CEno, (Enotropa, 
(Diod. V. 62.) Euanlhes, (Scliol. ApoU. Rhod. III. 997.) 
Andros, (Pausan. VI, 26.) who that has the least knowledge 
of the Greek language need be told that in each and all of these 
names, or the myths connected with tliem, more or less refer- 
ence to a wine-god is intended ? and nearer home it is still the 
same. Is it nothing that we find at the north-east comer of 
Crete a little cluster of islands, hearing the significant name 
of Diotti/jna tie. If or that in her interior arc found such equally 
significant names of towns, as Ampelos^ Kleuihera or Elcu- 
iherna^ the first name implying the vine in its natural 
stole, the last that deliverance from mentnl cares or civil 
servitude, — which the propagators of Bacchic worship ever 
took care Co promulgate as among the immediate blessings 
of its introduction? — Hut of a wine-god's presence in the 
isle of Crete there can be no doubt ; llie question is, did he 
bring with hiui those adjuncts of which we are in search — 
music, song, the dance, mimetic exhibitions— and did each 
and all of these bear something like the iit»press which a 
Moabitish, or, as we shall take leave to term him, a Phoenician 
Chemosh, might be expected to set upon them ? Let us take 
them in order, and see what information ancient authorities 
nfTord on each, but here as elsewhere lamenting the want of 
books to assist us fully in our search. 

That the word mtiiticj when applied to ancient times, is 
to be taken in a far wider and more important sense than any 



thing implied in the modern acceptation of the word, we have 
OD fbnncr occasions endeavoured to impress strongly on the 
nader's mind. To know what were the prevailing religious 
ferfings of any ancient community, or whether its manners 
■ere in a state of purity or corruption, one of the surest 
guides tft to examine its musical instruments and musical 
Domes or measures. Of the former^ llie two most characteristic 
ven* the flute and harp : the first the accompaniment of all that 
Vtt wildy tumultuous, and fanatic in religious worship, the 
other the accompaniment of all that was the reverse: the dif!er- 
(Oee nowhere manifesting itself so strongly as in the respective 
Vonhips of Bacchus and Apollo, the first naturally the idol of 
the people, the second preferred by the noble and the '^intel- 
IrcttiaL But all this has been explained too strongly and 
iiiuBlrated too fully in the notes to the following drama, to 
ICoder it necessary to dwell upon the subject liere. The ques- 
tion, i&, was flute-music prevalent in Crete? If Crete derived 
kft birth fn.>m the land, which we have supposed, it certainly 
night have derived Hutc-music from it also; the very name of 
Adonis, so familiar in Phoenician myths, implying according 
to some writers neither more nor less than a flute (Creuz. 
Symb. III. ^488) ; his other title, Gingras, implying a flute- 
BBtlody. That among the noisy instruments, which celebrated 
the cruel rites of the Cretan Cronus, the flute bore a predomi- 
nant part, wc have the assurance of Slrabo (X. 715, &rc.) ; that 
the pesMon for it had not expired under the Minoic pre- 
CercDce for the worship of Idean Jove, may be collected from 
the fact, that so dear was this instrument to one of the monarch's 

• A link ■— nlntr told by JEliui of the flnte-player Satynu dearriTt iiuertiDn. 
34nfM 4 aiAirHfi 'Aplvrvvov rov ^t\ov6^w woW4ifit iiM^oSrTO, ical m^o^tnts 

fli ^^ ^w T<i8« Ti{{a ^uMOf^ iy irvpl tfrfifv { 

ftAmmmfiw. Vnr. Illit. III. 33. 

• 8w alv> tome airitius Mominu in the uow writiron a ipedci of phil<i9ophicai 
iMlr ptwBlent in Egypt, nnd auch fti we Aoaid have cxpaoud to find among 
tha C'ttnaanitiab Cbetnoriin. 




sons, that more tlian one of them was deposited willi him in 
his "grave. That as Bacchic worship grew more in vogue, 
fliite-miiRic should still more advance, was in the nature of 
things; and hence, when the great musical change took place 
in Greece, and even Dot^c states, so naturally inclined to 
Aiiollo-worship, began lo lay aside the harp, it ie no womkr 
that we find one of the noblest of Doric stales applying to 
Crete for instructions in that P music. 

Prom Cretan music we proceed to her songs. If the former 
Ixjre no absolutely discreditnhle character, it is lo be feared, 
from a passage in the following ilraniflj llial the same cannot 
be pre<ircatcd of her songs, and hur dances are clearly open lo 
still more objection ; what else could be expected, if both pro- 
ceeded from a Canuaniiish source? But lo explain this more 
minutely. On the Greek stage, as has been elsewhere shewn, 
(infr. 1288.) monodies, or songs by a single person, were of 
rare occurrence ; the singing which took place in Grecian 
dranias being ihat of a chorus more or less numen)us. In the 
following drama, however, where Euripides always ap[iears as 
a partisan of Bacchic worship, tliat tragedian is stigmatized as 
deserting the usual custom and indulging in monodic songs, 
(infr. S13.) — tin- epithet Cretan being attached to them. Why 
this epithet ? If we recollect the stories which the Greeks con- 
nected with the names of the Cretan Fasiphae, Taurus, 
Plnrdra, &c. and further observe that the dramatic ^Cschylus, 
into whose mouth iJiis taunt at Euripidean monodies is put, 
perpetually upbcatds liis rival with the looseness and indecency 
of his muse, I think there can be little doubt that Cretan and 
lasclviuun are here meant to be convertible terms, a.w opinion 
which will gather strengUi, when we come lo consider the 
Cretan dance. 

Tlie word dance, as applied to Crete, throws us upon a very 
fruitful subject, but we restrict ourselves to two among her 


o Flucardi. nna ]>Oftafi loariur riri 


larch, do Musicn, 658, & 

Ejiic. X. 544. See also ApoUudor. 
idan. dc SaltaU 



many sAltatory movements, — the pjrrhic and the hyporchema. 
As (be 6r6t occurs for illustration in the following notes (infr. 
Mi-)> nothing more need be said of it here : the second, 
belonging entirely to our present suliject, must be explained 
■ore largely. The word hyporchema of itself implies a 
dance to some accompaniment ; the accompaniment being 
implied in the first of its four syllables, the dance itself 
m tile lti:it 9threc. The readcr^s first impres^on will naiu- 
nlij be that that accompaniment was one of music only. 
llaiic did certainly accompany the hyporcliema, and that 
mine was the 'flute ; thus at once in some degree identifying 
the dance itself with Bacchic rites: but this is far from being 
all that the word hyjKirchema implies. To the dance and music 
«e have to add words sung by the person dancing, and that 

vV vw^ ^'^l Ttff t^tra wofJsAttts ixA^QoMov. Pmcli Chrestom. ftp. Mai&f. p. 384. 
* Aa nocbiiig connected with dmrnAiic literature \n Athens is foreign to Xha 
of ihe pment play, I ebaJl doubtless be excused for ilie insertion ufoiie of 
fragnumta, now extant, ronnerted vith tKat literature. It is tin liypor- 
ti Prmciiuu* the nwoenor of Tbespis, expressive uf liia indigiiation at an 
wbi^ «M taldn^ pln», rix. that of the chonu Hinging in lubordioiu 
to the fluu*, inktead of the Bute piping to the chorus. 
Tif h Qdpv&ot 58« ; r( raBt ri x°P"^MATa; 
Tif v0pii fnoKty M Atowtfidia iroKvwdraya BvfidkoM; 

dfii 8<I KiXoAcIr, ifii Set waToygur 

«U Tt Kim¥<tv &7flrra 

Tov ioidav xaTctrrai trv Ilit^ls jSeurlAii'* h V ctvA^t 

fftrrcpwi' ;itop«f#Ti«. 

«Ai 7^^ iaf Innjph^at tcAntnf fi6ro¥, 

tftiyM^;](Mi T< -wvytioxi^uri vimv $*\ti n^' oIr«r 

tfj^tvut (rTparriKdras. 

irotf rif #piva/ov muclXov upooMfxorra, 

^Sfy* T^r oXtffnxv\aiciXjifioy, 

0V9wrfnnrdrv 8«fuit *r*Ka(Tfi4vaf. 

mi valkf Biofipt^k, 9piafi0o^i0vpati09 
Kurtrdxtur' Avaj, Amov* 

Atben. XIV.6i7,c 



thene were not of the chastest description, mny be collected as 
well from what has been already obser\ed, as from the nature of 
the dance itself. What then was the nature of the dance? 
Aristocles in Alhenwus (XIV. 630, e.) tells us that it was of the 
same kind as the cordax, that indecent dance connected with 
•Bacchic worship, which Aristophanes, as we have seen in a 
former play (Nub. 521.), endeavoured to banish entirely from 
the Attic stage, and for which his two rewards have been, that 
among his contemporaries he perilled his whole dramatic career 
by so doing, while posterity, knowing little of the causes out of 
whicli dramatic representations grew in Athens, and wanting 
llie means of comparing the comedian's works with those 
of predecessors or contemporaries, have, and not altogether 
unreasonably, considered liim as the inventor or fosterer of 
things, of which he was in fact the determined opponent as far 
OS he dared be so. That this dance belonged from the earliest 
j»eriods to Crete, and was from that island made known to 
Greece, is evident from a declaration of Athenieus (V, 181, 
b.). who states that all !iy|Xirchtnnata liore for this very reason 
the name of Cretan. Putting all these things together, the 
origin, as far as Grecian testimony goes, of the dance itself in 
Crete, the nature of the dance, perhaps the words adapted 
to it, and the early connexion of the isle with Philistla, there 
can be tittle doubt, I think, that we have here a dance suited 
to the licentious Canaanites, and still in some degree remain- 
ing, where wo had most reason to expect to find it, among the 
dancing-girls of Egypt, India, and Spain, with all which places 
the Merchant-land had well- known and continued traffic and 
intercourse, and to the two latter of ^which, as well as to Crete 
and Greece, her vessels in all probability carried it. 

■ How doMly Sophocles conaidered the Bacchic and the Cretan donees as allied, 
is evident from a pauage in his Ajax (700.), where Pan is iuvukedT hws NiJo-ia 
Kv^t ipxHt^t' • • • ti^- 

t A wine-god sterns at first M^t as littJe germane to the soil of the Ganges- 
reverenring Hindoos, as a hand of Miisei to che land of Btmcia. M^honce then 
do we find luch a god tbcrej not only with the dandng ocomtpaniinent just men- 
tioDvdf hut with trrery other adjunct of tiredan Bacchic wonliip — a latyr-crew — 



But the accompaDiments to this Cretan dance do not end 
bere. Besides the person singing and dancing, the explana- 
tion* given of ll»e hyporchema by ancient "writers oblige us 
tu add a second person, whoso business it was by mimicry 
tod action to explain the words sung; and of what kind 
this mimicry would be, it is unnecessary to state, after what 
has been said of the dance itself, and the words most pro- 
bably sung to it. How f:ir this indirect proof of a mimetic dance 
anoog the ancient Canaanites will allow us to suppose something 
like a drama among them, is left for the reader to judge : if he 
thinks such a mimetic dance to be but a slender approach to 
dramatic representaiion, he will do well to peruse Lucian''s 

iitiniuiic — phallk rites— m * drania, &c. : the god too in MHne of his nftmes bair. 
la^ todca* ■ rvteinbliuioe to tluiw by which he was known in Greece, and that of 
Enaodpator arooiig the rest ? (see references giren sup. p. xziii.) A little further 
liiiatiua will, in crHiiiexion with the above tlieory, nut uiily, I think, afrnrd a 
of all this, hut evince that the progress of Baechic worship was not 
as Bochart and Creuser beiieve, frotn east tu west, but in this case the 
As tlie largest trading sitips among ourselves are called Iruiiamni, 
it appesrs that the larger Plioenirian rettsels were, by an idiomatic phrase, 
^iipttff Thar$hUftj and a fleet of them a navy of Tharthith ; [i Kings x.ii.) 
diipf of this siae having, no doubt, fint been employed in prosecuting the distant 
vo^iige to TartCMus in Spain. (See Ueseniuii in voc. also WeUa*8 Geog. I. 7a.) 
Bov early they were employed in prosecuting tlie still more distant voyage to 
lodia, (and that the scriptural Dphir was some part of the East Indies is evident, 
aec oaly from the length of time cuusumed in ilie voyage, but still more from the 
■■Buvof the articles brought back,) don not appear: that they went there in 
^m Mifpi of Solomnn U certain : and what, among other commodities, even if he 
had DM been preoeded in such a freight, would Am ships carry tliere, in return for 
Ipldf alrcr, n>ory, Bpc*i uid peacocks ? The whole tenor of our preceding remarks 
b Asuffdent reply: and hRd the Greeks under Alexander posseseed the sanoe 
•Miaaef infdnnaiion that we do, they would luivc been leas aitontebed than tfa0f 
Weill finding the same Batxhic fables in the farthest east as they found among 
ifaflnMlvea- I roust not conclude this note without ob&erving that the epitliet Tar- 
ahiih, or Tartcuan^ a* implying ffrcat magnittttUy ntnirs in the following drama 
(loC 448.) among the biff words, which so laughably (rigfaten the Aristopbanic 
BafldMiainfio fits. 

• Athtn. I. 15, d. Kol foTip ^ rmo^Ti) 6px^9is (h^'porchema ac.),* ^i^i^rir tSk 

* The only ftinilon drnma known to the present writer is the " fiaoontala,** 
by w W. Jimes. Hare Sanscrit scholars nu materials for tracing the 

migress of tlie Hindoo stage, and tlius throwing light upon the Attic, 
iW Dithyrarabic ode to the regular drama, and more particularly on the 
■ of that portion of it, tenned the Old Comedy } 



treatise " de Saltationc,^ and he will there find not only the 
sort of subjects which in a Cretan or Canaaniltsh hyporchema 
might probably be selected for exhibition, but such proofs of 
the wonderful extent to which such an exhibition uiif^ht be 
carried) that the necessity for an oral drama seems almost tu 
have been su[>erseded by it. How far again the Cretan hypor- 
chema would serve lo settle conflicting Sicihan and Grecian 
claims as to priority in originating dramatic representations^ 
demands a greater knowledge of Cretan colonization than I 
possess; but fmm the references which I have seen to Hocks 
' Kreta* in continental writers, (and of which occasional use has 
been made in the foregoing remarks,) it is not improbable that 
some information on tlie subject may be found in a work which 
ought to be, and perhaps is, among the most interesting of 
recent publications. 

We have now gone through almost every adjuocty whether 
of persons or of things^ connected with Bacchic worship in 
Athens, and every one of them we have found, as the declara- 
tion of Herodotus had led us to suspect we sliould, either on 
the soil of Canaan itself, or in countries so closely connected 
with that soil, that what is said of the one may be almost 
predicated of the other. Is il asked, why some of the 
more revolting praclices connected with solar or Bacchic wor- 
ship are permitted it) some degree to meet our eye in the 
Sacred Writings, while a close veil is thrown over the exterior 
decorations, which helped to conceal ihtir real turpitudes? 
Surely the answer is a very easy one. That Volume, so easy 
and simple, when we look into it to know what we are to 
do, so diflicult) and often ret^uiring such immense appliances 
of learning, wlien we wish to ascertain from it what on many 
points we are to tkviky — and looking to the probationary 
pur|X)ses of life, can there be a moment's doubt, why that 
double^ arrangement has been made? — that Volume, already 

V The srripturRj doctrine oa ihift iuttject, in wbich tlie thioking and more em- 
(Ut« |M>rtiuu of tile world oro so deeply interested, has been bud down by the 
learned of the aposUea, (i Cor. iii. 1&-15.) but in idiomatic phr&sei aod 



io the hftods of a great portion of mankind, is eventually 
dotined to be in the hands of all ; and was it for its holy 
peomen to do what human writers arc sometimes found to 
do — depicture in glowing colours that which they aflect to 
coodemn, and thus propagate the mischief which they prc- 
mxl to extirpate? All things considered, there seein but 
KtUe bounds which we are obliged to place as to the progress 
and splendour of ancient Canaan in literature, in arts or 
ftdenccs, and none to those refinements, accomplish meots, and 
gnoes of society, which some seem to consider as the only 
proof of high civilisation that need be looked for — but almost 
the whole of this the Scriptures, as wise in what ihey withhold 
M in what ihey impart, leave to be collected from other sources. 
A few hints alone escape, and it is the undoubteil business 
of learned men to profit by those hints, and sifting the matter 

I, with which ordinHry •ch(dar«hip may be lupposed not intimatdy aoquaiutcd. 
{^^m tScbbfiun. in voc. wi>pj Hnd cf. Bloomf. iu locu.) UaTing laid Che true fuuads- 
taon t4 Chrivtiaiiity in tlie scriptural life and doctrines of it» author (the name of 
iht latter \)«ing ptii in idiomtttie Greek for the former), the Sacred Writer pro- 
OMda to adrmt in one cooiinued meupbor to two different iptviea of cdi6co 
lAiail he tonmw would be railed npon that foundation ; the one of ooctly mar- 
blai, richly onutmentcd with gold and tllver, the otiier of mere wood, with still 
hwnMer aJjupcta, but neither poueaaed of any certain ralue, till it ba» l»een tested 
hf UMam of £tn^-i. e. by the proceawa of critidani in this world, and inveatif^- 
tioBi Mil] more aearotung ju another. Doet the ilructure, wbeilier stone or woodi 
both thcae 6ery trials ? A proportionate reward will be auigned the 

(^uvMr X^il'ffrai). Does it consume under these two tests ? AH hope of 
nrwd to the framer of the itnicture is lost (^'fi^iw^^mu tc. fuffSoZ) ; but himaelf 
lUD eccB}ie : but how ? As a man escapes Uirouijh a ruging conflagration {wt 8ti 
esfii), the penon intact, but all the consumed ; the escape itself, however, — and 
hen lies the roomentmi* ooniiderat! on,— being contingent on a doctrine preriuusly 
Ud 4owii i V. to), via. that every heed has been uken, before the stnicture, what- 
ever Ha kindf has been laid on such a fwmdation : in other words, that nu inter. 
t)een put on the Sacred Writings, on which sn inwurd conviction 
iu author, that though uicapable of actual demonstration, Btill it 
hatm tuch fair marks of probabibty, as entitled him to lay it before his 
Car fwm^n"'"" It is thus that ihe most secluded scholar is as closely brought 
iMa iIm greet category of {iroliation, as the busiest man, who mixes in tlie world's 

•od at first sigfal aeenis moat exposed to its temptations ; Hod young men, 
it iiuy be 10 possess themaelree of that erudition which appAiently 
hys the world at their feet, and enables ihem/or n time to place what iuterprel*- 
tkm they pleeae on matters of the utmost moment, cannot be too strongly appHied 
of the rcapOfwibiUtws luxkr whicb the powwi i on of such an engine lays 



to the utmost, to lay the results of their inquiries before their 
fellow-men, that the world may know to what it is indebted for 
the progress of Christianity ; but such hints excepted, the 
Sacred Volume furnishes nothing more than might have been 
expected from it — an enumeration plain, bare, and undis- 
guised, (Levit. xviii.) of the vices, which " fulness of bread** 
and "dwelling at ease*" are too often apt to breed, and a stem 
admonition, that where such vices are practised, the very earth 
shall vomit out its inhabitants. Why should it do more? The 
vine of Greece has its liues on which it is not safe for the eye 
lo dwell too closely; but for the land, out of which it came, 
as we have seen, by transplantation, *' her vine was of the fields 
of Gomorrah; their grapes gall, their clusters bitter: their 
wine the poison of dragons, and the cruel venom of asps.^ 
(Deut. xxxii. 32.) 

In entering upon a theme, which wc now to our regret 
close, something tike a bribe was thrown out to the reader to 
induce him to follow iis into those etymological remarks, with 
which we knew the inquiry must abound, and which are in 
general so little palatable; but we did not make provision for 
the ambrosial draught, which our own appetite would require, 
before wc ctniEd, after subjects so deeply interesting, descend 
to matters of more ordinary import: much, however, yet re- 
mains to be explained, before the business of the following 
drama can be thoroughly appreciated ; paihs, comparatively 
untrodden, yet lie before us, in which if wc appear to tread 
boldly, wc shall also be found to Iread cautiously, accoimting 
for every step that we take, and asking the reader no longer to 
follow us, than till some wiser than ourselves (and such an 
one will doubtless soon be found) shall put him and us into 
a path stilt more secure. 

Having lingered so long upon the spot, where, in conformity 
with Herodotus, we auppose the Bacchic worship to have had 
its birth, we must leave it to future opportunities to exhibit 
that worship in oonfliot with other religious faiths, and more 
particularly with that purer Apollo-worship, with which 



itwaa ever found most at ^^ variance. At present we con- 
tent ourselves with saving, that wherever we trace it, — from 
the banks of the Ganges to those of the Hebrus, from the 
oorthem coasts of Thrace to the most southern parts of 
Gneeoe, — we find it a religion of ^dissension, y blood, lioeDtiouft- 
&nd 'cruelty; a religion appealing for ever to the passions, 
of the reason, and to the passions more particularly 
of the weaker sex, (Creuz. Symb. 111. 87. J71. 194-6.) to 
whoae hands its secret rites were, I bclleTe, exclusively corn- 
Bitted. Monarchs and magistratea trembled at its name, a« 
well they might ; for on the god's banners were bomo the 
btes of such of them as had dared to oppose its progress ; 
Eastern and Ethiopian princes — Orontes, > Deriades, ^ Oigoa 
^-defeated— slain ; the Thi*acian Orpheus torn to pieces by 
feouJe hands, Lycurgus rent asunder by horses, Pontheus 
Mcrifioed by a mother^s hands. To the virtuous fenmles of 
royai bouses, Baccluc language was not less appalling : it told 
of the phrensied daughters of the Argive ^' Proetus, of the 

w The neader who iriahei to ivurk Uus out for hinuelf, will find the foUowing 
raCercDCCs of wrrice : Creuc. S]mib. I. 376. 301. 584.718. II. 3G9. III. 1 1 1.12. 
151. 160.1- 3.4-5-6^' «7«-4' <93' ^U* «7<5 7- 3i^' Bi^- 386. 478. IV. 344. 
IMoay*. 340* >97' 3oo-5^* 

> Denc« iterhaps ooe of hii epiihcts, * MeUttieffis^ (Pausaii. Corinth, c. 35.) 
■B sykfcct vhich hv tham in comniun with the Erinyea^ ov Furiet. 

h% {/^nrtv x<^V**'r ^ aSuart. Orph. h. 45. 

< Th« human ■acriAow olTered to Baochtis — and inctancca of theni are fouatl as 
lale «• the a^ of ThemiaCodcs (PluU vit. c. XIII. cf. Creuz. Symb. III. ioi. 
474<} — ibvw ail evident conncrxiuu between him and the Phceiiidan lun-god 
lUdrib The eating of raw flesh by his votaries, and which gave the god 
Iha •pMwta m$nioT^ and »/ut2io] (Creuz. Symb. III. 335. 387-^0> ^b* perhapa 
* ittlMUiutioa for ih«M aacnficea. 

• Nonai I>ionyiia, XL. 60, nq. 

^ Scepbanua ByzaotiuB in voc. riyvpof ri7w>v> v^Aa 6p^injr wpoa^x^' ^ 

' Okl. Afecara. IX. 

* The Freiidi uuuluton of Paiuaniaa obaerve in a note 1 " Baechtts Mehn^ 
ipHj comme qui dinHC* BoccJtuM h ta noirt fgiHt. Ce (urDom oouvieut furt ft un 
An ^ exiice si louveat de« qtiereUes ui dea s6litions." 




Theban Agave, with her son's mangled head upon a pole; 
of the Mineides, foi^etting the first laws of nature, and 
feaeting on the flesh of their own ^ children. AVln'ch of the 
three great tragic poet-s, and for what purpose, brought one 
of the most appalling of these tales before an Attic audienoiB, 
we shall see hereafter ; at present our pictures must bo of a 
general nature. In the world of intellectual as well as political 
greatness, its consequences, if less terrible in outer aspect, 
were not less mischievous in inner effect. The philosopher it 
stopped in his career with a *' Thus far, but no farther — 
you may speculate in morals, and other theories as much as 
you please, so long as my institutions and my code of morals 
are left untouched, but meddle not with *^ them:** while the 
dramatist, and more j>articularly the comic dramatist, was 
told, '* Your very profession derives its charter from me : 
fulfil the terms of that charter, and I patronise; resist, and I 
crush ^you.*" To the populace, however, of both sexes, the 
wino-god's worship came under more specious colours : to the 
rougher sex it proclaimed respite from slabour, and a sort 
of equality with wealthier neighbours ; to the more tender 
sex it offered deliverance from domestic ^ eeclusion, and for a 
time at least unlimited freedom : could such a worship an- 
nounce its author otherwise than as a Liberator (*EAev^^pio*), 

d Ibid. IV. 

e Henc« PlaCo^ when l^nlattDg for his imaginary conimon wealthy Is obliged to 
admit of drinking lo exccM at the Dionysiftc feBtivals, {wlytae JF th ti4$rty oCri Sa- 
\oBi wav wpiwtt, itAV i" TOii Tov rhv olvo> ^ivrot Qtov (Of^reui, 6 i^egg. 775, b.); 
and Arifttotle, while forbidding otTensive pla)'s and works of art on account of the 
yming, ti obliged to except sucli as tlw BoccJiit fcstiviils reriuired. (Polit. VII. 15. 


( How nearly Aristophanes was crushed by making such a resistoiioe^ we have 
already hod occasion to reniaric. 

e Eurip. Bacch. 377. Bq. 431. 771. 

h Ifenoe the language of the wirie-gtMl himself in the ** Bacchie" of Euripidai: 
35. iral -way rh &j\Ku (rwtpyia KaZfieUtv, 8ircu \ yvycuHtf ^trav. i^tfAiira Stf^iirwv: and 
his Chorus, when s]>eaking of their fellow.wnrsliippers : 116. cii lipof, «ft Bp9s, 
fv0a fiivu I 0riKxryti^s ^xAor, ) A^' ttrrwyf wapii icipKl8<M' t | oUrrpiiBtU Aioviff^, 
117. n«v0. 218. ywaiicas . . . Sufuor' 4KK*\ofrJyai \ ir\turratin ^oxxftauriv- 4r M 
SotfKlotr I 5p*a-t 0od^fiv, rhy yf^crl ^tdfiova \ Ai6rvirov, ioTii irr], tj/umtoi x*i^^ 




aa Emanoipator ' (Awnoi\ the revolutionizing Bacohua {p4os 
AiAtKroff) ! To say of such a fipecies of r(<ligion that it vms 
iaantiallr tieinocratic in \ta nature, is suroly no incorrect exr 
pranfaHi ; from what ucvidentol causes it beoame essentially 
tabed with the democracy of Athens^ " growing with its 
growth, and strengthening with its strength,*" will form the 
bqniry of another portion of our ^ laboui-s ; our more im- 
BMdiaie business is to sei:>, why Aristophanes, as he indirectly 
ottde j£achylus the poet of Eleusinian rites, so he set his 
MaU «fi it were, upon Euripides as the poet of Bacchic ones; 
btti aome previous observations must prepare the way for that 

From tJie foregoing pages, or the notes attached to them, 
it has appeared that after all that has been said or \iTitteii 
QO the subject of Eleusinian Mysteries, two thiugs only can be 
aSnnedof them with certaijity, viz. that they declared the soul 
to be immortal, and taught a future state uf rewards and 
That every thing ehetm and done in those holy 
(and that aome things were jtlietrn and dotie as well oa 
can hardly be 'doubted) would be in conformity with 
dedaratiooB so solemn, seems a just and natural conclusion. 
XbasfMihet therefore which AriHtophanes attaches to these 
soloinniliiiii is just what we should expect ; he styles them 
(itifr. y. 371.) " chaste mysteries'" (hyva ^pyia). Not so, many 

1 Few A rinpilftr d«nvatiim of t)i« Liitiii term Lif^rr for Bac^'hiih by \''aiTO, 
■• Ciwmi'i Vionyt. p. 340. Fur nlliisioiia u> the vanuua (crmii here mentiuii««l 
b^ CicuaBT hmtsetr, see Symh. I II. 95. 110. 319. 384. 407. IV. 599. 

* Se* Appendix an the iiibjcctt of Th«spis &nd Pratlnas. 

* A few protrfs out of ni&fiy are here gireii : Lyviw de Aiiducide 107, 38. o6rof 
^4p Miff #toAV. tufiaifLHf9t tA ItfA €W«d«tt(yv9 roU A^ixrhrois md ttn* rp ^p§ rit 
kmif^tr^- PlnUrch VII. 2$i<. &% ot rtKoi/uvoi kot* itpx^ iv 0opi>^ ical ^^ wphi 
iXA^Aows 9vr(atri, ipmfu»m>v S^ koI iituarvfi/vatv Twr Upity k t. i. Id. de Iiid. 
r- 68. I« WfA$ Tovra Kij^ir Jk tpiKwro^iat fiutrraymyhp &yaXa06rras 6c-lwt Bioiv* 
MvSb wim XryofUtmif r«1 iifrnfUt^mif •Kotrrop. Galen de uiu Part. VIl. 14. p. 469. 

•i lAAur rtrk t«A«tV iy^ay SXai ^fffa rpbs roh ^ptafxtvots t« ""J Xcyo/w'voir 
'•^ »«» U^i^^MPTWP. Pnicli Oimment. in Alcib. p. 61. *3<rw#^ dif rout ayimrrdratj 
*m T«A«T«r wpatrptvrriu ^w bpmft9ptf¥ KOTavA^cir rtr^$, aj ft^i* hh rw Xr^^'. 



of tho ChriBtian FathcrB. Theif are lavish of opprobrious epi- 
thets for the indecencies uttered or displayed ^ in them. Waa 
the Attic poet wrong then in his epithet, or the Fathers of 
the Church right in their denunciations! Or ia there anyway 
of reconciling the two ; of shewing that what might be true 
even in the days of Aristophanes, was not true when Tatian 
and Tertullian, Clirysostom and Theodoret, and, above all, 
the learned Clemens of Alexandria, thundered out their ana- 
themas against Eleusiuion rites, and — what is of much oon- 
soquence in our view of the matter — that in those anathemas 
the Cliristiau Fathers did not confound Bacchic and Eleu- 
sinian rites, as their language might on some occasions load 
U8 to suspect, but that they spoke of the latter (for to 
them they generally confine their obser^'ations) as they found 
them, either from having before conversion been themselves 
partakers in those rites, or what would be nearly equivalent, 
from having learnt the nature of them from persons converted 
by their zeal to a purer faith ? Such a means, I think, may 
not only be found for reconciling Aristophanes and the Fatliers 
of tho Church, but also for throwing considerable light on the 
following dranin, and the ndigious condition of the times when 
that drama was exhibite<l, — a condition wliich eerttunly does 
not afford a more gratifying sjtoutaele than that wliich pre- 
sented itself, when the oratory, philosoi)hy, dramatic literature, 
and general polities of the pi?riod were passed rapidly before 
the reader 8 eyes at the conuneneement of this Introduction. 
It is to the Eusaian scholar °OuvarofF, that we arc, I 

m One or t^o specimens will be quite sufficient. Or^or. Naz. XXXIX. fij6,rf. 
0V Kiprtf Tis wap i/fuy apwi^rrai I) ^rtft^rip wKayartu — >*tal rk ft-^f uaitlj rk U 
TddTX^t- fdffx^'f'Ofxtu yitfi rjM^P^ ^o^^f^* ^*' t^itKrht rMrr^v* ol6ty 'EAcvirU raurm 
KoJ ol Twv manrmfi^ywi* tw^rrtu, Thendoret. Therap. VII. 88£. /v ravrmtf 
rait 6tAfryvp*ai wav cTBos OKoXofflas hUtm iroKtAoro' ko} yhp ed rcArral «■! rk 
tifryia rk rovrmv *1x" al^lyfiara, riiir tcrdi/a fiif if 'EAcixrlf, i) ^aXf^ymr/ta 8« r^v 
^aXX^r K. T. i. M. de Sacy, who has controverted Mme opinions of St. Croix on 
this nibject (I. 319. 11. 15.), was not nn*are of that amalgamation o( Rarrhicand 
Eleuiinian rites, whicli expluiim so many of tlinw apparent incungniilics. 

n Se« his leftmed and elegant Eauiy un the ** M)>stenM of Eleusis." 



first indebted for the observation, that at some period, 
(Im em of which ho dooa not attempt to fix, the secret wor- 
ship of Bacchus had bwn imited in Athens with the secret 
worship of Ceros ; the differr'nce between the two, as he 
justly obson'ee, being the tiniiu- as the difference which exists 
biftween ** the unbridled force of savage life, and the civili- 
SKkion of well-regulated society."^ But when he proceeds fur- 
their to consider the " lacohus^' of the present play as the 
" Ba<rchu8'" thus engmfted into the mysteries of Eleusis, the 
l^atmed writer appears to me not only to throw difBculties in 
the way of a proper understanding of the play "itself, but to 
have misunderstood the ancient tnythologist and poet, from 
wfaose Pwritings he first ingeniously derived this notion of an 
SBttlgamation of Baccliic and Eleusinian riten, and what is 
more, to be at variance with ^^Titers of ntill greater antiiiuity 
and value, when, instojid of expressing themselves loosely as 
they often did, when spealdng of a deity bearing so many 
names as Bacchus, they were compelled (as we shall presently 
find the case to be with Cicero) by the nature of their argu- 
ment to state precisely what Bacchus they meant. We shall 
first address ourselves to the Dionysiacs of Nonnus. 

« To poiDt Co one or two minutiv. Oiiu di»tiiigiuUiing mark of the The- 
hvi Baoehiu was the ivy ; that of tlw fUeuftlnian lacchus ia the myrtle (infr. 
JMi.): (ClandUn» by giring him n crowu of ivy (de Rnpt. IVoa. I. 5. 16.), 
ffielun OMCume, ■• St Croix oheerres). Agniii ; — if lacchus had been Uie Thebui 
Diooyvat xkttd^ another Dame* would not other nttrihutM of the Utter have been 
taaad with his represenCHttre — the thynus, tlie fawn-skin, the luuthex, &,c. 
(Of. infr. p. 265. Bq.)|? St. Croix, though not free from mi&takmupon this mntterj 
kat wcxi it generally in a fur more proper |»oiiit uf vivw. After having discussed 
«b*t eoooemed the daughter of Ceres in regard to Klettstnian MyRterics, as 
••Q M Tanotti matters relative to her son lacchus, and to Bacchus, ton of Jupiter 
and liwiirir. ths karued writer remarks : '* In Uie cmuudy of Aristophanes, 
Mtilltd the Fnigi, thia Utter god is supposed to meet the Chorus of persons ini- 
ttitad in lli* aiy i t ar Us of C«m, wbosiiDg the hymn in honour of lacchus, in which 
k)«a ilierr k not the Uut ralierenoe to the Thdwn Bacchus. This Utur appears 
tAlhlBt very mnqnilly, without taking any [Uirt in their song, from which Fr<fret 
■vrioriei wtih just muon, that Bacchus and Iwxhus had nothing in common 
vilk adb athtr." R«cherch«f siir les >f jWres du Paganiame, T. I. Sect. 3. 

P ne DIonynaea of Noamu. As this poem U not geiicrally known, an azuu 
hfi^afit will, if po«Jbb>, be giT«n In the A)»pendiz (B). 



In the poem composod by that writer, who lived in the fifth 
century, on the subject of Bacchus, — a poem at least of equal 
length with the Iliad and Odyeeey united— three Bacchuses 
evidently make their appearance; — tho Eacchud-Zagreu^s who 
■eems to have been in the poet^s eye little more than an 
emanation of tho ^Ztvs 'Tmos, or fluid principle in water — the 
Theban Bacchua, or son of Semelc by Jupiter, whom the 
latter god begeta to make up for the Baoohus Zogreus, torn to 
pieces by Titans, and thus substituting a vinoua for a water 
principle — and a third Bacchus, eon of the Theban wine-god 
by the nymph Aura, and whom the language of Aura, if 1 in- 
terpret it correctly, does not represent as ths lacohua of the 
Eleusinian mysteries, but as a Bacchus destined at some future 
period to take the 'place of that older lacchua, who had 

4 Nod. DIonyt. X. 294. V. 566. VI. 164, k|. See fariher oq the Bacdioi 
Zagnnu, XXXI. 48- XLIV. 31 1. 313. 255, &o. &c 

r One nr two important tnunagw relative to this subject in the Dionyuaci UV 
here submitted to the reader : 

(Juno eodearourv to irritate Perwphonif n^inst Bacchuii, son of SeroeU.) 

D(i«xy I'f'rrap bwatrtrn, tcaX 'hpnt XiBpom 'Zrtfout, 
fii|3) r4oy Ai6nnroy iafvny^tit<riv 'A0^vcu' 
^ifM ^XV y*P*^ ^^^''^ 'EArvffU'ifr 4&iorMry. 

/iJ) ri/sttpov ^^jUifrpoi AtimI^O'ck*' hxApnt. 

Dionys. XXXI. 64, sq. 

(Bftcchiu (Idiren bis son, bom of Auni,— whom b« had deh«ached wh«n ia a 
Hate of inobriuiiun — to Nioea, who had bven the ixuKbcr of a son to him under 
similar drcunuilAiictA.) 

mipov &*nf^{t}ff«. Xa0ii¥ U fiuf \f^6et h'ttppav, 
rfjwiop twrrri Bixxof, itrtoyvftav via Totcnt/s, 
*kr9(Si tuMfrtw^ifi wafioJtdretTo Bditxos 'AS^ifp, 

n<i>Aav iun/n^«vT^ tffoS^y^fi 8/(ar« irif^ry 

abroxf^^ (TTi^orra wi6om yxdyoi tfi^OKi fta^V' 
Ktd nt¥ 'CAcva-iviTTfri 8f^ -mpaKdr^rro UdKX«uv 



hitherto held so prominent a part in them : — the sixth day of 
tiioee holy rit«8, na we have already shewn, bearing his name 
—the joyous song which accompanied the proceesion from 
Athens to Eleusis being characterised by the same appel- 
klknx, and what is of more oonscqacnoo, the night of that 
flDEth day being the one appropriated for the communication 
•f tiioae solemn doctrines, which ought to have had so much 
ittfliieiioe on the moral conduct of those who heard them. 
That Nonnus in thus speaking of an lacchus prior in birth 
aikd office to the Theban Bacchus, held a language perfectly 
ftgrcf«ible to antiquity, needs no further proof than a passage 
in Cicero's treatise * Do Natura Deorum,' where, speaking of 
the Theban Baochus, the great orator and philosopher suddenly 
digresses from his more imme<liate subject to speak of two 
^^li/c^rvA of Ceres, expressly distinguisiiing the goddess" male 
^pkild from the child of Semele, of whom he had prev-iously 
been ■speaking. Tho mythologiat does not indeed express 
himself quite so clearly a-s thu Roman philosoplier does upon 
the matter, the numerous u[>pellation8 of the god which he 
haupi indiscriminately together, somewhat confusing liis main 
idea ; but that his main idea was such as we have stated it, 

■col 0fbr IXoUrxof^o pitff uUa Utpfft^ovtins, 
ami JU/i4Xifs fi,4T^ wat^a' 9vijiro>Jas 8A Aixi/y 

ital rtXrraus rpuT<rpfftF'4$aMXfv9i^tw 'A0riyeu' 
ttml xop^'' ir^triXtOTOv iwtKfHtinTayra iroArroj, 
Zayp4a JcwSoivain-cf ofia Bpo^'V "(^ *''^X4'> 

Dionys. XLVIII. 949, iq. 

TVe amfawon with which andeat poets »i«d nnmn of the (tame deity, in&kes the 
aboTv m ItttJ« nhsniTT, hat the f^ener&I meaning tuemt erident enough. 

* " nine llerctilet - ■ . hinc Lil»er eiiam ; (hunc dico Libcnmi ScmeU^ nAttim, 
Mn ewii ^ncia tiotcri majiim aiigii&te »aticte<|ue Lilienim cum Ccrrrc et Libera 
•■■Hiiiiiunt: 4|aod quaJ« wt, ex fnyHteriis iuwUigi {wtest ; Bed qund ex nobis 
■Mbi Hmw appsUMDiu, Meirco Orere nati nomiiiati »unt liiber el Lil«ra ; quod 
h liiharii »rrani, in Lihrro non item ;) hinc ctioin HomuIuB, &c." De Natura 
IL 14- See further 00 ibis subject Creui. Symh. UL 372.6-9. 


reoeires strong support from tho paasoge just quotod, and 
I think, to be concluded from his whole reasoning. 

Havin;er established — we trust upon no insufficient grounds" 
—the wido difFerenco between the son of Ceres and the son 
of Seniele, and the respective worships of both, two or three 
subjects naturally present themselves for inquiry: — on whom 
Are we to fix tho guilt of uniting two worships 80 widely 
different from each other — the one adniii-ably calculutoti to 
benefit public morals, the other aa completely adapted to 
vitiate thoni I and when and why did tliat amalgamation take 
place ? When it is considered how little of these matters was 
allowed by antiquity to transpire, tFje danger which contem- 
porary writers inciurred by nie<ldling with them', and conae- 

< See mxM strung expi'esuoiu to that effect (and tliey couM eamJy have beeo 
inultlplietl if neccuar)') in a formur page (viii). When to these expreiaiaus ix a»- 
ptiradilM the historical raiie nf Aldbimlea — a ca&e siirely indicating the extraiM- 
caution wliich it bdiovcU ever)' Aiheiiiaii who re^pinled hia penkjnal safety Iv 
obwrve in rc|fard to myotic rite*, — what anr we to think of the learned Creitcer, 
wlio at this time of day undertakes to teU us^ not luerely the doctrines whidi 
were tuught, in those of Bacchus, — doctrines of so high and lofiy a chancier, 
(Symb. 111. 393. 408-9-10. 414, &c.) that the Bacchic tree, which we found 
benring such unwhoJesome fruit in its native Kiil, must have improved wonder- 
fidly by transplantation into Greece, — hut almost nil that was said, thought, or 
done in ttiose mpterious rites. And wliat ore his anthorities for this minute in> 
funiiation, ahuost as omnaing, and we beUere about as reracious, as an Arab tale? 
First find chief are the men of " the gx>lden chain," " the sacred race,** as they 
l>rR5iimed to rail ttienuielvi*s, Plotinus, Produs, Porphyry, Ac. Ac. men, h may be, 
of considerable acquirements, and the first undoubtedly possessed of much lueta- 
physical acuteness ; but as we had occnsion 10 obserre in a farmer play (Preface 
to Nuhes), fanatics to tho last degree— rlreAment when they did not he, and liars 
when tliey did nut dreain — outrivtilling Romisli saitttn in tlieir pretended cures and 
mirarles^ pretending to personnl iiitercmirse n-ith the Deity, and exhibiting other 
sucli abernilioiiH of intellect as It is pitiable to Ctintcniplate, yet many of them fbttered 
with penKiotistiiidhunours to an extmordinar)' degree. And why all this? Becauso 
twelve men, unlettered as every word which they spoke, orinoed* yet doing such 
acta* as none but supernatural power could accomplish, were working the effects 
which a contnist bo striking cnnld not hut produce — ausptcions in many as to the 
falsdioods of the faith m which they hod been brought up, convictions in more 
of the truth of that now propounded to them ; and hence, as a necessary cud- 
sequence, deserted temples, forsaken schools, and Cipsars trembling on imperial 
thrones- To prop up the falling sjntem, all theintellect of 0\e day, and that of the men 
just mensioiied among the rest, was pressed into service; and to know the valu^of a 



fjuently the cautioa with wliich all occounta by Bubsetjuent 
UTitors are to bo received, it is obvious that oiu* answers on all 
these que8tioDs must be of a very general nature, and cannot 
bot be attended with the utmost difficulty. We can only 
oAer the reader such explanations an have presented thcm- 
•elvM to our own mind, stating the reasoofl on which tliose 

HtVliw, a L4Kian, or od Aristophanes, it it oiily neoessacy to observe for bow loag 
« period thfl Roman intellectual world vraa nosc-lcd hya MtrccMtlnn of Aurl; tneii ri« 
«c hare just mentioned. But ot all tbeir eitgiim for aiiffiMui^ ClmKtianity, wluit 
W oif raore value to tlinm tliau ihL> ancfcnt myslerics, tii u*liich tliL-y rcmld invt^iic 
4occrinet of any luud tbey pleased; fur with jiriests aud i'tn[pcrun( to Imck tliciii> 
vbo wai CO gainsay wliat they cltose to advance ? To cniif»und witli sucli men the 
lowned SynibolisC'i Mrond grrai autbority, the phtlMojilier of (Jwronea, wotild 
fcs tuda ad unjuit. Vet after all, whnt is the nutbnrity of Plutnrch on thesu 
— Uei i? He could know little more of Bacchic inyHtcrieft, or the doctriua 
ia d nfai in them in tlie tiuu* of Aristophanes, than we do ; and hid early travels 
farto ^I71>*« instead of adding to the value of his testimony, rather diminUlies it. 
Tbe great ooiiAict bKween Christianity and PhUtwophy in its various li^ranrhes 
lad alrvady then ommienocd in Alexandria, and tlie excellent Bteocian was, wc 
Deed hardly aay. a man of large intellactnnl appetite, f^r more ralruUuMl to anralluw 
Coae|)ar3te,~-niiich more likeJy to fonn a syncrvtistic nystemfur himself than 
himaelf to any single one of others. As to tlie ingenious theories, which tlie 
Imtims] writer has formed mit of ivpreaentatinns on vases I'nund in toniUs or elne- 
wWv, the qnotion imniediately occurs — was it likely that theommun ]M)tter should 
Wallowed lorppreaent in roloiin, what historians, poets, and philosophers did tinl 
4h* u> rweal in words ? — That a writer, who professes to know to much of what In 
&■ nan never be known, should occasionally miss his way in matters, well enntigh 
kftewn Co very ordinary srhoiarship, and fonfrntml things whiirhnannothe well kept 
Ina i^iarate, ^vai niitiimlly to be expected ; and wicli till his pntfound eniditioti, it 
«viild be DO diffMTult matter to shew, that tlie learned svinbolist has utxasionally 
Ivd fctescif open to iMittt tlieae charges ; but >t would ill liecotue one, who has de- 
rived from bis labours melt infinite pjitertainment and iustmctiun, as the present 
-rritcr, to put himaelf forward in substantiatinf^ tliem. An ediUir of -Arlsto- 
bowever, is bmind to say, that the earlier scenes of tlie following drama are 
Cmizcr briievrs them to be (HI. 434), vie nn entertainment griven hy 
Ae iirititttfd to BaocbuB, and tliat v. 505 of the ' Arbami.>nses* rtfeni not to the 
of Rnuigers from initiation in Bacchic mysteries (lb. 329), but to tlieir 
froiD thedramfltic mtrrtninmems given at the Ijenivnn or wine-press feast, 
which faaei Uie Icanied writer confounds with the .\ntlieteriu or spring- feast, 
«lirn stmngm eooM be prewnt at the aoonic entertainments, for reasons given tn 
» following P'^E6 (i'lf- 1 ''^-]> Tt may t>e added, tliat whatever maybe tht* meaning 
itf a ffisage In the AntigonD of Sophocles (v. 1 to6.) in reference to laochus, it 
ortaioJy cannot bear chat which f'rouxer auigns tn it (Ih. 337), and that as he 
to hare no lued notions as to the difference Itelween this god ami the 
BMchiu (in. 167. J38-9. 335-^-9. U. 347- Dion. 341.), so he appcart 




opinions are founded, and leaving it to men of highor learning 
and attainments to say how far thoy appear correct. The 
mere expression, liowever, of new opinions, if propounded 
with becoming modesty, is not without a certain value, because 
they not unfrequently lead to inquiries ending in results of 
far more value than the suggestions wiiich gave them birth. 
It is in such a spirit, that wo proceed to address ourselves to 
the last of the throe questions which have here been put. 

As the colobnition of tbo secret rites of Bacchus was, I 
believe, exclusively in tho hands of the fomalo" sex of Athens, 
and the time selected for their celebration the hours of "night, 
it is not improbable that Bcandul^ may have arisen unknov\ii to 
us, which obliged the State to wrest that worship from their 
hands, and render it less offensive, which would hnve been the 
case, by mixing it up with Eleusiniau rites, and less exclusive 
by throwing it oi>en to both sexes. Were auy such satis- 
factory reason, however, to bo given for the transfer, I think 
both tho innovation and its author would somewhere have 
been made kno\vn to us. I know, however, of no such notice 
in ancient authors, and therefore fear we must refer the wish 

not unfrequently to oonfuse EJeusintan and Dicmyuao rites (III. 332. 445.496. 
518. 536-9. 530) Verst^ u the I^urued wriuir is in tlie works of Nouiiua, and 
ircll aware of those sacred marriages by which two religious wonhips were in 
ancient times ofiun united, it seems Strang that the exlrudon uf laochus frnm 
£leu8Jmau rites, and a rt'ligious wedding of tlia Thvban Itarchus vrith the 
daughter of t'eres, shmild m*\er hare omirred to liirn. If the tliought hfld nut 
previously occurred to the present M'riier, he thtnlu be sbouhl have been led into 
it by many paasoges in the learned symboUst^s own pages (III. 369. 376. 
493-«^i Ac) 

■ Cf. Soph. Antig. 1 146 »q. Demosih. Oral, in Nemnun. Liry XXXIX 13. 
Creuz. Symh. III. 323. See also what is said by CreuKer on the secret rites of 
Mithra in Persia, I. 732. Tliat the learned writer, after setUing so minutely what 
was said or done in Bacchic mysteries, sboulil have left m impcirtant a matter 
unnxatniued, is somewhat strange. From a pajutage in liis vulume« (III. 461.) 
respecting the celebration of Bacchic mysteries in Magna Grwda, [the Italy of 
Suphoclea Antig. 1 lOj.), I should lie ted to think that he considered sudi rites to 
hare been, generally speaking, rather in the hands of the male than the female 

* Oil the night reason of IbuxJiir ami other similar ceretnontee, see CtCUlk 
Symb. nil. 104 (note). 107 (note). 109. 3O0. 449. IV. 84. 



for §uch innovation to the growing progress of democracy, 
intolerant of religious aa well oa political restraint, and ita 
«cCual aooomplishment to the efforts of some demagogue 
ready to purohaati popular favour, be the price of that favour 
what it might. On whom in antiquity can wo fix as that 
BUMhievoua demagogue l Was it Pisistratus I That he was 
among the persons whom Herodotus (II. 49.) mentions as 
making eonsiderablo changes in the Bacchic worship, after its 
original introduction — (the word aofpurral which he there uses 
being to be understood in its bettur senst*) — there can bo little 
doabt. Largo sacriiices to popular favour would necessarily 
be made by one, who was set king by popular favour to raise 
binaaelf above his peers, and who with the convenient Onoma- 
eritna to forge oracles for him on >' one side, and the clover 
Thespia to write stage-lam|>oons for him against the aristo- 
onoy CD the 'other, had materials in his liands for making 
mch innovations iji the religious, as well as political circum- 
■tauoes of Athens, as he pleased ; but that he went the length 
of the enormity just mentioned, is, to say nothing of the 
▼irtuea generally attributed to the Pisistratid --'family, dis- 
proved by an historical anecdote, which shews that the lacchic 
^Mrtion of the Eleiii<inian rites was still iu operation, when 
^^krrxea invaded Athens for the purpose of replacing the son 
of Pisistratus on the ** throne. Was it Pericles! (we paas 
over fuch names as Solon and Aristides, as a sin against 
Tiittte itself to suppose that they would have so betrayed the 
beat interosta of their country,} Some traditional anecdotes 
lold by Julian and '^Pausanias, and the further knowledge 
that between the Phr}'gian Rhea and the moat fanatical por- 
iioiu of the Baochio worship, there was a dose connexion, 

r n«vdoC Vn.6. f < Tnfr. Append. Articles, Tlwspit and Pratliutt. 

» Thiicyd. VI. 54. Pl*u». Tlipimrch- 22fi, \u b HorodoL VIII. 65. 

' ** Bhw wnam circa boo tempus (Euripridii) Athenu tranaUu tradit Juliuiu* 
Or>V. (p. I9|.); HBgian autem Rhev, qiiiu in Mctroo erat, Phidias Euripidli 
MotciDpormneus elBbonirit. ceste PauianiA." Muigrave nd Kur. Hcl. r. i.iii. 
TbS rfiwi baaoan psUl to the almott fuster-molber o( BMcfaus (Ntnm. Dionya. 
XIV.) would b« without some new txjmplim«it paid to the aonj doea not Mem 


01 V 



might for a moment cowitenance such o, suspicion ; but what- 
ever the thirst of Pericles for power, we believe him to have 
been incapable of purchasing even unlimited power at such 
a price as this. It must l>e among the baser demagogues, 
whom hifl iniquitous policy let loose upon the Athenian 
people, that this last pandering to democratic license took 
place, but to which of tho band — Cleon — Hyperbolus — 
Archedenius, — Cleophon — wo are to look for its more imme- 
diate author, it is impossible to say. The oath so oonti- 
nually found in the mouth of the first of these woiihies, and 
to which wo called attention in a former play (Equit. 418.). 
would lead us to Huepeot him as lia guilty contriver, — for 
experience tenches that where men of his stump profess tho 
most outward revereuoe, there they are generally meditating 
the deepest treachery — did not some appearances in the Attic 
drama teach us to believe that the mischief was at all events 
not completed till after Cleon's death. To tliat drama there- 
fore we now turn, to see what lights it may afibrd us on this 
interesting subject. 

A reference to jiEsohylean writings on this point must be 
one almost of mere curiosity, that great man liring too early 
to take any ehare in the war between the worships of lacchus 
and the son of Semol6, which more or less intere-sted his suc- 
cessors. That the adventures of tho wine-god, whether serious 
or comic, would form no unfrequent subject of ililschylean 
composition, almost necessarily followed from the evolvement 
by him of the drama out of the dithyrambic ode ; a second 
almost necessary consequence being that these compositions 
would be among the poet's earlier productiotis. Among the 
titles of his plays still preserved, we find at least seven or 
eight, all evidently of Bacchic tendency, and it would have 
been exceedingly desirable that some of these should have 
been prcsen'ed, more particularly tho Tetralogue, which 
derived its name from the Thracian monarch ^ Lycurgus, in 

d The Ijfcargtui Tetmlogue of .^Sichylas consisted, accordiog to a scholium in 
(he RATenna MS. of Aristoplianee (Dinil. .Csch. fr. 115.)) of Uie Edoai> the 
^asMrides, the Xeaniad, aad Lycutigns; the last being oonsoquently a utyr- 



order that we might eee in what manner the Bacchic worship 
had boen riewed by the father of tlie drama. That its im- 
moralities could have escaped an eye ho morally correct, is 
not very likely ; but the nature of the timee turned attention 
rather to political than to moral consequences, and j^sohylus, 
joiuig, ardent, and at that time not undemocratic in his 
politioB, saw perhaps in Pentheus, Lycurgus, Athamos, and 
othern, not so much monarchs sternly opposing the introduc- 
tion of a licentious worship into their dominions, as tyranta 
harahly interposing between their people and the object of 
their wishes. Too few fragments, however, are loft us to 
decide either of those points ; but enough remains to show, 
bow vividly his genius, natunilly alive to all that was mar- 
veDous and exciting, had been impressed by the progress of 
the Bacchic worship, naturally fruitful of such subjects. The 
wild ^music connected with its rites — the mailness which 
often preceded or accompanied their introduction, and which 
ID one of those dramas assumes the form of the personified 
Ljna — the boiling caldron which reccivoii the son of the 
phrensied Athamas (fr, i.), were just such materials as his 
anwe would delight to seize upon ;— his Thebos in flames, and 

411^0^ The Ant nf these dranuu, from iu title, cTidenily compreltrtidcd Oie 
ted UaCcry of th« Thnidan monarch Ii\-cnr|a^u ; the seooud, accordiiif^ (u Kra- 
l aatMiW (Cauut. c. 24.), had for tta subject the fate of Orpheui ; the third, I 
fiBi g ^'Tf froiD its name to have had its cboms formed of a body of ynung The- 
vrtio supported tbetr youthful monarch Pentheus in his op{>ositiou to the 
wonhip, while the elders Codinus and Tiresias favoured it. If diia sup- 
is oorrect, Oie Lymrgeia vpn\ild be one of those ;F.scbjI«an Trilogies, 
vUcii, mpeor^ng to Aristotle, were formed not from onittnniCy, but from limi- 
hffitf ei sabject. But the curiosit)' would Imve )>ecn to see Oic satyr^rama. Id 
Ait tpaoet of compORition, j^.tchylus is known to have particularly exeelled 
(INo^ lAcrt. II. iJ30t 1^^ ^ *^^ mixture of mirth and seriousness which that 
kind ot oompnntlnn enibraoedi we should dotibtleu liave got nt a knowledge of the 
fen's twaX feelbieB as to Bacchic rit«s. That tlie two objections put into the 
■iMh ef hU Pentheus would hare been the Mune as those urged by the Penllwus 
tt KoonuB, 1 bare little doubt : 

•(3 ^Mfrov &artt$«os vitov i»ipo% olrof iytiptt. 

Dionys. XLV.83. 
(a. XLVttl. 818. and Pentb. in Eurip. Baoch. aai, aq.) 
• £dani fr. £4. (Uind.) 



chorus of f Water-bcarora to extinguish them — his pergonified 
e Amphidromus — his Dionysiao nurses boiled into second 
*^ youth — all those might, with other Rpocimens, bo quoted in 
proof of tho truth of this observation. But wo must pass on. 
Wrapt up in the prosecution of his delightful art — eschew- 
ing politics,, and wisely preferring tho songs of Colonoan 
nightingales to tho wrangles of the stage, or tho noisy struggles 
and decrees of the Ecclesia — the muse of Sophocles, it might 
bo thouglit, was not likely to afford much information on 
tho present subject ; but something may be gleaned from her, 
and of no smalt value. In that poet's Antigone there is 
a beautiful choral ode, addressed to Bacchus, or tho " many- 
named,^* in which wo find the following expression in reference 
to him; kXvtclp &? dju^^^Trciv ^IraXCav, fiibus 5^ Tray- | koCvois 
'EAnjffu/tas | Aijoi/s iv koXttois. (v. 1106. Herni. Ed.) What 
is to be inferred from this expression ? Of its difficulty there 
can be no doubt, from tho trouble which it has given to ' com- 
mentators and translators ; and if wo venture to take a dif- 
ferent view of it from oil our predecessors, it is not without 
some authority to back us in the enterprise. Of three inter- 
pretations placed by ancient scholiasts on the epithet uayKoCixus 
in the preceding passage, one is, * or because of the common 

1 itfU\Ti 9i 'rSpo^6pci. From tlie BROcbie of Euripidcj it appeftn Uul the*Ug^|- 
niiigs wliich cuiisumitl Uie person ut' Seinel?, fired alio the royal maiMton, Tipnidw 
oiber parts of Xtiebes, aiid that the whole of the mina had been enckMed by the oare 
nf CodmiiB, to preserve them frum the iiitnisum uf profane feet. (Bocuh. &-11.) 
To introduce a Cbonis of Wacer-bearen anisUng to exciogiuih tbe flaxoei, wm 
murh in the character uf vCuchylus, who loved exceedingly the Mtrange aud the 
ejrcUing. (Cf. Jnfr. p. 3a 1, &c.) 

IT By the word d/i^tSp^^m is properly meant tho fifth day aftiT the birth of a 
child. On this day those who had assisted at the delivery nndertvmu a Milenin 
puHHcHtiun ; the cliild itself wae carried round the family-hearth, and its liame 
uHaigncd to iL This service n]ipears to have lieen done for the jfut^hylean ikac- 
chuH by a gud coined '* for the iionce^" and who had nu time tu lose in the 
operation, as the infant uan 8[»cediW to pass from the woinb nf Semelfi to the 
Lhigh of Jnpiter. Ileaydiiiis, 'A^tSpo^s : Aitr^v^tft "XtfUh^ htKturf Zalfuu^ xot- 
vhv irtpl Tct afiiptSp6nta, us ci (ktyt Tit ytyddfuow. 

h Aiofwroi/ Tpoipoi. /Each. fr. 4,v (Dind ). and Stliol. Arist. Eijuit. v. 1318. 

I Cf. Krfurdl, Hermann, Bothe, Wundcr, Dindorf, EUcndt, (Soph. Vast. ), 
Creuzer (Symh. I II. .137.) : see aUo the Knglish version of Dale, and the German 
translations of Tbudichuni and Siilger. 



of Oeres and Dtonyeua.^ {rj Stl ^ Kowh rb. fAwrrnpia 
Ai^pp-poff Mu, ^tovvtrov). From this expreseion of the scholiast 
it appears not only deduciblo that the amalgamation between 
Bftoohio and Eleusinian worships had already taken place, but 
tfaai could we tix the date at which the exhibition of the 
Antigone took place, something like a chronological probar 
bility might bo gained as to tlie time when these two worships 
combined. And for this there are not wanting tolerable 
Leaving Seidler, Lossing, and Schultz (Vit. Soph.) to 
■ettle the precise time, when the^rs^ exhibition of the Antigone 
took plaoe^ it is sufficient for our purpose to observe, that such 
wa« the intense delight taken by the audience in that singu- 
larly beautiful performance, that even repeated exhibitions of 
it took place, and that it was in somo connexion with its 
1 latest oxliibition that the poet's death was occasione<l. This 
Tiew of the subject brings the Antigone close in point of time 
to the exhibition of the ' Frogs :' it brings ua consequently 
upon the popular foolinirs of the day, and allows us to see in 
the rifar.cimento a political allusion, which was not perhaps in 
the original piece ; that allusion being to the effect, that the 
Han lis of the Saronio bay (cf. EUendt in voc. koX-ttoI), whore 
Oeres had hitherto borne exclusive sway, was now common to 
her and the Theban Bacchus, for to that Bacchus the wholo 
of the ode, in which this difficult expression occurs, is ad- 

But though Sophocles might from natural inclination bo 
aTerse to join in this war between the myrtle and the ivy, or 
m other words, between sober religion and fanaticism,— 
and though ^Bchylus had died too early X<\ become a direct 
■harer in the fray, yet the stage waa naturally the arena 

n If tha raBdv thinks the word v(i7itotya an epithet of too large import to bo 
^fcd merely to two prrBoni, l«t him couitiiU FJlendt on the appUcBlion of tb« 
^l|4cbffl kaW4nt to Arhelout and Heroitles in the Trachiniir of Sopluides. 

<^fmn /mtcp^, itai ii4vtii> [trrtyn-hf\-, ^ frwooriy^V wphs Ai-iiraixriy fxif fx""^** Ayav 
ivtniravrs r^f pmvhf. 'T^n' rp ^«ri^ koI r^¥ ^i/x^r k(^7yau ol 9«, Kri fttr^ r^r roC 

iho Scholiz (Vit. Soph.) pp. 40. 54.7. 65. Ao-i. 153-7. 



on which tho battle would be fouglit ; and aa at the head of 
the party opposing this innovation in Bacchic worship, we 
do not licsitate to placo the living person of Aristophanes and 
tho shade of ^schyhiR^ (c-alled up from Hades for tliis very 
purpose,) BO at tho head of the favouring party we o^ little hesi- 
tate to place Eiiripidos^ and per}ia]>8 the comic, or, it may be 
dithyrambie poot '" Cratinus. Why the latter should hare 
given in his adhesion to the new worsliip, is not so clear ; but 
tho readiness \^'ith which tho luxuriant muse of Euripides 
turned to tho jmetio imagery,supplied by those productions over 
which the wine-god presided {iiifr. 1280.) — the demod'atic spirit, 
which if not all-abaolute in liiui, cortaiidy predominated over 
hie other political feelings, — the looseness, and at times the 
entire absence, of moral juflueneo in tho composition of his 
dramas— would all disjtose him to tho advocacy of any measure 
wliich tended to give additional influence to such a worship. 
Besides some apjiaixMitly incidental attempts to this eJfoct, 
which will be found in the following notes (pp. 77-8,), tho 
" Bacchae*^ of this poet appears to me so studied an attempt 
throughout to favour the popular wishes on this pointy iliat • 
without a perfect knowledge of that drama it seems impossible 
to come to a correct understanding of the /Vristophanic * Frogs.' 
It becomes therefore necessary to pay attention, and that at 
some length, to tliis powerful production of the Euripidean 

When tho ** Bacchse^ was exhibited, is uncertain. Accord- 
ing to some accounts it was not brought forward till after the 
poet's death : that it had been produced not long before the 
exhibition of the Frogs, seems pretty clear, not only from the 
genera! tone of opposition between the two plays, but also 
from one direct (infr. v. 93.), and one or two indirect quota- 
tions from it (v. 387.). On these quotations, however, — and 

m Ifihis Crailnus was a ntn of iho *M bnni, which however Uy no iu»uu fal- 
hvfB frum mere aiinilarit^r of namo, cnnviviiil habiu and ii (icry 3Iu«r Hliotild awm 
to hjive heoa. almost iiJicHtable qualities in chc family. See notes, infr. .H>-3' 
But from mere cxinctitonation of ideas, perhaps an unjust view has been taken in 
those noccs. 



for the obvious reoeon that it would have been unwise in the 
eotnie poet to h&vo made the object of his opposition too 
«lettr, — we place loss reliance, than in ^^eneral reaaonin^ and 
the nature of the times. To say that the '' Baccha;" of Eu- 
ripides commanded in no small degree the attention of Milton, 
is at once to give us the higheet idea of its poetic power ; 
but the extraordinary vigour which it displays may in some 
degree be accounted for by the knowledge, that the poet was 
not altogether working upon his own materials, but upon 
materials already provided for him by the superior genius of 
-^lechylus; the Fenthcus, Semole, and perhaps the ^airrpiat 
of the latter poot, having been unquestionably the sources from 
which the fonuer draw. Our present purpose, however, is more 
with the objects for which the drama was apparently written, 
than tho skill with which the task was executed ; and a brief 
enumeration of some of the opinionslaid down by the poet will 
best explain what those objects were, and fonn the best justi- 
fication of tJie theory which we have derived from them. 
That there is a natural connexion between the two divinities, 
Oerea and Bacchus, is one of the first positions strongly in- 
ttfted on in the play (274, sq.)— that what the populace {t6 
xk^fios) approves and finds suitable to its purj)ose8 is to be em- 
bfBoed, is another position (427, sq.), a Hni:<er being added at 
tbo ^Ans vtpur<roli or overbusy and scrupulous persons, who 
ud^Tinced maxims contrary to both these positions, and to 
whom it is deohire<i wise and prudent to pay no attention. 
That tho Bacchic worship made its way into no country with- 
out bringing much immorality with it, — the night season 
ohiOten for its time of celebration, not a little aiding to 
that effect, — was a fact which could not be doniod, but the 
charge woa met by some convenient sophistry in tho first 
place (488, sq.), and secondly by such a skilful arrangement of 
his Choral Troop, as put a double weapon in the poet''s hand. 
As theatric custom insisted on the Clionis bearing a high 
motal character, the poet wisely formed his present one, not of 
Theban women under tho actual feeUng of the Bacchic phrensy, 
they being rather doscrihe<l in narrative, than oxiiibited 



in their proper persona, but of Lydian Moonada, the god^a 
femalo companionB in warfaro previously to his ingress into 
Thebes, and into whose moutiis could be put either such conci- 
liating observations as their first choral song exhibits (72, sq.) 
or such longings after Cyprus and Paphus, as a subsequent ode 
brings forth (400, sq.) ; the first not improbably derived from 
the " I'enthcus*^ of ili^schylus, nt all events bearing the mark 
and iniprcsfl of Iuh genius ; the second as closely weikring that 
character whicli the muBe of Bairipides was apt to impress upon 
the fairer sex. Appeals to the feetivo delights with whioh 
this worship w/is accompauie*l — to the release which it gave 
from care — to the natural union between wine and love, with 
divers hits at unbridled tongues, and evii-mindo<} men, who 
affected a knowle<lge beyond what the latm had ordained, are 
scattered at intervals throughout the piece. (378, sq. 770, sq. 
860. 891. 1151.) But it is not by such means only that the 
poet seeks to work his purpose. The great instrument which 
he hangs over his audience (tiud in this he might have been 
perfectly sincere) is the consequences wliich might enaue 
from the anger of an offended deity, if this extension of bis 
worship is refused. Madness and aberration of mind — discord 
in families — war in its nioet abhorrent form (737, sq- 920, sq. 
1 164. ad finem) — these and other consequences of an offended 
god are held up before the audience in language so powerful 
and vivid, that whether originally derived or not from JEschj- 
lus, the '" Bacchae*'' of Euripides must ever be considered as one 
of the moet commanding attractions of the Attic stage. 

But mighty as the genius of Euripides was to work occa- 
sional ill, there was a genius equally mighty to couuteraoi 
him in his purposes. That any drama of this great but un- 
equal poet should have been without its weak points, was a 
thing quite out of the question ; and had not matters of a 
more important kind called for rebuke and reprehension, it is 
probable that a smile at the Baochic dance aciiieved by the 
aged Theban monarch and liis companion upon the stage 
(infr. p. 306.)— a sneer at the passage which represents the 
wine-god acting as tire-woman to the young monarch of Thebes 




(Bftocih. 827, sq. 931, gq.), and a brood laugh when the narra- 
tive of the mangling of PentheuB' body, revolting enough in 
previona doiaile, proceeds to the disruption of his legs and 
boot* (1134). would have been all the notice which the Euri- 
pideaa '^ Bacohse** would have elicited from Aristophanes : 
but his ejBy as ire have endeavoured to shew, saw more 
that flrama, than at first meets our own. That in the very 
itaet of his career the comic poet had looked at the Hacchic 
worship with no favourable eye, we have had more than one 
oooamon to observe in preceding plays. Though swearing, and 
obliged to swear by the wine-god as the foster^paront of his 
gvotae (Nub. 519.), that parent required sacrifices of him, at 
whieh his genius evidently spumed. One resolute effort he 
had made to throw off the yoke altogether, with what results 
W© need not for a third time repeat. AVhat then would be his 
IbeGngB, when he saw an attempt not merely made, but to all 
appearance, successfully made, to carry a worship so licentious 
into the bosom of rites yet kept pure and holy, and by a ne- 
ficiiary consequence, into the bosom of almost every family 
in Athens ! And how, finally, was the mischief to be remedied, 
if it could not be prevented ! 

Two paths evidently lay before the poet ; the one, to bring 
the Iaocbl^s of his ancestors before an Attic audience in such 
a way as to revive, if possible, old affections for him ; the 
ether, to g^ve such a representation of the god intended to 
lopply his place, as, without giving direct oflenco, should re- 
move much of the religious terror which the powerful scenes 
of Euripides bad been calculated to pro<luce. That both 
attempts required the utmost skill and caution, no one in 
tke least acquainted with the feelings of antiquity upon such 
points will be backward to admit. To the first of these con- 
nderatioDs we [>erhaps owe the formation of the true Chorus 
of the drama, consisting of a body of persons initiated in the 
«cred rites of Eleusis — a succession of scenes, imitative of 
tJtow which took place at Eleusis in the world above, — and 
a set of choral hymns in honour of the son of Ceres ; those 
hymns and scenee alone making the proserA'ation of this 



(Iroina of tho utmost value to us, in a theologic point of view. 
To the Bocond wo are undoubtedly indebted for one of the 
happiest characters which the drama of any country ever 
exhibited, the Aristopbanic Bacchus, equally excellent, whe- 
ther we look at it as a representation of human nature gene- 
rally, or, what our theory almost exclusively binds us to, — as 
a coiTective of the tragic Bacchus, which Euripides had hung 
so terrifically over his au<lience. As tho first, though obliged 
to admit that in a moral point of new, a drunkard and a 
debauchee ", a braggart, a liar, and a poltn)on — and all such 
the Bacchus of the * Frogs^ unquestionably is — ought not to 
engage our affections, yet the fact cannot bo denied, that 
scarcely have we gone through a few lines in tho opening scene 
before he does so seize the reader's affections, and retain them 
to the end. Why is this ? The easy footing on which we find 
him with his own lacquey in the opening scene at once enlists 
our feelings on his side ; Ilia wit and intellectual talent — ^tlie 
good taste with wliich he not merely rejects, but loaths the 
commonplace humour of tho stage, and tho heartiness with 
which ho condemns the dolts and pretenders who had lately 
taken possession of it ; — his bustle, liveliness, and activity — 
his unconquerable good humour and forbearance— and a sort 
of shatterbrain commingling of right and wrong in his intel- 
lect, which convinces us, that if his early prepossessions are in 
favour of Euripides, his final judgment will bo for -.^schylus, 
— in other words, that ho will prefer all that is noble in morals, 
politics, and religion, to much that was incorrect in the 
first, degrading in the second, and deeply injurious in the last 
— achieve the rest. 

Tho groundwork ha\-ing been thus admirably laid for gain- 
ing a personal good-will for his Bacchus in the poet's au- 

n Thu part of (bo god's character, which of oourae would more or Ins pertain 
to aU connected witli him, is, brought out in a very peculiar maiuier in the con- 
duct of his Uct]uey Xunthios. As the pstnxdorepresentative of Hercule;, he 
ot^ht tu have been highly ococasible to tlic table Jnduocmcnls held oiit to him 
(ititV. 470. sq.) ; to tlu-se, hoivever, he is insensible : not so, when the other accun- 
pauiments, the beautiful dondng wnroen, are mentioned : then all hi*; passions are 
lUire; and— hii mnster's too, as his subsequent pntceedingnerincv. 



(Iknee, the next important object waa to make liim txa mut.']i 
mm poesiblc a traveetio of tho tragic Bacchus. Ami bore 
too ho ifl equally eucccsaful. In the drama of Eui-ipldes the 
goda origin on t]io mother's side, as being of a derogatory 
load, ia kept carefully out of view, and he rarely stands be- 
fore us but as 0on of Jupiter, the king of hearen : the comic 
[>oel, by a species of humour familiar to Attic ears, but which 
can never be made very accessible to our''s, makes him of no 
higher jiarentage than tliat which — a wiiie-caak could give 
(infr. V. 1 8.) The tragic poet— doubtless to gain the favour 
of the female portion of his audience — had exhibited his 
bcTo in the utmost dignity of costume, and in all thut ideal 
beftutj, which statuary and painting had already consecrated 
to the Bacchus of the Grecian world (Bacch, 453 — 459); 
thr comic jK)et gives him a flushed and rubicund counter 
nance, exhibits him in a costume, at once provocative of 
kngfater, and rolls his puncheon-form about the stage much 
u he would one of his own tubs. The tragic text paraden 
him aa the conqueror of the worM — tho roinic text pourtrays 
him aa the most chicken-hearted of human beings : — Hercules 
mobe him — his own lacquey bullies him — the Em[)U8a 
frightens him almost into fits, and as for the situation into 
which the big words of ^acus throw him — not all the gales 
of Araby the blest can sweeten the page in which it is re- 
corded. And here the moral lesson, which wo were at first 
m want of, comes in. The mind instinctively asks itself — but 
ihe nature of a Dionysiac festival obliged Aristophanes rather to 
iiMfamate such a feeling, than to state it broadly — " And does 
ihe pcovait of sensual pleasures lead to becoming such a ihho 
■iUuBr* The reply, if there be a spark of virtue or of man- 
hood left, is as instant — *" Rather, then, let nio feed on roots 
uid herbs ; be my sole beverage the crystal spring, if thus 
dieted I can set such moral degradation at defiance.'"' But wo 
inurt pursue the outward features and economy of tho drama. 
Out of this necessity for lowering the standard of the frame 
Buochus, and diminishing the superstitious fears connected 




with hie name, grew, I think, that pleasant intorlude in tho 
present drama, where tho win<>-god, instead of oombating the 
ludiuTi Doriades, tho Thracian Lycui'gus, or tUo Thebaii Pen- 
theus, has merely to battle with an army of Frogs ; and to this 
interlude a little attcDtion ia due, not only from the promi- 
nent plac« which it occupies in the <irama itself, but from 
tho difficulties which commentators have encountered in ex- 
plaining, why thiH extra-chorus (wa/jaxo/jijyrj/ia) found its way 
into tho piece at all, and why and when the Frogs selocted^ 
as they acknowledge themselves to have done (infr. 204, sq.), 
tho Qhyim festival for one of tho fullest exertions of their 
tuneful voices. The latter part of the question will oblige us 
to say a few words respecting tho periods of scenio entertain- 
ments at Athens ; but in doing this we shall endeavour to be 
as brief as possible. 

Leaving graver authorities to settle this business in a more 
learned <liiiauner, we may observe geuorally, that most of the 
difficulties of tho Aristophanie Comedy will bo solved by tho 
establishment of three Diojiysiao festtvalH : — the vintage-feast 
(ri icar dy/)ovs), tho wine-press foaet (A^fata), and the spring- 
festival, called by preeminence to. Atoinitna. Leaving the 
residents in tho Attic metropolis to get through as they can 
the Bummer-inanthn and the greatest part of the autumnal, 
(and considering how hot tho work generally was in the ecclesia 
and courts of law, tliat work, when a thcnnomcter would 
Imve stood at 'i2^f, must have been one of no small thaw 
and dissolution,) tlio conclusion of the latter was forwarding 
an event, which, conaidering the ardent passion of the Athen- 
ians for rural occupation and delights (Thucyd. IT. 15. 16.), all 
must liave been looking forward to with intense interest. This 
was the ingathering of grapes, and, if we may be allowed such a 
term, the \intago-home which followed. At this period Athens, 
we may venture to affirm, was, with some few exceptions, which 

^ Sfe an article on this nibject in the PhtlologicfU Museum, of which it U only 
iMOOMary to say, tliat it b«ar» the initials C. T. i*) tmntire fnr it the decpewt attention. 
' Seo onr Kquli. p. is 7. 



shall elaewhcro specify, almost deserted. Tin* grcftt landed 
prietors were naturally upon thoir estates, superintending 
labours in which thoir future inoomos were so materially con- 
j earned — the occupiers of farms wem equally engaged — and in 
^^ho festivities which followed, those who luul neither fanns 
^Ht»r estates naturally quartered themselves upon the friends and 
^Hdatives who liad one or both. And what festivities occompa- 
^^Dod or succeeded this first great feature of Dionysiac rites ? 
I Pnwessionfl to and from the wine-god s temples — phallic hymns 
I (Acham. 261.) — uuiskings — mummorios — KoJ/xot (whatever 
their nature) — leaping on skins (Plut. 1129.), and other such 
recreations may bo allowed at will — but no scenic exhi- 
bition can, I think, be admitted. We road indeed occasion- 
ally of provincial theatres at Phlius, Rrauron, or other places, 
but these I imagine could hy law only be openo<l at the two 
periods, when the state was provirling theatrical entertainments 
io the metropolis, and were merely meant to supply with 
on inferior entertainment such of the actual inhabitants of 
those places, or the ricinity, as from incidental circumstances 
ooold not find their way to the capital. How long after the 
■ofanl festivity of the vintagf^home had ceosod, a residence 
in the countr)- was protracted, would depend of course on 
privnto circumstances : but the next great phaKis in Diony- 
■AC events — that which commemorate<{ the pressing of the 
gmpofl — was faat approaching; and as at this period the 
State </'W furnish theatrical entertainments, the latest lingerers 
in rural abodes would now bo for returning to the metro- 
pofti. The hospitalities lat<»ly received would of course 
be repaid by invitations to town-enjojTnents — the more 
!-naturo4l adding — '* And don't forget to bring the young 
with you : the girls will find much to interest them 
m the new tragedies, and it is time that your eldest boy 
took his first lesson in politics at the comic theatre, and 
began to know our pubHc men. As to accommodations — 
osr bonao is not ao scanty, but wo can find a hole or coroor 
tlkem all; or if not, lodging-room is to l>e haA in abun- 




danoc till the Spring-festival brings our friends bi^ond sea to 
join us." Of thia second Dionvsiac festival, and the soonic 
entertainments which accompanied it, wo shall content our- 
solves with obscnnng, that taking plac<? in the earlier part of 
the year, when the state of the weather rendered travelling by 
sea dangerous or impracticable, theatrical spectators consisted 
almost exclusively of natives of Attica. (Acham. 504) 

But a spring-sun and the * festival of flowers* (Anthestoria) 
bi'ouglit with them the third of the Dionysiao festivals, when 
the wine lately cellared had to be tapped and drunk : and 
wore natives only to share in this joyous occasion I The seas 
were now open, and strangers and deputations were pouring 
in from all parts of the world, the latter to bring contri- 
butions from the allied and tributary states, the former to be 
repaid for hospitalities previously dispensed in tlioir own 
countries, all eager to bo paitakers in the theatrical exhibi- 
tions, now unuauoUy splendid, and not a few anxious to carry 
back to native frionds sucli intelligence as they could pick 
up in the comic theatre as to the state of parties, and the 
general aspect of political affairs, in this dominant Queen of 
Greece, The PiiTeus for days previously, wo may imagine 
to have been crowded with anxious expectants and inquirers, 
presenting a far livelier ajjpeai-ance than that which wo endea- 
voured to dejjicturo in a former play, (Equit. p. 186.) "That 
bark e^raes from Sicily," cries one, " and brings, 1 trust, my 
friend Eugoiuon, and — a specimen of Sicilian cheese with hini." 
'* 1 cannot be miatalcon in the cut of that sail," exclaims 
another ; *' it comes from no place but the shores of Ionia, 
and if it has my kuisman Polycles and his five children on its 
deck, it has also, Fll bo sworn, a fine piece of Persian tapestry 
{7ra^aTr<Ta/T^a) iu its hold.*^ '' Ah .'" rejoins a third, " it is de- 
lightful to see distant frionds on these occasions, and particu- 
larly when they do not come empty-handed. I can surmise 
where yon heavy cask is going, and whoX arc its contents. Ex- 
cellent Evander ! but he shall find our Pramnian at least a 
match for his Lesbian !" Nor wore statesmen and demagogues 



lout tbeir iroublee or their joys on such oecaaions. '* And 
this the whole tribute which those accursed Andrians ha\'e 
brought,"" exclaiiua the infuriated Archedemus or Cloophon 
of the day, " five talents, whon the state-neods require fifty I 
'ould a T}T>hooa were in my hands, that 1 might sink them 
id tljeir beggarly inland to the bottom of the sea I But m 
even with the scoundrels yet ! But here come the Chian 
»uti6«. Excellent men ! they rarely fail me in their contn- 
ttions ; or if thoy do fall short, an extra deposit of their ex- 
lent beverage is sure to find its way into my private 
ira !** But trouble at theso periods rested only with statc- 
inetionaries ; wine-tasting and wine-bibbing — embracing of 
friencb present, and inquiries after friends absent —play-going, 
and a determination neither to be hungry nor » sober for two 
whole days, occupied all the rest of the world of Athens. 
And what became of the third and hist day of this festival ? 

Strong contrasts form a great featuro in Athenian chamcter, 
and the change from the last day in Carnival to the first of 
Lent in Roman Catholic countries cotild hardly bo more 
striking than that from tht) first two days to the third of the 
Anthesteria. If the first two belonged to the living, the third, 
OB we collect from a passage of ThcopompuH preaervoii by a 
< .Scholiast on the Frogs, as exclusively belonged to the dea<l ; 

PliC I heg. 6j)7, h. xaXht T^^ayri 9^ Top^ rots ^fier4poij irtoiitois vaeav ^tfca- 
riftf irSXiv vfp} t& AiomJvia t*M06owTay. An vntlre city dnitik ! Afb^tlier a 
ipectmJetook place iu Peraian towns on the return uf ihu Mitlinis-fe&tiviil, 
(• fc«tivul which appcATtio have hornu •urae similarity to that of the Grecian lbu> 
dnui^) 1 cannfit say t on fiich ncmsions, huwover, thu Ptfrsiau tiKmurch 5«enu to 
h*re been tkiQitidenHl m religiniiUy bound to drink lo iutoxicatiDn, and ptfrfumi 
Uw BatiMial dancv- Cr. Syrnli. I. 732. 

* Xvrp»t iap^ wop '/i^rmiotf ytyyattitnj r^ ^tovvctp ^trot 8« iro^i rauTf]*' 
▼^ wTUU'. 4k*' vol 6*i^(i^Tui iKjiOrrm. •ypdn^uty othttr *'' itatTM$iKras ovv roiix ofSfHu- 
«apf, §**p /MppifffEU' V}iip<i, ^v To<^< of^iAari Wftoauyopfvcat Kai tV iopr^y aira 
««r. twrtra B^fuf ainoU t6oi rvr fiir 'OAvfAWiuP BtAy ovSffl rb wdtpawar, 'Kfin^ S^ 
X^iarCy xral rij* X^P^r h** •^ouffi irdtTtt icotA •H)r ir^Ajt^, obStU yturrcu t£p Itpdwp. 
8* iroMnNTi r^ 7)M^P?> "^ '^"^^ ^^* mpaytvofiirovs vnip t»k tfoy^rrwK l\d- 
T^ 'Ep^^y.*' ivhul. ad Kan. Knr Crcuzer'* explanntion of thin ningiilnr 
ly, Hw hi» i^jinlKilik n>.^7Rt>ui> Much li^bt might, I lliitik, Iw thrntvn 
Mihjt*rt fmni tli« Kacrvd Kmircus lii which we vrcixt for otlier expliiiiii- 




and if the people of Attica pampered their own bodies, or thoso 
of their visitors on the first two days, tho third called upon thorn 
to offer up prayers for the repose of souls departed ; the festival 
itself bearing the name of Chytnc, from tho pot« containing 
the Boods or shell-fruits, which on this solemn occasion were 
offered to the Herm^ CfUhonius, The reader yn\\ of course 
conclude, that on such a day aa this, all theatrical entertain- 
ments were at an end ; and in sut^h a conclusion he will be 
partly right and partly wrong. How this is proved, and what 
concern tho Frog^C'liorus of thoprosont drama has in tho mat- 
ter, are both points to which we aro hastening as rapidly as 
we can. 

In the work callod " the Lives of the Ten Orators,"" and 
which bears the name of Plutarch as its author,ono of its biogra- 
phical notices is devoted to tliat oxcvUeut orator, financier, and 
statesman, tho Attio Lycurgus, a statesman who will not be 
thought less excellent by scholars^ because among other public 
c^ros ho did not think it his least concern to jiay attention to 
affiiira of tho theatre. A mong other anecdotes recorded of this 
eminent person, we find one to the following effect — ^Ixrqv^yKt 
hk KoX tofiovs, Tov TTtpi rwv Koffja^brnv iiy&va rots Xirrpoir ^7rtr<- 

yta-Oai, trp^rtpov ovk i(^v^ avaXa^Avtav tov ityuva (KkeXoiirdTa 
( Wyttenb, Ed. IV. 253,). From this, in spite of some general 
obscurity, three things may, wo think, bo pollcctcd ; first, -that 
though not usual to act plays at the festival of the Ch^'tne, 
an exception to that general rule had been made on some 
particular occasion: 2dly, that after a time the practice was 
discontinued : and 3dly, that tho practice was again revived 
by Lycurgus. With the last two matters wo shfdl not fur- 
ther trouble ourselves, except to say that the revival most 
probably grew out of that increasing fondness for theatrical 
enteilainnifntfl which prevoUed about the time of Lycurgus 

lions uf Diouyamc fi«tiva]ii, but in the nbacncc? of buoks necessary to bo oonmlted 
on Uie m;Uter, I forbear to state my own opinions here. On die orthography of 
the wonl CliyCne, see Pms. in roc. 



and hia contemporar}* Demosthenes, and to which the states- 
men of the day, as every tyro knows from the speeches of the 
jr, were obliged to give way, to tho serious detriment of 
ber branches of the public service. Our more particular 
with tho iirat of these three ; and on this our Frog- 
>ni8, who have been kept so long in attendance, and whom 
nmy apf»ear to have forgotten, may bo made, I tliink, to 
id no small assistance. From some general language used 
them in their well-known choral ^ h}nnii, I think it may 
eonclude^l that the first deviation from the custom of ab- 
lining from theatrical entertainnionts on the festival of the 
lytne took place in t"ho year preceding] that on which the 
♦^Ranffi" was acted; an(l,8eoondIy,fnnna particular word which 
they use, (but on that point we speak less detiideiily,) it seems 
no unfair inference, that the deviation took place in honour of 
that religious event, which having given tlie wine-god BuccIiuh 
new advance in the sacred rites of the country, it wiis deter- 
dned to celebnite an additional tlieatrio ent^^rtainment in 
^moratiou of the event. Lest both of these theories 
should fail, tho reader has been provided with a different 
Epianation of the text in future notes upon the passage, and 
itis at all t'ventfl has two ditFerent explanations between 
which to make liis choice. But to come to the establishment, 
if poeiuble, of our Brst opinion. 

The Comedy of the " Frogs" itself was, as we know 
the didiwcaIi£e,performed at a wine-press feast (Aijt'aia), 
and in Uie arehouBhip of Callias. In that archonship, ac- 
ig to a notice of Aristotle preserved by a scholiast on tho 
F^ttga,** a great change took place in the exhibition of plays 
tbc spring-festival, — that festival) which, as we observed, was 
the splendour of its eutei'taiimient^, the influx of strnn- 
and other circumRtances, emphatically called rd Aio- 
nJoio,— the e^ipenses for each tribe, instead of falling as they 
had hitherto done on a single person, being then for the firvt 
made to devolve on two. (Schol. M yovv tov KctKXiov rov- 

(• 8cc Appendix, p. M>K 
h 4 



Tov tfnurlv ^AfnaroriKrjs Sn avvbvo (ho(( yoptjyetv Ta ^tovvaia 
row Tpayifbois Koi «Dfta)8ots.) And why wajB this ? Because, 
say the commentators, no single person was found able to 
encounter the expense ; and as a proof of tliis they point to 
the torn robe and tattered shoes worn by the Choral Troop 
in the " Frogs" of Aristophanes. Now unless Aristophanes 
furnished the expenses of that piece himself, — which, consider- 
ing his rank, and that the play had been brought out not in 
his own name, but that of his favourite actor Philonidcs, is 
not impossible, — was it hkely that ho should have mode such 
a reflection on the (rhoregua or person wlio furnished the gene- 
ral expenses of the piece, or that this latter, who must have 
known every single word which the drama contained, would 
have allowed such a sarcasm against himself to have gone forth 
to the public ; a sarcasm, wliich from the nature of Attic 
maimers might prove of serious consequences to hint, and which 
sarcasm could easily bo avoided by an outlay of a few extra 
minrc ? The nature of the Choral costume had nothing, as I 
have endeavoured to shew in the following notes, to do with 
the parsimony or liberality of the choregus, but grew entirely 
out of a religious feeling, founded on certain national customs. 
This mode of explaining the observation of Aristotle seems 
therefore untenable. The observation itself, it will be per- 
ceived, is of a goneral nature ; applying, it may be, but I think 
not, to the archonfthip of f lallias only, but certairJy only to the 
spring-festival of that archontthip, consequently to the festival 
next posterior to that on which the ' Frogs' was performed. 
^Vhat then is our own inf(*rence from all this ? Not that in 
the archonship of Callias it became necessary to appoint two 
persons to perform the office of choregus, because one was 
incompetent to its expenses, but because either in the archon- 
ship immediately preceding that of Callias, or in one not long 
anterior to it, an additional day of theatrical entertainments 
had been for the first time introduced at the Chytrse, and 
which having been conducted with unusual pomp, and that 
pomp likely to be renewe<l on the following spring-festiva] 


ex XI 

it was thought that the expense should fall on two persons 
insteftd of one. 

But why were the Frogs to take such umbrage at thie'extra- 
Bacchonal representation i — why were their protesting voices 
TWed against it on the preceding year's Chytrse, as the lan- 
guage of their choral hymn intimates, or why do they manifest 
m continued hostility to the innovation, by raising such a violent 
faubbub about the wine-god, the moment ho seta foot in 
GfaaroD''8 boat! Premising first that the Achcrusian lake of 
the lower world is in this play but a representation of the 
A(tir<u, or raarshcJ5 of the upper world — a species of commuta- 
tion which runs through the whole of this drama — we answer, 
tlmt whether the matter be considered on local or religious, 
and we might even perhaps add on political grounds, the pro- 
ceeding was alike natural and justifiable. The ''' Marshes^ 
were, aa the Frogs themselves declare, their r^fifwy, their 
nored and exclusive domain, into which, at the celebration of 
Bttochio mysteries, no foot of man, if our preceding thfory 
be correct, had a right to intrude, and that of woman only 
once in the ^^year, and then at the silent hour of night. And 
why BO ? Because in thoso marshes stood that ancient temple 
of Bacchus, whore those secret rites, which have cost ourselves 
and the nwuler such a world of trouble to investigate, were 
exclusively performed, and under such peculiar circumstances 
lui we \\a\v just explained. Was it unreasoniible then tlmt tho 
.** Frogs^ should shew irritation, when, instead of a night-solem- 
ity, conduote<l by the female sex, the whole ciumniuuity of 
ktliens were to be let in upon them for the entire day, the 
le part reeling under the effects of the two preceding days** 
unities (of. infr. 2lQ.) { Again : in that ancient ti'mplo stood 
a pillar, probably as ancient, forbidding that any innovation 
lould be made in the national « religion. Was it no viola- 
in of this injunction that scenic performances Hhould be 

• Ibid. loc. dc 


ex XII 


celebrated on a day hitherto devoted to a more soloma pur- 
pose, viz. to the celebration of a sort of moas for the repose of 
depart^ souls t Wo must not. we suppose, speak of the moo- 
arclncal institutions of the Frogs, (though every reader of 
Homer knows that such waa their form, of government,) and 
observe that this extension of democratic license could hav« 
been any thing but satisfactory to them ; but wo ask, could 
they on religious grounds be insensible to what was passing, 
even had those religious feelings been of a general nature, and 
not founded upon a conviction that here at least the intereets 
of religion and morality were, as they ever ought to be, closely 
blended I What were the rites performed by the ladies of 
Attica in this ancient temple of B^vochus, has never transpired ; 
that they were any thing but what the learned Oreuzer has 
supposed them, the declaration of Herodotus with respect to 
practices of Egyptian women on a similar occasion (II. 48.) 
— the hints thrown out in the Impudent but Mitty scenes in 
the Arifitophanic V Thesmophoriazusse — and still more the 
bitter invectives made by the early Chinstian Fathers against 
practices observed in the Eleuainian rites — practices, which 
could not have taken place we think until the secret worship 
of Bacchus liad been united with the secret worship of Ceres, 
and what had hithei*to been confined to tlie female sex waa 
now made common to both — will easily allow us to suppose. 
Now none, from local situation. \voi*e more likely to know all 
this tlian the Frogs, and under such a combination of feelings, 
personal, political, and religious, is it matter of wonder, that 
when the Marnli-Tenants found this enemy of thoir own State 
as well as the Athenian, within thoir power, a demand should 
be made for a further exertion of their tuneful voices, the 
whole of that call and its answer beariug to the ears of the 
audience something like the following parapJirastio sense — 

> As far Dfl the tt'ine-driiikinj;, char^'ed agiiinsC the Auic lodios in thooe 
hcent rite* is (jonccnify!, (whliJi rites, however, are not lo be ooufuundcd with 
Itacchic,) cf. Kurip. Bacch. 33 1, sq. 



in b 

*' This Sb not the Erst timo that our voices have been raised 
agmnst this intruder on our ]ake ; and when and why waa 
that first protestation made ! It wa^ at the last yearns eele- 
braiion of the Chjtnc festival : on that ocoasion the whole 
bodj of the Attio pooplc^ instead of the solemnities usually 
obflerred on that sacred day, chose to (livort- themselves with 
amusements, straining their drunken throats in 
of the Nysean Bacchus : but did wo give into such hete- 
ox novelties ? Not we : we are of another school, and abide 
the old institutions of the country : while others therefore 
outed nothing but * Bacchus/ our voices were raised ex- 
vely for ' * lacchus ;' and our larynxes, the gods be 
thanked, being yet what they were, we will manifest the same 
opposition to this mischievous wine-god, now that we have 
him below ground, as we did when we had to encounter him 
abore ground !" How well this promise was kept, that fip€K€~ 
ff«re^, icooLf, Koof, which has almost passed into a proverbial 
expression for the extreme of fun and humour, remains in 
^oof. The Frogs are of course worsted in the combat, the 
neoQBsity for the poef s gaining the good-will of his audience 
in his opening scenes, before the two serious objects which he 
d in view, were fully disclosed — viz. that of preserving the 
ity of Eleusinian rites as much as possible still unhurt, and 
that of pbcing i^schylus as their decided partisan at the 
h«id of the theatrical profession, in opposition to Euripides 

■ TIm votgU oil which this cnnstmctUm m ventured ak the foUowing : fioikr . . . 
\f ^t»^ Nvc^iov I Atii AuirvffoP Vr | AifUfaiffvUax'ttrafuv, Pnatow, nfter oIk 
Mrriog thAl Mx*'*'* '° a transitive sense, MgniRea frschaUtn tauent ertDntn Uuten, 
tMtf th»t u irt its denrntinii, it apparently is (ttrmed from the word l^ Ihf voice, 
snd b ocmnccted with fox^w. 'Icutyoi, 'Icutx^v 'i^{v< ^X^- ^> ^<* words Ai&t Aici- 
nxTM' wottldhore be pronouitccd with an ironical Rneer, ao a tone of resijN^rL wotild 
bv thnvim into the word iaxh^^ft**} or, as a writer in the Quarterly Review (IX. 
Jl6i) lumitl) th« won] ought to be read, ttucxt\eativr. Thnc verbs Alluding to 
the god laoohns wef« not unknown to the Oreek language appears Croai the parti- 
c^Ib ArH^vx^tf^u in the Sept, c. Tbeb., which BlomAeld {Oloaa. p. 163.) rexuleiv 
tiw iaoehe ! (We have taken the liliorty of rulapting the i>{>enlrig Iiii4<ft of a 
of this ChoruH, borrowed from tlie Quarterly Renew, and inaerted in 
ApporMtiT, to tbft view hart lakea of their meaning.) 



who 8tood at tho head of tho Bacchic faction — peijuiring 
that tl)e triumph should bo awarded to the wine-god. With 
ono further ppef^imon of tho poefs judicious mauageraent in 
tho attainmorit of thcBo two objects, we Hhall close our preeent 
remarks, apologizing, and wo cannot do it too strongly, for 
tho length to which thoy have carried us. 

Tho critical obsemitiona made by AristophaneB through so 
much of the text of tho *^ Frogs,"" upon the subjects, the 
characters, tho metro and tho diction of the jEschyle^n 
writings, will render it necessary in the following notes to 
bring tho whole of those writings continually before the 
rea<ler"'8 eye, and more particularly that noble Trilogy, in 
which tho dark destinies of the house of Atreus are involved. 
It will be found, however, that while attention is continually 
and necL'Sfiarily CAlied to tho *^ Agamemnon" and " Choe- 
phonr'^ of that Trilogj-, little or no occasion occurs, till tho 
closing scene of tho " Frogs,**^ for directing attention to the 
** Kumenid(\'*,'" or final piece of the Trilogj' ; the poet, for some 
reason or other, obviouHly avoiding all allusion to that drama. 
Whence and why this resen'e I If there is any di'ama of anti- 
quity extant, on which Aristophanes miglit have been sup- 
posed to have formed his own dramatic character, and on 
which, had chronological data allowed us to havo supposed 
him pi-esent at its original representation, wo should have said 
unhesitatingly, that his whole dramatic character, moral, poli- 
tical, and religions, had been formed, we should havo named 
the '* Euinenides" as that very play, the whole of the Arist-o- 
phanic Comedy being, as it were, but a running commentary 
on that noble performance. The same dislike to change in 
existing laws and institutions (Eum. 663.)^tho same wisli to 
proserve the Attic blood >vithout mixture of foreign and adsciti- 
tious infusion (664.)^the same desire to steer the political bark 
between the extremes of despotism and anarchy (500, 666.) — 
tho same keen sense of tho value of that reverential feeling {rb 
htLvbv), which by maintaining authority parental, preceptorial, 
and magisterial, forms the best safeguard of states (668.) 



— all these form but a eniaU part of the close identity in modoa 
uf thinking between these two extraordinary men. Doth 
had 8oen (-^schylua of course imperfectly, the couiie poet, 
from the later period at which he lived, too elearly) that the 
effect of the pohtieal eliangeH in Athens was to throw nil 
essential power into the dioasteria, or courts of law, and 
that theeo would come to be ewayed, not by a acnse of right 
and «Tong, but by a Reductive eloquence — both had ol> 
red tliat the only clianco of keeping democracy within any 
bounds of safety lay in the uiaiuteuauee of that court of 
Areopagus (674.), wliich demagogues and agitators were of 
equally auxieus to degrade or destroy — and as the 
writer had had practical experience of those internal 
18, which neceesarily follow political disorganisation, 
which Utcrally made Athens " a stage to feed contention 
00," 00 the tragio writer evidently foresaw that such results 
nmst ensue from tlie progress making towards demooratic 
power (833. sq. 935.) oven in hia own day. In religion as in 
politics, as far at least as general preference of old to new 
divinities went, the Hame similarity of feeling is evident be- 
tween the prince of tragic and the prince of comic poets ; 
and the question therefore again occurs, why no direct allu- 
«oD is made by the latter to that almost n»asterj)ieee of 
i£ichylcan composition, to wliich from all the foregoing cir- 
onnwtanoes we might have expected to see allusions the most 
frequent and the most pointed ? We must candidly own that 
we can find no adequate solution to the diHiculty. That 
■ome deep offence, political or religious, or both, had been 
pven by the tragic poet in this particular drama, seems clear, 
IS well from the guarded silence of Aristophanes i-espocting it, 
as from the fact, that after tlie exhibition of this Trilogy — to 
whieli, however, (and that forma another difficulty in the 
ooonderfttion of the subject) the first prize of victory w;is 
iMgned — ^tho poet left his native country, never to return to 
it ftgmin. Among the more common opinions on the subject, 
one is, that t^> this play wo are to look for that offence com- 



inittod by .-Eschylus in regard to ElcuHinian Mysterioa, which 
hEis been mentioned by ancient writora as haWng nearly oosfc 
him his life. But it is obsorvnblo, that whilo Eustathius men- 
tions not less than five (' dramaa of JEschyluH, in whicli a 
similar offence hod been committed, not a word is said about 
the '* Eumenides," nn having mibjectcd the poet to a similar 
charge. Ha\nng discussed much of this matter, however, in 
another iplace, wo content ourselves here with saying, that if 
it was in truth some ungnardofl language respecting Eleu- 
sinian worship which drove the poet into exile, the place 
selected by liim for passing the remainder of his days seems 
to have been chosen not without some view to those feel- 
ings which Aristophanes evidently considered as a rulisg 
element in the dramatic character of iEsohylus. The beau- 
tiful island, where tradition had consecrated bo many spots as 
connected with the very origin of Elousinian Myst-eries, must 
havo fiu-nishod abundant materials for the poet^e contempla- 
tion on matters which liis family connexions must have made 
familiar to him from his very birth ; and at the court of 
the Sicilian Hioro, the munificent patron of literature gene- 
TMlIy, and the more particular friend of ^schylus, the latter 
could perhaps speak and write of those mysteries with a 
freedom and safety, which were not to bo commanded in his 
own country, where, as in most other democracies, the boasted 
name of liberty by no means ensured the real possession 
of it. 

With regard to the drama itself, out of which the proced- 
ing observations havo grown, it remains only to add, that the 
caution, tact, and ekill, with which it was coinpot^ed, had such 
results aa might bo expected from an Attic audience. A 
second representation of the piece, was, contrary to usual 
practice, loufUy called for ; while the partisans of the new or 

V AoNci 7^ AiVx^Uof \4ytw ftmnucd rim (p re Tott To^Arurt koI 'IfpcftuT nil 
rfr Xitn^y wtTf/OHv\urr§ koI iw 'I^i^cfcff koI iv OtS/iroJi. i» T^p Tourotr irturi trtpX 
ArttilfTpat KiytMr twk /uM7Tucwr/|Muv wtpupy&rtpov ArrttrOai fiHK*. p. 4O. a. 

1 Appendix (F.) 




Earipidean school were eo utterly confounded by its galling 
•atire, that, if I do not carry too far the declaration of an 
aodent Scholiast (Han. 67.), a eon or nephew of Euripides 
appears to have undertaken a revision of his great relative''8 
dramas, and to have subsequently brought them on the stage 
in a form less subject to Aristophanic ^^ ridicule. That the 
poet*a religious object in the composition of this pioce was 
equally successful, the subsequent obnervationH of the Fathera 
of the Christian Church \vill not allow us to suppose. 

The 6r»t thrw wlecterl for the purpou were the Alcmwon, the Itucchir, and 
the Iph. in AuL That these were not new playB, but rifaccJmenti of fanner 
dmcM,tee Doeckh'a PrincGr. Tr. 2i7,sq. Of thechnngesintrodticcdintotheni, 
remarkable was the abitractiDn of the prologue to the Iph. in Aul. in 
of the ofenrhehning ridicule poured by Ariitophaiiei otx what Euri. 
evidently oon«iderad a distinguubed feature in his dramatic composiiious. 









X0P02 MTZTilN. 










. Tlie openings scene discovers the stage to be in possesaion 
of two persons, the one on foot, the other mounted on an ass. 
The 6rat is the wine-god Bacchu*; ; the second is the god's half- 
friend, balf-lacqucy, Silenus, here styled Xanthias, Thctivo travel- 
lers are on their way to the temple or palfice of Hercules, (which 
18 seen in the back-ground, and must probably represented the 
U(ier'<t temple at MeliteJ to inquire of him the nearest road to 
Hades, from which the god of v\-ine and dramatic poetry prepares to 
bring back the bard Euripides, recently deceased. The personal ap* 
pemrance of Bacchus having been fully explained in the Introduc- 
tory matter, it remains only to add, thut the Joint ideas of rotun- 
dity and rubicuudity there attached to him, arc In be considered as 
carried out to their fullest comic effect in the attendant Xanihias. 
If the master's face waa roseate with witie, tfmt of the muii was of 
a deep fiery red, (infr. 299.): if roundness, fatness, and oiliness 
vere the elements of the Bacchic figure, the Silenic Xanthias 
come« before us with. a protuberance of paunch, which " like a 
|>tttering-ram might shake the press before him." (inf. 192. 186.) 
A few words on costume, and we have done. That of the ivine- 
god presents a most ridiculous contrast. His shoes and robe 
are those of a female ; over the latter, however, is thrown the 
lion's »k»n of Hercules, while the stout club of that truly Grecian 
demi'god is borne in his hand. Tlie dress of Xanthina is of little 
eonsequence ; but attention must be directed to the pole (amt^pni') 
which he carries over his shoulder, and to which is attached the 
bcd-furnitiire (oT^jw^ara), and other travelling-equipage of his 
nnster. Having thus excited expectation as well by his Xanlhias- 
Silenus. as by his half-Ba<-chu3, half-Alcides, (whether expectation 
was still further excited by the apparent conversion of the orchestra 
into the Acberusian lake, will be a subject for fiiturc considera- 
tioD.) tbe poet allows ibc former (after a few shiftings of his ofa- 
^opim) to commence the dialogue as follows. 

lb. «Mr«», nunf I. tfuiU I say ? subj. dubitntive (M^ch. Ag. 205, 
rvf Xiinfiui'i yivm}tm\) or interrogative. The Tragedians abound with 


4<f> 019 aei yeXma-Lv ol dedifievoi ; 

AI. vr^ TOP Ar, o ri jSouAct ye, ttX^p " nU§ofiai" 

TOVTO Sc (f>v\a^€U' iraw yap ior TJ8r] x^^'?* 

SA. ii-qS erepop oxtthop ri ; AI. ffA^yi/ y*, coy " ^A/'- 

^ofxai" 5 

SA. r/ Sa/; to ttopv yiXotop ehrtox AI. pt} Ala 

Oappwp y' iK€LPO puopop aira>9 p-^ V^Jp* SA. to ti ; 

examples of the latter : a few are here selected, il^sch. Ag. 1468. 
<l>p€y6s €K <f>ikias Tt iroT cur«» ; Choeph. 82. irS>s tlkfipov* ctir«» ; 842. Z«D, 
Zev, TI XryflD ) Soph. (£)d. Tyr. 364. ttrrw n d^ro koXX*, c/ ofyyi{jj trX/ov ; 
Eurip. Suppl. 303. rtira) rij retcvov^ troi re Koi fn$Xn KtAiv ; OresL 1 54. 
ran rvxav <i7ro> ; Cf. infr. 6. 268. 30 1. 589. 1099. 1 194. 

lb. eia66Tav, Attice pro tMuriUvww. £urip. Here. F. zio8. 

aa^pSts yiip oAdey oVia ruv wloBvrwv. Hec. 358. oitK tttoBos Sp. Plat. Apul. 
37, b. thy cV r^ flaB&ri rpvir^ tovs \6yovs vowfitu. Eupolis ap. He- 
phaest. 132. (ed. Gaisf.) tl»$6s r6 Ko/t/iortoy rovro. 

2. (^' oU.,ytKwnv. j£ach. Eum. 530. 7«X^ dc dat/uiy cir' avdpi 
Btpfi.^. (sic Scholef.) Soph. Electr. 880. nnr^rotp | traur^p JcoKouri, xoirt 
roir tfuns ytX^t ; 

3. vu^OfMU. ^sch. Choeph. 343. roiis d* mruptftantaiUvow j i^orts 
iTic^fi Xi/M$$. Eurip. Alccst. 917. tn>fi/it>op^ irtpovs irtpa irK'^cc Sthen. 
fr. 11. 2. vov$€Tovfifvos ipws ftSKKoM irf<C«i. (As Bacchus utters the 
word irUCofuu, he puts his right hand to his left shoulder, and 
mimics the manner of a person pressed by a heavy burden.) 

4. rovro <l>v\a(ai^ ah hoc cave, Thibbsch. .£sch. Choeph. 911. 
tj>vka^t fjofrpht iyKimvt Kvpas, Eurip. Iph. A. 989. <re <^Xd^tr$tu xpt»p. 

lb. iravv yap iar* ifdrj x^^V* ^^ ^ "V^P 9"'^ ^^^ Ekel ; it is a matter 
0/ absolute loathing to me. Pass. Dobree refers to Cratinus ap. 
Athen. XIV. 638. e. Tic Sp tpanrd it oidtv, m Tw^enanr*', ^ woWg 
XoX§ K. r. i, (Bacchus pauses between his adverb and substantive, 
to imitate the act of a person sickemng,) Thiersch reads o^oX^. 

5. pxfV h-tpov doTcufv n ; connexion : jcnl ^Xaicr^y. iiww tv fii^ iT€' 
pop dartUp ri <^pafip^i poi ; Thixr. infr. 864. iarttSp ri Xiytuf. 87 1. 
eurrtta €p*ip, 

lb. iki^fuu. Aristoph. Thesmoph. Sec. fr. 8. &v dcayt roCro roff- 
fro( o^ 6vvafuu KJKptuf { aKtwj roaavra ml r&y J^ftop ffklfiofuu, LystSt. 
316. Soph. Amph. i. ffki^fUprfs rijs Kopdias. Flat. Tim, 6o» c. 
tr4t6dpa 7flXi^* (vp€wa-i r« oMp, Dem. 3 13, 26. ro^ SffMis roij wap- 
ttas ^$kt^p ml inrip Tijt icc^X^s alapiap, Theoph. Cb. ^. rii H M 
T^s yaarp^s tap KoBtvdttp, dfjM ffkifiSfitpos. Lucian. V. 70. jcal BXifiofu- 
POV9 /»4 oyapoKTwtP. (Bacchus here puts his left hand to his right 
shoulder, and mimics the action of a person galled by a weight.) 

7. ^Ktipo p6vop, Thiersch compares Eccles. 359. cVctyo pApa» 
Sa-Korrop, Ijp at roftfru fXiatatp, 6 r< dpaartts wri, 

ft £te Appendix to the editor's Wasps, p. 133. 


AI. ^era^(zXXofi€uo9 Tajfa(fiopov on " X^^T''^^** 

^A. Ti SrJT iSit fu ravra ra aKeuj] (f)€p€ii/y 

uir€p TTOitfiro) fir)dftf (ovTrep ^Ppvvi)(os lo 

tiu>$€ TTOietif Ktu AvKi9 KupifiV^la^ ; 

AI. fo; vvv noirjajj^' cop 4yco dc^/xei/07, 

OTOi' Tt TOITWV rcSi' CrOfplCTfJLaTfDV iScDy 

lb. Jir»f M7 (cafe ne) fp*U, sub. o/jn. Cf. iufr. 598. ^sch. Prom. 
oH. crv d av Karon'rtp, tmv Atuff r* ey^S^yuiv virtp trrtvnt ; Cirotr fi^ trav' 
Tow otrrtrir iror*. Kurip. Here. K. 503. fiiKftu fitv ra tov (iiov' I 
rovrof ft' trtrwf jjdiaTa dunrtptiaart. Bacch. 367. IIcF^evs 8' oirojr /iij 
r<V<9or turaiiFfi iofUMv | Tolff (roifri, Kiift/if. Cycl. 595. aXX* on-bpf aKr;/j 
/©■ri. Plat, Hip. Maj. 286, b. uAX' 5jrwf vap«(rtt KOI avToi Ka\ aXXovt 
S^nt. Mcnon 77, a. aXX' tnratc fi^ ot>;|f olus t' Itrofiai, 

lb. rA T« ; qvidnam'? Cf. infr. 36. : also Nub. 778. Av. 1039. 
PIuL 903. 

8. fLrrta^'Kkoittvos . shifting (from one shoulder to the olhcr). Cf. 
Hetnd. ad llat. in Gurg. 480. e. Kunp. Tr. 101. /ifro^aXXo/if vov 8ai- 
fftorof ttyf;{OV. 

lb. rA iiMi^poi'=awi(^/Hi'r. a pole horiznnlally placed, and in- 
tended to carry a weight. Ecd. 833. 0<'/m trv Trifm/xi/wr <S 
wotr. Id. in Phcenisa. fr. 3. ml rint l^rra fiov | <';youat Km Tuwi<^- 

lb. x'Ct'*"'- (A uligbt but unseemly gesture by Bacchu»( inii- 
BMtes the desire here referred to.) For some ingenious remarks. 
wliy word* which an Englishman shrinks from uttering, find their 
[«ray without ditlicuUy iuto the mouth of a Frenchman, see Mrs. 
ETroUopc's " Paris and the ParisianH." It was not lo be c\pccte<l 
khat tliis highly talented woman sh.->uld have been aware, thnt her 
bmuirks would apply to an ancient Alheninii uh well iis to a modern 
fPkrisian. Trnnslate (if at uU) in the language of our forefathers, 
/ /bfijr lo untrusa me. 

9. crxrCoc. vessel, furniture, utensils of every kind ; as household 
ftimiture. implements for uiir, bag'gasEe, /tc Eurip. Icm. i 193. oi- 
wripa cmwiTj. Plat. 7 Rep. 514, c. (ncrvij ^fpoxrir. Xen. Mem. III. 

B ^, 6. i^tphur rii Tt errpufiaTa ital TtOJka trttrxtf. 

\ 10. II. PbrytiichuH, Lysis, and Amipsias, contemporory comic 
vriterii, (the Ar?(t of the three nut being to be confounded with 
■be tragic writer of that name.) who it appears were in the frequent 
pabit of making mirth for the spectators by the iutrodtictiun of 
ikves bearing weight* and burdens, like Xanthias iu the present 
Iblay. The 6rst of the three writers here named was une of the 
pimbatiuits when " the Frog»" was brought upon the stai;e, and 
■aincd tiic second prixe: the third (Amip9ia>) was victor over 
Krisiopbanes, when the laiter's " Clouds" were exhibited. But 
llhcrc are these rivnJ prrformanceif now ? 

i 13. ffo^ur^urm, inrm/jo/u and cyevrr-nesfe^, (spoken sarcasticnlt) ). 
I B a 


TrAtU' 7] 'piaVTOf 7rp€(Tf3vT€p09 aTTfpxofxcu. 

A A, o) TpiatcoKoSalficou ap 6 TpayrjXos ovroaXy 

oTi OXl^Tcu /X€J/, TO Se ytXoiov ovk epet. 

AI. €iT ovx v^pt-^ tout' iari kou ttoXXtj rpvtprjy 


^Sch. Prom- Vinct. 468. dpt$fi6v,i^x**' trot^itriiarw/, I 4^vpoP. Ibid 
^yH. Tftiavra tiTj)(ayT)^aT t^tvf><i)V ... \ avrix ovk txw tr6<fH<TfA\ oti^ | rijs vvv 
wapoinTijt ntjfiovfjv mrakXayuf, Soph. Phil. 1 4. «V>fc<u rh war (ro<f>i(Tfta. 
Kurip. I ph. Aul. 444. Cart t^v o-otpurfAaTtav \ iroW^ ytveaBm rav *fi&p 
(To^tttTf/Kis-. Bacch. jfC. Kiififinv tro<piafiaTa. lb. 4H9. dUtjr at dovvni 6et 
iro<f>t(rfusT^v xaicwy. Alitiop. fr. XXXllI. 5. ra fcn/i^ aD^V/iara. Cf. 
infr. 8;^6. 1069. 

lb. ido}:=axoi/«#. Cf. infr. 779* 

14. irXr'iv 5- ^^- *nfr- ^4- 

lb. tViat/riW-, a year, also a tyele of years. Cf. infr. 334. " The 
Egyptians," says Warburton (Divine Lck. II. 153. )• " signified the 
year by a serpent circularly turned, with its tail in its mouth. 
The Greek-H railed the year cWvrot, because, according to Plato'i* 
etymology, it returned inui itself; ot ^iv fviavr^v, ori tn iavr^, (in 
Cratylo.) * This latter explanation hati not found much favour in 
the eyes of Inter elymologists. 

lb. iviavT^ iTpetr$(p-fpQs. Sue Matth. Gr. Or. §. 400. S. Dobrec 
compares Sbakspeare's Cyiubeline, 1. 3. Thou heapest a years age 
on me. 

15. rpaxrikot occuTs ID Eurip. Troad. 362. 750. Bacch. 241. 
Cycl. 604. Suppl. 716. but not in the other two tragedians. 

16. '* 6\!^ai.'" Xanthias of course pronounces the forbidden 
word with a stii)ng emphajiiH. 

17. ilr oi>x v$pit ; Plul. 8S3. ap* oii}( v^pu Ttnrr* ttrri iroX^iy ; 
Soph. (Ed. Col. 883. ciAX* ovx ^^P" ^"^i 

lb. Tpifftif. Eurip. Orcst. 11 13. r/n'^r txovira Tpmttdt. Baccb. 
968. rpv^t roinrrHr. Cycl. 584. rv rpf^i; iT«7rw<ora. Alex. fr. XV. 2. 
tti Syav Tpvcfjai, 

18. Atoyvffos. We give two derivations of this name to the stu- 
dent ; the one derived from Socrates, the other from the author c»f 
the Dionysiacs. To the name of Dionysus and Aphrodite, there 
wevo, as the former a.ssiires us, meanings both serious and hu- 
morouH applied by the godH, the gods themselves, according to the 
non of Sophroiii.scus, being of a merry nature (<^(Xoira(V/io)'fr yap itak 
01 5»oi). The serious Mgnifications of the words, the great philoso- 
pher leaves to be learnt from oihera ; their playful import he him- 
self gives; but we restrict ourselves to that of the wine-god. o re 
yap Atovvaot tit} hv 6 dtduvs ritv otmtf, AiBoivvaos iv ira<di^ xaXou/j<iror. 
oitvff 3 , ori oitaBai iravr f;y«tv iroui raur irtv6vT<or tovs noWoi/s ovx *X***'" 
Tor, ol6povf JitKai6TaT Av Kakovptvos. Plat, ('ratyl. 406, d. (AlTC w« 
surprised at Aristophanes speaking in the concluding pari of this 



'Of fiaSi^W KGU TTOPW, TOVTOV S 0)(Q>^ 

p]ay of ibe Socratic aKopatfturfioi X^p^>¥ ?) But how speaks (be 
led Nonnus ? 

Kal fup (CM Apaxo'voio \rj(wov dfiffit KoKuyrjv 
jnpjf*» KoXiTooBiyrt Xa^ojy, Mai^iof 'Epfirjt 
^€p6$ty TTtTTon/To. Xoj^rvo/icVo* &9 Avaia 
warpaijv 4Vf0rjKt» rtrmwfiirjv rorrrolo, 
KuiXtjaxtov Ai6»vtrov^ fVr«i Trudl tfi6prov atipoty, 
ffit )(»\aitwv Kpoyibijs ^t^fH$6ri f^^p^, 
yvvot on yXoxTtrji '^vpaKOircribi j(ta\o( ojcouft. 

Diuuytt. IX. 1 6. 

— Sra^fiov. We must be allowed to suspend this juke 
a while in mid-air, till we cad drop it on the reader in it.s full im- 
port and ricbnesa. The elder and legitimate representative uf the 
Joyouii principle in the Kleusininn rites was, as our prefatory mat- 
ter bax »bewn, a divinity on both sides ; for his father wan a god, and 
bis mother a goddess. The birth of Baccbiis had been less fortu- 
nate; for though the king of heaven was his sire, a mortal woman 
iras his mother. In Athens, where pure bloud on both sides was 
ceasary to constitute a legitimate citizen, pure blood on both 
ides must have been thought necessary to constitute also a legiti- 
mate divinity; and Euripides, pressed by this bfot in his protege's 
escutcheon, had provided in his Bacchie accordingly. Through the 
hole of the play little allusion is made to Semele. but its hero itt 
pr]>ettially paraded as the son of immortal Jove. (i. 27. 42. 
4. 466. 857. 1338. 1340. 1347.) At this piece of dramatic 
ickery the bit in the text is d(hubtless directed, and the action 
u»t be regulated accordingly. At the word vlin, Bacchus draws 
imself up with a lofty air, us if about to lay cluim to the higher 
>rtion of" his birlli — he pauses — chips bis han(ls to his sides — ami in 
tune of voice which brings down roars of lauj;hter — pn>claims 
imself the son of neither more nor less than wjmneheon or a winr- 
it, a proclamation for which the eyes, if not the enrs of the 
udience. had already been prepared in the " tun of flesh," which 
rather than f roe/ the stage before them. For allusions to this 
bt and dark side of Bacchus in the Dionysiacs, according tis 
is fcpokcn of by friends or foes, see wter alia B. XXV. 326. 
X. 56. XLIV. 163-7. XLVJI. 611. The word employed in 
text to stigmatize his mortal origin is found in Lysist. 196. 
tnvov arapviop. 1()9> (fnpirta xiiXuca . . . kqi trrapvwv. Plat. 13* 
{■t. 361, a. c\yov yXvKtof d^dtxa trrapvia. 

It). fiu^i(m, J travel on foot. (Plat. I'hsdr 227, d. toy ^abt(tv iroi^ 
wtptwarop Miyapikfit.) The wine-god's usual mode of conveyance 
iraa a chariot drawn by lions, or **panthers. In the Dinnysiacs, 

* H«Bn in thftl grmt Kacrhic |Hini|i, cvloliraU^ by PuiU'iiiy uf .-VUrxundnii, 

to whMi fraquent reference will !« nuirle in die fallowing iiofi«,) we find 

the atttmaU which figured in lh»l prDdigimin ihow, wapSdlAtif S^kotiV- 

" 3 


SA. oi) yap (()€pQ} 'yw : AI. 7rc5r (()ipfis yap, of y 

huwcver, be is not unfrcquenily represented as travelling on 

xal trrpan^i' rffoirXov. «yfp<rifi66ovt rt yvyatitag 

a^fM>)(tTvu ti(Ji'8r}^t(V cKoi/uitrr, Trr^Ar Adtrrfs. 

L. XX. 297. 
See alito XX. 352. XL. 299. 

H). o^w. ScHOL. (Jx'ic^m irotu, mowi/ him, cause him to be carried. 
Arist. Plot. 10 13. fivanjpiois &« roic /irydAoir o^ou/ifViji' | «Vi rift afid' 
^Tjs. Enrip. Orest. 791 . ii* Aartus at . . iJ;^i}(r». Plat. Plia*do, 85, d. 
*Vi ToiTow 6j(oi:fitvni. 3 f't^SS* ^*99» ^* *'*^^ tKirliot oxovfifvos. For 
uiber instances of the word in Tragic Greek, see vEsch. Prom. 
Vinct. 146. Kurip. Hel. 284. Orcst. 69. 

30. raXnijro)poiTo. (Eurip. Orest. 664. ri di TaXaiwetptiv fu Am;) 
Tu account fur this uppareut violaliun of onv uf Dawes's canona, 
we may suppose a ih(iu;;ht, unexpressed, to have crossed the brain 
of Bacchus, ///irf u7*y mounted I him? Truly, 7va fiij raXatir. m.r.r. 
My a learned writer in the Museum Crilicum (I. 526.), the viola- 
lion is ihus justified. ** If tlie verb denoting the principal act, 
wliile it is true of the prc-sent time which it directly expresses, be 
virluttUy true of the past also in its beginning and continuance, 
the lending vurb may sland in the prc:ient tense, and yet the pur- 
p(fse be tlencjltd by the optative mood." Matlhia: {Gr. Gr. 518. 4.) 
observes, " The optative seems to express that Dionysus had this 
intention wlien first be let Xanlhias mount." 

lb. itx^oi tfytpot. Soph. Aj. 1 1 72. W y av roff ct^^^ fiaatXttov ifjcns 
(fifpiav ; Eurip. Iph. T. 7 ' O- toXX' ti^Koiy TWV ffxto¥ ax0r} Koxiiv, 

2 I. A quibbling piece of dialof:ue on the subject of carrying and 
hi'ing carried liere follows, for wliicU the reader who is fresh from 
our author.s *' Climtls," where Euripides figures as the pnnce of 
sophists, and finds Bacchus fresh from the perusal of Euripides, will 
not come unprepared. Whether the Andromeda, the Euripidean 
drama which bud recently engaged the aiteniion of Bacchus, fur- 
nished any mailer, of which the following dialogue forms a iu)rt of 
parody, it is impossible from tlie few surviving fragments of it to 
determine. Bnt ihis mofic of discussing the matter — now passive el 
J'omtaiiter, as the schoolmen would say. now active et materialiter 
— is not a little amusing, to say nothing of the utier unronscious- 
ne.H8 it exhibits of any spectators being present, and consequently 
giving a greater air of truth to the drama by the absence of dra- 
matic illusion. 

lb. Oi y* OX'* » Gl. Vict. fV vx^finror <^'/>i;. Thiersch justly ob- 

ffapit^ wdr&ijpts S<*r{t({, \uyitla Titrtrapa, Af>Hrt\oi tpthy *ca/i»jAo»ap5aX*j ^/o. Athen. 
V. 30I, r, tkhoen, p. 79. qiiotm aUo Oppiun. C>iicget. IV. ,^3. Philost. inug. 
I. 19. p. 793. Kuducia Viol. p. 120. Noun. IX. 169. liudaur Bocch. III. 76, 


a A. iJHpoyv yt Tavri Al. rlva rpcmov \ SA. /3a^W 

AI. OVKOVV TO ^pOf TQvff , O av (f)€p€l9y 0Vlf09 (JHpei \ 

A A. ov 8i]ff o y t)(<o ^(o Koi (pipo)^ fxa rov A/' ov, 
:AI. 7r<3ff yap <f>€p€LSy 09 y avros vcj) iripov <l>4p€i ; 25 
^A. ovK otS' 6 5' Wjuos" oi/rocrl " TTiej^rai." 
AI. cri) S ovy hruSt] rov ouop ov (f)^^ a oJ^eAeu/, 
fV T<^ fi€p(t av TOP ovov dpapLcvof ^pe. 


I 3 


verves that the interpretation ought 10 have been <V omv, nut <V' 
^/utroc. Lucian (Concil. Deor. IX. 182.) calls Silenus 6 tfnikaKpiis 
yiptM^, vtfutt r^p pifa, rtrt orov to iroXXA o^ovfuvo^, 
33. ravTi. sc. to tTrpoifAara, 

lb. Ti'ro T/Kwroi' ; ** Hacchus Speaks in one sense, Xanthiu under- 

oda in another. The fonncr means : how can yov my that you 

, wh^rf^s you are carried? Xantbiaii replies, as if his muster 

•liked, Ih what way do you carry your burden ? liyhtty, or hea- 


33. ffapot. Eurip. Dacch. 1214. rwsadi fioi, fftipoms A&kwi¥ ^fiof 
T\tp6t'wf. Cycl. 385. Tpi<r<Tuv Ofia^v a>s aytoyifioy ffdpot, 

lb. ouiHx, i. e. 6 Spot. On this ass, which more than any thing 

nnect& Xantbias with Silenus, see some curious remarks by 

uzer (III. 209. aq.) ; also Boeckh's Priuc. Gr. Tr. 199. In 

c great Ptolemaic pomp of liacchus, to which Ave recently re- 

rred, (sup. 19.) Silenic asses occur in the following array. M«tA 

^ rvvTOVt (ToTvpovs sc.) €itoptCovTo uv<o» TXat w/vrt, t<f»* can ^trap lEiXjpfoX 
ml XoTvpoi ttrrt^pay^ptpot, ritv d< Sv6*v ol piv xpvaar, oi Ac dpyvpas wpo~ 
fitTmtridat uu aKtwurios ux^^' Athen. V. 300, e. 

a6. ov« oiS*. The answer Is that of a person baffled by his 
opponent, and not knowing wbure to betake himself. See our 
Nub. 393. where Strcpsiades makes a similar reply, when puzzled 
by the sophistic reasonings of Socrates. See also Soph. Anlig. 
1150. Arist. Plut. 112, and cf. ^Ksch. i\^. 1508. 

lb. m«frra(. Dattied in argument, Xantliias has yet his mode of 
revenge, and accordingly (after a previous shift of the shoulders) 
thnuti intu bis master's face another of those terms which were so 
ttbnoxkuus to him. 

18. 4'p r^ ^*p<i, vicixsim, s. per vices. Lysist. 539. ofrat Sv | <V T-<ji 
jfifuU Ti raU f^Xoitri ovXXu^a/Kv. Eurip. Orest. 44$- itprtXd^ov 
iv ry >««'pn. Plato Conviv. 1 99, n. i>pxiK6yT\<ra rui aur6f cV ry 
fwjpii Jwai^tT»a6ai. .I'Esch. Eum. 1 89. St/a^ "AiroXXov, dyTOKovaop iw 
ftrpft. 414* ^^ vp^s rdd' tlirtiv, cJ ^fv, iv pifHi tfcXrtr ; 55^* ^^^'^ ^ 
ifui^ wpitt riror cV pipit. See also Chocph.** 339. Eurip. Mec. 1 130. 
Suppl. 416. 580. Cycl. 179. Hcracl. 183, Plat. Gorg. 462. a. Cf. 
intr. 465. 

t> WUtn nee K1bU8«i*b nofe. 

8 APirr04>AN0T2 ^^^H]^™ 

SA. ot/iot KOKoSaifjuov ri yap lyia ovk ivca)^\ovv ; 
q rap <T€ KCOKVfiy av iKtXevQv fiaKpa, 30 

AI. Kardfia^ napovpy^, koi yap tyyvs rijs 0vpa9 
rj8rj ^aSi^wv (Ifu Trjo-S\ ol TTpwrd fic ^H 

29. tyaufidxovv, why teas J not at the naval fight, sc. of Arginusie ; 
in which case, iDiimatcs X8nthia.s, I shovild like the other slaves 
*^ embarked fur that purpose have gained my freedom, and might 
then have set you at defiance ? A knowledge nf this combat and 
its consequences is so indispensably necessary for a right under- 
standing of many passages in this plfly> ihat I have not scrupled to , 
borrow very largely from the pages of Miiford, deeply interesting 
as they are on this subject. (Appendix D.) 

"^O. rav^TOi ay. 

lb. tiy . . fw. For instances of this reduplication in Tragic 
poetry, see, iii/er a/ia, .;£sch. Per. 712. Ag, 331. buppl. 751. Soph. 
Uid. Tyr, 140. 339. 446. 602. 857. 1053. CEd. Col. 780. 977, 
Trach. 745. Aj. 1 144. El. 697. Antig. 680. 884. 905-7. 1 156. 
Eurip. Hoc, 359. 960. I 199. 1200. Andr. 77. 307. 936. 8uppl. 
417, 418. 447. 855. Ipb. T. 98. 345. 627. Tro. 961. 985, Hel. 
1017. Ion 222. KL 534. 

lb. Kiurufiv, to howl, or lament. Arist. Eccl. 647. olfi^(oi y &v km 
Ktucvot, ^^ch. Ag. I 2S4. tifu KoaKVfTOva tfiifv lioipQV, i>oph. Ant. 28. 
204. 1302. 

lb. fiOKpa, /or o long time. Lysist. 1222. ovk nnm ; KwKVfr^a-Os 
T&s Tpixas fioicpd, Plul. 6 1 2. Thes. 213. kXativ fuiitpd. PI. ni, Av. 
1 207. oificli^ei. Lysist. 520. ftrtyrv^ta-Bai. (Speaks partly to him- 
self, and partly so as to be overheard by his master; heuce the 
epithet bestowed upon him in the following verse.) 

31. Karafia per apocnpen, \'or koto fiT)6t. Veap. 973, 4. So clff/Sa, 
Eur. Phoen. 200. tiri^a. Ion 167. t/i^n, Electr. 1 13. 

lb. nayovftyot (way, tfryov), prop, a person in a condition to do 
any thing, good or bad ; here, scoundrel, (It is for those conver- 
sant with ihe great French Aristnphtines, to decide how far Aw 
Panurge is derived, not from ihe lacquey, to whom the expressive 
epithet in the text ii* applied^ but the master who applies it. The 
same wit and pleasantry — the same inclination for intellectual en- 
joyments — the same love of good cheer, and other sensual grati6- 
cations — the same boldness when out of danger, and the same 
timidity when in danger, are at all events conspicuous in both.) 

lb. iyyls TT)$ &vpas:. Cf. Pac. 177, ?96. The commentators dif- 
fer as to where this residence of Hercules is to be placed ; at 
Thebes, at Tirymhus, a city of Argolis, or at Melitc, the Attic 

c Xen. Hell, I. 6. 34. O/ S^ 'AtffjMuoi, to yrytyyffidva nol tV woKxo^lay ftrti 
I^Kovacw, d^ht^piffo^o 0cTt$uy vavffly tKarhv koI 8<jca, diT0i$d(uyT«s roi/s iv T)\\mi^ 
uvrai Jirtun-or Kol iov\ov% koX i\tv6Jpov\. 


iSti TpctTTHrdcu. TTcuSiov, irai^ 77^, wau 

HP. Ti9 Ti]if Ovpaif (Trdra^ev ; wf K^vraupiKm^ 

iin}Xaff ooTi^* (Itt^ fioij tovtI ri ^v ; 


aA. to Ti ; 

AI. wr a'<p6Spa fi ^Score, SA. 

f?7 Ata, /xj; /iOi- 

rur^b, U'bere Hercules nas initiated tn the lesser mysleries, and 
rhcre be had a temple. The latter seems the preferable one. Cf. 

Infr. 469. For Kanngiesser's ideaii oti the subject, see his '* Hiibne 

in Aihen." p. 153. 

35. ircudtoi', rai. /Esch. Choepb. 641. TTfu, irni, Bvpat ojcovtrov 
utat KTvnov, | nV *viov, to rrui^ fral, ^miX* aSffis^ eV jto^oir ; 

lb. iffki On the conversational aplitereses of Tjfit for ^i?/*!, ^i* ^ 
^forr^ip' ry^, &c. see Buttmann's Irregular Verbs, p. 355. Atattb. 
Gr. Gr. 215. 3. ; bIho Ast ad Plat. 1 Rep. 327, e. f Bacchus beats 
riolentJy at ibe door.) 

34, rtc rfjv Bvptot tirdra^v. (Hercules speaks from within, and in 
r« voice of thunder.) Brunck compares Plaut. True. IL 2, 1. Quia 

UHc ewt, qui tarn proterve nostras <tdes arietat ? 

lb. it KtvTnvputoit > right centaurUke^ i. e. rudely, boisterously. 
ten it i« remembered how Ilercules went out of this world, (see 
le magni6ccnt description in the Tracbinie of Sophocles,) it is 
\o tvonder that the thouglit!^ uppermost in his mind in the other 
lould be of Nessus and his feUows. (Cf. Here. Fur. 179. 364. 
276. : see also Creuzer II. 250.) 

35. rMxXXccrdai. ^Esch. Pers. 521. w bvxTvovTfrt dat^iof, iff iiyav 
ipi't I irodour fyr)X<a vturrt TI«p<riK^ yivti. Soph. Q*)d. Tyr. I36l. 

iri'Xoic dmXa'is ttnjXaro. 

lb. otrru, i. e. wrrir iror* c<rr^ At the word ^oriy the door opens, 
and a colunsal 6^ure comes forth as the representative of him of 
,tiie twelve labours. At the sight of the ridiculous tigurc before 
lim, the thunders of bis voice drop, and in a softened tone (hence 
'the ori^n of the little parenthetical dialogue, which presently fol- 
lows between Bacchus and bis attendant) be asks, rouri rl ^p, what 
i» the attoMing 0/ all this ? 

lb, rm/ri n iji* ; Cf. inft. 414. 1 174. Plut. 1094. Acharn. 157. 
P67. Plat. Phad, 66, b. Cratyl. 3R7. c. That fie for /(rrl is used 
tragic as well as comic and prose writers, see Schcpfer ad Soph. 
I. Col. 1697. and Pass, in v. 

36. 6 ira4f. (Bacchus addresses his attendant), nom. for voca- 
tive. Cf. infr. 262. Plut. 1 100. o KapiW, dvaiMtvov. 

37. itt <rip6lipa p.' tUtitri, wfitit a terror I struck into kirn f (Tlie 
brmvmy gij^antic figure of Alcides would of course add to the ridi- 


HP. ov TOi fia rffp i^Ti^rjfrpa Svpofioi /t^ yeXoi/' 
KOI rot SoKVG) y iiuorrop' ciXA' 0^9 yeAm, 
AI. <3 Soufioi/Uy TT/MxrcAdc deofjuu yap ri aov. 40 

HP. oAA' ov)( 0169 T eifx oaroao^rjaoi top ylXwv^ 
Ofmv Xeoirrijp im KpoKcor^ KeifjLeirqp, 

culousness of this exhibition of vanity on the part of Bacchus.) 
For examples of dcid« in a transitive form, see 11. IV. 431. Od. 
XIV. 389. XXIL 39. iEsch. Soph. Eurip. 

38. oB TtH — dvpafuu ft^, non possum quiM. THiERflcn. 

lb. /la ri)v AfffuiTpa. As Hercules had been initiated in the my- 
steries (Here. F. 614. ra fiwrrSaw A' Spyt *Mxii(r t^v), this oath in 
his mouth is correct enough. See also St. Croix, I. 397. 

39. Satom y f/iavrAv, / bite my Upt, i. e. to suppress bis laughter, 
which however overcomes him at the end of the senarius, his sup- 
pressed mirth then . bursting out into a boisterous laugh. Soph. 
Trach. 978. <SXX* ttrx* dcuc&i' { cmS/ia mfr. 

40. 4 dmfi6pu, my good/^low, or myfinefellom. (Speaks with an 
air of prodigious superiority, as if conferring a favour, rather than 
soliciting one.) 

41. carotro^of rhv y%kmp, excutere rismn. Cf. nos in Vesp. 211. 
lb. ycXuy. Moeris : ycXesy, 'Attui&s' ycXwra, Kotmrns. 

42. Xwrriijp contr. \topT7Jw sc. dopoy. Horn's skim. (Herodot. VII. 
69. wapikiKtttt T* KaX XrorrtW iwofifuvoi. Plat. Cratyl. 41 1, a. t^v \«o¥- 
T^p ^rdcdvfca. Diog. ap. Laert. VI. 45. wpos r&y iwl r§ XtopTQ $pv- 
frT6fUP0Pf Uavaai, ?^, rk r^t opcr^r trrprnfurra Koraurxvpttp. Lucian. 
III. I.) In the pathetic narrative, which Megara makes over her 
doomed and devoted children in the " Hercules Furens" of Euri- 
pides, the lion's skin is mentioned as what with Argos was to have 
formed the patrimony of one of those children : 

Jo\ flip y^ ^Apyoe fr«M* ^ Kor^avrnp iror^p, 
Slpwr0f»e y ifuXkft oUffO-rtp diS/iour, 
r$ff KaXXiKapwiM KpAros Jxwy UtXaoyias, 

\4oprot, imp avrhs t^wrXi^tTO. 462. sq. 

In the Dionysiacs we find Bacchus thus endeavouring to conciliate 
the favour of the beautiful Nxceea : 

cv Af fuXdBp^ 
alr^t iyii <mpiiT» trio defuna, roun vtraartrm 
Hipfuxra iropdaXuur iroXudaidoXo, rots apa fiaXXta 
^pucrA XwPTtlijs wvKtp6Tpixa pvra KaXvnrprjSf 
yvfufwrtu ipA yvw. Dionys. XVI. 94. 

lb. ^t ttpKmmr^ Kpotmr^ sc. x*^*** ^"^ KpOKtor^ sc. Ifioruw, a 



Tif 6 vou^ ; Ti Kodopvo? Kcu poTTaXou ^virqXOerqv ; 
saffron, or orange-coloured robe» worn by women, (Arist. Eccl, 

679. ■cpcwvroi' j)fi(pitafiivTj. Lysist. 51. KpoxorrSiy /Sa^fiai. lb. 645. 
r|;0V4ra ror Kpotturhv apuros q Jipavpavioit, Thus. 94 1> <V KpoKorols xui 
fA^rpait. Ly^iiit. 44. KpoKura ff>opova-at. lb. 219. tcpoKorrotfxipoiaa), and 
by BacchuD. PuUux IV. 117. 6 di KpoKurbv Ifmrioy. Ai6vv<rot dj 
avT^ ixph^** '^"^ fidtrxo^ioT^fft uj«^tfii^ icat Qvpatf. Flcncc in ihc Ptole- 
maic Pomp,. to which we have before referred, we find a statue of 
Hncchus, ten cubits in height, and on a waggon or platform, which 
it required 180 men to carry, and dressed h^ follows : x'r«va irop- 
iffvpavr fx^** '^W'^'C*"'* '^*'^ ^' i^^oC ^ KpoKuyr6v ^ta<pav^' ntpif^t^rjTa ti 
l^toTiow noptfjvpaii' ;[^u(ron-oic(Xov. Atheo. V. 198, c. See further on 
this subject Schoen De pers. in Eurip. Bacchabus habitu scenico. 
The learned writer has from books, medaU, and statuary, collected 
almost every thing that can be aaid respecting the external habits 
of the wine-god and his attendants. See also Creuzer's Symbol. 
li. 35S. (The mirth of HerculeH, hitherto suppressed, can no 
longer be restrained, and a laugh, such as the twelve-labour demi- 
god alone could give, follows.) 

43. Ko^opvot. The cothurnus, as Biittiger has shewn, (see his 
Farien-mttske, p. 39. sq.) was originally a hunting-shoe worn by the 
Cretans. From this /E-schylus dtrrived the shoe, which was in- 
tended to give greater height to his actors, and which is ftuiiiliarty 
known to us under the appellation of the hujtkin. Besides its ap- 
pearaoce in the present drama, the word KoOopva occurs three 
times in the Aristophanic writings; in the Aves (995.)» where the 
illustrious geometrician Meton wears it, evidently for the purpose 
giving greater dignity to his appearance ; in the Lyaistrata 
[657), and in Eccl. (34^'). '" both which latter places it appears as 

shoe peculiar to the female sex. Fur an elegant general note 
the subject, see Welckers Frogs, p. 112. See also Schoen, p. 
33—4. For references in the Dionysiacs to the cothurnus as the 
distinguishing chaysimre of Bacchus, and which appear to have 
aped these two learned writers, sec infr. 521. 

. p6na\uy {pifiQta^ ptirat), a club, (Av. 497. nal Xanrodvrijff waUi 
M fit TO vitToy. Od. \I. 574' X'P^^^ 'X'"*' poiraXov iravj(aXK€ay, 

erodot. Vil. 63. p^naXa fvXoov TcrvXw^'va crtd^pw. Non. Dion. 
XIV. 101. XLV. aoo. XLVll. 126.) llie Herculean club occurs 
jby inference or express mention in Eurip. Here. 471. tU ^#fta» Hi 

A ^^frtlTf* provision niipmrB to have been madu in the above pomp thnt the 
l»«ty or mffnn wiih wtiirh tlte god*ti rotte was tn lie dyfcl, slimild not be wniit- 
^tg. Thus we find in one unit of dii» niu^^iBrent pnictttaioh " 1 20 Utyts riothed 
in purpltr tiiiiii^s hearing nmnktnoeiiM', myrrh, unci luiffmn, in guMea diOtva.** 
(|4J7. f.) In Another part we are t4;ld *^ of n p>Iden trifMid, nii nliich n>ai a 
Idnt thiirihiilMni^ and two (i^dden t*ii|M fiUrcl wiih auwia ajiil safTruii." ( 198, d.) 
fiJiUjr, we HW intmdiiced to a body of cmnels wlio carried among theni 300 pounds 
ih of fnuikiuceitstf, ai amay of myrrh, uul 200 uf uflron, cassia, dnmuiKm, 
okbrr KTotnAiic herbs. 




TTOi yrjs cerrfSrifAfis i AI. iTTf^arevou . . . 
HP. Kav€Wfxa')(r)a'a9 \ AI. K(u KareSvaafiep ye vew^ 
Tcov 7ro\€fiIa)V t) ScoS^k t) rpiaKaiScKa, 46 

HP. a(f)(o 5 AI. j/7 TOP 'AttoAAo). HP. kot ey(oy 



trqp aXt^fjriiiHOv | ^uXov Ka$iti, AaiMXov ^vdtj d^iv. Soph. Trach. 
C lO- rd^, KOi \6YXut, poiraXof re rivtifra-av, 

lb. fui^X^cTijp. In our poei's 'I'hesmoph. (136), where the effe- 
roiimte poet Acathon appears in a costume, partly male, partly 
femnle, it is askeil in a similar tone of inquiry, rl ^p&tros \ XaXci 
KpoKvort^l Ti fii \vpa itficpw^fiXy ; . . rU flai Kar6irTfttiV Kal ^Itftovt toi- 
vtovia ; 

44. irol yijr, vkitHer ^ tt*hencr 9 to what part 0/ thr world? vEnch. 
Stippl. 757. ffoi <^uy«/ifr 'ATTifiy x^oi^c ; Soph, Qid. Tyr. 1308. iroi 
yas tpipofiai ; Phil. I 21 1. ttoI ynr (/lOTft/Mr). Eurip. Here. F. 74. 
iroi TTQTijp aiTftTT* yijs ; 

lb. anoirjtie'iv. Ellflp. Epist. 5. uirodrjuuy els MaKeHovlay. lb. ruC- 
rrfv aKo^rjfi^irai rtjy arrol^rffilnti. Plat. 1 2 Legg. Q54, b. eav airoirjfAWP 
oUias if<nr<Jr»;ff Tvyx"*'.7- Stnlbaiim ad Plat. Eulhyp. §. 17. trans- 
lates, 71/0 tandem profectus et in quanam pere^rina terra commorntus 
es ? Ilalher, perhapji, IVkither were you goiiiQ ? whither were you 
bound ^ 

lb. «V*(5aTewit*, to embark^ to be an eni^rrjs^ i. e. a voyager, or a 
sea -sokHcr on board iship. Herodot. VII. 96. 184. e'lre^rewtv He orl 
irntriaiv tou' vewv lltpaat. Plaf. Lach. '83, ri. rijt vtas «'0* 1/ (irr^drri/f. 

45. Kdviivfidxfjo-av\ [eagerly)^ and were you at the naval Jiyht ? The 
conratenatinn of ideas ttiurI be looked for in the cirvumstancea of 
the times. The idea of ernbtirkation leads instantly in llie mind of 
Hercules to the idea of navai combat ; and of naval oombats — with 
mortals nr immnrlals — slave or free — parlizan or patriot — eould 
there be but onu uppermost in the mind; viz. the all-important, 
nil- en grossing battle of Arginusa: ? If this eager impatience of Her- 
cules loses lis the name of the vessel on buani which Hacehus 
embarked, and in concert with the crew of which he achieved 
the feat mentioned in the verse or two following, the Iosj* may be 
very easily sustained. 

lb. Kora^iveiv^ to sink. Plat. Polit. 302, a. urnAi irtp irXuia raradt/if- 
fieva, Thuryd. II. rjl. tfif^aWti fitar} (oXvtidt) xat Karadvet. (The 
speaker draws liimself up with no small pomp, as he records wliat 
*' [ and my ship's crew" did.) 

46. Bw^fx ft TptxTKaiitKa. Considering that the Athenians bad 
130 ships of their own ent;aged in the battle of Arginnaur, to say 
nothing of those furnished by their allies, this bakers' dozen sunk by 
Bacchus is no bad specimen of his veracity. 

47. cr0M ; Yoo ! (Hercules measures the little wine-god from 



to foot, and then burata ioto Hnuther explosion of laugh- 

». jci^' I fyftyy' | t^ | ypo^Tjv. And then I atroke, or, and so ended 
my dream : a polite way of telling people, that they have been 
* romancing. (Hercules divides his iambicit in a most ridiculous 
me of voice, beating time to them on the shoulders of hin brother 
dcmi-god.) *fijpyrJ/iiji', aor. a. pas. of «fryf»p« {--E. S. E.). Plat. Con - 

▼IT, 313i C. t^ryp€ti6ai di JTfMi f]fiiftav rj^tj oktKTpvovnv f^rriay, t^ryp6' 
^i>or Af K. r. X. 7 Rep. 534. c. n-pirrrddd' t^fyptaBatj cir 'Atdof np6rt' 
pap aifuKOfutfov riXfoir tniKaraHafiBdvtiv, Tliiersch cumpares Odyss. 

48. ovoycyroMT'Kni', to read. Arist. Eq. 1062. trv d' ovoyiiwo-xr. 
Plat. Phted. 98» 6. trpoiwF xal d»wy£i'««nf»w' {proceeding in hitt perusal) . 
6 Epiat. 333, c. ftrkoroXrfv avayvatyai. A compound form of this 
Terb well deserves the attention of the student not only of Aristo- 
phanes, but of the Greek dramatists generally. U'hat alterations 
the satire of the former produced in one tn&lancc at least in the 

tdnunatic world by the production of his ** Frogs." 1 have had more 
^thao one orrasion to poiiu out; but who can say what minor 
[alterations were made by friends or relatives of the actors in the 
works of the immortal Three, to rescue ihem as much as possible 
>m other marks of hi** satiric la.Hh ? That from various causes 
[these changes had amounted to a serious departure from the on. 
pnal text, seems evident from a decree obtained by the great 
itoT Lycurgus, the object of which was to prevent further inter- 
lulations or alterations. In consequence of this decree u public 
officer was appointed, whose business it was, irapavayiyv^iTKeuf^ 1. e. 
to inspect the text as the nctor pronounced it, and see that no 
irii'kii had been played with it. See Boeckli's Gra>cie Trag. Princip. 

49. ttJf *\yitpofu^y. Rut why the Andromeda of all plays of 
Euripides ? It was not the drama most recently produced by him 
(Clinton'6 Fasti Hell. pp. 77. St.), and the name of Perseus was 
not the most agreeab] e uf names to meet the wine-god's eye. It was 
a name, on the contrary, which foes were apt to throw into his 
uctb. (\on. Dionys. \XX. 264. XLVIl. 529. 596.) and which it 
required all the address of friends to soften. (Dionys. XVIII. 291, 
305. XXV. 80 — 147.) Had Euripides perverted the myths rela- 
tive to the deadly feuds which had passed between the lover of 
Andromeda and Bacchus, (Oeuz. 111. 161. 348. IV. 51, sq.) and 
thus further ingratiated himself with the wine-god, besides his play of 
the Baccba; : or did the Andromeda abound in such Mtuations and 


• It ia renuirktil l>y tlie Oermun tranvlnUini, ('oiik and MVlrkfr, that their an- 
luid II filiiilAr pfowrliiul muUe ijf expmsion, used for u timilu* pur|MWf : 
rod mil dma «wadu ich.*' 



rr^v KapSiop ejrdra^ rrtos oici a(j>68pa ; 50 

HP. TToBos J TToao? r/p ; AI, fiucpo^j rjkiKO^ HP- 

AI. fiT] CK&Trre /i, coS€X(f>' ou yap aX\ e)(a} kokw* 

description, as were likely to render it particularly acceptable tonne 
of HacchuH's tempenimcnt and cuiiijilexinii } Judging from the few 
fmgmcnLH yet left of Hi, the latter reasoti seems at least as pro- 
bable as the former. (Oti some miuor points connected with An- 
dromeda ntid Perseus, see fragtiienls of ^Eschylus's Phorcydes in 
Dindorf, Soph. Androm. fr. ibid. ; also a note in Blomf. Glossary 
to hi» Choepb. v, 817- and St. Croix» Myst^res du Paganisme, 


lb. TTp^f ifutvT^v, to myself. Eccl. 931. ?d«> itpos §fuivrT]i». Plat. 
Hip. Maj. 295, a. *I . . (rxf^aifjajv irpos eijavT6v. Bergler still more 
aptly compares the comic poet Plato (Athen. I. 5, b.) 

f'yw ft* fvBal^ iv rjj 'pijf^tif 
rovrl Bu'KBtiv ffoCXofiai to fii^ioy 
irpit tfiavrdv. 

lb. ir^c, a passion for. Soph. Phil. 601. riV h v6$os airr<n»r 
7jt<m ; 646. Stov ert XP"'^ '^'^^ w66ot fiakirrr rX"' ^UTIp. OrCSt. I S6, 
oWf iroAw ix*^ ^pas. Alc. I 1 c6. viov ydfxov noOos. 

50. Kapblav cVdra^. Soph. Ant. 10(37. arjj irardfrtrttf 0vfi6v. 

lb. irats oUi. Cf. DOS in Ach. 34. Nub. 849. Monk in Ilippol. 


51. iria-otrU; Cf. Blomf. in Pers. 340. 

lb. — MtJXuc. Bacchus, in accordance with his own assumed 
tone, expects his hearer to supply cnurieously the name of a giant. 
Hercules, to his great mortification^ gives him — a dwarf; but the 
name pronounced with a full mouth, as if a giant were really 
spoken of. (The reader's good taste will. It is hoped, excuse a 
little deception which has been practised iu the arrangement of 
the text, and, in some degree, in its explanation, in order to get 
rid of two most offensive senarii.) 

52. aKonnrfw cum ace. infr. 402. a-Kw^a^tv *Ap\(lirjfiop. Pax 745. 
CKiu^ac auroii ras ir\tjyai. Ach. 854. oid* av$ti av <Tf CTKai^rrai. Nnb. 
540. Du3' evKu^c TQvt <f)a\aKpovi, for arunrtiv inlrans. see infr. 

lb. ou ynp aKKhyfor, Eurip. Baccli. 784. ouyAp aXX ifn*p^a>tXu rdJ*. 
Suppl. 580. kXvo^ Sif" ov yap dXXd d<i dowtu fiipos. Iph. T. 1005. 


f Amnng them is found the b^niiinf; of that stniin, "O C'tipiH, prime of gndi 
and men,** which so much captivated the ime^nntion of the (<ood people of Ab- 
derw, u well u timt of Stenie: MctXiiTTa 8J tV CvpirfSuf 'AyJ^/if'Sov Jfiav^iouw, 
Kol rl]K rov Ilfpff/wf ^urif tv ^cAci Sic^jfaffor' ical ^cott/ ^k ^ nihxi v)(fiSiv avd»'> 



JTol rAiiXa fuya\p -rp ^rp itnSoi&irnMr. Ludan, IV. 159. 



T010VT09 l^pof fi€ Sia\v^ait/€rai. 

HP. TTotof Tif, mSiXiplSiop ; AL ovk ex^ (ppcurcu, 

ofuos ye p^evroi aoi St alviy^v c/)w. 55 

«£ yap aXX* avf\p piv «k dd^tuv | Qaviiiv, noSetvot, ra d< yweuKOs titr&gt^, 
£upoli*i ap. Hephirsl. p. 15. nXX* o{<xi ivyaT6v ifmv \ ov yap aWit wpo- 
^aiXiVfia jiatTTaQowTi r^c iroKtutt p*ya. Cf. nos in ICq. It 68. Nub. 

lb. Tx0 icaitwc. i^I. H. A. XL 34. koxaitixf, kqi tirl6o(os TeOinf^ra-Bai 
ff». The<»ph. ch. 13. fin. (Hncchus puts Ui.s hand to his breast, and 
mimics ihe action of a person seriously imJispused.) 

%^' '/*<pof' Tliisword occurs only once more in the Aristophanic 
wriljnifs (I-ysist. 552.); it occurs frequently in .'Eschylus and iio- 
phocles. (Thiersch quotes CEd. Col. 1725. r^«pot e^'^ M'- Trach. 
4y6. TttuTTiK i ittvos tfiipot irotf* 'llpaxX^ litriXBtv,) less frequently ia 
Kuripides. (The lauguajt^e of Uuccbus cunltnuuUy fiuctuaccs be- 
tween the tragic and the familiar.) 

lb. diokvfxnivrrai, consttmef. Utterly devours me. Cf. infr. ioj8. 

54. d^tX<fti^ioy. The brawny hand of Alcides here falls upon 
the back of the Utile wine-god with a weight which makes his god- 
ship wince. A hearty laugh follows ihi.s JUtli^ exhibition of physi. 
cal superiority on ibe part of the Inie indigenous demi-gotl of 
Greece (for such was Hercules) over his litiie brother, who was but 

exotic after all. By such rainutiffi did Aristophanes know how 
win his way imperceptibly as it were with his audience, when 
ic bad delicate subjects to handle. 
lb. ^pd^siv, to uptak openly and clearly. jEsch. Prom. Vinct. 985. 

xoi raifra pimi ptjUiv aiyiicryjpias , \ aXX* aC(T iitafTTa {omnia sigillatim 

BL) h<PpaCt. 

55. di' aiftypatv, indirectly, obscurely, in a round-about way. (^Escb. 
I. 34. Hi aivvas, perpetually, 776. di^ flucac, justly. Soph. Trach. 

595. d«a Tuxav%, speedily. Eur. Bncch. 212. 5w (nrovfi^r, hastily. 
441. tC oidaCs, reverentially. Suppl. 206. fd** oIjctov, compassionately. 
17a. ftii tAom, entirely. Elect. 914. 81' BpBpw, early. Phocn. 269. i' 
Tvwrrtias^ readily.) The word belongs to the mantic art, (Eq- 1085.) 
and, as a partaker iu that Sart, Bacchus may here be supposed to 
use it with an assumption of some dignity, the assumption made 
more ridiculous by the topic on which it is employed. ./Esch. 
Pft)m. 630. X<{«ti ropwr ffoi iruK, ontp XP^C*^^ paBta*, | ovk tpwXdtMV 
aUiypar', oXA* o^rXcp Adyy. Agam. 1081. o0ir«> ^yiJKa' fvv yap c£ oi- 
rtyparmp \ tvapytpotvi Bttr^roit u;ii7;yaf^. Ibid, l 1 54. Clioeph. B74. 
Eurip. Rhes. 756. ruA'oux iv alvtypotai (njpaivtt Koxd' I aa<f>o>t y6p avAf 

8t* Av 7^ A Otht «iir T^ aiifj.' (XOjj woKhf, 
AryciK rh pi\Xo¥ roifx iit^tiviTos -woitu 

BHcrh. 798. 
Schoeo on this nubjcct, pp. 50. 54. Rtiil cf. infr. tijy. 



HP- trvov9 ; ^^ta^y ^vpiaKi9 cV T^ ^t<p. 

AI. ap (KStSao-KO) TO cra^ey, ^ "^^P^ (ppacro} ; 

HP. /U.J7 5i7Ta Tre^i €tvov9 yf 7rai/y yap fiapdavco. 

AI. TOtoin"oo"J roivvv /ne SapbairrH iroOoi 

HvptTTtSov, Kou Tavra tov Tfdi/rjKoro^, 

KovSeiy ye fi av Tieiaetei/ avBpayrroiv to fXTj ovk 

(XffeLV eV Ikupov. HP. TTorepov cJs" AiSov Korea ; 

avfiffaxovf oXoiAitrar. Trosd. 625. Tovr' «**riS ^« iroXai | ToX^t'^tot 
atfiyfi* ou trat^t tiirtp o-a<^ff'r. Eleclr. 95 1 , yp<»pifxots d* alvi^^uu, 

56. Haechufl places his hands Xo his sides, then after a short 
pause, aud with a very Icnowing look, puts a question to which 
Alddes of course responds with one of his usual laughs. 

lb. tiT€&v}irj(Tat . . . (Tvovi. Av. 7ft. 4TifOvs 8* *iri6vfi.u, 8tt TOpvwrjs imI 
xvrpar. (On the Hercules Gourmand, see inlr. 100.) 

]b. error, a diyh n/ put fie. Peas or beans boiled into a thick half 
liquid substance, such as fruraenty, and the like. Cf. iufr. 474. et 
DOS in Eq. 1 134. 

57. ^affai and ^a^ata^, cxclamatioDS of surprise. Pax. 24S. 
3iij3al ffuffaia^. Eurip. Cycl. 153. 156. iroiroiaf. Translate, you sur- 
prise me by such a question. 

58. ficAiB(ifjif<u. Find, Pyth. IV. 385.X1TUV r rmoi | tiis «rdi8d<rin^- 
(Tfif trofpov Aiaovibav, ^iisch. From. Vinct. 1017. eVMocricfi navff 6 
ytjpatTKotv xfttivos. Eurip. Med. 1CJ7- "*'''■*"'« XP7 iralidt nfpurtrws e'ic8i- 
duo-icrcrdat tnx^ovi. Frequent iu Sophocles. (/* my me0mnff clear, or 
shall I erfilain it somr other way j*) 

59. TTcpi fTvov^. On the hiatus, see Matih. Gr. Gr. §. 43. 

60. HaplSaiTTuv^ a prtjlonij;ed form of dairreiv. (.^-Isch. Suppl. 67. 
RaVTOi TOV (iirrtAAn vitXfiOfjtrj iraptiav. From. Vinct. 378. srorn/io! in»- 
p6v dairroKTCf aypims yvdSoit t^s xnXXud/nrov StKcXi'ar \rvpovs yvat. 
Eurip. Med. 1 1 86. Xtvicrfv titmrov aapxa. Soph. (Kd. Tyr. 682. 6anrti 
ti Koi TO fx^ I'diJcov.) Nonu. Dion. V. 334. da/idaTrrnv Kara /3ai6p. XVII. 
6r. liapBarrrav duSprfTot . 

60—1. ir66of KlpiViHov. .i4l)sch. A^. 404. tto^ If vrrffmovrtar. 
(Helente sc.) 

62. fi^i OVK. These two negatives form but one syllable. ^Esch. 
Prom. Vinci. 954> ov^«v yap avr^ Tovr' rirap*teerfi t6 ptij ov | wtO'tTr 
orifiAir. Eumen. 874. our dvi^opMi ro pi} ov | r^i^' atrrvuKov iv ^porois 
Tipav TrdXii'. Soph. Antig. 544. pfj Toi, KntriyprfTTj, p.* aTtpdayjr tA p^ 
ov I 0ay«\v rt civ a-oi. 'J'rach. 88. vHv d\ wt ^vvii}p', ovdiv c'XXri^ru tA 
p.rj ov I naaav irvOiaBai rotvfi* aktiBnav nipt. C,{. infr. 66a. See also 
Malih. Gr. Gr. §. 543. 

63. <V* fKt'ivo¥y/or the purpose of bringing him up. Cf. infr. 104. 
tm t6¥ Ktp^fftov. 541. oXX* e7/i* cVi rhv KXimt^'. 13^5* *y*^ KarrfXdov 
€jri irotrfTTjv. 




AI . Kol vq At ' ei TL y ?<mv er* KaTayr€p<o, 

HP. Ti fiovX6fiJ(P09 *, A I. SfOfxat iroi-qrov fk^tov* 

** M fifp yap oifKff' €l(riif, oi S* ovr€9 kokoi!' 

HP. ri S ; ovK 'lo(f)oip ^y; A I. Totrro yap rot Koi 

or iari konrov dyaOoi/y el Kol tovt apa' 

ov yap aac^) oiS ovS airro rovd onro3s <X^** 

HP. <?r* ov'^^i 2o0o/cAea, wpoTepoif ovr KvptTriSoVj 70 

li^XAus avaye^f^ aitep y eKeidfv 8el tr ay€U/ ; 

AI. ov, irpiu y ay ^lorptom'* uTroXa^CDU avrou ptovov^ 

am; ^ocfHJKXeovy 3 tl iroiei KwScaviaro}. 

65. ri ^ovXd^crof. witA what purpose, or intent ? Tluerscb cuinpates 
UUM. 480. n tiov\^^€vai nrorr ri)y K/jaraay mrfXa^i'. 4^7. il ri 

06. oj ^fV ya^ N. T. X. Quoted from the CEneus of EuripiduN. 
('il the first part of the seiiarius BacohtiH applies bin hand to his 
eyes as if deeply atfected : at its conclusion he snapM Itis finjfers in 
■uvereign contempt.) 

67. lophon, a son of Sophocles, and supposed to have been 
UHstcd by his father in the compo!«ilii>D of his drHinns : hence the 
ipwlifi«d and cauiiuuit terms in which he is subsequenily spoken of. 
Some notices of him may be found in Uoeckh's I'riuc. Gr. '!>■ pp. 
36. 115. ^ 

68. <i cat roi/r' npa^ eveii indeed if tMs is good. 

69. vi/pi' o29a. Piut. 885. irri^' ttr6^ on. vKsch. Suppl. 721. ffai^' 
ed* /yw. Soph. Phil. 123. tra<ft* laBi. Eurip Phcen. 1631. Med. 94. 
€j^O^ vo^* owa. 

70. Z<N^jtX<'d. On -«a as forming only one syllable, see Mattb. 
Gr Gr. 83. 3. Monk's Alcest. v. 35. ilippol. 1 148. 

lb. wpartpoy on-', his elder, or his better. There appears to be a 
studied ambiguity in the expression. 

72. anoXaiiup aifTov fitit^v, kaviuy taken him apart and by himsei/. 
The object of this proceeding is visible in the next verse : il is to 
prove utid e.\ninino what lophon could do in the way of compost. 
tion, without his father's aid. 

73. Khi^iovi^tuf, to explore, to make trial of. Arist. Hen»es fp, 6. 
♦A 8^ Xu/j.iiy Tuif fnifj^v ov.'uraidiix'iaor. Lysias, fr. 37. jcwilwwffoi'. 
bone derive the nieiaphor from ihe smind by wliich earthen ves- 
sels, coin*, (infr. 687. voikUr^nra %fKwfiwvi(Tixivo'\ &c. are tried ; others 
from the kw^wk, or broad end of u trumpet, (see Pass, in vor.) by 
which horses arc proved, as lu whcUier they will stand noises. 
Sec also infr. 928. 



Kov ^vifanrohpapoi Sevp hn^Hptrjanu puoC 75 

HP, 'Ayd0Q3P Se ttov 'arip; AI. a7roAt7r©r ft* diroi 

74. £Oiur, besides, Thiersch refers to Vlger, p>37S- 781. Ueind. 
ad Plat. Phaed. p. 138. 

lb. vayovpyvs, a trichter. For other personal allusions f>f 
this nature to Euripides, sue infr. 981. 1420. 1489.: for practical 
illustrations of it iu bis denlin^, sec infr. 1091. 1113. 1327. 

75- It^nn'odid/KtaKriv (aor. 2. ^vvaeiritpav, inf. ^vvtaroZpavai)^ to run 
awtty in conjunction tvifh, (Cf. Av. i486. Eurip. Elect. 73. 547. 
Troad. 1025- Helen. 335. yEsch. Ap. 1 loR. 1596.) 

lb. av tmxtipr](rnf, wili attempt. The poet's meaning appears to 
be this. Hftct'luis, bein)^; a-sked by Hercules why, if he must bring 
Uj) some poet from the lower world, he does not prefer Sophocles 
to Etiripides. givea two reasons for his election: first, thai lophoa 
had displayed so much dramatic tiilent, that provided he could be 
sure the talent was t^enuine und nni borrowed, the son would do in 
the upper world »h well ris the fiilher : secondly, that he should 
receive no asMstance from Sophocles in endeaviiuriiig to effect 
his escape from Hades, he bein^ of so quiet and fomented a dis- 
position, tliat wherever he wbs, there he would be willing to abide; 
whereas t^uripides was of so restless and crafty a disposition, that 
he would not only be ready to cooperate wiih Uacchus in elTecting 
his escape from the lower world, but ^vmdd brin^ all the arts and 
irick.s, of which he was so perfect a muster, 10 ossist in the opera- 

76. f^KoXor (r^> ledXov), literally, a person whose digestive organs 
are good ; hence, eaiy, contented, sathtfied. Cf. infr. 344. Plat. 
I Rep. 3^9» d. 33c, a. k6<tixioi koX ^vKokai. Hip. Min. 364, A.vpd»% 
rt KOi fVKuXoir anoKpi»i(r6ai. (Tho. Mog. rCicoXoc, 6 d^X^c tcai tTOifiot 
*h oTrtp lip Tts nurw xp^'^ucrfini ^i^Xoiro.) Spanhcim and Couz com- 
pare character given to Sophocles in Athen. XIII. 604. 

b. fvBdy, prop, the upper world ; ««i, the iotrer irorld. Soph. Aj. 
1389. oCroc ti KUKti Kai'6a&* otv tftovy o^ur | cx^iotoi- carat. Ant, 75. 
nKtuiiv ^(piJi'of, 1 hv hti p! apiaKtivrah «tn-«, rCivivSafit. Eurip. Medea 
1069. ♦I'Jai/iOKoiro*'' aXX' cV«i' rii d' cV^ddc | ttot^/i ri^*tX«r'. Helen.1440. 
©. TO riiv 6au6vT<av ovdiy, ciXX* urrXoOs trdvop. 'E. tariv t* kojcu xov^dd* «r 
ryo) Xiyta. Plat. Apol. 41, c. ra r« yap aXXa tv^ai^oviurtpoi tlatv al 
tKtl (judices iiiferorura) ritv ^ipffaie. 

77. Agaihun, a person well known in the history of Attic Utera- 

h ThisoppoHitioM nf torins, Ii»»v<»ver, wax ocuwonally tued on common topicm. 
Eiirip. Androm. 1068. Koi r&v6dd' Cyra rois iirtJ A«{Vi t^tKotj. loo, 39&. 657. 
riac I Alcib. I 22» d. wo\{/ rcb^dSi T«y iitft i\\§iwu. 

BATPAXOI. ^^0 19 

HP. nol yrjf 6 T\i]fxcop ; AI. eV ficucapcov — tifco^^iou/. 
HP. 6 Si A€i^okX€7J9 ; AI. e^oXoLTo in] Ala, 8o 

HP, YlvOdyyfXo? St; S*A. Trepi ifwv S ovdiis Xoyo^ 

ttire for biH talenut, (of which he muclc but a bad use,) his 
beauiy, (of which he made » vvirrse.) his weallh, and his hospi- 
tality. At his mansion is laid the scene of Pinto's cclebruled Ban- 
quet. He wus a pereional friend of Kuripi(lc!<. (Ail. Var. Hist. II. 
31. Xni.4) and in the opinion of Aristotle (Poet. r. 17.) was the 
|»er»ou who above all others corrupted the Iragic Muse. 

lb. drrot'xtTat. Tlie only instunce, I believe, uf this verb in Tra- 
gic Greek, occurs in Soph. Trachin. 42. ^fiol irtKpas wdivas airrov 

7S. dyaSot irotTjrfis, said more with playful reference to Agathon'a 
OiUDe, than to his actual merits a.s a poet. What Aristophanes really 
lugbt of him on the latter point, a very characteristic passuGre in 
Thesmoph. uill shew : fUXXtt yap^ as the poetic lacquey observes, 

/uX^ri y^ i ' KaXXuTT^r 'Ayddwv 

KafiiTTfi 6i viaf (i^lftar riruv. 
rt^ Si u^pffvfi, ra di KoXAo^eXfi, 
kqI yvtaporvirtt xdirrovofid^ft 
xni tcj]fiu)(VTfi Ktti yoyyi'XXit 
an xoavfVMi, 49 — 57. 

7«nipBre the equally chnracteristic speech which Plato puts into 
the mouth of Agathon in his Banquet. 

lb. iro3*iv6s. Eurip. Pboen. J 24. ^ no6«ivos ()!)i'Xoir, 13 n-o^fivir e^- 
iSair. Soph. Phil. 1445. <f>&tytta no6tivAv i^koi, 

79. iroi y^r o rX^fituv. Eurip. Elect. 23 1. imZ yijc o rXi^iJMp rkinta- 

lb. — «t'»;^ini'. The word wijo-ouc waa expected ; the substitution is 
nsttdc cither in allusion to the convivial habits of Agathou, or to 
bia temporary residence at the hospitable court of Archetaus in 
Macefion. Plat, i Rep. 329, a. irtpi vArow xal rvM;(Lar. 9 Rep. 
586, a. 9v<axlai( iCfii roit TOutOroit lul ^vr6vTtr. 

80. Xcnocles, a son of Carcinus. Cf. Arist. Thes. 441. ^lian 
V. H. II. 8. 

lb. «^XoiTo, (after a preliminary puff and spit, and then with pro- 
dJjifiuus energy ) 

61. Aud Pytfaangelus, who was he ? We know nothing more of 

* Philovt. Vit. Sophirt. p. 4%^. noI 'A7«iAvc 84, S t^* rpary^at wot^rks, ftf ^ 

C 2 



errtTpifiofieifov tov (Ofwi^ ovroxrl atpoSpa, 

HP. ovKovv €Tfp etrr emravSa fietpcLscvXAia 

TpaycoSta^ notovirra ttAcu' tj fivpia^ 

KvpiTTtSov TrAeu/ tj araSioj \a\i<rT€pa : 85 

AI. tTncfivXXiSe^ ravr iari Koi o-T(ofxvXp.aTaj 

^ \e\iS6ifwv fMovctia^^ Kco^rp'cu T€)(in]^, 

liim ihnn what tbc text supplies ; viz. that in the estimation uf 
Ariatophanes be was not worth e%'en what Xenocles was — an execra 

lb. iTfpl tfiov K. T.\. Xanthias, though an idle person for some 
lime to ihe reader, has not perhaps been so to the spectator. 
Many a laugh htis (Joubtleas been raised brlhc shift and rc-shifi of 
hifi pole ; his hand applied now to the neck, and now to the shoul- 
der, to say nothing of less seemly gestures, when his master's eye 
is not upon him. His impatience, however, now becomes ex- 
hau.sled. and the vunily of an indulged lat-quey exhibits itself — " 11 
vast deal of talk here about poets, and such like — but not a word 
about me !" &e. 

84. nXe'tv ^ fi-vpta, plus mille. Mceris: irXcii' ^ fivpioi 'Attwcws* 
vXtiovfs ^ pvpioi 'EXXrjviKas. Plut. I184. Av. I30_fJ. vXftV $ fiCpuu. 
Av. 6. trradta rrXciv ^ }[i'Xia. 

85. — oToSty XaXl(TTfpa, A comic comparison, which Ducker 
illustrates from the poet Alexis, who speaks of some person as supe. 
rior to antither — fjfiipas JJptJ/iy. 

lb. XttXltrrtpa. Rurip. Cycl. 3 1 4. KOfi^lrhi yrv^frri xal XoXiararov. 
Alciph. III. 29. AaXtoT«p€ Tpvy6vov. Alexis up. Athen, IV\ 133, c. 

aov y ry<*> TiaXitrrtpav 
ov sronrur* ccdDi' oih§ Kfpx^yirrjv, yvMU, 
ov Kimof, ovK atjb6vt 01^' rpvyov, ov 

86. (Vk^uXXis (tpi/XXov), the small grape, which is left at vint- 
age for the gleaners, 'i'ranslate, refuse, glennijigs. 

lb. ar<apv\paTa^ mere chatterers^ res pro pers. Cf. in fir. 645. Acb. 
430. OTCD/AuXop, biivhs \iyfi». Nub. 999. irru/iijXXuv Korb. rr^v ayopdv. 
Equit. 137^' ^^ ^itipOKia ravTi Xryoi^ tuv ro> pvpto, a arufivXtiTai rouidi 
tcoBrififva. (Bacchus spits and sputters as before.) 

87. •* x'XiWwJi' fiovtrela" schools 0/ sicalhms, cir, places where tttrnl- 
lows practise their chntteritig. ITie (foreij^n) swallow, us Weleker 
observes, was put in opposition to the ((Jrccian) nighiin*jale, and 
was proverbially used as the representative of every thing barbaric, 
chattering, troublesome. Cf. infr. 649. Tlie quotation is from the 
Alcmene of Euripide.s. 

lb. fiovatlay, properly, a temple of the Muses ; hence a place for 
study, or for exercise. Eurip. Hel. 173. ^iovatia dpijvtifiatn £vr^. 



a <f>povSa BoTTOVy 7)v fiovov yopou Act/3p. 

1114. ikovatla ittu BoKovs tPi^ovtrav. Plat. Pbeedr. 267, b. futvatla 
Xiyt¥. 378, b. icaraj3avr« ts rd SvfAtfmv trafid r< luxl fiovcrt^oy. 

lb. Xm^tjra'ti^Xot&TjrTiptf, corruptors. (11. II. 275. XI. 385. fl slan- 
dertr,) Soph. Ant. 1074. Xa^rjrTjpft va-Ttpofftdopoi. 

lb. rixi^S' And why not the definite article before it ? But no 
matter; if ibc genius of (he language forbad its introduction, the 
reacter's iraapnatiun will easily supply it. For wlial art is here 
»poken of TAt arti ibe glorious art, which furnished the Agaruem- 
non, and the Philoctctei», and the Medea \ the art, w))ich gave 
birtb to »ucb men as .Mcnander and Aristophanes! the art, which, 
u it made Athens the queen of intellectual cities in her own days. 
ao k wiil» while men shall be found with souls above butterfly- 
bonUDg, and j^^roping after hyenas' bones, make her the cynosure 
of all intellectual eyes, till time shall be no more ! 

88. <f>poviio »c. f'oTiy, are spent and gone, i. e. are left powerless to 
prodace a second drama, whether Tragedy or Comedy. This 
•ttdden sterility of the Dramatic Must: in .Vthens is hardly less re- 
markable, than the number as well as Lnntty of her progeny during 
ibe time of the Grent Three. 

lb. x'^P^" Xufifiib'fif, The expressions x^V^** alrcu', x^P*^ ^idwat^ 
XtpAtt Xa4i^dif*w, can require explanation to those only who are just 
coBkineQcing acqunintance with the Greek stage. When a cili;^en 
of Athena had achieved what he thought a merilurious drama, (and 
where did such achievement meet with higher di.stinction aiid 
honour than in Athens ?) his next business was lo carry his per- 
formance to the chief of the nine archons, and ask for a chorus 
(jKopuv oiVet*.) ; in Other words, require that one of the richer citi- 
zens should be selected, ou whom might devolve the chief expense 
of preparing the piece for exhibition, that expense consisting chiefly 
in engaging, instructing, and feeding the pent'us who were to act 
as the ;i;o^>fvrai of the piece. Was ihis application to the archon 
successful, and a person selected for the duties specified ' That 
functionary was then said to give, and the author was said to rt'ccitv 
QutfM^iayfUf) a chorus. It is pleasing even at this time of day to 
kooWj that the person selected for thus preparing for exhibition 
that great /Eschylean Tctralogue, to which so much reference will 
be made in the course of the ensuing notes, was a wealthy citizen 
of iJie name of Xeuocles. For general remarks on the subject, sec 
••Theatre of the Greeks." p. 301. Mus. Crit. II. 84. Hoeckh's 
Econ. of .\ the n.^. II. 207, sq. Cf. nos in Eq, 496. For some par- 
ticular arguments as to what was the number of xopf^rn*. when 
the piece presented to the urchon formed a tetralogue. and how 
they were distributed over that paiticular tetralogue to which we 
have Just referred, the reader will consult Muller*s Kumenides. 
We content ourselves with observing, that while some rciuK>ns in- 
duce the learned writer to extend the number of x**P*^**^ ^^ ^^^y 
pcrttma, others incline him to limit them to forty-eight. Re- 





yovifxoy Se tto/t/t?;!/ at/ ov\ (vpotf trt 
^jrmv aif^ oans p7/wz yevvaiov Xaxoi. 

ferrinp: more particularly lo " ibe Oresteia" (cf. infr. 1089.). he 
supposes in cither case the number of xo^»^al in the Agamemnon 
to have been twelve : lulmillint; fifty, and not forty -eight, to be the 
whole number furnished by the cboregits, he assigns fifteen to the 
poet's Choephone, as many to his Eumenidcs *', and the remaining 
eight lo the satyro-coniic performance, which completed that great 
telnilogue ; the whole fifty being united to form that solemn pro- 
cession at the conclusion of the Eumenides, to which we shall 
have occasion to advert hercHfter. On this subject see also soine 
incidental remarks by 8ch<»en, p. 73, sq. 

8q. T'ftvj^nr, eretttive, original. The kind of yttfo%, or poetical 
stock, of which this ideal yoMic of Hacchus was to be tlie parent, ap- 
pears at V. <)%, The word occurs not unfreqnenily in the Dionysiacs, 
but generally in a passive sense, fruitful, V. 195. w/xirn? 9' AirowJij 
yotfifA^v aven^Xaro K6\rr<av. VII. 3. np<Ttva &T}Xi/Ttpjj yovtfiov w6po9 av- 
XoKt /iifac. Xni. 182. tiX Xu;(Oi' Olvoivi^tyoviiiov iri^ott. XLi. .^6j(. «iA«» 
*A&ap^ptr}^ yiivifiO¥ ft6op. See also Eurip. El. I3ig. Hint. Theet. 
150, c. BergltT quotes in illustration Artnxcric. Epist. 1. ad Hip- 
pocr. yvwfAtjv ovKtT f;^w fifr' avSpwif yovifitity tiovXnnrafr6ai. 

89—90. €Vpois — Cv^tav. l*]ut. 104. ou yop €VpT)<Ttis tnoi} \ Cttwi- ftr' 
Siffipa Tovt Tp6iTovs ^Xrioftt. Eccl. 334. Ct"^*^" y^P °^^' ^^X f^fiow iv roir 

90. ^Tjruiy av, though you should seek for it. 'To the examples 
given by Alutthite (Gr. Gr. 598, b.) of av thus joined with a par- 
ticiple, add Thucyd. V. 105. W8oVej koi vpas av xal aXXovt iv rjf avr^ 
di'vofici f)p^v ytvoptvovv ipanfrav av Koi nirro. Xen. Hell. VIi. 1. 45* 
ravrn d' ryw fr^rrti), ... aaptvos cw rf)v tovXeiav drro^vy^tv, VII. 3. 4. 
(Vfi tyvta oi/K av ivvdptvot. VII. 4. 34 va;^u d^ 01 ptv vvk hv dvvdfuvoi 
avtv pi<T$ov TOMW *V,Trapiriov ttvat, flw;^foi'ro. Dem. 535« '6* ^oXXoi/r t^ 
hv tx^^ rirrttv k. t. i, 551, 26. nav hv litoirThs thrkw. 656, 1 4. Awr 
ral iivvj)Bt\i av aurur ^X**"' ^57* I 4- 1^ P"^ doxtt paWov av rir ifiiav awt* 
VTt'iv uk6to>s, rj k. t. i, 667, 27. tiiajv flotf Itv rfjv ptyitmjv, 670, fl. 

* k The learned writer'a dm operation with this Chorus of fifteen persons, it the 
rrrtiticatinn «if im iniperrpin sennriiiii, which in nil other edidnnn stands thus: 
A^(. Addf, Kd$f, Addr. ^pd^ov. Al tiller plnrt-fi tlif word ^^a^ou nt \he iH^iiniufC 
of the ver»e, ami hnvinjf ihtis given the <.'boni%-iwuier a verh, ci^uivaU-Mil to '* / 
eommand attention!'* he draws u running fire, or rather ft running huwl, from 
pair uf voices after the fuUuwing fiuUioii : 

St. 3. I. — 


6. 7. 

a 9. 

10. It. 

n. 13. 






On the canine dioracter of ilie Erinnym, or Furies, ace infr. 4^5. 



HP. TTcSf yomfwif ; AI. wSi yot^ifwp, ooTif <l>diy^€Tai 

TOiotnovL rt TrapoKeKivSvpevfxeuoi/, 

" alfffpa Aioy SeofjuzTcoVj'^ ^ " )(p6uov ttoSo," 

^ ^piva piv ovK idikovaav opxxrai Kaff upcoi^y 

y\wTTaif S (TTiopKTjfTaa'au iSla rrj^ (ppeuoy, 95 

HP. at & TauT fipeaKd ; AI. /laAAa ttXcip tj pLaU 

r vopai. 

rvDro ira^v av diuiiMf. Add 674, 15. 683, 36. 867, 19. 1120, 19. 
1154.25. 1356,14. 1337*9- "341. 5- 1353.27- Lytiurg 167, 

lb. Xa»iv et XiMr«ii>. (fut. Xa«^cra), aor. 2. cXajcoi'.) Plut. 39. ri 
h^a ^oi&ot tXaxrv cV riv arififiaray ; -'Usch. Ag. I40r. ^ryaXo^rtff 
At I mpUfipowa A* fXcuff. Snpli. Ant. 1094. ^fvAof cV friiXif XacrtK. 
fiurip. Ore^t. 163. adnata ftdua t6t ftp tXoKtP, See aUo Ag. 597> 
Ou 883. (Kl.) 

91. tfapaxcnvdt'i'n'/u'i'oy. boldly said, hazarded. Cf. no3 in Vcsp. 6. ; 
' ftod to the examples there given, add LuDgin. XXXI I. 3. tlturrapa- 

^H[ <>3- " oWfftit Alos datfurnov.'* The poet by his diaiioutive makes 
I^Hlill more appurent the meanness of an expression in the " Mela- 
^^Ipppe Sapiens" of Euri])ides : oiiuvftt d* ip6y aWtp'. oUiivip Ai6k. Cf. 
' infr, 302. and Arist. 'Hies. 372. 

lb. " xf"^*^^ noia." Enrip. Alex. fr. 2!. xai xpovov irpoG(iatv4 novs. 
OACch. oHo. Kpinrriuoi'tri dc ttockiXcof | ^apitv xpovov iroHa. (The learned 

Bovckhr therefore, in his IVine. Gr. Tr. p. 306. has said, a little 
un^imrdedly — '* Aristophanes, quum in Ranaa e Bacchis multa 
traowferre liceret, nihil omnino ex iis mutuatus est, cujus quidem 
adhuo Tesligium superessei : quod si seciis haberet," fcc") 

94-95. These two veri*e8 appear to be a periphrasis of the well- 
knowo verse in the HippoIytuB of Euripides, 608. 17 yXHto-v o^u^o;^*, 
^ fl^ fffpffv av<apoTQv . Fi»r numerous refereuces to this verse by an- 
cient ivrilera, see Monk's Hippol. in loc. 

94. Ko^ irpat¥ ftc. TfXtioav, viclims perfect and without blemish. 
(Cf. II. I. 66. XXIV. 34. See aUo Pint. 820. Soph. Trach. 763.) 
Dem. 1365, 17. npoKoXoiivrat ai'T6w op6<Tai Kaff Upiav Twktitav. Andoc. 
I 3» ^O. ravra di optMravrtav ^ \6r)vmoi airarrc; xaff ItpoiV T*\tita¥. 

95.-yX«TTui' iiriopK. linguam ^uir seorsim a menttjuravit. Tii. The 
verb tmopKuy, though more commonly signifying to sttear falsely, 
BoniclifDea, as the learned writer observes, implies merely to 

96. dptiTirtuf, cum ace. vel dat. vKsch. Suppl. 642. KaOapo'uri ^poU 
Afovc dfMiToyTaL. Soph. Aj. 584. oil yiip p! dpifTKtiykHxTad aw, Eurip. 
Uippol. 184. olJW <r' upt'tTKti TO napcv. cum dat. Soph. AJ. I 243. h 
ro«s VQXXuif^ui' fjpttjKfv KptraU. Eurip. Here. Fur. 814. «i ri dimaiai' 

0wctt fr" 


lb. pff oXXu irXriv r/ paivopat. Cf. infr. 715. An elliptic expros- 




HP. ^ firfP KoffaXd y i<rnv^ if kw. coi SokcL 

AI. " fJiT) TOP €fXOy OIKU VOVP"" tX^'S" y«P OIKUIP. 

HP. KOI fjirjp aT€)(PW y€ Trafiiropyjpa (paiueTCU. 

Al. Shttvuv fx€ Si8aaK€. aA. ircpi 4^ov S ovSeh 

Aoyoy. i"o 

sion, which may perhaps be filled up an follows : ftfi (Xc'yr) <ri d< 

TavT dpttTKU : (iX^ti {\tyt) on wXtiv fj ftatvoftat. Si.) tlifr. 7^9* t^H 
(Xryw) ;^ai/jfK ; dAAn (X/ye) or* cVoflTcvfir Jtocw. See also infr. 582. 

97. KJ3aXa» mere impertuienciea, buffooneries. Cf. nos in Eq. 


lb. i^ /i^v, nihUominus tamm. Blomf. in Prom. p. 195. Plut. 608. 
ij fi^y vfit'tt y tTi fi fvrav&ol | fjuTaTri^^j/ttrdov, 

98. " ^17 Tov f^^v oUu voiy.'* We have here some of the 6rei- 
fruiis of Harrhus*H reading, the scnarius hitherto being a quotation 
from the Androiuedu, where the entire verse stands f*^ tAv r^6v oUtt 
rovv* «'y« yii/t apnitTUi. The equivoque is suiricienlly obvinua : Vh not 
take upon youmeif ihe tfirerthn of my mxnd ; you hnvf a hottse, i. e. a 
mind, irhich needs its own director; or, Anstcer for your own modes of 
thifikmg, not for mine. To the examples which Thiersch has given 
of oiKtov oU§7v, Homum administrare, ni^t domum habititre, as is too 
often translated, add -I'lsch. Eum. 624. firttT (v'Xpyfi Sw/ior' ^ olir^- 
0(t TtaTpi'ti ; Eliirip. rhren. 49f>. oUr'tv Ji* rav t^ov oiKov ava ftipot Xa- 
^u>v. lb. ] 246. Knv fio/ KTovu Toi'd\ oIkov otn7(ru pApov- Hippul. 1014. 

5 afiv olxiivtw dofiov ... (?r^XTria-n ; Here. Fnr. 1364, y^ 6' f-n-fjv Kpxn^i 
ptKpovi, oiKtt "rtS^iv TtivK , Androm. 34^. oh ^p^pttv iKifionrtv oitcov~ 
pfv TToXci'. ,S^-< ^'^'^ \ ^ ^^^ afiov outoy oiK^trri; fAoXav | dfvp*^ Iph. 
An!. 3.V • ***'X* ^*»*^ i ^"*' ff^'v r)i<fiv otKov ovK eatrofiat ; Phrix. fr, 6. 
ywtj yitp €¥ Kiucoia-t KOt v6itoi<s rrotrtt [ tjHtinov fW*, JJu/xur* ^v oIk^ icaXwf. 
Plain Mono, 71,0. otl &€i airtjv ttjv ohciav ev olk«iv. Lach. J 85, a. vat 

6 ouor rnv vnTpf>v ovrats ntKij(rrTnt. Heoce llic occasional nni"D of 
froXcc and oJicoff, Eurip. Anliop. fr. 31, yvmprj yhp ayJipiir tv fxiv oixovV' 
rai TTaXfJC, I wZ 6* oucos. IsoC. I 8, d. oucrt tt}v iroXtv Sfiolcat! ^tmrp t6» 
itiiTpaov oiKov. 

99. drc;^ro)ff, altogether. M&tth. Gr. Gr. \. 24. 

100. hetmff'iv pt 3i'in<r«, (said tauntingly, as if Hercules were fit 
for nolhhiK h\it to give lessons in full feedinj^.) The Hercules 
Goiiniinrifi mnst probably t)c'longed to the very infancy of the 
dranm, when to relieve the ditliyrambic hymn, it was customary to 
iniroduf'e, not a dialogue, but a sinj^le "^ detached chiirarter, who 
proclaimed himself, •* I am the x-aliaut Tlieseus, who did so aod 
so." •• 1 am the «age Tiresias^ who knew the flight of birds j'* or. 

1 Thi» nmse of rt'fferf appcara to give fur mtire spirit to this excUmatioii of the 
Eriiinyci, tliau that of habitorCf which Sdiutz in his LalJn, and AliLUer in his 
Oermau iranxlatiim, fpTP. 
ni Cf. Kttiin(fiesser'8 '* BUhne In Athen.** pp. 14, 35, 39, &c. 


Al. oAA' (Dirrrcp ?v€Ka rrjvBe rrjp uKnnjv v)(<ov 
jfXBov Kara <tj]V fjLi}i7}aiu^ Iva /xoi rov9 ^Vouy 
TOW vov^ (jipduTeuis^ el Seoi^rji/y own av 


Biicnce having become tired of Bacchic lovcit and potations 

•* Alcides am I, 
Whose mominfiT supply 

Was a lambkin, a ewe, or a weiher; 
But lest mother or son 
Should feci them untiune. 

Most timen I eat all three "^ together. 

How closely the character kept possession of the comic and " satyro- 
couiic MfljU^e, i.s too well known to require dilating upon ; but to 
enter iiitti a full sense of the gnslu, with uhicb tbesc representa- 
tious of llie physical enjoyments of Hercules uerc received, wc 
must bear in minil. that perhaps a few hours previously, the bodily 
piu^s and mental suflerings uf this true emblem of mortHltty — 
half human, half divine — bad been held up before the audience in 
Ruch Ixenienduus display of tragic power, as the ** Traehinia;" of 
Sophocles and ihe " Hercules Furcns" of Euripides present to 
us. After such an exhibition, what must have been the converse 
delight of a play, which brought, as the present does, buth the 
eating and drinlnn^ demi-god into juxta-position } 

Those who had feasted, new repasts explore, 
And those who drank, drank deeper than before. 

loi. fftfrwj, dress, apparatus, ornament, &e. Soph. tKd. Col. 555. 
iTKrv^ rt ydjM^t, Kat r^ dvarqyov xapa | di^XoOrov, EuHp. ^UJlpl. 1064. 
<wvff T]5A< ToO x^P**' toff^fir dtfias ; Kbes. ao2. <tk€vjj irprrrovruv nitfi.' 
t'fi&f KoBd^fMi. In the great Ptolemaic pomp of Hacchus, the word 
occurs in the description of the elephant, which with a smait satyr 
of five cubit* high for its rider, follows a Bacchus of twelve cubits 
ht^, also seated on an elephant, the riders and their steeds being 
alike of gold : 6 it Ac'^ac trnn^v ii^t XP^^*'' '^^^ ^'p'^ ^^ "^P^XV^*^ 
Kta-ff%ith¥ xf^*'^^" trrii^avov. Athen. V. hod. d. 

t03. ttar^ aijv ^i/i^aiv, in imitation of you. 

* How curly thp mtiit)^ prtipeti.iitiV^ uf Ileroilrx Hif\fli)pnl tlitmuteUet, may be 
fuoied from ihr provUion maJc for him in tite 'H/mUAmtnoi tif TlHKicrilus : 

ittiffav a, icpitx t' oirro, nol *y Koyi^ M^T^' Aproi 
LatpiKii. Theoi;. Id. XXIV. 1,13. 

■ Fram dw few rra^K<ntii remuiiung, it i» clear tliat ilie 
I** of Hophodet wan a pvrforniunce of thin kind. 

JHerculc* ud Tamo- 



€\p<o roffy -fiutK riXO^s hn tov Kep^poi^^ 

T0VT0V9 (f>pa<TOU /XOlj XlfX€Va9, dpTOTTCoXlOj 

TroAeis*, SiouTa^y navSoKivrpia?^ ottov 

1 04. fVl rhy Kipfitpav, ad abducendum Cerberuni. As illustrations of 
this force of the preposition <iri, cf sup. 63. infr. 451. 541.: see also 
./£scb. Ch. 471. Eurip. Andn»m,73.43o. On the symbolical nieao- 
in^ of this descent of Hercules to the lower world, sec Creuzer II. 
a52,sq. The fact itself, and its object, arc frequently alluded to in the 
Hercules Kur. of Kuripides, 33. t6 XoiaOiov d*. Tatvapov 61A trrofAa | 
^^TjK «c ^dov, TOV rpitr^fuiToy Kvva | tit fftats aya^iav. 6 1 3. vat Bijpa y* 
cV <fws Toir rpiKpoMov tfyoyov, ] 273. jcrir ptKpoifS ai^ifirfv^ I ^iov nx-Xtt- 
pltv Kx/ya rpUpavQV tit <j)Qot | otrun irop€v<raifi' . See also 426. 1390. 

1 05. dpTcmwXin, baker/ shops, bread-market. 

106. vopMia, brothels. It was an essential point tu call early and 
frequent attention to this pan of the Bacchic character, that the 
consequences of grafting bis rites on the Bleusinian miglit be more 
(lialinctly seen. 

lb. m-uwavXat, resting -phces. Plat. 7 Rep. 532, e. woTrcp o^if ara- 
maxika. ] Lep. 625, b. dvaTravXa* aicmpat. Cf. intV. 177. 187. 

lb. tKTponm, diverticula ; deviati^tns from the beaten road, whe- 
ther for security, repose, or pleasure. .-Esch. Proni. Vinct. 949. 
fiSx^tiV tKTponf). Eurip. Hhes. 8S4. vtKpovs \ ^an-mv ntXrCfiv XatrtftO' 
povs vpAs tKTpoTTat. Scc bIso Blonof. Gloss, iu Ag. in v. iiarArwt 
p. 163. 

lb. Kfi^vat, favourite resting-places in hot countries. Hence the 
admonition of Agamemnon to bis messenger, (Eurip. Iph. Aul. 

141.), pi} vvVf pJjT oKaaaiitit tfou | cp^i'af, pi^ff tVvu 0*^X^3^- HenCC 

also in the account of ClytemnesiraV journey to m*;ei her hus- 
band in the same play, wc find the following beautiful deHcrip 
lion : 

'AXX* i>s pwtpaf (TtivoVf fi^pxrroy trdpa 
KpTjvTjv atmylfvxowrt &ij}iVTTovu ^atrtit, 
avTai T« irwXoi r'. fir di \iipvv<t)v x^^l^ 
KoSilptv avrat, m (iopia ytva-aiaTo. 420-3. 

107. litairm, ctrrifirula^ Dind. perhaps places for occasional re- 
freshment, in opposition to the jraw»flo;^fior, or inn, i. e. the more 
pcrmaneni place of abode. 

lb. TTav&uKfvi, a male, {Luke x. 35.) ntw^oKrvrpia^ a female iflii- 
kerper, Plut. 416. iroi-floicevTpinv 7 XfjcttfoffftiXtv. That such establish- 
ments were >;enerally kept by femnle.s in the earlier ages of the world, 
the editor docsn<>t umlbrtuke to say. The attempt to maintain such 
an opinion by the instance of Rnhab would manifestly be wrongs 

the word H^iT attached to her name bearing no such significalion. 
See Gesenius in voce. For two specimens of the breed, see infr. 
5'3» »q- 




Kopei^ oXtyurroi, SA. Trtpi ifiov S otfSet^ Aoyw. 
HP. (o o^erAw, roA/ii^o'ciy yap Uvai ; AL xcu av y€ 
firjSiv ert irpo^ ratrr', oAAa <f>pa^f Ttav oS^v no 

OTTCtfS* ra^UTT d.(f>l^fuff W AiSoV KOTW' 

Ktu ftqT€ dfpfLTjv pjf ayoM •>\nj\paif (ppacrj)^, 

HP. <f>€p€ Sj]^ Tit/ cuntay croi (ppaao) irp<im}v ; nva ; 

/i/oE puep yap forw otto KaXo) Ktu Opavtov^ 

KpffidercufTi aavTov, AL Travc, Trvtyripav Xfyus, 1 15 

108. Kupiis. Bartboldy, as was observed in a furmer play. 
speaks of the inflictions exercised by these as very annoying. 
From the increased facilities of intercourse between Athens and 
London, many of my readers will perhaps soon be able to speak 
from personal experience on the subject. 

lb. liXiyurroi. Plut. 63d. fitfAVtmXrj^POi . . cir' oktyiaroit oX^rrcMt. 

Matth. Gr. Gr. §. 131. 

109. trxirXtoi («x**> *'"X'*'')« 9***^ of /7frsow, who support or nnder- 
taJce something bold, rash, fearless, mischievous, with the collateral 
idea of e\cess, monstrosity, frighlfulness. mischief-bringing. Fre- 
quent iti Homer. From a pa-'ssagc in the Iliad (X. 164), where 
Nestor, on account of his unwearied activity, is termed trxcrXioE, the 
word has derived a meaning of trretched, miserabie, unhappy, a 
meaning unknown to Humer, but frequent in Altic writers. 
.£»chyl. Prom. V. 665. Soph. Ant. 47. 886. Phil. 369. 9;;o. Eurip. 
Ale. 757. 840. Ilec. 771. et alibi. Plat. lo Leg. 903. c. (The 
sturdy hero of the twelve labours u^in looks with astonishment at 
the little, fat, florid, would-be descendant to Hades.) 

Jb. Mu av •)«, FluC I 03. Koi ov y, liin'i^Xw k. t. «. 

110. ftrj^iv rri irpoc ravra sc. tf}pa^t. 

lb. rwf odwp, tcith regard lo the roads, tftxa to be supplied : at 
i^XP^ (infr. 113.) supply Mv, 

I 14. airo, signifying the means, or implement, by which a thing 
ia dof1<t. II. XXIV. 6o5' tovs ftir 'AirJAAo^v Tr/f^t^c un apyvp€oto jitoia, 
Infr. ■ 165. afro XrfKvSiov ffov rov( npo\6yovt liia<f>$fpa», 

lb. KoXwt, gen. KaXta, ace. icuA(u»', a rope. Eq. 756. nam xaXvy 
tf^'mi. Pax. 457. Koray* Tolrrtv KdXwf. 

lb. 0paMiotf, (dim. of 6puuos, Plut. 541.) ihe bench, which the 
person about to suspend himself kicks from under his feet as soon 
m» the fatal noose has been applied. 

115. KptfAuffvyui. Eurip. llipp. I 353. «I yi/i'uuca>f rrav Kp«tintT$»ir) 

>«. Uaccll. 1 338. ur av Kp€fia(7&f}. 

lb. irmf : act. f(»r middle Yr»ice. infr. 360. Eccl. 160. Pae. 336. 

ipb. Phil. 1375. irnO«, /at; AVf/jc nipa. See also Heind. ad PIftt. 

iicdr. §.5. 

lb. wvtytipap (sc. oiw) Xf'ycif, you mention a road, which has both 



HP. dAA' Smv ocrpanros ^vpto^o^ rerfnyL^irq, 
■q Sia Oueia^, AI. apa ko>vuov Xiy€t9 ; 
HP. ftaAiora ye, AL y\fv')(pav ye Kou 8v<r)(fL^pov' 
€v0v^ yap irroTrqypva-i roPTLKirqpxa, 

heat (frviyoj. Av. 7^7* ^*t' XPI^^^ ••• t*^P^1? rrvfyci. 1091. oCd* 
ci5 B'Pfi^ jiTiyovr ^^c airrie n^Xovy^c BaXirtt. Plat. 10 Rep. 611, a. 
6ta Kavfiar6i rr fcai nfiyovi dtiyov) and suffocation {nviyfUf) i\\ it. 

I 1 6. ^iJpro^ff, short, ."Ksch. Pers. 704. ^7^1 /injeioT^^ fxv&ov, 
nWa trvirrofxo¥ "Kiyiav. Soph. (£<i. Col. 1579. (vi/To^oardriix fui* av 
'rv;^oi/i( Xi|aff. (Kd. Tyr. 710. f^avSi hi troi frrjfitla ra>»'dr (ri/vrofxa, Antig. 
446. oxi fl', <?fr« /Aoi, /iij /i^X'^^i oAXA crviTo/jia. Eurip. Her. 784. 
fiiiBovt trvmofHtfTaTovs liKvtiv, Arist. Tlie». 1 78. ., t'v fipaxti KoXXof^ 
KaXut oi6s Tt <rvvTtfivtiv \6yovv, Eurip. Hec I » 54. airayra ravra £i/vrf- 
fiQtv *yw <ftftaam. For ihe nord JTp«rtrr;r, see nos in Nub. 77. 

lb. TtTpifitifVT), well-beaten, baid of roads, (Eurip. Hec. uaa. 
f&ftaa, fxj) — Gpfl'injc ir«Ata rp^onv. Or. 135*- "/"'f'Jp? rpt^ov. Elect. 
103. ff«ii rpi^ov Tvvd' X)(voi aWa^atfttOa. PhoEIl. 93* M^ '"'^ jroXtrir «V 
TpiJS^(j}avTa(«rM)^ and uf hemlock pounded in a mortar. (Plat, Photon, 
116, d. rVe-ycfiTtoi rij rit (fnip^axop, «i TfrpiTrrai. 1 1 7t &■ fo^ <rv;|fi^i» XP*^ 
w>i' Hiarpiy^af TfKtv tiy<i>v riiv ^Wovra hwrtiv rh ijtappoKov, iv kvXIki t^porra 
Ttrptppivop, Plut. Phoc. 36. rrrci fit Botfltinroc tv ra dccr/Aurijpitt) -ycvrf- 
/icru):, cfjl ru Kait^ttov n/MJy rpifio^ifav, TyoJwcrct, k. r, X.} : SCC al^K) 
Tlieaphr. 11. Plniil. IX. 17, Pliny, 25, 95. 

117. Ko>v(io», hemlock. 

Tpimv KaK^f ytwv ^v iXiirff air^ n iratr ura^nj, 

Tiji' ►-aCi' 5ff(Dr Ta;ft(rTn raii' Knjcatv frn-aXXrry^vai. 

See Dind. in Fr. Arisloph. II. 661. (Oxf. ed.) 

Passow, in his notice of ibis word, refers to " Dresig de cicuia. 
Athenicni^ium pituu publica. Lips. 1734." 

1 I 8. jMoXiffra y*. Soph. CEd. T yr. 993. 'Ay. rj ptjrvv ; 9 ov\t dtfuror 
(IXXof ct'ScVat ; Oi. fj.d\ia-Ta ye. Eurip. llel. 858. 3ui di r^f *fi.f\» J ot* 
o^wtru KarBayt'ty hupapr <yw ; ^uxKitrra ye. 

lb. fivo'xfi^cprti', icinfry, exposed to storms. ACsch. Prom. Vinct. 15. 
<^payyi vp^^ dv(rxfipfp<^, (where sec Blomf. in Gloss.) 771* ivtrx*^' 
fitpov wAayot. Eurip. Alc- 68. eV Tuir<iiv dvtrxupfptav. fr. — . 
n€Tpoi* 6viT\9ipfpov. Cresjihunt. fr. 1-7. <V iri'oaTo-i ;(ttV<""or dvtrx'^P*' 
pov. (A cold shudder, and a siifl'encd le^. which Bacchus pro- 
trudes, fihew that he fully understands the road here pointed out, 
and — ^eschewy it.) 

119. QTroirriyvvvat^ to freeze, to Stiffen with cold; (alluding lo ihe 
mode in which the eflcct& of hemlock worked, beginning al Ihe 
extremilieji.) The process is thus described in (he case of Socrates : 
Plat. Pheedon, 1 1 7- C. o fit nrpitTnO^v, «V«^ij oi ^pi/wir^ni «(f}rj ra iXKtXfj, 
KOTtKXidri vnTiof oi/rQ> yiip (KtXfvtp o tlvffpwnot, ical apa ef^aimi^tvos 
mrrov olros 6 dour r^ tf>dppaKoy, dioXtfrwr )^t6vov tirt(rK6ir€i Toi>( irodor mi 


HP. ^OLfAei Ta)(€uw kcu Karcurn} aoi (f)p€UT(oi lao 

^I. ^7 Tov Ai'*, <Lf OKTO? y€ /it) ^aSiaTtKOVu 
HP. KaOlfmvaov pvv is Kepayneocoi/. AI. €ira rt ; 
HP. opafias cTTt roi/ irvpyoif rov vyjnjXof AI, Ti 

HP. a(pu^vr)v TT^v XafiiraS iurevOev de£y 

ri trg/Xtj, jcffircira oxft6^pa niitrat avrov r6v fn^ ffpm ct aitr$avoiTO' 6 i" 
oifK (<^. ml /irro rovro a2<?(S roc Kviffias' tcni fTraviotr ouro>r 'J/'^" <V(* 
dturwro oTi ^iu;i(oiTii rr Ka\ wijywTn. Cf. .li^liau H, A. IV. 23. From 
the cold Dntiire of hemlock^ ablution with it scernii to hare been 
considered as a help lo continence : hence the hiempbant, and 
other priests of Ceres, washed themselves witli it. CreuK. IV. 482. 
lb. aifTutyTjfixa (arrt, KvrjfAij) Hhin-bones, as opposite to the calif of 
the leg. Plut. 7^4* •'i^TTOvin yhfi koI (fiXoxrt Tutn-iianjfua. 

! 20. jSo^Xfi . . <^/>a(TM. To instances of this formula given in 
former plays, add Eurip. Phccn. 933. ^oCXti vapovros B^nl <ro« ToOrtw 
'0pa<rw ; lb. 734. fiovXtt rpdrra^t 9^^ 6dovi: nKkas rtvds ; Cycl. 149. 
j3ovA<i <rt ytvtrat irpotTOP oKparov p.edv ; Soph. l*hil. 7^^- ^ovXtt \d^<afiat 
nii 0iy» rt aov ; So ahfO 6i\us puivca^tv ; Supb. Electr. 80. Cf. infr. 

!b- Koraynjt, doitn-hill. Eufip. Rbes. 318. ^piru KOTnwnjs <TVfiif>opii 
Ttpot Taya$6y. Plat, 'I'im. 77, d. aei KorayTtv, oppoiiite to avails, up- 
hiil. Plat. 3 Rep. 364, d. oJiAt ^'pn rt Kal tivayiyff. 5 ^-^g- 7.i-. C. 
Wftot iri^Xa Noi aFaimj. (The adjective npoa-dvrrji occiirs Eurip. 
Med. 306. 382. Orest. 788. Iph. Tuur. 1012.) 

12 1. oifToj fiaiifTTiKovt Hc. pov, as I am not much Jilted for walk- 

122. KnBtpmttrop, descend. (Hercules .speaks as one standing on 
ft higher ground than the place alluded to.) 

lb. «\ KtpapdK^v. The Scholiast understands the Ccrami- 
ctiii trithin the city. A passage from I'ausanias, which will pre- 
sently be quoted, shewa, as Thiersch observes, that the Ccramicus 
without the city is here meant. 

\ 24. a<f>i€fMVTjw rj}v \npirahn. From the Scholiast and Pausanias 
we lenm that three torch-courses were held in the Cernmieus, 
one in honour of Minerva, another in honour of Vulcan, a third in 
memory of Prometheus. The narrative of Pausanias concerning 
the last of the tlirce is as follows : " In the Academy there is an 
allw of Prometheus, From this altar men run to the city hearing 
lighted torches. (The course therefore began from the Academy, 
proceeded through the Ceramicus, and tended ttnrards the city.) 
Tlie object of the contest is to keep the torch still burning. If this 
is extingui*thed during the course, the first runner gains no victoryi 
«od the torch h banded over to the second. If he cannot keep it 
lighted, the third runner is the victor : but if none succeeds in the 



KchreiT (TT^tSap (^Hktip o'l 0€cofX€ifOtj 125 

" tivcu^* t6& tii^ai Koi tri) aavrov^ AI. Trot ; HP. Kariti. 
AI, cxAA' airoX€(Toufi atf iyK€(paAov dpm 860, 

oliject proposed, the victor)- is adjudged to no one." The signal 
for commencing the race was given by throwing down a torch from 
the high lower alluded to in ver. 133. (Scrol. iv rfj at^trni r^s Xa/i- 

?li Toirra irpA tow evptB^vat napa TvpoTjvols rrjv ^otiXmyyo.) Cf. infr. 
1052. sq. 

1 16. fiwii, infin. nor. 2. of Uvat, to let fail, to cast. (Od. XVI. 190. 
tcaU fi< rrapft^y | ^dicpvov ^Kt x"t*^C*' XXH. 84. cV d' apa X'H***^ I 
<Paayapn» ^Kt j^d/infr. XII. 442. IjKa S' tyili KoBi/irtpBt rrodas Koi xVpt 
if>fpf<r&ai. Cf. 11. XXI. 120. Sopll. Trach. 273. dir axpas $« 
(Ipbitum sc.) vvpyoatovs n-Xoxtlr.) Supply kcXcvoi. .'1^*ich. Suppl. 
967. roiupflf Tvyxovoyrar, tvyrpv/^inj 0pvoc | X"P**' o't^fc&ai n/iturf- 
pav tpnv, (see Scholefield.) 'J'he whole passage may be thus ren- 
dered : •* From this tuwcr {*vTfv$tv) observe the throwing down of 
the torch, and when the spectators cry *' let/ali/' then do you let 
yourself fall down from the tower." " And that," replies Hacchus. 
will be the loss to me o( my brains, and the two membranes {Bptu 
dvo) which enclose those brains ^ therefore. I'll none of Mi> road." 

lb. •* Verba T6£f tlvm koI uv vavritv ollerunlur in Hortis Adoni- 
dis." DiN'D. ^\\\))Ay KtXtCov, you are recommended. 

127. 6ptov, a jig. leaf ; also a dish composed of lard, bouey. eggs, 
and wheaten flour, which being wrapped up in fig-leaves was thus 
roasted and served np. Sometimes, according to the Scholiast, 
braias were added to the other iitgredteuts, or roasted by them- 
selves in fig-leaves. Tlie equivoque is to the resemblance between 
fig-leaves and the membranes of the human head. 

lb. iyK€(PaXos {Kftpakrj), Alhen. 65, f, iyK€<f><iKoi \olpeioi. toOtw* 
rjpiii ia&ifiv oiiK tiiav ol <piX0a-o<pot, (bdtTKoyrrs rove aur&ii' ^traXapjidvorTat 
ttTov Kai Kvdpoiv rpoaytiv^ it€<f>aX^y T€ ov roKi^uf poyoy, oXXu xal rwf uA^wv 
^^TjXcav ovfifva -yui'V Ton* apxa'ifov ^t^ptimtvt\i flin ri rav alff$T}(Ttis awavat 
cjIffdiM (¥ aiTw (ivm. *AiroXXod<upof fi* & *A0rjvaios ovd* ovapd^iw rira rwr 
TraXaiuiv, <f}ri<riv, tyK9<PaXov icfit £o4^kX«u yoCv, tv Tpaxtviatt^ frot^cruvra 
Tov 'HpaicXca piirrovvra t6v Atj^ov «V &dXacra-uv, ovit ovopda-ai iyK^fftaXov^ 
aX\a KevKOP pLVfXov ; €KKXivovTa t6 prj oiwpa^optvoV 


Kopris df Xrf Kor pvtX6v /x/iatVrt, pitnv 
Kparhs iiatnrapipTot tup^tr^s ff 6po\f 


o Both cuvLoms are slluded u* in three ver«ei of the rhrentsiM of Euripidah 
which, o« far as I am ftwaw, have not li*en fully px|>ljiir»ed hy the couunentvtort. 
I Had none nt leant in Pni-ann or Scholefield. 




ovK oj/ paStacufu ttjv 68oi/ ravrqu, H P. ri 8ai ; 

£kl. rjiTirfp (TV rare KarrjXdis, HP. aAA' 6 nXovy 

(V0V9 yap eirl XlfjLinjv pjeya\i]v ^^cy irdm) 130 

i^vaaov. AI. ^iTa irw TrepauoOi^ao^uu ; 

nt rot r^XAa titapprjliTjt' oyo/ioaaira. Kat "EifpiTrt^rji dc, r^f '£iea^);f ^p^- 

^vtrrrfpf, Kpaj6v wf cr' ttttipiv affki<o% 
^^^L ^"X'7 Tarp^, AoftoL frvpytu/xara, 

^^^^^^ iv friJXX* ixifntva ij rciroOfra ^6<rrpvxov^ 

^^^^^^^ <f>iXTjfAaaiV T Tftaxtv' tv&tv «Kye\a 

^^^^^^r oarintv payiyraty <^6i'OS, iv altrxpa p^ Xryw. 

Tf rycc^XoV (fnfvty' 

. . . 01*4* ov ryicr^aXop taBtov XiVoi. 
ui 'Apurrof^vi/ff 

.«. ci7roX4crai/i ov tyKfKJMkov Bpiat dw. 

€01 PnXXoi. AfVKOV nui/ &»* fli; /IVfXof tiptJKOiS Sor^JcX^C TTDll^TUUf* Gupt- 

friAi^v r«, r^ r^r irpocni^fax ridcx^cV tnl ai<Tj(p&v ov)( aipovpspot tvapyat 
*pi^€iyi<TatttfiTi\tio<Ttv a>r cfJofXcro. 

1 2S. 3o8iC*ii' odoK. 'ihe youngest student will perhaps hardly 
excuse me f<ir illustrating this, uiid its co^^mitu Atticisms; but 
loniething i» jtpitned in tlie present play hy brini;ing collective 
pAsaages uf the Greek dramas as much as possible before his eyes. 
ifisch. Ag. 79. rpiVoAar o3ov( aTttx«t. 9SS- 'C'* &p^vo¥. Pers. 146. 
frf^^fttvot artyuf. 3 1 O. ir^di;^ . . ut^^Xaro. ^ept. C. Xh. 4^3. Kktfjia- 
coff npefaati^a<rnt artij^tt. £um. 3. t^tro fiamt'iov. 75. ^tffits x$6va. 
Prom. V inct. 9,^5. ntativ VT^para. I OI 3. ptpj}vait yotrov. Soph. (Kd. 
Tyr. 3. fdpoc 0od^tty. Cut. 1 165. fr^aAucwi' tdpav. Aiitig. 9b8. ^mif 
Jddr. 1313. KiKrvdoy tpiT€%i'. CEd. Col. 30. vpoartWttrdai odor. Eurip. 
Hippol. 830. frr)itf$A* 6ppav. Electr. 94. ^liyto fr6da. 1053. €Tpf(p6ijy 
(6d^) ^pfrrp ^v voptCfftpav. Rhes. 547. ^p*'ya xoiraf. Phoen. 300. yo- 
ivir«r«ic tdpai npotrtTtrvui. And. l 1 7< ddtrtlioy Baatrtiv. Add jii^sch. 
Prom. Vinci. 397. Ag. 176. 691. 799. 141 1-13. (Kl.) Soph. CEd. 
Tyr. 67. Antlg. 807. 1045. Trach. 876. Eurip. Aleest. 272. Electr. 
1183. Hei. 905. \\\y. Androni. 1 139. Suppl. 997. 999. Heracl. 
77. Medea 1063. Ion 1496. 1500. 

131. a^vatroy. .'Kftch. Snppl. 465. u&vtrtTQy ntKayot. 104a. rt hi 
fuXXm <ppiya ^lay | xaBopav, 6^|f^v ti^va-trov ; Eurip. Phtcn. I599* *'^ 
ii^tunra jifaff^uiru. (The bantering tone of Hercules is here ex* 
rhsnged for one of great solemnity, in order to play upon the fears 
uf 15«ccbus.) 

P Aming irboRi may be mtintioncd EurrpMrn hitnadf, in irhnae renuink ihc 
v«fd 4yn4^m\oi WKun three times. Hippol. 1349. Cycl. 403. The*, fr 1,3. 



HP. iv Trkotapicp Tvvvoxrr<fi tr dtn^p ytpwf 

vavn]s Scd^i Sv* oySoAoj fnaOov Xa^p. 

AI. ^5. fliff /xeya dvpoxrOov 7rcu/Ta\ov rct> 8v o/SoXjO). 

TTWff riKdirriv KOKua^ ; HP, Qrfaiv^ rjyayeu. 135 


lb. irrpatoiJF. Od. XXIV. 436. dXX' Xofuv, fuf <p$iu<rt mpatntdiyrtt 

1 3 3. rwraiT^i, no bigger than this, (mgnifies its size by a gesture.) 
Cf. nos in Nub. 846. Thiersch quotes* in proof of ibe lightness uf 
the boat, 

gtmul Bccipit aWeo 
in^entem ^ncam, gemuit sub pondere cyraba 
sutilis, et raultam accepit rimosii paludem. 

Aintid. VI. 413. 

lb. dy^p vavrrjt, a 8Qilor~ttuin, infr. 974. ilvdpa iroiTfrijif. JE,Sch. 
Pcrs. 381. yav^TTjs dyffp. Eum. 735. dvifp vpVfunjrT)^. Suppl. 173. 
vavtcXrjpos iraTifp. 257. <f*a>f lrtTp6T. Eurip. Uec. 641. dvr/p fiaiTat. 
909. vQVTov oiiiSoy, Soph. (£d. Tyr. 938. yt/v^ M>ji^y>> ^'f* infr. 


133. Hia^i. Od. XX. 187. jrop^/irj*i" B ftpa ruvs y« Uttfyttyop. 

Ih. Hv vfioXij futrBiip Xa^w, As Charon's tee is represented by 
most writers, ns consisling of one obol only, some controversy has 
arisen, uhy two are here menliuiied. The dicastio fee, the eccle- 
siajttic. and the j^-atuity for admission to the theatres have been 
Bcvemlly called in tu explain the dithculty. The allusion is most 
probably to one of the two former, whicb» according to Brunck, 
was sometimes two, sometimes three obols, according as ibc 
poverty or abundance of the public treasury admitted. At the 
lime the Frogs was acted, the fee must probably consisted of two 
obols only. Sec also Conx and Welcker's notes on the subject. 

134. fJLtya hi>va<r&ov. ^'Eftch. Eunien. 910. p.iyn ytip Hvvarai \ v6rvi 
*Kpt¥ifi TTapd r' tlBavuTOUt ! roir & imii yaiav. Eurip. Hel. 1374- f^^T" 

135. Qriatvtrjyaytv. In its primary and apparent sense, as passage* 
money for Charon when he had to be ferried over with Pirithousin 
their joint descent to Hades ; in its secondary and covert sense, in 
allusion to 'J'heseus, as the original founder of popular institutions 
in Athens, and consequently the subsequent author, as it were, of 
the two obols, referred to in the preceding note. To achieve the 
latter joke, the poet advances the passage-money to two obols, 
thou;;h the popular belief confined it to one. The character of 
Theseus was naturally a favourite with the tragic writers, (see the 
CKd. Col. <»f Sophocles, ihc Supphces, and Her. Fur. of Euripides) ; 
but could it possibly be as a tragedian, that the latter introduces a 
clown, thus expressing his name by the letters of which it is com- 
posed ? (Tlie fragments remaining of his Theseus give no indica- 
tion of its being a satyro-comic performance.) , 


liera ravr o(f>€i9 kcu ffrjpi^ o^ei fxvpia 
Sttvorara, AI. fir} fi eKTrXrp^e^ fxijSe 8eip.aTov' 
yap /x' airoTpt^u^. HP. ^tra ^op^opov iroAvv 

{yia ni^KU ypaftfiartav ftiv ovk iS^f, 
fAOfX^f Ac Xc^w Ka\ <ra(f)TJ rtKftripia. 
rvicXor Tis Qir T6ptnna'iv tKfifrpoCpfVos' 
oCrot a* tx,fi trrjfieiov iv pLttra traffitt. 
tA d«irrf/x>y 8« wpatra fUv ypappai ivo' 
TovTOff dieipyti b' «V fiearais oXXt; fua. 
rpiTov i< ^aTpvx6t rit i>i tlKiypieyot, 
TO d' ai rrraprov ^i' fiiv fir opdifv ^^ 
Xo^i 8' <ir* avrrjs rptls KaTtfrrrfpiypivai 
*ialv. rh TTfpjrroy d* ovk iv tiifutptt tftpaaai' 
ypafA^l yap tltnv «V diecrruTuv duo, 
atrtxt dc avvrpi^awTw tit fiiav ^aaiv, 
rii koitr$wf di r^ rpiTt^ wpotrtp^tpii, 

Thcstfus Eiirip. fr. 7. 

36. Hercules, who had made llie preceding observation in a 
bantering lone, here resumes his solemn one. 

137. *ir7rX^ff<rfii'. vK^cb. I'ers. 295. fiufrnjuo* tieirfirXrfyfidyrf kokoU. 
8opb. Trach. 34. tKrrtirXrjyfiiyTf <^^<p. Eiirip. Hippot. 938. *k tm 
wiirXrfyftai' troi yAp f'KirXrjtTaovtTi fit I X6yot. lun, 415- poav xp^^tot A- 
0Mr <r' /^♦ffX^f opptadiif \ 

lb. itfi^rtTov*. j4*)sch. Choeph. 832. ffp^j yvvmic^i' flttparoCpfvoi 
X6yot I frfdopciot ffpaincovat. Soph. Acbseof. Cunv. II. 4. idtifioTov^rfv 
8* ou ifuXtfs itrfiqr viro. KuHp. Andr. 42. Hftfiarovpivti d* ryui ir. r. X. 

138. ^fSopav voXvf. In this 06p(iopov, nccurdiug to the old Gre< 
cruui tfaeol(i£^. derived from Urpbeus, ibe wicked, and Ibotie unini* 
dated in the mysteries, were plunged. Plat, Phtedon, 69, c. «al 
csvdiwfvoviri nal ol r^s rtXfrhs r}t*iy "^ovroi JcaracrnjaavTcr ov <ftav\oi riwc 
ftmt, aXX^ r^ Svri iraXai alylTTfirfiai &rt hs ov afxvrjros koi ori'Xctrrof r/ff 
'Atdau at^ixTfTat, iv ^p^opat Ktifftrai, 6 2< KtmaOapfiivot re icni TtT*\«Cfp.fvot 
ittt'un a^utofuyot ptra 0tvv olKijirtt. 2 Rep. 363, d. Mava-alav Ka\ 6 
tiUft airrav — roi/r atfotrtovt Ktu aducove fls mjXrftf riva KaropvTTniMTiy iv 'At- 
4ov cal KotTKUftf viatp dvayxdCovai ^ipiiv. 7 Kep. 533i d. icui ri^ Sm rV 
$tp06p^ 0ap^piit^ Tw'i ra rrjt ^u^?' Sppa itaTopatpvyfU vov f}pifia Axft Ka\ 
aw^yfi Svta. DlOg. ap. Laert. VI. 39. yrXoiov tt 'AyrjaiXaos piv ical'Efra- 
pumrbat <V r^ 0op^p^ dmfovcrir, *xrrtX«U ti rtyt: pMpvrjpivot iv rait 
;""f^y vrftrois ttrovrat. See further on this subject. Ruhnken ad 
Hymn, in Cerer. 485. Plutio. Ennead. I. 6. p 55, a Cicero in 
CoQaolftt. ap. Lactant. HI. 19.6. Wytlenbacb ad Plutarch, de 
S. N. V, p. 95. et ad fr. p. 137. Frag, Orph. p. 509. ap. Hermann. 
Meurs. EleuB. c. 18. Cntuiub. Exerc. XVI. adv. Baron, p. 546. 

^reua. IV. 507. 

<i i.e. neii Uii. Cf. infr. 1167. 



Kcu (TKwp auv(ov' iif & TOVTtp Mifxivovs 
y) ^yyrip -qXor^a^Vy r) 'jrarpos yvoBov 



139. tTKOip^ ordure. Pint. 305. fifftayfiivov atuap itrBUtv. Epicharm. 
ap. Albcn, VIU. 319, f. aXuvo^f** amtpow, | kq\ truapovr, toip ovdi tA 
a-Kutp I 6tfuro¥ fV^aXnv Bm'ts. The readers of Dante need not be 
told the species of culprits whom he plunges into what appeared 
" dratTof the biinian body." Inferno, cant. 18. 

lb. dfivonc. oi', (HerodoL I. 93. \iisvq di cj^trat roO cr^/ioroc fi€yaktf, 
T^v Xtyoviri Avdu< titivaov fivai.) COntr. uctfaiv, wp, Hwr^^owing. " L<ibri 
omncs at\ ya>v. Atticam foromm dtirav Buttraan. uber gramm. Gr. 
I. p. 250. restituit."' Dino. Supply oi/^ei. 

140. ^ivov. So q\so j^schylus, when speaking of the punish- 
ment of the infernal regions : 

S^*t a Kttrtt aXXos ^tT«v ^poratv 
7j(pyff fKaOTOv Tfji tiiajs rnd^uM, 

Eum. 259. 

So n^ain in that noble dir^e, where the Chorus lament over the 
revolution introduced by younger divinities : 

(t TO iruv 8* <Tt Xfyw, 
^fiiiV athtaat bijuis' 

^7dc vxVf 
Ktf^of Viav, d6«t^ irodt Xa^ art- 

crj7S' TToira yap fn«<Trai' 

Kvpiov fifyti rcXos. 
npos rdiif ris roKc'wv irt^t 

IfZ vporiciv, Kai ^rvoTtpovs 
tvurrpo<Pas t^pdrcov 
al&dfxtyds Tir foTu. £um. 510, sq. 

See also h\n Suppl. 68 1 . 

141 . dXoav, to beat. So]ib. ^g. 3. Ktarptf, aibrjp^ wXtvpa tal itara 
pdxtv I irXe'ov oXo^trai. (Alusgrave.) 

1 41 -3. yvdOov TrardatTuv. Lyitist. 634. avro yap fioi y/yvmu | r^ff 
0toU ^x$pav rrarti^at rrjadt ypa6s ttjv yvdSov. Cf. nos ad Nub. 
1390. Brunck quotes from Virgil : 

Hie quibus invisi fratres, dum vita mancbac, 

pulsaLuAve parens, ct fraus innexa clicnti i 

aut qui divitiis soli incubnerc repcrtis, 

nee partem posuerc suis, qux maxima turba est, he. 


1 42. rrt'mpttov 5pKO¥ aS^, Brunck quotes 11. XIX. 259. 'Epivyvts, aiff 


1? — Mopal^v rtff pijatv i^ypa^aro, 

AI. 1/77 rovi 0€ovs ^XPV^* y^ TTpos TOVTOtac Kei 

Tqv irvppL^p T19 ^fxa0€ Tr]v Ktmjaiou, 



tirA yaiap | tir$p«movt riwyrm, oris k* ariopicov 6ii6tr€r^, The word 
MlofHcos occurs only once in the Tragic remains. Eurip. Elect. 

143. — Mofurifiov. (Hercules, who has hitherto been .speaking; 
with suitable solemnity, here pauses, puts his hand to his mouth. 
and whispers Bacchus at (he back of it ; the latter making his re- 
sponse in a similar manner.) A tragic poet, whom our author kIho 
attacks in other dramas. Eq. 400. Pax 803. Boeokh's IVinc. Gr.Tr. 


lb pvtrir. Cf. nos in Ach. 363. Nub. 1313. 

lb. iKypc^tv, to transcribe. Av. 97(^> xP^'M^''-*-V'>P^ rurrJXXtti'Of 
t^rypayjrn^rjy. Dcm. I 1 80. 3 2. *Kypa->^afi*uovt f}fiat Konfff rat <rvt>$r}Kas. 

}^^. irvfjpixr) 9C. opj(fitTis, a dance in armour; ahso the tune to 
which the dance was performed, and which Cinesias appears to 
have composed in a sf>ft and elfeminate style. The name h de- 
rived from Pyrrichus, the inventor of the dance, or from the brown- 
red colour of the metal, in which the dancers were clad. See fur- 
ther, Athen. XIV. 630. Perigon ad /Klian. V. H. III. 8. 5. X. 6. 
Av. I 169. nvppixjt» ffXnruy. Eurip. And. 1 138. d4ifas h* ttdti mppl- 
jfot <lipovpovfi4¥ov I ^rXr/ira iraii^s. Plat. 7 Leg. 8 1 3, a. where the 
Pyrrhic dance is fully described. Fyrrichus {opx^fFrr^p <^o(rfiapayoto 
fiMujt) makes a conspicuous tigurc in the Diunvsiacs. XIII. 37. 

xrv'. 34. 

lb. Ku^oiar. A few words are due to this person, as occupying 
a considerable place in the writings of Aristophanes. Cinesias 
appears to have been a native of Thebes, son of Meles, a player on 
the citbara. He himself was a diihyrambic poet. He is alluded 
to twice more in the present play. 351. 1406. in which latter place 
he ia ridiculed for the extreme thinness of his person. In our au- 
thor's '* Birds," he comes forward aa the vatctf/ameiiam, bis poetry 
being formed in imitation of the style of Pindar. If the Ncholiust 
is correct in aaying. that Cinesias had procured a law t^i be passed, 
limiting the expenses of the dramuiic choragi, or abolishing them 
altiigether, (Mus. Crit. II. 86.) thi» would doubtless give a sharper 
edge to the feelings of the comic poet against him. I close these 
remarks wiib two quotations ; the one front Plato, tit which the 
moral tendencies of CineHias's poetry are alluded to, the other from 
Aristophanes, in which the personal appearance of Cinesius is again 
the pnncipal topic of ridicule : 

Swe. T^ dai ; 17 tojp ;^opwk 6iIia<TKaXia rrii 17 ruf ii9vpap^v woiijait, ov 
TXMtvrif tU vol KoraipalvtTai ; ^ Tyci t* <f>povTi(ti»f Kiyrjalm* rvv MtXrjrof 
oir4»f «p€t rt TotoirToif o$tv av 01 atovovrtt fifXriovt ylyifoivra, ff 6 rt piXXti 

KaX. i^Xo¥ dq rovro yr, u SoM^MTCff, Kivrjffiov yt ir<pt. Gorg. 50I, e. 

n 1 



HP. €irrev0(t/ aifXanf rh ae TTtpUuiii' tti/o^, 
a^« re ^>a>ff KaKKiarov^ oxnr^p €P0a8t, 

From the fragmcnia of the Gerytades of our author, it appears that 
a deputation hod been Heat from the living poets of Athens to their 
brethren in Hades, and upun the principle of simile simili ffaudet, 
the least corpulent and most speolral in appearance of living 
bards had been selected for the purpose. This honour had ac- 
cordingly fallen, it seems, upon Sannyrion. as representative of the 
comic writers, upon Meletus, as proxy for the tragedians, and upon 
Cincsias for the cyclic or dithyrambic poet& — But to this humorous 
fragment itself. 

a. Koi rts iVKpStP Ktv$fi£iva cal itk6tov irvXar 
trXTf KttTiXSfiy ; /9. «f* d<p* iKovrrji rrjt T«x»^r 

ovs ^TfMV SvTas ^dixpoiras Km $a^^ 

infurt tPiXox^povvrat . a. eitri yap TWts 

SvUpfs itap vfiiv fdo^otrru ; ^. in} Ai'a 

fiaXttrrd y^ oSorrrp ^ Bp^tx^trui. Trdvr' cx'"* 
a. ml riVrc av tuv ; ff. npura fiiv Zavyvplotv 
an6 Ta>v rpvyt^oitf im6 lis r^tf Tpayixitv j^oputm 

MAi/Toy' inrA Hi rav klxXiW Ktt^ffiai. 
a. wff tr<l>6iip fVl Xtm-uiv rXiriduf atxt'itrB' Spa* 

Toirrovt yup^ ^v froXAtp ^vvtKBn, ^vXkafHip 

6 rijs diappoias iroro^c oix^(ytTat, 

146. avXuv. The flute, as forming an essential part of mystic 
ceremonies, is thus alluded to in the Trachinise of Sophocles: 

atipop , oud* airi»aopai 
rdv ai/Kovt fJ rupaym rat €/idr <f>ptv6t. 
liov /i' aparapaao'ti 
fifoi p,' 6 Ki(r<r6t tipri ^Kj^ltw 

V7ro<rTpf<Piov apiXkap . 2 16, sq. 

See also Eurip. Bacch. 379. 686. 

lb. ai\inf rtvoTf, Eurip Bacch. 128. aC'Xwi' wynpa* Iph. Aul. 69. 
irvoai * AffipodtTTjs ffiiXai. 

lb. ir€pUit7iv, pres. tense with fut. signification. 

147. </»«s KoXXioToc. The commentators and translators usually 
quote in illustration Pind. Thren. Fr. i. roia-t (i. e. Toti: ptpvfjtUmns) 
Xd/ifTci ] piv pii'os dtXiov Tiw | tv&dHf vinrra itdru. Virg. v^n. VI. 640. 
Largior hie campos » ther et lumine vcstii \ purpureo. 

lb. ^(TWfp cVdddf. A brilliant sun probably shining at the time 
over the theatre when the words were uttered : had it been other- 
wise, the actor no doubt was provided with words of another kind 
to fill up the * senarius. 

!■ Cf. ni»s in Acham. 5^7. 
« The foUowiig ei 

frvm « receuc publioition, will, with sonio liiUe cxccp- 



148. iivppkv^v (j^vppiyTj)f a vtf/rtle- grove or hedge. " II was be- 
iraed," says M. tie St. Croix, referring lo this verse, '* that the 
louls of the initiated dwelt in groves of myrtle : hence the 
omle became the aymbol of death." *' Not so," inliraates bis ex- 
cellent friend and learned editor, Silveslre de Sacy, ** it was be- 
cause the myrtle was already considered as the symbol of death, 
th&t the poet has placed the souls of his initiated amid woods of 

itjihrub." But. it may be asked, is either of these opinions cor- 
? The myrtle was less a symbol of death, or tmournful aeiisa- 
is, than of joy and gladness : hence its appropriation to the 
Queen of beauty and the " Graces : hence its close cimnexion in 
the present drama with the young laccbus. with whr^m commenced 
the joyous portion of the Eleusinian rites. The poet's objiiot in 
tKttiing the souls of his initiated amid myrtle-groves seems merely 
to bare been for the purpose of providin;^ tbem with (he gladsome 
WTeaths, which so particularly belonged to their condition. Cf, 
Uifr. 320. 

lb. OiaaoSf (j&thtf ^flof, $tia(6i), a company or fraternity, who in 
honour of any god ofler sacrifices, dunces, songs, processions, and 
the like, concluding with a repast. The word is mure particularly 
lifted of a union of persons devoted to Bacchus. Eurip. Bncch. 
36. B'taaot ifioK yvraiittf. I 1 5* ^p^t^ior* utrrir ityu Oiaoovt | tit Spot. 
135. ^vff cV Spftrir, &r a¥ | fK Biaaouf hpopaiwv | itifrji rredocrf. 231. 

Stdwvf. 558. tfivxTo<^p«Ir Bidaovs. Also 679. 976. 1 1 77. Phajn. 

rioM^ which the render's judftmrnt will point out lu him, give no incorrect idea of 
■a Attic ftiidicncf, motieaipecinllyil'he ukm into cunsidemtiiin Mr. ('ncki!rv\V»p\»n 
«f a Greek theatre restored. " VwUirduy afleniiMni lUvn were ^mes in ihe 
MiphithfCre buiit by I)uiiA|mrt« : the iintiiensity ami IkaiUv of the tniitding are 
rwf Miiking. It can conuin, it is uiid, tliirty-tive tliuiiAUiiii perMiis, and in iu 

amw mre perfoniHxl VHrimui gameK, after the manniT of t\w ancients Tha 

ipactaCon Ht in the uniphith^iitiv, u-ith innhrt-lhu only to aliode them fruni tho 
■tm; but the Unuid Lhike and the Prinrexs snt on two state-chairs *, under a 
■agaifinai pavilion, inpported liy pillarx nf tlio Hmnthian order. . . Twenty-five 
tluiuaand perBoiu and iipwardi were Kaid to he prewiit. CertJitiUy every part of 
ihe nuc building woa filial with Aptvtatont, and yot y»u might harn hrnrd a pin 
fiUI. Tbeffrwfftil outline of tlie ova] fttnimure, us wide, but nut nearly mi high, 
•■ the ampbitheutrM of the ancienti, — the AlpH, riiung in yet more glorious am- 
pilithaMTV Ouin any fornicd hy mortal hand, in the bAck-gnmnd, nimpkted thii 
estraonliaary and indcAcrilmble f^le." Diary Illustrative of tlie Times of 
iitorgt tlie Ftnirlb, voL ii. p. 363. 
^ t Even in its applif^ation to thu pemona or tombs nf the defunct (Eurip. Aluost. 

^3. Electr. 376.), did it noc serve to imply tluit the deovaaed was guite to happier 

~a S^ Pausanias^s aciiiunt of the teniplv of Klis, (Elioc. $. 24.) n-bero the three 
Gtaom were exhibited, ttie first httlding a rtise, the second a die, (the sportive 
humimeai of jiUyfuJ ymith,) the tliird a bimquot of myrtle. 

* In the Attic iheulrp, a distinction of a simibtr kind was pmbably ttuignod in 
the higli-pri«st of Batrima. Infr. v. 2B8. 



av8pwv, yvuaiK(oj/, koI Kparov \upuiu iroXvv* 
AI. ovroi bl drj tiu€9 eurlv ; HP. ol /ie/uin;^€rot. 


1769. Allien 
Cf. Creuz. HI 

Flat. Polit, 303 C. Sorx/purrff rip Biaaot. 


V. 198, e. 

At parle ex alia floren.s vulitabat lacclms 
Cum ibiasu Satyrorum et Nisigeuis Silenis ; 
Qui turn alacrcs passim lymphata inenle furebant, 
Evoe bacchantes evoe, capita inflectenies. 

CatuU. Carm. LXIII. v. 255 

lb. ti^aiiAovas. To the references usually ^vco on this occa- 
sion, (Hum. Od. IV. 563, sq. Hcsiod. Op. 1 70. sq. Pincl. Olym. H. 
109. »q. et Pr. Tbr. i. 2. Plat. Phacdon. 81, a. Isoc. Pan. Virg. ^n. 
V'^I.638, sq. Cicero cle Fin. V. 19, &c.) add, 

wi rpifToK^toi 
fcetvoi ^poraVf ol ravra ^tpxBimts rikij 
fiSXattr ts 'Aidoi'* TOiffSc yiip fiovois iKtt 
Qv f'oTi, rois 3* S)iXtwTt KavT *Kti leaicu. 

Soph. Fr. Inc. LVHI. 8 

Q paxap, ofTTic nvdaifiwv 
rcXcrcts Sidv tl&ais 
jStornf cryitrTfVftf 

KOI 6tafTfvfTai ^vxT}v. Eurip. Bacch. 73. 

149. dvipoiy, yvvaiKuv. Kuster quotes as similar instances of the 
absence of the copula. Sopb. Anti^. 1079. uudp^v^ yvpaucw... Kmcvfwra. 
Lycoph. Alex. 683. avftpStv, yvvatKoyv rlbAra ^vvovartas. 

lb. (cpoTOF (Kptivai), here, clapping of hands, (Plut. 739. ryw 9* ri 
Xetp^ dvtKpvrrfrr' Up' itHovrjs. Plat. Lach. I 84. a. ^v d( yikut ml Kporos. 
3 Leg. 700, c. Kporoi tnaivovt airoStSdyrrc), but more commonly ap- 
plied 10 the sound made by the feet, when dancing. Arist. Lysist. 
1319, Eurip. Tr. 550. Cycl. 37. Her, 78:1. 

150. fivt'iv (pvtiv, to close the mouth, the lips, the eyes.) Arist. 
Pax, 277- ^^^ '* ■'"'^ vpojv fv S.apofipaKT) TVY)(avn j Hero- 
dot. H. 51. offTiy de TO Ka^ipttif Spyta ptpvTjrai^ ra ^apoBprfiKis ririTf- 
XfOifCL irapaXa^avTit napa YltXaaymv^ oi'TOf otvtjp oiSc t6 X/ycd. Plat. 
Gorg. 497 »C. ra pryaXa ptpvTjaai npiv ra trpixpa, Paeudo-Plat. Ax- 
ioch. III. 37 t- "^t*'* Toi/s ntpi 'HpaxXc'a rr Koi ^towtTov, xanoyrai *h aUcv^ 
wpoTtpoy ^oyot ivOaht piTjQ^vai. Dem. I35*» 14- -^^^'trias yap 6 (roffntrr^ 
Mcrawtpac atv tpatrrtji ij^ovXtiBtj Trp6t roiv SXXois avaXupa<riv tiv avtyXKrinv 
fir aifTr^y nai pinjaai. 1 35 2, I • 'C'l' at^off vnttrj^tro pvrftrnu. Aadoc. 1 7, 
I 7. fivotv pitf a&«K(j>6y. Alarm. Oxon. atf> vv Ka&afna6«\s iv 'EXciwm 
'HpojcX^p\Br) ^tfiav irporros, Plut. de exil. U. 607. hi (Eumolpos 
sc.).. €pvtj<Te Ka\ pvtl TOLf "EXXf^i'nj. Proclus in Thcol. Plat. 1. 3. 
C. 18. Kai ^{TTTtp cV rnif ayiorraTais r<XcTuif, irp6 ritv pvQTiKuv ^rafuzror, 
7irTrXf;^*f rav pvovfUvwv, nvra 817 k.t. X. 



SA. yr} Tov At* eyw yovv ovo9 aywv fiva-rqpta^ 
urap ov KaOe^to ravra tov TrXeiw ^opop. 
HP. di aoi (ppaaoua aira^dTrauff <ou av Se^. 
ovTOi yap iyyvrara Trap axrrqv Tqv o8oif 
hfi raUri tov YIKovtcovo^ oIkovo-ip 0vpai9. 



151. In considering this verse, let us be allowed to take the 
wonf^ in such order, as will most conveniently make the reader 
acquainted with their respective ineHiiings. 

15. ayfi»', to carry, (cf. infr. 161.) fivoTrjpia, articles destined for 
t^Uhrating the mysteries: such were the mystic fan, (emblem uf the 
separation between the initiated and the profane) — the calathus, a 
basket, containing various species of cakes, grains of .salt, &c., and 
when the Bacchic rites were engrafted 011 the Eleusinian, articles 
more exceptionable. To these may be added perhaps the torches, 
which would be required in such number;* fur the persons cele- 
brating the rites — myrtle for oniamenting the hair, &c. All these 
Articles were conveyed from Athens in Elensis on the backs of 
asses. (Gaisf. Parrem. p. ^5. ToTf fsvoTrfpian i^ iVrfor tts *EXcv(rira 

lb. 5»w«. AI. dc St. Croix, having pointed to the Egyptian origin 
of roost of the usages observed in the mysteries, aflds. " Even the 
ass, destined to carry that which related to the mysteries, recalled 
a mythologic trait. Typhon, after hi^^ defeat, had fled upon an ass, 
and the ass had become for this rea»on the object of public hatred 
in Egypt, lender the name oi^Seih, the ass had in this counlry 
mysteries of his ou^n, and his presence was absolutely necessary in 
the ceremonies of Isis." Mysttres du Pagani.sme, I. 283. 

lb. fybi yovv K.r. X. Xanthias resembles the ass of the mysteries 
in mure than one respect: first, because in his way to the initiated, 
he cAxries a burden on his back : secondly, because be is going 
where no uninitiated person was adniiltcd but an asa; and thirdly, 
and most probably, becuube his burdeu, like those of the asses thus 
laden, was of the heaviest kind. Hence at the end of the verse he 
flings it firom him. i'y« yor-f, Diiid. Bek. tyttay €>vv, Br. Tu. 

151. ritp irXfiw \p6puv, ** Thucyd. IV'. 117. (V rof irXftoi j^pwov* 
Soph. Trach. 733. tA* it. XiJyoi*. ubi xp°^* ^^' '547-" I^ob. Cf. 
AUith. Gr. Gr. 266. 

155. nXovTtM. Another name fur ''Aid7r, and nearly synonymous 
with riAoiTof, (Arisloph. IMiit. 727.) because wheat, the greatest 
riches of the first race of men, was as it were sent up from the 

s ^ It WM not properly tlw ass, wvordiiijar to Si. Epiplianius, who vai inlMidcd 
under Umi nuiw of S«th ,- it wim T\ plum, of whom die ou wa« umrcly tb» «ymbol 
or repcvMutativD. li it ihu* \\\e fulliiuiiifr ejL(irvMiion» arc to be iindcmood : wi 

>$ ^v TV 6y^ f(t tro^a rav 3))0, SfjB^v toD Ti/^wrui, rcXrrctf /^^yit^iMn'ai. ^^Cle 
Jablocuki, OpuM-iila, ed. Tc Water, ton). I. p. 281;; PaaUi. .K(^-pU toiii. lEI. 
p. 101^** Silv. df) Siacy. 

o 4 



Kcu \alp€ TToAA, toSeXipe. AI. vr] Aia kcu av ye 

Kal Ta\€a)9 fieirroi 

vyicavf, av oc ra arpm^r a 
SA. TTpiv Kou KtrradeaOcu ; 

SA. /t^ S}]ffy Ik€T€vco cr*, oAAa fiio-ffwaai Twa 


other world, and consequently was considered as a gift of Hades. 
Plato in CratyK 403, a. tA 5« n'kovTutvos, toOto fiiv Kara r^** toC tlXou- 
rav it6uit>f ori <V ttjs yrJK KanoOtv avUrat 6 irXofrof, t'lr atvo fui<rQtj' 6 Oc 
'Aitrji, oi rroXAoi fiiv ^01 boKoiaii' imoXafA^ptiv t6 dtidis npo(Tfipija$ai r^ 
offi/iart rovTifi, Kot <f)o^vfityoi t6 Syofta UXoi/rara KaXovaiv avruv. See 
Pasit. in voc. and Creu/er III. 8. 

156. ;(at'p<ti' fToXXn. ^£sch. A^. 555* Kal iroXXd X'^H^^^*' $vfi<f>opait 
nrru^iu. Enrip, Uippol. 145 1. X"*P* woXXa ^ot, nartp. Elcclr. 1344. 
Xaip*'T€ d' v/irip ttoXXq, TroXtVidrc Cf. DOS m Ach, 186. 

157. vytaany health and happiness to you. Eccl. 477. oXX* f^f iru 
d* iryi'atvf. Bd<. rui ctl- y\ cS \pi^rji. (A little latent irony perhaps 
belongs to the terms j^aipei*- and i7ia*Vfti' aa here used : — Hercules 
playing on the fears of Hacchus^ by wishing him safely through 
the perils which he xvill have to cncnnnler; the latter intimating 
thai u sounder mind, more particularly in matters referring to the 
tragic stage, would bt: of no disservice to him. These compliments, 
huwever, whatever (heir nature, having passed, Hercules re-enters 
his palace, and Bacchus addresses himself to the companion of 
hi» journey.) 

lb. oTpaipaTa {arpMvyvfxi)^ all that is spread, or laid under, for the 
purpose oi lying or sitting upon ; as litter^ a bed, couch, carpet, 
coverlet; more particularly bed and table coverlets. Slrato ap. 
Laert. V. 62. KaniKu-ntA 3' airr^ kui to ^ifiXtn iravra, trX^p av avraX 
ytypd<^ap.rv , not t/i UKtCri trtiVTa Kiirri to trucrcriVtoi', Ktii Tti arpcu/iora, koX 
rd rroTTjpta, Lycon ap. eund. V. 74. di'du>u de koI Arjpijrpit^ Ka\ Kpt- 
rui'i, Ka\ ^vpcjt, K\tifTfV cxdcrr^. Ka\ crrpu/iara rCtv KaraKnirofifvoiv. Id. dc 
Pylhagora \ IH. 19. o-toX^ &i airr^ Xci/ic^, KaBapiit (eat trrpotpaTa Xcvm 
«f tYtwv. Id. ap. cuiid. 17. T« trrpvpara d«i trvvBt^tptpa tx**"- ^f^' 
quent in Ari.stoph, Ach. 1135- Eq. 603. Vesp. 1208. Nub. 37. 
1165, &c. In Tragic Greek it is seen under such forms as wop- 
y)^«ts KaK6(rTpaToi, vEsch. Ag. 539. itop(f)vp6trTpaTos irdpos. Ibid. 883. 
cTT/KtfTrt <f}ap7j. Soph. Tr. 91ft. orr/wuTo XfKTpa. Eurip. I lei. I a8i. See 
also Blomf Praifat. in Pers. p. 3, 4. 

158. 7tp\v KaraBiuBai, a comic extravagance, for what ! when I have 
jVSt put them doivn f Plut. 597. roit 6« triVijraj- rStv avQpaywinv nprra^vtv 

■ttp\v KaTa6f'waif (a comparison, however, to which I find that Thiersch 

lijQ. pifT$Qiaat, imper. middle of ftto-^oCv, to hire, Ilerodot. L 24. 
fuaOooaatrOai nXolotf avdpwy KopivBltav. IX. 34. ^s piv oi * A pytXot ifU- 




t£m iK<l)€po^v(oify ooTis hri tout tpyerai, 160 

AI. iav Si fxTf tvpto ; SA. Tore /x* ay^ip, AI. KoXiis 

Kcu yap jtv iK(f>€povai tovtopI v€Kpov, 
ojroff, ai Xeyay fuuroi^ ae roi/ TfdmjKOTa' 

Sp6pta7r€j jSovAcc CKivapi 6i? '^AiSov <f>€p€iv ; 


160. ttnpMfMiv^ to carry out for burial. II. XXIV. 786, itai t6t Sp 
f(«'<^por d/MO-i'V *E«ropu daxpvxcoirrt. Etirip. Alcest. 732. oii ait MKpitv 
orri troC t6»V cr^'peic ; So the word tKi^opa in Arist. Hlut. 1007. 
Ecd. 936. Eurip. Alcest. 434. i^M-fa. S. c. Theb. 1035. But 
the primary passB{<c tu which au editor of " the Rauee" would 
refer, is ihe exclarnation of Electra in the Orestcan Trilogy : 

lot lai ftaia 

irnirToXfit jiorrp, dauiir tv €$i<ftopats 

OPfv iroXirar Jmutr', 

«rAr;{ uirotpoiicroi' nvUpa Bdi^t. 

Cboeph. (Klaus, ed.) 409. 

lb. o<rrtf «iri rovr* tpx^trm, qui hoc negotium in se suscipiat. Tn. 
Eorip. Uacch. 965. *v\ T<ld* tp^oftat. 

161. «^ 8c fi^ riJpu SC, Tuv in^popivtav rtvh piuBwaat. Tb. Belc. (&y 
If ft^ «|[w. Dind. 

lb. oyfii' SC. ra or/xificTa, sub. 3ri vel KtKtvt. Cf. Asl ad Plat. 
I Leg. 643, b. el nos in Nub 103a.: and to the examples there 
UllTea, add ..^i^sch. Prom, Vinct. 737. o« fi^ ir<Xa{«i*. Soph. Electr. 
396. TWf epOToCcri 8* ciui^ciy. 1373- *<XX' Mrov rtijifor | ^foaprTv fcrai. 
Eurip. Alcm. fr. 6. a«l d' apiaKtiv rolt Kparovat. Meleag. ft*, do. 
fm« («rrar «^ dpuv' jrurdavuf dc nat avrjp \ yrj Ka\ tTxid. Hes. Op. 50a. 
ft^M 8< 'Xrji'aiaira^ xiix* ^/lara, (iovtiopa vratTU, | roCroi* dXfvao'dai. 

16]. { // f/<yz£^ £of/y u Afrc borne across the stage.) 

163. <rc Xi'yo) ptuToi. Here again we may look to the ^Eschylean 
Trilogy for our primary illustration, in the address which Orestes 
makes to his father's shade, when finally determined tn avenge that 

father' !i blood. Cboeph. 449. ui rat Atyw, ftrj^yfrou, iranp, ^iXoir. To 
which add Arist. Plut. IIOI. mroi Xryu, | JKap/wK, dvapMivov. Also 
At. 274. 406. ^Hch. Prom. Vinct. 980. tri t6v ao<pnTTTjif — rov nvpot 
Arimjw Xtyw. Soph. Aj. 1238. cr« rot, <ri rAi* rijs aixpakecTtHos \tym, 
£urip. Bacch. 910. erf ruK npoBvpov 3i^, a pff XP^^' ^P°*' | • • ncM^ca 
Xry«. Med. 273. t*^*, rfjv aKv6pitm6» not ir6tTtt Bvpovpivr^v I IVl7d<iav, 
•&or r^trdc y^f f^ ittpav. Iph. Aul. 855. w trc roi Xc'yoi | rov S^a^ 
yrywra iraida. Ion 213. Here. P. 1217. Rbes. 6^4. Helen. 554. 
(Vrya» omitted). 

164. atuvdpia, stragula. ' rj <r»v7 de orani apparatu, r^ irxfv^ au- 


■ On die numth LeniRmi, no important in the coniroveny u to the Umei when, 
■a4 {ilun whtfre, dramAtic repmentatJons took place in Atliena, cf. KamigmMr, 
f. J17, t(|. PhiL Mu». JI. 375, Bq. 



NE. Svo Spax^f ^ut6ov 
NE. inraytff Vfietf rijs 

NE. iroa arra; AI. ravrL 

AI. /wi Ar, oAA' eXarrov, 

AI. opafKtvoVj c3 Satfiopi, €av ^viifim rt trot, 
NE. el /i^ KaTOL0r}a-€i9 Svo Spa)Qia9y ftrj SiaX^yov, 
AI. Aa/3' e'we" 60o\ov9. NE. ava^Lt^v vvv ttoAu/ 
SA. wy cr€fivoy 6 KaTapccrof' ovk olfxw^Toi ; 170 

€yci> ^Siovpai. AI. )(pr)OT09 €l kcu ytvifo&a?, 
Xcopayfjjei^ eiri to irXotov, XA. oSott, irapa^aXov 



tern et ra (rxcKapta de impedimento et Bupellectili omnts generis 
usurpattir." Buttm. ad Ptat. i Alcib. 113*6. As a bargain is to 
be made, Bacchus of course u^cs a diminutive, and sink:* his voice 
at the same time, as if t!ie baggage lo be transported were a 
mere trifle. 

165. irdo-* ofrra, gu<r» qvalia ? vel, quanta tandem? Tb. 

lb. ivo ipaxt^it fuaBov rfXi'if. i*Iat. Protag. 3ll»b. apyvptow 
TtXflv fuaOitv vwfp atavTov eKtivta. L<ach. I 86. C. Tfiit tro(f>urrals ovk cj^o* 
rrXfir fuaOovs, Xen. Anab. III. 3. 18. r^ d< nXXas wXiKtw {trKft€v66' 
vas 8C.) tBfXovTi aWo dpyvptov rtXiififv. 

166. imayfff v^tU ttjs ^9ou, Cet ottt of the tray — He off^ (addressed 
to Bacchus and Xantbias.) Cf. Matlhise §. 354, d. The German 
translators consider the words as addressed to the bearers of the 
corpse, and translate forwards ! 

167. €ay ^v^^ia rt aoi, if you and I can come to a bargain, Curip. 
Med. 735- Xoyois 5< <rup^t. Phoen. 599. ot* yap ^»' ^vp^ifMv ctXXwr, 
JJ VI Toir eipfjfwMJtr. Cf. infr. 771. 

169. avaffii^Tjv. We in this world shcmld say, / had rather die 
first! The speaker in the text merely reverses the phrase. Any 
attempt at a more recondite explanation of the expression would, I 
think, be misplaced. For sotnething like a similar mode of ex- 
pression in the Tragic writers, see Kluuseu's Choeph. p. 126. Flat 
Phted. 89, b. avaffiovtrdai. Eptn. 974, a. dva^iMyai, (The dead man 
is carried off the stage.) 

170. its (r€fi.v6t K. r. L how highly ^ and with what a grave face the 
scoundrel carries himself! Plwt, 275. ir trtpyot owrtVpiirToy. Cf. 
Eurip. in Hippol. 92. 492. 961. 1067. Alcest. 789. 816. 

lb. Koraporor. Soph. CEd. R. 1343. tov SktBpop piyav, rhv nim- 
paroTttTov. Eurip. Hcc. 707. Karapar av^pitv. And. 839. « Koroparof 
c-yii, Kurdporof au^patrut. 

17a. x*P^i**^ "'■'* ^ "•Xo7or. And where, it will naturally be 
asked, do the god and his attendant go to take ship or boat on this 
occasion ? If, as Schlegel and Welcker thinks the orchestra was 
here made to represent the Achcrusian lake, it will occur to ask. 



the orchestra filled with actual water, or vcith that conventional 
substitute, which on our own stage is allowed to pasfi fur water ? If 
the furnier. how was it admitted, and where did it find an outlet, 
before the choral trfKtp entered that space, so pecniiarly devoted 
to them and their movements ? If the latter, »til] new difhculties 
press upon u.i. Where did Cbaron's boat fiud a station before it 
made its appearance on the lake ? That it was on the other side of 
the lake, and not at 6rst visible to the spectators, is evident from 
the state of the text. AMiere did Bacchus embark, and where was 
lie landed ? Uuable to give any tiatinfactary answer to this and 
many similar questions, either from his own resources, or from 
such T books as he possessed, the editor availed himself of the offer 
of a friend tu lay his doubts before that accomplished artist and 
traveller, Mr. CockercU> who of all men living is perhaps best 
acquainted with the construction and machinery of ancient thea- 
tres. The kindness of that gentleman supplied biinvvitti two solu- 
tions of his difficulties, the one so graphic and full of life, the other 
of so technical and practical a nature, that the editor feels no 
small pleasure in being allowed to place both before his readers. 
Mr. Cockerell's first suggestion is, that the whole of the following 
representation wetit on behind the scenes ; the surly discourse of 
Charon, the variety of voices among the frogs, their croakings, the 
splashing in the water, the combat, the suspense of the audience as 
to its issue, the possible upsetting of the boat, 8:c. all uflerlng, he 
thinks, so much subject for dramatic effect, thai his own mind 
evidently leans to this as the roost desirable mi)de of explaining the 
difficulty. *' Whoever," writes Mr. C. " has heard M. Alexandre. 
or the late admirable Matthews, will admit the possibility of this 
Course, and will agree that in such a case the y\c\v of the person- 
ages, and a tangible representation of all the materials of the 
■cene, would fail in producing on the imagination the lively and 
dlroU effects which might thus be communicated, and which the 
ftoal re-Bppetu-ance of Bacchus safe and sound would close most 
ppily." If the length of the dialogue should be- started as an 
ijection tu this hypothesis, Mr. Cockerell's second suggestion is, 
that this passage over the lake should take place at the back of the 
stage or logeion, wbich being always, as he supposes, of wood, ad- 
mitted any arrangement, opening, or shape. " The stage cor- 
responding with the diameter of the theatre," observes Mr. C, 
•* oflen extended (especially in later days) from loo to 150 feet; 

y UeneUt't wurk on this lubject the editor has tuiC ypt had an opportunity of 
MiiilK ; but he Iwlieres its authority to have much ilt*c1me<l of late in tb« ey« of 
ihft learned and iK:ii>ntiBr. (tnfr. 646.) Kiiuiif^Livwr deHpaulifi the nattrr in » 
toufA^ct limn (p. 1K3.): he ukrit i(|) a plunk ar two I'rum Iur /u«wr stage, (th« 
htgniifmii writer'* lh«>r)' of a dtniblv jtia^e will find h fitter plac« for ubaerration 
in ft foturt* pUy.) and apparently he think* all done which the oocatton called for. 
Tht groiiiMl.ptans of IWtht^lcniy and StJogUx, and the nolicet of D'Orvnie, 
ilooat, BartlieU and others, (wc Kannpewcr, p. 141-) appear to bo derived from 
■uavabon* and exflminntion of theatm of t^io recent u date to make them -ftafe 
fur llie older theatre of jEschyluK and Aristophaiies. 



SA. Toirri tL eari ; AI. tovto XlfWf) inf ^ua 

auTT] 'otIv ^v €<}>pa^€j kou TrXolou y opS, 

SA. i^ TOP rioaetSw, KoxTTL y 6 \dpci}v ovrocrL 175 

AI. ')(€up CO y^apoyPy \alp w Xapo)*/, \aip (o \ap(oif, 

if ihereforc a channel were cut at the back of the logeiun. wide 
enough to admit the boat and the frogi, with the aid of a scene ai 
the back, the representation would be complete, and the leng:th 
would admit of all the passages which occur in the ferry." Of the 
mode ill which the Frogs themselves, those important actors in the 
scene, made their appearance, Mr. Oockerell does nut speak ; but 
it is presumed that it was much after the fashion of those uf the 
great Italian poet. 

£ com' air urio dell' acqua d* un fosso 

Stan li ranocchi pur col muao fuori. 

Si cbe celano i piedi, e 1' altro grosso : 
Si stavan^ &c. Inferno, Cant. 2a. 

E'en as the frogs, that of & wat'ry rooat 
Stand at the brink, with the jaws only out, 
Their feet, and of the trunk all else conceaVd. 
Thus on each port, &c. Cart. 

lis. »inr, ooop, ooop. A term used by Greek rowers, when ceas- 
ing iheir operations. Cf. Av. 1395. Instead of won-, Sn-, (Schuiz's 
reading in .t^sch. Suppl. 806.) the late editors, Wellauer and 
Scholefield, read ZA^, 3^. 

lb. vapa^akov (r^ Ktan'ua sc. cf. infr. 360.), Pv$h the hoat^ that it may 
proceed, or. Put to shore. Cf. nos in Eq. 741. But to whom are 
these words addressed ? Charon had no lacquey, that we ever 
heard of, and he brought with him no passengers from the Hades- 
side of the lake, to assist in the operations of his ferry. We must 
therefore consider him, I think, as addressing some soul whom he 
is just about to land on the other side of the lake, and whom he 
has compelled to assist in his operations, just as he afterwards 
compels Hacchus to take the oar. That the boatman himself is not 
yet visible either to Bacchus or the spectators, is clear from vv. 

173. rovTt riftrrt; (Xanthias speaks, gazing with astonishment 
on the scenic lake.) 

1 74. ^v ttfipair. Here. sc. 

176. At the first of these three greetings, Bacchus makes a low 
reverence — he then shifts his ground a little, and makes a second 
reverence — a third shifting of ground, and a third reverence fol- 
low. The joint gravity and politeness with which this is done, of 
course excite a loud laugh. ..iiisch. Eum. 968. xa'prrc, ;^al!pfT( d* 
a^tt, tfrttiirXoiCm. 



XA. Ti9 €iy difaTravXa? iK KOK&y kou Trpayfidrwu ; 
r/r eV to A^^y iriSiov^ 7] V o^ov TroKas^ 

177. Charon imiiates the well-known cries of boatmen, pljing 
for a fare. ** Who's for the place where ills and troubles arc at 
reil ?" " Who's for the land vvUcre all things are forgotten ?"' 
•' Who's for the country where asses have fleeces ?" " Who s for the 
folk with whom Cerberus dwelb ?" "Who's for the crows?" 
" Who's for Taenarus ?" 

lb. avcmnvXax. Plat. 1 Leg. 653, d. avavauKai r»v n-(ivAiv. Soph. 
Phil, 878. KQKov X^tfi; Ti<£ thui tLavuiTttvka. Eurip. Fr. inc. CLV. 13. 
tvpti» fMx&»y avavavXav. The following fragment of the same poet 
is of a more important nature. I give it as found in Clemens 
of Alexandria (Strom. V^ p. e^Si, e.) with that writer's interpretation 
of the passage, leaving the value of that inierpreiatiun (surely a 
>hnciful one) to be estimated by the reader's own judgment. 
ndyv BavfM<rrw 6 cirl r^r trKifv^s <^tXri(ro<^6 Eipun'fi^c roc? frporipij/u'roif 
^'.f <rvy*^6s Starovrw eiipiaturat, irartpa Koi vl6v ifta ovk otA' viruf at- 

Xoi, ra iravroti' fitJitorrif x^O*' 
'ntkcaf6if Tf <^pa», Zcvr e'r 'AtSrjt 
6foiui{^6fi€vos trripytit' trif d< fioi 
&\ialav &intpov irayKapirtiat 
df'fai TrXripT] 7Tpoxv$tiira>'. 

Skott6pn^pa yap vnip t^mv Anvpov Bvpxi 6 Xpicrrds. itai ^1 rhv trmr^pa 
avT^s ovx r(d<i>f \tytt, aafpis voLTftrti rtrdytov 

£v yap tv re ^coir rot? ovpayidaa 
ffKTJirrpov t6 ^i6r pcraxftpiC^y 
xBoyiwv ff *A(J// ptrixtii apj^i* 

tmtira Xrrutpvt Xry*i 

Tiip^lntv piv <^r i^x"^ avipatp 
Toit ^ovXoptvoit tiffXovt vpopaBih/^ 
ir6$t¥ 4fikaaTov, nV ^i^a roxatv, 
Ttpa dtl paxdp9>¥ €K$it<rapJvavt 
fvptlv pox&i»v fUfiiiravXav. 

178. Jr iifov •rclKaf=land of nowhere, there being of course no 
place where asses have fleeces to be shorn. 

■ Bat the render mfty say, Wu not Euripide* the fellow-pupil and coiutanC 
•wooiatc qS Socnin ; and did not ibe Utter advance opinion* somewhat limilar to 
thae ? ITndoiiltttMlly be did, in a dtuln^pte (Alcib. }.) «hii-h in generally put into 
the band* of youn^ mwlcrs, as a Platonii: produrtion, and as con»cN]itently cixhi- 
Uting the opiiiiun» ol' the «in uf 84)phruniM-'u», hut wliicli no mature aicholar will 
adrail to be either the otm or the other. Like the diaiofpie 10 which we have jau 
ivfrmdt it iniwt be owned ihst the fnu condtiding aniipvKtu in our pnwent 
quotation snirll strongly uf those early schools of fUirication and interpolation, 
by which the doclrinrt taught hy rt'relation and tho«e educed by natural reaaoo 
hare been so often confounded, fabrications which the srbolanthlp of tlic Chria- 
tamn Paiherv did not always enable them to detect, nnd dvcJ with as they ought to 
ire dooe. 

16 API2T0*AN0rS 

^ V Kep^piov^i i) \ Kopcuca^j ff VI Talvapov ; 

AI. eycj. XA. ra)(€CDy epfiaive. AI. tto? <r)(y]axiv 

«ff KOpaxa^ oirro)9 ; XA. fat /xa Aio, croi) y' oy^c/ca. 
Hr^uf€ ^7. AI. TTcu^ S€vpo, XA. SoDAoi' oiJx aywi^ 
€i /i7 v€ifavfJLa)(T]K€ vqv wep), rwv Kp^mp, 

Tb. TTtJicci-, shearings^ (see Butlm&nn's Gr. Gr. p. 331.) vrrfjco 
occurs in Soph. Trach. 677. Eurip. Elect. 516. 

179. Kfp^tpiovif peopie among whom Cerberus dwells, not without 
allusioQ to the Homeric Cimmerii. 

lb. Taivapoi, a dark shady place at the foot of Malea, a promon- 
tory of Laconia. In a deep chasm belonging to it, ancient imagi- 
nation discerned a passage to the infernal regions. Bergler quotes 
Virg. 4 Georg. 467. ** Teenarias etiara fauces, alta ostia Diti«.*' A 
still more appropriate illustration may be found in the Here. Fu- 
rcns. 23. Tatvafiov dm trrofia \ ^t^rjK (Here, sc.) tt ^doi'. Cycl. 393. 
Taivapov Xififjv | MaXc'ar t* unpen KfvOpmvfs. 

180. <7-;^«i', appellere. (Cf. infr. ir73.) Soph. Phil. 305. ot< 
iwBa^ o\ irXot roitrt truxftpoiruf /Sporuv. j rax d^v Tit axtav <^X'* ^lon. 

fr, V.6s. 

fratri Ac rot kIv^vos iir !pyfuuri¥, oudc ris oSf 
woi o';^(r«iv p*Wu, xp^paros apj(op«vov. 

The compound form occurs frequently in the Philocietes of So- 
phocles. 330. riyti nor (tyrjvrtjvit vamiX^v'XaTT} | KaTt<TXfT; 236. ris 
a, (u TtKvov, vpotTtcrx' i 243. rivi trroXip npoaicrx*^ Trjvdt yrjv ; 369. 
^viK r'je TTJs iroyrlas \ Xpvayjs ttariaxov btvpo vavfjaryj ordXy. Eur. Hel. 
1326, iroBfp Kari(r\t yrjv ; 

181. troD y ovyfKtt, as far as you are concerned. The idiom has 
been largely illu^trnted in preceding plays. Add, or repeal from the 
tragedians. Soph. Phil. 774. Baparti irpovaias y ovvtm. Eurip. Phceii. 
870- ^^TfOKkiovK pMv ovvfK OP xXptFav trropa, xpV^t*-^^^' ^ntax"*'- Hel. 
1274. »rXoiJTovA«y ovvtx ^ " flAric (die quod ad sumptus attinct, tpiic- 
quid votes, Musg.). So also iicaTi. ^^scb. Pers. 343. vXrjSovt pg» 
av (rd<^* taff ckotc fiap&dpovs | vavfrlv Kpar^a-at. Choepb. 208. <Wvl W 
Fvf KOTi taip6y<i»' Kvpilt ; ib. 430, 43 1. Eurip. HeL 1 20Z. ur &p w^vou 
y itmri /i^ \u$jf p,f yfjt | r^trd' fiacafiurSfitr* SXoxof- 

I S^. mp\ TuvKptair^ carcasses. Various explanations have been 
given of this difficult ^ passage; but one connected with the pro- 

t The interpretation lut given, viz. that by Thiersch} is here Bulijntned. 
'* Sensui cdt : niri pugn^ ttat'oii iiUer/uit et eo 4ibi fibertatem pararit. Est qoi- 
deni, qiiod jiim ftrholianta vidit, irtpl twv Kp^v dictum pro vcpl toov awp^rmw" 
(The Scholiut refcn to a ftcnarius in the Chryses of Sophocles, evidently frum the 
few frngmenu nmaining, a Baiyro-coniic perfonnanoe ; rotovTot «« S^C^u tmS* 
{i^us ffv Br.) KpUti.) 

aA, /ict TOP Ar, ov yap oAA' ervxov 6(f)0aXfiimv, 

XA. otliiiroi'^ 7repi0p€^i Srjra rrfv Xl/xin)i/ kvkXc^ ; 185 

•cA. TToi) S^r* avapaif^ ; XA. Trapa roj/ Avatvov At- 

fettinoal career of Chanm has not been noticed. In ihe 5rst part 
of the verse Charon speaks as an Athenian might be supposed to 
«Jo, with uhoni the dastard slave, who had not purchased hib free- 
ttom by being present at the batltc of ArginiLsie, must have been 
•iibject to many a taunt ; but at the word rtav Charon pauses, and 
ihe/rrryman prevails over the Athenian. All souls ferried over the 
AcherUvHian lake paid, as we have seen, one or two obola. and 
Charon was evidently not insensible to the charms of his fee. But 
the bodies of unburied persons hud to remain, as wc know, on the 
banks of the Styx 100 years, during all which time Charon was out 
of bia passa^e.raoney. Hence whatever the battle of Argiuuss 
mi^ht be to others, to htm it was only the buttle, in which so many 
dead bodies or carcasses had to be recovered fur the rites of sepul- 
ture, and as such be accordingly charHcterises it. 

184. o<p6akfuayy to Suffer in the eyes. Herodot. VII. ^i<), otftSaX- 
fui9T€t it ri* ttrxarov. (Some temporary allusion is here made, 
which cannot now be understood. Thiersch supposes that some 
Athenian is here ridiculed, who had made a similar excuse.) 

186. Kvaivov \Wov. The Kchuliast mentions a place of this name 
in Athena, and refers to a sort of proverbial expression used by 
those who had to wait a long time : m^r yryofu irpoahoKwv. Some- 
thing mure than this I think is meant, \iialvov, which at f\T»t ap- 
pran (o be the name uf a man, is in fact the imperative of the 
verb awi^v/ioi, be thou withered^ or dried up. (i£sch. Choeph. 354. 
irav SUP aMi»$t\i TTv^i^Tjv. Soph. El. 819. tlifiiXot avavit ^iov. PhiL 
954,, avaroOfuu t^ iv avKt^ iiuvo%. Ahst. Fr. Inc. tmrr fyA^y* ^boiMf- 
^ri» I Btit^ktvot.) As Charon pronounces the word, the Xanthias- 
Silenus iay» his hand upon his bcUy, as if that portly receptacle 
bad already begun to feel the ^ withering process denounced against 

^ As the grokt jf^tchylean THKigy f^ives mnre or Ins rokniriiif^ b> die tbnuf^hta 
of Aristopb&nct Uirmighmit the whole of the present drama, we shotl nut bo 
•ar^fted Ui 6nt] more or leu dilution to the r/r^njy and wUherinjf yrwyem through- 
ont thai Trilogv itftelf. What, for instance* is to becouu* of UreMM, if b« doei not 
the tow. impoaed iipini htm l>y hi» falher*B hIimIq ? 

Ktudtt Tapij(tv6tyra ira/ijpdJiprtf fiipv- C'hneph. 289. 
h lie to be handled by the Furica, when he hm perfimned the deed ? 

fioffHiir ^poifioit -wmfiaTes rov ivffwirav, 
iral (Avrd a' iV^FOvatr', Avii{o>uii «c((rw* 

£uiu. 354, Ml. (MQller'sed.) 


erri tcu? avoarwiXais, AI. ^jjw6avu9 ; SA. ttcu'i; fuw- 


it, and then observes, in ihe true spirit of Greek superstitiun. " On 
what ilKomened object did I stumble, when 1 first quilted mr 
house ?" Translttte : withering stone. 

187. firi ralff a¥<mav\ai%. What resting-places are here intended? 
The commentators are silent. A reference to the customs of the 
Eleusinian processions will, 1 think, lend to explain the word in 
the text, and also throw light on the stone alluded lo in the pre- 
ceding verse. In going Lo and from Kleusis, it was customary for 
the sacred procession to make certain halts. (St. C'roix^ I. 141. 
339. 332.) For instance, in going from Athens to Eleusis, it 
stopped among other places in the Cernmicu.s, near the altar of 
Eudanemus. On its return, it made a holt at the wild c fig.tree, 
near which, according to some accounts, the rape on Proserpine 
was committed. A still longer halt was made at the bridge 
Cephiasus, for purposes which wc shall hereafter have to explain. 
Amonj; these halts was none made at the Xi'tfoc ayiXacrut^ or the 
stone on which Ceres sat in her first paroxysms of grief ? Such an 
omission was not very likely ; and for this \i6o\ ayiXatrrot the \l6ot 
ai'aivov aeems lo be substituted by Charon, in order to have a hit at 
the huge rotundity of the Xanihias-Silenus. 

188. Tw ^vvtrvxov. Soph. CEd. Col. 1482. fvai<Titf d« avvrvj(oifu 
(liaifiovi). Phil. 683. oW* ^fftiov f^olp(f, I rov^ t\6ioin avt'Tvy(6»Ta BwarmM. 
Eurip. Herac. 63S. nov troi rrvirrvxoitf d/iK^/ioiw; 

lb. r^ fuwrvj^ftt- t^idiv. (Xanthias speaking to himself.) For proofs 
of this Greek feeling of deriving good or bad omens (rom the 
nature of the object which first met the eye of a pers<m leaving bis 
bouse, Thiersch refers to Xen. Mem. I. 1,3. j^sch. Prom. 485, sq. 
Xen. Cyrop. VIII. 7.3. Sympoa. IV. 48. Schol. Pind. Olymp. 12, 
10. Add infr. 1239. and Arist. £ccl. 792. The subject has been 
discussed, with his usual profuseness of learning, by Blomfield, in 
his Gloss, in From. Vinct. p. 163. 

In die drendfiil bann, vtrhkh the sanie sisterhood pronounce generally tiprm the 
guilty^a bonn u> which the p^miu metre, the clash uf theriiial syllahles, &nd ihe 
piercing flute-music, by nrhich it was acooiiipiinied, must have given prodigiom 
eiTeL-t — we find almost the very word in uur lent i 

ivl a r^ TtBvfiJytfi 

riif fidXor, iropojcdirdt, irapa^op^ ^pcrvSoAJ^j) 

StfffAios ^ptpwy, iuf>6pniKros avova /S^oroTf. lb. 316, sq* 

c Hence Philostratus, in his account o( the Athenian Apollonius : 4Td^ii S< /r 
T^ wpocuTTfiif rT\t iv *EA«u(rii't Kfnnftdpov, ivofia t^ rpoturrtltitj Upa avKij. r& ii 
*ZKtwTt¥6$*» Up^t ht*iVii is AffTv QTfvcuf, ittu dramvoinru'. Vit» Sophist. 
L. II. XX. 3. 



XA. KoBi^ hri K(crrrr)v. €i ri^ en TrXfi, (nr€v8€T€D. 
owroif, tI iroi€if ; AI, o ri ifrotm ; ri S oXAo y ij 190 

XA, ovKOVif KofffSei 8^T €vOaSiy ydcrrp(ov ; AI. \8ov, 
XA. ovKovv TTpofiaXfl T(a x^^P^ /caxrci'cZy ; AI. iSov, 
XA, ou fi^ <f)Xvapr)cr€ii ^X*^^' oAA* am-i^f 
tAor 7rpo0v^u>9 ; A I. Kara Traiff Svinp-ofiaij 1 95 

189. ro^i^c (sc. fffain-Ac, cf. Soph. Q?d. Col. II.) ittI Konrfv. (Chn- 
ron addresses himself to Bacchus; then turnii to the shore, and 
plies for more passengeni.) 

ib. KVfjrffv. Kunp. Alcest. 371. oinrl Koavrj ^^j(oim^w6t . . Xdpotv. 

190. Chanm turnn round, and instead f»f finding Bacchus seated 
tti the oar. for the purpose of assisting in the navigation, finds him 
sitting »■ the oar. Hence his exclamation, ovroy, W iroitU ; 

Ib. W irouit ; ^t. 6 ri notSi; Thi.s mode of reply hua been ex- 
pluiued in former plays. See Matth. Gr. Gr. §. 488. 

191. i(a Vi Kwrrjw. .^sch. Suppl. 3i6. tf<» w' cV d/ii'5a (navem). 
£arip. Alcent. 451. o; r* tnl jcws-^ | m/doXiy re ytpntv \ iHKpononir6si(ft, 
Sofh, Antig. 1000. (It iraXai^if Baxoy ipindtHTKonuif | i^iaP. 

193. ydtrrpwv, tun-beUy. 

193. wpa(3aXX»<rAii, ntattus e pattio promi/iere. Dind. 

Ib. iKTt'ipfiWt extendere (sc. manum. Eurip. Bacch. 97 1. ticrttPt 
]^9tpas. Alcest. 784. oi/ti* i^fTfwa x*^P°' ^'^o Ion 975. E3ect. 828.) 
here perhaps remum. 

lb. idov, 7i> done. Bacchus here aits down to the oar, but com- 
inences his attetnpm at rowing in a very awkward manner. 

194. ov fi^ <pXvap^9it f^wH ; u'iil you not not piay the trijfer 9 i. e. 
do not play the trijtcr, hut stick to your oar. Two idioms ore here 
involved, which we must take in order : and first of tht; two nega- 
tives interrogative, which arc equal to one negative positive. Eu- 
np. rilppol. 213- *^^ t*^ wap* o^Xm Tiid* yrfpitcrti ; 6o2. oit fiif vpotroitrtu 
X**^ ; Elinsley (ad Med. iijo.) adds Androm. 758. Suppl. 1066. 
Bacch. 343.^ 79!. El. 383. 982. Cf. infr. 389. 435. 492. 

Ib ipXvaprt<^ut Ix'^"' The participle is nearly redundant. Cf. nosin 
Nab. 133. 491. To the examples there given, add Plat. Euthyd. 
895, d. fx^tf ^Xuopfftr, Koi apxaiartpos tt rov fitovroi. Gorg. 497* A. 
wpSiSi y9 fn tit roOf^npocffty, art ^x^' Xijpftr. Theoc. XIV. 8. iraiWJkiff 
fynr. Cf. tnfr. 492. 

lb. cttTtj3airriy, here, to 9ft thefett against the boat, nr the stretch^. 
Eurip. Bacch. 1124. irXrvpa<<riv uyri^ira rov fiva-iaipovov. Soph. 
Elect, 575. ^ulff(?flr iroXXd, Knirrt^is. 

195. /Xovrtir, to row. (fX^j Altic fut. for Awrcit). eifipt. Vesp. 
684.. fXuvrwi* ttm nf(ofMxCty mt iroXiopxuy. full. Gq. 1 366. mvf tXav- 
powrv ftaxpdt. 



dvy eiT ikavvuv ; XA. poor' aKov<T€t yap fx^Xt) 
xoAAmtt*, iTT^iSat' eft^aAjjr a-rra^. AT. rii^mp ; 
XA. 0aTpd\cov KVKUcou davfjuxcrrd. Al. KaTcucik 

XA. woTT OTT a>cwr ott. aoc^a 

BA. ppfKtKeKe^ f^oa^ Koa^^ 

1 96. iiAiXafftrcBTot, Att. citfaXorrMTor=:ii^aXa<raor (Mcoand. ap ^ 
Allien. IV. 133, f. *ApitaiiK6t rovvavrior. | aA>Xa<rffor, «V rotr Xcnradi'oii 
liXiVxfrat) uitVitrsM in «a(jfl/ waticr$. 

lb. uo-ftXaptViof, no Saiamuiian : ergo, laying uo clRim to uaulic*^V 
skill, like the natives of that island. 1^4 not the whole verse a;>rr— -J 
paratory hit at ^schylean, as well as HUhyramhic compound priva— H 
lives? Cf. infr. 803. 

198. " ifA^dkfii, intell. rdff KMrar." Th. Rather rat x*^P^ unroi^Bi 
</«0uXXfiy. Od. X. 139. ai^ d* c'^ir iTopoia-w rfrorpvrat ^KcXcvoa [ 4^""] 
/%tX<'<ii' Kbyirjfiri. Cf. nos ad Kquit. 584. 1 

199. Thiersch punctuates ^in-paxuK, kvkvw, Oavtuurrti. But should ^ 
not these commas be omitted, and 0ttTpdx<*v kCkwv be translaiecf 
twan-frogs. following the snrae sort of construction as sup. 133. 
dv^p paiTTji; — uw/p 7roi?^ijr — <f)att turpur, &c.? 

lb. Ki'Kvay. " In all place.s where the emig:rant5 from Canaan, 
wbofle ensign was the swan, settled, they were famous for their 
hynui.f and muf^ic ; all which the Greeks transferred to birds, and 
supposed that they were swans, who were gifted with this har- 
mony. When, therefore, Plutarch tells us, that Apollo was pleased 
with ihe music of swans, and when ^schyliis mentions their sing- 
ing their own dirges, they certainly allude to Egyptian and Ca- 
naaniiish priests, who lamented the death of Adonis and Osiris." 
Bryant's Analysis, vol. I. p. 3S0. 

lb. Kar£tK<Xrt'f. give the KiXtvtr^, i.e. the measure according to 
which the oars arc to be rowed. See Blomf. Gloss, in I'ers. p 144. 
where the subject is fully llIustrAte<l. 

701. A reader and an editor of Aristophanes cannot be supposed 
to look at the following Utile eifusion with precisely the same eye. 
To the former it Cfin hardly be otherwise than a source of unmixed 
amusement ; the latter has his mirth mixed with a dash of spleen, 
when he considers how much mure than is its due this little extra- 
vaganza bus usurped by giving a name to the drama, and thus 
tending to draw the minds of readers from the true object of the 
piece. As an attempt, however, has been made to rectify all this 
in the Introductory matter, we will no longer step between the 
reader and his mirth ; if he should even think ht to bestow a passing 
laugh on what upon the whole it has been ttiought more proper to 
Vfliow with brurU'is — •■ nos non vuldc recalcitranies babeb 




he commentators say. (For some remarks on double choruses in 
^reirk play8» see 13oeckh'» Gr. Tr. Princ. p.6i. and Miiller's *' Erste 
bbnndltmg uber die jiuiisere Darslelliing der Eiimcuitlen.") 
J03, XifUHila KpTjv£f¥ TtKva, children of the marshy founts. Thaug^h 

E^'ie language and construrtion of the following effusion may be 
irtiaily illu3lmled from the remains of ibe Tragic writers, yet to 
ake those illuslralions complete, we want the writings of ilie 
bditbyrambic poets of the *^day, all of which have unfortunately 
neruhed. To us the liumour of such etTusions must consequently 
Ifce humour addres.^ed, if I may »u suy> 10 the eye, rather than to 
khe tar; buraour, which, like much more in this drama, may be 
conceived, but cannot well be expressed. Our object must be to 
give ibe words a.niolerahlc a sense as possible, leaving their harsh* 
Desaes and violences of construrtion to Ibe render's imagination. 

104-5. " ^' "■'* raise {t^Gty^d^^Ba) in concert with Hutcs (^uwni- 
Xap) high-sounded hymns. {vpLvt^v jioav.)" 

lb. ^vvavXot. Eurip. Electr. 884. rrui fvi'nuXos fioU x°P9' Cf. nos 
I ID Eq. c). 

lb. vfwaw ^oav. EuTip. lun 5 1 1. la)(ai vfirvv. Troad. 5 1 6. v/iM»v 

105. i^fyyta$m. » Eurip. Hipp. 884. /ifXor ^yyo^vo%. Iph. T. 
1385. i^vy^mo \ /So^ nr. Cf infr. 340. 

lb. rCyripus (y^pvs, Soph. CEd. T. 187. Etirip. Alcest. 9^0. Rhes. 
394. 550. 61 I. and elsewhere), inehdious. 

lb. aoihtMjf, Dor. for aoihi^v. j'Esch. Ag. 95 2. axtKtvtrrot AfuirBos tlotiu. 
Eurip. Med. 475. Xvpat Awavf 0i<miv aoihhv^ and elsewhere. 

204-6. &oav — doiSov — Koa^. For specimens of .^schylean nppo* 
siiuMj who, following in the wake of the dithyrambic poets, natu- 
rally u»ed a similar boldneKS of expression, see infr. 1349. 

207. ywnj'iov, " Where did not CJrecce/'says the learned Creu- 
xer (III. lot.), " seek or find a holy Nysa ? In Thrace, in ('aria, 
jSn Egypt, in Arabia^ in ^^thiopia, and in India. Lydia had in all 
probahtlity also its Nysa, whence Euripides in his Bncchte makes 
his Dionysus come to Thebes." See also Schoen, p. 120. Hut tn 

I * The nearett npprovimfitloii to such oonttnictkmt In modem lltemtiire will be 
nbniMl f tf tbe editor may trust m hin recollections of th« reulingw nf byfr4(i>ne yemr«) 
pB the Spanith wHlrr iicmgnm (liv nhum Qiieredo did the Mine kind dfficn, &■ 
' Arwioti'hantn did by Cinesias wnd Kik brethren.) die Italian poet Hedi, (nMirP pw. 
tiruLirly in Kb " DitinunbJn) Hi BaitYi/^) and \l\t Knglish imilaton ofihi* LJrIbt 
Cru«r»ii »rbool of poetry, whom the rifrrinmi Miire of the late Mr. OifTonl itnit- 
\tm9d to thm foiir winds of hmren. 

■ 2 



AioT Amuvcoif iif 

come to verbal illustrations : Soph. Inc. Trag. XCIV. a. Nuaov, jv 
i^Citfpait \ "loKxus avT^ funav fjblanjp vifitt. Antig. I 131. crc (viderunt 
SC.) Svaiuv opf'av | icitrcr^prif S;^0nt. Eurip. BBCVh. 556. trdtfi Nvtrat 
«[pa rat 0TjpOTp6<^v &vp<ro<^aptit | f^wauvs, oS ^iuyv(Tt. 

oil fdit BpofuoSp ov radt x^P**^^ 
^aKj(CU Tf ^•p(ro(p6poip 
o{t Tvpirdi'iiop aXaXoy/iot 
KpfjvaKTt irap* v6po)(VTOiK, 
oitK uivriv ;|fXQipat OTaydi»€r, 
ov '' N^cra /jfr^ Nt^t^v. 

Eurip. C)xl. 63. 

See further Creuzer'8 Symbolik III. m. 124. IV 196, sq. 237. 

208. Atdff ^6ywrov. Eurip. Daccb. 550. ifrop^r rdd', » Aide viu 
Ai<fn/{rr ; 

209. Aipvat. The LhnjKt of Athens, like the Driihl of Leipzig, 
Gotha, and other German tuwns, (see Puss, iu vuc.) u-as a luw, 
swampy district, forming part of the metropolis. In it was situated 
that oldest temple of Bacchus, where his mystic • rites were annually 
aoleranized in the month Anthesterion, correspunding with our 
February. Cf. Nonni Dionys. XXVII. 307. 

lb. ^v (aoifiAy sc.) la^V*'""/***'- /Esch. Sept- c, T. 865. v/mji" 
'Epifunc laxMiv. Eurip. 'JV. ^iQ- fUXox tU Tpolop laxtjira. A learned 
writer in the Quarterly Review, IX. 360. proposes to read iaxx^- 
crn/iei'. Xi^vattriv dxTjaufify. Dind. 

lb. ** laxrto-aptv, inielligeDdum est cantare solemits." Rdhnkev. For 
the impropriety of thiH iulerpretntiim iu a grammatical point of 
view, Knnngicsser refers 10 Butlmann's Gr. Gr. §. 138. For the 
inaccuracy of the reasoning founded on it by Ruhnken and his 

(1 In the Putleitmir pomp of norriiiis (AUieii. V. 19R, e.). Nyba fiffitre* on an 
hiiiiifiiK plaUnnn, or >vit|;g^<iM (rtrpdicvK^os), after the follotviiig ma^niAcenc raui- 
iier. McT^ 8k ra^as liyfro TtrpdtcvKKos rrfx^*' otcrit wXdros 6**^ iv^piy i^~ 
Kom-a, iip' ■^j &ya\fia Nvctji OKriin^yv ira9^fieyov^ iritZutchs fiif ^dt^iiPov yirwiHi 
j(pu<rowaiKi\ov , Ifj-driotf Si i|^i^U^^To AaKwWMi^v. atfiararo Si rouTO fAHX*^tnws , ovS«- 
ybs rhs X*^P^^ Tpoadyoyros' Kcd ffTturtw ix xp^f^V^ ipidArjs ydxa, iraAir ixd&ifrp, 
tlx* ^' ^^ ''V dfH(TT9pi Ovpaiiy Jtrrtfififvof ulrpatt. avtij B' itrr^^dmrro KtaaUr^ 
Xf^vlrip^ Kol fiirpiMTi 2iaA/6ois rraXvrfXiffiy. tix* ^ (TKufda* iral M riiy y»tyuiy rfs 
TfT^OJCt/KAou KarfiTfirffytiTaj' KofurdSts 8tdxp"foi rirrapts. 

^ The uccotint ^/^yi'w hy the learned C're(i7«r (tjyinlH»lik III. 321, »q.) is prew 
cicely what we i»hoii]d expect t*i Cnri, fthen the Becret woi-ghip of U84.vhns had 
becotnc utiited with that of (.'cm. Amitbt the futicttoimriesof t>o(h wc And the 
kin^-ortlion, and hit H^ijnelette, » I>HtJuchus, and a IJieruceryx. The oath pro- 
nounced Ity the pncsttwies of Bacchuii i» prrcittely of that c)iaracter» which we 
ihmihl ex|)ect frum the cliHMtc pnr»te$iies of Cere^. (See the ondi, infr. 340.) 
Lustratioti hy ivuter and purilication by tire — the myrtle warn instead of the 
ivy — the aacritu'e of nwine instead of kdqu, these and utlier things belon^^ to th« 
Elciuinian rites, while the faun and panther-dresH, aiiil impure tuchibitiima, 
whirh it U not nec^wary to chararieriiHj ton ckftely, Itclonged aa properly to the 
i)«iocJiiu rite$. Of Lite anmlfrnmation lietueen the two wonthi)ni, the learned 
writer does nut seem to )mve been distincLly aware, whidi makes thin uucoiudoitt 
t&itimony more valiinhle. 


ipnv o Kpca7raXoKui^09 



•dherenis, see Kanngiesser's Dissertation rm what Festivals dra- 
matic represeulaliuns took place aniuiig tlie Aihetiiaiis. For a 
frobabie meaning of the word in this pariiculnr place, and other 
iondcDti connected with it, see our prefatctry remarks. 

310. KftavtroKoKiiifioi, (ic^aifrdAr;.iiitoxinitio[i and the bead-ache which 
follows; Kw^?, a revelry.) To enter more fully into the meaning 
of this compound, we must recall the reader's attention to the 
three days' Festival of Anthcsteria, explained in a former play. 
(Acharn. 181. 874.910.) Of these three days the first wasdevoted 
to tapping the casks, which contuined the lust year's vintage. The 
tasting, the sipping, the gossip, nnd the world of learned discourse 
brioiaog the wine-bibbcrs and ivine-growers of Athens on such nn oc- 
^^hnon will easily be imagined. " Ab, neighbour mine. Charinadcs. 
^^1 lold you what would be the consequence of trying the Praninian 
I gnipc in that heartless soil of yours; but take your polatiuns, man, 
triih me lo-morniw, and though we live not a stone's throw apart, 
you will see what the mere turn of a corner does in these matters." 
** Not so much amiss, sun of Damon, and had ihe pruning been 
more delicately handled — but hearkye, my gond friend; when 
ne»t year's vines require hoeing (rui^Xa^fii'ji, keep tliat fellow 
Maucs, and that glib-ton;;ued idler from Syria, wider apnrl ; two 
such ne'er-do-wells come not within word-shot of each other, but, 
believe me, there is ten times more talk tlinn work." *' Nectar, 
saidst thou? by the gods, man. here's stuff to recreate a soul in 
the very jaws of death! Welt, deep as the H;ublet is. I nmst see the 
bottom of it! and. mark me, thuugh an 'invitation should come 
Irom Bacchus'* own high-priest to-morrow, I promise you I cele- 
brate the pitcher-feast with none but you. Well, if you insist 
upon another goblet — ." The feast of Pitchers followed, and if 
I tbe Pithoigia had been a day of sayings^ the Choes was a day of 
doingg. North, south, east, west, nothing was seen in Athens but 
jollity and mirth ; the midnight stars found not the revellers di- 
Torced from their cups. The third morning's sun brought with it 
the Chylra* ceremony, and all Athens was of course, from the pre- 
ceding day s debsuch, one universal head-acbe. Could a walk 
through the mnrsbcs. or any other cooling spot, be out of place on 
sach an occasion^ (Illustrations of the word KpamaXtj occur in 
Ach- 277. « KpaiiraX*;v | *^tv upT\vr}i piKprjffft Tpv^\ioy, Vesp. 1255. 
axmoftifapyvpiov €K KpninaXrjs. To instances of the Word Kw/iof given 
by ua in Ach. p. 206. add /£sch. Ag. 1160. ku^e tv dd/io<( /mm*!. 
£ur. fiacch. 1 166. iix.'^Qt xiafiov V.Uov 6tov, Cycl. 39. Drrxxty xw^ijit 
VVvaxrwiiovTt^. 445 in\ Kw/iof f^miv. Alcest. 820. Kotfiov mat y** 
Wrof Jjut. 94 1 • rtoKvf)xi)Tov xw/Aor. Phoen. 796. 

G) no\vfiO)(6os*ApijSt ri nodt nttutrt 
no* Bfutartf Kart)^€i. Bpo/i/ou vapufioviros iapralti 


f Cf. iufr. p. 6j. 



T019 lepoKTi yvTpourt 

AL eya> Si y oAyeii^ apxpfxai 
Tov oppop^ <o Koa^ Koa^' 

VpXU S lilCOS oifS^J^ fjL€\€l. 

<UXd tri/y i>n\o(f>6poitt <rrpar6p *\fyyf!mv tmrnrnvaas 
atfUtTt Brffias, xw/iov avavKorarov npoxopfVftt, 
nv noiia Ovpa-Oftayfj vt^ptfit^y pira St^rvvii.* «. r. i. 



3)1. ToU irpoU x^poitri, at the time ur celebration of the aQCred 
fefttival of the Cht/tra. Matlh. Gr. Gr. §. 406. b. 

3 13. x^Tpoi. The third day of the festival abo%e-nienlioa«d, 
Htid so terriied from the pots uf pulse offered to 'Ep/i^r ;^^»'tof. 
Atheu. IV'. 1 2^, d. ifrTV)(ia^ di yfvopirrjSy tJTttirtidkXovoiv ^/mv 01 kom rots 
\vTputv Toly 'A^j^iajfTi \itrov(jyrj<ravTtt, lb. 1 30* d. Arjvaia itat Xvrpovr 
ffttupoiy. Alciph. Epist. 1. 11. ep. 3. irolovi Xut/>ou« ; See also Knnn- 
giesser. p. 31 1. 380. 290, sq. 32<). 

213. Kara, through. Eurip. Hec. <)i 7. «ir Arrv. Hel. 1 164. u^ 
'VXKaulay. 11^5, jcar* avBpamoiv roAcir. Pboen. 151. nzr* o^, 213. 
KOTO irovrov, 

lb. riptvov [rtpvat'), translate demesne, prop, any portion of land 
Net apart for a person : niurc particularly a porliuu uf ground with- 
out boundaries, set apart ami dedicated to a god : conamonly a 
»acred wood, with a temple, chapel, or altar. (II. VIII.48. XXIII. 
148. Od. VIII. 363. Ilea. Sc. 58. Arist. Plut, 659. Lysist. 483. 
^8chyl. Pers. 371. {rtpivot aWtpos.) Soph. Q'd. Col. 136. Trach. 
y^6.{Ttp€viay<l>v\\dda). Eurip. Med. 1376. Andr. 353. Suppl. I33i. 
Here. V. 1332.) I quote the following passages relative to ihe 
^vord from St. Croix» where he speaks (I. 138,9.) of the total de- 
strucltun t)f the Lemple of Eleusis and its appurtenances by the 
earlier ( Iirisiiatis. Himer., Declam. XXII. §. 7. ed. Wernsdorf. 
rfAfirnt piv, uA\* cV xdru rtpiva, Proct. Comm. inedil. in 1 Alcib. 
Plat, is yap rois tU to t^» *EAri>(ru'iaii' rtpfvos ficriovo-ii' tijfKovro irpo- 
ypappQy fxij ^(apdv ii(T(a rQif abvTOip a^w/rois oZ<ti koI drcA^oTOts, 
oLH-ti} IT. r. X. Schid. in Can. LXII. Synod, sit. Pand. Can. torn. I. 
p. 596. T^t fCo-rjSciur ttrtKpaTovinjif ck dr/icXiwv alritw inp^wriQy ra rifg 
ctduXwi' Tffum}. 

lb. Aatliv ox^off. cf. infr. 645 ; both words belong to the tragic as 
well as the comic stage. 

31,^. t6v oppov. Tmnslsitc, decoris gratia : the sitting part. See 
Lnius. a satyrocomic performance of .lilschylus. fr. 1 1 3. 

216. lo-wf, " nnn fortasse, scd videHcct vel profecto^ ut Scbsefer 
ad !.,ong. p-3.s7. docet. Cf. Plut. 358. 1058. Eurip. Hcracl. 262.*' 



BA. fip(K€K€K€^ ^Oa^ KOCL^. 

AI. oAA' f^oXoiaff avrcp koo^' 

ovikif yap tor oAA r; koo^, 

BA. eiKortof y\ co iroXXa irpaT^^ sso 

T<0V' ffM€ yap ioTcp^au tvkvpoi re Moytrou, 

Kcu KfpoffaTas Flai/, 6 Ka\afi6<f>doyya Tral^iov' 

irpocreiriripTr^Tai S 6 (f>opp.tKTas 'AttoAAcoi', 

ivexa S6vaK09y oif inroXvpiov 

i» .. . . 

a 1 8. t^oKottr& aifT^ "oa^, may yott and your coasb penth together, 
ArisL Pax. I 288. ttaKitrr drroXoio . . aifrali fiaxait. Thcsm. 825. oiro. 
XwXrv ... & icnvo)v \ ix tw oticwy airr^ Xvyxs> For further iUustratiouft 
of ibis formula, cf. infr. 449. 

319. ov^itf oXX' ff, nihU aiiutl nvti. Sn sIro ovftiv oKXo trX^v. Soph. 
Aj. 1 35- ^p^ y**p ^^av oi'flVw oifras itXXo, vXijv | f'dwXa. Eurip. Hec. 594. 
6 frotnjp6t, oitdiy SXXo n^ffv Kanot. 

aao. <uoro»f. " Recte ct Jure semper ita cano, nam Musa et Pan ei 
Apoilo me nmant. Dixu. Thiersch cump&res Eurip. Ipb. Aul. 457. 
•htArms A* a/i' ttnrrro $vyaTfii vvfirf>€VOwra. 

lb. " TToXXa npdTruv^^noXv7rpQyfio¥ti¥ dicUur^ qui Don iiivitalu* 
aliorum res curat pnsler suum negotium. quippe qus nihil ad cum 
pertineant." Interp. ad Phit. 910. Herodot. V. 33. r/ iroXXu irpijff- 
ffcir ; Kurip. Hippol. 7H5. t6 iroXXa npawtty ova iv dtr(ftaX«l ffiau, 
Suppl. 586. TTpdtrtrtaf au iroXX' «ia6ai fj t€ ai} iroXtc. Here. Fur. 366. 
cArvira vpdaato ttoAX' f^w ; Id. apud Stobi^uin 56. p. 374. 
Stmt dc 9pa*r<Tti iroXXa, fii} ttfidfrfrttv irttpav, 

kfiiitpotf wapov {tiv rjlitois anpayfiovi. 
St. r£iXv/>o(. ArisU Tbes. 969. rov tCXvpav (ApuUineDi rcO /mX- 
irot^a. Eurip. Alcesl. 587. nXvpat 'AiraXXttf. Licym. fr. 4. 'AiroXXor 

333. Mpo^ras («('/»!¥. 3aiVw). According; to some, a stalker upon 
horn or rams' feet : according to others, a stalker upon hilLlops 
{Kipara). Cf. b. Honi. Pan. v. 3. 

lb. nov. The author of the Dionysiacs gives a history of twelve 
Pans, XW, 73, sq. 

lb. (coXo^'j^oyya (xaXa/io;, t^iyyoixai) iral^nv^ playing reed-sounded 
strains. Hynrn. Horn. Apoll. 306. Eurip. Iph. T. 11 26. trvplCfiy 4' 
& K^podtrat wiXo/iof oi/ptiov Oavoc. Elect. 706. ti/app6irroif <V koXo. 
fMMc. (For yKsohylcan compounds in oc, cf. iniV. 803 ) 

333. ^pfuKTux, a player on the tp6p^ty^^ or portable harp. (Eu- 
rip. Pb. 837. Ion 164.) Pind. Pytli. IV'. 313. ^popfumas ^tbav irarifp 

334-5. " 0<Q account of tbe moist {fvvdpoy) reed, which I nou- 
ri«h in the marshes for the service of the lyre.** 

doya^ (doWw, became easily moved by the wind.) i&cbyl. 

K 4 



fVvSpOV €1/ XtfJLVat^ Tpf(()(0. 27$ 

l3p€K€K€K€^ KOa^ Kod^, 

AI. [eyoj Si (j}XvKraiva9 y cxo>, 
yfi> TTpcoKTos ISUc irakai^ 
KOT avTiK ^ytcuyf/af (pit 

fip€K(K€K(^ KOa^ Kod^.^ 

aAA', CO (f>i\(p8oif yitf09y 
WCLVtraade, BA, fiaXXov pjeu ovv 

Prom. V. 59' • ^^ df inppoirXaaTor ort^'ifiova^ | vmrn^Srai' vofiow. Pers. 
500. BoX^^v (t fXctof tovaxa. Eurip. Hel. 353* tov vdpdrrra d^rcua 
;(Xwpuv Et'pbirciii'. Orcst. 146. XraroO dticoiror. The word is of fre- 
quent occunvncc in the Diunysiacs, (see inter alia, I. 41. 435. III. 
235. XXIV. 33. 35.) We coutent ourselves wiih Iranscribin^ the 
pnssagc, where it occurs among the numerous wonders which Bac- 
chus hees congregated at Tyre : 

v<l0'^, <f>VT6tft irXoof, tiXtroSj vlStap, vitt, SXKtts, tj^irXij, 

XL. 334. 

lb vTtoXvptov. The hiva^ served inttead of horn for the bridge^ 
on which tlje strings of the lyre were placed. Eustath. p. 1165, 
26. ro yttp Ttakaiov dvrX rov Kiparos tmfriGtvTO raU \vpatt KokofAOV. 
h. Hymn. Merc, 47. 

235. 1'Fvdpof. iliisch. Ag". 1098. ffiTrdd* fVfVv^/jy TfuX". Soph. Phil. 

I454< fivp-tfiai r* fwipoi Xttptoviulitt. Eurip. Ion, 8S5> Xt/ivi/r tyvl^pov. 
Ph. 669. vdftaT Hyv^pa. (lb. viraXvpiov ... tnHpov. For specimens 
of atijectivcs accumulated in diihyrambic style by /Eschylus, see 
infr. I 339.) 

227. <p\CKTaiV€t (tpXvm, tfi\v^t»),a Mister. Eccl. 1056. Tfirmnraru | 
e^ aifAOTOv (fiXvirratvav rffupuafiimf. Alciph. Ill, Ep. 68. 0Xu«craifaf 

228. 'tfiUtv. to stceat. Od. XX. 204. iSiov, oit €v6ijiTa. Pac. 84. irpuf 
&y idif/r. See Tim. Lex. in v. The blisters and sweut are caused 
the eflfeminate Bacchus from the hardness of the bench on which 
he sits. 

229. fyKv^as. When learned men condescend to throw light on 
such passages as the text now furnishes^ it is nor for us by an over- 
nice fastidiousness to prevent our>eIves from profiting by their re- 
marks, particuhirly when CiHH?hed in the obsciinty of a learned lan- 
guage. 3crgler observes : '* Cuius se non incurvat, sed ipse homo, si 
se iucur^'ut. solet pcdcre, nia\ime si sit pinguis. Itaque per tro* 
pum quemdam dicitur, 6 npaicT6t r/Kv^av (/>ft, pro ipov iyKvy^aatot 6 
irpMirrAc eptl.*' 

232-3. /ioXXof fiiv oiv <l>$€y^fAi<rSa, nay. wc wiil exert our voices 




r)Xiois- eV aiJuepauTiv 
iXafieaOa 8ia Kirjretpov 
K€u 0Aecc>5 xaipotrres ^rJ9 
iv iroXvKoXvfxj^oKTi fxeXfaii^^ 
r) Aios (fxvyovTf^ ofjfipoy 
€Pv5pou iv ^v6a> )^op€iav 
aloXav ((p0€y^fucr0a 
^p€K(KeK€^ Koa^ Kod^, 




Umdrr than every for now, ice. An ellipse is here to be supplied^ 
whk'h the following sentences will furnUh. 

lb. fuy GUI', immo eerie. /Esch. Ag. 1367. rcii' av iucaUn 7»', imtp- 
dUmt fitr n£tf. Kuni. 3S. dtitratra yap ypavs, ovdiv' arrinais /A«r ov¥. 
rer». 1035. Xo. Trajrai, ntarai. S«. ko* ttXcov tj irairm piy ov¥, Cf. infi*. 

583- 597- , . , . 

lb. (L17X101C iV afufiatiTtv, in hot summer days. Eurip. Hip. j 37. inX 
tmra irarpnr tvdkiov. Iph. T. I 139. tvakwv nop. j'Esch. Eum. 866, 
opipav rniftara (irr}\tvs iryiovra. (Blomf. in PrUQl. V. 460. prefers 
tvtikoii «r aiiipaio-iv.) 

335. rikapriv aor. I. oied. of aXXca^ai, to move t^uickly. Eurip. 
Orest. 372. fTDi noff f]\dp4a$a ^tfurian' ano ; Ion I417. Btopnvifs 


lb. mirtntpof et Kiirupost water-flag. Vosb. cyperum longvm, Linn. 
XXI. 35 1. Od. IV. 603. h. Horn. Merc. 107. 
136 <pXw, M. Att. fur ion, 0Xoor, tpXavv, red-grass. Wklck. 
nrundo atnpehdesmon. Spkknqbl. sagittaria, Linn. 

337. froXt'KoAv^a (KoXup^aw) p*Xri, straitis accomplished amid many 
a dive. 

338. 11. V. 91. or' rniffpltni Aiir Hp^t, Eurip. Tr. 78. Ztvs Sft. 
ffpop — wifA^fi. El. 740. /taAXwTTOii' ip^prnf dt6$fv ortptuTM, 

339. 0t*$6t. yE»cb. Fr. Inc. — . fiv^ia $aXdtrtnjt, Suppl. 403. *t 
&v6d¥ lAoXtiif, Soph. Aj. 1083. «V fiv$iii' irro-fic. 

339-40. " x^P**^*^ jtSiyyeaBai, ttudacius dietum pro inier salittndum, 
nbsUiendum, cantarej" Di.nd. 

lb. ai6\Qtf a. quick. Hesych. aloXo^. woiKiXot rj fvKtrrjros^ an6 tov 
aloXfty, o ttrrt iti»tlm. Arist. Thes. 1 054. aiuXaif { vtKvtTiv riri iropfiatr. 
Eurip. fun, 510, avpiyyKov I vn aluKat la\as 1 vpvmv. la Sophoclcfl 

the term always implies cohur. Tracb. 1 1.94. 132. 836. AJ. 1035. 

Ph. 1157. 

, wop<f)o\vyonA^\avpa {nopt^Xv^, bulla, ira^Xair/ia, crepitus) , 
Ic noise of water J>ubbles. Av. 1343. irau< Tur vat^Xaapartiv, 
243. &pfK. The Frogs give additional force to their cry. 



AI. tovtI Trap vfjuov Aa/i/3ai/Q}. 

BA. 5«i 




rapa Treurt 
AI. SftvoTfpa S eyioy, 
€i Stappayijao^cu. 
BA. ^p(K€K€Ki^ 'coa^ Koa^. 
AI. olfJUD^€T' ov yap fxoi fxeXd. 
BA. aAXa /x^i' K€Kpa^6p.€<T0a y 
mocov 71 (f>dpvY^ a^ iJ/iuSi/ 
■^ai/SoifT} Si rjpjEpa^ 

/3p€K€K€K€^ KOOL^ KOOL^. 

AI. TOVT<p yap ov t/ttcrjcren, 
BA. ovSf fiTjv r}p.a9 (TV Trovrwy. 
AI, ouSaroTf' KeKpa^ yap^ 
Kav p.€ Sff Sl -qpLtpa^^ 
€0)^ OP v^v eiriKpaTqcrto rov Koa^f 
^p€KeK€K(^ Koa^ Koa^. 

343. TovA vafk vfiav Xa/i^uvo). / take this hint, learn this lessim 
from you ; i. e. you shall not have this brekekekesh koash koash entirely 
to yourselves. Bacchus here commences a counter-strain. 

249. oKKa iii\v . .yr, at vero etiam, at profecto. Tliicrsch illus- 
trates by Xen. Mem. I. I. 10. aXKct nijf €Kt'iv6t yt de\ /«k ^v eV ry 

lb. Kpa(tiv {JBsvh. Soph.) fut. KiKpa^fMi, 

250. <t*<ipvy^ ('^>'»pw. / Split)* prop, the beginning of the meal- 
pipe, the gullet. Od. IX. 373. : hence the throat, infr. 540. Eurip. 
Cycl. 356. tvptias (fidpvyyos dvatrrofMOV ra ;((IXoff. also 215. 410. 593> 
The word is not found in Tragic Cireek. 

25 I . ;^a»'dai'<u' (anr. 3. *x^^'^''» ^"^* xtltroftat)^ to contain, II. XXIII. 
743. J£ 3' apa fitTpa | ;^(it'^awi'. XXIII. 26S. \*^qs, riaaapa p*Tpa 
itrxat^iiii'. Od. XVIH, 17, oWAr 8' afiffxyrtpovs SUt ;^ftffrnii. 

lb. Ac' ^fAtpat, the whole day through. The idiom has been illus- 
trated ill former plays. 

257. eiriKpareif rov xoa^ vfiav, to suhdue, or, become maitcr of 
your coash. Plat. 6 Lcgg. 752, a. av ... yrjpws tntxparvpfy rti y« to- 
<ro\rro¥. jtschin. la, j6. ^ oX^^cia narrav tirutparti tS>v dyBptnripw 
Xoyurp^. Lys. 165, 37* "^X *'**'*' *"* ^*"' T^* ToCrtiiu noyrjpiat iittupa- 

258. At the close of a most vociferous Trochaic Hcphthimcmcr, 
Bacchus pau.scs for a moment ; but — the roamb&wans have sung 
their final descant. 


f/icAAoi/ apa irojic^iv iroff vfxas tov koo^, 
XA. cS iravt iraik, Trapa^oAov rep Kamiw. 

AI. 6 AavOta9* ttov SavOtas ; ^ ^avOias ; 



359. «/i«XXor(ipo«. T. X. *' So; I faavc succeeded at last in stopping 
you from your coash." The idiom htm been explained by us in 
Ach. 302. To the examplos there given add Soph. Phil. 1083. 

lb, fft^XXov rrava-ftw. " In the syntax of /icXXw," Hoys a learned 
writer in the Museum Criiicum (vol. I. p. 524.), ** the infinitive 
mood fidlowing it most uHually occurs in the future tense, but not 
unirersalty. The authority of PorsoQ ad Orest. v. 929 on v. 1594. 
/UXXitt KTovtiv, has prcmounced, ' aoristum recte postponi verbo /mX- 
Xfo*,' Mr. Elmsley, ad Heraclid. v. 710. gives his sentence thua 
on the subject; ' Ubicunque Icvi emendatjone pro ypayltai restltut 
potest yfM^f If aut ypai^fii/, reslituendom mi hi videtur/ " la Hrunck's 
Aristoph. the case, 1 believe, standi tbua : /lAXu with an indie. 
present occurs, Ach. 347. 482. 493. 587. 947. Vesp. 403. 830. 
loii. I 1S5. 1379. Eq. 267. PI. 466. Eccl. 231. 271.758. 1164. 
Nub. 995. 1072. f 340. Lys. 1058. Th. 7.53. 83. 215.587. 1177. 
Ran. II. A*'. 132.352.498. Pac. 196.232.: with a future tense, 
Vesp. 400. 460. 546. 1095. 1346. Eq. 931, Th. 181. Nub. 777. 
1301. Lys. 130. Han. 268. 791. 1430. Av. 464. PI. 103.: with 
a second aorist, Ach. 1160. Lys. 1 18. with first, Av. 367. 

lb. mvtr§iif v^ar tov nod^. Soph. El. 798. et ri^vd* twavtras r^^^a^f. 
Eurip. Bocch. 280. i navfi Tovv rakanri}povs ^poroi/s Xvmjt, Tr. IO25. 
WttiKToif f^XI^ I *£XXi;rac t/fiat rt. 

lb. *' iroTc h. 1. prorsus ita dictum, ut Latine toties aliquando 
dicitur pro tandnn aliquando.' Heindorf ad Protag. §. 15. with ex- 
amples from Herudot. I. 116. Xen. Cyrop. VII. 2. 19. Lucian Dial. 
Mort. 9. init. Pindar, Pyth. IV. 522. 

260. TTaw pro iravaai Tcl frnt« travrov, sic infr. 549. Eccl. 1 60. 
f-atf« roitni¥. Pnc. 326. uXXu irai)«, Trau' 6p3(a^t**'^^- Sopb. Phil. I 375. 
vow. fif} X*^?;r vtpa, 

lb. napa^aXnv ry canriy, push the boot to fhore with the smalt oar, 
lb. mwTriov (dim. of Kwm}), answering prububly to the pule, by 

rbicli our own bo»i$ nrc jnufhrd, rather than rowed to the landing* 


261. oiroftof rbf vavXor, pay your /are. For an imitation (ita au- 
r, it will be seen, protests against its being considered as a 

slaiion) of the above chonis, see Appendi.x (E). 

52. Bacchus, finding hiniHclf alone upon the stage, calls for 
nthias. using the nominative fur the vocative, as sup. 36, No 
iwer being returned, he asks in n trembling voice, ** Where U 

thioM?' After a short pause, he again exclaims, ^ %atr$iat\ 
p I say f or, hallo, Xnttthias ! 



SA. lav. AI. ^dSt^€ Sevpo, SA. X^p9 ^ SiOTrarcu 

AI. Ti coTi rivravOi ; SA. cr/coroy *cou ^pl3op09> 

AI. xarciSes- o^t' ttou tou? irarpaXoia^ avroOt 265 

/cotJ TOLT emopKOV^y ovs eXeyei^ -qplv ; SA. <rv S ov \ 

AI. 1^ roi' rioaciScj ywye, /cal I'ufi y' bpo», 

aye ^y), r/ Spcifxep ; SA. TrpoUuai ^knara u^if, 

w OVT09 6 TOTTO^ (otIp OV Ttt Syjpia 

ra Seiu eipouTK iK€W09. AI. ciy ot^^rat, 370 

-qXa^ov^veffy lua (f>o^7]d€i7]P iyio, 

€iSa>9 /i€ p.a\tfiov oirra^ ^iXorifwvpLivo^. 

ovb^v yap ovTto yavpov iaff my 'H/?a>cA^y. 

363. lav. Xanibias ia not yet visible, but his voice is heard at h 
distance. The (iloitsogr&phist considers this word as the imitation 
of a whistle. Thiersch says, it is both an exclamation of joy and 
»orR»w : here, «f joy, at hearing his mnster's voice once more, or 
pain at vhn darkness and dirt wiih whirh he has tu strtiggle. 

264. T( fVri ravravSi ; " quid, qualia sunt, qutt iUic (in locis, ubi 
fuisti. aut nunc versaris,) habenlur ?" DtNo. 

266. fktytv, Hercules sc. sup. 138. 

267. yvvt y 6p<o, (said with his face turned to the spectators.) 

370. oi'/iufrrat ** pttnas dab'u suae ostcntationis cum mendaciia 

COnJunCtte (toC rika(ovtUa$ai)," DiND. 

371. aKaCoy<\tfO'Bai. Av. 825. a\a^ovtvnixtvoi. ^schin. 85, 10. 
aka(ovrv6yL(vot t a vapaxprifui **^fXryX7/ ^fv^ofitpos. Lys. fr. 43, aXafo- 
VfvraBai TifJMvi fra/wnrXi/o'iatc. Vit. Apollun. IV. 15. tl ftfj aXa^ov(Vt(r$at 
&okS>. Dem. 569, g. Kar(Ck.a(uvtvKT0m, to phy the falsifier. 

I 372. /id;|fi/ior. .Vsch. Suppl, 791. ^d_!^i^a d' firiJ*, ftartp. Ag. 
123. (da)»* di^o \i7^(rt dicrcrotr '\rptt^at. fia}(ifiovs ttiarf. 

lb. <l>i\ffrtfiQVfi(vot, bloss aus Eit'ersucht, ottt o/merejeahvsy. Vo9S. 


27*;. yavpov, 'ittsoient, overhennng, seff -conceited. When we re- 
collect the recent course of Bacchus's studies, we shall not be sur- 
prised to find a term in his month, unknown to ^^schylus and 
Sophocles, (at least it is not found in their present remains,) but 
very frequent in the writings of Euripides, and in more shapes 

g Bacchus had little idea that tlie term would oiie dajr be applied to himaplfu 
wdl a« til Hercules ; yet so it uccun in m paasa^i^ uf Libanius, n here a onmimmim 
18 thus instituted t>ctween tlie wtiie^god niid A)nt>iadc«. AiivyftT6s ns oirroi ^k 
0T)j3wr »ii T^v 'ArriK^y KtaftdCfi, irXtTara <f>*f»m' r^s Cffar ^wr«»T yva>fft<Ttiara koX 
T^T -wp^s rhf Otity AfxoiinjTuj' KOfi.a} fii:y aitr^ roTt Kf>or^<potT iwurtioirrau fiax^iiral, 
tdTi (mtbdvoti li&n fcal toIt iyBtat wphi K6<rfwi* ijfdovirat, 6<p0a\fLOi 8< iufttaat ^oKas 
Tcus ifKtov ^apfiopuyait df^iW^fityot^ fifydXauxof l^rj vol yaupoy mi ypatnp^t 
«, K.r.4. 


Xiz^hf T dywt^UTfx a^iov ri t^p bbov. 275 

SA. vr^ TOP Ala KOL fi7]v cuaOdifOfjLat 'y^o(f>ov tipos. 
AL TToi), TToD 'oTii' ; A A, i^oTrio-deu, AI. i^cmurff Wi. 
SA. oAA' errrJi' cV r<^ irpoaOi. AI. wpoaOc vvv t&i, 
SA. xaJ /iT^j/ 6p<5 J't) Toi^ Ala Brfpiop pAya, 
AI. TToiov Ti ; A A. Setvop' TroirroSaTroif yovv yiyvt* 

I «k«in , 


than one. Suppl. 378. rd yaCpof d* iv ^purht KtKTijitivoi. | doimt/;i#v 
iivat dat^oMwy o'o(^a>r<poi. 8^1. KoTras'ct't 6^' ftrriv ^ /3/of ^tf ^^i ito« 
Xvr, I Tfitttrra b' SX^a yavpot ^v. Alex. fr. XVI. idioif ovTiiv fjtfo^fv* fUa 
d« yora I rtj r' tvytvi^ Koi rii hvfrytvi^' | p({^ dc yaCpov auro Kpalvfi 
jl^poKor, Hiil. fr. I. 4. ovditfyap oCru yaDpoi' wr I'w^p ttfiv. Add Pboen. 
126. Belleropli. fr. XX. 11. The word is first fuund^ I believe, in 
ibc writings of Arrhilochus, fr. IX. ov <f>iXtQ> fiiyav arpaTrjyov, oW< 
BuMwmXtynivov ( oCdi 9o(TTpi>xoid yavpov. In the Dionysiacs, tbe for- 
mula avx'vti yai-pov atiptivis of fi'L-qiicnt occurrence. VII. 352. Vfll, 
376. IX. 307. XI. 57. Mil. 125.256. XLII. r55. See also I^n- 
ginus de Subl. For tbe word yavpov<r6ai^ see Etirip. liacch. 1 142. 
1239. Atom. fr. 4. 5>theiiob. fr. 7. Inc. Fr. 181. «Kyavpovfr0ai. Iph. 
A. 102. yavpv^a. Troad. 135B. 

274. ivTvx*l^ ^i*"*, sc. &rjpi^ Tcl TrAupt. Til. 

275- ay"*'**''/'"* certamen. Herodot. VIII. 76. tu>v tn *ApTtfu<ritp 
aymfitTfiaT<iiV. £urip. El. 994* iriKpov re x* V^^ Taywvitrfia. Putisanias 
de laxnpadephoriB ; to tii ay^fttrfia AfAov ru ^p6fuo <fiv\d^ai rijv Aa&a tri 
matopkivri» (otLv onoiT^aBtitrTjs de k r.i. (Bacchus draws himself up 
10 the fnlleitt height of his puncheon figure, and looks most valour- 
oux things.) 

276. Koifirfv. These panicles are often used, as Thiersch ob- 
serves, when something unexpected presents itself to spectators or 
auditors. Cf. infr. 379. For numerous examples ufxal /i^v, followed 
by odf or its rases, when a new personage approaches, see Quart. 
ev. LX 354. 

lb. ai(T$dvofiai ^^^I^ov. Eurip. Orest. 1304. ^aBSfirjv rrvtrov rti^r. 

ipp 139^* u^'^t^^" <^^^' 

lb. y^^fmv. Kurip. Bacch. 686. ^nfi^ Xwrov. Cycl. 443. KiBapav, 
ere. Fur. 239. yXoKrcnrc. Soph. Salm. I. i. tfiiKTjparvp, Cfinfr. 460. 
278. «V T^ np^c6t, in front. Xen. HoU. VII. 2. 7. o\ rroXc/woi «ya- 
rro iv T^ irp6c6tv rotr th r^tf rroXiv iptpoviratif nvXiiv, (Compare 
e in Cyclops of Euripides, where the Chorus play upon Poly- 
he in endeavouring to lay bands upon Ulvsses, 680- 

280. fTOFToduTr^f, omnigentts. See lUomf Sept. c. Th. 35 1. Dem. 
V Mid 557, 14. 



apaiordrq rty. AL ttov '<tt( ; ^/j' ctt avrrji/ no, 

HA. oAA' ovKer av yvvt) ^artPj oAA* ^fS?; kv<ov. 

AL "E^TTOwra To/wf €OT£. SA. TTv/)) youv Ad/i- 

OTTOi^ TO TTpocToyrroy, AL xai o-ActAof ^aA/coDi/ €';(6t. 
SA. f;7 TOP Y\oa€i8i>y KOii /3o\tTiuov Oarepov^ 286 

cra0' «r^i. Al. ttoi 5^r a// Tpccirolfir)!/ ; SA. ttoI 5' 

AI, UpeVy Sia<f}vXa^6if fi\ li/ (o aot ^vfiiroTrj^. 

aSi. iptits, A mule, 80 ca11e«1 because mostly used in moiintainot 
difilricta. II. XXIII. 115. 121. XXIV. 702. 716. U is of liiiJe 
consequence to the hitmour, whether these ph&Dlnsms tire fabri- 
cations of Xanthias, or whether his dcclttralions were assisted by 
scenicol illusions. Most probably, however, at v. 284. a figure 
crossed the stage, exhibiting, like the imaginary Kmpiisft, one leg of 
brass, and the other like that of an ass; the eyes being as it were 
balls uf fire. 

284. 'EfiKovaa. A Spectre sent by Hecate, more particulftrly to 
frighten •' travellers. The diflferent phases wliith it asBumed are too 
gbaphically described in the text, to need further obscrvaii*.n. The 
following account of its appearance to the phih>sopher Apolloniiis, is 
taken from bis life by Philostratus, 'Er 8c t^ f^'xp* '"<'»' vorafiov rovrov 
(Caucasi sc.) odotwopiif, roftc tvpov di^7y^ff«<ar u^ia. tiroptvovTo fiiy yap 
tv trtkjjvr} Xafinp^, fj>d<Tpa b« ouroiy 'Efinovcnjt cWtrfO"*, tA driva ytyo' 
fuvjf, tcai TO dclva a^, itai nvfi*v tivai' & ti AiroXXoifiof ^vvrJKtv o ri lu;, 
Koi airros r* cXoidopciro t^ ' Kfiirovtrfj , roli t« aptp* aiT^v vpotrira^ ra^^ 
irpaTTftV TovTi yap anos tiwit rifs rr/xxr^oX^s ra^TT^c. xal tA i^ntrfAn ^nryj 
<jJx«'o TtTpvyot «S<rTr*p tu ftAaiXa. 11. 4. For his dealings with an- 
other of the class, see L. IV. 25. For further references or allu- 
sioas to the Kmpusa, see M. de St. Croix, Myst. <ii\ Pag. I. lyi. 
Dind. Arist. (Oxf, ed.) II. 650. Porson's Letters to Archdeacon 
Travis, p. 143. 

lb. Xafiwrrm (sc. Empusa) TO npovamov irpotrotrroif is an acciiSR- 
tivc case. 

2R6. fioXiTUfOif 6aT€pov. " And the other leg is that of an ass (/9oX<- 
Tivov)." See Casaubon ad Athen. Xlll. 566, Hencti the Em- 
pusa was frequently termed 'OwmtmXIc, ^Ovutcoikfj. 

a88. Bacchus aftects to seek shelter with his own high-priest, who 
occupied a conspicuous place in the theatre. (In the Ptolemaic 

>» Kurip. Uel. 577. at ^okt^* 'Eir^m, Trifirt <p<UfAar' f^fitr^. 




A. airoXovpLiff ^ <opa^' 'HpcucAc/y. AI. ov fXTj ku- 

{op6p<a(l>\ iK^r^uco^ fxijSc KaT€p€t9 Tovifofxa, 290 

A. ^tot^vae rolvvif. AI. rovr ?ff fjTTov Oarepov 
A A, Iff jpr€p (px^^- Sfvpo, Sevpy a> SfOTrora. 
AI. Tt 5* toTi ; SA. 0app€i' TrdpT ayaffa Trerrpa- 

€^<<tt/ ff (oawcp 'HyeAoxoy -^fxtp k4y€iu' 

KVfiarcou yap a5diy au yaXqv opH. 295 


pomp the Bacchic liigh-priesl follows almost immediately after the 
nlLar. which has been prercited by the allegorical figures of Annut^ 
feideteriBy and the four Seasons. fAtff ovs (Earupouf sc.) tvofHvtro 
^tkiVKOt A nottjTTfSf ItptvK wf AtovCtrov, Koi irayrtt ol v«pi tAv Aioia<<roy 
Twxt^'irai, Alhen. V. 198, b.) 

lb. IV J ffo* ^vfivorrjt. It has been observed in a former play, 
(Ach. 9S6. 1059.) that among the eDterlainmeuis given ou occa- 
iiion of the Dionysiac festivals, one of the most splendid was that 
furnished by the high-priest of the god. Thiersch has, I think, given 
s wrong interpretation of the pAHsage. 

389. oif fMtj. sub. opa. The idiom here seems to resemble that iti 
Soph. Trach. 980. oit fiff ^^fytpil? ru»' vTTvif Karoxou, and if*)sch.Tbeb. 
336. oil tnya ; /iifftcr rwfft* iptit itarh TrrtiXtv* 

lb. KoXcir, Att. fiit. for jcuXtV«i(. 

390. KttTfpiU, iibere enynriando prodes. Td. 

lb. mXffK ToCi^fAa. Av. l5^5- *^^yo, ^^ mku ftov nCvofia. Xen. 
CKron. V'll. 3. KoXovai fit rovro rA ^iw/m. 

393. Iff piifp «t'X'^- 9^ whither you are (foin^, i. e. go thy irfly. 
XaDthia.H pretends to speak to the Empusa. Lysist. 833. w YrorFiOa 
tS' 6pSi)v, rjvTTtp €px*t, rrjv iM6v. /Ksch. Proni. Vlucl. 997. ait W | 

(XtvOfilf, rjyirtp ^\6fs, e'ycuwi iraXiv. 
793. nayr ayaffa nivpayofuv, KV are at the height of good luck. 
Av. I 706. ti irairr aya6a wparrowTtt. Phlt. 341. xpfftrrov ri itpfiTTav. 

394. The name of Ilcgeluohus, and the blunder made by him 
when reciting the 373rd verse of the Orestes of Kuripidea, are 
almost too well known to bcur repetitiim. The actor's voice fail- 
ing him in the recitation, he was unable to complete his syn- 

ocpba ; hence a circumflexed accent was created in the last syllable, 
ring the auditors to understand yaXrjv, a tceasel, instead of yoX^/, 

395. Jm {po»t) irv/iar«y. i£sch. Ag. 873. KiiXXi;<iToir ^futp tltrt&tly in 
Pers. 306. XrCitov^/uip wttrht /x /ifXoyxtV*'^* ^urip. Hippol. 



AI . KOTOfXCHrov, S A . irrj top 


AI. KaSffiy KOTO^CHTOV, SA. V7) Af. 

S^A. vri AZcz. 
AI. OLfiOi rotAay, w? (Lxpicur avri^p ISciif' 
odl §€ Sficas v7r€p€7rvppi(W€ fwv. 
oifwiy TTodeif fioi Ttt Kcuca ravTi Trpoo-eweaei^ ; 
TUf alTtcur( 0€^if ft' anoXXvyai ; 
cuOipa Ai09 Scop-aTioyj ff ^(poi/ov rroSa ; 






108. rtpniiv tK iti/vaytas | Tpan«(a nXfjptjt. Rhcs. I 24. rviitiv €k kowv 
ap€i<^w». Add Phccn. 123.1. Hec. 903. Soph. Elect. 11. 

lb. ytikrjvTftf. ^sch. Ag. yiO. <^p6yr]fut vtjvtfaov yakapat, £urip. 
Orest. 7 I 8. Kptlaauv ya\fjvrjs vairriXiMtrt. 

296. KOTOfAoa-ov, Bacchus pula bis hand to bis heart, aa a man 
does when he feels the latter beating violently. 

297. ofioiToy. Though this transition from a compound to a 
simple form is nut unknown in the tragic poets (Eurip. Hippol. 
1371. rrpoa-anoWvTf ^', oXXurr. Alcest. 410. vvuKOv<ToVt aitovtrop, 
Med. 1247. KaridfT^ tft«T«. Hec. 165. antaXivaT, otXttfaT. Orest. 
179. Hioixifiiff , ol)^6fi€0a. 1469. aviaxevj taxtv. Soph.QCd. Tyr. 133. 
tiro^iW yiip 4»oii3off, a^itas di (Tv), yet the humour will be increased 
here by consideriug Bacchus as in a fainting condiliun, and want- 
ing strength to bring out the compound verb. 

399. idi, i. e. Xanthias. Instead of saying Sfirtpii>xpiatr€ ftav, greuy 
paler than myself^ Bacchus, in allusion to the wine-fiushed faces of 
both, says unexpectedly virtfHirvpfiladt fiov, grew redder than myseff. 
Tliis seems an easier explanation than that which supposes Bac- 
chus to point to his high-priest, and speak of him as blushing /or 
his terrified divinity. 

300. npo<rt'irf<r€, Rav. Bek. Dind. Thiersch adopts the reading of 
the Ven. MS. npotriirraro, as more tragic, and illustraiei* by Soph. 
Aj. 382. tU yap Tor* apx^i tov kokqv 7rpo<ri-jrraTO ; Eurip. Alcest. 433. 
taiKiiy ro8r TTpoatirrnro. 

301. airuicra>/iaf ... airoWvmii. Lysias 1 16, 30. r&K tavTov (nfrrtpa 
SC.) /if dirtKTovivai jfTLaro. 

302. The conversation here pauses for a moment. Suddenly a 
difltaut sound of Hute-niusio in heard, which gradually increases in 
loudness. A deep silence throughout the theatre — the poet's 
friends sitting upon thorns, as fearing that bis adventurous spirit 
may carry him luo far — tlie audience generally in that po- 
sition which men feel, when they know not whether they shall 



SA. CH/roy, AI. TL IfTTLV ; 3 A. ov KOTrjKOVcrai ; 

SA. avKcoi' TTfo^y. AI. ey*^/^? ^^^ SaScov ye /X€ 
cofpa Tiy elaemfevo'e ^voTLKwrary}. 305 

oAA 7;/>6fu 7m]^atrr€? a.Kpoao'cctfxeda. 

have to approve or condemn what will presently he submitted to 

304. av\vv. As the haqi and lyre served to express more com- 
posed feelings of the mind, so the fluie was employed to express 
its more turbulent' emotions, whether of enthusiastic joy, (Soph. 
Tracb. 217. 642. Aj. 1202. Eurip. Alceat. 357. 442. Ipb.A. 1036. 
Here. Fur. 11. El. 710. Hcracl. 893. Bacrh. 379.) or grief (.Ksch. 
Ag. 960. Soph. CCd. Col. 1223, Eurip. 'J'road. 126. Here. Fur. 
^881. Uel. 170.) In tht^ present instance it is needless to add. 
that the sound of flutes is that of gladness. (Tlie tlierunlist, or 
acred flute-player, occupied bo high a place nmong the functiona- 
ries of Ceres, that his name is found on Inscriptions coupled with 
that of the Hterophant.) 

304-5. dffiwv aCpa. It was the custom for the initiated to shake 
(beir torches, (cf. infr. 328. p. 72.) a purifying power beingaupposed 
to be inherent in the odour which exhaled from them. Though the 
ancients were not ver)' exact in the use of their words» it may be 
observed generally that the Xatinas was a maj: -torch, the &aU and 
ntvKij ynnetorchtis. Dionys. XIII. 402. SmroO* Kovpijt { ^voriiroXor 
AotdcM' Smtr^tU tifTiv ip'timai. See also XXXI. 140--6. XLVII. 


305. tkvtrruttaTaTTi, qualh in mysferiia esse sotet. (Cf. Append. E.) 
Th. /Esch. Fr. — . roudc ^ucrrucoii tiXoi/s Zpwi. Plut. Vit. Phoc. 30. 
ai nufitUt atf •fTtpuXirrovvi roi /iuortxac KOt'rnp. Heracl. Alleg. VI. 
p. 2 I . iivvrirKoi \6yoi. 

306. fTT^foiTft is properly said of birds cowering, letting down 
their wings for fear; or of beasts, as hares, who, when delected, 

1 Ariat«C. dc Rep. VIII. 6, of/K tmv 6 abXh^ i^QiKhv 6pyapov, AAAA f^aWov Ap- 
^rtatfTur^F. (-.7. fpc'i y^ f^y o-ifr^f ivrof^iy if tppuyurrl tu>v apfiOfiiv ^fwfp vitKbg 
im ToTi 6pydpoir &/a^ 7^ opyioffrtKi. koI wa^tfriKi- — wenra 70^ ^eucxfi"^ ''^ Tu<ra if 
Tiiarfr^ mimiait /idJutrra ruv &pyiirwy 4trrltt 4r roU aiiKiHt. Hence, when Ald- 
wbbes to deKTihe ihe powerful effects ivhicb ihe wordi of iMimite* had 
hb mind, c«itiin|ra bettting of the beitrtf itlteHdinf? of lenrs, and ntlicr violent 
I, oil hift iiDsgvn', it will lie oboarved, is dcrivfxt fniin tbe fluUsiiiitftic itl the 
two ffnat Phrvguui oumpnuerft, Alaryua and 01yiupu&. Pluto iii Couviv. $. 39. 
8fl0 abo bis Cnio, {.17. 

k The Ut«r editor*, by alt«riiig 4va6Katf to ivAvKatt in conformity with Tyr. 
whitt*« Bu^f^tion, have surely marred rather than JEPpruved tlieoriginai- LviiA, 
or penooified MMlnet*, it raiut he remembered, ii obotit to initigate Uercules to 
cftM daKnaciion of hu own children, ui e%-eiit tu which violent fluttvnituic wu the 
and as the murder of his children wuuld b« followed by 

•eoompaniment . ^. _ ^ 

lhed«nifod*i own denth, the C^hfiniii addreuing unirenal Greece obtervea, AMit 

n A6ffaat x^f>***^*>^' ^^aiKots. With allumiim to the wrne mournful acootnpa- 
of fluto-muiiic, Uie Chorus ohiene to the childran of Hercultt, 893. ^v^, 
rdia^, ^i^ffiir*. ZdtQW tA#, BdCvc h4Koi ^t»KuT«u, 



XO. "loicx*. «5 "lox^^c. 

duck their headfi, and contract themselves from terror. Av. 777. 
WT^^* &' iroixiXa <l»v\a n Brjp^p. hence, fo slink, toatrp *aMde. Ljrsut. 
770. aXX' AjTorap imj^axri ^^fXiSoffff fij iva x^P°^* \ Tot't firairat <^v)«ni- 
<rai. Thcs. 36. ilAX' tKwotiuv irnf^atf^tv. Eiirip. Here. F. 976- 5XXof 

fiia»' I cimj^c KprjiriH'. Androm. 754. fis iprffilav 6dov irrTj^ayres. Cycl. 
407. tv nvj(oi7 Wrpat vrrj^vrts, Rheii. 777- (Bacchus and Xantbias 
here retire; but where? On a modem sta^e, the side-RCenes would 
answer the purpose ; but what was the substitute on the ancient stngv. 
where no such conveniences apparently exi<ited ? I can only ofler the 
reader his choice of the three or more doors which lay at the back 
of the stage, (see plates in Kanngiesscr and Harford's " Agamem- 
non/') nnd trom one or olher of which Bacchus and hU companion 
may be supposed to peep» and deliver what they have subsequently 
to say '.) 

307. A jubilant crj' of " "^ lacchus, lacchus" is here heard from 
within. It proceeds from the true Chorus of the piece, who have 
just risen from the banquet, (the substance of which is in their 
joyous voices, as its odours subsequently are in the nose of Xan- 
ihias (infr. 326.), and who are now preparing to enter that space 
between the sta^e and the spectators, where their hymns and evo- 
lutions were performed, and which in the want of a more distinctive 
name, we are obliged to term the orchestra. flTie name of laccbus 
occurs among the tragedians in Soph. Aniig. 1154. Incerl. Tr. 
XCIV. 3. (Musgr. ed.) Eorip. Bacch. 724.) 

308. *Ia<t;^\ 01 I *Ia*tx«. The reader who looks to Greek metres, 
not as mere combinations of long and short syllables, but as in- 
dices of the feelin;^s and passions of the speakers, will not foil to 
observe the double Baochius here used ; a metre evidently expres- 
sive of strong emotion, whether of joy or grief. Hence when the 
decision of the court of Areopagus has driven the Eumenides of 
>^8chylus to vehement indignation, their feelings exhibit themselves 
in the same metre, w. 759. 784. ^Mulkrs edit.) ffrtw^w ; W pf« : 
yamfuu dvaoiara a iroXirau. 

I Ai BaoL'hui and Xaathtaa liprp Mtpp anUle tn cnnifnent an tlio 
a Chonu yet unseen, so in the Chocplioms Orestes nnil Pylade* ore 
aiide (v. iR.) Tor the |>iirp(«<> nf iiKcertaiuiiig uukre exHi'tly, who aiv 
trnt^ that HIV \inun\ug expiat«)ry urferinfjfn w the mtub of Agamemnon. 
wht?iT ft^ftin do the Intier two reciro 'f Mliller hiuI K1auw.ii Buppme them to 
the orcliestru lu'nr the ThyincK', whioli there represeiit* the tomb of A^ 
Hlien the choral trunp arrire at tlie same spfit^ wliat beoomei of Oreates 
lades? Are they oonvontiunolly stippowd to he unseen, while so much 
long or in dtahi^ue heiueen tlie Chnnii ntid Elerim? Many of thesa nkviia ra- 
qiiire a vloaer observance, than, as far as I am awarr, they hare yet mxIreH. 

TO This nujde uf rip<du plica Ung tlie name «rf loi-chus in exelanuuioriR and hvxitiw 
was so usual, that wc And a verb formed mil of it. JEnidi. SepL c. Th. 632.' aXi^ 

n Willi Uw f^ivatesi deftrenee to the leametl writer, I ahoiiM preler to punc- 
tuate Uie verse in such a maunerf as 10 exhibit the Chonts still in ■ vtaae af tnc- 


n tbefflld^ 
uion. Bui 

ih pMswtal 

BATPAXpr. 67 

SA- rOVT fOT €K€ll/, CO SitTTToO'j oi fl(flW]fMlfOl 

iyravOa ttov Trai^ovaiVy ovs cJ^p^^ i'^^- 310 

aSoixri yovv rov \aK\ov ovirep Atayopas. 

AI. Kafwi SoKOvaiif, rpv^uxp roivvv ayuv 

fieXriOTOV e<rru', &>$• av elSwfief aach^y. 

XO. Ifiwc^', o) TroXvTifnjT eV ^Spaiy ivBtxSf uaUdv^ 

309. rtiVT lar' ttf'um. To cxAnipleA of this formula s^ven in 
Ibnuer play&. add Dem. c. Mid. 583, 19. 

310. nai(«Lr, somciimcs to jest nnd stport ; sometimes to dance. 
lb. ott <0pa^« (Here, sc.) i^*". ( f. infr. 407. 

311. ro¥'\axxo¥. The Student must remember thut this M'ord 
bears three significations ; first, that of the god himself; secondly, 
that of the day on which his joyous mysteries were solenmized ; 
•od thirdly, as in the present instance, that of ibe hymns sung in 
his bonotir. Herodot. VIII. 65< Ka\ oi iPaivtaBai Tf}v «Poyi}¥ ttvat rov 
/t9fVTtK6¥ *Iajr;(foi'. Eurip. Cycl. 69. 'laK)(Ov, 'laKx^^v ^tlav fuXim, 
Athenion ap. Athen. V. 213, d. ^^ nrptClitufitv d«, uvhptt '\6t}vmot^ rijw 
Upa» rov ^laKXov ^>wTf» KaTatrttriyaafiirrfy. HimtT. Or. XXTI. 7. nok^ 
((jlp^fi rir 'lajrxoc. Sec also Arrian do Exped. Alex. 1. 11. c. 16. 
(The pricjits to whom the otfice of sinpng these hymns belonged 
were of the family of Lycomedes. with whom also the hymns them- 
selves were deposited. St. Croix, I. 238.) 

lb. Aio^par. The commentators doubt whether we arc here to 
nndcrstand Dtagora.'t of Melos, or a ditbyrambic poet, who in his 
lyric compositions was in the habit of inserting such redupltcationi 
M^toirx't M 'hux(. Conz, and apparently Dindorf, incline to the 
hMXer opinion. Thiersch mnniders Diagoras the Melian and the 
ditbyrambic poet to be one and the same person. For St Croix's 
opinion on the subject, see his Mysteries, I. 358. 

311. ^(rvjKtai' ilyvci'. Eurip. Andr. 143. 6€trrr6Tw d* ifiitf </k^^ | 
^^vxlf*" Syo fit V. 

314. 1/ ihe Crobos here enter the orchestra, they enter with 
Ibeir heads crowned with myrtle, their robes not ungraceful, but 
with an occasional thratricfti rent in them, for rca.4ons which will 
hereafter be explained (infr. v. 390-1.) ; their thavMure also being 
adapted to certain peculiarities, belonging to this part of the Eleu- 
sinian rites. The predominant metre in their opening strain 
(adapted, as Thiersch thinks, to the strains actually compoKe<l for 
chow ceremonies) is the Ionic a minore. with a mixture of Ana- 
CMOntics. the Ionic being sometimes exchanged for a second epi- 
trite^ a double trochee, ur double iambus. 

lb. J iroXvri/i9Tr. Arist. Tbe». 286. fttoviHWi vokvrififfTt Aijfujrtp 
^9. Brunck. Bekker, and Thiersch read miXirt-i^^Toc* ; and if by 

lu^ofi, and r,nnftei)ucntly more ■fiMiilhlfl 10 thow fsvourable imprcitioiit which 
JiJtnerva finally nudcn upon than. The vane wouU then suud thui : vt«i^^. 
w( ^4fy» : 7^rw^i«i SiMToloTK voXiraif ; 

F 2 



Icwcx , <o Icwcx«, 

4X6€ rppS ava Xet^va ^(op^ixTiov^ 


the word !Spais we are to utidurstand the temple tjf Ceres at Athens, 
to which in the actual ceremonies the image of lacchus was carried 
from bis own temple (Creuz. IV. 528.), previous to the starling of 
the prucessioD from Athens to Eleusin, at the head of which proces- 
sion the image of laochu.s was carried, the reading would not be 
inapplicable. Fur the sake of the metre, and other rea«onAf of. 
infr. 325. 384, the reading of Dtodorf has been adopted. 

lb. iipatf, a term fretjuenlly used of the habitations of divinities. 
iEsch. Suppl. 407. «V flfwp Z8pai<Tiv «fl' idpvfiivat. Ibid. 417. ^^V 18.7^ 
/«' ^^ ii(>ay I irokv$tfii» pv<Tta(T$uuav. Agam. 579. *v Bfi>v cd^MUs | tfwj- 
^yop KOiii<avr*i cvwdi; ^Xtiya. Add Stippt. 495- ^umen. 817. 85a. 
Sept. c. Th. 94. 307. Soph. Phil. 1413. 

316. ava, through, inf. 417. av iiktras. Av. 1267. ava ddircAov. 
iiSsch. Prom, Vinci. 589. aw rav irapaktav ^^i^oc. Eurip. Bacch. 
590. Hva fjkcXadpa. Hcc. m6. a¥ 'EXAdpwir trrpar^v. 916. ava woKu, 
Hel. I 146. uv ofHa. 1323. ay vXdtirra fiimj. Phocn. 359- u*^ VoXiv. 
Andr. 484, ovd rr ^fXa$pa Kara, rr iroXtar. Dionys. XLIV. I35< 
XIA'II. 34. QvS* Tir ^v a)(6p€VTOs ava TrroXiV, 

lb. Xttfuiv. For the meadow here probably intimated, see note 

lb. x"p*^*'»»'- " Dance, music, festivities, and good cheer/* »»y» 
M-de St. Croix, *' formed the blessings of the iuitiated." (1. 410) 
The Eleusinian dancos were of two kinds, public and private. The 
former were executed in a beautiful nieadoiv, near the well of Cal- 
lichnrus ; the latter were apparently uf a ptintomimic kind, repre- 
senliog the rape of Proserpine, the waiiderint^s of Ceres, and the 
discover)' of the pnicesses of uf^ricuiiure by Triptolemus. (I. 322) 
M. de Sacy, not thinking (1. 384-5.) that his learned friend has 
entered sutticieritly into the tiuture of the sacred dances^ quotes ia 
reference to them the following passage from Lucian : 'Ew Xryiir 
ori rtXtrtjv ap^aUiv ovdtntav cWif tvprlv, avfv dp;^(rift»r, ^Op<fMW di;Xod^ 
Ka\ Mowaiov ku\ ray t6t€ apitrrav 6pxy}0T&ii KaraffTrja-afUvwf avras, ttf n 
KoWnTTOPy Kal TuvTO vopoBtTTjaayTaiv frvv pv6p^ koi 6p)^ijan fixMtaBai. on 
d* ovT^t rj(^ti (rd fiiv opyia attanay clfiov, raty apvrfr»v errxa) ciccivo ti 
wayrts aKOVOva-iy^ on roiis e^ttyop^yoyrat ra pv<rnjpia, f^pj^ti<T$aL Xcyov- 
0-11' o\ iroXXoi. V. 132-3. In the Baccbae of Euripides the word 
Xopfvuv i»j as might be expected, of frequent occurrence ; see vv. 
20. 114. 184. 207. 511.567. 1151. On fiflccAic dances generally, 
aee Plat. 7 Leg. 815, c. 

317. Buxvaynjs, Eurip. Bacch. 548. tAf €p6y ^vr^s ex** • ^tatraray, 
Xen. Sympos. VJII. I . irayrtt itrfUv rov $tou tovtov Butaarrai, LuciaO 
IJ. 77. «(oi o Aioyvtrof ... rraipof koi Suuriimjy 7rfTrolij«' lit. Arist. PI. 
508. ^vv^iatrarra toC Xrfpuv. Vc«p. 738. dXX* J rrjv fjXiKlar 17/14* rtft ou* 
Ttjs awBiatrStra, 



TT^pi Kpari aco ^pvoirra 

OT^ipauov pvpToif' 6pa(TH S iyKaTOxpovoyu 

voSi Tap aJcoAaoTOV 

ff>tXo7ratypova TipAu^ 


I 31^- '* Shaking about your bead the full-fniiU'd exuberant gar- 

' land of myrtle," 

lb. noXvKapirot. £uri[>. Ph. 238. r^i^ iroKvKOpirrov olvarBas jSdrpw. 
lb- Taratrtraiif ... irrpi tcpari a^. Eurip. Here. F. 869. riwicT'crct 
Kpara. Bcrglcr quotes Baccb. 1 85. irul dft x^pcvfiv — Koi upara atla-at ; 
353. ovK AtroTtra^tts Kitrauv ; 

319. $pvovra {/uii, pro/use of) fxvprtav. Soph. (Ed. Col. »6. 
^fwur da(/)i^c, t\aias, dfiiriKov. Cf. nos ill Niib. 46. 

320. nvprwy. If the ivy was the predominant plant in the Bac- 
chic riles, (Eurip. Bacch. 81. 177. 305. 253- 313. 323. 342 363. 
383. 701. 1053.) the myrtle, equally common in Egypt as in 
Greece {St. Croix. 1. 284.), was thut which predfnninated in the 
Eleusinian. Crowns of it were made for the goddess herself : her 
priests and priestesses wore similar wreaths : all those who partici- 
pated in her rites made a duly of carrying branches of it. It was 
with a large crown of this favourite plant on his head, and with a 
torch in bis hand, that the image of lacchus was conducted from 
Athens to Eleusis on the si\ih day of the ceremony. See St. Cruix» 
I, 203. 231 244. Creuz. IV. 484. 488.535. The person who 
headed the procession was called lacchagogus. (St. Croix. I. 237. 
Creuz. IV. 486.) 

tib. 0paatl d> /yicarajCjMi'akv, k.t. X. *' And stamping with bold foot 
teiong the holy roysts, the chaste and holy dance, thut dance 
phicb in its irrcprchensiblc mirth-toving mood is such an honour 
to lacchus, and which has so large a share of the graces in it." 
lb. tyKOTaKpoOiay (Eurip. El. I So. cXiicrdp KpoCaa irJd* tftov. Here. 
V. 1307, Iph. A. 1043.) irolit x^p**o¥, beating a dance with the foot. 
Konys. XIII. 504, avaKjjovovtra \QptiT]v. XVIII. 53. xal Xdrvpoi irpo- 
0io9Tts dvfKpovirayro xoptlr^v. Cf. infr. 359. iyKftovtav. 

321. ajcoXacTToc (KoXa^ui), \.uncast\gated, withont castigation, or, 
perhaps, in dithyrambic language* irreprehensible. 2. unrestraint^, 
unbridled, for want of correction and castigation. The epithet is, I 
think, to be taken in its priraarj' sense, implying that the Eleusi- 
niuu dances of lacchus were not obnoxious to those reproofs which 
the cordax, and f>thcr dances of the Bacchic ceremonies, so richly 
deserved. Cf nos in Nub. 521. 

323. fftiXouaiyfiova (n-m'Cw). ptoy and sport-loving, Od. XXIII. 134. 
i^i¥ ifytitrda (JHXojralyfjMVot npj^TjGfLOto. Hcs. Fr. Xllt. 3- Kovp^c'r 

ff, ^ol <fHXovaiynoytSf opxi^'^p*^- Plat. 5 Rcp. 453, c. Cratyl. 
406^ C. tfuXovaltr^iovft, 

n>. ri/Aov (cf. infr. 335.) put in apposition with x**?*^*"^' These 




\apir(ov ttKuotou e\ovaav fi^po^y ayvaify Upav 

baioLS pvoTcuf xopelav. 

SA. w TTori/ta TToXvrifirjre Arj^Tjrpof Koprj^ 325 

vioienl appositions will lie better understood by the Ktndenl, who 
shall have the patieuce to trace tlitise of /t^cbyluK, as referred to 
in a preceding note. 

323. xflp*"!)" n\tl<rr, <x* M</»*- Thiersch compares Eurip. Bacch. 
411. fKritr Sye fu^ Bpufne^ BpOfiii. . . (KfT ;yu/»T«r, cVri d< ir66oif rV«i Box- 
Xaiiri BifUf 6pyta^*iw. 

lb. p-ipos. Dobrce rcTers on this word to Ibyetis. Alhen. II. 39. 
Panyasis, ibid. 37. a. 3. Alexis II. 46, a. Tliucyd. I. S4. Plul. a 36. 

324. fiixrraii {tyKaraKpoiftav sc.) Eurip. Here. F. 613. rh ^ivartiv 
&pyi tvTv)(Tja Ifiajv. Cret. fr. II. 11. Aitif 'iSaiov fivtmjs. Polysen. p. 
290. ed. Maasvic. oKXh ol pttv vtp\ QtfutrrokXta trvpfi^axov ?cr;^oi' rhv 
"loKxov ol i< vffH Xo^/itov, " oXfi^e plarai." (i. e. " Themistocles was 
assisted in the cumbat by the sixth day of the celebration of the 
niysteries, which is called lucchus. becnusc on that day laccbus is 
niudu to come forth : Chabrias was assisted by the second day of the 
same festivnl, bein^ the day on which the formula " 'AXa8« /iwrrm" 
is used : i. c. Betake yourselves, ye initiated, to the banks of the 
sea." CoRAr.) 

lb. x^P*^°^' The accusative to the participle iyttaraKpoCnv brings 
np the rear of the sentence to which it belongs, as far removed 
from its governing power, as the preposition frequently is in a corn- 
pound German verb. These things may be rxjylaincd, and even 
subjected to a harsh sort <\f construing^ but their humour could only 
be accessible to those, whose ears having been annoyed by the 
transpositions and colliicotions of the dithymmbic poers, were gra- 
tified at seeing their violences to language paid back with interest 
upon themselves. 

325. Xanihias delivers himself of the two following verses after 
much previous smelling and snifting. 

lb, fioTvia. A term of frequent application to deities ; also, to Fu- 
ries. Earth, Night, &c. Arist. Thes. 115^. .^Esch. Sept. c. Th. 141. 
885. Eum. yit. Soph.a^d. Col. 84. 1048. El. iii. Eurip. PhcBD. 
107. Med. j6]. Hec. 70. Orest. 174. 

lb. nQKvrip.TiTos. Another epithet applied to divinities. Cf. dm 
in Ach. 693. 717. 

lb. K6pt\. Name particularly applied to Persephone, the daugh- 
ter of Ceres. Orph. Hymn. 19. ^r Zci-t uppi)Toi(ri yovats rtKv^artt 
KoCprjv, ^Esch, Xanth. fr. 4. S/i^a Xrjrc^s K6pr)s. Eurip. Hcl. r326. 
n60t^ ras anoixoptvar, apprjrov K»upnr. Alcest. 3'^^' ^^ K^p^v Aij;h|" 
Tput. 868. tt/u Tr}v Kuroi, I Kdprji nvaxT^r r fU dyqXiovs dd/toii(. HerC. 
F. 608. 1107. Herac. 409. 601. Isoc. 46, a. St. Croix, 1. 167. 
Creuz. III. 370, s<j. IV. 335. (As «<Ip7 or novptj was the name 
under which the daughter of Ceres was most commonly honoured, 
8t> Kupos, or Koi/pot, was the title given, though more rarely, to her 
itofty lacchus. (Creuz. III. 368.) 




A I. ovKovv drpefi e^iy, ^v tl koi xopSrjs Ao^py ; 
XO. ey€ip€ (pXoyea^ kap.ira^a^ iv x^po\ Tii^curtTQii^^ 

326. vpo<rrmr€va( X'**P' "P ^^^ 6<Tfit). Kust. 

lb. ^oiptioiv Kpeoiv. Flule-musir — myrtles — swine-fleiikh. The 
combination oeems at tirst an odd one ; but Jet us not measure 
ancient manners and opinions by our own. In their cathartic 
rite^, the blood of pigs Ha.t one of paramount importance, (what 
says tbe mutber- murderer uf his ^liat^fxa in the Eumenides ? 372. 
noraufioi' yap oy, rrpht ccrn^ 6tcv | 'Poi^ov Kii$appo'tt TjXa&rj ^x^^P^"^^' 
TOic.) and — to (Miy nothing uf the general taste for pig-meat in all 
iu varieties ai Athens — what ilesh couliJ be more grateful to the 
lips of the initiated in the other world, than that of the animal 
wbouc bluod had delivered them from tlie paugs of guUi in this? 
The reader who wishes further to prosecute this subject may con- 
sult Si. Croix, 1. 165. 272-8, 9. n. 85. Creuzer. IV. 7. 347. 
See also Aristoph. in Tuc. 374.. and the commentators on the pas- 

337. ** And if you do smell swine-flesb, cannot you be quiet, 
booby ?" Such is the reproof addressed by Bacchus to his snift- 
ing valet. 

lb. x^P^'l' ^"^^^ l^^s particular portion of fmnc-flcshj cf. nos in 
Ach. 950. Nub. 444. Literally, an intestine. 

lb. Xa^^avfiv, percipere. Cf. nos in Nub. p. 271. 

328. ** Stropba Bacchuui (I. lacchum) invitavit, ut accederet ; 
antistropha cuudem salutat quasi adventanteni ; nam ejus effigies 
prjpferebatur." Thikrsch. 

lb. <f)\f'>y€0(. Eurip. Hec 1085. nvpits ipXoyias ai/ydt* Tr. 1267. 
^Xoyiat doXoicri X'P^^ Hupt'trfToyrai. 

lb. Xa^iidcr t'p X- r. 'loicj^f. l^ausauias 1. 3. 4, imos coti Aijprjrp^t, 
liyoXfiara afri} r< xai nats Ka\ d^ia tx^v "laitxot. On the torch gene- 


Are not the youii^ of thrne aiiinuils nnd iheir Unod Vftxct allud«cl to in 
of the same piny r 

ii^Bayyow tlvai Thv waAafttfrnu/f p6fu>t, 

iKTr" 6x -wphr it^phj atfunos KoBapffiov 

fftpayai iral^oifid^wm vfo&f)Xj>v jSotoD. 

vdAoi T^f JKaAdii tout* at(»fpwfu6a 

oXkoioi, «a] fioTQicrt koI ^vrais w6pou. 426— .10. 

ProftMor Hchulefield, by hi* tnuulation o( Ui« Ijut two vcrae*, {jampridMi apud 
0iitu mk* Hm riiu$ erptaiorion tiueepimuny per ovea — ) eridentJy luppoMS thttp to 
be •iipiMiberi in h<ith nppltratitms of the woni fiorif : hut it not this to confound 
eathartic and it'tjitir rites; in nther wordi, thoee ritPR which nmde the nmrderar 
^nn wit>i hta fflUiu*.nieii, ntiH tlioRe which miide him deun widi gnda above or 
fodft below ? MQllur'a traiulationft, SckIacht0iier, iu the fint iiwiance, aod Opfer* 
mkiathtnng in the MTotid, tieilher make for nur nfCHiiiftt tba MlggUition her* 
khroirn out ; the leanted writer havinp prohahly uiade iiw of a ffgm»ntl t«rm, 
only be«wiae he felt that the particular oiw roiild luA find ict way hito Mritnu 
ftttrf widiooK giHng offenoe m modem ears. 




"Icwcx , ^ "lo^X^' 

yovv waKXerai y^povrmv* 


ra]]y. as one of the most marked distinctions of the Eleusiiiian 
rites, and on an important myth connected with the subject, see 
infr. 1052. We prepare llic way for the subject by one or two 
ilhu>^t rations of a more central nature. In Ibe CEd. C'ul. of &o> 
phoeles (1048.), what do we find Eleusis itself lerraed ? From the 
number of torches there exhibited, we find it called Xnfi»rai«t oun-ai 
(Mff torch-Hghtrd S!hore),oi U&rviai aefiva tiB^vovptm WA17 Bi^Toi<riv. In 
our own poets ThesmopboriazusiE, (which though relaiinifj; to rites 
of Ceres and Proserpine differing from those of Eleusis, forms 
an excellent accompaniment to the present dramaj we observe the 

f(»llowing allusion : I 149. ^««t' . . li^aot ft iifUTtpof | oC dfj awfipdai¥ 
ov BtfUTW tltropaif j, Spyui aty,va BtStv^ Xva Xaftfrdo'i ^iptrov Hftfiporx^ 

328. Vv is nearly redundant, as in ^sch. Prom. 431. iixmpvpoun 
fip€fittv iv alxftoU, Eurip. Suppl, 582. €v aairitrtv aot rtpara icifdirrrv- 
rio¥. lb. 602. OT/KinjXaTii)o-(ij xXtivot tv KktKv^ dnpi. Hel. ^334 ^ /*** 
r6^ois''ApTffiis, a d* iv tyx*^ Vopy^ ndvonXov. Troad. 3^'* ^^ tafxap- 
rht iv ;(fpo(i' | iriitKoit trvvttrrakr^vav. 

lb. Tiwo-o-ojw. (Eurip. Bacch. 80. 55a. Non.Dtonys. XXX. 112.) 
One object of this shaking, it has been already obser^-ed> was to 
diflfusc as much as poHsible the cathartic influences of the torch. 
Hence when the falidic Thconoe quits her holy seal in the 
" Helen' of Euripides, she observes to those about her, 

'HyoG trif fUv x^ipawra Xa^krrrfjpuv trtkat, 
0tiov dc trtpvov $t<rfii>p alBipoi px^xotv^ 
ois nvrvpa madnpitv ovpavoii Ht^atfttBa. 
tri/ d* a^ KsXrv^oy^ f 1 rir /^SXa^rr iroAl 
trrtl^v dvotritp, &oe Kadaptri*^ <f}\oyi. 
Kpovaov d« frtviCTjv, ipa dt<fiA^w, rrvp6s* 

874, aq. 

330. rfXfT^t. Cf. nos in Vesp, 121. Nub. 298. aod infr. 998. 
The epithet nightly is one of frequent reference to the Bacchic 
mysteries in the Dionysiacs. XXVll. 173. XXXI. 140. 

lb. tp<a(T(f>6pot atrrfjp. Non. Dionys. V. 207. *Apfioi'lTf viov via yr/r}- 
BoTi yfivaro Kad^^, | 'Aovii^f nnXvUt^pov i<iKr<f>6pov atrripn narprjt. Eu- 
rip. Hippol. I I 20. Til* 'EWavias | tftavfptJiyriirnv atrrtp* '/i6avas iZdofUV. 
Soph. Elect. 65. Mf kSp swavx^i ... txOpoU, aarpov ut. Xd^^ftv fri. 

331. 0X<J£. Eurip. Bacch. 145. 6 Hayxtiit ft' fx*^v vvpawdrj rfikiiya 
ntvuas cV vtipSrjKos uiiTtrci k. r. «. 

332. yoyv vdXXrrai ytpivrnv. iufr. 1 3 23. ri KwXii r d/iiraXX<r<. 



avoceiovTai Si Xu7ra9^ 

\poifiov9 T eriov iraXauav iviavrovSy 

Upas VTTO Ttfias. 

av Se XafXTraSi (f>€yyo}v 

TTpofiaBrii/ e^ay iir auOr^poif tXitou SairfSov 

XppOTrotop^ fjuiKap, fjfiav. 


Eurip. Tr. 319. miXX* woff oldipiov. Non. Dionys. VI. 48. iraXA«i» 
m^irvXoi' tyvos. VIII. I 05. oyKvKa yovvara vak\tav. WelckcT com- 
pares the movement in n Rhenish son^ : 

Dfk drobcn am Iliigel 

Wo die Nachtiga) sinji;l. 
Da tanzi dcx Einsii^del, 
Dass die Kutt' in die Hoh' apringt. 

(For ftftomewhai ridiculous exhibition of Haccbic dances by two old 
men, nee the Bacchffi of Euripides, 185 — 209.) 

334. A comic or diihyrambic exaggeration for extended cycles 
(rpiovTQVf) of vean. 

lb. ivinvths, a cycle of ycars^ as well as a single year: see Pass, 
in VOC. Od. I. 16. oAX' ot« d^ Jror ^\$r^ ntpurXo^iirwv eVwivrwc. 

335. Upai ^vnh rifiat. From the sound made by the feet in 
dancing, we get for the preposition imft a sense of by means of, or 
to the, as in the following constructions. ^Esch. Ag. 460. nvpos d* 
ifw' t^ayytXov ndXiv dii}- { Kti Boa &u^it. 1530. icai Kordda'^Ofiev, \ ovJC 
Sm6 nXav^fAOiy r^v t'^ oiKtav, Soph. El. 630. vv" tuf^rffiov /3o^f- Bvval 
fi iWfif. 7 J 1 . ;^aXx^ff vrra^ <rakvtyyos <7^*'- Eurip. Hacch. 156. ^'X- 
vm riiv Atovwrotf ^pvffp6fnȴ vno rvfitraimav . Ion 510. <rupiyyMV wr* 
aiSkat iaj(at tpvaw. C(. uos in Ach. 91 1. lb. ri/ior. literally, i/iat 
which is done in honour of a person ; as ^sch. Ag. 760. x'^P^^* ^^^ 
tthich is done ayreeabty to a person, here, a dance. Cf. sup. 313. 

337* fpododijF {vpo^iMtt), in advance. Ues. Op. 737. fiifr' iirr6t 
6do0 irpojSadijy oCp^injt. 

lb. t^ayt K.T.X. ** Bacchum quasi prtesentem faciunt sibi du- 
cem, quia ipsius imago chore pricibat." Tii. 

lb. tXiiow (yEsch. Pern. 500. Eurip. Here. F, 150. Belleroph. fr. 
XI. 2.) dawf6o¥, {yEseh. Ch. 785. Prom. V. 854. frequent in Euri- 
pides), alluding to the marshy meadows of the Cephissus, where was 
the 'Paptop v(dio¥, the place selected for the dances of the myvtc. 
Cf. infr. 358. 

33S. x^P'^o^i' (Soph. Aj. 69B. dS riav, J &tit¥ xo/MMTof ^vof) fjSoy^ 
jwfentuiem quet choreas ducere amat. Th. 

lb. ^^37. JRach. Pers. 516. Ar vrivuv ttvKtv Urpvwv^ noOovvaf <^tX- 
Tanji* rj^p ;y(^ifffff. 918. yn ft' ala(tt rav tyyiiav ij^aw Xip^ xrafUvoM, 
Ag. 109. 'EXXctftot ^ff ^vfi^tpopa Toydr. Eurip. loD. 489. vforAcv 



■v<fn)fuiif \p^j Ka^iaTaxrdax rolf rjiierepoia'i yppoixrtify 


lb. pucn/7, a term of frequent applicntion in the tragic writer* to 
divinities. yEsch. Supp. 519. ava^ dMimuv.^axdpwt'^OKu/TraTr. S. C. 
Xheb. 1076. /Mro yiip futxapas mai ^i6f iaj^inr | odf Kod^cituir ffifft mi- 
Xtv. Prom. Vinct. 176. fuuiaptov irpvravit, Ag. 1307. £iirip. Hec. 
64 r. 

339. tvtffrffktut xph K.T.i. A question of some moment here oc- 
curs fur consideration. Are the following tetrameter anapssta to 
be cunnidered as an address by the Churus-leader, here assuming 
the character of the Hieroceryx. and speaking with his face towards 
the stage, or are they to be treated as a genuine parabasist 
spoken UNO ore by the chorus, and consequently with their faces 
turned towards the spectators ? (Cf. iiifr. 644.) Kanngiesser, evi- 
dently without any doubt about the matter, takes the latter opinion, 
(Biihnu in Athen. p. 363) ; Kolster, never very fund of agreeing 
with his lively and ingenious countrj'man, decides for the former, 
(de Parabasi, p. 2r;.) To the present writer, Knnngiesser's opinion, 
though not without its ditlicuUies. hua. he confesses, a decided supe- 
riority, whether stage effect or legitimate reasoning on the subject 
is to decide the point, over that of Kolster. And first for the ro/io- 
tutle of the ihing. If we except the comtnatium, (and why that is 
wanting we shall presently see,) what is there of a ^parabasis in its 
seven parts» which is mil here t<» be found, though iu an imperfect 
form ? Besides ils most distinguished portion in the anapaests above, 
there are the ode (37 1 — 380.) and counter-ode (384 — 398.)^ though 
not strophic and antistrophic, as in their legitimate form : — there is 
in the original, if not in ourcastigated edition, an epirrhema(40i— 6.), 
and an antepirrheuia, though in ilie attack nrst made upon Arche* 
dcmus, and then upon CIi:^ihenes, we miss an e\act correspondence 
of parts. A set of tipoudaic instead of dimeter snapsests to form 
a macrvm, is certainly n uoveliy ; but if one great object of the 
macrum was to create a laugh (cf infr. 642.), what so likely to 
eJTect that piu-puse, as a macrvm of so entirely new a form ? The 
advantage gained in a iheatrical point of view by treating these 
anapaests &s a parabasis, cannot be doubted ; but before we come 
to that part of the subject, we niuHt he allowed one or two preli- 
minary observations. There is, 1 think, strong reason for believing 
that the choral ode. \vhich precedes these anapaests (314 — 338.) 
was sung, like the first Cloud-chorus in ttie drnma of that name, 
before the singers themselves become visible to the audience. If 
this is denied, what follows } That the ode in question must be that 
cnirance-song, which the choral troop sang as they marched thnugh 

P Yming readere must be mnincM diat this Ton) bean three diatinot mMB- 
ii^: firu, the change of ptaoe made t^y the choral trrtnp. wbeu paiainic from 
their ntatinn ncnr the Thymclc to that whirh hronght theni mnru unmcdintely l>e- 
furi! the tij>ectttton : Mxtxidly, it coinprehendtsl the whulc of the little iiiterhide 
whirh then Unk place; and thinlly, tt raorp particitliirly Migtiified diat ajia|»iatic 
ttddrew whJoh lay between the rommatiumajid the macmm. 



the orchestra, till having arrived at ihe Thymele, or orchestriil 
altar, the chonis took their stationary lines (ypafiftai)^ while their 
leader, mounting its top, and. asauming an actor's part, conversed 
iih his brother-actors on the stage. But supposing the Chorua 
tis arrived at the Thymele on the present occasion, what follows? 
at the chorus-leader finds no one to converse with. The stage 
fe absolutely empty. Bacchus and Xantbias are confessedly in re- 
tirement, and the choral troop have consequently had their orchestral 
march for nothing. And here again we see why in the follc»wing 
parnbasis (if parabasis it is to be) the vommntiinH is wanting. The 
object of the commatium, it need scarcely be observed, was to enable 
the chorus-leader to take a temporary and polite leave of his bro- 
ther-actors on theflstage, and allow his troop to make preparation 
for leaving the spot near the orchestra which ihey had hitherto occu- 
pied, and advance to that which should bring them face to face with 
the spectators ; but where no actors were on the stage to he taken 
leave of, there was obviously no rommatium required. From these 
considerations we venture^ despite the learned Kolster, to bring our 
Choral Troop (as usual twenty-four in number) at once from, the 
orchestral door in frout of the spectators, arranging them in a 
parallelogmmmic form, four a-breast and six deep ^ ; we melt all 
their strong and manly voices into one consenting tone " ; and in 
this one tone of twcniy-four-voice power, we leave tliem to thunder 
out that holy hann, by which the 'Hteroceryx in the Elcusinian 
m)'^teries separated between the initiated and the profane. Could 
a more striking, and, may i not add, could a more moral effect be 
well produced ? That all this had much novelty of proceeding in it, 
there can be little doubt : but was it nut by such novelties, that, in 
tickJish subjects like the present, Aristophanes contrived to gain 
the forbearance of his audience, and thus dared boldly to rush in, 
where others feared to tread •* 

lb. tv<pi)fuip, to observe a religious silence. Cf. nos in Ach. 21 1». 


1 S<> iti Kquit«« 496. u-h«rc> Uie cbfinu lewl**r uke* leftre of Agonfritui. 
(3oii<l« 510, wh«rr thi* rtim|>liTiK>itC i« paid u> Slrrp&iiuks; Vetp. 1009. where lirni- 
t^V oiMiipliiDeuts are (ioid lu PhikH-leoii and Bdelyclaou, &c. ice 

r .\ trnf^' chorus, coiixiMiag of fifteen pfrxtru, entered die orchestra, except on 
Ttry particular ocrairionR, chm< in rank {4y (vy^) and five in dei>th (Vk irreot'il')* 
Of. Moller** Eumeniriei, p. Hi, si\. Kolster de Parahou, p. 7. KAtmgieaer, aa 
tho lano* ofavrrcK. not knowing the exact tneanlniE of (he words (vyhf und rroi- 
X**^, lu* mule iDurh cniifuAiiin un ihis maU^r. 

■ ** In rhoro jitnctini onttii's hMpii dcbent, qiuiii voce cnnfuw el conccntum in 
uiiain p*T»onam reform rmtn." Senrca t'pitt 84. " Non vides, qiiatn inuluimm 
rsdlnu chonu consteC, units tamen ex omuihus mhiiu rtdditnr. AUqua illic acuOi 
at, aliqiut K'^via, ahqua media. Accediint virit femiiiffv interponunuir libui. 
SJiigulonim ib( iac«ni vvors, omnium apparent.*' Diornedes OraniniDt. I. III. 
p. 50. The effect produced liy this can l»e ktiown only U» thiwc, M'ho have wit- 
nraied a peppcsealation nf SchiUer"* " Rraut von .McMlno" on the Oennaii stage, 
where « Chnnis refOiIauH) »n thew prindplea is introdiiCfHi inw the dnuna. 

' Tlie Hier<K«ryx» or (wrpwt herwld, wus one of the fmir hi|i»ier fnnrtifmnriei in 
the Kleiisinian worship. The oUier three were the Hieniphant, the Uaduehui, at 
tordi-hcarer, and the 6 'ErijB^ioi, or asristant Bt the alur. 



wTTif chr€ip09 TOitivSe XoycDV^ rj yvto^ri ft?} KoOapevftj 340 
^ yevifouayv opyia Moycrwi/ /i^r tiScf iirp-* i\optva'tVi 

lb. i^ivratrBxu. rmt xopo'uriv, cf. infr. 355. Thiersch compares the 
procui, promt eate of Virgil {Mn. Vl. 258.). aud the «Kas, tmas tvrt 
0«^ijAoi of Callimachus. He also nubjoins from Soph. Phil. 1053. 
rvv bi <roi y ixitv (Ktrrqirofiait tibi de via dtcedam. 

340. Ka0apfv€tv, neul. to be pure, and free from pollution. Dem. 
1371, 22. ayitrTfV(0 Kai ri/ii Ka$apa Kot t'tyyij awo tuiv itkXoiv riy ov Ka6a~ 
pfv6vTuv Jcol air dpdpos avvova-ias. l*lat. 6 Lt'g< 75(;. C. donifmCfOf 64 
Tuv dti Xayxdvovra vpatrov piv SkoiiXi^pov Ka\ yv^o'toi', tntira as ori fui- 
Xi<rra CK Ka0aptvovaa>v oiKija-twv. AIho 13 Leg. 947. d. Polyb. VI. 56. 
OTroMiov itTTtv fvpdv awix^t*f*'ov 3Mtpa Twy di;fioa'tur cut maBaprvoyra Vfpl 
raijra. If the following illustration from the chorus sung by the 
Furies in the Eumenides i» nut strictly in point, it comes so closely 
to it, as well to excuse its insertion : 

Totfx fiiv KaBapar xtlpav ^ irpotrwdpoifTat 
ofh-is d0' f}pCiv f^vts irfx'pirii, 
daiv^t ft' aiSiva litoij(V€l' 
DOTir d* dXiTpSyif, atnrfp oft* ayfip, 

Xt'ipat fPitvtas (ViKpvnret, 
p,apTvp*s opSai rohrt Bayoxuriv 
napaytvopfvtxi^ irpaxropts m/ioror 

niry r«X«tt>v f<fiay7jfit¥. 3 03 — lO. 

See also {Clausen's Ag. p. 179, and Lobeck's Aglaophamus, I. ppT 
>5- '7- 39- 190. 248. 

341. In this and the two following verses, the poet evidently 
quits the religious Eleusinian ffirmula whidi be has hitherto pur. 
sued, and slips into tbc fomi of the "parabasis. thus allomng him- 
self to otlude to topic* of the day, which cannot now be clearly 
explained. The theory maintained by ibe present writer (whether 
correct or otherwise it is not for him to say,) leads him to see in 
the first of these three verses a humourous baun pronounced by the 
Hieroceryx on all those who neither in theory nor practice would 
subscribe to the new doctrines so strongly advocated by the graver 
Muses of the Tragic stage, more particularly the muse of Euripides. 
The second verse seems more clearly 10 point out Cratinus, as that 
one of the comic poets, who had not only giveu in his adhesion to 
the new opinions, (to which his convivial habits would naturally 
incline himj but who in his advocacy of them had gone even be- 
yond his usual vehemence, maintaining thera with a beat, which 
resembled more the warmth of intoxication than that of sober rea- 
son. The third verse seems to be a playfiil hit at Aristophanes 
himself, and such others of the comic writers as endeavoured by 

u MqIW and nermann correct tUi« comtjit pAssage by reading rltv ftht m. x* 

X Another argument, it may \m ob»«r\'cd, against the opinion of KoUtcr in (kn 



their pleananlncs to discountenance a change in the religious sys- 
tem, which ihey did not consider lu be for the benefit of their 

lb. y^fvaluiv opyta Mov<Tan/. Among these orgies or freuk«4 of the 
Euripidean muoe, may cerlaiiily be ri^ckotieil that churul utie in his 
Helen, which is suddenly introduced without the least reference 
either to what has preceded, or what follows, and which at>^eani to 
have DO purpose but that of advancing the poet's own opinions on 
the subject of uniting Bacchus in the vvorship of Ceres and her 
dauji^htcr. Having given all the preceding part of the tale in our 
" Introductory matter," its conchision, it is thought, may find no 
inappropriate place here : 

*Qv nv ovff oirui, 

*irvpoitTai iv OaXafiott^ 

fofviv d' ?;^rir firyaXas 

IMOTpoty 7 J vat, &v<rias 

ov v*0tCov(ra Btoit. 

fUya roi dvvarai vrjSpvv 

vafifroiKiKoi aroXitifs, 

Kurtrvv Tt trrt^pBtlfra X^^ 

pdpSr}Kai rtc Upovs^ 

*p6fiffov ff S\i(r(rofxfi^ 

KvkX.ios Zvtxrtf aldtpia, 

fi(uc)(evovaa t t$fipa Ilpo^ai 

KoX 7rcivw\iiies 6tat. 

tv ti vtv afuuriv 

vvip^aX* tT§\aMX. 

^p0a p6vov Tjvjffit, 

Helen 1573, sq. 

lb. Hovawv. Having proposed his own exposition of the sense 
of these verses, the editor submits to the reader that of his learned 
predecessor Thiersch. " Exspeciandum fuit chorum dicturum esse : 
y*» meque mysiarum orgia ceiebruvit, neqve Bacchi sacris iuiiiatus est, 
dtcit Vero (wnp' lirovoiav) Movtrwv pro pwrrav^ tt Kparlwov pro A*ow- 
wv, ita ut chorus quidem tenorem semcl receptum Kcrvaret, sed 
poeta ipse sub chori persona apparcrer. et sub imagine comcediecj 
qa« orgiis Musarum et vena Cratini coraici luxuriosa continetur, 
moneret: prvml eale pro/ani, qui neque quid comici sit intelligitis , ne- 
que quid comics lihertali cundonandHm sit, rerte pemitatis.)" 'Vn. 

lb. x**P*'^'*'. 'y velrbrate by a dance; bence. to be participant m any 
rvUgiouf rite ; that participation being evinced by the act of dancing. 
To examples given by Passow both in active and middle voice, (and 
to which might be added Eurip. Bacch. 482. Iph. A. 1057. Here. F. 
688. Arist. Thes. 994,) lot us be allowed to add one occurring in 
the eleventh line of the following choral ode. which hears too 
cluaely ou the subject of the present play not to be allowed inner. 

1 i mu. Apparently nipntiiiiff TlipTidymrnoii, who, thmif^ MenfUua is fttiU 
Bviai^. has beon urging hit suit lo tlit* fuir Il<fleii. 

* ^^ftthn^^^wrpor. (DimiyH. I. ^9. XIW 348. XVll. 349 XLV. iB.XLVll. 
i75t XLVIIJ. 775^), R musical iiiBtnunent, reMmblhig out tambourine. 




firjSi Kparit^v tov Tavpo(f>ayov yKfirrrr}^ ^otqfH m* 

tioD at fiill length. (lun being now formally ackoowled^ed ns the 
son of Xuthus, king of Athens, the Chorus express their fears least 
this Fhoebean vagaboud {6 ^o^ior nXaras) as the^r contemptuously 
term him, should not only succeed to ihe throne of Athens, but, 
much to the iihame of ** the many-hymned god," be permitted to 
participate in those sacred rites, from which foreigners were sedu- 
lously excluded.) 

.\itrj(vvaftat t6p '^ woXvvfiPoif 

BfuVf fl iTfp\ ^KakXtxiJfXiivt vayait 

Xafxirain 6tti>f>in' ^tiKadtitw 

S-^Toi iwif)(tov fiviFvos mI', 

OTt Kai Ai^c dtTTfptoiritt 

uyr;^ifpfVfro' alOffp, 

j(Op€utt &i 2t\avn 

Nij/)for. at Korh w6vrov 
arvdtuv rr norafioiv 
Htvas ;^oprv(S^r»>ai 
rrti* xpvrroarit^vov K6pav 
Kai |uarc/>o xrnivav 

fiXXav n6vov tltmtG^it^ 

6 4foi(ifiOi akdras. loQ lo8H, sq. 

341. Tovpo^toyov, bull-eater. Two rensons may be given for this 
epithet. It is either applied to Crnlinus, ft» implying the dttby- 
rambic boldness of his lanpinjre. (a bull being the pri^e for those 
who excelled in this species of *'paelry,) or it is meant to assimi- 
late bis couvivtaj babil^ to those of the wiue-g(id himself, to whom 
a similar epithet bad, according to the Scholiast, been applied in 
the Tyro of S<»phocle.s. (Generally speaking, all epithets derived 
irom a bull and applied to Dionysus, apply to him in an astronomi- 
cal sense, as representative of the Sun.) 

lb. HaKx^ioy, Bacchic festival. Lysisl. 1. oXX' tX ns *U Baicjf«ior 
axiras ittaktatv. EuHp. Bacch. 471. ric. ri ^ Spyt fWl rtv* U^'a¥ 
SJKoyra 0*01 ; At. cEpPT* a&aK)(€VTOitriv fidtvai ffporStP. 

lb. yXumjt jSoxxfui, tongve-bacchanah ; as if his language had 
been a perpetual intoxication. 

lb. rcXcir, to imitate. £unp. Bacch. 485. nli V UpA vvnrmp ^ pt6' 

■ BHcrJins, or lacchus ; the texc leaves it doubtful, whirJi is meant. 

^ The holy fountains near Eleu«i», round wliiih ihe dances iif the inidslcd 
took plnce. 

e *Udi4s. The twentieth of the month. Here the tweiuieUi of the month 
Roedrmuinn, when the mystic image of lacchtit was carried from Acheni to 

d Simonid. Ep. 57. Sw al«o Nonni Dionys. XIX. 6j. Cf. Welcker^s Ntc))- 
crag xu der Sehrift Ober die ^schyliM-iie Trilo^e^ p. 241. 



rj aTcurti/ i-)(6pav fiff KaToXvei^ fJLTj^ evKoXof eari ttoA/- 

aXX aveyeipei kou pnrl^etj K€pS6iu ISuot^ hriOv^v^ 345 
r) T7]9 TToAewy \H$xa^o^vr]9 ap^cop KaraScopoSoKeTratj 
7} wpo8iSo)aip (j>povpiov 7} vav9^ t] raiTOpprjT amorir^ix' 

€^ hlyiirqs QcopvKicov wi/j UKoaroXoyo^ KOKpSaifuxoi^f 

II ^pupeuf TiXfU; Flat. Pbeedon. 69, C. xtKaBapfArvos re xal Trrt\tirfit^ot. 

8 Rep. ^60, C. T€\ovfiiiH»v ^V)(ffv fieyaXotiTi TfXttTi. Dem. 3 It, 1 4. 

uyrffi di -ycw'/Miwr rg fUfTpi TfKovaj] rat ffifiXovs airyi-yi'wo'icfr nal r(?XXa 

fTvvitritfWfiov, rffV fiiv nttntt vt^pl^ov xiit KpaTtfpi(«tv Mil KaBaip(av rai/t rr. 
|| XovfiMvovs. For further alluMoiiH to the word in less classical wri* 

ters, see notes in St. Croix, I. 3O6, 7. 386. 

34S- *'** foW' seasonably, opportunt^ly. .^^sch. I'roiji. Vinrt. 378. 

Soph. CEd. Col. 809. Eurip. Rh. 444. Bacrh, 1286. Tern. fr. 

! 344- "Trtff<i> t)(Bpap. The poet alludes, as Thiersch justly ob- 

I i)erves» to internal broils and coinmutions among his cuuntrvmen, 

not to external conRpirncies. 

345. pini^ti¥, to blow up^ Bs it Were irith a bellows, {pnr'ts, Aeh. 
853. ifiwi, i^vw'ysatt r^v i<rx"f*"*' t"** dfvpo irai rijw pmida). Ft. Horn. 
26. piniC^iv noX^fifiv SpLv. 

346. x((^a^(>fi<i'i7c, dtsturhed tetth {civH) storms. Soph. CEd. Tyr, 

101. tt»i ToJf alfUi X'^f^C^" W"^!*'. Eurip. Stippl. 279. fTtiXlt y^flfiA' 

c^'ivn. See also Hippol. 315. Ion 980. Soph. Phil. 14O0. Antig. 
391. Heind. ad Plat. Tbeiel. 170, a. 

347. tppcvpiov fj vais. 'I'he Words, as Thiersch observes, are to 
be taken generally, not in reference to any particular garrison or 

lb. Tdn6ppTjTa, things forbidden to be exported from Athens, 
I more particularly such articles as were used in the conslruclioa or 
equipment of ships. (Wachsm. III. 88.) Tlie word in an ordi- 
nary sense occurs Soph. Antig. 44. ^ yAp mtU $i'mr*tp atp'', air6pprfrov 
nuk€t ; Eurip. Phcen. 1682. iy tovt av <oj Twr airoppf}T»p fr6\«i. Cf. 
nos in Equit. 277. 

348. Ai7tn}ff. ^gina, having been conquered by the Athenians, 
: traa at that time an Athenian niarkei, and bound by the same laws 

OS Athens ilaelf. l-ying more conveniently, however, for clandes- 

e'ortation than Athens, nmch contraband trade in eonse- 
;ook place there. 




aaKcifJUJcra kcu XIihi kcu irtrrav Sunriftsrcov el? Effn- 

KOcrartXa raw 'KKaraioyp, KVKXiOKrt \of>Oi<rtif xnra- 

lb. B^pvidMv wy, like another Thorycion, Of this peman nothing 
further is known than a short notice which the Scholiast gives, 
that he was an Athenian taxiarch during the Peloponoesian war. 
The addition by the same writer, that he supplied the enemy u'iih 
pitch for the purpose of burning Athens, gives a more crimiual co- 
lour to his proceedings than they perhaps deserved ; yet, cf. infr. 

lb. tliaxrrok^f («^icocrroc, Xiyv), literally, a coUector of ike twcm- 
tieth, \. e. per cent., which twentieths he no doubt farmed from the 
state. See Boeckh'sStaatshaushaltung der Atbener, I p. 348, sq. 

349. acTKu/ia. ** quicquid fuil eurxca/ia, e corio certe factum fuit, 
et ad rem nav^lem pertinebat." Tn. Cf. nos in Acliam. 93. 

lb. 'V.nibavpov, the town of Argulis, which lies just opposite to 
iSgina, and not, as the Scholiast imagines, Epidaurus nf I^co- 

350. Thiersch is of opinion, that certain Athenians arc here re- 
prehended, who hftd collected money for the Lacedsmonians, with 
the view of enabling (hem to construct ships, either because they 
favoured their party, or with a view to personal pruiit. 

351. K-QTariKav, to defile. (Av. 1054. y^i^vtjv ori t^j frr^Xijc jcarfri- 
Xa( itnrtpai ; 1 1 1 7. va(ri rv'it tpvi<n narariXufuyot. £ccL 339. off rt 
irou I KiBTjo-tar crow KaTaTrrlXjjKt'v voBiv i) The text is directed at an 
awkward occurrence, to which the dithyrambic poet Cinesias, in a 
moment perhaps of pressing emergency, had heen subjected, and 
which had created both scandal and laughter in Athens. 

lb. 'Ecarmajc. The Hecatteum. or principal temple of Hecate, lay 
in that part of Athens, which from the splendour ofits buildings, the 
beauty of its gardens, and the purpoiies to which the clay about it 
had originally been applied, a German traveller (Skrofani) has not 
inaptly termed the Tuileries of Athens, Need I add. that the 
beautiful suburb of Ceramicus (Wpa/xoff) is here meant ? 

lb. KurXtonTi ;|[opor(rii' (Eurip. Hel, 1331. ap^aoBt'ttrav KVKKlmv \ jpj- 
poiv c'fa> •nap&tvtwv, Iph. A. I 05'6. *ikuTa6p4vat. kvk'Kui TrrsrijxoMra xopoi I 
Nijp^of.) Though the nature of the cyclic chorus has been inci- 
dentally described in a former play (Nub. 326.). yet in a composi- 
tion so essentially dramatic as the present, a more extended notice 
may not be deemed altogether irrelevant. In what manner the 
Bacchic worship found its way into Greece, we have had some 



occasion lo observe in our Inlroduclory Matter. Wherever that 
worship came, it came with an accompaniracot of two ditTerent 
sortj; of hymns; the Dithyrambic and the Phallic. The first sang 
the ^birtli, and, doublless, the wars and triumphs of this conquer- 
ing god ; the second, bit> cups, his merriments, and looser loves. 
The first was composed in a style -sn ^bold and daring, that here, 
if any where, we recognise the Plutonic doctrine, that in llie com- 
position of puetr)', the operator bad need be first put into a state of 
cnitid bordering on ^ insanity. The second, if it had nut so much 
of intellectual excitemeut about it, bad doubtless more of actual 
intoxication, and the words of course corresponded with the frame 
of mind in which it was ''written. The Phallic hymn, accompa- 
uied by representations which it is not necessary more particularly 
to specify, was sung by religious processions, as they traversed the 
public streets to or from the Jiucchic place of i worship ; the dithy- 
rambic hymn was sung round the altar of the god, while the Bac- 
chic sacrifice (a goat) was consuming, the chorus of fifty boys, or 
men who sang it, dancing in solemn maimer at the same time 
round the altar, first to right, and then to left. Tliough both 
hymns were doubtless known alike in villages and towns, the Phal- 
I lie hymn was more a favourite in the former, where with grosser 
I manners less actual vice is often fomid ; the dithyrambic prevailed in 
towns, where with more practical guilt a greater observance is paid 
lo exterior decency. And their fates dilVered accordingly. While 
the Pballic hymn was left to village- songsters, to be produced ex- 
^ pi cioporaneouftiy. or banded down by tradition, the dithyrambic 
■■hpnn was taken uuder the proteciicm of ibc ^ state, and made a sub. 
^^kct of earnest labour and competition. Every year on the return 
f^f the stated festival, each of the ten tribes furnished its cyclic 
r chorus, the bard who provided the best hymn on the occasion, 
being honoured with a reward. The nature of that reward shews at 
I once the antiquity of the practice, and the value set iipuii ibe suc- 
cessful composition. When actual coin is either rare or unknown, 
payment must be made in kind ; and whoever knows in what esti- 
mation oxen were held in early Athens, will see in the ox which 
was acvigned as a pri/.e to the best dithyrambic poet, a sigTial proof 
of the value set upon the composition itself. Of the earlier Attic 
dithyrambic poets we know nothing : the later and foreign names 
of Ariou of Mcihymne, Lasus of liemiione, (who bad Pindar for bis 
pupil,) have doubtless reached us, as well us those of Melanippidcs, 
Philoxenus, and Timotheus, because they at re^tpective periodM in- 
troduced important changes into the words, the music, or saltatory 

e Plato 3 Leg. 700, b. 

' The rhonl »tmD in Ui« Bacchw of Euripides (64 — i69.)iidoiihtIcMiiiteailnl 
for a diliiyrnnihir liymii in a mudilicd fiinii. 

( loo 53 ji t.»t{. for tpedniens of their style, baudes th«ne fiirniAhixI in tht> 
pMical uiay, mm our auibur'* Nub(» 335, »*{. A v. 908, mj. 1371,^). 

b AiAarn. 16.1, hj. 

t Kaiuiginwr^R K(im. BUhnD, p. 34. Crvu/rr*! Dionysus, I. 331, »q, 

^ On what gmii revolutinnarr movement in Atbeni the cydic chorus Ikx'muu* 
ifaaittii:, L e. a public trial of skill, we have explaiiteil eUewbere in this vuluifw. 




i/vKT€pov reXenj^ (fxixr<f)6p09 darrjp, 
(bXoyi (f)eyy€Tai Sc Xetfioiv' 
yovv TTttAAercu yipovrwv 


raUr. AS one of the most marked disitinction!) of the Elcuainian 
rites, and on an important myth connected with the subject, sec 
infr. 1052. We prepare the way for the subject by one or two 
illustrtitionH of a more central nature. In tlie CE<). Col. of So- 
phocles (104R.), what do we find Eleusis itself termed ? From the 
number of torches there exhibited, we find it called Xafindfits Zxrat 
{the torch- lighted shore), ov Hdrvtai rrtfiva Tiffijvoiivrat riXr] 0Miroi<Tiv. In 
our own poet's Thesmophoria/uste, (which though relating to rites 
of Ceres and Proserpine differing from those of Eleusis. forms 
an excellent accompaniment to the present drama,) we observe the 
following allusion : 1 149. ^xf/ . . aXa-og cV v^xtrtpov' \ ot d^ av^patrtw 
oil Btfurbv tttTopay \ Sipyta trtfiya 6i£iv^ tva Xa^irutri (f>a!¥rTov ift^pcrtm 

338. «V is nearly redundant, as in ^scb. Prom. 431. o^wpwpoiai 
fipifAttv iv aij^fUiU. Eurip. Suppl. 582. eV aairliriv aoi irpCtra Kir^vptJh- 
xiov. lb. 602. a-rpaTTjKaTi)(Tia xXru/ur iv tCktiv^ dopi. Hel. 1334- o fiiv 
Tiifoir'Aprtfitr, | a SI' iv tyj^tt Popyw ndyoirXot. Tr()ad. 381. ov ba^p- 
tAf iv ^f/>o(»' [ TTiTrXoif eruMffTctXjjO'fU'. 

lb. TiwitTffwi'. (Enrip. Bacch. 80. 55a. Non Dxonys. XXX. iii.) 
One object of this shakinirp it has been already observed, was to 
diffiisc BA much as p(«Mh!e the cathartic influences of the torch. 
Hence when the fatidic Theonoe quits her holy seat in the 
" Helen' of Euripides, she observes to those about her, 

'Hy^v cri piv <f>4povira Xapjrr^pwf iriXas, 
$*1ov 6* a-ffivov Bro-pov alBipot pvj^ayy, 
los wrvpa KaSapov ovpavov &t^otpf6a. 
av d' a? KtXtvSoy, ct rtt tffko^tr weiil 
orr/jSuv avocruft^ i6t KaSapait^ {ftXoyt. 
Kpovaov dfl WMvKTjv, Lt*a dif^fA^o), TTupdr* 

874, aq. 

330. TtXtrrir. Cf. nos in Vesp. tat. Nub. 298. «Dd infr. 998. 
The epithet nightly is one of frequent reference to the Bacchic 
mysteries in the Dionysiacs. XXV"!!. 173. XXXI. 140. 

lb. ff>u>a<^pos aarrjp. Non. Dionys. V. 207. *ApfLovitj wioir via yfytf 
BoTi ytivarn Kahpto, | 'Aov/rjf HaKvhuipav i(o<r<f>6pov auripa naTpT)t. £u- 
rip. Hippol. I I 20. tAv '£\Xafiar | K^avtpvrrarov aarip 'aBopos (lAo/tfr. 
Soph. Elect. 65. wc Kap,' €7ravx& ... e)(BpQU, atrrpnv &s, Xapyfrfut frt. 

331. (pik6^. Eurip. Bacch. 145. 6 Bayxti^s 6' tx^' irvpauRr} 0Xrfyn 
irtVKtxs <ic ydpBfjKos (Itacrfi k. t. i. 

332. ydyv irdXXcToi y^pivrtav, infr. 1 323. ra xwXii t AimdXkm. 


j(poi'iovs T irwp TraXoucii' iviavTovSy 

Upas inro TtfiSif, 

av Se Xa/xtraSi (fHyycop 

TTpoffadrjif i^ay iir avOrjpov tXuov SawtSov 

XopoTTotoVy fxaxap, ^^cty. 



£urip. Tr. 319. iniXX* vrod* aW^ptov. Non. Dionyt. VI. 48. n-oXXuv 
na^wvXov r^voff. VIII. I o ^ . dyKvXa yovvara iraXKtiv, Welcker com- 
pares the movcmeDt in a RbenUh song : 

Da droben am Hugel 

Wo die Nachligal singt. 

Da lanzt tier Einsieclel, 

Da&s die KuLt' in die Hoh' apiingt. 

(For a somewhat ridiculous eAbibition of Bacchic dances by two old 
men, see the Bacchee of liuripides, 185 — 209,) 

334. A comic or ditbynuubic exaggeration for extended cycles 
{iviavToif) of years. 

lb. «¥itnfr6s, a cycle 0/ years, as well as a single year: see Pass, 
in voc. Od. I. 16. aXX* or* di) eros ^X0«, ntptnXofitvtiv ivuxvrStv. 

335. Upas .vrri rt/tac. From the sound made by the feet in 
dancing, we get for the preposition inro a sense of by means of, or 
to the, as in the following construclious. i^scb. Ag. 4G0. wpitt d" 
irv' tiiayytXov n6Xiv ^i^- | r«( ^1 |9<j^(C. 1530. icai K€tTaBir^, { ouc 
vn6 nXavBft.Qti' ruj' <f oTjcwy. Soph. £1. 6^0, vv' €v<pijfwv /Soi/r Bwral 
fi (atrtis. 7] 1. j^oAfT^f vnai fraXmyyot ff^a¥. Eurip. Bacch. 156. fuX- 
9rrt Toy AtoKucror ^apv^p6^t>¥ im6 rti/ijraywi'. Ion 5 10. trvplyyvtv vk 
futfXar taxas ifii^v. Cf. nos in Acb.911. lb. nyMs. literally, that 
lehich is done in honour of a person ; as i^sch. Ag. 760. x^ptSt that 
which is done agreeably to a person, here, a dance. Cf. sup. 322. 

337, wpo^6iri¥ (npo^liKo), in advance. Hes. Op. 727. ^itt* iia-is 
^Aov wpofinltrjv ovpTjOijt. 

lb. f^oyc K.T.X, " Bacehum quasi pnesentem faciunt sibi du* 
cem. quia ipsius imago charo pra:ibat." Th. 

lb. TXttoti (yEsch. Fers. 500. Eurip. Here. F. 150. Delleroph. fr. 
XI. 2.) dotrfftoi/. (j-Escb. Ch. 785. Prt»m. V. 854. frequent in Euri- 
pides), alluding to the marshy meadows of the Cephissus, where was 
the *Papiov irtdiop, the place selected for the dances of the myst«. 
Ct inir. 358. 

338. ;(0/>oTroiuv (Soph Aj. 698. cS nav, J Btmt/ x^poiroC iifo^) ifffof, 
jmventutem qute choreas ducere amat, Th. 

lb. rjlSri. .fEsch. Pers. 5 16, wr m-iptiv irtSXif n«/Hr»i», no^ovvav ff^X- 
ran;!' ij^t}V ;^<9oy<{(. Qt8. -ya d' ala^ti rdv •yyni'at' fjfiav Sip^ ttrafUvoM. 
Ag. 109. 'EAXiidor 9^ar ^Cft^ftpova Taya¥, Eurip. Ion. 489. y«ai*i8<r 

74 AFI2T0*ANOr2 

lb. >uucnp, a term of frequent application in the tragic wrilert to 
divinities. zHsch. Supp. ^ICf.Sva^ at^irra>v,fumdp^v tiaKOfn-art, S. C. 
Theb. 1076. fura yap fuucapat Kot Aioir lirxw \ SSt Kad^cuoi' W"'f' *^* 

Xo', Prom. Vinct. 176. fiaxapotv npirravts. Ag. 1307, Eurip. Hec. 

339. ti/tpTjfttlu xpn K-T. '. A question of some moment liere oc- 
curs for consideration. Are the following tetrameter anapaests to 
be connidered as an address by the Chorus-leader, here assuming 
tbe character of tlie Hieroceryx, and speaking with his face towards 
the singe, or are they to be treated as a genuine parabasis, 
spoken xtno ore by the chorus, and cnosequently with their faces 
turned towards ifie spectators ? (Cf infr. 644.) Kaniigiesser. evi- 
dently wiihmit any dnubt about the matter, takes the latter opinion, 
(Bi'ibne in Alhen. p. 363) ; Kolsler, never very fund of agreeing 
with his livcl]^ and ingenious countryman, decides for the former. 
(de Pnrabasi, p. 29 ) To the present writer, Kanngiesser's opinion, 
though not without itsdiniculties, has. he confesses, a decided supe- 
riority, whether stngc effect or legitimate reasoning on Ute subject 
is to decide the point, over that of Kolster. And first for the ratio- 
nale of the thing. If we except the vommatium. (and why that is 
wanting we shall presently see,) what is there of a >'parabasis in its 
seven parts, whicli is not here to be found, though in an imperfect 
form ? Uesidcs its most dtsunguiahed portion in the anapesLs above, 
there are the ode (37 1 — 380.) and counter-ode (384 — 398.), tliough 
not strophic and antistruphic, as in their legitimate form r — there is 
in the original, if not in our castigated edition, an epirrhema (401-6.), 
and an anLepirrheuia, though in the attack first made upon Arche- 
demus, and then upon Clisthenes, we miss an exact correspondence 
of parts. A set of spondaic instead of dimeter nnapeests to form 
a macrHM, is certuiuly a nuveUy ; but if une great object of thu 
macrum was to create a laugh (cf infr. ^142.). what so likely to 
elfect that purpose, as a macntm of so entirely new a form ? The 
advantage gained in a theatrical point of view by treating these 
anaptests as a parabasis, cannot be doubted ; but before we come 
to tbnt part of tbe subject, we must be allowed one or two preli- 
minary observaitons. 'Ihere is, I think, strong reason for belicvini; 
that the choral ode, which precedes these anaptests (314 — 338.) 
was sung, like the first Cloud-chorus in the drama of that name. 
before the singers themselves become visible to the audience. If 
this is denied, what follows ? That the ode iu question must be that 
entrance-song, which the choral troop sang as they marched thr>ugb 

P Yoiing reftdov mnat be reminded thai thu wnnl bean three diatini^ me<ui- 
big« : fine, the change of place made by die choral iroop. when pomiing' fntm 
tbpir ntation near Oie ThyineliT to th.-it nhjrli l)miig)it tbeni iiinre imineiliHU'ly lie> 
fun.' the !i{H3CtaU)ni : Mx-vridly, it comprehendud thr uliule df the liule uitvrlttde 
which Chen took placo; and' thirdly, it murepartiailnrly nigiiifiud th«t anApKStic 
address which lay betweeu Uie rommalium and the macrum. 



I licl 

Xn, LiU having arrived nt the Tbymele, ur orchestral 
the chonis took their stationary lines (y^a/i/uii), while their 
er, mounting its top, and, assuming an actor's part, conversed 
th bis brother-actors un the stage. But supposing the Charus 
us arrived at the Thymcle on the present occasion, what follows? 
at the chorus-leader finds no one to converse with. The stage 
absolutely empty. Bacchus and Xanthias are confessedly in re- 
cm ent, and the choral troop have consequently had their orchestral 
h for nothing. And here again we see why in the folhtwing 
rabasis (if parabasis it is to be) the cotnm(ttiuni is wanting. Tlte 
object of the commativm, it need scarcely be observed, was to enable 
ihe churus-lender to take a temporary and polite Icuvc of his bro- 
iher-actors on the Rstiige, and allow his troop to make preparation 
for leaving the spot near the urcbesira which they had hitherto occu- 
pied, and advance to that which should bring them face to face with 
ibe spectators; but where no actors were on the stagt to be taken 
leave of. there was obviously no commatium required. From these 
considerations we venture, despite the learned Kolster, to bring our 
Choral Tn>op (as usual twenty-four in number) at once from the 
orchestral door in front of the spectators, arranging ibem in a 
parallelogrammic form, four a-breast and six deep ' ; we melt all 
their strong and manly voices into one consenting tone ^ ; and in 
ibis one tone of twcniy-four-voice power, we leave them to thunder 
out that holy banu, by which the ^Hieroceryx in the Eleusinian 
mysteries separated between the initiated and the profane. Could 
a more striking, and, may I not add, could a more moral effect be 
well produced ? That all this had much novelty of proceeding in it, 
there can be little doubt ; but was it not by such novelties, that, in 
ticklisli subjects tike the present, iVriatuphuiies contrived to gain 
forbearance of his audience, and thus dared boldly to rush in, 
ere others feared to tread ' 
lb. iv^^tr, to observe a religious silence. Cf. nos in Acb. an. 

n So in Ef^iiitw 4()6. u-lirra tho rJionis IcnHer ukM I<<ave of AgnrBcritus. 
■ 5 to, where the cumpliiiieiic \% paid tu Stirjisiotl^ \ \'e»\t. 1009. whure kinii- 
omnplimenU orppoid tu PhiUic'leon and Bdi'Jydcuu, && &c. 
r A lingic choruA, coiiuBting of tifcoen perm)ns, entered the orcbeitrs, except 011 
particulAr cirrasiniiit, three in rank {4v ^vy^) nnd five io depth [iv tmnx^i^. 
'.M filler** Eiintenidea, p. 8if sq. Kolaler du Panilia«, p. 7. Kanngievser, u 
latter iilnervea, itnt knowinfif tho exjirt mraning of the wordii Cvyhv and oroi- 
XciiM*, hift rrmde much L'^nfuKion nii UiIh nt&uer. 

» •* III rlitiro jiiiictim onine\ ltM|ni dcbent, i|iia»i voce cnnfiiMi et eonccntwin hi 
un persuniun rcfommnte*." Seneca ejUMt 84. " Noii vidcn, quain multoram 
Inift chonia coimtet, utiuii tameii ex omnilnis Miniii raddiciir. Aliens illicuula 
aJi(|UA (rravia, uliqua media. Afrednnl viri» fnni»ie, interjionuntur titju*. 
Mingulunifii ibi latent voce», ouinium B[i)iBrent." Dioinedes Onininiat. 1. III. 
^ 50. The e*fert produced by tliii lan l>e known oiUy ui ilume, ubo have wit- 
aetwd H rvpreMiitation nf Schiller'* " Ilmnt vnn Meffline** on ihp Oerma?! fftiige, 
whcTV a Chorus rcf^iUted on ihiwe principles is introdiiceii into ibe dmiiio. 

' The Hi«Tioeryx, or wicred hcmld, wm one of the frwr hiplter fwnctiwiariei In 
the Kleiuinian worship. The oUier three were the liierophant, the Diuhidiaii or 
|arch-l««rer, and the 6 *EftB^tos, or aasiitant at the altar. 




Tji <f>o>in) /loATra^v, 365 

7] Tqv \(opav 

KOLv QoypvKicop fif) ^vXrp-aL 

aye vvu mpop vfju/cov iSeou/ tt^v Kapiro^opov fiofri- 

^TipLTp-pa Oimfy iTTUcoafiovvres ^oBiat^ fioXirals «Aa- 

^cirt. 370 

the fullowing limitations. The joyous principle of the Eleu»inian 
fefitiva] being here principally celebrated in ibe person of lacchus. 
on enrire hymn addressed lo the mournful principle would hnve 
been somewhat misplaced ; yet an entire omission of the name of 
Proserpine would have been equally out of character. How has 
the poet then acted ? With hia usual Uici and propriety. 'J*he smell 
of sacrificial pork allows ibe poet, as we have seen, to put into the 
mouth of Xanlhias a mere allusion to the daughter of Ceres (sup. 
325.)^ while here, if one of her most serious and important title* 
is introduced, any serious thought connected with that title is pre- 
sently banished, and how? by the limits to which those powers of 
salvation arc here limited; viz. that of saving Athens from the 
treacheries of such a man as Thorycion. That the reader's thoughts 
may not be of n more solemn cast than those of Aristophanes' 
hcurers were on hearing ihelr mysterious saviour's powers thus 
'* cabined and confined," 1 insert the following inscription from Si 
monides : 

SwTos /icv ato6tts, SoKTtt d' OTt SmTor ttr^Brf. 

Fr. 7S- 
jl^^. /loXirafftv, to stuff. This word does not occur a second 
time, 1 believe, in the remains of Aristophanes, nor is it to be 
found in those of the three tnigediaus. Cf. infr. 1496. 

367. «V Tiis aU/jat, in tempus atemum, Tb. Cf. nos in Nub. 


lb. <^i)Vt promises expressly, 

366. At the conclusion of the verse, shouts of" Swrfipa," " £•>- 
Tttpa,** are heard. 

36^. hipay vfjkvtav idcViv, alJam hymnorum spedem, Cf. Thiersch ad 
riut. 3ig. (where it is s«id to the Chorus, i<fuU in* S\)C «J8of Tp«- 
TTewtf*). Eurip. Bucch. 471. rii oyyC f'orl riv Ihtav tx9^^ *'*'* * 

lb. Kaimot^poi. This epithet ts n^t found where it might have 
been expected, viz. in the Orphic hymn lo Ceres. Eurip. Hel. 
Ij;05. -rrt^ia Kapno(f)6f>a. Iph. T, 1235. AtjXlnt «V Ka(HTn<f>6pots yvaXo«f. 
Hhcs. 966. Toi76vdf SCn<f}Tji' rt)v hftpff alTTja-QfiM | r^s xnpiroiroiov watda 
^^urfTpos $gaSy \ ^vxrjv dvtlyai roC'd*. 

370. ^i}ixtjTpa 6tav. Eurip. Bacch. 275. Arjfirjrrjp $ta. 



Aj}^i]r€py ayvtov opymv 
ayaxracu, aufxTrapaardreL, 
KOU CTftJ^ TOif <TavTrJ9 X^P^^ 
Kod fjL ouT(f>a\co9 irairqpj^poif 
TTcuaai T€ KOL ypptvaac 
teat TToXXa pep yiXoid p el- 



^^p lb. Cn^o?> n word of frequent occurrence in the remains of Euri- 
i^^pides : it is not found in ihost' of ^Mchyliis, or Sophocles. 

lb. rrXo^rij'. £iirj[>. Iph. T. 1093. iroa-uf xcXaflm ati fioXirais. 
Her. F. 694. rratavas — nrXaflijcrw, 

371. aY^nnf. This epithet, jipplicable enough while lacchus pre- 
dominated as u tetiding principle of the Eleusinian mysteries, 
could he used with little prupncty, ufacn the Bacchic ritea became 
enjirrafted on those of Ceres. But enough on this subject has been 
said iu the lntroductoi7 Mailer. 

lb. ofyyia, secret religioujt usageft. Secret service of a Ejod. to 
which the initiated only had admission ; of the same signification 
with fivtrrr^fHa, as applied to the secret service of Ceres in Eleusis 
(h. Horn. Cer. 274. 476.), lu thnt of the Cnbiri, and the Ceres 
Achtea. (Herodot. 11. 51. V.61.) In later times, the word was 
more particularly used in the service of Bacchus, (Kurip. Kacch. 
34. 361. 416. 471. 9"^^-)« **^ ^'**^ consecrations, puriticaltons. and 
other bt'cret ceremonies bclon^ng to it> which were in part shewn 
to the uninitiated at the DionyMac festivaU, but not explained 
rts iti their real sense and signification. The word is derived either 
from fpy*}V, the term tf^uv being used of the completion of holy 
works, aa tacra/acere in Latin, or from cj^rycio), ^pyrf, ofryitv, in re- 
fercDce to the enthusiastic rapture with which these orgies were 
celebntted. Arist. Tlies. 948. ii5t. Sfiyui atfiv^ ..avtx'^"- Kuph. 
Tr. 767. Vffiviiv ofryUyv ^ilaltTo (/}Xu^. Dionys. IX. l 14. Hpyta yv/crtXiinno 
diduffKOfK'FT^ Aiorvirov. XHI. 7, Sfryta vvKTtxoptvra. III. 263. XV. 
70. Lobcck's AglaophamuH, I. 49. 53. 64. 

373. frvfiirnpnirraTfi, adsta nmul nobis. EU:cl. 14. crroar rf icapfrov 
/3aK_yiou re vufinTot I irXijpttt vTrotyvvtrattTt avfiirapa(TraT«'if. rlut. 3^^* 
ofTwf Ht fiot Kill TiiWa {rvfitraftatrrtirat [ ttrtdOt, (where see Thiersch.) 

xipstanccs of the simple verb naf>a<rrtrTt\v occur in Arist. Thea. 369. 
il}ity $fovv ttapQarxxTt'iv. Eccl. 9. Frequent in ^'"^schyl., less fre- 
quent in Eurip. and Noph. 

374. navi^^tpov. Monk in Hippol. (r. 371.) compares Eurip. 
>n, 132, j-Ksch. I*rom. Vinct. loOi. Soph. Trach. 66a. 

375. iTdio-at re *al \np€\i<Ttu. Cf. infr. 392. 4OO. 8ub. To, vel 


376. irni iro\X^ iiiv yi\oi& fi ttvtur, iroXXik df (nrovOala. The yAotu 
(of which a particular instance will be given in a subsequent verae) 




7r6«/, TToAAa Si airovSauZt Kat 

T^y aijy €0pTyj9 d^icoy 

Traurairra kou aKCoyj/avra vt- 

K-qacarra raivtovirdat. 380 

arose naturally om of the joyous portion of the Kleusinian 
rites; the (nrovhaia out of those more solemn commuuicatioDs aad 
speclaclea which respected fixiurity, and which made the com- 
municant's weal or woe in another world dependant on bis good or 
bad behaviour in this. How far thu Old Comedy and the Socratic 
Philosophy — both proceeding cm u similar mixture of mirth and 
seriousness — had grown out of ibij* slrikiog feature of the Eleu- 
sinian mysteries, is not unworthy the nticntion of those who inves- 
tigate the principles on which the conduct of nations, as well as of 
individuals, is ba^ed. As iUustrattuiis of the principle in the So- 
cratic Philosophy may be quoted, with Spanheim. Plat. 7 Leg. S 16. 
aV€V yap yrXoi'oii' rd OTTOvdala rat navrw rCtv ivavriw rd ipavrla fM$€U' oC 
ivvaritv, tt fiiXkii ric <^p6vi^oi (trttrBai. Galen de usu Part. I. 9. Z«»* 
KftOTOVt Movtra /lityvMt d«i rijv trtrovdfjv iv titpti ntuiias. (On the fre- 
quent opposition between the terras (nroud^ and vatdia in the Pla- 
tonic writings, Dindorf refers to Fischer ad Plat, Pheedon. XIII. 6. 
and Ruhnk. ad Tim. Gl. Plat. p. a.) 

379. aKw^ovra. Apotloclor. I. 5. liXovrav lii Iltp<rt<t>6n}s tpaaStU, 
A»oc trvvtpyovvT as y ijpwaiTtv avrrfv xpvcfia. Arjpjp-pa fli /icrd Xofiir^mv 
vvkt6s t« Ko't tjfiipas Kara T^atrav t^v yrfv ^rjrvvira Vfpt^ti' fiaffovaa di nap 
'KpfiioviOiVf oTi ItXovToav avTTjv rfprrarrtVy opyi^npitrrj Btois (mtXitrtv ovpa- 
vol*. hUavOilaa di yi'*'n«i, tjksv us "\l\rv<Tiya, Knlnpanov fiiv tirt rijv r*r' 
€K€lyi}t K\rf6tl(rav 'AyiXairroy tKtiBiat irtrpav irapa to KaXXixppor <J>p*ap 
raXavfuvov. "Eirfira irput KiXtov ^XBoCura rov ^atriXfitoyra rare 'EXn/inviMV, 
(vdov oi-aStv yvpatKQiv, xat Afyovcoif rovrtav ijap airdc ica$i(ta6at, ypaia 
Ttit *lapQijy (TKuty^aaa, Tr)i* $t6v tiroitjtrt fieiliidcTai, Aid roOro fv rotr 
0*tTfio<PopioK rdr yvvatKas aKaTrrtw Xfyoviriv. See alsu OD this subject, 
Creuz. Synib. IV, 463. II. 335. 

380. viKfjaavrn Tatviovcrt^tu. The allusion is to that singular 
scene which took place on the bridge uf the river Cepbissus, as ibe 
holy procession returned from Eleu.sis to Athens. At this spot 
were congregated the inhabitants of the neighbouring places; and 
11 war of witticisms and pleasantries, not altogether of the most 
decent kind, commenced between tlie two parties. To the victor 
in this conflict (and after a little iiidi^crimiQate skirmishing the 
contest wns doubtless left to two or three well-known wags on 
either side) the prize was assigned of a triumphant head- band f>r 
fillet {raivia), Creuzer'ft observation, (Symbol. IV. say.) that this 
bridge-conflict was accompanied with scenery, maskings, and the 
exhibition of a female on ihe bridge, representing iambe. or Baubo, 

ideservine of notice. See also or 

Croix, I. 333. 


foregoing subject 


ay €ta 

iwp KOLL TOP copouop dcoif irapoKoAfiTe Scupo 
^Saicrty TOP ^vvepLiropop rfffrSe t^? )(op€las, 
''loucx^ voXuTtfirp-e, fteAoy iopryjv 

^SuTTOV €VpO)Pj SfVpO (TVPOKoXovOfl 

npOS TTJP OfiOP KOLL hu^p da? ■ ■ A^f^/f tTl£ J 

aP€V TTOPOV 7roXXT]P oSoP 7r€pCUP€l9. ^< • 



lb. rotwoLv (rniKia, rtiva}^ to crown ifith a bandeau, or fillet. The 
word is found in nncient writers apparently as the meed of private 
approbation, in oppositiun to ihe oT«'0a*«r, or stale-reward for great 
deeds. Thucyd. IV. I3). nat dijtM>tria fiiy XF^'^V c~rc^iry dvt^Tjo-ap 
(BruAidam sc.) ur ^XtvdtpovvTa rrfv 'KXXdia, l^iai H eraiyiow ri ml 
npo<rffftxovTo wnrtp dffXrjT^. Xen. Hcllen. V. 1. 3. xal 6 fuv fWc^- 
pwcrcir, o Bf fTatvtutatv. Plat. Conviv. 212, e. 213, U. d. raivias *;^ow 
cVl r^f Kt^^Ktkris iramj ttoXXii;. Dem. 1 308, 5. raivUis freXfu* 6/jLoXoyoO* 
fjLtv. 13^9' 2 1. <I d«' yf nXoxitrioi ^/^Ci ot^' av rawtas eiratkovfttif. Plat. 

Vit. Phoc. 30. On the subject of the raiWa, see further Creuzer** 
Symbol. II. 357.: also Ocnzer's Dionysus, I. 215. LobcL'k'a Ag- 
laoph. 375-373. 

381. (ui, particle of exhortation, fre<{uent in Euripides. 

382. apaiov 6i6v. Catull. Epilh. That. 251. At parte ex alia jlo* 
rais volUabat Incchu$. 

383. ^vvifiirofiur, properly, a travelling-companion : frt'(|uent in 
j^ohylus, less frequent in Sophocles, and still less in Euripides. 
1 quote an example from each. ^Ksch. Suppl. 917. «V T(t>tiy^ /la- 

tf»r I titrtt trv r* avrot xoi ^tF»/iiropoi trtOty. Soph. Tr. 318. ovS" ovofus 
JTp6x Tov rwF ^vvip.iropQtv f)(tiv \ Kurip. Bacch. 57. as it ^p&apiav I 
tK6^ura — ^vvtfiiropQvt tfioi. Callira. fr. 67, 3, 

586. W}t69 riiv 0f6v. It has been already observed, that on the 
sixth day of the £leu}tinian festival, the image of lacchus was taken 
from bis own temple, transported to that of Ceres in Athens, and 
from thence curried in procession (o the magnificent temple of 
ihe Utter at Elcusis. 

387. twtv v6t»jv. Eurip. Baccb. 614. aMs i^'acttr iiAovrhv pattmt 
Jm» ir<f»wv. Here. F. 8g. 

lb. irnWi^v o3r)K. The reference is not, as Thiersch supposes, to 
ih<t distant wanderings and journeyings uf the Theban Jiacchus, 
but to the via sacra, or road, which lacohus had to traverse be- 
tween Athens and Kleusis. This did not indeed exceed many miles 
in actual length, but wc all know how toilsome a procession may 
become, where the aiiendnnis are numerous, and the pauses {ava- 
iTfJi'Anl), attended perhaps with \an<iu» obscrvHnces. frequent. 
Conz paraphrases ; Under thy escort, O Bacchus, (lacchus lie should 
have said,) the distant Journey will he accomplished easily by w, and 
wUhoMi trouble. The inconsistency with which the Chorus some- 



laK)(e (l)i\o)(op€VTCL, (rvfiTTpoTrffXTTf /le. 
av yap KaTia^itTu) fuif eVi ytAwrt 

KOTT €VT€kua TOV T€ aOpdaXuTKOV 


Koi TO pOKO^, KOL^vpe^ axTT 
a^rfixiovs 7rai^€tif T€ kcu ^opevuv, 
\aK)(€ (piXo)(pp€VTay crvfjL7rpo7r(p.7r€ fic. 
Koi yap irapa^hty^a^ n ^(cpaKia/o]? 
vvv 8r} KorelSoi^y koi pLoK einrpoaamovy 
trvpTTouoTpuzs yLTwviov 


times speak of themselves, as if denizens of ibe tipper world, and 
Bomeiimes as if inliabiiants of the lower world, will surprise no one 
Rcqnainted with the genius of the old Comedy. For a diflTerenl inter- 
pretation of the passage given by Welcker, see that learned writer. 

388. trv^vpon*)iir§ut^ to accompany asi an escort, Cf. infr. 14<J4. 
Herodot. IX, t. ml trvfiirpaiirtfi^t Tf Bw/ji;^ 6 Atjpiao-aior Sfp^t'a t^HV- 
yowa. Xen. Cyr. 1. 6. 1. Ill, 3. 4. VIU. 4. ay. 

389. eru yap icotcitj^iVm ^SchoL. Sta ere rortfo^iV^) to* {rayHaXitrKoy, 
propter te iacvratus est caUeus. Cf. Dem, c. Mid. 540, 2. lb. nrl 
yt\toTt, for purposes 0/ mrth. Cf. Vigcr. p.631. Pint. Symp. H. 3. 
npoCi^tpiv Tiv «Vi yiXtart. 

390. Mir tvTi'Xfu^ — and for purposes 0/ economy, (Herod. II. 92. 
Thucryd. II. 40. VIII. 1.) *' The superstitious respect." says M. de 
St. Croix, (1. 288.] wliich the Eleusinian mysteries inspired, obhged 
the initiated aUvaya to wear the robe in whirh they had been ad- 
mitted, till it fell to pieces. Others consecrated this robe to Ceres 
and Proseq)ine. or made swaddling-clothes of it for their children." 
The learned writer's obser>'alion, not very consistent with itself, is, 
1 should imagine, very much at variance with the actual fact. That 
many would wear this sacred robe till it fell into shreds and frag- 
ments, ia Qittural enough ; and it is at this economical^ as well as 
reverential practice, and not, as Thiersch supposes, ai the thrifty ex- 
penses of the choregua in the appointments of the drama, thai the 
laugh in the text appears to be directed. (See t>ur Introductory 
Matter.) What use the younger pari of the female Mysis made of 
this sacred custom, will be seen presently. 

391. ^Kot, Thcoc. XXVII. 58. TQjpnixovQif noii}aaf ipiiv puxor 

tip\ i« yv/ifct. Th. 

394. napa0kf^as ri, having looked a little aside. Vesp. 497. 7 Xa- 
;^a»>on'ci>Xir irapa^Xi^afTti <f}r}<Ti Barept^. 

395. «iVpoiramoff. l*ax 617. Thes. 191. trit S" rirnpSa^wos, XnnAt, 
ft. T. >. yKsch. C h. 93C. fi'ff/wfruiroKOi'rof. Soph. Aj. 1009. dd^ir a* 
rvrrpdo-cMrof tXtw r lams* Eurip. Ph. 1356. ovk finrpoawroit (^potpiou 

op)(ri Xoyou, 

396. wp.-nmaTpiQi, It appears, therefore, says Thiersch, that 



Trapappay^vros titOlop TrpoKvyj/ai/, 
Icxjcxe (f)c\o)(op€VTa, avfiTrpoTrefJLTrc fw. 
AI. iyeo 8* del tto)? (PtAaKoXovOos et/xi Koi ^ut ecu- 



Tral^tov yppevuv ^vKopuou. SA. Kayeoye irpos. 
XO. ^vXeafff SrjTa KOiinj 
(TKa^ylrayfiep ' Ap^^eSTjfioi/ ; 

OS" CTTTcVr/ff Q>X/ OVK ?<Pv(T€ ApOTOpa^^ 

ifvin 5e Sjjfiaycoyei 



maidens and matrons were present al ihe procession, who as sottn 
as ihat pan of the ceremony wns cmu^ludeft, reiirccl. Cf. infr. 

397. TcrCiov 1^p^nn!^^. popillam enitentem per fenestras tunicse 
laceratae. Tr. 

399. lifi TTtor. Thiersch compares PI. 346. ry«i hi rovrovrov rpoitav 
irciiff tifA dfL Kurip. Hipp. 662. dfi yap ovv irats elffi Kwctlvni Kcuiai. 

400. K^yttyt vpot. Cf. -'Esch. Prom. Vinci, 73. Eurip. Pbccn. 
619.891. Helen. 110. (Xanthias and Bacchus, the first having 
dirown down his baggage, prepare to leave their place of conceai- 
Siient and commence scenic opcrationst with the Chorus.) 

401-1. poiiXt<r$( .. (Ticoj^w^fi'. Eurip. Hec. 1025. ^vktirff iirtuT- 
^4irmfA€» I so also Baccb. 7 1 8. BiXm $rjpatTti3fi§$a ; 

403. 'Apx€^f)fio». With the name of this person, the reader has 
been made acquainted in the long extract from Mitford, Appendix 
{O Coiiz and Welcker (the latter in an excellent note) both 
consider the attack here mndo, nnd one that has been omitted, as 
Ifiecimens of the effusions which took place at the bridge of the 

40ji. — f^ptiTopas, said nnexpectedly lor <f>patrT^pnt sc. ofiotrrat^ or 
those teeth which children commonly have by the time they are 
jeven years old, and which 8cr\e for purposes of speech ((ppdCtiw). 
The sarcasm is directed at the foreign birth, or want of true Attic 
extraction in .\rchedemus, which liad for seven years prevented him 
irom beinp enrolled in some phratria. (Porro autem, cum onmes 
omnino cives Atlicos, adscripticios non uiiiius quani genuinos, in una 
ftliqua tribu ei curia ccnseri oporterec, phratorum genliliumque col- 
legiis ii tantum recipiebantur. qui genuina stirpe Attica oriundi 
cssenl. quamobrem sippissime ab oraturibus phratorum indices ad- 
liibentur ad probandam «iy€v*tiiv et natalium sinccritatem. Schom. 


404. drfiaaywyth>. Isoc. 18, a. KoAwr di ii)fiayiayrfC€is^ iiw ^i^ff i*3p<- 
(riy rhp ixXovt'qit firfff vlipt(6fuPo» ircpfopff. 2 15, C, rg ^¥ <fov<r^ TvpoP- 



€V T019 ovm veKpottTi^ 
KauTTUf TO. TTpwra rij^ fxel 
A I, t^otT av ovv (Pf}d<Tcu vwif 
WXovroiP oTTov ^v6aS o\ku\ 
^UiD yap iap/ev aprm^ diPiyfjLfvco 
XO. fnjSeif poKpaif aTreA^?, 

vwv, rate d' tvipytalaiv hr^iiaywySiv. Xl'D. Anub. VII. 6. 4. (Tlie term 
is one of much rarer occurrence in the Greek writings than naight 
huve been expected.) 

405. «V TOic tivto MicpoTiTt — said ns if the Athenians were no longer 
M'hat they were iu tbe glorious days of Miltiades, Tbemistocles, 
and Arislides : or. simply, in that species of humour which pre- 
vails throughout this ptay, in accordance with which the living are 
spoken of as the dead, and thu dead as the living. 

406. Td ir/)«rfl=<5 rrpwrof, the prince, the chief, the head. Herodot. 
VI. 100. AtV^w^f Nii^wi'Dr, «tov raiif *^fMrpua>y to. w^ira. IX. 78. 
Adfiirav 6 llvBtta, Alyiyr}H«ii> ra rrpwra. Kurip. Med. 913* olfiat yop 
Vfias TTfaUt yjjs Kopiv^ias \ ra irpirr* itrtaOat. Orcst. 1 244- Mwinji'ifttj «S 
i^iKai^ I rh irpCira Ktrra litXatryiK^if Hos 'Apyeiav. Baccb. 374. ^vo yhp, 
c3 vtavia, ] r^ irpixr iu av$pwtoi<n' ^prjrr)p Bta ... | o d* ^\6tv in\ rav- 
rinakoy, 6 J^pi'Kiii y6voi, k. t. X. See further, Bloinf. Gloss, in Peni. 
p. 101. 

lb. r^ff poxBrjpias, the scoun^relry =.ratv poxBrjpStv, the scoundrels, 
f'lffi, in the world above. Said irap' vvoifoiav for rijs Hrjpayioyias. 

lb. Our parabusJH. if parabnsis it ia to be. liere ceases, and tiie 
Choral troop, turniug their baclks upon the audience, proceed to 
take their station near the Thymele ; Bacchus and Xanthias ap- 
pear from their rctirinEf place, wherever that may have been, and a 
dialogue commences between tbe former and the leader of tbe 

408. tf^paCttv nXovTfova, ottov . , oUfi. To illustrations of this for- 
mula, given in former plays, add f^cl. 11^5. tppaaart fiot rbv dctnro' 
nji*, 01TOV *0T». Pint. Gorg. 503, b. t*' ouj^i Ka\ tpoi avrov itftpatruv rU 
itrrt ; ^scb. Sept. c. 'l"h. 628. tov t^opov Sfj T6vli* <'0' iiO^pait ttv- 
Xajff I \i^ .... ntSXti I oias y nporni nak Korrvxirai Tv)(av. Soph. G^d. 
T. 936, paXiara d avrfiy ccirar*, <i Karnrff ottov. Elect. 1 loi. AiyitrfloK, 
7r^ ^fjmc. iVropQ» ftakai. Phil. 573. oWa rordf poi irpwra>r ^paoov, ris 
*VriV. Eur. Rhes. 613. Hec.972. 

410. prjdtp pro pij. Elnisley's Eurip. Med. I5a./iijd(r ntdc Xiovov. 

Androm. 88. pjjfiiv roifr oyttSiajji tpol. 

lb. ^uKpiiv rmtXBfji. Av. 1 1 84. Kairr ot> futKpav Ana)$*v. Soph. CIul. 
T. 998. fj KopivBos <f ipov patcpav dni^Kt'tT. Eurip. Ph. 920. ou pajtphy 
nirecTTt. Cycl. 12. avofir)(ittT}i fujKpdv. Iph. A. 664. pjtxpaw y atratpttv '^ 
The ellipse is completed in Arist. Pa.x. 92$.'paKphy 6d6v duAi^Xt^tfr. 



oAA' ta-ff or airqp rr)p $vpav a<f>iy^€vos, 
AI. aipoL av avffiSy ct> TroT. 

SA. rOUTt TL 7}V TO TTpSyfia 

oAA 7) " A109 Kopivdo9^ iv Tols OTptofiaa-w ; 

XO. x^P^^'^^ 

vvv \pov opa kvkXop Oms^ dpffoipopop aif aAcroy 

7rai^oirr€9 ol? pLerovala dto(f)iXovs ioprijf. 

AI. €ycc) Se avv raurip Kopats €ipi kcu yvpai^ip^ 


411. iiraviptaBai, to a$k again. Lysist. 512. j^sch. Pers. 965. 
4I3< Arist. Plut. 963. *AXX' Xaff fir* avrht rar 6vpat lifpiytUnj, £urip. 
Alcest. 1081. TOUT r^^oxw* *AXin7trTi3( | fiop^t H*^P* ttrOi. 

413. a?pM* ov, /aAf u/i, ftc. ra trrptafutTa, wluch XanthiaA had 
thrown down. Cf. sup. 400. 

415. " Aiuc K.Qptv$os" A proverbial expression, implying any 
damnable iteration ;" that '* iteralion" beinj^ to Xanlhias, in the 
Dt instance, the perpetual command of his master " to take 
those trrpufutTa. which he is perpetually throwing down. The 
igin of the proverb appears to have beeti as fu]Io\^'s. The people 
Meg&ra bavintf revolletl from Lb« Corinthians^ (of whom they 
e a colony,) the latter sent ambassadors to reproach the Mega- 
ns with ibeir apostasy. In the course of these reprcmches the 
line of Corinihus, son of Jupiter, and founder of Corinth, was 
etually introduced — *' And what will 'Jove's Corinthus' say 
this ?" ** How will * Jove's Corinthus' put up with such insolence 
d iny:ratitude as this ?" Wearied at last with this perpetual re- 
lion of •* Jove's Corinthus," the Megai-ians began to cast stones 
d other missiles at the ambassadors. War in consequence 
sued ; and in a subsequent conflict the people of Megara proving 
e victors, they took care, as they pursued their fleeing enemy, to 
admonish one another " not tn let Jove's Corinthus ^o unscathed." 
Further allusions to thi» proverbial expression are found in Pin- 
dar's Nem.VH. Eccles. 828. See also Heind. ad Flat. Euihyd. 
§. 50. Midler's Dorians, I. 100. 3. 

416-17. ^wp*"* «i'fl kvkXov for €it kvkXov, to perform a circular 
daitre. Spanhcim quotes in illustration Arisi. Thes. 954. opfu, 
i Kovtpa ^ofrXv, Sy cV kvkKop, x**P^ trvparrrf X'^pa. lb. op* itXtror. 
aup. 316. 
418. oU ptTovala, to whom there is a participation in, i. e. who are 
partic^oAts in. 

lb. $to^nXovs. /Each. Euro. 831. ;(il>paf fieratrx^tv ryirbi fftoifttXt' 
jf. Soph, Inc. Trag. LXXXII. 8. pu^ta Bfoi^iXitrraTop, 




ou TTcufifV^i^ovaiu ffeOj (f)€yyo9 tpov oixxmv. 
XO, yiopm^v is 7roXvpp68ov9 

roy 7)fl€TCpOl/ TpOTTOlf, 

Tw KaXXixopcjTaroi', 

7rai^oin-€s, op oX^iat 425 

Moipou ^vpayovaiv. 

420. iraywxiOof, to per/arm a night'fesiivaL The night-festival 
here alluded to is that which terminated the sixth and ^eat day 
of the Elcusinmn mysteries. The ceremonies and explanations 
which then took place, hare been explaiuedf partly iu the Intro- 
ductory Matter, partly in the Appendix. 

lb. 6t^, sc. Cereri. Bninck's reading, 01^ navwjii(owrt $tat, de- 
stroys the whole force of the meaning. 
lb, <piyyas, a torch. 

421. iro\vpp6huvv. Thiersch, considering this epithet as implied 
in the subsequent adjective oi^c/Awdftr, substitutes vo\vpp66avt, (MS. 
woXvppo&ovs cum Sc'hul. woXv^jifoi/r, Bknt.) and translates, Let tts go 
ittto the Jlowery meadows, whith resoiim! with the loud concert vf tftose 
dancing and singing. In iUustratinn he quules /Kscb, S. c. Theb. 7, 
VfiVoiSt x-TT* tioToiv (fypotfiioti TToXvppuBuis . 2" I. TTp\v rnj^vppoBovs Xoyovf 

431. dvStfioSrjt. j^'^sch. Prom. V. 463. oGr tu^/iwdavv npof. Eu- 
rip. Bacoh. 465. ritv av$tpa>iir] TpatXotf. 

423. Ti>v i}tiirfpi*v TpoTTo*-, sub. Kara. Cf. lofr. 43 1. fVcrcjS^ Tpoyrav. 

lb. Toy roAXixop. quocitm putchrtr chorea- conjunctte esse solent. Th. 
The word is of frequent occurrence in the writings of Euripides. 
Hcracl. 360. KaS\ix^poi<i* l^BavQii. See also Lubeck's Aglaopb. I. 3S5. 

425-6. " Quam (chorenm) fclici fato instituimus." Dind. 
*' Quani chorcam bcalct Parcte jungunl." Th. The word w»ay€»M 
seems here rather to refer to time^ than to any other circumstance. 
•• As the conception uf the Kata and Parcae, in ancient religion 
particularly, referred to the temporal limits of life, it is to be re- 
garded as a Just consequence of this opinion, when later wntem 
make them rulers of time. The Parca> count the years, appoint a 
certain period of time and complete it» appoiiil the last day and 
observe it ; they weigh time, drive the years anti centuries on : it 
depends on Lhein to give back the single days, but they never do 
sti." Dublin Review No. \*ll. Art. 2. Has* the learned writer 
among his vcrj' numerous references included the following from 


aderat promissa dies, ct tempora Parc&e 

Dcbita comi 



^n. IX. 107. 

Jb. Mot^Ku. For references to these divinities in the TVogic 




fiopoL^ yap rffjuif rjXiof 
Koi <f>€yyos^ iXapou «rra/, 

0<rOl fl€fJLV7JfX€0* €V- 

<T€^YJ T€ Strjyofieif ^ 430 

rpoTTOP vepl Toos' ^ivov9 

K€u TOUT iSieoTa^. 

AI. aye 8y) riva Tpoirov rrfv Ovpav Koyj^oj ; rtW ; 

TTcay ivOdS apa KOirroucriu ov7rL\copioi ; 

EA. 01) p,T) StaTpi^€i9j oAAct y€V(r€L T^f $vpas^ 435 

writings, see >Eschyl. Prom. Vinct. 525. 924. Cbocph 300. Eum. 
165. 694. 919. A^, 994. 1514. Eurip. Alcest. \i, 33. Iph.T. 207. 
Pel. fr. 3. Arist. Thes. 700. 

427-8. To descriptions given above of the supposed felicity of 
the initiated, let u» here add that given in the Pseudo-Plato's Axio- 
cbus : CtTOii ^iu ovu i¥ ry (^v baltiuiv aya66i iirimfrvfTtv, tU ri* riv «i- 
(r«/3wv j^utpov QiKi^QuTat, €v6a ('(fi^ovoi fiiv atpat nayKapnov yovrjs ^pvovtri, 
ir^yu] df t'dizTUf Ka6apCiv piovct^ itavrotot di Act/itovrr avdfai irotxtXois 
tapt(afi€vot, iiarpilSai, be tf>tKotr6<pay Ka\ Giarpa noirjrwv Km KVKKtQi X^P^^ 
Ktik povaixa mrovtrpcrra, (TX'pir6<rta re tvfi4\r} icai tt\airivat avTO)(oprfyi]Tot, 
xo< OJcijpoTor dXunia not fjifta tlaira' oiht yap x^'M'* trx^bpov oCrt $dXnof 
ryytyvrroi, oXX* ttxpttrot arjp x^irai anaXatf ^\iov werltriv avrutipvaptvo^. 
ivravBa rotr ptpvrjpiyotf trrrt T»r npotHpla' Ktu rir 6oiovt ayurrtiat xoicfurf 
<rvyTt\uvtri. T. IX. 194. (Priestl. Ed.) 

439. ptp.vlipfff. For further examples of this verb, see Lobeck's 
AglaophamuB. I. 17, 19. 26. 28-9. 

429-43 I. MvaifiTf Tpdnoy, i. c. kot* tvotQt} rpuvov. 

430. aitiyfu' ftc. ^ioTov (^sch. Pers. 717. Soph. (Ed, Cul. 1619. 
urip. Med. 1033. 1352. Ale. 961. Ph. 1537.) 3taroF omitted. 

Plat. Euthyp. 3,d. <V ry btKatmiptt^ Hiayaytif. (wUcrc Stalboum re- 
fers tu Bob de Ellips. p. 59. Villoison ad Long. p. 209.) Dcm. 143, 
I 8. TO d' «V fjtrvxi^ buiynVf xa) . . nuirra rrt'pavi iatrai Xa^iif, tfcv/iaoT^K 
tviaipoviav f^tiy oinxBr. 794* '9* i^*^"^ *v fvSaipovtif ta't XP^^^tl ^^^0' 

431. ntpl T0C9 ^wi^;, Eurip. Alcest. 1 166. lai, dtVoior wf. | roXoi- 
frov,' Aipfyr J rvtrijitt jrrpi ^ivovs. Bellcroph. fr. 29. ^trff etc &€ovt piv 
fVtrt^tjff OT* ^00", fifi I ^ivoiK T *7TT}pKns, oi/fl' §Kapytf fi\- tftlXnvs. Ff. 
Inc. 50. «if auiior avifp koi ^*voht^v A^vus. Cf. sup. 140. 

432. iiiwTnt=iroX;rat, (cf. Plat. I Leg. 628, d. 636, e. 645, b.) 
natives of Athens, as opposed to ^W, or foreigners. Dem. c. Mid. 
538, 18. 

433. «tnT«iir rfiv Bupatf. To instances given in former plnvs. add 
Dem, 1 156, 18. Andoc. 6, 29. Lys. fr. 45. 4. (Bacchus and Xan. 
tbsM have arrived at the polace-gates of Pluto ) 

435- "^ M diorpt'^cif. u^^/ you not not dehy ^=^p^ htarpt&t, or 
^ huxTpl^it do not delay. Cf. sup. 194. 



Koff 'HpcucMa TO a^fia kou to X^fi e'xwj' ; 

AI. waiyTrai. AI. r/y o&T-orj Al/HpaKXijs o KOf- 


lb. ytwa-0at, properly, "/o taste; here, to make trial of. Kurip. 
Hippul. 659. T^t (T^ff ti r<!X/i7ff titro^Ltu -ycyrv/MFor. Here. F- 1.'^53- 
arap n6vu>v Sq ftvpltDV eytwratiTiv . Suph. Tracll. 1 103. (IXAwf r< /ii!;)[Adr 
ftvpltov tyrvadfujy. AuXig. IO05. *tiiri>pmv ryevofirjr. Pind. Nem. VI. 
40. o7 re irdcwF ryruroin'o. PlKut. Mostell. gu.<«tftre ejus sermonem 

436. Kaff 'HpojcXfo, Hercules 'fashion, infr. 461. To example* of 
idioms given in former plays, add /Esch. S. c, T. 421. <5 w^iror d'ou 
Jtar' tiyBptanov <f>poyti. Soph. Aj. 761 . dv^p^nrov (fivaiv [ /SXaor^c . . fiii 
itar HvBpwKQV (ftpovfl. Eurip. Ipll. A. 933. kut nytpa vtayiav. 

lb. TO trxripa Kat to Xrjfjia, the dresB omd mind (bold dispositioo). 
The jingle of words ha.s in some degree been cauglil in Thiersch's 
German version : Und hub' vom lierakles wie Gestalij so auch Gehait. 

lb. <rx^t^t dresSy form. Soph. Phil. 233. trx^/^ /***• "yup 'EXXJJoc 
crroX^r ufropx**- Eurip. Baccb. 830. ffx^M" '"*'*' *^^t^^' 

lb. Xi)/ia. To examples of this word given in former plays, add 
Soph. Gid. Col. 960. eSX^/i* avaidcc, tov Kofli/^/jifriv fioicrif : 877. oaor 
X^^' t)(wv ai^Uov, f<V', ri Tudr Hoittls rtXtlv ; 

437. T»s ovTos ; (^-Eftcus speaks from within.) With the answer 
of Bacchus, compare that given in Eurip. Peirithous fr. 5. 

lb. The pnlace-gnte opens, and a new specimen of the lower 
world presents itself in the person of ^vaciis, the welUknown coad- 
jutor of Minos uud Rhadamanlhua, but here represented us the 
doorkeeper and lacquey of Pluto. That the judicial functions of 
j^acus have not altogether ceaeied, a future scene will shew; but 
our alteuUon^ in the prcNcnt instance, must be confined to his lan- 
guage, the cause of which, as well as the character of ^^acus gene- 
rally, have nut, as far as I am aware, been seen or appreciated 
by the commentators and translators. If we wanted to know how 
deep a commotion had been excited in the lower world by tlie 
arrival of Euripides and ^schylus among them^ the language put 
into the mouih of .^^Uu^us would be an indication of it ; almost 
every word which be utters being derived frotu the works of one or 

o III thi« sense tlitt won! ncrtirs in wlial St. Croix cimMtlers as the ptiM-trord 
by whit'h the initinted wen> diittiiiginithed, either hy the offictaCing priatt, or by ana 
another. It wkv asked, " Such an owy the sim of tuch an one, have you iatled qf 
any nutriment (^^ o-itou iytiMia) 't Are jfoit in n state of impurity'f To thiit it 
was repli«d| " / have ffuted, and drunk tht PMtt^trink (KUKiUfa); J have taken 
from the cis/a, ami fiavintf tatteti, have transferred it to the calathiut ; and apain 
from the eaiatftus to the cista," St. Croix, I. ,^03. 346. M. dc Sacv addii, that 
Mmnng the l)ni!>4'it, for similiu- piirpotes of ref^vf^itioii] it is asked, S^me-l-on 
dan* voire pay la praine tiu myrcMan ? To wliich the pnsn-wurd ts, Etie esi 
aemte dang le cnur dtMjidifieg. But see on this matter Lobeck's Agluophamus I. 
a3»S7' 'Sj, 3.190. 



xru ^uap^ Kcu na^fuapf Koi fjuapdTare^ 


er of those two writers. Nor is he conversant only with the 
poetry of -'Estrhylus and Euripides. He is evidently the gossip of 
their gossips (infr. 75.S-* — in other words, is the obvious prototype 
of that character, with which succeeding dramatists have since so 
much araused us — viz. the enthusiast^ to whom the stage and green- 
room titile-tBttle form the all in all of human life. To say that 
the big words put into the mouth of jfiacus were made more ridi- 
culous by proceeding from a thin, shadowy, iinsubslnnlial person, 
will be perhaps to subject u», like many preceding rfinarks, to the 
lady's taunt in Thct^critus : 

These mt^n know every thing, 
E'en to the moment when imperiiil Jove 
Beds with his royal spouse. 

438. ^tXvpJ>^, abominahic. The nearest approach to the word in 
Tragic Greek, occurs in i4isch Eum. 52. *c ro woe SflAvrrpon-ni. 
(-■Eacus speaks, having opened the door.) 

lb- avaiirxyvroK. Eurip. Iph. A. 339. owe dwauTjfUiTou rcMJr ; 3^7* 
im<u<r)(yvTQV tf>piv6t. Cycl. 416. r^t ayai<TxvvTov ffopat. 

lb. roXftjjpfk. Eurip. Suppl. 3 1 5. d^tKovftiimtK ToX^Lrjpitv civai. (The 
epithets in this and the following verse seem to have been favour- 
ites with the gate-keepers both of heaven and hell : for precisely 
the same are applied by Mercury to Trygaeus, when he knocks at 
the palace of Jupiter. .See l*ax 182-3.) 

43Q. fiiapa. Soph. An. 746. J fuap^¥ ^(fef. Eurip. Cycl. 676. 
* ^'¥Ot ... A fuap6r. Sib. fr. III. 2. x^^P^ ■■■ top fiiapftv t^XmKt'rra. 

lb. vafAfAiapos : formed after such Tragic compounds as na^fM' 
rmot, irdfifiaxof, nd/i/iurrtij- (/Eftchyl ) nafAfirjKtjf , ira^^r/rcDp. ndfifiopos 
(Soph.) nanTToiKiXot , irafi4>dyf»i , vafifpar^s (Eurip.). Translate : fuapi 
mt nafAfiiapif O thou poUutrd both in parts and tchoie. fiuxptaraTt, O 
thtnt poUuttd to the superlative degree ! 

441. dwfi^at ab ajroiVtr*!*-. to spring Jo shoot atray. Soph. Tr. 190. 
rovA* ry« kXCw mrr}^. lb. iryj^wv, noosing him, tying him by the 

lb. ^wotpht (PoffoMpdo-Mir) uxov, got clean off. Cf, infr. 531. i 
ff ^j^rr* /fd^f. Plat. Tbeat. 203. d. o Ka\6t XtiTos awodtdfMKits oixh- 
9wfat, vtach. Eum. 117. dvi\p d' tnxrrm i^tCyoty irpfWrw. Soph. Ph. 
173. Xivdrrec (jtj^ovro. Eurip. Tr, 399. oixrrai ^vtav. Hip. 8H2. o\6- 

9 rimt. Phw»don. 62, h. * n^w oZf ir Aro/vV«'» XryiJ/HKor wtpi rnvr^y Xjiyot, itj 


98 APi5Toa>ANor>: 

ov iym ^(f>vAaTTou, dAAa uvu ey^t /xcirw" 
rota ^Tvyo9 (Tf fuXai^OKapSio? nerpa 
^Axfpotrrios re c^coTreAoy cufxizroaTayr}^ 

<l>pOVpOV<Tl^ KcOKWOV T€ TTepiSpOflOt KVI^Vy 445 

lb. Xa$^, nearly redundant, as in the three Tragic titers. 
For examples, ftee more particularly the Heraclidse of Euripides. 

442. txttfuvQt. This term of the pnlipstra has been explained 
by ns in former plays. Tlie expression exhibits a combatfiut com- 
pletely iu the power of bis adversary : as /Kacus, by a tragic dis- 
play of monsters and plaee.Sf proceeds to shew the pseudo-Hercules 
ihul iiK is now c<imp1ctely in his power. 

443. nfXavoKafiHios ir<TfM. Tbe scholiast says that the metaphor 
is derived frnm men of wild and savage character, who, on «c- 
count of their innate ferocity, are termed Uavk-hearted. The word 
is not, I believe, to be found in either of the three Tro^edian.s, nor 
is the word ^rv^^ at least in the sense here meant. 

444. ''\\xfpAvTios Eurip. Alcest. 455. Xifivav'Kxfpovrlav. (where 
see Monk). Here. F. 772. XifUvaXtnotv yr t6v ' t\x*p^yTiov. 

lb. o-inWrfXot. ^sch. Prom. V. 145. Eurip. Here. F. 642. Ion 
284. 726. Non. Dionys. II. 29. alxt^a^t^v o-Koir^XoiTtv , ivttTKipnjati^ 
OXv^ntia, y^, Kai fTKtrtrfXut plirroyro. 

lb alfiaToffTayris {ard^»), blood 'tiistiUimj. ^scb. Eum. 343- at^- 

JTotrTayii a^iufutroi^ tBvot, Ag. 12S0. tfioifov ^oftoi irvtoviTtv aifiarotrray^ . 

I S. C. T. 8'^6. al/iarocToyfis vtKpovt. Eurip. Suppl. 822. aoifiaff ai/juro- 

aray^. Id. Theseus fr. 1. aifunrrayti. On ^schylean compounds 

of this form, see infr. 788. 805.) 

445. iftpovpt'iv^ gvard and keep you in. Frequent in Euripides and 
, Sophocles ; lesti Sequent in ..^schylus. 

f [ !b. KoMTvroG. Cocytujs, river in hell. ^s<>h. Ag. 1 130. a;x</>l Kuxv. 
i TO!" T« Kux^povatovt Sj^A^iT. S. c. Theb. 687- KVfui KoKvTov. Eunp. 
Ale. 470. (K Kwirvroio piidpuv, Od. X. 513. tvBa fxiu tit 'A;|((poyra 
Ilvpi<li\fyf$Q>v T« piova-i, [ KoMfin"Of &y or A^ Srvyoj uJorof co-rU airo/>- 
pa>{. Non. Dionys. \[A\. 262. Kwnrrov dipffOpovdpvtro koI 2Tjy6i 

lb. vtpidpoftos, round- rvHHing^ encompassing circularly. This ex< 
pressive epithet will be better understood, when we come to our 
analysis of that great -T^schylean Trilogy (infr. 1089.), which a.s the 
author of the present drama had it for ever in his thoughts, so it 
becomes his editor on every occasion and in every form to bring it 
as much us possible before his readers' eyes. For verbal illustra- 
tions of the term> Bee ..'Esch. Suppl. 344. Sept. c. Th.44;i. Eurip. 
El. 461. Cresph. fr, 2. 

lb. Kvwts, i.e. the Furies. And what title more appropriate? 

q yGnch. .\g«in. 15.^5. vKintopov tr6fAii*vfj^ kxivv : ubera Scliutz ob■e^v8^'* De- 
icriptio Achurontift, babica «niiil noniinis nUinne, quod ni^ifiuare voluit i. q. d 
T& ^x*o A***'*** ^^ further BUmif. tiioM. IQ Agam. 



^^How do ihey exhibit themselves in tliat 'IVilogy to which we have 
^Hkost adverted ? Scarcely has the bU»w been struck, which atuins the 
^■liBnd of Orcste.s with a mother's bloody ihan up rise these frightful 
beings (Choeph. 1035-1050.) — the longtie hun^ out at length, as if 
to lap his ■■ blood — the tusks displayed, as if for the aven^int; bite, 
and ihe comer of the eyes distilling blood insteatl <if the rheum(Enm. 
54.). which belongs lu the canine race. Away like n roe (tttw^), tiees 
the wretched murderer (Eum. 3i50< ^"^ straight upon the track and 
scent of their prey follow the accur.sed pack. Over sea and over 
land the Highl aiuL pursuit are continued : there is neither rest 
nor pause 4 cr if a moment's i»luraber does come over these wearied 
hounds, they give tongue even in their sleep (Eum. 125.), and 
afacw that their sleeping as well as ^waking thoughts are those of 
the chase. But we must turn from these general reflexions to the 
useful but les.s pleasing ta.'^k of verbtvl ilJiistralion. yEsch. Eum. 
237. TtrpavfMTtafAfVov yup iff Kvaty vf^p6v \ irpiv alfiu Kai araXay^ov «- 
fitiartvofuv, Choeph. 91 1. tfivXa^L fiJjTpos tytnTovt xvvav. 1041. <ra^ 
«f»u% yap atd< ^rjrpits cyjroroi Kvvtr. ouph. Klect. 13SH. ^trddpo^oi KOKiHt 
wavovpyjjftdrtatf j atfiVKTOi Kvtui. Eurip. Electr. t349- tvvat ratrH^ vm- 1 
<p*vyotp. Compare the account which the wretched lo gives of the 
spectral Argus, by whom she is pursued. Prom. Vinct. 583, sq. 
JfP**i TK av fit Tov ToKaiPav OKTrpot' | f idwXoi^ '^pyov yrjytvoit . .. 6 &i 
woptvtrat ftdXior Spp' tx^v, | of oi'dc KtrrOiivovrn ya'ia KfvOfi' \ aX\a fit 
rar n£Xm>wr | <"f t'vtptav wtpiav | jci/l^yfTCt, irXav^ rt vr^rmv. 

446. «x<di^, fi/jr»'. Twice in the Choephora? is this term applied 
by Orestes to his cruel and adulterouM mother. In his invncatioD ' 
lo Jupiter, l^l.l^ov Hi yiwav fivtv atrov rarpot^ | BnvAvrot fv vKfttraitTi 
KGi inr«ipdfia<ri | dctt^r ('xtdfr^. .And then in the hour of incipient 
madoess. where he declares her very touch, and not her bite, to be 

Itfie cause of putrefaction qR 1 . ^upoiiri y tlr tx^^*^ '0^r | tn)rr«iw j 
ftyovvai* nkXov, ov dtdrjypivov^ (where for construction and sense, see 
Klau^en ) For other examples of the word, see iEsch. Suppl. 873. 
Bt>ph. 'Irarh 11 01. Phil. 2O7. Eurip. Alcest. 321 . Pbcen. 1151. 
[ lb. iitirroyiU^>aXov. Eurip. Here. F. I 191. inaroymfp^Xov $a/^U I 
vipot. The word (nrXdxvt»i» occurs in all the three Tragic writers. 
4.47. ^ta<rrrapa^*i. /Esch. Pers- K)^- T A' 9<T<PaBa(t, xni x'p^" ?»^ 
<pov I itadrapatrtrti. Eurip. Bacch. 13 [S. dtaoKOfKiKTitv vufui 
lb. wXtvfiw. ^^ach. Ch. 629. rod' fiyx* nXfvpovtav £i<^r | ittntrrmnu 

lb. nvSaTrrt<r$ai. /Esch. Pers. 709. aXX* rirri d^vt waXoihv *ro\ 4h»- 
a^Biararai (av^anrwrat, suggested by Wakefield and Blomfietd, 
ives confirmation from the present paHMige, I lie language of 
cuft being almost exclusively derived from the plays of ^srhylus 

t Cf. infr. 451. Knm. 106. and HAru-herr. 
* Cf. Enm. 14s* 21s. 237. Z95. See :i1mi 106. 112. 

u 3 




*' Taprqala ^vpaii^a" rci uetppo) Se <tov 
avTOUTiv itn^poujiv ^^uxrco^uco 
StaxrjrajO'ovTat Topyoves TtOpouriaL, 


tind Euripides.) Soph. Trach. 780. tnrapayfi6r a&rov vXrvft^mv uttBif 
^ntro. Eurip. Med. 54. ^ptvvv avBanrtrai. 1357* I'V^"^^- 

448. " TapTTjtrifr fixpQiva" Quoted from the Theseus of Euri- 
pides fr. 2. 

lb. Taprijcrm. Dobrcc refers to Herodot. IV. 192. tlcX di co) 

yaXai «'i* t^ rr<X<^iy yftfifuvat^ ti)<ti TaprTjtTfrtrfiTi AftaiiraTai. Bergler 

and Thiersi*h agree in seeing in this epithet an allusion to the word 
Tartarus. " Tartesiam munenam accipio magnam, sicut Tartesia 
felis dicitur. v. Erasm. Adag. i» a, 70." Hotib. 

lb, fivpaiva, properly, a lamprey (see Blomf. Gloss, in Choeph. 
p. 194.) ; here» tlHMKKrrt*rtfl, born of a supposed intercourse between 
the lamprey and the viper, and whose bite was believed to be 
mortal. In a former note (446.) we have seen the echidna and 
the mursena coupled together. The fallowing descriptions will help 
to correct an opinion of Thiersch, thai the niuriena is here intro- 
duced as a ludicrous contrast to the other minsters mentioned. 

Mvpaivi)s A' fKtrayXov^ cVd fioytpovs aXtrjat 
jroKKoKi^ txfipv^tTa Karmpfiift^v twaxTptav 
tit aXa <f}v^Tj$tvTas , tj(trXiov t^iniiivffa' 
tl trvpjov Kfiyrjv yt av¥ ouXo/Suoic ix^«rOi 
B&pwtrBai, wpnXttrovtrair akos i/upjav, rftrtlpoiotp. 

Nicander ap. Athen. VII. 3 1 2, d 

fitTtpj(Ofuini dff Kai aim) 
ottrTpop^vTft fivpaiva dpaxovrttrjt noBov tiiyrjs, 
novTowopfitf ifjtpi^t Bitjfia^ov atrBfia fipaK^prav. 

Non. Dionys. I.aSa 
lb. ¥fiftpi>, kidneys. This word occurs again, infr. 1 243. and only 
once more in Aristuph. (Lysist. 961.) : it is not found at all in the 
Tragic remains. 

449. auToIo-ti/ tpTtpaia-iv, together with (he entrails. To illustra- 
. tions of this formula given sup. 2 18., also in Vesp. 1 19. Eq. 3. add 
I from the Tragedians, yEsch. Prom. Vinct. io8a. x^w* *' " nv^fu- 

v»v I aCraU piCott irvfVfM Kpa^aifot, Soph. Aj. 25. it^Bopiiivat yitp d/>- 
rtuc tvpitTKOfieit | \«tas awdtras, ku] Krm}»api<rfitvat | «V j(fipos aiTols iroifi- 
vioiv tviaraTuis. Eurip. Orest. 1528. fJTit 'EXXad* avrotr ^pv^i SuXv- 
firjtfarn. Hacch. I I 3 !• *^tpt d* t/ fUv uXivrfv, { ^ JS* X)(yot airviCit dp^i'\au. 

Add Here. F. 1309. Nledea 165. Troad. 993. Cycl. 704. infr. 

[ 534. 

lb. tvTMpa, yEsch. Ag. 1 192. a^fv tvrtpois t* trfrXayxva. 

lb. alfuiravv. ^Esch. Ag. 1 646. fitj^iv alfuiTiiififBa. EuHp. Bacch. 
I 13.V nf^aTMfitvr} )^tipar. Ph. I 165. itparav alttaTovfA€i>iH, Androm. 260. 
So also jfoAM^dToC*-, frequent in Eurip. Phoen. 1177. 1386. Here. 
F. 333. 255. Hel. 1619. 

450. dtaowav {<nray), Eurip. Hec. 1107. uv diatrwdamfioi ... XP^' 

>nly I 



f<f) af €ya} Spofxaioif opfirfao) TroSa. 

Viae. 339. Ai' cjci'XajMc ducrrraamrro. vEsch. S. C. Th. IO37. toutoi' di 
trdpKat oi*df KOiXoyuaropis | AOxoi tnrdaovrat. 

III. ri^p^ovrc. In ihe Oresiean Trilo^, Gorgons and Furies are 
nearly synonymous terms. (Ch. 1035. Euinen. 48-50.) And in a 
play, like the present, drawing so very much of its tone and 
coluur from that Trilogy, wer^ there nnne '* in Gorgon-lerrors 
clad/* to recall tbe teadii]^ feature of that great production ^ We 
are not perliups at liborty, as there, to substimie Furies for Goriijons, 
Dor can we coll thera up by one, by two, by three. tiU Ibeir grow- 
ing numbers scare the pUrensied Bacchus, (Ch, 1044. Eum. 46.57. 
384—6. 5.S.S- 681. 984.) but, even a» Gorgons, we ran muster quite 
sufficient to fright the little wiue-god's wits from their proi^nety. 

lb. TiOpdcriai. The epithet appears tu be derived from the Attic 
deme TiBpat^ (the female members of which seem to have been in 
no good repute), not without lUluiiicjii tu thewurU &fM(Ta-€w=^rapdiT- 
o-ru*. Th. 

451. This verse has all the appearance of being borrowed from 
some play of ^schylus or Euripides now lost : we can only illus- 
trate its component parts. 

lb. 1'^' at, for the purpose of fetching whom. Cf. sup. 104. And 
ivhen do these threatened Gurguns make their appearance ? ."Eacus 
subsequently returns to the stage with three attendants, as fright- 
ful no doubt in appearance as they were formidable in name (infr- 
579-). Are these the promised monsters? Their number would 
intimate as much ; but would their sex admit of such a compro- 
mise ? There then remain for consideraiiun Flathane, and her com- 
panion, (infr. 513.) That these two Wdiea come upon the stage 
with some knowledge as to whom tliey ahull find there, the text 
seems nut obscurely to intimate ; and from whom could this know- 
ledge have come but from /Eacus ? l^pon these therefore we ven- 
ture to hx as the threatened visitants ; lea/ing the reader, when 
ihey do appear, to invest them with such insignia, as, according to 
ancient vases and paintings, belonged to the Gorgon-forms; — the 
bare fang, protruded tongue, serpent-locks, 8ic. Two purposes were 
thus served : the goo<l ladies of Tithras were admonished to be lejjs 
liberal of angry looks and foul words than wai« their usual wont; 
and the scared Bacchus is poetically punished for the perfidious 
conduct, which the bare mention of Proserpine's pr-etty fluting and 
dancing-wumen had nccasiontsd on his part. But. it may be asked, 
is not the subsequent appearance itf .'Eacus's myrmidons rendered 
less effective by this proceeding ? I answer, no . the poet was at 
liberty to give them an equally frightful appearance, and iheu 
again there is this essential distinction : the " thundering voice 
and threatening mien" of our Gorgon landladies arc but voice and 
mien after all: the myrmidons of .ilacus come armed with cord 
and lash, and are tbe aids, if not the agents, in inflicting some- 

H 3 



tfaing more tlmn mere looks and soutids on the sufiering Bacchus. 
But moru than enough, it may be thought, of this trifling. 

lb. iipo^'tov. Soph. Tr. C)i<). /yi» llpofiaia ^ff', S<rovnfp itrBrvov. 
Eurip. Or. 45. hfp»{w Smo 17^9 flpo^nioi-. Bacch. 136. itt 6iiirw¥ 

lb. 6fitiav. A word of frequent occurrence in the three Trage- 
dians. The following example from Eurip. (Hip. 829.) comes 
something near the pa.s.sagc in the text : nrf^fi ts a^v Kparrrv^p oppfi- 
cava, Arist. Thesra. 659, Kui/<f>t}v (^ippav tidia. 

lb. frot^f. Kurip. El. 1 I 3. avvTfivt iTotiin ApfAov. Hec. 316. tpx^rat 
wovBj} no86t. (^aous here quits the stnge.) 

452. e7«;^o8a (eyx'ST*'' Matth. Gr. Or. §. 194. I.)- Translate: 
ihf Uhaiion Aff.v been made : jfoAei &ihv, invoke the god. (Schol. t'vttih^ 
yap OTTOvSonotijiraiin-ai, a>t tKKtx^Tat, \*'y€Tat, " (ciiXfi Bt6t>. irp^i a t^fi- 
XtKTat th rovTo.) Was ihe author trending upon slill more deli- 
cate ground than the Scholiast has inittgincd ? luid is there any re- 
ference here Lo those <mot^a\ pvarTjpt^&tts of the Elt^usiuiau riles, to 
which Aristides refers (iu Eleusiniis, p. 258. Jcbb.) ? As the ac- 
count will add at all events to our knowledge of the Eleusininn 
ceremonies, I here venture to give some information respecting it. 
Hi>w the first six days of those holy rites were occupied, has 
been more or lea* the subject of preceding observations. Three 
days yet remained to complete the festival. Tlie seventh was 
spent in the return of the procession from Elcusis to Athens^ and 
the enactment of those scenes which t(pi'k place at the bridge Ce- 
phis^us. With the object of the eighth day. called Epidauritt, (St. 
Croix, 1. 334.) we shall no( trouble ourselves. The ninth day, 
called I'lemochoe, is somewhat more to our present purpose- This 
day derived its name from an earthen dish, so called, having a flat 
bottom. Two vessels of this kind were filled on this day with 
water. From* the one a iibatiuu was made towards the East, from 
the other a libation tovvurds the West, a certain mysterious invo. 
cation being made at the same time, but of what precise nature it 
is now impossible to ascertain with any ' certainty. Creu/er's 
Dion. I. 157. 3 12. Lobeck's Aglaoph. I. 183. 

' Meiirsitis ciUects from Procliu, thnt the invocauon ooniiKted in ntlering die 
word* uU, TQKiiin, the speaktr who tittered Oinn looking Hntt. bx Proc-ltis adtls, to 
the hen^eii and then tii the forth, which were cunitidrnil us the faUuT and mut'iLT 
iif all things. (81. t'roix, I. 335. (retiz. IV. $,t,i.) To wiy imihinj.^ of the niflan*^ 
ing hpn^ attfu:}ied ui Uiese word*, the WMitl.-* UieuM'lveM Itear Htmiifir marks of for- 
gfry, und Pnicl'is hiiiiKelf he|iriige<l to tlmt Uler hIiooI nf philnviphy, which acru- 
pled little at iiitcrputatiuii or forgery, where the iiitei*e3t!s til' Pu^nisin wcrc to be 
wrred at the exjietivj nf chone uf t hriatlanity. Uiit au]>p<»irii( Prm.'lu8 Ui l»e cor- 
mt, it by no ineaiis folli>w», thnt the itivncnlioii here ^ren wnb die 9iune n» that 
alluded to by Arittoptiunex, vveji Utkiiig it fur gnuit(<d thnt he nlhide^ lo tite 
Mysteries at all. Tlie formiilip uf those m)*sieries n-ere the monoiioly of a few 
priests^ whn addtnl or subtnicit^d froin tliem a> suited the time> ; ntid wheii ClmV 
cianity was tn be opposed, they had m iniirh or more inten-nt in adapting Uicir 
rites to immediate dmimHta tin's dian the philoaqihon thamMlrfla. 





SA. CO KUTay^XaoTj ovkovv auturrqiTii ra\v 
TTplv Tipa a ISftP aWoTpiov ; Al. oAA'j wpuKtat. 
oAA* oi<T€ 7r/)or rrfi/ KapSlca/ fxov airoyyiav. 
HA. i&ov Xa^. AI. TrpoaOov, HA. ttou Vrti/ 

€ifravff ^X^t^ Tr)u xapSiav ; AI. Seurcura yap 
,fV TTfi^ KOLToy pxw KOiKiau KadetpTTVfrtt^. 

A. CO SeiXoTOTf Oetoi/ trv KavOpwTTwv. AI. iyto ; 
on; 5* ovK iSeura^ tov y^to<^ov rtou pijpArcoif 
Kcu Ta9 aireiXa^ ; SA. ov p.a Af ovS eippoirrtaa. 

I. i0i VVVj iwit&T) XijpuiTiai KUvSpflOf €t, 



454. Mf^oxiop. to faint. Mceris : w/KiKiai' 'Amicor. X<iiro^i/^<iv '£X- 
X^fiiTftK. Cf. I*ac. 700. 'Ep;i. Ti iat ; KparXvot n tTo<j>oi eariv; 'Tpvy. 
aniBav^v, off ol XoKtavts fvifSaXov, 'Efifi. rt iradoiv ; Tpvy. S ri; wpa- 

456. ;j/ii/ffoi ^•o/. Thiersch* who thinks that nothing further is to 
be looked fur in this epithet than a reference to that opinion, which 
considered every thin^ among the gudia ns golden, illustratea by the 
Xp*^ 'A0po^»TFj of Homer (II. 111. 64.}, and ihe *Ejf>a>v ji^pvvoicu^as- of 
wrip. (Iph. A. 548.) To ibese might be added the xp^^*" BOynftp 
t of Sophocles (CKd. T. 188.), XP^^ paKtXXr} '/.rjvot (Kjusd. Incert. 
'r. 87-) XP^^*°^ ^°^ ^Uas Sfifia (Aj. Ivocr. fr. il.), )c/»)trcoi 6aKot 
of Apollo (Gurip. Ion, Q32.) xP^afocru'^Mvov Kopap^ i.e. Proser- 
pine (ibid. 1099 ), xP^'^'^'^'^^P^X'"*' ^"*^ tp'os, i. e. "Apr^/us (PbceD. 
i(jS-)t ;ifpvo-o0n^s '.\Aio( (Uec. 633.)f xp^^^^^P^^ 'AmIAXwf (Suppl. 
5 -) > XP^*'"*^^'^^^'"' ^X*^^ tlupi&<ov (Iph. A . 1 04 2. ) f ;|f^u(ro\fiy;ifov 
flioj (long.) Arist. Thes. 318. xp^^^^'^X'^^ (naXXas). 315. 
j^pvifaXvpas (^AfToXXoti'). Lysist. 344. ;if/nf<roXo^c (IlaXXas). Av. 950. 
j(pv<TO&povoi (jA7r6\Xiitv), ^C. 

460. y^6fpov, Euripides' Ion, though bred up in the seclusion of 
a Delphie temple, hnd Required some political knowledge, and we 
may ea»ily guess at what city full of nowe the following observa- 
ons ore pointed : 

* Hf 8' tU rh npiiTov mfXfoc 6pfitj$t\t (vyii¥ 
fi/rw Tis tJvai, TtJov fiiv a!ivvdTeav vjto 
ftur7fa6fA€<r0a' Xi/tt^m yap rd Kp*t(T<TOi'a. 

crtywtri, xoh vntvUowrw 4tt ra npdy^iarn, 

y«\StT iv nLToU» fuapiap rt Xrj^ofiat^ 

oi'x fj^rvx^C^y *y fiifXri ^6<fH)v ttXc^. 607 • sq. 

462. XiiiMinay» to be courageotts. Cf. sup. 436. 

H 4 



I ^'A ) 





av yiy y€uov 'yc^^ to poTraXov rovri Xafiayv 

Kcu Trfu X^ovrrjv^ ihrep a(f>ofiocnrXayxt^09 €i' 

eyw S ^aofiai aoi aK^vfX^opo^ iv tic fup€i. 

SA. (f>€p€ Sr) ra^ecDS" auT ' ov yezp aXXa 7r<£OT€Of' 

K€u /SAt'^o*/ €9 Tou 'WpaKKuQ^avOiav^ 

ft SetAor fcrofiai kol Kara ae to XiJ/jl excop. 

Al. fxa Ai aXX* aXr)dw9 ovK MeAtV?;? ficumyia^- 

(f>€pi pvv^ tyco Ta orpoypiaT atpwpat TaSt. 

QE. o) ifiiXTaB' fjKUf 'H/XTAcAeer ; S^vp etcrtOi. 

•i) yap $€09 <T tii' €7rvO(ff tjkovt^ evdeci}^ 

err€TT€t/ aprov?, Tjyfre KUTepiKTcov )(VTpa9 

.464. a^to^frtt\pyx*ot (oTrXnyx*'^. H> tragic Greek, intima prtecor' 
dia^ipse animus.) Kurip. Hipp(»l. 426. $pairv<nr\nyx^ot. 

465. «V r^ fup*tt vicissim. Cf sup. 38. 

466. ott yap aX\a,/or. Cf. sup. 53. 

467. Xanthios having assumed the liun's-skin.&c. assumes with 
these a bold swaggering air. 

468. Kara ire. i^sch. A^ani. 343. yvMu, kot tivBpa aatPpcv tviflpa- 
voiff \iy«i9. ngS. Xc-yco kot* tivipa, firj (koto) 6fO¥, at^ftv c/ie. 

469. OVK MfXi'n^t fxaoTiyiar, »c. 7a-ci, you'll be the pood-for- naught cf 
Melit^ (i. e. Hercules) to the very life. Meliie. an Attic <leme, 
where Hercules was initiated in the lesser mysteries, and where be 
had a temple. See further on the Hubject uf this Melite MQller's 
Dorians. I. 445. See also St. Croix. I. 297. 

lb. /iaoTiymf (fiaoTi^,) a goud-fur-iiuthiiig Klavc, who is for ever 
receiving or deserving the whip. h^i. verbero. Arist. Eq. 1235. 

Lysist. 331. 1343. Soph. Cedal. fr. 5. finoriytnt, Kivrpmvti^ oXXorpio- 

471. A maidservant nf Pmscrpine here enters, congratulates the 
Pseudo- Hercules on his arrival, and invites him on her mistress 
part to a banquet. It is not to be expected that for her culinary 
descriptious we ahnll find many illiistration^t in the (ragic poets; but 
the Cyclops of Euripides, — that link between the comic and the 
tragic stage. — will not leave us wholly without them. 

472. ivvQvff ^«toiT«, heard that you were come. Soph. Aj. 693. 
rax av fi' itrwr 7rv6oia'&* . aftrua/icVoy. 

473. TTfO-o-tiK, chemically, to make soft in the fire, x. cook, ta 
seethe. (Herodot. VIII 137, »/ di yvv^ rod /3airiX<or, aifrrj r»* triTwi trt^ 
Zrtac€. in baking, to make soft by kneading. Eccl. 843. irmram irrrr*- 
rai. Pax. 86g. o -trXaKovs niirtttrai. I'lul. 1 136. 3pTov €v ntntf^mtv^ 

142. vatrros fii ntwffififvos, 
lb. fy^w, to seethe, the opposite of ^nria/, to roast. Herodol. 1. 


irXoKOVVTa^ tdirra^ KoXXafiov9. aXK €UTidi. 475 

SA. KdX\tcrr\ virauvto. ©E. /la rov 'AttoAAw ov ^tj 
% » \ 
a fyeo 

Tr€ pi6ylfo^LonreX0ovT\ emi toi koi Kpta 

ai^^pamif opp'tOua^ Kcii Tpayr^p.ara 

i<Ppvy€j KKpvov avtK€pavvv ykvKvrarov. 

119, Koi ttark fukta dtcXwp, rlk ftir wfmjcrr, rA Ac M^rjat ruv r^ruf, 
Eur. Cvcl. 404. ToA' «iy "Ki^ifT tffirJKfV tiffttrBat niXrj. 

lb. (taT«fwcTov=»caT(pfiicToj (Karc/ffiVctf, fo break tn pieces on a miU). 
turnputra. sc. Banptu, hull-fruit, such as peas and bean!*, cut small. 
Cf. nos in Vesp. 660. Blomf. in Pers p. 161. 

473-4. x^P*^^ trvovs, porridge-pots. Eccl. 840. ;(jwr^KW ihvmi% iiffuvm, 
Cf. nos iu £^. 1 134. 

474. anay6paKiC*iv {tiMOfMiKiiuw) , to roast Upon the coals. Eurip. 
Cycl. 358. dySpoKtat ttrro x*^^**"' 

lb- jSoiJy £Xop. Ach. 85. nap€Ti^t d* 17/iti' oXout *» Kpi^ivav jSoirf. 

475. oirroi', to roast. Eurip. Cycl. 403. trapxas i^ionrawvpl, 358. 

i<^0a Ka\ OffTO. 335. p6<TX"^ OTTTOI'. 

lb. KoXAajSoc, n species of bread or cake : so named, according to 
one of the scholiaj^ls. from its resembling the K6k\a&oiy on which 
the ftCrings of the lyre were loosened or tightened. 

476. KoXAcoTa (sc. •IttaK, or KttKKiar Ix**- Comicus Bp. Athen. 
XIV. 642. Iph. Aul. 364. 019 tj>ovtvs ovK^Tt 0vyaTp6r ay)S ta-it, rnKXtcra 
y*) prettily snid on your part, inaivm^you have our tommendationg ; 
but — a polite way of refusing. Cf. infr. 480. The commentators 
illufttrate by the Latin phrases, •• gratia est," graiiam facio," " be- 

lb. rrrou'w. Cf. Hesych. et Grammaiicus Bekk. ad Soph. Alc- 
roeeon. fr. 2. 

476-7. ov ^17 •rrfpi6y^ anf\$4vTQ, (Mallb. Gr. Gr. §45. §• 5 1 7-) 
1 will not suffer you to depart. Lysist. loig. wvX K oC at ntpt6y^o- 
/tai yvpvo¥ ovff uvrmt. Then. 698. uXXd roii p6ifov TtKVOv fi* ntpiOi^tvff 
auwrrtpovp.ivqv. Cf. nos in Ach. Nub. For the crasis in n^pity^pa- 
ftiK$6¥T\ cf. Blomf. Aninmdv. in Iph. in Aul. v. 407. 

lb. *V»« roi Kai Cf. Person et Elmsley ad Med. 675. 660. 

lb. «/»'a. Eurip. Cyc). 367. ^vutSitt xptw k^x^PH-**^^ ^P9' 588. 
4^ dpaitoi/t <papvyos Ci$rf<Tti Kpia, Fr. Inc. CXLVIII. I. Kptaa-i ^otl- 

478. m$paa<rM, Att. aya^parrta, I stew. Cf. nos in Ach. 915. 

lb. upv!$ua Kpia, poultry. Cf. Av. 102. Theoc. XXII. 72. Schief. 
[o»ch. III. 50. 

479* 4*P^y*^' l^ roast. Ec(*L 844. (ppvyrrat rpay^/iora. 

lb. aFaKcpavrLWu. Od. III. 390. Tois d' 6 yipttv {KOoviTty ova Kpti- 



oAA' uatff oLfi ifwi. SA. ndyv KoAcof . 0E. Xrjpeis 
fXwi/- 480 

01; yap a a(Pi}(T(t}. koll yap avXrfTpU yi (rot 
T]Sr) \Soi/ ta-ff" wpaiOTarj)^ Ktop^^rjorpiBi^ 
er^pai 8v rj Tp€t9 — HA. vrcof Aeyety ; 6p)(r}crrpi8€£ : 
0E. rjffvXXiwaai Kapri irapartTtXp-^vai. 
oAA* €i(n6\ w9 o fiayupo^ rjSt) ra T^pjt^ 485 

«/i*AA* ax^atpeiv j(^ Tpdne^ eiar^ptTo. 

Tffpa KtpatTtrtv \ otvov T^viTfJroto. Euri|), Cyc. 557. Ta»s o^v KtKpaTai 
(sc. o ffci^ot) ; The eating and drinking propensities of Her- 
cules formed not only a subject for the comic writers, but were 
also oecHsionally alluded to by the tragedian». See the well- 
known scene in the Alceslis of Euripides. See also Soph. Trach. 
268. Welcker's Nuchlrag, &c. p. 310. 

4S0. iruw KoXuf. Xanthias again politely declines. The ambi- 
guity of his proceeding haa been explained in the Introductory 

!b. ><T}p«U tx*^^- Thiersch observes, thai the reply is playful, not 
indignant or morose ; thou art a Utile fool. The idiom has bteu ex- 
plainud by us in N*jlf. 132. 490. 

481. avKjjTpU. The^^eneral repulaliun ofthe pipingand dancing- 
women amunf^ the Athenians will be estimated by the following 
quotatiuns. /Ksfhin. (de Timso) 6, 32. n-oXAgv yap irdw xarAiirrr o 
irtrTi)p avr^ oltrUiv, i^v otro% Jtarfd^ftoccK, »s iym npoiovroi cVidci'^ roif 
'X6yov' (iXX* f-TTpa^ raiira dotXcuwv roi? aioTfi'oTcuf ifdovalt, o'^tx^yt'm; col 
froXvr«A«ta<c ieitrvtav Knl auXf^rpuri rat eraipoir koi Kv^ts tcai rots uXXott, 
v<P* toy ovdrvor Uti KparflrrOai rov yrwa'iov xat I'XtvOfpov. Isoc 1 49> C. 
roiyapoCf oi>k cr toU trKipa<j>tiois ot vnurtpui turpi^v^ ovd* cV rai; adXif- 
TpltTt, ovH' tv TfHs roiotVotr tJv'hXAyfm tv otr tn/v liitjfttptvov<rtp' aXka 
K. T. i. 

4B2. Kotp)(Tf{TTpi6tt, i. e. KOI opxtftrrpditt. Matth. Gr. Gr. §. 55. 

484. v/^vXXmi'' dim.of ^0uM, cc ij^Tf tivat. Hcrgler compares Pbe- 
recrates ap. Athen. VI. 369. Kopai 3* apricts Ti^vX^iwrat ml rd po&i 
Kfttapptvat . 

lb. ^apartTikpAvait without a superfluous hair at/out them, naparikkftv, 
tu eradicate all superfluous hairs, formed an important operation of 
the Athenian toilet. Thes. 590. n^^vafi' ain-uv icuirmXX' ^Evpiwidtft | 
KOi t5X\' dnavff aitrntp yvvaiK i<TH(Ca<Trv. Eccl. 724. 

4B5. paytipns. Eurip. Cycl. 396. r^ dttHTTvyri eidou paytip^. Soph. 
Phieaces (satyric dr.) fr. <'7W paynpos dprvtne trn^oiv. 

486. r^XX' affxupflvf ictts nearly in the art of tnking the broiled jUk 
{Tffiaxt}) from the fire. 



'A. Wi vvu, (ppdaou TTpcoTtOTa rouy opyr^crrpio'iv 

i«ff €if8op ovaai^ avT09 w (laep^^ofiat. 
6 7rcu9, axoXovdet Sfvpo to. o-k^vt] (f>epa}i/, 
AI. cTTio^fy otToy. ov ri irov airov8r]p woui^ 490 

irriT] ae wal^cay 'MpoKXfa *v€aK€vaa'a ; 
ov fjLTj <f>Xvap7}(r€i9 ^X^^^ ^ AavOia^ 
oAA* apapuiifo? oi(th9 irakiv to. arpcofiara ; 
SA. Ti 5* &mif ; ov Stj ttov fi af^^XicrOat Stat/oa 
ciStoKa!^ avTOf ; AI. ov rce^', aAA' ^<8j? ttoico. 495 

Korddov TO Sfpfxa. A A. ravr iyw ^aprvpofxcu /^-^ /* 
Kcu TOis deourip (TriTparto, AI. iroiois deois ; 

lb. ttcr^ptra {tlaaipftv). ScHOL. dvrt rov tJtrttptprro, the tttbte was 
hrovght in, \. e. was ready. 

488. aurAr, ourself. (speaka with ranch dijgnity). Cf. nos in 
Nub. 318. 

489. o jToic : addressed by Xanlhitw to BaccbuH. 

490. oCrt vroi/. num. Lysist. 354> oC' tI nov iroXXai duicou/ui' etyui ; 
E)ccl. 339. o? rt irov Kfnjcias (rot/ xarorrriXi^xrV woBtv; Soph- Phil. 
1 133. ad rt vov dovyai vo«t( ; Plat. Thesl. 146, a. oH ri irnu, oS Bru- 
dwp«, ryw WTO ^tAoXoyinr aypnut.l(p^t ; 

lb. <nrot/d7i' TrAt<iv, /o wiflAe a matter of eamestf to consider as a 
teritms proposition. Eurip. Phoen, 915. tnrovhiiw cx"f ; are you in 

491. *' Because in mere play (imi^uv) I drest you up {rptattnatra) 
ms Uerculcit." 

lb iv(rKfva(tiv (tTKruaCttP, to dress. Tbes. 591. lai tSX\* Svav9' 
cMOTrtp yvtmiK t'a-M.tva<Trv , Herodot. V. 1 2. OKcvdo-ayrer rifv a^tXtftfrjv us 

494 ov irj irov. These particles are used interrogatively » be 
who nslcs the question not expecting that what he intimates will 
be dime. Cf. nos in Ach. 1 10. 

lb. atpaifHW^at cum dupl. ace. Soph. Phil. 376. tl ro^d xctwr on-X' 
a^iffrffroiT6 p,9. EuHp. Ilec 385. r&K frarra A' ^^Of ^fia/i ••> ^* (i0«t- 

495. rdxa, presently^ in uppo^ition to ^dr;, instantly. 

496. rairr iyia ft. Formula used by those who consider that an 
ijury has been done thcni, and who call wiluesses to the fact. 

Xanthias leaves the injury done him to be avenged by the god^ 
4y7. TToioK 0*oU ; gods indeed! (^poken ct'olemptuously). Cf. 
in Ach. 61. and to ihe examples there given, add Soph. 
:h. 435< •^'X* ^o^^ ^* <*^x*t yiyvtrtu, | 86Krftrt¥ «iir«i>', Mt^txpifiuaai 
'Ay. irotav SmofO'ti' ; 




TO Se TTpoaSoKTJcrou a ovk avwyrov kou K€vhv 

(Off 8ovko^ wv KOLi OuY^ro^ "AXKfxrjtnjy iaa ; 

SA. dfifAa, KaXws' €X avr\ wrwr yap roi irort 503 

€fJuov B^-qOuTjs Oi/, et dw deXoi. 

XO. Tavra /zer irpos avBpos icrrt 

VOVV €)(0l^09 KCU <f)p€l/a9y KOI 

fx^TaKvXiifSelv airrov aei 505 

TT/JOff Tov iv TTparroirra roixpv 

4.98. K«v6v sc. vou vel Xoyov. Soph. CEd. Col. 931. toD i^oiJ «ro». 
EH. 402. fit) n-<t> foO rdcrovd' tirfv Kivrj. Incert. Tr. XIV. 2. oiuto^it ar^ 
. . vov Kcrds. Eurip. Hec. 81 2. tov \uyov mv6v. 

500. o/i<X«i, no matter, roAoip sc *x'*- it's aUicelti tj^ (i.e. X«S>) 
avrd. (Xanthias here resigns the lion's $kia> club, &c. to Bmccfau, 
himself taking np ihe baggage as before.) 

501. « tffof tffXm, riut. 347. ffv 6f6s 6<Kij. 405. if¥ Btat tfcXwn. 
(;o3. Tr/>of avSpof. Plut. 354. r& fl' a^ dfdoiWrai | vrpor cii^^f e^V 

vyut f(TT* ilpyatTfuvov. Soph. Aloadee, fr. 2. mutoy ri xrv^fU' «ou npftr 
aydp^r rvyti-otj. Eurip. Baech. 641. yrpits ao<pov yap ttvipos, tuytnlr 
aciffipov tvopyrjtrlav. Hel. 958. xairot 'Kiyovtrtv, its wpos avi^pot fvyt- 
voi't I *V ^vprftapaiiTi iaKpv thr' ut^BaXpciv fiaXi'iv. Cf. infr- 5' *- 

503. fovf ?;^o»Toir. Eurip. Aiidrum. 945. «^' oihror' . . ( jj/*^ Tot^ir yt 
tfovv (^opTur, o& ^OTt»' yvv^, | irpdr r^v rv oUatt SXo)fO¥ iinpovrw tar | 

504. jroXXA TrfpiircirXrvKdros. equivalent to our " person u^ho hat 
seen much of the v^orld.'* The allusion is 10 ihc multiplied truvclft 
and voyages of Bacchus, which are thus recorded by himself in the 
prologue of the Bacch%. 

XiTruy d< Auflwr roc ■noKvxpvo'ovs yvnt, 
<^p%ry<av re^ HiptroiMf ff ^XiofiiX^ovc frXdicar« 
tldxTpui Tf Tfixtjt ttjv re Svtrynpov jifdurn 
Mt'jllatv tirt\6iiVt *Apa^iav r* fviaipofa, 
*Atriuv Tt iratrav . . . 
*h rrjvd* vpoToy ^X^i* 'EXX^i'Wi' ttoXii'. 

Bacch. 13. sq. 

505. fAfroxvXtvdfiv, « r. X. A proverbial expression derived froi 
seamen, who when one side of the vessel goes wrong, betake them- 
selves to the other. 

506. Toix^i, pionk, or side 0/ a ship. Tlieogn. 673. avrXtlw K out 
4B*Kov(rtv, vntpffakXtt A< BaKatrtra | apf^riptov roixw**. Eurip. 
1593, aXXoi hi Toi)(ovt it^iovs, XaiOL-r r* i<roi | aifjjp Tap" aithp* (l 
Alcm. fir. I . oil yap nor «rwF Z^cVfXov er to*' tvrvxn \ y«f»OKrti 
T^F fiunjF c5ircHrr*pfu'. Orest. 885. csrl rir rhvj^ (sC. Toi;ifOF) ir^dvir' 


UKov iardpcu^ ka^vff tu 

tryjiixa' TO Sf fxeraoTpffpea-Oai 

TTpo? TO ^laXOaKcarepov 5 1 o 

S^^tov TTpQS avSpo^ ioTi 

Kat (pVCfL Q7]pafX€l'OV9, 

IIA. A , HAadatn]j YlXaOcu/rj^ Sevp tXO\ 6 iravovpyo^ 

09 eV TO trauSoKHOP €LO-f\0cip TTOre 
€KKaiS€K aprrov^ KaTe(f)ay -q^v. IIA. B'. vr) Aia, 515 

xijpvm, Od. XII. 430. txvT&p tyii Hiiii vrjos ^tfmtTiov, Sipp anb roi;yov( | 
XviTt kXv^mv rpSntot. Thucyd. VII. 36. jcnl ttVTrjpi^iaf dir ttvrZiu uirerri- 
mav irpit\ roiis ruixuvs *ur «nt i^ TrtfXfit. Plul. Sympos. p. 27. Koratrrat 
wapa T6r roijifoa' tv wpCfiyjf. Lucian Vt. 283. xai ray vavritv 6 fiiv rrprf. 
3vfMOt ry wfMpus tirifitXrjTiff dntfitdftKT* av, fj Toij(OV Spj(*^v. WoilD. Oio* 
ry«. XL. 453. rolxov iovpariov irvKiv6v rvwoy. 

507-8. yfypafifiiVTfv tUova, a painted (nnd inimov&blc) image, 
ypdipttv, to paint, Lysist. 679. rat 'Afia(6vas oKorcti, as MiVoar typa^* 
•4» twwav fiaxofjUyat tois dyHpatrtv. Cf. infr. 898. OTjptlov «V rats 
Kiwiv . . hrtytypatrro. 

lb. Xafi6pB' iv fr)C}t^"' wearing one uniform appearance. 

509. furatrrpiffHO^ai, 11. XV. 203. ^ n ptratrrpi^it ; (rrptirrai fuv 

5 10. npav r^ paX$aKaiTtpo¥, " ad id quod molUus est et komini moUi 
magit arridet." Tii. Cf. Eunp. Suppl. 892. nais ay €T6\pt}v fvSifs ov 
wp^t ^Hoptit I poixToiu Tpcart<T$aL, irpov t6 paXBtucoy ffiov, k. t, i. IllCer- 
tus ap. Stub. Excerpt, prj^iv trv volit irpov tA yrj-mintpov | rroppio yap 
cWwv A Brut !yyv8ty xXvet. Cf. Blomf. A^. Gloss. p. 181. Eur. 
Medea, 395. 

512. tfivtrtt er)paprvmit. The extract in the Appendix (C.) hu 
ftflbrded siiffident notice of this person. Kergler refers to a passage 
in Xcniiphou's Hellenics, where also nuvul imagery is employed lo 
throw a real blame over that part of his character, which is here 
jocosely held up to coniniendntion. Ati 5«, u Bqpapfyttr ny^pa t6v 
2(to»' ^y oCi vpoayftv p*y firtvuf rlyat rovf (vyoyrat «V irpti-y^nra. Q** dc ri 
ipTiK6irrjj, tlBvv fktTt^oKKta&ai' aXX' ^tnrtp tv vnX HianoPtiadatf itas &y is 
oipoy KaratTrortrty' tl Hi p.^, nitt ct<^txotFrd trorc, €vOa ^«, »f, «V#<Aoi' T( 
imx&^, (i&vf <c rdvavria irXroui'; 

514. wayhoK«loy. Deni. 390, a6. tp ry irayfktKtit^ ry irp6 roif Aio- 
tTKOVptiov. j'E.schin. 4t,4- «etiroXwii» ftt towtA •trayftoKt'iuy. Cf. Hero- 
dut. IV. 95. Plalo 11 Leg. 918, d. See also Thiersch in Plut. 

I. Hlumf. Gloss, in Choeph. p. 169. 


iK€iP09 avT09 Sijra. 3A. kokop ^k€i rufL 

IIA. A', /cat Kpia yc irpos rovrounp ivafipourr el- 

OP TffiUJD^kLcua, 3 A. Saarei Tts StKt^u. 
IIA. A'. Koi TO, aKOpoSa ra iroAAa. AL kffpei^j <5 

KOVK (Saff o ri Xeyeis. HA'. A. ov piv oSv /x€ wpoae- 

516. (Speaks, after surveying him attentively.) 

Tb. Koxov rJKfi rtfi, there's mischief on the road for somebody : 
(whispers his rasster in the ear.) Soph Ay 1 138. tovt th dviap ro^- 
ffot ?/>x«Ta* T4W. .1'^sch. Choeph. 52. ^^iru dt t«, {terretur autem 
quadam, sc. Clytannnestra, filomf.) Sept. c.Theb, 398. nix' &■» yivotro 
IxavTit ^twotd Tivit {the conceit tnay prove proplutical to some one, i. e. 
7)fdeus. Tyrwhitt.) 

517. Kp*a, pieces of meat. lb. avafipatrra, stewed. On the metre 
of the words Kpiasj xipasr 4>ptapt see Maltby's Morell, c. 4. 

518. ay* ^ftiw^Xtaia. ScH. S^ov ^ftUnot 6ffo\ov ip tKoarov, each one 
worth half an obol. Eupolis ap. Athen. VII. 328, e. f/u«/3oX/ov icpca. 
"nroocles ap. Athen. IV. 240, e. twv ov* ^ier» rovfioKov Btpfovt pa. 

lb. ^bxrct Tis Suaiv. (Again whispers his master.) 

521. The Cothurnus naturally makes a conspicuous figure in the 

Diony.Mucs. M'^hat is the account given of its hero, when arming 

for battle } 

is wrpJnjv di ^oprvuv, 
ojr o-CLKat, ov bopif 0QvpO¥ tiutxK^uytVt ov ^Uj)ot &pt^, 
ov Kwirfv €ir40tjKtv iiOLpatK^pouTtp iBtiptus, 
X^KKfOV appayios icc0aX^s o-jccVaf nXXot xapiivov 
UnKoKov 4a<t>^wr€ dpaKOvrtl^ fp^X"^ ^^o^P^ 
Kpaatn kukK^os S^oavp6v aTt<f>os' avrl 6i tvict^s 
datdaX«;ff Kvtfp.'idos ijjs tfriyovpiHos SKprit 
Apyvpa wop^vpioii rirc^ijKaro rapvh. Ko06pvots, 
Pt^ida Xaxy^ttrtrav iirt trripvoto Kc^d^as, 
ariKThv fx^** ^p>7<0| rviroi' ux^poyp^vov atrrptav. 
\ai§ pip Ktpas flx^t ^fitxrpipov rfiios oii«v, 
Xpvtrtop tvrroitiTOP' air* olpoxvrov 5c Ktpairis 
opBtot oIpowAtou* Korippttp 6Xk6s iiparff 

n As the last syllable seemi unquestionably short, (Eurip. Hel. 10.^5.) Wd- 
lauer and Sdiolefield read i^ roia. For disputes as to the production of the final 
syllable in ia^a, see ^f'ell. and Maltby in vooe. 



irri^ Kod6pvov9 *?X*^» ^ yvi>vai a ert ; 

Ti Sal ; TO TTokif Tapi)(09 ovk HprjKa ttw. 

riA. B'. fia A/', ovSe TOP Tvpov yc top ^Xaypop^ to.- 

OP ovTo<: avToi^ Tot9 TaXap0L9 KaT7ja0i€p. 
KOTTdT iireiSj] Ttxpyvpiop iirpaTTopLi^p^ 515 

X"P^ <5# KwwTopa 0vpa-ov, nXfuwov otvoni Kitra-i^^ 

X^a^Ko^pfji VfTaXoitri KardtTKUn ^tv axAwn)' 

Koi xpiHTfUtf Xay6v*avt ntphpoyuv jfpfioa« pLrpT^v. 

XIV. 330, sq. 

See ikUo XL 234. XV. 137. XVI 182. XV[U. aoo. XXX. 39. 
XLVII. 640. Add Creuztr III. 472. 

523. TI 5at; H'hat ^ I htwe not yet mentioned the quantity of salt 

523. Tov rvphv t6v yXaipdyt the new cheese. " Hecentis eniui nutio 
notion! viridatis est per sc cogiiaia." Tii. Cf. ^sch. Suppl. 560. 
Enrip. Hec. i 26. Hel. 1 209, The word rupitv occurs frequently in 
the Cyclops of Euripides, 122. 136. 2og. 226. 233. It is found 
also in that pretended fra^^lenl of Tbespia, which Bentlcy, in his 
Phalaris (173, sq.), demolished with his u.sual acuteness and learn- 

ih. raXuv, addressed to her female companion. Thiersch quotes 
ruXav as similarly used in Lysist. 1 02. 6 yovv ip6s dy^p ircvrt prjvat^ ta rd- 
Xav, thrttrrir rVi BpqKjjs <l>vXaTTtav Eifxpan}, Ecclcs. I 24. 6(vp\ ^ -yXvrt/. 
Ttrnj npa^ayt'jpa, tTKr^ai, toXop k. t. i. 

324. rdXapos (rXdtt), cheese- basket. Od. IX. 247. avruca d' Iffutrv 
p(¥ &p«yfexiv \tvKOio yaXaxTos, I irXcKroTi: tv TaXi'tpottTiV apijadfukos koti- 
&rfKt. Nod. Dionys. XVII. 57. TrXrin-oif «V raiXdpots fttmrj-yia rvpitv d§i~ 
pttv* (The construction has hecn explained above.) 

525. dpyvpiov iirpurroprjv, demanded payment. Thes. 843. */ T6mv 
nparTwro. Flat. Gorg. 5 1 1 , d. hv &fio\t>ii rnpd^nro. Hip. Maj. 
28a, C. ufiyvpitty purBiiv npa^aBtii. Xen. Mcni. I. 2 7* *&ai>fjMC*To d' 
€1 Tit uprri/v t'nuyytXkdpfvos dpyvptov wiiuTTniTo. Deni. 7''^* 7* *"''"*'• 
<mj<raf *U f^o^ov^ dpyvptov tltrrrpd^ir at. Andi'C. 13, 29. oi froXv dpyv- 
ptov TTpaTTOptVttf TiiV ^vkApt¥OV. 

526. dptpiit sourly, yKsch. Ag. 1478. A iraXaiir ipipkift £kdirrt»p | 
*Ar/NMc, where see Blomf. (The metaphor is derived from vine- 

lb. fivnaaOat, prop, to rour as a hull Eurip. Here. F. 872. itkvit 
pivitarai. Bacch. 737. tropiv pvKotptinjp. ililsch. Suppl. 346. oX«^ rn'ov- 



SA. TOVTov iraw rovpyou^ ovto^ 6 Tpairo? Train'a\oif, 
riA. B - KOi TO fi0of y iairaTO^ fxali^a-dou Soxciv, 
riA. A', vrf Ai'o, TaXcutfa. HA. B'. I'O) 5^ Scurcura 

ye irov 
im rrjp KaTr)\t<f>* €v6v9 ai/itrqSrja'a^v' 530 

6 S M)(ieT i^a^oLS ye rov^ ^^/laBovf Aa^cou, 

SA. KOi TOVTO TOVTOV Tovpyou, CtAA' €^rji/ TL Spoj/, 
UA, A . idt Srj KaXttTOu Tov irpQOTarqv KXewua /zot. 
IIA. B'. (TV 5* ifiocy\ iounrep artTvxo^^ 'Ynep^oXov^ 
IV avTW onTpv^tap^u . HA. A', o) piapa (jiOLpvy^^ 535 
ios ^ScW av <Tov XiBc£> tovs yop<piov9 

527. '• That's just his mode of proceeding : that's his \vay every- 
where." (Xanthiua endeavours to in.uigato the two women against 
bis maNler.) 

528. tnrau ^:<pos. cf. n. xvr. 473. xix. 3*87. od. xxii. 74. 

lb. doK2>», pretending. Plut. 837. ol d' i^rpi-novra kovk tdoKovif opop 
fA Jri. Pac. 1051. fij} wv 6pay ^oKUfifv avrov. ^'£scli. Ag. 1 583. 1^- 
ovpyov ^fuip tvOvfiiof Aytiv | doK^y. Eurip. Hippol. I I 8. /i^ doK«< rov- 
row icAwiv. Meil. 66. rJKowd Tov Ac'yoMroc, ov doKotv kXvfW, Iph. T. 
956. KolioKnvv ovtc tlfiivat. Pint. Euthyp. 5,0. o MAiror o^mr (r« /ur 
oudt ioM( o/jQi-. 8 Rep. 555» C. «yKvy^a»T*f ovfti doKovrrft 6pav. 

539. Afitrdo-a, Pors. dda-aa-ai, Dind. 

530. rar^Xi^, /Aff upper floor of n house. Pass. The i in penult 
of KorijXtTra is bhurt. Matlh. Gr. Gr. §. 73. 10. 

531. i^io^oi's, mattresses, such a.s the ponrer people were accus- 
tomed to sleep upon. Cf Lysist. Q2i,sq. 

532. aXX' f'xp^v {:=.)(prf) ri dpav, something must be done: you wilt 
not of course let matters rest here. (Xauthios still instigating the two 
hucksters against his master.) ^lich, Ag. t324. ^^i(opm n ipav. 
Kurip. Med. 94. t^^povs yt pivrot^ ^^ t^itXovi dpaa-€u n. ib. 289. 
ivXvttf d afr«iXr(f erf . . tov iovra, Koi yrfpavrfif icai ynpavptmfv { lipatrtw ri. 
Ion. 836. dri trt di) yvvaiKft6v rt dpay. 

533* n"p«<n-on;c, qui reipublica curam gerit. Cf. nos in Eq. 1091. 
and to the examples there given, arid /Esch. Suppl. 940. Kpntrra-niK 
3' «'y<u, I aoToi Tt JTowTcy, »vntp rf9t KpaiVfiot [ yjnjffHis. Eurip, Pbaetb> 
fr. Xl. vavv Toi p" iiyKvp oi/iapats trat(fiv t^iXei. [ ur rpttf uijbtWt, frpo- 
ararifs ff nirXoCj iroXtt I tr<^\eput, vttav ftr «raAXor oi kokov v6\tt, The 
word i.*i one of no unfrequent occurrence in all the three Trage- 
dians. (The speaker of the verse opens the door and addresses 
herself to a servant within, as does also her companion in the verse 

536. yo/i0ioi/r (yd^0off) sc. oAoKraB, back teeth, double teeth, grind' 



KCfTTTOi^ aPy oh fwv KaT^<f>ay€^ tol (poprla, 
riA. B. €ya> 8* au €? to ^paffpov ffi0dXoi^ at, 
riA. A. 4y€o Si TOP Xdpvyy ap €KTffiotfjLi (tov, 
8f}iiravov Xa^va\ & Tay )(6\LKa^ KaTioiraaa^ . 
oAA' e(/i cVt TOP KAciai/, oy aurov Trjfiepop 
tKirquulrai ravra irpoaKaXovp-tvo^* 



ett. Pac. 34. rtapafioKiiv rovi yoftt^iavt. PI. 1 059- «'« yofA<Piov ^totfop 
^ptt, Xen. Mem. I. 4. 6. ov doxfi troi rgi rtfdf npovolas *py^ ioiKiym^ 
, , tA rot/f fiiv wporrfffv obnvrav iratri j^uMtc oiovf rtfuvuf cufu, tom 5* yof^' 
<piovt movs frapa rovrav Ht^fuvovv Xiaivtw, 

537- 4>opriat wares, \. c. what was carried in her basket. (So 
Soph. Tracb. 907. &py<ipa is used, not for the Hiiplements with which 
female work had been dune, but for the works themselves.) Vesp. 

139S. tta<^tipaK tpov rn tf>opTta. 

539. Xapvy^. Kurip. Cycl. 157. ftm¥ T^y Xdpvyya dcffcui'a^' aov kq- 
Awr ; Cf nos in Eq. 349. 

540. f sc. Xapvyyt. lb. crtT-nrrrrav, /o devour ffrredtlif. Cf. iios in 
Eq. 700. 

lb. x^iKof, £otfm crtissa intetitiHa. Pac. 771. ocroc d< Kartiti x^Xi* 
<ac tfP$us rai K^i'a. Dabyl. fr. 52. ^ ^tdapitnr Tit antKTStVf ^rv^c X^^'* 
cttf imSvp^v. Cf. nus in Kq. 1 142. 

541. rnX rov KAaWa. ttd nrcesftendum CltKnem. Cf. sup. 104. 

542. *Knijvi^fiy {rttjyioVf dim. ol tt^wk, or vn^FF/, the thread of the 
wo(»f wound on the spool or qnilt, 11. XXin.762 ) to draw out the 
ihreadt, to unreel ; here, to squeeze out of a person by a lawyer** 
tricks. Si'iiOL. (XTn^i'tfirai. 4 ?0ayri» ^^f, d^Axvcfi, AnhrSov ri^F k^- 
«Tfv fArfpvofifVttv tit irrfvia, 

lb. irpovKaXtta$ai, in jus VOCare. ScnOL. iyxakw, tU diKaarrfpioy 
fXffur, itaTTjyopSkv airrov. Cf. iio* in Vesp. (The two ladies here re- 
lire : after some wriggling and twisting, Bacchus turnH to Xanthias 
with the most insinuating address.) 

lb. Ari.stophaneH hud doulitless strong reasons for not meddling 
loo openly with the Kuinenido.s else thai portion of tlie Orestean 
Triloa;)' oflered here im oppartunity for parody, which Ai.vpen would 
have accompti.Hhcd willi the happi^'st effect. Let us wki ime more 
member to his Tray&oKfVTpim, uiid what hnvu we in (lurhnnds? 
Three mock-Furies, whose appearance the -Kschylean ' text al- 
lows us 1(1 dress up in all that is hateful and frightful which uneienl 
imagery or painting supplieit from Gorgun, or fmm Harpy. Td 
these three we may assign attendants ad Hbitum, (Scholef. nd Bum. 
918.) the subordinates, though Itss horrible, being upon the whole 
ot unUke their principaU ; cunsequently. T Medusa-headed, black- 

'Snmm. 4R — 54. 

V the plate* pfffiXPil tn Rtittif^r*s " Fiirifiirimfcko," *vheru tin? (it*rm»n- 
! ir^rvd from lU evlunt ftjMviTiwn with tlie «eq»eiit<tockSf thp brmul thnpc- 



▼iMged, >blaclc-vc.siet], * cothurnus-shod, a red girdle round ttieir 
waist, and the fiir\'-rod {pa^ths), it may be. in tbeir 'Miands, till the 
choral hymn commences; at all events with long skinny arms, 
which end in claws rather than nails. Instead of entering in one 
body, rank and file, as choral troops were usually woul to do. three 
Miparatc ifilcs, t-nch headed by its respective Alecio. Megam, or 
Tiaiphone, now euter the stage tlirou^h the three doors at its back. 
Their heads bent towards the earth, lilte hounds •! tracking their 
prey, these three files scent Hacchus by bis fright and by his 
sweat-drnps^ as the Eumenides of ^schylua track Orestes by the 
droppings of his mother's blood. The turn, the sbiA, and doubles 
of the party pursued will easily be conceived. Hrouglil at last to 
bay, the dialogue rommcnccH, and that dialogue concluded, the 
cliaiii-dance and the chain- hymn (vfivov «$ ^Epivvvtitv dt'o-^ior (ftpfvoty, 
Eiini. 327.) remain to be supplied; and who would willingly ad- 
venture on such a task f The dance or chorra must of course be 
left entirely to the reader m iniagination ; but a portion of the 
hymn we shall do our own fimall attempt to supply. The first pro- 
ceeding of the three choral iiles is to join bauds and form them- 
selves into a circle, enclosing Bacchus in the middle. The 6rst- 
Fury, or Alecto, then advances, and in solemn tone adverts to those 
fundamental laws of Nature, which had appointed herself *' and 
sisters twain," as watchers and avpngers of all human oflt^nces. 
be they great or small. Dividing mankind on the present occa- 
sion into Iwn great cliutses, llie productive aud consumptive, — and 
consequently into those that pay, and those thai receive, — they joy- 
fully admit that he who gives 10 all their dues, or, in other words, 
dischargcK all his bills,— he they weekly, nu^nthly, or what not 
is by lh(»se eternal laws placed beyond their control ; 

He is free from this our ban. — 
He may front his feliow-man, 
« With a calm coUeiLed mien, 

Bold of brow, of eye sereue ; 

but the opposite party, the delinquent, who neglecting the sacred 
laws of meum and tuvm, cats, and does not compensate for what he 
eau, what is to become of him ? The full chorus are left to assign 
his doom, and the laws of parody require that here the pains be of 
a bodily nature, rather tijan the mental sufferings, assigned by 
the Eumenides of .i^schylusj 


Icfca tO[i;^e> tht; ilJJU^ndcd diei'k, ^niiiiif; teeth, aiul hurriil laugh, to that iuex- 
presniblti cnnipnund of lieauty, tearfulness, aiid inehiuclioly which the >l6du«a iif 
tbe lattrr iichnols af Grecian art n-u tmide tn assunw, 

« Cf. infr. i39>;-9. 

B The cothurnus is attigned Ut the Furies on two aconuuts : iu elastic nature 
enable* them aH huntresses to follow tip their prey ; its hebvy heel ffivui the power 
to crwft that [trey wlieii uverukfii. t'l". Kumeii. .U7-**- ""iJ BotungBr, p 39, sq- 

*■ Ding. Irfiert. VI. 102. JV>tti^er, p. 34, sq, 

c THhC ttie Kunimiidc^ of ^^bchylui thus puttered iti files, tliu word ampiii^rt 
preserved by the schnliiMt, rvideiiily iinplic*. It tiiAUg. p. 98. 

d Cr. ooaia Eq. 787. 1167. 1333. Nub. 351. 

BATPAXOr. 115 

flagellation, laceration. 
Strict and close incarceration 
Be the burden and the guerdon 
Of his curst infatuation ! 

Iie 6rst Fury having thus spoken in general lerma, the second, or 
Cjy^ara, applies them to the particular case before them; 
And what of him, the wretch who stands 
Thus encumpass'd by our bands ? 
Youngest of our sisters three. 
Say what he hath had of thee, 
lird Fury. Loaf and cakes, by three, by four, 
(Must I tell the taie once more ?) 
He hath liad from out our store ; 
Mat and mattress, lamp and wick — 
All of best, and all on ^tick. 
Meg. Eldest of our reverend crew. 
And what the damage done to you ? 
Tisiph. Tlius ^oin written book speak I ,- 
ritdffrom hrr tabietg) 
Item, to a savoury pic — 
yttddrtsa^s her Fury companions) 
^^^ Tier on tier 'twas made to grow, 

^^H Teal above and bare below ; 

^^^^^ I am moderate when I fix 

^^^^H Its price at obols twenty-six. 

^^^MB again from her tablets) 
\ Item, to Copaic treat, 

Conger drest with root of beet — 
{addre$9ea her comjtonioM) 

A four-fold drachma as its pay 

Would be money thrown away. * 

her readings) 

AiU\ six casks of Chian wine, 
Add flesh of sheep, and flesh of kine, 
Add richest odours, spike and nurd. 
Add mustard, pepper, oil, and Jard, 
Lard white as snow, when newly driven — 
Oh ! 'tis rank, and smelts to heaven — 
On you {points to first Fury), and you {second Fvry)^ 

on one and all — 
For our loudest ban I call ; 
Let it reach in choral flow 
To heaven above and hell lielow ! 

This term for arudn li«l niiil nnpiiid for Ht llir time, ootiint in Foot't 
"Liar,** a fRrre which the Englimh ArJKtnphuitt, nt hm hM tifim termed, Itor- 
rruni ( oinctUc, as the Intter hud previously burrowed! it frmn the Spanith. 

I 1 



AL KOKiOT ocrroXoifXTji/^ Acti/diav el fij] <^iAgJ. 

SA. olS olSa Tov vovw nave 7rav€ tov Xoyou. 

OVK av yeifoi^rjv 'Hpo/cAT/y av. AL //7;8a/xa)9, 545 

6) AavOiSiov. HA. kolL TTciy ap ^ AXxfi^mj^ iyo> 

woy yepoifirji/, SovAos ct/ia kol Birqro^ (op ; 

AL OiS* olS oTi dv^Oi^ KGLL SiKatco^ auTo Spas' 

KOP (t fi€ Twroif, OVK av dpTeiTTOlfli <TOl, 

oAA* rjp <T€ TOV AotTTOv WOT d(f>€Xo)ficu ypovov^ 

TTpoppi^o? avT09, r} yvPT), Ta waiSia^ 

Full Chorus. 
FlagellaTion, laceration, 
Strict anri cloae incarceration. 
Hopeless, for of aye duration, 
Be the burden ami the guerdon 
Of aiK'h LnmuttlesH spolinliun ! 
So our solemn luvvs ortlaiu : 
Rise fit music to our slrain ! 

{.^hiirp and pierring syrinx music is hrarti: the Chorus weave the chain- 
dance : as the saltatory movement draws them near to Bacchus, they 
thrmc out their long arms as if to seize him with their claws, their eyes 
flashing ''fire at the same time, and rendering the blood-spots on their 
masks more visible : the most ludicrous movements on the port of Bac- 
chus to escape their grafp.) 

544. old* oiHa TOV vai'V tov vouv, i. e. o XiytivfiovXei. Th. A similftT 

expreasiun occurs m Hhil. 1080. 

. lb. iFavt sc. aavTov. Sopll. Phil. I 275. iraVr, fir^ ^«$*]S irifM. CEd. 

Col. 1113- cV"^^' ^V '^'^tTflKTi, Koyanava-aToy \ tov irpoaff tpt]fLov roi/ n 

h\)iTri^VQv it\a»ov. Plat. Pha?dr. 228, e. navt. tKKtKpovKa^ fit rXffldof* 

Cf. Matth. Or. Gr. §.496. 5. 

54.7. Xanlhias retorts upan his master. Cf. sup. 499, 

548. BvpovtT$m, to he angry. HeroJot. III. 53, J^ row? Kp«<rao¥at 

Tt&vfia»T6at : frequent in the three Tragetlians. 

1,49. icai'«r^ rvrrroif. 8talbaum observes (Plat. Pbileb. §. 137) 

that Kw «i is always joined with an indicative or an optative, never 

with a subjunctive. Phiedon 71, b. «ay tl firf xp^t^^Ba rots jrrf^po-i. 

Lysid. 209, e. xhv tl ^vkoifitOa lifHi^iifupot Tbtp aikw. a Rep. 376, a> 

ith» fl .. ircrrrfi^i. Theag. 130, d. xav ti «V rff airrfj /tovoj* oixi^ tu}*. 

Phileb. 58,6. tcav tl a-fiiKp6p, Ka&apit¥ ^i eti;. Dem, 530, 2j. ic&ir dff«* 

j9<fav tl KarayiyvwrKOt, 

550. iJf fTt atfi€\»nai, SC^rijv 'HpOKXtovt trKtv^v. 

551. np6pfn(os, from the roots. .-Each. Hers. 817. dai^tw f 
Ifyifiara | irp6ppiCa tpvftliij¥ i^avitrrpanrat ^ffpotr. Soph. El. 765. tA 

1 See Btfttigpr's Furitiiunokke, y, 30-1. 



rv6u^ X^Hiffi^. 




A A. 6€\o^Aeu Toy OpK 
XO. yvv aov tpyov *5 

irov ^7 d#4nr»riM0-« roTf woXtM | *jpd|qpi(ar f^idyrafc yivof . Eorip. Hipfiol. 
683. Z«it I vpopptdom irrpc^U ««. Ct Hlnaf, io Per». p. 181. 

lb. izyr^. If yv*^. ra wui^ia. Spaobcbn obsenres that JBaccfaiu 
imiuites the form of omxh^ and imprccaboiM onud mmtm^ the Ack«- 
niaos. Anlipb. 130* 34. c^aJUwf avr^ oai 7«We jh2 «Up vv vff t'ny iM 
fuwot, Dem, 642, 15. diO^wvTM av' c^mJUw odrv^ mJi rmm y^cvf aoi 
T-^r otcuic. 747. 14- rwu^aoAtk i^mkfta» iavr^ am rj ouia. AndoC. 

13, 2 3. f'fwXf^ff a^Tw Ku yovf. Cf. Flai. 1 3 Leg. 949, b, 

551. yXo^AMT, bUw-^ed. Eccl. 354. 39S. XracXffcSiTC o ^Aa^mm*. 
553- ^';iCD/uu ruv opKOp. j-£5ch. £um. 4^7- ('XA* o^woi^ 01* dcfarr* ay, 
o^ ^ovroi ^"Xfi. llftt. 1 3 L^. 949. b. fc'vw ^ €mu rpov frrovr. niAi- 
fT«p Ttt tni», dtf)^4rAu re opravt wap' aXXrfXmm, am rdt^wci, «at At^owu ctr- 

piW. See alio Mach. Ag. 1643. Eur. Hel. 338. 

lb. Arl rovroir, on tkese comditiomr. Eorip. Alcent. 385. nri rourdc 
mudac x'lpor cf V/mc Vt^- ^*^1> 847. (XftDlhias resumes the dress 
of Hercules.) 

554. (Tuy tpY^t (the Chorus address themselves to Bacchus.) 
no9 io Nub. 1397.. and to the examples there given, add EUi- 
Elect. 67a. Iph. T. 1079. 

555. (TToX^c, generally, rfresf. Soph. Phil. 224. <rj^/wi . . 'EXXoio* 
aToX^f. Eurip. Bacch. Ma6. crroXifr ^Xf». In h drama like the pre. 
Bcnt, so closely connerted with the ancient stage, and with the cha: 
racter of ils presiding deity, this word is of too much importance Io 
be dismissed without a Komewhat larger notice. In theatrical 
designation, the <rroX^ wa.s ihe dress worn by actors, and which from 
its fulness, and from iu reaching down to the heela« seemed more ap* 
propriate to the female than the manly sex. (Lucian. IX. 310. 
Arv^o^w hi <n^^ ir»c ttotc KtAi/Modot) ;mV ripa ro^i'^ctr otpX^v kxCk ax^fut,... 
ital frroXfiv rpay^doxf, dv^ttis dc aya$Qv (ry^fta ml oroX^ ov«<ri yofti(ux.) 
y£scbylu8. the father of all tra^c improvements in Athens, has the 
credit of having 6rst adapted it to the stage. (Alhen. I. 2 1. e. xal 
K!tTj(v\ot 3< ov f^Ofov i^vpt rfjy r^t oruX^c ifiiTp«irtui» kqI atfu^drrfra, ^i* 
^r}\*MrtiyT€S oi uptKfMvrm KOt li^iovj^ot afiffHtvyvirrai k. r. 4. Cf. infr. 1 017* 
Horai. Ars I'uut. 378.) The histrionic and female character of the 
ilrena would alike appropriate it to Bacchus. Hence the reproach 
tif Clemens of Alexandria. (Protrept. 17, 25.) «i youv nr ras ypatpas 
>u ttyaXfiara irfpivocriitv Btarait yvaptti Ifiw noftavTUta rot/t Btovs rV rȴ 
<nn»t^uTriiV ayfTipart^v , riiv ^owtroy airo Tijt <rro\rjt, Tov'H<Pat<rrov aw6 
Tit Ttjiwjf, K.T.i, See further Sthoen de Pers. in Eurip. Bacch. 
^kb. scL^n. p. 21. to whom the reader is indebted fur much of the 
»bove remarks. 





Koi fiXarew aiOts to Seivov^ 

Tov deov fX€fiur}fiiifov 

WTTfp eixa^if aeavToif. 560 

(I Si Trapdkriptjov aXcoaei 

Koi ^aXd? Tt fxaXOoLKov^ 

a56t9 aipeadat ir avayKT) 

*aTlv TToXiu ra OTpwfjLara. 

SA. ov KaKoJs, covSpfs^ irapaLvfiT^ 

oAAct KavT09 rvy\dv<o ravr 

aprt avuvoovpitvo^, 

OTt p.€V OVV^ TJV y^pr^OTOV Jl TZ, 

ravT a(pcup€ia0tu iraXw Tree- 

paaerai fx eu otS on, 

dW ofxeo^ cyco irapi^ 

*^avTOV duSpflov TO Xfjfia 

Koi ^K^TTOjrr opiyavov, 

558. ^XfTTfti' ri htivuy. .Ksch. Sept. c. Til. 498. <^6tiov ffktf 
Eurip. Cycl. 553. ttakov ffkiira, Alcest. 789. atftvov Ka\ vt^pavrttUts 

562. i3aA«»r, utter. Thiersch comparinij Vesp. ijSy. ow^^arwi' 
•? WOT* Ti 0\ifi6ftfvoi! rVAAw (the learned writer might have added 

^Hch. Ag. l65.^. KUK^kiKt'tv tm) TOiavra. Chocph. 41. *^ofioviiai A' /iroc 
Toh* itt^akuv. Eumen. 794. y\^fToy\i /iaramc ^9 */«3dXijt rrri x^^*^ \ 
tuipiT6¥. Eurip. Ifin, 07' ■ ""o^^" iml/inror tK^Xoxxr ifinj) reads from 
the Venetian MS. KOK^uXtU. A piissage, however, in the Choeph. 
V. 565. to which Thiersch himself refers — ^ kui fioXitv ?vtira fun 
xard (TTo/ia | rp**.. crd^' ur&i^ kiu kitt o<f>$tt^fiftvr /iaX*i, (cf. infr. ^97.) 

seems sullicieni lo juettfy abiding by the reading of Dind. and the 
Rav. MS. 

lb. fiakSoKov. Arist. Plut. 48S. fiakaK6v y ^fdaxrcrf fiijS/v. .£s(*h. 
Ag 163 I. dX\' 6 dvo^iXffs (nc6T<^ | \inits ^vyoiKo^ fiokBaitoy o^* c'lro^- 
rat. Etltn. 74- Ofiat Ac <Pfvyr, /ii;A* /xtiX^omjc •y*'i77. 

568. ^v xFI^'^*^" "- '/ '"'y advantage is to be derived from it. 
Eur. Phccn. 517. roDr' o^*- ro ;(/iijirTo»', i»^Ttp, ov)^ ^ovAo/iOi | aXXf 
irtiprTvui ^XAdj*, 7 crMfto* r'^t. 

570. *^ o?fl' 5t*. To explonaliuns of this formula given in former 
plays, add Suph. Antig. 376. rrapct/it Jt'cUuv ovx itcavtrty, o?8* ore. See 
also Thiersch tul IMul. B35. 

573. ^XtrreiF »plyntmy, lo look Hkc ODC wbo hos eatcH a sour 
herb, whether mBijorara or thyme. Cf. sup. 558. et nos in Acfc. 
91. 237. 




AI. ^VI/8€tT€ Ta\€(OS TOVTOPl TOlf KWOKktmov^ 

u/a SS SiKT]!^' aweroif. AI. rjKii ro) kokov. 
•sA. ovK €9 Kopaxas ; ov fij] irpoatTou ; 

o Airi; Aar ;(co Skc/3A tac ^co Flapdo/caff 

\o>p€iTf S€vpi Kcu fidx€(r6€ TovrcpL 

AI. €ir ov^L Seiua rairrot, rvrmw rovrovi 

KXeiTTovra ir^s raXkoTpta ; SA. /ioAA' inr(p(f>vd. 




574- ^*^*' ^' 'ooc€P sc. irapt)(et» tlvfiptloy tc.T. \. 

576. yEacus returns to the stnge attended by three myrmidons 
(infr. 579.) as frightful in appearance, as barbarous in name : 
giving swindlers and piirloiaers to understand, that however for- 
midable may be the catchpules and constables of this ivurld, those 
of the lower world arc still more to be dreaded. 

lb. rov KvvoKXonoif. It is almost needless to say, that the rapt of 
Cerberus h here objected to that earliest member of the klepto- 
rracy, the great Alcides. 

577. ^it(i rw KOKuv. (Baeebus in a whisper retorts upon his at- 
tendant. Cf. sup. 516.) 

578. ovt #« Kupaxas ; Of the crows, as the image and receptacle 
of all that was hateful in Athens, we have luid uccasitin to speak in 
former plays. When .ICschylns wishes to put his royal murderess 
and ndultere^iH in the most odious form, what is the image chosen 
fur the purpose, and put into the mouth of his choral troop ? 

rfrl d< avftfar OS t dirav 
/Mil Kopaxos tj^OpaVf OTo^riir txpo^ois 
Vfivov vfiU€tv irrgvxf^ot- Ag, 1 448. 

lb. f^i vp6aiTQv. Xanthias addresses himself as before to the 
•ttendantH of .'l^acus. who are advancing to seize upon him, 

lb. fu¥, ftaxtt i (addressed to Xanthias, who is preparing tore* 
nst the myrmidons.) 

580. A scuffle — Xanthias worsted and bound — Dilylas, Sccbhas, 
mnd Pardocas stand over him in mu^^i picturesque attitudes, flou- 
rishing their scourges, and waiting their master's signal to lay into 
him. Bacchus interposes with vKacus. apparently with a view of 
rescuing his slave, but in reality, as we hhall presently see, with (lie 
intention of aggravating matters against him. (This latter movement 
in revenge for the nr dwaci dtKrjv, and other proceedings of Xan- 
ihiaA in a former scene.) 

581. «tV o^x'i ^■^- ^•''■- ^* *' 'w/ a strange proceeding thitt this man 
lid be beaten ^ 

583. nXinrovra ir(>6t raXXorput. Thcsc Words have nut a little 



AI. (7~)(€TXia fiii/ Qvv Ktu &€iud. SA, Kcu ^i}y vq 

€1 TrwrjTOT rjX0ov Sfvpj iOlXm TtOirqKivai, 
7} ^KXv^a Twif iTmv a^iou rt kou TpL\o^, 


puzzled the translBton and commentatorH, and various inteqireia- 
lions have been given of Ihem. On all such occaaions, il is the 
ruttj, that a new cdinmenlator should quarrel with the explanations 
of his prcdecestwni. and entabtish Nume ntnel opiuion of his own. 
In compliance with this established practice, the present editor 
ventures to talce the following >iew of the whole proceeding. 
Dai'chus, who has hitherto Hpoken in the hearing of Xanthias. and 
apparently in his favour, at the word KXtTrrovra bustles up to j'Eacus, 
and in a side-tone observes. " and who, in addition to property stolen 
from yourself {VIZ. the do^ Cerberus), t» n pvrloiner of other people's 
property" i. e. mine, (to wit, the club and cloak). To say that the 
investigation of this charge would brin^ discomfort on its ulterer, is 
to shew ignorance of the spirit of the Old Comedy, which sought a 
present juke, heedless of what scrapes the inconsistency might 
bring its author into. 

582. Tipot, i.e. TTp^ff roU croctri. To instances given in former 
plays of TTfihi thus used, add Hem. 53 1 , a 1 . ital irpor rA dvo^/io, t ioH- 

lb. ;iaXX' i'Trfp<pva, i.e. fit}, uWa vntp^va, Xanthias, whose ears 
have been awake only to the beating part of the preceding obser- 
vation, here breaks in with a remark, which in conformity with a 
former explanation, may be rendered, or rather paraphrased ; a 
strange proceeding do you call it ? rather term it an outrageouSy an 
absolutely monstrous proceeding. Cf sup. 96. (Dem. 543. I. w fuif 
§ Ti dtivov iii tjXij$uit Ka\ viTtp<^<(^. ) 

5^3- ffx*''^"' M- "• '• ^- {"^i^nicking') « deplorable and strange pro* 
ceeding uo doubt ; but strange nnd deplorable as it may appear, a beat- 
ing you deserve, and a beating you shall have. In what manner the 
tables are turned up»n Bacchus, and his treacherous dealing with 
Xantbins poetically compensated, we shall presently see. It is un- 
questionably one of the richest scenes of pure humour to be 
found in the dramatic world. (Dem. 534, 6. 548,10. b*wo¥ mi 
ffjfeVXcoi'. ) 

lb, i^tv vvv, imo certe. To examples given in a preceding note 
(v. 231.), add the passage in the Chocphorue of ^schylus, where 
the symptoms of incipient insanity are so admirably pnurtrayed : ri 
S vtv vpoa-«iiTta, kuv rCxto fiok* tvarofi&tv ; ( ayprvfui Grjpot, tf vrKpnv «oA«V- 
dvTov I dpvnjs KOTaaKTjv^fia, ^ucrvov piv oZv | apKvv 5' ap ttvois xat iro- 
dioT^pcis frfVXovr. (941. sq. Kl.) 

585. n^tov Tpi)(os, of a hair's value. 

V " rh* rofertur ad in^yoi, ClytaBUumrB iuveiiium detetuhile." KL 


KOt <rot TTOtrjo'ca Trpayfxa yeifuatov wdi/v 

fiaa'ai/i^€ yap rou TralSa rovrovi AafiatVj 

KOif TTori fc' cApy aSiKovirr\ anroKTuvou fi aytov. 

AI. Kou TTbis- ^ouTOPi^to ; SA. iTourra rpmov, iv icAi- 


irjaa^, Kp^yuoura^^ varpixiSt pmmyw^ iipwvj 590 

587. 0avwn^€. Xanthias. after the Athenian costom, olfen Ma 
ilftTe (Bacchus) to be subjected 10 the torture. Isaeus 70,4. o» 
%fii^<rBn Tols r»v tXrvBipotv ftafn-vpiaiv^ akXa rovr dcn/Xovr ^iurayi^tT€. On 
(he subject of torture generally among the Athenians, ftce PUitner 

1. 339. »q- 

588. *' 3yt6P pro oiroycav, abductum ad supplicium." Diyn, 
^^-^58^ ml wic ^tra»i(ta; and how »haH I torture him? The Ven, 
^^■S. reads fiaaopttrw, and I'orson (ad Eun'p. Pboen 740.) rather pre- 
^^Kn this reading ; but it is unnecessary. Examples of a subjonctire 
I interrogative in the present tense, though of much rarer occurrence 
I Ihan those in the aoristA. are not wanting in the Greek writing. 

^ub. 1366. (Rr. ed.) iyia yap Aur)^\ov pttfil^tm wpirov «V iroajraU i 
.^£sch. Ag. 758. vi»s trt npoatiwt^ ; wwt as at^to ; Eum. 757. ffT»- 
■^« ; rt fW(« : yivw^tai x. r. c. ; Suppl.ai3. rV o^ l> uxXiJ^-km tSk^ 

lb. iV (tX^iaxi Hrftras. '* Servi eoim ad 'ncaiam alligebantar tu 
oommodius castigarentur.'* Tn. Eurip. Rhes. 7^. rMmr x'apax0»U 
mtXi^atat painj ^r^. To this and some subsequent niode« of tor- 
lure, Demosthenes refers iu the following passage : ^m^ oMw 
trpoK r«^ iuuryjTJf ti trt AovXot tuj o Aitrjipittv [ovrov], tak ly^'ow mjft^ iv 
Tm aiiTOv BtpfiOTt rby ZXtyj^on iidovtu. 1 lOO, 16. 

590. v<rrpixif. Suidas explains the word wrrpi^ mm «*« ^pftar*^ ^termth- 
fiif T^¥ rptx^i^ fioari^. This seems a belter explanation tban what the 
Kramraarians and lexicographers generally give for t^rpt^U, ti^. ■ 
whip made of bogs' brutfes. Its severity is well descrifaNed tn the 
metaphorical language of our aotbor's Pax, 746. « ttawi^mfun, ri th 
drpfi* hraStt ; ^w*' irirrptxit ruri^oArr ctm | tit ritt wJluyAt 99f^s 'rrpa- 
Via Kuiiii>fif>oTuftrfCf To i*«rrar ; 

lb. df'/MM' : this fioyiag seems to be the c</mp)etion of the pre- 
I ^ioiis processes of bwUmg^ mupending, wMpptMg. 
1 591. (TTptf^oCy, to tortitre Mfom the wheel. Plul. 875. twl rrnvrp^x'^ 

I ^Ofi drt (T* /mI trrptUXovfUww \ thttl», k. r. L Lysist. H45. ol»f 4 #ir«V' 
I f>^ M* 'X" I X*^ riraror Aaitip rtrt rpn^Qv trrp$tSka%fptMm. 

bl ^ That Lhit 1% not so aorat, «ep HiiH— riti'» Irregular Va»H r* U'- 
1 * Uor. s £p. II. 15. |- rn'^i hrnfi, ■mini ^%%iwuh Is! w 



pS) Tirrm tovtov fir}8^ yr]TUc^ Wo). 

AI. Siiccuo^ o Aoyw kov tl Tnjpcoaco ye aot 

TOP Trcuda tvtttcoi', rapyvpiov aot K€ur€Tcu. 

A A. fii] orp' €fioiy . ovto> ot pourai/L^ ocirayaywv. 

AI. avTov fiei' ovi^, Xva aoi Kar 6(f>0aX^v^ ^^YV' 

KoraOov (TV to. aK€ur] rax'Eco9, XP''^^^ ipftv 

ivravOa fiTjSfif y^€vSo^. AI. dyopevoi rtpl 

c/Z€ /«) fiaxrayi^i^iv addvarou our' u Se firjy 

avTos aeavrov atTiA. AI. Aeye/f Se ti; 

592. 7T\iv$ovv rrriridcif. Generally cunmdered as placing hot 
brivkson the lorMired slave, or applying them tri bis feet. 

lb. ttiIktci T(iXAii, wX^r wpatrtfi, k. t. i. Use any mode of torture, 
provided you do not make a jest of the mntter. by merely striking 
him with a garlick-staik {n^iatTov), or a hek-»talk, (yijr*toi', and y^- 
T»oi» Att. for yr\6vQv), 

594. Tiyjpuvv^ to maim or mutilate. Dcm. 247, 1 2, ri]v x^^P^* ^^ *"<*- 
Xoc nmrjpQtfiii'in/. 

595. rdpyvpiop troi xnVcrm. Alluding to the Attic cusiom, that if 
the slave should ba injured tn his body, while undergoing the tor- 
lure, a proper corapcnsaliun shall be made to the person, whoM 
property he was. Dem. 1 156, 19. t<i>r} t6 apyvpiov avroU Ktifi^vov thnu 
tVi TJj rpaiTf^jj' 

596. pf} ^T tpoiyt^ 9ic. apyvptof KflaSta. '* Don't trouble yourself 
about any deposit of money : torture him to the utmost, and no 
matter for compensation." The hunnour of the pansage needs no 

597. diToD piif ovv, nay rather, the torture shall take place on this 
very spot. 

lb. tar u^aXpoi/^, to your face. ^soh. Choeph. 566. jcot'o^AiA- 
/Aour jSdXXriv, aperte vel vorum edicere. So also jcttr' nppnra. Eurip. 
Khes. 422. \«yoi icuT* iipp^tt 0UU. Orest. 283. *( kot' op^para i^frr6pow 

¥w. Cf. Audrom. ic66. Soph. Antig. 307. 760. 

598. j^acus addrcs.ies himself to Bacchus. 

599. ^Cduf, Sopb. fr. Acris. II. ovbiv ipirtt ^tvdos tt yijpot XP^' 
pov. Inc. Tr. LVIII, 3, to xtpBot ^3u, iei» mro ^rvd^ 11;. Kurip. Hel. 

754. TO pMVT€tO¥ ^IvSilf irXftt. 

lb. uyop«i;w TiW. This command to somebody (i. c. -Kacus) not 
to inflict the \vhi|> iipun the spcaltcr. Is of course made with as 
mncli assumption of godhood, as the puncheon figure of Bacchus 
will admit. 

600. <i d< piit $in autrm mc non sine plagis esse sinis, Tb. 



AI. d0avccro^ uvou <f>r}^i Atoj/vao^ Atop, 

TovTOP Sf SovXov, AI. ravT axovfty; SA. 0»;^' 


Ktu TToXv y€ yJaXXov iori fiaoTty(OTeo9' 
ilrmp deos yap ioTiv^ ovk aua'Or}a'€rat» 605 

AI. 71 SrjT\ inttSr] Koi av (ptf^ uvai 0€O9^ 
ov Kcu <xv rvTTTei TCi^ taa^ 7rXt]ya9 ffioi: 
SA. SUaio^ 6 Aoyoy ')(um(rr€pov au vt^i* tSrjf 
KXavaatrra irporepou rj TrpoTifxrjixairra ri 
ruTTTo/ifi^oi/, eti/at rovrov i/you /xt; O^ov. 610 

601. Jittcus speaks with h look of the utmost astonishment, 
not believing llmt Divinity lurks in such a figure as that before 

607. rwirr<i (present for future) rhs urat irXtfyin, shall you not 
receive om many strokes as / 9 Cf. Matth, C,r. Gr. ^. 3SJ;, 2. 

lb. nXifyat, In an ordinHry dniniu a blow noiilcl be a blow, and 

Dobitdy would tliink much further about n. liut i.s chat (he case in 

^^k drama so e&Aentiolly theulric hs the present, and where every 

^^Bing connected with the ancient theatres i.s, or ou^ht to be before 

^^Kr eyes 1 The word TrXr;y^ here ncccMarily makes us reminiscent of 

^^Ke of the most splendid pieces of ancient oratory ; and a.s verbal il- 

^lastrations, dull as they may api)ear to those not iliorou^hly con- 

venant with the works of the ancients, are to tho!«e whu haw theni 

at their fingers' ends, little sparks as it were which light up io the 

mind all over which they have laughed,' or wept, or thrilled with 

admiration, we hhall not hesitate to give two or three diitjecta meni' 

bra, sufficient, however, to wake up recollections of ihc piece of 

vigoroutt eloquence to which we liave just alluded. Dem. c. Mid. 

516, 2. inttitf bi toCt t« Kpirar litatpBtipayros tovtov mi dUi toCto rrjt 

^X^f ij^urwr a<f>atf>t0€itn}t ray rpi7r»da, xai avros nXrjyut *iXr}<f)6tf Kot 

{^fiflWfUrof ota OVK ntd* «i rit aXXof nunoTt X'^PtY^^ i/^ploBr} k, r. c. 51 8, 34. 

fiaukoftat d' tKatrroy cirr* dpj^t tav irenayBa I'trtHti^att koi vtp'i ratv irXrjyity 

flmif, at Ti» rtXrvTatop nputr«vtT«iP« fioi. 537* ^^* "^ T'V ^ i^Xrjy^ irap- 

I iorrjat rffv 6fry!)v, oAA' 7 arifiia' ovdi rit rimrttrBuK roir iXrvBipot^ carl 

^ir^, Kaiwfp ov httvitv, oKka to t<f> v^pti. 

609—10. rpoTifiTjtrain-a ri rwrrSfUPOp, making account, bccautie he hat 
hem beaten. Cf. infr. 792. ct nos in Ach. 37. 

610. nnrritifvov. What was just said of the word vXfjyi}, will 

equally apply to the present word. Dvm. c. Mid. 537, 23. noXXh 

I ytip av iroirffTtuv i\ rt'iTTUft', «d iivfiptf 'ABrjva'tfH, lur u irnBiuv ivut oifH' £» 

iiraif m 'X^p^s vndpx^*'* otup KoifdvXots. vra¥ vni KOfiprit. 



AI. ovK eaff oTTcoy ovk et trv y^vvaSa^ dtnjp' 

Xcopek yap €9 TO SiKaiov. aTroSvicrde Srj, 

SA. 7rd>f ovu 0aaai/u79 i^co SiKauo9 ; A I. paSt(09' 

irXrjfyr^v irapa TrXTjyrfi^ iKaT€pov. SA. icoAwr \fyfi9> 

l8ov, CTKOTra vvu rjv fi vTroKiurjO-airr iSrj?, 615 

AI. rjSrj ^irdra^d a. SA. ou fid ^C. AI. 01^' ifwi 

oAX* €tfi €7rl TQvSi KOL TTurd^. AI. Trq^fUa ; 


61 I. OVK tfjff oTTAic oiK=^profevto, omnino* 

II). -yrwdfiac, a thorough gentlemun, i. e. a gentleman by birth, uh 
well as in modes of thinking. Plat. Pbiedr. 243, c. ytvifo^t kq\ 
irpaits rii ^&os. Charm. 155, d. w ytwa^a. Cf. sup. 171. iufr. 702. 

612, ;^w/Kip fV ri) tUntov^ " concedis ad id quod justum est :" appa- 
rently a forensic formula, *' says Thiersch. ** when parlies come to 
ftn agreement between themselves^ without incurring a suir." 
Translate ; your proceeding w that of an honest, straightforward 

lb. (moBt'ftrtff, strip, infr. 680. l*lftt. Theset. 169, b. air«/mi ^ oiro- 
iivftrBtu. Charm. 1541 d. tl t'OtXot uTroSvmu. 

614. frX7yT)i' napa ir\iyyrjif (sc. Timro^evoy ^crapiw), tcith alternate 
blows. Matlh. Gr. Gr. §1. 588, ctKurtpov sc. /Sao-oviw vel 1*1)^01. Pas- 
sow, referring to Scha.*fer"s Longus, p. 339. and L. Bos, p. 1 39. 
compares iviatrrot nap' rVtat/ruv, j/ear for year, -nap ivit yiftovrts nal 
pfaviat, one for one, old and young. Heindorf. ad Plat. Sophist. 
217, d. C(>mparcs Nub. 1379- error wpostnoi. Soph. Antig, 341. ?ros 
•IF /rot. 

615. ?8ov, it has been done, i. e. / have stripped, 

lb. vnoKive'tv^ to bestir oneself a Uttle, to move a tittle, to flinch. 
Herodol.V. lof). «fJ<'o d* av iuvroi cV 'iwfi')? oirSf/jm vruXtr vTrtKivrjat. 

(Xanthias presents his back for a blow, .^acus strikes. Xan- 
ihios immovable.) 

616. Traroo-o-ftc. Deni. C. Alid. 524,26. iav pw faT«<^aytup4POv 
[t^v apxoyra) irard^fj rif tj Kcueut tiTTfj^ thtpoi. ^lf>t I 5. o tAf i^vpoBi- 
Trjy truTw^K. 562, 9. Tnvptap (TTara^t xoprjyovvru <Vi KUp^ijr. $7^* ^7* 
iTKUTPF t)(<av <jr6fjiirtvtt xal roury ptBvmv trrdra^t riva tx^P'^"* 

lb. oiid' ffioi dontc sc. vjTftKivrjtrai at vel alrrBditttrBai. 

617. jroTii^w, here intran. Vesp. 1253. dni> '/ap oti-ou -yiyMTni | rut 
^'/KMcuJr^fTn* Kot ward^ai Ka\ ffcXtiv. 142 2. opaXoySt yiip nard^i xai ;3ii- 
X«iv. (-^Eacus here strikes Bacchus^ who pretends not to know that 
he has been struck.) 

lb. nrjviKa. when "* Phrynichus, Th. Magister. and Lucian ia 
Pseudosophist. (IX. 222. 457.) restrict this adverb to the hour of 
the day, and not to time gent'rally. Thus, say they, if asked, nrjituta 
arroiopijvtis {when shall you go abroad .'*), you reply, after ttco or 


AI. Kcu 8rj Varo^. A I. Kara 7rc5f ovk errrapopi 

AI, OVK oiSa' TovSi S av6is anriyirupaaoyicu. 

3A. ovKOvv auvauf rt ; drraTaL AI. ti TdrraTai; 620 

yxov <oSvi^07]9 ; SA. ov fia At", aAA* i(f>pQVTiaa 

oTToff ^HpcucXua TO*' A£Oftf/o<9 yiyv^Tai. 

AL ap0pomo9 Upos, Sivpo TvaXtv ^aSurrfoi*. 

Ah Joy W- AI. Ti urrtp ; AI, iTnreaf o/)©. 

f Artfe (/ay«, you will answer wroD^Iy ; but if you reply. i*n t/ie 
morning, or towards mid-day, you will answer rightly. The fol- 
lowing passages seem to justify thi» interpretation. Av. 1498. 
From. iTTjviK (OTtv apa rijt ynipas ; Pistil. iflTjwVo ; trftiKpuv rt fura 
futrr}ii.ffpia». Plat, in C'ritone 43, a. Soc. jrrjviKa /jaAiora ; Crit. op. 
6pot t^6vi. fiul besides the present, other passages might be cited 
(ex. grai. Eccl. 857) where this striclneas is not observed. 

618. Km Htf^fac sane esse. To the examples in Alonk's HippoK 
ion. add /Esch. £um. 854. Ka\ S9 Bi^tyfuu. 

lb, irraipfw, to sneeze. By the present sternutation seems merely 
meant that noi:ie which ittmade through the nose, when a person is 
struck suddenly and violently. Translate ; why then did not my 
nose give ttign that I had hern struck ? 

619. iUKCus turns to Xnnthias. with the intent of striking him. 
630. oihcovy dntafts rt ; DUjtatch, disjyatch ! why loiter^ inan ? 

{^Eacus .strikes ; a subdued exclamation from Xanthias, which 
might be taken for one of pain, but which he interprets as one of 
delight^ the word arrara't bearinf; both those meanings in the Greek 
language. (Cf. Passow in voc) Thierscli and the Ven. MS. have 
here been followed in preference to Bek. and Dind.. the latter of 
whom reads ovwuv avvatt^ \ larraTtn. But, as Thiersch observes, 
.^acwt would naturally repeat the word used by Bacchus, only pre- 
fixing the article. 

632. 'HpoKKfia^ feast of Hercules. See Wachsra. IV. 145. 

lb. Aio/Mi'ocf. Diomeia, an Attic demc, of the tribe ^gei<t 
(Leake's Demi of Attica, p. 162.), where was a temple of Hercules. 
See Klmsl. in Heracl. p. 51. Compare the epithet attached to its 
members in our.^oham. 549. and the verb by which Hercules, their 
patron, is characterised in the present playt (sup. 271.) 

633. &f6pvmot ifpos, a piotis person this, (^acus now turns to 
Bacchus, and strikes him another blow-. Bacchus utters that faint 
shriek, which escapes women and children, when an unruly horse 
frightens them in the public streets.) 

634. Imriat itpw. Tbeoc. XV. 58. Imrov Koi t6» ^xP^'' ^'*' TOfui- 
AiOTo d<douKi) I tK iraidos. 51. ibid, odi'crra Vopyol, rt ytvafifBa ; rot 
irroXf/ii o-rai | iwirot ra (iaffiXr)Oi. (Con/. thinks that the words Imriav 
6pm are to be referred to a hursc-patrol which hud been recently 



AI. Ti Sijra KkatL^ ; AI. Kpo^fjLvcov ocr(f>pau/o^cu. 625 
AL eVel TTpari^i- y ovhiv, AI. ovSei^ \iqi ^(Xh 
A I. ^aSLoriou Tap* eoriv tVi ro^'St TrctAt*'. 
SA. oipX)i. AI. r/ €OTi ; SA. t^j^ aKavOav c'^Ae, 
AI. r/ TO Trpaypa tovti; S^vpo iraXiu ^aStareop. 
AI. ^'AttoAAoi/, Of TTOV ArjXov 7; Ilu^wj/* ^X^^f- 630 

SA. •qXyricrtv' OVK rfKovaay ; AI. oi/x fYcoy\ €W€t 
uzfifioif 'iTTTTCofflucroy aLP^fJu^in}(TK0pi7]v . 

established in Athens. To this explanation two objections may be 
made ; first, thu want of authority for the estuhlishment of such a 
palnO ; second, that it afTord^^ too reasonable an excuse for the 
alTectett fearA orUucchus; the poet's business in poitriraying these 
fears betng always lo make ihem as much those of a poltroon as pos. 
aible. See Introductory Matter, 

^115. T\ br{Ta KXortff : Does Bacchus again quote from his fa- 
vourite bard? Cf. Eur. Alcesi. 546. 

lb. Kponftvw otnppaifofiui, the acrid odour of onions producing 

636. rnti [othcru^ise), i.e. the onions excepted, you regard not the 
blow. Hac Mtotjether regardless of it, J do as^ttre you. 

638. oT/ioi. A!! Xanthia.<i utters this exclamation of pain, he 
catches up his le^. as if a thorn {axavSa) had suddenly run into his 

lb. f^Af, aor. 1. of t^tupt'iv. The rt-qnest to yKacus to extract 
the thorn, (Xanthiiis holding u|i hia fool for the purpose) is of 
course made in a co(tl tone of voice, as if the pain caused by it had 
been only of the most momentary nature. 

629. drv^o, i, e. tn Bficchu>s. 

630. 'AfpoXXo*'. The epithet niror/KSirnw (Phit. 359. 854.) should 
have been added, but that, as Thiersch observes, wotdd have betrayed 
the speaker's pain ; Bacchus therefore suddenly drops his sharper 
tone, and procec(is with his quoiation in a quiet, subdued manner, 
as if no pain had been felt. His real agony, however, and pertur- 
bation of mtnd are finally betrayed by his passing off as a quotation 
from Hipponax, what in fact was a quotation from Ananias. On 
the subject of this latter poet, see Fabric, Bibl. Gr. II. 104. 

6:^2. ta^ov. Plat. 3 Rep. 400^ b. i 1 Leg. 935, e. Athen. XIV. 
623, b. St. Croix, I. 145. 
lb. 'lfnrw«>airror. 

6 iiGv<roKou>s fv&aS* 'ifriroiva^ Krfrai. 

tl d' t'trtri Kp^yvut rt jcnl frapa j^ptfOTuVf 
ffopa-itMr KoOiCfv, MW $fX]jf, airi^pi^P. 

Theoc. Epigr. 31. 




SA- ovSfi^ TTOuh ycip9 oAAa ra^ \ay0va9 (nroSei, 

AI. /ia TOf Ai\ oAA* tjSt) tto^x* '^/^ yaortpa. 

Al. rToo-CfSoi', SA. rjKyqalv T19. 635 

AI. Of Alya/oi; irpmvas fj yXavKay fieSea 

oAos* €V ^vdfaiv, 

AI. oiT T0£ /ia Ti]v Afffirp-pa Svifafiai tto) fiaj0€ip 

oTTore/x)? i/ioJi' tWi ^eos*. oAA' fifriTOV 

o SeairoTTjs yap avros i^/xay yvtoaerou 640 


lofi^t^w lU noirjra), ^Apx^f^X^^ ^' ^ llaptot (ipioror, cat Zt/uoWdi;; 6 * \fi6p' 
ywt^ Q, Mf (I'toi, ^fua^' Koi 'imttava^ 6 'E^'irior* tav 6 fitv vrpwroT, fVl 
riyov* ^ i«, fV 'A»'a>'tou tou Mujcfduiwt' o ft« 'imrwiu^, vara Aa/xioi' 

^fxttoC^"- Prodi Cre»tomHth. $. y. 

633. XayftU' (Xnw), the Hollow pnit orihi^ bntly on both Aidcfl be- 
nefttb the navel, between ibe small of the back, ribs nnd hips. Lat, 
Uia .- French, the Jlanks. The blows hitherto administered to Bac- 
chus hnd been on the back ; by the advice of hia lacquey, they are 
DOW to be inflicted on a tenderer part. 

lb. (7irddf(, contere fiagellando. Th. Cf. nos in Nub. 1328. 

634. fia Tov At', sc. ovd4it noiut. (At the end uf the verse iiCacus 
TiitA him a severe blow.) 

635. IlwrftSfiK. As llacchiis, in a former perturbation of mind* 
had quoted one poet for another, we must here be prepared to find 

im at fault in hi.s citations, his grammar, and his rhythms. See 
' iersch. 
lb. irpuy, in the ^iSirhylean writings always % frith of the sea, 
ording to Klausen (Ag. v. 283.)* nnd so also in the pas.sage here 
noted from Sophocles. i£sch. Pers. 136. ofiifxrrfpat akiop wpvva koi- 
olar. 882. yavoi $" «t xora rrpw/ S\ioy tr^ptVXvoToi. Ag. 298. rropB- 
Kormrrop npHtw* vn9p0aWftv. Soph. Tr. 79*^- AoKpu>v optiot trpotvtv. 
(t. 2. Atyaiov p^idfis vpi)v6s. Eurip. Cycl. I 16. npwfs cp^fioi 
ptffroiy. (A sharp blow here administered makes Bacchus forget 
c verb ['x'^* ^^ dptf)iiTHt) to which n-puvar serves as an accusa- 

636. yXttVKac aXoi. Eurlp. Cycl. 16. yXavKrjif Ska. Hel. 408, yXau- 
c^( oAof. fbid. 1521. yXovK^v iV olfip' aXioi'. 

lb. /**'fl*»r. Eurip. Orest. i 706. ptitovtra BaKuatrtjs. Hip- 166. r<i- 
^mv fui^fwrray. Fr, InC. CLV. I. tco ttui^ciji' fubfomt. Soph. Antig. 
iirS. (de Baccbo). KXvrdi^ tt ap^'ntts ^iTaXuxv, pidtis iU irayKountt 
'tkewTttttiu Ai^oCc KoXiTwr. (By which lairer construction Thiersch 
obser^^es that the text is to be translated.) 

637. ^ivBot. Eurip. Bel. fr. XXVII. 3. Kara ^v$os aXw*. 

k nt^t^arra. ^tpai^rra, Htpv^^mffffa vxAgo al) Atlirin dicrtwtnr Prawr- 



y(Tj <b€pa((f}aTff^ or oirre KOKfiPoy ^eoj. 

TTpoTfpou TTOiTJo-aif TTpiif €/i€ Ttty TrAi/yaf Ka^Tv. 

XO. Mowra x'^pcii/ Upa>v (TtI^tjOi kcu eAff ejrl repyf/tu 

641- ^fp<Ti<parff, Socrates in Cratyl. 404, c. gives tbe following 
origin of the name, but whether the great philosopher ia in sport 
or earnest, is not easy to say. ^ ^fppttfktrra it, ttaAXoi f^iv koI tovto 

t^fo^ovvrat To{^tfOfia mil t6v AfrriXXw, vn*^ uTreifnas, itr (ouctv^ on-ofjAnav op- 
&6njTot. Koi y^p ' prra^aXXovrti tTKOTiavyrat rify 9tprr*<f}6ifi]Vf Koi dftvhp 
avroif <paivrTai. to di prjvCti tro<f>f]v fipui r^i' 6t6p. arc yap <fi€poptPvav 
tS>¥ rrpayfWTtty, t6 €(f>anr6fuvov koi fTrat^v koi Hvvapfvov (waKn\ov$um 
0*0010 av riq. ^tpinat^ ovv dm rijv aotjiiav cni tiju rva(f)f)v tov (f>fpt>fA§- 
wov ^ 6*i>s Siy op$ia^ coAotro, ^ Toitivrov rt* At' o ntp koX trvvtariv nvr^ o 
Aibrjv tro<^s tiiVf Utori Toinvrrj c'crrt. vvv ii avr^s fKKkamvai ravvofutt tv- 
iFTOpiay 7rfp\ irktiayos notavptvoi rijs aXij^ruic, oiorc ^€ppf<p€tTTav avrtfv 

iroAfip. See also Crcu/er ]I. 383. IV. 183. 189. 238. 385. 

lb. or' SvTt cVru'ttt dru, inasmuch as being themselves divinities, 
ihey are belter judges of what divinity is than my-^elf. 

644. More than 300 verses have now been uttered, since we 
parted with the Choral Troop, atiii the reader may be disposed to 
ask what have they been doin^, and what litu^ been their position 
during the interim ? If, as MCillerV arrangements evidently ™ imply, 
the Chorus wldle unocrupicd jiiood with their faces towards the 
stage, the bustncsn of (he stage, and siin»lry reminiscences, ac- 
quired during previous rehearsals, and known nnly to themselves* 
might find their thoughts ^uffieiunt occupntiun. If. as a passage in 
Hephtestion seems (o intimate, the Chi*rus stood with their faces 
neither towards the stage nor towards ihu spectators, but towards 
each n other, it is to be fenred that poor homan nature, at all 
events theatrical human nature, the most jealous and invidiourt 
of all human natures, would occasionally deviate into something 
like the following reflections. '* Unquestionably our friend op- 

I I^omen iiluii ^*pp4<paTTew mutant in ^fptrf^iyijVf tptuJ conndrrxmtibtu metu* 
endum videturj oh ^dfov, tjuaiii continvt, Ai^nihcalionem- Hdiid. 

ni KuinenidfH. Knte Abliandlting. jkSj. 

Ti EtfTi i4 TIT iy rais KuntfSiais koI t) KoXovfi^inj wapii^aatjj hrtiid^y tiatXBAtrrtt 
ci'r rb Biarpov n-ei] funnr^auxov dAA^AoiT irrctrrft ol xoptura^ Ttipi^mvoy xol €it t& 
64arpoy &\4woyTtt llktyiv tu'o. Npphmt. p. 7i< with whith a paus^ in XmA- 
phoD*s Anatuuis nppi«iit ci ugree, when* Uiu writer speakiiiK «if snme proeeedittg* 
of h Biiigtllar iioapir, rullcd !\[nftynm-i, luiyft, KoJ ol piy, Xn^vrts "rh. tXoia, k»i- 
wXfwcra*'* 0( 8i fiiyoyrts ilrrd^ayro &Sf ''Zjn)a<w aya inarby ^liAitfTB. Sunrtp ol %"' 
p«l, &yTurrot)^ovyT»t iA\4i\ois. \'. 4. i3. In the Minie writc*r*ei Synipoehim (II. 
10.) we fiml iilso the fuUowin^' otistrvatioii : KaJ 6 KoAAios iJwtv « S«irparrt, 
dfA* iiiy wapaxiKti, Bray fuKKiii ipx'''^^^- ^»* ""'" ayrifrrotx'i t* koI trvtifiay- 



I poaitc has a nose of the finest order, and an eye-brou* which 
f PhidiaA himself might delight to copy ; and by his proceedings 
^^^ sceuift to think &s much. Deconim, indeed, forbids the use 
^^■Thia pocket-mirror at the present moment, but then that highly- 
^^^olijshed shoe, as the downeasi eyes ^ve pregnant proof, supplies 
DO unuoithy subiititute fur it ! a^iaV ** Well, envy itself must 
admit that our choreas has been iodefatt^ble in hi^ researches 
after such meats and "^beverages as might give strength and sweet- 
ness to the voices of his troop, and yet there are those, it is clear. 

. uhuse voices no beverage can carry safely through such intricate 

■BjUfloLions as we last had to encounter. 1 disparage no man's 
H^Pftrentage or deme, and therefore 1 do not say that Nnusinicus, son 
of i^sias, of the demc of C<»lyttus, is the person of whom 1 thus 
spcalc." " Aud he forsooth to own the post of honour in ntir 
choral dance ! By the gods, 'tis well to have an agreeable wife, 
and a dance-master who loves to relieve his labours with a wo- 
man's prattle, or there are those who, iuhtead of e\hibiLiiig as 
corypha*i in our body, might think themselves lucky to fir.d a place 
in its inmost ^ bosom. To the winds with such invidious prefer- 
ences!" It has often appeared to us in reading the plays nf Ari- 
stophanes, that such reflections might have been prevented, and the 
Chorus made to assist considerably in carrying on the business of 
the stage by a variety of bye-pluy, but unbacked by such uulhori- 
ties as Scholiasts, llesychius, Julius Pollux, and the author nf the 
j Etyro. Magn , who would venture to stir hand or foul of that 
"sacred" body ? — But it is not merely the position or occupation 
■ of the Chorus, which create embarrasAnienl uu the present occa- 
^^^ton. A former portion of our text found uh in doubt, as to whether 
F*»ny one of the seven parts of aM Parabasiswas before us : the present 
portion, while presenting four parts of an uiuluobled parnbasis to 
I deal with, leaves us in perplexity why the other iliree which con- 
flUtuie iui noblest member are not forthcoming? Is it accident or 
choice, that the anupeestic tetrameters, which with the commatium 
and macrum formed that member, are here completely wanting? 
I It is no answer to say, that three of the extant plays of Aristophanes 
are found with the parabasis in all its seven parts coni])Ietely 
wanting ; because for those deficiencies a satisfactory reason c!An 
be f^ven. The Lysistratu is so deficient; and why? because, in- 
stead of twenty-four persons forming an entire chorus, we have two 
•emi-choruKes(no matter whether composed of exactly equal 'parts). 

o BOerkh'a Puhlic Eixnioniy of Albenf, 11. 7io. 

p In ll»e diiiioiijdoii of their chorul il.titcx-n, the U'achcni tif the tnM»|i «»» nr- 
nogrd mattrni, m thiu itx.' Uvt |icTfuriiii?ni ^fnHitil lie rnmt i<x|MMefl ut the piiMii; 
eyr, and the left* kkilfiil covered by rht- fliinkii, lu it mrf, of the tnMip. Tlw Inwl 
honminbte phux in the cunijmcl Uiily wm thiit aillt*d r6 uwoK6\wtoy toDxi^mu, llw 
wor« of the danrcni }»i;in^' then* |)lttonl. 

4 The three lopuruiti iintutiis, under uhirh thu word is to \te underMiiod, hftvu 
Un alrmdy expUioed. 

' A ichnliaAton the Kqnitc^ (v. 586.), evidently referrmg tf> plays fonmnl like 
tke ItruamtMf obftcrreni i<m 8i &r« iral 4/itx^'o Tororro Ifrrot ii iyip^y koI yv- 



the one consisiing (if men, the other of women. Hut fire and water 
could nut be more opposed to each other ihun arc ihcse ivvo belli- 
gerent panics, and as they do nut conie lu a belter understanding 
till the very close of the piece, it is obvious that no purabaslic 
address can take place, that address necessarily implying the 
nnaniniuus consent of the whole troop. For the deficiency in 
the Ecclesia^eusse and tlie PluttiH. an equally satisfactory answer 
can be given. The Old Comedy was, as we have elsewhere 
sliewn, the genuine cbiltl of Democracy : " it grew with its 
growth, and strengihtned with iLs strength," and when the parent 
died, the child dieil also. Now when the two dramas last re- 
ferred to were brought upon the stage, the power of '• the Many" 
was gone, and that of" the Few" had taken its place; and«\heii 
we recollect bow these hiLler were habitually handled in the Old 
Comedy, and more particuliirly in llie epirrhema of the Parabasis, 
we shall easily conceive that one ol their first proceedings was to 
stop such an exhibition altogether. Ihit neither of these cases will 
apply to the play more innuediately before us. Democracy, though 
drawing fast towards its dose, was still in tlie iiscendant, and the 
Chorus, dramaiically speakings were all of one mind : why then, 
again we ask, do we here miss the most important portion of the 
roost valued port of an Ohl Comedy ? We must find our answer, I 
think, first in the general nature of the Parabasis itself, and secondly 
in the peculiar position of (he author. To discourse with the audi- 
ence on the nature itf lii^ dnuiiiiiic jterfomiances — to slate generally 
their object and tendency — to express modestly, yet firmly, their 
general superiority to those of predecessors or cimtemporaries, and 
to intimate S(*me of tlio further reforms which he wished to intro- 
duce into the cuntiednmia, such, it may be said, was the general ten- 
dency of an Ariatophanie Parabasis. Witli these were mixed ex- 
pONtulntions with the audience for the backwardness with which 
his intended reforniuLinns had been receiveil, or sharp rebukes 
for (he ingralir.ude with which some of his most meritorious exer- 
tions had been treated. And if in such rebukes Aristophanes fol- 
lowed the practice of his predecessors on the comic stage, we are 
here perhaps to look for that Nin^ular termination with which a pa- 
rabaslic address always concluded. The Old Comedy was, as we 
have before observed, the very child of Democracy, and as such 
nuich license would of course be allowed her. But the most 
petted child may go too far. and a rising frown on the parental 
brow be the consequence. And what so likely to repress that 
frown as the stage-provision to which we have just adverted ? 
Twenty-four voices, or, if the reader prefers it, only a single voice, 
speaking a long succession of words, so that the whole should seem 
but one word — all this required in the first place an undivided 
attention to catch the meaning of a succession of words so pro- 

Pmutmr* ir 9k ratt tmo^ou X^P'^^'t *' M^' H Ajf^fwr thj $iai yvvautSv A X^'t 
foXfor/frr<i rit tvv dti'Spvc ftipos Koi ^<ray 17', 0/ Si yvyaucts la. ft 8^ irmtBuv rfi| ical 

ytfytuKU¥, al niy yvnuKtr i'/ ^ay, ol SJ iriulSfc m'. *i 8c irpftr/Strratv icol ¥iw9, Toti 
irpt<T06ras wAwftKruf Sitr i^wrlr. 



iinced: during lbi» division and .suspension of the thuuj^hts, the 
enoe given nnturally wore away ; nnd when the speiilitT broke 
rh a strong emphasis, as he naturally would do, upon ihe final 
liable, the amotlierutl luii^h would as naturally break out, and the 
ffricst n^ember of " the Many" turnin;:? to another tbirly-lhou- 
dth fraction of the Sovereignly, would be not unlikely to ob- 
serve — *• We have been somewhat roughly handled, son of Damon, 
in this poetic address ; but individually speaking, these mailers 
hurl neither you nor nie : let us now see who of those few, who 
tbink themselves our betters or our masters, i-rc to be served up 
singly for our amusement ; that is of some importance to both of 
us." — liul if ever a paraba-sis was likely to be written in the bitterest 
spirit of reproof and expostulation, it must have been on the pre- 
sent occasion : and such a parabasis the poet did perhaps compose 
in hisfilndy, though he did nnt bring it up(m ihe stage. When the 
Sacchic worship stood, as it were, upon its own ground, or attempted 
admit into itself the orgies of other Bacchic worships, the poet had 
'liot been the man to wink altogether at its licentious usflge.s in the 
• first instance, or to oppose feebly its extension in the ^second; 
but to pollute the pure worship of Ceres with such abominations 
us an admixture of Bacchic rites must necessarily introduce, what 
macrum, or poetical one-dniught cup, huwever richly mixed, could 
aen'eto disperse the frown which expi'stulatious on such an aiienipt 
roust necessarily have provoked ? Where direct reproof cannot l)e 
safely adminitilered, silunce is often the severest of all rebukes. The 
omission of a parabasis therefore on ilic present occasion appears 
not to have been accidental, or one of those injuries of time, 
which have lost us so many other ancient ivritings, but to have been 
of direct purpose and design ; bearing in its omi»8i<»n the usual 
proof of the author's tact and discretion. And thus far for omis- 
I sion. But our embarrassments are not yet at an end. In a pro- 
I duction so exclusively dramatic as the present, even supposing 
H^nir readers not to ask the ditTu-ult question, '* why and whence 
^^KChorus at "all?" they will doubtless at all events press the subor- 
^^Hnate one, " Why this interlude within an interlude, stopping as it 
Hpfloea ihc action of the piece, and frequently having little or no 
' connexion with it ?'* The que%tion is one of too much curiosity not 
to deserve the best answer which wc can give to it : but as that 
answer would add greatly to a note already most uupurdonably 
long, wc must wave it for ihe present, and reserve it for u future 
volume, if we cannot contrive to throw it into the Appendix of the 
present. (E,) We must now return to our more immediate 
Choral Troop, whom the loss of the Parabasis. strictly r«> called, 
left in somewhat of a novel situation. The feet of thi-s impor- 

• €Jf. fUM in Nub. 5 so. 

* Cf. no* in V(<»|». Appvtulix, p. 317, st). 

« Forcvoof the mast recvnl thourirs on this *uhjoct, wc KanniiiwwrV Uulm^ 
in AUirn, p. 337, »i|.f and KoUu^r Hi* I'Hniliiui, pp. 31. 35, *f\- 

K 2 



tant body tire yet upon the lines, ur ypa/i/ul, marked out for the 
near the Tbymelo, and out of which we are now to bring them ; 
but how } Had the drama been constructed on itiu usual principles, 
we should have fuund the choregus taking a polite leave of the 
three person^) on the stage, giving Xanthias and his master perhaps 
a hint, that Pluto's mansion was nut without its means of hospita- 
lity, and that swine-flesh (cf. sup. 336.) and a good flask of wine 
were to be found there as well as in the upper world. Leaving his 
situation on the Thymele, he v\'ould then advance with bis Troop 
(perhaps six abrea.'^t and four deep) towards tbe spectators, and 
there deliver himself of that address, which in its appearance and its 
non-appearance has alike occasioned us so much embarrassment in 
the present drunia. The parabasis concluded, tbe Troop have 
to perform their sirophic ode ; but where or how ? Kanngiesser, 
citing what he thinliis sufficient "authorities, places on each side 
of the orchestra statues of the god or gods to whom the chor&l 
hymn was addressed, and round these he supposes that choral hymn 
to be sung, the first ode being executed on tbe right side of tbe 
orchestra^ the counter-ode on the left, (p. 364, sq.) Genelli's 
opinion on the matter we could but report at second hand, and as 
that opiniuti has nut metvvilli a favourable receptiun from one, well 
inclined to him in many other } points, we do not further advert to 
it here. Miiller's plan of f>peratioa is of a more recondite nature ; 
but an engraved ' representation would be necessary to make it 
accessible to the reader. Kolsier, though deeply versed in these 
matters, seems, we must confess, rather to have a head floating 
with a number of ideas on the subject, than to have reduced 
them to any one consistent or intelligible form. If mere ana- 
logy could decide the business, (and if analogy be not an infallible 
guide, it is certainly on moat occasions a very satisfactory one.) the 
simplest course would be lo consider the Thymele as a substitute 
for the Hacchic altar, which in many points of view it unquestion- 
ably was, and to circulate the chorus round this, as the cyclian 
chorus was circulated on those festive occasions, out of which the 
dramatic world and all its illusions sprang. Leaving the reader to 
choose between these variuus modes of performing the choral ode, 
the rest of our course is tolerably easy and straightforward. The 
ode having been danced and sung, the Choral Troop again advance 
towards the spectators, and deliver themselves of that political 
piece of admonition or personal sarcasm, whichever it might 
chance to be, hearing ihe general name of upirrhema. 'ihe coun- 
ter-ode and counter-epirrhema follow — (wht'ihtr the latter was 
danced as well as sung, wc shall not here inquire) — the chorus then 
turn their backs upon the spectators, auci resuming their places on 
the lines (ypa^>«il) before marked out fur them, iheir leader mounts 

X PoUux 510. Cf. Vitniv. 5. 8. mm iuterp. 

y KolaUrTi p. 9. 

''■ Euroeniilen, p. 96. 



— fcf 

loco). Sn ifc AaC:^ 3*0. 
1*^3.937. • sV 'v* ^ "^ 


le Tbymele Co eoovene once more viih the 

te sU^e : — and thrice welootne to the pair wW 

kve us from these ioiricAte nqunies — Y— tfciM, 

>ntentH of Pluto's kitchen to a nze. wkM mi^ 
a dozen aldermen in the ttaji nf Fii n«fcii aB^ Vi 
aldermen were mere devoorcn of gooae 
but why attempt to depicture " tbe akmdamcl m 
why anticipate tbe bfuiness of tke 
ter», when concerns of great pUi m 
for immediate attention ? 

645. 9«^«a(=<ro0oi,rcs pro 
C=^i^adi€wjfQP Uptm, (see SdMilef. 
f7^i=XitXof. 756. J »»3 U^ 

&i^. Eurip. I'hcra. 987. 

mTTo^jno. Ipb. AoL 1S9. 


fA<'»^. Suppl. 85. ^ w> I fM m =W 

^m vpi<r&€Ki. 459- H8k|iar'~rD3^^y 

mur /e«rT. Add .'Cadi Sept. c. Th. 

*758. 989, Soph. Anti^. 533. 746. 

124S. Aj. 381. 389. Electr. 139. Eurip. 

Uerac. 52. Electr. 941. Troad. 8361 Tm tW 

compare the beautiful and wcil-kaovn cfcoma w the Jlerfcs, ^^a- 

646. Mvpuu. Tbe ivord tf bcrv lo b* vaktm aimatu fiSBnfly m k» 
nse of Urn tkomtamd. Geneffi's ofimioa that tha amtmm O a tnk 

theatres beld 30,000 spectat«in n mhieMf mm^mmmtii^ ** I AM 
Geuelli," ubserrea Mr. Cockerell. is ome dS las Mfn^gm^ IrCtcn fa 
me, '* on whose noat fiUUcioos Atwcnfjiam ml the AlhoMB thcacra 
Scblegel and Welcker rely, crr uoe<m s n ahaast crcry friaople 
and particular of bis restoraiioa : it iiifcri ta rc^nrfc aa cBaaflca» 
that be makes the ofchrstra io6 feet n Samtur, afckh I te4 
never to exceed 1 00 feet, and tha whale ^MBdcr «# iha Thaaifc 
nearly 500 feet, too Moch by at IcaaC 100 Cect - he also accaptsfhc 
absurd propontioo that 30^000 spcctalofa vrcre a^mamtikke, vhcfvaa 


"70 »73-SS»- ^S^ 

a:d- CoL 863. 960. CULT 

103. 447' 

a/c4 'v' '^ rB»r' tf7«AA« t xW r w T< y i» . 
iiA«r no ek^lafkscka «f die Isa. c»* wib U 

97>.'' Bui qacrv: h 

hMcful knt"— M w 1^ i" iiT i say 

«mI ibe r 

and UM! ray aomeiy Luaa | 
njcv A«T«F(Pcn. oil > I n«ii 
l^wc^ar Arsr. {rU. KL) J^J 
anaupla, uchcr* tsnm lh« ** 

^pirfcMaaB,Ac* 74*. 




Seivov i7riffp€fJ.(Tat 

the lar^!4t existing Theatre would nut admit more than half that 
u umber." 

647. The English historian of Greece, speaking of events after 
the fatal battle of yEjfospotami. thus nlludes to the person in the 
text : •' The leader of the sovereign Many at this time was Clco- 
phon, by trade a musical instrument-maker, who, treading in the 
steps of Clcon and Hyperbolus. had acquired power even superior 
to what they had formerly held. Such was his confidence in his 
ascendancy, that he did nut scruple, in scorn of democratical equal- 
tty, to assume the dlsiinciious and pump of command. To have a 
residence suited to bis new dignity, he used opportunity offered by 
the banishment of Andocides, chief of one of the most ancient and 
eminent families, to occupy his house." . . . Mitfurd, IV. 380. From 
the arp.iraent prefixed to the " Banue," it should appear, that at 
the same time that that piny was exhibited, Cleophon had furnished 
materials for an entire drama from the hand of Plato, the comic 
writer. ^tXtavidrji (i. e. Aristophanes) iittypa^rf km tplitat ^pvptxos 
&<yrepoy Movtrmt, UXdraiv rpirot KAro^wio'i. 

lb. /(^' oC Slj j^tlXfffiv K. T, X. in cujun orationihtts somat himndvus 
Thraciec gnrruiitas Th. 

lb. dfi<fii\u\ott , h. e. fimbiguis, andpUibus. Th. Is ic not rather^ 
whose lips leave Hothiny untalked about ? 

648. ritt^f>ffua-3ai (^pifutf, vEsch. Soph. Eur.), ein brauscndcs 
Geriiiisch hervorbringeth Pass. 

649. epjjKia xfXidtuv. The poet means to insinuate, that on one 
or boili sides of his parenta{i;e, but most probably only on the •'mo- 
thers side, Cleuphon was not a Icgitimme citizen. So /£&cbiues 
(38, 10.) : KA<o(^<oi' tit A Xvponoiot, fiv iroXXoi drdr/icrov tv ntiait c/iitf' 
ftovrvov, rnpryy/Mi^fiv tuirxp^f noXiTTji, 

lb. x*^*^^*'- ^^schyl. Ag 1017. ;((X(d(>voff ^uajv, ayvara ffxavitv 
^pfinpov KfKTTjfutfri. Fr. Inc. 160. ;(rXidoi'i'^<{»'. Non. Dionys. II. 133, 
tfTuopat uapivoio <PiXtj Zffpvpoio ;|fcXida)V, | <fi6(yyop4in) , \dkos Spifit^ imm- 
po^tjs piXos ^xovs. Cf. sup. 87. 

^ The loii of £uripiilen no doubt utters the laa^age of many an Athenian 
tbu point : 



mt iwakarmu, 

6so, &affimp9m. Cf. HennioC. U. 57. 
lb. ffopcrfu Arist. PftC. 800. «rv ^9jk pirn ^t^ 
iciXiid§* Earip. PImed. 1550. ipmt 4 H f*M § | AMrm 

Il>. nraXov. Eunp. Hd. 252. ^Aea mfliJU. iott 901. 

KI0. Here. F. 595. xf^mtmm ■iiJl— Am. 
651. pi<it (jmmnamn). Dixik iHyijei, Bat. aOolH. Bdu Br. 
I. «yKCci. Seidl. coiD. At. 1511. Periap* r^4* is prcliefmbile to 
ita all. ( Non. Uioa. XXL 75. «•! i>i wi< >i« i ^Ju^fX^ | cWwvtm m* 

lb. aT^omor myMv, a wttmrmfmi Mirmim, like tli*l in wbicii Ukc nigbt- 
iugale is fruppaaed to bmcBt (or Itys. ^-EscbyL Ag. 11 13. "In*. 
Irw arifowm , . a^Avr. Sappl. 59. Sopb. CEd Col. 67 1. **&» Xiytm 

fUfVprrtu 6afu(ai^a poXurr* ^ 8 wr, EleCtr. 1 07 7. rawdsyirpc afMv. £u- 
rip. Hel. 1 1 19. aijivita Aac^n^craaor. .Vlist. Av. 3 11. ip^mn fyi^t's, ror 

I lb. «(>«»'. This wnrd, on whicb so wucb b&» been said or wril- 

^^bn. belong Xe&s I thiDk, Cu tlic Science than to the PhiluAophy of 
^^■ttsic ; irapKiD^ those great laws (whence its oaine) which Nature 
j bcrsell has impressed on sounds, adapting them 10 certain move- 
metiLa uf the body or feelings of the mind, from which the musical 
composer caoDot wholly depart without incurring ridicule, but in a 
I nice adapialioo to which lie:»thc perfection of hi« art. f^et a niim- 
I ber of airs be struck uff by a person of the latter description, and 
an ear of any tolerable tact and accuracy will presently decide — 
'* those sounds belong Co an hymn; tbo»e characteri^ a march; 
those arc fitted for a dance." But the variety in the»e may be a], 
most in6niie. Joy, penitential sorrow, calmness, elevation, fer- 
▼uur, muy be implied in the tirst ; but the joy. the calmness, the 
elevation, the fervour, will all be of a religious character, and 
therefore the sounds, whether left to themselves or wedded to cor- 
responding words, will express what we term a hymn. The march 
I again may be quick or slow of movement; it may express a body 
of men rushing to the onslaught, or, like the celebrated movement 
in llaudels Oratorio, it may be the accompaniment of a warrior's 
body borne to his silent home ; yet a certain character and combi- 
nation of sounds pronounce it at once to be a march. Bo in salln- 
lory sounds, some at once distinguish themselves ns appropriated 

St (Aot yimrrai firrrpiSfv nafftrjffta' 

maOapby ydjt &y tit fit w^Kiv w4<ni {cVoi, 

K&¥ TDis \nyoiair durrti ji, rd y* ttfifia 

* *'•!« w^arrtUj Koiitc ^x'* -vaftpr^lov. (S80, s|. 



Kov laai yepcoin'ai. 

to the stately minuet, some to the lively waltz ; others again tu ike 
Polonnise. the Scotch, the Irish, or the English dance. Does our 
imaginary musician wi^h t<i mimic ibe little world of sound pos- 
seHNed by the feathered race ; — the matchless nightingale mourning, 
as the anrienia thought, for that which was never to be restored to 
her, — the gay lark, ascending and carolling to heaven's gates — the 
eannrV) with its unlired throat and labyrinth of sounds — the black- 
bird with its rich and mellow ntftc.^, redolent, as it were, of spring, 
and a certain uxorious mixture of joyousness and tenderness? — all 
ihese have their several jieculiurilies of sound, of which the general 
character must be caught, before the artist forms it into any parti- 
culur melody. Of these great laws of sound, the Athenians, who 
lool<ed caretiilly abroad for whatever of intellectual excellence they 
did not find at home, appear at an early period to have discrimi- 
nated five, (afterwards enlarged to ^ fifteen,) in which the peculiar 
physical and menlul fctilings of five contemj»omry nations had em- 
bodied themselves. Did they require in their public entertainments 
or compositions such strains, as ears divine might listen to with most 
pleasure ? their Doric neighbours seemed best to have caught the 
sounds appnipriatcd to such compositions, and on Doric music 
accordingly the sacred strains of tlieir own artists were required to 
be based. Were the passions to be roused or influenced? the Ly- 
dian music had evolved the modes by which this was best effected, 
and I^ydian measures were accordingly those from ivhich it was least 
safe fur an Alheniun artist tu depart, whose wish was tu accomplish 
a .siniilur purpose. Were ibc feelings which border on religious 
fanaticism or enthusiasm lo be evcited ? the Phrygian music, and 
its great masters^ Olympus and j^Ia^syas^ were the proper models. 
Were strains of an intermediate kind required ? ^olia and Ionia 
supplied them both; the first all'urding a music which lay between 
the Phrygian and the l^ydinn, the second u melody which lay be- 
tween the Phrygian and the Doric ; less enthusiastic than the first, 
less solemn than the latter, but in sweetness and in grace surpass- 
ing both. Passow, from whom (he latter part of this note has in 
some degree been bttrrowed, refers for further information on the 
subject to Bockb de metr. Pind. p. 182. Thiersch, Pind. Th. I. 
p. 43. f. 9. Kanngiesser. of whom a little use has been made in the 
former part, (see Biihne, 403-Si.) refers, in addition to ancient au- 
thorities, to Burette in Mcmoires de I'Acad. des Inscript. et d. B. L. 
torn. 14. Marpurg's Kritischc Einlcitung indieGeschichte der Musik. 
Forkel's allgem. Geschichte d. Musik. 

652. lO'ai SC. ^<pot. (^sch. 89, 36, tirat airr^ ai i/'^^oi cycroiro.) 

f Bey li'iT weitern Entwickhiiig ilea Grit«ch. Tunaysteraa und der Erweiienuig 
dcr TuiiruiliL' tmhin mnn eTi(]n4'h ein kl^inerea .System von ci(fMnd cin (^iBtiiifi 
rc»n /un/xrhit Tituurtuii nil, tlcrvii Nnin(.*n aux jenen ffinf Grundorten (to. Z)»- 
rur/if, PhryffiiKftef LyduchCf ^'Eotuchcy lonische) nisammen gaeUt wiirden. 





When the absolving and condemnatory votes were equal in an Athe- 
nian criminal triiil, the party accused was acquitted. Three texts 
are generally quoted in illustration of this cUvStom, /Esch. Eum. 
1 1. Eurip. Eleclr. 1274. Iph. in T. HT^i '^"t the first of these, as 
longing to the details of the trihl out of which tlie practice ^ew, 
by far the nutst important. It will be brotit;tu at some length 
fore the reader in a subsefjuent note : but nt present with regard 
to Cleophon. Did the fate finully adjudged to thii:* turbulent 
ema^ogne bear out the poet's pro])hefy ? Let u^ hear the histo- 
D Ui whom we have before referred, "Cleophon himself could 
longer either command or appease Oie popular mind. His np- 
nents used the opportunity f(»r preferring: & capital accusation 
inst bim. Examples of what mig:ht be done, by ably using cri- 
al emergencies, abounded in Lhc annals of the Athenian govem- 
ent. Clcon, when nearly the de.spulit! lyraul of Athens, had been 
ned ; Hyberbolus banished by ostracism ; Cleophon was con- 
emned tn death and executed. If Lysias, spetiking as a pleader, 
ould be trusted, a fraud of most dangerous tendency waa used 
his opponeuis : the real law not warranting a capital sentence, 
ey made an interpolation in the code of Solon, in pursuance of 
hicb condemnation was pronounced." Milfnrd, W. 38)^. 
lb. The above choral strain is xvritten in dactylic, anapaestic, 
chaic verses, &c. But the predominant one, and that to which 
e reader's attention is most called, is the dactylic, and the various 
h:iscs which it here assumes. (Cf. infr. 1227.1339.) The iro- 
nic dimeter brachycaialectic, which prevails throughout the cbo- 
9, is also deserving of much notice. (Cf- infr. 778. 1083. The hu- 
our directed in the course of iLis play at the /Eschyleau measures, 
not, aN far as I am aware, been noliced by any of his commenia- 
rs. My very learned predecessor, Thiersch, from his mode of 
nging the text, does not appear to have been in the least 
are of it. 

653. The epirrhema, as Kolster justly observes, (de Porab. p. 
.) is generally of a more vehement and impetuous character than 
e parabasis. It is always uttered in the person of the Chorus: it 
tols its own body aud their good intentions, and where, as in the 
asps, the Chorus assumes an unusual appearance, it explains to 
e Mpeclaturs what the object and design nf that appearance is. 
o this part of the parabasis were more ]iartit'nlarly consigned such 
advices respecting the administration of public atVairs as the poet 
thought fit to offer, and the castigation of such individuals as by 
him were imagined to stand in the way of the publir l)encfit. The 
political good feeling, as well as Lact and addret<.H, manifested through- 
out the present epirrhema and its counterpart, arc beyond all 



^ufjLTrapaweiif kou StSatrtcetv, TVp&rov ovv r^fxiv 8ok€i 
i^icr(oa<u tov9 TToA/ray Katf^Xflif ra Seifutra, 655 

Kei T19 T]piapT€ fT^oActV ti ^Ppvpixov ircfXala'^a/TiVy 

lb. Uf>i>v j|o^(.. Even under ordioftT}' circumslBnces, the epitbt:t 
here attaehud to the thi^rus need not have surprised us. For what 
was nut holy, ns coaneoled with the Dionysiac festivals ? The law 
which regulated their movements was a holy law (Dem. c. Mid. 525, 
i8.); the month in which they occurred was a holy month (Ibid. 
525, 19.) ; the very ^rmcnta worn by the higher functionaries con- 
nected with the theatrical entertainments of these festivals, bore 
the same epithet. (519, 27. 537* 2. 562, ifi.**) During ihcir con- 
tinuance, person and property were alike sacred. (518, 6. sq. 53a, 
16. sq. 571, 20, sq.) The very seal in a theatre was» as it were, 
holy ground; touch the occupant who dared, unless endowed \vitb 
strict legal powers. * (572, 10. sq.) Can we after all this be sur- 
prised at this ciiithet being attached to a Chorus, involving in itself 
so sulemn a character as the Chorus of the present piece, and whose 
subsequent advice would consequently assume somewhat of that 
f hierologic chiiracier, by which the doctrines taught in the Myste- 
ries, whatever they were, were characterised ? 

654. ^vfAvapatyilv. EuHp. Phffin. 470. naftawtfrai <T(j>^v n dotXo/uu 

655. cficTftxrai Tovt noKiraSj intell. oXXijXou, conviliare crrn* ow- 
lun. Tm. The Scholiast gives a diflerent interpretation, viz. to re- 
store to their political franchise those who had been deprived of it, 
and thus put all upon an cquuHly. 

lb. dtificna, causes of/ear and terror. II, V. 681. btifta ff>*'p<av Aa- 
vaota-i : frequent in the three Tragedians. Laert. de Zenone Vll. 
112. tls ii roil <^^¥ avaytrat cal raura, dcI/id, oicyos, aitrjfvvwi^ CKirXij^ic, 
66pv^tf uyaivia. ^7fxa fiiv ovv c'trrt ^ojSos 2cof tfxwoiav. 

656. naXata-fmraf properly^ the tricks by which a wrestler trips up 
the heels of his opponent, j^sch. Eum. 559. (v /*<!' to3* 9^17 rii< 
rptopf iraXattTfiOTuv, 746. irdXaicr/i' atpvicrov toIs ^yayriois i}(m9. Ag. 
62. iroXka nakaitrfioTa tcai ytJio^^jij . . Brjaav ^Uivaoif. Eurip. Alcd. 1211. 
dctiru TToAmV/mru. Plat. Kuthyd, 177, C. tA rpirov TraXiuir^a. Phaidr. 

d Among the Orphic poems are a set, culled Upacrokuth aiul ifaTafftMrriitftv, of 
which Lotierk supposes the former to belong to ttie sacrod veats wont l>y the iiii- 
Ciiiled, or hy divine sutues; ihe Utter to the starlet fprdles woni rLniud the wnwt 
on such oci:a.V(ins. (Schol. ApoU. 1. 917.) wtpl tJ}k KOiAfw ol fUfunit*.WH ro^r/iu 
Bwroxttrt nopipvpas. AgLiopli. I. 372. 

• For some nmiunt n( ohjectionalile ttttncrs cmmecx*^ with these entertain oicdtoi 
but which nevertheleu bore the title of A«/y, we Welcker's Nachtrag, p. 

t Oa tiifne l<pol K^yoi^ abundant i)tioialions or references may be ftnuid in Lu- 
Ijwk's Aglanphnnm*, pp. 14^-9. 152. ifij. 145. J52-4. 294. 371* 454.710,14. 



iyymaQai <f>r)fxl X/^^fcu Tois oKiaOovatp tot€ 
airi(w €k0€io-l Xv<rai ray irporfpov a^apria^, 

Kol yap aMr)(p6v ian tou9 ^^v 2/avfxa)(^aavTas fiiav 660 
KOI n^aTaid? €v6iff (luai Kaini SovXcov SeairoTay* 
KOvSf ravT eyeoy €\oi^ av fu) ov icoAcos' (fxia-KUP 

256, b. TbiV Tpw¥ vaXatafiaTtiiu rant i>t a\ij&£>e 'OAv/iiruucwv ip Mwir^- 

657. iyyfvitr&m^^i^tivai, that it should be in (heir power, thai meamt 
ghouid be afforded them. Hoc. 49, c. dXX' adponrdivrav t^v *V.\X^v»v 
€yyfV€tT6ut ToI« fiiv evi6ti^tT$ai riu avTuiP tvrv^latf raiis d<, ic. r. i. 
Iai£U<k 52, 31. tyY*»'Ofif*'ov ^n'tv auroi/ . . aTiftaHTat. 

lb. oXttrBavttyt or oXKrOaivuVt prop, io slip ; aor. 2. uXttr$op. II. 

Jil. 744. (vB* Aiay fuv okicBt 3ioav. Sopb. Eleclr. 746. «£ di/rvyuv 

r$f. Mosch. Idyl. IV. ill. •V ovdtl Karrmtx' vXi^Oav. Plat. Cra- 

tyl. 417.. b. oXttrBdvu fmKtara iv r^ "Ka^ta r) yXcorra. Lacrt. dt* Ze- 

Done VII. 26. «X«y« T« npiiTTOV tlvm rolr Trotru* oKiaBuv ^ ttj yAMrrp, 

See alsu Porson ad Eurip. Fliuen. 139!^. 

658. alriav itcBuai, having made knovn the cause which led them into 

lb. \v<rai rhs irpartpop afxafrriat, to efface their former offences. 
Tbucyd. III. 46. »t oCk Ztrrai ^trayvaunii koi ort fV ffpaj^vrario r^y afiap- 
riav KaraXvfTat. 

659. ^Tifiov. The various sorts of alim^, or civil inability among 
the Athenians, have been explained in former plays. The poet 
here wishes thai all persons who had been led ititn error through 
the slippery tricks of Pbrynichus, should be re.siored to their privi- 
le^'es. On the alime of the ancients^ see Schomann, 72. 1 1 1. 375. 
Wachsm. III. 183. 358. 

660. niav sc. vavfuixiav. The sea-fight of Arginuss is here 

661. nXoraidc, i. e. should be put on a fooling; with the aoo Pla- 
rans. to whom the freedom of the city was ^iven, after their escape 
om the well-known siege recorded in Tbucyd. III. 20, sq. See 
so Wachsm. II. 149. 
C6a. Nor can I say that these things are wrong, (ja^ ov jcoXuc 
lb. liii ot. These two particles coalesce into one syllable. 
I j£sch. Prom. V^inct, 648. tI dijra fUKXttc fiij ov ytycaviaKfiP tu navi 8l 2. 
ovK ipoPTtiatToftai | to p.q ov yryufiiv rrav, Kum. 290. //i)(rair' uft Wfn 
^Tf OKI ntipTffu}<Tjfi.p.tyov I tpptur. Sopll. CEd. T. 12. dvcroXyTTot yup a» | 
uxfv, Twav^ ftii ov KOToutrtipwv tdpav. 1065* ovx ap niBoi^Tjp ^ ov rod* 



dXX iircutfto' fxova yap aura uovp €\ovt iSpaaare, 
TTpos^ fif rovTOi9 €1X09 vpuoL^^ 01 pLfff vpimv TToAAa 8r^ 
^ol 7raT€p€^ €Pavp.a)(r](Tav koli TTpooyjKOvcriif ywi^ 
rrjv p-iav ravrrjif irapewai ^vp.(f>opaif curovpu^ifoi^. 
aXXa TTj^ opyiji av^irr^^^ co ao^WTaroi (f>vo'€ij 
Ttairra^ av6ptar7rov9 eKOPTfi- avyyevei^ tcn}(TWfX€da 
KaTTiTifiov^ KOI TToXiTa^y ooTis av ^vvpavpL.a')(^, 
€t fie roirr oyKcoaofKada Kairoa€pafvvovp.e6a 

f/cfxadtlv aat^Sir, So also Antig. 96. 936. Elcctr. 107. 133. Eurip. 
Troad. 988. jiij 'fia$tU rrottt StaSt \ ro tr6¥ Koxiiv Ktxrfiovaa' fi^ ov ntitrjjs 
rrntpavs. Hilipol, 654. otr<c nv iror «<Tj^oi* ^rf oi/ Tiid* i^ivtiv warpi. Also 
Hippul. 41;. Ipli. A. 916. Andram. 254. Cf. sup. 6a. 

664. Paraphrase: " But in addition to this, it behoves you to 
remit upon entreaty this one misfortune (for I will not call it 
guilt) to those who, as well as their fathers, have been your coope* 
rators in many a naval fight, and who, instead of being slaves or 
aliens, are of your own Inie legitimate race." 

665. npotrrjKovtrty ye'wt. Kurip. IVIed. 1301. firj ftoi rt hpao*a<r m 
TTpoa^noiTcf yeWi. Soph. (I'.d. T, S14. «t d« tm ^V<^ | tqvtv vptxri^ni 
t\at^ Ti avyyiyts. Eurip, Ipb. T, 550. tI ft* tvrtfa^s tovto ; finp 
ir(>o(TrJKi trot ; Pint, Cralyl. 429, C. tl fxij n nvr^ 'Kpfiov ytvitTtt^t vixxr^' 

666. ^vfitfiopav, calamity, acrirlent, occurrence ; said delicately for 
ufiii^iav. In Dem. c. Mid. (533,9.) the word is used with a somc- 
wliat similar delicacy : iopvitav tori B^ttov Tit 6 rovs rpayiKovs xopf*v^ 

lb. wapttvai, to remit. 

667. avfrrtt r^r oftyrjt, having relaxed anger. Eurip. Hippol. 904. 
o/yy^ff f^Fft'f. Arist. Pac. 31^. *l fitj T^t ^o^t avrjurrt. Dem. c Mid. 
575, I, dviivai ti t^c opy^f. Cf. Matlh. Gr. (Jr. §. 338. 

668—9. rrdin-as dvBpdnrovs . . ocrrir av ^vvvavfutjfff, let Hit consider all 
men^ who coujjerufe with us in naval engagements, as relatives, Ike. To 
numcrnns examples of this mode of constmciion given in Porson's 
Advv. p. 317. add Soph. Electr. 1505. xpn*' ^ tvOvt •&«o« rJipit ron 
iraa-ip biKTjv, \ wrrir, k.t.X. Eurip. Mod. 23 r. 

669. tniTtfuwt, in the exercise of their civil privileges, Andoc. to. 
13. rour aTifiovs eiririfiovs jroifiK. Lys. 161, 16. fit} rfftds dyrl cVtrf^uw 
arifiovs noiTftnjrt. 1 59* 40. rfftlv de ov imtrrre ^ftas airrovt ftrtrlfiox's Vfur 

670. f( W rovT (ntvr Th. cf. infr. 1336.) AyKwe6fua^a, bvi if we 
thus swell and are puffed leith pride. Vesp. 1 024. oyr^m to <lip6inffut. 
Soph. Inc. Fr. XXIV. 2. vyKotBtU x^^^S- Eurip. Herac. 196. T6''Apyot 
^cuF. El. 384. doKritTti ioifmrotv ayxtafuvot. Uec. 62 1 . tlra trjr oyxov- 



yjif iroXiv^ K€u ravr ?y(oirre9 kv/j/itcov eV riy/caAflur, 
** €i o tyca opao9 toc«f jDioi^ aptpos t] rpoTrov oarts tT 

fAt0a, j 6 fifv Tis fjfiav irXoCa-ios <v doifiatrty, | 6 d' iV iroXiratt rtfiios KficXt}- 
fupot. Phri. fr. XI. i. Aw/iu frXavr^ ^va-trt^Sts tayKtufifvov. Hippol. 
943. fi yop (tar* wrtpia ^t'orov i^ryKuMTtrai. Suppl. 874. <f}tvya>v r^Mtrt- 
(oiff oOT4ff /foyicoir' «TyaF j rup*toyiT-' uTi(uv. Iph. A. 92 1, firrpltas rr 
)l^aip«iv Totaty t^ytctufitvott. 

lb. dTrofff/ii'iVffftfni. /o ipear oa air of dignity. Cf. infr. 797. 

671. r^i* rr^uf, quod attioet Jus civitatis, h. e. in jure civitaiis do- 
uando. Tu. 

lb. ical ravr f;^orrrc, k,t. i. and this too, wken wc arc in the midst 
of civil storms. 

lb. c'j^oKTfs pro Srrts. Eurip. Baccb. 89. fi^ofo-* ^v atftivwv | Xoxtaa 

lb. KVfuiTatv tv dyKoXats. yEschyl. fr. Inc. 301. ^j^ar ?jfoi/T*r KVfid^ 

Ti0¥ tv dyKoXmt. Choepb. 579. w6t>Tiai t' a^ricaAai, (where see Blomf.) 
Eurip. Orest. I371. 'iUtaifOV ayxaXatt iXiaatav. Hel. I07T. ■rr€Xayias 
<*K ayKoXat. Suppl. 483. KOf fiiv iri&rj ^ot, KVfidTom Srtp w6Xiv I o^f 
imi/OTiA^o'ctff* ci d< ^^> iroXvp xXi/dui' | rjfia' Tf, ical iroi, £v/</iax(MS r* 

tOTtUf Jioptit. 

672. variptf XP^*'V' ^ph> (Ed. Col. 614 rul( flip yhp ff^i), roic d* 

673. If Kanngiesser's opinion cuuld be properly substantiated, 
vix. that the choral odes were sun^ and danced on opposite sides of 
the orchestra, .statues of the god or gods to whom they were ad- 
dressed being placed on movable akars or pedestals which made 
them perfectly accessible to the spectators' eyea, it must be owned, 
thai the orchestral appearance on the present occasion was not a 
little Aristtjpbunic. AMlsu on une side, and a Clkioknbs nn the 
other, (to say nothing of a Ceres and an lacchus similarly circum- 
stanced) ; - here the object of reverence to all that was lofty in 
Athens, there the object of all that was odious and contemptible to 
her meaner citizens, how fruitful of remark must so striking a con- 
trast have proved ! At the tintt entrance into the theatre specu- 
jHtion would naturally be afloat on the subject, and in some of the 
more ticklish parts of the opening scenes, we may easily conceive 
Demades or Demophon observing to Sosius or Simon, " This bard 
of ours is venturing upon matters which we do not usually allow, 
and we all know, worthy neighbour, how others have fared, who 
have taken less liberties; but at all events 1 must wait and see, 
by what concatenation of ideas the Muse and that dirty little baih- 
man can be brought into the same category of events !" 

~ ib. Parodied from the Phoenix, or Q£neus of Ion. The general 



ov TToXw ov8* 6 7ridi]K09 oSroy 6 ifuv eiHixXw^ 
KXeiyftrrjS' o fjuKpos; 675 

6 TTovrfporaTO^ l3aXai^(V9 ottoctoi Kparovat KVKTjavn- 

yjrevSoPiTpov Kovtas 

yfiovov ivBiarpv^w ISinu Si raS ovk 

€ipff)piK09 /<r^, wa /ijj 7ror€ KanoSvOfj p.€dv(oi/ a- 680 

menniDg and spirit of this attack on Cleigenes have been largely 
(.'xplnincd by us in a fonner play. (Eq- 1353.) 

lb. ri a' tyi> op$6s lifiy. ScHOI.. ct bvvofiai xpipttP. 
lb. ot/iwffTOi. ScHOL. TtfiOiprjdtjvat. 6<f)€tXtl. 

674. ov ffoXuy sc. xp"""" (infr. ^>79.) tiffitarpl'^i. An awful dis- 
tonce certainly between the adjective and substantive; but so the 
construction appears to be. 

lb. ivox>.aiv, troubhsanta. Lueian II. 21 1. ii^ #W;^X« ou*. Alcipfa. 
HI. Ep. 36. oxjK tiravtroTO JvoxKS*" Tots UtifyrjfUtfrt. Plat. I Alcib. 
104, d. tvax^tit fit' 

676. ** ^o<ro< pendet abomisso irarraap, qnodad vomfp^raros subin- 
telligitur." Dixn. 

lb. Kparovtri. * Kpartiv xovtat (puherem tffnere, obtinere) dicuntur, 
qui eura tractant, qui eo uluntur.* Dind. The playful meaning 
latent in thi.s word has been well explained by the Scholiast: dnrtp 
*t tXryf^ iTovjjp6ra.r6s e'trri irtiiTjjt rijt y^s, ovotTtjf oi ^akamls Kpnrovtn, 

KlflbiXiaf KOI Tt4>p»t Ktll TOiaVTTJS XotTTJJt. 

lb. Kviaj<riri<ppov (ruicaQ), ritjipa), wLred wttft ashes. 

677. ^*x^o¥irpov (viTpop), having a false alkali in it. Jeremiah ii. 
3 2. " Fur though thou wash thee with nitre, and take thee much 
»ope, yet, &c." 

lb. Kovia, linvium, lie to vash with. Plat. 4 Rep. 430, a navrov 
xakatTTpalov dtivirripa koi kovuic. On the quantity of the word kovui. 
see Malt by. 

678 Ki^o)Xtac. Cimolus, now Argentiera, an island in the Cre- 
tan sea, producing chalk and fuller' s-earib. This yt) KiyioaXta is still 
used for sopc in the Archipelago. See Welcker- Raper, in Kidd's 
Dawes (p. 463.), translates : pessimua omnium qui lirivium ex nitro 
cum cinere adulterate et terra cimolia parat. 

679. ^vhtarpl-^ti. Plat. Gorg. 4^4. c. ntpairipw rot dcerroi tvdioTpi- 
jSriv. 6 Rep. 487, d. fioKportpov iphiarpi^Lv. 

lb. tduif (W T6ti^ K. r. X. Yet seeing all this, and aware that he is 
an object of hatred to every bodVf he is not a man for peace. 


186, c. 

ilpTiviKOi. Plat. 7 Leg. 814, c. 8i5.b. c. d. Isoc. 19, d. 82, c. 



TToXXaKt? y Tjfiuf tSo^if i) woXts iraropO^vai 

ravToi^ «ff n twv ttoXctcov rovf koXov^ re Kdya0ovfj 

e9 re rap-^alov vo^uifxa kou to Katvop \pvaiOP, 

oSr€ yap tovtoutip ovaip ov KCKi^rjXtvijUvoiS^ 685 

lb. aao^vBs, he stripped of his clothes. Cf. sup. 613. 

681. ^vKo¥^ a staff, « cudgel. Hcrodol. H. 63. ^vK^v Kopvvat *x***'' 
Tft, IV. 1^0. fiaxpyrai npin oAXi^Xar Xtdoitri rr kui ^v\ot<Tt, Eurip. 
Cyi'l. 209. '"X" '''"' ^f*^^ *'"¥ i^^V ^a«piJ'* fw^T*''^** Here. F. 995. ^v\ov 
Ka&^Kt naidor ftr ^vQup Kapa. Meleag. fr. V. tTi8r)poffptdi^ ft'Xoy. 

6S2. In the following antcpirrbema, the poet alludes to a decree 
passed only a year or two before, by which the old coin of the 
coiioir) was called in, (Ecclcs. 815-829.) and a baser metal sub- 
aiimted. The comparison subsequently instituted between good 
citizens and itjood coins, and the reverse, is a piece of imagery 
found also in other comedies of our author, as Acharn. 516. Plut. 
K62. See also ^Esch. Ag. "381. Eurip. Med. 516-19. Dem. 765, 
38. 766. 14. 1442. 5-10. Xen. Mem. 111. i. 9. See al.'io the pro- 
phet Jeremiah, c. V'l. v. 30. 

682—3. ittrrop$ivat TavTif er, to have been similarly affected, to have 
been under the same feelings in regard to. To numerous illustrations 
of this ftirre of ifie preposition (U given in former plays, add from 
Thiersch Xen. Mem, II. I. 19. iroiv ovk o'ftrOni xp^ roiTovt nal woMUf 
fftitat us rh Totai/ra. Plal. Lys. 3 10, b. us piv ravra, a av fPpAvtfua 
yfi>atfM$a, SirayT§s tfplv tTnrpi^ovtrut. Eurip. Med. 547. A A* (Is ydfMVS 
fUH ^iatriXiKoifs ui'ciSto'ar. 

6S4. rapxatov vApurpn. By this, I think, we are 10 understand 
the old Attic silver coin, so remarkable for its purity and intrinsic 
worth, and which is here set in opposition to a recent issue of gold 
coin, so alloyed and debased, that the poet subsequently hesitates 
not to cull it a copper-coinage (694.). The word v6pi(Tpa is found 
once in tlie remains of Sophocles (Anlig. 296.), and three or four 
limes in those of Euripides. (Cycl. 159. Er. fr. XX. 39. Qrldip. fr. 

IX. 1.3.) 

]h. j^putriov, ' aurtim signatum ; sic etiam apyvpiov et x^Kictov.' Th. 
None of the gold coins here alluded to have been found, and Eckhel 
(Ductr. num. vol. 11. 206.) seems properly to think, that the poet 

^ Th« ptiot, ipenkirif^ of n prnnd, itiuik'nl man, otwerrea t 
KoKov a x"^"^ rp6witv 
Tpl0tl> T« Kol irpotrfio/uass 
Ht\a^vayi)t ■wi\u 
Binauii0f\s, inn 
BiuKU iraTr worayhv tpvw, 

viXu ■wp6<rrpip^t &^tfrro¥ iv8*h '. 

Kl«inM*n trntialttm; Maiigne atria imlnr {tn\]*eT\n\» Whhmnn) eoifuoit attri' 
ft aliiauiiie itif/rum ctAoretH nantiwctlnrj rrtUtitur jtutictlttu ; qutni fitttri infltor 
peneeviyis rt/, f/ua re civUati eutawitnlnn inlulU viloiernbUefH. 



Kou fioifoi? 6p0w Konreiari kcw K€K<oScoviafi€i/oif 
ev re roi9 "EAAiyci kou rol9 ^p^dpoto-i Travrayov^ 
ypui^f^ff ouSipy aXXa tovtois toI^ irovrfpoh \akKioi^ 

\di9 T€ KOLi 7rp(07)V KOTTftrTL, TtO KOXlOTtp KOfllXaTl, 69O 

riov TToXtrwu ff ot)^ p-eu Xa^^p eiryevuv kol arco(ppopa9 
aifSpas ovras koll SiKaiovs Koi xoAofs* tc KuyaOovs, 

speaVs ironically. But see Doeckh's Econ. of Atliens. I. 33 : also 
Wachsm. III. 74. 

685. Ki^^riXtvtiv, properly, to aMterate money; more frequenUy 
found in a raclapliorical sense. Eurip. Daeeh. 475. c^ toCt* rKt^r). 
Xfvo-ar : Plat. t( I^e*^- 91 7» l>. d. Ki^HtjXat ;f/Ji>frof occurs Kurtp. 
Med. 516. See also Theognid. 119.959. In Av. 158. we find 
iroXXi^f Y dtfuiXte tov ^iov Ki0di)Xiav. Sue Bueckli's Ecnn. of Athenn, 


lb. oCatf . . KtKt&SrjXnfxfpois. On the untun of a port. subMan- 
tive with another purliciple, see Pursun ad Her. 358. 

686. KaXXitrrots. TWia cpitliet is to be applied to the intrinsic 
value, not to Uie external beauty of the Attic coins. (Eckhel^ p. 
ai I.) 

68y, jcoirctcri, stamped, ttftaagf Hi (Zeno sc.) rovr fuv twp aaoXoutta^ 
^6yovSt KOI dmjpTKrfjLfvovs, 6fiotovv €wai rip apyvpiea r^ *AXc^ii'A/Mr^' tv- 
o^$aXfitnfS fitv Koi ntptyrypaft^vovs, Kti$n xai to vopifTfta, otdcv Hi did 
ravra ^fXriovas. tovs Af Tovvavriov d(fiupoiov rots 'Amicots' rrrpad/Kijif/ioic. 
fijcg fi€v Kfnofifxivovt, km troXoUovt, KaBtXxttv fUvrui iruXAujui' rur rfxoX- 
XiypatpTjfitvas Xt'^iv. Diog. Laert. VII. 18. 

lb. K€ Kalian' i(TfLiyvts. Cf. SUp. 73. 

689. ;(aAKaii», copper cuin. 

690. x^^^ " «al TTpotTjv, A proi-erbial expre8»i(<n indicative of 
contempt for things of recent fabricatiun. 11. 11. 303. Plat. 2. Al- 

Clb. 141 > d. X^^C^ *"' *"* ifpon^a, (Schol. KaTftrpiKpvvf ritv tinftarrj XP^' 
yov^ iva p^, dui r^r uva^^afoif. nXtov iroi^trrj dyuvtaam rout "EXAijtoj.) 
Soph. Anti^, 456. ou yap Ti vvf yt Kax^'S, oXX* dti nort | ^ rnvrti. 
Plat. 3 Leg. 677. d. Dera. 270, 31. 

lb. Koppun. Plut. 862. 957. TOV wovjjpoO Kdfifiarot. Ach. 516. 
avHpdpia irapoKiKoppitm. 

691. wvy^v€is, I>aert. de phil. Pliitonis, III. 88. iiaipfirai Hi rf ti- 
ytpita tls (T^i; rirrapa. ci» /iff, iitv tatrty ot irpoyovoi ttaXot KoyaBdl Ka\ HI- 
Kauii, Toifs tK TOVTtuy yrytvrjptuovv, tvytvt'ts (jyarriv ttyai' aXXo Hi, <ac et&iv 
cl npdyovot dcfivraomfKorcr Kat lipx^yrts ytyrvijpAvot, roifs «V toctwi' rvyi- 
ytlt ffMtriv «ivai. akXo Hi, tov cjirtv ol frpoyovai ovapatrroiy ouiv aw6 trrpanj- 
yuitf ana <rTf0avir«i' uyaivuv* kuI tovs <V Tovratir ywytvTjptvovf , tu^Mic 
vpoaayoptvoptp. 3XXo €iHos, tap avr^t rif jj ytvvaHas rrfv yf^vx^^ tat firyU' 
X6^X^^$ '"»* TvvTov iirytinj tJMai. Km t^s yt tuyivtitis avrq KparUrrq, 



Kou Tpa(f>€in'aT cV iraXaiaTpai^ kcu xopoly koi fiov - 

7rpova€\ovfJL€j/j roFy Se )(a}iKOLS Koi ^vol9 Kat Trvpplats 
KOi iT0vr}pOL^ KOK TTOirqpwu €£$• aTTOVTa ^wfieda 695 

vaTaToi9 aX^tyfuifouTiVy olatv 1) ttoXis npo rov 
ovSf <l>apfjLaKoi(rw eifoj paSico? i^priaar ai/, 

6()'i,. rpatfMVTat. }( the pMloBophy o( E\\n\}\de8 lind ahvay.s termi- 
nated in &iich reflections as the following, ulit> woiilU have much 
regarded into what dramatic mouth they were put ? 

rd yap Tputprjvai fiij KaKots, atda tpipti' 
ala\vv€Tai. hi rayaff ocrjcrjirar attr^p 
icajcar icrxX^cr^t Trar nt. 17 d* fvavtpta 
hihnKrhy, ump koI fipi<^o$ didatncrrai 
\iyttv oMovfUf ff tmv fuWrj^iv aVK ?])[<(. 
o 8' av pa&ji Tiff, ravra crifffffloi <^tkti 
TTphi yi/pas' ovrv iraHat tv TTtudcvrrf. 

Suppl. 921, sq. 

lb ■waXaurrpais. Eurip. EI. 53'- vdXalvrpais dvlipht tirytifovs Tpa<^it. 
And. 600. dp6povt fraXnlarpas Tt KOu>at Tj^ova^, 

lb. poiHTtKT). By this word vve are to understand not simply 
tmunc, but all those branches of a liberal edtacatlon. by which the 
fniW is formed, as the pala*stra ini|)lied all those s:)'mnaatic exer- 
ciseN by which the body was formed, Cf. nos in Eq. 186. 

694. vpowrtXtlvt An old and rare form=7rpoin;Xniri^fii/, to treat tpUk ^ 
contempt. Pass.: whom see further in the word vpoat\i<a. j4ischyl. ' 
Prom. Vinci. 447. <ipwy«V'"^"'''^' "ifpova^tXoi/p^vov^ (where see Blomf.) 

lb. xo^'o'^ I" X"^*"s)» prop, coppfr-coins. (Arisi. Eccl. 817. 
ttiaryjv r^¥ yvdBov ;^aX««)' 7x*^r. ib. 820. prj df^^ccrdat pfjUtyat \ x<^^' 
toXoiit6v. Dem. C. Alid. 543. 26. ripf Korabiiajw iicririKt ... ; oWt x°^* 
lEuC'v ovd< nrai nat Ttjfupot^.) The poet thus terms the xawitv xp'^'^^°*'* 
mentioned above, in consequence of its having been much debased 
with copper (Boeckh. I. 34.) : mctaph. nten of bad character. 

lb. TTvppimi {TTvpplat), slaves: 80 called from the red colour of 
ihcir bftirp as those with yellow hair were termed Xanihiue. Cf. 
Dr. Wiseman's able and intcrenting Lectures, pp. 161. i73,&.c. 

695. mtinjpoXt jtdjt noyrfpuf. Soph. El. 589. mits hi ttp^a&tv tuat^ 
fitU I (Tof ti/fff^v ffXdtrrorras Jk^Xowt' ^X'*^- P^*'- 3'^4" ''"^ kokIctov 
HUM Kojcur 'OdiHTirfW. ib. 874. fvyfvijf yip rj <f)v(ns im^ rvyfVWK. 

697. iftaptinKoifTiy, scajte-goaiSf expiatory offerings. Cf. nos in Eq. 
708. 1099. Bergler quotes two fragments of Eupolis in illustration 
of (be text, which are here subjoined. 

o^ 6' oltt ^ ttht^rff oiiif hv oiv6rrrat npo rov, 



Xpri<T0€ T0L9 xp'T]<rTOi(rLv ai6i9' teat KoropOuxraat yap 
tvXfyyov* kov ti o-^oAj^t , i^ a^iov yovv rov ^vkov, 700 


vw\ OTpanfyovt * * i2 wiktt, irtSXif* 

Eup. ad Athen. X. 435, b. 
The following fragment, according to Brunei^, waa part of a para- 
basu, addreued by a Chorus, conniating of old men, to the spec- 
tators : 

ovrw aip6ip' oAyM, r^f iroXirrioF jpftw nap' ijfiiVt 

iSXX* ^4rav ^^iv r^ irffXci npirroy ^v ot orporTyoi 
fV Ta>¥ fityioTttv oUtmtf^ nkovr^ ycvei r« TrpwriM, 
olf awfTfpri dcoKTiy rjv^6^v0a' Ktu yap ^a-atf. 
M0T* atTifiakitt rir/MXTTO/Mr. i^rt d* oiroi rvjfoifuv, 
<rrparrv6fitirff atpoCfuvoi KaOdp^iara crrpon^Tout. 

Id. ap. Stob. Floril. p. 163 

The word KoBapfutra (cf. Dem. c. Mid. 574, 19. 578. 30.) in this 
fragment is equivalent to the word (papftaKoX in the text. For an 
error which St. Croix has fallen into on the subject of expiatory 
rites, ai connected with the Eleusinian mysteries, see M. de Sacy*s 
note, I. 303. 

lb. tiK^ pqdims, easily, and earettsilj/. 

698. ft€Ta^iaX6rr0t rovs rp&vovs. Arlst. Plut. 36. fMTa^oXorra rovt 
rpSnavs. Thcs. 733. riiji^a ti at t^rra^dkoinr \ eirl mmiir irtpvrptjmmr \ 
rn-f^d Tif Tvx^. Eurip. Iph. A. 343* /urci^aXui* aXXovr rpdirovr. Eu- 
pulis ap. Stub. Serm. IV. fMrafiakovrtt toi't rpdirovr. 

699. xp^aBt ToU xpl^^o'^'^^- Conz. imitating the jingle of the 
original, translates ; Braucht die Brauckham, die Gtfien tcied^r ! 

lb. KfrropSovv {opBovv, erigere), to succeed in a bvsinessi to which i»> 
oflen opposed the verb tr<f}kx\*tr^(u, to stumble, to fail in a buxine^s. 
Plut. 35^' 4*' t*'*' '^°^'*P&onTaftfP, ti vpoTTtti' uti' I ^v if (TtfniXiifuVf rVt* 
Trrpi4>^at ro vapdirap. Soph. El. 416. afnnpoi \6yot | ca^ijXat' rfdrj <oI 
MaratpBufTOif ^porov%. Eurip. Arch. fr. XXVI. 2. iff yap ioftr^uXg, \ th 
6p6iiv ttmj. Cf. >Esch. Eum. 743. Eur. Phoen. 85 i. 

700. r^oyov, laudi vobis erU. Th. 
lb. f£ d^tov Toi ^vXov. A pause of some duration ; then, ini^tcad 

of sayiog. in trasic phrase, you viU/ali nobly, (Eurip. Iph. T. 321. 
nvXadi;} $ayoCtuff' aXX' oirwc OaimCfitda \ KuXXi<rtf*. rirov futt, (^Knryavoi' 
awdtrat X*P^' ^^- 80. Kparurrov ovw wpv uflrodaFcIy, uXXa ajcomi oirwr of 
anoOufotfitv uvSpdCbrrara.) the Cbotus with an arcb look adverts to a 
commun proverb, which recommends a mRn about to hong him- 
self, himself to select a good piece of timber for the purpose, and 



T]V Ti Kcu 7rcuT)(T]T€^ irooy^iv T0i9 (ro(f>oi9 SoKi^arere. 
AL yrf TOP Ata tov acoTijpoj ytvyaSa^ amjp 

suck as wiU not fail him by breaking with his weight. By this 
bumttroua and dexterous turn, the poet removes any chusc of 
offence, which the more serious pan of his address might be calcu- 
lated to give. 

703. And do our two lacqueys hold a dry colloquy? Forbid it 
every feast of Bacchus, of which we ever heard ! forbid it all the 
bonds which have tied lacqueyism together, since the world of 
man and mQ»tfT iirst began ! A dry colloquy ? Whence then the 
peculiar adjuration in the text (cf. in^. 1019.), and all those confi- 
dential communications, which we shnll presently have to encoun- 
ter, communications rarely made but post poi-uia, or inter pocnla ? 
As the great compotation. however, has taken place within, (where 
Uie reader may allow wine ad libitum,) we can admit here but one 
huge common flask, and two separate cups ; Xanthias, of course, 
drinking thrice to .4*lacus's once, and in a goblet, which had its depth 
equalled itjt breadth, the lank, spare partner in his potations might 
ii absolutely have floated in it. 

[ lb. Of " Jupiter saviour," something will be said in a following 

j note. (infr. 1C92.) At present (as nothing connected with the Ores- 
! tean Trilogy seems foreign to our puq>08e) we shall take advantage 
[ of another adjunct belonging to this title, viz. Jupiter ** third and 
' saviour," to endeavour to throw some light on one or two passages 
* in the Agamemnon, which have either been left unnoticed, or, 
as we think, unsatisfactorily explained by the commentators on 
./Kachylus. It need scarcely l>e ubstirved, that on the great fes- 
tive occasions of antiquity, three libations were usually made, 
the first to Jupiter Olympiftn, the second to Heroes, the third 
to Jupiter Saviour. (Heind. ad Flat. Charm. ^. 33.) At each 
of these it is not improbable, but more certainly at the last, a 
solemn chaunt, or song {^X-ni}) took place, nut unlike perhaps the 
* Aon nobis, Domine,' which concludes our owit public repasts. In 
the heroic ages, ihii* chaunt appears to have been performed by the 
daughters of ^ royal, as well as other houses ; and hence it is said 

Kthe maiden Iphigenia : 
I Kluisvi, in roinmeiitlu^ on thi» pHsage, oliwrrm that he hu Iwen unatleto 
lanyteoonfl exniniile i«f thin fratiire of (he heroic timea of Utwcb. ReoaU 
ions of fanner rtwiings induood lu to think that we could lupply die rifHt. 
dsDCT from an nld poem, of which the ai-ene indeed i* laid in Gothland. IhiI of 
vhlcfa the miiauMts are evideoUv in a |(rc»c dep-w hurruwrd rnmi the heroic 
i^n : (and who that oonnden wfwnce the (nKltn originAUy canu% would expect to 
we tbcm derived from any other quarter?) but we were niisuiken. On turning 
I to oar Beowulph fthe (Hiem in queiden), we Hmnd tluit thtni^h ilie ruyaJ ooiuort 
rodftar BU|rplirft the heroei aesenhM in hin princely halU with itieir ffoblec 
(a contetitai it t» the monardh*! proTeuional bardi who furuiah the nymn 

L a 




voTfyiis car dviip^voi cvrpaw/fotf 


wdov tCTtUTfUtV 

Ag. (KUuH. ed.) 2 19, sq. Cf, infr. 1019. 

But ii U less with this royal maiden — as chaste in thought (ay*^) 
as intact in person (ardipwror) — than with her mother, ibat uur 
prcsoril business lies. Neither the present nor the ancient sli<g« 
present many itpectaclcs naore striking than that in which this 
bold and frontless woman — as splendid in ' talent as debased in 
'Affections— stands forward to ju:<tify the deed which she has jiui 
committed. Her two bleeding victims lie before her; the sword, 
which has sent Cassandra nnd Agamemnon to their graves is id 
her hands, and the long entangling robe, which, thrown like a 
net about her lord, when ready to take the bath, had mode him 
an easy victim to a woman's hand, is before her eyes. *' Twice," 
says this fiends " I struck the blow — twice did be groan, and 
then all strength forsook him : but as he fell, a third blow did 
1 inflict : 'twas a libation vowed and grateful to the saving god, 
who rules the nether world." After some intervening remarks, 
the speaker returns to the preceding image in the following 
words : 

ruft av diKatut ^y, virfpStKtos fUv ouv. 

Tovitvdt t^/mrrip o» bopois koxw od< 

irX^trac apatait avrbt imritvi /loXttv. Ag. 1366. 

wliirb concludes the regal repast. In one point of Wew, liowever, eirciimitaficn 
ftiv lc»s wide apart : tlie chAunc of Iphigcnia to * the mving^ Jupiter* \xmn uoi 
a numi religimt* stnnip upon it than the grace-cup struin of the (ivuw: hall* 

" For the hnrp was there, and the harAa who knew 

How this wondroiu frame of nnture grew; 

How the hearens ahore were rloth'd in light, 

Auil the eartli in her robet of green was dighi : 

Or the tnoon nnd the hright'niiig Hun uing ^^fi 

And tlie stiirs tlmt ply tlieir silent way : 

Of fniit they told, and of herb and Aower, 

And uf man, ihdr lord, how he grew in poir«r. 

Till wealth, and riclieb, and gladness luid he, 

And his heart rose high in mirth and gleo.** 

(lleuwulph, Ttiorketiu*s n). p. 9,) 
How Orcndell (the Typhon of Groek mythology) entered to destroy thia weiie ut 
happineMt, fallt not within our limits to say. 

t To the proof of both : what can poetry shew more magniAoent in imagery 
tlmn the course of torcfa^tgniiU which Clyumiaestm dewrihes; or unUory 
duca more artful in arrangement, than the speedi with which the meets ber ' 
abwnt lord ? And yet tliis woman quits the princely Agnmemnon — Uie idol, 
(fhall hereafter we. i>f his nobility, the revered of his subjecu, and the belovol 
of menials and capCireti — to feed on such garbage as the wretrhi<d .Mgii>[hu». 
Bat one word more of this wr<>tchetl woman — In grandeur of conoeptiun, and in 
power of execution, will the mother of Hamlet beisr the faintent ivNnparison witJi 
the Clytsmnestra of ^schyliu ? Y«c Shakspeare bad many powerful predooaa- 
ton 10 ftUmulaie exertion ; the Greek dramatist had none. 

eiie of |! 




6 S^OTTOTijs crov. SA. TTtur yap ov\i y^vpa&as^ 

AI. TO Sc fxi] irard^ai a i^€X4:yy6€VT aifriKpv^^ 705 

oTi Sou\os (ov ((paaKf? uvea 8e(r7roTr)^\ 

SA. ^yuo^ fxei/Toi/. AI. touto jjLtvrot SovXikov 

€vdu9 7r€7roii]Ka9j 07r€p eyo) \aLpm wouoi^. 

SA. \aip€L9j 'iKtrtwrn ; A I. /xoAA' tTromrevetif SokH^ 

The bitter irony coniained in the word tnunreuHtiv, which allu<1es, not 
to fuDcml libations usually paid to the dead, but to the third blow 
inflicted on the dead body of her husband by Clyttemnestra, haa 
escaped the commentators. Instead of raif, we ought, 1 think, to 
read rydr, filling up the cllipbti thus, r^d* [fmowivdtii') or duaias ^p 
(tmf itptiT6vTa>v), and translate as follows: '• And if ever it were 
among becoming things to bestow such a blow, or libation, on 
a lifeless body, it would justly — justly do 1 say ? — it would huve been 
more than justly among thing.s proper to bestow such a libation on 
the body here before nie." (pointing to it at the same time.) 

704. nltftiv Kol {_$uf€i»'\. And is this breed of gent f emeu — the gen- 
tlemen of lacfjucys, grooms, and chambermaids — yet tolerated be- 
yond the bounds of such " vvoriihipful society }" Undoubtedly the 
improved moral and religious habits of society have done much to 
put them in abeyance ; but they are not yet absolute outcasts from 
society, as they deserve to be. it is in the hope of lending some 
little aid to msdce them such, tbat the text, with the mere exception 
as to brackets, is allowed to stand as the editor finds it. Thiersch 
notices the play of words, which he entleavonrs to catch by trans- 
lating Weiit und li'eib. (On the principle of liJcc master, like man, 
a huge potation is here made by Xanthias.) 

705. r6 W fitf irara^i. To the examples of this construction 
given V'eap. 845. Nub. 267, add Eurip. Med. 104;. uXXi rijs (>i^r 
KOxtft I TO xal irpo4<rBai fAaXBaxovt X6yovs tftptvi. Alccst. 84S. aXXa o'ov 
rh fitf ippaaax, | itfucov TotrnvTov diifiatTiif rpo<rKtifi«¥OV. ^sch. Eum. 833. 
(Mailer's ed.) 

«fxi waBfir rdJtr. 

tf/M waXai^poya Kara yas olmiv ari'<ror fiUros. 

I 8ee also Ast ad Plat. Conviv. §. 5. 

m^ 707. fnw^ iiiyrav, he would have suffered for it : it noM have 
^^pvn all over with him, if he had done it. ^Xanthian, in the true 
^^■irit of '* High Life bclows Stairs." speaks with much dignity.) 
^^» 709- ivom-tCfip, to be an iit6rmjs, to be an eyewitness o( the 
most solemn part of the Eleusinian mysteries. It is observable, as 
innected with our general remarks respecting the tenor of this 




arcuf KorcLpourmfxax XtxOpa r^ Sioirorj}. 

SA, Ti Si TQvdopv^coUy Tjt/iK 00/ vXrjyas Xa^v 

TToAAay cc7rti;s' dvpoJ^t ; AI. kolL roff ijSafiOi, 

SA. Ti Si TToAAa irpirrmv ; AI. c^f /ia A/* w8€P oiS 

SA. biixyyvve Zev' kgu wapaKovtav Sunroroiy 

dramn, that the verb incmrtmiv, though not unfrequent in JEAchy- 
Iu8, (Ag. 1241. 1569. Choeph. i. 483. 07a. 1050. Eumen. an. 
315.) U not to be found id the rematni of either Sophocles or Eu- 
ripides. Plato, Phirdr. 250,0. 7 Epist. 333, e. ^wXv Ka\ /irofrrfveu'. 
Conviv. a 10, a. ra rtXca cat rn-oirriicd. Translate : / om at the height 
of human bliss. Fur more important matter, connected with the 
word, see Appendix (F). 

710. orav Karapdaf^fiai, \.t. *. n mihi faculta$ fit domiuvm clam ftr- 
secrandi. Tu. rather, to abuse. Cf. nos in Nub. 839.^ and add £u- 
rip. Alcest. 730. ap^ yowC-o-o', ov^iv KmIUkcp waBinf ; See also Welck- 
er's Nachtrag. Sic. p. 320. 

711. Tov$opif^tt¥, to mutter, to gmvUile. Cf. nos in Ach. p. 148.. 
and add, as quoted by Spanheim, Oppiau U. 541. <l»Ocyyriv d* <r 
vro^ra»>' fitpoirrjtba rovdopvCovrtt (ffir). 

712. roXXa ff-parraiv, indulging in impertit^eni atrionty^ Cil sup. 

lb. *' Ad in fA^ ^C, etc. repctcndum x^^P^ '• *^ lator, ui nulla alia 
re me Ixtari scio. Ad postrema Reisk. 1. ou^iy SX\' (i. e. 3K\o) ry^ 

SC. ^3o/ini." DlNO. 

714. 6fi6yvif (itiin, yivw) Zrv. The Jupiter of antiquity bore 
various epithet:^, according to the circumstances and situations of 
those by whom he was invoked. Was the invocation by two or 
Tnore/riends^ He was addressed as the Zrus ^iXtot. Was it by a 
party banded together for politiciU purposes ? He was then the 
Zwi/s fraipiios, * rcAftoc, ^Uitrtos, ^ fcV u>e, '" /a<>Xi;^<o(, "oXc^r^piofa 

i The dotible seiue, in which thii word in used in the foUowiug pMMge of the 
Agamemnon^ hu not ticcn observed by Hlomf.j 8cholet'., or Wellautfs 

Ztv, Ztv rJXtttj rht i^Aj evx^f T^A«r 

HtKoi hi Toi <xol rmvwtp &v titXAps rcAfU'. 946. of. 939, tq. 
For full explanations u( the word tc'Aiuis, a* it occurs in jEachylus, me Klaiuen't 
Theolot^mcnB JE»ch. pp. 75-6. 81. 

k Non. Dionyt. XVIH. 19. wpht Athr Utotvio, thu, Ativvct, ^vir^r. JEmh. 
Siippl. .1^1. 354. 610. 

I Non. DiQiiys. XXIV. 32. irpbi Si Ttoii ^wlota icai Zit«rfoia rwc^of. JEfgc^. Ag. 
60. 353. 684. 725. Sujipi. fm. 656. 

"* The B*ut Mttxixtos wiu clio pmtectiir of tliustf wliu railed upon and appwaed 
him with expiatory rices. In the expiatory rites of C'em, the offering oonaiattd 
ofpigB burnt whole, no part bt*iiij[ eateji by the party uttering, or his friends; 
in those nf Jupiter Aleilichius, the uffering a)nuBted of a ram, on the &]un of 
whidi tlt« feet of the parly purified were pUu-ed Cf. Xen. Anab. VII. 8, 4, 5. 
Thucyd. I. ij6. liobeck's Aclaophanuis, I. 183-6. 

** ./fiach. & c. Th. if, ifr Zii^ iKtlrrHiptos | 4inirvnaf y4mtTo KaSfAtlmp irtfAci. 



ScTT ctp XaXciat ; A I. /laAAa ttAcZm ^ fiaamfiou, 715 

SA. n Sf t6i9 6vpa^€ ravra KocrakakSiv ; AI. iyto ; 

fia At \ oAA* orat/ £/><!> roirro, KaKfjualvofiat. 

SA. w <I>oilQ' "AttoAAoi/, efiffaXf /zot 7^1/ Se^toM, 

KOI 809 Kvaau Kavro9 kvctou, Kai ftoi (ppaxTop, 

TTpos' Aiof, Off rjfjup €<mv OfXOfiacrTtyiafj — 740 

rr^truf o, and many nnore t^nns are easily explicable on the same 
nile. Even tiie slave, as we shall presently see. had his Zrw 
SoCXtoT, to whom he could appeal an a partner in the cuffs and 
scourgings which he was fated to endure {ofiofmanyiat). But to 
GOtne to the god's more immediate title. The ZeuH Homo^iuH. as 
its name imports, was the Jove by whom those of the same blood, 
aa brothers and sisters, swore -, and we must translate, or rather 
paraphrase accordingly: So help me Jove! why we are very kith and 
kin, actual brothers, to closely do we (ally in our feelings and modes 
of think my ! Kurip. Androra. 923. aXX' ayrofiai <r« ^ia Kakowr 6ft6' 
ywicv. Soph. (Ed. Col, 1 ^^^. irpos Btutv 6ftoyvl»v. Non. Dionys. XIV. 
10. Cf. infr. 1091, sq. 

lb. vapoKoviiVt to overhear. Plat. Euthyd. 300, d. nap' ovr»r rov- 
Tta» aiira ravra frnpojnjjcdrt. j^lian. V. H. V. 9. irapfio'pvris df fir r^ 
ntpirrarov^ luii vaptiKuixov rStr \6y«v. 

715. Stt' ay XaAwai sc. \atpftf ; or rfdr} ; as at v. 7 I 2. 

lb. ^uiAXci irXttv ti paivopai. Cf. sup. 96. Translate : / am more 
than madwithjoy. Berglcr quotes Eurip. Cycl. 463. lov loif yiyfiBa^ 
ffAtM6p4a$a ToTf rvprfpaatv. 

716. ruif $vpa(t, out-door persons. Eurip. Med. 85. Ale. fr. 13. 
t>ictys. fr. I. Tov iriXat. Hec. 982.T«i'irXi7(r*oi'. t^i^y . rw ttttl. 1 160. 

irpiV. Suppl. 1050. xp^^^^ ^^^ irp6vff. Fr, Inc. 86. rmv Syav yitp 
rrrat | $ri>tt ra fHitp^ 0* tit Tvxr}v a<pt\t «^ 
lb. KimiXaXfik. ausschwQtzen, to betray by blabbing. Pass. 

717. fHfuaifOfiai. Conz translates paraphrastically : das geht 
trrhs Mark^ das kitzelt durch und durch den Mann. That goes through 

marrow, that tickles a man through and through. 

718. ffi^aXt pot rifv df^iaf. Soph. Tr. I 183. cfi^SaAAf X''P° ^•^*' 
•lara fiot. PhiL 183. f^i/3aXXr x**P°^ irlcTiv. r'/i^JoXAw /uFftv. 

iphiliis ap. Athea. 293* b. rr)v tt^ihv ivi^Xow. Dem. c. Mid. 
3» «5' 554*33. 

7 1 9. tatvuv, to kiss, aor. i . Znvaa. 

720. o^io/KMmyi'ar {opov, ^ooTif), a sharer m a cudgelling. Cf. sup. 
rs4. (Xanthiaa, instead of following up his inquiry, here stop** 

o JEuAx. Suppl. 437. neu xf^H^"^ f^^*' ^ S^M*** n^tv/i^wa | yivwr* iw &AA11, 
vriftfiou Aihs X^^"' Ag. 1005. 



fi^h^^y Ya» AoiSoprjo'fXO^ ; AI . Altr^Xou K€vpvKi&ov, 

^^ SA. a. AI. IT pay ^ irpayjia piya K^Kiinjrai pi4ya 
<V Tois iffKpourt Koi iTTauTti iroWi] navv, 
SA. eoc Tov ; AI. i/oftof rt? ivOaS iari KUfx^vo^ 715 
OTTO r(op r€)(po}ify ocrai p.€ya\ai kcu Sf^tai^ 
TOP apiOTOP ovra riip iavrov avtrrexvcou 
u-'iTqfTiV avTOP eV 7rpVTav€Up Xafx^opetv, 
OpouQP re 70V YlXovraiPo? e^y. SA. fjULpdavto. 

abort, in confieqaence of hearing TouH shouts, and a confused med- 
ley of discordant sounds.) 

722. Xoi!tnpTf(rfi?tt, wrangling. On words of this sort, see Lobeclc, 
Parerg. ad Phrynich. p. 51 »» and Bergl. ad Alciphr. p. 87. 

lb. Af0';^Xoiy x. (whispers with an air of much mystery and im- 

733. wfMyfxa vpayfia, k. r. A, Thiersch, in illudtratiou of the 
force given by this sort of reiteration, quotes Av. 1723. fAtyaXat, 
fuyakat Jcare;(oviT( rvxoi. Plut. 348< ?vi yap rtr, ttvi xivduvof tv r^ wpay' 
futTi, 1080. 0(8* olia ritv vow. 

725. tK ToC pro tic ritfos SC. npayfiarot, quare? Kurip. Suppl. 143. 
Helen 93. Elect. 346. 

lb. vd/iOff KflfltVOt . . Flut. 91 4> TOIS »^^lff ToU KftfAt'voit. KuHp- 

Dec. 391. vofioi d' (V v/iiF roit T t\«v6ipoii 10*0; | cai roixTi AouAotc at- 
fiaroff Kcirai vrrpi. 14. vopoi yvvaiKiov ov Keivrai nipi. Dem. 
720,13. Lys. 104, s- Xen. Mem. IV". 4. 16. Dem. c. Mid. 

533, 29. oviiw COT* StpeXot . . tfuXavSpotmas roits v6pt*vt imip raav yroXXuv 
KMiaBtu. 563, 1 I. odirw rdv^t rhv v6pov wapa$aiyav' ov yiip fircird «-«». 
So also irpoKti^tvos, j^sch. Pars. 377. Soph. CEd. T. 865. Aotig. 
4S1. Eurip. Iph. T. 1 189. 

726. dffi rStv Ttxvav, i. e. a iaw, thai out of all the professions, he 
who is the best of his competitors, &c. 

727. Conz quotes Petit. Comment, in leges Alt, p. 523. rAr 
Apttrrov ovra rwi' eavrov <rvvTtxv6>v (rlrrjaiv tv irpvravet^ Xafifiat^w ml 
wptnHpiav. The Attic custom is here transferred to Hades. Sec 
also Bloinf in Persis, p. 175. Wachsm. IV. 316. 

729. It is perhaps less to any local and particular practice in 
Athens, that we are to look fur the origin of this proceeding, than 
to that general opinion of mankind, which has ever assigned a high 
place in future worlds to those illustrious persons, who by their 
advancement of art, science, and general literature have contri- 
buted to the instruction or amusement of their fellow-creatures in 
this. The sentiments of the heathen world on this point, as they 



are found in Virgil, need not hero be quoted. That something 
like the same sentiment was heltl by the Jewish nation may, t 
think, be collected from tliosc writings which hare come down to 
us Oft those of the son of Sirach, and by the side of which the linest 
works of the Grecian moralists often have to ' bow their diminished 
beads.* (See c. XLIV. v. f-6.) When we consider under what 
circumstances of neglect, derision, and even persecution, these best 
benefactors of their species hKve often had to pursue their course, it 
must doubtless be of such, as well as of the virtuotis man combating 
the ills of life with unsubdued fortitude, that auother of these half- 
inspired uTiters must be understood to speak, when he bursts into 
that noble declaration: " We fools counted his life madness^ and 
his end to be without honour i bow is he numbered amouf^ the chil- 
dren of God, and his lot is among saints l" Arc wc to apologi:fe 
for the occasional introduction of thoughts so serious into a work 
like the present ? We offer none. The mixed duty of an editor of 
Aristophanes, who undertakes his task in somewhat of a higher 
spirit tban as a mere explainer of words, phrases, and metres, t« 
prescribed by the motto prefixed to these volumes ; and if in ibe 
execution of that duty» one higher thought should be raised in ibe 
bosom of ingenuous and reflecting youth* that thought and it» pus- 
■ible results will repay the editor for a!l bis toils far more richly 
than all that mirth, though " hohhng both his sides,'' could ever 

lb. 0p6imt, a chair of state. Among the poems ascribed to Or- 
pheus, are a set, entitled 0povttTfio\ ^j^rpwot, wliich IJoeckh. ad Pind. 
Fragm. p. 555, supposes to have been sung on those solemn occa- 
sions, when the statue of some deity was placed on a stale-chair. 
Not 80, says the PAglaopbamns of the present day. *' Equidem 
dixerim in lectistemiis. quie a Gnecis quoqiie celebrata esse con. 
Stat, V. Casaub. ad Suet. Jul. C. 78, in Catagogiis, Epidemiis,|Theo- 
xenils aliisque pompis, quibus deorum statute lavalum missee aut ad 
alia templa quasi ad salutandum deducts, aut lustrandi gratia^agris 
circumvectte, ad sues referrentur sedes. Orphei autem Bpovio-^ole 
fitjTptoovs sacronim Phrygiorum causa scriptoa arbilror el ad cele- 
braudam myslaxum Incathedrationem, de quaprmio libra §. t5. dic- 
tum est." Lobeck, p. 368. The Professor's chair of our own days 
grew out of the provisions made by the Roman emperors, when 
the Sophists of the age were to be stimulated by honours and re- 
varda of every kind, in order to create an effective opposition to 
the progress of Christianity. Sec our Introdtiction to the Clouds 
of Aristophanes, and c(. Brucker, t. II. p. 31 1. The word 0p6yot oc- 
curs in the remains of all the three Tragic writers, also in the Or- 
phic hymns and fragments. Hymn. 62. ^ (^('^7 sc.) Ka\ Zrjvi^t Svok- 

roff «V( 6p6vo» Upitv l{ti. Ft, I. oIto^ yi\p (Zruc SC.) ;^oX«iOi' «V wpQ»it¥ 
4trnjpiKTai [ j^pvcitf tivi Bpoytp, et alibi. Cf. infr. 733* 


9 Cf. infr. 998. 



A I. €&)y dtpiKOiTo r7}v riyyr^v <ro(fxoT€p09 
ertpos Tis avTov' rem Si wapaxjcopeLy eS^i, 
SA- Ti Srjra TOVTL T€ffopv^r)K€v Al(r)(yXoi* ; 

AI. €K€ll/09 €l)(€ TOlf Tpay(f8lK0tf BpOVOU^ 

w w^ KparujTQS rrju r4')(yi)v, SA. pw\ 8e ris ; 
AI, oTf Stj KUTTJAff EvpiTTiST]^^ errfSfUvvTo 
roFr XoyjToSvTai^ kou T019 ^aAaPTiTp'opjOLS 
KCLi Toicn TraTpaXolauri kcu TOtxo}pv\ot?, 
oTrep eoT eV AiSov ttXtjOos* oi S oKpowfuifOi 

lb. nXovT»)Mit g^s, near Pluto. Eurip. Iph. Aul. 637. <^c KoB^t^ 
dcvpd ^f iroduc, riKvov. Lyaist. 633. cum daL cf^s ' Apitrroytirovi. 

731. napaj(t>ptiv. i^schin. yj, 2 3. napaj^copit fToi rov ^jjparot, 

732. rf6opv^i)Ktv, fxturbavit. Soph. Aj. 164. imo roiouroar wfbpitv 
Gapvfitt, Plat. Euthyd. 2j^,i\, ywi/s avr6it Tt0opv&t}pt¥o». 

733. Bpovav. Philost. de Vit. Soph. I. p. 526. irpovanj (Lollianus 
EpUesiiis) rov \\6ri¥Tnrt dpowv wpwros. Id. p. 63 1. dc Pbilisc'o Tbes- 
salo. Tov A* *A6T)yT}tTt 6p6vov irpoPonj tr5>v iirra, 

735. rtrtiiuKwm, made an (ostentatious) exhibition. Arist. Incert. 
Fab. 561. (Dind.) pripard rt Kop^tx »a\ naiyvt ^tdcutvvpot | navr iw* 
dxpoifnuritity Kan6 Ktva^fvparmv. Plat. Lach. 179, e. uu in^ftt rovrov 69 
yvir vfuip tSfotraa^t firiUfiKvCpfwov. Euthyd. 274, d. ftirov oZp *yi», ^Q 
Ev&vihjpt Kai Aiowtrodi^p*, vayv piv ovp varri Tpiiirtf koi tdvtois )^apttraO'~ 
Bav cat «pav tPtxa ivi^ti^erdav. Xen. Mem. II. 1.2 1. Kul Qpuducos H 
6 (ro^( fv rw avyypappari r^ ntpt 'HpaKXiavs, (oirrp d^ koI rrXtlirroit 
ntidtLKwrai,) MravTaSf k. T.i. 

737. narpaXoiauTt, With what bas b«en said on thia subject in 
former plays and sup. 142., cf. .^Ucb. Eumcnides : 

froXXa fl" trvpa irai^orp^ra 

rraSta itpoa-piptK tok*Z- 

<nv, ptra r aZBiv iv XP^^^- 473- 

738. "Kiiov, i. e. Athena, 
lb. trX^doc. As Democracy had not yet so far advanced in the time 

of jEschylvis^ that every thing was decided by mere numbers^ we 
must not be surprised that tJiis favourite expression for the ruling 
power in Athens is not found in his present remains. In Sophocles 
it appears, I believe, but once ; (C£d. Col. 66. tipx^i rtr airriov, ^ Vi 
Ty TrX^fi Xrfyoff ;) in Euripides, it is of much more frequent occur- 
rence ; sometimes in a favourable, sometimes in an unfavourable 
sense : 

*ev. ovK itm BtnjTmft ooric ftrr tXtvStpot.. 
fj XprjpartMf yhp AoCXoV •trru', )| Tv^iJ*. 



Tciv avTtXoyiw Koi XxryuTfi^u kol OTpo<fmu 
{rTrcpf^iainjaav, Kavofiurap acxfxoTarov' 
KcoTUT eTrapdel^ avreXa^ro rod Opovov^ 


tipyovat j^n^aBm fiij Kara ytfutfxrjv Tpotroii. 



Karri tmA' aMurraTtu 
avrip Ttt d$vp6y\»tTao9, t<rj^vwif Bpatru, 
Q ^ApytloK, ovK *Apytlotf ^wryKao'/icvor, 
6opv^ Tf iriavvoc Kapadtl wapprjtria 
nt&avos €T d<rTovs irtpt^aXt'of Kojrfp nvl. 
(rraw yap rfivs Tols Xoyois, tfipovStv kojcuc, 
fttiffjf TO irX^doty rj vS\u itait6y pjiyO' 

Orest. 893, sq. 

See also Suppl. 362-5. Orest 933, Phcen. 727. 

lb. Di d* oKpowfui'oi. auditores, as sup. ol Btioptvoi. spectatores. 

73Q. oyrtXayiai^oin-tAoyucoi Xoyni, aaphisms, arguments composed 
for either side ; method of disputing against every thing. Cf. uos 
in Nub.3 14. 1 1 27, 

lb. 'kvytap^t (Xvyi'^m), hendings, twist ings : applied to dancers^ 
(Vesp. 1487. TrXfvpai' Xvyitravrot vn6 pw^»;r. Phil. Vit. ApoU. IV. 7, 
CTTf l flf rjKovtrtv an aiXov Cvotnjp^vavrof \vyttrp.ovs up)^ovvTai) : to wrest- 
lers, (Lucian dc Gymnas. kqI atOurfiovs koI ntpinXoK^t xal \vyia-pxtvt. 
Philost. Icon. II. p. 7S9. ry Sc rmrdo'ci rav (TKe\tav dvufuvj} j(pT)tTafi«votf 
oifK «<PBtj riip XvyiOfioit rou 'kppiy^tavot tKXaKria-ru,) and tO SOphlStJC 
mrls, (Plat. 3 Rep. 405, c. nda-as ti du^dovr du^XOitv uTroorpa^KU 
^XvyiCdptrot.) Cf. Spanh. 

lb. aTpo<p<o¥. Arisl. Plut. I 154. arptxfiautv ; oAX* ovk 7pyow ttrr ou- 
dipvTpotpmy. Thes. 68. Karoird/tirrfti' rar orpo^r. ..'^scll. Suppl. 617- 
'itffujyopovt d* tJKov<rtv evmiBfit frrpo^c I Brjpot UtXatryw. Plat. 3 Rep. 
405, C. Uapot Trdtrac piv orpoi^or OTp/t^a^ai. Tim. 43* d. natras piv 
vrpiy^ai arpot^t, Euthyd. 302, b. &itop6v nva trrpoiprfv t^ttvyov. 

740. vntpipdvrjaav, were delighted beyond measure. 

lb. trotp^arov. " Ergo ex istiusmodi hominutn judicio, quibua 
parem habct, qui pariteratque ilti judicavcrit." Tu. 

741. *wap$fU, elevated (in mind). Cf. nos in Nub. 43. 
lb. dyrtkd^rro rou $p6»ov, chimed, seized the throne. Plat. Pro- 

317, d. dvTiXa^pMiKH ratv ^Bpav, Lys. i8o» 44. dyrtXapSdyfadtu 


4 Ai ihe Orestes of Euripidei wa» exhihitrd only three year» Iwfore tfae IUiub« 
t^B i« mou prob&ble thst tfae CIvophon of mir presenl dmiuih is here maftut. Ago 
^4Uul rtfiection biuj jterLapi un^jht dm ptMft, ttmt fUunocracy and damnogUM WflM 
quits what be ihought iheiri in parliw days. 

r A«y(C<^M<'«>. Belt., hut cf. Scholia and Kuhnk. edtta, p. 156. 



Ip Ala")(yko^ KaOrjaro, HA. kovk ijiaXXero; 
AI. /za At\ oAA' o 8rjfi09 auefioa Kpitrw 7roi€tv 

OTTOrepOf €17] TTJV T€^irqV <T0<f><OT€p09, 

743. ^oKktiv, to cast stones, to pelt. Vesp. 1253. ow6 yap oXrw 
yiyvtrai | Kul ^pottamjiTat Kat trani^ai cm fiaktiv. 1 42 2. 6fAo\oySi yoft 
wara^ koi ^oXrif. Eurip. Orest. 904. wiVpoir ^aXXovrrs. Atidrotn. 
1 131. fiSoXXoK « ;tfipw*' irirpoit. Plat. 5 Rep. 469.6. rolr Xi'^ir oU 
ur /SXi^^wri ;i^aAfTratVova'4 row ^oXoftoc av^ KimififMn. i^lian V. H. A*. 
19. Alcjft'Xor A Tpay<ipd6t tKpivtro d<rf{i«iat firi rivt dpdfiart, iroipMV qv¥ 
ivTttv ^AOfjvaltav /3aX>cu' avr^y Xt^tf, K.r.i. See olso Lucmn I> 34* 
I V. 238. For more recondite expressions in the Tragedians, see 
f r yEsch. Ag. 108;. Eum. fSo. Sopb. Antig. 36. Eurip. I'bcrn. 1077. 
Ion 1250. 1254. Bacch. 356. 1094. Herarl. 60. Hel. 1136. For 
the popular custom at Athens of pelting bad poets in the theatre. 
Kuster refers to Casaub. ad Athen. VI. li. See also Joddrell's 
Enripide^, 1. 179. 

743. 6rjfi09. Of ibe Athenian dbmus, in the larger sense of the 
word, we have bad abundant occasion to treat in the political 
plays of Arislophanes ; in the present more dramatic one we shall 
restrict our illustrations to that confined sense of the word, where 
it implie-i merely a portion of the sovereign multitude collected in 
the temple of Bacchus, to ollirm or deny whether such and such 
offences had or had not been committed during the festival. The 
opinion was ^vcn by a show of *hands» and if in the alfirraalive, 
the parly accused was subsequently handed over to the ordinary 
tribunals in order that they might assess the damages, whether in 
purse or person. The preliminary action itself was termed ' npo- 
ffoXfi. Dem. C. Mid. 519. 25. nai ovd* av iirtxf'^p^a rywyc Konfyoptut 
avToii fuf, fi fif} Ktu ri^rf tv r^ dij/i^ napa)(pijfia t^rfXry^a. $77* ^' ^^^f^*^ 
Tolyvv airriiv ovdi tov dr/fiov Karrfyoptlv oifli r^s ^ cic#fX»j(rmf, aXX' an€p 
T<Jr' rrtfXfta Xiynv or' ^v ij rrpofioXrf, ravra, k, t. /. 5 78, 1 . aXX* <V* enlvo 
Ftrdvufit, art tov litfftov KaTTfyopijati Kol Ttjt tKK\7)<rias. H^O, 2^. trt roi- 
wy naprjv, u SvUpti *A$tjva7oi, KOt KaBrjro ECliovXos tv t^ ^fdrpw, ore 6 d^- 
fios KaTrx*ifioT6»rfa€ fAti^iov. Also 514, 10. 583,6. 584,6. 586, 30. 

lb. 6 h^pos thftffoa. Eccl. 400. Kanuff 6 S^pot ova/So^ nocrov doKcir. 
Kurip. Tro. 536. dva t' i^aatv \tin. 

lb. KpiOiv •nou'tm, Qi. infr. 749. and Stalbaum ad Plat. Phileb. 


• naraxci^oroWo. CT. IVm. c Mid. 515, 1. 571, 16. 578, 24< >^sch. 61, 6. 

( For a mnre minute aorotint of this action, tee Placner'i " Der Prwvs und illii 
Klagen bei dm Attikern," 1. 379, sq. 

u This torm u'oi used for the ■SKinlily jEcrncrallyi tlio word Si|^T stf^ifying 
the people whd mmpnced it. 517, i. tous */>iT<£*»ir ■woi^'iv iKKXy^alay iff Aioriiffou 
T^ icTtpai^ iv XlavHwu 5 1 8, 5. ««1 w/w/SoAol ^Tw t^rufrav 4v rp inKKifiri^ r^ if 
Aioywrov iis &2ucoCrroi. 




ovpajfiou y 


Tmv TTOvovpycoif ; Al. pyj i^ 

SA. fXiT PdoyyXov S ovk r^aav ?T€poi avfifiaxot ; 
A I. oXiyou TO ypifdTov lariVy icKnrep iv0a8i, 

F^A. Ti Srjff 6 nXouTcoi/ Spm/ 7rapaaKeva^€Tat ; 
I. aymva ttoihv airriKa fidXa kol Kplatv 
745. 6 ruv navoifpyM^, sc. ft^/ioff, muitttttdo ho$mnum tmproborum ei 
caUidomm. Kust. 

111. Qvi>iiVi6v y offoj' 5C. (Jw^dn. Cf. infr, iioo. Vesp. 415. Ijdel. 
>i7 KticpaytTt, Chor. ¥^ ^i ti Tuv ovpap6v. said of any iliing violent 
antl excessive. Vcsp. 1492- vKtXos oiipdviov y €$cKaKTt^tav. Soph. Aj. 
196. ovpavlnv ^av. Allt. 418. ovpaviov axos. Eurip. El. 866. ovpaptvv 
irff&ijfta. Tro. 524. 'imov 01 pavui ^piftorra. Cf. HOS in Nub. 350, 448. 

and Hlonif. in Pers. p. 163. 

747. ivBd^t. /Eacus forget.s his proper locality, and after the 
iimnner of the Attic stage, points to the spectators. 

749. dywH, a (theatrical) contest. Uem. c. Mid. 520, 2G, trpo- 
iui<p6tiftas nnwy rois KptT^t t^ uywvt rtttv avhp^v, ti/o ravra cotnrfpu 
9i**paKaia *<ft anaa-t rois iavr^ viMavirvptvoit iitfdyjKfVy ipov piv v(ipi<Tf to 
<ritpa, rg ^C\t) fii KpaTOvtrji roi^ iiyoiva airtarrarot roC pff vixfjaai itarccm;. 
53^» 8. 0/ Toiirvu X^P**^ navTft ol yiyvoptvvk fnt a\ XOpTjyoX d^Xoi* on TUff 
fkiu iipipas tKtivas, tut uvvfpxdptOa frrt rof dyCiva (corn ras fiatrrtias ravrar. 
It- T. /. 533, 15. we 5* rirXrjpaOri to Bintpop nai ritv o;^Aoy trvvtiktypivop 
*^o¥ nri riiv uytova. So also is used the verb dyvivi^taBai, Arixt. 
Vesp. 1479. ''"' "PX"** wu*' oU Otairti rfyotviCrro. Dem. c. Mid. 
53a, id. KOI pijp Tore yt rovff, art fiov\6ptvoi fiijbtv^ dyiavi^taBai (cf. 
418,^. 420,4. 53^1 5-) f<Voy OVK f'dwjcore inrXvit rmv X"Piy^*' ^^vflfvl 
irpo<rKaXttTayrt rtti/v x^P*^'^^^ (TKonwiVy oXX* ci** ^iV iraXcoT^, fl'*MT5<o«*a 
^pnx}iOs, titv dc ^ KQ6i^t<T6ai K«X*wrg, ;(iX<ar ofToriVriK rra^oTc. Aa the 
content wa» preceded by a solemn procession of the Chorus to the 
place of action (cf. iufr. 1003.), the words aywv and nopTrrj are often 
found in conjunction. Ucm. c. Mid. 517, 4. rds n-po/SuXdr napadtSo- 
mca» {ol frpvrdpfts sc.) Tar yeytt^p^yas ttuKa r^r wofjkrnjs 9 rwv dyatvtav 
TM* fV roii ^wrvtrlots. 3 I 8, 1 . (3apy7jX/«>i^ Ttj irop,ir^ Hal r<p dywM. Cf. 
infr. 847. 

> Auger, totally miKtakJng the wnw u( the passage; crarulatcn, »'U In force 
hn-m^me tfe M retirtr^ Vamewie est dg miUd drachmet- The orntnr, KjiMiking of 
the nenxricy granted to person during the Bacchic festivn], olwervis, itwi no fo> 
nagner might by btw fono one of U)e public dancere ; but should a discovery 
uke place during the actual contest, that any person, not a real citizen, had hiti- 
nuntcrl himaclf iiriKin^ lh<! tiixip, the rhnref(iia'» handn wrre so tied » that if during 
the reremntiy he prott<c<lcd to a sijmntons and investigation of the maCCar, ha wat 
liable to a fine of fifty dnwtunir ; that fine being increased to a thousand drachmiB, 
if he insiiCed upon the archon holding a judicial court upon tha InisineM. 



KaXeyxpv axrrwv ttJs T€xin)s. HA. KccirttTa irw 
ov Kcu 2o0OKA€j;f dsrreXd^TO tov Bpovov ; 

AL pM At" OVK €K€lP09j oAA* €icW7< fUV AmT^v'Xo*/, 

are Srj Ka-njXdey kclp^^oXje^ T7}v Se^tav, 

KaK€iuo9 wr€x<0p7}ar€v avT<^ tov ffpouov 

iWPL 5* €fj.e\Xet^y o>9 t<prj KAftSTjpuSr}^^ 

€(f)(Sp09 KadiSfUT0cu' KCU/ fifu Al(r)(yXo9 Kparfj, 

e^eiv Kara ^^pav' ei & /ij;, Trepl rijy re^y^^ 

8iaycxivi{icrff effxKTKe 7rpo9 y lEvpi7riSr]if, 

SA. TO XPVM- ^P fOTou ; AL 1^ Ai\ oXLyov vart 


lb. oyttva froMiy, to institnt^ a contett. Lys. 911,6. dymm fiiv 
Itarnv airoitfiTt : more frequently with riBiyat. JRnchy]. Ag. 818 


Eurip. Ion 876. Plat. 2 Leg, 658, a. Iud 530, a. 

lb. avrUa fidXa, instantfy, tcithovt a moment's delay. Gccl. 30. ^ 
fVicATcria | oiVcita /uiX' ^oTOi. ovrifia iJ^ fidXa. Dem. C. Mid. 521 
532, 14. 5 A >3- .S85.9- 

lb. raiJcpifftF I it{[Xty\av. The Ofdor of the words is inverted — 
proof (tXryxos) of talent being of course required before jud^meml 
{uplvii) can be passed. ~ 

754. vaKftrof. for hc (i.e. ..^chylus) had yielded to him (i 
Sophocles) the stute-chair : hence the kilning and handshaking 
on the part of Sophocles. ('I he verse seems very much like 

lb. vntx^pi^a-* rot! &p6vov. Cf. Matth. §. 3541 f . | 

755. KXridfi^tdfjr. Whether thL-^ was aiwn, a friend, or an actor, 
instrumental in bringing out the dramas oi Sophoclett. is not 
known. Welcker adverts to the modesty of Sophocles, who makes 
his intentions known through means of a second person. 

756. h^hpot. t^cHOL. a person who sits by, while certain 
sons are fighting, and is prepared to engage the conqueror, j^^sohy 

Choeph, 853. Toccii'Sr TTuA^v p6vo% itV t<f}fJipOV | SitTfrois fi(XXc( Ator 

*Op<aTT}s \ S^nv. To the examples given in Blomf. Gloss, add £u- 
rip. Rhes. 1 19- vocwf d" €<fHSpov irmd* t^*^^ ^^*' ^l^'^^c* Plat. 7 l^eg. 
B19, b. ff'<^cdp«uif T< xut (TvXXij^ox t'y /icpci (liiapofkal). 

lb. jKi^dcitrtfai, fut. of Kafi«(ofuu. 

757* 'f*^ "'^^ X^P^r ^^ remain in his place, t. e. vt/7 be quiet. 
Cf. nos in Eq. 1 306. 

759. r^ Xphl^ (^* ttrrai ; will the thing realty take place ? r^ XP9M** 
Rar. Bek. ri xp^M*« I^nd. W x^/a' ; ^' (crrtu; (h. e. quid rei 
num fiet ?) Th. 


I— « 

e ml I 





KayraOffa 8t] ra Seiva KLin]$i]aeTax, 
:cu yap TaXdirrq> fiovaud] aradfLiqcrerai. 
SA. TL Se ; /utayayy7]aovai rr^u rpayo^iop ; 
AI. KoH Kapova^ e^uTovat kcu irqytL^ e7rc5i/. 



760. '* mimav^a. d^, et quidem illo ipso in loco (in regia Plutonia) 
ra itura, grave certamen, Kitn}$r}atTai, excitatum it." Dind. 

761. rakavTOv {rXato), 8CaUs. yKsch. I'era. 351. aXX* «3« Baiftmv 
rtr Korif^fipt fTTparov^ | riiXarra ffpia-at oiiK iaoppuirta rOxg. iJuppl. 
801. trov 8* rwinav (vyiiv raXavrov. (Cf. infr. 1333. I346.) 

lb. ftovciK^, here ^ poftry, or the poetical /acuity. Ach. 817, 6 ra- 
Xvt 3yav TTjv pavtrun)v^ an extemporary poet. 

lb. <Tra$pa(r6tu^ to weigh. Plat. 1 Leg. 643, c. tirrptlu fj trTa0fj.a- 
trSai. On future xniddli* passives, such as tTra^/ir/crrrai, see Monk's 
Hippol. 1458.. and cf. infr. 1333. 

762. p«^aywy€lv (fi*iov, Sydv), Gl. firyoffrareiy, to lay in the scales. 
The poet humorously furms his verb from the ^cTok, or lamb which 
was offered on the occasion of arlmitting Athenian children into 
their phratriee. This victim was bound to be of a certain weight, 
(the parent ofTering it being otherwise liable to a > iine :] ^Qtl ^he 
weight was accordingly subjected to a close examination, the mem- 
bers of the phatria on such occasions being used to exclaim in jest. 
lUtov, fitiov, too little, too little. The ceremony itself took place on 
the third day of the feast of Apaturia. (A long and interesting de- 
scription of tt genethliac feast of this kind is lu be found in the lun 
of Euripides^ the long narrative, however, being with singular impro- 

rpriety put into the mouth of a person fraught with news whicli did 
jDot ailmit of a moment's delay on his part. Ion i 136, sq.) 
763. From the folloxving display of tt»ols it ^vill be seen, that 
tlie tragedies of the contending bards weru not only to be weighed, 
but to be accurately measured. 

lb. Kovbiv, a piece of wood by which the straight position of an 

Hobjcct \n ascertained, a ruler, Av. 999. 1002. 1004. Soph. Gtloom, 

Til. 5* *>OTf TfCToyoc napa • trTnSprjv i^ctrrof 6p$ouTai Kavai^. Eurtp. HerC. 

r. 948. KvKXitfTrwv/3a(9pa | <paivtKt xavAvi ital rvnoir rjpiAoattiya, '1 road. 6, 

iM t fvpyovs opBoiaiv t$€ptv Kav6a-i». ib. 830. Ktuf6ifw rvititrpara. Euryath. 

^Hn*. 7' ^^'^ °*^' ^V XP^ KOi'tii't r^( ^ptrroiv rujyof | opSatt aBp^aairr c/AcVoi 

^Bb4 fipaxrriov. Non. Dionys. V. Ci. itaX yy^ain drtXttrat $«u>v^ teal dApara 

^B^atTMy, I ropfw<rar KavoVftriri. Lucian (de Tone) I\. ^ t . Kay6pa yovv oi 

roXXol &pvpa^ovcrt¥ aurov, etc njr 6p66TTjra riis yvaiptis atro^tirovrts. 

y 7^ fine incurred by deficiency of wet|[1it it thus altuiled Co In a fragment of 
IT poet*s ApdfiMTa, (377. up. Dind.) 

s Swe Blomf. Olun. in Ajfun. p>27i< 



KOi Sia^€Tpov9 Koi Gr<priva9. 6 yap EtUpnrtSr)^ 

Kar eiro^ ^auaavulp (prjai rar rpaycoSias, 

A A. V "TTov ^peea9 oifxai top AIcxvAop (JHpeiP. 

A I. ^^Xesj/e S* ovp ravpijSop cyKi^ay Karco. 

HA. Kpwu 8i 8ri rh raora ; AI. tovt jjp SvgtkoXop' 

lb. frrjxftf {ff^X^^i «"ff* gen. plur. mf^tttv. Herodot. II. 149, 168. 
175. Plat. I Alcib. 126, d. Tim. 75, a-) *Tro>v, VerseUen, yard-mea- 
sures fur verses. Wklck. V088. ffai-dvcf and n^x"' ^^th belong to 

764. it\ai<Tiov, an ohhng square. lb. tru/iirijcrot ((rv/imjyi'ili'oi), kW/ 
bound together, ib. irXic^fvciv (n-XtVtfor), /o form In the fashion cf 
bricks. Thiersch punctuates ««! rtXmtTMj ^vfimjicrh irXivStvtrovtrt yc, 
giving ihc sense of for io the particle y*, and referring^ for authority 
to Elmslcy ad iCurip. Ipb. T. 448. 

765. flw/iiT/wi/t. toots for drawing diameters. Pass, compasses. 
Wblck. dui^rr/mc, fj iv r^ KvieXtf Kivrpov ri^vova-a ftftrott yfMfifi^. imff^- 
njff, trTatf}v\rf' 5ir€p rVrlv ovofxa napa rott dpx*''*'^^*''*'' *'"'* ^^ KoBttfUmis 
fioXv^tiov TiOifitvQv, 8cnoL. otq^uXj; /mv reKrorix6r <rK(uo«- ^apvritmt. 

EUSTATH. p. 906, 56. 

Ib. a-<^riv«Sy ircdges, used for breaking wood and stone : hence. 
metaph. wedges, by which six-footed words and lofty sentences were 
to be 8]}lit. 

766. KQT titos, for Kaff tKafTTQv fiToi, scporate words or verses, Cf. 
infr. 790. 845. CJ13. 1163. 1375. (where sometimes words, some- 
rimes verses is to be understood.) 

Ib. fiaa-avit'tv . Plat. Eulliyd. 307, b. airo rb npayfui ^afravitras m- 
Xtfff re KaicJ. Phileb. 19, d. If* cV f^vfjfig irapcutti^Kva iKiirtpa fiavwfiC^ 

767. ^apitot <prpfiv. Arist. Eccl. I 74. Hx^ofiai di koX <pipta | tA r^ff 
fTuXfOX atravra ^apiiai rrpdy^untu j^Esch. Eura. 761. ^pvarovus <^«p*t». 
Dem. C. Mid. 550, 7. einpio)(ats xaXvnws. 555i 6. ay€UMiJcr«iv Kai ^ap€t»t 

768. TttvpT)h6v (ap. Plat. Phredon, 1 17, b. wiih a tranqvil and Miu 
disturbed countenance;) here rather, wildly, sternly. (Eustath. 881, 
1 (>, Tovpijhdv tnlppfjfia irapa ry xw/itxy nvrX tov dypiw.) NoD. Oionys. 
XXI. 1 07 - Ni/«rtaflrs Tavptjbbv ^^vKTfaavro yvvauut. Cf. ^ach. in 
Choepb. 269. Soph. Aj. 322. Eurip. Med. 91. 191. See also 
Crcuzer, Syrab. IV. 13 !. For adverbs formed like ravpfj^op, cL 
infr. 788. and Creuzer's Dionysus, I. 1 1 . 

Ib. d* ovv. Rav. Dind. yoiv, Bkk. Th. 

Ib. €yKvy^as (=KdT<a tnt^as, Vcsp. 279.), having put down his 

head. Plat. 2 Rep. 359, d. xu^ &s (BvpOkis) tyKin^avra <dcu> Mrra 

lHKp6v, 8 Rep. S55, e. ryiCV^ra*Tff Ov8f ^QKOVVTtS TOVTOVS 6paP, 



(ro<f>caif yap dpSp&y diropiav cvpuTKerqv. 
ovTf yap ' A&rjuaJoiai avp^^aiv Axayvkov^ 
SA. TToKKovs verms (vofxi^e rovf roixeopvxovv. 
AI, Xrfpov re roAA rjy^iTo rov yvmvai Trepi 
^vacts TTOtrjriciV* ura rco a<^ SecrrroTT] 
ewerpeyl^at/, orirj rrjs T€)(in)s efXTreipos ^tf. 
oAA elaKOfieW w arrav y o\ Sioyrorat 
iairovSoKoxriy KXavpLoff rjfup yiyyerax. 




771. trvwjdoiwy. Gl. fjfflipfv, anthi^ixro avrvi/r, had intercourse 

in. Pass. Eurip. Hcl. 1015. rj Kvnpi^ S" e/iol | tXt^s ftiv r«y, cru/i* 

^fftfKt d* oi/Hafiov. Eurip. Aiidruii;. 424. th ^v^aaiv Se xfih ^' ''^'^ 

773. \rip6v Tt ruKKa, K.T.i. Thiersch translates: prtrterea nihil 
nisi nwfQS agi ceruaebat in dijudicandis poeiurum ingeniis. Brunck : 
praterea nihil nisi moras nugas eos ccnsebat in dignoscendis poetO' 
rum ingcniis. The following version and explanation of tliis and 
a preceding verse are submitted la the reader's judgment. *' For 
iCschylus was not upon good terms with the Alhenians, and the 
rest of the world (roXXa. Lysist. 860. X^piir ivn T*SXXa Trpor Vkivrjaiap, 
See also Nub. 365. Soph. Antig. 1170.) he considered mere 
triflers (XijpoK) in a knowledge of poetical qualifications." The de- 
cision therefore is to be left to a third peniun. (The side-compli- 
ment thus paid to the AtlieninnR is equally delicate and just : for 
what other nation in the world could compete with them, as far as 
the drama and the stage were concerned ^) 

lb. X^/>oy, a trifler. Plat. Theaet, 176, d. ayoKKovrm yap ry optidti 
col olovrot OKoCfiv ori ov X^poi ttat. Charm. 176, a. trvp^vKtvtraifi &» 

tt}U fi»vXr}poi> qytitrBtu «tveu, LuciaO V'l. 299. ta ;(at/}«ti' rif Xijpav (V<i- 
mp» irotn)v. Cf. sup. 645. 
I lb. ytnivat:=diayv€ivat, to discriminate between. 
I 774- </>»•<'■**« iroitfTwi'. By the comprehensive word t^wrtiswe are 
|b understand, 1 think, not only the natural talents vf poets, but 
the bearings of tbeir minds on all great matters of political, moral, 
and religious import. 

775. hrirpr^v. Soph. Azitig. II07. ipa vw rod' iXBiav, fAtfA' rfr* 
AAoto't rpint. 

lb. ffifTtipof. iii^cb. Pera. 604. koxuv ifiimpot. Soph. CEd. Col. 
75a. oil yafLtav f/iirfipor. 

776. ol dctnroTiu, masters generally ; here more particularly Pluto 
and Bacchus, the first being the master of ^Eacus, the second of 

777. <nroudd{fitr, majori non studio graves res agere, Pind. 
lb. KXav^iad' fjfilif yiyviTat,verbera (efTecluStJcXav^ra, pro causa) No6t5 


paraia sunt, nigi adfimvs. Dino. Quando gravius alirjuid heri moiitpUur, 
nos servi plorabimua. Th. (Xaiithias and <£acus here quit the sias^c, 
never lo return ; and must they go ungrectcd ? '* Tlie word which 
halh been, und which must be — the sounH which makes us linger" 
go with them ! " Fare ye well." Even when the comic stage sanic 
from its high estate (unseating, for instance, a demagogue here, or 
making a potentate sit uncusy there), and fell to the humbler task 
of delineating domestic Wie, a brace of pleasanter lacqueys Ls not 
easily to be found : and yet the Syrus of Terence and the Scrub of 
Farquhar are vivJcJly in our recollections!) 

778. Hitherto the humour of this play has been of that general 
and universal nature, that little previous knowledge was required 
oil a ruuder's part for enabling him to enter into it. luid not much 
on an editor's. The illustration of a word or phraae, the explana- 
tion of a ceremonial rite, or an historical event, were all that waH 
demanded; and the mi»re briefly these were dispatched, the less 
oH'ensivcly an annolator t^ecnied to interfere between his reader and 
the full enjoyment of his author's text. Rut something more 
will now be required on the part of both to ensure a full zest of 
the scenes which follow ; a deep knowledge of the Greek Tra- 
g;ic stage, and more particularly of the >\Titiiigs of the two con- 
tending bards. It will be the <»bject of the following notes lo sup- 
ply that knowledge as fully as possible. 

lb. f} nov Hiivav. If the metre of the following chorus is striody 
jtschylean {cf. sup. 652. infr. 1083.), its diction mid imagery 
belong not less lo the same schooL The general object is 
clearly to give a Utile preliminary sketch of the ensuing combat-^ 
of the topics which will be brought forward, — the language io 
which it will be conducted on bmb sides, with various hits at ibe 
respective manners and dispositions of the two combatants. Him- 
self a hero, ^Eschylus was passionately fond of the heroic life . 
hence in his dramas predominate the spear, the helm, the trumpet, 
the charger, and all the paraphernalia of war. His imagery from 
animal life is of the same pugnacious character : the wolf, the 
dragon, the eagle, the wild boar, and above all the monarch of 
the woods, are among his favourite appeals. (Prom. 664. S. c. Th. 
53- »33- 377- Ag. 696. S03. Ch. -i4'- 4'5' 935* >034-) The de- 
lieht of Euripides was to bring down the drama from the circle 
of heroic life to that of the domestic ; — hence the ignominious 
missiles here put into his hands ; — shavings, leather-parings, the 
sweepings and refuse of artixanship of every dcscnptton. In 
>Eschylus all is original and native : in Euripides much is bor- 
rowed from the schools, and elsewhere. Mind is the predominant 
genius of the first : Tongue is the favourite instrument of ihe latter. 
Many nicer ditilinctions are left to the reader of the original. That 
the spirit of this remarkable piece of composition is Dot wholly 



nnattainabic in ihe Knglish lunguage, will be seen from the mas- 
terly piece of iranslatiuu appended to it. An ediLtir's buiubler 
task consists in explainini^ its details; and if this is done some- 
what minutely, a two-fold purpose was had in view ; (hat of 
making the reader more intimately acquainted witli the humour 
of Aristophanes, and also of preparing him for a belter acquaint- 
ance with a poet, who has a double claim upon his reverence ; that 
of being at once the originator of almost the noblest species of intel- 
lectual enjoyment which the world has ever known, and of being 
hinjself almost lUc greatest master in that art. 

lb. ipiffptfiirai, epithet of Jupiter (II. XIII. 624. Hes. Theog. 
601.), here applied to yEschylus, as the Scholiast observes, on ac- 
count of the luud-thundermg ttound of bis language, 'ilmt ^'Escby- 
lus was not indispo.sed to compounds of this kind either in their 
natural or Doric form, cf. Ag. 56. (o(t^<$ar). Ch. 63. {vnvapKiras) , 
ib. 595. (fraido\y^nt). ib, 927. {irvBoxp^fTot) , Pers. 30. (ro^W- 
ftat), Klc. *cc. 

Ib. x*^or *|tt. Soph. Tr. 369. mv j'ywv x<^<»'- Eurip. Hec. 1 100. 
fitytzf jytfXof (Tot KOI rtKvotaiv tJj^fU, 

77g. ** Wben he (i. c. ^schyliis) perceives his quick-speaking 
rival (i. e. Euripides) whetting his teeth." 

Ib. ofvXaAof (XuAi'ft)), quUk'Spcaking. (iEsch. Ch. 21. o^ux^ipt 
vim KTvw^, sono qui ex manihus celertter pulsnntibus oritur. Stanley 
observes, that oftr in composition denotes velocity or agility.) 
Among the minor diOtcnlties which a student encounters in the 
perusal of his /Eschylus, the numerous compounds in r»r and ijfj^ 
somelimefi with an active, sometimeH with a passive voice, occa- 
uonaliy with the additional dithcuhy of an accusative attached 
to the former, is not the least. The reader's time will not, I 

ink, be mispent, if we carry bini through tlie Agamemnon f4>r the 
urp^ise of illiislraling two of these pnsitinns. Of compounds in oc 
ith an active sense, we find, among others, 10. a»iip6^mf\oK, vtrilia 
conMiiia. i i. wurinXttyKTot^ ipii noctu excitiU. 150. Ttiaf6iT(n- 
vot, pcenam ob filiam exigens. 1S6. dvaopfiat, in portu malr rfetineun. 
ao^. wavadvfpot, ventos sedans. 318. yvvniKonoivov itvKtpoi, bcllum ad 
ptatag ob mulierem rajttam fxi'cqurndas irumeptum. 352 irava^(*ror, 
om mi u cupiens. 546. oiWoKroror, uves iuter^t'iens. hi(j. Kagayy^Xos, 
mtttt nuncians. I454> aVarffXoijyor, sang^incm lambeM. 1490. imvpo- 
fi6pvt. nato9 vorans. 1565. aXXi;Xu0oiw, alt^r aUerum aedeua. Of 
passive or intrans. forms, we find ntaivi'>6poor {^^.),TpiT6aito¥lSot (237.), 
rffXiw/arot (291.), yvvaiKDKrjpvicrt>T (471.), ttp)(at6ii'XotJT0t (loio.), iwrf- 
ptoTQt (1303.), dajrn;Aod««ror (1303). We finish our note with a 
few instances of ^'Eschylean compounds or simples, followed by 
an accusative, or other cases. Ag. 102. $vfu>^upos (;^iwj Xpit^. 1038. 
(cTtyijv) voKka tnvitrropa uueci. Choepb. 23. (Kl.) x^^ frporro^iror. 


11 2 



dtrnT€\yov' Tore Stj ^laplas inro Seiinj^ 

ofifiara OTpofii](T€Tai. 

i<rTai S ImroXoifHov t€ Xoy<ov KopvBaioXa vuktj^ 

(ryivSaXdpxov re itapa^vta^ afxiXev^ierrd r ^pymv^ 


lb, 145. airoTpojTOF SKyos mrfi/x^Tov (quod ttvtrtit doiorem abominan- 
dum), 16.593. fV dv^pX Aijoio'iv tirucorn^ tri^t (qui venerationem ira 
injicit). lb. 763. ivupopwraros vpa^iv oi/plav. Prom. Vinct. 592. a)(h-at 
vtrvod6rav v6fioy. 939> tifropa fropi^ios, Eum. 348. Kara<p*'pta irodic 
atcfia¥, I tr<f>a\fpa Tayviip6fUit<rt | xStXa dutr^opoy orov (where see Scbolc- 
field). Pers. 974. ^vpia fxvpia irtpnaaTtw. Ag. 414. fitfioKtv S^it oi 
fit$C<TTfpo» I TTTf/wIi- oiradait vjTvov KrXrvAitr, (where, as Kjausen ob- 
serves, KtXtv&ois is a dative governed of on-afloTr ) 

lb. idtlv amWjyi^v. Thierscli quotes as similar constructions 
Soph. Trach. 394. fttda^v, a>r tpnovros fiaop^t tfMv. Xeo. Mem. I. 
1. 1 I. oL>Jf If d« rrcitToTt lEeaKpoTov ovSfv airt^is ovdi avStriotf oCrr nparrop* 
roff c^cv oih-f XiyovTQs fJKovtrfv. See also Mattbiae, §. 54S. (, 

lb. 6r)yoin-os ohovras. Thc imagery is derived from wild boars 
preparing for battle. Lysist. 1254. dp.e A* aZ Atoavl^ai [ ayrv ^rp 
rwff mTTpur I Oayoyra^, otw, t6v odovra, II. XI. 415. 6 d< t* curt ^aB*irft 
€K ^vX6xoto, I Brjyaiv XfVKOv oduvra pera yvafiirrfja-i yt'vv<rtyiy. XIJI, 474. 
avrap Hiivra^ ^fjy*, aXc'^ao'dat fitpaots Kvyat qii xai cEa'dpdf. CuTip. 
Phcen. 1395- Korrpot 6* oirur Brfyovrti trypiav yiwv, 

780. pavlas viro,/or very rage and madness, infr. Si 9. vir* opry^. 
Arh- 689. xmii yifptot. Plut. 307. im6 (^iX>}dui(. Ibid. 818. vjri Tpw- 
<p^t. lb. 1 1 74' vnh \tpov. Lya. 79a. vir6 piaow. V'^esp. 106. v»6 
ffva-KoXlas. Av. 1300. v^^^ (fii\opvi6tas. Pax. 35. vwo <f>povr)paTos. 

781. Sppara trrpofirfixerat, ocuhs suos distorquetit. Dino. .£scll. 
Ag. I 186. vn aZ p4 dtiwos opBopavrtias nivos \ arpo^i. Ch. 196. oiitM- 
irat tv ;(«i/i^(ri, vavriXcav h'ua^v^ I arpo^uvfuff . IC)39* Tivtt tr* fiij^i ... 
crpo^ovviv ; 

7S3. 'X*he word-weapons of .^^chylus are referred to throughout 
this verse, as those of Euripides are in the following. 

lb. irrffoA.o<^i' XoywM, higk-cre$tedt i. e. boldly-formed words. The 
epithet v^ik6<^v is of frequent occurrence in the Dionysiacs. 11. 
32. 111.17. VI. 188. XIII. 334. XXIIl. 191. XXV. 71. XLVIII. 

lb. itopv&aloKa (mfpvr, a/AXw), giving quick movements to the helmet. 
(II.II.816. itopv^cii'oXoi'Errwp.) *' non solum Cf/prf« conteotiones, sed j 
etiam multifidas indicat muitigeneresque." Th. Non. Dionys. XXV- 
150. XXVII. 10. XLV. 219. XLVII. 595. 

783. o-xtvduXa/ioc-, Att. for o-iuvftoXafuic, a piece of wood split and ' 
sharpened at the point ; a shingle, or tile of vood for roofing homtm, 
trxiv^aXdfiatv, GI . XorroXoyiMV. 

lb. irapa^ytatf o» (iT^c), near the axle, Sonne process of a Greek 
carpenter's shop is most probably here required for exact inlerpre- 



'09 OfWlfOfJLtVOV (f>p€V0r€KT0UO9 dl/Sp09 

ffrjfjuoiff nnro^fxoi/a, 785 

latiun. nrhc text appears to speak of a piece of timber subjected to 
« quick rotation, little sharp pieces of wood flying off* ^om the 
centre in quick succession. I subjoin the interpretations of the 
Scholiast, Passow, Dindorf, and Thiersch. Scuol. KOfUvvaiirj, dn6 roo 
jE^oyof. dti ydp rit fupos tovto KivSvvwvti. Passow says, that (rj^tyfloAd- 
ftmv trapo^'na appears to be quick circular rotations 6/ shingles. So 
also Dindorf: " irapa^ivia tT)(tvfiaX.afi.ti>v dicuntur rotationes (agita- 
tiones) audaccs scindulanim tenuium (ar^uinentalionum aubti- 
)ium).** Thiersch renders o';^iMftdAafioc, sttbfiles argvtia:, napa^vta 
• audaciter dicta, quee loquenti pericula conflare possunt.' 

lb. a^i\€Vfui {^<TfitKtvtiv,\.\y cut with the o-^/Xi?, any instrument used for 
cutting into small pieces, as the paring-knife of the shoemaker, the 
cbipping-axe of the carpenter ; also a surgeon's lancet, &c.), any thing 
cut small, sweepings, refuse. '* Voci subest noiio mtnuti et super- 
vacanei, necnon subtilitatis.'* Th. The allusion is to the minutia 
which Euripides exhibited in his tragedies. Spanheim quotes in 
illustration Julian Or. IV. p. 77. tpydrqs ydp ta-n xai rovratv ayud^r, 
o^c OTTtxr/itXcvwi' oi'(5« dnot^x^C'^'' ^^^^"i ^t enim et dicendi peritvs arti" 
fejc : non ita tamen ut verba ma minute velut acalpro concidat et ad 
wnguem erigat. 

784—5. ffwrbs (i.e. Euripides, the wight) d^ivvofupov prifiaff tmro- 
fioftoiKt ^t¥OT(KTowot ovd/wr, (i. c. Aeschylus the man). 

lb. d^uvftrOai, to ward off, to repel. 

lb. €f}pfvoTiKTvv, an artist who derives his materials from his own 
nind, not from other sources ; mind-working. It is perhaps scruti- 
nizing matters too closely to seek for examples in yEschylus of 
every species of compound adjective here produced ; yet I doubt if 
in either of the other tragedians so many can be found terminating 
in a>», as with him. What^ for instance, do we find in hi» Persae 
(and the play has been taken at a venture for examination) ? t. 33. 
woKvBptfifUov. 94. a\Ki0/ML)i'. loo. (^tXikftpoiV. I ICf. [ifXttyxirtiiv. J 86. 
rltifUAV. 7I7> tvaiuv. 774> tvliaifiav. 

785. bnro^fioua, horse.mottnted, i, e. high-flown, high-sowiding, 
bombastic, pompous. yEsch. Prom. 830. tAj- powama arparov 'Apt- 
fuvmbr inwofidpova. Supplic. 180. 'ifdoi^f r' djtov«* yopddas hnro^" 
pfHTiP I €?>«( Kaprfkoif dtTTpatit(ov(rait. Ejusd. Sisypb. fr. 210. XtatFrO" 
fidfxtuv ttdC VKUiffTf xaXMrjXarof ; 

786. The next four verses arc descriptive of jfiscbyluSj as the 
last four of Euripides. 

lb. tppi^i . . x^'^^- '^c imagery is derived from Homer and 
Hesiod. Od. XIX. 446. A ft' | <7»tii>< {avt sc.) «r ^vXoxoio \ <l>pi^at 
fZ Xo^tfjv. lies. Scul. 39r . op$as fi' €V Xotfyifi *ppitTfTm rpi^nv. U. 
Xlll. 473. (^p<'Ta<( d< T« pixTQv vittoQtv. lies. Scut, ni, t^oivvov 



16G APirrO*l>ANOTS 

fiiv av^fvas Sfkfjut, NoD. Dion. I. 19. 9I 8c Xc'cm* ^pt^rwf. cVavj^rviV 

lb. avT6KonoT, (self-baired, or, by nature covered with hair. 
Prom. 309. avr6KTiieTos, non manv /actus, 9cd rponte natw.) Com- 
pounds with aiiTOf are very common in jtlschylus : S. c. Theh. 73 i . 
nvroKr6vtuf, a se muluo inter/ecii. 733. avrodaixroi. 848. aurod^Xa. 
910. avToirroifoi, sua mala gemem, 91 I. auro7r^/io>v, in ac infortUHta 
habcns. 1055. avrd^ovXor. contuntax. Ag. 5 19. atrr»x5«i' (cum ipM 
terra, i. e. palria. ycbolef.)- 961. avrcJ/iaprvF, qui ipse sibi testit rsi, 
963. avTomoKras. 1 059* auTo^ovot, qui se vel »uo8 petimil. 156a. 
BavoTois nvOivrauriv. 1 625. avroKToinut . Cboeph. 745. aCrapKrjt, ipse 
sibi sufficiens. £um. 163, avrouoi/Tot, atroicXi^ros. 312. avrovpyim. 
Suppl. 8. nuToyfV^. 63. avrQ<^vtiiX, Fr. Inc. 7^- ovTop*yfU»v. 3l. av- 
r60vficroif. Tbi» compound form, for whatever reason, is Htill more 
abundant in the Dionysiacs. I mention a few examples : avTonayqtt 
avTOTtXijSf uifTutpvTov^ avToiKiKTOs , twTaira$i]i^ aiTororoc, airroXo;[fvroff, 
avToyoyos, aiToyycAof, avTo^tjros, avrex^pf^Tor, auroKi/Atorcf^ ovTOTf- 
X*oTot, avToimopot, avToxvros, avroppi^os^ alro^<fti}St avToyiv{0\.or, av~ 
ToairwTos, nt'TOTTopDc, Bed jam ^alls. 

lb. Xoipu'i. Non. Dion. XL 66. wfj fUv dptariddos Xtxpdjs ciri^ij^icvoc 
apiCTov, I Brjpot fTTtiyofiiyrjs ^Xotrvpijv dvftTfipatrr x''*^'?^- 

lb. \a<TiaC)^rfv ('Xtiffior, avxrjv), busby. tbickiy covered with hair. 
Hum. Hymn. Merc. 224. ovUt tI Ktv ravpav Xocriavxcror cXiro^m «u\u. 
Sopli. Ant. 35 I. 'Ka(Tinvx*v tmrov, 

lb, x"^'^°' -A'^scliyl. Ch. 174. Sopb. Aj. 633. Eurip. Pbcen. 1136. 
XtovTos dc'poc €j(t^v in dtnr'i&i | x"''^? irti^putos : frequent in the loiter 
poet. Non. Dion. \ I. 1 S4. opOutcras nvKiv^tri Karcurjcioi* avx*va ;^a/Taif-. 

787. iviffKuviov {ffKvvuJv). Eustatb. 15S1, 6. to tndviA ruv o(^u\- 
fiiiv pipos fJTot hippa, II. XVII. 136. JTurit t ivurKuviav icdrt* «X»- 
rat, ocTff* KoXiWo))'. Tbtoc. Idyl. XXIV. 116. rotov iirivKviftov 3Xo- 
avp^ (irtKHTo npotra>iT(fi. Pollux IV. 137. f'mo'ifui'ioi' ptriiopov. FroM, 

lb. iiriiTKvvuiv ^vvaytcv, contracting his broWy as persons and ani- 
mals do under feelings of rage or indignation. 

lb. ^pvxooptyvi {&pvxa<T6iu) , properly, to roar as a **lion. Sopb. 
Aj. 331. imtariva^tf ravpos »f, (ipvxaptvot^ (where see Hermm.) 

B '* The third time, however, that lie (ArUtomrnei) fell into the hands of bis 
enemies* they cue open his breast, and I'ound a hairy heurt {tUato^ Kijft).** AlQller, 
Dor. I. 1 6 J. 

wpvyij KtAaSija-t KvKuy, $f,OxVM'^ XtStn^v, 
offdfia irvvy, ^VKfjfut Qo^v, trvpiyfxa SptucirTvy. 
•KOf^aXiur epturh Xf^MA, K.T.k. Dionvi. tl. 15a- 

&pvxn^hV 8< \4ovr«s SfioQiiXeey iiwh A<u^f ' 

fivtrrtwiKtuy aAa\ayfxhy V^i^ijaoKTo KojSfi'pWK 
$ft^peya X^ouv txovrv^ Ibid. III. 71. 



prjfuiTa yofJi<f>a7rayfj, TnvaicrjSw airotrirmv 

Tr. 906, '^/ju^aro fiiv ^v/iottri vpotnrtmovtra. CRd. R. 1 265. 8rird 
BpvxrtBtis rdXtjf. Non. Dion. XXV. 309. oia \iw ffpvxaro. £urip. 
Hel, 1572. a\k* i^t^pvxoT. 

lb. f}<T§i {Uvat) pfjiMUTa. JEach. Ch. 555' tpotv^y jjtTofitr, Soph. Ant. 
I 3 I I . rffo* ri;cri dvaSprjyrjroy. Eurip. Hcc. 338. rroffaf <ji$oyy^t U7aa. 
H^rc. K. 1298 ^(uvrjr yap rjtrtt j^^wi', airfVFciroi/cra /i« | pff Biyydytiv y^t. 

Add ^ach. Pent. 641. 935. Choepb. 809. (M<^^<ro/i<i'). Nod. Dion. 

788. yop(Piyirayr}t (^y6p(f)ot, irrjyvvvat), made fast with nails. (ScHOL. 

miKwrwOfTa, tricXripa Koi ^;(ov iroioti^D.) What bas been above said 
(r, 779.) respecting j^^schylean compounds in os, will nearly apply 
to .^schylcon compounds in 91-. To conline ourselves to the Aga- 
memnon and Cboeph. : vvhiit specimens of these compound^ do wc 
find in those dramas ? In an ac/ice sense (restricting ourselves to such 
words as bear the murk of lEe /Kschylean mint) we find, 51. 8f/i- 
tnoTi}pTjs, cubile servans. 62. yvto^ap^s, membra delassans, lai.Xayo- 
fiui'n;*-, qui icpore vesdtur. 181. jctvuyyr/r, vasa ecficvans, 450. traXiv^ 
rvjy^f, qui fortune mutationem affert. 990. 6p6odaf}s, rectum viam 
cognosct-ns. 1 14a. TroXuxoi/^c, muUos ctedens. 1401. ff)o»6\i^tji^ rruo' 
rem stiUans. 151 1. do/iocr^X^r, domum labefactans. \()\^. apxi^yt- 
vrit (dicitur ea res, unde origo alius cujusvia rci ducitur). Chpej)b. 
46. /JpoTotrrvy^r, nwrtales exosus. 66. ;^#po/ii'{njs, menus pollucM. 
440 voXvfftirijt, muUum Itedens, 540. apt^vrup^ft^^ undique tcrrens. 
591. tfijXuicpaT^f, fa^mitus imperatu. 595. va^Xvprjs, fiUum perdens. 
597. nvptaiis, itfttem accendens. 989. apyvpoartpijs, argento privans. 
Pom. or intr. Ag. 33. /^^iX^r, amicabitis, i 27. dqpionr\t)6t}t, opibtts 
pubiicis abundans. 1 89. n-iiXt^i^^njc, prtelongits. 380. nlvokapitr^s, hor- 
rendvm gplendens, 383. p*\apirayi]St cui ntgror concretm est. 445. 
yvicnjp€<fti}v, ttocte ocrultus. 766. opoionpfttiji, similejn speciem pra »e 
fereiis. 1109. tppfvupayrfs^ meate /uribunda. IJ45. \ipo0vTjt, fame 
,€Mectu3. 1418. {(TToTpl^s, qui circa malum (ship-mast) venftttttr. 
1606. ir]poppt(prjs, a populojactatus. U would be easy to multiply 
this list from other plays, but the above will sullice to shew at 
what the humour in the text, as far a.s mere diction got'S, is directed. 
Cf. infr. 805-6. 

lb. niinucr}li6» {m¥a()f plank-fashion. Schol. anoa-irofv ra pffpara 
atKTittp wtvatcai njro rrXoiutv. Trtvanifits Hi at pfydXm (raui&tt Totv irXoioov, 
Wbal the SL'holiast means by this I do not profess to understaud. 
It appears to tne that a much better sense would be elicited by 
punctuating after the word ntyaxridov, instead of putting a comma, 
a* Thiersch and Dindorfdo, al'ti^r the word yoptjxmayti. We should 
then have .-Kschvlus " uttering words made fast with naila. after 
the manner of ship-limbers'' — the ship timbers implying the gene- 

c Th« word ySfi^osy aiut the rj^mpdund forinn of it, npiMtf to hnvi* l>«.*ii fn- 
'vourit« lemut with .l^hylui. Suppl. 921. twkS* i<p^K»jai rupin \ y6fi^ot 8<a^- 
«^. Mept. c, Th. 537. i^lyy' ufiiairity '»p<nrtupTJXtu^M**^*' I y^f*^it- 8iipph 
835. Tv^i^ufic'ry 80^1. Peru. 71. woXOyon^r tHiurpa, Suppl. 4J4. yry^fi^vrtu. 

ht 4 



Ivdof St} oTOfioTovpyo? eiriiif ^aa-aptoTpia Xurm) 790 
yXmra y oycAwcro/icfj; (f}0ov€povs Kii/ovcra ^ctXii*ov9j 

ral solidity nfihe /Eschylean diction, ihe naih ifnpl3ring-the fasten- 
ings by whirh his niiiny compound terms were effected. The word 
iucif is perhupK formed after such ^^schylean adverbs, as Fers. 65. 
^fup6\ty9ov. 395. ^oXTnyWi*. Sept. C. 'J'h. 317. iirir^ioV. Fr. 45. 
XvKTfdw, The Diiinysiaca present a funnidable list of adverbs of this 
form. I. 160. tnrtiprjf^v. I. 195. fhiKrjiAv. I. 290. tnfiaiprjtio^. I. 
358. Ait\a96v. I. 436. tiTotX'J^i'- n. 175. aTf*payrjt6it. II. 197. 
fioTpv66v. III. 247. xpavK7doi'. IV. 95. ti^iU^doV. V. 7^^ $Ofi0rti6». 
VI. I 17. linFijft6v. VI. 257. vorafAJjUoif. VI. 283. x**^^*'- VII. 115. 
firrpijddy, XII. 348. /uraWF. XV. I. y«ftt\Tti6v. XVII. 335. nvpyrf 
dov, XXI. 93. Koyaxrj^^y. XXI. 107. ravpr^ov, XXIV. 334. (rycXij- 
Wi'. XXVII. 243. •natrtrviiov. XXIX. 79. poi^rfdov. XXIX. 151. wO" 
pakki^oy, XXIX. 3 II. jSpt/j^TdcJc. Add from Herodot. III. 13. Kpr- 
tnpyiffiov. Arist. Lysi.M!. 309. icpir}iay. 

lb. arrotrrrStv, withdrmvhg them — whence ? Not, as the Scholiast 
says, from ships, but from the bottom of his lungs. 

789. yijycki/t, gigantic. Prom. Vinct. 359. tov yryfvi} rt KiXikuhf 
otie^ropa ni^rpw iday uKTripot (where see Blomf. GlusB.}. 

lb. ffivarjfia, breath, blast. Eurip. Ph. 1453. tpwnjfA* omU dvaTXi;ror. 
Hip. 130^^. rroyri^ tpvtrrjfiari. Non. Dionys. 1. 414* oJAoAci/ *pvviffM 
napf}tdt Xrtrr^y laXXaay. lb. 5 '7* ^^* 455* 

790. trroparovpyos (irr6fut, tpyov), mot/thicorking, in opposition to 
the mind working of -'Eschylus, For some obfter\'Ation*t on com- 
pounds with €pyov (and to the evamplcs there given add fpa<ryapwp~ 
y^s, Choeph. 636.), see Preface to Blomf Persae. p. 30. 

lb. tTTojv ^aaavitrrpta (fem. of fiatTavi*rrf}S, as f^ihpvvrpui (-■Esch, 
Choeph. 747.) fern, of 0<iidpi/»T^r), ward- torturer, examiner, prover. 
Cf. sup. 766. 

lb. XioTTT^ yXwo-cra. (mooth by being well worn. Phot. Lex. p. 166. 
i) trriTtTptfLfuvTj. Plal. Conviv. 193, a. XiVirai . . calculi in medio ineiti 
et usu tletriii. TiMjECs. Thiersch renders it, lingula imbecillis oc te- 
nuis, quae verba iiischylea eifari necjueat. 

791. dyi\i<r<r€i», Att. av«\iTT€ty {iXitra^v), to unroll, io let itself 
out fully. Plat. Phileb. 15, e. wavra xivct Xoyov, t6t€ fAiv rirl Bdrtpa 
KVKXiiy KOI (Tvpffivpaiv tis e**, t6t( Hi iraKiv aytiKirrcav (Steph. avtXirrmy) 
Kat dtapfpt(Qiv. Thiersch translates and explains, se ezpediens, quum 
lingua inhabilis in verbis sesquipedalibus pronuntiandis se excru- 

lb. <f>&ovtpois x^^^^^^t begrudging jaws, viz. as unused to utter 
such long words, j^sch. Suppl. 316. $ca\ roCA* avoiyt rovvop.^ a<pB6y^ 
{ungrudging, Scholef } Xc^. (In what a stale of excitement, there- 
fore, EuripidcvH enters the stage in the following scene, may be 
gue.ssed fritm ihc many compound words which then find their 
way into his (otherwise) unwilling moulh.) 



pfiiiara Scuofitin] KaraXerrroXoyijaei 

lb. a»t\urvotUvff ... Ktvovva, putting in motion by, &c. This mode 
of coupling two participles is perfectly j^lsrhylean. Ag. 169. ritv 
(ZifFa SC ) <Ppov4iv ^f}OTOvf odwravra, r^v frddrt flavor Birra, (docens 
homioes Mpere. dolurem documcntum ii.<i peailiare auppeditans). 

353. Ato rot ^fviav fiiyav atHovfiai, | tov rait npa^yr* iir 'AXt^uHp^ 
Ttivovra iroXai t6^oi', 578. oXoXvyf^y SkKot SkXoSty Kara yrrSkiv 
TXaiTKoy ri'<f»}fAovvTts iv 6tiiv Uptur | Bvrj<^»ayoif ^ Kotfi^vrtt rvudij <pX6ya, 
Choeph. 65* if6pot rr natrrtt cV fitus odoG I ^aivovm^ rdv jyvpo^inr^ ^• 
vo¥ I KoBaipovTit ftfOVQiv fidrrfP. 443. x<i*'pci^<i nokvdaxpvv y6ov KtKpvfA" 
fupa, (l&etitia lucium celans, Klavs.) Eum. 50. *T&ov nor rfbrj ^ivimt 
yryptt^fUvat (Vopyovat SC.) [ flflfrvor <f>tpovtrar. Prom. Vinct. 980, 
cr j . . j roc f^fuipTorr tU 0tovt it^iUpoiv { ropdrra Ti^ias, t6v irvp^r 
Kkiimjp X('-)'*>. Pers. 830. /iTd* nc | vrttp^poyrfa-at tov napAtrra iaiftova, I 
^XAmp f'/Mo-^cU , oX^oK ^Kxiff fifyav. Add from Eurip. Here. Fur. 1329. 
A A* (V iroXtrui' Su^' f^"* <''<>x'''tt KOpovt | Air /nra, ravpov Kttixrtnov coro- 
icraM>«*, I (Tol rovra dcMroi. Troad. 753> ovk curiv "Exroi^, kX* iv^r o^do'af 
Bopv, I yr){ €^nyt\6i>v, col i^iptov <rwrqpiav, Suppl. 395. Oijcrci^ tr arrai- 
Tt'i Vpos X^P^" ^^^o* vfKpovSt I ^vyytirov oucvv -yaiav, a^atv rujif*!*. 
Dera. c. Mid. 534. 11. ttore oj^io-xoia'ac (ry«#viiit»Ta9 ofioit- aTr<;iff(rA]i. 
ib. 15. ro^oc dvaklarKovra ;yopF;yoCKra ewlripov ovra npomfXaKiCtiv. On 
this mode of using participles without a connecting particle, see 
further Klaus. Choeph. 772-9. 

Ib. ;i[aXii'oi'f, jaws: properly, the comers of the mouth, the 
ends of the lips on both sides, on which ihe bils for horses are 

79a. ioiofUvrj, dividing t dissectingt (Od. XV. 140. rpca iairro. 
XVII. 331. Kp<a iroXXd | dat6fitvot p,yrjtrr^pirt) p^para, the tcords (of 
his opponent, sc. /^scbylus). This dissection of words was a fa- 
vourite occupation of Socrates as well as Euripides. 

lb. roTaX«frroX»7^CTfi ((toraXntToXoyfU'), will endeavour to run doum 
by tubtleties and refiRements. For the force of the preposition 
Kara in this case. of. nos in Acharn. 644., and to the instances 

there given, add yRsch. Eum. 145. viot hi ypaiat daip>Kur Kafitimatrtu, 
701. fiTfi naStrma^ti pt vptfT^vrtv vtos. 748. /i &toi V€&T«poi, vaKaiovv 
v6fiavt I KaStinraaaaBt. Eurip. Iph. A. IOI3. aXX' ol Xoyoi yc (corntra- 
XtxiovtTiv X6yov%. Athen. V. 320, C. iv 8c ry 'Afi(ij(y, ntKpw 'AXuiiStddou 
KoraTpiXfi (.fSschines sc. Sucraticiis)^ ow oivoipXvYo?, k.t,4. Ib. d. 6 
a noXirucor avrov iioXoyot oKovrMV Koradpopijv iftpUx*^ rwv ^h&qvjifri dij* 
payvySiv. I«aert. in Chrysip. 187. ciVi d* o! KOTarpixowt tov Xpwiir^ 
mrv itt voXXh alcxp^^ ttai dppfirus dvay«ypaffi6Tos. Plut. in Pericle 9. 
Tovrtut 6 UcpucX^f learad^/uryoyouficvof. Id- in Alcib. 23. ivhtuctpMf Ac 
dfffioai^f Kol 6avpa^6p4yot ovx fyrrov Ibi^, rovs woXXoift mtr tdr} pay vy ft teal 
jcorryoTTcff rjf dtaiTff XaKiAvi(»v, Id. in Nicla, 26. rovrt^ Karaarpanfyii' 
$t\s 6 NiKi'of. 

* '* Locus Ml inteUrj(enfliu de acclamalionibus in fiiic ucrificii — duo pitrttcipia 
itiwiur b. L ttt^fiJivrTfT — Koifuivrts idem valent quod icai^wKTCx iv tii^ftf^t^^tSf 
inter exungueodtnii accloiiiaiiti^** Butleb. 

170 API2T0*AN0nrS 

TvevfWPODU woXifv ttopov. 

793. irvcv^iwv wo\v¥ w6po¥, the lungs* large labomr, i.e. the Huge 
words of i£schylus» which it cost the lungs so much labour to pro- 
duce. The translation has been framed to meet an alliterative 
tendency in the ^schylean writings, which none of his commenta- 
tors, as far as I am aware, have noticed. Ag. 14 05. rvfifta rdmuxn 
ritrm. Choeph. 5^4- ^'^f^f^ rvfx^ov t^s oiwi^uwctou rvxfjs. Pers. 757* 
voXvs n-Xovrov itokw. (Cf. Eurip. Phcen. 1448.) Also 688. 104::. 
Suppl. 983. 

lb. 7rvfVfjt6yap for ir\tvfi6y«ap^ as above, m^XuraofUmf for atkXMroiUvtj. 
In a choric song, where the comic poet imitates the tragic fuXo- 
woita, the old Attic forms of dialect are preserved. See Brunck's 
note, and also Stalbaum ad Plat. Phileb. $.31. The reader of the 
above minute observations will be rewiuded for his pains by the 
keener relish, with which he will come to the following admirable 
specimen of translation from the pen of the Right Hon. J. H. IVere : 

The full-mouth'd master of the Tragic quire. 
We shall behold him foam with rage and ire ; 
—Confronting in the list 
His eager, shrewd, sharp- tooth'd antagonist. 
Then will his visual orbs be wildly whirl'd. 
And huge invectives will be hurl'd, 

Superb and supercilious. 

Atrocious, atrabilious, 
With furious gesture and with lips of foam. 
And lion-crest unconscious of the comb; 
Erect with rage, — his brow's impending gloom 
O'ershadowing his dark eyes' terrific blaze. 

The opponent, dexterous and wary. 

Will fend and parry ; 
While masses of conglomerated phrase, 
Enormous, ponderous, and pedantic. 
With indignation frantic. 
And strength and force gigantic. 

Are desperately sped 

At his devoted head. — 
Then in different style 
The touchstone and the file. 
The subtleties of art 
In turn will play their part j 
Analysis and rule, 
And every modem tool ; 
With critic scratch, and scribble, 
And nice invidious nibble ; 
— Contending for the important choice, 
A vast expenditure of human voice I 

lY. OvK Oif fiedei^rjp tov 0p6pov, fxij vovBeru, 


794. Daccbus returns totlie stage, having Euripides on one side of 
him and ^^scliylus on the other : and on these three we are to de- 
pend for our entertainment thmujjh the rest of this drama. The 
loud and augry tone in which Euripides is spenking, and the stern 
indignant silence manifested by ^Kschylus, both indicate preceding 
altercation. The good-natured interpositions on the part of Bac- 
chus are ogain but continuances of preceding eflbrts to the same 
effect. {Aloud) *' Mydearest .^vschylus, — "(aside)'* but one mightas 
well rcasun with a bull chafd into pbrensy." {aloud) '* If vou 
love me, Euripides, — iasidc) but the fellow talks as loud as ten mills 
in full clatter, and his tongue goes faster than the water which 
seems running for life or death below them ! Well, well I when 
bards or monarchs get thoroughly healed, there seems little ditfer- 
ence between them and people taken from the streets! Some re- 
cent ''reading has advertised me of the tir^c, and the present pro. 
ceedings give pregnant proof of tlie latter. The gods confound 
them both, yet fur public decorum sake, I must continue my good 
oilices!") Hut the masks of the two contending bards ? Doubtless 
all the skill of Athens was tasked to give them ert'ect ; and when 
we recollect ibe extraordinary variety, and even opposition of 
traits, which Purrhasius is said to have thrown into his imaginary 
*Dkhu8, we are surely at liberty tvi ^ive some scope i;> our imagi- 
oatiun in the conception of an idealized .^Ischylus and Euripides. 
Pathos — lyric grandeur — rhetoric elotjuencc, nut without a certain 
mixture of sophistic arlilice. Lvuuld be the leading features of the 
one ; sublimity and gigantic flaring, combined with a certain air 
of simplicity and unpretcndingness, would be the characteristics of 
the other. Are we at liberty to go still further? Before certain 
legal ordinances had added largely to the number of Radicals in our 
own metropolis, we heard a shrewd obscrveronce remark, that among 
ten thousand of its inhabitants he would undertake to point out a 
Soulhwark'man, a certain low, levelling, self-couceited air of free- 
dom being the invariable marks of a member of that distinguished 
borough. This feature must, we think, be added to the Euripidean 
mask (infr. (J17 ). as that of high aristocratic tendencies to the mask 
of /Eschylus. What necessarily followed from this diflerencc of 
political feeling, and which required also to be marked out, a 
general observation of mankind will tell us. The cabbugc- 
woman's aoo was as apt to insult (he gods above, as he was 
to quarrel with the representatives of their authority here below : 
the bard of Eleusis, in that higher wisdom which Aristophanes 
assigns as his peculiar attribute, gave tbeir befitting reverence to 
both. This difference < 



d Pmm ihe rfcent ooaru of Bacthas's HUidio wc may prwume, thai n dtH- 
yniccful Kpne ul' iduvcaliofi ttrtween Aganiemnvi) ttiiil hi& m)id bruUitr in th<* Iph. 
in All). (^1 7, K4{.) in Urnt fdliiilt^l in. 

r Pliny, 1. XXXV. $..16. 



Kp€iTT<i>p yap (hai (f>7)ixi tovtov ttjv re)(yriv, 795 

AI. Am7)(i;A€, Ti aiyas ; cuaffavfi yap tov Xoyov. 

EY. anToafp-vvueiTai Trp&rov^ air^p fKoarore 

Iv TCU9 rpaycpblaiatv mpareveTo, 

AI. to Scufiovt avSpcoif, fxij pueyaXa Ateu' Xtye, 

EY, iytpSa TOVTOV xai 8ieaK€fifLcu TrdXcu, 800 



required lo be impressed on the respective masks. Are we Ittvin^ 
too hard a task on Grecian artists, even aflcr what has been said of 
Parrbasius ? 

lb. o^x ay ^*$*ifuriv, (Eiirip. Iph. A. 310. Soph. Phil. 1303.) rov 
Opovov, I wiil not givf up ihr throne. PI. 43. tovtov fir) fAtBUa-Bat. 
75. tit0ttr64 fMV. Eurip. Hec. 400. Trjtrd* cKoDaa fraid^c oi^ ^tBrjvonat 
Hip. 326. fruy yt yovaTmv ov fxtBrja-ofiai. For thc grammatical rule 
on this subject, cf. nos in Vesp. 434. 

lb. fi^ vQvBirti. j^scb. Prom. V. 272. irapatmv yavBmtw rw 
KaKas npuff<TovTa. Eurip. Med. 39. tfOvB^TOVfiirrj <fHXa)¥. Soph 
1323. vov0FTe\ Tis rvvoi^ Xc'ywi'. 

797 . diTotr«fiyvy«<T6at (inf. 98 7. trtfAn/vofuvov), G\. <rt^v^s iaxfthv 
<rxf}fuiri(€tp, to play the grandee, to wear an air of dignity. The allu- 
sion is partly to the characters which .-Eschylus whs accustomed to 
bring on the sta^c, who did not open their mouths till the stage- 
business had proceeded for some time. (Cf. infr. 877-883.) Plat. 
The^t. 168, d. dnoatfiyvvw to " wavrwy fuTpov** {serio et graviter 
tcniiam iliam de homine omnium rerum fttTpw erpUcans). 

798. TtrparfvtaBaif monstra vel portertta loijvi. Pass. Cf. i 

P- '73- 

799. «! dai^yi* dvdpav. Cf, Plut, 684. 788. 1 060. Eccl. 5 
784. Eq. 611. 1335. Eurip. Hec. 707. 939. 

lb. p,^ pryaka \tav A«y*. Dobree, referring to Plat. Hip. MaJ? 
395, a. a pfi p«ya XV-yt. Phaedo 95* b. .Apol. 30, e. Sophist. 238, a. 
prefers pfj pry av Xiav \iyr. The Platonic references, hi»wever, im- 
ply, speaking proudly, the present instance seems rather to imply. 
speaking loudly. 

800. &iaiTKiirr«tr6ai, to Consider thoroughly and deeply. Eurip. 
Cycl, 557* *^*^ SuiffKr^uiptOa. (The term is evidently selected iu 
allusion to that <ric«'^ts and Xoyio-^oy, on which Euripides so muc 
prided himself Cf. infr, 939) 

80 1. dypi(mm6y. To this reading of the Ravenna MS., (and 
hardly need be added, the reading of Bekker and Dindorf,) Thiersch 
prefers (from Cant. i. Mon. Gell. I. 15.) that of aypiomov, and 
refers both this epithet and the following one to the pergonal, 
not to the rfniffwrricrArtrar/er of yEschylus. I cannot compliment 
my very learned contemporary, either on his reading, or the theory 
lo which he makes it subservient. Why such a distinction should 
have been made at all, is hard to say ; but if reference was lo be 



oifOpcimov aypiOTTOioif, avdaS6<TTOfioyj 

made to personal appearance and character in either of the two 
bards, one should have expected lo see that reference made 
rather to Euripides, who, being recently dead, must have been 
better known to the audience than to -^schylus, who had been 
defunct ha]f a century, and whose personal peculiarities roust con^ 
scquently have been known to very few indeed. It will be no diffi- 
cult matter, however, lo make it clear, that as ^scbylus, in his 
selection of epithets for Euripides, refers solely to the latier's dra- 
matic character, so Euripides does the same in the epithets which 
he applies to his distinguished rival- 
lb. aypionoi^s {3yptos, irotia). Can any reader of the Eumenides, 
or the Prometheus Vinctus, for a moment doubt, that a drama- 
tic, and not a personal allusion is here intended ? What is the 
situation of things in the last drama ? Its opening verses place us 
in a Acene as wild and savage as human imagination can well fancy : 
and characters as wild and savage presently enter to complete this 
Sa]vator-Rosa picture. Hobur and Vis, with their hammers, nails, 
and wedges — Prometheus in his chains — the unslippered Ocean- 
nymphs ((if whom more hereafter) holding converse high in air 
and in a winged chariot ( [38. 280. 290.), before they enter as the 
Orchestral Chorus — Old Ocean himself upon his Hippogrjph ; — add 
to these the horned lo, and the many-eyed Argos — add Phorcyds, 
Gorgons. GriflRns, and the one-eyed host of Arimaspians, — if these 
be not proofs of the wild and savage in scenery> character> and i\e- 
acription, where are they to be found ? And who more likely to 
take offence at such scenes of solitary grandeur and desolation, than 
he whose boast it was to have installed the Tragic Muse upon the 
family-hearth, and made her the interpreter of all that occurred 
within that narrow circle ? (cf. infr. 934.)' 

lb. av$a^6iTro^o^ (ouOaAijc, nrrf/ia), one of self-mUed tongue } lite- 
rally, one who has the tongue of an aCBaSrff^ i. e. a person, who pleases 
himself, careless how much he may displease others. (Cf. infr. 986-) 
Though the drama of the Prometheus Vinctus might be again ap- 
pemled to for a juslificalion of this ^epithet, yet that would be to 
confine its range within too narrow limits, the expression being, I 
think, addressed to the general /7o/i7/ra/ spirit, in which the dramas of 
the two contending bards bad been conceived. That spirit had 
been as subserxnent in the one, as it had been manly and indepen- 
dent in the other. Euripides wrote confessedly to please the 
people (infr. 914-17.), and what was the result? Harangues on 
popular institutions, introduced with such evident impropriety, that 
the speaker himself feels obhged to apologize for their introduction, 
(Suppl. 410-73,) — choral odes, full, it may be, of lyric beauty, but 
brought in with more or less violence for the purpose of singing 
the praises of Athens, or aiding some temporary party rpurpose. 

' Cf. w. 445. 94,1. 1000. 1047. 1070-.!. 

ff Medea, ftao, M|. Helen. 13J1, m). No lover of poetry will be mueh dupowd 
w qiiaird either wltli ihe subjccC-toKter of the first of these two ckoni«e«y or widi 
thr manner in which it ts intrudiiced ; but can the ftnnic indulgenoe be extended 



t\oirr axp^^vov OKpari^ oBvptmov OTOfUL, 

(914-17.) — violent invectives n^inst foreign stales, according as 
one or other might be mofit uut of favour with his own '^metropolis 
— individual characters, ostensibly foreign, but in reality uatire, 
introduced for the purpose of being held up to papulur favour, or 
the 'reverse, thus making the tragic stage serve that purpose which 
was the peculiar province of the comic one — the most natural rules 
of dramatic propriety violated, and for uhat ? that an ultra-demo- 
cracy might be gratitied by seeing language and intellect brought 
to a dead level, as well as situation and condition, (infr. 914—17.) 
— such are the features too often meeting us in the dramas of 
Euripides. Can the same be predicated of those of his rival? 
That the dramas of .'Eschylus iiliould have been wholly free from 
political allusion, was not to be expected ; the drama itself, as we 
have elsewhere shewn, had been cradled, as it wore, in politics; 
but the decided superiority of purpose in .^schylus, when his 
muse does descend to local rniher than to general ideas, will be 
evident when future notes oblige us to point to particular instances. 
It is the consciousness of this superiority on his rival's part, which 
here galls and pinches Euripides; and hence his prompt ascription 
to contumacy and setf-trilledness, what was in fact the high-raind- 
edneaa of a great poet, feeling that his credentials are from heaven, 
and that his duty is to give a proper lone to society, not to receive 
an improper one from it, 

802. axaXivos^ ivitfuntt fwr^ or viuzzte, cf. Ag. 329. If the two 
epithets in the former vtTse npj)li€d to the ttpirit of the yKschylean 
dramas, there can be uo tloubi tlitu the three in the present verse re- 
fer to the diction in which those dranms were clothed. And here 
again we And an equal dt.stini tion bifiween the two contending 
bards ; the same compliant diKpo:»itiun in the one, the same bold 
and uncompromising spirit in the other. Increasing literary habits, 
and, as a necessary consequence, an increasing effeminacy in the 
spirit of the age, called for smooth and easy diction; and a smooth 
and easy diction had been in couKeqiience furnished by Euri- 
pides. yEschylus, as lofty in spirit as he was noble in blood (Kl, 
TTieol. jEsch. p. i.), seems to have considered it his duty to create 
words, as well as ideas for his hearers. His mouth accordingly, riM- 
out a door to it (nirtlAwTOf), stood ever open, giving free egress to the 
words which had bceu minted in the brain above^ and, to do the 
good man justice, words of portentous size and strange coinage 
sometimes took advantage of the privilege to miike their exit from it. 
To come to closer quarters on this matter. In blomfieM's edition of 
the Prometheus, 1 find an asterisk jirctixcd to not less than seventy 

to the latter, forcrd in u ii ia merely to (nvour llic JUccluc vvonhip? See further 
on tltis ■ubjti't, Uoeckh'i Trmg. Or. Prince c XIV. XV. Scbocn de Per*, hi 

Bacch. Etir. p. 73. 

^ i^ ffenerallv Ma Supplices, Aniti-onuicbe, and IleraclidtP, ruid cf. iloeckh** 
Pr. Or. Tr, p. ujt. 

I Siippl. 867-<>i7. (where see .^lu^grave'a note: aUo Buet-kir* Pr. Or. Tr. p. 
188.} Omu 892-898. 



repiXaMfTOUj KOfrrrotpoKtXopfrrjfiopa, 

words, which the learned editor professes his inability to find any 
where else than in the author whom be edus, (and a search ^vhicb 
coald elude his profound erudition and unpenned industry, who crq 

hope to 

) In the Septi 

lira Theb. 

renew wita more suc< 
occur ninety words of the same description, in the Persa; se- 
venty-four, in the Chocph. cighiy-eighl, while in the Agamemnon 
the same appropriating star stands guard over no less than i66: 
giving upon the whole in five dramas not less than 486 words as the 
excluftive properly of iheirwriler. Of these not less than 403 asiiume 
a compound form, " huge ihumpiug words," as our humorous poet 
elsewhere intimates (infr. 890.), *' which were utterly new and 
unknown to the auditors, and which bad the same frightful effects 
upon men, as common bugbears have upon children." Of these 
compound frirms he.sides what has been already said, somewhat 
may occur for future notice i at present let ,us attend to verbal il- 
lustrations of the one immediately before us. Eurip. Metanip. Capt. 
fr. XXIX. 4. 6x<i^tv' if)(cvat (rrofiara. Bacch. 585. uj^aXivuv arofiaTtav 
. . TO TfAor dutm-jfia. Plat. 3 Leg. 70 1, c. ajKoXu^i* Ktxnjfitvos t6 
irr6tia. Non. Dionys. XIV. 51. e^cDi' dxuXivov vmjKiji'. XLIV. 381. 
(ioMji^fVtrat fi u)^uXivt)¥ ApttTTaiatu yvvauca* 

lb. dxpoTTj^, without command over itself. From, Vinct, 909, 
yKuMtxrT)^ aKparrjK. This is the second of two compounds beginning 
with the privative «, and two more immediately follow. Is Ibit 
Bccidental ? A subjection of the Orestean Trilogy to the iiame pro- 
cess aa that by which were elicited an matiy compounds in oc and ijc, 
would shew that for a full sense of the humour we must again have 
a full sense of the scenic language uf .^iHschylus, and the mimetic 
powers of Aristophanes. But if this process takes place any- 
where, it must be where our pages are less crowded. See Ap- 
pendix (G). At present we restrict ounielvea to one or two 
specimens more particularly in point. Choeph. 49. (Kl.) (rt(ias 6' 
^ftaxov, aAu/iaroi'. diroAc^oi' r^ vplv. Ag. 706. (Kl.) dai^ioyd re roi* 
afutxov, un6\«fA0V, avitpov. 

lb. d$vp9i>Tos. Ttie editors fluctuate between dwvXetroit and ^v- 
pmr9¥, Brunck, Bekker, and lliiersch adopt the former, Dindorf 
prefers the latter. If the epithet refers, as I think it docs, to the 
religious indiscretion willi which .^schylus was apt to refer to 
Klcusinian doings, sayings, or (^^hibitionSi (the three great tilings 
which have yet lo be exjdnincd respecting those myalerious cere- 

j monies,) it is of little consequence which we take, but the weight 
of aulbority. or at all events «f numbers, leans to the latter. Orphic 

^^&. I. I. tfiSiy^fiaL vU 6ifut itrri, 6vpn% S* titi$«<r6f ^t/UfKois. Pythag. 

^^Bkp. Stob. Floril. XLI, p. 238. ucitrai awtTo'ttrt, Bvpat 6' iitiBtvOt ^t- 

^^S^oit. (iregorius Naz. Laud, iu V'irg. p. 43, d. ol (pBov^poi ti Ovpg- 
aiv *frt<^pu(TtT€n(T&t oKowit. See further, Eiirip. Iph.T. 727. Oresl. 893, 
Philo dc Cherub, 115, b. Dionywuc de Compos, c. XXV. p. J94. T. 
V. Galenus de Hsu Port. XH. 5. 593. D.T. IV. Chart. 



AI. " aXr)d€9i w TToT T7J9 apovpaloL? Beov \ 
<rv Srj fie raxrr^ a> oTtofivXioavXXeKraSr) 
Kol Trro^oTTOtf Kcu paKUxrvppaTrraST] ; 


Sftcrif. in, 78. Liban, Epist. kCCCCLXXV. 239. For iriJXoc, we 
have Eurip. HippoK 886. roJJr fiiv oJmVi arofxaros «V iruXaiv \ Kodi^. 
Plat. Couviv. 21 S, b. oi W oixrrcu, Kfli fiTit Si^oi iurX ^firfXdt rt mi 
SypaiKot, vvXas now fuydkat To'is lacriv €iriBt(r6€. Cyril, ad Julian II. 
38. mrvXawoi* dyotyyvs t6 orr^fMi. Aristides Or. Plal. II. I 29. irvKav #irt- 
Bitrffai Toie wriy^ 

803. mrtpiXaXrjTov, not to be outdone in loquacity. And this from 
Euripides, the very prince of draroalic loquacity ! there is a homely 
proverb in our own latif^uage — but we cberk ourselves. 

lb. KOfino<paK€\oppTjftti3v (Ko/iTToc, ^tojcfXocj ft^^ta). Tlie speaker, liko 
most angry people, ends his invective in something like an anti- 
climax, unless the strsined eye, contorted face, and throat-rattle, 
with which this compound was probably evolved, be brought in to 
assist iis inferiority of vituperation. But let us attend to its com- 
poncnt parts: jttf^n-oc, a hiyk-sounding word. (Cf. infr. 927. Hero- 
dot. VII. 103. 0^1 /19 fiarijv K6fjLtros A \6yos olros tlprjfiivot ^trj.) ^kucf- 
Xof, a bundle. (Herodut. IV. 63. (^/wytix'Mi' <f}d*t\oi, ib. 67. ^ojccXu 
pafi^iov.) Translate : emitting a heap of high-sounding words. 

804. Skijdtx; /flrfwf^/ said ironically. Cf. nos in Ach.502. Soph. 
CEd. T. 350. Antig. 75S. Eurip. Cycl. 241. fr. incert. 200. 

Ib. dfiovpaias, said in allusion to the mother of Euripides, (cf. nos 
Acb. 435. Eq. 19. et infr. 9TI.) and parodied from a senanus of 
the poet himself. *(Fr. Inc. Trag. 200. dXrjQtt, « ndi r^r BaXacvlas 
0fov,) ^schyl. Fr. Sis. 3. apovpaidt nV tW* afiiv^o^. Dem. 307,25. 
dpovpaiot Olvofjxios. (.^Eschines is ilius termed by Demosthenes, 
from his havin§^ acted the (Enomaus of Sophocles to rustic audi- 
ences). See further, Boeckh's Princ, Gr. Tr. p. 235. 

805. tri) drjf p^ ruOra — and this fi*om you? or, do you say these 
things of me? The speaker in his vehement indignation forgets his 
verb, which may be easily supplied. Ach. 568. rovrl Xrycw tni xhv 
irrpcmjyoi' tttw^^*" *^ J 

lb. trTvpv\Xioavkk€Krdifji (irvWiya), a collector of chattering per- 
sons. Cf. infr. 1 1 25. ol Kartartopvkpivt \ AySptoirt. Bergler compares 
Atheu. IV. 157, a. ovd«\f vpHv^ nySp€c y(vcio<rvXX(«cradai, Ix^v*" f atf«i ; 

806. jrT»;i(OTro*of, a poetical mendicant— creator. The poet's 
meaning in this and the following compound needs no explanation 
to those acquainted with his Achamenses. Cf. nos ad v. 359. sq. 

lb. paKLotnjppaTTTaHfjs {poKiov^ (rvfppdrrTai) , a patcher of rags. When 
^schylus thus reproaches his opponent, was he himself open, in 
one instance at least, to a similar taunt? A writer, whose almost 
youthful labours crowned him with the undying feme of a consum- 

ic Mont of the above referencea will be found Rt full length in Lobeck** AgUo- 




oAA' ov Tt ^atpwv avr (p€i9, AL TraiJ*, Aia^vAt^ 
tcai firj TT/wy opyrfu inrXay\va 0€pfxr)vjf9 kotco. 
AL ov Sijraj Trplv y oi/ tovtov airotpi^uo} aaifm^ 
Totf xayXoTTOtoi^^ 0109 tov Opcurvvercu. 
Al. apv apva pj^Xawav TroTSfff i^viyKare^ 
Tv<f)o>9 yap eK^liffuf Trapaa-K^va^^rat. 
I. ct) Y^pTfTiKas p.iv (TvXAeyayp fioifcoSuz'^f 


male scholar, has strongly asserted && much (see Blomf. Pnefat. in 
Pers.) ; but uhether correctly, is al all events open to examina- 
tion. Cf. infr 993. 

808. <nr\ayx^a, prtfcordia, et irte sedes. Tii. infr 973. ^u/m>0;uii . . 
ui iiov TO <nr\dyxy oyavaKTu. The word is found in ail the three 

lb. 9rpnalv€tif. jEsch. Pers. 511. Btpiuil^mf <p\oyi. Eurip. Cycl. 
424. tnrXdxi** iQipfunvov rtort^. Alcest. 774* ^ws i&ipfi.rjif' avri^v ^^£ 


lb. K^ov, wrath. Od. XI. loa. 5 toi k6tou h0*To Ovfi^. The word 
is not found in Sophocles, is found once in Euripides (Rhes. S30.), 
but abounds in the remains of /Eschylus. Sec more particularly 
Ch. 101 3. 

80^ oil d^TO ac. TravaofKu , 

Sio. x»^ovc"<>(' See the scene before referred to in our Ach, 


lb. BpatTvvtTai. Eurip. Hec. I165. ftrj^ii* Opatrwov. Or. 599. rn-fl 
Bpairvvtt. jEsch.. Ag. 215. 1159. Suppl. 753. 

Sii.'tpra {apffv^ or appT}v) p.t\aivav. Bacc'hus, foreseeing an in- 
llectual storm, proposes to sacrifice accordingly. Virg. ALn. III. 
130. Ni^ram Hiemi pecudem, Zephyrisfeiicibus album. 

812. Tu^wt. yEschyl. SuppL 553. ri^u /tAvor tbnap to NfiXou 
Ag. 63 8 . KtpoTVKOVfitvai fflif ;ifri/iwi'i rv0w trvv C^fl '"' ofx^pOKrCnt^, 
Soph. Antig. 418. Tv<f>ais afipm (TKtjnTov, ovpdvioif (■x"^* nlptrXjftrt irf- 
d*W. Eurip. PhcEn. I I 70. Tw/twt wCXanrtv iSff riir funtatav. For a full 
view of a poetical Typhoon, see the Dionysiacs, 1. II. 

813. Having discharged himself of the indignant feelings of an 
artiit, (is it a hit at pour human nature, that even in him the in- 
terests of his era/t are the first consideration?) ^Cschylus assumes 
the stem tone of a moralist, and adverts to the licentious histories 
and allusions introduced iiuo the Euripidean dramas. In what 
manner the comic tone of the dialogue is preserved by the interpo- 
sitions of the half shrewd, half-shatterbrain wine-god, has been 
noticed in our prefatory remarks, 

lb. KptjTiKdt. Euripides wrote two dramas, one deriving its title 
from the men of Crete (Kpijrtt), the other from its won»en (K/>^<r- 
aai). How exceptionable both were likely to be in point of mora 




yd^ov^ S difoo-iovs ia'(f>€p(Dif eV ttjp T€xin]py 

AI. eVia^fy ovtos^ o) TroXvrifXTfr AlaxvXf, 8i 

avo riau y^aXa^wi/ S\ O) irovqp EipiTrtSi], 

avaye a^avrov e#c7ro5a)f, ft aco<f>poy€l9f 

Iva fiT) Ke(PaXaicp top Kp6Ta(f>6v aov piqfiUTt 

0€PQ>V VTT Opyrjs ^KX^J) TOP T7]A€<I)0P' 

aif Si firj irpos opyqvy AlaxvX\ oAAa Trpaovu>s 820 

the names of Taurus, Pusiphae, Ariadne, &c. are enough to shew. 
See Welcker*s note in Ran. <m ihe subject. 

lb. fiovoifilac. See infr. iiSS. 

814. ya^our avoffi'our. As ihnt of Macarcus with his uterine 
sister Canace. Cf. no» in Nub. 1323. 

Si 6. x^^^iC'^*'* i- ^* ffoni (^^e words and sentences of .<£schylus. 
which pour clown like hail. The word is found twice in Sophocles 
(Q^(]. T. 1279. Col. 1503), once in Euripides (Tr. 78.). 

818. Kf^oXn/oi, Gl. KaSoKtK^ Koi ^eyaX.(^. ScHOL. alip^, i. c. latyf, 
thick, hard. Thiersch considers the word as a substantive, and used 
for iv »r«^nXoiy, summalim. The two verses together he translates : 
n^ tibi rem paucis uhsolvens pra ira caput feriens Telephttm exculiat. 
Pussow considers the word as au adjective, and translates much in 
the same manner as the Scholiast and Gloss writer. 

lb. Kpora^ov. /Esch. Prom. V. 745. tvOa notafiov fK(fn»r^ ^rror 
KpoTa<f)oiv an aiTvv. Eunp. Tr. 115. ot fiot Kporafpor, 

819. Btivfiv. j^ach. Se[>t. c. T. 378. (9«tv»i5' ov<td«( fid^rtv. Eurip. 
Rh. 689. tffiXov avSpfi fii} 6(jn}v. Hcraol. 272. ^17 — laipvim Tt»Xfi^o-.*jr 
Bivtxv. Cycl. 7- 'Vc'ov (li fiiarju ^ Ciycjy, 

lb. «Kxttv. i^ch. Pers. 83 l. fifjb' . . . ^X^iov tKxtjj nrynv, Eufip. 
Cycl. 323. oray fWflci' Sfijipov iKxiji- Soph. Phil. 13. ^v «"1 M**^ **' 

lb. — TijXttfiov, The word expected was ryK/tpaXov, i. e. the 
brain accustomed to generate such characters as Tclephus. 

820. iTfi&f opyrjv, angrily. (Soph. El. 369. 628.) yEsch. Proni. 
Vinct. 503. TTpor ii^o¥Tiv, pleasvrably, {nai ^^oiAr riva | fx^rr* ar t^i 
dmpo<riv npov rjSoyriv). Ag. 277. "'vrrrpreX^f t«, noitrov wrrf v^rtaai, | 
ttrx^t voptvroZ Xa^irddoc np6t tjBorijy [ ttivkt), t6 ;^pviro0cyyfr, ur nc 
^»of, I o-eXoff 7Tapayy*l\ava MaKl<rrov trit07Ta7?, Ibid, wpiis K6pop, inso- 

1 Tlie mUuuui) t8 to a valoruus expliric |ierfurnie<l by Silcnui, much of tlie 
nature u tliat practised by Fulntoir with Hot^tpiir. Stv Wplcker's Nachtng. 
p. 198. 

m Biomtield tmiulates, qui iuperalj nempe/retum. I underetAud the word 
as equivalent to inrtpr^Kuost excetgiee. Thin torch, it must U' remfinlwrcd , bw 
to travel in ita strength over an intervening wn, from luuuut Athos to .Mucistui 
in Eubara. It coniMHfuently roquirod more maferif/^ and a greftter blaze of light 
thsn the «>theni. Henre while another torib-Hght in cumparect to tlie moon, iMi if 
reseinblixl to the sun. (Kor consiniction bee Wellatier.) 


IXey^^ iXey^ov' XoiBopelcrdat S ov ^'/Luy 
ctpSpa^ rroiiyras wnr^p dproTrcoXtSaf , 
(TV S tv6v9 cocnrfp irplvo^ e^Trprjadeiy ^oay. 
EY, €ToifjL09 t(/z* eycoye^ kovk dt/aSvopicu^ 
ScMcffiv, SoKuecrdat irporepo^^ €1 tovtco Sok€Ij 
Tayrrj^ ra fx^Xn], rd vevpa t^$ rpayc^ta^y 



lently. IVom. Vinct, 216. Ag. 849. trpiit ^av, ^forcibly, Pers. 575. 
npas SvayKav, necessarily. Soph. Elect. 464. TrpSc tlaifituiv, piously, 
Sept. c, Theb. 515. itphi \6yov, reasonably with, suitably to, 
lb. irpaoi'wj, Cf. Dob. Advv. I. 246. 

821. eXe-yx* sc. aurov, €\iyxov irap' airrov. Dobree compares Plat. 
Goi^. 462^ a. rV r^ /ic'pci tp^ritv Kai ipwrwfuyos^ cSr wtp €y^ re Koi 
VopytaSt «\ry)^i r* mi tXiy)(<iV. 

lb. Xot^opfi(r$ai, to wranyle, 

822. dpToiriiKi^t. Fmm the text, the bukhig-vvomen of Athens 
appear to )iave been what \\\e poissardes q{ Ve^n^ and Lonrloii are at 
present. We should have beeu belter judges on the subject, had 
the '.\pT01rwX4Bff of Hermippus (Athen. III. 119, c.) rcac?hcd us. 
Cf. Lysist. 456-8. 

823. irpZvof. ilex. Like the juniper, this tree, when burning, 
makes a loud crackling noise. 

lb. ttiirprfa-0tis. Soph. Phil. 8oi. irfpi ifirrpjj<ro»f, v yovaic. 

825. dojcvfiVj HaievttTSat (mcifiith. pungerc, acerbis conviciis soUicitare) 
i. rroifiov fifu. 'J'liese worda, denvcd, as Thiersch obsen"e», from 
biting animals, not from fighting cocks, as Bergler intimates, have 
been sufficiently illustrated in former plays. A few instances are 
here added : j^ch. Sept. c. T. 395. \wpot. fl* Kw^wr r ov ftaxi»owr' 

&frv hop4%. Choeph. 830. iXKatvovri KaX dtirjyfiiv^ (scc Klauscil). 
Pers. 851. fuiXiora d* ijd< <rvti<Popu doxytt. Ag. 764. dijyfM XCrrrj^. 
Soph. Ant. 317. tv TOiiTiv tt(rlv Q VI r^ ^^x^ ^^^^^ I £urip. Bacch. 

351. fmXi<rra yap viv drj^opui, l^pdaas raic. Med. 1367. oti' ouic/t' «(<n'' 
Tovro yap <r< d^frra*. Also Ag. 1 134. Med. 813. 1342. Hec. 235. 
Dem. c. Mid. 543, 8. 

826. Tfhnj, iambics. (Thes. 53, Kapirrfi di was uy^iSas inCav. 4? I. 
oiiiiXt yipup I ya/MU' dcXrt yvvaiKa hta roitfros rodi* | '* titrmuva yhp y4- 
pom ta>p<fiit^ yvt^-**) AJl that part of the drama in which the cha- 
racters converse. 

lb. ra piy^Tj, melodies, or what was sung, as opposed to iambics^ 
or what was spoken. 

lb. Tu vrvpaTTjs rpay^ias. i^schin. 77, 36. iwoT<T/M;rrai rA wvpa 

n A taqueot nc KL 

N 2 



Kol vr) ^ia tov HrjXea ye kcu tou AioXov 
Kol roif MfX^aypoUf koti /ioAa Toif TijAc^oi/. 
AI. cv Se 8rj Tt ^ovXfvei ttouIp ; Xiy\ Ai(r)(u\€. 
AI. i^ovKoixTjU fi€P ovK (pl^eiu ii/0dSe' 
ovK i^ iaov yap i(mu aymv vwi^. AI. rl 8ai\ 
AI. oTt. Tj TToirjai^ ov\l avvTedvT}K€ flOl, 
70VT0} Se (rvirr€6in]Ktv, coaff e^tt Xeyeiv. 
o^icos S €7r€iSrj aoL 8oK€ly Spaif ravra ^p^q, 
AI. Wt vw Xi^cwoyrov Seupo tls kcu Trip Sorco, 


837. 1117X10, a clissylluble. This and Ibe three following plays of 
Euripides arc all lost. Tliey appear to have been particularly 
faulty in composition or morality, and an indirect coademnation of 
them is made to proceed from iheir own author. 

830. Ou the omission of av \n this verse, see Burgess ad Soph. 
CEd. Tyr 1374. 1386 : see also Monk ad Alcest. 1094. Elmsle^ ad 
Eurip. Hacch. 1311. Matlhiie Gr. Gr. §.509. " t^vXofujv est: 
volebam quidem, sed consilium res eo perdttcta mutavit ; ^SovXd/iijr a» 
vero : ammus mens a certamine abhorretf sed" Ifcc. Th. '* Ineptit 
Hermannus ad Nub. p. 230." Dona. 

lb. tptitiv. This word is found in two instances only in Tragic 
Greek. Soph. El. 467. Eurip. Fr. Inc. 

832. troiTjffif, i. c. rrt ^piifiara. 

lb. avvTtOvTjKf. These words may be taken in a general, or s 
local sense. Generally speaking. ^'Kschylua means to say. thai 
Euripides has his works at hand in the world below ; while his own, 
a.s doomed never to die, are siill in the world above : — hence one 
inequality of conleat beiwcen them. The local sense alludes to 
a pnpulnr decree made in favour of the dramas of ^schylus, 
the auihorilies for which ^^ill be found collected in Boeckh's Princ. 
Gr. Tr. p. 26. I iranscrilje those of the Scholiast, and the author 
oflbehfe of .V'schylus. Schol. «trel to AiV^vXei/ i^|fr}^ie^avTQ dtW- 
trKft¥. Vit. ^sch. 'A^vmof fie too-ovtov TjyanrjiTav Altrj(v\op, iff ^^*p*' 
trafrBat ^ir^ 6avaT0P avroii, tvv ^ov\6fi(irov 6tdntrKfiv ra At(r;fi'Xot/, ^pv<r6v 
Xafx^vftv. ... OVK oXiyat Sc jeal /icra rfjy rfXri/nji* vUan asT^wyiraro. To 
former examples given of verbs compounded with ovy, add Dein. c 
Mid. 379, 1 9. ov&afiov JTonrorr Mctdioir ruv avvrj^o^iivtav ov^i ri^v (nrf)(tH- 

835. Kiister compares Vesp. 858. cJXX* «ir raxtfrra nvp nv «^- 
vtyKOTtit Ka\ fivpplvar koi Taf Xi^ayurov eirdo^fv, oww &v ti^mfittrSa. Add 
Plut. 1 194- ciXX' f'jcdorci) Tir dtvpo dadas rjfipfyat. (An altar with buTO- 

ing fire is here brought in, on which Bacchus at the end of t. 839. 
throws incense, and then appears to be offering up a prayer) 




iywpa Kplyai topS^ fxoviriKWTaTa' 
I vfLels" Se Tats Movixats n /xcAoy vTracare, 
^H^O. <S Aw ivvia •napQivoi ayvai 
f SloviTai^ kerrroXoyovs ^vv^ras <f>p4pa9 ai KoOopare 

avSpoov ypQ)fioTV7rcov, oTav fty ^piu o^v/xepifiifOis 
I eXdwai oTpe^XouTi iraXaiapxtaiv avriKoyovirr^Sj 

\f '■*-■- 

\ 836. Bacchas imitates the agonothetEe and prize-arbiters, who 

' in like manner were accustomed to offer prayer and sacrifice 

before theatrical or other contests. 

lb. <ro<f>urfAaTa. The word is apparently used in an ambiguous 

sense ; sophisms, as regards Euripides, tvise remarks, aa regards 

837. ftowiKwraTo. er poesu legibus strenue, &. peritissime. Tu. 
83S. v/i(ic, i. e. the Chorus. 

839. ipvia wapBtvot ayvai. Eurip. Med- 827. €V^a woff ayvat j 
rmffa Hupidat \ Mouiruc Xiyovat | ^j^df 'ApfAOvlav ^vrtvfrai, 

840. XfirroXoyoi/ff <pp€yas, ingenia rermn argutissimaruni plena. Tii. 
Cf. nos in Nub. 313. 

lb. ^vvtrar. Tbi!) word and its opposite a£t;»vroE, ore of perpetual 
occurrence in the Iph. in Aul. See inter alia 368. 466, 653-4. 
691. 1155. Iph, T. 1093. 

lb. KuBapart, desuper observate^ aul cognoscite, perapicUe. Tu. 

841. upipwv yva>fjiOTvTT<vv, ingenious men* who coin or fabricate 
etical or philosophical yvupat. Cf. nos in Nub. 930. 
lb. oray tU «pi¥ k. Hrunck translates ; *' Si quancio in arcnam 

um suis acute excogitatis descendant versutisque artibus luctato- 
a> contradiccndo inter se cerlaturi." But docs not the dative 
alafAQCiv belong rather to ayriXoyoivrtt^ than to *is fpiv tX^wrt, 
osing each other, with what ? hc. 6^vfi. <rrp. fruA. 
lb. o^v^tplpMoit ('J^tr?, fUptpkva). " p.«ptfit>a significal curiose escogi- 
vm, et pro ambiguitale comica eei-umnose cxcogitatum, Hinc in- 
Uigi potest o^vfiip. esse id quod celeriter et tamen subtiliter ejCGgi- 

tatur." Th. Cf. nos in Nub. 1350. 

84a. *' oTp(3\ois vero metaphorice doloffum, caUidum siguificat, ut 

opponalur r^an-Xw, quod sunplex non flexuosum est." Tu. 
lb. naXaiupaanv, Cf. sup. 656. 
lb. dtTtkoyoiivrts. Soph, Antig. 377> frwc tltiot avTiXoyrivo rifpd' o^c 

f u«oi ira'Jt 'AvTiy6yr)v ; 

843. tno^fifyai. ^sch. Ajf. 1217. ' Ayatu'fumvds at iflh "Vo^ttr^ai 

tiopov, 1632. iia\$iAK6v cr' i-tT6^trm. Prom. Sol. fr. I. ^tvpiov Tf irri^j 




SavoTOLTOii/ oTOfiaTow TTopixTcurBaL 

pTjfiara koi TrapoTrpiO'fJLar* iiroip. 845 

vvi^ yap aycov <ro<l)ia^ 6 pJyas X^P^^ Trpor €pyop tjSt), 

844. ivyafitv (vopteatrOat Siw. oro/i. 8C. 4<rT€ vel tit r^ sub. Eurip. 
Hec. 338. Iph. A. 1364. Siippl. 388.), their power in protsidiag. \ 

845. prffutra. ScBOL. ra fiiif ptjfiuTa np6t ritv Alaxi/Xof, tu 5< irofHi- 
nptrTfiara 7rp6s riiv 'Evptnt^Tjv \rirro\oyovrra. Thiersch, iDStead of 
f'tf)fMT(i, reads p^vpara. 

lb. napdnpiirpa (irpui)), tbat uhicb falls from the act of sawiog, 
Baw-diist. Cf. infr. 86q. aKtv^rjfipn^ (Vuf. 

846. t\yi>v . . x^P*'^ iTp**t tpyov, j^Ssch. Ag. 1566. (Kl.) «*« ^7 4^'Xoi 

Xox*r«i, roiy/jyoi' (sc. pugnae) ovx «af (adest) Todf, Eurip. Heme. 

67a. /fSrj yap i>s i*f tpyov <5jrX(OTm trrparSs ; Cf. j£ftch. Choeph. t$6. 
774. (KI.) Arist. Eccl. 148. Pac. 472. 510. 559. 

lb. o-o^ta (dramatic), wisdom or excellence, in the widest extent 
of the word, from words to thirigst from metrical rules, to the subject- 
matter which those mcires served to clothe. On each of these points, 
a trial is now to be instituted between the two contending bards, 
and the audience challenged tu make election, as to which bad 
shewn most wtsdmn in his choice and use of ihcm. The trial, 
agreeably to the spirit of the Old Comedy, is of course conducted 
plea.sanily and humorously; visible machinery being on one occoiion 
called in to assist the njeutal operation in its decision (infr. 1332 
— 1378.) ; but with all this outwurii pk';isantry, were tho ultimate 
results less serious to those who heard, or less serious to us who 
read that challenge P That learned men should be found doubtful as 
to the decision wlaeh the poet's own mind bad adopted, (that deci- 
rion being delivered through llie mouth of Barchus (infr. 1381), 
can have arisen onty from the anUuguiiy in which he uses the word 
a-o<f>6t, sometimes employing it in its true and serious sense, somc- 
tiiucs sarcastically adupiing iit to that sophistic sense iu which it 
was used by £un(>LdL-±i, and by him ridden as it were to death. 
And did early posterity/ if not the poet's *nvn immediate contempo- 
raries, come to a siniilar decisi^in willi himself? That question 
is easily answered. What has become of all those plays of Emi- 
pides, at which his censure was more particularly pointed r Where 
are his * Pe'cus' and his * /Eolus,' his ' Telephus" and ' MeleagerV 
Where his * Cretan men' and * Cretan women" t Wliere his * Belle- 
rophou' and ' Melanippe,' and a seore of other dramas, all more or 
less vehicles of sophistry, phih^sophy, misogyuism, democracy, and 
blasphemy? Gone lo the winds, ur at best with only a few frog- 
menls left behind. And have the /Escbylcan dramas opposed to 
them shared a similar fate ? No: they arc iu our bands as fresh, 
and almost as entire, as when they left their author's : they remain, 
and will remain, as lout; as a tasie for all that is noble in poetry, 
sound in morality, and excellent in political or religious principles* 
is allowed a biding-placc amongst 11$. 



!. €vx!^ad€ Srj KOi a<fHo ri, irpw rain} Xiyuv, 
AI. " Ai^^i]T€p 7] dp^yf/cuxa Tijif epLTfu <ppeva, 
upcu fie Ta>p (T(av a^top fxvonjpicop,'* 

847. 0(fi^, i. e. j'Kschyhis and Euripides. 

849, tirai. sub. et!5;(o/iat (.llscb. Clioepli. r^a.) or doK (.'Esch. 
Chneph. 773*) Thes. 386. bicroiva iroXuTi/i7Tc ^rffirjrfp fpiXrf \ koX 
^ptriifiaTTtx, iroXXa ntik'KaKts fit trot j Ovtiv ixovaav^ tl di fiakXa vvr \a$tty. 
Kurip. Suppl. I. AfjfiTjTfp, ianovx ^EXfifcrZvo; x$ovot | rijo'd', ovrt vaovs 
*j[€T« frpoo-TToXoi tffur, [ €v^aifiovttv fie. Cf. Blomficld in S. c. Theb. 
p. 10. et DOS in Ach. 225. 

lb. fivarrjpiov, (The numerous illustrations which follow this 
word have not been introduced idly, or without an object. They 
will be found to couti&ia bouie of the most important passages in 
ancient writers which refer to mysteriea.) Plut. t o 1 4. /ivon^piW 
TOif firydKoii oxovfiivij tit\ n/j iifia^t)v. Pnc. 420. Nub. 143. Vesp. 
1363. Eurip. Hippol. 25. atfivav t's o^w kqI rAi; fiv<rnjpttuv. SuppL 
184. A^^rpor tit pvtrrrjpia. t^So. Xvaayra trtpvh crrtppartait fjn'trrijpta. Uh. 
946. ftvfmfpitifv T« T«y airoppTjT6>v c^vas Z&tt^tv ^OptptCs. Plat. Thcael. 
156, a. ^Icno 76, e. Isoc. 73, C. EvfioKTri&at A« Koi KrjpvKes ev r^ rtXtry 
r«r fivtmjpiap . , rolr ^p^apots tipyttrBai t&v itpoiv, mvnfp toIs afdpo^d- 
pois, wpoayopfvownv. Clem. Alex. Slrom, 1. I. p. 324. pxtrriipia rh irph 
fixHmjfUtoy (i. c. the lesser mysteries.) Plut, Consol. ad ApoUon. II. 
107* oiic apovcu7 5* Tto^v dnoip^vaa-dat 6 tlrroiv ritv vnvoy ru fUKpa toO 
Aivctrov fivtrrrjpta' wpopvr^cru yap Svrait coti rov davarov & vnvos, 'I'hc- 
UllSt. Or. XII. p. 285. nipuas di KOt *A$TfVtnnt viKaurrtit iv rdls vuvqXv 
itqXiovxrivny ra ftvirrffpia' Kal ^aa-iXevs , (Jovian BC.) pcra r^v rlpj'jvfjv, €^» 
Tov vtaa ra vportkfia fiir^tritSf ttt ra dfaKropa rifv rrXm^v KaTadtjtrtrai, 
Maxim. Tyr. Diss. XXXIX. 4. Toiovray dyaOoiV ptraXafffiv jro^rir, oiav 
tfol 'AXKifitdiirft fivimjpitav, fudvay b^iicvxot, koi tK {Tvprroiriov tepo<pdv- 
Ttjt, Ka\ fv naidi^ T«XfOTj)i. Pbiloslr. ApoU, Vit. IV. 18, 155, 
wtpt fAV<mjpi9tv apav, ore *.\0Tjvaloi rroXvay^pwircrara ''EWfjvav vpar- 
rovctv. QuintUianus dc Mus. III. 163. <f>iyiLoaoff>iat if oirabitp Tt}V 
/tavcuciiw daKijTt'ov, kqi its iiepi fimpdv irpitt fui^ta ftvtmjpiay dptpolv Xo> 
yt^ofiiifovtf tKOTiptf. r^v irpotrifKovtratr d^lav dirotftftrjrtop' rj fiiv yup yv^' 
<TtmK andayjs rfXtviovfryitx, rj dt vponatdfia rvyxdi^i' Kai ij fiiv oKpi&rjs 
T^ $VTi rcXfr^, ff di ftvarayi^ia ital irporiXttov. Demetrius Pbul. dc 
EloC- 4- 101. p. 45- Schneid. /iryoXrtoV r/ COTI Jcai fj dXXj^pia' ndv yafi 
rii vwo¥oovfUi^i' <po^ptaTtpov xai aXXos f twi^ri tlXXo ri — fiio koi ra fivarijpui 
iv aKXrjyoptatv Xc'-yirai irpin tKjrXrj^tv Koi tppimfy. Themist. Orat. XXIX. 
349i **• iTXi7<ridfci)/i«w ^817 Tois TfXrruiv itai rtjv IlftodiKov cro^'a*' rots Xiiyotv 
tynaratu^ttjfMV, 6v Upovpytav iraaay di^porrruiv Ka\ fivtrrffpta xal natn^yvptu 
mai rtXtras riiav yttapyins t^dirrwi xaXav. CIcm. Alcx. p. 680. aXXa gal 
lA ra fivarrfpui Biptvfn, <j}i\6a'o<poi ome, tu avrai* Soyfiara p,i-$ot% xarc';yw- 
<raVt WTT< pji €tvM dwaa-t ttq\a. Dio Cbr. Or. XVII. 464. cV rot; ^t/crnj- 
pvoit A l€pQ<pdimji oi/x dnu^ Tfpoayttfftvti ro'is pvrwfiivott ticnornf wy xpk — 
an^danp nv' dfr6ppjfTov npopprftriv. Galen, de Simpl. Med. Vll. c. 1. 




AI. 101 vvp iniO^s Srj koI av ki^iftoroi^, EY. koAw' 850 

trtpot yap tlciv olaiif ev^o/xa* O^ols, 

AI. 1.8ioi Tcue^ aoVj KOfifia kowou ; EY. koI pxiXa, 

AI. iOt vvv TTpoaev^^ov Toiaiv iSiwTaiy 0eoi9, 

EY. cudrfpj iphv /3o<TKr;/xa, Koi yXdrrrq? arpot^ty^^ 

p. 181. T. XIII. Chart. icatftvoTTipM)i'/93Xoffi /r<$X^i;o-ai' /wot rav^vvfrnv 

avaytvuiiTKftv^ aW nuK tKtlvois typaypav otypd^urrfc. Diodor. SlC. C. 23- 
*Op^a th Aiyvrrrov napafiakdi'Ta icai fi(ra<rj^(>Kra r^vTcXf-nJcKai rStv ^lomt- 
ataxtiv ftvaTrfpicitv fAfraXa^oifra roic rt Kabptiois <pi\ov arra firtradelvai rou 

Stoii ytvtatv infivoiv ^(api^o^firof. Scbul. Taur. ud Eur. Pboen, 854. 
K£!/iaXTror 9ro\(/iuv rar 'A^i^fap cVt roO vetarepov 'Epfj^$€ia: i<Povri^rj' frr- 
pot d( Kai aXXut dvo vlo) avTov frap' *Epe;(<9«Qi( difjjptBftrro fv tKetvto riu iro* 
\€fi(^ iivpp,axovvT*£ EopiXfTO), 06pffas mi *I/i/i(ipador* rorc &( rrri r^ tlp^r^ 
Ta pvaTTjpia ^rjprjTpos triKetrav. See also Diod. V. 48. Zusim. IV. 3. 
Galen, tie ThcriRc. L. I. I. p. 931, a. Clemens Alexand. Sirom. p. 
737. Prod, in Parmen. p. i3i.C(msin. lambliohus Protrepl. 11. 
20. (Klauseii considers the above two verses to have been in the 
' Elctisinii* of /Eschylus, and to bare been spukeu cbure by l*be- 
seus. yEsrh. Thcol. p. 93.) 

850. iTTiri6(vai Xtfiavtaroy. Cf. nos ID Vesp. 96. " Fuit quidem Tl- 

resia liber de ihttrls sicfnis. a Fabricio prjetermissuM v. Lutat. ad 
Theb. IV. 468. sed Hoineriis ipse nomen "Xi^ivov ignorat, nee fallit 
turtasse Porphyrtus Pythaj^orani imrnins npatTov rfj Sia rav Ai^tu'arrou 
pkoyrtu^ jlpfftraadat in V. P. XI. p. 24. qiiamqunm is ct ceteri conjec- 
turam potius sequi quam rem compertam referre videntur." Lo- 
beck in Aglaoph. I. 263. 

lb. KokaSf excuf'e me. Cf. sup. 476. 

852. Koppa, loinage. Cf. sup. 690. As llie imputed Joint im- 
piety of Socrnies and Euripides has been fully considered in ihe 
Clouds, it is not necessary to enter into it here. 

853. t'diwrair. Dinilorf Hiid Thiersch observe, that there is a eer- 
lain comic amhii^nity in this word, which implies at once peculiar, 
and also vulgar, plebeian. In what sense the latter term was em- 
ployed, the prefatory remarks to this play have explained. 

854. al6r}p. To the note on the word x"or in our Clouds, v. 4 13, 
may be added the following observation by Matibia* on the * Cad- 
mus' of Euripides: •* Cadmus tragccdia non nisi Probi ad Virg. 
Eel. VI. 31. auctoritate nititur, i{w\ ^ Accipere debemus aera, inqniC^ 
fjuem Euripides in Cadmo xcior appetlavit, sic, &c. 

lb. ^6<TKJjpa. Nub. 330, (de nubibus) ov yap pa A* oitr^ driij 
nXtioTovs avrai j3dcrKotr(ri votrfrds. .iCscbyl. Eum. 392. dvaiparup ffoe- 
KTjpa daifiavtiav. Soph. E). 364. c/aui yiip crrrcn Tovp4 ptj Xtnrcii' /torof 
^trtajpa. Eurip. Hip. 1352. (pits liotriajpn X'P^^^ 

lb. yXirri;!: irrpofpiy^^ H/igiiiT cardo. s. ver/ihulum. " J)icit ipsum 
lingua verlibuhtm deum, quippe qui linguam circumagut cique to* 



Kou ^vviai Kcu fivKrfip€9 6(T(^pavrr}pioi^ 

6p0a>9 ft* iXey^di/ coi/ au aTrroafMaL Koywu, 

XO. KCU ^r]V -qfius (7ri0vfXOVfi€if 

irapa ao(polu oufSpou/ oKoikrai riva koytav 

fwtrf Scuop oSoi/, 

yXcoo'aa yxv yap -^ypuorat^ 

\ijfLa 5* ovK aroKfiov dp-tpoiVy 




lubiliiatem efficiat." Th. Eurip. Pboen. 1 14a. irwXot . . ffr^d^iy^iv 
*yi^o0t¥ KvtcXovfifvat, 

855. (vyftris. Eurip. Suppl. 214. -nponov fiiv fV0t\t ^vi^trtVj ttra 5' 
SyyfXov I yXaatrap Xoyoii' Utoiis. This Word, i»f no iinfrequent occur- 
rvDcein ihc writings of Euripides (Hip. 1107. Iph. A. 375. Troad. 
673. °675. Orefit. 390. 1538.), is not found either in ^Eschylus or 
Sophocles. Cf. infr. 922. 1452. M59- 

Ib. fivieriip. Soph. Colch. V. 2. (^X^-yei fl< fivirnfp. Kurip. Fr. inc. 
114. yKoKrayj bta^^lpowa ^vKrrjpav noftovt. 

lb. fiVKTrfpts otriPpainy}pioiz=pU KptTtxr}^ ap. Posidlppum (Atheil. 
XIV. 662, a.). Cf. nos in Nub. 337. et Dobr, Advers. T. II. p. 
173. 'J'ranslatc : critic nostrils. 

956. i\iyx(iv (sub. (2'X"M°') ^^* ^''^r Xuyovr adversarii, «m* if ^frr»- 

lb. anrta6a^ X(5yoov. Ilerodot. V. 92. rfoT«uT«T itn ruiv Bvpiiav, tiXA^- 
Xmv amovTQ KoraiTtafifVoi. Eurip. Andr. 663. Kairoi <f>€p', a^f/aaOm yiip 
oic ui<rxpQf Xoyot^. Ion 556. <f>ipt, Xdywi' ii^^ut^fff SWotiv. Alcest. 
985. frXfitrroi' a^dfuyos X6yioy. Plat. Phxd. 86, d. icat yap uu ^auXi»r 
toucTV [onro^cVy roO Xoyov, Xcn. Conviv. ill. 2. ovk altrxp^t^ oSy, tl 
l^rfd' tTrixttpTitTOfitr (rvyoyrtt m<f>t\ttv ri 1) tvtftpatvftf nXX^Xout; *EyTtv$tv 
unor iroXXol, av rolt^v rfply t^yov^ notaav Xoyu*' airro^cyoi ^loXtor* fiv 
Tavra iroioipfv. 

857-8. He desire to hear from you two trise men, what hostile course 
0/ disputation you (mean to) pursue. Dindorf'fl text ha."* here been 
followed. Bekker and Brunck read, t'ppiXrtnv, t'lrt r* 6atay ^6y. 
Thiersch, rtva Xoyuc tirifxiXttav. inm tiatay 6d6v. 

860- tiypitarat {ayptovv), is exasjtcrnted. Arist. Pac. 620. ryypuofu-' 
90%Jt rir* dXX^XoiCi. Suph. Phil. 13-'. f^- 8' rfypitutrai, Kolh* vvp^avXoy 
d<'x<*. Eurip. El. X038. Jni roio-A* ... ovk ijyptavfifjy. Ipll, T. 348. 

862. aKivT}Toi, passive^ difficult to he moved : Plat. Tim. 55, c. o***^- 
rordrij yitp ruy Ttrrap^v ytvay y^. Therefore, oi/K ajtiVr/roi, susieptibie, 

ily moved. Thiersch translates ; vigilant 10 observe the faults of 

o One kbiKiUl noi have exi»ecced hi have fuiind Oiis aniongiit the atiril>ut«i of 
_ lectOTi yet an it is : a) 8*, w ^Ix'^Ltcropy fix*** ^Sp' iipKotfyrii (to* ) {vt^fVct. 7<Kft» 



WpOaboKav OVV €iK09 (OTl 

Koi KOTeppiPTjfijet/op, 

TOP 5* (waxnrmvr avTcnrp^pvot^ 


ipLTT^dovra avcTKeSdi/ ttoA- 


his adversary. Eurip. Ipb. Aul. 15. m d* lyovx^ t^« kot' A^Xlv. ( 
uxl uKu/i;roi f^vkaKoi reix'tt^* b* c. custodes nrgligentes. Th. 

863. Paraphrase : We must expect Iberefore that the one (viz. 
Euripides) will say something fine and hitjhly-fiJed {Kortppivi^fiivop), 
and ihat the other (.^schylus), plucking up high-soundin£^ words 
{KoyavK avafnrmv)^ and having fallen »»pon his adversary with those 
words» root and all {avrovpt^vom), will scatter the copious terms 
which his opponent has learned in the schools, where sophists 
practice their wordy combats. Dindorf translates: " alterum con- 
vellentem ilium, radicitus evuisis verbis imtentem, multas dissipaiNrum 
esjic verborvtn tricas." Tliiersch : alterum verbis pro /or U sua nature 
partis irruentem dissipaivrum esse t^eriosas paltestras. 

865- Karappivtlv, {ptviot, pivt], a file, n rasp.') ^^sch. Sappl. 7^6. 
noXKovs 8< y €i'fir)<rov<rw <v ^.ttrrj^i^pi^ [ BaXirtt $paxlo¥' €v Korfppunjpi- 
vovs {affiles rcdditos). 

866. dvatrnay. Eiirip. Uacch. 947. ;|frpoar ayacrTrcitra) SC. Ki^ai/>wra. 
Soph. AJ. 303. Xoyavs dvttnra, roits fttv 'Arpfi^wv Jtora, | roite H' dpttji 


lb. avTovptpvot, cum ipsis radicibus (^Esch. Choeph. 157. aiT6tm- 
iroi, cum ipso manubrio. 663. avT6<fiopTov, ipse atm snrcina. Ag. 
J34. avToroKot, una cum /etu). Eumen. 379. ^v (y^**) *«*/«"» ovro- 
npftivov f?s TO niiv ip.oi Soph. Antig. 714. ra 8' mrriTtivovr' airriirpffxs' 
CTToXAirt-nt. y^Esch. Sept. c. Th. 71. ft^ fioi irSkiy yt irpipvoBtv itatriiKt- 
Opov I fK$a^vifnjrf. Nod. Diuuys. II. 77. btv^pta d* avrouptpiva furtt- 
X^itrBija-av dpovpais. XXV. 247. 500. 

868. ffiiTtaruvTa. For the omission of the copula, cf. sup. 791. 
The imagery seems derived from a violent wind, which having torn 
up trees by the roots, lets them fall upon a house or other 
building below. (Cf. infr. 910. and /Esch. Ag. 1 146. 1444.) 

lb. avtTKtiav (Alt. fut.)» will disperse utterly. Cf .^sch. Pers. 
1508. Prom. V. 25. 9O1. Soph. Tr. 991. 

869. aktybfj&pa, a place of exercise (for horses), of combat (for 
wrestlers). Cf. nos in Nub. 3a. dXw8fj$pas iwoiy, paUsstras verbomm, 
h. e. artificiose structa verba, Th., who also compares Cic. Brut. 9. 
Demetrius Phalcreus successit eis senibus, adofescens eruditissimus Hit 
quidem fiontm omnium, sednon tarn armis institutvs quam paltestra. El 
OraU 1. 15. NUidum quoddam genus est verborum et latum, aed pnla- 



TOl/ 870 

aoTua Kcu firjr eiKOi/a^ ^r}ff ol' av aXXof ihroi. 


« magis et obn (h. e. upturn magis umbratiH scliolarum disputa- 
lioni), quam hujus civilis turbts acfori, 

870. ovTU hi (\iyrrt) oirots tpurovt k. t. c. 

871. atrrtia. Adjectives ending in «Tor. and having a circum- 
ex on the penuUima, indicate, as Kolster obaerves (dc Parab. 

p. 46.) the peculiar and natural power and disposition of a person or 
thing : thus avdptwt, that which becomes a man, atrrtivs, that which is 
said ex urbis indole. 

lb. fiKuvas. The anxiety of Bacchus that the ensuing dispute 
may be carried on in plain cvery-day langimge* without metaphor 
or iunitgery (i^irrfwit), is doubtless a piece of sarcasm levelled (and 
the speaker's eye) at yEschylus, whose metaphors* wbiither in 
gle 1 words or on a larger scale, were always frequent, and 
meiimes not a little violent. What, for instance, are eagles 
lermed by him in the present play ? strong air. traversing hounds 
(infr. 1253,); the poet perhaps thinking, that as the scent of prey 
was the leading principle in bocli, the 6ame name ought to belong 
to both. What again is iron or tke sword in other dramas ^ 
In one of his plays (Sept. c. Theb. 724.) it assumes the title of 
iKvBiiv nnoiKosi in another (Ch(»eph. 154.) it is Hopva&fVTti dvifp '2jcu- 
tf»)i, while in a third place it appears with an appcndBgCj perhaps 
entitling it rather to a plucc among another class of nictaphuriciil 
peculiarities, to whicli we shall have occasion to refer hereafter 
(infr. I 249.). With all the passionate fondness of the Athenians 
"or naval imagery, the two verses in the Prom. Vinct. (751-3.), 
ch speak of the Sulmydessian jaw as the step-mother of ships^ 
ust have sounded to ihem somewhat harijh, hut to speak of a person 
having a handsome prow instead of a handsome face (Sept. c. Theb. 
539. Ag. 277.) must surely have been provocative of absolute 
laughter. Under this category must also come the poet's odd no- 
tions of relationship, his smoke the brother of fire (S. c. Theb.), 
bis dust the brother of dirt (Ag. 478.)* ^^'^d his rapine, which 
is made ncar-u-kin to running-hither and thither (Sc. c. Th. 343. 
«i/7Trayal d«, | diabpofiov oftaifiovtv.) How for lliei^e occasional vio- 
lences of metaphoric language were redeemed by genend beauty 
and sublimity, is not our present concern i our business i^ rather to 
tify by mere numerical references the hint thrown out at the 


P The word ill of frrqueut occurj*cncc in the IMatoiiit: wriUiigs. Cmiviv. i 1 5, «. 
■p^TTj 6' if it iirsutftuf . .. ff^Tws Artxcf^Wi 8*' «i«rfiwr. Plimlo 87, I*. tUitfos 

'» Fur »pudiijeiis uf ibe iHiel'i iuM^^er) in single wunl»i »co oniuug otbern Ag. 
>7.V 5»9- S!>9' ^a- 653- 77i» (wlwn- «ec KIaus.) 880. loii. 1154. 1354. 1366. 
4432.1653. €11.841.915.949.9;!. Pen. 

t But MM Klattsun ou Uii« paaatige. 




EY, Kcu fXTjp 4^vTov /xeV ye, rqif TroirfaLP otoi eifu^ 
iv Tolo'iv {xTTOTOis 0/>cura>, rovTou Se Trpwr cAey^, 

i^rprarOy fiaypov? \a0cop Trapa ^pwi^cp rpa^p^irras. 875 

commencement of this note. See therefore, inter alia, the poet's 
Suppl. 696. Pcrs. 1 15. I 19. 135. 152, 199. 620. 994. Sept. c. 
Theb. 64. i9r. 36a. 367. 490. 504. 541. 937. Prom. Vjuct. 7. 64. 
90.363. 477. 907. 1080. Aj5. 51.57. 115. 115- '30- 133- 212. 
251. 297. 302. 313. 467-9. 549. 590. 673. 729. 1097. 1369. 
1381. 1426. 1469. 1542-3. 1584. 1591. 1594- Chocph. 122. 230. 
312. 525. 568. 582. 637. 672.717.18-19. 792. 797-9<3-9*5- 
1000. Eum. 154. 172. 292. 796. If to these we add the poet's 
nopo/ and marine imagery , (Prom. 383. 524. 771. 911. 1001. 1037, 
1051, Pers. 92. 439. S. c. Th. 2. 62. 64. 80. 108. 193. 203. 687. 
755. 796. 1080. Ag. 488. 775. 870-2-3. 978. 1607. Choeph. j8o. 
196. 385. 650. 1053. Eum. 527.) : hia iinogery/rom^c/rf or river 
sports, (Pen*. 102. Prom. 883. 11 14. Ag. 349.675. 1015. 1030, 
1061. 1 155. 1346. i6or. Ch. 486. 499. Eum. 112. 127. 142. 323. 
237.): \{\^ pastoral imagery, (Suppl. 30. 220. 345. Pers. 50. 133. 
624. Prom. 27. 108. 331. 363. 882. S. c. Th. 590. 751. Ag. 211. 
640. 869. 874. 939. 1199. 1503. 1645. Eum. 187.) : images /row 
the palastra, or from public gmaes , {Vvon\. 612.908. 1045. ^S* '3^* 
229. ^^S' ^26. 759. !2i6. Choeph. 507. 781. Eum, 151. 559- 
560.): irom archery : (Suppl. 440. Ag. 605.*" 61 1. 1 165. Ch. 6S2. 
1020. Eum. 646.) : numisvialic imagery, (Ag. 35. 381, 595. 754-) * 
surgery, (Ag. 822. Ch. 687.) r imagery from scales and weigkit 
(infr. 1333. 1346.) : imagery from dice (infr. 1368.), besides a num. 
bcT of terms, which will be hereafter discussed under the title of me- 
tonymy (infr. 1249.), we shall see good reason for Bacchus's de- 
sire, that the ensuing dispute may be carried on in such language 
as citizens u»ed commonly among one another {dartla), and not id 
high-flown metiiphor. 

874. oAufii', one who throws a false gloss over things^ an im- 

lb. Mats. *' Malim 0*011:, de qua voce vide R. P. Adv. p. soi." 

&75. fxapoCs. " Quos fivpovr dicit, ii sunt homines simpUccs» 
nomlitm corrupii Suphistarum artibus ; ergo ex Euripiditt opinione 
tantum stulti." Th. 

lb. ^pvvixif- Between Thespis and /Eschylus, two names 
occur for honourable mention in the theatrical annals of Athens, 

/ • wvs irir' Atp tlw^v ttfivk tAat^ {/auMta et vera) rvxots : and infr. isoj. ri 
¥w fToAoMra ?Sva^i\h idxos | ritxoifi Av ; Choeph. 4 13. rt 8" rfr ttwirrws tiSxw- 
$ur ] These and similar expressions appear to he elliptical, for vhail tee hit the 
mark {rov (tkoitov) f Asm Ag.b it. KKvpa-as, &crt rol6nii ixpottffKomv, Nonn. 
Dionys. XXIX. 58. i*vpc ^\ot T^aAA«, koX tU trxm-iv of k« Tw;if^)rpj. 
106. /iJ) Tiu ^fAo^ir^i' (i. e. AfTot)) ^vxoit. 



TrparTurra /4€i/ yap €i/a nv av KaOlaei/ ey/caAv^ay, 
I *A)(iX\€a riif ff N«J/37yj/, to irpoaumov ov)(l S^lkvv^j 
^^mPoayr}^a rrj^ TpaycoSia^y ypv^oirray ovSi rourl' 

\he dramatise in the text, who 6rst gave to the goat-song enter- 
taiument iu decidedly serious and pathetic character, aad Pratina* 
' the Phliu^iau. the undoubted originator of the satyr-di*ama. As 
another opportunity for alluding to the merits of Phrynichus will 
occur in the course of this play* a few moments, it was thought, 
would not be misapplied in caUiugattenttim to his more lively con- 
temporary, or rather to the peculiar drama of which he was the 
founder. As the remarks made for that purpose however, were, 
found to trench inconveniently on the texC» and might subject us 
to the same censure as one or two preceding notes, it is feared, will 
doj they have been transferred to the Appendix (H). 

876. or Kaffififv {icadiCtiv), icas accustomed to introduce a person 
ieated, as his Niobc, for instance, un the tomb of her rhildren. 
Vil. *^sch. fV yap r^ N«i;3_ij f«t rpirov fxipovt twiKa&tjfiiinj tw rd^»^ rir 
iratfiwii*, Qviiv (^Gtyytrai tyneKoKvp^ivrj. See also DindorTs fragm. of 
iCschylus. 149. 341. Dob. mavull riv iyKaffl^tv. 

lb. iyitiiXwrrfiv, to mtrfflr^ to throw a covering over the Head or per- 
AM. Plat. Pbaedr. 237, a. iyKaXv^ftafttvos ipu. Ibid. 117, c. tSorr I'yKa- 
Xm^fi^oor airixXnov tpavrov. tKKaXimrttVf to unCoVer the head or p€r~ 
8<m. Eurip. Suppl. 121. c*, r^F Karrjprj )fXai^idi'o(c, dvt(n'op&' | \*y, 
cntaXv^s Kpora. Here. F. 1205. (Kxakvnre vt». 1 229. tKKoXvy^v 
affXiovjcdpa. Sec also Blomf. Ch. p. n8. Phil. Mus. II. 515. 
Kanngiesiier p. 94. Welcker's^schyl. Tr. p. 413-4. 

878. fr/xi(rx7pi r. rpiry., a tragic pretext or mute, introduced for show 
and ostentation, but contributing little or nothing to ihc diulogue 
of the piece. This taunt at muffled heads and tragic mtrtes does not 
come with the best grace from Euripides ; for many r>f his own 
plays exhibit similar instances of dramatic artifice. How, for ex- 
ample, does his drama of " the Suppliant Women" commence ? 
I The altar of the Eleusinian Ceres is there seen surrounded with a 
I Iwind of females, drest in deepest mourning, and bearing in their 
I hands those branches, with which it was usual far supplicants to 
I provide themselves. It is not till the dialogue has made some 
progress, that we find among them a person prostrate on the earth, 
the head muffled up, and exhibiting other marks of speechless gnef. 
It is Adrastus, captain of the well-known chiefs who had fallen be- 
fore the walls of Thebes, and whose widows are come to supplicate 
the assistance of the Attic Theseus, that their bodies may receive 
tlie rites of sepulture. How again commences his pathetic drama of 
•* the Trojan Women ?" It opens with a dialogue between Neptune 
andMiucrvai but the god and goddess are loo much occupied, the 
one in plotting schemes of vengeance, the other in brooding over 
the temple and well-fed altars which he is about to quit, to attend 



AI. ^ rou At* ov Sijff. EY. 6 5e xopos y rjpeiStv 
6pfxadov9 OP 

much to any thing but their own concerns: yet all this tinoe the 
context shews us, that, the discrowned queen ofTroyhas been lying 
before them almost a lifeless corse, and when she finally rises, it is 
to deliver herself in bixch language, as surely found its way into some 
lost comedy of Aristophanes. The Hercules Kiirens and the He- 
cuba present similar instances ; the one in that scene, where Tai- 
thybius iinds the wretched mother after her parting interview with 
Polyxena, the other in that pathetic scene, which takes place be- 
tween Theseus and Alcides, upon the recovery of the latter from 
his sudden attack of insanity. We say nothing of the opening 
scene of the Medea, where, for stage-effect, so much is uttered by 
the heroine of the piece, as yel vnseen ; but iu the poet's Electra, 
where the ^speechless Pylades stands side by side with Orestes 
throughout the piece, was there ever a greater irpoaxrifia rpoy^iof 
than that ? For some remarks on this subject, which ought not 
to have fallen from so learned a pen as that of Bottiger. see 
Boeckh's Princ. Gr. Fr. p. 97. To illustrations of the word npoaxfjfta, 
given by Spanheim (Philo in Flaccum, p. 968. Ktn^v ir eirl o-KJ^w^r 
irpocrwTrfioi* cwko Tr^ocj^ijftaTo? {ostentatioMts ergo) nvro ^6vov napaXofi- 
^dvovTtt €7VtytypafXfiivov Svofia dp)^^^. Joseph. Antiq. XIV. 12. tt/xi- 
a^THia ft€y wivm \tyovTts t^c /SatriXcuK rbv \piuufhv, tovtov% hi ttjv natra* 
*X*iv i^wiav)y add Du Cange in Gloss. Grace, p. 607. T^ir 'Zfpurimv 
§tTT\ "Ktl^ava r^c Trpufjv tlhuikaKaTptiat Karaytijytia>v ovr*a icaXovfu'vaf a>$ 
avToi rorc «kuXovv ioprrfv cV fjftt'pcut Tiiriv eiririXovtrrts nporrxfifurra flip 
mrptTT^ iavToils iTpotmSivTtSt ^pos dr t& fifj yKvi>aKt<r0ai vpotrawiotr Kora- 
caXirnroyrec ra iavroiv TrpoTiuira, p6ntiKa rr fnt<fHp6pfyoi koi tinopat ttdtf 
X»v Kai Tiwa ^(Tfiara aTroKoXovvrts «irt6vTtt t€ droKTus tXrvQipoit dyHpan 
Kol aefivali yvvai^i. 

lb. ypvCovras oUi ypv. Euripides here. I presume, utters a faint 
ffty. Ii is observable, that as Euripides here amuses himself at the 
silence of the ^Eachylean characters, so in his *' Supplices" (856- 
866.) he sneers at their talkativeness under certain circumstances. 
And how does he himself rectify matters in that very play ? By 
putting a long speech into the mouth of Adrastus at a point of 
timOj when, stage-business considered, a long speech was of all 
things the most inappropriate. 

879. iip€id€v Of, protrvdere wtebot. The idiom has been largely 
explained in preceding plays. 

lb, 6ppa36s, a series, or chain, Od. XXIV. 8. Plut. 765. Kpiffam- 
rwf 6pfui$^. Lysist. 650. itTj(aliav 6pp^$6t. Plat. Ion 533* d. 6pfio6^t 

« The tpeeohifM Pylodei of Euripida was doubtless meant to be an improre- 
ment on the tingk-spetch Pyladcn of ^schylus. (Chueph. 887, nq.) 


/ifAtt)!/ €(f>€^i]f rirrapa^ ^vv^x^ ^' ^^ ^ iaiyuv, 880 
t AI. iyoi S exptipov rfj cricoTnj, Kai fte tovt er^fmev 
^H|q( ^fTTOv y) vvv o\ T^aXovirres. EY. r}\i0ios yap 

^^ad) taOu AI. Kapmrr^ SokA. ri Se ravr eSpaa it 
Seiua \ 
EY, VTT aXa^oveia^y 7i/ 6 BtaTq^ TrpooSoKcov koBoItOj 
OKoff ri ^16^ Ti (pOey^rar to Spapa 5* au Strfet. 885 
AI. w napTTomjpofy oV ap €(f>€i/fZKi^opT)v wr avrov, 

I Tt CKopStua Kcu Svaipopely ; EY. ort ourroif f^eXey^to. 

' JcoTTctr iweiSr) ravra \j)p-qa€ii /cat to 8pap/i 

880. /ifXwf. Compare Kanng^esser's account of Livius Andro- 
nicus on the Roman stage. Kunn. Hi'ihn. p. 137. 

lb. o\ hi, i.e. Niobe, Achilles, and others. Opportunilies for 
illustrating this portion of the text by analyses of ^schylean or 
supposed yEschylean Trilogies, viz. the Achilleis and the Niobea, 
will occur hereafter. Cf. infr. 1129. 1362. 

883. liKiBwi. "■ Perhaps we ought to read r^^lBios 3p* ^aBa."^ 

884. VTT* a\a(ovtiaf, for purposes of delusion, prestige : to create 
B false impreHsion. Th. 

885. tA J/Mi/m fi' av Stfftt. A learned friend translates for me, 
But the drama, i. e. the time of the action, would be going on all 
e lime," That the latest and best of the /Eschyleun perform- 
cea are still ia our bands, there can be no question ; but as a 

matter of curio.sity, who would not give up one of these, (and yet 

we should be hard pressed to say which,) to be in possession of some 

of the poet's earlier productions, such as those here objected to, 

^»«rhere tLe Chorus was still considered as the ruling portion of the 

^^■nlertainmeut, and the dialogue comparatively as an unimportant 


^Hr 886. f<ptpaKiC6fiijv, was cheated ; viz. by having a series of melo- 
^'flies palmed upon me, instead of a dramatic entertainment. (A 
prodigious yawn here on the partof jKschylus.) 

887. (ntop^LyatrOai, to yawn and stretch. Cf. DOS in Ach. 30. 
(Bacchus addresses himself to j4i^scbylu3.) 

lb. iinnPopt'ty. Soph. £1. 255- *i doKot TToXXotiTi Oprfvotv liv<T<ftop^t¥ 
tf^ ayojf. Eurip. Rhes. 436. Xvrrrf — Bv<T<t>opi>v irupofirjv. 

888. Upafia. Pseud-Eurip. Epist. II. 9 nrpl to hpofurra (Tvfi<l>opd. 
Plat. Conviv. 222. d. ^tsrvptKity dpafut tovto. Apol. 35, b. noXi/ fioKkov 
KOTwIfrf^jmiffBi roO ra tXmifa rovra Upoftara tiadyoyrot. 


I yrta 

192 AP12TO0ANOY2 

TjSrj fjL€(roi7]j p-qiiar av ^o€ta ScoSeK ciTTCi/, 

889. fitaovv, to be in the middle, or half-way. Hcrodol. III. 104. 
^KtTQvaa ^ r)fi€prj» i£sch. Pers. 441. (u fCv rod* Xa&i^ firfHtiru ^taavw 
tcatc6v. Kurip. Med. 60. <v ilpxn ^f^, tcot'dcirat fxtaa't. Plftt. Phsedr. 
241, d. Kal Toi ^fiTfv ye fnaoiy air^v (sermooem 8C.)> PoUt. 365. b. 
10 Rep. 618, b. Conviv. 175,0. 

lb. Av ftirtv^ he was trc/n/ to utter, 

lb. fSdfia {^ofiot), huge nfsise. Images of greatness, it has been else- 
wbere observed, were borrowed by the ancients from the horse and 
the O.T. If the extant remains of .'Ksobylus do not oiTer us twdve 
huge words in succession, a passage in his Choeph. offers us some- 
thing like half that number; but the imperfect state of the text 
wbere that passage occurs, till Klnusen and MUller took it in hand, 
may render a few preliminary observations not unacceptable. In 
that commatic dialogtte which takes place round the tomb of Aga- 
memnon between Orestes, Electra, and the Chorus, the characters 
of the three speakers are marked with a propriety and delicacy. 
which wuuld alone sufRce to place ^schylus among the noblest 
masters of the drama. Filial duly, the express orders of ApoUo. 
personal and political motives, alike instigate Orestes to take bis 
mother's blood — yet the son lingers even in him, and his courage 
needs screwing to Uhe sticking point. — Contumely, destitution, 
the dishonoured virgin state, prompt Klectra to the dread deed. — 
but the act involves a mother's death, and her lips can scarcely 
be brought to name the act itself, or her on whom it is to *ifalL 
The Chorus (consisting of captive Trojan ladies) have no such 
scruples. Thty had been eye-wilnesses of the cruel mode in 
which their captor and huuoured lord had been slain and mangled 

t This lingering dis^kosttion nlmost ranoiintA in weakness, when after being 
woimd up to the hi|fhe»t ^itch nf determi nation by ihe dvdamtioDS of the Choru«» 
Orestes instead of proctieding ti> imint<dinte action, unexpectedly turnit to demand of 
ihem a more mintito account about hia motberV dmm. The only justification of 
this at first apparent infirmity ufpurpoike, is tliat in that dream Orestes finds afiiU 
nssurance of complt'te sut-cfss in wKat Iil* hiia undertidten. 

" Thi> (leticate feeling in Electra gHvcs birth to what appears to me an aposio- 
pesis of great beauty, which the commentators have overlooked. Tom from her 
usual rt»er\'e by the tiiipassioned exliortations of the Chorus, Electra ot»senres, 
" Your recent words have gtnw through my ears like a dart. () Zeiis, Zeus,** 
cundnucs she, turning her eyes to heaven. " you who send up from ttclow. how- 
e^'er late, tlie avenfpng Ale, on account o(' men of wicked and da'eitfiji hand,**^ 
a dauffhter's feeling bids her pause — ** and yet — my wishBs ratified, where wil 
their ven^ance itiW ? aliu; ! on those who gave me birtli." Sucli seenu to me th< 
general meaning of the following words : 

rovro iiotiirtp^t oZs 

iKfft ilvtp Tt fi4X.OS. ZfiJ, ZfO, KttTOrfici' 

^■wifiiToiv u<rTfp6itotvov 

firay ^poruv TA^/iofi iral mwo^prftfi 

X<lpl TOKiViTl 8* SfiMt TfAftTtU. 36^, sq. Kl. Ed. 

For the plural torcwti, of- Ch. 4 13. wpis 7« rw r^Hvfiiwwrp. Oa the word An^ 
see Herm. ad Soph. Elect, v. in. 



6(f>pv^ (Xptn'a Kcu Ao^oi/s*, Sew arra fxopfxopayira^ S90 
ayvwra rolf 0€o>^voi^, AI. oifwi roAas*. AI. auoTra, 


a long servitude had taught tbeixi the wide difi«rence between 

gamemnon and .-Hgisthus, the first kind and considerate, though 

~y and commanding; the second cruel and selfish, at once ty> 

nuinic and pusillanimous. Their voice—when not spent inwailings 

— U for immediate action and revenge, — but irapas:iioned wailings. 

"^ h as were uttered by the wildest of the Asiatic tribes, wailings 

ompanied by violent blows upon the person, are mixed with 

their aspirations for revenge; and to these imitations of Arian and 

ian grief we owe the following illustration of our text : 

?ito^a K6fiju»0 "Afntov, €» Tc KuTO'ti'ar 
p6^lo^i lTj\«fu<rrpiat 

ajTpucT6nXTjicTa' iroXvrrXdyrfTa d* ^r I6fi» 
riracrtrvTr/rorptiS^ ri X'P^*" ^p^yf^ara 
uPtA0tv aP€Ka6e»' icrirTra S" *irtppa6tt 
KpoTTfTOV dfii>v KOI novuffkiov napa. 

Choeph. 403. (KI.Ed.) 

890. o^pv% §xovTa Koi X64>ouf, stem of brow, and hi^h of creft, 
Scnoi.. i'^Xa Kai vntpTjf^pa. C(. Klausen in Choeph. p. 121. 
Bergler quotes Alexis ap. Athen. VI. 237. atp.wtrapaaiTov — offtpvs 
^oyra yt xiXtfyraXdvrovv. Vesp. 1 35. ?;<'»»' rpdwovs 6<l^vnyfAO{r€pi'axov- 
oTu^vt. (al. Br.) Among the many menaces of the Detphic 
shrine to Orestes, if he neglects to avenge his father's death, not 
the least terrible is that denunciation, that even in darkness he shall 
have a clear perception of his fathers stern and angry brow, threat- 
ening him with various ills fur allowing his spilt bluod to lie yet 

1 unavenged : 

^^^L ^Xur re (ptavf'i npotrfioXiis 'V.pivv»v 

^^^B (V Ttfv •narpt^v alfxdrmv rtkovf^tvas 

^^^^^^^r opHufTQ Xapnp6p iv aKora vtapayrr* ot^pvv, 

^^^^^^p diro;^r;^ro((ri (rfpiats ravpovfuvoif. 27 1, sq.(Kl. £d.) 

^^Bt commemorat alios Furianim impetus, qui c sanguine patcmo 
^^ftli fiant in eo (Orestc sc), quum viriet eum (patrem sc.) lucide in 

tenebris moventem supercilium taurinum, efferatum ad paenas for- 

tunanim privativas. Klausen.) 

lb. trrra for tipq, sup. 165, fr6<T* efrra, gua, qttalta 9 vel, quanta 
I tandem? Tn. infr. goi. iror flrrra ; Plat. Phwdon t(6, b. oi irriXV 

iirra. Protag. 316, a, ofiiMpa arra. See also Matth. Gr. Gr. $. 151. 

Observ. 3. 

lb. ftopfiopomiit {fiopfui, ^y^), frightful of sight. The metaphor is 

derived from the fitopp,it, by which children were frightened. Cf. 

□OS in Ach. 528. 

891. Syp^ra, Soph. (Ed. T. 58, yvwrd kovk Syword fun frpotrifX&fff 


£Y. eraser S" ay clirci/ ovSk iy AI. /i^ ^^^ ^^^ 

EY. oAA' V ^KafxapSpov^, *; raippovSy ^ V aoTTiSwv 

" ypimarrovs xaXKriXarov^^* KOi pi^^a0 tTnroKprjfivOy 
a ^vp^akuv oif paStov, AI. v^ row ^eow, «yi 
yoyj/ 895 

H92. '* Dedisso poela videtur vatftis B* hv tarip oid* hv &•." Pors. 
Supplem. ad Vnsf. ad Hec. p. 35. 

lb. TTfHt. Soph. Inc. Tr. 98. ta^vqv tf>ayi>v odonrt trplw r& otdjml 
(Barchus speaks to j^vschylus.) 

893. ^KOfidv&fiovi. Spanheim observen, that the name of thU 
river occurs four times in the rcmuius oi'/EsfhyluR. A^. 520. 1166. 
Chneph.364. Eum.401. But the objection made by Euripides is not 
to the mure usu of Lhe word, which niij<ht. a.*! iu aJl the four places 
specified, hnvc been perfectly proper, but to its atra^^ta, or lo 
some metaphorical application of the word, which for want of the 
other drama.s of ^^schylus, it is now impossible exactly to explain. 
We talk of rivers of bloody and mountains^ i. e. heaps, of dead. Might 
not yEflchylus, describing sonic great battle, talk in his grandiloquent 
way of Scamanders of blood, Lycabettvses of dead 9 (infr. 1031.] 
What is said of the word Ixa^vJipovs must also be understood of 
the word rdt^povr. They were all doubtless among those rufivef, or 
metaphorical images, against which Bacchus enters his protest at 
the commencement of this contest, (sup, 871.) 

894. ypviraifTot (ypv^,aUThi)t griffin-eagle. 'Hie mind of jEschy- 
luH had evidently been much turned to Oriental character (infr. 
928.), imagery^ and customs: hence a frequent reference in his 
dramas Co those compound animals^ which figure so much in Per- 
sian and eastern narratives. Reference has been made in a former 
play lo the prophetic language of Daniel, as a proof of this, Cf- 
Dobree's Advv. If. p. 333. See also Wclck. ^Esch. Tril. p. 433. 

lb. x^*^!^"^^^ {iXaiivca), forged out of bnuts or copper. ./£6cb. 
Sept. c. Theb. 535. (V xaAin;Xdry trajui, Fr. Sis. i. Xccuro^^iMr nu 
(TKiUfii) xa^^««»«; Soph. Acris XI. 2. j^oXjo/Xutovs \i^a%. Colcb. 
IV. 3. ;KaXin;Xdrots oTrXotct. Eurip. Bacch. 798. atntiiUtt ^«Xc^fXaTo»«i. 
Cycl, 399- X«^7TOf «« ituTOt ;yaXir7Xaroi'. 

lb, piffiaO* iffTTtJ^pij/im, rer6fl nimis audacter composita. TB.wrAa 
fragorem edeatia, imtar saxorum ex alio pracipiiio derolntorvm, 
Bbrqi.. coll. Nub. 1371. 

895. a ^vfiffaXf'iv (iu gueu the meaning of ivkich) uv fi^d*D» ^r. 
The sense of the substantive connected with this verb is of *o 
much consequence in explaining two or three pMan^ in tiie 
Orestean Trilogy, that we shall be cxcuned for devoting a little 
more space than ordinary to the consideration of both ; aiul fint 


17&7 TTcrr iv fiaxp^ XP^^ WICT09 Str)ypu7rvr)(rttf 

'* Toy ^ovdov iTnraAiKTpiHnfa* ^rfrmv^ r/y ioriv opvi^. 

for the verb, whicfa^ strictly speaking, signitiea to cmne to a conclU' 
$it>a hy comparing two or more things together. For the use of the 
verb, absoliiiely and in middle voice, see Herodoi. IV. 15. 87. 
VII. 74. 1 84. VIII. 30., with ace. and infin. I. 68. H. 33. i i3. V. 
I, VII. 1 8i> ; with oTi, III. 68 ; with ace. IV. 1 1 1 . o« d< In&ai oIk 
tt\ov trvfi^aXttrBat to nprjyfut. VI. 107, <V fUv ^ij T^s S^iof owt^aXfTo 

TMTo, In the Tragic remains we find, ^'Esch. Choepb. 999. 0<fyov 
A< njKU ^i/v XP^^'V * f ^^'^^''^TO' I vroXXcif ^a<fiat (f^itpotjtra roD irourLX- 
futros. Soph. iHd. Col. 1474- VAi 3c tovro trvfifiakiiv *X'*^ '* ^uHp. 
Med. 674- M7. Tt d^ra ^7^ot thti (rot r:ai^<Av Vtpi ; Ai. trofPttrrp* ^ Kof 
oj^fta (rt'/if3aX«uf ttrij. Or. 1391. tratfius Xiy* tffuv aCff tKntrra ray 66- 
fUHf' I ra yhp npiv oIk fHyvacra trvfifiaXov<r *x^' Pl&t. Cratyl. 384. a. 
r{ 0^ V1J fx*^ crvfiffaXiiv t^v KparvXov ptwrtiav, f)it*MS av uxovaatfu. Let 
US now examine: the .substantive. Ag. 7. Ka\ vOv <PvXaiTfru» Xafxiraios 
rii JtrC^^Xow. 142. (Kl. 134.) rovreov ahtl 'fi'/x^oXa Kpavai. 306, 
Tt'Mpap ToioiiTov oi'pScXov Tf (Tol Xc'^ftf. Soph. Phil. 402. f;^orreff, itf 
toiKf, ovfi^oXcv aaf^is | XbTnjc, npot i7fiar, w ^cwt, frcTrXcuKOTc. C£d. 
Tyr. lao. ot/ ya^) J** paxpop I r;^rvoif avros, pi) ovk l^oif ti ai/pBoXow. 
Theogn. II46, aitrxpa KOKois tpyws trvp^Xa $tjitdp4VOi, Pind. Olymp. 
XII. 10. oCp^Xov H' oC TTM Tir rni.}(Boviuy | JTioroi' n/i</>t irpd^ios <<r- | 
ffo/icraf f/pcy 0t6$ty, Add ..^sch. Prom. 800. ijfi* oIk «t eif^vpffkrjTos ^ 
Xpit<rfu^ia. Choeph. 1 64. tv^Cp^Xov r^d' ttrri fraM-i do^ia*ni. Soph. 
Prach.69j. bipKOpai <pdrtv | aa^paarov, a^vpffkijrnp ayffpayirtfi pa6*iv. 

896. «V paxp^ XP^^'T' X'*'" '^ '^"y /im^, or during a long tpace of 
e, (vCsch. Ayr- 534- <»' iroXAiji i^/x^rtp | to piv ris 5r X/^fuv fiTfrfif 
ir, I ru fl* avrf Ktirripapffia. ')0^- t^pf^vrrfpiov oi/^iy hia<^«'ipatrav tp 

ftfjKft xp^^v. poKp^ xp'^V without cV, lis Klauiien observes. signiBea 
sfter a loju/ time. Soph. KI. 1273.) The poet parodies the Ilippo- 
IjTlu* of Kurip. 377- 9^*7 ''■"^* tTXXwr wktos eV pwcp^ XP^"^ I ^*"7t«>' 
f^p6i^t<r' n i)u<j!/do^Tai jStov. Heracl. 994. wl ir<fXX' ?njtTo>' rvjcrl *nii'- 

lb. la-crof. Epicharmus emend, in Pors. Hec. iifn. aire n f7r»I 
ao<p6¥ rif^ ia;jcroc iyOvprjrioy, lb. frai^a ra tTTroudala rvjtros^ ^aXXov i^rv- 

lb. diaypvnvt'w, to be fieephsu : properly* the whole nighi through, 

897. limaXfKrpvtav, this animal, compounded of hnrse and cock, 
ivhicb /E:4chylu:i had introduced into hift Myrmidones, appears 

have much amused Aristophanes. Cf. Pac. 1 176. Av. S50. 

X ComiUTfiiy Blomf. eenjecUtndo ugnotctlury KJ- 

y Blomfipld tnniftlnteK : trssera, a itHiU-hword. In it nnt nulier, matUrftr mm- 
jteturc, 8c. wlHfllter Tmy hoc l.»ec'M taken, «jr run ? 

s Farerv, uc crcniat res, qitie Htrno illo indicnta nt. Klaus., trhutti noe on 
the whol« p*Mage, und fur part f»f tut' rcfurmces here inade. 

o a 



AI. (n]fxeioif iv rat^ vavcrivn cofiaOforaTy ^i/^yeypaTrro, ^^ 
AI ty<o 5e Toy ^iXo^fov y 9>M7*' *'Epu^f>' wai, ^H 

EY. iXT cV Tpaya>8iai9 ^XP^^ KaX^icTpmva ttoitj- 
<Tcu ; 90° 

AI. cry S, oS deoio-LU f'x^/^' ^^^* '"^' eWb/ ott' «Voi- | 

EY. 01)^ iTTiraXeiCTpvova^ fia AC ovSe rpay€Xa<f>0V9, 

aTTfp (TV, 

av rouTL wapaTrerdcrfxcurw rot^ M.7]8ikoi9 ypa(j>ovo'tu' 

Sgfi. mj^i^nv. The tutelary gods, or other fipfiires by which tl 
vessels of the ancients were distinguished ami named, appear 
sometimes lo hnve been actual imajjew, snnK'tiine^i* as the preseot 
instance proves, mere painiinj^s. EurijK Ipli. A. 241-276. (255. 
i^nf tnffifioit taroXurfiivai.) Thiicyd. VI. 3 I . trrfftfi'my Ktti KnTatyKtiHiit 

XpTftTOfitwi, (where see a learned note by IMuomtielH.) .4i)scb. 
Suppl. 694. r^trd* anit tritonrfi opSt I to TrAntoi'* fC'trrjfiov y^p oC fu Xor* 

899. "Epv^tv. or this Er}'xis, son of Philoxcnus, (for a Philoxc- 
nus) son of Eryxis, nee Athen. I. 6, b.) nolhini; more is known 
than what the text here indicates* that he was a person defonned» 
and of ridiruhms appearance. 

go2. Tpnyt'Xafpovv {rpayot, fKafpot) , goat -utaff." . ./Eschytus Fr. Inc. 
165. Plato 6 Kep. 488, a. iiXXii Ht' ix iroXX^v avro ^vvayaytlv uxa- 
^ovTa KOI arro\oyovfiftn>y vTTtp iivriov^ oiuv oi yptiffjr}^ TpayrXa(f>ovs xai to 
Toiavra piyvCtfTff ypd^ovtri. rpayt}ia<f>oi ap. Athen. (XI. 484, d, C. 
500, e.) were cups, so called from having figures of this animal upon 
them. See also Boeckh (Staaish. 11. 304.) for an account of to 
onyx fiera Tpay(Xd<pov vpiOTriCovroi. 

903. wapawtTafT^a {nnpaiTfTavwtn) , curtain, tapestry. Herod. IX. 
82. opiatv TTjtf yiapdovlov KaTa<TKfvf)v jf^vtroj re Kai dpyiptf koa napoKt- 
TaapMtri iroiKiXotai KaratTKcvatTfiivrju. Arist. Fr. Inc. 27. to irapaTrcTacr/ui 
TO Kwr/Moi/ TO TToiKiXof. Metaph. Diphiluii ap. Athen. VI. 221;, a. 
hnavBa yovv t<mv ric vntpriKovriKCis, \ k^hiiiv r/>(0a>v piv npairov IfpoP 
Tov Bfov, I >a>c (ftTjaip' ov dta tqvt6 y\ dXA* fcmy/jcvof, iroo tov furinrov 
wapanfToafi' airrTjv f)(^fi. Menaud. in Stob. Floril. p. 377. ■^x^" *X"*' ^" 
n\ov<rtav' to 3« xprifiora \ Tavr t<rTiv Sylm, TrapcattTaa pa tov jSi'ou. lu* 
cert. ap. eund. p. 387. kokw 6 fifirTrunjff ^fj^ouXrvrai irdrv. | tydyp^yhp 
otKaVj oil rrtpodp' f^rfXiyxern, \ r^i pepidos uv T^r oWn/ioO Ttrayfitrtjt, \ 
€txrv fl« •naprniiraaiut tjj¥ tprjfiitur. Plal. Polit. 279, d. Protag. 3171*. 
Dem. 1 1C7, I : see also Ktausen's Agamemnon, p. 171, 

lb. Mi;a«oif. Cf. Athen. V. 197. Martial VlII. 28. Plaui. P«eud. 
I. a. 14. Bottiger Vasengemiilde. Th. 




oAA th? irapt^Ka^ov rrjv re^vrfv irapa aov ro irpayrou 


oiSoviTai/ inro KOfxiraafxaTOii/ kcu prjfiaTcot^ iira^drnv^ 905 
urxyopa ^v irpafTurroif axrrqif kol ro l3apo9 a(f)€t\ov 
eirvXXioL'f kou TnpnraToif kcu TevrXiotai XevKois, 

Q05. oiliairt Ion. oidfiv (Od. V. 455. fli40 ^i xp^ irovro). to 9teelt» 
illfr. 1157. olduy Tu n-f^r. 

lb. KOfivaafia^ boastful erpression. /Kscb. Prom. V. 369. ht air^v 
f^nrXi}^ ruir vy^njyopwtt KOft-natrfiartatr. Sept. C. Th. 795- irtiTTaMfv uv- 

lb. ttrax^i (tix&ov)^ burdensome, wearUome. Plat, ^[eno, 90, a. 
DyKcifdijr Tf Koi ifraxBr)i (iroXt'rr;?)' Charm. I 58, d. X<Ta>% tirax&is *Pav€t' 
rat. Dera. 369, 20. cira;^^eis Xoyouf nopl(ratT0ai. vEschin. 33, 39. froXur 
fr Totr rrraipois xol tvax^fjt. See also Elmsl. Ed. Rev. XXXI. 328. 

906. iax^aivtiy, to make dry or fAiN, ^0 reduce in compaxs. Herod. 
III. 24. rtri^i' ritv vtKpov lirjf^vijvtoai. ^-Ksch. Eumon. 357. Km fwvra a*' 
ta^lfVOMKr' aita^^Lai kotiu. IVoro. V. 388. toy rts ... <r^piya>yTa Bvfiop 

iiyff ^19. F. Lycui^. I. 2. eic rwi^' frriM fipVTOV la-xpaiyav XP^*^- 
►m. V. 377- KtrntrxvavtifrBni irpAs- irirpai^. Etim. 133' 

907. ^m^XXia (dim. of «tnj). ArUt. Pac. 533. titvXXieow Evptiridou. 
" Non aolum verba minuta sive vuculaa intellige, sed ctiam ryth- 

imbecilliures, leviores et magis eocrvatott. To. Cf. nos in 

:h. 345- 

lb. n-fpiVoTor, prop, a walk, (Plat. Pbaedr. 237. a. d.) ; 3dly,/i/rtff, 
wbure the walk is takeu : 3dly, conversation during the walk, more 

'tirularly on philosophical subjects. For a practical example of 

l|>hilosopbical disputation thus coriduct^ti, see Plato's Protagoras, 

tl5, sq. It is needless to add, that from this pracliee the schuul 

Ariatotle more particularly acquired the name of Periputatic ; 

but it may be observed, that the occurrence of this word in Ari- 

*topb. (it is not to be found, 1 believe, in the remains of any other 

contemporary writer) will strrve to remove one objection made 

iigain:»t the ** Tabula Cebelis" as a production of a scholar of 

Socrates, ihe term <« n-«/>»rrtTijT(itoi used in it being among other ar- 

(^uments applied to bring it down as low as the age of Aristotle. It 

u alM» needless to add, that throughout thiy speech Aristophanes 

artfully makes Euripides place as a merit to himself, what in face 

constituted the faulty part of his dnunas. On the philosophic 

and rhetorical tendency of Eitripidean language, see Boeckh's Pr. 

Gr. Tr. p 176. Cf. infr 91S. 

lb. rtvrXioiai, beet \ this herb being particularly calculated, it was 
thought, to reduce sweUings, Spanhcim quotes Sotion Oeopon. 
XII. 15. fuyrvtMVQt d< 6 x^^^ ^*'*^ UtrfvrXov ofia Kjjp^ xal Xv^furov xut 

Im-p^ ffrpi 



HT OVK ikqpOVV O Tt TV\QLpiy OvS i^TT^TW &f)VpOVn 9><^ 

furh vaviov i-niriBifuvoi, ndvra akkrjpa nai oifitUvovra na0r} Stpawrvft. 
DioK' fip- Laert. VI. 45. trpot ra tTtpKrvdyra fuipaiaa, ttai tlnoma^ 3>«- 
woftev fA^ taxjjv TffxaK, Bapptlrtt ?^. naiSia' Kvav rcvrXi'a dux iv&Ui. 

lb. AffKOLf. Three species of bed are roentioncti by the Ancienl 
naturalists. (Diuscorid.lI.49. IV. 16. Plin. H. N. XIX. 8.) rfwXor 
^Xa, or beta vulgaris, tcvtXov \€vk6v, beta cicla, and revrXav *iypta¥ ac. 
^cl^o)l'Ioy, beta maritima ^.pratensis. Ta. 

Q08. j(vX^v — (rrta^vX^ro)p« chatter-juice^ sirained aud filtered, as 
we shall presently see, not from herbs, but from books. P&x 997. 
^(Kias X^Xbi, 

lb. ^Xiuv, chiefly philoftophicai books. Cf. nos in Nub. p. &8. 
Though TDo^t lit the Euripideau playn. at which the prej^eot and 
some subsequent, satire (914-15.) is levelled, have disappeared, 
yet enough remains in those better dramas, which have been pre- 
served, to see the nature of thti scenic improprieties of which the 
perpetrator is unconsciously, and therefore more humorously, here 
made his own expositor. For specimens of school-philosophy used 
without regard to sex, age, condition, &c. see the poet's Troadet 
(635, sq.), his Phcenissie (509.), his Andromache (320. 33 i .) Helen 
(915.)! Hecuba 590. 7S7. 802. 852. Hippol. 379. Klecir. 942. 

lb. amiQtiv {y}&tiv, rtSfibs^ a filtering -cloth), to percolate. Nona. 
Dion. IV. 367. tui\ ^aBi<av apptjrov afitXyofAevos yaXa ^tj^XotK 

909. tu4Tp*rj>oy fjMytfSiati. Dobrec refers to a fragment in our 
author's Gerytades : Btpdirtv€ Koi x^fi^*'C* ^^ ^av^uiv. Cf. infr. 

lb. Kiji^KTcK^wi^a fuyvvs, with an infuBion of Cephisophon. That 
Euripides received assistance from this person, whoever be was, is 
again insinuated, infr. 1422. 

910. o ri Tvxoifii, whatever might present itself, Plat. Crito 
44i ^' TTDioOai £c Toirro o ri av rv^otatv, 45, d. koi to vor ^ipttt^ o ri or 
ruxttw** ToOra Trpa^auo-i. Protag. 353, a. ol Z n h» n;;^A><ri, toCto Xrym- 
QiV. Gorg. 50^> ^- M^^* o Ti OK ^xn^ vapa rii doxot'vra avam^ivov. 

lb. ipnttroiv, intempestive irruens. Th. *' ui ytftf inddit, qtue ipm 
occupai, excogitando." Dind. Cf. sup. 

lb. <f)vp€LV, to mingle, to commir togctJter. ^£sch. Prom. V. 459. 
t^vpoy fiK^ irum-a. Ag. 7 ! r. axfwri d' oltot f<pvp$ri. Hurip. Hec. 944. 

df Si '* wTitF^par fro] rpv&^Soy'* daufx^ 

4iw Si " TfvrAiov," euTfAtyvs ^MQuffo^r* 
iaS oil rh fftvrKoy rcatrhv hv r^ rcvrAly. 

Akius in MiUien nuuidrafjrdris-utenfio ap. Alh«u. XIV. 







oAA* ov^ti^p TrpcoTurra /uV fcoc ro yepos fhr av ev* 

Tov SpapLOTOf, Al. Kp€irrop yap tjp aot vt} Ai" 17 to 

EY. err^LT ccjro tcop Trparrcov eirioy ovSep fraprJK ouf ap' 


^mpown d* avra Aoi sttXiy r« col wp69t». Suppl. a l 3. i< ly^ui' ^lorov «'« 

911. yc'roc pro fpCns : lued, as Thienrh obserres* to ^ve Bac- 
chus an opportunity of striking a blnw at the origin of Euripidcx. 

912. In hi» earlier acquaintance with the works of Aristophanes, 
the present writer was led to stigmatise such attacks as more dis. 
graceful to the perscm making them than the pervjo upon whom 
Hkcy were mode. But was lhi» altogether a fair \iew of the sub- 
ject ? His maturer judgment thinks not. All matters of this kind 
must be considered in reference to the luanuers of the age in which 
they occur. Ari&tophaucs, it muAt be remembered, was not the 
inventor of the Old Comedy, bat followed a track which had 
been previously traced out for him ; and considering bow early the 
Athenian stage was linked with politico, there can be little doubt 
that personal reflections of this kind prevailed from the earliest 
ertnsions of Thcspis. Undoubtedly it would have been more ho- 
nourable in Aristophanes to have endeavoured to reform the stage 
in this as well as other matters; but it does not follow timt be- 

use be did nut thus contrive to win more of our praise, he is (o fall 

der our absolute censure. On what scale the trading concerns 
of the mother of Euripides were fomied. is of little imprtrtance : 
nothing however forbids us to surmUe. that the establishment 

ight have been of the most extensive kind, carried on under the 

neral superintendence and raanngeraent of confidential slaves. 
Who in reading Juvenal would not imagine the fiither of Demo- 
sthenes to have been a common blucksmilh ? Who does not 
know from more authentic sources, that he was a manufacturer of 
ahe most opulent grade, leaving a property which entailed upon his 

n some of the most onerous and expensive Htvrgirs in Athens ? 
uch is the latitude which Satire bus ever allowed itself. But 
enough of these petty matters. The great question is. not who 
was the mother of Euripides, but of what Euripides iiimsclf was the 
parent ? Tlint a person thus frequently iiitacked on the subject of 
his own birth should have taken a poetical revenge by decrying 
high birtli generally, is natural enough ; and to this feeling we 
perhaps owe the reflections contained in many fragmentary remains 
of the poet. See his /Eolus fr. IV. Alexander fr. XVI. l3icty» X!. 

retenses Mulieres fr. I\. Melanippe Captiva fr. XI. 

913. Qvhiv napijK' au ttfty^y, J allowtd no person to be idle or tnute; 




oAA' €\^y€v 7j yuvT) ri yuot xo) SovXos ovSii^ ^frrov, 

\a} SeoTTonj^ x^ napdevo? XV yp<^^^ ff^- AI. €iTa 

Srjra 915 

OVK airoOavuv <r€ rair iypW roXfi^irra ; EY. fxa rov 

8r)^0KparLK0u yap avr ^Spcov. AI. tovto pukv ecuroVf to 

i. e* as yoa did in the persons of Actiilleii and Niobd. iro^'roi, /o 

permit. Herodot. VII. 161. akXto ft* waprjirofify avirvl i'otinp;(fV(V. 
Soph. £1. 1483. oAXa ftoi irapti kuv iifiixpov (iVrtr. C£d. Col, 560. 
Qijtrtv^ TO ahv ytvvaiov iv o-fititp^ \oytf j rraprJKtv wrrc ^pa^ia futt dtXirBiu 
<f>paaai, (where see Hermann.) 

914. dovkot. For a iiipecirncn of a EuHpidean slave, using bis 
^Trapprjtria at ft mofli unmerciful rale, and as exceptionable in J 
some of ihe topics on which lie dilates, as in the length with which , 
he handles tlitm, see the poet's '* Helen" (737. sq. 751. sq.) ; and 
yet with singular inconsistency we find in Stobw^is the following 
fragment naeribed to Euripides : 

ao<pi>i ^i» oty ((« Tlpiafi, ofUDC d( croi Xiytt' 

dovXou <l>povovyTus fioWov ff <Ppovfiy )^pitit» 

oiiK fOTtv tiy^Ooi /Mi^ov ov^f iuptitnv 

(CT^ffir KOKioiV oi'fl' uva><lH\€(rrepa. Alex, fr, VI, 4, 
^lu redundant in the above verse. 

916. rain-n ToXpCtvrn, i. u. for having bad the audacity to confouud 
idl dramatic propriety by allowing master and slave, matron and 
maid, to express themselves, at equal length, aud with equal ele- 
gance of speech. 

917. djjfioKpaTiKov yap avr tdptav. '* I did it Upon democratic 
principles," argues Euripides: "wfiere people are all equal, or 
nearly ho in puint of civil frcedum. ivliy should not all be equal 
in freedom of speech, and cKprews themselves with nearly equal 
elegance of hmguage ?" 'i'he politics of Euripides and .Eschylus 
were almost necessarily as wide asunder as the poles. Addiction 
10 Bacchic rites as naturally inclined ilie furmer to democratic 
principles, as a reverence fur the purer rites of Eleusi» naturally 
fixed the lutter's eyes on those higher classes of society, who are 
politically set apart, to he, as it were, depositaries of the nobler 
leelings of human nature, and kvho, abandoning the duties for which 
tbey were so set apart, are justly stripped of the privileges which 
ihty have forfeited. As some guide tu the political principles of 
Euripides, as they exhibit themselves in his extant plays, (a most 
insuflicient test, however, as preceding notes have shewn, i»f the 
various objections made to him by Ari»l*)phanes,) the reader muy 

^ Cf. foot not*, p. 1 34. 



ov aoi yap eari ncpiTraToy KaXXtara irepi ye todtov, 
EY. iTTfira TovTOiHTL XoXeip tSiScL^a A I, (l>TjfA Koryta, 
w irpiv SiSd^ai y co(f>€X(9 fMao? Stappayrji/cu. 920 

EY, XtTTTcoi/ T€ KauQvtop (affoXa^ iiraiv re ycaviGucr- 

consult the following passages : Hec. 254, sq. 380. 605. 852. Orest. 
687. 762. Phcen. 545. Med. 296. Suppl. 196. 243.361. 412. Iph. 
in Aul. 337. 373.447. 526. 914. Hip[>oL 990. 1017. Ion 607. 633. 
682. Here. F. 589.811. 1409. Eleclr. 385. Androm. 482. 694. 
An attempt to investigate the poJitirn] opinions of ^^sfhylus, ac- 
cording to the order of time in wbich his dramas are generally ar- 
ranged, will be found in Appendix (I). (Is the humour of the 
foregoing declaration of Euripides heightened by putting previously 
an aristocratic oalh (see Klaus. --Esch. Theol. p. 114.) into his 
mouth *) 

918. The answer of Bacchus applies to the doctrine laid dowa 
by Euripides in llie preceding verse. '* No," saj'a 4»ur iheturical 
critic, (and who had more right to express himself on this point 
than the patron*deity of the stage?) " there yotir phitusophy (ircpf- 
naros) is any thing but correct. Political institiiliotis may level 
men's ranks, but tbey cannot level the original laws of nature ; 
birth, eduetuion, sex, age, natural omlowment.s, and civil accu- 
pations. not only create different modes of seeing anct observing 
upon the same things, but iniptftc certain restrnint.s and varieties 
in the modes by which ihey are expressed ; and to those restraints 
and varieties the dramatist, if be wishes to remain true to nature, 
is buund to adapt ^himself.'* 

919. roinroi/cri. i. e. the speclaiors. XoXcIi', cf. nos in Nub. 900. 
(The (p^fiX ndyit of ^schylus is of course accompanied with a most 
significant nod of the head. Cf. infr. 923.) 

930. ui (5(^Xcr Biaftp. that you had burst asunder to the waist , &c. 
Fot construction, see Matth. Gr. Gr. §. 513. 

92 1 . Xmrav Ka»6ywv e'cr/^Xcic sc. f'^tSa^n, regulas subtiliter blaternndi 
tiocui, Tu. Cf. sup. 7O3. infr. 1073. 

lb. «V/^\ut (ScHOL. uipopfiat, dpxot)' infr. 1069. tofikiXai trotfuo'fAii. 
rtav, Eurip. Suppl. 103. Ktuvat eiVjSoXnf <ip» Xdymw. Ion 688. 6p«— 

Ih. yt^viita-fiU, the exact settlement of things by the in.siruraent 
for measuring angles. Here, a precipe and accurate definition of 

922. yot'iv. What else could be expected from the pupil of a 
kilosopher, preeminently termed 6 Noyy ? One or two of the Euri- 

If thin laUer iiilerfirutaiion pive* tOi> wide m latitude tu B»cchu»'» anxwcr 
hu fuvmirite ptwi's det-Ijimtiuii in llu' trxt, it Kerns cu nw Inn u|ien to iilijec- 
tlmn the* nitrruw, and [ tliiiik erniUL'oiiit iiiitN whtrli my leurnc'd predeutsuiir 
Xlurntcli affixoi to it. *' Monei Uacihut., ne Kuri)>i()e« de rei piilili^-w itiiilio 
itioawi racial. L'ndu cuiijicio Kun|iidt!in imi tp«um aliiiuunittMlt'liqiuaaP, nut 
potaUcis niuoretn in tniKV<liis viuiperari." 



pidean placita on the subject of the thinking power, are here sub- 
mitted to the reader : 

offTis noT «l (TVf di/<7T(ijrnoTos (liiimi, 
Zfiis, tXT nvayKij (ftiMTens flrt vovt ^^otm*, 
npotnjv^fiqv at. Troad. 893. 

tSiv KaT0av6vTWV ^ fisv ov, yvwfirjy 3* Tj(tt 
uBavtiToif, (IE aBavarop aWifi tfiveattv. \\q\. I033. 

See also Troad. 653. qt)^. Hel. 122. 740; and cf. infr. 923. ad 
iTfpiyoflv. With regard to the actual verb votlv, we Nbould not have 
experted to tind it making' it:i appearance in ilie Euripiuean 
writings in the followint; shape ; yet Clemens of Alexandria (Strom. 
V. 613, d.) quotes the following as a fra^nieut of the poeL cer- 
tainly not tificn wont to deal so courteously with the heavenly 
powers : 

Off rafit "XtiKTo-tau 6thv ov-)(l vo«i, 

^n'«cuj>oXoyo»' h tKtis fppt^tv 

iTKoAinr uiraruf, wi* tirrjpa 

tivdii* yvtitprjii ptrixaviTa, 

The fragment smells strongly of the Alexandrine school of forgery, 
lb. opav. From the npenin;^ scene of our poet's Thcsmoph. 
(ii-22.)« it is not improbable that some philosophical opinions OD 
the subject of seeing and henrhg had been promulgated in the 
dramas of Kuripides, 10 which allusion is here made. I iranscnbc 
the concluding part of the passage referred to; 

'S.vp. x^P^^ y°P o^i""*** iKoripov 'ariv tj ^uatr, 

roO pjp"' axovftv fir}ff opay, rv urff on. 
Myifcr. irwr x^P'^ * ^vp, ovt» ravra 9uHpiBrf tAtw, 

aWijp yap ut( rh rrpotTa 8«;i[*)pif€T0, 

Kai ^W t¥ aVTi^ ^VVfTtKVOV KlVOVptlHty 

^ fifv fi\*7irtv ji^pfj nptirr ffirj^avrffraro 

Q<p3aXfiii» atniptpnv fjXiof Tpu)^m, 

dtKt}v d« ;|[o<ivr}|- wTu ditTtrprjyaTo. 
Mrrja. dia rrjv x^^*^^ ^^^^ M^"'"' okovu fif)ff 6p&> ; 

vr) rOf Ai'*, r/do/iai ye rovri vpoa-paBoiw. 

oi6i> ri nov 'oTti' al <Tofpat ^vi^uatui. 
E^/). rruXX' rv fidBots rotavra nap* tpxtv, 

lb. arpiifitty, \]ec. 738. t* trrpi<f>ta ra^ : \ roXpav upAyxq. (<*f. SWp. 
842. arp*li\ti iraXaifffAaTa.) Arist. Thesm. 1128. (Eurip. de seipso), 
aiai' ri dpatru ; wpot rivas trrpi<f>S(a XJ^of c : 

lb. tpatf. Kurip. Hippol. 347. ri rovff^ o dif \iymMri» (Xryovcr* rf 
av^pamots, Rev/ke) dvdpu>novs e'puv (quid e&t illud tandem c|Uod vocuDt 
(ftiare.^ Monk.) lb. 441. (pdr* r^ roCro Bavfut; vi/v noWoU ^poratv, 
lb. 478. rSXfui K ipwra' $th% i^vki)6tj rob*. On the mibc)iievou» ten- 



f 102 

:^ VTroTonetaOcu^ Trepivoeu/ aTrairra AI. (br^fA Kayta. 

cy of this and similar language of Euripides, cf. nos in Nub. 
1028; and to the examples there given, add Hippol. 435-500. 
Andromeda, fr.Vm. XI. XII. Auge fr. III. In the foUowing 

Se&sfrugmeDt Euripides btirruws from ./Eachylus. (Cf. Danaid. 
Ti)!* 'A<ppodiTijv ol)( 6paf 0171} $t6i ; 
9\v oifS" &p rlrrotr ovdc fitTprjtrfias av 
6ayj it€<l>VKt Ka(l> otrnv dUp)^€T<u. 
avnj TfHffttt tri Kufxi xal Travras ^porovs. 
TtKfxrfpujy dc fitf \6ycfi ^oynv pii$fft, 
itfjyt^ d< dfi^tMl TO cBivoS TO TOU 6(0V' 
ff'pu ^(i* iy^pov yaV . Srav ^rjpov rriHov 
cUapirov avj(fia vort^vs tv^tait fXf]t 
«p^ d* 6 a€pv6t oipavdi •nXj)pov^Kvot 
Sp^pov tr«<T*t»' tit yalctv 'A<^/K(^rnjc vtto. 
Srav tit irvppix&^TOv tU ravrov livo, 
TutrovfTtif rfpiv irdvra «irrjr>*'<JI)ov(r' Spa, 
oBtv ^puTtiov (jj Tf Kat BaWfiyfVfir. Inc. Fr. IV. (Dind. 
" iTO tpav (Arist. Run. 967.) quod iiUeltigi uequit, forsituit <^cj- 
pop corrigendum cum duonim vcrborum trajectione." Aglaoph. 

lb. Ttx^^fiv, dolos struere. (Arist. Thes. 94. (Mnes. de seipso 
ct Euripide,) roil yap Tfxvd{tt» fipjTtpos A nvpapoCs. Add 198. 271. 
927. Plal. Hip. JSJin. 371, d. 11 Leg. 921, b. Epin. 989, d. Xeu. 
de Venal. VIII. 3.) The dramatic nlUision is lo the urts and sira- 
I tagem*). which the most heroic characters are allowed to practise 
I in the dranian cif Euripides, thus degrading the art, and lowering 
that standard of excellence,, which we iire upt lo attribute to per- 
sons of ages long gone by, and which feeling it is si» desirable to 
preserve. As specimens m llie rumninink; vvtirks of Euripides, see 
the artifice by which Polyniestor and his cliildren are brought into 
the hands of Hecuba — the plots laid by Creiisa for the murder of 
Ion — the degrading deceptions aritl contrivances which mark the 
character of **Agnmemnon in the Iph. in Aulis — to which may 
j be a4lded the schemes by which ■^[phigenia and Helen effect 
their escapes, the one from Egj'pt, the oihur from Tnuri ; the poet, 
a$ it were, studiously throwing in many minor diiruullies, in order 
more fully to develope the powers of his heroines for decep- 
tion and trickery, (cf. Helen. 1058. 1420. 1548.) See alio his 
Medea 40a, sq. Androniach. H5,8q. 426, sq. As some punish- 
ment for this degradation of the Hrtmiatic art on the part of Euri- 
pides,we dotrbtless owe those scenes in the 'I'besmoph. where Euri- 
pides is represented as practising so many shifts and tricks for the 
liberation of his father-in-law from the brutal Scythian, in whose 
custody he is. 

A Tbi> king of men. ai himwlf acknowledges, \>tang fintiUy fuilH in all ; ffo^l(a- 
ftai 8ii K^wlrouTt iptKTiiroit \ rcx^as iropt^ur, irorrax? fiKiifAtvoS' Iph. A. 745. 

Eveii Oivstea. ivhu is u> be &aved Uy her contrivances, cannot help urciJili- 
obterring, Bfi^ol yiip oi y¥vm>cn f()»firitfir rfymr. 



EY. oiKfia TTpdyfiaT naaymv^ oiy )(pQy^eff^ ors* ^VV' 

ef S>v y av ^^V^fyx^f^W ^f^'f^SortS' yap ovtol 935 

i)\€y)(Ov au /Aov rrfv rixvrjv ■ oAA' ovk (KOfjLTToXd' 


933, Kox v9toTontiv$at. (ScnOL. am\ rov luuia wropoiiv, tap rif tU 
aiToxis TexvdtrrjTai.) Herodot. IX. I l6. ovdiv vn-DT07nf$f\s ruy cVctPOc 
<0pdwf. Arist. Thcsm. 4'>4- **"! - • ftrjiiv KaxuK Jt^i^ t'iroTiMrTTai. 
(For praclica! proofs of the suspicious temper thus wrought into 
the Athenians, see the same play of the Thesmoph. 395, sq.) 
Thiersch reuds rnj^uiroTcmftcrflni, justifying his reading by such ana- 
logous terras as ^rnxvirmrTOs (Plat. 3 Rep. Arisl. Rhet. II.) rojwSyyr- 
Xoff (i-Esch. Ag. 619. Soph. Ant. 1286. Enrip. Phcen. 1232;) and 
also by icii;(vrrDTU7r*i<rdiii thus standing without an objective case, 
like the infinitives preceding. 

lb. TTipivot'iv anavra. Euripides's stocW of poetic or philosophic 
teaching mi^ht by this time be supposed pretty nearly run out; 
but no : he is almost made the precursor of ibflt sohfjol, which 
gave les.sons de omni sciftUi, ei tie qmbustiam aViis. This most unex- 
pected addition to the vot'iv of the preceding verse» this surplus- 
age, as it were, of philosophic investigivtiun, is of course enun- 
ciated mth a sudden vetiemence of time and voice, and a Burleigh 
nod of the hcad» whirU excite prodigious nicrrimcni. For some 
practical results of all this anoong the " most thinking" people oi 
.Athens, see infr. 948. 

924. oiKtia irpayfiarn. The loss of SO many of the plays of Eiiri. 
pidcs (and those most open to Aristophauic ridicule would natu- 
rally be the first to perish) prevents us from seeing the full force 
of this objection, but enough is yet in existence to shew that it was 
not made without reason. See, besides other places, Hec. 65, sq. 
Med. 246, sq. * Orest. rio6. Androm. 166. 205.624.954. An 
analysis of the poet's Electra, or at k-ast the opening part of it, 
would still more justify the attack here made on the oiVcIa npay- 
fiara of Euripides. That .Kschylus had, in une instance at least, 
laid himself open to a similar rebuke, see his Choeph. 737-750. 

925. €^ lav y atf €^T}\iyx6fiijv^ tfuapropter rcprckrndi pos9&m* non ; 
reprehe>u*uit /uUsem. Th. coll. Matt. tJr. Gr. §.590. 

lb. QvToi, (points to the spectators.) 

926. KofiiroXaxtXp (Ko/iiror, a boastful ejpression, XnKflv^ to utter). 

t A aim more iu point woiiKl Iw IMftt, Pliwilr. 740, c ^vXwtia Kaxvworiwatit 

K '* AleiieLins et Hdcna hipreititiiti-ni Orwtiii sipe devomrant Omnia ifpturoli- 
stf^iialmriC. Quoil »i i|uiB luL'U wae humiliura i|uum pru trapediie ili|piicate ut<ji- 
oktt, nK-minjent, ub hue ipRuni mule undiiKw Kuripideni, 4UU1I ud re» niintiUutet 
doiJiesLicas Md^HJiiienen deu-iiseric.*' Porson, 





mo tov <f>pov€iu oTTOcnraa'as*, ovS e^TrXrjrrop airroWj 
KvKifOV9 TTOLWu Kcu Mtjuwvaf KO)8<ovo(f)aXap(mcoXov9, 
yvaxT^i Be rov9 rouTov re Kafxov y eKarepov fiadrp-ds. 


ph. Ant. 1 2y . Zfi/r yop ftryaKrit yXburayjs KOftrrovr inFtpixOaifni. Ellrip. 
Hec. 615. ylKtuTinjs xofinot, Rhes. 3 84. k\Ch xofiirovt ic«>dttVo«^- 


937. ard ToC <l>povfiy oirocnracraf. Plat. 6 Rep. 49l> b. oirotrrrav rrfv 

938. KvKTovt, The Scholiast mentions two persons of this name, 
one or botli of whom had been subjects of u^^^schylean dramas ; 
a son of Mars, who was slain by Hercules (see Scut. Hes.)' and & 
son of Neptune slain by Achilles, as Pindar mentions. Cf. KI. 
Theol. p. 138. 

lb. JNIemnon, 8on of Tithonus and Aurora, who came 10 assist 
the Trojans, and was slain by Achilles. What opportunities 
iCschyliis had for catching the manners and litemlure of the Ea«t. 
we cannot say; but towards the East his mind, equally alive to all 
that was magnificent in imagery, and simple »« well as magnilo- 
quent in language, would naturally turn. Welcker, in his investi- 
gation of the sfttyr-dramtt. has the following remarks on the 
drama here alluded tu. " Eine iihnliche Parodie, und /war auf die 
** Psych ostasie, welche yEscbylus iu der Memnuniifabel entweder 
einfiihrte oder befi^lgie, scheim mir in Millins Vasen I. 20. an der- 
•elbeu Vase, woran die Psychoatasie selbst ernsthaft vortjesiellt ist, 
enthalten zu seyn. Zwey Papposilene. in welchen Millin (p. 42.), 
nach seinem gewohnlicben VWiirthcil. zwey verkleidete Einge- 
weiheie, wunderlithe Dinge, voraussetzt, tragen die beyden Keren, 
die auch Millin erkannte, als zierltche Knaben. den cinen mit dem 
Kogen Todespfcil entsendcrul. den andcrn eine erhobene Fackel 
haltend, nls Zeichen dcs Lebenslichtes." Nachtrag, \c. p. 390. 

lb. Ka}dtii¥o(f>a\fponiaXovv, having beih (vuSuvar), attached to the 
breast-trappings {tfrnXapa) of their horses. This prnctice seems to 
have been a favourite one with southern and eastern nations. It 
is some years since the present writer read Depping's collection of 
'Spanish Rallads, but if his memory docs not deceive him, more 
than one allusion is made to the practice in those ballads, where 
the manners of ihe ^ Moors are so graphically described. A few 
illustrations of the simple words, unt of which this comic compound 
is formed, are here added, ^scb. Sept. c. Th. 595. \64p01di ««M»»»t* 
oi ioKvova-* avtv fto/w. Soph. Aj. 17. X"^'"*<"'°M°" tcvduifOi iat Tvpinj' 
puajs (/^ofyrjfui. Inc. Tr. LXX. 6. Kudai'0Kp6Tu aoKti. Eurip, Rhes. 
,06. Fopytt d' ft>E air alyibos ^ar, | x^*^! /irrdliiroic Imrmoiin np6<rlitTot 

b i. e. " \V'eif(hirif( of mmiU." ThU dnuiia of ;fUchylus will \te aguin referred 
Co in the pntkeiit valuine, infr. 1333. 

* Samniliirrg Her iK-i&U'n SjuiniiH'hen IliimAnceii. 

k An ilhistratiun iicarar home mny ])erhHpc bu foiind in the little belli aluehed 

the Iq^uf our village inorriK i. e. monM;r>iIanrer» 


TOVTovfiti/i ^t^opfittitof MfyaiWro9 ff o Maymj^^ 
aaktnyyoXoyyQJTrripa^aij aapKaa-^oTriTvoKafAirrcu^ 
ovfwt 6t KA«ro0«5j/ re Kal Or}pafj.€i^9 6 icoiv^os. 

930 , 


I iraXXourt aitv KoftanriM (jcrvirfi <p6&ov, (From these quotations it 
sboulil appear that bells were attached to the hclroeta and shields 
of ancient warriors, a^ well as to the trappings of their burses). 
^taXapa. Soph. (K<1. Col. Io6(). afAtrvicrfjpta ifiaXapa irui\an'. The 
altachnitnt of bells to the war-horse was not without it»t adran- 
tage» ns it accustomed the animal to such noises, as would better 
enable him to stand the »hock of war. 

939. Bergler compares Alciphr. 1. ep. 34. Ivyttpipop *l ffov\fi 
^Atnrarrtav rffv iratpav Koi ^^icpaTrjv r^ trofpttrrfjv, jcni owdrfpov Sfuatev 
fVn»8evtrei' tiydprn, Xoyivaf rrj^ fitv yap oi^ct fiaOrfTTjv Oc/KJcAfa, tov W 

930. ^opfitaios, a ruugh hairy fellow, of truculent aspect (Schol. 
ad Eccles. 97 ) ; and hence satiricully represented as a specimen of 
the school of yEschylus. The same also of Mepsenetus the Magne- 

931. traXviyyoXoyxvmji'iifiai^ i. e. fellows with whom one asso- 
ciates no other ideas than those of a (rttmpet (trdXiriy^). a tpear 
(X<Jy;^r)), and a mustachio {\mi)vi} . . /Ksfh. Glauc. Marin, fr. 5. 3«w- 
Xor i' vnrjyjj xni yeynaHos wvdfiijv) . , The CfJilor Has in vain en- 
deavoured to procure h cnpy of the celebrated Alfieri'a version of 
the Frogs : it would have been a n\attcr of curiosity to see how 
far the Italian langua^^e was capable in his hands of dealing with 
these Ariatophanic compounds. 'Vhe Cifrraan language would of 
course grapple with iheui, were they twice as long: Drommr. 
tenianzenknrbelbiirt\ Voss. DroimnelenstvtbartiaHzenkerht Welcker. 
Schreckendrommetttansbartigc, Conz. 

lb. aapKaiTponirvnuajfTTTat (crapftao'^^r, frirt/fi, Ka^XTu), ptntJ^endcTS, 
who OMly provoke a coHtcmptuotts smile. By ihe term pine-bcnderst 
PhomiiaiuH and Megaenetus arc assimilated to such robbcra as 
Sinis, whose wont it was to tie men \o the boujjhs of ibe pine-tree 
(irirvff), which boughs having been forcibly brought together, and 
afterwards loosened, the limbs of his wretched victims were 
in an instant torn from the body. Ovid. Metaph.VII. 441. Si- 
nis, qui poterat curvare trabes et a^bat ab alto | ad terrara 
late sparsuras corpora piaus." 'lliiersch translates : Hominmm vexa- 
torejf €eque crudehs ac Sinnis Pityocampta. Passow : Nohnlaekef- 
fichtenbeuger. On the subject of this Sinis, or Sinnis, see Monk 
in Hippol. V. 981., and to the references there given add Flutarcfa. 
in Thes. §. 8. Xen. Mem. II. i. 14. Lucian. VI. 249. 

937. Ko/4i/^6f, loquacious, skilled in crafty and subtle discourtes. 
Eurip. Troad. 651. titroi ^i p.ika6pi»v Kop-y^h 0rf\tiiav tirq \ ovk tlcruPpov' 
prjy. Suppl. 436. Kopy^us y' 6 Krjpv^. Cycl. 315. Kop^bi ■ycvTOci iwl 
XaXiffTaTOi:. Khes. 627. rpt^v yap el ra Kop-^h xa't rofu* tro<f>QS. iEol. 
fr. VI. 2. ra Kop^a irotxiXoi. Antiop. fr. XXV. a\Xots tA ko/a^ rtfvr' 


AI. Qfipa^ionp ; aof^tos y canfp rat Shw €9 ri. 

09 t)v Kaxoi9 TTOV TTtpiTrHnj kcu irXqaiov Tapatrrr^ 
•jrenrwK^v !^ tcov Keucwi^y ov Xib9« aXXa Keibr. 935 


It. Iph. AdI. 353. (ucfcofii^rrva'm ironyiur' ykiav* 
Cf. Monk in Hippol. 990. et nos in Ach. 936. 

933. 0-0^ irfipKol Aru«r. Plat. Protag*. 341, a. IXpimiy^P"' v«0^ 
Koi brant arrip. where SCO Hcindorf. 

lb. «« ra mtrro, omnino. Arist. Plot. 273. Th. 532. Vesp. I lOX. 
^Cflch. Prom. Vinct. 761. (more frequently mc, or fV ra irar. A^. 
665. Ch. 67a. '926. Eum. 52. 83. 191. 281. 379. 510. S51. 996; 
or t6 way, Ag. 964. Suppl. 761 ; or simply »rurra, Pers. 839. Soph. 
Tr. 489. Eiirip. Hippol. 79. 

934. moKots ntfHiriimtP. Eurip. Hec. 496. aiirxp^ mpanvw rvj^iy, 
Plato 9 Leg. 877, c. oc ri$ ar rotavrats (vfit^pait irfp<ir<Vi}. Dem. 
1417* '"■ *^*5 fieytarmt arvjf^iats irtpiirifrrttr. 

935. ircirraMrrF r^ = ejcTrr'7rrwM, escajfed. Xen. Hell. IV, 4. t 1. ird- 
Xw »« ToO trravpitftaros i^irtirmv. 

lb- ov Xior, dXXo Kriof. Apparently a proverbial expression, im- 
plying one who can say Sibbohth, or Rhibbolrth, an will best serve 
hia purpose. Nu allusion, say Brunck and Dindurf, to the game of 
dice is here to be understood. 'Hie expression is applicable to a 
man of versatile genius, who, like the bat in the fable, can be bird 

1 Blooifielcl readk iXux* ^' *'* ''^ *^ I ^ TlvQaxf^tvrux^vy^, \ 0f69ty tl <ya5a7- 
(Tir wpftufttvot. The leameil MJilor gives nr> t*xpU nation of lii» dwii text, tmi re- 
frn to that of MftCthir, who readi nnd cxplfilna i nu0oxp'^t<rr9s, st.-. Apollo, fAoKC 
^vy^./uffon* denuncinrii. (ilbn- C'rit. ]>. 5.) Kbiiu«ti rwuls, ns .Matthiur tliws, 
l(Ut iuUirpn'ta, ^ wi/^oxp^tfrot ^v7«i, <vw/ i/ui P^tltA oowmiuU. Thin hetlt-r in- 
ivrpretatiiKi ix, liowevrr, I think, mitrrfii tiy tbc writvr'it afiixiiiK ^ f'lll fiU)p to the 
word ^iry^, anil runncrtinij the next wntfiiw with the vyrli ^nA>iAu(<iTw, which 
he reads ioKtenH of VvoAoAt'^or*, w k. t. ^. If I inuy venture to give my own ox- 
plimion of thii diffinilt peMaf^. it it as f»llow». After a riinln^itt of mimicnhli* 
enei)gy, polho«, and ooaciMsneM lietweeii Oratfes aiiU his mother, the former cihi- 
rlndes the trying prene with a duihle ceimriits, mit a uufjie one, as filumfield 
givfs it : 

ffdvfr y' trod x/*^*** "o^ ""^ ^^ XF**"^ ir^^. 

Having uttered these wordti, he nt^in sem-n nu hin nir>i]ier, of whom he had 
previnualy let gn^ nn«l hurries her into the jMliu-e, for the [»ur)Hme of |iuttiug licr 
to dcMh. It is to (his determined det laratiun of Onwu**, of wh(i*e w«nt of jK>wor 
tobrinf^ hiH ronra^ to the HtitJiin^ point ihi'<-'il0Hrs Itiut hitherto Ikv^u in Houbt, 
that their words* I think, now refer, iind whicli with tlie piilmequent vrrsen may 
IwthaftpamtphraM'd : *' The onu:ItM:«>nhultini; f\i\e hit* at l»»t Kp'tken out and to 
the porpone; theg^reot art of retriljnti\-e justice, which we have so long desired, 
will now be acooniplisbcd. Itreak forth tnui shrniU of joy» my omnpanions; fur 
th* numsioii of otir royal victor (that victor, whoni Utoiigli Itiii captive* we so 
fondly rrvereneed) will nt Inst l»e freed from its niiiertea, and il« trcfwum no 
longer be consumed by two blood-stained sasasains, whom nn evil dixtJuy Itrought 



EY. Totavra fuvroir/to ippov^ip 
TOVToiaii/ €lai]yT}<TafirjVf 
XoyiafJLOi* 4if0w Tjj r^xinf 
KOL aKv\nu^ WOT rjSr) pO€iu 
oLTrairra Koi SieiSeuai 
TO, T aAAa kcu tol^ oIkiu^ 


KavacTKOTT^iv ricor tovt e)(ei ; 
YIov ^01 ToSi ; TiV TOVT tXafie ; 
AI. 1^ T0V9 0€ovs'^ injv yovv *A0i]- 


945 ] 

or mousci as will best answer his end, being always found on thu 
prosperous side. Dindnrf refers to Xen. HelL 11.25. Heindorfad 
Plat. Protag. p. 577. See also Milfonl IV'. ;43, 386. 

936. On the following Iambic dimeters, see Gaisfurd's llephies- 
tion, p. 244. 

937. TouToio-ii'. sc. the spectators. Euripides proceeds to shew, 
how by the composition of domestic tragedies, he hud taught the 
Athenmns to be more skilful and prudent in the management of 
their domestic matters. 

lb. rio77y«i(rdai« to be the author or originator af a practice ^ to inlrO' 
duce. Kurip. Sis. fr. I. t6. to Bi'iov tloTiyiia-aTo, lb. 25. l^tAayftariuw 
^dicTov tiayjyijaaTo. Plat. Conviv. 176, e. Crilo 48,8. Dem. 276, 
23. Andoe. 9, 4.31. Lys. 143.5. 

93 S. XoyuTfwv. Plato Phafdun. 79, a. htiXafjSdue<T0ai rw r^c Ata- 
voias Aoytcr/iu. Parni. 130, a. tv roU Xoyttr^^ Xa/i^aJ^>/i(Wtr, i. e. rr 
Toir ovTciv ov<Ti (quae senstbus percipi non possunl, sed sola meuiis 
actione) tKiteiKvCpai. 

939. iTKtyltty, deep consideration. Plat. Thcset. r75, c «f« aicv^ 
airnjs tiKatfttrvvqs. 9 Rep. 578,0. ntpi yap toi toC /iFyiOTov rj axt^ts. 
Dem. C. Mid. 57^< '5' ^^X*^ roivw la^t itat rh ToiavT tpti, a)C ifTKefifitiMi 
xni irafntTKrvatrfitva vavra \iyta vvv. 

lb. vouv &navra. Hes. Op. 391. olroi ^iv irampurros, hs aMt 
frdvra voi)a*i, | tcrffKiit ft* aS KaK€thOf, fir tv «iVdwi Tti&rfTat, 

94 r— 2. oiKias eUt'iv, to udmininter domestic affairs. Cf. sup. 98. 
943. avavKontiv, to investigate attentively. 

lb. arotc ToiV «;if«i ; quomodo hoc St habet ? Cf. jEsch. Choeph. 

945. "The poet/' says Dukcr. "proceeds to desrribe the man- 
ners of the Athenians, whose solicitude, that they should not be 
robbed by thuir slaves in small matters, is from this passage trans- 
ferred by Casaubon to illustrate Theophraslus's character of the 
/iir/MMT/Kin;?." Surely something more than this must be intended* or 
the Aristaplianic humour rather sinks ihan rises here, as the stage- 



tv caras ti? eiauov 
KfKpaye irpo^ tov^ oiKfra^ 
^rp-tl re Hoi 'arip "q yyrpa ; 
TiV Tr]p K€<jxxA7ju fhreSi^SoKey 
Ttjf fioiViSoi ; To TpvjSXiop 


business obviouBly required it to do 7 How then are we to give it 
B little additional pungency ? By referring. 1 think, to that philo- 
sophic element in the Euripidean character, the pedantry* of which 
Aristophanes so much delighted to expose. High authority has 
long assured us, that it in not so much the actual things of this 
strange world, which confuse the mind, as reasonings about those 
things, their how (nCit) and their why (rrot). their origin and pur> 
port : and if Euripides was own brother to Sorraies, as we may 
rest assured he was, in some of the '" peculiarities of his philoso- 
phy, this how and why must have occurred occusionally in dramas 
of the poet, which have never reached us, in forms not a little cal- 
culated to compromise the dignity of Science. Supposing this 
opinion to be correct, the stoge-play of the two little sets of dime- 
ter iambics before us is obvious enough. Euripides concludes Am 
set of iambics in the most pompous tone of scientific importance. 
•* What is the innate nature and substance uf this thing V ** To 
what purpose and object that thing t" " A most important dogma 
that: to whose mental conception" (nc rXajSf) are we indebted for 
it ?" All this Bacchus travesties with admirable humour. FIoG, 
he begins, mimicking the pompous tone of Euripides ; — a slight 
pause ensues, and the expected philosophic dictum ends in an in- 
quiry of the humblest nature. T^", the wine-god exclaims again, 
— but instead of a philosophic conception of Archclaus or Anaxago- 
ras, of Thalea or Pythagoras, we arc treated to a drtmcstic percqi- 
iion, that a table-dainty has found its way into any mouth but that 
which it should. To what pvrpose {■nov). ask» I'hilustiphy a third timtj 
in her loftiest lone — but a third time Domesticity steps in and con- 
cludes the inquiry, " to what purpwe tlie stale garlic of yesterday, 
when to-day's garlic, gathered fresh from the bed, would have been 
far more to my taste and appetite }" 

949. dir«'du fut. dfTfdo/iai, perf. chrfd^dwro. Bergler compares 
Anaxilos ap. Athen. Vlll. 34a- tov Ktarpttat Kanbyjfioittv t& Kpaviov. 

950. fiaipU, dim. of liaiyrj, iMtna. A small sea-fish, which, like 
our herring, was salted. For an account of its properties, see 
Athen. VII. 313. 

tavra 6* tirr\¥ 'Exarffs ^atftnra, 
JT ^i7<r(»' o^of, fuuviiav ita\ rptykidat. Ibid. 

m Cr. mp. 924. infr. 1466. an<l oiir eilitioii uf the Clouda, powtn. 

n For tbii mentai sense of lb« verb Ktmfi^nf, cT. noe in Null. p. lyt. 



TO TTfpVfTWOlf T(dtrqK€ fWl' 

Ylov TO aKopoSoi^ TO yBitjLVOv ; 
T/V TTjs ikaas irapeTpayev ; 
T€039 S* ofieXTepwTaTOt, 
K€xn^oT€^ MafifxaKvOoiy 


951. ri irtpv<riv6v, of last year's purrhage. Plat. 9 Leg. 855, c. 
8 Kpiat. 356, d. r^v frtpwrtvoav up)(Oinwy. 

lb. Tt&vTjKt pro ir«ieXaoTa(, has been broken. The poet no doubt 
laughs at some tUw, or poetical imagery of Euripides, in which 
the word rt0vT}Kfv had been apphed to an innnitnatc object. 

953- x'^'C*"^^ (=;<^«Ct»'or, 0/ yesterday), from x^*foi. II. I. 424, 
^fli^os flSt; ^*To Bnira. x^*f*^*'» adverb, Od. IV. 655. tdon irOddt McV- 
ropa 8ioi' I x^i^^v im rjo'tuv. II. II. 303. x^'C^ " *"' ir^if. 

953- *^oas- ScHOL. fXaa Ac 6 Kapwot riji iXalat. 

lb. iraporporyo) f. ^/lai, aor. TrapcTpayoi^, nibbled. 

954. T<«9 d<, whereas formerly, or «;? fo fAo/ /tmf. HerodoU 
VI. 112, r<aif dc Jjv To'iat "EXXijffi icai ro otvofta to Mrfittiv t^jfios dvov' 

lb. a^«\Ttpiaritroi, dolts to the last degree. Nub. 205. W to^ijo^' 

955. ^afi^atciBoi {fia^tM, Ktvdat)^ properly, a frightened ehild, who 
hides himself, or takes refuge in Km^ mother'.s bosom. A learned 
writer in the Museum Cnt. (I. 12;.) translates, a moll-coddle. On 
the word K<x^v&T€i, gaping, see nos in Ach, 121. Eq. 1 226. 

956. M*Xlri'Aa4, blcckheads like MeVitides^ of whom (besides other 
acts of stupidity* for which see Eustatbius 1669, 45, sq.) it is re- 
corded, that he could not oount beyond the number five. Lu- 
cian V. 316. M«Airi3»^i' r/ Kcf^oi^w 01*1 /i«, npot d«atv, tva k. r. i, HcXtri* 
Aai M.R.V. Th. (whom see). Mt'Xip^ldai, Bek. Bind. 

lb. The reader is indebted to Mr. I'Vere for the following ver- 
sion of the above dialogue : 

E. Thus it was that I began 
With a nicer neater plan. 
Teaching men to look about. 
Both within doors, and without ; 
To direct their own afTairs, 
And their house and houJiehoId-WBres. 
Marking every thing amiss — 
" Where is that ?" and — " What is tbiii ?" 
•' This is broken" — " That is gone," 
Tis the system, and the lone. 
B. Yes, by Jove — and now we see 
Citiasens of each degree, 



XO. " ToSc fJLev Xtvaaui^ (PcuSifi 'AxtAAfu'" 
<rv S€ tL, <f>€p€f TTpo^ Tavra Ae^fy ; iwyoy (mo>^ 

iicros oi(T€L riav eXacotf 960 

Sewa yap KOcnjyoprjKeu, 
aXX* OTTWf , m y€vua8a^ 
fiq irpos opyrjv dtrrtXe^iSf 
oAAa <TvaT^iXa9t axpoiai 

^Tbal ihe moment they come in 
Raine an uproar and a din ; 
Rating all thta servants round 
" If it's lost, it must be found. 
" U'hy was all the garlic wasted ? 
" There that honey has beeu tasted : 
" And the^e. olives pilfer'd here : 
" Where's the pot we bought last year? 
" What's become of all the fish ? 
" Which of you has broke the dish ?" 
Thus il is ; but heretofore 
They sat them down to doze and snore. 

957. •' Do you see the slaughter made nmi<ng your friends, O 
illustrious Achilles"?" TTius was the son of ITieiis addressed iu the 
opening of ^Eschylus's drama of the Mynuidones. " Do you see the 
bavoc made among your dramas, illustrious i^schylus," is tbe im- 
plied address of the Chorus to the oppunent of Euripides? 

95^- f'^t'O" oirws, sub. opa, 

I 960. Tttf rXaui', the course. The poet alludes to the olive-trees 

planted at the end of the course in the hippodrome, round which 
the turn wa.s lo be made by contending charioteers. Those who 
were unable to controul and regulate their horses nt this ticklish 
point, were thrown out of the course. On tbe expression cV dpo* 
fftov fp€pttT6ai, in dpofAov rpi-xti¥, see Blomf. in Prom. Vinct. 908. 

L Agam. 13 16, Choeph. 507. 

96J. httva KaxTffvpijKtv. Cf. Dobree's Adv. I. 247. 
964. ovoTciXar, sc. ra ttrrta, having contracted your saUs. Cf. nos 
in Eq. 415 ; and for proofs of tbe extreme fondness of the Athe- 
nians for nauiic&l imagery, see Appendix (K). 

1 ■* In DiiitWrf and Sc-hnlefield this fnigment nssume sa contiimmu fonn. Don 

iw>t lYinBtmrlinn, u wi>]I ha the mcxle in which il is found in Haqxicration, retiiter 
thtt fuUuwiug (brni prpfemble ? 

infr, iisg. 

iopt\vfidyrovs Atwamv fi^x^*'*''t 
of^s [tri ir/MWirrii] ttffte it\i<rlai- 

r a 



■qviK (w TO TTvev^a \eiov 

Kcu Ka0€(rrqKO9 Aa/Sr/y. 

oAA' a> irp&ro^ t(ov * YiXXrivmu TTvpyoxray pr^fiora 

Ktu KoapJiaas Tpayucov Xrjpovj dappiov top Kpovvov 

lb. 3gpoifrt. ScnoL. Toir fV Sxp^ tit)(OfA*vott rd irvfL!^ Ka\ fi^ trord 
t6 fUa-ov, Eur. Medea534. dfl p! cSotc va6t Ktdv^y ofaxoarprfi^r | 
aHpoiCi Xaltfiovt Kpatmiioit virtxipafuiv | r^v (Tifv arofutpyov . . yX^nraaX- 

966. '* ^^ft) fut. of atVffat. Deinde mat/ut magisque ii^uryes. Nam 
chorus hortatur ut tantum in preeseiis tcmpus rautc agat, deinde 
vero iinpetum faciat," Tii. n£<tf, Oek. Oind. Eun'p. Iph. Aul. 7. 
Sri'pioc, iyyvs r^t ittranvpOM \ HXriaBor ^trtrtjy tri fitirtrrjprjs. (On these 
vertteti, see some ingenious remarks by Boeckb, Gr. Tr. Hriac. p. 


968-9. " When ynn perceive (Xo^i/f rf. nos in Nub. p. 271.) 
the wind smooth and Alill." 

lb. Xt'iiiv. Ct Slalbaum ad Tlal, Philcb. ^. 1 17. 

969. MadgtmjKov. Cf. nos in Eq. S44. Blomf. in Pers. p. 132. and 
to the examples there given, add Philost. Vit. Soph. II. 1. p. 564. 
r6 fiiv TTPtvfia ov ai^o^pov^ akXa Xnof jral Jcu^cor^Kttff. Pulyb. XXII. 14. 
§. 10. 6dXaa-tra yaXrjin) Kat Ka6«<mjKtna , (c|noted by Arnold, Thuryd. 
II. 36. whom see.) 

970. nvpyb><rat pr^fx. irffiv. Blomfield in Pers. p. lai. applies the 
English expression, building the lofty rhyme. ScnoL. avf^aor kqX /m- 
ytiXa tiTToiv. Arist. Pac. 749' fifolr)<Tt rt^vrfv fuyaXrjv Tftuv Kowvpryiitc' 
olKoliofiT)(rai | Hirttrw fityakoiv. /liach. Pers. 1 97- ^ p^* ^U^ rtrvpyovro 
oToXfj. Eurip. 1 road. 612. 6pa ra riav 6(Stv, »r ra ^virvpyovv aM» I 
ra firjdiv Syra^ ra ti ioKoOvr' dir<i>\to-av, Rhcs. 12 2. al0ov yap opifp^ xal 
ntwvpyt^Tcu Opanrti. Mcd. 526. cVcid^ kiav mpyoU X*'P**'- HeraC- 
293. naai yap oihror injpv^i p6pot, I His roaa nvpyovv r«i< yiypopipwr, 
(where see Elmsley.) Here. F. 238. oft nem/pywrm Xdyots. Non. 
Dionys. 1. 2S4. XXII. 258. \i\ the present instance the verb is 
perhaps adopted to meet such expressions as the following in 
^sch. Suppl. CfO. uznrri d' fKirtdav a<fi* vy^tnvpytitv I TTovttXfir ^p6rovs. 
Pera. 865. ij3« vop-ttrpara nupytva napr tifOvvoif. Eum. 658. Kal TrdXa* 
ptATTToKut I TTfpf^' v^lwvpyov at^fvvpyoxyap T6ri. Cf. nos in Nob. 

971. Koa^iTjuar rpaytK&w Xrjpow, What i^schylus found the Tragic 



€1 Trpoff TovTov Set fx dtrriXeyew' wa fxrj (^mrtqi S oltto- 

fmv /if, 
anroKpival yxoi, twos ovv^Ka ^tj Oavfia^ew avSpa irou}- 

TqV ; 

EY. Se^ioTTp-o^ KOI vov0€(ria?, otl ffeXriovs t€ ttoiov- 

dnma, various notes and observations in ibis volume have partly 
shewn ; what he left it, that magnificent Trilo^, to which so much 
reference has been made, has pretty welt evinced. Could words of 
even still wider import than coo-^cif and X^^r have been more pro- 
perly employed than to express so wide a difference ? Science has in 
more than one person — Pythagoras, Bacon. Newtou — formed the 
Juat wonder of an age, but where can Literature find a parallel 
to the achievenicntii of ^^schyluf ? Those achievements were 
indeed to find a thing of brick, and leave it "marble. 

lb. itpou^Aff (x/K)L'U^ or (c^wj). II. XX. 2o8. oAX' ore hri ro Ttraprov 
rrri KpuwQVV df^Uoyro. Soph. Tracb. 1 4. Kpavvoi dttppalvovro Kptjvaiov 
iroroi'. Eurip. Kh. 792. fitpfiat Kpawov atfAaros. HcC. 566. Kpowoi *X^~ 
pow. Non. Dionys. VI. 351. (pK^Xoiaiioto di imKnov | Kpovvo'tt nXtto- 
Tfpottro' tfivKT)aavTo xopddpat* also ibid. 255. Athen. V. 200, c <V tou- 
Tov (oKT/iOV SC.) iFtpitTTtpal KOI <fnitr(Tat Ka\ rpvyovfi xaff oXij¥ t^inravro 
njc odoy, XtjpviaKott rovr noda^ JScdf/Mcot rrpos r6 pi^dtuv imo rati^ Ottapi- 
9Viw apna^ftrSaf d¥*^Xv(ov ti c£ avrov xat Kpovpol Hvo, 6 piv ydKaicTos, 6 
a OLitru. 

lb. d(f/i(t. Kurip. Hippol. 994* oftcuf If dfaytaf^ ^vptftopat dffHypt'yrjSt 
y\u>trtrdv p' diftwlvni. Thiersch observes, that c/wuvot* u<f>uvut is not, 
as is commonly rendered, rivum emitfere, but torrefttem verborvm s. 
verba stridentia emit/ere. on Kpowo't al rdv \€tpapp«iv dp^ai, irapa ro 

KpArt^ 9 Kpovtrp^ vatui ffyovv pitiv. EuStath. p. 467, 1 i. 18. COlL 1 163, 
50. til piv tpaffi Tovf Kpovvovs Xtyei*- irapii to \iav pitof. 

973. r5 i^'^^X^<h "' '^ encounter, at our being thus brought ioge^ 
iher. Suid. Cf. sup. i83. in voc. ^vpirvx"". 

975. bt^tdrjjTor SC, owfita. ob ret tceniae peritiam. df^iOTT}^, ciever- 
»««», a perfect knowledge of nng art. Eq. 7 1 6. Vesp. 1054. 

lb. pavBtaia. Etlrip. Here. F. 1359. npfif ifov$*<rias rht a-ds. Plat. 
Sophist. 239, e. ro pe¥ dpxaumptntt ri frurpioi*^ y npitt Tovt vIcTc 
fiaXtOT ixponrra rt koI Hn troXXoi j^piimai ra vvv^ orav avroit t^apafyrd- 
rwat Ti, tA piv ;^ciXfiratVo»T<f. to di pQK3aKtaTip4»% napapv6mfpt¥oi- to d 
oZv ^Cpirav a{rr6 opBdrtna tltroi ri« hv vov&tTJjTiKf}¥. For a poetical 

n LateriHam invenUj marmorcmH retiquU. Scbolef. Pnefau In jGichy). 



TOW ai^p<iff7rouv iv tcu9 TToAccii'. AI. tout ovv €i fxr^ 

oAA* 4k )(pi]aTwv Kcu yeui/alcop ^y6r}p<yraTOV9 awe- 

ri 7ra0€iu (j)riafi^ a^t09 elvou ; AI. reOvdi/ai' pLtj tov- 

TOl/ €p(OTa. 

AI. aKe\j/cu Tolvvv olovs avrovy irap ipLov irapeSt^aro 

€t y^pvaiovi kcu r^Tpairfixu^^ koli firj SiaSpcuriTroXl- 

Taf^ 980 

^TfS ayopalov9 fJirjSe /co/3aAouy, cooTrep w;i/, ^rjSe wop- 


i«M0Kr(a of Phoebus, Jupiter, and Neptuiie, see Eurip. in Ion. 448, 

977. •* uTTedfi^t, h. e. <'froij7o-iit. an*(pTjvat, ut safpe alias. Cf. Plut, 
127. 210. 470. Vespp. 1478." Th. Vesp. 1478. Toit rpay^dovt <^- 
truf oiroAct'^iv Kpovavs. 

978. ftfi TovTov tpura, Dobree refers to Plul. 499, and Schol. 

980. Trrpiirrr}x<ti, men 0/ high stature. Cf. nus in \'esp. 565. ^i-- 
8p«ff ftfyaXot Km Trrpawijxtis. As a proof of what the ancients consi- 
dered high stature, Thiersch quotes Herudut. V'll. t 17. /i* *AiuiW« j< 

MvTos Sep^tto, (TWijiffiKf vno votrov uita&avtlv '\praxtitTju, ^oxtfiov lovra irapA 
2/^^17, Ka\ yipoc 'A;(^ai;ie»'td^v, p.sya6n rt fiiytarov iuvra Q^paewv anityap 
ntvTt mj^etov ffturiXTjuuu airiXiire rio<Ttpai htucrvKovi . 

lb. duidpatriTToXirat {huihpiia-t^ , liia!iiltpatrKoi, iroktrrji), Citizens wbo 

wish to shun their state-duties^ and slip through them. Pbryn. in 
Uek. Anecd. p. 34, 20. dtod/McruroXiri;; : 6 diadtbpdancav rat t^s froXrair 
inrovpryias teat pfj fiov\6fi«voi iv toie avaynaum Kaipois fraptipoi rg warpidi. 
Cf. noB in Ach. 546. 

981. uyopatovs, frequenters of the agora. What desoriplion of 
persons these were, we have explained loo fully in former plays to 
render it necessary to enter again into the subject. For some 
agone, real or metaphorical, of a humourous character, bat all in 
their derivations bearing reference to the one gieai agora in Alhenfi 
(as thieves' agora, liars' agora, dogs* ngorOt httmhug {ripoi) agora, 
agora °Cercopum, &c.), see Lobeck's Aglaophauius II. 1304. 

o The Cercopes were to Uerculoi much what the Cobali were 10 Bacchus. 
For an amusing^ ncouiuit of their [larentage, names, adventures, and pKty buns 
nies. Bee Lotteck's Afclaopliamus II. 1196, yq. They aeetn to have fonoed tfae 
•uhj«:t of many a coniedy at Athens, particiilurly thijsu in whirji thv Uerrulet 
OiHinriuid ua.s played off. W'v tit*.- two instnnces, both IVotn the Ceroopts of 
Kubulus, that the llerculea of an eorUer swue uiaj nut be forgotten. 



oAAa Tryiovra^ Sopv koi \6y\as kou X'evKo\6<j>ovf rpv- 

lb. KoiSaXot^r. In pronouncing this word, tbe speaker's eye 
spoke no doubt as much ns his tongue t but lo understand the 
^■arcastic tone of the one, and the contemptuous look of the other, 
(if the eyes of a Dia«ked face could luok contempt,) we must bear 
tin mind not only the high personal and dramatic character of /Eschy- 
lu9, but also have a full conception of the whole retinue of Bacchus, 
at a portion of whom the sarcasm in the text is principally directed. 
That to a mind constituted like that of /Eschylus, the immoralities 
and levities of Bacchic worship should have been alike revoking, 
can excite no surprise. With the more ofTensive part of that wor- 
ship, however, — its revelliugs and excesses — its sensualities and 
debaucheries- the text does not at present require us to deal, 
the immediate blow being merely levelled at the Bacchic Cobali — a 
set of antics, whom in former plays we reaemWed to the Vobold of 
German superstition, and the Puck or Goblin of our own, and who 
in company with Fauns and Satyrs were ever about the wine-god's 
-person^ and served to amuse his ^ idler hours. In what manner 

{Loquitur I/ercuie*) 

Athen. XIII. 567, c 

fitrh. rtxvra ©^|3ar ^\Qov o5 tV t^x^ 5Xi^ 

M raU ^fv^aii tKaaros' o5 irA^pti ^pwaw 

fuucpio> BcM^ttv, iroAA^ S' ^<r0iwf &»^p, 
Biici«M> ri x*'^^^* 'Ta77^Ac»(is itrr* (Stiy. 

Aih«n. X. 41 7> (1- 
'AthonvuR quoun these panages &c distant intervil&, they nppntr to bftv« 
U^ihi^hI to one and the name drama, where tliey must have fumied u (turt of 
{I>niiikt!n ?) Bnmat)y's Totir. 

* HiirpiKTmtion (oa rend ]iy IxAteck : Ko0a\tia i} wpotrKotTirit f^erh ^wdnis -raiStk, 

'mal it6$tiAas 6 ravTT) xP^h^^^^y toMt 8^ cuvuvviMiV r^ fiufio^^xif- 4>iA(fxopo' ^' 3> 

"ArfifSoi* Ko'^oAot hal^iowh tiai rivcs airAijpol wtpi riv Auinfuor. Natalia ('ofues in 

Alytb. L \'. c. 13. p. 485. L't 507. " Hunc Deum^, (Boochum sc.) oumitalMuitur 

^auni, i^atyri ft l,'<iluili, tnaleftii dwmone*, quoniam mtilin umt <|ii» ebrietatem et 

leracum liiljfitdi uiiuni umhcquuntur, l4M]tiBcitas »cilicvl et tenieritas, iniiiiici- 

in— 4|iioA malos diemonua et CotKtIini arittqnt vucabant." FUiegel, in tiistreatiM! 011 

Icmin-huffowi^f ooniiden these latter m have derived thfir oriKin rnini i\\v ('ubiili 

f*nd < VrciifjeB of Bacchuk and Herculea. Iten Jonuiti, n man of (jreat leaniiu^, not 

[impruhalily hiid them in hi* eye^when be surrounded hisVol^Huie — the vuluptiiary 

^ iuteUect as well as of tlie sauses, — with die retinue which he did — 

t'-all forth my dwarf, ray eiintirh, and my fool. 
And let them make me sport. \Vhskt should I du, 
Hue cocker up my gcntuss niid live free 
To oil delights my fortune calln nie to ? 

The F(«, Art I. Scene f. 
Ai Baodilo character, Rooohlo ■odety, aiid liocchic adventure formed iba 
Iwork of early dramatic hteratun hi Athens, these Cobali may be ooo* 




Kcu TTTjArjKa^ KOI KUT]fu8a^ Kcu — Bvyuov? Iwra^iov^, 

the /Eschylean taunt on this subject is received by Bacchus (the 
pettish way in which it was met when thrown in his teeth on a 
former occasion (v. 98.) by u brother dcmi-god, we have already 
seen), is left to the reader's jiidgmenl. Fcir further information 
on the subject of the Cobalt, see Lobeck's Aglaophamus II. 1308, 
sq. : but the reader will not understand all the allusions and sar- 
casms in that chapter* unless previously acquainted with Welcker's 
yEsehylische Trilogie, pp. 196. 608. Translate (if by i4Cschylus's 
tongue) buffoons ; (if by his eye), — such fellowg as your Cobaii. 

lb. nopoLpyovs, The censure of jlischylus's cijr as well a.s tongue 
here turns upon Euripides (cf. sup. 74). (Ah the bard had nodded 
his compliments to the wine-god on the appHcation of the preced- 
ing epithet, the compliment is of course returned with interest.) 

982. irv^ovrai flopf. -'lisch. Ag. 366. uf*^ irvt'uf. 1280. i^tainnt. 
Ch. 30. KuTov. Eum. 835. ^iivQi. Prom. Vinct. 367. Soph. Kleccr. 
610. Eurip. [ph. T. aS8, itc. 

lb. \tvKo\6<f>av%, Eurip. Phfrn. i iS. nVo^ros d Xcv«>X(t0ar. ^* rpv- 
iPaXita \rvK6\otl>os est galea insignis alba crista, sed ir^XfjKff sunt ca»- 
sides.'' DiNi). ^-Kscb. Sept. c, Tb, 109, 6oxftok6<f>Mv witpwv. 

lb. TpwftaXtia, (rpuw.) a helmet with a bole bored in the <fni\ot 
to receive the plume, Non. Dionys. XV. 64. aiiv ^k^/ftrai, triv fy 
X^f^^t '^^^ rpu^Xricur. lb. I 29. yfjuctixrur TrXoica^Tdar aepo'tXof^v rav' 
<Pak«lat. XXII, ^S. wrw ntptitpxtTat oc^p, [ Sfiftaat notrfToltri dto- 
■nrtvaiv rpvtfMXdijt. Also XXIX. 215. XXX. 33. 85, 93. XLVII. 
294. (" In briefly touching un the word rpvtp^ia, the most com- 
mon explanation irom rpi- and <l>aXos appears to me totally inad- 
misMble ; not on account of the change from 1 to v, but because 
Tpv<paKfta is never the epithet of the helmet of any distinguished 
person ; it is rather;, as every one will recollect, one of the usual 
names of a common ^helmet. We have only to refer to II. XII. aa. 
061 roXXa /Sooypui xai Tpv<l>aX(iai \ mmttaov «v kow^/vi. Hence, ac- 

Bitlered ui the origin iif that Imifonnery which pervaded cbe '* CM Coniedy" of 
Athena. No sppcimeii of this [niiilinr (lH|>artment of drnmatir Hiemtiire harinf^ 
Burxired but thi* few oumwlH-n of Aristnphanes now in our handn, the world ha» 
g^ueratly lieen led to txjnaider him as the author and nbettor of this ttpirit of buf- 
foonery, whereas no writer look more pains lo drive it fnira the ttta^^. The an- 
nalit nf htcratiire prewnt, in fart, nothing like the tninrt'presentatinn and mi)ijud|(> 
ment whieli tUl within thcftc fuw ye»n> liave Iteen passed on that e.<ctruonliaary 

u Did yEschylus tlieo describe only rouimoti persons ai>d in oomixHm hdinctl ? 
or is the lexild^st's upinioii lioriie nut by the followirtg passa^ Ut ihff IIilld» 
where the referencie is to AchiUfan armour worn by PatrocJut 9 

^ Si Kv\tfiiofi^rr] Mopaxi}*' tx* "wrfflr if<f}' ^Tnrwv 

tti/fivwis Tjn^cEAfia' tiiiiy$n(ray Si fBttpat 

tJtfittTi KcU Koyiriirt' wdpvs yt fur oti Bipxs i(«r, 

lirwoK6^ixn' n-fiKt^Ka tualytaSat itoviptrir. 

a XVI. 794- 
Even in the pasaa^ which the learned writer niiotes as authority for his opinioo, 
itKhtnild Ito added, tlmt the rpt^cUcat are cullateraUy spoken of as worn by — 



lY. KOi 5)J X^P^' TOVTl TO KOKOV KpCU^OTTtH^ ai fl 


il Ti av 8pcura9 ovroy^ airrov? y^vvaiovi i^SiSa- 

ling to ail thot bas been said above, the derivation from rpv» 
innnends itself to me as the must probable ; a helmet with a 

lie bored in the ^klKo^ tu receive the plume is naturally opposed 
to the above-described jcorairv^." Bnttmann's I^exil. p-53i.) 

9S3, iri^Xi}^ (TrdXXu), ir^Xm, either because in casting lots, the lots 
were usually thrown into a helmet, or on account of the continual 
motion of the crest.) U. XVI. 797. hnroico/ioi' m^Xijica. jEach. Sept. 
C. Theb, 103. aS j^pvaotr^X^f baiftjov. 

lb. an^yX^as. /Esch. Sept. c. Th. ^»73. ^p' «r raxoi \ Kyrifilbar. 
Dionytt. XV'. 116. dvopptylras d« ^AXois | apyvpiijv Kyrjptdaj 7r6ias 
(T^t'-y^tr ito66pvois, 

lb. rirro^Minvr. ScHOL. ayri tov fUyaXow. It is almost needlcsS 
to add, that the metaphor is derived from the seven-fold shield of 
Ajax. II. VII. 123. Though the remaining ^-ICschylean drama of the 
" Seven against Thebes" would abuoHantly justify the propriety of 
the above allusions, that propriety would have been still more ap- 
parent, had the poet's Achillean (cf. infr. 1339. 1007.), and other 
Trilogies reached us, in which the doings of the Homeric heroes 
were more particularly described. 

984. KOI irj x^P** Touro TO KQK^v, iiaif, but (his mischief ^row^s tecrse 
and worte. Cf. nos in Nub. 875-6. Eurip. Med. 185. niydot yap 
fifydXait tSS* opparai. 

lb. KpQvonoiCav aZ p inirpi^t, he will destroy me with this fabrica- 
tion of crests and helmets. 

lb. al. *' Vocula av cohafret cum Kpajmwoiw, quo sensu cum 
verbo Xiyttv componi solet. £urip. Med. 688. rtfd* ^Xo Kuivfiv a$ 
Xfyctr KOKoif, coll. Orest. 788. Rhes. 874. eslque siepius indignabunde 
percent is, ut autem," Th. 

986. /Kschylus observing a haughty and disdainful silence, Bac- 
cbus advises him to a more pliant bearing. 

lb. ai'^adws. When the word ai'0a^r}i- came previously before us, 
things rather than v^ords were our object : in the present instance 
it is the reverse, and we consequently turn to the great masters of 
antiquity for exact descriptions of this estimate of characicr. Ari- 
stotle Magn. Moral. I. 39. 'O r« yap av6aii}s Tou>vT6t ttrrtv olos prfbfvt <V- 
rwjffu', prfti dtaXryrjrai. Id. Kudem. III. 7. 6 pip yap prjltif ffpAr rr«- 
pov {&y itttra^poinjTiK^t av$dihjSt 6 di navra irp6s akXov ^ Ka\ wuvrwy 



AI. Spdfia TTOirjaas "Apecoy iitarov, 
Tovs eTTT cTTt ty7]pas 



AoTTWi' ffpecrrof. T^eoph.Ch.XV.*H 8e '"au^ftctti ^ffrtr 'oii^wui rf^ 
«V Xoyoiff* 5 i!f ov^fidi^f roioirds tic, ofoc fpvrrjBtlSf **'0 dciiv rrou fffTii*;'' 
c^ircii', " npay^iard ^oi p.rj ■nap*)(r.'^ Kai fr/xxrtryopfvdf U , fiff dwiirpocrrt- 
trcl*'. Kai TTwXwF Tt, fit) "Kiyfiv toTc wcov/ifVoic, noaov a» ofroflolro, aXX* 
eptaraVf r't y tvpi<rK*i ; ' Kai roir ri^ufri Kai ir^/in'ovo'ti' rtr ras iopras «iV<ty, 
OTi ovr OF yruoiTo dtdo^cVoM^. Kai ovit 'X'*^ trxyyvoifjiifv otV« t« mriMrca^i 
avrhv airovo'ios, oJTrc r^ ^r^jSatri. Kai fpiX<^ d< tfjuyov jcrXcvcroyri (i(rf- 
K^KCii' ■iVui', OTi ot'K ay Soil}, t/orrfpop ^ircii/ tfi*pto¥, ical Xryciv, ori lintSX- 
Xvci mil rovro to upyvptov, Kai wpoanTaitrat hf rj^ ^ft^, dcii^r tcttrapa- 
treurBai r^ Xi'd^. Kai dvufit'ivai ovk Av vm^ttvai voKvv j(p6vor ovBipa, 
Kai o^ff tf<rnij otrt ^' pr}<jiv iUrtiv^ oCrt opxrjtratrOai &v tOfXTJtrat. A«ti^c M 
mil Toiff (JfoTs fiT} iiTtifxifrBai, To these general definitionH add. as 
detached expressions, Arist. Tbes. 704. 0*0*- vpmp i^pn^ rfiv ayav 
alBaiiav. jEstrh. Prom. V, 64. avBu^rj yvdSov. 943. axidddrj <fipo¥Qtv. 
1000. av6t\t'ia-pa<Tiv. I047.av^adia yap r^ <^>poi'Dr>i>Tt }ii) XfiXa>r | avrr^ 
KQ^ aiT^f ovUtri/v fti'iov c^c'fci. 1070. fsrjd* avdadiav | Ku/3oL'Xiuir ufittvov 
ffyrjfrjj troTf. 1073. dvoryf -ydp Cf r^*' avffndiav | \itBirT\ ip€vvfiy T^r <ro- 
^^i- fv^ovXiav. Eurip. Here. F. r246. uiiSaSis 6 6*6%' np6s Hi ravt 
^iouK <yw. Med. 621. ro24. Dictys t*r. VII 2, 

g86. ar^ia/i'tj^ci'of. Av. 726. cot* anofipavrtv \ iai0r!tovfitff uina trtfi- 
tnjyoptvoi . wo-trtp j^jd Z«uy. Eurip. Iph. A. 901. ri yap e'yw a-€fiyi'¥0* 
fuii; 996. o-fpra rrepn/yfra*. Fr. Inc. XCVll. 4. <rrfivvPtfT$at irap 
(tpntoir. Plat. Tbcset. 1 75, a. nri mm-t itoi ricoin KuroXay^ trpoyiJiwr 

r6 cr^f roirriyiv, aFv av crtfurvyjj, KaXov 

€^01 0ai^irai, <^tX' dvfp* ap 5' atTor troijp 

Tan-fti^v, auri jcai ri'^ff eVp/jScvi, 

ofK«ioc ofror xarirycXuf vopi^rroi. 

Menander, Reliq. p. 60, 


n CasQuhoii translates ron^umario, rive ferocitas. Sohneider, arrogantin. 
Bniy^re aiwi Knray, la hnttatit^. ilottinger, aftrr nlisfninfic thai the won! 1 
nl(u itKucs nearest to it in the i4tdn lungitage-, prefen hinuelf the ward Vt^ 
keil, want qf MCMbiliiy. 

X an-^i'fia, &. i.K. a roughne&s of intt!rcoiirsc (wbich exhibits itself more 
ctilarly) in lan/a^aee. 

J ri§6plffK*t; l^jteaking H\iT}i\y), Jthat i* i/i worth ? wfMt vahte do itov tel tipaH 
it 9 ^nchiii. 13,41. i.-woSiiotT6ai rou t^ltTKomor, vendere prvtio iiuucunqae, 
Kionuj TiUuimOf quicquid prininni fuerit c^latura. Heiskp.. Xeu. Mem. II.5. 5> 
Srav Tis olKtTTiv vovi^pbv txi^, wM\(t Kai 4iro8('8oToi rov tvpAyros- 

^ Kol ToJs Ti^iWi, K. T. A. " t^pon any fwlire nmnaioii, to those who out of ft- 
•pect seiul him a dish of meat, his rfply is, that he will nut ias(«> things wUcfa 
Come to him as a prewint ; no unpurchased viands idiall tie upon hiw table.** 

* Tffi ififfdyri, wer ihm auf den Fuu iriit. a pernim who fnu trod ufiom hiifytL 


^ pjitrw. One of those namtivet, or paflsagea in the poeCa, whidi it waa oos- 
lomary to recite at entertoininentii and convivial me^nga. 



o 6€curdfi€y09 Traff a*' rts ainjp rjpcur&r) Satos eiuau. 

1^1. TOirrt /xeV crot KOKOtf (ipyaarcu' Qri^adovs yap 
\ werroirjKa^ 

iaf8p€ior€pov9 cr top noXefiov Koi tovtov y ovvcxa 
I TVTrrov. 990 

AJ. aAA vfut^ avT e^rjv cutk^ip^ oAA ovk eiri tout 
€iTa SfSo^ay Fle/Krap fwra roDr' eriBvpjHv d^SiSa^a 


I f u 

987. ^Apras futrr^w. Spanheim qnoles Pint. Symp.VJI. 9, 10. 

i oifx w Topyias ttirtv, Iv ratv ipafuxrwi^ avroO piyivrov ( 1. /iftrroi') "Apttat 
tuHii Toi/t 'Ewra «Vi e^^or. On the word 'Aptoi aa always uaed by 
Sophocles, see Brunck ac] tEd. Col. 947. 

9S8. rjpaa&r} dmot ctrat. Anil whal uLber seDtiment could ^^row 
out of that drama, when first heard ? Let the reader recall to him- 
self those ten immortal verses (42-52.) which describe the con- 
duct of the seven invading chiefs. Previous oracular ur prophetic 
declarations had warned ^them, that une only nf their uiimber 
(Adrastua) is deittined to survive the coming battle: yet what is 
their bearing? Do they falter, do they waver? They slay a bull 
on the j^hield o( black iron, thereby devoting them.sclves to the in- 
iemal ^ Pluto — they dip their bauds in the blood of the slaughtered 
animal f(ir a similar purpose — they invoke Mars, Knyo, and Ter- 
ror — they bang the chariot of Adrastus with little memorials to 
parents and friends, whom they arc destined never to sec again> the 
tears running dnwa their cheeks, but not a single complaint 
escaping their ^ lips. 

9H9. Qjj^iovt^ i. e. the 'ITiebans of the comic poet's day, who at 
the commencement of the Peloponnesian war had united them- 
selves with the Spartans, not the Thebans described in the drama 
of j^schylufl. 

990. ToifTQv y* <tv¥€Ka Tunrov, {pretends to strike him,) 

ij<) I . dXX i'ply, K. T. {. ScHOL. vplit i^t^v rote ^ABrjimlots fup^tTair0ai 
Koi dtrKtif ra iraiXfpiKd, 

lb. o^Jt* curjcffiF. '* Pronomine auto et airr^ licentius Attici utun- 
tur. ita ut mV^ ad plura, aura ad unum verbum aut notionem rc- 
spicientes adhibeant, ut bene advertit Ueind. nd Plat. Sophist, 
p. 3 15. 403. ad Proiag. 534. ad Phcedon. p. 67." Thiersch ad Plut. 
r. 496. Cf. sup. 917. infr. 1345. 1435. 

lb. nri roDro sc. cVt ro dtrxriF ru noktpind. 

993. tlm . . iirra tout. Porson quotes in illustration Av. 810. 

c Cf. Welcker'« .^BcbyL Trilojpg, p. 159, fq. 
>1 Stx Pocter's /Eidiylus. 

Kti&oiTTtr ohtrmt 8' oOris 4*' 8'^ crrtffia. v. 50. 



t/ucav aei Tovs avTtTraXov?^ KOtrfifjaa? €pyop apiarov, 
AI. i')(P-py)v yovv, -qvLK a'jrqyylK9r) 7r€p\ ^apeiov T€0- 

o x^P^^ ^' €vdv9 TO) x^V ^^ (TxryKpovca^ tani^ 
lavol, ■ 995 

fira roU 6foU \ Bvtrai fura rovr'. Philem. Bp. Slob. Grot. p. 395. 
tireiTa fttra tout' tvBvs tvpiBrj Bavmn. Sosip. ap. Athen. IX. 37^* ^- 
tirttra /lera ravr' tvBvs dpxtrtieTovttv. Thiersch translates : Porro 
edita fahuia Pmis tndidem eos dorui vineendi hastes cupidos esse. By 
this version any ditticully as to whether the ** Persee" or the *' Sep- 
tem c. Thebos" was first broujjht upon the stage by ^scbylus. ia 
got rid of. (On this latter subject see Bocckh'8 Prince. Gr. Tr. 

lb. itfin^as nipa-aT. Heroclot, Vf. 3 1. rat irj icai irot^ovrt ^pvvl)(Y 
dpafxa MiXtjtov aXaciP, xa't ^tSd^avit, (s daxpva Tntat to Bf'rjrpov, 

lb. nr/MTot. Haling adverted in other places (806. Append. I.) 
to two opinions of Dr. BlonifieJtl connected with this drftma. the one 
of whii'h appeared to require modification, and the other to be de- 
cidtTtly erroneous, advantage was taken of this word to bring both 
under the consideration uf the reader. As the editor's remarks, 
however nccc&sarily ran to some length, and his pages were occn* 
pied with notes more immediately neccHsary, those remarks have 
been transferred to the .\ppendix (L). 

994. ixapi}v. Why and in what sense a feeling of Joy came over 
Bacchus during scenes, which were meant to be, and must have 
been, scenes of the deepest pathos and solemnity, will be explained 
in » note almost immediately following. We content ourselves 
for the present with observing, that in the expression of this feeling, 
Bacchus is to be considered as the representative of the audience 
generally, more pnrticuiarly the lower part of iL 

lb. iji'w djTTfyytXBij^ when the narrative or discourse took place, wtpt 
Aaptiov TtBvtiirrott concerning the defunct Darius. Compare the dis- 
courses addressed by Atossa to the Choral Troop (Pers. 526-537. 
604-62S.) with the wild lament uttered by that Troop (538-603.) 
and the subsequent solemn invocation at the tomb of Darius, repre- 
sented no doubt in this drama by the Tbymele, as that of Agamem- 
non was ill the Choephorrc. 

995. To> x«^p* trvyKpovftVy to Strike the hands together; i. e. to clap 
the hands for joy (Eurip. Suppl. 730.), or, to cla.sp them in grief or 
supplication, as in the present instance. (Tliat Bacchus suits the 
action to the expression, is implied by the word Wi.) 

lb. lavot, alas me ! Koe is me f As this word is not found in our 
present copies of the Persw, the commentators have been at much 
loss to account for its disappearance, and some have in conse- 
quence h&d recourse to the 6upposiiion of a double edition of the 



AI. Tovra yap avSpas ^r^ iroufos axTKelp, aKfyj/at yap 
cor dpx^]9, 

' play- Blorafidd, with much ingenuity, has introduced the word 
into two places (670-8.), where he thinks it ought tu have 
stood, instead of ihe old reading ^aptiop, ot, substituting Aap«i, 
lovot. His more cautious successors. Wellauer and Schole6eld, 
abide by the old text. But i» there not a third, and perhaps 
• more correct raode of encountering ibis difticuliy? How much 
•outbem and eastern countries arc in the habit of expressing feel- 
ings of joy or sorrow by mere exclamations, lias been mure than 
once adverted to in the course of these plays, where, to prevent a 
leeling of the ludicrous, we have often rendered those adverbs by 
the emotion which they were intended to convey, in.ucad of allowing 
them to stand in their original enunciation. Tliat ^schylus had u 
quick ear to these intonations in his own language, is evident not 
only from his frequent use of them, but also from ihc numerous 
verbs which he has coined from ? them ; had all his draniaa 
reached us — and not least those which he wrote during his one or 
fiiorc residences in Sicily — we should doubtless have found as 
many foreign as native specimens of this peculiarity. We find 
' ihcm at all events in the only two of his extant plays, which well 
I admitted of their reception ; via. the Supplices {S06-7.), and the 
drama more immediately under cunsideralion. To restrict our- 
selves to the last, i. e. the Persie. In that pathetic lament to which 
we recently alluded, and in which (he Choral Troop bewuil the 
misfortunes that have befallen their brethren in arms, it is observ- 
able, that a wild Persian exclamation {iw) repeatedly ^breaks from 
them, their hands no doubt being passiunutely clasped together. 
while it was uttered. Is it likely that that exclamation should 
have been uttered in one choral strain only ? is it not more probable 
that it should have burst from the 'I'roop again, wherever intense 
feeling was to be exhibited, as at the tomb of Darius, and at the 
pathetic interview between Xerxes and his peers ? In either of these 
! cases the substitution of 6ik for 01 is slight, and liable to no solid ob- 
^^LecUon either of a grammaticnl or metrical nature. For this Per* 
^^^fen exclamation, the lavol of the text seems to be an equivalent 
^^Brecism, but whether seriously or ludicrously used, depend 
^H|>oD a knowledge of Persian intonations, which more competent 
^^^dges must decide : considering, however, where the word occurs, 
it seems reasonable to suppose that Bacchus in pronouncing it 
would give it that imitative representation of the Persian exclama- 

I ' See Wddier*B iGschyHaelic Trikigie, p. 475-6- 

r Sach, for insUnce, u the vords iamror^tir (Ag. 1041.), ^6(tip (lb. <)79>)* 
SMro/C<>y(Ib. 1287.)' ^or^ftrOw (Ch. ^2i.\ £alfC*0' ( Pen- *$.)* >i^«ik (£um. 
117.). ACom'CI*'- i}i)(&e. 
* Per*. 576- 579- 584- 587- 


W d>(f>e\tfiot Twv TTOirjTWv di yeifvauoi yvyiirqifTou, 


tioD, which would tend to create a comic effect. With regard to the 
jojf felt by Bacchus on the occasion, (and by the wordyoy we are 
rather tu understand a feeling of pleasure than a tumultuous ex- 
pression of delight,) two things are to be taken into consideration : 
first, that however the growing inclinations of j^»8chylus for monar- 
chical government (sec Appendix (I.) might have led him to give a 
glowing picture of the talents and virtues of Darius, such descrip- 
tions could nut have been fully participated in by his audience. To 
the greater part of lh{?m, Darius could have been but a mere 
eastern despot, the friend of the Pisislradid family, and who in fa- 
vour of that family had endeavoured to fasten on them the chains 
of political servitude. To be reminded from the stage, that a mon- 
arch so disposed was not merely in bis grave^ but that he is to 
be evoked from that grave to hear of fresh and still more terrible 
disasters faJlen upon his son and successor (658-671.) in the at- 
tempt to accomplish a similar purpose* was surely tu impart a secret 
gratificfttiiin, which the mental distresses of the Choral Troop, how- 
ever passionately or pathetically expressed, could not be supposed 
wholly to subdue. It must, secondly, be remembered, that through- 
out the whole of the " Ranie," Aristophanes is obviously fighting 
an up hill battle in favour of yK»chylus. whose opinions, both poli- 
tical and religious, were at utter variance with those of the times, 
arid that consequently to give him thai superiority over Euripides, 
which he eventually does, it was occasionally necessary for the 
poet to fall in, as it were, with the popular humour, 

996. uTT* dp;^r)ir. of old, Scc Bloomtield's Thiicyd. Ill 44. 

99vS. 'Op<pfvs. There are names, of which the world seems 
never tired of hearing. Who pricks not up his ears, when promised 
a new auecdute of Burke or Johnson, Voltaire or Frederic of Prus- 
sia ? But the ashes of these men — all so extraordinary in their 
separate departments — are scarcely yet cold, and curiosity about 
them seetns natural. But why an equal interest about one. whose 
image lies in the remotest depths of antiquity ? The name of Or- 
pheus is indeed connected with one of the most beautiful pieces of 
poetry ivhtch human hand ever penned, and that may influence 
^some. He is known to have employed his speculations on sub- 

1 BInmfidd, whom the aecreC objects of (be pnet*B mind had escaped, and 
who cousiileml the *' Persae'* aa written chiefly for the purpose of ffratifying Alii»- 
man vanity, Jiatiintlly exprvswx nurprise at couiltici so obviously at ^anHiii* with 
Biich ft piirixiMf. '* Inturiin uv*iuef) mm ndinirari Dnrtum nb .Ewliylo hujusmoili 
laudibiis ornatnm erne, qiiiim ^meCa ipse Alanthone pu^MTerit^ infdioemqiie 
Durii cuntra 8i-.}ahas expeditionem, ut credibile Mt, fando audiverit.'* Pen. p- 

^ Among tlieau may be mentloncxl the writer of a beautiful article on Orphnu 
in a recent number of Blackwood's Maf^axino, a periodical Journal, which hcudm 



^p<p€U9 /icv yap TtXerds 6 ri§u^ mmrAi^ 

J«cU, which ID phtloscTpbic miocb hwv ever commmaAei ckwe %\- 
tention. and that may iniliieiire cMWn. Bat there is % ibM ■■d 
deeper cause, which has kcfie, sad itSI keeps tbe etteooea of 
mankind alive to the Da:ne of OphcoL IWk aane bdoagy lo the 
debateable KT^and which lies b et » ee» tnrtli aad filstlwud, mad ■• 
in bis particular case that mixture of troth and fsltrfwwwl Ucutfcf 
on subjects (if paramount importance to the bnoMii race, it is no 
wonder that the utmost anxiety sbonld prerai] to know, wbat may 
be considered as ^nuine, and wfaat as gporioos or interpolated in 
those writings which have reached os oxkder the title of Orphic 
remains. Learned men bare accordingly busied themselTes at dif- 
ferent times in siftinj; this matter, and deciding what opinions may 
be safely held on a suhjert so important. It is far beyond the com- 
pass of a passing note to stale what has been receotiy put forth 
on this subject by the learned Lobeck, assuming for the purpose 
the title of the preceptor of 'Pythagoras ; hat an attempt will be 
made to give the reader a general knowledge of his labcnin on 
the Orphic remains in the Appendix (M). 

lb. rcXrrar. And how is this important wont handled by the 
learned writer, to whom we hare just alluded ? With the greatest 
respect for his general talent and diligence, we feel justified in 
saying, somewhat unsatis^torily in one particular, and more than 
unHatisfaeiorily in another. From the loose way in which the an- 
cients were accustomed to use words, on which we are anxious to 
gain as definite an understanding as possible, it was perhaps even 
beyond the boundless erudition and industry of the modem Aglao. 
phamtis to discriminate exactly between the terms rtXtrfi and t^xKrrif- 
piov ; but at all events we should have expected to find some grounds 
for the author's unvaried practice of considering the Orphic rfArral 
as Bacchic rtXtraL To us this seems any thing but a proven case ; 
and if we do not here state the arguments on which that opinion 
is founded, it is for two rca-sons: first, the fear of interpoMng too 
long a note between the reader and the Aristophanic text, — an im- 
pertinence of which we have already been too often guilty — and 
second, the chance of doing injustice to a writer, the half only of 
whose labours is at present in our hands. Our observations there- 
fore — a candle before the sun — must be transferred to another 
'"place. Appendix (N). 

other powerfuJ u-ticles of a siuiitar nature, ilo» die ntniust service u* antiquity by 
throirlng some of its choicest pruductiona inU) ulmirable Kngluh poKry. 

I **Altfmirio nucrc^sit Orplieiis, Orphei uktib (iiiUatus fuit A^ao|thaRiQSt 
Aglaopbamo in Tben)ii(pii Pythdfjonts, Pythagnne Plato, A.C." Firiiii C4imnM*nc. 
in Plot. 

■n The sbave remorka were only not in the press, whtni the iccinnd volunM (W 
AgjsopliAmui readied the pmeiit writer- Fnrm Uic huiy inspeollan which he hsi 



lb. icarcdci^. If the Eltiusinian inysterieft> as we have already 
hinted, and shall hereafter more fully Khcw, (Append. F.) coDsisted 
of certain things said^ certain things dime^ and certain thin^ exhi- 
bited or shown, (but of what nature node prcntuntur et prementur 
aUa,) this word, laktu in ita Htrictest sense> would in a slight 
degree tend to prove our own opinion, that the Orphic TfXrraJ 
bore rather an EleuAtnian than a Bacchic character ; much more (as 
the temi Hieropkant, taken in a strict sense, would prove) being ex- 
hibited to the eyes in the former than in the latter worship : but 
this would be perhaps la conMlniu matters loo closely. To wound 
the ea^le with arrows feathered from its own body, is one of the 
commonest, though not one of the most honourable tricks of scho- 
larship. If any blow, however small, should reach Lnbeck's npinioDS 
from any of the following quotations, ihet Mow will come in great 
measure from his own hands, the greater part of them having cer- 
tainly been derived from one or other of his own pages. Eurip. 

Rhea. 946. ^vanjpMP re riw ano^>pr}To>v tfiavas fdii^tv 'Op0«i/f. Dem. 
772, 26. 6 rd( ayuardrat rjfilv rtXfras Karaid^s 'Opiptvs. Sallustius de 
diis, C. ^. riitv woirjrav oi BfSKrjnroi tn r< rut- rcXrrar icaradfi^vrcff fivStut 
()[pff(rayro, DiodoniS V. 77- '^*' ''"' "Y^P ** 'EAeftrtw yiymip-tVTjv TfXrrqr 
uii r^v iv ^anQ$pdiqf icat rfjv iv Qpuxfj iv rois KiKoa-iy, C6tv 6 Kora^i^at 
'Op<p€vt ^Vt t^variKois napa^lBotTdai. Steph. Hyzant. Zd^oX^ic rtXerht 
Koridti^. Plutarch, dc Educal. XIV. 40. T. VII. oi vaXiuot rat 
fAV<mfptaihfit rcXfTof Kartdri^ay. Vit. Pomp. XXIV. ij rou MiBpov r*- 
Xrnj KaralidxB^i'rn i/ir* aifTotv. Schol. Soph. CEd. Col. IO51. Zvfx6\iro¥ 
yhp ytvi*jBai K^/wica, roD ^f Y.^'poKnov, roO hi 'AvTiK^tifioy, rou di Mov- 
craiov rdf irotf;r^i', rou df KCfioXTrou nW raradfi^yra r^i' fivrjtriv Ktu upo' 
<Paynj» ytyovora. Eustathius, p. 1528, 4. 'ApptavoK laropfi on 'ituritBP 
a^Xf^Qi 'Amwyoc moi ^ap^at^ov cV ArfpTjTpof Kal Koprjs Karo)(o^ ytv6fi€POt 
*ir Tt liKfXtav 7Xd( Ka\ rffi noXX^v ttXXqv y^y tiFXavt}0tf ra cVciVt/r Spyia 
!i*iKvvf»v. Diodor. V. 49. Z*vr "laviam napidn^ rffv rwp fivimfpimv 
rtXrrifif r<jrr nat wapaHoBtlaav. Pau.san. IV. 2. rd opyia ri>v ^iryaXtM* 
0€^v iTapthtt^f (Lycus ac). cf. infr. 1028. 1045. Translate in a ge- 
neral sense, establinhed. 

lb. <fjova>¥ dirt'xdrBat. This is a very ambiguous expression, as 
Lobeck himself admits, but whether applied to the murder of bu* 
man beings, in which sense Rlauscn takes it, or to the slaughter of 
animals, to which the diaetelic habits of Orpheus himself (cf. Eiirip. 
Hippol. 956. Plat. 6 Legg. 782, d.) would rather restrict it, it 

been able Co give to it, hii oonjeceiirea are rather strengthened than weakened, thai 
the Orphic rvArral, if nut aiuigBther of an Eleusintan, ireni certainly not entirely 
of B I^cchit^ riiaracter. But it ts tint hy ha«tY inspections lliat wo Are £u cpeak 
nf a work spreRd over 1 359 ponies, and lilled with qiiotAlions from boiikR out of iha 
ran^p of oniinary Knglish fKJti))ar«hi]>. Our promiicd ni)tli>ltglit nmy, liowMreff 
at all uvenu be kept burning. 


f p09 icoo 

eoro Tov rtftrji' kcu kAcoc ^xrytv irkijy tovS art XPV^ 

Ta^i9y aptrar, ottA/o***? ai/Spiv ; AL koJ //^v ou Holp- 
raxXia ye 
^iSiSa^u opLcot tw (TKOuoraroy' irpc^tf yovv^ ^vW <7r«/i- 


equ&lly separates rhe Orphic fW>ni the Bacchic riic«. In reference 
the* first, the OrpUic rites would be rather of a luAtral nature, in 
_ iforrnity with those of the Apollo Cathartes ; in the ftecond case 
they would prove a decided opposition on the pan of Oq>hcu» to 
one of the m<;st disgusting of Bacchic practices ; viz. thai of the 
violent destruction of auiroaLi. and eating parts of them raw. See 
the Hacchtt of Euripides, 738. aod also Lobeck, I. jq8. 293. 613. 

999. Movvatos. In the prescut crowded state of our pa^es. ue 

must be content to hand over this son or dUciple of Orpheus to the 

]e«med Brucker (I. 400, sq), or to the still more learned Aglaopha- 

luus. (1. 299. 310. 311. 316. 334. 375. 390-1. See also St. 

Ii Crouc, I. r 13.) 

lb. ;(/>7(r^ovc. This word, apparently unknown to Homer, ap- 
pears hrst in the writings of Solnn, then in those of Herodotus and 
I Pindar. It is of frequent occurrence in the Attic writers. Sec 
I Paaaow in roc, and also Lobeck's Aglaoph. I. 310, sq. 
^^L 1000. ap6rovt, ploughingf. Od. IX. 112. ft^r* S(m w^rr}<TU^ aara- 
^^^nrmc, aCr' aporotatv. ^Escfa. Suppl. 629. rity ap&rott Btpi^otfra fifto- 
^^Kavf (V nXAoi(. Eurip. Alcest. 606. upAroit yvov. Hel. I348> <8)(Xoa 
^^^t^ia ov iatpwi^ov<r* aporoir. 

f looi. ;i[p*)€»Trt. Thiersch, cnn^idering this word as an adverb, 

i^cimita the stop, and translates, nui <fUod bene docvit ariet^ et/ortUu- 
^Hidirm et fjuomodo tiri anna imdttant. 

^^F 1002. inr\i<Ttiv. Every reader of Homer is aware of the long 

and circumstantial mode in which his heroes are described when 

^^^utting on their ° armour. This gives Bacchus an opp<jrtu- 

^^bty of passing a joke upon a public functionary of the nam« of 

^^nnUcles, who had so little profited by these instnictions. that 

while at the head of a solemn military procGAsioo (perhaps die 

magnificent Panathenaic) he had first put ou his helmet, and ba^J |4> 

attach the crest to it afterwards ; instead of reversing matters, 

namely, ailixing the crest first, and putting on the helmet after* 


I 1003. hnftwt 9C. irofirrri^. In countries where religion is more a 

f In the Dstrschomyim). ihi* pniriirc i» parodini with mudi htimnur. 
the ana* in whieb ibr cmuUimiU srerapKctivrly inv«a(«d. (113, mj. 160, mj.) 



TO Kpdvos TrpSnov wipiir^a'a^vos top Xo<f>ou rffieXX eTTi- 

matter of the eye and the imaf^nation than of the heart or undcr- 
standing. pomps and processions naturally nbound. Were they likely 
to be deficient iu those theatrical contests, dramatic, musical, or 
cvdic, which at stated periods prevailed so much in Athens ? On rH 
such occasions our fancies are at liberty to frame ten prncesaions, — 
the number of its members more or less according to circumstaoces 
— traversing the different quarters of Athens* each attended by tis 
respective band of partixans, and all warm in hopes, that of the 
three dramatic prizes, one would be ossijpied to the Choral Troop 
of his own tribe. Particular circumstances have given so much 
additional interest to one tif these contests* and of course to 
the choral procession which "^preceded ii, that the reader will 
doubtless not begrudge a few momenta to the illustration of a sub* 
jert so intimately connected wilb dramatic literature. Passing 
rapidly therefore over some intervening years, we drop him at 
once into the archonship of PCalhrnachus. A spring-sun has hartlly 
risen, yet all Athens is on foot, some wending their way to the 
theatre to secure a convenient seal {Btiiv), others addressing their 
feet to the houses of the ten choregi, from whose portals are to 
issue the sacred troops, on whose talents and exertions so much of 
interest now depends. And whose mansion is that, around which 
so dense a crowd is congregated, and whose gestures and heads 
closely drawn together indicate that something unusually interest- 
ing is the subject uf their conversation ? It is that of the sod of 
Cleub\ilc. and the lute opulent hardware manufacturer of Athens. 
The spirited manner in \vhich he had recently undertaken the cho- 
regusship of hJs tribe — the unusual expense to which he was under- 
stuod to have gone in ihn equipment of his Troop, and the ob- 
structions which he had met with from some of the wealthier and 
more powerful men in Athens, had, with his already high reputa- 
tion, conf^pircd to create an extraordinary interest in the success of 
his undertaking. The gossip of the drtv had for some lime turned 
on the nature of these ob^irucLions ; hut rumour was now busy with 
a still more violent outrage. It was asserted thut only on the 
night preceding, the warehouse in which the most important uf the j 
decorations for the en'tuing ceremony were preparini^, had been 
broken into, that the sacred chapleiji and holy robes had beeo 
either mutilated or destroyed, and that it was consequently doubt- 
ful, whether after all the expenses incurred, any cxikibition could 
take place in the theatre on the part of the young orator's tribe. 
•* Impossible!" said one of the assembled crowd ; •* bold and frontleM 
as Midias and his associates are. they dure not be guilty of such vil- 

o KnnnfpeMiprN IlOhiip in Atlien, p. ,{,{9 
P Cr. Clincon't Fud Hellenici 

mnA Pliiloliig. Mus- K. 3S9, sq. 



lainy as this !" " They dare be guilty of this, and any other vil- 
li laioy." said another : "and shameful to say, there arc those in 
high places to back them in their proceedings. And why. fellow- 
burgher ? Because the present lord of the ascendant thinks that 
be sees a star rising, which in time may eclipse his own, and be- 
cauite, as our school-books might have taught u>, envy and jealousy 
are not confined to potters and ^carpenters, but 6nd their way into 
the boflom.s of orators and statesmen !" " And more shame for 
'Eubulus, (for to him I opine your innuendo points) to be the slave 
of so mean a feeling ! Well, one comfort is, that for one day at 
least, our young orator is safe from all their jealousies. While 
the festival lasts, eveu Midias himself will not dare wag either 
tongue or hand agaiust this object of his spite !" ** Do not be sure 
even of that/* rejoined the other. " The man, whose contumelious 
tongue spares no occasion of reeling the Majesty of the " people, 
(and where is the place in which he forbears hia insolence?) may 
not be observant even of the respect due lo a God I" *' Say'st 
thou so, son of Sophilus? Then at all events ofl*ence and punish- 
1 Dieut shall tread close on each other's heels — fur the temple 
of Bacchus is still above ground, and the action of n-po3oX^ (cf. sup. 
743.) is not, that I have beard, yet abolished. This hand, if no 
other, shall be raised to condemn him there, and should I be a 
inember of the after-court, which sits lo assess the punishment — 
but away with ill-omen 'd words ! my ears give token that the por- 
tals arc unbarring, and my trust is that we shall have an exhibition 
after all." The doors were unbarred, and soon as the leader ap- 
I peared, all eyes were directed towards his head ; but the sacred chap- 
I let was there, and doubt and mistrust were presently converted into 
I delight and admiration. '* Ily the gods/' exclaimed the last 
speaker, " I was right after all! A more glorious turn-out was 
never exhibited ! The most unpractised eye might tell from whose 
hand came that splendid wreatli, and that purple robe so richly 
lac'd with gold. * Fammenes against the world for both I No shop in 
the Pirspus or elsewhere can come up to him. And observe, friends, 
roy kinsman Cleombrotus among the Troop ! Does his gleesome eye 
promise nothing? If the finest voice in Athens, and the nimblest 

I fool to second it, can promise aught of success in the ensuing con- 

^■test, the first prize will yet be ours. Verily, son of Damon, when 

^^Eature made that same Cleombrotus, I believe her only two 

^Htfioughta were, how to put most spring into a human heel, and con- 

^^^nlrate most power in the human larynx ! But what, my maaters! 

are our tongues palsied, or our hands lamed, that we can neither 

command a shout nor a hand-plaudit for the furnisher of such a 

ftpectade as this ?" The words were hardly out of his mouth, when 

lingled hubbub of acclamations and hand- clappings arose. And 

n Hwod. Op. 35. 

r D«nD. oontr. Mid. 580, 11. et klibi 
• Dcm. contr. Mid. 561, 1. ci idibt. 
t Dem. cnntr. i^fid. 521, 26. aq. 


AI.. ttAA* aAXovs tol ttoAAow dyaOov^y <t>v -qp Kai Aa- 

fia\09 rjpQ}^' 1005 

oOtP ^firf (f>pTfv oLTTOfxa^afum] TroAActf aperas* tVooy- 


•' Great is Doinosihcncs, sou of Demosibcnesrsaid one. And ' 'may 
Miilias,aDd such enemies to ibe gods.lick the dust before him I" cried 
anulher. " May the * supper of victory' {i'mviKia) be given to the 
combatants of the Pamlionian tribe !'* ejaculated a third. *' Who can 
doubt it/* rejoined a fourth. " if ihe evertions of the incomparable 
Bulist "^Telephanes be seconded as they deserve to be ?" The younp 
orator bowed his afknowledgments as became him to these several 
compliments, waJking loftily at the head of bis troop, and dream- 
ing that the pniudest day of his life was at hand in the discomfiture 
of his stage-competitors. Xescia mens hominum fati ! Little did he 
then ween of a much prouder day. when the whole world waa to be 
but as one stage, and of the two conibatania upon it, himself 
should by universal consent be considered the ablest and the 
greatest, except in the one article of good fortune. But oil this lay 
in the womb of time, if time, as a witty writer observes, has a 
womb. 'J'he proeession, uieiinlime, passed on, greeted at every 
luni by favouring shunts and acclaraiitiona : and we in turn must 
pass on, if not to one of the most brilliant^ yet certainly not the 
least useful ufocuupalinitH, viz. that of verbal illustration. 

1003. irt/iir*!*', to conduct, to escort, (ellipt.) Eurip. Elect. 674. ml 
fi)f» e'yw nffitroifi av uvk dKovuias. Troad. 358. koi X'^'^P* ''"'f tfiotffi jSo- 
trtAotoif ya^oif | xai itifurt. cum ace. pers. Iph. A. 1463. varp^sii' o»a- 1 
diiiv rwfdf ri's fi« irffi.rrtToi | ^Aprifulkn tUX«ifi.atv. {fuH.) nt'fintiv Trofiw^r, \ 
Plat. 1 Rep. 337. a. koXj) /kV odv ftoi koI if rUtv imx^piw iro^iiri) tlh^ | 
tivai, oil fuirroi ^rrov f<^«tWTo npaTti¥ tfv ol Bpfxcc en-f/iiroi*. Xen. Ma- \ 
ffiAt. £q. II. I. f£ ^r (rd^ois) voXAiara /icf $to\t wofixiis n^^l'^vtTu I 
Dem. 47* 13. ol Xomot ras nofxiras ir*fiirov(riP iplv /irra roiy Icpofrotwr. 
<3 3, 2. oirtuf wofiiTfvirai iv avro'tt {Ifutrito Koi OTfffmva SC.) rtjy Tov ^larv- \ 
aov woii7n}». S7*> ^- l-'jsias, t37i 21. tTrt^^atfol iroXTrm njr wofoni* 
tK ntipawc fU TTjv fToXir. Cf. infr. 1494' et nos in Ach. 223. 

1005. Aufinxns ijpms. By ihis Compliment Aristophanes makes i 
compensation to a brave, but somewhat mercenary soldier, for the i 
ridicule thrown upon him in a much earlier play. Cf. nos in AdkJ 
p. 126, sq. ] 

1006. o$t»^a<f>' ol sc. 'Ofjiijpov. ** Cujus exempla exprimeado 
{atrofAa^afiivrj) finxit similcs heroas.*' Dixo. 

lb. dTrufia^p4vr}. Eustath. \^$y, li sq. noXirxptja-rop ^fi^a r^ fi^ff- 
trtiv, «f ov Kara irapayiayfjv ana^atrtrtiv flip rA utrXur nwo<rK€yyi{ftP, an- 
fidtTtrup fit TO nvoi trut<iv tvvto ntpi Kt<f>ti\T)v. iKfiav(Tttp dc rui rV/ioo'aKrntt 
Ka\ TO ciffuCTTToyyiffU' piv, p-aXurra 8* TO ^k TWOS rVJTOlf oXpfiV TlvaT 
odcf Kot licfiayfiov Knrh Toiit n-tiXniovt ^TTOT^TTw^a, trt^payltf (ha»V 

n Dem. oontr. Mid. £io, 9. «q. 


aifr€KT€anuf mrror raurats^ cmvraof arnXwiyyos axoun^ 
oAA* ov i^a AT ov ^aHpas eroiaw wipfos ovSi ^SS^Pt- 

oHF oVf ovS^f ijpTiy ip^tcrajf Tna^ar twooftnt yvpauca, 
EY. fjta AT, ovdi yap ^y r^f 'Aff>poSai^ omScV ow. 
AI. pir)Se y iwcaj, loii 


f^ d' o£ro «ai iKfLOY^Oy me • Km^wi. ( Arist. sc. T1>e&. 5 14- Xmt, SUar 
om ^'-yoiivr m-rffc/urypa v«r, b. c. tvra liu iwy p). Aristophanes lli«rc- 
fore. says lliiench. from vrhotn the preceding exirmct bu been de- 

rived, uses axofta^fUrfi for €Mfu»^afuprf^ tbe mciaphor being derived 
from the art vf pulierr, and tbe word implying noihing more thao 
io seek the amUeriat, from rkicA « ikiag it to be/oMk i omt d , <-£schjlu5 
ibereforc meaoft to say, * the examples of brare men, whom I 
Ibrmed, are to be sought in Homer ; he supplied the outlines of 
my images.* So in Atbenzus (VIII. 34S.). .-Escbylus terms bis 
tragedies rt^j^ ftryaXmi' JWrtTMM' 'Oft^pov. Plat 'Hm. 50, e. «r Ton 
ri>¥ iiaXoKMv trxyjptan awoftaTTttw. Fassow quotes, but without re- 
ference, rc^ TmKpoTiMuv ^Sot antfUiAoyfuimt. ctaLT. Noon. Dionys. V. 
389. awtfta^OTO varptop Syptpt, 

007. noT^cX*!', T^vKpt^y. ^schylus, as we have seen in the 
eceding note, was in tbe modest habit of terming bis dramas 
p9 from the great Homeric banquet ; and the safest way for 
iog up his Trilogies, whenever ihe subjects will admit, is to go to 
Iliad and the Odyssey. Tbe Fatroclus and Teucer. mentioned 
the text, were dramatic cbanurlers, the first doubtless in the 
et's " Myrmidones." the second, perhaps, in his 'OirXwr irpiVu and 
0pjltraal ; both by their energy and martial bearing as much com- 
manding the admiration of their day, as Sir Walter Scott's •' Cauir- 
de-Lion" has commanded the admiration of our day. 

\b, 0ifiokf6yr»v, Uon-heurted. II. VII. 228. 'Ax'^'^^" /^itt^P". ^w- 

roo8. «iKr**TfiwiK. ScHOL AfiotoiiP^ i^urovv. Dind. <UT«irr«ivfi» aif 
Tor ofcToiff, se ex aquo iu extendere, est cxaqutire se 0$. 

1009. Sthencbcca (called by Homer, II. VI. i6o,5q. Antcia), wife 
Prostus, king of Argos. She became enamoured ot* Helloro- 
hon» and ivhen he refused to gratify her criminal pnssion, she ac- 
cused him before Prcctus of attempts upon her virtue. 




^87. *- OroXwT;!' d' ou« oJigu uCdcU, or< ro jrpu^oi' ff'ytVcro.) uiff o^fi' 

«(t i;*" Tij- 


lb. ifiiaaav, under the infiuenct of tot>e. Cf. Welck. /Each. Trfl. 

P- 367, 

loi 1. Ai^podtrtf, is this a persoual or a dramatic sneer? If ibi 





oAA' ern. aol toi koi toi^ (roi(nv TroAAr; iroXXov ^iri- 


©ore ye kuvtou <j€ Kar ovv t^aXtv. AI. in) tou £ita 

TOVTO yi TOt 8r). 
a yap eV ray aAAor/»W fVo/erf, avrhs tovtoutip ink^- 

EY Kcu Ti ^XiXTrrova-\ (a o^irkC avSpmv^ rrjv iriXty 
afxai ^Oivi^otax ; 1015 

former, we refer ibe render to the poet's own simple reply, and to 
the observations of his expositor, Klausen. (^^Cscli. Theolog. 91.} If 
the latter, the taunt is directed at words, or things, at meretricious 
graces of language, or seductive exhibitions of scenic subject or 
situation ; and in that case w answer, that ^s<'hylus held chcftp 
the ^ first, and abhorred the second. He knew the human he«rt 
and human society too well, not to know that the greatest tnutor 
to both is the man of large mental powers, who drugn the cup of 
instruction with philtres calculated to soften and enervate; he 
therefore threw into his own cnp all that braces and purifies 
both ; coura§;c in men, modesty in women, reverence to the godi 
above, and a proper submission to their constituted substituie& 

1012. itoWrj, pou'^/ul. Eurip. Hippol. I. roXX^ /i«V fV j9pt>ro7<n. 
Koi/K avaumfios | Bta KtKX^fuu Kvnptg. lb. 445. Kinrptt yikp ov i^prfr^, 
Tju iroWfj pvjj. Cf. JEsch. Sept. c. Tb. 6. Eurip. Ipb. Aul. 557. 
Helen. I 1 14. 

lb. TToXXoii, rafde. Cf nos in Eq. 801. Nub. 884. 
lb. irriKaBTJa-BtUf cum dat. belagrr, to besiege. I'asb. 

1013. Kaji^iKtv. Tlie alliisiun apparently is to the domestic 
misfortune of Euripides, both of whose wives had. under the 
influence of Venus, proved unlnie to him. It Is perhaps to the 
bitterness of feeling occasioned by such an event, that we owe 
such reflexions as lue following: Trond. 1038. vofuip 8« rrf^a* rait 
akXatm Bis j -yvpaifi, Bvi)(Tittt», fjris h» rrpoi^ ir69iv. lb. 1 063. «'X- 
$ovtra 6' "Xpyot, t^tnrtp a^ia, Kanmt | jciuc^ SavtlroA' mi ywoifi trm^ppo- 
Vfhf I na<rat(rt drjcrct' p^dioy /i«V 01^ T66e' \ o/Muff f 6 rija^* SktBpot *ls ^^ 
fivv /3aX<r I rh fiatpov alTwy, Kotf «t nScr' ix^iovit. 

10(4. inoUii, Jinxittit 

" Thm he warned not power 10 (wA the imaginatiim with llie 
nf tfiiieiin^ Imd he hern M dixjKwrri. M>e the bcnotlful Imle Churu» m hia **9Dp- 
|tlir<>9" ( ioi5-3,<;.), ami n Intgrneiit in hi* ** Dumidc*," which, Kocnrdinjl M, 
Aiht'tUKUs (\1U. OoOf a.), wfts part of an huruigiie made by Aphradits< ov*^ 


AI. art yoryxuoLS kol yGnmimt^ UMJfmB aXaj^mrt 

KG)V€ux TTuhfj al<r)(uv6fia'at tut rov^ colk BtX\€fOi^mrui, 

EIY. TTOTfpov f aim oyra Aoyor ro^ror wept rijf ♦<«- 

Spay ^vve&T)tca ; 
AI. fta ACf aXX ovT' oAA* aanmpiim*9 )(p!j ro vonf- 

pov Tov y€ TToajrip^y 

1016. dMvritfoff, permCKtitti, DOB : /i 1 m»tn 1 Jmtwti, t Batfc. vcfffk. 

1017. CMWi*r ronr. HaI. l^ft. 119, e. i^M* 111, JS. 151,51. 

The plural namber, arcordbig to iW SehoJMt. ■ 
imply the number of AUmbmii tadvea^ «W tb«» bi 

lb. atffjpvAi'o-oc Ata r a-. B. Perhap«, A r— y*^ /« 
Ueil^ophons o/fomr erwatum. U it likclj tfcat jUiAom 
ha% e de!>troyed themietTes from mete Ibvre of ■■ ■tfiiKty, 
■eiise uf the dt^grftce brtmic^t upon iImv ars by im 
8tht'Deb<Ea ? ThiA would nirely be b y p cf b oic canwl to ita widat 

1018. 0VK imvLt/aUe, tutreft/, i m myim^ ry. E«ripidet et < n«r» ht i 
self by saying, that he gmre the chanrter of fthtmhae, aa H had 
come iluwn by tradition : that it waa ao p o rt ifa l crtmAom M taw 
The reply made to tfaa topUan by iCarfcylai aa woflky of Ua 
triiicm. Thai his declarauoa vas a aophina* EaripUea himsrif 
moat have been well aware : for what is laid in hia tmm Traadca? 

88. 9VfQM AiMUfvr raurxpar fUfU Hmin gtm \ yhm^ imMt, Jfm iyir^M 



lb. ^f^«o. Soph. (Ed. T. 40 1, x^ ^i*^*f ritt. £L 67J. U 
fipax«i ^wSfit X«'yM. Eunp. Baodi. 297. wv^rrtt XAym. Tr. 915. 
irvrrtOtU 6 ttas X^yov. Plat. Fluedo 77, C tfDP H ^ V at roirmr rim 


1019. awoKpvwTMiM xfh ^^ ^oin)pim c r. «. AimI did the poet prmC' 

lise what be taught ? L«et us again adren to hia Orwlcao Trilogy, 

In that great perfumiance. two of the fotilcat ef taaaa crimes. 

adultery and murder. AtAnd for exhibition and lepmbatkiii. And 

I bow does ^Escbylus deal with each ? Of the fintt tie compairatircly 

^^wys nothing ; the Choral Troop but once allude to it directly (Ag. 

^^■616.), and indirectly, 1 belieTe. * never. The femaUt of the Tn- 

^Hbgy> viz. Electra, and the Captive Train, obnerre a utill roun* ran. 

~ X The idludoii, n-Kidi KUutni (ifuls tu tbt guiliy 1 iimiaiOTM af iKciail'u .1 

t'lyUnniMntni in *r. 2;t'> ^1- (Btl. Kd), u uuiAj ui vrmr «f that Acirii^x^kj.ivf 
•cb<Jar. Tlie word* uiuUmlftadJy reUbe u> llk« anuuiiinjatlnti iif t>w u«ni'u< ./( 
IpbigrQist a ooniumtDaUwi cm which Uic 4 luims brl it !/» jiolnfid Ui li>«'ir fi-t-l. 
tngii to dwell. 




KCLi fir] irapayuv fi7]St SthcurKUP. tois fiey yap irou&api 



ttous Bilence. The single reproach of Orestes must from its ydeli- 
cacy have gone to his mother's heart, as much as the sword which 
pierced it. The night-watcher at the opening of the " Agnmem- 
nou." betrays indeed a consciousness of wimt is passing within ; 
but his mouth has been stopped with gold. All the allusions 
of Cassandra arc wrapped up in metaphor and imagery *. Not so the 
crime of murder. In what manner the sacrifice at Aulis^ which if 
it left Agftmemnon pious towards the gods, left him guilty towards 
his own fauMly. in what manner that painful deed had bowed the 
heart of bis bffectionate peers, we have elsewhere shewn ; (.Appen- 
dix O.) but in that particular case ihe feeling would naturally exhibit 
itself mure in dark thttu in direct allusion : not so wheu his own 
fate is al band, and the chambers of the Atridan palace are again 
lo be fed with a dark deed of violence. Whatever of royal splen- 
dor or fesiivily— of halls crowded with cwslly statuary (406.) — of 
roofs ringing with the sound of princely banqnelingsa, — whatever 
of this the mind had previously connected with that stately dome, 
now disappears. Witliout — the wailings of Cassandra tenant its 
roof witli iiuHgeSj such as he who reads, reads never to forget; 
within, the inexorable Ate is sharpening her .sword, and the 
banded Furies are iigain made possessors of the wretched mansion. 
The very soil on which it stands is almost made to utter a voice, de- 
jTianding that crime and compensation — doing and suffering — shall 
here go hand in ^^hand. And why this different treatment of 
primes, not ao essentially distinct in their enormity ? Because the 
poet — true to the eternal laws of nature — knew that the louder the 
cry raised against the spilUng of blood, the greater is the horror 
conceived agairist it; while the more woman's guilt is blazoned, 
the more she seems to think herself involved in a sort of guilty 
splendour, and the more her brow is hardened against conse- 

y K\. iroi? 8^ i Ti^df, ivriy* iyrtZti^tiv ; 

Cboeph. 859. (KI. Ed.) 
K Ag. 1 195. 1 130. Tlio plain allusion (i 164) is to the l))'e-gone guiliof Thy- 
eslei, not tci the r«ent giiili of vKgiathus. 

» THl* life of AgauiL'innnii ii emjihaiically termwl by i£iirhytui> (Ag. 137-8.) 
rpir6aiinvSov aiii', i. e. a life pMRecI among tripU? libations; consetjueiiUy a life <rf 
pt- rpciunl hospitality, (fw Pn*)u>w hi voev rpn^trrovSos ; but rf. Welckcr'a iC^Mh. 
Tril. p. 4 1 1, ami KlausenV ^tich. Theol. p. 98.) Ai the anrients were very par- 
ticular in otistfn'ing time, plane, and eirt'iimstancp in the tpitheta wbi<^ Uwy 
alfixed to their deities and in their adjiintciouA hy tliem, it may Iw preauuieil that 
their Udile-ixithi wmild tie JupiU'r O/t/mpiau, the hmjt'iy and atiU mort the 
JiipUrr Soter. Hence np]iareriily the arijiiratiiin put into the mouth of -taow 
(sup. 702.1, and the eilrtor'n reason for conducting the fifllt part of the two lac- 
iptevii' oollijijuy — cup in /land. 

* Choepli. 307. ^pdcopTi trt^tlv. 




Stj Sti ^(p^]ora Xey^tv r^fios. EY. ifv oil' av 

»nces : for ier the ^leaking eye wnd 
^f all roitiisters of Tengeanre. A«d do 
ceed upuii similar priDci|)les } wifle wodttf crcrywWve 
that for ihc shedder of blood tbe I ~ ~ ~ 

Ton, ii leaves H'ODt8n'& ^iU and faBy to 
of Goldsmith have described with cf 

1 020, didwrcffu', M fcnMH cidmr. Br. 

I031. ftt^tfurKoXoc. Let a fragMcst of Sofhadn Imtc 
didascabu ; the vouDg will ikoC fiad 
cVf I Ktrpagrm Tm r* rav 

•maif y iSf aBBir fUw 2\pv ri wpam ^arrvra^ 
ra XP9<>^ ^> vM' V ^^ M^maiUr X«^ 

d«««^Mv (iMc ■■■■mftyiiii'tiiii •mm p it . 

Sopb. Inccrt. Tng, h. 77^ (DM.) 
lb. <»fmC*u', to tanmaate; the ic&olar iu fl u iw iag aA«r iIm 
eQunciaiing. Cf. Nituch ad Flat. loa. f, f , 

lb. ii^ait. This word, of frc^wM o c uiifUi. is iW 
iEscbyluft and Eunpide*. it not fionnri 
or three examples are givai from tW tfuiunf 
567. dfi yim 7^ rwif 'ppmnrw H p0$%m, (l 

cnu/i. Blumf.) Oioeph. 866. (the ayd •cf^apt^ ff fe l ly Mirwft 
ing to aid in forciDfl; opea the pah^ 4ftm%» rfriiwai) jmS ^' l^b^' 
yt 6tl. In the S^. c Tbeb. wc iad the a u ai p miad M ihit 
rord employed in tradag the |wuyeJ » «f liCr« iftMM th« int awl- 
break from the maternal womb to fuB-gnMm ■Miihiind ; 

^^H aXX' oCrt mv ^vy^prs p/ftpUm #idr w> ^ 

See also «^M:h. SuppL 755. KhuiAca'A Ajj^UBtfOi. p* 109, Plal, Apol 
I 41. »:• 5 R«P 468. *!. U. XXIV. 5«65. 

1 013. Ljrcabettua* a mountain of Attica, wiualad 
.fines of B«eulia. 


KOI napucurcip i^fup ^ykOijj tout cori to "XjpriOTa SiSd- 

OP XPV 0/>a^w dv0payrr€i(i>^ ; AI. ctAA*, to KOKoSaifwy^ 

pueyaX(av yviafju^v KoiX htauomv ura kcu Ta fn}pxna tix- \ 

T€LP, 1015 

KoXAcDf elKOf TOVf ^fxidfovs TOis prjfjLCUTt fiei^oat XPV' I 

a0cu' I 

Koi yap rotf IfiaTiois "qp-iop xpciirrai ttoXv (T^fivoripoiaip. 
apLOV 'XprjoTca^ KaTaS€i^UT09 SKXvp,i^u(o av. EY. ti 

opacras i 
Al. Trp<oTOtf fJLiP T0V9 ^acTtXivovTa^ paxt ap,'m(T)(cov^ 1v " 


1023. napva<Tcav }i*yi&t), Parnassian heights. 

1024. av&pai7:ut>i<:, i.e. in such language as men commonly use, 
not in such metaphorical language, derived from rivers, mountains, 
entrencliments, &c. as ynu are continually employing. Bergler 
quotes Strato, a couiic puet, as thus speaking of some one. who i 
employed words remote from common use ; n-X^r intrtvto y ouror | 
ifflij ituTujUoAfly, ttv& p<iy7rivtii>v \ak*lv rr. (Athen. IX. 383, b.) \ 

1025. htayotitv '<ra. An uniisual construciifm. 'o-or being com- 1 
monly followed by a dative, but approved by Thorn. Magisi. Z^uttow \ 
T^ &((» Kai o/ioiop rov dctFor' waaurwr koX vjo¥ t^ dfiri koi itrov rov 

lb. /J^^ra Tucr<tw, So rucrctv ^"Xi; (Eur, Suppl. 19I.)» *"d Vfrau$ * 

male nati. Horat. I 

1028. afiov, i. e. a ffiov. 

\b. 9u\vftfi¥(a. Eurip. Orest. 1539. iTTir 'EXX((da . . ftt<Xv;iir»aro. I«oc. | 

6^t f^. r&s airrSiV naTpiHas diaXvjxrjvdfitPOi. Cf. Afist. Plut. 436. Thesm. | 

347- , _ I 

1039. /3o<riXfroi^ar. Eurip. lou, I lOI. ly tXiriCtt ^atXtvattv. El. | 

1 1. fiatTiXfvu jy^ofdr. The allusion is chiefly to such monarchs as 
(P.neus and Telepluis, whom Euripides, to excite compasi»ion, iu> 
troduced upon the stage clothed in rags. Cf. sup. H06. Instances 
of the same kind may be found in sunie of his surviving plays, as 
his Menelaus in Helen, 430. 1124. and his Electra in Phcen. 



paitot, Msch. Pr. 1095. Soph. Phil. 39. 274. Eurip. Hel. 

lb. dfiTTix*^, fut. afi<f>€^<a, aor. f)pnurxov* clothed. Arist. Plut. 
89;. afinijft^ai rpt^viop. Soph. (Ed. Col. 3 J 4- Kvinj npotruma &fatra- 


rotp axfOpoirrtoi^ (Jhupoivt ctj^cu. EY. tovt otm tfiXai^ 

Ti Sfxi/Ta^' ; 1030 

AI. ovKovv idlMt ye Tpaipap}(Hv vXoirrw oviu^ Suz 

uXXa pOKtoi? 7r€puiX6fi€PO^ kXcui mu ipryri wa^a^cu, 
AI. in) Ttfif ArffjujTpa^ X""*^*^ / *X***' ovXeoif iptoM^ 


KW Tovra Xtydov i^onrar^yjj wapa tov9 l^^Ks avftt^^ 

Xlf pof d^i^ft. Earip. Hel. 430. waot i^^oKott o^mvxq^au Mnf. 
I 156. irfVXovff iRMxiXovc fffiMtax"^' 'p^- ^- '439* ^■*3^*'*' 4^fajB 

lb. tXuy6t. Soph. (Ed. T. 672 Phil. 1130. 

1031. rptrfpapx'ip^ to provide ^hips at their own exp«i»e, u the 
opulent of Athens were obliged to do, and furnish them with eqoip- 
menta and rowers. The onerous nature of the trierarcby ba* been 
fully explained in a former play (Eq. 8S0.). 

1032. KtpitlXta. more frequeotly •^tpuiXim (fDu'w, f7X«), / irr^ 
mp. 'I'biersch reads wtfHtiXvfiit^t coIL Horn, trojua-ir t%kvfuroi ^funit. 
ftXvtUroi al&oirt ^oXk^. vr^rcXij fiXi/fMFor w;iovs- See Buttm. L#exil. ^. 44. 

1033. oOtot. toft. Kooily. 11. XXJV^ 646. jtXduvf r* t»6*ftfm oC- 
%at. Od. IV. jo. aftiif>i d* Spa j^Xaiwat ofXac $aXow rfdi ;fir«i4tr. 11. \* 
J 34. 0^17 d' ivtyT}¥o6r Xcixfi;. (For a fuller explanation of ihli word, 

|See Buttmann's Lexilogus, pp. 270. 456.) 
lb. VKn'ptpdt, betov their ragt. 

1034. fTopd roi>r ix^vr. among the weUert of /Uk, or in fAe yCrA* 
^tnarket, Cf. dos in Ach. Append, p. 263. Insiances of tbii fur- 

mula are not rauch to be expected in the Tragic vrritera, yet •onie- 
thing like them occurs in the following instances : Eurip. Ipfa. T. 
L:^69' V"^^** ^"P* otrrijv iip^ mpltravT <x«»'. Med. 6ft. wttrtruvx npotrtX- 
•^p, lp$a 9fi iraXaiTfpoi | 6diraowt, The fondnewt of the Atbentans 
[generally for tish. and the zeal with which the wealthier claasM 
contended fur the more delicate kinds, hns been the subject of ob« 
•crvaliuu in preceding plnyn. The impudent hvpocrisy of llie person 
pleading poverty, perhaps u*ith downcaKC head («i^f), in the pre- 
;ding ver»e, in order to ejtcape an oneroti* siatc-diiTy. could hot 
Ibe more Htrongly pourtmyed than by ethibitinf; him in the next 
'verac with head erect (AwiMv^as), and in that part uf Athens, where 
Ihe opulent gourmands were more panicnlarly to \tt seen. 

lb. ayojcvvTUP. Eurip. Cycl. ?ll. irpAf alrnv rftp ^C AtfUMtitv^fAdv. 
Plat. Phaedo lOQ, d. «'k^'>c cai ttytunn^mt /c rr/t ^XarTrjs. 


A I. <7t clS XaXiay hriTTjS^va'cu Koi arw^vXiap €Si8a^9f 

7} * ^(KtifaxTiv Ta9 rf iraXaiarpa^ kcu tov9 7rapahov9 

avenuadv 1C36 

airrayopeikiy T019 apxavaiv. koItoi t6t€ y , tqpuc eym 

OVK rpruxTCurr oAA' rj ^*JSu^fOf KoXtcrai kou pvmrennu 

AL inj rhu 'AttoXAw, [^kcu npoavrapSeip y eV to arofia 

T(p daXafiaKt^ 
Koi fiip0(Daax tov ^vaatrov^ Kcuc/Sas- nva XanroSirnjaaL' 
vvv 8* amiXiyew kovkIt iXavvttP^ 1041 

KoL TrAeu' Sevpi KavOt^ CKeJcre. 
AL voiiDU Se Koxciv OVK alrtoy ear; 

1035. XoXtov. Mcnandcr ; ia» Hi Kii^(rff fiAraw Tijv MvpTtXtfv I rou- 
Tfjr Tir, 7 titBtjv KoXij^ rripas ov notit | XoXtur. Kiuend. in McD. Heliq* 

p. >4. 

lb. tirtTjjJkvirai. Plat. lO Rep. 613, A. (Vii-^dcuaii' Oftrniv. 8 Lfg. 
847, a. Tfxvat. 

036. ^ ^^tKkvavtv {iicKtvovf) T^ waXairrpar, Nub. 105a. rovr* 
<fn-i ravT* txtlva, | a roiv wfiviVicAiy art Ik* rjfAtpas >iiXoi*irrwv | vX^ptt 
Ti> ^ciXavt'tov tton'i, KCfac Ac ti^s- iroXattrrpos. Cf. UOS in Nub. 1 007. 

lb. Tra/3ciXot/ff* " Ita etiam apud ArisUipbancm prcibat (.Ksrbyl. 
sc.) nntiquos Atbetiiensium mores, cum iiemu de plcbe (inipoXof) 
niagiHtratibus contradicere ausus sit." Ktaus. iiCsch. 'i*beo]ag. 9. 
napaXov aTpariiv, Hurudot. VII. 161. 

1037. f'tfixovfjiv, their commanders. Tbierscb quotes in iltuslra- 
tion, Xen. Aleni. 111. 9. 11. tnthtUyvtv tv rt njt rov^ci' riri<rra>Mroy ^(>- 
XovTQ K. T. X. Tbe same learned writer observer, that to shew how far 
this contagion of disobedieuce had spread, mariners are particu* 
larly selected, as those who in general were more submisiuve to 
authorities. Cf. Xen. Cyr. I. 6. 21, &c, 

1038. oXX' J), nisi. 

lb. i^a(av Kokiirat, cali for barley -cake. Cf. nos in Equit. v. 54- 

lb. {tvimanai. This naval explanation has come before lu In prr> 
ceding plays. 

1040. cK^oc pro iuQayrts {having diaembnrked) . On this traii»i< 
tion from a plural number to a singular, see Reisig's Conjcci. 
p. 15I1 &q. and £lmsley ad Euripid. Med. t. 552. 

1041—3. Thiersch reads wn-ikiyti . . tXavvii . . irXf«. 


ov wpoayayyovf KortSei^^ ovto9^ 
KOI TiKTovaai cV Twr uptw^ 
KOL fuyvuyAvas toujip a&At^oTf, 
Kcu <f>ouTKOu<ra^ ov ^v to ^v ; 
KUT tK TOirnap y] TToArf -q^if 
wro ypa^yuajioav mftiucrrw6i)^ 




1044. fl-ponywyovs. Bratnoy makes % aerere but jaM remark on 
the Ion of Euripides, uhen be ubsenes, " aprvs tout ApoIJon est 
s^flucieur, Minerve entremeitcase, et Xutbus diippe." Aristo. 
phaneit took u se%'erer revenge by introducing the poet himself as a 
wpouyory^f in bis Tbe^roopb. 1172, sq. 

1045. riMra\nTa% €w roU UpoU. Thc Scholiast says that the allu- 
aiuD )s to a drama of Euripides, the heroine uf which (Auge) had 
been delivered in a temple, a profianation from which public 
opinion justly revolted. Hence the pretended horror of the female 
in our poet's Lysistr. (743-). when fearing that she may give birth 
to a pretended infant : u irriri't* Y-iXti&vi.', rwltrxtt raC roirov, | cor av 
«i( oaiam fioXa *yw )(a>ploi'. So ivhen tlie island of Delos was pan- 
fied. and made as it were one entire temple, — ri Xomor rr^6enrov 

{«<r^i. (Thucyd. 111. 104.) Among tbe Pytbagurean injunctions 
were ammuhriTnv Bvtiv, fiT) rurrctv rV itp^. 

lb. uft6u Dem. c. Mid. 532, 15. 583, 26. 586, 23. 

1047. ov (yv t6 ^v. The philosophical origin and meaning! of 
this favourite dogma of Euripides (for he appears to have used it 
Sn more than one drama) may be collected from a former play, 
(Nub. 95. et alibi.) Thc opinion is ibus alluded to by Socrates in 
ato's Gorgias 49^* ^- ^^ y'P ^^ OavpA^oi^* av, tl EufHiridf^t aXtj^rj cV 
rourd« X<7ri, Af'ywv " rir 8* o{3<v^ tl ro Qv fxty ian KarBaytlv, ri KarBaptur 
^4 (^v ; (see Heind. ad locum ) This last quotation is from the Po- 
lyidus of Euripides : in his Phrixus the dogma appears in the fol- 
lotviug shape : ris H' olliiv tl Qv rovff, h KfKktfTaL BatntM, | to Q» hi 
0in\txKtt¥ ifrrl; See also his Hippul. 191. 

1049. ypafifurriay. By tlie word ypatifiartU in this place is not, 1 
think, to be understood scribes employed by the various magis- 
trates in transcribing and recording matters of public business (see 
our Achani. p. 362.). but rather the scribes employed by sophists 
and philosophical inquirers, among whom Aristophanes uniformly 
ctasM's Euripides. As such the word apparently occurs in the fol- 
lowing verse of St. Paul. l (Jor. i. 20. iroj) o-oi/kjc ; irov ypaf^futTtut ; 
irov <n/{tfrT^fjs roi» aianfot tovtov ; 

lb. dni^trrotv {iutrroivt Soph. Antig. 280. rrpw opy^s Kufu /irtrrtt- 
«mi. PUl. I Leg. 649. b. ndfi^s 6 ToiovTor nnpprjtriat fitcrrovrnt), (0 fill 


Kou j3a)/ioAoxft>i' 8r}yLcnn6y]K<av^ 1050 

i^TroTcoirrcoi/ tou Sijfiov ojti' 
\afX7raSa S ovS^i^ olof t€ <f>ep€iv 

1050. ir)fioni0f}Ka>v, men who play the npe towards the pupuluce, 
either by cheating them or hy fawning upon them. 

1052. \afi7rdd\ How marvellous tlie difference between ancient 
and modern customs, even in what at first appear to be merr 
trifles! What serves a torch among onirsclvcs ? It li[,jhla Beauty to 
her carriage from the nightly spectacle, it helps patrician grandeur 
to sympathize with public feelings of ** rejoicing, it fills the hands 
of stage-demons, when a Don Juan, or other scenic libertine is to 
l>e consigned to his place of punishment. Not so with antiquity. 
There on occasions the most important — in the celebration of 
public games — in the solemnization of one of the dearest of domes- 
tic ties — and in the out^'ard, and perhaps the inner ceremonies of 
the most mysterious of ancient religious rites, the torch perfurnis a 
part, of which the origin and entire import have not, as far as I am 
aware, been yet explained. Future opportunities will arise for ad- 
verting again to the last two particulars ; at present our attention 
is called to the torch, merely as connected with public games. 
Even on this point our informaiiim is less full and clear than might 
be wished ; but we give the reader that of the latest and most 
learned expositor on the subject. Having discussed some uf the 
liturgical expenses of the Gymnasiarch, Bocckh proceeds to ob- 
serve, " The Lampadarchia, as being a particular species of the 
Gyninasiarchy, deserves to be mentioned. The Lampadephoria on 
foot was a common amusement ; it was performed on horseback is 
the time of Socrates for the first time at Athens. The art con- 
sisted in running fastest without extinguishing the torch : a feat in 
which there is no difficulty with the pitch-torches of modern days, 
but not easily performed with the waxen lights borne by the compe- 
titors, which were secured in a species of candlestick protected by 
a shield, as we team from monuments of ancient art now extant. 
It is possible too, that it was necessary to illumiue the course, as 
the race took place at night. Games of this kind were only cele- 
brated to the Gods of Fire ; and five of them were held at Athens, 
one at the Hephaestca, the presiding deity of which was also wor- 
shipped at the Apaturia by men in sumptuous dresses, holding in 
their bands torches, which they lighted at the sacred hearth in 
token of thanks for ibe use of fire ; another at the Hromethea in 
the exterior Ceramicus in the Academy ; another at the Pana- 
tbeniea, perhaps however only at the great Panaiheniea ; mani- 
festly because Minerva, as being the goddess of Arts and com- 
panion of 'Vulcan was alsQ Goddess of Fire; she was also ko- 

<1 Cf. jGsch. Agnmcmn. 93-6. 

e Spe further on Uiis subject Wtikker's " AltattiKher Feu«rdi«fut," or 


i/TT ayufivaatai trt vvvi, 

AI. fia ^r ov Sijff, Sot i7ra<f>avdi^0r)u 

liauaOTjifatoto'i yfXcoi^y ot€ Si] 

Aey/coy, iricoPy vTroXearofJLfvos 


noured at Corinth with the Lainpudephoria ; at the Henilidea, in 
which Diana Bendis appears in the character of Godde^ of the 
Moon : and lastly, at the annual games of Pan, the God of Fire. 
For all these spectacles the ^mnasiarchs had to provide: and. as 
con:(iderable emulation existed, one person was appointed from 
each tribe for every game, whether accompanied or nut with Lam- 
padephoria/' Public Economy of Athens, vol. 11. p. 218. See 
bIso Creuzer's Symlnd. 1. 131. H. 808. IV. 327-8. Welcker's Tri- 
logie, p. 9. 15. Lobcck's Aglaoph. I. 171 : also /Ksch. Ag. 305. 

1053. im^ ayvfivaaiatt for want of activity, from failure in prac- 
tising 6UL'h gymnasiic exercises, as give strength and suppleness to 
the body. " irn ayvfivQtriut tri vvvi. hoc est, ayw/ivoffiaf r^s mtvi oCtn)s." 
Gaisf. Hepba;st. p, 303. 

1054. ina^avav&T^v {iita<^uiva'iv<a) ytKCjv, I dried up for laughter, OF 
laughed myself into a congtimption, I trtis killed with laughter. A 
:w compound forms of the verb nvaiVw are here added. Arisl. 

rd. 146. d«t/^ y^P« ^^ foiK*, at^avavBjiao^ai. Fr. InC. 28. tirravBa dif 
dpto¥ i^valvtrat. iSvich. Prom. V. 150. adv ttftui tlat^oiiaff^ | 
'■nvrpatt rrfioaavawofitvov. Eurip. Cycl. 463. <n/pava»a Kopas. Archil, 
fr. 42. iroWovs ^i» avTQtv ^tipiut KaTiivavtl. 

»io56. Kv-^s, with his head bent downwards. Plat. 9 Rep 586, a. 
nM^OTff fiV yijv. Cf. flup. 1034. 
1057. \tvKhi, fair, effeminate, Thes. 192. <tv d* €ifwp6a-imos^ A<v- 
ff, t^vprjfu'yos, yv»'aiKd</)a»)'r>f. Cf. nos ad Nub. 973. 
lb. ir<«di'. dumpare the lively picture in Plato's Republic (VIII. 
55^* c). where the rich idler, froXXar fxw trapKov -. . aaBfun^f rr Km 
oKoplas fiftrriit, is compared to the active pauper, Urxy^s, ijXutfiiitov, 

lb. imo^fiptiroptvott postremus. Vid. Kuhn. ad Poll. VI. 8. 44. 


1058. htiva TTotui', Tliiersch con.siders as said for 5*iw nna-j^t^v, 
^^^lluding tu those blows upon the belly. sides» &c. which we shall 
^^krescntly find this candidate for torch-victory receiving. For ex- 
^^^mples of this use of the word noif'w, the learned writer refers to bis 
Plutus. 481. 860. 


tlic Arv-eerviue." which fnllowtt his treaciHe on the Culiiri. and the Lemnian 
nd Sanuiihrnnnn Alytturies. Ij'ihcrk, whtnitt tJcU^hi MppntirB U) he to sit, a* ic 
u-KH*, WAtchmmn over titc fm^rnvtiu and ifuilHted tfXprvuMHiK of Hnuiiuity^ and 
prevent ajiy uurHir inftfrenc^ Xm^'mfi drawn frnni them, has not Irft the Itemed 
wriler't poaititNis (in th«t' ninttcrb wholly iiniunrhiMl. Couipore his Samo. 



iv TcxlcTL TTvXcuf TTaiovd avTov 

ycurrfpOj TrAeypaf, Aayoi/ay, Trvyr}!/" 1060 

6 Se TV7rr6^€vo9 Touat TrAarctouy 


(fivatop rrjp XafiiraS €(f)€vy€. 
XO. fieya to irpaypjoLj iroXv to wwcoy, aSpos^ 6 iroXtfKK 
fpXtTai. I 

Xo^errov oip tpyov Stcupelpy 1065 

OTav o fup Tuinj /Staiwf, 


lb. ol Kf/>a/i«if, inliabitbiDU of ihe Cerainicus, in which burgh the 
contest, as wc have seen in note 1052, took place. Cf. sup. 114 : 
and see also Bloomlield's Greek Testament, I. p. 153. 

1059. in/^mr. SeilOL. raU ciVodots toO ayuvos, 

1061. irXar<mic ac. X'P''''< ^*f^ f^'^ palm of ihe hand. On this el 
lipse see Viger, p. 50. Lambert Bos, p. 529. ed. Schafer. 

1062-3. ^o^fp^ofi(va\ ff>v<Tav. We must not comment too clo 
on the modus ftpvrandi^, by whirh this obese aspirant to victory has 
bis lurch extinguif^licd; but wtnild melrical ears liave allowed us to 
exclude the words nUou;ether ? For the rest, the kicks, cuffs, and 
buftciing* which our fat friend receives, are among those little 
traits of national character, which make it impossible to dislike the 
Attic people altogether — blackguards and scoundrels as th 

1064. ad^ff. This unusual word seems to be the opposite 
Itrxvhtt and to express that sense of magnitude and vehemence, 
which full feeding confers. The lliree German translators, Vom, 
Conz, and Welcker, agree in rendering it by Ay^ /"7- See 011 
the subject of this word Elmsley in Bacch. ▼. S, and Buttmann^a 
Lexil. in v. a^iv/iv, 

1065. himpuv. ^"Esch. Eum. 466. duupfiv roCro wpayna. lb. 600. 
^fn]<f>t^ Staipdv ToCAc irpayfixiTos nipt, 

1066. Ttiviiv^ to advance, to hasten to. Thes- i 305. cri- fl' otrwt . . . 
Ttvtlv wi- rrfv ywoLKa. Dindorf observes: rtlvtuf ^wiftt, de conten- 
tione valida et impetu velieniente accipiendum. Conz translates 
der Eine furcbtbar im Anlauf. the one formidable in agsa 
Welcker, in tlie same manner: Wo mit Macht anlauft der Ei 
Thiersch, on the contraryj understaiulH the passage, as of proli 



f {nrowtpiifuyot ^vffvy colittreni, ut rec'te monK Beck, quiifti pedeiido exDn- 
gui«s^t lacem. I'DvuTea nataiidum est, prvpoiitlonem Orh notiaiinn dniulntjui 
huhere, ut in aliis oiinposiUB. Vid. Pint. 698. 994. Ciirrentea auteoi faoee mrnr- 
Mu <*t ad terrani declitiMtjm tenuiB&e videntur, ite veuxi ir«ctii extingu«rentur, un<li> 
uova pn>fici»dtiir jocandi oocaxio. Qtiami'is erum rnnte teneret lanijndeni, tie^v 
tamfit tuU I'uit ah oiiimum veiitonuii fUlu. Tii. 


aXXa fiif *» 
etrffoXau yap fiat 

ra T€ iroAoMi tern t« xavK. 


of langna^ e ; trwirmm 
tary terms, vbicb pcvrvS 
suroed that this is oa 
passage in Xeoopboa't 

1067. t Vaj^ qT^g^iy, a 

turn aboat to make an anarii oa their yiiiiK TUovcfc ^1 

Xeo. HelL Vl. 3. 31. aw T ^i^ oia c ri^ i x w yi M, mi ^ w^^aam mg ^ri^ 
yovaiy iW^vro, oi t' W«rn «—i > i yr^^. la aiddBc TMCe, Aiist. 
kq. 244. (oXX' o^Znv cowmt^j^ot), it in^MS fitttc mate tkaa f« 
Ittra about, and /arr aa r a g M j. 

lb. ratp«i^<r$<ii ropin. 9ciU (better peHkapsybrfirrr) mhaiti. Dixd. 
Cf. Horn. r. V. 856. VU. 169. Od. IX 538. Earip. Hec. 111. 
Hat. -Le^g. 789.6. 

lb. ropAif. Frcfjuent in .Csobylus, le» frequent in Euripides : 
not found in Supbocleft. Flat, Tbevtec 175, e. mp^K n ooi i^^t 
iiOMOvtlr. Xen. Rep Lac. 11. 12. Sf^or, rift TXtft uoor^ r^ to/mm-o. 
Toy rw app*voiv upx*^. 

106S, ^ (V rovr^ (sc. riwy) Mofi^aSop. This also »cem$ like a 
military pbruse ; do ntU tncttrnp for ever on tie same ground: shift 
your (quarters ocrasioitaUy. 'flie melaphoridkl aijplication is ob* 
vious : do ttot persist in the $ame line of argume/it, or aUerca- 

1069. ** Quum multi alii ctiani ndiiu.s (opportiinitatpA) cuUide 
ckcogitatorum brgumentoruni, nrgutiaruni, pate^ut, quum variis et 

lidis ratiunibus a^'gredi se possint." Dind. 

lb. <(r/3oXi3i. Vi. klaiisen's Aptnu p. 142. ad voc. TrpotrjSoXf). 

1 07 1. riFaBfpfij', prop, to drnw the sHn from a wound which i? 
in process of hcalinij; : bcrc. to uncover and bring funcard. Sciiol. 
ajniKakvnrtr* na\ tit to fittrov npotftiptTt. Dubrce saytl : Qu. dni tt 
h*ptn>¥. This lallcr rcadinp is adopted by Thiersch. 

1073. KafromvhvvtCtTttv . StH<»i-. airottiv^vvivovTti {TovrifTTi TtiKpiiv- 
Ttt) Xryrrc. Thiersch cunipares Xen. Mem. IV. 2. 5. nfipaanf^m yap 
Of iifiM otrtMCU'dvrfLwi' fuofSdwuv. 

K So in £urip. Proin, fr. 3. iuotn kryAnroiy, Bmripou BufUtupJwovy | 6 nif 'pri' 




€1 5< TOVTO Kara(f>o^€iadoUy fxrf rty dfictOia Trpoajj 

Tois dfayfift^ourtp, wr ra 1075 

AeTTTa fiT] yi/tai/ai Xeyourouf, 

fiTjSfif 6ppcoSeiT€ Tovff' coy ouK €ff ouTto ravT €X*'' 

i(rTpaT€vii€ifot yap eiatj 

^L^kioif T €xoyv eKoaroT pxu^daifei ra Sc^Lti' 

1074. dfiaSia, Fur the pbiluauphic meaning of the word, cf. nos 
in Nub. 1,^6. 

1076. XrffTti. £urip. Med. 1077. tita XmroripoiP fiv^^v tfioXov, 
Fragm. Dan. XII. <pi\ovei yap rot rav fiiv oX^/oir ^poroi \ fTo<^>ovs Wdc- 
a0ai Touf Xdyoi/y, orav A«' nr I Xrm-ui/ nir* oiKOiU €v Xiyrj wivr^s oyr/p, | 
'yeXui', Kr. inc. XCVII. 2. XfTrrwi' tfi'yyaw fit/duf. (The words XcwTo 
and fToipvv arc obviously used to prepare the nudlcnre for the Eu- 
ripidean Xorrdn/Teir and ao<^iafttiTa which presently follow, when be 
criticises the dramas of his rival.) 

1077. oppoifidv, Eurip. El. 837. oppai^ Tiva doXov Bvpavov. Hec. 
756. Androm. fr. XIX. 3. Cf. nos in Eq. 124. 

1078. €(TTpaTrvp«vat yap tXtrt, for they have now Had some experience 
in these poetical subtleties anH niceties. (Schol. its tw*- *A$Tjpaicatr vp6* 
rtpnv oii)( ifio'iat yeyvp^vna^tvav iv roir »rotf;TucoIs ao^c/ioir.) How 
could it be otherwise ? the Euripidean ' Peleus' had followed or pre- 
cedtid hi^ ' Meleager/ lUe ' Cretan men' his ' Cretan women ;' and 
whnt Euripirlcs had left undone. Agalhon, and ft .swarm of poet- 
asters, had stept in to actoroplish. Dindorf, however, adopts Lcs- 
Bing's optnio[i, that the alUksion is to the slave». who for their ser- 
vices ni Arginusie had been rewarded with the freedom of the city, 
and with that freedom were suppo.^ed hIho to have gained so much 
knowledge, as to qualify them to be fit judges on poetical contests. 
Thiersch, justly I think, controverts this opinion, but is he per- 
fectly ci>rrecl in his own ? The poet, says he, plays upon the Athe- 
nians, who in estimating the merits of their poets considered them- 
selves as uncommonly subtli.*, whereas they often judged wrongly. 
as we are informed by this very play. The poet therefore, conti- 
nues the learned writer, implies ; " num sunt in his rebus veteratorts. 
nos : denn das siad gedietUe Leute vel aUkluge^ quo in malam partem 
uti Holcmus." 

1079. fitfiX'tov T t)^u>v €KatrTott It T.t. Surely anUquttywas doomed 
to be our intcllectuul .superior in small mutters as well as in great ! 
Ten or fifteen thousand ibentrical spectators, each with a philoso* 
phicttl treatise in his hand, and observing whether what he heard 
from the stage corresponded with what he read in bis Archelaus or 
his Atmxagoras, is a gigantic picture of the ridiculous, compared 
witli which modern philosophical fooleries make but a very insig- 
nificant figure. Surely thai aood and virtuous monarch, who 



ol ^uaet^ T aXXto9 KparuiTtu^ 
pvv Si Kcu TrapTjKOtnjirrcu, 



wished that all kings were philosophers, or all philosophers Icings. 
spoke mure from the dictates of an exctrlleol heart, than from BDjr 
lar;ge or practical rievr of mankind. The Frogs of Aristophanes 
present usvnth a king-philo50pher upon a large scale, and invested 
with full power to carry ami all his principles ; and what was the 
result ; — No : when heaven wishes to pla^^e a nation leamrdiy^ or 
ruin it scienti/tcally, — and to have all this done coolly and unfliuch- 
ingly, without pity and without remorse, — its surest course is to 
call a sage from his closet, and invest him with political power. 
Such a person will generally add insult to oppression ; for the 
deeper the misery, the louder will be his penny-trumpet proclama- 
tions, " A new era ! a Satumiao advent ! See. my friends, what it 
is to be in the hands of ^ philosophers and ' economists !" 

lb. /uxv^rci TO d«^ta. '* The Clouds" found us at the very begin- 
nings ofpHiLOsopur among the common people of Athens : how 
much they had advanced during the intervening years and ilie ex- 
hibition of the Frogs, is evident from the frequent allusion here 
made to philofiophical books (3i33^ia), and pbihisophical maxims. 
The mischief done is of course described lightly and pleasantly, 
after the fashion of the Old Comedy ; but the verse before us is 
susceptible of a serious application, which we leave the reuder to 
make. The bringing home of that book to every man's door is the 
only true philosophy, and it may be added the only true policy of 
statesmanship ! 

1080. Thiersch and the Scholiast consider this as said irooi- 
cally : Bergler more properly, I think, considers it as said ad cap- 
iandum benrvoientiam : of its truth there can be no doubt. Cf. He- 
rodoi. 1.60. Dem. epist. HI. 1047, 11 sq. 

loSi. irapajcovdr, to sharpen. Passow quotes Xenophon, but 
without a reference : 6 Xoy;i^y djcofwv, ixt'iMot xal rijv ^x'f^ ^' wapa- 

HAnd are thoughts of N«wtan and the AntiminM uppemiAst in our mindi. 
when we tbiii uie this veneralile tenn ? Di prohibete neftu t It i» of Cowper*s 
ttge that we ore thiuking, the miKernMr roiminli, who when '* n present IVity** 
b working his great purpoten upon the sCagr of life, ttrpi forth 

and tdls 
Of homc^aul and discordant •pringa 
And principle* ; of cauiea, how thry work 
By neoemrr laws Uwir aure effecu : 
Of artion and re-oction. The Taak, B. 11. 

The more ridicule i» poured upon inch pretended lagea, the more tMTire will 
surdy be done to real science and reltgion. 

I A ni^lfl name, doiihtlmt, when earned by tnch a ridi and patient acaimuta- 
lion of facts ai the labours of Boeckh prvent | but ii it upon lolid foundatioas 
like his that the claim ta alwayi made to an apprilation, which migkt u* place Its 
owner nmoiig the fint benefeccon at mankind ? 

a 3 



ftT/fifi/ oil* buarfrov, ctAXa 

1083. yravT sTTf^tTov, Isoc. 151, b. ravT rirc|coin-or, (where Belt- 
UtiT, however, rends ratm dit^toyrof.) Pinto Lysis. 215, e. rircfi/fi ry 
\6yio^ persequebatur argumrnlum. (Cf. Gurg. 482, d. I Rep. 349. *.) 

lb. $taray y nvvfx', as far as the spectators are conremed. 

lb. As the f'horiis on n subseqnenl occftsuin confessedly indul^ 
in a dactylic slmin for the purpose of doing honour to -li^scbylus in 
the metre in which ha delighted (infr. 1495.). so vre are probably 
indebted fur the flbove larj^e swing in 'I'rochnics to their 5en§e of 
another metrical predilection of their favifurite bard. To give 
pror>f of tills from all the poei'a extant plays, wonld be to erowd 
our pages with numerical references: what do we find merely in 
the At^amemnon } In the lyrical portions of that drama there 
occur of //u;f Trochees, of more or less dimensions, vv. 148-9. 150- 
2-g. 160-1-4. 406-7-8. 436. 639 641. 671-2. 704. 907-8-<;-ii- 
12-17. 935"^-7-^-9- 94^*3* '026. 1373. Trochee with anacrusis, 
1 040. Trochee with bofe, 1 47. Trochee ivith amiCTntsix and base, 165, 
176- 342-3- iSO-i- 375- 650- 685. 1,^83. 1454. Trochee with one or 
more Cretics, 163. 203. 1^373. 383. 403. 640. '1066. 1375: fPtth 
one or more Dactyls, or tn Adonic form, "• 135. 665-6-7-8-9. 670. 
686 : vp'ith logatrdic Dactyl^ preceded b\j Iambic and base, by baseu^tth- 
out Iambic, by an anacrusis, or with other forms intercalated, 
i^i-^' 179- 180-4. 304-5. 223. 353. 411-11-13-14.641. 687, 934. 
1370-a. 1403-4-7-13-15. 1449: with G iy conic, <)tf>: with Dochntiac, 
1048. 1063: with single Iambus^ 44'* 6S4. 1028: with double 
and quadrvple Iambus, 130-6. 173-4-5-7- 197-8. 200-1. 216- 
t7-iS-iQ. 220-2. 377-8-9. 404-5- 434-5"9- 440-a-3-'^- 683. 707. 
1371. 144S. 1450-1-2: urith double Iambus and double Cretic, %^Z. 
(See K1au!^en*i{ edit, throughout.) (We cannot this sub- 
jcct wilhttut starting another of some consideration, and which 
mure particularly concern* llie present drama. Plays were acted 
al AtiicTi.s only during the Diunysiuc festivals, and except on 
rare occasions, ihcy did not undergo a .second exhibition, ^tschy- 
lus Jiad now been dead half «. century : how then are we to 
ncrnunl for tliat perfect af»fjuaiiitrtnrc. not merely with the general 
substance of bi> dramas, but with such minute peculiarities of dic- 
tion, imagery, and metre, as the '* Rana" evidently supposes the 
andieuce— of «hom chiefly composed we nee<i not .say — to possess? 
Books, in our sense of the xvord, there were none; manuflcripts 

1* in tliiK ven»i* llii* tmchiiu- jNirtii-n itt pitfccdfil )>v fiii lamliiis niii) lui&e, w hvU 
as by n t'rctit-- (KAtit^oui Au>^-/^otfi t^ koH ruv^ras 6v\iiiftovs.) 

1 Tlie precedinK (Iretic is ruAolvM in the follimitig fumi : rJ/io*' ^o^iof, aU tii 

" Pi-ofeKNira Pi)rM>n and ScholelieU] (sw the liitter in loco) have \trvt\ inadveit- 
«nUy ted t» rnnitidcr this veme (S«(t^ /iff, Kardfutfi^a M ^jff^oTa arpoMu^) u 
diictylic A refereiicp to an .Aristophaitic imitntion of .^Aohyk'an metre in a pre- 
ceding ctionis («up. V. b+fi.) nill siilTice to indicate its renl character. 


OTTtoy TO wp&rov Trjt rp^rycf&la^ ^^poi 1085 

TTpumoTov carrov fiaxravtui tov Sf^ov. 

aa^atf)!^ yap ^v (p T^ if>pdcr€t tw Trpayyuirtov, 

AI. KCU TTolop avrov ^ao'apuiy : EY. TToAXouy *rrauv, 

wpanrov &' ^lot rov (^ *Op€(TTfia? Xeye. 

were necessarily dear: whence then again thw knowledge? A 
notice preserved by one of the !»chuliaHt9, niid referred In vtip. (8;ia,) 
will gn a little, and l>ut a little wny. to solve the di^ciilty, l*hcro 
must have been iutme private a^ well as public niL-nim of accew to 
hiA wriliriE;^ i but what these were, il is diH'umlt tu nny. In our 
poet's " Piutua" we meet \nlh a person o( the niirne uf I'hiU'pikiui, 
who appears to have gained a livelib»o<l as a Contfur of iHy/hirttl 
tales : waH there any pen^nn. wbn in like manner gained a •ub»iiit- 
cnce by reciting whole dramas ? Had the nyNtein of tluhhiutj, or 
effecting by ntiinbers wbiit could not be done by individuali, bvj^un 
CO be understood, and MSS. thus sent round, like bookii in our prr>- 
vincial societies ? Of the avidity of the Atheniuniffimucb knowledge, 
a ctirious instance occurs in our poet's Wniipit. wJicrc, upon (hr ac- 
quittal of an actor, the dirasLs exact for their fee a rcciutiun from 
some of the finest passai;es of the .^!«cbylean Niob^. Attain, 
where tberewere no newspapers, collecting intclUgcncefroM*UpM«« 
of the world, and where materials for converMtaon m 
often failed, recitatioDi (mt^re particularly from lli« 4rmmHk 
often took place after meals (cf. Nub. 1363 >. ao4 iW 
being naturally strung, where much pnu-tift«(J, these ii/f»m, •« l lw y 
were termed, would obviously keep much of the pO€t§ fufmm* 
ances fresh in recollection. WbcUie-r all tbaa ftt MdW«M to fA90 
the difficulty stated, is Irft to the robdrr • JadgMCBC) 

1084. fir* aCrois rovr wpcX6ymft, £ariy 
up trilb great gntndeor. like a mmi eOMCftoas llMt II* k 
strung ground, little did be kmam^ tkm • 
to he dealt him, which risoidd WM 9mkf mtk* 
th«t favourite portion of lib iahamn, i M flu ei to ■■ ftikm U f, Ifvd 
prevent the prologoc hactf frva «*» ^l^i^ itmai^ ■■ iM^lpvl ^ari 
of the drama ! Hat Iti m mm. M<iri>iii» (AIW iW wt04 wftitU^ 
ym», £unpidc». wiko llM UtkOTio 11 II III k\ mt Af Uf M» mti, 
addfcam Bacdksa.) 

10S6. mCwmm rmm Mt^m&. mM Omg pmU i«id t ^ %n t m f t%tn 4f }. 
Ba. " aOrmi mA^uH%UkfW Oft fotcat. ■! 
Iitm ttmiim in p i u l wy » defia^wn.' T«. 

10S9. 'OfirrsM Ui 
onK tbai Triiogf . to wiadi 
«alicd in the Burirftg *«flEB. I«t aW db« 




AI. aye Sf^ atdrrra Tray avr^p, Aey\ AJo^iiAe, 
AI, " 'E/)/x^ \d6viey irarpc^ iir&Trrevaiv Kparr), 

1090 I 

which accompanied it, the whole together forming what was call 
a Tetrnlogiie. As a knowledge of this Trilog)' is absolutely neces- 
sary to a reader of the " Froms," a brief analysis of its coulents will 
be found in ihe A]>[>endix (O). As nothing which tends lo make 
i the ^^schylean uTitings more intelligible to yuung students, can be 
I considered foreign to the illustraiiun of the same play, we shall 
also in the Aiipcrulix (P.) call attention to ibe poet's four re- 
maining plays, and explain under what forms learned men have 
brought these aUo into the Trilogistic system. In regard to the 
poet's " PromelbeuR Vinclus ' it is of paramount importance lo 
ascertain, whether in that drama we are to see a piece of almost 
unparalleled blasphemy, or whether by investing it in a Trilogislic 
form we shall not feel justified in considering its author as a person 
emjjowered, — we had almost used u stronger word,— lo communi- 
cate in a partial degree to the heathen world, what in a fuller way 
and in his revealed word, the Deity condescended lo promulgate in 
his own immediate person. (Cf. Appendix F. and P.) At present our 
easier task lies with a mere gramrnatic form. The term 'Op«oT<ta, 
or adventures of Orestes, is obviously framed in imitation of the 
word 'oJuro-o'a, or adventures of Ulysses. Upon a similar prin- 
ciple is formed the word ^ AvKovftytia. (Arist. Thes. 135-) Other 
Trilogies will be spoken of in different furms, according to circum- 

io9r. If the reader has met with any intelligible explanation of 
the next twenty-four verses in any translator or commentator of 
Aristophanes^ he has been more fortunate than the present editor. 
That all their difficulties will be here cleared up, is much beyond his 
power to promise : he can only explain bow he contrives to elicit 
a laugh out of Ihem for himself, and as fortunately nothing 
more than a laugh is required, it will be no great consequence 
whether the reader laughs with him or otherwise. Before coming to 
details, it may be as well to observe generally, that to catch their 
humour it is necessary to have a quick apprehension of those epi- 
theif). by which the ancients were accustomed to characterise their 
deities according to time, place, and circumstance, (some instances 
of which have been already given), with the additional remem- 
brance that in the present instance a practical sophist^ vi/. Euri- 
pides, endeavours to give them, as well as other words, a sense 
which their original author never meant them to bear. It is 
almost needles,s to add, that the three verses themselves are the 
opening lines of the Choepboroj of i^^Ischylus. 

n Aj a future o|i[M)rtuiiity may tiniir («r tliM'ii»iiig itiin Trilog)- more Urg«l)rr 
wp content oiinelves here with olwerring, that in Welckcr'uwnrk oa Um whject, 
it includes the ^tovvaou rpoipol, the 'Hflwi'ol, watd the Aim^vpyos, 


Krafnip y^pov /loc <rvf^myipf r 

A^ S31. BL sit. 

lb. 'Ep,.^ x^rfPic 
Hrt-mCT C 

Though covtzvol over iW 
Pluto and 
power of 
tvhether for tbe potvoae vC 

Dcics, or of 
xecuiiTC-Fury, if we maj 
exclusively with the H\ 
Dariuj^ ia to be brvw^t wf 
a.*^i»istaDce od Uie fallm 
voked for ike yiyr ? 
Hmrmu. (P«ne 635.) F«r 
X^ifrtof, see .Cseh. C 
Eurip. Alcejt- 759. Sec 
-5. and luore pattkataily c jo 
3 10. 

lb. m r y ya ij ^a n . tke 
j^nts. Wlml UwM 
sently see, not 
learned writer, " we 
all the gods» Uke 
Minerva, the ae ici ky of Jawa^ 
^'£9ch. Tbeo&og. 6."* For 
infr. I 347. 

lb. nmrrrMtr. Of Uieve IKF WCfa 
so close an flMpeetiim aa H umtA , 
in his father's prcaeDcc^ ready to 
bestA, whetiwr of Iotc and 
therefore, /a mtped, to 
and mmreMricied vine, rhick ma ^tfi *■* 
ezhibitUnu of the Etaulniam rka mewr 
709. Having given what appean te 
three uurds, 1 add thoae, wb»ck atf _ 
to them : rvovrrvfO', imtpecUre^ im ia r^ i cXmh. Bft«at#« (<3o«. Choeph. 
ct Agameni.» where some Tcrbal iUartfatioaa are pv«», b« no ot' 
plaiiatiun of the text.) rvr^Mpa Kfoni, potnteUm mpatreim^ t£H ddtfoB. 
ScHOLEr. irorp^ k. /v. ^ rwvmrtim agauUt fKiiftlmtfm mptare meerpimm 
esrrcet. Wbll. Memrium imfermm on>, at patermk/majftag mamrri^ 


Tlw Ana tamfho 

o In dittcnaong the OreMeko aod (Ediptdeko Tnlopa (the tw#«if mait ta»- 
poitaooein i&cfayhu bftcr the Pjiim, ih<aii ), wa ofc-riqiMiy waat d—r 4hiamlaaa 
between the term* dl^ *Kfv^, and A^ ^ iy 'bvfc. 
^Boenlly u the mrw, whelbvr cf Tlijaaw or Poo^ ' 
■uch mueriek into the royal *r— O'tt of *n«b«a and Aagm, dw MBond aa dw 
power, which putt the oune hi irnwitkiit Wilag alw aaaadBS ^ aaaM «f 
iximfp; the third, or ^w^Vv 'C^«*^> l«ing lattw dw Awtft, or aanadtaor, 
dke operoHce Fury. 

» 4 


ijKO) yap is yrjv TqvSt /cat Karip^oficuJ' 


xajfam mc reddat. Kl. (wbo in a subsequent note refers lo Mflller 
for bis authuritv. &ud as the fin«l writer uhi> bad tbrown light 
upuii tbe pas!»age.) 

1092, ff«*ri;p. When a former note referred to Klftuseo as 
not giving h full view of tbe power* and miributes of Jupiter, we 
bad an eye merely to bis jVAtih. Theologumena. He is too fine a 
Hcbular, hh bis notes to the Choepborce shew, not to be aware, that 
among tbe noblest attributes of Zeus, two were iboRe, which made 
him the aily of all surh as were enj^aged in ditbcult or praiseworthy 
enterprise, nnd the saviour of such as invoked him worthily in the 
hour of distress. \\'ere there any lircumstances connected with 
the immediate dislrest? or contemplated enterprise of Orestes, which 
broutjht his case ralherwilbin the jurisdiction of the ffrrmrsChtho- 
Bius, than the Jupiter Soter, or made him consider the former as 
temporary substitute for the latter? Let us look to the drama uf 
the Cboephoroe generally, as our jjuide through these difficulties. 
Orestes, when be utters the words in the text, has recently arriTcd 
in Argos ; and be arrives there unfriended, except by the faithful 
Pylades, — in compurative poverty and destitution. (Ch. 295.) All 
this be bitterly feels^ but there is something which be feels still more 
bitterly. And what is thai r It is tbe night.vistons which haunt 
bis couch, and the sit-in look of bis father, culling fur revenge, and 
menacing him with the most frightful vengeance, if that call is not 
obeyed. (27;^, sq. Kl. ed.) And who is to be bis saviour from this 
dreadful visitation ? Unquestionably the Jupiter Sotrr mLS not in- 
c!ompetentP to it, but the delegated authority lay with the Hermes 
Chlhonius. The manes of the murdered Agamemnon were in 

Aw keeping — tbe very prayers of his children could reach those 
mttnes only through the instrtmicntality of Hermes (Cboepb. 1 18~^^| 
120.), and thai in the execution of their intended revenge tbe prc^^H 
sence of those manes m the upper wurld was in some way ne- 
cessary, is dcducibic from a variety of speeches put into the 
*imoutbs of thuse children. Who can wonder, if under such cii 

V 8ee KlauMn's Cooimeiit. in Chopph. p. 133. 

q See generally Chiieph. 113 — 116. 133. 141. (cf. Pers. 2J7.).^09* .t26. 45: 
473. 476.((;f.8*»ph. Kl. 457.) 48a. 490. 533. 773.(Kl.t^) And tliiaeanw-Htiiesiof 
AnppIicRtiun to the Hurmm Chthontus <ImihUef» nrrate tn the prewnt itiittance fmm 
A dnimiHL'uiee nf anrinnc juippmtiiion rli^iiriy tilhidt^l Ut in tlie ( hiiephonp, but to 
ft'hich I tind uo tiilutiioii 111 the explanatiiMis of Illirmtield, WclL-mcr, or Schola 
field. By a rnmimriwm nf Chiicph. (433-6.] and Sopbm'itn Kttvcr. (443, »t| 
ne flermanu's uoce), it appears, that to weaken the* rptrilmiin^ power of 
tntirdered person, it hhm u»iiu) fur ttm assa»«in to wipcbis nwurd oti th« hair nf hi 
victitn, xiwn to cut nfl* the exuvruttieo. as tho handtt nad I'l'd, nnd vuspeiiil ilirm 
the niiirdprwi |iei-»«m\ shnnMer (/lotrx'^'C'**')- ti*^h lh«c cereni<Hiit9, it b 
hiul be«i portonn<Hi by Ciytrt-niiiestro, — the b«)dy hang aAe^ward^ tmhrd io 
Ktale, — in thcditulile hope ufav-oiding^ the expiation of herownipiiit, and 
fail father 'h death (tiApov) a »c)urM> of intoleralde anguish to Orestes lhro»Kh diit 
rMt of bis life ; hence Uie declaratiun uf Klwjtni lo her brvtlier, — 


BATPAXO!. 249 

AI. TovTaiv ex^i^ ^eycip ri; EY. irMw ^ StoS^xa, 

cumstances Orestes converts the Hermes Erivniuy, whc» did actually 
exist in Grecian mythology, (and of whom more presently,) in(o a 
Hermet Soteriuf, who existed more in his own imagination ? Willi 
regard to Jupiter '* Third and Saviour" himself, we add a few word*. 
Id fiirmcr notes we had to refer to him rather in his convivial cha- 
racter, and as a convivial adjuration ; but he confronts us, and not 
unfrequcntly, thnmghout the Orestean Trilojfy, in his serious form. 
Choeph. 238. KfMTos Tt Kiu Aiinj fft'v T^ rpira \ ■narrw i^tyivrta Tijwi 
avyycroirrf fioi. ic6o. vvy S' av rptrov Jfkdt iro^rv crur^p, | ^ ' ftuftop 
tarta • Eumen. 728. IlaXAnSoy rai Ao^iov | fcart, cat tov iratrra Kpaiver* 

TOi Tplrov I trtarrfpov, (spoken by Ore-stes on h*w ncqnitlal before the 
court of Areopagus.) Suppl. 26. ml Ztvt rrMrijp rpirot, (ivberc »ee 
Scholeiield.) Cf. infr. 1403. Sec also Klaaj^ens Theol. 76. 83. 
163 : his Choeph. p. 154. Welcker s -€sch. Tril. p. 101. and abote 
all Mrdler's chapter on the Jupiter Soter, Kumen. p. 186. 

lb. trvftfiax°^- Much of what has been fuiid in the preceding 
note will apply to the present word, but there ap[>cars to be a 
latent meanini; here, suitable to the circumstances of Oreste*, aad 
whirh will perhaps explain why the terms truTtjp and trCtiftajfot 60 
not occur in the order in which wc should have exptrcted to fimi 
them. The first meaning addres!iet itself Vj the more Qrgttit 
necessity of Orestes, the second to future event*. Oreitet. a* we 
have seen, had returned to bis native country in poverty aod de- 
stitution : but this was not all. He returned to tee a thr»ae, 
which belonged of right to himself, occupied by anothrr, and the 
* treasurer, which should have surrouoded that throne with hovpi- 
tality and splendour, employeil as the means of more effectually ea- 
cluding him from it. viz. by the equipment and payment of a •«- 
merous body-guard. That the ad^ectxons of the Argivc people re- 
mained steady to the house of Agamemo'in, may be inferred from 
the language of the faithful Chorus ; but where were active friend* 
and partizans ? We hear of none. The stem tyranny of JC^iathaa 
had apparently cru5bed them ' a!l. What then ri.— latd for 

iwpmffvt V ir*f 9m, i^ Mvm, 
lU^m KTwu ismftam 

Cbovph. 419^14. (iU- Mf^hamwmmt\ 

The pmven of cIm* childreu, homvrwr, mr% htmfdi tm4 «hfli 
plungcA ilia mmetwtig «wQr4 'v\%n hi* moilicr'* U«M. k la vfCh iIm 
dw,v«T^7<Vd^rM«ffaMC«<^ii^^- CT. Cfc. i|(. airf «!«. 

* The Chonui •tvnif die •««» t4 fhnMybil* vhMi Onmm te 
m«di»cely after the murder of bi« motlMT, Mfin M ■ ■ ■■> ia A^ 
d«Miht wht^i«r they w ta mv in him tW tavicmrc/ tW Attiiaa 
■otirctf' of 9^till further cmUniiiii-4 to it. 

* Tb«> gtT«c wcskh and trai«ur<s of the Athdtm faflsOy mn • 
yni aliiukm in die Oretfeaa Trdigy. CT. A^ 1*94. to»a Vk, jm, i 

* Even ai hw funenl rita% noc mtm of dbe /^^rm rfdaaw ka4 taai 

OiA^ttt *m «•• 

250 API2TOa>ANOr2 

AI. oAA* ovSi iravra ravrd y ear oAA' i; rpla, 1095 

Orestes, who evidently hns but a Acant attendance round bimF 
Deception, art, and subtlety ; these he is obliged to practise. 
even to the di.s^ise of person. " speech, and accent, in order 
to gain admiHsion into a mansion narrowly watched iind strongly 
armed ; but where once admitted, he is resulved to peril bis 
own life to avenge his father's death. The conclusion lo which wa 
come will easily be seen. If Orestes needed a Ifrrmen Chthonm 
tL> accomplish his purpose in one point, he as certainly required a 
Hrnnes DoUtts (cf. infr. trio.) to render it feasible in another. 
That this idea was latent in his mind, when using the epithet 
Hymmachus, will be pretty evident to any one who attentively con- 
siders the choral allusions in the following passages : (Ch. 714, sq. 
762, sq. KK ed.) liut this view of the subject does not end even 
here. Whoever considers the context attentively, will see that the 
deed contemplated by Orestes has to be executed towards night- 
fall (Ch. 649. 6y8.), that time, when the power of the Hrrmes Ajr- 
chitts (Ch. 7 16.) is particularly predominant, and therefore an addi- 
tionnl reason why the allUmce (»f Hernies was to be secured. Wc 
have only to add that the actual Jupiter SymmachuSj of wbom 
Hermes is here the temporary representative, occurs for mention in 
the Choeph. v. 1 7, *0 Zcv, d6s /u riaafrOai tt6po» | warphe, ytvov di fvp- 
/ia;(oc GiKuv iftoi. 

lb. aiTovfi€vt^. Though this word requires no explanation in it- 
self, yet in regard to the genend economy of the Choephoroo, a 
moment employed oti it will not be mispent. From what and how 
great distresses and perils Orestes had to be saved and delivered, 
wc have already seen : and was the simple prayer, here put up, suffi- 
cient for the expression of such feelings aa he must have been labour- 
ing under? ^schylus certainly thought otherwise. Scarcely has 
the recognition between brother and sister been completed, when he 
places the latter on one side of the paternal tomb, and the former 
on the "other, and a series of invocations to the departed monarch 
commences with both, which for pathos and sublimity have surely 
not been surpassed. Nor do the Chorus (captive Trojan women) 
remain idle. Supplications to the tomb do not of right belong to 
them, that being the more exclusive duty uf the children of tlie de- 
ceased, but their energetic calls to vengeance — their wild Asiatic 
screams and gestures, must have added largely to the general effect, 
in calling up those feelings of piiy and terror, the keys to which 
lay so much in j^schylus's keeping. Having discussed — and wc 
hope not loo largely — the sense in which j*EschyIus meant to use 
these words, it now remains to see the tortuous application, which 

u Cb. 555-6, where KlauBen oburi'n, thiit the wunl ^vij impU«t 
2 See Uu) Vww in Clarke's Travels, P. III. sect. a. |d. i. 


EY, €X" ^ itcaarov (ucoaiy y a^ioprias, 
A I. Aion^vA*, Trapau^if aoi a-tanroM' u Si §xry, 

AI. iyo) aiayTTto rwi* ; AI, eoy m0ri y i^iol. 

EY. evdvs yap ripaprnqKOf ovpayuuf y oaw, i n 

AI. opa^ cm Xrjpetf, AI. ciAA' aAiyor ye fwt fuKu. 

his sophistic rival gives them. (Ch. 47 3.ssrfff», 
«oir BaviaWt \ alraviiivtf /am doc cporof rim <r«» dofMir. Soph. ElccCr. 
453' (UToi^ d< ^iMMnrtTvoMra. 7<7^" f^f**^ | ^P*' g f »y^ wriv (AgUtt. 
SC.) «4P c'x^pow /xoXfir.) 

10Q3. ifcM . . KOi Koripxoftei.. In wb&t sense these words difler 
from each other, will be explained inh. 1 130. 

1095. aXX* Q Tpla^ SC. hnj vel Ia/i3<>a. 

1097. Bacchus addresses vEschylus, who was shewing strong 
marks of indi^iation, and an evident desire to interrupt Euri- 

1098. Dindorf translates; " l>rside* those three Iambics you will 
become obnorious to more :' i. e. " more of your Iambics %viU furnish 
matter for cenaore." Thiersch, dissatisfied with this explanation, 
thinks that the verb n-poacx^iXa* is here used in the sense of suffer- 
ing a mulct or penalty. He therefore translates, na minus; cvm 
tribus Ms vrrsibus rideberis is, cvi imponitur mutcta. Perhaps an 
easier way of gelling rid of the difficulty would be to expunge the 
stop at the verb (ftave'i, ( J^schylus being supposed to break in upon 
the speaker in hi:i impatience,) and thus leave the accusative to 
irpo<ro<^[kuv, whetbcr rifir^fta or -y<A(i>ra, uncertain. 

lb. iofi^'ioy^ properly, the metre in ^hich such men as Archilo- 
chuB and Hipponax sutiriKed people; (Aristut. deArte Poet. IV. i. 
32. cd. Cirsefenh. tapfitlov, on t» rovrt^ r^ h*'^PV ^^H^^^C^' aXXqXovt') 
here the Iambics, in which tragic or comic dialogue was writ- 

1099. tTuanat, conjunctive of indignation. Lysist. 530. 0*0^ y, 
i3 jrarci/Kirc. aivrru *>« ; Cf. Malthie, Gr. iJiT* §, 5 16. 4. 

J 100. oifpdviov y o<rov, vid. Slip, 745. From the subsequent lan- 
guage of j'Eschylus to Bacchus, it should seem that Euripides had 
uttered these words with great vehemence. Translate : to an im- 
mensurahh extent. 

1 101. 6f)as ori XrjpfU. (to Bacchus) " You see the foolish part 
you play in recommending silence to nie : bis impertinence only 
increases by my forbearance." *' Well." replies the god, shrugging 
his shoulders, " take your own course — keep silence, or break it — 
I shall not interfere with you — it is a mailer of indifference to me." 
.iCachylus then turns to his rival, and bids him declare what is 
faulty in the verses just before enunciated. 



AI. TTWf <prf9 m' 0LfjuipT€LV ; EY. avdtf €^ ap) 

AI. " 't^pfjti} x^owe, TTttT/xp* in^yirrtvcoy Kpirq.** 
EY. ovKovp *Op€(m)9 rovr iwi ro5 rvfi^ A€y€i 
T^ roO narpos r^6pea>T<s ; AI. oi;* aAAoj? Aeyw. r 

EY. TTOTfp OVP TOV *E/)/i7l/, d>ff O TTaTTJp aTTCOAtTO 

5oAcM9 Xa$paioi9y ravr hrairrev^LV €(f>7] ; 
AI. ou 3^t' tKettfoif, aAAa roi' *E/)rouV«oi/ 

1 104. TVfi^ta. The (;inpbasU which Euripides lays upon tbfl 
\vord» shews that si»mc sophistic trick will be concocted uui of il 
before long. (Cf. infr. 1114.) 

1 1 06. 'J'bc general teTidency of this and the two followii 
versea is tu insinuate, itial the Hermes invoked at the tomb of A 
memuon, must have been the Jlennetf Voiius, not the Hermes Ckt 
niu$ ; " how else." implies I'^uripide-s, " could a 7Han have perish 
by aicom<7M> hnnd ; she who^a fpcnr," lie might have added, *' y 
yourself, /Eftehylus, have spoken of in no very roraplimenia 
y terms? It must have been by trick and artifice, ib&l snch a de 
could hnve been uecomplished, and consequently the Hermes Dol\ 
must have been at the bottom of il." The blow at the ^orf-son 
we shall presently see, 13 preparatory unly lo a blow at the go 
father: nnd who delighted more in u sbrcasm at both than Kuri>^ 

1 107. « yvvaiKtlas X'/H»r. Suph. Eleclr. I 24. tAf iraXo« eV doXr^ 
oBfiiTara \ fuirpiis akoyr' asrdraic 'Ay a fiifivova. lb. 279. nariffa r^j 
ufUitf €K d^Xov KflTcVravf. Eurip, Bacch. 856. fLijTpos cV X'P^^^ irarfc 
trt^aytif, Crct. lem. fr. 3. yo/ictrc vvp yafA*iTf, Kara $vfiUKtTf | ^ 4*"^ 
fxaKottrtv fK yvvaiKos ^ t6kots. 1 

t 108. drfAoij Xa6puiois. So ClylsenmcHtra, speaking of her»eH'| 
ju»C as she is about to be murdered by her &00, Cb. 875. Mk 

7 ywanchs o-lxM^ ''^'*'<* 

iriStufhi iyay A 9ij\vr SpoT iinvifiaraL 
rax^opos. AAA& rax^f^J>poy 
yvimutay^purof JfAAirrai «rX^ai. 

Agnni. 443. (Kl. ed.) cf. C'hovph. 620. 

For the ^enerxl meaning nf the jHUSHfC*^ nee Rlniijien ; hnt the legml Uii 
anliquity, and the mnUifariota nietaphoncal temu of .TlMctiyliift, l<«d me 
pvct a nietHpliurir-Hl lueutiiii^ in the word Spos, which ht*di)e»tHi