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Essentials of Fruit Culture: Copyrigrht, 1912, by International Textbook 

Varieties of Apples: Copyright, 1913, by International Textbook Company. 
Apple Culture: Copyright, 1913, by International Textbook Company. 
Apple Pests and Injuries: Copyright, 1913, by International Textbook Company. 
Apple Harvesting, Storing, and Marketing: Copyright, 1913, by International 
Textbook Company. 

Pear Culture: Copyright, 1913, by International Textbook Company. 
Cherries, Apricots, and Quinces: Copyright, 1913, by International Textbook 

Copyright in Great Britain. 

All rights reserved. 

..^™cs=s?s^. 25901 



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or process and in teaching him how and when it should be used. 

In the present volume, the fundamental parts of the subject 
and the culture of apples, pears, cherries, apricots, and quinces 
are treated. The factors affecting the fruit industry are 
discussed, and the many methods of propagation and pruning 
of fruit plants, of the preparation of fungicides and of poi- 
sonous and contact insecticides, and of the handling of spraying 
machinery are described explicitly. Apples, the most impor- 
tant fruit commercially, are taken up first and treated in great 
detail. The different systems of planting, the methods of man- 
agement, including tillage, cover crops, sod culture and mulch 
culture, pruning, thinning, fertilization, the renovation of old 
apple orchards, the prevention of injury from low temperatures 
and from insect pests and diseases, the harvesting, picking, 
grading, packing, storage, marketing, and the profitable utiliza- 
tion of inferior fruit, are discussed in a clear, comprehensive 
manner. Pears, cherries, apricots, and quinces receive similar 
•treatment. The different varieties of fruits are handsomely 
illustrated in colors. This volume, together with the succeed- 
ing volume on this subject, forms an eminently practical and 
up-to-date work on fruit growing. 

The method of numbering the pages, cuts, articles, etc. is 
such that each subject or part, when the subject is divided 
into two or more parts, is complete in itself; hence, in order 
to make the index intelligible, it was necessary to give each 
subject or part a number. This number is placed at the top 
of each page, on the headline, opposite the page number; 
and to distinguish it from the page number it is preceded by 
the printer's section mark (§). Consequently, a reference 
such as § 16, page 26, will be readily found by looking along 
the inside edges of the headlines until § 16 is found, and then 
through § 16 until page 26 is found. 

International Textbook Company 


Essentials of Fruit Culture Section Page 

Introduction ] 1 

-Factors Affecting Fruit Growing 1 3 

Natural Factors 1 3 

Market Factors . ; 1 10 

Propagation of Fruit Plants 1 13 

Natural Propagation 1 13 

Artificial Propagation 1 14 

Propagation by Cuttings 1 . 14 

Propagation by Layering '1 17 

Propagation by Grafting •■ 1 20 

Propagation by Budding 1 28 

Pruning of Fruit Plants 1 31 

Principles of Pruning 1 31 

Method of Pruning 1 37 

Tools for Pruning 1 42 

Dressings for Wounds 1 47 

Sprays and Their Preparation 2 1 

Poisonous Insecticides 2 1 

Contact Insecticides 2 6 

Fungicides . 2 21 

Combined Insecticides and Fungicides ... 2 28 

Spraying Machinery 2 29 

Hand Sprayers 2 30 

Power Sprayers 2 35 

Accessories for Spraying Outfit 2 40 

Varieties of Apples 

Terms Used in Describing Varieties .... 3 1 

Description of Varieties 3 6 

Summer Varieties 3 6 

Fall and Winter Varieties 3 9 


Apple Culture Section Page 

Establishment of an Apple Orchard .... 4 1 

Selection of Site 4 6 

Selection of Varieties 4 11 

Selection of Nursery Stock 4 15 

Planting of Apple Trees 4 19 

Systems of Planting 4 24 

Use of Fillers : 4 31 

Methods of Planting . 4 35 

Management of Apple Orchards 5 1 

Tillage of Young Apple Orchards 5 2 

Tillage of Bearing Apple Orchards 5 4 

Catch Crops 5 6 

Cover Crops 5 10 

Sod Culture 5 14 

Mulch Culture 5 17 

Pruning of Apple Trees 5 18 

Types of Heads 5 21 

Pruning for Pyramidal Head 5 27 

Pruning for Open Head 5 29 

Thinning of Apples 5 35 

Fertilization of Apple Orchards 5 37 

Renovation of Old Apple Orchards .... 5 41 

Apple Pests and Injuries 

Injuries Due to Low Temperature 6 ' 1 

Injuries During Dormant Period of Plants . 6 1 
Injuries During the Period of Visible Activity 

of Plants 6 3 

Prevention of Frost Injuries 6 6 

Insects Affecting the Apple 6 23 

Apple Diseases 6 61 

Miscellaneous Injuries 6 77 

Apple Harvesting, Storing, and Marketing 

Harvesting of Apples 7 1 

Picking 7 1 

Grading 7 14 

Packing 7 21 


Apple Harvesting, Storing, and Marketing 

— Continued • Section Page 

Storing of Apples 7 40 

Marketing of Apples 7 48 

Retail Marketing 7 48 

Wholesale Marketing 7 49 

Miscellaneous Information About Marketing 7 52 

Utilization of Inferior Apples 7 56 

Pear Culture 

Introduction • 8 1 

Classification of Pears 8 7 

Botanical Classification 8 7 

Commercial Classification ........ 8 8 

Varieties of Pears 8 10 

Pear Pests and Injuries 8 28 

Diseases 8 28 

Insects 8 33 

Miscellaneous Injuries 8 40 

Pear-Orchard Establishment 9 1 

Size for a Pear Orchard 9 1 

Location for a Pear Orchard 9 3 

Choosing of Varieties 9 9 

Procuring of Trees 9 10 

Planting of Trees 9 14 

Pear-Orchard Management 9 23 

Tillage of Pear Orchards 9 23 

Pruning of Pear Trees 9 26 

Spraying of Pear Trees 9 34 

Harvesting of Pears 9 35 

Storing of Pears 9 40 

Marketing of Pears 9 40 

Cherries, Apricots, and Quinces 

Classes and Varieties of Cherries 20 1 

Cherry-Orchard Establishment 20 10 

Size, Location, and Site 20 10 

Selection of Varieties 20 11 

Cherry Nursery Stock 20 12 


Cherries, Apricots, and Quinces — Continued Section Page 

Planting of Cherries 20 14 

Orchard Operations 20 15 

Handling of the Cherry Crop 20 18 

Cherry Pests and Injuries 20 20 

Varieties of Apricots 20 24 

Apricot Nursery Stock 20 25 

Apricot Orchard Operations 20 26 

Apricot Pests and Injimes 20 28 

Harvesting of Apricots 20 28 

Marketing of Apricots 20 29 

Quinces 20 31 

Important Varieties of Quinces 20 32 

Quince-Orchard Establishment 20 36 

Management of Quince Orchard 20 39 

Harvesting and Marketing of Quinces ... 20 41 

Quince Pests and Injuries 20 42 


(PART 1) 


1. The growing of high-grade fruit requires special skill 
and training, as it calls for an intimate acquaintance with 
and an understanding of the individual fruit-bearing plants. 
Many of the general agricultural crops, for example, com, 
wheat, oats, timothy, and clover, are grown in the mass and 
are usually observed as fields of plants, not as individual plants. 
Little attention is given to the isolation of the plants in 
such crops except to sow a given quantity of seed per acre in 
order to regulate, in a general way, the number of plants that 
occupy a given area of ground. And, further, in the growing 
of grain or grass crops, there is usually no selection of the best 
plants or weeding out of the poor ones. The seed is sowed, 
the crops are harvested, stored, and subsequently handled by 
machinery. Fruit trees, vines, and berry plants, on the 
contrary, are planted a certain distance apart, and the plants 
are pruned and managed individually. The nurseryman dis- 
cards and burns those plants that are not of a given grade or 
standard; and the manager of an orchard or of a fruit planta- 
tion still further carries out the selection of desirable plants 
by choosing in the nursery the grade of trees that he desires 
to plant and by discarding, when he comes to planting the 
trees, those that do not please him. The product of fruit trees 
is gathered individually and thus the grower has opportunity 
to observe which plants produce the best grade of fruit and 
which the inferior grade. 





Thus, it is seen that all this experience with individual fruit- 
producing plants gives the grower a more intimate acquaint- 
ance with and an understanding of the activity of fruit-bearing 
plants than a farmer obtains of the general field crops that he 

Another important factor that has contributed to rendering 
fruit growing a specialized business is the development of 
special fruit-growing centers. Formerly the fruit consumed 
in a given region was grown locally, largely because transpor- 
tation facilities were such that it was impossible to ship fruit 
over long distances. If a community were to be supplied with 
fruit, it was necessary that it be grown in the immediate 
vicinity whether the soil or climate were especially favorable 
to that fruit or not. Modem methods of transportation and 
refrigeration, however, enable growers to ship fruit over long 
distances and to hold it on the market for periods of several 
weeks, and on account of these changed conditions, it is possible 
for the fruit grower of the present time to select locations where 
the soil, climate, and other conditions are especially favorable 
to the growing of a given kind of fruit. 

Each decade the consuming public is demanding a finer 
product; competition is becoming very keen in a.n attempt to 
produce the best; and insects and diseases have spread from 
former local areas to large general areas throughout most 
fruit-growing sections. This means that the fruit grower must 
be awake to methods of preventing injury to the fruit crop by 
insects and fungous diseases. In fact, to be abreast of the 
times today, the fruit grower must put forth intelligent effort 
in every direction. 




2. In considering the natural factors that affect the growth 
of fruit plants, it should be borne in mind that a fruit tree, 
shrub, or vine is a growing, living thing; that it is a plastic, 
shapable, living organism; and that it is modified by every 
influence of its surroundings. The pruning, cultivating, spray- 
ing, or other treatment given to a fruit plant makes it different 
from what it otherwise would have been, and whenever any- 
thing is done to a tree or a plant, it does something in return 
as a resiilt. For this reason, to iinderstand fruit culture, the 
grower must consider very carefully every phase of the environ- 
ment in which a plant lives, for every change either favors or 
opposes its development. 

3. Influence of Temperature. — Of all the natural fac- 
tors affecting the growth of fniit plants, temperature is the 
most important. Temperatiu"e very largely determines the area 
over which a given species of fruit plants can be successfiilly 
grown. Toward the north a limit is reached beyond which 
only the hardiest species of fruit survive, and a little farther 
north even these cannot endure the winter cold. On the other 
hand, temperature just as definitely sets a southern limit beyond 
which a given species does not flourish. The apple, pear, and 
plum, for example, thrive generally throughout the larger part 
of the United States. The peach cannot withstand so low a 
temperature and, therefore, unless influenced by modifying 
conditions, the northern limit of successful peach culture is 
somewhat farther south than that of the previously mentioned 
fruits. The citrus fruits thrive only adjacent to the semi- 
tropical districts, such as are found in Florida and California. 

It is important for a fruit grower, in determining the location 
of a plantation or orchard, to know something of the limits of 


temperature which the species of fruit that is to be planted 
will endure, and also to know that varieties of each species 
differ in their climatic adaptations. For instance, some 
varieties of apples reach their best development toward the 
northern portions of the United States ; other varieties, needing 
a slightly warmer temperature, find their most congenial place 
in the southern half of the country. Usually, a given variety 
reaches its best development within comparatively narrow 
limits of temperature, and certain varieties smted to one 
extreme of climate are usually correspondingly unsuited to the 
other extreme. Wherever winter temperatures fall too low 
or summer temperatures rise too high for the best development 
of a given variety, that variety should not be grown. 

4. Influence of Altitude. — The altitude of land also 
has an effect on the growth of fruit plants. The greater the 
altitude at any latitude the lower will be the temperature, and 
plant growth will be affected the same as by a more northern 
latitude. The effect of an increase in altitude on the growth 
of vegetation may be observed by ascending a mountainside. 
At the base of the mountain will be found trees that are common 
for that latitude, but as a higher altitude is reached low, 
dwarfed, and scrubby specimens of this same species of trees 
occur, and a little farther up the slope this species disappears 
altogether and another species is found. It is clear, therefore, 
that the limit of altitude beyond which a given variety of fruit 
wiU not thrive cannot be definitely given. As a general nile, 
a high altitude in a southern latitude is very similar in regard 
to temperature as a much lower altitude at a more northern 
latitude. At extremely high altitudes in any latitude the 
climate is too cold and bleak for most fruits to thrive. 

A study of elevations, however, is of great importance to 
the fruit grower. One of the most important things to be con- 
sidered in connection with elevation is atmospheric drainage, 
that is, the drainage, or passage, of air over the surface of an 
area. During the growing season, the atmosphere at the sur- 
face of the earth is cooled rapidly at night. Cold air, being 
heavier than warm air, settles to the earth, flows into low 


places, down slopes into ravines and valleys and over water 
courses. This draining away of air is just as real as the draining 
away of water from areas of land, but unlike water drainage, 
the air removed is immediately replaced by other air. Air 
drainage is much less generally understood, however, than 
water drainage, because air drainage is not visible like water 
drainage. A practical conception of air drainage may be gained 
by walking over an area of uneven ground on a summer night. 
On the higher elevations the atmosphere is usually warm, but 
in the ravines a stream of cold air is encountered which is 
flowing off from higher elevations. On passing up the opposite 
side of the same ravine, the observer can feel his head rise 
above the layer of cold air. Wherever such a condition occurs, 
the area into which the cold air settles is generally frosty and 
unsafe for fruit growing. The first frosts of autumn most 
often occur in ravines and low places, and it is in such places 
that tender plants are first killed; the same varieties often 
remain unharmed on higher elevations in the same general 

The depth of cold, frosty atmosphere that will collect in 
low places depends on the area of the country drained, the 
area over which the cold air collects, and the position and size 
of outlets, just as definitely as the size of streams, ponds, and 
lakes depends on the territory that they drain and the location 
and size of their outlets. 

5. Provided there is still lower land in the adjacent valley 
into which the cold air may drain, fruit trees or plants may 
often be planted with safety well toward the base of a slope. 
The wider the low valley, the more the cold air can spread out 
and the less likelihood of its rising upwards on the adjacent 
slope. A low place or a basin that has no outlet is usually a 
dangerous place for fruit, as the cold air cannot flow away. 
A concrete example of the need of atmospheric drainage will 
serve to illustrate the above point. A long, gentle slope was 
cleared for a peach orchard. Toward the lower edge of this 
slope a dense forest with luxuriant vines and undergrowth was 
left standing. When the peach orchard came into bearing age, 


the lower one-fourth of it adjacent to the standing forest in 
the valley had the blossoms killed in two successive springs by- 
late frosts. This frosted area at its upper border formed 
almost a perfect contour line of given elevation. At its higher 
edge some of the trees had the fruit buds killed on their lower 
limbs, and those toward the top of the trees escaped injury. 
Apparently the cold air at night, flowing down the slope, failed 
to flow off readily through the standing forest; the latter, with 
its tangle of vines and undergrowth, formed a dam that held 
a pocket of cold, frosty air in the lower portion of the orchard. 
Finally, this adjacent woodland was cut down, thus making it 
possible for the air to flow into the valley at the bottom of the 
slope. As a result, the frost line was lowered and in subsequent 
springs the entire peach orchard escaped injury from frost. 

If it is found necessary to utilize low-lying areas for fruit 
culture, late-blooming varieties should be planted, as they 
are less liable than early varieties to be injured by spring frosts. 

6. Influence of Bodies of Water. — The presence of a 
large or a very deep body of water tempers the atmospheric 
conditions of the surrounding region, and for this reason has 
a very pronounced influence on its fruit-growing interests. 
Especially is this true if the fruit trees or plants are grov^Ti 
on that side of the water toward which the prevailing winds 
blow after passing over the body of water. The reason for 
this influence is that a body of water absorbs very slowly a 
large quantity of heat during warm weather and gives up this 
heat just as slowly during cold weather. Among the many 
regions so affected by bodies of water may be mentioned a 
strip of land along the west side of the southern peninsula of 
Michigan overlooking the east shore of Lake Michigan. The 
effects of this lake are felt at various points for a distance of 
from 3 to 20 miles inland, the width of the favored fruit area 
depending on the lay of the land. Where the land adjoining 
the lake arises somewhat abruptly to a good height, its influence 
does not extend inland much beyond the top of the adjacent 
hills; but where the land rises gradually, thus making a wide 
slope facing the lake, the influence extends inland over the 


entire slope. It is interesting to contrast conditions on the 
west side of this southern peninsula with those on the east 
side adjacent to Lake Huron. Cold winds, which come mostly 
from the west and the northwest, are devastating in their 
effect on the western side of Lake Michigan; in passing over 
this large body of water, which does not usually freeze over in 
winter, the winds are so tempered that their effect on the fruit 
trees on the eastern side of the lake, along the western side of 
the peninsula, is not damaging; in passing over the peninsula, 
the winds again become very cold and as a result are dam- 
aging to the trees on the eastern side of the peninsula, adjacent 
to Lake Huron. 

As a result of the tempering effect of Lake Michigan, the 
peach can be grown safely even as far north as the Grand 
Traverse Bay district, on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, 
but it cannot be grown with any degree of safety at that latitude 
in the eastern part of the state. A section in the southern part 
of Ontario adjacent to the Great Lakes is affected much the 
same as is the western part of the southern peninsula of 
Michigan. Peaches and other tender fruits can be grown 
much farther north in this section than they can with safety 
in any of the distinctly inland sections of Canada. 

Fruit trees growing on the bluffs overlooking the Mississippi 
and Missouri rivers in the central part of the United States 
frequently are not injured by severe winters, but the same 
varieties of trees growing a few miles inland from the river 
bluffs have their fruit buds killed. Even small inland lakes, 
especially if they are deep, may produce a pronounced local 
effect in tempering the climate of the surrounding slopes. 
This tempering effect on the climate has a tendency to prevent 
early autumn frosts and to retard the development of fruit 
buds in the spring so that they do not open sufficiently to be 
damaged by late spring frosts. 

.7. Influence of Winds. — A certain degree of atmospheric 
circulation is desirable for fruit plantations, because frosts are 
less liable to occur where the air is in motion than where it 
is still. Most fruit-producing plants are not often seriously 


injured by moderate winds, but may be badly injured by 
severe winds. In regions subject to strong prevailing winds 
or in sections where wind storms are common much imma- 
ture fruit is blown off the trees. The trees tend to lean or 
tip in a direction opposite to that from which the prevailing 
wind comes ; the branches of the trees have a more spreading, 
branching top on the leeward side of the tree than on the 
windward side; and it is not uncommon for cold, dry winds 
of winter to cause evaporation of moisture from the twigs and 
branches of the trees to such an extent that they suffer from 
winter killing, or killing back, purely as a result of the drying- 
out process, and in some unprotected sections there is danger 
of the fruit trees being more or less uprooted by the wind. 

To prevent loss of fruit and injury to trees in exposed sections, 
some orchardists advocate the planting of a row or several rows 
of trees on the windward side of the orchard to act as a wind- 
break. Some of the advantages of such windbreaks are that 
they lessen the quantity of windfalls; prevent the whipping 
and breaking of branches, especially while they are frozen; 
the rubbing off of fruit buds; and the lopsided growth of trees. 
Some of the arguments against the use of windbreaks are that 
the roots of the windbreak trees encroach on the outer row 
of fruit trees and absorb plant-food and moisture from the 
soil; that the trees occupy land that might be used for other 
purposes; that they sometimes prevent cold air from being 
drawn off, thus causing frost pockets on the leeward side as 
well as on the windward side of the windbreak; and that they 
often harbor insect and fungous pests. 

In the bleak districts of the United States, especially those 
districts adjacent to the prairie regions, where windbreaks 
might seem to be needed if they are needed anywhere, perhaps 
a majority of the fruit growers are of the opinion that wind- 
breaks are not necessary, provided certain methods of orchard 
management are practiced. Some of the methods recom- 
mended are as follows: (1) The trees may be headed low so 
that the wind will cause less bending and shaking of the trees 
and fewer windfalls than if they are headed high. (2) They 
may have somewhat denser heads in sections where the 


atmosphere is much in motion than in more quiet localities, 
because trees with low heads with many branches seem better 
adapted to resisting wind than tall trees having a straight cen- 
tral trunk, or leader. (3) Some notably successful orchardists 
claim that, regardless of other methods of avoiding the effects 
of winds, a few more rows of fruit trees planted around the 
windward side of the orchard are more profitable than are 
forest trees planted as windbreaks. If this plan is followed, 
trees on the windv/ard side of the orchard shotdd be planted so 
that the rows of trees are not continuous across the orchard; 
that is, two or more systems of planting, as explained in 
another Section, should be employed. 

8. Suita,t)illty of Soil.— Fruit is grown on a great variety 
of soils, varying from a light, sandy loam to a heavy clay. 
The soil of some of the important fruit-growing districts is 
very sandy, such as exists in the peach-growing district of the 
lower peninsula of Michigan; the soils of many of the fruit- 
growing regions in New England, New York, and Pennsylvania 
are rocky, gravelly clays or clay loams ; and on the bluffs along 
the Mississippi and Missouri rivers the soil is a loose, fine, 
rich, mellow loam. 

Although soils of varying physical condition may be well 
adapted to fruit growing, experience has demonstrated the 
fact that, for fruit-growing purposes, they must be well drained. 
A porous soil not only affords sufficient drainage for the rapid 
development of the roots of fruit plants but it enables the roots 
of the perennial plants to reach down and anchor themselves 
at a good depth. Fruit trees usually succeed in a soil in which 
they can take deep root, but they often fail to thrive in soils 
in which their root system is confined to a shallow soil. 

The character of the subsoil is as important as the character 
of the surface soil; in many places fruit trees thrive well in 
very inferior, thin surface soil, provided the subsoil is suffi- 
ciently mellow and deep to admit of the development of a 
good root system. 

In fertility, fruit soils vary from those that will not produce 
general farm crops abundantly without a liberal addition of 


fertilizer to those that are naturally rich enough to support 
for decades continued cropping to general farm crops. It has 
been determined by authoritative investigations that a mature 
apple orchard in full bearing removes, in its leaves, new wood 
growth, and crop of fruit, a larger quantity of plant -food from 
the soil than is used in the production of a crop of com or of 
wheat. Inasmuch as only the richest soil will bear cropping 
for several successive years to com or wheat without liberal 
applications of fertilizers, it would seem that fruit crops could 
not be produced on the same soil year after year without a 
similar resort to keep up the fertility of the land. As a matter 
of fact, many orchards located on comparatively poor soil 
have yielded without being fertilized abundant crops of fruit 
throughout the life of the orchard; on the other hand, liberal 
applications of fertilizer to soils of moderate fertility have not 
increased the yield from mature bearing orchards sufficiently 
to pay the expense. 

It seems safe to believe, therefore, that an orchard located 
on soil of medium fertility will produce without fertilization 
abundant crops from the time the trees begin bearing until 
they die; but distinctly poor soil should receive applications 
of fertilizer, although the actual fertility of the soil is of minor 
importance as compared with its physical character. 

9. Location in Respect to Population. — In selecting a 

location for a fruit plantation, a fruit grower should consider 
the proximity of the location to centers of population. First 
of all, a large center of population furnishes consumers and 
insures a ready market for a large quantity of fruit. Growers 
that are able to place their fruit in prime condition on the large 
markets are sure of a ready sale. However, it is necessary, 
if the fruit is to be marketed at a profit, that it be placed on 
the market at a reasonably low cost of production, transporta- 
tion, etc. It is important that abundant labor should be 
secured for picking, packing, and preparing the fruit crop for 
market. Ordinarily, such labor is readily available in large 


centers of population. Formerly, when fruit was marketed 
locally, large fruit plantations were practically out of the 
question, except where much additional labor could be secured 
at the time of harvesting. In recent years, however, in certain 
isolated sections, itinerant labor may be secured for handling 
the crop at the ripening period. For instance, pickers and 
packers in large groups frequently traverse the country from 
south to north, following the ripening of the strawberry crop, 
or the peach crop, or both. For example, as the strawberry 
crop begins to ripen in Texas, pickers and packers are available 
who camp adjacent to the plantations and harvest the crop. 
As the southern strawberries are harvested, these same people 
move northwards through Arkansas and Missouri and camp 
in the various strawberry districts until the late strawberry 
crops of the north have been put on the market. Peaches are 
harvested and handled in a similar manner and often by the 
same crew that picked the strawberry crop. The grower who 
lives on the line of migration of such a body of fruit pickers 
and packers may readily handle his crop, even though it is 
grown at considerable distance from a center of population. 

10. Shipping Facilities. — ^Formerly, the fruit supply of 
the country was, for the most part, grown adjacent to the 
district in which it was consumed. Even the less perishable 
fruits like apples were rarely shipped any considerable distance. 
There might be an excess of fruit in one section of the country 
and a dearth of it in another section, but a lack of proper 
facilities for shipping prevented proper distribution and the 
surplus of the one district was not available to meet the needs 
of another district. In recent decades improved methods of 
packing, cooling, shipping, refrigeration, etc., have rendered 
it possible to distribute fruit over large areas. It is possible, 
therefore, to grow fruit profitably a long distance from market, 
provided shipping facilities are good, and growers are enabled 
to select locations where soil or climatic conditions particularly 
favor the growing of a given kind or variety of fruit. As a 
result, special fruit-growing centers are developing almost 
regardless of their proximity to large markets. For example, 


certain areas in the western part of the United States are 
famous for their fruit, which is shipped to the eastern markets; 
early strawberries produced in the Gulf States are shipped to 
the northern centers of population; and the citrus fruits of 
California reach the eastern markets and those of Florida are 
sent practically to any part of the United States and Canada. 
Although it is possible to transport firm fruit over long 
distances, and even perishable fruits over distances which the 
grower, 20 years ago, did not even contemplate could become 
possible, at the same time adequate transportation facilities 
should be considered in the selection of a fruit plantation. 
Transportation to exceedingly distant markets is expensive 
and should be balanced either by cheap land or by soil and 
climatic conditions that are exceptionally favorable to the 
production of fruit. A grower should be near a shipping point 
because it is highly important that he avoid, as far as possible, 
long hauls of fruit over bad country roads. Every mile traveled 
on a bad coimtry road, especially with perishable fruits, adds 
greatly to the injury of the fruit by bruising. In fact, it is 
more important to be near a shipping point than it is to be 
near the market where perishable fruit is consumed. The 
strawberry growers of the central part of the United States 
who are located from | to 1 mile from their shipping station 
may be better able to deliver berries in good condition to 
eastern markets than are the growers who live 5 miles from 
the markets but on a bad country road. Peach growers realize 
that it injures peaches more to draw them 2 miles over a rough 
country road than to ship them hundreds of miles by railroad. 
This is one of the reasons that fruit-growing interests group 
about definite centers or shipping points. 




11. Increasing the number of plants of any species is 
known as propagation. Plants propagate naturally in two 
distinct ways ; namely, by seeds and by plant division, and from 
these natural methods certain artificial methods of propagation 
have been developed and are now commonly practiced in fruit 

12. Propagation by Seeds. — All varieties of fruit plants 
originally produced seed and the majority do so at the present 
time, but as the seed in most cases is produced by the union of 
elements from flowers of two plants, the new plant will have 
some of the characters of both parent plants and may resemble 
neither of them very closely. For example, a flower on a 
Northern Spy apple tree growing in an orchard will very proba- 
bly receive pollen from a tree other than a Northern Spy; if the 
seeds from the fruit produced by this flower are planted they 
will produce trees that will probably have some of the char- 
acters of the Northern Spy and some of the characters of the 
tree from which the pollen came; and it will be impossible to 
know in advance what the fruit will be like. For this reason 
fruit plants are not usually grown from the seed except for 
experimental purposes; propagation by division in one of its 
various forms is generally employed for propagating fruits. 

13. Propagation "by Division. — Certain plants have the 
habit of reproducing by offshoots from the parent plant, which 
is known as propagation by division. Many of the fruit 
plants propagate naturally in this way. For example, the red 
raspberry produces an underground stem, known as a root 
stock, which extends some distance from the original plant; 
roots and sprouts are formed at intervals along the stem, pro- 


ducing new plants; the strawberry sends out on the surface of 
the ground long trailing branches known as runners that take 
root at intervals and form new plants; and the black raspberry 
produces long, drooping canes, which take root when the tips 
touch the ground and are then called stolons. As soon as 
offshoots sent out in this way have become rooted they may 
be separated from the parent plant and transplanted. A plant 
produced by any method of division, being simply a part of 
the original plant, has the characters and produces the same 
kind of fruit as the parent plant. 



14. A detached portion of a plant containing a growing 
point or bud placed in soil or water for the purpose of pro- 
ducing a new plant is called a cutting. The fruit plants 
most commonly propagated by the use of cuttings are the 
grape, the currant, the gooseberry, and the cranberry. Cuttings, 
so far as fruit propagation is concerned, may be divided into 
two classes; hardwood cuttings and root cuttings. 

15. Hardwood Cuttings. — The majority of fruit-plant 
cuttings belong to the class of hardwood cuttings, which are 
cuttings from the ripened wood of a deciduous plant of the 
present or previous season's growth. The common kinds of 
hardwood cuttings are simple cuttings, heel cuttings, mallet 
cuttings, and single-eye cuttings. These are shown respectively 
in Fig. 1 (a), (b), (c), and (d). 

A simple cutting is the most common form of hardwood 
cutting and consists of a straight part of a shoot or cane con- 
taining two or more buds. A simple cutting is usually cut 
off at the lower end just below a bud, because at this point 
roots will develop most readily; at the top it is cut off. some 
distance above a bud. 

A heel cutting consists of the lower part of a branch con- 
taining two or more buds and is cut off in such a way that a 



small part of the parent branch remains on the cutting, forming 
what is known as the heel. 

A mallet cutting is produced by cutting through the 
parent branch above" and below a shoot containing two or 
more buds, leaving a section of the parent branch at the base 
of the cutting. An advantage in the use of heel and of mallet 
cuttings is a somewhat greater certainty of developing roots. 
There is, however, one disadvantage, which is that only one 
cutting can be made from each lateral branch. 

Fig. 1 

A single-eye cutting consists of a small part of a branch 
containing only one bud. Such cuttings are sometimes made 
when it is necessary to get the largest number of cuttings 
possible from a Hmited supply of stock. Single-eye cuttings 
are commonly started under glass either in a greenhouse or in a 
hotbed where bottom heat can be supplied, and the cuttings 
are placed in the ground at such a depth that the bud will 
be about an inch below the surface of the soil, which must be 
kept moist. 




16. Hardwood cuttings should be made during the fall 
or early winter while the wood is dormant. As fast as made 
they should be tied in bundles of from twenty-five to fifty, 
with the butts all one way, and the bundles should be buried 
in a trench with the butts up and be covered with 2 or 3 inches 
of soil or sand. The top buds are thus protected from freezing 
and the butts are near the surface where the sim will warm 




Fig. 2 

them in the spring and stimulate root growth. Cuttings may 
be buried in sand, sawdust, or moss and kept over winter in a 
cool cellar. In the spring the bimdles are taken up and placed 
in a trench dug as shown in Fig. 2. They are set about 3 inches 
apart, with only the topmost bud or buds above the surface 
of the ground, and the soil is then replaced in the trench and 
thoroughly packed. In Fig. 2 (a) are shown simple cuttings 




and in (b) mallet cuttings set in place in a trench; in (c) is 
shown the position of the cuttings after the soil is replaced in 
the trench. During the summer the cuttings, if all conditions 
have been favorable, develop roots and leaves, and in the fall 
or the following spring are ready to be transplanted to a per- 
manent location. 

17. Root Cuttings. — Cuttings made from either roots 
or root stocks are called root cuttings. Roots as large as a 
lead pencil or larger are ordinarily selected, although cuttings 
from smaller roots will grow. Of the fruit plants, blackberries 
and some of the raspberries are frequently propagated by root 
cuttings. The cuttings should be made from 2 to 4 inches 
in length. They are cut in the autumn after the leaves have 
fallen and before severe frost, and are stored in moss in a cool 
place until spring. In the spring they are planted horizontally 
about 2 inches apart in a well-prepared bed and covered with 
about 3 inches of well pulverized soil. One summer's growth 
will produce good plants for setting out. 


18. Placing a branch in contact with the earth in such a 
manner as to cause it to throw out roots and shoots while it is 

Fig. 3 

still attached to and nourished by the parent plant is called 
layering, and the branch so placed is called a layer. There are 

24S— 3 


several methods of layering, which differ simply in matters of 

Fig. 4 

detail adapted to the nature of the plant to be propagated. 

A form known as tip 
layering is illustrated 
in Fig. 3. A branch, or 
cane, is bent down to 
the ground and the tip 
covered with soil. 
Roots and sprouts will 
then be thrown out 
forming young plants, 
which may be separated 
from the parent plant. 
The black raspberry is 
an example of a fruit 
plant that may be prop- 
agated in this way. 

What is known as 

vine layering is shown 

in Fig. 4. A vine is 

ifjG 5 bent to the ground and 





covered with earth in such a way as to leave a small part 
exposed at intervals. Sprouts will form on the exposed parts 
and roots on the covered parts. After the young sprouts are 
thoroughly rooted they may be separated from each other and 
from the parent plant. In some cases the vine is buried 
throughout its entire length in a shallow trench. Grapes are 
often propagated in 
this way. 

Branch layering 
is shown in Fig. 5. In 
this case a suitable 
branch is bent over 
and a portion near the 
outer end buried in 
the earth and fastened 
with a forked pin; the 
outer end of the 
branch is then bent to 
an upright position 
and fastened to a 
stake. A notch or 
ring is often cut in the 
bark where the branch 
is under the surface 
of the ground. This 
seems to encourage the 
production of roots. 
Apple trees have been 
propagated in this 

A method known as 
mound layering is often used for the propagation of plants 
that stool — ^that is, send up many stems or shoots from a single 
root. This method of layering is illustrated in Fig. 6. The 
soil is mounded up to cover the base of the stems, which throw 
out roots as shown in (a) ; when roots have formed the sterns 
may be removed from the original plant and set out in a 
permanent location. A plant is often cut back close to the 


Fig. 6 




ground the season before it is to be mound layered to cause it 
to send up a large number of shoots, as shown in (6). 

The soil used in layering shoiild be fertile and moist. Plants 
are most often layered in the spring; by the following spring, 
or in some cases by midsummer of the same year, they are 
ready to be transplanted. 


19. A method of propagation commonly used for many 
of the tree fruits is known as grafting. It is the causing of 
a twig, called a scion, cut from one plant to become part of 
another. The plant to which the scion is joined is called the 
stock. The different kinds of grafting may be classified, in 

Fig. 7 

respect to the place where the scion is attached to the stock, 
as root grafting, or the insertion of the scion on the root of the 
stock; crown grafting, or the insertion of the scion in the stock 
at the surface of the ground; stem grafting, or the insertion 
of the scion in any part of the main stem or trunk; and top 
grafting, or the insertion of the scion in the top or branches. 
Grafting is also classified, in respect to the way in which the 
union between the scion and the stock is made, as cleft grafting, 
kerf grafting, hark grafting, whip grafting, splice grafting, and 
veneer grafting. 

20. Cleft Grafting. — The method commonly used for 
renewing the tops of mature trees is known as cleft grafting. 




A branch is severed with a saw, care being taken not to loosen 
the bark from any part of the stub; the exposed end is then 
spHt with a broad, thin chisel or with a grafting tool such as 
shown in Fig. 7 (a), and the cleft is spread as illustrated in (6) 
with a wedge or the wedge-shaped prong on the grafting tool 
so that the scion may be inserted. Scions should contain two 
or three buds and should be of the previous season's growth. 
They should be cut during the late fall or early winter and 
stored in a cellar or other cool place where they will be per- 
fectly dormant. The grafting is done in the early spring before 
the buds start. The scion is cut to a wedge shape at the butt 
end as shown in Fig. 8 (a), one edge of the wedge being thicker 
than the other, and is set into 
the stock with the thickest edge 
of the wedge to the outside; 
this will hold the sdon firmly 
in place and the greatest pres- 
sure will come at the outer 
edges, where growth takes place. 
The lowest bud on the scion 
shoiild be just above the upper 
edge of the wedge so that it will 
come close to the top of the 
stock, when the scion is in- 
serted. In order to have growth 
there must be contact between the growing tissue of the scion 
and of the stock so that there may be an interchange of sap 
between the two parts. The growing part of a stem is the 
outer part of the wood just underneath the bark. In order to 
be sure that the growing tissues come in contact, the scion is 
sometimes set at a shght angle so that the growing wood of 
the scion must cross that of the stock at some point. 

In making a cleft graft, two scions are set in one stock, one 
at each edge of the cleft, as shown in Fig. 8 (&). If both scions 
grow, the least desirable one may be cut off. To complete the 
graft all cut surfaces are covered with grafting wax, as shown 
in (c) ; this is pressed closely on to the surfaces so that on 
■cooling it will form a covering impervious to air and moisture. 

Fig. 8 




Good grafting wax can be made of the following ingredients: 
Resin, 4 pounds; beeswax, 2 pounds; tallow or linseed oil, 
1 pound. If it is desired to have the wax of a greater hardness 
than will result from this formula, the resin may be increased to 
5 pounds and the beeswax to 2| pounds. The resin and bees- 
wax should be broken into small pieces and melted with the 
tallow or in the linseed oil. When thoroughly melted, the 
liquid should be poured into cold water, and when cool enough 

Tic ) 

to handle should be pulled and worked until it is light-colored 
and grained. The hands should be well greased before the 
wax is handled. In applying the wax, the heat of the hand 
is sufficient to soften it; it may be melted and applied with 
a brush, but care in this case is necessary to avoid getting the 
wax heated enough to cause injury 

21. Formerly, much emphasis was placed by orchardists 
on the idea that only branches not exceeding 1| inches in 




diameter should be cleft grafted. This may have been due 
to the supposition that the young scion coiild not, in growing, 
completely cover over the end of a large stock. However, a 
number of successful orchardists at the present time claim 
that scions may be grafted with excellent results on stocks up 

to 6 inches in diameter. Fig. 9 shows an old tree top worked 
by the usual method of cleft grafting. As seen from the 
illustration, this method of renewing an old tree requires a 
large number of scions, and in order to secure stocks not over 
1| inches in diameter the branches must be cut off at a consid- 




erable distance from the ground. This leaves opportunity for a 
large number of small lateral branches below the graft. These 
must be pruned off after the scions start or the tree will bear 
some of its own fruit. This method of top working large trees 
necessarily produces high tops, which is a disadvantage in 
spraying and in gathering the fruit. 

Fig. 10 illustrates a large tree top worked by cutting off 
large limbs, leaving stubs 5 or 6 inches in diameter in which 
the scions are set. One limb is left uncut to furnish foliage 
for nourishing the roots. When the scions are well started 

Fig. 11 

this limb should be cut off and the stock grafted if desired. 
This method of top-grafting large trees has the advantage of 
producing a lower tree than can be produced by the preceding 
method mentioned, and the entire top will be of the desired 
variety, as all water sprouts that spring from the branches 
below the graft may be easily reached and removed. Orchard- 
ists who have used this method of top renewal claim that 
scions grafted on stocks from 5 to 6 inches in diameter are 
just as likely to live as those grafted on small stocks and will 
have a much more rapid growth. 




22. Kerf Grafting. — In connection with the grafting of 
large stocks, a method of setting the scion that has been used 
successfully in Europe for many years and is known as kerf 
grafting, has been introduced into America. By this method, 
the stock is not split, but a kerf, or notch, as long as the part 
of the scions to be inserted is cut with a pruning saw as illus- 
trated in Fig. 11 (a); the edges of the notch are then carefully 
smoothed with a sharp knife as shown in (b). The scion is 
cut to fit the notch and is driven into place as shown in (c); 
the cut surfaces are then covered with grafting wax as illus- 
trated in (d). It is claimed as an advantage of this method 
of grafting over the cleft method that the wound will heal 
over more quickly and tjiat the probability of growth is just as 
great as in the case of the ordinary cleft graft. A disad- 
vantage of this method is that the scion is not held so firmly 
by the notch as it is by the cleft. However, orchardists who 
have tried this method seem to prefer it to the ordinary cleft 

23. Bark Grafting. — A method of grafting that does 
not injure the stock so much as cleft grafting is illustrated in 
Fig. 12. This method is known in America as 
bark grafting and in England and France as 
crown grafting. The lower ends of the scions are 
cut to a very thin wedge and are inserted betv\reen 
the bark and the wood of the stock after the 
branch has been cut off as for the cleft graft. 
After the scions have been inserted the bark is 
securely bound with raffia or waxed string and 
grafting wax is used as in the cleft graft. 

The raffia used in binding many forms of grafts 
is a product of an oriental palm and may be pur- fig. 12 
chased at a very reasonable price. It is customary to lay the 
raffia on the ground or in some other damp place over night 
before using, in order to soften it so that the operator may 
flatten out the strands, which should be cut to the desired 
length before the work of wrapping begins. After 2 or 3 weeks 
the raffia bands are cut, so that they will not interfere with the 




growth of the stock. Waxed string is prepared by putting a 
ball of No. 18 knitting cotton into a kettle of melted grafting 
wax. In 5 minutes it will be thoroughly satiu^ated and may be 
kept indefinitely. When waxed string is used for binding it is 
not often necessary to cut the bands, as the string will soon 
decay and will not interfere with the growth of the stock. 

24. Whip Grafting. — The method almost universally 
used for root grafting and occasionally used for grafting small 
limbs is known as the whip grafting. This method of 
grafting has an advantage in that it can be used on very 
young stocks — those only 1 or 2 years old. In making a whip 

Fig. 13 

graft, one long, smooth, slanting cut is made at the top of the 
stock with a sharp knife. The knife is then placed on the cut 
surface near the top and the stock is split in the direction of 
its longest axis, forming a tongue, as shown in Fig. 13 (a); 
the same form of cut is made in the lower end of the scion, 
as shown in (6). The two parts are then forced together as 
illustrated in (c). The tongues aid by locking the stock and 
scion together. Some difference in diameter of the stock and 
scion may be disregarded, but in order to bring the growing part 
of the root and the scion in contact, the edge of the scion and 




stock must be even on one side. After the stock and scion 
have been united they should be wrapped with five or six 
turns of waxed string to hold the parts together, as shown in {d) . 
When roots are whip grafted, it is not necessary to use wax, 
because the soil will keep out air; but when tops are whip 
grafted the wound must be thoroughly waxed. The roots 
for grafting are dug and the scions are cut in the fall and the 
work of grafting is done during the winter. As the grafts are 
made they are packed in moss, sawdust, or sand in a cellar 
at a temperature of about 40 degrees, where they remain until 
spring. In making the graft, the roots are sometimes cut 
into two or three pieces and each piece grafted to a scion; 
this is known as piece -root grafting; or the top half or 
two-thirds of the root only may be grafted, which is known 
as a wliole-root grafting. Ordinarily, in making 
the whip graft, the scion is cut with three buds and 
the stock to nearly the same length as the scion, 
and the graft is planted so as to bring the 
union not far below the surface of the ground. 
When it is desirable to produce very hardy trees 
and the scions to be used are of known hardiness 
and the roots are of unknown hardiness, the scions 
are cut from 6 to 12 inches long and the roots only 
from 2 to 4 inches long and the graft is planted 
deep enough to cause roots to spring from the lower 
end of the scion. The piece of root simply acts as |S: 
a nurse until roots have started from the scion. 
When these young trees are removed to an orchard 
the original root is often cut off; this is not done 
when the root is strong and the union good. fig. u 

25. Splice Grafting. — A method of grafting known as 
splice grafting is illustrated in Fig. 14. This is the same 
as whip grafting, except that no tongue is cut. The sloping 
surfaces of the stock and scion are brought together and the 
two pieces are bound with waxed string. 

26. Veneer Grafting. — A method of grafting known as 
veneer grafting, which may be used for root or stem grafting, 




is illustrated in Fig. 15. The top of the stock is removed with 
a slanting cut and a notch cut in it as shown in (a) ; a corre- 
sponding notch is cut in the scion as shown in (b), and the two 

parts are brought together and 
bound with raffia or waxed 
string as shown in (c). The 
joint of a stem graft must be 
thoroughly covered with wax; 
this is not necessary in the case 
of a root graft. 


27. A method of propaga- 
tion much used for stone fruits 
and to some extent for apples 
and pears is known as budding. 
This consists of inserting a single 
Fig. 15 detached, bud under the bark 

of a stock. The operation of budding may be performed at 
a time when the bark can be loosened easily, and when mature 
buds can be obtained. These conditions are found to exist in 
the early spring and again in the late summer or early fall. 
The buds for use in the spring are taken from the previous 
season's growth, and those used in the late summer or early 
fall are taken from the growth of the season. It is possible 
to insert buds in the tops of young trees in place of scions in 
order to change the variety; in some cases buds have been 
inserted in limbs 2 or 3 years old, but a better practice is to cut 
back the tree rather severely the season previous to budding, 
in order to get a growth of suckers in which to set the buds. 
The important use of budding, however, is on 1-year-old stocks 
for transplanting. The operation of budding is simple and 
with a little experience may be performed very rapidly. When 
a nimiber of stocks are to be budded the operator first prepares 
a bud stick, which is a twig of the species desired to propagate 
containing a number of buds. When the budding is done in the 
early spring the bud stick will be of the previous year's growth ; 
if the budding is done in the late simimer or early fall the bud 


stick will be a twig of the current year's growth. When the 
work of budding is done during the period of active growth, 
the leaf that grows just below each bud is severed just as soon 
as the bud stick is cut, leaving the petiole, or stem, of the leaf 
attached to the stick to serve as a handle to aid in pushing the 
bud into position. All of the buds on a stick are usually cut 
before any of them are placed, but they are allowed to hang 
to the stick by one end until they are needed, when the final 
cut that severs them from the stick is made. A bud is first 
cut by inverting the twig and then placing the edge of a sharp, 
thin-bladed knife a little above the bud and the thumb of the 
hand in which the knife is held just below the bud and giving 
a quick, sharp turn with the blade. 

Fig. 16 

In Fig. 16 is shown the manner of making the first cut in 
removing a bud from the stick. 

Fig. 17 represents a bud stick, showing in outline the cuts 
that should be made for removing the buds. The knife will 
cut into the wood a little just under the bud, leaving a small 
part of the wood attached to the under side of the bud. Some 
budders remove this wood, although this is not necessary; 
however, there is a little more certainty of a union if the wood 
is removed. The stock for budding should be at least as thick 
as an ordinary lead pencil. The peach will reach this size 
and may be budded the first season after the seed is planted; 
apples and pears will not be of sufficient size before the second 




season. The stock is first prepared by removing all buds and 
twigs from the area to be budded. The leaves should 
not be removed more than a day or two before the 
budding is done or the bark may set — that is, grow 
fast to the wood — and interfere with the operation of 
budding. The bud is usually placed on the stock not 
over 2 or 3 inches above the surface of the ground and 
in most cases is placed on the north side of the stock 
so that the bud may be shaded somewhat from the 
direct rays of the sun. 

For the reception of the bud, a T-shaped incision is 
made just through the bark as shown in Fig. 18 (a). 
The cross-cut is usually made first, and after making 
the last cut the knife blade is turned to the right and 
to the left to loosen the flaps of bark as shown in (6) . 
A bud is then placed imder the flaps and pushed firmly 
into place imtil the tmder surface is entirely in contact 
with the body of the stock. A bud in place is shown 
in (c). The bud must now be tightly bound into place, 
for which purpose bands of raffia from 8 to 10 inches 
long are most convenient. A few turns should be 
taken below and above the bud and the strands may 
Pig. 17 be held by drawing them under one of the wraps. 

A stock with bud inserted and wrapped is shown in (d). 

(a) (b) (c) (d) 

Fig. 18 

To prevent girdHng, the band should be cut as soon as the 




bud has united to the stock, usually about 2 or 3 weeks 
the setting of the bud. It is very import- 
ant that all sprouts that spring from the 
stock after the budding should be removed 
so that the plant food that they would 
consume may be utilized by the bud. 
When growth starts in the bud, the entire 
top of the tree is removed just above the 
bud, which wiU then grow rapidly, being 
nourished by the entire root system of the 
tree. When the bud is set late in the 
season it does not start growth that fall, 
but simply grows fast to the stock ; growth 
starts the next spring, at which time the 
top of the tree is removed. Spring bud- 
ding of fruit trees is seldom practiced. 
In Fig. 19 the removed top a and grow- 
ing bud h are shown. 


Fig. 19 




28. Some of the purposes of pruning fruit plants are to 
thin out the branches in order to allow the remaining branches 
sufficient room and light; to keep the plants in manageable 
shape; to regulate the size of the plants to the place they 
occupy; to establish a proper balance between wood and leaf 
growth and the production of fruit ; to remove injured or dis- 
eased parts; and to facilitate spraying and other work in the 

Most plants tend to produce a surplus of branches. In 
nature, many of these branches are gotten rid of by a self- 
pruning process; that is, they die from being crowded by other 
branches or by adjacent trees. The fruit grower usually 


prunes out the branches that would die from being crowded 
and any other branches that are no longer advantageous to 
the tree. The thinning of branches is like killing weeds in a 
garden. In killing weeds, the gardner gets rid of certain plants 
in order to give more room to those that remain. In pruning, 
the fruit grower gets rid of certain branches in order that those 
that remain may have more space, more sunlight, or better 
shape, and a large quantity of plant-food. 

On many fruit plantations branches grow so densely that it 
is inconvenient to get to the parts of the tree or plant in order 
to pick the fruit or to perform some work in caring for them. 
For each species of fruit tree or plant the grower usually has 
a pretty definite ideal of proper distribution of parts or branches, 
and he prunes out the branches so that the tree or plant con- 
forms to his ideal. 

The fruit grower frequently prunes plants that are weak 
or trailing on the ground in order that they will grow stockier 
and straighter and will stand up better than they grow or 
stand normally. Branches that would trail on the ground if 
allowed to grow their fuU length are shortened so that the fruit 
produced on them will be better supported by the plant. This 
practice is particularly common in the management usually 
accorded grapes, raspberries, and blackberries. Some fruit 
trees normally grow very tall. The fruit grower may cut back 
the top on the main stem of such plants in order to secure a 
lower and a more spreading form of top, which will enable him 
to take care of the tree and to gather the fruit more readily 
than if the top were high and upright. 

29. Trees or other plants growing at regular distances 
apart may be kept from interfering with each other by pruning 
back certain parts. Many species of fruit, the peach, for 
example, tend to bear much of their fruit on the new wood, 
or periphery, of the tree, and, if allowed to grow unpruned, 
the tree eventually bears fruit only toward the tips of tall or 
wide-spreading branches. In many such cases, it is economy 
to cut back the branches from time to time, thus keeping the 
fruit-bearing area nearer the main support, or trunk, of the tree. 


Certain varieties of fruits in certain soils or climates may 
tend to set more fruit than they can mature properly, that is, 
they may tend to overbear. In certain other locations these 
same varieties may tend to produce wood and leaf growth and 
to set very little fruit. If a plant or tree sets a larger number 
of fruit buds than it can support fruit, it will be economical to 
thin the fruit crop by pruning out some of the fruit-bearing twigs 
and branches, even before the tree blossoms. This removal 
of a part of the fruiting area may allow the tree to give its 
entire vigor and strength in support of the fruit that remains. 
If a plant produces but little wood and leaf growth, pruning 
at the proper time of year may do much toward invigorating 
the wood and leaf growth of those parts that remain. 

Just as dwarf or standard plants may be chosen to suit the 
purpose of the grower, so any plant, by the pruning that it 
receives, may be dwarfed or made to grow larger than an 
unpruned plant. The tree may be pruned so as to reduce its 
stature, thus making it suit better a given position, or on the 
other hand, it may be pruned solely with the idea of invigorating 
the wood grovvTth of the parts that remain, thus sometimes 
accelerating its growth and enabling it to reach a larger size 
than it would ordinarily attain. 

30. Many of the diseases of fruit plants, such as blight, 
canker, black knot, etc., are due to fungi or bacteria that 
multiply rapidly and spread through a plantation, and these 
diseases may often be checked by the removal of the disease- 
infected parts by modern methods of pruning. As a rule, 
diseased or injured parts of trees or plants should be removed 
and no chances taken on the spread of the organism that causes 
the disease. 

The general practice of spraying, in combating insects and 
fungous diseases of plants in recent years, has had much to do 
with stimulating careful pruning. In spraying, it is essential 
that all parts of a tree be covered with spray, but it is not 
feasible to get a spray to the body of a tree or to all of its 
branches unless the tree is well pruned and its branches well 
thinned. Trees need proper pruning, therefore, not only 


after they have reached bearing age but while the framework 
of the young trees is immature, so they may be formed in such 
a way that they can be most readily sprayed when fully matured. 


31. By judicious pruning branches or plants may be prop- 
erly thinned, plants kept in proper shape and confined to the 
desired space, the proportion of wood and leaf growth to fruit 
production regulated, the spread of disease prevented, and the 
work of spraying facilitated. But pruning is the direct cause 
of other effects, some of which are desirable and some of which 
are undesirable. 

Cutting back or thinning out the branches of a tree, especially 
during the winter, induces a more rapid growth of wood the 
following year on the remaining branches than if the pruning 
had not taken place. And, although a tree that has received 
much pruning may not, at maturity, be so large as a similar 
tree that has not been pruned, the former may, and in all 
probability will, have healthy, vigorous wood, and the unpruned 
tree, although larger, may contain many dead, dying, diseased, 
and undesirable limbs and branches. Thus, one of the impor- 
tant effects of pruning is the securing of a healthy, vigorous 
growth of the tree or plant. 

The pruning of some of the fruit-bearing branches and the 
shortening of others is one of the best methods of preventing 
fruit trees from setting more fruit than they can fully mature, 
or, in other words, from overbearing. Thus, judicious pruning 
not only stimulates the wood growth of the subsequent season 
but, at the same time, leaves enough fruit buds on a tree to 
furnish such a crop of fruit as the tree can most economically 
produce; whereas, the unpruned tree may produce more fruit 
than it can mature and may make a very meager growth of 
wood that is often weak and diseased. 

32. Pruning at different times of the year produces a 
different effect on the production of wood and fruit. There 
is an old adage that runs, "Prune in winter for wood and in 


summer for fruit production." This statement is based on 
experience that has demonstrated the fact that excessive wood 
growth is usually developed at the expense of fruit production, 
and vice versa. In this connection, the fruit grower should 
keep in mind the distinction between the growth of wood and 
leaves, known as vegetative activity, and the production of 
blossom and fruit, known as reproductive activity. A fruit 
plant, to be in its best condition, should make enough vege- 
tative growth to be healthy and yet produce such a quantity 
of fruit as is feasible without reducing the vitality of the tree. 
In such cases vegetative activity and reproductive activity 
are said to be in balance. Whenever, through injudicious 
pruning or any other phase of mismanagement, a plant makes 
more than normal vegetative growth, its tendency is to pro- 
duce a small quantity of fruit. This is fru-ther emphasized 
by the fact that fruit trees that make abnormally rapid growth 
often fail to come into bearing at the expected time; they 
delay bearing until their excessive wood growth begins to 
wane. Also, pruning that results in an excessive growth of 
water sprouts, which are purely vegetative growths, results in 
no formation of fruit buds on these water spouts until their 
vegetative growth wanes. These facts should be contrasted 
with the well-known fact that an injury to a tree that checks 
its wood growth often results in an abnormally early fruitful- 
ness or in a too abundant setting of fruit ; a young tree affected 
by borers or accidently injured by a cultivator or girdled by 
rodents may, by such an injury, be forced into excessive fruit- 
fulness, although the vegetative growth of the tree is much 
weakened by the injury. It is, therefore, a generally con- 
ceded fact that the checking of wood and leaf growth often 
increases the production of fruit, and on the other hand, 
excessive fruit production, or overbearing, tends greatly to 
reduce the vegetative growth of the tree. 

33. Pruning during the winter usually results in strong 
wood growth the following summer, and if excessive pruning 
is done during the winter it may prevent young trees from 
coming into bearing as early as they would without such 


pruning and may reduce the fruitfulness of old trees. The 
probable reason is that a tree stores up a reserve supply of 
food and energy during the summer and that the early growth 
during the spring no doubt depends more on this stored food 
and energy than on immediate root action to supply plant- 
food. In fact, in cold soils, a tree often comes into leaf and 
bloom before its roots are warm enough to become really active 
in supplying food for the tree. If parts of the plant are removed 
in winter, then the stored food and energy of the tree is diverted 
into the fewer parts that remain. These remaining parts get 
the entire food supply that otherwise would have been dis- 
tributed among the larger number of buds and branches, and 
the result is a stiraulation of the wood growth on a tree pruned 
during the winter. 

Pruning in summer, especially if the pruning is excessive, 
is likely to result in diminished wood growth. The probable 
reason is that after the early growth of spring has used up the 
available stored food and energy accumulated in the tree, 
subsequent growth depends on the food that is supplied by 
the roots from day to day. However, it should be borne in 
mind that the sap taken from the soil through the roots of the 
tree is not immediately in a condition to promote growth or 
the building of tissue. The sap is first carried from the roots 
into the leaves where, in the presence of the green coloring 
matter, it is elaborated, or digested, and is then transported 
to all the growing parts of the tree where it promotes growth. 
Regardless of how much sap the roots are taking from the 
soil, no more plant-food can be utilized for growth than is 
elaborated in the leaves. As pruning in summer removes 
leaves, or a part of this elaborating surface of the tree, the 
quantity of plant -food that is elaborated is reduced. As a 
result, vegetative activity is in a measure checked, and, if not 
carried too far, may result in a tendency to reproductive 
activity and throw the trees into bearing. 

34. So long as all available plant-food is being directed 
toward the tips of rapidly growing twigs, it cannot be used for 
fruit-bud formation. Fruit buds of practically all fruit-pro- 


ducing plants are usually formed the season before the blossoms 
and fruit are produced. In spring, so far as is known, all the 
buds on the new growth start ahke, as wood buds. If excessive 
vegetative activity continues throughout the season to carry 
all available food to make growing points and leaves, these 
buds will remain as wood buds. However, if part of the plant 
food that is being elaborated in the tree can be directed in 
early summer, perhaps in June, to storage in some of these 
buds, they may be transformed into fruit buds. The setting 
of fruit buds is, therefore, apparently due to the storage of an 
abundance of available plant-food, so that buds which started 
as wood buds can receive a sufficient share to develop into 
flower or fruit buds. These fruit buds continue to develop 
more and more throughout summer and autumn. If the 
storage of plant -food in and adjacent to the fruit buds is 
abundant, they shotild be thoroughly developed by autumn, 
pass the winter safely, produce flowers in spring, and the 
flowers should be followed by a fruit crop. But anything that 
tends to divert available plant-food during the summer away 
from the fruit buds oppose fruitf illness for the coming year. 
The fruit-bearing parts of certain kinds of plants, especially 
the grape, blackberry, and raspberry plants, are so weakened 
by bearing a crop of fruit that they are not. desirable for sub- 
sequent fruit production. In such cases, regular pruning is 
particularly necessary to remove those parts that have once 
borne fruit and to shape new parts for the production of the 
next fruit crop. 


35. In various parts of the world numerous forms and 
heights of heads of trees have been advocated and maintained 
by fruit growers. In the United States, one of the most 
important classifications as to shape of tree is based on the 
height of the head. In Europe, fruit trees are often trained 
to grow open heads of wine-glass, or vase, form in order to 
expose all parts of the head to sunlight. Also, they are often 
trimmed and trained so that the branches spread out fiat 
against a trellis or the south side of a wall. An apple tree 




pruned and trained to grow on the side of a wall is illustrated 
in Fig. 20, and another one pruned to two horizontal branches 

Fig. 20 

that are trained to grow on a horizontal support only 2 feet 
above the ground is shown in Fig. 21. 

In regions with very severe climate, fruit plants are some- 
times laid down and protected during the winter. In such 

^"■ ■ ^a iffl^^ 

<^^ «fsar^ 

,cW«f>-_..=_ ^--- ^^^^^fm^^_ Z''''- ^P^ 

'-•-^f^T^r- "■ KHUiiWO" W'"l;••■• 

Fig. 21 

cases a special form of pruning is given to the plants to adapt 
them to the winter protection. Thus, the trees may be grown 


in a more or less flattened form ; the branches on the north and 
south sides are pruned very short and those on the east -and 
west sides are allowed to grow long. The root system is also 
cut back more or less on the two flattened sides of the tree so 
that the main brace roots extend laterally in the same directions 
as the spread of branches. This form of pruning admits of 
laying down tender trees for winter protection without breaking 
either the essential roots or the essential branches. 

36. High-Headed and Low-Headed Trees. — In the 

early settled regions of the United States where orchards were 
first planted it was usually customary to grow very high heads 
on fruit trees. Often the heads were started 7 or 8 feet above 
the ground, so that persons could walk upright below the 
branches and teams could be driven under them to till the 
soil. But, at the present time in many parts of the United 
States and Canada, heads so low as to stand very close to the 
ground frequently prevail. The reason for the difference in 
the position of the heads of fruit trees in regard to the height 
of the head is that the character of the head of a fruit tree 
bears an intimate relation to its adaptation to a given climate 
and to the management that may be given to an orchard. In 
Europe, where most of the fruit -producing plants grown in the 
United States were formerly obtained, a' comparatively foggy 
climate prevails. Practically all of Europe and the adjacent 
islands ,has a much more humid climate than has the United 
States. Europe has a less changeable climate, especially with 
respect to devastating winds than most parts of the United 

In a section where sunlight is inadequate to the best develop- 
ment of fruit trees, a high, open head will best admit sunlight 
to all parts of the trees and allow the ground to become warm 
and dry under the trees. But in most sections of the United 
States, where the sunlight is intense, and especially in those 
sections where drying winds prevail, low heads are grown. 
Choosing the height and character of the head is, therefore, 
one important way of adapting fruit trees to the climate of the 
locality in which they are planted. Where the maximum 


sunlight is needed by the trees and to warm and dry the earth 
beneath the tree, high heads are probably best; where it is 
desirable to shade the ground, protect the trunk and main 
branches of the trees from sun scald and to resist the force of 
strong winds, low, compact heads are desirable. In practically 
all parts of the United States in recently planted orchards 
low heads have been almost universally adopted. Typical 
high-headed trees are found only in old orchards. A tree 
headed low can be brought into bearing earlier than one headed 
high, because very high heads are secured only by cutting off 
annually the side branches that fonn diiring the first 2 to 
4 years of the growth of the trees, and this pruning delays the 
times when branches shall be old enough to produce fruiting 

Low-headed trees are stocky. There is usually a correlation 
between root growth below ground and branching above 
ground. An unsuually large limb above ground is ordinarily 
balanced with a similarly large root below. The same strands 
of woody fibers that foim the roots extend upwards to help 
form the branches, and, as the roots spread from the base of 
a tree, an enlargement of the trunk is produced. Frequently 
large roots form flanges that broaden rapidly as they enter 
the ground; a similar broadening effect occurs where the 
branching system begins at the top of the trunk; and the 
nearer together these two points are, the larger will be the 
diameter of the trunk of the tree at a given age. 

Measurements of the diameter of the trunks of low-headed 
and high-headed trees show that the lower the head the thicker 
will be the trunk. In one 8-year-old orchard where a compari- 
son of the two methods of heading was made, the low-headed 
trees with trunks only 18 inches high were 50 per cent, greater 
in diameter at their smallest point than were the trunks of 
high-headed trees of the same variety. 

In sunny climates low-headed trees tend better to shade 
the trunks and main branches and thereby to avoid sun scald 
than do high-headed trees. Winds do not damage low-headed 
trees so much as high-headed trees nor blow the fruit from 
them so readily. The fruit on low-headed trees can to a large 


extent be picked from the ground, and the pruning and spraying 
may be more conveniently done than if the trees were high 

High heads may, in moist, foggy chmates, allow the sun 
more quickly to warm and dry the soil and decomposing 
material beneath the trees. The moist, decomposing material 
and the moist condition of the soil favor the development of 
such fungi as may cause disease. Certain orchard tools can be 
used more conveniently in high-headed orchards than where 
the branches come down close to the ground. Also, high heads 
admit of a better growth of any crop that may be grown in 
the orchard. 

It seems safe to say, however, that the advantages of low 
heads so largely outweigh the advantages of exceedingly high 
heads that it is probably wise to adopt as low heads for fruit 
trees as are compatible with the character of soil and the pre- 
vailing climatic conditions. 

37. Styles of Pruning. — The style of pruning that 
eventually allows a fruit tree or plant to develop to its largest 
possible size is known as extensive pruning. It consists 
of a thinning-out process rather than a cutting-back process 
and is particularly adapted to such trees as the apple and the 
pear, that bear fruit on short fruit spurs all over the tree, 
rather than to such trees as the peach, that bear fruit on the 
new, growing parts. 

The style of pruning that tends to dwarf plants or trees is 
known as repressive pruning. It is accomplished by cutting 
back new growth and may or may not be accompanied by 
thinning out the branches. Repressive pruning is commonly 
practiced on plants that bear, fruit toward the extremities of 
new growth, such as the peach, raspberry, blackberry, and 
grape. If this style of pruning is not practiced on such trees 
as the peach, the limbs are very likely to become long and to 
break under a heavy load of fruit and the trees will occupy 
more space in an orchard than is necessary or desirable for them 
to occupy. Repressive pruning results in a stocky, strong tree 
or plant, prevents limbs from breaking down with fruit, keeps 




the trees within desired limits, causes the fruit to be produced 
where it can be picked easily, and produces plants and trees 
that are easily sprayed. 



38. The tools to be used in pruning operations depend 
somewhat on the character of the plant to be pruned. For small 

Fig. 22 

plants such as grape and berry plant, whose parts are flexible, 
shears are most largely employed. For young orchard trees 
whose branches are small, the pruning knife is preferred by 

most fruit growers. For old orchard 
trees where large limbs or diseased 
parts are to be removed, the pruning 
saws are indispensable. Ladders may 
also be necessary in the case of trees 
that have reached large size. 

39. Pruning Shears. — The 

shears most commonly used in pru- 
ning operations are hand shears of the 
type shown in Fig. 22. The shears 
illustrated have a ratchet nut on the 
side, ^ device that prevents the cut- 
ting part from binding or from becom- 
ing loose. In different shears there 
are often slight differences in the kind 
of spring between the handles and the 
attachment for fastening the handles together while the imple- 
ments are not being used. For the pruning of mature trees, 
such implements as are shown in Fig. 23 are often found to be 

Fig. 23 

(b) (e) 

Fig. 24 



very convenient. They are equipped with wood handles 
about 2 feet long and are especially useful in young orchards 
where many limbs and branches are to be removed that are 
too large to be cut off with ease by means of the hand shears 
shown in Fig. 22. The shears shown in Fig. 24 (a), (6), and (c) 
are known as long-handled, or extension, shears and are almost 
indispensable in pruning mature orchards. These shears can 
be equipped with handles 4, 6, 8, or 10 feet long. The cutting 
part is operated by means of a wire extending from one end 
of the cutting part to a hand lever that is fastened to the long 
handle near its free end. A plain, single pair long-handled 
shears is shown in (a), and combination shears and saw, in 
(b) and (c). Either of these latter implements are of especial 
value in removing branches that are too large to be cut off 
by the shears. The implement shown in (b) is of such a size 
as to clip off limbs f inch in diameter and the saw is the ordi- 
nary type of hand saw. The shears of the implement shown 
in (c) will only clip off branches ^ inch or less in diameter, and 
the saw is of a special curve shape, the teeth of which are so 
made that they cut most while the saw is being pulled rather 
than pushed. 

40. Pruning Saws. — ^Among the implements of the fruit 
grower should be found one or more desirable pruning saws, 
several types of which are shown in Fig. 25. That type of 
saw with a thin, slender blade held rigidly in a steel frame 
that bows backwards several inches from the blade is a very 
popular saw, although many orchardists prefer the common 
type of saw. 

The implement shown in (a) is attached to a long handle 
and fastened to one end of the saw frame is a chisel. The 
chisel attachment is very convenient for punching off small 
branches such as water spouts close to the large limbs. Care, 
however, must be exercised in the use of the chisel or the 
limb from which the small branches are cut will be wounded. 
The saw illustrated in (b) is of a special tapering shape, and 
the blade, which is very narrow, is fastened by means of a 
swivel at each end to the frame, so that the plane of the saw 

Fig. 25 


blade may extend in one direction and that of the frame in 
another direction. This arrangement, it is claimed by some 
orchardists, makes this saw especially desirable to use in narrow 
places such as in the forks of limbs. The saw is equipped 
with a socket handle into which may be fitted a long handle 
or without the handle it may be used as a hand saw. 

The saw shoAvn in (c) is similar to the one shown in (b), 
in that the former has a slightly tapering frame and a narrow 
blade with a swivel at either end. The saw is equipped, 
however, with a regular type of saw handle that makes it more 
serviceable for close work than the saw shown in (b). The 
saw shown in (d) may be used as a hand saw or a pole may be 
fitted into the socket handle. An arrangement is provided so 
that the handle may be adjusted for sawing at different angles. 
The saw shown in (e) is equipped with a handle that may be 
hooked over a small limb or over a round of a ladder. The 
saw shown in (/) has teeth on both edges and by many orchard- 
ists is claimed to be a very convenient saw, but care must be 
exercised that one edge of the saw does not scratch one hmb 
while another one is being sawed off. A curved saw preferred 
by many pruners is shown in (g) . The teeth are made so that 
they cut while the "saw is being pulled backwards rather than 
while it is being pushed forwards. 

41. Pruning Baiives. — Any good strong pocket knife 
may be used as a pruning knife, but knives made especially 
for pruning purposes, such as the one illustrated in Fig. 26, 
usually have a hook blade and a handle sufficiently large and 
of such a shape as to allow the pruner to get a firm grip. 

t-^ Fig. 26 

42. Ladders for Pruning. — Ordinarily, the ladders that 
are used in the picking of any kind of fruit are the best suited 
for use in pruning the trees bearing the fruit. Step ladders are 
very commonly used. 



43. All wounds, whether they are the result of pruning or 
of accident, should be protected from the entrance of the 
germs of disease or of decay. Many infectious diseases, such 
as various cankers and blights as well as certain species of 
insects, may frequently find entrance to trees through wounds. 
To protect the tree from infection by disease or from rotting 
of the wood, all cuts larger than ^ inch in diameter should be 
promptly covered by paint or other dressing. Of the numerous 
preparations that have been tried or recommended for the 
dressing of wounds, probably common white lead and oil 
paint is the most desirable. It can always be secured at any 
paint shop, is convenient to apply, and protects the wounds 
or the bare wood of the tree as well as most other dressings. 
Ordinarily, wounds should be painted as soon as they occur; 
at any event, the paint should be applied within 24 hours or 
as soon as the surface of the wound is dry. If it is desirable, 
for the sake of appearances, the paint may be colored the same 
general color as that of the bark of the trees. 

Grafting wax is also a most excellent dressing for wounds. 
Where wounds are made for the insertion of scions, grafting 
wax is imdoubtedly the best covering for the naked parts of 
the wood. It prevents the evaporation of moisture through 
wounds better even than paint; and, although it is more 
expensive and more troublesome to apply, there may be 
instances where it is desirable to use grafting wax to prevent 
evaporation or to secure greater protection to wounds than is 
given by paint. 


(PART 2) 



1. An insecticide is defined by the law passed by the 
United States Congress in 1910 as "any substance or mixture 
of substances intended to be used for preventing, destroying, 
repelling, or mitigating any insects which may infest vegeta- 
tion, man, or other animals, or households, or be present in 
any environment whatsoever." In the ordinary usage of the 
term, however, any substance that kills insects is an insecti- 
cide. All insecticides may be divided into two general classes, 
poisono^is insecticides and contact insecticides. 


2. Insecticides containing a poison that will kill insects 
are known as poisonous insecticides. They are used for 
insects that have mouth parts for biting and that feed on the 
surfaces of plants. The poisonous insecticides generally used 
are arsenate of lead, Paris green, arsenite of lime, and London 
purple, all of which contain arsenic in some form. Hellebore 
is a poisonous insecticide not containing arsenic that is occa- 
sionally used. 

3. Arsenate of lead is at the present time the most 
valuable poisonous insecticide for spraying purposes. A great 



2i8— 5 


advantage this poison has over other arsenical poisons is 
that it contains very little soluble arsenic — ^that is, arsenic 
soluble in water. Soluble arsenic is injurious to fruit and 
foliage and for this reason must be guarded against as spray 
material. The advent of arsenate of lead as a spray has made 
spraying for insect enemies of the peach possible, as no other 
arsenical poison can be used on peach trees because of burn- 
ing the foliage. Arsenate of lead is more effective than other 
arsenic insecticides, because it can be used in large quantities. 
Another advantage is that it stays in suspension well, and 
thus a uniform mixture can be sprayed. In addition, it 
adheres to the foliage well, not being easily washed off by rain. 
Also, it has some value as a fungicide — a property that increases 
its value to the orchardist. 

Arsenate of lead is generally sold in the form of a paste 
containing about 50 per cent, of water. In this form it is 
used at the rate of 2, 3, or 4 pounds to 50 gallons of water, 
the exact quantity depending on the species of tree to be 
sprayed and the pest to be controlled. Some companies man- 
ufactiire, also, a dry form of arsenate of lead, of which only 
one-half as much should be used as of the paste form. Arsenate 
of lead can be made at home possibly for a little less than it 
would cost if purchased, but it is not possible to be so certain , 
of the strength of the home-made preparation, and unless a 
very large quantity is needed it will generally be found more 
satisfactory to purchase the material. Arsenate of lead is made 
by combining arsenate of soda with acetate of lead. When 
the insecticide is to be made in any considerable quantity 
it is well first to make up stock solutions of the two substances. 
For the stock solution of arsenate of soda, 31 pounds 4 ounces 
of arsenate of soda should be dissolved in 50 gallons of water. 
The solution can be made most satisfactorily by suspending 
the arsenate of soda in a burlap bag or some other porous 
container just below the surface of the water near the top of 
the containing barrel. In another barrel, 78 pounds 2 ounces 
of acetate of lead shoiild be dissolved in 50 gallons of water 
by suspending it in the same way. After a thorough stirring 
of both solutions, 1 gallon of each with sufficient water added 


to make 50 gallons will form a spray solution of the same 
strength as 2 pounds of arsenate-of-lead paste in 50 gallons 
of water. The arsenate-of-soda and acetate-of-lead solutions 
should be poured simultaneously into a spray barrel contain- 
ing the required quantity of water. 

In making the spray mixture with the manufactured prepara- 
tion, either the paste or the powder, the required quantity of 
poison should be weighed out and water added a little at a 
time, the mixture being stirred until a thin, milky liquid is 
formed. This liquid is then poured into sufficient water to 
form a spray mixture of the required strength. If the mixttire 
is not prepared in this way it will not become uniform for 
several hours. A large quantity of the milky liquid may be 
conveniently prepared by using an old stone chum or a keg 
with a dasher for doing the mixing. 

A purchaser of arsenate of lead in the United States may 
be reasonably sure of getting an honest brand, as the specifi- 
cations of the United States insecticide law already referred 
to are exacting. Sec. 7 of the law specifies that arsenate of 
lead shall be deemed adulterated: 

"First, if it contains more than 50 per centtim of water; 
second, if it contains total arsenic equivalent to less than 
12| per centum of arsenic oxide, AS2O5; third, if it contains 
arsenic in water-soluble forms equivalent to more than -^^ per 
centum of arsenic oxide, ^.^205; fourth, if any substances have 
been mixed and packed with it so as to reduce, lower,- or 
injuriously affect its quality or strength. Provided, however, 
that extra water may be added to lead arsenate if the result- 
ing mixture is labeled lead arsenate and water, the percent- 
age of extra water being plainly and correctly stated on the 

4. Paris green is probably the best known insecticide 
on the market. It was the material most largely used as a 
poisonous spray before arsenate of lead came into general use. 
Paris green can be easily recognized by its beautiful green color. 
It contains much more soluble arsenic than does arsenate of 
lead, and is, therefore, much more injurious to foliage and 


should not be used on tender-leaved plants such as peaches, 
cherries, or plums. For a spray compound 1 pound of Paris 
green is generally added to from 75 to 150 gallons of water. 
When used in pure water, 2 or 3 pounds of freshly slaked lime 
should always be added to 50 gallons of the spray, as this will 
combine with any free arsenic that may be present and so 
lessen the liability of injuring fruit and foliage. Paris green 
does not stay in suspension well, and for that reason when it 
is used as a spray thorough agitation is necessary. Although 
cheaper than arsenate of lead, it is doubtful whether, under 
present conditions, the use of Paris green for spraying fruit 
plants is advisable. If it is used it should first be mixed with 
a little water to form a thin paste and then be poured into 
the spray tank or barrel; if it is poured into the spray barrel 
in a dry form, it wiU remain on top of the water without 

Sec. 7 of the United States insecticide law specifies that 
Paris green shall be deemed adulterated: "First, if it does 
not contain at least 50 per centum of arsenious oxide, second, 
if it contains arsenic in water-soluble forms equivalent to more 
than 3| per centum of arsenious oxide; third, if any substance 
has been mixed and packed with it so as to reduce or lower or 
injuriously affect its quality or strength." 

5. Arsenlte of lime, an insecticide that may be easily, 
made at home, consists of a combination of arsenic and lime. 
This poison has the advantage over arsenate of lead and 
Paris green of being much less expensive. Also, it is lighter 
than Paris green, and for this reason remains in suspension 
much better. The great disadvantage of arsenite of lime as 
an insecticide is its injurious effect on foliage, which is much 
greater than that of either arsenate of lead or Paris green. 

One of the best methods of making arsenite of lime is to 
boil 1 pound of white arsenic and 2 pounds of good stone lime 
in 2 gallons of water for 40 minutes. Water should then be 
added to make this mixture up to 300 gallons. As a spray the 
mixture will be as effective as one consisting of 1 pound of Paris 
green to 150 gallons of water. 


Another method of making arsenite of lime is to boil in an 
iron kettle 1 pound of white arsenic and 4 pounds of sal soda 
in 1 gallon of soft water until the arsenic dissolves. A small 
quantity of muddy sediment will usually be found in the bot- 
tom of the vessel; this should be discarded. The product 
thus made is arsenite of soda, which is one of the ingredients 
to be used in making the arsenite of lime. The arsenite of 
soda should be kept in a tightly closed jug until needed for use. 
To make the arsenite of lime, 2 pounds of good stone lime is 
slaked and diluted with 2 gallons of water; to this is added 
1 pint of the arsenite of soda, and the mixture is stirred until 
thoroughly combined, when water should be added to make 
40 gallons. This solution will be equivalent in strength to a 
solution of 1 pound of Paris green to 160 gallons of water. 
The arsenite of soda must never be used alone as a spray, 
because it will kill all foliage with which it comes in contact. 

6. London purple is a by-product obtained in the manu- 
facture of aniline dyes. This substance contains poison in the 
form of arsenite of lime. London purple varies greatly in 
composition and is thus likely to be ineffective, or, if used in 
effective quantities, is likely to injure the foliage badly; it is, 
therefore, not used to any extent in orchard work. 

7. Hellebore is a poison made from the powdered roots 
of white helleboro and it is sometimes recommended as a sub- 
stitute for arsenical poisons where insects must be combated 
on nearly ripe fruit. This poison may be mixed with from 
5 to 10 parts of flour or of lime and applied dry, or it may be 
diluted with water, 1 ounce of hellebore to 1 gallon of water, 
and used as a spray. Hellebore is reasonably effective against 
insects and is practically harmless to man in the quantities 
recommended; it is, however, too expensive to be used except 
on small home plantings. 



8. Substances used to kill insects simply by coming in 
contact with them are called contact insecticides. They 

can be used successfully as sprays against many soft-bodied 
insects, such as plant lice, and also against those that are 
stationary during the greater part of their lives, as, for exam- 
ple, the San Jose scale. Insects that have sucking mouths 
instead of biting mouth parts cannot be destroyed by poisoning 
their food but must be killed by contact insecticide sprays. 
Among the most important contact insecticides are lime- 
sulphur, self-boiled lime-sulphur, miscible oils, distillate oils, 
kerosene emulsion, and tobacco extracts and decoctions. 

9. Lime-sulphur, a combination of lime and sulphur, has 
during recent years come into '^general favor as a contact 
insecticide and has also been found to have some value as a 
fungicide. It may be purchased from a number of chemical 
manufacturing houses or may be readily made at home. When 
sulphur and lime for making this solution are purchased in 
large quantities, the materials necessary to make a barrel of 
the concentrated solution will cost between $2 and $3.50. 
The entire cost, including fuel and labor, will be much less 
than the cost of the commercial solution. 

Many different formulas have been recommended for the 
making of lime-sulphur, but the one at present considered 
most satisfactory is as follows : 1 pound of the best stone lime 
and 2 pounds of flowers of sulphur or of ground sulphur, which 
are boiled in enough water to make 1 gallon of solution. To 
make 50 gallons of solution, about 10 gallons of water is placed 
in a kettle, the fire started, and 50 pounds of lime added; 
after the slaking is well started, the dry sulphur is added and 
thoroughly mixed with the slaking lime, enough water being 
added to maintain a thin paste. A stick graduated so that a 
certain depth of liquid in the kettle measured by this stick 
will be 50 gallons is convenient for determining the quantity of 
liquid in the kettle. After the slaking is complete and the 
lime and sulphur are thoroughly mixed, enough water is added 


to bring the liquid in the kettle to about 55 gallons, and the 
boiling is continued until the quantity is reduced to 50 gallons. 
The material must be kept well stirred, especially during the 
earlier stages of the boiling, and any lumps of sulphur must 
be thoroughly broken up. The liquid should generally be 
boiled for an hour, but a variation of 10 minutes either way is 
not harmful. 

10. Another satisfactory method of combining the lime 
and sulphur with the water is to place about 45 gallons of water 
in the kettle over the fire and put in the lime. While the lime 
is slaking 15 or 20 pounds of sulphiir should be placed in a large 
wooden pail or small butter tub, 1 gallon of water added, and 
the compound worked to a smooth paste with a paddle; if 
another gallon of water is now added and thoroughly stirred 
into the sulphur a very thin paste will be formed which may 
easily be poured into the kettle. Another quantity of sulphur 
should then be prepared in the same way and the process 
continued until all of the sulphur has been added. In using 
this method, it will probably not be necessary to put more 
water into the kettle after the sidphur has been added, because 
of the quantity of water used in making the paste. Dry sul- 
phur should never be added to a large quantity of water, 
because the sulphur will form into lumps and it is then very 
difficult to get it combined with the lime. When the boiling 
is finished, the solution should be poured or strained into a 
barrel or settling tank. 

When a steam boiler is available a wooden or metal tank 
may be used with steam turned in to do the cooking; if the 
steam is turned in at the bottom of the tank less stirring will 
be necessary. 

11. Before lime-sulphur is placed in the spray barrel or 
tank it should be carefully strained, because it always contains 
considerable sediment that will not pass through the spray 
nozzle. Several forms of strainer have been devised for this 
work, but in all cases where the solution passes down through 
the strainer the screen soon becomes clogged with sediment 
and causes much trouble. To obviate this difficulty, a strainer 


has been devised at the Pennsylvania State College Experi- 
ment Station so arranged that the liquid is forced to rise 
through the screen. This strainer is illustrated in Fig. 1 and 
a sectional view with dimensions is shown in Fig. 2. The 
liquid is poured into the strainer at a, passes up through a 
removable wire screen b held in place by revolving cleats c, 
and passes out through the facuet d. The screen may be of 
either tinned iron wire or brass. Tinned iron is preferable 
for lime-sulphur, but if the strainer is also to be used for 
Bordeaux mixtiure, brass screening should be used. The screen 

should be fine, having a mesh 
of from 30 to 40 to the inch. 

Fig. 1 

Fig. 2 

The small quantity of solution that remains -in the strainer 
may be saved by allowing water for the next boiling to run 
through the strainer. 

12. Lime-sulphur should be stored in closed barrels, 
because exposure to air causes a crust of crystals to form on 
the top; this crust, however, can be brought back into solu- 
tion readily by dipping it off and boihng it for a short time. 
If the barrel is not closed, a very good method of preventing 
the formation of these crystals is to pour a layer of parafifin 
or of oil of any kind over the surface of the liquid. 

13. The question of a convenient method of cooking lime- 
sulphur is worthy of some consideration. When only a small 
quantity of the concentrated solution is required, very simple 
means for cooking may be employed, and even when a large quan- 




tity is required it is not necessary to have elaborate or expensive 
apparatus. A simple apparatus is shown in Fig. 3. It consists 

I 1 

1 1 1 

Fig. 3 

of galvanized-iron wash tubs of large size supported over a fire 
on iron rods. The tubs must not be full, because the solution 
is' likely to boil over. 
About 5 gallons of con- 
centrate can be cooked 
in a large-sized wash tub. 

In Fig. 4 is shown a 
cooker often used for 
cooking feed, making 
soap, etc. Such a cooker 
may be used for making 
lime-sulphur. It should 
not be filled much more 
than half full on account 
of the hkelihood of boil- 
ing over. 

An inexpensive tank for boiling 50 gallons of solution is illus- 
trated in Fig. 5. The sides and one end are made of 2-inch 

Fig. 4 




plank 12 inches wide and the bottom and one end are made 
of sheet iron. The plank for the one end is 1 foot 10 inches 
long; the side planks are 7 feet long, and are cut to a slant at 
one end from a point a 1 foot from the end to the comer .b, 

Fig. 5 

as shown by the dotted line in Fig. 6. The sheet iron for the 
bottom and one end is 7 feet 7 inches long and 2 feet 7 inches 
wide. These dimensions provide for turning over the edges 
2| inches all around. The sheet iron should be well nailed to 
the planks and the crevices filled with white lead. This tank 
was set on a fireplace built of stone, as shown in Fig. 5. A 
view of the other end of the tank and the smoke vent of the 
fireplace is shown in Fig. 7. The cost of the tank, not inclu- 
ding the labor, was about $3. All the labor, with the exception 

Fig. 6 

of the cutting of the comers of the sheet iron and the turning 
over of the edges was done by the farmer himself. 

14. A more elaborate cooking plant for lime-sulphur is 
shown in Fig. 8. The tank, which is of sheet iron, is set between 

Fig. 7 




cement walls. These walls form the sides of the fireplace, 
and at the rear is a smokestack to give a good draft. The 
grate in the fireplace is made of iron rods built into the side 
walls 6 inches above the ground. Fig. 9 is a closer view of the 
front end of the cooker and shows the fireplace and the pipe 
connections from the tank to the barrel. 

Fig. 9 

This cooking plant is of sufficient capacity for boiling 100 gal- 
lons of lime-sulphur and was built for $37. The following is 
an itemized statement of the cost: 

145-gallon sheet-iron tank, second hand $17.00 

Smokestack, second hand 5.00 

Cement and sand 5.00 

Labor and sundries 10.00 

Total $37X)0 

It may be possible in some cases to secure a tank and smoke- 
stack for less than the amount named, and the cost of the other 
items will no doubt vary somewhat with the locality. 



15. In Fig. 10 is shown a very convenient lime-sulphur 
cooking plant. This plant is situated on a side hill convenient 
to the source of water supply, and the arrangement is such that 
no dipping of water or spray solution is necessary. The bank 
is excavated in such a manner that a ledge is formed on which 
the cooking tank, scale, and strainer are set and where wood, 
sulphur, and lime may be placed convenient for use. The top 
and sides of the ledge are faced with concrete. A driveway is 
excavated so that a wagon containing a barrel may be backed 
up under the strainer faucet. The cooker consists of a cast- 
iron firebox 5| feet long and 18 inches high and a boiling tank 
made of galvanized iron, of the same size as the firebox. In 
this tank 100 gallons of solution can be cooked at one time. 

16. Concentrated lime-sulphur will not freeze at a tem- 
perature much above 5° F., and slight freezing does not seem 
to injure it greatly, especially if the liquid is stirred well before 
it is used. However, the solution should be protected against 
severe freezing. When used for spraying dormant trees, 
lime-sulphur solution should be diluted to a density of about 
1.03, although the dilution will vary somewhat, depending on 
the kind of plants to be sprayed. To determine the quantity 
of solution to use in a given quantity of water for a spray of 
the required density, it is necessary to have a hydrometer, an 
instrument used to measure the specific gravity of liquids. 
Hydrometers are inexpensive and can be purchased from 
dealers in orchard supplies. The hydrometer used should 
be made for liquids heavier than water, and may be secured 
with what is known as the Baume scale, with which a table 
is necessary to find the specific gravity, or may be secured 
with the specific-gravity readings direct on the scale; the latter 
type is best for the orchardist. 

17. Fig. 11 shows the method of testing the density of a 
lime-stdphur solution with a hydrometer. The glass a is 
nearly filled with the solution to be tested and the hydrometer b 
on which specific gravity is marked is placed in it. The 
hydrometer will float and the specific gravity will be shown 
by the reading of the graduated scale at the surface of the 




liquid. The following examples will illustrate the method 
of procedure in making a solution of any desired density from 
a more concentrated solution. 

Suppose a spray having a density, or specific gravity, of 
1.03 is desired, and on testing the concentrated liquid with a 
hydrometer the specific gravity, or density, is found to be 1.30. 
The number of volumes of water to be added to form the 
dilute solution may be found by dividing the decimal part of 
the number representing the specific gravity of 
the concentrate, .30, by the decimal of the 
dilute liquid desired, .03. The result being 10, 
the concentrate contains 10 times the quantity 
of combined lime and sulphur that is desired 
in an equal volume of the dilute solution; 
therefore, 1 volume of the concentrate must 
be added to 9 volumes of water. Suppose the 
specific gravity of the concentrate is 1.27 ; then, 
.27 -4- .03 = 9, and 1 volume of the concentrate 
must be added to 8 voliunes of water. 

The division of the decimal to determine 
the number of times the solution must be 
diluted is easily explained. The readings of 
the hydrometer scale gives the specific gravity 
of the liquid, which is the weight of the liquid 
as compared with the weight of an equal 
volume of water. In this comparison the 
weight of water is taken as unity, or 1. 
Because lime-sulphur solution is composed 
only of water and the combined lime and 
sulphur, a specific gravity of 1.30 means that 
the .30 represents the combined lime and siilphur in the solution. 
Since .03 is the amount desired in the dilute solution, dividing 
the .30 by .03 gives the ninnber of volumes of water that must 
be added to the concentrated solution to form the required 
dilute solution. 

The dilution for commercial products is generally given on 
the container, but experience shows that they vary from the 
figures given, and for this reason it is best to use a hydrometer 

Fig. 11 



for testing solutions whether they are home-made or commercial 

Table I shows the specific gravity of liquids heavier than 
water for different Baume degrees up to 36. 
















1. 014 


1. 160 




1.02 1 


1. 169 






1. 179 






1. 188 




1. 115 


1. 198 




1. 124 








1. 218 




1. 142 





18. Self -boiled lime-sulphur is a compound used to 
some extent as an insecticide against oyster-shell scale and 
other summer scale insects. It is used more largely, however, 
as a fungicide, and for this reason it will be discussed under 
the heading Fungicides. 

19. After treatment with certain chemical substances, 
certain oils may be combined with water to make a uniform 
mixture. Oils that have been so treated are known as mis- 
cible oils, and in combination with water are used exten- 
sively as contact insecticides. There are a large niimber of 
brands of miscible oils on the market, most of which will prove 
satisfactory to the orchardist. When water is added to some 
of thes'e commercial miscible oils, a milk-white emulsion is 
obtained; in other cases, a dark emulsion. It is very easy, 
however, to determine in all cases whether or not there is a 
good mixture: if any of the oil comes to the top it shows that 




part of the oil is not combined with water. Such a mixture 
should never be used, as the uncombined oil is very likely to 
injure the trees. The average fruit grower should purchase 
miscible oils ready made, as the making of these oils is attended 
with considerable difficulty. However, if the orchard to be 
sprayed is very large and the manager has some chemical 
knowledge, it may be economical to make the miscible oil. 

20. For convenience in the discussion of the making of 
* miscible oil, the term emulsifier will be applied to the chemicals 
used to bring the oil into such 
a condition that it will mix 
with water ; the oil after being 
chemically treated will be 
termed the miscible oil, and 
the combination of the mis- 
cible oil and water will be 
termed the emulsion. 

The materials and directions 
for making the emulsifier are 
as follows: Liquid crude 100- 
per-cent. carbolic acid, 2 
quarts; menhaden fish oil, 
2| quarts; granulated caustic 
potash, 1 pound. Heat to 
300° F., remove from the fire, 
and immediately add 3| quarts 
of kerosene and 5 quarts of 
water. These quantities will 
make about 3 gallons of emul- 
sifier, which is sufficient to make from 19 to 20 gallons of miscible 
oil. The carbolic acid, fish oil, and caustic potash shordd be 
placed in a kettle and the fire started. The mixture requires 
stirring until the potash is thoroughly dissolved. A cover 
should then be placed on the kettle to prevent loss from 
evaporation. An iron kettle is suitable for making the emul- 
sifier. It should have a cover, which may be of wood or metal 
with a small opening that will accommodate a perforated 

248— G 

Fig. 12 


stopper through which a thermometer can be inserted into 
the hquid and kept in place. A special thermometer graduated 
to read as high as 300° F. must be used, and the temperature 
should be brought very gradually from around 260 degrees 
to 270 degrees, since at this point the mixture tends to foam 
badly. If steam under 60 pounds pressure is available, the 
mixture may be boiled in a jacketed kettle similar to the one 
shown in Fig. 12. The steam is allowed to enter through the 
pipe a into the jacket that surrounds the kettle; the liquid 
after being boiled may be let out from the kettle through 
the faucet h; a vent for drawing off the condensed steam is 
shown at c; d is a thermometer inserted through the hole in 
the cover. 

The emulsifier should never be made near a building, as the 
mixture is inflammable when hot and tjie carbolic acid gives 
off disagreeable fumes. When a temperature of 300° F. is 
reached, the kettle should be removed immediately from the 
fire, or the fire should be quickly quenched with sand or soil. 
The hot mixture may then be transferred to a larger vessel 
and the kerosene added at once and then the water. It is 
dangerous to add the water before adding the kerosene, and 
the temperature of the mixture shoiild not be higher than 
212° F. when the water is added, or steam will form and throw 
the liquid out badly. This emulsifier will remain in a good 
condition indefinitely. 

21. The second part of the process of making miscible oil 
does not require the application of heat. A moderately warm 
day should be selected so that the oil will not be too thick, 
and if possible the emulsifier should be placed in a warm room 
for a day or two before being mixed with the oil. The emul- 
sifier should be thoroughly stirred and the ingredients of the 
mixture brought together in the following order: Emulsifier, 
8 parts; paraffin oil, 35 parts; rosin oil, 5 parts; water, 1 part. 
This mixture should be vigorously stirred; if there is a large 
quantity, a garden hoe will be found convenient as a stirrer. 
At first the mixture appears thin, but becomes thicker as it 
is stirred; when smooth, it should be tested by pouring a few 


drops in a glass of water; a milk-white appearance resulting 
indicates a satisfactory miscible oil. If the milk-white appear- 
ance does not result, the stirring should be continued. 

All that is necessary in order to form the emulsion for spray- 
ing is to add water to the miscible oil. To make a spray solu- 
tion for use when the trees are dormant, from 10 to 15 parts 
of water should be used with 1 part of oil; and for a summer 
spray, 25 to 40 parts of water to 1 part of oil should be used. 

22. Kerosene emulsion, an insecticide similar in nature 
to miscible oil, is made from kerosene with soap as an emul- 
sifier. The most suitale soap for this purpose is either whale- 
oil soap or some vegetable soap, although common laundry 
soap will suffice. The following formula is most generally 
recommended for kerosene emtdsion: Hard soap, 1 pound; 
kerosene, 2 gallons; soft water, 1 gallon. The soap should be 
cut into fine pieces and thoroughly dissolved by heating in 
the gallon of soft water. The vessel of boiling soap solu- 
tion should be removed far enough from the fire that there 
will be no danger of explosion, and the 2 gallons of kerosene 
added with a small spray pump that has the nozzle arranged 
to throw a stiff stream. After all the kerosene has been 
added, the pump should be placed in the vessel containing 
the mixture and a stiff stream should be pumped back into 
the solution until the liquid is thoroughly emulsified. After 
a few minutes of agitation the liquid begins to have a milky 
appearance and at last thickens to a butter-like mass, in 
which condition it will remain for a considerable length of 
time. This stock solution should be diluted with 17 gallons 
of water for use as a spray. If the weather is cold, the stock 
solution may not mix readily with water, but can be made to 
mix by warming. Pumps used for spraying kerosene emulsion 
should have metal or marble valves, since the oil destroys 
rubber valves very quickly. 

23. Distillate oils are used considerably as insecticides 
in the western part of the United States. Distillates are 
made from oil taken from wells in the West, and those com- 
monly used for spraying have a specific gravity of .89, or 


28° Baiune for liquids lighter than water, although occa- 
sionally those having a specific gravity of .90, or 26° Baume, 
are used. It is well to explain here that there are two 
Baume scales, one for liquids heavier than water and one 
for liquids lighter than water. 

These oils are used as insecticide sprays in two forms; in the 
form of an emulsion and in the form of a mechanical mixture. 
Emiilsions are made in the same way that kerosene emulsion 
is made, but more water is used for diluting. One formula for 
the emulsion is: soap, | pound; water, 1 gallon; oil, 2 gallons; 
when these are thoroughly emulsified, 30 gallons of water 
is added. However, the distillate oils do not emulsify so 
readily as kerosene, and for this reason they have not proved 
entirely satisfactory when applied in the form of an emulsion. 

The mechanical mixture is made • by rapid and thorough 
agitation of the oil and water in the spray tank or barrel at 
the time of spraying. This agitation breaks the oil into fine 
particles and mixes it with the water, producing a spray that 
has a milky appearance. The use of this mixture is also 
attended with some danger unless used in a very dilute form, 
as the oil will sometimes enter the stoma of the leaves or a 
place where an injury to a leaf has occurred and from such 
places will penetrate and kill the surrounding cells. It has 
been found in California- that a stronger spray can be used 
on the upper side of the leaf -than on the lower side. In that 
state, since the scale, which is hard to kill, is located on the 
upper side of the leaf, and the red spider, which is easily killed, 
is located on the under side of the leaf, it has been found prac- 
tical to spray the upper side of the leaf with a strong mixture 
of distillate, and at the same time to spray the lower side of 
the leaf with a solution in which twice as much water is used. 
The upper side of the leaf should be sprayed with what is 
known as the undershot nozzle — that is, a nozzle that directs 
the spray altogether downwards; and for the under side of the 
leaf a nozzle that directs the spray upwards should be used. 
It is possible to have a pump so arranged that two spray liquids 
containing different percentages of oil can be sprayed at the 
same time, and thus with the same sprayer one man can be 


using an undershot nozzle that throws the strong spray mixture 
and another be using an uppershot nozzle that throws a weaker 
spray mixture. 

24. Tobacco extracts and decoctions are good sprays 
for use against plant lice and some other sucking insects, pro- 
vided they contain a large proprtion of tobacco. Many 
proprietary tobacco decoctions are on the market and these, 
when applied in accordance with the directions that accom- 
pany the package, will no doubt prove more satisfactory than 
decoctions made at home. It is possible, however, to make a 
tobacco decoction at home that is reasonably good. For making 
this decoction, tobacco stems or tobacco refuse may be used; 
1 pound of tobacco should be placed in 1 gallon of cold water 
and the water heated to the boiling point and boiled for a few 
minutes. After cooling and straining, the decoction is ready 
for use. 


25. Diseases of plants result from the growth of fungi, 
which are small plants that feed upon the tissue of larger plants. 
The sprays used for controlling the growth of fungi are known 
as fungicides. These sprays will not kill fungi after they 
have secured a firm footing on a plant, but are effective in 
killing the germinating spores, which are the reproductive 
bodies of fungi and correspond to the seeds of higher plants. 
Therefore, to be of any benefit, the fungicides must be applied 
before or at the time of germination of the spores. 

Solutions containing some form of copper are among the 
most valuable fungicides in use at the present time. It has 
been found that as small a quantity as 1 part of copper to 
400,000 parts of water will entirely prevent the germination 
of the spores of certain fungi, and until recently practically 
all of the fungicides used contained copper. However, copper 
in a soluble form is very injurious to foliage and fruit, and, 
as it is difficult to make a spray solution containing copper in 
which none of the copper is in a soluble form, more or less 
injury is often done by these sprays. For this reason sprays 




that do not contain copper have been in demand by fruit grow- 
ers during recent years for use as fungicides, and a number of 
such sprays are now used to a considerable extent. Most of the 
fungicide sprays that do not contain copper have some form of 
sulphur in their composition. These have, been found to con- 
trol many fungous diseases very satisfactorily without injuring 
fruit or foliage. There are, however, a few fungous diseases 
that, up to the present time, have not been successfully con- 
trolled by any spray that does not contain copper. 

Fig. 13 

26. Bordeaux mixture is the most important and best- 
known fungicide in use at present. It is made of water, lime, 
and copper sulphate, which is sometimes called bluestone, or 
blue vitriol, enough lime to precipitate aU of the copper sul- 
phate being used. Bordeaux mixture was first discovered by 
Professor Millardet, of Bordeaux, France; hence the name. A 
mixture of lime and bluestone had been applied to grapes along 


the roadway to keep the passers-by from bothering them. 
Some of this was sprinkled on the leaves and it was found that 
these leaves did not become diseased and fall off as did the 
leaves on the rest of the vines. Professor Millardet, observing 
this, began to experiment with a mixture of copper sulphate 
and lime as a fungicide and discovered the valuable qualities 
of the spray that has since been known as Bordeaux mixture. 
The following formula is one often used for making Bordeaux 
mixture to be used as a spray for trees that are dormant: 
Copper sulphate, 6 pounds; fresh stone lime, 6 pounds; water, 
50 gallons. The following formula is recommended when the 
spray is to be used on fruit trees during the time they are in 
foliage : Copper sulphate, 3 pounds ; fresh stone lime, 3 pounds ; 
and water, 50 gallons. The first of these is known as a 6-6-50, 
and the second as a 3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture. 

27. The first step in making Bordeaux mixture is to prepare 
stock solutions of copper sulphate and of lime which may be 
kept indefinitely. Fig. 13 represents a simple plant that may 
be easily constructed for making Bordeaux mixture. The 
platform a should be of sufficient height that the spray tank 
may be driven under the strainer b for filling. The barrels 
shown are kerosene barrels holding 50 gallons. To make the 
stock solution of lime, 50 pounds of good stone lime should be 
placed in the barrel c and sufficient water added to slake the lime 
and form a thin paste. When the lime is thoroughly slaked 
the barrel should be filled with water and the contents 
thoroughly stirred. The liquid will then contain 1 pound of 
lime to 1 gallon of water. 

28. To make the stock solution of copper siilphate, the 
barrel d should be filled with water and 50 pounds of copper 
sulphate should be placed in a burlap bag and be suspended 
in the water near the surface, where it will dissolve in about a 
day. If the copper sulphate is placed in the bottom of the 
barrel it will not dissolve for many weeks. When it is all dis- 
solved the solution will contain 1 pound of copper sulphate to 
1 gallon of water. 


To make the dilute solution, used for spraying, from these 
stock solutions is a very simple matter: After thoroughly 
stirring the stock solution of lime in barrel c, 6 gallons for the 
dormant spray mixture, or 3 gallons for the summer spray 
mixture, should be transferred to barrel e and water added 
to half fill the barrel, making 25 gallons of the solution. In 
barrel / should be placed either 6 gallons or 3 gallons of the 
copper-sulphate solution, depending on the spray required, 
and water added to half fill the barrel, making 25 gallons of the 
copper-sulphate solution. These two solutions shoiild now 
be allowed to run together through the strainer h into the 
spray barrel or tank and will form 50 gallons of mixture ready 
for use. To connect the barrels with the strainer a 1^ inch 
hole may be bored into the barrels near the bottom and pieces 
of gas pipe about 6 inches long, inserted and connected with 
the strainer by pieces of rubber hose. When desired to prevent 
the liquid from flowing from the barrels, the open end of the 
rubber hose may be placed in the top of the barrel, or a spigot 
may be used in place of the gas pipe. 

The copper sulphate and the lime solutions should not be 
combined until just before the spray is to be used, as the mix- 
ture is unsatisfactory after it stands for a considerable time. 

29. Bordeaux mixture before being applied shotdd be tested 
to make sure that enough lime has been used. This test is 
made by taking a small sample of the Bordeaux mixture and 
adding a few drops of potassiiim ferrocyanide. If no change 
in color takes place there is sufficient lime in the mixture ; if a 
brownish color is shown more lime should be added. Potassium 
ferrocyanide may be purchased from any druggist, but it is a 
deadly poison and must be handled with caution. Ten cents 
worth dissolved in a pint of water will be enough to test all of 
the Bordeaux mixture ordinarily required in a season. Another 
and more simple method of testing Bordeaiix mixture, although 
one that is possibly not so accurate as that just given, is simply 
to hold a clean, bright knife blade in the mixture for at least 
1 minute. If the blade, on removal from the liquid, shows a 
trace of copper color, more lime should be added. Bordeaux 


•mixture may be easily and completely cleaned from the hands 
by the use of a little vinegar. 

30. During past years great damage has been done to 
the apple crop by the use of Bordeaux spray. If there is any 
copper uncombined with lime in the solution, serious injury 
will be caused to the leaves, which are turned brown by the 
copper. There is more liability to this injury if the mixture 
is applied diuing damp weather than if the weather is dry. 
It has also been claimed that Bordeaux mixture sometimes 
causes leaves to turn yellow. Serious injury has also been 
done to the fnut by causing the russeting of apples, which is 
the result of a corky tissue forming to heal spots where the 
skin was killed by the mixture. It is thought that this 
injury occurs while the apples are small and still retain plant 
hairs; a weak solution consisting of 2 pounds of copper sul- 
phate, 3 pounds of stone lime, and 50 gallons of water has 
therefore been recommended for the first two sprayings of 

31. Ammoniacal copper carbonate is a solution some- 
times used as a fungicide with fairly good results. It is made 
from copper carbonate, 6 ounces; ammonia of about .90 specific 
gravity, or 26° Baume, 3 pints; water to make 50 gallons. The 
copper carbonate is dissolved in the ammonia and the solution 
kept in a tightly corked bottle or jar imtil needed. For 
spraying, the solution is made up to 50 gallons by the addition 
of water. This solution does not stain fruit as Bordeaux mix- 
ture does and for this reason its use on ripe fruit, especially in 
the case of bitter rot of apples, may sometimes be advisable; 
but it is much more injurious to the tree than Bordeaux mix- 
ture, and is not so effective. 

32. Copper-sulpliate solution consisting of from 1 to 
3 pounds of copper sulphate to 50 gallons of water is some- 
times used as a fungicide spray. This is not a desirable spray 
for fruit plants, since it is very injurious to foliage; however, 
it does not leave any stain on the fruit. 


33. Sulphur dust is another substance that has con- 
siderable value as a fungicide. This dust is used to combat 
powdery mildew of some fniits and also some other plant 

34. Potassium sulpliide is sometimes used in a spray 
that is of some value as a fungicide. The spray is made 
by dissolving potassium sulphide, sometimes called liver of 
sulphiu:, in water, at the rate of 1 oiuice to 2 gallons. This 
solution deteriorates rapidly and* should not be prepared until 
needed for spraying. It is of value principally for powdery 
mildew on berry plants. 

35. Lirue- sulphur, which has been discussed under the 
heading Insecticides, is being used as a summer fungicide to 
replace Bordeaux mixture. It is used at a strength indicated 
by a specific gravity of from LOOT to 1.01, or from about 1 to 
1|° Baume, the exact dilution depending on the kind of plant 
to be sprayed. It should always be carefully tested with a 
hydrometer. The number of times it is necessary to dilute 
the concentrate solution is found in the same way as for the 
insecticide. Lime-sulphur as a fungicide has the advantage 
over Bordeaux mixture that it does not cause russeting of 
fruit. Lime-sulphur has been found to control apple scab 
about as well as Bordeaux mixture, but does not control either 
apple blotch or bitter rot. 

Although lime-sulphur is less injurious than Bordeaux 
mixture, it has shown some injurious effects, especially to 
foliage, and should never be used as a fungicide with a specific 
gravity greater than 1.01. Although lime-sulphiu" is a promis- 
ing fungicide spray, it cannot be unhesitatingly recommended 
until it has been used longer. Bordeaux mixture was used for 
a number of years before injury to fruit was observed and it 
may be that succeeding seasons will. tend to bring conditions 
resulting in greater injury from the use of lime-sulphur than so 
far observed. 

36. Self-hoiled lime-sulphur has in recent years come 
into general use as a fungicide. This material is especially 
valuable for spraying peaches and has some value also as a 


spray for some other fruit. It is merely a mechanical mixture 
of lime and sulphur, only an exceedingly small quantity of the 
sulphur being in solution. In making the mixture, no heat 
is applied except the heat of the slaking lime. The mixture 
is practically harmless to fruit and foliage. 

Different quantities of lime and sulphur have been recom- 
mended for making this mixture, but in all probability a strength 
of 6 pounds of sulphur, 6 pounds of lime, and 50 gallons of water 
is most desirable; in case of a very serious infestation of fungus 
8 poiuids of sulphur, 8 pounds of lime, and 50 gallons of water 
may be used. 

This mixture can best be prepared in rather large quantities, 
say enough for 200 gallons of the spray. The required quantity 
of lime, for example, 24 pounds, is weighed, placed in a barrel, 
and enough water to nearly cover it is poured in. The same 
quantity of sulphur should have been previously weighed and 
sifted, and when the lime begins to slake well the sulphur is 
added and the mixture thoroughly stirred; water is added as 
fast as possible without reducing the vigor of the slaking. 
A hoe will be found convenient for use in stirring the com- 
pound. The mixture will at first be a thick paste, but water 
should be gradually added until a thin paste is formed. As 
soon as slaking ceases, enough water to cool the mixture is 
added. This stops all further change and is very important, 
since, if it is neglected, chemical combination may continue 
until injurious compounds are formed. Cold water should be 
used for slaking the lime. When cool the mixture is ready to 
be strained into a spray tank and diluted with water to the 
required 200 gallons. A mixture of the strength given is 
practically harmless to foliage when the directions given are 
followed; it is very effective for spraying peaches, because the 
down of the peach holds the mixture on the fruit ; it is not so 
effective for spraying smooth fruit, since the mixture is rather 
coarse and is readily washed off by rain. 



37. The season when the most common orchard diseases 
must be combated is also the season for combating the most 
serious summer orchard insect pests, and it is possible to com- 
bine insecticides and fungicides and make the one spraying 
answer for both purposes. If fungicides and insecticides are 
combined they should be known to have no injurious chemical 
effect on each other. Experience has proved that Bordeaux 
mixture and the most common poisonous insecticides, arsenate 
of lead, Paris green, arsenite of soda, and arsenite of lime, may 
be combined without making either the fungicide or the poison 
more injurious to the foliage or less effective. In combining 
arsenite of soda and Bordeaux mixture, it is not necessary to 
add the excess of lime that is added when arsenite of soda is 
used without Bordeaux mixture, since the Bordeaux contains 
excess lime. When lime sulphur is combined with the arsenate 
of lead, it has been found by laboratory experiments that both 
the lime-sulphur and the arsenate of lead change in compo- 
sition rapidly. However, by experience in the orchard it has 
been found that this combination spray is less injurious to 
foliage than is lime-sulphur alone, although the efficiency of the 
arsenate of lead seems to be somewhat reduced. Lime-sulphur 
• combined with Paris green has been used as a spray in a few 
cases and no injurious results observed, but the combination 
has not been used enough to justify positive conclusions. 
Experience in the orchard has proved that lime-sulphur com- 
bined with arsenite of lime is much more injurious than lime- 
sulphur combined with arsenate of lead. In fact, arsenate 
of lead is the only poisonous insecticide that can be fully recom- 
mended for combination with lime-siilphur. 





38. Many forms of spraying outfits, from the small knap- 
sack sprayer to be car- 
ried on the back of the 
operator to the power out- 
fit or even the large cen- 
tral compressed-air outfit 
are on the market . Each 
type of sprayer will be 
discussed separately; the 
accessories, such as hose, 
nozzles, etc., will be dis- 
cussed under oneheading, 
since the description will 
apply to accessories for 
any form of sprayer. It 
may be said that in all 
spraying apparatus the 
parts with which Bor- 
deaux mixture, ammo- 
niacal copper carbonate, 
or other copper sprays 
come in contact should 
be lined with brass or 
enamel or should be of 
wood, since the copper 
corrodes iron or other 
metals. No part of an 
outfit that is to come in 
contact with lime-sulphur 

Fig. 14 

should be made of copper. 





39. Bucket Spray Pump. — ^For a few small trees or 
bushes, a bucket spray pump, a type of which is shown in 
Fig. 14, may be used. This pump has a removable nozzle a 
and is made entirely of brass and has a small air chamber b 
that helps to equalize the pressure and cause the spray to flow 
more steadily. The foot rest c helps to hold the pimip while 
it is being operated. A part of the pump is shown removed, 

Fig. 15 

exposing the lower valve d and the valve e in the plunger. 
Both of the valves are made of brass. A strainer shown at / 
is placed in the bottom of the pump to prevent the entrance 
of particles that would injure the pump or clog the nozzle. 

40. Knapsack Sprayer. — The outfit illustrated in Fig. 15 
consisting of a brass force pimip surrounded by a copper or 
a galvanized-iron tank, is known as a knapsack sprayer, 
and may be used for small trees or bushes. The tank holds 




about 5 gallons and is made to fasten to the back by means of 
the straps c. The material of which the tank should be made 
depends on the spray solution to be used. If lime-sulphur 
is to be used, the tank should be of galvanized iron, as the 
solution will very quickly destroy copper. If Bordeaux mixture 
is to be used, the tank should be of copper, as the Bordeaux 
mixture has a somewhat injurious effect on iron. The tank is 
shown in (a) with a portion 
broken away to expose the 
pump to view. The ptmip 
is operated by means of 
the handle a, which is 
attached to the lever ex- 
tending forwards over the 
shoulder, as the outfit is 
carried on the back. The 
pump is operated with one 
hand, and the spray rod, 
with nozzle, attached to the 
hose h is controlled with the 
other hand. In (6) is shown 
a sectional view of the 
pump removed from the 
tank. As the plunger d is 
raised the liquid is drawn 
up into the chamber e 
through the strainer /, the 
ball valve g being forced 
up and allowing the liquid 
to pass through. As the 
plunger is moved down the valve g closes and the liquid is 
forced up through valve k into chamber i. As the pumping 
continues and more liquid is forced into chamber i the air in 
the chamber is compressed and a steady stream of liquid is 
forced by the pressure out through tube / and through the 
spray hose, which is attached at k. The nozzle shown attached 
to the spray rod at the end of the hose may be removed and 
any other form of nozzle desired may be substituted. 

Fig. 16 




41. Compressed- Air Hand Sprayer. — A convenient 
fonn of small sprayer is shown in Fig. 16. This is a com- 
pressed-air hand sprayer made to be carried by means of 
a strap a placed over the shoulder. The sprayer holds about 
4 gallons and after being nearly filled with the spray solution 
air is pumped in on top by means of the air ptimp h, which 
works on the same principles as a bicycle pump. The spray- 
ing may then be done by simply opening and closing the shut- 
off at the nozzle until the air pressure is exhausted, when more 
air must be pumped in. 


Fig. 17 


42. Barrel Spray ers.^-Two very satisfactory types of 
hand sprayers for use in small orchards are illustrated in 
Fig. 17 (a) and ih). These are known as barrel sprayers. 
The pump, which should be of good workmanship, is mounted 
on a good-sized barrel in which the spray solution is placed. 
These barrel sprayers may be mounted on a wagon or sled 
as preferred. The type shown in (a) has all of the heavy parts 
of the pump in the barrel and is not so easily upset as the type 
shown in (6), which has the pump and air chamber on top. 



43. Double -Action Spray Pump. — Fig. 18 shows a 
double-action spray pump to be used with a tank . or large 
barrel. This pump has a long leverage and for this reason 
is more satisfactory than barrel sprayers of large capacity 
when much spraying is to be done. View (a) shows the 
entire pump, which has two cyHnders a and b. The spray 
solution enters the pump from the barrel or tank through a 
hose attached to the inlet c and is discharged through the 
spray hose attached to the outlet d; an air chamber e equal- 
izes the pressure and causes a steady flow of the liquid. 
View (6) is an enlarged view of the pump with part of the out- 
side removed to expose to view some of the valves and the 
lower part of one of the pistons. As the piston / rises the 
piston g descends, the valve h closes, and the valve i opens, 
allowing the liquid to flow into the cylinder a. As piston g 
rises and piston / descends, valve h opens, allowing the liquid 
to flow into cylinder b, and valve i closes, preventing the Hquid 
in cylinder a from flowing back through the inlet. A sec- 
tional view of cylinder a is shown in (c) . When the piston / 
descends the valve i closes, the liquid is forced up through 
valve / into the lower part of the chamber e, and when the 
piston / rises as shown in the illustration, valve / closes, pre- 
venting the liquid from passing back out of chamber e. As 
the pumping continues and more liquid is forced into e the 
air in the chamber is compressed and causes a steady stream to 
flow out through the hose attached at d. Plugs, which should 
be removed to allow the liquid to drain out of the pump after 
spraying, are shown at k. The packing around the piston that 
prevents leakage is shown at /. This may be replaced by remov- 
ing the cap m and may be tightened by ttiming the cap down. 
Caps that may be removed to give access to the valves are 
shown at n. 





44. Traction Sprayer. — The simplest form of power 
sprayer is one in which the pump is operated by power trans- 
mitted from the wheels of the truck by means of cams, eccen- 
trics, chains, or gears. The pump has nearly always a large 
compressed-air chamber so that the power may be accu- 
mulated for tirnes when the truck is not moving. Traction 

sprayers are often used in vineyards and are very satisfactory 
for spraying certain truck crops, but they have not proved 
entirely satisfactory for orchard work; one of the reasons for 
this is that the size of orchard trees varies so much that there 
can be no certainty as to whether or not the movement of the 
truck will be great enough to generate sufficient power for 
spraying during the time the outfit is standing still. 




In purchasing a machine of this kind, it should be carefully 
examined in respect to workmanship, because only a good one 
will give satisfactory results. 

A traction sprayer is illustrated in Fig. 13. 

45. Gas-Power Sprayer. — In one class of sprayers the 
power for producing the spray is furnished by . compressed 
carbon-dioxide gas, which may be procured from supply houses 
in metal drums such as are used in bottling works. The spray 

Fig. 20 

tank used with one of these outfits must be air-tight to retain 
the gas, which enters the spray tank from the long drum 
shown in Fig. 19. This outfit can be mounted on a light wagon 
and is very easily operated, since all that is necessary to keep 
up the pressure in the spray tank a is to turn the valve h -and 
let in gas from the dnmi c until the desired pressure is reached, 
as shown by the pressure gauge d. The safety valve e allows 
the gas to escape and thus prevents bursting of the tank in 
case too much is admitted from the drum. The spray solu- 




tion is forced out through pipe / and into the hose g. The 
pipe h may be opened for filHng the tank with the solution. 
The gauge glass i indicates the height of the liqtdd in the tank. 
The handle / is attached to an agitator in the bottom of the 
tank by means of which the liquid is kept stirred. By remov- 
ing the cover k the tank may be cleaned. 

An advantage of the gas-power sprayer is that it is very 
simple in construction, is light, and can be used in places where 
it is difficult to use a gasoline-power sprayer. However, 
because of the cost of the gas, it is somewhat expensive to oper- 
ate. When an outfit of the type shown is used for spraying 

Fig. 21 

lime-sulphur combined with arsenate of lead, the passage of 
the carbon dioxide through the mixture precipitates some of 
the lime and also seems to cause a change of the arsenate 
compound in the mixture that may produce injurious effects. 

46. Gasoline-Power Sprayers. — ^For full-bearing orch- 
ards of 15 acres or more, gasoline-power sprayers, two types 
of which are shown in Figs. 20 and 21, have generally given 
the best satisfaction. As the name would indicate, the power 
for these sprayers is furnished by a gasoline engine. The 
structure of gasoHne engines cannot be discussed here; how- 




ever, in buying a gasoline outfit the construction of the engine 
should be carefully examined and the purchaser should be 
certain that it is durable before buying. Since the engine 
must be hauled around, generally, with one team, it is impor- 
tant that it be reasonably light, and durability may be sacri- 
ficed to lightness to some extent. It should not be assimied, 
however, that a heavy engine is always more durable than a 
lighter one, since workmanship figures very largely in the 
durability of engines. 

In spraying with a gasoline engine, probably two of the most 
essential though the simplest items of care are to keep all parts. 

Fig. 22 

especially the cylinder, oiled with good oil, and to keep all the 
bolts tight. The small engines generally used with spraying 
outfits must run rapidly and if any bolts are loose the engine 
is rapidly worn. In case the engine fails to work, the batteries 
should first be tested to see whether the spark produced is 
sufficient to ignite the gasoline. The gasoline tank should 
next be examined to see whether it is empty. Then the spark 
plug should be examined, for it often becomes gimimed or 
soaked with oil, and instead of a spark being produced, a con- 
tinuous current is given that does not ignite the gasoline. 
The gasoline used should be perfectly pure, as the presence 
of water or dirt in the gasoline gives much trouble. When 


back-flaring — that is, an explosion with a jet of flame from the 
carbureter — occurs, there is not a proper mixture of air and 
gas, or the spark occurs at the wrong time. An improper 
mixture is also indicated by smoking; in this case there is not 
enough air. 

47. Compressed- Air Sprayer. — A type of compressed- 
air sprayer that involves the same principle as that of the 
gas-power sprayers is illustrated in Fig. 22. The air com- 
pressed in one tank is admitted to another containing the 
spray solution, and forces the solution out through the spray 
hose. The air is compressed at a central plant, usually with 
a large gasoline engine. The great difficulty with this type 
of sprayer is insufficient agitation. In some of the com- 
pressed-air sprayers, no provision is made for agitation, and 
in others the air is admitted to the spray tanks in jet that will 
stir the liquid ; and in still others the tank containing the liquid 
is above the one that contains the compressed air, so that 
before the liquid is sprayed out it must run down from the 
liquid tank into the air tank, thus giving considerable agita- 
tion if the liquid is sprayed out rapidly. This type of sprayer 
has advantages only where large orchards are to be sprayed, 
in which case only one engine is necessary to compress the 
air to do the spraying rather than several engines, as would 
be necessary in case gasoline-power sprayers were used. The 
engine for compressing the air can naturally be larger and gen- 
erally of a type that will give less trouble than in the case of 
the gasoline-power sprayers, and the plant will be large enough 
that a man who is something of an expert with gasoline engines 
can be employed to run the engine while at the same time he 
looks after the mixing of spray solution. However, added to 
the difficulty of agitation is another important disadvantage; 
that is, with one large gasoline engine compressing air for a 
number of sprayers, should the engine get out of order all of 
the spraying must stop, while if the work were being done with 
separate gasoline-power outfits, an engine out of order would 
interfere with the work of but one outfit. In general, com- 
pressed-air outfits have not been found satisfactory. 



48. Nozzles. — The nozzle is one of the most important 
items of a spraying outfit. During the past 15 or 20 years 
great change in the adjustment of nozzles has taken place, 
and only three types of nozzles most used at the present time 
are discussed here. The nozzle probably longest in use of 
these three is the Bordeaux nozzle, illustrated in Fig. 23. 
The spray in this case is formed by a straight stream striking a 
lip. The fineness of the spray is governed by the width of the 
aperture. If the hole is entirely open, a straight stream will 
be thrown and a mist will be formed, varying in fineness with 
the degree to which the hole is closed. At best, this nozzle 
can give only a rather coarse mist, and it, therefore, was being 

Fig. 23 Fig. 24 

discarded until the fact was discovered that it is important to 
have a coarse spray for the first spraying for the codling moth 
of the apple, and the Bordeaux nozzle seems to fill the purpose 
best. In using this nozzle with power sprayers, it is well to 
have two connected with a Y similar to that shown in Fig. 24, 
so that a large quantity of spray can be thrown at one time. 
Another of the three important nozzles is the Vermorel, 
which is shown in Fig. 25, (a) being a perspective view and (b) a 
sectional view. The liquid enters the nozzle through the tube a 
into an eddy chamber where a whirling motion is given to the 
stream by the spiral deflector b, and passes out through the 
opening c in the center of the cap. This nozzle is rather trouble- 
some about clogging, but it is provided, with a needle d for 




pushing out the obstruction. The needle is held back when 
not in use by a spring. A disadvantage of the needle is that 



Fig. 25 

the spring catches on limbs and twigs and gives some trouble. 
The third of the important nozzles is what may be called a 
disk nozzle. It has no needle for removing obstructions, as 
the opening in the cap is large enough that there will be no 
obstruction if the spray is properly made. A nozzle of this type 
is illustrated in Fig. 26 (a). The spray liquid is forced to pass 
through two holes in a brass plate shown separately in view (6) ; 
these holes slant in opposite directions and give the liquid a 
whilring motion. A sectional view of the nozzle is shown in (c). 

In this view h is the brass plate shown in (6) ; above this is a 
leather washer c which separates the plate h from a thin metal 




disk d and forms a chamber. The Hquid enters this chamber 
with a whirHng motion and is forced out through the small 
opening a shown in view (a) . The parts are held in place by a 

Fig. 27 

Fig. 28 

brass cap e. Practically all power sprayers are provided with 
a nozzle of this class. Usually one of these nozzles to each line 
of hose will be sufficient, but two may be used to advantage 
by a person who has had considerable experience in spraying. 
When two are used they are connected with either a U or a Y, 
so as to have the least possible projection for catching on limbs. 
Nozzles should practically always be attached to the rod so 
that a line projected from the hole in the center makes an 
angle of about 45 degrees with the rod. This can be secured 
by such a nozzle as is shown in Fig. 27 or by a bent tube called 
an elbow at the end of the rod, as shown at a, Fig. 28. 

49. Extension Rod. — The rod for spraying shotdd gener- 
ally be from 8 to 10 feet long. Rods are made much longer 
than this, but the very long ones are difficult to manage, especi- 
ally when the liquid is sprayed out under high pressure. These 
rods may be made of ordinary |-inch gas pipe as illustrated in 

Fig. 29 (a), or they may be made of brass strengthened ' by 
bamboo, as illustrated in (h). The brass-bamboo rods are 
more commonly used than the others on account of beins: 




lighter, and as they are larger in diameter they fit the hand 
better. . A rod of this kind should always have a ferrule pro- 
jecting over the bamboo at the lower end to unite the frail 

Fig. 30 

Fig. 31 

brass rod with the stronger bamboo and thus put the weight 
of the rod on the bamboo instead of on the brass. Rods made 
without this ferrule wiU not generally last very long. 

50. Cut-Off . — At the lower end of the spray rod should 
be placed a cut-ofiE that can be operated by a quarter turn. 
A cut-off of this kind is much more economical in saving the 
spray mixture than one that must be turned completely around 
to open or close. A good type of cut-ofiE is shown in Fig. 30. 

5 1 . Hose . — The hose to which the extension rod is attached 
and through which the spray is pumped, should be first-class 
five-ply hose or stronger, and there is no advantage in having 
it large and heavy, since the small amount of friction developed 
by the passing of the liquid through a small hose will hardly 
be noticed in the working of the outfit. 

Fig. 32 

52. Hose Clamp. — ^Fig. 31 shows a hose clamp, a supply 
of which, together with some pliable wire, should be kept on 
hand for mending hose. 




53. Agitators. — All insoluble spraying mixtures should 
be thoroughly agitated. There are various types of agitators, 
for both barrel and tank sprayers. The most common types 
of barrel agitators are shown at a, Fig. 17 (a) and {h). The 
most satisfactory agitator for the power sprayer is the propeller 
agitator, shown at a, Fig. 32. This runs with a uniform strain 
on the engine and gives thorough agitation from the bottom, 
where agitation is most beneficial. The swinging agitator 

Fig. 33 

shown in Fig. 33 is also used with success in many power spray- 
ers and is the type used with hand-power tank sprayers. 

54. Tower. — In spraying large trees, a tower from 5 to 
7 feet high should always be attached to the top of the spray 
tank or to the wagon, so that the sprayer can stand on this 
and direct the spray downwards into the tree. Such a tower 
is shown in Fig. 34. 




1. Terms Applying to Tree. — In describing any variety 
of apple it is necessary to tell something about the kind of tree 
on which the fruit is produced. The trees of different varieties 
vary considerably in size, vigor, form, type of twig produced, 
and habit of bearing, but those of any particular variety are 
very uniform in these respects. 

In size, the trees of a variety may be habitually large, like 
those of the Northern Spy, or small, like those of the Olden- 
burg. They may be characteristically vigorous or they may 
tend to be weak. In form, the trees of a variety may be 
habitually spreading or habitually upright; the trees of a num- 
ber of varieties tend to be upright, however, until loads of fruit 
cause them to be spreading; on the other hand, the trees of 
some varieties have the upright habit so strongly fixed that 
even after many years of bearing they still remain upright. 
In the case of some varieties the twigs are exceedingly slender, 
and in the case of other varieties they are strong and stocky; 
between these conditions there are many gradations. The 
trees of some varieties are uniformly heavy bearers; those of 
other varieties tend to bear heavily on alternate years; and 
those of still other varieties are light bearers. The location 
has considerable influence on the bearing habit of a variety, 
and in the descriptions that follow the trees of each variety 
will be discussed with reference to the section to which that 
variety is best adapted. 

2. Terms Applying to Fruit. — Among the terms used 
in describing the fruit of a variety are: size; form; color of 




Q O 

skin; color, texture, flavor, and quality of the flesh; form of 
the cavity; and form of the basin. 

Size in fruit is expressed in terms of very large, large, above 
medium, medium, below medium, small, and very small. 
These terms are, of course, relative; consequently, they are 

Fig. 1 

incapable of being defined. The Wolf River is an example of 
a very large apple. The Baldwin and the Jonathan are exam- 
ples of medivmi-sized apples. 

In describing the foiTn of an apple, the terms round, oblate, 
conical, ovate, oblong, truncate, and oblique are used in refer- 
ence to the appearance when the apple is held with the ver- 
tical axis perpendicular to the line of sight. A round apple 
is one that appears roundish, as shown at a. Fig. 1. An oblate 


apple is one that is slightly flattened, as shown at 6. A con- 
ical apple is one that narrows considerably toward the blos- 
som end, as shown at c; if the apple is round, as shown in the 
illustration, it may be designated as round conic to distinguish 
it from other forms of conical apples. An ovate apple is one 
that is egg-shaped — that is, one contracted toward both the 
stem and the blossom ends, as shown at d. An oblong apple 
is one in which the length from the stem end to the blossom 
end is greater than the transverse diameter. At e is shown an 
oblong apple that is conic toward the blossom end ; this form 
is known as oblong conic. A truncate apple is one that 
is abruptly flattened at the end, as shown at /. An oblique 
apple is one in which the vertical axis slants obliquely, as 
shown at g. 

The terms regular and irregular are used to describe the form 
when the apple is viewed at right angles to the transverse diame- 
ter. If the form is nearly circular the apple is said to be regular ; 
if it is elliptical or angular, the apple is said to be irregular. 

The color of the apples of a particular variety will vary with 
the conditions under which the fruit was grown. However, 
the fruit of a given variety usually has certain characteristics 
of color that distinguish the variety from others. In descri- 
bing the color of an apple, distinction is usually made between 
what is known as the under color and the over color. The 
under color of an apple is the ground, or basic, color; it is often 
a yellow or pale green. The over color is the color that, in 
some varieties, is spread over the under color in the form of 
blushes, stripes, or splashes; it is usually some shade of red. 
The term blush is used to indicate that the surface is overspread 
with a reddish tint that is not much broken. The color of 
apples is also affected by dots found on the skin. These dots 
may be prominent or submerged, that is, they may stand out, 
conspicuously or they may be barely perceptible ; in color they 
may be white, gray, or russet. If the dots are star shaped 
they are said to be stellate; if they shade from one color in the 
center to another on the outside they are known as areolar. 

The color of the flesh is another distinguishing variety char- 
acter. The flesh may be white, as in the Mcintosh and the 

248— S 



Fanieuse; it may be tinged with yellow, as in the Jonathan and 
the Baldwin; or it may be greenish white, as in the Rambo. In 
a few varieties the flesh is streaked with red, as in the Wealthy. 

Fig. 2 

The texture of the flesh of apples varies considerably, being 
fine grained or coarse grained, and firm or soft. In addition, 
the flesh may be juicy, as in the Jonathan, or it may lack in 
juiciness, as in the Ben Davis. 


In flavor, the flesh of apples may be acid, as in the case of 
the Red Astrachan; subacid, as in the case of the Jonathan; 
or sweet, which means that the acid is almost entirely wanting. 

In describing the quality of the flesh, the terms poor, fair, 
good, very good, excellent, and best are employed. As used 
by horticulturists, however, these terms designate qualities 
higher than would generally be understood by the layman. 
For example, an apple described as good is one of only medium 

The cavity, that is, the depression around the stem, differs 
somewhat in different varieties of apples. If the angle formed 
is wide, as shown at a. Fig. 2, the cavity is said to be obtuse; 
if the angle is sharp, as shown at b, the cavity is said to be 
acuminate; if the angle is intermediate, as shown at c, the 
cavity is said to be acute. The terms wide, medium, and 
narrow, referring to the spread, or width, of the cavity, and 
deep, medium, and shallow, referring to the depth, also are 
used. At d is shown a wide cavity; at e, a medium wide 
cavity; at /, a narrow cavity; at g, a deep cavity; at /i, a 
medium deep cavity; and at i a shallow cavity. 

The form of the basin, or the depression at the blossom end 
of an apple, is also a variety character. The basin may be 
shallow, medium deep, or deep; it may be narrow, medium 
wide, or wide. The basin whose sides show a sudden slope, 
as illustrated at /, Fig. 2, is termed abrupt; if the sides slope 
gradually, as shown at k, the basin is said to be obtuse. 



3. A great many varieties of apples are offered to the fruit 
growers of the country by nurserymen. To describe all of 
these would be neither possible nor advisable for the present 
purpose. The varieties described in the following pages are 
important ones that every orchardist should know. The 
specimens from which the illustrations were made were col- 
lected from different regions and although each is fairly char- 
acteristic of the variety to which it belongs, it should be remem- 
bered that the same variety when grown in different sections 
may assume somewhat different characters. In other words, 
varieties of apples are susceptible to change of environment. 


4. Yellow Transparent. — The Yellow Transparent is a 
variety of Russian origin that was introduced into this country 
in 1870. It is now grown commercially in many sections and 
is a good variety for home orchards. The tree is rather a slow 
grower and in some parts of the West suffers considerably 
from twig blight, a disease described in another Section. 
The tree bears at an early age; often 2- or 3-year-old trees 
will set considerable fruit. The fruit, when mature, is above 
medium in size and of a beautiful, clear, yellowish-white color. 
The flesh is white, juicy, and of a pleasant flavor. The skin 
is somewhat tender and for this reason the fruit must be picked 
almost every day during the ripening season in order to reach 
the market in good condition. In New York the apples begin 
to ripen in July and continue to be in season until the last of 
August or early in September. 

5. Red June. — The Red June variety has been in cultiva- 
tion for a long time and is widely distributed. The tree is 


fairly vigorous, upright, and rather dense. It is productive, 
but does not come into bearing at an early age. The fruit is 
small to medium in size; when it is well colored almost the 
entire surface is a deep red. The flesh is tender and juicy, 
and the quality is good to very good. This apple, like the 
Yellow Transparent, is somewhat tender in skin and must 
be handled carefully. In Virginia it ripens in late June or 
early July; in New York the season is from late July to early 

6. Early Harvest. — The Early Harvest is one of the 
oldest and most widely disseminated varieties of summer apples 
in America. The tree is vigorous and healthy, and comes into 
bearing rather young. The fruit is medium in size, pale yellow 
in color, pleasant in flavor, and of very good quality. The 
fruit has the fault of being irregular in size and shape and there 
are many poor, knotty specimens, so that in general the variety 
is hardly to be recommended for commercial planting, although 
it is desirable for a home orchard. In Virginia the Early Har- 
vest apple ripens about the last of June; in New York the season 
isfrom late July to August. 

7. Red Astrachan. — The Red Astrachan is a widely 
known summer variety. The tree is of medium size and fairly 
vigorous, although in some sections it is not very productive. 
The fruit is mediimi to large in size; the under color is greenish 
or greenish yellow, and the over color, which nearly covers the 
apple, is deep crimson, either shaded or in splashes. The fruit 
is a little too sour for dessert purposes, but is excellent for 
cooking. The apples mature unevenly and several pickings 
are necessary. In addition, they are very perishable and con- 
sequently not well suited for long-distance shipment; the fruit is 
generally sold locally. In Virginia the Red Astrachan ripens 
early in July; in New York the season is from late July to 

8. Oldenburg. — The Oldenburg, or Duchess of Oldenburg, 
is a Russian variety that is adapted to a cool climate. It is 
widely disseminated and is considered to be one of the most 


important of summer apples. The tree is a rather slow- 
grower and medium in size, but comes into bearing young, 
and bears well in most localities. The fruit is medium to large 
in size and roundish to oblate in form. The under color, 
which is yellowish, is almost completely covered with irregular 
splashes and stripes of red shaded with crimson. The fruit 
is rather too acid for dessert use, but is especially good for 
cooking purposes. The Oldenburg is a valuable commercial 
apple, as it stands shipment fairly well and is generally in 
demand on the market. In Virginia the fruit ripens about the 
last of July; in New York the season is from late August to 

9. Beiioni. — The Benoni is an old Massachusetts variety 
of apple. The tree is a mediimi grower but comes into bearing 
rather young and bears fairly well. When the tree begins to 
get old it has a tendency to bear crops in alternate years rather 
than each year. This fault can be corrected, however, by good 
cultivation and heavy pruning. The fruit is excellent in qual- 
ity but as commonly grown is rather too small to be of general 
market value. With heavy pruning and good care, however, 
the Benoni is a valuable market apple. The color is yellowish, 
oversplashed with red and striped with crimson. Although 
the ripening season of the fruit is rather long, the entire crop 
can, as a rule, be harvested in two pickings. The young fruit 
is resistant to severe cold and for this reason the variety bears 
in some sections where most others are killed by frost. The 
Benoni seems especially well adapted to the Ozark section of 
Missouri. In New York the fruit begins to ripen about the 
first of August and the season extends into September. 

10. Maiden Blusli. — The Maiden Blush is one of the 
best known summer apples. The tree is vigorous and hardy 
and comes into bearing rather early. The fruit is above medium 
in size; the color is a pale yellow with a crimson blush on one 
side; and the quality is fairly good. The apple is suitable for 
both dessert and cooking purposes and is a standard market 
variety. The Maiden Blush is desirable for either commer- 
cial or home orchards. In Virginia the fruit ripens late in 


July or early in August; in New York the season is from July 
to September. 

11. Gravenstein. — The Gravenstein is a summer variety 
that is fairly well known in most sections. The tree is a strong, 
vigorous, spreading grower, and under proper culture it pro- 
duces crops nearly every year. However, under ordinary 
culture it has a tendency to produce only in alternate years. 
The fruit is mediimi to large; the form is roundish oblate; and 
the color is yellowish, striped and splashed with red; the flesh 
is yellowish and firm and the quality is very good. In Vir- 
ginia the Gravenstein ripens in early August; in New Jersey 
the fruit may be allowed to remain on the trees until Septem- 
ber; in New York the season is from late September to early 


12. Fall Pippin. — The Fall Pippin is a desirable fall apple 
that is grown commercially in some parts of the East. The 
trees attain a large size, are moderately vigorous, are strong 
growers, and live for many years. The fruit is large, and when 
ripe is of an attractive yellow color. The flesh is tender and 
good in quality, being prized for both dessert and culinary 
purposes. The crop ripens unevenly, the first apples often 
being ready in September and the last not until a few weeks 
later. The fruit and foliage are very susceptible to apple 
scab, and for this reason good orchard treatment is necessary 
when the variety is grown. Coming as they do in the fall 
before winter apples, and being of good quality, the apples are 
generally in demand on the market. The variety is very 
desirable for home orchards as well as for commercial orchards. 
The fruit ripens very unevenly; it can be kept in ordinary 
storage until December, and in cold storage until January or 

13. Sops of Wine. — The Sops of Wine variety is grown 
to some extent in home orchards. The tree is medium in size 
and rather vigorous. The fruit is medium to large in size 


and of roundish form. The skin, which is slightly rough- 
ened, is a greenish yellow in color, almost entirely overspread 
with purplish red, mottled, irregularly splashed, and some- 
times indistinctly striped with dark carmine; the skin is over- 
spread with thin white bloom. The flesh is yellowish, often 
stained with pink; in flavor it is aromatic, juicy, and of good 
quality. The season of the Sops of Wine apple is from August 
to October. 

14. Alexander. — The Alexander is a fall, or in some sec- 
tions a late summer, variety that is grown commercially in 
many apple-growing regions. The tree is a strong grower and 
comes into bearing at an early age. The fruit is round conic 
or oblate conic, very large in size, but coarse in texture and only 
fair in quality; it is better suited for cooking than for dessert 
purposes. However, the apples are very attractive in appear- 
ance, being greenish yellow or pale orange and overlaid with 
stripes and splashes of bright red. The fruit usually brings 
a good price on the market. In Virginia the season begins 
early in July; in. New York it continues until September or 

15. Wolf River. — The Wolf River apple is similar in 
many respects to the Alexander ; in fact, it is supposed by some 
authorities to be a seedling of the latter. The tree is fairly 
vigorous, attains large size, is spreading in habit, and comes 
into bearing rather late. The fruit is large, broad, fiat at the 
base, round, and slightly conic. In color, the fruit is yellow- 
ish or greenish, mottled and blushed with deep red, and splashed 
and striped with bright carmine; the surface is covered with 
ntunerous large to medium-sized areolar pale or russet dots. 
The basin is usually deep, narrow, abrupt, and rather smooth. 
The cavity is acuminate, fairly deep and wide, and heavily 
russeted. Fig. 3 shows a Wolf River apple that was grown 
in Northwestern Pennsylvania. The flesh is yellowish, some- 
what coarse, juicy, but only fair to good in quality. Largely 
on account of the high color and large size, the apples are in 
demand on the market. As a commercial variety of late sum- 
mer apple, especially in the Western fruit-growing regions. 


Fig. 3 


the Wolf River is more widely grown than the Alexander. 
Recently, numerous commercial orchards of the variety have 
been planted in the East. In New York and Pennsylvania 
the Wolf River ripens in September, but the apples may be 
kept until December in cellar storage or until January in cold 

16. Wealthy. — The Wealthy is an important fall apple 
that is extensively grown in the Central States and to some 
extent in the Eastern States. The tree is hardy and a thrifty 
grower when young, but with maturity it becomes a rather 
slow grower. The fruit is from medium to large in size, roundish 
oblate, fairly uniform in shape, and of very good quality. The 
under color is yellow or greenish, heavily overlaid with stripes 
of red and marked with numerous small inconspicuous pale or 
russet dots. The flesh is white, sometimes tinged with red. 
The quality is very good and the fruit is desirable both for 
dessert and for cooking. In New York the fruit begins to 
ripen about the last of September or the first of October; it 
can be kept in ordinary storage until about November 1, and 
in cold storage until the middle of January or later. As a 
commercial variety the Wealthy has proved profitable in many 

17. Twenty Ounce. — The Twenty Ounce variety, known 
also as the Cayuga Redstreak, the Wine Apple, and the Lim- 
ber twig, seems to do particularly well in favorable locations in 
the apple-growing belt south of Lake Ontario. It is highly 
esteemed for home-orchard planting. The tree is upright, 
moderately vigorous, and dense. The fruit is very large, and 
is usually roundish or roundish conic in form, sometimes broadly 
ribbed. The skin is thick and tough; in color it is greenish 
at first, but gradually becomes rather yellow, washed, mottled, 
and splashed with bright red, and striped with carmine. The 
flesh is whitish, somewhat tinged with yellow, coarse, moder- 
ately tender and juicy. The fruit is good for culinary use but 
only second rate for dessert. The season is from late September 
to early winter. 


18. Fameuse. — The Fameuse, an old variety, is decidedly 
a northern apple, being one of the most important com- 
mercial varieties in the Champlain district in New York and 
in Southern Canada ; it is extensively grown also in Wisconsin 
and Minnesota. The tree is of mediiim size and is a moderate 
grower, fairly healthy, and long lived; however, trees of this 
variety are, unless well sprayed, likely to be seriously injured 
by apple scab. The fruit is beautiful in appearance and excel- 
lent in flavor; it is very desirable for dessert purposes and 
usually sells at prices above the average for apples, being in 
strong demand for the Christmas trade. The fruit is about 
mediiun in size; in form it is roundish and somewhat conic. 
The skin is of a light bright-red color that deepens to purplish 
black in the best colored specimens, with a striped appearance 
toward the apex. The flesh is white and often streaked or 
tinged with red. The quality is very good. In New York 
the season of the Fameuse is from October to midwinter. 

19. Mcintosh. — The Mcintosh apple is similar to the 
Fameuse but is adapted to a wider range of climatic conditions. 
The tree varies in growth and productivity according to the 
region where it is grown; in some localities it is considered 
to be a slow grower and not very productive ; in other localities 
it is considered to be a strong grower and to be hardy and 
productive. It comes into bearing fairly early and, as a rule, 
yields good crops. The fruit is medium to large in size ; roundish 
to oblate in form ; and whitish yellow or greenish in color, deeply 
blushed with bright red and striped with carmine; ripe, highly 
colored specimens become a dark, purplish red. The flesh is 
white or slightly yellowish and, like that of the Fameuse is 
often tinged with red. The quality is very good and the fruit 
is highly prized for dessert purposes. In New York the 
Mcintosh ripens during the last of September and can be kept 
until about the last of October in ordinary storage, or until 
about January in cold storage. The Mcintosh lacks sufflcient 
firmness to stand much handling, and consequently is more 
often sold locally than otherwise. However, in the Bitter Root 
Valley of Montana, and other high sections of the West, the 


variety is grown rather extensively and the fruit is shipped long 
distances to market. 

20. Hubbardston. — The Hubbardston is a desirable apple 
that ripens between the fall and late winter apples. It is 
grown commercially in parts of New York and Northern 
Pennsylvania, and in most cases has proved to be a profitable 
variety. The tree is vigorous and generally of good size, but 
tends to overbear; unless it is carefully pruned and otherwise 
cared for, however, it is likely to be only moderately vigorous 
and of medi-um size. The tree is susceptible to apple canker, 
and for this reason it is well to top work the variety on some 
such variety as the Northern Spy. The fruit is medium to 
large in size and generally roundish ovate in form. The skin 
is either smooth or roughened with dots, flecks, or veins of 
russet. The color is yellowish or greenish, blushed and mottled 
with red that varies from a dull brownish red to a bright, clear 
red. Large, regular dots are conspicuous on the surface, espe- 
cially on the red portions of the fruit. The prevailing effect 
of a well-colored specimen is red mingled with yellow or green. 
In Fig. 4 a well-colored Hubbardston apple is shown at the top 
of the page; this apple was grown in Northern Pennsylvania. 
The flesh of the Hubbardston is whitish, slightly tinged with 
yellow, and the quality is very good to best. The season is 
from October to January. 

21. Puxnpkin Sweet. — The Pumpkin Sweet, often known 
as the Pound Sweet, is an early-winter variety that is well 
known in New England, New York, and Northern Pennsylvania. 
By many it is esteemed- as one of the best sweet apples for 
baking, but generally it is not valued for dessert because it is 
rather coarse and has a peculiar flavor. The fruit is sold in local 
and special markets and has a limited demand in the general 
market. The tree is medium in size, is rather vigorous, and 
tends to be upright in habit. The fruit is large to very large; 
the form is globular to roundish conic; and the skin is rather 
thin, tough, and smooth. In color the skin is green, eventually 
becoming clear yellow, marbled with greenish yellow stripes of 
white scarf skin radiating from the cavity. In Fig. 4 the apple 

Fig. 4 

§3 24909 

Fig. 5 

§3 24909 


at the bottom of the page is a Pumpkin Sweet that was grown in 
Western New York. The flesh of the Pumpkin Sweet is tinged 
with yellow, and is firm and mediiun in texture; the quality is 
good. The season of this variety extends from October to 
January. The Pumpkin Sweet is grown commercially only 
to a limited extent, but is often found in home orchards. 

22. Northern Spy.- — The Northern Spy, more commonly 
known perhaps as the Spy, is a widely known winter variety 
of apple that is grown commercially and in home orchards in 
about the same localities that produce Baldwins and Rhode 
Island Greenings. The tree is large, vigorous, and upright, 
but is a slow grower and comes into bearing rather late. When 
mature, however, the trees are good yielders. The fruit is 
usually large to very large in size and generally roundish conic 
in form. The under color, in the case of well-matured speci- 
mens, is a clear pale yellow, which is nearly concealed by a 
pinkish red splashed with carmine. The prevailing color effect 
is red or reddish striped. In underripe apples the yellow color 
may predominate, but such fruit is often of inferior quality. 
In Fig. 5 a Spy is shown at the top of the page; this apple was 
grown in Pennsylvania. 

Among the disadvantages of the Spy for commercial planting 
are its slow maturity and the fact that in some seasons it is not 
a reliable cropper. To offset these disadvantages, however, are 
the facts that the Spy is well and favorably known on the 
market and can generally be depended on to bring a good price. 
The season is somewhat shorter than that of the Baldwin or 
Greening, as the fruit, particularly if bruised, is susceptible to 
rotting in storage. Usually in ordinary storage the apples 
cannot be kept much later than February or March, and in cold 
storage they are likely to deteriorate if left longer than March. 

23. Tompkins King. — The Tompkins King, or King, one 
of the highest quality apples produced, is grown in about the 
same region as the Baldwin, the Northern Spy, and the Greening. 
The tree is rather vigorous but is seriously subject to injury 
from sun scald, canker, and an injur}^ that occurs to the trunk 
near the surface of the ground, which is generally spoken of as 


collar rot. The lateral branches are rather slender and some- 
what drooping. The fruit is large to very large and in form is 
romidish to somewhat oblate, sometimes inclined to conic. 
The skin is smooth or in some cases is roughened with russet 
dots. The color is yellow, mottled and washed with orange 
red that often shades to deep red and striped and splashed with 
bright carmine. Numerous white or russet dots are con- 
spicuous on the surface. The prevailing color is an attractive 
red with a small amount of yellow. In Fig. 5 the lower apple 
is a Pennsylvania-grown King of excellent color. The flesh 
of the King is a rich yellow in color, tender, aromatic, and 
juicy; in quality it is very good to best. The King does not 
keep well in late storage; in ordinary storage its limit is Decem- 
ber or January ; in cold storage, about February. It is probably 
at its best about Christmas. 

The King is much in demand on most markets, and sells for 
good prices. It is very attractive in appearance, and being of 
excellent quality, is well adapted for fancy trade. However, 
the fact that the trees are so subject to disease makes the 
planting of the variety commerically a questionable practice. 
Some orchardists have found that by top working the King 
on some variety that is less susceptible to collar rot better 
results can be obtained than by growing the trees on their 
own stocks. 

24. Yellow Bellf lower. — The Yellow Bellflower is one of 
the oldest of American varieties. The tree is large in size, 
vigorous, a good grower, and fairly hardy, but often does not 
produce satisfactory crops. The fruit is variable in size and 
roundish oblong in form. The skin is thin and smooth. In 
color, the fruit is a pale lemon yellow, often becoming brownish 
yellow where exposed to the sun. The apples are very attract- 
ive and are excellent both for dessert and for cooking purposes. 
The flesh is white, tending slightly toward yellowish; the 
quality is good. By some the flesh is thought to be somewhat 
too acid early in the season. The season for this variety is 
about the same as that of Tompkins King, the cold-storage 
limit being about January. The YeUow Bellflower is grown 


extensively in home orchards, but on account of the tendency 
of the trees to bear poorly it is not grown on a very large 
scale in commercial orchards. 

25. Ortley. — The Ortley is a pale-yellow apple of the 
Yellow BeUflower type that has long been under cultivation. 
The tree is moderately vigorous, medium in size, and roundish 
or spreading in form. The fruit is large or medium in size and 
oblong conic varying to roundish conic in shape. The skin 
is moderately thin, smooth, waxy, and of a pale whitish-yellow 
color, varying to rich yellow in well-developed fruit. The 
flesh is whitish tinged with yellow, crisp, juicy, and of good 
flavor. The season of the fruit is from October to February. 
The Ortley is severely subject to attacks of various insects and 
of the scab fungus, and requires thorough treatment to protect 
it from these troubles. 

26. Jacobs Sweet. — The Jacobs Sweet variety has about 
the same season and is grown in about the same localities as 
the Tompkins King. As a home-orchard variety it has con- 
siderable merit, but for commercial planting it is not particu- 
larly desirable. The tree is vigorous, attains good size, comes 
into bearing young, and, as a rule, yields crops annually. 
The fruit is large to very large and is of roundish form inclined 
to conic, sometimes slightly oblate. The skin is tough, slightly 
waxy, and glossy, and in color is clear yellow or greenish, often 
with a blush of red. Fig. 6 shows a Jacobs Sweet apple that was 
grown in Northern Pennsylvania. The flesh is whitish, tinged 
with yellow, juicy, and very sweet. The quality is good, the 
apples being especially desirable for baking. In New York 
the season is from October to March or April. 

27. Blue Pearraain. — The Blue Pearmain is an old variety 
that was at one time extensively planted in home orchards in 
the East. It is rarely grown in commerical orchards. The 
tree is rather large, spreading, and moderately vigorous. The 
fruit is above mediimi to large in size; it is roundish inclined 
to oblate in form. The skin, which is rough, is yellow, washed 
and mottled with red, often deepening on one side to nearly 
solid red, splashed and striped with deep purplish carmine, 

Fig. 6 


Fig. 7 

§ 3 24909 


and overspread with an abundant blue bloom, from which the 
variety derives its name. The flesh is yellowish, rather coarse, 
decidedly aromatic, and of good quality. The season of the 
Blue Pearmain is from about October to March; often, however, 
the apples begin to shrivel if kept longer than January. 

28. Banana. — The Banana, or Winter Banana, variety is 
grown commercially in some sections of the Northwest. It 
does fairly well also in parts of the eastern and central apple- 
growing regions. The tree is medirmi in size, vigorous, and a 
fair grower; it comes into bearing early and yields moderate 
crops, being, in most cases, an annual bearer. The fruit is 
medium to large in size, and roundish conic to oblong conic 
in form, often oblate and flat at the base. The skin is smooth, 

■ fairly thick, tough, and waxy. In color, the apples are a 
bright pale yellow with a dark pinkish blush. In Fig. 7 a 
Banana apple is shown at the top of the page; this apple was 
grown in Pennsylvania. The apples, being yellow, show bruises 
readily. The flesh is whitish, tinged with yellow, moderately 
firm, tender, and juicy; the quality is good to very good. The 
apples are better for dessert than for cooking, being too mild 
in flavor for the latter purpose. They command a good price 
on the market, being of an attractive appearance and of good 
dessert quality. They will keep in cold storage until about 
March, but as they show bruises readily it is generally desirable 
to market them earlier in the season. 

29. Baldwin. — The Baldwin is by far the most important 
commercial winter apple grown in America. It is grown exten- 
sively in New York, Pennsylvania, New England, parts of 
Northern Ohio, Southern Canada, Michigan, and in some of 
the high mountain sections of Virginia and West Virginia. 
The Baldwin is a standard fruit in both American and foreign 
markets, and is one of the principal varieties handled in cold 

In sections where the Baldwin is especially adapted, the tree 
is a strong grower, long lived, and vigorous. However, the 
tree is somewhat slow in coming into bearing, but when it 
reaches maturity it bears very abundantly. As generally 



grown, the tree bears biennially rather than annually. The 
fruit, if grown properly, is usually above medium in size, and is 
rather uniform; in form it is roundish, inclined to conic, or 
sometimes roundish oblong. The cavity is acute and medium 
to rather deep; the calyx is small to rather large; the basin is 
abrupt, and varies in different specimens from narrow to 
moderate in width. The skin is tough and smooth; the color 
is a light yellow or green, blushed and mottled with bright 
red and striped rather indistinctly with carmine. The prevail- 
ing color effect is red, as may be seen in Fig. 7, which shows a 
Pennsylvania-grown Baldwin apple at the bottom of the page. 
Whitish or grayish dots are conspicuous, as a rule, being some- 
what numerous and smaller toward the basin than toward the 
cavity. The flesh is yellowish in color, moderately coarse in 
texture, and the quality is good to very good; the fruit is 
suitable for both dessert and cooking purposes. In New York 
the season extends from November to March in ordinary 
storage, or to May or June in cold storage. 

Among the advantages of the Baldwin as a commerical apple 
are its good quality, its red color, its good shipping qualities, 
its good keeping qualities in cold storage, and the fact that it 
is well known by consinners. These qualities make it in demand 
on the market. A disadvantage of the variety is that it is 
likely to be troubled with Baldwin spot, a disease that manifests 
itself in small brown flecks in the flesh of the fruit. This 
disease is a physiological one and no remedy is known. Other 
disadvantages of the Baldwin are that it tends to be a biennial 
bearer and that unless it has proper culture the apples are likely 
to be small in size. 

30. Smokehouse. — The Smokehouse is an early- winter 
variety that is grown rather extensively in Southern Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey. The tree is 
vigorous, healthy, and hardy; it comes into bearing rather young, 
and is a good yielder, usually producing crops annually. The 
trees are likely to form dense heads, and for this reason should 
be kept well pruned to insure highly colored fruit. The fruit 
is from medium to large in size and generally roundish oblate 



Pig. 8 

Fig. 9 



in form; sometimes, however, it approaches oblate conic. 
The skin is thin and tough, and is either smooth or shghtly 
roughened with russet hnes and russet dots. The color is 
yellow or greenish, mottled with rather dtdl red, sometimes 
deepening to solid bright red, indistinctly mottled, striped, and 
splashed with carmine. Fig. 8 shows a Smokehouse apple 
that was grown in Maryland. The flesh is lightly tinged with 
yellow, and is rather firm, crisp, and juicy; the quality is good. 
The Smokehouse is especially prized for dessert. Its season 
is from October to February in storage. 

31. Black Gilllf lower. — The Black Gilliflower apple is 
well known in the markets of America. The tree is mediiun 
in size, a vigorous grower, and generally a reliable cropper. 
The fruit is medium in size, and very characteristic in form, 
being long ovate to oblong conic. The skin is thick, tough, 
and smooth. The color is yellowish or greenish, generally 
covered with red, which, in highly colored specimens, becomes 
a dull purple. Fig. 9 shows a Black Gilliflower apple. The 
flesh is whitish or yellowish and becomes mellow on standing. 
The Black Gilliflower seems to be in considerable demand in 
southern markets. It is grown commercially to some extent, 
largely on account of being a v/ell-known variety that will 
bring fair prices on the market. The season is frorn October 
to January or February. 

32. Missouri. — The Missouri, or Missouri Pippin, is a 
well-known market apple of the Middle West, especially of Mis- 
souri, Kansas, and Illinois. The tree is moderately vigorous, 
irregular in outline, and rather short lived; in the Mississippi 
Valley the trees usually do not live to be more than 20 years 
old. The trees come into bearing young, however, and for 
this reason they are much used for fillers in commercial orchards. 
The fruit is medium to small in size, and roundish inclined to 
conic in form. The skin is thick, tough, smooth, glossy, and 
thinly coated with a grayish bloom. The color is a pale green 
overspread with bright red and striped with purplish red. 
Highly colored specimens are almost solid red, except for 
conspicuous russet or pale-gray dots. A Missouri apple is 

Fig. 10 



Fig. 11 

Fig. 12 



illustrated in Fig. 10. The flesh is yellowish or greenish, firm, 
medium to rather fine grained, rather tough, and not very 
juicy. The quality is fair to good. The season in common 
storage extends to January, and in cold storage to about April. 

33. Rambo. — The Rambo is a northern apple that has 
been under cultivation in America for a long time. Its origin 
is unknown. The tree is of medium size, moderately vigor- 
ous, and susceptible to winter killing. The wood is brittle 
and for this reason the branches are easily broken. The fruit 
is medi-um in size and roundish or somewhat oblate in form. 
The skin is thin and rather tough; in color it is a pale greenish 
yellow, mottled with red and striped with carmine. The pre- 
vailing color is a red with contrasting yellow. Fig. 11 shows 
a Rambo that was grown in Southern New York. The flesh 
is white, tinged with yellow or green; it is juicy, rather fine 
grained, and of good to very good quality, particularly for 
dessert. The variety is recommended for home-orchard plant- 
ing, but it is not especially desirable for commercial orchards. 
Niunerous small Rambo orchards are found in New York, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, and some of the Central States. In 
ordinary storage the apples keep imtil November, and in cold 
storage until February. 

34. Ribston. — The Ribston is an apple that is in season 
about with Hubbardston and Tompkins King. It is an old 
variety, having originated over 200 years ago in Yorkshire, 
England. It is grown commercially in Nova Scotia and Onta- 
rio, and much of the fruit is exported to England. , The tree 
is medium in size, hardy, vigorous, healthy, comes into bear- 
ing young, and is usually an annual bearer. The fruit is 
medium in size and is roundish in form, often somewhat flat- 
tened at the base. The skin is either smooth or slightly rough- 
ened with russet ; in color it is a deep yellow or greenish yellow, 
overspread with a dull red. Fig. 12 shows a Ribston apple 
that was grown in Nova Scotia. The flesh is tinged with yel- 
low, is firm and juicy, and the quality is very good. The 
season extends from September to December or January or 

^; I? 

Fig. 13 



Fig. 14 


35. Tolman. — The Tolman, or Tolman Sweet, is a yellow, 
rather attractive sweet apple that is grown to a limited extent 
in New England, New York, Pennsylvania, Southern Canada, 
and in the prairie regions of the Central States. The tree is 
moderately vigorous, a good grower, long lived, and very 
hardy. The fruit is about average in size, and is nearly glob- 
ular in form. The skin is tough and in many specimens is 
marked by a suture line that extends out from the cavity and 
sometimes reaches as far as the basin. The color is a pale 
yellow, sometimes slightly blushed. Fig. 13 shows a Tolman 
apple. The flesh is white, firm, and rather hard; in quality it 
is very good. The taste is decidedly sweet. The variety is 
not planted to any extent in commercial orchards; but often 
the fruit from small orchards can be disposed of locally to a 
special trade. In ordinary storage the apples will keep until 
about January 1 and in cold storage to about March or April. 

36. York Imperial. — The York Imperial, known locally 
as the Hillside apple, is a widely known variety that is grown 
commercially in Southern Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, 
West Virginia, and westward into Missouri and Kansas. When 
grown in regions farther north, the fruit is likely to be deficient 
in size, color, and quality. This variety originated as a chance 
seedling near York, Pennsylvania, and largely on account of 
its excellent keeping quality when kept in ordinary storage, 
it soon became distributed to the near-by regions and later 
was adopted for commercial planting in the Central States. 

The tree is vigorous, a thrifty grower, a good cropper, and 
bears biennially, or, in some cases, annually. The fruit is 
medium to large when grown under favorable conditions. 
In form it is roundish oblate and distinctly oblique, or lop- 
sided, as shown in Fig. 14, which illustrates a York Imperial 
apple from Southern Pennsylvania. The lopsided form is a 
distinct characteristic of the variety. The skin is tough, 
bright, and smooth. The color is a green or a yellow blushed 
with a pinkish red and sometimes striped indistinctly with 
carmine. The flesh is yellowish, firm, and fairly juicy; in 
quality it is generally good, but in some cases only fair. The 


Fig. 15 

Fig. 16 



fruit varies as to the length of time it will keep in storage. 
In cellar storage it will sometimes keep until April or later 
and at other times it may last only through January. In 
cold storage it seems to scald badly, and may last only through 

37. Smith Cider. — The Smith Cider apple is well known 
in Southeastern Pennsylvania and Northeastern Maryland 
and is grown to some extent in Western Ohio and Eastern 
Indiana, principally in home orchards. The tree is moderately 
vigorous and has long, stout, straggling branches. The fruit 
when well grown is from medium to large in size, but under 
average conditions it is below medium. The form is round, 
sometimes oblate inclined to conic. Occasionally, the sides 
are unequal, as in the York Imperial. The skin is thin and 
tough and either smooth or slightly roughened with russet 
lines about the basin. The color is a pale yellow or green, 
mottled and shaded with pinkish red, and splashed and striped 
with a bright carmine. The prevailing color effect is a striped 
pinkish red. Fig. 15 shows a Smith Cider apple that was 
grown in Maryland. The flesh is whitish in color and firm in 
texture. The apple is juicy, of good flavor, and especially 
desirable for cooking purposes. It will keep in cellar storage 
until January or February and sometimes longer. In cold 
storage it can be kept until March. 

38. Cranberry.- — The Cranberry is a fall or early- winter 
variety that is well known in parts of New York and Southern 
Canada. The tree is large, vigorous, hardy, and, as a rule, 
productive. The fruit is large in size and roundish oblate in 
form. The skin is smooth and glossy; in color it is a clear 
yellow, overlaid, in the case of well-colored specimens, with 
blushes, splashes, and stripes of scarlet. Fig. 16 illustrates a 
Cranberry apple that was grown in Ontario. The flesh is white 
or sometimes slightly yellowish, firm^ juicy, and of fair to 
good quality. The fruit is more desirable for cooking than for 
dessert. The season varies according to the locality where 
the fruit is grown. In Ontario and Northern New York the 


apples will keep until midwinter; in Southern New York they 
will last onh^ until about the first part of December. 

39. Esopus. — The Esopus, or Esopus Spitzenburg, com- 
monly known simply as the Spitzenburg, is an apple of the Bald- 
win type, but is of better quality and more highly prized as a 
fancy dessert fruit than the latter. It is also a good-qual- 
ity cooking apple. The variety is grown commercially to a 
limited extent in New York and other of the Eastern States, 
but its importance as a commercial apple is greatest in the 
northwestern fruit-growing section of the United States. 

The tree of the Spitzenburg is rather a slow grower and gen- 
erally rated as a moderate cropper. The fniit ranges from 
medium to large in size; the form is rather broad and flat at 
the base, varying from oblong to roundish ovate or roundish 
conic. The skin is tough and often waxy, and is roughened 
by russet dots. The under color is yellow and is overlaid with 
bright red inconspicuously striped with a darker red. In well- 
colored specimens the red assumes a purplish tint and the sur- 
face is marked with pale yellow and russet dots. In Fig. 17 
a fancy Washington-grown Spitzenburg apple is shown at the 
top of the page. The flesh of the Spitzenburg is yellowish in 
color, crisp, and tender in texture, and of very good to best 
quality. The season extends from November to February 
or March in ordinary storage and to May or June in cold storage. 

The advantages of the Spitzenburg are high color, good 
quality, and uniformity of shape. When packed in attractive 
packages the apples bring a fancy price on the market. The 
disadvantages of the variety are that the tree is a slow grower 
and is subject to canker, and that the fruit is subject to apple 
scab. These troubles can largely be controlled, however, by 
careful spraying, pruning, cultivating, and fertilizing. 

40. Arkansas Black. — The Arkansas Black, a seedling 
of the Winesap, is a beautiful apple, is a good keeper, and 
brings good prices on the market, but it has the disadvantage of 
being rather non-productive. The tree is only moderately 
vigorous. The fruit is medium in size, and nearly round in 
form. The skin is smooth and waxy, and in color is yellow 

Fig. 17 

§ 3 24909 

Fig. 18 

§ 3 24909 


overlaid with a bright red that on the side exposed to the sun 
becomes a purpHsh red. In Fig. 17 an Arkansas Black apple 
is shown at the bottom of the page; this apple was grown in 
Washington. The flesh of the Arkansas Black is yellowish, 
firm, crisp, and fairly juicy; in quality it is good to very good. 
In cold storage the fruit will keep until April or May. On 
account of its non-productivity the variety is not recommended 
for extensive planting. 

41. Westfield. — The Westfield, or Westfield Seek-No- 
Furihsr, commonly known simply as the Seek, is an old 
favorite dessert apple. In some sections it has proved to be 
a reliable cropper, but in other sections it has not been very 
productive. The tree is mediimi to large in size, spreading, 
and moderately vigorous to vigorous. The fruit is usually 
about medium in size and roundish conical in form. The skin 
is tough and smooth; in color it is rather a deep yellow tinged 
with green, shaded and splashed with dull red, and striped 
with deep carmine. The flesh is slightly tinged with yellow; 
it is firm, crisp, aromatic, and of good to best quality. The 
season of this variety in ordinary storage is late fall and early 
winter, but when properly handled it may be held in cold 
storage about as late as the Baldwin. 

42. Jonatlian. — The Jonathan is a variety produced from 
a seedling of the Esopus Spitzenburg. However, it is more 
hardy, productive, and shows more health and vigor, and is 
adapted to a wider range of territory than the Spitzenburg, 
but the fruit is smaller and is somewhat more deficient in keep- 
ing quality. The Jonathan does fairly well in New York 
and Northern Pennsylvania, but it seems better adapted to the 
apple-growing regions of Southern Pennsylvania, Maryland, 
and the Central and Western States, where it is of considerable 
commercial importance. 

The tree is medium in size, is a fairly reliable cropper and 
comes into bearing rather early. The fruit ranges from small 
to- medium in size; it is from roundish conic to roundish ovate 
in form. The cavity is acute to acuminate, deep and wide, 
and is sometimes slightly furrowed. The basin is deep, abrupt, 



and varies from wide to moderately narrow. The skin is thin, 
tough, and smooth; the under color is yellowish overlaid with 
a lively red that is indistinctly striped with carmine. Often 
a splash of yellow is seen near the cavity where a twig or a leaf 
has shaded the fruit. This condition can be seen in Fig. 18, 
which shows a Jonathan apple at the top of the page; this 
apple was grown in Pennsylvania. The flesh of the Jonathan 
is yellowish or whitish, often marked with red. The apples are 
juicy and spicy, and the quality is very good to best. The season 
of the Jonathan is from October to some time in January if kept 
in ordinary storage, and to February or March if kept in cold 
storage. The fruit is highly desirable for the Christmas trade. 

43. Delicious. — The Delicious is a rather new variety 
of apple that is very promising for commercial planting, espe- 
cially in the fruit-growing regions of the Northwest. The 

Fig. 19 

tree is a strong grower and produces a large quantity of pollen; 
the latter quality makes the Delicious useful for planting with 

Fig. 20 

§ 3 24909 


varieties that are deficient in the quantity of pollen produced. 
The fruit is large to very large and oblong conic in shape. 
The skin is thin and smooth, almost polished; in color it is a 
pale yellow overlaid with splashes and stripes of different 
shades of red. The prevailing color effect is a pleasing red. 
In Fig. 18 a Delicious apple is shown at the bottom of the 
page. A characteristic of the fruit is five points that project 
from the basin, as shown in Fig. 19. The flesh of the Delicious 
is a pale yellow, tender, and moderately juicy. The quality is 
of the best, especially for dessert. , 

44. Rliode Island Greening. — The Rhode Island Green- 
ing, commonly known simply as the Greening, is the best known 
green apple in America. It is an important commercial variety 
in New England, New York, Northern Pennsylvania, Southern 
Canada, and parts of Ohio and Michigan. In fact, it is about 
as well known and in as great demand on the market as the 

The tree, when properly managed, is a reliable cropper, 
yielding fruit annually. It is large in size, spreading in habit, 
and has dense foliage. The fruit is above medium to large in 
size; it is grass green in color in autumn, later developing a 
slightly yellowish tinge. The apples are never striped, but 
occasionally they develop a rather bright cheek. In form they 
are roundish oblate. The skin is rather thick, tough, and 
smooth, and is covered with grayish white or russet dots that 
are more numerous toward the basin than elsewhere. In 
Fig. 20 a Rhode Island Greening apple is shown at the top of 
the page. The flesh of the Rhode Island Greening is yellowish, 
firm, fine grained, and juicy; in quality it is very good. The 
Greening is highly prized for cooking, and by many is thought 
to be an excellent dessert fruit notwithstanding the fact that 
it has a rather peculiar flavor. The Greening is a good shipper, 
is well known to consumers, and, where the location is favor- 
able, is a profitable variety to grow. Its season is about the 
same as that of the Baldwin. 

45. Northwestern, — The Northwestern, or Northwestern 
Greening, is similar in some respects to the Rhode Island 


Greening. The Northwestern, however, is hardier than the 
Rhode Island Greening, and for this reason has been planted 
in districts where the climate is too severe for the latter. The 
tree is hardy and vigorous, and, although it is likely to come 
into bearing late, is a good cropper, yielding fruit, as a rule, 
biennially. The fruit is large to very large in size, generally 
roundish in form, and greenish or yellowish in color. The 
dots vary from small to large and are conspicuous. In Fig. 20 
a Northwestern apple is shown at the bottom of the page; 
this ■ apple was grown in Iowa. In quality the fruit of this 
variety is inferior to that of Ihe Rhode Island Greening, 
ranking only fair for both cooking and dessert. The variety 
is best known in Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota, where it is 
grown commercially to some extent. The fruit will keep fairly 
well in cold storage until April or May. 

46. Green Newtown. — The Green Newtown is very simi- 
lar to the variety known as the Yellow Ne^vtown, which is 
described later; in fact, it is thought by some horticulturists 
that one is a strain of the other, and it has not been determined 
which was the parent and which was the seedling. Green 
Newtown trees are rather slow of growth, attain fair size, and 
under favorable conditions come into bearing young; they are 
good yielders. The tree is slightly drooping in habit. The 
fruit ranges from moderate to very large in size; it is usually 
roundish oblate in form; the skin is rather tough and may either 
be smooth or slightly roughened. The color is generally grass 
green when the fruit is picked, but the apples are likely to 
become yellowish on standing. The flesh is either yellov/ish 
or tinged with green according to the color of the skin, and 
the quality is of the best. The apples are highly prized both for 
cooking and for dessert. The season may extend anywhere 
from February to April, or May, depending on where the fruit 
was grown and the method of storage. 

The Green Ne^vtown variety is markedly influenced by 
environment, and the locations where it can be grown success- 
fully are limited. The lower part of the Hudson River Valley 
in New York, the Piedmont and mountainous regions of Virginia 


and North Carolina, and certain localities in California, Oregon, 
and Washington are favorable for the production of the variety. 

47. Yellow Newtown. — The Yellow Newtown variety 
differs in but a few particulars from the Green Newtown. The 
tree of the former is slightly more vigorous and in habit it is 
more erect than that of the latter. The fruit is like that of 
the Green Ne^vtown, except in color of the skin and in color 
and flavor of the flesh. At harvest time the apples are yellow, 
and often there is a pink blush spread over a part of the surface. 
The flesh is yellowish and the flavor is mild and aromatic. 
As a commercial variety, the Yellow Newtown is highly profit- 
able. Like the Green Newtown, it is susceptible to environ- 
mental conditions and grov/s well only in certain localities. Its 
area of production is about the same as that of the Green 

In Albemarle County, Virginia, the Yellow Newtown grows 
exceedingly well, and formerly it was thought that the apples 
produced in this region were a distinct variety, and they 
were known as Albemarle Pippins; this term is still frequently 
applied to fruit of the Yellow Newtown variety. Hundreds 
of barreh of so-called Albemarle Pippins are exported to 
England annually. The beginning of the demand for this 
fruit can be traced to a peculiar incident. During the first 
year of the reign of Queen Victoria of England, Andrew Steven- 
son, a resident of Albemarle County, was Minister to the Court 
of St. James, and from among the Albemarle Pippins he had 
shipped to England for his Ovvn use, he presented several 
barrels to Queen Victoria. She was much pleased with the fruit 
and out of courtesy to him removed from Albemarle Pippins 
the tax levied on fruit. From that time to the present the 
demand for Albemarle Pippins has grown steadily in English 

48. King David. — The King David is a new variety of 
considerable promise. It is thought to be a cross between 
the Jonathan and the Arkansas Black. The tree greatly 
resembles that of the Jonathan but is said to be more vigorous 
and hardy. The fruit also resembles that of the Jonathan but 


is larger and of a deeper red color. In flavor, the fruit is very 
rich and spicy. The season of the King David is said to be a 
little longer than that of the Jonathan. This is a good variety 
for planting where fruit is wanted for fancy trade or for export. 

49. Ben Davis. — The Ben Davis is probably grown over 
a wider area than any other variety. In fact, it is thought 
that more Ben Davis trees are grown than those of any other 
apple. The section best suited to the production of this variety 
is Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, Illinois, and Arkan- 
sas ; however, it has been found to succeed fairly well wherever it 
has been planted, and many Ben Davis orchards are found in 
New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and parts of Canada. 

The tree of the Ben Davis is medium in size a,nd is rather a 
rank grower when young; it has coarse, strong wood that will 
stand under heavy crops. The form tends to be upright and 
roundish, becoming rather spreading in old trees. The fruit 
is usually above medium to large in size and roundish conic to 
somewhat oblong in form. The skin is tough, waxy, bright, 
sm^ooth, and glossy. The color is clear yellow or greenish, 
mottled and washed with bright red, and striped and splashed 
with dark carmine, which gives the prevailing effect of bright 
deep red or red striped. In Fig. 21 a Ben Davis apple is shown 
at the top of the page; this apple was grown in Virginia. The 
flesh of the Ben Davis is whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, 
firm, and moderately coarse, tending to be slightly tough. 
The quality, as rated by horticulturists, is good, but to the lay- 
man it is only fair or even poor. 

The principal advantage of the Ben Davis is the heavy crop 
it bears. When other varieties are on the market it sells 
for a low price, but often late in the season dealers get a good 
price for the fruit. From the standpoint of the apple market it is 
doubtful whether the planting of Ben Davis should be increased. 
The season extends as late as June or July if the fruit is kept 
in cold storage. 

50. Gano.^ — The Gano is an apple of the Ben Davis type, 
but it is somewhat superior to the latter in quality. It is 
thought to be a better apple for northern regions like New 

Pig. 21 

§ 3 24909 


York and Northern Pennsylvania than the Ben Davis. The 
tree is usually vigorous and of the same upright spreading 
habit as the Ben Davis. The fruit is medium in size and 
roundish conic in form. Often the cavity is slightly furrowed. 
The skin is smooth and waxy, and is light yellow in color, 
overlaid with light pinkish or purplish red obscurely striped. 
Often the red is almost a solid color. The general color effect 
is a fine clear red. In Fig. 21 a Gano apple is shown at the 
bottom of the page; this apple was grown in Pennsylvania. 
The flesh of the Gano is whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, 
firm, and coarse in texture. The quality is, perhaps, a little 
better than that of the Ben Davis. The season of the Gano is 
about the same as that of the Ben Davis. 

51. Winesap. — The Winesap apple is one of the oldest 
grown in America. It is what may be termed a middle-latitude 
apple and is well known in Virginia, Maryland, West Virginia, 
Arkansas, Missouri, and some of the Western States. The 
tree is of medium size, rather vigorous, comes into bearing early, 
and is usually an annual cropper. The fruit tends to be small, 
although when grown under favorable conditions it attains a 
good size. The form of the Winesap is usually roundish, slightly 
conical, and truncate at the base. The skin is medium thick, 
tough, smooth, and glossy. The ground color is yellow, or 
greenish, overlaid with deep red indistinctly striped and blotched 
with a dark purplish red. The prevailing effect is a bright deep 
red. In Fig. 22 a Winesap apple is shown at the top of the 
page; this apple was grown near Selah, Washington. The flesh 
of the Winesap is yellowish, and sometimes veins of red can be 

.seen running through it. The apples are juicy and crisp, and 
the quality is good to very good. The ordinary limit in cold 
storage is April. 

52. Black Ben Davis. — The Black Ben Davis is an 
apple of the Ben Davis type, but is resembles the Gano more 
than the Ben Davis. The Black Ben, as it is often called, is 
grown to a considerable extent in the Central and Western 
States. The tree, when young, is upright, but on reaching 
maturity it becomes rather spreading and dense. The fruit 


is medium to large in size, and roundish ovate to roundish conic 
in form. The skin is thin, tough, smooth, and glossy. The 
under color is a clear pale yellow, but it is, on well-matured 
specimens, covered with a brilliant red that becomes a dark 
purple on the side exposed to the sun. The season lasts until 
April and May if the fruit is kept in cold storage. In Fig. 22 
a Black Ben Davis apple is shown at the bottom of the page; 
this apple was grown in Washington. 

53. Rome Beauty. — The Rome Beauty is an old vari- 
ety that is commonly grown in the latitude of New Jersey and 
Southern Ohio; it is grown also in parts of Missouri, and in 
some of the Pacific Coast States. The tree is not particularly 
vigorous but attains medium size and comes into bearing early. 
The fruit ranges in size from medium to very large; in form it 
is roundish to roundish conic, sometimes slightly oblong. 
The skin is thick, tough, and smooth. The color is greenish 
or yellowish mottled v/ith bright red that, on well-colored 
specimens, deepens to almost a solid red on the exposed cheek. 
The prevailing color is red mixed with yellow. In Fig. 23 a 
Rome Beauty apple is shown at the top of the page; this apple 
was grown in Washington. The flesh of the Rome Beauty is 
nearly white, with a slight tinge of yellow or green; it is juicy, 
crisp, of an agreeable taste, and of good quality. The fruit 
is used for both dessert and cooking purposes. The season of 
the Rome Beauty extends to about April or May, if the apples 
are kept in cold storage. 

54. Stayman Winesap. — ^A seedling of the Winesap, 
known as the Stayman Winesap, is considered by many to be 
better for general cultivation than its parent. The variety 
was originated in 1866 from the seed of the Winesap by 
Dr. J. Stayman, of Leavenworth, Kansas, from whom it derives 
its name. The tree is fairly vigorous and the form is spread- 
ing and rather open. The fruit is from medium to very large 
in size and is roundish conic to globular in form. The skin is 
smooth, rather thick, and tough. The under color is greenish 
or yellowish, often almost completely covered with a dull red 
over color that is rather indistinctly striped with carmine. 

Fig. 22 

§ 3 24909 

Fig. 23 

§ 3 24903 

Fig. 24 

§ 3 24909 


The prevailing effect is a pleasing red. In Fig. 23 a Stayman 
Winesap apple is shown at the bottom of the page; this apple 
was grown in Washington. The flesh is yellowish or greenish 
in color, crisp, and juicy; in quality it is good to very good. 
The range for planting is about the same as that of the Wine- 
sap. The fruit will keep in storage until April or May. 

55. Salome. — The Salome variety originated about 1852 
in Illinois and has become rather widely disseminated. The 
tree is vigorous, attains a large size, and is a good cropper, but 
tends, to yield in alternate years. The fruit is usually below 
medium in size, and is roundish oblate and often elliptical in 
form. The skin is thin, tough, and smooth; the under color is 
rather a pale yellow or green, being overlaid with carmine 
stripes and a blush. Often the apples are marked toward the 
cavity with whitish bloom. In Fig. 24 a Pennsylvania-grown 
Salome apple is shown at the top of the page. The flesh of 
the Salome is yellowish, firm, and moderately fine grained; 
it is of good to very good quality. The season extends from 
November to March. 

56» Wagener. — The Wagener is an apple of the Northern 
Spy type, and is much used in New England, New York, and 
Northern Pennsylvania as a filler in commercial orchards. 
The reason for this is that the tree is dwarfish in size, and 
although a rather slow grower, comes into bearing at an early 
age. The trees are vigorous when young, but on reaching 
maturity they become rather weak and are short lived. But 
these qualities do not detract from their use as fillers. The 
fruit is medium to large in size and roundish oblate in form. 
The skin is thin, tough, smooth, and glossy. The color is pale 
yellow covered with a bright pinkish red, striped with bright 
carmine. The prevailing effect is a bright, light red. In Fig. 24 
a Wagener apple is shown at the bottom of the page ; this apple 
was grown near Scranton, Pennsylvania. The flesh of the 
Wagener is whitish, slightly tinged with yellow, juicy, and 
tender. Its quality is very good to best, being similar to the 
Spy in this respect. The season extends from October to 
February or later. Wageners are in demand on the market 

Fig. 25 



and command a good price, largely on account of their color and 
quality. Often they are sold as Spys by unscrupulous dealers. 

57. Arkansas. — The Arkansas, known also as the Mam- 
moth Black Twig, another apple of the Winesap class, is distinct 
from the Arkansas Black. The tree is rather large and vigorous, 
but is inclined to be a shy bearer. The fruit is from mediiim 
to large in size, and roundish and often slightly oblate in form. 
The color is greenish or yellowish overlaid with a dull, deep red, 
often obscurely striped with darker red. Fig. 25 shows a well- 
colored apple of the variety. The flesh of the Arkansas is yel- 
lowish, firm, and fairly juicy. The apples are good keepers, 
lasting in cold storage until about May. The variety has been 
extensively planted in some of the Southern and Southwestern 
States, but is has not proved to be commercially successful, 
largely on account of being a poor bearer. 

58. Ralls. — The Ralls, also known as the Geniton and 
Genet, is a middle-latitude variety that does especially well in 
the Missouri apple-growing section. The tree is a heavy crop- 
per in alternate years, and alternates probably more distinctly 
than most other varieties. It is long lived in the Missouri section 
and does well not only on thin land, but also on heavy bottom 
land. Its greatest value for the section to which it is adapted 
is its late blooming habit. Even in the most unfavorable 
areas it is practically never killed by late freezes; thus even in 
low bottoms it is almost a sure cropper in alternate years. 
The fruit ripens very late, and is generally below mediimi in size, 
although on young trees it is often above medium; the form is 
roundish oblate, varying, to roundish. The skin is smooth with 
a yellow or greenish under color that is blushed and mottled 
with pinkish red and indistinctly striped with dull carmine. 
This is overspread with a light bloom and broken stripes of 
whitish scarf skin, which gives the apple a rather dull appearance. 
The flesh is whitish, firm, and moderately fine grained. The 
quality of the fruit where grown in Missouri is very good, but 
when grown in northern latitudes the apples ripen so late 
that the quality is only medium. In ordinary storage the 
season is from December to April. 


Fig. 26 


*♦+ ** *f ** ** ***i? 



Fig. 27 


59. Ingram. — The Ingram, a seedling of the Ralls, origi- 
nated about 1850 on the farm of Martin Ingram, near Spring- 
fieid, Missouri. The tree blooms nearly as late, bears fruit of 
better quality and much better color, is a more rapid grower, 
and has stronger branches than that of the Ralls; the trees 
tend to bear in alternate years, but not to such a marked extent 
as the Ralls. The tree is adapted to conditions such as those 
found in Missouri; on account of the trees blooming so late, 
the fruit requires a long season for development and for this 
reason the variety is not adapted for culture in northern lati- 
tudes. The tree is vigorous, with moderately stout branches. 
The fruit is below medium to medium in size, and roundish 
conic to roundish oblate tending to be oblique in form. The 
skin is thick, tough, and smooth. The color is a bright greenish 
yellow or pale yellow washed, mottled, and striped with two 
shades of red. In regions where it can reach its best develop- 
ment it is almost entirely overspread with a rather dark red. 
An Ingram apple that was grown in Missouri is shown in 
Fig. 26. The flesh of the Ingram is tinged with yellow; it is 
firm and hard but becomes crisp and tender late in the season. 
The quality is very good. In Missouri, the season of the 
Ingram is from December to June. This is one of the best of 
cold-storage apples, specimens having been kept in fairly good 
condition for 2 years. It is probably the safest variety that can 
be planted in the Ozark section, and if the tree is kept pruned 
rather heavily the fruit will attain a good market size. 

60. Roxbury. — The Roxbury is a russet apple that is 
grown commercially in some sections where the Baldwin, 
Spy, and Greening are grown. The tree is medium to large 
in size and fairly vigorous. When grown on rich soil in favor- 
able locations it is generally a reliable cropper. As a rule, 
this variety is a biennial bearer. The fruit is of about medium 
size and oblate or oblate conic in form. The skin is some- 
times smooth but usually is roughened with a greenish to 
yellowish-brown russet. Dots of russet or gray are conspicuous 
on the surface. A Roxbury of good size and form is shown 
in Fig. 27. The flesh of the Roxbury is yellowish or greenish 


Fig. 28 


and the quality is good to very good. A particular advantage 
of the variety is that it is a good keeper. The season of the 
fruit, when it is kept in cold storage, extends from December 
to as late as July. 

61. Golden Russet. — The Golden Russet variety is 
grown commercially in some sections of the Eastern States. 
It is an excellent storage variety, sells well in the general mar- 
ket, and is particularly in demand for shipment to north- 
western and southern markets. The tree is from medium to 
large in size, and from moderately vigorous to vigorous. The 
fruit varies from below to above mediiim in size. The skin is 
thick and moderately tender; it is usually almost entirely cov- 
ered with a greenish or yellowish russet, which, in highly col- 
ored specimens, becomes a golden russet with a bronze cheek. 
The flesh is yellowish, rather fine grained, tender, juicy, and 
very good. The Golden Russet is valuable as a cider apple. 
The season is from December to April or later. 

62. Pewauliee. — The Pewaukee is a northern-grown 
variety that was originated by crossing the Oldenburg and 
the Northern Spy. The tree is vigorous, medium to large 
in size, and a strong grower. It bears at a fairly early age 
and with good care is a reliable cropper; it usually bears bien- 
nially, but sometimes annually. The fruit is from medium 
to large in size, and is roundish oblate to roundish ovate in 
form. The cavity is often very small and shallow. The skin 
is smooth and rather tough, and is of a grass green or yellow- 
ish color that is mottled with orange red and striped and splashed 
with carmine. The prevailing effect is a mixture of red and 
yellow, or red and green. Fig. 28 illustrates a Pewaukee apple 
that was grown in New York State. The flesh of the Pewaukee 
is whitish, tender, and rather coarse. The quality is fair to 
good either for cooking or dessert. The season varies some- 
what. Often the fruit may be kept in cold storage until April; 
again it may go down in January or Februar^^ For commer- 
cial planting, the Pewaukee is not particularly desirable, 
largely because it is not well known by consumers and there- 
fore is not in much demand on the market. 

Fig. 29 

§ 3 24909 


63. Grimes. — The Grimes, or Grimes Golden, apple is 
adapted to middle latitudes and is one of the best quality apples 
produced. In West Virginia, Ohio, and Indiana many com- 
mercial orchards of this variet_v are proving very profitable. 
The tree is moderately vigorous, the branches are short, curved, 
and crooked. It bears biennially, although in some cases 
annually, and is a good cropper. The fruit is medium to large 
in size and roundish oblong, often truncate in form. The skin 
is tough and slightly roughened. The color is deep yellow 
with scattering pale yellow or russet dots. In Fig. 29 a Grimes 
Golden apple is shown at the top of the page; this apple was 
grown in Southern Ohio. The flesh of the Grimes is yellow, 
firm, tender, and of very good to best quality. The fruit 
loses some of its quality and is likely to scald in storage. How- 
ever, the apples can be kept until January or February in cold 
storage. The Grimes is recommended for commercial plant- 
ing in the districts mentioned and is worthy of trial in home 
orchards in these and other similar sections. 

64. White Pearmain. — The White Pearmain, or White 
Winter Pearmain, as it is sometimes called, is a favorite dessert 
apple in some parts of the Central and the Western States. 
The variety is not grown extensively in commercial orchards, 
but is much prized for home orchards. The tree is vigorous 
and wide spreading. In size the fruit is from medium to large, 
and in form is roundish ovate to oblong conic. The skin is 
tough and smooth. The color is a pale yellow or greenish 
shaded with brownish red. In Fig. 29 a White Pearmain 
apple is shown at the bottom of the page. The flesh is yellow- 
ish, tender, and juicy; in quality it is Yerj good to best. The 
White Pearmain can be kept in storage until about March. 

65. Huntsnaan. — The Huntsman variety, commonly 
known among growers as the Huntsman Favorite, is grown to a 
considerable extent in Missouri and Kansas. The Huntsman 
is a dessert apple of high quality, but it is more often found in 
home orchards than in commercial plantings. The tree is 
vigorous, and is a late but regular bearer and generally prolific. 
The fruit is of mediimi to large size and is roundish oblate 


Ftg. 30 


Fig. 31 


Fig. 32 


and slightly conic in form. The skin is thick but tender, and 
the color is yellow, slightly greenish, often having a red blush. 
Fig. 30 shows a Huntsman apple that was grown in Missouri. 
The flesh is yellowish, rather firm, and juicy; in quality it is 
good to very good, especially for dessert. The apples can be 
kept in cold storage until April. 

66. Willow. — The Willow, or Willow Twig, variety is 
grown largely in the Mississippi Valley. The tree is large, 
vigorous, and of upright habit. The fruit is large to medium 
in size, and roundish inclined to conic in form; sometimes it is 
roundish oblate. The skin is smooth and rather glossy. The 
color is a yellowish green, blushed and miottled with red, and 
striped and splashed irregularly with a deeper red. • The 
general effect is a dull red. Fig. 31 shows a Willow apple 
that was grown in Missouri.' The flesh of the Willow is either 
yellowish or greenish, firm, coarse, and juicy; the quality is 
only fair to good. The season extends to May if the fruit is 
kept in cold storage. The apple is susceptible to scab, blight, 
and bitter rot, and for this reason fruit growers are not plant- 
ing it as extensively as in the past. 

67. Mann. — The Mann variety is grown on a small scale 
commercially in New York, the New England States, and 
Ontario. The tree is medium, to large, vigorous, hardy, a 
reliable cropper, and a good yielder. The fruit is mediimi to 
large in size, and roundish inclined to oblate in form. The 
skin is thick and tough. The color is a deep green that becomes 
yellow as the- season advances. Fig. 32 shows a Mann apple 
that was grown in Ontario, Canada. The flesh of the Mann is 
yellowish and coarse; at first it is hard and firm, but becomes 
tender on standing. The quality is fair to good, being inferior 
to that of the Rhode Island Greening. The fruit can be kept 
until May in cold storage. 

68. Stark. — The Stark is a late winter apple that is widely 
disseminated throughout the United States and Canada. The 
tree is vigorous, and ranges in size from large to moderately 
large. It is a reliable cropper and very productive. The 
fruit is large to medium in size; sometimes it is very large. 

Fig. 33 



In form it is roundish, inclined to conic, varying to slightly 
oblate or roundish ovate. The skin is either smooth or slightly 
roughened with russet dots. In the fall the color is a pale 
green; as winter advances the color becomes a yellow more or 
less blushed and mottled and rather indistinctly striped with 
red. The prevailing color effect is a dull green or yellow mixed 
with red. Fig. 33 illustrates a Stark apple that was grown in 
Ontario, Canada. The flesh of the Stark is yellowish and firm; 
in quality it is fair to good. The apples can often be kept in 
storage until May; if held until late in the year they are likely 
to bring good prices. 


(PART 1) 



1. Size of Or chard. — One of the first questions that comes 
up in planning an apple orchard is that of the size of the orchard. 
Before this question can be settled in a satisfactory manner it is 
advisable to know something of the factors that will determine 
how many acres of orchard one man can care for, doing the work 
in accordance with approved methods. It is obvious that in 
practically all cases it will be desired to make the planting as 
large as feasible in order that the incom.e may be correspondingly 
large. At the same time it is evident that there is a limit to 
the size of orchard that one man can work, and if it is intended 
that the owner will merely supervise there is also a limit to the 
acreage he can oversee. Som.e authorities on orcharding speak 
of the size of orchard a man can care for advantageously as a 
unit, and there has been considerable discussion as to what 
acreage constitutes an apple-orchard unit. It is apparent that 
the question is not one that can be answered definitely, because 
there are many factors that must be taken into consideration in 
each case. If a man with limited capital is undertaking to 
establish an orchard and at the same time to raise grain or vege- 
table crops sufficient to make a living until the orchard comes 
into bearing, it is evident that he will be obliged to restrict his 
planting of trees more than will the man who has capital enough 
to carry him through the non-productive period of the orchard. 


. §4 


Under some conditions a man may be able to put out a large 
acreage of trees, employing laborers to do the necessary work; 
under other conditions labor may be so scarce or expensive that 
such a plan is not feasible. If good orchard land is abundant 
in a given locality one man can superintend a much larger 
acreage than would be possible in a section in which suitable 
orchard sites are scarce and widely separated. Spraying and 
harvesting are two orchard operations that require the most 
labor, and it is imperative that they be performed at the right 
time. Failure to give them attention at the proper time may 
result in a heavy loss to the grower. This being the case, it is 
easy to see that a larger force of men will be required to spray 
and harvest in an orchard planted to a single variety or to 
varieties that bloom and ripen at approximately the same time 
than in another of the same area in which varieties that bloom 
and ripen in sequence are planted. These and other factors 
operate to make the question of what constitute an apple- 
orchard unit so complex that no attempt to lay down certain 
definite figures can be satisfactory. The prospective apple 
grower must investigate carefully the conditions that prevail 
in his locality and in his individual case and decide for himself 
what size of unit he is warranted in establishing. 

2. Som.e orchardists undertake to determine the size of unit 
by the capacity of a power spraying outfit, since this is one of 
the most expensive items of the orchardist's equipment. One 
power sprayer should handle 30 or 40 acres of orchard in ftill 
bearing, except in cases in which the trees have been allowed to 
reach enormous size and in sections where the land is very hilly. 
But here again the question of whether or not the orchard is 
planted with varieties that bloom and ripen in sequence will 
determine to a large extent the size of unit. As a general rule, 
a larger orchard unit of summer and winter apples mixed can 
be handled than of winter varieties alone, not only because 
there is a wider range of blooming period under the former con- 
ditions but also because fewer sprayings are required for the 
former. In an orchard made up of 10 to 15 acres of summer 
apples, 15 to 20 acres of fall apples -like the Jonathan and 


10 acres of very late bloomers like the Ingram that are also 
late in ripening, the time available for giving any one spray- 
ing of the orchard is greatly extended, and as fewer sprayings 
of the summer apples are necessary, a large orchard can be 
covered with one sprayer. Furthermore, in such a case the 
picking would be prolonged through a longer season and there 
would be less trouble about getting sufficient labor to harvest 
the crop, so an orchard of this kind could be considerably 
larger for the same equipment than one made up of varieties 
blooming and ripening at about the same time. 

If considerable other farming is being done, 20 acres would 
perhaps be an average unit for an apple orchard. With an 
orchard of this size, the danger that the spraying could not be 
done at the proper time because of other crops that need atten- 
tion would probably not be great. 

The estimates set forth here are based on the labor required 
to care for an apple orchard in full bearing. Before the 
orchard is in full bearing a larger unit probably could be 
managed with the same equipment. 

3. Capital Required.- — It is a common mistake among 
beginners in apple orcharding to overlook the fact that capital 
is necessary in estabhshing an orchard. Probably more orchards 
are failures because of lack of capital than lack of knowledge 
on the part of the owners. 

In estimating the capital necessary for the establishment of 
an orchard, it is best to consider it independent of the cost of 
the land, since the latter item is so variable that no estimate 
that will be of much value can be given. The beginner in 
orcharding should have, first of all, money enough to secure the 
land required and the necessary equipment. To this must be 
added the cost of caring for the orchard each year until it comes 
into bearing, which may be estimated at about $20 an acre. 
In some sections it will be more than this, and in some sections 
and especially with a man who is exceedingly industrious and 
a good manager, it will be less. This estimate includes the cost 
of trees at about 15 cents each, the cost of breaking the ground, 
planting, and caring for the trees each year. In some sections 


the orchard will come into steady bearing at about 6 years of 
age, in others at 8 or 9 years of age; thus the necessary capital 
in addition to the equipment would be, for 40 acres, $800 
a year for 5 years, which would be $4,000, and for 8 years 
would be $6,400. If the orchard is located in a section where the 
cost of maintenance cannot be made from crops grown between 
the trees, the orchardist should have this amount of capital avail- 
able in addition to the cost of equipment, except where he does 
the work himself and can live and keep his team on a smaller 
income than $800 a year. If the orchard is in a section where 
the use of orchard heaters is necessary, about $2,000 for 40 acres 
should be added. The following summary of the cost of equip- 
ment and maintenance of an orchard of, say, 40 acres will per- 
haps be of some assistance by suggesting the approximate 
capital required. 

Power sprayer $ 200 to $300 

Team 300 to 400 

Harness, wagon, plows, harrows, 

and small tools 200 

Packing shed, boiling plant, picking 

and packing utensils 200 to 300 

Orchard heaters (if required) .... 2,000 

Maintenance to eighth year 6,400 

$9,300 to $9,600 

This outlay would in most cases be sufficient for a larger unit 
if other conditions are such that they will permit of the handling 
of a large one. At least two men can be kept busy the year 
round on a 30- or a 40-acre unit and generally an extra man 
and an extra team will be required at times. The labor 
required for picking will vary so much that it is impossible to 
estimate the number of men necessary. Before the orchard 
comes into bearing one man with a team could probably 
maintain it when no special problems like irrigation, etc., are 

It will be noted that the estimate given does not include 
the cost of land or irrigation, neither does it make an allowance 
for any return that may be secured from crops between the 


rows. As mentioned, these may often be made to yield the 
$6,400 for maintenance. 

In some cases, as for example in sections where apple grow- 
ing has been uniformly profitable or when the orchardist has 
the confidence of a money-lending institution or a person of 
means, it miay be possible to borrow a part or all of the capital 
required. But unless some such favorable condition is pres- 
ent it is not likely that he will be able to obtain an advance 
of money sufficient to meet his requirements when he has 
nothing but orchard land and equipmicnt for security. 

If the orchard is located in a section where crops between 
the rows can be grown with a reasonable certainty of a profit 
before the trees come into bearing, a smaller capital at the 
beginning m.ay be sufficient than if the growing of crops between 
the trees is som.ewhat hazardous. In scm-e sections the soil 
is so poor that the cost of growing crops between the rows 
is almost equal to the returns, and in such sections it may be 
that the only crops that can be at all profitably grown are 
the small fruits like strawberries, raspberries, etc. These are 
crops that are somewhat hazardous and in them.selves require 
a considerable outlay of capital, so where they are to be used 
as a catch crop, miore capital for the orchard should be avail- 
able than where some cheaply grown crop like sweet com or 
potatoes can be handled profitably. If a small orchard is being 
put out and there is a good demand for labor in the com-mu- 
nity a man m.ay be able to earn enough to care for his own 
orchard by working for other people and in this case his labor 
becomes equivalent to capital. If he does not have oppor- 
tunity or inclination to derive an income from such a source 
the only way that he could be justified in beginning with a 
very small capital is to have a certainty of making running 
expenses for the orchard from crops grown between the rows 
or on other land. 

4. Increasing the Size of tlie Orchard. — Doubling or 
trebling the unit for an apple orchard would approximately 
double or treble the equipment and expenses, except that 
in some cases five men could probably handle 80 acres of 


bearing orchard as readily as three men could handle 40 acres. 
This would not always be true, and it is not likely that further 
multiplying the unit would reduce the expense per imit, since 
with additional men working in different places without a fore- 
man they would not likely do as much work. The experience 
of practical growers has been that doubling and trebling the 
unit does not generally reduce the cost per unit. 

5. Soils Suitable for Apple Orchards. — The selection 
of a soil suitable for commercial apple orcharding is a matter 
that should receive careful considera,tion from the grower. 
It is of course true that apple trees thrive on a great variety 
of soils. The man who is planning only a sm^all home orchard 
may be justified in selecting for this purpose a soil that is not 
altogether suitable or in making some experimental plantings 
with a view to determining what the possibilities of a certain 
soil are with respect to apple production. On the other hand, 
the man who is putting out a commercial orchard will not, 
as a rule, care to accept a soil that is defective in any essential 
requirement nor will he find it advisable to make extensive 
experimental plantings. 

In general, authorities agree that the apple tree thrives best 
on a deep, well-drained, gravelly or even stony soil. Prof. 
F. A. Waugh, an orchardist who has made a careful study of 
the subject, states that as a rule a gravelly loam that is fairly 
rich in plant-food is the ideal apple soil. Gravelly and stony 
soils are usually well-drained soils and it seems likely that it 
is because of this fact that apple trees thrive well on areas 
in which loose broken stone is abundant; there are, however, 
sections in which the apple tree does extremely well on sandy 
loams and silt loams and on almost every other type of soil 
that is deep and well drained. 

Depth of soil is a particularly important requirement in 
selecting a site for a commercial apple orchard. Although a 
good, deep soil is desirable for almost any crop, it is all but 
indispensable for growing apple trees. The chief objection to 


a shallow soil is that it affords an inadequate reservoir for the 
storage of moisture. In the case of annual plants the injury 
done by a dry year is, as a rule, confined to the year in which 
the drought occurs, but in the case of trees the injury done on 
a dry year may destroy the work of a large number of years. 
The growth of the trees during a given year depends so much 
on the condition in previous years that the tree is not able 
to adapt itself to withstanding drought, and therefore is more 
seriously injured by a drought than annual plants. On a 
mature tree practically the entire leaf surface is attained 
within a few weeks after the leaves begin to open and before 
any one season's drought can shorten the growth. A drought 
then in a shallow soil would cut short the water supply for the 
tree with a full leaf surface, so that injury would be much greater 
than to an annual plant, because the latter would make slower 
growth during a drought and therefore have smaller leaf sur- 
face and would be thus adjusted to withstand the adverse 
condition. Furthermore, the effect of severe cold seems to be 
less in a deep soil and the fruit is almost always larger. 

For the same reason that a soil should be deep, it should be 
well drained. Tree roots will go no deeper than the depth to 
which the soil is well aerated. Further, if the soil at times tends 
to be mucky near the surface, experience indicates that the tree 
is much shorter lived. In the Ozark region the red clay subsoil 
makes ideal conditions for tree roots. The loess soil found 
along the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio rivers is also excel- 
lent. This loess soil is considered by some to be the most nearly 
ideal fruit soil there is. It is rich in plant-food to a very great 
depth. It is made up of very small particles and yet it drains 
well, since it contains very small quantities of clay. Although 
apple trees take away large quantities of soil fertility, the 
trees will do exceedingly well on a soil that is not considered 
fertile soil from the standpoint of farm crops. This is prob- 
ably because of the deep-rooting habit of the trees. 

6. Elevation of Orchard Site. — One of the most impor- 
tant factors in determining the success of an apple orchard is 
' the effect of late spring frosts, and the location of the orchard 


with reference to the prevention of damage from this influence 
is an important consideration. It will be much better to have 
to ship the apples several hundred miles from a section where 
failures on account of frost are rare than to be in a section 
where frosts are so common that the crop will be lost so often 
that no profit will be left after maintaining the orchard, or 
where great expense is entailed in heating the orchard. 

The elevation of an orchard site will determine to a large 
extent the degree to which late spring frosts will injure the 
blossoms. Although it is true that, as the elevation of a large 
area increases the average temperature for the given section 
decreases, at the same time in any given section on a still, 
clear night the higher points will be warmer. This is because 
cold air is heavier than warm air and tends to settle into low 
places. Thus, in a broken country there are almost always 
elevated areas where there is less danger from killing frosts 
than in a level country. On the other hand, in a. broken 
country the valleys are in m.ore danger than the hills because 
of this settling of the cold air into the valleys. Experience 
indicates, however, that a wide valley is not likely to be of any 
benefit in carrying away the cold air, since the wind is likely 
to stir the cold air up and prevent settling; in the narrow val- 
leys, where the wind must blow across rather than up and down, 
there will be settling even when there is a good deal of wind. 
However, on a very windy night there is not a great settling of 
the cold air and the temperature on the hill top is likely to be 
nearly the same as that in the valley. 

7. Slope of Land . — In another Section it has been shown 
that the slope of the land may have something to do with the 
susceptibility of an orchard to injury from spring frosts by 
affecting the time of blooming. If the slope is rather steep 
and the trees are large, the trees may bloom later on the north 
slope than on the south slope, for the reason that every tree 
will throw a shadow on the tree next north of it, and thus the 
twigs will not be warmed up by receiving the direct sunlight 
on warm sunny days. However, if the slope is not steep enough 
for one tree to throw shadow on another, there will be little 


if any difference, since the cold soil on the north is not likely 
to have much influence on the time of blooming, for it is the 
temperature of the twigs and not that of the roots that largely 
determines the time of blooming. The soil remains colder on 
the north than on the south slope, because each ray of sunlight 
is spread out over more surface, but if the trees stand erect 
each one will receive jus't as direct sunlight on one slope as 
on the other provided one tree does not cast a shadow over 
another. In general, a north slope is considered better than 
a south slope for the reason that the soil on the former is 
generally richer than that on the latter. Other considerations 
that are objectionable on a south slope are that the thawing 
on warm days in winter causes a slipping down the hill of the 
soil, and further that since the soil is warmer on the south 
slope the humus is burned out faster in such areas than on a 
north slope. 

8. Exposure of Site. — In choosing a site the exposure 
may be important in its effect on the temperature, on evapora- 
tion, on the number of windfalls, and on the breaking of the 
trees by winds. 

The only time that a windward exposure will affect the tem- 
perature of an orchard is when the orchard is in a location 
like that near a body of water. When the temperature of the 
water is higher or lower than that of the surrounding country 
the wind may bring a lower or a higher temperature than that 
of the orchard. In some cases protection from wind might 
actually make the orchard colder by deflecting the wind from 
over the soil of the orchard; and in the late spring when the 
water is colder than the surrounding country, protection frorn. 
wind wotild leave the orchard warmer. 

In sections where the trees are frozen up for a long time in 
winter, protection from wind might prevent winter killing by 
lessening the rapid evaporation from the twigs during the time 
they are frozen up and cannot secure moisture from the soil 
to replace that evaporated. Thus, in a climate like that of 
Western Nebraska or the Dakotas a windbreak may be bene- 
ficial in preventing the drying out of the twigs. 



In any climate where there is danger of serious winds in 
summer, a windbreak would be beneficial in preventing wind- 
falls, and the splitting of trees, but many orchardists prefer 
to have this windbreak simply an additional two or three rows 
of fruit trees than to have a windbreak of forest trees near. 

A windbreak made of forest trees is sometimes trouble- 
some in bringing and harboring insects and making still-air 
pockets that increase the danger from spring frosts, and in 
weakening the growth of the trees near the windbreak. In 
a region where high winds prevail, a windbreak of forest trees 
may be desirable, but in the average fruit section it probably 
is not. 

9. Proximity to Markets. — ^Accessibility to markets is 
an important factor in determining the success of an orchard, 
and in selecting a location this should always have careful 
consideration. In locating for the summer apple business, 
the distance from market will be of particular importance, 
since the apples may have to be shipped in refrigerator cars 
and thus transportation become rather expensive, and of 
course in supplying any local market the distance that the 
fruit must be hauled wiU be of great importance, because haul- 
ing by wagon is expensive, and, as a rule, there will be more 
or less injury to the fruit unless the roads are very good. A 
difference of a few hundred miles from market, however, 
amounts to less in determining the success or failure of an 
orchard enterprise than adaptability of the section to fruit 
growing. It would be much better to be 1,000 miles from_ a 
large market like New York City in a good apple-growing 
section than to be only 500 miles away where the soil and 
climatic conditions are not so well adapted to apple growing. 
However, shipping is one of the greatest expenses of the orchard 
business and the distance the fruit must be shipped will of 
course have considerable to do with the net profits. Thus 
the market in cities in Texas and other southern points where 
apples are not grown is generally better than the northern 
markets, and a location in Southern Missouri and Northern 
Arkansas or other good apple-growing sections near these 


markets is desirable on this account. If it is intended to supply 
a local market, the quantity of apples grown in the neighbor- 
hood will be of importance, since the local demand will be lim- 
ited and the market might be easily oversupplied. In this case 
a locality in which only a few growers are in the business may 
be preferable, but where the apples are shipped to the general 
market it is particularly desirable to be in a section where a 
great many apples are grown, since a large number of the best 
buyers will be likely to come into the district and there will 
doubtless be an opportunity for cooperative marketing. It is 
also likely that in such a section certain supplies for the orchard, 
especially the oil for heating if this is necessary, will be some 
cheaper, because larger quantities will be used. 


10. The selection of varieties to be planted is one of the 
important questions the man who plans to establish an orchard 
is called upon to decide. If the orchard is largely for home use 
and it is not expected to make it a revenue producer to any 
great extent, the owner is undoubtedly justified in humoring 
personal preferences, in planting many different varieties, and 
in doing considerable experimental planting. Such a course 
is, however, extremely unfavorable to the best success of a 
commercial orchard. In the latter case it is particularly 
important that a proper selection of varieties be made. The 
important points to be borne in mind in connection with this 
selection are the growing of varieties suitable to the market 
available and the growing of varieties adapted to the section 
in which the orchard is located. It is obvious that market 
requirements should be considered in selecting varieties for an 
orchard, for to attempt to force one variety on a market that 
calls for and is willing to pay a premium for other varieties 
is to work at a distinct disadvantage. It is, of course, true that 
if a given variety is not in demand in one market it is always 
possible for the grower' to ship to another market, but it is 
also true that such a course is likely to involve a more or less 
heavy transportation charge. Occasionally there are special 


considerations that may justify the additional expense, but 
as a general rule the orchardist will find it advisable to cater 
to general markets that are reasonably close at hand. 

1 1 . The selection of varieties that are adapted to the locality 
in which the orchard is located is perhaps even more impor- 
tant than the question discussed in the preceding article. 
It is no more possible to name a best variety of apples or a 
most profitable variety of apples than it is possible to say that 
a given soil is best. A variety of apples that does well in one 
section may be entirely unsuited to another section, hence 
suggestions for the selection of varieties must be along general 

'lines. Unless the orchardist is already posted as to what 
varieties are being grown successfully in his section, one of 
the first steps should be to obtain this information. This 
may be done by visiting successful orchards in his locality, 
by correspondence with horticulturists and horticultural asso- 
ciations, and by a study of periodicals devoted to orcharding. 

12. In the following paragraphs some general suggestions 
with reference to standard varieties suitable for various apple- 
growing sections are offered, but it should be understood that 
they are, as stated, general suggestions, and that it is expected 
that the grower will consider them in connection with the 
other sources of information already enumerated. 

Throughout the United States and Canada there is, of course, 
a wide diversity of soil and chmatic conditions, but it is pos- 
sible to divide this area into sections in which these conditions 
are, to a greater or less extent, uniform. Different authori- 
ties on apple growing make somewhat different divisions of 
the territory, and it is obvious that the lines of division between 
two sections cannot be sharply drawn. The classification of 
sections given herewith is offered merely as a general indication 
of localities in which approximately similar conditions as to 
apple growing exist. The varieties mentioned in connection 
with the different sections are not strictly limited to those 
sections, and there are likely to be restricted areas in any or all 
of the sections in which the conditions will differ from the gen- 
eral average of the region. Notwithstanding these departures, 


however, the general facts set forth in the classification will 
serve as a guide to an orchardist in selecting varieties to meet 
his conditions. 

13. Varieties for the New York Section. — By far the 

most important apple-growing section in North America is 
what may be designated the New York section which com- 
prises, in addition to the state of New York, the New England 
states, Pennsylvania, and parts of Ohio and Michigan. The 
leading variety of the New York section is the Baldwin and two 
other varieties that are extensively planted and successfully 
grown in the section are the Northern Spy and the Rhode 
Island Greening. A very large percentage of the crop is made 
up of the varieties mentioned, but there are, of course, many 
other varieties that do well and yield satisfactory returns. 
Among these may be mentioned Tompkins King, Roxbury, 
Golden Russet, Hubbardston, Esopus, Spitzenburg, Ben Davis, 
Tolman Sweet, Twenty Ounce, Seek-No-Further, Fameuse, 
Yellow and Green Newton, Oldenburg, Wealthy, Mcintosh, 
Alexander, Blue Pearmain and Rome Beauty. 

In a considerable portion of Michigan the apples grown are 
similar to those grown in New York, though a number of 
Michigan seedlings have come to be of considerable importance, 
and in the sandy region of Northern Michigan the Oldenburg 
is grown very largely for marketing in the summer. Wealthy, 
Fameuse, and Mcintosh are also good apples in this section, 
as they are in Wisconsin and parts of Minnesota. Even in 
extremely cold regions like the Dakotas these varieties do fairly 
well, but some hardy Russian varieties like the Wolf River and 
Alexander are perhaps better for such localities. 

14. Varieties for the Virginia Section. — The region 
to which some authorities have given the name Virginia sec- 
tion comprises New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, 
West Virginia, and parts of Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana. 
Some of the varieties most extensively grown in the Virginia 
section are the Ben Davis, Jonathan, Grimes Golden, Rome 
Beauty, York Imperial, Green and Yellow Newton, Albemarle, 
and the Winesaps. In the higher moimtain regions of this 


section the Baldwin and other apples that are popular in the 
New York section are extensively grown. The Grimes Golden 
is said to reach its best development in the" Virginia section. 
A part of this section, especially Delaware, Virginia, Mary- 
land, and adjoining localities is particularly noted for the pro- 
duction of summer apples. 

15. Varieties for tlie Missouri Section. — The Missoiiri 
section includes Missouri, Arkansas, part of Illinois, Kansas, 
and Oklahoma, and some regions adjacent to these states. 
The Ben Davis is the predominant variety in the section, and 
some of the other more important varieties are Jonathan, the 
Winesap group. Grimes Golden, Ingram, and York Imperial. 
Probably the best winter apple for this section is the Ingram. 

The Ben Davis group includes varieties known as Gano, 
Black Ben, and Ben Davis. Of these, the latter is probably 
most extensively planted, but it is possible that the Gano or 
the Black Ben is more valuable. The Winesap group includes 
the Winesap, Stajmian, Arkansas, Arkansas Black, King David 
and others. 

New varieties that are promising in this section are King 
David, Delicious, Stayman Winesap, and Magnate. 

In Southern Illinois summer apples have come to be exten- 
sively grown. Yellow Transparent, Benoni, Sops of Wine, 
Early Harvest, Maiden Blush, and Wealthy are grown. The 
Wealthy is also grown extensively in Missouri. Apparently 
the best siimmer apple for the Ozark region in Missouri and 
Arkansas is Benoni, since it seems to be adapted to that soil 
and withstands spring frosts. 

16. Varieties for the Colorado Section. — In the Colo- 
rado section, which includes the state from which it is named 
and adjoining regions in which conditions are similar, there is 
a very wide range of varieties. The Bellflower is extensively 
grown, as well as Wealthy, Alexander, Mcintosh, Jonathan, 
Rome Beauty, and the Winesap class. The Wealthy and 
Alexander are especially well adapted to the higher mountain 


17. Varieties for tlie Northwest. — In the Hood River 

district of the Northwest, the most important varieties are the 
Spitzenburg and Newtown. The Ortley is also coming into 
prominence in this region. In other sections of the Northwest, 
the Spitzenburg, Newtown, and Ortley varieties are important, 
as are also the Jonathan, Grimes Golden, Winter Banana, 
Arkansas Black, Winesap, King David, and Delicious; and the 
Ben Davis is also a common variety. The Winesap type of 
apples is grown more in the warmer valleys of the Northwest. 
In the Bitter Root valley only the hardiest varieties are grown 
successfully, the two most important being Mcintosh and 
Alexander, though Wealthy and Fameuse are also grown. 


18. Buying of Nursery Stock. — In most cases the man 
who is putting out an orchard will find it advisable to buy his 
nursery stock directly from a nursery, and it is, of course, well 
to know something of the honesty and reliability of the nursery- 
man. If it is planned to order from a nursery in any large 
quantity, it will always be advisable to ask for the wholesale 
price list and to get quotations from more than one firm, since 
considerable may be saved in some cases by so doing. The 
practice of buying from agents and accepting their advice 
as to varieties, age of trees, and other details is not one that 
is likely to prove satisfactory. No nursery trees should be 
accepted that do not bear a certificate from a state or a national 
nursery inspector showing that the nursery is free from danger- 
ous insects and diseases. The buyer should also insist on get- 
ting the varieties he orders. Some nurserymen take the liberty 
of substituting in case they are unable to supply the variety 
ordered, and for this reason it is a good plan to specify on each 
order that no substitution will be accepted. 

19. Appearance of Nursery Trees. — ^A good rule for 
guidance in the selection of nursery stock is to choose trees 
that have made a good, vigorous growth in the nursery. Trees 
that have made a slow, weak growth in the nursery may be as 
likely to live as those that have made a more vigorous growth, 



but the former will probably be a year or two later than the 
latter in coming into bearing, and, as a rule, the mature trees 
will scarcely be as good. 

The roots of a good nursery tree should be strong and well 
developed, and there should be, for best results, four or five 

large rather than a lot of small roots clustered around the old 
root that formed a part of the graft. In Fig. 1 (a) is shown a 
desirable 1-year-old tree; in (6) is shown a good 2-year-old 
tree; and in (c) is shown a 2-year-old tree that has made a 
slow, weak growth, probably due to a poor soil in the nursery. 


20. Age of Nursery Trees. — Beginners frequently make 
the mistake of selecting 2-year-old trees, regardless of their 
quality, in preference to 1-year-old trees. A good-sized, 
healthy 1-year-old tree is better under some conditions than a 
2-year-old tree, and some orchardists declare a strong prefer- 
ence for the former. The location and spacing of the branches 
on a 2-year-old tree will be determined by the condition under 
which the tree was grown in the nursery. Usually there will 
be a dense growth of limbs beginning about 1| or 2 feet up 
on the main stem, then a space containing no limbs, then 
another dense growth of young limbs. Such a condition often 
makes it difficult for the orchardist to start branches exactly 
where it is desired to have them. A large 1-year-old tree, say 
4 feet in height, can be cut back a little before planting, and 
still be left long enough that the four or five limbs desired can 
be spaced so chat none of them will be closer than 5 or 6 inches 
from its nearest neighbors. However, a good 2-year-old tree 
will usually withstand more adverse conditions, especially 
severe cold if planted in the fall, than will a 1-year-old tree. 

21. Northern- Grown and Soutliern- Grown Trees. 

Some difference of opinion exists among orchardists as to 
whether or not northern-grown trees are hardier than southern- 
grown trees. It may be said, however, that most authorities 
are agreed that a tree is hardy or tender according to the vari- 
ety rather than according to where the tree was grown. For 
example, each Ben Davis tree is a part of the original Ben Davis 
tree and its ability to withstand cold is determined by hereditary 
qualities that existed in the original Ben Davis tree rather than 
by the climatic condition under which a tree was grown in the 
nursery. Of course, if trees are grown in a southern nursery 
and continue to grow so late in the fall that the wood does 
not have time to ripen before freezing weather, they are in no 
condition to withstand winters farther north. The best plan 
is to insist on trees that are well matured rather than on trees 
that have been grown in a certain section. 

22. Value of Trees Propagated by Various Methods. 

Some nurservmen claim that a tree made from a whole-root 


graft will be permanently a better tree than one made from a 
piece-root graft. They base this claim on the fact that a tree 
from the whole-root graft will have a tap root — that is, a root 
running straight down from the body of the tree — and will 
tend to grow deep; with a piece-root graft, the tap root will 
have been lost and the roots will tend to spread out in the soil. 
From the description of grafting operations as detailed in 
another Section, it will be seen that this claim is ridiculous, 
since in both cases the tap root has been cut; the only difference 
is that in one case the root has been cut a little shorter than in 
the other. As a matter of fact, the only advantage of the whole- 
root graft is to the nurseryman. Sometimes he is able by the 
system of grafting whole roots to secure a larger percentage of 
trees that will grade, say, 4 feet or over when they are 1 year old. 

Actual experience with whole-root and piece-root trees shows 
no difference in bearing qualities or ability to root deep in the 
soil. At the Missouri Experiment Station there are a nimiber 
of Jonathan trees, one-fourth of which were secured from piece 
roots taken from the first piece at the top, one-fourth from piece 
roots taken from the second piece from the top, one-fourth 
from piece roots taken from the third piece from the top, and 
one-fourth were from whole roots, the roots being actually 
whole roots and not large piece roots such as are commonly 
spoken of as whole roots. In every case the piece-root trees 
are as profitable as the whole-root trees. 

Some nurseries claim better results from budded trees than 
from grafted trees, the theory being that there is not a per- 
manent union between che stock and the scion in the case of 
the grafted trees. These claims are usually made by agents 
who, in many cases, have with them a portion of a grafted 
tree cut through lengthwise in such a way that the original 
graft shows and they often emphasize strongly the fact that 
this has never permanently united but has only been grown 
over with new wood. As a matter of fact, if a budded tree 
were cut through to show where the bud was inserted, it would 
be found that the old dead end of the stock is there just as it 
is in the case of the grafted tree, and it may be said that there 
is absolutely no fundamental difference between budded and 


grafted trees in this respect. Of course, if the budded tree 
were budded on a 2-year-old root instead of a 1-year-old root, 
it should be larger at the end of the first year, and a very large, 
strong, stocky whip is the most ideal tree to set; but if these 
can be secured from grafted trees they are equally as good as 
from budded trees. 

23. Home Propagation of Apple Trees. — If a man is 

sufhciently acquainted with the niursery business, it may at 
times be profitable for him to propagate his trees, especially 
if he has limited capital and is doing his own work on the farm. 
The stocks and scions can be secured much more cheaply than 
the trees, and he can care for them at odd times or by working 
overtime. But, as a rule, it is only in case of a man who has 
had considerable experience in this work that this course would 
be advisable, and then it will not pay unless he has a soil that 
will grow a strong, young tree. If a man is hiring his work 
done it wiU certainly not pay, for the reason that by growing 
them on a small scale the work will have to be done in a less 
efficient manner or more expensive manner than if they are 
grown on a large scale as in a nursery. Further, if there is 
lack of skill on the part of the workmen so that only a small 
percentage of the trees grown make good trees, home propa- 
gation is likely to be extremely unsatisfactory. 


24. Time of Planting'. — ^Apple trees may be planted in 
the spring or in the fall, and there has been much discussion 
as to whether spring planting or fall planting is best. In Can- 
ada and the northern part of the United States away from the 
Great Lakes, spring planting will probably always be most 
advisable, for in such climates there is likely to be consider- 
able winter injury to the young trees planted in the fall. Trees 
planted in the spring escape some adverse conditions that must 
be endured by trees planted in the fall, and unless there are 
some distinct advantages in fall planting, spring planting is 
usually preferred. However, it is well known that soil at a 


depth of a few inches remains warm in the fall long after the 
air becomes too cold for plant growth. Then, unless the roots 
have a rest period like the tops, it woiild be expected that some 
root growth would be made in the fall and thus the trees would 
be ready to start off into a more rapid growth in the spring. 
This matter has not been tested as extensively as it should be, 
but a few tests have indicated tmquestionably that in a mild 
climate such as that in Missouri, Illinois, Virginia, etc., there 
may be root growth in the fall. The Missoiiri Botanical 
Garden, cooperating with the Nebraska Experiment Station, 
foimd that in some cases root growth was made by apple 
trees in the fall when the trees were planted early in the fall, 
and the Missouri Experiment Station has confirmed this finding. 

The important test of fall planting, however, is the growth • 
made by the trees the season following as compared with spring- 
planted trees. As the result of the experiment at the Missouri 
Botanical Garden, the following figures v/ere given for the 
growth of the roots and top: The trees were dug on July 2 
and top and root growth measured. In the case of Ben Davis 
apples the average top growth for fall-planted trees was 
14 inches, and the root growth 8 inches; for spring-planted 
trees the top growth was 12 inches and the root growth 5 inches. 
In the case of fall-planted Shackleford trees, the top growth 
was 17 inches and the root growth 5 inches; for spring-planted 
trees the top growth was 7 inches and root growth 9 inches. 
In the case of fall-planted Winesap trees the top growth was 
12 inches and the root growth 8 inches; for spring-planted trees 
the top gro^vth was 7 inches and the root growth 6 inches. 
In the case of fall-planted Oldenburg trees the top growth was 
7 inches and the root growth 7 inches; for spring-planted trees 
the top growth was 10 inches and the root growth 8 inches. 

25. In experiments conducted at the University of Missouri 
beginning in 1908, the twig growth was measured and the 
diameter of the trees was determined by means of calipers 
in the fall of 1909 after all growth had ceased! The average 
linear growth of the fall-planted trees was 224to inches per 
tree, and the average increase in diameter was yf inch; the 


average linear growth of the spring-planted trees was 124 
inches, and the average increase in diameter was if inch. In 
the season of 1910, the total linear growth of the fall-planted 
trees was 80j feet and the average increase in diameter was 
1^ inches; the average linear growth of spring-planted trees 
was 63iV feet, and the average increase in diameter was 
IJ inches. It will be seen from this that the fall-planted trees 
showed remarkably better growth than the spring-planted 

In the latter experiments the trees planted in the spring had 
the best of conditions through the winter, which was a very 
mild one; the trees came through in excellent condition, were 
left standing in the nursery where they grew, and were trans- 
planted from the nursery to the orchard, so that there was the 
least possible shock from the transplanting. 

Such a course as this is seldom if ever practicable in the case 
of an orchardist buying trees from a nursery. Trees pur- 
chased for spring planting are almost always those that have 
been dug by nurserymen the preceding fall and stored in bins, 
cellars, or storehouses through the winter. Although this 
method of handling trees is absolutely necessary in any nursery 
that does a large business, it is objectionable for the reason 
that the trees are kept at a comparatively high temperature 
during the winter and the process of respiration that goes on 
under this condition tends to use up the plant-food stored up 
in the tree, and in this way the food available for spring growth 
is reduced. In this respect fall planting is preferable to spring 
planting, for fall-planted trees do not pass the winter in stor- 
age but in the orchard, where the temperature is not favorable ■ 
to respiratory action, hence the supply of plant-food is not 
materially reduced. However, it is never advisable to plant 
in the fall if the soil is very dry. Under such conditions there 
is a risk that the soil will contmue dry and in this case the trees 
are likely to die during the winter. If the soil is in moist 
condition at the time of planting, however, there is little 
danger that it will become too dry for the trees during the 
winter, since the soil does not dry out greatly through the 


26. For spring planting, which will in most sections "of 
the United States and Canada be more satisfactory than fall 
planting, nursery stock should be ordered the preceding fall, 
and it is likely that in most cases fall deHvery of the stock will 
also be advisable. In extreme northern sections fall delivery 
may not be advisable, because where winter temperatures are 
extremely low there is a better chance of the trees enduring 
them without injury in the nurseryman's storehouse than in 
a cellar or improvised storehouse belonging to the orchard- 
ist. However, in fruit sections where the winters are not so 
rigorous, the trees can usually be kept through the winter 
in better condition outside than in the nurseryman's store- 
house. Furthermore, by ordering in the fall, the buyer is 
more certain to get the trees grown by the nursery from which 
he is ordering, and can thus know something about the 
conditions under which they are grown; in the spring the 
nursery is lilcely to be out of certain varieties that may be 
desired and in such cases the trees would perhaps be secured 
from some other nursery. 

27. Some special precautions in the storage of nursery 
stock between the time of delivery and the time of planting 
is usually necessary. In most cases trees will be received from 
the nursery all the way from one week to several weeks before 
it is desired to begin planting. But even if the orchardist is 
ready to begin planting the very day the trees are received 
it will probably be necessary to store some of them while others 
are being planted, and unless this storage is under suitable con- 
ditions great injury may be done to the young trees. Orchard- 
ists commonly resort to what is known as heeling-in as a means 
of preventing injury to nursery stock when it is not possible 
or advisable to plant it immediately on its receipt from the 

To heel-in trees, a trench is dug with a straight side against 
which the roots are placed and a slanting side on which the 
tops lie, as shown in Fig. 2 (a). This trench should be dug 
approximately 1 foot deep, in a well-drained place. All bundles 
of trees should be opened and the trees distributed along the 



trench so that the earth can be packed firmly around each 
tree. The soil should be fiUed in over the roots and up at least 
6 or 8 inches on the trunks. A row of nursery trees heeled-in 
according to the plan described is shown in Fig. 2 (b) . 

It has been observed that few men will take as much care 
to heel-in trees as should be taken, and doubtless many trees 



are seriously injured in this way. If a tree is thus injured it 
may, in time, recover from the effects, but it can scarcely make 
as good a tree as if proper attention had been given to the 
details of heeling-in. 

28. Sometimes, when the trees are secured in the fall and 
well-drained soil is available, it pays to cover both the roots 
and the tops of the trees. The advantage of this is not alone 


in preventing freezing, but also in preventing the starting of 
the trees into growth by warm days in winter. Heeled-in in 
this way they do not reach a temperature above that of the 
soil, which, during the winter, is never high enough to start 
growth. This is a very desirable method in southern apple- 
growing sections to prevent starting growth during winter 
if the trees are not set in the fall, and is also very desirable in 
extreme northern sections as a means of preventing winter 
injury to the trees. But, as stated, it is not permissible except 
in localities where well-drained soil is available. 

29. Distance for Planting Apple Trees. — The ques- 
tion of proper distance for planting apple trees is one that 
deserves careful consideration by the man who is putting out 
an orchard. Undoubtedly many beginners rnake the mistake 
of getting the trees close together. With average varieties, 

25 feet apart each way may be considered the minimiim dis- 
tance, and 50 feet apart each way is about the maximum, but 
this latter distance is certainly too great if it is intended to 
keep the trees down to manageable size. In rich soils probably 
35 feet may be taken as an average distance for planting, 
although in many soils this may be a greater distance than is 
necessary if the trees receive the proper repressive pruning. 
It is unquestionably a serious matter to get trees planted too 
close. It is not uncommon to see orchards in which the trees 
are so close that most of them fail to set good bloom, and in 
sections in the same orchard where a few trees are missing the 
trees that had more room may have set a good crop of bloom. 
Just what the distance should be under good system of repres- 
sive pruning has not been carefully determined, but experience 
indicates that an average of 25 feet for thin hill soil will give 
desirable results; for a soil where trees make a rather vigorous 
growth, 30 or 35 feet may be taken as a more desirable distance. 


30. A number of different systems of planting with refer- 
ence to the number of trees per acre, the spacing of trees in the 
rows and the rows in the orchard, are in use among practical 



orchardists. The most important systems will be described 
in succeeding paragraphs, but no attempt will be made to 
enumerate aU of Lhe various modifications of these systems 
that are made to meet special conditions. It is well for the 
beginner to study the plans outlined and determine for himself 
which is best suited to his conditions, for it cannot be said that 
any one is unqualifiedly best. 

Of the planting systems that are described subsequently 
some permit the planting of a greater number of trees on a 
given area than others. In Table I are given figures that will 
enable an orchardist to determine approximately how many 
trees may be planted on a given area by the various systems. 
In the case of small plantings or plantings on plots of irreg- 
ular shape it may not be possible to get the full number 
specified in the table, but except under such conditions the 
figures are accurate enough for practical purposes. 


Distance Apart 

Square System 
































































31. Square System. — Doubtless the system most com- 
monly used is what is known as the square system, in which the 
trees are arranged in squares. In Fig. 3 is shown a small tract 
laid out for planting trees by the square system, with some of 
the trees in place at a. The distance between the trees in a row 
is the same as the distance between rows. As before stated, this 
system of planting is extensively followed, and its simplicity 
makes it well adapted for inexperienced orchardists. Never- 
theless, it has its disadvantages, one of the chief of which is the 
fact that it does not distribute the trees evenly over the area 
planted. The trees are all the same distance apart in the rows 




Fig. 3 

and cross-rows, but in a diagonal direction the distance between 
trees is considerably greater. For example, in Fig. 3 if the trees 
are planted 30 feet apart in the rows, the rows will also be 30 feet 
apart but the distance between alternate trees in two adjacent 
rows will be somewhat in excess of 42 feet, and if the trees are 
planted 40 feet apart in the rows the diagonal distance between 
trees will be upwards of 56 feet. 

If fillers, which subject is discussed elsewhere in the Section, 
are used in the square system of planting, one plan is to alter- 
nate fillers with permanents in each row. Thus, in Fig. 3 the 
trees marked / would be fillers. When the fillers are removed 




the permanent trees are still in the square system but the rows 
and cross-rows will run diagonally with the original rows and 
the distance between rows and trees will be the diagonal of 
the original squares. Other methods of planting fillers in the 
square system are discussed under the subject of fillers. 

32. Quincunx System. — ^A plan of orchard planting known 
as the quincunx system is in favor with some orchardists, but 
it cannot be said that the system is extensively used. As sug- 
gested by the prefix quin, m.eaning five, the trees are planted 
in fives. Four trees are planted in a square as in the square 
system and a fifth tree is placed in the center of the square. 
Fig. 4 is a diagram of a field partly lined off to indicate the 


Fig. 4 

points at which trees are to be planted. When this plan of 
planting is followed the usual course is to set permanent trees 
in the comers and a filler in the center of the square. It will 
be seen from the diagram that after the removal of the fillers 
the remaining trees are in the square system. The distance 
between trees in the square will be the same and the distance 
between the filler and the trees in the square will be one-half 
of the diagonal of the square. Thus, if the trees are 30 feet 
apart in the square, the diagonal will be about 42 feet and 


the center tree will be a little more than 21 feet from each 
comer tree. 

33. Hexagonal System. — ^Another plan of orchard plant- 
ing is known as the hexagonal system. By this system 
the trees of the second row alternate or break joints with those 
of the first row and those of the third row alternate with those 
of the second. The trees are all the same distance apart, 
but the distance between the rows is less than the distance 
between trees in the rows. The diagram in Fig. 5 will show 
how this condition is brought about. In this case it is assumed 
that the trees are planted 30 feet apart in the row. The first 
tree in the second row is set opposite a point midway between 
the first and the second trees in the first row and 30 feet from 
each of them . The second tree of the second row is set opposite 

30 Feei- Firsi- ffoM 

Fig. 5 

a point midway between the second and the third tree of the 
first row and 30 feet from each of them, and the same plan is 
continued throughout the orchard. Each tree is 30 feet from 
adjacent trees in the same row and also 30 feet from adjacent 
trees in adjoining rows, but the distance between the rows them- 
selves is a little short of 26 feet. This system permits the plant- 
ing of about 15 per cent, more trees on a given area than the 
square system. 

The hexagonal system of planting is desirable for the reason 
that it distributes the trees evenly over the field, which is not 
the case in either of the systems previously described, but it is 
objectionable if fillers are to be used, because in this case it is 
difficult to place the fillers in such positions as to leave the per- 
manent trees in a desirable arrangement after removing the 



former. One of the plans that will leave a regular arrangement 
is to make each alternate row all fillers and alternate fillers with 
permanent trees in the remaining rows. Such an arrangement 
is illustrated in Fig. 6, in which the large trees represent per- 
manent ones and the small trees are the fillers. An examination 
of the diagram will make it clear that the removal of all the 
fillers sacrifices such a large percentage of the trees in the 
orchard that such a plan is obviously objectionable. As a 
means of avoiding this sacrifice different methods of thinning 
the trees are frequently resorted to and often the result is that 

S5--^s— -t.#— ^- 




i—i - «S — I - ■ 

■S3— j-- 

Fig. 6 

some fillers are allowed to remain so long that many of the 
trees are seriously injured by crowding. 

34. Combination Systems. — Not infrequently a com- 
bination of two of the systems described is found to be better 
adapted to the needs of the orchardist than any one of them 
alone. One such combination plan is described herewith, but 
others may be worked out. The plan referred to is illustrated 
in Fig. 7, from which it will be seen that the planting is in the 
square system, with trees 20 feet apart. In the odd-numbered 
rows, that is the first, third, fifth, etc., fillers are alternated 
with permanent trees. In the even-numbered rows fillers and 
half fillers are alternated, the temi half filler' signifying a tree 



that is to remain in the orchard longer than a filler but is iilti- 
mately to be removed in order to give the permanent trees 
room. In the diagram, permanent trees are indicated by p, 
half fillers by h.f., and fillers by/. The fillers may be taken out 

— eo'-o'- -I- eo'-o" 4 

(St 43h- 










Fig. 7 





by removing alternate diagonal rows. When this is done the 
remaining trees are in the qmncunx system. Later, when the 
half fillers are removed, the remaining trees are in the square 
sysbem, the trees being 40 feet apart. A point in favor of this 
system of planting is that if the permanent trees for any 


reason fail to make a satisfactory showing before the fillers are 
removed the latter may be retained as permanent trees and 
the unsatisfactory trees removed. 


35. The interest, taxes, and cost of cultivating 40 acres of 
land with, say, 50 trees to the acre will be as much as with 100 
trees to the acre, and while the trees are young the expense 
of pruning and spraying is comparatively small. If no profit- 
able crops other than fruit can be grown between the rows, 
and this will be the case in some hilly, stony land, it may some- 
times be desirable to plant what are known as fillers — that is, 
plant other trees in addition to those it is intended to leave 
permanently. These fillers may be of the same variety as the .i 
trees meant to be kept permanently, or they may be some 
other variety that comes into bearing earlier. In all cases 
the intention is to get as many crops as possible from the fillers 
and when the trees get so they will interfere, to cut out the fill-, 
ers, leaving only the permanent trees. It is obvious that the use 
of fillers may materially increase the income from an orchard 
during the early years of its life, but there may be another 
advantage. For example, a man may not be certain which of 
two varieties he prefers to have as his permanent trees. If he 
plants them alternately in the row each of them will be better 
known by the time they come into bearing and he can be more 
certain which he prefers to keep for his permanent trees. The 
danger, however, in the use of fillers is that if the orchard con- 
taining fillers is profitable, the orchardist will be extremely 
reluctant to cut the latter out soon enough and may leave them 
until the vigor of the permanent trees- is impaired or the form 
of the trees injured. 

Some plans for the planting of fillers in an orchard have been 
suggested in connection with the descriptions of the various 
systems of orchard planting, but others may be used. 

If it is planned to use the square system, the fillers may be 
planted in the row in one direction, and usually the rows are 
best left the full distance apart in the other direction. Then, 


supposing that the permanent trees are 30 feet apart, the 
rows would be 15 feet apart one way and 30 feet apart the 
other, as in Fig. 8. It is possible, also, to insert the fillers 
so that the temporary planting will be in the quincunx 

p f p 

» '^ <© -Q » ^ ^ Q — 

Fig. 8 

system and the permanent orchard, after the removal of the 
fillers, will be in the square system. Thus, if the permanent 
trees are 30 feet apart each way, a filler may be planted in the 
center of each of the squares, which will give a quincunx system, 

p p p 

^. /pV-Jo'-o"/l/w-/vip\ 

\. /' \ 40 '\ 

, , I Ml -^"l 

/ \ / \ I 

Fig. 9 

as shown in Fig. 9, and when it is necessary to cut out the fillers, 
it wiU be an easy matter to simply cut out these complete 
rows. By this system there is the further advantage that no 
trees of the fillers will be closer than 21 feet from the perma- 
nent trees. If an orchard is on hill land, however, this may 


necessitate temporary plowing in the wrong direction over the 
hill. In this case planting between the trees in the permanent 
rows would perhaps be preferable. 

In planting an orchard that is to contain fillers, it is advis- 
able to plant one variety at a time, thus reducing the chance 
for mistakes. 

36. Peaclies as Fillers. — Sometimes, instead of using 
different -varieties of apples as fillers, peaches are planted 
between the apple trees. Advocates of this practice point out 
the fact that, as the life of the peach^ree is much shorter than 
that of the apple tree, the former may go through ics full bear- 
ing period before it needs to be cut out of an apple orchard. 
If the peaches and apples are to receive the same kind of cul- 
tivation, this practice may be desirable. However, it necessi- 
tates going into the orchard at different times for the spraying ; 
that is, the apples would be sprayed at one time and the peaches 
at another, or with a different mixture. A further disadvantage 
is that the land where an apple orchard is to be located will 
seldom be altogether desirable for peach growing. Further- 
more, it is likely that in many cases the apple trees will be 
in the way at the time of picking the peaches. These objections 
may not be serious, and in some cases it may be desirable to 
plant peaches or some other stone fruits, as fillers in an apple 
orchard, but orchardists who have tried the plan have found 
various little inconveniences that they did not expect, and 
have generally found it undesirable to mix these fruits in the 
same planting. 

37. Pears as Fillers. — Pears may at times be used for 
fillers, since pear trees tend to grow upright. However, there 
are some objections to this practice. One of these is that pears 
are almost as long-lived as apples and do not come into bearing 
much earlier. Another is that if the apples are varieties that 
are subject to blight, there would be a very great disadvantage 
in having pears in the orchard, since they may infect the apple 
trees with the disease. 

38. Small Fruits as Fillers. — In sections where small 
fruits can be grown profitably, they are planted between the 


trees instead of using tree fruits as fillers. The advantage of 
this plan is that the orchardist can begin to get something from 
the small fruits much sooner than from the tree fruits ; and they 
are free from some of the disadvantages of tree fillers; espe- 
cially, there is no danger that they will not be cut out in time. 
Some orchardists have become wealthy on the strawberries 
grown between apple trees before they came into bearing, and 
thus if for any reason, the grower should fail to secure profits 
from the trees, he is still financially ahead. Strawberries are 
desirable in an orchard, since they require the cultivation that 
is adapted to the requirements of the orchard, and are not 
greatly injurious to the soil. Strawberries, however, are profit- 
able only where the grower is reasonably near a local market 
so that they can be shipped by express or hauled into market, 
or in a section where there are many other people growing 
strawberries and the growers can cooperate in getting their 
fruit on the market. 

Blackberries, also, have been grown very satisfactorily 
between apple-tree rows, but they are not as desirable as straw- 
berries, since they present more difficulty in getting through 
the orchard for spraying, etc., and in most sections they are 
not as profitable as strawberries. 

Other bush fruits have been used with various degrees of 
success. Some orchardists grow gooseberries in an orchard, 
and find them fairly satisfactory. The shade afforded by the 
trees seems in some cases to benefit the gooseberry plants, so 
that they make a better growth than they would on open 

39. Removal of Fillers. — The question of tillage after 
the trees begin to reach good size brings up the question of 
when to remove fillers, if temporary trees have been used 
between the permanent ones. The general advice may be 
given to cut out the fillers as soon as the outer spread of their 
branches begins to reach the outer spread of the branches of 
the adjacent trees. The tendency on the part of the grower is 
to allow the fillers to stand too long ; he wants to get one more 
crop from them. Frequently, they are allowed to remain until 


they themselves are crowded so they cease to produce well 
and until in turn they crowd and injure the permanent trees. 
The orchardist should be prepared to remove the fillers promptly 
as soon as the permanent trees need all the room. Ordinarily, 
it is a simple matter for the orchardist to tell by observation 
when two adjacent trees begin to interfere with each other's 
best development. 


40. Plan of the Orchard. — In laying out a large orchard, 
it is not best to have the entire orchard in one block; it should 
be laid out into several blocks with roadways around them. 
Usually there should be roadways around every 40 acres and 
in addition to this there should be a wide row probably every 
eight or ten rows. For example, if the distance the trees are 
set is 25 feet, probably the tenth or eleventh row should be 
35 feet, or if the trees are to become large and are set 35 feet 
apart, the distance between the tenth and eleventh rows should 
be 40 feet, though in many cases with the trees 35 feet apart 
they will not become so large that these wider rows will be 

There are several reasons for planting an orchard in blocks of 
about ten rows as suggested. In hatding out the brush from 
pruning, it is often practical to use a hay frame and haul large 
spreading loads. In this case hauling between the ordinary 
orchard rows would injiire some of the limbs. Furthermore, 
it is convenient to get through with loads of fruit if wider roads 
are left at intervals. Another reason for planting the trees 
in blocks is to seciu-e pollination. Many of the varieties used 
commercially must be pollinated from some other variety. 
Thus, with the Jonathan, it is necessary to have some variety 
Hke Ben Davis, Delicious, or Wealthy to pollinate it. It is 
best to alternate in blocks rather than in rows for the sake of 
convenience. Ten rows is here suggested as a size of the block, 
because so far as experience indicates, five rows seems to be 
as far as pollination is satisfactorily accomplished. In a plant- 
ing of ten rows of Ben Davis or Delicious, and ten rows of 
Jonathan, then ten rows of Ben Davis or Delicious, and so on, 


there will be five rows of Jonathan pollinated well from the 
other variety in each direction. 

41. Preparation of Soil for Planting. — In planting 
young trees, it is desirable to secure vigorous vegetable growth 
just as in the case of com or any other crop that may be grown. 
It is therefore desirable to have the land in as good a condition 
for rapid vegetative growth as it is possible to get it without 
the expenditure of an excessive amount of money. There may 
be occasional cases where it does not pay to go to the expense of 
working the land into a good state of fertility and cultivation 
before planting, particularly if the soil is light and gravelly. 
In m'any cases, even though the soil is very poor, an excellent 
growth can be secured on the young trees by the use of fertil- 
izers. However, in the case of a heavy clay soil that is badly 
worn, the fertihzers do not show the immediate benefits that 
they do with hght soils. For this reason it is more important 
with clay soils to get the soil into a good state of fertility and 
cultivation before the orchard is planted, even if to do this it 
is necessary to grow crops like cowpeas for a year or two before 
planting the orchard. 

42. Most orchard soils are timber soils rather than prairie 
soils, and if it is new land, clearing will be the first operation 
in preparation for orchard planting. If the timber is very 
large and the soil rich and the style of orcharding is to be 
intensive, that is if a good deal of money is to be expended on 
an acre and there is rather certain prospect for a good return, 
it will pay to get the stumps out of the land while clearing. 
In this case the cost of clearing is high, particularly if there are 
many large trees. In certain districts of the Northwest where 
clearing the land of the stumps is practiced, the cost varies 
from $75 to $200 an acre. With many hill soils in some apple 
sections of the country, such an expenditure would not be 
justified by the returns that can be hoped for from an acre. 
Where the land is merely cleared without pulling or blasting 
the stumps, the cost of clearing will range from $8 to possibly 
$40 an acre, depending on the kind of timber. In some cases 
the timber on the land will pay for the clearing, though with a 


great deal of orchard soil the timber on the land is not valuable. 

For best results the ground should be broken deep before the 
planting of the trees. As a rule, it may be said that the heavier 
the clay, the deeper it should be broken, and on an average 
from 5 to 7 inches would be approximately the proper depth to 

Tile drainage is not generally necessary in an orchard, because 
soils that are of such a nature as to require such treatment 
are, as a rule, unsuitable for orchard purposes. Furthermore, 
tile drainage is likely to be rather inefficient in an orchard, for 
the reason that the roots of the trees will penetrate the drains 
and clog them. 

43. Trees that are to be planted in the spring should be set 
out as early as possible, and, as it is a well-known fact that 
fall-plowed land becomes warm and dry enough to work in 
the spring sooner than spring-plowed land, the ground should 
be broken in the fall, and, if possible, it is advisable to leave it 
rough until spring. It is usually better, just before planting 
time in the spring, to work the ground down thoroughly, not 
only so it will be in condition that the trees can be set more 
easily, but because thoroughly worked-down soil makes marking 
off of the land much easier and much more accurate. 

If fall planting is to be practiced, it is better for the soil in 
most cases, especially on hill land, if it can be left rough after 
plowing. If it is worked down smooth in the fall there is likely 
to be more or less injury from settling down the hill in winter 
and also from washing; furthermore, the soil will not work so 
well in the spring. More care will be necessary in setting the 
trees if the ground is not harrowed down thoroughly in the 
fall when planted, but they can be set in this way and the addi- 
tional cost is not great enough to pay for working the soil down 
in the fall and certainly not great enough to pay for the cost of 
working it down in the fall and breaking it again in the spring. 
If a crop is to be grown in the orchard this breaking in spring 
would certainly be necessary, since the ground will settle much 
more if worked down in the fall than if it is left rough. How- 
ever, under some conditions it will be nearly impossible to get 


straight rows at the time of planting if the soil is left very 
rough. In this case a light harrow should be used that will 
only level oJff the rough places without working the ground deep. 
In an old, worn soil in which for any reason the trees wiU 
not respond readily to a small, inexpensive quantity of fertilizer 
applied to them, it may in some cases pay to summer fallow, 
that is, to let a growth of weeds get started and plow them 
under during the simimer, letting the soil stand bare until cime 
to plant the trees. Such practices as these may be further 
desirable, both in clay soil like that mentioned, and in a very 
poor, sandy soil in which it is imperative to have a certain 
quantity of vegetable matter worked into the soil to get satis- 
factory growth. 

44. Preparation of Nursery Trees for Planting. — ^At 

time of planting, a certain amount of pruning will be necessary 
on both the top and the roots of the trees. Pruning of the 
top is required, first, for the reason that it is necessary to 
reduce the evaporating surface of the tree, since the ability of 
the plant to secure water has been reduced by the breaking 
up of the root system in transplanting. If no pruning were 
done the leaf surface would become disproportionate to the root 
system and consequently evaporation from the leaves would 
be much more rapid than absorption by the roots. Another 
consideration that requires pruning of the top is that an 
unpruned tree is much more likely to be affected by strong 
winds than one that has had a part of the top removed, for the 
roots, not being well established, do not afford a secure anchor- 
age and the tree is likely to be blowri to an inchned position. 
If the top is reduced there will be less leaf surface exposed to 
the wind, hence trees so treated are able to withstand strong 
winds. A third object of pruning at this time is to remove 
undesirable limbs and leave only those that are well spaced and 
that will give a mature tree of the desired form. 

Small 1-year-old trees usually require nothing more than 
cutting off the end, and if the wood has ripened up well in the 
nursery even this may not be necessary. Large 1-year-old trees 
should be cut back to a 3-foot or a 3|-foot length, as shown at a 



in Fig. 10; 2-year-old trees, however, require more pruning. In 
general, they should be cut back to 3^ or 4 feet, superfluous 
limbs removed, and the limbs that are allowed to remain should 
be cut back about one-half of their length. In Fig. 11 dotted 
lines represent the approximate points at which cutting should 
be done on an average 2-year-old tree. 
After deciding what limbs are desired co 
make a symmetrical, well-balanced tree, 
all others should be removed. 

Regardless of whether the tree is 1 or 2 
years old, the necessary pruning on the 
roots is to cut off the ragged ends, thus 
leaving smooth ends instead of the 
broken ones left by the tree digger; 
and if there is a thick mass of fibrous 

roots, to cut out some of chem. 

In the case of trees with very 

long roots, it is entirely desirable 

to cut them back so that a hole 

not more than 12 or 15 inches 

square will be large enough to 
jk** set them. There is no appar- 
ent advantage in having very 

long roots on the trees when 

they are set, and it is much 

better to have short roots than 

to have long roots twisted or 

bent in the setting. 

Fig. 11 

Fig. 10 

45. Dipping of Trees. 

Some orchardists dip the tops 

and even sometimes the roots 

of nursery trees in hme-sulphur 
solution or miscible oil just before planting. The object of 
this treatment is to kill all San Jose scale that may by any chance 
be present, also woolly aphis or other injurious insects of this 
class. Experience has shown, however, that it is dangerous to 
dip the roots in lime-sulphur, and slight injury may sometimes 


come from dipping the tops, though dipping the tops down to 
the roots may be practiced without serious injury if care is 
exercised. The Geneva, New York, Experiment Station made 
thorough tests of dipping trees, using standard Hme-sulphur, 
from which it was evident that even wetting the roots with 
hme-sulphur caused serious injury. Any treatment that causes 
injury that can be detected on the tree is certainly to be 
avoided, for slight injury that is not detected may still be 
enough to weaken the growth of the tree, and if there is any 
one thing that the orchardist should work for it is a vigorous 
growth of the tree the first few years. It is safer to use trees 
that have been inspected by competent inspectors and to avoid 
the processes like dipping and fumigation as far as possible. 

46. Locating Trees in Straight Rows. — ^The surest 
method of securing absolutely straight rows in an orchard is 
to have a surveyor locate every tree, and this is sometimes 
practiced in sections where the trees are sufficiently long-lived 
and profitable and where the question of appearance is of suf- 
ficient importance to justify such an expensive method. It is 
likely that in most cases, however, the expense of this method 
will be prohibitive. One of the most convenient methods of 
securing straight rows in square planting is to locate the out- 
side rows around the field carefully, probably by the aid of a 
surveyor if the fences are not known to be on the line or if 
the lines of the field are not definitely known, and to set a 
row of stakes with one stake where each tree is to be located 
in these rows around the field. If the lines of the field are 
definitely known any intelligent man's judgment will suggest 
methods of getting these stakes in the right place around the 
field. Then through the center of the field in each direction, 
another row of stakes is set as shown in Fig. 12. 

With a field laid out in this way, there are always two stakes 
available in two directions for determining the proper location 
for each tree in the orchard. For example, the proper location 
for a tree may be determined by sighting across stakes as 
indicated by the lines in Fig. 12. The usual method is to set 
a peg at the point where each tree should go as determined 




by sighting; but since the stake must be removed when the 
hole for the tree is dug a planting board is commonly used to 







J . 




• 1 



Fig. 12 

get each tree in its proper place. In Fig. 13 is shown a planting 
board by means of which a tree can be planted exactly where 
the stake originally stood. The notch of the board is fitted 

Fig. 13 

against the peg that represents the place for the tree and then 
two pegs are driven into the ground through the holes in the 
ends of the board. These pegs are left until the hole for the 
tree is dug, and when the tree is to be set in the hole the board 




is again placed on the pegs so that the holes in the ends pass 
over these pegs. The method of using the planting board is 
clearly shown in Fig. 14. 

47. A cheaper method of laying out an orchard' is to use 
a team and some form of plow, probably a bull tongue in most 
cases, and mark off the rows in each direction, sighting to the 
stakes that have been previously set around and across the 
planting as mentioned. This method is probably as often 

Fig. 14 

resorted to as any other. It is also possible to locate the trees 
without using either the system of marking or the planting 
board but simply by sighting to stakes in each direction at the 
time the tree is set. This method, however, is not so accurate 
as the others, especially if the land is not level. 

The field may be laid off with a plow in each direction by 
using stakes that are set at the time of plowing. That is, say 
an orchardist is laying off a planting east and west, the first 
row is carefully located by three or four stakes set east and 
west. Then, as the man doing the plowing passes the stake, 
he measures off the proper distance to the next row and sets 


the stake over to it. This will give him a line of stakes to come 
back on in making the next row. It will be best to have an 
assistant to help set the first end. The rows are located in 
the other direction in the same way. Although this may not 
locate the trees with mathematical precision, under most con- 
ditions it is accurate enough. 

48. In some cases the trees are located by means of a wire 
such as is used with a check-rower com planter. A row is 
first carefully laid out, and each tree in the row located, say 
east and west at each end of the field; the wire should then be 
stretched across the field north and south with some sort of 
markers on it so spaced that each marker will represent the 
correct position for a tree. The place for each tree may be 
marked with a stake or a hole may be dug before the wire is 

In hilly land it may be difficult to get the trees in straight 
rows up and down the hill, though this is desirable on account 
of the appearance. However, in all cases it is advisable to go 
around the hill rather than over it, and it may be necessary to 
set the trees in circles around the hill rather than in straight 
rows across it. In this case the contour of the hill will generally 
determine the method used for locating the trees. 

49. Where trees are set by the hexagonal system, an excel- 
lent way to locate the trees and get them in straight rows is 
to locate the trees in the first row by means of surveying 
instruments or some other accurate method. Then, with a 
large triangle of wire, the length of each side of which is the 
distance apart the trees are desired, the other trees may be 
located. One point of the triangle is placed at the first tree 
in the first row and one at the second tree in the same row, 
making the points come exactly to the tree; then when the 
triangle is drawn out and held level the other point is at the 
right position for the first tree of the second row. For locating 
the second tree, a point of the triangle is placed at the second 
tree in the first row and a point at the third tree in the same 
row; then the other point locates the second tree in the second 
row. This, of course, can be carried on throughout the orchard. 



If the orchard is in hilly land, the stakes used for locating 
the trees should be tall, and the triangle should be held in 
a horizontal position when locations for trees are being 

50. Tools Used in Planting.— The tool most commonly 
used in planting is a hght spade. If the soil is stony, work can 
be done more rapidly by cutting off the comers of the spade 
as shown in Fig. 15 (a) . In very stony land a mattock or grub- 
bing hoe such as is shown in (b) 
may perhaps be a better tool to set 
trees with than a spade. 

Some persons advocate blasting 
the holes for trees. A crowbar or 
other heavy iron bar is used to make 
the hole about 3 feet deep and a 
small charge of dynamite, usually 
half a stick, is exploded in the hole; 
then with a spade a hole is dug for 
the tree. lb is claimed that such 
an explosion tends to break up any 
layer of hard subsoil that may be in 
the soil and to favor better growth 
of the tree roots. A great many 
orchardists report good results from 
this method, but it has not been 
sufficiently tested by accurate ex- 
periments to justify positive indorse- 
ment of it. There is reason to 
believe that in some soils it will give good results, for trees 
imiformly make a better growth the first and second summers 
on porous, well-drained soil where the roots can go deep than 
they do on soils lacking these characteristics. If suitable con- 
ditions can be produced by blasting it would seem desirable. 

51. Handling of Trees. — ^At the time of setting it is 
important to have enough trees on hand to set the entire plant- 
ing that is staked off, and it is usually desirable to take trees 
enough to set say four or five rows and heel them in about five 

Fig. 15 


rows from the first row and carry this on throughout the plant- 
ing, so that the trees will not have to be carried a long distance 
during the planting process. In very large plantings it is 
customary to have the trees in wagons and have the man in 
the wagon throw them out and a boy carry them to the holes as 
fast as the men can set them. In no case should the roots of 
the trees be left exposed to the air until they become dry. It 
is much better if the roots of the trees at the time of setting 
are moist enough that the soil will stick to them. If only one 
man is setting, the roots of not more than ten or twleve trees 
should be exposed at one time unless weather conditions are 
very favorable, as when the air is saturated with moisture. 
All other trees should be carefully heeled-in by the method 
previously mentioned. Of course, they need not be heeled-in 
as carefully if they are to be planted within a few hours as if 
they are to stay several days in the trench. As a rule, water 
is used around the roots at planting time in only very small 
plantings. If the soil is in good condition with reference to 
moisture and the planting is done carefully, the use of water 
is not generally necessary or even desirable. 

In very few cases should trees be set any deeper than they 
were set in the nru-sery. In a very porous, warm soil it may 
be well to set them slightly deeper, but deep setting, especially 
in a soil that tends to be compact, is likely to break the ends 
of the roots. Furthermore, when the soil is so cold that new 
roots start very slowly and the soil is not so well supplied with 
the necessary elements of plant-food, deep setting is not to 
be recommended. Some persons practice deep setting to keep 
the trees from being blown to a leaning position, but this is 
not to be recommended, for if the top of the tree has been suf- 
ficiently pruned and the tree is set firmly it is not likely to be 
blown to a leaning position.. In fact, the tree will probably 
become braced sooner and firmer if it is set shallow, for under 
this condition new roots will start more quickly than if planted 

In setting trees, it is best to place the part having the most 
branches to the southwest in sections where there is trouble 
from sun scald on young trees. This is more likely to give a 


shade for the body of the tree against the southwest sun and 
thus afford some protection against sun scald for the first and 
second winters. 

The usual procedure in setting a tree is to grasp it with one 
hand and hold it upright in the position it is to occupy per- 
manently, work in some earth with a spade with the other 
hand until the tree is firm enough to stand erect, and then 
throw in some loose earth and grasp the tree and pull up on 
it slightly, pressing the earth Very firmly with the feet. In 
some cases it is best to throw a spade of loose earth over the 
pressed earth at the top to act as a mulch to retain the moisture. 
Of course, this process of setting should never be done when 
the soil is too wet to work if the best results are expected. 
Especially is this true with clay soil which may become cemented 
around the tree. 


(PART 2) 



1. Immediately after the establishment of an apple orchard 
the question of the management of the property comes up for 
consideration, and the subject is one to which the owner will 
do well to give his best thought and attention. It is, of course, 
true that some orchards are failures because of unsuitable loca- 
tion or of improper planting or of choice of unsatisfactory 
varieties, but, undoubtedly, most orchard failures are due to 
poor management. In this Section attention is given to the 
subjects of tillage, pruning, thinning, fertilization, and the reno- 
vation of old orchards. The first four subjects pertain to the 
yearly routine in all orchards, and much of an orchardist's 
success depends on his skill in carrying out these operations. 
The subject of the renovation of old orchards is of import- 
ance in this connection, for the reason that many new orchard 
plantings are put out on farms that already have on them old 
orchards in a more or less neglected and run-down condition. 
Apple-orchard management includes also the subjects of spray- 
ing, harvesting, marketing, and irrigating. The importance of 
the subjects of spraying, harvesting, and marketing, however, 
warrants their consideration in separate Sections, and as the 
subject of irrigating of apple orchards is not of importance 
except in certain restricted localities, it also will be considered 
in a separate Section. 






2. Tillage of an orchard during the first year after plant- 
ing the trees is no doubt more important than in any subse- 
quent year in the history of the orchard. It is of the 
greatest importance that the trees have a good, healthy start 
and tillage the first year is favorable to a prompt and vigor- 
ous growth of the trees. This fact will be more evident when 
it is considered that soil is cold in spring and that it slowly 
warms up to a good depth. Often newly transplanted trees 
come out in leaf before much growth begins. Not infrequently 
newly transplanted trees leaf out well, then apparently stand 
still for a while until the spring or early siunmer is well 
advanced. Usually this condition is due to the fact that the 
beginning of the root growth is retarded by a cold soil. The 
atmosphere warms up more rapidly than the soil and starts 
the buds while the roots below are comparatively inactive. 
Early and frequent cultivation helps to warm the soil to a 
greater depth and to stimulate root growth. In order to 
start the growth of the root system when growth of the tree 
above starts early, spring plowing is desirable. 

3. The depth of spring plowing depends largely on the 
character of the soil. In loose sandy soils, plowing may be 
shallow. It is never desirable to plow much deeper than the 
surface soil, for turning up raw unweathered subsoil leaves an 
unsatisfactory surface for subsequent tillage. Land that has 
not previously been worked to sufficient depth should not be 
plowed deep suddenly. It is best to increase the depth of 
the soil gradually by plowing a Uttle deeper each year. 

Care should be taken never to plow deep enough to injure 
the roots of the yotmg trees. In certain soils and localities, 
trees root deep and deep plowing may be safe, but in other 
soils shallow root growth is made and deep plowing is not 
permissible. In this case it may be advisable to plow the 


land deeper midway between the rows beyond the spread of 
the root system, and more shallow adjacent to the tree row 
where there is danger of cutting the tree roots. 

4. After plowing in spring, shallow tillage should be main- 
tained throughout the growing season. This work should 
be done with the type of harrow that will best maintain a 
good dust mulch. A crust should never be allowed to form 
on the soil. If prolonged rains fall on a moderately heavy 
soil and weeds get a start it may be necessary to use a disk or 
cutaway harrow to break the surface. In mellow soils, a 
spring tooth or an Acme harrow, which merely pulverize the 
surface, may be adequate. 

The time to cease tillage is a question on which opinions 
differ. Some orchardists advocate ceasing tillage in mid- 
summer in order to give the trees ample time to ripen their 
wood for winter; others advocate continuing tillage until the 
close of the simimer. No definite date can be given at which 
tillage should stop, for it varies with the character of the soil, 
the amoimt of rainfall during the given season, the rapidity of 
growth of the trees, and to a marked degree with the charac-. 
ter of the winter that prevails in the locality. There is some 
danger of winter-killing if the trees go into winter in a soft, 
sappy condition. In Canada and the northern part of the 
United States, where severe winters prevail, tillage should 
cease early, perhaps in midsummer, in order to give time for 
a thorough ripening of the wood before cold weather comes 
on. In sections where winters are mild or where, with a given 
variety, winter injury is not usual, tillage may continue to 
a much later date, perhaps until early autumn. In certain 
soils, particularly those that are dry, wann, light, and not 
very fertile, trees tend to ripen their wood earlier than in very 
rich soils that hold a large quantity of capillary moistiire. 
If in a given season young trees are making an abnormally 
succulent growth, tillage may be allowed to wane early in the 
season. In a season when slow, weak growth is being made, 
or where summer droughts prevail, tillage to save moisture 
may be continued until early autumn. 



5. Most orchardists agree that young trees should have 
thorough tillage until they reach bearing age, but the question 
of the tillage of bearing orchards is one on which there is less 
uniform agreement of opinion. It is doubtless true, how- 
ever, that the majority of orchardists agree that at least some 
tillage should be maintained throughout the life of the orchard. 

As a rule, bearing apple orchards should be plowed in early 
spring to warm up the -soil and to facilitate the storage of 
moisture from spring rains in the subsoil below. As in young 
orchards, the depth of this plowing depends on the character 
of the soil and the depth of root growth of the trees. Even 
greater care should be taken not to injure the roots of bearing 
trees than is needed in the case of young trees. The repair 
of the injury to a root on a tree of bearing age is relatively 
slower than in the case of a young tree. Feeding roots of 
bearing trees become much more numerous and they spread 
much more uniformly throughout the soil than in the case of 
young trees. The deeper the plowing, the better, provided it 
does not go below the top soil or injure the root system of the 

6. Shallow surface tillage should be maintained throughout 
the season by means of harrows or other stirring implements. 
As a rule, there is less tendency for a soil in similar condition 
to crust or bake hard under the shade of large trees and there 
is less tendency for weed growth than in the open sunlight 
between young trees that do not shade the groimd. This, 
however, should not lead the grower to believe that tillage 
may be less frequent or may justifiably be neglected in bear- 
ing orchards. 

7. As trees reach bearing age, the question of what time 
during the sunpner to cease tillage probably becomes more 
important than is the case with trees before they reach bear- 
ing age. A yoimg tree is tilled to get strong, vigorous wood 
growth, and the question of its immediate fruiting demands very 
little consideration. With the old tree, the grower must take 


into consideration not only a maintenance of wood growth but 
also the inducing of fruit-bud formation. It will be remem- 
bered that excessive wood growth opposes the formation of fruit 
buds, that is, the reproductive process of the tree. If an 
orchard of bearing age is making such an abundant wood 
growth that it bears fruit sparingly, tillage should be so 
adjusted as to check this wood growth to some degree and to 
favor the setting of fruit buds. Frequently an orchard that 
is making a rampant growth may be thrown into bearing by 
ceasing tillage early in the season. On the other hand, if an 
orchard has fully established the bearing habit and is set- 
ting fruit abundantly, thorough tillage should be given in order 
to enable the tree to carry and mature this fruit crop. In 
general it may be said that the richer and more drought resist- 
ant the soil, the earlier may tillage cease; the poorer or dryer 
the soil, the later may tillage be kept up. 

8. Another important consideration is the dormant or 
rest period of the tree. In certain sections, fruit trees may 
be injured by their fruit buds starting into growth in late 
winter or too early in spring, and as a result of this premature 
growth being injured by subsequent cold. It is desirable to 
hold the buds of fruit trees. donnant in spring until danger of 
injury from frost is past. It has been determined that the 
donnant period of a tree is of fairly uniform duration, conse- 
quently it may be said that as a general rule the earlier it 
becomes dormant in the fall, the earlier will it tend to emerge 
from the dormant condition in spring; the later it goes into 
the dormant condition in autumn, the later will it tend to wake 
from its winter sleep and begin spring growth. For this rea- 
son, in sections where trees suffer from the swelling of their 
buds in late winter, or where they bloom out so early in spring 
as to be subject to injury from late frosts, it is well to pro- 
long the growing season as late the previous fall as may be 
done without danger of their growing into winter in an exces- 
sively succulent condition. 

9. Where severe winter climates prevail, more precau- 
tions should be taken for the ripening of the wood in autumn 


than in a milder climate, and it is also true that in the severe 
climates there is less need of prolonging the dormant period, 
because there is less danger of trees starting growth imtil 
settled spring conditions become well established. In mild 
climates, however, this tendency of fruit buds to swell and 
grow in late winter or to blossom too early in spring is pro- 
nounced, and for this reason it is considered good practice 
to induce the tree to carry its leaves in the fall until hard 
frosts actually begin. In such sections there is little danger 
of forcing the trees into winter in a too succulent condition, 
hence the grower need not take much thought for the autumn 
ripening in the wood. In mild climates, a dormant tree is 
rarely winter-injured, even though it carries its leaves up to 
the beginning of winter. 


10. Catch crops are extensively grown in orchards, either 
for enriching the soil or for the revenue that may be derived 
from them. Usually they are annual crops such as may be 
grown and cultivated without interfering with the normal 
culture that should be given to orchard soil in accordance 
with the preceding paragraphs, and they are most commonly 
grown while the trees are young and before they reach bearing 
age. While the fruit trees are small and do not fully occupy 
the entire area in the orchard, a part of the space between the 
rows may often profitably be given to incidental crops that 
mature in a short period. Furthermore, space between the 
rows in an orchard is more valuable for the catch crops them- 
selves during the early years than it is later when the trees 
have become large enough to shade the ground. An orchard 
is a long-time investment, since it does not begin to yield 
returns directly until the trees come into good bearing. Often 
it is very helpfiil to grow catch crops annually for a time, in 
order that the land may bring some return before the orchard 
itself begins to yield fruit. 

11. Catch crops may be grown expressly for the revenue 
they yield, irrespective of their relation to the good of the trees. 


It is highly desirable, however, to exclude catch crops of such 
character as may in any way injtire the fruit trees. The 
desirability of growing catch crops for revenue depends some- 
what on a number of factors. One of these is the price of the 
land. Where land values are high, it is often desirable to 
produce catch crops that will return an annual income on the 
investment, but where land values are comparatively low the 
owner may be able to wait for the orchard to come into bearing 
without depending on the revenue from catch crops. Another 
factor is the quality of the soil. If the soil in the orchard 
is poor and thin and the orchard trees need all the available 
plant-food in it, catch crops should not be grown unless the 
plant-food that they remove from the soil can be returned in 
the form of fertilizer. Where soils are rich, catch crops often 
may be grown luitil the orchard reaches bearing age without 
in any way injuring the future, productiveness of the orchard 
itself. As a rule, better ciiltivation will be given to an orchard 
in which some valuable catch crop is being grown between 
the trees than when no such crop is grown. It is not wise, 
however, to place too much stress on the annual income from 
a catch crop if its production opposes in any way the future 
development of the orchard. 

12. Catch crops may contribute directly or indirectly 
to the fertility of the orchard even on poor soils. If an orchard 
soil is light, sandy, and low in plant-food but otherwise well 
adapted Xo the growing of vegetables or small fruits, the owner 
may be enabled to put fertilizer on the orchard by using the 
revenue derived from these crops for the purchase of fertil- 
izers, which he could not afford to apply if there were no imme- 
diate income from the orchard land. Under certain circum- 
stances, it is possible to build up the fertility of an orchard 
soil before the fruit trees come into bearing by the production 
of catch crops that justify expenditure for fertilization and 
soil improvement. This is an example of indirect improvement 
of the soil by growing catch crops. Certain catch crops, 
particularly the legumes, may be grown so as to enrich the 
soil in nitrogen and perhaps improve its physical condition 


as well. This is direct improvement of the soil by means of 
catch crops. Any building up of soil made possible by the 
growing of temporary crops leaves the soil in just that much 
better condition when the trees come into bearing and call 
for a large supply of plant-food. 

13. Under certain conditions, catch crops may be grown 
for soil improvement with no idea of adding plant-food to it. 
For example, in newly cleared lands, if the soil is rich, corn 
crops are frequently grown between the trees in young orchards 
to help subdue the stumps of the forest trees and sprouts that 
spring from them. The com crop helps to pay for careful 
cultivation of the land and for the labor involved in cuttinj,^ 
out the sprouts and its shade may reduce the vigor of sprouts 
that do grow. Almost any cultivated crop in a new soil helps 
to subdue the soil and to bring it to a good state of tilth. It 
is also true that soils that wash may be held in place by 
certain types of catch crops. 

14. The grains used as catch crops are usually those that 
pass the winter in the growing state, like winter wheat or rye. 
A grain crop should rarely, if ever, be allowed to mature its 
seed in the orchard. Its direct purpose as a crop should be 
that of winter or spring pasture for small stock such as pigs, 
lambs, or poultry. It may benefit the orchard land by pre- 
venting erosion of the soil, by taking up readily available 
plant-food that otherwise might wash off in abundant rains 
or be leached down into the subsoil below, by shading the soil, 
by preventing the heaving of the soil by frosts, and by adding 
humus to the soil when the remnants of the crop are plowed 
under in the spring. Where grains are thus employed, they 
are usually sown early in the fall to get good growth in order 
to cover the land well and hold it in place during the winter. 
They are usually allowed to stand in spring until they have 
made an abundant leaf growth, and are then turned under to 
add humus to the soil. Meantime they may have served a 
valuable purpose as a pasture crop during the fall and early 
spring. Care should be taken, however, in pasturing orchards 
during wet times, even with small animals, as the soil may be 


badly puddled by their tramping. It should also be further 
borne in mind that certain animals if pastured in the orchard 
may injure fruit trees. Goats, mature sheep, and colts often 
injure the trees if allowed to graze among them. A large 
number of hogs pastured on a small area may do injury to the 
tree trunks by constantly rubbing the bark. As a rule, how- 
ever, the orchard crops mentioned may be grown profitably for 
pasturage, provided care and judgment are used with respect 
to the character and number of animals pastured. 

15. Potatoes are often a profitable catch crop in orchards 
wherever the soil is suited to their production. The same 
plowing, handling, and tilling of the soil that the potatoes 
need is adapted also to the needs of the fruit trees themselves. 
Potatoes are a low-growing crop and there is less danger of 
their interfering with the growth of the trees than would be 
the case with a taller-growing crop like com, which may shade 
young fruit trees if planted too close to them. Almost any kind 
of garden vegetable that admits of good cultivation may be 
grown in a young orchard provided the soil is rich enough. 

16. Melons are often grown with success in young orchards. 
They draw somewhat heavily on plant-food, however, par- 
ticularly potash, and for this reason their planting is inadvisa- 
ble in thin soils unless fertilizer is applied. 

The small fruits generally constitute an important catch 
crop for orchards. Strawberries are low growing and do not 
compete to an undesirable degree with the fruit frees. Further- 
more, as a rule, clean cultivation is given to strawberries through 
the summer and they are mulched in winter, both of which 
are favorable to the best development of the orchard. If 
strawberries are grown, however, plants should be carefully 
renewed by cutlivation between the rows each season. Old, 
neglected strawberry plantings overgrown with weeds are a 
menace to an orchard. Blackberries, on account of their 
rooting habit, loosen orchard soils and frequently leave the 
land after a few years in better condition for fruit trees than it 
was before the blackberries were planted. Raspberries may 
be grown, but they are somewhat objectionable for the reason 


that the raspberry is subject to crown gall, which frequently 
attacks fruit trees. In sections where this disease is common, 
the planting of raspberries in the orchard is, for that reason, 
to be avoided. 


17. Cover crops include, in general, those crops which are 
grown for the improvement of orchard soil, or for its protec- 
tion at times. Cover crops are, in the main, distinguished from 
catch crops in that the latter usually are grown to yield a 
direct revenue, although, as pointed out in the preceding pages, 
this is not always the case. Cover crops, on the other hand, 
are more frequently employed for the benefit of the orchard 
soil. Catch crops are usually cultivated crops; cover crops 
are more frequently sowed crops. 

Cover crops may be employed to check wood growth of 
trees and throw them into bearing, to prevent leaching of 
the soil fertility, to prevent soil washing, to add himius'or 
nitrogen to the soil, or to smother sprouts on newly cleared 
land. Attention has elsewhere been called to the fact that 
fruit trees sometimes may run to wood growth rather than to 
fruit production. Cover crops are sometimes employed in 
rampant-growing young orchards to check their growth and 
throw them into bearing. The formation of fruit buds usually 
begins in the early part of the summer. For that reason cover 
crops to check wood growth and stimulate the development 
of fruit buds are usually sown in May or June. Cowpeas are 
often used as cover crops in the South and field peas or 
vetches for a similar purpose in the North. All of these are 
leguminous crops and serve the purpose of adding nitrogen 
to the soil. On deep, rich porous soils orchards are sometimes 
even seeded down to clover for a year or two to throw them 
into bearing. On certain soils this may be done with success. 
Even grasses are sometimes employed for a season, but the 
grower should not be deceived into believing that, since a 
cover crop may throw an orchard into bearing, the orchard 
should remain under this same cover crop indefinitely. Not 
infrequently a season's cropping will throw the trees into 


bearing and the combined effects of the cover crop and the pro- 
duction of a fruit crop that follows may check the growth of 
the trees in the orchard. Once a bearing habit is established, 
it is usually best to resume cultivation and in most cases the 
trees will no longer run to excessive wood growth. 

18. Only a part of the plant-food existing in the soil is 
ever available or soluble in water at any given time. Addi- 
tional plant-food, however, is rendered available from year to 
year. This should be saved in the soil or used for the pro- 
duction of some useful crop; otherwise, it may be carried off 
largely over the surface by washing rains, or it may leach down- 
wards by the settling of water in the soil, where it will remain 
out of reach of the roots of the fruit trees. While fruit trees 
are young and have very limited spread of root system, a bare 
tilled orchard soil may lose much of its available plant -food. 
If cover crops are grown they will use this plant-food as it 
becomes available, and it may be returned to the soil by plow- 
ing these crops under or by pasturing them. Furthermore, 
the addition of organic matter that resiilts from plowing such 
cover crops under makes the soil more retentive of valuable 
plant -food, for it forms a sort of a screen in the soil that pre- 
vents waste of plant-food by leaching. For this purpose the 
grower may apply either grain crops as a winter cover or 
legumes as a summer cover. The same crops that prevent 
leaching of plant -food may also serve the purpose of prevent- 
ing erosion of the soil. Soils that wash badly should never 
be allowed to lie bare, except while cultivation is going on. 
All cover crops turned under perform the additional ofhce of 
adding humus to the soil and the leguminous cover crops add 
nitrogen as well. 

19. Time of Sowing Cover Crops. — If a cover crop is 
being grown for the ptupose of throwing an orchard into bear- 
ing or for other reasons that permit the use of a full season crop, 
the time of sowing will be the same as when the crop is grown 
outside of the orchard. The cases mentioned are, however, 
exceptional, and, as a rule, it is best to grow such cover crops 
as will not conflict with the cultivation of the orchard during 



the early part of the season. Toward the southern part of 
the United States, cultivation may continue until the first of 
July, and there will yet be time to grow a crop of cowpeas, 
one of the most important cover crops for the Southern States. 
Vetches, wheat, or rye should be sown early enough in the 
fall so as to secure a good cover for the ground for winter, or 
to make sufficient growth to afford good winter pasture, if 
desired. The farm system employed and the use to which 
cover crops are to be put will help to determine the time of 
planting each. For example, one successful orchardist uses 
rye in a part of his orchard for autumn, winter, and early 
spring pasture for young hogs. This is followed by oats in 
another portion, or by rape, which is not pastured until June. 
Cowpeas are then put in late in June or early July to furnish 
late simimer and early autumn pasture. In this way all the 
land in the orchard is gotten over on rotation, with cover crops 
arranged to form the best possible succession of feed for hog 
pasture. With such a judicious plan of rotation cover crops 
may serve a very valuable purpose on the farm outside of their 
relation to the orchard soil itself. 

20. Time to Plow Cover Crops Under. — ^As a rule, 
cover crops should lie on the ground through the winter and 
be plowed under when cultivation begins in spring. Even 
the legumes will lose very little of their plant-food if allowed 
thus to lie on the soil, and any loss by decomposition of the 
plants will be more than compensated for by the shade and 
cover afforded to the soil. If green cover crops are used, they 
should be plowed under at least before they go to seed and 
before the spring weather is very far advanced. It is unwise 
to allow a cover crop to lie in an orchard until summer and 
then suddenly plow the crop under and begin tillage. Such 
a procedure is likely to induce late growth in the trees. Further- 
more, any root pruning that results from the plowing may be 
very injurious to the trees in midsummer; although they may 
not be injured at all by a similar root pruning in early spring 
while dormant. Cutting off roots in midsummer when the trees 
are in full leaf and hence are calHng for a maximum supply 


of water may have the same effect as severe drought, but 
root pruning by plowing in spring when the tree is dormant, 
if judicious, may not prove injurious in any way. As a rule, 
it is not wise to plow orchards in autumn in sections where 
deep freezing of the soil prevails. Toward the south, however, 
autumn or even winter plowing may be carried on successfully 
whenever the soil is in condition to be worked. For this rea- 
son, spring turning under of cover crops is advised for the 
North, but they may, in regions of mild winter, be plowed 
under in the fall or even in winter, if necessary. 

21. Leguminous Cover Crops. — The clovers, cowpeas, 
field peas, soybeans, garden beans, and the vetches are satis- 
factory cover crops in sections that are adapted to their cul- 
ture, and since they are leguminous plants they have the addi- 
tional advantage of adding nitrogen to the soil. If the entire 
crop produced is turned under or is pastured on the ground 
to pigs before turning under, a much larger supply of 
nitrogen will be added to the soil than the plants take from 
it. If these crops are grown, harvested, and removed from 
the soil, their roots and stubble may not return as much 
nitrogen as was drawn from the soil in their production, but 
these legumes have, nevertheless, the effect of mellowing and 
flocculating the soil. They root deeply and leave the soil in 
most excellent condition for subsequent tillage. For improv- 
ing either the fertility or the structure of the soil they are 
regarded as the most valuable cover crops for orchards. Which 
to choose depends largely on the location, type of soil, and 
also the purpose to which the crop may be put, that is, whether 
it is to be harvested or pastured. In the southern part of the 
United States the cowpea is the one great orchard cover crop, 
but in the northern part where the climatic conditions are 
not suitable for growing cowpeas, field peas are extensively 
grown. Either of these crops fvirnishes excellent pasturage 
for small stock, and usually it is more profitable to pasture 
them and then turn the stubble under than it is to turn the 
entire crop under. If pastured, a large part of the crop is 
returned to the soil in the form of manure. In the South the 


soybean is a more abundant seed producer than the cowpea, 
and where feed for hogs or for poultry is desired, the soybean, 
perhaps, comes nearer to meeting the requirement than the 
cowpea. Any of the legumes mentioned are suitable for hay, 
and where it is desirable to get a hay crop from the orchard 
soil, any of them may be grown for this purpose, although 
clovers and cowpea usually produce better hay crops than 
the others. The common white bean, or navy bean, although 
sometimes cultivated in orchards, is probably the least 
valuable to the orchard of any of the legumes mentioned, 
although it undoubtedly adds more nitrogen to the soil 
than is removed from it by the crop unless the entire plant 
is harvested. The farmer considers it harder on the soil than 
the other legumes, but in some districts, especially in the 
North, the bean is a very profitable farm crop and may con- 
sequently pay for applying fertilizer or organic matter to the 

22. Non-Leguminous Cover Crops. — ^Among the non- 
leguminous cover crops that are sometimes used for orchards, 
buckwheat, rye, winter wheat, and barley are probably most 
commonly used. Some orchardists have used oats, but the 
best authorities regard them as objectionable on account of 
the fact that they are said to be heavy feeders and hence take 
large quantities of plant-food from the soil, and furthermore 
they use large quantities of water and consequently are likely 
to leave the soil too dry for the trees. 


23. Sod Culture is a term adopted in somewhat recent 
years, and signifies that the soil in the orchard is not culti- 
vated but is permanently seeded to grass, clover, or other 
sod crops that will maintain themselves and that the growth 
produced remains to die down on the ground or is cut and 
allowed to lie, thus forming a mulch. It should be distin- 
guished from simply maintaining the orchard in grass that 
is to be mowed for hay or pastured to stock, by the fact that 


under the former system whatever the sod crop produces in 
the way of new growth each year is allowed to remain on the 
orchard soil to make an ever-increasing mulch and to add 
humus to the soil. On certain soils and in certain localities, 
orchards have proved profitable when handled in this manner. 

24. Advantages of Sod Culture. — Some of the objects 
sought in sod culture are: to prevent erosion of the soil, espe- 
cially on steep slopes; to avoid the labor and expense of soil 
tillage; to avoid the danger of injiny to the roots by plow- 
ing and tillage in soils where the trees root very near the 
surface ; to retain soluble plant-food near the surface in soils 
that leach badly; and to maintain a cool cover in soils that 
dry out or heat up badly during summer. 

It is probable that the most important reason for sod 
culture is to hold the soil in place on slopes so steep that 
even temporary tillage cannot well be given without exces- 
sive erosion. Many steep hillsides may profitably be planted 
to orchards and maintained in sod culture where the soil could 
not be held in place if even brief early spring tillage were 
practiced annually and followed with cover crops later in the 
season. Even granting all the advantages of tillage in an 
orchard alternated with the growth of cover crops, it is in 
many cases better to maintain the orchard in permanent sod 
and hold the permanent surface soil in place than to till and 
allow the soil to slip away into the valleys and streams below. 
Again, there are certain soils that have such a tendency to 
wash when cultivated that it is difficult to hold them in place 
even when the slope is not great. This is particularly true 
of soils largely made of excessively fine particles. It is also 
true of a soil that heaves badly and slides during alternate 
thawing and freezing in winter. Some soils, if bare, also 
run together, crust over, and bake badly in a dry time. 
Good tillage is difficult under these conditions, and a good 
dust mulch can hardly be retained in place. Where either of 
these conditions prevail, sod culture may be justifiable. 

In certain fine, light, sandy soils the sand can be held in 
place only by retaining an abundance of plant fiber in the soil 


or by maintaining a sod mulch. In such soils, as soon as til- 
lage has been maintained for a few years, the sand will begin 
to drift, moving about so that it is impossible to hold the soil 
in place about the roots of the trees. If such soils are long 
kept bare, it becomes impossible to get a stand of cover crops 
due to the sifting of the sandy surface soil. Often, in such 
a locality, the only practical way of holding the soil in place 
is by the means of permanent sod. 

Undoubtedly there are conditions under which sod culture 
may succeed better than methods of tillage. Wherever sod cul- 
ture is maintained, however, the fact cannot be too strongly 
emphasized that sufficient growth should be secured to main- 
tain a thick mulch in connection with the sod. The term sod 
culture seems to be contradictory, since the maintenance of 
a sod does not admit of tillage, which is usually implied by 
the term culture, but it should be remembered that under a 
sod, where the grasses or other plants forming it fall down and 
die on the ground annually, any soil will take on a mellow and 
flocculent condition. This condition becomes closely akin 
to the mechanical or physical condition of the soil brought 
about by good tillage. There are undoubtedly certain soils that 
will, under tillage and burning out of the humus, become more 
compact, run together, bake worse, and suffer more from 
drought than they v/ill under what is termed sod culture. 

25. Disadvantages of Sod Culture. — It should be 
understood that there are certain fundamental disadvantages 
in sod culture, one of which is that the grass or other plants 
forming the sod take from the soil moisture and plant -food that 
is needed by the trees. It is believed by some that grasses or 
sod-forming plants not only compete with the roots of the 
trees but that they have a more or less injurious effect on soil 
that is being utilized for orchard purposes and hence are prej- 
udicial to the best health of orchard trees. It is not definitely 
known to just what degree sod plants may be injurious or 
interfere with the growth of orchard trees, but there seems 
to be reason to believe that some such action takes place. 
Another objection to sod culture is that many insects miiltiply 


much more abundantly in orchards under cover of permanent 
sod than in cultivated ground. This is particularly true of 
the curculio. Many species of noxious orchard insects hiber- 
nate in the soil and may be smothered or destroyed by stir- 
ring the soil at the right time of year, but this method of insect 
fighting is not feasible in an orchard that is under sod ciilture. 
It is also true that fungous diseases that develop in decayed 
leaves or fruit and other trash under the trees will develop 
much more abundantly where sod is maintained than where 
surface tillage and a dry dust mulch prevail. 


26. The method of Orchard management known as mulcli 
culture consists in applying to the ground a mulch of mate- 
rials grown elsewhere, whereas in the sod-culture method just 
described the mulch material is grown in the orchard. Straw, 
strawy manure, weeds from the fence rows or roadways, leaves, 
corn stalks, or any organic material grown on other lands may 
be hauled into the orchard and used as a miilch about the trees. 

Most of the reasons mentioned for sod ctilture, the condi- 
tions under which it may be maintained, and the general 
merits and demerits will apply with equal force to mulch cul- 
ture. Although it is true that, as a rule, mulch culture is 
too expensive for large orchard areas, there is an important 
point in mulch culture that should be emphasized. It usually 
should be the beginning of sod culture, in order to hasten 
the formation of a mulch, because 1 or 2 years are required 
to establish a mulch by sod culture. Consequently the soil 
drys out, cracks in a dry time, and the orchard trees are likely 
to suffer from drought. The strongest advocates of sod cul- 
ture usually emphasize the desirability of placing all possible 
additional mulch under the trees in the orchard during the 
first year or two, while the sod mulch is establishing itself. 

After seeding an orchard for sod culture in the spring, 
grasses are allowed to grow and are mowed frequently diuing 
the season — perhaps three or four times in the season. In 
addition, on the appearance of dry weather in late summer. 


any available straw or other mulch that can be had should be 
spread under the trees. If at any subsequent time the sod 
does not make cover enough to protect the ground against 
baking, drying out, and cracking open, additional mulch shotdd 
be hauled in. If the trees are young and consequently feeding 
in restricted areas, this miilch should be spread under the trees 
as far as their outspread of branches, but if the trees are large 
the mulch is usually distributed evenly between the rows. 

Mulch culture has an advantage over sod culture in the 
fact that a mulch drawn into the orchard may be applied to 
any depth necessary to protect the soil from drying out or 
baking and it may be increased at any time. The tendency 
in sod culture is to depend on the sod to form at least the main 
part of the mulch. Mulch culture, however, has the dis- 
advantage of being far more expensive, as it is obviously 
cheaper to produce the miilch on the orchard area itself than 
to devote other land to mulch production and haul the mulch 
to the orchard. 



27. Pruning consists in the removal of superfluous or 
undesirable branches from trees or plants and is one of 
the important details of apple-orchard management. Not- 
withstanding the importance of pnming, there is a wide dif- 
ference of opinion among orchardists as to the details of the 
operation, and it must be admitted that the subject is one 
that is not well understood. 

28. Pruning to Reduce Leaf Surface. — It has been 
explained elsewhere that it is necessary to reduce the leaf 
surface at the time of setting, since the roots have been cut 
and thus the ability of the tree to secure water from the soil 
has been reduced. If a full leaf surface is left, there is danger 
that the evaporation may be so great as to weaken materially 
the tree or even cause its death during a dry summer. Pru- 
ning to reduce the leaf surface may also be necessary in the 


case of old trees whose tops have become very large, in the 
case of weak trees, in the case of trees growing in a soil where 
the roots are not able to penetrate deeply, and in the case of 
trees whose wood has been badly injured in winter. 

29. Pruning to Control Shape. — It is only by pruning 
that the desired shape of a tree can be maintained. The 
natural growth of the tree is not likely to be along lines desired 
by the orchardist, hence it is necessary to resort to artificial 
means of controlling the shape. As explained in detail on 
subsequent pages, it is by judicious pruning that the orchardist 
makes his trees high-headed or low-headed and establishes a 
pyramidal or an open-headed form as desired. Some varieties 
lend themselves to one of these forms better than others, but 
pruning to maintain the form is necessary in all cases. 

Pruning is also necessary to prevent the trees from becoming 
too tall in some cases and too straggling in others. The growth 
of the trees may be made more stocky by pruning, especially 
if considerable cutting back is done, and this is essential in 
the case of most varieties to give the desired form of head and 
strength of limb. 

30. Pruning to Regulate Vigor of Growtli. — The 

vigor of growth of a tree can be very largely regulated by 
pruning. Pruning, especially in winter, tends to invigorate 
the tree by inducing a heavy growth of wood during succeed- 
ing seasons. After pruning, growth will continue later in the 
summer and the new twigs will be larger and stronger than 
if left unpnnied. On the other hand, summer pruning may 
be done at a time that it will reduce the vigor of the tree, and 
in a few cases this also may be necessary. 

31. Pruning to Control Size. — The size of a tree can 
be very materially affected by pruning. It has been estab- 
lished by the experience of many practical growers and experi- 
menters, especially that of Professor Pickering, of the Wobum 
Experiment Station, England, that pruning is a dwarfing proc- 
ess. Although a tree, after a severe pruning in winter, will 
make more vigorous growth the summer following, it will 


seldom make sufficient growth to replace what was cut off 
plus what growth would have taken place if no pruning had 
been done. After 20 years of rather severe pruning, trees 
will, as a rule, be considerably smaller in most soils and 
climates than if no pruning had been done. There are excep- 
tions to this, however, in the case of thin soil in climates in the 
southern part of the apple-growing region. Thus in the Ozark 
region, cases have been observed in which pruning had the 
opposite effect; that is, it increased the size of the tree. There 
were cases in which the soil was poor and the climate not well 
adapted to the apple, and as a result the trees became bark 
bound. Severe pruning overcame this condition and permitted 
the trees to make a more vigorous growth than would other- 
wise have been possible. It has been found that pruning in 
summer has more of a dwarfing effect than pruning in winter. 


32. The time of pruning will depend on the condition of 
the tree and the extent of pruning to be done. If it is merely 
necessary to cut out a few crossed limbs or to remove a few 
limbs that are filling up the center of the head in an undesir- 
able manner, the pruning may be done at any time that is 
most convenient ; but if considerable wood is to be cut off, it is 
advisable to give the matter of doing it at the proper time 
careful consideration. 

Generally speaking, it may be said that winter pruning is 
most desirable, for pruning at this time tends to invigorate 
the tree. However, if a tree is making too rapid growth and 
is not fruiting well, it may be advisable to prune in summer, 
though probably the safer plan would be to resort to some 
other method to check growth and induce fruiting. Summer 
pruning is supposed to encourage fruitfulness, and growers 
have at times successfully resorted to summer pruning as a 
means of throwing unproductive trees into bearing. But it 
shoiild be pointed out that this method is not uniformly 
successftil and is hardly to be generally recommended. To 
induce fruitfulness, summer pruning must be done shortly 


after length growth of wood ceases in the summer. Pruning 
earlier than this will have a very similar effect to winter pru- 
ning, and will not increase fruitfulness, and pruning later will 
tend to check the formation of fruit buds and to produce a 
rather undesirable growth. Furthermore, it may be said 
that even pruning at the proper time does not always produce 
fruitfulness on an over vigorous tree, and it is generally much 
safer to plant the too vigorous growing varieties on thin soil 
and thus check their growth and encourage fruitftilness than 
to plant them on rich soil and depend on simimer pruning to 
throw them into bearing. 


33. For the purpose of this discussion, a fruit tree may be 
regarded as made up of two parts, namely, the trmik, which 
consists of the lower part of the main stem extending from 
the ground to the point where the first branches are thrown 
off; and the head, which comprises the part of the tree above 
this point. Orchardists recognize several distinct types of 
heads, and a man who is establishing an orchard should have 
a knowledge of the different types, the advantages and dis- 
advantages of each, and an understanding of the pruning by 
which he may induce the formation of type desired. Apple 
trees may be pruned a high-headed or a low-headed type. 

34. When a tree has been so trained as to develop its 
head comparatively high from the ground, as shown in Fig. 1, 
the tree is said to be high -headed, and when it has been so 
trained as to develop its head relatively close to the grotmd, 
as shown in Fig. 2, it is said to be low-headed. 

Owing to the fact that somewhat different methods are 
followed in the various apple-growing sections, it is difficult 
to say just what constitutes the dividing line between high- 
headed and low-headed trees. A tree in one section may be 
considered to be low headed and in another, where methods 
are somewhat different, to be high-headed. In general it 
may be said, however, that trees headed higher than from 
36 to 40 inches are high-headed trees, and probably most 



advocates of low-headed trees will prefer to head their trees 
from 18 to 30 inches from the ground. 

Where the soil is rich and the trees are to be permitted to 
get very large, high-headed trees may be necessary, in order 
to enable a team to get reasonably close to them in cultivating. 
High-headed trees may be necessary, also, in case of very 
vigorous-growing varieties like the Northern Spy^ since pruning 

to keep down the size of these may result in too vigorous wood 
growth at the expense of fruit growth. The high-headed 
tree was more common in early fruit-growing days before 
spraying was necessary than it is now. Progressive orchard- 
ists object to it for the reason that the spraying of high-headed 
trees is slow, expensive, and unsatisfactory, and picking the 
fruit, pruning, keeping out canker, and other details of care 
are also expensive and not likely to be done effectively in the 



case of a high-headed tree. In nearly all sections growers are 
coming to prefer trees with low heads, even with the vigorous 
growing varieties, and by enriching the soil, seeding down to 
grass and pruning heavily are usually able to get as good 

results with smaller trees and possibly a somewhat larger 
number of them per acre. 

35. Of the low-headed trees there are two forms, the 
pyramidal-lieaded, in which the tree has a central leader 
as shown in Fig. 3 (a), and the open-headed, as shown in 
(&). In the p5rramidal form, as will be seen in the illustration, 
the main stem, or trunk, extends to the top of the tree and side 
branches thrown off from it make up the head. In a tree of 
the open-headed form the head is formed from four or five 



of the lower side branches, the main stem being cut of£ above 
the uppermost branch. 

The advantages claimed for the pyramidal-headed tree 
with a central leader over the open-headed tree are: (1) the 
limbs are smaller in proportion to the body of the tree and are, 
therefore, less liable to split down when they break off; (2) if 
one is broken off, it is only a small part of the tree and there is 
therefore less injury than would be the case if a limb of an 
open-headed tree were broken off; (3) the limbs are also shorter 
and not so badly bent under a load of fruit; (4) the body of 
the tree and main limbs are in a measure protected from the 
direct rays of the sun and thus not so likely to suffer from sun 
scald in winter; (5) if the tree is neglected for a year or two, 
smaller injury results than with the open-headed tree. 

There are some distinct disadvantages, however, with this 
form of head. These are: (1) it is very difficult to maintain 
the central leader after the tree gets old, and forks in the top 
of a fairly tall tree are expensive to correct; (2) too much of 
the fruit is borne in the shade and the color is not so good as 
in the case of the open -headed tree; (3) probably the most 
serious objection is that, on account of the shade, the fruiting 
wood is kept largely on the periphery, so that no considerable 
shortening can be done without greatly reducing the nimiber 
of fruit buds for the crop following the pruning, since the wood 
that is taken off in shortening the branches is the wood that 
bears the fruit buds. 

36. The advantages claimed for the open-headed tree over 
the pyramidal form are: (1) fewer limbs are used and those left 
are maintained in a healthier condition, because they have 
room to develop; (2) the tree is more open to admit sunlight 
and the wood is, therefore, healthier, and the fruit is better 
colored and better developed; (3) the pruning and spraying, 
especially the latter, and the picking of the fruit can be done 
more cheaply and more thoroughly; (4) the trees can be cut 
back to the desired extent each year without danger of 
too greatly reducing the number of fruit buds, because the 
fruiting wood is kept further down the limbs, which favors 


healthy growth to the very base of the Hmbs in some cases; 
(5) the fruit borne does not exert a great strain on the limbs, 
because, instead of being borne entirely at the end where 
there is the greater leverage, it is distributed throughout the 
length of the limb ; and (6) experience shows that fruit on the 
open-headed tree is more uniformly large than on a tree of 
the other type. This is probably on account of its being dis- 
tributed along the limb instead of clustered at the end, as is 
likely to be the case in pyramidal -headed trees. 

The disadvantages of the open-headed tree are: (1) the 
small number of limbs, usually not more than four, and as 
these must be large there may be danger of the limbs split- 
ting down; (2) the limbs are likely to be longer, because the 
tree tends to spread out rather than grow up and this takes 
up more space. These disadvantages, however, are offset by 
clipping the trees annually and thus making them stocky 
so they will stand up well under a load. They are also offset 
to some extent by directing the growth of the main limbs 
upwards so that they will stand up under the load better and 
by furnishing artificial support for the limbs when they are 
heavily laden with fruit. 


37. Three or four years will be required for establishing 
the framework of either the pyramidal-headed or the open- 
headed tree, and in doing this certain precautions should be 
observed. For instance, weak crotches and bad forks should 
be avoided, and two limbs should not be allowed to come out 
directly opposite each other on the trunk of a tree; the limbs 
should be spaced 6 or 8 inches apart along the trunk, and two 
limbs should not come near each other on the same side of the 
tree. In establishing the framework of the open-headed tree, 
only about four or five main branches should be allowed to 
develop; for the pyramidal-headed tree, from seven to ten main 
branches may be developed, and these should be well 
spaced around the central leader. 




38. A common mistake in starting a pyramidal-headed 
tree is to allow the limbs to come out too near each other, as 
shown in Fig. 4 (a). This error results from the fact that 
when the trees are small the limbs do not appear to be crowded, 
but when such trees approach maturity it will be found that 
the limbs are close together and 
growth cannot take place near 
the base. A more desirable 
spacing of limbs is illustrated 
in (b) where no two limbs are 
directly opposite each other. 

The pruning of a 2-year-old 
nursery tree for the pyramidal 
head must be done with a view 
of giving the central leader the 
advantage, of preventing the for- 
mation of weak forks, and of 
forcing the growth into the slow 
growing limbs by clipping back <*=,,^ 
the rapidly growing limbs. The 
high limbs on the main leader 
will, as a rule, grow more rapidly 
than the lower ones, and these, 
therefore, are usually cut back 
more severely than the lower 

Fig. 4 

39. During the first summer 
the buds that come out where 
no limbs are desired should be 
rubbed off, and the winter after the first summer's growth the 
new growth on each of the desired limbs should be cut back 
approximately one-half, though on the upper limbs it will 
probably be necessary to cut back more than one-half, and 
possibly the lower hmbs should be cut back a little less than 
one-half. This same winter it may be necessary to cut off some 




of the twigs from the main limbs that are left, since it is 
important that the secondary branches, also, will be well spaced 
and stocky. 

40. During the second winter it will again be necessary 
to cut back the main branches and the leader in about the 
same manner as suggested for the first winter. If the leader 



Fig. 5 

is not growing rapidly enough it will, in all cases, be necessary 
to cut back the main branches more than was suggested, in 
order to force the growth into the leader. 

41. The general extent of the pruning that should be done 
to a tree in its third year is illustrated in Fig. 5, which shows 
in (a) a tree before it has been cut back and in (6) the tree 


after it has been cut back. During the next few years, the 
necessary pruning is to keep the secondary branches — that is, 
the branches springing from the main branches — and the 
branches- springing from the secondary branches well spaced in 
order to permit light to reach all parts of the tree; it is also 
important to cut out limbs that tend to cross and those that 
are badly injured, and to prevent forks by cutting tack limbs 
that are growing rapidly and giving indications of becoming 
too large. 

42. As a general rule the trees should not be permitted to 
get any taller than they are at the age of about 8 or 9 years ; after 
this age the center of the top should be cut back to about the 
same point each year, otherwise pruning of the tree will become 
very expensive in later years, on account of the extreme height 
of the top. The method recommended is only a modified 
form of the real central-leader tree, for a central leader, if 
maintained throughout the life of the tree and permitted to 
become taller each year, develops into an extremely unde- 
sirable form, and spraying, pruning, harvesting, etc., become 
uneconomical and difficult or impossible. 


43. In pruning to form an open-headed tree, the grower 
should have in mind a definite ideal and work toward it. The 
best results can be secured by beginning with large 1-year-old 
trees, such as the one illustrated in Fig 6, (a), for in this case 
buds can be permitted to grow where limbs are desired and all 
others removed when they start growth. If it is necessary to 
start with 2-year-old trees, it may be advisable to cut off all 
existing branches, select about four buds that will produce 
branches at desired points, and allow these to grow. Occasion- 
ally, a 2-year-old tree may be found that has four good, stocky 
branches properly spaced for the development of the desired 
form of head and in such cases these branches may be allowed 
to remain and all others removed; the branches selected for 
the formation of the tree should be from 4 to 6 inches apart 




and be evenly spaced around the trunk. Unless such limbs are 
to be found on a young tree it will be best to remove all 
limbs as directed and permit new ones to start at desired 
points. Stockiness is of even more importance in establishing 
an open-headed tree than one with a pyramidal head, and 
this stockiness is secured by clipping the limbs back. 

44. Pruning' the first winter should be to cut back each 
of the four branches one-half and cut the central, or main, 
stem back just about even with the top branch so that it will 



heal over. During the second summer it may be necessary 
to rub off sprouts that tend to push up into the center, and, 
thus throw the growth into those limbs that it is desired to 
retain. The pruning in the second winter should be directed 
toward cutting back both the main and the secondary branches 
about one-half and keeping the secondary branches well spaced 
on the main branches, by cutting off all superfluous secondary 
branches. These branches should be at least 6 inches apart 
on the main branches. The points for cutting back the main 
branches are indicated by dotted lines in Fig. 6 (b) . 


45. Pruning similar to that recommended for the first 
and second years may be necessary in the third summer; the 
third winter the pruning should be to space the third-year 
branches on the secondary branches and to cut back all new 
growth about one-half for the purpose of securing stockiness. 
A 3-year-old tree properly primed is shown in Fig. 6 (c). 

46. The spacing of the limbs and cutting back of the 
twigs should be carried on in later years, but the cutting back 
should be less severe up to the time the tree reaches bearing 
age unless the tree tends to be slender, in which case the cut- 
ting back should be somewhat more severe in order to promote 
stockiness. If the tree tends to spread too much, the ends 
of the branches may be cut back to an upright limb, thus 
forcing the growth upwards. 

47. Water sprouts may give somewhat more trouble in 
the case of the open-headed than in the case of the pyramidal- 
headed tree; undesirable water sprouts should be rubbed off 
during the first winter, so that the growth will go into desira- 
ble limbs. Occasionally a water sprout may come at a place 
where a limb is desired, and in this case it may be made into 
a desirable branch by cutting it back about one-half, and 
following this the next year by cutting back each of its 
branches about one-half. 


48. The pruning of a pyramidal-headed apple tree should 
be to cut out crossed or injured limbs, to shorten those that 
are growing too long, and to cut down the central leader in 
order to prevent the tree from becoming too tall. Some 
annual clipping, also, is necessary in order to help keep up 
the vigor of the tree. 

Annual clipping of an open-headed bearing tree is of more 
importance than in the case of the pyramidal-headed tree, 
since it is necessary both to keep up the vigor of the tree and 
to keep the limbs stocky and strong. It may be necessary 
to cut out growth that takes place in the center of an open- 
headed tree and tends to fill up the space in the head, or it 


may be necessary to cut off the outer limbs and push the 
growth into upward-growing branches in order to prevent 
the tree from becoming too spreading in form. 

Fruit growers do not usually recognize the importance of 
pruning to regulate fruitfulness. If a tree receives little or no 
pruning, and especially if it is not well cultivated, after it 
becomes old each spur will bear a fruit bud on its end. 
Usually a spur that bears a flower cluster one year will be 
barren the year following. The result will be that the tree 
will bear an excessively heavy bloom one year and no bloom 
the next; that is, the tree will alternate a heavy crop with no 
crop. With somewhat heavy pruning, and especially if this 
pruning is associated with good cultivation, a considerable per- 
centage of the spurs in any one year will not have fruit buds, 
and thus will be left to set fruit buds for the year following. 
In other words, a medium niimber of fruit buds will set each 
year instead of a very large number on alternate years. Thus 
pruning and cultivating to give the trees greater vigor of 
growth will prevent alternating with most varieties. How- 
ever, with some varieties alternating is a very fixed habit that 
apparently cannot be broken entirely by any known method 
of care. While a tree kept in vigorous condition by good 
pruning and cultivation will have a lighter bloom each year 
than it would have on the cropping year where it is left to 
make a weak growth and alternate, it does not necessarily 
follow that the crop of fruit will be lighter. In fact, the crop 
of fruit ripened is very likely to be almost as large each year 
as the crop ripened on the alternate years with a weak tree. 
This is true because the fruit is likely to be larger and also 
because the bloom is healthier and more likely to set fruit 
than that on the weaker alternating tree. It has been found 
that a large percentage of the pollen on old neglected trees is 
sterile, so that there is often Hable to be a light set of fruit 
from a very heavy bloom. 

Pruning of bearing trees will also be necessary at times to 
control certain diseases like blight and canker. Badly bhghted 
and cankered areas should be cut out and all forms of diseased 
limbs cut off and the wounds painted. 




49. An important detail to be observed in pruning, par- 
ticularly in the case of large trees, is to leave wounds that will 
heal readily. One of the most common errors in this respect 
is that of cutting off limbs at such a distance from the trunk 
or parent branch as to leave stubs varying from a few inches 
to a foot or more in length. These stubs are not only 
unsightly and inconvenient in thinning and spraying operations, 
but they are also a source of serious injiiry to the tree itself. 
By the removal of the outer end of the limb the stubs have 
been deprived of nourishment, and as a result the bark on the 
stub dies and falls away. The exposed wood decays, and 

ultimately the decayed area extends into the trunk or the 
larger branch from which the stub protrudes. In this con- 
dition the wound is difficult to treat, and if untreated is likely 
to destroy the tree sooner or later. 

In Fig. 7 (a), is illustrated a tree pruned in such a way as 
to leave a stub a on the trunk and a stub 6 on a limb. In (b) 
is shown the manner in which these stubs begin to decay, the 
dotted lines indicating how the decay will ultimately extend 
into the adjacent wood. In (c) is shown the ultimate result 
of this neglect. If instead of leaving stubs as shown in Fig. 
7, the limbs are removed by making the cut close to the trunk, 



the trouble just described will be avoided, for in this case the 
tree is able to cover the wound with new tissue that protects 
it from organisms that cause decay. The plant-food neces- 
sary for this new growth is available at this point, for there 
is leaf surface just beyond to supply it. For the reason just 
explained, it is usually advisable to cut off the limbs as close 
to the trunk or the parent branch as possible, although this is 
not always the case. Frequently there is more or less of an 
enlargement at the base of a limb. In such cases, cutting the 
limb at the point where it joins the trunk will result in a much 
larger wound than if it were cut about half way through the 


Fig. 8 

Fig. 9 

enlargement and the smaller woimd will heal more quickly 
even though it is a little further from the trunk than the 
larger wound. 

Figs. 8 and 9 give a good idea of the healing process that 
takes place over a properly made wound. Fig. 8 shows cal- 
lous tissue just beginning to cover a wound, and Fig. 9 shows 
the wound almost covered with new growth. 

50. As a safeguard against the entrance of organisms 
causing decay, all wounds except possibly very small ones 
should be painted with either common white-lead paint or 
with grafting wax, and if the wound is very large it should be 
painted every season until it is healed over. 


When a limb is to be shortened it is always advisable to cut 
it at a point where there is a strong branch thrown out from 
it. Care should be taken to avoid splitting a large limb that 
is being cut back, because such a split is likely to extend down 
and injure wood it is desired to retain. A method by which 
splitting may be prevented is to saw in about an inch or more 
on the under side of the limb, then to saw the limb off from the 
upper side about an inch below where the cut was made on the 
lower side. The limb will thus be sawed off before the lower 
side of it becomes so weak that it will split down. Very large 
limbs should be first cut off a foot or more beyond where they 
are ultimately to be cut, thus reducing the danger of a serious 
split by removing a large part of the weight before the final 
cut is made. 


51. Successful apple orchardists have found that it is 
not, as a rule, advisable to permit trees to mature all the fruit 
they set. The practice of removing by hand a part of the 
fruit before maturity is known as tliinning, and is now an 
established routine in most apple orchards. 

By removing some apples from a tree the fruit that remains 
develops to a larger size, better form, and acquires a better 
color than would have been possible if thinning had not been 
done. Thinning is commonly recommended not only for the 
improved quality of the current season's crop but to improve the 
chances for the crop the following season; that is, to prevent 
alternate seasons of good and poor crops. The theory is that 
the spurs from which the fruit is pulled in thinning will set fruit 
buds for the following season, and the spurs on which the fruit 
is allowed to remain and mature will form only wood buds. 
Experience, however, so far does not fully bear out this theory 
for in the case of an experiment at Geneva, New York, thin- 
ning failed entirely to affect alternating. In other experi- 
ments, it seems to have some slight effect, and it is possible 
that if thinning is practiced from year to year, the trees may 
be kept from the habit of alternating, but it is not likely 


that thinning will break the habit of alternating in a tree after 
it is once fixed. Most orchardists are agreed that an effec- 
tive way to prevent alternating is by careful annual pruning 
and ciiltivation, and that thinning associated with these proc- 
esses may be beneficial, but that thinning alone cannot be 
depended on to prevent alternating. 

It pays best to thin in sections where the growers are 
cooperating so that the increased number of fancy apples can 
be handled to a good advantage, for thinning is favorable to 
the production of fancy fniit. If these fancy apples must 
be put into barrels with the No. 1 quality and sold for the same 
price, the profits of thinning are not great, but if there are 
enough growers shipping together that all the fancy apples may 
be put into a pack that will be offered in large enough quan- 
tities to impress the market, thinning is more likely to pay. 
In some experiments, thinning has reduced the total number 
of bushels or barrels picked; in other cases it has not; that is, 
the increased size of the fruit has offset the reduced nimiber. 
In practically all cases, however, more money is received for 
the fruit of thinned trees than for the fruit from similar trees 
not thinned. The fruit from thinned trees has in all experi- 
ments shown an appreciably better color than from unthinned 

Thinning is of special importance in the case of certain 
varieties that have a strong tendency to overbear, and hence 
to produce fruit that is small and irregular. On the other 
hand, there are some varieties that are not, as a rule, heavy 
bearers, and with these thinning may not be necessary. Even 
in the latter case, however, the removal of a few fruits at points 
where several are clustered together may be advisable. 

Thinning is usually done from the first of June to the first 
of July; the earlier it is done after all the fruit has fallen that 
is going to fall in early summer, the better. 

The usual practice is to thin clusters to only one fruit and 
leave no two fruits closer than 6 inches apart. In some cases 
a space of 8 or 9 inches between fruits is maintained. 

The cost of thinning varies from 9 or 10 cents to 60 or 70 
cents per tree, depending on the size and form of the tree. 


Very large trees 20 or 25 years old will cost 50 cents or more ; 
properly pruned trees 8 or 10 years old can be thinned for 
10 or 12 cents. 


52. The elements that are likely to be deficient in a 
soil are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and occasionally 
calcium, and with most crops a deficiency of one of these 
materials becomes the limiting factor for that crop. Thus, 
applying an excess of potassiimi when phosphorus is the ele- 
ment that is deficient does little or no good and in some cases 
may actually do harm. A healthy, vigorous wood growth 
indicates that sufficient nitrogen is present, and deficiency 
of nitrogen results in limited growth. The lack of potassium 
or phosphorus also results in a rather weak growth, but the 
effect of a deficiency of these two elements on growth is not 
so marked as is the case when nitrogen is lacking. Potassium 
is thought by many growers to give a better color to the fruit, 
but careftd experiments do not bear out this opinion. Lime 
is useful as a means of correcting acid soils, but since an apple 
soil is seldom acid, lime may be entirely omitted in a discus- 
sion of the fertilization of an apple orchard. 

53. It is well known that apple trees bear profitable crops 
on a very poor soil, yet analyses show that an apple crop 
actually takes away annually from the soil more nitrogen and 
potassium than a crop of grain. It has been found that an 
annual crop of 15 bushels of wheat to the acre takes away 
from the soil in 20 years 659.58 pounds of nitrogen, 210.6 
pounds of phosphoric acid, and 323 pounds of potassium. 
An acre of apple trees from 13 to 33 years old and bearing a 
crop of 15 bushels to the tree in 20 years takes away from the 
soil, in the fruit, 498.6 pounds of nitrogen, 38.25 pounds of 
phosphoric acid, and 728.55 pounds of potassium; and in the 

I- leaves, 456.75 pounds of nitrogen, 126 pounds of phosphoric 
acid, and 441 pounds of potassium. It will be seen, assuming 
that all the leaves go back to the soil, that considerably more 
potassium is removed by the apple crop than by the wheat 


crop. Reasoning from these results it would seem that potas- 
sium is a very important orchard fertilizer and that all ele- 
ments of fertility would have to be applied, especially to an 
old orchard and that, even in a medium rich soil, fertilizers 
may need to be applied. Further, since the orchardist is deal- 
ing with a crop that is so valuable that a small percentage 
of increased yield would pay for the fertilizers, the use of fer- 
tilizer in an orchard would seem to offer better results than 
the use of fertilizer with grain crops, with which often a con- 
siderably increased yield will not pay for the cost of the fer- 
tilizer, since the value of the crop per acre in any case is not 

54. It may be well now to tiim to experimental results 
to see whether these assumptions are borne out by experience. 
It is plain that before an experiment with fertilizers can be 
given any credence it must be carried on for a considerable 
number of years, certainly not less than iour or five. A num- 
ber of long-time experiments of a rather extensive nature have 
been tried. One of the first of these to be published was an 
experiment carried on for 12 years with trees more than 
40 years of age to begin with, on a soil of medium richness in 
Western New York. This experiment was in the use of potas- 
sium and phosphate only. Some varieties showed an appar- 
ent gain from the treatment; others showed a loss. The net 
result from the use of fertilizer was a benefit of about $99 for 
5 acres, and the cost of the fertilizer was about $74.50, leaving 
a profit of only about $24.50. This did not pay for apply- 
ing the fertilizer, and as the difference is within the range of 
error the experiment seems to indicate that the advisability 
of using fertilizers in an orchard having a soil of reasonable 
fertility is somewhat questionable. Another experiment for 
15 years with young trees, showed no benefits from the use 
of either potash, phosphorus, or nitrogen. 

55. At the Wobum Experiment Station, England, in a 
rich soil a long-time experiment failed to show any beneficial 
results, even on old trees, from the use of any form of fer- 
tilizer; however, it is reported that on a thin soil the sam^e 


experiment station has secured profits from the use of fertilizers. 
The Massachusetts Experiment Station , secured profits from 
the use of potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorus, and espe- 
cially from the use of barnyard manure. At the Pennsylvania 
Experiment Station, nitrogen has proved to be a valuable 
fertilizer to apply to an orchard ; potassium has not uniformly 
shown any benefits; and the use of phosphate has not shown 
marked benefits. The use of barnyard manure and a com- 
bined fertilizer on a sod-mulch orchard gave remarkably bene- 
ficial results — very much more beneficial results than on a 
cultivated orchard on the same kind of soil. In fact, the use 
of nitrogen-bearing fertilizer with a sod-mulch seemed entirely 
to offset the lack of cultivation, though this may not be the 
case under other circumstances. At no experiment station has 
potash shown any positive effect in improving the color of fruit. 
It would seem from these experiments that on any orchard 
soil the use of either potassium or phosphorus fertilizers or 
both may be profitable if either or both of these elements 
are deficient in the soil. Nitrogen can more often be used 
with profit than either potassium or phosphorus. It is found, 
however, that in practically all cases nitrogen injiuiously 
affects the color of the fruit. At the Pennsylvania Experi- 
ment Station it seemed to be evident that the use of potassium 
and phosphate combined with nitrogen to some extent reduces 
the injiirious effect of nitrogen. Stable manure, though more 
expensive than chemical nitrogen, seems in the case of a sod- 
mulch orchard to give more beneficial resiilts, and in the case 
of a cultivated orchard the beneficial results from the use of 
chemical fertilizers were. as great as from the use of stable 

56. It is scarcely possible to make any recommendations 
that will apply to all soils. However, first it w^otdd be well 
for the orchardist to assimie that his trees, if they are making 
a good, healthy growth and bearing well, do not need fer- 
tilizing; this is true, also, if the trees are not bearing well, on 
account of frost, insect, or fungous injuries, etc. If the soil 
is reasonably fertile and the orchard neglected, good pruning, 


cultivation, and spraying should certainly be resorted to 
before fertilizing. IJowever, if the orchard is well cared for 
and the trees are not sufficiently vigorous, it may be profitable 
to use commercial fertilizer, especially fertilizer containing 
nitrogen. In all cases it is well to watch the results that are 
obtained by the application of different mixtiu-es and by this 
means determine what the soil needs. The following is sug- 
gested for the first application: Actual nitrogen, 30 pounds 
per acre; actual phosphoric acid, 60 to 75 pounds per acre; 
actual potash, 50 pounds per acre. 

These amounts of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash 
can be secured by using any of the following combinations: 

1. Nitrate of soda (15| per cent, nitrogen), 100 pounds; 
dried blood (12| per cent, nitrogen), 100 pounds; steamed 
bone meal (24 per cent, phosphoric acid and 1 per cent, nitro- 
gen), 250 to 300 poimds; sulphate of potash (50 per cent, 
potash) 100 pounds. 

2. Nitrate of soda (15 per cent, nitrogen), 100 pounds; 
dried blood (12| per cent, nitrogen), 120 pounds; acid phos- 
phate (15 per cent, phosphoric acid), 400 to 500 poimds; std- 
phate of potash (50 per cent, potash), 100 poimds. 

3. A 6-12-10 fertihzer, 500 poimds. 

If the soil is known to be high in either phosphorus or 
potash — ^that is, if a grain or vegetable crop will not respond 
vigorously to applications of either phosphorus or potash — 
the amounts of these elements could be greatly reduced in 
the fertihzer tried, and the amount of nitrogen, even in a poor 
soil, largely reduced by substituting leguminous cover crops. 
It may be well at times to alternate stable manure with chem- 
ical fertihzers the first and third years, using about 10 tons 
to the acre. 

57. Time of Applying Fertilizers. — It is not possible 
to give absolute directions as to the best time for applying 
chemical fertihzers, because various conditions will require 
different practices. However, so far as experience has gone, 
it seems to indicate that the best time is shortly after the 
blooming period of the trees. Dried blood or sulphate or 


ammonia miay be applied earlier, but if nitrate of soda is used 
it should be applied at the time suggested, for at this time 
the trees can make use of it readily and this fertilizer does not 
remain in the soil for any great length of time. 

58. Fertilizing of Young Trees. — In a great many 
orchards where it will not pay to fertilize the old trees, espe- 
cially in the case of nitrogen, the ill effects of which will more 
than offset the beneficial results it will pay handsomely to 
fertilize young trees, at the time of setting, with about 1 to 
to 1| pounds of dried blood or | to f pound of nitrate of 
soda, in a radius of 1| or 2 feet, and repeat the application 
the second year. Of course, after the first and second years 
the amounts of :fertilizer used shotdd be increased, since the 
area on which it is spread will be larger as the roots grow. 
The use of leguminous crops on the soil may entirely replace 
the use of nitrogen in many cases. 


59. The renovation of old apple orchards is a somewhat 
important phase of orcharding and one that can often be made 
profitable. It is by no means true that all old, neglected 
orchards can be made to pay satisfactory returns by renova- 
tion. In many cases neglect has gone so far and insect and 
fungous troubles have worked such havoc that time and money 
spent in renovation would be largely if "not wholly wasted. 
But, on the other hand, there are many instances in which a 
judicious expenditure in the renovation of an old orchard has 
been made to pay handsome returns. Whether or not renova- 
tion will pay in any particular case will depend on numerous 
factors. Perhaps one of the most important of these is the 
question of capital available. In many cases at least the 
first year after renovation begins no crop can be expected, 
and if a man has not the capital to give the orchard this nec- 
essary care without a crop to defray the expenses, he should 
probably hesitate to begin. The condition of the trees with 
reference to age, vigor, height, shape and distance apart, are 


additional factors that should have serious consideration. 
If the trees are not old, for example, it may not be necessary 
to lose a crop in order to get them back into good condition. 
Especially is this true in a fairly good soil. But if the trees 
have run up too high a head to be handled profitably they will 
have to be cut back and the center to some extent cut out. 
This treatment may involve the loss of the crop the summer 
following although this is not necessarily the case. 

60. The stand of trees is another important considera- 
tion in determining whether it will pay to renovate an old 
orchard. Generally speaking, unless as much as 50 or 60 
per cent, of the trees are in good, healthy condition, and 15 or 
20 per cent, more of them are sufficiently healthy to be brought 
back to good condition by careful treatment, it will hardly 
pay to attempt to bring the orchard into profitable bearing, 
since cultivation, etc. for the poor stand will be as expensive 
as for a good stand. 

61. The kind of soil on which the old orchard is located 
is also an important factor. If the soil is not a reasonably 
good orchard soil, generally it will not pay to go to the expense 
of renovating an old orchard, especially if the soil is such that 
it could be profitably devoted to some other crop. Of course, 
there will be exceptions to this, as in cases, where on account 
of good local markets, an orchard would be profitable even 
on a poor orchard soil. 

62. The question of being located where there is reasona- 
ble certainty of getting a crop nearly every year is of very 
great importance. If the orchaid is located in a valley where 
there is almost sure to be frequent damage from late spring 
frosts, it will generally not be profitable to renovate it unless 
it is intended to make use of orchard heaters. Generally 
speaking, it may be said that in a section where the orchard 
is run down because there had been so many crop failures, 
that is, because it has not paid to keep it up, it would not, 
as a rule, be advisable to spend money in renovation. 


63. The prevalence of insect pests and fungous diseases, 
is of some importance. It is true that these troubles can be 
successfully combated in many cases, but if the trees are badly 
injured by borers or other insects that leave permanent injury 
to the bodies of the trees, or if the orchard is badly infected 
with different forms of apple canker, its renovation may be 
inadvisable, since in many cases it would be impossible to 
bring the trees into a healthy condition and keep them that 
way for any length of time. 

64. It may also be said that to a large extent the success 
of such a venture will depend on the man who undertakes 
it. It will require a man who is fairly well acquainted with 
the orchard business and who knows what he wants to do in 
the matter of renovating the orchard to get the best results. 
He should also be very certain that he is going to have the time 
and inclination to give the orchard the necessary care after 
it is worked over. In most cases it has been observed that 
if the orchard is under new management the renovation is 
more likely to be thorough and effective, and the trees to have 
the necessary care than if the man who has been neglecting 
it undertakes the renovation. 

65. Metliods of Renovating an Old Apple Orcliard. 

No general mles can be laid down for working over an old 
orchard, for each orchard will require special treatment, depend- 
ing on its condition. In undertaking any renovating, it should 
be the intention to give the trees the best of care, to get 
the soil in good physical condition, and generally to take all 
necessary measures to promote as healthy a growth as in the 
case of growing young trees. Dead limbs should be removed, 
and it is likely that many limbs that are not dead should be 
cut out in order to give room for others and bring the trees 
to a size and shape that will permit of economical spraying, 
thinning, and harvesting. Undesirable stubs, splinters, etc. 
that have resulted from improper pruning or breaking of limbs 
by winds or other causes should be removed and all wounds 
painted. The severity of the treatment will depend on the 
condition of the orchard. As suggested, a young orchard, 




especially if it is not badly infected with canker or seriously 
infested with insects like borers or fruit-tree bark beetles, does 
not need anything like so severe cutting as an old orchard. 
Often merely thinning and cutting out to the proper shape, 
getting the soil in good condition, and beginning the practice 
of spraying will be sufficient to bring the orchard into healthy 
condition. On the other hand, where the orchard is badly 
injured, severe cutting may be necessary. 

66. In many oases the trees will be set too close and it 
may be necessary to cut out some of them, but the orchardist 












/sr Row 
























3^ Row 
























































































Fig. 10 

should carefiilly consider whether it will be better to cut out 
some of the trees or cut all of them back severely and keep 
them dowti in size. It is not advisable to attempt to grow 
trees too large on a thin soil. Small trees can be more prof- 
itably handled than large ones, provided there are enough 
trees on the ground to make up for the lack of size. In any 
soil a distance of 25 feet each way is sufficient if the trees are 



kept down in size. However, in many cases it is unquestion- 
ably necessary to cut out some of the trees. If the orchard is 
set in hexagonal form it is usually a good plan to cut out every 
other row; if the trees are set in the square form it may 
be better to cut out alternate trees in each row, as indi- 
cated in Fig. 10, in which r designates the trees that are to be 
removed. In shaping the remaining trees, if they are young 
and it is desired to prune them to an open head, the center 

Fig. U 

may be cut out say 8 or 10 feet high and all the weaker limbs 
and some of the superfluous stronger ones cut out so as to 
leave only six or seven limbs that are well spaced around the 
body of the tree. Usually five or six limbs will be sufficient, 
and these should be shortened back a little to make them 
stocky and to make them push out new growth further down 
the limb. 




In Fig. 11 is shown a tree in which five hmbs have been 
retained and the points to which these limbs are to be cut 
back are indicated at a. Old and badly neglected trees should 
be cut back rather severely. A tree of this kind is illustrated 
in Fig. 12, and the extent to which it may be advisable to cut 
it back is shown by the white line drawn through the head. 
It will also be advisable to thin out the limbs considerably in 
the center to form, to some extent, an open head. 




Fig. 12 

67. As an illustration of the severe cutting back that was 
necessary in a certain old orchard, the views shown in Figs. 13 
and 14 are of interest. Fig. 13 shows the orchard before 
prunning and well illustrates the extreme height and undesira- 
ble form commonly assumed by neglected apple trees. In 
Fig. 14 is shown a view of the same trees after they were pruned. 
It will be seen that the high limbs have been shortened back 
and much of the thick, bushy growth removed. In the case 




of such trees as are shown in Fig. 14 it would undoubtedly 
be advisable to still further reduce the length of the highest 
limbs, but to avoid injury to the trees from excessively severe 
pruning the latter work may be delayed 2 or 3 years or until 
the trees have somewhat recovered from the shock of the first 

Severe pruning should be done somewhat gradually; that 
is, it is better to do a part of it each year for 2 or 3 years 
than to do it all in a single season. In the case of trees that 
require very severe pruning, it is often advisable to leave more 
of the lower limbs than will be desired in the renovated tree. 
Later, when the tree has put out new top growth, the super- 
fluous lower limbs may be removed. 

Another point to be avoided in severe pruning operations 
is the making of numerous large wounds close together. If 
this is done the effect is somewhat the same as girdling the 
tree. If it is found necessary to remove several large limbs 
that join the trunk close together, the danger of girdling may 
be avoided by cutting some of them in such a way as to leave 
a stub 1 or 2 feet long. Later, when the wounds on the trunk 
have healed or are nearly healed the stubs should be sawed off 
close to the trunk. All large wounds made in this work 
should be painted each year until entirely healed. 

68. Soil Treatment for Renovated Orcliards. — In 

working over an old orchard, the owner should bear in mind 
the practices that have been recommended for the general 
care of an apple orchard. If the soil is badly run down, prob- 
ably the most desirable thing would be to grow a crop of cow- 
peas or vetch or some other leguminous crop for the sake of 
its beneficial effect on the soil. The use of orchard fertilizers 
may in some cases be resorted to and in all probability 
there is no time when fertilizing will pay better than at the 
beginning of the spring after the trees have been cut back 
in winter; especially is the use of barnyard manure or nitrog- 
enous fertilizer to be recommended then. In a soil very 
low in any other essential material, as potassium or phos- 
phorus, these should be applied to secure best results from 


the nitrogen. In many cases, resorting to winter cover crops 
will show very marked benefits, especially in the case of a soil 
on a south hill slope, and the use of cover crops should certainly 
be part of the system of management if the orchard is located 
on a hillside. 

69. Spraying Metliods for Renovated Orchards. — It 

will generally be profitable to give a dormant spraying for 
old, neglected trees in a renovated orchard. When serious 
pests such as San Jose scale are present they should be com- 
bated as directed in another Section. A very heavy dormant 
spray should be given for insects that will be nestled in the 
bark, and for spores of fungi. This will be beneficial also in 
clearing the bark of algse and lichens that grow on it. Even 
after an orchard has been cut back so severely that no crop 
is expected, at least one spraying to keep apple scab and other 
fungous diseases off the foliage might be made to give the 
orchard the very best opportunity to make a good growth 
the first summer. Even if the orchard does not have a crop, 
it should have the same care the second summer after renova- 
tion as would be given to any bearing apple orchard. 

70. Top Working of Trees. — In many cases the varie- 
ties found in an old orchard will not be those that are profi- 
table. In other cases the orchard may be made up of a single 
variety that is self-sterile, so that the introduction of some 
other variety for cross-fertilization is necessary. There are 
undoubtedly many orchards that are failures because of lack 
of proper pollination, and in going over an old orchard the 
varieties should be carefully studied with reference to this 
question. If necessary, varieties should be selected that are 
known to be satisfactory for the cross-pollination of the 
varieties predominating in the orchard, and the former 
should be top-worked into the latter. The time for doing 
this will vary from late winter, say the latter part of 
February or any time in March, up to possibly the middle of 
May, in the northern section of the country, though early spring 
grafting is usually considered best. 


In working over the trees the grafts should be set in stubs 
that are directed outwards and will form desirable limbs. 
The limbs in the center that are not wanted may well be 
left temporarily as sap pullers — that is, for the purpose of 
furnishing foliage to supply nourishment; they should be cut 
out when they have served the purpose. The first season 
after the grafts have been set they should make a large growth. 
Many water sprouts will come from the old stubs ; those at the 
end of the stub should be carefully rubbed off so they will not 
interfere with the growth of the grafts. Part of those along 
the side of the limb may also be rubbed off; it is often desira- 
able to leave some of the water sprouts and either to bud them 
in the summer with the same varieties as the grafts inserted 
or to whip-graft on them the winter following. 

If more than one of the grafts on the end of a stub live, 
probably some of them should be kept cut back to give one 
the advantage, and usually after a few years when the stub 
is about healed over all except one may be cut off. The tree 
should then be kept pruned as much as it would be in the 
case of a good open-headed tree ; it should be kept from becom- 
ing too dense in the center, and after the grafts have made con- 
siderable growth, say after 3 or 4 years, it should be clipped 
back a little each year to keep it from getting too tall and to 
to keep the growth down on the tree. 




1. Killing of Fruit Buds. — Severe, winter weather may 
cause various degrees of injury to fruit buds. The degree of 
the injury depends on the temperature, the prevalence of winds, 
whether the air is dry or moist, the condition of the tree at the 
beginning of cold weather, and probably other factors or con- 
ditions that are not known. If the injury is very severe the 
fruit buds and the fruit spurs, of those trees that bear fruit 
spurs, may be killed. In less severe cases the fruit buds only 
are entirely killed. In the latter cases the buds turn brown 
throughout and do not open at the time for blossoming. In 
other cases the injury is less severe and the buds open into 
blossoms, but many of the pistils, or the central portion of 
each blossom which, if uninjured, matures into the fruit, are 
killed. In Fig. 1 are shown several blossoms, two in cross- 
section, one of these having a small brown or black pistil a 
which has been frozen, and the other a healthy green pistil b. 

2. Killing of Twigs and Large Stems. — The killing of 
the wood of trees, like the killing of the buds, depends on 
various factors, the most important of which are the condition 
of the tree at the time that cold weather arrives, intense cold, 
very wet soil, and the heaving of land by frost. 

Dead wood is darker than live, active wood and usually can 
be easily recognized. If the wood is killed during the early 





part of the winter the injury is probably caused by cold weather 
coming before the trees have reached a sufficiently dormant 
state to withstand the cold. At the time the leaves fall, espe- 
cially if they are killed by frost, the trees cannot withstand 
nearly so low a temperature as they can a month later. That 
is, the trees must be allowed several weeks after the leaves fall 
in which to attain a dormant condition so that they can with- 
stand severe cold without injury. In those regions of the 
United States and Canada where severe cold weather is 
likely to occur in the early part of the winter, it is advi- 
sable for the fruit grower to resort to methods of culture 

that will force the trees 
into an early dormant 
condition. This end is 
usually obtained by stop- 
ping cultivation and by 
planting, usually in 
August, a cover crop that 
^^* will make a rapid growth 
during the autumn. 

If the wood is killed 
during the latter part of 
winter, the injury is pro- 
bably caused by a very 
cold period that lasts for 
several weeks, during 
which time the twigs and 
limbs lose much mois- 
ture by evaporation, and as the branches are frozen they can- 
not take up moisture to replace that which was evaporated. 

It has been observed that the greatest injury from winter- 
killing of fruit trees occurs in orchards that are not well drained 
and to those trees that stand in low or wet places in orchards 
that are otherwise well drained. In such cases the trees are kept 
in a growing condition until late in the fall and do not attain 
a sufficiently dormant condition by the time cold weather 
arrives. A very wet soil in an orchard can usually be bene- 
fited by thorough and proper drainage. 

Fig. 1 


3. Killing of Roots. — The roots of fruit trees will gener- 
ally not survive a temperature lower than from 25° to 22° F. 
Therefore, if the roots are exposed to the air they will be killed 
by the winter temperature in almost any apple-growing section 
in the United States or Canada, but the temperature of the 
soil does not fall nearly so low as that of the air and rarely 
becomes low enough to kill tree roots. In fact, it is desirable 
that a few inches of the surface soil be frozen during the winter, 
as such freezing has a tendency to force the trees into a dormant 
condition. It has been observed that if a heavy fall of snow 
occurs before the soil freezes the soil does not become frozen, 
and more trees are killed than if the soil freezes. However, 
there is more danger from winter-killing of the roots if the soil 
freezes several feet deep than if only from 4 to 6 inches at the 
surface becomes frozen, because the deeper the ground freezes 
the colder the frozen portion becomes. 


4. The injuries that occur to plants while they are in a 
noticeably active condition, that is, after the buds have begun 
to swell in the spring and until the plants have assumed a dor- 
mant condition in the fall, are commonly known as frost 
injuries, although injuries that are caused by freezing temper- 
ature but without the deposits of frosts may occur at this 
time of the year. 

5. Frost Dijury to Apple Buds. — Ordinarily, fruit buds 
are not injured by the low temperatures that usually accompany 
spring -frosts. However, if spring frosts are accompanied by 
such low temperatures that it is customary to speak of them 
as freezes, rather than as frosts, the unopened buds may be 
killed. Apple buds, even after they are open far enough for 
the white color of the petals to show at the tip of the buds, 
are not often seriously injured by a temperature of 25° F. 
However, instances are on record where a temperature as 
low as 18° F. has occurred after the color of the petals was 



distinguishable without seriously injuring the buds. But, in 
such cases, a combination of unusual conditions may have 
existed that prevented the killing of the pistils of the fruit buds. 
It is safe to say, however, that apple buds, after the white 
begins to show at the tips of the buds, are nearly always killed, 
or at least seriously injured, by a temperature of 20° F. or less. 

6. Frost Inj ury to Apple Blossoms . — It is not definitely 
known exactly how low a temperature apple blossoms will 
endure without injury. But a careful observer and investi- 
gator states that while blossoms are fully expanded a com- 

FiG. 2 

paratively light frost will kill them and that a temperature 
of 28° F. is nearly always fatal. Apple blossoms are more 
easily killed than are peach blossoms, although the peach crop 
is more often killed by spring frosts than is the apple crop. 
This is due, however, to the fact that peach trees usually bloom 
earlier in the season than do apple trees. Sometimes there is 
apparently a second crop of apple blossoms that appears after 
the first crop has been killed by frost. In many cases, however, 
the so-called second crop of blossoms is simply those blossoms 
that would normally have come out a little late. In other cases 
the late blossoms develop from those buds that formed in the 
axils of the leaves the previous year. 




7. Frost Injury to Young Apples. — After the blossoms 
have fallen and the young apples have set, the fruit may not 
suffer from severe freezes. The claim has even been made by 
some observers that fruit shortly after it has set will not be 
seriously injured by being ^ 

frozen solid. Recovery ^k 

from such freezes certainly 
cannot always be the case, 
because it is a fairly well- 
established fact that the 
injury such as is shown on 
the young apples in Fig. 2 
was caused by frost. Such 
apples often continue to 
grow, but the mature apples 
will show a russet, corky 
zone, as illustrated in Fig. 3. 
Other observers and investi- 
gators claim that very young 
apples, that is, apples imme- 
diately after the blossoms have fallen and the fruit is said to 
have set, are more easily injured by frost than are the blossoms. 
Newly-set apples are certainly very likely to be killed by a 
temperature of from 30° to 28° F. 

Fig. 3 




8. More or less moisture always exists in the atmosphere 
in the form of an invisible vapor. When this invisible vapor 
is condensed by a falling temperature, clouds, or fogs, are 

formed; if the moisture in the clouds 
is further condensed at a temperature 
above the freezing point rain is formed; 
and if condensed at a temperature at 
or below the freezing point snow is formed. If 
the moisture of the atmosphere that is in imme- 
diate contact with the surface of the earth is 
condensed at temperatures above the freezing 
point, dew is formed, and if this moisture is con- 
densed at or below a freezing temperature frost is 
formed. Frost is, therefore, the moisture of the 
air condensed at or below 32° F. on the surface 
of the earth or on plants or other objects. 

9. Prediction of Frost. — The conditions 
under which damaging frosts may occur are so 
nimierous and varied that it is very difficiolt to 
tell when frosts will occur and when they wiU 
not. However, frost may be expected during the 
HI I III ^^^^^ ^' ^^ nightfall, the dew point is 42° F. or 
less. The dew point is the temperature of the 
air at which dew is deposited. And when the 
dew point falls to 32° F. or lower, frost will occur. 
The dew point is determined by means of wet- 
bulb and dry-bulb thermometers and a specially 
prepared table known as a dew-point table. 
The most accurate kind of an instrument for the determina- 
tion of the dew point is shown in Fig. 4 (a), and is known 
as a sling psychrometer. This instrument consists of a wet- 
bulb and a dry-bulb thermometer, securely fastened to a 



support, which, in turn, is attached to a handle in such a way 
that the thermometers and their support may be whirled on 
one end of the handle. A case in which the sling psychrometer 
may be kept while not in use is shown in (6) . The bulb of one 
of the thermometers is covered with a thin piece of cloth and 
just before it is used this bulb is dipped in a cup of water and 



Difference in the 

Reading of the 

Dry- and 



Degrees F. 








Reading of Dry-Bulb Thermometer. Degrees F. 

15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 

Degrees of Temperature F. at Which Dew is Deposited 































































































the cloth covering thoroughly saturated; hence, the name wet 
bulb. Care must be used to avoid getting water on the naked, 
or dry, bulb. The instrument is then whirled rapidly for 
from 15 to 20 seconds and the temperature of the wet-bulb 
thermometer noted; the whirling and the noting of the tem- 
perature of the wet -bulb thermometer is repeated until the 



temperature is the same at two consecutive readings. This 
temperature, unless the air is saturated, will be less than that 
of the dry-bulb thermometer, and the difference between the 
reading of the wet-bulb and that of the dry-bulb thermometer 
should be accurately determined. After these data are secured, 
the dew point may be determined by the aid of Table I as follows : 
If the temperature of the dry-bulb thermometer is 49° F. and 
the temperature of the wet-bulb thermometer is 41° F., the 
difference in temperature is 8° F. The dew point will be found 
in the table at the intersection of the horizontal row in which 8 
occurs in the column of figures at the left side of the table and 
the vertical column headed by the number nearest the tempera- 
ture of the dry-bulb thermometer, 50°. The dew point in this 
case would be 31° F., and frost should be expected to occiu" 
that night. 

10. Average Dates of tlie Occurrence of Frosts. 

Table II, which is taken from the United States Weather 
Bureau reports, shows the date of the latest recorded killing 
frost in spring, the date of the earliest recorded killing frost in 
autumn, the average date of the occurrence of the last killing 
frost in the spring, and the average date of the occurrence of 
the first killing frost in autumn at various points in different 
states in the United States. 

11. Factors Affecting tlie Occurrence of Killing 
Frosts. — Certain factors such as the altitude, the latitude, the 
topography of the land, the position in relation to large or deep 
bodies of water, and the motion of the air all exert their influence 
on the occurrence of frosts in any locality. The humidity of 
the air is also a factor that exerts an influence on the occurrence 
of killing frosts. If the air is saturated, that is, if it contains 
all the moisture it will hold, there is little danger from frost so 
long as the temperature of the air remains above the freezing 
point. If the temperature is at or below the freezing point, 
a saturated atmosphere may retard frosts to a certain extent, 
but just how much is not known. 

The reason that saturated air may prevent injury from frosts 
is that evaporation of moisture from a plant takes place readily 



Alabama : 



Arizona : 



Arkansas : 

Fort Smith 

Little Rock 




Los Angeles 

Red Bluff 


San Diego 

San Francisco 

San Luis Obispo . . 
Colorado : 


Grand Junction. . . 


Connecticut : 

New Haven 

District of Columbia 








Date of 
Frost in 

Mar. 28 
Apr. 5 

Mar. 31 

Apr. 6 
Apr. 14 

May I 
Apr. 14 
Apr. 8 
Apr. 25 
Apr. 26 
Apr. 20 
Apr. 8 

June 6 
May 15 
May 23 

May 30 

May II 

Apr. 6 
Apr. 7 
Apr. 6 
Mar. 19 

Date of 

Frost in 


Oct. 31 
Oct. 21 

Nov. 9 


Oct. 15 
Oct. 22 

Nov. 7 
Nov. 18 
Nov. 15 
Oct. 28 
Nov. 18 
Nov. 19 

Sept. 12 
Sept. 27 
Sept. 12 

Sept. 15 

Oct. 2 

Nov. 12 
Nov. 18 
Nov. 12 
Nov. 28 


Date of 


Frost in 


Feb. 24 
Mar. II 

Feb. 18 

Mar. 4 
Mar. 20 

Apr. 2 
Mar. 4 
Apr. 8 
Feb. 26 
Feb. 16 
Jan. 8 
Feb. 20 

May 6 
Apr. 14 
Apr. 26 

Apr. 20 

Apr. 7 

Feb. 14 
Feb. 14 
Feb. 23 
Feb. 8 

Date of. 
Frost in 

Nov. 30 
Nov. & 

Dec. 7 


Nov. 4 
Nov. 10 

Dec. 8 
Dec. 15 
Dec. 6 
Nov. 15 
Dec. 26 
Dec. 27 

Oct. 5 
Oct. 21 
Oct. 5 

Oct. 17 

Oct. 21 

Dec. 6 
Dec. 29 
Dec. 5 
Jan. 9 

TABLE H — (Continued) 


Georgia : 




Savannah . . . 
Illinois : 



Springfield . . 
Indiana : 

Evansville . . . 

Indianapolis . 

Davenport . . 

Des Moines. 

Dubuque. . . . 


Sioux City. . 
Kansas : 

Concordia. . . 


Topeka . . 


Kentucky : 

Lexington . . . 

Louisville . . . 
Louisiana : 

New Orleans 

Shreveport . . 
Maine : 



Date of 


Frost in 


Date of 
Frost in 


Date of 


Frost in 


Apr. 15 

Oct. II 

Mar. 24 

Apr. 17 

Oct. 8 

Mar. 20 

Apr. 18 

Nov. 5 

Mar. 15 

Apr. 5 

Nov. I 

Feb. 27 

Apr. 19 

Sept. 30 

Mar. 29 

May 29 

Sept. 18 

Apr. 18 

May 22 

Sept. 25 

Apr. 20 

Apr. 21 

Sept. 30 

Apr. 10 

May 21 

Sept. 21 

Apr. 16 

May 22 

Sept. 18 

Apr. 22 

May 22 

Sept. 12 

Apr. 28 

May 21 

Sept. 27 

Apr. 20 

May 4 

Sept. 18 

Apr. 13 

May 2 1 

Sept. 13 

May I 

May 19 

Sept. 27 

Apr. 24 

May 27 

Sept. 23 

Apr. 17 

May 19 

Sept. 28 

Apr. 8 

May 15 

Sept. 23 

Apr. 6 

May 20 

Sept. 30 

Apr. 18 

May 14 

Sept. 24 

Apr. 6 

Mar. 27 

Nov. 19 

Jan. 24 

Apr. 2 

Oct. 20 

Mar. 4 

June 19 

Sept. 8 

Apr. 28 

May 31 

Sept. II 

Apr. 14 

Date of 

Frost in 

Nov. 7 
Nov. 9 
Nov. 14 
Nov. 26 

Oct. 28 
Oct. 15 
Oct. 16 

Oct. 30 
Oct. 19 

Oct. 14 
Oct. 8 
Oct. 13 
Oct. 15 
Sept. 27 

Oct. 14 
Oct. 15 
Oct. 13 
Oct. 19 

Oct. 23 
Oct. 29 

Dec. 15 
Nov. II 

Oct. 12 
Oct. 18 


TABLE II — {Continued) 


Maryland : 


Massachusetts : 



Michigan : 




Grand Haven . . . . 


Port Huron 

Sault Ste. Marie. 
Minnesota : 




St. Paul 

Mississippi : 



Missouri : 



Kansas City 


St. Louis 

Montana : 



Nebraska : 


North Platte 

Date of 
Frost in 

Date of 
Frost in 


Date of 


Frost in 


May 3 

Oct. 6 

Apr. 4 

May II 

Sept. 30 
Oct. I 

Apr. 26 

Apr. 24 

iVpr. 10 

June 9 

Sept. 6 

May 14 

May 31 

Sept. 21 

Apr. 30 

June 16 

Sept. 9 

May 14 

May 28 

Sept. 23 

Apr. 28 

June II 

Aug. 22 

May 15 

June 6 

Sept. 22 

May 8 

May 29 

Sept. 5 

May 16 

June 8 

Sept. 15 

May 3 

May 20 

Sept. 13 

Apr. 27 

June 8 

Aug. 25 

May 14 

May 25 

Sept. 20 

May 6 

Apr. 10 

Oct. 8 

Mar. 20 

Apr. 6 

Oct. 19 

Mar. 6 

May 9 

Sept. 28 

Apr. 14 

May 14 

Sept. 30 

Apr. 14 

May 4 

Sept. 30 

Apr. 10 

May 19 

Sept. 30 

Apr. 16 

May 22 

Sept. 30 

Apr. 2 

June 6 

Aug. 27 

May 14 

June 9 

Sept. 5 

May 10 

May 10 

Sept. 12 

Apr. 18 

May 23 

Sept. 10 

May I 

Date of 
Frost in 

Nov. 4 

Oct. 22 

Nov. 5 

Sept. 26 
Oct. II 
Oct. I 
Oct. 10 
Oct. 2 
Oct. 9 
Sept. 24 

Oct. 5 
Oct. 8 
Sept. 22 
Oct. 5 

Nov. 2 
Nov. 12 

Oct. 15 
Oct. 15 
Oct. 24 
Oct. 13 
Oct. 27 

Sept. 13 
Sept. 25 

Oct. 9 
Sept. 28 

TABLE II — {Continued) 


Nebraska — Continued 



New Mexico: 

Santa Fe 



New Jersey : 

Atlantic City 

New York: 




New York 



North Carolina: 





North Dakota: 









Oklahoma : 


Date of 
Frost in 

May 19 
June 21 

May 18 

June 20 

Apr. 25 

Date of 
Frost in 

Apr. 30 

Sept. 18 
Sept. 12 

Sept. 27 

Aug. 22 

Oct. I 

May 30 

Sept. 23 

May 21 

Sept. 16 

May 29 

Sept. 23 

Apr. 30 

Oct. 5 

May 29 

Sept. 25 

May 30 

Sept. 26 

Apr. 26 

Oct. 8 

Apr. 19 

Nov. 7 

May 6 

Oct. 8 

May I 

Oct. 16 

June 7 

Aug. 23 

June 10 

Aug. 18 

Apr. 24 

Sept. 30 

May 22 

Oct. 2 

May 17 

Sept. 21 

May 17 

Oct. 8 

May 29 

Sept. 9 


Date of 


Frost in 


Oct. 7 

Apr. 15 
May 9 

Apr. 15 

May 15 

Apr. II 

Apr. 24 
Apr. 27 
Apr. 25 
Apr. 10 
Apr. 27 
May I 

Apr. I 
Feb. 28 
Apr. 5 
Mar. 27 

May 15 
May 18 

Apr. 14 
Apr. 16 
Apr. 16 
Apr. 14 
Apr. 24 

Apr. 2 

Date of 



Frost in 


Oct. 12 
Sept. 18 

Oct. 19 

Sept. 24 

Nov. 4 

Oct. 17 
Oct. 6 
Oct. 16 
Nov. 6 
Oct. 19 
Oct. 19 

Nov. 4 
Dec. II 

Nov. 4 
Nov. 15 

Sept. 21 
Sept. 14 

Oct. 25 
Oct. 31 
Oct. 16 
Oct. 26 
Oct. 15 

Oct. 31 

TABLE H — (Continued) 


Oregon : 

Baker City 



Pennsylvania : 



Philadelphia. . 


Rhode Island: 

Block Island . . 

Narragansett . . 
South Carolina: 



South Dakota: 



Rapid City. . . 
Tennessee : 

Chattanooga. . 




Texas : 



Corpus Christi 

El Paso 

Fort Worth... 



San Antonio . . 


Date of 
Frost in 

June 24 
May 9 
May 16 

May 17 
Apr. 26 
Apr. 29 
May 29 

May II 
May 30 

Apr. 2 
Apr. 17 

June 8 
May 19 
May 21 

May 14 
Apr. 16 
May 14 
Apr. 24 

Apr. 16 
May 23 
Mar. 19 
Apr. 22 
May I 
Mar. I 
May 30 
Mar. 20 

Date of 
Frost in 

Sept. 4 
Oct. 13 
Sept. 25 

Oct. 12 
Oct. 3 
Oct. 3 
Sept. 25 

Oct. 30 
Sept. 21 

Nov. 9 
Oct. 19 

Aug. 23 
Sept. 12 
Sept. 13 

Sept. 30 
Oct. 2 
Oct. 8 
Oct. I 

Oct. 24 




Oct. 23 
Oct. 22 
Dec. 4 
Oct. 20 
Nov. 9 

Date of 

Frost in 

May 25 
Mar. 17 
Apr. 15 

Apr. 22 
Apr. 10 
Apr. 8 
Apr. 26 

Apr. 12 
Apr. 23 

Mar. I 
Mar. 23 

May 13 
Apr. 30 
May I 

Apr. 2 
Mar. 24 
Apr. 2 
Apr. 3 

Mar. 15 
Apr. 16 
Feb. 27 
Mar. 20 
Mar. 18 

Feb. 5 
Mar. 13 
Feb. 25 

Date of 
Frost in 

Sept. 27 
Nov. 16 
Oct. 30 

Oct. 29 
Oct. 24 
Oct. 30 
Oct. 19 

Nov. 16 
Oct. 16 

Nov. 30 
Nov. 8 

Sept. 20 
Sept. 30 
Sept. 20 

Oct. 26 
Oct. 28 
Oct. 24 
Oct. 27 

Nov. 15 
Nov. I 
Dec. 25 
Nov. 10 
Nov. 19 
Dec. 25 
Nov. 13 
Nov. 30 




TABLE II— (Continued) 



Salt Lake City. 
Vermont : 


Virginia : 

Lynchburg .... 



Washington : 



Tatoosh Island 

Walla Walla.. 
West Virginia : 


Parkersburg . . . 
Wisconsin : 

Green Bay. . . . 

La Crosse 



Wyoming : 



Date of 


Frost in 


June 1 8 

June 7 

May 7 
Apr. 26 
May 26 

May 27 
June 8 
Apr. 19 
May 12 

May 24 
May 22 

May 30 
June I 
May 13 
May 29 

June 1 1 
June 18 

Date of 
Frost in 

Sept. 22 

Aug. 27 

Oct. 4 
Oct. 15 

Sept. 14 

Oct. 18 
Sept. 7 
Nov. I 
Sept. 28 

Sept. 28 
Sept. 24 

Sept. 16 
Sept. 21 
Sept. 29 
Sept. 25 

Aug. 29 
Aug. 23 


Date of 


Frost in 


Apr. 23 

May 13 

Apr. 14 
Mar. 27 
Apr. 23 

Mar. 21 
Mar. 23 
Mar. 14 
Apr. 4 

May 18 
Apr. II 

May 2 
Apr. 21 
Apr. 29 

May 22 
May 19 

Date of 

Frost in 

Oct. 18 

Sept. 16 

Nov. I 
Nov. 12 
Oct. 7 

Nov. 22 
Oct. 17 
Dec. 15 

Nov. 7 

Oct. 10 
Oct. 17 

Oct. 4 
Oct. 8 
Oct. 17 
Oct. 10 

Sept. 16 
Sept. II 

if the air is dry, and this evaporation lowers the temperature 
of the plant. If, however, the air is saturated, evaporation 
of moisture from plants cannot take place. The degree of 
protection will, of course, depend on the degree of saturation, 
or of humidity. 


12. Means of Preventing Frost Injuries. — ^In almost 
every section of the United States there is some danger of loss 
in the business of fruit growing from injuries to the fruit crop 
due to frosts. In fact, the killing of the fruit crop by frosts 
is an important factor in determining whether or not fruit 
growing in any locality will be a success. The preventing of 
a fruit crop from being killed by frost not only saves the value 
of the crop for the current year, but makes the fruit-growing 
industry in the community more stable and enables the business 
to be more easily carried on in succeeding years; because most, 
or at least some, fruit growers, desire to borrow money occasion- 
ally, and loans are more easily secured if the fruit growing 
business is a well-established industry in the community. 

13. Mulching with such crops as winter vetch or rye 
grown in an orchard has a tendency to keep the soil cool, and by 
so doing may tend to retard the time of blooming. This 
action, however, is very slight, as it is largely the temperature 
of the twigs and buds and not that of the soil that determines 
the time of blooming. 

14. Whitewashing of fruit trees may have the effect 
of slightly retarding their blooming period. However, the 
retardation is so little that the whitewashing of the trees for 
this purpose is not generally considered to be practical. The 
principle involved in the use of whitewash is that the white 
surface of the bark, twigs, and buds, after they are whitewashed, 
will not absorb the rays of the sun and consequently will not 
attain a temperature as high as the surrounding atmosphere. 

15. Irrigation is used as a means of preventing frost 
injuries in irrigated regions when the temperature gets so low 
that frost is expected. The water used in irrigating gives off 
heat and usually prevents severe injury, provided the temper- 
ature does not go below 28° F. 

16. Spraying of fruit plants with water is effective in 
preventing injury from frosts, but the spray must be applied 
as long as the low temperature continues. If the spray is 
stopped, the temperature of the plants is quickly reduced and 


wet plants will not stand without injury as low a temperature 
as dry plants. 

17. Smudging, which is the burning of some material 
that will make a cloud of dense, moist smoke, is a means of 
preventing damage by frost. This is an old practice and is 
effective in preventing frost injuries where the conditions in 
and around the fruit plantation are such that a uniform, dense 
smudge can be retained as a blanket over the plantation until 
aU danger of frost is past. The fuel used should be of a kind 
that biHTLS slowly; it is claimed that better results will be 
obtained if damp fuel is used or if water is added to the fire 
so that a steam or vapor is formed than if the fire is allowed 
to blaze. Such material as damp leaves, old hay, straw, manure, 
sawdust, brush, grass, in fact, any slow-burning material may 
be used as fuel in the making of smudges. A mixture of 1 part 
of coal tar and 2 parts of sawdust has been recommended as 
a very desirable smudge fuel. The fuel should be on hand in 
the orchard so that the fires may be lighted as soon as indications 
of frost appear. 

Smudging is more often effective in preventing frost if the 
orchard is located on level land than if on a slope or on rolling 
land, because in the latter cases there are more likely to be 
air-currents, which prevent the smudge from settling like a 
blanket over the orchard. The principle involved in smudging 
is that the cloud of smoke and vapor acts as a blanket spread 
over the orchard and thus prevents the heat stored in the soil 
and in the trees of the orchard from radiating. 

18. Orchard heating is warming the air of an orchard by 
means of fires kept burning at the time frost is likely to occur. 
Although this is an old practice, it has been gaining much favor 
in the past few years, and is now considered one of the most 
practical means of preventing frosts in orchards. 

The fuels used for orchard heating in the United States are 
the western oils, often spoken of as distillates, crude petroleum 
of the Mississippi Valley and the Eastern States, fuel oil obtained 
from the refining of petroleum, and coal, wood, straw, manure, 
and shavings; oil and coal are the important fuels used for the 




purpose. In burning, all of the fuels mentioned produce a 
dense, heavy smoke and in some sections the practice of orchard 
heating is known as smudging. 

If coal is used in orchard heating, it is generally necessary 
to have some sort of kindling to start the coal in the heaters, 
and it is also necessary to light the heaters a few hours before 
the temperature reaches the danger point; it is, however, 
impossible to know whether or not to light the heaters on 
some occasions. For this reason some grade of oil is most 
largely used for orchard-heating purposes, although coal may 
be used with success in regions where coal is relatively cheap 
and oil is relatively expensive. Wood may be burned in small 
heaps on the ground, but some kind of burners must be pro- 
vided if oil or coal is used as a fuel. The burners, or heaters, 

Fig. 5 

in which the oil is burned are usually some form of galvanized- 
iron or of ordinary sheet -iron pots or vessels that will hold from 
1 to 4 or more gallons of oil. The 2-gallon size is, probably, 
under most conditions, the most desirable size. A large num- 
ber of heaters for the burning of oil has been made with various 
shapes and devices that are supposed or claimed to make the 
heating more effective. Several oil-burning heaters are shown 
in Fig. 5, and a coal-burning heater is shown in Fig. 6. 

It is recommended that heaters of a simple form of construc- 
tion be used; that they be supplied with a lid that can be 
easily placed on the heater while the oil is burning and that 




Fig. 6 

cannot be blown off by the wind. The more desirable heaters 
are supplied with some appliance for reducing the burning 
surface, especially if the heater has a capacity of 2 or more 

gallons of oil. 

19. The number of 
heaters required to pre- 
vent frost injuries to 
blossoms or very young 
fruit in an orchard will 
vary greatly, depending 
on the location of the 
orchard, the temperature, 
and the wind. If the 
orchard is protected 
from wind and has fair 
air drainage, fifty or sixty 
heaters to the acre may be sufficient. Experience indicates, 
however, that there should be in any orchard at least one 
heater for each tree and that an average of one hundred heaters 
to the acre is desirable. Also, the 
orchardist should have a torch for light- 
ing the oil in the heaters and a small 
gasoline can, such as the one shown in 
Fig. 7, from which a small quantity of 
gasoline may be placed on the oil in the 
heater to facilitate lighting. 

To be prepared to combat frost suc- 
cessfully by means of oil heaters the 
orchardist must provide for the storage 
of a sufficient quantity of oil for heating 
the orchard at least three times. The 
oil should be on hand before it is needed 
for the fighting of frosts. Assuming 
that 1^ gallons of oil is burned in each 
heater and that one hundred heaters are used per acre, it would 
require, therefore, 150 gallons of oil to the acre for each heat- 
ing of the orchard. Thus, for a 10-acre orchard it would be 

Fig. 7 






advisable to have on hand 4,500 gallons of oil; this should be 
stored in a large cement cistern or in large galvanized-iron tanks. 
In addition, there should be a good 400-gallon tank that could 
be readily mounted on a wagon and used for distributing the 
oil in the orchard. This tank should be equipped with one or 
two hose and nozzles, such as the outfit shown in Fig. 8. 

20. The cost of the equipment necessary for fighting frost by 
means of heating the air will, of course, vary with the cost of labor 
and material. Approximately, the cost for the orchard-heating 
equipment for a 10-acre orchard may be siunmarized as follows : 

1,000 orchard heaters $150 to $400 

1 storage tank for oil 75 to 175 

1 hauling tank 40 to 75 

2 torches and gasoline cans 2 to 3 

Total $267 to $653 

The cement storage tank will last indefinitely, but the other 
equipment will, in time, have to be replaced. Therefore, in 
estimating the annual cost of the equipment for heating a 
10-acre orchard, the depreciation of equipment should be 
considered. Assimiing that the permanent equipment other 
than the cement storage tank will last for 10 years, the annual 
cost of heating a 10-acre orchard may be summarized as follows : 

Depreciation of equipment $ 19.20 to $ 47.80 

4,500 gallons of oil (usually less oil is used) . . 112.50 to 225.00 
2 men placing and fill- 
ing heaters, 1 day $3.00 to $ 4.00 

1 team placing and fill- 

ing heaters, 1 day 1.50 to 2.00 

2 men lighting and 

tending heaters . . 3.00 to 4.00 
Total for one heating $7.50 to $10.00 

Labor for three heatings 22.50 to 30.00 

Hauling oil from railroad station to farm .... 16.00 to 24.00 
Approximate total annual cost for 

10-acre orchard $170.20 to $326.80 

Approximate total annual cost per acre $ 17.00 to 32.70 


In addition to the equipment mentioned, a few good tested 
thermometers should be provided. It is necessary to have 
them tested, because thermometers of fair grade often vary 
from 2 to 5 degrees; such thermometers should be checked 
with some tested thermometer and the corrections, if any, 
made for each one. These thermometers may then be placed 
at various places throughout the orchard. There are on the 
market thermometers equipped with an alarm bell that rings 
when the temperature drops to a dangerous degree. These 
alarms cannot always be depended on; therefore, too much 
reliance should not be placed in them, however convenient 
they may be. 

21. Heaters may be placed in an orchard and filled any time 
after the buds have begun to swell and are in danger from 
injury by frost; but they should be in place and ready for use 
before the time for their use occurs. They should be placed 
under the trees but not so near them that the trunks will be 
injured by the blaze from the burning oil. If coal is used as a 
fuel, a small quantity of kindling must be placed under the coal. 
The fires are lighted by means of a torch usually made of a 
bunch of waste fastened to the end of a wire and saturated with 
oil. This torch is lighted and placed, partly submerged in the 
oil heater, and immediately under the kindling in the coal 
heaters. If a small quantity of gasoline is poured on the 
surface of the oil from a small can firing takes place very quickly. 
The use of the gasoline, however, is dangerous unless care is exer- 
cised in using it. Its use should not be entrusted to children 
or to persons -who will not use care in keeping the gasoline can 
and the torch separated as far as possible. 

If a dangerous temperature is expected, one man should 
remain in the orchard during the night and carefully note the 
temperature as indicated by the thermometers. If a frost is 
imminent, other men should be wakened to help in lighting 
the heaters. During the heating the attendants should care- 
fully watch the rise or fall of the temperature and regulate the 
fires accordingly. If the temperature rises beyond the danger 
point, the fires shoiild be put out and thus save fuel. The 




—^^....^^ i 

m£ ■ 

"^ '« 



: ;T*f ■■ . ■ ■ " ■ 



■.>-:^-i.:y-"-: ■ - ; 

: 'J •;•"*■" '^ - /. « 


heaters may, if necessary, be refilled while they are burning 
by running oil into them through a hose attached to a tank, 
such as that shown in Fig. 8. An orchard in which the fires 
are burning is shown in Fig. 9. 

To prolong the usefulness of orchard heaters, they must be 
well cared for throughout the year. Most orchardists collect 
the heaters after all danger from frosts is past and store them 
in a shed in or near the orchard. Any shed or building that will 
keep out the rain and snow will answer this purpose. Other 
orchardists, after they have finished using their oil heaters for 
any season, fill them with oil and place them near the trunks 
of the trees. This method of storing saves time and does not 
necessitate so large a storage tank for oil as where the heaters 
are stored in a shed, and if the heaters are of galvanized iron 
and are provided with neatly fitting lids they will remain in 
good shape for several years. 



22. It is estimated that over $700,000,000 is annually lost 
from the work of insects in the United States. Probably no 
crop suffers greater from the ravages of insects than does the 
apple crop. It is estimated that in New York State alone 
an annual loss from the codling moth, including the expense 
of spraying, is at least $3,000,000. Although there are a great 
number of insects that may at times infest apple orchards, 
most of these insects are controlled by spraying the trees with 
an insecticide. It is important, therefore, that a fruit grower 
become acquainted with each of the more common apple insects 
and the means of combating them. 

23. Apple-Tree Borers. — The apple tree is attacked by 
three species of borers, the round-headed apple-tree borer, the 
spotted apple-tree borer, and the fiat-headed apple-tree borer. 





Fig. 10 

The adult round -lieaded apple-tree borer, shown in 
Fig. 10 (a), is a long-homed beetle with two white stripes down 
its back and is from f to neariy 1 inch in length. The adults 
vary a month or so in the time they emerge from the pupal 

stage, but they usually come 
out about the last of May. 
Due to the fact that the 
adiilts may emerge during 
a period of from 1 to 2 
months, the eggs are de- 
posited during a period ex- 
tending for nearly 2 months 
from about the last of May. 
The eggs are pale rusty 
brown in color, |- inch long, 
about one-third as wide as 
long, and about one- third 
as thick as wide. They are deposited at night, usually in the bark 
of the trunk near the ground, but they are sometimes deposited 
higher up. A side view of the larva is shown in Fig. 10 (b) , and a 
view from above is shown in (c). During the first year after 
hatching these larvas, or borers, burrow into the sap wood and 
downwards. The second year a borer usually works more or 
less into the hard wood and upwards; the third year it gnaws 
out to the bark, where a cocoon is made and from which the 
adult emerges. It is, therefore, 3 years from the time an egg 
is deposited until the insect hatching from that egg develops 
and emerges as an adult. A single borer seldom kills a tree, 
but if several borers, as is often the case, are in one young 
apple tree, it is very likely to be killed. 

Another insect that closely resembles the 
round-headed apple-tree borer is the spotted 
apple-tree borer, the adult of which is illus- 
trated in Fig. 11. As may be seen by comparing 
Fig. 10 (a) with Fig. 11, the chief difference in 
the appearance between the round-headed and ^'^- ^^ 

the spotted apple-tree borers is that each of the two white stripes 
on the back of the former insect are represented by three white 




spots on the latter insect. The eggs of the spotted apple-tree 
borer are laid in pairs about ^ inch apart along the trunk and 
large branches of the tree, and as soon as these eggs hatch the 
larvas, which in appearance can scarcely be distinguished from 
the larvas of the round-headed apple-tree borer, work in oppo- 
site directions around the branch. Like the round-headed apple- 
tree borer, the spotted apple-tree borer spends the first year in 
the sap wood, the second year in the hard wood, and the adult 
insect emerges the third year. 

The adiilt flat-headed apple- 
tree borer is illustrated in 
Fig. 12 (a) and the larva in (b). 
The adrdts are about | inch in 
length and appear during the 
spring, at about the time the 
adtdts of the round-headed apple- 
tree borer appear, and deposit 
their eggs diuing the daytime on 
the bark and limbs of the trees. 
The larvas of the fiat-headed apple-tree borer usually mine 
into the sap wood only. They hibernate on the approach of 
cold weather and in late spring form pupas within the infested 
trees. The adults emerge from the pupas and eat their way 
out. The work of the flat-headed apple-tree borer can be told 
from that of the round-headed apple-tree borers by the shape 
of the holes that they mine ; the hole of the round-headed apple- 
tree borer is round and that of the fiat-headed apple-tree borer 
is oblate. 

Fig. 12 

24. Although apple-tree borers are not particularly numer- 
ous, they do exist in considerable numbers in some sections. 
And from the fact that they cannot be killed by spraying, their 
work seriously weakens the trees of apple orchards, and if they 
are not successfully combated they will eventually destroy 
many trees, especially young trees. 

The presence of the insects in the trees may be detected by 
the injured appearance of the bark near the ground. If the 
insects are in the tree, there may be present at the surface 


of the bark sawdust-like cuttings of the borers; the bark may- 
present a dead, shriveled appearance; jelly-like secretions may 
be present on the surface of the bark; or it may present a 
bruised or injured appearance. 

Borers are combated by two general methods: (1) By pre- 
venting them from getting into the trees, and (2) by destroy- 
ing them after they get into the trees. 

The preventive method consists in attempting to keep the 
adult insects from depositing their eggs in the bark of the trees. 
This may be accomplished by placing mechanical barriers 
around the trees or by washing them with some solution that 
has a tendency to repel the insects. One of the most common 
barriers consists of from two to four thicknesses of newspaper 
loosely wrapped around the trunks of the trees. The paper 
should be tied in place by a cord, or string, that will yield or 
break with the expansion of tree as it grows. A small mound 
of earth should be thrown around the outside of the paper at 
the bottom of the trunk of the tree and the paper at the top 
of the trunk should be tied rather tightly with the string so that 
the beetle cannot get down behind the paper and obtain access 
to the tree. Wood veneer or wire netting may be used instead 
of the paper to place around the trees. That part of the trunk 
immediately above the wrapping and the lower limbs of the 
tree should be treated with some deterrent. A wash made by 
reducing soft soap or fish-oil or whale-oil soap to the consistency 
of thick paint by the addition of washing soda or of caustic 
soda in solution has been recommended as a successful repel- 
lant to the adult insects of the apple-tree borers. 

Clean cultivation around the trees is one of the best means 
of preventing injury from borers. Grass, weeds, or water 
sprouts should not be allowed to grow and accumulate around 
the base of the trees, as the accumulation of such material forms 
a suitable place for the insects to lay their eggs. 

If a tree is found that is injured beyond recovery it should 
be taken out and destroyed by fire, so that the larvas that it 
may contain will be killed before they have an opportunity to 
develop and infest other trees. The insects in slightly infested 
trees may be cut out and destroyed. 




25. San Jose Scale. — The one insect that has probably 
caused more damage to apple orchards than any other insect 
is the San Jose scale. The insects proper are very small and 
yellowish in color. For a short time after their birth the young 
insects may be seen crawling about. They have six legs; and 
a head with eyes, antennae, and a long, thread-like beak through 
which they take their food. But in from 12 to 36 hours after 
their birth the young insects attach themselves to the bark, 
fruit, or leaves of a tree and secrete from their bodies waxy 
filaments. This waxy 
secretion soon forms a 
scale over the insect 
and it is this scale 
that the orchardist 
usually sees and not 
the insect proper, 
which, after the scale 
is formed, loses its 
legs, eyes, and anten- 
na, and only the 
thread-like beak and 
an anal plate are dis- 
tinct and these only 
under a high -power 
microscope. In fact, 
the insects become 
only masses of organ- 
ized protoplasm and 
present but little resemblance to the young crawling insects. 
The insects, when they attach themselves to leaves, fruit, and 
smooth young bark, cause a reddish color to appear around 
the scales, and their presence is usually easily recognized by 
this red-colored tissue. 

The immature San Jose scales are most easily recognized 
by orchardists, because the immature scales are circular, almost 
black, have a nipple-like prominence near the center of the 
scale, and the nipple is surrounded by one, two, or three 
depressed circular rings. A section of an apple limb that is 

Fig 13 


infested with San Jose scale is shown magnified several times 
in Fig. 13. 

The reason that the San Jose scale is so damaging in an orch- 
ard is that the insects are very small and to unobserving per- 
sons are not noticed until they are present by the millions 
and the trees have begun to die from the damage done by the 
insects. It is estimated that there are from two to five and 
possibly more generations of the insects each year, and that the 
progeny of a single female insect in the latitude of Washington, 
D. C, may be almost three and one-quarter billion insects in 
a single year. It is easy to understand, therefore, why it is 
that a tree with only a few San Jose scale on it in the spring 
may be alraost covered with them by fall. 

On apple trees, San Jose scale usually infest the small twigs; 
rarely are the scales found on the thick, rough bark, and the 
leaves and fruit are infested only on very badly infested trees. 
The old scales are of a grayish color and in badly infested orch- 
ards the scales give a gray, ashy color to the limbs of the trees. 

San Jose scale is pretty generally distributed over the United 
States, and those sections where it has not been found have no 
assurance of immunity. There are several ways of distributing 
the pest, probably the most common of which is by means 
of nursery stock. Young trees should be purchased only from 
a nurseryman that can show a certificate of inspection. 
Orchardists should learn to recognize San Jose scale and to 
examine carefully each tree received from a nursery. During 
the crawling stage of the life of the insects, that is, from their 
birth until they attach themselves, they may crawl from tree 
to tree where the branches touch; the young insects may crawl 
onto the feet of birds and be carried several miles and crawl 
off onto another tree; the young insects may be blown from 
tree to tree by the wind; and they may also be distrib- 
uted on infested fruit, but this means of distribution is not 
considered to be of great importance. 

26. If an orchard is found to be infested by San Jose scale, 
it should be sprayed thoroughly. The most popular spray is 
lime-sulphur, although miscible oils are used extensively. 


The miscible oils are less disagreeable to apply than lime-sul- 
phur but there is a slightly greater danger of injuring the twigs 
with the former than with the latter. 

Lime-sulphur of a specific gravity of about 1.03 should be 
applied in the fall soon after the leaves have fallen or in the 
spring before the buds begin to swell noticeably. If commer- 
cial brands of lime-sulphur are used, it is usually necessary 
to dilute 1 gallon of the concentrate solution with 9 gallons of 
water to secure a solution with a specific gravity of 1.03, but 
to insure the proper specific gravity of the spray mixture a 
hydrometer should be used. 

Although the spring spraying has been found a little more 
effective than the faU spraying, some orchardists recommend 
and practice fall spra3dng. The reason for this practice is that 
if anything should prevent the completion of the spraying 
during the fall the work could be finished in the spring, whereas, 
if something should prevent spraying the entire orchard in 
the spring, the spraying with a strong spray solution would 
have to go undone. However, lime-sulphur with a specific 
gravity of from 1.007 to 1.01 may be applied to the trees dur- 
ing the summer months without injury to the foliage and may 
check the increase of San Jose scale. 

Miscible oils are used principally as winter sprays in com- 
bating San Jose scale. Commercial brands should be used 
as directed by the manufacturer, but if home-made miscible 
oil is used it should be diluted from ten to twelve times, that is, 
from 9 to 11 gallons of water should be added to each gallon 
of miscible oil to make from 10 to 12 gallons of the emulsion, 
or spray. 

27, Oyster-Shell Scale. — ^Perhaps the most common 
scale insect that is found in apple orchards is the oyster-shell 
scale, also known as the oyster-shell bark louse. The character- 
istic appearance of a part of an apple limb infested by this 
insect is illustrated in Fig. 14 (a), and a single female, with a 
section of the scale removed to show the eggs, is sho^vn enlarged 
in (b). The scales that cover the female insects are dark 
brown or grayish in color, about | inch in length, and shaped 




somewhat like an oyster shell. The scales of the male insect 
are much smaller than those of the female. 

In the latter part of August the female insects lay from 
forty to one hundred small, reddish eggs; these remain over 
winter under the scale, and during the latter part of May hatch 
into small lice-like insects, which crawl out from under the scale 
and move slowly over the bark for a few hours, when they 
attach themselves to the bark and remain there for the rest 
of their lives. In the first molting, the insects lose their eyes, 
legs, and antennae, and immediately begin secreting the mate- 
rial of which the scale is formed. The females die soon after 

Fig. 15 

laying their eggs, and, as there is only one brood in most parts 
of the United States, the oyster-shell scale does not multiply 
anything like so rapidly as the San Jose scale. As is the case 
with the San Jose scale, the oyster-shell scale insects may be 
carried from tree to tree during the period that they are 
crawling, by birds or by the wind. 

Although the oyster-shell scale is very widely distributed 
throughout the United States, it does not often occur in suf- 
ficiently large numbers to do great injury to orchards. How- 
ever, if orchards are neglected, oyster-shell scale may become 
somewhat serious. 


The same methods of control are recommended for the 
oyster-shell scale as for the San Jose scale, and if spraying is 
practiced for the destruction of San Jose scale little need be 
done for the oyster-shell scale. 

28. Scurfy Scale. — Scurfy scale are illustrated in natural 
size in Fig. 15 (a). The larger scales are the females and the 
smaller scales are the males. An enlarged female scale is shown 
in (6) and a male scale in (c) . 

Scurfy scale, although very common in apple orchards, is 
not considered a serious pest ; in fact, it has never been reported 
to have caused serious damage to apple trees. The life history 
of the scurfy scale is practically the same as that of the oyster- 
shell scale, and the methods of control are also the same. 

29. Codling Motli. — The insect that causes wormy apples 
is known as the codling moth. This insect exists in practically 
all parts of the world in which 
apples are grown. The mature 
codling moth, shown in Fig. 16, 
is about f inch across the ex- 
panded wings, which have some- 
what the appearance of grayish- 
brown watered silk, and emerges 
from 1 to 3 weeks after apples 

blossom. Within a few days after emerging the moths begin 
to deposit their eggs, most of them on the foliage of the tree. 
In from 5 to 10 days after being laid the eggs hatch into small 
whitish worms, or larvas, about yg i^ch long. If the eggs are 
hatched on the leaves, the larvas usually feed a little on the 
tender leaves and then crawl to the nearest apple. Most of 
the larvas enter the apples through the calyx, within which 
they feed for a short time and then eat their way into the core 
of the apple. Here the larvas usually consume a portion of the 
flesh of the apple and the apple seeds, and, becoming fully grown 
at from 3 to 4 weeks of age, eat their way out through the 
sides of the apples, leaving round exit holes. Full-grown larvas, 
which are about f inch long and are whitish or pinkish in color, 
find a convenient place to spin their cocoons in which they 








transform into pupas and usually emerge as mature moths in 
about 8 weeks from the time the eggs were laid. The charac- 
teristic appearance of the interior of an apple injured by codling 
moth larvas is shown in Fig. 17. 

Under certain conditions, a few of the larvas of the first 
brood hibernate during the winter, but in most parts of the 
United States only the larvas of the second brood of moths 
hibernate over winter. A rminber of cocoons are often found 
on the under side of a piece of bark as it is pulled from an 
apple tree. The larvas of the second brood of codling moth 
usually enter the apples from the side or from the stem end. 

30. Codling moths are combated by the use of arsenical 
poisons and by destroying the hibernating larvas. All loose 
bark on the trunk of apple trees in an infested orchard should 
be removed from the trees and burned so as to destroy the 
larvas that may be attached to the under side of the bark. 

ft') X 

Fig. 18 

As practically all the larvas of the first brood of codling 
moths enter the young fruit by eating through the blossom end, 
or calyx, of the apple, it has been found that the most effective 
way to kill the young larvas is to place poison in the calyx of 


the youiig apples. As the calyx of the apple closes about 
10 days after the blossoms faU, it is necessary to make the first 
spraying while the calyx of the young apple is open as shown 
in Fig. 18 (a). It is difficult, though possible, to force a spray 
into a calyx in the condition shown in (6), but it is too late to 
spray effectively for codling moth when the calyx has closed 
to the extent shown in (c). Sometimes the trees are treated 
with a spray in from 3 to 4 weeks after the blossoms fall, and 
with a third spraying in from 8 or 9 weeks after the blossoms 
faU to kill the larvas of the second brood. Therefore, to 
successfully combat codling moths, it is advisable that the 
orchardist spray the trees with an arsenical poison within a 
week or 10 days after the blossoms fall and again in from 2 to 
3 weeks and a third time in from 4 to 5 weeks after the second 

The poison most often used is arsenate of lead. About 
2 pounds of the paste form or 1 pound of the powder form are 
used to make 50 gallons of spray. About | pound of Paris 
green or 1 quart of stock solution of arsenite of lime may 
likewise be used to make 50 gallons of spray. It is a very com- 
mon and commendable practice to use 50 gallons of lime- 
sulphur solution with a specific gravity of from 1.007 to 1.01 
with which to add the poisons mentioned. A lime-sulphur 
solution of the strength mentioned is usually obtained by 
adding from Ij to I5 gallons of a standard concentrate lime- 
srdphur solution to 50 gallons of water. However, if the codling 
moth alone is to be combated, the arsenical poisons may be 
added to water. 

31. Lesser Apple Worm. — ^An insect that closely resem- 
bles the codling moth is the lesser apple worm, and as the work 
of the two insects are strikingly similar, the same m.ethods are 
used in combating them. 

32. Apple Maggot. — A small, yeUo wish-white, footless 
maggot about ^ inch long when full grown and known as the 
apple maggot, or the apple railroad worm, is shown in Fig. 19 (a). 
The adult form of this insect is a blackish colored fly shown 
in (6). It is a little smaller than the common house fly and 



may be distinguished from other flies that may be seen on 
apples by the four rather distinct black bands across each wing 
and by the three or four white bands across the abdomen. 

This insect causes much damage to summer and faU apples 
in the New England States and has been found in many other 
sections of the United States. The female fly deposits its eggs 
just beneath the skin of the apples ; sometimes twelve or fifteen 
eggs are deposited in a single apple and from 300 to 400 eggs 
are deposited during a season. The young larvas, or maggots, 
on hatching, immediately begin eating into the apple. They 
burrow around through the flesh of the apple, and if several 
of them are present in the same apple it is likely to be eaten 

Fig. 19 

Fig. 20 

full of small brownish burrows and present an appearance such 
as is shown in Fig. 20. The apple maggots reach fiill growth 
about the same time that the apple in which they are living 
ripens. Then the maggots work out of the apple, and, if in the 
orchard, work about 1 inch into the ground, where they pupate. 
If the apples are stored in a box the brownish pupas may be 
■ found in the bottom of the box. 

As the apple maggot does all its eating entirely within an 
apple, there is no chance for the orchardist to poison this pest. 
However, a large part of the infested apples drop from the 
trees, and if these apples are gathered up and destroyed twice 
a week the damage of the apple maggot will not be great. If 




hogs are allowed to run in the orchard they will eat the fallen 
apples and thus destro}^ the maggots. 

Fig. 21 

33. Plum Curculio. — In Fig. 21 is shown the plum cur- 
culio, which often gnarls and disfigures the apple by depositing 
its eggs on the inside and by eating small 
portions from the surface of the apple. The 
female beetle cuts a small hole in an apple and 
then deposits her egg, after which she cuts a 
crescent-shaped wound around the puncture. 
The characteristic crescent-shaped wound of 
the plrmi curculio is illustrated at a in Fig. 22. 
The scar caused by the beetle eating the 
apple is illustrated at b. 

The insects begin depositing eggs in the 
apples when they are not over j inch in diameter and con- 
tinue until August. The eggs hatch in from 4 to 6 days and 
the young larvas immediately burrow in the fruit, causing it to 
fall within a few days. The larvas mature in about 3 weeks 
and crawl from the apple and 
pupate in the ground or under 
rubbish and emerge in about 
4 weeks as adult insects. 
Many of these insects hiber- 
nate during the winter and 
lay eggs the following year. 

In young orchards, where 
the trees are small, the in- 
sects may be jarred from the 
trees during the latter part of 
May and during June onto 
a sheet spread beneath the 
tree. This practice is suc- 
cessful only as long as the trees 
are small and easily jarred. Frequent sprayings with arsenical 
poisons reduces the injury but Httle. Probably the most effective 
method of combating the plimi curculio is to keep the orchard free 
from weeds and to cultivate it frequently during May and June. 

Fig. 22 



Fig. 23 

34. Apple Curculio. — In Fig. 23 (a) is shown the adult 
form of the apple curculio and in (b) the larval form. This 
insect is about J inch long and on the wing covers are four 
prominent humps. These insects lay their eggs in the apples 
for about 2 months after 
the blossoms fall. A scar 
on the fruit similar to that 
shown at a in Fig. 24 is 
caused by the insect deposit- 
ing an egg. The mature 
beetle eats sparingly of the 
apple and the scar caused 
*by its feeding is shown at b. 
The eggs hatch within a week after being laid and the larvas 
develop in about 3 weeks and pupate within the apple. The 
mature insects emerge in about 1 week after the larvas pupate. 
These insects eat very sparingly of the apples, hibernate during 

the winter among rubbish, 
grass, or leaves, and deposit 
eggs the following year. 

The methods of controlling 
the apple curculio are the 
same as those suggested for 
the plum curculio. However, 
the apple curculios eat so little 
of the apples that the spray- 
ing with arsenical poisons is 
practically useless. 

35. Apple-Tree Tent 
Caterpillar. — The adult 
moth of the apple-tree tent 
caterpillar, shown in Fig. 25 
(a) is of a reddish-brown color, and has two nearly parallel, 
oblique, light-colored bands across the front wings. These 
moths appear from May until July, depending on the latitude, 
and in from 5 to 6 weeks after apple trees blossom they deposit 
their eggs in clusters of from 200 to 300 eggs each. The eggs 

Fig. 24 




are packed closely together in a grayish-brown, knot-like band 
around, or nearly around, a twig, as shown in (b). Each egg 
mass is covered with a frothy, glue-like material that gives a 


glistening surface to the entire mass. These eggs remain 
throughout the summer and winter and hatch the next spring 
just about the time the leaf buds are expanding. The young 
larvas soon begin to feed on the opening buds and leaves, and, 


working in colonies, they pass down the twigs to a fork, where 
they spin a silken web, or tent, as shown in (c) . The caterpillars 
live in their silken tent during the night and stormy weather, 
but if the day is clear they crawl out to eat. The tent is 
enlarged from day to day as the caterpillars increase in size. 

A tent with several one-third grown caterpillars is shown 
in (d). A full grown caterpillar, as shown in (e), is about 
2 inches long and is black in color ; it has a white stripe down its 
back, a pale, oval, blue spot on each side of each segment of the 
body, and is sparsely covered with yellowish hairs. 

When fiill grown the caterpillar seeks some sheltered place, 
spins around itself a thin cocoon of tough white silk, transforms 
to the pupa, and in about 3 weeks emerges as a mature moth. 

The apple-tree tent caterpillar may be effectively combated 
by spraying the trees just before they blossom with a spray 
containing | poimd of Paris green or from 2 to 3 pounds of 
arsenate of lead in each 50 gallons of spray solution. Or, the 
insects may be destroyed by applying a torch to their nests 
during a cloudy or cold day. 

36. Fall Web Worm. — ^A caterpillar that is often mistaken 
for the apple-tree tent caterpillar is the fall web worm. This 
caterpillar is so named because it spins a large web over the 
twigs and foHage on which it feeds. The web of the fall web 
worm is distinguished from that of the apple-tree tent cater- 
pillar in that the web of the latter is always woven aroimd a 
fork of a small limb and does not include foliage in its meshes, 
and the web of the former is always spun over the leaves on 
which the caterpillars live, as shown in Fig. 26 (a) . The mature 
moth, shown in (6), is from 1 to 1| inches across the expanded 
wings, is white or white with a ntimber of black spots, and 
emerges late in June or in July. These moths lay eggs in 
clusters of from 400 to 500 eggs each on the leaves of the trees. 
The eggs hatch in about 10 days, and the young caterpillars 
begin spinning a web over the foliage on which they feed. The 
young caterpillars appear to be nearly all head and hair, but 
the full grown caterpillars, two of which are shown in (c), are 
about 1 inch long, somewhat woolly, and are thickly covered 





with long hairs, some black and some white, that project from 
numerous black or black and yellowish tubercles. In color, 
the caterpillars vary from light yellow to almost black. They 
become full grown in from 4 to 6 weeks and seek a secluded 
spot, where they spin a cocoon in which they spend the winter 
in the pupal stage and emerge as mature moths in June or Jtdy. 
In some parts of the United States there seems to be two broods 

Fig. 26 

of the fall web worm. The first brood of moths appears in 
April and May, and the second brood in August and September. 
Spraying with any of the sprays recommended for the codling 
moth when the young caterpillars first appear will prevent the 
fall web worm from doing much damage. In fact, if sprays 
have been applied in combating the codling moth, but little 
trouble will develop from the fall web worm. 

37. Canker Worms. — One of the most important of the 
leaf-eating caterpillars that attack apple trees is the canker 
worm. There are two species of this worm, the spring canker 




worm and the fall caiiker worm. The female of both species 
is wingless, as shown in Fig. 27 (a). 

The moths of the spring species emerge from the ground and 
crawl up the trunks of the trees. This occurs from January 
until May, but usually during March and April. Here they 
lay their eggs in irregular masses. The eggs, in about 1 month, 
hatch into caterpillars that are cominonl}^ known as measuring 
worms or as loopers. The young caterpillars at first eat holes 
through the leaves, but the full-grown caterpillars, one of which 
is shown in (6), devour the entire leaves. The caterpillars have, 
in addition to three pairs of true legs, one pair of prolegs, or 
leg-like appendages, near the rear of the body with which they 
hold to a twig. The caterpillars, especially the young ones, 

Fig. 27 

have the habit of suspending themselves on fine threads of 
silk from trees. The caterpillars become full grown in 4 or 
5 weeks and enter the soil, where they pupate and remain until 
they emerge the following spring as mature moths. 

The faU canker worms differ from the spring species in that 
the mature moths emerge from September to December and lay 
their eggs, which do not hatch until the following spring; that 
the eggs are laid in clusters of about one himdred each and are 
deposited in straight rows; and that the caterpillars have two 
pairs of prolegs. 

Orchards that are cultivated annually or that are sprayed 
annually for codling moth are seldom troubled with canker 
worms. Wherever canker worms are troublesome, however, 
they should be combated by preventing the female moths from 
climbing up the trees to deposit their eggs, or the caterpillars. 




while they are feeding on the leaves, may be poisoned by spray- 
ing with any of the arsenical sprays that have previously been 
recommended for combating the codling moth. The female 
moths may be trapped as they crawl up the trunks of the 
trees by placing a band of some sticky substance, such as 
tanglefoot fly paper, around the trees. 

38. Yellow-Necked Apple Caterpillar. — During late 
simimer the tips of apple-tree limbs are sometimes defoliated by 

Fig. 28 

a cluster of yellow-necked apple caterpillars, such as shown in 
Fig. 28 (a). That part of the caterpillar immediately back of 
the jet-black head and commonly spoken of as the neck is of a 


bright orange-yellow color; it is from this yellowish-colored 
band that the insect, gets its name. 

If one of these caterpillars is touched or if the limb to which 
it clings is jarred the insect raises its head and tail in the air 
and holds on to the limb by means of its abdominal prolegs. 
The characteristic position assumed is shown in Fig. 28 (b) . 

If the colonies of these caterpillars are abundant it is best to 
spray the trees with an arsenical poison, say 3 pounds of arse- 
nate of lead to 50 gallons of water. If only a few colonies are to be 
destroyed, this can best be accomplished by swabbing the cater- 
pillars off the limb with a rag or a handful of waste saturated 
with kerosene, or the tip of the limb on which the insects are 
clustered may be cut off and the caterpillars crushed or burned. 

39. Red-Humped Apple Caterpillar. — ^A species of 
caterpillar whose habits are very similar to the yellow-necked 
apple caterpillar is 
shown in Fig. 29 
and is known as the 
red-htmiped apple 
caterpillar. The 
caterpillar received 
its name on account ^ „„ 

Fig. 29 

of the red hump 

made by the fourth segment of its body. This hump and the 
head of the insect are of a bright coral red and makes its 
identification comparatively easy. 

The same measures are recommended in combating the red- 
humped apple caterpillar as for the yellow-necked apple cater- 

40. Brown-Tailed Moth. — In some of the New England 
States the brown-tailed moth is very destructive to apple 
orchards. The moth, which emerges during midsummer, is 
white except at the tip of the abdomen, which is in the form 
of a tuft, or bru-sh, and has a golden-brown color. Egg masses 
consisting of from 300 to 400 eggs are deposited late in Jrdy, 
usually on the terminal leaves of the branches, and are covered 
with fine, brown hairs from the tip of the abdomen of the female 




moth. The eggs hatch in about 3 weeks from the time they 
were laid and the young larvas feed on the surfaces of the leaves, 
but do not eat the web -like framework of the leaves. The young 
cateipillars soon begin to bind adjoining leaves together, and by 
fall have several leaves completely siuroimded by a tough web 
and firmly fastened to a twig. This leaf nest, if viewed from 
a little distance, presents the appearance of a couple of dead 
leaves. The interior of the nest consists of from forty to sixty 
small pellets of silk, in each of which are wrapped from three 
to twelve young caterpillars. The caterpillars come out of their 
winter nest at the time the buds open in the spring and feed 

Fig. 30 

on the unfolding foliage. The caterpillars mature in from 5 to 
6 weeks and pupate in white silk cocoons spim among the leaves 
of the tree, and emerge as mature moths in about 3 weeks. 

Control of the brown-tailed moth consists in pruning off and 
burning all winter nests and in spraying with about 4 pounds 
of arsenate of lead in 50 gallons of water about the time the 
eggs hatch. 

41. Gipsy Moth. — In the United States the gipsy moth is, 
so far as known, confined to the New England "States, but it is 
a serious pest and there is danger of its spread into other states. 

The male moth, shown in Fig. 30 (a), is of a brownish-yellow 
to greenish-brown color; it is about 1| inches across the 




spreaded wings, and flies during the day with a peculiar zigzag 
flight. The female moth, shown in (b), is neariy white with 
numerous black spots; she has a wing expanse of about 2 inches, 
but fortunately is unable to use her wings for flight; and, in a 
few days after emerging lays, on the bark of the trees, from 
400 to 500 eggs in a mass covered with yellowish hairs from 
her body. In the following spring, about the first of May, the 
eggs hatch, and the caterpillars live on the foliage of the trees 
until about midsummer, when they pupate. The pupal stage 
lasts only about 10 days. The mature caterpillar, shown in 


Fig. 31 

(c), is of a dusty, sooty color, and has a pair of blue spots on 
each of the first five segments of its body and a pair of red 
spots on each of the next six segments. The caterpillars are 
readily distinguished by means of these blue and red spots. 
To control the gipsy moth in the apple orchard, the egg 
masses should be painted in winter with creosote and the trees 
sprayed in the spring when the eggs are hatching with 5 pounds 
of arsenate of lead in 50 gallons of spray solution. 

42. Tussock Moths. — The tussock moths are common 
pests of shade trees, and where they are abundant the cater- 
pillars prove to be destructive of foliage on apple trees. In 




Fig. 31 (a) is illustrated the mature caterpillar of the willow 
tussock moth ; in (b) is shown the caterpillar of the rusty tussock 
moth, the most common and injurious of the tussock moths; 
and in (c) is shown the caterpillar of the white-marked tussock 

Tussock moths emerge from the middle to the last of June. 
The females are wingless and bear no resemblance to the winged 
male moths; in fact, the females look more like fat spiders than 
moths and usually lay their eggs on the cocoons from which 
they emerge. These eggs hatch early in July and the cater- 
pillars mature during the late summer and pupate and emerge 
as mature moths during the fall. The female moths of this 
second brood lay eggs that remain over winter and hatch about 
the first of May, thus making two complete broods each year. 

The destruction of egg masses during the winter months 

Fig. 32 

and spraying as for the codling moth or for the gipsy moth 
will prevent serious damage from tussock moths. 

43. Climbing Cutworms.- — A dozen or more species 
of cutworms make a practice of climbing apple trees and other 
fruit plants at night, feeding on the opening buds and young 
tender foliage, and then returning to the soil, where they remain 
in hiding during the day. Because these insects work during 
the night only, the first knowledge that an orchardist may 
receive of their presence is that certain young trees fail to put 
forth leaves or that young foliage from a whole branch or of 
an entire tree suddenly disappears. Three of these cutworms 
are shown in Fig. 32. When the presence of cutworms is sus- 
pected the orchardist should visit the trees at night with a dim 


light and he may be able to see the pests at work. The climb- 
ing cutworms are usually most numerous when the orchard is 
in sod or when the sod has been plowed under just before the 
planting of the trees. 

To prevent attacks from cutworms, the soil in which the 
young trees are to be planted should be plowed late in the fall 
the year before the young trees are planted. When the pests 
are very numerous they may be poisoned by spraying the trees 
with almost any of the arsenical sprays that have been recom- 
mended for combating other caterpillars. 

44. Bud Moth. — As the buds of apple trees begin to swell 
and to open they are sometimes attacked by small, dirty white 

Fig. 33 

caterpillars from i to | inch in length. These young cater- 
pillars make a nest for themselves by spinning a fine web 
around the unfolding leaves, causing them to assume a 
crumpled condition, as shown in Fig. 33. The caterpillars 
attain full size, which is about | inch long, during the early 
part of summer, when they pupate in small, silk-lined nests, 
from which the moths emerge in about 10 days. The moths 




soon lay their eggs, which hatch in a few days and the young 
caterpillars feed on the under side of leaves until fall, when they 
spin on the twigs small silken cases in which they spend the 
winter; they finish their growth in the following spring. 

A solution of 5 pounds of arsenate of lead and 50 gallons of 
water sprayed on the trees just as the buds are bursting and 
again just before the trees blossom will destroy the caterpillars 
of the bud moth. 

45. Pistol Case Bearer. — An interesting little cater- 
pillar that, in some sections, is a destructive pest in apple 
orchards, is shown enlarged several times in Fig. 34 (a) ; in (&) 

are shown several of the peculiar pistol-shaped cases in which 
the caterpillars live and in which they move from place to place 
on the twigs and leaves. The partly grown caterpillars are 
about I of an inch long; they hibernate during the winter and 
early in the spring feed on the unopened buds and young leaves, 
but later devour the entire leaves except the large veins and 
the midribs. The caterpillars become full grown, or about 
I inch long, during early simimer, when they attach their silken 
cases to twigs and pupate. In about 10 days the moths emerge 




and lay their eggs on the under surfaces of the leaves. The 
eggs hatch within a few days and the very young caterpillars 
at first eat the tissue between the surfaces of the leaves. 

The pistol case bearer can be effectively controlled by spray- 
ing with an arsenical poison just before the buds open and 
again as soon as the leaves are out. 

46. Cigar Case Bearer. — In Fig. 35 (a) is shown the 
caterpillar of the cigar case bearer, an insect whose habits and 

life history are practically the same as those of the pistol case 
bearer. The cigar case bearer has received its name on account 
of the resemblance of its covering case to that of a very small 
cigar. In (b) is shown the effects of the cigar case bearers 
and also several of the cases on the partly eaten leaves. Cigar 
case bearers are controlled by the same methods as the pistol 
case bearer. 




47. Fruit-Tree Leaf Roller. — ^An insect that sometimes 
causes a very great loss to the apple crop in some parts of the 
United States is the fruit-tree leaf roller. The moths emerge, 
usually during June, and lay their eggs in a mass on a twig or 
small limb and completely cover the eggs with a gimimy-like, 
brown substance that protects them from the weather. These 
egg masses remain on the trees until the latter part of the fol- 
lowing spring, when they hatch. An egg mass in which a part 
of the eggs have hatched and the young caterpillars have eaten 
out through the gummy covering is shown in Fig. 36 (a). The 

Fig. 36 

caterpillars, one of which is shown in (b), are of a light straw 
color, with the head and first segment of the body sometimes 
almost black. The young caterpillars spin a few fine silk threads 
around a few leaves, drawing them into more or less of a loose 
cluster inside of which the young pests feed. As soon as the 
fruit has set, a caterpillar draws a few leaves around an apple 
and then feeds on the apple. It is by eating the young apples 
that the caterpillars cause the greatest loss. 

The fruit-tree leaf roller can be successfully combated by 
spraying the trees with a solution made by adding 4 pounds of 
arsenate of lead to 50 gallons of water. 




48. Apple Leaf Miner. — ^A very small caterpillar, known 
as the apple leaf miner, has occasionally caused considerable 
damage to apple orchards in certain parts of the United States. 
A small moth about ^ inch across its expanded wings deposits 
its eggs on the under side of apple leaves during April and May. 
The eggs hatch in about 10 days and the young caterpillars eat 
their way from the eggs directly into the leaves, where they live 
by eating small trumpet-shaped mines between the upper and 
lower surfaces of the leaves. An 
apple leaf, showing the character- 
istic mines of the apple leaf miner, 
is illustrated in Fig. 37. The 
caterpillars become full grown, or 
about I inch long, in about 3 weeks, 
when they pupate within the leaf. 
There are usually two and some- 
times iour or five generations a 

The caterpillars of the last brood 
pass the winter in the leaves, and 
because of this fact the most 
effective way to destroy the apple 
leaf miners is to collect and burn 
all apple leaves in the fall or to 
plow them under. 

49. Apple-Tree Buccula- 
trix. — The larva, or caterpillar, 
of the tiny moth known as the 
apple-tree bucculatrix sometimes 
does considerable damage to apple trees by mining, or eating, 
practically all the tissue of the leaves except the upper sur- 
face. The caterpillars are scarcely ever more than I inch long, 
but when they occtu in large numbers the white cocoons, which 
are about | inch long and in which the caterpillars pupate, 
almost cover the twigs. There are usually two broods a year; 
the caterpillars of the second brood remain on the tree all 
winter in the little white cocoons. ■ 

Fig. 37 


Spraying the trees during the winter with a lime-sulphur 
solution of a specific gravity of 1.03 will kill the hibernating 
pupas, and the arsenate-of-lead spray recommended for the 
codling moth will kill the caterpillars as they are eating the 

50. Palmer Worm. — An insect that makes very irregular 
appearances in apple orchards is the palmer worm. These 
so-called worms, which, when full grown are about | inch long, 
are the caterpillars of smaU ashen colored moths. The cater- 
pillars vary in color from flesh to yellow, are tinted with green, 
and are sparsely covered with fine hairs. They appear in large 
numbers and at long intervals; sometimes as many as 50 years 
elapse between their appearances. They eat all the soft tissue 
of the leaves. 

When use is made of an arsenical spray as in combating the 
codling moth, little damage to an apple orchard will follow the 
appearance of the palmer worms. 

51. Brown Mite. — The presence of brown mites, also 
known as clover mites, in an apple orchard is indicated by a 
sickly, faded appearance of the leaves. Although the mites 
feed on the leaves, they deposit their egg's on the twigs and 
limbs, and if the mites are particularly abundant their eggs 
often cause the twigs to present a red color, especially during 
the winter. 

Probably the best method of combating brown mites is to 
spray the trees during winter with lime-sulphur, of a specific 
gravity of 1.03, which will destroy the mite eggs. 

52. Woolly Apple Aplils. — A very serious insect to young 
apple trees and apple trees in an unthrifty condition is a small 
plant louse known as the woolly apple aphis. The name woolly 
aphis was, no doubt, given to this insect from the fact that a 
bluish-white, cottony, waxy mass is secreted in threads from 
the abdomen of the insect. This cottony, or wool-like, secretion 
gives a colony of the insects a bluish-white, or mold-like, appear- 
ance. The life history of this insect is peculiar in many respects, 
and an understanding of its life enables orchardists better to 
combat the insect. The colonies are largely composed of 




mature, wingless females, one of which is illustrated in Fig. 38 (a) . 
This form of the insect appears throughout the summer months 
and produces from two to twenty young wingless females each 
day; these mature in from 8 to 20 days and begin giving birth 
to young. In the fall, the wingless females produce a brood 
of winged females, one of which is shown in (6) . These winged 

females migrate to other trees and give birth to from four to 
six wingless males and females. The sexual male insect is 
shown in (c) and the sexual female insect in (d). 

The mouth parts of the sexual forms are very poorly devel- 
oped, and neither the male nor the female takes any food. 
They mate, however, and the female lays a single large black 
egg, which is usually deposited under a loose piece of bark 
somewhere on the lower part of the trunk of the tree. The 
female with the large egg extruded, but still attached to her 
body is shown greatly enlarged in (e) . This egg hatches in the 



early spring into a wingless female like that shown in (a), thus 
completing the life cycle of the insect. 

The woolly apple aphis lives both on the limbs and on the 
roots of apple trees. It is most often found on young green 
twigs of the trees such as water sprouts and on the leaves and 
in wounds. A colony of these insects is shown in Fig. 39 (a) 
on a twig and in a wound in the bark of a small apple tree. 
Whenever these insects are found on the trunk and limbs of 
a tree, they are almost sure to be on the roots also, and it is 

Fig. 39 

on the roots that the most damage is done. Roots of young 
apple trees infested with the woolly apple aphis develop knot- 
like galls, and if not relieved from the sucking of the insects, 
the roots will eventually die. As soon as a root dies the insects 
move to a fresh root, so that the absence of the insects on a badly 
galled root does not indicate that the insects have left the tree, 
but that they have simply moved to some other root. The 
galls, or knots, caused by the woolly apple aphis are shown 
in (6). 




53. The insects on the twigs and fohage can be destroyed 
by spraying with a 7-per-cent. solution of kerosene emulsion, 
that is, a mixture of 1 gallon of the kerosene emtilsion and 
about 13 gallons of water; with miscible oil diluted from 30 
to 40 times; with tobacco extract or decoction, diluted accord- 
ing to the directions on the package; or with a solution of 
1 pound of whale-oil soap and 
6 gallons of water. A winter 
spray of lime-sulphur of a specific 
gravity of 1.03 is effective in 
destroying any hibernating in- 
sects and the eggs. 

The insects on the roots of 
trees are not so easily killed as 
those on the twigs and foliage. 
It is recommended that the earth 
for a depth of from 4 to 5 inches 
and for a radius of about 2 feet 
around each tree be removed and 
from 1 to 5 pounds of tobacco 
dust, from 2 to 3 gallons of a 
10-per-cent. kerosene emulsion, 
or a dilute tobacco extract be 
sprinkled over the area from 
which the earth was removed. 
The earth should then be re- 

54. Green Apple Aphis. 

In Fig. 40 is illustrated an apple 
twig that shows the character- 
istic effect of the common green 
apple aphis, or green apple louse. 
enlarged, is shown in Fig. 41 (a), and a colony is shown on the 
under side of a leaf in (b) . The insects feed usually on the under 
surface of the leaves, causing them to curl and crinkle and finally 
to drop off, but the insects also attack the tender tips of grow- 
ing shoots, especially grafts and water sprouts. The injury 


Fig. 40 

One of these insects, much 




caused by the insects is mostly confined to young trees, but 
where they are excessively abundant the foliage of old trees 
and the young fruit may be injured. The latter will become 
stunted and misshapen. 

The first brood of the green apple aphis appears just before 
the leaf buds open. This brood is hatched from eggs that were 
laid the previous fall on the twigs, especially in forks, around 
the buds, and leaf scars. All the insects of this first brood 
are wingless females. They develop and give birth in about 
6 weeks to the second generation of females, which are generally 
wingless. Each female gives birth to from fifty to one hun- 
dred young. The insects of the third generation, which appear 
in about 6 weeks after the second generation, usually develop 

Fig. 41 

wings and migrate to other trees in the immediate vicinity. 
All the insects that are bom during the summer are females, 
but as soon as cool weather approaches in autumn, both males 
and females are bom, and the females lay the eggs from which 
the first brood is hatched in the spring. During the late fall 
all the insects are killed by cold. 

The same methods of control are applicable for the green 
apple aphis as for the woolly apple aphis above the surface of 
the soil. 

55. Miscellaneous Aphides Affecting Apple Trees. 

Besides the woolly and the green apple aphis, which are espe- 
cially apple-tree pests, there are several species of aphides that 
at times prove injurious to apple trees. Among these occa- 
sionally injurious pests are the rosy apple aphis, the European 




grain aphis, and the clover aphis. In respect to their effect on 
apple trees, these insects resemble very much the green apple 
aphis, but they vary in respect to color and character. The 
methods of combating them are the same as those recom- 
mended for the woolly apple aphis. 

56. Leaf -Blister Mite. — ^Within recent years a micro- 
scopic mite known as the leaf -blister mite has attacked apple 
foliage. Leaf -blister mites, which are not more than to o" inch 

Fig. 42 

in length, pass the winter in the buds, but on the arrival of wann 
weather they emerge and as the leaves unfold the mites burrow 
into them and feed on the tender tissue. Although the mites 
are too small to be easily seen by the unaided eye, their presence 
in the leaves is readily recognized by the reddish blisters that 
form on the young leaves. These blisters later turn almost 
black and present a corky appearance. If the mites are espe- 
cially numerous, a large number of the leaves may fall and the 
mites will attack the young apples. An apple twig on which 




both the leaves and fruit are infested by the leaf-bHster mite 
is shown in Fig. 42. 

Leaf-bhster mites are kept under control by spraying as soon 
as most of the leaves have fallen in the autumn or just as the leaf 
buds begin to swell in the spring, with a 10-per-cent. kerosene 
emulsion, with miscible oil, or with lime-sulphur used the same 
as in combating San Jose scale. If an infestation of the mites 
is very serious, both the fall and the spring spraying are recom- 
mended; ordinarily, either spraying will be sufficient. 

57. Buffalo Treeliopper. — The curious-looking insect 
illustrated in Fig. 43 (a) and known as the buffalo treehopper 

Fig. 43 

is often the cause of considerable damage to small limbs of the 
apple tree. It is green in color and about f inch long. Buffalo 
treehoppers damage the small limbs of apple trees by depositing 
their eggs in two characteristic, curved wounds in the limbs 
from early in August imtil killing frost occurs. From six to 
twelve eggs are placed in each slit, or wound, and each female 
insect may make several of the double wounds. The bark 




between the curved slits is cut entirely loose when the eggs are 
deposited and soon dies. If the wounds are numerous, as is 
shown on the twig illustrated in (6), the twig is necessarily 
badly stunted and may die. The eggs hatch during May and 
June, and the nymphs, or young insects, feed on all kinds 
of succulent vegetation. The orchards that suffer worst from 
the egg-laying injuries of these little pests are those that are 
grown up in weeds. 

To prevent the buffalo treehopper from causing any con- 
siderable damage to an orchard, all weeds should be kept 
cut down and trees that are badly injured by the insects 
should be well pruned and the limbs that are removed should 
be burned. 

58. Periodical Cicada. — In Fig. 44 (a) is shown the 
mature periodical cicada, commonly known as the seventeen- 
year locust. In (b) is illustrated the skin cast by the full grown 

Fig. 44 

nymph. Large ntimbers of the adults appear during May and 
June of every seventeenth year, although a few may appear 
during the sixteenth year, when large numbers of the nymphs 
may be found near the surface of the groimd. In about 3 weeks 
after the appearance of these insects the females begin deposit- 
ing their eggs in the trunks of small trees and in the small limbs 
and twigs of large trees. The female makes a wound in the 
wood in which she deposits several eggs; it is claimed that each 
one deposits from 300 to 500 eggs. The damage done to an 
orchard by these insects is caused by these wounds. The 




effects of such wounds are shown in Fig. 45. On small branches 
the wound causes the branch to die from the point of the wound 
to the tip, and on large limbs the scars caused by the wounds 
are points of attack for borers and the wooly apple aphis. 

The adult cicadas do not eat but suck the juices of plants. 
It is, therefore, impossible to poison them. Many of the 

mature nymphs of the cicadas will 
be destroyed during April and May 
of the year that they are known to 
be due to appear, if hogs are allowed 
to run on land that is known to be 
infested by the cicadas. Young 
orchards should not be planted dur- 
ing the year or two just previous 
to the year that cicadas are to 
emerge in that vicinity; neither 
should budding, grafting, or pruning 
be practiced the year before they 
are to emerge. In July all twigs in 
which cicada eggs have been de- 
posited should be pruned off and 

59. Fruit-Tree Bark Beetle. 

In Fig. 46 (a) is shown, magnified 
many times, a little black beetle 
about ^ inch long known as the 
fruit-tree bark beetle and also as 
the shot-hole borer. The latter name 
has been given to the insect from 
the fact that the larva, which is 
shown in (6) , riddles the bark of infested branches with small 
holes, such as are shown in the upper part of (c). The lower 
part of (c) shows the galleries of the fruit-tree bark beetle as 
they appear under the bark of an infested apple twig. Three 
or four generations of these insects probably occur each year. 
In combating the fruit-tree bark beetle, it is recommended 
that all badly infested branches and even small trees that are 

Fig. 4.5 




badly infested should be cut out and burned. The trees should 
be ciiltivated and placed in a healthful, growing condition, 
because the insects attack 
injured, dying, or dead trees. 

60. Apple-Tree Pru- 
ner. — ^A long-homed, brown- 
ish beetle varying in length 
from I to f inch appears dur- 
ing June or July and deposits 
its eggs in small twigs. The 
larva, upon hatching, works 
its way down the small twig 
until it reaches a larger 
branch, from which it gnaws 
away so much wood that the 
first wind breaks off the twig. 
The larva then completes its 
development in the severed 

This insect is comparatively easy to keep in control by 
simply gathering all broken twigs that may be found in the 
orchard during the autimm and burning them. 

Fig. 46 


61. There are a number of diseases common to apples in 
most sections that are very serious, and a larger niimber that 
are less serious and are controlled by the same treatments 
that control the most important diseases. In sections where 
apple growing is a comparatively new industry, apple orchards 
may be reasonably free from diseases, but in most sections 
where the climate is suitable the diseases are likely to be intro- 
duced before apple growing has been carried on very long. 
Therefore, to grow apples successfully, the orchardist must 
learn to combat the diseases that attack the apple tree and its 




The effect of disease cannot be remedied ; that is, the leaves 
or fruit cannot be cured of disease after it has become estab- 
lished in the fruit or leaves. The only possible method of 
combating disease is by preventive measures; that is, by 
measures to prevent the growth on the fruit or leaves of the 
organisms that cause disease. 

The most important preventive measure is spraying with 
some substance that is sufficiently toxic to fungus or bacteria 
to prevent their growth and yet not seriously injure the foliage 
or fruit. The only other available method of fighting disease 
is by destroying injured parts so that there will be no source 
of infection. 

62. Bitter Rot. — The most destructive apple disease in 
the leading apple-growing districts is claimed by many author- 
ities to be bitter rot, also known as ripe rot, and as apple 

Fig. 47 

Fig. 48 

anthracnose. The first two names are somewhat misleading, 
as the disease does not always cause the affected apple to 
become bitter, nor does the disease attack ripe fruit only; 
twigs and limbs are sometimes affected. 

The early stages of the disease are shown by small brown 
spots in the tissue of the apple just beneath the skin. As 
the disease advances these spots become larger and appear 


on the surface of the apple as soft, usually wet, brown, tan, or 
black, circular, rotten spots. As soon as the spots have attained 
a size of about | inch in diameter the center portion of the 
circle is sunken and the rotten part develops rapidly. That 
part of the fruit near the rotten spot is usually bitter, and it is 
this character that has caused the disease to be named bitter 
rot. The early stage of bitter rot is shown in Fig. 47. As the 
rotten spots increase in size, their surfaces become somewhat 
shriveled and wrinkled, as shown in Fig. 48, and near the center 
of the affected area appear very small spore-bearing pustules 
barely visible to the eyes without the use of a magnifying glass. 



Fig. 49 

Diseased apples usually fall from the tree, but sometimes an 
apple affected by bitter rot may remain on the tree and become 
dried and wrinkled, as that shown in Fig. 49. These dried 
and wrinkled apples are sometimes known as mummies. 

Bitter rot also attacks twigs and young branches, causing 
cankers, or rough spots, on the bark, as is sho^vn in Fig. 50. 

The first stages of bitter rot usually appear during Jtdy 
and August, but under exceptionally favorable conditions, 
such as sultry, warm, rainy weather, and in the southern part 
of the apple-growing section the disease may appear much 
earlier. During warm, sultry, rainy seasons bitter rot may 




spread very rapidly and cause great loss of apples within a 
week. It has been estimated by persons who have made a 
careful study of the loss caused by bitter rot that some years 
this disease alone causes a loss of $10,000,000 to the apple 
growers of the United States. 

To keep bitter rot under control in an apple orchard, the 
orchardist should pick and destroy all diseased apples and cut 
out and bum all cankered limbs. In addition to these pre- 
cautions, it is recommended that the orchard be sprayed with 

4-6-50 Bordeaux mixture, as 
lime-sulphur fails to control 
it. In sections where the dis- 
ease is well established, the 
first application should be 
made about 6 weeks after the 
blossoms fall ; a second appli- 
cation should follow within 
^•'P¥''J^ 2 weeks if the disease is seri- 
W^W.P^ifW ous, or within 3 weeks if it 
'#.-'/.&. // IS only slight. Iwo more ap- 
plications at intervals of 2 
or 3 weeks are necessary in 
sections where the disease is 
very serious. 

63. Apple Scab. — The 

most widely distributed and 
one of the most damaging dis- 
eases of the apple is apple 
scab. It is more serious in a wet climate than in a dry one, 
and, as it is favored by cool weather, it is more serious in the 
northern part of the apple-growing section than in the southern 
part, although successfiil orchardists find it necessary to com- 
bat apple scab in all apple-growing regions. 

Apple scab is well described by its name. It is seen as 
scabby dark spots on the foliage and fruit. The newly infected 
areas on leaves are usually circular in form and have a greenish 
or light surface, but when older they turn black. Leaves 

Fig. 50 




infected with scab are shown in Fig. 51. Badly infected leaves 
become distorted and finally may fall off. Spots on the fruit 
are also circular in form and similar in color to those on the 
leaves. The infected areas usually begin as small spots and 
as they enlarge they unite and form large, dark, irregular areas, 
which stop the growth of the apple at the point of infection 
and may very seriously distort the shape of the fruit. Sev- 
eral badly infested apples are shown in Fig. 52. Varieties of 

Fig. 51 

apples vary greatly in their susceptibility to attacks of scab; 
some varieties are almost free from it and other varieties are 
very readily susceptible. 

The scab lives through the winter on the fallen leaves and 
spreads from them to the young leaves in spring. Usually 
the worst infection will be on the lower branches in very early 

This disease can be controlled by the use of either Bordeaux 
mixture or lime-sulphur; in fact, it is one of the most easily 
controlled diseases. The trees should be sprayed, just before 

Fig. 52 

Pig. 53 

Fig. 54 



the blossoms open, with a Bordeaux mixture of a strength of 
4-4-50, and again just after the blossoms fall with litne-sulphur 
of a specific gravity of from 1.007 to 1.01, or with a 2-3-50 Bor- 
deaux mixture. In some sections where scab is very prevalent 
it may be necessary to spray again within 2 or 3 weeks, using 
either the weak Bordeaux mixture or the weak lime-sulphur. 

64. Pink Rot. — Apples that are infested with apple scab 
are very likely to be infested during autumn, especially if the 
weather is wet and muggy, with a mold that grows on the scabby 
spots ; at first it is white, but later turns pink. The skin around 
and the flesh under the pink miold turns brown and bitter. 
The brown spots increase in size rapidly and the market value 
of the apples is soon destroyed. An apple badly infested with 
pink rot is shown in Fig. 53. 

Pink rot follows apple scab and by successfully spraying for 
apple scab the orchardist will have no losses from pink rot of 
apples in the fall after the apples are harvested. 

65. Apple Blotcli. — ^A disease that is common in the 
southern part of the apple-growing region and that resembles 
apple scab in its effect on the fruit, leaves, and twigs is 
apple blotch. The first evidence of this disease on the fruit 
is a very small, inconspicuous, light-brown, somewhat star- 
shaped blotch. The blotch spreads radially until it attains 
a diameter of from | to § inch, and becomes darker in color. 
The margin of these patches always has a broken appearance. 
Sometimes the spots are so numerous that they join together 
and form large blotches, which may cover one-half or more 
of the apple. This disease sometimes causes the surface of 
infested apples to crack. These cracks, or cankers, often 
intersect, forming crosses. Several apples infested with apple 
blotch are shown in Fig. 54. Apple blotch appears on the 
leaves as very small, irregular-shaped, light-brown or yellow 
spots, very much smaller than those of the apple scab. On 
the twigs, especially on the fruit spurs and rapidly growing 
shoots, small cankers are produced that often show cracks 
in the dead bark as shown in Fig. 55. These cankers are gen- 
erally small, being about i inch wide and | inch or more long. 




At first they appear as very small purplish-black blotches, 
but as they increase in size they become brown in the center 
and retain a purplish margin, although they may finally become 

Apple blotch apparently lives through the winter on the twigs 



Pig. 55 

Fig. 56 

and it is from them that infection of the leaves and fruit takes 
place in the spring, about 4 or 6 weeks after the blossoms fall. 
The only remedy that has been found to control apple blotch 
is spraying with Bordeaux mixture; lime-sulphur has, so far 
as known, failed to control it. The first spraying should be 
given 3 or 4 weeks after the blossoms fall, so that the Bordeaux 


will be on the leaves and fruit at the time the infection 
usually takes place, and in sections where the disease is com- 
mon it may be necessary to apply two or three more spray- 
ings at intervals of 3 weeks. The Bordeaux mixture should 
be used at a strength of 4-4-50. 

66. Black Rot. — A disease that causes reddish-brown 
spots to occur on apple leaves early in the spring is known as 
black rot. This disease resembles bitter rot in that both dis- 
eases attack the foliage, the fruit, and the limbs. Black rot 
probably causes the greatest injury to large limbs, on which it 
causes rough, black, wounded areas, or cankers, such as the one 
shown in Fig. 56. The bark on the cankered part of a limb is 
usually dead and the new bark and the wood growing around 
the dead part produces a sunken area that is characteristic of 
the disease. In badly infected orchards the cankers sometimes 
surround, or girdle, a limb and thus kill it. 

At first, black rot shows on apples as small reddish-brown 
spots, but as the spots increase in size the entire fruit becomes 
infected and assumes a very dark-brown or black color. Badly 
infected apples sometimes shrivel, but they do not take on the 
characteristic shriveled, wrinkled, mummified appearance of 
apples infected with bitter rot. 

The fungus that causes black rot also attacks the leaves 
and causes the disease known as leaf spot and as frog eye. The 
spots on the leaves caused by black rot are at first very small 
purplish spots, which, as they enlarge, .become reddish-brown 
and finally a grayish color. During the early part of the sum- 
mer the spots are circular, but during the latter part of the 
summer the spots may enlarge and become irregular in shape. 

The same treatment is recommended for black rot as for 
bitter rot. 

67. Pacific-Coast CarLker. — ^A disease that causes much 
loss in apple orchards in the northwestern part of the United 
States and in British Columbia is known as Pacific-coast canker 
and as black-spot canker. This disease infects the bark and 
sap wood of the twigs and branches of trees and also the fruit 
after it has been placed in storage. 




The cankers on the twigs and limbs are similar in general 
appearance to bitter-rot canker, although the Pacific-coast 
canker is somewhat more roimd, and, when old, the dead, 
diseased part is separated from the healthy part by a distinct 
fissure and may finally faU. out, leaving the wood exposed. 

Pacific-coast canker first appears on the fruit as smaU, light- 
brown, circular, rotten spots, which later turn very dark brown 
or black and become tough, wrinkled, and dry, with concen- 
tric circles of spore-bearing pustules. An apple partly rotted 
by this disease is shown in Fig. 57. 

68. Miscellaneous Cankers. — Several different kinds 
of cankers are reported and described by various plant pathol- 
ogists, but, because of the 
fact that the twigs and 
branches infected by these 
cankers are so similar to 
those that are shown in 
Figs. 50, 55, and 56 that a 
microscopic examination of 
the fungus causing each 
disease is necessary for a 
determination of the par- 
ticular disease, and because 
practically all canker dis- 
eases are treated the same 
way, even a brief descrip- 
tion of several cankers, including the Illinois canker, the Euro- 
pean canker, and the hark canker, are not presented in this Section. 

69. Soft Rot. — The rot of apples near the end of their 
keeping season is known as soft rot, also as bin rot and as blue 
mold. The trouble is known as soft rot, because the light tan- 
colored rotten part of the apple is soft and watery; as bin rot, 
because this rot does not usually attack apples until they are 
stored, usually in bins; as blue mold, because over all cracks 
in a decaying apple appear a very short fur-like growth of 
fungus. This fungous growth is white at first, but soon changes 
to a bluish green. The spores of this mold cannot force their 

v# ^ 

' '.'t-'.* 

Fig. 58 

§ 6 24909 





way through the healthy skin of an apple, therefore, the best 
means of controlling soft rot is care to prevent bruising or 
breaking the skin of the apples. 

70. Fly Speck and Sooty Blotcli. — The disease illustrated 
in Fig. 58 is known as fly speck, as sooty blotch, and also as 
cloiid. Although the disease is commonly spoken of as two dis- 
tinct diseases, authori- __^ 
ties are generally agreed J" j^ 
that both conditions, 
that is, the small black 
specks that closely re- 
semble fly specks and 
arranged in clusters and 
the black soot-like 
blotches, are caused by 
the same fungus . How- 
ever, some apples may 
show only the sooty 
blotches and other 
apples only the fly- 
speck spots. Both the 
small specks and the 
blotches appear about 
the time that the apples 
begin to maXvse and the 
specks or the blotches 
develop more rapidly 
during moist weather 
and in orchards with 
dense foliage than dur- 
ing dry weather or in an orchard where the trees are open 
headed and well pruned. 

The market value of apples that are badly discolored by fly 
speck or sooty blotch is often materially reduced. The disease 
is easily controlled by the sprays recommended for bitter rot. 

71. Apple Rust. — Orchards in the vicinity of cedar trees 
are subject to a disease known as apple rust, also as cedar rust 


Fig. 59 


and as ntst. This disease is usually easily recognized by the 
yellowish orange-colored spots on the leaves. Although the 
spots occur also on the fruit and the twigs, the spots on the 
leaves are by far more common and more noticeable than are 
those on the fruit or the twigs. The appearance of this disease 
on infected leaves and twigs is shown, in Fig. 59. The effect 
of the disease on the fruit is shown in Fig. 60. The fungus that 
causes this disease spends the winter on cedar trees, producing 
on them growths, or knots, known as cedar apples. In Fig. 61 
are shown cedar apples in three stages of maturity. In (a) is 
shown a cedar apple as it appears during early winter; during 
the spring these cedar apples or gall-like growths appear as 
shown in (6) ; and in (c) is shown the large gelatinous growth 

Fig. 60 

expanded by spring rains. From this latter form are pro- 
duced the spores that cause the rust on the apple leaves, 
twigs, and fruit during the summer. 

If rust is injurious to orchards, all cedar trees in the vicinity 
of the orchard should be destroyed. If this is impracticable, 
it is recommended that the orchard be sprayed with Bordeaux 
mixture as is recommended for apple scab. 

72. Fruit Spot of Apples. — A disease that sometimes 
attacks apples grown in the eastern half of the United States is 
known as the fruit spot of apples. This disease appears from 
the first to the middle of August as small spots on the surface 
of the apples. On red apples the spots are of a deeper red than 
the rest of the apple and on light or green apples the spots are 




of a darker green color. As the fruit ripens the spots appear 
more prominent and on red apples, such as the Baldwins, which 
are especially susceptible to the disease, often become brown 
or black. Also the flesh just beneath the spots on the skin 

Fig. 61 

becomes brown and corky. The effects of this disease are 
confined to the skin and to the tissue immediately beneath it. 
The same treatment that is recommended for apple scab 
will effectively control fruit spot of apples. However, if only 
the latter disease is to be combated the sprays may be applied 
about 1 week later than when applied for apple scab. 


73. Baldwin Spot . — The effects of a disease that somewhat 

resembles fruit spot of apples and is variously known as Baldwin 
spot, fruit pit, and hitter pit are numerous small, brown flecks 
throughout the diseased apples and especially in the outer 
I inch of the pulp. During the early stages of the disease 
small spots or slight depressions resembling small bruises appear 
on the surface of the apples. The color of the spots, or pits, 
is practically the same as that of the apple on which they 
occur. Later, the pits become more distinct, showing as sunken 
areas of from i to J inch in diameter. In fact, as the disease 
advances, several of the pits may join and form one large pit. 
Also, the surface of the pits becomes dark brown. Baldwin 
apples are supposed to be especially susceptible to this disease, 
although other varieties are known to be attacked. It is 
reported to be worst during warm, rainy seasons and in the fruit 
on limbs or trees that have been weakened by canker or by 
overbearing. Also, the disease is more apt to appear in large 
overgrown than in medium-sized apples. 

The cause of Baldwin spot is not known neither is there any 
known way to prevent it. 

74. Apple Scald. — The skin of some apples changes while 
they are in storage to a brownish color. This change of 
color of apples in storage in known as apple scald, the first 
effects of which are the appearance of light-brown spots on the 
apples. These spots gradually enlarge until they finally cover 
the entire surface of the apple. The color changes to dark 
brown and finally may become almost black. At first only the 
skin and the outer part of the flesh of the fruit are discolored; 
later a large part of the flesh becomes discolored. The trouble 
is not definitely understood, but fruit that is grown and matured 
under favorable conditions will usually keep through its normal 
keeping season without injury. 

75. Fire Blight. — The disease commonly known as fire 
blight, but also known as twig blight, is generally more serious 
on the pear than on the apple. The effects of the disease can be 
seen most readily in spring, about 3 weeks after the blossoming 
period, at which time many of the flower clusters shrivel and 


die and the twigs turn black and dry up as if scorched by fire. 
During the winter the disease may be recognized by the leaves 
remaining on the diseased branches. This disease is caused 
by bacteria that gain entrance into the twigs either through 
the blossoms or through wounds. The disease travels down- 
wards through the twigs at a rate of 2 or 3 inches per day if 
conditions are favorable, but has been known to travel 1 foot 
or more in a single day. However, under conditions favorable 
to the healthful growth of a tree, fire bhght usually affects only 
a few inches of the tips of the branches. 

Many of the diseased twigs and branches die the first year of 
the infection and the bacteria in the branches die also; but a 
few, probably only a very few, of the diseased branches remain 
alive, and it is in these branches that the bacteria live during 
the winter months. As the sap begins to flow during the spring, 
the infected twigs become the centers of infection and from 
them exudes a milk-like fluid that teems with the bacteria 
that are the direct cause of the disease. Young apples some- 
times are infected and as a result become gorged with a slimy 
material that likewise teems with the bacteria that cause fire 
blight. Both the milk-like fluid in the twigs and the slime in 
the apples attracts insects, especially bees, which carry the 
bacteria to other parts of the tree or to other trees and thus 
spread the infection. 

Fire blight cannot be controlled by spraying. The only 
known means of successfully combating the disease is by cutting 
out and burning every twig that shows infection. All apple, 
pear, quince, wild crab apple, mountain ash, service berry, 
and hawthorn trees in or within | mile of the orchard should 
be examined and all twigs showing the effects of flre blight 
should be cut out and burned. The best time to cut out the 
diseased portions of the trees is probably during the fall, for 
the contrast between healthy and diseased twigs is readily seen 
at that time. In cutting out the diseased twigs the orchardist 
should remove the twig from 6 to 12 inches below the indication 
of the disease. If a cut should be made into diseased wood 
the knife or the cutting part of the pruning instrument used 
should be sterilized by wiping it with a cloth saturated with a 




strong solution of bichloride of mercury, which is more com- 
monly known as corrosive sublimate. A solution having a 
strength known as 1 to 1,000 should be used. Directions for 
making a solution of this strength can be secured from druggists 
who sell the material. All large wounds made in cutting out 
diseased branches should be disinfected with the corrosive- 
sublimate solution. 

76. Root Rot. — In certain apple-growing sections many 
apple trees die without any visible cause for the trouble, but 

on examination the 
root system of a dead 
tree will be found to 
be not only dead but 
partly decayed. Root 
rot is claimed to be 
most prevalent in 
orchards that have 
been planted on land 
that has recently been 
cleared of forest 
growth. Also, some 
investigators are in- 
clined to associate the 
mushroom fungi 
known as clitocybe 
with the disease, and 
because of this associ- 
ation the disease is 
sometimes called 
clitocyhose. As a 
matter of fact, it is 
reasonable to believe 
that there may be several diseases that affect the root system 
of trees and cause their death. 

As the first symptom of diseases that destroy the root systems 
of trees is the dying of the trees, practically the only means 
of control are those of prevention. It has been recommended 

Fig. 62 


that all sttunps and roots shoiild be removed from the soil 
and one or two grain or other general farm crops be grown on 
it before apple trees are planted. All infected parts of diseased 
trees should be burned. 

77. Crown Gall. — Growths such as the one shown in 
Fig. 62, and known as crown gall and also as plant cancer, are 
sometimes found on nursery trees. This disease is caused 
by bacteria and is very infectious. Apple trees should not be 
sectired from nurseries in which crown gall is known to exist, 
and aU trees showing this disease should be burned. 

78. Mildew.— A dense, light-colored, felt-lilce fungous 
growth that sometimes occurs on the foliage of yoimg apple 
trees is known as mildew. This disease is common!}'- found on 
young apple trees in the nursery, but it sometimes attacks 
rapidly growing young trees in orchards. 

Mildew is easily kept from causing any considerable damage 
by spraying with Bordeaux or with lime-sulphur as recom- 
mended for any of the diseases that affect the foliage of the 
apple tree. If it is desired to treat the disease separately, as is 
sometimes the case in nurseries, an application of an ammoniacal 
copper-carbonate solution should be made as the leaves unfold 
and should be repeated every 2 weeks imtil time for budding. 


79. Sun Scald. — The dying of the bark usually on the 
southwest side of the trunks of trees is sometimes known as 
sun scald. Sometimes the bark cracks and falls away from the 
tree; in other cases it does not. In Fig. 63 is shown the trunk 
of a young apple tree injured by sun scald. This injury is 
caused by the unequal heating of different sides of the trunk 
of the tree during the winter. Sometimes injury similar to 
sun scald is observed on the northeast side of the tree. Injury 
in such cases is claimed to be caused by a freeze occurring in 
the fall before the northeast side of the tree has become accus- 
tomed to cold weather. The northeast side of a tree is the last 
part to become dormant in the fall. 




Sun-scald areas are easily infected by the spores of fungi that 

cause the various cankers, and for this reason all sun-scalded areas 

should be scraped down to healthy bark and wood and be painted. 

Sun scald may be prevented by growing low-headed trees 

so that the branches may shade the trunk and by placing a tree 

protector around the tree 
during the winter. White- 
washing the tree trunk also 
tends to prevent the tree 
from becoming unduly 
heated on the side exposed 
to the direct rays of the 

80. Girdling of 
Trees. — Rabbits will eat 
bark from young trees and 
sometimes from trees 4 or 
5 inches in diameter, from 
the surface of the ground 
to as high as they can 
reach. If the bark is eaten 
off entirely around the tree 
it will die, as plant-food 
cannot reach roots except 
through the live tissue of 
the bark. Mice often gir- 
dle small or even large 
trees near, or just below, 
the surface of the ground. 

One of the best ways to 
prevent rabbits from eat- 
ing the bark of trees is to 
kill the rabbits. If this 
is impracticable, a piece 

Fig. 63 

of wood veneer or wire netting should be placed around the 
trunks. The wood veneer or wire netting shoiild extend from 
the ground upwards for from 18 to 20 inches. In some 


sections, instead of protecting each tree, the orchardist 
surrounds the orchard with a rabbit-proof fence. A wood- 
veneer protection around a tree with the soil banked up around 
the base of the protector is the best means of preventing 
injury from mice. However, if rubbish in which the mice 
may hide is not allowed to accumulate about the orchard but 
little injury will be caused by these pests. 

81. Breaking of Trees. — The limbs of trees sometimes 
break under heavy crops of fruit in summer and under loads 
of ice in winter. To prevent the trees from being broken, the 
fruit should be thinned or the limbs should be held up by means 
of props. If small trees are heavily loaded with fruit the limbs 
on one side of the tree are sometimes tied by means of wire or 
cord to limbs on the opposite side of the tree. Sometimes a 
wire or cord is placed outside of all the principal branches and 
then drawn taut, thus supporting the branches of the entire 
top. If there is danger of the tree splitting down the trunk, a 
bolt should be placed through the body of the tree or through 
two opposite limbs in such a manner that they will brace each 
other. Probably the best means of preventing trees from being 
broken down by ice or by an exceptionally heavy crop of fruit 
is to keep the trees weU pruned. 

82. Bark Binding. — The bark of trees sometimes becomes 
so tough and rigid that it prevents the natural growth of the 
body of the tree. This condition of the bark may be caused 
by various conditions, such as a sudden checking of the growth 
of the tree, thus reducing its vigor; the rubbing of hogs or other 
livestock against the bark of trees; and the growth of lichens 
and other parasites on the bark. 

Bark binding may be prevented by keeping the trees in a 
vigorous condition, by not pasturing hogs permanently in the 
orchard, and by spraying the trees sufficiently to keep the bark 
free from disease and in a healthy, growing condition. 

After the bark has become bound, possibly the best remedy 
is to thoroughly scrape off all dead, loose, and diseased bark 
and if necessary to slit tlie bark up and down the trunk of the 


tree. Pruning the trees severely so as to produce a vigorous 
growth will often accomplish satisfactory results. 

83. Rough. Bark. — On some trees the old bark breaks 
loose, keeping the body of the tree and main limbs very rough. 
This does not necessarily indicate an unhealthy condition of 
the tree, but the rough bark is a disadvantage in that it forms 
a sheltering place for insects like the codling moth, and is a 
possible host for some plant diseases. Many of the best 
orchardists scrape aU the rough bark from the trees. To do 
this, a triangular trowel with a strong handle is used. 

84 . Spray Inj ury . — ^Although sprays are the most valuable 
remedies that orchardists can use in combating insects and 
fungous diseases that attack the apple orchard, the sprays some- 
times cause injury to the foliage and fruit of the sprayed trees. 
The principal spray injury is that caused by Bordeaux mixture. 
This injury is commonly known as Bordeaux injury, and 
affects both the leaves and the fruit. The injury is much worse 
during rainy, wet, muggy weather than during dry, bright 
weather; it begins to appear in a few days after the spray is 
applied and continues to increase in extent for several weeks. 

The injiu-y causes the leaves to become spotted; at first the 
spots are very small and circular, but later they enlarge and 
become irregular in shape and the leaves may turn yellow and 
fall. In some cases as many as one-half of the leaves have 
reported to have fallen as a result of Bordeaux injiu-y. 

The injury on the fruit first appears as very small brown or 
black specks. These specks enlarge and cause on the mature 
apple the characteristic corky russeting like that on a Rhode 
Island Greening, shown in Fig. 64. Badly injured fruit is 
nearly always distorted somewhat in shape. The russeted 
areas are more or less shrunken and sometimes the half -grown 
injiired apples are shrunken and cracked like those injured by 
scab, but they do not show the characteristic scabs. The late- 
keeping quality of apples is greatly reduced by Bordeaux 
injury, as is also the sale value of newly picked apples. 

If lime-sulphur causes injury or russeting to the fruit it is so 
slight that investigators cannot distinguish the injury from the 

Fig. 64 

§ 6 24909 


natural russeting of maturing fruit. Lime-sulphtu does, how- 
ever, cause some injury to the foHage. This injury consists 
of brown spots or brown margins appearing on the leaves and is 
supposed to be caused by the lime-sulphur becoming more 
saturated as it dries. Sometimes the entire leaves are affected 
at once, but lime-sulphur injury is at its worst in a few days 
after the spray is applied. 




1. Picking Receptacles. — A picking receptacle that is 
often used for apples is the round half-bushel basket with a 
swing handle, a form of which is 
shown in Fig. 1. Such baskets 
are easy to handle and when they 
are used there is less likelihood 
of the fruit being bruised than 
when larger receptacles are used. 
It is a good plan to line the 
baskets with burlap or some sim- 
ilar material, as shown in the 
illustration; this has a tendency 
to prevent bruising of the fruit. 
An S-shaped wire hook is usually 
attached to the handle in order 
that the basket may be hung on 
a limb, thus allowing the picker 
to have free use of both hands 
for picking. 

In some sections, wide-topped 10-quart galvanized-iron pails 
are used as picking receptacles and are found to be very satis- 
factory. These pails are easier to handle than baskets, and, as 



Fig. 1 



a rule, will last longer, but they are somewhat more expensive. 
Burlap should be used for lining the pails to prevent bruising of 
the fruit. 

In Fig. 2 is illustrated a patented fruit-picking receptacle 
that has some excellent features. It is simply a bottomless pail 
that is lined with canvas, the canvas extending below the 
lower rim of the pail. When the receptacle is being used to 
hold fruit, the draw string, which can be seen in the illustration, 
is pulled taut and the ring is placed over the hook on the side 
of the pail. When the pail is to be emptied it is lowered into 

Fig. 2 

the box or barrel, the draw string is released, and the fruit is 
allowed to pass out of the lower end of the canvas. By using 
the device in this way there is practically no bruising of the 

In Fig. 3 is shown a picking receptacle that is used to some 
extent in the western part of the United States. It consists of 
a metal container that is made in such a way that it will break 
apart at the middle, a wire frame and a clamp for holding the 
two halves together, and a web strap for carrying the device. 
When the container is to be emptied all that is necessary is to 



release the clamp, this allowing the container to break at the 
middle, as shown in Fig. 4. 

Fig. 3 

Fig. 4 

Apple pickers often make use of a two-bushel grain sack as 
a picking receptacle. The sack is carried by ineans of a small 



rope or strap, which is tied to a comer of the sack at each end 
and thrown over one shoulder of the picker, as shown in Fig. 5. 
Such a receptacle is convenient, as both hands are free to do 
the picking, but the fruit in the sack is almost sure to be bruised 
by the movements of the picker. For this reason, sacks 'are 

Fig. 5 

Fig. 6 

unsatisfactory for picking receptacles and careful orchardists 
will not sanction their use. 

In Fig. 6 is illustrated a receptacle known as the apron picking 
bag. This has been found to be a good picking receptacle par- 
ticularly for fancy fruit. Such bags can be purchased cheaply 



or they may easily be made at home. One of the principal 
advantages of this receptacle is that the fruit is not poured out 
but must be taken out carefully by hand. This may seem to be 
a disadvantage, but it should be remembered that fancy fruit 
must be handled without being even slightly bruised. Another 

Fig. 7 

advantage of the apron picking bag is that it hangs in a con- 
venient position for the picker. 

In Fig. 7 is shown a patented picking bag that is extensively 
used in some sections. The bag is emptied by loosening a draw 
string; this allows the apples to pass out through the bottom 
of the bag, as illustrated in Fig. 8. 




A number of other patented picking receptacles that have 
more or less merit are on the market. Before purchasing one 
of these devices a grower should consider whether, by its use, 
there is a likelihood of the fruit being bruised. No form of 
picking receptacle that is likely to cause injury to the fruit 
should be used in an apple orchard. 

2. Ladders. — It is important, when picking apples, to have 
a good supply of ladders available. The kind to use will depend 

- m^. 

Fig. 8 

largely on the height of the fruit above the ground. Where the 
fruit is hanging near the ground, step ladders are suitable. 
Of these there are two general types, the common step ladders 
with four legs and the so-called fruit ladders with three legs. 
Several forms of the latter are shown in Fig. 9. These ladders 
are especially desirable for use on uneven ground, as they will 
stand steadily and are not troublesome to move about the trees. 
For fairly tall trees the so-called Japanese ladder, which is 
illustrated in Fig.. 10 (a), is satisfactory. Ladders of this kind 

Fig. 9 



are light, easy to handle, and are fairly stable on the groimd. 
In Fig. 10 (b) is shown a form of ladder that can be easily trans- 
ported from one part of the orchard to another. This ladder can 
be used with either the end a or the end b uppermost, as desired ; 
if the fruit is high, the ladder should be placed so that the end a 
is uppermost, but if the fruit is near the groimd, the ladder 
should be turned over so that the end b is uppermost. As a rule, 
ladders of this kind are made so that the end a, when uppermost. 

Fig. 10 

is twice as high from the ground as the end b, when it is upper- 
most. The single-rail form of ladder, which is illustrated in 
Fig. ID (c), is sometimes used when the fruit is on taU trees. 
This ladder, although light and. easy to handle, does not stand 
very steadily. 

In Fig. 11 are shown three forms of .ladders that are used for 
picking fruit from high-headed trees. The form of ladder shown 
in (a) is termed regular ; the forms shown in (6) and (c) are Imown 



as pointed. The ladder shown in (c) is an extension ladder and 

is designed for picking fruit 

from very high trees. Reg- 
ular ladders are generally 

placed against the sides of 

the trees and for this reason 

are not entirely satisfactory, 

as such practice is likely to 

break the branches. The 

so-called pointed ladders 

are provided with a strip 

of wood a, which may be 

placed in crotches formed 

by limbs. When used in 

this manner there is little 

danger of the ladder injur- 
ing the trees. 

Another good form of 

picking ladder is the plat- 
form ladder, one of which c^^ ^^> c^^ 

is shown in Fig. 12. This ^'''- ^^ 

ladder consists of three Hght ladders that are hinged onto a 

common support a. Two of these platform ladders with a 

board laid across them 
through the tree form a very 
desirable scaffold for use 
when picking apples that are 
in the center of trees, the 
pickers being able to get 
through the trees without 
injuring the fruit spurs or 

3 . Wagon for Use When 

Picking Apples. — ^Forhaul- 

^^'^' -^^ ing fruit about an orchard 

during the picking season, a low-down wagon, such as the one 

shown in Fig. 13 (a), is desirable, as less lifting of the fruit 




packages is necessary than when an ordinary high-wheeled 
wagon is used. A frame of a size to hold a certain number of 
the packages being used shotild be built onto the wagon bed. 
When the distance between the trees will allow it, the frame 
should be made wide; if the trees are close together, the 
frame must, of course, be made^ narrow. It is important that 

the frame be strong in order that a large number of fruit pack- 
ages can be hauled at a load. Bolster springs, a form of which 
is shown in Fig. 13 (6), should be used on the wagon to prevent 
jarring of the fruit. 

4. Receptacles for Orcliard Transportation of Fruit. 

For the transporting of apples from the orchard to the packing 
shed, crates such as those shown in Fig. 14 are convenient. The 
crates shown in (a) and (b) hold 1 bushel, and are light, easy to 
handle, and durable. Folding crates, such as those shown in (c) 
and (d), also are sometimes used for this purpose. Bushel boxes 
with a slot cut in each end, a form of which is shown in (e) , are 
used in some sections. Some growers use an especially con- 
structed box that holds about 1| bushels, made with the ends 
slightly higher than the side; such a box is shown in (/). 




5. Methods of Picking. — Unless the crop is of poor 
quality, apples should be picked by hand, and each fruit, as it is 
taken from the tree, laid, not dropped, into the receptacle. The 

Fig. 14 

dropping of an apple even a short distance will cause a bruise 
and thus injure the fruit. 

Apples should always, if possible, be picked with the stems on, 
especially those that are to be kepL for winter consumption; if 
the stem is pulled out, rot-producing organisms may get into 


the fruit through the opening. A picker should exercise care, 
when picking apples, not to injure the fruit spurs. If the fruit 
is ripe enough to part from the spur readily when a slight twist 
is given to it, there is little danger of injury, provided the picker 
is careful. 

Shaking of the trees should be resorted to only when the apples 
are to be used for evaporating or for cider making, or are to be 
sold as culls. 

6. Time for Picking. — In general, it may be said that 
apples are ready for picking as soon as they have acquired a good 
color and will part from the spur readily. A good test for deter- 
mining whether they are in condition to be picked is the color 
of the seeds ; an apple picked just as che seeds turn a light brown, 
but before they become dark around the edges, will have a good 
flavor and will keep much better than if more mature when 
picked. Still it may not always be good management to pick 
the fruit when the seeds and the color indicate that it is ready 
for picking. Summer apples that are valuable primarily for 
cooking are. of ten picked when they are not more than two- 
thirds ripe, and winter apples that are to be exported to a distant 
market, say from the United States or Canada to Siberia, are 
often, of necessity, picked rather green in order that they may 
be shipped early to avoid danger of freezing in transit. 

Some varieties of simimer apples ripen very unevenly and 
consequently it is necessary to make pickings at intervals of 
2 or 3 days in order to get the fruit from the trees in the best 
condition. Other varieties, of course, ripen more evenly. In the 
case of fall and winter varieties, the fruit ripens more or less 
imevenly. Some progressive growers practice making two or 
three pickings and find that it pays. Most growers, however, 
follow the custom of picking all of the apples from a tree at 
the same time. 

Varieties differ considerably as to the length of time the fruit 
will hang on the tree after becoming mature. The fruit of some 
varieties, if allowed to become very ripe before being picked, 
will rot at the core in storage. The Jonathan is an example of 
this class. The grower should, therefore, consider the variety 


when deciding how mature the apples should become before 
they are harvested. 

7. Management of Pickers. — In order that a large quan- 
tity of fruit may be harvested in a given time and that the fruit 
and the trees may be injured as little as possible, good executive 
ability is needed in managing apple pickers. Two general plans 
of hiring pickers are followed by growers, namely, hiring by the 
day and hiring by the bushel. Experience shows that there are 
advantages and disadvantages in both methods. As some 
pickers will do more work in a given time than others, there is 
likely to be dissatisfaction if all receive the same wages. It is 
possible, in a way, to overcome this diffictdty by paying different 
amounts to different laborers, but this also may cause dissatisfac- 
tion and will require tactful management. Under some condi- 
tions it is possible to arrange the pickers into different groups 
and pay a different rate for each group. Mr. A. I. Mason, of 
Hood River, Oregon, follows this plan and finds it practicable. 
He employs old men and women who cannot climb ladders 
quickly to pick the fruit from the lower limbs, these pickers 
standing on the ground while working. The second group is 
made up of young girls who pick from low, light step ladders that 
they can handle easily. The third group is composed of young 
men who pick from tall ladders and remove the fruit from the 
tops of the trees. The rate of wages is, of course, different for 
each group. 

If conditions are such thac only men are available as pickers, 
any arrangement whereby different wages is paid to different 
groups would be very likely to cause dissatisfaction. For this 
reason, growers who hire by the day generally have a standard 
wage scale, and when a, man is found to be doing poor work he 
is discharged. 

An advantage of hiring by the bushel is that it is usually less 
expensive than hiring by the day, but there is, however, likely 
to be much breaking of branches and spurs and bruising of the 
fruit. Often a picker is found who picks a large quantity of 
fruit in a day but is very careless about breaking the trees and 
injuring the fruit. Such a man is really less desirable than one 


who picks an average quantity of fruit but is careful of both 
fruit and tree. 

The system of hiring to adopt should, of course, depend 
largely on conditions, but in most cases the wage system has 
proved to be the more satisfactory. 


8. Profits in Grading. — Proper grading of the fruit is 
a detail of the apple business that no grower should neglect. 
In fact, it is difhciiLt to conduct an orchard profitably without 
careful grading of the product. Apples shoiild be graded as to 
quality, size, and color. It is poor business to mix apples that 
will rot quickly with those that will keep, say, for several 
months, because the infection of the inferior fruit is soon carried 
to the sound fruit. It is poor business also to mix fruit of dif- 
ferent sizes together in the packages offered for sale, for such 
fruit lacks much in appearance and will bring less on the market 
than fruit assorted to size. For box packing, which is described 
later, it is imperative that apples be very uniform in size. Those 
to be placed in the same box should not vary more than about 
I of an inch, as it is extremely difficult to secure a uniform pack 
if the variation is greater. It is desirable to grade apples as 
to color, as this greatly improves the appearance. The price 
received for a package of fruit of uniform color is usually much 
greater than that received for a package of fruit of the same 
quality and size that is not so graded. Even in the case of fruit 
that is not highly colored, careful sorting to color causes it to 
have an improved appearance and consequently to sell for a 
higher price. 

9. Number of Grades. — In many sections apples are 
graded into three grades, which are known, respectively, as 
No. 1, No. 2, and culls. If, however, apples are marketed by an 
association, or if the individual orchard is a large one, or if the 
fruit is sold on a local market, grades better than No. 1, known 
generally as jancy and choice, are likely to be very profitable. 

The standard grades estabhshed by the United States govern- 
ment for apples packed in barrels and shipped or offered for 


shipment in interstate or foreign commerce or sold or offered for 
sale in the District of Columbia or the territories of the United 
States are as follows: Minimtim size 2| inches, 2| inches, and 
2 inches. 

10. Grade Standards. — The standards established by 
the National Apple Shippers Association are as follows : 

Requirements jor No. 1 Apples: The standard diameter size 
for No. 1 apples of such varieties as Ben Davis, Willow Twig, 
Baldwin, Greening, and others Idndred in size, shall be not less 
than 2| inches. The standard diameter size for such varieties 
as Romanite, Russet, Winesap, Jonathan, Missouri Pippin, and 
other varieties kindred in size, shall be not less than 2| inches. 
In order to be graded as No. 1, apples must, at the time of pack- 
ing, be practically free from worm injury, surface defacement, 
and broken skin; they must have been hand picked from the 
tree, and must be of a bright, normal color and shapely form. 

Requirements for No. 2 Apples: In order to be graded as 
No. 2, apples must be of a diameter size of not less than 2\ inches. 
They must have been hand picked from the tree, and must be 
free from broken skin and bruises. Apples of this grade must be 
packed with as much care as No. 1 fruit. 

No standards for apples better than those grading as No. 1 
have been established by the National Apple Shippers Associa- 
tion. The standards in vogue for such fruit are simply personal 
standards of individual growers or are those adopted by various 
fruit-growing associations. The Hood River Apple Growers 
Union, of the Hood River district in Oregon, has adopted the 
following requirements for apples shipped as fancy and choice: 

Fancy Apples: The fancy grade consists of perfect apples 
only. They must be free from worm holes and stings; from 
scale, fungus, scab, rust, or any other disease; and from all 
insect pests, decay, and injury. They must be free from 
bruises and limb rubs, and the skin around the stem must not 
be broken. All apples must be clean, fully matured, and not 
deformed, and must have a healthy color. Spitzenburgs must 
have 70 per cent, or more of good red color. All red apples 
must be of good color. 


Choice A pples : The choice grade consi sts of high-grade apples 
that are a little below fancy. Apples with worm holes or broken 
skin are not acceptable for this grade. Limb rubs must not be 
larger than a 10-cent piece. Only two stings will be allowed, 
and these are allowed only where neither sting has seriously 
broken the skin of the apple. No apples wiU be accepted 
that are infected with San Jose scale or dry rot, or that 
have an open or a black bruise. Apples having fungus spots 
larger than |-inch in diameter are not acceptable for this 

The Yakima Valley Fruit Growers Association has adopted 
the following regulations with reference to the grades extra 
fancy, fancy, and C: 

Extra Fancy Apples: Extra fancy apples are perfect, well- 
formed apples that are free from all insect pests, worm holes, 
stings, scale, scab, sun scald, dry rot, water core, or other 
defects. Limb rub, skin puncture, bruises, or other evidence of 
rough handling shall be considered defects. All apples heavily 
coated with dirt or spray must be cleaned. All the apples must 
be well matured and of natural color characteristic of the vari- 
ety. Spitzenburg, Winesap, Jonathan, Arkansas Black, Gano, 
Lawver, and other solid-red varieties must have 75 per cent, 
of good red color. Ben Davis, Rome Beauty, Baldwin, Wagner, 
and other varieties of similar color must be 50 per cent. red. 
Red-Cheek Pippins and Winter Bananas must have a red cheek. 
Sizes smaller than 163 to the box should be excluded from this 
grade except that Winesaps may include sizes not smaller than 
225. All apples of the extra fancy grade must be carefully 
wrapped and properly packed; the boxes should be lined with 
white paper, with cardboard on top and bottom only. 

Fancy Apples: Apples of the fancy grade must be free from 
all insect pests, worm holes, stings, scale, sun scald, dry rot, 
water core, or other defects. Skin puncture, bruises or other 
evidence of rough handling shall be considered defects. Slight 
limb rub will be permitted. All apples must be well matured. 
Fruit of this grade must be carefully wrapped and properly 
packed ; the boxes should be lined with white paper, with card- 
board on top and bottom only. 

§ 7 ' AND MARKETING , 17 

C Grade Apples: Apples of the C grade shall be merchantable 
apples not included in the extra fancy or fancy grades. The 
apples must be free from all insect pests, worm holes, and scale, 
but will include misshapen apples or apples having a limb rub 
or other similar defect. Apples of this grade may also contain 
two worm stings or have slight bruises. They need not be 
wrapped and cardboard need not be used, but all boxes should 
be lined. 

The United States government has enacted a law establishing 
standard grades for apples packed in barrels; this law applies, 
of course, only to apples that are shipped or offered for shipment 
in interstate or foreign commerce, or that otherwise are subject 
to federal jurisdiction. The following are extracts from this 

Sec. 2. That the standard grades for apples when packed in barrels 
which shall be shipped or delivered for shipment in interstate or foreign 
commerce, or which shall be sold or offered for sale within the District 
of Columbia or the territories of the United States shall be as follows: 
Apples of one variety, which are well-grown specimens, hand picked, of 
good color for the variety, normal shape, practically free from insect and 
fungous injury, bruises, and other defects, except such as are necessarily 
caused in the operation of packing, or apples of one variety which are 
not more than 10 per cent, below the foregoing specifications shall be 
"standard grade, minimum size 2^ inches," if the minimum size of the 
apples is 2^ inches in transverse diameter; "standard grade, minimum 
size 2 J inches," if the minimtim size of the apples is 2\ inches in transverse 
diameter; or "standard grade, minimum size 2 inches," if the minimum 
size of the apples is 2 inches in transverse diameter. 

Sec. 3. That the barrels in which the apples are packed in accordance 
with the provisions of this Act may be branded in accordance with sec- 
tion 2 of this- Act. 

11. Methods of Marking Grades. — In the United States, 
the various grades of apples are generally marked No. 1, No. 2, 
fancy, choice, C, or culls. Unfortunately, however, No. 1 or No. 2 
fruit is often marked fancy or choice. No. 2 is marked No. 1, or 
culls are marked No. 2. Such practice leads to confusion and 
is very unsatisfactory, especially when the fruit is offered on 
the general market or is exported, as the terms are likely to 
mean one grade in the case of one grower's fruit and another 
grade in the case of that of another grower. 


The federal government has enacted a law regarding the 
marking of apples packed in barrels. Following are extracts 
from the law: 

Sec. 5. That barrels packed with apples shall be deemed to be mis- 
branded within the meaning of this Act — 

First. If the barrel bears any statement, design, or device indicating 
that the apples contained therein are standard grade and the apples when 
packed do not conform to the requirements prescribed by section 2 of 
this Act. 

Second. If the barrel bears any statement, design, or device indicating 
that the apples contained therein are standard grade and the barrel fails 
to bear also a statement of the name of the variety, the name of the local- 
ity where grown, and the name of the packer or the person by whose 
authority the apples were packed and the barrel marked. 

Sec. 6. That any person, firm, or corporation, or association who 
shall knowingly pack or cause to be packed apples in barrels or who shall 
knowingly sell or offer for sale such barrels in violation of the provisions 
of this Act shall be liable to a penalty of one dollar and costs for each 
such barrel so sold or offered for sale, to be recovered at the suit of the 
United States in any court of the United States having jurisdiction. 

In Canada, definite standard names have been designated by- 
law for each grade of fruit. This avoids confusion and has been 
a means of securing a good reputation in England for Canadian- 
grown apples. Following are given extracts from the Canadian 
Fruit Marks Act of 1901, which deal with this phase of the fruit 
business : 

4. Every person who, by himself or through the agency of another 
person, packs fruit in a closed package, intended for sale, shall cause the 
package to be marked in a plain and indelible manner, before it is taken 
from the premises where it is packed: 

(a) with the initials of his Christian name, and his full surname and 
address ; 

(&) with the name of the variety or varieties; and 

(c) with a designation of the grade of fruit, which shall include one 
of the following six marks: for fruit of the first quality. No. 1, or XXX; 
for fruit of the second quality. No. 2, or XX; and for fruit of the third 
quaUty, No. 3, or X; but the said mark may be accompanied by any other 
designation of grade, provided that designation is not inconsistent with, 
or marked more conspicuously than, the one of the said six marks which 
is used on the said package. 

5. No person shall sell, or offer, expose, or have in his possession for 
sale, any fruit packed in a closed package and intended for sale, unless 
such package is marked as required by the next preceding section. 


6. No person shall sell, or offer, expose, or have in his possession for 
sale, any fruit packed in a closed package, upon which package is marked 
any designation which represents such fruit as of No. 1 or XXX, finest, 
best, or extra good quality, unless such fruit consists of well-grown speci- 
mens of one variety, sound, of nearly uniform size, of good color for the 
variety, of normal shape, and not less than 90 per cent, free from scab, 
worm holes, bruises, and other defects, and properly packed. 

7. No person shall sell, or offer, expose, or have in his possession for 
sale, any fruit packed in any package in which the faced or shown surface 
gives a false representation of the contents of such package; and it shall 
be considered a false representation when more than 15 per cent, of such 
fruit is substantially smaller in size than, or inferior in grade to, or dif- 
ferent in variety from, the faced or shown surface of such package. 

8. Every person who, by himself or through the agency of another 
person, violates any of the provisions of this Act shall, for each offense, 
upon summary conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding one dollar 
and not less than 25 cents for each package which is packed, sold, offered, 
exposed, or had in possession for sale contrary to the provisions of this 
Act, together with the costs of prosecution; and in default of payment of 
such fine and costs, shall be Hable to imprisonment, with or without hard 
labor, for a term not exceeding one month, unless such fine and the costs 
of enforcing it are sooner paid. 

9. Whenever any fruit in any package is found to be so packed that 
the faced, or shown, surface gives a false representation of the contents 
of the package, any inspector charged with the enforcement of this Act 
may mark the words "falsely packed" in a plain and indelible manner 
on the package. 

(2) Whenever any fruit packed in a closed package is found to be 
falsely marked, the said inspector may efface such false marks and mark 
the words "falsely packed" in a plain and indelible manner on the package. 

(3) The inspector shall give notice, by letter or telegram, to the packer 
whose name is marked on the package, before he marks the words "falsely 
packed" or "falsely marked" on the package. 

10. Every person who not being an inspector wilfully alters, effaces 
or obliterates wholly or partially, or causes to be altered, effaced or oblit- 
erated, any marks on any package which has undergone inspection shall 
incur a penalty of forty dollars. 

The marking of packages of apples with various trade names 
is often practiced, and if used in addition to an honest mark of 
the grade such marking is often advantageous to a grower who 
sells his fruit on a local market or to a special trade, for the name 
may become an important factor in advertising the fruit from 
a particular orchard. In fact, it is likely to have much the effect 
of labels such as are described later. 




12. Method of Grading. — The grading of apples to size 
can be done by means of machines that are on the market or 
it can be done by hand. A convenient plan, when grading by 
hand, is to have a table arranged with receptacles for the fruit. 

Fig. 15 

as shown in Fig. 15. A grading board, such as is illustrated in 
Fig. 16, will be found helpful, especially to an inexperienced 
grader. As shown in the illustration, this board has five 
holes of various dimensions. The board should be placed so 

Fig. 16 

that apples can be dropped through the holes quickly. After 
a little experience in grading fruit has been acquired, a grader 
will find that a grading board is not needed, as it will be possible 
for him to judge the size of an apple simply by looking at it. 



13. Packing House. — Some kind of a packing house or 
shed is almost a necessity if a large number of apples are to be 
packed. Growers sometimes pack the fruit in the open air, but, 
in this case, rainy or cold weather is likely to interfere with 
operations just at the height of the harvesting season. The 
packing house need not be an expensive affair, but it should be 
well lighted and be a comfortable place in which to work. The 
interior should be arranged conveniently with sorting and 
packing tables that will facilitate rapid and careful handhng 
of the fruit. 

14. Barrels for Apples. — In America, the barrel is still 
used more than any other package for apples, and market quota- 
tions are generally given in terms of this package. In New York, 
the largest apple-producing state, the law specifies the following 
with reference to barrels : 

Barrels of Apples, Quinces, Pears, and Potatoes: A barrel of pears, 
quinces, or potatoes shall represent a quantity equal to 100 quarts of grain 
or dry measure. A barrel of apples shall be of the following dimensions: 
head diameter, 17|- inches; length of stave, 28^ inches; bulge, not less than 
64 inches outside measurements. 

The United States government has enacted a law establishing 
a standard barrel for apples. Following are extracts from the 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That the standard barrel for 
apples shall be of the following dimensions when measured without dis- 
tension of its parts: Length of stave, 28^ inches; diameter of head, 
17 J inches; distance between heads, 26 inches; circumference of bulge, 
64 inches, outside measurement; representing as nearly as possible 7,056 
cubic inches: Provided, That steel barrels containing the interior dimen- 
sions provided for in this section shah be construed as a compliance 

Sec. 4. That all barrels packed with apples shall be deemed to be 
below standard if the barrel bears any statement, design, or device indi- 
cating that the barrel is a standard barrel of apples, as herein defined, 
and the capacity of the barrel is less than the capacity prescribed by 
section 1 of this Act, unless the barrel shall be plainly marked on end 





and side with the word or figures showing the fractional relation which 
the actual capacity of the barrel bears to the capacity prescribed by sec- 
tion 1 of this Act. The marking required by this paragraph shall be 
in block letters of size not less than seventy-two point 1-inch Gothic. 

In Canada, the law makes the following specification: 

All apples packed in Canada for export for sale by the barrel in closed 
barrels shall be packed in good and strong barrels of seasoned wood, 
having dimensions not less than the following: 26 J inches between the 
heads, inside measure, and a head diameter of 17 inches, and a middle 
diameter of 18^ inches, representing, as nearly as possible, 96 quarts. 
When apples, pears, or quinces are sold by the barrel, as a measure of 
capacity, such barrel shaU not be of lesser dimensions than those specified 
in this section. 

A barrel usually has two hoops at each end and either one or 
two half way between each end and the bulge. In Fig. 17 are 
shown the two types. Barrel heads can be had in from two to 
four pieces. Often the heads can be procured wi th the parts held 

together by means of 
wire staples. A head 
of this type is very 
convenient to handle. 
Large growers or 
associations often 
buy sawed-out mate- 
rial for barrels and 
put the parts to- 
gether on their own 
premises. This prac- 
tice saves freight 
charges and enables 
the grower to make use of labor in seasons when orchard work 
is not pressing. Barrels used for apples should always be new 
and clean ; the practice of using second-hand or soiled barrels 
is unsatisfactory, and is often the means of losing sales. 

15. Boxes for Apples. — ^The bushel apple box, two forms 
of which are shown in Fig. 18, is coming into wide use, especially 
for the best grades of apples. Fancy apples that have been care- 
fully graded, for example, are often handled at a better profit 

Fig. 17 




in boxes than in barrels. The standard-sized box in Canada is 
10 in. X 11 in. X 20 in., inside measurement. In the United 
States, some growers use a box 10 in. X 11 in. X 20 in., and 
others use one that is lOJ in. X 11| in. X 18 in. ; these are the 
two forms illustrated. 
In the northern part 
of the United States, 
box is often termed 
by growers the stand- 
ard box, and the 
10" X 11" X 20" box, 
the special box. 

In the making of 
apple boxes, f-inch 
material is used for 
the ends, f-inch mate- 
rial for the sides, and 
i-inch m_aterial for the 
top and the bottom. The sides need to be thick enough not to 
bulge, but the top and bottom should bulge easily, but not break. 
The ends need to be thick enough to hold the nails well and to 

Fig. 18 

Fig. 19 

give strength to the box. Cleats about f-inch wide are usually 
used across each end of the top and bottom. Spruce is a desir- 
able wood for apple boxes ; it is white, neat in appearance, and 


does not split easily when nailed. The lumber for boxes is prac- 
tically always bought sawed to the right dimension, the boxes 
being made up at the orchard. This buying of the material 
knocked down reduces expense. 

In nailing a box, four 4-penny nails are generally used for each 
end of each side, and four for each end of the top and the bottom, 
the box thus requiring thirty-two nails. When a box is being 
put together it is well to have some kind of a form to hold the 
ends in place while the nails are being started. In Fig. 19 is 
shown a bench with a form for this purpose. The two ends for 
the box are placed in the grooves on the bench, and two pieces 
of the side nailed to them. The ends and the side are then 
turned and the other side and bottom are nailed in place. 

A good workman can put 
together from one hundred to 
two hundred boxes a day. 

16. Busliel Baskets for 
Apples. — ^For a local market, 
the bushel stave basket, one of 
which is illustrated in Fig. 20, 
has been found to be fairly 
satisfactory. These baskets 
are light, diirable, inexpensive, 
and easy to pack and to 
handle. For use on a general 
wholesale market they are not satisfactory, however, because 
the trade is not accustomed to purchasing apples put up in 
this way. A further objection to their use is the fact that they 
cannot be piled more than four or five high without injury to 
the fruit in the bottom baskets. 

17. Packing of Apples in Barrels. — The first operation 
in packing a barrel of apples is to fasten securely the end that is 
to be the top by driving four 5-penny nails into each piece of the 
head, as shown in Fig. 21. The nails should be driven obliquely 
through the upper hoop, the end of the stave, and into the wood 
of the head. Two liners — small, flexible strips of wood — are 
then nailed across the ends of the pieces of the head, the liners 

Fig. 20 




following the curve of the barrel. If the liners are not flexible 
enough to fit readily to this curve, they should be placed in water 
for an hour or so before being used. For the liners 3-penny nails 
should be used, the nails being clinched on the outside of the 

The next step is to nail the hoops — except the two on the end 
that will be uppermost while the barrel is being filled — ^to the 
staves of the barrel by driving two 3-penny nails through each 
hoop, one on each side of the barrel, as shown in Fig. 22. These 


Fig. 21 

Fig. 22 

nails will go through the staves and, in order to prevent injury 
to the fruit, must be clinched later. 

The barrel is next reversed so that the end formerly at the 
top rests on the floor, the two upper hoops are loosened, the head 
is removed, and the nails that have been driven through the 
hoops are clinched. A circle of paper the size of the end is then 
placed in the bottom of the barrel. 

The barrel is now ready for filling, and in order that the pack- 
age, when opened, will make a good appearance, the apples that 
are placed in what is now the bottom are arranged in regular 
order, or faced. Fig. 23 shows the appearance of a well-faced 
barrel after being opened at the top. The face should be made 



up of apples that are about an average of those that go into the 

It is unwise as well as dishonest to use better apples for the 
face than for the interior, as experienced buyers are not usually 
misled by such practices. The apples of the face are placed 
stem end down for two reasons: first, the face will be more 
attractive, and, second, the stem end usually presents a broader 
surface to come in contact with the head, and thus the skin of 
the apples is less likely to be bruised when the barrels are han- 
dled. In arranging the face, the packer secures several apples of 
uniform size and color and places them around the outer edge of 
what is now the bottom of the barrel; next he lays another circle 
of fruit just inside of the first one and so on until the face is 
completed; usually one apple is placed in the center, this com- 
pleting the layer. It is impor- 
tant that the apples be fitted in 
firmly, but not so firmly that the 
layer will tend to bulge badly, 
because in this case after the 
barrel is packed some of them 
may turn over on the side, or 
buckle, as fruit men say, and the 
barrel will show a disarranged 
face when opened. 
Packers generally place a second layer in the barrel by hand. 
Some make a practice of arranging this layer in the same manner 
as the first and thus really make a double face; others simply 
place the apples cheek downwards at the joints made where tliree 
apples of the face come together. After the placing of the second 
layer the barrel is ready for further filling. If the fruit has been 
sorted into baskets, or pails, these should be lowered one at a 
time into the barrel and the fndt emptied. In no case should the 
apples be dropped from a height of more than a few inches. Some 
oichardists, when packing apples, make use of a table like the one 
illustrated in Fig. 24. The fruit is allowed to run into the barrel 
from the table, the lower end being removable. Growers who 
use this table try to avoid bruising of the fruit by having a 
length of burlap extend into the barrel; they claim that the 

Fig. 23 



apples, in falling on the burlap, will not be bruised. Such prac- 
tice is not to be recommended, for no matter how careful the 
packer may be, the frmt is likely to be bruised. The careful 
emptying of a pail or basket of fruit will require a little more 

Fig. 24 

time than rolling the apples from a table of this kind, but 
fewer apples will be injured. 

When the barrel is about one-third full it should be racked, 
that is, jarred slightly in order that the fruit will settle. This 
is accomplished by rocking the barrel back and forth, being 
careful not to allow the edge to get more than about 2 or 3 inches 
off the floor. The filling is then continued until the barrel is 
about two-thirds full, when it is again racked. Following this 
racldng, it is filled to within an inch or two of the chime, the 
exact distance depending on the size of the apples and on the 
variety. A follower, one of which is shown in Fig. 25, is now 
placed on the apples and held there 
and the barrel racked for the last time. 
The follower is used to hold the apples in 
place and level the fruit preparatory to 
arranging the last apples in the barrel. ^i^- 25 

This accessory is easily constructed, being simply two or three 
boards nailed together and cut to fit the shape of the barrel ; it is 
provided with a handle and is padded with burlap or other thick 
cloth. The arranging of the last apples in the barrel is knowTi 
as tailing, and is one of the most difficult operations of apple 




barreling. The apples are placed with stems up and are arranged 
in regular order, much the same as in the face, although, as a rule, 
they are not placed in concentric circles, but are merely arranged 
in a level layer. The main object of tailing is to secure an even 
surface in order that the head, when placed in position, will hold 
all the apples in the barrel snug and firm. The top of this last 
layer of apples should extend to, or, in some cases, slightly above 
the ends of the staves. When the head is put on the barrel the 
apples will be forced down into the barrel, but this is necessary, 
or otherwise the barrel will become slack, as fruitmen say, and 
much fruit will be injured by rolling about in the barrel. Inex- 



Fig. 26 

perienced packers often fail to have the apples far enough above 
where the head will be placed. It is surprising how much pres- 
sure a barrel of apples will stand without much injury to the 
fruit. Thick-skinned apples like Ben Davis and Gano will stand 
more pressure without injury than thin-skinned apples like 
Northern Spy and Mcintosh, but even thin-skinned varieties 
must be pressed down sufficiently to avoid slackness in the 
barrels. Above the last layer is generally placed a circle of 
paper similar to that used in the face end. 

After the tailing is finished, the barrel is headed. For this 
work, use is made of what is known as a barrel press, two fornis 


of which are shown in Fig. 26, the one shown in (a) being a screw 
press, and the one in (b) a lever press. Both forms are in com- 
mon use among packers, some preferring one form and some 
the other. 

When a barrel is to be headed the upper hoop is removed, the 
one just below it is loosened by being driven upwards, the head 
is laid in place on the apples, and the lower part of the press is 
caught under the bottom of the barrel. But before the apples 
are pressed into the barrel, the top hoop is slipped onto the 
barrel so that it can be driven downwards to tighten 
the staves before the press is removed. When all of 
these details have been arranged pressure is exerted 
and the head is forced down to the chime. The hoops 
are then driven downwards to their proper position 
and the top is nailed and liners put in place, as was 
done in the case of the other end. To avoid splitting 
the hoops when driving them to place, it is well to 
make use of a hoop follower, a piece of hard wood 
shaped as shown in Fig. 27. After being headed the ^^'^' ^"^ 
barrel is turned over and the grade marked on the top. It is 
then laid on its side, as there is less likelihood of it becoming 
slack than if left on end. 

18. Packing of Apples in Boxes. — Of recent years, the 
packing of apples in bushel boxes has come into vogue in many 
parts of the United States and Canada. This style of package is 
especially desirable for choice and fancy fruit, well-packed boxes 
of these grades often bringing excellent prices. 

One of the first requisites for good and rapid box packing is a 
properly constructed packing table. Fig. 28 shows an approved 
form of table that will hold three or four bushels of apples and 
accommodate two packers. It is simply a burlap-covered frame 
supported by legs and having boards arranged at the ends for 
supporting the boxes to be packed. The dimensions shown in the 
illustrations can, of course, be varied to suit the convenience of 
the packers. Two layers of burlap are used on the frame, the 
bottom one being nailed and the top one merely hooked in place 
so that it can be removed easily to enable the packer to shake off 




any leaves and dirt that accumulate. A piece of garden hose is 
nailed around the top edge of the table to prevent bruising of the 

Fig. 28 

fruit. When being packed, the boxes are tilted as shown in the 
illustration and are prevented from slipping by the strip a. 

The hod h is for hold- 
ing sheets of wrap- 
ping paper, the use 
of which is discussed 
later. The hod, which 
is removable, is held 
in place by two right- 
angled hooks c and a 
bracket that supports 
it against the side of 
the box. 

The sides, bottom, 
and top of apple boxes 
are generally lined 
with white paper. 
Newspaper stock is 
extensively used for 
this purpose, although in some localities the growers prefer a 
glazed paper. The sheets of paper are cut so that they are 

Fig. 29 


slightly narrower than the length of the box. Two are used for 
a box, each sheet covering a little more than half the bottom, all 
of the side, and about half of the top. To avoid tearing of the 
sheet where the bottom of the box is joined to the side when 
the bottom bulges after the top is nailed, the sheets are plaited 
at the place where they will come in contact with this part of 
the box. While the box is being filled, the paper that will 
cover the top hangs over the sides. Fig. 29 shows a box lined 
and ready for packing. 

At the top and bottom of the boxes, and sometimes between 
the layers of fruit, sheets of unglazed paper or cardboard are 
placed. This gives a neat appearance to the pack, and is useful 
in taking up inequalities between the layers, and in preventing 
rubbing of the fruit while the cover is being nailed. 

Box-packed apples are generally wiped before being placed in 
the package, especially if the fruit was sprayed late in the season 
with a spray mixture containing lime. But even if no spray 
that will whiten the fruit has been used, it is probably a good 
plan, on account of the improved appearance of the fruit, to wipe 
off the dust. A pair of cheap cotton gloves is better for wiping 
apples than a rag, as the operation is done more quickly and the 
gloves protect the hands from the cold. The Hood River Apple 
Growers Union instructs its members as to the wiping of fruit 
as follows : Wipe the apples just enough to make them clean and 
get off the spray. Do not polish them. 

Growers find, as a rule, that in box packing it pays to wrap 
each apple in paper. Wrapped fruit is easier to pack than 
unwrapped, it goes into the market looking fresher, there is no 
opportunity for decay to spread from one apple to another, and 
if the packing is well done there is little chance of the package 
becoming slack. On the other hand, wrapped fruit requires 
slightly more time for packing, there is a cost of 2 or 3 cents a 
box for paper, and when the box comes to market the fruit 
cannot be seen at a glance as can unwrapped fruit. 

Newspaper stock is good paper for wrapping fruit. The size 
of sheets to use will depend, of course, on the size of the apples, 
the average sizes of sheets being 8 in. X 10 in., 10 in. X 10 in., 
and 10 in. X 12 in. 


Not much time is required to wrap an apple. The method is 
as follows: A sheet of paper is grasped from the holder on the 
pacldng table with one hand, and an apple from the table with 
the other hand, and the two brought together over the box, and 
as the apple is placed in the box, the paper is folded around the 
fruit, its ends being kept underneath by the weight of the apple. 
In order that one sheet of paper may be grasped at a time 
packers find it convenient to wear a rubber stole on the thumb 
or first finger of the left hand. 

The apples are placed in the box in layers, and for this reason 
it is imperative that they be uniform in size. The arrange- 
ment of the layers may 
be in one of three ways 
known, respectively, as 
the straight, the diago- 
nal, and the offset pack. 

19. In the straiglit 

pack, the apples are 
placed in straight rows 
lengthwise and cross- 
wise of the box, as 
shown in Fig. 30. This 
is one of the most dif- 
ficult packs to make, 
especially if the fruit is 
not graded accurately 
to size. Each layer in 
the box is the exact duplicate of each other layer, containing 
the same number of apples placed directly over those of the 
preceding layer. Only apples of approximately the same size 
can be packed in this way, as otherwise the rows will not 
come out even. 

Packs of this land may be arranged in 5, 4, or 3 tiers, the 
arrangement depending on the size of the fruit. These packs are 
known, respectively, as 5-tier, 4-tier, and 3-tier packs. In a 
5-tier pack there will generally be 8 cross-rows, or 40 apples to 
the layer, and 5 layers to the box, thus making 200 apples to the 

Fig. 30 



box. A 4-tier pack has, as a rule, either 6, 7, or 8 cross-rows, or 
24, 28, or 32 apples to the layer, and 4 layers to the box, making 
96, 112, or 128 apples to the package. In a 3-tier pack, there 
are generally either 5 or 6 cross-rows, or 15 or 18 apples tothe 
layer, and 3 layers to the box, making 45 or 54 apples to the 

The straight pack presents a neat appearance, but there is 
likely to be considerable bruising of the fruit, as each apple is 
directly above or below some other apple. 

Fig. 31 

20. In a diagonal pack, so named from the diagonal 
course of the rows, the apples are arranged as fehown in Fig. 31. 
Packers usually prefer this pack to the straight pack because 
it is easier to make and the apples can be packed with a little less 
careful grading. In (a) is shown what is called a 3-2, or 4|-tier, 
pack. The 3-2 has reference to the number of apples in the 
cross-rows, there being three in the first row, two in the second, 
and so on; the expression 4|-tier is derived from the fact that 
there are three complete and two incomplete tiers, which, if 
placed end to end, would make 4| solid tiers. The number of 
apples in a 4|-tier box ranges from 150 to 200. In (b) is shown 



what is known as a 2-2 diagonal, or a 3|-tier, pack. As a rule, 
there are 64, 72, or 80 apples in a pack of this kind. 

To start a 3-2 diagonal pack, an apple is placed in each comer 
of one end of the box and a third midway between them. There 
will thus be left two open spaces, neither of them as wide as the 
diameter of one of the apples. These spaces will, however, allow 
the two apples of the second row to partly slip between those 


of Apples 
per Box 



of Apples 
per Tier 




Size of Box Used 







10 "Xll "X20" 
10 "Xll "X20" 



2-2 Diagonal 






2-2 Diagonal 






2-2 Diagonal 






2-2 Diagonal 






2-2 Diagonal 



10 "Xll "X20" 



2-2 Diagonal 



10 "Xll "X20" 



2-2 Diagonal 



10 "Xll "X20" 



2-2 Diagonal 



10 "Xll "X20" 






10 "Xll "X20" 






10 "Xll "X20" 



3-2 Diagonal 






3-2 Diagonal 







3-2 Diagonal 






3-2 Diagonal 



10 "Xll "X20" 



3-2 Diagonal 



10 "Xll "X20" 

of the first row. The second row has three open spaces, conse- 
quently there will be three apples in the next row; in the next 
there will be two, and in the next three, and so on until the other 
end of the box is reached. Sometimes the last row will contain 
two apples and sometimes three, depending on the size and the 
shape of the fruit. In starting the second layer of a 3-2 pack, 
two apples instead of three are placed for the first row; these two 
apples will fit in the two spaces left by the three apples of the 
corresponding row in the first layer. The apples of the second 




layer tend to fill up the vacant spaces of the first layer. The 
third layer is begun with three apples, and the fourth with two ; 
thus the odd-numbered layers are alike, and the even-numbered 
ones are alike. 

The 2-2 diagonal pack is used for apples that are too large 
for a 3-2 pack. It is started by placing an apple in one comer 
of the box and a second one midway between this first apple 
land the other side. The two apples of the second row are then 
placed to fit into the open spaces thus left ; the third row is then 
placed like the first one, and the fourth, like the second, and so 
on until the layer is finished. In starting the second layer, the 
apples are placed just the reverse of the way they were in the first 
layer, the first row coming over the opening between the apples 
of the first row beneath and the second over the opening in the 
second row of the first layer, etc. 

In Table I is given data concerning straight and diagonal box 
packs. This table is compiled from information published by 
Prof. C. I. Lewis, of the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station. 

21. The offset pack resembles the diagonal pack in appear- 
ance but differs in the arrangement of the fruit. The two fonns 


of the offset pack that are most commonly used are shown in 
Fig. 32; in (a) is shown the form known as the 3-3, or 3|-tier, 
pack and in (6) is shown the form known as the 4-4, or 4|-tier, 

The 3-3 offset pack is started by placing three apples in one 
end of the box so that they touch each other and one of them 
touches the comer of the box. This leaves a space at the oppo- 
site comer. The size of the apples should be such that the space 
at the side of the row is about equal to one-third or one-half of 
the diameter of each fruit. The second row of three apples is 
started on the opposite side of the box, the first apple fitting 
down partly into the open space of the first row. The third row 
is started on the same side as the first, and this alternating is 
continued until the layer is complete. The first row of the 
second layer is started on the opposite side of the box from the 
first roV of the first layer and the rows are alternate as in 
the first row. The third layer is like the first and the fourth 
like the second, and so on. 

The 4-4 offset pack is like the 3-3 pack except in the number 
of apples in a row. 

The offset pack is an easy one to make, but the large open 
spaces at the sides give much opportunity for the box to become 
slack. In addition, these spaces give the appearance of the 
box not being full, which is likely to injure its sale. 

22. No matter which pack is used, the shape of the apples 
determines whether they shall be placed on the end or the side. 
As a rule, round or oblate apples are packed on end and oblong 
varieties on the side. However, to secure the proper bulge 
described later, some of the apples in a box may be turned one 
way and some the other way. 

It is obvious that to avoid bruising of the fruit the boxes 
must be packed so that they will not become slack in transit. 
Therefore, firmness of the pack is of prime importance. Each 
apple should be fitted snugly and tightly into place, but, of 
course, pressure enough to bruise the fruit should not be applied. 
Apples will shrink somewhat in storage and this makes firmness 
of the pack doubly important. To insure a firm pack, the fruit 




should extend to the ends of the box. Often fruit is packed so 
that there is as much as a quarter of an inch of space at the end 
of the box but such practice should be avoided. If the packer 
finds that a layer is not coming out well he should repack a few 
rows choosing slightly larger apples, or turning a few on the side 
or on the end, as the case may require. By exercising judgment 
in selecting the apples as the packing is being done, a novice will 
soon learn to make a firm pack. 

A bulge at the top and the bottom of the box is necessary to 
avoid slackness in a packed box of apples, as the spring of the 
boards will keep the fruit firm even after it shrinks slightly. 
Most packers like a bulge of f inch on both the top and bottom. 
To get this bulge it is necessary that the apples be packed so 
that the last layer of apples comes out about flush with the two 

Fig. 33 

ends at the top of the box, and about 1| inches higher than the 
side at the middle of the box, as shown in Fig. 33 (a). The box, 
when nailed, will then bulge at both top and bottom, as shown 
in (fe) . In order that the proper bulge may be secured it is neces- 
sary that the second, third, and subsequent layers be slightly 
higher at the center than at the ends. This is done by choosing 
slightly larger apples, or if the apples are oblate, by turning 
some of them on the side. 

In the case of very large apples it is sometimes difficult to get 
them to come flush with the ends, and to avoid crushing the 
fruit a cleat is nailed on top of the end of the box and the cover 
placed above this cleat. The Hood River Apple Growers Union, 
of Oregon, gives the following instructions about this matter 
to its members: 



Fig. 34 




"Packers shotild. pack apples so that they will not be above 
the top of the box at either end. Growers will be allowed to 
refuse to nail a box unless so packed. If absolutely unavoidable 
in very large apples, the grower will be sure to put on cleats 
under the lid at both ends." 

To facilitate the nailing of covers on the boxes where a large 
number are packed, some kind of a nailing press that will hold 
the box securely while the cover is being nailed is necessary. 
Box presses for this work can be purchased from dealers in 
orchard supplies. 
Fig. 34 shows a de- 
sirable form. When 
the box has been 
filled and is ready 
for nailing, it is 
placed on the press, 
and the boards of 
the cover are placed 
on the top, as shown 
in (a). Cleats are 
then placed across 
the ends and the 
clamps a are forced 
down on these 
cleats by pressure 
on the foot-lever. 
The cleats are then 
nailed as shown in 
view (&) , after which 
the clamps are released and the box is removed from the press. 
The nails are held in the box b, where they are accessible to the 
one doing the nailing. 

In Fig. 35 is shown a press that is constructed of steel. The 
operation of this press is similar to that of the press just 
described, except that it is not necessary for the nailer to bear 
down on the foot-lever while the nailing is being done, the press 
locking itself until released by the lever shown at the bottom 
of the illustration. 

Fig. 35 


23. Packing of Apples in Baskets. — ^When apples are 
being packed in bushel baskets, a basket is filled about half full 
of fruit and is then racked slightly to level the pack. The basket 
is next filled to within a few inches of the top, and is again 
racked, this time a follower being used. The package is next 
faced by arranging the top apples in a level layer. This layer 
should extend above the edge of the basket for an inch or so, 
the exact height depending on the height of the rim of the 
cover. In order to give an attractive appearance, the apples 
of the face should be of uniform size and color. After the face 
has been completed, the cover is put in place and fastened. 
If the type of cover illustrated in Fig. 20 is used, a nail placed 
in the center of the strip that passes through the handle will 
keep the cover in place. 


24. The fact that apples, especially those of fall and winter 
varieties, can be kept for several months in storage before being 
used, very much lengthens the period during which this fruit 
can be consumed. Facilities for the storage of apples are almost 
indispensable, so far as the grower is concerned, for with them 
he is enabled to hold the fruit at times when there is a plentiful 
supply on the market and to dispose of it when the supply 
becomes less. One advantage of apple orcharding over the 
growing of many other kinds of fruits is the fact that the apple 
keeps well in storage. 

It is the nature of all fruits to ripen and then to disintegrate. 
The ripening process does not take place as rapidly at low tem- 
peratures as at high; therefore, the purpose in the storing of 
fruit in cold places is to prolong the ripening process. In the case 
of some varieties, ripening cannot be greatly prolonged; in the 
case of others, it can be retarded so that the fruit will keep in 
storage for as long as 2 years. 

The best temperature for storage rooms is the lowest it is 
possible to obtain without freezing the fruit. Experience has 
demonstrated that for apples this temperature is from 31° to 
33° F.; at lower than 31° F. there is danger of apples freez- 
ing. It is important that apples be placed at a low temperature 


as soon as possible after they are picked; if left for a few- 
days in the orchard, especially if the weather is hot, they may 
ripen more than during a month or two in storage. The 
maturity of the fruit too, has something to do with its keeping 
quality in storage. Overripe fruit will disintegrate sooner than 
fruit that has just reached full development and attained good 
color. Closely associated with the length of time apples will 
keep in storage is the length of time they will keep when taken 
out of storage. If they have been stored for a long time, they 
will usually keep for but a short time after taken out of the 
storage room. Apples held in storage for a short time keep 
longer after they are taken out of storage, of course, than those 
kept in storage for a longer time. 

Varieties of apples vary greatly in the length of time they will 
keep in storage. Ben Davis, Mann, and some of the Russets 
are good keepers ; Wealthy and Wagener will' keep only until 
about January or February. Some varieties like the Jonathan, 
for example, are poor keepers in the cellar or a.t ordinary tem- 
peratures but are good keepers in cold storage; occasionally a 
variety, the York Imperial for instance, does better in cellar 
storage than in cold storage. It has been foimd, also, that a 
variety grown in a northern latitude or at a high altitude has 
better keeping qualities in storage than the same variety grown 
farther south or at a lower altitude. 

Fruit of good quality is necessary for successful storage. 
Apples that are partly decayed are sure to spoil if kept for any 
length of time, even at a low temperatiire, and wormy or other- 
wise defective fruit is not worth the cost of storage. Apples 
should be carefully sorted, therefore, before being placed in 
storage, and only those of the best quality reserved for the 
storage room; the second grade, or inferior fruit, should be 
disposed of at once for what it will bring. 

After apples have been placed in storage they should be 
undisturbed until ready to be moved, for excessive handling 
seems to injure the keeping quality. 

25. Commercial Cold Storage. — In cities and towns 
apple growers can generally find commercial cold-storage houses 


in which space is for rent. When contemplating the renting of 
space, a grower should ascertain whether the storage house in 
question has stored apples successfully in the past, for often 
plants are not conducted primarily as storage places for fruit, 
but rather for meat, eggs, and butter. These products require 
a lower temperature than fruit does; and if separate rooms of 
the proper temperattire ar« not maintained for fruit, it is likely 
not to keep satisfactorily. 

The price for commercial storage space varies in different 
localities. The usual rate for bushel boxes or baskets is from 
15 to 25 cents from picking time to April 1, and for barrels is 
from 25 to 60 cents. There is usually an additional charge per 
month for fruit left in storage after April 1. 

26. Farm Cold Storage. — Growers whose orchards are 
at a considerable distance from market or shipping stations, or 
who cannot find convenient or cheap facilities for storing fruit 
in commercial storage houses, often find it advantageous to 
maintain a storage house on the farm. Such houses can be used 
to hold the fruit temporarily, or if they are well constructed, 
during the whole season. Individual conditions will, of neces- 
sity, determine whether or not such a house is required or is 

Ice is often used as the cooling agent in storage houses of 
farms, but the principal disadvantage is the fact that it usually 
must be kept from winter until the next fall before being used 
in the fruit house. Therefoie, unless ice is plentiful and cheap, 
ice storage is not especially economical. When used in fruit- 
storage houses, the ice is placed in a room above the one where 
the fruit is stored, and cold air from this room is conducted by 
means of shafts to the lower part of the storage room and the 
warm air is conducted from the storage room through shafts 
that open at the roof. All of the walls should be built with dead- 
air spaces for insulation. 

27. In the northern part of the United States and in the 
provinces of Canada, storage houses that are cooled by ventila- 
tion are much used. This plan of cooling is economical and if 
properly managed is very satisfactory. The cold air is admitted 




near the bottom of the room, and is, of course, from the outside; 
the warm-air outlets are in the ceiling. The number of cold-air 
intakes and warm-air outlets will, of course, vary with the size 
of the building, but they should be ample to secure a good circu- 
lation of air when desired and should be provided with opening 

2 Ce//i'n^^^^ Bu/Mi'nff Paper 

and closing devices that can be operated at will. Several cold- 
air intakes are preferable to one, and if the room is longer than, 
say, 14 to 16 feet, it is advisable to have two outlet ventilators 
in the ceiling. For a room 12 ft. X 12 ft. or 12 ft. X 14 ft., one 
outlet will be sufficient. The walls should be made with at least 
one dead-air space, and two such spaces are preferable. These 




provide against outside changes of temperature and are 
absolutely necessary for proper insulation. 

28. In Fig. 36 (a) is shown a well-designed storage house of 
the type cooled by ventilation. It is 24 feet long, 14 feet wide, 
and 10 feet high at the ridge. The walls are made with two 
dead-air spaces. Two ventilators a and four intakes b, two in 
each side, are provided. In (b) is shown the wall construction 
of the house. The temperature changes in the house are secured 
by opening and closing the intakes and outlets. For several 

Fig. 37 

days before the house is to be used, the doors and windows are 
closed, and on cool nights the air ducts are opened and in the 
morning before the sun gets high they are closed. This 
tends to cool the air on the inside. If a particularly cool day 
occurs, the doors and windows are opened. After the fruit has 
been placed in the house, the temperature is watched and the 
ventilators and intake ducts opened and closed accordingly. 
When freezing weather occurs, the doors and windows are 
opened during the warmest part of the day, or if necessary, oil 
heaters are used to reduce the temperature. 




In Fig. 37 is illustrated a frame storage house of sufficient size 
to hold about 1,500 bushels of apples in bulk. The house is 
16 feet wide and 24 feet long, outside measurements, and has 
10-inch double walls that are packed with sawdust. Ventilation 

'-0~ ^I5'A 


Fig. 38 


is secured by means of ventilators a and intake chutes h. 
doors at the side and end are also used for ventilation. 

A concrete storage house that is suitable for use where from 
about 6,000 to 7,000 bushels of apples are stored annually is 
shown in Fig. 38. In (a) is shown the exterior appearance of the 
building. Four roof ventilators and two air intakes are provided. 




The first four pipes in the roof, or those back to a, are ventilators; 
the pipe at the back is an intake chute that extends downwards 
through the rear wall to a point near the floor. The other intake 


is shown at b. The dimensions and method of construction are 
shown in view (6). The apples are stored in bins arranged as 
illustrated. A house of this kind can be built for from $800 to 
$1,200, depending on the cost of material and labor. 


In Fig. 39 is shown a storage house that is constructed of 
stone, concrete, and cement plaster. As in the house just 
described, there are four roof ventilators a, and two intakes, the 
pipe at the back being an intake, as in the house shown in Fig. 38 ; 
the other intake is shown at 6. In view (6) is shown the dimen- 
sions and method of construction of the house. The front of the 
house is constructed of concrete and over the roof is placed about 
1 foot of earth. The interior is divided into two rooms, the front 
one being used as a packing room and the rear one as a storage 
room. The front room is 20 feet long and the rear room is 60 feet 
long. The apples are kept in bins, arranged as shown in the 
illustration. The storage room will hold between 6,000 and 7,000 
bushels of apples. Such a house can be built for about from 
$1,200 to $1,500. 

When a good cellar is available, winter apples may be kept 
there in fairly good condition until January or February and 
often later. A cellar for apples must be frost-proof but at the 
same time it should be cool and somewhat moist. 

29. When comparatively few apples are to be stored, they 
can be satisfactorily taken care of in pits dug in the ground. 
The size of the pit will depend, of course, on the quantity of 
fruit to be stored; as a rule, from 30 to 50 bushels is about as 
large a quantity as should be stored in one pit. The excavation 
may be about 3 or 4 feet obep, and a trench should be dug around 
it to provide drainage. A small quantity of straw is piled in the 
pit, the fruit is piled on this straw, then a layer of straw is placed 
over the fruit, and boards are placed over this. It is well to make 
the pile cone-shaped and to arrange a bottomless box of wood 
from the top to the outside air to provide ventilation. Above 
the straw and boards a thin layer of earth is piled, and as the 
weather becomes colder more earth is added. Apples will keep 
very well in such a pit, especially if the fruit is not often 
disturbed. Perhaps the best way is to take all of them out at 
the same time; however, it is possible to open the pit occasion- 
ally and remove a few apples, and still have the others keep 
fairly well. 




30. When a grower sells apples at retail direct to consumers 
or sells to retail merchants who, in turn, sell to consumers, he 
has a personal acquaintance with his customers and is thus 
enabled to cater to their individual demands. This acquaintance 
gives him an opportunity to sell varieties that, although they 
have good qualities, are not well known on the general market. 
On a local market small quantities of fruit can be disposed of, 
and, as a rule, the margin of profit on the individual package is 
likely to be greater than if the fruit is sold at wholesale. In addi- 
tion, competition is likely to be less when fruit is sold at retail 
than when it is sold at wholesale, as special customers that will 
buy the grower's fruit year after year may be secured, whereas 
in the wholesale market the fruit is in competition with large 
quantities of the same kind and quality. Often, too, a grower 
who sells apples at retail can secure the profit that otherwise 
would go to commission men and wholesale merchants. In this 
case, however, he must, in a measure, do the work of these men, 
bearing the cost of collections, loss in bad debts, cost of delivery, 
etc. The grower who is selling apples to private customers can 
often save the price of the fruit package by delivering in bags, 
used boxes, crates, etc., leaving the consumer only the fruit. 

A grower selling at retail must keep in touch with the local 
demands for fruit and the prices as shown by market quotation, 
and make his prices accordingly. He is salesman as well as 
grower, and his success will depend largely on his ability to 
handle each operation. A good grower may be a poor salesman, 
and a poor grower a good salesman ; in the case of either success 
may not be attained. It is when a grower is good both at the 
production end and the selling end that he is likely to be a 
success at selling at retail. . 



31. Apples sold on the wholesale, or general, market are 
handled in large quantities and the margin of profit on each 
package to the grower is usually smaller than if sold at retail. 
The fruit is generally handled by a commission man or other 
middleman, and hence the grower does not come into direct 
contact with the consumer. When apples are grown for the 
wholesale market, only a few varieties should be offered for sale 
and these should be of the standard varieties that are quoted on 
the general market. As a rule, only first-class fruit should be 
offered at wholesale, and it shordd be well packed and be in the 
type of package generally handled on the particular market to 
which it is shipped. Careful grading of the fruit is also a prime 
reqmsite, as the appearance of the produce has much to do with 
the price it will bring. 

A grower who sells at wholesale must study the market 
demands, for different markets desire different varieties of fruit. 
Boston, Philadelphia, New York, Chicago, St. Louis, and, in 
fact, all large markets differ somewhat as to market demands, 
and thus it is to the advantage of a grower to find out which 
market is likely to pay the best price for the variety or varieties 
he has for sale. 

32. A grower usually has several methods by which he can 
dispose of his crop at wholesale. A buyer may come to the 
orchard and offer a certain amount for the crop as a whole, or 
may offer to take the crop at so much a barrel or box for the 
apples packed, or may contract for the fruit picked and delivered 
to the packing tables. Again, the grower may pack the fnut 
himself and ship it to commission men at market centers who 
will dispose of it and return the grower the balance due after they 
have deducted commissions and other expenses. 

Whether to sell direct to buyers or through commission men 
will depend largely on local conditions and on the grower's 
knowledge of market prices and market demands. No general 
rule as to which method is the better can be given; each 
grower will have to solve this problem for himself. 


When about to sell a consignment through a commission man, 
the grower should find a dealer who has the reputation of being 
thoroughly honest and who knows the demands of the trade in 
the market in which he sells. Such a dealer is in a position to 
give the grower advice that, if heeded, will be the means of 
making him additional profit. All apples shipped to the commis- 
sion man shoiild be graded and honestly packed; a few poorly 
graded and dishonestly packed consignments will so injure the 
reputation of a grower that when his fruit comes to the market 
it is looked on with disfavor. When a commission man is found 
to be thoroughly reliable and satisfactory, he should be retained 
year after year. If a different commission man is retained each 
year it will be necessary for each one to learn the merits of the 
grower's fruit. 

33. Cooperative selling of apples is perhaps the ideal way 
of disposing of them, provided all members and officers of the 
selling organization do their work faithfully and well. The 
greatest success in cooperative selling is attained when the fruit 
is put on the market under a brand that becomes known as a 
guarantee of an absolutely honest grade of goods. Such goods 
will have a reputation in the market that will cause them to sell 
for prices higher than is generally received for the same grade 
of produce. Cooperative selling of a certain brand of apples is, 
as a rule, better than the selling of a brand by an individual 
grower, for but few growers have fruit enough for sale annually 
to impress a market to an appreciable extent. 

34. Many apples are shipped annually and sold at wholesale 
to foreign markets, principally to England. Many of the boxed 
apples from the West, including the Spitzenburg, Delicious, 
and Newtown Pippin, find a ready sale in England, as do the 
Northern Spy, King, Greening, Baldwin, Fameuse, and Mann 
of the Eastern States and Canadian Provinces. Apples that 
are to be shipped to foreign countries should be very carefully 
graded and securely packed, as only good fruit that reaches its 
destination in good condition will sell readily. 

As a large part of the apples exported go to Great Britain, it 
is well for a grower to know something of selling methods at 




Liverpool, Glasgow, and London, the principal ports in Great 
Britain for the sale of apples. The fruit, as a rule, is sold at auc- 
tion. Each shipment 

n 1^ — Q 


PACKEDAND ,, ^' jii'i'.i--'.- '-"P'^'/X^ ^, 'W"*™ YAKIMA 
SH1PPE08Y >]y;</JCJi/'j.L,ii UilJ,Oll W*SH.U.SA 


is kept separate and 
before the auction any 
buyer may go among 
the packages and open 
as many as two of each 
lot. Then at the auc- 
tion, one package is 
opened and bids are 
made on the whole 
shipment or on any 
part of it. Thus, it 
may be seen that to 
be sure of the piir- 
chaser opening a pack- 
age of good fruit, the 
shipment should be 
imiformly good. 

In Great Britain, 
fruit is sometimes sold 
by shippers direct to 
dealers or to private 
salesmen, the pur- 
chaser thus saving the 
commissions charged 
at the auction. This 
method of selling is 
especially desirable for 
growers or associa- 
tions that can guarantee their fruit to be of a uniformly good 

Fig. 40 





35. Labels for Apple Packages. — Experience has shown 
that the use of appropriate labels on apple packages is a paying 
proposition, especially if the fruit is of one of the best grades. 

A label serves to ad- 
vertise the products 
of an orchard, and 
if it is always used 
for fniit of uniform 
grade, it guarantees, 
in a way, to the com- 
mission man and the 
purchaser that the 
fruit in the package 
is of good quality. 
Consumers soon learn 
to recognize and call 
for labeled fruit from 
certain orchards, and 
this fact has been 
worth much to cer- 
tain growers. A label 
should be neat, at- 
tractive, and sugges- 
tive of the quality of 
the fruit. In Figs. 40 
and 41 are shown re- 
productions of litho- 
graphed labels used 
for boxed fruit grown 
in the Pacific Coast 
States. Fig. 42 shows 
the forms of label 
used for boxes, baskets, and barrels by a fruit company in 
Pennsylvania. In Fig. 43 is shown an inexpensive but attrac- 
tive label used by an Ohio grower for a particular variety; 
the original from which this cut was made is printed on pink 




Fig. 41 




paper with green ink and the effect is very pleasing. In 
Fig. 44 is illustrated a label used by a Pennsylvania company 
for boxes of fancy fruit. It is printed in red ink on white paper, 
and is very attractive. Fig. 45 shows a label for barrels used by 
an orchard company of Maryland. The small cut in the center 

vARfETY-fANCY Northern Spys 

Fig. 42 

cf this illustration is a half-tone engraving showing an orchard 
scene. The half-tone is printed in black ink and the rest of the 
label in blue ink, white paper being used. The label is suffi- 
ciently large to cover the entire head of a barrel. 

36. Keeping in Touch witli the Market. — Whether a 
grower seUs to a commission man or to retailers or to consumers 








Clover Leaf Fruit Farm 

direct, he shoiild keep informed about current prices of fruit. The 
telephone and daily market reports, both local and general, will 
aid in this matter. If his fruit is sold by an association this work 

will, of course, be done 
for him. As late fall 
and winter varieties 
of apples can be kept 
for a time in cold stor- 
age, the grower or 
association can hold 
the fruit until the mar- 
ket seems right for a 
sale. In the case of 
summer and early fall 
varieties, storage is 
not so much of a help, 
but even with most of such varieties the fruit can be kept for 
a time. In selling summer varieties on a local market, a grower 
should watch the shipments of peaches and avoid sending a 
large consignment of apples to market when peaches are there 
in abundance, for con- 
sumers are more likely 
to purchase summer 
apples when peaches 
are scarce than when 

W. W. Farnsworth 
Waterville, Ohio. 

Fig. 43 




Every apple in this box is guaranteed to be 
perfect in size, shape and color, free from 
worms, scale and all fungus diseases. All 
persons are warned not to repack or refill this 
box without first destroying this label. 

No. Apples- 


Pittston. Pa. 

37. Maintaining 
the Price of Apples. 

On a local market, and 
on a wholesale mar- 
ket, when possible, it 
is well to ask a good 
price for first-class 
apples. Consumers 
are, as a rule, willing to pay well for good fruit, and the grower 
who gives his time and energy to the production of such fruit 
should have just compensation. 

Fig. 44 




38. Use of Clean Packages. — All barrels, boxes, baskets, 
and crates that are to be retained by the consimier should be 
new and clean; it is poor business to place apples in soiled 
packages and offer them to a customer, even at a slightly lower 
price than for fruit in a new package. Attractiveness counts 
for much ; it creates a desire for the fruit and thus makes it more 

Fig. 45 

39. Importance of Careful Grading and Packing. 

Whether fruit is to be sold in large or small lots, careful grading 
and honest packing are essential for the securing of good prices. 
Grading to size and color gives a more uniform and hence a more 
attractive appearance, and grading to quality insures that a 
package will keep well, and thus not be a disappointment to the 
consumer. Honest packing is a means of securing satisfied 
customers, which are necessary to the success of any form of 
merchandising. If customers are satisfied they will ask for 
apples from the grower's orchard when they wish-to purchase 
fruit again. 


40. Importajice of Honest Labeling. — Honest labeling 
of packages is a matter of business that the grower cannot fail 
to neglect. The marking of a barrel No. 1 when it shoiild be a 
No. 2, or a box fancy when it should be choice, is poor business, 
for it will be the means of dissatisfying customers and, if 
discovered by wholesale buyers, will result in. a small check 
being returned to the grower. 

41. Advertising of Fruit. — ^The grower who sells his 
fruit on a local market is, in a sense, a merchant and as such 
should advertise his product. This he can do by practicing 
carefiil grading, honest packing, honest labeling, and by using 
clean and attractive packages. In addition, he should advertise 
in local newspapers or in other such mediums of publicity. An 
advertisement in a local paper stating that a certain grower 
offers apples for sale and that the apples are all sound and free 
from defects, is almost sure to be a good business move. Adver- 
tising by means of attractive labels, as previously explained, and 
by attractive displays of fruit where consumers will see them, 
are good methods of attracting attention. Fruit growers' asso- 
ciations make extensive use of such means; in fact, some asso- 
ciations employ advertising managers whose business it is to 
see that the public becomes acquainted with the brands and 
fruit of the association. 


42. The utilization of inferior apples is an important prob- 
lem connected with marketing of the products of an orchard. 
In fact, the working up of otherwise waste apples into some 
salable form is often the means of bringing considerably 
increased profits to a grower. Among the products that can 
be made from culls are evaporated apples, canned apples, 
apple butter, apple jelly, apple cider, and apple vinegar. 

43. Evaporated Apples. — One of the principal products 
that can be made from second-grade fruit is evaporated apples. 
Experience has proved that fall and winter apples give a better 
yield and quality of dried fruit than do summer apples. The 




average yield of evaporated apples is from 5 to 7 pounds per 
bushel of fresh fruit. In most sections where apples are produced 
abundantly, commercial evaporating houses are to be found 
where the grower can dispose of apples not suitable for packing. 
These establishments generally evaporate fruit more cheaply 
than a grower can, and therefore, where such a house is conve- 
niently near the orchard, it usually pays the grower to sell his 
ciills rather than to evaporate them himself. However, there 
are on the market 
small evaporators that 
can be used on the 
farm, and where no 
commercial establish- 
ment is near, they can 
be made an effective 
means of preparing 
ctdls for market. One 
of the simplest evap- 
orators for home use is 
illustrated in Fig. 46. 
It is simply a box that 
is placed on top of a 
kitchen range or stove. 
The fruit to be evap- 
orated is placed in the 
drawers, or trays, a, 
which have galvan- 
ized wire screen bot- 
toms, and the heat 
from the fire in the 
stove does the evaporating. This evaporator can be used, also, 
on a gas, gasoline, or kerosene stove. 

In Fig. 47 is shown an evaporator with a furnace attached. 
The fruit, when prepared for evaporating, is placed in the trays 
a, which are then put in place in the evaporator. The capacity 
of the machine illustrated is from 30 to 50 bushels of apples per 
day, but machines of this type that range in capacity from 4 to 
150 bushels per day can be purchased. 

Fig. 46 




In Fig. 48 is shown another form of evaporator with a furnace 
attached. This evaporator is made of metal and can be pur- 
chased in sizes ranging from 3 to 30 bushels per day. The 
evaporator illustrated has a capacity of from 5 to 7 bushels per 

Evaporated apples are placed on the market whole, in quar- 
ters, in sixths, or sliced. Perhaps the commonest method is to 
market them in slices a quarter of an inch in thickness, the cut 
being made across the apple 
at right angles to the core. 
Mechanical parers, corers, 
slicers, quarter ers, etc. are 
on the market. Small ma- 
chines that work by hand 
or foot power can be had 
and their use is recom- 
mended whenever a grower 
has enough fruit to evap- 
orate to make their use 

After the fruit has been 
pared and cored and, un- 
less evaporated whole, cut 
into quarters, sixths, or 
slices, it is treated for a 
short time to the fumes of 
burning sulphur, which" pre- 
vent the discoloring of the 
pieces by preventing oxida- 
tion. Special appliances, 
known as color setters, in which the sulphur is burned, are 
supplied with large evaporators. When use is made of the 
cook-stove type of evaporator, a small piece of sulphur the 
size of a pea is placed on the top of the stove. This sulphur 
soon ignites and the fumes prevent the discoloration of the fruit 
in the trays above. 

Following the color setting, as the process just referred to is 
called, the fruit is placed on trays in the evaporator and heated 

Fig. 48 


until a certain amount of the moisture in the fruit has been 
evaporated. The length of time necessary for evaporation will, 
of course, vary with the heat and with the size of the pieces. 
No general rule as to time can be given. In this matter the 
grower should be guided by the directions that come with the 
machine. The condition of the fruit is, however, somewhat of 
a guide as to when the fruit is sufficiently evaporated. When a 
handful of pieces is squeezed into a m.ass in the hand they should 
be springy enough when pressure is released to separate and 
show no signs of sticking together. Moisture should not be in 
evidence on the surface of the pieces, nor should juice show when 
one of the pieces is cut or broken. 

44. Canned Apples. — Most of the canned apples on the 
market are put up by commercial canning factories. If a 
grower is near an establishment of this kind he can often get 
a fair price for his second-grade apples. Small canning outfits 
suitable for use on farms are on the market at prices ranging 
from $100 to $300 or inore, depending on the size, capacity, etc. 
They can be used for peaches, small fruits, tomatoes, and other 
vegetables as well as for apples. Whether or not it will pay a 
grower to own and operate a small canning outfit will depend 
largely on the quantity of fruit and vegetables that he will have 
for canning and the availability of labor. 

45. Apple Butter. — There is considerable demand on 
the market for home-made apple butter, and if a grower can 
work up a special trade for this product he is likely to find that 
apple-butter making is a profitable way to utilize apples that 
would otherwise be wasted. 

46. Apple Jelly. — The making of apple jelly at home for 
sale commercially is not generally conducive to profit, as the 
grower must compete with large manufacturers. If, however, 
a grower can make jelly for a special trade and be sure of the 
sale of the product at a fair price, it is possible to make this a 
profitable method of disposing of inferior fruit. Small outfits 
for the making of jelly can be purchased from dealers in canning 


47. Apple Cider and Apple Vinegar. — The poorest 
apples from the orchard can be made into cider and used as 
such, or the cider can be allowed to turn to vinegar. The 
making of cider is a business apart from the growing of apples, 
and usually a cider mill can be found in any community where 
business warrants it. The profits from apples made into cider 
are small, and if much time is required to get the fruit to the 
mill, it is often more profitable to feed such apples to the live- 
stock of the farm. 


(PART 1) 


1. The pear-growing industry of the world, although very 
old, has, from the beginning, been subject to more or less 
adverse conditions that have operated to discourage extensive 
production. In the early writings of the Greeks and Romans, 
numerous references are made to pears and to pear ciilture, 
but emphasis is placed on the fact that the pears were of ver^^ 
poor quality and could be used only to make beverages. In 
English and American horticrdtural works of the latter part of 
the 18th century and the first of the 19th century, as much 
space is devoted to pears as to apples, but there is a tone of 
discouragement in the discussion of pears, owing to the fact 
that fire blight was becoming prevalent and wiping out the 
industry. Although a great many varieties of pears were 
described at that time, some works describing as many as seven 
hundred, few were of value for dessert use, the pear being grown 
primarily for cooking purposes and for the production of a 
cider known as perry. About the middle of the 19th century, 
considerable interest was aroused in the pear as a result of the 
introduction of certain improved varieties. However, from 
that time to the present, fire blight has been more or less prev- 
alent and this, together with various other conditions, has 
discouraged many persons from attempting to raise pears. 

2, With the exception of a few states, pear growing in the 
United States has been on the decline for several years. In 
the northern tier of states, including certain of the New England 




States, New York, Michigan, and others, the pear-growing 
industry seems to be holding its own, and, in some cases, is 
sHghtly on the increase. In the Southern and Middle States 
the industry is on the decline. In the states of the Pacific 
slope, particularly Oregon, there has been an increase in the 
industry, but in certain of the Rocky Mountain States, like 
Utah and Colorado, a decrease has occiured. A summarized 
statement of the status of pear growing in various states 
arranged alphabetically, follows. 

Alabama: Pear growing is at a vStandstill in Alabama, due 
chiefly to fire blight. The principal varieties grown in the 
northern part of the state are Kieffer, LeConte, and Garber; 
in the southern part of the state Magnolia and Golden Russet 
are the chief varieties. 

Arizona: In Arizona the industry is probably on the increase, 
although fire blight has been very serious in some sections. 
The principal varieties are Bartlett, Winter Nelis, and Kieffer. 
Other varieties that do well are Clapp Favorite, Flemish, 
Howell, LeConte, Anjou, and Seckel. 

Arkansas: Few plantings of pears are being made in Arkan- 
sas at the present time because of the prevalence of fire blight. 
Kieffer, Garber, and similar varieties are the principal ones 

California: For years California has been the leading pear- 
growing state. From the early eighties to the beginning of 
the present century an enormous development of the industry 
took place. During the last decade, however, fire blight has 
done serious damage. This is doubtless due to the fact that 
growers failed to take proper steps toward controlling the 
disease. More difficulty has been experienced in fighting the 
blight in irrigated regions than in those where irrigation is not 

Colorado: In Colorado pear growing is confined to the west- 
em slope. Fire blight is very severe, rendering the industry 
unpopular. The principal varieties grown are Bartlett, Kieffer, 
Anjou, Flemish, and Seckel. 

Connecticut: There are very few pear orchards in the state, 
the total acreage of commercial orchards being estimated at 


not more than 50 acres. A few pears are grown in home orch- 
ards. The chief varieties grown in the state are Bosc, Anjou, 
and Seckel. 

Delaware: The growing of Kieffer pears in Delaware is 
rather extensive. New plantings of this variety are being made. 
Recently, however, fire blight has attacked the Kieffers and 
the industry seems to be threatened. There are a few plant- 
ings of Bartlett, Anjou, and Lawrence. 

Florida: It is probable that ■ the growing of pears will 
never become a commercial industry in Florida. Pear growing 
in the state is on the decrease, due to ravages of fire blight. 
The most popular varieties grown are Kieffer, Garber, and 

Georgia: The industry in Georgia has never been profit- 
able. Many orchards have been ruined by fire blight, which 
seems difficult to control. The Kieifer is the chief variety 

Idaho: The industry is not as great in Idaho as it was for- 
merly, but some interest is being manifested at the present time 
in the planting of varieties such as Bartlett, Anjou, Winter 
Nelis, Flemish, and Howell. 

Illinois: The industry in Illinois is thought to be decreas- 
ing rapidly, due to ravages of fire blight. The Kieffer is still 
grown commercially in some sections. 

Indiana: The industry is on the decline in Indiana, due to 
prevalence of fire blight. The most popular varieties grown 
are Bartlett, Clapp Favorite, Tyson, Flemish, Sheldon, and 

Iowa: Pears are little grown in Iowa. Knoxville is the only 
place in the state where the market is supplied by a local orch- 
ard. A few growers are making a success with such varieties 
as Kieffer, Bartlett, and Flemish. 

Kansas: Pear growing is at a standstill in Kansas. The 
principal varieties grown are Kieffer and Garber. 

Kentucky: Pears in small quantities are grown in aU sec- 
tions of Kentucky, but there are very few commercial orchards. 
Fire blight has done serious damage in the state. The prin- 
cipal varieties are Bartlett, Kieffer, Seckel, and Garber. 


Maine: Pear growing in Maine practically amounts to 
nothing. The southwest counties grow a few pears, the varieties 
being Bartlett, Clapp Favorite, Flemish, Seckel, and Vermont 

Maryland: In Maryland pear growing is not increasing 
but is thought to be holding its own. A considerable acreage 
in the state is planted to Kieffers. Other varieties grown to a 
limited extent are Bartlett, Anjou, and Clairgeau. 

Massachisetts: In Massachusetts pear growing is on the 
increase at the present time, but has decreased greatly in the 
last 50 years. The industry shows some signs of reviving. 
The principal varieties grown .commercially are Bartlett, 
Seckel, Bosc, and Anjou. 

Michigan: Pear growing is thought to be slightly on the 
increase in the state. The Bartlett is the principal variety 

Missouri: Pear growing in the state is thought to be at 
a standstill. The Kieffer is the principal variety grown, 
but a few plantings of Garber, Anjou, and Seckel are 
found. Recently, it is said, the Lincoln variety has come into 

Montana: The industry amoimts to little in Montana. 
Fire blight has been serious. 

Nebraska: Pear growing as an industry is not considered 
important in Nebraska, there being only a few commercial 
orchards. The Kieffer is the principal variety grown; other 
varieties sometimes found are Bartlett, Sheldon, Seckel, and 

New Mexico: The growing of pears is on the increase in 
New Mexico, several valleys in the state giving promise of 
producing excellent crops. Fire blight has never been serious. 
The principal variety is the Bartlett. 

New York: According to a report of the Geneva Experiment 
Station, pear growing in New York is holding its own, with 
possibly a slight increase. The Cornell Experiment Station 
reports that the industry is slightly on the increase. The most 
popular varieties are Bartlett, Seckel, Kieffer, Clapp Favorite, 
Sheldon, Bosc, Anjou, Clairgeau, and Winter Nelis. 


Oklahoma: Little is known of the true status of pear grow- 
ing in the state; it is thought, however, that comparatively 
few pears are grown. Fire blight is the most serious drawback. 
The Kieffer is the favorite variety, Garber and Seckel being 
grown sparingly. 

Oregon: From all indications Oregon will soon supplant 
California as the leading pear-growing state. There is an 
enormous area and a splendid opportunity for pear growing 
in the Rogue River, the Umqua, and the Williamette valleys, 
and in some of the mountain valleys like the Hood River, it 
seems probable that pear culture will become much more impor- 
tant than it has been in the past. Pears from the Rogue River 
Valley have topped the markets of the world in. both quality 
and selling price. Oregon fruit growers are being advised to 
specialize to some extent on pear growing. 

Pennsylvania: Pear growing has been on the decrease in 
Pennsylvania for several years, although at the present time 
there are indications of a renewal of interest in the industry. 
The decrease in pear growing in the state is attributed to ravages 
of fire blight. The principal cormnercial varieties are Kieffer, 
Clapp Favorite, Bartlett, Flemish, Seckel, Anjou, and Sheldon. 

RJtode Island: In Rhode Island the growing of pears is 
confined almost entirely to home orchards, there being prac- 
tically no commercial orchards in the state. The principal 
varieties are Clapp Favorite, Bartlett, Sheldon, and Seckel. 

South Carolina: It is believed that pear growing is on the 
increase in South Carolina and that the industry may become 
of some importance. The principal varieties grown are Bart- 
lett, Kieffer, Seckel, Garber, and LeConte, Kieffer being the 
most popular. 

South Dakota: Very few pears are raised in the state. The 
winds are too severe to be favorable to pear growing and fire 
blight is prevalent. 

Tennessee: There is practically no commercial pear grow- 
ing in Tennessee. A few Kieffers, Garbers, and LeContes are 
grown in home orchards. 

Texas: Very few pears are grown in the old agricultural 
districts of Texas. At one time the industry was started on 


an enormous scale, but most of the plantings have disappeared. 
Kieffer is practicall}^ the only variety grown, although some 
Chambers and Bartlett plantings are found. It is said that the 
plantings of the Bartlett are doing well. 

Utah: Pear growing is very much on the decline in Utah, 
due to fire blight. The principal varieties are Kieffer, Flem- 
ish, Anjou, Bartlett, and Clapp Favorite. 

Vermont: In Vermont pear growing dwindled to nothing 
about 20 years ago, due to the fire blight. 

Virginia: The pear-growing industry in Virginia is prob- 
ably not increasing. Fire blight has discouraged the growers. 

Washington: It is thought that pear growing is on the decline 
in the state. The principal varieties are Bartlett, Clairgeau, 
and Winter Nelis. 

West Virginia: Pear growing in West Virginia amounts to 
practically nothing, being confined to a few home orchards. 
It is estimated that at least 95 per cent, of the pears grown in 
the state are Kieffers. Other varieties grown on a smaU scale 
are Garber, Seckel, Clairgeau, Bartlett, Howell, Lawrence, 
Mount Veriion, and Danas Hovey. 

Wisconsin: There are few if any commercial pear orchards 
in the state. Kieffer, Flemish, and Seckel varieties are grown 
to some extent in home orchards. 

Wyoming: Pears are being planted freely in the state at the 
present time. Bartlett, Seckel, and Kieffer are the most 
popular varieties. 

3. Owing to the fact that pear growing is declining in many 
.states and is at a standstill in others, it is obvious that there 
is no danger of overproduction. Although there may be some 
seasons when pears of varieties like the Bartlett will not bring 
desirable prices, on the whole the price will doubtless remain 
high. It is believed by competent authorities that for the next 
20 years, at least, pears will be one of the most profitable finiits 
to grow. In order to be successful in the business, however, 
growers must exercise care in the selecting of orchard sites and 
in managing orchards so as to avoid fire blight. These points 
will be discussed later. 




4. Botanically, the pears that are cultivated in North 
America for their fruits may be divided into two groups: the 
European group and the Oriental group. The pears of these 
two groups are so widely different that an understanding of 
each is necessary. 

5. European Group of Pears. — The European group of 
pears originated from the native pear of Europe, Pyrus com- 
munis. Many varieties of this group had their origin in Amer- 
ica, but they are, of course, seedlings of the European pear. 
Examples of these are the Seckel, Lawrence, Howell, Clapp 
Favorite, Wilder, Tyson, and others. On the other hand, 
many varieties of the European group have been imported 
directly from Europe. Examples of these are the Anjou, the 
Angouleme, and the Bartlett. Pears of the European group 
have been grown in this country from the time of the earliest 
settlements. They are noted for their productivity and fine 
quality; the trees, however, are not as hardy as is desired, 
being very susceptible to fire blight. 

6. Oriental Group of Pears. — The Oriental group of 
pears originated from the native pear of China and Japan, 
commonly called the sand pear, Pyrus sinensis. The sand pear 
was introduced into America many years after the European 
pear. The trees of this stock were hard}^ and productive, 
and were able to thrive in much warmer regions than those 
of the European pear. Owing to the fact that the fruit was 
practically worthless for eating purposes, however, the sand 
pear was never extensively grown in this country. 

About 1870 a satisfactory cross was made between a variety 
of the European pear and the sand pear. The new pear, the 



result of this cross, was named Kieffer, in honor of its orig- 
inator, Peter Kieffer, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Later 
crosses between the European pear and the sand pear resulted 
in the varieties LeConte, Garber, and others. These hybrids, 
owing to their resistance to fire blight and to the fact that they 
would thrive in the South under conditions that would cause 
other varieties to fail, created considerable interest in pear 
growing. Within recent years, however, it has been discovered 
that these hybrid varieties are not as resistant to fire blight as 
was formerly supposed. 


7. From the standpoint of the commercial orchardist, pears 
may be divided into two classes : dwarf pears and standard pears. 
This classification is based on the method of propagation. 

8. Dwarf Pears. — A pear tree propagated by the budding 
of pear wood onto quince stock is known as a dwarf tree. As 
a rule, the Angers quince is used as propagating stock, although 
in some sections where the climate is mild the Portugese quince 
has proved satisfactory. Dwarf trees are dwarfed in habit, 
are productive, and come into bearing at an early age. 

In the case of some varieties of pears, there are important 
advantages in the growing of the trees as dwarfs. High- 
quality varieties that come into bearing late, such as the Comice, 
Glout Morceau, Bosc, Anjou, Winter Nelis, and particularly 
the Angouleme, bear fruit of higher quality and the trees come 
into bearing at an earlier age when grown as dwarfs. Also, 
in the case of varieties that, when grown in the usual way, 
do not develop their ultimate qualities until the trees have 
borne several crops of fruit, the growing of the trees as dwarfs 
will cause the latent qualities to develop at once. One of the 
most important advantages of the dwarf form of tree is its 
adaptability for use as a filler in pear orchards of standard 

Dwarf pears have been grown in the East for a great many 
years but only recently has interest in dwarf trees been aroused 
in the West. At the present time progressive growers of. the 


Pacific slope are experimenting with the dwarf, largely because 
cf its value as a filler. In general, it may be said that the grow- 
ing of dwarf pears is of rather small commercial importance. 

9. Standard Pears. — A pear tree propagated by the bud- 
ding or grafting of pear wood onto pear stock is known as a 
standard tree. Standard pear trees are longer lived than dwarf 
trees, attain larger size, and are capable of yielding heavier 
crops of fruit, but they usually come into bearing later. A 
large percentage of the commercial orchards at the present time 
are of standard trees, although there are a number of dwarf 
orchards in the East and a few in the West. Owing to the fact 
that standard trees are almost exclusively grown in most sec- 
tions, the following discussion of pear culture willdeal largel}^ 
with this form of tree. A young pear orchard of standard 
trees is shown in Fig. 1 ; this is a Western orchard and is furrowed 
for irrigation. 


10. Horticultural reference works written prior to a half 
century ago contain descriptions of hundreds and in some cases 
thousands of varieties of pears. A large percentage of these 
varieties, however, were suitable only for culinary purposes 
or for the production of perry. Many have become extinct 
and many others are now grown on such a small scale that they 
are practically negligible. A discussion of such varieties is 
unnecessary; consequently, in the following descriptions, men- 
tion will be made of only such varieties as are of importance 
at the present time. The name used in each case is the one 
adopted by the American Pomological Society, the recognized 
authority on nomenclature. 

11. Varieties of the European Group. — The following 
are the most important varieties of the European group of 
pears : 

12. The Chambers, or Early Harvest of Kentucky, variety 
is commonly known as the sugar pear. The tree is an upright 
grower. The fruit is small and roundish; the skin is of a yellow- 
ish color, which often becomes a brown, and is dotted with 


green; the flesh is sweet but has a tendency to be dry unless 
the fruit is picked before it is too ripe. The Chambers is 
one of the earhest pears grown, ripening in early July in the 
latitude of Southern New York. The variety is desirable for 
home orchards but is not very satisfactory for commercial 
planting, owing to the fact that the fruit will keep but a few 
days after being picked. 

13. The Bloodgood variety of pear originated on Long 
Island, New York. It has become of considerable importance 
in California. The tree is generally hardy, comes into bearing 
early, and produces an abundance of fruit. The fruit is of 
medium size; the skin is yellow, with russet dots and network 
markings ; the flesh is yellowish white, buttery, melting, and of 
a rich, sugary, aromatic flavor. The Bloodgood ripens in 
midsummer. Like most early pears, it is better if picked early 
and ripened indoors. The variety is excellent for home orch- 
ards, and the fruit, on account of its earliness, often sells well 
on the market, although it is not very attractive in appearance. 

14. The Glffard is a popular variety in Southern Canada 
and in parts of New York and in the New England States. 
The tree is fairly vigorous, reasonably productive, and healthy, 
but tends to be a scraggly grower. The fruit is m.edii.un to 
large in size; the skin is of a light-green color, often marbled 
and dotted with red on the exposed side; the flesh is white, 
juicy, melting, and of a vinous flavor. In northern states the 
fruit ripens about the middle of August. The Giifard is con- 
sidered a good variety for home markets. 

15. The Koonce variety originated in Illinois. The tree 
is hardy, productive, and healthy, tending to bear regularly. 
The fruit is large to medium in size; the skin is greenish yel- 
low in color and has small russet dots; the flesh is white, often 
granular, and of only fair quality. In the latitude of Missouri 
the fruit ripens in midsummer; in northern states it ripens 
in October. The variety is especiall}^ valuable for use as stock 
in double working the pear on the quince. Koonce pears are 
used for culinary purposes. 



16. The Clapp Favorite variety originated in Massa- 
chusetts. The tree is a strong grower, tending to be rather 
upright but spreading considerably when fruiting, and is very 
productive. The fruit is large; the skin is a pale yellow, mar- 
bled and splashed with crimson on the exposed side, and thickly 
sprinkled with brown dots; the flesh is white, fine grained, 
juicy, sweet, and vinous in flavor. -A Clapp Favorite pear is 
shown in Fig. 2. The fruit ripens about 10 days before that 
of the Bartlett; it should be picked before it is fully ripe. The 
Clapp Favorite is one of the best varieties for home orchards 
and is grown extensively in commercial orchards. It is a 
valuable pear for canning. 

17.; The Bartlett pear is of European origin, being known 
in Europe as the Williams Bon Chretien. It is the leading 
commercial variety, is in demand on the market, and is one of 
the most profitable pears to grow. The fruit is large and varies 
somewhat in form ; the skin is thin and of a bright-yellow color, 
often blushed on the exposed side; the flesh is white, juicy, and 
of a very good quality. A Bartlett pear is illustrated in 
Fig. 3. The fruit of 'this variety is excellent for canning, 
preserving, and evaporating. The season of the Bartlett is 

18. The Tyson is a well-known American variety that is 
grown extensively in home orchards. The tree is upright, 
vigorous, and productive. The fruit is medium in size; the 
skin, when the fruit is fiilly ripe, is yellow, is sometimes rus- 
seted on one side, and often has a red cheek that is dotted with 
brown; the flesh is a yellowish white in color, juicy, sweet, 
and variable in texture. The season of this variety is about 
the same as that of the Bartlett. 

19. The Flemish, or Flemish Beauty, variety is of Euro- 
pean origin; it is known by different names in different coun- . 
tries. The tree is vigorous and hardy and tends to come into 
bearing at an early age, after which it usually bears heavy crops. 
The fruit is generally large; the skin is of a yellow color, often 
marbled and covered with patches of light russet; the flesh 
is white, juicy, and sweet, and is of a very good quality. 


In the latitude of New York the season of the Flemish is 

20. The Hardy variety is a summer pear in some localities, 
an early autumn pear in others, and a late autimm pear in still 
others. The tree is a strong, erect grower, and has an abun- 
dance of foliage. The fruit is large; the skin is of a greenish 
color, often russeted; the flesh is rich in flavor and dehcious. 
A Hardy pear is shown in Fig. 4. The fruit of this variety is 
well received in some markets. 

21. The Seckel pear was originated in Pennsylvania. 
The tree is generally small with a rounded head; it is likely to 
be a slow grower but is fairly hardy and, as a rule, healthy. 
Often the tree is late in coming into bearing but when once in 
bearing it is a reliable cropper, provided it is cared for properly. 
The fruit is very small, but what it lacks in size it m.akes up 
in quality; the skin is a yellowish brown, with a russet-red 
cheek; the flesh is fine grained, sweet, very juicy, melting, and 
buttery, being excellent for eating in the natural condition 
or for pickling and spicing. A Seckel pear is shown in Fig. 5. 
Because of the small size of the fruit, the Seckel does not meet 
with much demand in many markets, but in markets where it 
is well known it is highly appreciated and brings good prices. 
The season is from the last of August to the last of October. 

22. The Worden, or Warden's Seckel, variety of pear is 
said to be an improvement over the Seckel, the fruit having 
better keeping qualities and being handsomer. The tree is 
fairly hardy and productive and bears fruit in clusters. The 
fruit is of medium size; the skin is of a yellowish-brown color, 
with a russet-red cheek; the flesh is juicy and delicious. The 
Worden ripens in October but will keep until December. It 
is used for dessert purposes. 

23. The Lincoln is a promising new variety of pear. A 
great many pears have been put on the market under this 
name, but most of these are worthless. The tree, it is claimed, 
is resistant to blight. The fruit is said to be large and of 
splendid quality; the skin is a clear yellow, with a red cheek; 




the flesh is firm, rich, juicy, and of high flavor. The propa- 
gators claim that the fruit is excellent for both dessert and 
canning purposes. Owing to lack of data it is impossible to 
state whether or not this variety justifies the claims made 
for it. 

24. The Howell variety of pear originated in Connecticut. 
The tree is generally a vigorous grower of upright habit, comes 
into bearing early, and when of bearing age, usually bears 
annually. The fruit is large; the skin is of a light-yellow color, 
often almost red on one side; the flesh is white, mellow, and 
rather juicy. A Howell pear is illustrated in Fig. 6. In north- 
ern sections the Howell matures from the middle of September 
to well into October. The variety is increasing in popularity 
on the Pacific coast, due largely to the handsome appearance 
of the fruit and to the fact that the trees have a tendency 
to be annual bearers. The Howell is a dessert and market 

25. The Verraont Beauty variety of pear is said to have 
been originated in the Lake Champlain district of Vermont. 
The tree is hardy and vigorous. The fruit is of medium size 
and tends to be round; the skin is yellow, often tinged with 
pink; the flesh is of very good quality. The season of this 
variety is October. The Vermont Beauty is a dessert pear. 

26. The Sheldon pear is very popular in some sections 
of the eastern part of the country. The tree is an upright, 
vigorous grower, generally being round headed, and tends to 
bear early. The fruit is of medium size and roundish; it is 
often affected by core rot, due, no doubt, to hanging on the tree 
too long. The skin is of a greenish-yellow color, covered with 
a thin russet, and often is blushed with a light red on the side 
exposed to the sun; the flesh is sweetly aromatic in flavor and 
is juicy. A Sheldon pear is shown in Fig. 7. In the region 
of Southern New York the Sheldon matures in October. The 
variety is favorably received in many markets. 

27. The Ang'ouleme variety, known also as the Dtichess 
and the Duchess d' Angouleme, is of French origin. The variety 


is grown extensively along the Atlantic seaboard. The tree is 
generally vigorous; and the wood does well when grafted onto 
that of other varieties or onto that of the quince. The fruit 
varies in size from large to very large ; the skin is of a greenish- 
yellow color, and is more or less streaked and spotted with 
russet; the flesh is white, juicy, and of fine flavor. An Angou- 
leme pear is shown in Fig. 8. In the latitude of Southern New 
York the fiiiit matures in October and November. If the 
Angouleme is properly grown it is an attractive pear of good 
quality, but it must be properly grown to be profitable. The 
pears are valuable for both dessert and culinary purposes. 

28. The Malines pear, often called the Josephine de 
M alines, is a very popular variety in Europe. The tree tends 
to be hardy and is a good bearer. The fruit is medium to large 
in size; the skin is yellow, tinged with green on the shaded side 
and blushed with red on the exposed side, and is covered with 
russet dots ; the flesh is yellow tinged with red, melting, sugary, 
juicy, and of good quality. A Malines pear is shown in Fig. 9. 
The fruit matures late in the fall and has extremely good keeping 

29. The Drouard variety, known also as the President 
Drotiard, is a European pear that has been grown in this country 
for some time but only recently has come into prominence on 
the Pacific coast, where it has proved to be a heav^^ bearer, 
greatly outyielding the Anjou and the Comice. The tree does 
especially well if grown as a dwarf, bearing heavily the fourth 
5^ear after planting. The fruit is large, and often irregular 
in form; the skin is yellow, netted and washed with russet; 
the flesh is creamy white, tender, perfumed, and very good. 
The fruit rarely is afflicted with core rot. In northern latitudes 
the Drouard is a fall pear, but if the fruit is well handled it can 
be kept until February. 

30. The Louise variety, often spoken of as the Louise 
Bonne de Jersey, is a French pear that is well kno\vn in the 
northern part of the United States, in Ontario, and in British 
Columbia. The tree is hardy, vigorous, upright, and pro- 
ductive on rich soil. The fruit is large; the skin, which is 


smooth, is of a greenish color, with a brownish-red cheek and 
numerous red and brown dots; the flesh is white, fine grained, 
juicy, buttery, aromatic, and of good flavor. The fruit of this 
variety has excellent shipping qualities. In northern latitudes 
the Louise pear ripens in Septem.ber and October. 

31. The Clair geau variety of pear is noted for the attract- 
iveness of its fruit. In fact, the mere appearance of Clairgeau 
pears often makes it possible to sell them for fancy prices. 
The Clairgeau tree is erect, is a vigorous grower, has handsome 
foliage, comes into bearing early, and is a heavy bearer. The 
fruit is very large, although different pears of the variety often 
vary considerably in size; the skin is very yellow and often 
bears cinnamon-colored streaks covered with russet dots; 
the flesh varies widely in quality, being very poor in some cases 
and only fairly good in others. In Fig. 10 three Clairgeau 
pears are shown at the top of the page. In the latitude of 
Southern New York the fruit matures in late fall. 

32. The Bosc variety of pear was originated in Belgium, 
and, unfortunately, is not as well known in America as it should 
be. When properly grown it is one of the most delicious of 
pears, but its unattractive appearance has been against it. 
Recently, however, the public has come to know it better and 
the demand is constantly increasing. The tree is vigorous 
and bears regularly. The fruit is of large size and is generall}^ 
tapering ; the skin is usually of a dark-yellow color with more or 
less green often overlaid with a cinnamon russet, and occasionally 
there are streaks or dots of red; in some regions the color becomes 
almost an entire russet. The flesh is delicious, being melting, 
buttery, and very rich. In Fig.- 10 four Bosc pears are shown 
at the bottom of the page. The Bosc keeps well in cold stor- 
age and for this reason it is becoming one of the leading winter 
varieties. In northern sections the fruit matures in October. 

33. The Cornice pear is a French variety that has prac- 
tically topped the market for American-grown pears, ship- 
ments from the Rogue River Valley of Oregon having sold 
for as high as $10 a box. It is one of the favorite varieties for 
the Enghsh Christmas market and keeps reasonably well in 

Fig. 10 

Fig. 11 

§8 24909 


cold storage. The tree is an upright and moderately vigorous 
grower when young but later becomes broad and spreading; 
unfortunately the tree comes into bearing late and is not very 
productive. The fruit is usually large ; the skin is of a greenish- 
yellow color that is often russeted and on the side most exposed 
to the sun the color is often a shade of crimson; the flesh is of 
the highest quality, being white, melting, and extremely juic}^ 
Three Comice pears are shown in Fig. 11 at the top of the page. 
In northern sections the fruit matures in October and 

34. The Anjoti pear is becoming one of the most popular 
varieties grown on the Pacific coast and in many sections of 
the Eastern States. ■ The tree is vigorous and has an open, 
round head. The fruit is usually large, is of good quality, and 
can be kept in cold storage until January or even February; 
the skin is greenish-yellow in color, with occasionally a trace of 
russet and a shade of crimson on the side most exposed to the 
sun; the flesh is fine grained, juicy, and of a rich flavor. In 
Fig. 11 three Anjou pears are shown at the bottom of the 
page. In northern sections, such as in the latitude of Chicago, 
the fruit matures from October to November. 

35. The Danas Hovey variety of pear, sometimes known 
as the Winter Seckel, was originated in Massachusetts. The 
tree is productive. The fruit is small; the vSkin is generally 
greenish yellow; the flesh is yellow, sweet, juicy, and aromatic. 
This is a good variety for dessert use. The season is about the 
same as that of the Comice. 

36. The Glout Mqrceau is an old variety of French origin 
that was at one time grown extensively in the eastern part of 
America. It has suffered considerable damage from blight 
and scab and is now not grown as much as it was formerly. 
The variety, however, should receive attention. It is highly 
prized by the English trade, being considered equal to the 
Comice. The tree is usually spreading, and although it does 
not come into bearing early, it usually produces, when mature, 
regular and abundant crops. The fruit is generally large; 
the skin is a pale greenish yellow in color; the flesh is very fine 



grained, white, melting, sugary, and extremely delicious. In 
northern sections the fruit ripens in October and November. 

37. The Biel pear is a well-known and popular variety 
in England. The tree is vigorous, hardy, and productive. 
The fruit tends to be large; the skin is of a light green color 
that tends to become yellowish and is dotted and often patched 
with russet; the flesh is cream colored, generally fine in tex- 
ture, buttery, juicy, and of an aromatic flavor. In northern 
regions the fruit ripens in November but will keep until 

38. The Mount Vernon variety of pear originated in 
Massachusetts. The tree is productive. The fruit is medium 
to large in size; the skin is yellow, with patches of cinnamon- 
colored russet; the flesh is juicy, melting, vinous, perfumed, 
and of very good quality. The Mount Vernon is a late pear. 

39. The Forelle variety is often spoken of in Europe as 
the Trout pear. The variety has been grown in this country 
for many years but only recently has attracted much atten- 
tion. It is doing especially well in the Santa Clara region of 
California and for the last few years has brought fancy prices. 
The tree is hardy and bears good crops. The fruit is very 
attractive; the skin is of a greenish color, turning to yellow, 
and is washed with deep red and speckled with crimson dots ; the 
flesh is white, very delicate, melting, and rich. The Forelle 
needs warm soil and a sunny exposure. The season is late fall 
but the fruit can be kept until February. 

40. The Lawrence pear is one of the hardy winter varie- 
ties that is much valued in the eastern part of the United States. 
The tree is usually a good bearer and makes a moderate growth. 
The fiiiit is medium in size; the skin is of a light -yellow color, 
with some russet; the flesh is melting, sweet, aromatic, and juicy. 
A Lawrence pear is shown in Fig. 12. In the latitude of 
Southern New York the fruit ripens in December. 

41. The Columbia pear is grown to some extent in Cali- 
fornia and in parts of the South. The tree is a handsome 
grower and a good bearer. The fruit is large; the skin is of a 



greenish-yellow color; the flesh is of good quality. A Columbia 
pear is shown in Fig. 13. This is a late winter variety. 

42. The Winter Nelis is perhaps the most popular of the 
winter varieties. The tree often comes into bearing rather 
late. The fruit often tends to be rather small but when well 
grown it is of superb quality. The pears are yellow in color 
but may have patches of russet ; the flesh, when the fruit is well 
grown, is very fine grained, buttery, sweet, juicy, and of good 
quality. A Winter Nelis pear is shown in Fig. 14. The pears 
of this variety keep well if properly handled, and often bring 
high prices. The Winter Nelis should be planted on deep, 
rich soil and the crops should be thinned well. 

43. The Patrick Barry is considered a desirable variety 
by some persons and by others it is considered too inferior to 
grow. The fruit is of exceptionally good keeping quality, 
specimens having been kept for more than a 3^ear. The variety 
has displaced the Winter Nelis in some regions. The tree 
comes into bearing early and tends to bear annually. The 
fruit is rather large; the skin varies from almost a complete 
russet to a rich golden russet on a deep ^^ellow; the flesh is 
usually very juicy and melting, but is extremely variable in 
quality. The Patrick Barry matures in late winter. 

44. The Easter Beurre variety of pear is grown somewhat 
extensively on the Pacific coast, particularly in California. 
The tree is a moderate grower, has a round head, and, under 
favorable conditions, is a good bearer; it must, however, be 
grown on rich soil. The fruit is large ; the skin is usually yellow, 
which may be somewhat russeted, and often brownish on one 
side; the flesh is fine, white, sweet, and juicy. The Easter 
Beurre is a late winter variety; the fruit often keeps until April. 

45. Varieties of the Oriental Group. — The following 
are the most important varieties of the Oriental group of pears : 

46. The Kieffer pear is a hybrid that is supposed to be a 
cross between the sand pear and some European variety such 
as the Bartlett. It is the most popular variety in the South 
and in parts of the Middle West, and is increasing in popularity 


elsewhere, particularly for cooking purposes. The Kieffer has 
always been noted for its resistance to fire blight. The tree is 
vigorous and very productive. The fruit keeps and ships well, 
and will probably stand rougher handling than that of most 
other common varieties. It is an inferior pear for eating as 
it comes from the tree but is of merit for canning and preserv- 
ing. The fruit is from medium to large in size; the skin is 
yellowish in color with a tinge of red on the exposed side, and is 
often sprinkled with small russet dots; the flesh is coarse and 
juicy. A Kieffer pear is shown in Fig. 15. In the latitude 
of Southern New York the fruit ripens in October and Novem- 
ber. The Kieffer is not a valuable variety north of the 43d 
parallel of north latitude. 

47. The LeConte is another hybrid variety that was 
originated by a cross of the sand pear and the European pear. 
The tree is, as a rule, a vigorous grower, prolific, and hardy. 
The fruit is large; the skin is yellowish in color; the flesh, like 
that of the Kieffer, is of poor quality. A LeConte pear is 
shown in Fig. 16. In the latitude of Southern New York the 
fruit matures in October and November. The LeConte suc- 
ceeds best in the extreme southern part of the United States. 

48. The Garber is a pear of the Kieffer type, but its season 
is much earlier than that of the Kieffer. The tree is fairly free 
from blight, is hardy, healthy, and productive. The fruit is 
large; the skin is a beautiful bright yellow in color; the flesh 
is of poor quality. A Garber pear is shown in Fig. 17. 

49. The Cincincis is an oriental variety of the Kieffer 
type that succeeds as far south as Southern Florida. The tree 
is a heavy bearer. The fruit is large and rough in appearance; 
it is much like the Kieffer in quality. The pears are used for 
culinary purposes. 

50. The Suwanee is a comparatively new variety that was 
originated in Southern Georgia. It is said to be very resistant 
to fire blight. The tree bears annually and is a heavy yielder. 
The fruit is large and of good color. This variety does well 
in Florida. 


51. The Golden Russet, or Japan Golden Russet, variety 
is a hybrid that stands heat and drouth well. The tree is a 
vigorous grower, strong, free from blight, and very produc- 
tive. The fruit is large, nearly round and very firm; the skin is 
entirely covered with russet; the flesh is firm and juicy. The 
pears are used largely for cooking and canning. 



52. There are very few diseases that affect the pear seri- 
ously. One, however, the fire blight, is one of the most 
destructive and serious plant diseases found in America at the 
present time. In some sections the pear is seriously affected 
by pear scab, a disease that closely resembles apple scab. Also, 
at times, a disease known as pear-leaf blight is troublesome. 
Occasionally, pear-leaf spot, rust, crown gall, and brown rot cause 
damage. With the exception of fire blight, however, the 
diseases of the pear are not particularly formidable. 

53. Fire Blight. — The fire-blight disease of the pear has 
for many years been a terrible menace to the pear-growing 
industry, and besides, has destroyed many quince and apple 
trees. The name of this disease is well chosen, as an affected 
tree, with its shriveled branches and shrunken, blackened 
twigs, has the appearance of having been injured by fire. The 
disease is caused by bacteria, consequently spraying is of no 
value whatever in combating it. 

Generally, the first warning that a grower has of the presence 
of fire blight in his orchard is the wilting of the twigs on one or 
more of the trees. Often but one or two twigs on a tree are 
affected at first, and in this case the disease is not very con- 
spicuous. Soon after the twigs wilt the foliage turns black 
and the wood dies. 

In Fig. 18 is illustrated the appearance of blight-infected 
twigs. In some instances the attack may be light, the blight 
going no farther than the twigs and spurs; in other instances 



it may run rapidly down the trees to the main branches and 
even to the roots. If the disease is confined to the twigs, spurs, 
and small branches, it often dies out without causing much 
damage; if, however, the large branches and the trurik are 
affected, the tree may die in a short time or the disease may 
remain as what is called hold-over blight. 

If a grower will go through his orchard during the dormant 
season he should be able to find all patches of wood affected with 
hold-over blight. When the dis- 
ease is in an active state, as it is in 
hold-over blight, it can be detected 
to a certain degree by the discolora- 
tion of the wood, which is generally 
somewhat reddish in color. All 
suspected patches should be cut into 
and if the inner bark is of a bright 
reddish color and is soggy with 
sticky sap, the grower shordd con- 
sider this evidence as being suffi- 
ciently conclusive to warrant the 
destroying of the affected wood. If 
the symptoms are not very pro- 
nounced it is advisable for the 
grower to consult some person who 
has had experience with the disease. 

In early spring, patches of wood 
affected with hold-over blight exude 
sap, as shown in Fig. 19. This sap 
is teeming with the causal bacteria. 
Insects, such as bees and wasps, are attracted by the sweet 
juice, which adheres to them, and consequently become agents 
of infection. The insects carry the bacteria to blossoms on 
other trees and often to wounds on the branches and trunks, 
and thus spread the disease. 

The susceptibility of a pear tree to fire blight is largely 
influenced by external conditions. A general statement may 
be made that any condition that causes a tree to make a very 
rapid growth, resulting in tender shoots, favors the development 

Fig. is 



of the disease. From this it may be deduced that the pear 
shoiild not be planted on rich soil, that it should not be over- 
stimulated with nitrogenous fertilizers, and that the amount 
and time of cultivation should be governed by the rate of growth 
of the trees. Also, varieties differ considerably in their suscep- 
tibility to fire blight. The Kieffer, LeConte, Garber, Winter 
Nelis, and Angouleme are less susceptible than the Flemish, 
Bartlett, Seckel, and Clapp Favorite. In general, varieties of 
the Oriental group are much more resistant to fire blight than 
those of the European group. At one time it was thought that 
the Kieffer was absolutely resistant, but this has been found 

to be erroneous. 

It has been conclusively 
demonstrated that where cli- 
matic conditions are favorable 
and growers are willing to 
combat the disease by proper 
methods, it is possible to hold 
fire blight in check. Orchards 
must be inspected frequently, 
both in summer and in winter, 
and all affected wood must be 
cut out and destroyed. In 
cutting out blighted wood, the 
cut must be made considerably 
below the point of attack. 
Before each cut is made the pruning implement must be steril- 
ized with a strong antiseptic; a l-to-1,000 solution of corro- 
sive sublimate, or bichloride of mercm-y, is generally used. A 
convenient method of applying the antiseptic is to wipe the 
implements with a sponge soaked in the solution. This steril- 
izing is absolutely necessary, as otherwise bacteria may be 
carried from infected wood to wood that is not infected. 
Great effort should be made to cut out all patches of wood 
affected with hold-over bUght, so that there will be no exuda- 
tion of infected sap in the spring. 

Occasionally, pear trees will bear scattering blossoms in the 
summer, especially if they have been injured by frosts in the 

Fig. 19. 




spring. These late blossoms are a disadvantage if fire blight is 
prevalent in the locality, as they will be visited by insects that 
bear the bacteria and thus will become centers of infection. 
When fruit buds appear in summer they should be immediately 

As has already been stated, fire blight is much more preva- 
lent where the trees have made too rapid growth. For 
this reason, care must be exercised in the selection of an 
orchard site and in the cultivating, fertilizing, and irrigating 
of the trees. These points will be discussed in the subsequent 

54. Pear Scab.- — The fungous disease known as pear scab 
is often very troublesome in regions that are subject to warm, 
humid conditions in late spring and 
early summer. It seems to be more 
prevalent, too, in the Eastern States 
than on the Pacific coast . Pear scab 
is so similar to apple scab, which 
has already been described in a pre- 
vious Section, that a discussion of 
its life history and characteristics is 
not necessary. It often causes 
much of the fruit to fall and the 
affected pears that remain on the 
tree are scabby and much deformed. 
Fig. 20 illustrates the appearance of pears affected with the 

Plant pathologists differ as to the treatment that should be 
given to prevent pear scab. Some recommend winter spraying 
and others consider this unnecessary. In general, however, 
the following synopsis of the spraying required is agreed on 
by all: 

1. Just as the fruit buds are showing a pinkish color, but 
before they open, spray with Bordeaux mixture or lime-sulphur 
solution. If Bordeaux mixture is used, it should be of the 
3-3-50 formula; if lime-sulphur solution is used, it should be 
of the summer strength. 

Fig. 20 



2. When most of the petals have dropped, spray again with 
either Bordeaiix mixture or lime-sulphur solution as recom- 
mended in paragraph 1. 

3. From 10 days to 2 weeks later spray again. 

4. From 10 days to 2 weeks later spray again. 

55. Pear-Leaf Blight. — The fungous disease known as 
pear-leaf blight attacks the foliage and sometimes the fruit of 
the pear and the quince. Occasionally it becomes so bad that 
it defoliates the trees, or at least weakens them so that the 
foliage turns yellow. At times the disease becomes very bad 
in nurseries; at one time it discouraged American nurserymen 
from propagating the pear. 

A characteristic symptom of pear-leaf blight is the spotted 
appearance of the leaves. The spots, which are particularly 

evident on the upper 
surface of the leaves, 
have a reddish center 
with an outer border 
of a dark shade. In 
case the blight attacks 
the fruit, the reddish 
spots appear and 
usually crack. It 
should be understood, 
however, that spots 
on the leaves and cracks in the fruit do not always indicate 
leaf blight ; other diseases have much the same symptoms. 

The spraying treatment already recommended for pear scab 
will usually hold the pear-leaf blight in check. 

56. Pear-Leaf Spot. — The fungous disease known as pear- 
leaf spot occurs principally in the eastern part of the United 
States. It attacks the leaves of orchard and nursery trees, 
often causing premature defoliation. Affected trees are not 
seriously injured unless the leaves fall, in which case they may 
show a reduction in vigor the next season. The spots on the 
leaves may readily be distinguished from those of the leaf 
blight by their color. Three fairly well differentiated zones of 

Fig. 21 


color may usually be seen in a spot: the center zone is ashen 
gray, the surrounding zone is brown, and the outer zone is pur- 
plish. These color details are lost in old leaves, but they are, 
as a rule, prominent in fresh ones. The general appearance 
of an affected leaf is shown in Fig. 21. Some varieties, lilce the 
Clairgeau, Anjou, Bosc, and Bartlett, suffer more from the 
disease than varieties like the Winter Nelis, Kieffer, and 

The spraying already recommended for pear scab is effective 
in preventing the leaf-spot disease. 

57. Rust. — The rust that attacks the pear is very similar 
to the rust of the apple, although it is, as a rule, less injurious. 
Two stages of the disease occur : a summer stage and a winter 
stage. The summer stage produces the rust found on the 
leaves of the pear and the winter stage causes the familiar 
cedar apple of the cedar tree. The remedy, as in the case of 
the apple, is to remove all red cedar trees from the neighborhood 
of the orchard, thus eliminating the source of infection. If 
this is impossible, the trees should be sprayed with Bordeaux 
mixture immediately after the early spring rains, as recom- 
mended in the case of the apple. 

58. Crown Gall and Brown Rot. — The pear, like the 
apple, is attacked by crown gall and brown rot. Inasmuch 
as these diseases have already been described in a previous 
Section, further discussion is unnecessary. 


59. Most of the common insects that attack the pear also 
attack other fruits such as the apple, peach, and pltmi. Some 
of these insects have already been described in previous Sections, 
consequently a full discussion of them is unnecessary here. 
The most important insect enemies of the pear are: the pear 
psylla, pear thrips, the leaf-blister mite, the pear slug, the San 
Jose scale, the coddling moth, the green apple aphis, the fruit- 
tree hark beetle, the oyster-shell scale, the scurfy scale, and borers. 




60. Pear Psylla. — In some parts of the United States, 
especially in New York State, an insect known as the pear 
psylla has become a serious pest in pear orchards. The presence 
of the psylla in injurious numbers on a tree is usually indicated 
by an abundance of a waterish, sticky liquid, called honey dew, 
at the axils of the leaves and fruits. In New York State this 
may be first detected during the latter part of May or early 
in June. This liquid later becomes covered with a black mold, 
which gives the trees a blackish, unsightly appearance. Certain 
ants and flies are very fond of the honey dew, and often congre- 
gate in large numbers on infested trees. The presence of these 
insects on a pear tree should arouse the suspicions of an 
orchardist and should lead to a close inspection of the trees. 

The adult psylla is an active four-winged insect, measiu-ing 
about To inch in length. It has been compared to a miniature 

seventeen-year locust. 
An adult psylla is 
shown in Fig. 22 (a). 
The winter adiilts ap- 
pear early in spring 
and deposit eggs for 
the first brood in pro- 
tected places in the 
bark. The eggs hatch 
in a few days, and the 
young larvas, or 
nymphs, one of which 
is shown in Fig. 22 (b), at once begin to suck the juices from 
the young leaves and twigs. A favorite place for the young 
larvas is in the axils of the leaves at the base of the fruit 
stems. Two or three da^^s after hatching, the larvas cover 
themselves with honey dew, which finally becomes so abun- 
dant that it besmears the leaves and fruit. The extent of the 
injury done in this way varies, of course, with the number of 
the larvas. When the larvas are very nimierous they take so 
much nourishment from the trees that the new growth is 
seriously checked. The whole tree assumes a stunted, un- 
healthy appearance. As a result, the fruit crop is greatly 

Fig. 22 


lessened and in some cases the trees are killed. Trees weak- 
ened by the psylla often fail to survive the winter. 

The following control measures for the psylla have been 
recommended by the New York Agricultural Experiment 
Station : 

1. Practice clean culture in the orchard so that there will be 
no accumulations of weeds to serve as wintering places. 

2. Remove all rough bark in order to prevent the adults 
from wintering on the trees and to render them more exposed 
to spraying mixtures. Bark is most easily detached imme- 
diately following a wet period. Care should be exercised not 
to cut into live tissue. 

3. Spray thoroughly to kill the adults with Blackleaf 40, a 
commercial nicotine preparation, using f pint to 100 gallons of 
water, and 3 pounds of soap; the spraying should be done 
preferably during a warm period in November or December, 
or during March or early April. Select a day when the mixture 
will not freeze on the trees. For spring spraying, some growers 
prefer a miscible oil, using 1 gallon diluted with 15 gallons 
of water. 

4. Spray the trees thoroughly with lime-sulphur mixture of 
the winter strength to destroy the eggs. This treatment should 
be made during the latter part of April or early in May, or just 
before the blossom clusters open. 

5. Spray the trees thoroughly just after the blossoms drop 
to kill the newly-hatched nymphs, using Blackleaf 40 as in 
paragraph 3, and 3 pounds of soap or kerosene emulsion diluted 
with 8 parts of water. Direct the spray into the axils of the 
leaves and fruits and wet both surfaces of the leaves. 

If the work is well done it is not necessary to carrj^ out all 
of these measures each year. If the trees have been carefully 
scraped a combination of the treatment recommended in 
paragraphs 3 and 4 or 3 and 5 should be sufficient. Some 
growers have entirely controlled the psylla with only the treat- 
ment recommended in paragraph 3. 

61. Pear Thrips. — In California, particular^ in Santa 
Clara, Contra Costa, Solano, Alam.eda, Yolo, Sacramento, 



Napa, and Sonoma counties, the pear thrips is at present the 
most important insect pest with which pear growers have to 
contend. This insect attacks not only the pear but also all 
other deciduous fruits. The extent of damage done by the 
thrips in recent years has been so enormous that special agents 
have been detailed by the United States Department of Agri- 
culture to study the insect. 

Injury by the thrips is caused by the feeding of the adults 
on the developing buds and early blossoms; by the deposition 
of eggs in the fruit stems, leaf stems, and newly formed fruit; 
and by the feeding of the larvas in the blossoms and on the 
young fruits and foliage. On pears the greatest injury is 

Fig. 23 

produced by the adults, which often prevent the trees from 
blooming. The feeding injury is not produced by a biting or 
chewing process. By rasping the tender surfaces of the develop- 
ing fruit buds and the young fruits with their hardened mouth 
parts, the thrips rupture the skin, causing an exudation of sap, 
which is often followed by more or less fermentation, especially 
before blooming. 

The adults, one of which is shown greatly enlarged in Fig. 23, 
first appear on the trees about the middle of February and 
emergence from the ground continues until early April. By 
the time the fruit buds have swollen sufficiently to separate 
the bud scales slightly at the tip, the adults force their way 
within, feeding on the tenderest parts inside the buds. When 


the thrips are present in sufficient numbers the buds are com- 
pletely destroyed and the trees fail to bloom. As soon as the 
first leaf vSurfaces or fruit stems are exposed egg laying usually 
begins. The first eggs are deposited about the last of February 
and oviposition continues until near the middle of April. 
Most of the eggs are deposited just under the epidermis in the 
fruit stems, in young fruit, and in leaf stems. The eggs hatch 
in from 5 to 17 days, the average time being about 8 days. 
By the time the trees are breaking into full bloom the adults 
have done most of the damage caused by their feeding, ovi- 
position is at its height, and many of the earlier-appearing 
adults are dying off and larvas are beginning to appear in 
numbers. The first larvas can usually be found about March 20, 
and are in maximum numbers on the trees, feeding on the small 
fruit and young foliage, from the first to the middle of April. 
Reaching their full development, the larvas drop from the 
trees, of their own accord or with falling calyxes, or are blown 
by wind or knocked off by rain. After the middle of April 
the number on the trees diminishes rapidly, and by the last of 
April all the larvas are off the trees and in the ground. Here 
they work do-wn into the first 3 or 4 inches of hard soil below 
the loose surface mulch and construct a tiny cell, where they 
remain until the following spring. Pupation takes place in the 
ground and the insects emerge as adults. 

A great deal of experimental work has been done with a view 
to finding an effective means of controlling the pear thrips, 
but as yet no entirely satisfactory method has been discovered. 
In view of the fact that new information concerning this insect 
is continually being brought to light and that any recommen- 
dation made for its control would likely soon be out of date, it is 
not deemed advisable here to give any of the experimental con- 
trol measures. In case an infestation of thrips occurs the owner 
of the orchard should consult the nearest experiment station. 

62. Leaf -Blister Mite. — The leaf -blister mite that attacks 
the pear and other horticultural crops is not a true insect; it 
belongs to the same class of animals as the spiders, scorpions, etc. 
The mites are very small, being invisible to the unaided eye. 




The mites pass the winter on the trees, under the bud scales, 
and attack the leaves as soon as these begin to push out in the 
spring. They bore small holes from the under side to the 
interior of the leaf, where they deposit their eggs, and with their 
progeny feed on the tender cells of the. leaf substance. Their 
activities within the leaf tissues quickly result in the develop- 
ment of galls, or swellings. These are at first small, pimple- 
like eruptions, especially evident on the iipper surface of young 
leaves, and are of a reddish tinge. The spots soon increase in 
size, the largest becoming as much as | inch in diameter. On 

pear leaves the spots, as 

a rule, become red as 
they grow. On the under 
side of the leaf the galls 
are whitish and blister- 
like, not differing much 
from the general color of 
the leaf surface. Later 
the}^ turn brownish or 
black, due to the death 
of the injured leaf cells, 
lose much of their thick- 
ness, and some may 
become somewhat 
shrunken. If orchards 
are sprayed thoroughly 
to prevent San Jose 

scale, no additional spraying is likely to be necessary to hold 

in check the leaf -blister mite. 

Fig. 21 

63. Pear Slug. — The pear slug, which attacks the pear 
and cherry and sometimes the plum, is often found on pear 
trees in May and June, or later. The slugs skeletonize the upper 
surface of the leaves, which are likely to fall prematurely. In 
the case of young trees the entire foliage miay fall. The slugs 
are dark, sticky larvas about | inch in length; they are large 
at the head end and taper gradually. Fig. 24 (a) shows a larva 
in the normal state ; (b) shows a larva with the slime removed ; 


(c) shows the adttlt, or parent, which, is a saw fly about i inch 
long; and (d) shows the work of the larvas on a leaf. The 
saw flies lay eggs in the leaves about the time the foliage is 
out, and from these eggs the slugs hatch. 

Pear slugs may be easily destroyed by spraying infested trees 
with any of the arsenicals when the work of the pests is first 
noticed. They may also be destroyed by whale-oil soap 
(1 pound of soap to 4 gallons of water) used as a contact insecti- 
cide. Hellebore, air-slaked lime, or almost any fine dust will, 
if thoroughly dusted over the trees, destroy most of the larvas. 

64. San Jose Scale. — The San Jose scale attacks the pear 
as badly as it does other fruits. However, the pest does not 
cause as much alarm as it did at one time, owing to the dis- 
covery of effective control measures and the dissemination of 
information concerning it. The control measures are much 
the same in the case of all fmits. 

65. Coddling Motli. — The coddling moth is much less 
injurious to the pear than it is to the apple, and in many pear- 
growing regions little attention is paid to it. Occasionally, how- 
ever, it does considerable damage to a pear crop. If the pest is 
sufficiently injurious to warrant spraying, the same control 
measures recommended in the case of the apple should be used. 

66. Green Apple Apliis. — The green apple aphis is fre- 
quently found on very young pear trees and sometimes on 
older ones. If the pest is properly combated it is comparatively 
easy to control, but, as a rule, growers discover its presence too 
late to prevent damage to the trees. The control measures are 
the same as in the case of the apple. 

67. Fruit-Tree Bark Beetle. — The fruit-tree bark beetle 
is more likely to attack diseased or dying trees than healthy 
trees and is often found in neglected orchards. As a rule, if an 
orchard is properly cared for serious attacks by this pest will 
not occur. In case the trees become badly infested it is some- 
times advisable to remove and destroy them. A thorough dis- 
cussion of this insect has already been given in a previous 



68. Oyster-Shell Scale and Scurfy Scale. — The oyster- 
shell scale and the scurfy scale sometimes attack pear trees, 
but generally the attacks are confined to trees that are low in 
vitality. The control measures are the same as in the case of 
the apple. 

69. Borers. — The three borers that attack the apple, 
namely, the round-headed borer, the spotted borer, and the 
fiat-headed borer, also attack the pear. The control, measures 
are the same in both cases. 


70. Frost Injuries. — ^Pears bloom early in the spring, 
earlier than most apples, and for that reason they are often 
damaged by frosts. Orchards planted on unfavorable sites 
are, of course, more likely to be injured by frosts than orchards 
planted on favorable sites, but even if the site has been selected 
with considerable care, occasional injuries, are likely to occur. 

There are several ways in which pears may be injured by frost. 
If a severe frost occurs while the trees are still in bud, the 
buds will usually turn black and fall off. If the frost occurs 
while the trees are in bloom, the pistils of the blossoms will 
generally die and a large percentage of the blossoms will fall from 
the tree. Pears produced from the blossoms that remain may 
be small or they may be fairly good sized, but in either case they 
will be unusually thick at the neck, especially around the stem, 
this giving the fruit somewhat of an unnatural appearance; such 
pears are seedless. If a severe frost occurs after the petals have 
fallen and the fruit has set, a considerable percentage of the 
yoimg pears will drop, and much of the fruit that does not drop 
will be injured in various ways. A common form of fruit injury 
is what is known as neck ringing. By this is meant the forming 
of a band of russet around a pear, usually on the neck. Pears 
thus blemished are sold as culls. Again, the injury may be 
of such a nature as to retard the growth and development of 
the fruit. 

Unfortunately, it is impossible to give accurate information 
regarding the exact temperature at or below which pears will 


be injured by frost. Many tables have been published giving 
the temperature at which frost injury begins, but these have 
been found to be only local in their application. For example, 
in most of the tables published so far, a temperature of 29° F. is 
given as the minimum that fruits will withstand, but in the 
Williamette Valley of Oregon a temperature of 25° F. has been 
withstood by pears. The moisture content of the atmosphere, 
the presence of fogs, cloudy weather, all have a bearing on the 
amount of frost that plants will withstand. However, the 
general statement may be made that a temperature lower 
than 29° F. is likely to be disastrous to a fruit crop. If a grower 
is located in a region where the temperature drops to this point 
or lower it is advisable for him to provide some artificial means 
for protecting the orchard. 

Recent investigations have demonstrated that the artificial 
heating of orchards by smudge pots is of great value when the 
temperature is low enough to menace the crop. The use of the 
pots has already been explained in a previous Section. 

71. Sun Scald. — In spring, the weather is often very warm 
during the day and rather cold at night. Under such conditions 
the sap of the trees will start to rise rapidly and will get chilled, 
and as a result, the trees will be likely to siiffer from sun scald. 
In some sections sun scald is at times a serious trouble, especi- 
ally in the case of varieties that start growth early and trees 
that are planted on light soils. 

The preventive measures - against sun scald already recom- 
mended in the case of the apple apply also to the pear. 

72. Girdling of Trees. ^ — Unfortunately, many young 
pear trees become girdled, due to such pests as rabbits, gophers, 
mice, etc. If a tree is completely girdled the top will die and, 
unless treatment is given, the tree may be lost. In case of 
complete girdling it is sometimes possible to bridge-graft a 
tree, but if the tree is young it is usually best to cut it off 
below the wound and thus force out new sprouts from which a 
new body can be developed. 

It is difficult to control the various pests that are responsible 
for girdling. In the case of rabbits and gophers no doubt the 


best means of control is to kill the pests with guns and traps. 
There are on the market rabbit-proof fences that are fairly 
effective, but in localities where rabbits are numerous it is 
unwise to depend on a fence alone to protect an orchard. The 
damage done by gophers is chiefly underground and the first 
indication of damage is the wilting of a tree or the failtire of 
a tree to start growth in the spring. Mice can often be con- 
trolled by painting the trunks of the trees with whitewash to 
which has been added a considerable quantity of arsenic, 
strychnine, or other such poison. By keeping straw away 
from the bodies of trees and keeping the ground free from 
rubbish, mice can be prevented from wintering in the imme- 
diate vicinity of trees. 

73. Sour Sap. — ^Pear trees occasionally suffer from sour 
sap. This trouble is often confused with fire blight, but the 
two are entirely dissimilar. Wood affected with fire blight 
has a reddish tinge, which is characteristic of the disease. The 
leaves of trees affected with sour soap often become yellow and 
sometimes the trees die. In all probability the sour sap con- 
dition of trees is due to excessive moisture in the ground during 
the early growing months, and there is a possibility that the same 
conditions that cause sun scald also aid in bringing about 
soiu: sap. 

74. Breaking of Trees. — One of the principal causes of 
trees breaking is improper pruning. Breaking occurs also as a 
result of improper methods of propping up the branches and 
insufficient thinning of the fruit. The breaking of branches 
is often due to some form of winter injury. It may be that the 
heart wood has been injured and has turned black, consequently 
when the trees are bearing a heavy crop of fruit the branches 
are unable to sustain the load. Occasionally, breaking of trees 
and branches is due to ice and snow; young trees, especially, 
break because of heavy loads of ice or snow. 

If trees are properly pruned, thinned, and propped the 
damage due to breakage is not likely to be very severe. When 
breaking of branches occurs, the branches should be cut back 
to clean wounds; if bad splits occur it is often possible to bolt 


the split parts together. If most of the branches have been 
broken off of young trees the trees can be cut back severely 
or be regrafted, thus forcing out new sprouts from which a good 
top can be developed. 

75. Bark Binding. — ^Pear trees are subject at times to 
bark binding. This trouble is most likely to be experienced 
when the trees are young and growing rapidly. The bark, 
which cannot expand fast enough to allow the tree to develop 
properly, becomes tough and the tree ceases to thrive. Trees 
are sometimes said to be bark bound when they have ceased 
to grow because of neglect, but this is not true bark binding, 
as the trees will respond to proper culture. In case of true 
bark binding some growers have secured good results by spraying 
with a soap spray or even with lime sulphur. In bad cases, 
relief may often be secured by slitting the bark with a sharp 
knife, care being taken not to cut into the wood. If trees are 
not forced too much in the fall, and are tilled properly in spring 
and summer there will be little trouble from bark binding. 

76. Rough. Bark. — ^Pear trees, especially old ones, are very 
subject to rough bark. At one time considerable importance 
was attached to this trouble, owing to the fact that investi- 
gators attributed it to a form of blight. It was called crater 
blight and was thought to be a serious disease. At the present 
time little importance is attached to it. 


(PART 2) 



1. One of the first and most important points that must 
be considered by a prospective pear grower is the acreage to 
plant. This is, of course, largely an individual problem, con- 
sequently it can be discussed only in an abstract way. In 
general, it may be said that the most desirable size for a pear 
orchard can be determined only after a consideration of such 
factors as the nature of the locality, the kind of soil, the variety 
or varieties to be grown, the amount of capital available, and 
whether or not the orchard will be the sole source of income. 

If the locality is one in which pear growing is extensively 
practiced it is likely that labor will be available when needed 
and that the transportation facilities are adequate for prompt 
disposal of the fruit. If, on the other hand, there are few or 
no orchards in the locality, it may be that labor conditions 
and transportation facilities are such that it would be inadvis- 
able to make an extensive planting. Also, in a locality in 
which there is a wet and a dry season, more intensive culti- 
vation is necessary, in order to conserve moisture, than in a 
locality where there are intermittent rains ; consequently, fewer 
acres can be cultivated, other conditions being equal. On the 
Pacific coast, where the seasons are alternately wet and dry, 
it has been the experience of growers that under average 




conditions one man can do most of the work necessary in a 
40-acre orchard up to the time the trees come into bearing. 

Light soils are easier to cultivate than heavy ones; conse- 
quently, if the soil of a locality is fairly light a grower wUl be 
justified in planting a larger orchard than if the soil is extremely 
heavy. In the case of a reasonably light soU, one man can 
usually cultivate about 40 acres of orchard, whereas, in the case 
of a very heavy soil, such as adobe, about 25 acres is all that 
can be handled properly. Minor soil differences are, of course, 
negligible and should not be considered in deciding on the 
acreage to plant. 

If only one variety of pear is to be planted it would be unwise 
to plant as large an acreage as if several varieties are to be 
planted, as in the former case the pears would all mature at 
the same time, whereas in the latter case the harvesting season 
would extend over a considerable period. In the case of local- 
ities where the labor supply is uncertain, this is an important 
point to consider. 

2. The capital required per acre to establish a pear orchard 
varies greatly in different sections and with different conditions. 
Considerable good pear land is available that can be purchased 
for from $50 to $150 an acre, and there are a few regions where 
satisfactory land can still be procured for as little as $5 to $10 
an acre. The average planting will be about one himdred 
trees to the acre. Pear trees can usually be purchased for 
from 10 to 30 cents each, 20 cents being an average price. 
Estimating the planting to be one hundred trees per acre 
and the price per tree to be 20 cents, the trees alone will cost 
$20 an acre. It will probably cost 4 or 5 cents a tree to stake 
the ground for planting and to plant the trees. Estimating 
the cost of this work at 5 cents a tree, the cost per acre will 
be $5, making the total cost for merely procuring the trees 
and setting them $25 per acre. It is possible, under certain 
conditions, to establish an orchard for as little as $10 an acre; 
under other conditions, it may cost several times this amount, 
depending on whether the trees are purchased or are grown by 
the orchardist, on the kind of trees planted, and on the number 


planted per acre. The cost of cultivating an orchard and other- 
wise caring for it up to the age of bearing varies so greatly 
under different conditions that it is impracticable to give an 
estimate. It is claimed by some authorities that an orchard 
can be established and cared for up to the time of bearing, 
provided land is purchased at a reasonable price and the orch- 
ard is properly managed, for about $250 to $300 an acre. In 
many cases the cost will be less, of course, and in other cases 

If an orchard is to be the sole source of income to a grower 
it is probable that a larger planting will be made than if the 
orchard is merely to be a side line to some other business. It 
should be borne in mind, however, that in some localities where 
pear trees bear very irregularly it would be unwise to depend 
on a pear orchard for a living. 



3. If a person desires to engage in pear growing and is in 
possession of land that is suitable for the purpose, all that is 
necessary is to select a nimiber of different varieties that will 
delevop to a high state of perfection under the conditions that 
prevail. If, however, no suitable land is possessed and it is there- 
fore necessary for a grower to go into the market for land, he 
should choose a location where the fruit grown will be of high 
quality and where fire blight is either not prevalent or is under 
control. The pear wiU grow under a great variety of conditions, 
even greater, perhaps, than the apple. If it were not for the men- 
ace of fire blight, the growing of pears would not be particularly 
hazardous. As the disease is so destructive, however, extreme 
caution should be observed in choosing a location for an orchard. 
The reasons for this statement will be given subsequently. 

Some of the most important points that should be considered 
in the choosing of a general location for a pear orchard are: 
The distance from market, the transportation facilities, the 


quantity of pears grown in the locality, the class of people 
growing pears in the locality, and the climatic conditions. 

4. Distance From Market. — ^As a factor in affecting the 
desirability of a location for pear growing, the distance from 
market is of much less importance than it was at one time'. 
The introduction of cold-storage plants, refrigerator cars, and 
other improved facilities for the handling of crops has greatly 
lengthened the season of pears and has broadened the market. 
In certain sections, however, if summer and fall varieties are 
grown, lack of proper facilities for handling the crops will 
make it necessary to dispose of them in a relatively short time. 
Under such conditions it is of advantage, of course, to be near 
a large center of population where there is a demand for the 
fruit. In addition, if an orchard is located near a large market 
the expense of shipping the fruit to market will naturally be 
less, as a rule, than if the orchard is distant from market. 

In some regions where the growers are organized, the rail- 
roads have granted a flat rate for the transporting of fruit. 
For example, the carload rate for pears shipped from the western 
part of Oregon is exactly the same as the rate that prevails 
in the eastern part, which is several hundred miles nearer the 
market than the western part. Thus, all pear growers in 
Oregon are able to obtain the same carload rate for eastern 
shipments. In addition, many of the railroads are now estab- 
lishing what are known as storage-in-transit rates. Where 
these rates are operative a grower can ship fruit to one city, 
place it in cold storage, and then ship it on to another city 
at exactly the same rate that would have been charged had the 
fruit been shipped directly to the second city. As an illustra- 
tion, an Oregon grower can ship pears to Chicago, place them 
in cold storage, and later, if desired, ship them on to Cincinnati 
at the same rate that he would have obtained if he had shipped 
the pears from his orchard directly to Cincinnati. These 
storage-in-transit rates are a great boon to fruit growers, as 
they cut down the expense of distributing a crop. At the 
present time there is a tendency for fruit growers' associa- 
tions to establish cold-storage plants in the large centers of 


population so that, by means of storage-in-transit rates, the 
fruit can be economically distributed to the smaller cities and 
towns. All of these progressive steps in the handling of fruit 
serve to minimize the importance of the distance from market. 

5. Transportation racilities. — Careftd consideration 
should be given to the transportation facilities of a locality before 
it is chosen for pear growing. Where fast freights, refrigerator 
cars, and ice for precooling are available, pears can be handled 
much more efhciently and economically than where such serv- 
ice is not available. Also, it is often an advantage to be on 
the main line of a railroad, as the rates are likely to be lower 
than on a branch line. Transportation by water is generally 
cheaper than transportation by rail and is especially valuable 
for small shipments such as are made by growers where crops 
are not large enough to be shipped in carload lots. 

6. Quantity of Pears Grown in the Locality. — It is 

a decided advantage to choose as a location for a pear orchard 
a locality in which there is a large acreage devoted to pear 
growing. In such a locality an orchard will, in case the owner 
wishes to sell it, bring a higher price than in a locality where 
few pears are grown. In addition, pear buyers are much 
more likely to visit a locality where there is a possibility that 
they will be, able to purchase a carload or perhaps a train load 
of fruit than where there is only the product of one orchard 
to be purchased. This last is a very important point, as it 
is usually more profitable and satisfactory to sell fruit to a 
buyer than to sell it by correspondence. The large com- 
mission houses make it a practice to send representatives from. 
time to time to the various pear-growing centers ; consequently, 
the growers of these centers are able to keep in touch with 
market conditions much better than are isolated growers. 

7. Class of Persons Growing Pears in tlie Locality. 

With the exception of controlling fire blight, probably less skill 
is required to grow pears than to grow apples. However, the 
susceptibility of the pear to fire blight and the desti-uctiveness 
of the disease make it highly important that it be controlled; 


and this is possible only where the disease is understood and 
intelligently combated. For this reason, the class of persons 
engaged in the growing of pears in a locality is of considerable 
importance in affecting the desirability of the locality for pear 
orcharding. In one of the great Oregon pear districts, the 
pear orchards of an entire county were menaced by fire blight 
simply because a few growers refused to accept the fact that 
fire blight is a bacterial disease. 

Fortunately, at the present time it is not so difficult to con- 
vince growers of the necessity for combating blight as it was 
formerly. Before establishing an orchard, however, it would 
be well for a grower to become informed regarding the class 
of persons engaged in the industry in the neighborhood. If 
the growers are ignorant and disinclined to accept new ideas 
and practices it would probably be inadvisable to plant an 
orchard in the locality. 

8. Climatic Conditions. — From a climatic standpoint, 
the ideal location for a pear orchard is a region where there is 
plenty of rainfall, where the temperature in summer does not 
become extreme, and where frosts do not occur when the trees 
are in bloom. If a region is too dry the trees will not thrive 
unless irrigated. Excessive heat in summer makes the handling 
of summer and early fall pears extremely difficult. The likeli- 
hood of frosts occurring when the trees are in bloom, is, obvi- 
ously, a strong point against a region as a location for an 
orchard. In the United States, the best climatic conditions for 
pear growing are found in the northern tier of states and in 
certain of the Western States, particularly Washington, Oregon, 
and California. In many of the semiarid regions where irriga- 
tion is necessary to grow the trees and the temperature becomes 
very high, it is often difficult to control fire blight. Pears can, 
of course, be grown under a wide range of climatic conditions, 
but they will do best where the conditions previously mentioned 



9. The selecting of a suitable site for a pear orchard is 
an extremely important point. The general location may be 
well adapted to pear growing and good varieties for the local- 
ity may be chosen, but if the immediate site is not suitable, 
failure will result. In the selecting of a site, the following 
points should receive consideration: The nature of the soil, 
the elevation, the exposure, and the water and air drainage. 

10. Soils for Pear Orchards. — The kind of soil that is 
best for pear .growing depends largely on the region and on the 
variety that is to be grown. In New York State pears thrive 
best on clay loams, and in Pennsylvania they do especially 
well on alluvial soils. In Maryland, where a large number of 
KiefEers are grown, pears do well on sandy soils and, in some 
cases, on clay soils. Growers in most of the Southern States 
prefer rather poor .soils, the light loams being chosen because 
of the fact that trees will not make such profuse growth on 
them as on strong soils, and consequently will be less subject to 
fire blight. In Indiana, pears thrive best on clay loams and 
suffer less from blight if the soil is poor. Michigan growers 
prefer clay loams. In Illinois, the trees seem to thrive best 
on rich, black soils, but on such soils they are likely to be killed 
by blight. In Oregon, pears do well on a variety of soils ranging 
from the heaviest adobe, on one hand, to the lightest granitic 
soil, on the other hand. In general, it may be said that in the 
northern tier of states clay loams seem to be the best soils for 
standard pears; that in the Southern and the Middle- Western 
States the unfertile loams are preferred; and that in the Western 
States soils that are neither very rich nor very poor are con- 
sidered the best. Dwarf pear trees develop a fibrous root 
system and consequently thrive best on a rich, moist soil that 
has a subsoil of porous clay. 

In localities where the rainfall is light in summer and where 
water is not available for irrigation, it would not be wise to 
plant an orchard on soils that will not hold moisture. For 
example, on the Pacific slope, where there is a dry season, it 


wotdd not be advisable, unless water for irrigation is available, 
to plant pear trees on land that has a subsoil of sand, coarse 
gravel, or hard rock. Even though irrigation water is avail- 
able, the presence of gravel near the surface of the ground is 
likely to make irrigation out of the question. Pears will often 
thrive on ground where the subsoil is a stiff clay or hardpan, 
provided the subsoil is overlaid with from 30 to 40 inches of 
suitable top soil, but if the soU is thin, a subsoil of this character 
will render land undesirable for pear growing. . In some sec- 
tions, pear trees thrive on soil that is underlaid with disin- 
tegrating rock, the trees apparently living on the disintegrated 

On the Atlantic seaboard, depth of soil is not as essential 
in pear growing as it is on the Pacific slope. This condition 
is due to the fact that during the growing season there is more 
rainfall in the Eastern States than in the Western States, and 
consequently there is less need for conserving moisture. 

Different varieties of pears seem to do better on certain 
kinds of soil than on others. The Bartlett, the Comice, and 
the Howell probably do best on light loams. The Bartlett 
is a pear of remarkable adaptability, however, thriving on a great 
variety of soils and under a great variety of conditions. The 
Anjou, the Bosc, and the Winter Nelis seem to do best on 
strong loams; unless the Winter Nelis is grown on soil fairly 
rich in plant-food, the fruit will, in time, become very small. 

11. Elevation for Pear Orchards. — It would be impos- 
sible to state that there is a definite elevation at which the pear 
will thrive better than at any other. In the Rocky Mountain 
States, particularly Utah and Colorado, pears are grown suc- 
cessfully at as high an altitude as 4,000 feet above sea level; 
in the Pacific Coast States they do best when grown at an 
altitude of less than 2,000 feet; in the: Middle Western and the 
Eastern States most of the commercial orchards are at a com- 
paratively low elevation; and in many of the Southern States 
the higher altitudes seem to be better for pears than the lower 
altitudes, as the trees make a more desirable gro^vth. From 
these statements it may be seen that the best altitude for pears 


varies with the locality. The indications are that pears, at 
least certain varieties, will not thrive on as high elevations as 
will apples. 

12. Exposure for Pear Orchards. — If summer or fall 
varieties are to be planted, a southern slope is the most pref- 
erable one to choose, as a southern exposure is conducive to 
early ripening. However, in frosty localities a southern slope 
is somewhat objectionable, because the trees are likely to bloom 
so early that frost will damage the fruit crop, and in addition, 
the trees may be injured by sun scald. In regions where frosts 
are to be feared, a northern or a western exposure is the most 
preferable. If a locality is free from frosts it makes very little 
difference what exposure is chosen. 

13. Water and Air Drainage for Pear Orchards. 

Water drainage is perhaps not as important in the case of the 
pear as in the case of the apple, nevertheless the pear requires 
land that is fairly well drained. Trees that are grown on water- 
logged land are low in vitality and consequently succumb 
easily to insect pests and plant diseases. In addition, trees 
grown on wet soil are not likely to bear well. 

Air drainage is very important in the case of the pear, owing 
to the fact that the trees bloom early and are very susceptible 
to frost injury. However, on even gently rolling land it is 
likely that the air drainage will be sufficient. In very high 
altitudes it is often of advantage to choose a site in the vicinity 
of a canon, as the canon breezes will afford considerable 
protection from frosts. Pear orchards should not be planted 
on low, flat areas, or on level areas at the immediate base of 
high elevations, as wsuch sites are likely to be frosty. 


14. The selecting of suitable varieties of pears for a par- 
ticular locality is a point that is of much more importance 
than it was formerly thought to be. Varieties differ consider- 
ably in their adaptation to different regions. Some varieties 
do not develop well under certain climatic conditions; others 


do not do well on certain soils. In the New England States 
and in most of the Northern States such varieties as the Bart- 
lett, Bosc, Anjou, Flemish, Seckel, Lawrence, Sheldon, Clair- 
geau, and Angouleme are the leaders. In the Southern States 
and in many parts of the Middle West the Kieffer, LeConte, 
and Garber are becoming the leading varieties. On the Pacific 
coast, where pear growing has become commercialized more 
than in any other part of the country, a great many varieties 
are found. In California the Bartlett, Anjou, Comice, Howell, 
Winter Nelis, and Patrick Barry are the most popular varieties. 
In Oregon and Washington the leading varieties at the present 
time are the Bartlett, Howell, Clairgeau, Anjou, Comice, and 
Winter Nelis, but the Glout Morceau, Hardy, and Patrick 
Barry are rapidly increasing in popularity. 

In the discussion of the status of pear growing in the dif- 
ferent states, mention is made of the varieties that are in greatest 
favor in each state. This should give a general idea of the 
varieties that are adapted to a general locality, but before 
planting an orchard it is a good plan for a grower to ascertain 
from his state experiment station the most desirable varieties 
for his particiilar location. 


15. It is not, as a rule, advisable for a grower to attempt 
to propagate his own trees. Considerable skiU. is required, 
especially in budding, and besides, it wiU usually prove to be 
more economical to purchase the trees. Notwithstanding 
this fact, however, it is well for a grower to know something 
of the way in which pear trees are propagated. 

16. Propagating of Trees. — Standard pear trees are 
propagated by grafting or budding the variety desired onto 
seedling-pear stocks. A few years ago practically all of the 
pear seedlings used in this country were grown in France. In 
many cases seeds were collected in this country and sent to 
France for the production of seedlings, which were subsequently 
returned to America. One reason for this was that the 


American nurserymen had a great deal of trouble with leaf 
blight and other diseases, which attacked the seedlings. 
Another reason was that the seedlings could be produced 
cheaper in France than in America. At the present time, 
however, a great many seedlings are produced in this country, 
American nurserymen having learned how to combat the 
diseases and how to grow seedlings economically. Former!}'-, 
nearly all of the seed used for the production of seedlings was 
that, of the European pear. Of late years niurserymen, particu- 
larly those of the Pacific coast, have been using for this purpose 
seed of the Oriental pear. The present popularity of Oriental 
pear stock is due to the fact that it is more resistant to fire 
blight than European pear stock, and that the trees make 
excellent growth in the nursery. 

For the production of seedlings, plump, well-developed seeds 
from vigorous, healthy trees are selected. The seeds are 
stratified in the fall and kept there until time to plant them in 
the spring. When the ground has become warm enough for 
the planting the seeds are sown in rows wide enough apart 
for cultivation. It is important that the ground be kept 
fairly moist, otherwise the seeds will not germinate. As soon 
as the seedlings come up they are cultivated, the cultivation 
being continued at frequent intervals throughout the summer. 
Pear seedling form a long tap root with a few, if any, side roots. 
For this reason they are usually taken up in the fall and the 
tap roots are cut back so that they are not more than from 6 to 
8 inches long. After this cutting back of the roots, the trees 
are either replanted in nursery rows and earthed up to prevent 
winter injury, or, preferably, are heeled-in in a frost-proof 
cellar. In the spring, the trees are transplanted to a new loca- 
tion. By the following August, in most of the Northern and 
Pacific Coast States, the trees can be budded; in the Southern 
States, budding can usually be done during July. 

In the case of standard trees, budding is practiced much more 
extensively than grafting. Grafted trees do not seem to grow 
as well as budded trees, consequently they are not in as great 
demand. Either budding or grafting may be accomplished 
in the same way as with apples. 



Varieties such as the Kieffer, Garber, and LeConte, which 
belong to the Oriental group of pears, can be propagated by 
means of cuttings, this method being extensively used in the 

Dwarf pear trees are propagated by budding or grafting 
the pear onto quince stock. Some varieties do not unite well 
with the quince, however, and in the case of these it is neces- 
sary to double-work the trees. This process consists of bud- 
ding or grafting the quince stock with a variety of pear that 
is known to unite well with the quince; then when the resulting 
tree has grown to a sufficient size it is top-worked to the desired 
variety. Formerly, the Angouleme was the principal variety 
used for the first budding or grafting, but at the present time 
the Koonce is considered the best variety for this purpose. 

17. PuTcliasiiig of Nursery Trees. — If a person desires 
to purchase pear trees he should, if possible, make a tour of 
the available nurseries in order to examine the stock. If this 
is done he will be able to select trees that are free from serious 
insect infestations and fungous diseases, and that have good 
root system. In most states there are laws that prohibit 
the sale of trees affected with certain of the destructive insect 
pests and fungous diseases, but unless the purchaser knows 
the reliability of a partictdar nursery, it is a good plan for him 
to examine the trees before buying. 

There is a growing tendency on the part of orchardists to 
plant younger and smaller trees than were formerly in demand. 
A few years ago, growers preferred 2-year-old trees, but at 
the present time the greatest demand is for 1 -year-old trees. 
In the case of 1-year-old trees a grower has a much better 
opportunity to form the tops than in the case of 2-year-old 
trees, and in addition, trees planted when they are 1 year old 
retain more of the root system and make a better growth than 
trees planted when they are 2 years old. 

Many persons when buying nursery trees make the mistake 
of purchasing the largest ones they can obtain. It is always 
best to purchase well-grown and well-matured trees rather 
than overgrown trees on the one hand or stunted trees on the 



other hand. Many of the 
overgrown trees are soft. 
The sap does not go down 
rapidly enough in the fall 
and consequently the trees 
are susceptible to winter in- 
jury or even to injury from 
cold periods in the autumn. 
Much of the trouble that is 
experienced with 1 -year-old 
trees may be attributed to 
improper methods of han- 
dling after the trees are re- 
ceived from the nursery. 

In selecting trees, care 
should be exercised to choose 
those that are thrifty, clean, 
and of medium growth. It 
would not be safe to say 
that only straight trees 
should be purchased, as 
those of some varieties, such 
as the Winter Nelis and 
the Bosc, are usually very 
unshapely while they are in 
the nursery and often even 
until they come into bear- 
ing. It is extremely desir- 
able to procure trees that 
are well supplied with buds, 
as in this case the grower 
will be able to prune so that 
the branches will be properly 
spaced. Fig. 1 shows desii- 
able 1 -year-old trees; in (a) 
is shown a Comice tree and 
in (6) is shown a Winter 
Nelis tree. 


18. If a grower desires to procure trees from a nursery he 
should place his order early so as to avoid any possibility of 
disappointment. When the trees arrive at the railroad sta- 
tion, if they are shipped, the grower should get them promptly 
in order to be sure that they will not be injured. The trees 
should then be heeled-in until time to plant them. It is desir- 
able, in heeling-in the trees, to have the tops point toward 
the south; this is especially important if the planting is to be 
done in the spring, as the trees will not be as likely to start to 
grow as if the tops pointed toward the north. If considerable 
time is to elapse from the time the trees are received until 
they are planted in the orchard, it is best to heel them in singly 
rather than in bundles. Trees heeled-in singly are not so 
likely to be injured by scald as those heeled-in in bundles. 
The soil should be tamped firmly about the roots, and if there 
is danger of very cold weather, it is advisable to scatter a little 
mulch, such as decayed leaves or straw, on the ground around 
the trees. 


19. Time for Planting. — ^Where the climatic conditions 
are suitable it is better to plant pear trees in the fall than in 
the spring. Fall planting has the advantage over spring plant- 
ing in that the trees become firmly established in the soil before 
winter sets in and are thus able to start growth in the spring 
before the ground can be put in condition for spring planting. 
This is an important advantage, as the trees make a good 
growth in the early part of the season before summer droughts 
occur. In many localities, however, it is not advisable to 
plant pear trees in the fall. If the winter temperature of a 
locality becomes very low at times, such as zero or lower, fall- 
planted trees would be likely to sustain injury the first winter 
from freezing of the roots. In general, it may be said that if 
there is any doubt as to the best time to plant trees, it is a 
good plan to choose the spring. In the case of fall planting 
the trees may be planted any time from late fall to almost 
spring. If spring is chosen as the time for planting, the trees 


should be set in the ground as early as it can be got in proper 

20. Preparing of the Soil. — The pear will grow on more 
poorly drained land than the apple, but nevertheless it will 
not do well unless it has fairly good drainage. If the land is 
poorly drained the trees will be low in vitality and will not 
produce well. It is doubtful, however, whether it is advis- 
able to plant pear trees on land that requires systematic drain- 
age over the entire area, as plenty of good land for pear growing 
can be obtained that does not need much, if any, draining. 
In case some draining is necessary, the tile should be laid fairly 
deep, from 4| to 5 feet being, as a rule, a good depth. 

It is important that land for pears be thoroughly prepared 
before the trees are planted. If the planting is to be done in 
the spring and the soil is stiff, it is advisable to plow the ground 
in the fall, especially in climates where there is considerable 
freezing in winter, as the alternate freezing and thawing will 
pulverize the soil. Fall plowing is advantageous, too, in regions 
where there is danger of summer drought, as the soil will absorb 
a great deal of moisture that will be of value during the grow- 
ing season. Of course, if it is not convenient to plow the grotmd 
in the fall for spring planting, the plowing can be done early 
in the spring. If the planting is to be done in the fall, the 
plowing should be done a sufficient length of time before the 
trees are to be set to allow of getting the land in proper order. 

The depth to plow depends largely on the nature of the soil. 
In the case of soils that are light and mellow and do not have 
a stiff-clay subsoil, less preparation will be required than in the 
case of heavy soils. An excellent plan in the case of extremely 
heavy soils is to plow the ground in lands, leaving the dead 
furrows where the rows of trees are to be set. It is well to 
break up the bottoms of the dead furrows by running a subsoil 
plow through them two or three times. This method affords 
a good tilth under the trees and provides a measure of under- 
drainage. Under average conditions it is advisable to plow 
from about 8 to 9 inches deep, if possible, and harrow the 
ground well before planting. 


When the planting is to be done in spring and the land has 
been plowed the previous fall, the soil should be thoroughly 
worked in the spring until it is in good condition. For this 
work a disk harrow, a spring-tooth harrow, a clod crusher, 
or a roller |nay be used. If the ground is liunpy a corrugated 
roller can be used to advantage. 

In some sections it may be desired to strip areas of their 
timber and to prepare the land for pear planting. In this 
case the stimips should be removed by dynamite or some other 
means and the ground worked down thoroughly before the 
planting is done. If the soil is very loose and rich, it is advis- 
able to grow other crops on the land for 2 or 3 years ; if pears 
are planted on soil that is very rich the trees will make too 
rapid growth and consequently will be very susceptible to fire 

21. Distance for Planting. — There is no specific dis- 
tance at which pear trees will do better than at any other dis- 
tance, consequently the distance for planting is largely a matter 
of personal opinion. Some of the most experienced growers 
have found that a good distance for planting standard pears 
is 15 feet apart in the rows, the rows being 30 feet apart. The 
object of planting thus is to obtain large crops of fruit from the 
ground until the trees become large enough to interfere with 
each other, when each alternate tree in the rows is cut out, 
leaving the trees a distance of 30 feet apart. In case it is not 
desired to use pear fillers, a good distance for planting is 20 to 
22 feet apart each way. 

Dwarfs are sometimes planted 10 feet apart each way, but 
15 feet each way, or 193 trees to the acre, is better. This 
distance gives room to drive through the grounds for spraying 
and gathering the fruit. 

The various planting systems such as the square, the 
quincunx, and the hexagonal, which have already been described 
in a previous Section, may be used also in the case of the pear. 
The grower can choose the system that he prefers. 

22. Arrangement of Varieties. — In commercial pear 
orcharding there is a tendency to plant the trees in large blocks. 




leaving out a row here and there to provide driveways. Grow- 
ers often go to an extreme in this, however, planting single 
varieties in large blocks only to discover when it is too late 
that the trees will not set fruit well, due to self -sterility. The 
matter of pollination is an important point to consider in 
arranging the varieties in a pear orchard. 




Date of 


Date of 




Lawrence .... 



Angouleme . . . 
Bloodgood . . . 


Clapp Favorite 



Patrick Barry. 


Winter Nelis . . 


Mt. Vernon . . . 

April 6 
March 29 
April 6 
March 29 
April 8 
April 9 
April 8 
April 9 
April 8 
April 10 
April 8 
April 8 
April IT 
April 9 
April 6 
March 29 

April II 





It is impossible to divide pears into arbitrary classes with 
reference to their capacity for self-pollination. A variety 
'that, in one locality, is self -sterile may, in another locality, be 
self -fertile. For example, in most parts of the East the Bartlett 
seems to be self -sterile but on the Pacific coast it is generally 
self-fertile. However, all varieties have a tendency either to 
be self-sterile or self-fertile. The following common varieties 
are more or less self-sterile: Angouleme, Anjou, Bartlett, 


Clairgeau, Clapp Favorite, Howell, Lawrence, Sheldon, and 
Winter Nelis. Common varieties that have a tendency to be 
self -fertile are : Bosc, Seckel, Angouleme, Flemish, Kieffer, and 

The best plan in planting pears is to choose at least two or 
three varieties, the blooming periods of which overlap, and 
plant these in oblong blocks of four rows each. This will insure 
proper pollination. Mr. C. I. Lewis, of the Oregon Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station, has collected data regarding the 
average date of the first bloom and of iuR bloom of the common 
varieties when grown in Oregon. Table I gives this data. The 
blooming time of a partictilar variety varies, of course, in dif- 
ferent localities, but the variation is much the same in the case 
of all other varieties. 

23. Preparing of Trees for Planting. — If pear trees 
are planted in the fall, winter, or very early spring, the tops 
should not be pruned until the trees start to grow. If the 
tops are pruned at the time of planting, the trees may suffer 
from dieback or may lose buds that are essential to the 
development of a good framework. In case the plant- 
ing is done in late spring after danger of freezing is past, 
the tops of the trees may be pruned at the time of 

Considerable difference of opinion exists as to the 
proper method for trimming young pear trees when 
they are set. Different trees require considerably dif- 
ferent trimming; consequently, it is impossible to give 
specific instructions for the operation. As a rule, dwarfs 
and small 1-year-old trees are trimmed to a whip, 
which is headed back to about a 2-foot length, as 
shown in Fig. 2 at a. Large 1-year-old trees and 
2-year-old trees are cut back to a length of 25 inches 
or more, depending on the size and form of the tree. 
Fig. 2 and all but from three to five of the best branches that 
are retained are cut back to short lengths. This method of 
trimming is illustrated in Fig. 3; in (a) is shown a large 1-year- 
old Cornice tree before pruning; in (b), a 1-year-old Comice tree 

Fig. 5 



after pruning; in (c), a 2-year-old Winter Nelis tree before 
pruning; and in (d), a 2-year-old Winter Nelis tree after pru- 
ning. In Fig. 4 (a) is shown a 2-year-old Bartlett tree before 
pruning; in (6), a 2-year-old Bartlett tree after pruning; in (c), 
a 2-year-old Cornice tree before pruning ; and in (J) , a 2-year-old 
Cornice tree after pruning. 

The roots of pear trees should be pruned at the time of setting 
the trees. All decayed and broken roots should be removed, 
and the long roots should be shortened, from about one-third 
to one-half of the root system being removed. Fig. 5 illus- 
trates the method of pruning roots; in (a) is shown the roots 
of a Winter Nelis tree before pruning; in {b), the roots of a 
Winter Nelis tree after pruning; in (c), the roots of a Comice 
tree before pruning; and in (d), the roots of a Comice after 

Pear trees are set in the ground in much the same way as 
apple trees, the' ground being staked as described in Apple 
Culture, Part 1. It is advisable, when possible, to have all 
of the stock at hand before the planting is begim, so that if 
it is necessary to discard any trees it can be done at the outset 
and new trees ordered to take the place of those not desirable 
for planting. As pears are generally planted on clay soils, 
it is better not to dig the holes until just before the trees are 
to be set. If the soil is very stiff, fairly large holes should 
be dug, and if it is available, good top soil should be placed in 
the bottom of the holes. Although on certain soils it might 
pay to put some water in the holes when the trees are planted, 
this is never done in the case of commercial orchards. When 
only a few trees are planted, however, this can often be done 
to advantage. Standard trees should generally be set about 
2 inches deeper than they were in the nursery, and great care 
should be taken to set them firmly, as loosely-set trees often 
die. Dwarf trees are usually planted so that the union is 
about level with the surface of the ground, so that when the 
soil settles the imion will be a little above the groimd. 





24. Young pear orchards are cultivated for about the same 
purposes and in much the same manner as young apple orch- 
ards. In the case of pear orchards, however, more care must 
be taken not to overstimulate the trees by too much cul- 
tivation than in the case of apple orchards; overstimulation 
of young pear trees results in a sappy growth of wood, which 
renders them very susceptible to attacks of fire blight. 

As a rule, a young pear orchard should be plowed each spring, 
although if the soil is very light, disking may be practiced 
occasionally instead. The disking of orchard ground as a sub- 
stitute for plowing is not, however, practiced as extensively 
as it was a few years ago. In soils of good tilth that are not 
underlaid with a stiff-clay subsoil, the roots of the trees will 
have a tendency to grow downwards and plowing, if com- 
menced when the trees are young and kept up for several years, 
will remove only a few of the surface roots, thereby encouraging 
the remaining roots to grow deeply into the ground, a condition 
that is desirable. In case the soil is underlaid with a stiff-clay 
subsoil, however, the roots will not grow deeply into the ground 
but will extend laterally through the upper soil; in such cases 
plowing may cut and break off so many roots that the trees 
will be injured. Under such conditions it would undoubtedly 
be advisable to disk the ground rather than to plow it. 

25. It is important for young pear trees to make a steady 
growth, especially in spring and early summer. This growth 
should not be a puny, sickly one on the one hand, or an 


over-luxuriant, rapid one on the other hand. In order to 
secure a desirable growth, careful attention must be given to 
the orchard in the spring. On heavy soils it is a good plan 
to start the plowing as soon as the ground can be worked. 
On light soUs plowing should not be started until the weather 
has become settled, as early plowing in the case of such soils 
tends to start the trees into activity, causing the sap to rise, 
which may result in sun scald, sour sap, or other troubles. 
The plowing, in either case, shordd be rather deep. 

After the ground has been plowed the soil should be worked 
into good condition. In the case of heav^^ soils it is often a 
good plan to work the ground with a disk harrow soon after 
plowing in order to prevent baking of the soil. A spring-tooth 
harrow will be found to be of value where there is considerable 
turf, or sod, that must be torn to pieces after plowing. A spike- 
tooth harrow is effective for pulverizing heavy soils. A smooth- 
ing implement such as the Acme harrow or the Kimball weeder 
is very desirable for orchard work; the Kimball weeder is a 
favorite implement on the Pacific coast. For mashing clods 
and leveling the surface of the ground, the common drag is 
useful. If a drag is used it is a good plan to make it in two 
sections and fasten these together side by side, as when made 
in this way a drag will not have a tendency to level merely the 
high places. An implement that is rapidly coming into use 
on the Pacific coast for orchard cultivation is the corrugated 
roller. This implement grinds up the soil and pulverizes it 
very efficiently. It will save a lot of work, especially in the 
case of clay or adobe soils. 

After the ground has been got in order all that will be neces- 
sary, in case intercrops are not grown, will be to harrow it at 
frequent intervals throughout the season. The nimiber of 
harrowings to give will depend on the soil, climatic conditions, 
etc. In general, the ground should be harrowed siifficiently 
often to prevent weeds from growing or the ground from baking. 
In dry regions, great care should be given to the ground dur- 
ing June and Jidy, so that weeds and baking of the soil will not 
cause moisture to be lost. However, if it is possible to cease 
cultivation by the middle of July or the first of August it should 


be done. There is no advantage to be gained by cultivating 
young trees after they have made desirable growth and there 
are many disadvantages. If cultivated further the trees will 
be encouraged to make more wood growth, which is not wanted. 
It is best to have the trees get into winter condition as early as 

If a pear grower desires to grow other crops between the 
rows of trees as a matter of economy, this may be done for a 
few years after the trees are set without any detriment to the ' 
orchard, provided the crop is such as to require thorough culti- 
vation. To grow among the trees the first season after plant- 
ing there is no better crop than com. It requires thorough 
ciiltivation and affords a shade to the young trees at a season 
when they most need protection from the heat of the sun. 
Other crops, such as potatoes, cabbage, peas, beans, melons, etc., 
may be grown to advantage. Small grain or grasses which do 
not require ctdtivation should not be allowed in a newly 
planted orchard. All these crops take from the soil plant-food 
that is needed for the orchard. 


26. As soon as a pear orchard comes into bearing the grow- 
ing of intercrops should be discontinued. As a rule, the orchard 
should be plowed in early spring to warm up the soil and to 
facilitate the storage of moisture from spring rains in the sub- 
soil below. Even greater care should be taken not to injure 
the roots of bearing trees than is needed in the care of young 
trees. Shallow surface tillage should be maintained through- 
out the season by means of harrows or other stirring implements. 


27. Sod Culture. — ^Although it is usually advisable to 
practice clean tillage in the case of pear orchards, there are 
certain conditions under which it might be advisable to put 
an orchard in sod. In many parts of the Eastern and Middle 
Western States, especially, pear trees tend to make a very 


rapid growth and consequently are extremely susceptible to 
attacks of the fire blight. In such a case sod cialture is to be 
recommended, as it will tend to retard the growth of the trees. 
Also, many pear orchards are planted on steep Mllsides where, 
if clean tillage were practiced, considerable erosion would occur. 
Under such conditions, sod culture would be much preferable 
to clean tillage. In all cases where sod culture is practiced, 
however, a sufficient growth of grass should be secured to 
maintain a thick mulch. 

28. MulchL Culture. — ^When pears are planted on very 
heavy soils, mulch culture is often particiilarly advantageous. 
For example, on the Pacific coast, where pears are often grown 
on heavy adobe soils that are sticky and hard to handle, it is 
likely that in many cases mulching is the most effective and 
economical method of soil management. However, before 
adopting the mulch-culture system, a grower should experiment 
on a small part of his orchard in order to ascertain whether or 
not the system is satisfactory. 

29. Catch Crops and Cover Crops. — The use of catch 
crops and cover crops in orchards has already been discussed 
in Apple Culture, Part 2. The information given in the Sec- 
tion referred to applies also to pears; consequently, it need not 
be repeated here. 


30. The principles that underlie the pruning of the pear 
are not materially different from those that underlie the pruning 
of the apple. In the case of each the relation of bud develop- 
ment to fruiting is almost identical and the principle of building 
a strong, sturdy tree the first few years is the same. It is com- 
monly believed that pear trees do not require as much pruning 
as apple trees, many persons holding to the belief that pear 
trees should not be pruned at all. It is true that the pear tree 
has more of a tendency to assimie a balance between the top 
and the root system than the apple tree, and that the former 
tends more to produce a crop annually than the latter. It is 


true also that as color is not as important in pears as in certain 
varieties of apples, it is not as essential to prune the pear tree 
for the admission of sunlight to the fruit as it is to prune the 
trees of these certain varieties of apples for this purpose. Not- 
withstanding these facts, it should not be said that it is of less 
importance to prune the pear than it is to prune the apple. 

The trees of varieties like the Anjou require fairly heavy 
pruning, especially during the first few years after they com- 
mence to bear. Trees of varieties like the Winter Nelis and 
the Bosc are difficult to prune during their, early growth, as 
they grow very crooked and irregular. Some varieties have 
an upright habit of growth and some make a slender, straggling 
growth. All need attention each year. 

31. Time for Pruning. — In most localities, pears are 
pruned in late winter or early spring. In parts of California 
and in some of the Southern States, however, pruning is done 
in the fall without any bad effects. In regions where cold 
periods occur it is advisable, in the case of young trees, to do 
the pruning in spring after growth has started. 

The proper time for summer pruning varies from the middle 
of July to the middle of September, depending on the vigor 
of the trees. The Oregon Experiment Station has found, 
after limited experimentation, that the best time for simimer 
pruning of pears, except the Bartlett, is late in the season when 
the trees are ceasing their vegetative growth and the terminal 
buds are becoming plump; the indications are that the best 
time to prune the Bartlett in summer is in June. 

32. Metliods of Pruning. — Most growers now favor the 
low-headed type of tree, which has already been discussed 
in a previous Section. Of this type of tree there are two forms, 
the pyramidal headed and the open headed, which, also, have 
already been described. Most pear growers at the present 
time prune for the open-headed form or some modification of 
it, as pyramidal-headed trees are difficiilt to manage in case 

-they become infected with fire blight. Many western pear 
growers now favor what is known as the modified-center form 
of open-headed tree. A leader is allowed to grow for 2 or 




3 years, so as to give a better distribution of the scaffold 

Pruning of the pear should be begun at the time of planting 
by cutting the young trees back, as has already been explained. 

This cutting back will cause sev- 
eral of the upper buds to grow, 
thus starting the top, or head, at 
the proper height. The young 
shoots should be watched and 
only such left to grow as are to 
form the main branches. Strong 
shoots that tend to grow oblique- 
ly outwards should be selected 
for retaining. At the beginning 
of the second year these shoots 
should be cut back to the extent 
of about one-half of their growth, 
as illustrated in Fig. 6, the lines 
showing where the cuts should 
be made. 

The same plan of pruning 
should be continued the third 
and fourth years, about one- 
half of each year's growth being 
removed. Caution should be ex- 
ercised, however, to study each 
tree; no arbitrar}^ rule can be 
laid down for pruning trees. In 
Fig. 7 (a) is shown a 3-year-old 
Anjou tree before being pruned, 
and in (b) is shown a 3-year-old 
Anjou tree after being pruned. 
Fig. 8 (a) shows a 4-year-old Bart- 
lett tree before being pruned and (b) shows the same tree after 
being pruned. When the growth is cut back the top bud should 
be one on the side of the branch facing the direction in which 
the growth needs to be diverted; this will facilitate shaping the 
tree into the form desired. 

Fig. 6 




33. When pear trees reach the bearing age, they should 
be pruned so as to keep them from becoming too rangy and 
dense. When trees tend to become rangy, the terminal growth 
of some of the leaders should be cut back to a strong lateral. 
If this method of pruning is followed there will be less likelihood 
of forcing out water sprouts and sucker growth than if all the 
leaders are cut back to the same length. If a tree tends to 

Fig. 7 

become too dense or the wood too spindling, some of the weaker 
wood should be thinned out. When trees have a tendency to 
make too much wood growth, it is advisable not to prune too 
heavily in the spring. The best plan is to prune pear trees 
moderately each year, so that excessive pruning will not be 
necessary. In Fig. 9 is illustrated a Comice tree before pni- 
ning. Fig. 10 shows the same tree after pruning. Summer 




pruning is sometimes practiced in pear orchards for the purpose 
of overcoming the habit that the trees of some varieties have of 

Fig. 8 

bearing the fruit on the end of the twigs of the previous year's 
growth. It is also of advantage when the trees are growing 
too much wood at the expense of the fruit. If trees are pruned 



in the spring and again in the siurmier the vegetative vigor can 
be greatly reduced. In sirmmer pruning the usual practice 
is to remove from about one-third to one-half of the terminal 
growth of that season. 


34. Fertilizing of Pear Orchards. — ^Little attention 
has been paid by growers to the fertilizing of pear orchards, 
because the pear, as a rule, makes a too rapid growth even 
without fertilizer. In rare cases it may happen that, because 
of some unusual condition of the soil, the trees will not make 
a satisfactory growth or will not produce good crops. In such 
instances fertilizers may be needed to correct the defect. How- 
ever, before applying either stable manure or commercial fer- 
tilizer to a pear orchard, a grower should conduct a fertilizer 
experiment. A simple experiment is as follows: (1) On one 
row or a part of one row sufficient to give accurate data, apply 
stable manure at the rate of 1 ton per acre, or nitrate of soda 
or high-grade dried blood at the rate of 75 pounds per acre. 
(2) On a similar area apply at the rate of 200 pounds per acre 
either, muriate or sulphate of potash, or 1 ton of unleached 
wood ashes. (3) On a similar area apply at the rate of 350 
pounds per acre a good grade of acid phosphate. (4) Apply on 
a similar area manure or nitrate of soda as recommended in 
(1) and muriate or sulphate of potash or wood ashes as recom- 
mended in (2). (5) Apply on a similar area manure or nitrate 
of soda as recommended in (1) and acid phosphate as recom- 
mended in (3) . (6) Apply on a similar area potash or wood 
ashes as recommended in (2) and acid phosphate as recom- 
mended in (3). (7) Apply on a similar area the materials 
recommended in (1), (2), and (3). (8) Leave a row or a part 
of a row between each of the fertilized plots as a check plot. 
This experiment is much more simple than might be thought, 
as the fertilizer combinations are built up one from another 
and all of the fertihzer materials named are easily secured. 
In order to supply accurate data, the experiment shotild be 
conducted for several years. 


The time and manner of applying manure or commercial 
fertilizer to a pear orchard are the same as in the case of the 

35. ThirLQing of Pears. — It is a mistake to allow pear 
trees to overbear, as the fruit will be small and the trees will 
be likely to develop a tendency to bear only in alternate years. 
All deformed, inferior, and insect-infested fruit, as well as per- 
fect fruit that is less than from 4 to 6 inches apart on the limbs, 
should be removed from the trees. This thinning is usually 
done after what is known as the June drop, or during the last 
of June or the first of July. If pears are thinned the remaining 
fruit grows much larger than it otherwise would, and at har- 
vesting time a grower wiU find that there will be more bushels 
of first-grade fruit on the trees than if the pears had not been 
thinned. Besides, the trees will be spared from bearing an 
excessive burden and will be more likely to bear a crop the next 

36. Renovation of Neglected Pear Orchards. — If 

neglected pear trees are not too old and still have sound trunks 
they can often be brought into a state of profitable bearing. 
In case the orchard has not been plowed for several years it is 
doubtful whether it would be advisable to plow it, because 
if this were done the roots of the trees would likely be severely 
injured. In general, it may be said that if the orchard is in 
a region where it is difficult to obtain sufficient moisture, the 
orchard should be plowed, but otherwise sod or mulch culture 
should be practiced. 

The tops of neglected trees should not be pruned too heavily 
at first, as this would result in a heavy growth of water sprouts, 
which would be unfavorable to fruit production. The best 
plan is to cut out all weak and diseased wood at the dormant 
pruning and head back the terminal growth moderately by 
summer pruning. If the trees are too high headed the branches 
should be cut back to a strong lateral. In case the trees are 
of undesirable varieties, they can be top-worked to the varieties 



37. The various diseases and insects of the pear, with their 
control meastires, have already been discussed in the preceding 
Section. It is not the purpose here to repeat the information 
already given, but rather to present the different sprayings in 
chronological order. The following sprayings are recommended 
for the pear : 

1. Just as the leaf buds are swelling but before they are 
open, spray with lime-sulphur solution of a specific gravity 
of 1.03, to which has been added 2 pounds of arsenate of 
lead to each 50 gallons of the spray solution. This spray- 
ing is for the control of the San Jose scale and the leaf -blister 

2. After the leaf buds are open, but just before the first 
blossoms open, spray with lime-sulphur solution of a specific 
gravity of 1.006, or with Bordeaux mixture made by mixing 
4 pounds of copper sulphate, 4 pounds of lime, and 50 gallons 
of water. This spraying is for the control of the pear scab. 
The remedies for pear scab vary considerably in different sec- 
tions; consequently, it is advisable for a grower to consult 
the nearest experiment station with reference to the control 
of this disease. 

3. When the petals of the blossoms are still falling and the 
calyxes are still open, spray with from 2 to 3 pounds of arsenate 
of lead mixed with 50 gallons of the same lime-sulphur solution 
given in paragraph 2. This spraying is for the control of the 
codling moth, pear scab, and any other fimgous disease present. 

4. In case the pear psylla is present in the locality, spray, 
just after the blossoms have fallen, with dilute kerosene-soap 
emulsion, made by mixing 1 part of kerosene-soap stock solu- 
tion and 6 parts of water; or spray with whale-oil soap made by 
mixing 1 pound of whale-oil soap and from 4 to 5 gallons of 
water; or spray with one of the tobacco extracts, using a 2.7-per- 
cent, nicotine preparation diluted with from 65 to 100 parts 
of water. This spraying is for the control of the pear psylla 
and should be repeated at intervals of from 3 to 7 days until 
the insects are under control. 


5. From 10 to 14 days after the spraying described in para- 
graph 3, spray again with the same materials. This spraying 
is principally for the control of the codling moth and the pear 

6. The green aphis is controlled in the same way as in the 
case of the apple. This pest should be sprayed for as soon as 
it appears, before the leaves curl, and is easy to control if this 
rule is followed. 




38. Picking of Pears. — It is often somewhat difficult 
to determine when pears are ready to be picked. If they are 
allowed to hang on the trees too long they will develop a high 
color but become mealy in texture. On the other hand, if 
pears are picked too soon they will shrivel and be deficient in 
flavor. Most pear growers make the mistake of allowing 
the fruit to hang on the trees too long. As a rule, as soon as 
pears can be snapped from the spurs by a gentle twist they are 
in the best condition for picking. Often growers pick their 
pears early by clipping the stems; this enables them to take 
advantage of high prices that prevail early in the season. If 
a person is experienced in picking pears this practice may be 
followed without injury to the fruit, but an inexperienced per- 
son is likely to sustain considerable loss. Pears may be clipped 
early if the picking is done at the proper time, but it is difficult 
to determine just what is the proper time. 

About the same picking receptacles are used for pears as for 
apples. Any of the common receptacles will prove satisfac- 
tory, provided the picker exercises care in handling the fruit. 
When unskilled labor is employed, however, it is advisable 
to provide receptacles that will minimize, as much as possible, 
the likelihood of the pears being injured. A desirable form of 
receptacle, under such conditions, is the common galvanized- 
iron pail. Another good receptacle is a basket provided with a 


bail. Pails and baskets prevent bruising of the fruit when the 
pickers are descending the picking ladders and besides, may be 
emptied with little injury to the pears. 

A desirable form of picking ladder is the Japanese stepladder. 
The Japanese ladder is easy to handle and does not injure the 
trees like some other ladders. The common stepladder also 
is extensively used in the picking of pears. Whatever form of 
ladder is chosen it should be such as not to injure the trees; 
this is a A^ery important point in the case of the pear. 

As has already been stated, pears are generally picked by 
simply twisting them from the spurs. Pickers should be 
cautioned to handle the fruit with the greatest possible care, 
as even slight bruises may be very damaging. Pickers soon 
acquire the ability to judge size, which is essential to good pick- 
ing. Inexperienced pickers often make use of a wire ring hung 
from the neck with a cord so that it can be readily applied to 
a pear; if the inside of the ring is made the size of the smallest 
pear to be picked, any pear that it will slip over without touch- 
ing is too small for picking and should be allowed to remain 
on the tree until the next picking. The minimum size of pears 
to be picked will depend on the variety and on the locality. 
The trees are usually picked over a number of times until all of 
the pears have been harvested. In the case of some varieties like 
the Bartlett the picking seasons often last from 4 to 6 weeks. 

For the transporting of pears from the orchard to the packing 
shed, crates such as those recommended for apples will be foimd 
satisfactory. A low wagon provided with springs can be used 
for hauling the fruit from the orchard. 

Perhaps the best system for the management of pickers is to 
hire them by the day and pay them at the end of each week. 
It is essential that extreme care be exercised in the handling 
of pears, and for this reason it is not advisable to hire pickers 
at a certain rate per bushel, as in this case they are lilcely to do 
the work carelessly in order to pick a large quantity of fruit. 
Often it is a good plan to provide each picker with tickets or 
coupons, one of which is to be placed in each orchard box of 
fruit picked. This will enable the foreman to ascertain the 
quality of work that each picker is doing. 


39. Grading of Pears. — It has been proved by experience 
that there is less profit in the grading of pears than in the gra- 
ding of almost any other kind of fruit. Pears of the same variety 
that are grown under similar conditions are, as a rule, fairly 
uniform in size, and do not require much grading. Notwith- 
standing this statement, it will usually be found that simple 
grading is profitable. Obviously, pears that are undersized, 
infested with insects, deformed, or blemished in any way should 
not be packed with first-class pears. The grading that is 
required, however, can be done by the packer, a special assorting 
of the fruit not being necessary. 

Most of the prominent growers and fruit associations sort 
pears into two grades known as fancy and choice. Following 
are the specifications of the Yakima Valley Fruit Growers 
Association for the two grades: 

In order to be graded as fancy, Bartlett, Anjou, Comice, 
Flemish, Clapp Favorite, Clairgeau, and pears of kindred 
varieties must be not smaller than 2| inches in diameter; 
Winter Nelis pears must not be smaller than If inches in 
diameter. All fruit must be free from worms, insect stings, 
scale, picking bruises, blemishes, evidence of rough handling, 
scab, or deformity of any kind whatever. 

Pears, in order to be graded as clioice, must be sound, free 
from worms, insect stings, scale, and disease; slightly mis- 
shapen pears, or those showing limb rub or other like defects, 
may be included. No pears less than 2| inches in diameter, 
except Winter Nelis, shall be accepted. In fact, stock in this 
grade must be only a little below fancy. 

40. Packing of Pears. — ^Pears are packed in a great 
many different kinds of packages. On the Pacific coast the 
pear box is the commonest package for fancy and choice fruit. 
The standard box is usually 18 inches long, 8| inches deep, 
and 11| inches wide; the half box is usually of the same width 
and length as the standard box but is only half as deep. A 
standard box when packed with fruit weighs approximately 
50 pounds, and the half box about half as much. Kieffer pears 
are often packed in barrels and hah barrels. Bushel baskets 


also are commonly used in the East and Middle West for pack- 
ing Kieffers; this form of package is popular for all varieties 
when the fruit is intended for local sale. In New York State, 
growers of Seckel pears often use a keg for packing the fruit. 
Sometimes pears are marketed in large Climax baskets, in 
which case they are generally packed in crates, or carriers, 
that hold a dozen or more of the baskets. In case pears are 
to be sold on the local market, and consequently do not have 
to be shipped, they are sold in bushel and half-bushel baskets, 
light barrels, etc. 

41. Before being packed in boxes, pears shoiild be graded 
to size and quality. Each pear should be wrapped in paper 
and placed in the box with the blossom end of the pear toward 
the end of the box. Each pear should be placed firmly in posi- 
tion and pressed down so that it fits snugly and cannot be shaken 
from side to side when the box is moved. Usually, a pear is 
picked up with the left hand from a box of loose pears, and 
paper from the paper rack is picked up with the right hand. 
The ■ pear is placed in the paper in the right hand with one 
motion, the paper closed around the pear with both hands, 
and the pear placed in position in the box. The packer usually 
has a place near a window so that he can have plenty of light. 
Each packer is provided with a box of loose pears from which 
he packs, another box for culls, and two or three'boxes that he 
is packing at one time. 

Packing of pears in boxes has not been standardized as much 
as the box packing of apples. However, recently a number of 
the western fruit associations have adopted standards for box 
pear packs. In general, the packing of pears in boxes is so 
similar to apple packing, which has already been described 
in a previous Section, that a detailed discussion is unnecessary. 
The style of pack in general vogue is the diagonal pack. The 
number of rows, tiers, and layers will depend, of course, on the 
size of the pears. Perhaps the packs most often used are the 
2-2, 3-2, and 3-3. Fig. 11 (a) shows a 2-2 pack; (b), a 3-2 
pack; and (c), a 3-3 pack. The method of making these packs 
is the same as in apple packing. 



In the case of pears, greater bulge is given to the box than 
in the case of apples; the bulge should, as a rule, be about 
f inch at both the top and bottom. The boxes are often lined 
with paper, the top layer of fruit being covered with lace paper. 
The method of nailing the boxes is the same as described for 

When pears are properly packed in boxes they can be shipped 
any distance if handled and braced properly. The bulge is 

only on the top and bottom of the box; consequently, the 
boxes should always be placed on their sides. This effectually 
prevents crushing of the fruit. 

42. When baskets are used for packing, the top layer is 
usually arranged so as to give a neat appearance to the pack- 
age. When carriers are used some effort is generally made to 
put the pears in regular order. If kegs or half barrels are used 
the pears are occasionally laid in individually, the stems point- 
ing inwards and the calyxes toward the outside of the keg 
or barrel; sometimes this system is varied by placing the first 
row so the stems point inwards and the second row so that they 
point outwards. When barrels are used, about the only placing 
of specimens that is done is in producing the face of the barrel. 



43. Because of the relatively small output of pears, not 
as much experience has been gained in the storing of this fruit 
as in the storing of apples. However, the experience that has 
been gained has proved that pears can often be as successfully 
and profitably handled in cold storage as apples. If pears are 
picked without injury, packed in a cool place, and stored where 
a sufficiently low temperature can be maintained, they can be 
kept for months. But if pears are bruised in handling and then 
exposed to a warm temperature in packing they will be almost 
sure to deteriorate if placed in cold storage. If pears are held 
at about 32° F., they seem to hold up much better than if they 
are held at a higher temperature. Also, if they are wrapped 
in paper, they will hold up better than if not wrapped. 

Pears improve in quality, flavor, and lusciousness while in 
storage, provided they have been picked before ripening. 
Pears that have developed to a proper size on the trees, 
although hard and of seemingly poor quality for eating, wiU, 
in a few weeks or months, develop or ripen to their very finest 

Pears, like apples, can be maintained fairly well in home 
storage, that is, in cellars or in specially constructed storage 
houses. They should be wrapped in paper, as in cold storage. 
As a rule, however, pears cannot be kept much after Thanks- 
giving in home storage. 


44. The pear is not as well known in fruit markets as the 
apple. This is largely due to small production, careless packing, 
and unfamiliarity on the part of the public with the best vari- 
eties. However, the pear is rapidly increasing in popularity 
and there is reason for the belief of many authorities that the 
marketing of pears at remunerative prices will become less 
difficult each year. 

Pears are marketed in the same way as apples, consequently 
little discussion of this subject is necessary. Each grower 
must determine after a study of his own conditions whether 


it will be more profitable to sell the fruit on the local market 
or to consign it to a wholesaler. In the case of large orchards, 
it is often the best plan to sell the entire crop to a buyer for 
a commission house. In the case of small orchards, the best 
prices can often be obtained by building up a special retail 
trade. A great deal of fruit is now being handled by asso- 
ciations, which sell to wholesale buyers, thus eliminating the 
local dealers. When fruit is handled in this way the grower 
must wait until the association receives pay for the fruit and can 
apportion it to each grower. This is because the association 
usually has a large number of small lots that must be sorted 
so as to ship as many pears of one kind, pack, and grade in 
one shipment as are required. In many cases it is an advantage 
to ship only one variety of pears in a carload lot. 

Many growers make the mistake of shipping their pears to 
markets that are glutted with fruit or that do not have a demand 
for the particular variety or varieties the grower has to sell. 
It is always advisable to know as much as possible about the 
conditions and demands of a market before shipping fruit to it. 
This information can be obtained by corresponding with reliable 

Fancy and choice pears should be put up in an attractive 
package and be properly labeled, so that the prospective cus- 
tomers will know where and by whom the fruit was grown. 
Cull pears can often be disposed of to canneries at prices almost 
equal to those obtainable for fancy and choice grades. 




1. For convenience cherries ma}^ be divided according to 
the acidity of the fruit into three classes — sour cherries, sub- 
acid cherries, and sweet cherries. There is, however, much 
overlapping, and often it is somewhat difficult to determine 
the class to which a variety belongs. The Pacific Coast States 
produce most of the sweet and subacid cherries that appear 
on the market. Recently, however, certain districts along the 
shores of Lake Michigan have begun to compete with the 
Pacific Coast States in the production of sweet cherries. 
Throughout the Middle West and in the Eastern States most 
of the cherries grown are of the sour varieties. 

2. The sour clierries most frequently grown belong to 
two general groups: (1) the amarelles, which are light-colored 
cherries with slightly flattened ends and have a colorless juice; 
and (2) the morellos, which are dark-colored cherries of heart 
or of spherical shape and have a dark-colored juice. The number 
of new varieties of sour cherries is being increased b}^ propa- 
gation from seed in the Eastern and the Central States and by 
importations from Russia and other parts of Europe. 

As a class, the sour cherry trees are characterized by a low, 
round-headed type of growth and have the habit of suckering 





from the roots; the flowers are in small clusters from lateral 
buds and generally appear before the foliage; the leaves arc 
light or grayish green, are narrowed to a point, and are hard; 
the fruit is roundish and always red; the flesh is soft and sour. 

3. The subacid cherries are those that cannot be called 
either sour or sweet and they belong to a small group known 
as the dukes group. The varieties of this group are believed 
by some of the best horticulturists to have originated from 
the crossing of sweet and sour cherries. In type of tree gro^vth, 
in flowers and foliage, and in shape of the fruit the varieties 
of the dukes group resemble the sweet cherries, but in flavor 
the fruit resembles sour cherries more nearly than sweet, being 
subacid and in some cases fairly acid. The fruit of the dukes 
is heart shaped, excellent in flavor, juicy, and usually tender. 
However, the fruit is subject to rot and ships very poorly, 
and for these reasons the cherries of the dukes group are not 
grown so extensively as those of other groups. One very 
undesirable feature of this group of cherries is that all the fruit 
on a tree does not ripen at about the same time, the ripening 
period extending over a considerable length of time. 

4. The sweet clierries grown in the United States belong 
to three groups: (1) the mazzard group, which includes the 
common native sweet cherries of the Eastern States and the 
mazzard seedlings that are imported from Europe and used by 
nurserymen for stocks; (2) the heart, or gean group, the fruit of 
which is usually heart shaped and has soft flesh; and (3) the 
higarreau group, the fruit of which is heart shaped, hard 
fleshed, and of a light color, the typical fruit being light red 
on one side and whitish or lemon colored on the reverse side. 

As a class, sweet cherry trees are characterized by having a 
tall-growing and erect habit and a bark that tends to peel 
somewhat like the bark of a birch tree; the flowers are flimsy 
and appear in clusters on spurs with the foliage; the leaves are 
large and usually limp and gradually taper to a point; the 
fruit is variously colored, and may be either spherical or heart 
shaped ; the flesh may be either hard or soft and is generally 

Fig. 1 


5. Important Varieties of Sour Cherries. — The follow- 
ing is a list of some of the important varieties of sour cherries, 
with a brief description of each variety: 

The Baldwin, which is a variety of the morello group, is 
regarded as promising. The trees of this variety have stout, 
spreading tops and are good bearers. The fruit ripens in mid- 
season and is of good size and quality. 

The Briisseler Braune is a variety of Russian origin. 
The trees of this variety are meditim to large in size, upright 
in growth, and have long, slender branches. In some sections 
of the country the trees of this variety have been found to be 
poor bearers. The fruit, which is illustrated in the lower part 
of Fig. 1, is very late in ripening. It is medium in size and 
quality, and is astringent. 

The Dyehoiise is a variety of the amarelle group. The 
trees of this variety are not so vigorous as those of the 
Montmorency variety, which will be described later. The 
fruit of the Dyehouse is medium to small in size and light 
red in color. The flavor is slightly acid and the quality is 
very good. 

The Morello, or English Morello, is, as the name indicates, a 
variety of the morello group and is one of the oldest and best 
varieties of sour cherries grown in the eastern part of the 
United States. The trees are mediimi in size, slender but 
spreading in growth, and are hardy. The fruit is medium in 
size, roundish in shape, and of a reddish-black color. It is 
very sour and slightly astringent. The flesh and juice are dark. 
The fruit is firm and has excellent shipping qualities. 

The Montmorency, a variety of the amarelle group, is the 
standard variety of sour cherries grown in the United States. 
There are two strains of Montmorency, the Long-stemmed Mont- 
morency, or the Montmorency Ordinaire, and the Short-stemmed 
Montmorency. The Short-stemmed Montmorency, however, is 
little grown in the United States. The Long-stemmed Mont- 
morency is the one sold by nurserymen and is the one to which 
the following description refers. This is the variety desired by 
canners. The trees are hardy, good bearers, and come into 
bearing early. The fruit, which is illustrated in the upper part 



of Fig. 1, ripens in mid-season, is of medium size and of a rich 
dark-red color. It is acid and very good in flavor. 

The Ostlieim is a variety of the morello group, and really 
consists of a nimiber of strains. The variety has been grown 
in the United States for nearly a century. The trees are slender 

Fig. 2 

in growth but are very hardy. The fruit is large and round and 
of dark, reddish-brown color. It is juicy, medium acid in 
flavor, and moderately good in quality. The skin is tough. 
The Phillippe, or Louis PhilUppe, is a variety of the morello 
group. The trees of this variety are upright and spreading in 


growth and are said to be productive. The fruit is medium to 
late in ripening, of medium size and good quaHty and is dark 
re4 in color. It is acid and has tender red flesh. 

The Riclnnond, or Early Richmond, is a well-known variety 
of the amarelle group. The trees of this variety are hardy, 
vigorous, and profuse and regular bearers, but are inclined to 
be short lived. The fruit, which is illustrated in Fig. 2, ripens 
early or moderately earl}^ in the season. It is of medium size, 
light red in color, acid, very juicy, and rather rich in quality. 
The fruit keeps only a short time after being picked, and is 
therefore fit only for local-market and home use. 

The Suda is a variety of the morello group. The trees of 
this variety resemble those of the English Morello but are more 
upright in growth. They are profitable bearers in some sec- 
tions. The fruit of this variety can hardly be distinguished 
from that of the English Morello. 

The Wragg is a standard variety of the morello group. The 
trees resemble those of the English Morello variety. The 
fruit also resembles that of the English Morello, but is a little 
larger and is somewhat later in ripening. By some authorities, 
this variety is considered identical with the English Morello. 

6. Important Varieties of Subacid Clierries.^ — The 

following is a list of some of the most important varieties of 
the dukes group and a brief description of each variety: 

The trees of the variety Eugene are upright in growth and 
fairly productive, but lack in vigor. The fruit of this variety 
is among the earliest to ripen and lasts over a long season. 
The fruit is medium to large in size, amber red in color, and has 
a fine flavor. The flesh and juice are dark. 

The Hortense, or Reine Hortense, is a variety that is char- 
acterized by trees that are good growers and universal bearers. 
The fruit of this variety is among the largest of all cherries. 
It is heart shaped and of a beautiful glossy red, or a deep pink 
color. It is excellent for canning, but is too soft and juicy for 

The Magnifique is a productive variety. The trees are 
Upright and spreading in growth. The fruit is among the latest 


of the cherries to ripen, and for this reason it is of value. The 
fruit is too small and of too light a shade of red to take well in 
the market. It is firm, juicy, and of mild flavor, but is not of 
the highest quality. The flesh is pale yellow in color. 

The May Diike is one of the most popular varieties of the 
subacid cherries. The trees are hardy, vigorous growers, 
and productive. The fruit is among the earliest cherries to 
ripen and tends to ripen over a long season. It is large, of a 
dark-red color, very rich and juicy, of acid flavor, and excellent 
when ripe. 

The Montr euil, or Belle de Montreuil, is a comparatively 
new variety. The trees are vigorous, free from disease, upright, 
spreading in growth, and productive. The fruit is glossy dark 
red, almost black. The flesh and juice is dark red. The fruit 
is medium in quality. 

The Olivet is a variety that is frequently reported as impro- 
ductive. The trees, however, are strong, spreading growers. 
This variety was produced by a cross between a duke and a 
morello. The fruit is large and of a dark-red color. It ripens 
early, is of good quality, and is especially good for canning. 

7. Important Varieties of Sweet Cherries. — The 

following is a list and a brief description of some of the most 
important varieties of sweet cherries: 

The Bing- is a variety of the bigarreau group that is regarded 
as promising. The trees are strong growers. The fruit ripens 
in mid-season, is very large, almost black in color, firm fleshed, 
and of high quality. 

The Centennial is a variety of the bigarreau group, and 
is said to be a seedling of the Napoleon, a variety that will be 
described later. The trees of the Centennial variety are vigor- 
ous, productive, and fairly hardy. The fruit is large in size 
and ripens late. In color, it is yellow, marbled with crimson. 
It is very sweet and is a good shipper. This variety is con- 
sidered promising, especially on the Pacific coast. 

The Elton is a variety of the heart group. The trees of 
the variety are good growers but in some parts of the country 
are found to lack in productiveness. The fruit ripens about 


mid-season. It is very large, heart shaped, and of a pale 
yellow color with a red blush. The fruit is of the best quality, 
but is subject to rot and is therefore not a good shipper, 
although it is excellent for home use. The flesh is light colored 
and firm. 

The Lambert, which originated in Oregon, is a variety of 
the bigarreau group. The trees are hardy, vigorous, and strong 
growers. The fruit is large to very large and heart shaped; in 
color, it is dark amber, turning to a dark red as the fruit 
matures. The flesh is dark, rich, firm, juicy, and of good flavor. 
The pit of this cherry is small for the size of the fruit. 

One of the most popular sweet cherries is the Napoleon; 
also called the Royal Ann, a variety of the bigarreau group. 
The trees of this variety are strong and vigorous in growth 
and very productive. The fruit, which is illustrated in Fig. 3, 
ripens about mid-season. It is large and in color yellow 
shaded with red. The flesh is light colored, firm, juicy, and of 
good quality. 

The Rockport is a variety of the bigarreau group. The 
trees are moderate to vigorous in growth. The fruit ripens 
between early and mid-season. It is large, heart shaped, and 
red shaded with amber. The quality is very good. The fiesh 
is firm and juicy. 

An old and well-known variety that does well under many 
conditions is the Spaiiish, or Yellow Spanish, which is a variety 
of the bigarreau group. The trees of this variety are strong 
growers and are productive. The fruit ripens from mid-season 
to late, is large, and of a pale, waxy-yellow color with a red 
blush. It is of good quality. 

The Tartarian, or Black Tartarian, is one of the oldest and 
most popular varieties of the heart group. The trees lack in 
vigor and hardiness when compared with those of some other 
varieties of the group. The fruit, which is illustrated in Fig. 4, 
is very large, dark red in color, and mildly sweet. It is of good 
quality and generally brings high prices. 

One of the new varieties that has made a good reputation is 
the Windsor, which is a variety of the bigarreau group. This 
variety originated in Ontario and some of the best growers have 

Fig. 3 

Fig. 4 


recommended it as a variety that should be included in nearly 
all cherry orchards. The trees are hardy, vigorous, and very 
productive. The fruit tends to ripen late, is heart shaped, 
dark reddish brown, and of fine quality. The flesh is firm and 
of a dark-red color. 

A variety that is recommended for home use and for near-by 
markets is the Wood, also called Governor Wood, which is a 
variety of the heart group. The trees of this variety are 
strong, vigorous growers, and are productive. The fruit 
ripens early, is medium to large in size, and in color is pale 
yellow with a reddish blush. The fruit is of good quality but 
is subject to rot. The flesh is tender and juicy. 



8. size. — Throughout the greater part of the country 
few cherry orchards of more than 10 acres in extent exist. In 
some of the Pacific Coast States, however, extensive orchards 
of sweet cherries have been under cultivation for some years. 
Recently some large orchards of sour cherries ranging in size 
vip to 150 acres have been planted in Ontario and Quebec, in 
parts of New York and Pennsylvania, along the shores of Lake 
Michigan, and in the vicinity of St. Louis. One such orchard 
in Western New York consists of 50 acres of Early Richmond, 
50 acres of Montmorency, and 50 acres of English Morello. 

9. Location. — As has been said, the area in which cherries 
may be grown is widely distributed throughout the United 
States and Canada. There are, however, certain sections that 
are not adapted to the growing of cherries. In sections where 
the atmosphere is very dry, as on high plains, cherries cannot be 
profitably grown, because even if the trees make good growth 
they do not bear well. A point that must be considered in 
selecting a location for a cherry orchard is the availability of 
labor for harvesting the crop, which must be done in a compar- 
atively short time. 


The character of the soil must also be considered in selecting 
the location for a cherry orchard. The ideal soil for the sweet 
cherry is a deep, sandy loam. A clay subsoil may not interfere 
with the growth if the soil is well drained and the clay is not 
too compact. The soil should contain sufficient organic matter 
to retain moisture well, but it should not be too rich in nitrogen, 
as this will tend to stimulate a rank wood growth, which leads 
to exudation of sap and causes the tree to be unfruitful and 
short lived. The sour cherry will thrive on soil adapted to the 
growth of the sweet cherry and may also be grown with profit 
on well-drained clay loam. 

10. Site. — The selection of a proper site for the cherry 
orchard is very important, as no other hardy fruit is so suscep- 
tible to injury by frost or cold rain during blooming time. 
Especially is this true of the sweet cherries. 

The ideal site is a high elevation which has good air drainage 
as w^ell as good water drainage. Such a site tends not only to 
lessen the danger of injury by late spring frosts, but also reduces 
the damage by brown rot. If the grower has a choice of equall>' 
desirable land sloping in different directions, a northern slope 
should be selected, as the opening of buds in the spring is 
retarded more than on other slopes. The proximity of large 
bodies of water also lessens the danger of late frosts. 


11. In selecting the varieties of cherries to be grown in a 
commerical orchard, a grower should select from the varieties 
that have been successfully grown in that section. In the 
Pacific Coast States, sweet cherries are grown practically exclu- 
sively, and the following varieties have been recommended for 
growth in that region: Black Tartarian, Napoleon, Windsor, 
Yellow Spanish, Rockport, Elton, Bing, Lam.bert, and Cen- 
tennial ; of these the Black Tartarian and the Napoleon varieties 
probably stand first in importance. In the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains in the eastern part of Oregon, the dukes are widely 
planted, as they are more hardy and stand the winters better 


than the varieties just mentioned. In the Central West, sour 
cherries are planted almost entirely. The varieties most widely- 
grown are Dyehouse, Early Richmond, Montmorency, English 
Morello, and Wragg. In the Eastern States, sour cherries are 
largely grown, although some sweet cherries are also grown. 
The state of Michigan leads the other Eastern States in pro- 
duction of sweet cherries, and here about 1 acre of sweet to 
10 acres of sour cherries is grown. The sweet cherry most 
grown in Michigan and in other sections of the East is the 
Windsor, which is better adapted to clay loam than is any other 
variety of sweet cherry. The Napoleon and Yellow Spanish 
varieties, as well as the Magnifique and Montreuil, varieties of 
the dukes group, are also grown. The principal sour cherries 
grown in the Eastern States are Montmorency, Early Rich- 
mond, Ostheim, English Morello, and Wragg. 

X ijOC'}^ ai 



12. Propagation of Cherry Trees. — The usual method 
of propagating cherries is by budding. Seedlings 1 year old 
are planted and are budded the following summer as soon as buds 
are ripe on the parent, which is sometime in August in the 
Northeastern States, and somewhat earlier in sections having 
a warmer climate. Two kinds of stock are used for propaga- 
ting cherries, the mazzard, a seedling sweet cherry, and the 
mahaleb, a seedling sour cherry. Trees grown on mahaleb 
stock are more dwarf in habit and are said to be more hardy 
in the West than are trees grown on mazzard stock. For some 
years the Eastern nurserymen have been budding both sour and 
sweet cherries on the mahaleb, but there is now a demand for 
the sweet cherries on mazzard roots to be planted on light 
soils, and some experiments in New York seem to indicate that 
even on fairly heavy soils the mazzard is the better root for 
sour cherries, but even in that locality the mazzard stock 
sometimes suffers severely during hard winters. 

13. Nursery Trees. — It is best to order 1-year-old cherry 
triges for planting as trees of this age may be headed as low as 



desired. They will also have a greater proportion of their 
roots remaining upon them than will trees which have been 

Fig. 5 

allowed to grow longer in the nursery. Another advantage 
of 1 -year-old trees is that being small they are much easier to 
handle and less expensive to ship. In preparing the trees for 


planting the same precautions should be observed as in the 
case of plums. 

A No. 1 grade 2-year-old sour cherry tree of the Montmorency 
variety is shown in Fig. 5 (a) ; it measured 5 feet 6 inches above 
the bud and 9 inches below the bud, and calipered | inch. A 
No. 1 grade sweet cherry tree of the Napoleon variety is shown 
in (6) ; it measured 6 feet 3 inches above the bud and 9 inches 
below the bud, and calipered 1 3^ inches. 


14. Methods of Planting. — The methods of planting 
cherry trees are the same as those already outlined for other 
fruit trees, with the possible exception that when cherry trees 
are planted in the cold parts of the Prairie States and north of 
the 41st parallel, it is deemed to be good practice to plant 
them 6 to 12 inches deeper than they stood in the niu^sery row, 
and this is of special importance on the high, rolling land that 
is the most suitable for cherry orchards. As a rule, it is wise 
in any section to plant cherry trees somewhat deeper than they 
stood in the nursery. 

15. Time of Planting. — A large proportion of cherry 
trees are dug in the fall, and since a great many plantings 
are made in the fall, nurserymen, to rush the work, strip the 
foliage, frequently three or four weeks before it would fall 
naturally; this tends to weaken the trees and increase the loss, 
which is usually charged to autumn planting. In the judgment 
of some experienced growers, fall planting, made just as soon 
as the leaves drop naturally, is preferable to spring planting, 
as trees well planted in the fall are generally in better condition 
than trees in the nursery ceUar. 

The advantages of fall planting are that a better callus of the 
injured surface of the root is secured and some roots develop 
before winter. The soil being warmer in October than at any 
other time of the year, the growth of roots is encouraged more 
at that time than in spring. When trees are spring planted, 
the growth of foliage is made largely at the expense of the food 


stored in the truiik, and it is some time before the roots can 
develop marked activity. In fact, it is frequently June before 
new growth can be seen on the roots. If spring planting is 
practiced, it should be done as early as possible. 

16. Distance for Planting. — Sour cherries are set as 
close as 10 feet or 12 feet apart; 18 feet by 18 feet is a common 
distance. The sour varieties would be better planted 20 feet 
by 20 feet, and sweet cherries should be planted 30 feet apart 
each way, for in favorable locations the sweet cherry will make 
a large tree 40 to 50 feet high. 


17. Cultivation. — The soil for cherries is prepared in the 
same way as that for plums. A cultivated crop, such as com, 
potatoes, beans, etc., or garden truck, is frequently grown 
between the trees for the first 3 or 4 years, if Ihe soil is sufficiently 
rich. If intercropping is not practiced and the land is entirely 
given up to the trees, shallow cultivation is maintained until 
the middle of July or thereabouts. At this time cultivation 
ceases and a cover crop of some kind, for example, Crimson 
clover, oats and barley, buckwheat and rape, or one of various 
other crops is planted. The important point is to have a good 
mat of material on the ground to hold snow and afford pro- 
tection to the roots. In addition, these crops have some value 
as fertilizers. Many successful growers contend that it is 
absolutely necessary for a successful cherry orchard that it 
have good cultivation during its early life and that the trees 
be developed to a good size before bearing. A little more care 
must be taken in growing sweet cherries than in growing sour 
cherries. The sour cherry will stand forcing, but the sweet 
cherry may be made to grow too rapidly, in which case most 
of its energies will be devoted to the production of wood gro^vth 
and little to the production of fruit. When the trees come into 
bearing it is generally advisable to maintain good cultivation 
in the case of the sour cherries, but in some cases it is profitable 
to sow clover in the sweet-cherry orchard and let it remain for 


two or three seasons, especially if the trees are making much 
growth. Each grower will have to decide for himself as to 
the best method to pursue. It is safe to say that on sandy land 
cultivation should be maintained for both sweet and sour 
cherries. It is very important that cultivation be started as 
soon as possible in the spring, in order to retain as much mois- 
ture as possible in the soil. 

The tillage implements are those usually used in other 

18. Priming. — Compared with most other trees, the 
cherry should receive little pruning, especially after the first 
2 or 3 years. During the first year just sufficient wood should 
be removed to give the tree a spreading habit. The head 
should be started within 18 inches of the ground and according 
to some of the most successful growers should consist of from 
three to five main branches with a leader. Low-headed trees 
are secured by allowing siifficient distance between the trees 
and by heading in from the first year. It may be necessary to 
cut back the growth one-half each year until the tree comes 
into bearing. If this is done there must also be judicious 
thinning of the shoots, which are induced to grow because of 
this method of cutting back. After the trees reach bearing 
age little other pruning than to take out interfering or diseased 
wood is needed. 

19. Fertilizing. — The question of the desirability of 
fertilizing cherry orchards depends largely on local conditions. 
In general, however, where Crimson clover or Red clover can 
be grown as a catch crop and turned under in the spring, there 
will be little need to apply nitrogenous fertilizers. It is stated 
by some growers that the application of phosphate fertilizers, 
especially in the form of acid phosphate, tends to aid the trees 
in maturing their wood. Some growers recommend the appli- 
cation of 3 pounds of muriate of potash and 15 pounds of acid 
phosphate per tree, and in some cases the application of from 100 
to 250 pounds of muriate of potash and from 300 to 500 pounds 
of acid phosphate per acre is recommended. From 300 to 400 
pounds of muriate of potash and an equal quantity of ground 


bone have been applied per acre with good results. Wood 
ashes, when obtainable, may be applied at the rate of from 50 to 
100 bushels per acre in place of the muriate of potash. In each 
case the nitrogen is to be secured by plowing under legtuninous 
crops. Some growers use a 2-8-10 complete fertilizer at the 
rate of 400 to 800 pounds per acre. 

20. Spraying. — The first spray shoiild be applied to 
cherries before the buds break and should consist of lime- 
sulphur of a specific gravity of 1.03, or 32° Baiime diluted 
1 to 8. The second spray should be applied just before the 
fruit buds open and should consist of lime-sulphur of a specific 
gravity of 1.007, or 32° Baume diluted 1 to 40, and containing 
1| to 2 pounds of arsenate of lead to 50 gallons of liquid. This 
spray may be repeated as soon as the fruit sets and may be 
followed by two or three subsequent sprayings if necessary. 
Some growers use Bordeaux mixture in place of lime-sulphur 
for all sprays except the first. Self -boiled lime-sulphur is some- 
times used as a ftingicide spray after the fruit forms. 

21. Renovation of Old Ciierry Orciiards. — The cherry, 
especially in the Eastern States, grows to a good size and lives 
to a great age, some trees being over a hundred years old, but 
there are few old cherry orchards. There has been no great 
cherry business, and it is difficult to state how long an orchard 
will continue to be profitable. One authority states that 
probably 30 years is the limit of the most profitable age, for 
after that time the trees are so large that the expense of pick- 
ing the fruit and taking care of the trees becomes too great. 
Before renovating an old orchard, an individual should consider 
these factors and determine whether it would not be better to 
plant a new orchard. Cherry trees may be expected to bear at 
5 years of age and at 10 years to be making handsome returns; 
and generally it will take 2 or 3 years to get an. old orchard 
into shape even if it can be accomplished at all. 



22. Harvesting." — ^The labor of picking has been a serious 
problem in cherry growing, as the fruit matures very rapidly 
and must be quickly removed or it will spoil. For this reason, 
a grower should not plant a large cherry orchard unless he is 
sure he can secure pickers at the proper time. The fruit should 
be harvested in two or three pickings, as it does not ripen uni- 
formly. The pickers should use ladders and should not be 
allowed to climb around in the trees, as this is liable to injure 
the bark and also to break the branches. Pickers are usually 
paid from f to 1 cent per pound, although some growers prefer 
to hire by the day, because of the greater care exercised by the 
pickers. Fruit for shipping should be picked with the stems 
on, but at the same time care must be taken not to remove 
the fruit spur to which the stem is attached. When the fruit 
is picked for a short haul to a cannery, it is allowed to become 
more mature than when it is to be shipped. It is also picked 
without the stems, which is much easier for the picker and less 
injurious to the tree. 

One of the most successful growers in Michigan harvests all 
of his cherries by spreading sheets under the trees and per- 
mitting the pickers to clip the fruit off with scissors and allow 
it to fall on the sheet, leaving about | inch of the stem on the 
cherry. Fruit picked in this way sells at a higher price than that 
which has long stems attached. Cherries should be picked 
while dry. As soon as the fruit is picked it should be placed 
in the shade or removed to the packing house. 

23. Grading and Packing. — The fruit is poured from the 
picking baskets onto the packing table. If it can be allowed 
to cool before it is graded it can be handled much better. Gra- 
ding and packing usually constitute one operation. The fruit 
should not be shipped in large bulk, as for example in half- 
bushel packages, as the fruit is easily crushed. Baskets holding 
not more than 8 or 10 pounds are used. Some growers pack 
cherries in berry boxes and use the 16-box berry crate as a 
carrier. Very fancy fruit packed in 1- or 2-pound packages 


and shipped in carriers will often bring a much higher price 
than if put up in larger packages. 

When cherries are to be shipped in small boxes, the tops of 
the boxes are nailed on and the bottoms left off, and the box is 
packed from the bottom. Cherries are placed in rows on the 
inside of the top, with the stems all turned into the box. After 
the inside is covered, forming the facing, the box is filled and the 
bottom nailed on and the box turned and marked on the faced 
side. Lace-edged paper is often placed in the box before the 
fruit is put in. If baskets are used for packing, the fruit is 
put in and faced on top. For fancy fruit, facing pays. If the 
fruit is to be sent to the canner it is not graded so closely and. 
is usually shipped in 8-pound baskets without facing. 

24, Storing. — Cherries are regarded by cold-storage men 
as extremely perishable. The way in which the fruit is handled 
before it is placed in storage has much to do with its keeping. 
Cherries that have been properly picked and handled and 
covered with a layer of cotton batting have been kept in good 
condition for a month at a temperature of 30 degrees, which 
is the temperature found best for storing cherries. 

Cherries as well as plums have been held in storage frozen 
at a temperature of from 5 to 12 degrees for several months. 
They must, however, be used immediately on being taken out 
of storage. Little has been done thus far in holding cherries 
in storage for commercial purposes. 

25. Marketing. — The problem of marketing is similar to 
that of all other perishable fruits, but by cooperation a number 
of small growers can dispose of their crops to as good advantage 
as the large grower can. Generally speaking, Eastern-grown 
fruit will not stand up quite as well as that grown in California ; 
there is, therefore, more risk in handling. California cherries 
can be placed on Eastern markets in April when Eastern trees 
are in bloom and remain in the market until July. The Eastern 
grower is hardly warranted in going into the business unless 
he has a near-by market such as a canning factory that will 
take large quantities of fruit at very short notice. Such a 
factory constitutes one of the best markets for a large grower. 


If the price is determined before the fruit is consigned to the 
market the grower is not subject to the risk that is taken when 
fruit is consigned on commission, as the market may be glutted 
when the fruit arrives. There is a large and insistent demand 
on the part of canners for white cherries, that is, the sweet, 
light-colored cherries, and for red cherries, especially the 
Montmorency. The price ruling during the last few years 
has been about 5 cents per pound. 



26. The black cherry aphis is an insect that so far as 
known attacks only the cherry and does serious injury only to 
the sweet chferry. Beth the winged and the wingless forms of 
this aphis are shining black. The insects assemble in large 
numbers on the young shoots or limbs near the base, before 
spreading to the rest of the tree. If careful watch is kept the 
insects may easily be destroyed while so clustered and thus may 
be prevented from spreading to other parts of the tree. The 
presence of the insects is indicated by a large amount of honey 
dew on the foliage. The infested leaves soon begin to curl and 
form a protection for the insects. The black cherry aphis 
should be controlled by the use of contact insecticide sprays, 
which should be applied before the leaves curl. 

27. The San Jose scale and other scale insects that have 
been discussed in connection with the growing of other fruits 
sometimes attack cherries. The remedy is the same as already 
given for these insects. The sour cherry does not stiff er as 
severely from the attack of San Jose scale as does the sweet 

28. The plum curculio sometimes injures cherries. The 
remedy is to spray with arsenate of lead as described for plums. 

29. The cherry fruit fly is an insect native to America. 
The adult insect is a fly slightly smaller than a house fly; it is 


black in color and has a yellowish head and legs and three or 
four white bands across the abdomen. This insect deposits eggs 
just under the skin of the cherry. The eggs hatch in a few days 
into little maggots, similar in appearance to the apple maggot ; 
these burrow through the flesh of the cherry, leaving a rotting 
cavity. When full grown the maggots leave the cherry and 
pupate just below the surface of the ground, under rubbish, 
or in the bottom of baskets 
in which the fruit is packed. 
Little has been done toward 
controlling this insect. A 
similar fly has recently 
been controlled in South 
Africa by spraying the foli- 
age with arsenate-of-lead 
solution sweetened with 
brown sugar. The sugars,' 
attracts the flies, which ase 

-]3^.. Fig. 6 

killed by the poison. This 

remedy is worthy of trial if the cherry fruit fly should become 
a very serious pest. Early spring flowing will no doubt bury 
many of the pupas and prevent the flies from emerging. All 
fruit that falls or that remains on the trees after harvest 
should be destroyed. Fig. 6 represents the cherry fruit fly. 


30. The fungous disease known as black knot that causes 
the black, irregular knotty growth on plum trees also attacks 
cherry trees. The remedy is to cut out and bum the affected 
branches as soon as they are discovered. Fig. 7 shows cherry 
branches affected with black knot. 

31. Brown rot is the most serious fungous disease with 
which cherry growers have to contend, and some varieties of 
sweet cherries are especially subject to its attack. Fruit that 
cracks is especially liable to be attacked. Hot, moist atmos- 
pheric conditions, when occurring at the time the fruit is 


ripening, are favorable to the spread of this disease. Bordeaux 
mixture has been used with partial success to control the 
fungus, but the foliage of the sweet cherry is very susceptible 
to injury by Bordeaux. Some growers believe that self-boiled 
lime-sulphur will prove to be an excellent remedy for the 
disease. Injury from this fungus may be lessened by picking 







^^^^^^^^^ "' 







/k ^ ^^-^^'^^^^sL^^r-^^^^^^k 

Fig. 7 

the fruit before it is fully ripe and when it is perfectly dry. 
Fig. 8 shows Montmorency cherries affected with brown rot. 

32. Powdery mildew sometimes attacks the fruit and 
leaves of the sour cherry. The description and remedy for this 
fungus has been given in a previous Section. 

33. The shot-liole fuiigus described in another Section 
also affects cherries. The remedy is the same as in the case of 



34. An injury known as sun scald is frequently seen on 
cherry trees, and especially on sweet cherry trees. This injury 
is prevalent in the West and South and as far north as Massa- 
chusetts. It occurs usually in the late winter or the early 
spring on the south or the west side of the trunk or of the 
larger branches. It is caused by alternate freezing and thawing, 

Fig. 8 

causing contraction and expansion, which bursts the bark on 
the side of the tree toward the sun. The injury is most prev- 
alent on trees that are growing rapidly. If trees are headed 
low so that the trunks are shaded there is less danger of this 
injury occurring. In some of the Western States the trunks 
are shaded with netting, matting, or a board to prevent this 



35. The apricot tree is a vigorous grower and produces 
fruit both on the spurs and on the last season's twigs. The 
fruit ripens in advance of the peach and plum and has the 
general appearance of the peach, but its pit, which is broad, 
smooth, and somewhat fiat, is more like that of the plum. 
The earliness of the blooming period of the apricot has been 
the greatest drawback to its being planted in almost all sections 
where the peach thrives. In many of the sections where the 
apricot has been tried, the fruit is nearly always killed by late 
spring frosts. In many cases the failure of the plants to thrive 
and to produce fruit has been due to the planting of wrong 
varieties. With a better knowledge of frost conditions and of 
methods of protection from frosts, the area over which apricots 
can be grown has recently increased very rapidly. 

The demand for apricots is so great that they will always 
bring good prices. 

The same general statements that have been made in regard 
to the selection of a location for a peach orchard are applicable 
to the selection of a location for an apricot orchard. It should 
be remembered, however, that apricots bloom earlier in the 
spring than do peaches and, therefore, cannot be grown with as 
much safety in localities that are subject to late spring frosts 
as can peaches. 

36. Varieties of Apricots. — Brief descriptions of some of 
the best commercial varieties of apricots are as follows : 

The Moorpark is one of the latest-ripening varieties. The 
fruit is large and uniform in size, nearly round in shape, and in 
color is orange with a deep orange-colored cheek. It is a free- 
stone and the flesh is bright yellowish orange in color, is firm and 
juicy, has a rich, high flavor, and the quality is good. 

The Royal is a leading variety for canning and drying. 
The fruit is large, roundish in shape, the color is a dull yellow 


with an orange cheek and a faint blush, and is a freestone. 
The flesh is Hght orange in color, is firm and juicy, has a vinous 
flavor, and is classed as good in quality. 

The Peach variety is one of the best. It ripens in mid- 
season and dries to a deep golden-yellow color. The fruit is 
very large, has flattened sides, and a well-marked suture, and 
is of an orange color. The flesh is orange yellow in color, is 
juicy, rich, and highly flavored. 

The Tilton variety resembles the Peach variety in respect to 
size, shape, and time of ripening, but it is more deeply colored. 
It dries well and is a good canner and shipper. 

The fruit of the Newcastle variety is of mediimi size and is 
valuable for supplying the early market. 

The fruit of the BlerLheim variety is above mediimi in size 
and is of an oval shape and an orange color. The flesh is deep 
yellow in color, juicy, and has a rich flavor. This variety is in 
great demand for canning and drying. 

37. Selection of Nursery Stock. — The apricot may be 
grown on either peach, apricot, almond, or plum stock. The 
peach seedling is used most as stock on which to graft apricot 
scions. The plimi should be used as stock for heavy soils, and 
the peach or the bitter almond should be used as stock for 
light soils. The almond root should not be used as stock in 
sections troubled by gophers, as these animals are very fond of 
it and often destroy large orchards of trees grown on this root. 

The pits from which the stock is to be grown are usually 
obtained at canneries and kept from drying out until the follow- 
ing spring, when they are planted in rows 3| feet apart, and the 
pits 3 inches apart in the row and are covered 3 inches deep. 
The planting can also be done in the fall. The pits may be 
kept from becoming dry by placing a 2-inch layer of pits in 
a bottomless box placed on the ground and on top of the pits 
a 2-inch layer of sand. This operation is repeated until all the 
pits are covered. 

A good nursery tree should be 1 year old and from 4 to 5 feet 
high. Branches or well-developed buds should be well dis- 
tributed along the trunk to within 10 inches of the roots. 


The trunk, or stem, must be stocky, the roots weU developed, 
and have numerous small branching rootlets. A tree with 
only a few large roots will start growth very slowly. 

Nursery stock should be purchased from well-known nursery 
firms, and if possible from a nursery located in the district in 
which the orchard is to be grown. 

38. Planting of Apricot Trees. — As soon as the trees 
are received from the nursery they should be heeled-in until 
they are to be planted. Apricots are planted from 20 to 30 feet 
apart. The suggestions in regard to the preparations of the 
soil for peaches and to the planting of peaches are applicable 
to apricots. 

39. Priming of Apricot Trees. — The time that elapses 
between the setting of trees and the time that they begin 
bearing is the period of formation of the trees and will cover 
the first 3 years of their existence in the orchard. The first 
year the tree should be headed back to within 15 inches of the 
ground, and as the apricot is a very rapid grower there will be 
many more shoots than are required. As soon as the twigs 
reach a length of 6 inches all on the stem, from the groimd up 
to a point 8 inches above the surface, shoiild be removed, above 
this point only five branches should be left and these well placed 
aroimd the stem. After the trees have become dormant, pre- 
ferably along toward spring, the remaining branches should be 
cut back from one-half to two-thirds of their growth and the 
side shoots on them thiimed to from three to five shoots on 
each branch and each shoot should be cut back to spurs of 
three buds. This pruning leaves stubs of about 1| feet in 
length as a foundation on which to build the tree. The pruning 
for the next 2 years should be such as to make the tree as stocky 
as possible. To accompHsh this the pruning the second and 
the third year should be almost as severe as that given the 
first year. The sprouts on the trunk and all drooping branches 
should be removed to allow Hght and air to get into the head 
of the tree, otherwise the twigs and spurs in the center will be 
smothered out. All main branches should be cut back about 


From the fourth year good crops of fruit shoiild be expected, 
and as the habit of the tree is gradually to extend the bearing 
wood farther and farther away from the trunk and the spurs 
near the body to break off or die, a rather vigorous heading back 
must be practiced. Heading back favors new growth on the 
trunk and on the large branches near the body, thus keeping 
the fruiting surface more evenly distributed. The extent of 
the pruning depends on the growth of the trees. A vigorous 
growth may be cut back one-half and a light growth one-third, 
but the branches should be kept thinned and cut back so that 
the sunshine can get to the center of the head to ripen and 
color the fruit. 

40. Renovating Apricot Orchards. — The first step in 
renovating an old orchard is to give the land a thorough plow- 
ing, preferably during the faU. The orchard should then 
receive a thorough pruning. All suckers from around the base 
of the trees and all broken and diseased branches should be 
removed and the head cut back very severely. If the orchard 
has not been pruned for some years, at least one-half the length 
of aU branches should be removed. The orchard should then 
be sprayed thoroughly with lime-sulphur, 1 gallon of stock 
solution of 30° Baimie test to 7 gallons of water, making a 
spray of a specific gravity of about 1.03. 

41. Fertilizing. — The most common fertilizers in use for 
apricot orchards are dried blood, bone meal, nitrate of soda, 
muriate of potash, and superphosphate. 

If the leaves of the trees are of light color and the growth 
of the trees is poor, the application of from 150 to 200 pounds 
of nitrate of soda per acre sown broadcast and cultivated luider 
will have a beneficial effect. If the fruit is not up to standard 
as to flavor and texture, an application of from 400 to 500 pounds 
per acre of a mixture consisting of 1 part of acid phosphate, or 
superphosphate, and 2| parts of muriate of potash will be 

If a complete fertilizer is desired about 500 pounds per acre 
of the following mixture can be used: Nitrate of soda, 150 


pounds; muriate of potash, 250 pounds; acid phosphate, or 
superphosphate, 100 pounds. 

A chemical fertilizer should be applied during the spring. 
Cover crops or green maniire are valuable in improving the 
fertility of orchard soils. 

42. Apricot Pests and Injuries. — The apricot tree is 
one of the healthiest of fruit trees. There are but few insect 
pests and fungous diseases that seriously injure the tree or 
its fruit, but the tree is very susceptible to injury from frost. 
In fact, it is climatic conditions more than anything else that 
curtails the production of apricots. The principal insect 
enemies of the apricot are the plum curculio, the peach borer, 
and the San Jose scale. The worst disease that affects the 
apricot is the shot-hole fungus, which causes considerable 
damage by perforating the leaves with small holes similar to 
shot holes and by causing numerous small scars on the fruit 
that materially reduce its value. These pests and injuries 
are combated by the same methods that have been recom- 
mended elsewhere. 

43. Harvesting of Apricots. — The stage of maturity at 
which apricots should be picked depends on whether the fruit 
is to be shipped, canned, or dried. For shipping or for canning 
purposes, the fruit should be well colored and ripe, but only ripe 
enough to be firm; that is, it should not be ripe enough to be 
in the least soft. Fruit that has begun to soften will not stand 
shipping and should be dried. 

An orchardist should have a good supply of picking buckets 
of the 12-quart, wide-mouth type, and field boxes, which should 
be of uniform size and hold about 1 bushel. Good step ladders 
are a necessary part of a picking equipment. All fruit that 
is ripe enough to ship should be gathered at one picking. 
One or two apricots should be picked at a time and laid, not 
dropped, into the receptacle. A number of apricots should 
not be held in the hand at one time, as they are very apt to 
be squeezed and bruised. All the lower fmit should be picked 
and placed in the boxes and the fruit in the top of the tree 
picked from the step ladders and placed in the buckets. The 


boxes or buckets should not be heaped, as there would be too 
much weight on the fruit in the bottom of the box or bucket. 
The fruit should not be emptied out of the boxes or buckets, 
but taken directly to the packing house and picked out. Every 
time the fruit is handled its shipping quality is impaired. All 
the fruit should not be picked at one picking, because it does 
not all ripen at the same time. The trees should be gone over 
several times before all the crop is removed. 

44. Grading and Packing of Apricots. — ^Part of the 
grading can be done as the fruit is being picked by leaving all 
deformed or diseased specimens in the orchard. The final 
grading is done by the packers. All soft, broken-skiimed, 
undersized, and otherwise blemished fruit is culled out by the 
packers as the fruit is sorted according to size and packed. 

Apricots are packed in carriers containing four baskets 8 in. 
X8 in. X4 in. in size. Paper is used to line the baskets and to 
place between each layer of fruit. The style of pack that is 
used depends on the size of the fruit. When it is possible, some 
form of the diagonal pack, as described for apples, is used. The 
diagonal pack allows fruit to be so distributed that each fruit 
bears a part of the pressure and weight of other fruits in the 
pack. Also, the fruit in diagonal packs sirffers less from ship- 
ping than it does in other forms of packs, especially the straight 
pack. However, small fruits are usually placed in straight 
packs because it is easier to bring the fruit to the top of the 
basket by using the straight pack than by using the other 
forms of packs. 

45. Marketing of Apricots. — The apricot is one of the 
most perishable of tree fruits, the season for it in the fresh 
state ending almost with the last picking. As a result, the 
larger number of apricot consumers are more familiar with the 
canned or dried product than they are with the fresh. Shippers 
realize that the only limit to the consumption of the fresh fruit 
is its keeping qualities, and that anything that will lengthen 
its season will also increase the profits. At present careful 
attention is being given to precooling and to shipping the 
fruit in refrigerator cars. It has been found that by cooling the 


fruit before loading and then carefully icing the cars, apricots 
can be put on all the large markets in America in carload lots 
and then distributed from there to the near-by small towns. 
If the shipper has access to a good cold-storage plant at the 
receiving station, the shipment can be unloaded right into the 
storage room. This will give him a chance to hold his fruit 
for a better market. 

Some of the most difficult problems that are found in the 
marketing of the apricot is to get the grower educated to pick 
and to pack his crop properly. A poor shipment is nearly 
always due to the fruit being roughly handled, to having stood 
in the sun after it was removed from the trees, to having been 
packed in a dirty packing house, or to poor packing. 

46. Drying of Apricots.— At the present time the bulk 
of apricot drying is done in the sun on a small plot of ground 
set aside for the purpose. When the drying season approaches, 
the drying yard is cleaned up and the trash removed. The fruit 
is allowed to get riper than that used for shipping. In many 
orchards the fruit is shaken off of the trees. However, it is a 
much better plan to pick the fruit. The fruit is taken to a 
shed where it is cut, never torn, in half and the pit shaken out. 
The halves are spread, skin side down, on a tray and subjected 
to the fimies of burning sulphur, from | an hour to 2 hours, 
depending on the condition of the fruit. This is done in order 
to make the fruit dry to a light amber color. The length of 
time in the sulphur box required to give this color can be 
learned only by experience. The trays containing the fruit 
are then placed in the sunshine for from 3 to 6 days, the exact 
time necessary to dry the fruit completely varying with the 
climatic conditions and also with the condition of the fruit. 
A few apricot growers dry their fruit in evaporators. About 
6 pounds of green fruit will make 1 pound of dried fruit. 




47. The quince is grown commercially less extensively than 
any of the other tree or bush fruits, and although a compara- 
■ tively limited quantity of this fruit is offered for sale, experience 
proves that when a grove is rightly taken care of it can be made 
very profitable. One of the best examples of the truth of this 
statement is the history of a neglected quince grove of | acre in 
New York State. The trees were about 30 years old and had 
been practically abandoned. No fruit had been secured for 
4 or 5 years, but it was thought by the owner that the trees were 
worthy of renovation. Accordingly he pruned out the dead 
wood, cultivated the land, and sprayed the trees. The first year 
after the renovation no fruit was grown, but the succeeding years 
showed good results, the returns for the next 6 years being 
as follows: $112.50, $119, $150, $138.20, $138.75, $185.25. 
When it is remembered that these returns were from | acre 
of trees that had been neglected for 30 years, they seem sur- 
prisingly large. 

Quince trees generally begin to bear a small quantity of fruit 
the third or the fourth year after being planted. They should 
be in full bearing in 10 years after being planted, when an 
annual yield of a bushel to a tree can be expected. The life 
of a tree after coming into bearing averages from 30 to 40 years. 

The demand for quinces would undoubtedly increase were 
more fruit of good quality offered for sale. Quinces are very 
acceptable for canning, evaporating, and the making of jelly, 
marmalade, and. preserves, and when boiled and served hot 
with cream or butter they are an excellent dessert ; another use 
is to bake them with Pound Sweet apples to be served as baked 
apple and quince. The Chicago market will take a large 


quantity of fruit for this last-named purpose; in fact, they are 
used to such an extent for this purpose that the supply of 
quinces has an influence on the price of Pound Sweet apples. 
The price of apples of this variety is likely to be low, if but 
few quinces are offered on the market. 

Among the points that can be given in favor of growing 
quinces commercially are: (1) The trees are almost sure to 
bear regularly if they have the proper care ; (2) as the trees are 
small, seldom averaging over 15 feet in height, they are easily 
sprayed and pruned, and the fruit is easily thinned and har- 
vested; (3) quinces are late bloomers, usually not coming into 
blossom until all danger of frost has passed ; (4) the fruit is not 
very perishable, being about like apples in this respect; (5) the 
prices received for first-class fruit have in the past been large, 
and it is to be expected that, even with a marked increase in 
acreage, the prices will continue to be large, as there would 
be a tendency to increase the consiunption if enough quinces 
were offered for sale to let consimiers learn of the many good 
qualities of this excellent fruit. 


48. Descriptions of some of the important varieties of 
quinces suitable for planting in the United States and Canada 
are given below. Several other varieties are sold by nursery- 
men, but those described are the most important ones for both 
home and commercial planting. 

The Orange, or as it is also known, the Apple quince, one of 
which is illustrated in Fig. 9, is probably the most important 
commercial variety. The tree is a moderately vigorous grower 
and has wide, spreading branches. The fruit is variable in size 
and shape and may be pear shaped or be flattened on the end 
like an apple. The color of the fruit is a pale orange and the 
surface is moderately covered with down. The flesh is very 
firm and of a good flavor. When grown under the most favor- 
able conditions, the fruit of this variety can be kept until 
February. It ripens about mid-season. 


The Champion is an American variety of quince of rather 
recent origin. The tree is an upright grower and usually attains 
a somewhat greater height than trees of the Orange variety. 
The fruit is large and pear shaped and is furrowed about the 
stem. The color is generally a greenish yellow, and the fruit is 
covered with a prominent fuzz. The quinces are late in matur- 

FiG. 9 

ing and in some sections do not ripen well, but when grown 
under good conditions the fruit is said to be one of the best 

The fruit of the Rea, is from a third to a half larger 
than the fruit of the Orange variety. The tree is small, as a 
rule, only about two-thirds the size of trees of the Orange. 




The fruit is large to very large. The color is orange and the 
surface is generally smooth, lacking the pronounced fuzz of 
the varieties previously described. The fruit is of good quality 
and ripens early but does not keep as well as fruit of the Orange. 

Fig. 10 

The trees need good cultivation for the best success. A quince 
of this variety is illustrated in Fig. 10. 

The tree of the Meech, also known as the Meech Prolific, 
variety of quince is something like that of the Orange variety. 
The trees have the spreading habit well developed. They bear 
young and are usually good croppers. The fruit is of good 
appearance but is inclined to be small, and largely for this 
reason it is not as valuable for market purposes as the fruit 





of some of the other varieties. In some sections it is claimed 
to be one of the most productive of varieties, but in other 
sections this claim has not been borne out. 

The Missouri, or Missouri Mammoth, is a variety of quince 
that is generally regarded as being very prolific. The tree 
is large, in fact, the largest of any of the varieties of quinces 

Fig. 11 

described. The trees bear reasonably young, and, as a rule, 
give fair crops. The fruit is of fair size and is rich and aromatic. 

The Bourgeat is a variety of quince that can be held in 
storage until spring. The tree is a strong grower and is regarded 
as being a very good bearer. The fruit is large in size, of a 
bright yellow color, and has a very small core; its keeping qual- 
ity is of the best. 

The Van Deman variety of quince is a recent introduction 
of Luther Burbank, of California, and by some it is claimed to 


be one of the hardiest and surest bearers in existence. The fruit 
ripens throughout a comparatively long season, and it is claimed 
to have excellent keeping qualities. 

The Pear variety of quince, illustrated in Fig. 11, is grown 
to a limited extent in quince-producing regions. The trees are 
of average size and are considered to be moderate bearers. 
The fruit ranges from medium to large in size; the skin is a 
diill reddish yellow, covering a firm, tough, and rather dry flesh. 
The flavor is good but slightly inferior to that of the Orange 
variety. The fruit ripens late and has excellent shipping 


49. Selection of Location. — In selecting a location for 
the establishment of a quince orchard, about the same factors 
should be considered as with any of the other tree fruits, 
except that, on account of the late blooming habit of the trees, 
a location somewhat more subject to early spring frosts, may 
be chosen if desired. 

The best type of soil for quinces is generally conceded to 
be a clay loam that is fairly retentive of moisture, but one 
that is well drained. On very light soils the trees grow quicldy, 
but they are short lived and usually unproductive. 

50. Selection of Varieties. — Although but few varieties 
of quinces are found in cultivation, in establishing a grove it is 
generally a good plan to plant several varieties that mature at 
different times during the season, in order that the fruit may be 
had in succession. As with other fruits, it is well to ascertain, 
if possible, from growers in the vicinity which varieties do best 
in the locality where the trees are to be planted. 

51. Propagation of Quinces. — The quince can be propa- 
gated in one of four ways: (1) By budding, (2) by mound 
layering, (3) by root grafting, and (4) by cuttings. The 
budding method is the one most often employed by nursery- 
men. Seedlings of a variety known as Angers which are 
imported from France, are. used as stocks, and after budded 
they are trained either in a tree or a bush form, according to 


the ideas of the nurseryman. If they are received from the 
nursery as bushes, the head being formed within 6 or 7 inches 
of the ground, the orchardist can form a permanent head at 
whatever height he desires. If, on the other hand, the nursery- 
man trains the young plant in the tree form, the head will be 
formed when the grower receives the trees, and he will have no 
opportunity to form the head according to his own desires. 

When quinces are propagated by mound layering an old 
plant is cut back to encourage a growth of sprouts, and when 
these are well started a mound of soil is thrown over the crown. 
After the sprouts have taken root they are detached and sold 
as young quince plants. A disadvantage of mound-layered 
plants is their tendency to form numerous sprouts after being 

In root grafting, the quince scions are grafted on apple-tree 
roots. After being allowed to grow for a year the roots are 
dug and if the quince scions have formed roots the apple roots 
are removed and the young quince replanted. 

Nurserymen who have light soils sometimes propagate the 
quince by hardwood cuttings. These cuttings are placed in 
the soil and after they take root are transplanted. 

52. Purchasing of Young Quince Trees. — When pur- 
chasing young quince trees, it is important that a grower visit 
the nursery and select the trees himself. He should aim to get 
thrifty, vigorous specimens, preferably those not older than 
2 years from the time of budding. They should be headed 
low, not more than 10 inches from the ground. Too often pur- 
chasers try to get as large a tree as they can for a given price. 
This is a mistake, for such trees are usually headed too high, 
and they are likely to be 3 or 4 years old and to be culls from 
previous years. The young trees should be examined carefully 
for borers, and any that show signs of injury from this insect 
should be discarded. Trees showing evidence of fire blight 
should also be discarded, for they will not only be practically 
worthless themselves but will carry infection to other trees. 

The purchaser should guard against getting seedling trees — 
that is, those on which the buds of the cultivated variety did 


not take. Often as high as 30 or 40 per cent, of the buds fail 
to grow, and unless the young trees are carefully examined a 
large percentage are very likely to be seedlings. With a little 
practice, however, it is not difhcult to tell the seedlings from 
the cultivated varieties, for the distance between the buds on 
the twigs of the seedlings is usually much less than in the case 
of cultivated varieties. In view of the fact that there is such a 
likelihood of getting seedling stock, it will pay the grower, when 
purchasing quince trees, to deal with a reliable nurseryman, 
one from whom redress can be secured if the trees prove to be 
untrue to name. 

53. Planting of Quince Trees. — Quince trees may be 
planted either in the spring or the fall, but probably the major- 
ity of growers prefer spring planting. When planting in the 
spring, it is advantageous to get the trees from a near-by nursery 
so that they can be placed in the ground a day or so after being 
dug, preferably the next day. Experience shows that trees 
planted soon after being taken from the nursery make a much 
more satisfactory growth than those dug the faU. previous and 
stored during the winter. With fall-planted trees it is also 
an advantage if the trees are planted soon after being taken 
from the nursery row. 

When the quince is planted soon after being taken from the 
nursery row and if it has a good head started within a few 
inches of the ground, all the pruning necessary at the time of 
planting is to remove any excess of limbs, not even cutting 
back the terminal. However, if the tree has become dried in 
shipment and the tips of the limbs are dead, all such parts 
shoiild be pruned ofif. 

The preparation of the soil, the laying out of the grove, 
and the setting of the trees are the same for the quince as for 
other tree fruits. It is especially important in the case of 
quince trees, however, that the soil be tamped well about the 
roots. For commercial planting, quince trees should be placed 
about 15 feet apart each way. The trees will then have suf- 
ficient room in which to develop a low, spreading head. Too 
close planting is as unadvisable as for other kinds of fruit trees. 



54. Pruning. — The question of how much or how httle 
to prune quince trees is one on which growers do not agree. 
Some prune their trees severely, as much as one-half of the new 
growth each year, but such men are usually those who force 
the trees with nitrogenous fertilizers, and who must therefore 
prune severely to keep the trees within bounds. Other growers 
allow the trees practically to grow at wUl from the time they 
are planted until they come into bearing, pruning only enough 
to keep the fire blight in subjection and to keep them headed 
back slightly. Most growers agree, however, that after the 
trees come into bearing, some annual heading in and cutting 
back of fruit-bearing branches is desirable in order to improve 
the size of the fruit. This cutting back of fruit-bearing wood has 
the same effect as thinning, for the quince, like the peach, bears 
fruit on wood of the previous year's growth. Pruning should 
not be so excessive, however, as to cause a large growth of tender 
sprouts, for such growth is subject to attacks of fire blight. 

55. Spraying. — ^As with other fruits, combined fungicidal 
and insecticidal sprays are used for quince trees. Following 
is a system that is in use by several successful growers: 

1. Just before the blossoms open, spray with Bordeaux 
mixture (6 pounds of copper sulphate, 6 pounds of lime, water 
slaked, 50 gallons of water) ; Bordeaux mixture appears to be 
well adapted to the requirements of the quince. Arsenate of 
lead (2 or 3 pounds of arsenate of lead to 50 gallons of fungi- 
cide solution) should also be used with the fungicide spray at 
this time. This spraying is for the control of leaf and fruit 
spot or black spot, rust, and curculio. 

2. Immediately after the blossoms have fallen, or even 
while the last of the petals are falling, spray with Bordeaux 
mixture (3 pounds of copper sulphate, 4 pounds of lime, water 
slaked, 50 gallons of water) and arsenate of lead (2| or 3 pounds 
of arsenate of lead to 50 gallons of spray solution) . This spray- 
ing is for the control of the same troubles mentioned in para- 
graph 1. 


3. From three to four other sprayings at intervals of 10 days 
after the spraying described in paragraph 2 will be sufficient 
to keep the fruit and foliage in excellent condition. 

56. Cultivating and Cover Cropping. — ^A quince grove 
should be kept well cultivated until some time in July, when 
a cover crop should be sown, and as the quince is comparatively 
shallow rooted, cultivation should be shallow. The kind of 
cover crop to use will depend largely on the richness of the soil. 
If the soil is deficient in nitrogen, a legimiinous crop should 
be sown, but if the trees seem thrifty and not in need of new 
wood growth, some non-legimiinous crop should be used. The 
non-legumes recommended as cover crops for plum and cherry 
orchards are applicable for quince groves. 

57. Intercropping of a Quince Orchard. — ^While the 
quince orchard is young, beans or some other cultivated crop 
may be grown between the trees, but owing to the short dis- 
tance between trees there is usually little profit in the extra 
crop. The better plan seems to be to keep all the space between 
the trees well cultivated until the cover crop is sown in July. 

58. Fertilizers for Quince Groves. — In many of the 
best commercial quince groves, barnyard manure is applied 
each year, enough being used to keep the trees in good but not 
excessive growth. In other orchards, commercial fertilizer 
containing phosphoric acid and potash is used, the nitrogen 
supply coming from legimiinous cover crops. The quan- 
tities that have been used by some successful growers in New 
York State are from 300 to 500 pounds of acid phosphate and 
from 200 to 300 pounds of muriate of potash per acre. Other 
growers use from 200 to 400 pounds of ground bone and from 
200 to 300 pounds of muriate of potash per acre. If a com- 
plete mixed fertilizer is desired, it shoiild analyze 2 per cent, 
nitrogen, 8 per cent, phosphoric acid, and 10 per cent, potash. 
From 400 to 800 potinds per acre is the usual range of applica- 
tion. An excessive wood growth should not be encouraged for 
quince trees, and for this reason fertilizers excessively rich in 
nitrogen should be used sparingly, if at all. 


59. Treatment of Winter-Killed Quince Trees. — Fre- 
quently young quince trees, and sometimes mature trees, are 
injured by winter killing. If the lower part of winter-injured 
trees is covered with snow there is likely to be life left below the 
snow level. In such a case, if the top is removed before growth 
starts in the spring, the tree may form a new head. The dead 
parts should be removed early in March so that growth can 
start early. 

60. Protecting Quince Trees From Mice. — Mice fre- 
quently injure the trunks of young quince trees, and to guard 
against them it is well to provide the trees with wire guards, 
especially during the winter months. Painting the trunk 
with white paint is often advised for this trouble, but it is less 
effective than the use of wire guards. 


61. The quince is ready for harvesting as soon as the 
fruit has turned a good color. Picking is done in the same 
manner as for apples. Great care should be taken not to 
bruise the fruit, because each bruise soon becomes a dark- 
brown spot that detracts greatly from the appearance of the 

The fruit should be carefully graded, and at the time grading 
is done each quince should be wiped with a cloth to remove the 
fuzz adhering to the surface. The removal of this fuzz causes 
the fruit to have a better appearance than otherwise. Most 
growers make three grades of quinces, besides the culls. Each 
grower generally has his own standard of grading, but as a 
rule the first-grade fruit will consist of quinces of the largest 
size and best color. That placed in the second grade will be 
somewhat smaller in size, and some of the quinces may be 
slightly off color. The third-class fruit wiU be made up of 
small sized but sound fruit and some poorly colored specimens 
of fair size. 

The first and second grades are usually packed in small con- 
tainers, the very best often being placed in peck-size climax 


baskets, and the second grade in kegs holding about a bushel, 
or sometimes in half barrels. The third-grade fruit is usually 
packed in standard apple barrels. 

Quinces are not often held in storage, as there is generally 
a sufficient demand in the fall to induce growers to sell at that 
season of the 3^ear. The fruit can be kept in cellar storage as 
late as January or February. The temperature recommended 
for quinces in cold storage is 35° F. 

The problems involved in the marketing of apples are applic- 
able also to quinces. The demand is, as a rule, very good, 
and growers have practically no difficulty in disposing of their 
crops. When possible to do so, it seems that the retailing of 
quinces locally is a good method of marketing. A small pack- 
age can be used, and consumers will soon learn of the merits 
of the fruit and buy accordingly. 


62. The quince is subject to attack by the San Jose scale, 
the codling moth, borers, and the quince curculio. 

Although the San Jose scale attacks quince trees, it does them 
but little harm, as the trees seem able to withstand the effects 
of this insect without appreciable injury. However, since the 
scale can be spread from one species of plant to another, it is 
sometimes well to spray dormant quince trees with lime- 
sulphur solution in order to prevent the scale from spreading. 

63. The codling moth injures the quince in the same 
manner that it injures the apple and pear, and can be con- 
trolled in the same way — that is, by spraying with an arsenical 

64. The round-headed apple-tree borer causes con- 
siderable injury to quince trees unless precautions are taken to 
remove the insects, which are found from a point about 2 or 
3 inches below the ground level to 1 or 2 feet above the ground. 
They excavate burrows in the trunk and crown and can be 
destroyed by digging into the burrows with a sharp knife or wire, 


after which the wounds should be disinfected with mercuric- 
chloride solution of a strength of 1 to 1,000, and if a serious 
wound has been made it shoiild be covered with grafting wax. 

65. The quince curculio is a snout beetle somewhat 
larger than the plum curculio, and is broader shouldered and 
has a longer snout. Two views of this beetle are shown in 
Fig. 12. The size is indicated by the vertical line. The 
beetles are ashy gray in color, mottled with ocher yellow and 
white. On the wing covers are seven narrow longitudinal 
elevations with two rows of dots between each. The beetles 
appear some time during June, when they puncture the imma- 
ture fruit, making cylindrical holes in which they deposit 
their eggs. The eggs hatch in a few days and the larvas make 
burrows into the fruit near the 
surface, not penetrating the core. 
In about a month the larvas 
become full grown and leave the 
fruit and bury themselves in the 
ground, where they remain until 
May, when they pupate. In a 
few days the beetles appear and 
soon begin to puncture the fruit 
and deposit their eggs. This in- 
sect is combated by spraying the foliage with an arsenical 
poison, sometimes by jarring the trees as described for plums, 
and also by collecting the fruit that falls prematurely to the 

66. The bag worm, known also as the basket worm, 
described previously as affecting apples, also attacks the quince. 
It can be combated by gathering and destroying, during the 
winter, the cases that contain the eggs for the next brood. 

67. Among the most destructive diseases affecting the 
(Quince are fire blight, or pear blight; fruit spot, or leaf blight; 
rust; black rot; ripe rot; pale rot; and quince rust. 

68. Fire blight, or pear blight, is the most destructive dis- 
ease of the quince, and as in the case of the pear can be combated 




only by preventing infection and by destroying infected 
parts. The grove should be gone over once or even twice a 
week during the growing season; every leaf and twig that 
shows infection should be removed and the cut surfaces dis- 
infected with a solution of mercuric chloride of a strength of 
1 to 1,000. This solution may be applied with a swab. It 
is advisable to cut off the limb about 8 to 10 inches below the 

Fig. 13 

point of apparent infection. All parts removed from the trees 
must be taken from the orchard and burned to prevent fur- 
ther infection of the trees. Any trees growing wild in the 
vicinity that show evidence of the blight should be removed 
and burned. The wild haw is very likely to carry this disease. 

69. Fruit spot, or leaf blight, affects both the leaves and 
the fruit of the quince. The leaves become spotted and drop 




prematurely, causing the tree to lose vigor and vitality. The 
fruit becomes covered with small brownish spots that gradually 
increase in size and turn black. Fig. 13 shows quinces affected 
with fruit spot. The disease is controlled by spraying with 
Bordeaux mixture or lime-sulphur. The first spraying should 


Fig. 14 

be made just before the blossoms open, and the second soon 
after they fall. Two more sprayings at intervals of 10 days 
or 2 weeks will be found beneficial. 

70. Black rot and ripe rot are similar to these diseases 
of the apple, and are combated in the same manner as for the 
apple. The same treatment is also effective for pale rot, 
which is often a very destructive disease of the quince. This 
rot begins as a pale almost colorless soft spot on the skin of 
the fruit. The spot soon wrinkles and turns a pale blue and 


the skin becomes ruptured. The disease spreads rapidly and 
soon destroys the fruit. 

71. The disease known as quince rust is similar to apple 
rust, and, like the latter, comes from adjacent cedar trees and 
produces swellings or the so-called cedar apples. The trouble 
affects both the fruit and the leaves of the quince. Fig. 14 
illustrates the effects of the quince rust. The remedy for the 
trouble is to remove, if possible, all cedar trees from the neigh- 
borhood of the grove. Another method of control is to spray 
the affected trees with Bordeaux mixture or with one of the 
sulphur compoiinds at the time the gelatinous horns are pres- 
ent on the cedar apples. 


Note. — All items in this index refer first to the section (see the Preface) and then to the page 
of the section. Thus, "Anjou pear, §8, p21," means that Anjou pear will be found on page 21 
of section 8. 

Advertising of fruit, §7, p56 

Age of apple nursery trees, §4, pl7 

Agitator, Propeller,' §2, p44 

Swinging, §2, p44 
Air drainage for pear orchards, §9, p9 
Albemarle Pippin apple, §3, p39 
Alexander apple, §3, plO 
Altitude, Influence of, §1, p4 
Amarelle cherries, §20, pi 
Ammoniacal copper carbonate, |2, p25 
Angouleme pear, §8, pl7 
Anjou pear, §8, p21 
Anthracnose, Apple, §6, p62 
Aphides affecting apple trees. Miscellaneous, 

§6, p56 
Aphis, Black cherry, §20, p20 

Clover, §6, p57 

European grain, §6, p57 

Green apple, §6, p55 

on pears, Green apple, §8, p39 

Rosy apple, §6, p56 

Wooly apple, §6, p52 
Apple anthracnose, §6, p62 

aphis. Green, §6, p55 

aphis on pears. Green, §8, p39 

aphis. Rosy, §6, p56 

aphis, Wooly, §6, p52 

barrel. §7, p21 

baskets, §7, p24 

blossoms, Frost injury to, §6, p4 

blotch, §6, p67 

box presses, §7, p38 

boxes, §7, p22 

buds. Frost injury to, §6, p3 

butter. §7, p60 

caterpillar. Red-humped, §6, p43 

caterpillar. Yellow-necked, §6, p42 

cider. §7, p61 

crates and boxes, §7, pll 

Apple curculio, §6, p37 

diseases, §6. p61 

Insects of the, §6. p23 

jelly, §7, p60 

leaf miner, §6, p51 

louse. Green, §6, p55 

maggot, §6. p34 

nursery stock, Selection of. §4. pl5 

nursery trees. Age of, §4, pl7 

nursery trees. Dipping of. §4, p39 

nursery trees for planting. Preparation of, 
§4, p38 

nursery trees. Handling of, §4, p44 

nursery trees propagated by various methods. 
Value of, §4, pl7 
^.orchard. Establishment of an, §4, pi 
^-orchard, Soil suitable for, §4, p6 
^_prchards. Fertilization of, §5, p37 
orchards. Management of, §5, pi 
-erchards. Renovation of old, §5, p41 
..,orchards. Tillage of bearing, §5, p4 
jDrchards, Tillage of young, §5, p2 
. packing table, §7, pp27. 30 

pests and injuries, §6. pi ) 

quince, §20. p32 ' "' 

railroad worm. §6, p34 

rust, §6, p71 

scab, §6, p64 

scald, §6, p74 

Shippers Association, National, §7. pl5 

storage houses, §7, p43 

Terms applying to fruit of, §3, pi 

-tree borer on quinces, Round-headed. 
§20, p42 

-tree borers, §6. p23 

-tree bucculatrix, §6, p51 

-tree pruner, §6, p61 

-tree tent caterpillar, §6, p37 
' trees, Fertilization of young, §5, p41 

trees. Framework of, §5, p26 




Apple trees, High-headed, §5, p21 

trees. Home propagation of, §4, pl9 

trees. Low-headed, §5, p21 

trees. Miscellaneous aphides affecting, §6, p56 

trees. Open-headed, §5, p23 

trees. Planting of, §4, pl9 

trees. Pruning of, §5, pl8 

trees. Pruning of bearing, §5, p31 

trees. Pyramidal-headed, §3, p23 

ti-ees, Terms applying to, §3, pi 

trees, Top working of, §5, poO 

vinegar, §7, p61 

worm. Lesser, §6, p34 
Apples, Advertising of, §7, p56 

Canned, §7, p60 

Cedar, §6, p72 

Evaporated, §7, p56 

Fall and winter varieties of, §3, p9 

for the Colorado section. Varieties of, §4, pl4 

for the Missouri section, Varieties of, §1, pl4 

for the New York section, Varieties of, §4, pl3 

for the Northwest, Varieties of, §4, pl5 

for the Virginia section. Varieties of, §4, pl3 

Frost injury to young, §6, po 

Grading of, §7, pl4 

Harvesting of, §7, pi 

in barrels. Packing of, §7, p24 

in baskets. Packing of, §7, p40 

in boxes. Packing of, §7, p29 

Marketing of, §7, p48 

Method of grading, §7, p20 

Methods of planting of, §4, p35 

Packing of, §7, p21 

Packs for, §7, p33 

Picking of, §7, pi 

Selection of varieties of, §4, pll 

Storing of, §7, p40 

Summer varieties of, §3, p6 

Thinning of, §5, p35 

Varieties of, §3, pi 

Wagon used in picking, §7, p9 
Apricot nursery trees, §20, p25 

orchards, Fertilization of, §20, p27 

orchards. Renovating, §20, p27 

pests and injuries, §20, p28 

trees, Planting of, §20, p26 

trees. Pruning of, §20, p26 
Apricots, Drying of, §20, p30 

Grading and packing of, §20, p29 

Harvesting of, §20, p28 

Marketing of, §20, p29 

Varieties of, §20, p24 
Arkansas apple, §3, p45 

Black apple, §3, p34 
Arsenate of lead, §2, pi • 

Arsenite of lime, §2, ppl, 4 
Artificial propagation, §1, pl4 

Association, National Apple Shippers, §7, pl5 

Yakima Valley Fruit Growers, §7, pl6 
Autumn frosts. Table of dates of late spring and 
early, §6, p9 


Bag worm on quinces, §20, x>43 
Bags, Picking, §7, p4 
Baldwin apple, §3, pl9 

cherry, §20, p3 

spot, §6, p74 
Bamboo extension rod. Brass-, §2, p42 
Banana apple, §3, pl9 
Bark beetle. Fruit-tree, §6, p60 

beetle on pears, Fruit-tree, §8, p39 

binding, §6, p79 

binding of pear trees, §8, p43 

grafting, §1, pp20, 25 

louse, Oyster-shell, §6, p29 

Rough, §6, pSO 
Barrel sprayers, §2, p32 

Barrels, Apple, pear, quince, and potato, 
§7, p21 

Packing of apples in, §7, p24 
Barry pear, Patrick, §8, p25 
Bartlett pear, §8, pl3 
Basket worm on quinces, §20, p43 
Baskets, Apple, §7, p24 

Packing of apples in, §7, p30 

Picking, §7, pi 
Baume and specific gravity hydrometer read- 
ings for liquids heavier than water. Table 
of comparison of, §2, plG 
Bearing apple trees, Pruning of, §5, p31 
Beetle, Fruit-tree bark, §6, p60 

on pears, Fruit-tree bark, §8, p39 
Belle de Montreuil cherry, §20, p6 
Ben Davis apple, §3, p40 
Benoni apple, §3, p8 
Bigarreau cherries, §20, p2 
Bin rot, §6, p70 , 
Binding of apple trees. Bark, §6, p79 

of pear trees. Bark, §8, p43 
Bing cherry, §20, p6 
Bitter pit, §6, p74 

rot, §6, pp62, 70 
Black Ben apple, §3, p41 

Ben Davis apple, §3, p41 

cherry aphis, §20, p20 . 

Gillifiower apple, §3, p23 

knot of cherries, §20, p21 

rot, §6, p69 

rot of quinces, §20, p45 

-spot canker, §6, p69 

Tartarian cherry, §20, p7 

Blenheim apricot, §20, p25 
Blight, Fire, §6, p74 

of pear trees. Crater, §8, p43 



Blight of pears, Fire, §8, p28 

of quinces, Leaf, §20, p44 

on quinces, Fire, or pear, §20, p43 

Pear-leaf, §8, p32 

Twig, §6, p74: 
Blister mite, Leaf-, §6, p57 

mite on pears. Leaf-, §8, p37 
Bloodgood pear, §8, pll 
Blooming period of different varieties of pears, 

Table of, §9, pl7 
Blossoms, Frost injury to apple, §G, p4 
Blotch, Apple, §6, p67 

Sooty, §6, p71 
Blue mole, §6, p70 

Pearmain apple, §3, pl7 
Bon Chretien pear, Williams, §8, pl3 
Bordeaux injury, §6, p80 

mixture, §2, p22 

nozzle, §2, p40 
Borer on quinces. Round-headed apple-tree, 
§20, p42 

Shot-hole, §6, p60 
Borers, Apple-tree, §6, p23 

on pears, §8, p40 
Bosc pear, §8, p20 
Bourgeat quince, §20, p35 
Box presses, Apple-, §7, p38 
Boxes, Apple, §7, ppll, 22 

Packing of apples in, §7, p29 
Branch layering, §1, pl9 
Breaking of pear trees, §8, p42 

of trees, §6, p79 
Brown mite, §6, p52 

rot of cherries, §20, p21 

rot of pears, §8, p33 

-tailed moth, §6, p43 
Brusseler Braune cherry, §20, p3 
Bucculatrix, Apple-tree, §6, p51 
Buckeling of apples in barrels, §7, p26 
Bucket spray pump, §2, p30 
Bud moth, §6, p47 
Budding, Propagation by, §1, p28 
Buds, Frost injury to apple, §6, p3 

Killing of fruit, §6, pi 
Buffalo treehopper, §6, p58 
Butter, Apple, §7, p60 

Canker, Black-spot, §6, p69 

European, §6, p70 

Illinois, §6, p70 

Pacific-coast, §6, p69 

worms, §6, p40 
Canned apples, §7, p60 
Capital required for an orchard, §4, p3 
Case bearer. Cigar, §6, p49 

bearer, Pistol, §6, p4S 

Catch crops, §5, p6 

crops for pears, §9, p26 
Caterpillar, Apple-tree tent, §6, p37 

Red-humped apple, §G. p43 

Yellow-necked apple, §6, p42 
Cayuga Red Streak apple, §3, pl2 
Cedar apples, §6, p72 

rust, §6, p71 
Centennial cherry, §20, pC 
Chambers pear, §8, plO 
Champion quince, §20, p33 
Cherries, Amarelle, §20, pi 

Bigarreau, §20, p2 

Classes of, §20, pi 

Duke, §20, p2 

Fertihzation of, §20, pl6 

Fungous diseases of, §20, p21 

Grading of, §20, pl8 

Harvesting of, §20, pl8 

Heart, or gean, §20, p2 

Marketing of, §20, pl9 

Mazzard, §20, p2 

Morello, §20, pi 

Packing of, §20, pl8 

Pruning of, §20, pl6 

Sour, §20, pi 

Spraying of, §20, pl7 

Storage of, §20, pl9 , 

Subacid, §20, p2 

Sweet, §20, p2 

Varieties of sour, §20, p3 

Varieties of subacid, §20, p.5 

Varieties of sweet, §20, pG 
Cherry aphis. Black, §'20, p20 

fruit fly, §20, p20 

nursery trees, §20, pl2 

orchard. Size, location, and site of a, §20, plO 

orchards. Cultivation of, §20, pl5 

orchards. Renovation of old, §20, pl7 

pests and injuries, §20, p20 

trees. Planting of, §20, pl4 
Chretien pear, Williams Bon, §8, pl3 
Cicada, Periodical, §G, p59 
Cider, Apple, §7, p61 
Cigar case bearer, §6, p49 
Cincincis pear, §8, p27 
Clairgeau pear, §8, p20 
Clamp, Hose, §2, p43 
Clapp Favorite pear, §8, pl3 
Cleft grafting, §1, p20 

Climatic conditions on pears. Influence of, 
§9, p6 

injuries of cherries, §20, p23 
Climbing cutworms, §6, p44 
Clitocybose, §6, p76 
Cloud, §6, p71 
Clover aphis, §G, p57 



Clover mite, §6, p52 
Codling moth, §6, p31 

moth on pears, §8, p39 

moth on quinces, §20, p42 
Cold storage of apples. Commercial, §7, p41 

storage of apples. Farm, §7, p42 
Colorado section, Varieties of apples for the, 

§4, pl4 
Columbia pear, §8, p23 
Combination systems of jJlanting, §4, p29 
Comice pear, §8, p20 
Compressed-air hand sprayer, §2, p32 

-air sprayers, §2, p39 
Contact insecticides, §2, ppl, 6 
Cookers, Lime-sulphur, §2, p9 
Copper carbonate, Ammoniacal, §2, p25 

-sulphate solution, §2, p25 
Cover crops, §5, plO 

crops for pears, §9, p26 

crops for quinces, §20, p40 

crops, Leguminous, §5, pl3 

crops. Non-leguminous, §5, pl4 

crops. Time of sowing, §5, pll 

crops. Time to plow under, §5, pl2 
Cranberry apple, §3, p33 
Crater blight of pear trees, §8, p43 
Crates, Apple, §7, pH 
Crops, Catch, §5, p6 

Cover, §5, plO 

Leguminous cover, §5, pl3 

Non-leguminous cover, §5, pl4 

Time of sowing cover, §5, pll 

Time to plow under cover, §5, pl2 
Crown gall, §6, p77 

gall on pears, §8, p33 

grafting, §1, pp20, 25 
Cultivation of cherry orchards, §20, pl5 

of quinces, §20, p40 
Curculio, Apple, §6, p37 

on cherries. Plum, §20, p20 

Plum, §6, p36 

Quince, §20, p43 
Cut-off, §2, p43 
Cutting, §1, pl4 

Propagation by, §1, pl4 
Cuttings, Hardwood, §1, pl4 

Heel, §1, pl4 

Mallet, §1, ppl4, 15 

Root. §1, ppl4, 17 

Simple, §1, pl4 

Single-eye, §1, ppl4, 15 
Cutworms, Climbing, §6, p44 


Danas Hovey pear, §8, p21 
Dehcious apple, §3, p36 
Deman quince. Van, §20, p35 

Dew point, §6, p6 

point. Table of determination of the, §6, p7 
Diagonal pack for apples, §7, p33 
Diel pear, §8, p23 

Dipping of apple nursery trees, §4, p39 
Diseases, Apple, §6, p61 

of cherries. Fungous, §20, p21 

of pears, §8, p28 
Disk nozzle, §2, p41 
Distillate oils, §2, pp6, 19 
Districts, Pear, §8, pi 
Dormant period of plants. Injuries during, 

§6, pi 
Double-action spray pump, §2, p34 
Drainage for pear orchards, Air and water, 

§9, p9 
Dressings for wounds, §1, p47 
Drouard pear, §8, pl9 
Drying of apricots, §20, p30 
Duchess d' Angouleme pear, §8, pl7 

of Oldenburg apple, §3, p7 
Duke cherries, §20, p2 

cherry. May, §20, p6 
Dwarf pears, §8, p8 
Dyehouse cherry, §20, p3 


Early Harvest apple, §3, p7 

Harvest of Kentucky pear, §8, plO 

Richmond cherry, §20, p5 
Easter Beurre pear, §8, p25 
Elevation for pear orchards, §9, p8 

of orchard site, §4, p7 
Elton cherry, §20, p6 
Emulsion, Kerosene, §2, pp6, 19 
English Morello cherry, §20, p3 
Esopus Spitzenburg apple, §3, p34 
Essentials of fruit- culture, §1, pi; §2, pi 
Eugene cherry, §20, p5 
European canker, §6, p70 

grain aphis, §6, p57 

group of pears, §8, p7 

group of pears. Varieties of, §8, plO 
Evaporated apples, §7, p56 
Exposure for pear orchards, §9, p9 

of site, §4, p9 
Extension rod, §2, p42 
Extensive pruning, §1, p41 


Facing of apple barrels, §7, p25 

Fall and winter varieties of apples, §3, p9 

Pippin apple, §3, p9 

web worm, §6, p39 
Fameuse apple, §3, pl3 
Fertilization of apple orchards, §5, p37 

of apricot orchards, §20, p27 



Fertilization of cherries, §20, pl6 

of pear orchards, §9, p32 

of quinces, §20, p40 

of young apple trees, §5, p41 
Fertilizers, Time of applying, §5, p40 
Fillers in apple orchard, Use of, §4, p31 

Peaches as, §4, p33 

Pears as, §4, p33 

Removal of, §4, p34 

Small fruits as, §4, p33 
Fire blight, §6, p74 

blight on pears, §8, p28 

blight on quinces, §20, p43 
Flat-headed apple-tree borer, §6, p25 
Flemish pear, §8, pl3 
Fly speck, §6, p71 
Forelle pear, §8, p23 
Framework of apple trees, §5, p2G 
Frog eye, §6, p69 
Frost, §6, p6 

injuries. Means of preventing, §6, pl5 

injuries on pears, §8, p40 

injuries. Prevention of, §6, p6 

injury to apple blossoms, §6, p4 

injury to apple buds, §6, p3 

injury to young apples, §6, p5 

Prediction of, §6, p6 
Frosts, Table of dates of late spring and early 

autumn, §6, p9. 
Fruit, Advertising of, §7, p56 

buds. Killing of, §6, pi 

culture. Essentials of, §1, pi; §2, pi 

fly. Cherry, §20, p20 

growing, Market factors affecting, §1, plO 

growing. Natural factors affecting, §1, p3 

of apple. Terms applying to, §3, pi 

pit, §6, p74 

plants, Propagation of, §1, pl3 

plants, Pruning of, §1, p31 

spot of apples, §6, p72 

spot of quinces, §20, p44 

-tree bark beetle, §6, pGO 

-tree bark beetle on pears, §8, p39 

-tree leaf roller, §6, p50 
Fungicides, §2, p21 

and insecticides. Combined, §2, p28 
Fungous diseases of cherries, §20, p21 

Gall, Crown, §6, p77 

on pears. Crown, §8, p33 
Gano apple, §3, p40 
Garber pear, §8, p27 
Gas-power sprayer, §2, p36 
Gasoline-power sprayers, §2, p37 
Gean, or heart, cherries, §20, p2 
Genet apple, §3, p45 

Geniton apple, §3, p4.5 
Giffard pear, §8, pll 
Gipsy moth, §6, p44 
Girdling, §6, p78 

of pear trees, §8, p41 
Glout Morceau pear, §8, p21 
Golden Russet apple, §3, p50 

Russet pear, §8, p28 
Governor Wood cherry, §20, plO 
Grading, Importance of careful. §7, p55 

of apples, §7, pl4 

of apples, Method of, §7, p20 

of apricots, §20, p29 

of cherries, §20, plS 

of pears, §9, p37 

of quinces, §20, p41 
Grafting, §1. pp20, 27 

Bark, §1, pp20, 25 

Cleft, §1, p20 

Crown, §1, pp20, 25 

Kerf, §1, pp20, 25 

Piece-root, §1, p27 

Propagation by, §1, p20 

Root, §1, p20 

Splice, §1, pp20, 27 

Stem, §1, p20 

Top, §1, p20 

wax, §1, p22 

Whip, §1, pp20, 26 

Whole-root, §1, p27 
Grain aphis, European, §6, p57 
Gravenstein apple, §3, p9 
Green apple aphis, §6, p55 

apple aphis on pears, §8, p39 

apple louse, §6, p55 

Newton apple, §3, p38 
Greening apple, §3, p37 
Grimes apple, §3, p51 

Growth, Pruning to regulate vigor of, §5, pl9 
Grubbing hoe, §4, p44 


Hand sprayer. Compressed-air, §2, p32 

sprays, §2, p30 
Hardwood cuttings, §1, pl4 
Hardy pear, §8, pl5 

Harvest of Kentucky pear. Early, §8, plO 
Harvesting of apples, §7, pi 

of apricots, §20, p28 

of cherries, §20, pl8 

of pears, §9, p35 

of quinces, §20, p41 
Head, Pruning for open, §5, p27 

Pruning for pyramidal, §5, p27 
Heads, Types of, §5, p21 
Heart, or gean, cherries, §20, p2 
Heating, Orchard, §G, plG 



Heel cuttings, §1, pl4 

Hellebore, §2, ppl, 5 

Hexagonal system of planting, §4, p28 

High-headed apple trees, §5, p21 

-headed trees, §1, p39 
Hillside apple, §3, p30 
Hoe, Grubbing, §4, p44 
Hold-over blight of pears, §8, p29 
Home propagation of apple trees, §4, pl9 
Hoop follower, §7, p29 
Hortense cherry, §20, p5 
Hose, §2, p43 

clamp, §2, p43 
House, Packing, §7, p21 
Houses, Apple storage, §7, p43 
Hovey pear, Danas, §8, p21 
Howell pear, §8, pl7 
Hubbardston apple, §3, pl4 
Huntsman apple, §3, p51 
Hydrometer, §2, pl5 

readings for liquids heavier than water. 
Table of comparison of Baume and specific 
gravity, §2, pl6 

Illinois canker, §6, p70 
Ingram apple, §3, p48 
Injuries, Apple pests and, §6, pi 

Apricot pests and, §20, p28 

Cherry pests and, §20, p20 

during dormant period of plants, §6. pi 

during the period of visible activity of plants, 
§6, p3 

on pears, Frost, §8, p40 

Pear pests and, §8, p28 

Prevention of frost, §6, p6 

Quince pests and, §20, p42 
Injury, Bordeaux, §6, p60 

Lime-sulphur, §6, pSl 

Spray, §6, p60 
Insecticides, §2, pi 

and fungicides. Combined, §2, p28 

Contact, §2, ppl, 6 

Poisonous, §2, pi 
Insects attacking cherries, §20, p20 

attacking pears, §8, p33 

of the apple, §6, p23 
Intercropping of quinces, §20, p40 
Irrigation to prevent frost injury, §6, pl5 

Jacobs Sweet apple, §3, pi 7 

Japan Golden Russet pear, §8, p28 

Jelly, Apple, §7, p60 

Jersey pear, Louise Bonne de, §8, pl9 

Jonathan apple, §3, p35 

Josephine de Malines pear, §8, pl9 


Kentucky pear. Early Harvest of, §8, plO 
Kerf grafting, §1, pp20, 25 
Kerosene emulsion, §2, pp6, 19 
Kettle, Steam-jacketed, §2, pl7 
Kieffer pear, §8, p25 

Killing frosts. Factors affecting the occurrence 
of, §6, p8 

of fruit buds, §6, pi 

of roots, §6, p3 

of twigs and large stems, §6, pi 
King apple, §3, pl5 

David apple, §3, p39 
Knapsack sprayer, §2, p30 
Knives, Pruning, §1, p46 
Knot of cherries; Black, §20, p21 
Koonce pear, §8, pll 

Labels for apple packages, §7, p52 
Ladders for pruning, §1, p46 

Picking, §7, p6 
Lambert cherry, §20, p7 
Lawrence pear, §8, p23 
Layer, §1, pl7 
Layering, Branch, §1, pl9 

Mound, §1, pl9 

Propagation by, §1, pl7 

Tip, §1, pis 

Vine, §1, pl8 
Lead, Arsenate of, §2, pi 
Leaf blight of quinces, §20, p44 

blight. Pear-, §8. p32 

-blister mite, §6, d57 

-blister mite on pears, §8, p37 

miner, Apple, §6, p51 

roller. Fruit-tree, §6, p50 

spot, §6, p69 

spot. Pear-, §8, p32 

surface. Pruning to reduce, §5, pl8 
LeConte pear, §8, p27 
Leguminous cover crops, §5, pl3 
Lesser apple worm, §6, p34 
Limbertwig apple, §3, pl2 
Lime, Arsenite of, §2, ppl, 4 

-sulphur, §2, pp6, 26 

-sulphur cookers, §2, p9 

-sulphur injury, §6, p81 

-sulphur. Self-boiled, §2, ppll, 16. 26 
Lincoln pear, §8, pl7 
Locust, Seventeen-year. §6, p59 
London purple, §2, ppl, 5 
Long-stemmed Montmorency cherry. §20, p3 
Louis Philippe cherry, §20, p4 
Louise pear, §8, pl9 
Louse, Green apple, §6, p55 

Oyster-shell bark, §6, p29 



Low-headed apple trees, §5, p21 
-headed trees, §1, p39 


Machinery, Spraying, §2, p29 

Mackintosh apple, §3, pl3 

Maggot, Apple, §6, p34 

Magnifique cherry, §20, p5 

Maiden Blush apple, §3, p8 

Malines pear, §8, pl9 

Mallet cuttings, §1, ppl4, 15 

Mammoth Black Twig apple, §3, p45 

Mann apple, §3, p55 

Market factors affecting fruit growing, 

§1, plO 
Marketing of apples, §7, p48 

of apricots, §20, p29 

of cherries, §20, pl9 

of pears, §9, p40 

of quinces, §20, p41 
Markets, Proximity to, §4, plO 
Mattock, §4, p44 
May Duke cherry, §20, p6 
Mazzard cherries, §20, p2 
Meech quince, §20, p34 

Mice, Protecting quince trees from, §20, p41 
Mildew, §6, p77 

on cherries. Powdery, §20, p22 
Miner, Apple leaf, §6, p51 
Miscible oils, §2, pp6, 16 
Missouri apple, §3, p23 

quince, §20, p35 

section. Varieties of apples for the, 
§4, pl4 
Mite, Brown, §6, p52 

Clover, §6, p52 

Leaf-blister, §6, p57 

on pears. Leaf-blister, §8, p37 
Mole, Blue, §6, p70 
Montmorency cherry, §20, p3 

Ordinaire cherry, §20, p3 
Montreuil cherry, §20, p6 
Moorpark apricot, §20, p24 
Morceau pear, Glout, §8, p21 
Morello cherries, §20, ppl, 3 
Moth, Brown-tailed, §6, p43 

Bud, §6, p47 

Codling, §6, p31 

Gipsy, §6, p44 

on pears. Codling, §8, p39 
Moths, Tussock, §6, p45 
Mound layering, §1, pl9 
Mount Vernon pear, §8, p23 
Mulch culture for apples, §5, pl7 

culture for pears, §9, p26 
Mulching to prevent frost injuries, §6, pl5 
Mummies, §6, p63 

Napoleon cherry, §20, p7 

National Apple Shippers Association, §7, pl5 
Natural propagation, §1, pl3 
Neck ringing on pears, §8, p40 
Nelis pear. Winter, §8, p25 
Newcastle apricot, §20, p25 
New York section. Varieties of apples for the, 

§4, pl3 
Non-leguminous cover crops, §5, pl4 
Northern-grown apple nursery frees, §4, pl7 

Spy apple, §3, pl5 
Northwest, Varieties of apples for the, §4, pl5 
Northwestern apple, §3, p37 
Nozzle, Bordeaux, §2, p40 

Disk, §2, p41 

Vermorel, §2, p40 
Nursery stock. Selection of apple, §4, pl5 

trees. Age of apple, §4, pl7 

trees. Apricot, §20, p25 

trees, Cherry, §20, pl2 

trees for planting. Preparation of apple, 
§4, p.38 

trees. Procuring of pear, §9, pl2 

trees propagated by various methods. Value 
of apple, §4, pl7 

trees, Quince, §20, p37 


Offset pack for apples, §7, p35 
Oils, Distillate, §2, pp6, 19 

Miscible, §2, pp6, 16 
Oldenburg apple, §3, p7 
Olivet cherry, §20, p6 
Open head. Pruning for, §5, p29 

-headed apple trees, §5, p23 
Orange quince, §20, p32 
Orchard, Capital required for an, §4, p3 

establishment, Quince, §20, p36 

heating, §6, pl6 

Increasing the size of the, §4, p5 

Location for a pear, §9, p3 

management, Pear, §9, p23 

site. Elevation of, §4, p7 

Size for a pear, §9, pi ■ 

Size of, §4, pi 

Soil suitable for apple, §4, p6 
Orchards, Management of apple, §5, pi 

Renovation of old apple, §5, p41 

Soil treatment for renovated, §5, p49 

Spraying methods for renovated, §5, poO 

Tillage of bearing apple, §5, p4 

Tillage of young apple, §.5, p2 
Oriental group of pears, §8, p7 

group of pears, Varieties of, §8, p25 
Ortley apple, §3, pl7 
Ostheim cherry, §20, p4 



Oyster-shell bark louse, §6, p29 
-shell scale, §6, p29 
-shell scale on pears, §8, p40 

Pacific coast canker, §6, p69 

Packages for apples. Use of clean, §7, p55 

Packing house, §7, p21 

Importance of careful, §7, p55 

of apples, §7, p21 

of apples in barrels, §7, p24 

of apples in baskets, §7, p40 

of apples in boxes, §7, p29 

of apricots, §20, p29 

of cherries, §20, pl8 

of pears, §9, p37 

of quinces, §20, p41 

table, Apple, §7, pp27, 30, 32 
Pale rot of quinces, §20, p45 
Palmer worm, §6, p52 
Paris green, §2, ppl, 3 
Patrick Barry pear, §8, p25 
Peach apricot, §20, p25 
Peaches as fillers, §4, p33 
Pear barrel, §7, p21 

blight on quinces, §20, p43 

culture, §8, pi 

districts, §8, pi 

-leaf blight, §8, p32 

-leaf spot, §8, p32 

-orchard management, §9, p23 

orchard, Location for a, §9, p3 

orchard. Size for a, §9, ppl, 7 

orchards. Air drainage for, §9, p9 

orchards. Elevation for, §9, p8 

orchards. Exposure for, §9, p9 

orchards. Fertilization of, §9, p32 

orchards. Renovation of neglected, §9, p33 

orchards. Site for, §9, p7 

orchards. Tillage of bearing, §9, p25 

orchards. Tillage of young, §9, p23 

orchards. Water drainage for, §9, p9 

pests and injuries, §8, p28 

psylla, §8, p34 

quince, §20, p36 ■ 

rust, §8, p33 

scab, §8, p31 

slug, §8, p38 

thrips, §8, p35 

trees. Planting of, §9, pl4 

trees, Procuring of, §9, plO 

trees. Propagation of, §9, plO 

trees, Spraying of, §9, p34 
Pears as fillers, §4, p33 

Botanical classification of, §8, p7 

Catch crops and cover crops for, §9, p26 

Commercial classification of, §8, p8 

Pears, Diseases of, §8, p28 

Dwarf, §8, p8 

European group of, §8, p7 

for different states, Varieties of, §8, p2 

Grading of, §9, p37 

Harvesting of, §9, p35 

Influence of climatic conditions on, §9, p6 

Insects attacking, §8, p33 

Marketing of, §9, p40 

Oriental group of, §8, p7 

Packing of, §9, p37 

Sod and mulch culture for, §9, p2.5 

Standard, §8, plO 

Storing of, §9, p40 

suitable to a location. Varieties of, §9, p9 

Table of blooming period of different vari- 
eties of, §9, pl7 

Thinning of, §9, p33 

Varieties of, §8, plO 

Varieties of European group of, §8, plO 

Varieties of Oriental group of, §8, p25 
Periodical cicada, §6, p59 
Pests and injuries, Apple, §6, pi 

and injuries. Apricot, §20, p28 

and injuries. Cherry, §20, p20 

and injuries. Pear, §8, p28 

and injuries. Quince, §20, p42 
Pewaukee apple, §3, p50 
Philippe cherry, §20, p4 
Pickers, Management of, §7, pl3 
Picking apples. Wagon used in, §7, p9 

ladders, §7, p6 

Methods of, §7, pll 

of apples, §7, pi 

of pears, §9, p35 

receptacles, §7, pi 

Time of, §7, pl2 
Piece-root grafting, §1, p27 
Pink rot, §6, p67 
Pippin apple. Fall, §3, p9 
Pistol case bearer, §6, p48 
Planting board, §4, p41 

Combination system of, §4, p29 

for apple trees. Time of, §4, pl9 

Hexagonal system of, §4, p28 

of apple trees, §4, pl9 

of apples. Methods of, §4, p35 

of apricot trees, §20, p26 

of cherry trees, §20, pl4 

of pear trees, §9, pl4 

of quince trees, §20, p38 

Preparation of soil for, §4, p36 

Quincunx system of, §4, p27 

Square system of, §4, p26 

Tools used in, §4, p44 
Plum curculio, §6, p36 

curculio on cherries, §20, p20 



Poisonous insecticides, §2, pi 
Population, Location in respect to, §1, plO 
Potassium sulphide, §2, p26 
Potato barrel, §7, p21 
Pound Sweet apple, §3, pl4 
Powdery mildew on cherries, §20, p22 
Power sprayers, §2, p35 
President Drouard pear, §8, pl9 
Presses, Apple box, §7, p38 
Price of apples. Maintaining the, §7, p54 
Propagation, Artificial, §1, pl4 
by budding, §1, p28 

by cutting, §1, pl4 

by division, §1, pl3 

by grafting, §1, p20 

by layering, §1, pl7 

by seeds, §1, pll 

Natural, §1, pll 

of apple trees. Home, §4, pl9 

of cherry trees, §20, pl2 

of fruit plants, §1, pl3 

of pear trees, §9, plO 

of quinces, §20, p36 
Propeller agitator, §2, p44 
Pruner, Apple-tree, §6, p61 
Pruning, Details of, §5, p33 

Effects of, §1, p34 

Extensive, §1, p41 

for open head, §5, p29 

for pyramidal head, §5, p27 

knives, §1, p46 

Ladders for, §1, p46 

Method of, §1, p37 

of apple trees, §5, pl8 

of apricot trees, §20, p26 

of bearing apple trees, §5, p31 

of cherries, §20, pl6 

of fruit plants, §1, p31 

of pear nursery trees, §9, pl8 

of pear trees, §9, p26 

of quinces, §20, p39 

Principles of, §1, p31 

Purpose of, §1, p31 

Repressive, §1, p41 

saws, §1, p44 

shears, §1, p42 

Styles of, §1, p41 
Time of, §5, p20 

to control shape, §5, pi 9 
to control size, §5, pl9 
to reduce leaf surface, §5, pl8 
to regulate vigor of growth, §5, pl9 
Tools for, §1, p42 
Psylla, Pear, §8, p34 
Pump, Bucket spray, §2, p30 

Double action spray, §2, p34 
Pumpkin Sweet apple, §3, pl4 

Pyramidal head. Pruning for, §5, p27 

headed apple trees, §5, p23 
Pyrus communis, §8, p7 
sinensis, §8, p7 


Quince barrel, §7, p21 

curcuUo, §20, p43 

nursery trees, §20, p37 

-orchard establishment, §20, p36 

pests and injuries, §20, p42 

rust, §20, p46 

trees from mice, Protecting, §20, p41 

trees, Planting of, §20, p38 

trees. Winter-killed, §20, p41 
Quinces, Commercial possibilities of, §20, p31 

Cover crops for, §20, p40 

Culcivation of, §20, p40 

Fertilization of, §20, p40 

Grading and packing of, §20, p41 

Harvesting of, §20, p41 

Marketing of, §20, p41 

Propagation of, §20, p36 

Pruning of, §20, p39 

Selection of varieties of, §20, p36 

Spraying of, §20, p39 

Storage of, §20, p42 

Varieties of, §20, p32 
Quincunx system of planting, §4, p27 


Railroad worm, Apple, §6, p34 

Ralls apple, §3, p45 

Rambo apple, §3, p27 

Rea quince, §20, p33 

Red Astrachan apple, §3, p7 

-humped apple caterpillar, §6, p43 
June apple, §3, p6 
Reine Hortense cherry, §20, p5 
Renovated orchards, Soil treatment for, 
§5, p49 
orchards. Spraying methods for, §5, p50 
Renovating apricot orchards, §20, p27 
Renovation of neglected pear orchards, §9, p33 
of old apple orchards, §5, p41 
of old cherry orchards, §20, pl7 
Repressive pruning, §1, p41 
Reproductive activity, §1, p35 
Retail marketing of apples, §7, p48 
Rhode Island Greening apple, §3, p37 
Ribston apple, §3, p27 
Richmond cherry, §20, p5 
Ringing on pears. Neck, §8, p40 
Ripe rot, §6, p62 

rot of quinces, §20, p45 
Rockport cherry, §20, p7 
Rod, Extension, §2, p42 
Rome Beauty apple, §3, p42 



Root cuttings, §1, ppl4, 17 

grafting, §1, p20 

grafting, Piece-, §1, p27 

grafting, Whole-, §1, p27 

rot, §6, p76 

stock, §1, pl3 
Roots, Killing of, §6, p3 
Rosy apple aphis, §6, p56 
Rot, Bin, §6, p70 

Bitter, §6, p62 

Black, §6, p69 

of cherries. Brown, §20, p21 

of quinces, Black, §20, p45 

of quinces. Pale, §20, p45 

of quinces. Ripe, §20, p45 

on pears. Brown, §8, p33 

Pink, §6, p67 

Ripe, §6, p62 

Root, §6, p76 

Soft, §6, p70 
Rough bark, §6, p80 

bark of pear trees, §8, p43 
Round-headed apple-tree borer, §6, p24 

-headed apple-tree borer on quinces, 
§20, p42 
Rows, Planting of trees in straight, 

§4, p40 
Roxbury apple, §3, p48 
Royal Ann apricot, §20, p24 

cherry, §20, p7 
Runners, §1, pl4 
Russet pear. Golden, §8, p28 
Rust, Apple, §6, p71 

Cedar, §6, p71 

Pear, §8, p33 

Quince, §20, p46 

Salome apple, §3, p43 
San Jose scale on apples, §6, p27 

Jose scale on cherries, §20, p20 

Jose scale on pears, §8, p39 

Jose scale on quinces, §20, p42 
Saws, Pruning, §1, p44 
Scab, Apple, §6, p64 

Pear, §8, p31 
Scald, Apple, §6, p74 

on cherries. Sun, §20, p23 

on pears, Sun, §8, p41 

Sun, §6, p77 
Scale on apples. Scurfy, §0, p31 

on cherries, San Jos6, §20, p20 

on pears. Oyster-shell, §8, p40 

on pears, San Jose, §8, p39 

on pears, Scurfy, §8, p40 

on quinces,^ San Josd, §20, p42 

Oyster-sheli. §6, p29 

Scale, San Jose, §6, p27 
Scion, §1, p20 
Scurfy scale, §6, p31 

scale on pears, §8, p40 
Seckel pear, §8, plS 

pear. Winter, §8, p21 

pear, Worden's, §8, pl5 
Seeds, Propagation by, §1, pll 
Seek apple, §3, p35 

Self-boiled lime sulphur, §2, ppl, 16, 26 
Setting of pear trees, §9, p22 
Seventeen-year locust, §6, p59 
Shape, Pruning to control, §5, pl9 
Shears, Pruning, §1, p42 
Sheldon pear, §8, pl7 
Shipping facilities, §1, pll 
Short-stemmed Montmorency cherry, §20, p3 
Shot-hole borer, §6, p60 

-hole fungus on cherries, §20, p22 
Simple cuttings, §1, pl4 
Single-eye cuttings, §1, ppl4, 15 
Site, Elevation of orchard, §4, p7 

Exposure of, §4, p9 

for a cherry orchard, §20, pll 

for a pear orchard, §9, p7 

Selection of, §4, p6 
Size, Pruning to control, §5, pl9 
Slack in apple barrels, Prevention of, 

§7, p28 
Slope of land, §4, p8 
Slug, Pear, §8, p38 
Small fruits as fillers, §4, p33 
Smith Cider apple, §3, p33 
Smokehouse apple, §3, p20 
Smudging to prevent frost injury, §6, pl6 
Sod culture for apples, §5, pl4 

culture for pears, §9, p25 
Soft rot, §6, p70 
Soil for planting. Preparation of, §4, p36 

Suitability of, §1, p9 

suitable for apple orchard, §4, p6 

treatment for renovated orchards, §5, p49 
Soils for pear orchards, §9, p7 
Sooty blotch, §6, p71 
Sops of Wine apple, §3, p9 
Sour cherries, §20, pi 

cherries. Varieties of, §20, p3 

sap of pear trees, §8, p42 
Southern-grown apple nursery trees, §4, pl7 
Spade, §4, p44 
Spanish cherry, §20, p7 

Specific gravity hydrometer readings for 
liquids heavier than water, Table of com- 
parison of Baume and, §2, pl6 
Spitzenburg apple, §3, p34 
Splice grafting. §1, pp20, 27 
Spot, Leaf, §6, p69 



Spot of quinces. Fruit, §20. p44 

Pear-leaf, §8, p32 
Spotted apple-tree borer, §6, p24 
Spray injury, §6, p80 

pump. Bucket, §2, p30 

pump. Double-action, §2, p34 
Sprayer, Compressed-air hand, §2, p32 

Gas-power, §2, p36 

Knapsack, §2, p30 

Traction, §2, p35 
Sprayers, Barrel, §2, p32 

Compressed-air, §2, p39 

Gasoline-power, §2, p37 

Power, §2, p35 
Spraying machinery, §2, p29 

methods for renovated orchards, §5, p50 

of cherries, §20, pl7 

of pear trees, §9, p34 

of quinces, §20, p39 

outiit. Accessories for, §2, p40 

to prevent frost injury, §6, plo 
Sprays and their preparation, §2, pi 

Hand, §2, p30 
Spring and early autumn frosts. Table of dates 

of late, §6, p9 
Spy apple, §3, pl5 
Square system of planting, §4, p26 
Standard pears, §8, plO 
Stark apple, §3, p55 
Stayman Winesap apple, §3, p42 
Steam-jacketed kettle, §2, pl7 
Stem grafting, §1, p20 
Stems, Balling of large, §6, pi 
Stock, §1, p20 
Stolons, §1, pl4 
Stool, §1, pl9 
Storage houses, Apple, §7, p43 

of apples, §7, p40 

of cherries, §20, pl9 

of pears, §9, p40 

of quinces, §20, p42 
Straight pack for apples, §7, p32 
Straight rows. Locating trees in, §4, p40 
Strainer, §2, p8 
Subacid cherries, §20, pp2, 5 
Suda cherry, §20, p5 
Sugar pear, §8, plO 
Sulphur dust, §2, p26 

Lime-, §2, p6 
Summer varieties of apples, §3, p6 
Sun scald, §6, p77 

scald on cherries, §20, p23 

scald on pears, §8, p41 
Suwanee pear, §8, p27 
Sweet chen-ies, §20, p2 

cherries. Varieties of, §20, p6 
Swinging agitator, §2, p44 

Table, Apple packing, §7, pp27. 30 

of blooming period of different varieties of 
pears, §9, pl7 

of comparison of Baume and specific gravity 
hydrometer readings for liquids heavier 
than water, §2, pl6 

of data concerning straight and diagonal box 
packs, §7, p34 

of dates of late spring and early autumn 
frosts, §6, p9 

of determination of the dew point, §6, p7 

of number of trees to plant per acre by vari- 
ous systems, §4, p25 
Tailing of apples in barrels, §7, p27 
Tartarian cherry, §20, p7 
Temperature, Influence of, §1, p3 

Injuries due to low, §6, pi 
Temperatures for storage of apples, §7, p40 
Tent caterpillar. Apple-tree, §6, p37 
Terms applying to apple trees, §3, pi 

applying to fruit of apple, §3, pi 
Thinning of apples, §5, p35 

of pears, §9, p33 
Thrips. Pear, §8, p35 
Tillage of bearing apple orchards, §5, p4 

of bearing pear orchards, §9, p25 

of quinces, §20, p40 

of young pear orchards, §9, p23 
Tilton apricot, §20, p25 
Time of planting for apple trees, §4, pi 9 
Tip layering, §1, plS 

Tobacco extracts and decoctions, §2, pp6, 21 
Tolman apple, §3, p30 
Tompkins King apple, §3, pl5 
Tools for pruning, §1, p42 

used in planting, §4, p44 
Top grafting, §1, p20 

working of apple trees, §5, p50 
Tower, §2, p44 
Traction sprayer, §2, p35 
Treehopper, Buffalo, §6, p58 
Trees, Age of apple nursery, §4, pl7 

Apricot nursery, §20, p25 

Breaking of, §6, p79 

Cherry nursery, §20, pl2 

High-headed and low-headed, §1. p39 

Home propagation of apple, §4, pl9 

in straight rows. Locating, §4, p40 

Planting of appk, §4, pl9 

Propagation of pear, §9, plO 

Pruning of apple, §5, plS 

Quince nursery, §20, p37 

Selection of apple nursery, §4, pl.5 

Terms applying to apple, §3, pi 
Trout pear, §8, p23 
Trunk, §5, p21 



Tussock moths, §6, p45 

Twenty-ounce apple, §3, pl2 

Twig blight, §6, p74 

Twigs, Killing of, §6, pi 

Tyson pear, §8, pl3 


Van Deman quince, §20, p35 

Varieties of apples, §3, pi 

of apples. Description of, §3, p6 
of apples. Fall and winter, §3, p9 
of apples for the Colorado section, §4, pl4 
of apples for the Missouri section, §4, pl4 
of apples for che New York section, §4, pl3 
of apples for the Northwest, §4, pl5 
of apples for the Virginia section, §4, pl3 
of apples. Selection of, §4, pll 
of apples. Summer, §3, p6 
of apricots, §20, p24 
of cherries. Selection of, §20, pll 
of European groups of pears, §8, plO 
of oriental group of pears, §8, p25 
of pears, §8, plO 

of pears for different states, §8, p2 
of pears suitable to a location, §9, p9 
of pears. Table of blooming period of dif- 
ferent, §9, pl7 
of quinces, §20, p32 
of quinces. Selection of, §20, p36 
of sour cherries, §20, p3 
of subacid cherries, §20, p5 
of sweet cherries, §20, p6 

Vegetative activity, §1, p35 

Veneer grafting, §1, pp20, 27 

Vermont Beauty pear, §8, pl7 

Vermorel nozzle, §2, p40 

Vine layering, §1, pl8 

Vinegar, Apple, §7, p61 

Virginia section, Varieties of apples for, §4, pl3 


Wagener apple, §3, p43 

Wagon used in picking apples, §7, p9 

Water drainage for pear orchards, §9, p9 

Influence of bodies of, §1, p6 
Wax, Grafting, §1, p22 
Wealthy apple, §3, pl2 

Web worm, Fall, §6, p39 
Westfield apple, §3, p35 

Seek-No-Further apple, §3, p35 
Whip grafting, §1, pp20, 26 
White Pearmain apple, §3, p51 
Whitewashing to prevent frost injury, 

§6, pl5 
Whole-root grafting, §1, p27 
Wholesale marketing of apples, §7, p49 
Williams Bon Chretien pear, §8, pl3 
Willow apple, §3, p55 
Wind break, §1, p8 
Winds, Influence of, §1, p7 
Windsor cherry, §20, p7 
Wine Apple, §3, pl2 
Winesap apple, §3, p41 
Winter Banana apple, §3, pl9 

-killed quince trees, §20, p41 

Nelis pear, §8, p25 

Seckel pear, §8, p21 

varieties of apples, Fall and, §3, p9 
Wolf River apple, §3, plO 
Wood cherry, §20, plO 
Wooly apple aphis, §6, p52 
Worden pear, §8, pl5 
Worden's Seckel pear, §8, pl5 
Worm, Apple railroad, §6, p34 

Fall web, §6, p39 

Lesser apple, §6, p34 

on quinces. Bag, §20, p43 

Palmer, §6, p52 
Worms, Canker, §6, p40 
Wounds, Dressing for, §1, p47 
Wragg cherry, §20, p5 

Yakima Valley Fruit Growers' Association, 
§7, pl6 

Valley Fruit Growers' Association grades for 
pears, §9, p37 
Yellow Bellflower apple, §3, pl6 

-necked apple caterpillar, §6, p42 

Newton apple, §3, p39 

Spanish cherry, §20, p7 

Transparent apple, §3, p6 
York Imperial apple, §3, p30 

. :\>^^v^