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OrnciAL Birdseyc View or the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, U.S.A., 1893. 

Part One. 

From Peristyle to Plaisance 

The White City Picturesque 


Together with a Brief Illustrated History of the 

World's Columbian Exposition 

CHICAGO, 1893. 

CHICAGO, IL 60616 

of human achievement 
iccustomed to wondrous 
ena have lost impressive- 
possibilities, and a 
Wffifffi&s wide - s P read credulity has taken the place of scoffing in- 
^ "edulity. In fact, the wonderful, the marvelous, the 
agnificent have become familiar — even commonplace; 
m \ and all mankind has buckled on an impenetrable shield against 
surprise, and declared itself incapable of being profoundly 
impressed. Millions of people, when they passed through the gates of the 
World's Fair, were in this state or condition of mind — but every visitor who 
came to scoff turned away enraptured. 

It is beyond the power of pen or brush to tell or paint the grandeur and 
of the marvelous city of palaces, or give 
of the vast treasures which they con- 
tained. The great scheme of 
the Fair simply defies description. 
The writers of the world have 
been trying to tell its story 
in words. It is needless to 
*£g» say that they have failed 
to meet the requirements. 

As we traversed the great inland sea and the Exposition grounds and 
buildings, rising apparently from the dark waters of the lake, their white 
walls and gilded domes glittering in the sunshine across the sparkling waves, 
the parti-colored pennants floating from their staffs, the music of the horns 
chastened by distance, the scene reminded one of the fabled Islands of St. 
Brandin, and one waited breathlessly for the spectral boats in Irving's 
quaint fancy of the Adelantado of the Seven Isles to shoot forth from the 
glorious gateway of the Peristyle. 

Grouped about this great gateway with its portals turned toward the 
rising sun, there rose snowy palace after palace, and at their feet the slow 
current, like a turquoise thread, emptied itself into the lagoon, and on its 
shining surface, sharply cut in shadow, there passed and repassed the dark, 
quaint outlines of the gondolas, with the gondolier swaying to and fro to the 
rhythm of the music. 

The glory that belonged to Rome, the beauty of Athens, the pictures 
upon which St. Marks' has smiled in the City of the Doges, all 
that is best and most worthy in architecture from the days when W 
men ceased to dwell in tents, were gathered here, and with lijil 

oking East in the Grand Coup 


all and cunning and deep knowledge adapted to the uses for 

hich they were designed. Here the useful >and the beautiful go 

hand in hand. Here the* genius of' industry has been 

®ij& - \ clothed in the trappings of the 

IMSss^SS ,.... t „..<i., And as you tloated 

the -waters of the la- 
goon, at every turn the great 

structures grouped themselves 

differently in their relation to 

each other, and each tableau 
ore harmonious and 

beautiful than the dreamland 

fancy which passed with the 

passing of the ripples from the 


At the beginning of this 

Portfolio will be found the 
Art. official " Birdseye View" of 

the grounds and buildings, re- 
vised and corrected to date. Let the reader turn to and 
consult it, and at the same time accompany us on a brief 
tour of the grounds. The day is clear, cool and lovely. 
The waters of Lake Michigan are azure blue in the 
distance and the gentle' waves lazily lap the timbers 
of the pier as we alight from the " Whaleback " after 
a delightful and invigorating ride of seven miles. We 
approach the Peristyle, whose marble columns glisten 
in thesun. On the left is the Casino, on the right Music 
Hall. Our guide informs us that just across the lagoon 
south from the Casino we will find the Convent of ."La 

Ribida, the caravels (Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria) 
that further south lie the Forestry, Anthropolo; 
Dairy and Leather Exhibit Buildings, and the 
Krupp Pavilion. 

We pass through the massive pillars 

of the Peristyle and find ourselves facing 

the Grand Basin. Directly in front is a 

granite pedestal upon which stands the 

colossal gilded figure of the Republic, 

facing the Administration Building at the 

head of the Grand Basin. All the 

splendor of the scene bursts raptur- 

ly upon our view. We stand 

'd in the presence of this superb 

. On either side are grand 
terraces, with here and 
there a landing stage, the 
approaches guarded by Music, 

colossal statues of American 

animals — savageanddomestic. Flowers, plants, tla 
of all nations add color to the long, impressive lin 
of marble. To the left stands the magnificent pala 
raised in honor of Agriculture, the source of t 
wealth of Nations; to the right is the Manufactui 
and Liberal Arts Building, whose enormous prop< 
tions (the like of which the world has never see 
scarce give sufficient room for the exhibition 
industrial wealth. 

As we pass between these superb palaces.' 
dream of Rome, of Egypt, of Ancient Babylon a 


Assyria. We are thus occupied when we find ourselves on the Grand Plaza 
in front of the Administration Building. To the left (south), we see the towers 
and roof of Machinery Hall and hear the hum of machinery — magnificent 
examples of the world's products; to the right Electricity and the Mines 
Buildings. In the rear of the Administration Building we catch a glimpse of 
the Terminal Station. Pursuing our journey we pass rapidly to the south- 
ern extremity of the grounds and view the Colonnade. Further south we 
get a comprehensive view of the live stock exhibit. Then we turn, retrace 
our step'-, pass the Electrical Fountains and traverse the broad and smooth 
walks that parallel the North 
Canal, with the magnificent fa- 
cade of Liberal Arts on the right, 
and the imposing front of Elec- 
tricity on the left. We pass the 
bridges and smile friendly greet- 
ings at the electric launches 
dancing past and atthe gondoliers 
laboring at the oar. How striking 
the contrast between the present 
and the past — the labor of press- 
ing a button and the labor of 
plying an oar! 

In a short time (would it 
were a day) we turn to the left. 
On the right is a Wooded Island, 
along whose banks ducks and 
swans swim lazily; on the left 
are the buildings devoted to Elec- 
tricity and Mines. Having 
stopped now and then 

the splendors of the scene, we turn north and 
past Transportation; past Horticultural Hall, whose 
sun-ray gilded dome glistens and glows in the light; 
around the Illinois State Building, and see before 
the Art Gallery. In this latter building are 
pictures from the palaces of Emperors and 
Kings — pictures the people never see. Is this 
not royal homage to Democracy? But we do 
not now stop to view them; on we go forgetful 
of everything in this enchanted city. We see 
the Fisheries, the Government Building, the 
Life-Saving Station; and just over the bank on 
the broad waters of Lake Michigan we see the 

battle ship Illinois; and anchored in close proximity is the quaint Viking ship. 
Our guide tells us that just back of the Art Gallery (on the north) are 
located the State Buildings, and that to the east, along the lake front, each 
foreign nation has its home, but we have no time for these now. We turn, 
and looking to the west we see the Ferris Wheel slowly revolving, and we 
know that over there are housed the attractions that no visitor can escape- 
Midway Pla 


Night in the Grand Court. 


continue our journey to the south, passing around the corner of the Government Building, with the Wooded Island on tl 
and all too soon we again find ourselves upon the terrace of the Grand Basin. Fifty minutes— perhaps one hour! What 
n! What palaces! What statuary! Have we not been gliding through a city of enchantment? Where, save 
autiful pages of Arabian Nights, do we find a similar city — a city of palaces! It was indeed like a dream of fairy - 

land. One felt translated into another world. The splendor of the vision was in nowise dimmed by c 

study, but rose anew in majesty and beauty with every added impression. The thought that 

this marvel was wrought in America by Americans set the soul aflame. What a future for a ■■(QiMm 

people that could work this wonder! Athens as Pericles saw it reconstructed! The R> 

ht, Liberal Arts on 
i wonders we 

the Caesars restored! 
this was but the ■ 
Truly, these airy pala 
poise as if for flii 

lated then 

The Carthage of Dido renewed! What 
of an hour! It was born in a night, it 

ad wings. They seemed to 
The gracious spirit of Art trans- 
ilrn of the ideal to tell for a short 

time to this utilitarian people their wonder- 
ful story of beauty — to instruct a nation 
devoted to Mammon in 
the immortal possessions 
of the mind. M 
temples typify his 
concepts. We cher- 
ish the thought that 
stands on 
the threshold of a 

sheen on the wa 
her stately brow 
■II most readily a victim to her ch; 
i the confines of the park, vandals are at 
npressions of the Fair are fresh, that rr 
depicted, the pen will point out 

|g ".great awakening. 
y The inspiration 
which this Phan- 
tom City gave to 
ilture cannot be over- 
The fact that such a 
our midst is proof that 
the spirit is with us. For years we chained 
our inspiration to the driving wheels of commerce. 
All at once it was enlisted in the service of beauty. 
With what exultation it hailed this deliverance we all know. How 
ready the hands! What brains teemed with wondrous designs! What 
to our pride and glory! Athens had her Phidias to plan, but also Pericles 
to realize the artist's conception in structure. The Wonder City, robed in the creamiest 
of stuffs, with coronet of gold, was as capricious and changeful as any woman conscious 
of her charms. She was most brilliant in the sun bath of the early morning, when the 
s that laved her feet threw into relief each grace of form, and regilded the crown upon 
It was in this revelation of sensuous line and brilliance of complexion that the ardent 
. The spectacle is over, and the glory has departed. Everywhere 
<, and the rapid ruin of the world's greatest delight is now a certainty, 
of it should be gathered in permanent shape, and while we linger over 
facts which may lend an instructive phase to the plea 

of the hour 


Narrative of the Fair. 

" HO first suggested the Columbian celebration is a matter 
as much disputed as were the honors of Columbus himself 
to his great achievement. It was certainly first discussed 
nearly or quite ten years ago. The honor of suggesting 
the great idea of fittingly commemorating the 400th anniversary of Colum- 
bus' discovery of the Western continent is ascribed to a citizen of Mexico, 
Dr. I. W. Zaremba. who as early as November, 1882, proposed such a 
scheme to Peter Cooper, John C. Fremont and others. In June, 
1884, Dr. Zaremba invited the diplomatic representatives of foreign powers 
to a conference in regard to the celebration of the great event by a World's 
Fair in Mexico, and somewhat later he confided his plans to George R. Davis 
and P. V. Duester, then members 
of Congress. It has been claimed 
that to Dr. Harlan, a Chicago 
dentist, is due the honor of first 
suggesting Chicago as the proper 
place for a World's Fair. In the 
summer of 1885 the matter was 
brought before several prominent 
Chicagoans, and in the fall of 
that year attention was attracted 
to an article in a Chicago 
paper, in which Chicago 
was for the first time 
proposed as the site for 
the quarto-centennial 
World's Columbian Ex- 
position. November 24, 

1885, license was obtained from the 

Secretary of State of Illinois to organize 

"The Chicago Columbian Centenary 

World's Fair and Exposition Com- 
pany." At a meeting held at the 

Grand Pacific Hotel several leadinc 

Chicagomen discussed the question anc 

in 1886 the American Historical Society 

at its session in Washington, D. C, 

appointed a committee to wait upon the 

President to request that he call the 

attention of Congress to the question. "VtotaaU^J^T 

Early in r886 New England appointed a Board of Promotion to secure 
Congressional action with ex-Governor Claflin, of Massachusetts, as Presi- 
dent. July 31, ,886, Senator Hoar, of Massachusetts, introduced a resolu- 
tion providing for the appointment of a joint Congressional committee to 
consider the advisability of holding a World's Fair, his preference for its 
location being Washington, D. C. 

This was enough to stir up Chicago. In July, 1SS9, the City Council 
passed a resolution instructing the Mayor to appoint a Committee of Five 
Hundred to induce Congress to locate the proposed World's Fair in Chicago. 
Thomas P. Bryan prepared a resolution to this effect, which was adopted at 
an enthusiastic meeting held in the Council chamber, and the newspapers 

Along the Shore. 


began a crusade. Aug. 15, 1889, a license was issued 'by the Secretary of 
State of Illinois to Dewitt C. Cregier, Ferdinand W. Peck, George Schneider, 
Anthony F. Seeberger, William C. Seipp, John R. Walsh and E. Nelson 
Blake to open subscription books for a proposed corporation to be known as 
" The World's Exposition of 1S92, the object of which is the holding of an 
International Exhibition or World's Fair in the City of Chicago and State of 
Illinois, to commemorate, on 
its 400th anniversary, the 
discovery of America." 

December 11, 1889, 
Senator Cullum, of Illinois, 
introduced the first World's 
Fair bill in the United States 
Senate, and Jan. n, 1890, 
Dewitt C. Cregier, then 
Mayor of Chicago, Thomas 
B. Bryan and E. T. Jeffrey 
appeared before a special 
committee of the Senate in 
advocacy of the claims of 

These were the earliest 
beginnings of the movement 
which, gaining momentum 
from different sources, 
eventuated in the great Fair, 
which New York and.Chica^ 
Louis and Washington were 

Exposition. Congress heard the representatives of ea 
on February 24, 1890, voted that the Fair should b 

It was then there began a friendly struggle, in 
played the principal parts, but in which St. 
also factors, to determine the location of the 
ch section, and finally 
e located in Chicago. 

Selection of Officers. 

The next step in the great undertaking was to raise the capital neces- 
sary for its successful carrying out. March 23, 1890, subscription books for 
World's Fair stock were opened, and at a meeting of subscriber-! of the capital 
stock held at Battery D, April 4, a full Board of Directors was elected. 
This Board, April 30, elected as officers Lyman J. Gage, President ; Thomas 
B. Bryan and Potter Palmer, 
Vice-Presidents; Anthony 
F. Seeberger, Treasurer ; 
Benjamin Butterworth, Sec- 
retary ; and William K. 
Ackerman, Auditor. Presi- 
dent Harrison signed the 
bill locating the Exposition 
at Chicago and providing 
for the creation of the 
World's Columbian Expo- 
sition Board, to consist of 
two Commissioners from 
each state and territory ap- 
pointed by the President, 
of eight Commissioners-at- 
large, and two from the 
District of Columbia, each 
- nna - with alternates. This con- 

stituted what became known as the National Commission. 

At a special session of the Legislature of Illinois, June 12, 1890, the city of 
Chicago was authorized to increase its bonded indebtedness $5,000,000 in aid 
of the Exposition. The name of the corporation was changed to "The World's 
Columbian Exposition,'.' and the capital stock was increased to £10,000,000 


of the National Commission was held in Chicago, June 26, 1890. Thomas W. Palmer was elected 
M. Waller, M. H. De Young, David B. Perm, Gorton W. Allen and Alexander B. Andrews, Vice-Presi- 
dents. A Board of Lady Managers, appointed from the different states and territories, met at the 
same time and place and organized by the election of officers : President, Mrs. Potter Palmer ; Vice- 
dents, Mrs. Ralph Trautmann, Mrs. S. C. Burleigh, Mrs. Charles Price, Miss K. L. Minor, Mrs. 

M. B. Salisbury and Mrs. R. D. 

Beriah Wilkins, Mrs. S. R. Ashley, Mrs. F 
Harrison; Secretary, Miss Phoebe Couzins. 
Mrs. Susan G. Cooke afterwards took the 
place of Miss Couzins. This was the first 
official recognition of women in the World's 
Fair management, and was looked upon by 
them as a great step in advance. 
A Board of Control, consist- 
ing of nine members from each 
of these organized bodies, 
chosen, and the work entrusted 
ism that never waned. 

Gurty, M 

I Go 

The Fed. 
six foreign nations 
the foregoing, vast 
contributions of for 




0>stj Rica 

Danish West Indies.. 


(j-f3i Britain 

British Guiana 

British Honduras 

Cape Colony 

n earnest and with a vim, energy and entl 

Appropriations of Money. 

rnment appropriated in all $1,025,000 for Fair expenses, and the fifty 

1 colonies which participated appropriated £3,783,900. Besides 

is were contributed by exhibitors and private individuals. The 

1 governments were as follows : Ceylon $ 40, 

■ • 147.000 Jamaica 10. 

1 so.oco New Zealand 27 





Dutch Guiana . . 
Dutch West Indie 




The Giloeo Entrance to T 


Great Britain laid out $125,000 on Victoria House 
and the great German Building cost $150,000. O 
the United States, Pennsylvania paid $90,000 for it: 
building, and West Virginia $20,000. The twelve trunl 
lines having termini in Chicago subscribed later for tin 
last $1,000,000 of bonds. 


March 31 the expenditures of the Exposition com 
Nubian. pany aggregated $16,708,826 and there was 

still due on contracts $2,361,263, besides about $400,000 estimated 
expenses for April. The price for buildings and other contract work 
was $12,469,201. The Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building cost 
$1,727,431; Machinery Hall, $1,173,897; Administration Building, 
$450,000; Agricultural, $658,000; Fine Art Galleries, $737,000; Elec- 
tricity, $423,000; Mines and Mining, $266,000; Fisheries, 
$217,000; Horticultural, $298,000; Transportation, $483,000 
Woman's Building, $135,000. It cost $448,000 for the electric 
light plant; $236,000 for sculpture and statuary; $293,000 foi 
water and sewer pipe; and $321,000 for the piers and break 
water. More than 10,000 persons found regular employment '' k 1 

on the Fair grounds at good wages. Syi 

As the work of preparation went on the magni- 
tude of the undertaking and the cost, which it had 
originally been proposed to limit to five millions of 
dollars, grew with the days as they parsed. The 
plans which were originally made by^Messrs. Burn- 
■ , gfcj^Wj ham & Root were altered by them and by their 
colleagues until they quadrupledfin extent and in 
cost. Instead of five millions, twenty millions were 
needed. From the sales of stock, bonds, and an 

appropriation by the city of Chicago of five millions, 
interest, etc., on the first of April, 1S93, about seventeen 
millions and a half of dollars had been raised and 
expended on this stupendous work, while the outstand- 
ing indebtedness brought the cost of construction to 
about nineteen millions of dollars. The treasurer re- 
ceived from all sources — stocks, bonds, admissions, 
concessions, etc., $32,796,103, and drew his checks 


for $30,558,849, closing the Fair with a cash 
balance on hand of $2,237,254. The operating expenses were 
56,670,000, making a total of disbursements of over twenty-five 
and one-half millions. The receipts (not including admissions 
after Oct. 30th, or salvage) were $10,230,000, the amount re- 
ceived from concessionaires about $3,800,000, making a 
total of over $14,000,000, and leaving the Fair's expenses 
about eleven and one-half millions in excess of its receipts. 
The stockholders, therefore, would get nothing except for 
the souvenir coins, amounting to about $2,430,000. Con- 
gress finally withheld $500,000 of its appropriation. This 
:<(' / would give the stockholders, if divided, about 15 percent, 
of their holdings but the greater part of this will probably 
ted to the fund to equip the Field Museum. The fifty-six foreign 
nations and colonies which participated in the Fair 
appropriated $3,783,900 for expenses, while the vast 
sums spent on exhibits and expenses by individual ex- 
hibitors it has been impossible to accurately estimate. 
The net revenues have enabled the manage- 
ment to discharge the large floating debt and pay 
off the last dollar, principal and interest, of its 
obligations represented by its debenture bonds. 

be do 


Selection of Site. 

The question of a site for the Exposition was debated at length. For 
some time the advocates of the Lake-Front had hopes of success, but July 
2, 1890, the local directory selected Jackson Park, and this was approved by 
the National Commission. 

In August of 1S91, the Chicagoan took his wife and little children 
for the last time to the copse in Jackson Park, that afterward offered 
a site for Norway and Germany. He swung his hammock among the 
willows and looked out to sea. He visited the round coffee house and 
gazed over the sands and the sloughs where Dion Geraldine, then 
known and unheralded, was chasing away the blackbirds and 
breaking the complaining reeds. Meanwhile the offices on Adams 
streets were swarming with clerks, who rapidly took on a god-like 
severity of manner, while the speculative element of creation 
battered at their doors. In another building the archi- v .^ 
tects planned, and each day a new contractor went out 
with smiling face. One man was to floor a farm of 
thirty-two acres with two inch plank. Another was to 
rear twenty-six arches larger than any then in exist- 
ence. Another was to build a half-mile pier, and build 
it over again. Not to weary the reader, basin and la- 
goons were to be excavated, four hundred structures 
were to rise, and nature was again to smile on the 
scene, decorating it with the arabesquerie of her living 

September 19, 1890, Col. George R. Davis was 
elected Director-General, and November 20 the first 
meeting of the Board of Lady Managers was held, Mrs. 
Potter Palmer presiding. December 21, 1890, President 
Harrison issued a proclamation calling upon the nations 

of the earth to participate in the great Fair. William T. Baker was elected 
President of the local Board April 14, 1891, to succeed Lyman J. Gage, who 
declined a re-election, and who also refused to accept his salary of $6,000. 
Legislative action having been taken at Springfield, Jackson Park, with the 
Midway Plaisance, became eligible for Fair purposes, and ground was 
broken for the first building— that of Mines and Mining— July 2, 1891. 
August 12, 1892, a Council of Administration was elected with all 
powers except the appropriation of money. The second annual meet- 
ing of the stockholders was held in April, r8g2, when the present Board 
of Directors was chosen. In January, 1892, a Congressional committee 
inspected the buildings, and in the result recommended a further 
appropriation of 52,500,000 coupled, however, with the stipulation 
that the gates of the Fair should not be opened Sundays. This 
provision was, however, overruled. 

Early Sightseers. 

hibits began to pour in early in 1892, but were not in 
shape for exhibition for many months. Meantime 
the grounds and uncompleted buildings were visited 
by many thousands and an acceptable contribution 

/ to the revenues of the Fair was obtained. The con- 
struction of sea wall, pier and lagoons was pressed 
by night and day, the entire area was drained and 
sodded, and by the fall of 1892 the unsightly swamp 
had been metamorphosed into a garden. Monday, 
May 1, 1893, President Cleveland touched ths 
golden key which set in motion the machinery, and 
the historic exhibit was declared open in the pres- 
ence of hundreds of thousands. The main buildings 
of the Exposition cost over $6,000,000 ; fifty-one 


foreign countries and thirty-seven colonies participated in the great display, 
while forty-four states and four territories of the Union built their own struc- 
tures for exhibition purposes. Many of the buildings were unique in design 
and execution, affording a pleasing variety and one characteristically 
representative of the different sections. 

Starting modestly with a proposed expenditure of $5,000,000, or at the 
most of double that sum, the financial managers of the Exposition found 
themselves confronted with the problem of raising at least £20,000,000 before 

the opening day. The World's Columbian Exposition company was chartered with an autho 
capital of $5,000,000, which was rapidly subscribed, and May 8, 1890, it was voted to double the capita 
stock. A million shares of $10 were issued, and of these 588,530 were subscribed for. Payment was 
made in six installments, netting $5,553,760. The city of Chicago issued $5,000,000 of bonds, on 
which the full face value was realized. In 1892, Congress appropriated $2,500,000 in souvenir half-dollar: 
of which over a million were sold at a profit of 100 per cent, and many at fancy prices. March 31, 
stock was taken, when it was found the total receipts of the Exposition company up to that date had been £17,496, 432, 

made up as follows: 

Stock subscriptions 

City of Chicago appropriate 
Souvenir coins, deposits on account of.. 
Special souvenir coin fund. 

Six per cent, debenture bonds 4,094,500 

Gate receipts 234,853 

Interest on deposits.- 

Interest on exchange.. 

Miscellaneous receipts 456,8; 

Total 817,496,432 

Electric Launch. 

Viewed either from the financial or the educational standpoint, the Fair was a great 
success. World's fairs in previous years in England, France and Austria received not 
only the indorsement, but the financial backing of their respective governments, but 
the Chicago Fair was of home production and self-sustained. A city of but two genera- 
tions excelled the world, and built upon a swamp a congeries of palaces of art and 
science, rivaling in beauty the dreams of fairyland. To build a city in two years, the 
structures in which cover nearly 160 acres, not including the buildings on the Mid- 


way, costing $19,000,000, and to attract within its gates over 27,000,000 of 
people in 183 days, was an undertaking of appalling magnitude, courage 
and enterprise, industry and intelligence in a superlative degree. Yet that 
is the achievement which Chicago, with the aid of the sisterhood of states 
and the nations of the earth, accomplished, and to-day, she proudly points 
to her motto, "1 Will," feeling that she has demonstrated her right to wear it. 

The Number of Visitors. 

The final grand total of admissions when the Fair officially closed was 
27,529,400, of which 21,477,212 were paid and the others free passes of all 
kinds. The total is less than that of. Paris in 1889, but the admission fee at 
Paris was only twenty cents, while that at Chicago was fifty cents. The 
admissions to the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876 were 
9,610,996. The financial disturbances in the country undoubtedly served 
to very largely decrease the attendance at the Columbian Exposition. 

The earlier weeks of the Fair were not marked by a very large attend- 
ance, but when the throngs clamored at the gates later, so vast 

space that it was never unc 
was Decoration Day, when 
Infanta Eulalia of Spain 

June 8th, and G 

nfortably full. The first of the special days 
15,578 paid admissions were registered. The 

ed by 135,281 
an day, June 15th, 

brought out 165,069 sons of the 
Vaterland. Fourth of July broke 
cords with 283,273 
patriotic citizens. Pennsyl 
day approached 
the record 
with 203,- 
460, but it 

together more people than had 
paid admissions— upon which occasi 

The Beautiful White City. 

A Miracle of Loveliness. 

The history of civilization up to this time does not present anything to 
compare in point of splendor and magnificence with the World's Columbian 

Exposition. Never will that mir; 
shores of Lake Michigan, in the he 

Worn ni'» Bui.'IniL- 

be re-created. On the 
rt of the most practical country on earth, 
bloomed the wild flower of perfect archi- 
tecture, and unto the eyes of all nations 
was opened the book of beauty, whose 
pages were illumined with the passion 
Splendid achievements lie hid in the 
shadows of the future, but however great 
they may be, however much of beauty 
they may present, however much of art 
embody, they -can never produce another 
pageant of grandeur equal to that which 
i d e historic 
ground of the sand 
dunes on the lake, 
where rose realities 
in spotless white 
that far outshone 
the most brilliant 
imaginings of that 
Oriental mind from 
which sprung the 
fabled splendors of 
Aladdin's palace. 

Vain is the art that strives to transfer to canvas the shifting glories of 
the shimmering opal ! presumptuous the hand that should attempt to depict 
the irridescent hues reflected on the tenuous film of a dancing bubble ! So 
vain ! so presumptuous ! the hope that the world will ever see a reproduction 
of that evanescent glory which has made memorable forever the World's Fair. 

But though the Exposition itself can never more arise, its beauty and its 
grandeur have been preserved, and in the reproduction of those wondrous 

scenes presented in this series, the White City lives again. The artist who 
made these pictures is recognized the world over as one of the greatest water 
color artists of the present day, and the name of Charles Graham is a 
guaranty that there are no reproductions of the World's Fair that can equal 
those contained in this Art Portfolio; an exquisite collection of art gems for 
the home, the office, the parlor or the library; a -publication of permanent 
value, to be constantly admired and carefully preserved, and not to be seen 
once and then cast aside. 

The White City Picturesque. 

Red Letter Days. 

HE history of the Fair was a succession of triumphs. 
On Dedication day the largest crowd ever assembled 
inside a roofed building thronged the Manufactures 
and Liberal Arts Building. Representatives of all 
countries and of every State and Territory, diplo- 
mats, the clergy, and the army and navy gathered 
to witness the dedicatory services and the pageant was 
indeed a marvelous one. It was exceeded, however, on 
May I, 1893, when ioo.coo sovereign citizens thronged 
the plaza in front of the Administration Building to hear 
the President of the United States formally declare the 
Fair open. Unlil<e all previous exhibitions the World's 
Fair opened on the day appointed. The first of the " red 
letter " days, so far as attendance was concerned, was Decoration day, May 
30, when 115,578 paid admissions were registered. June 8 the presence 
of the Infanta Eulalia attracted 135,281 persons. The 15th (German day) 
165,069 passed through the turnstiles. Massachusetts came forward June 

17 with 148,994 to the credit of the Old Bay State, and the glorious Fourth 
(United States day) broke all records with 283,273 visitors. Next in order, 
July 20, came Swedish day, when 129,873 visitors were recorded. The 
Bohemians, August 12, counted up 151,971, and on the 15th (Rajah day) 
123,530 persons gazed upon the Hindoo Princes and potentates. August 

18 was Austrian day, with 123,428 visitors, and the next day Great Britain 
drew 168, S61. All records save that of July 4 were beaten by Illinois day, 
August 24, with its muster-roll of 243,951; August 26 was Machinery day, 
with 168,036; September 2, Roman Catholic day with 148,560; September 
4, New York day with 160,382 ; September 6, Wisconsin day with 

175,409; September 7, Pennsylvania and Brazil day with 203,460; 
September 8, Cymrodorion (Welsh) day with 180,746. September 9, Cali- 
fornia, Utah, the G. A. R., and other attractions called forth 231,522 visitors. 
September 11 was devoted to Kansas, silver and the French engineers, and 
160,128 attended. On the next day Maryland and Kansas combined to the 
number of 167,108; on the next Kansas and Michigan footed up 160,221, and 

on the next (September 14) Ohio and Kansas drew 198,77 
Vermont, Kansas and the Keeley graduates made up a grand 
total of 157,737 September 15, and on the following day 
Texas, New Mexico and the railways accounted for 202,376, 
and on the 19th, Fishermen's day drew 174,905. Septem- 
ber 20, Iowa and Patriotic Sons of America were answerable 
for 180,552. September 21 was Iowa and Sportsmen's 
day with 199,174 visitors; September 23 the Knights of 
Honor drew 215,643 ; September 26 the Odd Fellows turned 
out 195,210 strong; September 27 Indiana had the turn with 
196,423 Hoosiers present. Saturday, September 28, was 
Irish day, and although the most inclement day of the 
whole season, 108,885 w "e on hand. "Little Rhody" was 
represented October 5 with 180,505, and the Polish people 
on the 7th with 222,186. __^ 
Then came October 10, ^"~ ■ ■ S~\1l 

North Dakota and the Fire- 
men, with 309,294. October 
11, Connecticut, with 309,- 
277; October 12, Italian day 
and the Trainmen, with 
278,878; Oct. 1 3, Minnesota 

Cost.i Rk 

and the Trainmen, with 221,607; October 21, Manhattan day 
contribution of 290,527. The total paid admissions for May exceeded a 
million, those for June were 2,675,113, for July 2,760,263, for August 
3,51 5,493, for September 4,658,902, for October 6,816,435. 

With characteristic ardor the twenty-second anniversary of the great 
fire which devastated the city Oct. 9, 1871, was observed as "Chicago day," 
when the largest multitude eve 
sembled within a space so cii 
scribed subjected tile arranger 
for public convenience, comfort 
and accommodation, to the 
severest test, it was an 
inundation of humanity, 
sweeping along every 
avenue, overflowing upon 
the terraces and roofs and 
ornamental reservations as 
resisllessly as the current 
of the Mississippi river 
when the June rise comes 
down. The restraint and 
discipline were remarkable. 
It was like a veteran army 
on the march or in the 
bivouac, without captains or commanders. There was neither disorder nor 
rude and selfish disregard of common rights. No people could have been 
more deferential and observant of the decorum of place and occasion than 
were these myriads of unknown laborers from the bench and the forge and 
the mill ; country shop-keepers, and sedate farmers from the prairies of the 
Great Valley. The demonstration was a signal and unprecedented triumph, 

th its 

not alone of Chicago, but for the new empire of the west, of which Chicago 
is the foreordained metropolis. The great and unapproachable record of the 
season was thus reserved for "Chicago Day"— 761 ,942 people being present 
on this occasion. 


The architecture of the World's Fair was its most impressive feature, 
characterized by a simple purity 
and grace, and they were grandly and unostentatiously 
appropriate and richly beautiful, and their classic 
facades, roofs and porticos united into 
a chord of delicious harmony. Each 
edifice had its own individuality, ac- 
centuating its own note, as it were ; 
but it was duly subordinate 
to the grand ensemble. To 
most minds, nothing more 
beautiful was ever devised, 
in the way of a building, 
than the Parthenon, at 
Athens, of which the stately 
and beautiful temple de- 
voted to sculpture, painting 
and the fine arts was not an 
unworthy portotype. There 
was a nobie, tranquil dignity in its straight lines, sculptured pediments and 
stately columns. It was all so sane, so rational, and yet instinct with lofti- 
ness, austerity and grace. Only fancy what the Fair would have been, if 
the Gothic type had been substituted ! What bewildering jumbles of fan- 
tastic arches, roofs and spires ; what a riot of unfettered imagination ; what 
an infinite and discordant variety of unrelated parts would have sprung upon 


our startled vision ! For 
there is no such restraining 
unity of type in the Gothic 
architecture as there is in 
the Greek. And one saw 
the latter in Jackson Park 
in the most favorable en- 
vironment. The architec- 
ture of the Fair will survive 
mories of the millions of 
who were charmed and ele- 
ontemplation of its beauty. 

As an Educator. i 

The Fair has been a valuable educator 
for Chicago and the country at large. It 
has familiarized the people with all that is 

best in art and newest in invention and has brought before their V. 

eyes the priceless treasures of antiquity and the 

latest triumphs of modern science. In October 

the admission fee for children was reduced to 10 

cents and the munificence of private individuals 

afforded every child in Chicago the opportunity 

to visit the Fair for six days. Not even the street 

waifs. were forgotten, and from 60,000 to 100,000 

children poured into the grounds daily. 

Vivid Impressions. 

To many minds the grandest thing about the 
Exposition was the scene as viewed from without. 
An eminent public man says : " The frame was 

finer than the picture, and 
more valuable. The temple 
viewed from afar was more 
precious than the temple 
viewed within. This is 
high praise. The first im- 
pression of the Taj seen 
from the garden renders 
minute inspection of the 
interior common-place in t 

treme. The sight of the Parthenon taught the Gree^ 
more of the beauty in art than anything which 

contained. The sight of Edinburgh castle, says Ruskir 
every Scotch boy who has soul enough to be influenced, and so the 
ipse of that exquisite scene in Jackson Park, the first to 
greet the eye of the beholder, will be the last to fade from his recollec- 
tion. I make bold to say that after every work of art, every ponderous 
engine, every invention, everything that proved the cunning brain 
and hand of man, has faded away, the general 
effect of the purely artistic triumph attained by 
' the buildings and their environment will remain, 
^£frr vividly defined in the memory and recorded there 
^( W ; unmixed with baser matter." But whether 
^> viewed from within or without, by day or by 
light, the Exposition was an unending delight 
ind the like of it the present generation certainly 
vill not see again. Its active presence is gone, 
)ut a host of impulses, founded upon vivid 
mpressions received there, remain as a vital 
to those who felt its inspiration. 

' of MacMounies Fountain. 


Retrospective Reflections. 

In every other respect save that of attendance the Columbian Exposition 
was a success beyond the wildest dreams of its most enthusiastic and san- 
guine projectors. In whatever respect regarded, whether from its landscapes 
and decorations, lagoons and water ways, area occupied, structures and 
exhibits, it far surpassed any previous effort in the history of the world, and 
no man, woman or child now living will ever see its like again. Fifty years 
from now it will be talked about and the reminiscences of him who tells of its 
glories and its wonders, from having seen them, will be eagerly listened to by 
the multitude. Mementoes of the great Fair will always be in demand and the " 
time will come when whatever, in the way of art, shows forth the grandeur and 
beauty of its architecture, its landscapes and water ways, will be treasured 
as an almost priceless possession. In the domain of mechanic arts, fine arts, 
electrical science and architecture it has created an interest 
and an impetus that are felt around the world. Especially 
true of architecture. The noble World's Fair struc- 
tures, colossal in their proportions, marvelously 
beautiful in their symmetry and ornamentation, 
'• • furnish the crown to the great achievements of 
the nineteenth century in the line of the building 
> } art, and they will be accepted as models for 
generations yet to come. How much the world 
has been bettered by the Fair no one can tell, but 
-jri it is safe to say that it was the one event in the 
n , '-., history of this country, whose educational in- 
r ':-_ fluences radiated to the uttermost parts of the 
'. '^fjf'j ". earth. The great exhibition has come, triumphed 
and passed away. The unrivalled mass of beauti- 
ful structures which seemed rather to have fallen 
from above than to have been slowly built up 

from below, are being rapidly dismantled. Our revels are ended. Prospero's 
wand has broken the spell. The cloud-capped towers, the sun-ray gilded 
minarets, the gorgeous palaces have dissolved; hut the impression made by 
these greater than Aladdin's palaces remains, even more vivid than when 
received. Every one who was privileged to spend days and evenings in 
windings in and out, through and among the palaces of the White City, 
and especially to saunter there at night when footsteps were few, has the 
knowledge to treasure up that he has seen and felt the influence of the , ; 
greatest combination of architectural beauty 

Dimensions of Main Buildings. 

The dimensions of the principal buildings 
are officially given as follows : 

Administration 262X 262 

Manufactures and Liberal Arts - 787x1,687 

Mines 35°x 7^9 

Electricity ■•• 34*x 690 

Transportation 256X 960 

Transportation Annex 425X 900 

Woman's inqx 388 

Art Gallaries 32CX 500 

Art Annexes (2) 120X 2co 

Fisheries i6$x 365 

Fisheries Annexes (2) 135 diam'r 

Horticulture 2^ex 998 

Horticulture Greenhouses (8)- . . 24X ico 

Machinery 492x 846 

Machinery Annex 490* $50 

Machinery Power-House icox 461 

Machinery Pumping Works — 77X 84 

Machinery Machine Shop 14GX 250 

Agriculture scox 8co 

Agriculture Annex 300X 550 

Agriculture Assembly Hall, etc . 125X 450 

Forestry 2c8x 528 

Sawmill 125X 3C0 

five Stock (3) 65X 2co 

Live Stock Pavilion 280X 440 

Live Stock Sheds 

Casino t2ox 250 

Music Hall uox 250 

U. S. Government 345* 4'5 

U. S Imitation Battleship. . 69.21; x 348 


Court of Honor. 

Y a happy arrangement, the Court of Honor was formed 
by the great basin of water, at the gate of which, 
guarding the entrance to the lake, stood the Peristyle, 
and which extended back to the Administration Build- 
ing at the foot. It was the central point around which 
the Liberal Arts, Electricity and Mining Buildings to the north, and the Agri- 
cultural and Machinery Buildings to the south, were grouped. When its 
waters, fountains and all the surrounding buildings were illuminated at night 
by colored electric and powerful search lights, it presented a spectacle of 
brilliancy and beauty which suggested Fairyland. 

This great plaza of the Exposition was a regular quadrangle, 700 by 2,000 
ftet. Water communication was provided at the east end of this court, com- 
municating with Lake Michigan, and the system of railroads debouched at the 
west end in a railroad terminus, masked by the Administration Building, 
which was treated so as to serve as the monumental porch of the 
Exposition. From the railroad terminus, through the arches of this porch 
and beneath its lofty dome, the visitors entered the court. To the eastward 
was Lake Michigan, the connecting screen of corridors between the Casino 

'1 T 

and Music Hall intervening in the view ; on the right (southward) the 
palaces devoted to the Departments of Machinery and Agriculture faced the 
court; on the left the Mines Building, the Electricity Building and the 
colossal Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building completed the northern 
closure of the Grand Court. The center was occupied by a great artificial 
basin, which formed a part of the water system of the Park. Connecting 
with the basin, a broad canal, bordered by double terraces and crossed by 
arched bridges, ran southward between the palaces of Agriculture and 
Machinery. Opposite this canal was another of similar character running 
between the Departments of Electricity and of Liberal Arts, and connecting 
northward with the waters of the Lagoon. 

At the west end of the Grand Basin, at the foot of Administration 
Building, rose the majestic Fountain of the Republic, by the Sculptor Mac- 
Monnies. On either side of this were situated the electrical fountains which 
nightly displayed their beauties, and lent to the illuminations a wealth of 
color. At the east end of the Basin, Mr, French's Colossal Statue of the 
Republic stood in soli- Z tarygrandeur. This gilded figure, resplen- 

dent in the sunlight, © silently watched the festival of the nations 

of the earth as they / S paid their homage to Columbia. 





Administration Building. 

ITUATED at the west end of the Court of Honor, 
facing to the east, with the Terminal Station at its 
rear, Machinery Hall on the south and Mines and 
Mining Building on the north, was the Administra- 
tion Building. By popular verdict it was pronounced 
the gem and crown of the Exposition Buildings. 
The object most conspicuous, which attracted the 
on reaching the grounds, was the Gilded Dome of this great 
great edifice cost about $550,000. The architect was Richard 
w York, President of the American Institute of Architects, 
to whose established reputation it is a notable contribution. It covered an 
area of 150 feet square and consisted of four pavilions 84 feet square, one at 
each of the four angles of the square and connected by a great central dome 
120 feet in diameter and 220 feet in height, leaving at the center of each 
facade a recess 82 feet wide, within which were the grand entrances to the 
building. The general design was in the style of the French renaissance. 
The first great story was in the Doric 
order, of heroic proportions, surrounded 

by a lofty balustrade and having the great tiers of the angle of each pavilion 
crowned with sculpture. The second story, with its lofty and spacious 
colonnade, was of the Ionic order. Externally the design may be divided in 
its height into three prin- 
cipal stages. The first 
stage consisted of the four 
pavilions, corresponding in 
height with the various 
buildings grouped about it, 
which were about 65 feet ,7* 
high. The second stage, 
which was of the same 
height, was a continuation 
of the central rotunda, 175 
feet square, surrounded on 
all sides by an open colon- 
nade of noble proportions, 
20 feet wide and 40 feet 
high, with columns 4 feet 
in diameter. This colonnade was reached by staircases and elevators 
from the four principal halls and was interrupted at the angles by corner 
pavilions, crowned with domes and groups of statuary. The third stage 
consisted of the base of the great dome, 30 feet in height, and octagonal in 
form, and the dome itself. This great dome was gilded, and formed a fitting 
crown to the first and second stages of the magnificent edifice. 

The four great entrances, one on each side of the building, were 50 feet 
wide and 50 feet high, deeply recessed and covered by semi-circular arched 
vaults, richly coffered. In the rear of these arches were the entrance doors, 
and above them great screens of glass, giving light to the central rotunda. 
Across the face of these screens, at the level of the office floor, were galleries 


of communication between the different pavilions. The interior features of 
this great building even exceeded in beauty and splendor those of the exterior. 
Between every two of the grand entrances, and connecting the intervening 
pavilion with the great rotunda, was a hall or loggia, 30 feet square, giving 
access to the offices and provided with broad, circular stairways and swift 
running elevators. Internally, the rotunda was octagonal in form, the first 
story being composed of eight enormous arched openings, corresponding in 
size to the arches of the great entrances. Above these arches was a frieze, 
27 feet in width, the panels of which were filled with tablets, borne by figures 
carved in low relief and covered with commemorative inscriptions. Above 
the balcony was the second story, 50 feet in height. From the top of the 
cornice of this story rose the interior dome, 200 feet from the floor, and in the 
center was an opening 50 feet in diameter, transmitting a flow of light from 
the exterior dome overhead. The under side of the dome 
was enriched with deep panelings, richly moulded, and the 
filled with sculpture, in low relief, and 
immense paintings, representing the 
• arts and sciences. In size this rotunda 
rivaled, if it did not surpass, 

the most celebrated do 


vorld. Each of the corner 
>avilions, which were four 
stories in height, were divided 
nto large and small offices for 
;he various Departments of 
jf^ the Administration, and lobbies 
and toilet rooms. The ground 
floor contained, in one pavilion, 
the Fire and Police Depart- 

ments, with cells for the detention of 
prisoners ; in a second pavilk 
offices of the Ambulance Service, the Phy- 
sician and Pharmacy, the Foreign Depart- 
ment and the Information Bureau; in the third pavilion, the Post-Office and 
a Bank, and in the fourth the offices of Public Comfort and a restaurant. 
The second, third and fourth stories contained the Board rooms, the Com- 
mittee rooms, the rooms of the Director-General, the Department of Publicity 
and Promotion, and of the United States Colurr 
bian Commission. The gilded dome w 
conspicuous and beautiful object when 
illuminated by electric lights at night. 
Within it contained decorative tablets 
chronicling the great in- 
ventions and achieve- 
ments recorded in history 
and the names of forty 
of the great inventors, 
scientists and scholars 
from Plato to Darwin. 


Manufactures Building. 

HE Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building was natu- 
rally the mammoth structure of the Fair. So sym- 
metrically was it proportioned, however, that it did 
not give an idea of the fact that it was the largest 
building ever erected in the Western Hemisphere, 
and the largest under a roof in the whole world. It 
was a triumph of modern engineering as well as 
chitecture. The Central Court had an area of nearly eleven acres, with- 
it a supporting pillar under its roof, and this will be realized only by corn- 
son. It was three times larger than the Cathe- 
of St. Peters at Rome, and four times larger 
than the Coloseum. On Dedication Day over 
250, coo people were assembled within its 
walls, a number only exceeded by the popu- 
lation of a few cities in the world. The 
uld seat comfortably 300,000 
people. Its dimensions were 
1,687 by 787 feet, and the 
height of the roof varied 
from 66 feet to 237.6 over 
the Central Hall. The span 
of the truss was 382 feet. 
Its construction required 
1 7,000,000 feet of lumber, 
12,000,000 pounds of steel, 
and all of the figures are of 
the same almost fabulous 
magnitude. It contained a 

main gallery measuring 50 feet wide, and projecting from this were 86 smaller 
galleries. These were reached by 30 grand staircases, and entrance and 
exit was made through four great entrances designed in the manner of 
triumphal arches, the center being 40 feet wide and 80 feet high. The style 
of architecture chosen by Geo. B. Post, the designer, was Corinthian, and 

ay of colu 

inch Exhibit- Mitimtnct'ir.-s Buildinc- 

nns was relieved by the most elabo- 
character appropriate to the object for which the 
ed. Ten thousand electric lights were used in its 

the monotony of the long 1 
rate ornamentation 
vast structure was d 

Midway in the main gallery a clock tower raised its lofty head, breaking 
the enormous space. Standing in this tower one could look down on acres 
of booths filled mostly with the products of loom and factory. 

The valu 


h combine the art of the artist and the skill of the artisan, can 
the millions. Every civilized nation had its space and this was 
allotted to her representative merchants. Proudly in this hall of 
peace floated the ensigns of nations, and beneath then 
were the signs of the merchants which make their t 
tries foremost in the ranks of commerce. England, 
France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Spain, Portugal, 
Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Russia, Japan, 
China, India, Australia, Turkey, Egypt 
were represented in this grand congress of 
or. liberal arts. Here we beheld the friendly 

abrics of all kinds, in silver, glass and pottery, in musical 
bronzes, and in all the cunning devices of every species of 
not embraced under the head of machinery, electricity, 
>. A sight like this fills the contemplative man with 
ng the skill and cleverness of the human family 
which will never leave him. It is only when all this is under the, 'I— 
immediate eye that the thought of man's wonderful intellectual progress 
and skill comes home to one with stunning force. Our space is limited 
and words will not convey an adequate idea of the marvelous richness, a 
vastness and variety of the exhibits in this grand palace dedicated to the expositionT'the goods 

,,..-5?^ manufactured the world over for the comfort and pleasun 
Jl_,;^=ef*' /? '"'"','' / ''i : • -f" is we " fllled stand s amazed and aghast, with little de 
• -' '^JiiW~ "~ ' : '^-' ' ' " le bewild ering attractiveness of the much. 

'^?^E_ . r jl'r'4-!!^|"['^^l»"&i5l"(l'l The architect of this gigantic building was remarkably successful in giving architectural 

*- .iZ~—-^-Ji}J~*-!!-''P*r symmetry and effectiveness to the immense proportions with which he had to deal, and his 
—^^^-^ work stands as one of the marvels of the Exposition. The building occupied a most conspicuous 
C^5- & P' ace in the grounds. It faced the Lake, with only lawns and promenades between. North of 

'\-~~" &*£. ^^§» £ -^ '' WaS the United states Government Building, south the Harbor and in-jutting Lagoon, and 

North L«oo»-we.t sis. Manufactures Building. WeSt the Electrical Biding and the Lagoon separating it from the Wooded Island. 

Temple of 

competition for prizes : 
instruments, furniture, 
human industry which 

mining or fin 

ikind. Even he whose purse 
: for any one thing, being confused by 


Mines and Mining. 

• OWEVER interesting were the other buildings of the World's 
Fair that of Mines and Mining will be historically remem- 
bered as being the first for which ground was broken rn 
Jackson Park. It was located at the southern extremity of 
the western Lagoon or Lake, and between tiie Electricity 
and Transportation Buildings. Its architecture had its in- 
early Italian renaissance, with which sufficient liberty was taken 
to invest the building with the animation that should characterize a great 
general Exposition, re ? * - --r ."■■• ;'■ ■■■■:-;■■. — , , ; .,^. r .. 7 ,„-!.,;■. ^ There was a decided 

spiration i 

French spirit pe 
design, but it w; 
nated. In plan it w 
forward, embracin 
spacious vestibule: 
ants, etc. OneacI 
building were the 
north and south 
spacious and prom 
and left of each 
flights of easy stairs led to the 

vading the exterior 
kept well subordi- 
simple and straight- 
en the ground floor 
toilet rooms, restaur- 
of the four sides of the 
entrances, those of the 
fronts being the most 
inent. To the right 
trance, inside, broad 

;. The latter were 60 feet wide and 
25 feet high from the ground floor, and were lighted on the sides by large 
windows and from above by a high clearstory extending around the build- 
ing. The main fronts looked southward on the great Central Court and 
northward on the western and middle lakes and the beautiful wooded island. 
These principal fronts displayed enormous arched entrances, richly embel- 
lished with sculptural decorations, emblematic of Mining and its allied 
industries. At each end of these fronts were large square pavilions sur- 
mounted by low domes which marked the four corners of the building and 

were lighted by large arched windows extending through the galleries. Be- 
tween the main entrance and the pavilions were elaborately decorated 
arcades forming an open loggia on the ground floor and a deeply recessed 
promenade on the gallery floor level, which commanded a fine view of the 
lakes and islands to the northward and the great Central Court on the 
south. These covered promenades were each 25 feet wide and 230 feet 
long. These loggias on the first floor were faced with marbles of different 
kinds and hues, which were considered part of the Mining Exhibit, and so 
utilized as to have marketable value at the close of the Exposition. The 
loggia ceilings were heavily coffered and richly decorated in plaster and 


of the facade 
graceful appearance, 
high from ground to 

massed at the prominent points 
presented a massive, though 
n fronts were 65 feet 
top of cornice, and the 
s were 90 
ment. The long 
treated in a 
main fronts; 
tended through the 
tween the broad piers, 
to the space beneath the galleries. 
The two-storied portion of the building, of which the gallery formed the 
upper part, extended entirely around the structure and was 60 feet wide, 
This portion was built of wood and iron combined. 

The great interior space thus enclosed was one story high, 630 feet 
long and 230 feet wide, with an extreme height of 100 feet at center and 47 
feet at sides, and was spanned by steel cantilever roof trusses supported on 
steel columns placed 65 feet apart longitudinally, and 115 feet and 57 feet 
6 inches transversely, thus leaving clear space in center of building 630 feet 
long, leaving the central space encumbered with only 16 supporting steel 

feet to apex of pedi- 
sidesof the building 
simpler manner than 
large segmental windows 
galleries and were placed 
affording an abundance of light 


posts. The enor 


feet apart and the 


of pin connection to facilitate the 
higher ends of the cantilevers were 46 
between them was spanned by riveted 
eliptical chord. These trusses were 
designed so as to form a clear- 
story 12 feet high, with vertical 
sash extending the entire 
length of central space — 630 
feet; said space terminating 

at each end with a great ^& 

glass gable setting back 60 \j^J 
feet from front end 
building. The wide 
spacings of the can- 
tilever necessitated 
an extensive system 
of longitudinal per- 
linesof the riveted 
lattice type. The 
exhibits c< 
braced everything 

tained in this magnificent building e 
pertaining to the subject suggested. Germany arrested 
attention from all sides by the magnificent and im- 
posing iron and steel trophy exhibit of Baron Stumm, a 
display made upon the personal solicitation of the Emperor 
and at an outlay of nearly £200,000. Pyramids and branching 
columns of structural iron and steel were built up to a height of 
nearly a hundred feet and assumed figures as bewildering in 
ramification as they were graceful in outline. Great Britain and 
her colonies occupied a central position on the floor and presented 

the particular metals of those countries in attractive 
and artistic forms. Pyramids of copper ingots encircled 
with hoops of burnished copper, stacks of tin ingots 
adorned with metal streamers and rosettes, a silvered 
shaft with a base of silver ores and topped with a 
stooping Atlas bearing the world, were gracefully ar- 
ranged along the principal front, arches of coal being 
•ar section of the court. Spain, 
Brazil, Japan, France, and others 
adopted fitting symbols and char- 
acteristic methods by which to 
show forth their mineral products. 
The most notable display in precious 
metals was the renowned silver statue 
"Justice," cast in solid silver, worth 
£61,800, and resting on a plinth of solid 
gold representing $230,000. Several val- 
uable gold collections were to be seen in 
different portions of the building. In the 
New South Wales court, mounted on 
plush, was a series of nuggets and alluvial 
golds valued at $35,000. One big mass 
contained over 313 ounces and was ap- 
praised at $6,000. Colorado's chief attrac- 
tion was the gold display arranged in cases 
about the marble columns in the centre of 
the court. Twenty thousand dollars in 
fine specimens of chrystalized golds, the 
rarest and most beautiful forms of flake, 
leaf, and wire gold, were here exhibited. 


Woman's Building. 


(CpNCOMPASSED by luxuriant shrubs 
ind beds of fragrant flowers, like a 
vhite silhouette against a back 
;round of old and stately oaks, was 
seen the Woman's Building, sit- 
uated in the northwestern part 
of the Park, separated by a gen- 
erous distance from the Horticul- 
tural Building on the one side, and the 
Illinois State Building on the other, 
and facing the great Lagoon, with the 
Wooded Island as a vista. A more beau- 
tiful site could not have been selected 
for this daintily designed building. 
Directly in front of the building the Lagoon took the form of a bay, 
about 400 feet in width. From the center of this bay a grand landing and 
staircase led to a terrace six feet above the water. Crossing this terrace 
other staircases gave access to the ground, four feet above, on which, about 
100 feet back, the building was situated. The first terrace was designed in 
artistic flower beds and low shrubs, forming, together with the creamy-white 
balustrades rising from the water's edge, and also in front of the second 
terrace, a charming foreground for the fine edifice. The principal facade 
had an extreme length of 400 feet, the depth of the building being half this 
distance. Italian renaissance was the style selected. Its delicacy of lines 
was well adapted to represent this temple for the fair sex. 

The main grouping consisted of a center pavilion flanked at each end 
with corner pavilions connected in the first story by open arcades in the 
curtains forming a shady promenade the whole length of the structure. The 

first story was raised about ten feet from the 

ground line, and a wide stair-case led to the 

center pavilion. This pavilion, forming the main 

triple arched entrance with an open colonnade 

in the second story, was finished witli a low 

and beautifully proportioned pediment enriched 

highly elaborate bas-relief. The corner pavilic 

like the rest of the building, two stories high, with a total elevatioi 

feet, had each an open colonnade added above the main cornice. 

were located the Hanging Gardens, and also the committee rooms 

Board of Lady Managers. 

A lobby 40 feet wide led into the open rotunda, 70x65 feet, r< 
through the height of the building and protected by a richly orna 
skylight. This rotunda was surrounded by a two story open arc 
delicate and chaste in design 
as the exterior, the whole 
having a thoroughly Italian 
court-yard effect, admitting 
abundance of light to all 
rooms facing this interior 
space. On the first floor, 
on each side of the main 
entrance and occupying the 
entire space of curtains, 
were located, on the left 
hand, a model hospital, and 
on the right hand a model 
kindergarten, each occupy- 
ing a space of 80x60 feet, 


The two great 
decorative paint- 
ngs, 14x58 feet, 
entitled "Modern 
Women," by Miss 
;ive Women," by 
alls of the rotunda. 

Mrs. MacMonnies, occupied commanding positions 

Grouped by countries were displayed here paintings, sculpture, ceramics, 

books and articles both useful and beautiful, the work of women's hands. 

In the second story, above the main entrance and curtains, were located 
ladies' parlors, committee rooms and dressing rooms, all leading to the open 
balcony in front, and commanding a splendid panorama of almost the entire 
ground. The whole second floor of the north pavilion inclosed the great 
Assembly Room, 67 feet wide and 250 feet long, used for receptions, concerts 
and debate. When one remembers that the principal exhibit by woman at 
Philadelphia was a •"Butter Woman" done by a dairy maid, and called "The 
Sleeping lolanthe," it will be apparent that in one generation woman has 
developed as rapidly as electricity. 

The American and British women had their work in the rooms at the 
north entrance. In the Australian exhibit, the New Britain of the Southern 
seas was very assertive on the educational side, and put forward as her 
proudest products, certain fair professors, senior wranglers and university 
student^ in cap and gown. England gave samples of the work of her phil- 
anthropic women societies and proudly exhibited the Berlin wool work of 
one of the royal princesses. Wales was industrious and picturesque in her 
display and while showing a model in the quaint Welsh costume, she had 
the lusty, strong-limbed Welsh girl herself, in her high hat and full skirts, 
weaving cloth at a hand loom and chattering away to friendly Welsh visitors 
in the guttural Gaelic of her sturdy land. Scotland was within arm's reach 

with a slender showing, but one of her lassies was in evidence, silent at her 
spinning wheel, turning out coarse blue woolen yarns. There was in all, 
and in our American departments as well, a wealth of delicate lace, em- 
broidered silks, and all that dainty, fragile work that only woman's fingers 
can weave, accompanied by ceramic ware of various sorts, artistically deco- 
rated. At the southern end of the building France showed her pre-eminence 
in the things that are essentially dainty, chic, and feminine, while her con- 
stant rival, Germany, was there with her habitual solidity. The Spanish 
exhibit was small but in a booth attractive and striking, and was presided 
over by a bevy of black-eyed beauties. 

From the second story, leaning over the balustrade of the arcade, the 
beauty of the court below was seen at its best. On the southeast side of 
the arcade was the handsome library hall and rooms presented by the 
women of New York to the building, for the use of the women of the world. 
The book room was a spacious, well lighted apartment, with a frescoed 
ceiling of handsome design and an artistic frieze. A beautiful book-case of 
carved antique English oak contrasted darkly with the soft tints of the walls 
and gave a distinct character and beauty to what was undoubtedly one of the 
handsomest rooms in the building. The case was divided in two by a fire- 
place with a lofty carved mantel. The room and its executive ante-rooms 
were equipped with chairs, and these, with the spacious veranda looking out 
upon the Midway Plaisance, made the library a cheerful resting place for the 
tired sight-seers. This fact is worth noting, for while the directors had' 
firmly refused to sell the water and air to concessionnaires, the women 
alone broke through the rule of repelling the public, and provided seats for 
their guests. The library contained about six thousand volumes from the 
pens of women of France and Bohemia. A popular impression prevailed 
that women and respectability were excluded from Bohemia, but three hun- 
dred volumes in the dreadful Czech language adorned these shelves to- 
refute this slander. 



Government Building. 

RECTED near the Lake shore, south of the main Lagoon 
the Government Building had a picturesque and delight- 
ful location. It was classic in style, and bore a strong 
resemblance to the National Museum and other Govern- 
ment buildings at Washington. It covered an area of 
350 by 420 feet, was constructed of iron, brick and 
glass, and cost £400,000. Its leading architectural feature was a central 
octagonal dome 120 feet in diameter and 150 feet high. The building faced 
to the west and connected on the north, by a bridge over the Lagoon, with 
the Fisheries building. 

The south half of the Government Building was devoted to the exhibits 
of the Post-Office Department, Treasury Department, War Department and 
Department of Agriculture. The north half was devoted to the exhibits of 
the Fisheries Commission, Smithsonian Institute and the Interior Depart- 
ment. The State Department exhibit extended from the rotunda to the 
east end and that of the Department of Justice from the rotunda to the west 
end of the building. The allotment of space for the several department 
exhibits was : War Department, 23,000 square feet; Treasury, 10,500 square 
feet; Agricultural, 25,250 square feet; Interior, 24,000 square feet; Post- 

Office, 9,000 square feet; Fish- 
ery, 20,000 square feet, and 
Smithsonian Institute, balance 
of space. The authorities of 
the Mint exhibited not only a 
complete group of the coins 
made by the United States, 
but a number of the coins of 
foreign countries. The Super- 
vising Architect of the T 
ury exhibited a number of 
photographs of all the public 
buildings of the Capitol. 

These included not only the The Great Globe in Government Building 

buildings, but they also included the parks and reservations. The Bureau 
of Engraving and Printing exhibited many new bills under framing. These 
included a sample of every bill of every denomination that the United States 
Government now authorizes as money. 

The Quartermaster's department had lay-figure officers and men of all 
grades in the army, mounted, and on foot, and fully equipped in the uniform 
of their rank and service. 

Aside from these were nineteen figures, showing the uniforms worn 
during the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, and thirty-one figures 
showing the uniforms in the Mexican War. A novel exhibit was that of a 
telephone as used on the battlefield. The heliograph, which practically 
annihilates distance in the matter of talking, was shown in full operation. All 
means of army telgraphing and signaling with the batteries, lines, cables, 
bombs, torches, and so forth, were shown with great elaborateness. 

The exhibit of the Medical Bureau occupied a hospital built especially 
for its use, operated by a corps of hospital nurses and doctors. 


The Palace of Fine Arts. 

REC1AN-IONIC in style, this building was a pure 

type of the most refined classic architecture. 

The building was oblong and was 500 by 320 

feet, intersected north, east, south and west 

by a great nave and transept 100 feet wide 

and 70 feet high, at the intersection of which 

was a great dome 60 feet in diameter. The 

building was 125 feet to the top of the dome, 

~--— > " h\y which was surmounted by a colossal statue of 

the type of famous figures of winged victory. The transept had a clear space 

through the center of 60 feet, being lighted entirely from above. 

On either side were galleries 20 feet wide, and 24 feet above the floor. 
The collections of the sculpture were displayed on the main floor of the nave 
and transept, and on the walls of both the ground floor and of the galleries 
were ample areas for displaying the paintings and sculptured panels in relief. 
The corners made by the crossing of the nave and transept were filled with 
small picture galleries. Around the entire building were galleries 40 feet 
wide, forming a continuous promenade around the classic structure. Be- 
tween the promenade 
and the naves were the 
smaller rooms devoted to 
private collections of 
paintings and the collec- 
tions of the various art 
schools. On either side 
of the main building were 
several one-storied an- 
nexes, divided into large 

These annexes were 120 by 
200 feet wide. The main 

building was entered by four 
great portals, richly orna- 
mented with architectural 
sculpture, and approached by 
flights of steps. The walls of 
the loggia of the colonnades 
were highly decorated with 
mural paintings, illustrating 
the history and progress of 
the arts. The frieze of the 
exterior walls and the pedi- 
ments of the principal en- 
trances Were Ornamented With Persian Exhibit -Main Building. 

sculptures and portraits in bas-relief of the masters of ancient art. The con- 
struction, although of a temporary character, was necessarily fire-proof. 
The main walls were of solid brick, covered with "staff," architecturally 

ented, while the roof, floors and galleries 
1 frames. 


A light was 

1 n J 


The building was beautifully located in the northern portion of the 
Park, with the south front facing the Lagoon. It was separated from the 
Lagoon by beautiful terraces, ornamented with balustrades, with an immense 
flight of steps leading down from the main portal to the Lagoon, where there 
was a landing for boats. The north front faced the wide lawn and the 
group of State buildings. The immediate neighborhood of the building was 
ornamented with groups of statues, replica ornaments of classic art, such as 
the Choriagic monument, the "Cave of the Winds," and other beautiful 
examples of Grecian art. The ornamentation also included statues of heroic 
and h'fe-size proportions. 


Transportation Building. 

I with then 

ORMING the Northern or Picturesque Quadrangle 
was a group of buildings of which the Transpor- 
tation Building was one. It was situated at the 
r southern end of the west flank between the 
Horticultural and the Mines Buildings. The 
Transportation Building was exquisitely refined 
and simple in architectural treatment, although it 
was very rich and elaborate in detail. In style it savored much of the 
Romanesque, although to the initiated the manner in which it was designed 
on axial lines and the solicitude shown for fine proportions, and subtle 
relation of parts to each other, at once suggested the methods of composition 
followed at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 

Viewed from the Lagoon, the cupola of the Transportation Building 
formed the effective southwest accent of the Quadrangle, while from the 
cupola itself, reached by eight elevators, the Northern Court, the most 
beautiful effect of the entire Exposition, could be seen in all its glory. The 
main entrance to the Transportation Building consisted of an immense 
single-arch enriched to an extraordinary degree with carvings, bas-reliefs 
and mural paintings, the entire feature forming one vast golden gate glitter- 
ing in the sun by day and the electric- 
light by night. The remainder of the 
architectural composition falls into a 
just relation of contrast with the 
highly wroughtentrance, and wasduly 
quiet and modest though very broad 
in treatment. It consisted of a contin- 
uous arcade with subordinated colon- 
steamboat of 1807. nade and entablature. Numerous 

minor entrances were from time to time pierced in the walls, 
were grouped terraces, seats, drinking fountains and statues. 

The interior of the building was treated much after the manner of a 
Roman Basilica, with broad nave and aisles. The roof was, therefore, in 
three divisions; the middle one rising much higher than the others, and its 
walls pierced to form a beautiful arcaded clearstory. The cupola, placed 
exactly in the center of the building and rising 165 feet above the ground, 
was reached by eight elevators. These elevators of themselves naturally 
formed a part of the Transportation Exhibit, and as they also carried pas- 
sengers to galleries at various stages of height, a fine view of the interior of 
the building could easily be obtained. The main galleries of this building, 
because of the abundant placing of passenger elevators, proved quite ac- 
cessible to visitors. The main building of the Transportation Exhibit 
measured 960 feet front by 256 feet deep; from this extended westward to 
Stony Island avenue, a triangular Annex covering about nine acres, and 
consisting of one story buildings 64 feet wide, set side by side. There was 
a railway track every [6 feet and all these tracks ran east and west. Add 
to the effect of the exhibits the architectural impression 
given by a long vista of richly ornamented colonnade, and 

sily be imagined that 
the interior of the Transportation 
Building was one of the mo^t 
impressive of the 

1 Tuiier-Exhil.itpJ in 'h- Tr.iu-;[iortatioii Bull 


Every kind of conveyance, foreign 
and domestic, up-to-date and out-of-date, 
was here exhibited. How marvelous 
the contrast between the prairie schooner 
and the well-equipped vestibule train — 
smoking car, dining car, observation car, 
drawing-room and sleepers 1 Imagine 
four horses toiling before this tent on 
wheels, and the great engine moving a 
those comforts which we call "modern improve- 
e realize the past and appreciate the present so 
much as in this grand building of practical art. 

The unique exhibition of engines and rolling stock formed a complete 
history of railway progress. There is not in the world as complete and 
satisfactory a collection of objects illustrating every step in the onward 
march of railroad transportation as was here exhibited. 

The Baltimore and Ohio company had been making preparations for 
this notable display for over two years, and were in correspondence with 
European governments and societies of engineers to secure the originals of 
old historic types and, when these could not be obtained, working models. 
The results of this enterprise and public spirit were crystallized here in an 
exhibit that was a credit to the company and a marvelous educational factor. 
One could pass down the line and contrast the rude, heavy, iron engine of 
the thirties with that polished, compact, glittering concentration of power 
and energy— the mammoth locomotive of to-day— and the tremendous pro- 
gress of sixty years, the patience, skill, and labor expended in the important 
department of human activity would be understood and appreciated almost 
at a glance. " Until one has made a thorough investigation of the contents 
of the Transportation Building, he can form no idea as to the number and 
variety of the modes of locomotion used by the different tribes and nations 

who inhabit the earth. In 
boats the types run from 
the balsa and other species 
of raft on up through in- 
numerable gradations to the 
palatial ocean steamers of 
the latest date and finest 
finish. There are canoes 
hollowed out of a single log by the crudest of methods; proas with triangula 
lateen sails; double canoes and canoes with balancing outriggers, and sail 
ing, rowing and steam craft innumerable." 

Rapid Transi 

Leather Exhibit. 

In the southeastern portion of Jackson Park, stretching for 550 feet along 
the lake shore, stood the first large building ever erected at a universal ex- 
position for the exclusive use of the shoe and leather interests of the world. 
Here was offered, without doubt, a display never before equaled and athwart 
the admiring eyes of all nations was spread the inventions, skill and taste 
evoked in the treatment of leather by all nations. Here leather became as 
cloth, and the satins, meltons, doeskins, broadcloths 
and silks of the eye all were changed into leather on 

c,oseraprroach - rolW^ 

Castle, German Village. 


Fisheries and Aquarium. 

( NOTHER ingenious architectural work was the Fisheries 
Building, Henry Ives Cobb having given the 
exterior treatment in the Spanish Romanesque 
style and adapted the interior to the purpose 
for which it was designed. His ingenuity was 
shown in the capitals, cornices, brackets and 
all ornamental details, only fish and sea 
products being used as motives for this great 
variety of designs. The roof of old Spanish 
tiles gave strong color, which distinguished it 
in a city of white and gold. Much labor and taste was expended in arranging 
the interior, and by means of artificial lakes, cascades, etc., and the grouping 
of all that related to fishing, from the huge boats to fish hooks, an extremely 
pleasing exhibit was secured. 

The extreme length of the building was 1,100 feet, and the width 200 
feet. It was built on a banana-shaped island, and subdivided into three 
parts to conform to the shape of the site. In the central portion was the 
general Fisheries Exhibit. In one of the polygonal buildings was the Angling 
Exhibit, and in the other the Aquaria. 

The Fish Exhibit was a wonderful one, and not the least interesting 
portion of it was the Aquarial or Live Fish display. This was contained in 
a circular building, 135 feet in diameter, standing near one extremity of the 
main Fisheries Building and in a great curved corridor connecting the two. 
In the center of the circular building was a rotunda 60 feet in diameter, in 
the middle of which was a basin or pool 26 feet wide, from which rose a 
towering mass of rocks covered with moss and lichens. From clefts and 
crevices in the rocks crystal streams of water gushed and dropped to the 
; of reeds, rushes and ornamental semi-aquatic plants in the basin 

below. In this pool gorgeous gold fishes, golden ides, golden tench and 
other fishes disported. 

Passing out of the rotunda by the entrances, a great corridor or arcade 
was reached, where on one hand could be viewed the opposite side of the 
series of great tanks and on the other a line of tanks somewhat smaller, 
ranging from 750 to 1,500 gallons each in capacity. The corridor or arcade 
was about 15 feet wide. The glass fronts of the Aquaria were in length 
about 575 feet and had 3,000 square feet of surface. They made a panorama 
never before seen in any exhibition, and rivaled the great permanent 
aquariums of the world not only in size but in all other respects. 

The total water capacity of the Aquaria, exclusive of reservoirs, was 
18,725 cubic feet, or 140,000 gallons. This weighed 1,192,425 pounds, or 
almost 600 tons. Of this amount about 40,000 gallons was devoted to the 


A Corridor of the ] 


Marine Exhibit. In the entire salt water circulation, including reservoirs, 
there were about 80,000 gallons. The pumping and distributing plant for 
the Marine Aquaria was constructed of valcanite. The pumps were in 
duplicate and each had a capacity of 3,000 gallons per hour. The supply of 
sea water was secured by evaporating the necessary quantity at the Woods 
Hoil station of the United States Fish Commission to about one-fifth its bulk, 
thus reducing both quantity and weight for transportation about 80 per cent. 
The fresh water required to restore it to its proper density was supplied from 
Lake Michigan. 

In transporting the marine fishes to Chicago from the coast there was 
an addition of probably 3,000 gallons of pure sea water to the supply on each 
trip. Every visitor took a deep interest in the Fisheries Exhibit. 

It was a source of regret to the thousands who daily thronged the 
Fisheries that the exhibit was not worthy of the building. The exhibits of 
the United States, greater in quantity than the rest, were merely fair. The 

most interesting of all were those from Canada and Japan. Strange to say, 
Great Britain was poorly represented by a paltry dozen specimens, quite un- 
worthy of the subject and utterly unworthy of the country. Here, as else- 
where, Great Britain allowed herself to be outstripped by her colonies. Not 
only was the Canadian exhibit immeasurably better than that from England, 
but even far off New South Wales contrived to send a small but interesting 
exhibit. Russia, Mexico, the Netherlands, Germany, France, New Zealand, 
Greece and Norway made a fine and attractive show. 


In the Fisheries Building. 

Horticultural Building. 

IMMEDIATELY south of the entrance to Jackson Park 
from the Midway Plaisance, and facing east on the 
Lagoon, stood the Horticultural Building. In front was 
a flower terrace for outside exhibits* including tanks 
for Nympheas an'd the Victoria-Regia. The front of 
the terrace, with its lower parapet between large vases, bordered the 
water, and at its center formed a boat landing. 

The building was i ,000 feet long, with an extreme width of 286 feet. 
The plan was a central pavilion with two end pavilions, each connected with 
the center pavilion by front and rear curtains, forming two interior courts, 
each 88 by 270 feet, These courts were beautifully decorated in color and 
planted with ornamental shrubs and flowers. The center pavilion was 
roofed by a crystal dome 187 feet in diameter and 113 feet high, under 
which were exhibited the tallest palms, 
bamboos and tree ferns that could be 
procured. There was a gallery in 
each of the pavilions. The gall. 


of the end pavilions were 
designed for cafes, the sit- 
uation and the surroundings 
being particularly adapted 
to recreation and refresh- 

nt. The 


surrounded by an arcade 
on three sides, from which 
charming views of the 
grounds could be obtained. 

In this building were ex- 
hibited all the varieties of 
flowers, plants, vines, seeds, 
horticultural implements, 
etc. Those exhibits requir- 
ing sunshine and light were 
shown in the rear curtains, 
where the roof was entirely 
of glass and not too far 
removed from the plants. 
The front curtains and 
space under the galleries 
were designed for exhibits 
that required only the ordi- 
nary amount of light. 

The architect had to grap- 
ple with the problem of 
suiting his building to its 
requirements, as to heat 
and light, and then to liar- 


monize it with its surroundings. Messrs. Jenny and Mundie solved the 
question hy erecting a building in the style of the Venetian rennaisance, 
the order Ionic, with a broad frieze decorated with cupids and garlands. 
Beneath was constructed a miniature tropical mountain, with a cave beneath, 
and water coursing down its sides. In the collection of plants shown, 
there were specimens from almost every country on earth. Japan showed 
dwarf trees more than ioo years old and only a few feet in height. The display included 35,000 jars of fruit, from all parts of the world. 
The front of the building and the entrances were decorated with statues. 
Among them were "Flora," "Pomona," and the "Painting of the Lily." 
On the south side of the main entrance, to typify Autumn, was a compo- 
sition, the "Sleep of Flowers," and on the other side was the "Battle of 

Taken as a whole, the horticulture exhibit was the least attractive. It 
in no way reflected the wealth of field, forest, garden, or hothouse. But 
the managers can not be held responsible for this, as the magnificent exam- 
ples of hothouse roses which adorn the windows of city florists require con- 
ditions beyond the limits of the managers. Still, the visitor who hoped to 
see many varietiesof hothouse plants in full bloom without regard to the 
season turned away disappointed. Hardy plants from all quarters of the 
globe there were and these were more interesting to the botanist than to the 
average visitor armed with lunch basket and clothed in brown holland duster. 

Surprise, or The Master's Return.' 


Agricultural Building. 

l Ai-nrultural Building. 


NE of the most magnificent structures raised for the Exposition was the Agricul- 
tural Building, of which McKim, Meade & White, of New York, were the archi- 
tects. The style of architecture was classic renaissance. This building was 
erected very near the shore of Lake Michigan, and was almost surrounded by 
the Lagoons that led into the Park from the Lake. The building was 500x800 
feet, its longest dimensions being east and west. The north line of the building 
was almost on a line with the Pier extending into the Lake, and faced the Grand 
Canal. The east front looked out into a harbor which afforded refuge for 
numerous pleasure craft, and in which were anchored the Spanish caravels, the 
Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria. The entire west exposure of the building faced a 
continuation of the Lagoon that extends along the north side. With these 
picturesque surroundings as an inspiration the architects brought out designs 

that have been pronounced all but faultless. For a single story building the design was bold and heroic. The gei 

■" feet above grade. On either side of the main entrance were mammoth Corinthian pillars, 50 feet high and 5 feet in diameter. On each 
and from the center of the building pavilions were reared, the center of one being 144 feet square. The corner pavilions 
:onnected by curtains, forming a continuous arcade around the top of the building. The main entrance led through an 
g 64 feet wide into a vestibule, from which entrance was had to the rotunda, 100 feet in diameter. This was surmounted 
am moth glass dome, 1 30 feet high. All through the main vestibule statuary had been designed illustrative of the Agricul- 
industry. Similar designs were grouped about all the grand entrances in the most elaborate manner. The corner pa- 
vilions were surmounted by domes 96 feet high, and above these towered groups of statuary. The design for these 
that of three women, of herculean proportions, supporting a mammoth globe. The Agricultural Building 
than nine acres, and together with the Dairy and Forestry Buildings, which cover 1.7 and 4.5 
acres respectively, cost about Si, 000, 000. To the southward of the Agricultural Building was a 
spacious structure devoted chiefly to a Live Stock and Agricultural Assembly Hall. This building was 
conveniently near one of the stations of the Intramural railway. It was a very hand- 
some building and the common meeting point for all persons interested in live stock and 
agricultural pursuits. On the first floor, near the main entrance of the building, was 
located a Bureau of Information, in charge of attendants, who furnished visitors with all 


necessary informationun regard to 
the Assembly Hall and the main 
Agricultural Building as well as other 
features of the Exposition. This 
floor also contained suitable com- 
mittee and other rooms for the differ- 
stock associations of every character, 
thus affording this important industry ample head- 
urters near the Live Stock Exhibit and the Agricul- 
and the Agricultural Building. On this 
/ere also large and handsomely equipped 

most approved theories were ad- 
vanced and explained. On the 
grounds and in the Agricultural and 
Dairy Buildings were the best illus- 
trations of what can be accom- 
plished when these theories are put 
into practice. The entire second 
floor of the Assembly Hall was given 
up to committee rooms and rooms 
for headquarters for each and all of 
the different farmers' organizations 

Agricultural Buildm 

men and ample 
toilet facilities. 
Broad stairways led from the first floor 
into the Assembly Room, which had a 
seating capacity of 1,500. This Assembly 
Room furnished facilities" for Hectures 
delivered by gentlemen eminent in their 
special fields of work, embracing every 
interest connected with Live Stock, Agri- 
cultural and allied industries. Taken in f 
connection with the exhibits, this feature 
made that part of the Exposition devoted 
to Live Stock, Agriculture and the Dairy 
a complete showing of the most ad- ^ 
vanced progress in these branches 
industry. In the Assembly Room 


in this country. Such a building was 
never erected at any Exposition, and its 
construction here showed that the Board 
of Directors purposed affording every 
desirable facility that they could furnish 
to aid the great Live Stock and Agricul- 
tural interests. The sculpture of the 
Agricultural Building was uniformly good. 
The building was recognized from afar by 
the Diana of St. Gaudens. Philip Martini 
contributed some beautiful work to this 
edifice— his "Signs of the Zodiac," the 
figures idealizing "Abundance," the "Four Sea- 
sons," and the four groups of " The Nations," 
all being marked by artistic skill and originality. 
The pediment of the main entrance, designed by 
L. J. Mead, of Florence, was a fine piece of work, 
JJ*' while Martini's "Yoke of Oxen" was the best 
piece of plastic work found in the vast enclosure. 


South Sea Island Village. 

The South Sea Island Village consisted of a group of houses brought from Samoan, 
Fiji and Wallis Islands. The largest of these houses belonged to King Mataafa, the deposed 
ruler of Samoa, who occupied it for years. It was made from the wood of the bread-fruit tree 
and thatched with leaves of the wild sugar-cane. There were a number of other native 
houses, which were occupied by natives from the different Islands, showing their every- 
day life. Curios of native manufacture, which embraced many curiosities in the way of 
weapons and articles made from the bread-fruit tree, tapa (native) cloth, etc., were for sale. 
War canoes that have seen active service in the south seas were on exhibition. The 
Samoans themselves are the oldest race of the south seas. Dances were given in the 

hich were really wonderful. The Samoans gave a very interesting show. 

; physically remarkably fine specimens, excelling the Americans in this respect. 

arriors were over six feet high, and weighed nearly 200 pounds each. The 

ere equally good looking. They had an attendance of 650,000 through the 

d made a little money in the Fair business. 

They w 
All the 

Panorama of the Alps. 

This was a stage picture of beautiful Swiss Alpine scenery, depicting in a realistic 
way every change of nature shown from dawn to night, as each gradually appeared, and 
represented some of the most wonderfully realistic light effects ever produced by electric 
lamps. It is almost beyond belief that the visitor was not looking at a marvellous pro- 
duction of nature itself, instead of a picture created by an ingenious and artistic display 
of electric lights. The scene represented "A Day in the Alps." Tyrolean warblers 
performed on their various instruments, and sung their tuneful lays. Their renowned 
"yodels," as sung at each performance, were applicable to the scenery. The entire 
scenic effects were produced by about 250 electric incandescent lamps, operated from in 
front of the stage, in full view of the audience, by switches. The interior of the theatre 
was handsomely furnished with comfortable chairs. There were nine electric fans, pro- 
ducing a permanent current of fresh air, keeping the whole room at a low temperature 
and as refreshing as a sea breeze, it mattered not how hot it 

light be outside 


The Irish Villages. 

The Irish Industrial Village and Blarney Castle, exhibited under the 
patronage of the Countess of Aberdeen, contained many features of interest 
to a World's Fair visitor. Here was shown the many different Irish Indus- 
tries, such as needle point lace making, crochet work and the weaving of 
homespuns, knitting, etc. The dairy exhibit was shown, as was also bog 
oak carving, embroidery, etc. Taken all together it was a place one would 
wish to visit. The rival village was a model of Donegal Castle, and over 
against Lady Aberdeen's blarney stone they put the "Wishing Chair of 
the Giant's Causeway." The latter village was designed and erected by 
Mrs. Ernest Hart as the exhibit of the Donegal Industrial Fund. 

The Turkish Village. 

The Turkish Village and booths were a very good sample of the man- 
ners and customs of the wily Turk. In the main pavilion were exposed for 
sale some very costly goods, notably the rugs and hangings and fine silks 
and embroideries. These people always claimed to be doing a very poor 
business, and to want to get away as soon as possible; but if the truth were 
known they all made money. 

The Algerian Village. 

The Algerians had a theater, cafe, Tunisian booths, and a street of 
small shops, and the picturesque foreigners were chiefly remarkable to the 
public for their aptness in picking up American slang and ways and shouting 
the Americanisms in ear-splitting and constant iteration. 

The exhibit of the Libby Glass Works was at once interesting and 
instructive. Day and night the glass factory was shown in full operation, 
and it was a great educator of one of the oldest arts. 

In great contrast to the natives of Dahomey was the International 
Dress and Costume Exhibit, where was shown the costumes and faces of 
pretty women from forty nations. 

The East India Palace was a very interesting exhibit. It contained a 
large assortment of shawls, table covers and cushions, silverware, jewelry, 
old battle axes, arms, and idols. 

The Panorama of Pompeii was a representation of the city of Pompeii 
before its destruction in the year 63, and as it is to-day. 

The Diamond Match Company had a very unique exhibit, showing the 
method pursued in the manufacture of matches. 

Midway Character Typi 


Volcano of Kilauea. 

The Volcano of Kilauea, as an educational exhibit was equal to anything 
at the Great Fair. It was a correct and faithful representation of the world's 
great mystery — an active volcano — made from studies on the spot. 

The original Volcano of Kilauea is on the Island of Hawaii, in the 
Hawaiian Islands, two thousand miles southwest of San Francisco. It is 
located 14 miles from the sea at an elevation of 4,000 feet, on the flank of 
Mauna Loa, which rises to a height of over 13,000 feet. The new Volcano 
of Kilauea was located on the Midway Plaisance, opposite Old Vienna. 

Language utterly fails to adequately describe the awful grandeur of the 
vast crater and the terrible fascination of the mighty forces constantly in 
action within its frowning walls, but a few facts will give some conception 
of it. The western walls of the crater are massive overhanging precipices of 
jagged lava, seamed with chasms and earthquake cracks, rising sheer ;oo 
feet and more from the black desolation at their base, and stretching away 
at their tops into miles of sandy deserts. 

On the east side of the crater a luxuriant tropical forest covers the 
surrounding country, and overflows down the banks to the very floor of the 
crater, vividly contrasting its delicate ferns and creepers, its brilliant scarlet 
blossoms and its many shaded green foliage with the glistening black of the 
freshly frozen lava. The distinctive characteristics of the crater is perpetual 
change. Each day and each hour works a more or less radical change in 
the landscape. The lakes of liquid lava are found in no other volcano. 
They are actual lakes of boiling, hissing, seething lava, varying from 50 to 
1,200 feet in diameter and extending to unknown depths, within which the 
liquid blood red lava surges against the imprisoned walls in great breakers 
of fire, dashing its red hot spray into the air, while from its depths masses of 
molten rock burst upward in mighty billows, jets and fountains, flinging the 
molten metal aloft in a wild confusion of scintillating fireworks. 

The volcano at the World's Fair was a life-like represen- 
tation of this great volcano. The spectator approached through 
a passage way which gave an interior view of the blow holes 
and lava tubes, lined with stalactites formed by a splashing up 
of lava, and finally arrives at a point of view on the lava at the 
center of the crater. 
Active lakes, blow holes 
and lava streams were in 
the immediate fore- 
ground, the surrounding 
walls of the crater were in 
the middle distance, with 
a background formed by 
the snow capped moun- 
tains of Mauna Kea and 




succeeded by the sweep 
around the circle by the 
wooded hills of Hilo, 
which in turn melts on 
the broad blue Pacific on 
the horizon. A distin- 
guishing feature of the 
exhibit was the produc- 
tion of electrical and 
mechanical devices of 
fire effects, and hot lava 
eruptions of a realistic 
and startling character. 
There is no record of 





the day when 
Kilauea first 

one of the few 
ers, which at the 
dawn of creation and for thousands of years thereafter 
built mountains and raised continents from the bottom 
of the sea. The volcano on the Fair Grounds was the 
growth of over two years of study 
constructed in its entirety by Walter W. Burridge, th 
Chicago artist, who visited th> 

ing his studies on the ground. He was ably assisted 
by C. H. Ritter, who constructed the foreground. In mechanical detail the 
cyclorama consisted of a painting 400 feet long by 50 feet high, suspended 
in a circle around a foreground of realistic lava flows, blow holes, crags and 
chasms marvelously real. The exhibit was entirely by electric light, the 
fire effects produced being wonderful in their 
intensity. The entire production was a master- 
piece of art and realism. The financial cost of 
the exhibit was borne entirely by Honolulu cap- 
italists, a corporation with a capital stock of 
$82,000 having been formed to build it. While 
the volcano is a stern reality it has its poetry in 
Pele, the Hawaiian Goddess of Fire. The tra- 
ditions say that she was the most beautiful 
woman that ever lived, and the most capricious. 

She made her home on various islands from which she was successively 
driven by the water god, Kamapuaa, who had the body of a man and the 
head of a hog. She finally took refuge in the volcano of Kilauea, where 
she maintains herself : to this day. Whenever her wrath was excited she 
would turn into a lava flow or throw masses of hot rocks and overwhelm her 
enemies. A statue of the fair goddess 25 feet in height was erected over 
the entrance of the volcano building. It represents her seated upon a lava 
flow, a torch of fire extended aloft in one hand and a mass of lava which 
she is about to throw, in the other. Her hair is blown wildly back and 
there is a terrible frown upon her beautiful face, as she prepares to annihi- 
late her enemies. The statue was the largest but one in the entire Fair 
Grounds. The management of the volcano was under the direction of Mr. 
Wm. F. Sesser, of St. Joseph, Mich., a gentleman of pronounced executive 
ability, and he left -nothing undone to make this exhibit one of the very 
best attractions at the Fair. In order to more fully represent Hawaii, he 
secured a quartette of native Hawaiians of more than ordinary musical 
ability. The sweet singing of this quartette was, beyond doubt, a feature 
of the Midway Plaisance. Hearing them sing their native songs, and look- 
ing upon the great painting of the volcano, made one feel as if they were in 
reality in far away Hawaii. 


The Lapland Village. 

There were twenty-four Laplanders in the Lapland village. The band 
was headed by King Bull. He is not a king in his own country, but the head 
of a clan and a stickler for his rights. He is 112 years old, but in spite of his 
advanced age he has a forcible way of getting what he wants. Another 
remarkable thing about the old man is that for a little while each day he 
plays with his great-great-great-great-great-grandchildren. 

king Bull has a very remarkable family. He was accompanied by his 
son, Bals Bull, aged 90 years, who has a son named Bals Hygd, aged 73, 
who has a daughter aged 59, who has a son aged 41, who has a son aged 
29, who has a daughter aged 14 years, who has a daughter two years old. 
By this it will be seen that in the one family there were in the village child, 
parent, grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, great- 
great-great-grandparent, great-great-great -great-grandparent and great- 
great-great-great-great-grandparent. When they are dressed in their rein- 
deer-skin clothes it is, leaving out the baby, as difficult to tell one from the 

other as it is to 

blue and the yellow of Norway and the center of the inclosure was dotted 
over with the huts of the people. They were pointed, tent-like, and made 
of skins banked up with moss. The entrance was very small and the door 
was a piece of wood which fitted tightly from the inside. In the center of 
the tent-like home a fire was kept burning on the ground, and the smoke, 
or a small portion of it, escaped through a little hole in the roof if the wind 
was right. If the wind was wrong it stayed in the home, and the natives 
enjoyed it when it got dense. In their native state the complexion is not 
unlike the color of a well-cured ham. 

The village had very hard luck, all but one of their reindeer and two of 
their native dogs dying soon after their arrival here. It was a very faithful 
representation of Lapland life. They had a record of 175,000 paid admissions. 

The Ice Railway. 

The Ice Railway truly did a remarkably good business, carrying over 
750,000 people. This unique exhibit was installed by the De La Vergne 
Refrigerating Machine Company, of New York City, and demonstrated that 
in addition to refrigerating and ice making, skating rinks and amusements of 
that character can be produced by this system — direct expansion. The 
midsummer sleighing was a novelty which was very well patronized, and 
the hilarity which seemed to affect everybody who rode, was an indication 
of its popularity. 

Chinese Pavilion. 

The Chinese Pavilion had enough horrible josses on the outside to drive 
a sober man to drink, while on the inside a man never ought to be sober to 
see the sights aright. There was a theater where the plays had a cheerful 
habit of lasting about three months, and as the show men say, "it is going on 
all the time." Then there were an extensive bazaar, a tea garden and cafe, 
and among them all Mr. Henry Sling, the manager, did well, indeed, and 
takes back to China a great lot of big, round American dollars. 


The Animal Show. 

Hagenbeck's animal show was one of 
the most popular on Midway, and drew 
about as large a crowd as any. Over 
2,000,000 people were entertained there. 
The biblical expression of the lion and the 
lamb lying down together was more than 
verified here, for the fiercest lions were 
easily made to lie down with lambs, and 
like it. They were not animals with filed 
teeth or cut claws either. They were 
splendid creatures, who could have struck 
a man one blow and utterly annihilated 
him, and they were possessed of teeth that 
would cut their way through an oak door, 
if necessary. It was a revelation to see 
the antics of the animals — lions riding on 
horseback, jumping hurdles and pedestals 
with the ease and grace of man himself ; 
tigers propelling velocipedes, tigers on 
revolving globes; bears on revolving bar- 
rels; trained pigs and a group of wild 
animals of twenty different species forming 
all sorts of groups and pyramids, and other 
acts too numerous to mention. On Chicago 
day they had 28,000 visitors. 

Javanese Village. 

One of the most interesting sights on 
the Midway was the Javanese Village. It 
was genuine. The houses of bamboo, with 
their wattled walls and overhanging roofs, 

were wonderfully picturesque, and the soft 
footed natives, as they stole along about 
their daily business, were a source of 
astonishment and a never ending surprise 
to the visitors. In spite of many adverse 
circumstances, which included at one time 
the opposition of the World's Fair manage- 
ment, they managed to come out with a 
comparatively slight loss on the season's 
business. They had a record of admissions 
of 675,000 from July 2, the day they began 
charging admission. 

The German Village. 

The German Village was one of the 
popular concessions on the Midway. Over 
1 ,000,000 people passed its turnstiles. The 
greatest attraction here was the German 
infantry band, of fifty-five men of the 
Guard de Corps, and the cavalry band, 
of twenty-six men. This band was com- 
posed of the best musicians of the German 
army. The German Village was one of 
the largest of the Midway concessions, and 
showed a faithful picture of German home 
life in its cottages and castles. In the large 
castle was shown the greatest collection of 
arms and armor ever made, at least 
$1,000,000 worth. They had, also, a very 
fine restaurant, which was patronized by 
the most prominent World's Fair visitors. It 
was pronounced by them very satisfactory. 

of Transportatic 



Old Vienna. 

Old Vienna was one of the most popular places of resort on the Midway. 
A representation of a typical street in an Austrian city, it was the place of 
all others to go for a good meal, good music, or good rest. Ziehrer's Band 
added much to this popularity. Ziehrer himself has international fame as a 
composer, and his band was fully up to the standard of excellence he 
himself had established. Old Vienna was located just west of the Ferris 
Wheel, and from its quaint architectural appearance one could not fail to 
notice it. The entire structure, both externally and internally, 
exact reproduction of Vienna in the seventeenth century. The 
outer walls had the appearance of being old and weather beaten. 
Upon entering the enclosure one was struck with the wonderful 
panorama presented, showing, as it did, a 
square in Vienna, Austria, as it was two hun- 
dred years ago. The quaint shops with their 
great variety of wares, the large band stand 
in the corner of the court, and the many 
exceptionally fine restaurants, combined to 
make a scene no where else encountered on 
the American Continent. Old Vienna as it 
was here seen was a glimpse into fairyland. 
All day long it was filled with throngs of 
visitors, but with the coming of dusk 
thousands of people gathered there to enjoy an evening of solid comfort. 
The entire place seemed alive with pleasure. The shop keepers were busy, 
the restaurants were crowded and there was apparently not a spot in the 
entire enclosure during the evening hours that was not filled with laughter 
and music. Over 700,000 people passed its turnstiles during the season, the 
net gate receipts being$r 3 1 ,250, and the average daily attendance about 6,000. 

The Johore Village. 

Johore, the little sultanate which has the distinction of being the 
southernmost portion of Asia, was probably the smallest nation in the world 
to make an exhibit at the Columbian Exposition. Through the solicitation 
of Mr. Rounseville Wildman, then United States Consul at Singapore and 
ater United States World's Fair Commissioner for the Straits Settle- 
Trent and Borneo, His Highness, Abu Baker, Sultan of Johore, sent an 
exhibit to Chicago of which, when placed in compar- 
ison with some of his more mighty neighbors, he may 
well be proud. Besides the permanent exhibit in the 
Agricultural Building, he placed on Midway Plaisance, 
just west of the South Sea Island Village, a typical 
Malayan bungalow and village. The bunga- 
low, which occupied the center of the space, 
v,-'. was made in Johore under the supervision of 

the Prince, Governor of Muar, the northern- 
■ - most province of the sultanate, and was con- 
structed of the finest native woods. It stood 
seven feet from the ground on palm posts, out 
' of the reach of tigers, snakes and white ants. 
It was furnished in Malayan style, with .1 
Rajah's bed, eating throne, loom for the 
weaving of the national articles of dress, the 
sarong, and contained a complete collection of implements of war and agri- 
culture, games of chance, archaic time-pieces and coins, besides Chinese 
curios contributed by His Highness' Chinese subjects, of which he has over 
200,000. In the village proper, which was composed of thatched booths, 
Johore Tea, from the private gardens of His Highness, and ananas, the 
national drink was served and Malayan and Chinese curios sold. The 


Sultanate of Johore, which besides Siam, is the only independent kingdom 
in Southern Asia, is situated on the notorious old Strait of Malacca, fourteen 
miles north from the city of Singapore. It has a population of between 
400,000 and 500,000, and an area of 15,000 square miles. Its revenue 
amounts to over §6,000,000 a year, which is derived principally from opium 
and spirit monopolies and a small import tax on gambier and tin. The 
country is owned by the Sultan and the ground for mining and farming is 
parceled out, tax free, to any one who cares to take it up, to hold and 
occupy as long as it is worked. When neglected or given up it reverts to 
the crown. His Highness is fifty-six years old. He is educated, intelligent 
and progressive. While his rule is despotic, it is tempered with western 
standards of justice and mercy. 

The Moorish Palace. 

On the first floor of the Moorish Palace was located the Palm Garden, 
a veritable forest of genuine palm trees, representing a great many varieties 
of this queen of trees. The scene was one of true Oriental beauty. The 
effect was enhanced by groups of Arabs, among whom was a Bedouin chief, 
in arms and armor, and many other figures as natural as life. Here also was 
seen a well of apparently fathomless depths, and many more pleasing 
features. Entering next the Moorish Castle 
world famed "Alhambra,' 
The architectural effects 
from the beholder stretched 
capped by graceful arches, all in gold and brilliant ^ 

Sultan was seen surrounded by his favorites of the harem. We found our- 
selves next, again in a bewildering labyrinth of colonnades and nooks. We 
were amazed and amused, for, turn where we would, we were unable to 
find our way out of it, and were finally compelled to ask the assistance of 
an attendant to make our escape. We next entered the Cave, a grotto 
formed and filled by stalactites. The scene was weird. Large boulders 
were piled up around us, and from behind them and out of dark corners 
gnomes and devils peeped inquisitively. In this cave was seen a character- 
istic representation of the "Origin of the Harp," after the celebrated poem 
of Thomas Moore. Here we saw also "The Ride on the Razor," a pastime 
with which his Satanic Majesty amuses himself in his idle hours. Leaving 
the cave we ascended a few steps and found ourselves in the monster 
kaleidoscope. The presence of half a dozen people upon this platform 
created a delusion of countless thousands. On the second floor of the 
Palace were found groups and scenes, each upon a separate stage, set with 
appropriate scenic decorations. In a separate room on the west side of the 
gallery was shown a diorama representing the scene of the execution of 
Marie Antoinette, showing the scaffold and guillotine used in her execution. 
Certificates authenticating the genuineness of the same were exhibited at the 
entrance to this room. The unparalleled success enjoyed by this attraction 
is attributable to the shrewd business management and it was well merited. 

colors. This castle, with its 

parts, was a perfect labyrinth. 

was located the Harem, representing one of th 

private apartments of the Padishah, richly deco 

rated with fine antique oriental tapestries. The 

- 7*', -.> :\i#lP&5&>*- 1 -?-: A >- .^t^fr* 


The Pennsylvania State 
Building was one of the larg- 
est, and historically the most 
interesting of all the exhibition 
homes built on the grounds by 
the various States as a resort 
for their citizens. It was in 
the purely colonial style of 
architecture, the front being 
a copy of the old Independence Hall, having its entrances, bell-tower and 
spire, with the old Liberty Bell hanging in the en- ,-^"^" 

trance. Thousands of people, native and foreign born, / >".' "" - 

visited this priceless relic and turned their faces to- 
ward the now voiceless messenger of liberty with the 
reverence of a Mohammedan turning his face toward 
the tomb of the prophet. The structure was rec- 
tangular in form, with an area of no by 166 feet, and 
two stories in height. Piazzas twenty feet wide sur- 
rounded the building, with verandas above protected 
by balustrades. The walls were of Philadelphia 
pressed brick; the roof was covered with American 

tin, produced in Philadelphia. On either side of the 
e were statues of Penn and Franklin; the 
front was further ornamented with two 
free groups of statuary emblem- 
tic, the one of Arts and Sciences, 
le other of Mines and Manufac- 
jres. Floors and wainscoting 
?rved to show the native marble 
nd hard woods of Pennsylvania. 

The walls of the 

finished in marble, were orna- 
mented with mural paintings by 
Pennsylvania women, and ceil- 
ings were of stamped metal. 
Rooms were provided for the 
Governor and suite, the Penn- 
sylvania Commissioners and the 
press correspondents. The cost of erection 
Washington, Mad Anthony Wayne, Charl 


bellished with fin 

as S<3o,ooo. Relics of Penn, 
Carroll, of Carrollton, John 
Hancock, and many other historical personages were 
among the attractions of this superb building. The 
Idaho Building was Swiss in its architecture, the 
foundation of basaltic rock, the rest of the struc- 
ture of stripped cedar logs. The interior was made 
to represent a hunter's and trapper's cabin. It has 
been sold and will be taken to England and re- 
erected. The Illinois Building was more of an 
exhibit building, being 160 feet wide by 450 feet 
long, and composed, as far as possible, of state pro- 
ducts. It was surmounted by a dome and em- 
rvings and statuary. Beautiful terraces with fountains, 

balustrades, statues and 

flowers led down to the stone 
steps at the edge' of the la- 
goon. Educational, industrial 
and other State exhibits filled 
its interior. The Iowa Build- 
ing, resembling a French 
Chateau, held a generously 



devised grain exhibit, the 
decorations being formed 
from cereal products. 
Kansas presented a curi- 
ous and not displeasing 
structure of no known 
style of architecture, and 
Kentucky had a typical 

use'Of that ei 

of the 

of th 

colonial period— not unlike the New England h 
house was in the fashion of the old homes 
Creoles of the Pelican state. The Maine Building-was 
composite granite forming the first story, and the re- 
mainder being staff. It was octagonal and surmounted 
by a lantern roof. Maryland's headquarters were 
also in the colonial style, and Massachusetts presented 
a partial reproduction of the old John Hancock house, 
formerly on Beacon Hill in Boston. Michigan and 1 
Minnesota were well housed in modern residential edi- Hi' 

fices. MissouriVhouse had a fine cut brown-stone 
entrance, and Montana exhibited the famous coilos- 
sal statue of Ada Rehan in silver, in a fine Roman- 
structure. New '.Hampshire also 
adopted the Swiss archi- 
tecture, while New Jersey 
was housed in a free repro- 
duction of Washington's 
headquarters at Morristown. 
New York had a fine struc- 
ture in staff, in imitation of 

marble, the general air 
obtained being that of one 
of the famous Pompeiian 
houses. North Dakota 
had a magnificent build- 
ing with a court-yard en- 
tered through a splendid 
stone arch. Most of the 
structure, however, was 
of heavy native timber. 

The State Buildings were in reality large Exposi- 


Assembly halls at 
lodging nooks are numerou: 
ing and reading rooms are 
matters of course. When a 
Californian, for ex- 
ample, visited 1 

tion club-houses, where the visitor from each state 
might find a resting-place and meet his neighbor 
from home. In general plan most of the buildings 
were characteristic, representing the peculiar in- 
dustries of a state, its individual climatic require- 
ments, its dominant architectural style and local 
decorative taste. In every club-house, however, 
the first and evident design of the builders is to 
provide a comfortable home for visitors of a day. 
, comfortable 

Among the State Bu 


Tiis state who has visited the place; lie could have his mail delivered to him at the 
building. If he was in need of information on a specific point it would be at his 
command, and if he invited guests to meet him at the grounds his state building was 
a convenient rendezvous. Some one has described the state group as the social 
clearing house of the Exposition. The aptness of the figure is emphasized by the 
relative positions of the houses themselves. So far as could be the sites were 
grouped geographically. In general outline the plat of the state sites formed a gi- 
gantic horse-shoe curve around the fine-arts galleries. The toe of the shoe was at 
the north and the points east and west of the galleries. Beginning at the western point, 
Illinois and Indiana were just across the road from each other. Still westward paral- 
Jel with Stony Island avenue, was California. Starting north from the Indiana 
building, Wisconsin was the next, then Ohio and Michigan, completing the group 
of states surrounding Illinois. Then came a separate group adjoining 57th street, 
near Stony Island avenue, Arkansas, Nebraska, the Dakotas, and swinging around 
to the northern curve of the horseshoe were Kentucky, Florida, Louisiana, Alabama, } 

Conspicuous along the main avenue, which 

states of W 

, West Virginia and New Mexico, all of the south and southwest, 
n extension of 57th street, through to the lake, were the older 
ork, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts. Close to the lake were the New England states, Maine, 
Rhode Island and Connecticut, while distributed between these at various points on sites arranged 
more with regard to convenience than geographical relation, were Montana, Iowa, Delaware, 
Maryland, Utah and Colorado, in various styles of architecture. The suggestion of local in- 
fluence was conspicuous. Uniformity of plan was not observed, as was the case with the main 
Exposition buildings, the idea being to develop a comparison of architectural ideas rather than 
the construction of one harmonious group. It was at first supposed that the states would be 
allowed to group competitive exhibits in their several buildings. It was found, however, that 
permission to do this would result in the withdrawal of exhibits from the main buildings. 
The Exposition management therefore ruled that nothing but non-competitive exhibits 
restricted to certain lines would be allowed in the state headquarters. Some protest 
was made at this ruling, but its wisdom has been demonstrated and is now generally 
commended. The state headquarters were devoted almost entirely to social gather- 
ings and the personal comfort of visitors to the World's Columbian Exposition. 


road thoroughfare extending due west 
from Jackson Park for a level mile, and 
closely bordered on both sides by all manner 
I attractions, including settlements of Javan- 
South Sea Islanders, Turks, Algerians, Egyp- 
tians, Bedouins and American Indians, to mention no others, attracted the 
liveliest interest among Exposition visitors from first to last. The piquancy 
of it all was irresistible. Glass blowers, divers and jugglers, donkey-boys 
and camel-drivers, dancing-girls from Cairo and Solo, from Constantinople 
and Algiers, from Samoa and Brazil, from Dahomey and the tents of the 
desert— these and scores of other attractions were jumbled together, rubbing 

Types of Charai 

Cairu Street. 

elbows and shouting in opposition to one another. Frigid 
Laplander and sun-baked African met on common ground, 
both reaching with a single impulse for the coins of nov- 
elty-seeking Americans. The result of all this was that 
Midway Plaisance, dominated by foreign domes and min- 
arets and by the prodigious circle of the Ferris Wheel, 
was continually crowded both day and night. 

It was the greatest novelty of the Columbian Exhi- 
bition. There had been other Expositions, but never 
before had there been a Midway. 
Never before, since the confusing 
of the tongues at the tower of Babel, had so many 
people speaking different languages, been gathered 
together in one spot. Originally intended as a part of 
the Ethnological Exhibit, it quickly developed, as c 
cessions were sought and granted, into the playground 1 
of the Fair. Once the visitor entered upon the 
Midway, he breathed a different moral atmosphere 
from that of the Grand Court, and old men felt like 
boys, and acted like them. It was a regular "Circus 
in Town," with more side shows than all the circuses 
ever heard of, could furnish. And it was amusing, when the unspeakable Turk 
and the German Maiden, and the Irish Gossoon, and Javanese Mite, and 
Yankees from all places, from the Atlantic to the Golden Gate, and from 
Gulf to Gulf, made up a procession; and grave men played on penny 
whistles or blew toy trumpets and marched around, and no one was any the 
worse for it, and a good many toil worn travelers felt all the better for it. 
And with it all there was very little over-indulgence, very little real disorder, 
and a great deal of horse play. The quaintest resort was Old Vienna, 
where that city as it existed in medieval-times was reproduced in wonderful 

Some of the J 

fac-simile, with shops and curios, and gates, and a great restaurant and a 
huge garden, where the Imperial Austrian Band discoursed Strauss' waltzes 
in a bewitching way; and where bouncing Viennese girls deftly served the 
foaming beer, all under their fairy lights. And thence into Cairo Street, 
where a picture of Oriental life from dirt to donkeys was presented in a way 
which drew things. It left the new world behind to pass its gates and there 
the minarets of the mosque looked down on the mysterious latticed windows 
and projecting bays, and bright colors and big lazy camels; and that was the 
picturesque. Then the Temple of Luxor, with its rows of mummies, re- 
called the Pharaohs and the Pyramids, and that was the tragedy; and then 
the fat woman, trying to ride on camels, was excruciatingly funny; and that 
was the comedy of life. 

And the big Ferris Wheel, a triumph of engineering skill, went round 
and round; and people went up and saw the panorama of the big smoky 
town, and the vast prairie stretching away toward the big river, and the 

great lake, blue and sparkling under the summer sun. And the Irish village 
with its pretty lace makers and spinners and dairy maids; and the Castle 
with the Blarney Stone in it, and the great German Village with its flaxen 
haired hand maidens; and the Turkish Village where most of the inhabitants 
sprang from Jerusalem, except the dancing girls, who made you wonder how 
they kept so fat. And there was to eat and to drink on every hand, and of 
many kinds and fashions in cookery, and most of them bad. 

And Glass Works and panoramas and a Sliding Railway, that did not 
slide; and a Dahomey Village, where the Amazons made men look small; 
and shiny black men, with cocoanut heads and not enough clothes to wad 
a gun; and a few Indians, and a Chinese Theatre and so on through the 
labors and the follies of the world. But the voice of the " Barker " is 
hushed; the spangles are dropped from the stripes of the Clown; his 
bells no longer tinkle in the summer air, and the sound of the tom-tom and 
the music of the hew-gag is no longer heard in the Midway. 


The Ferris Wheel. 

The Ferris Wheel was among the most wonderful things shown on 
Midway and one of the most successful from the money-making point of 
view. The wheel carried 1,560,000 passengers up to the close of the Fair. 
The first trip was not made until June 20. The conception of this wonderful 
structure originated with G. W. G. Ferris, a civil engineer of Pittsburg. His 
principal work had always been in building bridges, in which he had 
achieved a national reputation. It was not until December, 1892, that the 
concession was granted, and at that time £25,000 had been expended in 
plans and specifications alone. The idea of a tension wheel of that 
ridiculed by all the engineers in the country, 
but he still had nerve enough to try it and \^^\ 
accomplish a world beating success. A stock 
company was formed, the majority of the stock ^f^ 
being taken in the East, and the work was 
finally pushed to successful completion. The 
stability of the wheel has been tested in the 
severest storms, and Manager Rice one day 
loaded the cars as they had never been loaded 
before and ran the wheel with but one chain 
without the slightest vibration and difference 
in the movement. The wheel is composed ot 
two wheels of the same size connected by rods 
and struts, which, however, do not approach 
closer than twenty feet to the periphery. Each 
wheel has for its outline a curved, hollow, 
square iron beam twenty-five and one-half by 
nineteen inches. At a distance of forty 
feet within this circle is another circle of 

a lighter beam. These are connected by an elaborate truss work. 
Within this smaller circle there are no beams, and at a distance there appears 
to be nothing. But at the center of the great wheel is an immense iron axle 
thirty-two inches thick and forty-five feet in length. Each, of the twin 
wheels, where the axle passes through it, is provided with a large iron hub 
sixteen feet in diameter. Between these hubs and the inner "crowns" there 
are no connections except spoke rods two and one-half inches in diameter, 
arranged in pairs, thirteen feet apart at the crown connection. At a distance 
they look like mere spider webs, and the wheel seems to be dangerously . 
devoid of substantial support, giving one a peculiar sensation as to its safety. 
The explanation of this is that the Ferris Wheel— at least inside the 


any given position, might be 

smaller crowns — is constructed on the principle of a bicycle wheel. The lower half is suspended from the axle by spoke rods running downward, and the 
upper half of the wheel is supported by the lower half. All the spoke rods above the axle, when it is in 
Wheel would be as solid as it would be with them. The only difference is that the Ferris Wheel hangs by 
its axle, while a bicycle wheel rests on the ground and the weight is applied downward on the axle. The 
thirty-six carriages are hung on the periphery of the Wheel at equal intervals, and each has accommodations 


for forty people. The Wheel is never left to itself, but is controlled by a steam < 
is very similar to that used by cable car companies. It operates a north and south 
shaft twelve inches in diameter, with great cog wheels at 
which the power is applied at each side of the Wheel. The 
Wheel is 250 feet in diameter, 825 feet in circumference, 
and is provided with air brakes, whereby it may be stopped 
instantly if anything goes wrong. It is a question if any 
similar engineering enterprise was ever 
brought to so successful an issue in 
America, and the-managers are very proud 
of the fact that nol 
accident ever hap- 
pened on the Wheel. 
The wheel cost about 
£382,000, and by the 
terms of their contract 
with the Exposition 

The machinery 


: (y<%. ■ 

■1. ... •'■>■ ". 

y, after they had 

$300,000 they 
were to commence paying the Expo- 
sition company 50 per cent, of their 
f '*', receipts. They reached the $300,000 mark Sep- 

tember 9, and from that time to the close of the 
turned in one-half of their receipts to the Exposition com- 
pany. The greatest number of passengers carried on any one 
day was 38,750, the day after Chicago day. The July 4th crowd numbered 
14,000. The daily average after September 1 was about 20,000. Another 
'*'$■ great success on Midway was Cairo street. This concession actually had a little over 

2,250,000 paid admissions during the six months of the Fair. The people flocked into 
Cairo street in countless numbers, and despite the fact that the managers raised the admission to 25 
cents the visitors continued to go, in increased numbers. The riding on the camels and donkeys 
nding source of delight to young and old. The theater, like the rest of those on Midway, was during 
the latter months of the Fair rather disappointing ; the dervish dance not being quite as interesting as a darky walk around. 
This was true, too, of the other dances on Midway. In the earlier days of the Fair there was a realistic abandon about 
them that seemed to highly please the sightseer, even of the most refined sort. Ladies of apparent education and culture would go to see these dances, 
because they were supposed to be an actual presentation of the dances common in the Far East. That was their excuse- When the newspapers generally 


announced to the public what the dances really were, and the Persian and 
Turkish Commissioners protested that the dances were not in any way 
representative of their country, the dancers were so instructed to modify it 
that to the apparent great disappointment of the majority of the visitors 
the dances were not even vulgar, and the assertions 
of the "barkers" outside that "this is the dance 
the newspapers talk about" was so much idle 
wind. They were about all alike. The Persian, 
Turkish, Algerian and Brazilian dancing girls did 
nothing but a plain and simple walk around, and 
when the visitor who had paid protested, he was 
told that was all there was to it. 

in 1883. The ostrich farm had the first ostrich ever hatched in America, 
and all the birds on exhibition were hatched by incubators on the California 
farm. These birds are yielding a revenue of gioo apiece for their feathers, 
each year, exclusive of all expenses. 

The Ostrich Farm. 

One of the most attractive of the Midway 
shows was the Ostrich Farm. This was installed 
by E. J. Johnson, of Fall Brook, California, who 
has been very ably assisted by Fred. K. Gifford, 
of Cambridge, Mass. Mr. Gifford's ability as an 
exploiter of the merits of ostriches has been 
something phenomenal. His poetic effusions 
readily attracted the admiring attention of men 
like Chauncey M. Depew and Richard Crocker, 
while Governor Russell, of Massachusetts, had to 
stop and go in because of his persuasive talking. 
The exhibit was made by the American Ostrich 

Company, of which Mr. Johnson is the Chief stockholder. He was the first 
man to bring ostriches to America, and to establish the industry of ostrich 
farming on this continent. He spent two years in South Africa investigating 
ostrich farming, and then brought twenty-three birds here in a sailing vessel 

The Indian Village. 

The American Indian exhibit was in charge 
of a bloviating person by the name of "Diamond 
Dick," who wore his hair long, dressed in buck- 
skin, and had the general air of a plainsman as 
seen through a dime novel. He claimed to have 
won the Exposition prize as a rifle shot, as well 
he might, for he was the only shooter on the 
grounds. The village, however, deserved the 
success claimed for it. Dick said they had 1 5 ,cxx> 
a day there. If they had 5,000 they made 
money. There were Comanches, Cheyennes, 
Pottawatomies, Iroquois and Winnebago Indians, 
all herded together in one common camp. The 
historical significance of this was that but a few 
years ago most of these tribes were in active 
enmity, and when Chicago was founded they 
fought over the ground. The mingling of oppos- 
ing "war-whoops" no longer occurs; the feathers 
and war-paint have been replaced by civilized 
apparel, and the fiery, untamed savage of the 
forest has become the "Poor Lo" of the reservation. Near the west end of 
Midway was an attractive exhibit, showing Sitting Bull's log cabin, together 
with a tribe of Sioux Indians, prominent among whom was that celebrated 
chief, Rain-in-the-Face. A very interesting collection of relics was shown. 

,.. r-zm'^rz 

Foreign Bun dings Along the Sh 


Battleship " Illinois." 

EALLY unique among the other exhibits was that made by the 
United States Navy Department. It was in a structure which, 
to all outward appearance, is a faithful, full-sized model of one 
of the new coast-line battleships. This imitation Battleship, 
which has been christened the "Illinois," is erected on piling 
on the Lake front in the northeast portion of Jackson Park. 
It is surrounded by water and has the appearance of being moored to a wharf. 
Since the close of the Exposition a bill has passed the National House of 
Representatives presenting the battleship to the State whose name it bears. 
The structure has all the fittings that belong to the actual ship, such as 
guns, tu'rets, torpedo tubes, torpedo nets and booms, with boats, anchors, 
chain cables, davits, awnings, deck fittings, etc., etc., together with all ap- 
pliances for working'the same. Officers, 
seamen, mechanics and marines were 
detailed by the 

certain drills, especially boat, torpedo and gun drills, as in a vessel of war. 
The dimensions of the structure are those of the actual battleship, to-wit: 
length, 348 feet and width amidships, 69 feet 3 inches; from the water line 
to the top of the main deck, 12 feet. Centrally placed upon this deck is a 
superstructure 8 feet high with a hammock berthing on the same 7 feet high, 
and above these are the bridge, chart-house and the boats. At the forward 
end of the superstructure there is a cone-shaped tower, called the " military 
mast," near the top of which are placed two circular " tops " as receptacles 
for sharpshooters. Rapid firing guns are mounted in each of these tops. 
The height from the water line to the summit of this military mast is 76 feet, 
and above is placed a flagstaff for signaling. The battery 
mounted comprises four 13-inch breech loading rifle cannon; eight 
8-inch breech loading rifle cannon; four 6-inch breech loading rifle 
n; twenty 6-pounder rapid firing guns; six i-pounder rapid 
firing guns; two Gatling-guns, and six torpedo tubes or torpedo 
guns. All of these are placed and mounted respectively as in the 
genuine battleship. The superstructure shows 
the cabins, staterooms, lavatories, 
lactrines, mess-rooms, galley and 
fittings, mess-table for crew, locker: 
berthings, etc., also the manner i 
which officers and 

Thv Sl:itue "! Plenty. 


Old Liberty Bell. 

boats, ei 

from the deck, in 

which are all ap- 


^^S^-^HL-, — ^&-^ th e captain has 

at his disposal 

when taking the ship into battle and during the progress of a fight at sea. 
An electric light plant is installed and provision made for heating with 
steam. On the berth deck are shown the various fittings pertaining to the 
hull, machinery and ordnance; ordnance implements, including electric de- 
vices, gun carriage motors and range finders; models showing typical ships 
of the past and present; samples of provisions, clothing, stores and supplies, 
bunting, flags, etc.; in short, the thousand and one things that go to make 
up the outfit of a man-of-war. On the starboard side of the ship is shown 
the torpedo protection net, stretching the entire length of the vessel. 

Convent of La Rabida. 

A great many things connected with the Exposition possessed special 
interest because of their historical value, but probably the most impressive 
of these was the Convent of La Rabida, with its documents, portraits, relics 
and memorials of Columbus. Interest naturally centered about the com- 
mission of Columbus, protected by an armed guard, and in presence of 
which gentlemen uncovered. It was justly described as the most important 
paper in our history. 

The old Liberty Bell hung in the hall of the Pennsylvania building, 
guarded day and night by detachments of uniformed men. It was viewed 
during the time it remained in Chicago by millions of people, and the re- 
marks made about it were often amusing and suggestive. 

Many Western people insisted that the East had had possession of the 
national relics long enough, and that the bell, the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, the old house where it was signed, should all be transported to Chicago. 

Others suggested that Congress should buy the bell, and send it on 
yearly pilgrimages over the country to stimulate the patriotism of the people. 

But the majority of specta- 
tors looked at the old relic with 
reverence, especially our citizens 
of foreign birth, who perhaps 
appreciated the value of political 
liberty even more keenly than 
Americans. "That bell," said an 
old Russian from Minnesota to his 
son, "first told the world there 
was a chance for you and for me." 
Another old man was carried by 
the crowd close to it before he 
saw it. He jerked his hat off, 
and stared at it. "She ain't so 
big as 1 thought she'd be," he ex- 
claimed, in dismay. After an 
moment of silence, "She 
so big as the thing she did 
muttered. "But thar she i 
— she did it." 


State Buildings. 

Indiana's home was in the French Gothic style with _ 
Cathedral windows, turrets and towers, the famous Indiana 
volithic limestone entering into its composition. Ohio's Building was one 
of the many familiar colonial houses seen on the grounds, and Rhode Island 
erected a Grecian Pavilion. South Dakota and Texas had comfortable 
quarters, and Utah was original in an imitation of adobes in the walls of 
her headquarters. Vermont went to Pompeii for inspiration. Old Virginia, 
the mother of Presidents, was at home in Mount Vernon, a most accurate 
reproduction of Mount Vernon, and in the various rooms were priceless 
relics of George and Martha Washington and heirlooms of many of Virginia's 
oldest families. Washington had a building composed of beautiful native 
stone and of gigantic forest trees, two of which were one hundred and 

- -.' - ■ ;L\ ':---■■_ - 




ght feet 1 

Holland house. The flag staff was a single tree two hundred 
high. Wyoming had a modern French Chateau; Wisconsin a suburban i 
idence, and Oklahoma, Arizona and New Mexico jointly occupied a se 
Doric structure. Arkansas had a building in the French Rococo style of 
architecture, with a fountain of Hot Springs crystals lit by electricity in the 
center of the rotunda; California, a charming reproduction of the old Catho- 
lic Mission buildings, generally reproducing the famous one at San Diego. 
Colorado also followed the old Spanish architecture, and was noticeable for 
its slender towers and red tiled roof. Jumping from there to Connecticut, 
another type of the old wide porch and veranda of the New England colonial 
id was seen. Delaware had a Swiss Chalet style of home, made of 
native woods, and Florida was original in her selection of a miniature of the 
old Spanish Fort Marion, begun in 1620 and finished one hundred years later. 




Children's Building. 

r ITH its varied and fascinating departments, there was nothing 
in all the marvelous exhibits at the Exposition that was more 
attractive, instructive or beneficial to all the world, than 
the Children's Building. The originators of the project are 
entitled to the highest commendation, and should certainly 
feel that the results reflect upon them imperishable credit. 
At its first inception, few realized its scope and real 
benefits. It was supposed that it might prove a hazardous 

■experiment to undertake to take care of the children while the mothers 

visited other attractions of the Exposition. It was even suggested that these 

philanthropic ladies might find in the end that they had on their hands a 

large crop of foundlings ; that parents would desert their little ones when 

they succeeded in getting them deposited in the Children's Building. But 

be it said to the credit of the mothers that of the thousands who left their 

babies while they enjoyed the Exposition, but 

one single mother failed to return and claim 

her child. In one or two instances mothers 

lost the brass checks given for their babies, 

and found it most difficult to get back the 

ibabies, so particular were the management. 

The unfortunate mothers were required to get 

some respectable, well known person to identify 

them — in fact no bank could have been more 

careful of its deposits than were the ladies of the 

■Children 's Building of the little creatures 

deposited with them. Novel devices were 

created for the amusement and instruction of 

ibabies as young as three years old. There 

was a world of profit and pleasure to the little ones in the 

departments of sloyd, clay modeling, physical culture, oral 

instruction of deaf children, kitchen garden, kindergarten, 

sewing school, nursery exhibit, assembly room and library, 

which were each presided over by the most competent and 

experienced persons. The building itself, designed by Mr. 

Burnham and his corps -of architects, was a perfect model of 

taste and adaptability. Mrs. George L. Dunlap, President 

of the Board and Director of the work, has made for herself 

undying fame. All the ladies associated with her deserve 

to be immortalized for their skill, fidelity and untiring Poor " Lo '" 

energy in making the enterprise such a brilliant success. It was a 

new feature of a great Exposition and an untried experiment, and American 

women cannot be too proud of the achievement and advance in the manner 

of caring for and entertaining the little ones, who are to be the hope of the 

Republic. Take care of the children and the Nation will take 

! of itself 

Along the Shore. 


The Lighthouse. 


saving. The first floor < 
stand on rollers, and w 

AUNTILY and yet substantially built o 
| shore near the battleship "Illinois," were the 
steel lighthouse and the life-saving station. About 
a the middle of April, 1893, the station was occupied 
by nine coast patrolmen and a keeper. It was a 
pretty two-story structure, built on the style now 
j in vogue on the seacoasts and lakes, and was 
fitted up with all the modern appliances of life- 
/as given up to the lifeboat, one of the kind which 
is of the non-capsizable, self-righting, self-bailing 
variety, ready to be pushed down into the water in a moment. 

Hanging from the walls of this room and in four corners were appliances 
uf all kinds with which to render assistance to lives in peril on the water. 
A mortar and reel stood near the door to shoot the life-line, if necessary, to 
any vessel in distress, and the long cable was wound on a wheel like a hose 

cart so that it could be 

ried to any part of the 

to rig up the life- 


put in to facilitate 

the water-soaked rope. Now a 
big drum was provided. It was 
mounted on wheels and the run- 
ning line wrapped around it, 
doing the work in half the time. 
In another corner of the room 
was the drug store, where cer- 
tain restoratives and liquors were 
kept, with bandages and splints 
in case of accident. The second 
floor was fitted up as quarters 

for the life-savers. There Was Entrance to German Village. 

a large kitchen and a sleeping and sitting room for the men not on duty. 
A regular patrol system of the entire beach was kept up night and day in 
fail weather. To the millions of visitors who visited the Exposition from the 
inland, these patient, daring men, who were looking constantly seaward, 
illustrated a story but little known away from the coast. They represented 
the hundreds of men who, on the lonely, dangerous beaches of the country, 
watch year in and year out for the rocket, for the flag of distress and the 
signal gun, and who are always ready to risk their own lives to assist those 
in peril. The lighthouse was one of the modern steel pattern, 100 feet high 
and braced with guy-rods in four directions. Four men were detailed to 
take charge of it during the Exposition, after which it was taken down and 
sent to the mouth of the Columbia river on the Pacific coast to warn manners 
who approach that dangerous bar. It held a revolving light of the first mag- 
nitude, showing red and white with the most powerful reflectors made. 
The lights were sent streaming across Lake Michigan the first time on the 
night of May 1. The two combined showed the government's method of 
warning those who go down to the sea in ships away from a dangerous spot 
and the method of assisting them if they approach it. 

•"*"^,*W .-. IM 

H ■ 











■•The Sacred Moun 


Machinery Hall. 

MACHINERY HALL, or as it was officially designated, the Palace 
of Mechanic Art, was located at the extreme south of the 
Park. It was 850 feet long and 500 feet broad, and was 
unique in that it was the only building taken from the 
architecture of the land of Ferdinand and Isabella. Two of its faces only 
were presented to view from the Grand Court, and Messrs. Peabody and 
Stearns, of Boston, the designers, after much research, produced a building 
of the highest type of the Spanish rennaisance. The building had a 
covered loggia at the first story, furnishing a promenade all the way around 
the building. The whole was covered with staff and stained a beautiful 
ivory tint which afforded a showy background for the subdued color tints 

and gold finish on portico, 
ceiling and other parts 
of the building. Over 
the main entrance were 
six large figures and 
above these, between 
the two high towers, 
were five figures thirteen 
feet high : "Science," 
surrounded by "Fire," 
"Water," "Air," and 
" Earth." The eastern 
entrance bore a pedi- 
ment showing "Colum- 
bia " seated on a throne, 
sword in one hand and 
a palm of peace in the 
other, and attended by 


"Honor" and "Wealth." 
Other elaborate sculp- 
tural decorations, all be- 
ing by Waagen, adorned 
the building. The build- 
ing together with Ma- 
chinery Annex and 
Power House cost about 
$1, 000,000. It was just 
south of the Administra- 
tion Building, and west 
and across a Lagoon from 
the Agricultural Build- 

Machinery Hull-View from Colonnade. 

ing. The building was 

spanned by three arched trusses, and the interior presented the appearance 
of three railroad train-houses side by side, surrounded on all of the four 
sides by a gallery 50 feet wide. The trusses were built separately, so that 
they could be taken down and sold for use as railroad train-houses. In each 
of these long naves there was an elevated traveling crane running from end 
to end of the building, for the purpose of moving machinery. These plat- 
forms were built so that visitors could view from them the exhibits beneath. 
The power for this building was supplied from a power-house adjoining the 
south side of the building. The two exterior sides adjoining the Grand 
Court were rich and palatial in appearance. 

An arcade on the first story admitted passage around the buildings under 
cover. The ceilings were enriched with strong color. A colonnade with a 
cafe at either end formed the length between Machinery and Agricultural 
Halls, and in the center of this colonnade was an archway leading to the 
Cattle Exhibit. From this portico there extended a view nearly a mile in 
length down the Lagoon, and an obelisk and fountain in the Lagoon formed 


the southern point of this vista. The Machinery Annex adjoined Machinery 
Hall on the west, and was an annex in fact, and not a detached structure 
as at first planned, with entrance by subways under the railway tracks. 
The Annex covered between four and five acres and increased the length of 
the Machinery building to nearly 1,400 feet, thus rendering it the second 
largest of all the Exposition structures, the great Manufactures building 
alone exceeded it in size. 

The Forestry Building. 

r HE Forestry Building was naturally of wood, 
nd had a colonnade composed of tree trunks 
contributed from almost every State in the Union 
and from Canada. A vestibule of yellow pine 
was an artistic ornament to the building, which 
was designed by C. B. Atwood. 

One of the principal attractions of the fores- 
try exhibits was the general uniformity of all 
showings. All sections of trees were forty-two 
inches in length, and were prepared to show in each instance heart and sapwood 
by four planes, transverse, radial, oblique and tangential, and each variety 
was accompanied by a section of a limb, and a third piece of wood showed the 
rough sawn and the polished grain with the leaf and seed engraved on each. 
The common and botanical name was put on each piece, and information as 
to the locality from whence it came. There was also a great deal of carving 
and turning shown of fancy woods which are used for ornamental purposes, 
and various dye woods from tropical countries. The exhibits of Brazil, Para- 
guay, Argentine, Colombia, Equador, France, Germany, Honduras, India, 
Italy, Japan, Mexico, Peru, Russia, Spain, Siam, Trinidad, Ceylon, Australia, 
Africa, and nearly all the states, were brought into requisition for the display 
f the central pyramid, and each region furnished its best specimen. The 

great central piece of the pyramid 
wood burl. On the right side 
fastened a glass case, in which 
placard in the case contained a t 
letter from Herbert Gladstoi 
White, secretary of the 
American legation at Lon- 
don, stating that the request 
for an ax would be laic 
before Mr. Gladstone 
A smaller upper pape; 
contained a letter of rfrf' 
stone, saying 
that the ax 
had been 
shipped. A 
placard under 
the ax was 
printed in va- 
rious sizes of 
type, and de- 
clared that this ax had been used by Mr. Gladstone in felling trees at Ha- 
warden, Wales, and that after the Fair the implement would be presented 
to some lumber association as a memento of the Grand Old Man, and this 
use was finally made of it, the National Lumberman's Association taking 
it in charge. 

The complacent action of Mr. Gladstone, in responding to the request 
of the American lumbermen, produced an agreeable effect on all the trade, 
and their trophy was perhaps the chief exhibit in the beautiful building. 



Electricity Building. 

tact that in less than a 
lights, the telephone ai 
and the phonograph ha 

3NE has only to reflect 
that in 1876, at the 
Centennial Celebration and 
Exhibition in Philadelphia, but a 
paratively few feet of floor space 
were demanded for Electrical Exhibits, and 
that the grounds were closed at night because 
of satisfactorily lighting them were known, 
rvel at the extent of the Electrical building, and the 
generation, the electric, the incandescent and search 
d the electric car motor, the quadruplex telegraph 
te all made their entrance into use and are accepted 

as every day matters. Add to this heating, forging, welding, stamping and 
the various other uses in surgery, dentistry and therapeutics, to which the 
mysterious force has been applied, and it will not be wondered at that a 
building 345 feet wide and 700 
feet long, was required to 
show the progress of the world 
in seventeen years in that 
direction. The south front was 
on the great Quadrangle or 
Court; the north front faced 
the Lagoon; the east front was 
opposite the Manufactures 
Building, and the west faced 
the Mines Building. 

The general scheme of the 
plan was based upon a Ion- 
Main Doorway-Electricity Building, gitlldinal nave II 5 feet Wide 

and 114 feet high, crossed in the middle by a transept of the same 
width and height. The nave and the transept had a pitched roof with 
a range of skylights at the bottom of the pitch and clearstory windows. 
The rest of the building was covered with a flat roof, averaging 62 feet in 
height and provided with skylights. The second story was composed of a 
series of galleries connected across the nave by two bridges, with access 
by four grand staircases. The area of the galleries in the second story was 
1 18,546 square feet, or 2.7 acres. 

At each of the four corners of the building there was a pavilion, above 
which rose a light open spire or tower, i6gfeet high. Intermediate between 
these corner pavilions and the central pavilions on the east and west sides, 
there was a subordinate pavilion bearing a low, square dome upon an open 
lantern. There were thus ten spires and four domes. Above each pilaster 
in the Attic order was a pedestal bearing a lofty mast for the display of 
banners by day and electric lights by night. Of these masts there were in 
all fifty-four. The first story of the building was indicated in these facades 

between the great pilasters 
of the Corinthian order, by 
a subordinate Ionic order, 
with full columns and pilas- 
ters, forming an open screen 
in front of the windows. 
The Electricity Building 
had an open portico extend- 
ing along the whole of the 
south facade, the lower or 
Ionic order forming an open 
screen in front of it. The 
various subordinate pavil- 
ions were treated with 
windows and balconies. 
The details of the exte- 

Spaai«hKxhibit-Mai« Building. r ' 0r 0rdef5 Were richlv 

decorated, and the pediments, friezes, panels and spandrils received a deco- 
ration of figures in relief, with architectural motifs, the general tendency of 
which was to illustrate the purposes of the building. The color of the 
exterior was of marble, but the walls of the hemicycle and of the various 
porticos and loggia were highly enriched with color, the pilasters in these 
places being decorated with scagliola and the capitals with metallic effects 
in bronze. In the design of this building the architects so devised its details 
and general outlines that they might be capable of providing an electric illu- 
mination by night on a scale hitherto unknown, the flag-staffs, the open 
porticos, and the towers, especially, being arranged with this in view. 

At the southern end of the building stood the heroic statue of Franklin, 
in the act of drawing the lightning from the clouds, a sculptural work of 
great strength. The names of the most prominent men who have advanced 
the world's knowledge of electricity, were inscribed over the entrances. 


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