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Full text of "The front line: materials for a study of leadership in college and after"

DUKE 
UNIVERSITY 




LIBRARY 



^'mmtKirr: fit 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/frontlinemateriaOOpatr 



THE FRONT LINE 



Materials for a Study of Leadership 
in College and After 



Ben M. Patrick 



Duke University 
1942 



Addenda 



Reference , 

Page Item 

161 (The Blue Stocking Club was a social organization of gradxiate women 
students, organized in 1932. It was active as late as 1935. 
( Chronicle . Oct, 4, 1935.) 

144 In 1939 professional educators attempted to organize a state-wide 
federation of "future teachers" among collegians, and a meeting 
was held at Duke attended by prominent teachers and college stu- 
dents from ten institutions in NorthCarolina. A council was 
named, but it has made little news since that time. (See Durham 
Morning Herald and other newspapers, May 11, 1939.) 

Ch^, Under sponsorship of the "Y's" and other "service organizations" 

an Inter-Campus Relations Committee was formed in 1939 with the 

III rather nebulous duties of fostering and improving relations 

between undergraduate schools, bringing the boys and girls to- 
gether. The Committee has done its work through other groups, 
BOS, Sandals, student governments, etc., most of whose officers 
are ex officio members . 

12 (9l) A Poetry Club was active for a while during 1938. May have been a 
revival of the College Poetry Society. 

20 VHien engineering students in Southgate Dormitory organized for self- 
government, engineering students living in town formed a separate 

150 club, the Engineers' Town Boys' Club. The group maintained a 

club room in Southgate beginning about 1937. A year or two later 
Town Boys in Trinity College organized a similar club, with the 
hope of getting a club room or some other headquarters on the 
caiopus. Town Boys in Trinity College have since been organized 
as freshman and as upperclassmen. 

76 "Chip" Lehrbach evidently directed the first student dance orchestra 
to the the name Blue Devils. This was in 1930. ( Chronicle , Sept. 
Sept. 16, 1931.) 

14 Banks Arendell is mentioned occasionally as "Publicity Agent" before 
1920, when Henry Belk was employed for this purpose. 



430299 



ACKKOWLIDGMENTS 



Special thanks are due Charles E, Jordan, VT, W. Card, 
H. E, Spence, J, Poster Barnes, H, J, Herring, A. M, Proctor, 
Nora Chaff in, J. P. Breedlove, P. S. Aldridge, Ted Mann, and 
RelDecca Kirkpatrick Sprinkle for reading sections of the manu- 
script, checking numerous facts, and offering helpful suggestions; 
to A. A, Wilkinson, for six years of tolerance and silent assist- 
ance; to Douglas Corriher, Walter Johnson and Beatrice Mellon, 
for checking innumerable items in student publications; to John 
Kennedy, Juanita Harvard, and Beatrice Mellon, for relief from 
much of the drudgery of preparing the final draft, including the 
typing of i^pendix A. 

B.M.P. 



43C299 



Preface 



Charles S. Jordan likes Coca-Cola. 
President W, P, Few was not a good dictator, 

* * * 

"That boy will "be a "big man some day," otserved W, M. Upchurch, Jr., 
yoiing Coordinator of Student Activities, as Sophomore Herbert S, Nusbaum left 
his office after an interesting and intelligent discussion of current motion 
picture "bookings. 

"How can you tell?" 

"Why, everything about him seems to tell you he will be, doesn't it?" 

"Yes," it was agreed, "but can you put your finger on the specific 
qualities that will make him a big man some day? How can you tell?" 

[Three years later Herbert Nusba\im had "summa cum laude" after his 
name on the commencement program. Six years later he stood well in the law 
class at Harvard University's commencement. Nine years later he is on his way 
to becoming a big man in the motion picture industry.] 

But, "how can you tell?" 

^ * * 



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"There nnist be a way of telling whether or not a person will attain 
prominence in his chosen field," mused young psychologist C, Ray Carpenter, 
looking around for a thesis subject. He pursued the tho\ight to the point of 
projecting a study of the correlation between leadership on the campus and 
after college, using case histories of selected BMOCs (big men on the campus); 
but became interested in monkeys before the study got under way, and chose to 
study simian rather than collegiate subjects* 

* 4i * 

(That is how this volume came to be compiled. These facts make up the 
background for this volume — which is not a study, but basis for a study. 

It was in the Summer of 1936. The relief stenographer to the Presi- 
dent and Assistant Secretary had two or three idle hours every day — while the 
unrapid dictator of pleasant memory polished off a few paragraphs of a speech 
or report before dictating, or while the Coca-Cola drinker was at the "dope 
shop" (or dictating to Secretary Helen McCltire). 

A few months of work in the University ITews Service had revealed the 
need for easily available factual data concerning student organizations figuring 
in the news from time to time. In offices on the second floor of the Admini- 
stration Building were several shelves of catalogues, bulletins and other pub- 
lications dealing with Trinity College and Duke University, from the early days. 
Between dictation and transcription periods these were consulted and some of the 
data therein set down in classified note form. 

The first step was to compile lists of officers of student organi- 
zations, defunct as well as current. This required spare time during the two 
Summers 1936 and 1937. Beginning with the year 1936-37 student office-holders 
then in college were approached with requests to assist in writing histories 
of their organizations. This continued for two years and more, and was 



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productive of only fairly satisfactory restilts. During the Suamer of 1938 con- 
siderable time was spent in the University Lihrary, among old documents bearing 
on the institution's history. Mrs. E^becca Kirkpatrick Sprinkle helped to com- 
plete brief histories of many organizations during that Summer. 

None of the organizations mentioned herein has been given esiiaustive 
treatment. Pew deserve it, from the historian's point of view. A very few 
should receive such thorough attention (and chief among these is perhaps The 
Society of 9019). It is hoped that the need will attract the interest of 
scholars before some of the sources now at hand are no longer available. 

There has been no attempt to make the present volume readable. Much 
of the composition has been done in haste, when there was not much mood for 
writing. Considerable effort has been expended to see that factual statements 
are factual, A decade of close contact with student publications has engendered 
reluctance to accept every statement therein as being absolutely factual. Wher- 
ever possible, facts have been checked by more than one source. 

The final chapter, it will be noted, is composed of observations, few 
of them conclusive; and the reader is asked to bear this fact in mind. Con- 
clusions must await more exhaustive study of soxirce materials here assembled, 
and Chapter X must be regarded as tentative. Source materials in addition to 
those contained herein are conveniently available in the files of the Univer- 
sity News Service. 

Most of the photographs — from the News Service files — are recent. 
In the thought that the voltime might be of some interest to the historiaji a 
hundred years hence, all pictxires have been given special treatment to insure 
permanence. 

As will be noted from the bibliography, there has been little consul- 
tation of published material on the general subject of the correlation of 



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leadership in school and after. The present volume, to reiterate, is not a 
study; but merely the beginning of a study in this field. Whether, when, or 
by whom the study will be completed is anybody's guess in this year of con- 
fusion and shadows. Jcay value which this volume may have as documenting the 
history of the institution is only incidental. 

The main question ("how can you tell?") remains unanswered; for the 
qualities that make for leadership, the components of "success," are still not 
d ef ined. 

S» M* F* 



Durham, N, C. 
June 25, 1942. 



3^ ,: 



10 ,J3A-; ,Tj;i7o.-.-. 



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CONTENTS 

Acknowled^ents i 

Preface ii 

Chapter I. INTROIJUCTiaN 1 

Chapter II. LITEHARY AND LINGUISTIC GROUPS 5 

Chapter III. CIVIC AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS 28 

Chapter IV. RELIGIOUS GROUPS 53 

Chapter V. MUSICAL AND THEATRICAL ENTERPRISES 65 

Chapter VI. ATHLETIC ORGANIZATIONS 88 

Chapter VII. FRATERNITIES AND SORORITIES, SOCIAL 97 

Chapter VIII. HONORARY AND PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES .... 126 

Chapter IX. OTHEffi CLASSIFICATIONS 146 

Chapter X. OBSERVATIONS AND qjJESTIONS 162 

APPENDICES 

A. Lists of Student Officers 3 

B. Organizations and Enterprises Classified .121 

C. Wiley Gray Orators 125 

Bibliography 132 

Index 134 



Chapter I 

INTRODUCTION 



The founders of Duke University suttscrited to the concept that 
education on the college level (as preparation for productive living) should 
"be balanced. Niimber 4 of the By-Laws (1925) provides that "the three Vice- 
presidents of the University have supervision of the work of the University 
in the divisions of (a) business, (h) education, and (c) student life." 
This provision followed four score years of rather loosely supervised "student 
activity" in the life of the institution. 

During the first three years of Duke University's history (as a 
university) there was a vice-president under the third heading, but with the 
departure of Dr. E, D. Soper (who was also head of the School of Religion) this 
position became vacant, and has remained vacant. 

The term "student activity" as most usually enrployed on the campus 
means an enterprise initiated and managed by students, such projects usually 
being extra-curricular (unrelated to courses of study). 



Official seniority follov/s the order a, b, c. Thus, the Vice-president 
in the Business Division ranks next to the President in authority. 



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Student activities are and have been often inspired by faculty mem- 
"bers, often closely supervised by or even led by members of the faculty; but 
not always. Some student enterprises are wholly student enterprises — and such 
are usually tardy in receiving sanction of the college administration, 

Faculty supervision of student activities began with the first stu- 
dent organizations, the debating societies of Trinity College, before the Civil 
War; but the first record of a continuous fg^culty- student committee for such 
supervision is of the Fraternity Pan- Hellenic Council, 1910-11, 

fStudent activity means organization, and organization often requires 
fiinds. 

It was not until there were nearly 150 organizations of students — 
Tuany of them having a treasurer among their officers — that aid (and supervision) 
was offered student groups in financial matters. This was in 1933-34, when the 
Student Activities Office (Trinity College) was set up. Theretofore, financial 
matters of student publications had been closely supervised by the University 
Publications Board, and fraternity finances had been subject to review of the 
Fraternity Pan-Hellenic Council and the national offices. In 1939-40 the Stu- 
dent Activities Office kept records of financial transactions of 22 organiza- 
tions, and assisted a greater number of additional groups in various other ways. 

In addition to this auditing function, the office assists groups in 
purchasing f\imiture, transportation, and various other items of equipment, 
supply and service for which they have need; and in other, more subtle ways 
seeks to assist student organizations — and particularly their leaders — to 
develop ability to manage their own affairs. Faculty advisers serve this 
latter purpose to some degree. There has been no organization of faculty 
advisers, and little connection between them and the Student Activities Office. 



.:3-j>,o-:iu- 



The Treasurer's Office serves as "bank for student enterprises recog- 
nized "by the Student Activities Office — with the exception of fraternities, 
whose national offices usually audit financial records. 

The auditing f\inction of the office applies only to organizations of 
undergraduate men, and to such other groups as request this service. Under- 
graduate women's groups receive similar service from the Treasurer's Office 
"branch at 'rf Oman's College, and are under the general supervision of the Dean 
of Residence. 

The Director of the Student Activities Office has thus had consider- 
ably less authority than would have been assTomed by a Vice-president in the 
Student Life Division of the University; and his duties have of course been 
considerably less comprehensive. The Director has been directly responsible 
to the Dean of Men, Trinity College, who is under the Vice-president in the 
Education Division; so that the Student Activities Office is in the Division 
of Education, for there is no Division of Student Life as planned at time of 
founding of the University. 

There are few purely extra-curricular activities in graduate divisions, 
for most organizations of graduate students are directly concerned with specific 
fields of study. The Student Activities Office assists such groups only rarely. 

^As vital to the success of any organization as funds is another asset 
of which there is seldom a surplus, leadership. 

"Every institution is the lengthened shadov; of a man," and every 
organization must reflect the character of its leaders, often the character of 
its founders as well. The institution, the organization, starts with the man, 
the leader. 

What, then, are the factors of character which make a person a leader? 






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How are they to be identified? 

How are they acquired, and when? 

Are these factors permanent? Will the collegian who is a leader "be 
a leader after college? 

Qliick answers to some of these questions are found in well-advertised 
correspondence courses in "personal magnetism" and salesmanship. Bat, are these 
the real answers? Can qualities of leadership, prominence, notability, be 
acquired; or are they innate? 

And is it possible, on the college level or below, to identify the 
future leaders of society? 

If so, should something be done about it? 



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Chester II 
LIir£BA£Y XSD LINGUISTIC G-ROUPS 

A. Forensic Organizations 

Among student orgcmizations in the history of Duke University the one 
with the longest continuous existence was, according to available records, the 
first one founded: Columbia Literary Society. This may not have been the first 
formal organization of students, however, for the 1845-46 enrollment was pro- 
bably large enough for each class to have officers (including those in the 
preparatory division, there were 90 students in 1649, the earliest year of which 
there is an official record of enrollment), but the records of class organiza- 
tions is quite incomplete, no consistent effort having been made to keep such 
records before the establishment of the Student Activities Office in 1933-34. 

Colximbia Litereoy Society was founded in June 1846. Its existence 
was uninterrupted, e^parently, until May of 1931 when the group was disbanded 
and reorganized within an ho\ir.^ It died in the Spring of 1938, of non-support. 



Alumni Register , Oct. 1915, pp.l68f.; Apr. 1917, p. 66; Apr. 1918, p.40; 
Archive . Nov. 1912, pp.64f. 

^Chronicle, May 6, 1931. 



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Nothing dAfinlte is known of Columbia's fotinders.^ It is considered 
probable that the society was organised at the suggestion of Braxton Craven, 
Union Institute's principal in 1846, or by some other faculty member. At first, 
it was evidently not much different from the literary societies organized and 
conducted under the supervision of public school teachers nowadays, with the 
primary purpose of training in public speaking and parliamentary procedure; 
euid, like such public school groups, it was probably conducted with the aid of 
considerable faculty supervision and inspiration. In North Carolina a century 
ago college education was almost exclusively for young persons with definite 
professional ambitions, and most of Union Institute's students, like those of 
Trinity College dtiring its early period, looked toward public, or at least semi- 
public careers — as teachers, preachers, lawyers. Ability to speak in public 
being prerequisite to success in these fields, forensics (often catalogued as 
Elocution) had an important place in the curriculum. There were no radios, no 
phonographs, no motion pictures. Attending sermons, lectures, debates, and 
other public meetings was a favorite form of entertainment, as well as instruc- 
tion, among rural folk of intellectual inclination. Thus, Columbia Litereuy 
Society in its early years filled a need of the student body which is now served 
by a much wider variety of extra<-curricular activities. Until 1879 it was 
customary for each graduating senior to deliver a commencement oration. Since 
then, one senior speaker has been heard at commencement — and is known as the 
Wiley Gray Speaker. Numerous commencement orations were rehearsed in the halls 



^Barney Lee Jones, Class of 1942, stated that his great-grandfather, John 
Andrews, was a founding member. John C. Andrews was enrolled in Union Institute 
in 1850. Mrs. E. L. I3i>shur. Norfolk, Va. , writing Aug. 17, 1940, stated that 
her father, Christopher Columbus Andrews (great-grandfather of Barney Lee Jones) 
was at Trinity from 1854 to 1858 and was President of Columbia. Relation of John 
to Christopher is not known. 

4, 
See ^pendix A. 



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of Col-umliia and its rival literary society, Hesperian. Until a few years after 
the founding of Duke University each society had its own hall, seldom used for 
any other purpose but society meetings, Purnishings were supplied hy members, 
each having his individual desk and chair, somewhat in the order of a senator. 

Columbia preceded Hesperian Literary Society by five years. The 
latter was born June 26, 1851, six months after Union Institute became Normal 
College. J. W. Alspaugh was a "prime mover," and 0. W. Carr of Greensboro was 
another charter member. Abram Weaver, Salisbury, was first President, Braxton 
Craven v/as in the chair at the organization meeting. Hesperian (meaning Western) 

was organized for boys from the Western part of North Carolina, but this aspect 

7 

of its purpose was evidently soon outgrown. 

The two societies are the only student organizations known to have 
existed when Normal College became Trinity College on i'ebruary 16, 1859, In the 
annals of Trinity, the rivalry of Columbia and Hesperian was eqtialled only by 
the rivalry between Trinity (and now Duke) and Carolina athletic squads; the 
inter-society debates were highlights of each academic year for decades. 

Outstanding monuments to joint efforts of the societies are The Archive 
and The Chronicle , to which fuller mention is given later in this chapter. 

Both Col\jmbia and Hesperian accumulated larger ntimbers of books than 
the college library. "Each had 2,200 books and Trinity College had 650 books in 
1860-61," according to J, P. Breedlove, whose sx^jervision of Trinity and Duke 
book collections has extended over the last half-century. 

In 1887-88 all of these books were brought together into one 
library collection and called from that time on. Trinity College 
Library. In 1888-89 we find another note in the catalogue saying 



Jerome Dowd, Life of Braxton Craven (Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton, 1896). 

Archive . Nov. 1912, p. 67. 

" ^AlTimni Register . Oct. 1915, pp.l58ff; Apr. 1918, Jan. 1919, pp.229ff; 
Archive, June 1904; Nov. 1912. 



li-st.- ,..;. .. X 



In 1887->88 all of these books were broii^t together into one 
library collection and called from that time on. Trinity College 
Library. In 1888-89 we find another note in the catalogue saying 
that each society had 4,000 volumes and that the Theological Soci- 
ety had several hundred. These society libraries were included in 
the Trinity College Library of 1888-89, and they were all consoli- 
dated into one collection of books. In 1894-95 the college library, 
according to the catalogue of that date, had in it 10,000 volumes.^ 

Hesperian suAcumbed when, in 1931-32, interest in foreneics reached 
an all-time low at Duke. Columbia had been revived the previous Spring. Since 
1922, Herbert J. Herring had been the only speech instructor, and he had other 
duties. In 1935 Leroy Lewis was added to the English Department as Instructor 
in Public Speaking, and Columbia experienced a revival of energy. This new 
surge of power was soon exhausted, however, and Columbia died in its 92nd year, 
1938. 

On Februairy 4, 1937, about a year before Columbia eo^ired, a group of 
speech students, encouraged by Instructor Lewis, organized Hesperian Union. 
tPhough having no direct connection with Columbia's deceased rival, "Hesperian 
Union was organized along the lines of the Hesperian Literary Society. . • . 
Famlty debates, as well as student debates and panel discussions, were sponsored 
[during the first year]. The present program includes sponsoring of debates, 
current problem discussions to aid students in a better \mder standing of the 
nation's crisis,'*^ promotion of better relations between men and women at Duke, 
and other problems of interest to collegians, ^^ 



J. P. Breedlove. Letter dated Jan. 11, 1940, in News Service files. 

^Catharine C. Blakeney. Sketch in News Service files, dated Nov. 15, 1937. 

10 

Among topics discussed during 1940-41 were: "Relations Between East and West 

Campuses," "Campus Etiquette," "The College Curriculum." "Drunken Driving" was 

discussed at a meeting in February 1939. Faculty members have participated in 

forum discussions occasionally during the last three years. 






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9 



A young organization with piirpose and program somewhat similar to 
that of Hesperian Union is the Student Congress, founded March 19 » 1940, through 
the efforts of Joe Tally and other leaders of the Polity Club. "The Student 
Congress," according to The Chronicle of ^rll 26, 1940, "prides itself on 
remoYlng student complaints from the field of bull-sessions into practical and 
constructive action." Though its program to date has been similar to that of 
He^erlan Union, its puirpose more closely allies it with Student Government ; 
and it is therefore more fully described in Chapter III. 

In the saune classification ie the College Congress, forensic and mock 
legislative body formed about 1888. ^ Its existence was evidently very brief. 

Intercollegiate debating has been part of the institution's speech 
program since 1900 or before. The existence of a Debate Council of three 
feunxlty members and two representatives from each of the literary societies is 
indicated as early as 1902. This body's function was the supervision of inter- 
collegiate debates. Such a group existed. Intermittently perhaps, until inter- 
collegiate debating came under the mamagement of Leroy Lewis in 1935-36. In 
i^ril 1934 was formed the Debaters' Council, with Senior Claiborne Gregory as 
head, for the purpose of arranging intercollegiate debates, a function of Tau 
Kappa Alpha from its founding at Trinity on May 3, 1915^'' until about 1933, when 
the chapter became Inactive for two years. The chapter was revived in 1935-36 
as a Graduate Club of Tau Kappa Alpha; undergraduates were soon admitted. 



•*• ^Archive , Jan. 1889, p. 66. "The academic department constitutes the House, 
and those in the scientific, the Senate. Business is conducted just as in the 
Congress of the U.S." 

12 

President's Report, June 1916, p. 7. 

^Alumni Register , July 1915, p. 117; Chronicle , May 5, 1915; Baird's Manual . 



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10 



Colum'bia and Eeeperian were open only to men. "By 1900 (when 23 women 

were enrolled) there seemed to "be room for a women's literary society, and the 

14 
Ero Mathlan Society was organized. Its existence was evidently very brief, 

for the one year only. By 1912 the feminine enrollment had reached 74; on 
Janxxary 6 of that year was formed Athena Literary Society^ (at the stiggestion 
of Matide Upchurch, with H» S. Spence as faculty adviser), which continued until 
1926, when it merged with Brooks Literary Society to form the League of Women 
Voters at Duke. The Brooks society — founded in the Fall of 1921 and named in 
honor of Eugene Clyde Brooks, member of the education faculty 1907-19 and sub- 
sequently Superintendent of Public Instruction for North Carolina and President 
of North Carolina State College — had the sane relation to Athena as did Hesperian 
to Columbia. ^^ On February 4, 1927 was orgsinized the Women's Debatizig Council,^" 
the function of vdiich was about the same as that of the Debate Council of 1902-35. 
On December 3, 1931 the Debaters' Club was organized by a groxqp of women. ^® It 
was active until 1936-37, when speech activities of Trinity College and Woman's 
College came under the supervision of Speechman Lewis. 

Two literary societies existed during the history of Trinity Park 
School, 1898-1922. Orewiy was founded in the Fall of 1898^^ and Calhoun a bit 
later. Both continued until the preparatory school was closed. Preceding the 



^ ^Ar chive , Jan. 1900, p. 275. 

^ ^Alumni Register , Apr. 1917; Chronicle , Feb. 7, 1912; Archive , Nov. 1912, 
p .70. 

^ ^Alumnl Register , Oct. 1921, p. 214. 

^" ^ Chronicle . Feb. 9, 1927. 

^^Chronlcle, Dec. 2, 1931. 

19 

Chronicle , 1905 et seqq. ; Trinity College Catalogue , 1898-99, p. 30. 



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&rad7 and Calhoun aooietles were the Lyeorgian (founded about 1893) and the 
Adelphian (founded about 1896), both organized before the establishment of 
Trinity Park School. 

Por a number of years preceding 1925 the Society of 9019 sponsored 
annual declamation contests among North Carolina high school students. Winners 
from schools within a radius of about fifty miles came to Trinity for the final 
contest. This was eridently begun at about the same time the Unirersity of 
North Carolina inaugurated the annual high school debate tournament at Cheqpel 
Hill, which continues. 



B. Literary Orovqps 

About a dozen actually literary societies hare existed during the 
institution's history. (The so-called literary societies hare most often been 
forensic clubs.) The first was the Saturday Night Club. Though evidently com- 
posed of faculty members only, the club was of sufficient interest to students 
to warrant the student monthly to take notice of it.^ It was probably begun 
during the winter of 1894-95; it wsis act lye for about three years. 

On November 7, 1911, Dr. Frank C. Brown called a meeting of interested 
students and supervised the organizing of the Writers* Club, the Idea for which 
had originated among a group of women students.^ 



^Catalogue . 1895-96, p. 114. 

21 

Ibid. , 1897-98, p. 125. 

22 

***See also. Society of 9019, p. 127, post. 

23 

Archiv e, Jan. 1895. ^Chronicle, Nov, 15, 1911. 



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12 



Sxactly two years after the organization of the Writers' Cluh was 

formed the Fortnightly Club of Sigma IJ^silon, a federation of local honoreoy 

25 
literary groups in Southern colleges. The group was active until about 1934. 

26 
Zeta chapter of Chi Delta Phi has existed since April 1922, when 

Danyeah Literary Club (founded in Tebruary of that year) was granted a charter. 
Chi Delta Phi is a women's organization corresponding in size and purpose to 
Sigma Upsilon, whose membership is male. In the Chronicle of March 22^ 1933, 
mention is made of a chapter of the College Poetry Society of America. The 
reference is probably to Chi Delta Phi, which studies poetry as well as other 
forms of literature. At any rate, no further tra^e of the College Poetry Society 
has been found at Duke. 

The Sditor of the 1935-36 Archive , Eeu*l Bunner, left before the end of 
the year. Xdward 3» Post, Jr., sophomore with a facile pen, had been outstand- 
ing as a contributor to the literary monthly and had interested several other 
students in forming a club for the purpose of reading and criticizing each other's 
writings, and discussing other litercury works. The Archive , with an empty Editor's 
chair, was virtually turned over to this group, the Undergraduate Writers, by the 
University Publications Board. Post served as Editor for the remainder of the 
Tear, and was formally elected to that position for his Junior year. According 
to the system of elections prevailing from then till 1940, the Archive Editor 
must have been a member of Undergradiaate Writers. The group holds regular 
meetings, mainly for the reading and criticizing of each other's literary efforts; 
most of the Archive contents for the last three years (1937-1940) has gone 



^ ^Chronicle , Nov, 12, 1913, 

26 

Alumni Register, Apr. 1922, p. 34. 



x 



.*y?.CI .^XrcdB li^W •TiiO* ' ' ^^O^ ''^ 'SqllO'SS v..i'£^jii 

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13 



through this process.^ Professor William Blackburn has been Adrisor to the 
group since its inception. (The organization was inactive during 1940~41.) 

Among literairy clubs one of the most interesting was the Cat's Head 
Club, founded in December 1924 by nine students: R. P. Harriss, A. A. Wilkinson, 
Freeman Twaddell, Balph Fuller, Jasper Clute, James J, Tarriss, Gay Allen, A. B. 
Gibson, and Franklin Shinn. Headquarters were in the Cat's Head section of 
Epworth Hall. The President was named Catterwaller; the Secretary, Cat-o-nine« 
tails. The group dominated the literary life of the campus for about three 
Toeurs, dying a natural death about 1928. One issue of a magazine. The Cat's 
Meow , was published November 22, 1926. The Club also published a limited edition 
(ten copies) of verses by James Branch Cabbell, well-known writer of Richmond, 
Va. Advisers to the club were Drs, Paull F, Baum, N. I. White, and B. W, Nelson.^ 
Members of the group — though perhaps not all of them — were also members of Sigma 
Upsilon. 

The North Carolina Folklore Society has had a connection with Duke 
through Dr. Frank C. Brown, who has served as the society's President. A related 
Folklore Society was organized among Trinity students in the Fall of 1920.^ It 
was active for three years or more. 

At least three Journalistic groups were organized before the University 
established its own publicity department; the need for such clubs has not been 
felt so keenly since. There was a Press Association as early as 1904-05, and it 
had a continuous existence until about 1912.^ It was closely related to The 



^" ^ Chronicle , 1935-36, passim . ^ ^Chronicle , Nov. 3, 1920. 

28 

Chronicle , Dec. 17, 1924. North American Review, Oct, 1930. 

30 

Cat^^gue, 1904-05 et seqq. Chronicle, Jan. 23, 1906; Oct. 5, 1910. 



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Chronicle , nearly all members being on the newspaper's editorial staff. A 
Journalists' Club is mentioned in The Chronicle of October 2, 1912; it is per- 
haps the same group as the Qjtiill Club. The C^ill Club, coioposed of caiopus cor- 
respondents for home-town newspapers, was organized October 2, 1912, and con- 

31 
tinued until World War I considerably curtailed student enterprise in 1917. 

The institution's first regular publicity writer (the term "press 
agent" is seldom used) was Henry Belk, employed in 1920, while still a student. 

A Journalism Club was formed on March 5, 1923, through the efforts of 
Dr. Alan H. Gilbert, but had a brief history. It was a different sort of club 
from the Press Association, Journalists' Club and qjxill Club; its purpose being 
the stimulation of interest in Journalism, rather than the practical application 
of such interest in earnix^ bread. 



C. Publications 

Outstanding among publications connected with Trinity College and 
Duke University is the South Atlantic Qioarterly, launched in January 1902 with 
the financial and moral support of The Society of 9019. John Spencer Bassett, 
founder also of 9019, was the publication's principal inspirer. The 9019 

(evidently as individual patrons rather than as an organized group) gave finan- 

33 
cial support until 1907, when the South Atlantic Publishing Company was chartered. 

Otherwise, the publication has not been a student enterprise. 



^ ^ Chronicle , Oct. 9, 1912. Catalogue , 1912-13. 

^ ^Chronicle , Mar. 7, 1923. 

''"John Cline, Thirty-Eight Years of the South Atlantic Qioarterly — A Chapter 
in the Progress of Liberalism in the South . Master's Thesis, submitted 1940, 
15uke University. Duke University Library. 



I 






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15 



At least two publications with similar aims preceded the South Atlantic 

Quarterly » having heen begun during the presidency of Braxton Craven. The first 

34 
was The Southern Index , a bi-monthly first published in 1850. In December of 

35 

the same year was published the first number of The Evergreen , its successor. 
The Evergreen was published at Asheboro (about 15 miles from Trinity) , with 
Braxton Craven and R. H. Brown as editors of the third and fourth numbers. 
Brown alone served as editor for the remainder of the twelve monthly issues. 
It is probable that Craven helped to initiate the magazine; no copies of the 
first two issues have been found. It was not officially sponsored by Trinity 
College but received considerable support from the institution, through Craven 
and other faculty members as contributors, and perhaps from the student body as 
readers. The last issue was published in November 1851. Another non-student 
publication was The Trinity Gazette , a quarterly first published in 1874, and 

36 

continued for three years. 

The College Herald was begun before June 1882.^''' Very little informa- 
tion has been found concerning it or The Trinity Magazine , which followed The 
College Herald in March 1883."^® 

A clear distinction was made between education and Christian education 
by Dr. John Carlisle Kilgo and many other educators of his time. "Dr. Jack's" 
aim for Trinity was that it should be the section's leading institution for 



^Alumni Register , July 1917, p,152. 
^^Ibid. 

"^ ^Ibid ., Jan. 1922, p. 234. 

37 

Archive , Apr. 1892, p. 301. Sophia Ryman states ( Alumni Register , Jan, 1922, 

p. 235) that "the first number of The College Herald was published in November 1882." 

38 

Alumni Register, Jan, 1922, p,235. 



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Chrletlan education. Some Trinity altimni and other interested North Carolinians 
objected to the college's use of ""blood money" from the Dukes. There came to 
"be a rather sharp difference hetween the points of view of Eilgo and the leaders 
of the University of North Carolina on the subject of educational aims and methods, 
and the matter was used by the State's newspe^ers as an interesting controversial 
issue. It was in this connection that President Kilgo and his faculty, with the 
purpose of propagandizing North Carolinians in favor of Christian education, be- 
gan the publication of The Christian Educator, in February 1896. It was a propa- 
ganda publication, with some general news of interest to the college community 
and those interested in the institution. It was discontinued (December 1898) 
when the Eilgo-Grattis case began to take so much of the time and attention of 
President Kilgo and his faculty. ^^ 

Before the time of The Christian Educator was the beginning of The 
Archive , believed to be the first student-managed publication at Trinity. Its 
beginning was sponsored by the Columbia and Hesperian societies, largely throxigh 
the efforts of a faculty member, Professor J. L. Armstrong, who edited the publi- 
cation for the first three years. The first number appeared in November 1867; 
it has been published continuously since, as a monthly"^ The Archive is thought 
to be direct successor to The Trinity Magazine , which itself succeeded The 
College Herald > The period of 188^-87 was a time of uncertainty and change for 
the college, and it was natural that new enterprises should be initiated during 
such a time. Since 1890 The Archive has been edited and managed by students, 
with a modicum of faculty supervision. Grraduate students, faculty members, and 



T>aul N.Oarber, John Carlisle Kilgo , (Durham: Duke Ifciversity Press, 1937), 
pp.60, 234ff. 

40 

Alumni Register , June 1926, Jan. 1927, May 1930. Archive, Nov. 1903, May 

1 940 . 



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17 



off-caiBpu8 writers eontrituted fairly frequently until about 1935; since then 
it has "been an undergraduate publication. 

Before (Trinity College moved to Durham in 1892 students did not feel 
need for a caatpus newspe^er, since The Archive served the function of newsorgan 
as well &B liter£iry magazine. By 1905, when the enrollment was 483, there 
seemed to he need for a campus newspaper. The Columbia and Hesperian Literary 
Societies (which had sponsored the initiation of The Archive ) were approached on 
the subject. The first issue of The Trinity Chronicle was published on December 
19, 1905. The origin and early history of the newspaper has been succinctly 
written by U. N, Hoffman, '07, the second Editor: 

On Saturday evening » December 9, 1905, was born The Trinity 
Chronicle , now the Duke Chronicle , for on that evening the Hesperian 
and Colmbian Literary Societies approved the plan that had been 
worked out for founding a weekly newspaper for the college. The 
first issue bore the date of December 19. 

I believe that I can in all sincerity lay claim to originating 
the idea for the newspe^er. In Trinity Park School, the prep school 
over in the northwest comer of the campus at that time, I had had 
thrust upon me the editorship of the little magazine, the High School 
Gazette , by Headmaster J, ?• Bivins, The printer's ink I got on my 
fingers stuck, and when I entered college I thought, "Why not have a 
newspsgper as well as the literary magazine? '* But a mere freshman 
could not dare propose it; nor as a soph could I do anything about it. 

But in the fall of my junior year (1905) I talked it over with 
Tom M. Stokes, a classmate in the prep school who also had got smeared 
with printer's ink of the High School Gazette . He was interested to 
the extent that he Joined me in a trip into town to find out what a 
paper wo\ild cost. We tramped around to most of the printing shops cmd 
got estimates. We had no money to finance a paper (both were working 
to help pay oxzr way through college), and the next step was to find 
a financial angel. He was a Hesperian, I a Columbian; both literary 
societies had plenty of funds. We found officers and members favor- 
able toward a paper, but to get the two societies to agree to pay the 
printer if need be was something different. These debating societies 
were carefully conducted, and their treasiirers were tight-fisted col- 
legians. 

The proposition was placed before the memberships; it was argued 
and approved, provided certain formalities were carried out. Yes, sir. 



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18 



there must be a constitution and by-lawe for the paper. A hoard of 
four men from each society to work them out was authorized by a 
resolution passed hy both groups on December 9, 1905. The second 
Issue of the paper printed this authorizing resolution and the sub- 
sequently framed constitution and by-laws. 

Inasmuch as the editor mast be a senior I was not eligible till 
the second year, when I succeeded Henry G-ilbert Poard, i06. Gibby 
was a fine editor — a genial fellow, a hard worker, a brilliant stu- 
dent. His untimely death in 1930 left me as the oldest surviving 
editor. 

To Tom Stokes, co-founder with me of the paper, shotild have gone 
the first managership, for he had attended summer school and was a 
senior when I was a Junior. But for what he had done to make the 
paper a reality he was rewarded merely with a place on the editorial 
staff as the writer of an interesting column of paragraphs that bore 
the headline "Locals." 

Nobody on the staff had had any training in newspaper writing 
or make-t^ technique, and what a paper the first issue was I VHiy, the 
five colTums on the front page contained only two news stories. One 
started in column one with the "startling" headline: 

HESPERIAN VS. COLUMBIAN 



Sixteenth Annual Inter- Society Debate — 
Won by the Hesperian 

The story ran three full columns, then was continued to page two to 
fill almost three more! The second story on page one started in 
column four and bore this grand headline: 

MR. D. A. TOMPKINS, OF CHARLOTTE 

Prominent N. C. Business Man Speaks 
to Trinity Students 

and filled two columns of that page and was continued to page three 
to fill nearly three more! 

The type was all handset, quite large as coinpared to newspaper 
type today. The paper was printed at the Durham Recorder printshop 
on Main Street, upstairs. It was rather difficult at first to get 
enotigh material to fill the four pages. There was no football then, 
but baseball was a red-hot sport, with Southpaw Arthur Bradsher set- 
ting the South on fire with his unbeatable pitching. Issue No. 20 
was an athletic number containing picttires of that year's team and 
a record of all games from 1899 to 1906. 

So far as I know the literary societies never had to pay one 
cent to meet Chronicle bills. Neither advertisements nor subscriptions 



liuili »rf *&raB 






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19 



were hard to get, and the money from these easily met the printer* 8 
hills. There were no others (except for a few engravings), for no 
one on the paper received any pay. It was all fun, we thought; it 
gave me the finest training I got in college (and I do not mean to 
discount at all the inspiring instruction of Flowers, Mlms, 7ew, 
Glasson and others). Hall to the Chronicl e; may it live on and on 
and on, and he the livest thing at DuJfcei^-^ 

The Class of 1912 published a yearbook, naming it The Chanticleer . 
It has been an annual publication ever since — except one year during World War 
I, It soon came to be the most opulent of student publications, which 
reputation it has maintained for more than 25 years. The editorship and manager- 
ship of The Chanticleer are the biggest publication plums accessible to DukB 
students; "honest graft" for each is generally considered to aiDount to several 
hundred dollars, with more graft available. (Eegalatlons concerning distribu- 
tion of profits have been more strict since 1938.) -^nrH the yearbook 
published pictures of practically all faculty members. Until y^2^plctures of 
graduate students were also published. Since then The Chanticleer has been an 
exclusively undergraduate publication. The Issues of 1937, 1938, 1939 and 1940 
were given "All-American" rating by the National Scholastic Press Association, 
classing the publication as a leader in its field. 

The Woman's College was formally established in the Fall of 1930, 
with the treuasferring of University offices to the West, or University, caarpus. 
One manifestation of the new unity of undergraduate women was The Distaff , 
literary monthly published by undergraduates, beginning with March 1931 and con- 
tinuing until 



^^U. N. Hoffman, Tacoma, Wash. Sketch accoiopanying letter to Ben M. Patrick, 
Oct. 24, 1938. News Service files. 

Chronicle , Feb, 18, Mar. 18, 1931. Files In Woman's College Library. 



ei 



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20 



The first recorded attentpt of Duke students to publish a humor maga^- 
zine was in 1926-27, when a group sponsored "by Tombs proposed The Blue Devil 
and, according to The Chronicle of February 16, 1927, signed a contract for 
printing. There is, however, no record of publication. Its history was probably 

about the same as that of The Duchess , proposed in the Fall of 1928 but dis- 

43 
coiuraged by the Publications Board before the first issue reached press. 

First-year men became more conscious of their unity after September 
1935, when Eilgo House was made an exclusively freshman dormitory. Within four 
months a grooj^ of first-year men had decided there should be a freshman publi- 
cation. This decision was reached by J. Stewart G-illespie, Eobert P. Stewart, 

Berkley Schaub and other first-year men on the staff of The Chronicle , because 

44 
of "differences with John Moorhead, assistant editor." Accordingly, in 

January 1934 was published the first issue of The Blue Imp , a 5-page mimeo- 

gre^hed "weekly newspaper spotlighting freshman news." It was distributed at 

two cents a copy, on Thursdays, for a few weeks. 

Meanwhile, within the ranks of Tl^g Blue^Ing, an opposing fresh- 
man group developed against the leadership of J. Stewart Gillespie. 
Led by Berkley Schaub they instituted a rival 5-page mimeographed 
paper — The Duke 'n' Duchess . The price of this publication vaB also 
two cents. [The first issue of The Duke 'n' Duchess bore the date 
February 2, 1934.] 

The spring semester of 1934 saw these two freshman publications 
rivalling each other, and, to some extent, The Chronicle , in furnish- 
ing the undergraduate body with the latest in news flashes. This 
period of journalistic turmoil ended with the x>eriod of final exami- 
nations for 1934. 

The fall semester of 1934 brought in a new freshman class. The 
members of the staffs of The Blue Imp and Duke 'n' Duchess were now 



^^Chronicle, Oct. 24, 1928; Nov. 7, 1928. 

44 

Jack Stanaton, Class of 1939. Sketch in News Service files. Aug. 19, 1938. 



oeailta 



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sophomores with more worldly matters on their hands. But [some members 
of] the freshman class ('38), led hy Jack C* Stamaton and Bill 
Co\irtney» had Joiirnedistic aspirations. These two freshmen interested 
a gro\ip of classmates in presenting the University with its first 
humor publication. They sought, and received permission from the 
Publications Board to publish two trial issues. Both of these were 
to be limited: (1) to a mimeographed peqper; (2) to campus advert ise^ 
ments; . . . This group decided to call its publication The Blue Imp . 

The first copy of the [revived] Blue Inrp , Duke humor magazine, 
was published in February 1935, and sold for five cents. There were 
22 mimeographed pages of news events. Jokes, cartoons, and other 
Illustrations. Color was used on the cover. More than 600 copies 
were sold. The Chronicle aided the infant publication by giving much 
space to news stories [about it] and writing several editorials and 
re views. ^5 



While 600 copies of this publication were sold, it was the opinion of the staff 
that such a circulation figure could not be maintained without better typographi- 
ced presentation. They considered printing, but the cost was more than they cared 
to undertake at that time. Too, The Blue Imp seemed as popular with upperclassmen 
as with freshmen. Consequently, 

In April 1935 the freshman staff published its second issue, 
this time calling it the Duke *n' Duchess in an attempt to take the 
publication out of the limits oT a freshman periodical and make it 
one of more general Interest eunong the students, . . . 

The April issue contained 24 mimeographed pages, with additional 
colored inks, more eaqjensive grade of paper, and extra cartoons and 
Illustrations. This issue was a decided improvement over the first. 
Its make-up was styled after the New Yorker magazine. More then 900 
copies were sold at five cents a copyl These two Issues were the 
only ones allowed by the Publications Board as trial copies. 

The following fall [1935] another group in the new freshman 
class took over the Duke 'n' Duchess with permission from the Publi- 
cations Board to issue additional trial copies. This group was led 
by Roosevelt Der Tatevasian and Hilliard Schendorf . This new group 
continued the publication in mimeographed style until permission was 
granted, by the Board, in 1937, to print the copies. '^^ 



^^Stamaton, op.clt. ^ ^Ibld . 



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But complete recognition of the publication did not come for two years. By 
action of the Puljlications Board on May 9, 1939, the Duloe 'n* Duchess became 
em official student publication, after five years of probation; it has since 
been distributed free to students, and a part of the publications fee paid by 
every student (\indergraduate) goes to the publication. The ad-soliciting staff 
has been so diligent and successful that The Archive has made a poor showing in 

coiaparisdn; and there has been serious talk, among students, of discontlnxilng 

47 
publication of the literary monthly. 

There have been several fly-by-night student publications, perhaps 
most of them being in the category of The Duke Independent , a semi-occasional 
one-page mimeographed effort of Schendorf , Der Tatevasian & Co. (See Duke 'n' 
Duchess ) devoted to the support of campus political candidates during the years 
1936-39. 7ew of these publications, however, have left any definite record. 

l^aternities sometimes publish organs for the benefit of their own 
student and alumni members. In this classification are recorded: The Duke Slg , 
published by Sigma Chi; The Duke Ducat , by Lambda Chi Alpha; and The Duke Phi , 
published by Phi Delta Theta. 

Anong other orgeuilzed groups which have had their own publications 
are the Cat's Head Club and the Student Volunteer Band. The former published 
one issue of The Cat's Meow.*® The Volunteer was a publication of Student Vol- 
unteers In North Carolina colleges. The plan was to rotate the editorship among 
participating schools; Trinity students edited the publication during 192S-23.'*^ 



47 

A fairly complete file of Duke 'n' Duchess is in the University Library. 

Pertinent newstorles are to be found Tn the Chronicle for Oct. 24, 1928; Nov. 7, 

1928, Mar. 21. 1934. 

48^ 

See p. 13, ante. 

49 

Chronicle, Mar. 14, 1923. 



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Douglas Corriher, Class of 1937, was actiye in the Southern Peace- 
Action Movement during 1935-36, and edited The Peace Agent , a two-page mimeo- 
graphed sheet of ahout 500 circulation in Southern colleges. Five or six issues 

50 

were published. 

Members of Dr. N. I. White's class in English during 1921-22 wrote a 
foiir-issue publication titled The Sein Feigner , a typewritten, handbound literary 
publication with circulation quite restricted. 

A combination newspaper and magazine %ras published by Trinity Park 
School students beginning in the Fall of 1901 euad continuing for five years or 
more; it bore the name Park School Gazette . It was succeeded by The Trinity 
Prep , a semi-occasional publication began in January 1921 and last published on 
March 17, 1922. ^^ 



D. Language Clubs 

Grreek and Latin were included in the curriculum begixming with the 
early years of Union Institute, The first group for the extrar-curricular study 
of classical language euxd literature, however — according to the record — was not 
organized until 1910. Columbia £tnd Hesperian literary societies had discussions 



^ews Service files. rPiles in Library. 

^ ^ Chronicle , Oct. 9, 1907; Trinity Park School Catalogue , 1902-03, p. 74; 
History of The Chronicle , by U. N. HofTi^, in Hews Service files. He refers 
to High School Gazette . 

^ ^ Chronicle , Apr. 27, 1910, mentions the Classical Club as the "oldest depart- 
mental society," it having been revived in 1909. In the same story it reports an 
organization meeting of April 25, 1910, The earliest minutes yet found bear the 
date of May 5, 1910. Dr. A. M, Gates, one of the charter members listed in these 
minutes, believes that "this date marks the revival, not the birth. ..." See 
historical sketch by Dr. Gates in News Service files, dated Nov. 27, 1937. 



ST. 



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24 



of classical subjects on their programs from the begixming, it is believed; and 
since the programs of these societies were s-officiently cos^rehensive to fill 
the needs of the early students for extrap-curricular activities, it is reaeoziable 
to assume that there was no group analogous to the Classical Club before Trinity 
College moved to Durham. 

!rhe Classical Club roster, as of May 5, 1910, bears the names of seven 
undergraduates and three faculty members; J, N. Aiken, *12; F. S. Bennett, '12; 
W. G. Gaston, '11; C. M. Hutchings, '11; £. J. Londow, '12; A. M. Proctor, '10; 
C. S. Warren, '10; A. M, Gates, W. P. Gill, and A. H. Merritt. The club is and 
has been coniposed only of men students and members of the faculty who are interested 
in the study of Greek and Latin. Papers dealing with classical subjects are read 
and discussed at bi-monthly meetings; several of these are deposited in the Uni- 
versity Library. The membership badge is a rectangular silver key, the obverse 
of which represents in profile the head of a helmetted Greek warrior. The sil- 
houette stands out from a pebbly background, enclosed in a neat, plain framework. 
The reverse bears the legend, "Classical Club D U 1910," followed by the member's 
name. 

Dr. Gates states that "in the Pall of 1916 a group of young women 
students of Trinity College who were interested in classical subjects decided — 

since membership in the local Classical Club was limited to men — to form a 

55 
classical organization of their own." The group adopted the name Parthenon 

Club. Miss Kate G. Umstead was the first president. The groijp was active 

through 1923-24. After an interval of three years, the Forum Club was organized 



54 

Gates, op . cit . 

^^Gates, op. cit . 






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(in the Fall of 1927), and has continued its active cultural Influence among 
women students. Like the Parthenon Club, its membership is restricted to women; 
though it has occasional Joint progreuns with the Classical Club. 

Student organizations for the study of French language and literature 
haye adopted at least seven different names since the first group was organized 
in 1911. The names and years of activity: Societe Franpaise, 1911-20; Cercle 
Francais, 1920-?; French Club, 1920-38; French Club, Advanced, 1925-?; French 

Club, Women's, Dec. 3, 1931-7; Salon Fran9al8e, 1935-37; and Tau Psl Omega, Oct. 

57 
1938- . From the time of the or^mlzation of the Women's French Club in 1931 

through 1933-34, the men's and women's clubs had separate programs; with this 
exception the organizations may be considered as one (almost) continuous asso- 
ciation, with an occasional cheuage of name. Tau Psl Omega in 1938 succeeded 
the French Club and has since been the only eztrar-currlcular organization devoted 
to the study of French language and literature. Beginning in 1934-35, under the 
Isadership of Mr. and Mrs. Neal Dow, the French Club and the French Division of 
the Department of Romance Languages presented annual public performances of well- 
known French dramas; this project has been continued by Tau Psl Omega. Other 
than this, the activities of nearly all groups In this classification have been 
confined to meetings for the study of French literary works and the practice of 
conversational French. 

While the Classical Club has been mentioned as the "oldest departmentcLL 
society, " information on the German Club is available for an earlier date than 



^°Ruth Kellcher. Historlcja sketch in Hews Service files. May 1938. 

57 

Chronicle , 1911-20, passim ; Apr, 8, 1925; Dec. 9, 1931; 1935-37, passim ; 

Oct. 14, 1938. Alumni Register, Apr. 1920, p. 36. 



dS 



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26 



that of the eetrllest extant Classical Club records. The Archive for February 
1891 (page 84) mentions a German Club, and revivals of this organization are 
recorded In the 1929 Chanticleer and The Chronicle for April 7 and 21, 1936. 
Between these dates are recorded the organization of three other groups; Deutscher 
7ereln, local; Gamma Delta, local honorary; emd Delta Phi Alpha, national honorary. 
Deutscher Vereln (founded Oct, 22, 1909) was evidently kept alive (for about 
seven or eight years) almost entirely through the Interest of facoilty members. 

The German Club, revived In 1929, suffered another almaost Immediate relapse, and 

59 
was revived In January 1930 as Gamma Delta, with the purpose of petitioning 

Delta Phi Alpha. A charter was granted May 25, 1931, and the group was Installed 

fin 
the following Autumn as Omlcron chapter of the national society. On ^rll 16, 

1936, a new German Club was organized as a subsidiary of Delta Phi Alpha. The 

German Club now acc^ts as member any student with an active Interest In German 

language and literature, while Delta Phi Alpha's membership Includes only those 

students who have evidenced exceptional ability and Interest in Germanic studies. 

The group has sponsored the showing of a few German motion pictiires, but with 

this exception its program has been of a private natture. It has shown no active 

Byiqjathy for Germany's Nazi government. 

61 
A Spanish Club was organized in the Autumn of 1923 and was more or 

less active until 1936 when, on May 17, it beceuoae Alpha Theta chapter of Sigma 

Delta Pi, national honorary. ^^ Dr. 0. K. Lundeberg was Instrumental in the 



^^ Chronicle , Oct, 27, 1909, 

so 

" ^Chronicle , Jan, 15, 1930. 

^ Q Chronicle , May 27, 1931. ^ ^Chronicle , Dec. 10, 1924. 

^ ^Chronicle . May 19, 1936. Sketch by Bill J. Williams in News Service files, 
dated Nov, 8, 1937. 



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asw baa "^^SSei to amiak 9di 3ȴ cft'IC dslat. 



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27 



Inetfldlation of the chapter and was its first fa^nilty adviser. The group's pro- 
gram Includes regular meetings to encourage the study of Spanish history and 
literature and tise of the language, and an annual (since 1936) puhlic Hesta of 
music, drama, declamations, and other entertainment. Since 1938 there has heen 
a subsidiary Spanish Club of elementary students. 

A Graduate English Club organized by students in the Department of 

63 

English was active in 1939-30 — three years after the establishment of the 

Grad.uate School of Arts and Sciences. It was evidently formed prior to May 30, 

64 
1928, when Omicron Beta chapter of Sigma Tau Delta, national professional 

65 
English fraternity, was established. The English Club has not had a lengthy 

continuous existence, but has been reorganized two or three times since 1930, 

66 
the last time on November 15, 1940. 

In 1879 the German linguist Johann Martin Schleyer proposed as an 

international language his recently- invented pasigraphy, Volapuk, By April of 

1891 the proposal had reached Randolph County with such force as to initiate 

a Tolapuk Club at Trinity, ^"^ but the babbling infant organization evidently did 

not survive the trip to Durham the following year. The Archive stated this to 

be the first Volapuk Club in Horth Carolina. 



^^Chronicle, Mar 19, 1930. 
°*See also Chapter 711 I. 
" "Chronicle , May 23, 1928. 
" "Chronicle , Nov. 19, 1940. 
^ "^Archive, May 1891, p. 133. 



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Chapter III 
CIVIC AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS 

A. St-adent Government, Men's 

The beginnings of student government at Duke date from 1910, the year 
Dean William Preston Few was elevated to the presidency. Self-government of 
students was not enthusiastically encouraged during President Kllgo's admini- 
stration. Such Infractions as are now handled by the men's and women's student 
goverzunents (which function constitutes a major duty of each) often received 
"Dr. Jack's" personal attention, and the res\ilt was occasionally the termination 
of an unruly undergraduate's career at Trinity, Youiig Dean Jew enjoyed greater 
popularity with the more liberal and lively element in the student body than 
did President Ellgo. This perhaps accounts to some extent for the fa^t that the 
Greater Trinity Club, antecedent of the Men's [Student Government] Association 
of Trinity College, was founded in June 1910, the month Dr. Pew was elected to 
succeed Dr. Ellgo. This organization, -vdiich became the Greater Duke Club in 
1924-25, was formed "to back every worthy interest of the college, to make 
Trinity known and loved." While it did not serve as a governing body, the Club 



^Chronicle , June 8, 1910, p. 5. See also, Chronicle , June 7, 1927. 



OIVIO 



o;» X>6*ooI - ,0X^1 anxri. at betavol 



, iolaoidZ ,csl3 9&? .".rr .'^lei Z:^ sauX. .eJclrrotrfO 



29 



did lay the foundations for studdat government by seeking to enlist the interest 
of the entire student "body in problems and programs affecting the whole comm\inity. 
It was primarily, however, a boosters' club, with a chamber-of-commerce sort of 
program. The Greater Duke Club amalgamated with the Men's Association early in 
the Fall of 1927. 

Immediate antecedent of student government was the Student Life Com- 
mittee, 1921-22, formed at the suggestion of Dean Wannamaker (see Chanticleer , 
1921, 1922), This Committee, working through the Class of 1922, brought into 
being the Men's Association of Trinity College on May 9, 1922. (\fhile the 
official title is Men's Association of Trinity College, it is generally r ef erred 
to as Student Government Association — in newspaper style, SGA.) The Men's 
Association has concerned itself with such matters as: the holding (weekly when- 
ever there is a docket) of "rat coiirt," the sponsoring of one or two dances a 
year, presenting student petitions for extended vacations and other privileges, 
officially representing the student body on state occasions and at regional 
gatherings of collegians. It is encouraged to exercise as much disciplinary'- 
control over the life of undergraduate men as it can exercise effectively, and 
only major charges of misconduct are handled by the Dean. Verbal reports of 
student government officers over a period of ten years indicate that not more 
than three percent of undergraduate men have been called before the Council on 
charges of misconduct. "The penalty for conviction of major offences shall be 
expTilsion, save in mitigating circumstances," according to Section 4, Article 
V, of the Constitution (as revised and ratified February 9, 1939); but the 
Co-uncil's power is limited to recommending expulsion to the Dean. The recom- 
mendations of the CoToncil are nearly always followed. The Constitution 



^Chronicle, Mar. 9, 1921; Apr, 6, 1921; May 10, 1922. 



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30 



makes no epetific dletlnction between major and minor offenses, and the only 
offenses listed in the By-Laws are: "gambling and dznonkenness and other conduct 
that is unbecoming a gentleman," and "carelessly incurring debts."*' 

Dancing is the most generally accepted synonym for "social program" 
on college campuses nowadays. The Men's Association has felt responsible for 
having a social program for about a decade. It usually sponsors one or two 
dances for freshmen only, and since 1933 has given an annual Victory Ball in 
honor of the football squad, and a yearly Inaugural Ball since about 1930. The 
Association's revenue has been derived chiefly from the sale of freshman caps 
(dinks), upperclass students feeling little obligation to pay dues. Caps have 
been worn by first-year men since K30. Among other activities of the Associ- 
ation have been: instituting and occasional revival of "the honor system"; 
"cooperation conferences" with student government representatives of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, usually dtiring football season; conferences with the Union 
Manager for the purpose of improving dining hall service; establishing "dating 
bureaux"; raising funds for disaster victims, in cooperation with such agencies 
as the Red Cross; petitioning for changes in library hotirs, vacation schedules, 
examination dates; agitation for a Eecreation Center. 

The form and function of the Men's Association have changed periodically 
but not radically in the two decades of its existence. The original Constitution 
has been revised three times; May 26, 1931; March 8, 1934; and February 9, 1939, 
For eight years prior to 1931 the officers of the Association were President, 
Vice-President, and Secretary-Treasurer, elected for these particxilar offices in 



Constitution of the Men's Association of Trinity College, in The Duke Handbook , 
No. 15 (1940-41) , pp. 47- 51. By-Laws dealing with specific offenses have become more 
and more vague and general. In the original (1922) Constitution such things as 
playing musical instruments after 11 o'clock at night, shooting fireworks, cheating 
and lying, and mutilation of university property were proscribed. 



-.^-.M^r -trci^m ^/rft toUfrr n'?fl-^*ao noiioD.n?il :-ni6s; 



:):^(AJai 



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., -, . , . .^■vr^.^i .. r. .,. ,ib.0:- :r.:-'--.." ^:itcio^M 

,i.V«>feX JwOv- >wi».«.o 4»..~— ^ji^cv- '^- ,- • . 

..,r.,,^ .,-,.-. .:^c,ir?: ^.,,. r- ■Yc.i^.f,: ^Xdc ^liixl ?<^tl?*©^ »li.3i>irJs saalu^i^CiqiJ .(jaLolL) 

.-seJaeO act ^ i je^v^I. .loIi^ifuisaLf 



y,i-.:c -S-Xj-i/i JIB:, 3-;^;'j :o l -.• 



•j-'.ii- ,-Xt**ju^-?«>i-i:"-'.'/i--*-dio»i cc^ , :'• roT f--: ■•-r"-'?' 



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oio'o IX 



31 



general student balloting. IThe Student Council (seml-leglelatlve, executive, 
and Judicial all in one) consisted of the President, tvo additional seniors » two 
Juniors, one sophomore, one graduate student, and one faculty member (without 
▼ote). The 1931 revision eliminated graduate and faculty representation, added 
as officers of the Association: two student members of the Council on Student 
Publications (Publications Board), the student membership of ^ich was elected 
by the Junior classes and the Councils of the Men's and Women's Associations; 
and the Cheerleader (u8\xally elected by acclamation in student assembly, after 
having voliinteered) . It also created a House of Hepresentatives, subordinate 
to the Student Council; the House membership consisting of the Vice-President 
emd the six students having the greatest number of votes in the general ballot- 
ing. The House was given "Jurisdiction over such cases as [were] delegated to 
it by the Student Council," and its only practical function was an attempt to 
curb unruly conduct in the dormitories. The revised Constitution also gave the 
House of Hepresentatives '*power to enforce its legislation by some organization 
deemed suitable by that body," but it soon proved unable to do much enforcing. 
The need for discipline in dormitories thus Ineffectively met, the Administra- 
tion was prompted to Inaugurate more strict supervisory measures, which in turn 
helped to bring about another revision of the Constitution, which was ratified 
March 8, 1934. 

This revision was one of several results of the student agitation of 
1934 

1933-34, a natural consequence of the institution's expansion. In the 
Revolt^ 

eight years following the founding of the University in 1934-25 the 

student body had increased from less than 1,200 to nearly 3,000, and the under- 



*Source of most information in this section is the printed report of CIRSA 
and Chronicle clippings assembled in the files of the University News Service. 



p w -• < -^■ 



t 

_^^j J 9il;t ai 29iov l:o - ^8=».ti>--rs* 8f{;f -^ntv^ri s^^caiwiia >£b eiij x>iUi 

." , J 1101 . 

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-f^^.-irr ^rf. , - ' ^,1 nfid* ssel moil xjaa^atoal bftri ^irJc 



..,.--:^ 



32 



graduate men's division had doubled (790 to I486). Both in number and proportion, 
the influx of students from private preparatory schools and large (northern and 
north central) high schools had increased considerably "by 1933-34, and it was 
natural that advanced ideas about student freedom shoiild find expression at Duke. 
It was to have been expected, also, that powers of self-government granted to a 
few hundred students from small, second-rate high schools would he deemed re- 
strictive by students coming from more advanced preparatory institutions. The 
more unfettered and self-reliant element in college is usTially to he found in 
the social fraternities. It was at a meeting of the Fraternity Pan-Hellenic 
Council in Fehruary 1934 that this segment of the student body first gave loud 
expression to its desire for less strict oversight in extra-cTirricular phases 
(©f college life. This protest soon developed into what was kno\«i at the time 
as a "student revolt , " 

While expansion of the institution may thus he regarded as the chief 
factor in the background of the "student revolt," there were others worth men- 
tioning: the "Depression" was still a popular topic of conversation on and off 
caiapuses, and "griping" was the order of the day; the Class of 1934 was the 
first freshman class (of men) to live on the new University Canrpus; 1933 saw 
the inauguration of the "New Deal" in Federal government; Justin Miller was 
Dean of the School of Law, Ernest Seeman v/as head of the Duke University P^ess, 
and there were other "liberals" on the faculty — who left within a year or two; 
fiichard Austin Smith was aggressive editor of The Archive , L. H, Edmondson the 
adventurous head of The Chronicle , Joe Shackford the honest President of SGA, 
Pranklin D, Roosevelt had recently been inaugurated as President of the 
United States (for the first time), and one of the first pieces of "Hew Deal" 
legislation was that making the sale of light wines and beer legal throughout 
the nation. It was nattxral that this should have a direct effect upon the 



. , . . . ^ 



,9'txX 6^eIXoo Ic 



ujj::o-, 



33 



Institution. Thirsty Duke students have found it convenient to frequent The 
Tavern of the Washington Duke Hotel, The Goody Shop, and other more-or-lees 
"wet spots" in and around Durham. Before the sale of hard liquors was legalized 
in Horth Carolina, in 1935, those with automobiles and dry throats occasionally 
went to South Boston and other southern Virginia towns to get legal liquor, or — 
perhaps less frequently — to Owlshoro (Durham County's Lehanon Township) to get 
bootleg homemade spirits. Since not all thirsty collegians coiild conveniently 
travel to these far oases, there began to develop a small campus traffic in 
booze. Dormitory matrons, maids. Janitors, and the campus police were instruc- 
ted to help discourage this illicit business by reporting to higher authorities 
the presence of intoxicants in the dormitories. All such employees had keys to 
students' closets as well as bedrooms. Whether from cxiriosity, natural diligence 
in duty, or their own weakness for wet goods, these workers began to be quite 
cooperative in reporting small caches of drink. So cooperative were they in 
this respect that a number of both undergraduate and graduate men were given 
inconvenience and embarrassment and calls from the Dean. Thus arose one of the 
several complaints aired diiring the Spring of 1934. 

At the Men's Junior Class meeting of October 9, 1933 (in the Biology 
Building) there was proposed a Student Eelatione Committee, with the broad gen- 
eraH purpose of obtainizig more freedom of action for undergraduates. Such a 
committee was organized diiring the ensuing month. It was perhaps the formation 
of this committee which inspired some one in the University community to write 



^Chronicle . Oct. 11, 1933. 

g 
Chronicle , Nov, 15, 1933, gave the membership of the Student Relations Com- 
aittee as follows: Seniors Joe Shackford, Lou Ganz, Jim Otis and Jake Sullivan; 
Juniors Dick Smith, L. H. Edmondson, Martin Williams and Al Heichman; Sophomores 
Alexander Deemer and Julian Ewell; Preshmen Wade Marr and Alexander Copeland. 



vii^.^ic35oo a*3o-it{* ^ic £as -3«.Iiaofflo*x;a rlctiw aaod^ .356i c:i .Baiio-uiZ dizo\. lU 

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34 



a eatirical but not subtle little piece of drama titled "The Vision of King 
Faucus." This was distributed (throTigh the mails) early in November of 1933, 
and afforded some amusement throughout the community, but apparently none for 
the principals of the playlet — chief University officers. 

During the period between semesters, Kappa Alpha fraternity invited 
some freshmen to a dance. This was in violation of a fraternity Panr-Hellenic 
Council ruling, and the offending chapter was "tried" and heavily fined. The 
Council's decision was declared void by Dean Wannamaker. Whereupon, on the night 
of February 6, 1934, there was a meeting "precipitated by the intervention of the 
administration in a Fan-Hellenic matter. Infuriated by what was declared the 
''monarchy" ofi the administration, men representing social and honorary frater- 
nities, publications, student government, and other student activities gathered 
in one of the dormitories and drew up a 'bill of grievances' for submission to 
the administration." A student mass meeting was held in the University Grymnaslum 
and the next student assembly was given over to reading and discussion of the 
'bill of grievances,' and there was named a Committee for Investigation and Recom- 
mendation on Student Affairs (CIHSA), which made a report to the student body 
one month later. The committee was composed of: Edwin B. Abbott, Jack W. Dunlap, 
L. H. Edmondson, John M. Hamrick, Horace J. Hendrickson, James 0. Otis, Jr., Dr. 
Christopher Roberts, Joseph T, Shackford, Richard A. Smith, Jake W. Sullivan, 
Coach Wallace Wade, and Dr. Newman Ivey V/hite. There was some intimation, in 
North Carolina newspapers and in street-corner conferences, that the students' 
grievances had outside inspiration, but the Committee was "firmly convinced that 
the student movement was not instigated or influenced by parties outside the 
student body. " 



7 
Chronicle, Feb. 7, 1934. 



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35 



Revision of the Men's Association Constitution was one of six major 
recommendations of CIHSA. Other recommendations concerned: (l) the fining 
system, dormitory regulations, and University police; (2) student publications; 
(3) Fraternity Pan-Hellenic Council; (4) University Dining Halls, West Caiopus; 
and (5) University stores. Publications and fraternities are mentioned in other 
chapters; other items are briefly reviewed here. 

The chief proposal for chazige in the Men's Association concerned the 
House of Representatives. Many students thought that a larger House would mean 
more freedom for them, less strict supervision by the University authorities. It 
was proposed to have '*one representative from each dormitory house of Trinity 
College, including Epworth and Southgate Halls, to be appointed by the Student 
Coxmcil at the beginning of each academic year," making a total of some thirty 
representatives. The enlarged House of Representatives was to be set up only 
in the absence of a dormitory proctor system, proctors to be "unmarried members 
of the faculty or students of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences." A 
modification of the proctor plan had been instituted for freshmen in September 
1933, when Kilgo House was made an exclusively freshman dormitory. This left 
only four of the upperclass undergraduate dormitory sections for non-fraternity 
men (though some non-fraternity men were housed in fraternity sections). All 
fraternities being represented on the Pan-Hellenic Council, the duties of which 
had become somewhat related to those of the Men's Association, there was no real 
need for such a House of Representatives, as was decided after one year. 

Student discipline, CIRSA concluded, was not a proper ftinction of the 
University Police, nor was it proper for Negro servants to be used as informers 
(i.e., maids and janitors should not report improprieties they noticed in the 
dormitories). Damages to University property should be assessed by a Committee 
of Inspection contposed of the Superintendent of Buildings, the University Hostess, 



Ti. 



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36 



md th0 President of the Men's Association, this committee to inspect every room 
for the pxirpoee of assessing damages twice each semester. Dormitory discipline 
was to be encouraged hy a proctor system, proctors to he appointed hy the Dean 
of the University. (Proctors were not appointed, and the House of Representatives 
was enlarged — for one year.) Unorganized athletic activities should he permitted 
on Sunday afternoons, CIBSA also concluded. 

Since their opening in 1930 the University Dining Halls (West Caucus) 
had provided a favorite cud for students to chew in bull sessions. (Complaints 
have been rare concerning Woman's College Union, where prices are higher and 
service different.) The next most popular "gripe" has been the University Stores. 
3oth are monopolies and both (according to student opinion) have been operated 
as purely commercial enterprises, with profit the primary object; both are gen- 
erally thought to realize considerable net profits. CIE^ recommended that 
financial statements of both departments be published annually in !Che Chronicle . 
(This was one of the recommendations not carried out.) It was also recommended 
that the Men's Association each year appoint a committee to "receive and investi- 
gate complaints concerning the dining halls," and that another committee be 
appointed to investigate "the feasibility of forming a Student and Paculty Co- 
operative Society for the purpose of running the University Stores co-operatively." 
(These were among other recommendations soon forgotten.) 

Study emd observation of student life suggests the conclusion that not 
1939 

more than two or three times in a decade does a class, as a whole, 
Revision 

distinguish itself for civic enterprise. Such distinction, the oppor- 

txinlty for such a group to so distinguish itself, results from a combination of 



o 

In addition to sources already cited. Time , Peb. 19, 1934. The entire 
1933-S4 volume of The Chronicle is evidence of wide-awake student leadership. 



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37 



conditions. This, together with — but perhaps more than — the personal character- 
istics of its leaders, e^q^lains the prominence of the Class of 1939, which in 
several respects (and especially in regard to self-government) was the most out- 
standing class since 1934. The 1938-39 student government was to a large degree 
perfunctory, or so it seemed to most undergradiiate men. Its outstanding project 
was the fostering of student interest in a proposed recreation Milding, intended 
game rooms in the Union Building having been diverted to more -urgent ^:^es. Chief 
complaint of student civic leaders ( spairk-plugged by The Chronicle ) was "politics." 

An outgrowth of the 1933^34 "revolt" had been revision of the system of election 

9 
of members and officers of the Fraternity Fan-Hellenic Council, in 1936-37. 

Thus "politics" had been "eliminated" from the "Pan-Hel"; the Y. M, C. A. had 
taken the cure in 1936-37 also. Now it was time for the Men's Association. 

The terms government and politics are very closely related on American 
college campuses as well as in the broader political sphere, and the unsavory 
inflection and cozmotation of the latter term had come to be almost as notice- 
able on the Duke campuses as at a typical rally of Young Democrats. The strong- 
est and best qualified students were seldom elected to the top positions. They 
weren't even candidates; they ran the machine. One of the least succulent 
political plums within reach of a Duke undergraduate man was the presidency of 
the Men's Association, There was no salary; though, as in all political jobs, 
there was opportunity for graft, "honest" and otherwise. Altruistic aspirants 
to the position— some of them had been elected— became candidates because of the 
honor; practical, materially-minded candidates considered the "honorarium." 



^This legislation was known as "The Oillander Act," after Robert C. Oillander, 
Sigma Chi, who proposed the change. See also Chapter VII; Chronicle , Mar, 9, 1937. 

See Chapter IV. 



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(The past tense is used because reference is to the period before student govern- 
ment "politics were cleaned xip." The transformation was only two years ago, and 
it seems early to draw conclusions; but there is already some evidence that the 
present tense could as well be used throughout this paragraph.) From a close 
observation of the Men*s Association during the last decade, it is concluded that 
the "practical" sort of candidates have not been successfxil much more than half 
the time. It is likely that few of the candidates in either category have realized 
beforehand the amount of effort required in fulfilling the duties of office. 

During the last decade there have been two strong opposing factions at 
election time. These have been known as the Blue Combine and the White Combine, 
named for the institution's official colors. A combine is a group of organiza- 
tions, usually fraternities. The fraternities almost invariably vote in blocks, 
no good Hu Pi Beta voting differently from his brothers. As in the political 
life of the wide world, there are seldom as many distinct differences between the 
programs of the opposing combines as their speakers and writers try to show the 
student body. For several years prior to 1939, it was unusual for more than half 
of the student body to vote; 60 percent voted that year, and there has been some 
increase. No fraternity has been known to refuse to x)articipate in combine 
activities. Membership in a fraternity is usually prerequisite to successful 
ceindidacy for elective office of political importance. Only rarely has an inde- 
pendent candidate been successful. 

In 1937 there was an Independent Party, composed chiefly of first-year 
and second-year men, who found it more profitable to join a combine the following 
year. The term combine becoming increasingly opprobrious, the White Combine of 
1937-38 began the campaign by calling itself the White Party, but the old familiar 
name came back before election. There was an Independent Party again in 1939, and 
its candidates were unsucceesf \il . 



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39 



The 1939 change in the Constitution of the Men's Association was 
"brought BiboMt in practically the same manner as the "elimination of politics*' 
in the Y. M. C. A. and the Pan-Hellenic Council. Departing somewhat from the 
usual custom of candidates for the position, Richard (^. Lewis, successful Blue 
candidate for head of student goyerzunent in 1938-39, had made some definite cam- 
paign promises regarding reforms in Men's Association elections and election 
campaigns. The unsuccessfxil White Combine had strong leadership, and decided 
to see that the SGA kept its campaign promises. This decision resulted in one 
of the most interesting years of the decade, from the standpoint of student poli- 
tics. Almost immediately after his induction, President Lewis called a Constitu- 
tional Convention at undergraduate assembly on May 5, 1938, at which amendments 
were passed providing universal suffrage (payment of dues had been prerequisite 
to voting) and cancelling the nomination of any candidate "if the Council finds 
the candidate guilty of being backed for office by a combine as hereinunder 
defined: A combine is any combination of organizations or any group of men 
organized for the purpose of backing any candidate for a Men's Student Govern- 
ment Association position by means of reciprocal voting." The student body was 
evidently in favor of these changes, but the White Combine leaders Interpreted 
it as merely a side-tracking tactic, since several other campaign promises were 
not mentioned. Chronicle Editor Roosevelt Der Tatevaslan, a chief supporter of 
unsuccessfiil White candidate Garfield Miller against Lewis, vigorously supported 
the Southgate (Engineering) students in their attempt to place a representative 
on the Student Council. This had been a Blue campaign promise, but when a vote 
on the issue was forced in the Pall of 1938, Southgate was refused representation. 
This gave Editor Der Tatevaslan, the Engineers, and their supporters the excuse 
they wanted to put SGA on the griddle. Nearly four months of prodding resulted 
in the revised Constitution of February 9, 1939. 






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The 1934 Constitution was definitely out of date,Bome of its provisions 
having been ohserved only in the breach — which condition, incidentally, has 
obtained with reference to seversd provisions of the 1939 Instruinent. The 
adoption of the new Constitution was reported for the Durham Morning Herald of 
Pebruaiy 10, 1939, as follows: 

Fewer than six percent of the members of the Men's Student Govern- 
ment association of Trinity college (composed of all undergraduate men 
at Duke university) last night adopted a new constitution for self- 
government. The instrument was drafted by three members of the student 
government coiincil, with the aid of Dr. Robert S, Rankin, of the politi- 
cal science department. It was adopted by sicclamation on a motion by 
Roosevelt Der Tatevasian, at a constitutional convention in Page audi- 
torium, attended by 83 students and presided over by Richard C^. Lewis, 
president of the association. 

The drafting committee was cos^osed of E. T. Baker, III, senior 

of Baltimore, Md., Ted Brown, Jackson Heights, N. Y. senior, and John 

L. Shinn, Junior of Sylacatiga, Ala. Among the chief provisions of the 
revised constitution are the following; 

"All candidates whose petitions are accepted x x x will be 
obliged to pass an examination on the Constitution x x x and general 
parliajnentairj'- law." Sxaminations are to be given by a committee com- 
posed of facility members in the department of political science and 
the School of Law. 

Barnes of candidates for office will be announced only one day 
before election [registration] date. 

"Election for executive offices on the Student Co\incll shall be 
conducted under the preferential system," Thus, the candidate receiv- 
ing the highest number of votes will be declared president; the can- 
didate receiving the second highest number, vice-president; the can- 
didate receiving the third highest number, secretary-treasurer. 

The adoption of the preferential system of balloting is expected 
to "make it difficult for fraternities to bargain for top student 
government offices" and to help "eliminate politics" from elections. 
It is aimed specifically at the suppression of fraternity "combines." 

For several years fraternities have been the controlling groups 
in student government elections, and have been almost as potent in 
class, publications, Y. M. C. A. and other elections. "Politics" was 
eliminated from Y. M. C. A. elections three years ago by a one-day 
eimouncefflent provision like that in the student government instrument 
adopted last night, and provision for nomination of candidates in a 
manner somewhat similar to that under the new constitution. 



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The revised instrument provides for the exercise of executive, 
legislative ajad Judicial powers over \indergrad\iate men. The student 
organization differs from traditional democratic government, however, 
in that hoth legislative and Judicial matters are handled hy the 
coTincil, of which the executive officers are also members. Other 
council members are elected as follows: two from both Junior and 
senior classes, one from the sophomore class, one from the student 
body of the Division of Engineering. 

Prior to 1934 a House of Representatives, composed of one re- 
presentative from each undergraduate dormitory, shared legislative and 
executive duties with the student council. These representatives also 
served as proctors in their respective dormitories, a function discon- 
tinued with the setting apart of dormitories for freshmen. 

The Judicial function of the council (of which each of the nine 
student government officials is a member) consists primarily in hold- 
ing occasional trials of minor offenses; major infractions are sub- 
ject to review and action by university officials. 

A provision adopted last night which will greatly increase the 
council's legislative function is that giving the council "authority 
to investigate the affaire of any men's student campus club or organi- 
zation for the ptirpose of recommending needed changes or reorganization 
X X X or for the purpose of recommending to the administration the dis- 
solution of that club or organization, x x x Social fraternities are 
exempted from this authority since they are secret organizations and 
are governed directly by the Pan-Hellenic covmcil." 

Changes in the instrument closely follow provisions of the con- 
stitution of the Woman's College government which have been effective 
for several years, and under which the women's student government has 
been generally more satisfactory than that of undergraduate men. x x x 

By-Laws to the new Constitution were passed by the Council on February 30, 1939. 
One of the amendments passed on May 5, 1938 had proscribed combines, and the 
amendment had been considered a Blue (administration) measure. But before the 
1939 Spring elections the White combine as well as the Blue had reappeared. 
The only effect of the May amendment seems to have been that the campus was not 
deluged with campaign publicity until the official starting gun was fired the 
day before registration, a week before election, and that there was not very 
loud mention of combines during the week-long campaign. Combines were on the 
way to regaining their former prominence and power in 1940, but both groups 



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42 



differed from their pre-1939 counterparts in that they (assertedly) gave full 
puhlicity in The Chronicle to their vote-getting activities. 

B. Other Men's Oroups 

Men's organizations which have heen fostered hy and associated with 
the Men*s ABSociation are Beta Omega Sigma and the Trident Cluh. BOS (sometimes 
referred to as "Bloody Order of Sophomores") was founded in 1917 as an honorary 
fraternity of outstanding sophomores — elected at the end of their freshman year. 
Most of its members, incidentally or not, have first heen elected to membership 
in social fraternities. •*• The Trident Club was formed in May of 1933 and was 
active through the Pall of 1934.^^ It was a sort of boosters' club, its main 
function being the sponsoring of displays, sideline attractions and other acti- 
vities in connection with football games. It sponsored the first Victory Ball 
(football dance) in December 1933; this annual function hsis since been performed 
by the Men's Association. 

The Freshman Advisory Council was begun in 1937-38 as a project of 
the Y, M. C. A., with Charles W. McCracken, senior from Ardmore, Fa., being the 
most active stimulator. He was its first chairman. The group numbered 64 mem- 
bers (upperclass Tindergraduates and graduate students) in 193&-39, and 94 in 
1939<^0. The 7AC has worked in close cooperation with the Dean of Freshmen and 
with the housemasters of freshman dormitories. Donald 7. Hirst — who with William 
R. Nesbitt, succeeded McCracken — is due much credit for the good foundation of 
tthe Council; under his direction the Men's Association and the Fraternity Pan- 



^^See Chapter VIII. 
12, 



Chronicle, May 24, 1933. 



.•>iV 



43 



Hellenic Council Joined with the Y. M. C. A. in sponeoring and financing the 
CoTincil. 



The purpose of the Freshman Advisory Council is to provide con- 
tacts for all incoming freshmen with a select group of upperclassmen 
and grad-uate students in order (1) to aid each freshman in his trans- 
ition from secondary school to college life, (2) to give him specific, 
accurate, and authoritative information ahout the University, (3) to 
help him plan and establish good habits of study and play, and (4) to 
instill right attitudes of caucus life and conduct, x x x which are 
conducive to the formation of individual character, self-reliance, 
humanity, and social responsibility — to the end that these may become 
the traditional inheritance of every Duke man.^'' 



The 7AC has a Governing Board, consisting of the Chairman and past-Chairman of 
the Council, the Director of Eeligious Activities, the Dean of Freshmen, the 
Chairman of the Freshman Housemasters, Presidents of the Men's Association, 
Fraternity Pan-Hellenic Council, and 7. M. C. A., and President of the Freshman 
Class. 



C. Student Government, Women's 

There are several points of difference between the student governments 
of Trinity College and Woman's College, the most outstanding being that, whereas 
the fraternities virtually control the Men's Association, the Womem's College 
Government has control over practically all women's groups, including sororities. 
Such differences are to be expected from the inherent dissimilarities of men and 
women and the consequently diverse details of administration required in Trinity 
College and Woman's College. Woman's College Government has not been as highly 
centralized as the Men's Association, but has exercised more direct power over 



^^Second Annual Report of the Freshman Advisory Council, 1939. Mimeographed. 



adi 



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44 



extra-curricular activities and has appropriated to itself wider jurisdiction 
than has the men's government. 

The Men's Association had its origin in a civic, semi-governmental hody, 
the Grreater Trinity Club. The Sorority Pan-Hellenic Coiuicil, established in 191S, 
was perhaps the only organization preceding the Women's Student (Jovernment which 
might appropriately have interested itself in the self-government of Trinity 
women. The number of undergraduate women had gradually increased from 18 in 
1900 to 100 in 1918. In September 1917 the Young Women's Christian Association 
had been organized, and had gained the active support of a substantial majority 
of women students with its war-time program of Hed Cross sewing, War Savings and 
Liberty Bond campaigns, and other projects. 

The Women's Student Government was founded in the Fall of 1918, under 
the direct sponsorship of the Y, W. C. A., after a study of several student 
governments in other parts of the nation. Ruth Willard Merritt, senior from 
Norlina, who had been one of the leaders in its establishment, was named first 
president. 

Sy 1923-34 the number of undergraduate women had increased to 268, the 
craze called Jazz had reached Trinity, advertisers of cigarettes were beginning 
to appeal to women, beauty parlors were increasing in poptilarity, and there was 
felt a need for strengthening the government. The Constitution was revised that 
year, under the direction of Nora C. Chaff in. President. In 1932-33 (the third 
year of Woman's College), as result of efforts of the League of Women Voters, 
there was a revision in the system of elections for the purpose of "eliminating 
politics. "^^ There was further revision in 1934-35.^^ 



^^See Chapter IT. ^^Chronlcle, Mar. 14, 1934. ^^Chronicle, Mar, 1. 1935. 






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45 



Originally titled Women's Student Government, since 1930 the associ- 
ation has been known as Woman's College G-overnment of Duke University, tho-ugh it 
is more often referred to as Women's Student Government (in current newspaper 
style, WSO), Its stated purpose — a bit more specific than the statement of 
purpose in the preamble of the Men's Association Constitution — is 

to regulate all matters pertaining to the life of the women of the 
Woman's College of Duke University, not under the jurisdiction of 
the Faculty; to increase a sense of individual responsibility; to 
further a spirit of unity among the women of the College; and to 
cooperate with the Faculty in creatiog and maintaining high ideals 
for the women of the University.^''' 

Woman's College Government is more truly representative than is the 
Men's Association. It is officered by nineteen students (out of a student body 
of some 800), in contrast to the eight officers of the men's government (for a 
student body of some 1700). Each dormitory is formally organized, and the 
president is ex officio representative on the WSG Council. Non-resident students 
(Town Girls) are also formally organized, and their head is a member of the Coun- 
cil. Thus (theoretically, at least) there is no undergraduate woman who does not 
have an acquaintance on the Co-uncil; this cannot be said of undergraduate men. 
In addition to these house representatives, the Council membership comprises 
class representatives, President, Vice-President, Recording and Corresponding 
Secretaries, Treasurer and Assistant Treasurer, Chairman of Social Standards 
Committee, Chairman of the Points System, The Council is divided into Executive 
and Judicial Boards, and there is a Student-Faculty Judicial Board for reviewing 
(disciplinary) decisions of the latter. Provision is also made for a College 
Board — consisting of representatives of Woman's College Government, other leading 



17 

*^ Student's Handbook of Information . 1938-39, (Woman's College, Duke Univer- 

•ity), p. 33. 



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46 



student organizations, and several members of the administrative staff — "to hold 
discussion and to make recommendations . . . and in general to influence public 
opinion in favor of all measures or movements that are designed to uphold the 

standards of scholarship and conduct and to foster loyalty to the ideals of 

18 
Duke University," The system of elections is the model after which the Men's 

Association's revision of 1939 was patterned. A difference is that the Dean of 
Woman's College approves nominations. 

By making itself usef\il and by using the powers delegated to it by the 
Administration, Woman's College Government has merited the respect and support 
of its constituency. Not only does it command respect for itself; it encourages 
support of other student organizations. Through its "campus" power, it has the 
authority to force payment of dues to other student organizations, a service 
v&ich many men's organizations would welcome from their government. Throxigh the 
Forum Committee it sponsors a series of lectures and concerts by outstanding 
personalities each year. Through the Social Standards Committee it instructs 
and supervises all students in the numerous details of gracious social relation- 
ships. Through the Points System it attempts to equalize opportunity for leader- 
ship by limiting the number of positions in extra/- cur ricular activities to be 
held by any student. Some of the other activities of Woman's College Government 
correspond to those of the Men's Association. Following are some typical head- 
lines from The Chronicle of the last decade: 

"Women to Seek Longer Christmas Vacation Period" 
"WSGA Passes New Regulations to Curb Cheating" 
"Duke Coeds Donate $60 for Paralysis Appeal" 
"Coed SGA Alters New Dance Ride" 



1 ft 

■^ "Student's Handbook of Information , op.cit., p. 37. 

19 

To be "campus sed" is to be denied the privilege of leaving the college 

grounds. 



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47 



D. Related Women's Groups 

Woman's College Government has fostered the estahlishment of several 
other organizations of undergraduate women, some of which are subsidiary to it. 
The Town Girls' Club was founded December 3, 1927 in order to give non-resident 
students representation in student government. It has practically the same status 
as a dormitory organization, A study room for Tov/n Girls is provided in Faculty 
Apartments Building. 

The Presidents' Club was organized in May 1935*^ and was part of WSG 
until it was succeeded in March 1938 by the Executive Co-oncil of Presidents. 
Its chief function was the arranging of the calendar of events to avoid serious 
conflicts* The Presidents' Club succeeded the Student Board of the Woman's 
College Government, set up before 1932. 

Sandals, honorary sophomore sorority, was organized by WSG in May of 

22 
1932. It is in many respects similar to Beta Omega Sigma, honorary sophomore 

fraternity. Its chief functions have been assisting at student government meet- 
ings (paging, collecting ballots, etc.), supervising the Ark as a recreation 
center, assisting the "Y" and other organizations in orienting first-year students, 
A yearly project of each group of Sandals has been to add some specific improve- 
ment to the Ark. The organization has cooperated with B.O.S. in giving dances 
and other social programs. Its membership U8\ially consists of 20 students chosen 
at the end of the freshman year.^"^ 



^Chronicle , Dec. 7, 1927. 
^ ^ Chronicle , May 14, 1935, 

^ ^Chronicle . May 25, 1932. 

23 

Evelyn Van Sciver. Sketch in News Service files, 1938. 



■ IC '. ' 



vrfof. 



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48 



j-unior Big Sisters served In cooperation with the student government 
from the introduction of the idea at Trinity ahout 1920^ until 1936-37 when 
its function was delegated to Freshman Advisers, ^ a group of upperclass vomen 
which succeeded Personal Advisers, a loosely-knit faculty-student group which 
existed for a short while dxaring the Fall of 1933.^^ 



B. Other Organizations 

The institution's courses in Political Science (first known as Political 
Economy) have had good reputation since 1902, when Dr. W. H. Glasson hegan the 
first class. However, among students there has not been enough extra-curricular 
interest in political science to sustain for a very great length of time a club 
for the study of this and related topics. The earliest recorded organization of 
this kind was the Current Topics Club, organized in November 1898. It was short- 
lived, evidently. 

On October 9, 1926, Athena and Brooks Literary Societies combined to 

28 
form a chapter of the League of Women Voters, a national organization. This 

group was active for a number of years in stimulating interest in local (campus) 

as well as national political problems; it was revived in the Spring of 1933, and 

ceased functioning in 1936-37. 



^Ch ronicle , Sept. 14, 1921. 

Since 1939 known as Freshman Advisory Council, but not to be confused with 
the men's Freshman Advisory Council, pp. 42-43. 

^ ^ Chronicle , Sept. 14, 1933. 

27 

Catalogue, 1900-01, p. 90. Also mentioned as Current Events Club, 

^^ Chronicle, Oct. 13, 1926; Mar. 1, 1933, p. 7. 



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A history somewhat paralleling that of the League of Women Voters, but 

29 

of longer duration, is that of the Polity Club, organized November 8, 1928. ^^ 
The Carnegie Foundation donates considerable amounts of literature on international 
relations to college societies organized for the purpose of studying political 
science and history in relation to the furthering of international good will. 
The Polity Club has been affiliated with the Carnegie Foundation on this basis, 
and during the last dozen years has received numerous volumes, which in turn have 
been deposited in the University Library. The club was dormant from 1935 to 1938; 
then it was strong for two years under the leadership of Joe Tally. In 1939-40 
it Joined the University Lectures Committee in sponsoring several addresses and 
for\im8 on the subject of the European situation. In 1940-41 it conducted two 
or three campus polls on topics of major world interest. A round-table discussion 
on "Americanism" was another featxzre of the 1939-40 program; it was broadcast over 
the Ihirham radio station, "^^ 

What promises to be an outsteuidlng accomplishment of the Polity was 

31 

establishment of the Student Congress, organized March 19, 1940. The original 
Intention was that the Congress should become an euijunct of the Men's Association, 
and some progress has been made in that direction. At its Initial meeting, com- 
mittees were named for investigations and reports on men's student government, 
inter-campus relations, and Union food. These committees made reports, and were 
instructed to continue their investigations; this was in the latter part of April, 
and since no reports came from the committees it is taken that approaching exam- 
inations killed Interest in these projects. The chief project of 1940-41 was to 



^ ^Chronicle , Nov. 14, 1928. ^ ° Chronicle , 1939-41, passim, 

''^Chronicle, Mar. 19, 1940. 



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raise $2000 for a mobile kitchen for British war victims; about $800 was raised. 
The following statement of aims and organization of the Student Congress is from 
The Chronicle of October 18 , 1940 : 

The purpose of the Student Congress shall be to provide a forum 
to express and crystalize xmdergraduate opinion on issues of general 
■university interest, and to act in an advisory and axixiliary capacity 
to the administration, faculty and campus organizations. 

All undergraduates of Duke University shall be members. . . , 
Membership bears the right to vote. Meetings shall be open to the 
public, but only undergraduates shall have the right to vote, , , , 

There shall be a steering committee composed of all elected 
officers in addition to seven appointed by the president from a 
panel of fifteen nominated by the assembly. . . . The steering com- 
mittee may refuse to call for a vote upon a resolution if they find 
that the vote wo\ild not be representative of undergraduate opinion. 

On October 10, 1929 was formed the Liberal Club, which sponsored campus 
appearances of Herman Thomas (perennial Socialist candidate for President of the 
United States) and other liberals, until 1933-34, when the group succxunbed to 
gentle conservative pressure. No specific information as to the membership and 
leadership of the group has been found. 

Of a somewhat similar nature was the Americem Student Union, pinko- 
liberal national organization which established a chapter at Duke in November 
1936. The Union was active for about a year, during which time it sponsored one 
or two exhibits of student art, and a three-day Peace Conference (April 22-25, 
1937) at which U. S, Senator Gerald P. Nye of North Dakota spoke — the conference 
being sponsored also by the Y. M. and Y. W. C. A.s, men's and women's student 
governments. School of Heligion Association, Undergraduate Ministerial Fellowship, 



^^Chronicle, Dec. 3, 1930; Mar. 11, 1931; Oct, 16, 1929. 






A/Dis»4* f «i.w X Nitifi* ^ w J>* «»-«^J>-<-^ ^.. J w^ 



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51 



Methodist Students* Association, Student Volunteers, Colum'bia Literary Society, 
and Hesperian Union. It also proposed investigations of such things as campus 
monopolies (stores, haberdashery, dining halls), National Youth Administration, 
and working conditions of University employees. The ASU at Duke, as elsewhere, 
attracted liberals and ultra-liherals. A part of its program had the flavor of 
outside inspiration. It was not encouraged by the Administration. It ceased 
during 1937-38.^^ 

During the national political campaign of 1936 the American Liberty 
League was a strong political force, often associated in popular tho\ight with 
the unsuccessful Republican Party. Much literature was circulated on the cam- 
puses by the organization, and a formal organization was proposed but never 
established. 

In somewhat the same category — of a general political nature, yet 
dealing with a specific campaign — was the Schola Caveat of 1926. This was the 
name assumed by a group of some 300 students in ^rll 1926 for the purpose of 
protesting impending legislative restrictions on education in North Carolina. 
Similar groups were formed at other colleges in the State, but evidently none 
survived the summer vacation.'^ 

A military and quasi-political organization of 1918 took the name 
Autocracy Smashers. "^^ It left no record of specific activity. 

Almost with the regularity of national political campaigns. Democratic 
and Eepubllcan clubs have appeared on the campuses since Trinity College moved 



''"Sheldon Harte, Class of 1937, one of the founders of the Duke chapter, later 
became a secretary-bodyguard to Leon Trotsky, famous exiled Bolshevist, and was 
killed near Mexico City, 

S^chronicle, May 12, 1926. 

35 

Victory, the 1918 editfccn of The Chanticleer. 



<.i T f rf I r- ' 



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52 



to Durham. Two months seems to have been a long life-span for such groups. 
Sometimes they have heen known as Democratic or Hepuhllcan clubs » sometimes by 
the names of the leading candidates. Thus The Chronicle has recorded: Democratic 
Club, 1892 and 1940; Republican Club, 1932 and 1940; Bryan-Kern Club (D) , 1908; 
Woodrow Wilson Club (D) , 1912; Harmon-for-President Club (R) , 1912; Gardner-for- 
Governor Club (D), 1920; Page-f or -Governor Club (D) , 1920; Pritchard-Parker Club 
(R), 1920; Hoover Club (R), 1928; Al Smith Club (D) , 1928.^^ 



^^Chronicle, Feb. 21, 1912; Oct. 11. 1916; Nov, 15, 1916; Mar. 10, 1920; Mar. 
24, 1920; Oct, 10, 1928; Oct. 17, 1928; Oct. 19, 1932; Oct, 21, 1908. Also see 
Archive, June 1892, p. 382. 



•■ r 



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. ^o ; ; 



Chapter IV 
BELIGIOUS GROUPS 

Religion made firm the foundation of Trinity College's earliest pre- 
decessor institution, Union Institute, and it has "been a potent factor in the 
history of Duke University. The predecessor institution was founded "by the 
Union Institute Educational Society, a coalition of Methodist and Quaker con- 
gregations at Trinity, N, C, in 1838 (recorded in the Agtohiography of Brantl e y 
York , page 46), Religious training was considered an integral part of college 
education, so that when the institution adopted a motto, "Eruditio et Religio" 
was chosen. Under Brantley York and Braxton Craven the institution was, in a 
real sense, a religious society. John Franklin Crowell was also a religious 
man, tho\igh he was noted first for his training and ability in the field of 
education, with emphasis on science (later as an economist), 

A year after Crowell 's election to the presidency, the Yotrng Men's 
Christian Association, a world-wide organization founded in 1844, established 
a branch at Trinity; this was in the Fall of 1888. The piirpose of the Duke "Y" 
as expressed in the present Constitution is perhaps the same as it was in 1888: 

1. To lead students to faith in God as revealed in Jesus Christ. 

2. To lead them into membership and service in the Christian Church. 

3. To promote their grov;th in Christian faith, especially through 

prayer and the study of the Bible. 



^ALumni Register, Feb. 1931, Dec, 1932. 



Binr 1 



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54 



4. To influence them to derote themselves in united effort with all 

Christians to the making of the will of Ood effective through- 
out the whole world. 

5. To promote wholesome social relations in Duke Uniyersity. 

Tor many years the chief function of the T« M. Co A* was that of a 
sort of Bible class, but its program has changed with time; being gradually 
broadened, until the 1938*39 "7" was accused of "usurping the powers of the 
Student Goyemment Association."^ 

It was about 1915 that the 7. M. C, A. began changing from a purely 
deyotional organisation to one of campus seryice. Its functions now include the 
maintenance of a reading room in the Union Building, sponsoring the annual Dad's 
Day and Heligious Emphasis Week obseryances (with the financial support of the 
TJniyersity) , assisting in the orientation of first-year students, giving occasional 
dances called "Open Houses," sponsoring boys' clubs in Durham graded schools. 

Troa 1931-33 to 1937-38 the annual series of "7" Tuesday Evening 
Recitals was an iiaportcmt part of the eaatpus entertainment program. Outstcunding 
young professional musicians, visiting college glee clubs, and other musical 
ensembles were presented in admission-free programs. The series was discontinued 
in 1937-38. 

Since about 1930 the University has appropriated $170 a year for steno- 
graphic help. Until 1934 this expropriation was designated for expenses in con- 
nection with the "7" Employment Service; since then there has been no need for 
a "7" EiBployment Service, what %rith ITTA and other forms of student self-help 
being handled by University offices. 

The 7, M. C> A. is supported by donations (called pledges) from stu- 
dents, faculty members, and others in the University community. It also received 



^Chronicle, Dec. 9, 1938. 









. I 



.i<5"V 



i.:*al 









55 



$700 to $800 a year from Qjoadrangle Pictures, the caiopus moTie, dorlag the period 
from 1928 to 1939; "Qjoadrangle " va«» nominally, operated by the 7. M. C« A. 
during that period. The "T" budget for 1940-41 was more than $2,800, the largest 
in the organization's history. 

Since the t^irersity Campus was occupied in 1930, the i*7" has had its 
office over the arcade coxmecting the Union with the dormitory section. While 
there has nerer been a full-time secretary, J. Foster Barnes, who in 1927 was 
engaged as Director of Social and Musical Actiirities, shares the office and is 
an ez officio member of the Soard of Directors; he serves in the capacity of 
adviser in practically all phases of the organisation's work. 

▲bout 1930 was organized the first Freshman Friendship Council of the 
T. M. C, A. In 1933 was begun the Sophomore Council. These groups are now 
organized each year, for the training of workers for the senior council or 
cabinet . 

Mu^ Dependable records concerning the T. M, C* A* are less coaplete than 
T.y.C.A. ^1^8® concerning the 7* W. C. A. The women's association was organized 
September 22, 1917, at the suggestion of President Few. 

At that time there was only one Woman's Building on the caatpus, 
which is the Infirmary today. Of the c^proximately two hundred girls 
only twenty lived on the caa^us. There was no dean, no women faculty 
members, and no [student] organization except literary societies and 
three sororities. Since in 1917 almost half of the men students of 
Trinity College had gone to war and more were leaving all the time, 
the girls were anxious to have some part in the affairs of the day. 

The national 7oung Women's Christian Association was a leader 
in war work, and this aroused the Interest of the girls to organize 
a similar Institution on their own caiopus. Dr. W. W, Peele, who was 
in charge of the religious activities of the school, met %rith a group 
of girls who lived in the Woman's Building, and they decided to organ- 
ize. Instead of getting in touch with the national office, the girls 
started off on their own. Mrs. Arthur Gates, Mrs. W. H. aiasson, Dr. 
H. E. Spence, and Dr. W. W. Peele were asked to be members of the 
Advisory Committee. 



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An afternoon neeting wa« called, and the toim girls were invited. 
About one hundred girls Joined the organization. Someone then got in 
touch with the national office and the Trinity College group hecaae 
officially a part of the national T. W. C. A. With Lucille Litaker 
as the first president, the actual work was hegon. 

The Trinity girls in this group did war work (such as making Red 
Cross bandages), settlement work, gave a Christmas party for a group 
of underpriyileged children, started a gym class, helped with the Stu- 
dent Friendship Fond, had the State Cabinet Training Council to meet 
on the Trinity campus, had a cea^nival and sent repre sen tat ires to the 
"Y" conferences at Blue Eidge.3 

The present membership of the T* W* C. A« is some 400, about half the student 
body at Woman's College. The organization has concerned itself less with general 
eaarpus politics than has the 7. M. C. A. Its projects include: hospital visiting, 
assisting the Administration during Treshman Week, posting bulletins, assisting 
in the Legal Aid Clinic, supenrising girls* clubs in Durham city schools, work- 
ing at King's Doubters Home and Wright Refuge, an annual Christmas x>arty for 
underprivileged children. Thanksgiving dinners for needy families. 

The Freshman Commission and Sophomore Commission, instituted about 
1935, have functions similar to the related bodies of the T. Mo C* A. Freshman 
Advisers (see p. 48, ante) were first organized in 1934 by the "TW"; and the 
Women's Athletic Association was established with aid of the "T" in 1929.^ 

Before Trinity College moved to Durham, the 7* M. C* A. , which existed 
for four years at '*01d Trinity," served the puspose of a Bible, or Sunday School, 
class* It continued this function for several years after the move to Durham. 
Students were encouraged, and expected, to attend Durham churches and Sunday 
Schools, however; so that there was felt no great need for Bible classes until 



^elen Saleeby. Sketch in Hews Service files, dated Nov. 20, 1937. 

4 
Chronicle. Mar. 5, 1930. 



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the Ualverelty occupied the new caopus, in the Fall of 1930, farther remoTed 
from the city. Dr. C. VT. Peppier taught a boys' Bible class in the early 1920*8. 
and Mrs. William J. H. Cotton, wife of a faculty member in the Department of 
Economics , was teacher of a girls* class at about the same time. In the Fall 
of 1930 was instituted the Open Forum Bible Class, under the superrision of 
H. J* Herring, Dean of Men.^ !Fhe class, which has no regular roll, meets at 
9:30 o'clock Sunday mornings in Tork Che^el. Dean Herring or some other faculty 
member usually speaks. I!hi8 is the only Bible class with a continuous existence 
of any considerable length. At about the time of its beginning, or perhaps a 
year later, was instituted the Law School Bible Class, conducted by Professor 
Malcolm McDerBiott of the law faculty. It was discontinued in 1933-34. Mrs* 
C* W. Peppier was for some yeeurs teacher of a girls* class at Duke Memorial 
Methodist Church; most of the members (there were 100 at one time) were college 
students. 

About 1933, the college students decided to have a class on the 
campus and I [writes Mrs. Peppier] agreed to teach them. Due to 
interest in the Duke [TftLiversity Chapel] choir and means of getting 
to West Csuopus, and several other causes, there seemed no place for 
a real S. S* class and so, about 1935, we disbanded.^ 

In November 1930 was begun an Engineers* Forum, led by Dr. Mason Crum. 
That was the first year engineering students had a separate dormitory (Southgate); 
The group met on Stmday afternoons for a few months. 



^Chronicle , Oct, 29, 1930. 

^Mrs, Charles W. Peppier. Letter in Hews Service files, j^r. 16, 1938. 



7 

'Chronicle, Dec. 3, 1930. 



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At least el^t raliglona denominations ha-re organized student clubs 
since the founding of Duke TAiirereity, in 1934. From 1856, when ownership and 
control of the institution was given to the Horth Carolina Conference of the 
Methodist Spisc^al Church, South, until Decemher 29, 1924, when the conditions 
of the Indenture of Trust founding Duke University were accepted ty the Trustees, 
the institution was definitely a Methodist school. Members of other denomina- 
tions sent their sons and daughters, of course, but the student body (as well as 
the faculty) was predominantly Methodist. Such being the case, there %rais no 
need for a club of Methodist students, and there were perhaps too few students 
of any other denomination to form a strong group — at least during most of this 
period. Since 1924 there have been formed clubs of students belonging to the 
following denominations: Baptist, Catholic, Christian Scientist, l^iscopal, 
Hebrew, Lutheran, Methodist, and Presbyterian. The first of these, according to 
available records, was the Baptist Student Union, which formed a grorxp in January 

a 

1930, revived in 1934-35. There has been an Episcopal Vestry since about 1933, 
if not earlier. The Catholic Students' Club (in some colleges known as Hewman 
Club) wa« begun at about the same time. Methodists and Christian Scientists were 
first organized in 1935-36, according to best available information. The Luther 
League probably antedates these two by a year or more. The Christian Scientists, 
Catholics and Lutherans — each having only one main congre^tion in Durham — have 
appeared to be more active among students than the denominations having several 
congregations. The Episcopalians have euLso been more noticeably active than the 
Methodists and Baptists. The first Presbyterian group of which there is a record 
was formed in 1937-38; this group was quite active daring 1940-41 under the leader- 
ship of Hev. Louis J. Telanjian. 



® Chronicle, Jan. 15, 1930. 



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All of these denomiitational groups combined with Student Volunteers, 
School of Religion Association, Undergraduate Ministerial Fellowship, Open Torus 
Bihle Class, the T. M. C. A. and Y. V. C. A. in 1937-28 to form the Student 
Religious Council* This Council was organized under the supervision of Merrimon 
Cuninggim, Acting Director of Religloixs Activities, and has as its fianction the 
coordination of the work of various student religious groups. One of it s first 
efforts was toweurd the organization of Doka Universit7 Church (Interdenominational), 
which was accoisplished during 1937-38. 

The position of Director of Religious Activities had been created in 
the Fall of 1936. 

In the Spring of 1937, the I, M. C. A. Cabinet [Fred Cleaveland, 
President] discussed the possibility of organizing both a Student 
Religious Council and a Duke University Church. This was the first 
group to become interested in the idea of a caatpus church. 

In October, 1937, the Student Religious Council, contposed of 
representatives of all the religious groups on the caapus[es], was 
foxmded. As Number 3 of the original Objectives of the Council [was 
proposed the encouraging of] students to become affiliate members of 
the Chapel as the University Church of Dake University. 

With this statement as a definite objective, the Student Religious 
Council appro£u:hed the University Committee on Religious Interests 
(knoum as the Chapel Committee and coiaposed of Faculty and Administrew- 
tion members), requesting a Joint meeting of the two growps to discuss 
the possibility of a caaipus church. 

The first meeting of the Joint Commission ... was on November 
15. 1937. . . . 

The Committee on Organization, in its meeting on November 16, 
1937, adopted substantially the provisions suggested by the Student 
Religious Council • . . and constituted from their number a sub- 
committee to propose a method of approach in presenting the idea of 
membership to the students. [The second meeting of the Joint Commis- 
sion, December 3, 1937, became the first meeting of the Official Board 
of Duke University Church.]' 



Mimeographed ''Outline of the Organization and Proceedings of the Duke Univer- 
sity Church (Interdenominational), 1937-38," in News Service files. 



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60 



The Official Board Is eonpoeed of thirty regular and three ex officio memhers. 
The office of Dean of The Chapel was created in the Spring of 1938, which office 
Dr. Frank S» Hickman hae occupied since Its establishment. In 1939 was created 
the office of Dli^ctor of Religious ActlTltles, Woman's College, with Miss 
Florence Moss as first holder of the office* 

The Church program includes quarterly communion, annual outings for 
first-year students, support of the Huckahee Fund (for Jcqpanese mission work), 
annual inter-faith dinner, week-day Che^el services, Sahbath morning worship 
services, Christmas and Easter cycles of special services, the annual "Religious 
Emphasis Week" (revival) services, occasional forums led by visiting religionists. 
All religious groups on the campuses are considered components of Duke University 
Church» 

The Campus Church Club was begun in October 1939, under auspices of 
the University Church. It is an interdenominational group, and conducts vesper 
services on Sunday evenings. Vespers were held on Woman's College campus for 
several years prior to formation of the Church Club. 

Catedoguee prior to 1875 indicate that a Theological Society was formed 
as early as 1867, thou^ no record is found as to its specific purpose or member- 
ship. On May 10, 1908, at the suggestion of President Kilgo, a group of stu- 
dents planning to enter the ministry met and formed a Ministerial Band,^^ which 
for several yeeurs met on Friday evenings with Dr. Eilgo to "spend an hour or more 
In a rather Informal way. ... His discussions were usually eoncemisg the very 
practical things with which the minister would meet and have to reckon in his 



^Ochronicle, May 13, 1908, p.4. 



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ereryday ministerial life." Rev. H. B. Porter, nember of the early grciap, 
•tatee that there was prohahly no formal organization, and this opinion ie sub- 
stantiated hy the fact that the first listing of officers bears the date 1911<«13. 
"The dominant purpose," according to Robert H. Stamey, 1987->38 president, "was 
to afford the young potential ministers opportunity for practical experience. 
A3 the group realized its potentialities, the programs spread to Jails, hospitals 
and county homes, Yaluable serrice was rendered as assistants to the community 
and neighboring pastors ."^^ 

In 1926 was established the graduate School of Religion (the name was 
changed to Dirinity School in 1941), and the Ministerial Association (as the 
student organization was then called) was incorporated in the new school* 

This was found to be entirely unsatisfactory, so the present Under- 
graduate Ministerial Fellowship was formed, with the object of develop- 
ing Christian brotherhood that will find expression in spiritual 
integrity and higher service. The central aim is to awaken the under^ 
graduate ministerial students to their place in the life of the college, 
and, in later years, to their place in the life of the community at 
large. The organization affords its members the opportunity to enjoy 
coBipanionship with others who, regardless of sect or creed, have the 
same fundamental interests and ambitions. The program varies from 
the stimulation of religious experiences to the promotion of light 
social functions. The entire organization and its program has a strong 
unifying influence which assists the younger members to adjust them- 
selves to the life on the cajq>us.^3 

The School of Religion Association, which corresponds in soa« respects 
to the Men's Association of Trinity College, was formed in 1927-28.^^ 



^^Rev. H. B. Porter. Letter in Hews Service files, dated Peb» 3, 1938. 
^^bert H, Stamey. Sketch in News Service files, dated Dec. 1, 1937. 



^ ^Ibid . 

^^Chronide, May 23, 1928. 



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On February 15» 1937 was organised Onicron Chi Spsllon, ^'an organisa- 
tion of ministerial students and pre-ministerial students . • • to influence 
their respecti-ve grotips in Cibristian living* • • • Its name was chosen from the 

I first three [Oreek] words in the passage from Mark 9.41, 'Becaase ye belong to 
Christ. "*^^ The fraternity is non-secret. It sponsored the first "Mother's Day" 
program in the UniTorsity Chapel, at which Dr. Ivan Lee Holt preached. Robert 
S» Tate, the fraternity's president, presided orer the service, the first time a 
student had presided at a regular Sunday morning worship program. The organiza^ 
tion invites to membership outstanding students in the Divinity School and pre- 

' ministerial undergraduates. 

I Theta Phi, national professional theological society, established a 

chapter May 15, 1935. It is primarily a faculty grox^, though outstanding 
graduate students are occasionally admitted. 

I Student Volunteers, a national organisation for ministerial students 

planning to serve as foreign missionaries, has organized student groups from 

^ time to time since about 1915 or before. No records have been found, and it is 

f 16 

probable that these groups have been formally organized for short periods only.-^° 

On January 6, 1889, a Mrs, Wells, national organizer for the Woman's 

Christian Teinperance Union, instituted a chapter at Trinity. The following 

officers were elected: President, Mrs. Marquis Wood; Vice-President, Mrs. Pepper; 

Recording Secretary, Mrs* Pegram; Corresponding Secretary, Miss Sudie Young; 

Treasurer, Mrs. Carr. This cannot be classified as a student enterprise, though 

the group undoubtedly exerted influence on the student body. 



^^Julian ▲• Lindsay. Sketch in News Service files, dated Dec. 2, 1937. 
See also reference to The Volunteer, p. 22. 



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The Hellgioue Education Association was organised among vonen students 
in 1950 and was aore or less active until about 1933. No definite statement of 
purpose or record of activities has been found. Reference has been made to the 
Religious Drama Guild on page 84, and to The Christian Educator on page 16. The 
first number of Christian Horizons , official organ of the School of Religion 
Association, was published in December 1938. The publication is issued four 
times a year. 



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Chapter 7 
MUSICAL AJSUi ZHXASRICAL S1SITERFSISSS 

A, 7oeal Groups 



^ 



The earliest mention of a glee club at Trinity College is aade in 
The ArchlTe for Fehrtaary 1890, thoTigh it is not referred to as a new organiza- 
tion. In the issvie for Tehruary 1894 (page 30) nention is made of the then 
recent or^uiisation of the Grand Consolidated Glee-Banjo-Earpsiehord-Clevis 
Cluh. This is heliered to be merely a facetious recognition of one of the 
early rerivals of the glee club. The earliest off-campus appearance of a glee 
club was eridently in 1903; The Chronicle of February 27, 1906 mentioned the 
group's "fourth annual tour.** There was no permance of organisation and no 
regular director until about 1912. 

▲t this time [1912], the members of the Glee Club, which was the only 
musical organisation on the campus, called a meeting and elected 7. S. 
Bennett as manager, and S. S. Alderman as assistant manager. The fol- 
lowing year, !• £• Piper, of Richmond, Virginia, was engaged as director. 

During the next two years, 1914 and 1915, a mandolin club and a 
quartette were added as constituents of the Glee club. Edgar M. Howerton, 
a prominent musician, was made director of the group of singers, and 
musical activities at Trinity College began to take on a new note. 

V. J* TJtermoehlen, who directed the Glee Club the year before 
the World War, saw the interest in that organisation diminish as it 
did in all forms of college act iri ties as the students left college 



65-66 



to Join the forces of their country. In the subsequent year [1918- 
1919] there wis no Glee Cluh at Trinity College.^ 

Hoverton reriyed the club in the Tall of 1919, with the financial backing of 
Tonbs, and The Chronicle of January 1, 1920 reported that "its history since 
then has been a succession of successful «^pearances at home and abroad." 

The Trinity Glee Club increased in strength from year to year, and in 
1924 becane the Duke TTniTersity Glee Club. In the Tall of 1927 J, Poster Batrnes 
came as Director of Musical and Social Aetirities. His first Duke glee club won 
the 1927 North Carolina college chaitpionship, but was defeated in the Southern 
district contest at Greenrille, S. C. The next year the Duke singers won both 
State and Southern chaispionships, and in the Spring of 1929 represented eleven 
Southern states in the national contest in Hew York City.*^ Intercollegiate glee 
club contests lost their TOgue about 1930, and the Duke clubs have not vied with 
other choral groups since then. Concerts have been giren each year in the larger 
cities of Horth Carolina; and, since 1987, in other Sastem states. In February 
rl9d7 Director Barnes cetrried his singers to New Tork City for the first nation- 
wide radio broadcast by a Duke glee club (orer CBS). In March 1938 the glee 
club gave another national broadcast from another New Tork stxuLio (KBC). 

While the Men's Glee Club is an independent student enterprise, to a 
large degree independent, its Director is paid by the Unirersity, and the expense 
of major concerts is underwritten by the institution or alunni grot^s. Admission 
is charged for all concerts except radio broadcasts. Membership is by selection 
of the Director. In late years the size of the campus rehearsal club has been 



The Musical Clubs of Duke Thiiversity . Privately printed, 1929-30. P. 6. 
^Ibid . , p. 13. 
^Alumni Register, Mar. 1937, p. 57. 






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67 



consistently greater than 100 voices, while the varsity cluh or tour group has 
"been restricted to atout 40 voices. Practically all mem'bers of the varsity group 
are also memhers of the University Chapel Choir, The group's program consists 
of weekly rehearsals, one home concert each year, at least one tour each year, 
occasional appearances at banquets and other functions on the campuses, and 
social programs from time to time with the Women's Glee Clut. 

As long as there has been a Glee Club there has also been a male 
quartet, with the exception of perhaps a few years. Most of these foursomes have 
gone without names; at least four, however, have had distinctive titles. These 
are: Lost Chord Qioartet of 1906-07;'* the Dixie Pour of 1920-21 (R. A, Parham, 
1st tenor; H. A, McNeely, 2nd tenor; W. C, Merritt, 1st bass; C. Vf, O'Dell, 2nd 
bass);^ the Happy Pour of 1924 (Prank Warner, Pred Grreen, Al Ormond and Happy 
Sheets);^ and the Milk Brothers Quartet of the Simmer of 1934 (Riley Clinton 
Pields, William Ross, J, P, Waggoner, Stuart Miller — students working in the 
Coffee Shop; the Mills Brothers, a Negro quartet with distinctive style of ren- 
dition, were popular at the time.) 

The University Chapel Choir, though never formally organized, has been 
the major choral group since 1932. In addition to the student membership there 
is usually a semi-chorus of more mature and experienced voices from Durham and 
the University community. The choir stalls of the University Chapel accommodate 
approximately 150 persons, though the choir has numbered as many as 190 singers. 
Student singers are usually members of the men's or women's glee clubs before 
joining the choir. The experienced voices (professional or semi-professional 



^Chronicle , Feb. 6. 1907. 
^Chronic le, Mar. 23, 1921. 
See photograph in News Service files, made in 1934. 



68 



singers who are salaried) form the nucleus of the choir. The Unirerslty Chapel 
Choir has always heen directed by J* Poster Barnes. The Summer School Choir » 
first organized in 1934» has been directed hy V. M. Upchurch, Jr. 

At about the time £• M. Howerton reyived the Men's G-lee Club in the 
Fall of 1919, the first Women's Glee Club was organized.*^ One of the first 
directors was Mrs. E. B. Patterson, whose husband, member of the mathematics 
faculty, directed one of the first instrumental groups at Trinity.^ Women's 
choral groiq>s have giren public concerts (usually one a year) erery year since 
1930. Since 1932, howerer, the Women's Glee Club's primary function has been 
to train female voices for the University Chisel Choir. Mrs. J. Foster Barnes 
has been Director since 1927. 



B. Musical Combinations 

The first hint of a musical combine on the Trinity cantpus is that of 
Tebruary 1894 when The Archive recorded the organization of the Grand Consoli- 
dated Glee-Banjo-Harpsichord-Clevis Club. Since little credence is given to the 
existence of such a club, the first combination is believed to be the Glee Club 

Q 

end Orchestra Association, founded about October 1905. The purpose of this 
organization was to coordinate the work of the instrumental and choral groiq>s, 
and it was active until 1910 or later. ^^ 



Chronicle , Oct. 22 and Ho v. 5, 1919. 

See p. 72, post. 

Archive, Nov. 1905, p. 105. 



10 



Catalogue , 1910-11, p. 131. 



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In the Autumn of 1920 vas formed the Trinity Musical Cluhs, evidently 
having the same function as the Glee Club and Orchestra Association. The func- 
tions of the Duke Musical Clubs, as set forth in a hooklet privately printed in 
1929-30, are: 

1. To afford a medi-om for a more thorough development of musical talent; 

2. To serve as an advertising agency for the University; 

3. To take axmually two concert toiirs. This phase of activity inspires 

musical talent and is a reward for hard work. 

4. To furnish wholesome entertainment on the caaspus. 

5. To play an important part in social and religious functions. 

6. To furnish enjoyment and entertainment for thousands who txme in 

weekly on the Duke University Hotir of radio broadcasting from 
station WPTP at Baleigh. 

7. To aid in the employment of self-help students. ^^ 

This may he taken as a statement also of the functions of the Trinity Musical 
Clubs during the preceding decade. 

The first concert by the Trinity Musical Cluhs was given in Craven 
Memorial Hall on Hovember 20, 1920.^^ The Men's Glee Club, the "syaphony" 
orchestra or one of several student dance orchestras, the varsity male queirtet, 
and whatever outstanding vocal or instrumental soloists were enrolled for the 
particular year usually constituted a Musical Clubs' concert unit. Vocal music 
was directed by Mr. Barnes, with George S. (*< Jelly**) Leftwich— who was engaged 
as Director of Orchestras in 1926 — directing the instrumental. Leftwich' s Uni- 
Tsrsity Club Orchestra was usually the instrumental portion of a touring group. 
This arrangement continued through 1934. In that year Leftwich and his jazz 
orchestra, most of the members heing no longer students, went professional — the 



^ ^Chronide , Sept. 28, 1921. 

12 

The Musical Clubs of Duke University , op. cit . , p. 3. 

^^Ibid. , p. 5. 



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group had been filling dance and theatre engagenents for Beveral years. In 
September 1935 came Robert B. Fearing as Director of Instrumental Music. Zhe 
difference between yoced and instrumental music became more distinct for those 
engaged in caatpus musical a^tirities, and by iprll 1936, when the Instrumental 
Music Association iras organised, the Puke Musical Clubs vas an inactire organic 
cation. Though the name is still used occasioneCLly in connection with either 
Tocal or instrumental performances by student groups, there have been no officers 
of Duke Musical Clubs since 1936. 

There was a Women's Musical Clubs combination during 19S&>26, but 
evidently it did not live through the summer and was not revived. It was com- 
posed of women's choral and Instrumental grot^s and its purpose was virtually 
the same as that of the Duke Musicakl Clubs, though its activities were more 
limited. ▲ Women's Mandolin Club had been organized in September 1922;^^ this 
and the Olee Club probably made up the Women's Musical Clubs. The first Women's 
Orchestra of which any record has been fotznd was formed in February 1928.^^ ▲ 
few women students have been members of the Concert Orchestra nearly every year. 

The Instrumental Music Association was established under Fearing' s 
supervision "to bind together the band and orchestra into a strong central organi- 
zation." The group's founders hoped to establish scholarships for instrumental 
msicians and to sponsor concert tours throughout North Carolina and adjoining 
states. Units in the Association have been: the Field Band, the Concert Band, 
the Concert Orchestra (or "Little ^rmphony"), and the String Qjoartet. There was 
a string quartet during 1936>37 only. The field band is active dTiriag football 



14 

* ^Chroniele , Nov. 4, 1925, p«6. 

15 

Chronicle , Sept. 27, 1922. 

^® Chronicle, Feb. 8. 1928; Dec. 3, 1930. 



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season. The concert tand gives three or four programs a year (some on the lawn 
at Woman's College). The concert orchestra usually gives one concert a year in 
addition to playing for the annual operetta and other occasional stage produce 
tions. The caatpuses' interest in and readily availatle talent for instrumental 
aosie is not yet great enou^ to enable the Director to present a program without 
vnuBually great effort — except for a foothall game. 

C* Instrumental Groups, Concert 

f Discounting the grand consolidation of 1894, the first recorded organi- 

17 
sation of an instrumental group was the Trinity Band founded March 26, 1906 

with W* M. Crooks, a senior of that year, as leader. The hand was eridmntly 

inactive for several years following 1906, hut with the return of foothall to 

18 
popularity after Dr» Eilgo's administration'^ the unit was successfully revived 

and has continued to increase in sice and musical ahility. The band ezxjoyed an 

intermittent and uncertain existence until 1923, when it was reorganized by S, A* 

Braxton, employed part-time for that purpose. In 1928-34 it was led by Dr. H. L. 

Blomquist, of the Botany Department. Students then led the group until the 1^1 

of 1926, when Leftwich was engaged by the University. He was leader until the 

Summer of 1934. In 1934-35 the band was led by Johnny Long, senior who also 

directed his own student dance orchestra. Since 1935 Fearing hat directed. 

Prior to 1926 the band included only 20 to 25 instrumentalists. TTnder 

Leftwich' s direction it attained a membership of 70, and in Fearing' s second 

year, 193&-37, reached a total of 95 members—the first time Duke had had a 



^' ^Chronicle , Har. 27, 1906. 

18 

Football was banned at Trinity from 1895 to 1920. A brief history of the 

sport at Duke is given in Southern Coach and AtM.ete (111,4) for Dec. 1940, 
written by Ted Mann of the University's publicity staff. 



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fully^ixxstrumented band. Concert bands under Fearing' 8 direction have been 
limited to about 45 pieces. 

Lef tvich directed the band in Sunday afternoon outdoor concerts as 
early as the Spring of 1927. Sunday afternoon concerts on the lawn of Voinan's 
College (sonetimes at the Woodland Stage) were also given under Securing' s direc- 
tion daring the Springs of 1936 and 19S7. The first full-length indoor concert 
by a Duke band was given in Page Auditorium on February 7, 1938, under Fearing* s 
direction. Slue and white West Point style full-dress uniforms were acquired in 
September 1936, replacing less colorful uniforms purchased during Leftwieh's 
early period. The Field Band now accompanies the football squad to most games 
away from Durham, and participates in occasional civic parades throughout North 

Carolina. 

19 
There is recorded a "concert orchestra** at Trinity as early as 1905, 

but this was most likely an ensemble of no more than six or ei^t pieces, and 

was quite conceivably built curound the Mandolin Club, which had been formed in 

1903. It was not until 1919 that the effort to organize an orchestra attained 

success. 

In that year. Professor E. B* Patterson, as director, organized 
a concert orchestra of eleven pieces. Professor Patterson worked 
very faithftilly and made much progress. In 1926, G. S, Leftwich came 
to Duke, and in a very short time after his coming, the orchestra 
developed by Professor Patterson was organised into the Duke Sysrphony. 
The Biembership of this orgeuiization numbered t«renty-f ive , which was 
almost twice the number of any previous orchestra on this campus.^ 

Under Leftwich the orchestra grew to include once in a while as many as thirty- 
five instrumentalists. 



19 

* The Musical Clubs of Duke University , op. cit . , p. 7. 
^Ibid., p.7. 



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The orchestras have never attained syotphonic proportions; since 1935 
the groups have usually been referred to as concert rather than syotphony orchestras, 
jlctually, there has been no continuous existence of a concert orchestra — unless 
the 20->piece group directed by Johnny Long for Qaadrangle Pictures during 193&-34 
could be considered such. There has been no yearly series of orchestra concerts 
(though nevspi^er publicity has often mentioned the annual programs as "first of 
the season's series"); consequently there has been no formal organization of a 
concert orchestra. Each program has necessitated the assembling of a more-or-less 
new group of players— -and there has seldom been more than one public performance 
by a group of this sort during any one year. There is and has always been a 
dearth of student talent interested in working toward the maintenance of such 
an orchestra. Fearing has enlisted the interest and participation of instru- 
Bentalists among the faculty, and his orchestras have also included musicians 
not connected with the University. The first full-length concert by an orchestra 
was given under hearing's direction in Page Auditorium May 13, 1936* 

> Just as a new orchestra has been formed for each concert, so new 
ensembles have been rehearsed for each operetta or other stage production requir- 
ing an orchestra. The only exception is the groxtjp which played for Wednesday 
night presentations of Q^adrangle Pictures for two or three months during 1933-34. 
Members of Johnny Long's orchestra constituted the nucleus of this group of some 
twenty students. Their compensation was passes; interest waned after a few 
weeks, and the programs were discontinued. 

The Women's Orchestra has had a different history from that of the 

Concert Orchestra. It was preceded by the Women's Mandolin Club, organised in 

21 22 

September 1922, and was organized in Pebrtiary of 1928. It has seldom numbered 



^^Chronicle, Sept. 27, 1922. ^Ibid., Feb, 8. 1928; Dec. 3, 1930. 



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Bore than a docen pieces, and has seldom made pu'blic appearances, tnX its members 
meet regularly to play for their own benefit and enjoyment. The groiQ> has 
appeared occasionally with the Woman's Olee Club in caatpus concerts. Some of the 
players hare appeared in Concert Orchestra concerts since 1935. Miss Eralyn 
Barnes led the Women's Orchestra from 1928 to 1939; Miss Julia Wilkinson(Mueller) 
since then* 

One other women's instrumental gtovp remains to be mentioned. In the 
winter of 1938 a trustee liring near the nation's business center had a daughter, 
age about thirteen, who was interested in playing the ukulele. Schedoled to en- 
roll at Duke when her yesirs should be accomplished that she should be a co-ed, 
the young sub-debutante thought it would be nice to Join a ukulele club when 
she became a collegian. Her father, ascertaining that Duke was minus such an 
organisation, suggested that one be formed, and followed his suggestion immedi- 
ately with a shipment of two dosen ukuleles. Miss Svelyn Barnes was designated 
to instruct interested young ladies in the playing of the South Seas sound-box, 
and in May of 1938 she reported considerable enthusiasm on the part of more than 
a dozen students. The grcnxp was not formally organized, however. The project 
was not reyived in 1938-39, the trustee's daughter being then fourteen years old. 

D. Instrumental Groups, Popular 

One of the chief reasons for the small interest in symphonic and 
concert music is the great interest in (which not infrequently reaches the pro- 
portions of a craze for) music of a quicker and more exciting tempo. Such music 
(thou^ the rendition is often a profanation of the term) was called ragtime 
before the World War, Jazz until about 1935, and since then has gone tiy the name 
■ wing . Its chief characteristic is rhythm; melody — whenever there is any — is a 



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strictly secondary consideration. Poor fannf oik who are raised on cornbread, 
fat1}ack and molasses cone to prefer such Tlctucds to choice resta\urant dishes; 
so many conteisporary yotugfolk render themselves incapable of appreciating musical 
fare prepared, tj the masters; they are often proud to he called ''Jitterhugs. ** 
Since swing is popular, there is money in it. Since many accontplished student 
instrumentalists need money, they "string it** as members of dance orchestras. 
Thus they usually lose, or do not acquire, a taste for serious music* This 
accounts to a large degree for the great amount of effort required to assemble 
and rehearse a concert ensemble or symphony orchestra. The brass section inrari- 
ftbly includes members of a "swing band." 

Dancing to the tune of Jaez bands became a sort of universal craze 
anong the socially and onotionally immature "younger set" soon after the World 
Var I, and the mania attained epidemic proportions on the caa^uses of liberal 
colleges. Trinity had considered itself a liberal college even before the famous 
"Bassett incident" of 1903, but since that historic controversy, had boasted of 
its liberality. Nevertheless, conservatism was deemed impropriate in many phases 
of college administration, and the licensing of such social diversions as dancing 
and card-playing fell in this category. 

Dancing among Trinity students had been a problem as early as 1889 
vhen a String Band was organized — daring the presidency of John Tranklin Crowell, 
who imported a ntunber of liberal ideas from Tale. The Archive suggested that the 
String Bajid's music, mainly in connection with square dances, did not set well 
with the majority of the college community. Baring "Dr, Eilgo's administration, 
of course, a dance on the Trinity caisp-as would have been comparable to inviting 
Lucifer himself to give a chapel talk and stay for dizmer. 

I Favorite bed and breeding place of the St* Vitus germ on the Trinity 
cas^us was in the fraternities and sororities, which have been referred to as 



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"glorified dance clubs." These groups held dances off the caucus in the early 

1920*8. The first dance approved tj the University was the Junior From held in 

23 
the Washington Duke Hotel February 11, 1927. By 1938 dancing had become such 

a popular pastime that there was an average of about three a week throughout the 

academic year. These affairs ranged from unpretentious '*'T' Open Houses" to the 

twice-yearly Co-ed Sails, decorations for which were reputed to cost more than 

$1,500 for each of the two affaire (not paid for hy students, however). 

While dancing at Dake is sometimes done to the accos^animent of mechanical- 
electrical reproducers, most of it is to the tune of student orchestras. With the 
sanctioning of dancing on the cas^uses after 1926 there came a need for music (so- 
called) in the flesh, and there have heen two or more student dance orchestras 
nearly every year since. Precursors of the student orchestras ("Jazz bands" or 
■Swing bands") which have flourished since 1926 were the String Band organized 
about 1889,*^ the Troubadour Band of seven instruments organized in November of 
1892,^ and the Mandolin Club organized during the Winter of 1902-03.^ The 
last -mentioned group seems to have attained a greater degree of respectability 
among the less athletic lovers of music; a mandolin sextet was a unit of the Glee 
Club and Orchestra jUsociation dtiring the years 1905-10. The mandolin's popular- 
ity with Trinity students continued until the middle 1920' s, the Mandolin Club 
tnjoying intermittent existence until about 1926. 

When "Jelly" Leftwich came to Dake in 1926 there was no student dance 
orchestra. He was instrumental in organizing the Blue Devils, which he directed. 



^ ^Chronicle , Feb. 16, 1927. 

^Archive , Oct. 1889, p. 16. 

^ ^Archive , Dec. 1892, p. 127. 

26 

Archive , Jan. 1903, et seqq . 



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and which in 1928 became the Dhlyersity Glut Orchestra. Bill Laeeiter (later to 
become a Haleigh lawyer) was a member of the first group. Within a short time 
there was room for another dance orchestra on the castpus, and Lassiter organized 
his own, titled it Sill Lassiter and His Blue Devils. The Boyal Doke Orchestra, 
organized in 1926,^ was probably cosiposed of about the same personnel as Leftwich's 
original Blue Derils. Blue Devils continued as the name of dance orchestras until 
1936, when Les Brown and His Blue Devils began their professional careers. Bill 
Lassiter and His Blue Devils were followed about 1930 by Chip Lehrbach and His 
Blue Devils.^ Hick Laney (the "Croonin* Halfback'*) and His Blue Devils followed 
in 1931. Brown was saxophonist and clarinetist with Laney, and assumed direction 
of the Blue Devils when Hick left in 1934. His, the last of the Blue Devil bands, 
left in June 1936, toured Sastem and Midwestern states for a year, and disbeuaded. 
(He has since organized another orchestra, though its personnel includes few if 
any Duke altimni. Leftwich also changed the personnel of his orchestra when he 
left in the Summer of 1934, and soon changed his professional name to Lee Dixon. 
His orchestra played at prominent hotels and resorts in Eastern states for several 
seasons, before disbanding about 1939. Leftwich is now manager of a hotel in 
Vine ton- Salem, H. C.) 

An orchestra somewhat smaller than the Blue Devil groups was organized 
%y Allen Stanley in 1932-33, and called The Blue IiDps. The grot^ played at 
Beeves' American Inn (restaurant in front of the Courthouse) for several months. 

The outstanding Duke sttident orchestra to date is that organized in 
the Tall of 1931 and styled Johnny Long and His Collegians. Eleven freshmen 



^" ^Chronicle , May 23, 1928. 

28 

Chronicle , Dec. 1, 1926. 

^^ Chronicle, Sept. 16, 1931. 



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vare la the original group, and seven of the original eleven were members of the 
orchestra in 1934-35. Long, a left-handed violinist of considerable talent, 
gathered around him a group of genteel, ambitious players most of whom were 
interested in careers in popular music. The orchestra gained such popularity 
that by its senior year it filled more dance engagements off the caiopus than on, 
and made frequent week-end trips to points more than 200 miles from Durham. 
The orchestra's evening performances in the University Union and in The Ark on 
Woman's College campus were occasionally of such musical quality as to merit 
the name concert . Leavizig the casipus in the Slimmer of 1935, Johnny and the Col- 
legians toured for a few months, then began a series of hotel and resort engage- 
ments which has continued with increasing success.^ (Long's Collegians are not 
to be confused trith an earlier orchestra organized by '*Foots" Glover, called 
limply The Collegians, which was heard for a few months during 1929-30.)^^ 
1^ Durham's radio station, VDHC, began operations April 10, 1934. Al 
Preyer, first-year student, organized an orchestra in the early Fall of 1935, 
styling it simply Al Preyer and His Orchestra. The group was engaged for several 
months by the Hotel Washington Duke, and played in the main dining room three 
evenings a week, a half-hour of each program being broadcast over WDNO. Like a 
number of other Duke student instrumentalists, Preyer customarily made at least 
one crossing each summer to Europe, organizing a small instrumental group to play 
on board ship for the price of passage, occasionally filling engagements in the 
British Isles or on the Continent. When he returned to the can^us in September 
1936, Preyer joined Frank Gerard and His D-Men rather than revive his orchestra. 



30 

''^See story in The Delta of Sigma Bu Fraternity, Dec. 1940. Also stories in 
Long's Jacket in Alumni Office, Duke University. 

^^Chronicle, Max. 26, 1930. 



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In the Tall of 1934 Sen Boush, a first-year student with more Inislness 
ability than academic enthusiasm, was taken with the idea that Duke students 
should have access to a night club. The result was The Palais d*Or (opened on 
December 15, 1934) , vhlch iras operated for about two yesors as a dine-and-dance 
spot, two nights a week for a while, one night a week during most of its life. 
The Palais d'Or was located on Bozboro Street, on the second floor of the build- 
ing facing the First Presbyterian Church. A new student dance orchestra was 
organized to furnish music, with Douglas Motley as leader. The name Duke Ambas- 
sadors was taken. Johnny Long and His Collegians and Les Drown and His Blue 
Devils were the two main bands at that time, 1934-35. Long's orchestra was to 
graduate in JTune, which would leare a nice place for another band in 1935-36. 
The AmbasscMLors reorganised late in the Spring of 1935, engaging Joe Bvirke— 
•ecosiplished pianist and talented arranger — a^ leader. Joe Burke and His Duke 
Ambassadors toured during the Summer of 1935 and came back strong in the Tall. 
Barke led the orchestra for nearly two years, and was succeeded by Howard Winter- 
son (in the Spring of 1937), who was succeeded in September 1938 by E. B. (Dutch) 
M^illin, "hot" clarinetist and saxophonist who had Joined Brown's Blue Devils 
during his freshman year (1935-36), toured with Brown daring 1936-37, and returned 
to Duke in September 1937. When he graduated in June 1940 McMillin turned the 
leadership of the Ambassadors orer to Yincent Courtney. 

The year 1935-36 was last for Les Brown cuid His Blue Devils. Al Preyer 
vas busy at the hotel that year, so it appeared there woTild be room for another 
band (besides Preyer 's and Burke's) in 1936-37. Frank Gerard, diminutive young 
scholar and musician, therefore organized The D-Men in the late Tall of 1935. 
(The name is a pun on 0-Men, the popular appellation given agents of the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation, at that time enjoying a wide following among newspaper 
readers and patrons of motion pictures.) Thus, for a few months, there were four 



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» student dance orchestras. Preyer Joined Gerard In Septem'ber 1936, and Howard 
Vlnterson took orer leadership of The Ambassfltdors. fhus, there was no band free 

to play for The Palais d'Or. Accordingly in November 1936 Johnny Hansel formed 

32 
a band which made its initial appearance at the down-town spot on November 7, 1936. 

The unit lasted only a few weeks; it went under the name of Johziny Hansel and His 
Swing Kings. This was the only band that year besides The D-Men and The Ambassadors, 
which units survived it and were the main music-makers in 1937-38 as well. In the 
7all of 1938 Preyer assumed direction of Gerard's gro\:^, and went back to the old 
name of Al Preyer and His Orchestra; while "Dutch" McMillin was beginning to lead 
The Ambassadors. In the Pall of 1939 Ja^ Pay ton, who had been zylophonist and 
drummer with Gerard, organized an orchestra, which shared the campus with McMillin' s 
Ambassadors durizig 1939-40. The unit which succeeded the Pay ton group (some of 
the players being the same) was titled Bill Elder and His Blue Dukes; with Vince 
Courtney's Ambassadors, this group furnished most of the campus dcmce music during 
1940-41. Phil Messenkopf organized a band which made a fair beginning in 1940-41. 

(Among other attesipts at dance bajid organizations, which have left 
little if any record, was that begun by Ted Huston in 1934-35, and titled The 
Grand Dukes. The groxtp was introduced at a "7" Open House on January 10, 1935; 
but evidently made only one appearance. ^^) 

While playing for dances has been the major source of income to student 
bands, a coaotpensation almost as inportant has been afforded by the caiqpus dining 
halls. Since 1932 the student "swingsters" have been in the same general classi- 
Ifleation as medieval minstrels who had si^^per only after singing. A chief dif- 
ference is that the modem music(7)makers perform after supper, in the lobby of 



^ ^Chronicle , Nov. 6, 1936. 

33 

Chronicle. Jan. 11, 1935. 



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the TJxiiTersity (Vest Caarput) tTnion and in The Ark at Vonaa's College, playing 
from 6 o'clock until 7, in exchange for two meals a day* The performances are 
usually attended hy 150 to 200 ''Jitterhugs, " who rend the close, heavy atmos- 
phere with occasional shouts, and take advantage of the rhythm of the instru- 
nents (which is the chief product of the players' ofttimes strenuous efforts) 
!l to indulge in demonstrations of unrestrained ecstacy (or is it lunacy?), known 
variously as "truckln ' , " "posin*," or ''peckin'." Indulgents in this ahorigincd 
ilrite — who are usually too young to have intelligence — consider it the thing to 
'' do; and it is reasonable to estimate that about a third of the student body is 
adept at this sort of exercise. 

\9 B. Other Musical Groiq>s 

I Of an almost entirely different character from other organizations 

^■entioned in this chs^ter is the Music Study Club of Woman's College, organized 

( 

'February 1, 193S throu^ the good offices of Mrs. J. Foster Barnes, Miss Evelyn 

Barnes, and others, 



as an honorary society, with elective membership, for the purpose of 
recognizing the ambitions and abilities of Duke women in the field of 
music. Through the years the club has grown from a small, practically 
unknown group to an organization of prominence on the caoapus. It is 
endowed with a real appreciation of one of the most beautiful and 
appealing of the curt s. 34 

The club usually has a membership of forty to fifty. Meetings are held once a 
■onth for the discussion of timely topics in the realm of music; demonstrations 
(miniature recitals) are often given by members of the Club or by visitors. 



^%ary Eleanor Erummel. Sketch in files of News Service, dated Nov. 15, 1937. 



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fhe Club usually preeents at least one concert artist or lecturer each year, 
tome times in connection with the University Concerts Series. 

In addition to groupa previously mentioned which are concerned with 
either specific phases of music or music in general, three Greek-letter frater- 
nities have heen established to recognize superior musical ability. Lambda Phi 
Gemma, a national (T) honorary music fraternity, established a chapter at Trinity 
in 1923, but it was active for only a short time.^^ Delta Upsilon Beta, local 
honorazT^ band fraternity, was established in Msirch 1927,^^ with the purpose of 
petitioning Ee^pa Es^pa Psi, national honorary band fraternity. A charter %ra8 
granted June 2, 1929, and Delta Upsilon Beta became Alpha Gamma chapter of Eappa 
Eappa Psi.^'^ This organization recognizes outstanding members of the college 
1)and, and these are usually given membership pins in a ceremony at one of the 
home football games. The order occasionally sponsors band concerts, entertains 
bandsmen with smokers and other social functions, and has an a.Ttminl Spring dance, 
the "Baton Ball." The organization also assists the Director of the Band in 
Bomerous ways. 

An organization intended to function in the fields of both music and 
stagecraft is the Hoof and Horn Club, founded October 1. 1956. Harvard had for 
many yeeurs had its Hasty Pudding Show, Pennsylvania its Mask and Wig, Princeton 
|t8 Triangle Club-- the main escuse for their existence being the production of 
an annual original musical comedy. Peter Callahan, junior (1936) from New Tork 
City, persuaded a number of fellow students that Duke should follow suit. The 



^ ^Chanticleer , 1923; Chronicle , Nov. 26, 1924. 
^ ^Chronicle , Mar, 30, 1927. 
^"^ Chronicle, Oct* 16, 1929. 



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Hoof and Horn Club was the result. The project was giyen publicity in The Chronicle , 
stiidents were invited to submit scripts and musical numbers. A script %ras decided 
on and given the title, '*The Devil G-rins." It was scheduled for production on 
February 22 and 23, 1937. I^aternity rushing and other activities offered such 
coatpetition for student interest that the project was abandoned before rehearaale 
had proceeded very far. A Chronicle notice of j^ril 26, 1938 indicated atteorpted 
revival that year, though no other record has been foxind until 1941. Under the 
sponsorship of the Fraternity Pan-Hellenic Council, the Hoof and Horn Club did 
prepare and present a show in Page Auditorium, May 8 and 9, 1941. The title was 
"Say When.** It enjoyed a warm reception from the caaipus audience, and evidently 
netted a fair profit for the club. The production was generally announced as "the 
first annual production*' of the Hoof and Horn Club. 



$ 



F. Drama Organisations 

The earliest recorded organized drama grotqp was formed in the Fall of 
1920 and given the name Trinity College Dramatic Society. It was a women's 
group, organized as a branch of the Athena Literary Society. ^^ Men were euimitted 
about 1921^23; in March 1924 the group became Taorian Players. ^^ The Taurians 
vere directed by Mrs. Paul Gross, wife of the head of the Chemistry Department; 
I the group presented two or three dramas each year, until February 1931 when the 
name was changed to Duke Players, with A* T. West (a newcomer to the faculty) as 
director. Duke Players usually give four public productions each year; in recent 



38 
"Chanticleer , 1921; Chronicle , May 15, 1929. 

^ ^ Chronicle , Mar, 12, 1924; May 15. 1929. 

40 

Alumni Register, Dec. 1931. 



ti. 



84 



jrears each production has been glren two performances. The productions are 
patronized by an average of perhaps three hondred faculty members, students, 
and others in the University community who follow campus drama with a fair 
degree of constancy; the remainder of Duke Players' audiences are susceptible 
to advertising and publicity, which has been sufficiently effective to keep the 
organization financially solvent. Duke Flayers have presented a few amateur 
premieres and a number of original one-act plays by ])uke students; most of the 
productions, however, have been well->known dramas introduced on the legitimate 
stage several seasons before. The dramas are presented in Page Auditorium; the 
Little Theatre (constructed in 1927-28) in West Duke Building is used occaiiion- 
ally for rehearsals. Practically all Duke Players are in A« T* Vest's classes 
in drama. Membership is voltmtary. The group occasionally holds private meet- 
ings of a social nature, as well as for the reading of plays. Introduction to 
risiting stage talent, and so forth. 

Closely related to Duke Players is the North Carolina Alpha chapter 
t Theta Alpha Phi, national honorary drama fraternity, founded January 1925. ^ 
nils group recognizes outstanding dramatic ability and performances by inviting 
:he campuses' more prominent thespians to membership. Its other activities are 

Iilfflost entirely of a private nattire. 
Short-lived drama groups have been: White Witch Dramatic Club, begun 
In 1927^^ and active for about three years; Southgate Dramatic Club, mentioned 
m 1929-30, which may have been the same group as White Witch. At any rate, both 
rere composed of women students. The Heligious Drama Guild was organized in 



^3 - Chronicle , Jan. 7, 1925. 

A history of the first ten years of Duke Players was published in the Durham 
[omlng Herald of March 3, 1941. Also in Hews Service files. 

^^chronlcle, Oct. 24, 1928. 



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October 1933 1)y mem'bers of Professor H. E. Spence's class in religious drama 
and a few other young thespians. *^ Its history was brief. 



G. Professional Presentations 

The campuses have witnessed performances in the fields of music and 
stagecraft by a number of performers outside the realm of student activities • 
Trinity College had concerts and recitals by outstanding musical artists as 
early as 1900. Various groi:^8, including the A. A. U. V., Music Study Club, 
Instrumental Music Association, have sponsored castpus performances by visiting 
Busicians. Since 1931 most such concerts and recitals have been presented under 

the auspices of the University Concert Series, an official University project 
<• 

44 
lanaged by J. Foster Barnes. Pour or five individuals or groups of inter- 
national reputation are usually presented each year. Duke Players have spon- 
sored caatpus performances by a number of professional drama groups, including 
the Avon Players and Federal Theatre Project groups. The Tuesday Sveninig 
Recitals ^onsored by the T. M» C« A. were outstanding features of the enter- 
tainment calendar tron 1931 to 1938.^^ Madame Borgny Hammer and con^any gave a 
;>erformance of "The Doll's House" (by Ibsen) in October 1933 on the University 
Concerts Series. The Coffer-Miller Players (two in the company) have become a 
regular feat\xre of the Summer School entertaizunent program, which has also in- 
duded other stage and concert performers of wide reputation. 



43 

* ^ Chronicle , Nov. 8, 1933. 

44 

A list of artists appearing on the University Concerts Series during the 

first ten years is on file in the Hews Service, 1941. 

45 

See also p. 54, ante. 



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E. Qpadrangle Pictures 

Since its first presentation in February 1928, Quadrangle Pictures, 
the campus moyie» has been operated by students, under the supervision of the 
University Motion Pictures Conmittee, and since 1936 by a aianager eotployed full- 
time by the TMiyersity. W. M. Upehorch, Jr., president of the freshman class in 
1927-28, and some of his classmates had been acquainted with a student-operated 
Bovie at K. C* State College in Baleigh, and thought a simileir idea would be 
Appropriate at Duke. It was a time of beginnings and the Administration was 
favorable to the suggestion, sponsored by the student Y. M. C. A. Equipment 
was installed in the Auditorium (Woman's College), and film was exhibited there 
on Wednesday and Saturday evenings until the Fall of 1930, when Page Auditorium 
vas first used. C. Bay Carpenter, president of the "T" during 1927-28, was the 
first manager. Upchurch became manager following his graduation in 1931; he 
•tudled law and assisted Dean Herbert J. Herring and Assistant Secretary Charles 
I» Jordan in various capacities for the next five years. After receiving his 
LL.3. degree in 1936 he became a full-time member of the University's auiainistra- 
tlve staff, with the supervision of Quadrangle Pictxires one of his several Jobs. 
7rom 1931 to 1935 various student groups (Duke Players, Johnny Long and His Col- 
legians, Men's alee Club, University Club Orchestra, and others) were associated 
vith "Qaadrangle" from time to time, being presented as "added attractions." The 
"Qpadrangle Birthday Party," a gala annual student- talent show until 1936, has 
since then featured "big-name bands" and professional entertainers. In 1936 was 
inaugurated an extraF*curricular course in theatre management, studied by all 
student ea^loyees. ^ Instruction and practice are given in five phases of 



Motion Picture Herald , May 23, 1936, published an approved history of the 
campus movie. Additional data is on file in the University News Service. 



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exhlljiting: adTertlslzig, house service » technical stagecraft, selection of film 
subjects and arranging programs, and booth work (projection). While most employ- 
ees have regarded working at "Quadrangle" merely as a means of earning necessary 
Boney, a few have used the experience as preparation for full-time work in theatre 
management and several have heen enabled to more easily obtain vacation Jobs. 
Since 1936->37 there have been about 40 students on the staff. The average wage 
is about $15 a month, most of this beisg from KTA appropriations. Profit has 
been distributed between the 7. M. C. A. and new equipment for Page Auditorium. 



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Chapter 71 

ATHLSTIC OH&MIZASIONS 

Cat-"ball, "rasslin* , " and other rustic sports were kno^m to residents 
of Randolph Coiinty "before Union Institute was established in 1838, and there is 
little evidence that more sophisticated forms of athletics gained nruch populari- 
,ty hefore Trinity College moved to Durham; for the first record of organized 
athletic activity is mention of a Tennis Association, in The Archive of Hovemher 
1891. The evident poirpose of this organization was primarily to provide and 
maintain tennis courts, the college "budget making no provision for such facili- 
ties in those days. In Octoher 1904 the Tennis Association "became a part of 
the Athletic Association, which had "been reorganized in 1903, There was a 
Tennis Association, or Cluh, \intil ahout 1912. 

fThe Athletic Association was "begun prior to 1903, "but evidently did 
not thrive until after the reorganization of that year; and even then did not 
enjoy the whole-hearted support of the student "body. In 1907 it was succeeded 
by the Athletic Council, which has continued to the present time. The Council 
was esta"blished "by authority of the Board of Trustees, and its original memhership 



Archive , Hov. 1903. W. W. ("Cap") Card, Director of Athletics beginning 
in 1902, has no recollection of an Athletic Association prior to 1903. He was 
a specialist in gymnastics, "but keenly interested in all sports. He organized 
the first Trinity track team in 1904, and had a meet with W. C, State College. 
'He also introduced several other sports at Trinity. 



89 



consisted of: three members of the faculty, appointed by the President; four 
members from the local Alumni Association; and four undergraduates, one from 
each class, elected by the classes. This representation has remained sub- 
stantially unchanged. Chief functions of the Athletic Council are: formal 
approval of schedules and matters of policy recommended by the Director of 
Physical Education and other University officials, approval of awards of mono- 
grams and trophies to individuals and teams (on recommendation of the coaching 
staff). The Council meets infrequently. 

There was a Park School Athletic Association from the time of the 
establishment of the preparatory division in 1898. It was reorganized in Octo- 
ber 19067 and revived from time to time thereafter. 

There is a Duke University Athletic Association, but it is not a stu- 
dent enterprise, strictly speaking. Since sports has come (since 1925) to be a 
laajor source of income as well as a major subject in the curriculum, the Athletic 
Association has come to be practically the same as the Department of Physical 
lEducation. This Department gives full-time employment to some three dozen 
'persons, including the coaching staff. Corresponding to the original Athletic 
Association is the Intramural Division of the Department of Physical Education. 
.Managed by students, and supervised by the Physical Education faculty, this 
division conducts an annual program of extra-curricular athletics among canrpus 
groups (fraternities, house organizations, classes, etc.); its function, among 
undergraduate men, is similar to that of the Woman's Athletic Association among 
aadergraduate women. The intramural program is the chief concern of a full-time 
faculty member. There is a student manager, named by the Athletic Council, and 



^Chronicle , Sept. 18, 1907. 
Chronicle, Oct. 17, 1906. 



90 



assisted "by a student staff. The program is financed "by appropriation from the 
University hudget and entry fees paid "by participating groups. 

Jot the last two decades foofball has "been the most popular sport at 
Sake, as at other American colleges sind universities. 

Duke [GJrinity] and University of North Carolina, who are still 
the "bitterest of rivals on the gridiron, played the first game of 
foofball along the modern day lines in the state and it was, as far 
as is known, the first in the South. Other teams had played hut it 
had "been Eughy. 

Duke won that first game with North Carolina at Raleigh, U, C, 
Thanksgiving Day, 1888, by a score of 16-0. . . . 

Duke's first big season came in 1891 when the Trinity boys . , , 
went undefeated. . . . 

But the sport started getting up the ire of the professors — 
there was talk of professionalism even back in those days — so in 1895 
the Trinity faculty voted a ban on intercollegiate football. 

At first it was thought the baji would be lifted in a few years 
' but years passed and continued to pass. Each class as it came into 
the University would endeavor to get the sport re-instated but met 
with no success until 1920 v;hen Duke resumed the sport. 

Student agitation for reinstatement of intercollegiate football became especially 
vocal in 1913-14, under the leadership of Beal H, Siler, '15, Chronicle sports- 
writer. Some of the students most interested in football discussed the question 
and began a more or less systematic program to influence student, faculty and 
trustee opinion in favor of the sport. There is no record of formal organization, 
though the Chronicle of May 13, 1914 mentions Siler as head of the Football Club. 
Practitioners of several specific sports have from time to time organ- 
ized fellow players. Among such groups have been: Handball Association, organized 



Southern Coach and Athlete (Decatur, Ga.), Dec. 1940. Anonymous article 
rritten by Ted Mann and A. A, Wilkinson, of the University News Service. (The 
Jtory has also been published in numerous other journals.) 



91 



March 23, 1914;^ Golf Club, first organized in January 1919 under the direction 
of Dr, Prank C, Brown, and evidently revived in the Winter of 1928 under the 

leadership of Bill Jennings, with the encouragement of John Sprunt Hill (owner), 

7 

Hillandale Golf Course; Fencing Club, hegun in Decemher of 1902 hy "Cap" Card 

("but the group soon lost interest), and "begun "by him again in December 1926; 
The Duke Stirrups (freshman horseback riders), organized in 1932-33; and Twi- 
light Horseback Riders, who took a few rides in 1935-36. (See also women's 
groups mentioned below.) 

■ In 1903 was organized Tombs, local honorary athletic order. Being a 
secret society, it has left little record of activity besides annual initiations, 
the "informal" part of which has usually consisted of the black-faced, pajama- 
clad initiates cavorting around the campus and in the stadium on the day of a 
football game. In April 1907 Tombs was incorporated and given a charter by the 
Secretary of State of Korth Carolina. In 1923-24 the society proposed to foster 
interest in Trinity College among high school students, ^^ somewhat in line with 
the activities of 9019^^ and the Greater Trinity Club;^^ but left no record of 
inaugurating such a program. A Chronicle headline of December 13, 1935, read: 



5 
Chronicle , Mar. 25, 1914. There was evidently no formal organization; a 

manager and assistant manager were named to supeirvise handball activities, pro- 
bably by the Athletic Council. 

^Chronicle, Peb. 13, 1919. " ^Chronicle , Feb. 1. 1928. 

I ^Chronicle, Dec. 15, 1926. Por a few weeks in the Pall of 1939, Steed Rollins 
'(Managing Editor of the D urham Morning Herald ) coached a few interested students 
in fencing, but there was no formal organization of the group. 



g 

Chronicle . Jan. 11, 1933. Membership was limited to eight, because of the 
lumber of available horses. 

Organization encouraged by Pisher's Riding Academy. 

^^Chronicle, 18:20:6. ^^See p. 127. ^"^See p. 28, ante . 



92 



TOMBS B2QRGMIZ3S 
IN UnaXPECIED MOVE 
TOV/AED KE¥ STAOJUS 
-o- 
Traditional Honorary Athletic Order Seeks to Regain 
Place of Importance on Dake University Camtpus 

Whether this place of importance was regained is not evident from published 
records, "Tomhs Night" was iintil about 1937 one of the chief bugaboos of first- 
year men. On that dread date, never announced beforehand but usually in late 
Autumn, no freshman's posterior anatomy was safe from the brooms and sticks and 
paddles of the hefty Tombstone brothers. "Tombs Night" eventually came to be 
the excuse for considerable rowdyism on the part of upperclassmen not members of 
the order, and its observance was discontinued, more from student pressure than 
from disapproval of the Administration. In recent years Tombs has sponsored con- 
tests among fraternities and dormitory groups to determine the most attractive 
parade floats, house entrance decorations and other displays in connection with 
the annual Homecoming celebration, 

A large number, though not all, of winners of letters in athletics are 
invited to membership in Tombs, Thus the order has had some connection with the 
"T" Club, organized in Itorch 1912, ^'^ which became the "D" Club in 1925. Its 
members are also considered members of the Varsity Club, organized May 1, 1926, 
which embraces all wearers of the "D" (or "T"). The Varsity Club has been 
revived and reorganized from time to time, the last time in the Fall of 1940, 
when a lounge and game room in the new gynmasium was designated as the Varsity 
Club Room, 



1/L 

'Chronicle , Mar. 6, 1912. 

15 

Alumni Register, Jan, 1928; Sept. 1934. 



93 



(Che Chronicle of May 14, 1934, reported estaljlishment of the first 
Southern chapter of Sigma Delta Psi national athletic fraternity at Trinity. 

No f-urther trace of this organization has "been fo\ind. 

16 
Connected with athletics in about the same way as The Trident Cluh 

was a group formed in October 1927, known as Les Marquis, The group, evidently 

not formally organized, was headed by Bob Hatcher; and its primary function was 

17 

to provide vociferous support to the football team. It differed from the 

"chieering section" or more recent years in that it was composed of upperclas smen 
only, while the loudest cheering at football games of 1940 came from the freshmen. 

Earliest women's athletic organization was Delta Phi Hho Alpha, local 
honorary society, established in 1921, The sorority, somewhat similar to Tombs, 
honors about a dozen outstanding women athletes each year by inviting them to 
membership. The "informal" initiation — during which new members are required to 
wear funny clothes, no cosmetics, and carry rolling-pins and other domestic 
utensils with them throughout the day — is the society's most notable activity 
as far as most of the community is concerned. 

In 1923 there was formed a Women's Riding Club; and there has been a 
j similar organization most of the years since then. The 1940-41 group took the 
'name Pegasus, 

At a meeting of V^omen's Student Government on March 1, 1930 there was 
I outlined a plan for establishing a Women's Athletic Association, which was 
j accomplished within a few weeks. Membership is voluntary and usually includes 
30-40 percent of the Woman's College student body. The Association has chairmen 



16 

"^"See p,42, ante . 

^ " ^Chronicle , Nqv. 9, 1927. 

18 

Chronicle , Mar. 5, 1930. 



94 



for various sports, to encoiirage interest and arrange contests. Its program is 
confined almost entirely to the campus, there "being no regular schedule of inter- 
collegiate athletics for women. The Association is advised "by the Physical 
Education staff of Woman's College. 

The Nereidian Cluh was organized in the Winter of 1929-30 by students 
interested in swimming. The I<Iodem Dance Group was "begun in 1936, though there 
was no formal organization until the Pall of 1938,^ Both groups have "been 
particularly active in recent years, under faculty supervision. 



^ ^Chronicle , Apr, 16, 1930. 
News Service files. 




dle^.^f^^ 




Vt^1£>^- 



Chapter VII 
]*RAX1£NITIES JJSD SQEQRITISS, SOCIAL 

While there Is no prof-undity in the ohservation that the species 
homo s^iens is gregarious, it is nonetheless interesting to observe the group 
formations of s^s in college. There have he en cluhe of like-minded persons 
ever since Adam, or one of his early grandchildren, hecame bored with the men- 
tal menu of his own fireside; and it is to be si^posed that there was a more- 
or-less exclusive fratemit^r* at the first college. So strong is the compuLsion 
to be a joiner that societies of one sort and another have existed sub rosa 
in many institutions which have fro%med on the idea of organized groups within 
their jurisdictions. 

Since early times, collegians have formed co-operative clubs for 
economical provision of necessities. Sating clubs are perhaps most common in 
this category. The Greek letter (or "social") fraternity is somewhat related — 
though seldom for the purpose of economy it would seem. Generally speaking, 
fraternity (and sorority) moabership at Duke adds $150-$200 a year to the 
student's expenses. 



"''Most collegiate fraternities suad sororities give themselves the title of 
"academic" societies. On the campus, they are considered "social" clubs, while 
the real fraternities of scholars (Phi Beta Kappa, for exaxnple) are known as 
"honor societies." These distinctions, popular and aptly descriptive but not 
official, are followed in this chapter. 






3li 



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96 



A. Men's Undergradtiate Groups 

Twenty nationally-organized -undergraduate men's fraternities have 
chartered groups at Dake» and one of these was founded here. Since the general 
ban of 1879 only one fraternity has been discontinued — Phi Sigma Delta; and its 
demise was not from outside pressure hut from insuffiency of inner strength. 

It was on Horemher 28, 1871 that Chi Phi (Southeni Order) Pratemity 
formally established a chapter at "Old Trinity," giving the institution its 
first connection with an intercollegiate social society. Alpha Tau Omega 
followed in 1872, Kappa Sigma the next year, and Phi Delta Theta in 1878. It 
was in 1879 that the Board of Trustees "banned all fraternities at Trinity, and 
for eleven years the college claimed no fraternities. 

At Duke, as at other colleges and universities, fraternities have 
received undue credit for annoyances and devilment of many kinds. There is 
still a pronounced inclination among the off-cantpus public to regard all 
fraternities as clubs for refined and moneyed hoodlums. While college frater- 
nities have occasionally furnished justification for such a view, most groups 
perhaps deserve better reputations than they have with the general public. 

The Greek letter fraternity is the outgrowth of man's natural desire 
to associate himself with men of similar ideas and ideals with vJaom 
he has a common bond. . . . 

It is a ^dop of men with common ptirposes, living, playing, 
studying together, with an tuderlying feeling of deep friendship. 
It is a grcvop of select men, each of whom contributes to the grou^ 
and benefits from this association with chosen brothers of the same 
character. It is a group of men united in a high ideal, beautifully 
expressed in their secret ritual. It is an association that makes a 
man of the youth who entered college, and sends him out into the 
world pdsed and self-confident, and, more important, surrounded with 
a grot^ of friends who will be close to him through life. 

Because the fraternity neither accepts a shoddy prospect nor 
tolerates a weak chapter, one's loyalty is not restricted to his own 
chapter, for evexy man who wears the badge is a brother. • . . 



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97 



. This description of Greek letter frateznitiee — from a pantphlet issued in 1959, 

! 

or before, "by The Chi Phi fraternity— is the ideal which all fraternities no 
doubt profess. Their constituencies being human, no fraternity attains the 
ideal* 

Somewhat in contrast is the following specific history of the back<- 
ground of the present Chi Phi chapter at Duke. This information is from first- 
hand observation, and is not the "official" history of the fraternity. In many 

II 

respects, it is representative of other fraternities at Duke, 

On February 15, 1932, a group of outstanding first-year men met 
with Dean Dean Mozley Arnold and organized themselves as the Zeys 
Club, with the intention of petitioning Beta Theta Pi, one of the 
"big three" fraternities of the Miami Triad. For two years the gtaa^ 
was a strong one, Including several unusually outstanding students. 
Dean Arnold died on February 13, 1934. The Keys Club seemed to lose 
strength immediately, Vhile a chapter room was maintained, in House 
G, for two or more years longer, the grou^ had practically succumbed 
by the end of the year 1935-36. 

In 1935-36 came Boosevelt Der Tatevasian, Arthur S. Pawling, 
Hilliard Schendorf , Beid Holmes, and several hundred other freshmen. 
I^r Tatevasian, a suave politician by birth and training, was active 
in the Spring political campaigns on the oaotpus, and by the end of 
his first year was a popular figure. He headed the Duke Post of the 
Veterans of Future Wars, which organization was not revived in 1936-37, 
and attempted to establish a chapter of DeMolay at Duke. Pawling was 
an outstanding student in business administration; Schendorf revived 
the slumbering Duke 'n' Duchess humor magazine, %dth Der Tatevasian as 
business manager, and Holmes (Pawling' s roommate) quite naturally 
became a member of the group. These four, with a few others, organized 
the Independent Party during the Spring political season of 1936, and 
won over both the Blue and White candidates in their class elections. 
(Der Tatevasian sided with the victorious White Combine in the 1937 
Spring elections, and was named to the Publications Board — which is 
another story.) 

In the Pall of 1936 Beta Theta Pi was not at all favorably 
ii^ressed with the decadent Keys Club. Smest Winton, moneyed but 
congenial member of the early group, approached Der Tatevasian, during 
October of 1936, on reviving the Keys Club and renewing the petition 
to Beta Theta Pi. Der Tatevasian, ioipecunious but popular, decided 
to work with Winton. A few of the hangers-on in the Keys Club were 
not popular men on the campus, and did not make a good impression on 
the members of Beta Theta Pi at Chapel Hill. It was therefore decided 
that the Keys Club should be abandoned and a new grov^ organized. 



. .. .-. Hi 
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98 



Vintoa, being a fifth-Tear tindergraduate , did not Join the group, but 
agreed to give it his moral support — and was expected to give more 
tazigible aid. When the more tangible support was nor given, the new 
group, named Alpha Chi, looked around for another "angel" and found 
that Douglas 7e]*ris, senior whose family was reputed to be wealthy, 
was not a member of a fraternity but would like to be. He was invited 
to membership, and was made first president of Alpha Chi. (After 
graduation he donated a set of curtains to the chapter room, D-103, 
which helped to create a slight feeling of brotherly love where prac- 
tically none had existed before.) 

Still without an "angel," Alpha Chi pledged Colden Craig, •40, 
whose father was freqfoently mentioned within the grou^ as being Vice- 
president of Clyde-Mallory Steamship Lines. His mother seemed especi- 
ally interested in Colden becoming a Beta Theta Pi, and young Craig 
seemed interested in Alpha Chi during the early part of 1937-38, but 
soon lost active interest. H, Grady Gore, a prospective little "angel," 
did not return to school in the Pall of 1937. 

Thus, in 1937-38, Alpha Chi was an impecunious group of somewhat- 
better-than-average students and athletes. A chapter room, D-103, was 
rented in the Pall of 1937, and rent was paid during the remainder of 
the year, although the grot^'s finances were frequently in a bad way. 
Several members were pledged during the year, but none with a great 
deal of money. Gerald Griffin was the biggest acquisition of the year, 
he being a junior and very much interested in getting Alpha Chi accepted 
by a big fraternity* During the latter part of the year Carolina's 
chapter of Beta Theta Pi decided it did not like Alpha Chi's membership, 
and decided to colonize at Duke (pledge Duke men, and let them join 
the TJNC chapter until there should be a sufficiently large number to 
organize a chapter at Duke). One of the Alpha Chi boys went over to 
the Carolina Beta chapter in this way. 

The Betas at Duke (alumni and graduate students) irere highly in 
favor of acceptance of Alpha Chi, as was the chapter at Davidson; 
but, according to Alpha Chis, the Carolina chapter (being largely 
coa^osed of Southerners) did not like the predominantly Northern mem- 
bership of Alpha Chi, and therefore would not give its consent to 
acceptance. By June 1938 the prospect of Alpha Chi's survival seemed 
dim, especially since Der Tatevasian, spearhesui of the group, had been 
elected Chronicle Editor and said he would have less time to devote to 
affairs of Alpha Chi. 

Before the Carolina Betas began colonizing at Duke, depleting the 
membership of Alpha Chi, the local fraternity had been approached by 
two or three of the less prominent national fraternities, but neither 
the members nor the University administration were interested in 
having any but first-rate "big- name" fraternities. The best Alpha Chi 
could do in this line was to approach Chi Phi. (The s^proaching was 
a sort of mutual affair, as Chi Phi was anxious to re-establish the 
chapter which had existed at Trinity College, 1871-79.) During Novem- 
ber and December of 1938, 13 members of Alpha Chi pledged Chi Phi at 
Chapel Hill, On January 21, 1939, eight of these were initiated 



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99 



throtigh Alpha Alpha chapter at Carolina, and Alpha Ma chapter (Doke) 
was accepted subject to appro-ral of the national convention, in 
Ao^st, The Duke chapter's petition was granted and charter approved 
by the national body, and formal Installation was costpleted at Duke 
on December 5, 1939. ^ 



The Duke chapter of Beta Theta Pi was installed October 6, 1939. 

On the following sheet are listed Duke fraternities for undergraduate 
men, with pertinent facts concerning each. Then, on following sheets are brief 
histories of the individual groups. Most of these sketches were prepared with 
assistance of student officers of the organizations. 



%ew8 Service files. 



no 









,Me^,i ecivivv sv3«C' 



100 



HATIQUAL UKD2HGRA33UATE SOCIAL JHATBENITIBS AT DUO TJNI7I!RSITT 



Iratemity 


Chapter 


Established 


Predecessor 
Organization 


Alpha Tau Omega 


Xi 


Mar. 2. 1872 
Revived May 30, 


Unknown, if any 
1890 


Beta Theta Pi 


Gramma Sho 


Oct. 


6, 1939 


Keys ClTib, Alpha 
Chi. Beta Club 


Chi Phi 


Ma 

Alpha Ifa 


Nov, 
Dec. 


28, 1871 
5. 1939 


Unknown, if any 
Keys Club. Alpha 
Chi 


Chi Tsa 


Alpha 


Oct, 


3, 1920 


None* 


Delta Sigma Phi 


Alpha lips il on 


Jan, 


24. 1920 


Stag Club 


Delta Tau Delta 


Delta Kappa 


Dec, 


7, 1928 


Delta Delta 


Kappa Alpha 


Alpha Phi 


Oct. 


18, 1901 


Unknown, if asy 


Keqppa Sigma 


Eta Prime 


Peb. 


28, 1873 


Unknown, if any 


Lambda Chi Alpha 


Gamma Theta Zeta 


Mar, 


3. 1924 


Beta Pi 


Phi Delta Theta 


K, C, Alpha 


May 23, 1878 
Revived May 20, 


1926 Bachelors' Club 
Epsilon Alpha Sigma 


Phi K«ppa Psi 


N, C. Alpha 


Nov, 


10. 1934 


Sigma Delta 


Phi Kappa Sigma 


Sa 


Nov, 


13. 1936 


Sigma Alpha Omega 
Pi Epsilon Pi 


Phi Sigma Delta 


Chi 


Expired 1935-36 


Pente 


Pi ILappa. Alpha 


Alpha Alpha 


Nov, 


26. 1901 


Unknown, if any 


Pi Kappa Phi 


Ha 


May 


6, 1915 


Unknown, if any 


Sigma Alpha Spsilon 


N. C. Nu 


Peb, 


20, 1931 


Psi Delta Sigma 


Sigma Chi 


Beta Lambda 


i^r. 


26. 1912 


Ma Kappa Klan 


Sigma Hu 




Nov. 


21. 1931 


Goblins, Sigma Gamma 
Bachelors' Club 


Sigma Phi Spsilon 


H. C, Gamma 


i^r. 


3. 1909 


Beta Nu 


Zeta Beta Tau 


Upsilon 


May 


4. 1935 


Alpha Pi Sigma 



♦Pounded at Trinity, but no chapter here since 1929, 



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101 



Alpha Taa Omega 

The Duke chapter of Alpha Tau C^ega was f oonded at Trinity College on 
March 2, 1872, hy Joseph E, Anderson, Virginia Military Institute, and Moses L, 
Wicks, University of Virginia, Twenty-five strident s in the first gronjp of 
initiates included Turnifold McL. Simmons (who hecame United States Senator 
from North Carolina) and Walter Hines Page (who served as Ambassador to Creat 
Britain daring World War I, and for whom Page Auditorium was named). 

Alpha Tau (kega's charter was surrendered in 1879 because of anti- 
fraternity laws. It was revived on May 30, 1890 "by Robert W. Bingham (not a 
Trinity student) >^o later became Ambassador to Great Britain, 

Among outstanding recent projects of Alpha Tau Omega is the weeld.y 
Sunday Sight "Sing, " a regular feature of caii5)us extra-curricular life since 
1937. 

Beta Theta Pi 

The earliest recorded attempt to establish a chapter of Beta Theta Pi 
fraternity at Duke Ihiiversity was in 1932, when on February 15, a grou^ of first- 
year men organized the Keys Club, with Dean D. M, Arnold as adviser. The group's 

intention was to petition the national order for a charter. The club numbered 

I 

several outstanding caucus figures among its members, but failed to attract much 

money. The national order gave little encouragement toward petitioning. 

Dean Arnold died February 13, 1934, and the Keys Club lost strength 

immediately. By June 1936 the groi^ was practically inactive. Ernest Winton, 

one of the early members and perhE^s the most wealthy member, was still 

interested in establishing a coxmection with Beta Theta Pi. He approached 

Boosevelt Der Tatevasian with the idea, and the organization of Alpha Chi resulted. 



101 






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102 



Alpha Chi vas established in the Pall of 1936 and granted a seat on 
the Fraternity Pan-Hellenic Council in February 1937. It gained strength, was 
s5)proached by two or three national fraternities; but persevered in the intent 
to petition Beta Theta Pi. 

By Pall of 1938 Alpha Chi decided that it could no longer compete 
against sixteen national fraternities in the anrmal rushing without a national 
affiliation. Beta Theta Pi was anxious to establish a Bake chaspter, but the 
Chester at University of ITorth Carolina would not approve the Oaks body. Beta 
decided to colonize at Buke, and one Alpha Chi member joined throu^ the Chapel 
Hill chapter. Thus was begun the Beta Club, which on October 6, 1939 became 
Gramma Sho chapter of Beta Theta Pi. 



Chi Phi 

Background of the revived Chi Phi chapter (Alpha Mu) has already 
been given, Following is sketch on the original chapter (Mu), taken 
from the C3IIT3MIA1 MEMORIAL VOLUME, published in 1934 by the Council 
of The Chi Phi Fraternity. 

The Mu Chapter at Trinity had one of the most brilliant histories of 
any of the chs^ters of the Southern Order, both before and after the union. 
In the Fall of 1871 a number of students at Trinity decided to establish a chap- 
ter of a National Fraternity, there being none at the institution, Theodore 
Winningham and John Daniel Hodges were the leaders. A former student of Trinity, 
David Lewis Cheatham, had gone to Emory and there Joined the K^pa Chapter of 
Chi Phi. Winnin^iam wrote him and in November Cheatham came to Trinity and as 
the result of his visit the constitution was forwarded from the Grand Chapter, 

and on November 28, 1871 the Mu Chapter was established with these charter mem- 

I 

bers: Theodore Winningham, William Capers Herman, William Ho%/ell Pegram, William 



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103 



Leake Terry, and Shadrach Siinpson. Hodges was not in college at the time lut 
on his return he too joined the chapter. The chapter prospered from the start 
and thro-aghout the short eight years of her life maintained a commanding posi- 
tion at the institution. Severed years later other fraternities vere estahlished 
and the rivalry hecame so strong that at a meeting of the Trustees June 12, 1879 
a resolution was passed reqiiesting all fraternities to disband. Obe resolution 
was submitted to the several chapters and at once accepted. Several tinsHccess- 
fttl attempts have been made in later years to revive the chapter. 

Owir^ to the high type of Mu's members they took a prominent place in 
fraternity affairs. The ^aarterly was revived by Brother Hodges, and Brother 
CVerman served as Grand Gamma. The roll contains the names of seventy members. 
Thirty-six graduated from Trinity. Of the eight classes graduated, the vale- 
dictorians of six and the salutatorians of three were members of the chapter 
and more than two-thirds of the Society medals were c«^tured by the brothers. 
Porty-foiir of the members are deceased and four saw service in the Confederate 
side in the Civil War. 



Chi Tau 

Chi Taa was founded at Trinity College, October 3, 1920, by Henry 
Belk, Merrimon Teagae Hipps, Samuel L. Holton, Jr., and Numa iVances Wilkerson, 
It existed as a local organization -until the Spring of 1923, when on May 2, 
1923, a joint meeting was held at Durham with Lambda Sigma Delta, a local at 
North Carolina State College, This resulted in the formal establishment of 
Chi Tau, which became incorporated under the laws of North Carolina. 

Chf^ters were chartered at Duke University, North Carolina State 
College, University of North Carolina, Wake Forest College, Presbyterian Col- 
lege of South Carolina, University of California, Columbia University, Wofford 
College, University of Illinois, and perhaps others. A quarterly magazine was 
published for some years. The motto was "Esse Qua n Videri ," the motto of the 
State of North Carolina. Internal dissension developing, the fraternity dis- 
integrated in 1929. — Condensed from Baird's Mantial, 1935. 



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Delta Sigma Phi 

In 1919 nine students organized a club called the Stag Club. In 
1930 this group petitioned I>elta Sigma Phi Pratemlty for membership. The 
request was granted, and ilpha %>8ilon chapter was instaloed^ The new chapter 
grew, and when Trinity College became Duke University and moved to the new 
caucus, the chapter got a section in House R, Craven Qpadrangle. The annual 
Black and White Ball in the Fall and Sailors' Ball in the Spring are outstand- 
ing D,1!.S. traditions at Suke. 

The nine charter members: Hilliard Chreitzberg Folsom, John William 
Hoy Norton, Lloyd Bryan Hathaway, Villiam Paison Muarphy, Jr., Oscar Leonard 
Eichardson, Alexander Betts Wilkins, Charles Ployd Woodard, LeEoy Riddick, 
Richard Elton Thigpen. 

Delta Tau Delta 

Delta Kappa chapter was installed December 7, 1928. It was the 
outgrowth of the Delta Delta Club, founded in 1923. Dean D. M* Arnold was a 
member, and adviser till his death. In 1932-33 Delta Es^pa, with 55 actives, 
broke a ten-year scholarship record among chapters of all 16 national frater- 
nities having 50 or more ch^ters in the United States. 

Members of the Delta Delta Club when it became Delta Tau Delta were: 
Joseph T. Carruthers, Jr., Jamie H, Brum, Paul D, Veasey, Louis A, States, Worth 
A. Lutz, John L. Woodward, Charles LaPair, Nelson Mc&ary, Alton G. Sadler, 
Everett B, Weatherspoon, J, Pred Evans, George B. King, Theron A. Bone, W. Tate 
Whitman, Joseph W. Mann, P, Jack Martin, J. Irvin Morgan, Jr., George E, Nash, 
Horace L. Wise, and Robert M. Russell, 

Delta TacL Delta has been one of the largest of Dake fraternities for 
the entire period of its existence. 



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105 



Zappo. Alpha 

President John C. Ellgo is credited with encouraging the organization 
of Alpha Phi chapter, vhich came into "being October 18, 1901. On that evening 
W, G. Parker (Eta Chapter) and E, A, Law (Delta Chapter), members of the iUrinity 
student hody, and V. D, Oarmichjtel (Upsilon Chapter at University of Horth 
Carolina, then on the Dorham High School faculty, met in the 9019 Hall in the 
Old Inn and organized the chapter. That same evening, D. V. Nevsom, J, M. 
Ormond and J. P. Breedlove %rere initiated and named charter members. A tem- 
porary organization was set t^, and E. V* Spencer and M. S. Hewsom, Jr., were 
elected to membership. 

The second year of its life, Alpha Phi's membership reached fifteen. 
It has continued relatively small in size, and comparatively exclusive. It is 
generally regarded as being predominantly Southern, 

E. A. ' s first home on the University caucus was on the third floor of 
House J. In 1955 it was moved to the fourth floor of House Gr, where headquar- 
ters were maintained till the Fall of 1937, when two ch^qpter rooms were arranged 
on the first floor of House G. 

Alpha Phi chapter was host to the Convention of Smith Province of 
K^pa Alpha in October 1937. 

Kappa Sigma 

The history of the Eta Prime ch^^ter of Eappa Sigma has been closely 
'linked with the national organization from its beginning. Eta chapter being the 
second grot^) to be installed. The original ch«5)ter at the University of 
Virginia granted a charter and installed Eta chapter at Trinity in 1873. When 
jfratemities were banned in 1879, Zappa Sigma continued sub roea and was 



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106 



officially restored in 1892 as Eta Prime. Date of installation at Trinity was 
February 28, 1873. For the last several years the chapter has had monthly formal 
dinners for its memhership. Its ptuTpose, officially stated, is "to continue to 
fulfill its heritage of prominence and leadership in every field of activity, 
and to build character and fraternal spirit among its members." 

Lambda Chi Alpha 

In 1917 a local fraternity was founded at Trinity, and took the name 
Bachelors* Club. In 1922 the name was changed to Beta Pi. On December 28, 1923, 
Beta Pi was granted a charter by Lambda Chi Alpha. The following charter mem- 
bers were initiated at Washington and Lee University on March 3, 1924: 



Hal Aycock ^iver 
Vrilliam J. H. Cotton 
E. E, Perry 
Thomas N Graham 
Lloyd S/Elkins 
Wayne Burch 
Robert S, Burke 
Jackson H. Bonn 
Charles S. Hammond 



Robert A, Burch, Jr. 
Alonzo C^ Edwards 
Ernest &. Overton 
William G. Sharp 
Jack E^ Anderson 
Richard T. Hardaway 
Linwood B* Hollowell 
James M. Keech 
John B. Midgett 
Thomas B« Moore 



Emerson M, Thoispson 
Joseph C, Whisnant 
Alton R, Barrett 
Robert B, Billings 
Macon P. Brock 
William R, Brown 
Edward W, H. Sagertedt 
Joseph P. Roche 
Loy P. Thoinpson 



Before occttpation of the Thiiversity Campus, Lambda Chi Alpha was one of four or 
five fraternities having houses near the East Campus, behind Bivins Hall. It 
has been one of the largest of Duke fraternities since its founding. 



Phi Delta Theta 

Phi Delta Theta founding at Trinity College was on May 23, 1878. 
5. M. Bulla, Philemon Holland, Jr., B. L, White, and W, H, Robbins were founders. 
The charter was revoked with the abolition of Trinity fraternities in June 1879. 
^ May 20, 1926, a new charter was granted, following effort led by Martin L. Black. 



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The local gravxp, known as Spsilon Alpha Sigma, had heen estahlished in i924; 
there was some relation with the bachelors' Club. 

In 1936 the tenth anniversary of refoTinding of the chapter was held, 
with Arthur H, Priest, National Dzecutive Secretary, attending. Hhe Delta 
Province Convention was held at Doke the same year. In 1937 the Horth Carolina 
Alpha ch^ter was host at the national convention atCfld Point Comfort, Virginia. 



Phi Eappa Psi 

Daring the Spring and Pall of 1928 a group of undergraduates, under 
the guidance of the late Dean D. M. Arnold, tound themselves into an organization 
vhich assumed the name of Sigma Delta. In 1934 a formal petition was submitted 
to the National Szecutive Council of Phi Ee^pa Psi I^atemity, and in J\ine of 
that year a charter %ras granted to Sigma Delta as the North Carolina Alpha 
sh^^ter of the order. The chapter was officially installed November 10, 1934. 

Founders of Sigma Delta are unknown. The following students were 

sharter members of Phi Zc^pa Psi: 

Robert T. Dickerson Albro Sumner Travis 

0, B, Newton, Jr. Charles T, St. Clair, Jr. 

Joseph S. Shieferly, Jr. Edwin W» Smith 

Bobert 0. Wade David G. Watson 

Charles W. Zehnder, Jr. Charles S. Dale, Jr* 

Theodore P. H.Boepple Richard P. Bellaire 

James S. Allardice Charles H. Baker, Jr. 

Eomer H. Haydock Richard L, Beazley 

Harry Wright, Jr. Frederick R. Lauther 

Russell J. Forrest William A. Boepple 

Caleb Van Wyck Smith, Jr. Howard Eastwood, Jr. 

Harry B. Carmen, Jr. Richard D, Jenkinson, Jr. 

Donald A. Stewart Ceorge R. Bailey, III 

John S. Rose Henry H. Dils, Jr. 

Lawrence L, Gent Lloyd Russell ^^^''^^^^^^^yigoj.g 

Janes Edward Heniy Robert S. Rankin ) 

Howard R. Oetz 

he Doke chapter was host to the District Convention in the Spring of 1937. 



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Phi Eappa Sigma 

On Novem"ber 12, 1926 was formed Pi Bpsllon Pi, local fraternity, with 
the following charter members: James W, illison, Jr., George Thomas Ashford, 
Lawrence Seall, Boselle Sowd, Owen !!• Dowd, James Wilbur IHittrell, William T. 
Hamlin, Walter Harold Hayes, A« J, Hughes, Jr., J. ilton Price, Cecil C, Hankin, 
Edward Shore Haper, Owen Sutton, and Samuel N, Wrenn. Or, Bert Cunningham, H, 
M. LeSourd and Coach James DeHartC were faumlty members • 

In September 1928 was organized another local fraternity, Sigma Alpha 
G^ega, with the following charter members: William B, Oulbreth, Harry W. Davis, 
Ealph W, Ponville, William H, Harrison, Jr., William C. Hauss, Linville E. 
Midge tte, J. E. OliTer, Lester A. Smith, and Fred J. Welch. 

In 1933 Sigma Alpha Omega received permission fran the Grand Chapter 
of Phi Eappa Sigma to initiate members of the local into the national organi- 
zation through Lambda Chester at University of North Carolina. In 1934 per- 
mission was given to call the Duke group the Phi Eappa Sigma Club. Pi Epsilon 
Pi joined this group May 13, 1935, and Kvl Chsgpter of Phi Ecqppa Sigma was 
officially installed on November 13, 1936. 

Phi Sigma Delta 

Chi Ch£^ter of Phi Sigma Delta, national Jeirish fraternity, was 
Installed March 9, 1929. The last records left by the organiratlon were for 
the year 1935-36. It was in 1935 that Zeta Beta Tau established a chapter at 
!>ake and became the center of Jewish life on the campus. No explanation has 
been found for the expiration of Phi Sigma Delta, nor have the names of charter 
nembers been learned. Evidently, the chapter never had great strength. 

Phi Sigma Delta succeeded Pente, organized in 1926-27. 



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109 



Pi Zappa Alpha 

Sdward Octavius Smlthdeal, Sll Wade Cranford, John Dallas Laziest on 
and Charles Darid Bdgerton signed a petition to Pi Kappa Alpha yrateimity for 
a charter for a chapter at !Erinity College, and the ch«5>ter was installed on 
Novemher 26, 1901. It is considered the fifth oldest of Duke fraternities. 

Pi Kappa Phi 

Ma Chapter of Pi Kappa Phi was hegan hy colonization. Official 
Installation was on May 6, 1915. Charter meiobers: Carl Frank Bunting, Arthur 
Russel Council, Emmet Fitzgerald Gill, Dewey Cecil Hickman, Sari Long, Leon 
Oathbert Hichardson, Bernice Owen Rigshee, Janes Balph Hone, Frank Metthews 
Lasser, and Thomas Joshua Swain. 

Sigma Alpha Spsilon 

In the Fall of 1926 several close friends among undergraduates formed 

a cluh, evidently without a name. On May 1, 1927, the group decided to call 

itself Psi Delta Sigma. Charter members were: Samuel Freeman Nicks, Jr., H, 

Manrin Sherard, Helson Ireland, Jr., Jordan James Sullivan, Haywood S. Lynch, 

Charles Orayson Biggs, Donald R. Lumpkin, Sari H, Lutz, Vade H. Myers, R. W. 
I 
Lamm, and C. Brian Aycock. Faculty advisers were Drs. S. V, Kelson and Clement 

Vollmer. The groizp became N, C« Ihi Chapter of Sigma Alpha Spsilon on February 

30. 1931. 



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Sigma Chi 

During the year 1910-11, or before, there existed a small social 
organization without name, with A. M, Proctor aa chairman. On ^ril 8, 1911 
this group hecame Mu Eappa Elan. Ha Kappa Elan was chartered as Beta Lamhda 
of Sigma Chi on March 28, 1912, and the cheater was officially installed on 
J^ril 26, 1912. Charter members: 2dward C. McClees, Claude Bennett, Thomas ?• 
Pace, Harvey VT. Tomage, William W, Button, Oscar B, Darden, Paul H. North, 
Hubert M. Hadcliff , Don H, Kirkaan, Marvin C, Terrell, Daniel V, Maddox, James 
Cannon, John Thomas Moon, Jr*, John M. Thon^son, ?red W. Terrell, Hobert L. 
Tove, Jtmius H. Sose, Alexander M* Bonner, Walter G. Sheppard, and Ben H* 
Houston, Jr. The chapter has continued as one of the largest and strongest of 
Dolce fraternities. 

In April 1936 Beta Lambda was host to the biennial Pour-Province 
Convention of Sigma Chi. 

Sigma Ku 

iiarly in the Pall of 1938, three brothers in Sigma Nu (Phil H, 
Crawford, Jr., J, William Braswell, and Harry P. Taylor— all of whom had 
been initiated at other colleges) organized a club with the purpose of 
creating a Sigma Hu chapter at Duke. Other clubs had been established in 
previous years for the same purpose, but they left no records. On January 
14, 1929, the three brothers met with other interested students and decided 
to call themselves The Goblins. As such, the group was recognized until 1931. 
Other prominent Goblins were Ben Powell, Andrew Bickett and Charles L. Major. 

Installation was on Kovember 21, 1931, following granting of charter 
in Aoguat of that year. The chapter was given the name Gamma. 



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Charter meml>er8 of Gaoana of Sigma Nu: Claire T, Crenshaw, Ponald ?• 
Marion, Henry P. Richards, William ?• Reed, Richard A. Broherg, William S. 
Martin, John C. Long, Jr., Philip L, Franklin, Donald W. Miller, and Aiaea W, 
Villiams. 

ibiong other previous groups vhich had at one time or another e:qpre8sed 
desire or intention of petitioning Sigma Hu were the Bachelors' Club (founded 
in 1925) and Sigma Gramma (founded Octoher 5, 1925). The gror:^ vhich founded 
Chi Tau on October 3, 1920, had also expressed some preference for Sigma Su. 

Sigma Phi Spsilon 

The only historical facts which have been established relative to 
Sigma Phi Ilpsilon's N. C, (rajmna Chapter are that it was installed ipril 3, 1909, 
and was preceded by a local order known as Beta Ku, 

Zeta Beta Tau 

Freddy Sington, who was for a while on the football coaching staff, 
bad been a member of Zeta Beta Tau at the University of Alabama. In 1932-33 
he led the movement for establishing a ch^^ter at Duke. The first grou^ was 
kaown as Alpha Pi Sigma — Alpha Pi being for the brother chapter at Chapel Hill 
and Sigma for Sington. The organization was rather loosely-knit till 1934-35, 

when Sam Rogol was elected president. Original members were: Abe Altermaa, 

I 

llWlbert Cohen, Milton Weinstein, Irwin Friedlander, Nathan Weinstein, Sidney 

i 

Volt 2, Sam Golds tein, Harry Ginsberg, and Rogol. Joe Abrams, a senior law 
student, was advisor to the grov^ after Sington left; Abrams had been a member 
of the order at Vanderbilt University. 



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112 



,. Alpha Pi Sigma beeajae Upsilon chapter of Zeta Beta Tau on May 4, 
I 
1935. (The name is sometimes given as Alpha Upsilon.) 

I Since its installation, Z. B. T. has consistently earned the top 

scholastic ranking among Duke fraternities. It was founded at about the time 

of expiration of Phi Sigma Delta, and has been the ojily Jewish fraternity at 

Dake since that time. 

Others 

All college fraternities, like other secret societies, have their 
origin in Preemasonry. The first recorded attenipt to organize an independent 
Masonic order at Duke was in October 1919, by a groiq) which called itself 
Acacia. Evidently the order did not stirvive the academic rigors of the year. 
During 1930-31 there was an attempt to form a chapter of DeMolay. Occasional 
mention is also found in 1931 of a Masonic Club. It may be that reference is 
to DeMolay. In 1936-37 there was another attempt to form a DeMolay chs^ter. 
5?heta Nu Epsilon, local social fraternity founded in 1914, continued for two 
or three years; in 1916 it was known as The Thirteen Club. In a student news- 
peqper for March 1925 is found mention of Tellow Dogs social club; whether this 
was a fictitious society is hot known, 
fl The following local gro\]p8 have not been identified with any national 
fraternity, according to available records: 

Alpha Gkoega Sigma, established 1929. Evidently died the same year. 

Alpha Sl^na Tau, 1911-13. Mentioned in Chanticleer , 1912, 1913. 

Alpha Zeta Phi, 1915. Mentioned in Archive , May 1918. 

The Dons. Organization reported in Chronicle , Oct. 26, 1932. 

Keys Club, 1921. Not to be confused with Keys Club of 1932, which 
Ijecame Alpha Chi, then Chi Phi. 



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113 



Omega. The only reference to this organization is found in Baird. 
Our Gang, founded Nov, 5, 1932, Reported in Chronicle , Nov, 30, 1932, 
Owls, founded atout 1890. Mentioned in Archive , Oct, 1891, p,35. 
Phi Eappa Delta, 1930-31. Mentioned in Chanticleer and Chronicle Oct. 



,J7, 1931, 



Kehels, 1906, See Alttmni Register , June 1928, p. 228. 

Sigma Mu, 1871, Mentioned only in Baird. 

Sigma Tau Alpha, founded Novemher 1926. rormally recognized "by the 
Administration May 3, 1927. Intended petitioning Delta TJpsllon. See Chanticleer 
and Chronicle , passim . 

Fraternity Pan-Hellenic Council 

I IThe five fraternities of 1910-11 (Alpha Tau Omega, Eappa Sigma, Eappa 
Alpha, Pi Kappa Alpha, and Sigma Phi %)silon) formed the Fraternity Pan-Hellenic 
Council for mutual advantages. Organization was encouraged hy the Administration. 
The Council was reorganized during the 1912-13 term. A member of the college 
faculty or administration — usually the Dean — was Chairman of the Council till 
1927; since then it has teen officered by students, but with close supervision 
of the Dean. 

I Since dancing became the most popular approved social activity at 
I>ake, about 1927, the conducting of big dances has been a major function of 
the "Pan-Hel." Nearly every year for the last decade at least two "big-name 
boads" have been inserted each year for the most elaborate dances (xf Pall and 
Spring — most elaborate dances, that is, with the exceptions of Co-ed Balls of 
1937-39, idien Maiy Duke Biddle was enrolled in Woman's College. Orchestras 
were engaged for fees upwards of $1,000 till 1936, when ^aadrangle Pictures 



^Chronicle , Feb, 5, 1913, p,3. 



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114 



11 



began its yearly eollat>oration irith the Pau-Sellenlc Caancil in obtaining well- 
known orchestras for combination show-and-dance engagements. 

Mother major ftmction of the Council is general sv^ervision of 
fraternity "rushing'': the big hant for new members, "Deferred rushing," "dirty 
rushing, " "normal relations" and other terms bearing on this subject have become 
quite familiar to Chronicle readers, for scores of columns of type are set up 
for fraternity news every year. Following are a few specimen headlines: 



EiOSDS GST 
WCEKOUT IH 
aWSZTUGS 

-0- 

'ratemities Give Welcomes, 

Cigarettes and Aches to 

(Gentlemen of 1940 



asm HCX7SSS asd 

FLSDGIHaS MASK 
SOCIAL ACTITITIBS 



PAH-HSLLMIC COUNCIL APFROVSS 
BADICAL RB7ISI0N IN BUSH BIILSS; 
PLANS NOBMAL BTCLATIONS POEUM 



BSLATIQNS 
PLAN LOSSS 



PPATBBNITIBS PE3PAB3 
7QB BUST BUSH WBM 



ierewith are giren a few specimen newstories released through the University 
Jews Service on the subject of fraternities. 



March 7, 1937: 



HELL WEEK BSTAIKDO 
BT 10 PBATEBNITiaiS 
AT mSS UNIVBBSITT 
-o- 



Six of the 16 national social fraternity chapters at Duke 
University this week declared themselves in favor of abolishing 
"hell week" in connection with their annual initiations. Ten of 
the fraternities still adhere to the traditional horse-play-and- 
paddle form of initiation; while six — though not the identical six 
voting against "hell week" — have already abolished the old method 
of "informal" initiation. 

Arthur Bradsher, president of the chapter of Alpha Tsu Onega, 
succinctly expressed the sentiment of the reform element when he 
S€dd, "We certainly don't think brotherly love can enter through 
the seat of the pants." Alpha Tau Omega is the oldest of the 16 
national chapters at Duke. 



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115 



February 24, 1938 TAR HBBLS LMD 

WKZ PHAT LIST 
-o- 

Korth Carolina again leads ia the number of first-year students 
at Duke Unirersity pledging the 17 fraternities here, a check-t?) 
revealed today. The c(»apilation vaa made at the dose of «TiT»npi 
"rush week" when first-year men decide what fraternities they shall 
join, if any. 

One hundred and siocty-eight of the nearly 500 first-year men 
pledged fraternities daring "rush week." Of these, 29 are Tar Heels < 
Others may be expected to affiliate themselves with fraternities 
later. Twenty-four states and the District of Columbia axe repre- 
sented by the group of 168 students. 

For the last few years, Duke undergraduate fraternities have 
followed the policy of deferred rushing; i.e., no first-year men 
are pledged until the end of the first semester. Sororities at the 
Woman's college accept first-year members at the beginning of the 
academic year. 



February 13, 1939 FRATERHITT HUSH 

SEASON IS smm 

-0- 

First-year men at Duke Uniyersity, the humble freshmen who 
wore "dinks" and did the bidding of dictatorial ^tpperclassmen last 
Fall, are now enjoying quite a different status. For this week 
only (to use the familiar words of those with merchandise to sell) 
the frosh occi^y the preferred position; t^perclassmen — at least 
those active in fraternity life — go out of their *fay to do what 
they think will please the first-year men. 

The occasion is axmual fraternity "rush week. " At the end of 
the five-day round of "open houses," banquets, and other social 
functions, some 150 or more freshmen will accept bids to membership 
in the 18 social groups. Then, as pledges, they will again be -under 
the strict surveillance of the upperclass "brothers." 

i^proximately half of the Trinity college freshman class, having 
maintained a scholastic average of "C" or better during the first 
semester, are eligible for fraternity pledging. 

Two fraternities will bid for freshmen next week for the first 
time at Duke, They are Beta Theta Pi and Chi Phi, both of which have 
recently initiated xindergraduate groups* Neither has formally 
established a Duke chapter yet, but both are expected to do so in the 
late Spring or early Fall. 









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116 



The Council concerns itself with general student welfare, as well as 
with those matters pertaining exclusively to fraternities. It was active in 
the "revolt" of 1934 (page 34), and from time to time has sponsored such pro- 
jects as Hed Cross membership drives, various war relief fund-raislzig cazspaigns, 
and the like. It also underwrote Hoof and Horn musical comedy productions of 
1941 and 1943. 

B* Women' s T^dergraduate Grot^s 

Differences between men's and women's student governments have been 
noted on paget 43 and 44, (Phere has not been as great a difference between 
the Fan-Hellenic Councils. Kuch that has been written concerning the Fraternity 
"Pan-Hel" could be repeated with reference to the women's group. 

The Sorority Pan-Hellenic Council was organized in 1913, with Fannie 
Eilgo as first president. It has always been a student activity, but nearly 
always ready to consult with the college administration. There were two 
sororities (Mpha Delta Pi and Eappa Delta) at the time of its organization. 
By 1940 it had a dozen constituent organizations. One of the Council's chief 
functions since 1935 (when it was remodeled) has been the supervision of Pan- 
Hellanic House on Woman's College Campus. This is the upper portions of 
old Crowell Science Hall. Bach sorority has a parlor — several of which are 
decorated at a cost of a few thousand dollars — and there are kitchens on each 
jfloor. There is no regard for sorority membership in assignment of rooas in 
Woman's College dormitories. Sorority membership seems to be some%rtiat less 

vital to women students than fraternity membership seems to be to men; student 

i 

government appears to be considerably more important to the women. 



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117 



So far as has teen learned, there have been no social organizations 
of uncLergradtiate women unaffiliated with the Sorority Pan-Hellenic Coimcil. 
Following is the roster of those who have heen and are constituents of the 
Council. 

Alpha Delta Pi 

(kicron Chapter of Alpha Delta Pi was established at Duke University, 
then Trinity College, at 8:30 o'clock p.m., on June 2, 1911, when the following 
girls were initiated as charter members: Panny Kilgo, Smma McOollen, Mildired 
Sinclair, Sally Smith, Annie St, George and Lizzie Wrenn. 

Previously the name of Fanny Kilgo had been given by one of the men 
students at Trinity College to Celestia Covington of Lambda Chapter of Alpha 
Delta Pi. Miss Covington was interested in the possibility of establishing a 
chapter of her sorority at Trinity. Her contact with the local sorority V.D.W. 
(German letters), led to the Installation of Oinicron Chapter. [V.B.W. was 
organized in 1910, but no history of its organization has been located.] The 
Installation of the chapter, which was conducted by Mary Gladys Tilley of 
Montgomery, Ala,, was held at the home of Dr. John C, Kilgo, then President of 
Trinity College. 

Alpha Delta Pi was the first national sorority to become established 
on the Trinity campus. In 1913, Omicron Chapter together with the local chapter 
of Kappa Delta and a local sorority, Theta Delta (later Zeta Tau Alpha) , formed 
the local Sorority Pan-Hellenic Council. 

Since its founding, certain customs have , developed in the chapter. 
Each year after pledging a pledge breakfast is given by the active members, 
Following initiation, the new members are honored at a banquet. Members of 



^11 






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118 



Alpha Delta Pi give a nu]nl)er of teas each year, among them a Valentine tea and 

a tea commemorating Founder's Day. A pledge dance is also given annually* 

The purpose of the sorority members is the bettering of one another 

morally, mentally and socially. There is held each year a pledge court which 

endeavors to formulate and improve the attitude and ideals of the individual in 

accordance with the standards of the sorority and the xiniversity. Alpha Delta 

Pi atteinpts to promote scholastic achievement and also to interest the girls in 

extra-curricular activities. A closer relationship between students and faculty 

is fostered. 

I Qmicron Chapter is an active participant in the national altruistic 

work of the sorority. Sach member makes voluntary contributions in order to 

further the project in child welfare; in addition, the chapter appropriates a 
ll 
fund to aid girls in the completion of their college education. Qnicron has 

as its own project the assistance of an \inderprivileged Durham child. 

--Sketch prepared by Evelyn Elemme, 1938. 

Alpha Spsilon Phi 

Ifu Beta Phi, new local sorority of Jetiresses, %ra8 organized in the 
Fall of 1931. Charter members: Sara Berenson, Mildred Pollock, Jeanette Siden- 
berg, Orace Haehamson and Ethel Nachamson. In March of 1934 a charter was 
granted by Alpha Epsilon Phi, national Jewish sorority, and the local chapter 
was installed on ^ril 28, 1934, with the following members: Anne Eatz, Sara 
Berenson, Jeanette Sidenberg, Jane Lins, Rubye 7ogel, Sthel Hachamson. The 
patroness, Mrs. Eli Nachamson of Durham, was also installed at that time. 

The local chapter has encoiiraged and assisted in growth of Hillel, 
Jaational religious organization for Jews. 



SII 



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119 



Alpha Phi 

Tmto Tankees and a Southerner got together in the Pall of 1933 and 
founded a local sorority, Xi Qmicron. They were Martha Phyeioc, Elinor Douglas 
and Suth Bexmett. Betty Ealsema and Sleanor Coogdon soon joined the group. 
Miss Louise Hall and Mrs, J. C, Mouzon were advisors. 

In 1934 the groc^ petitioned Alpha Phi and a charter was grented at 
the 1935 national con-vention. Beta Nu Chapter was installed on May 11, 1935. 

Delta Delta Delta 

Alpha Qmicron Chapter of Delta Delta Delta was founded in 1931 when 
the local sorority Delta Chi Upsilon (founded Octoher 1930) petitioned the 
national sorority and was granted a charter. Charter members: Margaret Gray 
Bledsoe, Marian Smith, 5mma Beattie Sloop, Bdith Haines, Martha Stringfield, 
Ola Belle Whitehead, Prances Tudor, and Mary Gfray Vinget. Date of installation 
was Uovemher 8, 1931. 

In its first year the sorority presented to the Pan-Hellenic Council 
a scholarship cup to he awarded the sorority having the highest scholastic aver- 
age for each year. 

Tri-Delta*s chief contrihution to the University, as a social organi- 

I 

zation, has heen to foster social activities on the cantpus, givizig dances and 

frequently entertaining faculty members and friends. — Sketch prepared by 
Polly Barnwell, Historian, 1937. 

[Other members of petitioning groi:^: Charlotte Crews, Margaret 
jQriffin, Mary Elizabeth Hyatt, Hedra Jones, Irene Long, Mary Skinner, Louise 
Smith.] 



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120 



Delta Gamma 

The first official meeting of Delta Chi local sorority was on March 
20, 1958, when the following officers were named: Jean Metz, President; 
Catherine Blakeney, Vice-president; Shirley Smith, Secretary; Betty Pierce, 
TreasTurer. Other charter members: Evelyn Gulp, Lxicille King, Jean Metz, 
Janis Pridgen, Helen Bohrer, Hope Thomas, Helen Will is. The groi^ wc^ 
recognized by the Sorority Pan-Hellenic Council on May 8, 1938. On May 28, 
1959 the group became Beta Theta cheater of Delta Gamma. 

Kappa Alpha Theta 

In the Spring of 1925 a group of girls in Trinity College formed a 
local sorority with the intention of petitioning Kappa Alpha Theta, The name 
of the local was Sigma Tau. The establishment of this local group was some- 
thing of a pioneering more, because there had not been a local sorority in the 
college since 1915, There was, however, a definite need for more sororities. 
The chapters of the three national groups represented on the campus were small 
and many girls who would have liked to become sorority members were not pledged. 

Credit for the organization of the first group goes to Virginia 
Gribbons, an Alpha Delta Pi of Hamlet, N. C. Her young sister, Beth Gibbons, 

had not been pledged to A, D, Pi, and Virginia set about interesting a number 

1 
1 

of girls in the formation of a local. A nramber of other "little sisters" who 

had not been pledged were immediately interested. 

i 

* Among the first members of Sigma Tau were: Beth Gibbons, Adelaide 

fioyal, Mary Scanlon, Jane and Mary Avera, Helen Chandler, and Eebecca Kirkpatrick. 

Before the national organization granted a charter Beth Gibbons, Helen Chandler 

and one or two others had dropped out. 



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121 



Por two years the local gro\^ was not allowed to fimctlon as a sorority 

li 
because Dean Baldwin wished to decide on a definite policy toward sororities 

before further e^ansion in that field. In the year 1925-26, however, she 

allowed the groc^ to axmounce its formal organization, and Sigma Tau hecame a 

I 

member of the Pan-Hellenic Council. 

In the Fall of 1926 Sigma Tau rushed for the first time. In I^cember 
1927 a telegram announced that Zssp^a. ilpha Theta had granted a charter to the 
Doke group. The chapter was installed February 19, 1928, with 24 girls as 
charter members. 
f The sorority has a number of worthy projects. The chapter supplies a 

large family in Durham with milk during the entire year. Thanksgiving and 
Christmas baskets are given to poor families every year. — Sketch prepared by 
Bebecca Kirk^atrick Sprinkle, 1938. 



Ke^pa Delta 

The first sorority established at Trinity College — according to all 
records that have been established — was Sigma Delta, a local group organized in 
1904. Mary Handolph (Mrs. W. P. Pew) and Mary Duke (vho became Mrs. Biddle) 
vere among the early members. On ipril 19, 1912, this group became the Sigma 
Delta chapter of Kappa Delta sorority, with the following charter members: 
Sstelle Flowers, Katie Lee McKinnon, Lucile Gorham, Mary Gorham, Catherine 
Thomas, and Mary Berry.'* 



*See Chronicle, 7:27:1; Archive , June 1904. 



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122 



Kappa Kappa Gamma 

On April 5, 1927 a local sorority, Sigma Beta, was organized at Duke, 
This group made its first public appearance on May 10 of that year. The 
founders were: Bva Malone, Marjorie Cannon, Martha Chesson, Florence Dailey, 
Edna Slias, Martha G-ihson, and Margaret Lee. Mrs. Clarence Pemberton was 
patroness. 

! This group received a charter from Ec^pa Kappa Gbmma in 1930, and 
Delta Beta Chapter was installed on Octoher 25, 1930. 



I Phi Ma 

I The beginning of Gramma Spsilon Chapter of Phi Ma was the local 

sorority. Delta Bpsilon, founded in April of 1933. Official installation was 
on November 9, 1934, with the following charter members: Gwendolyn Clark, Claire 
Clarke, Sllen Fanmm, Baby Flanagan, Virginia Johnson, Hachael Meetze, Jean 
Molyneaux, Emily Wilford, Jeaa McCowan, Byelyn Mclntyre, Mary l-hilford, Sara 
Price, Marion Roe, Bachael Sink, Elizabeth Sutton. 



Pi Beta Phi 

In 1928 a local sorority, Mu Lambda, was organized at Duke by the 
following founding members: Hada Poston, Pearl Anderson, Pauline Tilley, Ola 
Simpson, Clyde Allison, Ruth Itertin, Patsy McKay, and Laura Seeley. 

The purpose of these girls was to obtain a charter of Pi Beta Phi, and 
to this end they persevered, refusing unsolicited offers of cheurters from other 
lational women's fraternities, A formal petition was presented to Pi Beta Phi 



^ 



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123 



on January 14, 1933. On February 17, 1933, Miss Amy Bumham Qnken, national 
(Jrand President of the order, formally installed Mu Lambda as North Carolina 
Beta* 

The Duke chapter aids in the national project of the sorority — the 
maintenance of a settlement school at Qatlinhurg, Tenn. — Sketch prepared by 
Winifred Shaw, 1938. 

Sigma Kf^pa 

In February of 1929 Sarah Ownbey, Prances Howe, Plora Crews Best, 
Angela Whitney and Ida Pearl Batman founded the local sorority Delta Psi. 
A petition was submitted to Sigma Kappa, and Alpha Psi Ch^ter was installed 
on January 4, 1931, 

Zeta Tsa. Alpha 

In the Spring of 1913 a local sorority, Theta Delta, was organized, 
rhe groap petitioned Zeta Tau Alpha, and on June 3, 1915, Phi Chsqpter was 
installed at Trinity. Charter members were: Fannie 2. 7ann, Annie Hamlen, 
WiUietta Svans, Janie Couch, Eose M. Davis, Mozelle Newton, Kathleen Hamlen, 
and Lucy Rogers, 

The local chapter entertains anzmally with a pledge breakfast, a 

I 

'pledge presentation dance, a Pall cabin party, a Pounder's Day dinner, a 

Christmas party, an initiation banquet, initiation dance, a Spring cabin party, 
and a May Day breakfast in honor of returning alumnae, 

I Phi was hostess to the Alpha Province convention at Duke in the Spring 
of 1937. —Sketch prepared by Prances Sewell, 1938. 



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134 



Isotes 



Differing from the aforementioned undergraduate women's organizations 

is the only other undergraduate women's social organization, Isotes. Founded 

in 1939-40, it marked a new departure in undergraduate social organization. 

7oll owing is a description from a newstoxy by Eehecca Eirkpatrick Sprinkle: 

Under the leadership of several independent girls in Brown 
house, Isotes was established last year to give the girls in that 
dormitory who were not affiliated with sororities an opportunity 
to enjoy the advantages of organized social life. Any girl in the 
dormitory who does not belong to a Greek-letter sorority is wel- 
come to the ranks of Isotes, and any town girl who is an associate 
member of Brown house may Join the club. Membership is not bind- 
ing, and any student who wishes to leave the club and become 
affiliated with a sorority is free to do so. 

The organization of independent women is considered a highly 
significant trend, and the success of this organization in the 
social and academic life of Sast castpus has already accorded it a 
respected position in the college. 

Isotes is given a representative on the Social Standards 
Committee; its members are allied with a variety of campus organi- 
zations. One of the outstanding projects of the gro^ is the 
banquet to be given this month for new members of Ivy, honorary 
freshman scholastic order. 

Sfo other dormitory group has followed the exaaple of the Brown girls, and 
Isotes continues to enjoy a distinctive position in the social life of Woman's 
College. 

First officers of Isotes were: Jean Bailey, president, and Lucille 
Chandler. Miss Mary Grace Wilson, Dean of Residence, has been closely coimec- 
ted with the groxip, and Miss Katherine Jeffers has served as adviser. 



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125 



mSHOML WDSSSrBADUJ^ SOCIAL SQRORI07ISS AT WKE UUIVSESITT 



Sorority 



Chapter 



Zstablisbed 



Predecessor 
Organization 



Alpha Delta Pi 
Alpha %>silon Phi 
Alpha Phi 
Delta Delta Delta 
Delta Gamma 
Eappa Alpha Theta 
Zappa Delta 
Eappa Ka^pa Gainma 
Phi Mu 
Pi Beta Phi 
Sigma Zappa 
Zeta Tau Alpha 



Qsnicron 

Beta TSii 
Alpha Okaicron 
Beta (Hheta 
Beta Rho 
Sigma Delta 
Delta Beta 
Gamma %>silon 
N. C. Beta 
Alpha Psi 
Phi 



Jane 2, 1911 
^r. 28, 1934 
May 11, 1935 
Not, 8, 1931 
May 28. 1939 
Peh. 19, 1928 
Apr. 19, 1912 
Oct. 25, 1930 
Nov. 9, 1934 
Peb. 17. 1933 
Jan. 4, 1931 
June 3, 1915 



7. D. W. 
ITu Beta Phi 
Zi Otaiicron 
Delta Chi IJ^silon 
Delta Chi 
Sigma Tea. 
Sigma Delta 
Sigma Beta 
Delta %>8ilon 
Mu Lambda 
Delta Psi 
Theta Delta 






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Chapter VIII 

HONOBARY AHD PROFESS IQHAL SOCISTISS 

Membership in such societies as those mentioned in Chapter 711 is 
conditioned on scholarship only to the extent that a student must maintain a 
"C average in all studies in order to be considered a full-fledged member. 
Most fraternities and sororities in this category, however, have a number of 
"associate members" — usually athletes or daughters of wealth, students not 
noted for scholarship. Undergraduate Deans' Office records of individual 
students' grades for the last several years show an average of about 1,25 
quality points for fraternity members against an average of about ,95 quality 
points for non-fratemity men. There has been a narrovrer margin between the 
average grades of sorority members and non-sorority women students for the same 
period, the sorority average being around 1,50 quality points and that of the 
"independent" women usually above 1»30 quality points. An average of 1.00 
quality points is equivalent to a grade of "C". Many honorary and professional 
societies reserve membership for students having an average of 2,00 quality 
points ( "S" average) ; and the percentage of undergraduates maintaining such an 
average seldom exceeds ten. Thus, the present chapter deals primarily with the 
top ten percent in scholarship; and persons associated with organizations men- 
tioned herein should, presumably, be included in any list of distinguished 
alumni. 






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127 



A, Q^eneral Scholarship and Leadership 

First mention In this classification must go to !I?he Society of 9019, 
both "by virtue of its age and "because of its good record. The society was 
organized in Pehruary 1890, imder the leadership of John Spencer Bassett, Class 
of 1888, who was then on the Trinity faculty. It was, according to President 
Crowell, an exaniple of the new instructional concept. 

This concept of college education smelt little of the cloister; 
it created, instead, a hunger and thirst for contact with life. It 
said: this text shows what the world has done and heen in the past, 
"but we live in today; let us see what it is doing now, how it is do- 
ing it, and why and wherein it differs from the historical, the 
traditional, and the accepted order of things. We, as students and 
teachers, are a new force in the world. We live in an atmosphere 
of forces released and unreleased. Life means mastery of these pro- 
cesses, and collegiate instruction is intended to give us the grasp 
on our powers and the knowledge of forces ahout us which will enahle 
us, as types of trained men, intellectually and morally to acquit 
ourselves effectively in the arena into which we are thrust after 
commencement days. 

All of these things did not come in one or two years. But 
they were called into use step by step, Por instance, the organi- 
zation of 9019 • . , and others was intended to emphasize two 
focal viewpoints in student life and thought, scholarship and 
patriotism. Although personally I was consulted and conferred with 
on these plans whereby the pick of the graduating class was selected 
for membership, the einphasis on these two things embodied my own 
conception of the relations between the College and the larger world 
outside. It bound together learning and service; it yoked discipline 
and duty in a team of great power — it embodied the newer ideal of 
Trinity itself,^ 

9019 has a good history, but it has never been written; and it is 
largely unknown to the more than 500 Trinity and Duke alumni urtio have been 
members of the organization. Its first ten years, under Bassett's guidance, 



"^John Pranklin Crowell, Personal Recollections of Trinity College (Durham: 
Duke University Press, 1939), pp.SS-SFl^ 



,9106 to ^^Jdiooc- Bt^ oi 03 insm aol^Bal'iiBQAlo aid* xti. no2*rtea! * 

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.iqt>o«oo Xenol^OiJTctarJ waa ac'i lo elq'.uBia an ,X- 
■alJiii *I©Ha tt,: loo lo *a«cnoo aixiT 

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128 



vere perhs^s more 'brilliant than the next forty; but the society continued as 
a potent force in "undergraduate life after Bassett's departure, and especially 
so until the rapid expansion of the institution beginning in 1935. Then for a 
decade it %ras just another honor society, but in recent years has begun to re- 
gain prominence. Names of founding members have not been listed in saj records 
BO far available, though this is a relatively unin5)ortant item in view of the 
fact that John Spencer Bassett inspired the organization. J, Hay McCrary, who 
later practiced law in Lexington, is said to have been the first member after 
founding. Among other early members were R. L, Durham, W, I, Cranford, and the 
Plyler twins. A, W. and M. T, 

The 9019 is credited with establishing the South Atlantic ^aar terly , 
though this publication would doubtless have been started had there been no 
9019. The society supported the magazine till 1907, when the South Atlantic 
Publishing Company was chartered. It was never classed as a student publication. 

Beginning in 1910, and continuing till 1929 at least, 9019 sponsored 
annual declamation contests among Horth Carolina high schools, the finals being 
held on the Trinity campus. In more recent years the society has sponsored 
occasional student -faculty luncheons for small groups (selected by 9019 members) 
and student-faculty forums on timely subjects. 

Admission to 9019 is conditioned i;^on a scholastic average of 2*25 
quality points, making it a sort of local Phi Beta K«qppa society for men only. 

A similar organization for women, Sko-L, was begun in March 1914, and 
continued until April of 1938. Members of the two t^per classes were eligible 
after having established averages of 90 or above. The Chronicle of March 11, 
1914, reported seven members; Laura Tillett, Lizzie May Smith, Mary Wescott, 
and Sstelle Flowers, seniors; Vilietta Svans, Janie Couch, and 7annie Tazm, of 
the junior class. The chief difference between 9019 and Eko-L, besides sex. 



-rad-'ifi lefJaaai ^srrl^ ail* xif>«d arraii o* , .r>;vTix<I cl w^X iiaslJoatq; •: 

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129 



was Eko-L's emphasis on literary endeavor; for several years it offered prizes 
in poetry and short-story writing. This phase of its program was some^riiat in 
d\5)lication of the program of Chi Delta Phi (p. 12), so as the latter became 
stronger the former weakened. 

Phi Beta E^pa, the national honor society, established a cheater at 
Trinity on March 29, 1920. Dr. W, H, Glasson was first president of the chap- 
ter; other officers: Dr. William Z, Boyd, vice-president; Dr, C. V. Peppier, 
secretary-treasurer. The society's activities at Duke have been confined to 
election and initiation of members, and holding of initiation banquets with 
addresses by prominent visiting scholars. James Gannon, III, has been secre- 
tary of the chapter since 1928. 

Red SViars, senior secret honorary for men, was established in 
rebruary 1913, Its activities and projects (if any) are secret. Considerable 
inquiry and searching have not revealed details of founding except that the 
first members were: Don B. Eirkman, Henry L^ Wilson, Leonard B. Hurley, Guiho 
Suiter, Eeid Ray, Colton Godfrey, and George 6. Johnson. The order is self- 
perpetuating, and the perpetuators are listed in Appendix A. 

The parallel organization at Woman's College is White Duchy, organized 
in 1925. It was founded by Red Friars, whose members selected seven women as 
the first members: Mary Eskridge, Anne Garrard, Jessie Hauser, Margaret Led- 
better, Hancy Kirkman, Lillian Frost, and Elsie Barnes. "Election to White 
Dttchy is based on character, sincerity, conscientiousness, dependability, scholar- 
ship, initiative, and responsibility," according to one of the original members. 



%owever, in the Chronicle for March 13, 1914, the following are listed as 
"Initiates and old members": D, R. Kirkman, F, R. Hay, J. L. Nelson, W, F, 
Starnes, E, L, Secrest, R. B, Anderson, F, A. Ellis, and James Cannon. Perhaps 
the last six were members of the second groi^ of Friars. 



©SI 



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130 



Members wear a white carnation once a month. As with Hed Friars, the ftHTvii^i . 
"ts^ping" of new members is at a student assembly, by a hooded figure. There 
has been no connection between the two societies since founding of White Duchy, 
according to reliable information from both organizations. 

The reservoir from which nearly all Red Friars are selected is Omicron 
Delta Zap-p&t the national collegiate honorary leadership society founded at 
Washington and Lee University in 1914. The Duloe chapter, Hho Circle, was 
established May 22, 1926. It was preceded by Omicron Eappa, a local honorary 
begun a short while previously. Invitation to membership is based on "con- 
spicuous attainments in the five fields of academic life: scholarship, Journal- 
ism, debating, social usefulness, and athletics." Election is usually on the 
recommendation of a committee including at least one member of the faculty or 
college administration. Dr. Alan £. Manchester has sei>ved as Secretary of Hho 
Circle for the last several years. Dr. Frank C. Brown has also been active in 
an advisory ce^acity. Honorary membership is extended each year to outstanding 
alumni and faculty members, and usually to the Governor of North Carolina. 

Alpha Eta fraternity, a freshman honorary scholarship order, was 
established in February 1932, under the guidance of Dean D. M. Arnold. This 
group received a charter from Phi Eta Sigma, the national honorary scholarship 
fraternity for freshmen, and the chapter was installed on May 6, 1932. To be 
eligible for membership a first-year man must have earned at least 2,25 quality 
points per semester hour of work carried duriiag the first semester. Five to 
seven percent of the class is usually eligible. A plaque is given each year to 
the freshman dormitory making the highest scholastic average. In October 1939 
Phi Eta Sigma organized a Freshman Scholastic Advisory Council, to work with the 
I^eshman Advisory Council in counselling first-year students. The fraternity, 
sometimes referred to as the "Freshman Phi Beta Kappa," has occasional meetings 



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131 



with Ivy, the first-year honor society at Woman's College, hut seldom for the 
discussion of scholarly topics. 

lyy was organized Pehruaiy 15, 1937, hy the executive committee of the 
freshman class in V(»ian'8 College, under the guidance of Dean Slizabeth Anderson 
(Persons), The organization, called Ivy from the symholic use of ivy the hy 
ancient Bcnians to represent the attainment of knowledge, has as its motto 
"Scientia Usque Crescat." Qualifications for memhership are "an irreproachable 
citizenship record and a scholarship average of 2.35 quality points per semester 
hour for all semester hours carried during the first semester of the freshman 
year or for the entire year," A small gold badge in the shape of an ivy leaf 
is worn by members. The "citizenship clause" makes Ivy a bit more exclusive 
than Phi ^ta Sigma, and it has been a somewhat more active organization. 

B. Professional and Departmental 

1. General Scientific . Serious study of natural sciences at Trinity 
was given iinpetus with the coming of John Pranklin Crowell to head the insti- 
tution, in 1887, On October 29, 1889 there was formed a Scientific Society, 
which continued for one year only. The society was organized at the suggestion 
of Professor J. M, Bandy, 

In September 1898 was founded the Science Club, and it continued to 
have a rather Intermittent program till about 1920, On April 28, 1921, was 
founded the Crowell Scientific Society,"* credit for which goes to W, H. Pegram. 



^Alumni Register , Dec. 1933, p. 186. 
^Ibid, , July 1921, pp.79ff. 






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132 



This vas a strong and active organization for a few years, "but the eacpansion 
of the new University "brought the organization of specialized scientific groups, 
and the need for an organization for the study and promotion of general scientific 
thought seemed to lessen. Vfhat would have been the Crowell Scientific Society 
was ahsorhed into Sigma Xi national honorary scientific society when the Duke 
chapter was established on March 31, 1933, with Dr. Suth Addoms as first head. 

Crowell Scientific Society was primarily a faculty group. The Science 

5 
Club was primarily a student enterprise; its successor is Iota Gamma Pi, 

founded October 1922, with J, D, Panning as one of the student leaders — though 

in recent years this organization has ^)parently given more and more emphasis to 

sciences of engineering. 

A Nattiral History Club is mentioned in the Chronicle of February 13, 
19S4, and once or twice thereafter. It held semi-monthly meetings for discus- 
sions of topics In biology and related subjects, and membership was based on 
scholastic ezcellence; This may have been another name for Bu Sigma biology 
club for women, founded in 1923, which existed till about 1931. 

2. Biology . The Biology Club was formed on December 20, 1911, and 
continued active for fifteen years, with Drs. Bert Cunningham and E, L» Blomquist 
as leaders during much of its life span. On March 4, 1926, it became Tau chapter 
of Phi Sigma national honorary society in biology. The Alumni Register for 
April 1922 (page 19) contains a list of members with their occupations, and a 
manuscript of minutes of the society is in the Library (KC 570.6 T833M). It 
was occasionally referred to as the Botanical Club. 



^Alumni Register , Jan. 1924, p,5. 
^Chronicle, Mar, 19. 1924, p.3. 



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133 



A Porest-Biology Club was projected in 1933 for the p\irpose of co- 
ordinating the work of several departments in this field. Primarily for faculty 
and graduate students, this groiip has left no record, 

IPhe Duke-Durham Bird Club was organized in 1938-39, with Dr. Paul 
Kramer one of the prime movers, A combination science-study and hobby grot^), 
the club takes occasional hikes into Duke Forest, to the Durham Bird Sanctuary, 
and other likely haunts, and has regular meetings for lectures and discussions 
on bird life. 

In 1938-39, first year of the School of Forestry, was organized the 
Forestry Club — which, to date, is the only .organization of students in the 
School. The ptirpose of the club "is to foster a spirit of fellowship and 
further the interest of students heading towards Forestry as a professional 
career. The program includes sponsoring of lectures by noted men in various 
branches of forestry, showing motion pictures, having open forum discussions, 
and occasional social meetings, picnics, etc." All graduate students in the 
School of Forestry are members, 

3. Chemistry . A Chemists' Club was organized in 1913 or thereabout, 
but enjoyed an intermittent existence until after World War I. On January 12, 
1920, was organized W, H, Pegram Chemistry Club, which has been the only organi- 

Q 

zation of undergraduate chemists since that time. The club is large and active. 
During the last five years or more it has arranged an annual "Chemistry Show," 
usually in connection with a "Physics Show" across the campus. Dr. R. N, Wilson 
has been the most active faculty advisor. 



" ^Chronicle , Feb. 28, 1934. 

^Alumni Register, Jan. 1920, pp.279ff; Chronicle , Jan. 14, 1920. 



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134 



4. Physics . Professor B, C, Hinde f OTinded a Physics Club at Old 
!rrinity in 1890; it had a hf^hazard existence until 1921. Dr, C. V. Edwards, 
senior member of the department since 1915 or "before, and Dr, C. C. Hatleyhave 
been largely responsible for growth of this and the related organization, Sigma 
Pi Sigma, following is history of Sigma Pi Sigma prepared by William J, Caroon, 
head of the chapter in 1937-36: 

The Beta Ch«5>ter of Sigma Pi Sigma, national honoraiy physics 
fraternity, was founded at Duke University in 1925, The organi- 
zation is devoted to the task of promoting interest in the study of 
nndergradxiate physics. The group was organized in 1921 but was not 
chartered by the national society until 1925. 

The organization holds bi-monthly meetings, many of which are 
open to the general public. Topics of special interest in contem- 
porary physics are presented, in many cases supplemented by films. 

In recent years Sigma Pi Sigma has sponsored lectures on the 
campus by such outstanding men as H, A, Millikan, Paul Dushman, H. V. 
Wood and Niels Bohr. 

Members of Sigma Pi Sigma are primarily advanced students, the 
Physics Club being made up of beginning students. 

Sigma Pi Sigma arranges the annual "Physics Show, " a popular attraction since 
about 1936. 

5, Mathematics . The following history was prepared by Patria Gibson, 
Secretary of the Duke chapter of Pi Mu Epsilon, 1937: 

The North Carolina Alpha Chapter of Pi Mu Epsilon fraternity 
was established at Duke University on February 8, 1932. The 34 
charter members [listed in Appendix A] had previously made up the 
Mathematics Club, a local organization established in November 1927. 

At regular monthly meetings of the organization, student or 
faculty members present papers and hold discussions similar to the 
procedure in a mathematics seminar, A prize is given for the best 
student paper each year. The chscpteT has at least one outdoor meeting 
or picnic each year. In the Spring there is an informal banquet, at 
which there is a guest speaker. 



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135 



6, Bnglneerlng , The Trinity College Catalogue for 1914-15 (page 143) 

9 
states that the Engineers' Club, founded Horemher 10, 1913, published an annual 

bulletin. No copy has been found. Infrequent mention of the club is foumd 

till 1933, when a new organization was effected. Concerning this new groiq), 

(xeorge l^mum wrote in 1937: 

The Engineers' Club of Duke University was organized October 25, 
1933 for the purpose of fostering better felations between the stu- 
dents and the faculty of the Engineering Sdiool and among the students 
themselves, and to provide social functions for the engineering stu- 
dents. At the first meeting David Drummon^ was elected President; 
Halph Givens, Vice-President; and Edward Storms, Secretary- Treasurer. 

Each semester the Engineers' Club sponsors a dance for members 
of the club, which is held in Southgate gymnasium, and dijring the 
year several "open houses" are held. In cooperation with the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, the American Society of Mechanical Engin- 
eers, and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, the Engineers 
Club gives a smoker at the beginning of each school year for the 
engineering freshmen and faculty. Since the engineering students 
find it impossible to go to the undergraduate assemblies held on the 
West Campus, the Engineers Club has charge -of a special engineering 
assembly held in East Duke Building once a month. 

The Engineers Club elects a council of ten members each year, 
including four officers. This council meets once a week to dis- 
cuss projects for the club and decide on any disciplinary action 
necessary in regard to residents of Southgate Hall. 

Thus, it is noted that the Engineers' Club served as a student government body 
for engineering students beginning in 1933. With founding of the College of 
Engineering, 1939, the club became the Student Government of the College of 
Engineering. Publication of The Duke Engineer was begun in 1940. 



^Chronicle , Nov, 12, 1913. 

A chief point of agitation for revision of the Constitution of the Men's 
Aesociation of Trinity College in 1939 (see p. 39) was that Southgate Dormitory 
(for engineers) was not represented on the Council. Within a few months after 
provision was made for such representation, the Engineers began their own 
student government. 



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Delta Bpsilon Sigma, a local honorary fraternity, was founded 
on October 23, 1931, It embraces the three departments of Engineer- 
ing, and has as its chief p-urpose the petitioning of Tau Beta Pi, a 
national honorary fraternity in engineering. It also strives to 
promote interest in engineerixig education and to reward leadership 
and scholarship in the engineering departments. 

Charter members were: R, B, Atkins, R, T. Creekmore, A. L, 
deBruyne, Lee Coulter, S, G. Jlack, S. H. Smith, V. B. Snow, and 
W, P. Weaver. 

Meetings are held several times each year, at which time 
matters pertaining to the betterment of the Engineering School 
are discussed and proper action taken. New members are selected 
each i^ril, and must qualify by good records both as to scholar- 
ship and leadership. 

Delta Spsilon Sigma is one of the sponsors of the "Engineers' 
Show, " held each Spring. ^^ 

Professor E, T, Matthews, of the engineering faculty, was first faculty advisor, 
and helped inspire organization of the society. 

An Engineers Forum was begun in November 1930, with Professor Mason 
Cnun as leader. This was in the nature of a special Sunday School class for 
students in Southgate Dormitory. It was continued for a few months. 

In colleges, as well as professionally, engineers are organized 
according to specific branches of the profession. Duke has had student chap- 
ters of the official societies in civil, electrical and mechanical engineering 
for a number of years. 

The Duke University chapter of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers was organized on February 14, 1933, with the following 
charter members: J, H, Armfield, George B. Cropper, J. R. Mai one, 
George D. McCrey, Robert S. Miller, and Erie B. Everman, seniors; 
Arthur Bat son, John Bird, Randolph Clarke, Pred Neu, David Druramond, 
!j Juniors; Gerald Perguson, and Arthur Wigley, sophomores. 



^^Sketch by Richard C, Keane, Secretary of Delta Epsilon Sigma, 1937. 









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137 



The ptuppose of the society is to ftirther interest and understand- 
ing in civil engineering. The Duke chapter was largely responsible 
for formation in April 1935 of the Conference of Civil Engineering 
Student Chapters in North Carolina. This organization has helped to 
foster more desirahle relations between the student chapters at the 
University of North Carolina, North Carolina State College, and Duke. 

The society's program consists of the presentation of student 
papers, talks by visiting engineers, and special illustrated lectures. 
In cooperation with the other engineering societies, it sponsors the 
Engineers' Show and the freshman engineering smoker, ^^ 

Professors Bird and Hall assisted in organizing the chapter of A. S, C. E. 

When the American Institute of Electrical Engineers established 
a Duke chapter, in the Pall of 1926, 0, T. Colclough was named chair- 
man of the group, and F, A. Bevacgua was named secretary. Professor 
W, J. Seeley acted as first counsellor. 

The Duke branch is one of sixteen in the Southern district of 
the Institute. It is an instrument of the national institute, de- 
signed to aid in developing latent abilities of students, principally 
by affording opportunities for them to carry on activities such as 
are sponsored by the Institute: holding of meetings, presentation of 
papers, reports, abstracts; inspection trips. In 1926 it staged an 
electrical show which has grown into the annual Engineers' Show.^*^ 

The Duke Society of Mechanical Engineers was organized about 1934, and 
accepted as a chapter of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in January 
cDf 1936. Its program has paralleled those of the other two departmental groups 
in engineering. 

Practically all students in engineering are members of these three 
societies, though some are a bit inactive in the groups' programs. Engineering 
societies are more closely related to professional societies than are any other 
student gro\:^s. 



^^Sketch by Charles H. Nickerson, Secretary, 1937, 

13^ 

Sketch by T. J, Byrum, Secretary, 1937. 









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7, Medicine . At least five fraternities have been founded in the 
School of Medicine: Alpha Ks5)pa Kappa, Alpha Omega Alpha, Nu Sigma Nu, Phi Beta 
Pi, and Phi Chi. (In addition, Baird records estahlishment of Beta Ks^pa 
chapter of Theta Ks^pa Psi at Duke in 1931, but no record has been found on the 
csuDpus.) These societies maintained lounges on the first floor of the School 
of Medicine (opposite the Hospital Store) till 1938, since when some have 
established residence headquarters off the campus. 

Beta Nu Chapter of Alpha Kappa Kappa, fraternity was established 
at Duke University School of Medicine on October 24, 1931. A large 
share of credit for the establishment belongs to the neighboring Beta 
Iota chapter at North Carolina University. The initiation was con- 
ducted by Grand President John Perley Sprauge and Grand Secretary- 
Treasurer Albert B, Landrum, in the court room of the School of Law. 
Officers of Beta Iota presented the ritualistic work. Charter mem 
bers were: 

Earl Winfrey Brian Greorge Wallace Holmes 

Milton Carpinter Cobey James Prancis Fulp 

Ralph Ernest Schmidt Ben Henslee Puqua 

Raymond Taylor Jenkins Robert Boyd Stith, Jr. 



John Cole Burwell, Jr. John Stewart Porbes, Jr. 

Rudolph John Depner Lacy Allen Andres, Jr. 

Charles Mattocks Kendrick John Hetcher Love joy 

Francis LeRoy Owens Qrrin Prank KLeckner 



14 



Alpha Kappa Kap-pa, is primarily a social organization for medical students. 
Alpha Omega Alpha, honor society in medicine, established a chapter the same 

year, 1931, 

j 

Alpha Omega Alpha is "composed of medical men and women who as under- 
graduates have given promise of becoming leaders in their profession or members 
who have obtained such leadership. The aims of the society are the promotion of 
scholarship and research in medical schools, the encouragement of a high standard 



•'•^Information from Dr. Paul D, Crimm, Grand Historian, Mar. 8, 1938. 



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139 



of character and conduct among medical students and graduates and the recog- 
nition of high attainment among medical men." implication for a charter was 
made February 6, 1931, and the chapter was installed April 29, 1931, with the 
following charter members: Drs, Wilburt C, Davison, Harold L, Amoss, Deryi 
Hart, Bayard Carter, A. R, Shands, Jay M. Arena, George W. Heinitsh, and John 
r. Love joy. Faculty members instrumental in effecting the organization were: 
Drs, B, L, Persons, C, E, Gardner, Jr., B, P. Alyea, C« E, Hansen-Pruss, and 
Christopher Johnston. Names of new members are announced at Commencement. 

Beta Rho chapter of Hu Sigma Nu fraternity was installed at the 
School of Medicine on March 7, 1931. 

Beta Epsilon chapter of Phi Beta Pi fraternity was installed on 

November 21, 1931. 

Delta Upsilon chapter of Phi Chi was installed in the School of 
Medicine on May 18, 1930. The following members constituted the 
organization at begiiming: 

John Valentine Charles Wright Hooker 

James T, Norwood Theodore Roosevelt Keith 

0, Purnell Blacldey Marion Timothy Plyler 

Ernest Bruce Brooks Bennett e Edward Stephenson, Jr. 

James P. Pagan Waller L. Taylor, Jr. 

William D. Parmer William Nicholas Portescue ^^ 

There is an Honor Council in the School of Medicine, with functions 
similar to those of the Men's Association in the undergraduate men's college. 
No details concerning origin and history of this Council are available. 

The Chronicle for October 18, 1933, reported the organization, on 
October 9, of the Kadavre Club, for pre-medical students. No further record 
has been found concerning this organization. 



^^Information from Robert P. Miller, Secretary, 1938. 



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The Duke University Pre-Medical Society was organized on March 
11, 1937. Chief among the foiinding members was William R. Nesbitt, 
who transferred to Duke from Williams Junior College, Berkeley, Calif,, 
in the Fall of 1936. He had been affiliated with a pre-medical society 
there. Faculty members cooperated with students in the organization 
work, especially Dr. F, H. Swett. 

The chief purposes of the society, as stated in the constitution, 
are: (l) to serve as a cooperative center for intelligent medical 
thought; (2) to establish a closer relationship between the pre- 
medical students and the faculties of both the undergraduate and 
Medical schools; (3) to develop among the pre-medical students an 
ever- increasing sense of the high standards of character and respon- 
sibility embodied In the medical profession; and (4) to stimulate 
within the minds of the pre-medical students the correlation of a 
general cultural background with the more specific pre-medical 
training. 

Membership is open to pre-medical students who have completed 
one full year of college work, with at least one semester at DuJce, 
and who are recommended for membership by five members of the 
society. There are two faculty advisors, one from the Undergraduate 
school and one from the School of Medicine, to be elected at the 
beginning of each academic year by the society. New members are 
admitted each semester. Meetings are held twice a month. 

The following charter members were elected to office at the 
organization meeting: William R, Nesbltt, president; Paul Bransford, 
vice-president; Clinton Morgan, secretary; and John Glasson, treasurer. 

I 

8. Commerce and Economics. First record of an organized group of 
students especially Interested in commerce is the Economics Club, mentioned in 
the college catalogue of 1892-93, page 78. No further mention is found of this 
organization. 

In September 1923 members of Dr. Cotton's class in Economics VII 
organized the Commercial Club (according to the Chronicle of October 3l) , but 
10 further reference is found to that group either. 

In 1927 was organized Psl Ke^pa Alpha, which on December 7, 1929, 
became Beta Eta chapter of Alpha Kappa Psl national professional fraternity in 



^^Sketch prepared by William R. Nesbltt, 1938. 






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commerce. The chapter holds semi-monthly meetings for discussion of topics 
within its field, and for discussions with visiting business men. It also 
assists the faculty of the Department of Business Administration in numerous 
small ways, and has a limited program of social activity. Membership is based 
on high scholarship in economics, accounting, and related subjects. Prof, J, H. 
Shields has been chapter advisor since the founding. 

9, Law . Soon after establishment of the School of Law, in 1904, law 
8t\ident8 began conducting Moot Court, to give themselves practice in court room 
procedure and deportment. Though part of the regular course in law, the sessions 
were conducted at night, and were frequently attended by undergraduates. Evi- 
dently, there wais no organization connected with the court, but it was largely 
a student enterprise. Moot Court continued for four or five years, according 
to evidence in The Chronicle . Practice court sessions have been held in con- 
nection with law classes since that time, of course, but there has been less 
convenient opporttinity for the whole student body to enjoy the sessioz^. 

The first national society of law students to establish a chapter at 
Trinity was Sigma Nu Phi. Its Lambda, or Richmond Pearson, chapter was installed 
April 4, 1933, •'■''' and continued active till about 1930. 

On December 14, 1927 (one month before the death of the venerable Dean 
of the School of Law), a grcnip of first-year students in law founded the Samuel 
Pox Mordecai Law Club, with J. W. Wallace, president; Sam Holton, vice-president; 
and J, C. Troy, secretary- treasurer. The first meeting was in the nature of a 
iBOot court. The club lived for about three years. ■^*' 



^ " ^Chronicle , Apr. 11. 1933, 

1 ft 

Alumni Register, Feb. 1928, p. 48; Chronicle , Jan. 11, 1928. 



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142 



Beta Delta chapter of Gamma 2ta Gamma, national honorary legal 
fraternity, was established on ipril 27, 1929, according to The Chronicle of 
May 1. It left no further record. 

The Charles IJvans Hughes Law Club was founded by some first-year 

19 
students in October 1930. A year later it became Hughes Inn of Phi Delta Phi, 

the national legal fraternity.*^ This was the year that Justin Miller came 

from California to reorganize and enlarge the School of law and encourage other 

progressive meas\ires (some of which did not set well with the Administration). 

It was in the same year, 1931, that the Duke Bar Association was 

founded. The starting date was March 11. According to Caarpbell Carden, the 

Secretary for 1937-38: 

I The form of organization if\ the Duke Bar Association is based xtpon 
I that of the American Bar Association, with variations to meet the 
student needs. The membership is composed of all students who are 
in good standing in the Law School, with the faculty as honorary 
members. The Constitution provides for the officers, who are elected 
for a term of one year, and who constitute the Executive Committee, 
which committee carries out the business affairs and manages routine 
matters of the Association, 

Its purpose is to introduce the student to the problems con- 
sidered by the Bar in professional organizations and to develop 
professional consciousness and responsibility. 

The Association has published since 1933 the Duke Bar Associ- 
ation Journal , a quarterly in which appear reports of addresses made 
before the Association by distinguished guests, proceedings of the 
Association at its regular meetings, and items of interest concerning 
the School. The Journal publishes such student notes and comments on 
recent important decisions, prepared in the Current Decisions Course, 
as are deemed by the editors to be of special merit. 



^ ^Chronicle , Sept. 23, 1931. 

20 

Ibid. , Oct. 14, 1931. 



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There are monthly public meetings, usually followed "by informal receptions in 
the Association's spacioxis lounge. The Law School Guild, composed of faculty 
wives and other ladies connected with the School of Law, prodaces p-unch and 
cookies and other delicacies for such occasions. Such activities have made 
the School of Law perhaps the most cohesive of the graduate schools; everybody 
knows everybody else, and everybody seems interested in what everybody else is 
doing. 

It was about 1931 that the Iredell Law Club was also founded. This 
group was active as late as 1937, but has left no conveniently availaljle history. 

The Order of the Coif, a national honorary legal fraternity, set up a 
Duke chapter in February 1933. '^'^ It is officered by faculty members, and the 
chief function has been naming of outstanding seniors to mem'bership at time of 
graduation. Members are from the top ten percent in scholarship. 

Organization of a pre-legal group was first publicly suggested 
by Professor Douglas Maggs at a meeting of the Duke Bar Association 
on March 10, 1938. The Pre-Medical Society had been founded in 
March 1937 and had enlisted the interest of a large number of under- 
graduates. During the late V/inter of 1937-38, the Pre-Medical 
Society held a meeting at which prominent medical and law students 
engaged in debate. At that meeting it was suggested that there be 
formed a pre-legal group similar to the pre-medical group. This 
suggestion was followed by Professor Maggs on March 10, and Bench 
and Bar soon came into being. [Date of founding, March 14, 1938.] 

The organization was f oianded to insure closer contact between 
the undergraduates and the law facxilty, to advise students on 
related subjects and to promote a more friendly and sociable spirit 
among pre-legal students. 

To quote the story published in The Chronicle at time of organi- 
zation, March 18: "All undergraduate pre-legal students wlio have had 
one year of college and at least one semester at Duke, are eligible 
for consideration for membership," 



^^Ohronicle. Feb. 22, 1933. 



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Ponnding memljers: Del IHiston, Griffith Qrme, Ben Kerr, Henry 
Ralston, Edward Marlowe, James Carter, Betty Pierce, Catharine 
Blakeney and Jean Metz. Professor John S. Bradway was official 
organizer, and first adviser to the group. 

Bench and Bar holds regular meetings, incliiding occasional mock 
courts open to the public, ^2 

The only other recorded organization of law students was a Bihle Class 
conducted "by Dr, Malcolm McDermott, 1933-34. Evidently, there were no officers, 

10. Education . An Education Club was formed among prospective teachers 

23 
in March of 1911. It had a spasmodic program for a few seasons, then dis- 
integrated. Somewhat prior to 1927 was formed the Braxton Craven Education 
Association, which on May 28 of that year became Alpha Tau chapter of Ks^pa 
Delta Pi, the national fraternity for teachers. Drs. A, M, Proctor and John 
W. Carr have been counsellors to the local chapter. 

The Religious Education Association is mentioned on page 63. 

11. Others . 

Pi Gamma Mu, national honor society in social science, established its 
North Carolina Beta chapter at IDuke on January 12, 1933, largely through the 
influence of Dr. Charles A. Ellwood. At one time it was the largest chapter in 
the national organization, with more than one hundred resident members. Member- 
ship is composed of student and faculty members from those departments concerned 
with social science — law, religion, sociology, political science, economics, and 
history. Bach Spring and Pall a limited number of honor students are elected 
to membership, from the junior and senior classes, and graduate and professional 
schools. The chief feature that distingaishes Pi Gamma Mu from other honor 
societies is its program of monthly forums in which the resident members share 
lln the discussion of current questions in the social sciences. 



22 



Sketch by Jean Metz, Secretary, 1938. ^Chronicle, Apr. 12, 1911. 









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Dr. Sllwood was national president of the society in 1934-35. 

An English Clxiii was formed among graduate students sometime prior to 

1928, On May 20, 1928, it became Qmicron Beta chapter of Sigma Taa Delta, the 

24 
national professional society in English. The chapter has not "been sufficiently 

active to he well known on the campus. 

Trinity College Historical Society was founded April 4, 1892, pri- 
marily as result of efforts of Dr. Stephen S. Weeks. Dr. William K, Boyd was 
the main source of energy for about thirty years. A comprehensive history of 
the society has been written — since beginning of this work — by Dr. Nannie Mae 
Tilley, and published by Duke University Press, 



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Chapter IX 
OTHEH CLASSIPICAIIONS 

This chapter deals primarily with short-lived organizations vhich have 
left only slight marks on the institution's history. Therefore, mere listing 
of the organization's name has been deemed sufficient in most instances. Names 
of officers are included in ^pendiz A, of course. To conserve space, source 
references, whenever deemed important, are given in parentheses following the 
entry, rather than at the bottom of the sheet. 

A. (Geographical 

In 1919 students from foreign countries formed the Alien Club. The 
founding was reported in the Chronicle of November 5, 1919. It was evidently 
the same group which was sometimes known as the League of Nations, and again 
as the Cosmopolitan Club (Chronicle , Apr. 21, 1926). The Cosmopolitan Club 
continued till 1934. 

On November 2, 1933, was formed the Pan-American Club (Chronicle , 
STov. 8, 1933) with ffred Bratzel, Kenneth Cunningham, Eugene Desvemine, and 
Vrith Haines, all from Cuba; Carlos and Oswaldo 7ales, from Central America, 
and one or two other Latin-Americans as charter members. The grcnxp continued 
active for about a year, then became part of the International Club, began 



147 



in 1935, This groTJ^ was sometimes referred to as the International Relations 
Glut. It was composed primarily of sons and daughters of missionaries or other 
persons who had lived in foreign countries. For a time there was a very loose 
connection with the Y^ M. C. A. and Y. W, C. A. 

Another group somewhat related in composition and purpose was the 
Interstate Progressive Cluh, founded January 22, 1913 (Chronicle . Peh, 5, 1913). 
Thirteen states and nations were represented in the memhership. Having thirteen 
states represented in the student body would not have made news in 1930, hut in 
1913 it was news to have a student from Pennsylvania or Georgia. 

Following are state cluhs which have left records: 

Ploridian Club, founded 1925 (Chanticleer ); 

South Carolina Club, begun in November 1913, and continued till 1927 
(Chronicle , Nov. 2, 1921); 

Tennessee Club, born November 1912, died 1920 ( Chronicle , Nov, 5, 1919); 

Virginia Club, 1914-1926 ( Chronicle , Nov. 5, 1919). 

The chief activity of these four clubs seems to have been getting 
together once a year to have pictures made for the yearbook and newspapers of 
their home states. 

Regional clubs within North Carolina were the Mo\intain Boomers' Club, 
founded October 29, 1909 ( Chronicle Nov. 3, 1909), \rtiich continued till 1921; 
and the Sandf iddlers • Club, 1913-1926 (Chanticleer ). 

At least 28 county clubs have been organized by North Carolina students, 
practically all of them during the period 1910-20, when the College was expanding 
under the leadership of yoTong President Few. Semi- occasionally these dubs would 
.engage in athletic contests, debates, or other extra-curricular activity; but 
their chief function seems to have been advertising the school in their home 
conmranities and advertising their home comammities on the campus. The groups 
; which left some record of organization are: 



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Caldwell Ccmnty Clul>, Octo"ber 29, 1914. 

Chatham County Cluh, 1911-1912. 

Cleveland Comity Cluh, Oct. 2, 1916. 

Cumberland County Cluh, 1910. 

Davidson Coxinty Club, Nosr ember 1921. 

Duplin County Club, 1915-1919. 

Porsythe County Club, 1924. 

Gaston County Club, November 1920. 

Granville County Club, November 1918. 

Guilford County Club, Sept. 34, 1909. Evidently, first of the county 
clubs, ( Chronicle , Sept. 29, 1909, p.4.) 

Harnett County Club, 1925. 

McDowell County Club, 1912. 

Mecklenbure County Club, Oct. 27, 1914. 

Montgomery County Club, 1926-27. 

Nash County Club, 1913. 

New Hanover County Club, Oct. 13, 1919. 

Northampton County Club, October 1916. 

Person County Club, November 1919-1924. 

Pitt County Club, November 1919-1926. 

Eoberson County Club, 1911-1921. (Chronicle, Nov. 10, 1920.) 

Sampson Co\inty Club, 1925-1927. 

Stanley County Club, November 1919. 

Siarry County Club, 1919-1920. 

Union County Club, October 1910-1922. 

Wake County Club, 1910-1919. 

Warren County Club, 1923-1925. 



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Wayne County Club, 1916-1926. (Chronicle , Nqv. 5, 1919.) 
Wilson County Club, November 1921. 

During the same period were organized the following school clubs: 
Alumni Association of Trinity Park School, April 10, 1914. 
Davenport College Club, November 1921. 
Durham High School Club, October 4, 1912-1926. 
Hutherford College Club, 1911-1927. (Chronicle . Nov, 2, 1921.) 
Trinity Park School Club, November 1921. 
Warrenton High School Club, 1911-1913. 
Weaver College Club, 1914-1926. 
Webb School Club, 1916-1917. 
West Durham High School Club, 1916-1923. 

It will be noted that few of these clubs contimied for more than two 
or three years* 

B, Residence 

Since the founding of Woman's College there have been organizations 
of students based on place of residence on the campus. Sach of the women's 
dormitories (Alspaugh, Aycock, Bg^ssett, Brown, Giles, Jarvis, and Pegram) has 
its own house organization— these having been begun in September 1931, with the 
exception of Giles House, which was first occupied by women a year later. The 
dormitory groups participate in intra-mural athletic contests, compete in needle- 
work and fund-raising campaigns for various charities, and elect their own 
representatives to the Student Government Council. 

Houses for first-year men (Dormitories J, K, L, M, N, and P) have 
^een similarly organized since 1933. Women's dormitories have student proctors; 
there is a housemaster for each of the first-year men's dormitories. 



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Southgate Dormitory has been used for students in engineering since 
1931, and its residents have heen \mder the supervision of the Engineers' Club 
and the Student Grovemment of the College of Engineering. (See page 135.) 

Prom the early days of Heconst ruction until about 1920 there were 
boarding clubs on the campus nearly every year. A group of a dozen or more 
students would decide to patronize the same boarding house and would arrange 
with the hostess to have their meals supplied on a cost-plus basis: every man 
contributing a stated amount each month, then distributing the suiplus or deficit 
at the end. The Aychive for Febmary 1892 notes that there were three boarding 
clubs that year, the first in Durham. The first record of such an organization 
is of the Arlington Boarding Club ( Archive , March 1889, p. 117) at Old Trinity, 
the members of which paid $4.35 for their meals for the first month. (A three- 
meal book at the Men's Union in 1937 was about $23,00; at the Women's Union, 
$25.00 — an average of somewhat less than 30 cents per meal.) Another such 
group was known as the Hotel Club ( Archive , Janxiary 1892, p. 167). Perhaps the 
last one was the College Cooperative Dining Association, 1919-1921, which em- 
ployed a full-time manager (Chronicle , Peb. 13, 1919; Sept. 17, 1919; Mar. 16, 
1921). 

C. Military 

Organization of several societies accon^anied and followed Vorld War I . 
AEeserve Officers' Training Corps was set lap in 1917 (Chronicle , 0ct» 29, 1919), 
on a temporary basis; it was not such an organization as exists at land-grant 

' colleges. Then in the two years immediately following the V^ar the following 
groups were begun: Naval Club. 1918-1919; AEP Club, 1919 ( Alumni Register for 
January 1919); Officers' Club, 1919-20 ( Alumni Register for i^ril 1919); and 

,35x-Service Men's Club, 1920-1921. 



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War Savings societies were also formed in 1917, according to the 
President's Report of June 1918 (page lO) , and the Hed Cross was more than 
usnally active ( Al-omni Register , April 1918, page 4l). Associated with the 
Hed Cross was American Women's Volunteer Services, which enrolled some 400 
women stxidents in "defense classes" and sewing groups in the Fall of 1941. 
The British War Relief Society was also active on the campus, among the faculty, 
in the early part of World War II, with Dr. Ruth Addoms and Mme« Neal Dow among 
the leaders. 

Before the United States entered World War II, and even before the 
draft registration of October 1940, a small group of students began preparing 
themselves for Army life by study of military tactics and daily drill in a 
"broomstick brigade." Dr. B, U, Eatchford was drillmaster, and Robert Hancock 
was student instigator. About thirty students, and one or two faculty members 
maintained interest in the project for a few weeks. 

At about the same time there was a class in Morse code given at the 
College of Engineering by Student Ben Carlisle. ("Defense Courses" in engineer- 
ing, chemistry, and business administration were begun in 1940 for the benefit 
of non-college students. For these courses there was no tuition charge, the 
Federal Government reimbursing the University for teaching and other expenses.) 

A unit of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps of the Wavy (HROTC) was 
established in September 1941, with an enrollment of 110 first-year men. These 
students soon formed the NROTC Club, which published the first issue of The 
Dialre Dolphin in late November 1941, with Allan Grayson editor-in-chief. 

In the same category with the NROTC is the CAA (Civil Aeronautics 
Authority) program for student pilot training, begun at Duke in 1940, under the 
8Tq)ervision of A, S, Brower. There has been no formal organization of CAA 
■tudents, but Brower has been adviser to the Flying Club and Alpha Eta Rho, 



152 



many of whose members received flight training under the CAA student training 
program. Duke "became a part of the CAA program in the late Pall of 1939, hut 
there was little actual training until 1940. For the first two years it was 

usually publicized as beiiag in no way connected with military aviation, but 

i 
Army Air Cor^s recruiters sought out the CAA boys whenever they came to the 

campus. With entry of the United States into the war, the program name was 

changed to CPT (Civilian Pilot Training). There was no academic credit for the 

course before America entered the war; credit was offered for the first time in 

the Spring of 1942. Duke's quota in the CAA program was 40-50 students, on 

whom the Federal G-ovemment spent about $300 each. With entry into war the quota 

was cut to ten students. Plight instruction was at Raleigh Airport \mtil Pall 

of 1941, when it was transferred to Chapel Hill. 

I In the peaceful years of 1933-1936 there were at least three attempts 

to enlist student antipathy to war. An Anti-War Society was organized in the 

Spring of 1933, with support of the Y. M, C. A. "War strikes" were a popular 

collegiate fad of the time — students taking a day off from classes to parade 

,vith banners against war, make speeches, and have a good time in general. It 

I 
was at about the same time that there was organized among college students of 

the region the Southern Peace-Action Movement, in which Duke Student Douglas 

Corriher played a leading part. This was a liberal, rather than conservative, 

movement; and at Duke was stqjported by the American Student Union, then strongly 

influenced by the Comraunist Party. Nattirally, it did not survive. Por the 

Intercollegiate group, Corriher published at Duke the Peace Agent during 1935-36. 

'Peace-action was discussed at a few student meetings. 



• ^Chronicle , Sept. 27, 1933. 



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The Federal Crovernment had recently yielded to pressure of the 
American Legion and paid the "Soldiers' Bonus" for World War I "before the due 
date. To somebody at Princeton University this siiggested the advantage to the 
prospective soldier of having his pension in advance of fighting, and there was 
organized at the New Jersey institution The Veterans of Future Wars. The idea 
spread rapidly, and within a few months there were more than 30,000 Future Vets 
on American college campuses, including Duke's. Eoosevelt Der Tatevasian was 
a popular and energetic first- year student, and he procured a charter for the 
Duke chapter. The enterprise was of course abandoned within a few weeks. 

Chief points in history of the Veterans at Duke are contained in the 

following newstory dated April 21, 1936: 

The nominating of a candidate for President of the United Spates 
in the 1952 general election is one of the objectives set by the Duke 
University post of Veterans of Futxire Wars at company muster here last 
night. "We will obtain the bonus that is due us if we have to elect 
a whole administration," said Post Commander Roosevelt Der Tatevasian. 

The primary objective of the VFW, organized at Princeton Univer- 
sity about six weeks ago, is to secure for all future veterans a 
"bonus of $1000, payable the first of June, 1965." But, since it is 
customary to pay bonuses before they are due, the VFW are demanding 
"immediate cash payment, plus three percent interest compounded 
annually and retroactively from the first of June, 1965 to the first 
of June, 1935." 

Commander Der Tatevasian last night appointed a committee which 
will submit a slate of prospective presidential candidates at the 
Duke post's next muster. 

The Duke post of the future veterans nimbers 50 men, and Com- 
mander Der Tatevasian stated today that an even larger number of 
Dake students is anxious to join as soon as the necessary membership 
forms are obtained from national headquarters. 

A large group of pre-ministerial students also met last night 
and affiliated themselves with the Duke School of Religion chapter 
of Chaplains of Future Wars. The chaplains have already entered as 
a unit of the VFW; they plan to "preach fimeral sermons to the 
future veterans who might not be able to appreciate them when 
preached on the battlefield" and "to preach sermons to the future 
veterans so that their ideals may never fall below those of Christ 
as they blast, bomb, and bayonet their Christian foes." 



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^mong the proposed -units of the Duke post of VI¥ are those In 
chemistry, marsing, and engineering, a diplomatic division for stu- 
dents in law and political science » a home fire division for students 
in the Woman's College, and a division of propaganda. 

Commander Der Tatevasian stated this morning that the propa- 
ganda division will publish the first issue of a local YFW newspaper 
next week. It is to he called The Bonus Bill . [One issue was 
puhlished,] 

All future veterans have heen urged to send letters, telegrams, 
and other communications to their representatives in congress, urging 
them to support the bill for the 7PW bonus which is to be introduced 
"as soon as he can get to it," by Representative Maverick of Texas. 

The committee which Commander Ber Tatevasian ^pointed to assist 
in selecting prospective presidential candidates is coo^osed of: 
Robert W, Miller, president of Beta Omega Sigma, honorary fraternity; 
Tom Southgate, president-elect of the men's student government; Harry 
S, Etter, candidate for editorship of the campus newspaper; Hilliard 
A, Schendorf , editor of Duke 'n* Duchess humor publication; Reid T. 
Holmes, circulation manager of the humor magazine; and Robert T, Bean, 
member of the University Publications Board for 1936-37. 

Bean was selected as candidate for the Presidency in 1952, and had his picture 
made with Attorney General Homer S, Cummings, then on the can5)us for talk before 
the Bar Association. 

The Chaplains of the Veterans of Future Wars was founded at Boston 
University Theological Seminary by two Duke graduates: W, McPerrin Stowe and 
John D, Lee, Jr. W. J. Honeycutt was named chaplain- in-chief of the Duke group, 
and Charles S, Jarvis, secretary. Following is the platform adopted by the 
chaplains : 

"1, To make pep talks to the Veterans of Future Wars in order 
that it may not take so long for them to realize the "truth" that 
they are engaged in doing "God's work" while murdering the enemy. 

"2. To preach sermons to the Veterans of Future Wars, so that 
their ideals may never fall below those of Christ, as they blast, 
bomb, and bayonet their Christian foes. 

"3. To start preaching funeral orations now so that those who, 
in spite of Divine Providence, are dismembered by cruel enemies may 
hear of the "Christ-like service" they will have rendered. In this 



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way it will "be possible to give individual orations upon the virtues 
of dying for one's country, even on foreign soil. This is in pre- 
ference to being one of a wholesale lot that is duinped and covered 
over, with only the phrase "poor devils" as oration and epitaph, 

"4, To institute semi-annual memorial days for the Unknown 
Soldier, in which all Veterans of Future Wars will participate. Then 
each may dream that he may be the one of whom such noble words are 
spoken and to whom such reverence is given. Attempts will be made 
to secure a national politician to speak. In this way, the Veterans 
of IHiture Wars may learn of the contribution to the progress of 
civilization that is made by the youth who give their lives for "the 
cause" while the "statesmen" at home give their very life's blood 
sitting in swivel chairs and complaining of the noise in the streets 
caused by unprecedented business." 

Such business was entirely forgotten in 1941, when undergrad\iates were leaving 
for Army camps and students in the Divinity School were volunteering for service 
as ch£^lains. 



I D, Hobby 

Evidently, the first hobby club at Trinity was the Amateur Photo- 
graphers' Union, organized in ^ril 1892 (Archive ) , and composed chiefly of 
faculty members. Its existence was evidently short-lived. On April 30, 1937, 
a faculty- student group assembled tmder the chairmanship of A, A, Wilkinson 
and organized a Camera Club, which soon became the Dutoe-l>urham Camera Club. 
The group has consisted of a dozen to twenty members, and has conducted meet- 
ings once a month during the school year. Among the more active members during 
its first five years: (Mrs,) Paul Dillard Gamble, (toe.) Hilda Thomas, Ben M, 
Patrick, H, P, Pickett, A. L, deBruyne, Lewis Bright, Paiil Horton, J. Beverly 
Bedford. Pew students have been associated with the club. Meetings are devoted 
to talks and discussions on photographic topics, demonstrations of new techniques, 
trips afield, and lectures by visiting authorities and sales agents. Contests, 
open to the public, are conducted twice a jrear. 



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156 



In 1923 was organized a Hiking Club among women students. No records 
have "been left, A similar group in the Nursing School was led by Miss Anne 
Oardiner for a number of years. 

In September 1930 was founded the Explorers' Clult, by a grcup of 
faculty members that included Miss Alice Baldwin, Miss Aone Gardiner, Mr. and 
Mrs. Justin Miller, Mr, and Mrs, Ernest Seeman. According to Burke Smith, one 
of the early memhers-- 

This club is "unique in that it has no formal membership , no dues, no 
officers. When a hike is to he made several of the members decide 
where to go and whom to invite. Names are selected from a list of 
more than 200 interested students. Trips are made every two weeks 
on Sunday afternoon [sometimes on Satturdays], The party leaves the 
campuses in cars and drives to the scene of the hike. A leisurely 
walk through a wooded section is followed hy a picnic meal arotmd a 
campfire. Twice a year week-end trips are made, to the mountains and 
to the sea. 

A Needlework Guild is organized at Woman's College every year or two, 
to help provide clothing for various charities. The first recorded formal 
organization was in Octoher 1935, when student sewers were organized "by dormi- 
tories. Usually such groups are affiliated with senior societies of town women. 

Chess has attracted the enthusiasm of a limited numher of students, 
and Chess Clubs were organized in 1913, 1929, and 1939. The first club survived 
only a short while, evidently; but the second was active for at least three 
years ( Chronicle , Jan. 8, 1930, Peh. 24, 1932; Mar, 16, 1932). 

Women students organized the Southgate Gasrden Club about 1928. It 
did not survive the first season, evidently. 

The Durham Stamp Club was organized in 1934. Anong faculty members 
have been: W, S, Fitzgerald, E, R, C. Miles, and E, H, Yomig. A few students 
have been members, and George W, Hester, a student, was head of the group in 
1937. 



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The Duke Rifle and Pistol Club was founded by Senior Phil Mitchell 
during the Pall of 1939. Practice sessions were held in the Durham Armory and 
at the outdoor pistol range of the Durham Police Department. Application was 
made for affiliation with the National Rifle Association of America. A Durham 
_Sun story of November 15, 1939, announcing formation of the club on that date, 
states that "officials of the university have failed to sanction such a team." 
Nothing has been heard of the club since its first year. 

Carmen Patterson, Class of 1933, was the first Duke student to receive 
a civilian pilot's license. She did some flying around Durham in 1930, and in 
December of that year the Aviation Club was organized, according to the Chronicle 
of December 3. Officers were to have been named that month, but no further 
record has been found. 

In the Pall of 1938 Robert H. Odell, of Concord, N, C. , and Forest 
Hills, !• I., New York, founded the Duke Plying Club, which has been an active 
organization for the last three years. There were perhaps half a dozen students 
with private pilot's licenses and others interested in obtaining licenses. The 
club arranged for flight instruction and other advantages at Raleigh Airport 
dnring its first year, then with the improvement of East Durham Airport began 
spending spare time there. Outstanding aviators have come to the campus to 
address the club, and the grou^ has supported the CAA student pilot training 
program. Odell represented the Duke club at the annual national intercollegiate 
flying meet at Kenyon College, Gambler, Ohio, In June 1939, winning several 
prizes. Malcolm Holt and John W. Priddy were named southern regional officers 
of the National Intercollegiate Plying Club. A southern regional meet was 
arranged for Raleigh Airport on May 14, 1939, but cancelled on account of weather. 
The club has a good safety record. Several former members have already a chieved 
noteworthy places in aviation. 



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158 



Postered "by the Duke ilying Club was the local chapter of Alpha Eta 
Bho, international aviation fraternity. The chapter was founded "by Odell, 
with the follov/ing charter members: Richard Swank, Barnard L, Hhodes, Herbert 
k» Q, Krupp, John A, Barnicoat, John W. Priddy, Alfred J. Brown, John D. 
Hewlett, Richard T. Hut chins, and Y. Kirfcpatrick-Howat . The Duke chapter, 
founded December 5, 1939, is the fifth (JJpsilon) in the order. It has been 
less active since Odell was called to active military duty early in 1941, 

2. Paculty and Community 

The following groups have little if any effect on student life, but 

are listed here to complete the record: 

Faculty Club, organized February 15, 1919. Men only. 

Erasmus Club, organized Spring 1926. Sometimes called Erasmus 
Philology Club, 

Saturday Night Club, January 1895-1898. ( Archive , VIII, 92.) 
Faculty literary organization. 

Duke University Art Association, founded Pall 1930. 

Campus Club, March 1914. Faculty wives. Mrs, W, P, Pew was first 
president. 

Community Club, founded about 1929. Similar to Campus Club» 

Duke University Dames, organized 1933, Wives of graduate students. 

Faculty Women's Club, begun prior to 1929. 

Polio Club, about 1931. Faculty and campus women. 

Newcomers' Club, 1927, YoUng faculty wives, 

American Association of University Women. 

I American Association of University Professors, 

i 

Americana Club. Faculty writers. (See American Studies in Honor of 
W, K. Boyd, Duke University Press. 



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159 



P. Fictitious 

Alpha Sigma Sigma, 1931-. Mythical Society of Notables (ASSes). 
Usually mentioned in Chanticleer as having "been founded at North Carolina State 
College, Lists of new members appear in the yearbook annually, 

Anti-Cussin' Club, about 1889. (Archive , NqV. 1889, p,37,) 
Blue Boors, founded May 9, 1938, by John Bollard (I. Irritate, Chief 
Boor), Distinction similar to Alpha Sigma Sigma. Pounded for purpose of lam- 
pooning fied Priars. ( Durham Sun , May 16, 1938.) 

Damned Pools' Laiighing Association, October 1904. Pounders: Billy 
Smith, John Hutchinson, G-ibby Poard, Paul Beachboard, Joe Pitts, C. R. Warren. 
( Alumni Register , Apr. 1915, p. 27.) 

Ejection Club, about 1925. Percival X. Scab, canine member of the 
Class of 1926, did not enjoy favor of all students. Those who insisted that 
he stay out of classrooms and dormitories were members of Ejection Club. 

Plaes, Grand & Exalted Order of the. (Chronicle , Oct, 5, 1921.) 
HuBian Nature Club. Opposite of Ejection Club. 1925. 
I Signa Phi. ( Chanticleer , 1928.) 
Mendacity Club. (Archive , Oct. 1889, p. 17.) 
Mutual Aid-to-the-Stuck Society. ( Archive , June 1888, p. 156.) 
Nauseating Order of Chewers. ( Alumni Register , June 1928, p. 228.) 
Original Research Society. ( Archive , Dec. 1891.) 
Regardless Pruit Club. ( Archive , Oct. 1891, p. 35.) Members appro- 
priated fruit from orchards near college campus. 

Sigma Sigma Alpha (Eta Alpha chapter). ( Chanticle er, 1932.) National 
society of over-sized girls, foiinded at Woman's College. Soon died for lack of 
eligible students. 

Society for the Propagation of Good Conduct. (Archive, Mar. 1894, p. 31.) 



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Or, Miscellaneous Unclassified 

In October 1935 was formed the Dance Study Club, under auspices of 
the Department of Physical Education in Woman's College. The group planned to 
petition Orchesis, national collegiate dance society. The group soon adopted 
the name Modem Dance Group (see page 94), Miss Modena Leids has been advisor 
I {and chief stimulator. 

Not in any way related was the Teirpsichorean Society of 1890 (Archive, 
ITqv. 1891, p. 85), an tmsanctioned, or perhaps fictitious, organization, (in 
later years fraternities have often been referred to as "dance clubs." Duke 
has never had a cotillion club, according to the records.) 

The Graduate Club was founded in October 1925 by students in the 
Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. It has been revived occasionally. Por 
a number of years the grot^ had a separate table in the Union Dining Hall, but 
by 1940 the enrollment in graduate divisions was sufficiently large to necessi- 
tate providing a separate dining hall. 

The Chanticleer of 1921 refers to graduate student assistants as the 
Scinib Paculty. 

Grand Stand Club, founded about 1893. A loosely-knit group of students 
and others who liked to hang around the grandstand in Blackwell Park (the College 
campus) to watch the proceedings on the athletic field. ( Archive , Jeb. 1893.) 

Buzzard Club, existing at about the same time and meeting at the same 
:>lace, is reputed to have served stewed cat at initiation sxippers. 

The Archive o f January 1905 mentions an entertainment of the Ich Diene 
blub by Miss Edna Kilgo. 

I On October 4, 1932, a dinner meeting was held for organizing a Story- 
tellers ' Ring in Duke Forest. Organizers were liberal members of the Explorers' 



161 



Club, with Walter Cutter presiding. Dr. C, F. Korstian, Dean of the School 
of Forestry, had encouraged the idea. No further record is found, 

Stephen Zidd and other students began a Student Travel Agency in 
Novem'ber 1936, for the purpose of serving students travelling to and from home — 
arrangiiig for railway and "bus tickets, and providing rides in other students' 
automobiles. The venture was not successfrCL, 

The Chronicle of March 29, 1933, reports organization of a Scout 
Leaders' Club. Dr. R, N, Wilson has been interested in such groups for a num- 
ber of years. 

From 1918 to 1926 sons and daughters of ministers got together at 
least once a year (evidently for the purpose of having their pictures taken 
for The Chanticleer .) Such groups took the title. Hades Club. 

The Al\imni Office organized second and third generation students into 
the Club of Sons and Daughters of Duke Alumni in the Spring of 1936. Little 
has been heard since. 

On April 15, 1920, was organized the Overall Club, which recommended 
wearing of overalls and plain dresses for economy. W. B, Umstead headed the 
group, which soon disbanded. 

A Typing and Stenographic Bureau was organized October 16, 1933, by 
Ross Tunnell, A, V/ilson Honeycutt, and Ben M. Patrick. In 1936 it was taken 
over by the University as a division of the Student Activities Office. There 
was a Phonographers' Club from 1915 to 1917, preceded by a Stenographers' Club 
organized September 14, 1911. 

A student- operated Pressing Club was organized January 4, 1906, accord- 
ing to Kie Chronicle. Originally managed by J. M, Pitts for his own benefit, it 
was later taken over as a revenue-producer by the Athletic Association. 



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Chapter X 
OBSERVATIONS AND (jqESTIONS 

"College education doesn't make fools; it merely develops them." The 
same might well "be said of collegians who are not fools. 

The history of extra-curricular student enterprises at Duke Univer- 
sity indicates that rarely does a student attain distinction by wholly voluntary 
effort in a field of endeavor to which he was stranger at time of enterirg col- 
lege. The student thespian who is outstanding was interested in drama "before 
his college years. The collegian who manages the campus political machine was 
a leader on the grammar-school playground and had a hig voice in the extra- 
curricular life of his high school. As a general rule, the editor of the col- 
lege publication acquired the journalistic mange as a newshound on his high 
school paper, and the star athlete did something besides play marbles in the 
primary grades. There are few exceptions. 

This raises two interesting questions: (l) What attributes are essen- 
tial to leaderslxip? (2) How and when are such attributes acquired? 

These are, in effect, the same questions put in the first chapter; and 
they remain unanswered. 

Some academic persons have given attention to the notion that there is 
a "geography of notability," that such things as climate, soil, altitude help to 



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163 



engender genius. Such theory supports the idea that qualities of leadership are 
innate, geneticly acquired, that leaders are "born, not made. 

Then, how identify the leader hefore he attains leadership? How pick 
in childhood the person "most likely to succeed"? How point out in college the 
student who in twenty years will lead his profession? Scholarship alone is no 
index, surely; nor is any sort of popiilarity poll very accurate. 

Evidence points to a definite correlation between creditahle achieve- 
ment in scholarship and prominence in extra-curricular activities. The student 
who is laggard in his studies is not a leader outside the classroom — except, 
occasionally, on the athletic field. The SMOC is a better-than-average student, 
from the professor's viewpoint. The student who is secretary of his fraternity, 
reporter for the college newspaper, and. member of the Preshman Advisory Coimcil 
makes the Dean's List more often than his neighbor who has no extra-curricular 
interest. 

Distinction is relative, of course. Without attempting to define the 
term, it may be observed that during the last decade in the undergraduate col- 
leges of Duke University about one student in 25 has attained distinction in 
extra-cTHTicular activities. Assuming this proportion to be sound and true for 
all colleges, and granting that colleges actually do train the world's leaders, 
would it be to the benefit of society for the state to give extra special atten- 
tion to the training of this fraction of one percent of the pop-ulation? The 
Nazis now begin training leaders for the state considerably in advance of the 
college level. Is this foolish? 

Money would appear to be no aid to distinction in extra-curricular 
life. The son of the millionaire is often a playboy. He joins a fraternity 
"because his money is usefijl to the group, Eis grades are often below average, 
and just high enough to keep him in college. The extra-curricular leader, on 



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164 



the other hand, is often ohliged to earn a substantial portion of his expenses. 
There is no hard and fast rule, of course, hut there is sxifficient indisputable 
evidence to give basis for the general rule that wealth is no aid to distinction 
at Ihjke. (Even inconspicuous wealth is still accompanied by a degree of notori- 
ety on the campuses, but notoriety is different from distinction ,) 

i^aternities and sororities are often regarded as undemocratic by 
persons outside such organizations. For the last two decades, two undergraduates 
out of every three have not been affiliated with fraternities and sororities. 
Pec\iniary circumstance is of course a factor in preserving the ratio, but not 
the only factor. Some fraternity members are not at all well-to-do. 

A substantial majority of BMOCs and BWOCs are members of fraternities 
and sororities. These groups pride themselves on the number of offices in 
extra-curricular enterprises held by their members, and members are encouraged 
to offer themselves as candidates. This tendency often assures little or no 
political s\3pport for the worthy non-fraternity candidate, and often makes it 
a fact that the most capable student for a particular office is not a candidate. 
Fraternity membership tends to make one more interested in becoming a BMOC. 

In college, as in the larger society, men and women covet for them- 
selves and for their friends choice positions of power and supposed honor, 
and the striving for places of distinction often seems to be merely an effort 
to satisfy insidious vanity. This applies to leaders of the so-called "service 
organizations" as well as to heads of groups primarily social; and one is led 
to ask: Does the leader of the band — the strutting drum major — display the 
foundation qualities which every leader must possess? 

Since there would seem to be evidence for the conclusion that qualities 
of leadership are innate, or, if not, acquired very early in life, one is led to 
the final qiiestion: Are leaders really chosen by those they lead? 



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Appendices 



A. Poundixig members and Officers of Student Organizations, 

Also Names of Leading Scholars in Graduating Classes, 

Mem"bers of Omicron Delta Kappa, Red Friars, and 

White Dachy 3 

B. Organizations and Enterprises Classified 121 

C. Wiley Gray Orators 125 



Appendix A 
Founding Members and Officers 

These are the persons who shorild have, or shotild, "become the outstand- 
ing alumni of Duke University, according to their records in college. No effort 
has been made to classify these student leaders statistically (according to 
geography, scholarship records, parents' occupations and education, self- 
appraisals concerning value of extra-curricular activities, after-college 
achievements, favorite brands of cigarettes, or other possible interesting 
classifications) with the exception of the table on the following sheet. This 
is included merely as a suggestion of one possibly interesting and profitable 
line of st\idy. 

Group I should be s\ipposed to include the leaders in nearly all 
other groups. Group II should (at least by superficial reasoning) develop into 
leaders in government; Group III, in religion; Group IV, in journalism and 
literature; Group V, in commerce and industry; Group VI, in education; and 
Group VII, in law. Eave they? Will they? 

Numerous other avenues of approach will suggest themselves to the 
interested student. 



(Appendix A was typed by Juanita Harward, with the assistance of 
Beatrice Mellon and John Kennedy.) 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OP SELECTED STUEffiUT OFFICERS 



Organization 


Nos. 


No 


.Car. 


Area 1 


Area 2 


Area 3 


Are 


a 4 


Area 5 


Group I 


A 


1 B 


A 


B 


A 


1 2 


A 


1 B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


"^ 


B 






























D K 





318 





59 





69 





22 





5 





3 





1 


Red Friars 





112 





56 





72 





21 





4 





2 





1 


White Duchy 





102 





63 





78 





15 





2 





5 








Group II 






























Classes 





274 





34 





55 





31 





5 





8 





1 


Frat Pan-Kel 





50 





32 





55 





34 





4 





6 








Sor Fan-Hel 


18 


55 


75 


44 


90 


77 


5 


16 





5 


5 


2 








Men's Gov't 





74 





35'* 





60 





26 





10 





3 





1 


Women's Gov't 


31 


93 


84 


55 


94 


67 


6 


25 





2 





6 








Group III 






























Minister. Assn 


. 52 


45 


94 


79 


LOO 


96 





2 





2 














Y M C A 


83 


60 


87 


50 


LOO 


67 





31 





2 














Y W C A 


30 


59 


87 


45 


LOO 


67 





24 





2 





7 








Group 17 






























Archive Eds. 


35 


26 


97 


68 


LOO 


78 





11 





11 














Chant. Eds. 


12 


33 


83 


57 


91 


91 





9 








9 











Chron, Eds. 


22 


30 


80 


58 


95 


61 





33 





6 


5 











Group V 






























Alpha K.Psi 





41 











5 





75 





5 





10 





5 


Archive Mgrs. 


42 


27 


98 


72 


100 


90 





7 











3 








Chant. M^s. 


12 


33 


66 


49 


100 


58 





36 





3 











3 


Chron. Mgrs. 


22 


30 


90 


60 


100 


85 ; 





6 











9 








Group VI 






























Sumiaa & Magna 






























cum Laude 


300 


208 


90 


58 


97 


70 


1 


21 





3 


1 


4 


1 


2 


K.D.Pi 





42 





64 





78 





14 





2 





4 





2 


Group VII 






























Columhia 


201 


97 


93 


56 


98 


83 





11 





3 


1 


3 


1 





Hesperian 


185 


95 


87 


71 


99 


83 





9 








1 


7 





1 


Players 


16 


66 


70 


46 


88 


64 





17 





5 


12 


14 








Bar Assn. 





43 





41 





84 





11 











2 





3 


Average 
and Total ^^^ 


2039 


82 


54 


97 


69 


6 


23 





4 


5 


5 


1 


2 



Key: Area 1, Southern (including North Carolina); Area 2, Middle Atlantic; Area 
3, New England; Area 4, Middle West; Area 5, Far West. A, period before 1925; 
B, period 1925-1940. First column (Nos.) shows n\imber of officers of each 
organization; figures in other colTamns (areas) are percentage, 

♦Fewer North Carolinians and Southerners each year since 1934-35. V/hile this 
condition obtains with relation to nearly all organizations, the change is 
especially noticeable in the Men's Association. The University was est^ilished 
in 1934, but the student body did not become representative of the Eastern 
United States before 1934. Geographical distribution steady for last 5 years. 



3. 



President 



Vice-Presiddnt 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



R. A. Smith 



A. E. P. Clulj 
(1919-1920) 

C, W. Bonday 



W. R. Minshew W. R. Minshew 



Alpha Chi 
(Peh. 11, 1937-.See Chi Phi) 

Charter Members: R. Der Tatevasian, John Lange, T. Reid Holmes, 
William Bltinge. Pred G, Torke. 



William Eltinge John Lange 
H. Der Tatevasi^ Tom Goddy 



Pal ton Main T. R. Williams 
T. E. Williams W. W. Roberts 



Alpha Delta Pi 
(June. 2, 1911- ) 

Charter Members: Pannie Kilgo, Emma McCullen, Mildred Sinclair, Sally 
Smith, Annie St. George, Lizzie Wrenn» 



Chapter Reporter - 
Chapter Reporter - 
Amy Muse 
Lucile Baldwin 

Edna Taylor 

Vera Wiggins 

Vera Wiggins 

Elizabeth Allen 
Martha Wiggins 

Irene Price 
Chapter Reporter ~ 
Hunter Hollo way 
Chapter Reporter - 
Chapter Reporter - 
Virginia Gibbons 
Anne Garrard 
Elizabeth Roberts 

Sara E. Ormond 

Edith Parker 
Alma Wyche 



- Mildred Sinclair. 
Pannie Kilgo 



Gladys Price 

Martha Wiggins 
Helen Lyon 



Helen Cantrell 

Pat tie Knight 
- Elizabeth Hicks 
Anne Garrard 
Elizabeth Roberts 
Sara K. Ormand 

Edith Parker 

Eliz. Clifton 
Mary A. Hauss 



Irma Tapp 
Vera Wiggins 

Vera Wiggins 



Amy Muse 

Edna Taylor 

Edna Taylor 

Lorraine Isley 

Janet Smith 

Lorraine Isley 

Charlotte Avera Mary Petitt 

Gladys Price 

Mary Petitt Martha Wiggins 

Mamie Rath Charchill 

Margie White 

Irene Price Sara Dashield 

Helen Cantrell 



Frances Holmes Louise Slocum 

Harriet Lewis 

Elizabeth Parker-Lois Hackney 

Mollie Parmer Eliz. Churchill 

Bliz. Parker Annie L. Caldwell 

Eliz. Clifton 

Mary A, Hauss Alma Wyche 

Margaret Bennett Annie L. Caldwell 

Zoa L. Haywood 



4. 



Tear 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



(Alpha Delta Pi - Cent. 

1929 Prances Hill Margaret Bennett 

1930 Hettie English Eliz. Williams 

1931 Edith Leach 

Chapter Reporter — Elizabeth Bullock 

1932 Virginia Ragan Carmen Patterson 

1933 Virginia Dillon Sarah C. Taylor 

1934 Jane S. Hannon Nelson Powell 

1935 Mary I. Henderson Kathlyn Buice 

1936 Margery Edwards Jeanne Toxing 

1937 Jeanne Yotmg Virginia Skinner 

1938 Oliva Womhle Macon Crowder 

1939 Louise Wo r sham Jeannette Johnson 

1940 Kathlene Griffin Carol Conners 



) 



Dorothy Jennette Annie L. Caldwell 
Virginia McBwen Edith Leach 
Leo no re Murphy Edith Leach 

Carmen Patterson 



Jane Steele Hannon Mary Parkhurst 

Sally Allen 

Mary S. Lackey Mary Parkhiirst 

Janet Griffin 

Susan McKeil June Bailey 

Josephine Atkinson 

Margery Edwards Martha Bailey 

Louise Wannamaker 

Emilie Crum Margaret A. March 

Helen Cockrell 

Helen Cockrell Nancy Arthur 

Louise McBride 

Madeline McGinnis Sara N. Arthur 

Peggy Glenn Marion Willman 

Kathlene Griffin 

Ann Beeves Nancy Steininger 

Sarah Booe 



Alpha Epsilon Phi 
(March 1934 - ) 

Charter Members: Anne KatjC, Sara Berenson, Jeanette Sidenberg, 
Jane Lins, Bubye Pogel, Ethel Nachamson. 



Jeanette Sidenberg< 
Jane Lins 
Frances Brooks 
Prances Brooks 
Evelyn Paradies 
Claire Brandt 
Helen Gottlieb 



-Sara Berenson 
Ruby Pogel 
Jane Lins 
Gertrude Fleet 
Eva Nachamson 
Wilma Jacobi 
Wilma Jacobi 



Rubye Pogel 
Shirley Diamond 
Helen Levitt 
Irene Stutson 
Wilma Jacobi 
Lillian Fleet 
Shirley Blurae 



Ethel Nachamson 

Gertrude Sawilosky 
Prances Josephs 
Claire Globeman 
Helen Levitt 
Dorothy Pessar 
Doris A. Rubin 



Alpha Kappa Kappa 
(October 24, 1931 - ) 

Charter Members: Earl Winfrey Brian, Milton Carpenter, Cobey, Ralph 
Ernest Schmidt, Ramond Taylor Jenkins, John Cole Burwell, Jr., 
Rudolph John Depner, Charles Mattocks Kendrick, Francis LeRoy Owens, 
George Wallace Holmes, James Francis Fulp, Ben Eenslee Fuqua, Robert 
Boyd Smith, Jr., John Stewart Forbes, Jr., Lacy Allen Andres, Jr., 
John Fletcher Lavejoy, Orrin Prank Kleckner. 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Lacy Andrews 

John Barwell 

James Fulp 

Bamond Jenkins 

W. C. Spring 
Henry T. Munson 



(Alpha Kappa Kappa-Cont.) 
Rudolph J. Depner 
Ben Puqua 
Milton Cohey 
Francis A. Owens 



Seorge I, Uhde 
Willis Harris 



John S. Forbes John C. Burwell 

Earl Brian 

Milton Cobey Eamond Jenkins 

Robert Smith 

Arthar Moyer Jenkins Ralph Schmidt 

Roderick Jones 

Marvin Herrington Charles Collins 

John Denholm 

Norman 0. Veale-George Silver, III 

Richard Finner Kenneth Babcock 



Alpha Kappa Psi 
(Dec. 1929 - ) 

Charter Members: John Daniel, Lee Hawkins, Web Murray, Claiborne 
Blalock, Charles Brown, Hugh Miller, Robert Andrews, Thoms-S Summerow, 
StTiart Hardison, William Biggs, Carroll Cunnin, Julian Connaly, • 
William Budd, G-eorge King, Jr., William Lassiter, Osborne Dunn, 
William Dunn, Jr., William Rousseau, Marshall Campbell, Robert 
Johnson. 



Grordon Power 
Jackson Viol 
Harold Pruner 
Fred Wildnauer 
Charles B. Peck 
Thomas 3. I^on 
Howard P. Mason 
Guy Bemer 
Bayne A. Sparks 



Raymond L. Kent 
Joseph S. Schieferly 
William G. Crawford 
Philip H. Gillls 
William Bltinge 
Peter J. Blake 
Jerome Wolfe 
Joseph G. Hollmeyer 



Walter Wikingstad George Watson 
Fred Wildnauer J. Bynum Grant 
Caleb V. W. Smith A. Gray Wilson 
H. Edward Ulrich Thomas S. Ryon 
Arthar Pawling Allen Spurgeon 
John T. Dollard-William R. Huck 
John McNeilly James Momingstar 
Lawrence A. Foster Robt. A.Sandersc 



Alpha Omega Alpha 
(1931-1930) 

Charter Members: Drs. Wilburt C. Davison, Harold L. Amoss, Deryl 
Hart, Bayard Carter, A. R. Shands, Jr., J. M. Arena, George W. 
Heinitsh, John F. Lovejoy. 



J. F. Love joy 

J. Lamar Callaway 

George W. Joyner 



Jay Arena 
J. Lamar Callaway 
George Heinitsh 
George Heinitsh 
George Heinitsh 
George Heinitsh 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary - 



Treasurer 



Alpha Phi 
(May 11, 1935- ) 

Charter Memhers: Hath Bennett, Elinor Douglas, Betty Halsema, 
Eleanor Congdon, Martha Physioc. 



1935 (May) Ida Applewhite 
1935 Betty Halsema 

Mary E. Smith 
Countess Tabor 
Beatrice Bousch 
Ruth Auser 

Edith Eisen 



Sarah Ducket t 
Rehecca Atzrodt 

Frances Salmon 
Jane Winters 
Countess Tabor 
Jean Omar 

Betty Rich 



Ruth Bennett Betty Halsema 

Ida S. Applewhite Margery White 

Rath Bennett 

Beatrice Rousch Mary L. Kincheloe 

Miriam Weckisser Doris Hartman 

Susan Phillips Doris Hartman 

Dorothy Alexander Frances Goddard 

Elizabeth Kramer 

Phyllis Padmftre Mary L, Dawe 

Marg. Spruill 



Alpha Tau Omega 
Pounded at Trinity 1872 
Banned 1879; Revived 1890 
(Oldest Duke Fraternity) 

Charter Members: Josejih R. Anderson, Moses L. Wicks. 



0. Lawrence Dortch 
Robert T, Bean 
Arthur Bradshdr 
Albert Clay 
Max Long 
Speed Veal 
Tom Moore 



A. Car] Lee 
Arthur B. House 
James Shilliday 
Speed Veal 
Fred Albee 
Werner C. Brown 



Edwin B. Abbott 
P. Huber Hanes 
P. Huber Hanes 
Norvin Perry, Jr 
Tom Senf f 
Robert Lester 
John Vennema 



William Jennings 
Arthur Rouse 
Howard Whitaker 
. Howard Whitaker 
John Hackers 
John Wright 
Don Stevenson 



AlspaTigh House 
(1931- ) 



Jean Stewart 
Louise Merkel 
Trixie Tannis 
Katherine White 
Barbal'a Rich 
Margaret Morton 
Louise Gracely 
Jean Merkel 
Shirley Smith 



Marion Shepherdson 
Lucia Walker 
Marthan J. Culbertson 
Kathryn Margolis 
Janet Rawdon 
Brugh, Louise 
Betty Yon 
Jean Gross 



Louise Gracely 
Betty Yon 
Betsy Morrison 
Ellen Sherrill 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



American Institute of Electrical Engineers 
(1926- ) 



0. T. Colclough 
F. Colton Somers 
Alexander Shemet 
Harold L. Flowers 
Thomas J. Byrum 
John F, Byrum 
James Highsmith 



F. A. Bevacgua 
E. Bohert Scattergood Alexander Shemet T. Harry Worman 
C. D, Motley Holand Husso C. F, Bynum 
Roland Rasso Thomas Byrom Harvey Jenkinson 
Christopher R. Wehster John F. Byrum Walter Treut 
Curtis McCallip James L. Highsmith George Dorsey 
Dale 0. l/^ers Robert L. Cochran Charles Holley 



American Society of Civil Engineers 

(Feb. 14, 1933- ) 

Charter Members: J. H. Armfield, George B. Cropper, J, R. Malone, 
George D. McCrey, Robert S. Miller, Erie B. Everman, Arthur Batson, 
John Bird, Randolph Clarke, Fred Neu, David Di\unmond, Gerald Ferguson, 
Arthur Wigley. 



Charles Ballenger Erving Bearse 
Charles Baker Robert Buck 
Charles Nickerson Milton Oviatt 
William F, Groesback Carl King 
Francis H. Werneke Wm. D. Drew 



F. W. Pettengill Same 
William Griffiths Same 
John D. MacLauchlan Same 
Alfred Alpert Same 
Wm. D. MacLauchlan Same 



American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

(Jan. 1936- ) 

Charter Members: J. Alberts, W. Alexander, S. Boyce, W. Buckingham, 

G. Bynum, C. Cole, D. Cornish, R. Cummings, M. Edwards, R. Gregory, 

B. Guerin, F, Eartz, J. Hardin, W. Jerome, S. Jones, R. Keane, 

J. King, F. Lauther, M. Litler, R. Martin, E. Mathews, S. McKee, 

D. Nicholas, 7. Parzick, B. Schuerman, E. Shilling, W. Stube, J. Trainor, 

W. Turner, C. Washer, R. Crawford. 



Joseph A. Trainor Robert Martin 
Stanley Boyce Richard Keane 
Henry Evans, Jr. Robert L. James 
Robert James Ward Abbott 
Howard Schmidt Wm. Larsson 

Hulme Pattinson 



Wm. W. Turner Stanley Boyce 
Robert D. Martin Ge«rrge Bynum 
George T. Bynum Edward von So then 
Wellington Cramer Howard Schmidt 
Donald Wo Hard John V. Shirley 

Richard S. Wilbur 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretarg 



Treasurer 



American Student Union 

(Nov. 1936 - 1938) 

Charter Memlaers: Sheldon Harte, Half Munster, Everett Burtt, Walter 
Shaefer, James Pait, Robert Creegan. 



Sheldon R. Harte 

Everett Burtt 

Everett Burtt 

Pahlicity Chairmanj Kathryn Margolis 



Teressa Harris 



Archive 
(1887- ) 



Editor 



J, L. Armstrong 
J. L. Armstrong 
J. L. Armstrong 
Lucius S. Massey 
Erank Armfield 
Isaac E, Avery 
Luther T. Hartsell 
Gilbert T. Bowe 
Samuel W, Sparger 
M. Troy Dickinson 
John Allen Sharp 
Dallas W. Hewson 
John McT. Flowers 
David D. Peele 
Henry R. Dwire 
Charles K, Robinson 
Walter P. Budd 
Julian Blanchard 
Samuel B. Underwood 
Hersey B. Spence 
7i. A. Stanbury 
M. A. Briggs 
Tfalter B. West 
Chesley M. Hutchings 
E. J. Lundow 
Quinton Eclton 
Robert B. Murray 

William I. Woo ten 
Isaac S. Harrell 
Henry C. West 



Business Manager 

Black B. Nicholson, William N. Jones 

Stonewall J. Durham, Emmett L. Moffitt 

S. M. Crowell, Stonewall J. Durham 

Joseph S. Betts, S. M. Crowell 

Robert Lee Davis 

Francis &. Westbrook 

Kincher P. Carpenter 

Kincher P. Carpenter 

Joseph E. Separk 

Benjamin F. Harrison 

John P. Gibbons 

Lewis W. Elias 

Stephen A. Stewart 

John K. Wood 

Edwin S. Yarbo rough 

Thomas W. Smith, Jr. 

Paul B, Beachboard 

M. Eugene NewsoB 

William M. Smith 

Frank R. Wrenn 

Sanford A« Richardson 

T^mas A. Finch 

Willis Smith 

Ernest C. Cheek 

Robert G, Cherry 

Samuel W. Marr 

Milton R. Pleasants 

William H. Morgan 
John J. Lilley 
Charles S. Bunn 



Year 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



(ArcMve-Contl ) 



Editor 



1917 


Ralph L. Fisher 


1918 


Clarke C. Alexander 


1919 


Norman M. West 


1920 


Jesse L. Peterson 


1921 


Sidney S. Parabow 


1922 


Mike Bradshaw, Jr. 


1923 


Hal A. Oliver 


1924 


James J. Parriss 


1925 


R. P. Earriss 


1926 


A. A, Wilkinson 




Eiko Tonemara 



Basiness Manager 

S. M. Spivey 
Robert W. Bradshaw 
John E. Harrison, Jr, 
Reno K. Par ring ton 
Thomas A. Banks 
Walter W. Turrentine 
William J. Bullock 
Charles H. Pegram 
Sdward L. Cannon 
Benjamin S. Ramsey 
Sara Kate Ormond 



B. B. Carstarphen 
David H. Thorpe 
Mary Arden Hauss 
Gerald M. Crona 
Dorothy Jennette 
Gerald M. Crona 
Elizabeth Williams 
Ovid W. Pierce 
Elizabeth Bui luck 
James B. Clark 
Marjorie Glasson 
Richard A. Smith 
Amy Duke 

Jsunes P. Helm, III 
Nancy Hudson 
Earle I. Ranner, II 
Nancy R. Hudson 
Edward E. Post, Jr. 
Louise Warren 
Robert C. Wilson 
Edward E. Post, Jr. 
Kiffin Hayes 
Lorenz Eitner 
Bettilu Porterfield 
Helmut P. Koeniz 



Charles A. Kirkpatrick 
Robert M. Johnston 
Elizabeth Caldwell 
Julian U. Connally 
Elizabeth Caldwell 
John I, Morgan, Jr. 
Elizabeth Caldwell 
W. Alfred Williams 
Elizabeth A. Rouse 
M. Eugene Newsom, Jr, 
Elizabeth Sellars 
M. Eugene Newsom, Jr, 
Nelson Powell 

McCarthy Hanger, Jr. 
Nelson Powell 
Philip M. Russell 
Annadale Graeter 
Herbert J. Upchurch 
Prances Edwards 
Thomas I^on 
Jane Dusenbury 
Clinton Morgan, Jr. 
Frank L. Greathouse, Jr. 
John M. Dozier 
Jean Bailey 



10 



Tear 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Athena Literary Society 
(Jan. 8, 1912-1926) 



1912 Polly Heitman 
1912 Bess Widenhouse 
Fannie Kilgo 
Laura Tillet 
Lizzie M. Smith. 
Fannie Vann 
Amy Muse 
Carrie B. Craig 
Lucile Bullard 
Mary Wilson 
Margaret Kornegay 
Cora Moss 
Vera Wiggins 
Anita Harper 

Thelma HoUrell 
Coma Cole 
Lillian Haxnsuer 
Lyda Bishop 
Annie Garriss 
Llllie M. Stanford 
Margaret Jo r don 
Mary K. Ellison 
Lillian Frost 
Nancy Kirkman 
Edith Judd 



Susie Marlcham 
Estelle Flowers 
Mamie Hoover 
Lizzie M. Smith 
Cora Wescott 
Annie Hamlin 
Annie Hamlin 
Sadie McGauley 
Tula Waller 
Etoile Young 
Kate Umstead 
Janie Chandler 
fiath Meeritt 
Mary Pettit 

Josie Foy 

Emma L. Chaff in 
Hunter Holloway 
Lu.cy Dunnagan 
Va, Mepritt 
Annie Land 
Dorothy Wilson 
Agnes Judd 
Mary Griffin 
Mary Morris 
Ethel Fink 



Irene Ahernethy 
Nettie Tillet 
Mary Vr'escott 
Carrie Craig 
Amy Muse 
Lucille Bullard 
Carrie Craig 
Mary Wilson 
Etoile Young 
Mary Bynum 
Nellie Reade 
Vera Wiggins 
Margaret Cameron 
Leonora Aiken 



Annie West 
Etta Thompson 
Estelle Flowers 
Amy Muse 
Fannie Vann 
Edna Taylor 
Mary Knight 
Etoile Young 
Laura M, Bivins 
Mary Knight 
Inez Allen 
Hallie Baldwin 
Martha Wiggins 
Estelle Warlick 



Emma L. Chaff in Mildred Beck 

Flora M. Meredith Allene Parrish 

Coma Cole Allene Parrish 

Virginia Merritt 

Jane Chris tenhury Ida M, Greene 

Lillian Frost 

Lucy Glasson Kittie Stuhhs 

Edith Judd 

Fidelia Overton Pauline Ratledge 

Mildred Lee 

Sara K. Ormand Louise Parker 



T. G. Stem 
T. G. Stem 
W. W. Flowers 
W. W. Flowers 
W. W. Flowers 
W. W. Flowers 



Athletic Association 
(Founded - 1900 
Dishaned ih 1907 and 
formed council, dis- 
baned in 1914) 

W, 6. Jerome 
W. 6, Jerome 
T. B. Suiter 
John C. Woo ten 
John C. Wooten 
C. B. West 



L. B. Gibson Same 

C. E. Phillips Same 

J. B. Warren, Jr. J, E, .Pegraxn 

C. B. West J. E. Pegram 

P. F. Hanes J. E. Pegram 

H. A. McKinnon J. E. Pegram 



11 



President 



Yice-President 



Secretery 



Treasurer 



Athletic Association, Woman's 
(1929- ) 



Mary Langs ton 
Marjorie 61 as son 
Bernice Rose 
Eliza"beth Pegram 
Margaret Cuninggim 
Marjorie White 
Joan Bliss 
Frances Briggs 
Nancy Craig 
Kancy Craig 



Marjorie Glasson 
Fanny O'Keefe 
Elizabeth Peg ram 
Josephine Sahy 

Marjorie White 
Camilla Richie 
Billiard Hardin 
Billiard Hardin 
Doris Colsh 
Jean Synder 



Florence Moss 
Elizabeth Pegram 
Ethel Garrett 
Dorothy Gray 
Carol Strauss 
Doris MacNutt 
Grace Stamets 
Joan Thorns 
Jean Synder 
Marjorie LaMont 



Margaret Parsons 

Dorothy Eaton 
Eloise Ingram 
Elvira Barleigh 
Lucy Rauschenberg 
Mary Bender 
Frances Briggs 
Laurette Ryan 
Helen Gottlieb 
Sarah Dabney 



Prank McNeill 



Autocracy Smashers 
(1918-1919) 

Z. J. Best 



H. V. Dorrity 



Ay cock House 
(1931- ) 



Mary Jans en 
Gretchen Little 
Louise Warren 
Louise Warren 
Anne Ho limey er 
Gretchen Elmiger 
Elise Curry 
Barbara Fagan 



Virginia Griffin 

Carol Connors 
Barbara Fagan 
Patricia Head 



Martha Cooney 
Betty Griffiths 
Sheena Webster 



Manager 



Band 
(1906, Refounded- 1923) 

Asst. Manager 



W. S. Lee, Jr. 
Banks Arendell 
L. C. Larkin 



D. C. Lewis 

D. C. Lewis 

Banks Arendell 

L. C. Larkin 

R, K. Smathers 

R. W. Spencer 

President - J. R. Chamberlain 

C. T. Meacham, Jr. 

T. S. Shinn 

President - C. H. James 
President - Thomas E. Bowman 
Secretary - Howard Steiger 
Treasurer - Charles Wade 



Leader 

W. B. Arthur 
H. R. Sisson 
0. P. Shell 

G. M. Ivey 

H. L. Blomquist 



me. 



12 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



(Band-Cont.) 

Thomas E, Bowman 

Bus. Manager - Charles B, Wade, Jr, 
Q^iartermaxter - Jack Butler 
LihrariajQ - Rohert Van Voorhis 
Manager - E. Troy Ferguson, Jr, 



Baptist Students' Union 
(1930, Revived-1934) 

Charter Members: (1934) Louis B. Jennings, Ivan Frantz, Robert 
Kincheloe, Carroll S. Feagins. 

Hal C, Stephens Alfred M. Back4r Louis B, Jennings Same 

Eohert L. Kincheloe 1/Iary Lou Kincheloe 

Hal C. Stephens James Bowen 

Ivan D. Frantz Louis B. Jennings Same 

A. Morgan Sucker Mary L. Kincheloe 



Doke Bar Association 
(1931- ) 

Wm. B. McGuire, Jr, Wm. C. Lassiter 

C. S. Iiturphey 
Eugene Z. Dubose 

Robert C, Finley Mosby G. Perrow, Jr. 

Porter B. Peteet 
Lawson B. Knott, Jr. 

Duncan C. Murchison Julius T. Sanders 

a. E. Miller 
Caroline Phillips 

Horade Bomar, Jr. Leon L. Rice, Jr. 

James Haley 
Robert S. Gamble 

Richard M. Nixon J. Mack Holland, Jr. 

Charles H. loxing 
Fleming Bomar 

Charles H. Young Theron C. Cleveland, 

Fleming Bomar 
Gibson L. Smith 

Fleming Bomar Wm. F. Womble 

Elmer Rouzer 

Elmer Rouzer Kennedy Harris 

"'■■■, Chas. Fischer 

Maurice Winger 

George Frampton Chas. Fischer 

C, H, Richardson 
0. C. Carmichael 



S. Allen Wilson Ora Lee Smith 

James Mullen Leland McKeithan 

Horace L. Bomar J. Mack Holland, Jr, 

John D. McConnell T, C. Cleveland, J 

Frederick Cady 

Jr. R. C. Garden Neil G, Daniels 

R. Kennedy Harris Woodrow Lipscomb 
Bugene Gordon John Corboy 



James Doyle 



Chas* Canavan 



13 



President 



7ice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Bassett House 
(1931- ) 



Bertha Eutsler 
Au^sta Walker 
Mary Parldnirst 
Susan McNeill 
Martha Bailey 
Mary Brent Holland 
Dorothy Miller 
Martha Down 
Willa Hedrick 
Elizabeth Gregory 



Nancy Leonard 



Nelson Powell 
Marie Smith 
Jean Boyd 
Mary Brent Holland 
Dorothy Miller 
Martha Down 

Frances Hedrick Eloise Daugherty 
Margaret Grood Amelia Taylor 
Emily Smithers 



Del Puston 
Bill Eorton 
Henry Hassell 
Herhert Fischer 



Bench and Bar 
(March 14, 1938- 



Henry Hassell 
Raymond McDermott 
Lura Ahernathy 



Jean Metz 
Martha Perkins 
Ralph House 
Chester Blodgett 



Eathrine Blakeney 

Raymond McDermott 
James Latham 
Howard Carson 



Beta Omega Sigma 
(1917 - ) 

Charter Members: M. A. Braswell, K. M. Brim, S. T. Carson, 

Cha.rles Hackney, F. S. Hale, E. S. Hale, S. S. Toms, W. T. T/hitsides. 



John H. Brownlee 
Gilhert Kieth 
Eohert C. Wood 
Robert W. Miller 
Allen Seeman 
Harry W. Kelly 
Robert Moyer 
William Senhauser 
Stewart H. Johnson 



Ishan Kimbrell 
W. Mason Sheehan 
J. Scott Montgomery 
Sidney Truesdale 
Joseph T, Gardner 
Richard Connar 
William Griffith 
Mac White 



Charles Short Gordon Power 
George B. Everett Philip Russell 
Thomas Power William Smoot 
Herbert Hudgins T. Preston Webster 
Robert Lohman 

Roscoe Brand Frank Ciiapman 
James !♦ Wilmott George F. Bigham 
William Smith Frank Sellers 
Jospph McLaughlin Dan Moseley 



Bible Class, Open Forum 
(1930- ) 



Martin Green 
Pardue Bunch 
Ross Tunnell 



John Myers 



Lyne Few 



SaciB 



14 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Bible Class, Open Forum (Cent.) 



Herbert Pohl 
Ivan Prantz 
Robert Langler 
Charles Shannon 
Frank Dennis 
Leroy Scott 
Webb Bo St 
Kay Bender 
Barney Jones 
Marilyn Upp 



Tom Cottingham 
James W, Brown 



Giay Berner 



Austin Whitmore Thomas E, Bowman 
Robert Stamey Same 
Webb Best 

G-eorgeCulbreth Same 
Bob Price 

Wm. McGirt 



Bible Class, Women's 
(1920-1935) 







Biology Club 






(1911-1926) 




Phi 


Sigma after 1926 


Bert 


Cunningham 




C. H. 


Satterfield 




H. L. 


Blomquist 


N. F. Wilkerson 


H. L. 


Blomquist 


N. F. Wilkerson 


H. L. 


Blomqulst 


N. F. Wilkerson 


H. L. 


Blomquist 


Fred D. Fanning 


N. F. 


Wilkerson 


J. L. Wierda 


Bert 


Cunningham 


N. F. Wilkerson 

Blue Devils 
(1931- 1934) 



6. W. Nfurphy Same 

L. W. Saunders Same 

J. T, Barnes Same 

J. H, McCracken, Jr. Same 

H. W. Primakoff M. Stadium 

Allison L. Ormond Ralph Chesson 

Evelyn Millner 

Leslie S. Thompson R, R, Chesson 



Members: Nick Laney, Robert Boyd, Lester R. Brown, Paul V. Harmon, Jr., 
William B. Cough, Robert Thome, Charles A. Higgins, Walton D. Moffitt, 
Harry Ingle, Ernest D. Bamham, Pete Laudeman, Larry Turner, Jack 
Tannenbaum. 



Blue Imp 
(Feb. 2, 1934-April 20, 1934) 



Editor - J. Stuart Gillespie, Jr. 
Jack C, Stamaton 

Co-ed Editor - Paula Bassett 
Jean Scott 
Patricial Seal 

Assist. Co-ed Editor - Anne Gwin 



Assistant Editors -Bradley Welfare 

Che.dv.ick Callahan 
Wm. Kothdurft 
Oscar Olson 
Berkeley Schaub 
Floyd Bennett 
Lefty Fuller 
Wm. W. Hinnant, J 
J. Hoffman 



15 



Year 



President 



Vice-President 



Sedretary 



Treasurer 



Blue Imp - Cont. 

Business Manager - George Maier, Jr. 

Bill Courtney 

Business Assts, - R"bt. P. StBwart 
Harry Etter 
Douglas Ferris 
Emily Crum 
Marion Moore 
Tekla Parker 
Gil Mathews 
Phil Small 



Managing Ed, - Prank Peters 



Helen Spangler 



Blue Stocking Club 
(1932-1935) 

Alma P. Foerster 



Eliz. A. ChitTOod 





Botanical Club 




(Dec. 20), 1911-1926) 


Jfi.mes J. 


Wolfe 


James J. 


Wolfe 


James J. 


Wolfe 


James J, 


Wolfe 


James J, 


Wolfe 


James J. 


Wolfe 



W. M. Marr 

Hli F. Taylor 

S. C. Del linger 

S. C. Dellinger 

G. W. Harley 

F. R. Yarbo rough Same 



Braxton Craven Education Association 

(1926- Became Kappa Delta Pi in May 28, 1927) 



John W. Carr, Jr. Edjrthe Walker 



Nannie Johnson N. V, Shuford 



Brooks Literary Society 
(1921-1926) 



Blanche Barringer 
Edna Beasley 
Elodia Yancey 
Dixon Barrett 
Esther Evans 
Frances Ledbetter 
Mary Sskridge 
Bessie Hooker 
Maude Hunter 



Eliz. Walker 
Laura Winston 
Laura Winston 
Ethel Merritt 
Mamie Johnson 
Dorothy Kanoy 
Clyde Padgett 

Fannie Hathcock 



Florence Harris 
Sarah Dashiell 
Florence Harriss 
Mamie Johnson 
Mildred Myers 
Alene McCall 
Blanche H. Clark 

Alice Herman 



Louise Berry 
Dixon Barrett 
Iraogene Barrett 

Mary Wilkinson 

Idalene Gulle^e 
Fannie Eathcock 
Annie Mc Swain 



16 



President Vice-President Secretary Treasurer 



Brown House 
(1931- ) 

Ora Lee Smith 

Jane Miller 

Mary A, Dewey 

Jane Haislip 

Josephine Burger 

Eleanor Huntington Margaret Hopwood Betsy MacLeod 

Betsy MacLeod Helen Saleehy Ruth Sinmons 

Charlotte Crump Doris McCreedy Louise Walter 

Charlotte Crump Eliz. Rich Ethel Lednum 



Caldwell County Cluh 
(1914-1915) 

L J P. Smith R. C. Go forth R. K. Courtney Same 



Catholic Students' Union (Newman Club) 
(1935-1936) 

Virginia Patrick Wm. M. Heffner 



Cat's Head Cluh 
(1924-1928) 



Charter Members: R. P. Harriss, A. A. Wilkinson, Freeman 
Twaddell, Ralph Fuller, Jasper Clute, James Parriss, Gay 
Allen, Joe Chamberlain 



Chanticleer (Pounders: Claude Bennett, W. G. 

(1911- ) Sheppard, U. I. White, J. Cannon, Jr. 

A.S.Brower, Willis Smith, H.L.Wilson.) 

Editor Co^Ed Editor Bus. Manager Co-Ed B-gs. Mgr . 

Claude Bennett Alfred Smith Brower 

N. I. White J. H. Ross 

C. R. Bagley Wm. P. Starnes 

Ernest S. Savage Wm. W. Eutton 

G. W. H. Britt S. B. White, Jr. 

J. H. Burrus R. H. Bennett, Jr. 

R. W. Bradshaw Andrew J. Hobbs, Jr. 

Wesley Taylor Marion A. Braswell 

J. H. Shinn L. McP. Draper 



17 



Editor 



Co-EdEd. 



Bus. Manager Co -Ed Bus, Mgr . 



( Chanticl eer-Cont . ) 



T. R. Waggoner 
H. C. Sprinkle 
G. V. Allen 
W. R, Brown 
Cr. P. Harris 
J. M. Atkins 
J. N. Traesdale 
Listen Pope 
J. C, Hanes 
C. P. Honeycutt 



Mary Eskridge 
Annie B. Anders 
Sara K. Orrnand 
Edith Parker 
Mary Arden Hauss 
Dorothy Jennette 
Bliz, Caldwell 



S.P, Garner Eliz. Rouse 

Edwin C. Kellam Carmen Patterson 

J, Gordon Townley Catherine Eleciing 

Martin B. Williams Dorothy A. Walton 

Wm. E. Woodruff Katherine Goodman 

Ernest Craikshank 

James B. Lamheth Margery Edwards 

Thomas 0. Jones Ruth Kelleher 

Hill Hudson Jeannette Bagwell 

Wm. OJ Williams (As^is.t 

Neil C. Blanton Flewellyn Flowers 

John J. McNeilly, Jr. 

Henry Brown Jean Lamhdih. 

Rht. Llne^erger 



S . L . Lane 

0. A. Rohinson 

J. H. Tyler 

E. McL. Thompson Bernice Gause 
R. L. Biggerstaff Fannie Hathcock 
Alfred H. Young Mattie E, Wilson 
C. E. Smathers Ethel Taylor 
Vann R. Line^ack Montee Moyle 

F. W, Anders Mary Brown 

G. C. Hoopy Mary Brown 

M. K. Green Eliz. Sellars 
Gordon Power Bernice Rose 
Claiborne B.Gregory Bernice Rose 
K. B. Livengood Dorothy 0, Forbes 
Hyatt Mossburg Dallas Knight 

A, Read Cone Annadale Graeter 

A. B. Rouse, Jr. Betty Bogert 

Howard Mason Dorothy Creery 

Garfield Miller (Assist.) 

Fred L. Onken,Jr. Annajane Boyd 

Converse B. Kelley 

Robert Long 



Chaplains of Future Wars 
(1935-1936) 

Chapiain- in-Chief: Jack Honeycutt 



President 

Lizzie Wren 
W. C. Strowd 
G. D. Harmon 



Chatham County Club 
(1911-1920) 

7. President 

E. C. Durham 
R, H. Durham 
L. B. Durham 



Secretary 

L. D, Hayman 
Mary Bynom 
F. J. Bo lings 



Treasurer 

Same 

Lucillg Womble 

Same 



18 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Chemists* Cluh 
(1913-1926) 
Merged into Pegram Chemistry Club, 1927 



E. Ray Bond 




D. W. Holt 




J. W. Harbison 


C. L. Dellinger 


R. B, Downey 


Same 


G.H.Satterfield 




A. Rosenstein 


Same 


A, Rosenstein 




K. L. Elmore 




L. B. Palls 




C. P. Ashley 


Same 


S. C. Markham 




Pred Greene 


Same 


E. M. Thompson 


C. D, Cox 


Thetus A. Shaw 


H. C. Thompson 


L. S. Laprade 


Chess Club 
(1913-1929) 
Revived, 1940 


Earl P. McPee 


Brie B. Craven 


Robt. I. Crane 


Rowland Widgery 

Chi Delta Phi 
(1922- ) 


John Hornaday 


Ben Harawitz 


Blanche H. Clarke 








Leslie Hubbard 








Esther Metzenthin 








Helen D, Chandler 




. 




Esther Btorris 




Marjorie Peoples 


Same 


Helen Jenkins 




Inez Pearce 


Same 


Gladys Shufford 


Sara Owenbey 


Crockette Williams E. Rodgers 


C, Williams 


Eleanor Rodgers 


Mildred Stites 


Myrtice Watd 


Betty Knight 


Doris Pish 


Mildred Taylor 


Doris Wells 


Doris Fish 




Ethel White 




Nancy R, Hudson 


Bessie Graham 


Margaret Taylor 
Ethel White 
Prances Lindsay 


Rubye Pogel 


Prances Lindsay 


Jean Kern 


Pranchelle Smith 


Anne Gwin 


Mary T. Newsom 


Jane Dusenberiy 


Betty A. Stowell 


June Southworth 


Helen B. Smith 


Jane Bail 


June Southworth 


Freda Liverant 


Norma L. Goodwin 


Katherine Gaither 


Beth Shaw 


Gladys Williams 


Dixie Swaren 


B. Porterfield 


Nancy Wrenn 


7a. Hopper 



19 



President 



Vice~President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Chi Phi 
(1871-1879) 
Hevived, 1939 

Charter memhers (1871): Theodore Winningham, William C. Norman, 
William H. Pegram, William L, Terry, Shadrach 
Simpson. 

Charter memhers (1939): R. D. Tatevasian, Oeriild T. Griffin, 

Thomas G-addy, John MacGahan, William Boherts, 
John D, Hewlett, Lawrence C. Davis, Harold 
Harvey, Frank Tatum, Leon Reisner, Jr., Thomas 
Hohhs, Charles F. French, Carl Herdic, Jr. 



R. Der Tatevasian Thomas Gaddy 
Gerald Griffin John MacGrahan 
John MacGrahan R. T, Hohhs 



Wm. Roherts 
Wm. Roberts 
Roht. I, Crane 



John Hewlett 
John Hewlett 
Leon Reisner, Jr, 



Chronicle 
(1905- ) 



Editor 



Associate Editor Business Manager Co-ed Bus,_Mgr, 



Henr^' G. Foard 
U. Nathaniel Hoffman 
Wade W. Sanders 
Edgar W. Knight 
E. W. Knight 



A. M. Proctor 
L. I. Jaffe 
J. N. Aiken 



C. W. Fulford 
W. M, Marr 

L. I, Jaffe 
R. D. Komer 

F. S. Bennett 
W. G, Sheppard 

K. P. Neal 

S. S. Alderman 



Wm. J. Justus 
Thaddeus G. Stem 
Geo. P. Pope 
Luther G, White 
J. S. Wrenn 



P. J, Johnston 



P. J. Kitoer 



Edwin L. Jones 



Sidney S. Alderman 
James Cannon, III 
Francis B. Brown 



Rohert M. Johnston 
Banks Arendell 



Edwin L. Jones 
Allen T. Knott 
Rohert T, Lucas 
Charles R. Edwards 

Chas. R. Edwards 
Thomas J. Swain 



20 



sd.uor 



Assoc. Editor 



B^Sjl Manager 



Co-ed Bus . Manager 



E. W. Kendall 



Chronicle-cont 

Clarke Alexander 
Eugene C. Craft 
Claude B. Cooper 



C. C. Alexander 
Wm. N. Evans, Jr. 
Claude H. Moser 
Robt. D. Ware 
Wm. H. Lander 
James B. Secrest 
i'ranklin H. Shinn 

Co-ed Ed.- Va. GiTDlsons 



Paul L, Sample 
John C. Boggs 



Jesse H. Lannlng 
Larry W. Smitla 
Eay J, Tysor 
B. I. Satterfield 
Jesse 0, Sanderson 
David Hourse, Jr. 
Robert Long 



Lucy Taylor 
Sally Taylor 



G. Wilson Allen 
Thos. Wagg, Jr. 



H. Lindsay Hester 
H. Hajrold Ellison 
Homer L, Lippard 
Chas. Livengood 
Ed. G. Thomas 
James L. Stewart 
L. H. Edmondson 
J. L. Moorhead 
Everett G. Ferine 
Boderic S. Leland 
Geo. Prampton 
E. Der Tatevawian 
Duncan C. Gray 
Robt. Leater»Jr. 



Co-ed Editor 

Evelyn Miller 
Blanche H. Clarke 



Helen Chandler 
Esther Morris 
Esther Morris 
Inez Pearce 
Gladys Shuford 
Rivera Ingle 
Annie L. Newsom 
Va. Jordan 
Mary B, Henderson 
Alma ^. Hanson 
Betty A, Stowell 
Betty J. Marshall 
Edwina Sunholm 
Dixie Swaren 



Lois Jarrett 
Leslie Thompson 



Harry L, Bivens 
Isaac Harris, Jr. 
Wm. Rousseau 
Joe W, Mann, Jr. 
John D, Minter 
John D. Minter 
Raymond L. Kent 
Robt, P. Nixon 
Wm. G. Crawfore 
Eliz. Akin 
E. G. MathewB 
Walter James 
Travers Brown 
Andrew Duck)er,Jr, 



Adelaide Royall 
Sally Taylor 
Nancy Crews 

Eliz. Caldwell 
Dorothy Jennet te 
Margaret Bennett 
Eliz. Rouse 
Louise Hooker 
Frances Tudor 
Frances Tudor 
Gladys Souder 
Eliz. Akin 
Helen Cockrell 
Betty Souders 
Jeanne fJhirphy 
Polly Warner 
Mary Whyte 



President 



Tice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Classical Club 
(1910- ) 

Charter members: Warren, Proctor, Bennett, Aiken, Gaston, Hutchins, 
Londow. 



W. P. Gill 
A. M. Gates 



A. M. Gates 
A. H. Merritt 



J. N. Aiken 
N. I. White 



A. H. Merritt 
James Cannon, III 



21 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Classical Club-cont. 



w. p. 


Gill 




C. A. Burras 


W. I. 


Woo ten 


c. w. 


Peppier 




C. G. Cordle 


w. w. 


Hut ton 


A. M. 


Gates 




W. B. Cannon 


A. E. 


Brown 


W. P. 


Gill 




H, C. West 


R. E. 


Parker 


c. w. 


Peppier 




J, B. Whitener 


H. W. 


Kendall 


A. M. 


Gates 




H, L. Hoffman 


A. C. 


Jordan 


c. w. 


Peppier 




R. W. Bradshaw 


C. C. 


Alexander 


A. M. 


Gates 




IStigene Che s son 


A. S. 


Barnes, Jr. 


c. w. 


Peppier 




W, U, Vaughan 


D. W, 


Kanoy 


A. M. 


Gates 




M, R. Chambers 


Mike : 


Bradshaw 


c. w. 


Peppier 


A. M. Gates 


H, C. Sprinkle 


J. R. 


Maness 


A. M. 


Gates 




C. C. Jernigan 


W. F. 


Ricks 


0. w. 


Peppier 




S. M. Kale 


0. B. 


Ader 


A. M. 


Gates 




W. C, Maxwell 


Parman McLarty 


R. R. 


Rosbo rough 




James Traesdale 


B. B. 


Carstarphen 


F. P. 


Johnson 




Arthur Bridgers 


Harold Mc Curdy 


Heniy 


S. Robinson 




Frank T. Gerard 


Louis 


Bl Jennings 


James 


Trues dale 




Sidney Stovall 


Kendrick Few 


James 


Truesdale 




Herbert L. Cain 


Sidney Stovall 


James 


Traesdale 




Barney L. Jones 


Alonzo Kenion 






Class of 1923 












(1919-1923) 








J. B. 


Anderson 


J, W. Holton 


Flora Meredith 


D. L. 


Suiter 


C. E. 


Summers 


H. C. Sprinkle, Jr. 


Hunter Holloway 


W. H. 


Lander 


H. C. 


Sprinkle 


W. N, Lander 


Sara DaShiell 


T. G. 


Heal 


J. L. 


Jaclcson 


T. G. Neal 

Class of 1924 
(1920-1924) 


Elodia Yancey 


L. D. 


Moore 


Howard P. Powell 


W. L. Clegg 


M. Ballard 


Same 




C. H. 


King 


R. H. Pinnix 


Eliz, Newcomb 


J. D. 


Secrest 


E. B. 


Fisher 


L, E. Spiker 


Margaret Frank 


C. G. 


Knox 


C. G. 


Knox 


C. H. King 

Class of 1925 
(1921-5925) 


Eliz, Aldridge 


M. T. 


Hipps 


E. G. 


Overton 


J, E. Dempster 


Lillian Frost 






G. B. 


Caldwell 


W, Rolf Brown 








R. W. 


Garrett 


Ray Shate 


Alice BAiley 






J. E. 


Dempster 


W. S. Barnes 


Mary L. Carlton 


Same 




J. J. 


Fariss 


W. A. Kale 


Mary Eskridge 


Same 





22 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



B, A. Carter 
W. L, Barnliardt 
H. B. Johnson 
W, P. Craven 
S. L. Cannon 



Class of 1926 
(1922-1926) 

E. H. Harris 
J. P. Prank 
T. A. Aldridge 
W. S. Blake ney 
C. B. Caldwell 



Eliz, Roberts 

Olive Faucet t 
Annie B. Anders 
Prances Holmes 



Same 

Same 
Same 
E. P. McPee 



Class of 1927 
(1923-1927) 

Pred A. Ware S, K. Rice 
D.E.Kirkpatrick R. C. Pinley 
Clay Bridgers Sam Bandy 
Parman G, McLarty W. A. Mabry 



Anna M. Suitte 
Prances Holmes 
Sally Taylor 
Eliz. Ramsey 



Prances Thompson 
A, J. Kirby, Jr. 
Rebecca Land 



H. L. Lester 
James Traesdale 
Arthur Harris 
J. C. Barwell 



Class of 1928 
(1924-1928) 

A. P. Harris 
Edith Parker 
Stewart Rogers 
R. G. Tattle, Jr, 



Edith Parker Same 
Dorothy Honey cut t Same 
Ellen Huckabee Same 
Kathryn Warlick A. Kirkpatrick 



R. C. Veach 
Sprail Thornton 
James Carruthers 
Coke Candler 



Class of 1929 
(1925-1929) 

Sam McNinch Eliz. Clifton Eliz. Borland 
Eliz. Clifton Wm. Kaleel Geo. Ashford 
Vann R. Linebach Jeannings G. King Pajiline Weber 
Harry Hollingsworth Robt. Johnson James W. Putrell 



Class of 1930 
(1926-1930) 

Joe Savage Luther Angle 
E. Weatherspoon Harry Councilor 
Ernest Jenkins John PI Lucas 
Thomas S. Steams Bessie Martin 



Margaret Bennett 
Dorothy Jennet t 
Margaret Bennett 
Herbert O'Keef 



Henry Ruark 
Richard Stearns 
Alton G. Saddler 
Alton G. Saddler 



Class of 1931 
(1927-1931) 



J. Gaither Pratt Wm. Porter Sellers Wm. E. Joyner Jake Parrott 



22-a 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Women's Class of 1931 
(1927-1931) 

Cornelia Yarborough Hettie English Eleanor Peek Frances Hill 



James Mullen 



Men's Class of 1932 
(1928-1932) 
Philip Bolich 



James Wellons 



Women's Class of 1932 
(1928-1932) 
Louise Moses Margaret Bledsoe Florence MqSS 



John Gramhle 



Mary J. Tate 



Lawson Znott 



Men's Class of 1933 
(1929-1933) 
Jos, Skinner Parker Hamlin 



Hobt. S. Voorhees 



Women's Class of 1933 
(1929-1933) 
Dorothy Newsome Nedra Jones Anne Ingles 



Martha Vance 



Joe Shackford 
Carl F, Schock 



Men's Class of 1934 
(1930-1934) 
Nicholas L, Pine 
John Peckham 



Carl F. Schock 
Geo. H. Lamar 



Leroy Sides 
John Hamrick 



Women's Class of 1934 
(1930-1934) 
Helen Daniel Eloise Ingram Margaret McCoy Mary Jansen 
Janet Griffin Annie K. Rebnan Carolyn Mcintosh Catherine Serf as 



Don McNeil 



Men's Class of 1935 
(1931-1935) 
R, Ahner Jones Jackson M. Viol 



James B. Allardice 



Women's Class of 1935 
(1931-1935) 
Ethel Garrett Tempe Hewsom Dorothy Wjrvell Sally Clark 

Ethel Garrett Mary Mei^tlejohn PSiscilla Smith Louise Merkel 



Men's Class of 1936 
(1932-1936) 
Frank J. Sizemore James B. Henry 



Joseph S. Hiatt Thos. Murray 



Women's Class of 1936 
(1932-1936) 
Helen Gray Emmie L, Morton Va. Hardin 

Ruth Phillips Dorothy Gray Bliz, Sutten 



Ruth Phillips 
Margaret Waldrop 



23 



President Vice-president Secretary Treasurer 

Men's Class of 1937 
(1933-1937) 

Tom F, Southgate 

John Timmons Robert Lapham William Wom"ble William C. Jennings 
Tom Soiithgate John A.Zneipp Howard Eastwood Helson Jantzen 
Richard M. Taliaferro Gerald McMaster Howard Sastwood James Gorringe 

Women's Class of 1937 
(1933-1937) 
Walton Bowen 

Katherine Upchurch Constance Wyatt Catherine White Evelyn Taylor 
Bess Laing Nancy Peterson Margery White Dorothy Davis 
Paula B^ssett Bess Laing Lucy Rausehenherg Margaret Zecher 
Be.vs Laing 



Gilbert Mathews 
Preston Webster 
Willard Earngey 



Jean Stocker 
Margaret White 
Margaret White 
Jane Love 



Men's Class of 1938 
(1934-1938) 
William Courtney Fred Rebman Preston Webster 
James Little Arthur Bradsher Norman Wherrett 
Danny Farrar Ray G, Sparks Norman Wherrett 

Women's Class of 1938 
(1934-1938) 
Marjorie Winston Margaret Neel 
Genevieve Baggs Betty Stine Joan Bliss 
Betty Stine Annie Daniel Patricia White 
Margaret White Jean McCaiiley Betty Bogert 



Men's Class of 1939 
(1935-1939) 
Garfield Miller John Parsons Tom P.Senff Howard Mason 
Charles Moorhead William Rhodes Charles Finefrock Richard Goode 
John Cfee Robert O'Mara John Goehrig Fred Yorke 
Richard Ooode Henry MJWilson Walter J.Kerr James R, Kahle 



Women's Class of 1939 



(1935-1939) 
Marie Pedeflous Hazelle Gillin 
Katherine Chubb Hazelle Gillin 
Betty Shortlidge Hazelle Gillin 
Frances Brooks Louise Brugh 



Bliz» Shortlidge 
Dorothy Creery 
Jane Kelley 
Betty Erion 



Helen Bennett 
Caroline Breedlove 
Helen Salieby 
Dorothy Henry 



John Lloyd 
Jack Palmer 
Sam Williams 
Add Penf ield 



Men's Class of 1940 

(1936-1940) 
Jack Palmer Frank Chapman Albert Banks 
Guy Berner Al Kley Edward Henderson 
Fred MacGlllivray Joseph T, Gardner Maurice linger 
Arthur Peabody Rufus T, Brinn Robert W, Stivers 



. J. 



=■7 



24 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treaforer 



Woman's Class of 1940 
(1936-1940) 



Edna Campbell 
Barbara Henry 
Macine Neuslml 
Barbara Henry 



Eleanor Davis 
Clairbel Gee 
Rosanna Brewer 



Peggy A, Eaup 
Farrar Baboo ck 
Farrar Babcock: 
Nancy Broim 



Eleanor DaVis 
Jo Collins 
Nancy Brown 
Janet Haas 



Men's Class of 1941 
(1937-1941) 



Donald Mitchell 
Robt. P. Moore 
John E. Wright 
Robt. D. Little 



Harold Carswell 
Edward M. Brown 
Edward Brown 
Bob Atwell 



Robt. D. Little Brace E. Boorman 
Charles Henderson James B&kier 
Harold Carswell Howard Carson 



Jean Boiighton 
Jean Bou£^ton 
Thea Congete 
Babbette Baker 



Women's Class of 1941 
(1937-1941) 

Thea Conger 
Dorothea CoDger 
Doris Tritle 
Doris Tritle 



Rosemaiy Forsythe Doris Tritle 
Margaret Bezzenberger S. Southgate 
Babbars Fagan Eleanor Southgate 
Ivey Courtney Rose Kueffner 



H. W. Kendall 



Cleveland County Club 
(1916-1917) 

J. H. Burnxw 



D. H, Peeler 



Claude &rigg 



Women's Class of 1942 
(1938- ) 



Betty L. Qaick 
Marion Lassen 
Sarah Dabney 



7a. Huston 
Nancy Leonard 
Nancy Leonard 



Eliz. Peach 
Betty Peach 
Betty Peach 



Linette Jbnith 
Linisette Smith 
Sally Osborne 



Men's Glass of 1942 
(1938- ) 

Howard Moffett Robert A, Wilson 

Howard Moffett Wm. Senhaaser Robt. Puder Robt. McDonough 

Lawrence E. Blanchard R, A, Sanderson ^ Clay Rogrbach Robt. McDonough 



.31". 



If- 



25 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Women's Class of 1943 
(1939- ) 

Kathleen Watkins Nancy Wrenn 
Kathleen Watidns Nancy Wrenn 



Katherine Danleberger Nannie L. Kern 
Pauline Beaver Nannie Lou Kerns 



Men's Class of 1943 
(1939- ) 

Irvin Wright Wendell Lockwood Thoharn Synder Dick Ford 
Prank I. Wright Richard H. Ibrd J. Kenrpton Jones Same 

Women's Class of 1944 
(1940- ) 



Jean Maddox 



Antoinette Salley Sara Banting 



Mary Banldiardt 



Men's Class of 1944 
(1940- ) 

Howard Hardesty Wm. S. Dolt 



Eenry Nicholson Eoht. M. Gantt, Jr, 



Order of the Coif 
(1933- ) 



1933 Justin Miller 

1934 H. Claude Ho rack 
1935- 

1941 H. Claude Ho rack 



Gordon S. Dean Same 
Wm. R. Roalfe Same 

Wm. B. Roalfe Same 



Columhian Literary Society 
(1846-1938) 



1897 3^D. H. Littlejohn 
4jG. H. Humher 

1904 3;N,S.0ghurg, Jr. 
4) J. A. Morgan 

1905 C. R. Pugh 
S.B. Underwood 



1906 1) L. B. Pendergraph 

2) H. S, Spence 

3) C. Q. Stewart 

4) C. E. Phillips 



Wood 


w. 


W. 


Card 


R. H. Mann 


J. 


M. 


Oulhreth 


J. R. McPhail 


w. 


R. 


Grant 


W. A. Bryon 


w. 


R. 


Grant 


;dg. Secy: 


W. 


R. 


Grant 



L. W. Crawford 
D. H. Littlejohn 
J. C. Richardson 
C. J. Harrell 
P. W. Oharr 
Alton S. Hohgood R, C. Goldstein 

Corr. Secy: 

H. B. Howe 
P. S. Love 
E. B, Hohgood 
Edgar Knight and 
J.B.Sidhury 
4) A. M. Proctor 



W. A. Biyan 
C. E. Phillips 
Pyank Culbreth 
L. P. Wilson 



R. C. Goldstein 
R, C. Goldstein 



26 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



ColumMan Literary Soclety-cont. 



1907 


3) 


s. 


A. 


Richardson L. 


P. 


Brothers 


C. 


C. 


Cunningham 


R. 


C. 


Goldstein 




4) 


K. 


w. 


Parham 


F. 


s. 


Love 


Willi 


8 Smith 


R. 


M. 


Patterson 


1909 


4) 


B. 


L. 


Phillips 


Nathan Wright 


J. 


Londow 


H. 


R. 


Hunter 


1911 


1^ 


R. 


G. 


Cherry 


E. 


J. 


Londow 


J. 


R. 


Davis 


c. 


E. 


Rozelle 




2) 


E. 


J. 


Londow 


R. 


M. 


Patterson 


K. 


P. 


Neal 


J. 


R. 


Davis?.?. 




3) 


R. 


M. 


Patterson 


C. 


E. 


Rozelle 


Same (Nesl) 


J. 


R. 


Davis 




4) 


C. 


E. 


Rozelle 


V. 


A. 


Moore 


Same 


(Neal) 


J. 


R. 


Davis 


1912 


1) 


S. 


s. 


Alderman 


K. 


P. 


Neal 


w. 


P. 


Stames 


J. 


R. 


Davis 




2) 


w. 


w. 


?yrd 


K. 


P. 


Neal 


P. 


B. 


Brown 


w. 


M. 


Edens 




3) 


K. 


P. 


Keal 


J. 


P. 


Wynne 


P. 


B. 


Brown 


w. 


M. 


Edens 




4) 


W. 


M. 


Edens 


M. 


L. 


Stuart 


M. 


B. 


Andrews 


B. 


S, 


Savage 


1913 


1) 


J. 


R. 


Davis 


1. 


P. 


Stames 


P. 


B. 


Brown 










2) 


w. 


P. 


S tames 


B. 


P. 


Dalton 


D. 


W. 


Holt 










3) 


B. 


P. 


Dalton 


M. 


B. 


Andrews 


I. 


S. 


Harrell 










4) 


M. 


B. 


Andrews 


w. 


B. 


C5ovington 


P. 


Hawfield 








1914 


1) 


H. 


E. 


Myers 


B. 


w. 


Barnard 


J. 


H. 


Grigg 










2) 


B. 


W. 


Barnard 


P. 


B. 


Brown 


6. 


W. 


H. Britt 










3) 


P. 


&. 


Farrar 


J. 


s. 


Cox 


L. 


c. 


Allen 










4) 


P. 


B. 


Greene 


s. 


L. 


Gal ledge 


V. 


u. 


Secrest 








1915 


1) 


J. 


H. 


Grigg 


0. 


w. 


H. Britt 


A. 


B. 


Parmer 










2) 


L. 


c. 


Allen 


R. 


M. 


Johnson 


G, 


H. 


Verguson 










3) 


R. 


M. 


Johnson 


B. 


L. 


Smith 


s. 


c. 


Pew 










4) 


B. 


L. 


Smith 


J. 


w. 


Hoyle 


A. 


H. 


Gwyn 








1916 


1) 


E. 


C. 


?ew 


A. 


B. 


Parmer 


P. 


L. 


Sample 










2) 


M. 


J. 


Eatsaon 


G. 


R. 


Jordan 


M. 


S. 


Lewis 










3) 


John 


Cline 


M. 


B. 


Woolsey 


B. 


M. 


Spivey 








1917 


1) 


E. 


M. 


Spivey 


H. 


w. 


Sanders 


A. 


J. 


Eohhs 










^l 


B. 


0. 


Merritt 


M. 


S. 


Lewis (Miss 


) Claude Cooper 










3) 


L. 


L. 


Gobhel 


L. 


H. 


Allison 


R. 


A. 


Smith 










4) 


L. 


H. 


Allison 


H. 


w. 


Kendall 


R. 


W. 


Sanders 








1918 


1) 


A. 


J. 


Hohhs 


J. 


H. 


Lanning 


N. 


M. 


West 


R. 


K. 


Smathers 




2) 


A. 


H. 


Gijyn 


C. 


B. 


Cooper 


L. 


H. 


McNeely 


L. 


W. 


Saunders 




3) 


L. 


H. 


McNeely 


w. 


H. 


Cherry 


J. 


H. 


Brendall.Jr.L. 


w. 


Saunders 


1919 


1) 


N. 


M. 


West 


J. 


W. 


R. Norton 


R. 


A. 


Parham 


C. 


H. 


Moser 




2) 


J. 


W. 


R. Norton 


J. 


T. 


Carpenter 


N. 


C. 


league 










3) 


R. 


A. 


Smith 


R. 


A. 


Smith 


G. 


D. 


Harmon 









1! 



TXM^ •<•* »'* 



f »K 



27 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary4 



Treasurer 



ColtunMan Literary Society-cont, 



J. W. Hathcock 
G. D. Harmon 
C. Grigg 
Hugh Lefler 



C. Grigg 
C, W. Bandy 
Htigh Lefler 
C. S. Maky 



Leroy Dalln K. L, ELnore 
B. I. Satterfield R. H. Haass 
E. D. Ware J, B. Tabor 



J. L. Jackson 
W. Q. Grigg 
T, B. Bradley 

G. C. Ervin 
C. H. King 
H. A. Olivdr 
J. T. Lannlng 

E. B. Uartin 

J. P. Boyd 

W. A. Kale 

S. M. Kale 



.W. Q. Grigg 

C. 2. Jordan 

D. H. Conley 

H. A. Oliver 
J. D. Secrest 
W. S. Smith 
F. B. Joyner 

J. P. Boyd 

L. L. Wall 

S. M. Kale 

B. S, Ware 



L. L. Wall W. S. Blakeney 

W. S. Blakeney A* B. Gil^son 
A. B. Gilison F. A. Lee 



W. A. Mabry 

I. G. McLarty 

D. D. Holt 

P. R, Ervin 

W. A. Hart 

J. A. Brothers 

I. E. Harris 

T. 0. Gentry 

B. G. Stewart 

W. C. Biggs 

T. S. Steams 

Kelson M. Blake 

Herman Walker 



E. G. Dawson 
E. L. Ervin 
W. S. Grant 

B. H, Zigler 
M. Walters 
G. C. lupton 

W. 0. Biggs 
B. 6. Stewart 
S. E. McEachern 

T. S. Stearns 
Heftnan Walker 

Paul D. Ro her son 
J, Jenkins 



C. E. Backner G. G. Adams 
J, L. Jackson Leroy Dalin 
B. I. Satterfield Henry Balk 

D. W, Kanoy (Miss) 



W. Q. Grigg 
C, E, Jordan 
E. P« Gibson 

T. B. Bradley 
B. E. Holt 
W. Q. Tattle 

J, J. Parriss 
E. B. Martin 
W. S. Blakely 
S. M. Kale 

W. C. Maxwell 

P. A. Lee 
G, P. Harris 

A. B. Gibson 

J, B. McLarty 
W, A. Mabry 

H. L. Bivens 

B. E. Ervin 
P. E. Pile 

E. E. Partridge 



W. q. Grigg 



H. A. Oliver 
H. A. Oliver 
J, J, Parriss 

B. B, Martin 
J. P. Boyd 
J. PILBoyd 
B. S. Ware 

W, S, Blakeney 
P. G. McLarty 



W. D. Maultsby 
J. G. Wilkinson 



W. S. Grant 
P. E. Pile 



J. A. Brothers W. C. Parsons 
H. C. Perrell M. W« Maness 
H. P. Strickland 



Paul D. Eoberson Arthur Kbffler 
John Jenkins Baymond Inndgren 



T. 0. Gentry 
T, S, Steams 
S. W, Reynolds 

Herman Walker 
Hannis Latham 

J. Jeiikins 
E, W, Couch 

John Poe 
Lawson Knott 



H. C. Perrell 
C. N. Swan 



H, A. Lupton 

W. C. Haass 

L, B. Parabee 
S. B. Underwood 

John Jenkins 
Thomas Carriger 



r ' 



,CitQO- 



** f* Tr h * 



D .W 



28 



President 



yice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Colxun'bian Literary Society-cont, 



Lawson Knott Thomas Balrd 
Alexander McLean Davis Williams 



Davis Williams 
Dowd Banglex 

Hobt, Morris 
Wm. Holler 



Thomas Rogers 
Wm. Holler 

Sam Hogol 



Charles Short 
Therman Troxler 

Homer Hilton 
Henry Jaegger 



Rohert Morris 



Pardae Bunch 
Andrew Berry 

Fred Cady 
Robert B. Zay 

Fred Cady 



James Bistline Robert E. Kay 



Bill J. Williams Wm. Simmons 



1936 Wm. B. Somerville Chas. B. Wade Denny D. Williams Frank Marlcham 
Prgm. Chairman: Charles Sporgeon 



1937 James F. McOimsey Jack Eargett Bill Rhodes 
Chairman of Program Committee: Dorsey Spargin 

3) D. H. Littlejohn L. W, Crawford Wood 
») ff. H. Humber D. H. Littlejohn R. H. Mann 

1908 l) C, L. Bivens R. C. Goldstein H. R. Hunter 

2) A. J, Templeton C. C. Cunningham H, R. Hunter 

4) C. C. Cunningham M. A. Briggs L. M. Parker 



1910 l) H. R. Hunter 

2) H. R. Hunter 

3) L. I. Jaffe 

4) W. R. Bell 



L. I. Jaffe 
L. I. Jaffe 
W. G. Gaston 
H, R. Hunter 



W, H. Muse, Jr. 
W. H. Mase, Jr, 
I. W. Byrd 
A. W. :^rd 



Jerome E. Rosen 

W. W. Card 

J, M, Culbreth 

B. L. Phillips 

B. L. Phillips 

B. L. Phillips 

E. J. Londow 

E. J. Londow 

E. C, Rozelle 

E. C. Rozelle 



1919 W. N. Evans 

1920 J. K. Vise 



Cosmopolitan Club 
(1919©1934) 

L, C. Richmond, Jr. J. L. Jackson 
Helen Cantrell Flora Meredith 



Same 
Same 



"D" Club 
1924 G. B. Caldwell C. W. Porter 



J. P. Frank 



Davenport College Club 
(1921- ) 



Imogene Barrett 



Margaret Jordan Esther Eads 



nc- 



i .J> 



!• . 



T 



29 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



1935 
1936 



Mildred Williams Carol Strauss 



1937 



DeTaaters' Club 
(1931- ) 

Inez Iternetlay Erma Griffith 

Mildred Williams Elizabeth Hatcher 

Catherine Blakeney Jean Metz 

Business Mgrj Parrar Bahcock, Betty Holt 

Publicity Mgl:: Catherine Blakeney, Shirley Goldsmith 

Betty Jelks Elizabeth Hatcher 

Business Mgr: Parrar Babcock 

Publicity Mgr: Catherine Blakeney 
Catherine Blakeney-Jean Metz 

Buxiness Mgr: Betty Holt 

Publicity Mgr: Shirley Goldsmith 



1938 
1939 



Jean Metz 
Publicity Mgr: Shirley Goldsmith 



Jay Metz 



Idella Benson 



Betty Pierce 



Parrar Babcock 



Charter members: 



Delta Chi 
(1938-1939) 

Catherine Blakeney, Evelyn Oulp, Lucille King, 
Jean Metz, Betty Pierce, Janls Pridgen, Helen 
Rohrer, Shirley Smith, Hope Thomas, Heloa Willis. 



1938(Sp)Jean Metz Catherine Blakeney Shirley Smith 
1938 Catherine Blakeney-Janls Pridgen I '-Shirley Smith 



Betty Pierce 
Helen Rohrer 



Charter members: 



Delta Gamma (Replaced Delta Chl-1939) 
(1939- ) 

Alma D. Baskin, Jane Blackburn, Miriam Cole, 
Audrey Conrad, Mary Cowles, Kathering Kaither, 
Elizabeth Galther, Elizabeth A. Green, Lillian 
C. Harvard, Lucile King, Marjorie Kishpaugh, 
Barbara Marshall, Jean Metz, Betty Pierce, Helen 
Rohrer, Shirley Smith, Margaret Stames, Hope Thomas, 
iane Waters, Virginia Wray. 



1940 



Lillian Harvard Lucile King 



Record, Sec- Hilda Petty 
Margaret Starnes-Assis, Treas.- 

Corres. Sec- Va. Goodbody 
Helen Magnuson 



30 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Delta Upsilon 
(1931- ) 

Charter Members: Margaret Bledsoe, Louise Smith, Ihnma Sloop, 
Edith Haines, Nedra Jones, Maxy Skinner, 
Martha Stringfield, Ola Belle Whitehead, 
Frances Tudor, Mary Winget. 



Margaret Bledsoe 
Sarah Fulton 
Dot Warren 

Mary McCollum 
Gladys Souder 



Frances Tudor Louise Smith 
Ola Belle Whitelead Mary &. Ininget 



Huth Bailey 
Florence Geise 
Isohel Shrine r 
Barbara Rifth 



Louise Carter 



Mary Skinner 
Caroline Hietle 
Isohel Shriner 



Marie Anderson Barbara Hich 



Nellie A. Opper Huth K. Haddon 



K. Maedee Brown Betty Tow 



Margaret Moore Helen Lieb 
Rcdg. Sec- Marg, Moore 

Gene M. Laney 
Gorr, Sect 

Isobel Shriner 
Hcdg. Sect Marg. Zecher 

Charlotte Siehler 
Corr, SecT 

Nellie A. Opper 
Corr, Sec- S, Ann Watson 

Mary B, Caton 
Rcdg. Sec- 

Isobelle Sultner 



Betty Yow 
Lois Donehoo 



Flewellyn Flowers 
Helen Driscoll 



Rcdg, Sec- 
Joan Leivis 

Cor. Sec- 
Dorothy King 

Cor. Secy.- 
Peggy Young 

Betty Tucker 



Janet Rawdon 
Assis.- 

Jean Weyman 

Jean Weyman 

Betty Shryock 



Delta Spsilon Sigma 
(1931- ) 

Charter members: R. B. Atkins, R. T. Creekmore, A. L. deBruyne 
Lee Coulter, S. G, Flock, S. R. Smith, W. B. 
Snow, W. F. Weaver; K. T. Mathews, advisor. 



Stanley G. Flack Wm. F. Weaver 
R. S. Miller J. R. Malone 



Anton L. deBruyne Same 
Corr. Secy- 

W. Brewster Show 
G. B. Cropper Same 
Corr. Secy- 
W. Karpinslcy 
Don W. Mitchell Joseph B. Maxson Hal W. Atkinson Same 

Corr. Secy- 
John M. Bird 



..^oJ- 



» ■ 



1^0 II 



« • 



31 



President Ylee-Presidant Secretary 
Delta Epsilon Sigma-Cont. 



C. E. Scott 



Jack Wauters 



Irving W. Bearse Wm. W, Tamer 



Fred, H, Jackson Stanley P. Boyce 
George T. Byniam Wm. Griffiths , Jr, 
Milton P. Oviatt Robt. L. James 
John D. MacLauchlan- 
Hoht. E. Perinovich Carl Laappe 



Treasurer 



Same 



Roy Crone 4 
Corr. Secy- 

W. Armstrong 
Hcdg Secy- E. Robt. Scattergood 

E. Robert Scattergood 
Corr Secy- 

Chas. P. Ballenger, Jrl 
Francis Pettengill-Robt. E. Buck 
Richard C. Zeane Same 
G. Pred. Kreiser W. M. Cramer 

Wm. D. Drew 



Delta Phi Alpha 
(1931- ; 

C. Raymond Lundgren 

James L, Newsom Martin B, Williams Lenora Snyder 



Walter West 



Helmath 



Lenora Snyder 



Hilda Spence 



Hambleton Slingluff K. White 
Geo. Snyder James littler 
Henry Bolte John Weber 
Buck Koenig Hugh Myers 

Historian — Rath Keppee 
Dorothea Conger Frances Crawford 



Wm. Mosenson 
Helimxth Bode 



Recg Secy- 
Sara Berenson 

Corr Secy- 
Phil W, Casper 

Recdg Secy- Geo. P. Snyder 
Herb. J, Upcharch 

Corr Secy- 

Katherine White 

Camilla Ritchie 

Helen Parks 
Edwina Sondholm 

Edwina Sondholm 



Haddon Smith 
Bobt. Scanlon 
Irving Samuels 



Cynthia Bennett Same 



Delta Phi Rho Alpha 
(1921- ) 



Hunter Holloway 
Delta 



Sarah Dashiell 
Margaret Frank 
Maude Hunter 



Carolyn Avera 

Phi 

Laura Winston 
Dorothy Kanoy 
Luch Glasson 



Herminia Haynes 
Bho 

Blanche Johnson 
Nancy Kirkman 
Alene McCall 



Thelma Howell 
Alpha 

Katherine Cox 
Ida Greene 
Idalene Gulledge 



V. 



32 



Year 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurey 



Delta Pbl Hbo Alpha-Co nt. 



1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 



Janet Griffin 



Ma^ C. Seed 
Ethel Weyant 



Dorothy Newsome 

Eloise Ingram 

June Bailey 

Margery White 

Katharine Updmrch Joan Bliss 

Mary Binder Doris Larsen 

Dorothy Wilklns Hilllard Hardin 

Nancy Haper Dorothy WAlcott 

Marjorie LaMont Dorothy Wolcott 



Eloise Ingrain Betty Boesch 

Ethel Garrett Mary A. Dewey 
Margaret Cuninggim Dorothy Gray 

Marg. Cuninggim Barbara Hlch 
Carol Wiricinson 

Ruth Haskell Cath, DeHuff 

Nancy Brown Grace Stamets 

Marjorie LaMont Doris Colsh 

Betty Ware Mattha Phillips 



Delta Psi 
(Pounded- Peh.1929 
Succeeded by Sigma ICappa 
Jan, 4, 1931) 



Charter members: 



Sara Ownbey, Prances Sowe, Flora Crews Best, 
Angela Whitney, Ida P. Eatman. 



Delta Sigma Phi (Alpha Epsilon) 
(Jan. 24. 1920- ) 



Charter members: 



Hilllard Chreitzberg Polsom, John W, S. Norton, 
Lloyd B. Harthaway, Wm. P. Murphy, Jr.. Oscar 
L. Richardson, Alexander B, Wilklns, Charles P. 
Woodard, La Roy Riddick, Richard E. Thigpen. 



1934 
1935 

1936 

1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 



James Rankin J. P. Bostook 
Theo. Stritzinger Travis Smithdeal 
Historian — Charles, f . Ackley 
Kenneth M. Boyle James N. Gorringe 



Pred P. Smith 
Wm. Irwin- 
Nerrin Stetler 
Albert R. Hutson 



Wm. M. Courtney 
Nelson Gibson 
Robt. C. Heller 
Edward M. Brown 



Robt. C. Powell 
Wm. f . Turner 

Secy & Hist.- 

Wm. N, Horsley 
J. Nelson Gibson 
Wm. Bender, III 
Albert R. Hutson 
Wm. S. Lone 



Theo. Stritzinger 
Janes N. Gorringe 

Willard M. Gillies 

James K. West 
Elliott Howe 
Bernard L. Ellas 
Stephen R. Lawrence 



Delta Tau Delta (Delta Kappa) 
(Dec. 7, 1928- ) 



Charter Members: 



Joseph T. Carruthers, Jr., Jaie H. Exam, Paul D, 
Veasey, Louis A, States, Worth A. Lutz, John L, 
Woodard, Chas. LaPair, Nelson McGary. Alton G. 
Sadler, Everett B. Weatherspoon, J. Pred Evans, 
Geo. B. King, Theron A. Bone. W, Tate Whitman, 
Joseph W, Mann, P. Jack Martin, Irvin Morgan, Geo. B. 
Nash, Horace L. Wise, Robt. M. Russell. 



33 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurey 



Delta Tsa Delta-Cont. 
PaTil D. Veasey Chas, Pair 



J. Fred Evans 
John I. Morgan 

Nicholas Orem 

E. Howard Lackay 



uOi^ 



Bobt. H. Pate 



▲Iton'G* Sadler 



Jos. W, Mann 
Nicholas Orem 

H« Howard Lackay 



Chas. R. Humphreys Thorn. H. Jos ten 

Martin B. Williams (Sias. H. Walsh 
Geo. B. Sveritt Wm. K. Brumbach 



Corr Secy- 

Geo. King 

Hcdg Secy- 
Wm. T. Whitman 

John 2). Morgan 

Corr Secy- 
Roht. H. Pate 

Corr Secy- 
Ben. P. Martin 

Corr Secy- 
Wm. D. Tuckwiller 

Hcdg Secy- 
Hugh B. Stevens 

Corr. Secy- Martin B. Willians 
James 01 Otis 

Hcdg. Secy- 
Pred G. Smith 

Nash Herudon Wm. Brumbach 



Jos. R. Mackie 



Andrew H. Masset Thos* G. Coen 



Hervey S. Moore Wm. P. Hanig 



Hervey S. Moore Thos. C. Morrow 
Chas. P. Saribom Gerald N. Smith 



Corr, Secy- A, I^rman Wright 
Holmes E. Newton Geo. B, Appleford 
Rcdg Secy- 
Robt. R. Goodwin 
C. Chadwici Ballard Corr Secy- Geo. B. Appleford 

Holmes S. Newton 
Rcdg Secy- 
lobt. L. Steenrod 
Corr. Secyi9 Harold A, Sykes, Jrl 

Clayton C. Carter 
Rcd€ Secy- 
Wilbur H. Crannell 
Rec. Secy- In. 0. Williams 

Russell A. Gair 
Cor. Secy- 
Clayton C. '^arter 
David M. Jamison Robt, Neuburger 
Donald R. Brown Judson L. Owen, Jr. 



Deutscher Verein 
(Oct. 22,1909- ) 

Prof. W. H. Wannamaker A. L. NcCobb Lotiis I. Jaffe 
W. H. Wannamaker A. L. McCobb 



Distaff, The 
(1931-1934) 

Editor- Mary Bradsher 

Bus. Mgr.- Martha Single tary 



Editor-Mildred Stites 



•rhr m^wf^- 



34 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



freasarer 



Distaff, The-C!ont, 



1932-c Bas. Mgr,- Catherine Serf as 
Assoc. 2d.- Laura WMte 

1933 Editor- Betty Inight 

Bus. Mgr.- Catherine Serf as 



Daka Ambassadors, Joe Burke & His 



Members : 

First saxophone 

^cond saxophone 

!niird saxophone 

First tranipet 

Second trumpet 

Trombone 

Piano 

Guitar 

Drums 

Bass Viol 



Joseph ?• Burke 
Wm. M. Courtney 
Smmet Atkins 
Oscar &. Stallings 
Sdgar L. Clayton 
Ben Herring 
Arthur Dowling 
Vincent P, Hippolitus 
Jack C. StamatoB 
Wm. S. Robinson 



Duke 'II* Duchess 
(March 19. 1934- ) 



First officers: 

Ed-in-chief 
Associate 
Associate 
Associate 
Art Editor 
Sports Editor 
Bus. Mgr. 
Co-ed Ed. 
Co-ed B.M. 
Circulation 
Circulation 

Editor 
Bus. Mgr. 
Adv. Mgr. 



Berkley Schaub 
Bradley Welfare 
Wade Marr, Jr. 
DoTaglas Corriher 
Wm. Nothdurft 
"Lefty" Fuller 
Ben Housh 
Paula Basset t 
Emily Crum 
Geo . Salmon 
Douglas Ferris 

Billiard A. Schendorf 
Boosevelt Der Tatevasian 
T. Reid Holmes 



flOl 



^ f r ' 



35 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasarer 



Ed. -in-chief 
Bus. Mgr. 

Editor 
Bus« Mgr. 
Associate Ed. 
Associate Ed. 
Co-ed Ed. 



Duke 'N' Dochess-Cont, 

Hilliard A. Schendorf 
Roosevelt Der Tatevasian 

Hilliard Schendorf 
Hdid Holmes 
Add Penfield 
Ed Bonce 
Maxine Chambers 



Editor 
Assoc. Ed. 
Bas. Mgr. 
Assoc. Bus. M. 
Co-ed Bus. Mgr. 

Editor 
Bus. Mgr. 
Assis. Bus. Mgr. 
Co-ed Bus. Mgr. 
Co-ed Ad. Mgr. 
Advisers 



Maxine Chambers 
Ed Bujace 

Robert C. Rice, Jr. 
Theodore Robinson 
Ann King 

Edward Bunce 
Robert B. Pike 
Sandy A. Johnson 
Barbara Williams 
JlmnQr Southgate 
Mr. Hendrickson 



Duke Players 
(1931- ) 

Raymond C. Carter Mary J. Tate Wm. L, Gatling 
Bus. Manager- Win. L. Gatling, Clarence P. Woodroe 



Prank Car den 
Bus. Manager- 



J. B. Clark 
n. Wyman 



Editha Horton 



Geo. Pearson 



C. Turner Poster 

Bus. Manager- Pred P. Ha^ue 

Calhoun Ancrum 

Bus. Manager- Pred P. Hague 



Margaret Pranck 



Chas. M. McCalllster D. C. McMartin Rcg.- 

Bus. Manager- Chas. M. McCallister Katherine Tritle 

Corr.- 

Isobel Shriner 

Jim V. Rose W. Emory Plaster Rcdg.- 

Bus. Manager- Sam H. Reed Nellie Anna Opper 

Co-ed Bus. Mgr.- Marie Anderson Corr.- 
Historian- Ada Whitmore Mary Tobin 



jia. 



'i. uc V "J ^ii J i% o i J 



36 



President 



Vice^'Presldent 



Secretary 



Treaggrer 



Dolce Players-Cont. 

Jim V. Hose Carl Lata 
Bus. Mgr.- Bill Pranck, Jr. 
Co-ed Bus. Mgr,- Jeanne McDonald 



Jolrn D. Bolton John W. Oamsby 
Bus. Mgr.- Qustav Forssell 
Co-ed Bus. Mgr.- Va. Campbell 



Margaret E. Barnes Henry Wentz 



Corr.- 

Charlotte Miller 
Rcdg.- 

Cameron Fornese 

Rcdg.- 

Susan L. Phillips 
Corr.- 

Mildred Morehead 

Marion H. DaVis Frank. H. Johnson 



Duplin County CMb 



A. W. Byrd 


H, B. Newbuiy 


G. W. Murphy 


J. M. Jerome 


G. W. Murphy 


J, D, Jerome 


Imogen Hix 


W. R. Hanchey 


Durham High School Clul 


1 






(1912 ?) 






Gordon Carver 


Robt. Murray 


Susie Marldaam 


Prank Sasser 


T. B. Roberts 


J. J. Thaxton 


Carson West 


Same 


W. C. Stroud 


I. E. Allen 


H. C. West 


Same 


A. L. Carver 


L. W, Saunders 


Anita Harper 


Same 


J, G. Ley bum 


Vera Carr 


L, W. Saunders 


Helen I^con 


S. M. Holton 


J. S. Burch 


Eva Rosenstein 


Same 


W. A. Tyree 


Prank Warner 


Pattie Knight 


I^'da Bishop 


Eattie Hemdon 


Jackson Boling 


Edith Rigebee 


Prank Warner 


LinwDod B. Hollowell Alford Holton 


Mary Scanlon 


Same 


Allen Murdock 


Wm. Cranford 

BKD-1 
(1914-1937) 


Ruth Bright 


Same. 


Bessie Thompson 




Louise Parker 


Same 


Helen Taylor 




Mildred Murnick 


Mildred Holton 


Evelyn Hancock 




Bessie Copeland 


Bessie Copeland 


Clarice Bowman 




Merle Higgins 


Paye Mulholland 


Eli 2. R. ClsTkB 




Gladys Shixford 


Sane 


Ifyrtice Ward 








Ro sane lie Cash 








SI ma, Black 




Carolyn Phillips 


Same 


Mary Alice Rhodes 


s 


Marion Roe 


Same 


Ruth Michler 




Marie Anderson 


Same 


Jane East 




Margaret Adams 


Same 



•ii^i.' £. 



• stnvjC-af&^cI*! 






V.*' 






?:0'-i.,-S; .2 



■t-».' 



37 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Engineers' Club 
(Nov. 10, 1913- ) 



Charter members : 



Seniors- J. H. Armfield, George B. Cropper, 

J, R. Malone, George D, McCrey, Eotert S. Miller 

Erie B, Everman. 

Juniors- Arthur Batson, John Bird, Randolph Clarice, 

Fred Neu, David Drummond. 

Sophomores- Gerald Ferguson, Arthur Wigley. 



F. W. Elliott 

J. J. Thaxton 

W. E. Hanchey 

W. H. Holcomh 

David Drummond 

Edward Storms 

Joseph A. Trainor Roht. D. Martin Chas. P. Ballenger F. W. Pettingill 

Robt. H, Daugherty Harvey T. Jenkinson Rbt. D, Martin Chester L. Lucas 



E. P. Lore 

C. L. Dellinger 

F. L» Scarboro 
L. H. Barber 
Ralph Glvens 



W. D. Hyland 
R. W. Tilley 
W. H, Holcomb 
Wayne Burch 
Edward Stcims 



Same 

Same 

Same, 

Same 

Same 



Richard Keane 
Chas. W. Ramsey 
Ward D. Abbott 
Bob Perinovlch 



Milton Oviatt 
Everett Carter 
Chas. Holley 
Wm. R. Griffith 



Geo. T. ^num 
Milton P. Oviatt 
Geo. f. Varga 
Dale.C. Myers 



John R, Greg son 
John MacLauchlan 
Bob Perinovich 
Daniel Morris Brandon 



Episcopal Vestzy 



Ellen Fsrnum Jack Ross 
Gordon Belding Dave Bew 



Ruth Schoenberger Gordon Fischer 



Ero Mathian Society 
(1900 - ) 



Ethel M. Lewis 



Ex-Service Men's Club 
(1920- ) 



E. L. Stamey 



C. H. Brown 



G. D. Harmon 



Explorers' Club 
(1930- ) 

Charter Members: Miss Alice Baldlrin, Miss Anne Gardiner, Mr. and Mrs. 

Justin Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Seraian and students. 



r) 



38 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Bxp^orere' Clu"b-Cont, 

1930 Executive Secretary — Mr. Ernest Seeman 

1933 Mr. Walter Cutter 

1934 Mr. Burke Smith 

1940 Committee: 

Dean Baldivin 
Dr. Cunningham 
Dr. Perlzweie 
Miss Mary L. Dowling 
Miss Gardiner 
Marian Plhl 
Betsy Morrison 
Gilhert Larson 
Enrin Larson 
Henry Workman 



L. W. Garnett 



Ploridian Club 
(1925- ) 

M. R. Jarvis 



J. Al Norris 



Same 



J. W. Hathcock 
L. V. Harris 
D. S. Johnson 



Folklore Society 
(1920- ) 

R. D. fare 
W. J. Bundy 
D. L. fouts 



Blanche Barringer T. R. Waggoner 

Blanche Barringer 

Sara Dashill W. L. Clegg 



Porsythe County Club 
(1924- ) 



A. C. Waggoner C. H. Pegram 



Prances Holmes 



Same 



Louise Parker 
Reba Cousins 
Prances Ho ire 
Alice Batten 
Lucille Gainey 



Forum Club 
(1927- ) 

Lucy Burt 
Va. Colvard 
Florence Moss 



Anite Scarboro Same 
Vidlette Judd Same 
Argyle Glenn Same 



Geraldine Fletcher Dorothy Forbes Same 



39 



Presldenip 



71 ce-Pre aidant 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Slgrid Pederson 
Mar7 A. Rhodes 
Dorothy Miller 
Carolyn Wlchum 



IV) rum Club-Cont, 

Doris Welles 
Prances Childs 
Margaret Mallony 



Dorothy Tbrhes Same 

Eliz, Friemel Same 

Hath Kelleher Same 

Mary Osborse Same 



Chairman- 
Betty Bell 

Chairman- 
Josephine Bailey 



Forom Committee 

Priscilla Alden 
Advisers- 
Dean Alice M. Baldwin 
Mrs. Mary H. Vance 



Sliz. Lewis 



Fraternity Pan-Hellenic Council 



Chm.- 

Prof. Wannamaker 
Prof. Wannamaker 
Prof. Wannamaker 
Dr. Wannamaker 
Dr. Wannamaker 

Pres.- 
H. C, Finley 
James M. Alhergotti 
Dayton H. Dean 
Bryan Grrimes 
James Wellons 
Sam Pretwell 
Jake W. Sullivan 
Bobt. M. Keown 
Jimmy McCall 



John A. Kneipp 
Donald Sheehan 
Braxton Craven 
Art Peahody 
Penrose Dgvis 



Lawson Reams 
Roht. H. Ricks 
Prank Bamett 
J. Gordon Towiiley 
Ernest Polack 
Alan C. Puryear 



Chas. Gill 
Fred Rehman 
Roht. Van Voorhis 
Geo. H. Dor say 
Roht. Miles 



£. L. Stamey 

0. L. Richardson 

W. A. Kale 

W. M. Nicholson Same 

R. C. Finley Same 



C. E. Sma there 
John L, Burke 
0. C. Godfrey 
Seymour Jones 
J. Meredith Moore 
John Land 
Geo. Speicher 
W. D. Rouse 
Irving 0. Dein 



Same 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Otis Greene 

John Long 

James A. Mustard 

Thos. W. Smith 

Edwin B. Ahhott 



Ahe A. Alterman Roht. F. Hall 

Russell Cooke, Jr, 
David Shapiro James McGimsey 
Fred MacGillivray Nevin Stetler 
Robt. McCloud Richard A. Keeler 



French Club 
(1920-1937) 
Succeeded 1937-38 by Tan 
Psit Omega 



lynn Pew 
Priscilla Alden 
Priscilla Alden 



Jane Winters 
Jane Withers 



Kathryn Montague 
Gene Wann 



U&ry Moore 
Stuart Leland 



-^t;/? 1rr;Yir 



S,"ij'-ij 



Lt... '. 



40 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Freshman Commission, YWCA 
(1934- ) 

Betty Akin, Parrar Babcock, Edna Campbell, Sue Balton, 
Claribel Gee, Betty Gerow, Janet Haas, Barbara Henry, Dorothy 
Long, Maude Tilley, Adele Lavington, Peggy Ann Raup, Ann 
Rauschenberg, Anne Seawell, Sally Scott, Lillian Sacrest, 
Evelyn Van Sciver, 

Gladys Williams Jo Broira Marilyn Upp Same 
Karleen Cooper Jane Hicks Sheena Webster Same 



Freshman Friendship Council, YMCA 



Martin Green 

Don F. Marion 

Wm. Brumbach 

W. Thos, Cottingham Richard Out chin 



Wm. P. Farthing, Jr. Geo. T. Harrell 

Rawlins Coffman Curtis T. Spence R. W. Smith 



Thomas E. BoTrman 
Herrej S.Moore 



Tfea, H. Fickes 

Matt Murfree 

Guy Berner 

Bu4 Willmott 

Art Hoffman 

Richard Huntington Frankly n Johnson 

Jim Robertson Bill Browning 



Herbert J, TJpchurch Same 
Chas. G. Kraemer 
Theo. Foote 
Robt. P. Jones 



Zempton Jones Same 
Richard Long Same 



Gamma Eta Gamma 
(1929-.19 i 



W. I. Gatllng 



Smmett Connor 
H. I. McDougle 



Paul Ervin 



Same 



Gaston County Club 
(Nov. 1920- ) 



C. C. Cornwall 
L. S, Jarrett 
J. M. Atkins 



C. H. Moser 
Edith Parker 



J, M. Atkins 
Geo. Elmore 



A. J. Kirby 
Fred Anders 



German Club 
(1929A1935) 
(Reorganized in 1935) 



Helrauth Bode 

Wm. H, Hothdurft Carolyn Groves 



Ton. TJ. Zaott 



Jos. W. Scott 

Catherine Raine 



$ . < 



it.*»' 



tI no. 



41 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasorey 



Giles House 
(1932- ) 

Martha Vance 
Hanes Clement 
Kathlyn Baice 
Claiy Peoples 

Soc. Ctaffl.- Eleanor Steyen6on 

Va. Grow 

Soc* Chm.- Kay Tritle 

Dorothy Butt 
Dorothy Batt 
Florence Cox 
Margaret Courtney 



Rachel Sink 



Va. Newcomh 



Jane Winters 
Priscilla Alden 
Kancy Raper 
Cynthia Bennett 



Parrar Bahcock 
Parrar Babcock 
Camille Izlar 
Mary L, Rei chert 



Glee Cluh & Orchestra Association 
(Dec. 16, 1905- ) 

Charter memhere: Director Kimbrough Jones of orchestra, Gilmer 
Korner, D. M. Albright, T. M. Stokes, C. J, 
Earrill, B. W. Hawks, B, 1. Seeman, W, M. Crook, 
W. M. Wells, A. B. Stainback, T. R, Stockard, 
Cecil Arthur, J. R. McPhail, Jr., Nan Goodson; 
director of glee chib. Prof, W, H. Overton. 



W. M, Crook H, B. Spence 
Mgr.- B. R. Pugh 
AssH. Mgr.- Z. A. Rochelle 

W. M. Wells P. Wyche 

Mgr.- J, R. McPhail, Jr. 
Ass't.- Mgr.- Gilmer Korner, Jr. 
Director- A. A. Wilson, Glee Club 



J. R. McPhail, Jr. Same 



L. J. Carter 



W. G. Matton 



J, B. Brinn 



Same 



J. B. Courtney Same 



Manager 

W, G. Sheppard 
P. S. Bennett 
D. R. ElrloDan 
P. R. Richardson 



Glee Club, Men's 
(1890 & 1910) 

Asst. Manager 

P. S. Bennett 
S. S. Alderman 
L. B, Hurley 



Director 

W. H. Overton 



'^H •,-^: 



>J-1- 



. loTt*» . 



Y,e.ti: rs ^: 



42 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary . 



Treasurer 



Glee Club, Mvn's-cont. 

Manager- L. C. Larkin 
Asst. Mgr.- R. W. Giles 

E. W. Spencer 

Bas. Mgr.- A. L. Ormond, Jr. 

C. Turner Pester 
Joe llackie Gayle Herman 
Bus. Mgr.- John D. Klock 

Prank Dennis Wm. Sommerville 
Walt Ma8on,Jr. Speed Veal 
Bus. Mgr.- Henry Sink 

C. Speed Veal John R, Lyle 
Bus. Mgr.- Bruce Boorman 

Golson Hawkins Billy J. Page 
Bus. Mgr.- Bruce Boorman 



Phil W. Casper Same 
Wm. Somerville Same 



Henry Sink 5 SamS 
Paul Sommers Same 



Witliy K. Maddern Same 
Walter Gyyer Same 



Glee Cluh, Woman's College 
(1919- ) 



Mary K. Sllison Ida Greene 
Bus. Mgr.- Nancy Klrkman 

Charlotte Pittman Prances Holmes 
Carolyn Shooter Alice Herman 
Mgr.- Sllen Huckahee 

Mary Kestler 

Bus. Mgr,- Lalia Huhhard 

Edna Widenhcruse 

Bus. Mgr.- Dorothy Shallert 

Annie L. Caldwell 

Bus. Mgr.- Hazel Johnson 

Evelyn Hancock 

Bus. Mgr.- Erma Williams 

Clarice Bowman 

Bus. Mgr.- ^eggy Harrell 

Margaret Harrell 

Bus. Mgr. Dorothy Newsome 



Clara Beckton 



Evelyn Millner 
DeV. Pisher 



Same 



Same 
Same 



Same 



Sliz. Ramsey 
Annie L. Caldwell Same 
Evelyn Hancock Same 
Mildred Marrell Same 
Mildred Murrell Same 



Eliz. Clarke 



Laura Seely 



. tnon-- 



■? r^ •- ^ - . . , 



'fr.: 



'^"- -.1? 



43 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasarer 



Glee Club, Woman's College 
(cont.) 



Dorothy Newsome Lucy Harris 
Asst. Dir.- Dorothy Newsome 
Bus. Mgr.- Tempe Newsome 

Janet Griffin 

Bas, Mgr.- Susan Singleton 



Fannie d*Keef 



Kelson Ponrell 



Janet Griffin 



Dorothy Kirkman 



Susan Singleton Ermengarde Wegener Ida S. Applewhite Margaret Smith 
Bus. Mgr.- Constance Blackwood 



Ida S. Applewhite Ruth Patterson 
Bis. Mgr.- Hath Patterson 

Mary L. Kincheloe 
Dorothy Phillips Va. Grainger 
Maiy E. Krummel Frances Ruark 
Betty Ware 

Bus. Mgr.- Mar^orie Krummel 

Lee Hill Marjorie Krummel 
Bus, Mgr. Nancy Carver 



Margaret W. Taylor Chatherine Hankln 



Prances Salmon 
Aim Hughes 
Doris Hartman 
Lee Hill 



Peggy Walls 



Dorothy Phillips 
Mary E, Krummel 
Trinidad Sarmlento 
Kay Binder 



Mary J* Edwards 



Goblins 
(1928- ) 
Succeeded l:^ Sigma ^ 

Charter members: Phil H. Crawford, Jr., J. Wm. Braswell, 
Harry P. Taylor. 



J. G. Ley burn 



Golf Club 
(1919- ) 



Dorothy Dotger D. W. Kanoy 



Graduate Club 
Pounded: Oct. 1925 
Expired: 1935-36 
Eevited: 1937-38 



Ivey Allen, Jr. 

R. 0. RiTera 



i» 



43 -a 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



R. A. Parhaxn 
S. B. H§rdee 



Granville County Club 
(1913« ) 

Eliz. Ployd 



S. B. Hardee 
Laura Winston 



Same 

B, F, Cozart 



Greater Duke Club 
Pounded: 1924 
Became part of Student Gov't 1927 



J. E. Dempster Frank M. Warner 



G. B. Caldwell 



•• L, Cannon 



We S. Barnes Same 
Corr. Secy- 
E, B. Pisher 

W. S. Blakeney Same 
Corr. Secy- 
M. I. Pickens 



Greater Trinity Club 
(1910-1924) 
Became Greater Duke Club, 1924 



W. B. Weat 



H. G. Hedrick 



Walter G, Sheppard 

Hubert McH. Batcliffe 

Bryant W. Huark 

Hiram E« SJyers 

Robert M. Johnston 

James R. Smltb 

Q^mas TS, Lee 

Marion A. Braswell 

Joseph W. Hathcock H, P. Cole 



Herbert J. Herring W. J. Bundy 



T. P. Neal 



L. E. Spikes 



C. E. Jordan 



C. G, Knox 



Corr. Secy- 
W. G. Matton 

Rcdg Secy- 
P. S. Bennett 



Rec. Secy- 

J. D. Lewis 
Corr. Secy- 

W. B. Bolich 

H. S. Pisher 
Rec. Secy- 

T. R. Waggoner 
Corr. Secy- 

R. B. Thigpen 

Rec. Secy- 
Henry Belk 

Corr. Secy- 
R. E. Thigpen 

Rec. Secy- 
G. V. Allen 

Corr. Secy- 
H, C, Sprinkle, Jr. 



■■•^i.. 



pr-:.- 



v-aoi 



44 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary . 



Treasurer 



Guilford County Club 
(1909- ) 



Charter members: 



M. A. Smith, S. S. Alderman, Sam Turrentine, 
N. J. miite, W. W. Burgees, W. G. Matton, W. D. 
Maddox, D. R. Kirkman, Leonidas Herbin. 



Le 


oni 


das Herbin 




Corr.- 














W. G. Matton 






D. 


w. 


Maddox 


D. B. Kirlonan 


W. A. Sherrod 


Same 




S. 


S. 


Alderman 


H. A. Maddox 


D. E. Kirkman 


H. L. 


Sherrod 


D. 


w. 


Holt 


H. L. Sherrod 


H. A. Stamey 


Same 




C. 


F. 


Matton 


T. B. Downey 


R. A, Stamey 


Same 




J. 


L. 


Peterson 


J. W. Toung 

Hades Club 
(1918-1926) 


Montrose Ballard 


Same 





Abbreviations: 

H.S.M. — His Satanic Majesty 

P. P. C- Pitchfork Custodian 

B, D, ~ Brimstone Dispenser 

R. C. — Rattler of the Chains 

M. P. — Master Pirebuilder 

P.R.H.R.- Feminine Representative in the Hot Regions, 



H.S.M, 


Bobbie Bradshaw 


P.P.C. 


Henry Pisbher 


B. D. 


Claude Moser 


R. C. 


Wesley Taylor 


M, P. 


Bill Tome 


P.H.H.R. 


Sal Tattle 


H.S.M. 


Wesley Taylor 


P.P.C. 


Iknma Davis 


B. D. 


H. R. Geddie 


R. C, 


M. D. Hix 


M. P. 


R. M. Price 


P.R.H.R. 


Marie Davis 


H.S.M. 


W, T, Towe 


P.P.C. 


R. K. Parrington 


B. D. 


L. L. Rose 


R. C. 


C. H. Moser 


M. P. 


H. R. Geddie 


P.n«S.A« 


Lelia Homble 



:.' nl -n 



10. 



45 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Hades Club-cont. 



1922 


H. S. M. 


C. H. Smith 




P. P. C, 


W. W. TorrBHtlne 




B. D. 


Mike Bradshaw. Jr. 




C. R. 


"Ethel Merritt 




M. P. 


C. E. Jordan 




f •H*H«H« 


Marie Davis 


1923 


H.S.M. 


B. B. Pisher 




B. D. 


Stacey Weaver 




C. H. 


Prances Thompson 




M. P, 


C. R. Rowland 




£ • ci«H %&» 


Margaret Pranck 


1925 


H.S.M, 


R. L. Jerome 




B. D. 


W. C. Huckabee 




C. R. 


Alice Herman 




M. P. 


Paal R. Ervin 




ic .n.H.R. 


Prances Holmes 

Harnett County Club 
(1925- ) 


1925 


0. E. Dow* 




1926 


Palton A, Lee 



Grayson Biggs 



Same 

R. L. McDonald 



Hesperian Literary Society 
(1851-1931) 



1888 G. T. Adams E. L. Moffitt 

1893 R. G. Tut tie W. P. Gill 

Critios- 0. P. Ader 

J. S. May tubby H, B. Craven 

P. A, Linney A, S. Webb 
S. E, Mercer C. R. Clegg 
J. P. Gibbons R. T. Poole 

Critic- J. P. Breedlove 
-1897 J. T. Henry E. C. Ivey 

Critic- W. H. Anderson 

1904 3) 5 R. Pranklin J. A. Long, Jr, 
4) L. T. Singleton H, G. Poard 
Critic- 8) A. G, Moore 
4) Hoy Taylor 



J. S. May tubby 



S. 0. Thome 

J, M. Plowers 

W. H, Anderson 
C. T. Stephens 

Horace Plowers 



J. P. Lucas 
P. R. Wrenn 



W. H. Adams 

J, H. Barnhardt 



Z. B. Barnhardt 
Z. E. Barnhardt 



.>'iic;-v's 






<^a'^c 



V' 



in c 



46 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Trea Barer 



Hesperian Literary Soci*ty-cont, 



1905 




z. 


E. 


Bamhardt 


w. 


J. 


Justus 


Holland Holton 


E. 


0, 


Cole 




4) Hoy Taylor 


J. 


B. 


Lambeth 


Holland Holton 


E. 


0. 


Cole 


1906 


1) 


w. 


G. 


Jerome 


Holland Holton 


L. 


J. 


Carter 


C. 


c. 


Bamhardt 




2) 


H. 


C. 


Kelly 


H. 


E. 


Lance 


J. 


M. 


Hays 


C. 


c. 


Bamhardt 




3) 


Holland Holton 


B. 


0. 


Cole 


w. 


A. 


Stanbury 


R. 


S. 


Brown 




4) 


E. 


0. 


Cole 


M. 


E. 


Nathan 


w. 


V. 


MgRae 


R. 


s. 


Brown 


1907 


1) 


A. 


w. 


Ho r ton 


A, 


L. 


Wisshory 


L. 


E. 


Blanchard 


T. 


A. 


Pinch 




2) 


w. 


V. 


UcHae 


W. 


A. 


Stanbury 


P. 


J. 


Kiker 


T. 


A. 


Pinch 




3) 


T. 


^. 


Srant 


L. 


E. 


Blanchard 








P. 


J. 


litaer 




4) 


R. 


s. 


Brown 


C. 


C. 


Bamhardt 


w. 


V. 


McRae 


P. 


J. 


Kiker 


1908 


1) 


H. 


c. 


Doss 


T. 


A. 


Pinch 


V. 


c. 


Ivery 


w. 


B. 


Kiker 




2) 
3) 
4) 


L. 


E. 


Blanclaard 


C. 


R. 


Poushee 


H. 


G. 


Hedrick 


w. 


B. 


Kiker 




T. 


A. 


Pinch 


W. 


B. 


Kiker 


P. 


J. 


Johnson 


w. 


M. 


Marr 


1909 


1) 


w. 


B. 


West 


C. 


S. 


Warren 


J. 


E. 


Brinn 


w. 


M. 


Marr 




2) 


C. 


S. 


Warren 


H. 


L. 


Somtt 


w. 


G. 


Mat ton 


R. 


J. 


Kiker 




4) 


0. 


E. 


Crook 


B. 


S. 


Macintosh 


P. 


S. 


Bennett 


J. 


B. 


Brinn 


1910 


1) 


J. 


E. 


Brinn 


C. 


0. 


Pi she r 


Q:ainton Holton 


D. 


R. 


Kirkman 




2) 


J. 


E. 


Brlnn 


C. 


0. 


Pisher 


Qainton Holton 


D. 


R. 


Kirkman 




3) 








B. 


C. 


Cheek 
















4) 


C. ( 


D. 


Fisher 








R. 


L, 


Towe 


w. 


A. 


Cade 


1911 


1) 


w. 


0, 


Sheppard 


J. 


N. 


Aikan 


James 


Cannon 










2) 


J. 


N. 


Aiken 


W. 


L. 


Scott 


w. 


A. 


Cade 


James 


Cannon, J 




3) 


w. 


L. 


Scott 


w. 


E. 


Eller 


B. 


w. 


Ruark & 


w. 


T. 


Roark 




4) 


w. 


B. 


Eller 


p. 


S. 


Benne tt 




Claude Bemi^t 


T. 


D. 


Pace 


















4)D. 


R. 


Kirlanan 








1912 


1) 


w. 


A. 


Cade 


H. 


M. 


Ratcliff 


S. 


w. 


Marr 










20 


D. 


L. 


Dardee 


T. 


W. 


Lee 


H. 


B. 


Hill 










3) 


Q^inton Holton 


c. 


C. 


Hat ley 


R. 


T. 


Lucas 


B. 


H. 


Siler 




4) 


H. 


U, 


Eatcliff 


G. 


A. 


Warlick 


D. 


C. 


Levis 








1913 


1) 


James 


Cannon 


Byron 


Conley 


R. 


L. 


Broim 










2) 


H. 


B. 


Hill 


B. 


w. 


Ruark 


w. 


G. 


Lowe 










3) 


B. 


W. 


Buark 


L. 


H. 


Barhour 


J. 


w. 


Carr 








1914 


1) 


J. 


w. 


Carr 


B. 


P. 


Taylor 


P. 


H. 


North 










2) 


w. 


I. 


Woo ten 


R. 


C. 


Go forth 


C. 


S. 


Biinn 










3) 


R. 


c. 


Go forth 


M. 


P. 


Morgan 


A. 


R. 


Coiincil 










4) 


B. 


p. 


Taylor 


Guy Hamilton 


. T. 


J. 


Swain 









8- / 






• ,1.' 



47 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Hesperian Literary Scoelety-cont. 



1915 1) W. R. Shelton 

2) A. W. Wilson 

3) H. A. Glauss 

4) R. W. Adams 

1916 1) J. R. Smith 
3) R. H. Shelton 
2) David Brady 

1917 1) R. L. Fisher 

2) R. C. Wiggins 

3) R. H. Durham 

4) G, E, Spangler 



H. A. Grlauss 
R. W. Adams 
W. M, Pickens 
J. J. Lilley 

H, C, West 

C. S. Bann 
R. H. Shelton 

W. S. Ellas 
R. H, Durham 
S. A. Delap 
R. K, Courtney 



1918 1) E. L« Hoffman R. W. Bradshaw 
2) R. W. Bradshaw W. A. Thompson 
3^ W, L. C. Ormond R. Turner 



1919 1) T. P. Thomas 

2) Wesley Taylor 

3) M. A. Braswell 

1920 1) H. E. Fisher 

2) S. M, Holton 

3) J. D. Lewis 

4) Hoy Giles 

1921 1) T. R, Waggoner 

2) H. J. Herring 

3) W. J. Bundy 

1922 1) H. C. Sprinkle 
2) L. S. Brady 

3} C. E. Summers 

1923 1) E, B. Fisher 

2) W. L. Ciegg 

3) C. G. Knox 

4) D. S« Johnson 

1924 1) W. R. Brown 

2) L. Q. Mamford 

3) W. W, Lawrence 

4) F. A. Bridgers 



Wesley Taylor 
fl, D. Douglas 
H. K, King 

S. M. Holton 
J, D, Lewis 
Boy Giles 
T, A. Morse 

H, J. Herring 
W. J. Bundy 
M, R. Cjaamhers 

M. L. Wilson 

C. B, Summers 
J, B. Bridgers 

W. L. Clegg 

C. G. Kiox 

D. S. Johnson 
W.J. Bullock 

L. (i. Mumford 

M. W. Lawrence 

R. T. Hardaway 

M. I. Pickens 



H. C. West 
H. C. Greenherg 
W. K. Carr 
R. W. Giles 

W. S, Elias 
R. L, Fisher 
R. H. Durham 

C. L. Nichols 
R. W. Bradshaw 

B. P. C. Craft 
G. E. Powell 

Wesley Taylor 
Wesley Taylor 
T. P. Thomas 

J. D. Lewis 
S. M. Holton 
L. E. Caviness 

W. J, Bundy 
T. R, Waggoner 
H, J, Herring 
T. A. Banks 

S. S. Faraljow 
J. M. Barrett 
M. L. Wilson 

C, 0, Knox 
E. B. Fisher 
W. L. Clegg 

W, R. Brown 
L. Ci, Mumford 
W. W, Lawrence 
J. M. Keech 

W. F. Craven 
A. C. Waggoner 
J. E. Coltrane 
G. B. Johnson 



H. E. Sisher 
R. B. Thigpen 
C. E. hammers 



C. G. Knox 



W. R. Brown 



W. F, Craven, Jr. 



W. S. Anderson 



VSffi 



,fi Vf 



idsi 



iR^wiJ 



• r r/n; 



48 



Year President 



Vlce~Presldent Secretary 



Treasurer 



1925 1 
2 
3 



1927 1 
2 
3 
4 

1928 1 
2 
3 
4 

1929 1 
2 
3 
4 



Hesperian Literary Society-cont, 

G. B. Johnson 0. C. Peeler W. S. Anderson 
G. B. Johnson H. L. Biggerstaff P. R. Andrews 
H. L. Biggerstaff J. E. Coltrane Sam Bandy 



S. D. Bandy 
A. C. Waggoner 
W. S. Anderson 

H. L. Hester 
H. G. Tattle 

A. B. Enos 

J. C. Burwell 

J, G, King 

B. M. Johnston 
D« K, Jackson 
T. P. Culhreth 

E. Weather spoon 
W, P, HoTrland 

C. Hanes 

J. U. Connally 

C. D. Bosen 
G. L. Robhins 



W. S. Anderson 
0. P, Johnson 
P. R. Andrews 

R. 6. Tattle 

J. C. Harwell 

J. C. Barwell 

M. R. Corpening 

Chas. Gay 
H. I, Berlin 
Chas* Gay 
E. C. Morgan 

W. P. Rowland 
J. U, Connally 
J. P. Evans 
M, Warren 

J. I« Morgan 
Gaither Pratt 



H. L. Hestftp 



T. S. Thornton 



H. L. Hewter 
S. G, Spangler 
R. G. Tattle 

J. G. King 
E. S. Raper 
R. M* Johnston 
T. P. Culhreth 



Everett Weatherspoon J. C. Hanes 
W, P. Rowland 
S. C. Gunnin 
J. U, Connally 



J. I. Morgan 
J. G, Pratt 
C. H. Livengood 
S. H. Roheson 

Wm. P. Parthing 
Hariy Dein 



C. D. Rosen 



N, A, Gregory 



L937 



Hesperiem Union 
(1937- ) 

Charter memhers: Douglas Corriher, Betty Jelks, Bradley Welfare, 
Mildred Williams, Catherine Blakeney, Eliz, 
Hatcher, Wm. Pickes, Roht. Lengler, LeRoy Scott, 
Kenneth Heise, James Gorringe 

Douglas Corriher Bradley Welfare i3 
Clerk- Eliz. Hatcher 
Speaker- James Gorringe 

1) Kenneth Heise Betty J. Brown 

Speaker- Maurice Weinstein 
Clerk- Catherine Blakeney 

2) Kenneth Heise Lee Simpson 

Speaker- Dewey Daane 
Clerk- Catherine Blakeney 



De?rey Daane 



Eliz. Puller 



Don Mitchell 



Same 



sr- 



nc 



.>■ 



y. 



: ii -■ 



> »2 « 



.C ..' 



tT'i 



I'lOv 



ei.<5l r* 



•■;■■ r 



49 



President Vlce-Preslddnt Secretary Treasurer 



Hesperian Union-cont, 

1939 l) Doanld C. Uitchell Paances Nelson Dean Strausbaogh Same 
^ Speakers^ Tom Smart 

■ Lee Johnston 

■ 2) Frances Nelson Carl Clanrp Mary S. Dodge Same 

■ Speakers- Thomas ^f!ugele 

■ Lee Johnston 

1940 Carl Clamp Kay Alexander Lee Johnston Same 

Speaker- Tom Mugele 



Hillel Group 
(1937- ) 

Joe Groldsteln 
Martin Parker 



Historical Society, Trinity College 
(1892- ) 

Dr. J. S. Bassett G. Greener W. A. Bryan Same 
Curator of Museum- B, S, Womhle 

Dr. W. K. Boyd Prof. W. S. Locldiart W. A. Bryan Same 
W. K. Boyd W. S. Lockhart W. A. Bryan Same 
Curator of M.- T. M. Gant 

W. K. Boyd H. C Goldstein C. B. Phillips Same 
Cur. of M.- T. M. Grant 

W. K. Boyd H. G, Hadrick W. G. Mattson Same 
Cur. of M.- H. E. Hunter 

W. K. Boyd Mr. Miller Mr. Hunt Same 
Cur. of M.- Mr. London 

W, K. Boyd E. Allison H. G. Cheny Same 
Cur. of M.- E, J. Londow 

W. K. Boyd B. L. Towe J. R. Davis Same 
Curator- F. H. Ray 

W. K. Boyd B. W. Suark J. R. Davis Same 
W. K. Boyd S. G. Hawfield John W. Carr.Jr. Same 
Curator- S. R. Sikes 



0Z^<'' 



Jl<. f 



50 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasarer 



Historical Society, Trinity College-cont, 



W. Z. Boyd B, B, Jones 

Curator- J. K. Turner 

Dr. W. K. Boyd John D. Cline 

Curator- J, K, Turner 



T. W. Sprinkie Same 
W. K. Carr Same 



Honors in Graduating Class 



1902 



1903 



Valedictorian 

L. Johnson 
I, LI Wright 
J, W. Alspaugh 
L, Branson 
E. R. Wright 
C. C, Andrews 
W. F. Watson 

A. S. Pearce 
J. P. Heitman 

R. S. Andrews 
J. W, Mauney 
C. B. Townsend 

E. J. Kennedy 

C. L. Heitman 

P. L, Groom 

0. C. B. McMullcn 

C. K. Mason 

E, Tanner 

E. Davis 

T. E. May 

B. G, Marsh 
L. P. Skeen 
Dred Peacock 

Sxunma ^ u m Laude 

Lila Markham 

James Wardlaw Scroggs 

Eher Carle Perrow 



Salutatorian 

D. C. Johnson 
J, W. Pearson 
A. Puller 

E. Paw 

S. C. Hinshaw 
R, H. Skeen 



J. C. Brown 

D, D, Bryant 
W, J. Scroggs 
f . P. Ivy 



J, P, Brower 
T. N. Ivey 



Magna SS& l^scude 
Marjie Jordan 



Florence May Egerton 
Blanche Hester Gunn 
Ralph M. Odell 
Michael R. Richardson 
Thomas W« Smith, Jr, 
Edward W, Spencer 



51 




Honors in Oraduatlsg Claee-cont. 



1(04 



Walter Femterton Budd 



1905 



1906 



Julian Blanchard 



Eliza Bichards Brown 
Jolin A. Morgan 



1907 



Holland Hoi ton 



1908 



Walter A. Stanljary 



1909 



Pearl L. Brinson 
Gilmer Siler 



Mafpia cup Laude 

Walter S. Loclcbart 
Gilbert H. Smith 
Will D. finger 
Edwin P. Hoover 
Otho J. Jones 

Alice C. Craft 

Alonzo G. Moore 

Nicholas Sneethen Ogburn, Jr. 

Eva H. Branch 

Henry G. Poard 

Charles B. MarldUun 

Henry A. Keal 

Hoy Taylor 

Mary H. Thomas 

Marion E, Tattle 

Samoel Bobbitt Underwood 

Wm. Arnold Bryan 

C. McMillan Campbell, Jr. 

Ural N. HoKman 

Han Jordan 

Susannah G. Michaels 

Hersey B. Spence 

J. McPherson Temple ton, Jr. 

Annie E. Tillett 

Leonidas P. Wilson 

Lela D. Toung 

Sallie L. Beavers 
Bobert S, Brown 
William Vogle McEae 
Mary A. McCullen 
Elise Mims 
Lela L. Parrish 
Lassaphine Beeves 
Sanford A. Hichardson 
Lela Caroline Starr 
Sanniel Thomas Thome 
Luther G. White 
Plora May Wrenn 

Iva L. Bar den 

Blannie E. Berry 

Curtis Lee Bivens 

Henry Clay Doss 

Prank Nicholas Bgerton, Jr. 



i£« 



52 



Honors in Graduating Class-cont, 



Year Sramma Oum Laud , ^ 

1909-cont, 



1910 



1911 



William H. Bell 



1912 



Szekiel Jacob londow 
Mary Loooiie Smith 



Magna cxun Laude 

Iver Ellis 

Thomas A. Fizich 
Bobert Caiman Gteldsteln 
Malene Harrell 
William E. Hall 
Evelyn Jones 
Edgar W. Knight 
Annie L. Mann 
Frances W, Marlcham 
Richard M. Norment, Jr. 
Thomas Bayton Suiter 

Annie H. Broiming 
Charles W, Falford 
Phillip J. Johnson 
Arthur M, Proctor 
Homer L. Scott 
Sarah B. Smith 
Weaver McT, Marr 
Mp^tilda 0. Michaels 
Claude Bascom West 
Walter Broimlow West 
Nathan Wright 

Emma Babbie t 
Joseph E« Brinn 
Ernest C. Cheek 
Clyde 0, Fisher 
Woodfin G. Gaston 
Fannie Gladstein 
Chesley M. Hutchings 
Mabel B. Isley 
Louis Isaac Jaffe 

John N. Aiken 
Floyd S. Bennett 
Paul W. Best 
Claudius Bertram Brinn 
Blanche Duke 
Wade Edward Eller 
Lucile Churchill Gorham 
Polly Heitman 
Alma 13 • Holtzclaw 
Edwin Leigh Jones 
Annabel Lambeth 
Ruby Lee Markham 
Mary L, Newnan 
Marshal A. Smith, Jr. 
Maude H, Upchorch 
Annie Isabella West 



53 



Honors in Graduating Class-cont, 




Stunma cum Lgade 

Ethel Mae A"bernethy 
Irene Abernethy 
Qainton Holton 
Edna Lee Holtzclaw 
Nettie Sue Tillett 



1914 



Charles Gtiy Cordle 



1915 



Bascom W. Barnard 



1916 



Ma^na cum Laude 

Sidney Sherrill Alderman 

William A. Cade 

Mary Edens 

Charles C. Hatley 

Irving B. McKay 

Kemp P. Neal 

Julian A. Hand 

Hose 

Suiter 

To we 

White 



Junius H. 
Wester G. 
Eohert L. 
Nemnan I. 
Henry L, Wilson 
John P. Wynn 



Charles Rutherford Bagley 
James Cannon, III 
Estelle Flowers 
Milton B, Pleasants 
Lizzie M. Smith 
Laura A. Tillett 
Mary Yeula Westcott 

Allan R. Anderson 
John W, Carr, Jr. 
Janie Love Couch 
Willietta Evans 
Benjamin F. Few 
Sidney L. Gulledge 
Samuel G. Hawfield 
William W, Button. 
John E, McLean 
William Early Mills 
Hiram E. Myers 
Jessie R, Persinger 
Aoqy F. Russell 
Earl Ray Sikea 
Beal H, Siler 
DeWitt T. Sttttts 
Fannie B. Vann 
William I. Wooten 

Louis C. Allen 
Laura Mae Bivins 
George W. H. Britt 
Lucile M. Bui:fed 
Iris Odelle ChappeJ.le 
Carrie Belle Craig 
Jasper H. Grigg 
Florence B. Holton 
John W, Lambeth, Jr. 
William R. Shelton 
Beverley C, Snow 
Jack W. Wallace 



aiiiow V 



'.^ ■! ■ 



?l 



54 




Honors in Graduating Class-cont. 
Summa cmn Laud^ Ma/yn^ cum Lau.de 



1918 



Uary Luther Byroam 



1919 



1920 



Margaret M. Cameron 
Lloyd S. Slklns 
Gladys Vivienne Price 
Nolan C. Teagae 



Banks Arendell 

Richard H, Bennett, Jr. 

John Cline 

Frederick W. Cunningham 

John Odell Durham 

Everett Grant Harris 

Grace Holton 

Gerald Hay Jordan 

Henry E. Newhary (or Newherry) 

Ralph Ely Parker 

Annie Thompson Smith 

Thomas Raysor Summers 

Edna Louise Taylor 

Heniy Carson West 

Alma Eetoile Young 

Ina Vivian Young 

lone Bivins 

Godfrey Brevard Cauthen 

Floyd Cole Caveness (Caviness) 

Ralph Lee Fisher 

Luther Lafayette Gk>b'bel 

Lessie Lee Harvard 

Henry Wiseman Kendall 

Willur Galloway McFarland 

Cora Jenkins Moss 

Rohert MacCollum Price 

Evelyn Candace Reade 

Paul Lindsay Sample 

Eate Goodman Umstead 

Leonora Marshall Aiken 

Rohert Wallace Bradshaw 

Minnie Brady 

Hugh Lynn Caviness (Caveness) 

Edmund Fleetwood Dunstan 

Rohert Alston Few 

Allen Hatchett Guyn 

Harmon Leslie Hoffman 

Henry Hunter Jones 

Ethel Marsh Iforray 

Vera Myrtle Wiggins 

Jesse T. Carpenter 
Vera G. Carr 
Lee E. Cooper 
Billiam N. Evans, Jr. 



55 



•20 



Honore in Graduating Class-cont, 



lesir Stunma cum Laude 

1920-cent, 



1921 



Maude Lucile Nicbolson 



1922 



Emma Blanche Barringer 



1923 



Aura C. Holton 



1924 



I 



Ma4gna cum Laude 

Elizabeth Ployd 
James G, Leybaxix 
Uary L, Manning 
Mary Blair Maury 
Nancy laobel Maxwell 
Doris W. Overton 
Charles McK. Ramsey 
William A. Rollins 
Florence L. Shuman 
Ollie B. Ulrich 
Joseph B, Whitener 
Prank R, Tarbo rough 

Chase Howard Benson 
Robert Tayloe Dunstan 
Henry E. Pisher 
Loyd B» Hathaway 
Samuel M. Holton 
Grover S. Momford 
Martha I. Pitts 
Oscar L, Richardson 
Beulah E. Walton 
Martha E. Wiggins 

Lucretia M. Harvey 
Thomas C« Kirkman 
Jessie L, Penny 
Irene R. Price 
Elizabeth S. Waller 

John E, Bridgers, Jr. 
Donald H. Conley 
Blake B, Harrison 
Herminia Ursula Haynes 
Jay Loyd Jackson 
Annie Marguerite Land 
Levi RufHis Manesv 
Lucile Merritt 
Rhodney B, Reade 
Sophia E, Ryman 
Henry C. Sprinkle, Jr. 
Elodia lancfy 

Nora C, Chaff in 

Marie L. Couch 

Robert A, Crabtree, Jr. 

George C, Ervin 

Edgar Beauregarde Pisher 

Margaret E. Prank 



^J"; 



56 



Honors in Graduating Claes-cont. 

Year Sonma cum Laade Magna com Laude 

1924-cont, Annie Blanche Johneon 

Agnes Adelle Judd 
James M. Keech 
John Tate I«,nning 
William Baugham Leake 
Alice Elizabeth Newcomb 
James Dixon Secrefct 



1925 



Julian P. Boyd 
William R, Broim 



1926 



Edith L. Judd 
Evelyn H, Turner 



1927 



Claudia W. Hunter 



ft 



William S. Barnes 
Furman A. Bridgers 
Velma Deyton 
James J. jParriss 
L\icy P. Glasson 
Idalene B. Gulledge 
Bichard T. Hardatvay 
Si^ey Maxwell Kale 
Lawrence Qoincy Mumford 
Ida Catherine Munyan 
Annie Marnick 
Bessie A, Booker 
Bessie J. Southerland 
Ella H. Whit ted 
James A« Wiggins, Jf, 

Olin B. Ader 

Whiteford S, Biakeney, Jr. 

Ora T, Deyton 

Eoderick M, Love 

William C, Maxwell 

Clara Elizabeth Morris 

Elizabeth H. Roberts 

William T, Twaddell 

Annie B. Anders 

Lizzie Loyde Cothran 

Robert L, Jerome 

Earl Paette McPee 

Walter B. Ms^er 

Julia Potts 

Prank G, Slaughter 

Blanche McK. Broadway 
Blanche H. Ciark 
Bobert Grady Dawson 
Paul H. Fields 
Donald E, Zirkpatrick 
Sadie M. Lawing 
William A. Mabiy 
John A. Ramsey (Bamsay) 
Bichard BrinkLey Salsbury 
Mary E. Vaughn 



» f 



57 



Year 



1928 



Honors in Grraduating Class-cent. 
Siimnifi cmn Laude Magna gum Lau.de 



James N, Truesdale 



1929 



Esther M. Metzenthin 



1930 



I 



Frank M. Blggerstaff 
Bryant B. Carstarphen 
Helen D. Chandler 
Lillian A. Chandler 
Margaret E, Craven 
Mahel J. Griffin 
Alfred I*. Hammond, Jr. 
Lawrence L. Hardin, Je. 
Ernest L. Haywood 
Hanselle L. Hester 
Leila Huhbard 
Ellen H. Huckabee 
Charles A. Kirkpatrick 
Eehecca Kirkpatrick 
Kenneth Raymond Lagerstedt 
Gladstone Wadl^y McDowell 
Catherine Mills 
John W. Morgan 
^lliam R. Marrgan, Jr. 
Louise P. Parker 
William S. Rogers 
Anita Scarhoro 
Bessie 7. Thompson 
Gladys Ruth White 

Martha L. Adams 
Dunham W. Boyette 
Annie L, Caldwell 
Rachel V. Copeland 
Jacoh M, A. deBruyne 
John E, Doxey 
Alfred M. Franko 
Mildred E. Holton 
Jennings G. King 
Mildred li^nick 
Talmadge ee Peele 
Kelson G.- Rosenborg 
Roxie J. Sasser (Mrs.) 
William S. Sloan 
Thomas E. Summerrow 
Helen J, Taylor 
John L, Woodward 
Idwin S. Yarbo rough, Jr. 

Arthur D. Bridgers 
Bessie 0^ Copeland 
Reba T. ^ousins 
Osborne E. Dunn 
Evelyn M. Hancock 



58 



Honors in Graduating Class-cont. 



Year Sujama cnam Laade 

1930-cont. ..;:'T 



19S3 



Magna cvun Laude 

William F. Hoirland, Jr. 
KoTman A. Hufftnan 
George B, King, Jr. 
Hortense D, Loiag 
Harold G. McOurdy 
1211231)6 th A. MacFadyen 
Esther J. Morris 
Her"bert E. 0*Keef 
Marjorie D. Peoples 
Katherine M. PMlllps 
Nathan Huhinstein 
Joe A. Savage 
John Sidney Shaw 
Nelle Spivey 
James B. Stalvey 
Richard H. Steams 
Thomas S. Steams 
Charles T. Thrift, Jr. 

Hi chard J. Bis son 
Carl F, Bretholl, Jr. 
Argyle Glenn 
Gladys M. Higgins 
Edgar J. Hocutt 
Helen Jenkins 
Morris A. Jones 
Charles H. Livengood, Jr. 
Whitfield H. Marshall 
Anna Katharine Moses 
Elizabeth Faye Mulholland 
Joseph Gaither Pratt 
Frances Howe 
Walter A. Stanhury, Jr. 
Herman Walker, Jr. 
Lila Mack Woodward 

Margaret G. Altvater 
Elizabeth E. Clarke 
Margaret G, Harrell 
Elmer C, Harrison 
Edith E, Leach 
Charles E, Stuart 

DaVid Sterling Clarke 
William P. Dale 
Harry L. Dein 
Lucille Buchanan Gainey 
Marjorie Glasson 



( ■• 



iXX^v 



59 



Honors in Graduating Class-cont, 



Tear 



1933-cont, 



Suama ctun Lau.d0 



1934 



Warren C. Scoville 



1935 



1936 



Betty Priemel ^ 

Catherine Isenlaour ^' 
Herbert Strasslsarger^ 
Henry S. Robinson 



.v^ 



Magna cupi Laade 

William Karpinsky 
Jacob Levin 
Dorothy Newsom 
Henry Acaley fynn 



William E, Apple 
Harold W. Atkinson 
Celestine 
Wilbur L. 
Rosanelle 
Elinor M. 
Joseph W, 



M. Beamer 

Brister 

Cash 

Douglass 

Getzendanner, 



Charles R, Humphreys 
Ira Stanley Ross 
Robert W. Sapp 
Mildred J. Taylor 
Ross A. Tunnell, Jr. 

Slma J. Black 
Walter E, Conrad 
Daniel K. Edwards 
lyne S, Pew 
Dorothy 0. Porbes 
Blaine R.Harkness 
Seth B. Hinshaw 
Thomas W. Keesee 
Frances S. Huls 
Marjorie A. King 
Philip M. Zirk 
Rerrait L. Leitner 
Donald G. McNeil 
Carlos DuPre Moseley 
Caroline M. Phillips 
Lena Sear 

Philip Linus Shore, Jr. 
Sarah Wray Thompson 
Raymond H. Wadsworth 
Brnest E. Wood 

Virginia K. Baker 
Rath Bowman 
Edward W. Cooly 
Herbert A. Pohl 
Marion Roe 



Jr. 



60 



Honors in Graduating Class-cent. 




Samma cam Laude 

James A. Bistline 
James W, BrownJ Jr, 
Frederic N. Cleaveland 
Harold Reeves Collins 
Ivan DeR. Prantz 
Frederick R, Jackson, Jr. 
Virginia S. Redfern 
Dorothy H, Seymbur 



1938 



Bruce Harold Breenfield 
Frances Hilda Kirkpatrick 



1939 



Ellis Thomson Baker, III 
Freda H. Liverant 
Mildred Patterson 



1940 



Lillian A, Secrest 
Ro swell &. Townsend 
Frank L. Beckel 
Lorenz 2. g,, Sitner 



Magna cum Laude , 

Mariana D. Bagley 
Earl T. Brach 
Wilsie F, Bussell 
Headley Morris Cox, Jr. 
Joseph K. David 
Eugene Desvernine 
Irwin Friedlander 
Anne R. Izard 
Helen C, Larzelere 
Charlotte B, Markham 
Jerome S. Menaker 
James A. Poit 
Hamtleton Singlerff, Jr, 
Jessie H, Walker 

David Horgan Bane 
Clark Alvin Crawford 
Arthur J. Dowling 
Jane East 
Harold Lee Flowers 
Harry B, Hausser 
Jesse P. Kaperman 
Oleta J, Love 
Margaret H. Morton 
Horace Russell, Jr. 
Martha T. Schmidt 
Donald H. Sheehan 
Roberta E. Townsend 
Luther I. Wade, Jr. 
Thomas P. Webster, Jr, 

Sara Arthur 

Willis Spangler Beckel 
James D. Daane 
Leroy E, Duncan, Jr. 
Kendrick S. Few 
Margaret Finger 
Benjamin S. Ho rack 
Susan Phillips 
Robert C. Rand 
Janet Ret tew 
Viviaji Rieger 
Victor K. Smith, Jr. 
Robert H, Van Voorhis 

Alona E. Evans 
Charles L. Dimond 
Gwy A. Battle 
Jane Bail 
John F, Byrum 



61 



Year 



President 



Vice-President 



SecretaryS 



Treasurer 



Instrumental Music Association 
(April 1936- ) 

1936 Manager- Charles B. Wade 

1937 • B. Troy Ferguson, Jr. 

1938 " Robert H. Van Voorhis 
Ass't M^r.- Evan Thompson 
Qoartermaster- Jack Butler 

1939 Bus. Msgager- Evan Thompson 

1940 Bus. Manager- Robert Ladd 



International Club 
(1935- ) 



1934 Ben B. We ems 

1935 Fred E. Bratzel 

1936 Donald V. Hirst 



Inter-State Progressive Club 
(1913- ) 

Chm.- P. B. Trigg D. C. Lewis 

V.C. & B.M.- C. H. Chilhingerian 



A. T. Enott 



Inter-Campus Relations Committee 
(1939- ) 

Babette Balcer Doris Tritle 

Rep. on Senior Cab.- Peggy Barnes 



Same 



Iota Gamma Pi 
(Oct. 1922- ) 

Bruce Roxby 

Hal W. Atkinson Chas. Httfflphreys John M. Bird fin. E. Apple 

Warren P. Armstrong Edward Storms Blaine Harkness Lon Coone 

Jos. A. Trainor E. Robt. Scattergood Robt. H. Rushmer Gerald R. Cooper 

Robt. H, Daugherty Doug, S. Nisbet P. R. Jackson James C. Hardin 

H. T. Jenkinson N. Pukuhara R, Z, Gould Lloyd P. Timberlake 

Roger J. Sherron C. J. Kreiser Romeo A. Palciani 



Iredell Law Club 



Ivar H, Peterson 
Chas. R. Warrier 



Leon L. Rice, Jr. 
Duane Littell 



Wm. J. Baird 
Gene Desvemine 



Richard M. Nixon 
Campbell Garden 



62 



Year President 



Vice-Pregident 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



(Feb. 15. 1937- ) 



Charter members: 



1936 Anne Seawell 

1937 Carol Wagner 

1938 Sara J. Waters 

1939 Bess Taylor 

1940 Bliz. Tajrlor 



Jane Ball, Betty Conrad, Lois Cooley, Alona 
Evans, Betty Grerow, Betty Kramer, Bemice 
Lane, Martha Perkins, Anne Seawall, Lillian 
Secrest, Evelyn Van Sciver, Margaret Ward. 



Evelyn VanSciver 
Martha A. Young 
Florence Rick 
Peggy Addicks 
Marg. Addicks 



Betty Gerov Same 
Elize Curry Bose Kueffner 
Betty Partenf elder Ann O'Rourk 
Joanne Stephens Marlon Pohl 
Joan Stephen Marian Pohl 



1931 Eleanor Rodger s 

1934 Evelyn Carpef 

1935 Dallas Knight 

1936 Frances Lewis 

1937 Helen Burgess 

1938 Margaret Ward 

1939 Margaret Ward 



Jarvis House 
(1931- ) 



Mary 0. Pethick Same 
Joan Bender Same 



Isotes 
(1938- ) 

1938 Harriet Shoecraft Betty S4awall 

1939 Jean Baily Lucille Chandler 

1940 Jean Bailey Geraldine Dodrill 

Adv.- Katherine R. Jeffers 



Helen Saleeby Ruth Schoenberger 
Rec. -Mildred Bergen-Josephine May 
Cor. -Jacqueline Lentz 
Cor.- Sarah McCanless 

Maiy S. Webster 
Rec- 

Antoinette Baca 



Junior Big Sisters 
(1920-1936) 
(Work taken over by Freshman Advisors) 



1921 Hunter Holloway 

1935 Frances Lewis 

1936 Roberta Townsend 



Florence Harris Pat tie Knight 



Same 



Sft.>«'rCr„ 



f^,^." r.f 



63 



President 4 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasmrer 



Kappa Alpha 
(1901- ) 



Donald McNeil Thomas Smith 
JinnHSr McCall Philip Russell 
Herbert J, Upcburch Archer E, Lackey 
Fr8d Rehman Thomas Hyan 
Ellis T. Baker Clinton W. Morgan 
H. Tim Brinn Prank C. Bone 
Douglas P. Peterson Andrew Dacker 



J. Kern Ormond 
Wm. Bowman 
Chas. H. Gill 
Ellis Baker. Ill 
Walter C.Johnson 
Ployd B. Souders 



Sam Tyler 
Ernest Swlger 
John 0. McCoy 
Bobt, Parsons 
Henry Worth 
Tom D. Saart 



Lawrence Blanchard 7. E. Sellers 



Eappa Alpha Theta (Beta Hho) 
(1928- ) 



Sarah Thompson Maiy L. Bradley 
Sue Hardy Mary A. Bhodes 
Editor-Anne L. Heist 



Alma Hedrick Audrey Speicher 
H. -Constance Fatton Audrey Speicher 
C, -Sarah Rankin 



Eliz. Sasscer Frances Childs 
Ed.- Sarah Williams 



R. -Ariel Moneyhan Prances Edwards 
C.-Char. Marshall 



Va. Braznell Miggie White 
Caroline Breedlove Dorothy Porritt 



Julia Coffman Mary E. Carter 
R, -Prances Briggs Betty Douglas 
C.-Jane Braznell 



Rosanna BrSwer Martha Glenn 



C,-Eliz. Bowen Betty Douglas 
R.-Janet Haas 



Kay Weidmann 



Thea Conger 



C. -Louis Walter Eleanor Southgate 
R. -Katie Kantt 



Kappa Delta (Sigma Delta chapter) 
(April 9, 1912- ) 



Charter members: 



Mrs. W. P. Pew. Mrs. Mary Duke Biddle, 
Bstelle Plowers, Katie Lee McKinnon, Lucile 
Gorham. Mary Gorham. Catherine Thomas. Mary 
Berry. 



Eliz, Pegram Vivian Smith 
Sara L. Palls Harriet Waits 

Ed.-Gary Armstrong 
Alma Lloyd Hanson Josephine Burger 

Ed.-Gwendolyn Cline 
Annie W. Daniel Betty Souders 
June Russell Mary Drew Clay 
Byrne Ware Evelyn Bo lick 



Helen Gray Mem Plyler 
Jeannette TeSelle Josephine Burger 



Lee Hill 



Marjorie LaMont 



Mary Vickers 

Jean Eraser 
Jean Praser 
Anne Seawell 
Nancy Lineherger 



Betty Souders 

Maiy D, Clay 
Ann King 
Va. Campbell 
Va. Campbell 



^0 »>i/.c'^. 



.1mPJ3is.tsT. . j!u. 



' ritc^ "^;iJon<5vi »vo 



IP.'. 



'iy 



64 



President 



Vice-President Secretary 



Treasurer 



Kappa Dtlta Pi 
(May 28. 1927- ) 



Charter Uemters: 



Gladys THiite 
D. H. Cook 
Melva I. LeGette 
James M. Godard 
Sara E. Clark 
S, E.liz. Clarke 
Margaret Held 
Mary J. Malford 
James Godard 
Sliz. Hi ley 



Abrams, ^•■^•i Ild.e Brock, Lucy Burt, John W. 
Carr, B. G. Chiids, Lethia Cross, Emma J. Davis, 
Frank File, B. L. Gooden, Eliz, Gray, Irene 
Oupton, B. L. Haywood, Eldridge Hime, Faylene 
Janes, A, C. Jordan. 



Selma Warlick 
Martha Chesson 
Bessie Copeland 
Eliz, Williams 
Donald Agnew 
Donald Agnew 
Alice Searlght 
Nellie Bishop 
Catherine lyon 
Mrs. Stewart 



K. Frantley Watson Mary W, Bussy 
Betty Shortledge Betty Koehnleiz 
Roy A. Doty Hope Thomas 
Wm. C. Rein Adelaide Mayhew 



Louise Parker 
A. B. S tame 8 
Bessie Martin 
Gipsie Proctor 
Eunice Keen 
Eunice Keen 
Eliz. Hicks 
Elma Black 
Elma J. Black 
Helen Poole 



E. L, Haywood 
M. Eliz. Montgomery 
Reha Cousins 
Reha Cousins 
John W. Wood 
John W. Wood 
Dorothy McElduff 
Evelyn Carper 
Nellie Bishop 
Kathzyne Montague 



Jane H. Cone Dorothy L. Sawyer 
Roherta C. Edwards Va. Leon 
Delores Gam^hlie Lillian Secrest 
Margaret Simpson Heniy E. Link 



Kappa Kappa Gamma (Delta Beta) 
(Oct. 25, 19S0- ) 



Charter Members: 



Janie Elizabeth Carlton, Frances Lelia Currin, 
Mary E. Craven, Florence R. Dailey, Katberine M. 
Davies, Edna Kilgo Elias, Mildred M. Guthrie, 
Va. Lucille Hohgood, Martha Howie, Dorothy Cornell 
Leary, Katherine Markham, Nancy E. Hoherson, 
Margaret Rogers, Nellie L. Sellars, Erma E. 
Williams. 



Eliz. Craven 



Erma Williams 
Louise Sella;>8 

1932 Jessie Hertz 
2) Helen Chase 



Eve Davis 
Registrat- Dorothy Davis 
2) Dorothy Davis 



Cor.-Va. Hobgood Louise Sellars 
C. -Betty Knight Frances Lawrence 
2 )R. -Alice Woo ten Kitty Serf as 
R. -Margaret Edwards Kitty Serfas 
C. -Betty Knight 
2) R. -Dorothy Hines 



Dorothy Gray 

R. -Ell en Witwer 
C.-Louise Varnes 



Jane Hitter 
Betty Parks 



65 



Tear President 



yice-Presldent Secretary 



Treaggrer 



y 



Kappa Kappa Ganma'Cont. 



1933 



1) Eve Davis 

2) Eve Davis 



1935 Dorothy Davis 



1936 Nancy Peterson 

Ed.- Jean Kern 
2)Bar"bara Jenkins 



1937 Barbara Jenkins 



1938 



1939 



1940 



1929 
1930 



1931 
1932 



1936 



1935 
1937 



Carroll Costigan 

Adele Lavington Jean Brown 

Dorothy Saville Barhara Sapp 



R. -Dorothy Hines Jane Hitter 
C, -Marie Pelgrim 
R.-Mary A. Motlow Jane Ritter 
C.-Dovothy Hines 

R, -Helen Witi»er Betty Parks 
C.Koima Marcus 

R.-Mary J, DeCamp Prances Merrill 
C.-Isobel Craven 

Eleanor Oak(R) Marie L. Pedaflous 
Louise Vames(C) 

C. -Claire Varnes Marie L. Pedaflous 
R.-Bleanor Oak Ass't-Setty J&nory 

R. -Eleanor Oak Betty Emery 
C. -Martha Crocker 

C. -Barbara Sapp Evelyn Van Sciver 
R,-Sue Eyerly 

C,-Katherine Harps ter 
R. -Marilyn Seafield 



Kappa Eappa Psi 
(1929- ) 

J. S. Stanley, Jr. L. ^ssell Hanson P. M. Pratt 
Bd,'^ J. P. Armstrong 



H. G. Whitehead 



L. Rassell Hanson J. W. Woodard J. P. Armstrong J. W. HThitehead 
Ed.- T. P. Lassiter 



DeArmond Moore 

C. Shelby Dale Edgar M. Hall 
Ed.- A. K. Mclntyre 



J. A. Myers 

Robert A. Boyd, Jr. Same 



Stanley P. Meyerson Thos. E. Bowman James A. Bistline 
Ed.- E. A. Palmgren, Jr. 



Robert P. Miller 
B. Troy Perguson, Jr. W. Sutton 
Ed,- Prank Gerard 



Joseph S, Hiatt, Jr. Same 

R. H. Van Voorhis Don Lanning 



f -jV 



A 0.H .^': "'•i'A 



66 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Kappa Eappa Psi-cont» 

Robert Van Voorhis Tom Davis 
Evan L. 1510115)80 n Bo"b Ladd 
Robert Ladd Sismner P. Jones 



Sam Agnillo Finley Clarke 
Augustus T, Allen Clarence Latimer 
H. A. Scott C. A, ?yrne 



Kappa Sisma (Eta Prime chapter) 
(1873- ) 



McCarthy Hanger 
G-eo.L.Morelodc 
Wayne E. Ambler 
Jack Wilkes 
Elmer E. Rouzer 
Curtis S, Jones 
&eo. H. Kellerman 
Robt. D. Little 



Greo. L. Morelock, Jr. Albert L.Burford Praacis J, Litle 
Wm, L. Huiskaznp Albert L. Burford Prancfcs J, Litle 
Peter E. Callahan John E. Stindholm Grant Horneffer 
A. Bert rand Rohrbaogh J.Braxton Craven Curtis S. Jones 
W. P. Lipscomb James B. Craven, Jr. Curtis S. Jones 
Harvey Kellannan John Morrissey Walter R. Finn 
Fred Auld John P. Chapman Wm. S.. Horton 
Wm. B. Horton Robt. P. Smith Wm. J. Dacey 



Keys Club 
(1921 and Feb. 15. 1932- 



Pred. P. Hague 
Edwin D. Rogers 



C, W. Flowers 
Ashby Sheppard 



) 

Robt. L. Peck 
C.-C. Ancroffl 
R.-Robt. Peck 



Wm, Walker 
Ernest A. Winton 



1924 



1925 



Lambda Chi Alpha 
(March 3, 1924- ) 

Charter Members: Hal A. Oliver, Wm. J. H. Cotton, B. R. Perry, 

Thomas K. Graham, Lloyd S. Elkins, Wayne Burch, 
Robert S. Burke, Jackson H. Bunn, Charles S. 
Hammond, Robert A. Burch, Jr., Alonzo C. Edwards, 
Ernest G. Overton, Wm. G, Sharp, Jack E. Anderson, 
Richard T. Hadraway, Linwood B, Hollowell, James 
M. Keech, John B. Midgett, Thomas B. Moore, 
Emerson M. Thompson, Joseph C. Whisnant Alton R. 
Barrett, Robert B, Billings, Macon F. Brock, Wm. R, 
Brown, Edward W. H. Sagertedt, Joseph P. Roche, 
Loy F. Thompson. 



B. G. Overton R. T. Hardaway 
Chm Rit»l-W,G,Sharpe,Jr. 

B. G. Overton R. T. Hardaway 
Chm Rit*l-W.G.Sharpe,Jr. 



W, R. Brown 
Soc.-R.A.Burch 

L. F. Tuttle 
Soc.-R.A.Burch 



L. B. Hollowell 
L.B.Hollowell 



L. B. Hollowell W. G. Sharpe, Jr. A. R. Barrett 
Chm Rit'l-L. E. Jarrett J. C. Whisnant 

L, F. Tattle 

Soc.-J. B. Anderson 



Geo. R. Wallace 
J. E. Thompson 



i^ . 



r-> 



;.-i'J. 



67 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasarer 



Lambda Clii Alpha-cont. 

(xeo, R. Wallace J. S. Anderson 
Ohm Eit'l-Robt. Cranford 



Hi chard C. Home L. B. Christian 
Chm Rit'1-Ken. Lagerstedt 



John L, Burke Ogden C, Bruton 
6hm. lit 'l-Whit worth W, Gotten 



Kenneth Lagerstedt James Thompson 

A. H. Cotton 

Soc. -Clarence James 

Albert H, Cotton John C, Burke 
Ogden C. Bruton 
Soc.-W, C. Drake 

Ron. C. Ruddick Leroy Smith 
Soc.-W. E. Johnson S.O.Goode 



Walter S. Johnson Marshall A. Campbell Dan H. Stewart Oliver Hicks 



Chm Rit'l-G, K. Massengill 

H, F. Eottenstein D. N. Stewart 
Chm Rit'l-M. Britchett 
Wm. Wyman 

Wm. H, Wyman Thomas C. Morgan 
Chm Rit»l-Thomas Waller 

Wm. Wyman Clyde P. Boyle a 
Bernard P. Kinter 



F, C. Nicholson Walton W. Smith 

P. C. Nicholson 

T. C. Morgan Jimmie Jarrett 

Geo. C, Burch 

Chas. Short David Bowen 
So c. -Prank Barnett 



Robt, H. Rush 
Soc.-Wm. Parker 



Murray Miller 



Clyde Boyles Melvin Stevens 
Chas. D.Beatty Ernest Wood 
Chm Rit'l-C. D. Beatty 
Sd. Coo ley 



Kermit L. Leitner Murry Miller 
Soc. -Larry Bagwell 



Chas. D. Beatty Kermit L. Leitner D^vis Hatch Herbert 6. Whiting 
Chm Rit'l-Oliver D. Mann Soc.-Lariy B. Bagwell 



Herbert G. Whiting Ed. W. Cooley 
Chm Rit'1-Robt. E. Kay 



Robts. K. Dodd Christian S, Briel 
Jos. G. Powell Ralph A. Taylor 
Soc. -Geo. P. Beneke 



Geo. T. Prampton E. Gilbert Mathews Alan W. Ham Paul M. Beich 
Robt. Greenawalt, Chm Rit'l Soc. -Helmut Bode Hubert P. Young 



Geo. T. Prampton B. Gil. Mathews 
Chm Rit'1-Rob. Greenawalt 

Henry Wilson Arthur Brown 
Art Peabody Duncan C. Gray 
Dexter f/. Leland Pen Wilson 



Jos. M. Carl Hub. P. Young 
Soc- Rob. Leavenworth 

Richard Clarke Robert Wanzer 
Dexter P. Leland Rob. C. Wanzer 
Harold S. Piatt Wm. S. Schenkemeyer 



■?R 



t»: 



-•^^t.rr? 



, '.a a: 



..%. 



nilli:.. ''/:'I'V 



nocT 






1 »>ct«»^*, 



18.t.[ 



r - . ■. • )•:- 



68 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Leagae of Nations 
(1919- ) 

Alberto Gionzales Isaivo Tanaka 



Hermlni Eaynes Same 



Lea^e of Women Voters 

(1926-1936) 

(Hew Group started in 1933) 



Sliz, Ramsey 
Hath Bennett 



Kate Israel 
Betty Halsema 



Selma War lick Sliz. MacPadyen 



Johnny Long & His Collegians 
(1931- ) 



Membentj 




Leader & Violinist 


Johnny Long 


Saxophones 1 


McCarthy Hanger 


2 


Charles Hicks 


3 


Henry D. Miller 


Trumpets 1 


Irving Nielsen 


2 


Smith 


3 


James Allardice 


Drums 


Harry Ingle 


(Succeeded T?y 


David Goddard 


Piano & Manager 


Maurice Miley 


Trombone 


Edwin Batner 


Guitar 


Ogden Davies 


Bass 


Shelby Dale 


Lather League 


E. Fred Bratzel 




Wm. Pickes 


Sleanora Pi 



Byron Conley 



McDowell County Club 
(1912-j .J 

J. E. Kanlpe 



John Erwin 



Mecklenburg County Club 
(1914- ) 



J. W. Carr, Jr. 
J. A. McGinn 
G. M, Ivey 
Leroy Dutin 



J. A. McGlaa 
W. K. Carr 

P. C, Sherrill, 



E. M. McGrady 
J. H. Wilson 
Dorothy Dotger 
Dorothy Dotger 



P. M. Marr 

Same 

L. Dutin 

Up E. Wilkinson 



ecoJ 



,«i'-j. ill Li^Z'i'^z . q;..c* 



■?"?W 



nui' V,: ..*. .T> 



69 



President 



Vice-President Secretary 



Treasurer 



Men* 8 Student Governinent Association 
(1922-1 ) 



Jay L. Jackson 
Joiin B, Harris 
Wm, S. Barnes 



M. Bradshaw 

C. G. Knox 

W. G. Bradshaw 



J. D, Secrest 

W. B. Bradshaw Same 

W, F, Craven, Jr. Same 



TThitfleld S. Blakeney L. B. Hollowell •«. A. Biggs Same 

Don, E. Klrkpatrick W. A. Mabry W. S. Grant Same 

Chas. C. Weaver James N. Truesdajte J, T, Carruthers Same 

Amos N. Johnson J. G. King John M. Weher Same 
Joe A, Savage E. B. Weatherspoon Geo. C. Hookt 



Dallas Albrd 
0. W. Home, Jr. Same 
S. M. Caldwell Same 
Tyrus Wagner Same 
Martin B. Williams Same 



Robert C. Wood 



Same 



Wm. D, Murray Geo. C. Hoopy 
Martin K. Green Marcus Hobhs 
Oliver W. Home C. R. Lundgren 
Jos. T. Shackford M. E, Newsome.Jr. 
Wm. M. Burke Reynolds May 
Councilmen: 

Joseph S. Shieferly, Jr. 

Wm. N. Klove 

Charles Kinkle 

William Thompson 

Boy Zack Thomas Jadk Alexander 
Councilmen: 

Clifford Perry 
C» Robert Mervine 
Wm. P. Simmons 
Richard M. Taliaferro 
J, Scott Montgomery 

Tom P. Southgate Richard D. Jenkinson Wm. ?. Courtney Same 
Councilmen: 

C. Manning Smith 
Pred Rebman 
Gil Mathews 
Garfield Miller 

E, Gillert Mathews J.S.Montgomery James C, Little Same 
Sen. Rep.: 

Chester Lucas 

Jim 7. Hose 
Junior Rep: 

Howard Mason 

Garfield Miller 
Soph. Rep.: 

John Shinn 



:j^:r:ir.-.;^ 



HiTili-: 



.0 b-i 



/>'■ 



; r 



70 



legr PyesldQnt Vlce-Pregldent Secretary Treasttrer 

Men's Student Government Association-cont, 

1938 Richard Lewis Bol) Spangler Ted Broim Same 

Sftliior Hep: 
Bill Bhodes 
E. T. Baker 
Juhior Rep: 
John Shinn 
John Palmer 
Soph Rep: 

Richard Connor 

1939 Thomas J. Hanlon Jack K. Palmer Eugene &. Wilson Same 

Senior Rep: 

Sam Williams 

Don G-arrick 
Junior Rep: 

Robert Moyer 

Richard Connar 
Soph. Rep: 

William Schenkemeyer 

1940 Ricliard 0, Connar Robert Moyer Douglas F. Peterson Same 

Senior Rep: 

Herman Rapoport 

E. S. Delaney 
Junior Rep: 

Ted Tukjs 

Xlex McMahan 
Soph. Rep: 

Henry Crane, Jr, 



Methodist Studants* Union 
(April 12, 1936- ) 

James Boyd Haywood Herrell Geneva Morris 
V.P, for Women- Sarah Sprail 
Publicity- Leroy Scott 

Haywood Harrell Linwood Blackburn Geneva Marks Same 
V.P. for Women- Eleanor Coopedge 

Rep,- Tom McCord 



«.' *.. C#>, i. 



eu'Kc 



♦ f 



71 



President 



Vice-President Secretary 



Tyea^gyes 



Ministerial Association, Undergraduate 
(1908- ) 



B, 


T. 


Hurley 


T. M. Grant 


M. 


M. 


Wright 




G. 


w. 


Vick 




N. 


M. 


Wright 




w. 


L. 


Scott 




R. 


6, 


L. Edwards 


Same 


C. 


A. 


Cade 


Daniel Lane 


D. 


C. 


Lewis 


Same 


E. 


C. 


Durham 


H. B. Hill 


J. 


w. 


Bennett 


Same 


H. 


E. 


Myers 


J. W. Bennett 


w. 


R. 


Shelton 


Same 


w. 


E. 


Shelton 


J. E. B. Houser 


G. 


R. 


Jordan 


Same 


E. 


c. 


Pew 


John Cline 


w. 


G. 


McParland 




c. 


M. 


McKlnney 


J, B. Hurley 


A, 


J. 


Hohhs, Jr. 


Same 


I. 


L. 


Shaver 


J. H« Lanning 


J. 


E. 


Gilbreath 


Same 


T. 


P. 


Higglns 


H. K. King 


w. 


N. 


7aughan 


Same 



W, N, Vaughan G. G, Adams 

Sanuel A. Maxwell Prank Steugh 

M. q. Turtle G. G. Whitehurst 



J. L. Hester Same 
Galon Whitehurst Same 
W, L, Clegg M, T. Hipps 



P. 
w. 

M. 
P. 


B. 
L. 

w, 

L. 


Joyner 
Clegg 
Lawrence 
Kiker 


L. 
R. 
P. 
B. 


V. 
M. 

L. 

H. 


Harris 

Stafford 

Kiker 

Kease 


Ernest G, Overton 
C. H. McGregor 
W. C. Maxwell 
R. L. Jerome 


Same 
Same 

Same 
Same 




H. 

w. 


R. 

c. 


Ashmore 
Huckabee 


R. 


L. 


Jerome 


J. 

R. 


G. 
G. 


Wilkinson 
Bawson 


A. L. 
R. G. 


Stephen 
Dawson 


R. 


G. 


Dawson 
Holt 








D. 
J. 


D. 
C. 


Holt 
Groce 


Same 
Same 




S. 

c. 


E. 
P. 


Mercer 
Bowles 


c. 

R. 


P. 
L. 


Bowles 
House 


c. 

L. 


D. 
A. 


Brown 
Tilley 


C. D. 
A. S. 


Brown 
Nohlitt 


C. 

c. 


D. 
M. 


Brown 
Smith 


L. 
B. 


A. 

L. 


Tilley 
Poole 


c. 

N. 


M. 

A. 


Smith 
Huffman 


C. J. 
J. H. 


Andrews 
Carper 



J. Walter Johnson Millard Warren 

Harold D. Plood Edward H, Jones 

Thomas Carri^er 

John McLain 

McIAirry S, Richey Walter Smith 

Douglas Corriher4 Haywood Harrell 



Walter L, Lanier Eugene Campbell 
Samuel J. ^awkins R. J, Starling 



Douglas Corriher Austin Whitmore 
Linwood Blackburn Rob. Stamey 

Chas. E. Shannon 



Robt. H. Stamey Linwood Blackburn Chas. Shannon 
Chas. E, Shannon Leroy A. Scott James Crawley 



Archibald Ray 
Walter Gattis 



n*'. 



72 



Teal 



President 



Vice-President Secretary 



Treasurer 



Montgomery County Club 
. (1926-1927) 

1926 L. D. Prutchey R. H. Andrews 



R. B, Bruton 



I. W. Wood 



Mordecai Law Club 
(1927- ) 

Charter Members: Judge T, D. Bryson, Prof. W, Bryan Bolich, 

Walter S. Locldaart, Marshall T. Spears, W. T. 
Towe; and J. S. Bell, E. J. Burns, L. C. Butler, 

A. B. Carter, L, V. ^happen, J, E. Coltrane, 
V. B. Derrickson, W. A. Pinch, N. T. Pletcher, 
G. T. Garrett, G, S. Garriss, W, I, Gatling, 

M. S, Guthrie, S. M. Holton, V. 0. Jones, B. M. 
Linney, L. R. Morris, L. E. Nail, J. A. Norris, 

B. T; Sanders, A. B. Shepherd, J, M. Sink, L. A* 
Smith, H. P. Strickland, C. N. Swann, J, C, Troy, 
J, W. Wallace, M, C. Wilson, P. L. Wyche, 



Mountain Boomer's Club 
(Oct. 29, 1909-1921) 



19(fi9 
1910 



1911 
1912 



W. M, Marr 

P. L. Gaston W. P. Starners 

Historian- E, J. Londow 

Wade E. Eller R. B, Welle 

Historian- W, L. Scott 



S, W, Marr 



J, 0. Renfro 



T. T, H^ch Same 
C.-W. S. Eller 

C.-S. W. Marr 

J, 0. Renfro Same 

C,-W. A. Wilson 

R. L. Brown Same 



1913 J. 0. Renfro 

1914 J. B. Cathey 



1915 P. W, Harley 

1916 W. S. Eli&B 

1918 W. S, Ellas 

1919 W. S. Elias 

1920 C. E, Buckner 



J. B. Cathey 
J. H, Coman 



J. W. Elliott 
R. H. Shelton 



R« L, Brown Same 
W. R. Shelton Same 
C.-C. R. Edwards 

J. H. Coman Same 
R, P. Wyche Edwin Burge 
Marguerite Russell Same 
Estelle Warlick Same 
Marguerite Russell Same 



Musical Clubs 
(1920- ) 

1908 L. E. Blanchard 

Bus. Mgr,- J. N. Cole, Jr. 

1909 G. M. Daniel 

Bus. Mgr.- C. K. ProctoS- 
Asst. Mgr.- R. G. Laney 



G. M. Daniel 



Same 



•i/j: 



73 



lear President Vice-President Secretary Treasurer 

Masical Clubs-cont. 

1910 TT. G. Matton J. B. Brinn J. B. Courtney Same 

1924 W. Bolfe Brown 

Bus. Mgr.- Frank M. Wanaer 

1925 S. W, Pickens 

Bus. Mgr.- C. W. Porter 

1926 Porman G. McLarty 

Bus. Mgr.- James B, McLarty 

1927 James N. Truesdale C. A. Klrkpatrick 

Boa. Mgr.- Robt. L, Hatcber 

1928 Robert B. Bruton 

Mgr.- Henry C. Bost 

1929 Vernon P. Secbrlest C. S. Hooper, Jr. 

Bus. Mgr.- W. C. Lassiter 

1930 J. S, Neal D. C. MacLaugblin 

Bus. Mgr.- Francis H. Brinkl^ 

1931 James Fowler 

Bus, Mgr.- Marcus E. Hobbs 

1932 James H. Pliillips 

Bas. Mgr.- Montgomery Gray 

Russell Herbert John A. Long 

Bus. Mgr. -Edwin A. Say lor 
Roy Zack Thomas John Cole Robert E. Kay Same 

Bus. Mgr.- Hozelle Holman 

Student Dir,- Ernest Winton 

Joseph R. Mackie Gayle Herman Wm. B. Somerville Same 
Bus. Mgr.- John D, Klock 
Student Dir.- Donald Schmltt 



Music Study Club, Women's 
(1931- ) 

Charter Members: Dorothy Barger, Celestine Beamer, Constance 
Blackwood, Elaine Chi Ids, Mary F. Covington, 
Annie L, Outchen, Helen Daniel, Helen Gray, 
Rachel Meetze, Enniy L, Morton, Dorothy Newsom, 
Fannie O'Keef, Ruth Patterson, Eleanor Rogers, 
Va. Tillitson, Ermengarde Wegener. 



74 



Year President 



Vlce-Preeident Sedretary 



Tr?a?VLr^r 



Music Study Glut, Women 's-cont. 



Mary P. Covington Helen R, Grose 
Isabel Shriner Huby Fogel 
Bus, Mgr.- Ernestine Paul 



Hachel Meetze 
Eleanor Green 



Gonstance Blackwood 
Catherine Rankin 



Mary L. 3yrn 



Eleanora Patterson C. -Barbara Jenkins Lois Shields 

R.-Va. Miller 



Gretchen Elmiger Evelyn R. Klemme Ann M. Hughes Mary C, Bell 



Jean Ord Mary E. Krummel 
Ann Hauschenberg Priscilla Grey 



Beth Shaw 



Janet Gift 



C.*Ann Rauschenberg Jean Merkel 
R, -Betty McFayden 

B. -Betty McPayden 
C. -Margaret Braynard 
Peggy Glenn 

R.-Anne Hersey Marjorie Davis 
C, -Nancy Carver 



P. A. Pinch 



Nash County Club 
(1913- ) 

A, B. Parm*r 



G. B. Bissette C. S. Bunn 



Natural History Club 
(1923-1 ) 

Genevieve Ifyers Evelyn Millner Clara Becton 



Same 



R. A. Pew 



Naval Club 
(1918- ) 



R. W. Partin 



Same 



Needlework Guild 
(1935- ) 



1935 Dora Hill 

1936 Dorothy Adams 

1937 Geneva Marks 
1939 Peggy Barnes 



75 



Year 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 







Nereidian Club 










(1930- ) 






1931 






Betsy Wheeler 


Same 


1932 


Betty Boesh 


Bernice Rose 


Mary A. Dewey 


Juie Bailey 


1933 


Margie Voigt 


Mary A, Dewey 


Jean Molyneaux 


Dorothy Flebbe 


1935 


Evalyn Schaffle 


Anna L, Boyd 


Mary Millar 


Rebecca Atzrodt 


1936 


Grwendolyn Cline 


Joan Bliss 


Mary Millar 


Marj. White 


1937 


Alberta Townsend 


Dorotliy Creery 


Carrol Costigan 


Barbara Henry 


1938 


Dorotliy Creery 


Cornelia Goddard 


Laurette Ryan 


Doris Coish 


1939 


Cornelia Goddard 


Doris Colsh 


Marjorie Kmmmel 


Betty L, Ware 


1940 


Helen Drisccll 

He 


Joan Bender 

iw Hanover Cy Club 
(193.9- ) 


Sally Jossman 


Alice Schuremnn 


1919 


H. K. King 


R. E. Thigpen 


Lucille Merritt 


T. A, Morse 


1920 


T. A. Morse 


A. B. Hall 

Nine-0-Hineteen 
(1890- ) 


Marion Snmmerell 


R. H. James 



Charter Members: John Spencer Bassett, McCrary, Darham, Cranford, 



1932 C. R. Lvjndgren 

1933 Davis Williams Wm. E. Apple 

1935 Henry S. Robinson Robt. H. Dick 

1936 Eugene Desvernine Harold R. Collins 

1937 Jesse P. Xuperman Preston Webster 

1938 J. Braxton Craven Ben S. Ho rack 

1939 Nevin Stetler Guy D. Beightol 

Sentinel- Tom Malone 

1940 Rob't Atwell John Yarborotigh 

Sentinel- Horace Stanley 



Burke Smith Hal W. Atkinson 
Fred N. Cleaveland E. Cruikshank 
Clark Walter, Jr. James A. Bistline 



Paul Bransford 

Tom Senf f 

J. C. Rut ledge 



Marion Moise 



Barry Williams 
Dewey laane 
Guy Berner 



Joe W. Saylor.Jr, 



Nu Beta Phi 
(1931-1933) 



1931 



Grace Hacharason Mildred Pollock 



Scribe- 
Jeanette 

Co-Scribe- 
Sara Berenson 



Ethel Nachamson 
Sidenburg 



76 



Year . President 



Vice-President Secretary 



Treasurer 



1932 



Nu Beta Phi-Cont, 
Sara Berenson Mildred Pollock 



1933 Sara Berenson Ethel Nachamson 



Scribe- Grace Nacharason 

Ethel Nachamson 
Co-Scribe- 

Jeanette Sidenharg 

Scribe- Milcred Pollock 

Rubye Fogel 
Co-Scribep 

Jeanette Sidenburg 



"SvL Sigma 
(1923-1931) 



1929 Officers- Bess Copeland 
Nell Spivey 



Nu Sigma Nu 
(1931- ) 

1935 Prank W. Backner Prajak Alter 



Geo. Bogardas Hob't L. Alter 



Officer's Club 
(1919- ) 

1919 Walter J. Rothensies H. K. King L. K. I^Iartin W. S. Elias 



1938 



Omicron Chi Epsilon 
(Feb. 15, 1937- ) 

Charter members: Merrimon Cunninggim, Ked Wiley, H. Grady Hardin, 
J. Kern Ormond, Robert S, Tate, Robert Lengler, 
Prank Dennis, Denny Williams, Wade Moor. 



Rob't S. Tate Rob't Lengler 

A. E. Wiley (?) Prank Dennis 

iShap.- Rob't S. Tate 
Claude Evans Chas. Shannon 



H, G. Hardin Same 

J-ttlian A. Lindsey H. Grady Hardin 

Bill McCulley Denny Williams 



77 



Omicron Delta Kappa 
(1925- ) 

Year > .•■' Member 

1926 James M. Atkins 

Ralph L. Biggerstaff 
Walter A. Biggs 
Whiteford S. Blakeney 
Sanruel D, Bundy 
Garay B. Caldwell, Jr. 
Edward Lee Cannon 
Wesley Frank Craven, Jr. 
Jajnes DeHart (Coach) 
John Prather Prank 
George P. Harris 

Har^ Belton Johnston 
Donald E. Kirkpatrick 
Wm. Alexander Mahry 
Earl Puette McPee 
Furman Gordon McLarty 
Marshall Ivey Pickens 
James E, Thompson 
Thomas B. Wagg, Jr. 
Pyank M. Warner 
Charles C, Weaver, Jr. 
John H, Westtrook 
Alhert A. Wilkinson 

1927 Albert Anderson 

Wm. S. Anderson, Jr. 
Charles G. Bennett 
Harry Lee Bivens 
Robert B. Bruton 
John C. Burwell, Jr. 
Clarence Ray Carpenter 
Rhomes S. Eanes, Jr. 
Hansen Lindsay Hester 
Douglas L. Kelley 
Charles A, Kirkpatrick 
Wm. A. Lambeth 
Clifton Brooke Mcintosh 
Nathan C. Newbold (aliimnus) 
William Von Eaton Sprinkle 
James Nardin Truesdale 
Robert Gregory Tattle, Jr. 
Albert D. Waggoner 



78 



Omicron Delta Kappa-cont. 
Year Memlaer 

1928 Sidney Sherrill Aldennan 

Henry Conner Bost 

Fred G. Brumraitt 
Coke Candler 

Joseph T. Carruthers, Jr. 
John Slwood Doxey 
Reuben Harold Ellison 
William Howard Ervin 
Arthur Parker Harris, Jr. 
Harry Exum Hoi lings worth 
Jennings G-raham King 
Listen Orlando Pope 
William Stewart Rogers 
Richa.rd Fred Roper 
Richa,rd Elton Thigpen 
John Melvin We^er 

1929 William Carter Adams 

Fred William Anders 
Arthur Brown Bradsher 
Thomas Franklin Culhreth 
Dayton Rohert Dean 
Robert Melvin Gantt 
Carroll Gujonin 

John Chisman Hanes 
Henry Grady Hedrick 
Roy Alexander Hunter 
David Kelly Jackson, Jr. 
Ernest Lafayette Jenkins 
Vernie Okie Jcnes 
Henry Evans Kistler 
Charles Franklin Lambeth 
Homer Luther Lippard 
Charles H, Livengood 
Emmett Kennedy McLarty, Jr. 
Melvin A, Peeler 
William H, Rousseau, Jr. 
Joe Allen Savage 
Thomas Spruill Thornton 
George Andrew Warlick 
Everett Broadus Weatherspoon 
Charles Clinton Weaver 
Bunyan Snipes Wombl» 



.■; 



79 



Omicron Delta Kappa-cont. 



Year 
1930 



1931 



1932 



1933 



Memter 

Lee Wyatt Cole 
Lee Ferguson Davis 
Paul Revere Ervin 
Grady Craven Frank 
fiotert G-. Hayes 
James Sidney Heizer 
George Clayton Hoopy 
Cha.rles F. Honey cut t, 



Jr. 



Edward Emory Adkins 
Philip McMahan Bolich 
George Clifford Buchheit 
William Patrick Farthing 
John Jenkins Gajnhle 
Samuel Paul Garner 
Martin K, Green 
Marcus E« Eobhs 

D. A. Arnold (Secretary) 
Charles Kilgo Bradsher 
John Hubert Brownlee 
Edwin M. Caldwell, Jr. (Pres, 
James Bridgers Clark 
Raymond Frank Coomhs 
Henry Philpot Pulmer 
George T, Harrell 
William Bozeman Hicks 
Edwin Clay Kellaxn 
Lawson Beasley Knott, Jr. 
Carl Raymond Lundgren 
Edwin Lowell Mason, Jr. 



Jerry Garrett Bray 
Charles Pa^due Bunch 
Fred Eugene Crawford 
Merriraon Ouninggim 
Arthur Manuel Ershler 
Joseph W, Getzendanner 
Claihorne B. Gregory (Treas.) 
Horace J, Hendrickson 
Oliver W, Home 



Charles H, Livengood, Jr. 
Joe W, Mann, Jr. 
John Irvin Morgan, Jr. 
Preston Brooks Moses 
William D. IvhirrSy 
Joseph Gaither Pratt 
George Howard Rogers 
Walter McGowan Upchurch, Jr, 

Ralph Lindsay Howland 
Edwin Bedford Jeffress 
William Southgate Martin 
James Mullen 
John Dickinson Shaw 
Edward G. Thomas 
William Thompson To we 



John De Lamar Minter (7. Pres.) 
William R. Odell 
ISicholas Orem, Jr. 
) Gordon Gilbert Power (Treas.) 
Bruce Steele Roxhy 
Charles McCoy Short, Jr. 
William Alexander Simon, Jr, 
Frank Sizemore 
Curtis Taylor Spence 
James Lanius Stewart 
Robert McNeal Vaughan 
Walter Herbert Weathersppon 
Herbert Alphonso Williams, Jr. 

Edward C. Marshall 

James Orin Otis, Jr. (V. Pres.) 

Thomas Tinsley Rogers 

Carl Frederick Schock 

Philip Johnson Weaver 

Albert Henry Werner 

Glen Davis Williams 

Leroy Sides (Pres.) 



BO 



Omicron DeJ-ta Kappa-cont. 



Year 



Members 



1934 



1935 



1936 



1937 



Williazn Apple 
Charles David Beatty 
J. Samiel Bell (Treas.) 
Rebert Bird 
William Miller Burke 
E. B. Danlap, Jr. 
McCarthy Hanger 
Richard Herbert 
Jack Heritage 
Richard E. Kbhler 
Horrasm B, Livengood 
Reynolds May (V. $res.) 

Jack Alexander 

James Craig Braswell 

Ernest Cruikshank 

William Logan Huiskakp 

Charles William Kunkle (^res.) 

Jimmy McCall 

Robert Charles Merving 

Eugene Hyatt Moseburg (V.Pres.) 

Wayne Harper Ambler (Pres.) 

James A, Bistline 

Fred N. Claaveland 

James M. Daniel 

Richard D, Jenkinson (V.Pres.) 

John A, Kneipp 

Lloyd Alfred Kraushaa* 

James E, Lambeth, Jr.JTreas.) 

Alan Mills ffeicQuarrie 

John Daniel McConnell 

Willard Phelps Barngey 
Fred Charles Edwards 
Danny R. Farrar 
George Thomas Frampton (V.i^,) 
Elmore Howard Hackney 
Pleasant Huber Hanes, Jr. 
James Crawford Little 
Edward Gilbert Mathews 



Donald McNeil 
John Lynn Moorhead 
Robert P. Nixon 
Joseph S, Schieferly 
Joseph Temple Shackford 
Elmer fiarrall 
Tyrus I. Wagner 
Barhard T. Welsh 
Barnard T. Weber 
Sari J. Wentz flPres.) 
Martin B. Williams 



Peter Ernest Naktenis 
Clifford Perry (Treas.) 
Philip Mosley Russell 
Bayard Hancock Storm 
Bernard Ambrose Wagner 
Zack Thomas 
Frank Sizemore 



Dean Manchester (Secy.) 
Clarence McKay Parker 
Edward Ernest Post, Jr. 
John H. Small 
William Pinckney Simmons 
Charles Manning Smith 
Tom Puller Southgate 
Richard McCullo^^ Taliaferro 
Herbert Jackson Upchurch 
William Sggleston Woodruff 

James Scott Montgomery (Pres.) 

Geroge E. Patterson ( 

Kenneth Arthur Podger 

Howard Clinton Ris 

Arthur Blyth Rouse, Jr. (Treas.) 

Thomas S. Ryon 

Wm, B. Somerville 



81 



Year 
1938 



Omicron Delta Kappa-con t. 



Hfifiber 



Hussell Y. Cooke, Jr. 

Richard W, Goode 

Herbert C. Hudgins 

Walter D. James 

Richard C, Keane 

Chester L. Lucas 

Howard P. Mason (Pres.) 

Garfield Miller 

Clinton W. Morgan, Jr. (Treas, 

Rohert J. O'Mara (V. Pres.) 

Rohert M. Price 

Philip A. Sniall 

Eric G. Tipton 



Denny D. Williams 
Robert C. Wood 
Russell Bergman 
James B. Craven, Jr. 
Roosevelt A. Der Tatevasian 
Kendrick S. Few 
Reid T, Holmes 
W. Hill Hudson 
)James McGiraesy, Jrl' 
Wm. L, Rhodes, Jr. 
Thomas P. Senff 
Robert H, Van Voorhis 



Jack K. Palmer (Pres 


.) 


James Leckie 


Addison P. Penfield 




Dewy Doane 


Harney P. Sloan 




Edgar F. Bunce 


R. Tim Brinn 




Richard G. Connar 


Curtis S. Jones 




Andrew L. Ducker, Jr. 


Ward D. Abbott 




Ed, L. Fike 


C. Frederick Kreiser 




Lawrence H. Foster 


Ellis ^. Baker, III 




Charles H. Eolley 


Richard P. Lewis 




Robert Lester 


Chas. W. Ramsey, Jr. 




Robert F. Long 


Wm. P. Parsons 




Robert F. Moore 


Thomas J, Hn.nlon (V, 


Pres.) 


Robert H. Moyer 


Dan W. Hill, Jr. 




Robert E. Perinovich 


Robert C. Rice, Jr. 




Tom D. Smart 


jF. Walter Erich (Treas.) 


Harold K Smith 


Duncan Gray 




Alex Winterson 


President Vice-President 


Secretary Treasurer 



Andrew L. Ducker Charles H. Holley Dr. Manchester Harold K. Smith 



Orchestra, Women's 
(1928- ) 

Rachel Meetze 

Accompanist- Betty Bogert 

Mary Lalla Byrn Lois Shields 
Librarian- Mary Magraw 
Concertmaster- Betty Shuford 



Lois Shields 
Estella Beebe 



Estella Beebe 



82 



Tear President 



Vice-President Secretary 



Treasurer 



Women ' s rche s t ra-co nt . 

Mildred Patterson Same 



1937 Estella Bee'be 

Librarians: Idelia Benson 

tiarjorie McCreery 



Betty Shuford 
Idelia Benson 



Jean Merkel 
Josephine Brown 



Mildred Patterson Same 
Priscilla Gray Same 



Fred Bratzel 



Pan-American CluT) 
(1933-1935) 



Parthenon Cluh 
(1916-1924) 



Kate G. Umstead Mary L, Knight 
Ina Vivian Young Annie T. Smith 



Madge Nichols 
Evelyn C, Reade 



Etoile Young 
Mary Knight 



Hallie Baldwin Nellie Reade 
Janie C, Chandler Hallie Baldwin 



Evelyn Reade 
Madge Nichols 

Annie T, Smith 
Iviyrtle Pri chard 



riorine Lewter Leonora Aiken 
Blanche Bar ringer Margaret Harvey 
Allene Perrish Dixon Barrett 
Dixon Barrett Agnes Judd 



Elizabeth Craddock 
Agnes Judd 



Agnes Doub 





Claire ITicliols 


Dixon Barrett 


Same 


Penny Nichols 


Katherine Brown 


Agnes Doub 




Imogene Barrett 


Same 


Velina Deyton 


Same 



Pegram Chemistry Club 
(1920- ) 
(Chemist Club before 1920; about 1924-27 
Absorbed Chemist Club and became 
Pegram. ) 



Wm. Sloan 

Talmage Peele 

0. C, Burton 

C. Hooker 

Herbert Shankle 

Robt.T. Dicker son Wm. Sellers 

L, B. Par bee H. Humble 



J, Richardson 
T. A. Hathcock 

Rollins 
Evelyn Hancock 
Rob't Dickerson 



G, H, Osborne 
0, E. Burton 
J.M.A.deBruyne 
C. H. Gray 
R. T. Dickerson 
Alex Smoot 
L. B. Parbee 
Estelle King 



G. H. Osborne 
Wm, Parmer 

H. Shankle 
Norman Peat field 
Norman Peatfield 
P. Palp 



83 



President 



Yice-Presldent 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Pegram Chemistry Club-cont. 



1931 2)Bill Miller 
l)H. G. Leech 



^ J. Miller 



2) Mary P. Smith 
Estelle King 



1934 Philip Kirk Hermit Leitner 

1935 Bill Brumbach John Atkinson 

1936 John W. Atkinson Harry P. Pfann 



1937 Harry P. Pfann James B. Thomas 
2)01iver J. Purnell 



Adam Gaddis 



Va. Cox Ernest Wood 

Dorothy Seymour Fred Andrews 
0. J. Purnell Burton Appleford 

2)Boyd Hudson 

Mildred Patterson Boyd Hudson 



1938 James B. Thomas 

1939 Betty Conrad 

1940 John French 



Mildred Patterson Carol Conners 
Paul Gross Gwyn Davis 
Warren Irvin Ruth Stocksdale 



Vernon Diheler 

John. French.. , tc 
Carl Deal 



Pegram House 
(1931- ) 



Kathryn IJhitmyre 



Louise Sellars 
Sylvia Hunsicker 
Sue Powell 
Paula Bassett 
Helen Larzalere 
Boc, Chm.- Nancy Peterson 

Prances Brooks 
Rosanna Brewer 
Eae Rogers 
Ellen Schrup 



Dorothy Gray 
Mary C. Forness 
Mary C, Forness 



Betty Parks 



Beverly Kurtzmann 
Bettina Bell Mary S. Dodge 
Doris Medley Sarah Stuhhs 
Pollyanne Ferguson Martha J. Phillips 



R. T. Hamhrick 
Wayne Burch 
Wayne Burch 
B.I.Satterfield 
Hazel Thompson 
R. E. Long 



Person County Cluh 
(Nov. 1919-1924 ) 

Wayne Burch Fred Long Same 

B, I, Satterfield C. A. Harris Same 

W. L. Bradsher B.I.Satterfield Same 

W, L. Bradsher Blanche Hester Same 

R. A. Burch R. B. Long Same 

Willie B. Crowder R. A. Burch Same 



Phi Beta Pi 
(1931-1932) 



Leslie V. Dill Jack B.McGolrick Frank R. Moore Oscar P. Moffitt, Jr. 



84 



Year 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Phi Chi 
(May 18, 1930- ) 



Charter memlDers: 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 

1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 



Pres. Sen.p H. P. Harris, Jr. 



Presiding Sen,- Dan (rill 

•• Jun.- Kenneth Welks 



John Valentine, James Norwood, 0. Purnell Blackley, 
Ernest Bruce Brooks, James P. Pagan, Wm. D. Fanner, 
Wm. Nicholas Fortescue, Charles W. Hooker, Theodore 
Roosevelt Keith, Marion Timothy Plyer, Bennette S. 
Stephenson, Jr., Waller L. Taylor, Jr. 



E. Bruce Brooks 

Wm. Hoi torn 

James R. Wilson 

Wm. P. Kavanagh 

Paul G. Reque 

Vince Moseley 

James M. Perry 

James M. Van Hoy Gr, C. Bill 

Roht. P. Miller C. W. Camalier 

RoU. P. Miller J. S. Hiatt 



1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1939 



Phi Delta Phi 
(1931- ) 

Sam G. Winstead Don. B. Mansfield Arthur H. Glanz J, Paul Coie 



T. Spniill Thornton Wm. A. Mason 



Wm. A. Mason 
Nicholas Or em 
Edwin 0. Kellam 
Hale McCown 
Fred C. Cady 



Jos. M, Whitson 
Porter Peteet 
Alvin O.B.Moore 
H, P. Leathers 
Wm. P. Womhle 



J, Chisman Hanes J. Paul Coie 

Rht. ^. Seftks Byron A. Haworth 

Alhert W. Kennon John M. Col ton 

Hale McCown Russell L. Eiller 

Fred C. Cady Arthur A. Brooks, Jr, 

T. C. Cleveland Chas. H. Giths 



Johnson J. Hayes, Jr, 



Phi Delta Theta (N. C. Alpha) 
(1878&1926- ) 
Charter revoked in June 1879; May 20, 1926 
local chapter of Epsilon Alphii Sigma 
granted new Phi Delta Theta 
charter. 



Charter members: G. M. Bulla, Philemon Holland, Jr., E. L. White, 
W. N. Rohhins. (1878) 
Martin L. Black, Jr. (1926) 



85 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Phi Dejta Theta-cont. 



1930 
1931 


George C. Hoopy 
L. P. Davis 




1 
1932 


Liston Pope 
Liston Pope 
Rohert Ricks 


Geo. Ewell 
Geo. Ewell 
Kenneth Long 


1933 


J. A. McLean 
Philip J. Weaver 


Kenneth Long 
Lyne Few 



Philip J. Weaver Lyne Pew : ff 
Richard Herlaert Edgar Everhart 

E. B. Dunlap 
Dan B. Schaeffer 
Prank Sizemore 



J. E. McNairy 
Hoover Taft 
Ken. Long 
Elbert Wallace 
Prank Stith 



Chas, Rupp 
J.Alex, vielean 
J. Ilex, McLean 
J, A, McLean 
J. A, McLean 



Prank Stith Saxnael Bell 
Robert S. Wiggins Samuel Bell 
replaced by 

W. E. Woodruff 

Wm. E, Woodruff Samiel Bell 
Wm. Woodruff Wilson Everliart 



W. E. Woodruff 
Wm. Womble 



Wilson Everhart 
Clifford Perry- 



Robert 01 Boeker Bill Smoot Wm. L, Lampe 

Pred Edwards Stephen Van Lill Bob Doyle 

Herman Rumsey Robt. J. Everett Suy Berner 

John J. McNeilly Robt. B. Kabek Robt. E. Bunn 

Penrose M. Davis Wm. C. Mickleberry Robt, B. Kubek 



Albert G, Jacobs 
Wm. Lampe 
Converse Kelly 
Converse B. Kelly 
James P. Baker 



Prank Woolsey 
Wm. P. Womble 
Preston Webster 
Kendrick S. Pew 
Robt. Albright 
John E, Wright 
Alex McMahon 
Mac White 



Phi Eta Sigma 
(May 6, 1933- ) 

Launce Plemister 
Robert C. Wood 

Chas. Landreth 
Geo. Dorsey 
Richard G. Connar 
Wm. Smith 
Heniy Bopp 



John R. Black Ernest Wood 
Lee Arnold John L,. Pisher 
Vic. T. Boatwright Prank Dennis 
Robt. H. Van Voorhis Chris. Webster 
Prank Bone Davenport Guerry 
Robt. At well Robt. H. Moyer 
Bob Wolfe John Dajiiel 
Harry Treleaven Dan Mosely 



Phi Kappa Psi (Alpha- chapter) 
(llov. 10, 1934- ) 



Charter Members: 



Robert T. Dickerson, 0, B, Newton, Jr., Joseph S, 
Shieferly, Jr., Robert C. Wade, Chas. W. Zehider, 
Theo. P. H, Boepple, James B. Allardice, Homer H, 
Haydock, Harry Wright, Jr., ^ssell J. Forrest, 
Caleb Van Wyck Smith, Jr., Harry B. Carmen, Jr., 
Donald A. Stewatt, John S. Rose, Lawrence L. Gent, 
James Edward Henry, Howard R. Getz, Albro Sumner 
Travis, Chas. T. St. Clair, Jr., Edwin W. Smith, 
David G. Watson, Chas. S. Dale, Jr., Richard P. 



Jr., 



86 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Phi Kappa Psi-ccnt, 

Charter members (cont^: Bellaire, Charles H. Baker, Jr., Richard 
L, Beazley, Frederick R. Lauther, William A, 
Boepple, Howard Eastwood, Jr., Richard D. 
Jenkinson, Jr., (Jeorrge R. Bailey, III, Henry H. 
Dils, Jr., Lloyd Russell Ranson, Robert S. Rankin, 



C. Shelby Dale Richs.rd Beazley Henry Dils 
Howard Eastwood, Jr. Richkrd.D.Jenkihsoh'Rcd-, 

A. L, Anderson 
Cor.- 
Q-eo. P. Snyder 



Edwin W, Smith 
Norman L. Wherrett 



Richard L. Beaziey G-. R. 2ail6y 
Norman Wherrett Con Sheehan 



Chester L. Lucas Norman L. Wherrett 



Ecdg.- 

A.C.Wooddy 



Paul Bransford 
Assist. - 

David Bew 



Dorman Ingraham John MacLauclan 



Rec- 

Blkins Read 
Cor.- 

Fred Eastwood 



Dick Johantgen 



Rich, P. Johantgen Ira F, Jackson 
Ralph H, Bastien Gene C, Vidal 



Chas. DeLancey 
Tom P. Freeman 



James Moody 

^. R, Habbersett 



Phi Kappa Sigma (Ku chapter) 
(Nov. 13, 1936© ) 

Sherwood Wilson Chas. Dovey, Jr. James T. Rague Robt. G. Hunter 
Thomas J. Murray Walton Rich Rcdg. Secy- Clark Walter, Jr. 

Edgar J. Oliver 
Corr.- 

W. Emory Plaster 

Norman W. Van Nostrand-Ed. S. Miller Corr.p Fred. P. Moore 

Robt. Or, Hunter 

Merril L. Hassel Robt. H. Van Voorhis Corr.- L. H. Nath 
Ed, K. Schlear James L. Halsema 

Rcdg. Secy- 
Elmer T. Gale 



Harold Pray 



Robt. Van Voorhis Douglas Tischler-c F. Walter Erich 

James J. He.lsana-r 



F.vW^lter- Erich Qy-stav F:i Fotssell Ralph Sheals Faison C. Jordan 
Donald C. kussell Chas. W. Hanson Henry S. Wentz Howard F. Carson, Jr, 



87 



President 



Vice-Resident 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Phi Mu (G-amma Epsilon chapter) 
(Nov. 10, 1934- ) 



Chatter raemhere; 



(rwendolyn Clark, Claire Clarke, Ellen Pamdiji, 
Ruljy Flanagan, Va. Johnson, Rachael Meetze, 
Jean Molyneaux, Emily Wilford, Jean McCowan, 
Evelyn Mclntyre, Mary Kfulford, Sara Price, 
Marion Roe, Rachael Sink, Elizabeth Suttoh. 



Emily Wilford 
Va. Johnson 
Claire Clark 
Va. Fulton 



Rachel Meetze 

Ellen Farnum 

Betty Stowell 

Historian- 
Heten Smith 

Regist rat- 
Dorothy Miller 



Betty A. Stowell Margaret Molloy 
Betty Marshall 



Jeanne Moreton 
Leone Parrot t 



Sue -"^arrett 



Martha Down 
Betsy Morrison 
Norene Harper 

Betsy Morrison 



Va. Johnson 
Evelyn Mclntyre 



Rachel Sink 
Rachel Sinfe 
Doris MacKutt 



Mary Tice 



Dorothy Miller 



Mary Weller Carolyn Wichum 
Helen Armstrong Edwina Sundholm 



Ann Hersey 



Lee Bendall 



Phi Sigma 
(Mar. 4, 1926- ) 



Charter memhers: 



Dr. B, Cunningham, Dr. H. L. Blomqaist, N. P. 
Wilkerson, J. B. Baynes, E. W. Britt, N. B. 
Buffaloe, L. T. Heffner, Gecrrge Holmes, L. E, 
Jarre tt, S. S, Jenkins, Wm. Mattheson, L, S, 
Thompson, J. L, Wierda, Miss No la Jane Gentry, 
Miss Alice Herman, Miss Frances Holmes, Miss 
Maude Hunter, Miss Edith Rigshee, Miss Verdie 
Snyder, Miss Dorothy Wilson, Miss Voris Matheny, 



Leslie S. Thompso 
Leslie S. Thompso 
W.A.Ellison, Jr. 
'17. A. Jenkins 
Donsild;Pacd' 
L. C. Chesley 
L. C. Chesley 
Sam Tipton 
C. G, Bookhout 
J. F. Reed 
John £. Rankin ' 
J. Woodrow Wilson 
Chas. Wilson 



n Louis E, Jarrett 
n Wm. A. Ellison, 
W. A. Jenkins 
Sophie Dehler 
. Bell 
Zoe Carroll 
T.L.McCulloch 
D. A. Latham 
R. Harkeraa 
R. Harkema 
J. Woodrow Wilson 
Wm. R. Boggess 
Jos. McDermott 



Alice Herman 
Voris A. Matheny 
Voris A, Matheny 
Voris A. Matheny 
Leon Chesley 
T.L.McCulloch 
Sam Tipton 
L.E.Anderson 
K. C. Kates 
Helen Spangler 
Helen Spangler 
Sarah B, Culhreth 
Rose Kueffner 



G. W. Holmes 
Norman B. Buffaloe 
Dean W. Rumhold 
Harold M. Heflen 
Spivey 
H. F. Williams 
C. W. Hooker 
C.G. Bookhout 
Helen Butts 
B. B. Brandt 
Wilhur H. Duncan 
Wilhur H. Duncan 
Edyth Hull 



• • ( 



88 



Year President 



Vice-President Secretary 



Treasurer 



Phi Sigma Delta (Chi chapter) 
(March 9. 1929-1935) 



1935 John Hammer 



Seymour Van Wiemokly-Irving Dein Same 



1915 
1916 



Phonographers' Cluh 
(1915-1917) 

J. Elmer Van Hook R, L. Fisher 
A, J. Hohhs, Jr. Wesley Taylor 



Lucile BullarcL Carrie B. Craig 
Lucille Ballard R. L. Pisher 



Physics Club 
(1890- ) 

Jesse James 

Prof. C. W. Edwards 

C. W. Edwards 

James H, Coman 

W. A. Ellison.Jr. Speigh6 Barnes 

Paul C. Gurley 

J. N. Grant Eliz. Churchill 

Bedford Love, Jr. 



M. A. Smith 

J. E. Smith Same 

P. S. Scarhoro Same 

Nancy Kirkman Same 

Alton B. Gihson Sajne 

D, R. Noland Same 



Pi Beta Phi (N. C. Beta) 
(Feb. 17, 1933- ) 
(Mu Lambda- 1928-1930) 
Charter members: (Mu Lambda-1928) Rada Poston, Pearl Anderson, 
Pauline Tilley, Ola Simpson, Clyde Allison, 
Ruth Martin, Pitsy McKay, and Laura Seeley, 



(l!bi Lambda) 
Clyde Allison 
Clyde Allison 
Betty Young 

(Pi Beta Phi) 
Courtney Crowder 
Denzil Langston 
Margaret Humbert 
Helen Larzalere 



Laura Seeley 



Ruth For lines 
Mary Reed 
Priscilla Smith 
Ruth Rea 



Lauifta Seeley Patsy Mckay 
Laura Seeley Patsy McKay 
Kathleen Holloway 



Denzil Langston Elvira Burleigh'. 
Red-r Prances Wise Srarlu Strickland 
Ruth Michler Evelyn Newton 
Rcdg- Anna Boyd Helen Smith 
Corr- Jane East 



Ruth Michler 
Rath Hermann 



Win, Greenwood 
Beverly Kurtzmann 



Beverly Kurtzmann Helen P. Smith 
Martha Williams Kate Schmidt 
Cor- Jane Killey 



89 



Year President 



Vice-President Secretary 



Treasurer 



1938 Doris Medley 

1939 Carol Wagner 

1940 Kay Lynclx 



Pi Beta Phi-cont, 

Dorothy Henry Rec. -Dorothy Stone Eliz, Ailen 

Cor, -Kay Lunch 

Berthan Southwick Rec.p 1'te.rtha Wall 

Predrica Gardiner 
Corr.- 
Sarah Andrews 

Freddie Gardiner Rec.- Lee Johnston 

Ginny Connar 
Cor.- 
Martha Wall 



Pi Epsilon Pi 
(Nov. 12, 1926- ) 

Charter Memhers: George Ashford, Lawrence Beall, Wilhur Putterell, 
William Hamlin, Harold Hayes, A. JJ Hughes, Alton 
Price, Owen Sutton, Sam Wrenn, 

Larry L. Gent John S. Ross Rcdg Secy- Howard Getz 

Albert Anderson 
Corr Secy- 
Geo. Snyder 

Norman W, Van Nostrand, E, S.L.Miller, Corr Secy- Pred. P. Moore 

Rohert G. Hunter 



Pi Kappa Alpha 
(1901- ) 

Charter members: Edward 0. Smithdeal, Eli W. Cranford, John 
Dallas Langston, Charles D. Egerton. 



Roht, Matthews 

Henry L. Harris 

Robt. F. Hall 

Russell Cooke, Jr. Troy Ferguson, Jr. 

James McGimsdy Geo, Rgy 



Clyde M. Clapp Wilfred Thornton Henry Harris 

Wilfred H. Thornton Eugene Bailey Brooks L'cEl wrath 

Warner Hutchinson Geo, Ray Brooks J.lcElwrath 

Joseph Scott Ollie Troux 

ReC.- Curtis Kingsberry 

Murray Ly brook 
Cor.- 
William Ade 



Eugene G, Wilson John D, Browning 
Robt. H, Lineberger Ed. J. DoAaell . 



James I. Morningstar Wm. H. Bane 
Chas. J. Patterson Frank Taylor 



90 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Pi (xanima Ma 
(Jan. 12, 1933) 

Dr. Kenneth Clark Dr. J, S. Bradway Dr. E. T. Thompson Same 



Pi Kappa Phi (Ma chapter) 
(May 6. 1915- ) 

Charter memhersi Carl Prank Banting, Arthur Rassel Council, Emmet 
Fitzgerald Gill, Dewey Cecil Kickman, Earl Long, 
Leon Outhhert Richardson, Bernice Owen Rigshee, 
James Balph Rone, Prank ffet thews Lawner, Thomas 
Jo whoa Swain, 



Joe Timherlake 
John Watson 
Joseph Pell, Jr. 
Historian- J. B. Pord 

Lake Williams Brace Wyman 
Chaplain- Guy Elder 

John H. Purlong Les Williams 
Roy W. •^'orrester 
Historian- Chs.rles H. Taylor 

A, Headen Bynum, Jr. 



T. C. Cleveland Jerry Marion 

Wm. H. Palmer Nelson R. Jantzen 

Chas. W. Shaff.III Nelson Jantzen 



Ed Smith 



Jack Shackleton Jack Watson 
John A. Beck E. S. DeLaney 



Charles Taylor E, S. Delaney 



Pi Ma Epsilon (N. C, Alpha) 
(Aug. 23, 1938- ) 

Charter members: W. W, Elliott, W. W. Rankin, Julia Dale, A. 0. 
Hickaon, E. R, C. Miles, J. M. Thomas, K. B, 
Patterson, P. S. Aldrfeflge, E, P. Canaday, J. G. 
Carroll, K. T. Raynor, E. R. Elliott, B. A. 
Williams, D, M. Arnold, P. G. Dressel, Joseph A. 
Greenwood, Dorothy Crook, Alice Batten, Henry A. 
Wynn, Mahel Griffin, Ruth Stokes, 0. B. Ader, 
Henry ^*. Monyer, G. W. McDowell, J. Gran McAllister, 
M. W. Hock, Blizaheth Clarke, Charles E. Stuart, 
Merle Higgins, A, H. Werner, William Karpinsky, 
Kenneth Kni^t, J. R. Kornegay, Mary Kapp. 



Gertrude Fletcher Albert H. Werner 
Librarian- Eleanor Matfdaam 
Pac. JLdv.- Dr. John H. Roberts 



Kenneth T. Knight Henry Wynn 



91 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Pi Mai Epsilon-cont, 



J. V. Bernardo 
Eugene Srabbe 
Edwin Schaeffer 
Charles R. Vail 
Harold L. Flowers 
Willis S. Beckel 
Ann Livermore 
Thomas Reynolds 



Blaine R. Harkness John Lennox 

Elma Black 
E. Roht. Scattergood Colton Somers 



Lee Arnold 
Fred. C. Xrieser 
T. John Byrum 
Robt, Murdick 

Roht. l^^rdick 



Mary J. Stallcup 
Patria Gihson 
Soht. C. Rand 
Marion Willman 
Marian Willman 



Eleanor Markham 
Walter Howland 
R. W. Cummings. 
Fred. Jackson 
Walter Pons 
Anne Livemiore 
Brace "Tut an 
Bruce L, Tatan 



Pitt County Club 
(Nov. 1919-1926) 

S. T, Carson.Jr. L, W. Smith Doris Overton 

W, J. Bandy Elisha J. Worsley Annie Higgs 

L, F. Mumford J. E. Coltrane S. D. Bandy 

W. L. Brown S, D. Bundy S. F. Barrow 



Same 

Same 

G. W. Roehack 

Same 



Poetry Club 
Sidney Stavall Bettilu Porterfield 



Polity Club 
(1928-1935) 
1937- 



1931 George Vick 

1932 Robert Vaughan 

1933 James A. Mustard 

1934 Kathryn Kiker 

1935 John Webb 

1937 Francis 0. Braymard 

1938 Francis Oi Braynard 

1939 Joe Talley, Jr. Geo. Cole, Jr. 

1940 Andrew Backer Harvey Link 



Josephine Glass 
Jackson Viol 
Audrey Speicher 



Va. Dillon 
Hazel Emery 
Sara L, Palls 
Doris K. Hartman 
Doris X, Hartman 
Clatibel Gee 
Josephine Bailey 



M. Eugene Hewsom 

Jack Heritage 

Hugh Page, Jr. 

Same 

Same 

Floyd Souders 

Frank Taylor 



1937 
1938 

1939 
1940 



Silliam Kesbitt 
Clinton Morgan 



Pre-Medical Society 
(March 1937- ) 

Paul Brans ford 
John Glasson 



Bill Eagle 

Wm. H. Davis, Jr., Stan Rogers 



Clinton Morgan John GlasBon 
Rec.-K. Thompson James McGirasey 
Cor.-Maxine Perdue 

Priscilla Gray Robt. Atwell 



1 



9^ 



Year 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Chatter members: 



I 



1935 
1936 

1937 
1938 



Huth Phillips 
Paula Bassett 
Bess Laing 
Jane Love 
Frances Brooks 



Presidents' Club 
(1935-1938) 
Reorganized April 4 

Margaret White, Bess Laing, Ruth Phillips, 
t/iartha Bailey, Jane Haislip, Paula Bassett, 
Katherine White, Clary Peoples, Dallas Knight, 
Louise Warren, Mary Elizabeth Henderson, Sara 
Louise Falls, Helen Larzelere, Virginia Winfree, 
Emmy Lou Morton, Jane Lins, Betty Halseraa, Ellen 
Famum, Sue Hardy, Gladys ^ouder, Dorothy Davis, 
Annie Laurie Newsom, Alma Hull, Margaret Ounninggin, 
June Langfitt, Inez Abernatny, Gwen 3line, Margery 
ViThite, Isobel Shriner, Ida Sha* Applewhite, Mary 
Alice Rhodes, Audrey Spiecher, Nancy Hudson, Helen 
Cleaver, Rachel Meetze, Josephine Eaby, Lucille 
Butler, Prances Lewis, 



Ida S, Applewhite Emmie L. Morton 
Prances Brooks 



Ruth Mickler 

Gretchen Elmiger Countess Tabor 



1905 W. N. Hoffman 
1910 L. I. Jaffe 
1912 H. A, Dennis 



Press Association 
(1904-1910) 

C. T. Hancock 
R. D. Korner 

D, B. Brown 



T. M. Stokes Same 
J, A. Rand Same 
R. B, Murray 



Charter members: 



Psl Delta Sigma 
Pounded: 1927 
Succeeded by Sigma Alpha 
Epsilon: Feb. 20, 1931. 

Samuel F. Nicks, Jr., H. Marvin Sherard, 
Nelson Ireland, Jrl, Jordan James Sullivan, 
Haywood E. Lynch, Charles G. Biggs, Donald 
R. Lumpkin, Carl H. Lutz, Wade H. Myers, 
R. W. Lamm, C. Brian Aycock. 



r 



1912 



Quill Cljib 
(1912-1918) 

Henry A. Dennis Frank 3. Brown Robert B. lAirray 



93 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Red Friars 
(1913- ) 

Charter members: Don R. Kirkman, Henry L. Wilson, Leonard B. Hurley, 
Guiho Suiter, Reid Ray, Colton Godfrey, George G. 
Johnson, 

Member 



G. W. H. Britt 

W. L. Perrell, Jr. 

J. J, Hamhrick 

J. W. Lambeth 



C. P. Matton 
W. R. Shelton 
A. W. Wilson 



J. S. Anderson 

J, H. Burrus 

J. 0. Durham 

W. H. Powell 



J. H. Ruff 
J. R. Smith 
T. R, Summers 



J. B. LflcCullen 
C. C, Alexander 
S. P. C. Graft 
R. W. Bradshaw 



A. L. Carver 
R. T. Hambrick 
G. B. Powell 



M. A, Braswell 

K. M. Brim 

J. E. Gilbreath 

J. P, Thomas 



J. H. Harrison 
G. M. Ivey 
M. B. Loftin 



1923 



1924 



W. L. Chandler 
H. P. Cole 
C. C. Cornwall 
L. M. Draper 

J. M. Barrett 
T. B. Crawford, Jr. 
Herbert J. Herring 
R. C. Leach 

B. B. Harrison 
T. G. Heal 
J. L. Jackson 
H. C. Sprinkle, Jr. 

G. V. Allen 
J. B. Harris 
J, D. Secrest 
James R. Simpson 

W. S. Barnes 

W. R. Brown 

J, E. Dempster 

J, J. Parriss 



J. D, Lewis 
C. H. Moser 
R. S. White 



T. A. Banks 
Fred Polger 
J. D. Johnson, Jr. 



W. T. Huck8.be e 

W. H. Lander 

J. G. Pennington 



R, W. Spencer 
L, E. Spikes 
A. W. Stamey 



W. A. Kale 
M. I. Pickens 

P. M. Warner 



Red Friars-cont. 



Year Member 



94 



1925 W. S. Blakeney, Jr. 
G. B. Caldwell, Jr. 
E. L. Cannon 
George P. Harris 

1926 James E. Tliompson 
Furman G. McLarty 
W. A. Biggs 

J. M. Atkins 

1927 C. G. Bennett 
H. L. Bivens 

C. Ray Carpenter 
James N, Truesdale 



H, B, Johnson 

C. W. Porter 

J. H. Wesfbrook, Jr. 



D. E. Kirfcpatrick 
T. S. Shinn 
T. E. Wagg 



R, G. Tattle 
C. C. Weaver 
H. L. Hester 



Joe Carrathers 
Listen Pope 
Coke Candler 
Amos Johnson 



John Weber 
Fred Brummitt 
Harold Ellison 



Dayton R. Dean 
Chisman ganes 
William Werber 
Henry Kistler 



Everett Weatherspoon 
Fred Anders 
Joe Savage 



W, M. Upchurch, Jr. 

W, D, Murray 

Charles P. Honey cut t, Jr, 

G, H, Rogers 



J, I, Morgan, Jr, 

J. S. Heizer 

C. H, Livengood, Jr, 



James Mullen 
Philip Bolich 
Martin Green 
John Shaw 



Pierce Brewer 

Edward Thomas 
William P. Farthing 



Raymond Lundgren 
John Minter 
Lowell Mason 
John Brownlee 



Edwin Caldwell, Jr. 
Gordon Power 
James Stewart 



Joe Shackford 
Gordon Townley 
Carl S chock 
Jeriy Bray 

i'lorman B. Livengood 
Bayard Storm 
John Moorhead 
Elmer Tarrall 



Eugene Newsom 
Leroy Sides 
Horace Hendrickson 



Sam Bell 

Don McNeil 
E. B. Dunlap, 



Jr, 



Red Friars-cont. 



Member 



95 



1935 Roy Zack Thomas 
Charles Kunkle 
Frank J. Sizemore 

m Hyatt Mosshurg 

1936 Fred N. Cleaveland 
John A, Kneipp 
Clarence Parker 

I William P. Simmons 



Jimmy McCall 
Jim Johnston 
William Huiskamp 



Tom P. SoTjthgate 
Richard M. Taliaferro 
Herhert J. Upchurch 



1938 Gar Miller 

Rohert O'Mara 
Richard Go ode 
Howard Mason 



Denny Williams 
Eric Tipton 
Dick Lewis 



1939 Addison Penfield 
Tom Hanlon 
Dancan Gray 
Allen Johnson 



Jack Palmer 
Boh Rice 
Tim Br inn 



198G Richard Connar 
3dward Pike 
Andrew Dacker 
Rohert Lester 

1941 Alex McMahon 

Paul Barrinfeer 
Louis Casvels 
William Smith 

1937 William Courtney 
Woodrow Lipscomh 
E, Gilhert Mathews 
J. Scott Montgomery 



Alex Winterson 
Rohert Moyer 
Jack Orr 



Rohert Sanderson 
Hohert Barnett 
Larry Blanchard 



Arthur B. Rouse 

Thomas S. Ryon 

T. Preston Wehster 



Religious Drama Guild 
(1933- ) 



1933 J. Phillips 

1940 W. L. Freeman Sidney Boone 
Bus. Mgr.- Brooks Patten 



T. D. Everett 



Same 



96 



Tear 



President 



Vice-Pre s i den t 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Riding Club 
(1923- ) 



1937 
1938 



Ann Dives 
Ann Dives 



Rath Manville 



Laurette Eyon Pat Patrick 



1939 



Rifle and Pistol Club 
(1939- ) 

Phil Mitchell Edward Walter 



Robert E, Mitchell Herbert Carr 











Robeson 


County Club 


















(1911-1921) 










1911 


H. 


A. 


McKinnon 


T. P. 


Pace 


M. 


L. 


Stuart 


Same 


1912 


T. 


P. 


Pace , 


W. M. 


Edens 


J. 


J. 


Pine 


Same 


1913 


F. 


P. 


hompson 


J. J. 


Pine 


L. 


D. 


Edens 


Same 


1920 


w. 


C. 


Merritt 


c. s. 


Hammon 


Mary 


L. Norment 


Same 



Rutherford College Club 
(1911-1927) 



1911 


W. F. S tames 


B. L. Secrest 


J. W. Bennett 


Same 




1912 


W. F. Starnes 


H. E. Myers 


P. McL. Sherrill 


Same 




1913 


H. E. Myers 


B, L. Smith 


I. T. Poole 


Same 


Club R.-. 


1914 


B, L. Smith 
Club Rep.- W. 


L. H. McNeely 
F. Hendley 


G. N. Earnhartt 


Same 




1915 


B. L. Smith 


Creor>;c: -:?.rnl-:artt 


George Earnhartt 


Same 




1915 


P. M. Phillips, 


Jr. John Cline 


L. H. McUeely 


I. L. 


Shaver 


1918 


Claude Moser 


L. H. McNeely 


H. B. Higgins 


R. J. 


Tysor 


1922 


M, G. Earvin 


W. E. Hauss 


W. R. Kelly 


Seme 




1928 


R. B. Martin 


R. M. Stafford 


Mary Sherriil 


H. M. 


Wellman 


1925 


S. E. Wright 


M, A, Lewis 








1926 


D. D. Holt 


J. W, Varner 

Sampson County Club 
(1925-1927) 


W, Alexander 


Same 




1925 


J, D. Johnson 


Garland Vann 




Wixie 


Parker 


1926 


James Hunter 


v^ ..fc 


Hazel Johnson 


Same 





97 



Year 


President 


Yice-President 

Sandals 
(May 1932- ) 


Secretary 


Treasurer 


1932 


Mary N. White 








1933 


Helen Gray 




Jean Burd 


Same 


1934 


Edith Snook 




Alma Lloyd Hanson 


Same 


1935 


Helen Cleaver 




Margaret Price 


Same 


1936 


Clarinda Jackson 


Marie Pedeflous 


Jean Wallace 


Same 


1937 


Rosanna Brewer 








1938 


Mildred Kiorehead 


Eliz, Gregory 


Xathryn Bender 


Same 


1939 


Beth Shaw 


Ann O'P^urk 


Rosemary Stood 


Mary Co Iyer 


1940 


Anne Moore 


Helen Brinson 


Molly Webster 


Va. Eoodhody 




Sandfiddlers' Cluh 










(1913-1926) 






1913 


J, H, Duncan 


0. R. Bagley 


Cora Wescott 


T. J. Swain 


1914 


J. E. Davenpor* 


T. J. Swain 


Cora Wescott 


B. W. Evans 


1915 


B. B. Jones 


H. G. Swan 


J. P. Lewder 


C. P. Bunting 


1918 


E. F. Donstan 


Lucille Merritt 




G. W. IMrphy 


1919 


J. D. Lewis 




Tina Pussell 


W. P. ^hx3rphy,Jr. 


1920 


W. J. Eundy 


Tina Pussell 


T. A, Morse 


R. E. Thigpen 


1921 


Carl G. ICnox 


S. L. Lane 


Madge Cavenaiagh 


Marvin L. Wilson 


1922 


L, B, Wynne 


H. M. Williams 


W. J. Bullock 


Same 


1923 


W. J. Ballock 


J. E. Midgett 


Mclva Jennet t 


L. q,, liumford 


1924 


J. E. Midgett 


L. Q. M\ixnford 


Eliza Foscue 


S, D. Eundgri- 


1925 


A. H. Young 




S. D. Bundy 


Same 



School of Religion Association 
(1928- ) 



1936 M. C. Wilkerson H, E. Lewis 

1937 Ployd Patterson Percy White 

1938 Julian Lindsey 

1939 Key W. Taylor J. Claude Evans 

1940 Dana Dawson, Jr. Roht, H. Stamey 



J. H. Past 
Ewart Watts 



E. S. Gruner 
Carlyle Miller 



Donald M. MacKay Wade R. Bustle 
Roht. A. Vaughan Dona.ld M. Ua.c'ksij 





Science Cluh 






• 


(Sept. 1898-1920) 


• 




1905 




Julian Blanchard 




1906 


C. E. Markham 


J. P. McGhee 




1907 


Rohert S. Brown 


W. A. Stanhury 


Same 


1908 


W. B. Kiker 


W. M, Marr 


Same 


1909 


W. M. Marr 


P. J. Johnson 


Same 


1910 


P. J. Johnson 


M. A. Smith, Jr. 


Same 


1911 


W. M. Marr 


M. A. Smith, Jr. 


Same 


1912 


H. P. Taylor 


T. P. Pace 


Same 



98 



Tear President 



Vice-President 



Secretary - 



Treasurer 



Science Clu"b-ccnt, 



1913 W. H. Hall 

1914 8. C. Bellinger 

1915 J. H. Coman 

1916 E. N. Wilson 

1917 Prof. R. N. Wilson 

1918 Dr. C. W. Peppier 

1919 Dr. A. M. Gates 



S, S. Jenkins Same 

J, W. Harbinson Same 

G. W. Ear ley Same 

P. H, Yarbo rough Same 

James H, Coman Same 

R. W. Bradshaw C. C. Alexander 

Eugene Chesson A. S. Barnes, Jr. 



r 



Scientific Club 
(Oct. 29, 1889- ) 

Charter members: Prof. J. M. Bandy, R. L. Davis, R. A. Myric, 
G. F. Ivey, J. H.. Lamb, C. T. Harris, W. P. 
Black, J. S. Schoonover. 



1889 J. M. Bandy 



R. L. Davis 



R. A. Myric 



G. P. Ivey 



Scrub Faculty 
(1921-1922) 

1920 , James G. Leyburn Dean-W.A.Ellison A. Rosenstein 



Same 



Sigma Alpha Epsilon (N. C, Nu) 
(Feb. 20, 1931- ) 

Charter members: -(Psi Delta Sigma) Samuel Freeman Nicks, Jr.; 

H. Marvin Sherard; Nelson Ireland, Jr.; Jordan 
James Sullivan; Haywood E, Lynch; Charles Grayson 
Biggs; Donald R. L^impkin; Earl H. Lutz; Wade H. 
Myers; H. W. Lamm; and C. Brian Ay cock. 
-(N. C. Nu) W, K. Andrews; G. M. Eetz; 0. C. 
Blaclanon, Jr.; C. W. Cambell; Rawlins Coffman; 
C. C. Crouch; R. E. Daniels; A. G. Day; W. A. Day; 
C. C, Derrick; I. H. Elmore; A. 0. 3amble; J. J. 
Gamble; S, p. Garner; W. R. Gordon; J. L. Judd; 
G. A. Kuttinen; R, W. Lamm; A. R. Lewis; E. W. Lipe; 
J. F. Long, III; J. J. Mathews; J. E. Miller; W. J. 
McAnally, Jr.; A. B. Narbeth; S. F.Nicks, Jr.; H. M. 
Sherard, Jr.; R. 0. Starnes; J. P. Taylor; Thomas 
Thomas, Jr.; J. L. Tucker; R. B. Walker; M. W. Warren; 
^» J. Watts, Jr.; and J. J. Zimmerman, 



» 



99 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Sigma Alpha Epsilon-cont, 



1932 



1933 



1936 



John J. Gramhle 



Wm. R, Gordon 

John J. Bam'ble 
Wm, R. Gordon 

John P» Long 
Geo. M, Betz 

John B. Cox Hoht. P. Dancan 
Chas. C. Derrick Samuel S. DuPuy 

Fred Lloyd Ellison Ruhy 



Wm. Klove Raymond Laird 
J. Roland Goode Jack Alexander 



Fred K, Cleaveland John L. Fisher 
Geo, E, Patterson R, L. Baldidn 



Hoht. B. Walker Conrad Crouch 



Robert B. Walker Lewis C. Branscomh Hoyden E, Daniels 
Jon L. Long Richard B, Haskell Royden B. Daniels 

Geo. M, Betz Richard B. Haskell Elbert J, Myers 
Richard B. Haskell Wm. A. Pankey Elbert J. Myers 



1937 


John Pl-umb 


Ray Sparks 


1938 


John T. Caskey 


Arch H. Dawson 


1940 


Geo. F. Bigham 


John P. Collins 



Sanniel S. DuPuy Jackson U, Viol 
Wm. N. Klone J. M. Viol 

Rcdg-Geo. Ward James Dearborn 
Corr-R.W.Px)berts 

Rcdg-J. L. Fisher John Hennemier 
J. A. Dearborn John Hennemier 

Corr-R. W.Roberts 
R.W.Robirts 

Rcdg-Robt, L. Nicks John J. Pltunb 
A. R. Long John J, Plxunb 

Corr-C. F. Turner 
C. F. Turner 

Rcdg-'Cbas. DeVoe Daniel Farrar 
Corr-Don. White 

Thos. J, Hanlon Fred Strickland 
Corr-Lee Schaedt 

John A, Yarbo rough Carl D. Newton 



Sigma Alpha Omega 
(1928- ) 
Succeeded hy Phi Kappa Sigma 

Charter members; Wm. B. Culbreth, Harry W. Dc-vis, Ralph W. Fonville, 
Wm, H. Harrison, Jr., Wm. C; House, Linville E. 
Midgette, J. B. Oliver, Lester A. Smith, Fred J. 
Welch, 



Sigma Chi (Beta Lambda chapter) 

(1912- ) 
Grew from Mu Kappa Klan, 

Charter members: Ed. C. McClees, Claude Bennett, Thomas P. Pace, 

Harvey W;: Turnage, Wm. W, Hutton, Oscar B. Dardon, 
Paul H. North, Hubert M. Radcliff, Don R. Kirtanan; 
Marvin C. Terrell, Daniel W. Maddox, James Cannon, 



100 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Sigma Chi-contl 

Charter memliers (cont): John Thos. Moon, Jr., John M, Thompson, 
Fred W. Terrell, Robert L. Towe, Jtmnius H, 
Rose, Alexander M. Benner, Walter G. Sheppard, 
Ben H. Houston,, Jr. 



1934 Rohert Keown Wra. Pace 

1935 Chas. Kunkle Pred. R. Keater 

1936 Roht. C. Gillander John C. Ardolino 

1937 Leon Q^iick Roht, Stevens 

1938 Roht. J. O'Mara Roht. Lamh 

1939 James S, Bowman Roht, P. Jones 

1940 Wm. W, Pergusson Barney L. Jdaes 



Qunther Ihbeken 
H, Grady Hardin 
Chas. D. Wenrich 
Tom Bowman 
Robt. Lohman 
James T. Allison 



Ross Cameron 
C. Edrnund Wunder 
Chas. C. Stauffer 
Howard Ris 
James Lecki6 
Jack Thomas 



M. Clark Silverthorpe R. T. Stephens 



Sigma Delta Pi 
(1936- ) 

Charter members: Christine Harris, lAargaret Waldrep, fergaret Taylor, 
Margaret Ellis, Clark Walter, Paul Paredes. 



1935 Christine Harris 

1936 Paul Paredes 

1937 Bill J. Williams 

1938 Bill J. Williams 

1939 Doris Eartman 



Paul Paredes 
Roger Wall 
Wilsie Bussell 
Wilsie Bissell 
Gustav Porssell 



Margaret Ellis5 Same 

Lupe de Osma Johnson Marg. Ellis 

Lupe de Osma Johnson Vivian Rieger 

Vivian Rieger Same 

Maude Kelley Same 



1931 



1932 



1933 



1934 
1935 



1936 



Sigma Kappa (Alpha Pai chapter) 
(Jan. 4, 1931- ) 

Cha.rter members: Sarah Ownbey, Frances Rowe, Flora Crews Best, 
Angela Whitney, Ida Pearl Eatman, 



1930 Sara Ownbey 
Sara Ownbey 



Rebecca Royal 
Rebecca Royal 



Eliz. Thompson Evelyn Adams 
Evelyn Adams Eliz. Owens 
Mildred Gehman Dallas Knight 



Eliz. Davidson Flora C. Best 
Becg- Prances Rowe 

Flora C. Best Alma. Darby 
Cor-Mary F. Smith 

Rcd^-Eleanor Markham Eliz, Owens 
Corr-Va. Winfree 

Rcdg-E. Markham Dorothy Wikoff 
Corr-Va. Winfree 



Va. Winfree 



Florence Heinley 



Josephine Ea^ Charlotte ivlarkhara Rcdg-Helen Holly Mary Bender 

Corr-E. Huntington 

E. Huntington Charlotte Markham Rcdg-Helen Holly Maiy Bender 

Corr-Va. Patrick 



101 



Tear President 



Vice-President Secretary 



Treasurer 



1937 



Sigma Kappa-cont, 
Va. Peitrick Mary Bender 



1938 Betty Koehnlian Eileen Schiffer 



1939 Maggie Jones 



Eileen Schiffer 



1940 Helen Rorabaxigh Joan Bender 



Rec-Euth Simmons Betty Koehnlein 
Cor-Martha Pace 

Borr-E, Rescorla Maggie Jones 
Rdg-Ruth Simmons Asst.-B, Mowry 

Rec-Bar'bara Mai Her Betty Mowry 
Cor-Joy Cann 

Rec-Jean Snyder Page Thacker 
Cor-Lelia Lawrence 



Sigma Nu (G-amma chapter) 
(Uov. 21, 1931- ) 

Chatter members: Claire T. Crenshaw, Donald P. Marion, Henry P. 
Richards, William F. Reed, Richard A. Broherg, 
William S, Martin, John C. Long, Jr., Philip L. 
Franklin, Donald W, Miller, Ames W. Williams. 



1931 Claire T. Crenshaw 

1934 Stuart BgVille Geo. Speicher 

1935 John Moss 

1936 Wm. P. Simmons 

1937 D. Davidson Hill 

1938 Jack Goehrig 

1939 Robt. L. Park 

1940 Geo, H. Carswell 



J, M. Hatch, Jr. 
James M. Slay 
Forrest A, Irwin 
Duncan MacLeod 
Ivhirray H. Owen 
Gordon C, MacLeod 



Horace Tabb 
Robt. G-. Howard 
Baron H. Cornett 
Wm. T. Foulke 
Harvey Sloan 



Chas, Anderson 
P. B. Huling.Jr. 
Berkley Schaub 
Jack A. Goehrig 
Ronald Slay 



Lawrence E. Ivlanry Bertram Hart 
James Beebe Raymond J. French 



1928 



Sigma Nu Phi (Richmond Pearson Chapter) 
(April 4. 1923-1930) 

Officers: W. m. Branson 

Linwood B, Ho Howell 
J. C. Whisnant 



Sigma Phi Epsilon (K. C. G^amma) 
(1909- ) 

Charter members: E. C. Ashby, A, A. McLean, J, D. Cooper, H. W. 
Tuttle, R. Currin, H, G. Harris, P. S. Ashby. 



1934 John H. Stillman G. Macfarlane 

1935 John Hulme, Jr. Wm. Sager 



Wm. -A-. Sager 
Fred. Clark 



L. 0. Funkhouser 
Fred C. Wiright,Jr. 



102 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Sigma Phi Epsilon-cont, 

1936 R. Kennedy Harris Frederick Clark 

1937 J. Otto Ponkiiouser Bill Marshall 

1938 Richard Goode Peter Coppedlge 

1939 Daniel Sanford Robert C. Ace 

1940 Robt. L. McClotid RoU. L. Nelson 



L. Ott Punidiouser Haddon H. Smith 
Robt. Black Thos. Sager 
Wm. S. N. Hulrae Chris, Webster 
Lawrence H. Poster J. S. Hollyday 
Shirley Johnson Robert E. Pike 



Charter members: 



Sigma Pi Sigma 
(1925- ) 

Dr, C. W. Edwards, Dr. C. C. latley, Robert E. 
Burroiaghs, Herbert Moss, Ralph L, Biggerstaff, 
Dr. D. W. Carpenter, Turner A. Cathey, Hubert B, 
Harward, Augustus Ray Hargrove, George Brooks 
Johnson, Donald E. Kirkpatrick, Richmond H. Boss, 
Thomas Sadler Shinn, 



1931 
1932 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 



Marcus Hobbs 
Jeanne Manget 



Richard Smith 
N. H. Smith 



John V. Atkinson Harold K. Terry 



Horace Russell 
Wm. J. Caroon 
Hugh E. Whitted 
J. A. Richards 
Delmar Seevers 



Eliz. Ellerson 
Robt. S. Doyle 



David Carpenter 
David Carpenter 
Kelvin Ray 
Carey Bowen 
Mary J. Stallcup 
James B. Thomas 
Roger J. Sherron 
Pred Elridge 



Same 
Same 
Same 
Same 

Samie. 

MorriwDn Brown 
Same 



Harlan Lenander Prances tbntgomery Same 



1938 Harold Ellison 

1939 Wm. Wingate 



Sigma Tau Delta 
(1928-1931) 

James McCain 
Arthur Bridgers 



Harold Hayes Annie L, Caldwell 
Dorothy Jeannette Mrs. Jack Downing 



Sigma Upsilon 
(1907-1 ) 
Fortnightly Club and merged 
into national group 



1908 Dr. Edwin Mims 

1909 W. H. Wannamaker 

1910 H. E. Spence 

1911 A. M. Webb 

1912 Prank C. Brown 
1917 Frank C. Brown 

1923 Paull F. Baum 

1924 Julian P. Boyd 



W. B, West 
Louis II Jaffe 
A. L. McCobb 
H. E. Spence 
W, H, Wannamaker 
Newman I. White 
W. Rolfe Brown 



C. 



w. 
s. 



L, 
M. 

R. 
E. 
S. 



Bivens 

Marr 

Bell 

Eller 

Alderman 
Henry W. Kendall 
James D. Secrest 



A. M. Proctor 
W. G. Matton 
P. W. Best 
N. I. White 
Ralph L. Fisher 
Hal A. Oliver 



Furman A. Bridgers P. H. Shinn 



103 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Sigma Upsilon-cont. 

1928 John Paul Lucas ik, J , :.^,:.i.ll 

1929 Arthur D. Bridgers 

1932 Vince Moseley James L. Stewart 

1933 Leslie A. Squires Richard A. Smith 
1935 Earle I. Runner Wm. Owens 



M. J. Cahill 
Chisman Hanes 
J. B. Clark 
Lyne S. Pew 
Walter Welntz 



Arthur Bridge rs 
Gerald M. Crona 
Hoht. Vaughan 
James Newsom 
Same 



1938 
1939 



Sigma Xi 
(1933- ) 

Dr. Paul J. Krraaer W. J. Seeley 
Dr. Goering W. j, Seeley 



Cazlyn &. Bookout Bert Cunningham 
Dr. Martin Bert Cunningham 



Social Standards Committee 



1933 Janet Rettew 

1939 Janet Rettew 

1940 Louise Van Hagan Prances Kenner 



Carol Wagner 



Jean Upstick 



Societe Prancaise 

1911 Mary Newman Laura Scott . 
Critique- Polly Eeitman 



1912 


Laura Tillett 


1919 


M. 7. Lavallei 


1920 


R. T. Dunstan 



Annabel Lambeth Laura Tillett 



Irene Ahemethy 
Gr. S. Mumford R. L. Johnson 
Blanche Barringer G, S. Mumford 



R. T. Dunstan 
Hermina Haynes 



Sophomore Commieslon, YWCA 
(1935- ) 



1935 Marjorie Winston Ginevieve Baggs 

1936 Caroline Breedlove Helen Saleehy 

1937 Barbara Henry Anne Rauschenburg 

1938 Thea Conger Kathryn Sidman 

1939 Gladys Williams Josephine Brown 

1940 Karleen Cooper Jane Hicks 



Jane East 
Sally Robertson 
Suzanne Dalton 
Josephine Bailey 
Marilyn Upp 
Sheena Webster 



Roberta Townsend 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Same 



Sophomore Council, YMCA 
(1933- ) 



1933 Wm. Brumbach 

1934 Douglas Corriher 



1935 Wm. H. Pi ekes 

1936 Denny Williams 



Malcolm Wright 
Paul P. Ketchum 



Prank Dennis 
Hervy Moore 



Pred Cady 
Geo. Snyder 
Corr-Robt. Kay 

Thomas Bowman 
Arthur Pawling 



Same 
Same 



^ ' r,P 



104 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Sophomore Council, YMCA-cont. 



1937 Guy Berner 

1938 Dave Prillaman 

1939 Hichard Conlon 
Prank McNuliy 

1940 Kemp Jones 



Frank McNulty Robt. Sanderson Same 
Wm. E. Huntington Donald Semester Same 



1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 

1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 

1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 



Sorority Pan-Hellenic Council 
(1913- ) 

Pannie Kilgo 

Catherine Sheffield Thomas 

Pannie E. Yann 

Lucile E. Baldwin 

Mary W. Cranford 

Gladys V. Price 

Doris Overton 

Thelma Howell 

Helen Loraine Cantrell 

Eliz. Aldrtdge Hunter Hollo way Plora Meredith 

Violetta M. Davis Erma Pitts Eliz. Eoberts 

Anne Garrard Dorcas Turner Anne Rat ledge 

Mrs. Evelyn H. Turner Eliz. Roberts Sadie Chri stenhuxy Same 

Lillian C. Zachary Sarah K. Ormand Alice R. Cross Nancy Crews 

Edith G. Parker Marie Tyler Rebecca Kirkpatrick Margaret Draughon 

Eliz. King Pauline Weber Alma Wyche 

Peggy Lavinder Prances Hill Cornelia Tarb rough 

Mary Purdy Hetty English Mary Bradsher Mary Brown 



Edith Home Leach- 
Eliz. R. York 
Helen L. Wyatt 
Sigrid Pederson 
June Langfitt 
Camilla Ritchie 
Merle Kirkwood 
Jane Kelly 
Evelyn Paradies 
Jean MacNutt 



■Alice Huckabee 
Louisa Hooker 
Va, Sarver 
Eve Davis 

Edna Rogan 
Ruth Hermann 
Gertrude Fleet 
Helen Armstrong 
Jenn Omar 



Mary Langs ton 
Dorothy Eaton 
Annie K. Rebman 
Eliz. Owens 

Helen Larzalere 
Prances Josephs 
Betty Marshall 
Doris Hartman 
Lillian Hay ward 



Eliz. Rouse 
Louise Sellars 
Ruth Jones 
Carolina Riefle 

Claire B. Clark 
Va. Pulton 
Jane Winters 
Nancy Brown 
Carol Conners 



1913 B. P. Pew, Jr. 

1914 P. M. Hamer 



South Carolina Club 
(Nov., 1913-1927) 

A. S. Calvert 
J, W. Sunmner 



W. C. Bethea 
C. D. Gray 



Same 

L. M. Hall 



.r t'lr 



105 



Year President 



Vice-President 



SegretfiTy 



Treasurer 



South Carolina Club-cont. 



1915 


B. 


P. 


Pew, Jr. 


T. R. Surnmers 


G. W. Harley 


Same 


1916 


T. 


R. 


Surnmers 


E. C. Pew 


R. C. Wiggins 


Same 


1918 


F. 


M. 


Wannaroaker 




E. T. Newton 


Same 


1919 


A. 


L. 


Sheider 


E. T. Newton 


Martha Wiggins 


Same 


1920 


w. 


L. 


Chandler 


Martha Wiggins 


C. A. Robinson 


Same 


1925 


C. 


C. 


Herbert 


H. A. Spann 


J. M. Clarkson 


W, B. Mewborne 


1926 


J. 


N. 


Truesdale 




Chas. A. Dukes 


Kellah Miller 








Stanley County Club 














(1919- ) 






1919 


J. 


w. 


Hathcock 


Blanche Barringer 


Emma Davis 


Same 


1920 


J; 


B. 


Harris 




Blanche Moss 


Same 



Stenographers' Club 
(Sept. 14, 1911-1919) 



1918 Marguerite Russell 



Julia Self 



1918 



1919 
1920 
1921 



1923 
1934 



1935 



Student Volunteers 
( -1937) 

Ruth Merritt Eugene Chesson 
Leader- I, L, Shaner 

Dr. A. M. Gates 

Lota L. Draughon G. G. Adeuns 

M. T. Hipps 

Prgm Chm- P. J. Stough 

Win. A. Kale Mary Wilkinson 
Robert Kincheloe 

Prgm Ciim- James Starling' f"^ 

Linwood Blackburn 

ftm Chmr Darothy Phillips 



Eugene Chesson A. S. Barnes, Jr. 
Blanche Barringer Same 
Dorothy Kanoy 



John H. West brook Same 
marjorie King Same 



Mary L. Kincheloe 



1936 Linwood Blackburn 



105-a 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Student Religious Coiincil 
(1937- ) 



1937 Denny Williams 



1938 Oordon Tischer 

1939 George Cole 

1940 Herman Rapcport 



Linwood Blacktnirn 
Doris Wert 2 
Betty Beclcer 



Merrimon Cunningham 
Rec-Mary E. Carter 



Julian Lindsey 



Doris Wertz 
Betty Becker 
Ida M, Grose 



Talmadge Mallory 
Claude Evans 
Joe Caldwell 



106 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



1919 



H. C. Holtz 



Surry County Clu"b 
(1919-1920) 

W. H, Holcomb 



C. D. Davis 



Same 



"T" Club 
(Mar. 6, 1912-1925) 



1911 


C. B. Brinn 


J. M. Thompson 


C. C. Poushee 


Same 


1915 


B. H. Siler 


J, E. Kanipe 


H. A. Maddox 


Same 



1929 
1933 
1935 



1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 



Tau Kappa Alpha 
(1915- ) 

Charter members: B. W, Barnard, A. W. Byrd, David Brady, James 
Cannon, III, Holland Holton, <^inton Holton, 
H. E. Myers, W. R. Shelton, G. S. Sexton, Jr. 

Everett B. Weatherspoon-W. P. Ho wland-Ri chard L. Brown-Charles H. Livengood 

Claihorne Gregory 

James E. Palmer Perry Cartmright Same 

Prank Satteffield Erma Griffith Same 



Wm, P. Simmons 
Geo. T. Prampton 
Tom Senff 
P. L. Sobhle 
Tom Smart 



Dewey Daane 
Tom Smart 
Eleanor Powell 



Erma Griffith Same 

Genevieve Baggs Same 

Jean Metz Same 

Idelia Benson Same 

Samuel Holton Same 



Taurian Players 
(1919-1931) 
Became Duke Players in 1931 



Helen Cantrell 
Helen Cantrell 
Geo. V, Allen 
W. A. Kale 
Eliz, Roberts 
Wm. Sprinkle 
ji'red Roper 
Bus. Mgp- Moirden 



Aura Holton 
Laura Winston 
Lucy Taylor 
Nancy Kirionan 
Edward L. Cannon 
Albert Dulin 
Edith Parker 
Back 



Pauline Weber Samuel P. Nicks 
Bus. Mgr- Ennis Atkins 



Coma Cole 
Flora Meredith 
Prances Ledbetter 
Eliz. Roberts 
Dorothy Huneycutt 
Sally Taylor 
Pauline Weber 



Dorothy Jennet te 



Thelma Howell 
Hunter Holloway 
Carl G. Knox 
D. L. Pouts 
W. A. Abrams 
T, A. Redmon 
Talmadge Peele 



.::3f. 



107 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Taurian Players-cont. 

1929 Ennis Atkins James Co'ble 

Bus Mgr- Gordon Beall 

1930 Preston B. Moses 

Bus Mgr- Raymond C. Carter 



Betty Burch 
Maiy Jane Tate 



Marshall Pritchett 



Wm. Gat ling 
Louise Moses 



Tennessee Club 
(Nov. 1912 - 1920) 

1912 James Cannon, III W, W, Hutton 
1916 P. C. Young H. L, Hoffman 
Ch Soc Com- R. C. Barrow 



J. W. Glaze 

C. C. Alexander 



A. S. BaxLgh. 
Same 



1904 
1908 
1909 



1910 
1911 



Tennis Association 
(1891-1912) 
Incorporated with Athletic Assoc. 
in Oct. 1904 
M. E. Kewsom Angier B. Dak© 
M, A. Briggs 
Gilmer Siler 

Mgr- H. A. McKinnon 



C. B. West P. S. Bennett 
H. A. Hayes, Jr. E. C. McClees 



J. E. Lambeth 
C. R. Poushee 
J. L. Hutchison 



E. A. McKinnon 
N. I. White 



Same -Mgr . -W . A . Pegram 

J.L.Hutchison 

Same 



Same 
Same 



Theta Alpha Phi 
(1925- ) 

Wm. Catling 

E. Turner Poster 



1930 Preston Moses 

1933 Paul Baughman 
Sam Wisdom 

1934 R. W. Archbold 

1935 Margaret Pranck 

1936 Ethel Williams 

1937 Wm. B. Plaster 

1938 Katherine Margolis Wm. Welton 

1939 Wm. Welton Edna Joyner 

Historian- Harold K, Smith 
Adv.- A. T. West 



Wm. Hendrix 
D. Cole McMartin 
Jim V, Rose 
Nellie A. Opper 



D. K. Jackson 
Eloise Ingram 
Louise Merkel 

Bliz, Sherron 
John Pankey 
Ada Whit mo re 
Va. Pulton 
Priscilla Aiden 
Peggy Barnes 



M.Bradley Stevenson 
Ronald W. Archbold 



Pred. P. Hague 
Same 

Carl Lutz 
Carl Lutz 
Edna Joyner 
Win. M. Thomas 



Li^t- 



©*3T 



107-a 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasarer 



Tau Psi Omega 
L (1938- ) 

1938 Roscoe Strickland Martha Perkins 
Historian- Priscilla Alden 



Helen Armstrong Raymond McDermott 



1939 Ed. M. Brown Bertha Toppin 

Historian- Audrey Badgley 

1940 Edward M, Brown Betty L. Ware 



Betty Ware 



Eoht. H. Smith 



Marie A, Coma Paul M. Gross 



1939 
1940 



Town Boy's Cliah 
(1939- ) 

Randolph Few Harry Boyd 

Walter Shackleford Saraael Holton 



0. C, Goodwin Thomas Howerton 

James Satterfield E. J. Daniel 



108 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Theta Phi 
(May 15, 1935- ) 

Charter members: Dr. Gilbert T. Howe, Prof. J. M. Ortaond, Dr. Paul 
N. Garber, Prof. H. E. Myers, Dr. Prank S. 
Hlclflnan, Harold H. Hutson, A. Ray Cook, Marion B. 
Stokes, Jr., Lowell B. Council. 



1935 Dr. Gilbert T. Bowe 

1936 Dr. Paul N. Garber 

1937 Dr. P. S. Hickman J. M. Ormond 



Lowell B. Council Same 
H. E. L. Bearden Same 







Tombs 










(1903- ) 






1933 


Phil Weaver 


Al Reichman 


Jerry Bray 


Same 


1934 


Sam Bell 


Earl Wentz 


Jack Heritage 


Dan Mitchell 


1935 


Chas. Kunkle 


Thurman Ward 


John Hennemier 


Pete Naktenis 


1936 


Herbert Cheek 








1937 


P.obert Price 


Elmore Hackney 


Harwood Smith 


Willard Earngey 


1938 


John Cree 


Dan Hill 


Henry Wilson 


Edward Swindell 


1939 


Dave Emmet t 








1940 


James I. Willmott 


; Bob Little 

Town Girls' Club 
(1927- ) 


Ed, Brown 


Eddie Shokes 



1929 Pauline Tilley Patsy McKay 

1930 Paye Mulholland Anna Moses 

1931 Eliz. Powell Kancy Roberson 

1932 Nancy Roberson 
Helen Card 

1933 Catherine Powe Margaret Smith 



1934 Jennie S. Kernodle Janet Ormond 



1935 Inez Abernethy Mem Plyler 



1936 Frances Childs Eleanor Mayes 



1937 Bee Abernathy Louise Wannamaker 



Anna Moses Paye Mulholland 

DorotSy Newsome Eliz. Powell 
Peggy Strowd Margaret Edwards 

Rcdg-Lola M. Rogers Marg. Edwards 
Corr-Nellie Bishop 

Rcdg-Laura H. Thrift-Inez Abernethy 
Corr-Jennie S. Kernodle 

Rcdg-I. Sbernethy Mem Plyler 
Corr-A. Whit more 

Rcdg-B. Strother Margaret Ormond 
Corr-E, Mayes 

Rcdg-C. Markham Margaret Ormond 
Corr-E. Strother 

Rec-Margaret Finger Clyde Edwards 
Cor-Dorcthy Wilkerson 



109 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Tregi surer 



1938 



1939 



1940 



Town Girls' Club 
(conO 

Beatrice Abernathy Marjorie Krummel Rec-Garol Seeley Eleanor Belvin 

Cor-Clyde Edwards 



Rose Kueffner 



Marjorie Krommel Rec-Sara J. Pcrlines Martha Forlines 

Cor-Louise MacMillan 



Iiiarjorie Krummel Rosalie Algranti Rec-Rose Kueffner Sara J. ITeagle 

Cor-Prances Thomas 



Trident Club 
(1933-1934) 

1933 Leslie A, Sqaires Joseph Brillinger B, A. Wagner 



Robt, Nixon 



Trinity College Historical Society 
(April 4, 1892- ) 



1911 



1912 



1913 
1914 



1915 



1916 



Dr. W. I. Boyd Eugene Allison 

Curator- E. J^ Londow 

Dr. W. K. Boyd R. L. Towe 

Curator- P. R. Ray 

Dr. W. K. Boyd B, W. Ruark 
DB. W. K. Boyd S. G. Hawfield 

Curator- E. R. Sikes 

Dr. W. K. Boyd B. B. Jones 

Curator- J. K. Turner 

Dr. ^. K. Boyd John D. Cline 

Curator- J. K. Turner 



R. G. Cherry Same 

J. R. Davis Same 

J, R, Davis Same 

John W, Carr.Jr, Same 

T. W. Sprinkle Same 

W. K. Carr Same 











Trinity Park School 


Club 
















(Jfln. 1913- ) 








1911 


W. 


G. 


Sheppard 




D, H, Paller 


W. A. Cade 






1912 


W. 


A. 


Cade 




H. M. Ratcliffe 


H. K. King 


E. R. 


Sikes 


1913 


H. 


M. 


Ratchliffe 




W. I. Wooten 






1914 


E. 


S. 


Savage 




E. R. Sikes 


H. A. Stamey 


J. J. 


Silley 


1918 


w. 


A. 


Thompson 




Inez Rogers 


T. A. Banks 


Same 




1919 


J. 


B. 


Canines 




L. B. Hathaway 


Lucille Parker 


R. L. 


Johnson 


1920 


J. 


A. 


Banks 




J. D. Johnson 


W. H. Smith 


J. T, 


Barnes 


1921 


T. 


A. 


Banks 




J. D, Johnson 


W. H. Smith 






1922 


H. 


A. 


Olliner 




John Rhodes 


G. P. Prollinger 







110 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Undergraduate Writers 
(1936-1941) 



1935 


Sheldon R. Harte 




Prances Merrill 








1936 


Edward B. Post, Jr. 


Prances Merrill 








1937 


Robert C. Wilson 












1938 






Virginia Hodges 








1939 


Dick Mouk 














Union County Club 














(Oct. 1910-1922) 










1910 


V. A, Moore 


a. S. Lee 


Z. P. Neal 


Same 




1911 


K. P. Neal 


B. L, Secrest 


L. P. Stack 


W. 


P. 


Starnes 


1912 


W. P. S tames 


E. L. Secreat 


A. M. Stack, Jr. 


W. 


P. 


Hawfield 


1913 


P. N. Neal 


E. L. Secrest 


Rcdg-W.P.Starnes 
Corr-C .A.Burrus 


V. 


V. 


Secrest 


1914 


S. a. Hawfield 


V. V. Secrest 


J. H. Burrus 


w. 


p. 


Hawfield 


1915 


Y. V, Secrest 


J. E. Price 


H. &. Love 


J. 


H. 


Burrus 


1916 


H, G. Love 


H. C. Deal 


T. N. Lee 


E. 


H. 


Broome 


1921 


0, L, Richardson 


James Weaver 


Henry Belk 









University Club Orchestra, Jelly Leftwich & 
(1925-1933) 

Members (during eight years of existence): 



Leader 
Piano 



Saxophones 



G-eorge E. Leftwich 

H. A. Spann 
H. J, Cranford 

D. M. McLaughlin 
Bruce Alexander 
Ernest Lynch 

W. J. Davis 
0. B. McPee 

E. H. Smith 
R. C. Pinley 
E. S. Smith 
M. C. Wilson 
Julian Neal 
D. M. Gibson 
L. V. Pischer 
Harold Gibson 
W» D. Scribner 
Hugo Germino 



Ill 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



University Club Orchestra, Jelly Leftwich & -cont. 
Members (cont.) J 



Trumpets 



Tirombcnes 
Banjo 



Drums 



D, R, L^grpkin 
L. E. Nail 
William C. Lassiter 
Harry Zachary 
Woody Woodward 

H. C. Bost 

Thomas J. Lassiter 

W. M. Speed 
6^. S. Saunders 
George Round 
Charles Lehrbach 

E. A. Heise 
James Booher 

E. S. Smith 
J. McG. Powell 
John (Goofy) Lupton 



Bass Viol or Horn-M. 0, Campbell 
Tom Little 
M. A. Campbell 
Grant ^erly 



Violins 



Vocalists 



Jelly Leftwich 

C. A. Herbert 
Johnny Long 
Albert J. Blumenthal 
Larry Turner 

Annie Lee Cut chin 
Kay Keever 



Veterans of Future Wars 
(19S6- ) 

Commander- Rossevelt Der Tatevasian Reid Holmes 
Lt, -Commander- Hilliard A. Schendorf 



Same 



112 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Virginia Club 
(1914-1926) 

1914 Catherine Thomas H. A. Maddox 

1916 J. C. Boggs J. C. Smoot, Jr. 

1918 Eosalie Stepp 

1919 Ma.ry B. Maury T. C. Battershill 

1921 Thomas Battershill Flora Bray Lillian Frost 

1922 J. C. Williams, Jr. Laura Winston Lillian Frost 
1925 J. M, Weher Sadie Christenhury Polly Mcintosh 



Jane Couch 
Margaret Durham 



J. C. Boggs 
J. W. Clayton 

Hunter Holloway 
J. C. Williams 
E. IL. Cannon 
Same 





Wake County Cluh 
(1916-1919) 






1916 


E. C. Harris W. H, Pridgen 

Warren County Cluh 
(1923-1925) 


M. Gr. Eatman 


Same 


1923 
1924 


J. H. Newell 
W. A. Mahry 


Bessie Hooker 
Bessie Booker 


Minnie Wilson 
W. S. Grant 




Warrenton High School 
(1911-1913) 


Cluh 




1911 
1912 


P. F. Hanes 
W. H. Boyd 

Wayne County Cluh 
(1916-1926) 


Wm. H, Boyd 
B. E. Williams 


J. H, Rose 
C. W. Davis 


1916 
1918 
1925 


Alva E. Andrews Wm. R. Minshew 
M, B. Loftin Hufus Moore 
Maude Hunter W. Cary Maxwell 


Edna L. Tgylor 

Vera Outlaw 

A. T. Griffin.Jr. 


Same 
Same 
Same 



1914 I. R. Shelton 

1915 T. W. Sprinkle 

1916 R. E. Shelton 
1920 C. E. Buckner 
1925 T. A. Jones 



Weaver College Club 
(Nov., 1914-1926) 

S. L. Gulledge 

W. S. Elias 

C. A. Reap 

H. T. Lefler 

J. H. Young 



T. W. Spriniie 
W. M. Pickens 
Edwin Burge 
C. E. Mahry 
M. S. Hodge 



Same 

H. G. Love 

W. H, Lefler 

H. C. Sprinkle 

Same 



112-j 



Year President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Win-with-Willkie Clu"b 
(1940) 



1940 



Alex MacMahon 



Ed. Wilson Don Semester 

Co-ed-Tlaea Conger 



Adrian Cook 



113 



Tear President Vice-President Secretary Treasurer 



I 



Wetb School Club 
(1916-1917) 

1916 W. W. Hutton J. W. Wallace J. H. Huff 



West Durham High School Cluh 
(1916-1923) 

1918 B. PI Jones Hath Ballard Imogen Six Same 

1920 Eliz. Phillips T. M. Green Mae Strawhridge Same 

1921 Eliz. Phillips Ethel Neal Thomas Green H. H. Chesson 

White Duchy 
(1925- ) 

Class of Memhers 

1926 Adelaide Royall 

Annie McSwain 
Annie Biair Anders 
Mrs. Evelyn H. Turner 
Julia Potts 
Elizabeth Roherts 
Prances Holmes 

1927 Sarah Kate Ormand 

Mary Ostler 
Ruth Dai ley 
Dorothy Sahiston 
Sadie Rawing 
Blanche Henry Clarke 
Lillian Zachary 

1928 Laura Deaton 

Mamie Bridgers 
Ellen Huckahee 
Virginia Stevens 
Kenetta Pulton 
Eehecca Kirkpatrick 
Gladys White 

1929 Kellah Miller 

Pauline Weher 
Helen Taylor 
Rachel Copeland 

Mary Arden Hauss 
Elizabeth King 



114 



TSfliite Duchy-eont, 
Class of Members 

1930 Elizabeth Montgomery 

Evelyn Hancock 
Pauline Til ley 
Elizabeth MacFadyen 
Vertie Moore 

Alma Wycbe 
Maud McCracken 

1931 Charlotte Crews 

Iva Pitt 

Elizabeth Racker 
Mildred Murrell 
He t tie English 
Cornelia Yarbroiigh 
Gertrude Merritt 

1932 Florence Moss 

Jean Stewart 
Edith Leach 
Norma Craft 
Leo no re Murphy 
Gladys Shuford 
Margaret Harrell 

1933 Marjorie Glasson 

Eleanor Rodgers 
Carmen Patterson 
Dorothy Newsom 
Elizabeth Sellars 
Lucille Gainey 

1934 Janet Griffin 

Ro sane lie Cash 
Augusta Walker 
Virginia Ti Hot son 
Hanes Clement 
Helen G. Daniel 

1935 Marjorie King 

Ethel Garrett 
Rose Toney 
Elizabeth Pegram 
Louise Merkel 
Kelson Powell 
Mary Alice Dewey 



115 



Walte Duchy-cont. 
Class fif Members 

I 1936 Josephine Ea"by 

! Dallas Knight 

Dorothy Gray 
, Catherine Whitrayre 

I Annie Laurie Newsome 

Jane Eaislip 
Mary Elliott Henderson 

1937 Elizabeth Aiksn 

Paula Eassett 
Walton Bo wen 
Prances Lewis 
Lucy Rauschenhurg 
Edith Snook 
Marjorie White 

1938 Jane Love 

Mary Brent Holland 
Genevieve Baggs 
Roberta Townsend 
Jeanne McCauley 
Betty Stine 
Mary Lawrance 

1939 Barbara Henry 

Evelyn Van Sciver 
Peggy Ann Raup 
Louise Gracely 
Farrar Babcock 
Jeanne Marphy 
Jean Merkle 



Year President Vice-President Secretary Treasurer 

Wilson County Club 
(Nov. 1921- ) 

1921 J. T. Barnes J. L. Sharpe N. P. Wilkerson Same 

Woman's College Student Government 
(1918- ) 

1918 Ruth Willard Merritt Stella Sexton Maude Nicholson Margaret Harvey 



J 



116 



Year 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Woman's College Student Government-cont. 



1919 Grace E. Warlick Gladys Price 

1920 Martha E. Wiggins Emma Davis 

1921 Emma B. Barringer Jesse Penny 

Chm Soc Stan- Lotta Lee Draughton 

1922 Hermina U. Haynes Va. Merritt 

1923 Nora C. Chaff in Margaret Frank 

Chm Soc Stan- Inez Newsome 

1924 Jessie E, Hauser Nancy Kirkman 

Chm Soc Stan- Mary Eskridge 

1925 Julia W. Potts Annie McSwain 

1926 Dorothy J. Sahiston Sadie Lawing 



1927 Ellen H, Euckahee Mamie Bridgers 

Chm Soc Stan- Edith Parker 

1928 Rachel V. Copeland Mary A. Hause 



1929 Alma 7. Wyche Eliz. Montgomery 
Chm Soc Stan- Bessie Martin 

1930 Gertrude Merritt Charlotte Crews 
Chm Soc Stan- Courtney Sharpe 

1931 Edith H. Leach Alice Huckabee 
Chm Soc Stan- Leo no re Murphy 

1932 Louisa B. Booker Martha Howie 
Chm Soc Stan- Carlotta Waters 

1933 Augusta A. Walker Helen Daniel 
Chm Soc Stan- Helen Wyatt 

1934 Anita Knox Mary N. White 
Chm Soc Stan- Eleanor Tompkins 

1935 Annie L. Newsom Eleanor Barrett 
Clan Soc Stan- Mary Prances Ivey 

1936 Eliz, W. Bowen Eliz. Paires 
Chm Soc S-^an- Jbinie L. Reise 



Mary B, Murphy 
Hermina Haynes 
Helen Cantrell 



Martha Wiggins 
Emma B. Barringer 
Va. Metritt 



Sophia Byman Allene Parrish 
^dalene Gulledge Nancy Kirkman 



Annie B, Anders Adelaide Royall 



Rcdg-E. Huckahee Edith Parker 
Corr-Blanche H. Clark 

Rcdg-L. Brasington-Sara K. Ormond 
Corr-E. Huckahee 

Rcdg-Laura Deaton Eunice Stamey 
Corr-Anita Scar bo ro 

Rcdg-Alma Wyche Eliz. Montgomery 
Corr-Martha Chesson 

Hcdg-Char. Crews Gertrude Merritt 
Corr-Mary Bradsher 

Rcdg-Gladys Shuford Eliz. Caldwell 
Corr-Eliz, Clarke 

Rcdg-Martha Eowie Flora C, Best 
Corr-M. Pierce 

It-Margaret Gibbons. Eliz. Sellars 
C-Mary Parkharst 

CpBleanor Tompkins Dorothy Dougjas 



E-Lenora Snyder Saraii Thompson 
C-Mai Van Deren 

R-Eetty Faires Mary Auld 
C-Katherine Whitmyre 



R-Eliz. Aiken 
C-Jane Love 



Martha J. Culbdrtson 



117 



Year President Yice-Presldent Secretary Treasurer 

Woman's College Student Governqient-cont. 

1937 Mary B. Holland Patricia Seall R-Betty J. Brown Margaret A. March 

C-Marjorie Winston Va. Hardesty 

1938 Betty J. Broim Marie Pedeflous R-Peggy A. Haup Given Adams 

C-Barbara Henry 

1939 Peggy A, Raup Louise Gracely R-Eliz. Murray Bvdlyn Van Sciver 

C-Mildred Morehead C. Stiles 

1940 Libby Murray Hae Rogers R-Gladys Williams Elsie Gurry 

Chm Soc Stan- Louise Van Hagan C-Jane Waters Audrey Bracken 

Writers' Clu"b 
(1911- ) 

1911 W. E. Eller Maiy Loomis Smith James Cannon, Jr, 

Young Men's Christian Association 
(1888- ) 

1888 Gaston Troy Adaras 

1889 William Bowman Lee 

1890 Jacob Pu^berts Moose 

1891 Allie Lee Ormand 
Newby Caviness 

1892 Henry P. Boggs 

1893 Joseph Henry Separk 

1894 Tuttle 

1895 Fred Soule Aldridge 

1897 John Council Woo ten 

1898 Jesse H. Bamhardt 

1899 Stevens Alexander Stewart 

1900 Leslie P. Howard 

1901 Leslie P. Howard 

1902 Enoch Marvin Hoyle 

1903 Nicholas S. Ogburn, Jr. 

1904 Franklin S. Love 
Nicholas S. Ogburn, Jr. 

1905 Franklin S. Love E. 0. Cole W. V. McRae E. W. Knight 

1906 William Vogle McRae C. R. Canipe H. C. Doss 

1907 Thomas M. Grant E/ W. Knight 
E. C. Doss 



113 



Tear 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



1908 

1909 

1910 

i 1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

I 1915 

• 1916 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 

1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 



C. W. Palford 
H. G. Hedrick 
E. J. Harbison 
W. G. Suiter 
Sdgar L, Secrest 
Duff C. Lewis 
John J. Lilley 
John J. Lijley 
Chas. S. Bunn 
Luther L. Gohbell 

A. J. Hobbs.Jr. 
J. E. Gilbreath 

Roht. A« Parham 
Leroy Dalin 

B. B. Harrison 
M. T. Hipps 
Wm. A. Kale 
John H. Westbrook 
Walter A. Biggs 

C. Ray Carpenter 
Liston Pope 
Smmett K, McLarty, 



YMCA-cont. 

Willis Smith 

G. W. Vick 

W. G. Sheppard 

W. A. Cadg 

James Cannon 

B. I, Pew 

V. V. Secrest 

V. V. Secrest 

L. C. Larkin 

Ployd C. Caviasss 

W. C. Ormond 

B. T. Harrison 

W. N. Vaugham 

C, B. Hauck 
J. D. Steet 
W. L. Clegg 
W. S. Barnes 
E. P. McFee 
J. M. Atkins 
Robt. Tuttle 
John M. Weber 
Chisman Hanes 



W. G. Matton E. 

H. H. Hunter F. 

W. G. Suiter L. 

P.Z.S.BvertAn W. 

B. P. Pew D. 

C. P. Matton V. 
C. S. Bunn G. 
C. S. Bonn G, 
L. L. Gobbell W. 
Clarence D. Douglas, 
J, H. Harrison J. 
R. A. Parham H. 



H.Stephenson 

S. Bennett 

M. Epps 

P. S tarns 

C. Lewis 

V. Secrest 

R. Jordan 

R. Jordan 

K. Carr 
Andrew J. Hobbs 

E. Gilbreath 

B. Fisher 



T. C. Kirlonan 
Henry Belk 
C. E. King 
W. A. Kale 
R. L, Jerome 
W. A. Abrams 
E. K. Rice 
Fred Brumraitt 
C. Moody Smith 
Russell Ranson 



Leroy Dulin 
J, E. Bridgers 
M, T, Hipps 

R. E. Long 
F. A. Lee 
F, A. Redmon 
John Weber 
Chas, H. Gay 
Emerson Jones 



W. M, Upchurch, Jr. Chas. F. Honeycutt H. L, Andrews Martin K. Green 



Wm. P. Farthing 
Curtis T. Spence 
Par due Bunch 
Chas. D. Beatty 
A. M. itfe-cQiiarrie 



James Peak 
Edwin C. Kellam 
Russell C. Herbert 
F.W. Dowd Bangle 
Robert E. Kay 



Pred N. Cleaveland J, A. Bistline 
Wm. B. Somerville Denny Williams 
Denny Williams Frank Marklaam 
Tim Brinn Guy P, Bemer 
Edward Pike Albert Brust 



Edwin C. Kellam 

John A. Myers 

P. W. D. Bangle 

A. M. MacQ^arrie 

Paul F. KetchTim 

Wm. Fickes 

Frank Markham 

Guy Berner 

David C. Prillaman Harold Smith 

Frank Sellers John Doeier 



Rawlins Coffman 
C. C. Derrick 
Chas,D. Beatty 
G. W. Wharton 
James A. Bistline 
Robt. Wilkinson 
Prank Dennis 
Reid Holmes 



Young Women's Christian Association 
(1917- ) 



Charter members: 



Lucille Li taker, Rosalie Stepp, Gladys Prise, 
M. Kornegay, Vera Wiggins, M. Russell, Bernice 
Ulrich. 



1917 Lucile Litaker 

1918 Vera M. Wiggins 

1919 Eliz. L. Allen 



Rosalie Stepp 
Inez Allen 
Mary B, Murfhy 



Gladys Price Same 
Grizell Hartselle Same 
Jesse Penny Maude Nicholson 



119 



Year 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



1920 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 

1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 



YWCA-cont. 

Lota L. Brati^ton.Josie Foy 
Florence C. Harris, Laara Winston 
Ethel H. Merritt Mary King Ellison 
Llargaret Ledbetter Idalene Gulledge 
Prances Holmes Pannie Hathcock 
Blanche Clark Kate Zimmerman 
Edith V. Stevens Leila Hubhard 
Kellah C. Miller Clarice Bowman 
Eliz. A. MacPadyen, Clarice Bowman 



Eliz. Eucker 
Norma L. Craft 
Ya. Ragan 
Mary J. ^lass 
f.iarjorie King 
Alma Hull 
Edith Snook 
Genevieve Baggs 
Lucille Burgess 
Parrar Babcock 
Katharine Binder 



Hath King 
Dorothy Leary 
Rosanelle Cash 
Va. Tillotson 

Walton Bo wen 
K. Upchurch 
Mary E, Carter 
Parrar Babcock 
Thea Conger 
Josephine Brown 



Florence Harris 
Alice Thomas 
Eliz. Roberts 
Dorothy Sabiston 
Mary Kestler 
Lillian Zachary 
Rachael Williams 
Dorothy Jennet t 
Joanna Crim 



Irene Pitts 
Dixon Barrett 
Jesse Hauser 
Prances Holmes 
Dorothy Sabiston 
Maude Brown 
Eva Malone 
Dorothy Westbrook 
Clyde Allison 



Pauline Prances Mildred uhirrell 
Dorothy Eaton Va. Pwagan 
Va, Geddes Lucille Gainey 
A. Woods Devereaux,Helen Gray 
Mary Henderson Katherine Upchurch 
Mary L. Kincheloe Jeanne McCauley 
Carol Strauss Annie Daniel 
Helen Saleeby Va. Griffin 
Margaret Carlen Helen Knight 

Helen Knight 

Joy Cann 



Joy Cann 
Ann O'Rourk 



1935 



Zeta Beta Taa 
4. 1935- ) 

Charter members: Sam Hogol, Irwin Priedlander, Gilbert Cohen, 
Harold Ginsberg, Milton Weinstein, Nathan 
Weinstein, 

Irwin Priedlander Milton Weinstein R-Nathan Weinstein Harold Ginsberg 

C-Abe A. Alterman 



1936 M. Weinstein J. P. Kaperman Abe A. Alterman 

1937 Jesse P. Kaperman Irving Samuels Jermiah Gorin 

1938 Irving L. Samuels Alvin S, Gross Leonard Levy 

1939 Joe Boldstein Herman L. Rapaport Philip Lewis 

1940 H, L. Rapoport Dan Gottesman Martin L. Parker 



Jerry J, Gorin 
David Shapiro 
J. Goldstein 
Dan Gottessman 
Alfred Tenenbaum 



Zeta Tau Alpha 
(June 4, 1915- ) 



Charter members: 



Pannie E. Vann, Annie Hamlen, Hillietta Evans, 
Janie Couch, Rox M. Davis, Mozelle Newton, 
Kathleen Hamlen, Lucy Rogers. 



120 



President 



Vice-President 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Zeta Tau Alpha-cont, 

1935 Emmy Lou Morton Peggy Becker 

1936 Mary Auld Katherine White 

Historian- Eliz. Riley 

1937 Pan Auld Jane DusenTsury 

Historian- Prances Sewell 
Hush Capt.- Dot Creery 

1938 Jtme Southworth Jeanne Murphy 



Eleanor Stevenson Mary Auld 
R-Eliz. Small Ella Waters 

C-Dorothy Dick 

E-J-une Southworth Betty Bogert 
C-Lillian Gihson 



H-Jean Ord 
C-Jean Merkel 



Edna E. Sexton 
Polly Warner 



1939 Mary S. Dodge 



Doris Tritle 



R-Annajane Boyd Polly Warner 
C-Ellen Buschav 



1940 



Rose Kueffner 



Mary R, Co Iyer 



R-Eutiy Kiaiden 
C-Plcrence Rick 



Miriam Kamerer 



Young Democrats Club 
(1940- ) 



1940 Ivlarvin Young 



Ed. Braswell.Jr. Hazel Haynes 



Geo. Trakas 



» 



I 



Appendix B, 
Organizations and Enterprises Classified 



ATHLETICS— Athletic Association, Delta Phi Hho Alpha, Fencing Clu"b, Football 
Cluh, Golf Club, Handball Association, Riding Club. Sigma Delta Psi, "D" 
Club, Stirrups, "T" Club, Tennis Association, Tombs, Trident Club, Twi- 
light Horseback Riders, Varsity Club, Nereidian Club, Modern Dance Group. 

B lOLOGY— Biology Club, Nu Sigma, Phi Sigma. 

CHEMISTRY— Chemists' Club, Pegram Chemistry Club. 

CIVIC — Athletic Association, V/omen's Athletic Association, CIRSA, Current 
Topics Club, Greater Duke Club, Greater Trinity Club, Interstate Pro- 
gressive Club, Junior Big Sisters, League of Women Voters, Schola Caveat, 
Student Relations Committee, Trident Club. 

CLASSICAL STUDLUS— Classical Club, Forum Club, Parthenon Club. 

COMliBRCE & ECONOMICS— Alpha Kappa Psi, Commercial Club, Psi Kappa Alpha. 

DRAMATICS— Drainatic Society of Trinity College, Duke Players, Hoof and Horn, 
Religious Drama Guild, Southgate Dramatic Club, Taurism Players, Theta 
Alpha Phi, White Witch Dramatic Club. 

EDUCATION— Braxton Craven Education Association, Education Club, Kappa Delta 
Pi, Religious Education Association, 

ENGIHEERING — American Institute of Electrical Engineers, American Society of 
Civil Engineers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Delta Epsilon 
Sigma, Duke Society of Mechanical Engineers, Engineers' Club, Engineers' 
Forum, Student Government of the College of Engineering, 

FICTITIOUS- -Alpha Sigma Sigma, Damned Fools' Laughing Association, Ejection 

tClub, FLAES, Grand Consolidated Glee-Banjo-Harpsichord- Clevis Club, Human 
Nature Club, I Signa Phi, Nauseating Order of Chewers, Original Research 
Society, Regardless Fruit Club, Sigma Sigma Alpha, Society for the Pro- 



\ 



122 



POESNSIC— (See also LITERARY)— Athena Literary Society, Brooks Literary Society, 
Calhoxm Literary Society, Columbia Literary Society, Current Topics Club, 
Danyeah Literary Club, Debaters* Club, Debaters' Council, Debating Council, 
Ero 14athian Society, Grady Literary Society, Hesperian Literary Society, 
Hesperian Ujjion, Moot Court, Tau K^pa Alpha. 

I'HATSRHITIES, Undergraduate Social— Alpha Chi, Alpha Omega Sigma, Alpha Pi 

Sigma, Alpha Sigma Tau, Alpha Tau Omega, Alpha Zeta Phi, Bachelors' Club, 
Beta Nu, Bgta Pi, Chi Phi, Chi Tau, D. D. Club, Delta Delta, Delta Sigma 
Phi, Delta Tau Delta, DeMolay, Dons, Bpsilon Alpha Sigma, Fraternity Pan- 
Hellenic Council, Goblins, Kappa Alpha, Kappa Sigma, Keys Club, Lambda 
Chi Alpha, Masonic Club, Mu Kappa Klan, Omega, Our Gang, Owls, Pente, Phi 
Delta Theta, Phi Kappa Delta, Phi Kappa Psi, Phi Kappa Sigma, Phi Sigma 
Delta, Pi Epsilon Pi, Pi Kappa Alpha, Pi Ks5)pa Phi, Psi Delta Sigma, Rebels, 
Sigma Alpha Epsllon, Sigma Alpha Omega, Sigma Chi, Sigma Delta, Sigma Gamma, 
Sigma Kappa, Sigma Mu, Sigma Nu, Sigma Phi Epsilon, Sigma Tau Alpha, Theta 
Nu Epsilon, Thirteen Club, Yellow Dogs, Zeta Beta Tau, Beta Club, Beta 
Theta Pi. 

GEOGRAPHICAL— Alien Club, Caldwell County Club, Chatham County Club, Cleveland 
County Club, Cosmopolitan Club, Cumberland County Club, Davenport College 
Club, Davidson County Club, Duplin County Club, Durham High School Club, 
Floridian Club, Forsythe County Club, Gaston County Club, Granville County 
Club, Guilford County Club, Harnett County Club, International Club, Inter- 
state Progressive Club, League of Nations, McDowell County Club, Mecklen- 
berg County Club, Montgomery County Club, Mountain Boomers' Club, Hash 
County Club, New Hanover County Club, Northampton County Club, Person 
County Club, Pitt County Club, Roberson County Club, Rutherford College 
Club, Sampson County Club, Sandf iddlers' Club, South Carolina Club, Stanley 
County Club, S\irry County Club, Tennessee Club, Town Girls' Club, Union 
County Club, Virginia Club, Wake County Club, Warren County Club, Warrenton 
High School Club, Wayne County Club, Weaver College Club, Webb School Club, 
West Durham High School Club, Wilson County Club. 

HISTORY— Historical Society of Trinity College. 

HOBBY— Alpha Eta Rho, Aviation Club, Duke-Durham Camera Club, Chess Club, Fenc- 
ing Club, Golf Club, Handball Association, Hiking Club, Explorers' Club, 
Needlework Guild, Riding Club, Stirrups, Tennis Association, Twilight 
Horsebaclc Eiders, Photographers' Union. 

HONORARY— Alpha Eta, Beta Omega Sigma, Chi Delta Phi, Coif, Delta Phi Alpha, 
Delta Phi Rho Alpha, Delta Upsilon Beta, Eko-L, Gamna Delta, Gamma Eta 
Gamma, Iota Gamma Pi, Ivy, Kappa Delta Pi, Kappa Kappa Psi, Lambda Phi 
Gamma, Ninety-Nineteen, Omicron Delta Kappa, Omicron Kappa, Phi Beta 
Kappa, Phi Eta Sigma, Phi Sigma, Pi Gamma Mu, Pi Mu Bpsilon, Red Friars, 
Sandals, Sigma Delta Pi, Sigma Pi Sigma, Sigma Xi, Tau Kappa Alpha, Theta 
Alpha Phi, Theta Phi, "D" Club, "T" Club, Tombs, Varsity Club, White Duchy. 

JOURNALISTIC— Journalism Club, Press Association, Q;uill Club 

LAITGUAGE— Cercle Francais, Delta Phi Alpha, Deutscher Verein, English Club, 
French Clubs, Gamma Delta, German Club, Salon Francaise, Sigma Delta Pi, 
Sigma Tau Alpha, Societe Francaise, Spanish Club, Volapuk Club. 



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LEGAI*-- Bar Association, Law School Bitle Class, Coif, Htighes Law Clu"b, Iredell 
Law Club, Moot Coiirt, Mordecai Law Club, Phi Delta Phi, Sigma Nu Phi, 
Bench and Bar. 

LIEEEAEY— (See also PCEENS I C)— Athena Literary Society, Brooks Literary Society, 
Calhoxm Literary Society, Cat's Head Club, Chi Delta Phi, College Poetry 
Society, Col\imbia Literary Society, Current Topics Club, Danyeah Literary 
Society, English Club, Ero Mathian Society, Folklore Society, Fortnightly 
Club, Grady Literary Society, Hesperian Literary Society, Saturday Night 
Club, Sigma Tau Delta, Sigma Upsilon, Undergraduate Writers, Writers' Club. 

MATHEMATICS— Mathematics Club, Pi Mu Epsilon. 

MEDICAL—Alpha Zappa Zappa, Alpha Omega Alpha, Zadavre Club, Nu Sigma Nu, Phi 
Beta Pi, Phi Chi, Pre-Medical Society, Theta Zappa Psi. 

MILITARY— A E F Club, Anti-War Society, Ch^lains of Future Wars, Ex-Service 
Men's Club, Naval Club, NROTC Club, Officers' Club, P^serve Officers' 
Training Corps, The Duke Dolphin , Veterans of Future Wars. 

MUSICAL— Band, Blue Devils Orchestra, Bill Lassiter and His Blue Devils, Les 
Brown and His Blue Devils, Kick Laney and His Blue Devils, Allen Stanley 
and His Blue Inips, Collegians, Delta Upsilon Beta, Dixie Four, Frank 
Gerard and His D-Men, Joe Burke and His Duke Ambassadors, Glee Club and 
Orchestra Association, Men's Glee Club, Women's Glee Club, Grand Con- 
solidated Glee-Banjo-Karps ichor d- Clevis Club, Hoof and Horn Club, Instru- 
mental Music Association, Zappa Zappa Psi, Lambda Phi Gamma, Johnny Long 
and His Duke Collegians, Lost Chord Quartet, Mandolin Club, Women's Man- 
dolin Club, Milk Brothers Quartet, Musical Clubs, Women's Musical Clubs, 
Music Study Club, Women's Orchestra, Al Preyer and His Orchestra, P.oyal 
Duke Orchestra, String Quartet, Johnny Hansel and His Swing Zings, Trouba- 
dour Band, Jelly Leftwich and His University Club Orchestra. 

PHYSICS— Physics Club, Sigma Pi Sigma. 

POLITICAL — Al Smith Club, American Liberty League, American Student Union, 

Autocracy Smashers, Bryan-Zem Club, Chaplains of Future Wars, Democratic 
Club, Gardner-f or- Governor Club, Harmon-for-President Club, Hoover Club, 
Page-for-Govemor Club, Polity Club, Republican Club, Veterans of Future 
Wars, V/hite Combine, Blue Combine, Woodrow V/ilson Club. 

■ PUBLICATIONS— Archive , Blue Devil , Blue Imp , Bonus Bill , Cat's Meow , Chanticleer . 
Chr onicle , College Herald , Distaff , Ducat , Duchess , Duke Dolphin , Duke 'n' 
Duchess, Independent , Park School Gazette , Peace Agent , Sein Feigner , 
Trinity Prep , Volunteer . 

RELIGIOUS & THEOLOGICAL— Baptist Students' Union, Bible Classes, Catholic Stu- 
dents' Union, Christian Science Society, Freshman Commission, Freshman 
Friendship Council, Hades Club, Luther League, Methodist Students' Union, 
Ministerial Association, Omicron Chi Epsilon, Religious Education Assn., 

k School of Religion Association, Sophomore Commission, Sophomore Council, 
Student Volunteers, Theta Phi, Woman's Christian Temperance Union, Young 
Men's Christian Association, Young Women's Christian Association, Student 



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SCHOLARSHIP— Alpha Eta, Bko-L, Ivy, Ninety-Nlneteen, Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Eta 
Sigma. 

SCIENTIFIC— (See also BIOLOGY, CHEMISTRY, ENGHIEERING, MATHEMATICS, IffiDICAL, 
PHYSICS)— Crowell Scientific Society, Iota Gamma Pi, Natural History 
Club, Science Cluh, Scientific Society, Sigma Xi. 

SORORITIES, Undergraduate Social— Alpha Delta Pi, Alpha Epsilon Phi, Alpha 
Phi, Delta Chi Upsilon, Delta Delta Delta, Delta Epsilon, Delta Psl, 
Delta Upsilon, Kappa Alpha Theta, Kappa Delta, Kappa Kappa Gamina, Mu 
Larnhda, Nu Beta Phi, Phi Mu, Pi Beta Phi, Sigma Beta, Sigma Delta, Sigma 
Kappa, Xi Qmicron, Zeta Tau Alpha. 



I 

I 



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I 



Appendix C 
WHEY GRAY ORATORS 

Ability in oratory has for centtiries "been one of the marks of an 
educated man. Outstanding student orators, then, would be supposed to number 
among leading almmi of any institution. The following history by J. P. 
Breedlove gives pertinent facts about some of the outstanding student orators 
in Trinity College and Duke University. 

The Wiley Gray Medal 

The Wiley Gray Medal was established at Trinity College in 1879 hy 
Rahert T, Gray, an able yotmg lawyer and devoted Methodist of Raleigh, N, C, 
It is a memorial to his brother, Cs^tain Samuel Wiley Gray, who was killed in 
"battle at Gettysburgh, Pennsylvania, July 2, 1863, In accordance with the 
wish of the founder, the medal has heen presented each year to the memher of 
f the graduating class who, in the opinion of a competent committee of three, 
made the best oration at the commencement of his graduation. 

Por many years every member of the graduating class had the privi- 
lege of speaking for the Wiley Gray on commencement day. Later the number 
desiring to compete grew so large that there was not time for so many speeches. 



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8 a preliminary contest was held before a faculty committee and the four best 
speakers were selected to try for the medal. This contest, for a long time, 
came on the commencement program just before the graduating exercises. In later 
years it was held either on Monday or Tuesday evening of commencement week. In 
1933, for the first time, the contest was held before a committee a few days 
before commencement. The winner was announced and the medal v/as delivered to 
him. Then on commencement day, preceding the conferring of degrees, the winner, 
as senior speaker, made his address before the audience assembled to witness 
the graduating exercises. Since the death of Mr, H, T, Gray the medal has been 
given each year by his nephews: James A, and Bowman Gray of Winston-Salem, N.C. 

Wiley Gray left the University of Horth Carolina in his sophomore 
year and entered the Confederate Army. He joined Company D of the 57th Worth 
Carolina regiment. His home was in Forsythe County and his company was com- 
posed almost entirely of men of his home county. 

He soon rose through the various official grades to the captaincy of 
his contpany. When General Lee went on his Northern campaign, he was senior 
cs^tain of his regiment at the age of twenty years. He was commissioned captain 
Dec, 13, 1862. At Gettysburg, July 2, 1863, just before sunset while charging 
a battery with Hoke's brigade he met a hero's death. His comrades were not able 
to recover his body, and he was buried in an unknown grave. Wiley Gray was 
conspicuous for his gallantry. He had been in all the battles in which his 
regiment had taken part, and had coimnanded his excellent company in all except 
the battle of Fredericksburg. 

The first Wiley Gray medal was presented on behalf of the donor by 
Tabius H, Busbee of Raleigh, N. C, to Governor Thomas J, Jarvis, who in a few 
appropriate words handed it to the winner, George Washington Koonce. In his 
presentation speech Mr. Busbee made the following remarks on the motives of the 



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donor, Robert T, Gray: "The founder of the medal was not a graduate of Trinity 
College, , . . His collegiate training was obtained in another state, and his 
family associations are closely interwoven with the State tmiversity; hut he 
desires to make this public acknowledgement of his interest in and admiration 
for Trinity College as it is, and his faith in the Trinity that shall be. , . . 
Mr, Gray wishes to foster eloquence in its highest and best aspect — the rare 

■ touchstone which opens the hearts of men, the logic to prove, the information 
to impart, the fancy to embellish, the elocution to deliver: of such, indeed, 
the world will not grow weary. " 

Mr, Busbee then described the quality of eloquence Mr, Gray wished 
to encourage. "As genius is the ornament of man, so the light of that genius 
is oratory. Wot the strength, the 'robur' of that genius, not the genius it- 
self, but its torch, its light, its glory, is eloquence." 

Belov/ are given the year of the contest, the name and address of the 

i winner, the title of his oration, the name of the man presenting the medal, the 
literary society to which he belongs, and his chosen life work as far as this 
information could be obtained from newspapers, weeklies, and college publications: 

1879 - G«orge Washington Koonce of Jones County, N. C. "Reform." Medal pre- 
sented by P^ H^ Busbee, Raleigh, N, C. Columbian. Lawyer. 

1880 - William Bruce Dowd of Charlotte, N. C. "The South, A Confederacy." 
Medal presented by Judge Towle of Raleigh, N, C. Hesperian. Lawyer; 

^ 1881 - Philemon Holland of New Bern, N, C. "The Irish Problem." Medal pre- 
W sented by Rev. N, M, Jxarney. Columbian. Lawyer. 

1882 - Benjamin Franklin Lane of Wilson County, N. C. "The New South. " Medal 
presented by James W, Reid, Wentworth, N. C. Hesperian. Farmer. 

1883 - Samuel Winbum Finch of Davidson County, N. C. "Tendency of the Times." 
Medal presented by John N, Staples of Greensboro, N. C. Hesperian. 
Teacher and politician. 

1884 - Junius Augustus Johnson of Trinity, N, C. "North Carolina." Medal pre- 
sented by E. R. Stamps of Raleigh, N. C. Columbian. Engineer, Civil. 



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1885 - Paid. Jones of Tarboro, N. C. "Moral SuTDllmlty." Medal presented "by 
James W, Re id of Wentworth, N, C, Hesperian. Lawyer, Editor. 

1886 - Lola Percy Skeen of Mt, Gilead, N. C. "Ecce Republica. " Medal pre- 
sented by Paiil B-, Means, Concord, N, C. Hesperian. Lawyer. 

1887 - John Robert Overman of Goldsboro, N. C. "The Discipline of Adversity." 
Medal presented by Hon. George H. Snow, Raleigh, N. C. Hesperian. 
Politician, Parmer, 

1888 - George Newton Raper of High Point, N. C. "Anarchy versus Democracy in 
America. " Medal presented by Rev, P, L, Reid. Coliimbian, 

1889 - Gustavus Troy Adams of Little River Academy, N. C. "Spirit of the Age." 
Medal presented by J, M^ Leach, Jr. Hesperian. Minister, 

1890 - Alexander Hayvood White of Pollocksville, N. C. "Professional Politics 
Incompatible with Good Government." Medal presented by Prof, W, A, Blair, 
Winston-Salem, N, C. Hesperian. Teacher. 

1891 - William Bowman Lee of Durham, N. C. "What Is Life?" Medal presented by 
Hon, John S, Henderson, Salisbury, N^ C. Columbian. Missionary. 

1892 - Stonewall Jackson Durham of Greensboro, N.C, "The Industrial Condition 
of North Carolina." Medal presented by G, S, Bradshaw, Columbian. 
Lawyer. 

1893 (Pirst Commencement in Durham) - Charles E, Turner of Cool Spring, N, C. 
"Origin and Tri"uinph of Democracy. " Medal presented by Justice A. C. Avery 
of N, C. Supreme Court. Hesperian, Lawyer. 

1894 - Robert Jones G. Tuttle of Hartland, N, C. "One Life Only." Medal pre- 
sented by Creek 0. Andrews, Raleigh, N, C. Hesperian. Minister. 

1895 - Plato Tracy Durham of Zing's Mountain, N^ C. "Intolerance." Medal pre- 
sented by Octavius Coke, Raleigh, N^ C, Coitimbian. Minister, Teacher, 

1896 - Joseph Smith Maytubby of Boggy Depot, Indian Territory. "Social Changes." 
Medal presented by Hon. Clement Manly, Winston-Salem, N. C. Hesperian. 
Parmer. 

1897 - Garland dander Green of Beaumont, N. C, "Duty of the Scholar to the 
State." Medal presented by Dr, Charles D, Mclver, Greensboro, N. C, 
Hesperian, Minister, 

1898 - George Hiram Humber of Carthage, N. C. "The Graduate and the Citizen." 
Medal presented by Dr, John C. Zilgo. Columbian. Lawyer. 

1899 - Harry Maurice North of Laurinburg, N. C. "Traditions." Medal presented 
by Hon. James H. Southgate, Durham, N, C. Hesperian. Minister. 

1900 - James Marvin Oulbreth of Wilmington, N, C. "Need of Dependence on 
Christ." Medal presented by Pabius H. Busbee, Raleigh. Columbian. 
Minister. 



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1901 - William Arnold lamTseth of Thomasville , N. C. "The College in the Service 
of the Nation." Medal presented by Jtadge Howard A, youshee, Durham, N, C. 
Hesperian. Minister. 

1902 - Edward Octavlus Smithdeal of Advance, N. C. "Social Torces and Industrial 
Progress." Medal was presented hy Dr. John Franklin Crowell, New York City. 
Columhian. Teacher. 

1903 - Villiam Walter Peele of Gibson, N, C. "Power of the Individual." 
Hesperian. Minister. 

1904 - Henry Bethune Adams, Jr., of Monroe, N, C. "Breadth and Effectiveness." 
Medal was presented by Governor C, B. Aycock. Columbian. Lawyer. 

1905 - Eli Franklin Lee of Newton Grove, N. C. "Triximph of American Democracy." 
ColTirabian. Minister. 

1906 - Samuel Bobbitt Underwood of Rockingham, N, C. "American Press and 
American Public Opinion." Medal presented by Dr. John C, Kilgo. Columbian. 
Teacher, School Superintendent . 

1907 - Luther Martin Peele of Gibson, N^ C. "Federation of the V/orld." Medal 
was presented by Dr. 3. F. Dixon, Raleigh, N. C. Columbian. Teacher. 

1908 - Walter Adair Stanbury of Boone, N. C. "Phillips Brooks." Medal pre- 
sented by Congressman Robert N. Page, Biscoe, N. C. Hesperian, Minister, 

1909 - Robert Colman Goldstein (Robert C. Roy) of Asheville, N. C. "Another 
View of Socialism." Medal presented by Robert T, Gray, founder of the 
award, Raleigh, N, C, Columbian. Lawyer. 

1910 - Clarence Shaw Warren of Ljmchburg, Tenn. "The Classics and Citizenship." 
Hesperian. Teacher. 

1911 - Henry Grady Hedrick of Lexington, N. C. "The Influence of the West in 
American Politics." Hesperian, Lawyer. 

1912 - Walter Glasgow Sheppard of Farmville, N. C. "Americans' Greatest Mission." 
Hesperian. Lawyer. 

1913 - ^nton Holton of Durham, N. C. "Imperialism and the South." Medal pre- 
sented by Henry E, Litchfield, Raleigh, N. C. Hesperian. Teacher. 

1914 - Ernest Creasy Durham of Roscoe, N. C. "America and Evangelism." Hesper- 
ian. Minister. 

1915 - Bascom Weaver Barnard of Asheville, N, C. "The Party Man and the Indivi- 
dual Voter." Medal presented by Congressman John H. Small, Washington, D.C. 
Columbian. Landscape Architect. 

1916 - Vailiam Roy Shelton of Asheville, N. C. "War and Its Aftermath." Medal 
presented by Dr. W. P. Few. Hesperian. 



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1917 - Henry Clay Greenberg of Durham, N. C. "Public Interest in Politics." 
Hesperian, Lawyer, 

1918 - Egbert Milton Splvey of Farmville, N. C, "Our Neighbors." Colmbian, 
Insurance , 

1919 - Jesse Herbert Lanning of Linwood, H, C, "America's Place in a World 
Peace." Medal presented by Joseph H, Seapark, Gastonia, N. C, Columbian, 
Minister, 

1930 - Norman Martin West of Council, N^ C, "ITational Seclusion versus Inter- 
national Cooperation," Columbian.* Lawyer. 

1921 - Claude Hardin Moser of Cherryville, N, C. "British Navalism versus 
American Commercialism. " Columbian, Minister, 

1922 - Robert Dwight Ware of Albemarle. N, C, "National Policy Responsive to 
Popular Will." Columbian, Minister, 

1923 - Thomas Banks Bradley of Newman, Ga. "Americanism: Idealistic and 14ater- 
ialistic," Columbian, Manufacturer. 

P 1924 - William Norwood Hicks of Durham, N. C, "Human Progress and the Teacher." 
Not member of a literary society. Teacher. 

1925 - Ernest Golden Overton of South Creek, N, C, "Battles for Progress in 
the South." Columbian, Minister, 

f 1926 - Whiteford S, Blakeney, Jr., of Monroe, N, C. "The Worst Tendency in 
College Life Today," Columbian, Lawyer, 

1927 - Lonnie Emerson Nail of Winston-Salem, N, C, "Progress, Resources, and 
Needs of North Carolina." Not member of a literary society. Student. 

1928 - Clarence Ray Carpenter of Cherryville, N, C. "Peace and the International 
Mind," Medal presented by Robert L, Durham, Columbian. Student, 
Psychologist. 

1929 - Richard Fred Roper of Washington, D, C, "Our Constitution; the Hope of 
the Nation," Hesperian, Executive Secretary, Democratic National Committee, 

1930 - Everett Broadus Weatherspoon of Durham, N, C, "A Fallacy in American 
Administration of Justice," Medal presented by B, S, Womble, Winston- 
Salem, N, C, Hesperian. Educational administrator. 

1931 - Joseph Gaither Pratt of Wins ton- Salem, N. C, "The Outlook for Peace." 
Medal presented by Dr. G, R. Combs of Charlotte, N, C, Hesperian. 
Psychologist. 

1932 - William Patrick Farthing of Durham, N. C. "Democracy, the Hope of the 
Nations." Medal presented by Dr. G. R. Combs, Durham, N, C, Hesperian. 
Lawyer, 



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1933 - Lawson Beasley Knott of Wendell, K. C. "The Myth of Leadership." 
Medal presented hy Dr. R. L. Flowers. Columhlan. Stiident, Lawyer. 

1934 - Clai"bome Barksdale Gregory of Durham, N. C. "Democracy." Medal 
presented by Dr. W, P. lev. Lawyer. 

1935 - Alphonzo C. Reynolds of Asheville, N. C. "The World Challenges the 
Educator. " Teacher. 

1936 - Charles Maxwell McCallister 

1937 - Clark Walter. Jr., of New York City. 

1938 - Samuel Wade Marr, Jr., of Raleigh, N, C. "Protolani and Platitudes." 
Minister. 

1939 - LeRoy Alexander Scott of Kannapolis, N. C. 

Minister. 

1940 - Joseph 0. Tally, Jr., of Fayetteville, "The First Step." 

Lawyer. 



Of the 62 winners of the Wiley Gray Medal 

19 became ministers 
18 " lawyers 
10 " teachers 

6 " Imsiness men 

3 " farmers 

1 " a civil engineer 

1 " a landscape gardner and architect 

1 " a politician 

3 have unknown occupations. 

Distribution between the two literary societies is almost equal. Through 1933 
the score was: Columbian 26, Hesperian 27. Since then, few of the speakers have 
been active in the societies. 



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Bibliography 



If an attempt had ever "been made to write a complete history of 
Duke University, there would he no excuse for this volume. There is very 
little reliable published material on the history of the institution, in com- 
parison with possibilities for such publication. Dr. William K. Boyd was 
interested in seeing additional material published, and put forth a great 
deal of effort in that direction, thro\3gh the Trinity College Historical 
Society and other channels. A student of his, Nora Chaff in, has continued 
this effort, and is perhaps the only person qualified to write an authori- 
tative history of the institution. Portions of her work have been published 
from time to time in the Alumni Register . In the Summer of 1942 she is to 
coiaplete a volume of such material. Publication has not been scheduled. 

It is believed that all conveniently available sources of factual 
material concerning student organizations and enterprises have been consiilted. 
These consist of: catalogues and bulletins of the institution, student publi- 
cations, and miscellaneous pamphlets; biographies of persons concerned with 
the institution's leadership; and records in possession of officers of groups 
still active. There has been some correpondence with former leaders of stu- 
dent organizations, but atteinpting to gather such information by mail has been 
found to be generally \insatisfactory. Practically all published material on 
the subject is to be f o\md in the Treas\ire Room of the University Library. 
Some additional material is on file in the University News Service. 

As noted heretofore, there has been relatively little consulting of 
general works on the subject of leadership in college and after. There have 
been some studies on this and related subjects; but since they have no bearing 
on soiirces for such a study at Duke University, and since the present volume is 
intended primarily as a collection of source materials, these are not listed. 

The reliability of student publications is sometimes more in the 
realm of hope than actuality, but since much of the information was obtainable 
from more than one publication, and all available sources were cons-ulted, there 
seems little reason to doubt the accuracy of most information credited to such 
publications. fThe most glaring inaccuracies are in the spellings of proper 
names in Appendix A. 



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133 



Sotirces Consulted 

Archive , The . Monthly literary publication of students of Trinity College and 
Duke University, begun in 1887. 

Baird, William Raimond, Baird's Manual, American College rraternities . 

Edited by Francis W. Shepardson. Menasha, Wis.: George Banta Publishing 
Co., 1935. 

Chanticleer , The . Student yearbook, begun 1912. 

Christian Educator , The . Volumes 1-3. Begin in 1896, Durham, 

Chronicle , The. Student newspaper, established in 1905. 

Cline , John. Thirty-Eight Years of the South Atlantic Quarterly — A Chapter in 
the Progress of Liberalism in the South. Master's Thesis, submitted 1940. 
Duke University Library. 

Crowell, John Pranklin. Personal Recollections of Trinity College , North 
Carolina , 1887-1894 . Durham: Duke University Press, 1939. 

Dowd, Jerome. The Life of Braxton Craven . Durham: Duke University Press, 
1939. Also, the 1896 edition. 

Duke Handbook , 1940-41. Published by the Student Y. M. C. A. 

Duke University Altunni Register . Preceded by Trinity College Alumni Register. 

Duke University Catalogues , and Catalogues of Trinity College. 

Durham Morning Herald . 

Garber, Paul Neff . John Carlisle Kilgo , President c£_ Trinity College . 1894- 
1910. Durham: Duke University Press, 1937. 

Motion Picture Herald , May 33, 1936. New York. 

North American Review , Oct, 1930. 

Southern Coach and Athlete . Decatur, Ga, December 1940. 

StTident's Handbook of Information . Woman's College, Duke University. 1938-39. 

Trinity Park School Catalogue . 

York, Brantley. Autobiography . Durham: The Seeman Printery, 1910. Published 
as Volume 1 of the John Lav/son Monographs of the Trinity College Historical 
Society. 



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Index 



Ho attempt has iDeen made to completely index all sections. Most refer- 
ences are to the main "body of the volume, the first 165 pages. NTimhers in 
parentheses refer to the ^pendices. Names of organizations treated in the 
volume are in all caps. 



I 



Ahbott, Edwin B. . 34 

ACACIA CLUB, 112 

Ad.doms, Ruth, 132, 151 

AD31PHIAN LIT3JEARY SOCIDTY, 11 

ABP CLUB, 150, (3) 

Aiken, J. H., 24 

ALIEN CLUB, 146 

Allen, Gay, 13 

ALPHA CHI, 98, 101, (3) 

ALPHA DELTA PI, 117. (3) 

ALPHA EPSILQN PHI, 116, (4) 

ALPHA ETA, 130 

ALPHA ETA BHO, 158 

ALPHA KAPPA KAPPA, 138, (4) 

ALPHA KAPPA PS I , 140, (5) 

ALPHA (M&Qk ALPHA, 138, (5) 

ALPHA a^GA SIGMA, 112 

ALPHA PHI, 119, (6) 

ALPHA PI SIGMA, 111 

ALPHA SIGMA SIG14A, 159 

ALPHA SIGI^ TAU, 112 

ALPHA TAU OMEGA, 96, 101, 113, (6) 

ALPHA ZSTA PHI, 112 

Alspaugh, J. W. , 7 

ALSPAUGH HOUSE, 149, (6) 

ALUMHI ASSN. OP TRINITY PARK SCHOOL. 

149 
AMBASSADORS Orchestras, 79 
American Association of University 

Professors, 158 
American Association of University 

Voman, 85, 158 
AMERICAN IITSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL 

ENGINEERS, 137, (7) 



AMERICAN LIBERTY LEAGUE, 51 
AMERICAN SOCIETY (F CIYIL ENGINEERS, 

136, (7) 
AMERICAN SOCIETY OP MECHANICAL 

ENGINEERS, 137, (7) 
AMERICAN STUDENT UNION, 50, 152, (8) 
American Women's Volunteer Services, 

151 
Americana Cluh. 158 
Anderson. Joseph R. , 101 
ANTI-CUSSIN' CLUB, 159 
ANTIiWAR SOCIETY, 152 
ARCHIVE, 12. 16, 22, (8) 
ARLINGTON BOARDING CLUB, 150 
Armstrong, Prof, J, L,, 16 
Arnold. Dean D. M. , 97, 101, 104, 107, 

130 
ART ASSOCIATION, 158 
ATHENA LITERARY SOCIETY, 10, 48, 8 3, 

(10) 
ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION, 89, (lO) 
ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION. WOMEN'S, 56, 93, 

161, (11) 
AUTOCRACY SMASHERS, 51, (11 ) 
Aviation, 151, 152. 157, 158 
AVIATION CLUB. 157 
AYCOCK HOUSE. 149. (ll) 



BACHELORS' CLUB, 106, 107. Ill 
Bailey. Jean. 124 
Baker. E. T., Ill, - 40 
Baldwin, Dean Alice, 156 
BAND, 71, (11) 



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135 



Bandy, J. M,, 131 

BAPTIST STUDENTS' UNION, 58, (l2) 

BAH ASSOCIATION, 142, (12) 

Barnes, Evelyn, 74, 81 
J, Poster, 55, 66, 85 
Mrs, J.Poster, 68, 81 

BASSETT HOUSE, 149, (13) 

Bassett, John Spencer, 127 

Baum, Paull F., 13 

Bean, Eobert T. , 154 

Beer made legal, 32 

Belk, Henry, 14 

BENCH AND BAR, 143, (l3) 

Bennett, P. S,, 24 

Bennett, Rith, 119 

Beta Cl-ab, 102 

BETA NU, 111 

BETA OlfflGA SIGMA, 42. 47, (13) 

BETA PI, 106 

BETA THSTA PI, 97, 99, 101 

BIBLE CLASS, LAW, 57, 144 

BIBLE CLASS, OPEN PORUM, 57, (l4) 

BIBLE CLASS, WOICSN'S, 57 

Biddle, Mary Duke, 113 

Bingham, Robert W. , 101 

BIOLOGY CLUB, 132, (14) 

BIRD CLUB, 133 

Bivins, J. P., 17 

Black, Martin Lee, 106 

Blackljum, William, 13 

Blomauist, H, L. , 132 

BLUE 'boors, 159 

BLUB COMBINE, 38 

BLUE DE7IL, 20 

Blue Devils Orchestras, 76, 77 

BLUB DUKES, 80 

BLUB IMP, THE, 20, 21. (14) 

"SltE lilFS.IlLEN STANLEY and. 77 

BLUE STOCKING CLUB, (15), Addenda 

BOARD DIG CLUBS, 150 

BONUS BILL , THE , 154 

ioston University Theological Sem- 
inary, 154 

BOTANICAL CLUB, 132, (15) 

Boyd, William K., 129, 145 

Bradsher, Arthur, 18 

Braswell, J. Win., 110 

BRAXTON CRAVEN EDUCATION ASSN. , 
144, (15) 

Breedlove, J. P., 7, 125 

British War Relief Society, 151 

BROOKS (ETigene Clyde) LITERARY 
SOCIETY, 10, 48, (l5) 



BROOMSTICK BRIGADE, 151 

Br over. A, S., 151 

Brown, Prank C., 13, 91, 130 

BRCWN HOUSE, 149, (l6) 

Brovm, Les, 77, 79 

Brown, R. H., 15 

Brown, Ted, 4-0 

BRYAN-KERN CLUB, 52 

Bulla, G. M.. 106 

Burke, Joe, 79 

BUZZARD CLUB, 160 



Cabell, James Branch, 13 

CALDWELL COUNTY CLUB, 148, (16) 

CALHOUN LITERARY SOCIETY, 10 

Callahan, Peter, 82 

CAMERA CLUB, 155 

CAMPUS CLUB, 158 

Cannon, James, III, 129 

Caps for freshmen, 30 

Card, W. W. , 91 

Carlisle, Ben, 151 

Carmichael, W, D. , 105 

Carnegie Poundation, 49 

Carpenter, C, Ray, iii, 86 

Carr 0, W. 7 

CATHOLIC STUDENTS' CLUB, 58, (l6) 

CAT'S HEAD CLUB, 13, 22, (16) 

CAT'S MEOW . 13, 22 

CERCLE PRANCAIS, 25 

Chaff in, Nora C, 44 

Chandler, Lucille, 124 

CHANTICTJIEE , 19, (l6) 

CHAPLAINS OP FUTURE WARS, 153, 154, (l7) 

CHATHAM CCUNTY CLUB, 148, (17) 

Cheatham, David Lewis, 102 

CHEMISTS' CLUB, 133, (18) 

CHESS CLUB, 156, (18) 

CHI DELTA PHI, 12, (18) 

CHI PHI, 96, 97, 102, (l9) 

CHI TAU. Ill 

Choir, Chapel, 67 

Christian education, 15 

CHRISTIAN EDUCATOR , 16 

CHRISTIAN HORIZOtTS . 63 

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE SOCIETY, 58 

CHRONICLE , 14, 17, (19) 

CHURCH CLUB, 60 

CHURCH, DUKE UNIVERSITY, 59 

CIRSA, 34 



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Civic organizations. Chap. Ill 

Civil Aeronautics Authority, 151 

Classes, 1923-1944, 21-35 

CLASSICAL CLUB, 34, (30) 

Class of 1912, 19 

Class of 1922, 29 

Class of 1939, 37 

Cleaveland, Fred N., 59 

CLEVELAITO COUNTY CLUB, 148, (24) 

Clute, Jasper, 13 

Coffer-Miller Players, 85 

coir, ORDER OP THE, 143, (25) 

COLLE&E COITQRESS, 9 

COLLEGg HERALD , 15 

COLLEGE POETRY SOCIETY, 12, Addenda 

COLLEGIAMS orchestra, 78 

COLUICBIA LITERARY SOCIETY, &. 17, 

23, 51, (25) 
Combines, political, 38 
Commencement orators, Wiley Gray, 6, 

125 
C0I4MERCLAL CLUB, 140 
Communist Party, 152 
CCMMUIIITY CLUB, 158 
Concert Series, University, 85 
Co-operative Society, Student-Faculty, 

projected, 36 
Corriher, Douglas, 23, 152 
COSMOPOLITAN CLUB, 146, (28) 
Cotton, Mrs, Wm. J. H. , 57 
Courtney, Bill, 20 
Courtney, Yince, 80 
Covington, Celestia, 117 
Craig, Golden, 98 
Cranford, Eli Wade, 109 
Cranford, W. I., 128 
Craven, Braxton, 6, 15, 53 
Crawford, Phil H. , 110 
Crowell, John Franklin, 53, 127 
CROWELL SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY, 131 
Crum, Mason, 57, 136 
CUICBERLMTD COUNTY CLUB, 148 
Cummings, Homer S., 154 
Cuninggim, Merrimon, 59 
Cunningham, Bert, 108, 132 
CURRENT TOPICS CLUB, 48 
Cutter, V/alter, 161 



"D" CLUB, 92, (28) 

D. D. CLUB, see Delta Delta 

Dad's Day, 54 

D-I>fflN, FRANZ GERARD AND HIS, 78, 79 

DAMNED FOOLS' LAUGHING ASSN., 159 

DANCE STUDY CLUB, 160 

Dancing, 75, 94, 113 

DANTfEAH LITERARY CLUB, 12 

DAVENPORT COLLEGE CLUB, 149, (28) 

DAVIDSON COUNTY CLUB, 148 

DEBATE COUNCIL, 10 

DEBATERS' CLUB, 10, (29) 

DEBATERS' CCXJNCIL, 9 

DEBATING COUNCIL, WOMEN'S, 10 

Declamation contests, 128 

"Defense Courses," 151 

DeHart, James, 108 

DELTA CHI, 130, (29) 

DELTA CHI UPSILON, 119 

DELTA DELTA, 104 

DELTA DELTA DELTA, 119 

DELTA EPSILQN. 122 

DELTA EPSILON SIGMA, 136, (30) 

DELTA GAMMA, 120, (29) 

DELTA PHI ALPHA, 26, (31 ) 

DELTA PHI RHO ALPHA, 93, (31) 

DELTA PS I, 123, (32) 

DELTA SIGMA PHI, 104, (32) 

DELTA TAU DELTA, 104, (32) 

DELTA UPSILON, 119, (30) 

DELTA UPSILON BETA, 82 

DEMOCRATIC CLUB, 52 

DeMOLAY FRATERNITY, 97, 112 

Der Tatevasian, Roosevelt, 21, 32, 39, 

97, 153 
DEUTSCHSR VEREIN, 26, (33) 
DINING ASSOCIATION, 150 
Dining halls, 30, 35, 36, 150 
DISTAFF . 19, (33) 
Divinity School, 154 
DIXIE FOUR, 67 
Dollard, John, 159 
DONS, THE, 112 

Dormitories, Freshmen, 20, 149 
Dormitories, V^omen's, 45, 149 
Dormitory proctors, 35, 149 
Douglass, Elinor, 119 
Dow, Mr. and Mrs. Neal, 25, 151 
DRAMATIC SOCIETY, 83 
Drinking among students, 32 
DUCAT , THE DUKE , 22 
DUCHESS, 20 



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DUKE AMBASSADORS, 79, (34) 

Dug DOLPHIN , 151 

FU^ ENGINEER , 135 

g^ 'H' RJCHBSS , 20, 21. 22, (34) 

15WS PlAYERS, 83, 85, (35) 

DUKE SOCIETY OP MECHAHICAl ENGHJEERS, 

137 
DUKE UNIVERSITY CHURCH, 59 
DUKE UNIVERSITY DAMES, 158 
Dunlap, Jack W, , 34 
DUPLIN COUNTY CLUB, 148, (36) 
DURHAM HIGH SCHOOL CLUB, 149, (36^ 
Dtirham. R. L. , 128 
Diirhain Recorder , 18 
DURHAM STAMP CLUB, 156 



ECONOMICS CLUB, 140 

Edgerton, Charles David, 109 

Edmondson, L. H. , 32, 34 

EDUCATION CLUB, 144 

Edwards, C, W. , 134 

EJECTION CLUB, 159 

EKO-L, 128, (36) 

Elder, Bill, 80 

Ellwood, Charles A., 144 

Enrployment Service, "Y", 54 

Engineering students, 39, 150 

ENGINEERS' CLUB, 135, 150, (37) 

ENGIKEERS' POHUM, 57, 136 

ENGLISH CLUB, GRADUATE, 27, 145 

Enrollment, 5, 44 

EPISCOPAL VESTRY, 58, (37) 

EPSILON ALPHA SIGMA, 107 

ERASMUS CLUB, 158 

ERO MATIAN SOCIETY, 10, (37) 

EVERGREEN , THE, 15 

EXPLORERS' CLUB, 156, 161, (37) 

EX-SERVICE MEN'S CLUB 150, (37) 



FACULTY CLUB, 158 
Panning, J. D. , 132 
Parries, James J., 13 
Peering, Roller t B., 70, 71 
FENCING CLUB, 91 
Ferris, Dotiglas, 98 
Few. William P. , 28 



137 



Fictitious organizations, 159 

FLAES, 159 

FLORIDIAN CLUB, 147, (38) 

FLYING CLUB, 157 

Foard, Henry Gilbert, 18 

FOLIO CLUB, 158 

FOLKLORE SOCIETY, 13, (38) 

Football, 90 

FOOTBALL CLUB, 90 

Forensics, 5 

FOREST-BIOLOGY CLUB, 133 

FORESTRY CLUB, 133 

FORSYTHE COUNTY CLUB, 148, (38) 

FORTNIGHTLY CLUB, 12* 

FORUM CLUB, 24. (38) 

Forum Committee, VSG, 46, (39) 

FRATERNITY PAN-HELLENIC COUNCIL, 32, 34, 

35, 37, 42. 113. (39) 
Freemasonry, 112 
FRENCH CLUB, 25, (39) 
FRESHMAN ADVISERS, 48, 56 
FRESHMAN ADVISORY COUNCIL, 42 
Freshman caps. 30 

FRESHMAN COMMISSI ON, YVCA. 56, (40) 
Freshman dormitories. 20, 149 
FRESHMAN FRIENDSHIP COUNCIL. 55, (40) 
FRESHMAN SCHOLASTIC ADVISORY COUNCIL, 

130 
Fuller, Ralph, 13 
FUTURE TEACHERS CLUBS, Addenda 



GAMIU DELTA, 26 

GAMMA ETA GAMMA, 142. (40 ) 

GARDEN CLUB. 156 

Gardiner. Anne. 156 

GARDNER-FQR-GOVERNOR CLUB 52 

GASTON COUNTY CLUB. 148. (40) 

Gaston. W. G. . 24 

Gates. A. M.. 23 

Gates. Mrs. ArthTir M,. 55 

Geographical clubs. 146 

Gerard. Frank. 79 

GERMAN CLUB. 25. (40) 

Gibbons. Virginia, 120 

Gibson, A. B. , 13 

Gilbert, Alan H. , 14 

GILES HOUSE. 149, (41 ) 

Gill. W, F. . 24 

"Gillander Act." 37 



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138 



Oillespie, J, Stewart, 20 
Glasson, W. H., 48, 129 
Glasson, Mrs, W H, , 55 
GLEE CLUB Ami OHCHBSTBA ASSN.. 68, 

76, (41) 
GLEE CLUB MENS, 65, (4l) 
GLEE CLUb| WOMEN'S, 68, (42) 
Glover, "Foots," 78 
GOBLINS, 110, (43) 
GOLP CLUB, 91, (43) 
Gore, H^ Grady, 98 
Grade School Clubs, Durham, 56 
GRADUATE CLUB, 160, (43) 
GRADY LITERARY SOCIETY, 10 
GRAND CONSOLIDATED GLEE-BANJO-HAEPSI- 

CHQED- CLEVIS CLUB, 65, 68 
GRAND DUKES, 80 
GRAND STAND CLUB, 160 
GRANVILLE COUNTY CLUB, 148, (43a) 
Grayson, Allan 151 
GREATER DUKE ctUB, 28, (43a) 
GRIATEIR TRINITY CLUB, 28, 44, (43a) 
Greek, 23 

Gregory, Claiborne, 9 
Griffin, Gerald, 98 
GUILFORD COUNTY CLUB, 148, (44) 



HILL-EL, 118, (49) 

Hinde, B. C, 134 

Hirst, Donald V., 42 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY, Trinity College, 

145, (49), (109) 
Hodges, John Daniel, 102 
Hoffman, U. N., 17 
Holland, Philemon, 106 
Holmes, Reid T. , 97 
Holt, Ivan Lee, 62 
Holt, Malcolm, 157 
Honeycutt, A, Wilson, 161 
Honeycutt, W^ J,, 154 
HONOR COUNCIL OP School of Medicine, 

139 
Honors in graduating classes, (50) 
Honor system, undergraduate, 30 
HOOF AND HORN CLUB, 82, 116 
HOOVER CLUB, 52 
HOTEL CLUB, 150 
House of Representatives, 31 
Hov/erton, Edgar M. , 66 
Huckahee Fund, 60 
HUGHES LAW CLUB, 142 
HUMAN NATURE CLUB, 159 
Huston, Ted, 80 
Hutchings, C, M. , 24 



HADES CLUB, 161, (44) 

Hall, Louise, 119 

Hammer, Mme. Borgny, 85 

Hamrick, John M, , 34 

Hancock, Robert, 151 

HAND BALL ASSN. , 90 

Hansel, Johnny, 80 

HAPPY FOUR qUARTST, 67 

HARMON-FOR-PEESIDENT CLUB, 52 

HARNETT COUNTY CLUB, 148, (45) 

Harriss, R, P. , 13 * 

Harte, Sheldon, 51 

Hatcher, Bob, 93 

Hatley, C. C, 134 

"Hell Week," 114 

Hendricks on, Horace, 34 

Herring, Herbert J., 8, 57, 86 

HESPERIAN LI^nSRARY SOCIETY, 7, 17. 

23, (45) 
HESPERIAN UNION, 8, 51, (48) 
Hickman, Frank S. , 60 
HIKING CLUB, 156 



ICH DIENE CLUB, 160 
Inaugural Ball, 30 
INDEPENDENT . TEE DUKE , 22 
Independent Party, 38, 97 
Inspection, Committee of, 35 
INSTRUl^CENTAL MUSIC ASSN.. 70, 85, (6l) 
Inter-Campus Relations Committee, (61 ) 

Addenda 
INTERNATIONAL CLUB, 147, (6l) 
INTERSTATE PROGRESSIVE CLUB, 147, (6l) 
IOTA GAMMA PI, 132, (6l) 
IREDELL LAW CLUB, 143 
I SIGNA PHI, 159 
ISOTES, 124, (62) 
IVY, 131, (62) 



JARVIS HOUSE, 149, (62) 
Jazz music, 74 



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.53 . 






139 



Jeffers, Katherine, 134 
Jennings, Bill, 91 
Jordan, Charles E,, 2, 86 

JOURNALISM CLUB, 14 

JUNIOR BIG SISTERS, 48, (62) 



KADAVRE CLUB, 139 

KAPPA ALPHA, 34. 105, 113, (63) 

KAPPA ALPHA THETA, 120, (63) 

KAPPA DELTA., 117, 121, (63) 

KAPPA DELTA PI , 144, (64) 

KAPPA KAPPA GAMMA, 122, (64) 

KAPPA KAPPA PSI, 82, (65) 

KAPPA SIGMA, 96, 105, 113, (66) 

KEYS CLUB, 97, 101, 112, (66) 

Kidd, Stephen, 161 

Kllgo, Fannie, 116 

Kilgo-Gattis Case, 16 

Kilgo House, 20 

Kilgo, John Carlisle, 15, 28, 60, 105 

"King Paucus," 34 

K ing ' s Daughters • Hoiae , 56 

Kramer, Paul, 133 



LAMBDA CHI ALPHA, 22, 106, (66) 

LAMBDA PHI GAMI^IA, 82 

Laney, Nick, 77, (l4) 

Langs ton, John Dallas, 109 

Language clubs, 23 

Lassiter. Bill. 77 

Latin, 23 

LAUGHING ASSN., 159 

Law, R, A., 105 

Law School Guild, 143 

LEAGUE OF NATIONS, 146, (68) 

LEAGUE OP v;OMEN VOTERS, 44. 48, (68) 

Lee, John D,, Jr., 154 

Leftwich, George E. (Jelly), 69, 71 

Legal Aid Clinic, 56 

Legal fraternities, 141 

LehrTsach, Chip, 77, Addenda 

LeSourd, H. M., 108 

Lewis, LeRoy, 8 

Lewis, Modena, 160 

Lewis, Richard q. , 39 

LIBERAL CLUB, 50 



Liberalism, faculty and student, 32 

Libraries of literary societies, 7 

Litaker, Lucille, 56 

Literary clubs, 11 

Liquor legalized, 33 

Londow, E, J., 24 

Long, Johnny, 71, 73, 78, (68) 

LOST CHORD (QUARTET, 67 

Lundeberg, 0, K. , 26 

LUTHER LEAGUE, 58, (68) 

LYCURGIAN LITERARY SOCIETY, 11 



Mage 8, Douglas, 143 
Manchester, Alan K. , 130 
MANDOLIN CLUB, 72, 76 
MANDOLIN CLUB WOMEN'S, 70, 73 
MARqfJIS, LES,'93 
MASONIC CLUB, 112 
MATHEMATICS CLUB, 134 
Matthews, R. T. 
McCracken, Charles W. , 42 
McCrary, J, Ray., 128 
McDermott, Malcolm, 57, 144 

McDowell county club, i48, (68) 

McMillin, E. R. (Dutch), 79 

MECKLENBURG COUNTY CLUB, 148, (68) 

Medical societies, 138 

MENDACITY CLUB, 159 

MEN'S STUDENT GOVERNMENT, 28, 42, 50, 

(69) 
Merritt, A. H. , 24 
Merritt, Ruth Willard, 44 
Messenkopf, Phil, 80 

METHODIST STUDENTS' UNION, 51, 58, (70) 
Metz, Jean, 120, 144 
Military clubs, 150 
MILK BROTHERS QPARTET, 67 
Miller, Garfield, 39 
Miller, Justin, 156 
MINISTERIAL ASSN.. UNDERGRADUATE, 50. 

60. (71) 
Mitchell, Phil, 157 
MODERN DANCE GROUP, 94, 160 
MONTGOMERY COUNTY CLUB, 148, (72) 
Moorhead, John, 20 
MOOT COURT, 141 
MORDECAI LAW CLUB, 141, (72) 
Moss, Florence, 60 
Motion pictures, 86 



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Motley, Doiaglas, 79 

MOUNTAIN BOOMERS' CLUB, 147, (72) 

Mouzon, Mrs, J, C, 119 

MU KAPPA KLAN, 110 

MU LAMBDA, 122 

Music, 54, 65, 85 

MUSICAL CLUBS, 69, (72) 

MUSICAL CLUBS, WOMEN'S, 70 

MUSIC STUDY CLUB, 81, 85, (73) 

I4UTUAL AID-TO-THB- STUCK SOCIETY, 159 



NASH COOTTTY CLUB, 148, (74) 

National Youth Administration, 51, 87 

NATURAL HISTORY CLUB. 132, (74) 

NAtJSEATING ORDER OF CHBWERS, 159 

NAVAL CLUB, 150, (74) 

NEEDLEWORK GUILD, 156, (74) 

Negro employees, 35 

Nelson, E. W, , 13, 109 

NEREIDIAU CLUB^ 94, (75) 

Nesljitt, William R. , 42, 140 

NEWCOMERS' CLUB, 158 

KEW HANOVER COUNTY CLUB, 148, (75) 

Night club, 79 

NIKETY-NIHETEEN, iv. 11. 14, 127. 

(75) 
Norman, William Capers. 102 
NORTHAMPTON COUNTY CLUB, 148 
NROTC CLUB, 151 
NU BETA PHI, 118, (75) 
Nursing School, 156 
Nushaum, Herhert S., ii 
NU SIGMA, 132, (76) 
NU SIGM NU, 138, 139, (76) 
Nye, Senator Gerald P., 50 



Odell, Robert H. , 157. 158 
OPPICSHS' CLU3, 150, (76) 
OMEGA, 113 

OMICRON CHI EPSILQN, 62, (76) 
OMICRON DELTA KAPPA, 130, (77) 
OMICRdT KAPPA, 130 
Orators, Wiley Gray, 6 
f! 0RCHESI3, 160 

ORCHESTRA, CONCERT, 71 
ORCHESTRA, WCMBN'S, 70, 73, (8l) 



ORIGINAL RESEARCH SOCIETY, 159 
Otis, James 0,, Jr., 34 
OUR GANG, 113 
OVERALL CLUB, 161 
OWLS, 113 



PAGE-FOR-GOVERNOR CLUB, 52 

Page, Walter Hines, 101 

Palais d'Or Night Club, 79 

PAN-AMERICAN CLUB, 146, (82) 

Pan-Hellenic House. 116 

PARK SCHOOL ATHLETIC ASSN. , 89 

PARK SCHOOL GAZETTE, 17, 23 

Parker, W, G. , 105 

PARTHENON CLUB, 34, (82) 

Parties, Political, 38 

Patrick, Ben M. , 161 

Patterson, Carmen, 157 

Patterson, Prof. K, B., 72 

Patterson, Mrs. K. B., 68 

Pawling, Arthur S., 97 

Payton, Jack, 80 

PEACE AGENT , 23, 152 

Peace conference, 50 

Peele, W. W., 55 

PEGASUS, 93 

Pegram, William Howell, 102, 131 

PEGRAM CHEMISTRY CLUB, 133, (82) 

PEGRAI4 HOUSE, 149, (83) 

RENTE, 108 

Peppier, C. W. , 57, 129 

Peppier. Mrs. C, W. , 57 

PERSON COUNTT CLUB, 148, (83) 

Persons, Elizabeth Anderson, 131 

PERSONAL ADVISERS, 48 

PHI.THS: DUKE , 22 

PHI WS£YS^?k, 129 

PHI BETA PI, 138, 139, (83) 

PHI CHI, 138, 139, (84) 

PHI DELTA PHI, 142, (84) 

PHI DELTA THBTA, 22, 96, 106, (84) 

PHI ETA SIGM, 130, (85) 

PHI KAPPA DELTA, 113 

PHI KAPPA PSI, 107, (85) 

PHI KAPPA SIGMA, 108, (86) 

PHI "MU, 122, (87) 

PHI SIGMA, 132, (87) 

PHI SIGMA DELTA, 96, 108, (88) 

PHONOGRAPHERS' CLUB, 161, (88) 



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■-■ ' ^ t - 



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141 



(89) 



52 



PHOTOGRAPHERS' UWION, 155 

PHYSICS CLUB, 134, (88) 

Physioc, Martha, 119 

PI BETA PHI, 122, (88) 

PI BPSILQN PI, 108, (89) 

PI GAMMA MU, 144, (90) 

PI KAPPA ALPHA, 109, 113, 

PI KAPPA PHI, 109, (90) 

PI MU EPSILON, 134, (90) 

Piper, R. a., 65 

PITT COUNTY CLUB, 148, (9l) 

Pitts, J, M,, 161 

Plyler, A. W. and M. T. , 128 

POETRY CLUB, (Sl), Addenda 

Police, University, 35 

Political groups, Chap, III, 

POLI'IY CLUB, 9, 49. (9l) 

PRE-MSDICAL SOCIETY, 140, (9l) 

PRESBYTERIAN STUDENT GROUP, 58 

PRESIDENTS' CLUB, 47, (92) 

PRESS ASSOCIATION, 13, (92) 

PRESSING CLUB, lei 

Prayer, Al, 78 

Priddy, John W, , 157, 158 

Princeton University, 153 

PRIT CHARD-PARKER CLUB, 52 

Proctor, A. M,, 24, 110 

Proctors, dormitory, 35, 149 

PSI DELTA SIG14A, 109, (92) 

PS I KAPPA ALPHA, 140 

Publications, 14, 35 

Publications Board, 12, 20, 21, 30 

Publicity Writer, First. 14 



QUADRANGLE PICTURES, 55, 86, 113 
QUILL CLUB, 14, (92) 



Radio broadcasting, 66 
Radio Station WDNC, 78 
Ragtime music, 74 
Ratchford, B. U. , 151 
REBELS, 113 
Recreation Center, 30 
RED CROSS, 30, 44, 151 
RED FRIARS, 129, (93) 
REGARDLESS FRUIT CLUB, 159 



RELIGIOUS DRAMA GUILD, 63, 84, (94) 

RELIGIOUS EDUCATION ASSN. , 63 

Religious Emphasis Week, 54, 60 

REPUBLICAN CLUB, 52 

RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS, 150 

"Revolt" of 1934, 31 

RIDING CLUB, 93, (96) 

RIFLE AND PISTOL CLUB, 157, (96) 

ROBERSON COUNTY CLUB, 148, (96) 

Roberts, Dr. Christopher, 34 

Robbins, W. N., 106 

Romance Languages Dept., 25 

Roush, Ben, 79 

ROYAL DUKE ORCHESTRA, 77 

RUTHBHFQHD COLLEGE CLUB 149, (96) 



(96) 



(98) 



SALON FRANC AISS, 25 

SAMPSON COUNTY CLUB. 148, 

SANDALS, 47, (97) 

SANDFIDDLERS' CLUB, 147, (97) 

SATURDAY NIGHT CLUB. 11, 158 

Schaub, Berkley, 20 

Schendorf, Hllliard, 21, 22, 97 

Schleyer, Johnn I^tin, 27 

SCHOLA CAVEAT, 51 

SCHOOL OF RELIGION ASSN., 50, 61, 

SCIENCE CLUB, 131, (97) 

SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY, 131, 

SCOUT LEADERS' CLUB, 

SCRUB FACULTY, 160, 

Seeley, W. J., 137 

SEIN FEIGNER , 23 

Seeman, Ernest , 156 

Shackford, Joe, 32, 

Shields, John H. , 141 

Shinn, Franklin, 13 

Shinn, John L., 40 

SIG, THB DUKS , 22 

TI5l4A~5IJ'irEPSIL0N, 109, (98) 

SIGMA SLPHA OMEGA, 108, (99) 

Slffl^IA BETA, 122 

SIGMA CHI, 22, 110, (99) 

SIGMA DELTA, 107. 121 

SIGMA DELTA PI, 26, (lOO) 

SIGMA DELTA PSI , 93 

SIGMA GAMMA, 111 

SIGMA KAPPA. 123, (lOO) 

SICK«IA MU, 113 

SIGMA NU, 110, IlOl) 



(97) 



161 
(98) 



34 



-I . 



142 



SIGiU mj PHI, 141, (101) 

SIGMA PHI EPSILON, 111, 113, (lOl) 

SIGMA PI SIGMA 134, (l02) 

SIGI-IA SIGMA ALPHA, 159 

SIGr^A TAU, 120 

SIGMA TAd ALPHA, 113 

SIGIU TAU DELTA, 27, 145, (102) 

SlOrlU. UPSILON, 12, 13, (l02) 

SIGMA XI, 132, (103) 

Slier, Beal H. , 90 

Simmons, P. M. , 101 

Sington, Pred, 111 

SMITH CLTJB, AL, 52 

Smith, Richard A, , 34 

Smithdeal, Edward Octavius, 109 

Social Standards Committee, 46 

S0CI3TE FHANCAISE, 25, (l03) 

SOCIETY PQR THE PEOPAGATION OP GOOD 

COMDUCT, 159 
SOUS ML DAUGHTERS OP DUKE ALUMNI, 

161 
SOPHOMORE CaiMISSIOW, YWCA, 56, (l03) 
SOPHOMORE COUNCIL, YMCA, 55, (103) 
SORORITY PAN-HELLENIC COUNCIL, 44, 116, 

(104) 
South Atlantic Qyiarterly , 14, 128 
SOUTH CAROLINA CLUB, 147, (l04) 
SOUTHERN INDEX, 15 

S outhern Peace-Action Movement, 23, 152 
SOUTHGATE DORMITORY, 39, 150 
SOUTHGATE DRAMATIC CLUB, 84 
SOUTHGATE GARDEN CLUB, 156 
SPANISH CLUB, 26 
Spence, H. E., 10, 55, 85 
SprinKLe, Rehecca Zirkpatrick, iv 
STAG CLUB, 104 
Stamaton, Jack, 20, 21 
Stamp CluT3, 156 

STANLEY COONTY CLUB, 148. (105) 
STENOGRAPHERS' CLUB, 161, (105) 
Stewart, Rohert P., 20 
STIRRUPS, 91 
Stokes, Tom, 18 
Store, University, 35 
STORY-TELLERS ' RING IN DUKE POREST, 

160 
St owe, W. McPerrin, 154 
STRING BAND, 75 
STRING QUARTET, 70 
Student Activities Office, ii, 161 
Student Board, WSG, 47 
STUDENT CONGRESS, 9, 49 



Student Government, See 

Men's Assn. 

Woman's College Government 
Student Relations Committee, 33 
STUDENT RBLIGICXJS COUNCIL, 59, (l05a) 
STUDENT VOLUNTEERS, 22, 51, 62, (l05) 
Sullivan, Jake, 34 
Sunday School, 57 
SURRY COUNTY CLUB, 148, (106) 
Swett, P. H., 140 
SWING KINGS, 80 
Swing music, 74 



"T" Cluh, 92, (106) 

Tally, Joe, 9, 49 

Tate, Robert S,, 62 

TAU KAPPA ALPHA 9, (106) 

TAU PS I aCBGA, 25, (I07a) 

TADRIAN PLAYERS, 83, (106) 

Taylor, Harry P., 110 

TENNESSEE CLUB, 147, (l07) 

TENNIS ASSOCIATION 89, (l07) 

TERPSICHOREAN SOClilTY, 160 

Terry, William Leake, 103 

THEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 60 

THETA ALPHA PHI, 84, (l07) 

THBTA DELTA, 117, 123 

THETA KAPPA PSI , 138 

THETA NU EPSILON, 112 

THETA PHI, 62, (l08) 

THIRTEEN CLUB, 112 

Thomas, Norman, 50 

TOMBS, 20, 91, (108) 

TOWN BOYS' CLUB, (l07a) , Addenda 

TOWN GIRLS' CLUB, 47, (l08) 

TRAVEL AGENCY, 161 

TRIDENT CLUB, 42, 93, (109) 

TRINITY COLLEGE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 

145, (49), (109) 
TRINITY GAZETTE, 15, 16 
TRINITY' MAGAZISE , 15, 16 
Trinity Park School, 10, 23 
Trinity Park School Club, 149, (109) 
Trinity Prep , 23 
TROUBADOUR BAND, 76 
Tuesday Evening Recitals, 85 
Tunnell, Ross, 161 
Twaddell, Preeman, 13 
Twilight Horseback Riders, 91 
Typing Bureau, 161 



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143 



Ukulele ladies, 74 
Umstead, Kate &., 34 
UNDSHGRADUAOS WRITERS, 12, (llO) 
UNION CCOTTY CSLUB^ 148, (llO) 
Union Institute Educational Society, 

54 
UNIVERSITY CLUB QRCHESCRA, 69, (llO) 
University of North Carolina, 7, 11, 

16, 30, 98, 108, 138 
Upchurch, Maude, 10 
UpchTirch, W. M. , Jr., ii, 68, 86 
Utermoehlen, W. J., 65 



VARSITY CLUB, 92 

V. D. W., 116 

VEUHRAITS OF FUTURE WARS, 153, 154, (ill) 

Victory Ball, 30. 42 

VIRGINIA CLUB, 147, (112) 

"Vision of Zing Paucus," 34 



Wiley Gray Speakers, 6,(l25) 
Wilkinson, A, A., 13, 155 
Wilkinson, Julia, 74 
WILSON COUNTY CLUB, 149, (115) 
Wilson, Mary Grace*, 124 
Wilson, R. N., 133, 161 
Wine and beer made legal, 32 
Winningham, Theodore, 102 
V/interson, Howard, 79 
Winton, Ernest, 97, 101 
Woman's College established, 19 
WOMAN'S COLLEGE GOVERNMENT, 43, 50, 

(115) 
WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION, 

62 
WOODROW WILSON CLUB, 52 
Wright Refuge, 56 
WRITERS' CLUB, 11, (117) 



VOLAPUK CLUB, 27 
Vollmer, Clement, 109 
VOLUNTETilR THE, 22 



XI ailCRON, 119 



Wade, Coach Wallace, 34 

WAKE COUNTY CLUB, 148, (ll2) 

Wallace, J. W. , 141 

Wannamaker, Dean W, H. , 34 

War Relief Society, British, 151 

War Savings Societies, 44, 151 

Warren, C, S,, 24 

WARREl^ COUNTY CLUB, 148, (112) 

WARRENTON HIGH SCHOOL CLUB, 149, 

(112) 
WAYNE CCUNTY CLUB, 149, (112) 
Weaver, Abram, 7 
WEATER COLLEGE CLUB, 149, (112) 
WEBB SCHOOL CLUB, 149, (113) 
Weeks, Stephen B, , 145 
West, A. T., 83 
WEST DURHAM HIGH SCHOOL CLUB, 149, 

(113) 
White Combine, 38 
WHITE DUCHY, 129, (113) 
White, E. L., 106 
White, N. I., 13, 23, 34 
WHITS WITCH DRAMATIC CLUB. 84 



Yelanjian, Louis J., 58 

YELLOW DOGS, 112 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSN., 37, 42, 

50, 53, 86, 152, (117) 
YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSN., 44, 50, 

55, (118) 
York, Brantley, 53 



ZETA BETA TAU, 108, 111, (119) 

ZETA TAU ALPHA, 123, (119) 



.vr 



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