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FROM A PUNJAUB 
POMEGRANATE GROVE 



A SELECTION FROM 

MILLS & BOON^S 

LATEST GENERAL LITERATURE 



WHAT I KNOW. Reminiscences of Five Years' Personal 
Attendance upon His I<ate Majesty King Edward VII. By C, W, 
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THE ROMANCE OF THE OXFORD COLLEGES. By 
Francis Gribble. with 12 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, ss. 6d. 
net. 



FROM A PUNJAUB 
POMEGRANATE GROVE 



BY 

C. C. DYSON 



WITH FOURTEEN ILLUSTRATIONS 



MILLS & BOON, LIMITED 

49 RUPERT STREET 
LONDON, W. 






Published 1918 



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1051363 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 



PiGB 



Journey to India— Moses or Too-Too ? — A Ska Post Office 
— The Eurasian Race— Bombay — A Narrow-minded 
Englishman — A Dinner at the Pro-Consul's . . 1 



CHAPTER n 

In the South Mahratta Country — A Durbar — A College 
Prize-day — A Maharajah's Banquet — A Hindu Lady's 
"Trazu" Ceremony 14 



CHAPTER in 

Journey to Hariana — Bhopal— Gwalior — Agra ... 41 

CHAPITER IV 

The Pomegranate Grove ....... 58 

CHAPTER V 

Notable Indian Women in Past and Present Times . 74 

CHAPITER VI 

A Pilgrimage and a Journey off the Railway Line . . 88 

CHAPTER VII 

A Model Native State — A Chief's Installation — Position 

and Powers of Indian Chiefs 107 



vi TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER VIII 

Vi.Q9 

A Cosmopolitan Dinner-party — An Afghan Princess — An 

Indian Blondel 123 

CHAPTER IX 

Among the Missionaries — A Lady Doctor .... 144 



CHAPTER X 

Indian Servants — Petitioners and Pertinacity— A Lady 

Lawyer 168 



CHAPTER XI 

Delhi Fifty Years Ago . . . . . . . 181 

CHAPTER XII 

The Royal Visit to Calcutta — The Pageant — Can England 

keep India ?......... 197 

CHAPTER XIII 
The Armenian Church and Community in Calcutta . , 213 



CHAPTER XIV 

Calcutta and its Palaces — Bishop and Nautch-girls — A 

Shellac Factory 228 



CHAPTER XV 

The Education of an Indian Ranee— Life in an Indian 

Palace 248 



CHAPTER XVI 

A Cultured Indian Lady — An Enlightened Dewan — A 

Brahmin Artist — Last Days in India-tRetrospect . 268 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

New Palace at Kolhapur . . . Frontispiece 

FACU70 PAOK 

Ambedevi's Temple, Kolhapur 16 

The Rajaram College, Kolhapur .... 25 

The Maharajah of Kolhapur 37 

Well near Gwalior 43 

Fort at Agra 47 

Taj Mahal at Agra 49 

A Parses Medicine Lady : Head op Female Hos- 
pital, Khairpur State, Sind .... 84 

A State Elephant Ill 

The City Gate, Seringapatam 125 

Sons op Maharajah of Kolhapur in the Dasahara 

Procession 141. 

Indian Dancing-Girls . 223 

An Armenian Lady 226 

A Ruling Chief and his Wife on their Wedding 

Day 250 

vii 



FROM A PUNJAUB 
POMEGRANATE GROVE 

CHAPTER I 

joubney to india — moses or too-too ? — a sea post 
office — the eurasian race — bombay — a narrow- 
minded englishman — a dinner at the pro- 
consul's 

Now that I have arrived in Hariana, which is 
to be my headquarters for some time, I have 
leisure to write to you ; but before I describe 
my present surroundings I must tell you a little 
of what I have seen and felt before arriving here. 
1 want to bridge the distance that separates us, 
and get you to enter into my thoughts and 
feelings, so I am not going to write only de- 
scriptions and details of happenings, but the 
thoughts they arouse in me and the many in- 
teresting by-paths of history to which they show 
the way. I can only touch on these and give 
you a glimpse, as it were, of the various fields 
1 



2 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

of study thus opened out ; but, having shown the 
ways, you will be able to follow them up for 
yourself. When I sit down to write to you, I 
am going to think we are in the same room, and 
I am having a chat with you, so I shall put 
everything down as if I were talking to you. 
In your quiet invalid's life I know you will 
enter into all, and, in spirit, live my life with me. 

You know how 1 longed to visit the East, 
which I always thought of as the home of romance 
and mystery, where the commonplace would be 
left behind ; but the first words 1 heard when 
the P. & O. boat anchored at the first Eastern 
port, Port Said, were not romantic. I was 
wakened at six o'clock in the morning by knock- 
ing at the cabin door. 

" Who is there ? " 

"Cook's man come to take Mrs. Leaver to 
Jerusalem." 

Mrs. Leaver was the occupant of the other 
berth in a two-berthed cabin, a delicate, dainty 
old lady with silvered hair. She looked not less 
than seventy years of age, but under the auspices 
of the courteous and capable agent of the invalu- 
able Messrs. T. Cook & Son she started off for 
the Holy Land, and would travel with as much 
ease and comfort as if she had been a princess, 



SHOPPING AT PORT SAID 8 

and probably see a great deal more of interesting 
sights. 

Port Said used to be full of cut-thro*ats of all 
nationalities, but has greatly improved of late 
years. It is now safe for passengers to land, and 
ladies may walk about alone with impunity. All 
were glad to get off the boat for a few hours, 
and most of us spent a little money at the 
well-known Chinese shop, where the beautiful 
embroideries and eggshell china are a great 
temptation. On returning to the boat passengers 
showed their purchases, each requiring the other 
to guess what price had been paid. Some 
people coming East for the first time had been 
greatly imposed on by street-sellers, and had 
paid eight or ten shillings for bracelets of 
coloured stones, while others who knew the 
ropes had obtained the same for one shilling. 
The unwary ones felt greatly humbled on hear- 
ing how they had wasted their money. 

In spite of a few blue-robed fellaheen in the 
streets. Port Said appeared to me more like an 
inferior French or Italian seaport than an 
Eastern town. 

In the evening our boat started again and 
steamed slowly down the Canal to Suez. As 
we passed down the Canal we saw a few camels 



4 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

occasionally, and Bedouin boys ran along the 
banks shrieking for coppers. Some passengers 
responded to the appeal, and threw them, 
deriving amusement from the frantic efforts of 
the boys to find the coins in the sand. Then 
came a short stay at Suez, the starting-point 
for the Desert ; it is a picturesque place, where 
flocks of seagulls hover round the steamers, 
hoping for scraps of food, and the passengers 
found amusement in feeding them. 

Suez is attractive to the passer-by, but the 
English doctor at the hospital, who is an 
acquaintance of mine, and came to take me 
round the place, said : " 1 never heard of 
any one living at Suez who had the chance to 
live anywhere else." 

On leaving Suez we entered the Red Sea — 
which ought rather to be called the " Blue Sea," 
so exquisitely azure are its waters. As we 
steamed along I looked with awe and interest 
at the high peaks of the barren mountains that 
border the sea — for one of them is Sinai. My 
mind was occupied with two Biblical stories 
which from childhood have had a place in 
my mental storehouse. You and I belong to 
a generation which in youth went regularly 
Sunday after Sunday to morning and evening 



RED SEA REMINISCENCES 5 

service in our parish church, and heard one 
lesson from the Old Testament and one from 
the New at morning service, and two more in 
the evening. This went on year after year till 
quite unconsciously we had received a thorough 
training in Bible history — the characters seemed 
as well known to us as if they were members of 
our family, indeed we might call them familiar 
friends, and we should no more have thought 
of doubting their existence than we should 
have doubted our own family chronicle. 

I think the young people of the present day 
are not as a matter of course familiar with the 
Bible. Just now I heard a young lady answer 
some one who remarked on the memories 
evoked by the scenes we were passing through, 
by saying: "Oh, I don't know much about 
Moses and those old Johnnies." And I think 
she missed something — as do her fellows. 

Who can pass the Red Sea without thinking 
of Pharaoh and his hosts ? The cadences of the 
grand old Song of Moses haunted me : 

**I will sing unto the Lord, for He hath triumphed 
gloriously. 
The Lord is a man of war. 
Pharaoh's chariots and his hosts hath He cast into the 

sea, even into the Red Sea. 
They went down to the depths like a stone.**' 



6 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

I thought of Christina Rossetti's remarks that 
the fate of Pharaoh and his hosts is an awful 
lesson against time-serving untruths. 

" It was told the King of Egypt that the people 
fledr 

Nay, but " the children of Israel went out 
with an high hand " (Exodus xiv. 5). 

On the supposition (apparently) that they fled, 
Pharaoh summoned his army and pursued them. 

Who told him that they fled ? 

To inform him of the unvarnished truth 
would have been a formidable undertaking. 
Possibly he on whom the duty devolved 
softened his version of the transaction for royal 
ears. The Israelites were clean gone ; what 
mattered it whether their exodus was described 
as a triumph or a flight ? 

Yet in the long run it clearly did matter, 
when Pharaoh and his host ended their chase, 
disappearing under the waters of the Red 
Sea. Verbal inaccuracy is often responsible for 
apparently incongruously big results. 

I was reading again the grand old song of 
triumph : 

" With the blast of Thy nostrils the waters were piled up, 
The floods stood upright as on a heap. 
The enemy said, I will pursue, I will overtake. 



REHEARSING FOR A CONCERT 7 

Thou didst blow with Thy wind, 
And the sea covered them : 
They sank like lead in the mighty waters, 
Thou didst overthrow them in the sea, even in the 
Red Sea," etc. 

The music of Handel's setting of these words 
echoed in my mind ; 1 went back in thought 
to old Handel Festival days, and seemed to see 
and hear our favourite tenor rising to declaim, 
** The enemy said," etc. 

I was humming the music softly to myself, but 
incongruous sounds filtered down from the upper 
deck where a concert rehearsal was going on. 

An old young lady was singing of Miss Too- 
too's adventures in France, and giving the 
French dandy's greeting, 

" 'Ullo, Too-too, 'ow are you ? " etc., 
and the refrain, 

''Too too, too too, too," 
rang shrilly through the air. 

This was followed by a young man's voice 
singing : 

" In Jungle Town 
A big baboon 
Came out to spoon 
Beneath the moon," etc. 

I laughed, and gave up trying to recall 
ancient history. " Timei^ are changed," I 



8 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

thought as 1 brought my mind back to the 
twentieth century and went to offer my 
assistance to some young ladies who were 
strugghng to get their fancy costumes finished, 
for most of the passengers were occupied in 
preparing for a fancy-dress ball which they 
held that evening in spite of rough and cold 
weather. As they tramped round the deck in 
procession, in order that their costumes might 
be judged and prizes awarded, I admired the 
pluck that had enabled them, in the intervals 
between paroxysms of sea-sickness, to take 
so much trouble in preparing for the ball, 
actuated by the wish to " play up," ie, to help 
to keep some amusements going ; though I did 
not admire the taste which awarded the first 
prize to a young lady who was disfigured by 
having stuffed herself out to represent a plum- 
pudding. The first prize for gentlemen was 
won by a well-known London actor, a tall 
faired-haired young man, who looked well as 
Cupid with his bow, though somewhat more 
stalwart than that sprite is generally supposed 
to have been. 

On the following evening the concert took 
place, and the singers I had heard rehearsing were, 
with other performers, rapturously applauded 



A MARINE POST OFFICE 9 

by a crowded audience, many of whom could 
only find a place by sitting on the sky-lights. 

As we approached Aden the weather became 
deliciously warm. Though anxious to escape 
the coaling which makes a stay at Aden, the 
naval Clapham Junction of the East, a necessity ; 
we did not succeed in getting ashore. Though 
"the Rock," as it is called, has a barren, un- 
inviting appearance, it is rather a favourite 
station with English officers ; they see a good 
many people, for distinguished passengers are 
generally landed and entertained, and excellent 
sport is to be had on the Somaliland side. 

At Aden thirty Post-Office clerks from 
Bombay came on board, and, during the five 
days' journey that ensued, were occupied day 
and night (relieving one another) in sorting the 
mail, so that by the time Bombay was reached 
the letters were all in the right sacks, ready to 
be despatched in the various trains that would 
be waiting to convey them north, south, east, 
and west, all over India. This Marine Post 
Office saves a great deal of time, as if the letters 
had to be sorted in Bombay there would be 
much delay in despatching them, and a day or 
two saved in the transit of letters is considered 
a great boon in India, especially by English 



10 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

residents in up-country districts, where letters 
are the life-belts that save them from succumb- 
ing to the depressing influence of long periods 
of isolation from the society of people of their 
own race and standing. 

The Post-Office clerks were mostly Eurasians, 
Le» descendants of marriages between native 
women and Englishmen. They are very 
numerous in India, but a rather isolated 
community, determined to dissociate themselves 
from the native community, yet unable to 
obtain recognition as equals from the English. 

They fill subordinate posts on the railways 
and in the Police and Post Office successfully, 
but do not attain the standing of " Sahibs " — 
gentlemen — though there are a few (very few) 
exceptions where brilliant abilities and distin- 
guished public services have won well-deserved 
success and recognition. 

At Aden we left cold weather behind us 
finally. Warm clothing was discarded, white be- 
came the general wear, and one revelled in the 
delicious sensation of being thoroughly warm, 
through and through, without being weighed 
down by heavy clothing. 

As we approached Bombay, the prospective 
brides, the young ladies going out to be married, 



BRIDES AND BRIDEGROOMS 11 

grew nervous. There were six of them on board. 
Some were coming out after long engagements 
and wondered if they would recognise their fiances 
on the quay or would find them much changed 
in appearance through residence in a hot 
climate, or whether the gentlemen would 
be disappointed in them, remembering perhaps 
a younger and fresher girl. 

On this occasion all went well; the intended 
marriages were carried out in Bombay, except 
in the case of one particularly nice girl, whom no 
bridegroom came to meet. She had confided in 
me during the voyage and told me that she had 
her wedding-cake and wedding-dress on board, 
but just before the steamer started from London 
a telegram was handed to her on deck saying : 
" Do not come. Marriage must be postponed." 

Her friends were seeing her off and she could 
not make up her mind to communicate the 
substance of the telegram to them, nor to stay 
behind at the last moment; so she remained 
on board and throughout the passage was very 
miserable and depressed. After reaching Bom- 
bay she went up-country to friends, from whose 
house the wedding was to have taken place. 
I have since heard that after some delay it did 
take place, for the friends were influential, and 



12 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

the bridegroom was told it was too late to 
draw back. She has taken a risk, but whether 
the marriage will turn out better or worse than 
the general run, time alone can show. 

Many amusing stories are told of the meet- 
ings, after some years have elapsed, of engaged 
couples. It has happened that an expectant 
bridegroom has been told by his fiancee on 
landing that his hopes are not to be fulfilled, 
that the lady has met on board some one she 
prefers, and intends to marry. I heard of a 
young man who had been living for a long time 
in a country district in India and not seen 
much of recent European fashions, who was so 
disgusted at the costume in which his fiancee 
landed at Bombay that he told her he could 
not possibly marry a girl who made such a guy 
of herself. 

One such contretemps between disillusioned 
engaged couples has been most amusingly dealt 
with in Mrs. Croker's very clever novel, "The 
Catspaw," which I advise you to get, if you 
have not already read it. 

A drive through the streets of Bombay, with 
its crowd of dark faces of many races wreathed 
in turbans of every shape and hue, and the 
picturesque dress of the numerous Parsees, 



A PRO-CONSUL'S DINNER-PARTY 18 

the tall stiff black hat of the men, and the 
gracefully draped sarees of exquisitely coloured 
silks worn by the women, made one feel that 
at last Europe was left behind. 

Next evening there was a dinner-party at 
Government House, where the King's representa- 
tive lives in becoming state. On this occasion 
an Englishman of no importance distinguished 
himself by taking away his wife before dinner. 
As soon as the aide-de-camp had gone round 
and told the gentlemen whom they were to take 
in to dinner, the one in question found that his 
wife was to be taken in by a Parsee gentleman, 
a cultured man with Western manners, who had 
spent much time in Europe and assimilated all 
that was best there, and whose munificent gifts 
for the public welfare had been rewarded with 
a title. To the narrow-minded Englishman, 
this estimable gentleman was only a " nigger," 
not worthy to take his wife in to dinner, so he 
ordered his carriage and took her away to avoid 
this indignity, as it appeared to him. Needless 
to say, the couple never received another in- 
vitation to Government House. 

Now I have assured you of my safe arrival, and 
written enough for one mail. You must wait 
till next week to hear more. 



CHAPTER II 



IN THE SOUTH MAHBATTA COUNTRY— A DUBBAR — A 
COLLEGE PRIZE-DAY — A MAHARAJAH' S BANQUET — 
A HINDU lady's 



AiTER leaving Bombay I went to pass a few 
days with an old friend at Kolhapur, in the 
South Mahratta Country. The ascent of the 
Western Ghauts to Poona is a wonderful bit of 
engineering, and lovely views are to be had as 
the train winds slowly uphill, and one can look 
down at the green valleys with silver streams 
running through them; they are studded too 
with villages, which look so very far below us. 
By the time we reached Poona it was dark, and 
after changing carriages, the boy prepared my 
bed, and I settled down to sleep, for we were 
to travel all night and reach Kolhapur at seven 
next morning. 

As soon as dawn broke, I awoke, and found 
we were passing through a flat agricultural 
country with wide roads bordered by trees, 
and, early as it was, the country people were on 

14 



THE SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY 15 
the move, women were at the wells drawing 
water for the day's use, others with bundles on 
their heads were marching steadily along behind 
their men-folk to market or to some temple. 

The Indian woman of the working class 
always walks behind her husband and carries 
whatever has to be carried. 

At Kolhapur Station my friend met me with 
a little covered wagonette (called a dhummie) 
drawn by two bullocks with very long horns, 
who trotted along at a smart pace, while the 
driver pulled their tails instead of using a whip. 

" Here at last is a little local colour," I 
thought. 

Ten minutes' drive brought us to my friend's 
comfortable bungalow, where chota hazri 
(morning tea and toast), brought by a handsome 
white-robed Mohammedan " boy," was very wel- 
come, as was also the hot bath which followed, 
though the large zinc washing-tub, which was 
the bath I was to use, was a novelty in the way 
of baths, but I afterwards found it in universal 
use throughout India. 

I may here explain that "boy" is the term 
applied in Western India to all indoor servants, 
even if they are grey-headed. 

Chota hazri, little breakfast, was followed by 



16 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

a regular breakfast at half-past ten. After an- 
swering questions about mutual friends at home, 
I found that there was quite a programme of 
social events to be got through in the next few 
days. That night a dinner at the Residency, 
next morning a College speech and prize func- 
tion, third day a Durbar, fourth a banquet at 
the Palace. 

Kolhapur is off the main line of travel generally 
taken by globe-trotters when they visit India, 
and is not so well known as it deserves to be. 
As a Sacred City, Hindus consider it second only 
to Benares. They say that the gods put both 
cities in the scale, and that Benares weighed 
down Kolhapur by an almost imperceptible 
degree. The temple of the Goddess Ambed^vi 
in the heart of the city is highly venerated. 
The great bell which sounds the hours of 
prayer must once have been in a Roman 
Catholic church, for it has the Virgin's name 
engraved on it. Only very great and important 
non-Hindu persons are allowed even to look 
inside the Temple into the Holy Place, though 
one is allowed to walk about the outer courts, 
which are occupied by small stall-holders selling 
the things needed for offerings to the gods. 
Once a Governor of the Bombay Presidency 




AMBEDEVl S TKMPLE, KOLHAPUK. 



A SACRED CITY 17 

expressed a wish to see the inside, so a scaffold 
and platform were erected on which he had to 
mount to look over a rampart or wall into the 
inner court. What he saw is not on record. 
To reach this temple you have to go through 
the heart of the city into its tight-packed native 
quarters, through crowded streets so narrow 
that there is not room for one vehicle to pass 
another, and a puttiwala ^ has to run before the 
carriage shouting to the people to get out of 
the way. 

There are beautiful silks and stuffs to be 
bought in the shops, and when we entered one 
to make a purchase, the whole street seemed to 
take an interest in the affair — some of the people 
entered the shop, others crowded round the 
entrance looking on and commenting. 

There are few English residents in Kolhapur — 
only the Political Agent and his assistants, the 
Commandant of the native regiment, the Prin- 
cipal of the Maharajah's College, and home 
missionaries. There are also some American 
missionaries, who are always counted as Euro- 
peans. 

Now I must tell you about our dinner-party 

* A puttiwala is a liveried servant, wearing a brass badge (or 
phut) with his master's name on it. 
2 



18 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

at the Residency, the Political Agent's house 
— a lovely house in lovely grounds. The ante- 
room between the drawing-room and dining- 
room was filled with our host's hunting and 
shooting trophies. I do not know how many 
full-sized stuffed panthers and tigers with fangs 
showing grinned at us as we passed through. 
A visitor newly arrived who chanced to enter 
the place at dark and alone might easily get a 
shock. Our host and hostess were entertaining 
some high officials. At noon I had noticed the 
carriages of many Indian gentlemen rolling up 
to the Residency, for it is their duty to call on 
the Resident's guests. The dinner-table was 
beautifully decorated with pink lotus — the Indian 
water-lily. The repast was excellent, and while 
we partook of it the band of the Native Infantry 
Regiment discoursed sweet music on the veran- 
dah, into which all doors were open, playing 
airs from the latest operas and musical comedies 
then being performed in London. This band 
is quite celebrated, and has won several prizes 
at competitions in various parts of the country. 
Though the bandsmen are Mahrattas, the 
bandmaster, as usual, was a Goanese. The 
Goanese are a mixed race, descendants of native 
women married to the Portuguese settlers at 



HEADGEAR AND CASTE 19 

Goa, the only Indian possession now left to 
Portugal, which gave us Bombay as the dowry 
of Catharine of Braganza, wife of Charles II. 

Throughout India you find the Goanese as 
bandmasters and — cooks! They have these 
two talents, music and the culinary art. The 
best cooks are always Goanese. 

On leaving the dinner-table the ladies were 
joined in the drawing-room by some young 
Indian chiefs, in statu pupillari, whose States 
are near Kolhapur and who are being educated 
there, under the eye of the Political Agent, by 
an English tutor. They were handsome young 
fellows, set off to advantage by their fine 
brocaded coats, diamond or pearl necklaces, and 
rainbow-hued turbans, or picturesque hats. 

By their headgear you can tell to which caste 
a native of India belongs. The hat worn by a 
Mahratta gentleman differs in shape from that 
worn by a Brahmin, and turbans are folded in 
a great variety of styles which are in use by 
different castes, the profession of turban-folder 
being recognised as respectable. These young 
chiefs were generally dignified and impassive 
in demeanour, but they forgot to keep this up 
when games began. 

It is very usual in India to play games after 



20 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

dinner. ** Dum crambo " is a favourite ; blowing 
a feather across a tablecloth held up by people 
sitting in a circle on the floor, is another ; but 
what the young chiefs liked best were the 
guessing games. One of the company went 
out of the room, and the others thought of an 
object which he was to guess, and when the 
object thought of was a certain stone in the 
waist-buckle of a lady not present, the guessing 
it seemed rather a miraculous feat. Then there 
was a game of thinking of a celebrated man or 
woman, a letter of whose name was allotted 
to each player, who had to choose another 
personage with a name beginning with the 
letter allotted to him. The guesser had by 
a series of questions to elucidate the name of 
each personage selected. One man, whose letter 
was N, chose Noah, and as he described him as 
an Asiatic sailor it seemed improbable that that 
definition would enable the guesser to place 
him, but he succeeded in doing so. 

At half-past ten the band played " God save 
the King I " while the young chiefs stood at the 
salute, and then we all took our departure. 

Next day was speech-day at the Maharajah's 
College, which is generally known as the 
Rajaram College, being named after the young 



ON THE ROAD TO KOLHAPUR 21 

Rajah, who died while on a tour in Europe. 
A memorial erected to him may be seen at 
Florence, where his death took place. 

The Camp at Kolhapur, where the English 
reside, is some way from the College, which is in 
the city. It is a picturesque drive from one to 
the other. The road is shaded by fine trees ; on 
either side were bright green rice-fields or patches 
of tall waving Indian corn, and as we crossed 
the bridge over the river some big monkeys were 
jumping up and down the parapets. The road 
was crowded with carts, camels, and foot 
passengers — beggars were lying at the side, 
wailing, writhing, contorting their bodies, 
exhibiting their sores or defective limbs in order 
to excite the pity of passers-by. I admired the 
beautiful manners of a stately elephant laden 
with grass for the Palace. Horses generally take 
fright at elephants, so the orders are that the 
latter have to get out of the way when a 
carriage comes in sight. My friend and I were 
in a little one-horse victoria, pigmies compared 
to the elephant, but as soon as the mahout ^ 
perceived us he made the elephant understand, 
and the huge creature backed sedately up a 
very steep bank to get off the road and well out 

* Elephant-driver. 



22 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

of our way. He looked at us out of his small 
eyes, seeming to understand the situation so well : 
** Behold, why should they fear me ? I should 
do them no harm. They are as dwarfs and I 
a giant. I could take them up in the carriage, 
together with the horse and driver, and throw 
them aside out of my way as easily as a child 
throws a ball." 

As we approached the city we found it was 
taking a holiday and treating the day as a 
gala-day. Shopkeepers and friends in best 
clothes were sitting at the shop-doors, and the 
streets were lined with crowds of people waiting 
to see their Maharajah and the Sahibs (English 
gentlepeople) pass along to the Rajaram College, 
where the boys of Kolhapur State get a good 
education at the Maharajah's expense. 

The Maharajah drove up escorted by his 
Body Guard ; and the Political Agent, with his 
guests, had a little escort of Sowars (mounted 
men carrying spears with pennons attached). 

When we entered the College hall, the 
Sahibs took their seats in the front rows, while 
the Maharajah, the Political Agent, and the 
guest of honour, the visiting Governor, who 
was to present the prizes and make a speech, 
sat on the platform. 



THE RAJARAM COLLEGE 28 

The Principal of the College, who wore a very 
crumpled black gown, read out his annual 
report, after which some boys gave recitations 
in correct but rather laboured English. The 
visitor made his speech and then a long proces- 
sion of boys went up to receive their prizes 
at his hands. While this went on, my thoughts 
wandered away to the place and the day when 
I had last seen that handsome and distinguished 
specimen of the genus Englishman who does his 
country's work abroad. 

If it is true that " where our thoughts are, 
there are we," I was not in India among a 
crowd of dark faces framed in brilliant coloured 
turbans, the whole bathed in glorious sunshine. 
I was in London, in St. Paul's Cathedral, on a 
cold, grey spring day, and the occasion was the 
dedication of a side Chapel for the use of the 
Knights of St. Michael and St. George. 

King Edward and the (then) Prince of Wales 
had come in state, and though the Chapel is 
small, the function was very impressive. 

The Knights Grand Cross wore magnificent 
long flowing mantles of blue satin lined with 
red, and had gigantic stars on their breasts. 

The King and his son both wore the same 
blue mantles as the Knights Grand Cross. 



24 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

All the Knights met them at the door and 
followed in procession to the Chapel, which 
has beautiful old carved oak stalls. A short 
service was held there, then the procession 
went up the nave to the choir, where the rest 
of the service was held, a short sermon and some 
beautiful hymns. The bells of St. Paul's clashed 
an accompaniment to the hymns, and as they 
have a beautiful soft tone the effect was most 
moving. From my seat in the nave I had a 
good view of the proceedings. Everything 
had been so carefully rehearsed that there was 
not a hitch, no one hurried, no one was at a loss 
where to go or what to do, all moved quietly 
and impressively. This was due in great measure, 
I think, to the fact that nearly all the members 
of the Knightly procession were fairly old, and 
bore the impress in their faces of lives spent in 
good work, and duty done, self not the main- 
spring of their existence. 

Only one of the procession was undignified, 
an old Grand Cross, a short man whose mantle 
was too long for him, so he clutched it up in 
front of him like an old dowager going upstairs 
at a ball and determined not to tread on her 
best dress at any price. 

To come back to India, no one is a better 




THE RAJARAM COLLEGE, KOLHAPUR. 



INDIAN STANDARDS OF CLASS 35 

judge of a " gentleman " than the Indian people. 
A real Sahib is the same as a real gentleman, 
and you may hear a servant say : " No, I shall 
not take the place, he is only a low-class Sahib." 
And ladies are described as "first and second 
class ladies." When first the Indian Civil Ser- 
vice was opened to competitive examination 
there were many murmurs in India. " Are we 
to be governed by any low-caste Sahib who can 
pass an exam. ? In old days the Sahibs xvere 
Sahibs." On this occasion they felt very sure that 
the distinguished Englishman now speaking to 
them was a first-class Sahib and listened with 
great attention to the good advice he gave 
them. 

The Rajaram College is a picturesque building 
in the Indo-Saracenic style. After the ceremony 
was over, the Principal took us up to the flat 
roof, from whence we had a lovely view over 
Kholapur and the environs. 

It is beautifully situated on rising ground 
which affords a lovely view over the surrounding 
country. A fine river winds through the out- 
skirts of the city, which is embowered in trees, 
and the many temples and tombs rising from 
encircling groves add to its picturesqueness. 
Then the bathing-ghauts on the bank of the 



26 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 
river are always crowded with people bathing 
or washing clothes ; a little farther on, smoke 
is rising from the burning-ghauts, where corpses 
are cremated. One could look right away 
beyond the city to the Maharajah's New 
Palace, and not far from it is the pretty little 
English church, built by the celebrated 
Bishop Douglas at a time when there was 
always an English regiment quartered in the 
Camp. 

The banquet is to be held at the New Palace, 
the Durbar to-morrow at the Old Palace in 
the city. 

I was lucky to see a real Eastern ceremony, 
a Durbar, so soon after my arrival in India. 
When we arrived at the Palace gate, we saw 
that a guard of Native Infantry was stationed 
in the Palace Square. There, too, the gorgeously 
caparisoned State elephants were standing, and 
a fine white charger, to whose saddle was affixed 
the gilded, bejewelled Sacred Umbrella which 
the Maharajah alone has a right to, and from 
which betakes his title, "Maharajah Chatrapatti" 
or " Maharajah of the Umbrella," chatra being the 
Mahrathi word for *' umbrella." 

When we entered the Durbar Hall the seats 
were already filled with Indian gentlemen, each 



A DURBAR AT KOLHAPUR 27 

in his allotted place, the position of which marks 
his social standing, and is of vast importance in 
his eyes. 

We were received at the entrance by some 
State officials and guided to seats at the top of 
the hall near the dais, on the side allotted to 
English visitors. Soon after we took our seat 
the blare of trumpets announced the arrival of 
the Maharajah, the Political Agent, and the 
distinguished visitor. 

Heralds preceded them up the hall, caUing 
out the Maharajah's titles. As representative 
of the King-Emperor the Political Agent at 
State functions always sat on a sofa beside the 
Maharajah on the dais, and it was an important 
point of etiquette that they should both take 
their seats simultaneously. Had the Maharajah 
sat down first it would have been an act of 
discourtesy to the representative of the Para- 
mount Power. They were both old hands at 
such functions, so they stood for a moment in 
front of the State sofa, looked at each other, and 
then took their seats with successful precision. 

The Durbar was held in order that two young 
chiefs of States feudatory to the Maharajah of 
Kolhapur, who had just come of age, should be 
invested with powers to rule their States and 



28 A PUNJAUR POMEGRANATE GROVE 

should do homage to the Maharajah as overlord. 
The proceedings began by the Dewan (Prime 
Minister) of Kolhapur reading out a statement 
of the size of the respective States and their 
revenues. Then each young chief in turn read 
out a declaration of his loyalty to his overlord, 
the Maharajah, and to the British Government, 
and paid a tribute to the advantages received 
from education by an English tutor. Then they 
knelt down and did homage to the Maharajah 
by touching his feet with their foreheads, and 
also placed some gold coins at his feet. When 
they rose up, one of the State officials handed 
each a very handsome dress — called posliak — 
presented by the Maharajah. Then they 
returned to their seats, and the Political Agent 
made a speech congratulating them and telling 
them what was expected of them in the future. 

When the speech was ended, the ceremony 
of "garlanding" began. The Dewan brought 
two long necklaces, as long as a muff-chain, 
composed of tuberoses punctuated at certain 
distances by little bunches of pink roses, all held 
together by silver wire. The Maharajah put one 
round the Political Agent's neck, and then 
round that of the distinguished visitor, after 
which the Dewan and his satellites proceeded 



DURBAR CEREMONIES 29 

to do the same to each Enghsh person present. 
They brought long-necked silver bottles con- 
taining scent, and one had to hold out one's 
handkerchief, which was then sprayed with the 
scent and a dab of very strong scented powder 
was put with a little silver trowel on the back 
of the hand, then the garland was hung round 
the neck ; in the case of ladies wearing very 
large hats it was a difficult matter, and the Indian 
gentlemen whose task it was smiled discreetly. 
To each lady, besides the garland a pair of 
bracelets made of flowers was given. 

This ceremony took some time, and while it 
was going on, a nautch-girl with her musicians 
took their places at the lower end of the Durbar 
Hall and gave a performance. It was not 
dancing, but shuffling the feet a few yards to 
one side and then to another — her dress and 
postures were modesty itself compared with 
the performance one sees on the European stage ; 
but the song that she droned out in nasal, 
shrill tones, was, I believe, an impassioned love 
song, which those who knew the language might 
think improper ; but nobody seemed to pay 
the least attention to it or to the performer. 
She was not a young woman, and I thought 
the saddest part of the affair was that she was 



30 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

accompanied by an understudy, a little girl 
about eight or ten years old, who, after the older 
woman had sung a verse and stopped, took up 
the same strain and made the same movements 
of arms held out in impassioned appeal, etc., 
and one felt sorry to think that she was being 
initiated so young into the profession of nautch- 
girl and all it implies. 

After the garlanding was completed, the 
Maharajah and the Political Agent and the 
distinguished visitor departed in pomp and 
state. Then we lesser folk filed out, and as we 
stood waiting for our carriages at the entrance 
we were the object of plain-spoken but not 
unfriendly comment from the crowd. My friend, 
who knows the language, said the remarks 
were amusing and to the point. 

We went home to rest a while, then came 
tea, and my friend had time to tell me of the 
worry her head-butler was causing. She had 
offended him the previous day by "cutting" 
some of his charges — Le, refusing to pay some 
of the overcharges in his weekly account — so 
he had come this morning and shown her a 
telegram saying that his father was dying and 
he must go home at once. 

This is a favourite device of Indian servants 



WHY HINDUS MARRY 81 

when they want to leave suddenly. They get 
some one to send them a telegram saying that 
their relatives are dead or dying. Though the 
employers feel very sceptical as to the truth 
of such statements, they cannot in the case of 
a father s death refuse leave, because to perform 
the burial ceremonies for a dead father is the 
first duty of the Hindu. Many a Hindu, who 
has no desire to marry again but has no son, 
takes a second wife solely for the purpose of 
begetting a son to perform his burial ceremonies. 

My friend said that a respectable elderly man 
of her acquaintance recently brought a nice 
bright young wife to introduce to her. He 
had been married quite a short time, so my 
friend congratulated him. But he said ruefully : 
" She will be a great deal of trouble ! But 
what could I do ? I must have a son to perform 
my funeral ceremonies ! " It is thought that the 
performance of certain ceremonies by a son after 
death ensures the salvation of the dead. 

To return to the butler in question. My 
friend asked him to wait at all events till he 
heard his father was actually dead. But the man 
refused ; he intended to leave at all costs at once 
to put his mistress to as much inconvenience 
as possible, knowing that she had visitors and 



82 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

was giving some parties and wished everything 
to go on smoothly. 

Indian natives make excellent servants and 
are often really devoted, so long as you do not 
interfere with their peculations. When you do, 
you are " a low-caste Sahib," and they do not 
care to stay with you. If their wages are raised 
it makes no difference, they will cheat over the 
bills just the same ; they seem to think it a duty 
to lose no chance of doing so. 

My friend and hostess had been struggling to 
acquire the Marathi language spoken in Western 
and Central India by hundreds of thousands of 
people, but her servants did not encourage her 
efforts. Marathi is one of the best and purest 
Indian languages, but contains many pitfalls for 
students, many of the words being so alike in 
sound that the beginner is often betrayed into 
cruel mistakes. 

Of the two Marathi words beyduk and 
buduk, one means " frog," the other " duck." 

I was present one morning when the cook 
came to take his orders for the day, and his face 
was inimitable as he asked if his mistress really 
wanted frogs for dinner. Nor shall I forget the 
astonished face of a servant's child (we were 
visiting the mother, who was sick) when my 



THE MARATHI LANGUAGE SB 

friend told him that she would put him "in a 
bottle " — for two Marathi words, kopee and 
kopree, mean respectively " bottle " and " corner,'* 
and she had used the wrong one. 

Here they still tell the story of the zealous 
Bishop who in the midst of varied duties had 
struggled to acquire a knowledge of the people's 
language. In Marathi mendre is " sheep " and 
manzer means " cat." Intending in his address 
to a congregation of native Christians to quote 
" All we like sheep have gone astray," he used 
the wrong word and said " All we like cats have 
gone astray." 

The Indian people are so phlegmatic that no 

titters were heard among the congregation. 

They gazed unmoved at the preacher, and most 

of them knew what he meant. The next 

Bishop did not attempt Marathi. He always 

preached in English, but an interpreter, an 

Indian priest, stood beside him and repeated 

each sentence in Marathi, after the Bishop had 

delivered it in English. I think this was the 

better plan. I was present on one such occasion, 

and a very stately, impressive figure the Bishop 

made, in his red robes, holding the pastoral staff 

in his hand as he stood on the chancel-steps vnth 

the white-robed priest, his interpreter, beside him. 
8 



84 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

This priest had great command of language and 
turned the Enghsh sentences into Marathi with- 
out faltering for a moment. 

Now I must tell you about the banquet which 
we attended next evening. It took place in the 
New Palace, which is about a mile-and-a-half 
from the city and near the Camp, as the part 
where English officials live is called. The 
Palace is a handsome building, erected for the 
Maharajah's predecessor by a French architect. 
On this occasion the facade was brilliantly illu- 
minated. When we arrived at tli^ight of steps 
which lead to the entrance-hall we were greeted 
by the courteous Dewan, who shook us warmly by 
the hand, and then another official conducted us 
to the room where the Political Agent and his 
wife received the guests, acting for the Maha- 
rajah, who would not appear at the banquet till 
dessert was placed on the table, for it would have 
been breaking his caste to partake of a repast 
including meat dishes, or even to sit at table 
while others were eating. 

1 heard that the Maharajah's predecessor had 
not been quite so particular; he would sit at 
table with his guests and partake of the viands 
other than meat. 

On one occasion he was heard, during a lull in 



A MAHARAJAH'S BANQUET 85 

general conversation, to say to the English 
gentleman who was sitting next him : " Now 
you must tell me which things are * beastly ' " — 
meaning, that as he was not much used to the 
appearance of dishes dressed in European style, 
he desired to be warned which contained the 
flesh of animals, so that he might not partake of 
it inadvertently. 

The European residents in Kolhapur are not 
many, and every one of them had received in- 
vitations to the banquet, as had also the 
American missionaries, who were classed as 
" Europeans," that definition being understood to 
include all who were not natives of India. We 
soon filed in to dinner, which was laid in a fine 
hall, the windows of which are filled with 
painted glass, and the niches around the walls 
with statues depicting the exploits of Shivajee, 
the celebrated ancestor of the Maharajah of 
Kolhapur. 

I was taken in to dinner by a Parsee, one of 
the masters at the College. The Parsees are 
thoroughly Western in manner of life and out- 
look. I found this one very agreeable. He had 
been a student at Oxford, and had spent his 
vacation in getting some experience of the 
efforts at social reform being made in some of 



86 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

the worst London slums by College Settlements. 
He is the only Oriental 1 have ever met who has 
interested himself in such matters. He confided 
to me that he was a disappointed man, describing 
himself as a "Failed Indian Civil." He had 
tried to pass into the Indian Civil Service, but, 
failing, had been obliged to take up teaching as a 
profession — and in this he was very successful. 
The examination for the Indian Civil Service is 
so very difficult that even to have tried to pass it 
and failed seems to be considered as conferring 
some sort of distinction on a man. 

In Indian newspapers one often sees advertise- 
ments couched in the following terms : 

" Wanted a B. A. or ' Failed Indian Civil.' " 

So apparently a " Failed Indian Civil " has his 
own particular status. 

To return to the banquet. The menu was a 
very good one, and the repast well served, much 
as one might find at a good London hotel. 
When dessert was placed on the table, the Maha- 
rajah was announced, and the Political Agent 
went to the door of the hall to receive him and 
conduct him to the seat next his own. 

After a few minutes the Maharajah rose, and, 
in excellent English, said how pleased he was to 
welcome the distinguished official, and indeed 




THE MAHARAJAH OF KOLHAPUK. 



INDIAN MUSIC AND CONJURERS 87 

all the guests, and proposed the King's health, 
which toast was warmly responded to. 

Then the distinguished visitor proposed the 
Maharajah's health. This toast was duly honoured, 
and then the company all joined in singing 
*' For he's a jolly good fellow," started by the 
English Durbar surgeon. 

After this we left the table, the Maharajah 
escorting the visiting official's wife, and others fol- 
lowing in due order of precedence ; we adjourned 
to a room where a number of native musicians 
were squatting, prepared to give a concert. 
Although it is claimed that Indian music is very 
abstruse, and that Indian musicians have dis- 
covered an extra tone to the scale, yet to outsiders 
their performance is so monotonous and unmelo- 
dious that it is not enjoyed by Europeans. We 
soon grew restless and asked permission to pass 
on to another room where some conjurers were 
waiting to give proofs of their skill. Their 
performance was really exciting and amusing, 
so we were quite sorry when the Political 
Agent's wife thought it time to take her 
departure, for we were in duty bound to follow 
her example. This is the etiquette of Anglo- 
Indian society ; no one dare leave before the 
most important lady present has gone, and it is 



88 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

not thought good taste to linger long after her 
departure. 

The Maharajah stood at the entrance and 
shook hands with all his departing guests, and 
we drove away feeling that we had been well 
entertained, and wishing that our drive home 
would last longer than it did, for the air was soft, 
the moon and stars brilliant, and the cicada were 
holding a concert in the trees, through the 
branches of which the fire-flies danced and 
gleamed. 

Next day my hostess, knowing how desirous 
I was to see something of the manners and 
customs of the Indian people, took me out to a 
Native State about two hours' journey by rail 
from Kolhapur, to be present at the " Trazu " 
ceremony for which the Dowager Chieftainess — 
great-grandmother of the present-day Chief — had 
sent invitations. She was a well-known old lady, 
one of the old school, and in her day had had 
much influence over the countryside and among 
neighbouring chiefs, most of whom were related 
to her. Trazu is the Marathi word for 
" scale." 

A pair of large scales had been prepared, on one 
of which the lady was to sit, and the other was 
to be heaped up with gold pieces equalling her 



A BRAHMIN CEREMONY 39 

weight, and the money was afterwards to be 
distributed in charity. 

To give away their weight in silver is an act 
of devotion not infrequently performed by Indian 
ladies of rank and wealth ; but to give away 
their weight in gold is not within the means of 
many, and is thought a notable event. The 
old lady in question was of an ancient Brah- 
min family and had decided to celebrate her 
eightieth birthday in this fashion. She had 
been a widow many years, and, in accordance 
with the Hindu law for widows, only took one 
meal a day. She was short, small, and very thin, 
and must have been a light weight. A large 
concourse of spectators had assembled in the 
wada, and we had all taken the places allotted 
to us, when she came in, clothed in a plain white 
saree, such as all widows wear, and took her seat 
on the scale. Some priests droned out mantras 
while she sat there, and gold coins were heaped 
up on the other side. Native musicians beat 
drums and sang her praises until the scale tipped 
down, and then the old lady stepped out and 
went to a seat in the verandah, where we all 
went to speak to her in turn. 

Two girls waving peacock-feather fans stood 
behind her chair. 



40 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

She told us that some of the money would be 
spent in giving a dinner to the poor of the 
State, but a good deal was to be sent to institu- 
tions carried on for the benefit of poor Hindus. 

After having paid our compliments to her, we 
were scented and garlanded and then took our 
departure. 

I leave and go north to-morrow, having 
greatly enjoyed my stay here, seeing and 
hearing much that was new to me, and my 
pleasure has been enhanced by the delicious 
warmth, and the comfort of being able to wear 
light clothing. No more red noses, chattering 
teeth, stone-cold feet such as were my daily 
portion in London, no more necessity for wearing 
two pairs of stockings and two vests one over the 
other. Also it is very nice to find that functions 
and expeditions can be arranged without any 
anxiety as to whether they will be stopped or 
spoiled by weather, because for eight months in 
the year one can be sure of having no rain. 

These are advantages not to be despised. 

I must now close this week's budget. 



CHAPTER III 

JOUBNEY TO HAEIANA — BHOPAL — GWALIOR — AGEA 

Here I am at last in Hariana. I had to pass 
three days and two nights in the train to get 
here, but my servant made up a comfortable bed 
for me each night, by spreading a rezai (soft 
wadded quilt) along the seat, adding three 
pillows for my head and a blanket for the early 
morning, for after midnight it grows cold. I 
had booked my seat in advance in a through 
train, so I knew I should not be disturbed. 
I was travelling first class, which few people 
do in India, and I and one other lady had the 
carriage to ourselves all the way to Agra, and 
were very comfortable on our respective sides 
of the carriage. The journeys are so well 
arranged for in India. A train always stops some- 
where between 7 and 8 a.m. at a station where 
tea is ready, and white-robed servants hand 
up to the window a tempting chota hazri — 

a pot of really good tea, with milk and sugar, 

41 



42 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

and some toast and butter, and generally fruit 
as well. This is very refreshing. In India it is 
impossible to get on without early tea, it seems 
necessary to set the machine going for the 
day. 

Once, up North, when the train was crowded 
and the station servants over-driven, I was in 
danger of not getting served, and appealed to 
the guard. 

" The train shall not go on till you have had 
your tea, madam ; I will see to it," he assured 
me I 

During the morning a guard will look in to 
inquire if you want lunch or dinner at certain 
stations ; if you do, you will find yourself eating 
a good meal of several courses in company of 
fellow travellers of many sorts, either at a 
railway station or in restaurant-car attached 
to trains on many lines. 

On the first evening after leaving Bombay I 
noticed that all the trees seemed to have red 
leaves, but was told that it was merely because 
they were covered with locusts, who were de- 
vouring every scrap of vegetation in the region 
we were passing through. As it grew dusk 
many locusts came through the windows into 
our carriage. These mischievous creatures are 



RURAL SCENES 48 

very handsome, like very large Indian-red 
dragon-flies. 

After the first night, the train continued to 
roll on through rural India, and on these long 
journeys one gets to understand what a rustic, 
pastoral race the bulk of the Indian people are. 
There was not one town of any size between 
Bombay and Agra, a night and a whole day's 
journey in an express train. As one fares 
onward through long stretches of sparsely 
populated country, one gets glimpses of the life 
of the people — the ploughman, using a plough 
of a pattern that is hundreds of years old ; the 
goatherd ; the water-drawer, urging his oxen to 
and from the well ; the bird-scarer, perched amid 
a field of grain on a little straw seat elevated on 
four poles, we fear often giving way to the desire 
to sleep, but rising up fitfully to shout and wave 
his arms to scare the bird-thieves away ; and we 
see a little girl, whose head does not reach much 
beyond their tails, driving some huge buffaloes 
with formidable long horns, to drink at a pond 
or stream, and notice that they yield docile 
obedience to the stick with which their little 
mistress drives them ; and we see the women 
seated at the door of the huts and hear them 
singing as they grind the corn or sift the rice. 



44 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

One realises how remote their Hves and thoughts 
are from the modern world, and can understand 
how, through the black days of the Mutiny, the 
mass of the people were quite unaffected by it, 
and continued to sow and reap and tend their 
flocks and herds without any other thoughts 
than as to how the crops would turn out, and 
if they would get out of the moneylender's 
clutches or a bad harvest would oblige them to 
go deeper into his debt. It is said that some 
country people never even heard of the Mutiny 
or understood it. Or, if they heard of it, 
said : " What have we to do with soldiers' 
quarrels? — we have enough to do to *fill our 
stomachs.' " 

This rather inelegant expression is always in 
the mouths of poor Indian people. If convicted 
of an offence or a theft, the excuse always is that 
they were obliged to do it " to fill," etc. If, as 
is customary, a servant is told he will be fined 
for a breakage, or some neglect of duty, the reply 
is invariably : " Beat me, but do not take away 
the means to fill," etc. 

Glimpses of village life bring many passages 
of Scripture to mind. Through an open barn- 
door one sees an ox tied to a pole, patiently 
pacing round and round in a circle, treading out 



THE BEGUM OF BHOPAL 45 

the corn — " Thou shalt not muzzle an ox that 
treadeth out the com. " 

Then, when two women are grinding com, 
they sit opposite each other over a small grind- 
stone, each holding one end of the grinder, which 
they push backward and forward, and are in very 
close proximity to each other — " Two women 
shall be grinding at a mill, one shall be taken 
and the other left." 

And so on. We realise that village people in 
India have not changed their mode of life and 
work since patriarchal times. 

On the second day of my journey we passed 
through the State of Bhopal, whose rulers are 
such loyal adherents of the British flag. The 
Government of Bhopal is an anomaly, the 
ruling house being Mohammedans, while the 
bulk of their subjects are Hindus. The 
hereditary powers are on the female side, 
Bhopal being always ruled by a Begum (Queen) 
whose husband is only a Prince Consort,^ and 
we do not hear that the wives are at all anxious 
to delegate their powers to their husbands or 
that the latter wish to seize them. 

I remember hearing that at the first Durbar 

* This is the case also iu one of the great South Indian States — 
Travancore. 



46 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

(held when Lord Lytton was Viceroy) the 
Begum of Bhopal of that day rather spoiled her 
otherwise magnificent appearance by wearing 
a knitted woollen comforter round her neck, 
almost hiding her splendid necklace. She had 
begun to wish to learn the ways of English 
ladies and had probably learned to knit, or, if 
the comforter was not her own work, some 
member of her family had made it for her, and 
it was an achievement of which she was proud. 
The present Begum is well known at the English 
Court.^ She is really a ruler and makes her 
authority felt in every department in the State 
Government. She considers that her subjects 
are backward in education (this is the case with 
the whole Mohammedan community as compared 
to Hindus), and not long ago issued her fiat that 
they were to take steps to improve in this 
respect, and announced that if they did not 
quickly take advantage of the facilities of 
education afforded by the State, she would 
know the reason why — and give them cause 
to regret it. 

After leaving Bhopal, the next interesting 
place we came to was Gwalior, the fortress-city 

* She was one of the most stately figures at King George's 
Durbar, and her two little grandsons acted as Queen Mary's train- 
bearers. 



THE MAHARAJAH OF GWALIOR 47 

on its high rocky plateau, standing up boldly 
against the sky — a conspicuous object from the 
plains that surround it. 

Its Maharajah, Scindia, is a personal friend of 
King George, and has entertained him twice 
with great splendour, and has been able to give 
him splendid sport, such as the King really 
enjoys. 

Scindia comes of a fine race. Though the 
Mahrattas held out longer than any other race 
against English rule in India, since their 
allegiance was given they have been loyal 
subjects or allies of the Crown. We owed a 
great deal to the Scindia of Mutiny times (the 
present Maharajah's ancestor) ; he it was who, 
riding into Agra at the head of his troops at a 
time when the English garrison was hard-pressed 
by the mutineers, arrived just in time to turn 
the scale in our favour, and save Akbar's Fort 
from falling into the hands of the mutineers. 

I reached Agra as it was growing dusk, and 
was to leave the main line there, and rest for a 
day before going by a branch line to our 
quarters in Hariana. I had time to see that 
Agra, with its fine river, grand old fort, and 
splendid palaces and mosques embowered in 
green groves, is the most interesting and 



4B A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

thoroughly Oriental city that I have yet visited 
in India. I had not time to see half or a 
quarter of its interesting sights, but I visited 
the old Red Fort, where, since Akbar's days. 
Englishmen have done doughty deeds, and I 
thought of the handful shut up there in the 
black days, looking out, like Sister Anne, 
across the plains, hoping to descry a cloud of 
dust heralding the approach and the first 
waving pennons of the Lancers of Scindia's 
Relief Force. If he came too late the little 
band of Englishmen shut up in the Fort must 
take desperate measures, blow up the Fort and 
perish in its ruins, rather than that they and 
their wives should fall into the hands of the 
mutineers. But Scindia came in time to avert 
such a catastrophe. 

Of course I visited the Taj Mahal. I will 
not attempt to describe it, but will only say 
that of the World's Wonders which 1 have seen 
the Taj is the only one that has not disappointed 
me. Its beauty far exceeds anything I could 
have imagined. 

I was astonished at the effect the first sight 
of it had on my " boy," the servant who carried 
my cloak and umbrella. He was an ignorant 
country fellow from the Bombay hill-country 



THE POWER OF BEAUTY 49 

(my head servant had gone on to get things 
ready at Hariana), and such people are generally 
most apathetic and impassive, but to my amaze- 
ment, as we passed through the outer gateway 
and caught the first glimpse of the white marble 
Taj at the end of the avenue of cypress-trees, 
with the stream flowing between, he dropped 
my chattels and threw up his arms, exclaiming 
" Ari, Ari, sundr, eraloquil " (" Oh, what beauty ; . 
it is heaven I "). 

He was quite overwhelmed. 
As I was thinking about this in the evening 
at my hotel, I remembered that Canon Barnett 
used to say : " True beauty, anything perfectly 
beautiful, appeals even to the most uncultured 
minds." He persuaded wealthy collectors to 
lend their best pictures for exhibition in White- 
chapel, and was apparently justified in his idea 
by the results of the plebiscite always taken at 
the exhibition. Those who came to see the 
pictures were the inhabitants of the neighbour- 
hood, the most thickly populated part of East 
London. Each was required to vote for the 
picture he or she liked best, and the pictures 
considered " the best " by connoisseurs always 
got the most votes. The real beauty had struck 

home even to the uncultured perception. 

4 



50 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

I left Agra next morning and started off by 
a branch line to my destination, finding the 
travelling very different from that of the first part 
of the journey on main lines in express trains. 
Now I was in a narrow stuffy carriage with 
dust permeating every corner, jolting slowly 
along through a very dreary, sandy, barren 
country, but I buoyed myself up with the 
thought : " I shall be right out in the country 
among the Indian people and see them as they 
are — ^there will be no English but ourselves, 
and I shall get to know what the life of the 
people of India really is." 

I reached Hariana at dusk ; Bob was at the 
station to meet me, with an army of puttiwalas 
who took charge of my seven boxes. The sun 
had gone down, so the cover or head had been 
removed from the tonga (double dogcart) in 
which we were to drive to our quarters. 

On the way I was to make acquaintance with 
the dust, which is a very insistent factor of 
life in India. It was like thick, dirty-white 
flour, the roads were overlaid with it, three or 
four inches deep, and the trees beside the road 
were white, not green. When people come 
driving or even walking, their approach is 
heralded by the cloud of dust they raise as 



HOME AT HARIANA 51 

they move along; if a drove of cattle is 
coming it is a vast cloud. 

We had not far to go to the Rest House or 
Travellers' Bungalow which was to be my home 
for some time to come. Throughout India, 
wherever the official's duty takes him — be he 
engineer, revenue-collector, forest-officer, or 
officer of the police force — there is always a 
Government Bungalow in which he can take 
rooms, and a kamsamah (cook-butler) to attend 
upon him. When Government officials are not 
using it, other English people may find accom- 
modation there at a fixed charge. The Bungalow 
housed Bob and myself, but tents had to be 
pitched in the grounds for Bob's office and 
clerks. 

The Bungalow rooms were lofty and spacious, 
the furniture was plain, but all that was 
necessary was there. In my bedroom I found 
a dressing-table and glass, an almirah (wardrobe 
for hanging dresses), a chest of drawers, and a 
wooden bedstead (on which our own mattresses 
would be placed) with mosquito poles and net, 
and on the floor some blue and white striped 
dhurries (country carpets) were placed. Through- 
out India one carries one's own bedding with 
one. I remember an Indian gentleman told me 



52 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

that what surprised him greatly in Europe was 
that the hotels supplied bed, sheets, and towels 1 

In the dining-room there were a large table 
and some cane-seated chairs, as well as two 
deck chairs and some cane lounges. The 
dhurries were red and blue. I was quite pleased 
with the appearance of the dining-room when 
the butler had announced dinner. 

There were our own lamps with rose-coloured 
shades, and our own glass, silver, and chinaware, 
flowers were tastefully arranged in vases on 
the table, and the dinner was a good one. 
Indian cooks are very resourceful even in the 
jungle ; with a frying-pan as the only cooking 
utensil, and two stones for a fireplace, they will 
produce an appetising dinner. 

I give the menu : 

Clear Soup. 

Salmon Cutlets (tinned). 

Roast Mutton. 

Stuffed Tomatoes. 

Caramel Pudding. 

Cheese Toast. 

So you see I need not starve out here I 
After dinner we sat out on the verandah, 
which has a pretty flower-garden in front of 
it, shaded by splendid cork-trees, and on the 



A GRAMOPHONE IN THE JUNGLE 68 

side of the house were other lofty trees and a 
golden laburnum, now a mass of splendid colour. 
The flower-garden melted off into the Pome- 
granate Grove of which I will tell you to- 
morrow. I had noticed some stately peacocks 
strutting about the garden before dinner, and 
heard from time to time a rush and whir of 
wings, which nieant that they were flying up 
to settle on the trees for the night, in fact going 
to roost. But apparently the instinct which 
warns them of approaching atmospheric dis- 
turbance prevented them from sleeping, for as 
we sat in the verandah, shrill and startling 
wailing cries broke the stillness from time to 
time. 

" There will be rain," said Bob. " When the 
peacocks make that noise it is a sure sign that 
rain is coming." 

I enjoyed sitting in the verandah chatting, 
and just remarked, " This is really India," when, 
horror of horrors, the loud sound of a gramo- 
phone rent the air. I distinguished one of the 
latest London music-hall songs, one of Harry 
Lauder's successes. This was followed by airs 
from the last " Gaiety " operetta, and so it 
went on. 

Bob told me that the Zemindar, whose house 



54 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 
and grounds were close by, had lately returned 
from a visit to London, and that this gramophone 
was one of his most cherished acquisitions and 
that we were likely to hear a good deal of it. 
On this occasion it played for nearly an hour, 
and spoiled my first evening in Hariana. 

I retired from the verandah to do a little 
unpacking, and when the gramophone stopped, 
I was glad to go to bed ; and very comfortable 
and snug I felt with the mosquito-nets tucked 
in around me, for when the bed is large and 
the mosquito-poles high, and the nets tucked 
in tightly around the mattress, they make a 
little room within a room. 

But though I was so snug and comfortable, I, 
like the peacocks, could not sleep. I was, how- 
ever, well content to lie still and listen to the 
various sounds that succeed each other through 
the night in India. 

Night is such a busy time for the winged 
creatures and the denizens of the jungle. The 
cicada chant incessantly, the night-owls hoot as 
they chase their evening meal, the cry of a band 
of flying foxes is weird, the chorus of bull-frogs, 
if you are near water in the rainy season, is often 
quite overwhelming, then in the distance one 
may hear the call of the jackal, warning the 



VOICES OF THE NIGHT 55 

panther, for whom he is stalking, that he scents 
prey, while on the road, near by, bullock- wagons 
pass from time to time, and the bells hung around 
the necks of the team jingle and tinkle pleasantly. 
In India, travelling and transport work are always 
done at night when possible, in order to avoid 
the heat. 

As I lay awake listening to these various 
sounds and signs of a life that was novel to me, 
I thought how much they were to be preferred 
to the noises heard as I lay awake (not so long ago) 
in a private hospital in London. There I used to 
dread the approach of night. As soon as it 
grew dark many specimens of foul and miserable 
humanity began to issue from their lairs in the 
adjoining slums and made their needs and 
misery known to the world by a variety of cries. 
A raucous voice would bellow passionate love- 
songs, a quavering female voice would follow 
with a pseudo-religious ditty, then a boy with a 
painful attempt at jocularity would give a comic 
music-hall ditty in a squeaking voice, sometimes 
a broken-down actor declaimed a scene from 
Shakespeare. Generally their efforts were cut 
short by the jingle of some coppers on the 
pavement and an order to move on. How 
terrible to be reduced to having no other means 



56 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 
to keep starvation at bay than by doing some- 
thing that people will pay you to stop doing ; 
in fact, they will pay you not to do it again. 

Finally the nuisance was stopped in that 
particular square by the matron of the hospital 
getting a police-inspector to place a man on 
duty to prevent mendicants frequenting it. 
Poor creatures ! They only changed their beat. 
These noises are not all that makes a London 
night hideous. There is the flare of electric light 
on the painted girls in the streets, the garish 
restaurants, the houses where youth and inno- 
cence are foully sacrificed, the flaring gin-palaces 
and their sodden, degraded customers, but there 
is also the other side of the picture — the open 
doors of the hospitals — (for it is after the public- 
houses close for the night and the frequenters are 
turned into the street, that the greatest number 
of accident-cases are brought to the hospital) ; the 
army of patient, duty-loving nurses, in hospitals, 
nursing-homes, and private houses, forgetful of 
self, cheerfully performing disgusting offices, 
fighting to save life — to save their patients from 
the consequences of following the lead of the 
world, the flesh, and the devil. 

But I was glad to be away from it all, in fresh 
surroundings. I fell asleep at last and was quite 



HOW THE DAY BEGINS IN INDIA 57 

surprised that morning came so soon, and not 
prepared for the knock at my door that pro- 
claimed seven o'clock, and the butler's voice 
saying : " Char tyar, mem Sahib " (" Tea is ready "). 
That meant he had placed my tray of tea and 
toast on a little table at my door and that when 
he retired I was to open my door and take it in. 
Indian men-servants, unlike Continental waiters, 
would never think of entering a lady's bedroom 
while she was in it. 

Bob was due at his office at eight o'clock and 
would return for real breakfast at eleven. This 
breakfast is more like an early lunch. After 
dressing 1 put on my sun-topee (helmet) and 
began to explore my surroundings. 

I must tell you about them next week. 



CHAPTER IV 



THE POMEaEANATE GROVE 



1 MUST now describe my surroundings for your 
benefit. In front of the Bungalow is a garden ; 
in the garden are cornflowers, phloxes, petunias, 
marigolds, and mignonette, besides small Persian 
rose-bushes and jasmine. There are also a few 
bushes of the Cashmere rose, the real original 
rose, from which all other varieties have de- 
scended or been propagated. It is a large, pink, 
single rose, excessively fragrant. 

We are among the Punjaub irrigation colonies, 
and as I walked down the path I saw a dazzling 
sight at the end of the flower-garden, a mass of 
white and pale pink fruit-blossom, which had not 
been there two days ago, but the water had been 
turned on, and this was the result. It is said 
that the drain of irrigation canals has brought 
the waters of the Jumna so low that boats of any 
size cannot travel on it and the trade of the 
Jumna, which was considerable, is almost at an 

58 



THE POMEGRANATE GROVE 59 

end ; on the other hand irrigation means pros- 
perity to the landowners and ryots of the 
Western Punjaub. To return to my garden. 
After the blossoming fruit-garden, began the 
Pomegranate Grove and. a thick tangle of dark 
green small-leaved trees, with flowers of bright, 
rather brieky-red hue. Most people know the 
dark crimson of the ripe pomegranate-fruit, but 
the flower is of quite a different shade. It was 
a very extensive grove, overshadowed by some 
lofty shade trees. It struck me as a lovely place 
wherein to sit and read, write or dream. At 
present, while the trees are in blossom, it is a 
quiet place, but later on, when fruit is ripening, it 
will be very noisy. Empty kerosine-tins with 
large stones in them will be attached to branches 
of some of the taller trees, and at the bottom of 
each such tree will be stationed a small boy 
whose business it is to pull a rope attached to 
the tins and make the stones rattle to scare away 
the marauding birds. Other boys will be there 
with bows from which they will let out mud 
pellets, not arrows, at the robbers. 

At the end of the grove is a large tank much 
frequented by water-birds ; beyond that rise the 
waUs and flat-roofed houses of the town. It 
is merely a small Indian country town, no shops 



60 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

where anything required by English people 
could be procured, but it is the centre of a 
cotton-growing district, and the great Greek 
merchants, Messrs. Ralli, have offices here and 
an agent, who buys up cotton for the Bombay or 
Calcutta markets. This agent and his clerks are 
the only European residents. The town is un- 
interesting, but a little above it are the remains 
of the old fort, and bathed in the glorious 
Indian sunshine the general effect is quite 
picturesque. 

The climate here is much colder than in 
Bombay. Here I am glad of a blanket at night, 
and a cloth coat and skirt are comfortable wear 
in the early morning. By ten o'clock the sun 
will have warmed the atmosphere and diffused a 
delicious warmth everywhere. 

I have now chosen a corner of the pome- 
granate grove overshadowed by trees, and 
there I have placed a cane chair and a blue 
and white dhurrie for a carpet ; this will be my 
own special boudoir, to which I shall retire when 
1 want to have a chat with you on paper, and 
you can think of me as sitting there to compile 
my weekly budget. 

I sit there so quietly that the birds and 
animals who inhabit the grove and neighbour- 



DENIZENS OF THE GROVE 61 

hood take no notice of me, but go on with their 
daily life as if I were not there. 

But I am beginning to make friends with some 
of them. The minors (Indian starlings) are very 
bold birds, and will come quite close to me to 
pick up crumbs. They are very handsome, 
graceful birds and most amusing, chattering 
incessantly and quarrelling with each other as 
they patter to and fro looking for food. The 
little squirrels, whose fur is grey with black 
stripes, are shyer than the minors, but even they 
are beginning to look out for crumbs, they will 
take a run up the trunk of a tree to nibble 
it, and then scamper back for more. I was 
amused to see one of them run in between two 
green parrots who were disputing over some grain, 
and carry it away while they were chattering. 
The monkeys who come into the tall trees beyond 
the grove are endlessly amusing, but I do not 
make friends with them, indeed they grin and 
hiss at me in rather a forbidding way, if I pass 
near a bough on which they are seated. One 
ventured into the verandah yesterday and the 
servants drove him off immediately, saying: 
" Monkeys are very bad people." 

I write a little, and then pause to see what is 
going on around me, and 1 often witness a little 



62 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

drama among my dumb neighbours. To-day 
it was enacted by a monkey and two crows. 
The monkey was seated on the topmost bough 
of a casaurina tree, which looked too fragile to 
support his weight, indeed he swayed backwards 
and forwards as he was eating a wood-apple. 

One crow attacked in front, while the other 
pecked at his tail behind. He was quite equal 
to the occasion, and I admired the deftness with 
which he aimed a blow at the enemy in front, 
and then wheeled quickly round to give another 
blow with his paw to the crow attacking him in 
the rear. The crows retired for a few yards and 
then returned to the attack; this went on for 
some time, till they got tired and flew off with 
discordant cries. 

Life in India nowadays seems very tame by 
comparison with the old times before British 
rule was firmly established in India. Now no 
one dare shake the pagoda-tree ; then it held 
endless possibilities for attaining riches and 
power, and the tales of the exploits and achieve- 
ments of French and English adventurers in those 
days, though actual facts, sound like extravagant 
romances. 

Hariana, a district covering an area of three 
thousand square miles, was the scene of the 



THE IRISH RAJAH 68 

exploits of George Thomas, known as the " Irish 
Rajah," and it was in the old fort here that he 
made his last stand against the forces of Scindia. 
George Thomas arrived in India towards the 
end of the eighteenth century, as a sailor before the 
mast, and after a series of marvellous adventures, 
during which he collected an army of followers, 
he made his power supreme throughout Hariana, 
and carved out a kingdom for himself from the 
ruins of the Moghul Empire. He made the 
town of Hansi his capital, and there he established 
a mint to coin the money to pay his troops ; 
he also cast his own artillery, manufactured 
muskets and powder, making the best preparation 
he could for carrying on an offensive and 
defensive war against all comers, knowing that 
nothing but force of arms could maintain his 
authority. Thomas aspired to conquer the 
Punjaub, but the celebrated French General 
Perron (commander-in-chief of the army of 
the Mahratta Confederation, of which the 
Maharajah Scindia of Gwalior was the head), who 
had seized Delhi and established the Mahratta 
power throughout Central and part of Northern 
India, thought that Thomas was getting too 
powerful and that his progress must be stopped. 
After vainly endeavouring to get him to join 



64 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

forces, or to enter into a compact limiting the 
area of his conquests, General Perron declared 
war on the " Irish Rajah," sending a force of six 
thousand Sikhs and sixty guns under the com- 
mand of the French General Bourguien to 
invade Hariana. 

A fierce warfare was waged. Thomas, who 
had some English officers with him, drove back 
the invading force at Georgeghar, sixty miles 
from Hansi, and then entrenched himself at 
Georgeghar, holding out for six weeks against 
the besieging force, which was repeatedly 
strengthened by reinforcements from Perron's 
army. Supplies being exhausted, Thomas's 
only chance was to break through the enemy's 
lines with his mounted men. He succeeded in 
doing this one night, but his followers were 
quickly dispersed by the troops which General 
Bourguien sent in pursuit. Thomas himself, 
with four English officers, following a circuitous 
route for one hundred and twenty miles, finally 
reached Hansi in safety. There they did their 
best to hold out, but the French general 
stormed the town and took it after a gallant 
defence had been made by the besieged. 
Thomas and a handful of followers were driven 
into the Fort, where they were bombarded for ten 



AN ADVENTURER^S DOWNFALL 65 

days, but finally had to capitulate. In these 
scenes the well-known Anglo-Indian family of 
Skinner played a prominent part, fighting on 
the side of Maharajah Scindia's troops against 
Thomas. Colonel James Skinner has left a very 
graphic account of all that took place, in his 
Memoirs, . which were lent to me by his 
descendant, now living at Hansi. 

It is said that the " Irish Rajah " behaved in a 
most dignified manner at his first meeting with his 
conqueror, General Bourguien, to whom he gave 
up his sword ; but the General invited him and 
his officers to a banquet, which degenerated into 
an orgy. Thomas, trying to drown grief in wine, 
became intoxicated and lost all prestige. Drink 
was his besetting weakness ; he gave way to it 
after the collapse of his power, and never retrieved 
his fortune. After living for a time in obscurity 
in Benares, he died on his way home to Ireland.^ 

It is eleven o'clock, so I must break off and 
go in to breakfast. 

Resumed later, — Bob seemed dejected at 
breakfast and was very silent. I remarked on the 
crowd of natives collected round his office tent. 

^ Many adventurers and soldiers of fortune, notably General de 
Boigne, amassed fortunes and returned to Europe to enjoy them. 
Few had so dismal an end as Thomas. 
5 



66 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

" Yes," he said — ** blackguards most of them, 
and litigation is the joy of their life. It would 
take the wisdom of Solomon to know when they 
are speaking the truth. Outside a magistrate's 
court, a number of men are always to be found who 
can be hired for fourpence to swear to anything. 
To be a false witness is a recognised profession." 

Bob, besides his duties as Assistant Revenue 
Collector, has magisterial powers, and is obliged 
to hold Courts of Justice wherever he goes. 
When breakfast was over, he had only half an 
hour's respite, and then was obliged to return to 
his office tent, where he would be engaged till 
five o'clock. 

So I was to have all the day to myself. 
Servants always retire to their quarters for food 
and siesta from twelve o'clock till two, and great 
quiet reigns in an Englishman's house at that 
time. Who can describe the " hush " of noon- 
tide in India ? Early rismg is the order of the 
day ; by noon the morning's work is over, the 
chatter and passing to and fro of the servants 
have ceased ; there is no sound but the soft cooing 
of doves in the barboul-trees, or the creaking of 
the water-wheel in the distance, and the long- 
drawn-out cry of the water-drawer urging the 
patient bullocks to their work as they pace to 



A PUNJAUB SAND-STORM 67 

and from the well — they go forward to drop the 
buckets into the well, and by retreating pull back 
the ropes which draw up the buckets, which 
empty themselves into prepared receptacles. I 
had not yet got into the habit of taking a noon- 
day siesta, so I took out my phrase-book and 
began to study the Hindu vocabulary. As I 
could not speak the language and knew nothing 
of prices, Bob advised me to leave the house- 
keeping to the servants for the present — they 
were experienced men who had been with him 
some years ; but T meant to get the language 
and fit myself to be mistress of the household as 
soon as possible. How long I had been poring 
over the Hindustani alphabet 1 know not, when 
suddenly the " boy " rushed into the room and 
hurriedly began to close every window and door ; 
and other servants were doing the same all over 
the Bungalow. 

" What is the matter ? " I asked. 

" Kala paous " (" Black rain "), he replied. 

Quite suddenly it grew dark, and a cloud of 
black dust seemed to pervade the air — it per- 
meated through window and door chinks, and 
covered the furniture and made one choke. We 
were in the Western Punjaub, and a sand-storm 
from the adjoining Rajputana Desert was the 



68 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

cause of the darkness and dust. Although it 
was only two o'clock the servants had to light 
the lamps, and the atmosphere was that of a 
London fog. By evening the storm died away, 
and the air became clear, but the house was in a 
dreadful state. These unpleasant storms occur 
not infrequently in this district. I felt glad I 
had not unpacked the pretty knick-knacks and 
cushions with which I had intended to make the 
rooms look homelike. 

. . • • • 

A week has passed since I last wrote to you, 
and as I was out on an expedition into the jungle 
with Bob, I missed the mail. I am now alone 
in the Bungalow, for Bob has had to go away for 
a few days into an outlying district where it 
was not convenient to take me. Had I gone, it 
would have meant double tent equipment, etc. 
Some servants are left to take care of me, and 
they feel honoured by the charge and will make 
it their business to see that Mem Sahib is well 
looked after. Then the Zemindar, who lives near 
by, called and assured me that I need not feel at 
all nervous, and asked me to summon him should 
any difficulties arise. He said : " Both I and my 
servants would lay down their lives rather than 
that any harm should befall the lady of our 



AN INDIAN COUNTRY SQUIRE 69 

English Sahib. To the English Raj we know 
we owe all our prosperity. But Mem Sahib 
need not be nervous, the people in this neigh- 
bourhood are all well-disposed." 

I noticed when I went out for an evening 
stroll with the puttiwala at my heels, that the 
country people were very respectful. If a farmer 
was riding along, he would get off his pony and 
wait till I had passed. 

" Unrest " was manifesting itself in other parts 
of India. Bombs had been thrown; the first 
killed two ladies at Mozufferpoor, and many 
people were getting into a state of panic. 

I am lucky to have such loyal neighbours. 

The Zemindar is rather a remarkable man, an 
Anglo-Indian who is a descendant of a mixed 
marriage. An ancestor had done great service 
to the British Raj, and raised a regiment in 
Mutiny time, a regiment that is known to fame 
as " The Yellow Boys," from the colour of their 
uniform. As a reward for services, large grants 
of land were bestowed on him, which had to be 
divided among a large family at his death. 

Our friend and neighbour was a tall handsome 
man of polished manners, who had travelled a 
good deal in Europe and liked to talk of all he 
had seen. Here in Hariana he lived the life of 



70 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

a country squire, looking after his property, 
fishing, and shooting. He had married a 
Mohammedan lady, and as I could not speak 
her language, and she could not speak mine, 
an exchange of visits could not have given 
much pleasure to either of us, so we waived 
the ceremony for the present. But the father 
brought his only child, on whom his hopes were 
centred, to visit me ; he was a handsome, in- 
telligent boy about ten years old. He was 
rather worried by an Eton collar, but neverthe- 
less he enjoyed his tea and cake, and talked 
English very well. He soon asked leave to go 
and fly his kite — the favourite amusement of boys 
in India ; he had a new one and was anxious to 
match it against that of his cousin. A kite 
contest is considered very exciting— even grown 
men often engage in it, and bets are exchanged as 
to the probable winner. The winner is the com- 
petitor whose kite remains longest in the air, and 
does not fall or get entangled in trees or other 
obstacles. Kite-flying requires skill in manipu- 
lating the strings, watching air-currents, etc. 
On this evening the new kite was victorious, so 
I heard later on. Kite-flying was not the only 
sport indulged in. On several evenings in the 
week the Zemindar would call the stablemen to 



A LOYAL INDUN GENTLEMAN 71 

the cricket pitch and give his son and heir a 
lesson in the game. I had many interesting 
conversations with this neighbour, who had much 
to tell about old days in India and showed me 
some much - cherished, but now faded, photo- 
graphs of well-known Indian officials who, with 
their ladies, had visited his father and grand- 
father ; the ladies wore crinolines, paletots, 
turban hats, and other Early Victorian abomina- 
tions in the way of costume. He also had a 
much -prized painting of Sir John Lawrence, 
when Governor of the Punjaub, before he became 
Lord Lawrence and Viceroy of India. 

My friend greatly disapproved of what he 
considered the too great leniency of the Govern- 
ment of India in dealing with the crimes of 
the anarchists which had recently startled the 
Anglo-Indian world. The long-drawn-out trials 
disgusted him. 

" If * Jan Larrens * had been alive he would 
have strung the assassins up outside the Cash- 
mere Gate at Delhi next day, and have done 
with them. That is the way to put a stop to 
such crimes," he said. 

" And last week I was at Lahore, and there 
were students in white dhotas, and fifteen-rupee 
clerks, walking up and down the platform, 



72 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

pushing past the English travellers and talking 
in loud voices of recent events, as if they really 
thought they had influence and could coerce 
the British Raj ! Pooah ! My blood boiled ! " 

It is true that the half-educated, weak-minded 
youths who have been set on by stronger minds 
to assassinate English officials have been greatly 
influenced by the love of notoriety. They are 
told that they will be considered patriotic heroes 
— that the world will talk of them, that there 
will be a long trial and their names will be in 
the newspapers every day — and several have had 
their photographs taken just before attempting 
or committing the crime, with a view to their 
picture being published in the papers and sold 
in the streets. These misguided youths learn 
their mistake too late, and bear the punishment 
which is really deserved by those who corrupted 
their minds and made tools of them. Their 
love of notoriety is not gratified. 

In old times, under Indian rulers, those 
persons about to suffer the punishment of death 
were dressed in a short tunic, their hair loosened 
and covered with red powder and flowers (as 
is usual when a corpse is carried to the funeral 
pyre). In this guise they were seated on a 
camel and paraded through crowds of spectators 



HOW ANARCHISTS DIE 78 

to the place where the sentence was to be 
carried out. 

Nowadays under British rule no such exciting 
scenes buoy up the criminal to suffer the penalty 
of death. 

In the cold grey dawn the condemned mounts 
the scaffold erected in the walled-in courtyard 
of the prison, and meets his doom in the 
presence of no witnesses besides the few officials 
whose duty it is to see the sentence carried out. 

In the days of the Indian Mutiny, English 
commanders adopted an Eastern custom in 
punishing traitors ; the ringleaders were blown 
from the guns. 

An English official has recorded his opinion 
that this was an excellent method of inflicting 
capital punishment, because it was " painless to 
the condemned, terrible to the beholder." 

But it is no longer adopted by the British 
Government. 



CHAPTER V 

NOTABLE INDIAN WOMEN IN PAST AND PRESENT TIMES 

Last night I had a surprise. The moonlight 
was lovely, so after dinner I strolled out into 
the garden and was astonished to see that one 
side of the Bungalow was covered with beautiful 
white flowers — they had not been there in the 
afternoon. Bob told me they were called 
*' moonflowers " because they only open when 
the moon is bright, and only live one night. 
They are very large cup-like flowers growing 
on a creeping vine of the convolvulus tribe. 

I heard a great disturbance in the servants' 
quarters this morning and I sent to inquire 
the cause of the loud outcries and wailings 
that reached my ears. After a while the cook's 
wife, and a woman she introduced as her sister, 
appeared before me wringing their hands and 
weeping. After much delay and with the aid 
of the butler, who knew some English, I found 
out what had happened. At an early hour the 

74 



A MUTILATED GIRL 75 

sister had arrived bringing with her a daughter 
in a shocking condition, with a bleeding face, 
the blood coming through the rags with which 
it was bandaged. A bad man, whose offers 
of marriage had been refused by the parents, 
had come to the house while they were in the 
fields and the girl was left alone to do the 
cooking. He tried to persuade the girl to 
go away with him, but she refused, and when 
he caught hold of her, she strenuously resisted 
him, being tall and strong. But he got out 
a knife and tried to cut off her nose ; fortunately 
at this moment some neighbours, attracted by the 
girl's cries, rushed in. He had only cut into the 
bridge of the nose between the eyes. It was a 
dastardly act, and the girl, at best, would be 
marked for life. To cut off her nose is the 
usual punishment for an unfaithful wife, and 
this innocent girl would now have to go through 
life marked as if she were a bad character. 

Our neighbour the Zemindar, whose advice 
I asked, said she must be sent at once to the 
Mission Hospital in a town twelve miles away, 
and he provided a cart to convey her there— a 
little country cart with a covering of matting 
to keep off the sun. I had a mattress placed 
on the bottom of the cart, and on this she lay, 



76 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

and set off to the hospital accompanied by 
her mother and aunt. Her assailant was caught 
by the police and sentenced to two years in 
prison. Banutai (this was the girl's name) was 
skilfully treated in hospital and when she came 
out, she still possessed a nose, though there 
was an ugly dent where it joined the forehead 
between the eyes, which greatly spoiled her 
appearance. 

Cutting off noses so frequently takes place 
that hospital doctors have become skilful in 
treating the wounds. If the nose has been 
entirely severed from the face a piece of skin 
is grafted into the forehead and drawn down 
over a false nose. In many cases the result 
is successful. 

It is to be hoped that doctors will soon have 
less practice in these cases, and that the custom 
of cutting off a wife's nose will soon be dis- 
continued by angry husbands, for, though very 
careful not to interfere with the manners and 
customs of the Indian people when not actually 
reprehensible, the British Government cannot 
tolerate mutilation, and feels justified in trying 
to stamp out this offence by inflicting severe 
punishment on the perpetrators. 

It would be difficult for a girl, disfigured as 



POSITION OF INDIAN WOMEN 77 

Banutai was, to obtain a husband, so the parents, 
who had been very much impressed with the 
kindness shown to her at the Mission Hospital, 
decided to ask the Mission ladies to take her 
into their school, and teach her to read and write 
and to speak English, and to use a sewing- 
machine, then she would be fit to be an ayah 
and wait on English ladies. 

" And if you are here, Mem Sahib, you will 
take her, will you not ? and then she will be 
happy all her days,'* so they said to me. 

You must not suppose that because some men 
of the lower classes commit acts of brutality on 
women, that therefore cruelty to women is com- 
mon or prevalent here. You might as well judge 
Englishmen by the standard of conduct percep- 
tible in a European city slum, where we hear that 
outrages on women frequently occur. English 
people who come to India soon get disabused of 
the idea that is so very prevalent among stay- 
at-home people in England — that the women of 
India are downtrodden. There is no country in 
the world where the influence of women is so 
paramount as in India. In no other country are 
there so many henpecked husbands. Political 
Agents will tell you that if there is trouble in a 
Native State, there is always a woman at the 



tS A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

bottom of it. It may be a dancing girl, a wife, 
a mother or grandmother, according to whose 
influence is in the ascendant, but more often the 
latter. An Indian ruler may wish to make 
reforms in his State, but the ladies are too con- 
servative, and he will say to his adviser: ** I 
should like to do it, but my mother or grand- 
mother is against it." The ladies do not 
scruple to work on his feelings, and say : *' If 
such or such a thing is done, we will throw our- 
selves down the well," for so far female influence 
is in general that of ignorance, superstition, and 
sensuality. 

We know one ruling chief among our own 
acquaintances who is completely terrorised by 
his wife. If asked why he has done certain ill- 
judged things, or signed such a document to his 
own detriment, he will reply : " My wife wished 
it ; if I had refused I should not be alive at the 
end of the week." 

A well-known leader in the Mohammedan world 
had, while on a visit to London, remarked to an 
English lady, the wife of an Indian official, that 
when he returned to India he should try to get 
the ladies of his household to take some interest 
in what is going on in the world, and to learn 
some of the things that English ladies learn and 



A WARLIKE INDIAN QUEEN 79 

do. When the lady in question returned to 
India, she met the Mohammedan gentleman, and, 
remembering their conversation on the subject, 
said : " Well I Have you reformed your ladies ? " 

" No indeed," he replied. " They very soon 
reformed me, and made me think that old ways 
are best for us." 

Indian women have often very strong charac- 
ters, and have played important parts in Indian 
history. 

''I call to mind the Rani of Jhansi who, in 
Mutiny times, led her troops to battle, and the 
English commander-in-chief said she was the 
best *' man " on the enemy's side. Further back 
there was Ahlyabai Holkareen, the Hani of 
Indore, so widely known as a wise and beneficent 
ruler. Many of her benevolent foundations are 
doing good work up to the present day. I have 
just read a little memoir of her life, of which I 
will give you an outline. 

Ahlyabai was the wife of Kunderao Holkar, 
Maharajah of Indore, at the end of the eighteenth 
century. She lost her husband at the age of 
twenty-one, her only son died young, so she 
took up the burden of government and ruled the 
State of Indore for thirty years. Ahlyabai was 
like a mother to her subjects — the poorest had 



80 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

access to her, and she Hstened to all their 
grievances, and did everything possible for their 
welfare. Indore, the seat of government, was 
only a small village when her reign began, but 
she gradually made it a fine town. She also 
proved herself able to protect her State against 
aggression. At that date the Peshwa of Poona 
was a sort of overlord of all the Mahratta States, 
and once when pressed for money he sent to ask 
Ahlyabai to lend him some, knowing that her 
treasury was well filled. She replied that all her 
money was dedicated to works of charity and 
piety, but that if he could prove that he was a 
Brahmin, and would come in the guise of a 
Brahmin mendicant to ask her alms, she would 
gladly bestow all she possessed on him. The 
Peshwa could not brook the idea of stooping to 
such means of getting the money he needed, so 
he determined to attack Ahlyabai, take her by 
surprise, and seize the treasury of Indore. But 
she heard of his intention and sent word to him : 
" Think well before you do it. If you defeat a 
woman, the victory will not bring you glory ; if 
I defeat you, shame will be your portion."* 
While her Ambassador was travelling to the 
Peshwa's quarters, Ahlyabai gathered together 
five hundred women, chosen from her subjects, 



A MARATHA PHILANTHROPIST 81 

armed them, and mounted them on horseback, 
and she herself rode at their head to the place 
where the Peshwa and his troops were encamped. 
The soldiers refused to take up arms against the 
women, saying it was contrary to the precepts of 
their religion, and if they did so, they would be 
covered with shame in the eyes of their fellows. 
The Peshwa could not deny this, so he had 
an interview with Ahlyabai, after which he 
came to the conclusion that he would not 
gain much by interfering with a woman of 
her calibre. So he begged her forgiveness, 
made his peace with her, and retired with his 
soldiers, telling her to spend the money as she 
thought best. 

Throughout India, from north to south, traces 
of Ahlyabai's munificence and benevolence are 
to be seen. Temples and shrines built and 
endowed by her are found in many places, also 
houses of rest for pilgrims at holy places, others 
where Brahmins could be lodged and fed, and 
tanks to supply water — a first requirement in 
India, not only for drinking, but for bathing, 
which is a religious observance. 

A description of how Ahlyabai passed her day 

is not unworthy of attention. She is considered 

the pattern of what a woman of her race should 
6 



82 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

be, and her mode of life carried out the Hindu 
woman's ideal. 

She rose very early, and her first words were 
an invocation of the Deity, then she bathed and 
performed her devotions,^ after which she sat 
down to listen to a portion of the Sacred Books, 
read aloud by a priest. That concluded, she 
went to distribute food to Brahmins ^ and other 
poor people who might have collected at her 
palace gates, and when this task was completed 
she had her own first meal, at the end of which 
a few verses of praise to God were recited 
(practically a grace), and then she retired for a 
short siesta. 

On rising, Ahlyabia put on the dress worn at 
ceremonies, and went into the hall, where her 
Ministers were transacting the business of the 
State. After giving audience to any persons 
who might be awaiting her, she inquired into, 
and gave orders about, all the affairs of State 
that were under consideration, occupying her- 
self in this manner till sunset, when she left 
I 

* She invoked the Deity — God — and then performed her devotions 
before the images of various lesser gods. For the Hindus believe 
in the one omnipotent God, but also pray to very many other 
gods — much as Roman Catholics pray to saints — asking their inter- 
cessions. 

' To feed Brahmins, the sacred or priestly caste, is considered 
one of the most meritorious acts a Hindu can perform. 



A MODEL QUEEN 88 

the hall and went into her private apartments to 
perform her evening devotions, and take the 
evening meal. This accomplished, she returned 
to the hall and attended to affairs of State till 
midnight, when she retired to rest. 

She was always plainly dressed and humble in 
her opinion of herself, saying she knew she was 
responsible to God for the welfare of her subjects, 
and would have to give an account to Him for 
all her actions as a ruler. 

Thus she lived for thirty years, setting an 
example not to be despised by women of any 
race or position. 

Many Hindu women in a humbler position 
mould their lives after a somewhat similar fashion 
— the day spent between devotion and household 
duties, which, with these, take the place that 
affairs of State took in the life of Ahlyabai 
Holkareen. 

Hindu ladies of the modern world still show 
much capacity for government. The Begum of 
Bhopal I have mentioned. The Maharanee of 
Mysore ruled the State so well ' during the 
minority of her son, the present Maharajah, that 
Government awarded her a salute of nineteen 
guns, in token of approbation. 

Though the mass of the women of India may 



84 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

still use their influence on the side of ignorance 
and superstition, there are many fine exceptions 
to be found, women fit to be leaders in any cause. 
In the Bombay Presidency may be named the 
late Mrs. Sorabji of Poona, and her daughters, 
and Mrs. Ranade. Also Parbatti-bai Athwale 
and Pandita Ramabai, who have worked so 
strenuously to raise the status of the child 
widows, and to teach them to earn an honour- 
able living. 

I met in Bombay some very cultured Indian 
ladies who, while keeping to their own habits 
and customs, yet desire that women should be 
educated and be fit to hold their own and to 
undertake all such duties as are suitable for a 
woman to fulfil. One such lady was telling me 
about her two daughters. The eldest did not 
wish to marry, she wished to study for the 
medical profession. Her very unusual parents 
said : " We shall not force her to marry, we 
are glad that she wishes to lead a useful life and 
to benefit her fellow women." 

It is very unusual for parents to be willing 
that a daughter shall remain unmarried, for the 
idea that prevails among orthodox Hindus is 
that marriage is the only career for a woman. 
If one listens to the talk of children, say of 




A PARSEE MEDICINE LADY. 
(Head of Female Hospital, Khairpur State, Sind.) 



THE PURDAH AS A PRIVILEGE 85 

seven or eight years old, who are playing 
together, their talk will generally be about 
marriage, and, if meeting for the first time, 
the first question will be : " Who is your 
husband ? " or " When are you going to be 
married ? " 

In the enlightened family I have mentioned 
the younger girl was inclined to be noisy and 
pushing. " So we call her * Suffragette,' " said 
her mother, laughing. 

Much commiseration is wasted on those 
Indian ladies who live in seclusion and do not 
appear in public or mix in general society. But 
the greater number of them prefer it, and cling 
to their privacy as the privilege of rank. I 
know of a certain princess whose husband was 
educated in England, and he wished her to 
adopt English customs and mix in society. He 
used to take her out driving in an open phaeton, 
and expected her to appear at dinner-parties 
where English gentlemen as well as ladies were 
guests. 

She resented this bitterly, saying: "He 
treats me as if I were a low-caste woman, or a 
dancing girl." 

Very old ladies whose charms have long since 
vanished are just as particular about *' purdah " 



-^A 



86 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

as if they were young and attractive, and if 
paying a visit, will insist that on descending from 
the carriage a purdah (curtain) shall be held up 
on either side from carriage to entrance, to 
prevent any bystanders catching a glimpse of 
them as they step out of the carriage to enter 
the house. 

In Bengal a number of Indian ladies formed 
an association to bring about the abolition of 
the purdah system, as the custom of ladies 
living in seclusion is called. In the Bombay 
Presidency some ladies of rank formed an 
association to resist this innovation and to 
maintain the purdah system. 

In the same way in England there are 
Suffragettes and there is also a league of those 
who are against women having the vote. 

The purdah system fosters self-consciousness. 
I remember a Mohammedan lady who, with her 
husband's full consent, went about everywhere 
as Europeans do, telling me how immensely 
astonished she was to find that she attracted 
little attention. "Every one seemed pre- 
occupied with their own aiFairs, and took no 
notice of me," she said. 

As I have said previously, the influence of 
women is paramount in Indian circles. When 



INDIAN LADIES' CONSERVATISM 87 

they are enlightened and wish to change their 
position or customs, the change will be made, 
but for the most part, at present they do not 
desire it, and their influence is against progress, 
and for superstition and caste prejudice. 



CHAPTER VI 

A PILGRIMAaE AND A JOURNEY OFF THE RAILWAY LINE 

Bob had to go to a remote district in his 
coUectorship, so I have been paying a visit to my 
old friends in the Bombay Presidency. We are 
off the main Une of railway here, and in order to 
catch the express which passes very early in the 
morning we have to get up at 4 a.m. and drive 
eight miles to a station. 

I rather enjoy this. I get some sleep before 
starting, but have to put my alarum-clock to 
wake me at the right time, for I cannot depend 
on the ayah, who is generally snoring loudly 
on the floor of my dressing-room when I pass 
through to the carriage. But what use is it 
to expect from people qualities they do not 
possess ? Indian natives have no idea of time, 
and they are also inveterate sleepers. I have 
known a puttiwala left to guard the house when 
we went out to dinner, and when we returned, 
in spite of the noise of carriage-wheels and 



DAWN IN INDIA S9 

jingling of horses' bits and chains as we drove 
up to the door, he continued to sleep soundly 
as we stepped over his body through the front 
door, and much shouting and a few kicks 
from his master were needed to rouse him. 

Well, I enjoy my early departures. In the 
courtyard there are generally a few corpse-like 
figures to be seen, for the native shrouds his head 
and body with a white sheet and lies stretched 
out full length on the ground, needing no other 
resting-place for a good night's repose. The 
carriage is already loaded with luggage, so we 
step quietly in, and drive along one of those 
roads so common in India, where fine trees are 
planted along each side, over-arching the road 
and forming an avenue. I enjoy watching the 
paling of the stars, and the first sign of dawn 
in the east, the faint scarcely noticeable line of 
light on the horizon, then the roseate hues 
gradually overspreading the eastern sky, and 
almost before one knows it, daylight has come. 
As we passed through the village we noticed all 
the signs that the new day had begun: men 
rising and shaking off their shroud-like night- 
clothing, sitting outside their huts cleaning their 
teeth with a piece of wood (the first stage of 
the daily toilette), women with brass pots on 



90 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

their heads going to the well to draw water, 
boys collecting the goats and driving them out 
to pasture. 

What a feature in Indian life are the goats I 
Generally the village flock, belonging to several 
owners, is entrusted to a few boy goatherds, 
who carry long sticks with a crook at the end, 
wherewith they pull down the branches of trees 
till they can reach up to gather the leaves for 
their flock, for leaves of trees are the goats' 
tit-bits. The flock will consist of goats of all 
sizes and colours — brown, black, white, piebald 
fierce old billy-goats, and gentler mothers with 
kids skipping by their side. One of the signs 
that the day's work is nearly over and the hour 
of sunset approaching, is the procession of goats 
fihng home from the pasture. I used to watch 
this every day as I sat at tea in my verandah. 

What places a goat will cUmb to I In the 
narrow street of an Indian town you may see 
them perched on the top of a high wall, or 
slumbering peacefully on a narrow ledge of the 
roof. In poor people's homes the goats are part 
of the family, live and sleep in the only room, 
and one may see a little girl come home in the 
evening leading her goat, who will presently 
sit by her side and share her evening meal. 



A COOK'S NEW DISH 91 

A kid is often "the one ewe lamb" of 
an Indian home. A poor man came to appeal 
for justice at one of Bob's Courts. He com- 
plained of a neighbour : 

" He has stolen all my property, everything I 
possessed 1 " 

" What did your property consist of ? " 

" A goat ! " 

This gives some idea of the poverty of many 
Indian families, the only possession, one goat — 
value four or five shillings 1 

Goat's milk is much prized ; it is considered 
more nourishing than cow's milk, and doctors 
often order it for invalids. Occasionally when 
we have been camping out we could get no 
other milk, but on those occasions I never 
enjoyed my tea, for goat's milk has a very strong 
flavour. 

The "roast mutton," which cook generally 
proposes when asked to think of a new dish 
for dinner, is really goat's flesh, which forms 
the staple fare; except in English stations, the 
cow being held sacred by Hindus, beef is not 
obtainable elsewhere. On taking up residence 
in a station where there are plenty of English 
living, the first thing to do is to put one's name 
down for the " Beef Club," to ensure a supply. 



92 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

The goats have led me to digress from the 
account of my journey to Bombay. When we 
arrived at the station we found an immense 
crowd of natives on the platform — they were 
going on pilgrimage to a shrine at which a 
festival was to be held. When the train drew 
up, they rushed at it, and in spite of my putti- 
wala*s efforts, I should not have got a seat 
had it not been for the good offices of one of 
the pilgrims, a Brahmin doctor of my acquain- 
tance. I had been accustomed to see him in 
European dress, tweed suit (though he always 
wore Brahmin headgear), and I hardly recognised 
him in his white linen dhota and Unen upper 
dress that he now wore ; but he made way for 
me through the surging crowd, who all know 
a Brahmin when they see one, and fell back 
at his orders. First, second, or third class was 
all the same to the country people — but when 
once they saw a Madam Sahib seated, they 
knew the compartment was not for them, and 
though some opened the door, they retreated 
directly they caught sight of me. 

A pilgrimage is a joyful occasion for the 
Indian ryot (villager). The whole family go^^* 
from the toothless grandmother to the squalling 
baby in arms — and when they arrive at the shrine 



ON PILGRIMAGE 98 

or temple, after they have performed their 
devotions they spend the time as at a fair, for 
all sorts of caterers attend to provide sweets, 
other eatables, and amusements. In some places, 
at greatly venerated shrines, the concourse is 
so enormous that it has been found worth while 
to build a branch railway especially for the 
conveyance of pilgrims.* The conditions of 
life at these gatherings are insanitary to the last 
degree, and often cause an outbreak of cholera. 
Last year many corpses of people who died of 
cholera on the way home were found on the road 
from Pandharpur to Poona, and cholera was 
taken to many villages by returning pilgrims. 

The municipality of Pandharpur, who derive 
immense profits from a head-tax on each pilgrim, 
are alive to these evils, and are spending a large 
sum on drainage, and intend to enforce sanitary 
regulations. 

Even the most bigoted Brahmin priests are 
beginning to admit the worth of English ideas 
as to sanitation. 



* Some ascetics roll from Poona to Pandharpur. It takes a 
month, but they become so expert that they roll smoothly over 
stones or other obstacles. They go in the middle of the road, and 
travel at the rate of four miles a day. This mode of pilgrimage is 
thought very meritorious and is generally undertaken in perform- 
ance of a vow. 



94 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

At another city in the Bombay Presidency 
where a vast crowd of pilgrims had assembled on 
the banks of a sacred river, cholera broke out as 
a result of drinking the contaminated water, 
Government sent up a medical officer to fight 
the disease, and prevent its spreading. He 
actually succeeded in persuading the Brahmins 
to allow the water of the river to be disinfected, 
and they themselves put the permanganate of 
potash into the springs. Years ago they would 
have considered this unutterable pollution. 

My journey was very uninteresting along the 
edge of the Rajputana Desert, most of the 
way nothing to see but a wide stretch of sand 
and a few rocks, and black sand penetrated 
through every chink of windows and shutters, 
covering one's clothing and face. I was glad 
when we reached Ahmedabad and branched off 
through a pastoral country to Bombay. But 
Bombay was not my destination. I still had 
half a day and a whole night to spend in the 
train. Leaving Bombay on the Poona line, 
the scenery is very picturesque. The sea comes 
far inland, and makes Salsette an island, and 
runs into many pretty bays and inlets, over 
which graceful white-sailed craft and fishing- 
boats were skimming. A river runs into the 



ETIQUETTE IN INDIA 95 

sea here, winding hither and thither zig-zag 
fashion, and the low-lying damp land produces 
luxuriant vegetation — lofty palms, and giant 
flame-of-the-forest trees, with their brilliant 
blossoms. 

How pleased I was to arrive at the lovely 
Residency, my friend's Indian home. The day 
after my arrival, all the Europeans in the station 
came to call on me. They must call on the 
Resident's guests — that is etiquette. 

" Calling " is a tyranny from which no English 
people living in India can escape. The rules 
vary in different Presidencies, and contain many 
mysteries which are pitfalls to the new-comer. 

We were all to go off on the following day 
to a neighbouring State, to be present at a 
ceremony which I much wished to see. A 
young chief was to be " put on the gadi " — that 
is to say, he was to be declared of age, and 
endowed with the full powers of a ruling chief, 
which include the power of life and death over 
their subjects. 

The chief restriction of their power is that 
they may not make war upon or plunder another 
State. All differences between rulers of Native 
States must be settled by reference to the 
Paramount Power, the British Government. 



96 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

A native ruler may not employ a foreigner, 
(such as a Frenchman or a German) in his State 
as a civil or a military officer. The States are 
exempt from the jurisdiction of the ordinary 
LaviT Courts of the Presidency, but any criminals 
from British territory who may have taken 
refuge in a native State must be extradited. 

The Maharajahs of the great States won their 
lands by conquest in ancient days, but the origin 
of the smaller States (such as the one we are 
now visiting) was, that larger or smaller grants 
of land were bestowed on individuals for services 
rendered, and on condition of their maintaining 
a certain number of troops for the service of 
some overlord, such as the great Moghul in 
North India, or the Peshwa of Poona in the 
west. Their rank was determined in old 
times by the number of bowmen they supplied. 
Most of the States in the South Mahratta 
Country (where we now are), except the great 
State of Kolhapur, had been feudatories of 
the Peshwa of Poona. The last Peshwa broke 
his engagements with the British, and was 
deposed for perfidy about 1818, by the British 
Government, after the third and last Mahratta 
war. The rulers had only to transfer their 
allegiance from the Peshwa to the British 



POWERS OF NATIVE RULERS 97 

Government ; this they all did on being assured 
that they would retain the rank and dignities 
they had hitherto enjoyed. Instead of a con- 
tribution of troops, a tribute of money pro- 
portionate to revenue was agreed on, and, as 
previous overlords retained the right of resuming 
their lands if they failed in duty, so the British 
Government would intervene in cases of flagrant 
abuse of power or gross mismanagement. 

If a ruling chief dies while his son and 
successor is a minor, the boy becomes a ward of 
the British Government, which takes the place of 
a father to him. He will generally be sent to 
the Rajahs' College at Rajkot, or the one at 
Ajmere or to Ahgargh, according to whether he 
is of Hindu, Rajput or Mohammedan descent ; 
after leaving college an English tutor will 
probably be appointed to read with him and act 
generally as bear-leader. 

To instal a chief ** on the gadi " is one of the 
duties of a Political Agent, except in the case of 
very important rajahs, when the Governor of the 
Presidency generally takes that office on himself. 

The Political Agent is adviser to all the chiefs 

in the district called his Agency. If he sees that 

things are not going well in a State, he will warn 

a ruler ; if his warnings are not attended to, he 

7 



98 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

will report to the Governor. In cases of gross 
misrule, the British Government has power to 
depose a chief, but this power is only exercised 
in extreme cases, and with great reluctance. 

The young Chief of the State to whom we were 
going was well known to, and much liked by, his 
Political Agent, having lived in his immediate 
vicinity for several years under the auspices of an 
English tutor. 

I enjoy the picturesqueness and small pomps 
and ceremonies of official life in India — our drive 
to the station with an escort of mounted lancers, 
the red carpet and special train awaiting us, and 
other amenities that make the wheels of life roll 
smoothly. We had two hours in the train before 
arriving at the station nearest to, but twenty 
miles distant from, our destination. We had 
started early and, on arriving at the station, were 
conducted to a large tent pitched not far off, 
where we found well-spread tables and a good 
lunch awaiting us. Shall I give you the menu ? 

Bacon and eggs. 

Mutton (goat) cutlets, green peas, and potatoes. 

Chicken curry and rice. 

Fruits. 

Tea and coffee. Whisky-and-soda. 

I never pass the curry dish. Curry and rice is 



THE BEST FOOD FOR INDIA 99 

the national dish for all classes of the Indian 
people, and it is well chosen, and adapted to the 
Ufe of the country. The spices and condiments 
contained in it are so stimulating that after a 
good plateful of curry and rice one feels as much 
refreshed as after a cup of strong coffee or a 
glass of wine. 

Hindus are vegetarians, and the poor people 
can work hard on a meal of vegetable curry and 
rice. The poorest cannot afford rice and will 
maintain life on barkree (bread made of coarse 
corn like millet), but with this they will eat a 
little chutnee (a kind of jam made up of all sorts 
of appetising and stimulating spices). 

After lunch we got into vehicles that awaited 
us. We were a party numbering twenty, and 
the Chief had sent six well-horsed carriages to 
convey us to his State. In Native States, what- 
ever else may be wanting, there are generally 
plenty of carriages and horses, though I must 
admit the carriages vary as to soundness, state of 
repair, and comfort afforded. The one for the 
Political Agent and his wife was a handsome, 
well-hung modern barouche. The one I found a 
seat in was not so comfortable, the seat was too 
high and the roof too low, and I could not sit 
upright in it. However, by the time we got 



100 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

to the village where we were to change horses, 
the power of the sun was decreasing, and 1 
asked my companions to consent to the head 
of the carriage being lowered, and I enjoyed the 
remainder of the journey better than the first 
part. The place where we stopped for relays 
was a large village ; the inhabitants are famous 
for their skill in weaving, and in front of many 
huts stood the old-fashioned wooden loom, with 
the weaver, often a woman, walking to and fro 
twisting the bright-coloured yarn around each 
end of the frame. Very beautiful are the shades 
of colour used by the weavers for the "saree" — the 
long piece of cloth which constitutes an Indian 
woman's dress ; it is pleated into a petticoat held 
in place by a metal band round the waist, and 
the end is wrapped as a scarf round the head 
and shoulders. Green, purple, and shot colours 
are seen, but red of various shades, or dark blue 
with a red border, are the colours most worn by 
the Mahratta women. A saree with a silken 
border is much prized, and to possess a saree all 
of silk is the sign of having a well-to-do husband. 
The husband has to provide the wife's trousseau, 
and the richness of the sarees and the amount of 
jewellery he agrees to provide go a long way in 
deciding the acceptance or rejection of his offer 



JOURNEY IN A NATIVE STATE 101 

when marriage negotiations are entered upon by 
the respective parents of the bride and bride- 
groom. 

Some women have bad taste and choose for 
daily wear a piece of large-patterned Manchester 
print in preference to native goods. They quite 
spoil their appearance. My ayah once appeared 
in a print saree covered with groups of figures 
representing nursery rhymes — Red Riding Hood, 
etc. She looked quite grotesque, but wept when 
told to keep it for wear in her own house, and 
that she was not to come into my presence 
wearing it. 

Many of the weavers at our stopping- 
places left their looms and came to stare at 
their Chiefs guests. Most of them would start 
late at night and walk to the town to take part 
in the next day's rejoicings. All would be given 
a dinner, and the women at least a cholL 
This is the sleeveless bodice not reaching the 
waist-line, which is all that Indian women wear 
under the saree. It is not pretty, for it leaves a 
broad piece of brown skin uncovered between the 
end of the choli and the skirt of the saree. The 
women and children who crowded round our car- 
riage were what is known in India Sisjungli, that 
is, rustic and boorish, and they did not know that it 



102 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

was ill-mannered to laugh loudly as they pointed 
at the ladies' headgear ; some of us were wearing 
sun-topees, others large fantastic-shaped hats, and 
these are always a source of amazement to Indian 
women, whose only head-covering is the end of 
the saree thrown over the head like a scarf. 

1 remember a native officer, returned from 
Coronation ^ festivities in London, expressed to 
me his great astonishment at hearing that two, 
three, and even five pounds was not an un- 
common price to pay for a lady's hat. " Only to 
be worn perhaps a few weeks 1 What sinful 
waste ! " 

The weaving women and children had stared 
their fill, and some beggars forced their way to 
the carriage and displayed their sores, and we 
asked the grooms to send them away, for many 
were lepers, objects so wretched that they would 
haunt the memory long afterwards, and we knew 
they were not poor. Beggars in India are 
always well off — no native ever refuses a beggar, 
and a physical disability is a source of income, 
for begging is a profession not looked down upon 
in India. The lepers might and ought to have 
been in one of the comfortable homes provided 
for them by Government or by Missions, but 

^ King Edward's Coronation. 



BEGGARS AND TAMARINDS 103 

they prefer begging, and their being at large is 
a menace to the public health, for leprosy is 
contagious though not infectious. 

At length the teams were harnessed, and we 
set off again, driving through well-wooded up- 
land country. The giant tamarind-trees excited 
our admiration — they must have been centuries 
old, for the growth of the tamarind-tree is very 
slow. I was once asked what kind of tree I 
would like to have planted round a school of 
which I had laid the foundation-stone. On 
suggesting tamarind -trees I was told that I 
should never see the effect — " that would be for 
the great-grandchildren of the present scholars." 
For other reasons, too, my suggestion was not 
approved. Tamarind-trees, with their delicate 
leaves and graceful branches, are very beautiful, 
but are considered unhealthy. Tents are never 
pitched under tamarind-groves, for fear of fever. 

We had enjoyed our drive, but were not sorry 
to arrive at our destination. The Chief was 
waiting on the steps of the Guest House to 
receive us. 

The Guest House could only accommodate the 
Political Agent and his wife, and the Assistant 
PoUtical Agent. Tents had been pitched for the 
rest of us in a prettily laid-out camping-ground. 



104 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

with gravelled paths edged with box, and lamp- 
posts with lamps at intervals. Each tent was 
ticketed with the name of the visitor who was to 
occupy it. Mine was very comfortable ; besides 
the bed, it contained a dressing-table and several 
chairs, an almirah for hanging dresses, and my 
trunk, which had been sent on the previous day. 
At the back of each tent was a bathroom (the 
first necessity of life in India), provided with a 
washing-stand and ware, and one of the large 
zinc washing -tubs used as baths throughout 
India, which newcomers think funny. In the 
centre of the camp was a large tent fitted up as 
a drawing-room, with chairs and sofas of red and 
yellow satin. 

After a warm bath I dressed for dinner (I had 
been told to bring my best dress), and with my 
neighbours made my way up to the Guest House. 
The whole party were to dine in a large tent 
pitched in the compound. The table was taste- 
fully decorated with flowers, and we had an 
excellent dinner, with champagne, while a band 
outside discoursed sweet music. After dinner the 
Chief and some other Indian gentlemen joined as, 
chairs had been placed in the compound, and we 
sat out under the stars and chatted for an hour ; 
then the Burra Mem Sahib (the chief lady), the 



THE FEARS OF THE GRIFFIN 105 

Political Agent's wife, gave the signal to retire, 
for to-morrow's ceremony would begin at 8 a.m. 

As we walked back to our own tents we were 
preceded by a puttiwalla with a lantern, which 
he held close to the ground, and in the other 
hand he had a substantial staff with which he 
stamped on the ground at each step. These 
were precautions against snakes. 

Most newcomers to India apparently expect 
to find snakes on every path, scorpions in all 
quarters, and a tiger lurking behind every bush. 
On this evening my neighbour in the next tent 
rushed to my door, while 1 was brushing my 
hair, and cried : " Let me in ! Let me in ! What 
shall we do ? I hear a tiger growling ! " 

" Very likely," I replied dryly, " but it is safe 
behind the bars of its cage in the Chiefs 
menagerie ! " 

She retired somewhat crestfallen. 

I have lived some years in India without being 
harmed by tigers, snakes, or scorpions. Once 
there was an alarm. A cobra was seen in the 
rafters of the pantry. But the servants got long 
sticks, routed it out, and, when it fell to the 
ground, quickly battered it to death. 

Scorpions are only associated in my mind with 
a drunken cook who, having asked for one day's 



106 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

leave, did not return till three days had elapsed. 
Then he appeared before me limping, with a 
great show of feebleness, and said : " I was 
stung by a scorpion. What could I do ? How 
could I come back till I was better ? " 

I think drink was the only poison that had 
entered his system, for I watched him limp back 
to the servants' quarters, and saw that as soon as 
he thought he was out of my sight he could stand 
upright and move about as usual. 

I must tell you further details of my visit next 
week. 



^ 



CHAPTER VII 

A MODEL NATIVE STATE — A CHIEP's INSTALLATION — 
POSITION AND POWERS OP INDIAN CHIEFS 

The day of the Chiefs installation dawned bright 
and clear. At 7 a.m. I heard the ever-welcome 
sound, ''Char tyar'' ("Tea ready"), and the tea- 
tray deposited at the entrance to my tent. Then at 
eight o'clock there were carriages waiting to take 
us to the Durbar Hall, where a large audience had 
assembled — not only all the State officials and 
subordinates, but also many neighbouring land- 
owners and some chiefs ; the latter were mostly 
relatives of our host, who was the head of a large 
clan. 

He was beautifully dressed in a long coat of 
red and gold brocade, and wore a gold and white 
turban with jewelled aigrette. Many rows of price- 
less pearls lay on his breast, but his most valued 
adornment was a diamond bracelet, a present from 
King Edward when travelling in India as Prince 
of Wales, to the young Chiefs predecessor. 

107 



108 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

At one end of the room was a dais, with a 
seat for the PoHtical Agent, and the gadi (chair- 
of-state on which the hero of the day would be 
installed), and the English visitors occupied seats 
in the hall, near the dais. 

The young Chief and the Indian gentleman 
who had acted as Administrator of the State 
during his minority went to the entrance to 
meet the Political Agent and escort him to the 
dais. All present stood up at the entrance of 
the Agent and remained standing till he was 
seated. This courtesy was also shown to the 
wife of the Political Agent, when she entered 
alone, some minutes before her husband. 

When all were seated, the Administrator gave 
an account of his stewardship, reading aloud a 
statement as to what had been the amount of 
reserve fund and the average annual revenue of 
the State at the late chiefs death, what it now 
amounted to, the amount spent on improvements, 
roads, schools, hospitals, etc., and the amount 
saved and now lying in the bank at the Chiefs 
disposal. 

When the Administrator had finishedhis report, 
the Political Agent arose, and commented on it 
with somewhat tempered approval. He told us 
afterwards that he had not been quite satisfied 



STATE ADMINISTRATION 109 

with the administration ; in spite of the cost of 
famine-relief works, alleged as an excuse, there 
might have been a larger amount of savings to 
the Chiefs credit, consequently the Administrator 
would not retire with flying colours, nor be 
awarded the title of Rao Bahadur in the next 
Birthday Honours list, as would have been the 
case if his Administration had won the approval 
of the Political Agent. 

After commenting on the Administrator's 
report, the Political Agent turned to the young 
Chief, and first read aloud and then presented to 
him the Sanad^ of the Governor, conferring on 
him the enjoyment of his estates and investing 
him with the full powers of a ruling chief. 

This was followed by a little exhortation to 
the young ruler as to his new duties and the 
way the Paramount Power expected him to 
fulfil them. It contained a word of warning 
in reference to a predecessor more than 
suspected of disloyalty, conveyed in terms 
that were understood and appreciated by the 
audience, and which made the young Chief 
fidget on his seat. The speaker ended with 
words of affection and praise — he was confident 

* Patent. A Government decree conferring certain powers on the 



110 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

his young friend would not disappoint their 
expectations. 

The young Chief, who was not a ready speaker, 
repUed somewhat haltingly, and was understood 
to express his gratitude to the Political Agent, 
"who had been a father to him," and his un- 
swerving loyalty to the British Government. 

The ladies of the Chiefs family were present, 
seated in a gallery that ran round the Durbar 
H all, protected from the pubHc gaze by chicks, 
that is, blinds or curtains made of fine strips of 
bamboo, which allow those behind to see every- 
thing that is passing, but prevent any one the other 
side from looking in. 

After the speeches the assembly dispersed, the 
English visitors to breakfast, and the Chief and 
his retinue to inspect the various centres where 
repasts were to be given to the inhabitants of the 
State, poor and rich. 

After breakfast we visited the Chiefs stables, 
which were very extensive and kept in apple-pie 
order, rather unusual in a Native State. There 
was quite an army of stable helpers, dressed in 
canary-coloured livery. 

In Europe the maintenance of such an estab- 
lishment would have been costly, but as the pay 
of a groom is about five shillings monthly, and 




A STATE ELEPHANT. 



COSTUME OF LADY OF RANK 111 

horse-keep twenty-five shillings, the cost in India 
is comparatively very small. What does cost 
money is the keep of an elephant. Here there 
was only one — the State elephant in solitary 
grandeur. We were advised not to approach 
too near, as he was waheet (ill-tempered). 

After we had looked over the stables, a 
messenger came to say that the Bai Sahib (the 
Chief's wife) was waiting to receive the Political 
Agent's wife; being the latter's guest, I was 
privileged to accompany her. We found the 
little Bai Sahib richly dressed in a lovely rose- 
colour silken saree, with a broad gold border. 
She wore heavy silver anklets, and rings on her 
toes, the toe-rings bearing a medallion in the 
shape of a fish. She also wore a large pearl nose- 
ring. In spite of these somewhat barbaric adorn- 
ments, she herself was quite up-to-date in con- 
versation, speaking English easily. She was not 
pretty, but bright and intelligent, far from shy, 
doing the honours, garlanding, etc., in a very 
becoming manner. Her husband is rather pro- 
gressive in his ideas. He takes her out riding 
with him (she rides astride), and allows her to 
drive herself in a tonga with a pair of spirited 
ponies. She confided to us her great wish to 
go to England. 



112 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

After taking leave of her, we joined the rest of 
the party in a large hall, which might have been 
called a museum. In it were arranged curiosities, 
sporting trophies, and articles that former chiefs 
had brought back from Europe, mostly mechani- 
cal toys, such as a canary that flapped its wings 
and sang when wound up, and many clocks of 
all sorts and sizes, and several large glass chan- 
deliers. 

The gardens and all surroundings of the 
Chief's residence were beautifully kept, the 
village streets were clean, and there was a neat- 
ness and tidiness about the whole place which 
is rare in India. 

An explanation of this was given by an old 
retainer who acted as our cicerone. " The late 
Chief was very fond of cleanness, and it has been 
kept up since his death." 

We rested in our tents during the noonday 
heat, but after tea there were sports to be 
attended. We watched schoolboys running 
three-legged and sack races, tugs-of-war by the 
police, tent-pegging by the sowars, also a Victoria 
Cross competition, and another in which two 
mounted men engaged in an effort to drag each 
other off their horses. 

A mass of " the people " were seated on the 



A CLEVER POLITICAL AGENT 118 

ground watching the sports, but the Indian 
''gentlemen" were allowed to take their seats 
in the tent from which the English visitors 
watched the sports. From time to time they 
left their seats and walked about to get a nearer 
view of the sports. As I watched the Political 
Agent moving about among them chatting with 
first one and then another, I thought how 
excellent his manner was, how popular he 
seemed, how pleased were those whom he 
noticed ; and I felt how much the popularity 
of the English Government depends on the 
manner in which its representatives fill high 
positions. My friend was certainly the right 
man in the right place. Of this I heard several 
instances from time to time. One that struck 
me most was his masterly handling of a recalci- 
trant chief, who had refused to give a piece of 
land required for a rifle-range, or some such 
purpose, in his State. When the difficulty was 
mentioned to the P. A. he sent for the chief in 
question and said : "My friend, I am surprised 
that a man so inteUigent, so well educated, and, 
as we believe, loyal as you are, should refuse a gift 
which you can well afford, which is in value 
nothing to one so well off as you are. You 
should reflect that you have the honour to be 



114 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

a unit of the great British Empire,^ and you 
should act up to your position as such, recognise 
your responsibihties, and be glad to do your share 
in assisting in works of public utility, designed to 
benefit the country in general. You ought to 
think it an honour to have your assistance 
counted on." The chief at once capitulated. 
He burst into tears, saying : '' I would have 
given it before, had not your predecessor in- 
sulted me and said he would horsewhip me if I 
did not do so." 

The gift was appreciated, the giver was 
honoured. He was able to enjoy the title of 
Knight Commander of the Indian Empire, and 
the appellation " Sir Krishna Rao." 

Indian gentlemen do thoroughly enjoy a title. 
It is not in their eyes valueless, or an empty 
honour ; it gives precedence, and this, in their 
opinion, is worth more than money. 

To return to the sports. The prizes were 
distributed by the Political Agent's wife ; she 
too was very popular. I noticed how those 
Indian gentlemen who could speak English 
watched for an opportunity to approach her, and 

^ Since this was written the upper classes of the Indian people 
have grasped this idea, and an address presented to the Viceroy 
after the visit of King George, 1912, was a remarkable outcome of 
the Imperial spirit which I shall refer to in a later chapter. 



[THE ''DAILY MAIL" IN PERSIA 115 

with what diffidence they addressed her, for a 
little chat with the Burra Mem Sahib was a 
greatly prized privilege. 

During the afternoon I had been introduced 
to a Persian gentleman, who wore a long, black 
coat and a red fez. He had come to take the 
post of professor of the Persian language at a 
neighbouring college. He told me he had 
come from the interior of Persia, where there 
were no railways, and that he had had to travel 
on horseback, several days' journey, over rough 
paths and through districts infested by brigands, 
before he could reach steamer or train to take 
him to Bombay. 

I remarked that I supposed everything was 
novel to him, and that in his home he had heard 
little of what went on in the world. 

He replied : " You are mistaken. We heard 
everything that goes on. We got the Daily 
Maiir 

In the evening there were illuminations after 
a banquet. The Chief came in to dessert. His 
health was drunk, and he thanked us for 
honouring him with our presence, on the most 
important day of his life. Next morning we 
made an early start for the return journey. 

We returned by the way we came to my 



^ 



116 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

friend's charming Residency, where I am to 
spend Christmas. 

Colonel W. always retires to his office after 
breakfast, attends to his correspondence, and 
interviews people who come to consult him. 
His duties seem multifarious. By the by, per- 
haps you do not know what a Political Agent 
is. Each Presidency is divided into several 
Agencies, and each Agent is responsible to the 
Governor of the Presidency for the good govern- 
ment of the States ruled by Indian princes which 
are in his Agency. My host, Colonel W., has 
only one large, important State in his Agency, 
but a number of smaller ones. One or two of 
the chiefs are minors, and he is responsible for 
their education and the administration of their 
States during their minority. Nor can a marriage 
be arranged for a chief without his — the Political 
Agent's — consent. 

Yesterday I went into the drawing-room and 
found Mrs. W. in conversation with a richly 
dressed Indian lady by whose side stood a pretty 
boy about ten years old, dressed in a tweed coat 
and trousers, and an embroidered velvet turban 
hat. After the visitors had taken their departure, 
I remarked on the boy's good looks. 

" It was a girl," remarked Mrs. W. " The 



CHRISTMAS DAY IN INDIA 117 

parents wish to arrange a marriage between her 
and the Httle Chief of Dhol, who lives here with his 
tutor, and brought her ' on approval ' to show my 
husband, and to obtain his consent. Girls are 
often dressed as boys till they attain maturity, 
the idea being that, their sex not being apparent, 
they will not attract attention when travelling, 
or in public places." 

Next day was Christmas Eve. We went to help 
decorate the English church in the camp, and 
afterwards witnessed a performance of tableaux 
vivants, representing scenes from the Gospel 
story, by the children at the Mission School, 
ending up with a Christmas-tree, for which my 
friend had supplied the gifts. 

V^ery early on Christmas morning the boys 
from the Mission School aroused us with the 
old hymn : 

" Christians, awake, salute the happy morn. 
Whereon the Saviour of the world was born.*" 

While we were drinking our morning tea, 
a camel-sowar from the Palace appeared, 
bringing Christmas cards from the Maharajah 
to each inmate of the Residency, including 
myself. Then there was the service in church 
to attend, after which the station forgathered 



118 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

in the churchyard and exchanged the good 
wishes of the season. 

During the day many trays of fruit and 
flowers, sometimes accompanied by a plum-cake, 
appeared at the Residency, for the natives knew 
it was our Burra Din (great day) and sent their 
compliments. 

Throughout India Good Friday and the great 
Christian festivals, Christmas and Easter, are 
claimed as holidays by the non-Christian people, 
as well as by the English. 

On Boxing Day all the English residents in 
the station were to be entertained at dinner at 
the Residency, and after dinner Mrs. W.'s two 
little girls, and some friends of their own age, 
were to amuse the company by acting some 
charades, for which they showed much aptitude. 
A curtain had been rigged up in the Durbar 
Hall, and thither we all repaired after dinner, 
the gentlemen having been told not to linger 
too long over the wine. The audience were 
seated, but still the curtain was not raised, but 
behind it an altercation between the actors 
could be heard. Presently a little head appeared 
at the side of the curtain, and Mrs. W.'s eldest 
girl said : " Mummy, you won't mind if one 
of the words is a rude word, will you ? " Being 



CHILDREN'S CHARADES 119 

reassured on that point, the curtain was drawn 
and the actors appeared seated at table. It 
was a luncheon party. The eldest girl, dressed 
as a man, grumbled at every dish that was 
handed to him, exclaiming at last : " We have 
had nothing fit to eat since this damn cook has 
been in the house ! " 

Colonel W. was somewhat a valetudinarian, 
and his wife always said that anxiety about the 
meals was turning her hair grey. The little 
girl who represented the grumbler on the stage 
had, unconsciously perhaps, imitated her father's 
tone and manner of speaking, and none laughed 
louder than he did, though perhaps he felt rather 
sheepish when it was brought home to him 
that he was teaching " rude " words to his little 
daughters. 

" Damage " was the word they were repre- 
senting. 

Apropos of food it is always supposed that 
English people live very luxuriously in India. 
In the Presidency towns the markets are well 
supplied, but in country districts the staple food 
is goat-mutton, and if there are asparagus and 
peas, they are generally tinned, as are the 
peaches and plums — as well as the fish. 

During the week my hostess drove me up 



120 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

to the hill station where there is a place for 
the Political Agent to reside in during the hot 
weather. It was a sixteen-mile drive, and we 
had to change horses halfway, for the last part 
is a very steep ascent by a road winding round 
and round the hill. We had lovely peeps at the 
valleys beneath, and when we arrived at the 
Residency a fine view over a wide expanse of 
country. The house was built into the side 
of the hill ; on one side there was a sheer 
precipice of thousands of feet. The nucleus 
of the building had been an old Mohammedan 
tomb in Aurangzub's time, modern rooms had 
been added ; but the old part used as a dining- 
room was intact and had a vaulted roof. The 
old fort on the hill-top, with its beautifully 
carved gateways, was very interesting. Roads 
had been made, and quite a long drive winding 
around could be taken without leaving the 
crown of the hill. 

I was sorry we were only to stay one night, 
but we had to descend next day to be present 
at the New Year's Day parade, after which my 
friends would start on their cold-weather tour, 
and would be camping out in the remoter 
districts of the Agency, and I was to bid them 
good-bye and go north again. 



TRIALS OF ENGLISH IN INDIA 121 

1 knew I should not meet my hostess, Mrs. W., 
again for some years, for she was approaching 
that sad hour in the life of the Englishwoman 
in India, when she must choose between husband 
and children. The Uttle girls were getting too 
old to remain in India, there was no grand- 
mother or aunt to look after them in England, 
so my friend decided that it was her duty to 
take the children there and stay with them, 
leaving her husband alone. 

An Englishman's life in India has been 
described as that of a man who works hard to 
maintain a wife and children whom he seldom 
sees. 

That is too often the case. 

I had arranged while down in the south to 
pay a visit to a friend at Bangalore in the 
Madras Presidency before returning to Hariana. 
This entailed a long wait at a junction on the 
first night of the journey. Shall I ever forget 
that night in the waiting-room? It looked 
clean, and I placed some pillows on the cane 
couch, and lay down. I did not stay there long ; 
unseen legions desired to make a meal of me. 
Rest was impossible, and when I looked at 
myself in the glass while tying a scarf over my 
head before going outside, I noticed that my 



122 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

face was covered with bites and the white lumps 
that follow. I went out, and spent the night 
walking up and down the platform, occasionally 
resting myself by sitting for a while on a heap 
of stones. The train I was waiting for came 
along soon after dawn, and I relieved my 
sufferings by a plentiful application of ammonia 
when I found myself alone in the compartment. 



CHAPTER VIII 

A COSMOPOLITAN DINNER-PARTY — AN AFGHAN PRINCESS — 
AN INDIAN BLONDEL 

I GREATLY enjoycd my visit to the Madras 
Presidency, which is so thoroughly the India 
of one's imagination, and the tales of one's 
childhood, " Little Henry and his Bearer," etc. 
There one finds the palm-trees, the oppressive 
heat, and the really black faces under the white 
turbans, for the natives of the Madras Presidency 
are many shades darker than those of the 
Bombay Presidency or Northern India. 

Although Bangalore is in the Native State 
of Mysore, it is a very large English military 
station, and kept in apple-pie order. The 
Maharajah's Palace in its parklike grounds is 
a reproduction of Balmoral, as far as the outside 
goes, but the interior is very different. In one 
room the furniture — tables, chairs, etc. — is of 
embossed glass ; another room is used as a 
school for the children of the Palace servants 

123 



124 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

— quite an army. I noticed that the writing 
on the blackboard was in Canarese, the language 
of the Carnatic, as the district which includes 
the State of Mysore is called. The mother of 
the reigning Maharajah is a grand woman ; I have 
alluded to her regency in a previous letter. 

More interesting than Bangalore is the old 
city of Mysore, about two hours' train journey 
from Bangalore. There you find old winding 
streets, temples, and tombs in cypress groves, 
and many typical Indian sights, and the 
Maharajah's new palace might outshine that 
of Solomon. During the Maharajah's minority 
the old palace was destroyed by fire, and as 
the revenues of the State are very large it was 
resolved to erect a new palace which should be 
second to none in India. During six years one 
thousand skilled artificers, "men cunning to 
work in wood and stone," brought fi-om all parts 
of the world, were employed on it. There are 
floors of beautiful mosaic, doors of solid silver, 
embossed and chased, others of exquisitely 
carved ivory, some of ebony inlaid with mother- 
of-pearl, ceilings painted and gilded. Though 
li\dng amidst all this splendour the Maharajah's 
own apartments are small and plainly furnished. 
The Indian gentleman is generally simple in his 



MYSORE AND SERINGAPATAM 125 

own personal mode of life, and I have seen 
the bedroom of the wife of a gi'eat prince in 
which there was nothing but a mattress and 
coverlet spread on the floor; on this she slept 
in preference to a bedstead. 

After all, the simple life is true freedom ; to 
want very little and not to be the slave of our 
own needs, this is true liberty. 

The ruling house of Mysore are loyal adherents 
of the British Raj. When the English army 
overthrew the Mohammedan power in the 
Carnatic and vanquished Hyder Ali and his 
son, Tipoo Sultan, who had usurped the throne 
of Mysore, they decided to give the State back 
to the rightful heirs, the Hindu family who had 
been ousted by the Persian soldier of fortune, 
Hyder Ali, who began life in the service of the 
Nizam of Hyderabad. The old royal family 
were living in poverty and seclusion when 
sought out by the English Government, who 
selected the personage nearest of kin to the last 
Hindu ruler, who they considered had most right 
to the succession, and declared him Maharajah of 
Mysore. The present rulers of Mysore do not 
forget what they owe to the English. 

We visited Seringapatam, not far from Mysore, 
where Tipoo Sultan made his last stand, and * 
\ 



126 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

met his death fighting in the breaches. The 
siege of Seringapatam was one of the most 
thrilUng incidents in the history of the EngUsh 
conquest of India. As an instance of the 
estimation in which women were held by the 
Mohammedan world at that date, a letter of 
Tipoo Sultan may be quoted. It was written 
when he found it necessary to leave Mysore and 
go the front. In it he gives the following order : 
" Send on the women, and the rest of the rubbish 
by easy stages, as opportunity arises." The 
Maharanee of Mysore has certainly proved that 
she is not " rubbish." 

After leaving Mysore I went to stay at Satara 
in the Bombay Presidency. I do not think there 
is a more picturesque little station than Satara to 
be found in the Presidency. It lies in a hollow, 
well sheltered by the Western Ghauts ( Vindyhia 
Mountains), whose rugged peaks in varied forms 
stand sharply defined against the sky. On one 
side of the town are the ruins of the old fort on 
the hillside. From the summit one obtains a 
splendid view over the surrounding country, 
fertile plains dotted with villages and intersected 
by four winding streams, which have their source 
in Mahableshwar, the highest part of the Ghauts, 
a plateau where are the summer quarters of the 



A MIDNIGHT DRIVE 127 

Bombay Government. Mahableshwar, the native 
name for the place, is a Marathi word meaning 
"great strength of God," which I suppose the 
natives see manifested in these mountain fast- 
nesses. 

Satara consists of the old city, and the camp, 
where the bungalows of the English officials are 
situated in prettily laid-out gardens, in all of 
which are planted flame-of-the-forest trees.^ 
When they are in full bloom, just before the rain, 
Satara looks its best. Trains were inconvenient, 
and I arrived there after midnight and before 
dawn, after a seven-mile drive from the station. 
By some mistake the tongas ordered to meet me 
were not there, and -my manservant foolishly 
took, without inspection, the first two tongas that 
were offered from those waiting in the station- 
yard. My luggage was placed on one, and I 
climbed into the other. It was a bad specimen of 
its kind, and the ponies looked half starved ; how- 
ever, to my surprise, they started off at full gallop 
and kept up the pace all the way, so that the rick- 
ety vehicle swayed from side to side, and I had to 
clutch hold of the side-rail in order to avoid being 
jerked out of my seat, especially when the ponies 
shied, as they frequently did, at some shadow 

* A tree of the acacia tribe, bearing brilliant red flowers. 



128 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

on the road, when the moonlight shone fitfully 
through the branches of the trees that over- 
arched the road. When we reached Satara the 
tongawala (driver) did not know which house to 
take me to. It turned out that he was accus- 
tomed to ply between the station and the city, 
and consequently did not know the camp, being, 
like all Indians of his class, quite ignorant of 
every place and thing outside his own daily beat. 
So he drove up to first one and then another 
bungalow, and roused the sleeping servants, only 
to be told that this was not the house wanted. 
We disturbed three households in this manner 
before reaching my destination. There a servant 
awaited me, and conducted me through a silent 
house to my sleeping-apartment, for it so often 
happens in India that guests arrive in the middle 
of the night or the small hours of the morning, 
that a host or hostess will not stay up to receive 
them, but will welcome them at breakfast later on. 
The Resident, at whose house I was to stay, 
is one of the best type of English officials, 
springing from a family who have served in 
India for several generations. He had been 
born in Satara, and now held the important 
position which his father had filled before him. 
He and his wife were recognised by the in- 



INDIAN LADIES* CLUB 129 

habitants as true friends of the Indian people. 
His wife was one of the few English ladies I 
have met (other than missionaries) who had 
tried to learn the difficult Marathi language, 
spoken in this district. 

In the afternoon of the first day of my visit, 
she (Mrs. A.) asked me to accompany her to a 
meeting of the Indian Ladies' Club, at which she 
was expected. I was only too pleased to add to 
my experience of intercourse with the women pf 
India, and we drove through the busy streets of 
the old city, where one sees the coppersmith and 
other craftsmen carrying on their work, and the 
buyers of cloth and eatables bargaining with 
the tradesmen in the shops with fronts open to 
the street, until we came to the old palace. It is 
a rambling, four-sided building, erected round the 
four sides of a large, open courtyard. The walls 
were covered with gaudy and grotesque pictures 
of the Hindu mythology. 

There is now no Rajah of Satara. The last 
Rajah had no son, and, in accordance with 
Government policy of that date, was not allowed 
the privilege of adopting one, so the State lapsed 
to the English Government, and the palace is 
used for all sorts of public purposes — law-courts, 
schools, etc. We had to climb a very narrow 
9 



180 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

winding staircase till we arrived at a large room, 
generally used as a girls' school, but it was after 
school hours, the scholars had departed, and the 
members of the Ladies' Club were awaiting us — 
about two dozen Indian ladies of all ages, who 
all stood up to welcome my friend. I was intro- 
duced, and then the president, Miss Joshi, a 
well-educated Brahmin lady, daughter of a 
retired Government civil servant, rose and pro- 
ceeded to read the agenda for the day, and 
to welcome two newly elected members, and 
comment on the papers that had been read at 
the last meeting. This finished, the president, 
who had prepared a paper for the day's stance, 
commenced to read it aloud. The subject was 
" The difference between the women of the East 
and the West," and the authoress showed a very 
clear perception of the weak and strong points of 
each. When she finished, she invited the audience 
to comment on her paper, but all were too shy 
to do so. My friend, Mrs. A., made a few com- 
plimentary remarks, and then asked if any one 
else had prepared a paper to read. After much 
hesitation one lady was led to confess that she 
had written an account .of a visit to Pandharpur. 
She needed much encouragement before she 
could be induced to begin to read it, and when 



"SHIPS THAT PASS IN THE NIGHT'? 181 

she did start, she broke down after a few minutes, 
said she could not read any more, and sat down 
overwhelmed with confusion. 

The president then took the paper from her, 
and finished reading it aloud. At the conclusion 
the authoress received much praise for her com- 
position, and was exhorted to try again at the 
next meeting. 

The subjects for discussion at the next meeting 
were then proposed. Mrs. A. and myself were 
garlanded and scented. Mrs. A. went round and 
addressed a few friendly words to each lady 
present, and then we took our departure. 

Oh, the scent of that attar, and of the garlands I 
How it comes back to me as I write. I never see 
or smell a tuberose without the memory of some 
Indian party or ceremony coming to my mind. 

In the evening there was a pleasant dinner- 
party at the Residency, when guests from all 
parts of the world sat shoulder to shoulder. The 
Judge had come from Sind, the Chaplain 
was not long out from London, the young 
soldier^ who took me in to dinner had come 
from Hong-Kong, the one opposite from Ireland, 
another from Aden, and a fourth from Cape 

^ A musketry class is held in Satara, to which young soldiers are 
sent from all parts. 



132 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

Town, while an older official who sat on my 
right hand had just come from Nepaul, which is 
looked on as outside the borders of civilised 
India. He told me how surprised he was when, 
after much travelling through wild country, he 
arrived at Katimandhu (the capital of Nepaul) to 
find the English Political Agent's wife holding an 
** At Home," the band playing, and tennis, bad- 
minton, and afternoon tea in full swing. " I 
was so disappointed," he said, '' I did think I 
should escape all that in Nepaul." 

All travellers who enter Nepaul are severely 
scrutinised and have to provide themselves with 
a passport, on which, among other details, is 
stated whether they are married or single. 

The passport of a lady who was going to stay 
at the Residency described her as a " spinster." 
This greatly puzzled the Nepaulese authorities. 
Was she some kind of missionary? They 
begged the Resident to enlighten them. 

At the Satara dinner-party the guests from 

all quarters gathered round the hospitable 

board, perhaps never to meet again, fraternised, 

and chatted gaily — 

" Ships that pass in the night 
And hail each other in passing." 

So much society in India is like that. 



PANTHERS AND THE "KILL" 133 

There is good sport to be had in the hills around 
Satara. Our host had had kubber (infor- 
mation) that panthers were in the immediate 
neighbourhood, and some of the guests were 
making arrangements to start in pursuit next day. 

One lady was going with her husband. She 
was a noted shot and already had a goodly 
number of heads to her credit. Once I was 
persuaded to join a shooting party, but I resolved 
never to repeat the experience — my feelings of 
pity for the wretched " kill " spoilt my pleasure. 
A little platform is erected on the branches of a 
tree, and there two guns station themselves at 
night. Under the tree a goat (the '* kill ") has 
been tethered to tempt the panther or tiger who 
is known to be lurking somewhere near. The 
poor goat's instinct warns him of approaching 
doom, he bleats pitifully, and sometimes his 
agony lasts for hours, if the panther is not near 
enough to scent a " kill." 

It would be less cruel to put a dead goat 
there, but I believe the poor victim's bleatings 
are necessary to attract the attention of the 
prowling beast of prey. 

I could only spare a few days for my visit to 
Satara, but my hostess would not let me go 
without taking me to visit a lady who is quite 



134 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

the local celebrity, a high-born Afghan lady, 
related to the Amir of Afghanistan. Her life 
had been quite a romance, and her marriage to 
an English officer one of the few inter-racial 
unions that have proved a success. Exactly how 
she, as a very young girl, made the acquaintance 
of the Englishman I did not make out, but it 
must have been clandestinely, and at the risk 
of her life. He loved, but he had to ride away — 
that is, to move on with his regiment to another 
station. Probably to him the love affair was 
regarded as a passing episode ; to her it meant 
her whole life and soul. He had not reckoned 
with the passionate Eastern nature which could 
endure death rather than absence from the 
beloved one, nor the strength of will and tenacity 
of purpose which enabled this young girl and a 
faithful maid-servant, having little or no money, 
to brave the hardships and difficulties of a long 
journey made on foot for the greater part of 
the way from Afghanistan to Kurachi in the 
Bombay Presidency. It was fifty years ago, 
and in those days there were no railways or 
facilities for travel. However, eventually they 
arrived safely at Kurachi (where the English 
officer was stationed), and, footsore, weary, travel- 
stained, with clothing almost in rags, presented 



AN AFGHAN LADY 135 

themselves at his bungalow. At first he did not 
recognise the child, whom he had last seen 
richly dressed, and bejewelled, in surroundings 
befitting her birth and rank. Whether he was 
altogether pleased at her arrival I am not 
prepared to say, but he behaved honourably, 
treated her as his ward, had her well cared for, 
and educated. To have sent her back to her 
home would have been sending her to certain 
death. Eventually, when she had grown up into 
a charming young lady, he (who was considerably 
her elder) fell in love with her over again and 
married her. He took her to England, where 
she was received in good society and met many 
celebrities, who petted and made much of her, 
indeed in her day she must have been something 
of a lioness. She was a good housekeeper and 
made her husband's home very comfortable, and 
always adored him. He died after they returned 
to India, leaving her quite a rich woman. 
When I made her acquaintance she was old 
and blind, but not lonely. The Resident's wife 
never failed in her weekly visit, other ladies in 
the station were no less attentive, and she was 
quite happy when she had a listener to whom 
she could talk of old days, of Lord Palmerston, 
and King Louis Phihppe and other celebrities 



136 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

of the Victorian era, to whom she had been 
introduced in London. 

Every evening she went for a drive in her 
comfortable landau, and, feeling that I was a 
sympathetic listener and interested in her 
reminiscences, she asked me to accompany her 
one evening. I assented and, when we had 
driven a few miles out, she called a halt. It is 
customary in the evening drive (which is a 
regular item in the day's programme when 
living in India) to draw up on any high ground, 
enjoy the air, rest the horses, and perhaps stroll 
about a little before returning home. When the 
carriage halted, my companion opened a little 
red velvet bag that she was holding, drew out an 
envelope and handed it to me. 

I found it contaijied a little brochure, entitled 
'* My Indian V^ife," a little account of their 
romance written by her late husband for private 
circulation. 

She asked me to read it aloud to her. I 
complied, and she listened with breathless 
attention to a story of which she must have 
known every word by heart. The writer 
praised her to the skies, and pride and profound 
satisfaction were visible on her countenance as 
I read aloud her husband's eulogy. 



^ 



A ROMANTIC MARRIAGE 187 

For her, the past lived again, she began to 
talk, to explain and enlarge on the written 
story. Time passed. I did not like to interrupt 
her. It grew dark. The groom lighted the 
carriage-lamps and asked leave to start back. 
She did not heed him, but continued her flow 
of reminiscences, which evidently gave her so 
much pleasure that I had not the heart to break 
in on them. At last the coachman could bear 
it no longer, he came to the side of the carriage, 
and in peremptory tones said it was time to go 
home. 

'' Yes, yes ! " she said impatiently. The 
horses' heads were turned, her chain of thought 
was broken, and she came back regretfully to 
the present day, saying : '* I am afraid I shall 
have made you late for the Residency dinner." 

I assured her that did not matter, and told 
her how touched and interested I had been in 
her story ; she was pleased at my sympathy, and 
we parted with mutual regret, when she dropped 
me at the gate of the Residency. 

There are many interesting corners to be 
discovered in Satara : the old palace fishponds 
in the picturesque garden, and inside the palace 
the great chest from which the custodian will 
take the Coat of Shivaji, the great Mahratta 



138 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

Chieftain, to show you, also the iron claws 
which he concealed in his hands before be- 
stowing the treacherous embrace which killed 
his Mohammedan adversary, Abdul Aziz — 
the steel hooks were attached to two rings 
fitting the fingers and could be concealed in 
the hand. 

Although the custodian assured us that 
these were the claws actually used by Shivaji, 
I think this is not true, for in the "Life of 
Mountstuart Elphinstone, the Governor of 
Bombay," the following letter written by 
Elphinstone himself is quoted. The date is 
November 1826. 

"The Rajah of Satara is the most civilised 
Mahratta I ever met with, has his country in 
excellent order, and does everything to his roads 
and aqueducts in a style that would do credit to 
a European. I was more struck with his private 
sitting-room than anything I saw at Satara. It 
contains a single table covered with green velvet, 
at which the descendant of Shivaji sits in a chair 
and writes letters, as well as a journal of his 
transactions, with his own hand. He has his 
civil and criminal registers, his minutes of 
revenue, and balances of last quarter at his 
fingers' ends, and always sits in the Courts of 



RELICS OF SHIVAJI 189 

Justice, and conducts his business with the 
utmost regularity. I went out hunting with him 
one day, when a gentleman had a bad fall and 
lay for dead just in front of me. When I got 
off, I found a horseman had dismounted and was 
supporting his head, and to my surprise it was 
the Rajah, who had let his horse go and run to 
his assistance. The Rajah gave me an entertain- 
ment in the evening. He is about twenty-five, 
not handsome, but good-humoured-looking. 
His mother is a fine old lady, who has been 
handsome and still has fine eyes. She has good 
manners and, it is said, good abilities. Their 
gratitude to the British Government is unfeigned. 
At parting, the Rajah gave me the identical 
haghnakh (tiger's claws) with which Shivaji 
stabbed the Moghul general in a treacherous 
embrace, and afterwards destroyed his army. 
They are formidable steel hooks, very sharp, and 
attached to two rings fitting the fingers, and lie 
concealed in the inside of the hand." 

The biographer adds that these weapons are 
now in the possession of Sir Mountstuart E. 
Grant-DufF, Elphinstone's godson. Before the 
last Maratha war the Rajahs of Satara had dwelt 
in obscurity, as rois faineants, for several 
generations, leaving authority and the cares of 



140 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

government to successive Peshwas. A Peshwa 
was a Prime Minister or Mayor of the Palace. 
The Peshwas, whose dignity was hereditary, fixed 
their seat of Government at Poona, and their 
power spread throughout South-West India, but 
the Rajahs of Satara, the Uneal heirs of Shivaji 
the founder of the Maratha Empire, were the 
fountain-head from which the Peshwas derived 
their power, and when the last Peshwa, Bajirao, 
entered into a conflict with the English, and 
forfeited his power and throne at Poona, and fled 
before the English troops, he dragged the Rajah 
of Satara with him backwards and forwards 
throughout the Deccan and to one fort and the 
other of the Western Ghauts (the hills around 
Satara), the last strongholds of the Maratha 
power. The hill-forts held out for a long time, 
but fell one by one, and in 1818 the British flag 
was hoisted on the fort at Satara. The Peshwa 
was pensioned and banished to North India, and 
is best remembered by Englishmen as the 
adoptive father of Nana Sahib, the perpetrator of 
the Cawnpore massacres. The refusal of the 
British Government to continue the Peshwa's 
pension to this adopted son is looked upon as 
one of the causes that led up to the Indian 
Mutiny. 




SOXS OF MAHARAJAH OF KOLHAPUR IN THE DASAHARA PROCESSION. 



MAHRATTA FORTRESSES 141 

When the Peshwa was banished, his domains 
were declared British territory, but a small 
principality was set apart for the Rajah of 
Satara ; it had an area of five thousand square 
miles and a population of one million souls. 

The young prince requited the good-will 
shown to him, and under the tutorship of an 
excellent Resident became a pattern ruler. But 
after his death Satara lapsed to the English 
Government, owing to Lord Dalhousie's policy 
of denying to Native rulers the privilege of 
adoption failing direct heirs. This highly valued 
privilege has now been restored, which has con- 
duced greatly to make the Native princes con- 
tent and satisfied under British rule. 

The line of Shivaji is now represented by the 
Maharajah of Kolhapur. 

The hills around Satara are of the trap 
formation, with the singularly scarped forms 
peculiar to that style of mountain. Under the 
Mahratta Government many of them were 
crowned by hill-forts, for which their form 
remarkably qualifies them. These sky-threat- 
ening fortresses were found in the late war to 
fall far more easily than could be expected before 
the British and Sepoy troops, for the steepest and 
most rugged mountains, on account of the ravines 



142 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

with which they abound, can be approached by 
an attacking force under cover, so they were 
allowed to fall into ruins and were abandoned 
by the English when the Mahratta war came 
to an end, and the Mahratta power was over- 
thrown. 

Among the natives many legends and stories 
are current of the adventures of their forefathers 
among these hill-forts ; many have been kept 
in the popular mind by ballads, repeated from 
father to son. 

The exploits of Trimbukjee, a favourite 
Minister of the Peshwa, were very exciting. He 
was particularly obnoxious to the British, who 
seized him and kept him captive in the prison at 
Thana. While he was there a common-looking 
Mahratta groom, with a good character in his 
hand, came to offer his services to the com- 
manding officer. He was taken on, and the 
stable in which his horse was kept was near the 
window of Trimbukjee's prison. Nothing out of 
the common was observable in this groom, except 
a more than usual attention to his horse, and a 
habit while currying and cleaning him of singing 
verses of Mahratta songs, all apparently relating 
to his profession. Suddenly Trimbukjee dis- 
appeared so did the groom, on which it was 



AN INDIAN BLONDEL 148 

recollected that his singing had frequently been 
verses Uke the following : 

" Behind the bush the bowmen hide 

The horse beneath the tree; 
Where shall I find a knight will ride 

The jungle path with me ? 
There are five-and-fifty coursers then 

And four-and-fifty men ; 
When the fifty-fifth shall mount his steed 
The Dekan thrives again." 

The incident reminds one of Blondel and 
Coeur de Lion, and the spirited translation of the 
verses, which has quite the ring of a Scotch 
border ballad, was made by Bishop Heber, whose 
poetical gifts are so well known. 



CHAPTER IX 

AMONG THE MISSIONARIES — A LADY DOCTOR 

Now that I have lived several years in India, 
visited such widely different parts of it, and 
mixed with all castes and creeds, I have quite 
revised some of the preconceived notions I 
brought with me. One of these relates to the 
missionaries, and I must tell you how much 
impressed I have been by finding how universally 
respected the missionaries in general are by all 
classes of the Indian people. 

This is quite the reverse of what people in 
England who have not lived in India believe to 
be the case. In England, one very frequently 
hears it said : " I never subscribe to missions. 
Missionaries cause trouble wherever they go." 

Not long after I arrived in India I heard an 
English official speak against missionaries, and was 
surprised to hear a Brahmin gentleman take up 
their defence, saying : " They do more good than 
any one else. They work very hard, and not for 

144 



MISSIONARIES APPRECIATED 145 

their own profit. They never enrich themselves. 
They often die young, and always die poor." 

Then turning to me he added : " You may be 
surprised to hear it, but though few educated 
Hindus become Christians, they have a great 
respect for missionaries." ^ 

I replied : " I am glad to hear it, and I see 
that Christian philanthropy is appreciated. In 
India it cannot be said : * First the missionary, 
then the gunboat.' It is rather : ' First the 
missionary, then the schools and hospitals.' " 

Many English people will say when speaking 
of the Indian people : " Our religion is good for 
us, and their religion for them." 

I heard an English lady who had expressed 
this opinion say soon afterwards in reference to 
servants : " Oh I any one of them would murder 
us for eight annas [sixpence]." 

" And yet," I rejoined, " you say that a religion 
which would not restrain them from doing that 
is good enough for them, and they do not need 
to be taught better ! " 

I was reminded of Voltaire, who would not 
allow his atheist companions to talk against 

^ Since this was written. Professor Rudra, a Hindu,, defended 
missionaries at a Convention in Oxford, October 1912, when Mrs. 
Flora Annie Steele expressed disapproval of their methods. 
10 



146 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

religion while at a dinner-table. " Wait till the 
servants have gone out of the room," he said. 
" It is only their religion that keeps them from 
murdering us in our beds to-night, and making 
off with the money and valuables." 

One has only to talk with Indian people, or 
with missionaries or others who know them well, 
to find out that Hinduism is (certainly among 
the uneducated) chiefly a matter of ceremonies, 
and no check on conduct. 

If you hear people saying that Hindus should 
be let alone and do not need to be taught, or to 
have their moral standard raised, pray tell them 
the following true story. It was told me by the 
wife of the Judge who tried the case. 

A childless wife, fearing that, if she bore him 
no children, her husband would take a second 
wife (which the Hindu religion allows), went to 
a holy man or priest, an ascetic, to ask his 
advice as to what she could do to make the gods 
propitious. 

The holy man told her to kill a little girl 
under ten years of age, take out her liver, fry it 
and eat it, and it would have the desired effect ; 
she would have a son. 

The woman obeyed these instructions. 

The murdered child's corpse she hid under a 



AN INDIAN WOMAN'S CRIME 147 

stack of corn-stalks near the hut ; the odour of 
the decomposing body attracted attention, the 
crime was discovered, and the woman brought to 
justice. The Judge sentenced her to be hanged. 
He was blamed for condemning her to the 
supreme penalty. It was said the woman was 
so grossly ignorant that she did not understand 
how foul a crime she had committed. The 
Judge refused to commute the sentence, for he 
said : " The superstition which led to the crime 
is widespread. Not long ago another woman 
was sentenced to penal servitude for a similar 
crime, and I was told the woman I have lately 
condemned showed no fear when arrested, saying : 
' At worst, the Judge Sahib will only send me 
across the kala pane ' — i.e. send her across the 
sea to the penal settlement in the Andaman 
Islands. Only when it becomes known that 
death is the penalty will such crimes cease." 

His decision was appealed against, but the 
High Court upheld it, seeing the force of his 
argument. The sentence of death was carried 
out. 

The "holy man" who advised the crime was 
perhaps the worst offender. But to catch him 
was an impossibihty. He would be hundreds of 
miles away, or adopt fifty different disguises. 



148 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

All classes of natives would shelter him ; they 
would be afraid of offending him, lest they might 
draw his curse upon them. 

Was he not a holy man ? 

I have seen natives of India of respectable 
standing throw themselves at the feet of such 
a one, and ask his blessing, though he was very 
drunk at the time, and known to be a debauchee. 

" In what did his holiness consist ? " you may 
ask. 

Perhaps he did not live in a house, and 
abstained from some kinds of food, or could 
recite long portions of the Vedas. 

He certainly did no work, nor did he clothe 
himself decently. 

The holy men among the missionaries are a 
very different type. Their self-denial is shown in 
teaching the ignorant, tending the leper, feeding 
the famine- stricken, or working in many other 
ways for the good of others, working strenuously 
on what is only just a living wage, and some of 
them at their own cost. Many of them are men 
whose abilities would have won them wealth 
and distinction in any profession they had chosen 
to enter, such as Dr. Pennell, the C.M.S. 
missionary at Bannu, on the northern frontier, 
who was said to be worth a regiment of soldiers to 



RESULTS OF MEDICAL MISSIONS 149 

the Government as a peacemaker, on account of 
his influence with the turbulent frontier tribes to 
whom he devoted his hfe. 

Then there are the two Mission doctors in 
Cashmere, the Neves, and the C.M.S. doctor at 
Quetta, who are widely known and revered ; and 
Dr. Wanless, of the American Presbyterian 
Mission at Miraj, who is a power in the land, and 
whose fame as a surgeon has spread throughout 
India. He possesses the finest and best equipped 
operating-room in the Presidency, the gift of a 
gentleman of Philadelphia, who says it is the 
best investment he ever made. Had Dr. 
Wanless done nothing else, it would have been 
an achievement to be proud of, to have per- 
formed (as he has during his stay at Miraj) two 
thousand successful operations for cataract, 
and given sight to two thousand people. 

It must, however, be said that though medical 
missionaries are greatly respected, and hundreds 
of thousands of natives of India take advantage 
of their skill, very few of the natives are led to 
accept Christianity. They may learn to respect 
it, but for the most part they say : *' Our religion 
for us, yours for you." Many high-class Hindus 
like their wives to be visited by missionary ladies, 
and say : " They will learn nothing but what is 



150 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

good from you." But should one of the Hindu 
ladies become interested in Christian teaching, 
or show any desire to become a Christian, an 
uproar would ensue. 

Hindus want the fruit without the root — 
Christian virtue without Christ. 

Yet when one thinks of the penalties incurred 
by a high-caste native of India who forsakes the 
religion of his race, there is perhaps no reason to 
wonder that so few accept Christianity. The 
English Government has been so anxious to be 
fair to all denominations, to show no preference 
to Christians, that it has perhaps allowed the 
scale to dip a little on the other side. One who 
becomes a Christian is first an outcast from the 
Hindu community, and, second, cannot inherit 
his share of the family property. This last seems 
an injustice. It needs very strong religious con- 
victions to enable a man or woman to cast them- 
selves off from family ties, which are very binding 
among Hindus, and to give up his means of 
living. It will be long before he feels one with the 
English Christian community ; there can only be 
superficial intercourse between them. Amongst 
the natives of India, rich and poor, if of the same 
caste, are, to a certain degree, equal. When 
Hindus of any class become Christians they 



CASTE AND CREED 151 

think they have become of the same caste as 
the English, and consider themselves on an 
equality with the English. This is really the 
root of the complaints against native Christian 
servants, and the source of the advertisements 
frequently seen, ending " No Christians need 
apply." 

Christian servants are often too familiar in 
their manner. They think : " We have been 
baptized. Now we are the same caste as the 
Sahibs." 

The greater number of Indian natives who 
form the native Christian community are of 
the lowest classes. Out-castes (people of no 
caste), and have had everything to gain and 
nothing to lose by becoming Christians. 

In spite of the defects of Christian servants, 
and failure of some native Christians to act up 
to the standard of Christian conduct, the efforts 
of Christian missionaries are beginning to meet 
with recognition from Government. Indeed it 
would be hardly possible to overlook their 
devoted services in saving life in times of plague 
and famine, nor their important medical and 
educational work. Lord Curzon was the first 
Viceroy to accord public recognition to the 
services of missionaries, and to include a 



152 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

missionary in the list of recipients of Birthday 
Honours. 

Now almost every year among the recipients 
of the Kaisar-i-Hind Medal one sees the name 
of Miss Jones or the Rev. Brov^n, or Dr. Robin- 
son, of such and such a missionary society on 
the list, perhaps between the names of a general 
and a distinguished civil servant. 

This is as it should be. 

Missionaries in India were the pioneers of 
education. Many Indian gentlemen now holding 
high positions had their first chance in a Mission 
School. The splendid educational work now 
being carried on by Mr. Tyndal Biscoe at 
Shrinagar in Cashmere must turn out good 
citizens for the State. His aim is not to cram 
boys for examinations, but to build up fine 
characters, and many novel methods are adopted 
for attaining his ends. The ideas of Indian boys 
are revolutionised. To an Indian it is a sign of 
good birth and position not to lift a finger to 
help himself, but to be waited on hand and foot. 
The Shrinagar boys are taught not only to help 
themselves, but to help others — that to serve 
is a high privilege. As an instance of this, I 
may mention that Shrinagar stands on a beauti- 
ful lake, and on certain days in the week the 



THE LADY DOCTORS 158 

schoolboys take convalescents from the hospital 
out for a row. In many ways Mr. Tyndal 
Biscoe anticipated the boy-scout movement. 

The work that lady doctors are doing through- 
out India is widely appreciated. Dr. Bradley 
in Bombay, Dr. Mliller in Delhi, Dr. Brown 
at Ludhiana (who is training native women to 
become nurses and dispensers), Dr. Bernard at 
Poona, Dr. McArthur at Ratnagiri, Dr. Living- 
stone at Bangalore, are a few ladies whose names 
come to my mind as devoted and successful 
workers. 

I must now tell you of an interesting visit 
that I paid to a lady doctor attached to a 
mission in the Bombay Presidency, Dr. Hilda 
Keane. I met her at the house of a mutual 
friend, and, seeing that I was interested in her 
work, she invited me to pay her a visit. She 
lived in a charming bungalow not far from the 
hospital for women and children which was 
under her care. We repaired thither every 
morning at eight o'clock in a buUock-dhummie. 
The driver always upheld his mistress's prestige 
and would never give way on the narrow road 
to any other vehicle. 

" Don't you see it is the Doctor Miss Sahib ? " 
he would shout. And then perhaps a loaded 



154 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

wagon would have to go down a steep bank 
into a ditch to make way for us. How these 
overloaded country carts manage under these 
circumstances to keep their equilibrium as they 
do, and contrive not to precipitate occupants 
and cargo into the ditch, with cart on top, is a 
miracle that one sees performed daily in India. 

On the first morning of my visit when we 
arrived at the hospital a crowd of out-patients 
were waiting for the doctor, who, however, had 
first to go round the wards, and inspect the 
in-patients. Some had undergone serious opera- 
tions, others had slighter ailments ; one little 
girl with her thigh done up in plaster-of-Paris 
seemed very happy playing with a doll. All 
were eager to claim the doctor s attention, and 
all wanted to know how soon they would be 
able to go home — who was to cook the hus- 
band's dinner, etc.? 

One of the difficulties experienced in dealing 
with these poor ignorant people is that they 
are not willing to stay long enough for a 
thorough cure to be effected. They look upon 
medicine as a kind of magic and think the doctor 
should make a few passes, recite a formula, and 
give them a bottle of medicine, after drinking 
which they expect to be quite well at once. 



A QUACK'S PRETENSIONS 155 

It is a common belief among ignorant natives 
that pain is caused by the sufferer being possessed 
by an evil spirit, and they are easily led away 
by professions of native quacks, of whose pre- 
tensions the following will give an idea. 

Over the door of a native doctor in a crowded 
street in Bombay the following proclamation 
was affixed : 

" I most humbly beg to inform the public that 
if anybody might be suffering from demon, 
magic, or fury, or any sort of patient who cannot 
be cured by any sort of medical treatment, that 
they should attend at my house in Abdul 
Rahman Street. All the patients will be cure 
by pronouncing some words, blowing upon 
water, spitting and amulet, by the grace of 
the Almighty Creator." 

Another quack advertised in a native paper : 

" By grace of the Almighty Creator, I can 
cure any disease whatever without medicine. 
The external disease can be cure in a few 
minutes ; internal ones, of course, require one 
day per year. Any disease that cannot be cure 
by English doctor will be cure by me in uttering 
one word only. This power I got from Fakir. 
Captious and mischievous people will not be 
allowed in my dispensary. Jokers will certainly 



156 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

be given in charge to police. God bless the 
King-Emperor in this world and the next." 

How could an ordinary trained English 
practitioner hope to compete with such pre- 
tensions ? 

The ordinary process of hospital treatment 
must indeed seem tame and tedious by com- 
parison with the miracles the advertisers claim 
to have the power of performing. 

Even if patients consent to stay in hospital for 
an operation, they think they ought to be quite 
well the next day and able to walk home, 
perhaps a considerable distance, or drive in a 
jolting cart over a rough country track. 

After the wards had been inspected, it was 
the turn of the out-patients, who had been sitting 
meanwhile under the shade of a splendid 
tamarind-tree, shepherded by a native Christian 
Biblewoman, who received them on arrival, gave 
each a number, written on a piece of tin, so that 
first-comers should go in first to the doctor. 
They were then, while waiting their turn, required 
to sit down and listen while the Biblewoman 
told a simple story from the Bible, or sang a 
Marathi hymn. Some made no pretence of 
listening, others were very attentive. The 
doctor had taken her seat in the out-patients' 



A WOMEN'S HOSPITAL 15T 

hall, and as her bell tinkled, number one of the 
group under the tree hurried in, and others 
followed in due order. 

Most of them were a sorry sight, and it was 
sad to think how many were suffering from 
preventible disease ; very many from the results 
of a vicious life, others from ill-usage by ignorant 
native midwives, many from diseases caused 
by dirt and neglect. The last was especially the 
case with the children, many of whom were 
blind, but need not have been if their eyes had 
been kept clean ; others had cataract which might 
easily have been removed. But no I their 
mothers would not consent to leave them in 
hospital, and there would have been little chance 
of success had the operation been performed 
in one of their unventilated huts, amid foul air 
and surroundings, when the mother might be 
counted on to wipe the eyes with a dirty rag 
when the doctor was gone. 

I sat beside the doctor as she received each 
out-patient, and felt she was a brave woman. 
Much self-control was needed in dealing with 
such ignorant prejudice as most of the women 
displayed, and much self-denial not to shrink 
from touching and coming to close quarters with 
patients so very filthy as the greater number were. 



158 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

We did not get home to breakfast till 
twelve o'clock ; after that meal we retired to 
rest and take a bath before appearing at after- 
noon tea at half-past three. 

Hardly had we sat down to tea when the 
figure of a Mahratta woman, in a beautiful dark 
blue saree, wdth a red border, appeared on the 
verandah, salaaming (bowing and greeting) 
at the doorway. 

" Some one to see the Doctor Miss Sahib," 
said the butler. 

"Send her away. You know it is against 
orders for any one to come here after the doctor. 
Tell her to go to the hospital. I am due there 
in half an hour's time." 

But oh ! it was very particular. If only 
Madam Sahib would give a chit (written order) 
for the woman to take to the hospital. She had 
been there, but the compounder had refused to 
give what she had asked for without a chit. 

And what was it she was in such a hurry to 
get ? Was any one at her house desperately ill ? 

No. Only some friends had come in from 
a distant village to visit her, and she wished to 
give them a treat. If only Madam Sahib would 
give her a bottle of cod-liver-oil which is so 
delicious ! She wanted her friends to taste it ! 



ADVENTURES OF A LADY DOCTOR 159 

The woman had a consumptive daughter to 
whom it had been suppUed, but if the whole 
family appreciated it, probably the poor girl 
herself did not get much of it. 

The petitioner was told that cod-liver-oil was 
a very expensive medicine, and could only be 
given when really needed. However, she pro- 
duced a rupee, which she had tied up in the 
corner of her handkerchief, and offered to pay for 
the oil. She was determined to give her visitors 
a treat, cost what it may. So the doctor 
laughed and gave her the chit, desiring the com- 
pounder to supply her. 

My friend was to go out to a village twenty 
miles away the next day, and had promised to 
take me with her. 

She is a very gallant little doctor, a slender little 
woman with fair hair and a bright complexion, 
looking even younger than she is. I think her 
appearance greatly astonishes the patients who 
see her for the first time, for they have heard 
of the formidable operations she has performed 
successfully in hospital, and are astonished that 
so frail-looking a young lady should possess so 
much knowledge, capacity, and resolution as are 
necessary to accomplish what she has done. 

Our two tongas came to the door at 7 a.m. 



-J 



160 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

The doctor and I got into the first, and the 
Biblewoman and the compounder with a large 
box of medicines and remedies into the second. 
It was a bright, delicious cold-weather morning, 
the air crisp and invigorating, and aS we drove 
along between hedges wreathed in "morning 
glories " (convolvulus of a lovely shade of light 
blue) the doctor entertained me with accounts of 
her adventures when touring in the districts. 

One day, just as she was drawing near a distant 
village, the tonga overturned, the box of 
medicines fell out, the bottles broke and the 
contents were spilled, so when the villagers came 
out they were disappointed to find the medicine 
in a pool on the ground ; nothing was saved but 
a few powders and a little ointment. 

My gallant little friend has had many 
adventures and penetrated to remote villages 
where no doctor had been before, and no one 
had ever seen an Englishwoman. 

At one village they were afraid to come out 
of their huts. In vain did the puttiwalla march 
through the streets crying : " Here is the 
gracious Doctor Madam Sahib. Does nobody 
want her medicine ? Is no one ill in this 
village ? Come out, ye senseless ones, and get 
the good medicine." 



FORDING A STREAM 161 

The doors remained closed. No one was ill 
in this salubrious village ! The doctor found out 
afterwards that her approach had been descried 
by the village priest, who chanced to be a 
bigoted and ill-disposed man, and he had for- 
bidden the people to receive her. 

As we drove along on the morning when 
I accompanied her, we soon had to leave the 
road and jolt along over cart-tracks across fields 
till we came to a river. This had to be forded. 
The water was fairly deep, up to the tops of the 
tonga- wheels ; just as we got half-way across, the 
harness broke, the horses went on to shore, and 
left us sitting in our tonga, mid-stream. There 
were many excited exclamations from tonga 
number two, which passed us. Our driver boarded 
number two, reached the river-bank, caught the 
horses, and he and the driver of number two rode 
them back to where we were stuck up, fastened 
them with bits of rope to our vehicle, and took 
us safely to land. 

At the village not far from the river, the 
doctor was known. The patel's^ wife was an 
old patient and greeted her warmly. Very soon 
a crowd of would-be patients gathered round the 
tongas, and the compounder had difficulty in 

* Patel is the village headman, 
11 



162 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

keeping them at bay and making them wait 
their turn. 

The compounder was a tall, handsome 
Mahratta girl, who had been educated at the 
Mission School, and trained to pass the requisite 
examinations to qualify for her work. 

The Biblewoman assisted to keep order at 
first, and when the crowd around the doctor 
grew less, as each received their medicine and 
passed on, she gathered an audience around her 
at a little distance, to listen to her message. 

One man kept shouting at her : "I have 
been ill ten years " (showing a dreadful sore in the 
calf of his leg). " If your doctor can cure me, I 
will believe in your God. If not, how is your 
God better than ours ? " 

His challenge was not accepted, the question 
was begged. He was told that the Doctor 
Madam Sahib only treated women and children, 
and that he must go to the neighbouring town 
to the civil-surgeon. 

After treating the patients who came to her, 
the doctor was taken to several huts to visit 
bedridden invalids, and it was two o'clock 
before her work was done, and we could sit 
down to rest on the verandah of the patel's 
house and open our tea-basket. How refresh- 



A PATEL'S HOUSEHOLD 168 

ing that tea was ! How appetising those egg- 
sandwiches, followed by some delicious fruit, 
mangos, offered by the patel's wife. 

The patel has great power in a village. 
In this case he was a well-to-do man with 
flocks and herds, and his wife possessed a 
great deal of jewellery, which she displayed to 
us with much pride and satisfaction. Having 
duly admired it, we took our departure. The 
tongawala thought it best to avoid recrossing 
the river, and took us home by a longer route. 
The tongas were hired vehicles (the doctor's 
bullock-dhummie could not go these long dis- 
tances) ; when we re-entered the town, which 
was their home, the ponies wanted to take the 
turning that led to their own stables instead of 
taking us to the doctor's bungalow outside the 
town. So much jibbing went on, severe 
whippings followed by cajolements, many trips 
down by-streets before they could be induced 
to continue in the right direction. 

I was tired when we got home; not so the 
doctor, though she had gone through a hard day's 
work, involving strain of mind as well as body. 
She told me that what worried and vexed her 
most was that the people would not allow her to 
help them as much as she could have done. For 



164 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

instance, in the villages visited there were a dozen 
children with cataract, which might easily have 
been removed, if only their parents would have 
consented to an operation. But no ! They pre- 
ferred that the children should be blind for life. 

Then each of the patients visited in the huts 
needed treatment that could only be carried out 
in hospital, but the women were not willing, or 
if they were willing to come, a relative objected, 
** How was she to get to the hospital ? " 

" I will take you in my tonga." 

No, they could not overcome their dread of 
an unknown quantity, a hospital ; or perhaps no 
relative could be spared to accompany them and 
prepare their food, as is the custom in native 
hospitals. 

However, the doctor felt she had done her 
best, and done a good day's work, though it was 
not yet over. After a bath and tea she went 
down to her hospital, where various matters 
detained her for two hours. 

Her time was very fully occupied, her life a 
strenuous one. Mever did she turn a deaf ear to 
an appeal for help, and not infrequently after a 
long day's work she was aroused in the middle of 
the night by people from a distant village come 
to summon her to attend an urgent case. She 



IMPARTIALITY OF GOVERNMENT 165 

seldom refused to go, but was always accom- 
panied by a hospital nurse and the faithful old 
puttiwala, who, though he grumbled at having 
his night's rest disturbed, would never have 
allowed his mistress to go on such an expedition 
without his escort. I am glad to say my young 
friend's strenuous work and marked ability have 
won due recognition, and she now has a fine post, 
as doctor in charge of the fine, well-equipped 
hospital built at Delhi in memory of Queen 
Victoria, by a committee of Indian gentlemen, 
who wished to testify to their veneration of the 
Great Queen. 

Although, as I have mentioned previously, 
in some quarters the English Government is 
blamed for having, in its anxiety to show no 
favouritism to any religion, tipped the scale 
against Christianity, yet this has probably worked 
out for good during the late " unrest " in India. 
No one associates Christianity in their minds with 
the Government, consequently Christian religion 
has not shared the unpopularity which has lately 
befallen the British Raj. Indeed at the place 
where I have just been paying a visit, a town 
noted for its disloyalty, where a plot to murder 
all the English residents had lately been dis- 
covered, it came to light that the only English 



166 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

person whose life was to be spared was a mis- 
sionary lady who had lived and laboured there 
for many years, and done much good in car- 
ing for lepers, establishing schools, etc. She 
was a most uncompromising Christian, but was 
greatly respected by the native inhabitants, while 
the chief magistrate of the place (an Englishman 
who had marked sympathy for the Indian people, 
and was known as a great admirer of their litera- 
ture and sacred books, in which he was well versed) 
was shot dead as he entered the theatre, where 
he had been invited by his Indian " friends " to 
witness an Indian play. I think this shows that 
Christianity is not a cause of dissension or strife 
now in India. The time has passed when 
Christianity was looked upon only as a caste 
of which the distinguishing tenet was the 
privilege of eating any and every thing. It is 
now better understood, and Christ is generally 
acknowledged to be a great Teacher. 

There are many careless-living Christians in 
India as elsewhere, and the natives do not fail to 
remark this, and comment pityingly : " They do 
not believe in their own religion ! " 

All persons who lead a life consistent with 
their professed religion (whichever it may be) are 
admired in India, and as the great Lord Lawrence 



A LIBERAL-MINDED INDIAN 167 

said : '* Christian principles acted on in a 
Christian spirit will never injure the prestige of 
the English Government in India." 

The obstacle to educated Indians accepting 
Christianity is, that though most of them 
acknowledge Christ to be one of the greatest 
religious teachers, they cannot admit that He is 
God, except so far as they think all great men 
God-like. It is now the fashion among them to 
say that " there is good in all religions." 

One Indian gentleman holding a high official 
position assured me that this was his opinion, and 
added that he said prayers every day to Krishna 
(the Hindu divinity), to Mohammed, to Jesus 
Christ, to Buddha and to Mrs. Annie Besant. 
Having made this statement he looked at me 
triumphantly as if expecting me to express 
admiration of his liberal views. 



CHAPTER X 

INDIAN SERVANTS — PETITIONERS AND PERTINACITY — A 
LADY LAWYER 

Although I have been some years in India I 
have not yet fathomed the idiosyncrasies of the 
Indian domestic servant. 

I flattered myself that our Mohammedan 
butler was really to be trusted. He is a young 
man, and, when I joined Bob, was second boy ; 
when the elder servant left, the abilities of the 
younger pointed him out as fit to be raised to 
the position of khamsamah. He has fulfilled 
the duties of the post excellently, and, unlike 
most Indian servants, will turn his hand to any- 
thing ; the Madam Sahib has only to express her 
needs and he will supply them, her difficulties, 
and he finds a solution. 

One day when I was expecting friends to 
dinner, the cook was found lying intoxicated on 
the kitchen floor in the early afternoon. 

In announcing this catastrophe to his mistress 

168 



A MOHAMMEDAN WEDDING 169 

the butler added : " But Madam Sahib need not 
trouble. / will cook the dinner.'* 

This he did to perfection, and not only cooked 
it, but brought it to table, with the help of the 
second " boy " and the visitors' " boy." In India 
your butler always accompanies you when you 
dine out. 

Our clever servant, whose name was Abdul, 
won my heart on his wedding-day. I had been 
to visit an Indian lady in the afternoon and 
returned with a long garland of tuberoses and 
pink Persian roses round my neck. When I 
took off the garland and hung it up in the draw- 
ing-room I noticed that Abdul looked at it with 
longing eyes. While I was dressing for dinner 
the ayah said : ** Does Madam Sahib want to 
keep that garland ? If not, will she let Abdul 
have it to wear at his wedding ? " 

" Certainly. But will it not be faded ? " 

" No, the wedding will be to-night, after 
Madam Sahib's dinner is over." 

I had previously heard much discussion as to 
what day would be propitious for the wedding — 
on which day and at what hour would the moon 
be in the right quarter ? 

At last this evening was fixed upon. 

Abdul waited on us at dinner in his usual 



170 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

impassive manner, showing no signs that an 
important event was toward. 

After I went to bed I heard much tom-toming, 
beating of drums, and native music in the 
bazaar, and at intervals of sleep it again smote 
my ears. These were the signs that Abdul's 
wedding ceremonies were taking place. The 
festivities lasted all night, but yet punctually as 
the hall clock struck seven I heard as usual the 
announcement at my door : " Cha7^ tyar, Madam 
Sahib,'' and peeping out I saw Abdul, still in his 
wedding costume, a long crimson satin coat, a 
gold and white turban, and my garland round 
his neck. He had placed the tea-tray at my 
door and was retiring. I had on a morning 
robe, so I greeted him and wished him happiness, 
and added : 

" I did not expect you this morning, Abdul." 

" Madam Sahib's work must be done," he 
replied. 

He was self-conscious, but evidently pleased 
that I should see his splendid attire. 

When I was very ill I really owed my life to 
this " boy," who would stay up all night heating 
water for successive hot bottles and fomentations, 
and in the day-time would summon the ayah to 
bring in jugged broth or arrowroot at the pre- 



INDIAN SERVANTS' QUALITIES 171 

scribed times. The ayah troubled her head very 
little about her sick mistress, and liked to lie on 
her back and smoke cigarettes in her hut, instead 
of staying in the sick-room. When 1 got better 
I dismissed her, and determined to do without 
an ayah, for I had had a succession of bad ones. 

Now with regard to Abdul, although he was in 
his way really attached to me, and excellent at 
his work, yet he did not scruple to cheat me 
whenever it was possible (by this time I had 
taken over the housekeeping and accounts) ; 
indeed he would have considered that he failed 
in his duty to himself and his family had he not 
seized every opportunity of making money at 
our expense. 

This last hot weather we took a furnished 
bungalow at a hill station, intending to spend 
Bob's leave there. 

I sent Abdul on in advance to get everything 
ready for us, and said : " If you find things 
wanting, get what is necessary, and I will pay 
for all when I arrive." 

At the end of the first week after our arrival 
at the hill station, Abdul brought in his weekly 
account, and charged for a good many kitchen 
and pantry requisites, and, according to custom, 
brought in the articles in question to show me. 



172 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

for a servant's word as to his purchases is never 
trusted. I was in a hurry, and when the things 
were spread out on the floor in front of me, I 
just glanced at them and paid the accounts 
without demur. 

About a month later the second "boy" and 
Abdul had a quarrel, and the former came to me 
in great anger and said : " Madam Sahib does 
not know Abdul ; he is a thief. Those things 
he told you he had bought new for this house 
were your own property. Abdul brought them 
up from Hariana among the kit ! " 

On inquiry, these accusations proved to be 
true. 

Abdul was not greatly disconcerted at being 
found out. Would not Madam Sahib forgive 
him this once ? He would never do it again ! 

What was to be done? Could I ever trust 
Abdul again ? No ! But what use would it be 
to send him away ? I should only get another 
servant, who would certainly be equally dishonest, 
and probably not nearly so capable. So Abdul 
stayed on, and though I keep a sharper look-out 
upon him, he will outwit me whenever he chooses 
to do so. 

The lower-class Indian, whether in Govern- 
ment employment Or domestic service, has great 



PETITION- WRITERS 1T8 

faith in the efficacy of a written appeal. If he 
wants a holiday, an increase of pay, or any kind 
of favour, he goes to a petition-writer, who for a 
small payment will provide him with a moving 
appeal to present to his employer. 

Every town has a petition-writer (in large 
towns there are scores), generally a half-educated 
man who has obtained a smattering of English 
at a Mission School or Government School, but 
not remained long enough to qualify for a good 
post, so he has taken to petition-writing as a 
means of earning a living, and generally finds it 
a very profitable business. He will also write 
letters of all sorts, including love-letters, and it 
is said that servants who fail to get satisfactory 
chits (testimonials) from the employer they are 
leaving, get the pubUc scribe to provide them, 
which accounts for servants so often failing to 
come up to expectations formed by new em- 
ployers after the perusal of chits presented to 
them by the candidate for service. 

One may see the scribe or petition- writer any 
day seated in the market-place or at a street 
corner, with legs tucked under him, and a pad 
on his knee, ready for all applicants for his 
services. 

When translated into English by the public 



174 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

scribe, his customer's desires are often expressed 
in a fantastic manner, for imperfectly educated 
natives have a great liking for introducing 
current sayings and idioms, and misapply them 
with grotesque results. 

I received the following letter from my cook's 
wife. He had left her behind in Goa. 

" Honoured and much respected Madam 
Sahib, 
" I want to trouble you with these few lines 
because the cook you engaged some time ago 
is my married husband, and he plays tricks with 
me since you engaged him. He has become 
proud and takes no notice of my letters; he 
never looks after me or sends me money for 
food. I have been reduced to half size. My 
daughter did help me, but now I am sorry to 
tell you she has gone to the dogs. Let God 
excite tenderness for me in your heart. You 
give my married husband beans ; tell him you 
discharge him if he let me starve, and then I 
shall ever pray for your long life and prosperity. 
*' I am your obedient slave, 

" Marie-Bai." 

One day Bob showed me the following petition 
from a candidate for employment : 



SOME ABSURD PETITIONS 175 

" Respectfully showeth that your Honour's 
servant is a poor man in agricultural behaviour, 
and depends on the seasons for the staff of life. 
The sky has been as brass, want of rain has caused 
the crops to fail, wherefore your petitioner prays 
you to take him into your saintly service that he 
may have permanent labour to support his family ; 
therefore he falls upon his family's bended knees 
and implores your Honour to have pity on this 
damnable, miserable petitioner, who entreated 
Municipality for employment in removing filth, 
but this was not granted. Petitioner has officiated 
in several capacities and will gird up his loins to 
fill any post your Honour will bestow. 
" I have the honour to be 

** Your most obedient servant, 

"Ramdas, Candidate." 

If the first petition is not attended to, others 
will follow ; if they are unanswered, the petitioner 
will sit at the gate day after day, however often 
the puttiwalas eject him from the compound, 
for there are no such pertinacious beggars as the 
natives of India. They feel sure that if only 
they persevere, they can worry the person to 
whom they apply into granting their petition. 

This is only another instance which shows how 



176 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

little the East has altered since the days when 
the Gospel parable of the Unjust Judge was told 
to the disciples of Christ. 

In old days, before the English occupation of 
India, when there were no Law Courts and no 
means of obtaining redress of wrongs but by 
inducing a mamletdar to order the village patel 
to summon a panchayet, a council of five men 
chosen from the village worthies, which council 
held their meeting under a tree or in a temple- 
court, importunity was the means usually adopted 
for obtaining payment of debts. The creditor 
sat down on the threshold of the debtor, and 
clamoured before his door (or employed others to 
do it), appealing to the gods and invoking curses 
on the debtor or any person who had in any way 
injured him. It was a point of honour with the 
neighbours not to disturb the author of these 
importunities if they were justified ; and some 
satisfaction was usually procured by means of 
them. If they were unjust, the party thus 
harassed naturally concurred with the plaintiff in 
wishing to refer to a panchayet. 

Similar means were employed to obtain 
justice from a great personage : standing before 
his residence, assailing him with clamour, 
holding up torches before him in daylight. 



INDIAN PERTINACITY 177 

pouring water on the images of the gods 
without ceasing. If these measures failed, a 
still more powerful expedient was resorted to 
for obtaining justice"; this was to get the whole 
caste, village, or trade to join in the above 
demonstrations till the demands of the wronged 
member were satisfied. 

These customs having been established from 
time immemorial, it is not to be wondered at 
that pertinacity has become inherent in the 
native character, and now that Law Courts are 
opened to them they carry on litigation year 
after year for a lifetime. 

The ladies of India who are possessors of 
property are very litigious, and this has been 
provided for by the Government of India, who 
have appointed Miss Cornelia Sorabji, D.L., as 
legal adviser to purdah ladies. No small part of 
her labours consists in persuading her clients not 
to go to law about trifles, or without good 
cause ; so successful has she been in this respect, 
as well as in conducting necessary law-suits to a 
satisfactory conclusion, that Government have 
publicly expressed their approval of Miss 
Sorabji's work, increased her salary, and given 
her the status of a permanent Government 
official. 
12 



178 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

Miss Cornelia Sorabji is one of a gifted family, 
her mother, Mrs. Sorabji of Poona, having been 
a pioneer of female education in the Bombay 
Presidency, as well as an enthusiastic missionary. 
Mrs. Sorabji's husband was a Parsee gentleman 
converted to Christianity. 

Miss Cornelia Sorabji was one of the first to 
enter the lists to claim the right of woman to 
obtain a lawyer s degree and practise the legal 
profession. 

One of her sisters is a fully qualified medical 
practitioner and was an able co-operator with 
her husband, the late Dr. Pennell, in his valuable 
work as a medical missionary among the wild 
tribes of the north-west frontier of India. 

Two other sisters are engaged in educational 
work, one as head of a college for Indian girls 
at Dacca in Bengal, and the youngest sister. Miss 
Susan Sorabji, is the Principal of St. Helena's 
High School, Poona, a very fine building with 
all the latest improvements and equipment 
thought desirable by educational authorities ; the 
funds requisite to erect it Miss Sorabji obtained 
by a lecturing tour in America. She has named 
the school after Miss Helen Gould of New York, 
the great heiress, the principal contributor to the 
funds. 



A PARSES SCHOOL 179 

In this school the American system of 
educating boys and girls together is being tried. 
The greater number of the students are Parsees. 
In the class-rooms you may see a tall youth of 
seventeen standing next to a girl of the same 
age in a mixed class. Excepting the drawing 
master, all the teachers are ladies, and it says 
a good deal for the high estimation in which the 
abilities of Miss Susan Sorabji and'^her staff are 
held that boys should stay on when they reach 
the age to enter the classes of the upper 
standards and enter as students for matricu- 
lation (on their success in passing these exams, 
their future livelihood depends) in preference to 
entering a college with male professors, of 
which there are several in Poona. I happened 
to visit the spacious class-room of the highest 
standard pupils, where a lady teacher was inter- 
rogating a mixed class of young men and 
women on the Georgian Era, and I heard a tall 
Parsee youth give, in fluent English, a clear, 
concise outline of the policy of Pitt I 

To return to the Sorabji family. The only 
brother, Mr. Richard Sorabji, is, like his sisters, 
a strenuous social worker and able educationalist. 
As Professor of Law at the University of 
Allahabad his position enables him to exert his 



180 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

influence among the students, and, being a 
staunch adherent of the British Raj, he does his 
best to foster the spirit of Imperiahsm among 
them. 

This is a greatly needed work, for the rising 
generation of Indian youth — not reaUsing, as 
their parents do, the state of India before it 
came under the British Government, and being 
consequently unable to recognise the great 
benefits that Government has conferred on the 
Indian people — are mostly bitterly anti-English 
in their politics. 



, CHAPTER XI 



DELHI FIFTY YEARS AGO 



The newspapers all over the world are now ^ full 
of the great doings of the Delhi Durbar, 
and the splendid reception accorded to King 
George and Queen Mary by their Indian subjects. 

I have been thinking a great deal about the 
really extraordinary change that has taken place 
in Indian public opinion, and in the relations 
of the Indian Princes and people to their 
English overlord and the English Government 
since there was last a King and Court in Delhi. 
That was fifty years ago, and fifty years is a 
short time in which to effect so great a change. 

The reign of the last King of Delhi ended 
with the Indian Mutiny. 

Our neighbour the Zemindar had ancestors 
who were living in Delhi during the siege, and 
somehow or other got possession of a number 
of papers seized in the private apartment of the 

* At the time this letter was written, December 1911. 
181 



182 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

King of Delhi, and also an account of his trial, 
with a sketch of him in pencil done by one who 
was a witness at the trial. 

Knowing that I was interested in the history 
of old times, our friend kindly allowed me to 
look through these documents, from which I 
gathered the following details. The last King 
of Delhi, the representative of the ancient 
Moghul Dynasty, was Mohammed Bahadur 
Shah. The English had been his friend and the 
friend of his family. His grandfather. Shah 
Alam, having had his eyes put out and suffered 
every indignity at the hands of the Persian 
invader Gulam Kadir, fell into the hands of the 
Mahratta powers, when their commander-in- 
chief, the French General Perron, defeated the 
Persians and took Delhi. The blind king was 
kept in confinement till Lord Lake defeated 
the Mahrattas in 1803, when the royal captive 
applied to the English for protection. He and 
his family were delivered from misery and oppres- 
sion, and treated with generous sympathy. He 
was accorded a pension of £100,000 yearly and 
the Delhi Palace (a little town in itself) as a 
residence, and the titular rank of King of Delhi — 
he had no power outside his palace. The 
pension and the rank were continued to his 



KING OF DELHI'S LETTERS 183 

successors, and his grandson, the last King of 
Delhi, succeeded to the throne in 1837. He bit 
the hand that fed him, and was tried for treason, 
rebeUion, and murder — the murder of fifty-two 
Englishwomen in his palace grounds. 

The following was one of the letters brought 
forward at his trial; it was written by him to 
the Rajah of Cutch after the outbreak of the 
Mutiny. 

"Consider yourself receiving Royal Favour. 
My Governor- General has come into my presence 
and affirmed that you, ever faithful one, having 
put the whole of the Infidels to the sword, have 
thoroughly cleansed and purified your dominion 
from their unclean presence. We have been 
extremely gratified to hear of your conduct. 
Should other Infidels reach your territory by sea 
you will have them slain. In doing this, you will 
act entirely in accordance with our wishes." 

Second letter to same : " It is clear to our 
belief that throughout your dominions the name 
and trace of those ill-omened infidels, the English, 
cannot have remained ; if, however, by any chance 
some have escaped by keeping concealed, first 
seek out and slay them, then come to our Presence. 
Consideration and friendliness a thousand-fold 
will be shown you." 



184 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

After the Mutiny had commenced, whoever 
brought the head of an Enghshman to Delhi 
received a reward of two rupees. 

Holkar, Maharajah of Indore, sent five English 
heads as a token of loyalty to the King of Delhi, 
and announced his fixed determination to ex- 
terminate the English, whom he described as 
" clever in all villainy." ^ 

Another letter to the King from a certain 
Khan of Tonk says : ** Eighteen infidels have 
been despatched to Hell by your slave's own 
hands. I trust that arms and funds will be 
bestowed on me to enable me to continue the 
fight." 

Many reasons have been suggested as the cause 
of the Sepoys' revolt, usually spoken of as the 
Indian Mutiny, but the intrigues which led to it 
had long been fostered at the Court of the King 
of Delhi. Although insignificant and contemp- 
tible in character, and the possessor of only 
nominal power, he was looked upon by Moham- 
medans as the head of their faith and their 
rallying-point. 

The excuse alleged for the soldiers' revolt was 

^ By way of contrast between then and now, it may be remarked 
that his descendant, the present Maharajah Holkar, plays cricket at 
Lord's, and is married to a wife educated by an English lady. 



MOTIVES OF INDIAN MUTINY 185 

that they were compelled to use greased cart- 
ridges, which defiled their caste. The shining, 
greasy appearance of cartridge-paper was declared 
by the malcontents of the native army to prove 
the presence of the fat of cows or swine — the 
former sacred to the Hindus, the latter ob- 
noxious to the Mohammedans. 

At Barrackpore, General Hearsey called his 
brigade together and explained to them that the 
glazed appearance of the cartridge-paper was due 
to the starch used in making it, and orders were 
issued permitting the Sepoys to grease their own 
cartridges. As a matter of fact there was not a 
single greased cartridge in the magazines of the 
three native regiments at Meerut, who were the 
first to mutiny, nor of those at Delhi. The 
native soldiers themselves were the best informed 
on these points, for their cartridges had always 
been manufactured in the regimental magazines 
by persons of their own caste and creed, who 
would have refused the work had they been 
required to use material offensive to their 
religious prejudices. Had the cartridges been 
a rock of offence the soldiers could have taken 
their discharge, which was always granted without 
demur. 

Neither Hindu nor Mussulman Sepoys had any 



186 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

objection to the cartridges, as is proved by the 
eagerness with which they sought them for 
months at a time under allegiance to Moham- 
med Shah, the titular King of Delhi, to fight 
against the power to which they owed fealty. 
During the trial of the King of Delhi, his private 
papers were brought forward as evidence, amongst 
them petitions on all sorts of subjects, from the 
tinkering of a cooking-pot to the crack in a 
horse's foot, and each had been thought worthy 
of the royal signature, but no reference to the 
grievance of the cartridges, or any other griev- 
ances of which they had to complain. Numbers 
mutinied without alleging any grievance, because 
they thought the opportunity favourable, and 
fancied that they would have a chance to plunder 
and murder with impunity. 

The Mutiny was a struggle of the natives for 
power and place by the expulsion from the country 
of a race of alien rulers, and the Court of Delhi, 
and the last representative of the House of 
Timur, were the rallying-point and figure-head. 

The old King of Delhi, Mohammed Shah, was 
a degenerate, " a shrivelled impersonation of 
malignity, dead to all honourable feeling." 

So he was described (to his face) at his trial 
before the English Commissioners. 



MASSACRE OF ENGLISHWOMEN 187 

When the Mutiny broke out at Delhi, English 
ladies were induced to take shelter in the Palace, 
and told they would be in safety there. Had the 
King wished to save them, it would have been 
quite easy to hide them in the endless apart- 
ments of the zenana, which no man dared enter. 
When the soldiers came to the King's audience- 
hall to ask permission to massacre the English- 
women, he said : *' Let the soldiers do as they 
likel" 

And this in spite of the fact that one of his 
sons and some of his counsellors had begged him 
to prevent the massacre, for that it was contem- 
plated was known in the city two days before it 
took place. 

This was the petition drawn up by the late King 
of Delhi's agent : ** Respectfully showeth that 
justice is approved and lawless cruelty condemned 
by the Creator of the Universe. We therefore 
pray that you will tell the officers of the Army 
who intend to request your sanction and per- 
mission to slay the English ladies and children ; 
that agreeably to their prayers at the beginning 
of the war you placed your hand on their heads 
and joined them in the cause of the Faith, but 
that in kiUing the prisoners in question they 
would abandon the tenets of our religion which 



188 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

teach that it is not lawful to slay women, and 
you will not give an order contrary to the Laws 
of the Prophet. Tell them also that if they do 
not approve, they must first wreak their ven- 
geance on your Royal Person. 

" Considering it is necessary, we have laid the 
subject before Your Majesty." 

But the King only said : " Let the soldiers do 
as they please." 

So forty-six English women and children were 
taken out into the courtyard, encircled with a 
rope, and cut down where they stood, in the 
presence of a crowd from the city who climbed 
on the walls to watch, and uttered the coarsest 
execrations. 

Sweepers put the corpses together on a cart, 
and threw them into the river. 

One of the King's sons had (as previously 
stated) interceded for their lives, but it is said 
that his other three sons were exultant spectators 
of the massacre, and knowledge of this incited 
Hodson ^ to cut them down with his own hand, 
when they fell into his power after the fall of 
Delhi, an action for which he has been greatly 
blamed by those who did not know the above facts. 

The wretched old King did not profit by his 

' Colonel Hodson, of Hodson's Horse. 



HOW THE KING SPENT THE DAY 189 

cowardice or malignity. When the English 
recovered possession of Delhi, he was tried, 
found guilty, and deprived of rank and riches, 
and sent to die in exile. But long before the 
English re-entered, he had reason to wish himself 
back under their protection, and so had the 
inhabitants of Delhi, as the following letters, 
found among the King's private papers, will 
show. Though somewhat lengthy they are so 
quaintly expressed that they are worth a glance, 
and give a peep behind the scenes. 

Knowing how strenuous a task is kingship in 
the twentieth century, and what is required and 
expected of the occupant of a European throne, 
we are struck by the contrast afforded by a 
description of the manner in which an Eastern 
potentate passed his days. I take the following 
account from the old documents above men- 
tioned : 

" The time between dawn and daylight having 
been passed in the usual religious observances, 
the Respected of the State (the Physician) was 
allowed the honour of feeling the King's pulse. 
The King then went to the Hall of Audience, 
took his seat on the Throne of State, and received 
the obeisance of the great, and petitions from 
others. After the morning's business had been 



190 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

transacted, His Majesty retired to his private, 
kingly hall, and partook of the delicacies prepared 
for dinner, after which he enjoyed a siesta. He, 
on awaking, repeated the prayers appointed for 
that hour, and afterwards occupied himself with 
such pastimes as he delights in. 

" Towards the end of the day he honoured 
the Physician by allowing him to feel the royal 
pulse. A cooling draught was prescribed. 
After drinking it, His Majesty condescended to 
visit the luxuriant garden of Salingarh for re- 
laxation, and on returning retired to his private 
apartments. A little later he came into the 
special Hall of Audience, and held a lev^e. 
After sunset those in attendance at Court were 
honoured with permission to leave." 

This ended the royal day. 

From the following petitions it appears that 
the King did not keep his sons in order, and that 
after the mutineers had got the upper hand in 
Delhi the life and property of the citizens were 
not safe. 

, " Joint petition of Jogal Kishwa and Sheo- 
prashad. Merchants. To the King Mahommed 
Shah, Shelter of the world. Paying, agreeably 
to your Majesty's orders, twelve hundred rupees 
into the Treasury we obtained a document under 



MISRULE AT DELHI 191 

your special signature, assuring us that we 
should for the future have full immunity from 
all vexation and annoyance at the hands of the 
functionaries of the State, the Princes Royal 
of illustrious descent, and the soldiers of the 
army. Notwithstanding this, troopers come daily, 
in the name of the Princes, to your slave's house, 
and wish to take our lives. Left without choice 
we have been sitting concealed for the last 
few days, and our servants were ill-treated. 
Denied ingress or egress to and from our house 
we have been rendered homeless as it were, and 
the privacy of our families destroyed. If the 
Princes Royal, delegated to protect the subjects 
of the State, incite to such conduct, where then 
can be any safety for the subjects ? From your 
Majesty's goodness, clemency, and justice, equal 
to Nowsheran's, we expect that a written order 
will be addressed to each of the Royal Princes 
of illustrious ancestry, namely their Highnesses 
Mirza Moghul Bahadur, Mirza Khair Sultan, 
Mirza Aboul Bakr, Mirza Mohammed AbduUa, 
instructing them that for the future no soldiers 
are to be permitted to go to your slave's house to 
commit acts of aggression." 

At the bottom of the paper is the autograph 
order of the King in pencil : " Mirza Moghul 



192 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

Bahadur will station a guard at the house of 
petitioner." 

There is another petition from Hassein al Rah : 
" To the King— Shelter of the World. 
"Respectfully showeth that His Majesty's 
younger son, Mirza Aboul Bakr Sahib, has 
lately been in the habit, with unrestrained 
licence and recklessness, of visiting for evil 
purposes the house of Princess Farkhunda 
Zumani (which is situated near your petitioner's 
house) and indulging in all those acts that may 
be expected to result from drunkenness. Accord- 
ing to his custom he came yesterday to the 
Princess's house before noon and remained there 
drinking spirituous liquors and hearing singing 
for the remainder of the day. About an hour 
and a half after sunset the Mirza wished to 
leave, but the key of the street gate being with 
the watchman and he not coming immediately, 
the Mirza was delayed, and getting angry drew 
his pistol and fired on this slave, who happened 
at the time to be sitting at the door of his house 
with friends. Though there was no pretext for 
this violence your slave kept silence, nevertheless 
the Mirza gave unlimited hand to his tongue, 
and thought to enter your slave's house and 
carry off all the property it contained. Your 



A DISSIPATED PRINCE 198 

slave, however, got inside and fixed on the chain. 
The Mirza had discharged his pistol intending 
to kill your slave, but as some little part of my 
life remains uncompleted the shot did not take 
effect. 

" The Mirza ordered his troops to break down 
the door, plunder the house, and slaughter 
the inhabitants. The watchman arriving, the 
Mirza threw him forcibly to the ground, and 
it seemed probable that he would have severed 
his head from his body. This did not occur, 
but the Mirza battered his back and head with 
blows, leaving him half dead. The soldiers fired 
bullets and began to plunder the houses ; many 
passers-by were hit by the bullets and nothing 
now remains of the property that belonged to 
the residents in this part of the city. In this 
disturbance your slave has had a foretaste of 
the Day of Judgment. Depending on Your 
Majesty's justice, I trust that full punishment 
will be awarded, otherwise to-morrow is not 
far from to-day, and the said Lord of the World, 
Mirza Aboul Bakr, bent on evil purposes, will 
certainly return to carry out his designs, and 
what we helpless subjects will have suffered will 
be something astounding." 

At the end of the petition was an autograph 
18 



194 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

from the King to his eldest son, "the Commander- 
in-Chief, Tiger in battle and Candle of Religion," 
to the effect that he was to see that the peti- 
tioner's property was restored. 

It is plain that the revolting Sepoys soon 
became uncontrollable, and the King probably 
wished himself back under English protection, 
for he contrasts their conduct towards himself 
with that of the English, much in favour of 
the latter. 

He issued an address to the soldiers, in which, 
after enumerating their depredations in the city, 
he complains of their disrespectful treatment of 
himself ; he continues : " Although repeated 
orders have been given to the Infantry now 
lodging in the Royal Farash Khana, and to 
the Cavalry staying in the Palace Garden to 
vacate these places, they have not done so. Not 
even Nadir Shah or any of the British Governors- 
General of India ever entered these places on 
horseback. Whenever the most distinguished 
officers of the highest rank appointed by the 
British Government visited the Palace, they 
dismounted at the door of the Hall of Public 
Audience, and came thence on foot. Now the 
troopers gallop right up to the door of the 
Hall of Private Audience, unsuitably dressed, 



A KING'S HUMILIATION 195 

without turbans and in utter disregard of the 
respect due to Royalty. The officers, too, make 
a practice of coming to Court carelessly dressed, 
wearing caps instead of turbans and carrying 
swords. Never during British rule did any 
member of their profession dare to behave in 
such a manner. I assured the army I should 
look on them as my children, I have indulged 
all your wishes, but it is to be deplored that 
you in return have shown no consideration for 
my age and infirmities. The care of my health 
was in the hands of my physician, Ahsan UUar 
Khan — he incurred your displeasure because 
people jealous of my favour accused him of not 
wishing well to our cause, and you arrested him. 
Now there is none to care for me but God. The 
soldiery ought now to gratify me and release 
my physician from arrest, so that he may be 
at liberty to come and go whenever he thinks 
it necessary to feel my pulse. Tell me plainly 
if you do not intend to heed me. I shall then 
swallow a diamond and kill myself." 

To such straits was the last representative 
of the Royal House of Timur reduced by those 
upon whom he had reckoned to restore him to 
place and power. 

By these old records 1 wish to emphasise the 



196 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

contrast between the Delhi of fifty years ago 
and the Delhi of to-day. 

Contrasting then and now one feels that oil 
all counts it is well that the old regime has 
passed away for ever, and that the change has 
been for the better. 

I shall not write an account of the Delhi 
Durbar, as you must be surfeited with the 
newspaper descriptions, but next week 1 shall 
tell you about the visit of the King and Queen 
to Calcutta, in some ways the most remarkable 
episode of their stay in India. 



CHAPTER XII 

THE BOYAL VISIT TO CALCUTTA — THE PAGEANT — CAN 
ENGLAND KEEP INDIA ? 

The week of the visit of the Emperor and 
Empress of India — King George and Queen 
Mary — to Calcutta, up to now the capital of 
British India, has been a wonderful time, but you 
will have read so much about it in the papers 
that there is little left for me to tell. Prepara- 
tions had been going on for weeks beforehand, as 
well as rehearsals of the principal functions — the 
Pageant, the Torchlight Tattoo, the Cavalry Ride, 
etc. Although the whole city had apparently 
turned out and paid a good deal of money for 
seats all along the lengthy route from the 
landing stage at Prinsep's Ghaut to Government 
House, to witness the King's arrival, it passed off 
rather tamely. 

Indian natives do not cheer, and not a sound 
of welcome was to be heard as the Royal 
Procession passed along the principal part of the 

197 



198 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

route, the Red Road, which was lined on either 
side by serried rows of spectators seated tier upon 
tier on stands erected for that purpose. 

" Do cheer," I cried to the group of EngUsh- 
men belonging to our party, and some American 
friends seated in the next row. So in that 
corner hats were waved, and a good hurrah went 
up, not unnoticed by the royal lady and 
gentleman in their open landau, who turned and 
gave a special bow markedly in our direction. 

European Calcutta had felt very gloomy and 
depressed when they heard that Calcutta would 
no longer be the capital of India and that the 
transfer of the headquarters of the Government 
from Calcutta to Delhi had been announced by 
the King at the Durbar the previous week, and 
Calcutta was certainly not feeling enthusiastically 
loyal! But King George's very tactful speech 
delivered on the occasion of addresses of welcome 
being presented by several public bodies (the 
Chamber of Commerce, the University, the 
Members of Council, etc.), on his arrival at 
Government House, changed the current of 
public opinion, and the King and Queen became 
personally immensely popular with all who came 
in contact with them during their stay. Queen 
Mary came in for a very special and individual 



CALCUTTA CROWDS 199 

share of popularity, and was pronounced a 
splendid type of Imperial womanhood. 

Function succeeded function during the 
royal visit, but to my mind the most striking 
feature was the monster crowds {monstrous 
crowds, a native journalist called them), hundreds 
of thousands of natives of India, who swarmed 
all over Calcutta, thronging the streets, covering 
the Maidan, sitting for hours waiting anywhere 
where they thought it likely they might catch a 
sight of that exalted being, the King-Emperor, 
though, when they did see him, some were 
surprised and said : " He is just like any other 



man ! " 



The native quarters of Calcutta sent forth 
uncountable thousands, and it seemed as if the 
whole population of Bengal (a province larger 
than Great Britain) had come into Calcutta. 
They were far beyond the control of the police 
force, who confessed they would have been 
powerless to deal with such a multitude should 
trouble arise ; but all were in holiday humour 
and ready to obey orders to move hither and 
thither. 

On the night of the illuminations, which were 
really very wonderful, we started out in our 
carriage, intending to make a tour of the city, 



200 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

but soon found it hopeless to make any progress, 
so great was the throng of vehicles of all sorts. 
Many native women had left their seclusion, and 
shabby hired gadies (much like the worst of the 
old London four-wheelers) were loaded with 
women and children inside, and their menkind 
on the roof. These humble vehicles fared slowly 
along next to handsome private carriages or 
splendid motor-cars reduced to footpace. 

We left our carriage, and went round Calcutta 
on foot. Occasionally, where the crowd was 
thickest, our party could not keep together ; I 
and another lady got separated from the rest and 
had to make our way alone for a considerable 
distance, but not a rude word did we hear, nor 
did we suffer from discourteous pushing or 
elbowing. Neither is it on record that there was 
any pocket-picking, though the greater number 
of the throng of pedestrians were of the poorest 
class. 

There were many and varied functions to be 
attended during the royal visit, but the day of 
the Pageant might be called the people's day. 
The Pageant was to depict scenes from Indian 
history and give illustrations of various phases 
of Indian life. It was to take place on the 
Maidan (the Hyde Park of Calcutta). A 



CALCUTTA PAGEANT 201 

pavilion was erected in which the royal party 
were to sit, and an immense circular space or 
amphitheatre in front of this pavilion was set 
apart for the Pageant; this space was only 
enclosed by a bamboo railing, and behind this 
railing were thousands of native spectators, some 
seated on the ground, others on roofs of carriages 
or branches of trees. For those who could afford 
to pay for tickets, tiers of seats were erected on 
one side. When their Majesties, and their suite, 
together with the Viceroy and Lady Hardinge, 
arrived at the pavilion, Maharajah Sir Prodyot 
Cooman Tagore and Maharajah Jagendra Nath 
of Nattore held State umbrellas over their 
Majesties' heads as they walked from the carriage 
to the steps of the entrance to the pavilion, and 
the Maharajah Kumar of Mourbanj and the 
Murshidza of Murshedabad held fans of State 
behind the State chairs on which their Majesties 
were seated. 

The Pageant consisted of two processions, 
which marched from the most distant point in 
the amphitheatre, one moving to the right and 
the other to the left, and converged in front of 
the Royal Pavilion. The two processions were 
representative of the two predominant races of 
India, the Mohammedan and the Hindu. One 



202 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

was the Nawroy or New Year's Day Procession 
held in all Mohammedan States. The first public 
celebration of the festival takes us back to very 
ancient times, the reign of Jamshid of the Seven- 
ringed Cup, the occasion being Jamshid's State 
entry into his newly founded city of Persepolis. 
It is generally called the Id (festival) of Jamshid. 
The Mohammedan New Year's Day is the 21st 
of March, when the sun enters Aries. This day 
was chosen by Jamshid. The procession at the 
Calcutta Pageant was modelled on the one 
instituted by the Emperor Akbar in 1556. 

It included many magnificently caparisoned 
elephants and camels, bearing representatives of 
national personages, musicians, drums, banners, 
standards of all ages and races, spearmen, shield- 
bearers, axe-bearers, emblem-bearers, armour- 
bearers, and swordsmen, all in distinctive costume. 
One of the elephants which attracted most 
attention had a silver howdah shaped like a lotus- 
leaf. 

The other procession represented the Hindu 
Dasahara Procession, held every year to celebrate 
the victory of Ram over Ravana, the central 
episode of the national epic of the Hindus, the 
Ramayana. The gods were threatened by a 
race of terrible demons, called Rakshasas, ruled 



HINDU LEGENDS 208 

over by their ten-headed and twenty-armed king, 
Ravana, who dwelt in Lanka, a large island south 
of India. Some say this island was submerged, 
but it is generally identified with Ceylon. The 
God Vishnu (the Preserver) took human form 
and was born in Rama, son of the King of Oudh. 
Rama married Sita, daughter of the King of 
Tirhut. Owing to the jealousy of his step- 
mother, Rama was sent into exile ; his devoted 
wife, Sita, followed him. 

The wicked demon, King Ravana, disguised 
as a mendicant, induced Sita to emerge from the 
place where she was carefully guarded, to give 
him alms ; he then seized her and carried her 
off to Lanka. Rama went in pursuit, and after 
a fierce conflict killed Ravana and rescued Sita, 
after which the Rakshasas became friendly 
with the gods. The Dasahara festival is 
regarded as a happy time for the reunion of 
friends, the sinking of differences, and for 
universal reconciliation. 

The paraphernalia used on the occasion of the 
Pageant was all lent by various ruling chiefs, 
and was chosen from the best contained in the 
treasuries and storehouses of thirty States. 
The two processions, after making the circuit 
of their respective halves of the arena, converged 



204 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

in front of the Royal Pavilion, where they drew 
up in stately array, forming themselves into a 
huge square. A halt was called, while the 
Orissa Paiks danced their war-dance. Then, 
after saluting their Majesties, the processions 
retired, each taking the direction opposite to the 
one by which it had come. While the pro- 
cessions were passing, a band of one hundred 
trained Indian musicians using ancient Indian 
instruments (including the conch-shell, which 
may be called the father of all wind instruments) 
played old Indian music, but their programme 
also included a piece called '* Flag of Britain,' 
composed by the Maharajah Tagore. 

After the Pageant was over, the King and 
Queen, quite unattended, drove in an open 
carriage round the edge of the enclosed arena, 
close to the frail bamboo railing, which could 
have been broken down at will by the thousands 
of native spectators stationed behind it. The 
King and Queen wished their subjects of the 
poorer classes to have an opportunity of seeing 
them at close quarters, and this display of 
trustfulness and courage was warmly appreciated 
by the Bengalees. 

The Bengalee knows he has been in bad 
odour at headquarters latterly, for Bengal has 



BENGALEE LOYALTY 205 

been the centre of the seditious movement 
which has disturbed India for the past four or 
five years, but now Bengalees could say: 
"The King feared not to come among us 
unguarded. He knows we are not all disloyal. 
He understands us ! " 

After the royal party had left the Pageant 
ground, the crowd of native spectators broke 
bounds, and thousands made their way to the 
Royal Pavilion and did homage^ to the two 
gilded chairs of State on which the King and 
Queen had been seated — a spontaneous and 
striking demonstration of loyalty, which came 
as a surprise to official circles. 

In India King George acted up to his reputa- 
tion as " the King who sees for himself." 

On the only afternoon during his stay at Cal- 
cutta which was not mapped out for a function, 
one of his suite asked at Government House for 
the use of a motor-car — " any sort would do." 

The official thought it was for the aide-de- 
camp himself, and a not very new or swift car 
was ordered round. The King shortly after- 
wards came down and took his seat in it, and 
with only one companion started off for a drive, 
giving orders that he was to be taken right 

* By kneeling down and placing forehead on seat. 



206 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

through the heart of the native quarters, through 
all the purlieus and poorest parts of the city. 
Calcutta is a city of contrasts, and that between 
the wide, airy spaces and green parks and 
splendid shops and hotels of the English 
residential quarters, and the filthy, crowded 
bustees where the natives dwell is very striking. 

The royal visit to India was a splendid 
exhibition of courage on the part of the King 
and Queen. 

The general public in England do not trouble 
their heads much about what is going on in 
India, and do not understand the extent to 
which English people in India may have been 
said to be living on a volcano for the past few 
years, never knowing what a day might bring 
forth, and not without good grounds for ex- 
pecting a recrudescence of the black deeds of 
fifty years ago. 

When the royal visit was first proposed, the 
project was not welcomed by English officials 
in India. They thought the risk was too great ; 
with such enormous crowds, stretching over such 
vast areas, as would assemble at Delhi and 
Calcutta, it was impossible to ensure the safety 
of the King and Queen, however great watch- 
fulness might be exercised, or whatever pre- 



CALCUTTA OR DELHI? 207 

cautions could be taken. There would be 
thousands of chances for a fanatic to throw a 
bomb or fire a revolver, had any determined 
to do so. 

After the Calcutta visit 1 remarked to a 
highly educated and highly placed Indian 
gentleman : " Well, after all, it seems that the 
Indian nation in general is not disloyal, not 
averse to British rule ? " 

He replied : " All that you have lately seen 
does not prove that. In India a king is looked 
upon as a sacred, almost divine personage. 
King George was safe enough, but it does not 
follow that we shall not shoot some more of his 
servants, if the wrong sort are sent out here to 
govern and guide us." 

Such a statement gives the thoughtful some- 
thing to ponder over. 

The removal of the seat of Government from 
Calcutta to Delhi has been greatly discussed. 
Delhi was the capital of the old Moghul Empire, 
overthrown by the English, and many people 
think it not wise to resuscitate old associations. 
The wisdom of this measure was questioned by 
many who are in a position to judge. Calcutta 
has always been associated with the English rulers 
of India ; it was from Calcutta that English rule 



208 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

spread over the whole country, and it is associated 
in the minds of both races with many deeds of 
English heroism and important events which 
ensured the stability of the English rule. 
I left Calcutta, as it happened, on the day the 
Viceroy was leaving for Simla and Delhi, and 
would bid farewell to Calcutta as the capital 
of India. Delhi was henceforth to be the seat 
of the headquarters of the British Government 
in India, and in future the Viceroy would reside 
at Delhi. 

I left Calcutta an hour before the Viceroy s 
train was to start, and as we steamed out of 
the station a heavy thunderstorm began. The 
newspapers next day told me that at the 
moment the Viceroy was leaving Government 
House the Royal Standard that floats over the 
roof was struck by lightning and fell to the 
ground. 

The superstitious natives of India talked much 
of this inauspicious event. Was it a portent of 
the beginning of the end of British rule in 
India ? 

In some cases the wish was father to the 
thought. There are malcontents in every 
country and kingdom. We can keep India if 
we wish to. 



RESULTS OF EDUCATION 209 

In 1826 a Governor of Bombay, Sir Mount- 
stuart Elphinstone, whose name is still remem- 
bered and beloved by the Indian people, wrote : 
" I used to think our Empire made of glass ; but 
when one considers the rough usage it has stood, 
both in old times and in recent, one is apt to 
think it is made of iron or rather of steel, which 
cuts through everything if you keep its edge 
even, but is very apt to snap short if it falls into 
unskilful hands." 

Elphinstone foresaw that the result of 
educating and raising the natives would be a 
demand for self-government. 

He wrote : 

"If it is not thought desirable to admit 
natives to a share in the administration, it 
would be impolitic and inconsistent to take 
measures for their improvement and progress. 
It may be more than half a century before 
we are called on to give the natives a share 
in the government of their country, but the 
system of government and education we have 
established must work, sometime or other, 
such a change in the people of the country that 
it will be impossible to confine them to sub- 
ordinate positions, and if we have not previously 

opened vents for their ambition and ability, we 
14 



210 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

may expect an explosion which will overturn our 
Government. We may have to give them a 
very large share in the government, retaining 
only that degree of control which is necessary to 
give the whole an impulse and direction, besides 
the military power. If, however, they obtain a 
large share of governing powers, they will probably 
not rest until they have obtained the whole, and 
if we raise them to a state that will admit of their 
governing themselves in a manner beneficial to 
themselves and not injurious to the rest of the 
world, we might gracefully resign our power 
into the hands of those for whose benefit it was 
entrusted to us, and take the glory of the 
achievement and the sense of having done our 
duty as our best reward." 

These are fine sentiments, and, considering the 
spirit of the age, they will probably some day 
materialise into an accomplished fact. But that 
time has not yet come. There are still certain 
defects inherent in the Indian character which 
prevent their being (with a few individual ex- 
ceptions) considered fit for self-government at 
present. When it comes, India will again be 
divided up into a number of small States, for, as 
the inhabitants of India are of so many different 
races and creeds, internal feuds and dissensions 



THE IMPERIAL SPIRIT 211 

would prevent the coining into being of the 
United States of India. 

Justice is the basis of permanent popularity, and 
has been the mainspring of British rule in India. 

As a Brahmin official said to me: "Native 
rulers are tyrannical, and would never show the 
same spirit of toleration as is shown by the 
British Government, under which life and 
property are safe, and a man has perfect liberty 
to go where he likes, and do what he likes." 

The best of the Indian nation are becoming 
proud to consider themselves a part of the great 
world-wide British Empire, as is proved by the 
remarkable address handed to the Viceroy by a 
deputation of Indian gentlemen, to be sent to 
London, to the India Office, soon after the 
King's visit. This address was the spontaneous 
work of Indian gentlemen of every caste and 
standing. It is addressed to *' the great English 
Nation," and expresses appreciation of the benefits 
derived from British rule, enumerating as such : 
" Consideration shown for the interests and 
welfare of the people, regard for their ancient 
laws and customs, and the constant endeavour 
to extend among the people the inestimable 
advantages of intellectual and moral improve- 
ment." 



212 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

The address ends with the assurance that 
" the Indian nation take pride in forming part of 
the British Empire, and desire to play their part 
worthily as such.'* 

This address has not attracted the attention it 
deserved in England, and has been little remarked 
on by the English Press. This, perhaps, is not 
surprising when one remembers how little Eng- 
lish people — outside those who are themselves, 
or have relatives personally, connected with the 
country — care to know about India, how little 
pains they take to inform themselves as to facts 
or to correct prejudices and ideas that have been 
out of date long ago, how little they realise that 
the India of 1912 is not the India of fifty years 
ago 



CHAPTER XIII 

THE ARMENIAN CHURCH AND COMMUNITY IN CALCUTTA 

During my stay in Calcutta I made some very 
interesting new acquaintances, an Armenian 
family. Out of the thousands of English people 
who visit Calcutta, how few know anything of 
the Armenian community which has been estab- 
lished there from very early days, and is in- 
creasing in number and influence. Some of the 
richest merchants in Calcutta are Armenians. 

English people will perhaps know the names 
of Messrs. Apcar and Galstaun, well-known 
sportsmen. 

The A pears are a family of merchants and 
shipowners, one of whom is a Member of 
Council, and was recently knighted. Mr. Gal- 
staun brought out Wootton, the well-known 
English jockey, to ride for him, though he did 
not have the luck to ride the horse which won 
for Mr. Galstaun the King's cup at the Calcutta 
races ; the value of the cup was doubtless en- 

213 



214 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

hanced in the recipient's eyes by the fact that he 
had the honour of receiving it from the hands 
of King George himself 

Mr. Galstaun is a milHonaire ; the foundations 
of his fortune were laid in the shellac trade. 

Now 1 wonder if you know what shellac is ? 

How few of those who sit at table enjoying a 
recherche dinner in the palatial residence this 
Armenian gentleman has built for himself guess 
that much of the money to pay for it all is 
obtained by the toil of an army of invisible, 
unpaid workers, the myriads of small insects in 
Indian jungles who create on the barks of trees 
the substance called shellac, much in the same 
way as bees create honeycomb or worms coral. 

My friends have promised to take me over a 
shellac factory, and then I shall tell you more 
about it, for Calcutta is the principal market for 
this trade in India. 

At the commencement of the British occupa- 
tion of India, the Armenians, who were already 
settled in Calcutta, rendered important services 
to the English in troublous times, the days of 
Surajah Dowlah and the Black Hole of Cal- 
cutta; in return they were granted special 
privileges by the East India Company. 

Though Armenia is now divided between the 



ANCIENT ARMENIA 215 

Turkish, Russian, and Persian Empires, and the 
Armenian people are scattered over the face of 
the earth, yet they are proud of and passionately 
attached to their native country, which they 
assert to have been the original Garden of Eden. 

Their claim is justified by the fact that ancient 
Armenia answers best to the description given 
by Moses in Genesis of the country east of 
Palestine, which was like a beautiful garden fer- 
tilised by four rivers : the Euphrates, Dicris, 
Araxe, and Cyrus. This region is dominated 
by a range of mountains the highest peak of 
which has been known from time immemorial 
as Ararat. 

We hear from Moses that when the flood 
subsided, the ark rested on Ararat, so the 
Armenians claim that their country was the 
cradle of the human race, and their first king, 
Haik (who reigned 2,200 years B.C.), traced 
his descent directly to Noah, being seventh 
in descent from Japheth. Haik helped Nimrod 
to build the Tower of Babel, but afterwards 
went to war with him and slew him, and set up 
an independent kingdom. Haik's son, Armen, 
added to his territory by conquest, and called 
his kingdom Armenia, and King Armen's son, 
Arar, gave his name to Mount Ararat. 



216 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

The Armenians are passionately attached to 
their Church and the Christian rehgion. 

They say their King Agbarus, who ruled 
Armenia contemporaneously with the life of 
Christ on earth, visited Syria, heard the preach- 
ing of our Lord, had the privilege of speaking to 
Him, and begged Him to come to Armenia or 
send evangelists. 

It was by the Apostles Bartholomew and 
Thaddseus that Christianity was first preached in 
Armenia, a.d. 34. The foundations they laid 
were built on by the great Bishop known as 
Gregory the Illuminator, sent from Cesarsea, 
A.D. 257, and by this means, in the reign of 
Tiridah II., Christianity was proclaimed the 
national religion of Armenia.^ 

Once accepted, the Armenians remained fiercely 
faithful to their religion, which is the more 
meritorious since it has been the chief cause of 
the terrible calamities which have overwhelmed 
the Armenian people. In old times, when the 
world was always at war, Armenia, from its 
position, was always a bone of contention, an 
acquisition desired by Persia and Turkey, who 
from time to time wrested it from the Emperors 

* Armenia was the first State in the world to declare Christianity 
its official religion. 



ARMENIAN CHARACTERISTICS 217 

of the West. As they fell respectively under 
the sway of Persia or Turkey, they were urged, 
on pain of death, to abjure Christianity and 
embrace the Zoroastrian or the Mohammedan 
faith, and, to their credit be it said, they (with 
few exceptions) preferred to perish by fire and 
sword rather than abjure their religion. Many 
fled the country and settled in other parts of the 
world. 

Armenians possess in a marked degree the 
instincts and abilities which ensure financial 
prosperity. Frugal in habits, they keep what 
they gain, and wherever they establish them- 
selves, though they may arrive poor, they soon 
become prosperous. It is said by those who 
dislike them that a Greek can freeze out two 
Jews, but that one Armenian is in business a 
match for two Greeks. 

Perhaps their success in business has been 
a factor in bringing upon them the terrible 
treatment they have suffered in the Turkish 
Empire. Their riches have excited the cupidity 
of an impoverished people and a bankrupt 
Government, which has seen in their spoliation 
an opportunity of gaining money to satisfy 
unpaid and turbulent troops, a people driven to 
revolt by starvation. 



218 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

Whatever the cause, a great English states- 
man has characterised the Armenian massacres 
perpetrated by the Turks as having reached 
such a depth of atrocity as to constitute the 
most monstrous series of crimes that have ever 
disgraced the human race. 

Yet, while their co-religionists were suffering 
in this terrible manner, the Great Powers, in- 
cluding alas ! England, looked on impassively, as 
if to say, " Am I my brother's keeper ? " It is 
true they sent polite messages through their Am- 
bassadors from time to time to remind Turkey of 
the reforms as to treatment of Christian subjects 
promised by the Treaty of Berlin thirty years 
ago. These remonstrances were ignored in fact 
by Turkey, and it has been the small Balkan 
States who, driven to desperation, have en- 
deavoured to free Europe from the Turk. 
Scattered as they are among many countries, the 
Armenians exist no longer as a nation, their 
solidarity seems to be that of their Church, and 
their Patriarch, called Catholicus, seems to be 
regarded as the representative of the Armenian 
people in the world, much as a king is among 
other races. The soil of their country being 
divided between three Powers (Persia, Russia, 
Turkey), had it not been for the wonderfully 



THE ARMENIAN CATHOLICUS 219 

strong hold kept on the race by its national 
Church, the nationality of the people must have 
been lost ; but this tie has prevented their being 
absorbed into the peoples among whom they 
dwell, scattered over three-quarters of the globe. 

Nation and Church are one under the rule of a 
Catholicus and elected council.^ 

When Mohammed II. took possession of Con- 
stantinople in 1453 he nominated the Bishop of 
Bysance Patriarch of the Armenian Church, 
with extensive powers over Armenian Christians, 
and this priest organised a civil as well as an 
ecclesiastical code, which lasted for four cen- 
turies. The Patriarch of Constantinople has 
always been acknowledged by the Turkish 
Government as the civil head of all Armenians 
in the Turkish Empire. 

The Armenian Catholicus has two suffragans, 
the Patriarch of Constantinople and the Patriarch 
of Jerusalem. Calcutta is in the Diocese of 
Jerusalem. 

The Catholicus, who is called *' His Blessed- 
ness," has his headquarters at Etchmiadzin, at 
the foot of Mount Ararat, where there is a 

* It is calculated that there are ahout four millions of Armenians. 
Of these, 120^000 are Roman Catholics, with headquarters at Venice, 
and there are two thousand Protestant Armenians in Asia Minor 
who have been converted by American missionaries. 



220 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

beautiful Armenian cathedral and monastery. 
He visits from time to time the scattered 
Armenian communities of any size, such as 
Jerusalem or Calcutta, and is an object of 
great veneration. 

In 1828 Etchmiadzin became part of the 
Russian Empire, and the Emperor of Russia 
nominates the Catholicus from two names sub- 
mitted to him by the Armenian Synod, and 
announces the election to Persia and Turkey. 

The Armenians have a calendar of their own. 
Their Christmas Day falls on January 6th, and 
they keep the festivals of the Nativity and 
Epiphany on the same day. 

The Armenian church in Calcutta, which is 
called the Church of Holy Nazareth, is the 
oldest church in Calcutta, and consequently, 
though it is a fine building, standing in a 
spacious courtyard enclosing the priest's dwell- 
ing-house, it is situated in Old Calcutta, amid 
a labyrinth of narrow, over-populated streets, in 
the native city. 

On Christmas Day an Armenian friend, the 
spirited and charming wife of an Armenian stock- 
broker living in Chowringhee, the best part of 
Calcutta, invited me to accompany her to the 
services at the Armenian church. 



ARMENIAN CHURCH SERVICE 221 

The Armenian Liturgy is one of the most 
beautiful and ancient in existence, compiled 
chiefly from the Liturgy of St. Basil, and added 
to by St. Gregory the Illuminator. 

I was able to follow the service by means of a 
copy of Dr. Neale's translation of the Armenian 
Liturgy, as printed at the Convent of St. James 
at Jerusalem. 

Dr. Neale, the greatest liturgical authority of 
the day, considered the rites of the Armenian 
Communion service the most dignified extant. 
The ceremonies differ from those of the Greek 
and Russian Churches, and are substantially the 
same as those in use in the earliest days of 
Christianity. 

The Armenian Creed is almost the same as our 
Nicene Creed. 

In the Church of Holy Nazareth at Calcutta 
the sanctuary is raised six steps above the choir. 
On the altar is a cross on which a picture of our 
Lord is enamelled, also the silver case in which 
is kept the Book of the Gospels, bound in silver 
and bejewelled. On each side of the altar are 
thirteen candles and candlesticks. 

The service begins with the robing of the 
priest who is to celebrate. " Having banished evil 
thoughts," as the rubric says, he will go into the 



222 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

vestry, and while the deacons are robing him 
the choir will sing : " Let thy priests be clothed 
with righteousness," and as each item of the 
vestments, alb, stole, girdle, cope, are placed on 
him he will ejaculate a suitable prayer. The 
vestments are of the colours of Aaron's ephod, 
blue, scarlet, gold, and purple, looped together 
with carbuncles and fringed with gold. Then, 
before choir and priests enter the church, the 
following beautiful prayer is chanted : 

" O Lord our God who hast disposed in heaven 
troops and armies of Angels and Archangels 
for the Ministry of Thy glory, grant that with 
our entrance there may be an entrance of Holy 
Angels ministering with us, glorifying Thy 
Name." 

The first part of the service visible to the con- 
gregation is called " The Little Entrance." It is 
the procession of the reader with the Book of 
the Gospels ; he is attended by deacons carrying 
lights and fans. The waving of fans is intended 
to typify the quivering of the wings of the Sera- 
phim before the Throne. 

The Book is placed on the altar with much 
ceremony, and afterwards read with great 
reverence. 

A deacon calls out : " Let us attend." 



SYMBOLS AND CEREMONIES 228 

The choir respond : " God speaks." 

Then the priest, standing at the altar, reads 
the Gospel aloud, while two deacons stand on 
the lowest step of the sanctuary, each holding a 
lighted taper to typify " The Light of the World," 
i.e. " The Truth." 

After the reading of the Gospel follows '' The 
Great Entrance," that of the priest who is to 
celebrate, carrying aloft the bread and wine, 
the deacons following in procession with lights 
and fans. 

The Christmas hymn is very beautiful : 
" Rejoice, oh ye heavens," etc. 

The singing of the hymns is accompanied by 
the clashing of bells and cymbals. 

After the hymn came a beautiful prayer for 
peace, with special mention and intercession 
for " those who fight against barbarians," alluding 
to Turkish tyranny. 

The whole scene induces reverence : the 
choir in red cassocks chanting, the deacon 
censing the congregation, and the celebrant 
reciting prayers in monotone. After the cele- 
bration is over, the Book of the Gospels is carried 
out of the sanctuary, and placed on a lectern 
just outside the gate of the choir, and on New 
Year's Day each member of the congregation, 



224 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

holding a lighted taper, goes up in turn to kiss 
the Book. The tapers are taken home, and 
kept as sign of desire that the light of the Truth 
may enlighten their homes during the year. On 
great festivals such as Christmas and Easter 
it is customary to distribute blessed bread from 
the altar to the poorer members of the con- 
gregation after the morning service. In old 
days many came from a distance to keep Good 
Friday and stay for Easter. They were required 
to fast till the Easter Day celebration of the Holy 
Communion was over, but as sojne food was 
thought necessary, one bread cake was cut into 
four pieces and divided among four persons at 
the church door after the Good Friday morning 
service. 

This is the origin of the custom of eating hot- 
cross buns on Good Friday. 

The Armenian Church in Calcutta is well 
endowed, and contributes the greater part of 
the funds for the maintenance of the Armenian 
College, which has earned such a high reputation 
under its talented and high-minded principal, 
Mr. Tourian, who was educated in America, and 
has travelled widely. 

Some of the scholars are sons of Armenians 
residing in Calcutta, but the greater number 



THE ARMENIAN COLLEGE 225 

come from the Armenian settlements in the 
Island of Java, and Julpha in Persia. The 
college is celebrated for its success in athletics, 
in this respect holding the first place among 
all the schools in Calcutta, having carried off 
challenge shields and cups for prowess in shooting, 
cricket, and football. The college is also very 
proud of the fact that its representatives (descen- 
dants of a race of sturdy Highlanders), in a 
tug-of-war, once pulled over a team of English 
soldiers, and their band of boy-scouts hold a 
high place in the estimation of the local scout- 
master. 

The college authorities w^ere much pleased 
that a contingent of their Volunteer Corps 
were told off to be on guard at Government 
House during the visit of the King and Queen. 

The college device is a picture of Ararat with 
the ark on the top, and the words : " With 
hearts uplifted we look towards " 

The ark is exactly the shape of the wooden 
toy of our childhood. 

The Armenian community in Calcutta have 
adopted European dress and habits of life, but 
would not think any dinner worth eating unless 
the menu included their favourite national dish, 
called pillau. 
15 



226 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

This is pieces of beef-steak amid a mountain 
of highly spiced rice, of which the preponderating 
taste is sage, and the green sage-leaves chopped 
fine colour the rice. The Armenians have not 
yet adopted European ideas as to the position 
of women. Only a few have sent their daughters 
to Europe for education, and though the young 
ladies go out to dances, play and sing and join 
in tennis and badminton, yet most of them take 
part in domestic duties. 

The Armenian ideal wife is very domesticated, 
and is generally satisfied to occupy herself with 
household management and the upbringing 
of children. Submission to husband or father 
is considered the first duty, but on the other side 
is the idea that man should be the protector 
of the woman, and should provide for her. 
It is very seldom that an Armenian girl goes 
out to earn her living as nurse or teacher or 
in any other way. 

They are all musical; the arrival of visitors 
at a house is quickly followed by a request 
that they will play or sing— if they cannot, some 
member of the household must do so. The 
young ladies are well up in the latest London 
musical comedy music, and the young men 
in the music-hall songs. Both young men and 








AN ARMENIAN LADY. 



ARMENIAN NEW YEAR'S DAY 227 

women are good dancers, and many of them are 
ready to do a hornpipe or a cake-walk for the 
delectation of friends in the privacy of the 
drawing-room. 

Though the older generation of Armenians 
are devout churchgoers, the young people are 
not. They have adopted English as their 
vernacular, and as the church services are in 
Armenian, which they do not understand, they 
complain of finding the service tedious. 

It is the custom for the priests to go on, or 
soon after. New Year's Day to each Armenian 
household in turn and perform the ceremony 
of blessing the house and its inmates. Few, 
however careless in life, would care to forgo 
that ceremony. 

If some Armenians cling only to the outward 
ceremonies and the name of their religion, 
yet all seem to possess a full share of the dis- 
tinctively Christian virtue of charity. All of 
them help lame dogs over stiles as a matter of 
course; and an Armenian who had it in his 
power, but refused, to respond to a petition for 
help from a poor member of the community 
would be looked upon very coldly. 



CHAPTER XIV 

CALCUTTA AND ITS PALACES — BISHOP AND NAUTOH- 
GIELS — A SHELLAC FAOTOBY 

Calcutta has been variously described by 
various writers. It has been called the city of 
palaces, the city of endless talk, and the most 
foul-smelling city outside China. 

I found that it certainly deserved the first and 
the last of these titles when we drove along the 
Chitpore road to Chorebagan to the Marble 
Palace of the late Rajah Rajendro MuUick to 
be present at an evening party given by his 
grandson, who now inhabits the palace, in 
honour of the marriage of a member of the 
family. 

To get to the Marble Palace we had to drive 
through the oldest, most overcrowded part of 
Calcutta, the Native quarter, through streets 
so narrow that one could almost touch the 
houses on either side, tall houses with blankets 
and clothing suspended from every balcony and 

228 



THE MARBLE PALACE 229 

window ; the streets and houses were teeming 
with a population that ignores all laws of 
cleanliness and sanitation. 

When we arrived at our destination, the 
Marble Palace, we found it externally a very 
fine mansion standing in spacious grounds en- 
closed by a high iron railing. In the grounds 
were numerous statues, as well as aviaries of 
birds with gorgeous plumage. 

On the steps of the wide verandah our hosts 
were waiting to receive their guests and welcome 
them ; this they did in modern fashion by shaking 
hands, but when the guest was a high-placed 
official, many profound bows and salaams were 
added. The task of welcoming the smaller fry 
was left to subordinate members of the house- 
hold. As we passed through the entrance-hall 
the real magnificence of the palace began to 
be noticeable. The floor of the hall is of mosaic 
of costly stone and marbles, the ceiling is richly 
gilded, and many bronze and marble statues are 
stationed about the vast space, statues of Cupid 
and Psyche, the Three Graces, the Four Seasons, 
etc. From the entrance-hall we passed into 
the north hall, the walls of which are of splendid 
marble from Italy. A most catholic collection 
of statues is placed here. Among other per- 



280 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

sonages represented are our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the Virgin Mary, Venus rising from the sea, 
Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort, the 
Duke of Wellington, Napoleon, Venus de* 
Medici, etc. 

The adjoining hall might be called the 
Queen's Hall, as the central object is a life-size 
statue of Queen Victoria in her Coronation 
robes, standing on a finely carved pedestal. 
The walls of this hall are of blood-veined 
Italian marble, and the pillars of green Grecian 
marble. 

We made our way up the grand staircase and 
found ourselves in richly furnished apartments 
— handsome carpets and curtains, magnificent 
cut-glass chandeliers, mosaic and marble tables, 
ebony furniture inlaid with mother-of-pearl, or 
finely carved. On the walls of this suite of 
rooms, which seemed endless, were some originals, 
and many copies, of paintings by the great 
masters, Rubens, Vandyke, Murillo, Raphael, 
Guido, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and the Chinese 
artist Chin-Hing. The best sculptors of France 
and Italy were also represented by various 
examples of their art. 

A catalogue was presented to each guest, that 
if so inclined they might find out particulars 



HINDU NAUTCH-GIRLS 281 

as to the painters and subjects of the pictures 
that attracted their attention. There were 
so many rooms that at last we got tired of 
walking about and sat down in the principal 
drawing-room, and were well amused in watch- 
ing the numerous company stream through 
to the picture-galleries. The best-known people 
in Calcutta were there, as well as a great many 
not generally recognised, and who did not 
appear to have any acquaintance among the 
other guests. These, I was told, came uninvited, 
for a great many unscrupulous people thus 
impose on the hospitality of the MuUicks, and 
seize a chance of seeing the wonders of the 
Marble Palace, which is not open to the public, 
or mentioned in handbooks, or known to the 
globe-trotter as one of the sights of Calcutta. 
After we had been sitting down a while, various 
Hindu dancing and singing girls gave their 
performances in each of the large rooms. They 
were fat ugly women, splendidly dressed in stiff 
brocades, or voluminous skirts of rich heavy 
silks, reaching to the ankle, and quite hiding the 
figure. Their dancing was only posturing of a 
very modest description, monotonous evolutions, 
frequent drawing up to shoulder and letting fall 
again the loose, wide sleeves of their outer 



282 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

garment while arms were waved backwards and 
forwards in a stiff manner 

The singing consisted of endless repetitions of 
one or two verses of English doggerel : 

"My love is like a leetle birni 
That flies from tree to tree 
Till at last it finds a home 
And r-rests for e'er with thee ! '' 



or, 



"Twinkle, twinkle, leetle eshstar 
'Ow I wondair vot you aire," etc. 



The singers are accompanied by musicians 
and go up to each little group of persons and 
apostrophise them with a verse, and then pass 
on to the next group. I am sorry to say some 
English ladies were rude enough to laugh in the 
faces of these poor women. 

We soon got tired of this monotonous 
performance and found our way to the supper- 
room. A good Bishop who was visiting Calcutta 
confided to me, apropos of the performance we 
had just left, that at the first party given by 
natives to which he had been invited he had 
" felt a little uneasy " when a set of dancing 
girls entered the room, and said to his neighbour 
that he thought he had better retire, but was 
assured that he need have no apprehensions, 



^ 



EASTERN HOSPITALITY 288 

nothing approaching immodesty was to be looked 
for in the dance or songs which a well-bred 
Hindu would exhibit to European visitors. 
" And indeed," he said, " though there was very 
little grace in their performance, there was no 
approach to immodesty, so I sat still." 

The supper provided at the Marble Palace had 
been undertaken by Peliti, a well-known Italian 
caterer in Calcutta, so excellent refreshments, 
such as commend themselves to Europeans, 
were provided, champagne was liberally served, 
chocolates and bonbonni^res to take away were 
handed round among the guests, and the 
hospitality might be called princely. Of the 
European guests none looked better than Lady 
Jenkins, wife of the Chief Justice of Bengal, and 
it was pleasant to see how many friends she had 
among the Indian community, how anxious they 
were to attract her notice, how pleased when 
she spoke to them, and how she evidently 
contrived to say the right word to each and 
sent them away pleased and smiUng. Lady 
Jenkins is famous as a sportswoman, and lately 
went on a shooting expedition through the 
wilds of Thibet alone, unescorted except by 
some native servants. 

The character of the English people in general 



284 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

has greatly changed during the past half-century 
— they have to a great degree toned down that 
exclusive and intolerant spirit which once made 
the English, wherever they went, a caste by 
themselves, disliking and dishked by all their 
neighbours. In his Journal published in 1845 
Bishop Heber alludes to this ; he says : ** I 
see but too many instances of this foolish, 
surly national pride, which does us much 
harm in this country. We are not guilty 
of injustice or wilful oppression, but we shut 
out the natives from our society and a bullying 
insolent manner is assumed in speaking to 
them." 

That state of things has passed away for ever 
in India ; no one but an occasional young, raw 
English subaltern would be guilty of such 
manners — if he did so, he would very soon find 
out his mistake. The Indian gentleman of the 
twentieth century is perfectly well able to hold 
his own in any English society, and assert his 
pride of race. Indeed, one of them said to me : 
" We were a highly civilised people, or at least 
possessed of scientific knowledge and culture, 
and living in power and splendour, when the 
British race were painting their bodies blue, and 
living as wild savages in those northern Islands." 



i 



AN ARTISTIC FAMILY 285 

In fact I think the pendulum has swung a little 
too far the other way, and that Indian Princes 
get quite spoiled by all the attention and petting 
they get when visiting England. 

As we were leaving the Marble Palace on the 
evening in question our attention was drawn to a 
portrait of the Rajah Rajendra MuUick by the 
Chinese painter Chin-Hing, and some portraits 
painted by one of the Mullick family who is an 
artist of no small talent. 

The MuUick family are unique in India as 
possessing aesthetic and artistic talent. Most 
natives of India will look at a picture or 
photograph upside down, and not perceive the 
difference. 

An immense fortune has been spent on the 
Marble Palace and its collections, which have 
been added to through three generations. The 
present owners have the same tastes as the 
founder, their grandfather, and making additions 
to the collections is the chief interest of their 
lives ; but the family has always been known for 
its princely charities, public benefactions, and 
loyalty to the British Raj. 

The MuUicks never forget their poor neigh- 
bours in the tight-packed quarter of the native 
city, near which they dwell, and every day some 



286 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

hundreds of poor people are fed in the compound 
adjoining the palace. 

Calcutta is a city of contrasts. From the 
heart of the native quarters, half-an-hour or 
three-quarters of an hour's drive will take you to 
the Strand, the broad drive on the banks of the 
river Hooghly, skirting the Maidan or Park, and 
the Eden Gardens, where Calcutta society drive 
up and down to get an airing every evening — "eat 
the air " is the native expression. Various regi- 
mental bands from Port William play there 
every evening, and when the Viceroy's band is 
announced to play, there will be an assembly of 
carriages, many rows deep, stretching down the 
drive near the bandstand. It is a picturesque 
sight, many smartly dressed ladies will be 
promenading up and down the paths of the 
Eden Gardens, and the occupants of the 
carriages will represent all grades of Native and 
English society. The band begins to play at 
dusk, the whole promenade as well as the 
gardens are illuminated by electric light, the 
numerous craft on the river, including the mail 
steamers, also light up, and on the opposite 
bank are the tall chimneys of many factories 
pouring out smoke or giving out glaring light, 
and reminding me not a little of the Thames at 



A PURDAH PARTY 28T 

Westminster. That is India nowadays, a strange 
mixture of East and West. The Highland 
regiments are much admired in Calcutta, and 
when it is the evening for their band to perform 
in the Eden Gardens, they are always gazed at 
by a crowd of admiring natives when they leave 
the bandstand and march up and down playing 
their swirling bagpipes — always an item of the 
programme. 

I have been to three characteristically native 
entertainments this week. One I have described ; 
the second was what is called a purdah party, 
a party to which only ladies are admitted. It 
was given by Lady Muckerji, wife of a Calcutta 
merchant prince. The parties are given at inter- 
vals by the members, Indian and EngUsh, of a 
society which has for its object the promotion 
of social intercourse between ladies of both 
nationalities, and their better mutual under- 
standing. 

On this occasion it was a garden-party on the 
most approved fashion; chairs and settees and 
small tables were placed about the lawn, and our 
hostess, who spoke excellent English, gave a 
cordial welcome to her visitors. The wives and 
daughters of all the EngUsh oiBcials were there, 
including Lady Duke, wife of the Lieutenant- 



238 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

Governor of Bengal. Miss Cornelia Sorabji 
looked very graceful in a handsome gold and 
red saree. There were a great number of Ben- 
galee ladies, all richly dressed in their national 
costume and many wearing beautiful jewels. 
Almost all of them spoke good English and 
fraternised cordially and without shyness with 
the English ladies. A very recherche and 
bountiful tea was spread in the spacious dining- 
room, and after we had partaken of it, hearing 
sounds of a piano upstairs, we followed the ladies 
we saw ascending the staircase. 

Lady Muckerji's mansion is very spacious, and 
we went along many passages and in and out of 
numberless rooms till we arrived at the music- 
room, where we found a lady of our hostess's 
family seated at the grand-piano, singing a 
Bengalee song to her own accompaniment. 
Afterwards she and her cousins sang duets and 
trios without nervousness or hesitation. There 
were some charming Armenian ladies among 
the guests, also the beautiful French wife of 
a rich Parsee, who bore a striking resemblance 
to the ** Mona Lisa " at the Louvre, enhanced 
by the fact that she was in mourning and 
wearing black. Altogether it was quite an 
international gathering and likely to attain the 



A BENGAL MERCHANT'S GARDENS 289 

ends it was destined to promote — the better 
understanding of each other by womanhood 
of various races. 

My third party was also a garden-party. It 
was in the suburbs of Calcutta, at the house of a 
rich merchant whose hobby is the cultivation of 
orchids. When they are at the height of their 
beauty he invites the ^lite of Calcutta to come 
and see them ; a walk through the orchid-houses 
and the lovely gardens is quite a treat, for he 
cultivates many other flowers not indigenous to 
India. The hardy orchids grow out of doors in 
India, but the rarer specimens require glass. 
This Bengalee gentleman had the honour of 
sending a spray of orchids to be worn by Queen 
Mary every day during the royal visit to 
Calcutta, and on the last day of the visit he 
was received by the Queen and thanked by her 
for this delicate attention. 

I must finish up by telling you of my visit to 
the shellac factory. Shellac is a very important 
article of commerce, the export trade amounting 
annually to hundreds of thousands of pounds 
sterling. 

Lac is a resinous incrustation formed on the 
branches of trees by the lac insect {coccus lacca). 
In its natural form it is called stick-lac, the 



240 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

manufactured product is shellac^ bye-products 
are button-lac and lac-dye, 

Lac is found on many kinds of trees which 
yield resinous sap, and the quantity and quaUty 
of the lac vary according to the tree on which 
it is found. The best sorts are found only on 
three kinds of trees, the palas- or dhak-tree, the 
peepu-tree (ficus religiosa), and the koosum-tree 
{schleichera trijuga). That found on the last- 
named tree is the best of all. The koosum-tree 
affords two crops annually, and its lac will keep 
good for ten years, while that of other trees only 
lasts for two years. The incrustation made by 
the lac insect is cellular, deep red or orange 
in colour, semi-transparent and hard ; when it 
breaks, it cracks like glass. The substance is 
mainly formed by the female insects, which 
greatly outnumber the male. Each female 
inhabits a cell, and the incrustation seems in- 
tended to protect her progeny, for as soon as she 
is completely covered with it she lays her eggs 
and dies. The young, when hatched, work their 
way out through the maternal cocoon, eating the 
red substance with which it is filled, and thus 
acquiring the hue which makes them valuable 
as dye-producers. Directly they are out of the 
cocoon the young swarm over the twigs and 



CONCERNING SHELLAC 241 

branches of the tree they find themselves on, 
crawUng about till they find young juicy twigs 
to which they attach themselves by their pro- 
bosces, and from which they cannot be removed 
alive. As the insects never leave the tree on which 
they are born, and one swarm succeeds another, 
the sap of the tree is gradually exhausted, then 
it decays and dies. 

The artificial propagation of the lac insect is 
now understood and carried out by the formation 
of nurseries where trees suitable for the purpose 
are most abundant. The koosum-tree, from 
which the valuable orange-coloured shellac is 
produced, and the palas-tree, which affords the 
dark red lac so much used in commerce, are the 
most sought after. The artificial propagation of 
lac is carried on by a grafting process. Experts 
have to watch and fix upon a time before the 
larvae have left the maternal cocoon. Then the 
brood-lac is found, and cut off, collected, and 
transported to the standard trees in the nursery, 
and attached to them by strands of matting or 
fibre. The best lac comes from Assam and 
Burma, but lac is found all over India, most 
abundantly in the Central Provinces and Bengal. 

The lac-collectors are chiefly the jungle tribes 

of Indian natives who collect and sell small 
16 



242 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

quantities to the patwas or middlemen, who 
supply the dealers. 

Calcutta is the principal market, and the head- 
quarters of the shellac export trade. 

We started early to visit the shellac factory ; 
we were a party of six. Besides myself and 
my hostess were two young ladies and the 
brothers of each, one of whom was engaged in 
the shellac trade. The young ladies did not 
take the slightest interest in shellac, but were 
willing to go anywhere and do anything that 
afforded an outing. 

We had to cross the Hooghly, for the manu- 
factories are on the side of the river which is 
opposite the residential quarters of Calcutta. 
We started from the Strand landing-place in a 
trim little river steamboat. There was a tremen- 
dous crowd at the Ghats, for it happened to be a 
holy day, and thousands of women were per- 
forming the required bathing ceremony. As we 
crossed, the view down the river was very gay, a 
wide stretch of water glittering in the sunshine, 
and there were crafts of all sorts and sizes, from the 
native dinghy to the mail-steamer and the British 
gunboat. On the opposite bank the buildings are 
chiefly factories and houses for the staff; jute, 
cotton, shellac, sugar, etc., factories abound, 



■kr 



A SHELLAC FACTORY 248 

and factories are the same all the world 
over — flat square buildings, with tall chimneys 
emitting clouds of smoke. Calcutta is not 
exempt from fog, and at dusk, with a red sunset 
as a background to the factory buildings, the 
river, the craft, the tall chimneys, the smoky, 
murky atmosphere reminded one forcibly of the 
Thames near Westminster Bridge, while the 
tropical foliage and wide parks on the Calcutta 
side are a great contrast. 

There was no fog on the morning of our 
expedition. The Hooghly is wide, and the crossing 
took half an hour. The blow on the river fresh- 
ened us up, and the young people enjoyed a good 
many jokes amongst themselves, chiefly at the 
expense of the young shellac trader, who had not 
hitherto been very successful. 

The factory manager was waiting for us, and 
at our request, and especially for my benefit, he 
began at the beginning to tell us all he could 
about the manufacture of shellac. 

What the manufacturer has to do is : 

First. To separate the resinous incrustation 
from the twigs or branches to which it is attached. 

Secondly. To separate the resin from the 
colouring matter. 

Thirdly. To convert the resin into shellac. 



M^ 



244 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

Fourthly. To form the colouring matter into 
cakes of dye, known as lac-dye. 

A few factories have elaborate machinery, but 
in the greater number the processes are conducted 
in a primitive manner. 

First the branches are stripped of the lac by 
being placed under a roller ; the coating comes 
off when the roller is passed over the branch, 
leaving only a little to be picked off by hand. 
The lac is then broken up and passed through a 
coarse sieve ; next it is put into tubs half filled 
with water, and is washed by coolies (native 
labourers) who, with no clothing but a cloth girt 
tightly round the loins, stand in the tubs, holding 
on to the bar above their heads, and stamp about 
on the lac till the liquid comes out, and after 
successive changes comes clear. The lac having 
been dried is placed in linen bags (it is now 
called seed-lac) and is taken to a place where 
there are a number of open charcoal furnaces. 
Two coolies each hold one end of a bag, one of 
the men twisting it slowly in his direction, the 
other in the opposite direction. The heat soon 
melts the lac in the bags, and the twisting makes 
it exude into troughs placed underneath. When 
a sufficient quantity of molten lac is in the 
trough, an operator takes it up in a wooden 



A CRITICAL MOMENT 245 

spoon, and places it on a wooden or china 
cylinder, placed on a stand which gives it a 
sloping direction. An assistant (in this case a 
tall, fine native woman, in a red saree) now 
steps forward with a strip of agove in her hand 
which she uses in a dexterous manner to spread 
the lac into a sheet of uniform thickness which 
covers the upper end of the cylinder. The 
operator cuts off the upper edge with a pair of 
scissors ; the assistant then lifts up the sheet and 
waves it to and fro till it becomes crisp. It is 
then held up to the light, and if any bits of grit 
are perceptible the operator removes them with 
his fingers from the sheet 

These brittle sheets are laid one upon another 
and the pile is counted up at the end of the day's 
work. The chief operator is paid according to 
the number, but the assistant has a fixed daily 
wage, and the poor coolies who do treadmill- 
work in the tubs only get sixpence a day, out of 
which they have to feed themselves and family. 
Fourpence a day is the average labourer's wage 
in India. The fresh sheets have a rich, golden 
lustre. They are the product called shellac. 

Every one must have seen and admired at one 
time or another specimens of the beautiful 
Chinese or Indian lacquer work. 



24(5 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

Bracelets and other articles of jewellery worn 
by natives, fancy boxes, tables, candlesticks, etc., 
are manufactured and sold in great quantities in 
India, but vast quantities of shellac are exported 
to Europe and used in manufacturing varnish, 
cement, lithographic ink, and sealing-wax ; it is 
also used for stiffening hats. 

The numbers of natives, men and women, 
employed in the different parts of the factory, 
with their usual apathy, hardly turned their heads 
to look at the Sahib visitors. I tried not to 
irritate the obliging manager who showed us 
round by idiotic questions or exaggerated ex- 
pressions of admiration or astonishment to which 
ignorant outsiders like myself generally give vent 
on such occasions, but I listened attentively to 
all he said, and thanked him warmly at the 
conclusion of our visit. We were now on that 
side of the river where the beautiful Botanical 
Gardens, for which Calcutta is justly celebrated, 
are situated. My hostess had ordered her 
servants to prepare breakfast for us in one of the 
pavilions intended to be used for that purpose by 
holiday-makers, who come in great numbers to 
enjoy some shade and fresh air, and the great 
natural beauties of the Gardens. 

The servants had come with us on the steamer, 



THE BOTANICAL GARDENS 247 

carrying well-filled baskets, and we all did justice 
to the late breakfast, after which my hostess 
and I rested under the shade of some fine trees, 
and afterwards read our papers, while the young 
people strolled about and amused themselves 
in the vast domain. Later I visited the huge 
banyan-tree which sends its branches downwards 
into the ground and in this way forms a large 
tent or room. This is one of the wonders of the 
Gardens. Our servants had tea ready when we 
got back to the pavilion ; after partaking of it 
we strolled down to the river banks to await the 
next steamer, which took us back to Calcutta in 
the cool of the evening. 



CHAPTER XV 

THE EDUCATION OP AN INDIAN RANEE — LIFE IN AN 
INDIAN PALACE 

I AM now back again in our dear Hariana, alas ! 
soon to be ours no more, for the date for the 
commencement of Bob's furlough is approaching, 
and on returning to India he will be posted to 
another district. 

On my way back from Calcutta, after leaving 
Agra and getting off the main line, I stopped at 
Muttra, a large railway junction close to the 
old city of that name, a city held sacred by the 
Hindus as the birthplace of their divinity, Krishna, 
and, like all sacred cities, full of Brahminy bulls, 
peacocks, monkeys, and yellow-robed gosavies 
(holy mendicants). 

The sacred bulls, called Brahminy bulls, are 
gentle creatures, who wander unmolested through 
the Bazaar and take toll at every stall where they 
see anything tempting to eat. The most 
avaricious shopkeeper would not dare to drive 

248 



KRISHNA AND KALI 249 

away a sacred bull when he thrusts his muzzle 
in the grain-bag, or carries off a tassel of 
Indian-corn. The bulls are used to being petted, 
and one put his nose into my hand in a most 
friendly way as I was standing looking at a troop 
of monkeys running along the roofs and walls 
like cats. The monkeys are very mischievous, 
but no one dares to touch them, as they are 
Temple monkeys. 

Tradition has it that years ago a young 
English subaltern shot one of the Muttra 
monkeys and paid for it with his life ; some of 
the fanatics who swarm about the precincts of the 
Temple seized him and beat him and threw him 
into the Jumna. 

Not far off is a temple dedicated to the 
destroying powers, with the trident of Siva in 
front, and within, lighted by some lamps, in its 
farthest recess, a frightful figure of the blood- 
drinking Goddess Kali, with her lion, her many 
hands full of weapons, and a chaplet of skulls. A 
tiger's skin was stretched before her and the 
pavement was stained with the blood of sacrifices, 
now only the blood of goats or other animals, but 
before the British Raj was established in India it 
was human blood. Even now surreptitiously 
a human sacrifice, generally a child, is sometimes 



250 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 
offered. Such an act when discovered, being 
counted as murder, is punished accordingly by the 
British Government. 

Let those who think the rehgion of the 
Hindus is good for them (or for anybody) pay 
a visit to a temple dedicated to Kali. 

Before returning to Hariana I changed at 
Muttra to another line and went off to pay a 
visit to a lady friend who held the post of 
guardian to the little wife of the ruUng chief, 
who, being under age, was a ward of the British 
Government and was away at the Rajah's 
College. His father, the late chief, had died 
suddenly of plague soon after the marriage of 
the heir, who was thirteen years of age, while 
the bride was seven. 

The marriage ceremony performed at such an 
early age is binding, but after the wedding the 
couple do not speak to each other, or see any- 
thing of each other till they are much older. 

The boy was under his tutor's care and went 
off to the Rajah's College of the Presidency ; the 
girl was placed under Miss Boyd's care, and they 
lived together at one of the palaces in her 
husband's State. The child's parents lived in a 
distant part of the country and she only visited 
them occasionally. It had long been felt by 




A RULING CHIEF AND HIS WIFE ON THEIR WEDDING DAY. 



TRAINING INDIAN RULERS 251 

Government officials who have much to do with 
Native States that it was Httle use to train the 
boys and give them modern and progressive ideas 
if those who were to be their wives did not receive 
education and training on the same lines to fit 
them to be companions and helpmates to their 
husbands, not wives who would drag them back 
and by their influence undo much of the good 
that was aimed at by the training given to the 
boys. The colleges established in India for 
boys of noble families are institutions where they 
can live in accordance with the custom of their 
caste as to food and domestic arrangements, and ' 
yet receive a liberal education and training in 
habits that will fit them for the responsible 
positions that most of them are to occupy in 
the future. The principal is always an English- 
man, and the tone of the College depends 
entirely on his influence and aims. Most of the 
principals are men of high aims and ideals, 
making the formation of character their chief 
object. 

The work of the late Chester McNaughton in 
the Bombay Presidency has left lasting results, 
and his memory is still cherished and revered 
by his former pupils. 

My friend Miss Boyd told me that the husband 



252 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

of her little charge was charming, just like a 
nice Eton boy. 

When he came home for his holidays it was 
not etiquette for him to take any notice of his 
wife, and when he came to visit Miss Boyd the 
little girl always had to leave the room when his 
arrival was announced. But though there was 
no personal intercourse he took an interest in 
her studies, and expressed a wish that she should 
have regular instruction in the Vedas, from the 
bhat or family priest. He objected to her 
riding. 

The young lady was of a very active disposi- 
tion and had asked to be allowed to ride. Miss 
Boyd found that the ladies of the family had 
been accustomed to ride, therefore she routed 
out the old Pathan who had been the family 
riding-master, a confidential grey pony was 
provided by the Riss-aldar, and the riding 
lessons began. The little lady, who rode astride, 
thoroughly enjoyed them and became an expert 
horsewoman, therefore it was a bitter disappoint- 
ment when " they " came home from college, 
and expressed a wish that the riding be 
discontinued. 

A wife may not pronounce her husband's 
name, but always alludes to him as "they." 



LIFE IN AN INDIAN PALACE 253 

The plural pronoun is always used as a token 
of respect, in speaking of elders or people of 
rank. 

The little Ranee was most intelligent and 
receptive, making excellent progress in her 
studies and imbibing knowledge without any 
difficulty. As her husband wished her to learn 
music it was fortunate that she had a taste for it, 
and learned to play the piano brilliantly. Her 
musical memory was remarkable ; after playing 
a piece twice, she could generally play it off by 
heart. 

The old palace in which Miss Boyd and her 
charge lived was built round a square courtyard, 
with a tulsi-plant in the centre. Miss Boyd had 
a set of rooms upstairs to which the Uttle Ranee 
repaired daily, but the latter had her own 
apartments downstairs, where she slept, took her 
meals, and performed her devotions with her 
own attendants, for Miss Boyd, being of another 
caste, could not be present at her meals. 

The day began early. On rising, the Ranee 
had to bathe, have her hair dressed, perform 
her devotions, and take her morning meal before 
coming upstairs to her gouvernante ; for Miss 
Boyd's position was like that designated in old 
French memoirs by that appellation, gouver- 



254 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

nante — one who had sole charge in the mother's 
place, not only of education, but of establishment 
and budget. 

Lessons went on till one o'clock ; the 
curriculum was that usually followed at a 
European high-school — the three R's, history, 
geography, and the English language. At one 
o'clock the Ranee retired to her own apartments 
for a siesta and a meal. At three she returned 
to her gouvernante, and would be employed in 
needlework, embroidery, and music, or knitting. 
She achieved the feat of knitting some silk socks 
for her husband's wear, which gave great 
satisfaction. 

On certain days of the week a Hindu school- 
master came to give her lessons in Modi, the 
written character of the language of the State, 
which is very elaborate, consisting of much 
abbreviation and piecing bits of one letter to 
another, quite different from the printed language. 

At five o'clock the carriages came round. 
The Ranee's was a curious glass coach, the body 
painted bright green. Into this she got with a 
girl companion and a pet monkey ; her old nurse 
sat on the opposite seat. The coachman had 
a blue and red coat and turban, and wore very 
large gold earrings. Two puttiwalas in scarlet 



THE EVENING DRIVE 255 

coats stood up on the footboard behind, and as 
her gouvernante was not to accompany her, the 
house-steward got on the box to take charge. 
Two Sowars rode behind the carriage. 

Miss Boyd and I had our tea, and then 
started out in a carriage devoted to Miss 
Boyd's use, a modern victoria. As there was 
only one road on which carriages could go 
we soon encountered the Ranee's coach, and 
passed each other with ceremonious bows. We 
drove out to the public gardens of the State ; 
there we got out of the carriage and walked 
about a little up and down box-edge paths 
between herbaceous borders in which tall holly- 
hocks were conspicuous among flowers in- 
digenous to India. We fed the gold-fish and 
listened to a white cockatoo with yellow crest, 
who is reported to be a fabulous age. He was 
very loquacious (in the native tongue), calling 
out all sorts of apropos sentences to the servants 
who talked to him ; he was also a very vivacious 
bird and amused himself by pretending to get 
into a great rage, rushing up and down the 
branch of a tree to which he was attached by a 
long chain, with great flapping of wings and 
discordant shrieks. 

Then we went on to the menagerie. The 



256 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

poor beasts — tigers, hyenas, wolves, bears — were 
confined in very small cages, where they had 
barely room to turn round. I felt sorry for them. 
If they were beasts of prey, still they only acted 
according to the instincts with which nature had 
endowed them, without any choice of their own. 
One poor wolf, who I could see was ill, excited 
my compassion. He stood motionless at the 
bars of his tiny prison-cell with a most pathetic, 
far-away look in his eyes. What had he done 
to be imprisoned and linger out his days in 
miserable captivity ? It would have been kinder 
to kill him and his companions in prison out- 
right if they had endangered life, than to keep 
them as a gazing-stock to amuse idle people. 

The look in that dying wolfs eyes has haunted 
me (I heard he died two days later) and made 
me question our right to imprison these wild 
creatures for our amusement. 

Sometimes, instead of the evening drive, we 
repaired to the croquet-ground in the palace 
garden. The Ranee and a companion of her 
own age who lived with her were very keen 
players, and sometimes a few of the State 
officials' wives and daughters were asked to join. 
It was a curious scene : the old palace, the 
compound with a very high wall round it, and 



A CROQUET PARTY 257 

the Indian ladies in their bright-coloured sarees, 
their bare, unstockinged feet in red leather shoes 
with peaks turning upwards and inwards, their 
ankles encircled with heavy silver bangles which 
jingled as they moved, standing at the hoops 
they had to negotiate, greatly interested in each 
stroke, and nervous when it came to their own 
turn, while the green parrots flew in and out 
of their nests in the wall, and some monkeys 
seated on the top looked down with great 
curiosity and as if tempted to pounce on the 
rolling balls. 

The Ranee retired to her own quarters at 
eight o'clock, and Miss Boyd and myself had our 
dinner, after which the house-steward came to give 
Miss Boyd a report of all that had taken place 
in the household that day, presented some bills 
for payment, and took orders for the next day. 
The cook could not take a day's leave without 
a written petition being presented to Miss Boyd 
and signed by her, yes or no. The whole house- 
hold was conducted in a most orderly manner. 

The care of the Ranee's jewellery devolved on 
the gouvernante ; it was State property, and the 
share allotted for her use was kept in a safe in a 
passage in the Ranee's quarters. A State police- 
man, with a musket, did sentinel duty in front 
17 



258 A iPUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

of it day and night (one relieving another at 
intervals). Whenever the jewellery or any part 
of it was to be worn, the gouvernante, who kept 
the key, had to remove the cord, with her seal 
on it, which was wound around the safe, in the 
presence of the head-steward and the Ranee's 
personal attendant, to whom the jewellery re- 
quired would be handed by the gouvernante. 
Then again in the evening when the jewellery had 
to be put away she had to be present, count out 
the pieces to see that they tallied with the list 
of contents kept in a drawer of the safe, then 
lock up the safe, see the cord put round it, 
and affix her seal. 

Jewellery is worn on festival days. All Indian 
women have a passion for jewellery, and not to 
be allowed to wear her jewels on the day of a 
festival was the greatest punishment that could 
be inflicted on the little Ranee, if her conduct 
left anything to be desired. Leaving her out 
of the question, to the mass of Indian women, 
most of whom are uneducated, to put on her 
best saree and all her jewellery and sit in state 
to receive visitors is the acme of happiness. 

When Miss Boyd was appointed to her present 
post she was told to be very careful not to 
interfere with the Hindu customs and ceremonies 



HINDU FESTIVALS 259 

which should be respected by the caste to which 
her charge belonged. She was most scrupulous 
on this point, and on some days she did not 
see the Ranee at all, for the whole day had to 
be given up to feasting, religious observances, 
and ceremonies. The Hindu calendar contains 
a very great number of holidays and festivals, 
when work is abandoned and feasting the order 
of the day. 

There was one ceremony called the Tuesday 
ceremony, strictly incumbent on all young 
married girls, and supposed to promote the 
welfare of their husbands. The nights of five 
consecutive Tuesdays at a certain time of year 
were devoted to it, and the Ranee and all the 
respectable young married girls of the State 
put on their best clothes and kept up the 
celebration all night in the Ranee's apartments. 
I believe there was a religious ceremony in 
the morning, but after dusk games and dancing 
began, and the great point was to keep them 
up all night, while the musicians drummed and 
tom-tommed. One game, called " Poogardy," is 
no slight trial of strength. Two girls stand 
opposite each other with feet firmly planted on 
the ground, they take each other's hands and 
swing each other round very rapidly. The point 



260 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

is to try who can keep on longest without 
unclasping her hands. The little Ranee, though 
short and slight, was very wiry, and generally 
tired out all the other girls. 

Miss Boyd said that although only present for 
a short time when the games commenced, and 
afterwards retiring to her own apartments, she 
never could sleep these nights while the tom- 
tom's deep notes throbbed through the building ; 
and the celebrants of the Tuesdays were so worn 
out when morning came that they had to retire 
to sleep, and lessons for the Ranee could not 
be thought of till the next day. 

Another ceremony was that of the Pink Paint, 
when those who were to engage in it took off 
their good clothes and wrapped themselves up 
in a cheap white calico saree, and then each, 
filling a squirt from a basin of bright pink- 
coloured liquid, proceeded to bespatter each 
other with it 1 I never found out the meaning 
or origin of this ceremony, but for weeks after- 
wards the natives one passed on the road wore 
garments from which they had not troubled to 
wash off the pink stain. The Pink Paint game 
always takes place during the Hooli Festival, and 
is very harmless, but the Hooli is the worst 
of all Hindu festivals, and there are certain 



PINK PAINT AND HOOLI 261 

observances connected with it of which the 
better class Hindus are themselves ashamed, and 
in some places have exerted their influence to 
get the Hooli Festival prohibited. But almost 
all over India respectable women keep in their 
houses, and Englishwomen are warned not to 
go near the native city at the time of the Hooli, 
for fear of having their ears polluted by bad 
language ; for during this festival men are 
privileged to bestow vile epithets on every 
woman they meet. 

I was told that by giving vent to this bad 
language they were supposed to get rid of and 
cleanse themselves from all bad or impure 
thoughts that might have accumulated in their 
minds during the past year. 

The people of the State in which Miss Boyd 
was living were always most considerate of her 
susceptibilities, and warned her in a very kind 
manner not to leave her rooms during Hooli 
week. Naturally, equal care was taken to shield 
the little Ranee.^ 

Many people imagine that the life of Indian 
ladies must be a very dull one, but that is far 

^ New Year's Day, which comes in March, entails a great inter- 
change of visits. Pan-supari is offered to the invited guest, and 
certain marks are painted on the forehead with coloured powder, 
which is equivalent to a kiss and good wishes for the coming year. 



262 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

from being the case, for the constantly recurring 
festivals take up a great deal of time, and to 
recognise these days is considered a religious 
duty, and it is by this means that Hindu women 
get some idea of the Hindu religion or tradition 
and of the chief personages in the Hindu my- 
thology. Little direct instruction is given to 
them — none among the lower orders. 

A Christian child is taught the Creed and 
Commandments very early, but no such in- 
struction is given to Hindu youth, and when 
the bhat^ was told that the chief wished the 
little Ranee to hear the Vedas, he said : " They 
are not for her, she is a girl and is young ; she 
already knows all that is suitable for her." 

The women of the lower classes are one and 
all illiterate and know absolutely nothing of 
their own religion beyond that on certain days 
they have to bathe in the river and go to the 
temple with an offering. 

If the Hindu ethics are not founded on the 
Decalogue, there is at least one Commandment — 
the Fifth — the spirit of which forms an essential 

* A bhat is not only a priest, he is also a bard, and expected to 
compose poems in honour of gods and heroes, or at all events to 
know by heart parts of the national epics that deal with them 
—the Bhavadgita, Ranyana, etc. The bhat is also hereditary 
guardian of the pedigrees and history of the family to which he 
is attached. 



HINDUS RESPECT AGE AND ELDERS 263 

part of the education of the youth of Hindustan. 
They are taught to honour their parents and 
elders. 

It was pretty to see the homage paid by the 
little Ranee to her great-grandmother. On 
entering the room where the old lady was seated 
she would go up and, standing in front of her, 
make the graceful Hindu salaam, raising the 
arms, then joining hands, as in prayer, at the 
mouth and bending to touch her great-grand- 
mother's feet with her forehead, then rising to 
salaam again. Nor would she think of sitting 
down in her great-grandmother's presence until 
permission was given. 

Her gouvernante told me that the little Ranee 
spontaneously showed the same respect to the 
Political Agent when he paid a visit to the 
palace; not only did she not seat herself till 
permission was given, but when he rose to cross 
the room to the writing-table, she rose too, and 
remained standing till he was seated. 

A mother's influence, too, is paramount, her 
orders obeyed without question. 

In speaking of the education of a young 
Indian lady, I must not forget to tell you that 
a knowledge of cuisine is an essential item. To 
prepare her husband's food is considered the 



264 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

first duty of a Hindu wife, and though among 
the upper classes the wife will not prepare the 
whole meal, yet she will at all events contribute 
some delicacy concocted by her own hands. To 
be a good housewife, to manage servants well, 
and keep down household expenses are qualities 
greatly valued in a married lady. 

A dignified demeanour seems to come instinc- 
tively to an Indian girl of rank. The little 
Ranee was a romp in private life, she did not 
disdain to turn a somersault occasionally ; when 
the carriage came to the door she would jump 
up behind on the puttiwala's footboard and order 
the coachman to drive round the compound 
while she stood up behind ; in games and dances 
she tired out her companions ; in country ex- 
cursions she would climb hills and sprint along 
the paths, leaving her escort panting behind. 
But if an official visitor came, or she was present 
on any ceremonial occasion, she would comport 
herself in the most stately, dignified manner, 
looking fifty years old and with an air as if she 
felt herself the equal or superior of any king 
or queen or important personage. 

It is often said that the natives of India have 
no sense of humour, but this is incorrect. To 
betray amusement publicly is thought indecorous, 



A RANEE'S GUARDIAN 265 

but no absurdity escapes notice* The face may 
be grave and expressionless, but " the foot is 
working," as was said to me. That is to say, 
that when paying a visit he would tread on 
the toe of his companion to communicate his 
amusement or draw attention to anything that 
struck him as ludicrous. 

Indian boys and girls learn eagerly all English 
games— cricket, badminton, tennis. Some of 
our card games are known to them and not 
taught by the English, such as whist, beggar my 
neighbour, old maid (called " ghulam," and the 
knave is the card chosen). At twelve years old 
the little Ranee played a good hand at whist and 
always knew where the trumps were. Her old 
nurse had taught her, and she used to play with 
her attendants. 

My friend enjoyed her life as gouvernante. 
She had a great affection for her charge and a 
real liking for the Indian people, as she said: 
" There is no truer gentleman to be found than 
an Indian gentleman of high birth." 

She was always treated with great considera- 
tion and respect, and though for many months 
together she did not see any one of her own 
race, yet her time was fully occupied with the 
superintendence of a large establishment as well 



266 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

as the education of her charge, and she also took 
an interest in and visited the State schools, for 
the Dewan was a reformer and had free schools 
for girls as well as boys. Every hot weather 
Miss Boyd and the Ranee migrated to the hill 
station, which was the seat of the Presidency 
Government in summer, and then Miss Boyd 
took part in all the gaieties of official circles, 
and the Ranee was presented to the Governor's 
wife and taken to visit the principal ladies of the 
station. 

The journey to the hill was something of 
an undertaking ; horses and carriages had to be 
sent on, and special carriages engaged on the 
train — one for Miss Boyd, the Ranee and her 
personal attendant, and the others for the retinue, 
twenty-one servants, besides the family bhat, 
and four of the State police (armed), who had 
charge of the safe containing the jewellery and 
the money that would be needed to pay all 
expenses of maintenance during the stay at the 
hill station, where bungalows had been hired 
to accommodate the party. 

As it would have been an offence against caste 
to eat in a train, and it would have been im- 
possible to observe the rule of removing all outer 
clothing for a meal, the journey being long, a 



A JOURNEY TO THE HILLS 267 

halt had to be made half-way, the carriages 
shunted to a siding, and permission had to be 
obtained to light a fire some distance from the 
station, boil rice, and prepare and partake of 
refreshments. This took a considerable time, 
and when it was over, the carriages were attached 
to the next mail-train that passed and the 
journey continued. 

The delightful climate, the grand scenery, and 
glorious views at the hill station made the three 
months passed there a very delightful time. 



CHAPTER XVI 

A CULTURED INDIAN LADY — AN ENLIGHTENED DEW AN — 
A BRAHMIN ARTIST — LAST DAYS IN INDIA — RETRO- 
SPECT. 

During my stay with my friend the Ranee's 
gouvernante, I accompanied her to the weekly 
working party presided over by the Dewan's 
wife, who was in her quiet way a remarkable 
woman. The daughter of an Indian Judge, a 
distinguished philanthropist and reformer, she 
followed in her father's footsteps and found in 
her husband a congenial spirit. She and her 
husband were the only people in the State who 
spoke English. Indrea Bai — for that was her 
name — both read and wrote English easily and 
correctly. She had what is uncommon among 
the Indian people, decided talent for drawing 
and painting, especially portraits, and had 
quite a gift for catching a likeness. She 
would sit at her easel in her husband's room, 
while he was reading and attending to his 
correspondence — for he treated her as a friend 
and companion and highly valued her opinion. 

268 



INDIAN REFORMERS 269 

Indrea Bai s husband and father were some of 
the first of their caste to treat wives as their equals, 
and, I believe, created quite a little sensation 
when for the first time they started out driving 
in an open carriage, with their respective wives 
(mother and daughter) in the seat of honour and 
the Judge with his son-in-law the Dewan on the 
opposite seat back to the horses. 

The Dewan's wife, Indrea Bai, wished to help 
to raise the women of her race, and as a step in 
that direction she gathered together the wives of 
the officials and chief clerks in the State service 
to work with her in making garments for the 
destitute children in an orphanage established 
when the last famine left so many children 
motherless and fatherless to die by the roadside 
of starvation, with crows pecking at them and 
vultures hovering near in expectation of a meal. 

" Why should we leave all such work to the 
missionaries ? " said the Dewan. " We ought to 
be ashamed to do so ; we ought to look after our 
own people." 

Sympathy is a quality in which the Hindu 
character is quite deficient ; as a rule Hindus feel 
that outside family or caste they have no duties. 
"It is not our affair," they would say. To 
excite compassion for the outcast and a desire 



270 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

to help them in the minds of the ladies of the 
State was quite an achievement on the part of 
Indrea Bai. So was the teaching them to sew. 
Few had ever held a needle in their hand — all 
clothes-making is done by the dhurzi (tailor) — 
but they had good-will, and by degrees some 
of them learned to sew and make children's 
garments quite neatly.^ 

The meeting always closed with a little 
address by Indrea Bai. She would speak of the 
laws of health and sanitation, or would attempt 
to widen the interests of her audience and take 
their minds off the petty cares of daily life by 
telling them of the wonders of the heavens. 
Being herself an eager student of astronomy 
she would at these meetings reproduce in simple 
language what she had herself learned at her 
latest lesson with Miss Boyd, who provided 
books and studied with her. 

I am speaking now of the illiterate women 
composing her audience — women living in a 
remote Native i State, hitherto untouched by 
modern progressive ideas — and it was amazing 
to see how astonished they were when asked if 
they had admired the glorious sunsets lately 

* The generation now children will know how to sew — needle- 
work is taught in all girls' schools. Governmental and private. 



A STUDENT OF ASTRONOMY 271 

visible ; it was at the end of the rains, when the 
evening skies are a feast for the eyes. 

" No ! we never think of looking," they said, 
laughing. 

Indrea Bai took them to the window, and 
they admitted that the sight was extremely 
beautiful. Now the idea had been put into their 
heads they would perhaps look again. 

The Dewan had a telescope, and we spent 
several evenings on the flat roof of the palace, 
studying the skies. 

Indrea Bai could locate the principal planets, 
and was eager to add to her list. The Southern 
Cross, Orion, the Pleiades, etc., seemed her 
intimate friends. She knew the days and hours 
when different constellations should be visible, 
and occasionally came to summon us to locate 
a newly risen star. 

How early she rose in the morning, and 
induced us to do the same, to gaze at Halley's 
Comet, how much there was to say about its 
different positions, how far it had got in its 
journey across the sky, etc. 

The good that such a one as Indrea Bai can 
accomplish among her fellow women is far 
beyond what any one of a different race, such 
as an Englishwoman, could accomplish. Her 



272 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

husband's official position helped her — in no 
country outside India has "place" so much 
influence. The fact that they were high-caste 
Brahmins, that she wore the Indian dress ^ and 
was not a Christian, all helped her to influence 
the women and ladies of the State ; she had not 
to combat or live down prejudice to the same 
extent as an Englishwoman has to do. But 
even she had at first some prejudices to fight 
against, for when she first started her working 
parties, old-fashioned inhabitants of the village 
stood at their doors and jeered at those who 
were going up to the palace : " They are going 
to learn to be dhurzees ! Argobai 1 " 

This feeling wore off^, and when the Dewan 
wished to persuade the people of the State to be 
inoculated as a preventive of plague, which was 
ravaging the neighbouring State, Indrea Bai 
went to the dispensary, and was the first to be 
inoculated, in the presence of a number of ladies 
she had asked to accompany her, and as she was 
now trusted by all, the greater number followed 
her example, and brought their children ; and 
subsequently most of the inhabitants presented 
themselves for inoculation, with the best results. 

^ Not the topee or hat considered so ugly on an English- 
woman. 



FIGHTING THE PLAGUE 278 

V 

Most of those inoculated were immune from 
plague ; the few whom it attacked got it 
lightly and recovered. 

This made a great impression throughout the 
district where inoculation had not been under- 
taken, and the deaths amounted to appalling 
numbers. 

It takes a long time for a new idea to be 
accepted by the natives of India, but they are 
open to conviction. Ten years ago quarantine 
regulations and forcible removal to plague 
hospitals were the cause of riots in many parts ; 
now the people come voluntarily and ask for 
inoculation. 

My friends the Dewan and his wife were not 
Christians, nor even likely to become so, but they 
had given up idolatry and belonged to the 
Prathna Somaj, a sect of reformers whose 
tenets are in many respects those of the 
Unitarians. They respected Christianity and 
read the Bible, but were latterly very much 
interested in Theosophy. 

Their Uves were irreproachable, they were 
seekers after truth, and we are told that those 
who seek will find. 

God speed them. 

My friend the Ranee's gouvernante did not 
18 



274 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

find her life dull, being generally fully occupied, 
and having resources in herself, but she spent a 
good deal of time alone, owing to a number of 
Hindu festivals in which she could take no part. 
While I was staying with her, she lighted on a 
treasure-trove, which w^ould prevent time hang- 
ing heavily on her hands for many a day to come. 
It happened on this wise. A festival-day came 
round, and the little Ranee would be occupied 
all day in her own quarters with her co- 
religionists, the well-born young ladies of the 
State, who would come to the palace to assist in 
the celebrations. 

Miss Boyd was free for the day. It would be 
too hot to go out before evening. English Mail 
day had come and gone, there were no home 
letters to write or expect, how should we fill 
the day ? It was to be the last of my visit. I 
had been remarking that I had not slept well the 
previous night, on account of the carnival held 
by the rats in roof and walls. 

" I believe their nests are in that old cupboard," 
said Miss Boyd, pointing to a door in the wall 
of the entrance or ante-room. " I have always 
intended to get it opened and to put down 
poison or a trap." 

" But will not the Hindus think it a crime to 



HINDU CRUELTY TO ANIMALS 275 

kill the rats ? Are they not averse to taking life 
at all ? " I asked. " Oh I " she replied, " there is an 
exaggerated idea about concerning the reverence 
of the Hindus for animal life. It is true that 
they consider it a crime to kill a cow ^ or bull for 
eating, and I expect they used to look upon 
those who do it in the same light as we look 
upon cannibals, but they treat their draught 
oxen and horses with great cruelty, and kill sheep, 
goats, and poultry for offerings in the temples. 
They drive the oxen by means of a piece of rope 
passed through the nostrils, on which the whole 
weight of a heavily loaded cart may hang, and 
over-driving, over-loading, under-feeding, neglect 
of sore backs or wounds, are very common 
offences. 

" My cook is often asked for a piece of meat 
for the Ranee's dog, and as to rats, they are 
anathema since plague broke out, for it is 
supposed that they convey it from house to 
house. Dead rats are the first sign that an 
outbreak of plague may be expected, and the 
house in which they die is always vacated if 
possible, and the roof untiled to let in air and 
sunshine, the best disinfectants. No one will 
object to my kiUing a few rats." 

* The cow is sacred in the eyes of Hindus. 



276 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

Calling the scarlet-and-gold-coated piittiwala 
who was always sitting waiting near the door, 
within call, Miss Boyd told him to go and in- 
quire for the key of the door. 

After some delay he returned, and with some 
difficulty got the door open. As it turned on its 
rusty hinges, a cloud of dust came into the room, 
and in the cobweb-hung musty cupboard heaps 
of rubbish were discerned, some broken china on 
shelves, worm-eaten harness and saddlery, and 
some wooden packing-cases, uncovered and full of 
books that had been thrown in pell-mell; the 
whole was thickly overlaid with dust. 

Miss Boyd told the puttiwala to take out the 
books one by one and dust them, and as we took 
them up, and turned over their worm-eaten and 
discoloured pages, we exclaimed in astonishment 
to find that they were French books 1 

To both of us books are what drink is to the 
drunkard, tobacco to the confirmed smoker, gold 
to the miser ; so we quite forgot the rats and the 
plans for their assassination in our interest in these 
old volumes. There were treatises on the art of 
war, on architecture, and on gardening, which we 
threw back into the boxes as uninteresting, but 
there still remained a goodly number of volumes 
of memoirs, letters, and history of the seventeenth 



A TREASURE TROVE 277 

and eighteenth centuries, of which Miss Boyd 
took possession. 

Next day we inquired of the Dewan how such 
books came there, and he told us that in the 
days of John Company, before India became a 
possession of the EngUsh Crown, many French 
soldiers of fortune took service with rajahs in 
different parts of India, starting their career 
probably from what were formerly French 
possessions in India. One such adventurer had 
been commander-in-chief and all-powerful in this 
State, and when the Rajah had a fancy to erect 
a new palace, he (the commander-in-chief) 
brought over a French architect to build it. 
This architect brought his wife and sister with 
him, and they had inhabited the apartments now 
occupied by Miss Boyd. The books probably 
belonged to this family. 

Miss Boyd said : " Now that I have this store 
of books I shall welcome holidays, and look 
anxiously in the Hindu Calendar to see when 
another is due, so as to be able to enjoy reading 
without interruption." 

I myself have been a student of French his- 
tory for many years, but Miss Boyd's studies had 
been chiefly in other directions, so I quite envied 
her the delight of a first introduction to the 



278 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

personages who constitute the charm of the old 
regime, the hours she would pass with Madame 
de Motteville (chronicler of the reign of Louis 
XIII. and the youth of Louis XIV.), with Anne 
of Austria and Cardinal Mazarin, with the Grande 
Mademoiselle and Lauzan, with Turenne and the 
Cond^s, Madame de Montespan and Madame de 
Maintenon, with Madame de Sevigne and her 
circle, which includes every celebrity of the reign 
of the Grand Monarque, with the whole cortege, 
surrounded by the glamour and glitter which 
make those days take such a vivid hold of the 
imagination, with their sharp contrasts of saint 
and sinner, when the nuns of Port-Royal and 
the ascetic Carmelites were contemporaries of 
Madame de Brinvilliers and her confederates the 
poisoners and sorcerers, the days when every- 
thing was possible, and the strangest adventures 
were everyday facts. 

The memoirs of those days are so numerous 
and full of minute detail, the letters so volumi- 
nous and unreserved in self-revelation that we 
seem to know and understand these people more 
intimately than the people we meet every day, 
for between the latter and ourselves is the screen 
of the body, and in this life ** each in our hermit 
cell we dwell apart." 



PLOUGHING IN SAND 279 

My visit to this little Indian Queen and her 
gouvernante was a short one, but there has been 
so much to tell that I think will interest you 
that I have written quite a budget. 

On my last evening, as we sat out under the 
stars looking at a brilliant Southern Cross and 
pointers, 1 asked my friend if she felt her 
position satisfactory, did she feel that she was 
doing real good, and that her educational work 
would have lasting results ? 

" No," she replied, '* it is like ploughing on 
sand. Tradition and family ties have too strong 
a counter-influence. 

" I have a pleasant time here, I have only to 
express a wish and it is granted, I like the 
people I come in contact with, and see and hear 
much that is a novelty to me and consequently 
interesting ; but my own instincts as a lady would 
prevent my attempting to undermine parental or 
family influence, or my telling the Ranee that 
many of the tenets and customs of her race are, 
to say the least, undesirable 1 

" As to morality and formation of character, 
copy-book maxims are not much use in helping a 
human soul to fight and overcome evil, the flesh 
(Le, self), the world, and the devil — religion alone 
can do that. And as to religion, one cannot 



280 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

tamper with a child's rehgion ; her father's must 
be hers. Only grown-up persons able to weigh 
and judge for themselves should undertake so 
stupendous an effort as is involved in a change of 
religion and all that attends it, especially in India, 
where it is as an earthquake, reversing hereditary 
instincts, habits, and tradition. 

" Indirectly one may have a good influence. 
One may point out other standards of conduct 
and character, and, while showing respect and 
consideration for the opinions of others, let it be 
seen that our own are different. 

" The Christian ideal always commands respect 
when lived up to, and it is acknowledged that a 
devotion to duty is a distinguishing characteristic 
of the English or Christian character. 

"In these ways good influence is indirectly 
exercised, but when the presence of the person 
who exercises that influence is withdrawn, the 
preponderating influence of family ties and habits, 
traditions and caste, prevent any great change in 
life or character from being observable, with few 
exceptions. 

" Then there is also the radical and constitu- 
tional difference between people of the East 
and of the West to be remembered. They may 
like each other, and to a certain point be friends, 



EAST AND WEST 281 

but not intimates. A man or woman from the 
West may associate with Orientals day by day, 
but can never feel sure of really knowing or 
understanding them. Suddenly some unsus- 
pected trait of character or opinion will reveal 
itself, and the Western will feel that he or she 
is miles apart in point of view from his or her 
Oriental friend, and that he or she who speaks 
is a stranger, not the everyday companion they 
imagined they understood I 

'* It is not to be supposed that the West has 
nothing to learn from the East, and that there 
are not fine characteristics to be admired in our 
Oriental friends." 

I had taken ceremonious leave of the little 
Ranee that evening, and next morning took leave 
of my friend, her gouvernante. I then went 
to spend two days with another English friend 
in the district, wife of the Political Agent, and 
in her house I slept under a most gorgeous quilt, 
a patchwork of squares of diiFerent coloured 
brocades. 

Next morning at breakfast I expressed my 
admiration for this remarkable bed-cover, and 
my hostess said : " I am sure you will never 
guess its origin. It is the custom of all people 
of rank who wish to communicate with the 



282 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

Political Agent to put their letter or petition 
in a little silken bag, and send it by a messenger. 
My husband had accumulated a great many of 
these bags, so I asked him to turn them over 
to me, and you have seen in the quilt the use 
I have made of them. I put the quilt in the 
visitors' room because I am sure the sight of 
it would drive sleep from my husband's eyes, 
reminding him of office hours, long-winded 
petitions, and tedious correspondence. As he 
says : ' It is not the petitions that can be granted 
which are a worry, but those which it is necessary 
to refuse.' " 

My short visit to this friend was a quiet one ; I 
went just to say farewell, as we shall soon be start- 
ing for England. When I arrived at Hariana I 
had bad news to hear from Bob — the tragic death 
of our friend and neighbour the lady doctor of 
the Mission Hospital in the adjoining town] 
She was an American and had done excellent 
work in the district. She had recently gone 
away for rest and change, and was staying at 
a favourite resort about two miles from a large 
town at the foot of the hills. It happened that 
a travelling circus had arrived at this town, 
and among the troupe were two fighting ele- 
phants. These huge creatures are kept tethered, 



CHANCE OR PREDESTINATION? 283 

allowed no exercise, and fed with heating foods 
till they become very fierce and spoiling for a 
fight. " Dustoorie " is the word used to denote 
this dangerous mood. The largest of the circus 
elephants broke loose. In India every one will 
fly and hide at the sight of a dustoorie elephant, 
so he forged along two miles unchecked, entered 
the court of the hotel, where he knocked down 
and trampled to death the lady doctor, who 
happened to be crossing the court at the moment 
the elephant rushed in. He gored and tossed 
three men before he was secured. 

To those who attribute all events to the Hand 
of an all-wise and beneficent Providence, such 
a catastrophe "gives to think." In Madame de 
Sdvigne's ofF-quoted letter describing the death 
of the great Marshal Turenne she says : " He 
was galloping to a distant part of the battle- 
field, when an aide-de-camp asked him to stop 
and look at a battery of artillery, and give orders 
as to its disposition. It was as if this man had 
said : ' Stop here, sir, this is the spot where you 
are to be killed.' At that moment came the 
cannon-ball which struck and killed Turenne 
alone out of a group of ten people. / see 
that cannon loaded from all Eternity, and 
I see nothing hurtful in this death, as his 



284 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

conscience was clear and he was fulfilling a 
duty." 

Thus Madame de S^vign^ delivers her 
opinion. 

The cannon-ball destined from all Eternity to 
accomplish that death exactly at that moment I 

Was then that elephant, when born in the 
Indian jungle, destined to be captured and sold 
to a circus, to be driven mad, " to make an Indian 
holiday," to escape and rush into that hotel 
courtyard exactly at the moment the lady was 
destined to walk across it ? Was he destined 
from all Eternity to end the useful life of an 
innocent lady and to compass her death in so 
cruel a manner ? 

Truly the ways of Providence are past finding 
out! 

For the past few days we have had daily visits 
from a young Brahmin doctor who has pitched 
his camp near us. He is in Government employ, 
very proud of being an I. M.S. man. He has 
been sent on a tour through the district on 
special plague duty. This consists chiefly of 
holding meetings, gathering the people together 
and explaining the process and benefit of inocu- 
lation, and performing it on those who are 
willing. This doctor is a very clever fellow, and 



DOCTOR AND ARTIST 285 

was employing his leisure in researches as to 
mosquitoes, their haunts, and their power of 
infecting those they sting with malaria or plague, 
and the best methods of exterminating them. 
He had some clever drawings taken from their 
appearance under the microscope. These tiny 
insect pests, under the microscope, are seen to 
have poison-bags and a proboscis lengthy enough 
to penetrate deeply through the human epidermis, 
and the elaborateness of their mechanism is 
marvellous in its minuteness. 

Are they also destined to live their one single 
day of life solely for the purpose of doing mis- 
chief, of stinging and poisoning ? 

One knows of no other purpose attained by 
their existence. Microscopical research was not 
Dr. Atmaram's only recreation. He was also 
a clever caricaturist, and showed us his sketch- 
book filled with very lifelike " types " of the 
different sorts of people to be met on board a 
P. & O. liner. 

He had just returned from a visit to England, 
the fulfilment of a long cherished ambition. 
Having much artistic talent, to see the great 
European collections had been the dream of his 
life. He had studied the subject carefully 
beforehand, knew exactly which pictures he 



286 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

wished specially to see and where to locate them. 
He astonished the custodian of one private 
collection by asking : ** Where is such a 
portrait which used to be on the second line in 
this comer ? " It proved to have been moved 
elsewhere. 

Dr. Atmaram sat up late with Bob, discoursing 
on all he had seen and admired in London, 
delighted to find some one who had also seen 
and could talk of things which interested him so 
deeply, but were a dead letter to most of his 
associates. 

" It is hard," he said, " to have to spend my 
time out here, making ignorant people listen to 
what they do not want to hear, and in persuad- 
ing them to do what they do not wish to do ! " 

There is a good deal of such drudgery, and 
such-like trials of patience in the life of all 
Government officials, especially district officials, 
in India, and it is only after some years have 
passed that in looking back it is realised that 
good results have been attained. How splendid 
and satisfying have been the results of the great 
irrigation works that have been going on for 
some years in the Bombay Presidency, giving 
well-paid work to literally thousands of poor 
labourers, and bringing comfort and plenty to 



BENEFITS OF BRITISH RULE 287 

hundreds of villages, the inhabitants of which 
were on the brink of starvation in dry seasons, 
and always head over ears in debt to the money- 
lender. Now the irrigation enables them to 
make sure of their crops, and to free themselves 
from the tyranny of the sowcar (moneylender). 
Our friend the engineer showed us the wonderful 
work he is now engaged on, the largest dam 
ever yet attempted, far higher than the celebrated 
dam at Assouan on the Nile. Irrigation, sani- 
tation, medical aid, free education, are some 
of the many benefits the British Government 
is quietly and steadfastly bestowing on India, 
which are appreciated only by the thoughtful 
among the Indian people. 

This is rather a solemn letter, but retrospect 
is natural now that the day of our departure 
is approaching. Our packing is finished, 
the heavy luggage gone on, and in two days' 
time we shall be starting to rush from one 
end of India to another in an express train 
to catch the P. &; O. boat at Bombay, and 
then home I 

I have learnt to love India. I revel in the 
warmth and am in better health than when 1 
came out, for there are very good climates in 
India. I enjoy the life, the picturesqueness, the 



288 A PUNJAUB POMEGRANATE GROVE 

hospitality, the real kindness underneath the 
gossip and little quarrels of the small stations, 
all forgotten when illness or trouble comes ; the 
real heroism under, perhaps, a frivolous exterior. 
For the last few years English officials have 
gone with their lives in their hands, and the 
wives realise it, and if not assassination, there 
is generally plague or cholera to be faced ; and all 
this is accepted quietly, in a matter-of-fact way, 
as part of the daily round. Any appearance of 
nervousness would be remarked with incredu- 
lous astonishment, and he or she would be very 
plainly advised to " go home." 

I am glad, however, that my time has not 
been spent for the most part in English centres, 
but in country districts and Native States right 
among the dear Indian people, my neighbours 
and very good friends. 

It is true that Indian servants possess peculiar 
powers of exasperation. Even a really saintly 
woman, a Sister of Charity whom I know, feels 
this, for when the fact of an English gentleman 
kicking his servant was deplored in her hearing, 
she said : " Yes, it was a pity, but I quite 
understand it." 

The servants are irritating, but they generally 
rise to an emergency. 



FAREWELL TO INDIA 289 

As to the Indian aristocracy, where will 
you find more courtesy, more generosity, more 
dignity, more of all the qualities that constitute 
" a gentleman " than among the noblemen and 
high-class Indian people ? 

It will be with deep regret that I shall soon 
have to depart from dear Hariana, and I am 
grieved to think that this is the last letter I shall 
send you from my nook in the Pomegranate 
Grove. 



19 



PMNTBD BT 

HAZELL, WATSON AND VINBY, LD., 

LONDON AND ATLBSBURT. 



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Eveuing Standard.—" As bracing as a north-east wind." 
CountryGenfleman. — " Acharming book— stimulating, bracing, encouraging." 
Daily Telegraph. — " The book, from cover to cover, is of good sportsmanship 
all compact ; without a touch of exaggeration, or even the faintest taint of 
egotism, it tells the story of a sportsman's adventures in the saddle and under 
canvas, at sea and in the sky, and abounds in capital anecdotes, and in sage, 
sensible reflections." 



Yvette Guilbert : struggles and Victories 

By YVETTE GUILBERT and 
HAROLD SIMPSON 

Profusely illustrated with Caricatures, Portraits, Facsimiles of Letters^ 
etc. Demy Svo. lOs. 6d. net 

Daily Chronicle.— "Yvette Guilbert's book is fascinating." 

Observer. — "This is a surprisingly fascinating book." 

Daily Telegraph.— "The volume itself is a real delight all through. As, in 
addition to these attractions, we are also given many portraits of the lady in 
question and reproductions of caricatures and paintings by notable artists, 
and a selection from the songs of Madame Guilbert's repertoire, the book is 
exceptionally complete and of particular value." 

MILLS & BOON, Ltd., 49 Rupert St., London. W. 



The English Court in Exile 

James II. at St. Germain 
By EDWIN and MARION SHARPE GREW 

Authors of " The Court of William III." 
With 16 Illustrations. Demy Svo. 18s. net 

Spectator, — " Should certainly be read by all students of 
the revolution; an exceedingly interesting and readable 
book." 

AthencBum. — **Not a single uninteresting page. We 
had no idea so good a book could be written on such a 
story." 

Truth. — "Excellent . . . picturesque and impartial." 



By the same Authors 

The Court of William III. 

With 16 Illustrations. Demy 8z/<?. 15s* net 

Morning Post. — " Done with fairness and thoroughness. 
. . . The book has many conspicuous merits. There are 
many good stories scattered through the book, and the 
text of Lilli Bulero, which, as its author declared, had 
* sung a king out of three kingdoms.' " 

Times. — " The Authors have steered most dexterously be- 
tween the sohdity of history and the irresponsibility of court 
biography. Their book consists of a number of character 
studies done with care and distinction; it is a welcome 
change from the mass of literature whose only function 
is to revive the gossip and scandal centred round a 
throne." 

Spectator. — "A book to be read." 
MILLS & BOON, Ltd., 49 Rupert St., London. W. 



The MORNING POST says: "Uessrs. Mills & Boon stem to have aequfred a 
monopoly in clever first Novels." T.P.'s WEEKLY says: "Readers have got Into 
the habit of looking to the publications of Mills A Been for freshness, originality 
and the novelty of surprise." 

I ^^ 1 

Mills & Boon's New Novels 

Crown 8vo. 6s. each. 



THE RED MIRAGE. I. A. R. Wylie. 

BECAUSE OF JANE. J. E. Buckrose. 

WILSAM. S. C. Nethkrsole. 

THE MAN FROM NOWHERE. Victor Bridges. 
THE HIDDEN ROAD. Joan Sutherland. 

SMOKE BELLEW. Jack I^ndon. 

THE ENLIGHTENMENT OF ERMYN. 

Harry Jermyn. 

MIDDLEGROUND. The Author of " Mastering Flame." 
PENELOPE'S DOORS. Sophie Cole. 

THE RED COLONEL. George Edgar. 

THE SPHINX IN THE LABYRINTH. 

Maude Annesley. 
THE TRANSFORMATION OF TIMOTHY. 

Thomas Cobb. 
THROUGH THE WINDOW. Mary E. Mann. 

THE MARRIAGE OF EDWARD. Louise Mack. 
LILY MAGIC. Mary L. Penderbd. 

MISS KING'S PROFESSION. E. M. Channon. 

CRUMP FOLK GOING HOME. Constance Holme. 

MARGARET AND THE DOCTOR. 

Mrs. Ranyard West. 
THE SWASHBUCKLER. Mrs. Baillie Reynolds. 
THE BRAT. Mrs. H. H. Penrose. 

EDWARD RACEDALE'S WILL. Mark Hardy. 
THE GONDOLA. Rothay Reynolds. 

WITH DRUMS UNMUFFLED. L. A. Burgess. 
ONE WOMAN'S LIFE. Robert Herrick. 

MALLORY'S TRYST. 

Mrs. Philip Champion de Crespigny. 



MILLS & BOON'S 

Books for Everyday Modern Life 



ABOUT BABY 

By Dr. FRANCIS TWEDDELL and Dr. WM. BARKLEY 

Crown 8vo. Cloth Is. net. 

Written by two well-known maternity specialists with a preface by the 
Matron of the Hospital for sick children, Great Ormond Street. "About 
Baby " should be in the hands of every mother or prospective mother, and is 
by far the best book published on the subject. 

NERVES AND THE NERVOUS 

By EDWIN L. ASH, M.D. 

New and Revised Edition. Crown 8vo. 3s. 6d. net. 

Daily Express.—*^ One of the most refreshing books that has been published 

for some time. Dr. Ash not only probes into exactly what one feels when one 

is nervous or worried, but the treatment is so free from fads that it does even 

an unnervy person good to read it." 

MENTAL SELF-HELP 

By EDWIN L. ASH, M.D. Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. net. 

CHILD NURTURE: 

A BooK for Parents and Teachers 

By HONNOR MORTEN. 

Frontispiece in Photogravure. Crown Bvo. 38. 6cl. net. 

Athenceum,—" Deals clearly and sensibly with the upbringing of children." 
S/««rfarrf.—" Admirably practical . . . full of useful knowledge." 

THE NURSERY NURSE'S COMPANION 

Crown Bvo. Cloth, Is. 6cl. net ; paper boards. Is. net. 

The Child.— " Kn eminently practical guide." 
Times. — " Extremely practical." 

A MANUAL FOR NURSES 

By SYDNEY WELHAM, M.R.C.S. (Charing Cross Hospital) 
With Diagrams. Crown Bvo. 3s. 6d. net. 
Nursini; Times.—** Clear and concise, with a good glossary and index," 

HOUSEHOLD ACCOUNTS 

By RUPERT DEAKIN, M.A., and P. J. HUMPHREYS, B.Sc. 

Crown Bvo. 6d. net. 

This little book contains information which is of real value to every one who 
has the control or management of a house, and many of the exercises are 
derived from the actual experience of housekeepers. 

MILLS & BOON, Ltd., 49 Rupert St., London, W. 

/ 



A Catalogue of Books 

published by 

Mills & Boon Ltd. 

49 RUPERT STREET, LONDON. W. 

(Close to Piccadilly Circus Tube Station.) 

Telephone: 929 Regent. Telegrams: " Millsatar, Plccy, London.** 
Cablegrams: "Millsator, London." 

THIS Catalogue is divided into two sections : the first 
(pages i-io) contains the most recent books and 
announcements, and the second (pages 11-32) contains 
the books previously published, and Educational books. 

Colonial Editions are issued of all Mills & Boon's Novels, 
and of most of their books of General Literature. In the 
case of forthcoming books the approximate prices at which 
they will be published are given. These may be altered 
before publication. 



SPRING ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

My Russian Year, 

By ROTH AY REYNOLDS. With 28 Illustrations. 
Demy 8vo. Second Edition. los. 6d. net. 

Times. — " Full of anecdote, sometimes indeed of gossip^ 
but it is first-hand anecdote and the characteristic gossip which 
comes to the ears of a man who has lived in the country and 
understood its people. . . . Mr. Reynolds has succeeded in 
drawing a truthful and impartial picture of the ordinary Russian." 

Daily News. — " The brightest book about Russia that has yet 
appeared in this country." 

Truth. — " I have never read a book on Russia which gives such 
intimate and interesting, and at the same time vivid, pictures 
of social, domestic, political, and ecclesiastical life of Russia." 

Nation. — "Mr. Reynolds writes with great simplicity, taking, 
nothing for granted, and his knowledge is unusually intimate." 

Punch. — " It is the best work of its kind I have seen for years." 

Tatler. — "A book which everybody will find interesting.. 
Quite one of the most vivid accounts of Russia of to-day." 



a Mills 6t Boon's Catalogue 

What I Know : Reminiscences of Five Years' 
Personal Attendance upon His Late Majesty 
King Edward VII. 

By C. W. STAMPER. With a Portrait of King Edward 
in Colour, never before published, by OLIVE SNELL. 
Demy 8vo, los. 6d. net. 

An intimate picture of tlie private life of King Edward, 
including a faithful record or diary of the last five years 
of his late Majesty's life. Full of the echoes of con- 
versations, the book is written throughout from the 
purely human point of view, dealing frankly with the 
life and ways of a gentleman who happened to be a 
king. Names of living men and women appear upon 
every page. Mr. Stamper has caught the smile upon 
the King's face. It is a unique book about a unique 
personality. 

A Century of Famous Actresses (1750-1850). 

By HAROLD SIMPSON, Author of " Yvette Guilbert," 
" A Century of Ballads," etc., and Mrs. CHARLES 
BRAUN. With i8 Illustrations. Demy 8vo. los. 6d. net. 

The present volume aims at presenting vivid little 
pen-portraits of individualities through the medium of 
their art, and the position which they won for them- 
selves in the world of acting. After a short account of 
the position of women as regards the stage from the 
earliest times, the author deals with those stars who 
were at their zenith in 1750, such as Mrs. Pritchard, 
Mrs. Gibber, Peg Wofhngton, George Anne Bellamy, 
and Kitty Clive. Pie next passes in review some of the 
stars who commenced to shine during the first half of the 
period (1750-1800 about), Mrs. Abington, Miss Farren 
(afterwards Countess of Derby), Dorothy Jordan, and 
others. Next follows the ** Siddons Period," which in- 
cludes, besides Mrs. Siddons, such names as Fanny 
Kemble, Mrs. Stirling, Helen Faucit, Madame Vestris, 
etc., and the volume concludes with a brief notice of 

those who came after " (Mrs. Bancroft, Mrs. Kendall, 
iElIen Terry, etc.). 



I 



spring. Announcements j 

The Cruise of the "Snark." 

By JACK LONDON. With 119 Illustrations, Demy 
8vo. 85. 6d. net. 

" The Cruise of the Snark " is a record of Mr. Jack 
London's remarkable httle boat, which he sailed for two 
years in remote parts of the world and never touched 
rock, reef or shoal. The voyage was the author's idea 
of a good time, and the book is dedicated to " Char- 
mian," the only woman who did the trip. " The Cruise 
of the Snark " is a highly instructive and informative 
book, touching in a general way wanderings in Samoa, 
New Zealand, Tasmania, AustraUa, New Guinea, etc. 

The Petticoat Commando ; or, 
Boer Women in Secret Service. 

By JOHANNA BRANDT. With 13 Illustrations and a 
Map. Crown Svo. 65. 

In this remarkable human document is described the 
perils and hardships connected with the Secret Service 
of the Boers and the heroism and resource displayed 
by the men. It throws a light on some little-known 
incidents of the South African War, and is an extremely 
dramatic picture of the hopes and fears, the devotion 
and bitterness, with which some Boer women in Pretoria 
watched and, so far as they could, took part in the war. 
The greater part of the narrative comes from a diary 
kept during the war with unusual fulness and vividness. 
No fictitious names have been employed, and the experi- 
ences of the diarist, as they were recorded from day to 
day, are correct in every detail. 

The Wonderful Weald and the 
Quest of the Crock of Gold. 

By ARTHUR BECKETT, Author of " The Spirit of the 
Downs." With 20 Illustrations in Colour and 43 Initials 
by ERNEST MARILLIER and a Map. Popular 
Edition. Large Crown Svo. 6s. 

Daily Telegraph. — " A charmingly discursive, gossipy volume." 
'Observer. — " This buoyant and charming book." 



4 Mills <t Boon's Catalogue 

Rambles in Holland. 

By E. and M. S. GREW. With 32 Illustrations, Crown 
8vo. 65. [Rambles Series. 

" Rambles in Holland " is a gossiping, descriptive 
account of travels during the spring and summer over 
the whole of the Netherlands, and the authors visited 
not only the well-known western towns, Amsterdam 
and Rotterdam, Middelburg, Leiden and Haarlem, The 
Hague, Delft and Dordrecht, and the fishing-villages of 
the Zuider Zee from Hoorn and Enkhuizen to Volendam 
and Mar ken, but journeyed north and south and east 
so as to include in their itineraries the Friesland capital 
of Leeuwarden and the University town of Groningen, 
the ancient border cities of Nimwegen and Arnhem, and 
the most southerly town of Maastricht. 

The Romance of the Oxford Colleges. 

By FRANCIS GRIBBLE. With 12 full-page Illustra- 
tions. New Edition. Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. net. 
(The 6s. Presentation Edition of this book, with a photo- 
gravure and 16 full-page Illustrations, is still to be had' 
and makes a charming present.) 
Westminster Gazette. — '' Does not contain a dull page." 

Royal Spade Auction Bridge. 

By ARCHIBALD DUNN. Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. net. 

This book is, to all intents and purposes, a second 
edition of " Auction Bridge." Its issue, however, coin- 
cides with the advent of '* Royal Spades." 

" Royal Spades " is not a new game, but simply a 
variation of an old one. To master the " Royal Spade " 
game it is essential that the player should have first 
familiarised himself with the general system of playing 
Auction Bridge ; then it becomes a simple matter to 
adapt his methods to the altered conditions. In detail, 
however, there is much that is new. Experience has 
opened the eyes of Auction Bridge players — without 
exception, one may fairly say — to the possibilities of 
the game and enlightened them as to the methods 
which best make for success. And so, with a view to- 
bringing the book completely up to date, it has been 
in a large measure re- written. 



I 



spring Announcements 5 

First Steps to Golf 

By GEORGE S. BROWN. With Ninety Illustrations 
by G. D. ABRAHAM. Crown 8vo. 25. 6d. net. 
** First Steps to Golf " is a book for the novice about 
to take up this fascinating game. It is written in the 
simplest of language, and will be found invaluable to 
either sex in need of an elementary book on the subject. 
The illustrations are remarkable, for they give with 
much simplicity the various strokes and positions in 
perhaps the clearest manner which has yet been offered 
in any Golfing book. To anyone about to take up Golf 
this is the book. It will not interest advanced players. 

Twenty-four Years of Cricket. 

By ARTHUR A. LILLEY. With 32 Illustrations. 

Popular Edition. 2s. net. 
The late Mr. Andrew Lang in the Morning Po^t : " ' There is 
not a headache in a hogshead of it.' It is an honest and chival- 
rous book. He had rivals. But his remarks about them are 
worthy of Sir Lancelot, a very perfect gentle knight. In short, 
this is a delightful book, full of thrilling reminiscences, while all 
the opinions are given with the serene impartiaUty of the umpire.'* 

The Golfer's Pocket Tip Book. 

By G. D. FOX, part- Author of " The Six Handicap 
Golfer's Companion." Fully Illustrated. PottSvo. Cheaper 
Edition. Leather. 25. 6d. net. 

The Dog Lover's Companion. 

By AN EXPERT. With 16 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 
2s. net. [Mills 6- Boon's Companion Series, 

While many books have been written on the various 
breeds now before the public, and on the management 
of large kennels, there is practically no little handy 
volume entirely suitable for the one-dog man or woman 
who merely wishes to keep a pet in health. The author 
has for over twenty years conducted a column for amateur 
fanciers in one of the best-known weekly papers. 

The Six Handicap Golfer's Companion. 

By "TWO OF HIS KIND." With Chapters by H. S. 
COLT and HAROLD H. HILTON [ex open and amateur 
champion). Illustrated with 15 Photographs of JACK 
WHITE lex open champion). Popular Edition, is. net. 
[Mills & Boon's Companion Series, 



d Mills & Boon's Catalogue 

MILLS & BOON'S 

SUMMER FICTION 

Crown 8vo. 6s. each. 

The Red Mirage. 

By 1. A. R. WYLIE, Author of " The Rajah's People." 
" The Daughter of Brahma," etc., etc. 

In " The Red Mirage " Miss Wylie gives us once more 
another, if different, Eastern setting for her story. The 
scene is laid chiefly in Algiers, and concerns a phase of 
military life there which, though full of dramatic possi- 
bilities, has been but rarely handled by the novelist. 
The adventures of the chivalrous, hot-headed English 
hero under the French flag, the strange chain of cir- 
cumstance which links his fate with that of the other 
characters, are vividly described, and the gradual 
working-up of the climax holds the reader's attention 
from chapter to chapter. No less fascinating is the 
delineation of character and the brilliant touches of 
Oriental colouring. 

The Man from Nowhere. 

By VICTOR BRIDGES. [June 15 Novel.* 

Mills & Boon have no hesitation in predicting that 
" The Man from Nowhere " will be one of the most 
successful novels of the year, and worthy to rank along- 
side the previous brilliant June 15 novels they have- 

* June 15. All fiction readers will remember with pleasure that 
on this dale in successive years Mills & Boon published notable 
first novels of remarkable ability in " The Veil," by E. S. Stevens, 
" The Rajah's People," by I. A. R. Wylie, " When the Red Gods 
Call," by Beatrice Grimshaw, and the second novel by the author 
of " The Rajah's People," viz. " The Daughter of Brahma." 
Mills &> Boon will publish " The Man from Nowhere " on June 16- 
ijune IS, 191 3, being Sunday). 



Summer Fiction 1913 7 

issued. " The Man from Nowhere " is a modern ad- 
venture story, the scene being laid chiefly in London, 
and it is told with a vim, a crispness, and a gay sense of 
humour that fascinate the reader from the opening 
paragraph. The hero is a creation of v/hom any author 
might be proud. He belongs to the " Legion that never 
was listed," one of those delightful, cheerful adventurers 
to whom all the world is home, and anything that 
promises excitement a profession for the time. His 
charming love-story, told with a rare blend of delicacy 
and naturalness, makes the whole narrative swing along 
with a grip and sparkle that place it very high among 
the notable novels of the last few years. 

Wilsam. [Second Edition. 

By S. C. NETHERSOLE, Author of "Mary up at 
Gaffries," " Ripe Corn." 
Daily Mail. — " There is a leisured gentleness about the story, 
an unaffected delight in the scenery, a friendhness between the 
author and her characters, which things put the reader in a 
kindly mood. Some of the touches show insight and observa- 
tion to a surprising degree. The pathos loses nothing for its 
restraint. The book is deft, tender, and well bred, three very 
admirable qualities and none too commonly found in novels." 

Because of Jane. [Second Edition. 

By J. E. BUCKROSE, Author of " Down our Street/^ 
" The Browns." 

Morning Post.—" We can warmly congratulate the author 
on a book, quite rare in its sincerity and quite unique in its 
sympathy and humour." 

Times. — " Full of the author's comprehending and humorous 
sympathy." 

Hearth and Home. — " Congratulations to the author of a 
charming child character and a dehghtful story." 

A Son of the Sun. [Third Edition, 

By JACK LONDON, Author of "South Sea Tales,'* 

" When God Laughs." 

Pall Mall Gazette. — " We lay this book down happily conscious 

of our famiHarity with the South Seas, although we have never 

been within a thousand leagues of them." 

Standard. — " Jack London justifies the claim to be considered 
the KipUng of America." 



$ Mills & Booties Catalogue 

Penelope's Doors. 

By SOPHIE COLE, Author of " In Search of Each 
Other." 

The Friendly Enemy. 

By T. P. CAMERON WILSON. (A New Mills & Boon 
Discovery.) 

The Call of the Siren. [Second Edition. 

By HAROLD SPENDER, Author of "The Arena." 

The Transformation of Timothy. 

By THOMAS COBB, Author of " A Marriage of Incon- 
venience." 

Mr. Sheringham and Others. 

By MRS. ALFRED SIDGWICK, Author of " Cvnthia's 
Way." 

The Hidden Road. 

By JOAN SUTHERLAND. 

"The Hidden Road" is a novel dealing with the country 
of Tibet, and the arrival at Lhasa of a famous political 
Mission. The rescue of Ludar Stair by his cousin, the 
general in command, from the torture and darkness of 
a monastic cell, where he has been imprisoned by the 
JLamas, forms the main plot of the story. A strong love- 
interest centres round Ludar Stair, his rescuer, and the 
supposed daughter of the political head of the Mission, 
Sir Charles Wraythe. 

In lis action and drama the book is following on its 
predecessors, *' Cavanagh of Kultaun " and " The 
Dawn." 

Swift Nick of the York Road. 

By GEORGE EDGAR, Author of " The Blue Bird's-Eye." 

Middleground. 

By The Author of " Mastenng Flame" and " Ashes of 

Incense." 

The Swashbuckler. 

By MRS. BAILLIE REYNOLDS, Author of "The 
Silence Broken," " Nigel Ferrard." 



Summer Fiction 1913 9 

The Gondola. 

By ROTHAY REYNOLDS, Author of "My Russian 
Year." 

The Brat. 

By MRS. H. H. PENROSE, Author of " The House of 
' Rennell." 

Through the Window. 

By MARY E. MANN, Author of " Bound Together,'* 
" Men and Dreams." 

The Sphinx in the Labyrinth. 

By 'MAUDE ANNESLEY, Author of "All Awry,'* 
" My Parisian Year." 

Miss King's Profession. 

By E. M. CIIANNON, Author of " A Street Angel,'* 
" Cato's Daughter." 

Lily Magic. 

By MARY L. PENDERED, Author of " At Lavender 
Cottage," " An Englishman." 

With Drums Unmuffled. 

By L. A. BURGESS. 

Margaret and the Doctor. 

By MRS. RANYARD WEST. 

Guppy Guyson. 

By W. M. O'KANE, Author of " With Poison and Sword.'* 

Attraction. 

By LOUISE MACK, Author of " Romance of a Woman- 
of Thirty," "Teens." 

The Adolescence of Aubrey. 

By HARRY JERMYN. 

An Unknown Lover. 

By MRS. G. DE HORNE VAIZEY, Author of " The- 
Adventures of BilUe Belshaw." 

Outlaw's Luck. 

By DOROTHEA MACKELLAR, Author of "Little 
Blue Devil." 

Smoke Bellew. 

By JACK LONDON, Author of "A Son of the Sun/* 
" When God Laughs." 



to MUls & Boon's Catalogue 

MILLS & BOON'S 
SHILLING NOVELS. 

New Volumes. 

The Daughter of Brahma. By I. A. R. WYLIE. 

The Blue Bird's Eye. By GEORGE EDGAR. 

Pollyooly. By EDGAR JEPSON. 

The Bolster Book. By harry graham. 

Life. By W. B. TRITES. 

The Square Mile. By HORACE w. C. NEWTE. 

The Girl who Saved His Honour. 

(Entirely New.) By ARTHUR APPLIN. 

The Frontier. 

By The Author of " Arsene Lupin " (M. Leblanc). 
When God Laughs. By JACK LONDON. 

Sons of State. By WINIFRED GRAHAM. 

His First Offence. By j. storer clouston. 



MILLS & BOON'S 
SIXPENNY NOVELS. 

with most attractive Picture Covers, 
Calico Jack. By HORACE W. C. NEWTE. 

The Sins of the Children. By HORACE w. c. newte. 
A Golden Straw. By J. E. BUCKROSE. 

The Pilgrimage of a Fool. By j. E. BUCKROSE. 
The Quaker Girl. By HAROLD Simpson- 

(The Novel of the Play.) 
Fame. By B. M. CROKER. 

The Silence Broken. By MRS. baillie Reynolds. 
The Education of Jacqueline. By claire de pratz. 
The End and the Beginning. By COSMO HAMILTON. 
The Adventures of Captain Jack. 

By MAX PEMBERTON. 

Peter Pan (the Fairy Story of the Play). 

• ' By G. D. DRENNAN. 



General Literature li 

BOOKS PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED 

GENERAL LITERATURE 

These Books are arranged in order of price, 

England v. Australia. 

By p. F. WARNER. With s i Illustrations. Autograph 
Edition, limited to 50 copies, on hand-made paper. 
Crown 4to. 21s, net. Popular Edition, demy 8vo, 
ys. 6d. net. 

Sporting and Dramatic News,—" We strongly recommend the 
volume." 

Sporting Life^ — " The book is one that every cricketer should 
possess." 

The English Court in Exile : James 11. 
at St. Germain. 

By MARION and EDWIN SHARPE GREW. With 
1 6 Illustrations. 155. net. 

Spectator. — " Should certainly be read by all students of the 
revolution; an exceedingly interesting and readable book." 

AthencBum. — " Not a single uninteresting page. We had no 
idea so good a book could be written on such a story." 

Truth. — " Excellent . . . picturesque and impartial." 



The Court of William III. 

By EDWIN and MARION SHARPE GREW. With 
16 Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 15s. net. 

Morning Post. — " Done with fairness and thoroughness. . . , 
The book has many conspicuous merits." 

From Halifax to Vancouver. 

By B. PULLEN-BURRY. With 40 Illustrations. 
Demy 8vo, 12s. 6d. net. 

Daily Chronicle, — " Well written, well arranged, full and 
•complete." 



13 Mills 6t Boon's Catalogue 

The Story of the British Navy. 

By E. KEBLE CHATTERTON. With a Frontispiece 
in Colour and 50 Illustrations from Photographs. Demy 
8vo. I05. 6d. net. 
Naval and Military Record. — " Contains practically every- 
thing which the average individual wishes to know." 

Royal Love-Letters : A Batch 
of Human Documents. 

Collected and Edited by E. KEBLE CHATTERTON, 
With 12 Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 105. 6d. net. 
Pall Mall Gazette. — " Full of interest and entertainment." 

The Wonderful Weald and the 
Quest of the Crock of Gold. 

By ARTHUR BECKETT. Author of " The Spirit of the 
Downs," With 20 Illustrations in Colour and 43 Initials 
by ERNEST MARILLIER. Demy 8vo. 105. 6d. net. 
Popular Edition. Large Crown 8vo. 6s. 
Daily Telegraph. — "A charmingly discursive, gossipy volume." 
Observer. — " This buoyant and charming book." 

Forty Years of a Sportsman's Life. 

■ By SIR CLAUDE CHAMPION DE CRESPIGNY, Bart. 
I " With 1 8 Illustrations. Demy 8vo. ios.6d.net. Popular 

Edition. Large Crown 8vo. 6s. 
Daily Mail. — " From cover to cover there is not a dull page." 
Sporting Life. — " More enthralUng than the most romantic 
novel." 

Sixty- Eight Years on the Stage. 

By Mrs. CHARLES CALVERT. With a Photogravure 
and 17 Illustrations. Demy 8vo. los. 6d. net. 
Popular Edition. Large Crown 8vo. 6s. 
Morning Post. — " Agreeable and amusing." 

Forty Years of Song. 

By EMMA ALBANI. With a Frontispiece in Photo- 
gravure and 16 Illustrations. Demy Svo. los. 6d. net. 
Westminster Gazette. — " A very readable account of a very 
remarkable career." 

Standard. — " Most interesting reading." 



General Literature 13 

My Parisian Year. 

By MAUDE ANNESLEY, Author of " All Awry," etc. 
With 16 Illustrations from photographs and i in colour. 
Demy 8vo. Second Edition. los. 6d. net. 
Pall Mall Gazette. — " The ' joie de vivre ' radiates from its 
pages . . . never dull or commonplace." 

Observer. — " Lots of wrinkles ... a sprightly book." 
Evening Standard. — " What Max O'Rell did for our country- 
men Maude Annesley does for his." 

Scotsman. — " Convincing as well as highly entertaining." 
Country Life. — " This very happy book. . . . Always viva- 
cious and amusing." 

World. — "Entertaining, most quaintly illustrated, and most 
informing." 

Truth. — " It is a delightful book." 

My Italian Year. 

By RICHARD BAGOT. With 25 Illustrations. Demy 
8vo. Second Edition. los. 6d. net. 
The Observer. — " ' My Italian Year ' will tell the reader more 
about the real present-day go-ahead Italy than any other book 
that has come to our notice," 

Daily Telegraph. — " A thoughtful, knowledgeful book." 
Daily Mail. — " Absorbingly interesting." 

My Sudan Year. 

By E. S. STEVENS, Author of "The Veil," "The 
Lure," etc. With 40 Illustrations. DemySvo. los. 6^?. net. 

British Weekly. — " Will take its place among the best of 
Sudanese travel-books." 

Dundee Advertiser. — " Really delightful. . . . Those who 
remember Miss Stevens's Sudanese pictures in the second half 
of ' The Lure ' will know what to expect, and it is very high 
praise to say they will not be disappointed." 

Standard. — " Gives many delightful little pictures of the 
people, their manners and customs, and much that is attractive." 

Scotsman. — " An interesting and informative book." 

Sphere. — " The pleasant easy style makes the book very 
attractive." 

My German Year. 

By I. A. R. WYLIE, Author of " The Rajah's People." 
With 2 Illustrations in Colour and 18 from Photographs, 
Demy Svo. Second Edition. 105. 6d. net. 
Evening Standard. — " Should be read by every household." 
Westminstgr Gazette. — " A wise, well-informed, and very read- 
able book." 



14 Mills & Boon's Catalogue 

My Irish Year. 

By PADRAIC COLUM. With 12 full -page Illustrations, 
Demy 8vo. los. 6d. net. 

Bystander, — " Intensely interesting." 

AthencBum. — " Full of interest and charm." 

Freeman's Journal. — " An epitome of Irish life, compounded of 
tears and laughter, despair and exaltation, with a strong leaven 
of hope running through it, to be re-read and digested by all who. 
desire to know the real Ireland." 

Sunday Times. — " A pure literary joy." 

Turkey and the Turks. 

By Z. D. FERRIMAN, Author of " Home Life in Hellas.'^ 
With 16 Illustrations. Demy 8vo. los. 6d. net. 

Pall Mall Gazette. — " This extremely fascinating and instruQ- 
tive volume is peculiarly welcome." 

The Man Who Saved Austria : 

The Life and Times of Baron Jellacic. 

By M. HARTLEY, Author of " A Sereshan." With i^ 
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light on the Croatian national revivaL" 

A Mystic on the Prussian Throne : 
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;.;.,.j By GILBERT STANHOPE. With 12 Illustrations. 
*""' Demy 8vo. 105. 6d. net. 

Morning Post. — " We congratulate Mr. Stanhope on a very 
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The Parson's Pleasance. ;^'^ . '^ ' 

.,r,';.,By p. H. DITCHFIELD, M.A.. F.S.A., F.R.S.L., 

't'.R.Hist.S., Author of "The Old-time Parson," etc. 

, . ,With 27 Illustrations, Demy 8vo. 105. 6d. net. 

• Daily Telegraph.-rr-'' All lovers of the leisurely essay will here 

find a book after their own hearts." -s 



General Literature 15 

Wagner at Home. 

Fully translated from the French of Judith Gautier by 
EFFIE DUNREITH MASSIE. With 9 Illustrations. 
Demy 8vo. ids. 6d. net. 
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Yvette Guilbert : Struggles and Victories. 

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A Century of Great Actors (1750—1850). 

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A Century of Ballads (1810—1910), 
Their Composers and Singers. 

By HAROLD SIMPSON. With 49 Illustrations. Demy 
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Home Life in Hellas : Greece and the Greeks. 

By Z. DUCKETT FERRIMAN. With 19 Illustrations. 
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Morning Post. — " Possesses the great merit of being written by 
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people whose life he describes." 

British Weekly. — " Full of up-to-date information. It is good, 
as a tourist's handbook, and still better for fireside reading." 

Involution. 

By LORD ERNEST HAMILTON. Demy 8vo, 7^, 6d, 
net. 
Daily Graphic— " Bxtremely interesting, an honest asfc? 
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i6 Mills & Boon*s Catalogue 

Twenty -four Years of Cricket. 

By ARTHUR A. LILLEY. With a Portrait in Photo- 
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Tramps through Tyrol. 

By F. W. STODDARD ("Dolomite"). With 20 Illus- 
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Standard. — " The outcome not of a mere holiday scamper, but 
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and Cortino — to say nothing of Innsbriick and Meran. He 
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of the swift ski. He takes us to beauty spots situated at an 
altitude of 4,000 or 5,000 feet, and beyond all this we learn about 
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peasants, and much else that makes the picture attractive. Al- 
together ' Tramps Through Tyrol ' is an alluring book. ' Try,* 
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British Mountain Climbs. 

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A Queen's Knight : The Life of 
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Daily Telegraphs — " Sympathetic and moving," 



General Literature 17 

St. Clare and her Order : A Story 
of Seven Centuries. 

By THE AUTHOR OF "THE ENCLOSED NUN." 
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Catholic Times. — " Fills a gap in our religious literature." 

Home Life in Ireland. 

By ROBERT LYND. With 18 Illustrations. Third 
and Popular Edition, with a New Preface. Crown 8vo. 
6s. 

Evening Standard. — "Briefly, then, Mr. Lynd's book can be 
most heartily recommended to those Englishmen who would 
gain some coherent idea of spiritual and material Ireland. No 
suggestion of a Blue Book ever intervenes to make the author's 
remarks stiff or formal. On the contrary, an optimistic Irishman 
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educating us. All the same, he does educate us, and without 
tears." 

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The Town of Morality : or, The Narrative of 
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By C. H. R. Second Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Daily Graphic. — " In short C. H. R. has written a new * Pil- 
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Liverpool Courier. — " One of the most thoughtful and best 
written books that has appeared in recent years." 

Scotsman. — " An able book, both on its theological and literary 
•«ides." 

The Romance of the Men of Devon. 

By FRANCIS GRIBBLE, Author of "The Romance 
of the Oxford Colleges," etc. With a Photogravure 
Frontispiece and 16 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

The Lady. — " A delightful volume." 

Dundee Advertiser. — " Written with a charm and ease which 
4ire delightful." 



1 8 Mills 6t Boon's Catalogue 

The Romance of the Oxford Colleges. 

By FRANCIS GRIBBLE. With a Photogravure and 
1 6 full-page Illustrations. Second Edition. Crown 8vo. 
6s. Popular Edition, with 12 Illustrations. 2s. 6d. 

Westminster Gazette. — " Does not contain a dull page." 

Out of the Ivory Palaces. 

By P. H. DITCHFIELD, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.S.L.^ 
F.R.Hist.S., Author of " The Parson's Pleasance." With 
12 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Globe. — " The author gives much curious and out-of-the-way 
information in these very readable pages." 
Glasgow Herald. — " A most interesting book." 

The Bolster Book. A Book for the Bedside. 

By HARRY GRAHAM, Author of " Deportmental 
Ditties." With an illustrated cover by Lewis Baumer. 
Third Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Sunday Times. — "Very amusing." 

Daily Graphic. — " Most refreshingly and delightfully funny/* 

Toiler. — " What a vital want such volumes fill I " 

Observer. — "Most excellent jesting." 

Manchester Courier, — " It is impossible to imagine anything 
more calculated to keep the reader wide awake, and even 
* smiling audibly.' " 

Letters of a Modem Golfer to 
his Grandfather. 

Arranged by HENRY LEACH. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Outlook. — " A book in which the human interest is as marked 
as the practical instruction." 

The Zoo Conversation Book 
(Hughie's First Visit). 

By EDMUND SELOUS, Author of "Tommy Smith's 
Animals." With 12 Full-Page Illustrations by J. A. 
SHEPHERD. Crown 8vo. 5s. net. School Edition, is. 

The animals dealt with are : the beaver, lion, tiger, 
Indian elephant, African rhinoceros, hippopotamus^ 



General Literature 19 

giraffe, grizzly bear, polar bear, bison, crocodile and 
alligator, python, cobra, kangaroo, ostrich. 

Country Life. — " A fascinating idea." 

Scotsman. — " A happy idea." 

Sheffield Telegraph. — " The kind of thing to go well as a Christ- 
mas present." 

Morning Post. — "The genuine humour of Mr. Shepherd's 
drawings is all of a piece with the letterpress," 

The Zoo Conversation Book 
(Hughie's Second Visit). 

By EDMUND SELOUS, Author of "Tommy Smith's 
Animals." With 12 Full-page Illustrations by J. A. 
SHEPHERD. Crown 8vo. 5s. net. 

The animals dealt with are : the wapiti, sloth bear, 
hyaena, puma, jaguar, wolf, pinniped, baby sea-elephant, 
emu, wild boar, springbuck, hunting dog, wolverine. 

A companion volume to " The Zoo Conversation 
Book (Hughie's First Visit)." 

Westminster Gazette. — " Hughie's second visit is even more 
crowded with fun and good entertainment than was the first." 

The Motorist's Pocket Tip Book. 

By GEOFFREY OSBORN. With 13 fuU-page Illus- 
trations. Fcap. 8vo. Leather. 5s. net. 

Scottish Field. — " Contains in the clearest, most condensed^ 
and most practical form just the information one wants." 

Stories from Italian History Re-told for 
Children. 

By G. E. TROUTBECK. Author of "The Children's 
Story of Westminster Abbey." With 22 Illustrations 
from Photographs. Crown 8vo. 55. net. 

Tatler. — " These stories are so vivid and so interesting that 
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The Children's Story of Westminster Abbey. 

By G. E. TROUTBECK, Author of *' Westminster 
Abbey" (Little Guides). With 4 Photogravure Plates, 
v: ; and 21 lUustrations from Photographs. Crown 8vo». 
55. net. Popular Edition, 15. net. School Edition, is. 



ao Mills & Boon's Catalogue 

Egypt as We Knew It. 

By E. L. BUTCHER, Author of " The Story of the Church 

of Egypt." With i6 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 5s. net. 

Spectator. — " Most entertaining and not a httle instructive." 

The German Spy System in France. 

Translated from the French of PAUL LANOIR. Crown 
8vo. 5s. net. 
Standard. — " Ought to engage the serious attention of those 
responsible for the national security." 

Canned Classics, and Other Verses. 

By HARRY GRAHAM, Author of " Deportmental 
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trated by LEWIS BAUMER. Crown 4to, 3s. 6d. net. 
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Times. — " As fresh as ever." 

Evening Standard. — " One long delight." 

Deportmental Ditties. 

By HARRY GRAHAM. Profusely Illustrated by LEWIS 
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Daily Graphic. — " Harry Graham certainly has the knack." 
Daily Chronicle. — " All clever, generally flippant, invariably 
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Queery Leary Nonsense. 

Being a Lear Nonsense Book, with a long Introduction 
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LADY STRACHIE of Sutton Court. With about 50 
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Daily Telegraph. — " A book full of fascinating absurdity, and 
the true spirit of the King of Nonsense." 

Spectator. — " Lovers of true and sound nonsense owe a debt 
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spective shares in putting together a volume of hitherto un- 
published matter (both letterpress and illustrations) from the 
pen and pencil of Edward Lear." 

Observer. — " Adds a few more verses and a great many 
inimitable pictures to the treasure-heap of Lear's work." 

Ships and Sealing Wax 

By HANSARD WATT. With 40 Illustrations by L. R. 
BRIGHTWELL. Crown 4to. 3s. 6d. net. 
Daily Mail. — " Very clever and amusing, the humour enhanced 
^y quaint illustrations." 



General Literature 21 

Nerves and the Nervous. 

By EDWIN L. ASH, M.D. (Lond.). New Edition. Crowtt 
8vo. Cloth, 3s. 6d. net. 

Daily Express. — " One of the most refreshing books pubUshed 
for some time. Dr. Ash not only probes into exactly what one 
feels when one is nervous or worried, but the treatment is so 
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A Manual for Nurses. 

By SYDNEY WELHAM, M.R.C.S. (late Resident Medical 

Officer, Charing Cross Hospital). With Diagrams.. 

Crown 8vo. 35. 6d. net. 

British Medical Journal. — Answers to Correspondents, 22nd 

October 19 10. — L. M. writes : "In answer to ' Lecturer ' re 

up-to-date book on Medical Nursing, I have found that Mr, 

Welham's book ' A Manual for Nurses ' a most excellent volume. 

It is very readable, quite up-to-date, and efficient." 

Nursing Times. — " Clear and concise, with a good glossary 
and index." 

British Medical Journal. — "A useful reference work for 
nurses both early and late in their career." 

Child-Nurture. 

By HONNOR MORTEN, Author of " The Nursery Nurse's- 
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Athenceum. — " Deals clearly and sensibly with the upbringing 
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Standard. — " Admirably practical . . . full of useful know- 
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Yorkshire Post. — " Thoroughly sound." 

Through the Loopholes of Retreat. 

By HANSARD WATT. With a Portrait of Cowper i» 
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Kings and Queens of France. 

A Concise History of France. ■ ' ' v 

By MILDRED CARNEGY. With a Preface by the 
Bishop of Hereford. With a Map and 4 full-page- 
Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 3s. 6d. 



2S^ Mills & Boon's Catalogue 

Club Bridge. 

By ARCHIBALD DUNN, Author of " Bridge and How to 
Play it." Crown 8vo. Popular Edition, 3s. net. 
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Manchester Guardian. — " A masterly and exhaustive treatise." 

The Golfer s Pocket Tip Book. 

By G. D. FOX, part-Author of " The Six Handicap Golfer's 
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New Edition. 25, 6d. net. 
Harry Vardon says: — " It is a very handy little book." 
Morning Post. — " Concise, clear, crisp, brief, and business- 
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Peter Pan : The Fairy Story of the Play. 

By G. D. DRENNAN. With a Photogravure of Miss 
Pauline Chase as Peter Pan, Fcap. 8vo. Leather, 
2s. 6d. net. Popular Edition, Paper, 6d. School Reader 
Edition, with an introduction by A. R. PICKLES, M.A., 
Director of Education, Burnley, Cloth, 6d. 

The Italians of To-day. 

By RICHARD BAGOT, Author of " My Italian Year." 
Crown 8vo. Third Edition. 25. 6d. net. 
Scotsman. — " Shows the same intimate knowledge of Italian 
life and character as ' JNIy Italian Year.' " 

Mental Self-Help. 

By EDWIN L. ASH, M.D. (Lond.), Assistant Physician 
Italian Hospital, London ; Physician for Nervous Dis- 
eases to the Kensington and Fulham General Hospital. 
Author of " Nerves and the Nervous." Crown 8vo. 
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Field. — " Full of interest and suggestions for keeping a sound 
mind in a sound body." 

AthencBum. — "A lucid little book. His style is clear and 
convincing." 

The Lear Coloured Bird Book for Children. 

By EDWARD LEAR. With a Foreword by J. ST. 
LOE STRACHEY. 25. 6d. net. 

An Actor s Hamlet. 

With full notes by LOUIS CALVERT, Crown 8vo. 
2s. 6d. net. 
Daily Chronicle^ — Full of illuminating insight/ 



General Literature 23 

The Enclosed Nun. 

Fcap. 8vo, New Edition. Cloth, 2s. 6i, net ; Paper, 
15. net. 
Pall Mall Gazette. — " A remarkably beautiful piece of devo- 
tional writing." 

A Little Girl's Cookery Book. 

By C, F. BENTON and MARY F, HODGE, Crown 
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Evening Standard, — " Well suited to all unextravagant cooks." 

The Garden of Song. 

Edited by HAROLD SIMPSON. Fcap. 8vo. 25. 6d. net. 

Scotsman. — " An excellent anthology of lyrics that have been 

set to music. They are, for the most part, songs that have 

enjoyed a wide popularity, and this collection of lyrical gems 

forms a very desirable little volume." 

The Pocket Gladstone : Selections from the 
Writings and Speeches of William Ewart Gladstone. 

Compiled by J. AUBREY REES, with an Introduction 
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Fcap. 8vo. Cloth, 25. net. Paper, 15. net. 
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The Pocket Disraeli. 

By J. B. LINDENBAUM, M.A. (Uniform with "The 
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Spectator. — " From what other statesman's works could so 
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Santa -Claus : The Kinemacolour Fairy Play. 

By HAROLD SIMPSON. With 34 Illustrations. Crown 
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The New Theology. {Sixteenth Thousand.) 

By the Rev. R. J. CAMPBELL, M.A. Fully revised and 
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Votes for Women. A Play in Three Acts. 

By ELIZABETH ROBINS. Crown 8vo. is. 



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" They teem with interesting information about people and 
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Rambles Around French Chateaux. 

By FRANCES M. GOSTLING, Author of " The Bretons 
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Rambles in the Black Forest. 

By I. A. R. WYLIE, Author of "My German Year,'* 
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and 24 from Photographs, Crown 8vo. 65, 

Rambles in Norway. 

By HAROLD SIMPSON. With 8 Illustrations in 
Colour and 32 from Photographs. Crown 8vo, 65, 

Rambles with an American 
in Great Britain. 

By CHRISTIAN TEARLE, Author of " Holbom Hill." 
With 21 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

Rambles in Ireland. 

By ROBERT LYND, Author of "Home Life in Ireland." 
With 5 Illustrations in Colour by JACK B. YEATS and 
25 from Photographs. Crown 8vo. 65. 
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presents with beauty simple and unaffected." 

Times. — " Mr. Lynd gets at the heart of the people of the 
country, and imparts his knowledge in a bright, unconventional, 
arresting way." 

Rambles in Florence. 

By G. E. TROUTBECK, Author of "Stories from Italian 

History." With 8 Illustrations in Colour by R. 

McANDREW and 32 from Photographs. Crown 8vo. 6s, 

Liverpool Post. — " A delightfully illustrated handbook which 

gives not only a general but also a personal impression of the 

famous city." 

Rambles in Holland. 

- * By E. and M. S. GREW. With 32 Illustrations and a 
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Globe. — "A very charming and a very useful book." 
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illustrated." 



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MILLS & BOON'S 

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Crown 8vo» 6s, each. 



All Awry .... 2nd Edition Maude Annesley. 

Nights and Days Maude Annesley. 

The Sphinx in the Labyrinth . . . Maude Annesley. 

Eve, Spinster ...... Anon. 

Some Experiences of a Political Agent Anon. 

Mastering Flame . . 4 th Edition Anon. 

Ashes of Incense . . 2nd Edition Author of " Mastering^ 

Flame." 

Middleground Author of " Mastering: 

Flame." 

Orpheus in Mayfair . , 2nd Edition Maurice Baring. 

Two Men and Gwenda . . . . M. Barnes-Grundy. 

The Palace of Logs Robert Barr. 

Cardillac .... 5th Edition Robert Barr. 

The Sword Maker . . 3rd Edition Robert Barr. 

The Story of Joan Greencroft . . A. N. Bax. 

Golden Vanity ...... Maisie Bennett. 

The Room in the Tower . 2nd Edition E. F. Benson. 

The Glen Mary Stuart Boyd. 

The Silver Medallion .... Percy J. Brebner. 

The Man from Nowhere .... Victor Bridges. 

Because of Jane . . 2nd Edition J. E. Buckrose. 

The Browns . . . 3rd Edition J. E. Buckrose. 

A Bachelor's Comedy . 3rd Edition J. E. Buckrose. 

A Golden Straw . . 2nd Edition J. E. Buckrose. 

The Pilgrimage of a Fool . 2nd Edition J. E. Buckrose. 

Down Our Street . . . 6th Edition J. E. Buckrose. 

Love in a Little Town . Ath Edition J. E. Buckrose. 

With Drums Unmuffled . . ; ;. L. A. Burgess. 

Render unto Caesar Mrs. Vere Campbell.. 

The Bill-Toppers . . ... Andre Castaigne. 

Miss King's Profession . . . E. M. Channon. 

Cato's Daughter . . . . . E. M. Channon. 

The Keeper of the Secret . . . E. M. Channon. 

His First Offence . . 2nd Edition J. Storer Clouston. 

The Prodigal Father . .4th Edition J. Storer Clouston. 

The Transformation of Timothy . Thomas Cobb. 

The Voice of Bethia .... Thomas Cobb. 

A Marriage of Inconvenience . . Thomas Cobb. 

Enter Bridget . . . 2nd Edition Thomas Cobb. 

The Anger of Olivia. 2nd Edition Thomas Cobb. 

Mr. Burnside's Responsibility . . . Thomas Cobb. 

•^rgaret Rutland . . , , Thomas Cobb. 

a6 



MILLS & BOON'S FICTION LIST— continued 



PhiUida .... 




Thomas Cobb. 


The Choice of Theodora . 


. 


Tl.omas Cobb. 


Penelope's Doors 


. 


Sophie Cole. 


A Plain Woman's Portrait 


• • . 


Sophie Cole. 


In Search of Each Other 


. 


Sophie Cole. 


The Thornbush near the Door 


• • 


Sophie Cole. 


Blue Grey Magic 




Sophie Cole. 


A Wardour Street Idyll 




, , 


Sophie Cole. 


Arrows from the Dark 




, 


Sophie Cole. 


The Five of Spades . 




. 


Mrs. P. Ch. de Crespigny. 


The Valley of Achor 




, 


Mrs. P. Ch. de Crespigny. 


The Mark . 




. 


Mrs. P. Ch.de Crespigny. 


Fame 




3rd Edition 


B. M. Croker. 


Rebecca Drew . 






Edith Dart. 


Likeness .... 






Edith Dart. 


The Education of Jacqueline 


3rd Edition 


Claire de Pratz. 


Elisabeth Davenay 


3rd Edition 


Claire de Pratz. 


Children of the Cloven Hoof . 




Albert Dorrington. 


Our Lady of the Leopards 


. 


Albert Dorrington. 


The Lady Calphurnia Royal 


. 


Dorrington & Stephens. 


Swift Nick of the York Road . 


\ . ' 


George Edgar. 


The Blue Bird's-Eye 


3rd Edition 


George Edgar. 


The Battle 


. 


Claude Farrere. 


My Lady Wentworth 




Allan Fea. 


The Swimmer . . . . 




Louise Gerard. 


A Tropical Tangle . 


2nd Edition 


Louise Gerard. 


The Leech . . , . 


. 


Mrs. Harold E. Gorst. 


Sons of State . 




Winifred Graham. 


The Enemy of Woman 


3rd Edition 


Winifred Graham. 


Mary 


4th Edition 


Winifred Graham. 


The Needlewoman 




Winifred Graham. 


The Love Story of a Mormon . 




Winifred Graham. 


Guinea Gold 


2nd Edition 


Beatrice Grimshaw. 


When the Red Gods Call . 


3rd Edition 


Beatrice Grimshaw. 


The End and the Beginning. 3 


s. 6d. 


Cosmo Hamilton. 


Brummell Again 


, , 


Cosmo Hamilton. 


A Sereshan . . . . 


. 


M. Hartley. 


By Force of Circumstances 


. 


Gordon Holmes. 


Margot Munro . . . . 


. 


M. E. Hughes. 


No. 19 . 


2nd Edition 


Edgar Jepson. 


Captain Sentimental . 




Edgar Jepson. 


Polly ooly . 


2nd Edition 


Edgar Jepson. 


Arsene Lupin . 


, 


_ epson and Leblanc. 


The Adolescence of Aubrey 




Harry Jermyn. 


Jehanne of the Golden Lips 


3rd Edition 


F. G. Knowles-Foster, 


The Written Law . 




F. G. Knowles- Foster. 


The Confessions of Arsene Lup 


tin . 


Maurice Leblanc. 


813 . 


2nd Edition 


Maurice Leblanc. 


The Frontier . 




Maurice Leblanc. 


The Phantom of the Oper 


a 


, 


Gaston Leroux. i^^l ^ 



MILLS & BOON'S FICTION LIST— continued 



South Sea Tales 

Smoke Bellew . 

A Son of the Sun 

When God Laughs . 

Attraction 

Outlaw's Luck . 

Through the Window 

Bound Together 

Men and Dreams 

The Last Lord Avanley 

The Yoke of Silence. Ss. 

The Prince 

The Cost . 

Wilsam 

Mary up at Gaffries . 

Ripe Corn 

Calico Jack 

The Sins of the Children 

The Socialist Countess 

The Ealing Miracle . 

<juppy Guyson . 

With Poison and Sword 

Draw in Your Stool . 

Harm's Way 

Stories without Tears 

The Adventures of Capt£ 

The Summer Book . 

Jjly Magic 

Phyllida Flouts Me . 

An Englishman 

At Lavender Cottage 

The Brat . 

The Stairway of Honour 

The Year's Round . 

The Swashbuckler . 

The Silence Broken . 

The Qufeen's Hand , 

Nigel Ferrard . 

Force Majeure . , 

The Sea-Lion . 

Sport of Gods . 

Miss Pilsbury's Fortune 

Mr. Sheringham and Other 

Odd Come Shorts 

Isabel 



The Call of the Siren 
When Love Knocks . 
The Long Engagement 
The Veil . 



3rd Edition 
2nd Edition 



2nd Edition 
2nd Edition 



2nd Edition 
2nd Edition 
4th Edition 
2nd Edition 
3rd Edition 
2nd Edition 
2nd Edition 



2nd Edition 
isicky 3rd Edit. 



2nd Edition 



2nd Edition 
2nd Edition 
2nd Edition 



2nd Edition 
3rd Edition 



2nd Edition 



2nd Edition 

3rd Edition 
. 7th Edition 



Jack London. 
Jack London. 
Jack London. 
Jack London. 
Louise Mack. 
Dorothea Mackellar. 
Mary E. Mann. 
Mary E. Mann. 
Mary E, Mann. 
Gerald Maxwell. 
Amy McLaren, 
Thomas Metcalfe. 
L. G. Moberly. 
S. C. Nethersole. 
S. C. Nethersole. 
S. C. Nethersole. 
Horace W. C. Newte. 
Horace W. C. Newte. 
Horace W. C. Newte. 
Horace W. C. Newte. 
W. M. O'Kane. 
W. M. O'Kane. 
Oliver Onions. 
Lloyd Osbourne. 
Barry Pain. 
Max Pemberton^ 
Max Pemberton. 
Mary L. Pendered. 
Mary L. Pendered. 
Mary L, Pendered. 
Mary L. Pendered. 
Mrs. H. H, Penrose. 
Maud Stepney Rawson. 
Maud Stepney Rawson. 
Mrs. Baillie Reynolds. 
Mrs. Baillie Reynolds. 
Mrs. Baillie Reynolds 
Mrs. Baillie Reynolds 
Patrick Rushden. 
Patrick Rushden. 
H. Vaughan-Sawyer. 
Christine R. Shand. 
Mrs. Alfred Sidgwick. 
Mrs. Alfred Sidgwick. 
Dorothy V. Horace 

Smith. 
Harold Spender. 
Gilbert Stanhope. 
E, S. Stevens. 
E. S. Stevens. 



MILLS & BOON'S FICTION LIST— continued 



4 th 
3rd 

2nd 



2nd 



2nd 



The Mountain of God 

The Lure .... 

The Earthen Drum . 

Tales of the Open Hazard 

The Hidden Road . 

HolbornHiU . 

Written in the Rain . 

Stormlight 

The Girl with the Blue Eyes 

The Woman who Forgot . 

The First Law . 

The Cheat 

Body and Soul . 

A Creature of Circumstance 

The Fool of Faery 

The Island of Souls . 

Royal Lovers 

The Adventures of Biliie Belshaw 

An Unknown Lover 



Aliens near of Kin . 

The Two Faces . 

First Love .... 

The Girl from His Town . 

Mr. Perrin and Mr. Traill . 

The Prelude to Adventure 

The Unknown Woman 

Toddie .... 

If s and Ans 

The King's Highway. 

The Captain's Daughter 

Margaret and the Doctor 

Tess of Ithaca . 

An Averted Marriage 

The Wind among the Barley 

Memoirs of a Buccaneer . 

The Friendly Enemy 

The Prince and Betty 

The Honourable Derek 

The Device of the Black Fox 

The Court of the Gentiles 

Ruth of the Rowldrich 

The Red Mirage 

The Daughter of Brahma 

The Rajah's People . 

Dividing Waters 

In Different Keys 

A Blot on the Scutcheon . 

For Church and Chieftain. 



Edition 
Edition 
Edition 



Edition 
Edition 



2nd Edifion 
2nd Edition 

3rd Edition 



2nd Edition 
2nd Edition 



5th Edition 
8th Edition 
4 th Edition 

2nd Edition 

99 



E. S. Stevens. 
E. S. Stevens. 
E. S. Stevens. 
Halliwell Sulcllffe. 
Joan Sutherland. 
Christian Tearle. 
John Trevena. 
Lady Troubridge. 
Lady Troubridge. 
Lady Troubridge 
Lady Troubridge. 
Lady Troubridge. 
Lady Troubridge. 
Lady Troubridge. 
M. Urquhart. 
M. Urquhart. 
Helene Vacaresco. 
Mrs. G. de Home- 

Vaizey. 
Mrs. G. de Home 

Vaizey. 
N. Vernon. 
Marie van Vorst. 
Marie van Vorst. 
Marie van Vorst. 
Hugh Walpole. 
Hugh Walpole. 
Anne Warwick. 
Gilbert Watson. 
H. B. Marriott Watson- 
H. B. Marriott Watson^ 
Helen H. Watson. 
Mrs. Ranyard West. 
Grace Miller White. 
Percy White. 
M. P. Willcocks. 
Robert Williams. 
T. P. Cameron Wilsorh- 
P. G. Wodehouse. 
R. A. Wood-Seys. 
R. A. Wood-Seys. 
Mrs. Stanley Wrench. 
Mrs. Stanley Wrench*. 
I. A. R. Wylie. 

Wylie. 

Wylie. 

Wylie. 

Wylie. 



I. A. R. 
I. A. R. 
1. A. R. 
1. A. R. 

May Wynne. 
May Wynne. 



MILLS & BOON'S 

SHILLING NOVELS 

Picture Covers. Crown 8vo, Is, net. 

The Square Mile Horace W. C. Newte 

Living- Pictures Horace W. C. Newte 

The Socialist Countess . . Horace W. C. Newte 

Spappows: The Story of an Unprotected Girl Horace W. C. Newte 
Lena Sw^allow (A sister to " Sparrows") Horace W, C. Newte 
The Lonely Loveps .... Horace W. C. Newte 

Calico Jack Horace W. C. Newte 

The Sins of the Childpen . . Horace W. C. Newte 

Life W. B. Trites 

The Olpl w^ho Saved his Honoup . . Arthur Applin 

Capdtllac Robert Barr 

818 (A New Ars^ne Lupin Adventure) . . Maurice Leblanc 

The Fpontiep Maurice Leblanc 

*Apsene Lupin . . Edgar Jepson & Maurice Leblanc 

Down Gup Street J. E. Buckrose 

The End and the Beg-inning .... Cosmo Hamilton 

The Veil E. S. Stevens 

The Mountain of God E. S. Stevens 

Cumner's Son (Cloth) ...... Gilbert Parker 

The Adventupes of Captain Jack . . Max Pemberton 
The Daughter of Bpahma . . , I. A. R. Wylie 

The Rajah's People L A. R. Wylie 

Dividing VlTatePB I. A. R. Wylie 

Beware of the Dog .♦ . . . Mrs. Baillie Reynolds 
The Woman w^ho Fopgot . . . Lady Troubridge 

Body and Soul Lady Troubridge 

His First Offence J. Storer Clouston 

The Prodigal Father J. Storer Clouston 

The Peer's Progress J. Storer Clouston 

Tales of King Fido J. Storer Clouston 

Sons of State Winifred Graham 

The Enemy of Woman .... Winifred Grahak 

Mary Winifred GRAHAsi 

The Love Story of a Mormon . . Winifred Graham 

The Needlew^oman Winifred Graham 

W^hen God Laughs Jack London 

The Goldfish Lila Field 

For Church and Chieftain May Wynne 

The Bolster Book Harry Graham 

W^ee Macgreegor J. J. B. 

Proofs Before Pulping Barry Pain 

The Diary of a Baby Barry Pain 

Thomas Henry W. Pett Ridge 

Mr. Perrin 66 Mr. Traill . . . . Hugh Walpole 

W^hen the Red Gods Call . . , Beatrice Grimshaw 
Lady Calphurnla Royal Albert Dorrington & A. G. Stephens 

*The Dollar Princess Harold Simpson 

*The Count of Luxembourg .... Harold Simpson 

*D'Arey of the Guards L. E. Shipman 

"*The Bill-Toppers Andre Castaigne 

. . * Aove.s of the Play. 
30 



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